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HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



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AND ITS PEOPLE 

( 7 ^ BY 

CHARLES NUTT, A. B. 



Former Editor and Publisher of The Worcester Spy; 
Author of "The Puffer Genealogy"; "History of the 
First Regiment of Heavy Artillery, Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers"; " History of the Crompton cS: Knowles Loom 
Works"; and various Biographical and Historical Works 




ILLUSTRATED 



VOLUME II. 



r\\ 



LEWIS HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY 

NEW YORK CITY 

1919 



THE NEW VOKK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

667200 A 

ASTOR, LENOX AND 

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS 

R 1933 L 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



CHAPTER XXXIII 

Threatened War With France— War of 1812— Mexican War— Orr Riot 

When war with France was imminent in 1?98, and the President was 
authorized to raise troops for the emergency, a company of sixty men 
under Capt. Thomas Chandler, called the Worcester Volunteer Cadet 
Infantry, was formed. A flag was made by the ladies of the city and 
presented with much ceremony to the company. The company, with 
the Worcester artillery company, joined the forces known later as the 
"Oxford Army." Other Worcester men enlisted in the 14th Regiment 
under Lt. Col. Rice and went into camp. Except for the encounters on 
the sea, the war was entirely on paper, and the soldiers were not in actual 
service. 

War of 1812. — A convention of delegates from forty-one towns was 
held here, Aug. 12 and 13, 1812, to protest against the continuance of 
the war with Great Britain. Worcester was represented by Hon. Ben- 
jamin Heywood, Hon. Francis Blake and Elijah Burbank. Mr. Hey- 
wood presided. A committee was appointed to "consider and report 
what measures the Convention ought to adopt, in the present perilous 
situation of our Country, to mitigate the calamities of the present War 
with Great Britain, to avert the further evils- with which we are threat- 
ened, to accomplish a speedy and honorable peace and to arrest the 
course of that disastrous policy which, if persisted in, cannot fail to ter- 
minate in the destruction of the rights and liberties of the people." 

The committee consisted of Andrew Peters, Hon. Francis Blake, 
Rev. John Crane, Hon. Solomon Strong, Aaron Tufts, Benjamin Adams, 
Gen. James Humphrey, Rev. Jonathan Osgood, Nathaniel Chandler, 
John W. Stiles and Col. Seth Benister. The committee reported on the 
13th, dealing at great length with the causes of the war and its continu- 
ance. The report as adopted urged the shortening of the present most 
impolitic and destructive war, exhorting the friends of peace for that 
purpose to withdraw from the government all voluntary aid, and to ren- 
der no other assistance than is required of them by the laws and the 
Constitution. "We do not, like some men, now in high authority, advise 
our constituents to refuse payment of them (double or direct taxes) and 
to rise in opposition to the authority by which they are imposed. But 
if our rulers, afraid to hazard their popularity by the imposition of taxes, 
request of the citizens to enable them to prosecute this unrighteous war 
by loaning money to replenishing the Treasury, we entreat them, as 
they value the Peace and welfare of their Country, to remember that we 
have as yet no French emperor among us to force a loan at the point of 
W.-I-37. 



578 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



the bayonet and to refuse the smallest contribution for this unwarranta- 
ble purpose." The resolution represented the sentiments of the majority 
of the people of the town and State. 

There passed through this town Aug. 20, 1812, a detachment of 400 
recruits from Forts Independence and Warren, Boston, on their way to 
join the army at Albany. It was composed of infantry and thirty pieces 
of artillery, with caissons, traveling forges, tent equipage and baggage 
wagons, the whole drawn by 190 horses. Just after morning service 
they encamped on the Common near the Old South Church. 

Early in the w^ar, recruiting officers were stationed here, and some 
of the citizens entered the regular army and navy. The records at 
Washington are not open to inspection and, if they were, it would be 
practically impossible to make a list of the Worcester men enlisting here 
or elsewhere in this war. The town offered a bounty of ten dollars to 
each man enlisting, voted Nov. 9, 1812. 

The Worcester jail became historic by quartering several paroled 
British officers in the summer of 1813. Some American prisoners who 
were born on British soil but had come to this country and had been nat- 
uralized before the war, were accused of treason and sent to England for 
trial. To protect them, the American government ordered an equal 
number of British prisoners into confinement to endure the same fate 
that should befall the Americans in England. England placed two 
American officers in prison for every British soldier confined here, to suf- 
fer death if the British were executed. Ten of the British wlio resided 
here were committed to the Worcester jail. They were: Lt. Col. 
William Grant, of the Beauharnais militia; Maj. Charles Villette, Capt. 
Francis Decenta. Lt. David Duvall, Lt. Albert Manuel, of the Water- 
ville regiment; Lt. William A. Steel, adjutant; Lt. Joseph I*", (ireen. 
commissary, 89th Regt. ; Lt. Arthur Carter, of the Royal Artillery ; Lt. 
Charles Morris, of the Halifax Volunteers. Nine of these men escaped 
January 12, overpowering the attendant who had entered the room in 
which they lived, about ten o'clock at night, but he was tied so liastily 
that he freed himself in a quarter of an hour, and gave the alarm. Bells 
were rung, cannon fired, and the whole town turned out to search for the 
refugees. Houses were searched without warrants. At two o'clock in 
the morning, one of the men was captured at Holden; four more in the 
evening at Barre. The other four eluded their ])ursuers and rin:d]y 
reached Quebec. Afterward the jirisoners were removed from the jail 
and soon released again on parole, the controversy of the naturalized 
prisoners l)eing at an encl, the sense of justice in England lacing too 
strong to permit their conviction of treason and ])unishment by (lerit]i. 

In the summer of 1814. two Worcester com])anies served in the forts 
defending Boston. Their rosters are given at the end of this ciinpter 
The Worcester Light Infantry under Capt. Lincoln and the Worcester 
Artillery under Capt. Samuel Graves were called out by Gov. Strong. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 579 

Sept. 6, 1814, marched on Sunday, Sept. 14, and were stationed at South 
Boston, where they served to the end of October. On the Sunday fol- 
lowing their return, both companies attended divine service here in 
uniform. 

During the war the town voted to procure camp equipage for the 
militia; to provide for the famiHes of soldiers when assistance was 
needed ; and to furnish arms and equipments to soldiers who lacked the 
means to buy them for themselves. The ratification of the treaty of peace 
was celebrated here with much festivity and rejoicing. [Ref. : See 
town records ; Lincoln's Hist., p. 135. State records. | 

Roster of Capt. J. W. Lincoln's company in Lieut. Col. Samuel 
Towne's regt. ; Sept. 11 to Oct. 30, 1814; raised at Worcester and vicin- 
ity. Capt. John W. Lincoln, Lt. Sewall Hamilton, Ensign John Coo- 
lidge, Sergt. Levi Wellington, Sergt. Luther Johnson, Sergt. Edward D. 
Bangs, Sergt. Samuel Green, Corp. Jeremiah Healy, Corp. Lincoln Fen- 
ring, Corp. Charles Bridge, Corp. James Thompson, Musician Jason 
Mann, Musician Oliver Cajer, Musician Rufus Paine, William T. Alex- 
ander, Phinehas Ball, Abijah Butler, Dexter Carle, Aaron Curtis, Joseph 
Deland, Joseph Drury, Jason Duncan, Joseph Fenno, Asa Flagg, Eleazer 
Fletcher, Gardner Johnson, Arnold Mann, Wales Paine, Jonah Perry, 
Luke Perry, Peter Rice, Timothy R. Rice, Austin R. Putnam, Levi Smith, 
Samuel Stowell, William Tracy, Isaac Tucker, Walter Tufts, Charles 
W. Warren, Daniel Webb, William D. Wheeler, Benjamin White, Na- 
hum Wilder, Archibald Witt. 

Roster of Capt. Samuel Graves's co. of artillery, Lt. Col. W. Ed- 
wards's regt.; Sept. 8 to Nov. 5, 1814; raised at Worcester; service at 
Boston. Capt. Samuel Graves; Lt. Simon Hastings, Lt. Joshua Hale; 
Sergt. Abel Flagg, Sergt. William Eaton ; Sergt. Andrew Slater, Sergt. 
Joshua Gates, Corp. Ebenezer Hastings, Corp. Moses Clements, Corp. 
Joel Gleason, Corp. Charles Putnam; Musician Sew-all Goodridge, Mu- 
sician Benjamin Pierce; Musician Caleb P. Stock, Musician Edward 
Curtis. 

Mexican War. — Worcester, in common with the rest of New Eng- 
land, was opposed to the war with Mexico, and took no part in it, except 
for the service of a few men. The Light Infantry offered its services, but 
was not needed. 

Captain George Lincoln, son of Governor Levi, was in the army and 
met his death in action at the battle of Buena Vista. He was shot in the 
back of the head "when facing a regiment, riding in front, and encourag- 
ing them on at a critical moment when they were faltering under a 
severe fire. His situation was a most exposed one, a situation which it 
would have been mere foolhardiness to take except under the circum- 
stances of the battle, where our troops were chiefly volunteers and all 
depended on the officers. Lincoln was acting as adjutant-general, and 
had no command of the regiment, but seeing them falter, he rode in 



58o HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

front and cheered them on by example as well as by word." (Memorial 
by E. Cutler). 

A search of the records at the State House revealed Imt two soldiers 
in this war, residents of this town, viz : George Gleason, teamster, 28 y. 
of Worcester, enlisted in Co. D, 1st Regt. Mass. Infantry. Edward T. 
Dudley, clerk, 19 y., enlisted at Boston in Co. K, of the same regt., May 
28, 1847; deserted. 

The Orr Riot. — It became necessary to read the riot act and call 
out the militia in 1854 to disperse a mob. A fanatic named John S. Orr, 
calling himself the "Angel Gabriel," appeared on the streets blowing his 
brass trumpet, haranguing the crowds in incoherent speeches, predicting 
dire calamities. As he passed along the sidewalks he decorated them 
with the word "Gabriel" in big chalk letters. He was arrested for dis- 
turbing the peace, but was allowed to depart on promising to stay away. 
In a week, however, he had returned and resumed his tooting and talk- 
ing; was arrested again. Somehow he had won the sympathy or sup- 
port of a rough crowd that gathered about the station house, demanding 
his release. The Mayor, Hon. J. S. C. Knowlton, addressed the mob, 
asking it to disperse, but his words were without effect. The mob stoned 
the station house and broke windows. The mayor then read the riot 
act; the sheriff also tried to bring the crowd to reason, and he was 
injured by paving stone thrown by a rioter. Capt. Ward was ordered 
to turn out with the City Guards, and the loaded muskets of the militia 
had an immediate effect on the mob. The Guards stayed that night in 
the armory. The mob made no further attempt, and the Guards fired 
their loaded muskets at a target on the old Jo Bill road. What became 
of "the Angel" himself is of no importance. The remarkable fact about 
the riot was, how it could have happened in a city like Worcester. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 
The Civil War 

No sooner had the roar of the assaulting guns at Fort Sumter died 
away, than the War for the Union began. That was on Friday, April 
12, 1861. The news was received on Sunday, and on Monday evening 
the militia companies of this city met in their armories and prepared 
to go to the front, filling their ranks and electing officers. 

The City Hall was crowded at a public meeting on Tuesday and 
patriotic speeches by Hon. Rejoice Newton, Hon. Isaac Davis, Hon. J. 
S. C. Knowlton, Col. Putnam W. Taft, M. J. McCarrerty, Rev. Dr. 
Hill, Hon. A. H. Bullock and Maj. Charles Devens. Dr. Merrick 
Bemis, D. Waldo Lincoln, Col. E. B. Stoddard, Rev. T. W. Higginson 
stirred the emotions of the people and fixed their determination to work 
and fight for the preservation of the Union. 

WAR HAS BEGPK YY 

CIVIL WAR! 

THE WORST OF ALL WARS. 



OUR FLAG HAS BEEN FIRED UPON AND OUR TORTS CAPTURED. 



ODR Umm CAPITAL 

THBEATENED IITH WmiU 



The people of Massachusetts are iusoltod with the threat that they shall 

smell the pondrr uod Terl Ibr sleri »f Ibe Nrrr«Mlonl»l«; that 

Ihe flag of Rebellion thaU te hoUled orer the Cradle of Vtberl})! 

PATRXO^T 

I! Tn &nMf;i 




Enrol and I>rlll Your Men. 

Be True to the Spirit and Blood of yoar Aormlors I 

RESPOND WITH PROMPTNESS to THE CALL OF YODK COUNTBY 

REDUCED COPY OF HANDBILL. 

The Light Infantry. — The Light Infantry was the first company to 
receive orders to proceed to Washington. On Wednesday, the follow- 
ing morning the 17th, after a short parade, the company was addressed 
by Col. W. S. Lincoln; Hon. Ichabod Washburn, who presented each 
soldier with a pocket Bible ; and Dr. Rufus Woodward, who promised 



582 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

to give professional care to the families of absent soldiers free of charge. 
At the railroad station a great gathering cheered the departing troops. 
Capt. Harrison W. Pratt was in command. In the evening the boys left 
Boston with the Sixth Mass. Regt., to which they were assigned, and 
again they were given a rousing reception when they reached this city. 
In passing through Baltimore, the Worcester men were in the first 
division, which was not attacked. Throughout the trip to the capital 
the troops were given one continuous ovation by the people of the towns 
and cities through which- their train passed. They were quartered in 
the Senate chamber, April 20, and slept in their blankets on the floor. 
The regiment was reviewed by President Lincoln and Gen. Scott. From 
the first, Clara Barton and Mrs. B. B. Vassall, of this city, were active 
in supplying the needs of the soldiers. 

Worcester claims part of the credit given to the Sixth Regiment for 
his prompt response in the hour of greatest need, saving the capital from 
capture by the rebels. Early in May the company went with the com- 
mand into Maryland and encamped at Elk Ridge. On June 26 they went 
to Baltimore, returning July 2 to the Relay Camp. The regiment 
had enlisted for three months, the time expiring July 21, but the news 
of the disaster at Bull Run came the next day, and the regiment was 
ordered to be in readiness for action. Gen. Banks made an address to 
the regiment July 23, appealing for its service to defend the capital 
again. The regiment voted to stay in the service as long as needed, but 
on the 26th, preparations began for the return home ; the start was made 
on the 29th, and the Worcester company reached this city August 1, at 
ten a. m., and after a hearty welcome continued with the regiment to 
Boston, being mustered out on the Common next day. The company 
went to Lowell, however, before coming home, and received a wonderful 
reception in that city. Returning in a special train, they arrived here 
at midnight. On Aug. 2 the company was entertained in Horticultural 
Hall, Capt. D. Waldo Lincoln presiding. In replying to Mr. Lincoln's 
address, Capt. Pratt said : "We have had 101 men in our ranks ; four 
have been sent home sick (now well, however) ; and 97 returned in the 
ranks to-day. But four have received punishment — if you are not as 
proud of them as I am, it is because you know them less." Mayor 
Davis and LL Parker also spoke. On the Common, Governor Lincoln 
and the mayor reviewed the company. 

Third Battalion of Rifles. — The Third Battalion was ready as soon 
as the Light Infantry, but it was held for the Fifth Regiment. It was 
composed of the Worcester City Guards, the Emmet Guards and the 
Holden Rifles, all well organized, drilled and equipped, Major Charles 
Devens commanding. On April 18 the battalion marched to Mechanics 
Hall, where Hon. Isaac Davis and Rev. Dr. Hill were the speakers. Ma- 
jor Devens also spoke of the duties of the hour. 

An elegant sword and belt was presented to Adjutant John M. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 5^3 



Goodhue at the armory of the City Guards. Hon. George F. Hoar mak- 
ing the speech of presentation, in behalf of Hon. Timothy W. Welling- 
ton, saying: "A band of traitors and conspirators whose fields and plan- 
tations, as has been well said, our fathers scoured and cleared from a 
foreign invader in the Revolution, have dared to undertake to subvert 
our government, to take possession of our capital, and destroy our lib- 
erties. We have not provoked this contest. Our patience has been 
met with sgorn. We have been smitten on one cheek. We have turned 
to show the other, and have been smitten on that too. We have held 
forth the olive branch; it has been converted into a rod. The charity 
which suffereth long, which hopeth, beareth, believeth and endureth all 
things, has at last been exhausted; and now nothing remains but the 
sword— and never was it drawn in a cause more righteous." 

Capt. McConville returned thanks for a gift of nearly $1,000 to the 
Emmet Guards. This company was addressed in the evening by Fathers 
Boyce and O'Reilly. 

The battalion left the city about midnight, Saturday, April 20, 
cheered by thousands of friends, less than a week after the news of the 
firing on Fort Sumter reached the city. In New York it was posted in 
the armory of the Seventh Regiment where it was visited by Senator 
Sumner and other distinguished men, embarking on Sunday morning on 
the steamship Ariel. Major Devens and Capt. Sprague were extremely 
popular; both were competent officers and courtly gentlemen, kindly, 
considerate and thoughtful. 

The Ariel proceeded to Annapolis, arriving April 24, and the Wor- 
cester men were quartered in the Naval School. On May 2 the battalion 
started for Fort McHenry, arriving at six the following morning. The 
battalion was on duty May 14 guarding arms that had been seized. The 
arrest of William Starr for giving his opinion of Marshal Kane, brought 
forth, after Capt. Sprague had secured his release, an address from the 
captain that brought tears to the eyes of his men. A soldier wrote: 
"We like him as a child does his parents, and we shall forever follow 
where he leads." The battalion shared in the work of liberating Mary- 
land. A squad of 18 men was sent to Ft. Carroll. Capt. Sprague and a 
detachment made an examination of the bridges between Baltimore 
and Havre de Grace. On June 26 the detested Marshal Kane and the 
Baltimore police commissioners were brought to the fort. 

Adj. John M. Goodhue left to take commission in the regular army; 
Lt. Harkness became quartermaster; Lt. McCafferty w^as made acting 
adjutant; and on July 3, Maj. Devens w^ent to Washington, leaving 
Capt. Sprague in command of the battalion. Soon afterward Major 
Devens left to become colonel of the Fifteenth Mass. From time to time 
detachments made excursions. Capt. McConville and Lt. Pickett with 
40 men were sent on a cruise in a steamer Chester after two suspected 
craft that turned out to be fishing vessels. Similar cruises w^ere made 



584 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

on the 12th, 16th and ITth of July. One of these detachments took pos- 
session of a deserted schooner at the mouth of Chester river and 
brought it to Ft. McHenry. 

Twenty of the battalion were sent home July 24, their term of 
enlistment having expired on the 19th. Gen. Dix addressed the com- 
mand on the 26th, and asked the soldiers to remain in the service for a 
time on account of the defeat at Bull Run. Every man in the City 
Guards and Emmet Guards voted to stay. But on July 29 thp companies 
were ordered home, reaching New York, August 1 and taking the steamer 
City of Boston that afternoon for New London. The welcome of Wor- 
cester to the returned soldiers next day was very hearty and pleasing. 
There was feasting, a parade, music and cheering. Mayor Davis spoke a 
warm welcome on the Common, and Capt. Sprague replied feelingly, 
reading a letter from Col. Devens in which he expressed his thanks to the 
officers and men of the battalion. "You were of those," he wrote, "who 
saved the capital of the nation from plunder at the opening of this con- 
flict. I can say to you most truly that you have been to me all that an 
officer could ask of soldiers." 

Muster-out was held next day. Forty of the City Guards imme- 
diately re-enlisted ; nineteen became w^arrant officers ; two musicians, 
and others re-enlisted later. Two of the battalion had died of typhoid. 
The Spy said at the time : 

It does not lessen either the bravery of our men, or the greatness of the service 
they rendered, that they did not participate in any regular battle. They v^on the. ex- 
pected battle by their promptness and energy, without fighting it. Washington was 
saved, the secession rising in Maryland was prevented, the Baltimore conspirators were 
baffled, a new route to Washington was opened and held open, and the war of treason 
was not allowed to come across the Potomac. The troops that secured such results, de- 
serve the honor and thanks of the whole country, and foremost among them were our 
Sixth and Eighth Regiments, and the Worcester Rifle Battalion. No better troops than 
these went to the rescue of the government, none have served with a better spirit or 
to a better purpose, and let them have the credit which is their due. 

The Fifteenth Regiment. — The Fifteenth Regiment of Infantry was 
raised largely in this city. Major Devens came from the Sixth Regt. 
to command it; and the other officers were Lt. Col. George H. Ward of 
this city, and Maj. John W. Kimball of Fitchburg. It encamped on the 
Brooks farm at South Worcester, June 28, 1861. The camp was named 
for Gen. Scott. The men were mustered into service by Gov. Andrew 
and Capt. Marshall of the regular army. The battle of Bull Run short- 
ened the period of preparation and drill. A flag was presented to the 
regiment by the ladies of the city Aug. 7, the address being made by 
Hon. George F. Hoar in the City Hall, in the presence of the officers 
and band. In his speech accepting the flag, Col. Devens said : "There 
is indeed a remarkable coincidence, as you have so well said, in the name 
of the regiment which I have the honor to command, being numbered 



AND ITS PEOPLE 585 

the same as that commanded during the Revokitionary War by Col. 
Timothy Bigelow, over whose remains yonder proud monument was, 
three months ago, erected with such inspiring ceremonies. It is indeed a 
most fortunate omen. I trust that some of the spirit which animated our 
ancestors has descended upon the present sons of Worcester county, 
and that they will be able to render an equally good account of their 
labors." 

The next day the regiment, numbering 1,046 officers and privates, 
left the city at 6 p. m. by the train for Norwich, amid vociferous cheers 
of the people, reaching New York on Aug. 9 at 11 a. m., and Washing- 
ton next day. On the 11th, quarters were occupied on Meridian Hill, 
near the residence Kalorama, under the command of Gen. Rufus King. 
Aug. 25 the regiment was sent into camp at Poolsville, Md., 35 miles 
from Washington. The camp was named for Dwight Foster, then 
attorney general of Massachuetts. The first duty was to guard the line 
from Conrad's ferry to the lower end of Harrison's Island, a distance of 
three miles. The Rebel pickets on the /other side of the river became 
friendly after a few shots had been exchanged, talked with our pickets, 
and surreptitiously exchanged various articles. The camp was visited 
by Nathaniel Paine, who made a report of his trip in one of the city 
papers, praising the drill and discipline, the band, and the condition 
of the camp. Hon. John D. Baldwin, editor of the Spy, wrote, after a 
visit, "that the signs of harmony and good discipline are abundant and 
unmistakable. . . . Col. Devens deserves the warmest praise of 
every friend of the regiment at home for his earnest and untiring care of 
the men." He commended the system by which Col. Devens induced 
many of the men to send money to their families. 

Ball's Bluff. — The first baptism of blood was at Ball's Bluff, Oct. 
21. Capt. Philbrick of Co. H and twenty men had crossed the river the 
day before on a scouting expedition in the direction of Leesburg, and 
had found what appeared to be only a small force of the enemy, where- 
upon Col. Devens crossed with Cos. A, C, G, H and I, and pushed for- 
ward with a small detachment to the camp found by Capt. Philbrick. 
About sunrise the enemy's pickets were driven in, and the Rebels were 
driven from their rifle pits. But after a short time the Union force 
proved too small to hold the captured line and, when the rebel reserves 
came up, the men of the Fifteenth with other troops that had accom- 
panied them fell back. At eleven the enemy made an advance, and the 
Fifteenth retreated to the position held by the reserves, about 1,200 
troops were sent across the river and Gen. Baker took over the com- 
mand from Col. Devens. At half past three the Rebels advanced, 4,000 
strong, and had the advantage of superior position. After some three 
hours of battle, the Union force was compelled to give way. Many 
officers had been lost through Rebel sharpshooting. Gen. Baker was 
heard to say: "If I had two more such regiments as the Mass. Fif- 



586 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

teenth I would cut my way to Leesburg." Soon afterward he was killed, 
and Col. Cogswell took command. An attempt was made about five 
o'clock to cut the way to Edward's Ferry. When the movement failed 
and Gen. Cogswell ordered a retreat, Col. Devens was opposed to the 
movement and said: "Sir, I do not wish to retreat. Do you issue it as 
an order?" "Yes, sir" was the reply. "I would like to have you repeat 
it in the presence of my major, then." "I order you to retreat," was the 
response. 

The column retreated, nearly all in good order, though some com- 
panies broke ranks and ran. The Fifteenth kept their ranks until their 
colonel ordered them to save themselves as best they could. He was 
determined to cross the river and not surrender. The scow in which 
the troops had crossed was overcrowded and upset in midstream. Some 
swam ashore ; others were carried away by the swift current and 
drowned. Those who had remained on the Virginia shore, hard pressed 
by the Rebels, took to the water and attempted to swim the river. Col. 
Devens and some near him had the good fortune to seize a floating log 
that aided them in crossing. Many were shot in the water; many were 
drowned. Col. Ward was wounded in the leg and taken to Harrison's 
Island, where he had his leg amputated that night. Lt. Everts Greene 
of No. Brookfield, later editor of the Spy, did not retreat, remaining on 
the edge of the bluff covering the retreat with a small detachment from 
his company and the Tammany and California regiments. Lieut. Greene 
w^as captured. (See biography). Col. Devens was struck by a bullet, 
but not injured. Capt. W^atson of Co. E, who remaining on the bank 
of the river, being unable to swim, escaped wounds and capture, and with 
eight other men reached Edward's Ferry under cover of darkness. 

Though the movement was disastrous, the regiment was highly praised 
for its coolness, discipline and courage. Col. Devens said: "Every 
man did his duty; there was no flinching, no disobedience, no cowardice, 
and they fought to the very last with great cheerfulness." A private 
wrote of the officers : "Without exception they stood up resolutely from 
the first hour of the day to the last." Another wrote : "We cannot say 
too much in praise of the cool courage and considerate movements of 
Colonel Devens. He is in my opinion unsurpassed for cool bravery, 
being in the thickest of the fight with his men, encouraging them with 
hopes of success as long as a shadow of hope lasted." Gen. McClellan 
said of this engagement : "Nothing had occurred in the war yet equal to 
the heroic conduct of the Fifteenth Mass." He told Col. Devens he wanted 
him to take part in the next battle. 

A sketch of Lieut. Grout, who lost his life at Ball's Bluff, is given 
elsewhere in this work. 

Of 621 men w^ho went into battle, but 311 survived fit for duty. The 
killed, wounded and missing numbered 310. For further details see the 
roster of the regiment. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 5^7 



Recruits were needed to fill the gaps; aid for the wounded came 
promptly from home. A meeting was held in the City Hall, Dec. 3, 
and Rev. Mr. Scandlin, the regimental chaplain, spoke for an hour, 
appealing for recruits to fill the ranks. Hon. Isaac Davis and Judge 
Henry Chapin also spoke. Hon. Edward Everett spoke at a meeting in 
Mechanics Hall, Dec. 12, and Hon. Daniel S. Dickinson of New York 
at another meeting, Dec. 16. 

The regiment remained at Poolsville until Feb. 36, 1863, and was 
recruited to 903 men. Marching to Adamstown and taking the train to 
Harper's Ferry, the regiment was quartered there until March 2, when, 
excepting one company, it marched to Bolivar Heights and on March 
7th to Charlestown; on the 10th to Berryville, where traces of the 
enemy were discovered. On the 15th the regiment returned to Bolivar 
Heights and remained a week, leaving Harper's Ferry on the 22d for 
Washington, 'it was quartered near the capitol. Two days later it was 
in Alexandria, and five days afterward sailed for Hampton, Va., where 
it was in camp three days. On the -Ith the march up the Peninsula 
began, the first halt being at Big Bethel, the second at "Camp Misery." 
Afterward the progress was slow, as the enemy was strongly entrenched 
and the soldiers had to build roads as they advanced. On the 11th a 
permanent camp, named for Gen. Scott, was established within a mile 
of the enemy's works. Col. Devens left the regiment here to accept his 
commission as brigadier general, and Lt. Col. Kimball took command. 

The fifteenth was one of the first regiments to enter Yorktown after 
the evacuation. May 4. Two days later it embarked for West Point, and 
arrived early next morning in time to reinforce Gen. Franklin, but it took 
no part in the fighting. On the 9th it occupied Camp Eltham. On the 
15th it marched to Austin's Church towards Richmond ; on the 18th it 
moved three miles towards the Chickahominy River. It was near Bot- 
tom's Ridge, May 21. 

The battle of May 31 was reported by Col. Kimball, as follows : 

Early in the afternoon of May 31, rapid and heavy firing was heard, distinctly 
heard, from across the river. The troops under General Sumner, including the Fif- 
teenth Regiment, were immediately under arms, and marched to the assistance of Gen- 
eral Casey. Crossing the river on a bridge of logs, called Sumner's Grapevine Bridge, 
the column advanced about two miles, and formed near Fair Oaks Station, in anticipa- 
tion of an attack. The regiment had barely time to load before the battle, which raged 
fiercely until after dark, began. The first position taken by the Fifteenth Regiment 
was in support of a battery of light artillery, commanded by Lieutenant Kirby of the 
regular service, which was playing with great effect on the concealed enemy. This po- 
sition was trying to the men, in the extreme ; as but a small portion were engaged, the 
balance could only stand firmly before the storm of bullets, to resist the charge, should 
one be attempted. Three times did the foe, flushed with the victory of the morning, 
and confident of success, rush upon the battery almost to the cannon's mouth, but each 
time were driven back in disorder, leaving many brave men within a few yards of our 
bayonets. Before they could rally from this terrible fire of canister and musketry, a 



588 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

charge upon them was ordered. With wild shouts and cheers, the unwavering line ad- 
vanced into the almost impenetrable thicket, but the enemy had fled ; their dead and 
wounded alone were left, the evidences of a glorious victory. That night the troops 
rested upon their arms, on the battle-field, the horrors of which were made doubly re- 
volting by the unceasing groans of the wounded. 

In the battle of Fair Oaks, May 31, the regiment lost five killed and 
17 wounded. The duty during June was severe, waiting on the battle 
field for the expected attack, fortifying, skirmishing. 

The Fifteenth was in the engagement at Savage Station June 29, and 
soon afterward in White Oak Swamp and at Nelson's Farm. Reaching 
Harrison's Landing July 2, worn out by the campaign since Fair Oaks, 
in which eleven were wounded and 26 missing, the regiment rested in 
July. In August it marched to Newport News, whence it went by water 
to Chain Bridge, in the defenses of Washington. The call was urgent, 
and the regiment was despatched at once to Centreville. Several days 
were spent in marching and countermarching. Sept. 14 it marched from 
Frederick to South Mountain Pass. Col. Kimball describes thus the 
part taken in the battle of Antietam : 

A section of the enemy's artillery was planted immediately in front and not more 
than six hundred yards distant from my right wing. This was twice silenced and 
driven back by the fire of my right concentrated upon it. The engagement lasted be- 
tween twenty and thirty minutes, my line remaining unbroken, the left wing advancing 
some ten yards under a most terrific fire of infantry. [At this time occurred one of 
those blunders not uncommon in battle, by which the regiment was exposed to a mur- 
derous fire from a New York regiment. This was remedied by General Sumner after 
our men had suffered severely.] The enemy soon appeared in heavy columns advanc- 
ing on my left and rear, pouring in a deadly fire on my left wing. We retired slowly 
and in good order, bringing off our colors and a battle-flag captured from the enemy, 
re-forming by the order of General Gorman in a piece of woods some five hundred 
yards to the rear, and under cover of our artillery. This position was held until I 
was ordered to support a battery, planted upon the brow of a hill immediately in our 
rear, the enemy having opened again with artillery. This fire being silenced, the posi- 
tion was held throughout the day. 

Col. Ward returned to the service and took command of the regi- 
ment Feb. 5, 1863, and was soon afterward made acting brigadier-gen- 
eral, leaving Lt. Col. Joslin in command. May 2 the regiment crossed 
the Rappahannock river at Fredericksburg on pontoon bridges : 

The Fifteenth was soon after directed to take a position on the extreme right of 
the First Brigade, and commenced moving to a point on the right of the city; and at 
the same moment, the enemy's batteries opened from three different points with solid 
shot and shell, which they kept up while the regiment was going the distance of half a 
mile. At the same time this movement was going on, the enemy were hurrying up 
their infantry at double-quick and filling the rifle-pits on the crest of the hill in our 
fronts, almost in rifle range. It was our good fortune to have a slight embankment for 
a cover, where we remained for two hours, until the position known as 'Marye's Heights,' 
in rear of the famous bank-wall rifle-pit, — where so many brave men laid down their 



AND ITS PEOPLE 589 

lives at the first battle of Fredericksburg, — was flanked by General Sedgwick's Sixth 
Corps, and the enemy in our front began to fall back. A canal, some thirty feet wide, and 
too deep to ford, prevented our advancing directly in front, and we were obliged to return 
to the city before doing so. During the time we had remained there, the enemy had 
placed two guns in such a position on the bluflf, on the south side of the river, that 
they had an enfilading fire on our line while returning to the city ; but either through 
their great haste to join their fleeing comrades, or bad practice, they did us little harm; 
but two were slightly wounded during the whole shelling. After following up the ene- 
my two miles, the second division was ordered back to the city; the Fifteenth to the 
north bank of the river, supporting Battery A, First Rhode Island Artillery, which 
covered the pontoon bridge, where we remained until the following day about dusk, 
when companies A, B, E, and G, moved into the rifle-pits, above and below the bridge, 
to cover its removal. 

In June the regiment started on his way to Gettysburg. On July 
1 the sound of cannon was heard, and that night the regiment bivou- 
acked three miles south of Gettysburg. The regiment took part in the 
second and third days' fighting. The following report tells of the work 
of the third day : 

The rebels opened on our lines with over a hundred pieces of artillery at about one 
P. M. This terrible fire was continued for over two hours ; but though the air seemed 
full of the fragments of bursting shells, but comparatively little damage was done. At 
three, P. M., the rebel infantry moved to the assault. Our men sprang promptly to 
meet them, glad at a prospect of work, relieving them from their painful recumbent 
position, which a broiling sun rendered the more intolerable. This contest lasted an 
hour or two ; during which both armies showed a determination to hold the ground, 
regardless of the results. A slight wavering of the rebel line was detected, and at sug- 
gestion of Colonel Hall, commanding the Third Brigade, the colors of the Fifteenth 
were ordered to advance by Colonel Joslin, when the remnant of the regiment, led by 
the colonel, rallied promptly around them, and the whole line, as if moved by one im- 
pulse, rushed forward and carried the position. 

The regiment was skirmishing on the fourth of July. During the 
Battle of Gettysburg the Fifteenth lost three officers killed and eight 
wounded ; nineteen enlisted men killed, and 85 wounded. Col. Ward 
of Worcester was one of the killed. (See biography). Until the 14th, 
the regiment was engaged in the pursuit of the Rebels. On the 16th 
Harper's Ferry was passed on the way to Loudon Valley. On Aug. 15, 
179 drafted recruits were added to the regiment. On Aug. 31 the march 
to Bank's Ford from Morrisville; on the thirteenth the Rappahannock 
was crossed. Through the months of September, October and Novem- 
ber the regiment was marching, picketing, skirmishing, expecting battle 
daily. In the action of Mine Run, Nov. 27, the regiment lost 18 men. 
The regiment went into winter quarters at Stevensburg, having been on 
duty of the most arduous and dangerous kind from the beginning of the 
year, and taking part in many engagements and battles. In the spring 
more recruits came, but May 1, the total strength of the Fifteenth was 
only about 300. These went into the Wilderness, where half of them 



390 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



were lost, and the remnant served in the siege of Petersburg. But five 
officers and seventy men were on duty at Jerusalem Plank Road, June 
22d, and almost all of them were taken prisoners at that time. Lt. Col. 
Hooper and five men escaped. The term of enlistment of the regiment 
had expired, excepting that of one company which had to serve until 
Aug. 0. Those who were able to travel, only 85 ofiicers and men, arrived 
home July 21, and were welcomed by Gov. Andrew and his staflf, Mayor 
Lincoln, and a great gathering of people. 

The Twenty-first Regiment.— The Twenty-first Regiment of Infan- 
try was organized mainly in Worcester county, and was commanded 
first by Col. Augustus Morse. Six companies encamped on the Agri- 
cultural Fair Grounds, July 19. 1861, and the camp was named for ex- 
Gov. Lincoln. In appreciation of the honor, Mr. Lincoln wrote: 

Worcester, July 22, 1861. 

General:— I cannot fail to receive with the deepest and most grateful emotions, 
your communication of the honor conferred upon me in the designation of the encamp- 
ment of the Twenty-first Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, under your command, 
by expressly associating the remembrance of me with the historical position of the name 
which it is my privilege to bear, and with his who at the head of the nation in this 
most perilous crisis of its destiny, by his consummate wisdom, heroic firmness and 
constancy, and devoted patriotism in purpose and action, has made that name eminently 
and forever illustrious. 

With no personal pretensions to this most flattering notice, I yet may be permitted, 
I trust, without indelicacy, to claim that my family has not been without its representa- 
tive servant in all the most eventful periods of our country's history. 

Two brothers of my father were in the army of the Revolution. A brother of my 
own was in the service of the state, in command of a company, in the war of 1812 with 
Great Britain. A son fell in the battle of Buena Vista, in Mexico. A grandson is at 
this time enrolled with the rank and file of the noble Sixth Massachusetts Volunteers of 
Baltimore celebrity. Thus the blood of four successive generations binds me in sym- 
pathy with the brave defenders of the republic; and the earnest, fervent prayer of my 
last declining years is, that those on whom will devolve the great duty of upholding the 
integrity of the Union, and of preserving and transmitting the institutions of free con- 
stitutional government, with all the countless and inappreciably precious blessings of 
liberty protection, and social order, which only such a government can secure, may be 
faithful and competent to their high responsibility, and gloriously triumphant in this 
mortal struggle for national existence. 

The ladies of Worcester gave to this command a beautiful flag, 
which was presented at formal exercises by Hon. Alexander H. Bullock 
in an eloquent address. 

The regiment started for the front Aug. 23, 1861, and on its arrival 
in Baltimore camped in Paterson Park, proceeding on the 29th to An- 
napolis, excepting four companies left at Annapolis Junction to guard 
the railroad and prevent contraband goods from passing into \^irginia. 
The entire regiment under Lt. Col. Maggi, 937 men, embarked on the 
steamship Northerner, Jan. 6, 1862, to take part in the Burnside expedi- 
tion, landing Feb. 7 on Roanoke Island, and taking part in the capture. 
The following report by Maj. Theodore S. Foster tells the story: 



AND ITS PEOPLE 59 1 



To the Twenty-first was assigned the honor of doing picket duty for the division 
that night ; this dangerous duty was well performed, with the loss of one man, severely 
wounded by the enemy. The regiment was remarkably cool in the battle of the next 
day. The action commenced early in the morning, by an attack upon a rebel battery, 
strongly supported, and well covered by the enemy's skirmishers. The Twenty-first, 
gallantly and skillfully led by Lieutenant-Colonel Maggi, worked their way, under the 
enemy's fire, through a deep swamp full of dense underbrush and briers, which pro- 
tected the right flank of the battery, and was considered by the enemy as impassable. 
Having flanked the position, the regiment made a brave, steady charge with the bayo- 
net, driving the enemy from their works, and capturing the rebel flag which was on 
their battery, they planted in its place their regimental state flag, which was the first 
Union flag in the battery. The loss of the regiment was, commissioned officers, two 
wounded. Captain T. S. Foster, and Lieutenant Frazer A. Stearns ; enlisted men, five 
killed, and fifty wounded, eight of them mortally, who died soon after. Total, fifty- 
seven. 

The regiment went into camp, named after Gen. Burnside, and soon 
afterward Maj. W. S. Clark became lieutenant-colonel, succeeding Lt. 
Col. Maggi, resigned, and took command. Col. Morse had been left in 
command of the fort in Maryland. On the 11th the regiment sailed in 
the Northerner for Newbern, and took part in the battle on the 14th. 
The first gun taken in that battle was given to this regiment by Gen. 
Burnside as a monument to Frazer A. Stearns, who was killed Two 
other officers were wounded, 19 enlisted men killed, thirty-five wounded, 
of whom four died soon afterward; total loss, 5T. 

After a month in Camp Andrew, the regiment went aboard the 
Northerner at Newbern, April ITth, landing on the 21st, made a forced 
march of nearly 20 miles and participated in the battle of Camden, 
having one man killed and 14 wounded, three mortally. The last service 
in North Carolina was a forced march May 17 to PoUockville, to the 
relief of a Maryland regiment. On July 6 the regiment embarked on the 
Scout and Farrington, and proceeded to Camp Lincoln, near Newport 
News. A few weeks later it boarded steamers Nantasket and High- 
land Light, Aug. 2, landing at Acquia Creek, Va., on the 4th. On the 
12th, leaving tents and baggage, it started afoot for the Rapidan and suf- 
fered extremely in Pope's retreat. In the second battle of Bull Run, 
Aug. 30, the regiment earned great praise and distinction. "When every- 
thing on the left seemed lost, they under the guidance of the brave and 
skillful Reno, stopped the enemy in the moment of victory and prevented 
them from realizing its fruits." Their own loss was small ; the wounded 
and missing numbered nine.. The regiment fought in the battle of 
Chantilly, Sept. 1, losing heavily: 

Ordered into action just as night was coming on, in a severe thunder-storm, to 
fight an enemy of whose numbers and position no one seemed to be aware, they fell 
into an ambuscade of the rebel regiments. Though somewhat thrown into confusion by 
the fearful slaughter inflicted upon them by the first volley from their concealed foes, 
the regiment held its ground. The rain soon made most of the guns on both sides un- 



592 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

serviceable, but the Twenty-first were not afraid to rely on the bayonet, which in many 
instances, was used by both parties, till by the timely arrival of reinforcements, the 
enemy was driven from the field, with the loss of many killed, wounded and prisoners. 
About midnight after the battle, the baggage trains being in safety, the Union forces 
were drawn back to Fairfax Court House, and we were compelled to leave most of our 
seriously wounded to be taken prisoners by the enemy, as well as several men who were 
engaged in bringing them from the field, and assisting the. surgeons. The losses in 
this battle were, commissioned officers, three killed, viz., Lieutenant-Colonel J. P. Rice ; 
First Lieutenant F. A. Bemis, and Second Lieutenant W. B. Hill; mortally wounded 
and died soon after the action, three, viz., Captains J. D. Frazer and L J. Kelton, and 
First Lieutenant H. A. Beckwith ; wounded and prisoners, two, viz., First Lieutenant 
W. H. Clark, and second Lieutenant S. McCabe ; prisoners. Captain George P. Hawkes, 
Acting Major, Adjutant W. Willard, and Second Lieutenant G. C. Parker. Total of- 
ficers eleven. Enlisted men killed, twenty-two; mortally wounded and died soon after, 
eight; wounded and prisoners, twenty-four; wounded, forty-five; prisoners, thirty- 
four. Total killed and wounded in the action, one hundred and seven ; prisoners, not 
wounded, thirty-seven. Aggregate, one hundred and forty-four. 

The regiment marched afterward through Alexandria and Washing- 
ton into Maryland, and took part in the battle of South Mountain, in 
which five men were wounded. Then came the bloody battle of Antie- 
tam, in which the regiment did its full share, entering with 150 men, two 
companies being absent. One officer was killed, two wounded ; six 
enlisted men were killed, 34 wounded, three mortally. The regiment 
had lost at this time 363 men. In Maryland and Virginia the regiment 
continued in active service during October and November, and fought in 
the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13. Out of 284 engaged, 69 were lost. 
On the 14th they were engaged again, but being well sheltered lost only 
one man. At the end of 1862 the regiment was in the old cainp near 
Falmouth. On Feb. 9 it broke camp and marched to Newport News; 
thence westward to Paris, Ky., where it encamped April 1 on the fair 
grounds. Four days later it marched to Mt. Sterling, where it remained 
for three months. On July 6, it marched to Lexington, Ky., thence to 
Camp Nelson, where it remained until Sept. 12, when the march of 185 
miles to Knoxville began. From this time to the end of the year there 
was incessant marching, starving and fighting. Lt. Col. Hawkes was 
then in command. Col. Clark receiving his discharge in April. 

The regiment took part in the action at Blue Springs, Oct. 11. 
Through the siege of Knoxville it was on duty continually, one night 
on picket, the next in the rifle-pits. It made one of the most brilliant 
charges of the siege, Nov, 24, when with another crack regiment it drove 
the enemy sharpshooters from the houses and fences of Knoxville. 
Dwight Ripley was shot and killed Nov. 25. The siege ended Dec. 5, and 
the Twenty-first joined in the pursuit of the retreating Rebels. Not- 
withstanding the hardships of this campaign, the half-rations, lack of 
clothing, all but 24 of the regiment re-enlisted in the woods of East 
Tennessee in the space of 36 hours. 

After a furlough the regiment went to Annapolis. On April 3, after 



AND ITS PEOPLE 593 



a review by President Lincoln in Washington, it marched to Bristow's 
Station on the Rapidan ; crossed the river May 5 at Germania Ford, and 
engaged in the battle of the Wilderness. The Twenty-first was one of 
the two regiments that "prevented the Rebels reaping any fruits from 
their temporary success." The loss was fifteen. On the 21st it was 
in another engagement, and made a charge in which ten were lost. 
Skirmishes followed for two days, during which 27 more were lost. 
There was another skirmish the night of the 19th ; another on the 24th 
at North Anna river, after which the regiment marched to Shady Grove 
road, where, formed in line of battle, it lay several days and nights in 
sight of the enemy. On May 31 and June 1 there were lively picket 
fights, and three were killed and three wounded. On the 21st, the regi- 
ment again won distinction : 

The Twenty-first fell back as slowly as possible, and engaged them fiercely. Soon 
however the whole rebel line advanced, and almost surrounded the Twenty-first, which 
fell back and joined the division, when the whole corps soon became a:ctively engaged, 
and soon the whole army. In this terrible trial, the Twenty-first, under command of 
the brave and now regretted Captain Sampson, did nobly; otherwise the whole rebel 
line would have been upon our army's rear before prepared for it. As it was, with due 
notice by the brisk firing of the picket, they were alarmed, formed in line of battle, 
and resisted the impetuous charge of the rebels with terrible slaughter." 

In this action seven were killed, 26 wounded, 13 missing; total 46. 
Next day the regiment was again engaged, repelling an attack of the 
enemy. Then came a few days of rest, interrupted by occasional skirm- 
ishes, after which the march to the James river began. Crossing the 
river, the regiment arrived at a position near Petersburg, June 16, and 
took part in the fighting of that day. In the trenches the regiment was 
exposed to great hardship through the month of July, during which 
three were killed and ten wounded. The day of the explosion of the 
Mine was one of great disaster. The loss was two killed, 15 wounded, 
seven missing. 

It was decided Aug. 18 that the 21st was not a veteran regiment, 
because 56 of the reenlisted men had been rejected, and the regiment 
was ordered to be broken up. On that very day, how^ever, the remnants 
of the regiment were engaged. The re-enlisted men were organized as 
the Thirty-sixth Regt. after the others had left for home. The returning 
veterans came from City Point to Washington, Aug. 19, arriving in Bos- 
ton, Aug. 22. They assembled again in Worcester on Aug. 30 and were 
mustered out. The losses during service were : 11 commissioned 
officers and 120 men killed ; 24 officers and 383 men wounded ; 78 miss- 
ing. The regiment took part in 23 battles, besides various skirmishes. 

Twenty-fifth Mass. Volunteers. — The Worcester County Regiment 
(25th Mass.) was organized at Camp Lincoln in September and Octo- 

W.— 1-38. 



594 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

ber, 1861, and left for the front Oct. 31. The enlistments were stimu- 
lated by a war meeting in Mechanics Hall, Sept. 14, D. Waldo Lincoln 
presiding, and Hon. Henry Wilson and Hon. A. H. Bullock delivering 
stirring addresses. Lieut. McCafferty also made an appeal to the young 
men to enlist. Lt. Col. Sprague was given a sword and belt by members 
of Co. A, lately under his command, and the various other officers 
received similar gifts. A horse was presented by his friends to Maj. Mc- 
Cafferty, and a sword and other accoutrements by members of the bar. 
A horse was also presented to Col. Sprague. A flag was given by the 
ladies. The presentation of the many gifts to the officers of the regiment 
gave occasion for some speeches of historic value and fiery eloquence. 
Gov. Andrew reviewed the new regiment Oct. 30, and he praised the 
appearance of the men. At the time of its departure the Spy commented 
thus : 

It is of the same good stock as the Fifteenth, of whose achievements we are all so 
justly proud. It was too plain for concealment, and is no reflection upon any other 
regiment, that the heart of our city was more deeply touched by its departure than by 
that of any previous one. Our whole community watched its gathering and its organ- 
ization with the deepest interest, and it was present in unprecedented numbers to cheer 
it oflf. But we do not forget there were other experiences ; that there were afflictive 
separations, and groans and tears. . . . We have good reason for believing that 
there is not a man in the Twenty-fifth who does not know how warmly his regiment is 
cherished here ; and we know there is not a class, or sect, or party, or nationality, 
which have not representatives in it, of which each can say, "By them we will be 
judged." As a living power in defence of a good cause, this regiment will be known 
widely hereafter. May the God of justice be its helper! for with Him is victory, and 
out of victory must come peace, its blessed fruit. 

The regiment arrived in New York, Nov. 1, via New London. The 
officers breakfasted at the Astor House, and speeches were delivered by 
Col. Howe, Samuel Hathaway, Lt. Col. Sprague, Gen. Burnside, Nathan 
Jackson, a veteran of the Revolutionary war, and Parke Godwin, editor 
of the New York Evening Post, Richard Busteed and Rev. Horace 
James, chaplain. Arriving on Nov. 3 at Annapolis, the regiment en- 
camped at Camp Hicks, where it remained until Jan. 7, 1862, embarking 
then on the New York Zouave and Skirmisher, and sailing on the tenth. 
The Zouave foundered on the way south, but no lives were lost. On the 
7th a landing was made on Roanoke Island. The battle followed and the 
regiment lost six killed and 42 wounded. Col. Upton reported : 

I would express my great satisfaction with the conduct of the regiment, both offi- 
cers and men. It was, throughout the engagement, of the bravest kind, standing as 
they did for hours, in the water to their knees, exposed to an incessant fire of mus- 
ketry, grape and shell, with no disposition on the part of any man to waver. The 
skirmishing of company A, Captain Pickett, was performed in a manner that would 
have done credit to regulars. I can but express my particular satisfaction with the 
manner in which Lieutenant-Colonel Sprague, Major McCafferty and Adjutant Hark- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 595 

ness performed the duties devolving upon them, and the support rendered me by them 
throughout the engagement. 

The regiment embarked Mar. 7 and sailed for Newbern, landing on 
the 11th at Slocum's creek, and taking part in the battle of Newbern, 
which was described by Col. Upton in a letter to the Fitchburg Sentinel 
as follows : 

We built camp-fires, sent out our pickets, partook of a lunch from our haversacks, 
and after making a reconnoissance down the river, prepared to spend the night on the 
ground already very wet, and rain still falling in torrents. Some of our men lying 
down and some standing up, we generally passed a sleepless night. We had our lunch 
early, and were ready to move at seven o'clock. We passed along nearly a mile, and 
discovered an earthwork thrown up with the enemy in position, and batteries com- 
manding the road. We flanked ofi to the right, and had hardly cleared the road be- 
fore they opened their batteries, throwing their shot and shell in a very careless man- 
ner. . . . We sent out scouts to ascertain their exact position, and found a long 
line of breastworks, some two miles, we sent out the two flank companies as skirmishers 
into the woods, to see what was there, as the balls were flying all around us. They ad- 
vanced some little distance, discovered a portion of the enemy, and opened fire upon 
them as did also the regiment. They soon surrendered to the number of about one 
hundred and fifty men, and were placed in charge of Co. H, Captain Moulton. Their 
colonel, who delivered his pistol to me, showed a bullet hole through his cap, which 
just cleared his head, and said he would rather it had gone through his head than to 
have surrendered. He was in the fight at Big Bethel, and is a tough customer. 

The 25th was the first to reach the city of Newbern. The loss was 
small, four killed and 16 wounded. The regiment did provost duty in 
the city until May 9. Lt. Col. Sprague left with his regiment July 24 
and marched with other regiments to Trenton, but found no enemy 
opposing and returned five days later. 

During the summer Lt. Col. Sprague left to accept a commission as 
colonel of the 51st and Col. Upton resigned, Major Pickett succeeding to 
the command. In October the regiment moved and on Nov. 2 took part 
in a sharp fight at Rawles's Mills, routing the enemy. Hamilton was 
reached on the fourth and abandoned on the sixth, the enemy being too 
strongly entrenched. On Dec. 11, the regiment took part in the march 
to Kinston, Whitehall and Goldsboro and shared in some hard fighting. 

In the spring of 1863, the rebels boasted that they would drive the 
Union troops from North Carolina, and re-possess Newbern on the four- 
teenth of March, the anniversary of its capture, one year before, by 
General Burnside. The first demonstration was made on the afternoon 
of the thirteenth of March on the outpost at Deep Gully, with a large 
force of infantry, cavalry and artillery. 

On this day, Colonel Pickett, with six companies, started at half- 
past five p. m., for Deep Gully, where the other four companies were sta- 
tioned, that place being attacked by the enemy, who were in strong 
force in front. Guarding and skirmishing followed till morning, when a 



596 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



company was moved forward which attacked the enemy's line. Musk- 
etry firing was kept up for nearly three hours. The colonel's report con- 
tinues : 

The city being attacked in our rear, the regiments supporting me were withdrawn 
for its defence, and I was left with my regiment and two pieces of artillery, to take care 
of the enemy as best I could. Having special orders from General Palmer not to ex- 
pose the pieces, I blockaded the road and fell back to a better position at the Jackson 
House, and awaited their advance. They soon began to shell the woods around, and 
kept it up at intervals during the day, but did not advance. . . . Captain Harring- 
ton, with one company, was sent out to observe the movements and position of the 
enemy if possible. He went as far as Deep Gully, and found them falling back, and 
exchanged shots with them at that place. 

In this expedition one man was wounded, and one was missing. 
Nothing of special importance took place, in the military line, for about 
two months, although it must be remembered, that our forces by merely 
holding their position, were doing an important service. 

The regiment, however, was actively employed, although no decisive 
results were obtained. The enemy failing in their attempts on Newbern, 
next turned their attention to Washington and Plymouth. To resist 
and foil their designs. Colonel Pickett was sent on the eighteenth of 
March, to the important post of Plymouth. He did not reach the place 
a moment too soon, as the rebels were already threatening an attack. 
The river side of the town was protected by our gun-boats, and the 
whole land force, under command of Colonel Pickett, began immediately 
to perfect the fortifications of the post. On the thirtieth. General Hill, 
while threatening Plymouth, made a determined attack on Washington. 
While he was wasting his strength vainly there, our troops at Plymouth 
completed the work of fortifying the post; and General Hill, with his 
rebel forces, dejected and discouraged, withdrew. While in "Camp Flus- 
ser," at Plymouth, the Twenty-fifth, under command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Moulton, performed much laborious service, always cherfully 
undergoing the most fatiguing duties to ensure the safety of the place. 
On the seventh of May, the regiment being relieved by troops from Gen- 
eral Wessell's brigade, was ordered back to Newbern, and re-occupied 
its old camp near the city. 

On the twenty-first of May, the regiment started at half an hour 
after midnight, on an expedition to Gum Creek. After a long march, 
and a ride on a train of cars about eight miles, the regiment reached 
Cove Creek at half-past eleven p. m. In half an hour it took up its line 
of march for Gum Creek, Captain Denny at the head of Company K, 
acting as advance-guard. "We moved on quickly," writes Colonel 
Pickett, "meeting no opposition from, or seeing any signs of the enemy, 
till about four o'clock on the morning of the twenty-second ; then our 
advance-guard met the enemy's pickets, exchanged shots with them aixi 



AND ITS PEOPLE 597 

drove them in. Advancing cautiously, we were soon in the neighbor- 
hood of the enemy's camp. By order of Colonel Lee, I filed my regi- 
ment into the field to the right of the road, and took position on the left 
flank of the enemy, forming line of battle." Captains Denny and O'Neil, 
with their companies, were sent forward as skirmishers, and to discover 
and report the position of the enemy. They soon sent word that they 
"were in sight of a long line of earthworks, and had exchanged shots with 
the enemy. I instructed them to engage him closely, so as to draw, if 
possible, his attention from his flanks and rear. This they succeeded in 
doing admirably. Our skirmishers exchanged their first shots with the 
enemy at his earthworks, at about half-past six a. m. At ten, we heard 
firing in the rear of the enemy, which indicated the approach of Colonel 
Jones in that direction. I immediately strengthened my line of skirm- 
ishers by throwing forward Company A, Captain. Goodwin, and moved 
foward my regiment in line of battle. Company A was soon over the 
earthworks. The enemy, outflanked and attacked in the rear, had fled 
precipitately to the woods and swamps, and I had the pleasure, in a few 
moments, of seeing my regimental colours planted upon their entrench- 
ments. At five p. m., the enemy, — no doubt, reinforced from Kinston, — 
moved down the railroad and commenced shelling the woods. The 
object of the expedition having been accomplished, we took up our line 
of march for Cove Creek." 

On the return, while acting as a rear-guard on the twenty-third, 
the enemy's advance-guard fired on our regiment from the opposite side 
of the creek. Soon word came that three regiments of the enemy were 
moving down with the very "evident intention of striking our left 
flank and rear" before the regiment could reach the cars. By good man- 
agement, this design of the enemy was foiled, and our troops retired 
safely to Newbern, where they arrived about four p. m. on the twenty- 
third, which was Saturday. Three privates were wounded, and one 
was missing. 

On the third of July, Lieutenant-Colonel Moulton, with companies 
B, C, F, I and K, was ordered to Washington, North Carolina, to rein- 
force the garrison. Three companies, B, C and F, under command of 
Captain Foss, garrisoned the defences at Hill's Point. Company I, Cap- 
tain Parkhurst, was stationed at Rodman's Quarter, and Company K was 
retained in the city as provost-guard. Captain Denny had been trans- 
ferred from Newbern, where he had served as provost-marshal, to the 
same position at Washington. The five companies remaining at or near 
Newbern, under command of Colonel Pickett, marched on the seven- 
teenth of July, to Swift Creek, supporting the cavalry column in the 
Rocky Mount raid. There was slight skirmishing with the enemy. Thev 
returned on the twentieth. 

The next expedition took place in the latter part of July, and 
extended to Winton. Four companies of the regiment left Newbern on 



598 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



the twenty-fifth, on board the steamer "Colonel Rucker," at six o'clock 
in the morning. They reached Winton on the twenty-sixth, where they 
disembarked, "and went into bivouac on the Chowan River. On the 
twenty-eighth, two companies under command of Captain T. O'Neil, 
went to Colerain, twenty miles distant from Winton. The next day 
they returned, bringing with them thirty-three horses and mules, a num- 
ber of carriages, &c." Detachments of companies G and II, under com- 
mand of Captain Harrington, were sent out ten miles on the Colerain 
road, to bring in cotton. They returned, next day. with twelve bales 
of cotton, and twenty horses and mules, and a number of carriages, har- 
ness, &c. No commissary stores were met with, as the enemy had 
removed or concealed everything of the kind. On the last day of July 
the troops embarked on the steamer Utica, having in charge sixty-six 
prisoners, including three commissioned officers. 

At this time the force under command of Colonel Pickett numbered 
two hundred and eighteen enlisted men ; nine line officers ; three field 
and stafif officers ; total, two hundred and thirty. 

The month of August was passed by the companies at Newbern in 
the work of entrenching and strengthening the defences. 

Colonel Pickett was assigned to the command of the sub-dis.rict of 
Pamplico, head-quarters at Washington, on the sixth of September The 
district embraced all the line of fortifications in and about Washington; 
and also all the defensible works on the Tar Riv.er and vicinity. At the 
same time companies A, E, G and H, were ordered to the Red , ■ 'Use, 
on outpost duty, under command of Major Atwood. Company L'ap- 

tain Foster, garrisoned Fort Stevenson, on the Neuse River. i the 

twenty-second of October, Surgeon Rice, with his orderly, was taken pris- 
oner, outside the lines, by a scouting party of rebels, near our o m ^t at 
Red House. He was exchanged after a brief stay at the "LiV 

In this scattered condition the regiment did valuable service until 
October 23, when orders were received for the Twenty-fifth to Miicen- 
trate at Newbern, under Lieutenant-Colonel Moulton, and im; tcliately 
proceed to Fortress Monroe, with a view to joining in a projected move- 
ment on Weldon Bridge, North Carolina; but in the meantime. > weral 
Foster being ordered to Tennessee, and General Butler assum •_: ^om- 
mand, the expedition w^as abandoned, and the regiment went i imp 

at Newport News. On the fifth of December, Colonel Pic ' ving 

been relieved from the command at Washington, Norlli Carob med 

the regiment with the adjutant, Lieutenant McConville. and lant 

Drennan, both of whom had been serving on stafT duty at W ^ton 

with him. 

On the fourteenth of December, the regiment was statio; imp 

Upton, Newport News, where it remained until the fourtii the 

succeeding February. While there four hundred and l' ' the 

men were re-enlisted under the provisions of General ( *r 191, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 599 

C. S., 1863, War Department, and were allowed to proceed to Massachu- 
setts on furlough as a veteran regiment. 

After a month's furlough during which the reenlisted veterans were 
given a warm reception at home and in Boston, the 25th, under Col. 
Pickett went to the front again, leaving March 25, 1863, by rail, to Bal- 
timore, thence by sea to Fortress Monroe. Just before leaving a beau- 
tiful flag was presented to the regiment by Miss Frances M. Lincoln in 
behalf of the ladies of the city. The first flag had been worn out in the 
service. 

On the these men left the fortress and proceeded to Getty's 

station where they were joined by those of the regiment who had not 
reenlisted, and were stationed at Camp Wellington. They took part 
in a skirmish during an expedition to Smithfield Apr. 13. 

Orders were received Apr. 22 to embark for Plymouth, N. C, but 
when the regiment reached Albermarle Sound, it was ordered back to 
Getty's station. In the meantime two companies that had been on an 
expedition to Suffolk, Va., returned to camp. 

From April 26 to May 4 the regiment was at Yorktown, leaving 
then for Bermuda Hundred, arriving on the fifth, and marching next 
morning to Cobb's Hill, whic^ was occupied at 11 a. m. At five p. m. the 
brigade attacked the enemy at Walthall Station to get possession of the 
Richmond & Petersburg Railroad, but failed, losing three killed and 14 
wounded. Another attack next day succeeded. 

An advance was made on the Richmond Turnpike May 9 and the 
enemy driven into works on Swift Creek. The regiment repelled a furi- 
ous charge of the 25th S. Carolina. This action was known as the battle 
of Arrowfield Church and cost an officer and 11 men killed, two officers 
and 47 men wounded. There was skirmishing May 11 when the regi- 
ment marched on the turnpike toward Richmond, and again the next 
day, continuing until the 16th, when the enemy made a desperate assault. 
The 25th fought splendidly, holding their ground with the utmost ten- 
acity, inflicting on the charging columns of the enemy the most terrible 
slaughter, until surrounded, and with ammunition exhausted, they were 
ordered to face by the rear rank and charge the Rebel line. Thus the 
regiment extricated itself, reformed its lines in the rear, and checked the 
further advance of the enemy. Eleven were killed, 52 wounded and 73 
missing in this regiment. 

The regiment went to White House on the 30th, and marched next 
day toward Richmond, bivouacking at Church Tavern, within twelve 
miles of the city. June 1 they reached Cold Harbor. Following is the 
official report: 

We were ordered to assault the enemy's works. The regiment charged gallantly 
some distance through a most galling fire, until within a few yards of their intrench- 
ments ; [the enemy's] they were met by a storm of bullets, shot and shell, that no hu- 



667200A 



6oo HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



mail power could withstand. Checked in their attempt to break the rebel line, and 
with two-thirds of their number killed or disabled, the regiment still determinedly held 
the position gained, protecting themselves as best they could, by the nature of the 
ground, until dark, when with their hands and tin cups, rifle-pits were constructed, 
thus rendering the position tenable. In this desperate assault the regiment displayed 
the most heroic bravery. 

On the 12th it marched to White House. The regiment lost at Cold 
Harbor four officers and 23 men killed ; 11 officers and 128 men wounded ; 
two officers and 4T men missing. In two weeks it had lost two-thirds of 
its number. The remnants were at Point of Rocks on the Appomattox, 
June 14, and at 2 a. m. next day started for Petersburg. During the 
action on the 15th, Co. A under Sergt. Samuel Putnam captured three 
12-lb. Napoleon guns. Capt. V. P. Parkhurst succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment. 

During a charge on the 18th, the regiment lost an officer and 12 men 
wounded. During the next five weeks it was in the trenches in front 
of Petersburg and lost six men killed, an officer and 24 men wounded. 
From Aug. 25 to Sept. 4 it was on the left of Butler's line of works. 
Thence it went again to Newbern, X. C. On Oct. 15 those whose term 
had expired were ordered home under Capt. Denny, and were mustered 
out Oct. 20. They received a most cordial welcome. The remainder 
of the regiment was assigned with their officers in four companies in a 
battalion under Capt. James Tucker, to quarters near Ft. Spinola. The 
total loss of the regiment was 21 officers and 383 men. 

During the last months of 1864 and two months in 18G5 the remain- 
ing battalion of the regiment was engaged in picket duty near Newbern, 
and was in action March 10, having an officer and four men wounded. 
On March 22 it marched for Goldsboro, and joined Sherman's army. 
From May 12 to July 13 it was in the vicinity of Charlotte. Return- 
ing homeward, it reached Readville, July 21, and a week later was mus- 
tered out. 

The Thirty-sixth Regiment. — The 3()th Regiment, recruited in this 
city, was ready for the field Sept. 3, 1861, in command of Col. Henry 
Bowman. Colors were given by Mayor Aldrich, and the regiment 
proceeded to Boston, where it emliarked on the steamer Merriniac, and 
arrived in Washington on Sept. 11. It was stationed af Leesboro, leav- 
ing on the 15th to join Burnside's army. On Sept. 20 it arrived at Antie- 
tam Iron Works, and on Oct. 7 at Pleasant Valley. After a march to 
Frederick and Point of Rocks it returned on the 15th to Pleasant Val- 
ley. It crossed the Potomac on a pontoon bridge at Berlin, Oct. 2, and 
reached Lovettsville, Va., the same day. On Dec. 12 it took part in the 
battle of Fredericksburg. It remained at Falmouth the rest of the year. 
In February and March it was at Newport News, leaving late in March 
for Lexington, Ky., where it encamped March 29. It was sent to Cin- 
cinnati to do riot duty. It marched to Camp Dick Robinson, arriving 



AND ITS PEOPLE 6oi 

April 9 ; thence three weeks later to Middleburg, afterward being busy 
in chasing Morgan's guerillas. It started for Vicksburg, June 7, embark- 
ing on the Meteor at Cairo, and was stationed six miles in the rear of 
Vicksburg. It took part in the pursuit of Johnston. The regiment 
returned in August and went into barracks at Covington, Ky. On Sept. 
10 the regiment was reduced to 189, out of nearly 800 enlisted. The 
southern climate and hard marching disabled man}^ and caused many 
deaths. On Sept. '22 the remnant of the regiment reached Morristown, 
Tenn. It was kept busy to the end of the campaign defending East 
Tennessee. From Sept. 27 to Oct. 3 it was in camp at Knoxville, then 
ordered out to meet a Rebel force under Gen. Jones, defeating them at Blue 
Springs, where Lt. Col. Goddell was wounded and five others. The 
next day the enemy was pursued for 20 miles and many prisoners taken. 
The regiment rested at Knoxville from the loth to the 20th, and was 
very active until Oct. 4, when the men began to build winter quarters. 
After working at this job a fortnight, the heaviest fighting of all took 
place. The regiment was sent out to check Longstreet's advance, and 
was attacked near Campbell's Station, where an officer and 14 privates 
were wounded and four missing. On the 17th and 18th there was skirm- 
ishing; on the 19th the regiment built rifle pits and occupied Ft. Saun- 
ders. There was a fierce attack on the 29th. The enemy finally retreated 
early in December. During the siege, only quarter-rations were received ; 
blankets and shoes were lacking; the men suffered from hunger, cold 
and lack of sleep. The official report says : 

The regiment has marched an aggregate distance of one thousand and thirteen 
miles, and has been transported an aggregate distance of four thousand three hundred 
and twenty-eight miles. We have now eighteen officers, and one hundred and ninety- 
two enlisted men present for duty. Since we left the state, [in September 1862,] one 
officer and seven men have been killed or died of wounds, three officers and seventy- 
nine men have died of disease, twelve officers and one hundred and thirty men have 
been discharged, twenty-two men have been transferred to other organizations and 
thirty-three men have been wounded in action, and eighteen men taken prisoners. Eight 
have been promoted from the ranks. 

Thirty-fourth Regiment. — The Thirty-fourth regiment composed of 
men from this city and western Mass. left here Aug. 15, 1862, and went 
through Norwich, Jersey City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, to Washington ; 
crossed Long Bridge to Arlington Heights, and camped at Camp Casey. 
While here Maj. Bowman left to receive his commission as colonel of 
the 36th. Marching to Alexandria on the 22d, the regiment was unable 
to get transportation and camped there, remaining during Pope's retreat 
from Manassas ; marched to Fairfax Seminary, Sept. 12, and on the 15th 
to Ft. Lyon, where it remained until May, 1863, moving thence to Upton 
Hill, and on June 2 to Washington, where it was occupied in defending 
the city. On July 9 it was ordered to Harper's Ferry and started at once, 



6o2 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



camping at Maryland Heights; crossing the Potomac in boats on the 
14th, and taking possession of Harper's Ferry, from which the enemy had 
retreated. 

The 3-ith, with other troops under Col. Wells, attacked the force of 
Gen. Imboden and put it to flight. The regiment was commended "for 
steadiness of conduct and its endurance in the march of 35 miles with- 
out food or rest in 15 hours and successfully fighting double their num- 
ber for ten miles, returning to camp without a straggler." 

On Dec. 10, the regiment was in action, marched 100 miles in four days 
from Harrisonburg to Harper's Ferry, escaping from a superior Rebel 
force. It took part in the battle of New Market, May 14: 

Our advance cavalry v^^e found engaged with the enemy. The fighting lasted till 
after dark. We were ordered to take position in a piece of woods held by the enemy. 
After a sharp skirmish we drove them from their position. We lay in line of battle all 
night, in a cold, drizzling rain storm, which had continued since morning, without shel- 
ter from the storm, or anything to eat. At daylight,— May 15,— the next morning, three 
companies were ordered forward, to take possession, and held this point until about 
eleven A. M., when the enemy advanced a whole brigade, preceded by a double line of 
skirmishers, against this little force. By skillful deployment, they had been made to 
believe that our whole force was there. These three companies waited until their ad- 
vance was within twenty rods, when they were rapidly and safely withdrawn. This 
maneuver gained for us three or four hours, and enabled a part of the remaining force 
of General Sigel to come up. We fell back about a mile, and forming a line of battle, 
awaited the attack. The enemy were soon seen advancing in beautiful order, with three 
lines of battle, each larger than our own, their line yelling, and firing with great ra- 
pidity. We were ordered to lie down, and hold our fire till they came within close 
range. After receiving their fire some ten minutes, we arose and poured into them a 
sharp fire. Their first line was crushed, their second wavered, halted, and began to 
fall back. A cheer ran along our lines, and the first success was ours. Colonel Tho- 
burn, commanding brigade, rode along the line, ordering us to prepare to charge. We 
fixed bayonets, and when the order came, sprang forward. The enemy had rallied, 
and received us with a severe fire. After advancing about fifty yards we discovered 
that the regiment was without support, and going forward alone. The order to halt 
was sounded, but nothing could be heard in the din of battle; it was only by Colonel 
Wells taking the color-bearer by the shoulder, and holding him fast, that the regiment 
could be stopped. We fell back to our first position and renewed the fight. The bat- 
tery on our right, losing its support, had limbered up and retired. We were alone on 
the right, and the Fifty-fourth Pennsylvania on the left of the pike; the fire of a 
whole brigade was concentrated upon our regiment. The men were falling rapidly, 
and it was useless to try to check, with our small force, the heavy column of the 
enemy. The men fell back fighting stubbornly. All along the line they could be heard 
saying to each other, 'For God's sake, don't run. Thirty-fourth! don't let them drive 
you !' We were ordered by General Sullivan, commanding division, to fall back about a 
mile, when a second line was formed. The enemy did not pursue. We went into the 
fight with some five hundred men. Of this number in that half-hour's fight, we had one 
officer and twenty-seven men killed, eight officers and one hundred and sixty-six men 
wounded; three of the former, and many of the latter, being left in the enemy's hands; 
and two officers and sixteen men prisoners; making a total loss of two hundred and 
twenty-one. Nearly every man bore about him the marks of battle. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 603 

It took part in the battle of Piedmont, June 5. Capt. Potter, then in 
command, reported: 

After a good deal of maneuvering by our brigade on the left of the line, most 
of the time under a heavy artillery fire, we were moved across to the right to make a 
charge with the First Brigade. The enemy was advantageously posted in the woods, 
on the crest of a hill. The charge was made about 2 P. M. The rebels, being behind 
rail breast-works, made a stubborn resistance. We charged up to within twenty yards 
of their works, when the whole line halted, and for twenty minutes the roar of mus- 
ketry was terrible. The enemy attempting to turn our left, threw a heavy force upon 
our fiank. It was a critical time. Had our left but given way, the day might have 
had another issue. The two companies on the left, I and B, lost fifty-four men. This 
attack being repulsed, we charged in turn driving them in the greatest confusion. 
Along the right, our fire had been so hot it compelled the rebels to keep below their rail 
barricades. We caught over one thousand uninjured men lying close behind them. 

The regiment lost 15 men killed and 90 wounded, two mortally. 
On Jvme T it marched to Buffalo Gap, destroying public buildings and 
railroads. On June 10 it was engaged in the battle of Lynchburg, los- 
ing five men killed, an officer and 41 men wounded. Then began a long 
and tedious march to the west and north to Gauley Bridge. Rations 
were short, and the men suffered from hunger. Marching was resumed 
July 2, and Camp Piatt reached next day. On the -Ith the troops 
entrained for Cherry Run, Md., arriving in four days, completing a great 
circuit of many marches and several battles. From this time to Sept. 
4 the regiment was constantly marching in various directions with fre- 
quent skirmishes. From Sept. 4 to 19 it was at Summit Point. The reg- 
iment took part in the battle of Winchester, Sept. 19, Capt. Thompson 
in command : 

Our regiment was ordered to hold a point of a hill looking towards a ravine where 
the enemy appeared in force, and from which a flank attack might come. The whole 
army soon charged our brigade, passing diagonally from left to right, across our front. 
The fighting was now severe; the cheers of our men, and the fierce yells of the rebels, 
rising above the roar of artillery and crashing of musketry. We soon went forward 
and after getting clear of the woods, making a left half wheel, we charged directly 
upon the enemy, who were posted behind a stone fence. We were now almost alone ; 
with nothing almost on our left, and but a few stragglers on our right. The enemy 
opened upon us a fire from two batteries ; when within sixty years of this fence, the 
rebels rose and gave us a terrible volley. The men were falling rapidly, when we were 
ordered to lie down. The two batteries, at close range, were firing their shot and shell 
into us. It seemed certain death to remain. A staff officer ordered us to hold this 
position if it cost every man we had. He told us that the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps 
would soon be up on our left. But it was impossible to stay there, and nothing was left 
but to charge and drive the enemy from the wall. The order was given, and with a yell 
we went forward. The enemy fled, leaving in our hands one gun. While gallantly 
leading his men in this charge, the brave Captain Thompson fell, shot through the 
heart. As a private in the Eighth Regiment, he fought at the first battle of Bull Run. 
Obtaining a captaincy in the Thirty-fourth, he proved himself a most accomplished of- 
ficer. Ever foremost in battle, his personal gallantry on the field won for him the re- 



5o4 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



spect of all. Our lines were soon formed for the final charge, in three lines of battle, 
crescent shaped. Over an open field we moved forward to the attack ; it was the most 
splendidly magnificent sight ever seen ; no battle picture could exceed it. In beautiful 
order, with banners gayly flying, these three lines, each nearly a mile in length, ad- 
vanced upon the already disordered mass of the enemy, pouring into them a rapid and 
concentric fire. As they broke, two divisions of cavalry, with flashing sabres and loud 
yells, charged among them, then wheeling, charged back, driving over fifteen hundred 
of the miscreant horde into our own lines. The fight was over, but the pursuit was kept 
up all night, the rebels being chased to Fisher's Hill. 

Out of 300 men the regiment lost 110. Next day it moved to Cedar 
Creek. Then came the battle of Fisher's Hill. The report says: 

Before daylight on the twenty-second, our corps was moved around to the right 
of our lines. We passed up the side of the North Mountain, until we had got in the 
rear of the enemy's lines, where with fixed bayonets and fierce yells we charged down 
the mountain side, firing as we advanced. Had the heavens themselves opened, and we 
been seen descending from them, the surprise and consternation of the rebels could 
not have been greater. We charged over their works, capturing two guns* a large 
amount of fixed ammunition, and some prisoners. All organization being lost in this 
wild pursuit, every man fought for himself, and in his own manner. One man, private 
William Carr, Company B, alone charged into the mass of retreating rebels, and 
brought out eight prisoners, whom he took to the rear. One desperate attempt, only, 
was made by the enemy to check our advance, but in the wild frenzy of battle we swept 
everything before us. For over four miles we charged along their works, turning the 
enemy out as the plough turns the furrow. . . . Thus ended the fight of Fisher's 
Hill ; to which the history of this war furnishes nothing approaching a parallel ;— less 
than five thousand men routing an army of over twenty thousand, and driving them 
from a position which they boasted they could hold against one hundred thousand. 
Our regiment took two guns and seven caissons. Our loss was nineteen men wounded. 

On the ];3th the battle of Cedar Creek was fought, Lt. Col. Potter 
commanding. The report says: 

Our brigade and the Third were ordered to advance against them, to discover their 
force. After some maneuvering for position, we moved forward under the severest 
fire of shell, grape and canister, we had ever been exposed to. Our way lay across an 
open field, and our regiment, being in direct range, received the whole fire. The shell 
would strike the line sweeping down four or five men, leaving them either dead or 
wounded. The regiment would close up these gaps, without a man's faltering. I never 
saw the regiment behave more splendidly. We took position behind a stone fence 
where we were below the range of their artillery, and a sharp fire of half an hour be- 
gan. We had encountered Kershaw's whole division of Longstreet's Corps. 

The Third Brigade, which advanced on the right of the pike, had received orders 
to retire ; similar orders had been sent to us, but never reached us. We were not in a 
position where we could see the movements of the other brigade. The enemy suddenly 
threw a heavy force upon our flank and rear. The four right companies were swung 
back to check this movement. The men executing this movement under a severe fire, 
were as cool as on drill. Colonel Wells went to the right to see how this movement 
of the army could have taken place; while returning, and just behind our colors, he 
was struck by a ball. He threw up his hands, uttering an exclamation as of great pain. 
I immediately sent an officer to help him from his horse. He would not be carried to 



AND ITS PEOPLE 605 



the rear, saying, 'Gentlemen, it is of no use; save yourselves.' We would not maintain 
this unequal contest, and the order was given to retire — and our brave colonel was left 
to die in the enemy's hands. . . . Thus gallantly fell one of the ablest officers in 
the service, at a time when the honors he had so long deserved were about to be con- 
ferred on him. . . . Our loss was very severe; of less than two hundred and fifty 
men, who went into the fight, we had killed, one officer and eight men ; wounded, two 
officers, (one of whom died,) and forty-six men; three officers and thirty-seven men 
captured. This fight took place in presence of the whole army, and within range of 
our artillery ; but not a gun was fired until we had been driven from the field. The 
enemy did not pursue as they were within range of our guns. 

On the 19th was fought the second battle of Cedar Creek, in which 
one man was killed, nine wounded and 32 captured. The regiinent went 
to Newton, Oct. 19, to guard a hospital and remain there until Nov. 10, 
when it joined the main army at Kernstown, Dec. 18 it was ordered 
to Washington. Since April 29 it had marched a thousand miles, 
fought in nine battles and many skirmishes ; every officer except one 
had been wounded, and nearly every man had been hit. The colonel, 
major, two captains, three lieutenants and T3 men had been killed in 
action ; the lieutenant-colonel, a captain and a lieutenant severely 
wounded and taken prisoners; 29 other officers and 613 men wounded. 
But eight officers and 302 men were fit for duty. 

Fifty-first Regiment. — The Fifty-first, a nine months regiment, 
recruited at Camp Wool under Col. Ward, sailed from Boston late in 
November, 1862, under the command of Col. A. B. R. Sprague, and pro- 
ceeded to North Carolina. In the first week they went into action. Col. 
Sprague made the following report : 

I reported with my command, seven hundred and seventy-eight rank and file, on 
the Trent Road, in light marching order, at seven o'clock on the morning of Thursday, 
the eleventh inst., remaining with the brigade en route till the afternoon of Friday, 
when we were detached in company with two pieces of artillery, under command of 
Captain Ransom, to guard the 'Beaver Creek Bridge,' the main road to Kinston, and 
the road to Trenton, in rear of the advancing column. Receiving orders from Major- 
General Foster, at half-past one o'clock on Sunday morning, to join the main force, 
without delay, we marched at sunrise, having in charge twenty-one prisoners, (taken 
by the cavalry on the main road to Kinston,) which were turned over to the provost- 
marshal after our arrival at Kinston on Sunday evening. 

We advanced with the brigade on Monday morning, arriving at the scene of action 
at Whitehall about eleven o'clock, A. M. on Tuesday morning, and though not par- 
ticipating in the engagement, were within range of the enemy's guns, on the right of 
the artillery, which was engaged. At this point, in obedience to orders from Major- 
General Foster, Lieutenant Sanderson, with a detachment, was detailed to examine 
the river below the bridge, to ascertain the practicability of fording it. After a care- 
ful examination of the river for nearly a mile. Lieutenant Sanderson reported that it 
was not fordable. Tuesday afternoon, passing up with the main column on the left 
bank of the Neuse, we bivouacked at night about twelve miles from Goldsboro'. On 
Wednesday we were detailed to guard the baggage train, from which duty we were 
relieved in the afternoon, when the train and troops were counter-marched, after the 
burning of the railroad bridge by the advance. Keeping our place on the return, on 



6o6 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Thursday, Friday and Saturday, we encamped on Saturday night near Deep GuUey, 
and arrived at our barracks on the Trent, at eleven o'clock on Sunday morning. My 
men were considerably jaded and foot-sore. The order in regard to pillaging and 
foraging was enforced, and the men suffered in consequence of an insufficient supply of 
meat. Taking into consideration the fact that this regiment has been but a week in the 
field, and received their arms only two days before they had marching orders, I have 
the honor to report that they behaved well during the entire march. None were killed, 
none wounded, none missing. 

In January, 1863, the regiment took part in various skirmishes. In 
March it was on duty guarding the railroad between Newbern and More- 
head City. Col. Sprague with Cos. B, C, D, H and I went out on expe- 
dition May r. The regiment arrived at Fortress Monroe, June 28 ; the 
regiment volunteered further service, proceeded to Baltimore, and was 
employed in fatigue duty and hard marching. On the 5th six companies 
under Lt. Col. Studley escorted 2,300 Rebel prisoners taken at Gettys- 
burg from the railroad station to Ft. McHenry. The regiment searched 
the houses of Baltimore for arms and seized thousands of guns, etc. On 
July 6 the regiment went to Monacacy Junction, thence on the Tth to 
Sandy Hook, where they were ordered to Maryland Heights. It was 
to assist in cutting off the retreat of Gen. Lee. The enemy eluded his 
pursuers. The regiment reached Worcester, July 21. In nine months 
the loss was 130. The returning soldiers were warmly greeted ; a parade 
followed by a banquet in Mechanics Hall was tendered to the regiment. 
Mayor Lincoln made an address, and Col. Sprague replied. 

Forty-second Regiment. — Company E, 42d Regt., was commanded 
by Capt. Frederick G. Stiles and 1st Lieut. Augustus Ford. Thirty of the 
men were also from this city. The regiment was recruited at Readville. Co. 
E went to the front with the regiment, arriving in New York, Nov. 2, 
and embarking on four transports for New Orleans, Co. E on board the 
Charles Osgood, an unseaworthy old craft that was disabled by the first 
gale and sought shelter in Cape May harbor. After having repairs made 
at Philadelphia, the old boat started again on the 14th. and had to stop 
for repairs at Key West, but finally reached her destination Jan. 1, 1863. 
Co. E was stationed at Bayou Gentilly, on the Pontchartrain railroad on 
the 26th. The company was afterward broken up into details in the ser- 
vice in this section. Part of the company was in a fight on the 21st at 
Lafourche Springs. The regiinent returned at the expiration of nine 
months, arriving in Boston on Aug. 10, and was mustered out at Read- 
ville, Aug. 20. 

Fiftieth Regiment. — Company I of the oOth Regt. was from this city. 
Capt. Nicholas Power was in command. It left Canij) Stanton at Box- 
ford, Nov. 10, 1862, with the regiment and embarked Dec. 1 from New 
York on the steamer New Brunswick, arriving at Baton Rouge on Dec. 
16. After a period of service under Gen. Banks and doing some import- 
ant picket duty, the company took part in an expedition to destroy a 



AND ITS PEOPLE 607 

bridge across Bayou Monticeno, April 9. The regiment took part in the 
assault on Port Hudson, and later supported the batteries until the fort 
was taken, July 9. The regiment returned home by steamer Omaha on 
the Mississippi to Cairo, thence by rail to Boston, arriving Aug. 11. It 
was mustered out Aug. 24. 

Fifty-seventh Regiment. — The Fifty-seventh regiment, in which 
Worcester was well represented, left the State in April, 1864, and fought 
its way from the Wilderness to Hatcher's Run. From Jan. 1, 1865, to 
March 25, it was at the siege of Petersburg, making a reconnoisance 
towards Weldon in February. It took part in the repulse of Gordon, 
March 25. Sergt. Maj. Pinkham captured the flag of the 57th North 
Carolina during the fight. Maj. Doherty, who commanded, fell in action, 
mortally wounded. From this time to Lee's surrender, the regiment 
was constantly in active service. At the end of the war it was on duty 
in Washington and at Tenallytown, Md., on provost duty, until August. 
It was mustered out at Readville, Aug. 9. 

Second Regiment Heavy Artillery. — Col. A. B. R. Sprague accepted 
a commission as lieutenant-colonel in the Second Regiment of Heavy 
Artillery, in which 94 men from this city enlisted. Between Sept., 1863, 
and Jan. 8, 1864, the regiment left this State in detachments, and as 
events proved, was never united. Four companies were at Norfolk, Va., 
in March ; two at Macon, Ga. ; Co. B at Newport, N. C. ; Co. C at More- 
head City ; Cos E and F at Ft. Totten, N. C. ; Cos. G and H at Plymouth, 
N. C. In April, Cos. G and H, including about 25 Worcester men, were 
captured in an engagement at Plymouth. Of the 275 captured, but 35 
rejoined the regiment early in 1865. The others were disabled or dead. 
In Sept., 1864, the regiment had been reinforced by recruits and num- 
bered 1,898 enlisted men. In January, 1865, there were six companies 
at Newbern under Lt. Col. Sprague. Skirmishing from time to time, 
marching and picketing, kept the detachment busily engaged. In June 
it was sent to occupy forts at the mouth of Cape Fear River. It was 
mustered out at Gallup's Island, Boston harbor, Sept. 20, 1865. 

Fourth Regiment of Heavy Artillery. — The Fourth Regiment of 
Heavy Artillery, enlisted for one year, and mustered into service in Au- 
gust, 1864, contained 213 men from this city, most of whom were in Cos. 
D, E and F. It served in the defense of Washington, and was mustered 
out June 17, 1865. 

First Battalion of Heavy Artillery. — There were 65 men from this 
city in the First Battalion of Heavy Artillery, mostly in Co. F, raised for 
service at Fort Warren. Co. F enlisted for one year. The various com- 
panies were on coast duty in this State ; Co. F at Ft. Warren. It was 
mustered out June 28, 1865. 

Second Regiment of Cavalry. — Second Lieut. Edward W. Welling- 
ton and 55 other men from this city were in the Second Regiment of 
Cavalry, distributed in the various companies. They left the State in 



6o8 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

detachments in the winter and spring of 1863. Col. Lowell, who com- 
manded at first, was succeeded by Col. Crowninshield. In April the regi- 
ment took part in three expeditions into the counties of Fauquier and 
Loudon, Va. Skirmishes caused the loss of two warrant officers killed. 
A band of Mosby's men was captured and much contraband property 
destroyed in these raids. On July 6 the Second took part in an engage- 
ment near Tenallytown, and the Rebels were driven into Rockville, Md. 
During 21 days in August it was under fire, losing heavily. On Sept. 
19 it took part in the battle of Opequan, and three days later at Snake 
Mount; at Luray Court House; on Sept. 38 at Waynesboro, and Oct. 8 
at Round Top Mountain. The next day "the handsomest purely cavalry 
fight and victory in the campaign, the battle of Thorn's Brook or Wood- 
stock Races," took place. Lomax was driven 20 miles. The regiment 
was in the battle of Cedar Creek, in which Col. Lowell was mortally 
wounded. From the beginning of 1865 to the end of the war the regi- 
ment was actively engaged, doing valiant service, in the saddle con- 
stantly, and under fire almost continually. It took part in the Grand 
Review in W^ashington at the end of the war. 

Fourth Regiment of Cavalry. — There were 24 Worcester men in the 
Fourth Cavalry, mostly in Cos. E and F. They served in the Army of 
the James in the spring of 1865. Cos. E and H were the first troops 
to enter Richmond after Lee's surrender. 

Fifth Regiment of Cavalry. — There were 25 men from this city in the 
Fifth Cavalry, mustered in the spring of 1864. It was the only regiment of 
colored cavalry from this State. It was in active service in the final 
campaign in Virginia, and won distinction for bravery in many skirm- 
ishes. After Lee's surrender the regiment was sent to Texas. In Nov., 
1865, it was mustered out at Gallup's Island. Col. Henry S. Russell was 
the first commander. 

The Civil War at Home. — Regardless of previous opinions, of party, 
sect or race, the people of Worcester united patriotically in support of the 
Union. From every pulpit, sermons urging men to enlist, denouncing 
treason and secession, and often condemning slavery as the cause of 
the Civil War, were preached from the beginning to the end of the 
war. The editorials of the Spy, Transcript, Palladium and Times 
rivalled each other in earnest, solemn, and substantial support of the 
government. At the war meetings frequently held in Mechanics Hall, in 
the City Hall, churches and other places of meeting, the most patriotic 
and eloquent speeches were heard. The Spy struck the keynote of pop- 
ular sentiment when it said: "Although war is to be dreaded, anarchy 
is still worse, and the government should be upheld at any cost !" Even 
in the first week of the Rebellion, however, it was felt and expressed 
here that slavery must be abolished. 

At a public meeting May 4, a committee was appointed to raise 
funds for war purposes. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 609 

Serving for the Troops. — Before the first of May the ladies of the 
city had begun to prepare clothing for the troops. Mrs. John 
Boyden presided at a meeting in Central Church, when an organization 
was effected for this purpose. Miss Martha LeBaron elected presi- 
dent. The ladies of Central and Salem Street churches were at work 
April 29. Worcester sent clothing in abundance to the soldiers on May 
7. Even on Sundays the work continued. Maj. Theron E. Hall went 
south May 15 in charge of a large quantity of clothing and other articles 
for the troops. This work continued throughout the war. The contri- 
butions of the women of the city to the comfort and preservation of the 
health of soldiers in the field was invaluable. 

Flag-raisings. — Throughout the city there were public flag-raisings 
at the beginning of the war. A flag made by the ladies of New Wor- 
cester was raised there with much ceremony, May 6, on a pole 100 feet 
high. Speeches were made in the evening in Union Hall by Lorin Weth- 
erell, Rev. Daniel Dorchester, John Deah, John Toulmin, Lyman Whit- 
comb, Charles Hersey and others. 

A flag was raised on the grounds of the Catholic Institute, May 9, 
by the teachers and pupils of St. John Sunday School. Almost every 
store and dwelling, shop and factory, was decorated with the stars 
and stripes. The expression of loyalty by showing the colors con- 
tinued throughout the war. 

Visits of Regiments. — Often during the war regiments from other 
sections of the state and from other states, passing through this city, 
were entertained. The first instance was that of the First New Hamp- 
shire, May 21, 1861. It was escorted to Mechanics Hall, welcomed by 
the mayor, banquetted. Col. Tappan made a suitable reply. 

Fast Days. — The old custom of fast days was revived during the 
War. ■ President Lincoln and Gov. Andrew designated the first of these, 
and it was appropriately observed here, Sept. 27, 1861. The attendance 
in the churches was large ; places of business were closed all day. 

Celebrating Victories. — At a meeting in Mechanics Hall, April 19, 
1862, the Rebel flags captured at Newbern by Co.E of the 25th Regt.,were 
presented to the city by Major McCafiferty, with the request that they 
be deposited in the public library. The major took occasion to eulogize 
Capt. Thomas O'Neil. (See biography). The mayor spoke and intro- 
duced Rev. Horace James of the 25th. Earlier in the day, the scenes of 
April 19, 1775, were duplicated as far as possible, the Highland Guards 
and McClellan Guards representing the minutemen. On May 12 a 
salute of 100 guns was fired on the Common to celebrate the capture of 
Norfolk. 

A Great War Meeting. — One of the most stirring meetings of the 
war was held in Mechanics Hall, July 12, 1862, when the need of troops 
was urgent, the fortunes of the Union at the lowest ebb. Mayor Aldrich 
W.-I-39. 



6io HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



presided and Genera) Devens was the principal speaker. The venerable 
ex-Gov. Lincoln was warmly welcomed and made a stirring address. 
Rev. Mr. Richardson also spoke. The meeting favored a city bounty 
of $To to recruits. James White offered to add a dollar to each recruit. 
On July U the city fixed the bounty at $100 each. 

A Committee of Safety. — Adopting the name of a Revolutionary war 
tribunal, the great gathering in City Hall July W formed a "committee 
of safety" consisting of 100 leading citizens, to take charge of the recruit- 
ing. Rev. Mr. Richardson, Major McCafferty and General Devens were 
again the speakers. The committee of safety worked through executive 
committee of one from each ward, viz : P. Emory Aldrich, Dr. Merrick 
Bemis, Lee Sprague, Walter Henry, Elliot Swan, Patrick O'Keefe, 
Charles B. Pray, George M. Rice and Warren Williams. On the fol- 
lowing Saturday, business was suspended in the city and a mass meet- 
ing held on the Common. George M. Rice of Rice, Barton & Co., offered 
an additional sum of nine dollars each to recruits of the shops of his firm. 
Earle & Jones, Washburn & Moen, Washburn & Son and Albert Curtis 
made the same offer to their employees. 

Gov. Andrew's Appeal. — To further enlistments at this time. Gov. 
Andrew came to Worcester and addressed a great mass meeting on the 
Common, July 26. The mayor presided and Col. Wells of the 3-lth 
Regt. also spoke. John B. Gough, the famous temperance lecturer, made 
a brilliant address, presenting a most scathing denunciation of the south- 
ern rebellion and of the institution of slavery. 

The Freedom Club Meeting. — The meeting held under the auspices 
of the Freedom Club of this city, an organization of Abolitionists, was 
significant as showing the increasing support of the people to the anti- 
slavery movement. The appeal was mainly for enlistments and support 
of the government, but the resolutions declaring that "the time has 
fully come for the government to proclaim liberty throughout all the 
land ; to receive under its protection all slaves who shall come within 
our lines and to employ, under its pledge of freedom, such of them as 
are ready, as scouts, or pilots or spies or soldiers, to aid in subduing the 
masters' rebellion." Hon. J. S. C. Knowlton presided and spoke ; Rev. 
Mr. Richardson; Hon. Amasa Waters of No. Brookheld ; Hon. W. W. 
Rice; John McCombe and Rev. Dr. Hill were the other, speakers. The 
same speakers (except ]\Ir. Waters) with others appeared at another war 
meeting in Mechanics Hall, Aug. 22. 

Hon. Charles Sumner's Address. — For two hours Senator Charles 
Sumner spoke at a war meeting in Mechanics Hall, Oct. 17, 1862, and the 
meeting was described as a triumph. Nothing like it had been seen in 
the city for years. Hon. A. H. Bullock presided. It was followed, Oct. 
31, by another large gathering at which Mr. Bullock delivered one of the 
ablest speeches of his career; Mayor .-Mdrich. supported by a hundred 
vice-presidents, ])resided. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 6ii 

Manufacturing and Business. — Before the war Worcester had suf- 
fered severely from business depression. The demand for war supplies 
soon gave a wonderful stimulus to business and by the end of 1861, the 
industries of the city were driven to capacity. Many of the manufac- 
turers here took war contracts from the government. Fox & Mayo, for 
instance, manufactured kerseys for the soldiers ; Nathan Washburn was 
making iron for rifle barrels and had a contract for 150,000 musket bar- 
rels; Osgood Bradley made gun carriages, forges, etc.; Wood & Light 
and Thayer, Houghton & Co. manufactured machinery for the govern- 
ment ; George Crompton was running his loom works night and day 
making blankets ; Allen & Wheelock and Shepard, Lathe & Co. were 
making firearms; Lucius W. Pond was building Ellsworth guns — light 
riil'ed cannon of his own design. 

Skilled labor was in great demand ; wages were high ; mechanics in 
industries employed by the government felt their services were needed in 
the shops and factories. The activit}^ in business thus tended to restrict 
the supply of volunteers in places like W^orcester. 

The Freed-Slave Commission. — To raise funds for the soldiers in the 
field and to celebrate the Emancipation Proclamation a Costume Prom- 
enade Avas held in Mechanics Hall Feb. 23, 1863, by the Free-Slave Com- 
mittee, in charge of Mrs. Ichabod Washburn. Mrs. Alonzo Hill, Mrs. F, 
W. Paine, Mrs. William M. Bickford, Mrs. R. R. Shippen, Mrs. Merrill 
Richardson, Mrs. B. F. Haywood, Mrs. Joseph Sargent and Mrs. John 
Davis. Gen. B. F. Butler was a guest and made a brief address. The 
sum of $700 was realized. 

Drafting. — Early in 1863 it was realized that the country could 
not be saved without greater military forces and that the volunteer 
system of procuring troops had failed to furnish the needed men. Con- 
scription w^as inevitable. But the draft law that went into effect July 
1, 1863, was a poor measure. Drafted men were allowed exemption on 
the payment of $300 or they could furnish substitutes. 

Drafting began here July 11, S. S. Leonard, a blind man, drawing 
the names. The result, announced late in August, showed that of 700 
men drafted 182 were accepted; 1,752 were rejected as disabled; 231 
exempted. Of the 182 accepted, 99 paid commutation, 49 sent substi- 
tes and but eleven men went into service. 

The work of recruiting w^ent on in the old way; numerous war meet- 
ings were held. Committees were appointed to aid in the work of pro- 
curing volunteers. Hon. Isaac Davis made a notable speech at a meet- 
ing Nov. 21. The war commitee elected at this meeting appointed the 
following executive committee: Dr. Merrick Bemis, T. W. Wellington, 
Col. A. B. R. Sprague, Capt. Nicholas Power, George Crompton, Alzirus 
Brown, Hon. P. Emory Aldrich, Maj. E. A. Harkness and Loring Goes. 
Rev. Samuel Souther responded to the call at this time and enlisted at 
the office of Lieut. Gird. 



6i2 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Mr. Souther was one of the speakers at the war meeting Nov. 28 in 
Mechanics Hall. Col. Homer B. Sprague, a former principal of the 
high school of this city, who had commanded a Connecticut regiment 
and led a famous charge at Port Hudson, "was replete with tiery and 
patriotic eloquence." He said : "I have seen whigs, democrats and 
republicans — white and black men — fight side by side under the same 
starry flag and seen them buried in a common grave ; and in your bap- 
tism of fire and blood, I have learned what no soldier of P'ort Hudson 
will ever forget, that Massachusetts is earning immortal honors." Hon. 
Isaac Davis and Rev. Edward A. Walker spoke. Mr. Walker offered a 
piece of the original manuscript of "The Star Spangled Banner" to the 
first recruit that came forward, and Thomas Glaster won the relic. 

At another war meeting Dec. 1, Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Rev. Mr. 
Souther, Rev. Mr. St. John, Col. Sprague and Hon. Peter C. Bacon, who 
had given his sons to his country, were the speakers. At another meet- 
ing, the next evening, Rev. David A. Wasson, and Gen. Calvin E. Pratt, a 
former resident, spoke. On Dec. 4, Rev. Mr. Richardson, Hon. Henry 
Chapin and Joseph Mason spoke. On the fifth, George M. Rice, Peter 
C. Bacon, Maj. McCafferty, Rev. Dr. Hill, Joseph Chamberlain and John 
G. Tobey were the speakers. 

On the eighth Hon. W. W. Rice, Hon. P. E. Aldrich and others 
spoke at a meeting at City Hall. Meetings were held also on the 10th, 
12th, loth, 19th, 30th and 31st of December. In addition to speakers 
already mentioned. Rev. Mr. Banvard, Lieut. Gird, Julius Tucker and 
Rev. Mr. Willis added their appeals for recruits. Judge Ira M. Barton 
made a wonderful speech on the 10th and Gen. Devens made one of the 
greatest speeches of the war at the meeting in Mechanics Hall on the 
12th, when Hon. Edward Everett also spoke. 

Notwithstanding all the eloquence and influence of war meetings 
editorial urgency, and pulpit persuasion, and despite the patriotism of 
the soldiers reenlisting at the front, the city lacked 34T of its quota in the 
beginning of 1864. Public meetings continued. One was held in the 
City Hall, Jan. 2 in the afternoon; another in the evening; another next 
day in Mechanics Hall, though the day was Sunday. At this meeting 
Judge Charles Allen and Maj. McCafferty and John B. Gough were the 
speakers. The results were shown next day, wdien fifty men enlisted. 
By the sixth of January the quota was full and the city rejoiced. 

Furloughs. — Every kindness and consideration was shown to the 
soldiers on furlough, especially to the veterans who reenlisted the city 
showed its appreciation lavishly. In the winter of 1864-5 a hearty recep- 
tion was given to some of the furloughed men of the 25th with a banquet 
in City Hall. Of 650 men in this regiment 450 reenlisted. The men of 
the regiment passed highly complimentary resolutions, expressing their 
love and appreciation of the chaplain. Rev. Horace James. A more elab- 
orate celebration attended the return of the regiment on furlough Feb. 19. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 613 



Capt. J. M. Tucker and Lt. John Goodwin were given swords at a recep- 
tion on Jan. 35th. 

The 21st Regt. received a great ovation, Jan. 31. There was a 
parade and banquet at which Col. Hawkes, Cok Clark, and Mon. A. H. 
Bulk)ck made appropriate speeches. 

The Dale Hospital. — The buildings and grounds of the Female Col- 
lege were taken for hospital purposes and opened in September, 1864. 
Soldiers were sent here for convalescence. Fourteen additional buildings 
were erected. In October several hundred patients were received. Dr. 
C. N. Chamberlain afterward of Lawrence, Mass., was in charge, assisted 
by the staff of army surgeons. Charles H. Hazelton was hospital stew- 
ard. The inauguration of the hospital was formally celebrated Feb. 22, 
1865. A flag presented by the ladies of the city was raised ; addresses 
were made by Gov. Andrew, Hon. A. H. Bullock and Dr. Warren Web- 
ster. A total of 1,182 sick and wounded were admitted to the hospital. 

The Fourth of March. — In honor of President Lincoln's reelection 
a mass meeting was held in Mechanics Hall at the time of his second 
inauguration. Alayor Ball presided and spoke. Other addresses were 
made by Rev. Mr. Richardson, Hon. P. Emory Aldrich, Hon. Henry 
Chapin and Rev. T. E. St. John. The meeting was filled with the spirit 
of hope and rejoicing. 

Lee's Surrender. — Bells were rung and the shop whistles shrieked and 
cannons fired when the news of Lee's surrender reached this city. The peo- 
ple filled the streets and cheered on the afternoon of April 7th. In the even- 
ing every house and place of business was brilliantly illuminated. The 
news of Lee's surrender, April 9, reached here about midnight. A hundred 
guns were fired on the Common; John Boyden's "Secesh bell," which 
rang for every Union victory, was sounded ; people left their beds and 
assembled in the streets, shouting and cheering till they were hoarse. 
Bonfires were lighted in every part of the city. The fire department 
turned out, leading a procession that visited the leading citizens of the 
city. Speeches of congratulation and rejoicing were made. The cele- 
bration continued until dawn. 

Through the next day and night the victory was celebrated and 
many shops, and factories were not operated. Business was entirely 
suspended in the afternoon. The schools had a holiday. A hundred 
guns were fired at noon on the Common, 100 more at Quinsigamond 
and 200 at the Dale Hospital. There were parades of coal carts at noon ; 
of the fire department at two o'clock, leading the German Turners, the 
Frohsinns and other organizations. There was a noise like the old- 
fashioned Fourth of July throughout the day. In the evening there was 
another general illumination, and throughout the city meetings were 
held to give expression to the great joy and relief at the successful term- 
ination of the Civil War. The men of the Crompton Loom Works 



6i4 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

paraded. There was a big demonstration at Webster Square, and a 
meeting was held there. 

The Fourth of July Celebration. — A more formal and elaborate cele- 
bration of the success of Union arms and the end of the Rebellion was 
planned for July 4, 1865, designed to surpass anything of the kind ever 
held in the city. The following committee was appointed by the city 
council May 30 : Mayor Ball ; councilmen — Harrison Bliss, E. C. Cleve- 
land, William E. Starr, George R. Peckham, Salisbury Hyde; citizens — 
James B. Blake, J. D. Daniels, Henry A. Marsh, Alzirus Brown, John 
S. Baldwin, Lucius W. Pond and George Sumner. Hon. Phinehas Bann 
was chairman, Charles A. Chase, secretary. 

The city was decorated profusely. An arch over Main Street was 
erected at Harrington Corner, bearing mottoes: "The Heart of the 
Commonwealth greets the Defenders of the Union" and "All Honor to 
Our Gallant Army and Navy," and a list of the battles in which 
Worcester men had taken part. A memorial arch was built opposite the 
post office by the city, bearing the mottoes : "In Alemory of the Fallen," 
and "Give me the Death of Those Who for their Country Die." A rustic 
arch was built across Main Street at School Street and another arch 
opposite Stephen Salisbury's house at High and Street, with the mot- 
toes: "To be Free is to be Strong" and "Reap the Fields Your Valor 
Won." Joseph Chase erected an arch on Harvard Street, bearing the 
inscription : "Your Valor and Devotion Have Saved the Flag — 
Thanks." At the residence of Hartley Williams the decorations were 
adorned with the motto : "Soldiers, You have Crushed Treason, Ended 
the Rebellion, and Saved the Country — Welcome." George Crompton 
built a costly and beautiful arch on Green St. Charles \Y. Smith erected 
a very beautiful arch on Elm Street. There were many others. 

Decorations of dwellings and places of business were extremely 
elaborate. The newspapers of the day gave good descriptions of them. 
Mottoes abounded. 

James B. Blake, chief marshal, led a procession composed of all the 
veterans of the city, the members of each regiment forming in battalions 
in order of seniority. Col. Josiah Pickett commanded the military sec- 
tion. The Worcester City Guard and State Guards, No. 1, under Col. 
D. M. Woodward, did escort duty. Four floats entitled "Peace through 
Victory," "Goddess of Liberty," "Pen and Sword," and "Union" were 
in the procession. 

The dinner in Mechanics Hall, which had been profusely decorated 
with bunting, flags and mottoes for the occasion, was the crowning 
event of the day. Col. Pickett afterward thanked the people for the 
reception to the soldiers, saying: 

Mayor Ball and Citizens of Worcester: — On behalf of these brave men, who, after 
conquering treason, re-establishing the government on a secure foundation, and se- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 615 



curing the blessings of liberty to all, have now returned to you in triumph, I tender 
you my most sincere thanks for this magnificent ovation, and the honor you have be- 
stowed on them this day. 

I can assure you it gives us the greatest gratification to know that our services are 
so highly appreciated /by our friends and fellow citizens at home, and even as our con- 
duct as soldiers has elicited your unqualified approval, so may we ever continue to 
merit your confidence as citizens, maintaining the true principles of right and justice, 
and always ready to respond to the call of duty. 

The other speakers were Rev. George S. Ball of Upton, Col. William 
S. Lincoln, Gen. A. B. R. Sprague. 

fn addition to the military parade, the pupils of the public schools 
had a parade and there was a Trades Procession, led by the fire depart- 
ment, and followed by civil organizations, many in their elaborate uni- 
forms. In the evening the illumination was general. 

Assassination of Lincoln. — When the news of the assassination ot 
Lincoln reached this city, Mayor Phinehas Ball issued a proclamation 
dated April 15, 1865, advising that business be suspended, the city draped 
in mourning, and calling a public meeting in Mechanics Hall. On the 
morning of the 15th, the city council met at seven. News of the death 
of the president came about eight. The bells of the city tolled from 
ten to eleven. 

Mechanics Hall was filled with a grief-stricken audience. Hon. A. 
H. Bullock presided. Rev. Dr. Sweetser prayed and read the 4Gth psalm. 
The choirs sang hymns ; Rev. Mr. Richardson read a hymn ; and the 
meeting adjourned without speeches. 

The next day was Sunday, and every sermon was devoted to the 
life and character of the martyred president. The day of Lincoln's 
funeral was observed as a day of fasting; the bells were tolled from 
11.30 to 12, and from two to three. Flags were at half-mast ; the schools 
were closed ; places of business and houses were draped in black ; even 
locomotives wore mourning emblems. Minute guns were fired from two 
to three by a detachment of the State Guards. Services were held in 
all the churches. 

The sorrow of the city was expressed in resolutions drafted by Hon. 
Levi Lincoln and adopted by the city council, as follows: 

"Resolved, That we bow in humble submission to the Divine Providence which has 
permitted the beloved and honored Chief Magistrate of the nation, Abraham Lincoln, 
to be taken by the hand of violence from the scenes of his labors, and from the scenes 
of our national triumphs, at a moment when all eyes were turned to him for the firm- 
ness, wisdom and discretion, which had guided us through four years of civil war, and 
which, we believed, would guide us as safely through all the difficulties of restoration 
and stability to this government. 

Resolz'ed, That we desire to record our devout gratitude to God, that he granted 
to the people of the United States, in this historical crisis, a Chief Magistrate whose 
character becomes a rich and lasting legacy to this and succeeding generations ; whose 
pure and Christian life, whose patriotic aims and purposes, whose temper blending the 



6i6 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

qualities of justice and mercy, whose conduct as a ruler acting on his own convictions, 
but not neglecting the wise counsels of others, will transmit his name and his fame sec- 
ond only in the line of presidents to those of the beloved and lamented Washington. 

Resolved, That in this hour of national bereavement, when the first impulses of 
all loyal hearts are those of dismay and terror, it now, more than ever before, becomes 
the duty of every true citizen to stand, with renewed firmness and courage, by the 
government and Union of our fathers, to the end that all the traitors of this country, 
and all the people of the world, shall perceive and know that the death of our presi- 
dent cannot retard, for one hour, the majestic power and progress of our government; 
and that its victory, over all its enemies, whether at home or abroad, is not less certain 
now than when Abraham Lincoln stood in life at its helm. 

Resolved, That we turn with pride and joy to the fact, that while the nation is 
bereaved, its history is not interrupted ; that under our glorious constitution one presi- 
dent succeeds another, as surely and as grandly as one day's sun succeeds the preced- 
ing ; that when Lincoln died Johnson succeeded to his place, that our government goes 
on, our armies march to victory, and our history moves on its sublime mission as surely 
to-day as when the late Chief Magistrate was witness with Grant to the fall of Rich- 
mond ; and that we call upon our fellow-citizens to return from the scenes of mourn- 
ing to rejoice again under the national flag, to render the encouragement and support 
to President Johnson which they rendered to President Lincoln, and to cultivate, after 
the hour of gloom, sentiments of courage and cheerfulness, and faith that Almighty 
God has in store for the United States a future of perpetual beneficence and glory. 

Resolved, That throughout the length and breadth of the land, from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, and from the northern lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, there can be but one 
nation ; and the whole people must be free. 

Memorial services were held June 1, 1865, in Mechanics Hall and 
in the various churches, in accordance with President Johnson's procla- 
mation. The great audience in the hall gathered in the afternoon ; the 
"hushed quiet appearance of the vast assembly spoke unmistakably of 
the awe and reverence which impressed all classes of the community." 
Distinguished citizens sat on the platform and a choir composed of the 
Mozart Society and choirs from the churches sang anthems under the 
direction of B. D. Allen. Mayor Ball presided. Hon. A. H. Bullock, 
then Speaker of the House, delivered a eulogy that took rank among 
the best delivered on that occasion in the country. 

Suregons in the Service. — Dr. Oramel Martin of this city went to 
the front with the Third Battalion of Rifles and was later appointed 
brigade surgeon with rank of major. He had charge of a hospital near 
St. Louis having 12,000 patients, and was afterward medical director at 
Ft, Scott, Kansas. In 1862 he had charge of the Pacific Hospital, St. 
Louis, and was later medical director of cavalry in Mississippi. Later he 
was surgeon of the board of enrollment for the Eighth District and 
served to the end of the war. 

Dr. Joseph N. Bates, surgeon of the 15th Regt., was at Ball's Bluff; 
resigned July 17, 1862, on account of ill health. 

Dr. J. Marcus Rice went out with the 25th as surgeon, Sept. 16, 1861; 
was wounded in the chest at Roanoke Island; captured, Oct. 1863, near 
Newbern, and confined in Libby ; returned to his regiment after five 



AND ITS PEOPLE 617 

months, and served three years; was later staff surgeon. He was at 
one time the medical director of the 18th Army Corps, and later medical 
inspector of the Army of the James. He ranked as major. 

Dr. Samuel Flagg, assistant surgeon of the 25th, served from July 
81, 1861, to Aug. 9, 1863. 

Dr. Horace Mecorney was assistant surgeon of the 25th, Sept. 20 to 
July 15, 1863. 

Chaplains. — Rev. Charles T. Canfield was chaplain of the 36th from 
Aug. 28, 1862, to Oct., 1863. 

Rev. Gilbert Cummings was chaplain of the 51st. 

Rev. Horace James, pastor of the Old South, resigned to become 
chaplain of the 25th Regt., entering the service Oct. 28, 1861, and serv- 
ing until Apr. 27, 1861:; was afterward assistant quartermaster of Mass. 
Vols. He was afterward pastor of the 1st Cong. Church of Lowell, and 
an editor and proprietor of the Congregationalist. 

Worcester in the Navy. — In the Civil War this city contributed but 
few men to the navy, though the city was credited, in accordance with the 
rules, with 160 men. No records are available from which a list of 
natives or residents of Worcester in the navy may be secured. 

Commodore George S. Blake, son of Hon. Francis, was born here 
but spent most of his life in the service of his country. He was appointed 
midshipman Jan. 1, 1818; lieutenant 1827; commander, Feb. 27, 1847; 
captain Sept. 4, 1855. He was superintendent of the Naval Academy 
from 1858 to 1865. He successfully resisted the attempt of the Rebels 
to seize the academy early in 1861. 

Bancroft Ghirardi was born in New Orleans but spent his youth 
here. He attained high rank in the navy after the war and did dis- 
tinguished service during and after the war. 

George M. Rice Jr. entered the navy as master's mate on the Min- 
nesota; was an officer on the flagship Hartford at Mobile and was 
wounded there. He continued in the navy after the war; died of yel- 
low fever in April, 1868, returning from Cuba. 

Charles P. Rice of this city entered the Naval Academy in 1859"; 
served through the Civil War; was on the ship Brooklyn at Mobile; 
rose to high rank after the war. 

George D. Upham, son of Dea. Joel W., followed the sea before 
the war ; was appointed sailing master in the navy early in the war and 
was engaged in the pursuit of the Rebel Commissioners, Mason and 
Slidell; commanded a steamer carrying suppUes; resigned as lieutenant 
soon after Lee's surrender. 

Capt. J. C. Dutch of Worcester commanded the U. S. barque 
Kingfisher in 1863 in St. Helena Sound, and did much valuable service. 

Colored Troops. — Some colored men from this city enlisted in the 
regiment of Gov. Sprague of Rhode Island ; 15 were in Col. Robert G. 
Shaw's regiment, and live in the 55th Mass., of which Lt. Col. William 



6i8 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Nutt of Xatick, father of the Charles Nutt of this city, was commander 
at the close of the war. There were 22 in the Fifth Cavalry and others 
in various regiments. 

The Soldiers' Relief Society. — The first annual report of the Soldiers' 
Relief Society, which was organized to systematize the work of the 
women of the city to supply clothing and other articles for the troops, 
showed receipts in cash of only $1,229.61. But the money was a mere 
fraction of the aid. It was used in purchasing material, and the greater 
part of the material as well as the work was contributed. Xot only 
clothing, but food of all kinds, and useful articles, too numerous to be 
mentioned, were sent to the soldiers. The next annual report showed 
the sum of $2,769.67 in cash received, besides the proceeds of the Wor- 
cester County Fair, Oct. 21-3, amounting to $6,296.36. In 1663-i Mrs. 
Charles Washburn was president. For the year ending Oct. 1, 1864, the 
cash receipts were $4,130.39, three-quarters of which was realized from a 
fair, held in Oct., 1863. But there was a vast quantity of food and cloth- 
ing forwarded in 1862-3-4. The last report Oct. 9, 1865, shows receipts 
of $6,793.56. It was estimated that the value of goods sent to the troops 
by and through this society was $30,000, not considering the value of the 
time of the workers. 

The Soldiers' Rest. — In accordance with the custom adopted else- 
where rooms known as "The Soldiers Rest" were opened by the Ladies 
of the Relief Committee at No. 4 Foster Street, July 7, 1862, for the care 
of sick and wounded men passing through the city. Soldiers were not 
expected to remain there more than 24 hours. Charles W. Freeland gave 
the use of the quarters; Thomas C. Bond was in charge. In 1862 the 
Rest cared .for 71 soldiers; in 1863 for 72; in 1864 about 800 and in 
1865 about 1,400. No accurate record was kept. This institution was 
of inestimable service at times. 

The Sanitary and Christian Commissions. — The first meeting in the 
interests of the Christian Commission appears to have been that held 
Dec. 2, 1862. Hon. Isaac Davis presided and addresses were made by 
Hon. Edward S. Tobey, Rev. ]\Ir. Alexander and Rev. Dr. ]\IcAuley of 
Philadelphia; the following committee was chosen for this city: Hon. 
Isaac Davis, George M. Rice, Philip L. Moen, David Whitcomb and 
Frederick A. Clapp. Another meeting was held in Old South Church, 
Feb. 17, 1863, when the sum of $450 was collected for the purposes of 
the Commission. 

The Sanitary Commission reported receipts of $1,322.37 on March 
3, 1864. Meetings were held in various churches from time to time and 
collections taken for the commissions. 

Edmund M. Barton, for many years the librarian of the American 
Antiquarian Society and now librarian emeritus, was for two years agent 
of the Sanitary Commission. He left here May 9, 1863, visited the hos- 
pitals in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington and 



AND ITS PEOPLE 619 

reached the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac May 2G, continu- 
ing his duties there to the end of the war. The commission of Mr. Bar- 
ton as Relief Agent of the U. S. Sanitary Commission was dated July 
21, 1863, under the order of the Secretary of War, June 15, 1861. On the 
field of battle and in hospitals he worked with untiring energy and zeal. 
Extracts from letters of Mr. Barton are to be found in Marvin's history 
(p. 409). Perhaps no man in this city contributed more to relieving 
sufifernig during the war than Mr. Barton. 

Visiting the Troops. — The people at home were kept in close touch 
with the doings in the field, not onh^ through the newspapers by means 
of the newly developed telegraphic service, and letters from their cor- 
respondents, but by visits of citizens bent on providing food, clothing, 
comforts and necessities. Some of the visits have been mentioned. 
Mayor Aldrich and Henry S. Washburn took money and supplies in 
Sept., 1862; Alzarius and J. Stewart Brown soon afterward took money 
and stores to the troops. These and many other visitors were warmly 
welcomed by the grateful soldiers. 

Prisoners of War. — Marvin collected a small list of Worcester men 
who were confined in Rebel prisons : Amos E. Stearns of the 25th ; 
Martin McCue of the 25th ; George Wellington of the 2d hvy. Art., who 
died at Andersonville. It is impossible to prepare a complete list of the 
prisoners, though the rosters of the various regiments show that there 
were hundreds of Worcester men who suffered the torture of priva- 
tion and famine in southern war camps and prisons. 

Nurses. — At the beginning of the war, women were not welcomed in 
any form of service, even nursing, but as time went on they came to be 
an important part of the hospital service. The first to volunteer for this 
work in Worcester were : Mrs. Helen Smith, Mrs. Elizabeth Gird, Mrs. 
Susan Ware, Miss Elizabeth Wheeler, Miss Julia M. Goddard (later wife 
of Rev. Mr. Austin) and Mrs. Susan E. Alger. Three of them were 
at McDougall Hospital, Ft. Schuyler, N. Y. Mrs. Alger had charge of 
57 beds. Mrs. E. M. Rice, wife of Dr. Marcus Rice, acted as nurse 
through the greater part of the war. 

Clara Barton, founder of the Red Cross, was by far the most dis- 
tinguished woman of the Civil War period. Her home was in Oxford, 
but she had many friends and relatives here and seemed to belong to this 
city. This is not the place for a biography of this noble woman, but it 
is proper to say that her example stimulated the men and women of this 
city to greater efforts for the relief of the sick and wounded during the 
war, and that it has continued with increasing measure year by year to 
the present time, as shown by the amazing response to the appeal of the 
Red Cross at the beginning of American preparation to enter the Euro- 
pean War in 1917. 

Aid to Freedmen. — Early in the war a committee of women was 
formed to furnish aid to the slaves that came into the Union lines. This 



620 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

committee consisted of Mrs. Ichabod Washburn, president ; ]\Irs. John 
Davis, vice-president ; Mrs. Edward Earle, treasurer ; Mrs. Theo." Brown, 
secretary, and Mrs. E. L. Barnard, Mrs. J. Aldrich, Mrs. James C. Morse, 
Mrs. L. B. Witherby, Mrs. Edwin Moody, Mrs. Samle P. Lee, Miss 
Fanny Brown, Mrs. Jason Putnam, Mrs. B. W. Perkins and Mrs. 
Lemuel Moss. Clothing and supplies came to the committee from vari- 
ous churches and individuals, and some money. A mass meeting was 
held in Mechanics Hall, July 17, 1863, when Rev. Horace James and oth- 
ers spoke in behalf of the freedmen. Hon. A. H. Bullock presided ; John 

B. Gough and others spoke. Meetings were held from time to time in 
the churches, and collections taken. By October 186-1 the society had 
spent in its work over $4,000, besides sending large quantities of food, 
clothing, reading matter, etc. For the year ending Oct. 14, 1865, the 
receipts amounted to $2,491.01. The contributions continued, as well as 
the needs of the society, for some time after the war. The work was 
finally taken over by the Freedmen's Bureau under Gen. O. O. Howard. 

Early in 1865, in addition to the receipts of this society, the sum 
of $2,568.40 was raised here by Col. N. G. Taylor for white refugees and 
loyal sufferers in East Tennessee. 

Home Guards. — The past members of the Worcester Light Infantry 
formed a body of Home Guards, April 24, 18G1, appointing D. Waldo 
Lincoln captain; Henry W. Conklin, W\ A. Williams, Putnam W. Taft 
and Ivers Phillips, lieutenants. 

Two days later, the City Guards veterans effected a similar organi- 
zation under George W. Ward, captain ; E. A. Wood, William A. Smith, 

C. B. Whiting and John Boyden, lieutenants. 

The Veteran Light Infantry Guards gave a reception to the return- 
ing company of Light Infantry, Aug. 3, 1861, Capt. Lincoln presiding. 

The Home Guards were not called upon for service and their useful- 
ness was perhaps best shown in encouraging the spirit of patriotism, by 
aiding enlistment. They marched in the military funerals and were 
active in arranging receptions to the soldiers returning on furlough or 
after muster-out. The home guards disbanded June 16, 1863. 

The State Guard. — The State Guard, under an act of 1863, super- 
seded the Home Guard. The company of State Guard was organized 
here May 29 with Col. Ivers Phillips as captain; Capt. Dana H. Fitch, 
first lieut. ; John R. Green, 2d lieut. 

Ivers Phillips, William Dickinson, J. H. Renchley, 

Dana H. Fitch, Isaac Davis, John Rice, 2d, 

John R. Green, John D. Baldwin. John S. Clark, 

John Boyden. Tosei)h Pratt. Simeon Clapp, 

Henry Phelps, William E. Starr, R. R. Shepard, 

Hcaly Baker, Putnam W. Taft, A. L. Mason, 

Thomas Peirce, William B. Taber, A. G. Walker, 

Samuel Houghton, John Barnard, J. H. Haven, 

Joel Davis, D. C. Tourtelott, Alfred Parker, 

Allen Harris, PIdward Clark, Seba Carpenter, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



621 



James A. Whipple, 

E. M. Caulkins, 
William C. Clarke, 
William H. Towne, 
William S. Jenks, 
D. W. Jones, 
Alfred Holden, 

C. W. Rice, 
David Manning, 
James Galloway, 
Hiram French, 
Nathaniel B. Parkhurst, 
Lewis A. Rawson, 
Benjamin Barber, 
Elliott Swan, 
Alexander Thayer, 
Courtland Newton, 
L. B. Brigham, 
Daniel Stratton, 
A. L. Burbank, 

F. P. Hutchins, 
A. G. Hinds, 
Samuel W. Kent, 
Edwin Morse, 
Henry A. Denny, 
Joseph Dennis, 
John J. Bigelow, 
Charles Nason, 
George C. Taft, 
Josiah G. Perry, 
Jasper Tucker, 



Samuel Souther, 
Joseph Boyden, 
Dexter H. Perry, 
Lemuel Houghton, 
Tames H. Osgood, 
M. V. Warner, 
Charles H. Harvey, 
B. F. Nowell, 
E. G. Watkins, 
Simeon Taylor, 
Moses Spooner. 
Otis Blood, 
Earl Warner, 
J. D. Lovell, 
Silas Bigelow, 
J. E. Wood, 
Samuel Tourtellott, 
Oliver W. Claflin, 
E. G. Partridge, 
E. B. Crawford, 
T. F. Taft, 
Erastus Fisher, 
Charles L. Knowlton, 
John Goulding, 
Jonathan Day, 
J. B. Lawrence, 
Jonathan Carey, 
Simeon Thompson, 
Calvin Dyer. 
T. P. Wheelock, 



H. P. Nichols, 
Peter Geno, 
Caleb Dana, 
E. E Al)bott, 
T. W. Wellington, 
Henry H. Chamberlin, 
David Gleason, 
William P. Daniels, 
H. C. Fisk, 
W. Mecorney, 
S. D. Tourtellott, 
Charles W. Smith, 
John Pollard, 
Albert Curlif, 
T. E. St. John, 
E. M. Hosmer, 
Edwin Harrington, 
Charles Goodale, 
Aaron Goodale, 
Nathaniel R. Parkhurst, 
Asa M. Allen, 
Walter Bigelow, 
J. W. Jordan, 
George A. Chamberlain, 
Henry R. Keith, 
Abraham Fitts, 
Stephen P. Twiss, 
W. Richmond, 
Charles B. Pratt, 
J. H. Samson. 



More joined later; prominent citizens and various clergymen were 
elected honorary members. The guard's principal duty was the mel- 
ancholy one of attending frequent military funerals. During the disaf- 
fection over the draft, the Guard performed guard duty for the provost 
marshal. In July, 1863, a detachment of the guards escorted drafted 
men to Boston. 

The Guard escorted Gov. Andrew and the Council from the rail- 
road station to the Bay State House Oct. 15. The next day, on invita- 
tion of Gov. Gilmore of New Hampshire, they went to Manchester, N. 
H., and were royally entertained by the Amoskeag Veterans. They vis- 
ited Fitchburg Jan. 11, 1864, and enjoyed a banquet and some good 
speaking. At the receptions to the 21st and 25th regiinents on furlough 
in February the Guards did escort duty. They attended the funerals 
of Dea. Allen Harris, Lt. Col. Green, Maj. Dexter F. Parker, Capt. 
Thomas O'neil and Adjt. McConville. Almost every week a delegation 
or the entire company marched in these funeral processions. 

At the first anniversary of the organization, celebrated at Webster 
Park, a flag was presented to the Guards by Hon. Ira M. Barton in 
behalf of the ladies of the city. Capt. Phillips received the flag and 
entrusted it to the color sergeant, John Boyden, who spoke feelingly. In 
his speech afterward Capt. Boyden stated that this was the first com- 
pany of State Guard organized in the state. Col. Wetherell spoke for 
Gov. Andrew. Other speakers were: Hon. D. Waldo Lincoln, mayor; 



622 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Col. A. J. Wright, capt. of the 3d Co. State Guard of Mass.; Hon. Isaac 
Davis, Rev. Dr. Hill and Rev. Messrs. Richardson, Walker, Barnard 
and Shippen. 

Capt. Phillips entertained the company at his home in Jan., 1865 ; 
an excursion was made to Springfield, Feb. 7 and the U. S. armory 
inspected, a collation served and much after-dinner speaking heard. 

Lt. Dana H. Fitch succeeded Capt. Phillips May 30, 1865; John 
R. Greene was elected 1st lieut. and Healy Baker, 2d lieut. 

The Guard attended a flag-raising in Grant Square, July 1, 1865, and 
was entertained at the home of T. W. Wellington. In the evening the 
members met Admiral Farragut at the residence of C. S. Messenger. Its 
existence came to an end in 1866 when the act authorizing its formation 
was repealed. But a new charter was granted by the legislature in the 
spring of 186 T and the Guard continued for many years. After the reor- 
ganization. Col. Ivers Phillips was chosen captain; Healy Baker and 
Charles H. Harvey, lieuts. It was divided into senior and junior com- 
panies afterward, and in 18T0 S. V. Stone was major commanding; John 
R. Greene and George E. Barton, captains. 

Dr. Samuel Foster Haven, Jr., son of the librarian of the American 
Antiquarian Society, was a graduate of Harvard, 1852, and studied med- 
icine under Dr. Henry Sargent and in the Tremont Street Medical Class 
in Boston, and in his senior year was house physician in the Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital. He studied abroad 1855-7 at London, Paris, 
Vienna and Berlin. On his return he began to practice in Boston, remov- 
ing in the spring of 1858 to this city, making a specialty of opthalmology. 
He was appointed assistant surgeon of the 15th Regt. and served about 
18 months before he died. He believed that surgeon's place was on the 
field of battle and there he was to be found. He was promoted surgeon 
of his regiment. His services at the Battle of Antietam were especially 
heroic. He was mortally wounded by the fragment of a shell, Dec. 13, 
1863. His body was brought home and a military funeral held here. 
(See p. 463 Marvin's history for the memorial by William S. Davis). 

Dr. William T. Going, a native of this city, son of Rev. Dr. Going, a 
Baptist clergyman, died in the service Oct. 23, 1861, at Springfield, Ohio, 
aged 41 y. He was in the 17th Ohio Regt. 

Gen. George B. Boomer was a son of Rev. J. B. Boomer, of this city, 
and was educated at Worcester Academy. He lost his life in the service 
and his body was brought home. The funeral, June 23, 1863, was 
attended by the city council. State Guard, Highland Cadets, Gen. Dev- 
ens and Col. Wetherell, among other military officers. Gen. Boomer 
raised a regiment in Missouri. He was wounded at the Battle of luka 
and when he recovered was given command of a brigade by Gen. Grant, 
under whom he served from that time until he died. He was struck 
by a Rebel bullet, May 22, 1863, at the Battle of Champion Hill. He 
was an exceedingly brave, efficient and patriotic officer. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 623 

Lieut. John D. Mirick in May, 1863, was commissioned 2cl lieut. of 
the 1st Regt. No. Carolina Vols, (colored) ; he was soon made 1st lieut.; 
wounded at the battle of Olustee, Fla. He lingered eight days. He had 
served in the 25th Regt. 

Maj. Dexter Franklin Parker. He was b. in Boston, Aug. 2, 1828. 
His parents moved to Milford and died when he was young. He made 
his own way after the age of fourteen and attended Hopkinton Academy 
several terms. In 1850 he came to this city and followed the trade of 
boot-cutter. In 1853 he m. (2) a daughter of Maj. Thos. Pierce. Grad- 
ually he became known as a public speaker of ability and as a writer for 
various publications. He was elected representative in 1856, 1857 and 
1860; state senator 1858-9. In early life a Democrat, he joined the new 
Republican party, when it was formed. He was "decidedly the work- 
ing-man of the session" and one of the most prominent legislators while 
in the General Court. In debate he was specially strong. He had pre- 
pared from the records of various towns in the county a history of 
industries. He went to Boston to enlist in the Mexican War at the 
age of sixteen, but was rejected. Then he worked his passage to New 
Orleans, where he was again rejected. When the call for arms came in 

1861, he went alone to Washington, joining the Worcester Light Infan- 
try when it arrived soon afterward. He was made brigade quarter- 
master at the end of three months, with the rank of lieutenant; after- 
ward commissioned captain on the stafif of Gen. Couch ; then major in 
the 10th Regt. He was wounded at Spottsylvania and died from the 
wound. May 28, 1864. His body was brought home and a very impres- 
sive military funeral held, June 4. 

Capt. William Batchelder Bacon was a son of Hon. Peter C. Ba- 
con ; entered the service as lieutenant of the 13th Regt. at the age of 
17 yrs. in 1861; was commissioned captain in the 34th Regt. in the sum- 
mer of 1862. He met his death in action, May 15, 1864. He was dis- 
tinguished for bravery in battle. 

Lieut. Frank Bacon served in the 3d Battalion Rifles in 1861, and 
later enlisted in the Fifteenth; was commissioned lieut. in the 101st 
N. Y. ; was killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville, in Mav, 1864. 

Major Harrison W. Pratt was the first man to offer his service to 
the government in the Civil War in this city; enlisted and marched with 
the Sixth. He was appointed major of the 36th, when it was organized, 
and was its commander when he fell mortally wounded at the Battle of 
Fisher's Hill, in Sept., 1863. His body was brought home and buried 
with military honors Oct. 2. 

Lieut. Henry Daniels and his brother Myron enlisted July 15, 1864. 
Both served in the siege of Vicksburg and both fell in the Wilderness. 

Lieut. E. Dexter Cheney, w^hen the 51st Regt. was formed here in 

1862, and his comrades Coe and Childs, both also killed in the service, 
joined; afterward he enlisted in the 57th and was commissioned captain 



624 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

of Co. B. He was killed before Petersburgh, his body brought home 
and buried here, July 28, 186-i. 

Sergt. George E. Barnard was promoted sergeant for conspicuous 
bravery in battle; he was in every engagement with his company (E 
of 15th Regt.) ; badly wounded at Ball's Bluff; returned to fight in 
Gettysburg. He was the last man killed in his regiment. 

Capt. Joseph W. Gird's father was a graduate of West Point and 
later professor of mathematics in Louisiana College. Capt. Gird was 
born in Jackson, La., Oct. 21, 1839. The family moved to Illinois when 
he was a boy and when his father died, the mother came to this city. He 
attended the Worcester High School and was studying law when he 
enlisted in the 25th Regt., a private in Co. F. He received a commis- 
sion as lieutenant in the 36th Regt., and served in the Kentucky cam- 
paign. He was commissioned captain of the 5Tth, and by his earnest 
and effective work was mainly instrumental in hastening the organization 
of that command. He was a brave, faithful and capable officer and 
served his country well. "With abilities which gave promise of great 
usefulness" and an exemplary character, "he offered himself as a sacrifice. 
None went forth with more devotion to country, with more unselfish 
desire to promote the welfare of the soldier or with more faith in the 
triumph of our armies and the principles for which they contended, than 
Captain Gird," wrote Marvin. He was struck by a bullet in the head, 
May 6, 1864, at the Wilderness and killed. 

Col. Julius Massena Tucker's father was business manager of the 
"Worcester Palladium," Julius E. Tucker, and the son was among the 
first to enlist in 1861 at the age of 19 yrs. in the Third Battalion Rifles, 
but he was counted out, as the company then had a surplus. He enlisted 
at the next opportunity in the 25th Regt. and served for a year. He was 
commissoined lieutenant in the 36th Regt. in 1862 and was with it 
a year enduring much fighting and hardship. In the autumn of 1863 
when he had returned to civil life, he was induced to try to raise a com- 
pany for the oTth Regt. In 20 days he enrolled 126 men. He was 
wounded in the face June 17 at Petersburg; was brought home to die 
but in seventy days was on duty again as colonel of his regiment. He 
led a gallant charge at Ft. Steadman Mar. 25, 1865, and he lost his horse 
and everything except the clothing he wore in the battle. He received 
a furlough as a reward for his service that day, returned to the front, 
and commanded his regiment to the end of the war. He received his 
commission as major June 14, 1864; as lieutenant colonel (dated from 
June 15, 1864), and he was brevetted colonel, April 15, 1G65. His 
wound seriously handicapped him in civil life by interfering with his 
speech. He was appointed inspector in the Custom House, but his 
career was cut short by death, June 22, 1866, at the age of 25 years. 

Corporal Charles S. Wilder was a student at Worcester Academy 
when he enlisted in Co. A 21st Regt. in Aug. 1861; he served faithfully 



AND ITS PEOPLE 625 



through all the tough campaigning ; re-enlisted in Jan. 18(i4 and after his 
furlough joined the Army in Virginia and fought bravely in every 
engagement until wounded, June 2, I860. He was captured and taken 
to Richmond, where he died a few days later. 

Lieut. Albert C. Walker was a son of Aaron G. Walker of this city; 
enlisted in the Light Infantry; assisted in raising Co. H of the 34th; 
was made acting adjutant in the spring of 1864; commanded his com- 
pany after the Battle of Newbern ; fell at Piedmont. 

Adjt. Dwight Newbury of the 15th, died from a wound received 
near the close of 1863. His body was brought home for interment and 
his funeral, Dec. 11, was largely attended by militia and military men 
of this section, the city government and many citizens. 

Rev. Samuel Souther, a native of Fryeburg, Me., graduate of Dart- 
mouth, 1842, and of the Bangor Theological Seminary, came to Worces- 
ter in 1857 and became city missionary and chaplain at the jail and 
insane asylum. He had previously been minister of the Congrega- 
tional Church at Belfast, Me., and agent of the American Sunday School 
Union. In 1863-4, he w^as representative from this city. He was inde- 
fatigable in the work of enlisting men for the service, speaking at war 
meetings, before and after his own enlistment in the 5Tth, in which he 
served as sergeant. He was killed in the Wilderness and his body was 
never found. 

Adjt. Henry McConville was one of the first to enlist and had a gal- 
lant record. He was mortally wounded in the Battle of Cold Harbor, 
and survived but ten days. His body was brought home and buried 
with military honors. "Youthful, chivalric and brave, he is another 
offering on the altar of our country. Where patriotic spirits like his are 
to be found, such a land is safe and will have a glorious history." The 
funeral in St. John's Church, June 15, was attended by the Emmet 
Guards, the State Guard, the Father Matthew Temperance Society, the 
A. O. H., the Christian Doctrine Association, the city council, ofificers of 
the army and navy and many other citizens. 

Lieut. William Daley, another Worcester man, killed at Cold Har- 
bor, after long and gallant service ; after he was wounded his com- 
rades attempted to bring him into the trenches, but he said that he was 
mortally wounded and might as well die there as anywhere. General 
Smith said that such a brave man should be recovered and ordered him 
dug out. Accordingly, two men dug their way underground to the 
spot where he lay and brought him within the lines. He died June 24, 
1864. The funeral here June 27, in St. John's Church was imposing. 

Corp. Timothy F. Taft Jr., before the war had been in South Amer- 
ica and he hurried home to do his part. He served four years in the 
Army of the Cumberland and was very popular with his comrades. He 
served in a Connecticut regiment and was killed at Atlanta. 

Capt. Edward R. Washburn had lived here three years before the 
W.— 1-40. 



626 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

war, but went to Lancaster his old home, raised a company and was com- 
missioned captain. In the assault on Port Hudson he was wounded by 
five bullets. The surgeons pronounced his wounds fatal, but he lived 
to come home, only to die of his wounds after apparently recovering. 

Lieut. Samuel F. Woods was born in Barre; graduated at Yale in 
1856, and studied law here and in the Harvard Law School; was admit- 
ted to the bar and was practicing at Barre, when he enlisted in April 
1861, as lieut. of the Holden Company, Third Battalion Rifles. After 
his term of enlistment he lived here until commissioned adjutant of the 
34th. He was afterward assistant adjutant on the staff of Gen. Weber. 
He was severely wounded at Piedmont ; came home and died here at the 
house of his brother-in-law, Hon. P. Emory Aldrich, June 26, 186-4. 

Corp. Charles W. Upham, a son of Dea. Joel AV. Upham ; enlisted 
in the 15th; was taken prisoner at Ball's Bluff', and died after six weeks 
of privation in prison, Dec. 14, 1861, aged 19 years, 3 m., 5 d. He sleeps 
in an unmarked grave. 

Dr. Adams Conant, born in Worcester, Feb. 26, 1838, son of Benja- 
min K. Conant : enlisted at Ft. Warren, Aug. 10, 1862 ; appointed hos- 
pital steward at Alexandria, \'a. ; received the degree of M. D. from the 
Medical University of Nashville while on duty there ; was on duty later 
at Evansville, Lid.; in the course of duty was injured and died June 13, 
1865, from his wounds. 

Sergt. A. T. Bailey lived here several 3'ears before the war and had a 
promising business future ; enlisted in the 36th and was a model sol- 
dier; he died after a few hours from wounds received in the Battle of 
Spottsylvania Court House, May 12, 1864. 

Major Elijah A. Harkness was educated in the Worcester schools 
and took the first opportunity to serve his country ; serving first in Co. 
A, Third Battalion Rifles, of which he was lieutenant; commissioned first 
lieut. and adjutant in the 25th; later major of the 51st; brave, capable, 
faithful, cheerful ; popular with ofiicer and men. He survived the war. 

At Cold Harbor the national colors of the 25th had been shot to rib- 
bons. Then the blue flag, the gift of the ladies of this city, was unfurled. 
Three color-bearers had been shot, when John E. Lewis raised the flag 
once more. He was also shot, but managed to plant the flag in the 
ground. But as he wavered and fell his hand grasped the flag and 
dragged it down with him, and it was stained with his blood. Casey of 
Co. C rescued the flag. 

No attempt has been made to give extended biographical records of 
all the Worcester soldiers killed in the service. Space forbids. Li the 
roster at the end of this chapter, a brief record of each soldier's military 
service is given. Since the war hundreds, if not thousands, of other men 
who served, in the war have become residents of the city. In many of 
the biographical sketches in this work their services are mentioned. Ac- 
counts of many of the distinguished officers are also given in the bio- 
graphical section. 



CHAPTER XXXV 
The Spanish War 

The following is Major Fairbanks' account of the campaign of 1898 : 

At the first call of the President for troops, the Worcester Light Infantry, Com- 
pany C ; the Worcester City Guards, Company A ; the Wellington Rifles, Company H, 
and the Heywood Guards, Company F, of Gardner, comprising the third battalion of 
the Second Regiment, were ordered to report with the regiment at South Framing- 
ham on May 3d, to be mustered into the service of the United States. 

The Worcester companies assembled at their armory on the morning of May 3d, 
and, after an address by Mayor Dodge and prayer by Almon Gunnison, D. D., marched 
to the depot, under escort of the gray-haired veterans of George H. Ward Post 10, 
G. A. R., and the veteran members of the three companies. Thousands of people lined 
the streets as the soldiers passed. They knew the call to duty had been quickly an- 
swered, and that cold^ wet May morning was an occasion of solemnity to all — a scene 
rarely witnessed and ever to be remembered. 

The Worcester Light Infantry, for the third time in its history, left Worcester in 
answer to the nation's call. Its members responded in large numbers, and its full 
quota of seventy-seven men was filled soon after the arrival at South Framingham. 

The company as mustered into the United States' service was officered as follows : 
Frank L. Allen, Captain ; Arthur C. King, First Lieutenant, and Herbert H. Warren, 
Second Lieutenant. On Alay 12th the company proceeded with the regiment, which 
was designated Second Regiment Massachusetts Infantry, United States Volunteers, 
to Lakeland, Florida, and became part of the First Brigade, Second Division, Fifth 
Army Corps. The journey south was by rail from Jersey City, and on the whole was a 
pleasant one for all. 

The company passed through the capital on the morning of May 15th, where thirty- 
seven years before it reported for duty with the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment for 
three months' service in the War of the Rebellion. Lakeland was reached on the morn- 
ing of May 17th, and camp was established on the shore of a beautiful lake. 

After a stay of two weeks in Lakeland, the regiment moved to Tampa on Memorial 
day, and established its camp at Ybor City, a suburb of the city. This was one 
more step in the journey to Cuba, and in one week orders came to proceed to Port 
Tampa for the purpose of embarking in the fleet that was to convey the army of Maj. 
Gen. Shafter to Santiago, the objective point of the campaign. It was the fortune of 
the Light Infantry to be assigned to the transport Concho, on which we're the Fourth 
Infantry and the Twenty-fifth Infantry of colored troops. None will forget the week 
spent on that boat, especially the first night when the men were placed below, where, 
from the heat, lack of ventilation and closeness of the bunks, it seemed almost impos- 
sible to breathe. Afterwards life was more bearable by reason of all being allowed 
to sleep on deck. The first night the company was assembled under arms upon the 
receipt of news that Spanish war vessels were outside the harbor and an attack was 
feared, but it proved to be false news, and only served to delay the departure of the 
fleet for several days. The crowded condition of the "Concho" made it necessary to 
transfer the Second Regiment detachment to the Knickerbocker, No. 13, in which the 
journey from Port Tampa to Santiago was made. The fleet of about forty transports, 
with its convoy of war vessels, sailed on June 13th, and after a tedious and unevent- 
ful voyage arrived off Santiago on the 20th. 



628 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The Light Infantry landed at Daiquiri on the 23d, and, after a terrible march of 
eleven miles through swamps and the thick tropical growth, joined the regiment at 
Siboney headquarters, and two battalions of the regiment having landed on the 22d, 
proceeded to that place. The company now had but two officers, the Second Lieuten- 
ant, Herbert H. Warren, having been detailed as an aid on the staff of General Lawton, 
the division commander. Lieutenant Warren rendered efficient service as a staff offi- 
cer, and was recommended for brevet rank by the general. 

On June 24 the regiment moved and bivouacked at "Las Guasamas," the scene of 
the engagement of the cavalry brigade which included the Rough Riders. Here for 
the first time were seen the bodies of men killed in action, and the sight was not with- 
out its effect upon the feelings of all. From this time to the 30th of June, there were 
frequent changes of camp. The rainy season had set in, and the days were made 
dreary and uncomfortable by frequent heavy showers. The men were rapidly becom- 
ing debilitated by the change of climate, lack of proper food, and exposure to the ele- 
ments. 

On June 30th orders came to break camp, and with one day's rations the march 
was taken up for El Caney, which was to be attacked the next morning at daylight. 
The regiment bivouacked near the town, and at about 6 A. M. the battle began, which, 
late in the afternoon, resulted in the capture of the place. The battalion to which the 
Light Infantry was attached, with one company of the Second Battalion, was cut off 
from the regiment by order of the division commander at the point where Captain 
Capron's battery was in action. This break, which caused a delay of more than an 
hour, resulted in keeping the company from participating in the most serious part of 
the battle in which the greater number of the casualties in the regiment occurred. The 
company finally reached the firing line, and with the other companies of the battalion 
was assigned a position which afforded good cover, but was kept from firing, which 
from that position would have been of no value. The company occupied this place 
throughout the day, with the bullets of the enemy continually whistling overhead. For- 
tunately, during the entire day no casualties resulted to the battalion, except in two 
companies, the Worcester City Guards, A Company, and the Heywood Guards, F 
Company, of Gardner, and in these none were fatal. 

After the battle a distressing night march was made to San Juan, which was 
reached at daylight, and a,fter a short halt the regiment moved under a scattering fire 
to the base of a hill, and went into camp. On the night of this day, July 2d, occurred 
the so-called "night attack," which resulted in several casualties in the regiment, but 
one, however, in the Worcester battalion. 

The company was now under the command of Lieut. King, Captain Allen on the 
evening after the battle of El Caney having been compelled, by an acute attack of 
rheumatism, which rendered him practically helpless, to go to the hospital. This was 
a severe loss, and one that was greatly regretted by all. Lieut. King commanded the 
company from this time until the arrival at "Montauk Point," L. I., and his efficient 
services were amply testified to by the affection in which he was held by the men upon 
their return home. From July 2d until the surrender of Santiago, the company was 
continually digging trenches, performing guard and outpost duty, under conditions that 
rapidly sapped strength and vitality. 

The formal surrender of Santiago took place on July 17 and i8th. From that 
time until August 13, the date of sailing for Montauk Point, it was a constant strug- 
gle for life. It seemed only a question of time when all must succumb to the sur- 
rounding conditions. The daily rains made life nearly unbearable, and the death rate 
throughout the regiment was constantly on the increase, but the end came on Aug. 
I2th, when camp was broken, the regiment embarked on the transport Mobile, and 
sailed the next day, the 13th, for Montauk Point, which was reached on the evening 
of the i8th, but the regiment did not disembark until the 20th. Immediately upon disem- 
barking, it went into "detention camps" for the purpose of quarantine, and after stay- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 629 

ing there three days a new camp was established, which was occupied until Saturday, 
the 27th, when the regiment was furloughed. At Montauk supplies in generous quanti- 
ty were received from the citizens of Worcester. They did much good, and were 
gratefully appreciated. 

In the afternoon of Aug. 27th the company reached Worcester. Eight of its mem- 
bers had died of disease, and those who returned were in a pitiable condition. The 
citizens of Worcester were shocked at the appearance of the men, who so short a 
time before marched away in full vigor and strength. 

The muster-out took place November 3, 1898. 

Post 10, G. A. R., escorted the companies from the depot to the Armory. And its 
members must have been vividly reminded of the old days of the War of the Re- 
bellion. 

The following is the roll of the officers and men comprising the 
Worcester Light Infantry, when it left for the front: 

Captain, Frank L. Allen; First Lieutenant, Arthur C. King; Second Lieutenant, 
H. H. Warren ; Sergeants— First Sergeants, George H. Hill, A. S. Longley, George W. 
Stebbins, C. T. Fletcher, William E. Barton, H. B. Wentworth ; Corporals, J. W. Hol- 
brook, C. H. Colburn, R. H. Dowse, J. Luey Wilmot, C. A. Vaughan, P. W. Lincoln ; 
Cook, A. G. Bursdorf ; Musicians, A. F. Wheeler, H. T. Chapin ; Artificer, E. A. 
Stearnes ; Wagoner, T. B. Maynard ; Privates, H. H. Adams, O. T. Aldrich, J. H. Al- 
len, Lyman Bartlett, C. E. Butler, W. H. Butler, Geo. C. Butler, G. E. Bennett, G. H. 
Bejune, J. F. Bradley, C. A. Browne, L. A. Brigham, E. A. Briggs, F. E. Grossman, 
F. H. Clarkson, F. M. Crooker, F. P. Dean, W. G. Dennis, E. T. Drury, C. T. Eld- 
ridge, W. W. Eddy, J. H. Flinn, Jr., Geo. S. Farrow, O. J. W. Gleason, H. J. Greene, 
L. B. Glixman, W. L Gage, F. C. Hale, R. E. Henderson, J. W. Humes, George T. 
Jones, R. Johnson, B. W. Kincaid, J. C. King, C. H. Knibbs, S. L Mayo, George Mar- 
tin, E. J. Martin, W. A. Merrified, R. H. Pitts, A. J. Pembleton, B. A. Prince, J. E. 
Pope, Geo. E. Rix, W. D. Rheutan, W. D. Roberts, Charles M. Sands, A. D. Stewart, 
Robert Taft, F. S. Tucker, A. T. Wintersgill, J. W. Wheeler, E. D. Woolbridge, Emit 
Zaeder. 

Captain Winslow Sever Lincoln commanded Company C, the Light 
Infantry, before the Spanish War. He was offered a commission as cap 
tain of immunes June 4, 1898, with the choice of white or colored troops, 
but yielding to the wishes of his family, he accepted the position of cap- 
tain and assistant commissary of subsistence, and June 26th he reached 
headquarters at Tampa and was assigned as chief commissary of the 
Third Division, Fourth Army Corps. Subsequently he was transferred 
to the Second Brigade of the same Division. While in the unhealthful 
camp at Fernandina his health became seriously impaired but recovered 
after an illness of four weeks. Soon afterward he was sent home. On 
his return to duty he was assigned to the First Brigade, Second Division 
at Anniston, Ala. ; was relieved Jan. 1, 1899, and sent to Havana as 
assistant to Col. A. L. Smith and was assigned to the distributing depot 
at Quemados, nine miles from Havana, from which rations for 15,000 
troops were furnished. When beef from this country failed, he was in 
charge of purchasing native cattle. He left Cuba for home April 10, 
1899, and was discharged June 1 follovving. 



630 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Capt. Lincoln joined the Light Lifantry in 18(35; again he enHsted 
and was aide-de-camp with the rank of captain for nearly a year after 
June 1ST."). From 18TG he was again in the company, promoted step by 
step, captain from Nov. 23, 1880, to Oct. 3, 1883. (See Early Families). 
During the Cuban campaign he was lieutenant of the Light Infantry, 
but was on detached service in the Cuban campaign. He was ill in Flor- 
ida and was detailed to division headquarters there, but he went with the 
expedition and served on the staff of Gen. Lawton. He was fever- 
stricken and furloughed home July 30, recovering in time for the muster 
out. He was brevetted captain for gallant conduct at El Canen. He 
became captain of the company after the war, and later major of his 
regiment. 

Fred P. Dean attained a peculiar distinction in the Spanish War. He 
and .Sergeant iJarton located the grave of Lieut. Benchley, after the 
Battle of San Juan Hill. He had marked the grave of every soldier of 
his regiment buried in Cuba. In November he brought the body of 
Lieut. Benchley to Worcester. He was appointed by Col. Clark in the 
spring of 1899 to accompany the government burial corps to Cuba. The 
party began its work in Porto Rico, and there it was discovered that 
the stencil apparatus was buried deep in the hold under the cargo. 
Dean's lettering skill came into play, and his work was so well done that 
the cargo was undisturbed. He continued w-ith the corps and before his 
return had lettered the name, rank, company and regiment on 1,378 boxes 
containing the bodies of American soldiers returned to their homes for 
burial. He also made plans of all the places where bodies w^ere exhumed. 
In 1899 he w^as offered similar employment in the Philippines and was 
engaged in the work for nine months. He made another trip in 1900 and 
another in 1902, returning late in November 1903. Altogether he let- 
tered caskets of 9,000 American soldiers wdio died in foreign parts. 

In Memoriam. — Fred Baldwin Taft, born in Charlton; died in Cu- 
ba, July 14, 1898 ; w^as a Worcester fireman. 

James Woodbury Wheeler, died in Cuba, Aug. 2, aged 32 ; was an 
insurance agent ; buried in Lynn. 

Silas I. Mayo, died Aug. 7, aged 26; buried at Fairfield, Me. 

Arthur Dawson Stewart, died Aug. 10, aged 19 ; a native of Grand 
Pre, N. S. ; machinist; buried at Hortonsville, N. S. 

Harold Benning Wentworth, sergeant, died at sea Aug. 14, aged 28; 
had been physical director of the Y. M. C. A. and Holy Cross; left a 
widow. 

Robert Henry Dowse, b. Aug. 24, 1868; died Aug. 26, 1898; wood- 
carver; buried in Sherborn. 

William David Roberts, born Staffordsville, Conn, May 3, 1879 ; died 
here Sept. 3, 1898; buried at Cherry Valley. 

Joseph Clarence King, died at division hospital, Santiago, Sept. 5, 
aged 18; buried in Leicester, his native town. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 631 

Lieut. Arthur C. King, died here June 30, 1901, aged 34 ; had served 
ten years in the company ; was president of the Cuban War Veterans ; 
left a wife and two children ; Ijuried in Hope Cemetery. He was in the 
wall paper business. 

Royal H. Pitts, died in Boston, June 3, 1899; was Adjutant Gen- 
eral of the Legion of Spanish War Veterans. 

Eugene F. Drury, died in the Worcester City Hospital, Nov. 1, 1902 ; 
enlisted in the U. S. Regulars after the war, Jan. 9, 1899 ; served in the 
Ninth Infantry in the Philippines and took part in many engagements ; 
was in China during the Boxer war; was discharged Jan. 9, 1902. He 
was buried in Leicester. 

City Guards. — Every man in the City Guards volunteered in the 
Spanish War and under Capt. Edwin G. Barrett the company went to 
camp in South Framingham May 3, 1898, with the Second Regiment, in 
which it was Company A. On May 10 they were mustered into the 
federal service. Next day the regiment started for the South, taking 
the steamer Plymouth at Newport, R. L, and after a tedious wait in New 
York, proceeding by rail through Washington, they arrived in Savan- 
nah, Georgia, on the loth and late at night in Lakewood, Fla. They 
were the first of the volunteers to arrive. Here they camped and until 
May 30 Camp Massachusetts was their home. Capt. Barrett was the 
first officer of the day. The next camp was at Ybor City, a suburb of 
Tampa, where they remained until June 7. They embarked on the 
transport Concho and next they were transferred to the Knickerbocker 
June 12, and next day that boat anchored near Orizaba. The fleet finally 
arrived near Santiago May 20, but a landing was not made until two 
days later. A stearh launch from the cruiser New York with a line of 
small boats came to the side of the transport. In these boats the men 
and supplies were taken ashore. Most of the company did not get ashore 
until the 23d. From the landing at Daiquiri, the regiment marched to 
Siboney and camped. The march to Santiago has been described. The 
company took part in the engagement and siege of Santiago. Peter N. 
.White was the only man wounded by two bullets. But disease soon 
began to make inroads in the company. Deaths became frequent. 
The company embarked on the transport Mobile Aug. 12. Food and 
accommodations were lacking ; most of the men were fever-stricken ; 
all were suffering from heat, hunger or disease. At the arrival at Mon- 
tauk Aug. 19, Capt. Barrett telegraphed home that every man in his 
company was alive. To his vigilance, his resourcefulness in getting pro- 
visions and fatherly care of the sick many of his men owed their lives. 
The men went ashore next day and were released from Quarantine on 
the 24th. Many Worcester friends came to camp with delicacies and 
comforts for the soldiers. The company returned to Worcester Aug. 
27 and most of the company joined the ranks and marched. Of the 67 
who went in May, 54 were in line. Lieut. Plummer and Privates Fischer 



632 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

and Fairbanks were left in Cuba on duty ; Artificer Clapp and Privates 
Forest and Torkelson were in the hos])ital at Montauk, and Sergeant 
Sawyer and Privates Christenson and Israel in the detention camp at 
Montauk. A sixty-day furlough was given the men. Muster-out was 
at Springfield, Nov. 2. 

Though not a man was lost in the Cuban campaign, four men died 
from the results of their service. 

In Memoriam. — Joseph Henry Beaudoin, born here May 12, 1875, 
son of Aimable ; died Sept. 3, 1898. 

Lewis M. Fay, born at Brookfield, M., son of William W.; died 
in California 1901. 

George Leon Forest, son of Hormisdas; died at St. Peter's Hos- 
pital, Brooklyn, N. Y., Oct. 1, 1898; was captain of the Y. M. C. A. 
Basket Ball Team. 

Sergeant Edward Robert Riedl, born here Aug. 12, 18T0, son of 
Mathew, died in Westborough, Oct. 21, 1900 ; buried in Hope Cemetery. 

Emmet Guards. — The Emmets voted unanimously to ofl^er their ser- 
vices in the war, at a meeting April 11, 1898, before war was declared. 
Recruiting brought the number in the company to 7-1 by the 29th. The 
company left for Framingham May 4, receiving one of the greatest ova- 
tions ever given an organization in the city. The company was escorted 
by Post 10, G. A. R. ; students from Holy Cross and the Catholic 
Schools; and by practically all the Catholic organizations in the city. 
The Emmets were sworn into the United States service at Framingham 
May 11 ; 2d Lieut. Hurley succeeding Lieut. Hines who failed to pass 
the physical tests ; Sergt. William E. McCann becoming 2d lieut. 

After a wait that tried the patience of the men, the Ninth Regi- 
ment broke camp on May 31. Before starting, M. B. Lamb and P. J. 
McManus presented a purse of $250 in l)ehalf of the honoraries. James 
Logan had previously sent $50 to the captain and the Volunteers' Aid 
Association had sent money, stockings and supplies. When the train in 
three sections passed through Union station in this city it was greeted 
by a vast throng; at New Worcester there was another crowd to bid 
the boys goodbye. All along the route they were given an ovation, espe- 
cially at Chester and Pittsfteld, where cofifee and lunch was served and 
boxes of good things provided. By way of Albany, Baltimore and 
Washington, the trains proceeded to Dunn-Loring, their destination, 
Virginia. In camp Alger the Emmets were visited by many Worcester 
friends, including Mayor Dodge, Rev. Father Thomas Conaty ; money, 
dainties, sui)plies of all kinds was received. They were a lively lot 
and found plenty of amusement. The celel)ration of Bunker Hill Day 
was elaborate ; the whole regiment took part. 

The Ninth was in the First Brigade, Third Division, Second Army 
Corps, associated with the ;)3d and 31th Michigan regiments. The com- 
mand moved by train to Alexandria, June 24, leaving but one man of the 



AND ITS PEOPLE 633 

Emmets in the hospital ; thence tlie regiment was transported to New- 
port News on the ^oth, and embarked on the transport Harvard which 
steamed away for Cuba on Sunday, arriving about midnight June 30, 
at Santiago harbor, where the Spanish fleet was "bottled up." The reg- 
iment landed at Siboney next day. Four hours later they took up the 
line of march that the Rough Riders had followed to Las Guasimas. 
Wounded men from El Caney were met on their way to the hospitals. 
They were under for that day for the first time. At two in the morn- 
ing of July 3, the company was marched to the support of the 10th U. S. 
Infantry near San Juan and set to trench work. The Spaniards opened 
fire at daybreak. Later in the day a truce was declared. The Emmets 
were then in the Third Brigade, Third Division, Fifth Corps. There 
were few casualties and no deaths in the company during the engage- 
ment and siege at Santiago. But the tropical climate and lack of food 
soon brought sickness and suffering. Henry Sullivan was the first of 
the Emmets to die. But the Emmets were more fortunate than many 
other companies in their camp location. August 12, Halleck Bartlett 
arrived with delicacies and supplies from home, though the greater part 
of the things sent to the Emmets never arrived. But Lieut. McCann 
made good the loss by appropriating a six-mule tea,m load of malted 
milk, canned goods and other food from the Santiago docks. 

Camp was broken Aug. 23 and the Emmets embarked on the trans- 
port Alleghany, which arrived with its load of sick and emaciated sol- 
diers at Montauk, L. L, Aug. 31. The Emmets were greeted by Wor- 
cester friends and physicians, Dr. Timothy J. Foley, Dr. McGourty and 
Dr. John Ronayne. Later came many others to the aid of the boys 
from Worcester. Only eleven of the Emmets were able to walk to the 
boat when the start for home was made on the Vigilant ; Doctors Foley, 
McGourty, Joseph H. Kelley, M. F. Fallon, T. A. O'Callaghan, W. J. 
Delahanty, J. W. McKoan, Rev. D. F. McGillicuddy, Michael L. Russell 
and Frank J. Moynihan were with the soldiers. From New London, 
the company went by train to Worcester through Providence. They 
were received at 10.30 at Union station by a great gathering. But half 
of the company had been able to reach home ; some were dead ; others 
were scattered in hospitals. 

The recruits for the Emmets left Worcester July 14 and were sent 
to Camp Alger, but on account of the typhoid epidemic were removed 
Aug. 7 to Bristow Station, Va., and vicinity. On the 27th they were 
taken to Middletown, Penn. On Sept. 4 the command started for Camp 
Dalton, South Framingham, and on Sept. 10th the Emmet recruits were 
sent to Worcester with a general furlough for sixty days. 

A reception was given to the Emmets Oct. 31. Col. Wellington 
was chief marshal of the parade. The Grand Army, the militia took 
part. The Emmets under Capt. Moynihan and both lieutenants had 
71 men in line. In the evening there was a reception in Mechanics Hall, 



634 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



which was crowded. Col. F. W. Wellington was toast-master. The 
speakers were Mayor Rufus B. Dodge, Hon. Joseph H. Walker, Hon. A. 
S. Pinkerton, Rev. D. F. McGillicuddy, Col. W. S. B. Hopkins, and 
W^illiam H. Bartlett, Department Commander of the G. A. R. 

The Emmets reported at the Armory Nov. 6. Of the total number 
enlisted (106) 80 enlisted men and three officers were present. They 
were mustered out Nov. 26. The company mascot Couchee, returned 
from Cuba and enjoyed the honors of a veteran until April 11, 1901, 
when he was chloroformed. 

In Memoriam.— Henry Sullivan, the first of the Emmets to die in 
the service, was born in Winchendon, Oct. 24, 1872, son of Henry; mar- 
ried Mary Moynihan ; died July 23, 1898 ; buried in St. John's cemetery. 

George Washington Brosman, born in New York City, Nov. 6, 1877, 
son of John, "a veteran of the British army ; died at Egmont Key, Fla., 
Aug. 20 ; pressman on the Worcester Post ; buried in St. John's cemetery. 

Corporal John Daniel Sweney, born in County Kerry, Ireland, Feb. 
27, 1877, died Aug. 21, son of Daniel. His body was the first to be 
brought home; he was buried with military honors in St. John's 
cemetery. 

Edward Francis Sullivan, born in Shrewsbury, Aug. 29, 1874, died 
on the way home ; was a stationary engineer. 

Charles Francis McMann, born in Underbill, Vt., son of ^lichael ; 
died Aug. 30 ; was a star football player in Brigham Academy ; taught 
school 1897-8. 

Michael Joseph Healey, born at Castle Island, County Kerry, Ire- 
land, 1875, son of Edward, died at sea, Aug. 31 ; was a moulder by trade. 

Joseph M. Coffee, born in New Haven; died at Camp Meade Sept. 
5; buried at New Britain, Conn. 

Corporal John Francis Horan, born at Abbeyfeale, County Limer- 
ick, Ireland, son of Michael ; came to this country in 1880 ; foreman for 
Henry Mellen, mason; member of the A. O. H.; died at Montauk, 

Sept. 9. 

John Francis Keegan, born here Nov. 2,1872, son of John, who served 
in the Civil War; founder by trade; died at Montauk, Sept. 9 of typhoid 
pneumonia; buried in St. John's cemetery. 

James Francis McTiernan, born here, son of James; died at Mon- 
tauk, Sept. 15 ; funeral at St. Stephen's. 

John James Craven, born in Ireland, son of John, died at Montauk, 
Sept. 25 ; came to America in 1885 ; wire-drawer in Washburn & Moen's 
mill; had been in the Emmets three years; member of the A. O. H.; 
buried in St. John's cemetery. 

John Edward Casey, born in County Kerry, Nov. 18, 1866, son of 
Michael ; died after his return at the State Hospital, Dec. 31, 1899. 

Walter Allen, born in England, Oct. 28, 1877, son of George ; came 



AND ITS PEOPLE 635 



to this country in 1881 ; after the Cuban War enlisted in the U. S. Infan- 
try and served at Pekin where he died Nov. 5, 1900. 

Peter H. Bennett, born here, son of Patrick, died June 24, 1902. 

David James Kennedy, born at Hardwick, son of David ; enlisted in 
the U. S. Infantry after the war; fought in the Philippines and in China; 
wounded at Tien Tsin, July 13, 1900 ; died July 2, 1903. 

William H. Murphy, born here April 19, 1879, son of John; died 
of malaria, contracted in Cuba, Oct. 12, 1904. 

Timothy J. Ahern, born in Ireland at Buttertin, County Cork, came 
to this country in 1896 ; married Bridget Devine : died March 9, 1905, aged 
31 years, of disease contracted in the service. 

Wellington Rifles. — At the outbreak of the Spanish War, the Wel- 
lington Rifles, Co. H, 2d Regiment, were recruited by Captain Charles S. 
Holden to full strength. Edward B. Fish was then first lieutenant; Harry 
T. Gray, second lieutenant. The roster of the company will be found in 
Mr. Roe's history. 

The company went to Camp Dewey in South Framingham 
May 3, 1898, and was mustered into the United States service May 9. 
The regiment started for the South May 12 and on the ITth arrived at 
Lakeland, Florida. On the 30th the regiment moved to Ybor City and 
on the seventh of June arrived at Tampa City. The start for Cuba 
was made on the Concho. Rations were often wanting; the heat was 
intense and the boys endured much suffering. On the 12th the regi- 
ment was transferred to the transport Knickerbocker, which finally got 
under way on the 14th. Part of the regiment landed at Santiago on the 
32d and on the 23d the Wellingtons landed at Mount Losiltires. After 
the engagement at Las Guasimas, June 24, the second Regiment was 
marched toward that place, halting over Sunday, and resuming the 
march on Monday, camping from Tuesday to Thursday, June 30. 

The regiment was in. action at El Caney and at the siege of Santiago. 
The men suffered from lack of food, and sickness increased in the com- 
pany as in the rest of the army. The weeks after the surrender were 
full of hardships and suffering. Finally the company embarked on the 
Mobile in command of Lieut. Gray, after a severe campaign of fifty days 
in Cuba. Lieuts. Fish and Privates Cook, Hodgkins and Wood were left 
in the hospital and Private Coates was left in charge of them. On the 
way home there were eleven deaths. The company reached Montauk 
Point Aug. 18, landing on the 20th. Here good quarters and food were at 
hand. Hardly had the boys settled in camp when George D. Barber, a 
former member of the Wellingtons, arrived with a supply of butter, 
bread and cheese, and Capt. W. E. Hassam with more delicacies. On 
Aug. 27th the company embarked on the steamer Block Island, landed at 
New London, Conn., at 9.45 p. m., and reached this city at 3.45 p. m. 
They were mustered out at Springfield. 

In Memoriam. — Charles E. Buck, the first to die in Cuba, was born 



636 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

here, Nov. 12, 1878, son of Charles P. Buck ; his body was brought home 
for burial in Hope Cemetery. 

Aloysius Lincon Farmer, born here Dec. 4, 1880, died Oct. 1, 1898 ; 
special student in Holy Cross, son of William L. Farmer, a veteran of 
the Civil War in the First Mass. Cavalry. 

Earle Eugene Clark, born in Uxbridge, Dec. 17, 1878, son of Everett 
E. ; died Aug. 17, 1898. 

John Michael Moran, born Aug. 9, 1879, in Brookfield, died Aug. 27, 
the day his company started to return from Montauk, son of Patrick 
J., who served in the 22d Conn, in the Civil War and in the Fourth U. S. 
Artillery. 

Fabian Hakanson, born in Sweden, May 17, 1878, died Aug. 6; son 
of Charles A. ; he is buried here in the Swedish cemetery. 

John J. Moore came home, but died at St. Vincent Hospital Aug. 31. 
He was born here, Nov. 14, 1876, son of Martin. 

Alston Dwight Kimball, son of Herbert A., was born at South- 
bridge, Nov. 2, 1872; died at Montauk, Aug. 28; buried in Hope Cem- 
etery. 

John James McLaughlin, born here April 22, 1874, son of John ; was 
brought home and apparently recovered ; married Mary O'Day ; but died 
Oct. 2, 1902, as a result of his service in Cuba. 

W'illiam Capen Green, born here Dec. 12, 1877, son of Ellis, died of 
fever Aug. 9 ; buried in Spencer. 

Marvin Fisher Ames, corporal, born in Walton, N. Y., Nov. 28, 1868, 
son of John Fisher, who served in the Civil War ; studied law ; was 
admitted to the bar; member of Willie Grout Camp, S. \'.; died Aug. 
13, 1898; buried March 5, 1900, in Walton, after a funeral here in the 
Church of the Unity, at which Rev. Frank L. Phalen, chaplain of his reg- 
iment preached and Frank P. Goulding, Esq., delivered a eulogy. The 
Wellingtons and other militia attended. 

Thomas Francis Keevan. born in Westborough May 17, 1873, son 
of Thomas, who served in the Civil War, died after his return, April 
12, 1901. 

George Warren Hodgkins, born in Calais, Me., March 17, 1864, son 
of William; call man in the Worcester Fire Department; died Sept. 12 
on the transport Missouri on his way home. 

Harvey Randall, born in Montpelier, France, Nov. 28, 1877, son of 
Dr. Orlando of Pasadena, Cal. ; was the company musician; one of the 
first to die in the company. 

Charles Maxwell Haye, born at Chazy, N. Y., Sept. 10, 1877, son of 
Charles M.; was at one time a reporter on the Telegram; died at Mon- 
tauk, Sept. 3; buried at Cypress Hills, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Silas Undergrave, born at Millbury, Feb. 14, 1872, son of Silas; died 
Aug. 1 ; buried in the Catholic Cemetery, Millbury. 

Volunteers' Aid Association. — A meeting was held in the rooms of 



AND ITS PEOPLE 637 

the Board of Trade May 37, 1898, to organize the Volunteers' Aid Asso- 
ciation, which in five months following raised and disbursed for the bene- 
fit of the soldiers from this city the sum of $9,000. Major E. T. Ray- 
mond was president; Rev. A. S. Garver, vice-president; Carl Bonney, 
secretary; Halleck Bartlett, treasurer, forming an executive committee 
with Gen. A. B. R. Sprague, Dr. T. J. Barrett and Stephen Salisbury. 
Large committees on relief were appointed ; a finance committee of one 
from each ward and much volunteer work was done. Miss Frances M. 
Lincoln was elected chairman of the Relief Committee. Supplies of all 
kinds, food in abundance and great variety were contributed. Enter- 
tainments of all sorts were held to raise funds. The city gave loyal sup- 
port to the Association, and the soldiers who' received the substantial evi- 
dence of the thoughtfulness of the people at home were encouraged and 
sustained during the trying months of the Cuban campaign. But more 
important than the sending of food and supplies to the front, was the 
relief provided for the families left without sufficient means, and the care 
of the sick soldiers after their return. Mrs. Angie A. Robinson, chair- 
man of the committee on Local Relief, was very efficient in this work. 

United Spanish War Veterans. — Col. E. R. Shumway Camp No. 28, 
organized in 1901, meets in the G. A. R. Building. John E. Fitzpatrick 
was commander in 1917. Mabel Shumway Auxiliary, organized 1907; 
Mrs. Emma Northridge, president, 1917. 

In 1905 a History of Companies A, C and H of the Second Regi- 
ment and G of the Ninth, entitled "Worcester in the Spanish War" by 
Hon. Alfred S. Roe was published (331 pages). The history was begun 
while the author was editor of the Worcester Magazine, in which the 
parts relating to the Light Infantry and City Guards were published, 
1901-3. The book is an intimate personal history of the rank and file. It 
contains portraits of more than 600 members of these companies besides 
other illustrations. 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

Early Military Organizations — Worcester Light Infantry — City Guards 
» — Jackson Guards — Emmet Guards — Wellington Rifles — 

Battery B — Worcester Continentals 

Early Militia Companies. — During the colonial and provincial peri- 
ods every man able to bear arms was drilled and most of them saw- 
active service. The soldiers at first were assigned to various garrison 
houses under designated commanders. In 1T35 or soon afterward a 
military company was formed and Daniel Heywood elected captain. 
An account of the service of the Worcester militia companies may be 
found in the history of the French and Indian Wars. In 1760 there 
were two militia companies in town, commanded by Capt. John Johnson 
and Capt. James Goodwin. 

At the close of the Revolution, the Worcester Artillery was organ- 
ized from volunteers and was commanded by Major William Treadwell 
(see biography). At the time Lincoln wrote his history this was the 
oldest militia company. Capt. Josiah G. Perry commanded it in 1836. 
It had two six-pounders granted by the state for its use. They were 
field-pieces taken from the British in the battle of Saratoga, and bore 
the British markings, crown, lion and unicorn, and the motto: "Honi 
Soit Qui Mai y Pense." 

The Independent Cadets, organized when war with France threat- 
ened in 1798, disbanded when the danger was over. The Worcester 
Rifle Corps, established in 1823, was disbanded in 1835. 

Worcester Light Infantry. — The Worcester Light Infantry is the 
oldest military organization in the city. It was formed at Moore's Tav- 
ern, at the corner of Main and Mechanic Sts. Oct. 17, 1803. Although 
there had been two state militia companies in existence, they were not 
uniformed and lacked proper arms. The charter for the new company 
was granted on petition of Levi Lincoln, Jr., June 6, 1803, and a rousing 
appeal in the Spy of Oct. 5 for enlistments evidently filled the quota at 
once. The last survivor of the original company was Charles Tappan, 
born 1784, died 1874. 

In 1807 the company ofifered its services when war with England 
was impending, but the militia was not needed. In the War of 1812 
the company was ordered to Boston, Sept. 14, 1814, and stationed at 
South Boston. The muster roll of the company appears in the history of 
the War of 1812 in this work. 

During the Mexican War, the company volunteered again, but the 
quota of the state being full, it Avas not ordered into service. The com- 
pany survived the opposition to maintaining militia after this war, but 



640 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

it was neglected and languished.* It sprang to life at the sound of the 
guns at Ft. Sumpter, and proved its usefulness by helping to save Wash- 
ington from the Rebels. Its service in the Civil War is described else- 
where. Members of the company afterward served in various commands 
in the war and many won commissions. J. Waldo Denny was captain in 
the 25th ; Harrison W. Pratt in the 34th ; William S. Lincoln was lieut. 
col. of the 34th, and colonel ; Frederick G. Stiles raised a company for 
the 42d Regt. ; George W. Prouty one for the 51st in ISG'-i, and Augustus 
Ford one for the 42d in 1864. 

The first armory was the gun house on the Common, built for the 
Artillery Company about 1784. Afterward it was located in a wooden 
building on the site of the City Hall, the Town Hall, the Central Ex- 
change building in 1844; the Central School building, 1854; the Bliss 
building, 1856; Horticultural Hall, 1858; the City Hall, 3 865; Brinley 
Hall, later the G. A. R. Hall, on the site of the Slater building; Warren 
Hall, Pearl street, 1869; Taylor Building, Main street, 1871 (here fire 
destroyed the records and property) ; the armory on Waldo street ; 
Clark's Block, Main street; Chase building, Front street, 1889; the 
present armory since 1890. 

The company served in the War with Spain in the 3d Battalion, 2d 
Regt. M. V. M., under Maj. H. B. Fairbanks, a former captain of the 
Light Infantry. (See Spanish War in this work). 

The Light Infantry directly and indirectly contributed GOO officers 
and men to the Civil War and 77 officers and men to the Spanish War. 
An historical sketch of the organization was written by Maj. F. G. 
Stiles and printed in the proceedings of the Worcester Society of An- 
tiquity. (Vol. XVII, No. 13, p. 616). Since 1877 a veteran organization 
has been maintained. Various citizens havfe been elected honorary 
members from time to time, in recognition of important public service 
or special gifts or aid given to the company. 

A notable event in the history of the cqmpany was an excursion to 
Baltimore and Washington in 1891, in which 48 active and 43 veteran 
and honorary members took part, besides delegations from other organ- 
izations. But throughout its existence the Light Infantry has been roy- 
ally entertained at home and in other towns and cities, on many occa- 
sions. It has taken part in all the public celebrations of importance and 



*May II, 1834, Christopher Columbus Baldwin wrote in his diary (p. 300) : 
"Yesterday which was Saturday there was a caricature of a military parade. It 
was to have begun in the morning, but owing to a powerful rain did not appear until 
afternoon. It originated in a contempt of the present laws regulating the militia. The 
general was Knowlton a native of Shrewsbury, and now a student of law in the office 
of William M. Towne Esq. of Worcester. He was dressed in a most grotesque and 
fantastical manner and mounted upon a horse of the very meanest appearance. There 
were about a hundred, horse and foot, with music, baggage cart and everything to 
throw ridicule ui)on the military system. Some of the soldiers for knapsacks had com- 
mon tin-kitches strapped upon their backs, others small churns and one was tarred 
and feathered. A very good account of the whole exhibition was given in the Wor- 
cester Palladium." 



AND ITS PEOPLE 641 

taken its place in all the great military parades since it was organized. 
Its cajitains from the beginning have been : 

Levi Thaxter, 1804-06; Enoch Flagg, 1806-09; William E. Green, 1809-11; Isaac 
Sturtevant, 1811-12; John W. Lincoln, 1812-16; Sewall Hamilton, 1816-20; John 
Coolidge, 1820-22; Samuel Ward, 1822-24; Artemus Ward, 1824-26; John Whitte- 
more, 1826-27; Charles A. Hamilton, 1828-31; Zenas Studley, 1831-32; Wilham S. Lin- 
coln, 1832-34; Charles H. Geer, 1834-36; Henry Hobbs, died 1836; Dana H. Fitch, 1837- 
38; D. Waldo Lincoln, 1838-40; Ivers Phillips, 1841 ; Henry W. Conklin, 1842; Joseph 
B. Ripley, 1843; Edward Lamb, 1844-48; Levi Barker, 1849; Edward Lamb, 1850- 
52; Charles S. Childs, 1853; Samuel P. Russell, 1853-54; George Barker, 1854; George 
F. Peck, 1855; Edward Lamb, 1856-59; Harrison W. Pratt, 1859-62; George W. 
Prouty, 1862-65; James M. Drennan, 1865-69; George H. Conklin, 1869-70; Joel 
H. Prouty, 1870-71; John Calligan, 1871 ; John A. Lovell, 1871-74; John J. Upham, 
1874-75; Levi Lincoln, Jr., 1875-77; Joseph P. Mason, 1877-79; Thomas E. Leavett, 
1879; Frank L. Child, 1879-80; Winslow S. Lincoln, 1880-83; Edward A. Harris, 1883- 
89; Frank L. Child, 1889-90; Frederick G. Davis, 1890-91; Harry B. Fairbanks, 1891- 
95; Phineas L. Rider, 1895-98; Frank L. Allen (Cuba), 1898; Phineas L. Rider, 
1898-1905; Herbert H. Warren, 1906-14; Wm. Stevenson, 1915 — . 

For more than a hundred years the anniversary of the organization 
has been celebrated, except wdien the company was in service, and the 
centennial of the organization was observed jointly with the Portland 
Light Infantry, which received its charter one day later. The company 
went to Portland, starting on June 3, 1903, and was royally entertained 
there. On the 6th the Portland company came to this city. The other 
militia companies of the city, the Fitchburg Fusiliers, the United Train 
from Providence, a company of the First Heavy Artillery of Boston, two 
companies from Hartford were guests of the Light Infantry. The 
Highland Military Cadets also were in the parade. The day was spent 
at the picnic grounds at Edgemere on Lake Quinsigamond. In the 
evening there was a banquet in Mechanics Hall. The toastmaster was 
Hon. James Logan, a veteran of the company; speakers — Mayor 
Fletcher; Lt. Gov. Guild; Alderman Chapman of Providence, and oth- 
ers. Maj. F. G. Stiles, the oldest surviver of the infantr}-, read a paper 
entitled "A Full Century of the Light Infantry" (p. 6, Worcester Maga- 
zine, July, 1903). He said: 

"The prosperity of the Worcester Light Infantry has depended upon not only its 
founders but upon every officer and member that has been enrolled since its organiza- 
tion, but especially upon the first three commissioned officers; Levi Thaxter, captain, 
Enoch Flagg, first lieutenant and Levi Lincoln, ensign. These officers were all living 
more than a half century after the company was formed. Capt. George B. Peck, who 
is with us tonight, commanded the company in 1855 and sent invitations to these officers 
to attend the fifty-second anniversary. Neither of them was able to accept, but all 
sent acknowledgments and regrets." 

Ensign Levi Lincoln lived 65 years after the company was formed, 
W.— 1-41. 



642 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



never losing his interest in it, but always having a word of cheer and an 
open house for all who comprised its membership. The name of Lincoln 
has been on the roll from the beginning. Three brothers, Enoch Lin- 
coln, afterwards governor of Maine ; William Lincoln, the historian, and 
John W. Lincoln, captain of the company, 1812 to 1816. William S. Lin- 
coln, son of Levi, commanded the company from 1833 to 1834; Daniel 
Waldo, his brother, from 1838 to 1841 ; another brother George who was 
killed at Buena Vista was in the ranks. William Lincoln, son of Wil- 
liam S., served in the company in the Civil War, and his brother Levi 
Jr. commanded it from 1875 to ISTT. Winslow S. Lincoln, son of Wil- 
liam S., commanded the company from 1880 to 1883. Pelham W. Lin- 
coln, grandson of Ensign Levi, served in the company in the Spanish 
War. 

We are proud of the Lincoln record and doul)t if it can be equalled 
by any other military company where so many members of one family, 
even to the fourth generation, have l)een enrolled in its ranks. 

Worcester City Guards. — When the Worcester Light Infantry was 
torn by political dissension in 1840, all the Whigs withdrew excepting 
Capt. D. Waldo Lincoln. Both political parties had invited the militia 
compqiny to take part in its parade on the Fourth of July ; the company 
had voted to take part in the Democratic celebration. The Whigs were 
allowed to leave the organization, and their places were filled by 
Democrats. The Whigs immediately organized a new company, named 
the Worcester Guards, Aug. 6. 1840. Not until 1850 was the name 
changed to Worcester City Guards. The first parade with 64 men in the 
ranks, was held Sept. 19, 1840, and a supper at the Worcester House at 
which Gov. Levi Lincoln presided. The first officers were: Capt. 
George Bowen ; 1st Lieut, (afterward Maj. Gen.) George Hobbs; 3d 
Lieut. Leonard Pool; 3d Lieut. George W. Richardson; 1st Sergt. and 
Clerk, Hiram Gould; 3d Sergt. Joshua R. Bigelow; 3d Sergt., Samuel T. 
Lamb; 4th Sergt., Eldridge G. Pratt; 5th Sergt. and Color Bearer, 
Charles Blanchard. The company attended the dedication of the battle 
of Bunker Hill, and was on guard duty while Daniel Wel)ster was 
speaking. 

In 1860 a gold medal was bought by subscription, inscril^ed : "Pre- 




AND ITS PEOPLE 



643 



sented by the Worcester Guards of 1840 to the Worcester City Guards, 
Sept. 19, 1860, to be shot for annually." 

The following armories have been occupied successively : Town 
Hall, a wooden building on Thomas street, the attic of Dr. John Green's 
building, nearly opposite Central street, Waldon Block ; the Worcester 
Bank building; Brinley Hall, Main street, Taylor building (burned in 
1875, destroying the company records, the silk banner, a painting by 
Henry Woodward, etc.) ; Waldo street armory ; Clark's Block, Front 
street. Mechanic street and the present armory. Following was the 
muster roll of 1843 : 



Charles Blanchard, 
Charles P. Chapiii, 
Frederick A. Paige, 
William F. Emerson, 
George A. Barber, 
George A. Chamberlain, 
Ithamar S. Goes, 
Edwin W. Nye, 
Milton Homer, 
Edwin L. Heywood, 
Samuel T. Lamb, 
Henry Adams, 
Elbridge G. Pratt, 
Henry H. Edgarton, 
Leonard Poole, 
Nathaniel D. Coe, 
George Geer, 
Luther Slater, 
John G. Goes, 
George B. Conklin, 
George S. Putnam, 
George Bower, 
Loanimi Harrington, 
Stephen T. Coe, 
Charles P. Nichols, Jr. 
Windsor Hatch, 
George E. Wyman, 
Francis E. Bigelow, 



Joshua R. Bigelow, 
George W. Richardson, 
Hiram Gould, 
George C. Trumbull, 
Francis W. Eaton, 
Lewis H. Nye, 
George W. Adams, 
Harrison Bliss, 
Joel Nourse, 
Edward F. Dixie, 
Julius L. Clark, 
Charles Paine, 
Joseph Boyden, 
Samuel V. Stone, 
Artemus Ward, 2d, 
George W. Capron, 
Lewis Boyden, 
John Metcalf, 
Russell R. Shepard, 
Joseph Pratt, 
George Dryden, 
David J. Baker, 
Jonathan H. Knights, 
Horatio N. Tower, 
Theophilus Brown, 
Edwin I. Howe, 
George F. Ramsdell, 



David E. Merriman,. 
Samuel Lees, 
Leonard White, 
Barzillian Spencer,. 
Leonard Gates, 
George A. Brown, 
George H. Merriman, 
Charles S. Ellis, 
Charles N. Oliver, 
Dan forth PI. Bundy, 
Edwin Eaton, 
Erastus B. Rice, 
William W. Ward, 
Samuel R. Leland, 
Hiram W. Shepard, 
Allen Billings, 
Luther H. Goulding, 
James G. Henderson, 
G. Wyman Rockwood, 
Charles C Chamberlain, 
Thomas Kellogg, 
Harlow M. Guild, 
Lewis Thompson, 
John B. Wyman, 
William C. Head, 
J. Crawford Wyman, 
Amos C. Rathborn. 



The company took part in the parade celebrating the completion of 
the Atlantic cable, Sept. 1, 1856. Like all militia companies, they took 
part in every celebration of importance, marching in holiday processions, 
often enjoying anniversaries and banquets at homes in various other cit- 
ies and towns. They became famous for their fine drill-work and hand- 
some uniforms. The most prominent men of the city joined. They were 
visited by the Amoskeag Veterans of Manchester in 1855, and by other 
militia companies from time to time, and the occasions were celebrated 
with great zest and enthusiasm. In 1858 the Boston Light Infantry paid. 
a visit to the company. 



644 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The record of the Guards in the Civil and Spanish War is given 
elsewhere. Early in the spring of 1861, B. R. Sprague was chosen cap- 
tain, assuming command April IT ; Josiah Picket, 1st lieut. ; George C. 
Joslin, 2d lieut. ; Orson Moulton, ;kl lieut. ; Elisha A. Harkness, 4th lieut. 
The company left for the front with the 3d Battalion Rifles. Of the 
company 5(5 served afterward in the Civil War. Shaw, Burdick, Lieuts. 
Mathews and Pelton, Lieut. Daniels and Lieut. Bacon were killed dur- 
ing the war. (See p. 41, Hathaway's Hist. City Guards). Six former 
members of the companies attained the rank of general : Leonard, W^ard, 
WS^man. Sprague, Pickett and Goodell ; two colonels: A. A. Goodell 
and J. M. Goodhue; six lieut. -cols. : Walter X. Batchelder, Homer B. 
Sprague, Orson Moulton, D. :\L Woodward. J. M. Tucker. James H. 
Corbin ; one major: George AL Curtis. Twenty-nine l)ecame captains, 
and 15 lieutenants. In each case the highest rank only of the individual 
is counted. The record shows how valuable the previous militia training 
became in time of war. Twenty-three members were killed or died in 
the service ; seven in Rebel prisons. A history of the company by Lt. 
Samuel Hathaway was published in 1896. 

A Veteran Association has been maintained since Feb. 19, 1886. 
Gen. A. B. R. Sprague was its first president. The veterans gave a ban- 
quet in 1890 to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Guards. Gen. 
Sprague presided. Gen. Charles Devens, Col. F. W. Wellington, Col. 
Ivers Phillips who was captain of the Light Infantry in 1841, Major 
F. A. Harrington, Capt. T. G. Davis, Capt. Geo. L. Allen, Capt. Wm. 
Regan, Capt. John Lepire, Capt. W. A. Condy. Col. W. S. B. Hopkins, 
Gen. R. H. Chamberlain, Hon. Julius L. Clarke and Lt. Samuel Hatha- 
way were the speakers, and 2 TO members and guests attended. 

The captains of the company have been : George Bowen, George 
Hobbs, Leonard Pool, George B. Conklin, L. Lincoln, Xewton, Edwin 
Eaton, Charles W. Longley, John M. Goodhue, George H. Ward, A. B. 
R. Sprague, R. H. Chamberlain, Joseph H. Titus, W. H. King, E. R. 
Shumway, George H. Cleveland, William D. Preston, William A. Condy, 
Edwin G. Barrett, Frederick H. Lucke (1915-T). 

The Jackson Guards. — At a meeting in Fenwick ILall, Aug. 9, 1852, a 
militia company composed of yoimg men of Irish birth or descent was 
organized, and it was afterward named the Jackson Guards. The charter 
of the company was granted September 21. The company drilled at 236 
Front street; later in Warren Hall, Pearl street. Their first drillmaster 
was Major F. G. Stiles, of the Light Infantry. Michael O'Driscoll was the 
first captain. From the first they were met with prejudice and disfavor 
in the militia. At the muster in Leominster in 1853 they received many 
discourtesies ; at Longmeadow in 1854 the feeling was bitter. The 
Knownothing sentiment was strong at that time. That party elected 
a governor in 1854 and controlled the Legislature. As a result the seven 
Irish companies were disbanded. The Adjutant General came to this 



AND ITS PliOPLR 645 

city February IT and. having- l)rokcn into the armory of the company, 
removed all the public property and transported it to Boston. The men 
refused to give up their arms and ammunition. Capt. O'Driscoll secured 
the arrest of Stone, but he was speedily released on bail. There was an 
indignation meeting, Feb. 20, in Fenwick Hall, but on the advice of their 
counsel, Gen. B. F. Butler, no further proceedings were taken by the 
Jacksons. At least ten of the Jacksons went into the service with the 
Emmet Guards in 1861. The Jackson Guards were Comi^any D of the 
Eighth Regiment. 

The Emmet Guards. — The Emmet Guards were organized in June, 
1859, with Matthew J. McCafferty as captain, but the company did not 
become a part of the state militia until 1861. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War they volunteered, and were accepted and became Company 
C, Third Battalion of Rifles. The Emmets were well drilled and equip- 
ped and were sent at once to Washington, as related elsewhere. The 
original officers were Capt. Michael S. McConville ; First Lieut. Michael 
O'Driscoll; 2d Lieut. M. J. McCafferty; ;3d Lieut. Thomas O'Neill; ■4th 
Lieut. Maurice Melavan. The company was composed of men of Irish 
birth or descent. The service of the Emmets in the Civil War is related 
elsewhere. The war virtually disbanded, the Emmets as a militia 
organization. 

The Sarsiield Guards, composed of Irishmen, was organized after the 
war with Captain Joseph H. Corbett in command. 

A new company was formed Nov. 21, 1881, under the old name of 
Emmet Guards by fifteen young men of Irish birth or descent. The 
captain was Joseph H. Corbett, late of the Sarsfields; John J. Hughes 
was first lieutenant ; William Regam second lieutenant and Thomas F. 
McGauley, treasurer. Not until May 10, 1887, dfd this company become 
part of the state militia, and their first appearance in camp was at Fram- 
ingham, ]\.\\x 19, 1887. An honorary association was formed June 9, 
1887. Jeremiah Murphy being chairman, Richard O'Flynn secretary, 
elected June 9, 1887, and historian. 

The officers in 1896 were: Capt. J. J. Moynihan ; 1st Lieut. M. E. 
Hines; 2d Lieut. J. F. Hurley. The captains since have been John F. 

Hurley and Thomas F. Foley (1917 ) ; Lt. J. J. Hughes became 

captain in 1883-4; William Regan 1884-94; Jeremiah J. Moynihan, 1894- 
1907; John F. Hurley, 1907 ; Thomas F. Foley 1912 . 

The officers at the beginning of 1917, before the United States 
declared war against Germany, were : Capt. Thos. F. Foley ; 1st Lieut. 
George A. Corbin ; 2d Lieut. William P. Fitzgerald. 

Dr. Joseph W. O'Connor of this city was battalion adjutant with the 
rank of lieutenant in the Ninth Regiment. 

The Emmet Honorary Association was organized during the Span- 
ish War, in which the Emmets served as part of the Ninth Regiment 
(Co. G) (see Spanish War). The first officers were John J. Riordan. 



646 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



chairman; William J. Tansey, secretary; Dr. George McAleer, vice- 
president; Lt. James Early, treasurer. Directors: Richard O'Flynn, 
J. F. Fitzgerald, Paul Henry, J. Frank Quinn, Philip J. O'Connell. The 
first meeting was held March 31, 1898; the next meeting May 3, when it 
was voted to do escort duty the next day, when the Emmets started 
for camp, choosing Col. F. W. Wellington for chief marshal. A fund 
was raised for the company at the time it started for the front, Richard 
Healy being the largest contributor. During the war the Honoraries 
aided the families of the soldiers and forwarded supplies to the boys in 
Cuba. They attended to the burial of those who lost their lives and 
while the boys were at Montauk they gave very substantial aid. Me- 
morial services to those who gave their lives in the war were held at St. 
John's Church, Feb. 22, 1899. The organization raised a total of about 
$1,500. At the final meeting June 12, 1900, Dr. McAleer read a eluogy 
on John J. Riordan. 

The Ladies' Auxiliary to the Emmet Guards was organized in June, 
1898, to make comfort bags and provide supplies for the sick and 
wounded soldiers. Meetings were held two evenings a week at 98 Front 
street. Mrs. P. H. Murphy, Mrs. J. F. Hurley and Mrs. P. J. Moynihan 
were appointed to represent the auxiliary in the Soldiers' Aid Associa- 
tion, and they took an active part in the work of that organization. To 
raise funds a lawn party was held July 27, at St. Stephen's Church, and 
the net proceeds were over $600. The president of the auxiliary was 
Mary E. Fitzgerald; secretary, Abbie I. Heffren ; treasurer, Mrs. Wil- 
liam Goodwin. 

Wellington Rifles. — Action was taken April 17, 1894, to organize 
another company, and on the 24th 58 names were submitted to the 
mayor and aldermen and approved. Col. Fred W. Wellington of this 
city, a member of the Governor's staft", was assigned to inspect the men, 
and on May 2, 56 men were mustered in and the following officers 
elected: Captain, Charles E. Burbank; first lieut., Walter E. Hassam ; 
2d lieut., Wright S. Prior. The captain had been a West Point cadet 
one year; the lieutenants were graduates of Norwich University, a mili- 
tary institution. The company was named for Col. Wellington, and was 
entitled Co. H of the Second Regiment, M. V. N. The captains have 
been: Charles E. Burbank; Charles S.Holden, 1898-1900; Henry C. 
Young, 1901-1912; Clarence E. Smith, 1913; Eugene F. Burr, 1914. An 
account of the service of this company in the Spanish War is given else- 
where. 

Battery B, organized in May, 1869, consisted of a section of two 
guns, commanded by a first lieutenant and known as Section A. In Oc- 
tober, 1869, the section was recruited by the addition of two guns and 
necessary men for a battery of four guns, and was designated as the 
Fifth Battery, attached to the Third Brigade, then commanded by Gen. 
Robert H. Chamberlain, for whom the battery was named the Cham- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 647 

berlain Light Battery. During the reorganization of the mihtia in 18T6, 
the battery was attached to the First BattaHon of Light Artillery, First 
Brigade, and its name changed to Battery B. In 1878 it was detached 
and remained an independent battery of the First Brigade for several 
years. In 1891 it was again placed in the Battalion. 

The first armory of the battery was in the city barns in South Wor- 
cester, the company rooms being in the Taylor building. The equip- 
ment at first was two brass twelve-pounders and two iron pieces, with 
carriages and caissons. Some years later, when the battery was located 
in the Waldo street armory, four ten-pound Parrotts and carriages were 
issued to it and used several years. In 1886 while the armory was in 
Barton Place, the battery was increased by having two Catling guns, 
and a platoon of men added. Since 1890 the quarters have been in the 
present armory. In 1891 four three-inch muzzle-loading steel rifled 
guns took the place of the Parrotts. From time to time since then the 
equipment has been changed. 

The captains of the battery have been : E[enry W\ Reed, 1869-71 ; 
John G. Rice, 1871-77; George L. Allen, 1877-82; Henry C. Wadsworth, 
1882 ; George L. Allen, 1882-84 ; Fred W. Wellington, 188-1-87 ; John E. 
Merrill, 1887-89; George L. Allen, 1889-91; Laurence G. Bigelow, 1891- 
94; Joseph Bruso, Jr., 1894-98; Herbert W\ Haynes, 1899-1905 ; Edward 
W. Wheeler, 1905-1916; John F. J. Herbert, 1916. 

Lieutenants since 1900. — Arthur H. Boswcll. William E. Sayle, Wil- 
liam T. Gould, Edward W. Wheeler, John F. J. Herbert, Nicholas J. 
Smith, Walter J. Cookson, Arthur P. Trombly. 

Capt. Joseph A. Smith has been paymaster. of the Battalion for many 
years and Lieut. Nicholas J. Skcrrett of this city, battalion quarter- 
master. 

In 1916 the officers of the battery were: Capt., J. F. J. Herbert; Sr. 
1st Lieut., Arthur P. Trombley ; Jr. 1st Lieut., George Bieberbach. At the 
beginning of the war, 1917, the officers were: Capt. Herbert; lieuten- 
ants, Trombley, John B. Haliburton, Milton ]". Haynes and Edward J. 
Gully. 

The Battery entered the LInited States service and is now "some- 
where in France" in command of Captain Herbert. 

Capt. Herbert is an editor by profession, having served for twenty 
years on the staff of the Daily Spy and the Worcester Evening Post. 

Worcester Continentals. — Though not strictly militia, the W^orcester 
Continentals form one of the most picturesque of the military bodies of 
the city. Calling into their ranks many of the most distinguished men, 
maintaining a spirit of loyalty intermingled with much conviviality, the 
organization is welcomed wherever it goes and is popular at home and 
abroad. It has exercised a stimulating effect on the patriotism of the 
citizens, especially in reminding them of the patriots who won Indepen- 
dence and established a nation. In its charter the objects are stated: 



648 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

"Military organization, drill, discipline and parade, and the preservation 
of military associations and spirit." 

It ^vas incorporated April 14, 18T9. The organization was sug- 
gested first by Willard F. Pond at the time of the centennial celebration 
here, and the meeting to organize was held .Vpril 10, 18T6. A hundred 
men were enrolled for the parade, of which the company Avas one of the 
most conspicuous features. "In its ranks were seen the very flower 
of Worcester's citizenry and on its active or honorary list a representa- 
tive, one or more, of every family of any distinction in the city. Follow- 
ing are the officers and members at the time of the parade, July 4, 1876: 

Captain, William S. B. Hopkins; first lieutenant, David M. Woodward; second 
lieutenant, Joseph M. Titus; first lieutenant and adjutant, Edwin A. Wood; surgeon, 
rank of major, Frank H. Kelley, M. D. ; asst. surgeon, rank of ist lieutenant, George 
A. Bates, M. D. ; chaplain, rank of captain, Rev. Edward H. Hall, D. D. ; ist lieutenant 
and quartermaster, Willard F. Pond; color sergeant, A. B. Lovell; sergeant and 
treasurer, William G. Strong ; sergeant and clerk, George E. Boyden ; first sergeant, 
W^illiam H. Drury ; second sergeant, Harvey B. Wilder ; third sergeant, M. V. B. 
Richardson; fourth sergeant, William B. White; fifth sergeant, Charles H. Harvey; 
sixth sergeant, William A. Gile, Esq. ; seventh sergeant, Nathaniel Paine ; Eighth ser- 
geant, Frank A. Leland. 

Original and Charter members, 1876. — Charles A. Allen, Edwin Ames, Edward E. 
Andrews, Joseph AI. Ballard, George E. Barton, George A. Bates, Joseph N. Bates, Ar- 
thur M. Bigelow, Charles A. Bigelow, Charles E. Black, Frank T. Blackmer, Charles 
H. Bowker, George E. Boyden, William F. Brabrook, George W. Brady, Lucius L, 
Brigham, John K. Brown, George B. Buckingham, Fred A. Chase, John S. Clark, El- 
lery B. Crane, Ossian T. Crawford, Percy Daniels, William H. Drury, Henry W. Eddy, 
William F. Ewell, George E. Fairbanks, Henry T. Farrar, A. W. Fuller, Emory W. 
Gates, William A. Gile, Silas W. Goddard, William S. Goodell, Ransom M. Gould, Rev. 
Edward H. Hall, George H. Harlow, George B. Harris, Charles H. Harvey, L. A. 
Hastings, Samuel Hathaway, Henry G. Hayden, George F. Hewett, William D. Hol- 
brook, William S. B. Hopkins, William F. Hudson. 

Henry J. Jennings, William W. Johnson, John W. Jordan, William S. Jourdan, 
Frank H. Kelly, George P. Kendrick, L. C. Kenney, Emerson P. Knight, Frank A. 
Knowlton, Frank E. Lancaster, Frank A. Leland, A. Beaman Lovell, William Mc- 
Cready, John N. Morse, Jr., William Alunroe, Frank A. Newton, George M. Newton, 
John C. Newton, James A. Norcross, Nathaniel Paine. Charles G. Parker, David Park- 
er, Edward P. Pevey, William L. Plaisted, Willard F. Pond, Henry S. Pratt, Edward 
Prince, Otis E. Putnam, Edward J. Putnam, M. V. B. Richardson, William H. Robin- 
son, Charles E. San ford. Nelson R. Scott, Albert E. Smith, Henry E. Smith, Joseph 
A. Smith, Herbert L. Stockwell, William G. Strong, Elisha W. Sweet. 

Ransom C. Taylor, R. Fred Taylor, Joseph A. Titus, AL E. Walker, A. M. Warn- 
er, Alfred D. Warren, W. Ansel Washburn, Fred W. Wellington, Merritt A. Wheeler, 
Prescott E. White, William B. White, Charles B. Whiting, Charles F. Whitmore, Geo. 
H. Whitney, Harvey B. Wilder, Edwin A. Wood, David AL Woodward. 

Other members added in 1877-78-79. — William F. Bacon, Rev. George S. Ball, 
Frederick R. Bardwell, Daniel W. Bemis, James W. Bigelow, Sylvester Bothwell, Wil- 
liam H. Burnett, George A. Carter, Edwin Chapin, David B. Chase, Charles A. Clarke, 
Chas. H. Cleveland, Peter L. Conniffe, George W. Coombs, Mirick H. Cowden, Wil- 
liam H. Crawford, David Davis, George C. Dewhurst, D. Marshall Doane, Charles H. 
Ellsworth, Charles P. Fisher, Edward S. Fiske, Louis Friendly, Edward E. Frost, Ja- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 649 

laam Gates, William H. Gay, Daniel N. Gibbs, Charles E. Grant, Stephen E. Greene, 
Moses Gross. 

Charles N. Hair, Augustus Hamblett, George F. Harvvood, Robert Hay, Charles 
E. Hellyar, Charles A. Hill, Charles D. Holmes, Fred F. Hopkins, George S. Hoppin, 
A. B. F. Kinney, Charles Lalime, Rev. Charles M. Lamson, Nathaniel S. Liscomb, Al- 
fred S. Lowell, Samuel W. Manning, William H. Maynard, Alden C. Moore, Lucius 
A. Murdock, A. D. Norcross, William A. Piper, A. P. Pond, Henry C. Pyne, Edward 
J. Russell, Thomas S. Sloan, Ezra S. Snow, Edward H. Stark, Rolla N. Stark, E. E. 
Stone, Charles D. Thayer, Ellis Thayer, Lyman B. Vaughn, George F. Verry, Charles 
A. Waite, Lewis Ware, Courtland T. Webb, Joseph F. Wicks. 

The uniform of the Continentals was copied exactly from the uni- 
form worn by Rev. Joseph Sumner of Shrewsbury, a soldier in the Rev- 
olution, even the shoe and knee buckles being reproduced. 

Among the organizations who have entertained the Continentals 
during their many trips abroad are the following : 

Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, Boston, in 1876, 1881, and at various 
other times when delegations have been invited to participate with them in their an- 
nual celebrations. 

The Boston Tigers, Company K, ist Regiment, M. V. M., 1882. 

The Boston Fusileer Veteran Association, 1894. 

The National Lancers, Boston, 1893. 

The Boston Light Infantry Veteran Association, 1893. 

First Light Infantry Regiment, Providence, 1880-1888. 

First Light Infantry Veteran Association, Providence, 1876-1884 and 1886, and 
on other occasions. 

United Train Artillery, Providence 1883-1889-1900. 

Newport Veteran Artillery Company, 1876-1880. 

Governor's Foot Guard, Hartford, 1882- 1884- 1889. 

Putnam Phalanx, Hartford, 1882, 1884, 1889, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1902, 1904, 1908, 
1912. 

The Old Guard of New York, 1876, 1879, 1891. 

The Albany Burgesses Corps, Albany, N. Y., 1877, 1885, 1887. 

The Saratoga Citizens Corps, 22d Separate Co., N. Y. N. G., 1878, 1881, 1882, 1887. 

The Philadelphia State Fencibles, 1890. 

The Continental Guards, of New Orleans, 1880. 

The Amoskeag Veterans, Manchester, N. H., 1885, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1908, 
and on other occasions. 

Kansas City Veterans, G. A. R., 1894. 

Second Corps Cadets, Salem, 1893. 

Newburyport Veteran Artillery Association, 1892. 

The Highland Cadets of Montreal, P. Q., 1900. 

Royal Troops of the Citadel and Colonel Wilson, Quebec, 1890. 

Lexington Minute Men, Lexington, Mass., 1913. 

Among the memorable trips of the Continentals may be mentioned 
that of 1907, when four similar organizations joined the Continentals in 
the pilgrimage to Concord, with the governors of three states. After 
returning to Boston there was a parade and a review on Boston Com- 
mon. The visit to Hartford to attend the dedication of the Memorial 



650 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Bridge was an historic occasion, and the visit to that city in 1911 was an 
exceedingly festive day. 

In June, 1907, the Continentals were selected by Gen. Nelson A. 
Miles as his escort in the parade during Old Home Week in Boston. In 
September, 190T, a delightful trip to Maine was made. In 1909 they 
went to Washington and took part in the inauguration parade, notwith- 
standing the great storm that prevented many organizations from tak- 
ing part in the ceremonies of the day. 

During the southern trip in 191G a drum of the 13th \'a. Regt. taken 
in the Civil War and given to the Continentals by Dr. A. F. Wheeler of 
this city was presented with much ceremony to the Daughters of the. 
Confederacy in Richmond. 

Very early in the career of the Continentals they established a lasting reputation 
as hosts, when, on October 2 and 3, 1876, they had the pleasure of acting as escort to 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, during that command's pilgrimage, 
which in 1876 was to Worcester. 

Since this time the corps has received here and entertained the Saratoga Citizens' 
Corps, Albany Burgesses Corps, United Train of Artillery, Providence ; Second Corps 
of Cadets, Salem; First Light Infantry of Providence; Putnam Phalanx, Hartford; 
Amoskeag Veterans, Manchester; both first and second companies of Governor's Foot 
Guard, Hartford and New Haven ; Newburyport Veteran Artillery Company, Boston 
Light Infantry Association, Fusileer Veteran Association, as organizations, and on 
many occasions have had as honored guests delegations from these and other kindred 
associations. 

Two Hundredth Anniversary. — One of the most notable occurrences in Worcester 
in which the Continentals took a prominent part, was at the time of the celebration of 
the two hundredth anniversary of the naming of the town of Worcester, on October 14 
and 15, 1884. 

On this occasion the Continentals had as special guests the full command of First 
Company, Governor's Foot Guard of Hartford, with Colt's famous band, some over 
125 men and band, and the corps was accorded the distinguished honor of having the 
right of the line of parade as escort to the chief marshal, General Tosiah Pickett. 

Other notable occasions when the corps has rendered distinguished service at 
home have been the escort to President Rutherford B. Hayes, Aug. 23. 1877 ; escort to 
Governor Alexander H. Rice, Sept. 5, 1878, and escort to General William T. Sher- 
man, Sept. 5, 1881. 

In April, 1904, the Continentals were honored by the presence as a guest of General 
Nelson A. Miles, then in command of the United States army, and on April ig, 1905, 
they received and entertained Rear-Admiral Lamberton of the United States navy. The 
following year, on April 19, 1906, the corps had as special guests, Rear-Admiral Cogh- 
lan of the navy. His Excellency, Governor Curtis Guild, and Hon. William Wyndham, 
British consul at Boston. 

Dedication of Tablet. — One of the notable achievements of the Continentals and 
which will remain as a lasting memorial of the corps, was the erection of a han3some 
bronze tablet, marking the spot where General George Washington stopped for rest 
and refreshment during his passage through Worcester on his trip from Philadelphia 
to Cambridge, July i, 1775. 

This tablet rests upon the outer walls of what is now Poli's theatre on Elm street, 
and is the site of what was in revolutionary times the spot on which the famous 



AND ITS PEOPLE 651 

Stearns' tavern was conducted. The place is better known as the site of the old Lin- 
coln house. 

The tablet is in plain view of passers by and has been commented on by authorities 
on such work as one of the best designed and wrought tablets ever erected. The tablet 
was placed by the Continentals April 19, 1915. 

The list of organizations with whom there has been an interchange of courtesies 
serves to show the widespread acquaintance enjoyed by the Continentals as an organi- 
zation and the high regard entertained for its membership in the ranks of kindred as- 
sociations throughout the country. 

The commanders of the Continentals, past and present, have been as follows: 
Lieut. Col. William S. B. Hopkins, 1876-1886 and 1889-1891. Lieut. Col. Edward J. 
Russell, 1886. Lieut. Col. Henry E. Smith, 1886-1889. Lieut. Col. Aaron S. Taft, 1891- 
1892. Lieut. Col. Nathan Taylor, 1893. Lieut. Col. William A. Gile, 1894-1898. Lieut. 
Col. Phineas L. Rider, 1899-1900. Lieut. Col. Rufus B. Dodge, 1901-1904. Lieut-Col. 
George H. Harlow, 1905-1906. Lieut. Col. William A. Lytle, 1907-1910. Lieut. Col. 
Charles S. Holden, 191 1. Lieut. Col. J. Edmund Thompson, 1912-1913. Lieut. Col. 
Frank L. Coes, 1914. 

Annual parades have been held either at home or in places visited by the corps, 
and whether as guests to visitors from abroad or being entertained by other military 
bodies, the Worcester Continentals have borne themselves in a manner to reflect credit 
upon themselves and the city of Worcester. 

It has been the custom of the corps to fittingly celebrate such days as Washington's 
birthday, Feb. 22, Patriots' Day, April 19, Bunker Hill Day, June 17, and Independence 
Day, July 4th, by parades, open house during the noonday or by exercises in the even- 
ing, and on more than one occasion such observances have been participated in by high 
public officials and the public generally. At such times the hospitality of the corps has 
been unbounded. 

In an historical sketch of the Continentals written by Adjt. Herbert 
Adams and published in the Worcester Evening Gazette, March 29, 
1916, he gives special credit to the founder, to Lt. Col. George H. Har- 
low, to whom "more than to any other member is credit due for a longer 
period of untiring, loyal service as clerk and commander than any other 
member, joining in 1876 and remaining a member until he died; and to 
Lt. Col. Hopkins, who was longest in command." For an account of 
Lt. Col. Coes and most of the other commanders, see the biographical 
section. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

European War — The First Worcester Soldiers in France — Training 
School — Financial Contributions in 1917-18 — Volunteers 

The Worcester Military Training School. — In preparation for the 
war that seemed inevitable in 1915, a Worcester MiHtary Training School 
was formed in the winter of 1915-16, and three companies numbering 
from 60 to 100 each were drilled by officers volunteering for the purposes 
— Major Warren, Captains Foley, Weeden, Burr, Herbert and others ; 
Lieuts. H. W. Robbins, J. W. O'Connor, H. R. Hoyle, A. P. Trombly, A. 

F. Murray, H. L. Searles, G. A. Corbin, John A. Jones. (For roster, see 
Wor. Mag. 1916, p. 55). Many of the leading business and professional 
men belonged to these companies. 

Officers Trained at Plattsburg. — The following officers trained at 
Plattsburg, N. Y., received commissions dated August 10, 1917: 

Captains of Infantry. — Second company — James E. Higgins of Worcester, Charles 

G. Bowker of Worcester, and Sherman O. Haight of Worcester, all in the infantry 
section, officers' reserve corps. Third company — Robert E. Nugent of Worcester, in 
the infantry section, officers' reserve corps. Fifth company — Norman Harrower of 
Worcester, in the infantry section, officers' reserve corps. Sixth company — Leslie C. 
Wells of Worcester, infantry, in the new national army. 

Captains of Cavalry — First troop— Lawrence Ewing of Worcester, in the cavalry 
section, officers' reserve corps. 

Captains of Field Artillery. — First battery — Marvin C. Taylor of Worcester, in the 
field artillery section, officers' reserve corps. 

First Lieutenants of Infantry. — Second company — Haskell Williams of Worcester, 
in the infantry section, officers' reserve corps. Fifth company — Daniel W. Lincoln of 
Worcester, in the infantry section, officers' reserve corps. 

First Lieutenants of Field Artillery. — Third battery — Horace Wyman of Worces- 
ter, in the field artillery section, officers' reserve corps. 

First Lieutenants of Ordnance Department. — Ordnance Department — Herbert K. 
Cummings of Worcester, in the ordnance department, national army. 

Second Lieutenants of Infantry.— First company — Sylva C. Lachapelle of Worces- 
ter, in the infantry section, officers' reserve corps. Second company — Walter H. But- 
ler of Worcester, in the new national army. Third company — Thomas J. Sinnott of 
Worcester and Harold M. Paine, of Worcester, in the infantry section, offi- 
cers' reserve corps. Fourth company — Samuel W. Fernberger of Worces- 
ter, and Roland M. Cook of Worcester^ all in the infantry section, officers' reserve 
corps. Fifth company — Thornton R. Stenberg of Worcester, in the infantry section, 
officers' reserve corps. Sixth company— Sergt. Robert W. Love, Co. G, Ninth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, of Worcester, in the infantry section, officers' reserve corps. Eighth 
company — Frederick E. Bond of Worcester and Councilman Philip D. Wesson of 
Worcester, in the infantry section, officers' reserve corps, George C. Phipps of Wor- 
cester, in the new national army. 

Second Lieutenants of Cavalry. — First troop — Richard H. Mooney, of Worcester, 
in the cavalry section, officers' reserve corps. 



654 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 
, • 

Second Lieutenants of Field Artillery.— First battery— Philip F. Coe of Worces- 
ter, Lincoln H. Dean of Worcester, in the new field artillery section, officers' reserve 
corps. Second battery— Miles S. Perkins of Worcester, in the field artillery section, 
officers' reserve corps. Third battery— Richard K. Hutchins of Worcester, in the field 
artillery section officers' reserve corps. 

Second Lieutenants of Quartermaster's Corps. — Florence A. Donohue of Worces- 
ter in the quartermaster's corps, new national army. 

Second Lieutenants of Adjutant General's Dept. — Arthur G. Giroux of Worcester, 
in the statistical section, adjutant general's department, national army. 

For the regular army. — Louis S. Stickney of Worcester, in the infantry section, 
officers' reserve corps. • Richards. 

Nineteenth Regiment. — Folluwing is the complete Hst of field and 
staff officers of the 19th regiment, Massachusetts State Guard, of which 
the three Worcester companies are a part: 

Colonel, Harry C. Young, Worcester ; lieutenant- colonel, Lewis M. McCallum, 
Worcester; major. First Battalion, Delevan R. Nichols, Worcester; major, Second Bat- 
talion, Frank V. Gilson, Fitchburg; major, Third Battalion, Samuel H. Tuttle, Con- 
cord; captain, adjutant, Herbert L. Adams, Worcester; captain, supply officer, Arthur 
A. Brigham, Worcester; captain, chaplain, Rev. Henry Stiles Bradley, D. D., Worces- 
ter; major, chief medical officer. Dr. Curtis H. Jennings, Fitchburg; captain, medical 
officer. Dr. Charles A. Sparrow, Worcester ; captain, medical officer, Dr. Roy J. Ward,. 
Worcester ; lieutenant, medical officer. Dr. O. V. Wells, Westford ; lieutenant, battalion 
adjutant, First Battalion, Clarence F. Potter, Worcester; lieutenant, battalion adjutant. 
Second Battalion, Claude D. Beadle, Leominster. 

Headquarters Company — Sergeant-major, regimental, Ralph H. Whitney, Wor- 
cester; sergeant-major. First Battalion, W. H. Fletcher, Worcester; Sergeant-major, 
Second Battalion, Russell Lowe, Fitchburg; color sergeant, U. S. Colors, E. Walter 
Smith, Worcester ; first sergeant, George F. Chambers, Worcester ; supply sergeant, 
Paul D. Howard, Clinton ; corporal, Fred L. Haven, Worcester. 

Supply Company — Lieutenant, Otis C. White, Worcester ; supply sergeant, Edward. 
J. Martin, Worcester; first sergeant, Henry E. Morse, Worcester. 

In the year 1917 there were 18-il volunteers in the army at the 
recruiting station in this city. 

Financial Record of 1917. — Worcester people have contributed, since 
the war began in Europe, through all agencies and channels, up to the 
present day, $35,692,530. This is a per capita contril)Ution of $219.33 
based on the state census of 1915, which gave Worcester a population 
of 163,697 and a per capita contribution of $190.37 based on the present 
municipal water census for this year, which gave Worcester's population 
as 187,492. 

Naturally the bulk of this vast sum is represented in subscrip- 
tions to the two Liberty Loan issues, which total $34,297,900, showing 
that $1,394,630 was otherwise contributed by the Worcester public 
through war relief funds for various sufferers abroad, including the Bel- 
gian, Armenian, Syrian, Serbian, Jewish, French and English, and the 
special war funds of the Red Cross and agencies working for the Ameri- 
can soldiers. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



655 



Previous to the entry of the United States into the war that April, 
the people of Worcester, through the several war relief funds raised for 
war sufferers in Europe, had given approximately $205,106. Of course 
the great outpouring of wealth came when America became ranged 
against German autocracy, and the achievements since then have been 
magnificent in the giving of money. 

The Red Cross membership fund made this city a Red Cross strong- 
hold with over 60,000 members. The Second Liberty Loan put the city 
into the highest class of municipalities of less than 200.000. The Y. M. 
C. A. war fund campaign was carried to triumph in this city with a swift- 
ness and generosity that stands out from the common run. The Y. W. 
C. A. campaign was most unique of all, for the gifts in cash of those inter- 
ested exceeded the city's quota a week before the date for the campaign 
to start. 

Exactly 21 different channels of giving have received the unreserved 
support of Worcester people since the war began. And this immense 
wave of war giving followed right on the heels of a period of less than 
three years in which Worcester lavishly upheld other public causes, 
including the fund for the building of the new Boys' Club house, the big 
Y. M. C. A. new building fund, the clearing off of the mortgage on the 
G. A. R. memorial hall and the raising of funds for the Girls' Club. 

The complete list of war contribution through channels of all sorts 
and the total in round numbers which Worcester has given throuo-h 
each in 1817 is as follow^s : 



First Liberty Loan $11,543,600 

Second Liberty Loan 22,754,300 

Red Cross, special war fund 

membership campaign and 

Christmas gift fund 750,000 

Y. M. C. A. war fund 390,000 

Armenian and Syrian relief, 

raised in city at large and 

among Armenian residents. 7^,72>^ 

Jewish sufferers fund 50,000 

American Fund for French 

wounded 34,800 

Worcester branch. Surgical 

Dressings Committee 21,535 

Y. W. C. A. Hostess Houses 

fund 16,950 

Prince of Wales fund, amount 

sent to England 10,000 

Soldiers' Library fund 8,300 

Clark College Ambulance unit 7,000 

Soldiers' War Relief fund. . . . 6,736 



Belgian Relief fund 

K. of C. members' contribu- 
tion to K. of C. war fund. . . 

Serbian Relief fund 

French and Belgian Children's 
fund 

Children of America fund, 
amount contributed by Wor- 
cester public school children. 

Guardian Children's fund (in 
box fund) 

Evening Post Tobacco fund. 

Salvation Army War Relief 
fund 



6,500 

5,000 
3,500 

2,857 



2,046 

1,203 
1,000 

500 



Total $35,692,530 

Amount given outside Liberty Loans, 
$1,394,630. 

Per capita contribution, $219,338, based 
on state census ; $190,373, based on mu- 
nicipal water census. 



Battery E, 101st Field Artillery, U. S. A.— Battery E. the new Wor- 
cester command of the Massachusetts Field Artillery, now of the 101st 



656 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



was the first unit of the 2nd battalion to be organized, following the 
orders for the formation of various batteries throughout the state. Under 
the direction of Capt. John F. J. Herbert of Battery B and Capt. Arthur 
P. Trombley of the new command, Battery E was organized in seven 
days to a peace strength of 126 men. Later came the orders to recruit 
to a war footing and within five days the battery had a roster of 190, the 
first command of the battalion to reach a war strength. 

The battery was organized on May 12 with Capt. Trombley as com- 
mander. He was a member of Battery B for 18 years and 7 months. He 
was appointed a corporal in 1900, a sergeant in 1901, a second 
lieutenant in 1901, and a first lieutenant in 1915. Romeo A. Gravel, 
who was elected senior first lieutenant, served eight years in Bat- 
tery B., having been appointed a corporal in 1911, a sergeant in 1912 
and first sergeant in 1916. John D. Power, the other first lieu- 
tenant, was a member of Battery B for a year and on July 1, 1916, 
was named a corporal. On May 2 of this year, he was appointed a ser- 
geant. Andrew W. Thompson, the senior 2nd lieutenant was a member 
of Battery B for seven years. He was appointed a corporal in 1912 and 
a sergeant in 1914. Winslow S. Lincoln, the other 2nd lieutenant, was a 
member of Battery B for a year and was named a corporal on April 25. 
Following is a complete roster of the new battery : 

Capt. Arthur P. Trombley, First Lieut. Romeo A. Gravel, First Liept. John D. 
Power, Second Lieut. Andrew W. Thompson, Second Lieut. Winslow S. Lincoln, First 
Sergt. S. Fruendenthal, Supply Sergt. Fred J. Fitzgerald, Privates Alvin L. Abbott, Al- 
fred R. Allen, Harold G. Allen, Edw. Roy Anderson, James H. Anderson, Albert L 
Arnold, Valmore Barbeau, Harold W. Beams, Alfred E. Belanger, Philip L. Belisle, 
A. J. Beauregard, George L. Benoit, Ray C. Bezanson, Peter Bimeau, Henry E. Bol- 
duc, Arthur H. Boyle, Fred J. Bogle, William J. Brick, Arthur J. Brigham, Charles H. 
Brisson, Daniel Brocklebank, Arthur Broadbent, John J. Bresnihan, Arthur W. Brown, 
Everett W. Brown, Robert M. Brown, James S. Brown, W. E. Brown, Jr., S. P. Bruin- 
soma, William J. Buckley, Harold R. Burbank, John H. Buckley. 

Lean J. Caisse, William L. Carpenetr, Charles H. Carroll, William E. Carroll, How- 
ard F. Carson, E. J. Champigny, William H. Clark, H. J. Collette, John P. Connor, 
Henry A. Comtois, Raymond A. Copp, Ralph L. Coskey, Ralph A. Corey, Wilfred E. 
Cote, James Crother. 

Alfred J. Demers, Joseph R. Donnais, Harry E. Dow, John J. Dresser, Peter F. 
Durkin, E. E. Dursthoff. 

Theo. R. Edson, Harry Evans. 

Nils Frostholm, H. J. Fenner, Edw. R. Fenner, S. K. Firmin, J. J. Fitzgerald, R. J. 
Fontaine, Albert J. Fortier, Albert J. Fortin, Alex J. Eraser, Charles G. French, Thom- 
as F. Furey. 

Joseph F. Gaudette, Harris A. Geroux, George R. Giddings, William E. Gilinsky, 
Winslow H. Goff, Luther F. Grout, Francis W. Gully, Fredercik Grove. 

M. W. Hasseltine, Clio G. Haywood, Enos A. Harpcll, Sandy L. Harpell, Ector 
Heon, Fred H. Hinckley, William J. Horgan, Edw. A. Houghton, James H. Houghton. 

Frank E. Ingraham, James E. Irwin. 

Arvid Johnson, George A. Johnson. 

George J. Keating, John J. Kennedy, William J. Kentile, Walter F. Knox. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 657 

Alex J. Labossiere, Henry J. LaDuke, Leo J. LaFrance, Herman E. Langson, Ern- 
est J. Lalonc, Jerry S. Laporte, Ernest E. LaBranche, Harold C. Lamb, Harold E. Law- 
rence, William C. Lavalle, Gordon L. Leary, George A. LeClair, George F. Levsque, 
Carl A. Lygdman, Paul H. Lundborg, Joseph Lynch, George J. Legasey, Carl J. Lind- 
berg, Earle E. Lovejoy. 

Joseph R. Madden, Joseph J. Malone, Ray G. Mansfield, Frederick L. Mayo, Nel- 
son E. Mayo, Floyd D. McCutchen, James P. McDonnell, Edw. W. McGee, Samuel D. 
McGill, James E. McNamara, Philip L. Millay, Robert E. Miller, Roland C. Millett, 
Charles E. Miles, Charles Minneym, Clarence R. Mitchell, Michael F. Moore, John G. 
Moylan, Frederick W. Munch, William P. Murphy. 

Leon E. Newton, Frederick W. Nystrom. 

Walter N. Obershaw, George F. Oster. 

Ernest L. Paranto, Henry J. Perry, Willis C. Perry, Gotfried P. Person, William 
H. Pettis, William W. Phelps, Charles M. Phillips, Frank Pickering, Irwin G. Pilet, 
Omer Potvin, John J. Power, Arthur W. Price, Theo. F. X. Proulx, Charles L. Pru- 
neau, Frederick J. Putnam. 

Walter Adams Rand. Samuel E. Rambo, Wallace H. Redstone, Edward J. Rich- 
ards, Carl W. Ringquist, Rosario E. Rochitte, Evald C. Rosene. 

Mesrop Saragian, Leon A. Sargent, Guy Leander Seeley, Nathan Shatsoff, Ralph 
W. Sibley, Cecil E. Simpson, George N. Snow, Samuel S. Spencer, Charles B. Stevens, 
Harold A. Stevens, Frederick E. Stoddard, John E. Strandberg. 

Charles F. Terrill, Wayne A. Thompson, William J. Thompson, Eric A. Thoreen, 
Chetwood F. Treen, Harold L. Tyler. 

Charles M. Valley, John W. Vandenberg. 

Mathew J. Walsh, David J. Walsh, Thomas E. Watson, Frank K. Way, Arthur H. 
Whitehead, George H. Whittaker, Frank Whitworth, Samuel Wentworth, Norman 
Wills, William E. R. Witson, Clarence D. Wood, Harold S. Wood, Edward B. Writer. 

Frank Zinkieweiz. 

Physicians in the Service. — The following (revised May 1, 1918), 
list includes not only the doctors in service in training camps in France, 
but those physicians who are examining for the local and advisory 
boards. The Worcester district doctors in service are : 

U. S. Army — Medical Officers' Reserve Corps, (a) on active duty: Dr. Howard 
Beal, Dr. Edward B. Bigelow, Dr. Frank W. George, Dr. Roger Kinnicutt, Dr. E. B. 
Simmons, Dr. Wm. E. Denning, Dr. Willard Lemaire, Dr. James J. Goodwin of Clin- 
ton, Dr. Chester C. Beckley of Lancaster, Dr. Roger Scofield, Dr. Merrick Lincoln, Dr. 
George C. Lincoln, Dr. E. F. Phelan of North Brookfield, Dr. R. S. New^ton of West- 
boro, Dr. Wm. J. Fay, Dr. A. K. Yoosuf, Dr. James V. May (honorably discharged), 
Dr. Samuel C. Gwynne, Dr. Harry P. Cahill, Dr. Israel Laurier, Dr. Donald Gilfillan, 
Dr. D. F. O'Connor, Dr. Homer Gage, Dr. D. A. Thom, Dr. Kendall Emerson, Dr. 
Frank E. Harriman, Dr. Elisha S. Lewis of Princeton, Dr. J. W. Ledbury of Uxbridge, 
Dr. W. A. Maclntire. Dr. Frank T. Oberg, Dr, H. L. Simmons, Dr. Willard P. Staple- 
ton, Dr. George Watt. 

Commissioned but not yet called to active duty — Dr. George T. Little, Uxbridge, 
Dr. Charles Salmon, Dr. David Bridgewood, Dr. Gordon Berry. 

StafT officer 104th Infantry — Dr. Joseph O'Connor. 

U. S. navy — Dr. Gilbert Haigh, Dr. Linwood Johnson, Dr. Thomas Courtney, Dr. 
Joseph L. Lannois, Northboro, Dr. Winthrop Adams. 

Massachusetts state guard — Dr. Peter O. Shea, Dr. L. F. Woodward, Dr. C. A. 

W.— 1-42. 



658 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Sparrow, Dr. Roy J. Ward. Dr. Frank L. Magune. Dr. George F. H. Bowers, Dr. Edw. 
H. Mackay, Clinton. 

English army (Harvard unit)— Dr. Kendall Emerson, now in U. S. army. Dr. 
Oliver Stansfield, Dr. Stanley Bridges, Dr. George Watt, now in U. S. army. 

English hospitals— Dr. Albert O. Raymond, Dr. William H. AlacKay. 

U. S. selection service (a) local boards— Dr. James C. Austin, Spencer, Dr. Edw. 
W. Balmer, Whitinsville, Dr. J. Arthur Barnes, Dr. Frederick Bryant, Dr. John F. 
Harkins, Dr. Ernest L. Hunt, Dr. William W. McKibben, Dr. A. J. McCrea, South- 
bridge, Dr. George L. Tobey, Clinton. 

(b) medical advisory board : 

District 15 A— Dr. F. H. Baker, chairman, Dr. B. T. Burley. secretary, Dr. C. D. 
Wheeler, Dr. David Harrower, Dr. Philip H. Cook, Dr. William J. Delehanty. 

District 15-B— Dr. R. P. Watkins, chairman, Dr. Philip H. Cook, secretary. Dr. 
Lester C. Miller, Dr. C. A. Church, Alillbury, Dr. C. T. Estabrook, Dr. B. H. Mason. 

District 16— Dr. C. L. French, Clinton, chairman, Dr. Irene M. Morse, Clinton, 
secretary, Dr. E. V. Scribner, Dr. J. Barton, Fitchburg, Dr. Charles R. Abbott, Clinton. 

Additional examining physicians — local boards : Dr. L. P. Leland, Dr. R. Wil- 
liams, Dr. Henry Hartnett, Dr. George F. O'Day, Dr. M. B. Fox, Dr. R. J. Shannahan. 
Dr. George T. Little, Uxbridge, Dr. George E. Emery, Dr. R. J. Ward, Dr. John E. 
Rice, Dr. F. H. Washburn, Dr. Edward Cooper, Dr. Henry L. McCluskey, Dr. T. C. 
JtlcSheehy, Dr. George A. Power, Dr. William Dolan, Dr. George C. Brown, Dr. J. T. 
Kennedy, Dr. J. W. McDonald, Dr. E. C. Pochette, Dr. J. W. Cahill, Dr. Charles Crois- 
sant, Dr. Alfred A. VvHieeler, Leominster, Dr. G. L. Chase, Clinton, Dr. W. E. Currier, 
Leominster, Dr. T. A. Shaughnessy, Leominster, Dr. Charles Brigham. Leominster, Dr. 
Merton L. Griswold. Uxbridge, Dr. John A. Moynahan, Clinton, Dr. E. H. Mackay, 
Clinton. 

(b) To advisory boards— Dr. Arthur W. Marsh, Dr. George H. Hill, Dr. War- 
ren R. Gilman, Dr. C. A. Sparrow, Dr. Albert E. Cross, Dr. Albert C. Getchell. 
American ambulance in Paris — Dr. W. Irving Clark. 

Fifty Millions for the War. — Worcester's war contributions have 
actually gone well over the $.JO,0()0,000 mark in less than a year. 

It seems that w^iile the three Liberty Loans have aggregated $43,- 
322,100, which, with the previous loan of $1,500,000 carries the total to 
$44,822,100, the banks alone have recently taken certificates in indebted- 
ness amounting to $:, 500,000. Add this to $44,822,100 and you have 
the grand total of $52,322,100. 

Should Worcester's subscriptions to the Third Liberty Loan go to 
$10,000,000, as is confidently expected they may, then the grand total of 
Worcester's war work and aid to the government will be boosted to 
$53,297,900. 

Worcester had contributed before May T, 1918, to the combined 
Liberty Loans, first, second and third issues, $43,322,100. For the first 
issue, Worcester's allotment was $9,690,000. and the subscription was 
$11,543,000. 

For the Second Liberty Loan, Worcester's minimum allotment was 
$13,000,000 and the total of all subscriptions, $22,754,300. 

The publicity feature of the campaign was in the hands of William 
Radclifi"e, the executive secretarv of the Worcester branch of the Ameri- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 659 

can Red Cross. Excellent work was achieved by the Boy Scouts; Al- 
hambra Council, Knights of Columbus, and other organizations. 

Splendid work has been achieved by the Worcester employees of the 
American Steel & Wire Co. in the amount of subscriptions to the Third 
Liberty Loan. The final report in the three Worcester plants of the 
company gave each plant at 100 per cent., as all the 6,098 employes 
bought bonds, the average subscription of each being $102.83. 

Li the North Works the 3,373 employes subscribed for Liberty 
Bonds to the value of $341,100; in the South Works, 3,316 employes sub- 
scribed for Liberty Bonds to the value of $339,850 ; in the Central Works,. 
311 employes took bonds to the amount of $32,850; in the district office 
the members of the office staff, 198 of them, took Liberty Bonds to the 
amount of $33,800; thus the total subscriptions from the 6,098 employes, 
aggregate to $637,000. 




SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 

Militafy Memorials — Col. Timothy Bigelow Monument — Civil War 
Monument — Gen. Devens Statue — Spanish War Memorials 

The Col. Timothy Bigelow Monument. — To the memory of the most 
prominent military figure of the town during the Revolution, Col. Tim- 
othey Bigelow, a monument was erected on the common by Col. T. Bige- 
low Lawrence, of Boston, a descendant and formally dedicated April 19, 
18C1, the 86th anniversary of the battle of Lexington. The monument 
was designed by^ George Snell of Boston. The marble was imported 
from Tuscany. The remains of Col. Bigelow were reinterred under the. 
monument. 

The past mayors of the city and many distinguished guests were 
present at the dedication. Capt. D. Waldo Lincoln was marshal of the 
parade, wdiich moved through the principal streets. Col. Lawrence him- 
self made the sp>eech of presentation, expressing his pleasure at the mag- 
nificent cooperation of citizens and city in dedicating the monument. In 
behalf of the city Mayor Isaac Davis responded. The feature of the day 
was the address of the venerable Ex-Governor Levi Lincoln. He said : ' 

"It may be expected of me, one of the few, the very few, of the living, who have 
ever looked upon the person of Colonel Bigelow, that I should give such reminiscences, 
of him as 1 have, imperfect and unimportant though they be. I well recollect as though 
it were yesterday lis tall, erect and commanding figure, his martial air, his grave and 
rather severe countenance, his dignified and earnest address. I cannot doubt the re- 
spect and deference with which he was universally regarded; for it was among the 
most positive injimetions of the antiquated district schoolmistress to the boys o'f my 
day, enforced even hy the fear of the rod, that we should always 'pull off our hats to 
Parson Bancroft and Colonel Bigelow.' At the time of his death and for many years 
after, I often heard him spoken of as a gallant old soldier and the thoroughly accoml 
plished officer; and now after the lapse of seventy-one years from his burial in the 
same vernal season of the fragrance of the budding flower and the gushing melody of 
birds, I stand, ^an aged man, again at his grave, to remember and to honor him." 

Rev. Dr. Andrew Bigelow and Hon. John P. Bigelow both of Bos- 
ton, descendants, also spoke. The latter presented a dozen ball cart- 
ridges made for Col. Bigelow's regiment in this town, and said he had 
tried some of the powder that morning and it flashed brilliantly after 
being kept 8-1 years. Hon. Benjamin F. Thomas, grandson of "^Isaiah 
Thomas, and Tyler Bigelow a nephew of the colonel, were the last speak- 
ers.. (Lincoln's History, p. 399 Hersey's addition). 

The Soldiers Monument.— In his inaugural address in January, 1866 
Mayor James B. Blake suggested the erection of a monument to' those 
who lost their lives in the War for the Union. A special committee con- 



662 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



sisting of the Mayor, Aldermen O. K. Earle. Jerome Marble; Coimcil- 
men \V. E. Starr. John S. Baldwin, Edward L. Davis and Samuel E. 
Hildreth, was appointed to consider the subject, and this committee 
called a public meeting in Mechanics Hall, held Feb. 10, 186G. 

A canvassing committee committee of twenty-eight, of which George 
W. Richardson was treasurer, was appointed, and the mayor, two alder- 
men and seven councilmen were subsequently added. The fund 
amounted to $11, -^42.40, according to the treasurer's report. Sept. 5, 1867, 
and with some changes in the committee the work of raising funds con- 
tinued. Ah executive committee was appointed Sept. 28th. 18GG, to pro- 
cure i)lans and select a site for the monument. The committee consisted 
of James B. Blake, E. B. Stoddard, George Crompton, Oliver K. Earle, 
David M. Woodward, R. M. Gould. M. S. McConville, Charles A. Chase 
and Joseph Chase. The design of Gambrill & Richardson, architects, of 
New'York, was accepted. Edward L. Davis and Henry A. Marsh were 
added to the executive committee. June 25, 1871, and George Crompton 
elected chairman of the general committee in place of ]\Iayor Blake, 
deceased. The model in clay by Randolph Rogers was accepted Nov. 
8, 1871. Post No. 10, G. A. R., approved of the action of the committee. 
To the sum of $15,000 then in hand, the city added an appropriation of 
$35,000 Nov. 20, 1871. The site on the Common was granted by the city 
council, March 30, 1874. 

The monument was dedicated with imposing ceremony, July 15, 
1874. Addresses were made by Chairman George Crompton, Hon. Alex- 
ander H. Bullock, Gen. Charles Devens, Mayor Davis and Gen. Burn- 
side. These are printed in a book subsequently published by the monu- 
ment committee, giving a full account of the dedication. Gen. Josiah 
Pickett was chief marshal of the day. Other guests were: Vice-presi- 
dent Henry Wilson, Hon. George S. Boutwell, Congressmen Alvah 
Crocker, Ginery Twitchell, J. M. S. Williams, George F. Hoar and La- 
fayette S. Foster; Gen. John W. Kimball, Gen. A. B. Underwood and 
Hon. George B. Loring, president of the Massachusetts Senate. 

The monument is 65 feet high, its base nineteen feet and a half; 
of Westerly granite. Four bronze statues representing infantry, artil- 
lery, cavalry and navy, adorn the four corners ; the names o'f 398 soldiers 
and sailors, to whom the memorial was erected, are inscribed on bronze 
tablets on the four sides. On the west side is another inscription: 
"Erected by the people of Worcester in Memory of Her Sons who Died 
for the Unity of the Republic." The monument also has a medallion of 
Gov. John A. Andrew; a bas-relief of a dying soldier, and another of 
Lincoln. On the third section there are bronze plates bearing the seal 
of the city, the coat-of-arms of the Commonwealth, a wreath of laurel 
and crossed swords, and the national coat-of-arms. The statue of Vic- 
tory surmounts the monument. 

Battle Flags. — The original flags carried by the Worcester Regi- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



663 



ments— the loth, 21st, 25th, 34th, 36th, 51st and 57th in the War for the 
Union, are preserved in a cabinet in City Hall. 




Wdi- 0/ mt Fltbslliori. 



ri>-who Ud ttiV Wijr<tjrf.rj 




' Battle of^ 
atHKiViry 

•■Dedication 
- armt^ 

Wtrt/oin^ 0(1 

"thfe 
WORCtJTeR 

LKtHT 

IriFANTRy 

on-ffTtir 
WAy to 

WA)H!r((iTort 



The General Devens Statue.— An equestrian statue to honor Gen. 
Charles Devens and the soldiers who went from Worcester county in the 
War of the Union, was erected in front of the county court house in this 
city, and unveiled with appropriate ceremony July 4, 1906. Gen. Devens 
was the most distinguished officer from this city in the war. (See 
biography). 

The movement to erect this memorial began in 1891 at the sugges- 
tion of Senator George F. Hoar. Ten years later an act was passed by 
the legislature authorizing towns and cities of the county to contribute 
funds toward the erection of this monument, and appointing as a com- 
mission under the act: George F. Hoar, J. Evarts Greene, Herbert 
Parker, Nathaniel Paine, Emerson Stone, Rufus B. Dodge, Daniel Mer- 
riman and Edward J. Russell. The places of Senator Hoar, Postmaster 
Greene and County Commissioner Stone, removed by death, were filled 
by Gen. William F. Draper of Hopedale, Major Edward T. Raymond, 
and County Commissioner George W. Cook. The county gave the sum 
of $5,000, and a majority of the towns contributed. Large sums were 
given by various residents of the county, and smaller contributions from 
thousands of citizens swelled the total. The sculptors were D. C. French 
and E. C. Potter. George D. Webb executed the base. The total cost 
was $40,000. 

At the dedication, July 4, 1906, Gov. Curtis Guild Jr. represented 
the Commonwealth. The speech of presentation to the countv was 



664 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



made by Gen. W. F. Draper, and that of acceptance by County Com- 
missioner Warren Goodale. Gen. Stewart L. Woodford delivered an 
oration. Previous to the dedication a military parade under Chief Mar- 
shal Maj. Edward T. Raymond included the militia, the veterans of the 
Civil War under Gen. Charles W. Wood. There were 140 men in line 
in Gen. Devens's old regiment (the loth) under Gen. John W. Kimball, 
of Fitchburg. There were 190 men in the Devens brigade under Col. M. 
W\ Taylor of Plainfield. N. J. Among the distinguished guests were 
Secretary of War William H. Taft and Lt. Gov. Eben S. Draper. 

The inscriptions on the monument give the number of soldiers fur- 
nished by each town and city in the Civil War; the names of the princi- 
pal organizations in the service from this county; a summary of the 
public service of Gen. Devens. It is inscribed also: "To General Dev- 
ens and the Men of Worcester County in the War for the Union 1861- 

1865." 

Spanish War Memorials. — Com- 
mander Daniel E. Denny of Post 
10, G. A. R., assisted by Senator 
George F. Hoar and Gov. John L. 
Bates, succeeded in getting for me- 
morial purposes, the grant of a 
Spanish cannon from the govern- 
ment. This bronze gun, taken at 
Santiago, is 11 >4 feet in length, 
with a 61^2 inch bore. It was cast 
at Sevilla, Spain. May 5, 1T98, and 
is inscribed with the royal mono- 
gram, etc. It was mounted in the 
triangle at Armory Square, the car- 
riage being given by George D. 
Webb, and was dedicated Dec. 9, 
liX)-!-. When the new bronze me- 
morial was erected on this site in 
1911, the gun was moved to a suit- 
al)lc location at the side of the ar- 
mory. 

The bronze statue in memory of 
the Spanish war soldiers, now oc- 
cupying the triangle, was designed 
and wrought by O'Conner of this 
city. It represents a soldier in ac- 
SPAXISH WAR MEMORIAL, tion. and is perhaps the most artis- 

Army Square. ^j^, memorial in the city. It was 

dedicated with elaborate exercises, .\]iril IT. 191 :. 




CHAPTER XXXIX 

Independence Day 

The following paper by Mrs. Ada S. Nutt, enttiled "Fourth of July 
Celebrations in Worcester," was read at a meeting of Col. Timothy 
Bigelow Chapter, D. A. R., Nov. 3, lUO!) : 

The object of this paper is to give in condensed form the story of the celebration 
of Independence Day in Worcester from the birth of our nation up to 1850. Of neces- 
sity the celebrations were similar in many respects, but as time went on the display in- 
creased, and the festival grew in importance in the public mind. The character of 
the celebrations since 1850 is familiar to us all. The parades have grown longer, the 
firecrackers have increased tremendously in size, and the noise has grown all out of 
proportion to the population, according to the belief of the lovers of quiet. The small 
boy of to-day would hardly be satisfied with the single bunch of infinitesimal firecrack- 
ers allowed his grandfather in 1850. 

The antique or horrible parade is a comparatively new departure, inaugurated since 
that date, and was at first called "the studlefunk procession." It was usually held at a 
very early hour in the morning, and probably all of us can remember the anticipation 
with which we, as children, looked forward to the mysteries of that feature of the 
festival. It is still the chief delight of the youth whenever a town decides to have a 
public celebration. To-day, in addition to the military display, we have the merchants' 
or trades procession, sometimes athletic tournaments, and always the sport which ap- 
peals to all good Americans, the ball-game. In other respects, our forefathers spent 
the Fourth of July a great deal as we do, with more regard, probably, to the meaning 
of the celebration, especially in those first years, during the war, and later, before the 
gallant survivors of the fight were gone. 

The Declaration of Independence was heard for the first time in Massachusetts, 
in our own city of Worcester. Every one is familiar with the story of the messenger 
who was speeding toward Boston with the startling news, who was intercepted at Wor- 
cester, July 14, 1776, and his message, the Declaration of Independence, read by Isaiah 
Thomas from the west porch of the Old South Church. It was heard by a few who 
had hurriedly assembled, and for the benefit of the others it was read again the fol- 
lowing Sunday by Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty, at the close of his sermon. By Monday of 
the following week, July 22, 1776, the proper arrangements had been made to give it a 
fitting public reception, and it was read again with great rejoicing. The occasion was 
so notable that I will read the whole account as printed in the Massachusetts Spy of 
July 24 following : 

On Monday last a number of patriotic gentlemen of this town, animated with a 
love of their country and to show their approbation of the measures lately taken by 
the Grand Council of America, assembled on the green near the liberty pole where, 
having displayed the colors of the thirteen Confederate colonies of America, the bells 
were set a ringing and the drums a beating. After which the Declaration of Independ- 
ence of the United States was read to a large and respectable body (among whom 
were the selectmen and committee of correspondence assembled on the occasion), 
who testified their approbation by repeated huzzas, firing of musketry, and other dem- 
onstrations of joy. When the arms of that tyrant in Britain, George the III of ex- 
ecrable memory, who in former reigns decorated, but of late disgraced the Court 
House in this town, were committed to the flames and consumed to ashes ; after which 
a select company of the Sons of Freedom repaired to the Tavern lately known by the 



666 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Sign of King's Arms, which odious signature of despotism was taken down by order 
of^he people which was cheerfully complied with by the inn-keeper, where the follow- 
ing toasts were drank, and the evening spent with joy on the commencement of the 
happy area: i. Prosperity and perpetuity to the United States of America. 2. The 
President of the Grand Council of America. 3. The Grand Council of America. 4. 
His Excellency. General Washington. 5. All the Generals in the American Army. 6. 
Commodore Hopkins. 7. The officers and soldiers of the American Army. 8. The 
officers and seamen of the American Navy. 9. Patriots of America. 10. Every Friend 
of America. 11. George rejected and liberty protected. 12. Success to the American 
Arms. 13. Sore eyes to all the Tories, and a chestnut burr for an eyestone. 14. Per- 
petual itching without the benefit of scratching, to the enemies of America. 15. The 
Council and representatives of the Massachusetts Bay. 16. The officers and soldiers in 
the Jklassachusetts service. 17. The memory of the brave General Warren. 18. The 
memory of the magnanimous Gen. Montgomery. 19. Speedy redemption to all the 
officers and soldiers who are now prisoners of war among our enemies. 20. The state 
of Massachusetts Bay. 21. The town of Boston. 22. The selectmen and committee of 
correspondence for the town of Worcester. 23. May the enemies of America be laid 
at her feet. 24. May the freedom and independence of America endure till the Sun 
grows dim with age and this earth returns to chaos. The greatest decency and good 
order was observed and at a suitable time each man returned to his respective home 
after drinking 24 toasts. 

The tavern spoken of was kept by Captain Thomas Sterne, on nearly the spot where 
the Lincoln House now stands. He died in 1772, and the inn was kept by. his widow. 
It was a favorite meeting place for the tories, and their famous protest of 1774 was 
signed here. Later two committees of correspondence also met here. There seems to 
have been no formal celebration in 1777-78. 

In I77Q the Fourth fell on a Sunday, and the celebration was postponed by the 
Sons of Freedom until the Thursday following. The morning was ushered in by 
the ringing of bells and the firing of cannon and a display of the Continental flag. At 
noon thirteen cannon shots were fired, and in the evening the Court House was illum- 
inated with candles, thirteen rockets were fired, and there was a display of other fire- 
works, as the Spy said, "greatly to the satisfaction of many respectable and staunch 
friends to the common cause of our nation, who were assembled at the Court House 
from this and adjacent towns." This was the first time that fireworks were used in the 
town to celebrate the day, and the public demonstration must have had a special signifi- 
cance, as the war was not yet over. 

The next public celebration occurred in 1789, when the custom of having proces- 
sions was inaugurated. Major Phineas Jones was in command of a parade consisting 
of a company of horse under Captain Denny of Leicester; the Worcester train of ar- 
tillery under Captain Stanton; two companies of militia under Captains How and 
Heywood. They were reviewed on the Common, and in the evening the officers and a 
number of other "private gentlemen (said the paper) sat down to an elegant enter- 
tainment, at which toasts suitable to the occasion were drank." 

Beginning with the year 1789, there were annual celebrations for several years, al- 
though they were not conducted by the town authorities. In 1790, the Fourth falling 
on Sunday, Monday was celebrated by the Worcester Artillery Company, which pa- 
raded before Mr. Mower's tavern, which stood at the present location of the Walker 
building, corner of Mechanic street. At one o'clock they fired a national salute in front 
of the Court House, then returned to the tavern and partook of a handsome enter- 
ment. 

The next year (179O i" addition to the parade, there was an oration by Edward 
Bangs, and an original ode was sung. The banquet was at Captain Heywood's inn, on 
the site of the Bay State HoUse, where, according to the report, a "very handsome but 
economical entertainment was provided, of which they heartily but sociably partook." 
There were fireworks in the evening. In 1792 and 1793 this program was duplicated, 
with fourteen cannons fired and fourteen toasts drunk, to signify the fourteenth year 
of independence, and in 1793 with fifteen. The account of this latter celebration ap- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 667 



peared in the Spy as follows: "Drank a number of patriotic toasts under the discharge 

of cannon; and ; and went home." It said also that a spirit of manly iiidc- 

pcndcncc prevailed. 

In 1795, Mr. Joseph Allen, Jr., was the orator, and the company dined at Masons' 
Hall. The next year, after the usual parade, a procession was formed at Mower's 
tavern, and proceeded to the South Meeting House to listen to an oration by Francis 
Blake. After a dinner at Mower's, toasts were drunk and cannon fired. The following 
year (1797) according to the Spy, "as Aurora rose smiling she was saluted by 16 dis- 
charges from the cannon of the x\rtillery Company." The oration was delivered by 
Dr. Oliver Fiske at the South Aleeting House, followed by a dinner. The artillery 
Company supped at Heywood's tavern, and the seventeenth toast read : "Republicanism 
triumphant; and bridles, whips and rods of scorpions for the correction of tyrants. 
May their horses stumble at the sound of the trumpet and their ships turn pale at the 
sight of an enemy." The last toast was to the "gallant General Bonaparte." The anni- 
versary was closed with "decent hilarity." 

The South Church saw the celebration of 1798 also, with divine blessing invoked by 
Rev. Joseph Sumner of Shrewsbury, and an oration by Rev. Samuel Austin. The 
celebrated song, "Adams and Liberty," succeeded the oration, and the custom pre- 
vailed for some years of having original odes read or sung as a part of the exercises. 
Of the sixteen toasts proposed at the dinner, this was one: "Money, money, money; 
may his hand be blasted with a deadly leprosy who should give or take it in barter for 
his country. Three, cheers. 

In 1799, in addition to the procession under escort of Captain Healy's artillery com- 
pany, the press says, "a select band performed a number of appropriate pieces of mu- 
sic. A large number of ladies and gentlemen were unhappily disappointed of an ex- 
pected oration. Mr. Peletiah Hitchcock, the orator of the day, on his way from 
Brookfield to Worcester, was suddenly seized with a bilious colic and was unable to 
reach town." There were probably many, however, who were not as sorry as they 
should have been, to forego the long oration. The Worcester Patriotic Song, of seven 
long verses, written hy William Charles White, was sung to the tune of "Adams and 
Liberty." One verse will serve to show the sentiment of the song. 

"Let patriot ardor distinguish the day 
Which granted Columbia a charter immortal. 

Illumin'd her reign with Freedom's mild ray 
And rais'd in her center bright liberty's portal. 
The song of loud cheer 
Bid sound far and near 
And let our swelling concord toward the stars veer. 

Since nobly disdaining with chains to agree 
We spurn'd at all bondage and dared to be free." 

For the next five years (1801-05) the celebrations differed only in the orator of 
the day. In this list were Edward Bangs in the North Aleeting House ; Isaac Story of 
Sterling, Rev. Zephaniah Swift Moore of Leicester ; John William Caldwell at the South 
Church; William Charles White of Rutland; and Daniel Waldo Lincoln, brother of 
Gov. Levi Lincoln. 

In 1801 the Spy prints a little paragraph, stating that hereafter the accounts of 
the celebrations would be omitted, "inasmuch as the day was observed in many towns, 
that unless full reports were given of all, which was manifestly impossible, all would 
be omitted that they might not be accused of partiality." Then followed a short ser- 
mon of thankfulness for liberty and prosperity, with an appeal for the continuation of 
those blessings. 

About this time the political situation became interesting. Jef¥erson and Madison 
became leaders of the Democratic-Republican party, generally called the Republican 



668 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



party; and Hamilton and Adams of the Federal party, which supported the administra- 
tion. The Spy supported the Federal party, and the feeling was very intense. The 
national holiday was chosen for political demonstrations. In 1808 the Spy says, with 
f^ne sarcasm: "The Democrats formed a great procession of such as they were, and 
had a very magnificent oration delivered by Major Estes How, who two years since 
delivered as magnificent a Federal one in Sutton. Thus we go up, up, up, and thus we 
go down, down, down." That was the entire "report of the occasion. 

The orations in 1810 and 1811 were by Levi Heywood and John \V. Hubbard, the 
latter year young men between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one having charge of 
the exercises. In 1812 the Washington Benevolent Society of the county conducted the 
celebration, with an oration by Francis Blake, and dinner in a building erected for the 
purpose. The Federal Republicans also had a demonstration, with an oration by 
Enoch Lincoln and an ode by Edward D. Bangs, and fireworks in the evening. A cou- 
ple of toasts will serve to illustrate the length to which party feeling was carried. They 
were offered by the president of the day, thus : "Mr. Jefferson : We consent that the 
surplus he left in the treasury be appropriated to the erection of his own monument." 
And this : "The Massachusetts Senate : may its members be turned from the crooked 
paths of party policy to the straight lines of justice, and its head no longer be found 

scattering." 

In 1814 the Federal party had a procession, escorted by the Light Infantry, with 
an oration by Edwin A. White in Dr. Bancroft's church.. Their opposition to the War 
of 1812 is expressed in this toast : "The authors of a disgraceful and calamitous war. 
They have done their country much evil. The Lord reward then according to their 
works." Three cheers. 

Peleg Sprague and John Davis were the orators the next two years, and in the lat- 
ter year an ode of eight verses was sung with taste and spirit by Lieutenant Hamilton, 

of the infantry. 

An era of good feeling was inaugurated with President Alonroe's administration, 
and the political hatchet was buried. In 1817 there was a large military parade, and an 
oration in Old South Church by Pliny Merrick, with an ode composed by Edward D. 
Bangs, and sung by Captain Sewall Hamilton. Isaiah Thomas presided at the din- 
ner, of which three hundred partook, which was served in a bower opposite Air. Hath- 
away's tavern. 

In 1819, however, party feeling was again prominent, and the Saturday preceding 
the Fourth the Republicans had a celebration. The Spy speaks of it thus: "Edward D. 
Bangs, Esq., a gentleman whom his fellow citizens generally would have been gratified 
to hear on such an occasion, had it not been publicly announced that the celebration in 
which he was engaged was designed exclusively for the gratification of a party." After 
dismissing the Worcester report with this small paragraph, there follows a long de- 
scription of the Charlton celebration where as I said "the usual ample number of toasts 
were drunk with more than usual hilarity, and the most lively good humor manifested 
during the whole of the festivities ; and the company afforded convincing proof that 
party division is not so much the result of a difference of sentiment among the people 
as of the efforts of restless partisans assisted by the magic of names." 

The forty- fourth anniversary of Independence in 1820 was the occasion of a 
parade and an oration by Charles H. Warren. At that time there were but four sur- 
vivors of the Congress of 1776; John Adams. Thomas Jefferson, William Floyd and 
Charles Carroll. 

A tea party on the lawn at Hon. Levi Lincoln's was the great event on July 4, 1821, 
according to the Spy. The National Aegis, however, gives an elaborate account of a 
Republican celebration at which the oration was delivered by its editor, Henry Rogers. 

In 1822, at the dinner following a religious gathering in Old South Church, the Spy 
said it was "highly gratifying to witness at the table a number of those veterans who 



AND ITS PEOPLE 669 



were in the war of the Revolution, some of whom bore the honorable scars of the 
wounds then received. 

The Democratic celebration in 1823 was not generally attended, says the opposition 
paper, Francis R. Stebbins was orator; William Lincoln was orator in 1824, and the 
next year, 1825, the Light Infantry had an oration by Richard Hampton Vose, a mem- 
ber of the company. 

The first celebration under the auspices of the town authorities was in 1826. After 
a fine procession of all the military companies of Worcester, with an oration by 
Charles Allen, there was a dinner in the town hall, presided over by Isaiah Thomas, 
who' had read the Declaration of Independence for the first time in Worcester fifty 
years before. Music was furnished by the Worcester Harmonic Society, of which 
Emory Perry was president, and the fiftieth anniversary was one long to be remem- 
bered. In 1827 the Odd Fellows had charge, Thomas Kennicutt, orator. 

Following the report of the celebration of 1829, this original anecdote appeared, 
and I leave it to you to find the point. "On the Fourth of July that inveterate joker, 
Squire B., put on his best ruffled shirt and walked down street. Meeting with a French- 
man who resides in the neighborhood, he entered into conversation with him, in the 
course of which Monsieur stepped up to him and, taking hold of his ruffle, said, 'Sare, 
dat be one French fashion vat you have got.' 'Oh no, it is not,' replied the 
Squire, 'for it has a shirt attached to it.'" John Davis was orator. In 
1830 Peter C. Bacon was orator. In 1831 and 1832 both political parties 
made merry, and in 1833 the exercises were in charge of the town. This year 
seems to have been the first when any special notice of accidents had been taken by the 
press. A half column, a great deal for that day, was devoted to a resume of the acci- 
dents which had occurred in various parts of the country, with comments from other 
papers. The orators of the day were Edward Everett, and Samuel M. Burnside, and 
an oratorio was given, and also a grand ball at Estabrook's hotel. 

In 1833 there were two celebrations, with orations by George Fol- 
som to the anti-Jackson party in Old South Church; by Benjamin F. 
Thomas in North Church. In 1834 the Whigs celebrated, Franklin Dex- 
ter, orator; in 1836, Benjamin F. Thomas, orator; in 1837 the Jackson 
Democrats celebrated, Robert Rantoul Jr., of Gloucester, orator. 

In 1838, a temperance festival was held; Dr. Walter Channing of 
Boston, Hon. Mr. Hoard of Concord and Hon. Mr. Lawrence spoke. In 
1839 William Lincoln was orator at New Worcester. Anti-slavery meet- 
ing was held. In 18-10, Democratic celebration ; oration by Rev. Ores- 
tes A. Brownson. Another temperance festival took place in 1841. 
Wendell Phillips spoke in the Town Hall in the morning, in Brinley Hall 
in the evening, July 4, 1842. In 1843 the exercises were devoted to the 
temperance movement. 

In 1844 there were two celebrations ; the Whigs had a dinner with 
toasts; the Democrats had an oration by George Bancroft in the First 
Baptist Church, and a dinner in Brinley Hall. In 1845 and 1846 the day 
was devoted to temperance. There were fireworks in 1846 and 1847; 
parade and dinner, 1850. In 1851 the Free Soil party celebrated, John 
P. Hale, orator ; in 1852 the Whigs had their inning, and erected a large 
tent on the Coinmon, in which speeches were made by Gov. Lincoln, 
Emory Washburn and Col. Lee of Templeton. 



6/0 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The city government in 1853 appropriated $1,500. The Jackson 
Guards appeared for the first time in the military parade. An oration 
by Francis Wayland was dehvered in Old South Church ; dinner in the 
City Hall. In 1S56 the Continentals paraded ; dinner was served in a 
tent on the common; Homer B. Sprague was orator. There were three 
parades. In 185T there were two free fights; nothing more. In 1859 
Hersey's Minutemen celebrated ; Lucian Prince acted the part of mes- 
senger very realistically, it is said. In 1860 the cornerstone of the Free 
Public Library was laid, with addresses by Mayor Rice and others; 
a military procession : dinner in ^Mechanics Hall ; balloon ascension. In 
1862 there was a burlescjue parade. 

During tfie war. the old time celebrations came to an end. In 1865 
the day was devoted to a reception to returning soldiers, with military 
and trades processions. In 1866 the bell in Central Church was broken 
by the ringers, at a cost of $500 to the city. There was a parade in 1868, 
including the militia and firemen. In 18T2 and 18T3 studlefunk parades 
were the only attractions. In 18T() there was an elaborate centennial 
celebration, with studlefunk and military parades. The oration was 
delivered in [Mechanics Hall by Benjamin F. Thomas. In 1883 another 
studlefunk parade was held. 

Gradually the firecracker and the toy pistol came into use, and the 
day was given up entirely to noise and athletic sports. The crackers 
grew larger and noisier year by year, the pistols more deadly. The night 
before the Fourth became a veritable nightmare of noise and mischief, 
fires and accidents. The newspapers had a frightful list of accidents to 
report after the annual orgy of gunpowder was over. 

A movement for a safe and sane celebration began here in 1911. The 
sale of dangerous fireworks was prohibited, and provision was made by 
the city for a more suitable celebration of the day. There was a military 
parade ; the Declaration of Independence was read. Sports were pro- 
vided in the public parks. Displays of fireworks were given in the even- 
ing. Since then the Fourth has been celebrated in a similar fashion. The 
city has made a liberal appropriation for expenses, and the mayor has 
appointed a committee from the city council and citizens to take charge. 
Hon. Alfred S. Roe was chairman and Donald Tulloch secretary of the 
committee in charge for several years. At first the movement was sup- 
ported by voluntary subscriptions. The return to parades and similar 
forms of celebrating has been accepted with favor by old and young. 
In 1912 there were in line in the parade about 2.000; in 1913 about 6,500. 
The change in the character of the celebration during the past six years 
has eliminated fatal accidents and reduced others to a minimum that 
causes no anxiety. 



CHAPTER XL 
Armory — Rifle Range 

The Armory. — The present armory was erected at Armory Square 
in 1S88, Cutting & Bishop being the contractors, Fuller & Delano, the 
architects, at a cost of $131,991.;39. The commissioners in charge were 
Gen. Joseph Pickett, John Leighton of Boston, and Joseph N. Peterson, 
for many years mayor of Salem. Recently the state took over the prop- 
erty and it was remodelled at a cost of about $35,000. The building is 
spacious, four stories high with a good drill-hall. Until the changes 
involved by the European War and the federalizing of the militia, the 
armory was occupied by Companies A, C and H, 2d Infantry; Co. G, 
Ninth Infantry; Battery B, First Field Artillery, all of the Massachu- 
setts militia or national guard. 

Rifle Range at Shrewsbury. — The old rifle range at Jamesville was 
too small for modern firearms and conditions, and in 1912 it gave place 
to a new range located near the western line of Shrewsbury, about five 
miles from City Hall. The property comprises 151 acres in rectangular 
form, a mile in length in the longest diameter. The land was bought in 
1907 and 1908 at a cost of $4,160, and work began in 1908, the rifle and 
revolver butts'being completed the following year. The range is lighted 
by electricity. The range house was built in 1908 at a cost of $4,962.04. 
The main building has a large assembly room. Two large wings con- 
tain lockers and toilet rooms. Another building provides a home for the 
custodian of the buildings and grounds. 

The targets are set at distances ranging from 200 to 100 yards. The 
butts are of stone and cement. The target frames are operated by pul- 
leys ; two targets are set in each section and operated alternately. When 
one is set up, the other comes down automatically and the records are 
made and a new paper target pasted to the frame. A telephone connects 
the firing line with the targets. The revolver butts for the officers have 
targets at from 25 to 100 yards from the firing line. They are arranged 
like the rifle targets. The range is supplied with the water from a spring, 
whence the water is pumped to a distributing reservoir. 

On this range the Worcester companies have made excellent prog- 
ress in shooting, and their marksmanship has wonderfully improved in 
the past five years. The range was built for the Worcester City Guards, 
Worcester Light Infantry, Wellington Rifles, the Emmet Guards and 
Battery B, the Worcester companies. It cost the city about $35,000. Its 
value and importance has been highly appreciated, especially since this 
country entered into the European War. 



CHAPTER XLI 

Civil War Organizations — Grand Army of the Republic — Union Vet- 
erans' Legion — Woman's Relief Corps 

Grand Army of the Republic. — Colonel George H. Ward Post, No. 
10, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized in Brinley Hall April 13, 
1867. The eleven charter members were Arthur A. Goodell, Harlan 
Fairbanks, Robert H. Chamberlain, David M. Woodward, Joseph A. 
Titus, J. Stewart Brown, R. Elliott Blake, James M. Drennan, George 
Woodward, J. M. Woodward and Charles E. Simmons. For a short 
time Waldo Hall was the meeting place, then Brinley Block was the 
home of the post until shortly before it was demolished in 1895 to make 
way for the State Mutual building. The new rooms and hall built for 
the post in the building erected on Walnut Street were occupied June 
17, 1895. In the fire the post lost all its property. Quarters were then 
occupied in the Odd Fellows Hall, Pearl Street. Here the post remained 
until the present building on Pearl Street was occupied. 




G. A. R. H.JiLL. 



The commanders of the Post have been: Arthur A. Goodell and 

David M. Woodward, 1867; Joseph A. Titus, 1867-68; R. Elliot Blake, 

1869 ; Amos M. Parker, 1869 ; George F. Thompson, 1869 ; A. C. Soley 

and James E. Dennis, 1870 ; Edward P. Halstead, 1871 ; Joseph A. Titus, 

W.-I-43. 



6/4 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

18T3; James F. Meech, 18T3-4 ; Jairus B. Lamb, 18T5-TT ; James K. 
Churchill, 18T8-;9; Justin B. Willard, 1880; William H. King and 
Theodore M. Remington, 1881-2 ; William L. Robinson, 1883-5 ; Cephas 
N. Walker, 1886; Charles H. Benchley, 1881; Josiah N. Jones and 
Clarendon W. Putnam, 1888; Amos M. Parker, 1889-90; Charles H. 
Pinkham, 1890-1; John B. Lepire, 1892; William H. Bartlett, 1893; 
Charles M. Smith, 189-1; Harvey T. Buck, 1895; Alfred S. Roe, 1896-7; 
Daniel E. Burbank, 1898; Robert B. Edwards, 1899-1900; George H. 
Hathorn, 1901; George W. Barnes, 1902; Woodbury C. Smith. 1903; 
Daniel E. Denney, 1904-5; Fordis O. Bushnell, 1906-T ; William B. Dow- 
ney, 1908-9; James Armstrong, 1910-11; George W. Hubbard, 1912-3; 
Henry A. Winn, 1914-5; William H. Sherman, 1916; Genery T. Darl- 
ing, 191T — . 

Past Department Commanders from this city have been: Augustus 
B. R. Sprague, 1868; James K. Churchill, 1892; Alfred S. Roe and 
Daniel E. Denny, \W. H. Bartlett. 

For several years Post 10 was the largest in the country. Among its 
members were soldiers who had fought in every important engagement 
on land and sea in the Civil War. Among the organizations represented 
by members of the Post were 39 different regiments of cavalry, 2?8 of 
infantry, twenty-four of heavy artillery, three of sharp-shooters, two of 
engineers, one signal corps and twenty-nine light batteries. 

Trustees for the Post : James Armstrong, chairman ; Charles F. 
Read, secretary; Charles E. Abbey, treasurer; Charles H. Pinkham, 
Orlando W. Norcross, George W. Hubbard. 

The present quarters of George H. Ward, Post, No. 10, G. A. R., on 
Pearl street, were bought in 1912 of W. D. Hobbs at a great bargain, 
for $21,000. The granite building was formerly the Bull mansion, said 
to have cost $125,000, and admirably adapted for the purposes of the post. 
William Hart and Commander James Armstrong made the contract, Mr. 
Hobbs contributing by the price given at least $10,000. Additions 
and alterations cost $16,000 more. The quarters were formally ded- 
icated Jan. 30, 1913. Funds were immediately raised, reducing the debt 
on the home to about $16,000. The home has a hall, smoking rooms, 
apartments, kitchen, dining room and every convenience of a club house. 
The feature of Memorial Hall is the record on bronze tablets of every 
member of the Post, over 3,300. It is used by the Post, United Span- 
ish War Veterans, Sons of Veterans and Daughters of \'eterans, 
the Worcester Continentals, the Woman's Relief Corps, and kindred 
organizations for social purposes and entertainments. It is said to be 
the most attractive Post building in the country. Steps were taken 
in December, 191T, to deed the property to the city. 

The clearing of the debt in April, 1916, was a fine example of the 
liberality and patriotism of a number of the leading citizens of Worces- 
ter. George F. Booth, editor of the Gazette, was the prime mover in 



AND ITS PEOPLE 675 

securing the funds needed. Daniel E. Denney, former commander, had 
secured from David H. Fanning a pledge of $1,000, provided the balance 
were raised in a year. He secured the services of Maurice F. Reidy as 
secretary; Edwin F. Seaward, treasurer; Louis H. Buckley and Rev. 
Vincent E. Tomlinson. The Boys' Club, the Y. W. C. A. and 
Girls' Club raised generous sums. But at this point George F. 
Fuller offered the generous sum of $5,000 in memory of his father, who 
served in the Civil War, was a prisoner in Libby, and re-enlisted when 
he got out. At a dinner of influential and well-to-do citizens given by 
Mr. Booth, the sum of $10,000 more was raised in twenty minutes. The 
Post was overwhelmed with gratitude, as the debt had seemed to them a 
burden that could not be removed during their lives. At a banquet 
April 13, 1916, the mortgage was burned. The late Hon. Alfred S. Roe 
was toastmaster. Hon. James Logan, Hon. Charles G. Washburn, 
Mayor George M. Wright; Hon. Daniel E. Denny, Charles M. Thayer 
and Harry G. Stoddard, all generous contributors to the fund, were 
speakers. The spirit of rejoicing ran high ; wit and patriotism abounded, 
Charles F. Reade read a brief history of the Post. He said : "The Post 
has played 'The Drummer Boy' 2T times, thus earning for the charity 
fund about $45,000. The Post has distributed about $90,000 in relief of 
the needy comrades and their families, certainly a record of credit. The 
Post has had 2,297 members. Among these were four generals, Devens, 
Sprague, Pickett and Doubleday. The last report to the department 
headquarters gave 415 as the membership of the Post." 

Union Veteran Legion. — Encampment No. 83, Union Veteran Le- 
gion, was established in 1890 in this city. The qualification for mem- 
bership was enlistment as soldier, sailor or marine, prior to July 1, 1863, 
for three years. The objects were similar to those of the G. A. R. The 
encampment also had a woman's auxiliary. At one time the local organ- 
ization numbered over a hundred. Among the commanders were : Henry 
M. Green, Thomas A. Halpine, Joseph B. Knox, Charles E. Simmons, 
Thomas A. Halpin, 1896; Jerome M. Stone, 1897; Carl C. T. Thomas, 
1898; Owen McCann, 1899; Frederick D. Bliss, 1900-01; Jo. B. Knox, 
1902; W. F. Miller, 1903; J. B. Knox, 1904; Dwight R. Scott, 1905-08. 
The Encampment disbanded in 1908. 

Union Veterans' Union. — General William S. Lincoln Command, 
No. 18, Department of Massachusetts, Union Veterans' Union, was 
organized in the Grand Army Hall, June 33, 1893. This organization, 
fouonded in 1886, is composed of Union soldiers, sailors or marines who 
served at least six months in the Civil War, unless sooner discharged on 
account of wounds received in action, part of which service was at the 
front. The local officers of the Department of Massachusetts in that 
year (1895) were: Commander, Major Gen. Charles W. Wood; Ad- 
jutant General, Col. J. Brainerd Hall; Quartermaster General, Col. Ed- 
win D. McFarland ; headquarters, Burnside Building. 



676 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The National Command had at one time 20 departments. The entire 
membership was at one time about 35,000, but is now very small. The 
button is in colors. 

The National Headquarters was in Worcester, 1896. Charles W. 
Wood, the commanding officer. In 1905 the headquarters again came to 
Massachusetts. Daniel W. Gould of Chelsea, a one armed veteran 
was elected general commanding. 

At one time this command numbered nearly 200. At this period not 
more than 25 survive. 

Its colors were presented it in old G. A. Hall by the family of Gen. 
Lincoln. The colors were recently given to its first colonel who now 
keeps them. The flag will for a time remain an heirloom and ultimately 
become the property of some historical or patriotic organization. 

At this meeting a banquet was served. The hall and tables were 
crowded by the mayor and many of the leading citizens, (honorary 
members). 

The first officers of the Ladies of the U. V. U. (in 1895) were composed 
of wives and daughters of members : President, Mrs. Sarah A. Towle ; 
Vice-Pres., Mrs. Kate E. Wilder; Treas., Mrs. Lizzie Wood; Chaplain, 
Mrs. Amelia A. Trow; Sec, Mrs-. Abby A. Hall. For many years this 
auxiliary was active in aiding the command. 

Sons of Veterans. — Willie Grout Camp, No. 25, Div. of Mass., S. of 
v., was organized in Horticulture Hall Feb. 26th, 1894, by Division Com- 
mander A. C. Blaisdell. The first officers were Capt. Chas. A. Bur- 
banks; 1st Lieut. Edw. A. Gleason; 2nd Lieut., Frank H. Leach, and 
Camp Council, C. E. Farrington, R. R. Simonds and J. F. Armstrong. 

The first meeting after organization was in G. A. R. Hall, or what 
was known as Old Brinley Hall, Mar. 2, 1894. The Camp met here until 
April 1st, 1895, when it had to vacate as the building was torn down to 
give place to what is now known as the State Mutual Building. From 
April 1st, 1895, to July 8th, 1895, the Camp met in U. V. L. Hall at which 
time it secured quarters in the Day Building where it stayed until driven 
out by fire Feb. 22, 1897. At this time nearly everything was lost. 
The Camp met in various places until April 14, 1897, when it again met 
in U. V. L. Hall until Sept. 27th, 1897, when it went into G. A. R. Hall, 
35 Pearl street, remaining there until Feb. 10th, 1913, when it went into 
the present quarters in the G. A. R. Building, 55 Pearl street. 

The Wellington Rifles or H Co., 2nd Regt., was started from Willie 
Grout Camp May 2nd, 1895. About 30 or 35 of our members going into 
it, and our first captain was the first captain of the Wellington Rifles, 
Capt. Chas. E. Burbank. Corp, Marvin Ames was in this company and 
went to the Spanish American War in 1898, where he died in Cuba of the 
yellow fever in August, 1898. His body was brought to Worcester and 
given a military burial in charge of the Camp and Wellington Rifles, a 
squad being sent with the body to New York, where he was buried. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 677 



The Camp has been fortunate in losing only five members by death, 
the last the late Thomas H. Burton was a charter member and never 
missed more than five or six meetings in all the 33 years he belonged to 
the Camp. 

The Worcester County Association, Sons of Veterans, was organized 
in 1917 with A. J. Whitney of this city, president; A. Chester Dixie of 
this city, secretary, and other officers from various towns in the county. 

Gen. A. A. Goodell Camp, No. 2, S. of V., was organized May 8, 
1883, with George W. Ward as its first commander. The Camp has 
since its organization assisted Post 10, G. A. R., in its Memorial Day 
work, and so long as wreaths were made, supplied a good share of 
evergreen. 

The Camp quarters were burned out in 1895, but the Sons went to 
work and soon had a better headquarters than ever before and all debts 
paid. The Camp has an interesting collection of relics, including the 
uniform of the late Sergeant Thomas Plunket, and a rebel flag. The 
Camp has at present a membership of thirty loyal and hard workers 
among which one is a charter member. The personnel of the Camp is of 
the best, and although few socials are managed by them, they are ever 
ready for any call of the G. A. R. or Relief Corps for work. 

The Camp has for the past six years had the care of making the bou- 
quets and getting both flowers and wreaths to the respective cemeteries, 
and has a committee for the work of marking the graves of Veterans in 
the three of the city's cemeteries — Hope, St. John's, and Notre Dame, 
and also sends a squad to Rural to assist there. 

Of late years, the Camp has not participated in the parade on Me- 
morial Day, on account of these duties, which allow several ablebodied 
veterans to parade, who would otherwise be so employed that they could 
not appear with the Post at the ceremonies at the Soldiers' Monument. 

The Commanders of Camp No. 3 since organization have been : 
George W. Ward, son of the late Gen. George H. Ward; Elmore F. 
Johnson, D. A. Gleason, G. H. Cleaveland, C. S. Knight, W. H. Carrico, 
Robert L. Ward, another son of Gen. George H. Ward; J. A. Get- 
tings, H. N. Leach, G. H. Hill, R. R. Simmonds, J. D. Lepire, J. J. Tor- 
pey, Chas. F. Lamberton, J. J. O'Grady, Chas. H. Edgerton,Geo. E. Love- 
joy, William E. Rice, E. A. Willard, Arthur M. Warren, C. S. Mero, 
Arthur B. White, Charles E. Kinney, John M. Warner, Dr. J. Francis 
Potter, Henry W. Lamberton, and Ralph M. Warren is now the present 
commander of the Camp. 

The Sons of Veterans' Auxiliary, No. 18, of Gen. A. A. Goodell 
Camp, No. 3, S. of V., was organized in Worcester, Mass., May 13th, 
1893, in S. of V. Hall, 413 Main street. The Order was then known 
as the Ladies' Aid Society, No. 18, the name being changed to S. of S. 
Auxiliary at the National Encampment held in Boston, 1901. This Aux- 
iliary was organized by the late Mrs. Sarah A. Davis who was a Past 



678 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Division president, and the first president of the Division. She being a 
member of the Brookfield Society at the time of our organization, became 
a member of this Auxiliary Nov. 3d, 1893. At the time of its 
organization its charter showed a membership of twenty-five members. 
Today there are only four of the charter members' names in the roll 
book. They are Miss Nellie A. Sibley who is a Past Division 
president as well as a Past Auxiliary president; Mrs. Sara M. 
Sibley, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Chase and Mrs. Edna A. Ware a Past 
Auxiliary president. There have been sixteen presidents of the Aux- 
iliary. The first president was Mrs. Mary E. Parker who served one 
year and eight months, then followed by Mrs. Helen F. Jewell who 
served one year; Miss Nellie A. Sibley who served six diflferent years; 
Mrs. Edna A. Ware, one year; Mrs. Lillie E. Stone, one year; Mrs. 
Sarah A. Davis two years; Mrs. Mina L. Bassett, two years; Mrs. Alice 
E. Putnam, one year; Mrs. Anna J. Willard, two years; Mrs. Olivette 
Fenner, eight months ; Mrs. Cora J. Mofifatt, four months ; Mrs. Lucy 
L. Francis, ten months; Miss Sadie M. Hays, one year, two months; 
Mrs. M. Elizabeth Kinney, two years; Mrs. Mary Hale, one year. At 
the present time Mrs. Addie M. Moynihan is the president. At the 
present time seven past presidents still remain in the Order. They are 
Sisters Nellie A. Sibley, Edna A. Ware, Alice E. Putnam, Cora J. Mof- 
fatt, Sadie M. Hays, M. Elizabeth Kinney and Mary Hale. 

Some of these sisters have received high honors both in the National 
body and also in the Division. Mrs. Sarah A. Davis and Miss Nellie A. 
Sibley have both been members of the National Council. Mrs. Sarah 
A. Davis has held the office of Div. President, has been a member of 
the Div. Council. Mrs. Nellie A. Sibley has held the office of Division 
President, Div. Vice-President, Div. Inspector, and a member of the 
Division Council three diflferent years, and has served on the Soldiers' 
Home dormitory committee at Chelsea for ten years. Other members 
of Auxiliary No. 18 who have received honors in the Division are Mrs. 
Eva M. Sibley, Div. Secretary, and Mrs. Alice E. Putnam, Div. Treas- 
urer. These sisters were Miss Nellie A. Sibley's secretary and treasurer 
while she was Division President. 

The eligibility of the Order is as follows: First, the mothers, 
wives and sisters of deceased or honorably discharged soldiers, sailors 
or marines, w^ho served in the Union Army or Navy during the Civil 
War of 1861-1865; second, female lineal descendants, not less than six- 
teen years of age of soldiers, sailors or marines ; third, wives of Sons of 
Veterans in good standing; fourth, nieces of veterans; fifth, mothers of 
soldiers' sons. 

The objects of the Order are to assist the Sons of Veterans in 
their principles and objects, financially and otherwise. To aid the mem- 
bers of the Grand Army of the Republic in caring for their helpless and 
disabled veterans, to extend aid and i)rotection to their widows and 



AND ITS PEOPLE 679 

orphans ; to perpetuate the memory and history of the heroic dead and 
the proper observance of Memorial Day. To inculcate true patriotism 
and love of country, not only among the membership, but all the people 
of our land and to spread and sustain the doctrine of equal rights, uni- 
versal liberty and justice to all. 

Woman's Relief Corps, No. 11. — This organization is an auxiliary 
to the G. A. R. It was organized in 1883 and since then has been asso- 
ciated in the social and relief work of the G. A. R. in the observance of 
Memorial Day and other occasions. The membership comprises women 
of the families of members of the Post. The officers in 191T were : Mrs. 
Mabel M. Hutchins, pres. ; Mrs. Flora A. Sisson and Mrs. Mary L. 
Newton, vice-prests. ; Julia F. Bemis, treas. ; Mrs. S. Elmira Dickinson, 
sec. ; Mrs. J. Victoria Simmons, chaplain. Meetings are held in the 
G. A. R. building. 

Ladies of the G. A. R. — General Charles Devens Circle, No. 30; 
organized for purposes similar to the Relief Corps but differing in con- 
ditions of membership. Mrs. Ethelyn Jaquith was president in 1917. 
The circle meets in Red Men's Hall. 

Daughters of Veterans. — Clara Barton Tent, No. 3, was organized 
on Oct. 20, 1890, with TO members and has been active in aiding the 
Grand Army and kindred organizations. The meetings are held in G. 
A. R. Hall. In 1917 Nellie E. Worth was president. Mrs. Ellen M. 
Walker, afterward national president of the Order, was first president, 
succeeded by Mrs. Minnie E. Babbett, Mrs. R. Evelyn Monroe, Miss 
Celia Lepire. It has been the largest tent in the state. 

Union Veterans' Union. — Gen. Wm. S. Lincoln Command, No 18. — 
Col. Waldo H. Vinton; Lieut. Col., Jotham E. Bigelow; Quartermaster, 
Noel E. Converse. Meets second Monday of each month at homes of 
members. 

United Spanish War Veterans. — Col. E. R. Shumway Camp, No. 28. 
— Org. 1901. Com., John C. Ware; Senior V. Com., Michael F. Garrett; 
Junior V. Com., John E. Fitzpatrick ; Adjt., William L. Lowe ; Quar- 
termaster, Benjamin Cooper. Meets third Wednesday of each month at 
55 Pearl street. 



CHAPTER XLII 

Patriotic Societies — Col, Timothy Bigelow Chapter, D. A. R. — Worcester 

Chapter, S. A. R. — Bancroft Chapter, D. R. — Sons of the 

Revolution 

Sons of the American Revolution. — The beginning of this organiza- 
tion is dated Oct. 23, 1875, though the national body was not organized 
until April 30, 1889. The Massachusetts body was instituted April 19, 
1889. The Worcester Chapter was organized April 2, 1897, and holds its 
annual meeting each year on May 23, the anniversary of the town meet- 
ing at which in 1776 the voters pledged their lives and property to 
secure Independence. Alfred Pavers was president, 1917. 

The Sons of the Revolution dates from Febuary 26, 1876. The 
National organization was effected at Washington, April 19, 1890, and 
the Massachusetts Society, Oct. 1, 1891. For many years, however, 
Eben Francis Thompson of this city has been on the board of managers 
of the state society. 

Bancroft Chapter, Daughters of the Revolution. — The General 
Society, Daughters of the Revolution, organized Aug. 2Q, 1891, and Ban- 
croft Chapter June 24, 1896, through the instrumentality of Mrs. C. Van 
D. Chenoweth, who was made its regent. The Chapter was reorganized 
May 3, 1898, and named for George Bancroft the historian. The follow- 
ing have been regents: Miss Catherine M. Bent, 1898-09-1900-01-02; 
Miss Edith J. Norcross, 1903-04-05 ; Mrs. Henry J. Gross, 1906 ; Mrs. F. 
H. Bigelow, 1907; Miss Angelyn Jefferds, 1908; Miss Mary M. Goes, 
1909-10-11; Mrs. Howard E. Sumner, 1912-13-14-15-16-17; Mrs. F. H. 
Bigelow, 1918. 

In 1917 Mrs. Ernest P. Bennett was vice-regent; Mrs. B. Austin 
Coates, treasurer; Catherine M. Bent, historian. Meetings have been 
at the homes of members. The Chapter has shared in the work of the 
General and State Society, such as contributing to the Memorial Shaft at 
Valley Forge, the Washington Elm Gateway, the Paul Revere House 
and others. Also in the placing of numerous tablets, as the one in the 
Boston Public Library to the "writers of patriotic verse and song." The 
Chapter has assisted the Society of the Cincinnati in some of its research. 
It has taken part in Worcester charity and patriotic work and has shared 
in the celebration of certain days and occasions. 

At the time of the Spanish War it did especially assigned work and 
now has contributed to the General Society's fund for present war work. 

Col. Timothy Bigelow Chapter. — The first regent was Mrs. C. Van 
D. Chenowith who resigned after three years to become the founder of 
Col. Henshaw Chapter of Leicester. 



682 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Mrs. Daniel Kent was regent from May, 1901, to May, 1903, and at 
the expiration of her term of office she was made Honorary Regent for 
life. From May, 1903, to May, 1905, Mrs. William T. Forbes was 
regent. From May, 1905, to May, 1906, Mrs. Theodore C. Bates ; :\Irs. 
John H. Orr, May, 1906-May, 1908; Mrs. M. P. Higgins, May, 1908- 
May, 1910; Miss Isabel W. Gordon, May, 1910-May, 1912; Mrs. Frank 
B. Hoe, May, 1912-May, 1914; Mrs. Albert E. Fan, 1914-15; Mrs. An- 
drew P. Haworth, 1915-17. 

The Chapter has had five real daughters : Mrs. Daniel R. Cady, Mrs. 
James M. Randall, Mrs. Nathaniel Johnson of Milford, Mrs. Israel Taft 
of Spencer, Mrs. Elizabeth Brown Morse of Westborough, and an hon- 
orary real daughter. Mrs. Joanna White Beamm Fletcher, of the Old 
South Chapter. 

The Colonel Timothy Bigelow Chapter was founded by Mrs. Caro- 
line Van Dusen Chenoweth of Leicester, and was formally organized 
June 7, 1899, with a membership of fourteen. The Chapter took the 
name of "Colonel Timothy Bigelow," a valiant patriot and soldier, who 
drilled the minutemen on Worcester Common and led them to Cam- 
bridge when the call came April 19, 1775. 

Beside placing a marker on the site of the Colonel Timothy Bigelow 
house, the Chapter has marked the John Hancock house, corner of Grove 
and Lexington streets, the Isaiah Thomas house on Court Hill, has 
placed a tablet on the site of the first school house in Worcester, where 
John Adams, the second President of the United States, once taught, 
and placed a tablet marking the graves of the seven Revolutionary sol- 
diers buried on the Common. The Chapter has published the results 
of the historical research for this first school house location and held 
public exercises in the Unitarian church on Court Hill. May 23, 1903, 
dedicating the tablet ; has published a complete record of Revolutionary 
soldiers from Worcester and held public exercises in the City Hall. May 
30, 1901, in memory of them. 

It has published an essay on "Old Age and Immortality." written 
and read by Senator Hoar before the Worcester Fire Society. Each Me- 
morial Day the Timothy Bigelow monument on the Common and all the 
Revolutionary soldiers' graves are decorated by members. The Chapter 
has been accumulating a fund for the purpose of maintaining perpetual 
care for all uncared for soldiers' graves ; for several years has paid $50 
annually to the Worcester Boys' Club for the support of a mechanical 
drawing class, and has contributed nearly $1,000 toward Memorial Con- 
tinental Hall in Washington. 

This Chapter, like many other i)rosperous and progressive societies, 
took advantage of an unusual opportunity to purchase the Dr. William 
Paine house, at 140 Lincoln street, called in history "The Oaks." 

This house was begun in 1774 by Hon. Timothy Paine, one of the 



AND ITS PEOPLE 683 



foremost citizens of Worcester, but owing to troublesome times, building 
operations were suspended until 1777-78. 

The house was remodeled, furnished in colonial style, and has since 
been a most attractive social center. The Chapter has held its meet- 
ings and social gatherings here. Similar organizations have found the 
Oaks a most convenient and suitable place for teas, receptions, meetings 
and all kind of gatherings. The home of the Chapter has been described 
as one of the model Chapter houses of the country in the magazine of the 
D. A. R. 

The Chapter has an auxiliary called the Junior Daughters. 

Other Patriotic Bodies. — The Daughters of 1812; the Descendants 
of Colonial Governors, the Society of Colonial Dames, the Society of 
Colonial Wars, the Society for the Preservation of New England An- 
tiquities, the New England Historic Genealogical Society, the Society 
of Mayflower Descendants and the Military Order of the Loyal Legion 
have no legal organizations, but all of them have a considerable member- 
ship in this city. 

Red Cross Work in Worcester.— Worcester County Sub-Division 
of the American National Red Cross was organized October 31, 1905, 
with the following officers: Chairman, Mr. Charles G. Washburn; 
Treasurer, Dr. Homer Gage ; Secretary, Mrs. Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, who 
with Miss Isabel M. Crompton and Stephen Salisbury were the 
organizers. 

In February, 190G, an appeal came for the relief of the starving peo- 
ple in northern Japan, and $251.51 was collected. In April, 1906, came 
the call to aid the sufferers from the San Francisco earthquake. A room 
at 12 Foster street was kept open for a week to receive contributions 
of clothing, with the result that 26 large cases w^ere sent to Dr. E. T. 
Devine. Red Cross, San Francisco. A call from the famine stricken 
district of China and for Italian relief did not pass unheeded, each hav- 
ing received a small contribution. 

In December, 1906, the following representative men and women 
from the different parts of the county were added to the executive com- 
mittee : Mrs. George Crocker of Fitchburg; Dr. W. P. Bowers of Clin- 
ton; Mr. Josiah Lasell of Whitinsville ; Mr. Lewis Prouty of Spencer; 
Dr. George A. Brown of Barre ; and Dr. F. W. George of Athol. 

At the annual meeting in 1907, Mr. John W. Pearl was elected as 
secretary of the Worcester County Branch, as this organization was 
then called. 

In 1916 Red Cross classes in First Aid and Home Care of the Sick 
were conducted under the direction of the Young Woman's Christian 
Association. During that year $250.68 was contributed for European 
War Relief and the sum of $34.14 for military relief to El Paso, Texas. 

In 1917 it was decided that the organization previously known as the 
Worcester Countv Branch should be known as the Worcester Chapter, 



684 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

■with the city of Worcester and such towns in the county not included in 
Other chapters, to be under its jurisdiction, namely: Auburn, Barre, 
So. Barre, Barre Plains, White Valley, Brookfield, East Brooktield, 
North Brookfield, West Brookfield, Charlton, Dodge, Douglas, East 
Douglas, Grafton, North Grafton, Farnumsville, Fisherville, Saunders- 
ville, Hardwick, Gilbertville, Wheelwright, Holden, Jefferson, Hubbards- 
ton, Leicester, Rochdale, Cherry Valley, Milford, Braggsville, Hopedale, 
Mendon, Millbury, New Braintree, Northbridge, Oakdale, Oakam, Cold- 
brook, Coldbrook Springs, Oxford, North Oxford, Paxton, Princeton, 
East Princeton, Rutland, West Rutland, Sutton, West Sutton, Man- 
chaug, Wilkinsonville, Sturbridge, Spencer, Shrewsbury, Southbridge, 
Fiskdale, Sandersdale, Uxbridge, North Uxbridge, Upton, West Upton, 
Warren, West Warren, Webster, Dudley, Perryville, Whitinsville, Lin- 
wood, Rockdale, West Boylston. 

The following officers were elected : Chairman, Charles G. Wash- 
burn ; Vice-chairman, Frank H. Marshall; Treasurer, Alfred R. Brig- 
ham; Secretary, Mrs. Lizzie L. Bullock; Asst. Secretary, Miss Alice 
Gordon Merrill ; and the following as an executive committee : Mrs. 
Alfred L. Aiken, Mrs. Lizzie L. Bullock, Mr. George F. Booth, Mr. Louis 
H. Buckley, Mrs. Homer Gage, ]\Irs. William Harrington, Mrs. C. F. 
Marble, Mr. Frank H. Marshall, Mr. Maurice F. Reidy. 

On June 4, 1917, a membership campaign was begun, lasting through 
the week, which increased the membership from 2,662 to 70,895. On 
Sunday, June 17, a mass meeting was held in Mechanics Hall to open the 
country wade campaign to raise $100,000,000, Judge PhiUp J. O'Connell 
presiding. The speakers were: Sir Herbert B. Ames of Canada; Hon. 
Chas. G. Washburn, Hon. James Logan, Geo. A. Gaskill, general chair- 
man. The campaign closed Monday, June 22. There was raised $517,- 
677.07 in the city of Worcester and $137,876.37 in the towns, making 
the total contribution from the Worcester Chapter $655,553.44. 

On Sunday, December 16, 1917, a mass meeting was held in Mechanics 
Hall to inaugurate a Christmas Membership Campaign. The speak- 
ers were : Dr. Eugene A. Crockett, Hon. Chas. G. Washburn, chair- 
man of Worcester Chapter, George A. Gaskill, chairman of Red Cross 
administration committee, and David W. Armstrong, chairman of cam- 
paign committee. Chief Justice Arthur P. Rugg presided. Prayer was 
offered by Rev. Dr. Lewis Morris, rector of All Saints' Church. 38,544 
additional members were obtained, increasing the total membership of 
the Chapter to 117,921, March 1, 1918. In July, 1917, work rooms were 
started in the Salisbury Mansion, generously offered for the purpose by 
the Worcester Art Museum. 

LTnder date of September 5, 1917, an Administration Committee was 
appointed, consisting of Mr. George A. Gaskill, chairman, Mr. Geo. F, 
Booth, Mr. Louis H. Buckley, Mr. Harlan T. Pierpont, Mr. Maurice F. 
Reidy. Auxiliaries were started in the different towns, and in different 



AND ITS PEOPLE 685 

sections of the city, amounting- March 1 to 9T Branches and Auxiliaries. 

Since the war work began, $121,983.50 have been expended in supplies. 
The different articles made have been : Sweaters, 9459 ; socks, pairs, 7699 ; 
helmets, 4645 ; wristlets, 7243 ; mufflers, 3965 ; afghans, 237; trench and 
sleeping caps, 5502 ; face cloths and other knitted articles, 1944 ; mittens, 
60; gauze dressings, 298,516; pads, 3457; bandages, 82,501; special 
dressings, 33,109; surgical shirts, 6352; pajamas, 4092; convalesecent 
robes, 1998; shoulder wraps, 1026; flannel socks, 1087; army slings, 
776; comfort pillows, 5547; scrub cloths, 1106; wash cloths, 744; hand- 
kerchiefs, 4134; bath towels, 216; hospital supplies, 3550; napkins, 
648; trench candles, 2232. 

The department of Civilian Relief was started May 1, 1917, under the 
charge of Lt. Henri V. Baril. In November the duties performed by 
this department became so great that Miss Edith Billings was engaged 
as a Home Service worker. The duties performed by the Civilian Re- 
lief have been to give relief to soldiers' families, and through its Infor- 
mation Bureau to give any information desired by soldiers and their fam- 
ilies at any and all times. 



CHAPTER XLIII 
The First Schools — Public and Private 

The First Schools. — It was evidently the intention of the founders 
of the town to provide suitable schools as well as a church, when they 
reserved lands for the support of both. No record has been left, how- 
ever, of schools or schoolhouses in the first two settlements. 

The town had been incorporated three years when an ineffective 
attempt was made at a town meeting in December, 1725, to make an 
appropriation "to provide a writing master to instruct the youth." The 
first free public schools was established the next year, in accordance 
with a vote of the town, April 4, 1726, when Jonas Rice was engaged 
"to teach such children and youth as any of the inhabitants should send 
to him to read and write as the law directs, and to keep such school 
until the 15th day of December next ensuing to date hereof, said school 
to be supported at the town's expense." The Commonwealth, as the 
people generally called the colonial government, deserves credit for this 
action, not the town. The settlers themselves were pretty well edu- 
cated in the schools of the older towns, as the writing of early records, 
the spelling and construction of various documents, demonstrate. But 
the Worcester planters were too busy with clearing land and making 
both ends meet to give much consideration to schools. At the meet- 
ing Dec. 19, 1726, the school was discontinued and the town was "pre- 
sented," the costs of presentment (fees and costs Dec. 12, 1727), and 
fined for violating the colonial laws requiring a free school in every town. 
In January, 1727-8 the town voted money to pay the fine and 16 pounds, 
10 shillings for teaching. 

In May, 1727, the town appointed a committee to provide a school- 
master for one year, and after that time annual appropriations were 
made. Occasionally the names of the schoolmasters are mentioned in 
the town records, in records of contract or payment of salary, or in direc- 
tions to keep school in certain dwellings. The teacher lived at the 
houses in which he taught. After the schoolhouses were erected it was 
customary for the teacher to "board 'round," moving from one dwelling 
to another, as arranged by the town officers in charge of the schools. 

In 1731, there being a hundred householders, the town voted to 
employ not only the schoolmaster but "not exceeding five school dames, 
at the charge of the town for the teaching of small children to read, etc." 
The town had reached the limit prescribed by the General Court for 
maintaining a grammar school, but neglected to take action. It was 
again presented for failure to obey the law. 

As the town increased in size, the appropriations increased, of 



688 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

course. In 1745 the school appropriation was £110, equivalent to much 
more than the sum measured in the purchasing power of labor or food 
at present rates. The school committee of that year consisted of Jonas 
Rice, Daniel Hey wood, Benjamin Flagg and Ephraim Curtis, and they 
presented a new plan of the school system, giving to families outside the 
village the school money they contributed, and providing that the fam- 
ilies in the center should make up by subscription or otherwise a sum 
which with their taxes would maintain a grammar school. It was also 
proposed that families outside the village might send pupils to the gram- 
mar school free of charge. The town outside was divided into rows 
and quarters. No action w^as taken however, on the report, but two 
years later some of the recommendations were adopted, the school money 
of those outside the village being allowed in the districts for school pur- 
poses, if schools are kept. In 1718 a committee appointed for the pur- 
poses reported several localities in the outskirts where school houses 
might be suitably built. From time to time the records show leases or 
sales of the school lands. The proceeds were or should have been 
devoted to school purposes. 

In the summer of 1755, Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty was commissioned 
to secure a teacher for the grammar school here. He went to Harvard 
Commencement, and at that time engaged John Adams, afterward pres- 
ident of the United States, to teach the new school. Adams was not 
twenty years old when he set out for his task here. He was sent by the 
selectmen to board with Major Nathanael Greene. His diary gives vari- 
ous details of his life and experience in this town. He was received in 
polite society, took tea with the Chandlers and Putnams, and talked 
politics and religion. He remained three years, but teaching was not 
congenial. He began to read law here in the office of James Putnam, 
and, when admitted to the practice of law, removed to Boston. His con- 
nection with the Worcester grammar school gave it in later years historic 
distinction. A committee of Col. Timothy Bigelow Chapter, D. A. R., 
after an investigation by its research committee, of which Mrs. Annie 
Russel Marble was chairman, Mrs. Harriette M. Forbes, Florence Waite 
Smith, Mary Jillson Parker, Mary E. Whipple and Emma F. Waite, 
members, proved the exact spot where the school house stood near the 
court house, and a bronze marker was affixed near the spot. 

In 1752 the town voted "that the inhabitants of the Center, extend- 
ing one mile and a half around the school house, should have allowed 
them their proportion of money for the support of teaching provided 
they do, bona fide, keep a grammar school the whole year ; and of their 
proportion of money will procure a master more than 12 weeks, the 
usual time they have of late had schooling, then any person may have 
liberty to send children afterwards." This vote with no reference to 
any school house, excused the inhabitants of the immediate center of the 
town from contributing to the general support of the district schools, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 689 

provided they would maintain a grammar school — not a moving school, 
but one teaching Latin and other subjects necessary then for preparation 
for college, in the center of the town for the entire year. There is some 
doubt as to whether John Adams was the first grammar school teacher. 

There was a committee for the center and another for the other dis- 
tricts. In November, 1759, the people at Pakachoag asked for the privi- 
lege of hiring a schoolmaster so that they might have school kept the 
whole year, but the request was refused by the town. 

First Private School. — Evidently the public grammar school was 
not highly successful, for in 1769 came a proposal to the town to provide 
for instruction required in a private school previously established. It 
was in 1759, shortly after Adams left, that the town went back to the 
old "moving school," "to be kept in the same way and manner that the 
school used to be kept in before May, 1752," and voted that "the sum 
of £43 be granted for the support of schools the present year and that the 
parts of the town commonly called Smith's and Parker's rows have the 
sum allowed to them as usual to be laid out in schooling as they used 
to have before March, 1752." 

The same spirit of economy was in force until 1763, when James 
Putnam and others petitioned fgr the privilege of erecting at their own 
expense a school house on the common. It is presumed that the peti- 
tioners had already kept a private grammar school for their own children. 
They offered to pay for the land, but the town simply voted "that James 
Putnam and others have liberty to set up a school house on such part 
of the Town's Land as the Selectmen shall think proper." As already 
stated, the town took action in March, 1769, appointing William Young 
and others to treat with the proprietors of this new school, "and to agree 
with them upon what terms they will allow said school to be considered 
as the Town's Grammar School for the benefit of such persons in town as 
shall incline to send their children there and also to consult some plan 
for keeping English schools in said town." The committee reported as 
follows : 

1769, March 17th. A Com. on Schools report: That they have proposed to the 
proprietors of the Grammar School that the town allow said proprietors 16 pounds 
the current year, said proprietors engaging that the said Grammar School shall be 
free for all persons in said town desirous of learning the languages (who shall) be 
admitted by said proprietors to have the same privileges and upon the same terms in 
said school, as the children of said proprietors, which proposals the said proprietors 
have accepted. And your committee are of opinion that the method of keeping Eng- 
lish school in said town (should be) each part of the town draw the money they pay 
toward the whole sum raised the current year, and each have their proportion of the 
interest money belonging to said school — to be kept in the several parts of the town in 
such season of the year as shall be agreed upon by the major part of said quarter. 
Your committee have divided the town into eight parts: Center of town; Tatnuck; 
Smith's quarter; Pakachoag; Sone's quarter; Stowell's quarter; Capt. Curtis's quarter; 
Capt. Flagg's quarter. 

W.— 1-44. 



690 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The grammar school was never popular, and the law requiring it 
was derided and condemned by a considerable part of the people. In a 
way it was undemocratic, for it was designed solely at first to begin the 
training of Congregational ministers and, until Harvard College became 
something more than a school to educate clergymen, the feeling was 
strong. In 1766 the Worcester representative in the General Court was 
instructed to endeavor "that the law requiring a Latin School be repealed 
and that no more than one such school be kept in a county," and in 1767 
"to use his exertions to relieve the people from the great burden of sup- 
porting so many schools of this description, whereby they are prevented 
from attaining such degree of English learning as is necessary to retain 
the freedom of any state." But the Latin or grammar school held on 
until the present high school system with its admirable provision for the 
general education of youth of both sexes — education broader, higher and 
deeper, except as to ancient languages, than Harvard College maintained 
in earlier days. 

In this year (1769), the school appropriation was £79, 17s., of which 
the center district had a fourth, the other seven about an eighth part 
each of the remainder, Tatnuck being the largest of the outside districts. 
It is useless to state the appropriations for schools, however, as the fluc- 
tuations in the value of currency were so great that it is impossible now 
to give an estimate of the actual value of the sums spent. The records 
show that among the teachers of the Worcester schools before the Rev- 
olution were the following: Jonas Rice, beginning in 1726; Benjamin 
Flagg, 1729; James Wyman, 1732; Richard Rogers, 1732; Samuel 
Boutelle, 1733; Nathaniel Williams, 1733; Samuel Marsh, 1738; James 
Durant, 1739; James Varney, 1744; Henry Gardner, 1752 ; John Adams, 
1755; John Young, 1757; William Crawford, 1758; Micah Lawrence, 
1760. 

The district school system continued and the funds were divided 
from this time until the city was incorporated. Each district had its 
commitee. Under the conditions of travel and for other reasons, the 
district system was probably the most efficient possible. The graded 
schools were a natural outgrowth of other conditions, of more ample pub- 
lic means, of higher standards of education and better trained and bet- 
ter-paid teachers. It is true today that school teachers are underpaid 
in comparison with men and women of the same ability and education in 
other callings, but there has been some advance. As late as 1834 the 
teachers here were paid $17 a month in winter and $9 1-3 a month in sum- 
mer (women teachers). Board was $2.50 a week for males. There were 
20 women and 12 men teachers, instructing more than a thousand pupils. 

After the Revolution, in 1785 and 1788, the town was presented by 
the grand jury for the neglect of its grammar school, and, when it was 
maintained, it appears to have traveled around the center in the circle of 



AND ITS PEOPLE 691 

districts until 18US when it became stationary. Apparently the con- 
tract with the private school was not kept many years. 

The high standard of the public schools maintained for nearly a 
century past, had its real beginning in a movement led by the l)est edu- 
cated and most influential men of the center district of the town in 1833, 
when the following committee was elected to report on the needs of the 
schools: Samuel M. Burnside, a lawyer; Rev. Aaron Bancroft; Gov. 
Levi Lincoln ; Otis Corbett and Samuel Jennison. The essence of their 
recommendations was : 

Your committee recommend that a board of twelve overseers be chosen annually 
by ballot, whose duty it shall be in conjunction with the selectmen to determine upon 
the qualifications of instructors and to contract with them for their services ; to de- 
termine upon the attainments of scholars to be admitted into said schools respectively; 
to prescribe the course of instruction therein and all necessary rules and regulations 
for the government thereof; to determine upon all complaints of instructors, of parents 
or of scholars, which may arise in relation to said schools, or either of them ; to visit 
and examine said schools respectively at stated periods during the year; to encourage 
in every suitable manner both instructors and scholars in the performance of their 
relative duties; and to make a report in writing annually to the District of the con- 
dition of said schools during the period of their office. 

Mr. Burnside, finding the recommendations when put into effect to 
be highly beneficial and practical, embodied them in an Act of the legis- 
lature to govern the school districts of the state, and laid the foundation 
of the present admirable school system of the Commonwealth. The 
members of the preliminary committee became with one exception mem- 
bers of the new board of overseers. For a number of years members of 
this board — the school committee — made addresses at the annual exer- 
cises at the end of the term, and such men as Rev. Alonzo Hill, Isaac Da- 
vis, Alfred D. Foster, John S. C. Abbott, Stephen Salisbury, Judge Ira 
M. Barton and William Lincoln were speakers on these occasions. The 
custom continued until 1836. 

The Centre School Building was advertised for sale May, 1799, by 
the Proprietors' Committee — Oliver Fiske, Theophilus Wheeler and John 
Green, Jr. 

During the period after the Revolution dowm to 183(), the following 
were among the teachers employed here : Dr. Amasa Dingley ; Rev. 
Thaddeus M. Harris, a distinguished minister and author in later life; 
Thomas Payson ; Roger Vose, afterward a lawyer of Walpole, N. H.; 
Silas Paul, afterward a lawyer of Leominster ; Andrew Morton, lawyer, 
Hampden, Me. ; Calvin Park, afterward professor in Brown ; Isaac 
Gates, afterward in the U. S. Army ; Samuel Swan, afterward a lawyer in 
Hubbardston ; Rev. Nathan Parker; Dr. Jason Bigelow; Rev. John 
Nelson of Leicester ; Nathan Guilford of Cincinnati, O. ; Ebenezer D. 
Washburn of Mobile, Ala. ; Levi Heywood ; Rev. Jonathan Going, N. 
Y. City; Jonathan Smith, Bath. Me.; John Reed, Worcester; Thomas 



692 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Fiske; Benson C. Baldwin, Milford; Leonard Worcester, Newark, N. 
J.; George Folsom, N. Y. City; Charles Thurber; Warren Lazell of 
Mendon; Albion P. Peck. 

Second Private School. — In 1784 another private school was organ- 
ized by Elijah Dix, Joseph Allen, Levi Lincoln, Nathan Patch, John 
Green, John Nazro, Palmer Goulding and others, and a building erected 
on the west side of Main street, on land leased in 1784, bought Sept. 29, 
1787. The elementary branches were taught in one school here under 
Mr. Brown; the higher branches in "The Seminary," by Thomas Pay- 
son. The school bgean auspiciously. Dramatic exhibitions added to the 
attractions of the public examinations. The pupils presented the trag- 
edy of Cato in August, 1787. But as in the case of its predecessor, when 
the children of the founders left the school to go to college or into busi- 
ness, the school languished. In May, 1799, the building was advertised for 
sale, the school having been discontinued, and in July, 1801, was bought 
by the Center district for $950. A public school was afterward main- 
tained there. These private grammar schools are mentioned because of 
their connection in one way or another with the public schools system. 

First School Houses. — The town voted Oct. 7, 1739, not to build a 
school house. The supporters of the movement to build a school house 
tried again in 1783, and at the meeting IMay 15 it was voted "that there 
be a school house built at the charge of the town and placed in the center 
of the south half of the town as near as may be with conveniency, having 
regard to suitable ground for such a house to stand on and where land 
may be purchased in case it falls in men's particular property, provided 
the purchase may be on reasonable terms. The length was to be 24 
feet, the width 16 feet, one story, of 7-foot studding, with a good 
chimney, glass, etc. 

Col. John Chandler was given the job of finding the center of the 
south half of the town. Evidently he failed to find a satisfactory lot, 
for there was an article in the warrant of the meeting in May, 1735, call- 
ing for reconsideration of the vote, "and in lieu thereof build one where 
the center line may strike the country road or as near there as land will 
allow of for a convenient spot as may be reasonably purchased for that 
end." After the survey, it was voted "that the committee or those that 
still live in the town formerly appointed to build a school house, to as 
soon as may be, erect and finish a school house of dimensions formerly 
voted at or near the northward corner 6i the land of John Chandler Jr. 
where he now dwells and as his fence now stands and that the charge 
thereof be paid out of the overplus money now lying in the hands of the 
town treasurer as appears by the settlement of the treasurer's last 
accounts and the selectmen are directed to give order accordingly." 

Evidently the objections of some of the inhabitants held up the 
project for two years more. In the warrant for the meeting of June 21, 
1738, it is stated that petitioners suggest "that more proper place may be 



AND ITS PEOPLE 693 

found between the court house and the bridge below the fulling mills." 
The town meeting then voted again to reconsider and to locate the school 
house between the court house and the bridge. The building had been 
started before November, 1738, and was finished in a short time. It was 
the only school house for many years. Here John Adams taught school 
three years. 

In 1748 an attempt was made to have district school houses, but it 
failed. Another attempt in 1753 also failed in the town meeting. A 
third effort at a meeting, Oct. 17, 1757, met the same fate. The town 
reduced its expenditures for schools instead of providing new school 
houses. 

The second school house was erected by the proprietors of the pri- 
vate school already mentioned, James Putnam and others. It was fin- 
ished in 1765; located at the northwest corner of the school land Main 
Street, near Mechanic. 

Not until 1800 were the houses built in the school districts, and 
none of them cost over $300. Fine buildings they must have been, 18 to 
25 feet square — mere shanties. The little red school house of the orator 
was not in evidence in the districts of this town. The old names were 
discarded for numbers in 1800, viz : Tatnuck, No. 3 ; Jones, No. 3 ; Bur- 
banks's. No. 5; Baird's, No. 6; Gates, No. 7; Fisk's Corner, No. 7; 
Burntcoat Plain, No. 9 ; Thaxter's, No. 10. Provision was also made for 
two new houses in the center; one at the corner of the old burial place, 
and the other opposite the then Unitarian Church, later the Franklin 
House. In 1801 the center district bought the second private 'school 
building, already mentioned, located on Main Street at the head of Cen- 
tral, on the present site of the Chadwick building. 

Between 1818 when the city was incorporated and 1855, nine school 
houses were built — Pine street ; in Quinsigamond village ; Sycamore 
street; Adams square; in the Pond district; Blithewood avenue; at 
South Worcester and Thomas street, making a total of 35 schools at a 
cost of $58,000. The 15 older school houses were valued at $57,000. 
There were 3,300 pupils at that time, 56 female and seven male teachers. 
In 1855 the school appropriation was $23,500. 

In 1856 the school house at Burncoat Plain was built and that on 
Providence street. In 1859, the schools at Tatnuck and Northville ; in 
1861, the brick school in Salem square, in 1863 E. Worcester and Masoon 
street. In 1865 there were 76 schools and 93 teachers. The first truant 
school was opened in 1863. 




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CHAPTER XLIV 



The Public Schools 



The School Committee. — Under the original city charter the schools 
were in charge of the mayor and a committee of 24, each ward electing 
three members annually, their terms being after 1857 three years. At 
first one member was elected from each of the eight wards ; when the 
wards were increased to ten, the committee was thus enlarged by six 
more members. The work of the committee from the beginning was 
largely assigned to sub-committees, the number of which increased 
from time to time as the duties of the committee multiplied by reason 
of the growth of the city and by the development of the school system, 
such as the evening schools, the free school-books, etc. From 1848 to 51 the 
mayor was ex-officio chairman, and again from 1866 to 1893 inclusive. 
Since then the board has elected its chairman. The names of the mayors 
are not included in the list given below. (See Mayors). From 1853 to 
1856 eight members were elected at large, two from each ward. War- 
ren Lazell was secretary and prudential agent from 1848 to 1852. From 
1872 to 75 Samuel V. Stone was secretary, afterward the superintendent 
was secretary of the board for many years. 

After years of agitation, the charter was amended in 1916 by decreas- 
ing the school board to one elected by the people from each ward and 
one at large. The first board under this law came into form in 1917. 
Albert H. Inman, "at-large" was chairman; Rev. Charles B. Elder, vice- 
chairman. The other members : Prof. U. Waldo Cutler, Francis Un- 
derwood, James F. Timon, Thomas F. McGauley, John A. Clough, 
Thure Hanson, Michael B. Fox, Walter J. Cookson, John E. Rice. The 
clerk, Joseph Beals, elected by the committee, annually has served many 
years. 

Superintendents of schools have been: Rev. George Bushnell, 1857- 
58; J. D. E. Jones, 1858-65; B. P. Chenoweth, 1865-67; Albert P. Mar- 
ble, 1868-94; Clarence F. Carroll, 1894-1903; Homer P. Lewis, 1904 — . 
The committeemen follow (years inclusive) : 



Charles F. Adams, 1887-90; 
John G. Adams, 1854-55; 
George I. Alden, 1893-1903 ; 
P. Emory Aldrich, 1869-74; 
Alvan Allen, 1859; 
Benjamin D. Allen, 1862-3; 
James F. Allen, 1849; 
J. A. Andrews, 1852; 
Nahum H. Andrews, '1859-60; 
Calvin W. Angier, 1857; 



J. M. C. Armsby, 1858; 

George F. Balcom, 1889-94; 

John S. Baldwin, 1862-64; 

George H. Ball, 1882-83; 

Helen A. Ball, 1897; 

Charles Ballard, i86o-6r ; 1870-75 ; 1887- 

89; 
Samuel Bannister, 1853 ; 
Forrest E. Barker, 1881-86; 
Levi Barker, 1861-63 ; 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



697 



Isaac R. Barbour, 1848; 

Rebecca Barnard, 1880-82; 1885-90; 

Jonas Bartlett, 1856-62; 

J. M. Bassett, 1876-81 ; 

Edwin Batty, 1914-16; 

Merrick Bemis, 1860-64; 1870; 

Reuben Bemis, 1849; 

Nathaniel T. Bent, 1851-53; 

George W. Bentley, 1853; 

Irving E. Bigelow, 1896; 

Julian F. Bigelow, 1890-95 ; 

Walter Bigelow, Jr., 1851 ; 

William Blom, 1907-12; 

Joseph E. Bond, 1852 ; 

Benjamin F. Bowles, 1868; 

Louis E. Bragg, 1911-16; 

Calvin M. Brooks, 1853-54; 

George F. Brooks, 1890-1905; 

John H. Brooks, 1851-53 and i860; 

Alzirus Brown, 1876-90; 

Alexander H. Bullock, 1855; i860; 

Alexander H. Bullock, 1902-08 ; 

Amanda C. Bray, 1899-90; 

Peter H. Breen, 1907-09; 

Freeman Brown, 1886-88 ; 

Asa L. Burbank, 1855-60 ; 

John F. Burbank, 1849-53; 

William H. Burke, 1911-16; 

C. C. Burnett, 1850 ; 

L. AI. Burrington, 1861-62 ; 

George Bushnell, 1850; 1853-55 and 1857: 

Daniel P. Callahan, 1911-14; 

Samuel P. Capen, 1908-14; 

Ariel B. Capron, 1861 ; 

Patrick J. Carney, 1910-16; 

John J. Casey, 1880-85 ; 

Joseph M. Cassidy, 1915-16; 

Ephraim F. Chamberlain, 1857-59; 

Daniel E. Chapin, 1854-55 ; 

Jason Chapin, 1872-73; 1875-77; 

Anthony Chase, 1855 ; 

Charles A. Chase, 1873-75 ! 

James K. Churchill, 1879; 

Frederick A. Clapp, 1874-75 ; 

Samuel Clark, 1863-65 ; 

Henry Clarke, 1854; 1856-57; 

George S. Clough, 1901-03; 

John A. Clough, 1913-18; 

Levi L. Conant, 1901-09; 

Thomas J. Conaty, 1874-86 ; 

Owen H. Conlin, 1880-82 ; 

Peter A. Conlin, 1885; 

Andrew A. Conlon, 1894; 

John B. Cosgrove, 1880-84; 



William H. Cook, 1904-08; 

Walter J. Cookson, 1908-17; 

Phineas Crandell, 1852 ; 

Austin P. Cristy, 1882-84; 

Edward I. Comins, 1897-1902; 

William H. Crawford, 1894-96; 

Albert E. Cross, 1916; 

James E. Cunnigham, 1905-07; 

Albert W. Curtis, 1848; 1858-60; 

Ebenezer Cutler, 1858; 1867-68; 

U. Waldo Cutler, 1914-18; 

Appleton Dadman, 1858; 

David F. Daley, 1915-16; 

Caleb Dana, 1848-52 ; 

John A. Dana, 1853-58 ; 

Joseph D. Daniels, 1856; 1863-68; 

Thomas M. Daniels, 1900-02; 

William S. Davis, 1857-58; 

Henry E. Dean, 1912-16; 

John Dean, 1865-70 ; 

Thomas F. Dean, 1889-91 ; 

A. B. Deland, 1854; 

Arthur E. Dennis, 1889-92 ; 

Wilton H. Desper, 1890-95 ; 

John B. Dexter, Jr., 1857 ; 

William H. Dexter, 1886-88; 

William Dickinson, 1856; 1867-69; 

John F. DonnoUy. 1904-07 ; 

Jeremiah J. Donohue, 1910-12; 

Samuel W. Dougherty, 1878-79; 

James Draper. 1871-72; 

John B. Drenna, 1886-87; 

George A. Dresser, 1852-54 ; 

John T. Duggan, 1891-1902; 

Dana M. Dustan, 1906-15; 

George W. Fames, 1891-99; 

Ann B. (Mrs. Edward) Earle, 1869-72; 

Edward Earle, 1862-70 ; 

John M. Earle, 1853; 

Oliver K. Earle, 1859-60; 

Sarah B. Earle, 1874-82 ; 

Thomas Earle, 1861-66; 

Timothy K. Earle, 1855-66; 

Andrew K. Eckstrom, 1900-1914; 

Andrew W. Edson, 1897 ; 

Charles B. Elder, 1909-18; 

John W. Emerspn, 1884; 

James Estabrook, 1852 ; 

James E. Estabrook, 1854 and 1856; 

Alichael J. Fallon, 1891-93 ; 

Daniel W. Faunce, 1857-59; 

Appleton Fay, 1851 ; 

M. P. Finnegan, 1873-74; 

Abraham Firth, 1863-64; 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



699 



John Firth, 1862-64; 

George P. Fisher. 1849; 

Seth Fisher, 1848; 

Austin G. Fitch, 1849 ; 

John A. Fitzgerald, 1901-03; 

Benjamin Flagg, 1849; 

Samuel Flagg, 1849-51 ; 

Joseph E. Flanigan, 1908-10; 

M. Bonner Flinn, 1894-1906; 

James Forstedt, 1889-98; 

Alfred D. Foster, 1848; 

Calvin Foster, 1857; 

Dwight Foster, 1856; 1858-59; 

Emma A. Foster, 1897-98; 

Emily F. Foster, 1915-16; 

Michael B. Fox, 1917-18; 

George E. Francis, 1880-82; 

Homer T. Fuller, 1889-91 ; 

George W. Gale. 1861 ; 1863-74; 

John E. Gallagher. 1895-99; 

P. J. Garrigan, 1872 ; 

W. Arthur Garrity, 1916; 

Austin S. Garver, 1889-01 ; 

Samuel F. Gates, 1863 ; 

Simon S. Gates, 1849 ; 

Orrin P. Gilbert, 1850-52; 1858-59; 

Edward B. Glasgow, 1883-85 ; 

John F. Gleason, 1855 ; 

Delano A. Goddard. 1858-63; 

Dorrance S. Goddard, 1867-71 ; 

Samuel B. Goddard, 1848; 

John S. Gould, 1903-05 ; 

Frank P. Goulding, 1872-83 ; 

George B. Gow, 1871 ; 

Eric O. Granberg, 1910-12; 

Louis P. Grandpre, 1904-05 ; 

Charles H. Grout, 1896; 

Stephanie Grant, 1911-13; 

John Gray, 1851 ; 

Meltiah B. Green, 1854; 

William N. Green, 1848; 

William S. Green, 1858-59; 

Henry Grififin, 1851 ; 1856-57; 

Thomas Griffin, 1871-73 ; 

Samuel Griggs, 1849; 

James F. Guerin, 1887-92; 

Henry Hague, 1898-03 ; 

Edward H. Hall, 1870-75 ; 1879-81 ; 

Franklin Hall, 1853 and 1856; 

Charles Willard Hamilton, 1863-65; 

T. W. Hammond, 1858; 

Thure Hanson, 1913-18; 

Samuel D. Harding. 1856-63; 

Levi Hardy, 1850; 



George H. Harlow, 1855-56; 

William T. Harlow, 1873-78; 

Laommi Harrington, 1872-73 ; 

Henry F. Harris. 1897-99; 

William H. Harris, 1851 ; 1855; 1857; 

1859; 
Thomas J. Hastings, 1877-79; 
Samuel Hathaway, 1859 ; 
Samuel F. Haven, 1864-65 ; 
Frank H. Hankins, 1915-16; 
Frank R. Hayden, 1896-99; 
John J. Heron, 1896-99; 
Frank D. Hickey, 1892-97; 
David Higgins, 1853 ; 
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 1854; 
Alonzo Hill, 1849-51; 1857; 
Hamilton A. Hill, 1857; 

E. H. Hill, 1883-84; 
Terrance J. Hines, 1873-75 ; 

David Hitchcock, 1849; 1851 ; 1855-56; 

1865; 
Samuel E. Hildreth, 1888-93; 
George Frisbie Hoar, 1858; 
Clifton F. Hodge, 1898-01 ; 
George Holmes, 1863-65 ; 
Pitt Holmes, 1848; 1852; 
William R. Hooper, 1849-50; 
James Houghton, i860; 
Henry W. Howland, 1848-49; 1851 ; 
Joseph A. Howland, 1888; 
John J. Hughes, 1886-88; 
Andrew Hutchinson, 1850-52; 1855; 
Albert H. Inman, 1910-18; 
George Jaques, 1848-50; 1866-72; 
Horace James, 1854-55 : 
Frederick Janes. 1848 ; 
Gustavus A. Jenks, 1855 ; 
Clark Jillson, 1891-93; 
Charles R. Johnson, 1877-78; 1896-15; 
John D. E. Jones, 1856-57 ; 1859-60 ; 
Lewis Joy, 1850 ; 
Daniel J. Kelley, 1885-90; 

F. H. Kelley, 1857 ; 
James P. Kelly, 1877-78; 
Joseph H. Kelley, 1885-90 ; 
Francis L. King, 1866-68; 
Charles B. Knight, 1876-78; 

Henry S. Knight, 1883-85; 1891-94; 1906- 

09; 
Calvin Knowlton, 1852; 
John S. C. Knowlton, 1849 and 1856; 
Thomas M. Lamb, 1861-67; 
William M. Lamb, 1852; 
Timothy F. Larkin, 1910-12 ; 



y:^ m 




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AND ITS PEOPLE 



701 



Charles M. Lamson, 1879-84; 

Warren Lazell, 1840-50; 1854; 

Daniel Waldo Lincoln, 1856; 

Nellie Weber Lincoln, 1897-01 ; 

William Sever Lincoln, 1853 ; 

Joseph F. Lovering, 1884-89; 

Thomas Magennis, 1849-56; 1858-67; 

Charles F. Marble, 1904-15; 

Edwin T. Marble, i860; 1873-80; 

Frank J. Marlowe, 1906; 

Asaph R. Marshall, 1880-82; 

Joseph Mason, 1848; 1850; 

James J. McCafferty, 1875-77 ; 

M. J. McCafferty, 1871-73 ; 

Matthew J. P. McCafferty, 1884-85 ; 

M. S. McConville, 1861 ; 1864-65; 

John J. McCoy, 1881-84; 

James McDermott, 1872-74; 

Thomas E. McEvoy, 1896 ; 

Edward D. McFarland, 1858; 1866-68 

Thomas F. McGauley, 1917-18; 

John T. McGillicuddy, 1897-03; 

William W. McKibben, 1907-09; 

James McMahon, 1874-76; 

F. J. McNulty, 1875-76 ; 

GAL. Two Hun & Fifty-seven— Lewis. 

S. J. McNully, 1872-75 ; 

James Melanefy, 1867-69 ; 

Rufus N. Merriam, 1868-70; 

Helen B. Merriam, 1885-86; 

Caleb B. Metcalf, 1865-67; 1869-80; 

P. Reinhold Meyer, 1913-16; 

Samuel P. Miller, 185 1 ; 

Seth P. Miller, 1855; 

Philip L. Moen, 1854-55 ; 

John N. Moore, 1874; 

Eugene M. Moriarty, 1876-78; 1881-96; 

Helen A. B. Morse, 1897-1900; 

C. M. Murray, 1875 ; 

John F. Murray, 1870-71 ; 

T. Edward Murray, 1873-75 ; 

Jeremiah L. Murphy. 1874 to 83 ; 

John Murphy, 1892-96 ; 

John L. Murphy, 1868-70; 

Timothy H. Murphy, 1878-80; 

Natan M. Muzzy, 1856; 

Benjamin F. Newton, 1852; 

Calvin Newton, 1848-49; 1851-52; 

John C. Newton, 1849-55 ; 1860-71 ; 

Thomas L. Nelson, 1858; 1867-68; 

L. B. Nichols, 1855; 

Peter J. Nihill, 1886-91; 

Timothy J. O'Connor, 1904-05 ; 

Richard O'Flynn, 1877-80; 1883-84; 



Michael J. O'Meara, 1893-96; 1900-08; 

Daniel H. O'Neill, 1874; 

Michael J. O'Reilly, 1903-08; 

Patrick T. O'Reilly, 1866-70; 

George F. Orr, 1895-96; 

Melvin G. Overlock, 1901-05; 

Thomas J. O'Sullivan, 1878; 

Henry L. Parker, 1882-87 ; 

Levi Parker, 1862: • 

H. K. Pervear, 1867-69 ; 

Edward H. Peabody, 1872-73; 

Francis M. Phelan. 1898-1900; 

George W. PhiUips. 1881-83; 

Levi Pierce, 1853; 

Francis Plunkett, 1876-78; 

George A. Power, 1911-16; 

John J. Power, 1859-70; 

Calvin E. Pratt, 1852-53; 

Joseph Pratt, 1854 and 1858 ; 

Charles G. Prentiss, 1848; 

Samuel Putnam, 1861 ; 1863-69; 

Joseph T. Quinlan, Jr., 1913-15; 

John B. Ratigan, 1887-89; 

Deering L Rawson, 1850 ; 

E. T. Raymond, 1900-02; 

Werden Reynolds, 1859; 

George C. Reidy, 1882-85; 

Maurice F. Reidy, 1909-10; 

Benjamin P. Rice, 1852; 

Frank H. Rice, 1861 ; 1863-66 ; 

George H. Rice, 1905-10; 

Henry C. Rice, 1857; 

John E. Rice, 1910-18; 

William W. Rice, 1853-54; 1856-57; 

Benjamin F. Robinson, 1893; 

Anna B. Rogers, 1875-80; 

George W. Russell, 1849 ; i860 ; 1862 ; 

Thomas E. St. John, 1861 ; 1863-66 ; 1877- 

79; 
Herbert C. Sanborn, 1914-15; 
William H. Sanford, 1865-66; 
George L. Sanford, 1887-92; 
L. M. Sargent, 1865; 
Emil Sauer, 1906-07 ; 
Edward M. Saunier, 1906-10 ; 
Daniel J. Savage, 1888-96; 
John L. Savage, 1912-14; 
Dennis Scannell, 1881-86; 
Dennis J. Scannel, 1873 ; 
John E. Scofield, 1916; 
Peter O. Shea, 1906-09; 
Rush R. Shippen, 1860-68; 
Henry Y. Simpson, 1871 ; 
Nicholas J. Skerrett, 1907-09; 




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AND ITS PEOPLE 



703 



William T. Sleeper, 1855; 

George A. Slocomb, 1903-11; 

Elam Smalley, 1848; 1850-51; 

Albert L. Smith, 1897-16; 

E. Walter Smith, 1911-13; 

George P. Smith, 1849; 

Joseph A. Smith, 1903-04 ; 

Robert L. Smith, 1860-62; 

William A. Smith, 1876; 

William T. Souther, 1885-92; 

Moses Spooner, 1853 ; 

Homer B. Sprague, 1855-56; 

Samuel E. Staples, 1869-71 ; 

E. S. Stebbins, 1857 ; 

Elijah B. Stoddard, 1868-79; 

Samuel V. Stone, 1854; 1858-62-64-72; 

Benjamin F. Stowell, 1853 and 1856; 

Samuel B. Swain, 1848; 1850-51; 1853; 

Eugene E. Sullvian, Jr., 1906-16; 

John H. Sullivan, 1897-03; 

John N. Sullivan, 1909-14; 

Oscar S. Svenson, 1906-09 ; 

George Swan, 1879-90 ; 

Seth Sweetser, 1848; 1853-54; 

Kate C. Taft, 1881-89; 

Putnam W. Taft, 1851-55; 

Marvin M. Taylor, 1902-04; 

Charles A. Tenney, 1865-67; 

Adin Thayer, 1856; 

Charles M. Thayer, 1895-97 ; 

Eli Thayer, 1852; 

Charles O. Thompson, 1874-76 ; 

George F. Thompson, 1883-84; 1885-88; 

George Thrall, 1871 ; 

O. H. Tillotson, 1850-51 ; 

James F. Timon, 1913-18; 

John Timon, 1876-81 ; 

Edward F. Tolman, 1885-88; 

Vincent E. Tomlinson, 1904-12; 

John Toomey, 1858; 



Edward H. Trobridge, 1908-10; 

Augustus Tucker, 1855; 

Elmer G. Tucker, 1910-11 ; 

Thomas Tucker, 1850 and 1855; 

James P. Tuite, 1879-80; 

George R. Tuson, 1906-16; 

J. H. Twombly, i860; 

William H. Tylee, 1902-07; 

Francis A. Underwood, 1897-1918; 

George R. Warfield, 1893-95; 

J. Henry Walker, 1874-75; 

Willard Ward, 1856-59; 

Justin A. Ware, 1891-96; 

Emerson Warner, 1869-87; 

Henry W. Warren, 1856 ; 

Charles Washburn, 1848-50; 

Francis Wayland, Jr., 1857 ; 

Ephraim D. Weatherbee, 1852 ; 

John W. Wetherell, 1850 and 1853; 

Loring Wetherell, 1857; 

Charles A. Wheeler, 1850-51; 1865; 1869- 

71; 
O. O. Wheeler, 1869-71 ; 
James A. Whipple, 1855; 
G. Henry Whitcomb, 1871-73; 
Franklin B. White, 1876-79; 
George H. White, 1894-96 ; 1898-1900 ; 
Henry E. Whyman, 1897 ; 
Edward W. Wilder, 1912-16; 
Hartley Williams, 1849; 1866-73; 
James O. Williams, 1854; 
William A. Williams, 1852-54 ; 1862-63 ; 
Herbert M. Wilson, 1899-16; 
Ephraim D. Witherbee, 1854; 
Pliny W. Wood, 1909-11 ; 
Rufus Woodward, 1869-72; 1875-83; 
James S. Woodworth. 1861-65; 
William Workman, 1849-51; 1859-62; 
Willie C. Young, 1884-86 ; 1893-95- 



The Public Schools in 1917.— The following were the schools in 1917 : 



The Public Schools in /p//.— Classical High School, Chatham St. Principal, Ed- 
ward R. Goodwin; assistant principal, Chester T. Porter; an assistant and thirty- 
two other teachers; 811 pupils. 

High School of Commerce (formerly the English High). Maple St. Calvin H. 
Andrews, principal; Robert T. Elliott, assistant principal; three assistants and 54 
other teachers ; 1,460 pupils. 

South High School, Richards and Freeland streets. Edward M. Woodward, prin- 
cipal ; Thomas F. Power, assistant principal; two assistants and 29 other teachers; 
832 pupils. 

North High School, Salisbury St. Charles E. Burbank, principal; George H. 




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AND ITS PEOPLE 705 



Boyden, assistant principal ; two assistants and 33 other teachers ; 824 pupils. 

Graded Schools.— Abbott St. School. Grades 8 to K. Alice M. Belding, princi- 
pal ; 12 other teachers ; 443 pupils. 

Adams Square School. Grades 8 to i. Burncoat street, opposite Millbrook. 
Mary Drake, principal. Eight other teachers; 312 pupils. 

Adams Street School. Grades 4 to K. Adams street. Ellen E. Moynihan, prin- 
cipal ; nine other teachers ; 320 pupils. 

Andover Street School. Grades 6 to i. Alma A. Bacon, principal, and sevet 
other teachers; 208 pupils. 

Ash Street School. Grades 6 to i. Ash street. Joseph J. Kiley, principal, and 
six other teachers ; 227 pupils. 

Belmont Street School. Grades 8 to i. Belmont street, corner Clayton. Ben- 
jamin E. Martin, principal, and 18 other teachers; 665 pupils. 

Blithewood School. Grades 7 to i. Blithewood avenue. Abbie C. Knight, prin- 
cipal, and four other teachers; 139 pupils. 

Bloomingdale School. Grades 6 to i. Plantation street. Louise M. Beaumont 
and six other teachers ; 216 pupils. 

Burncoat Plain School. Grades 7 to i. Burncoat street, near Mountain. Kath- 
arine T. Kennedy, principal, and four other teachers; 113 pupils. 

Cambridge Street School. Grades 8 to K. Cambridge street, corner Middle 
River road. William A. Tierney, principal, and 19 other teachers ; 642 pupils. 

Canterbury Street School. Grades 8 to K. Canterbury and South Bridge streets. 
Thomas J. Higgins, principal, and 23 other teachers ; 836 pupils. 

Chandler Street School. Grades 8 to K. Chandler street, opposite Newbury. 
Cora A. Baldwin, principal, and nine other teachers ; 372 pupils. 

Columbus Park School. Grades 6 to i. Helen F. Walker, principal, and six other 
teachers ; 201 pupils. 

Dartmouth Street School. Grades 7 to K. Frank A. Andrews, principal, and 17 
other teachers ; 593 pupils. 

Dix Street School. Grades 8 to K. Home and Dix streets. Frederick W. Ver- 
mille, and 18 other teachers ; 621 pupils. 

Downing Street School. Grades 7 to K. Downing street, near Park avenue. 
Kate E. Smith, principal, and 13 other teachers ; 506 pupils. 

East Kendall Street School. Grades 8 to K. East Kendall street. Edith M. Rol- 
ston, principal, and 17 other teachers; 606 pupils. 

Edgeworth Street School. Grades 8 to K. William F. Butler, principal, and 17 
other teachers ; 615 pupils. 

Elizabeth Street School. Grades 8 to K. Elizabeth street, near Reservoir. Emma 
M. Plimpton, principal, and 13 other teachers ; 473 pupils. 

Freeland Street School. Grades 7 to i. Freeland street, near Lowell. Jennie L. 
Dearborn, principal, and eight other teachers; 311 pupils. 

Gage Street School. Grades 6 to K. Gage street, near Eastern avenue. George F. 
McCauley, principal, and 19 other teachers ; 644 pupils. 

Gates Lane School. Grades 8 to K. Main street, corner Holland road. Anna W. 
Newell, principal, and 14 other teachers ; 529 pupils. 

Grafton Street School. Grades 8 to K. Grafton street, corner Wall. Joseph E. 
Underwood, principal, and 25 other teachers; 899 pupils. 

Greendale School. Grades 8 to K. Leeds street, corner Fairhaven road. Anna 
M. Johnson, principal, and 11 other teachers; 403 pupils. 

Harlow Street School. Grades 7 to i. Harlow street, corner Paine. Annie J. 
Butterfield, principal, and eleven other teachers ; 420 pupils. 

Jamesville School. Grades 5 to i. James street, near Ludlow. Florence St. 
Arnour, principal, and two other teachers ; 82 pupils. 

W.-I-45. 




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AND ITS PEOPLE 7^7 

Lake View School. Grades 8 to K. Lake View street. Wilfred E. L. Todd, 
principal, and six other teachers ; 241 pupils. 

Lamartine Street School. Grades 8 to K. Lamartine street, corner Scott. Rich- 
ard H. Mooney, principal, and 30 other teachers ; 937 pupils. 

Ledge Street School. Grades 8 to K. Ledge street. Thomas F. O'Flynn, prin- 
cipal, and 23 other teachers ; 758 pupils. 

Lee Street School. Grades 6 to K. Institute road, corner Lee street. Annie Y. 
Milliken, principal, and three other teachers ; 141 pupils. 

Ludlow Street School. Grades 6 to K. Ludlow street, near Main. Emma S. 
Barrett, principal, and three other teachers; 115 pupils. 

Malvern Road School. Grades 8 to K. Malvern road, near Southbridge street. 
Carrie A. Hildreth, principal, and eight other teachers ; 285 pupils. 

Mason Street School. Special school for backward children. Mason street, near 
Pleasant. Margaret V. Kirby, principal, and one other teacher ; 20 pupils. 

Midland Street School. Grades 7 to K. Midland street. Mary E. Latchford, 
principal, and nine other teachers ; 331 pupils. 

Millbury Street School. Grades 8 to K. Millbury strtct, opposite Cambridge. 
G. Milton Fisher, principal, and 26 other teachers ; 846 pupils. 

North Pond School. Grades 6 to i. Holden street, near Chester. Harriet E. 
Wheeler, principal ; one other teacher ; 68 pupils. 

North Worcester School. Grades 4 to i. Ararat street. Catherine M. McKenna, 
teacher ; 18 pupils. 

Oxford Street School. Grades 7 to i. Pleasant street, corner Oxford. Alice 
G. Draper, principal, and eight other teachers ; 296 pupils. 

Providence Street School. Grades 7 to K. Providence street, corner Grafton. 
Henry H. Kendall, principal, and 20 other teachers ; 675 pupils. 

Quinsigamond School. Grades 8 to K. Millbury street, corner Falmouth. George 
Ruff, principal, and 20 other teachers ; 823 pupils. 

Rice Square School. Grades 7 to I. Massasoit road, near Grafton street. John 
B. Crowley, principal, and 15 other teachers; 396 pupils. 

Salem Street School. Grades 4 to i. Salem street, near Myrtle. Mary A. Mc- 
Gillicuddy, principal, and three other teachers ; 165 pupils. 

Sever Street School. Grade 8 and 7. Sever street, near Pleasant. Edgar E. 
Thompson, principal, and eight other teachers ; 239 pupils. 

Tatnuck School. Grades 8 to K. Pleasant street, opposite Willard avenue. Mary 
E. Cunnigham, principal, and seven other teachers ; 247 pupils. 

Thomas Street School. Grades 7 to K. Thomas street, corner Summer. Kath- 
arine T. Butler, principal, and 12 other teachers ; 434 pupils. 

Trowbridgeville School. Grades 7 to i. Webster street, corner Bernice. Mabel 
E. Burrage, principal, and three other teachers ; 137 pupils. 

Union Hill School. Grades 5 to K. Dorchester street, near Penn avenue. Etha 
M. Stowell, principal, and 11 other teachers; 392 pupils. 

Upsala Street School. Grades 8 to K. Upsala street. Mary C. Henry, principal, 
and 17 other teachers; 667 pupils. 

Ward Street School. Grades 7 to K. Ward street, corner Richaldn. A. Teresa 
Timon, principal, and 12 other teachers ; 441 pupils. 

Webster Square School. Grades 4 to K. Webster street, near Main. Florence 
D. Gilbert, principal, and three other teachers ; 128 pupils. 

West Boylston Street School. Grades 7 to i. West Boylston street. Grace E, 
Oliver, principal, and eight other teachers ; 289 pupils. 

Winslow Street School. Grades 7 to K. Edgar E. Thompson, principal, and 12 
other teachers ; 450 pupils. 

(New) Woodland Street School. Grades 8 to 7. Woodland street. John E. 
Lynch, principal, and eight other teachers ; 305 pupils. 



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Woodland Street School. Grades 6 to K. Woodland street, corner Claremont 
John E. Lynch, principal, and 17 other teachers ; 641 pupils. 

Preparatory Gravimar Schools.— ¥rtnch, three teachers ; German, three teachers. 
Cooking Schools, Jessica Scott, director, and seven other teachers. Drawing Schools, 
Edward H. Thornhill, director, and six other teachers. Kindergarten, Mary H. Bar- 
ker, director. Manual Training, Arthur J. Bean, director, and 18 other teachers. Mu- 
sic, Charles I. Rice, director, and two other teachers. Physical Training, Edward W. 
Wilder, director, and seven other teachers. Sewing, Clara M. Gore, director, and six 
other teachers. Writing, Margaret B. Toole. Salesmanship, Anjenette Newton. 

Evening Schools.— R\g\i School (Walnut street, corner Maple). Daniel F. 
O'Regan, principal ; 856 pupils. Belmont Street School, William F. Butler, principal ; 
149 pupils. Canterbury Street School, George F. McCauley, principal; 38 pupils. 
Chandler Street School, Thomas F. O'Flynn, principal; 128 pupils. Gage Street 
School, James M. Daley, principal; in pupils. Grafton Street School, John B. Crow- 
ley, principal, 73 pupils. Greendale School, Thomas F. Donovan, principal ; 50 pupils. 
Lamartine Street School, Mark N. Skerrett, principal; 50 pupils. Millbury Street 
School, E. A. D. AIoss, principal; 75 pupils. Providence Street School, William I. 
McLaughlin, principal; 163 pupils. Quinsigamond Street School, Joseph M. Tracy, 
acting principal; 35 pupils; Webster Square School, Joseph J. Kiley, acting princi- 
pal; 14 pupils. 

Drawing (architectural), Charles R. Hoyle ; (freehand), Frank J. Darrah and 
Ethel M. Smith; (mechanical), Geo. E. Marble; Manual Training, Arthur H. Atkins 
and Daniel P. Dyer; Pattern Making, Frank E. Jones; Cooking, five teachers. 

Worcester Trade 5"c/joo/.y.— Trustees, Louis H. Buckely, president; George L 
Alden, vice-president; Charles F. Marble, clerk; John M. Buckely, Cornelius J. 
Carmody, George N. Jeppson, Thomas J. Lynch, John B. Moss, William Wattie. Boys' 
Trade School, Armory square, established 1909. Albert J. Jameson, director; Anna 
L. Metcalf, registrar; 29 other teachers. Girls' Trade School, 2 State street, estab- 
lished 1911. Helen R. Hildreth, director; and 25 other teachers. 

Superintendent of Schools, Homer P. Lewis; assistant superintendents, Alice L. 
Harris, Walter S. Young, John F. Gannon. 

Qualifications of Teachers. — To obtain a position as teacher in the 
grade schools the applicant must have passed an examination. She must 
be a high school graduate, or its equivalent; must have attended the full 
three years' Normal School course, and have served one year's appren- 
ticeship, and her examination mark must be 75% or better. After being 
put upon the list— the applicants being taken from the top of the list in 
all cases — her position advances according to her experience as a teacher 
in the meantime. All high school teachers must be college graduates, 
no examination is required, and no college is given preference. The 
transfer of a teacher is made by the superintendent subject to the 
approval of the School Committee. This is the same method required 
to obtain a leave of absence. 

School Grades. — In the list of schools given in this chapter mention 
is made of the kindergarten (K— ) and grades 1 to 8. Worcester schools 
had for many years nine grades ; since 1911 there have been but eight. 
The change was effected without confusion or lowering of standards. 
The minimum age for entrance was raised from five to six. Children 
may enter the kindergarten not younger than five years. The course 



AND ITS PEOPLE 711 

of instruction is prescribed by law and is uniform throughout the state. 
Since 1908 the school year has been divided so that graduations are held 
in February as well as June, saving many pupils a half year of time. 

Medical Inspection. — In recent years the health of school children 
has been guarded more and more, and under the laws of the state con- 
stant medical supervision is exercised by the school committee. In 1917 
the school medical inspectors are: Doctors Edward B. Bigelow, Philip 
H. Cook, George E. Deering. George E. Emery, Timothy J. Foley, 
Thomas F. Kenney, William E. Laughlin, Edwin R. Leib, Charles A. 
Lussier, Frank L. Magnus, John T. McGillicuddy, Lester C. Miller, 
George F. O'Day, John E. Rice, George O. Ward, Roy J. Ward. 

Attendance Officers. — The appointment of the first truant officer of 
the town has been mentioned. From year to year a constable or several 
officers were appointed to enforce the compulsory education laws. This 
duty has been performed of late years by attendance officers appointed by 
the committee. Richard J. Kerwick, the chief, has three assistants : 
Michael j. English, W^illiam J. McCleary and James P. Foley (191?) . 
There is also a supervisor of attendance elected by the committee. Miss 
Edith M. Dixon fills the position at the present time. 




fejLO.. 



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CHAPTER XLV 
The High Schools— Trade Schools 

Worcester Classical High School. — It is not granted to every school 
to have as one of its earliest masters a man who afterwards became pres- 
ident of the United States; this distinction belongs to the Worcester 
Classical High School, for John i\dams (1755-58) was the first recorded 
head of the Latin Grammar School which, together with the Girls Eng- 
lish High School was incorporated in the Worcester Classical and Eng- 
lish High School as it was called from 184:5 to 1892. 

Geniuses seldom confine their activities to one spot and, like its 
illustrious first leader, this school has had a varied career, even to the 
extent of several changes in location. From 1815 to 1872 sessions were 
held, including Saturdays, in the old building on Walnut street, now 
used as a Manual Training School It was originally on the 
site of the present High School of Commerce. When new the pres- 
ent antiquated structure was considered a most sumptuous building and 
was proudly commented upon in the school board reports of that time. 
When the original one hundred and seventy-five pupils had so increased 
that the building was no longer adequate, it was moved across the street 
to its present site, and while the edifice at the corner of Maple and Wal- 
nut streets was being constructed the pupils were housed in various parts 
of the city. This building has now become a landmark, and its lofty 
clock tower and imposing entrance are the work of a genius, for H. H. 
Richardson, the designer, afterwards became one of the leading architects 
of the country. The original effect has been much disturbed by the 
recent large addition, which however houses a beautiful and spacious 
hall, and numerous well lighted recitation rooms. 

For twenty years following 1872 this school was a powerful influence 
in the educational world ; but in 1892 it had to share the honors with a 
young and lusty child, the English High School, at the corner of Irv- 
ing and Chatham streets. By a curious trick of fate this offspring, now 
called the High School of Commerce, in 1914 seized upon the newly 
enlarged family homestead and offered its own smaller quarters to the 
"old folks." The change was, however, made amicably, but with con- 
siderable loss of traditions, for it seemed unwise to move all the accu- 
mulations of forty-two years residence, and some of the schools' most 
cherished possessions are still in the old halls. 

It is impossible in a short sketch to mention all the noteworthy 
teachers who have been connected with the Classical High School, but it 
seems necessary to include the names at least of the sixteen elected prin- 
cipals since 1845. Elbridge Smith, the head master of the Latin Gram- 



714 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

mar School, was the logical choice of the school board for principal of 
the newly formed school, and he continued in service for two years, leav- 
ing to organize a high school in Cambridge, a position which testifies to 
his reputation for efficiency. 

Elected in 1847, Nelson Wheeler, previously head of the Manual 
Labor High School, now the Worcester Academy, controlled for five 
years the destinies of this Worcester School and then accepted a Greek 
professorship in Bro-wn University. The following two years (1852-54) 
found George Capron at the helm. Possessed of a very muscular idea of 
discipline, he seems to have weeded out the unfit, for the school is reported 
to have fallen ofif greatly in attendance. He declined re-election in 1854, 
and apparently devoted his time to business pursuits. Osgood Johnson fol- 
lowed him, but left two weeks before the close of the year as a result of 
some differences with the school board. A man of very scholarly attain- 
ments and honored with the highest salary yet paid ($1500), he seems 
to have gone to the other extreme from his predecessor, and in place 
of the rod he substituted the prayer meeting which was sometimes held 
both before school and at noon. He was apparently beloved by his 
pupils and was elected next year as princi])al of the Cambridge High 
School. 

To fill out the school year. Homer B. Sprague, a member of the school 
board, took charge, and gave such satisfaction that he was retained until 
1859. Some disturbance arising, the teachers resigned in a body, and the 
trouble resulted in a vote to lower Principal Sprague to the rank of 
teacher, and promote Harris Greene, one of the teachers, to the princi- 
palship. Mr. Sprague declined to serve longer in any capacity, and 
apparently gave up teaching, retaining, however, in the matter the 
respect and admiration of his pupils. He afterwards acquired a consider- 
able reputation as a scholarly writer on English Classics. The whole 
incident, arising probably in the politics of the day, proves that the "good 
old times" were almost gruesomely modern. 

The next principal, Harris Greene, elected in 1851), gave the school 
till 1866 one of its best administrations. Scholarly and progressive, he 
incited all to their best efforts, and during the trying period of the Civil 
War he preached the patriotism of the daily task, while speeding on their 
way the many High School boys who left never to return. Among these 
was Willie Grout, in whose honor was written "The X'acant Chair," a 
song now of national fame. For thirteen years after leaving the High 
School, Mr. Greene was principal of the Oread Institute, thus giving the 
best part of his life to the educational welfare of Worcester. He made 
many innovations, among which was the public graduation, the pu])ils 
having previously, as one commentator expresses it, "stayed till the spirit 
of leaving overtook them." 

Of the short stay of James T. Claflin, less than a year, another 
result of "unpleasant conditions," it is not necessary to speak. Init his 



AND ITS PEOPLE 71 5 

failure to please a Worcester public did not prevent his attaining high 
honors in the educational, political and literary life of the country. 

Ellis Peterson's service (1867-75) owing to ill health, was inter- 
rupted by the principalship of Abner H. Davis (1869-72). Mr. Davis, 
who was a teacher in the school, cheerfully accepted his return to the 
ranks in favor of the re-election of his former chief. During Mr. Davis' 
administration, in 1871 the building at the corner of Maple and Walnut 
streets was dedicated. Principal Davis' felicitous remark on that occa- 
sion is worthy of mention. "The most eloquent dedication will be the 
touch of the children's feet." The "unpleasant conditions," which occur- 
red with almost uncanny frequency, forced the resignation in 1875 
of Mr. Peterson and his "faithful Achates," Mr. Davis. Both men, how- 
ever, kept their interest in the school, and in after years by their gifts and 
attendance at various school reunions testified to a forgiving spirit. 

Joseph W. Fairbanks (1875-78) was an efficient and highly respected 
principal, but the city was compelled, evidently by hard times, to reduce 
the teachers' salaries twice, and Mr. Fairbanks was attracted by a more 
remunerative position, in this case the principalship of the famous Wil- 
liston Academy. 

Samuel Thurber (1878-80) began his term under most favorable 
conditions, but his superior qualities were soon recognized by the Bos- 
ton School Board and he was ofifered the principalship of the Girls High 
School, a position which he held almost continually for the remainder 
of his long life. 

No short sketch could do justice to Alfred S. Roe, who was principal 
from 1880 to 1890, and a teacher in the school for the five years preceding. 
His labors of love are evidenced on every hand, and his pupils revere his 
memory. His recent death gave occasion for his many friends to renew 
their appreciation of his service for Worcester. Memorial exercises were 
held in the Classical High School, at which time an oil painting of Mr. 
Roe, the gift of the Alumni, w^as presented to the school. Following 
his resignation he served the community in several legislative connec- 
tions, including that of State Senator. In his later life he was supervisor 
of the Evening Schools of Worcester, a position which he held at the 
time of his death. 

John G. Wright (1890-94) gave of his best to the school, but like 
that of so many of his predecessors his ability was recognized by a more 
remunerative position, and he became the head of a Philadelphia high 
school. 

The next term of twenty-three years was unusual for its length, and 
in Edward R. Goodwin the school found a kindly friend who encouraged 
All school activities and rejoiced in the splendid record made by his stu- 
dents in higher institutions. The service of seven teachers, four of them 
graduates of the school, was contemporaneous with that of Mr. Goodwin, 
a fact which induced a family spirit difficult to duplicate in any school. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 717 

His retirement to private life was the occasion of a substantial testi- 
monial on the part of teachers, alumni and students. He was the first 
Classical High teacher to receive the benefits of the new State pension 
laws. 

Chester T. Porter, assistant principal for three years preceding his 
election in 1917 and a teacher in the school for sixteen years before, 
assumed his duties in the early days of the Great War. Under his lead- 
ership the school is making a splendid record in patriotic service, having 
a very active Junior Red Cross Chapter, beside subscribing generously 
to Liberty Loans and other war contributions. Like the previous war 
principal, Mr. Greene, he has emphasized attention to school duties as 
the students' most patriotic service, although several of the Classical 
High boys have left for active war work. 

No mention has been made of any teacher thus far, but it seems 
impossible not to include the names of Mary P. Jefts, Caroline P. Town- 
send and William F. Abbot, wdio during nearly all of the last four prin- 
cipalships have been connected with the school in the departments with 
which they are associated. They have gained a highly deserved repu- 
tation for scholarly teaching, as well as unselfish service, and they are 
remembered as friends in thousands of homes. 

For many years the school has held admission certificate privileges 
to all New England colleges which grant the right. This fact, as well 
as the records in scholarship won by many of its graduates, attest the 
thoroughness and progressiveness of its work. 

Apart from the routine of the class room, the school has always been 
characterized by other activities wdiich have greatly stimulated school 
spirit and loyalty. In 1885 an Athletic Association was formed, and 
since, then interest along these lines has been very strong. For a num- 
ber of years the school has supported successful football, baseball, bask- 
et-ball and track teams. The training secured in these activities has 
made it possible for many a boy to become a star in his chosen college. 
Basket-ball has been very popular among the girls for the past fifteen 
years. 

Debating societies have also played a prominent part in the life of 
the school. As early as 1858 the Eucleia was organized. Almost a quar- 
ter of a century later the girls formed a debating society known as the 
Aletheia. In 1883 the Sumner Club was organized, and two years later 
the Assembly. The latter was transferred to the English High School 
when it was opened in 1892. All these societies have had varied fortunes 
and degrees of prosperity during all these years, but everyone of them has 
left its mark upon the school and upon the large number of men and 
women who received their first training in public speaking in the weekly 
meetings of these societies. In the inter-school debating contests both 
the Eucleia and the Sumner Club have held honorable records. 

For many years it has been the custom for the graduating class to 




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make the school some appropriate gift. This has usually taken the 
form of some work of art, but in TJl?, directly after our entrance into 
war, the senior class chose a beautiful silk flag as the most fitting gift 
at such a time. 

Dramatics, too, have had their share in the history of the school. 
Among the most memorable of these efforts have been the Senior Plays 
of 1915 and 1918. In 1915 "Silas Marner" was dramatized by Miss May- 
nard, a member of the class, and most creditably presented under the 
direction of Mr. Martin Post, a teacher of English. In 1918 "The Vicar 
of Wakefield," dramatized and directed by Mr. Post, was presented in the 
Worcester Theatre and reflected great credit upon all concerned. 

In 1886 the Alumni and teachers formed an organization known as 
the High School Association. It meets once a year, on the evening of 
Graduation Day, and affords an opportunity for class reunions. For 
the better part of a century the Classical High School has been an impor- 
tant factor in the social and educational life of Worcester. At the pres- 
ent writing it shares these responsibilities with three other high schools, 
but its traditions of efficiency and service are a rich possession and are 
an inspiration to all who come within its walls. 

North High School. — The North High School was established Octo- 
ber 3, 1911, and graduated its first class in June, 1913. The school was first 
housed in the small but handsome building designed by Stephen C. Earle, 
and used for several years as a grammar school. Its very accessible loca- 
tion, on Salisbury street, near the junction of Grove, Lincoln, Belmont, 
and Main, is the best in the city, but the accommodations proved inade- 
quate almost from the beginning. The very old grammar school build- 
ing on Sycamore street, though far removed, was turned over to the 
school in October, 1913, but in June, 1914, it was made a part of the 
more recently organized High School of Commerce. In September, 1916, 
was completed, just north of the old Salisbury street building, a much 
larger one, of which the architect was John T. Simpson, of Newark, New 
Jersey. The two structures are connected and used by the one school. 
There is an excellent gymnasium and one of the most unique and attrac- 
tive auditoriums in the city. The school numbers over thirty teachers 
and over seven hundred pupils. 

When the school was first established. Miss Nellie C. Thomas, who 
had been principal of the grammar school, served for a time as acting 
principal, until Mr. Charles E. Burbank, a teacher of the Classical High 
School, was given the permanent appointment. In the fall of 1913 the 
North High School Record, a quarterly, began publication, and in 1915, 
the Aftermath, an annual, issued by the class graduating in June of 
each year. The athletic teams maintained are : Football, baseball, boys' 
basket-ball, girls' basket-ball, cross country, track, tennis, and hockey. 
The societies are the Orchestra, Girls' Glee Club, Dramatic Club, the Athe- 
neuni and the Forum, debating clubs for girls and boys respectively, N 



■20 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Club, Chess and Checker Club, x\lumni Association. November 20, 1917, 
the entire school was chartered as a chapter of the Junior Red Cross. 

Recently as the school had been founded, on December 17, 1917, sixty- 
eight of its former pupils were already in the service. About seventy 
pupils cultivated gardens at Green Hill, in the food conservation move- 
ment, besides many others who had them at home or engaged in regu- 
lar work for farmers. Of those who finish the four years' course, a very 
high percentage enter higher institutions of learning. 

South High School. — The third high school building in the city was 
erected in 1900-01 at a cost of $180,000, and occupied in September, 1901. 
It is located on Richards street, and known as the South High School. 
It is a brick building, three stories high, with 23 class-rooms. It pro- 
vided for 700 pupils; at the beginning enrolled about 400, and within 
four years was filled to its capacity. Before another building was pro- 
vided to relieve the overcrowding of the high schools, its enrollment 
increased to 1025. Various temporary buildings, rooms in grammar 
school buildings and other quarters, were provided for the overflow. 

This school has maintained a high standard and in some respects 
has served as a model. xA.bout 80 per cent, of its graduates enter col- 
leges, normal or technical schools. Its laboratories were equipped and 
planned by Calvin H. Andrews, now principal of the High School of 
Commerce, and they are frequently visited by school authorities and 
copied by other schools. The first principal, Homer P. Lewis, resigned 
at the end of two years to become superintendent of schools, and was 
succeeded by Edward M. Woodward, who has filled the position since 
September, 1903. (See biographies of Mr. Lewis and Mr. Woodward). 
The school has attained enviable distinction in athletics and through its 
literary organizations. The Congress Debating Society, organized in 
1902, has been active from the beginning and maintains a membership 
of about sixty. In contests with other high schools it has won one cup 
and has two points to its credit on another. The Philomathia, the 
debating society for girls, was organized in 1905 and has about sixty 
members. The South High Dramatic Club, composed of both boys and 
girls, was established in 1902 for the purpose of studying and presenting 
plays. Meetings are held weekly and plays presented twice a year. 
The membership is limited to fifty. The Index, a monthly newspaper, 
founded in 1908, edited by the board of students with an adviser from the 
faculty is published ten times a year. It is a neat, crisp, well-edited pub- 
lication. Its motto is "Clean Speech, Clean Athletics, Clean Living." It 
has served a very useful purpose and is an institution of which teachers 
as well as pupils, are justly proud. 

The South High Orchestra has been the means of developing much 
musical talent among the pupils. It was founded in 1902. Rehearsals 
are held weekly during the school year. The orchestra furnishes music 
at all important school gatherings. For many years it played at the 



THE NKW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



MSrOH. X.rJNOX ANll 



AND ITS FECFLE 721 



graduating exercises in Mechanics Hall. It has provided a source of 
revenue not only for its own expenses, but for other school purposes, by- 
playing in department stores and entertainments. Miss Elizabeth C. 
Woodman of the faculty has instructed the orchestra and trained the 
glee clubs that have worked with the orchestra from time to time in 
providing musical entertainments. Even comic operas have been pro- 
duced very successfully by the students. 

South High has maintained foot-ball, baseball and basket ball teams, 
and taken its share of honors in the games with other schools. 

English High School. — The building at the corner of Irving and 
Chatham (now known as the Classical High), was occupied in Sep- 
tember. 1892. James Jenkins w^as first principal. The building cost 
$100,000. and the land $50,000. Barker & .Nourse were the architects. 
The building is 117 by 147 feet, with a tower 130 feet in height. The 
material is Greenfield brick with brownstone trimming. Mr. Jenkins 
was succeeded by Homer P. Lewis in 1896. Mr. Lewis resigned in 1901 
to become principal of South High School. He was selected superin- 
tendent of schools 1903. an office he has held since that time, and w^as 
succeeded by Joseph P. Jackson \\\\o served until 1916. The history of 
the English High School is continued under its new name, The High 
School of Commerce. 

High Schocl of Commerce. — The High School of Commerce is the 
largest high school in the city and one of the largest secondary schools 
in the state. Under normal conditions about 1,-iOO pupils are accom- 
modated. A faculty of between sixty and seventy teachers is main- 
tained, and the courses offered are exceedingly varied and numerous. 
Every possible pha^e of commercial education with systematic instruc- 
tion in all branches of office practice is to be found in the curriculum, 
and every modern mechanical device now^ used by progressive business 
houses is at the disposal of the classes. The pupil interested in the study 
of money and banking finds an opportunity here. Those who are inter- 
ested in advertising, journalism, salesmanship, commercial drawing and 
designing, and many another branch of work, are afforded ample chances 
for the pursuit of their individual needs. At the same time the old- 
established branches of high school study are not neglected, and the 
scope of the institution is such that practically every type of student 
may be accommodated. 

The school was opened in the fall of 1914, Mr. Joseph Jackson being 
the first principal. Coming from the English High School, he brought 
with him most of the pupils and teachers from that school, and the 
High School of Commerce was fortunate in having so able an adminis- 
trator to engineer its start. Again the institution was most fortunate in 
acquiring the services of Calvin H. Andrews as assistant principal, who 
came ripe with experience won at the old English High School and the 
W.— 1-46. 



-J 22 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



South High School of this city, and who bore with him at the start the 
good wishes and esteem of hundreds of friends. In addition to this he 
was a teacher of wide reputation and an authority upon secondary school 
physics. In the summer of 1916 Mr. Jackson retired from service, hon- 
ored by the entire community, and j\Ir. Andrews came into office as 
principal, with Robert T. Elliott, formerly of the Classical High School, 
as assistant principal. The team is a most happy combination, and in an 
institution of this size that is a tremendous factor in making for efficiency. 
There are numerous flourishing student organizations at the High 
School of Commerce. An exceptional orchestra, carefully and success- 
fully trained by Miss Alma Morrissette, has already built an enviable 
reputation. The old Britomart, or Girls' Literary Society, is active, as 
is also the Assembly, or Boys' Debating Society, while the Choral 
Club, under Mr. Stickney, does splendid work. The school publishes a 
bi-weekly newspaper known as the Mercury. It is run by the classes 
in journalism under Miss Grace Buxton, with Mr. Walter Morrill as 
faculty business manager. The Blackfriars is the title given to the 
school dramatic club which was founded by the class of 1917 with the 
help of R. R. Greenwood. The faculty coaches are Mr. Greenwood and 
Mrs. Buckley. There is in the school a splendid athletic spirit and the 
regular quota of teams may be found. Special mention should be made 
perhaps of the girls' basketball teams, for they have worked admirably 
and have had marked success. The fine gymnasium wnth its ample 
tquipm'int is an incentive to good work in this line. In addition to these 
liatters there are numerous organizations of both the boys and girls, 
which owe their origins to the war, and these groups are doing a most 
useful and patriotic duty and are attempting to support the effort and 
sacrifice which have been made by the boys of the school who have 
given their services to their country. 

The educational purpose of the High School of Commerce is in a 
way unique, for it w^as established to meet a very broad demand. When 
the agitation for more wide-spread commercial education swept over 
the country a decade ago, that impulse in the community led to the 
founding of this school, and with that has grown the intent on the part 
of those in authority to make it not merely the typical business college, 
but a genuine institution of learning as well, where a pupil may learn 
not only useful things connected with commercial methods and business 
life, but may in addition absorb some of the more cultural phases of 
education at the same time, and thereby fit himself for promotion in his 
later vocation and find himself capable of maintaining a high position in 
the community as an American citizen. 

Worcester Evening High School. — The experiment with evening 
schools in this city began Dec. 1, 1849, when three schools were opened, 
one in Fenwick Hall for both sexes under Addison A. Hunt; one for 
girls in the brick school house on the Common, under John C. Newton, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 7^?, 

and one for boys in the Thomas Street school house. Elementary stud- 
ies were taught, but were not very successful. They have continued 
out interruption, and since 1881 have taken an important place in the 
school system. 

In 1881 there were seven evening schools, in 1883, nine; in 1890, 
twelve. In 1891 John J, Riordan was made supervisor of the evening 
schools. He died in 1900, and was succeeded by Hon. Alfred S. Roe, 
who continued in the office until his death in 1917. 

The Evening High School was established by Mr. Riordan in the 
Washington street building, where the graded school of the evening 
school system was located in October, 1893. The first class graduated 
in March following. In 1894 the Evening High School was located in 
the old Walnut street building, and at the graduation March 22, 1895, Dr. 
T. C. Mendenhall, of the W. P. I., delivered an address. Since 1895 the 
school has been held in the high school building on Chatham street. A 
course of three years was laid out at that time. The graduating exercises 
were held at first in the school hall, but in 1908 and since then in Me- 
chanics Hall, and they have proved to be events of much public interest. 
Each year some eminent educator or distinguished public man has 
spoken to the graduates. 

The principal of the Evening High School, Daniel F. O'Regan, 
graduated from W. P. I. in 1891, and has been a teacher in the evening 
schools since then. Other early teachers in the high school were : Dr. 
C. W. Whitaker, William I. McLoughlin, Philip Russell, Dr. D. T. 
O'Connor and Thomas C. Carrigan. In recent years there have been 
about thirty teachers and 800 to 1000 pupils. Besides arithmetic, grammar, 
history, civil government, algebra, chemistry and rhetoric, the subjects 
originally taught, Latin, German, French, Spanish, civil service, Eng- 
lish literature, geometry, typewriting and stenography, bookkeeping, 
physics and other subjects have been added. The school ranks high and 
is one of the few holding five sessions a week. For the past seventeen 
years a four-year course has been maintained and the list of graduates 
has constantly increased. There is also a separate and highly suc- 
cessful evening school for drawing. 

The Latin School for Boys. — A bequest in the will of Isaiah Thomas 
furnished the lot for the Latin School for Boys. At a town meeting 
Nov. 21, 1831, a committee consisting of Alfred D. Foster, Lewis Bige- 
low, Alpheus Merrifield, Frederick W. Paine, William Keith, Isaac Da- 
vis and George T. Rice, chosen at a previous meeting, to consider the 
provisions of the will, recommended the building of a school house on the 
lot at the corner of Summer and Thomas streets, two stories high, 30 by 
67 feet, estimating the cost at $2,250. The report was accepted, and 
Frederick W. Paine, Otis Cornett and Lewis Barnard appointed a build- 
ing committee. In 183-4 Nathan Heard succeeded Mr. Paine, who 
resigned. The committee finished its work in 1835. The house was 



724 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



built of brick, but was called "old" in 1851, when the present building 
took its place. The material in the old building was used in construct- 
ing the Pine street school house at the corner of Shrewsbury street and 
East Worcester street. 

The need of more room at Thomas street was felt as early as 1846, 
and during the next five years various committees considered the prob- 
lem. Once the town voted $1,200 for changes in the old building, but 
the appropriation was not used. The new building was dedicated Sept. 
1, 1851. It was built by Horatio N. Tower; seated 380 pupils. Charles 
A. Thurber, master of the school for several years before 1840, and El- 
bridge Smith was afterward a principal of the school. 

Warren Lazell taught the boys' school on Thomas street for eighteen 
years, and had previously taught in the New Worcester district. He was 
highly commended in the reports of the committee. He came to this city 
March 18, 1827, and taught until 1846, when he became secretary of the 
school board. He had a book store at 177 Main street, and afterward w^as 
in partnership with William Hovey in the manufacture of straw-cutters. 
When the business was destroyed by the Merrifield fire in 1854, he went to 
New York and was with the firm of Lazell, Marsh & Hunn, druggists. New 
York, of w^hich his son was senior partner. He died there Dec. 23, 1845. 

George A. Willard had charge of the Third Boys' or Boys' Primary 
School, Thomas street, for a short time, resigning in 1840. He was suc- 
ceeded by Charles W. Hartwell, who had taught the Apprentices' School 
very successfully and previously in Phillips Academy, Andover, and in 
East Douglas ; he died in New York City, Dec, 1889. Albion P. Peck 
was elected teacher of the Boys' School, June 22, 1835, and stayed until 
1839 ; after he left this city he became register of probate of Hampshire 
county; was trial justice; well known writer on agricultural subjects; 
member of the Northampton school committee; died November 7, 1884, 
at Vineland, N. J., where he spent his last years. 

Austin G. Fitch taught the Second Boys' School from 1839 to 1844 
or 1845 ; acquired a high reputation as a teacher ; had previously bought 
a farm at Quinsigamond, later engaged in milling at Springvale. Me. ; 
afterward lived in Holliston and Watertown, where he died in July, 
1891; he claimed to be the first to introduce music and drawing in the 
Worcester schools. 

Charles A. Thurber, mentioned above, was a graduate of Brown, 
1827, principal of Milford Academy; was principal of the Worcester 
Latin Grammar School, Thomas street, until June, 1839 ; became associ- 
ated with Ethan Allen in the manufacture of pistols; was county com- 
missioner; state senator; trustee of Brown University; lived later in 
Norwich, Conn., Brooklyn, N. Y., and Germantown, Pa. James Sulli- 
van Russell, of Lowell, who succeeded Mr. Thurber, remained but six 
months ; John WVight was the next principal and when he left became 
officer in a Lowell mill. Mr. Russell attended school here as a boy and 






pUBl\^ 



MC U' 






as-^":":'j.ou»»^ 




MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, 
BOYS' TRADE SCHOOL. 




WORCESTER B(J\ S' TRADE SCHOOL. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 7^S 



taught the Quinsigamond school, 1828-9, later at Hingham and Lexing- 
ton ; was a student at Brown afterward ; then a teacher at Arlington and 
in the Lowell High School ; after leaving this city he took a course in 
the Normal School at Barre, then returned as teacher of mathematics to 
the Lowell High School, in which he taught until ISTO, making fifty years 
of his life devoted to teaching; in 1840 he wrote Russell's Rational 
Arithmetic. George W. Russell of this city, a carriage manufacturer, 
was a brother. Caleb B. Metcalf began teaching in Thomas Street 
School in April, 1846, and was headmaster until 1856, when he estab- 
lished the Highland Military Academy. 

The Latin Grammar School came to an end with the administra- 
tion of Rodolphus Baker Hubbard, who was master from May, 1843, to 
December, 1844 ; he was praised without stint in the committee reports ; 
during his term the school was provided with apparatus for the study 
of natural philosophy and the beginning of the present era of mechanics 
and physical science in the public schools had its beginning. He was a 
student of Amherst and Union, a graduate of the former college ; studied 
theology and preached in various places ; was principal of the Academy 
at Kingston, N. Y., and of Mt. Pleasant Institute, Amherst, several years; 
taught at Northampton before coming here ; after resigning here he was 
candidate of the Liberty party for Congress, but not elected ; editor of 
the Worcester County Gazette, an anti-slavery paper, in 1845 ; presi- 
dent of the Worcester County Teachers Association 1845-6 ; chairman of 
the committee that arranged the celebration of the emancipation of 800,- 
000 slaves in British colonies, Aug. 1, 1845 ; chairman of a convention of 
the Liberty party, Oct. 22, 1845 ; represented the town of Sunderland in 
the General Court, 1848; was associated with Horace Mann in holding 
teachers' institutes; member of the Governor's Council, 1851-52; trus- 
tee of Williston Seminary ; from 1855-68 conducted a boys' school at 
Amherst; farmer during his last years at Amherst. (See papers by 
Henry M. Wheeler, Wor. Soc. Ant. Proc. Vols. XXVHI and XXX). 
James H. Newton succeeded Mr. Metcalf and in turn was succeeded in 
1864 by Edward L Comins as principal of Thomas Street School. 

Boys' Trade School. — The most important new departure of mod- 
ern times in public education is the trade school, supplementing the 
technical schools. Milton P. Higgins of this city was the chief advo- 
cate and originator of these schools, and the virtual founder of the W^or- 
cester School. In his biography in this work, some details are given of 
his advocacy of this practical and useful extension of the public school 
system. He spoke, wrote, planned and influenced other leading men, the 
city government and the legislature, until the trade school here was 
established. In 1909 the Worcester School was estabHshed. It was one 
of the first in the state, and for several years has been the largest in 
New England. 

The school was authorized by the city council, Dec. 31, 1908, and 



726 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

the original building was opened to pupils Feb. 9, 1910. The building is 
in Armory Square, one of the finest school structures in the city. Within 
four years the school had 400 day pupils attending, and nearly 800 men 
in evening classes. The original building was of brick, three stories in 
height, 42 by 210 feet with an administration building, now the central 
section, 50 by oT feet, four stories' in height. It was planned for 200 
pupils. The addition completing the building doubled its capacity a 
few years later. The building was equipped with the necessary machines 
for iron, steel, wood working, etc. The building committee consisted of 
Milton P. Higgins, John M. Buckley, George I. Alden, George F. Brooks, 
George N. Jeppson and Levi L. Conant ; the finance committee: 
Charles F. Marble, Cornelius J. Carmody and Milton P. Higgins. 

The school opened Feb. 1 with about fifty pupils, half in the iron- 
working section, half in the wood-working, and for a time twenty-five 
more were admitted every three months. Boys over fourteen years are 
admitted; the course of study is four years; the sessions are 8 to 12, 
and 1 to 5 daily, except Saturday afternoon. The boys are taught not 
only how to run a machine, but how to strip it and reassemble it ; not 
onlv how to make something, but how to make it perfectly and econom- 
ically ; not only how to discover the troul)le with his tools when they 
work badly, but how to repair them. 

When the second section of the building was added the boys of the 
school did 90 per cent, of the work of the interior. Inside of five years 
it became necessary to double the size of the school. This second wing 
was made possible by the gift of $25,000 from the estate of ]\Ir. Higgins 
in March, 1912. The 150 boys who contributed their labor to this sec- 
tion of the school worked with fine enthusiasm and their work is the 
pride of the school and the city. They built stairs, laid floors, put on the 
finish of all kinds, installed the electric lights, constructed the running 
track, the iron stairs and in fact everything within the building, valued 
at more than $15,000. 

The new part of the school has a modern and well-equipped gym- 
nasium ; a drafting room, lunch room, library, carpentry-room, audi- 
torium. A section was given over to the Girls' School for domestic 
science and what they learn about cooking at State street, they utilized 
here in a practical way in the lunch room. The printing class has quar- 
ters here. The school has succeeded beyond the fondest expectation of 
its founders ; the boys are taught the various trades, are accepted in the 
shops of the city as journeymen and hold their own from the start with 
the craftsmen taught in the shops. The classes in machine shop, cabinet 
making, pattern making, house carpentry, steam engineering, painting, 
electrical work, printing and drafting, have been most popular and use- 
ful. The boys have their athletic teams and enter competition with the 
other high schools of the city. (See Wor. ]Mag. 1009. p. 5: 1914 9, 249. 
Tulloch- p. 161). 



AND ITS PEOPLE 727 

Much of the machinery has been earned by the work of the stu- 
dents. The school finds a market for its product and at the same 
time keeps its equipment at the highest standard. There are studies as 
well as work-shop computations, formulas, geometry and study of tri- 
angles ; commercial arithmetic and geography ; mechanics, hydraulics, 
electricity. The boys are taught English, the history of commerce and 
invention and civil government. Great attention is paid to drawing, of 
course. 

Since October, 1910, the school has been open to pupils on the half- 
time plan. The regular schedule of the school sends each pupil into 
its shops for a full week, then for a week into its school rooms. The 
half-time boys work for wages at their trades in the industries of the 
city for a week, then take a week of study in the school, thus being 
self-supporting. The manufacturers of the city have readily co-operated 
in carrying out this plan, but the number of these students has not been 
large. The buildings and equipment of the school have been furnished 
by the city, including the gift of the Higgins estate, $25,000 from the 
labor of pupils and $3,000 in gifts of other citizens. The cost of main- 
tenance is divided between city and state. Louis H. Buckley succeeded 
Mr. Higgins as president of the board of trustees. Elmer H. Fish has 
been director of the school from the beginning. 

Trade School for Girls. — As soon as possible after the successful 
inauguration of the Trade School for Boys, a similar institution was 
established for girls. In September, 1911, the school was opened in this 
city, in accordance with a plan submitted by a sub-committee of the 
board of the trustees of the Independent Industrial Schools of Worcester, 
consisting of Charles F. Marble, Cornelius J. Carmody and William Wat- 
tie. The building on State street occupied by the school has since 
been bought by the city. The school had at the start To pupils, and the 
number has constantly increased. Miss Cleon Murtland was elected 
director of the School ; she had been an instructor in the New York 
Trade School for Girls for four years. 

"While the purpose has been to equip the building for a school in 
which trades will be taught, there has been a strong wish to maintain 
the home aspect both within and without. We also hope that the girls 
may gain in this school, through direct and subtle influence, standards 
and motives for higher living which shall give to them a broader hori- 
zon of life and nobler ambitions as home-makers, whether their relations 
in the home shall be that of daughter, sister, wife or mother." 

At the dedication addresses were made by Louis H. Buckley, Miss 
Murtland, Dr. Charles A. Prosser, Helen R. Hildreth of Boston, Rev. 
Bernard S. Conaty and Hon. James Logan. Miss Murtland's address 
was published in the Worcester Magazine, Oct., 1911. She outlined the 
plans of work. The principal courses at first taught in the school were 
millinery, all kinds of sewing and dress-making; cooking and other 




►-1 
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o 

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■Si 

■A 



AND ITS PEOPLE 729 

household arts and other trades for women were added. The course of 
of study is two years. Enghsh, arithmetic, textile study, civil govern- 
ment, industrial history and similar subjects are taught. In its work the 
school has been reckoned fully as successful as the Boys' School. The 
school has about 200 pupils at present. 

In November, 1917, David H. Fanning gave to the city $100,000 
for the purpose of building a school house for the Girls' Trade School. 
This generous gift will provide a building adequate for many years and 
equal in architecture and equipment to the magnificent Boys School. 
The Gazette says editorially : 

Nearly all of Mr. Fanning's industrial life has been spent in Worcester. He made 
his fortune here. His home and other social ties are centered here. And it is here 
that he considerately chooses to place of the fruits that his business ability have won 
in Worcester. The example cannot fail to be of force in causing other citizens of 
means to take a like course toward their home city. The Fanning gift is one that well 
rounds out a life of eminent usefulness and is a benefaction that is to be enjoyed by 
the people of the present who know and are known by the donor as well as by pos- 
terity. 

Note. — The view of the High. Schools on page T12 were made prior 
to 1914, in which year the English High School (right hand view) became 
the Classical High School, and the left hand view (Classical High 
School) became the Commercial High School. 




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CHAPTER XLVI 

Academies — Business Schools — Domestic Science Schools — Private 

Schools 

Worcester Academy. — There were three purposes in the minds of 
the founders of the Worcester County Manual Training School (the Wor- 
cester Academy since 184T), first, to have an academy or preparatory 
school governed by officers of the Baptist denomination ; second, a school 
for manual training ; third, an academy that would give the poor boy 
an opportunity for liberal education. Most of the founders were Bap- 
tists. They raised $5,000 in 183-1, and formed a corporation of which 
Isaac Davis was president, Otis Corbett, secretary, Ichabod Washburn, 
treasurer, and Daniel Goddard, trustees. They stated their purpose "to 
found a school whose advantages for elementary instruction should be of 
the first order; under good moral and decidedly religious influence; 
where every possible advantage should be afforded for productive manual 
labor; so that the instruction, while good, should not be expensive." 
In other words, the students could pay for their education by working 
for the school. 

A farm of 60 acres on what is now Main street, extending from near 
Lagrange street to Hammond street, w4th a frontage of 1,100 feet was 
bought. There were no old buildings and no highway crossed the prop- 
erty. The first building, the chapel, and the Mansion House where the 
steward and students lived, stood on the ridge on what is now Oread 
street. In 1848 Academy Hall was built, only to be demolished six 
years later, the material being used to build tenement houses, known as 
"brick city" on Canterbury street. 

The students who needed the money received eight cents an hour for 
labor on the farm, if they had arrived "at years of manhood," but less 
in accordance with their age and strength. The price for board was 
$1.50 a week; if tea and coffee were not used $1.30. The simplicity and 
frugality of life in the academy is shown by the following extract from 
C. C. Baldwin's diary, March IT, 1835: 

Eden Augustin Baldwin, my nephew, came from Templeton today, having been sent 
here by his grandfather, with the request that I would put him to the Baptist School 
in this town or send him to Leicester Academy, as I might think most for his advan- 
tage. I concluded to send him to Leicester, though I was inclined to put him to the 
first named, and should have done so had it not been for their regulations about 
board. No tea, coffee or milk are given to the pupils, who board in the institution. In 
my judgment this is a bad arrangement. If a boy is not well treated at school he will 
hardly know what he has a right to expect when he becomes a man. We should learn 
children their rights if we would have them respected when they become men. 



732 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The late Nathaniel Paine is authority for the statement that the boys 
who worked sat at different tables from those who paid their tuition in 
cash, but the only difference in food was that the latter had doughnuts 
and the former had not. 

The first principal was Rev. Silas Bailey, who opened the school with 
20 pupils. Four years later the school had 135 pupils, 18 of whom were 
from this city. In 1838-40 Prof. S. S. Green was principal ; in 1840 Nel- 
son Wheeler succeeded him. Lack of funds caused the temporary clos- 
ing of the school in 1844. About a year later a sum of $6,000 was raised 
and another "fund of $5,000 for tuition of pious, indigent young men of 
the Baptist denomination." The land south of Southbridge street was 
sold at this time, including the present sites of the gas-works and the 
Bowler brewery ; in 1845 the tract between the Norwich & Worcester 
railroad and Southbridge street was sold, bringing more funds to the 
depleted treasury. In 1852 the trustees leased the real estate to Eli 
Thayer, who had graduated from the school and later at Brown in 1845, 
and immediately became a teacher in the school and was afterward its 
principal. In 1848-9 he had founded the Oread Institute, and there he 
offered the first opportunity for collegiate education to young women 
of this country. Under the lease Mr. Thayer conducted the academy 
until 1854, when he bought the building of the school corporation. 

The school was then moved to the old building of the American An- 
tiquarian Society, Summer street, corner of Belmont, where it had a pre- 
carious existence for fifteen years. In 186T the trustees were about to 
transfer the assets of the school to the Newton Theological Seminary, 
believing that the public high schools filled all the essential purposes for 
which the academy had been founded, but this action was opposed, and 
the petition for authority to make the transfer was accordingly refused 
by the General Court. 

Isaac Davis in 18G9 b}- private purchase acquired the property on 
Union Hill, (used during the war by the government and known as the 
Dale Hospital), buying of the defunct Ladies' Collegiate Institute. Mr. 
Davis took the assets of the academy and contributed the balance neces- 
sary. In the main building on the new site. Dr. Calvin Newton had 
established in 1845 a Botanico-]\Iedical College, incorporated in 1849 as 
the Worcester Medical College. In 18G2 in Aesculapian Hall (later the 
chapel) ten graduates including one woman received their degrees of 
M. D. The Ladies' Collegiate Institute, founded also by the Baptists, 
acquired the property after Dr. Newton died in 1853, bought a large 
tract of land and set about to make a seminary like that of Mt. Holyoke. 
The wings of the main building were added before the institute failed. 
An account of the Dale Hospital is given in the history of the Civil 
War in this work. Fourteen wooden barracks, each 25 by 160 feet, pro- 
vided for 60 beds each ; but it was in use only from Feb. 22 to Dec, 1865, 
when the temporary buildings were sold and removed, excepting the 



AND ITS PEOPLE 733 



central barrack, which was used by the academy for a gymnasium until 
1890. 

The school continued as a second-rate co-educational academy until 
1880. The foregoing facts are taken from an article by Dr. George O. 
Ward (Won Acad. Bulletin, V. No. 4). 

To Isaac Davis and Dr. A. P. Marble, principal for two years at 
the time the trustees decided to discontinue the academy, credit must 
be given for saving the school and preserving for the institution a past 
filled with interesting history. Dr. Marble was afterward superintendent 
of the Worcester public schools and later assistant superintendent of the 
schools of New York City. 

Through thick and thin, the school stuck to its original purposes; 
the high moral and religious ideals of the academy have never been low- 
ered, and notwithstanding all the vicissitudes it has had almost from the 
beginning, a reputation for thorough training, scholarship and system. 
Every college welcomes graduates from Worcester Academy on account 
of their excellent preparation. Among its graduates is a long list of dis- 
tinguished men. 

When the academy was moved to Union Hill and again became a 
boarding school. Prof. William C. Poland, later of Brown University, was 
principal. He was succeeded by Prof. Nathan Leavenworth, who died in 
1882. Since that time Dr. Daniel W. Abercrombie, has been principal. 
(See biog.). The academy owes its high standing to the energy, cour- 
age, determination and executive ability of its head. He built well. The 
history of the school is a biography of the principal. He secured endow- 
ments and gifts of all kinds and erected building after building to pro- 
vide for the constantly increasing number of students and to give the 
institution all the advantages of a modern preparatory school. He 
stirred the loyalty of former students and graduates and they responded 
to every call. The spirit of Worcester Academy was developed until it is 
become a model for similar institutions. During his adminstration the 
number of students has grown from about 50 to more than 300. 

To the one old administration building, the checkered history of 
which has been told, a group of substantial fireproof buildings has been 
added one after another. Davis Hall, the first dormitory built, was 
named in honor of the first president of the board of trustees, who for 39 
years filled that office. Walker Hall, erected in 1889, was named for 
Hon. Joseph H. Walker, LL.D., the second president, from 1873 until he 
died. (See biog.). It contains the office, the chapel, recitation rooms, 
the Nelson Wheeler Library. Adams Hall is a model dining hall, erected 
in 1892. Dexter Hall, named for one of the most generous benefactors 
of the academy, William H. Dexter, was built in 1892. The Kingsley 
Laboratories, named in honor of a distinguished benefactor, Hon. Ches- 
ter W. Kingsley of Cambridge, was built in 1897-8 at a cost of $90,000 
and equipped with modern apparatus. It contains a group of seven 



734 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

laboratories for different purposes, and rooms for manual training and 
mechanical drawing. Since acquiring this building the academy has 
been able to offer exceptional opportunities for fitting students for tech- 
nical schools as well as college. It is significant that more academy men 
go to the W. P. I. than any other college. During the present admin- 
istration the faculty has grown from five to nineteen, each of whom is a 
specialist in his own department. 

The new gymnasium of the academy, erected in 1915 at a cost of 
about $100,000, at the corner of Penn avenue and Dorchester street, 
designed by Parker & Stearns of Boston, is one of the best arranged and 
most fully equipped buildings of its kind of any possessed by prepara- 
tory schools, public or private, in this country. The exterior is particu- 
larly attractive. It stands on the old athletic field and completes the 
third side of the quadrangle of buildings. The swimming pool is 28-T5, 
of the latest model. The main room of the gymnasium is 58 by 100 feet 
and is well fitted for basket ball. Exertise in the gymnasium is com- 
pulsory. The Academy athletic teams have received every encourage- 
ment from the trustees and faculty. The new Gaskill field, named in 
honor of Judge Francis A. Gaskill, third president of the board of trus- 
tees, is the best of its kind in New England. It contains two base ball 
fields, football gridiron, a quarter-mile track with 220 yards straightaway 
track, three tennis courts, a field house of cement. The field cost $T0,- 
000 and contains ten acres. 

The academy is the oldest of the higher institutions of learning in 
the city ; it stands fourth among the academies of the country in num- 
ber of students. 

Oread Institute. — The Oread Collegiate Institute was important as 
an institution of learning because it was a pioneer among colleges for 
women ; it was important as an institution of the city because of the 
large number of girls of this city educated there. From beginning to 
end it was a center of interest. The Oread Castle, which still stands 
unchanged in its exterior, was the home of the institute and built for the 
purpose by Eli Thayer. Goat Hill, as the site was known, was in the 
suburbs when Mr. Thayer bought it in 1845. Subsequently he added a 
field of ten acres including the present site of Piedmont Church. He 
designed the building which followed the lines of a medieval castle and 
it was built partly of native stone. It was to have an inner court ITO 
feet square. Circular towers 50 feet in diameter and four stories in 
height were to be placed at the four corners. The building w^as designed 
for 600 students, more than were at that time students in any American 
college. The north and south towers and connecting hall were com- 
pleted in 1852, the whole having a frontage of 250 feet, but the rest 
of the structure was never built. 

The Institute was opened May 14, 1849. At that time Oberlin was 
the only college open to women, and no college exclusively for women 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



735 



had been established. In 1854 there were a dozen teachers and the 
building was full of boarding students. As the history and its roster of 
students and graduates shows, the school attracted pupils from the best 
known families of the cities. There were three departments, primary, 
academic and collegiate. The college course was modeled after that of 
Brown University. Instruction was also given in music, drawing, paint- 
ing and other branches considered necessary for the education of girls at 
that time. Rather ahead of the times also was the regular prescribed 
gymnastic exercises "as means to health and to develop symmetry of 
form and grace of carriage." Students were expected to walk daily out 
of doors. A riding ampitheatre was built soon after the school was 
opened. 




OREAD INSTITUTE. 



Mr. Thayer asked no help of others in his experiment. He said : 
"We sell education at cost. If our merchandise is not worth our price 
or if we have brought wares to the market for which there is no demand, 
we ask no one to share our loss. Oread Castle was founded in good faith 
under the honest conviction that it might serve the country and the 
world by advancing in some degree the able cause to which it is 
devoted." The Oread continued for a period of thirty-two years, and 
was closed on account of the failure of the health of John Alden Thayer, 
son of the founder and at that time principal. 



7Z^ 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



In 1910 the Oread Collegiate Institute Association gave $3,000 to 
Brown University for the "Eli Thayer Scholarship of the Oread." This 
association has maintained an active existence to the present time. A 
history containing portraits and illustrations with biographies of former 
pupils was published in 1881 ; edited by Martha, Burt Wright and Anna 
M. Bancroft. A supplement was published in 1915. 

Henry D. Perky, who afterward bought the Oread and converted 
into a domestic science school, described elsewhere, continued until 1901:. 
For a number of years the property has been used for a riding school. It 
is described as a large and perfectly appointed riding academy, with an 
excellent indoor tanbark ring, where expert instruction in horsemanship 
is given to men and women and children by classes or private lessons. 
Dr. W. J. Hennessey is president; Harry W. Marsh, treasurer. 

Highland Military Academy. — For more than fifty years the High- 
land Military Academy, a preparatory school, took rank among the best 
in the country. It was founded by Caleb B. Metcalf and owned by him 
and his estate from the beginning to the end. He had been a principal 
of the Thomas Street Latin School. 




HioHLAXl^ MILITARY ACADEMY IN i860, 
As it was when Willie Grout was a student there. 



The school was located on Salisbury street on the plateau at the top 
of the hill. It began business Oct. 5, 1856, with accommodations for six- 
teen boarding and twenty day pupils. Many prominent men of this city 
were students there in their youth. The school was primarily to pre- 
pare students for college, but in the case of many it was their finishing 
school. The military drill was added in 1858, and no less than fifty out 
of 150 boys who drilled here before 18G3 served in the Civil War that 
came soon after the school was established. Among these were Wil- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 737 

Ham and Frank Bacon, Darius Starr, George W. Wellington, Lewis M. 
Brooks, Lt. Col. William N. Green and W'illie Grout, who lost their 
lives in the service ; Henry M. Bragg, Sheriff R. H. Chamberlain, Maj. 
E. T. Raymond, Capt. Charles H. Pinkham, William H. Hobbs and Capt. 
Levi Lincoln. By 18G3 the school had 87 students, or Cadets as they 
were called. Col. John M. Goodhue was military instructor, a captain 
in the Civil War; Col. E. B. Glasgow and Maj. L. G. White were among 
his' successors. Until 1868 Mr. Metcalf himself was among the instruc- 
tors, but afterward he devoted all his time to administrative duties. He 
retired from active management in 1888, but retained the title of super- 
intendent emeritus until his death. He lived for two years at 36 Lin- 
coln street, where his wife, Roxanna C. (Barnes) Metcalf, a daughter of 
A. S. Barnes, the publisher, died March 7, 1890. Mr. Metcalf died July 
31, 1891, at the summer home of his daughter, Mrs. McElrath, at Sea- 
bright, N. J. He served on the Worcester school committee from 1869 
to 1881 inclusive. George L. Clark was business manager of the school 
through its entire existence. 

Joseph Alden Shaw who succeeded Mr. Metcalf had long been asso- 
ciated with him. (See biography). He continued until the property 
was sold for residential purposes in 1912 and the school discontinued. 
Most of the buildings were immediately torn. down. Through its fifty- 
six years it had been a prosperous and successful institution, a source 
of pride to the city. The familiar gray uniforms of the cadets were 
decidedly missed when the school ceased to exist. 

Business Schools. — For half a century or more, the business schools 
of this city have attracted pupils not only from W'orcester but from all 
the towns of the county and more distant points. Howe's Business Col- 
lege had for its students a generation ago many men since distinguished 
in business and public life. W. H. Eaton had 'a Commercial Boarding 
School established in 1851, and continued about ten years. He adver- 
tised in 185T. Becker's Business College, 98 Front street, is one of 
the oldest business schools of this section and has had uniformly high 
reputation. L. G. Fairchild has an office school at 619 State Mutual 
building. His school, formerly known as Phoenix Institute, was for 
several years in the Graphic Arts building. His graduates have been in 
great demand for private secretaries and office work. 

The largest school of this class is the Worcester Business Institute, 
of which C. B. Post is proprietor and principal. The school has facilities 
second to none. It trains its pupils thoroughly and places them in posi- 
tions as stenographers, book-keepers and other office work and serves 
the employers of the city in the selection of those properly qualified for 
the positions to which they are recommended. The school was estab- 
lished in 1899 by Mr. Post (see biog.). It has been located from the 
beginning at 476 Main street. 
W.— 1-47- 



738 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The Massachusetts School of Engineering, for the education of fire- 
men, engineers and electricians, Avas established in 1905, by Thomas 
F. Myers. (See biog.). It is located at 26 Austin street. 

Female High School. — Dr. John Park established the Female High 
School here in 1831. He had previously been at the head of a female 
academy in Boston. It was a sort of finishing school, patronized by the 
leading famiHes. Under date of April 13, 1832, C. C. Baldwin wrote 
(diary, p. 173) : "In the evening I attended a party at His Excellency 
Gov. Lincoln's. It was given for the purpose of introducing the senior 
class of misses in the Female High School into company. They were 
all over 15. One party of the same kind was given Avhile I was at Tem- 
pleton a fortnight ago, and they are to be given every other week by dif- 
ferent families during the summer. The number of young ladies present 
from the school might be about 15, many of whom were pretty and 
interesting. Some of them are natives of \\'orcester, but a greater part 
from out of town. We were employed about two hours in dancing, 
though we had no music but from a piano, which was played upon by 
the lady of Dr. John Park, who moved to Worcester from Boston, where 
for many years he was at the head of a female academy, in 1831. April 
14, 1832. This morning I had a visit from the lady of Rejoice Newton, 
Esq., accompanied by 2T young misses, most of whom were from the 
Female High School. They remained in the (Antiquarian) Hall an hour 
and a half. They left their names." 

The Bancroft School. — This, a high-grade preparatory institution, 
was established by Frank H. Robson, who was its principal from the 
beginning until 1914. In 1902 it was incorporated and the present 
building erected at 111 Elm street. The school provides classes from 
kindergarten to college entrance. Since 1913 girls only have been admit- 
ted to the high school department, but both boys and girls to the lower 
grades. The school has grown until it is the largest private day school 
in New England outside of Boston. There are thirteen teachers. 

The Salisbury Mansion School was advertised in the Aegis March 
12, 1855, by Rev. N. T. Bent, principal. The teachers were Rev. J. \'. 
Beane, mathematics; Miss E. S. Bacon, music; Mile. Louise Forestere, 
French and German. 

Worcester Domestic Science School. — For a number of years Henry 
D. Perky conducted a model domestic science school in the old Oread 
Castle. It was established in 1898 and leaped into popularity at once. 
He founded a scholarship for each state in the union, and students 
came hither from all parts of the country. The school opened in Jan- 
uary, 1899, with 40 young ladies and the number grew rapidly. The 
school seemed to take a position of great importance as one of the pio- 
neers in this field. But it was a personal enterprise, and collapsed at 
the time of the founder's death. Its existence of seven years demon- 
strated the need and value of a school of domestic science and home arts. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 739 

Mr. Perky had a genius for the art of pubHcity, as he demonstrated in 
various other enterprises. He made the idea of domestic science schools 
attractive to the young women of the country. Had he chosen to devote 
his whole energy to the school, there can be no doubt that this city would 
now be the home of an institution rivalling Simmons College of Boston. 

The work he began did not cease entirely, however. One of the 
teachers, Mrs. Frank M. Wethered, opened a school at her residence. Her 
school also became widely known and attracted students from dis- 
tant points as well as from the city and vicinity. She added to the facil- 
ities from year to year and the school occupied several buildings on Insti- 
tute road and Dean street, all well equipped for their purposes. The 
graduates have been placed in important positions in this country, Cuba 
and Canada. A two-year course is given, training students for teach- 
ing the subject in public schools, trade schools, and for institutional and 
playgrounds supervision. The Worcester Domestic Science School 
ranks as one of the most important private educational institutions of 
the city. 

Private Schools. — Two private schools intimately associated with 
the public school system and at times taking the place of the public Latin 
School here, have been described under the heading of public schools. 
Infants' schools and Dames' schools were very common in the early 
part of the nineteenth century. 

In 1828 Madam Collins kept an infants' school in part of the old 
meeting house on School street. About the same time there was a pri- 
vate school kept in the court house. Mrs. Jonathan (Sykes) Ward had 
a school in the thirties in her house near Jo Bill road on Salisbury street. 
Miss Sarah Ward, daughter of Artemas, kept a school on Lincoln street. 
Mrs. William Bickford rented a room in the rear of a new brick house. 
Mrs. Heywood, mother of Rev. John, had a little school opposite the 
house of Dr. B. F. Heywood, ]\Iain street. Miss Sarah C. Ward had a 
school in the post office building. Miss Lucretia Bancroft used a rear 
room in the house of her father. Rev. Aaron, for her school. Miss Mar- 
tha Stearns opened a school in the wooden building adjoining the Gran- 
ite block. Miss Hannah Stearns, sister of Martha, had a school for girls 
on Main street, not far from the Salisbury block. John Wright and his 
wife had a school room in the post-office building. Main street, and later 
in his own house at the north end of Salisbury block. It was called "A 
Female Academy." Robert Phipps came here in 1836 and opened a 
school in the Butman block, where he had two rooms on the third floor. 
He had a French teacher, a gymnasium, taught drawing, and offered 
other educational novelties, but like all those mentioned, his school had 
a short and doubtless unprofitable life. Thomas Payson opened a pri- 
vate school under the name of Seminary for Young Ladies in the spring 
of 1819 ; its existence was brief. Hannah Spofford opened a female sem- 
inary here in May, 1804. The tuition was $2 to $4 a quarter-year, 



740 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

according to the courses. The school was not a success. Mrs. Nugent 
opened an academy for girls in 1805. These academies taught sewing, 
reading, embroidery, writing, arithmetic, grammar, rhetoric, painting in 
water colors, drawing, geography, music, and some other subjects, 
according to their advertisements. 

In 1823-4 Rev. Benjamin F. Farnsworth had an academy. A cor- 
poration was formed and a building purchased for the Worcester Fe- 
male Academy in 1832 and was kept by Mrs. A. M. Wells one year and 
by John Wright for a short time afterward. It failed and the building 
was sold. 

After the Phipps School closed about 1840 the Misses Stearns 
opened another school in Salisbury block and kept boarding pupils as 
well as day scholars. This school continued until the early fifties, Han- 
nah continuing alone after her sister married and moved to Salem. 
Hannah had been a governess in the Randolph family in Virginia. Rev. 
Edward Everett Hale was a boarder in the Stearns home after the 
school was given up. Hannah moved finally to Exeter, N. H., and died 
there. 

The school sessions in the thirties were usually from nine to twelve 
and two to five, with half-hour recesses during each session. The vaca- 
tions were two weeks in summer and two in winter. The young girls 
were not sent to the public schools as a rule and small boys were sent 
to the Dames' schools with the girls, if the family purses warranted the 
expense. (See Wor. Soc. Ant. Proc. p. 246, 1903). 



CHAPTER XL VI I 

Colleges and Institutes — Worcester Polytechnic Institute — College of the 

Holy Cross — Clark University — State Normal School — 

Assumption College 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute. — Three of the four men who may 
be called the founders of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute were prom- 
inent citizens of this city: Ichabod Washburn, Stephen Salisbury (2d), 
and David Whitcomb, through whose advice and administration of the 
gift of John Boynton, his former partner, the original fund of $100,000 
was applied to the purposes of this institution. Fortunate was it that 
other men had kindred purposes in view at the same time. Fortunate too 
were the founders in securing men such as Milton P. Higgins and Seth 
Sweetser to carry into effect their purposes. The original name was the 
Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. In 1887 it was 
changed to the present title. 

John Boynton's letter of gift was dated May 1, 1865. The Institute 
opened in 1868, with scope and aims as outlined by its first president, 
Charles O. Thompson, a graduate of Dartmouth, a chemist of distinc- 
tion, who had spent five years abroad studying technical schools. The 
course at first was three years, but was soon extended to four. Mr. 
Thompson's ideals were high and he made the standards to correspond 
and fought to maintain them. That they have never been lowered is the 
chief reason for the success of the school. 

The second principal. Homer T. Fuller, Ph.D., began his administra- 
tion in 1883, and with the aid of an able board of trustees and a faculty 
of unusual attainments and talents, he extended the usefulness and 
achievements of the school rapidly. New buildings were erected ; addi- 
tional endowments received. 

Dr. T. C. Mendenhall, the third president, was in charge from 1894 
to 1901, and the work of broadening the scope of the Institute, of 
strengthening it financially, of developing it in various lines, was car- 
ried forward. Every year brought additional prestige; every alumnus 
became a bulwark of strength, as he demonstrated his value in the world 
of business or industry. Dr. Edmund A. Engler, the next president 
served from 1901 to 1911. 

The growth and reputation of the Institute has never receded, and 
never greater than during the administration of the present president, 
Prof. Ira N. Hollis, who came from a chair in Harvard University, where 
his reputation had already been established. 

The Institute has 53 acres of land, including the new athletic field. 
The buildings are located on an eminence on Salisbury street. Boynton 




w 

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AND ITS PEOPLE 743 

Hall, a veritable landmark on the crown of the hill, built of stone from 
Worcester quarries, has always been the administration building; the 
home of the library of general reference, of the department of engineer- 
ing and various recitation rooms. One by one the other departments 
have moved to buildings of their own. 

The Washburn shops, the gift of Ichabod Washburn, gave distinc- 
tive character to the school from the beginning. His letter offering 
them was dated March 6, 1866, and he not only erected the buildings 
soon afterward, but gave an endowment of $50,000. In these shops the 
students are employed in commercial work, making patterns, doing 
machine work, working in the forge and foundry. It was the first and 
is yet the best shop operated by a technical school of the country. The 
present foundry was erected in 1902 and other extensive alterations and 
additions have been made from time to time in the original Washburn 
shops. The shops have a substantial business in manufacturing machine 
tools, having in addition to the students a force of skilled workmen. 

The chemical and physical laboratories in a building named for 
Stephen Salisbury, one of the largest benefactors from the beginning 
until his death, and for his son, Stephen (3d), who was equally inter- 
ested and generous in supporting the school, is a four story fireproof 
building. 

In the three-story building occupied by the department of mechan- 
ical engineering, is the laboratory for classes in hydraulics, testing 
metals and materials, gas engineering, and the general laboratory for 
research and experiment. The building has rooms for mechanical draw- 
ing, machine design, library, besides offices and recitation rooms. The 
electrical engineering department has one of the finest buildings devoted 
solely to its use of any technical school or college, erected at a cost of 
$350,000. It is 200 feet in length and including its galleries has floor- 
space of 20,000 square feet. Other buildings are the non-magnetic labo- 
ratory, the power plant which serves as a laboratory as well as furnish- 
ing the heat, light and power for all the buildings : New^ton Hall, a dor- 
mitory; the hydraulic laboratory at Chaffinsville, where the school owns 
a water privilege. Each department has a special reference library in 
addition to that in Boynton Hall. 

The Institute in recent years has offered these four distinct courses 
of study — mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineer- 
ing, and chemistry and general science. The first degree is B. S., and to 
graduates after prescribed study, the degrees of M. S., M. E., E. E., C. E. 
and D.Sc. are granted. About two thousand students have received 
degrees, and perhaps three times that nvimber have been students here 
for a time. 

The Young Men's Christian Association has a branch at the "Tech." 
An Athletic Association has charge of the business of all the football, 
baseball, track and other teams. Its officers are elected by the students 



744 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

and they co-operate with an advisory board composed of members of 
the faculty and alumni. There are branches of the student members of 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineering and the American 
Society of Electrical Engineering, each holding regular meetings at 
which addresses are given by students, instructors, engineers of distinc- 
tion and specialists. The Greek Letter fraternities having chapters 
here are: The Phi Gamma Delta. Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Alpha Tau 
Omega, Delta Tau, Phi Kgippa Pei. Lamda Chi and Theta Chi, each of 
which maintains a club house. The students have published a news- 
paper for many years. In recent years it has been entitled the Tech 
News, and while giving all reports of current events and all the mat- 
ters of interest relating to the school it has been especially active in 
promoting athletics and aiding the work of the Athletic Association. 
Alumni Associations have been formed in Worcester, Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia, Washington. Chicago, Cleveland, Buffalo, San Francisco, 
and elsewhere where graduates have located in sufficient numbers. 

"T^ch" received gold medals for its exhibits at the Pan-American 
Exposition at Buffalo; the Interstate and West Indian Exposition at 
Charlestown, S. C.,' in 1902 and at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at 
St. Louis in 1903. 

In recent years the alumni of the Institute have begun to repay 
their debt to their alma mater. .In 19U the magnificent athletic field on 
Park avenue, providing unsurpassed grounds for baseball, football, track 
games and other sports, was completed at a cost of $100,000. Many of 
the gifts for this fund were large, but the school takes pride in the fact 
that almost without exception the alumni responded to the call and con- 
tributed according to their means. 

The building itself is like the Institute, thoroughly up-to-date. The 
swimming pool is one of the chief attractions. The meeting rooms for 
the use of the student fill a long felt need of the school. 

Two vears after the field was dedicated, the present gymnasium 
w^as finished. It was dedicated with appropriate ceremony at Com- 
mencement, 1916. The principal speakers were Rear Admiral Austin M. 
Knight, U. S. N., President Ira X. Hollis, Lieut. Gov. Calvin Coolidge, 
J. C. Miller ('86); Edwin H. Brown ('98); Z. A. Gibson ('91) of the 
Central Building Company: Prof. A. W. French: Prof. P. R. Carpenter; 
Vice-president A. C. Comins of the Alumni Association, '93 : Dr. Homer 
Gage of the trustees. 

Among the former professors of the Institute deserving special men- 
tion are : George I. Alden, Levi L. Conant, U. Waldo Cutler, Thomas E. 
Eaton, George E. Gladwin, Milton P. Higgins, F. R. Jones, Alonzo S. 
Kimball, Albert Kingsbury, L. P. Kinnicutt, Orie W. Long, William 
McDonald, John H. Nelson, Sidney A. Reeve. George I. Rockwood, 
John E. Sinclair, Edward P. Smith, Charles O. Thompson and George 
H. White. 



■^^l^v^^' YORK 



I »«-.-fJl L£NO^ ^^*-i 



AND ITS PEOPLE 745 

College of the Holy Cross. — llie College of the Holy Cross, founded 
in 1843 by Rt. Rev. Joseph Benedict Fenwick, second Bishop of Boston, 
is the oldest Catholic College in New England. 

The most cherished wish of the bishop was to establish such an insti- 
tution in his diocese. He was aided greatly at the start by the work of 
Rev. James Fitton, the first priest of this section, who had erected on 
the present site of the college on old Pakachoag Hill, "the hill of pleas- 
ant springs," the Seminary of Mount St. James. This building with 
about 60 acres of land, Father Fitton deeded to the bishop in 1842. 
The location for a college was ideal. From the top of this hill there 
is a magnificent view in every direction. The city itself stretches to the 
northward. Beyond looms Mt. Wachusett in the background of cluster- 
ing hills. And since the building of the college it has been a landmark 
of the first order and beauty, visible from every point of vantage for 
many miles. 

The first classes were organized in the Seminary of Mount St. James, 
Nov. 2, 1843. The bishop called to his aid the priests of Georgetown 
College, Washington, D. C, of the Society of Jesus, and they took charge 
of the instruction. Rev. Thomas F. Mulledy, S. J., was the first presi- 
dent. The cornerstone of the main college building was laid June 21, 
1843, and it was occupied Jan. 13. 1844. It was used for all the college 
purposes, recitations, ofifice and dormitory. The first annual exhibition 
July 29, 1844, was a great occasion among the Catholics of New England. 
When Bishop Fenwick died, Aug. 10, 1846, with his great work just 
under way, he was buried at his own request in the college cemetery. A 
few days before he died he gave to the Fathers of the Society of Jesus, 
then in charge, the legal title to the property, and they have conducted 
it since then. 

The main building was burned, July 14, 1852, and the disaster 
threatened at first to end the .existence of the college. Rt. Rev. John B. 
Fitzpatrick, then bishop, determined that it should survive, and funds 
were raised and the construction of a larger and better structure was 
begun. A class of students who had entered in 1843 and 1844 had 
advanced to philosophy, as the senior year was called, and were ready to 
graduate in 1849. The college then asked the State for a charter, which 
was not granted, and it was not until after the Civil War had eliminated 
sectarian prejudice at Beacon Hill that the charter was granted by the 
General Court March 24, 1865. While the lack of state authority pre- 
vented the granting of degrees earned by the students, Georgetown Uni- 
versity granted the degrees to Holy Cross students until the act of 
incorporation was passed The charter gave the college the right to con- 
fer all except medical degrees. At Commencement in 1868, Gov. Bullock 
of this city, speaking for the Commonwealth, took occasion to praise the 
patience of the fi lends of the college during the period of waiting for the 
chrater — "Patience which under the circumstances he should hardly 



746 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



have dared to expect from many Christian denominations." While gov- 
ernor he attended three commencements here. 

During the war the college became dear not only to Catholics but 
to many non-Catholics of New England. Gov. Andrew visited it in 
1862 and presided at Commencement, speaking highly of the college and 
showing his friendship then and afterward in various ways. 

The college has erected new buildings from time to time, as 
required by its growth. In 1875 the east wing of the main building was 
raised and extended. This wing, the only part of the old building not 
destroyed in 1852, gave place in time to a structure 112 feet in length 
with an easterly frontage of 90 feet. On the first and second floors are 
the refectories ; on the upper floor the chapel. Adjoining this wing 
on the southeast corner is the infirmary. A later structure known as the 
O'Kane Building was completed in 1895, and formally opened in Sep- 
tember of that year; it contains the gymnasium, 50 by 139 feet, one of 
the largest and best in New England. On the third floor is Fenwick 
Hall, an auditorium for public meetings, lectures, debates, student assem- 
blies, etc. Alumni Hall, a dormitory with rooms for 200 students, was 
completed in the fall of 1905. 

An important addition to the college equipment was the completion 
of Fitton Field. This athletic field is superbly located, lacking in noth- 
ing that makes for a place for baseball, football, track athletics and other 
sports. Since it has been in use its value has been demonstrated not 
only in the improvement in athletics generally but in the vast increase 
of attendance at games and in the public support of the college teams in 
the city of Worcester. 

Beaven Hall, the latest building, was erected in 1912. The corner- 
stone was laid with elaborate ceremony May 21 and 22 of that year, 
during a special reception in honor of the Bishops who were graduates 
of the institution — of whom there were thirteen — Bishops Healy, Mc- 
Mahon, Baltes, Bradley, Michaud, Delaney and Gravel ; Rt. Rev. Thomas 
D. Beaven, D. D., '70, of Springfield; Rt. Rev. Mathew Har- 
kins, D. D., '64, Providence, R. I.; Rt. Rev. Thomas J. Conaty, D. 
D., '69, of Los Angeles, Cal. ; Rt. Rev. Michael J. Hoban, D. D., 'T4, of 
Scranton, Pa. ; Rt. Rev. Louis S. Walsh, D. D., '78, of Portland, Me. ; Rt. 
Rev. Joseph J. Rice, D. D., '91, of Burlington, Vt. Beaven Hall, the new 
administration building, is a substantial and spacious structure, of artis- 
tic design and proportions. 

The system of education is the same as that of all the colleges of the 
Society of Jesus, guided by the principles laid down in the famous 
Ratio Studiorum, elaborated by centuries of experience. The college 
adheres to a classical education and announces that instead of abolish- 
ing prescribed studies and enlarging the elective plan, it advocates a 
wise, deliberate and prudent selection by men whose profession is edu- 
cation, and not an unwise, sudden and rash choice by inexperienced 



AND ITS PEOPLE 7A7 

youths just entering on the process of education. "It is not a system of 
ever-changing theory and doubtful experiment, but one on which have 
been built the characters of the world's best scholars and statesmen for 
centuries. It meets the demand for modern improvement by wise 
adaptation and readjustment. The natural sciences and modern 
languages are by no means overlooked or neglected in this system, but 
the ancient languages and their literature are still retained as pre- 
scribed studies and with' mathematics and philosophy, form the essential 
trinity of courses, which Prof. Ladd of Yale considers absolutely neces- 
sary for a truly liberal education.'' 

The college possesses an excellent library. That as well as every 
other department has grown rapidly in recent years. The college has 
given degrees to more than a thousand students. At the present time 
the alumni are engaged in raising a large endowment fund, and a large 
sum has already been pledged. 

The past presidents of the college have been : Rev. Thomas Mul- 
ledy, S. J., '43-'45; Rev. James Ryder, S. J., '45-'48; Rev. John Early, 
S. J., '48-'51; Rev. Anthony F. Ciampi, S. J., '51-'54; Rev. Peter J. Blen- 
kinsop, S. J., '54-'5? ; Rev. Anthony F. Ciampi, S. J., '57-'61; Rev. James 
Clark, S. J., '61-'67; Rev. Robert W. Brady, S. J., '67, six months; Rev. 
Anthony F. Ciampi, S. J., '67-'73 ; Rev. Joseph B. O'Hagan, S. J., '73-'79 ; 
Rev. Edw. D. Boone, S. J., '79-'83 ; Rev. Robert W. Brady, S. J., '83-'87 ; 
Rev. 'Samuel Cahill, S. J., '87-'89 ; Rev. Michael A. O'Kane, S. J., '89- 
'93 ; Rev. Edw. A. McGurk, S. J., '93-'95 ; Rev. John T. Lehy, S. J., '95- 
1901 ; Rev. Joseph F. Hanselman, S. J., 1901-06 ; Rev. Thomas E. Murphy, 
S. J., 1906-11; Rev. Joseph N. Dinand, S. J., 1911 — . 

Clark University. — Clark University was founded by Jonas G. Clark, 
and opened in 1889. Dr. Granville Stanley Hall, the first president, is 
still at the head of the institution. The original board of trustees, 
selected by Mr. Clark, consisted of Gen. Charles Devens, Stephen Salis- 
bury (3d), Hon. George Frisbie Hoar, Hon. William W. Rice, Dr. Joseph 
Sargent, Hon. John D. Washburn, Frank P. Goulding and George Swan, 
all of whom have passed away. The charter was granted by the legis- 
lature May 4, 1887. 

The land for the University, a tract of eight acres, 400 by 800 feet, 
had been acquired by Mr. Clark on Main street, a mile and a half from 
City Hall. The cornerstone of the main building was laid with appro- 
priate ceremony, Oct. 22, 1887. Gen. Devens presided and made an 
address (see Worcester Past and Present, p. 99a). Addresses were also 
made by Hon. John D. Washburn, Senator Hoar, Rev. D. O. Mears and 
Rev. Daniel Merriman. Mr. and Mrs. Clark handled the first trowel of 
cement used. 

The trustees in a letter to Mr. Clark on May 5, 1887, described his 
benefaction as "the largest single charitable gift ever made by a pri- 
vate person in New England, and with very few exceptions the largest 




H 
> 

Pi 

< 

U 



AND ITS PEOPLE 749 



ever made by a private person in his life-time, anywhere in the world." 
Of the original gift of a million dollars, Mr. Clark set apart as a working 
or construction fund $;300,000 to be applied in the erection of buildings 
and equipping them with appliances for the work of the University; 
$100,000 as a library fund and $600,000 as a University endowment fund 
for the general uses and support of the University. To this sum Mr. 
Clark proposed to add another gift of $500,000 in real estate, library and 
works of art, and the further sum of $500,000 for the maintenance of 
three or more chairs. The latter gift was subject to the condition that 
an equal amount be contributed by other founders. 

The first story of the main building is of stone; the four upper 
stories of brick. The dimensions are 304^4 by 114 feet; 78 feet in height 
and 96 to the face of the clock in the tower. At first this building con- 
tained oftice, library, recitation rooms, laboratories and gymnasium. It 
has 90 rooms. The chemical laboratory was erected immediately after 
the main building. 

At the opening exercises Oct. 2, 1889, in the hall of the University, 
Mr. Clark stated his purposes, the chief of which was original research, 
General Devens presided. The story of the founding of the University 
may be told best in the words of Dr. Hall at the celebration of the com- 
pletion of the twenty-fifth year : 

I was at the outset sent on an eight months trip to Europe with several score let- 
ters of introduction, including one from the national government which gave me access 
to the inside workings of Kultus ministeria and university inner circle, so that my trip 
constituted a pedagogic journey I think almost without precedent. I was surprised to 
find the inost eminent men of learning in Europe profoundly interested in it and so lav- 
ish with their line, sympathy and counsel. I was entertained by Lord Kelvin, Pasteur, 
Helmholtz, Jowett and some score of others of the greatest living leaders in scientific 
thought; went on a trip of inspection of German universities as the guest of the Prus- 
sian minister of education, Von Goslaarm, and perhaps most embarrassing of all, was 
taken in state by Gen. Trepanof on a visit to the two great Russian military schools 
near St. Petersburg in each of which an all day's program of military evolutions had 
been arranged for my special edification ; was a guest of honor at a meeting of Swed- 
ish universities, etc. 

My instructions from Mr. Clark had been to see everything and every institution 
possible, collect building plans, budgets, administration methods of every kind. I came 
home slightly intoxicated with academic ideals, so were all of us in sorne degree, ac- 
cording to our temperament, but a reality that was sobering enough soon confronted 
us. If ever there was an academic tragedy, a via crucis, a veritable descent into 
Avernus, it was here. We began the fourth year, 1893-4, with only one-fourth the 
total annual resources that we had the first year. In the seven years that followed, 
down to the founder's death in 1900, we had for all purposes only — less than $30,000. 
Several of us who remained here were tempted by larger offers to what seemed more 
promising fields. 

There was no friction. We stood and worked shoulder to shoulder. 

Compared either with the size of our faculty, the number of departments or our 
annual budget, we have fitted more men for higher degrees, seen more of them in 
academic chairs, where they are found in all the leading institutions of the land, in- 
cluding some dozen of presidencies, first and last; published more original contribu- 



750 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

tions which seek to add to the sum of the world's knowledge ; have a larger propor- 
tion of members of our faculty starred as of the first rank in Cattell's census of the 
competent ; had closer personal and often daily contact with students, and given more 
individual help outside of classes had more academic freedom (for no one in our 
history has ever suffered in any way for his opinions) : had more autonomy in our de- 
partments, each of which is a law to itself; had less rules and formalities of every 
kind ; had less drudgery of marks and faculty rulings ; had a president who was less 
president and more teacher, good or bad ; spent less time in devising ways and means 
of seeking contributions from our friends here; advertised less and avoided all pub- 
licity more, until now (when I am just for this one moment, throwing all our tradi- 
tions of silence and modesty to the winds). In these respects, we exceed any of the 
other. twenty institutions of the Association of American Universities. 

From 1892, when several instructors resigned, the faculty remained 
intact for twenty-one years. Then Dr. Clifton F. Hodge, professor of 
biology, resigned to accept a chair in Oregon. The death of the founder 
brought a large addition to the endowment, making the total gift of Mr. 
Clark about $4,000,000. The department of chemistry was reopened 
and enlarged ; departments in history, economics and philosophy added. 
A library building has been erected at a cost of $225,000. 

The original library fund of $100,000 given by Mr. Clark, was 
increased by a bequest at the time of his death in 1900 by about $600,000, 
besides $150,000 for a building. The new building was opened in the 
fall of 1903, the formal dedication taking place Jan. 14, 1904. It con- 
tains 13 rooms and a floor space of 25,000 square feet. The main library 
room has a capacity of 60,000 volumes. It was modeled after the library 
of Trinity College at Cambridge, England, designed by Sir Christopher 
Wren. The stack room has shelves for 75,000 books. The library is 
conducted on the open-shelf plan, every book being accessible to author- 
ized persons. "There was probably no department of the University," 
said Mr. Wilson, the librarian, at the time of dedication, "in which Mr. 
Clark took more interest than the library. 'It is difficult to understand,' 
he said, 'why men have so long worshipped books as books, and have 
not realized that, after all, they are merely tools to be used in working 
for higher things. ... If there is any place on earth where a liberal 
spirit inust be shown, it is in a university library, I would say especially 
in the Clark University library.' " 

In course of time the library room in the main building proved inade- 
quate and an addition was decided upon in 1909, was completed in the 
summer of 1910, and has been in use since the fall of that year. The 
main room is 53 by 80 feet, having shelf capacity of 15,000 books. Ac- 
cess to the University library is provided by means of a corridor. The 
building is English collegiate Gothic in style. It cost $100,000, making 
the total cost of the two library buildings $225,000. (See Worcester 
Mag. 1908, p. 129; 1911, p. 384). Both library buildings were designed 
by Forst, Briggs & Chamberlain, and built by Norcross Bros. Co., of this 
city. Few colleges in this country have as good buildings and as well 
endowed and equipped libraries as Clark. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 751 

Clark College. — Clark College was founded in 1902 under a codicil 
of the will of Mr. Clark, which charged the trustees of Clark University 
with the creation of "a Collegiate Department where young men, who 
have graduated from the high schools and other preparatory schools 
and have not the means to enable them to attend universities where the 
expense is large, may obtain at a moderate cost and in a three years 
course a practical education which shall fit them for useful citizenship 
and their w^ork in life." Other provisions stipulated an administrative 
organization wholly independent of the University and responsible 
directly to the trustees. Clark College is thus an independent under- 
graduate institution, separately endowed, with a separate faculty and 
student body, but governed by the trustees of Clark University and hav- 
ing joint privileges in the Library and making use of the same campus 
and buildings as the University, with which its relations are those of 
intimate and cordial cooperation. The productive endowment of the 
College is $1,300,000. 

To organize a new college in New England and not to duplicate 
admirable institutions already in the field was no easy task and called for 
special care in the selection of the first president. Under the guidance 
of Senator Hoar, then chairman of the board, the place was offered to 
Col. Carroll D. Wright, United States Commissioner of Labor, who 
accepted early in 1903, though duties in Washington and in connection 
with the great anthracite coal strike, prevented the new president for 
some months from taking personal charge of affairs. The details of 
organization were meanwhile carried out by the first Dean, Prof. Rufus 
C. Bentley. The selection of Col. Wright for the presidency was most 
fortunate for the new institution. He brought to it fresh points of view, 
large experience in administration, an international reputation in science, 
and high qualities of leadership and character. 

The marked features of the college, in addition to the low tuition 
and the three year course required by Mr. Clark's will, M^ere the substi- 
tution of admission on trial for the usual entrance examinations, a group 
system of studies, close personal supervision of student work and the 
prohibition of intercollegiate athletics. 

The first class was received in October, 1903, sixty-three strong. 
The formal exercises of President Wright's inauguration were held Oc- 
tober 9, 1903, with addresses by Senator Hoar, President Hall and Sena- 
tor Henry Cabot Lodge. The first class, reduced by the exigencies of 
the curriculum and other causes to 43, was graduated June 21st, 1905. 
President Theodore Roosevelt was the guest of the College on this occa- 
sion and received the degree of LL.D. at the hands of President Wright. 
The commencement oration was delivered by Dr. Hamilton W. Mabie. 

The institution grew steadily in students and instructors until in 
1909, the year of President Wright's death, the numbers were 186 and 
23 respectively. The second president. Dr. Edmund C. Sanford, was 



752 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

elected by the trustees in October, liJOU. Under his administration the 
organization of the institution has been developed and the standard of 
requirement in scholarship raised without essential departure from the 
main lines already laid down. 

The great war has made serious inroads upon the College personnel 
as upon that of other institutions of higher education. Even before the 
declaration of war against Germany, several of the students and one 
member of the faculty had taken the training at Plattsburg and a volun- 
tary military company had begun drilling on the campus. With the 
declaration of war still greater attention was given to military matters. 
The voluntary company was taken over as a regular part of the college 
work; courses were immediately offered in military map-making, mili- 
tary hygiene and in wireless telegraphy. With the friendly assistance of 
Worcester citizens a fund of $8,000 was raised and a unit of 22 motor 
ambulance drivers sent to France to work under the auspices of the 
American Field Service — 18 of them college undergraduates. At the 
same time others left college to enlist in the Naval Reserve, and a little 
later still others for special work on the farms and in various sorts of 
indirect war service. At the present time some 30 or -iO of the alumni 
of the College (numbering in all but Jiol) are commissioned officers in the 
army and navy of the United States ; 100 or more — students and alumni 
— are non-commissioned officers or privates ; while 20 or 30 are in scien- 
tific work for the government or for war industries, in Y. M. C. A. work, 
or in other indirect forms of service. Of the faculty two are commis- 
sioned officers, one is in Y. M. C. A. work in France, one has been 
released in order to give full time to government work, and several more 
are assisting without interrupting their college duties, as opportunity 
oft'ers. 

State Normal School. — The State Normal School at Worcester was 
established by act of the State Legislature in 18T1, and was opened Sept. 
15, 187-1. Although a state institution, this school has been able by its 
location in the populous city of Worcester to offer the youth of the 
city exceptional advantages of training for the profession of teaching 
and by its close affiliation and alliance with the city school system has 
virtually become a local institution. For this reason the student body 
has always come largely from the city and its immediate vicinity and a 
large proportion of its graduates have become teachers in the city schools. 

The site of the school was formerly known as Hospital Grove, and 
is situated on one of the nearest of the circle of hills on which Worcester 
is built. It has an elevation of 688 feet, which makes it very admirable in 
many respects. The view is inspiring in all directions and the grounds, 
comprising nearly six acres, are of great beauty, due to the rolling char- 
acter of the hill, the fine grassy slopes and the noble oaks which stretch 
in great numbers up to lofty heights aJl about the buildings and walks. 
Rarelv does one see a more attractive and fitting setting for a school than 



AND ITS PEOPLE 753 

this one. The main building, of the style of an old French castle, is 
rugged in appearance, as if built to endure rather than to adorn. It is 
constructed of gray stone which was quarried on the very site of the 
school itself from the ledges that crop out in many places here and there. 
Adjoining the main school building is the gymnasium, erected in 1896, 
also of stone, possessing considerable architectural beauty. Besides these 
two building there are two frame houses, one a school dormitory with a 
capacity for twenty boarders, known as Stoddard Terrace in honor of 
Colonel E. B. Stoddard, for many years the official school visitor 
appointed by the State Board of Education, and the other the home of 
the school principal. 

The design of the Normal School is strictly professional; that is, to 
prepare in the best possible manner the pupils for the work of organiz- 
ing, governing, and teaching the public schools of the Commonwealth. 
To this end there must be the most thorough knowledge : first, of the 
branches of learning required to be taught in the schools ; second, of the 
best methods of teaching these branches ; and third, of right mental 
training. Throughout its history the methods of instruction have been 
original and progressive with a definite basis in child psychology. The 
first principal, Mr. E. Harlow. Russell (see biography) was a pioneer in 
the investigation of the child as a problem of instruction and did much 
to advance the study and the knowledge of child life. In all the work 
of the school through the years, the same aim and spirit have persisted, 
and the individual pupil, with attention to his talents and his defects, his 
interests and his possibilities, has been the object and center of all stud- 
ies. More than six thousand written exercises prepared by students of 
the school and based on actual observations of children were some years 
ago presented to Clark University and made the subject of further inves- 
tigation, classification and tabulation. To facilitate this study of indi- 
vidual pupils, classes of children are taught at the school by the students 
in training working under expert supervision and those who are able to 
secure entrance into these classes are deemed especially fortunate. Since 
1910 the Elizabeth Street School has also been officially connected with 
the Normal School for the purpose of giving the students additional 
advantages of observation of good teaching in the various subjects of all 
grades from the kindergarten to the eighth grade. 

Since its foundation the school has graduated about eighteen hun- 
dred students and the attendance varies from two hundred to two hun- 
dred and fifty. Since 1915 the admission has been restricted to young 
women only. The principals of the school have been three, as fol- 
lows: Mr. E. Harlow Russell, 1874-1909; Dr. Francis R. Lane. 1909- 
1913; and Dr. William B. Aspinwall, since 1912 (see biography). Mr. 
Russell, who served the school for thirty-five years, was present at the 
40th anniversary in 1Q14 and was greeted with great affection and many 
W.— 1-48. 



754 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



tributes by his former pupils. Other speakers on this occasion were Dr. 
Austin S. Garver of Worcester; Dr. G. Stanley Hall, president of Clark 
University ; Dr. David Snedden, State Commissioner of Education ; and 
Dr. William B. Aspinwall, the present principal. Governor David I. 
Walsh, who was to have had a part in the celebration, was prevented by 
a painful accident from attending. 

In 1913, under the direction of the present principal, an annual con- 
ference on the problems of rural education was organized which has since 
its inauguration had a conspicuous influence in improving the physical 
condition and social efticiency of the country schools. Educators and 
rural workers of national reputation participate each year in these meet- 
ings which are attended by teachers, superintendents, members of school 
committees and of granges, and others interested in rural school progress. 




ASSUMPTIOX COLLEGE. 

The suDjects considered by these conferences have been: 1912 (Febru- 
are 10), The Improvement of the Rural School. 1914 (March 27), Rural 
School Hygiene. 1915 (March 26), The Improvement of Rural School 
Grounds and Interiors. 1916 (April 28), The Rural School as the Com- 
munity Center. 1917 (March 23), Vitalizing the Rural School Cur- 
riculum. 1918 (March 15), Teaching the Duties of Citizenship. 

In January, 1917. the American Journal of School Hygiene was first 
published, and is now issued monthly by the Head of the Department of 
Hygiene and Psychology of the school. 

Assumption College. — :The youngest of the institutions that may 
grant college degrees in this city is Assumption College at Greendale. 
The shorter name was taken in 1917, bv virtue of an amendment in the 



AND ITS PEOPLE 755 



charter, which was granted by the legislature to the Society of the 
Augustinian Fathers of the Assumption in Worcester, Dec. 1, 1904, with 
authority to grant the degree of bachelor of arts, Rev. Omer J. Rochain 
is the president. 

The college began with classes in 1904 in a small wooden building 
on the slope of the hill between West Boylston street and Burncoat 
street, with half a dozen pupils. In the following year the number of 
students was so great that the adjoining house was also used for the 
infant college. Confident of the future of the institution provided ade- 
quate buildings and facilities were available, the Fathers in charge made 
an earnest attempt to raise the funds to build a college building. As- 
sisted by the generosity of Mgr. Brochu, they acquired a few acres of 
land on Baltimore avenue, north of their original location. Here they 
laid the foundations of a handsome and solid structure of brick and 
granite, intended for about sixty students. The building was outgrown 
in less than five years. 

At the time of the visit of the Superior General of the Assumption- 
ists, Rt. Rev. Emmanuel Bailly, in 1911, it was decided to erect a large 
central structure to which the original building should be a wing. Work 
was begun at once and by September roohis were ready for three times 
the original capacity, and 120 students registered. That was before the 
first class graduated in 1913. The building has a sightly location and 
is one of the landmarks of the northern part of the city. Besides erecting 
this spacious building, the trustees have purchased all the land between 
Boylston and Burncoat streets, north of their other property. Baseball 
fields and tennis courts have been laid out and the students instructed 
in athletics. The institution is the especial center of interest of the 
French-Cathohc population. (See Wor. Mag. 1912). 



CHAPTER XLVIII 
Entertainment Societies 

The Worcester Lyceum. — The Worcester Lyceum was organized in 

November, 1829, with forty to fifty members. The first officers were : 
Rev. Jonathan Going, president; Anthony Chase, secretary, and an exec- 
utive committee : Frederick W. Paine, Moses L. Morse, William Lin- 
coln, Ichabod Washburn and Thomas Chamberlain. The chief purpose 
of the organization was to provide a course of lectures each year; estab- 
lish a circulating library ; and for debates. Classes were formed for 
study of various topics, and chemical apparatus purchased. In 1855 the 
library of the Lyceum was transferred to the Young Men's Library As- 
sociation, but the lecture courses were continued until the Lyceum was 
merged with the Library Association by act of the legislature, approved 
March 15, 1856. 

Worcester Natural History Society. — The Young Men's Library As- 
sociation was originally formed for purposes similar to the Young Men's 
Christian Association, from which those of liberal religious denomina- 
tions were then excluded. A call was issued in August, 1852, in the 
Spy, for "young men connected with the Unitarian, Second Advent, 
Universalist, Friends and Free Churches, and all interested, to meet at 
Waldo Hall to consider the propriety of organizing a Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association worthy of the name." The meeting was called to order 
by Rev. Edward Everett Hale, pastor of the Church of the Unity; 
George F. Hoar was elected chairman, William Mecorney, secretary. 
About fifty names were taken as prospective members, and a committee 
appointed to confer with the Y. M. C. A., looking to a union of the two 
organizations. Though the committee reported that such a union was 
feasible, it recommended that no further action toward union be taken. 

The new society perfected its organization under the name of the 
Young Men's Library Association, its objects being the improvement 
of the young men of the city by affording them intellectual and social 
advantages, by the maintenance of a library, reading room, and such 
courses of lectures and classes as may conduce to that end. The society 
took over the rooms which had been fitted up by the Y. M. C. A. The 
first officers, elected in December, 1852, were : Francis H. Dewey, presi- 
dent ; George W. Bently, vice-president; George F. Hoar, corresponding 
secretary; Nathaniel Paine, recording secretary; Henry Woodward, 
treasurer. An act of incorporation was accepted April 16, 1853. In 
1854 a campaign for a library resulted in securing gifts of 867 books 
and more than $1,300 in cash. The library was opened June 18, 1853, 
and the public was given the use of the books on payment of a dollar 
annually. A reading room was soon added. 



758 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

In 1855 the Young Men's Rhetorical Society was merged with the 
Library Society, continuing until 1858. In 1856 the Worcester Lyceum, 
established in 1829, was merged with the Library Society, and the cor- 
porate title changed by act of the legislature to The Worcester County 
Lyceum and Library Association. 

In 1851 a natural history department was formed for the study of 
the natural sciences. Prof. Louis Agassiz, of Harvard, came by invita- 
tion to assist in planning its work, April 28, 1854. At that time the 
collection of the Worcester Lyceum of Natural History, then in posses- 
sion of the American Antiquarian Society, was given to the Lyceum and 
Library Association, and formed the nucleus of the present Natural 
History Museum. Rev. E. E. Hale was elected chairman of the natural 
history department, William E. Starr, secretary, and James B. Blake, 
treasurer. Henry A. Marsh succeeded Mr. Blake a few Aveeks later. 
In 1856 the miscellaneous library of Dr. John Green came into posses- 
sion of the society. In November, 1859, after the ,death of Mr. Gray, the 
librarian, a committee consisting of Dr. George Chandler, Albert Tol- 
man and T. W. Higginson, appointed to consult with Dr. John Green 
about the appointment of a new librarian, learned that he had the inten- 
toin of giving his library to the city as the foundation of a public library. 
The committee recommended that the society library also be given to 
the city. The gift of Dr. Green and the association were accepted by the 
city council in December, 1859. (See Public Library). 

The Natural History Department was the main activity of the 
society after the library was given away. In 1860 the name was changed 
to Worcester Lyceum and Natural History Association. Since that 
time the organization has devoted itself to the study of natural history 
and collection of specimens, except that for a long time a yearly course 
of Lyceum lectures was maintained, which brought before the public 
such people as Hayes, the explorer, Wendell Phillips, Garrison, Doug- 
lass, Gough, Chapin, Beecher, Collyer, Kate Field, Mary Livermore, 
and other prominent people of the period. In 1880 the plan of giving 
instruction by means of free classes for the study of natural history was 
inaugurated. Since 1882 the museum has been open to the public daily 
from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. A system of loans was devised to assist schools 
and students in the study of natural history. Some results of its work 
are that the Museum is visited yearly by thousands to see the exhibits, 
permanent and transient; many to attend lectures and classes, and thus 
through those who are teachers, hundreds of school children are reached; 
many teachers bring their classes or send individuals for study ; many 
come for specimens to study at home or to illustrate lessons before 
classes; many to identify birds, insects, minerals, rocks; some to learn 
how to combat harmful animals and plants. Especial attention is being 
paid to interest children in the study of Nature. The purpose of its col- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 759 



lections is to start at the simplest forms of life and follow up to men on 
the one hand and the highest plants on the other, on the plan suggested 
by Agassiz, namely, the outside world represented by a type of each 
important group or order and Worcester county by every species ; also 
to represent the inorganic kingdom. 

The final change in name was made by act of the legislature March 
6, 1884, the present title being The Worcester Natural History Society. 
In the same year a tract of about 40 acres was secured on the shore of 
Lake Quinsigamond, and called Natural History Park. In the summer 
of 1885 the first summer camp for boys was established there. Thomas 
H. Dodge gave $1,000 for the purchase of tents and the building of a 
structure since known as the Dodge Pavilion, in which lectures were 
given and classes heard. Mr. and Mrs. Dodge subsequently added $500 
to this gift. In 1888 Joseph H. Walker gave $5,000 to enable the society 
to perfect its title to the real estate, and in the same year, through the 
efforts of Horace H. Bigelow, a workshop well stocked with tools was 
added to the camp property. Various merchants contributed the lum- 
ber and tools. The summer school and camp proved very popular until 
recent years, when the Boy Scouts and other organizations working 
along similar lines proved more attractive to the youth of the city. From 
1880 until the summer school was discontinued. Dr. W. H. Raymenton 
was president of the society and took personal charge of the camp. 

The bequest of Edwin Conant in 1891 gave a much-needed and very 
suitable home for the museum at the corner of State and Harvard streets, 
which is now outgrown, more room being needed for collections and 
classes. 

At the monthly meetings of the society papers are read on topics 
relating to the work of the society. It has published "The Physical 
Geography of Worcester" by Joseph H. Perry, with photographic illus- 
trations by the late J. Chauncy Lyf ord ; "Geology of Worcester, Mass.," 
1903, by Joseph H. Perry, teacher of chemistry and geology, Wor- 
cester High School, and B. K. Emerson, Professor of Geology at Am- 
herst College ; "Flora of Worcester County," 1903, by Joseph Jackson, 
Principal Worcester High School; "Birds of Worcester County," 1911, 
by Chester A. Reed. 

The society has placed in the mansion at Green Hill a collection of 
Worcester county birds, and it is said to be a most complete and valua- 
ble collection of local birds. At the State street building, classes are 
formed each year at the proper season to study mushrooms, mosses, 
ferns, flowers, trees, insects, birds, minerals, geology and astronomy. 
From early spring until late in autumn all of the wild flowers of this 
vicinity, gathered fresh from the fields and woods, properly labeled, are 
displayed for the benefit of the public. Particular attention is being paid 
to make its collection and pressed botanical specimens complete. 

Mothers* Child Study Circle. — The idea of this club originated with 



76o HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Mrs. Alfred F. Longley, one of its devoted members until her death. She 
confided her idea to a friend, Mrs. C. P. Earley, who promoted it. Young 
mothers already interested in the new child study movement pledged 
their support. A meeting was held at the home of Mrs. William H. 
Gates and there, on the third of February-, 189T, the Mothers' Child Study 
Circle was organized with fourteen members ; officers : Mrs. Earley, 
president ; Mrs. Gates, vice-president ; Mrs. Longley, secretary and 
treasurer; Mrs. W. H. Nelson, librarian. 

The circle was to meet bi-monthly at private homes, and for this 
reason and to promote efficiency, its membership was limited to fifteen, 
later to twenty. The child and everything which contributes to child 
development were to be subjects for study and report; experts in these 
lines of study occasionally secured to speak ; the scientific child study 
work reported; magazines and books helpful for child study circulated, 
and mothers' problems discussed in a question box meeting each year. 
This plamof work proved largely practicable, satisfactory in its results 
and, minus the magazine and book circulation, is still followed by the 
circle. 

Features have been added, notal)ly a picnic in June ; a Christmas 
partv for the children, at which Christmas gifts are prepared for less 
favored children ; fathers' night, informal and popular with the fathers ; 
extension work, long desired, possible at last through legacies in the 
wills of ]\Ir. and Mrs. Thomas H. Dodge ; story-telling and report of 
current events. In the extension work money is not given, but clothing 
is made for various city charities ; dolls dressed by the members, toys, 
stockings, mittens and Christmas goodies are given to public kindergar- 
tens, and open meetings are held designed to instruct young mothers 
in the care and training of children. The circle at the present time num- 
bers nineteen active members and several honorary ones (all past mem- 
bers). It is more vigorous and efficient than ever in its history. The 
present officers are Mrs. E. I. ^Morgan, president; Mrs. Robert Whitte- 
more, first vice-president; Mrs. Charles T. Haven, second vice-president; 
Mrs. James C. Davis, secretary and treasurer. 

Public Education Association. — The following is from the pen of 
Mrs. Eliza D. Robinson: 

Early in January, 1905, a group of Worcester citizens, among whom were Charles 
M. Thayer, Dr. William H. Burnham. of Clark University, Rufus B. Fowler, Esq., Mr. 
and Mrs. J. Russel Marble, and Mrs. Fannie Fern Andrews of Boston, met at the 
home of Mrs. Joseph J. H. Robinson to discuss the advisability of an organization of 
both men and women, to advance the cause of public education in the city. A public 
meeting was held Jan. 17th, in Memorial Hall, with James P. Munroe of Boston, for 
the principal speaker. At a later meeting February 7th in the same place, Clinton 
Rogers Woodruff, Esq., Secretary of the National Municipal League, gave an address 
on "Public Education and the Citizen." 

Charles M. Thayer, Esq., presided at both meetings, and remarks in favor of 
an organization were made by Hon. James Logan, Prof. George L. Alden, Rufus B. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 761 

Fowler, Esq., Homer P. Lewis, Supt. of Schools. Rev. A. W. Hitchcock, Prof. Arthur 
G. Webster and others. A constitution was adopted and the following ofificers elected : 
President, Prof. George L. Alden ; Vice Presidents, Philip J. O'Connell, Col. E. B. 
Glasgow; Secretary, Mrs. J. H. Robinson, Assistant Secretary, Cora Greene; Treas- 
urer, William Woodward. The object of the society was: "To secure and maintain 
the highest educational standards for Worcester." The necessity of working construc- 
tively and in cooperation with established authority, was emphasized both by Mr. Wood- 
ruff and President Alden. The first meeting of the executive board was held in Room 
12, City Hall, and the following standing committees established — school hygiene, man- 
ual training, education cNtension, school organization, and school visitors. Head- 
quarters for the Association were secured by President Alden at No. 11 Foster St., 
and on the occasion of the openirg, Dr. G. Stanley Hall delivered a stimulating ad- 
dress on "Citizens Initiative in School Reforms." The Manual Training Committee 
later known as Committee on Industrial Education, encouraged by means of lectures 
and exhibitions from other cities where the manual training was co-extensive with the 
course of study, aided the extension of manual training in our schools. In 1906 a law 
was passed making it possible for a city to erect and equip schools for industrial 
and agricultural training, the state to reimburse for half the maintenance. Milton P. 
Higgins, chairman of the committee, had already given much study to the problem of 
securing skilled workman for the industries. On January 4th, 1907, a meeting was held 
in Washburn Hall in the interest of Industrial Education for Worcester, under the 
auspices of the Public Education Association; members of the Mechanics Association, 
Metal Trades and Board of Trade were invited to cooperate. Mr. Higgins presided. 
Hon. Carroll D. Wright, Pres. of Clark College and Chairman of the Douglas Com- 
mission, which investigated industrial conditions in Massachusetts, honorary member of 
this association ; Magnus W. Alexander, organizer of the Apprentice School at General 
Electric Co., Lynn, were speakers. A subsequent conference resulted in the choice of a 
committee of five to draft a petition to the city government composed of Milton P. 
Higgins (Pub. Ed. Assn.), Rufus B. Fowler (Board of Trade), Charles F. Marble 
(Metal Trades Assn.), John R. Back (Mechanics Assn.), and George L. Alden (Public 
Education Association). The Secretary of this association after correspondence with 
the Independent State Industrial Commission was empowered to call a meeting in 
behalf of a trade school for girls, in Woman's Club building. Secretary Morse of the 
commission, addressed the meeting and a Conference Committee was chosen, com- 
posed of delegates from Woman's Club, Twentieth Century Club, Council of Jewish 
Women and the Public Education Association, to make investigations of industries in 
the city employing women, and a petition, asking that provision for a trade school for 
girls as well as boys, and that two women be appointed on the Commission for Indus- 
trial Education for Worcester were sent to the committee of five, to be included in pe- 
tition to city government. At the hearing, before the Committee on Education of the 
City Council, Messrs. Alden and Fowler presented the case of the boys, and the Secre- 
tary of the Public Education Association of the girls. Today there are two flourish- 
ing trade schools in Worcester for boys and girls. 

The subject of Vocational Guidance was first brought to the attention of Wor- 
cester citizens by this association. Meyer Bloomfield, Director of Civic Service House, 
Boston, spoke at the fifth annual meeting, and later, Supt. Stratton D. Brooks of 
Boston Public Schools. President Alden believed that while Trade Schools now had 
the approval of public sentiment, there was a large majority of boys and girls in our 
public schools whose needs can best be met by the "half time plan." Prof. Alden out- 
lined a plan for "a better education of boys and girls who leave the gramfnar school 
to seek employment in unskilled industries" and recommended a special supervisor 
who would be a helper and friend, in other words "a vocational guide." Favorable con- 
sideration by school committee was obtained but business conditions prevented the 
adoption of the plan at that time. 



762 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The School Hygiene Committee under the able leadership for several years of Dr. 
William H. Burnham of Clark University, an expert in this field, gathered facts in 
regard to the practice of school hygiene in the cities of the U. S. and recommended 
features specially commendable for safeguarding the health of the children. The 
committee recommended: i. e., the passage of the bill for medical inspection of the 
schools of Massachusetts; better control of contagious diseases; erection of school 
houses sanitary in construction and equipment; sanitary drinking fountains which were 
first introduced in Worcester school houses at request of this committee ; the best 
methods of cleaning schoolhouses, especially use of oil in sweeping and prohibition of 
all dry sweeping and use of feather duster, and the following year these recommenda- 
tions were first put in practice; attention was called to the neglect of outdoor recesses 
and investigation and improvement followed, also adequate playgrounds and the care 
of school yards were recommended. 

Attention of this committee was called by the school visitors' committee to the 
fact that High School pupils w^ere without gymnasium and physical training. A peti- 
tion from this committee. Dr. Kendall Emerson, then chairman, fortified by data col- 
lected by Miss Robinson, resulted in appointment of two physical directors, one for 
boys and one for girls. At the present time, Oct. 1917, there are two fine gymnasiums, 
one at North High, the other at High School of Commerce, • with some provision for 
physical training in all four High Schools and competent directors, both men and 
women in all, and a general director in charge of the entire system, thus securing 
breadth and unity of purpose. 

The psychological clinic for examination of backward children was encouraged by 
addresses from specialists in this most important field of Health Education and a clinic 
is now held weekly in City Hall, under director of state alienists. 

The committee has from time to time continued in the daily press, particularly in 
the Gazette, the campaign for "Wider use of the School Houses for Civic Betterment" 
and Miss Miriam Abbot of the committee prepared a valuable questionnaire on the 
present use of the school buildings which was sent to all principals. "The most striking 
fact brought out with regard to present use of the schools was the number of different 
types of groups using the buildings in comparison with the number of times the build- 
ings were used in toto. This would seem to indicate that there is a demand from all 
classes of people for the use of the buildings, which is checked only by the expense in- 
volved. In summarizing the value of this enquiry, the most encouraging and stimulat- 
ing fact is the interest which the principals of the public schools have expressed, and the 
cooperation with which they are ready to unite in developing an adequate policy of 
civic recreation." Dr. Ray Greene served two years as chairman of this committee. In 
1918 Dr. Caroline A. Osborne was elected chairman. 

The School Visitors Committee has had the inspiration of seeing the work done in 
the school rooms and also of receiving from the teachers valuable suggestions for prac- 
tical work. Attention has been given to sanitary conditions, recesses, single and dou- 
ble sessions, compulsory physical training in high schools, home gardens, and parents 
have been urged to buy text books for their children when possible as health precau- 
tion. Dr. Florence H. Richards of Philadelphia, medical director of the William Penn 
High School for girls, was secured for a lecture on "Physical Education for High 
School Girls." A demonstration of gymnasium work, (the first one of its kind in the 
city) followed, under the direction of Miss Florence Bennett, physical director, as- 
sisted by Miss Aileen Foley. The Education Extension Committee under the leader- 
ship of Prof. U. Waldo Cutler, conducted evening lectures for two seasons in three 
school neighborhoods and in spite of the lack of proper assembly halls, the attendance 
was gratifying. Dr. Henry M. Leipziger of New York City, was engaged for a lecture 
on "The School for all the People," with the result that the School Committee ar- 
ranged a course of lectures, for which the City Council appropriated $1,000. These 
were not continued and the P. E. A. established a committee on "Civics, Social Centers 



AND ITS PEOPLE 7^2 



and Recreation." Prof. Frank H. Hankins, chairman, in a series of important press 
articles, called to the attention of the public "that with our present highly complex civ- 
ilization we have lost the communion, fellow feeling and neighborhood interest on 
which New England town life rested, and that the most efifective means of restoring 
the community spirit and raising the level of civic life toward that of the democratic 
ideal, is the Social Center." One such center was established at Union Hill, another at- 
tempt in a new building equipped with a fine assembly hall proved abortive for the 
reason that the neighborhood was made up of non-English speaking people, but the 
knowledge gained has resulted in classes for teaching English to the foreign mothers 
under the supervision of the School Department. 

The Home and School Visitor, trained in social service, but unofficial, and sup- 
ported by the Public Education Associations had proved of great value in bringing 
about a closer relation between home and school, and it was decided to endeavor to 
secure one for Worcester who should be a regular officer of the school department. 
The effort was successful and the office of "Supervisor of Attendance" was created. 
The changed character of the problem of school attendance was called to the attention 
of the state superintendents and the recommendation that "Truant Officer" be changed 
to "School Attendance Officer" was adopted in the recodified law. 

A lecture by Prof. George Pierce Baker, of Harvard University, on "The Child 
and the Theatre," resulted in the formation of a committee on "The Theatre as an 
Educational Force/' Prof. Samuel P. Capen, chairman. The committee publicly en- 
couraged worthy dramatic productions and stood sponsor for several plays. A ques- 
tionnaire to ascertain the tlieatre-going habits of children, was sent to the schools and 
the data secured presented to many groups of people. Under the direction of Chair- 
man Prentiss C. Hoyt, a study of the condition in the cheaper theatres was made, and 
assisted by Miss Marietta Knight and Miss Sarah B. Hopkins, children's plays were 
successfully given at Endicott House, the use of which was generously granted by the 
Worcester City Missionary Society. Recognizing the value of dramatization and 
pageantry in history teaching, and interpretation of the life of a people, the committee 
was changed to "Dramatization and Pageantry Committee." Prof. Horace G. Brown 
of State Normal School read an important paper on "Dramatization in History teach- 
ing," and Charles H. Lincoln, Ph. D., one on "The Significance of American National 
Holidays," and Dr. William E. Bohn of the Ethical Culture School, New York City, 
gave a lecture before the association on "The School Festival." Dr. Bohn said that a 
Festival is any celebration which nobly embodies a noble ideal." This was finely il- 
lustrated by the "School Festival" entitled "A Parade of Nations," given by the pupils 
of Elizabeth street school (seventeen nationalities being represented) under the direc- 
tion of Miss Emma Plimpton, the principal, with the cooperation of Dr. William B. 
Aspinwall, principal of the Normal School, who has well said that "The amalgama- 
tion of the races is the triumph of the American Public School." 

Two pageants have been successfully produced — both on Fourth of July and with 
the cooperation of the committee appointed by the mayor for the observance of a 
"Safe and Sane Fourth." The first "The Spirit of Liberty," given in 1912, was planned 
and directed by Mrs. Savage, chairman of the P. E. A. Committee; the second in 
1913, "The Children of America," was directed by Miss Lotta T. Clark of Boston, 
secretary of the "Drama League of America," Mrs. J. M. Talamo of the city committee, 
and Mrs. J. H. Robinson, secretary of the association, were chairman and vice chair- 
man respectively of the Executive Committee in charge. Both pageants were held on 
Clark College campus. 

Moral educational conferences were held annually for several years, with the co- 
operation of the superintendents of schools. Afternoon sessions were held so that 
the teachers could attend, and evening sessions were open to the public, and many emi- 
nent speakers were secured. A bibliography on moral education was prepared and 
also important reprints distributed am.ong the teachers. 



764 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Public addresses have been given by many eminent speakers, among them, Dr. 
David Starr Jordan, Chancellor of Leland Stanford University, Dr. G. Stanley Hall, 
President of Clark University, Prof. J. William Hudson of University of Missouri, 
Mr. Oswald Garrison Villard, president and editorial writer of the New York Even- 
ing Post. 

Practically every Public Education Association in the country has occupied itself 
with the question of small school boards for the more efficient administration of our 
public schools. A bill was presented to the Legislature during the administration of 
Prof. George Q. Alden. This bill called for a non-partisan committee of seven elected 
at large— in place of the committee of thirty elected afterwards. This bill was opposed 
by the City Council and defeated. In 1916 the Committee on School Organization and 
Administration, Prof. C. B. Randolph, chairman, secured a city wide interest in a bill 
for smaller school committee, which called for eleven members, one from each of the 
ten wards and one at large, and with a referendum to the people attached. Prof. 
Frank H. Hankins, of Clark University, conducted the hearing. Mr. J. Russell Mar- 
ble, president of the association, was made chairman of a "Citizens Committee," to work 
for the referendum. The work of the campaign outlined by the committee was carried 
out almost entirely by Mr. Marble, Mr. Rowland T. Hastings and Mr. Levi Bousquet— 
other members actively interested were Prof. U. Waldo Cutler, Mr. Maurice F. Reidy 
and Mr. Ernest Adams, and contributions to the expenses of the campaign expenses 
were made by Mr. J. Russell Marble, Hon. James Logan, Prof. George Q. Alden and 
by the association. The Worcester Evening Gazette, Post and L'Opinion Publique 
pledged their support and were a great factor in the overwhelming victory which car- 
ried every ward and precinct in the city. 

The association has had for honorary members, presidents of Clark University 
and Clark College, Worcester Polytechnic, College of Holy Cross and Principal of the 
State Normal School, President G. Stanley Hall, honorary president. Presidents of 
the Association since organization are as follows: Prof. George Q. Alden (3 years), 
Prof. Samuel P. Capen (3 years), Prof. U. Waldo Cutler (3 years). Dr. William B. 
Aspinwall. Rev. Vincent E. Tomlinson, Air. J. Russel Marble, Rev. Austin S. Garver. 
Treasurers Charles E. Burbank and Prof. Charles B. Randolph served three years each 
and Mr. James Green seven years. Secretary, Mrs. Joseph H. Robinson, served ten 
years. Assistant Secretary, Alice Thayer, four years, Camilla G. Whitcomb, Eliza- 
beth S. Campbell, Mrs. Robert K. Shaw, Olive M. Brooks, two years each. Miss Ara- 
bella H. Tucker, one year. Presidents Alden, Capen, Cutler, Marble, Treasurer Ran- 
dolph and the secretary have given active service as chairmen of committees, and also 
Prof. William H. Burnham, specialist in School Hygiene; Prof. George H. Blakeslee, 
History and International Relations : Dean James P. Porter, chairman of Committee 
on Moral Education ; Dr. Amy E. Tanner, Committee of School Visitors ; Prof. Frank 
H. Hankins. Civic Centers; Prof. Prentiss C. Hoyt, The Theatre as an Educational 
Force, and Prof. Horace G. Brown, History and Moral Education. 



CHAPTER XLIX 

Historical and Literary Societies — Worcester County Historical Society 

— American Antiquarian Society — Worcester Society of Antiquity — 

Worcester Book Club — The Shaksepeare Club — Fraternity of 

Odd Fellows — Worcester Art Museum — Public School 

Art League — St. Wulstan Society 

The Worcester County Historical Society. — At the beginning, this 
Society had a promising future. Incorporated Feb. 19, 1831, the charter 
members were John Davis, Samuel Jennison, Isaac Goodwin, William 
Lincoln. The purpose was "to collect and preserve material for a com- 
plete and minute history of Worcester county, — the origin, advance- 
ment and social relations, geographical limits and appearance of the ter- 
ritory," etc. John Davis, the first president, held the office for many 
years. The centennial anniversary of the county was celebrated with 
formal exercises, John Davis being the orator. The date of dissolution 
is not known. 

American Antiquarian Society. — Founded here by Isaiah Thomas in 
1813, this is a national institution, its membership including the most dis- 
tinguished scholars, authors, literary men, public officers and statesmen, 
not only of the United States, but of various foreign countries. But the 
energy, interest and devotion of a small group of men, mostly of Wor- 
cester, created the society, collected its library, and contributed the funds 
which have maintained it, built its home and have sustained its purpose 
for more than a century. Prominent among these men have been Isaiah 
Thomas, Stephen Salisbury, Sr., Stephen Salisbury, Jr.; the librarians, 
especially the present one, who has accomplished through modern meth- 
ods and a genius for this work, more than in many previous decades ; 
Waldo Lincoln, the present head of the institution, whose personal pres- 
ence and attention, refined taste and good judgment are in evidence 
on every hand ; the late Nathaniel Paine, who collected everything 
within his reach for this library ; Franklin P. Rice, who has given his 
service faithfully in recent years, a service that counts beyond that of a 
score of ordinary men on account of his lifelong experience in compiling 
and printing historical works and on account of his natural gifts in 
research. 

Those who signed the petition for incorporation were : Isaiah 
Thomas, Nathaniel Paine, Dr. William Paine, Rev. Aaron Bancroft and 
Edward Bangs, all leaders in their professions, known from one end of 
the country to the other. The petition states "that its immediate and 
peculiar design is to discover the antiquities of our continent and by pro- 
viding a fixed and permanent place of deposit to preserve such relics of 



766 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

American antiquity as are portable, as well as to collect and preserve 
those of other parts of the globe." These purposes were never realized. 
They indicated an intention to have a museum such as the Smithsonian 
Institution. The American antiquities have been collected and stored in 
various museums. The small collection made by this society in early 
days has been distributed among institutions most suitable for preserving 
the articles, excepting some choice furniture, jewelry, china and other 
relics of value. The society turned its attention to the collection of 
American-newspapers, historical books and magazines, manuscripts and 
records, and has made a library of incalculable value to the American 
people and their historians. Much of the material in this library can be 
found nowhere else. 

The charter limited the amount of its income from real estate to 
$1,500. The first meeting was held in the Exchange Coffee House, Bos- 
ton, Nov. 19, 1812. At the next meeting President Isaiah Thomas gave 
books valued at $4,000, and was requested to allow them to remain in 
his house until the society found other quarters. The first meeting in 
this city was at the tavern of Col. Reuben Sikes, now the Exchange Hotel, 
Main street, Sept. 29, 1813. The Boston meetings were held in Ex- 
change Coffee House until it was burned in 1819, and when it was 
rebuilt, resumed its meetings there for a period of fifteen years ; from 
May, 1836, to May, 1847, the semi-annual meetings were in the Tre- 
mont House; then, until April, 1900, in the rooms of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences and since then in the rooms of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society. 

Mr. Thomas provided a building on Summer street at his own 
expense, and the library was formally opened Aug. 24, 1820. Two 
wings were added in 1831 ; it was never deeded to the society, however. 
Mr. Thomas left $30,000 to the society and valued the library building 
and land at $8,000, leaving $12,000 in books and $12,000 in money. The 
building on Main street, corner of Highland, was erected on land given 
in 1850 by Stephen Salisbury, who also gave $5,000 to the building fund. 
The old building was sold to the trustees of Worcester Academy. 

The society published a volume of archaeology by Caleb Atwater 
in 1820 ; a volume on aboriginal languages by Albert Gallatin in 1835 ; 
the early records of the Massachusetts Bay Co. in 1850. At the annual 
meeting in 1863, completion of the half-century, an address was deliv- 
ered by Rev. Dr. William Jenks, who had delivered the address at the 
meeting fifty years before, and was one of the four survivors of the 
original members, the other three being Gov. Levi Lincoln, Josiah 
Quincy and Dr. John Green. 

Samuel Jennison. who succeeded Mr. Thomas as librarian, served 
until 1826. William Lincoln, who succeeded him, was a graduate of 
Harvard, lawyer, editor, author of the history of Worcester. Christo- 
pher Raldwiu, the next librarian, served October, 182T-1835, except when 



AND ITS PEOPLE 7^7 

he practiced law at Barre, 1831-33, during his absence Samuel M. Burn- 
side acting as librarian. To Mr. Baldwin the society is indebted for 
many of its rare books, and especially to enlarging its collection of Amer- 
ican newspapers. Mr. Thomas and Mr. Baldwin both received as 
exchanges, while editors, most of the important newspapers of the coun- 
try and they kept the files, depositing them in the library. Maturin L. 
Fisher, acting librarian two years, was succeeded in October, 1837, by 
Samuel F. Haven, who served until April, 1881. He was succeeded by 
Edmund M. Barton, now librarian emeritus. The present librarian, 
Clarence S. Brigham, who served on the. committee in charge of the new 
building which was dedicated in 1912, had charge of the removal and 
classification necessary at the time of removal. He was formerly librarian 
of the Rhode Island Historical Society. 

Mr. Thomas was succeeded as president by Thomas Lindall Win- 
throp. Edward Everett, the statesman, was next in this office. Since 
then the presidents have been residents of Worcester. Everett was suc- 
ceeded by Gov. John Davis, Congressman, Governor and United States 
Senator. The second Stephen Salisbury was president from 1854 until 
he died in 1884. He was a man of learning, and next to Mr. Thomas the 
foremost benefactor of the society up to that time. Stephen Salisbury 
(3d) was president from 1887 until he died. He was the third great 
benefactor and builder of the library. The hew building was erected 
from the generous legacy that he left the society. Senator George F. 
Hoar was a member from 1853 until he died ; and was president from 
1884-87; Nathaniel Paine, member from 1860 until death, 1917. Rev. 
Edward Everett Hale served as president for one year. He was a mem- 
ber of the society for sixty years and spoke often at its meetings. 

In October, 1918, the library had nearly 6,000 books, the larger part 
being the Thomas Collection, valued at $5,000, but at present prices 
worth many times that amount. The library has copies of nearly all the 
publications in the country before 1700, and a large part of those pub- 
lished before 1800. It is rich in old manuscripts. It has the best col- 
lection of early newspapers in the country. Among the more important 
acquisitions of the library in later years may be mentioned the bequest 
of books and manuscripts of Dr. William Bentley of Salem, gifts of 
books valued at $5,000 by the estate of George Brinley of Hartford, a 
gift of the same amount in the will of Joseph J. Cooke of Providence; 
the bequest of William Bentley Fowle including the manuscripts of Dr. 
Bentley. Substantial funds were bequeathed by Isaac Davis and Ben- 
jamin F. Thomas of this city. In recent years the bequests 
of books have been too numerous to mention. From these collections 
many duplicates have been used to good purposes in securing volumes 
by exchange with dealers and other libraries. 

The library of the famous old Mather family constitutes one of the 
treasures of the society. It contains many priceless manuscripts of Rich- 




NATHANIEL PAIXE. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 769 

ard, Increase and Cotton Mather. The collection of engravings and por- 
traits is very valuable. (See p. 1494 Hist, of Worcester County, Hurd). 

Mrs. Mary (Robinson) Reynolds has been connected with the 
library since February, 1881, and since Feb. 1, 1889, has been assistant 
librarian. Her natural aptitude for the work and her intimate knowl- 
edge of the library have made her invaluable in her position. She has 
been occupied during a greater part of the time in work on the card cat- 
alogue. No printed catalogue has been prepared since 1837. 

The centennial celebration of the society was celebrated by the open- 
ing of the new building and exercises of unusual importance Oct. 16, 
1912. It was attended by President Taft; Rt. Hon. James Bryce, Am- 
bassador plenipotentiary of Great Britain; Senor Federico Alfonzo Pe- 
zet, Minister from Peru ; U. S. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, all of whom 
made addresses; by delegates from all the great libraries and learned 
societies of the country and many from abroad. The annual meeting 
was followed by an historical address by Hon. Charles G. Washburn, to 
whom the writer is indebted for some of the material of this sketch. 
Formal exercises were held in the afternoon in the First Unitarian 
Church, and a dinner in the evening at the Worcester Club, at which Mr. 
Taft spoke. Some 2,000 persons attended the various exercises. 

At that time the assets aside from the collections were reported as 
$491,441.51. The progress and growth of the library since 1912 has been 
greater than during any previous period. The new building at the cor- 
ner of Salisbury street and Park avenue, is admirably located. The 
building is of imposing architecture. The front is similar to that of the 
original building on Summer street. The library stacks are of the 
best modern construction. The reading room is beautifully appointed. 
A striking feature of the main room is the circle of massive pillars of 
polished Siena marble. The alcoves about the main room are lined with 
books relating to American history — town, county, national, civil, and 
Revolutionary War. In the main room are genealogies, and the col- 
lection of family history is one of the best dozen genealogical collections 
of the country. Special attention has been paid by Mr. Brigham to col- 
lecting volumes on American biography and genealogy. Mr. Brigham 
has been engaged also in preparing a bibliography of American news- 
papers and at the same time by purchase and exchange adding to the files 
of old American newspapers in the library. It has been a monumental 
task and when complete will be of immense interest and value to 
historians. 

To this library every writer of general history must come for some of 
his material, if his work is done thoroughly. There are constantly at 
work throughout the year in the library investigators and writers, gene- 
alogists and historians. Students in the colleges often come here for 
material for their theses and special researches. The professors of the 
W.— 1-49. 



770 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



colleges are frequent visitors. Hundreds of important books have 
acknowledgments by their authors of obligations to the society and 
appreciation of its resources. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity. — This was organized by Samuel E. 
Staples, Franklin P. Rice, John G. Smith, and Richard O'Flynn, at the 
residence of Mr. Staples, Lincoln place, Jan. 23, 1875. Daniel Seagrave 
and Albert Tyler, the printers, were among the founders ; and some of 
the preliminary meetings were held in their office. The constitution of 
the society was adopted Feb. 13, 1875 ; the first officers elected March 2, 




SOCIETY OF ANTIQUITY. 

were: Samuel E. Staples, president; Henry D. Barber, vice-president; 
Daniel Seagrave, secretary; Henry F. Stedman, treasurer; John G. 
Smith, librarian. During the first two years meetings were held at the 
homes of members. The society was incorporated by act of the legisla- 
ture secured by Hon. Clark Jillson. The charter members were Samuel 
E. Staples, Clark Jillson, Ellery B. Crane, Daniel Seagrave, Franklin P. 
Rice, James A. Smith, Albert A. Lovell and Albert Tyler. The first 
meeting of the incorporated society was held March G, 1877, at the home 



AND ITS PEOPLE 771 

of Edward I. Comins, and the following officers elected : President, 
Samuel E. Staples; Vice-Presidents, Clark Jillson and Ellery B. Crane; 
Treasurer, James A. Smith ; Clerk, Daniel Seagrave. In 1878 there were 
69 members. 

The first rooms were occupied Oct. 2, 1877, in the Bank Block,- on 
Foster street, where members met informally every Tuesday evening. In 
addition to establishing the library largely from books given by members, 
the society began the publication of its transactions and of various other 
records, beginning with the inscriptions from the tombstones of the 
Mechanic street burial ground. Inscriptions in the old cemeteries of 
Worcester and adjoining towns were also copied. The society co-oper- 
ated with Mr. Franklin P. Rice, who copied and printed as part of its 
proceedings the early records of Worcester from the beginning to 1848, 
including the vital records. This work extended over a period of years, 
and is a monument to the industry, painstaking and persistent effort of 
Mr. Rice, and a source of pride to all interested in the history of Wor- 
cester and its families. 

A portion of Rev. George Allen's library was bought by the society, 
am.ounting to some 300 books, more than doubling the society's previous 
library. 

The tenth anniversary was celebrated in the Old South Church, 
Jan. 27, 1885, Rev. Carlton A. Staples delivering the principal address. 
At a banquet served in the Bay State House, Hon. Alfred S. Roe was 
toastmaster. 

Through the generosity of Stephen Salisbury (3d) the society came 
into possession of the building-lot on which the society erected for its 
purposes on Salisbury street. The property is now valued at $50,000. 
The building was dedicated Nov. 24, 1891. The audience room is named 
for Mr. Salisbury. The society has more than 27,000 bound books, about 
40,000 pamphlets and an interesting museum of American history, con- 
taining more than 6,000 Indian relics, also a large collection of Colonial, 
Revolutionary and Civil War relics and numerous mementoes of domestic 
life. 

Hon. Ellery B. Crane, present librarian, formerly president and one 
of the two surviving charter members, has been indefatigable in his ser- 
vices from the beginning, not only in contributions to local history pub- 
lished in the proceedings, but in securing additions to the library and 
museum, also in giving his time to the work of the organization. The 
society numbers among its members many of the prominent citizens and 
scholars of the town, especially those interested in local history and in 
genealogy. (See Historic Homes, etc., of Worcester County, edited by 
Mr. Crane, Lewis Pub. Co., 1907; Worcester, City of Prosperity, by Tul- 
loch, p. 217; Worcester Co. Hist. (Hurd) 1, 1607). 

The officers in 1917 are: President, U. Waldo Cutler; Vice-Presi- 
dents: Arthur P. Rugg, William F. Abbot, Adaline May; Recording 



^72 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Secretary, Walter Davidson; Financial Secretary, Edward F. Coffin; 
Treasurer, Frank E. Williamson; Librarian, Ellery B. Crane. 

Worcester Book Club. — This club, established late in 1839 and still 
active, may be the oldest in the country. The first book club was started 
in Cambridge in 1832. Another had been organized in Northampton, 
Massachusetts, before 1839, and the Misses Martha and Hannah Stearns 
were members and perhaps among the founders. To them credit is 
given of introducing the idea in Worcester. Mrs. Emory Washburn was 
an active promoter. Emory Washburn, Samuel F. Haven, Dr. Oliver 
Blood and Henry H. Chamberlin and Lincoln Newton were original 
members. In addition to books bought, the club ordered magazines, 
such as the English quarterlies, Blackwood's Magazine and the North 
American Review. 

At first an attempt was made to hold monthly meetings, and social 
and literary features for entertainment, but the meetings were never pop- 
ular, and the club devoted itself entirely to the circulation of books and 
magazines. Gradually the administration of affairs was left to the book 
or executive committee. In later years the executive officer was the 
secretary and treasurer. The records of the society date from 1844 to 
the present. In 1844 the members were : Dr. John Green, Theophilus 
Brown, Frederick W\ Paine, John Milton Earle, Dr. Sargent, Samuel 
Hathaway, Levi A. Dowley, Miss Woodward, L. L. Newton, Samuel F. 
Haven, Henry H. Chamberlin, Albert Tolman, George T. Rice, F. H. 
Dewey, Samuel Jennison, F. H. Kinnicutt, Emory Washburn, George A. 
Trumbull, Miss Hamilton, Miss Stearns, Alonzo Hill, Dr. Oliver Blood, 
M. D. Phillips and Daniel W. Lincoln. A social directress was elected 
in 1846, Mrs. John M. Earl; in 1847 Mrs. Emory Washburn held this 
office, and in 1848 Mrs. Henry Chapin. The directress had full charge of 
the social aft'airs of the club. Beginning in 1850, meetings were held 
quarterly instead of monthly. At first the dues were a dollar a year, then 
three dollars and later five. 

There were few changes in membership. As members resigned others 
were elected, the membership for many years remaining at twenty-four. 
Some of the later members elected were : Sarah Tucker, 1845 ; H. G. 
O. Blake, 1846; A. H. Bullock, 1843; Henry Chapin, 1847; Rejoice New- 
ton, 1849 ; Peter C. Bacon, 1850; Stephen Salisbury, 1851 ; Charles Paine 
and P. LeBaron, 1853; Mrs. Eliza Davis and W. A. Wheeler, 1854; 
Dwight Foster, 1856; Thomas Kinnicutt, C. Hartshorn, 1864; Miss 
Canfield and Mrs. Willard, 1865; Mrs. Thompson and Mr. Wetherell, 
1866; Philip L. Moen and Mr. Hamilton, 1867; Alice Miller and Mrs. 
Bigelow, 1869; Miss Bartlett, 1874; Joseph Sargent, 1875; Mrs. 
W. W. Rice, 1877; L. N. Kinnicutt, 1881; James T. Paine, 1883; 
Rockwood Hoar, 1886; Mrs. William Workman, 1886; Mrs. J. C. 
Throop, 1889; Mrs. George T. Rice; Miss Trumbull. G. S. Paine was 
treasurer from 1845 to 1860. Albert Tolman was secretary a short time, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 77^ 



and his son Edward F. Tolman for many years, 1890 to 1910. Since then 
Miss Paine has been treasurer. Some of the early presidents were : L. 
A. Dowley, George A. Trumbull, 1846; J. M. Earle, 1848; Henry Chapin, 
1848; Rejoice Newton, 1849; Col. A. H. Bullock, 1850; H. H. Chamber- 
lin. The membership has remained largely in the families of the early 
members. In recent years the club has been smaller in point of mem- 
bership. The present members are: Miss Lois O. Paine, Ellen Dana, 
W. B. Allen, O. S. Kendall, A. S. Pinkerton, Fannie Hamilton, Margaret 
Harlow, Mrs. Benjamin Stone, Caroline Townsend, Russell S. Paine, 
Mrs. M. L. T. C. Roberts. 

The Worcester Shakespeare Club. — The following account is con- 
tributed by Mrs. Louisa Cogswell Roberts : 

The club was founded in 1887 by Mrs. Josephine Heard Cutter, with the co-opera- 
tion of Harry Leverett Nelson, an enthusiastic Shakespeare student, and Miss Grace 
Cleveland (Mrs. Reuben Colton) ; then of Eben Francis Thompson, Worcester's lead- 
ing dramatic reader. Among those invited to organize the society were Col. E. B. 
Glasgow, a man of scholarly attainments, Samuel S. Green the librarian, and the Misses 
Earle ; while prominent among the 25 or 30 at the first gatherings were Col W. S. B. 
Hopkins, an accomplished amateur actor. Rev. A. H. Vinton, afterwards Bishop of 
Massachusetts, Charles M. Rice and the Moen family. 

The active membership is limited to fifty ; but the honorary (past members, resi- 
dent or non-resident, and wives and husbands by courtesy) reaches a higher figure. It 
is largely drawn from professional and professorial classes, and has included two col- 
lege presidents and four judges. 

The purpose of the club, as stated in the by-laws, is "the study of Shakespeare's 
writings, and of other kindred subjects." While the primary object is still the read- 
ing of his plays, the elasticity of the second clause has been stretched to cover a vast 
variety of activities. Other dramas, from the ancient Greek down to contemporary, 
have been studied, with the history and poetry of many lands. Essays, some of high 
literary quality, informal talks and illustrative readings have extended over as wide a 
range. 

Thirty-five of the thirty-seven Shakespearean plays have been read, some of them 
many times, and discussed. One year was devoted to other Elizabethan dramatists. 
Among modern plays considered may be cited : Sheridan's comedies ; The Piper, by 
Miss Peabody (a Stratford prize-winner); Jeanne d'Arc by Percy MacKaye; Lady 
Windermere's Fan by Oscar Wilde, and Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra. A group from 
the Irish Players' repertory was read by Thomas A. Watson of Boston (since made 
an honorary member by compliment). 

Some topics of papers are: — Shakespearean Characters, individually or in groups 
as the Witches, Demons, Ghosts, Fools and Fairies; Hamlet's Sanity by Prof. Meyer, 
psychiatrist; an original emendation of Hamlet by Rice; Early English Speech by 
Prof. Webster ; Etymology, Versification ; Political and Social Conditions ; Magna 
Charta ; Military Science ; Customs and Costumes ; Shakespeare's Life by Dr. Getchell, 
Prof. Haynes and others; his legal lore, his portraits, by Mr. Thompson; Sonnets; 
Famous Actors by Profs. Coombs, Webster, etc.; Rostand's Chanticleer by Prof. Ca- 
pen; The Rubaiyat by Mr. Thompson with excerpts from Fitzgerald's and his own 
translations ; and the wars of the world from the Caesarian to the present European 
conflict, for which a six-star service flag might be displayed, since Prof. Webster, 
Prof. Duflf, Dr. Emerson, Prof. Blakeslee, Dr. Clark and the Rev. Mr. Knapp are ren- 
dering patriotic service in various lines here or abroad. 



774 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Occasionally an outsider has favored the society with a paper : Mrs. Georgia Tyler 
Kent gave Reminiscences of the Boston Museum, and Thomas A. Watson of the Ben- 
son Players in England. 

Some evenings have been enlivened by music. The songs of Shakespeare have been 
sung; and selections from Gounod's opera, Romeo and Juliet, rendered. Mr. Thomp- 
son's arrangement of Midsummer Night's Dream with the Mendelssohn music has been 
presented several times. Browning's Toccata of Galuppi's was read with accompani- 
ment of old Italian airs. Miss Morse and the late Walter S. Knowles freely gave their 
services, instrumental and vocal; and outside talent has sometimes been enlisted. 

The social side has been enjoyable. Refreshments are served at the regular fort- 
nightly meetings held at the homes of members. On special occasions the honoraries ap- 
pear, and guests are bidden, a club house being often pressed into service for larger as- 
semblies. The closing annual meeting is marked by extra festivities, a musicale, the 
reading of a modern play, theatricals, etc. 

Public lectures', readings and entertainments have been given by the club or under 
its auspices. In the first decade there were courses by James E. Murdock, Henry A. 
Clapp and Alfred Waites, whose name as that of a Shakespeare scholar honors the 
club roster. J. C. Black of Harvard was another early speaker. Judge Putnam de- 
fended the Baconian Theory which was later refuted by Mr. Thompson. It was again 
Mr. Thompson who, having addressed his fellow-members on the notable discovery of 
the Shakespeare Deposition and presented to each a facsimile with transcription, ar- 
ranged a lecture by the discoverer. Prof. Wallace. The members were the guests of 
Judge William T. Forbes at a Shakespeare recital by Samuel King from the Univer- 
sity of London ; and Frank H. Robson at a reception for the Ben Greet players, for 
whose Macbeth the club stood sponsor. Theatre-parties have attended noteworthy 
performances. 

The most ambitious effort of the club was the presentation in the Worcester Thea- 
ter, April 27, 1905, of the Dream of Shakespeare's Women by a company of 115 under 
Miss Hopkins' management, the net proceeds of which ($1000) formed the nucleus of a 
fund to build the Children's Ward of the Memorial Hospital. 

In the decennial year, 1897, a sketch of the club by Mrs. Cutter was printed. The 
appointment of Hon. Arthur P. Rugg as Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court 
of Massachusetts, 1911, was celebrated by a dinner with speeches. The twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the club, 1912-13, was commemorated by a banquet, with Shakespearean 
menu cards, music, addresses, and a dramatic skit on the personnel, by Prof. Webster; 
also by the preparation of its complete history by Mrs. Roberts, which, with continua- 
tion to the present time and a compilation of the records, will be published later. 

The 350th anniversary of Shakespeare's birth, 1914, was marked by a performance 
of Midsummer Night's Dream (the Mendelssohn-Thompson arrangement) ; the Ter- 
centenary of his death, 1916, by an exhibition of Shakcspeariana with explanatory 
talks by Mrf Shaw, etc., at the public library, and by another banquet taking the form 
of a costume party with Elizabethan glees and scenes from Shakespeare's plays en- 
acted by members, Mr. Thompson supplying a prologue. A pleasant incident of this 
season was a refection prepared by the Marbles from Tudor receipts. At this time too 
the project of a community theatre was broached; with the co-operation of the Park 
Commission, an arena has been partly constructed on the northern slope of Newton 
Hill, where, it is hoped, a Shakespeare garden may be later planted. 

Coincident with the Shakespeare Tercentenary occurred the Centenary of Sheri- 
dan's death ; and The School for Scandal and the Rivals were performed at the Strat- 
ford-on-Avon joint celebration. In this the following season these plays have been 
read by the Shakespeare Club. 

Presidents, 1894-1918, (term of office, i year). — Thomas Goddard Kent, Prof. Ar- 
thur Gordon Webster, Col. Edward Brodie Glasgow, William Fitzhale Abbot, Hon. 
Charles Thornton Davis, Dr. Albert Colby Getchell, Prof. William Edward Story, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 775 



Prof. George Henry Haynes, Prof. Zelotes Wood Coombs, Hon. William Trow- 
bridge Forbes, Joseph Russel Marble, Frank Huson Robson, Samuel Heald Clary, 
Charles Moen Rice, Dr. Kendall Emerson, Prof. Samuel Paul Capen, Hon. Arthur 
Prentice Rugg, Robert Kendall Shaw, Chandler Bullock, Dr. Ray Woodville Greene, 
(Mrs.) Josephine Heard Cutter, Eben Francis Thompson, Prof. Alexander Wilmer 
Dufif, Miss Frances Clary Morse, Dr. Albert Milo Shattuck, president-elect. 

Fraternity of Odd Fellows. — This, a literary society, not connected 
with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized about 1820. 
Among the members were Emory Washburn, John Davis, Thomas Kin- 
nicutt, Isaac Davis, Isaac Goodwin, Stephen Salisbury, C. C. Baldwin, 
Henry and Gardiner Paine, James Green and William Lincoln. The 
fifth anniversary was celebrated Dec. 8, 1824, when an oration was deliv- 
ered and a poem read. In 1827 the society celebrated the Fourth of 
July with an oration by Thomas Kinnicutt (Aegis Nov. 24) and a poem 
by Richard H. Vose. Jubal Harrington was secretary in 1829. The 
society ceased to exist many years ago, but no definite date has been 
discovered. 

Phrenological Society. — When phrenology was popular, the Phren- 
ological Society was formed here in May, 1834. The first officers were : 
Dr. Samuel B. Woodward, president; Stephen Salisbury, vice-pres. ; 
Isaiah Thomas, sec; Dr. William Paine, treas, ; Dr. John Green, Dr. O. 
H. Blood and Christopher C. Baldwin, directors. The society began 
with much enthusiasm but its life was brief, and of its death there is no 
record. 

Worcester Art Society. — At a public meeting held April 16, 1877, in 
the Board of Trade rooms, it was decided to organize the Worcester Art 
Society. Stephen C. Earle, Burton W\ Potter, Henry Woodward and 
Nath. Paine were appointed to present a' plan of organization. In Oc- 
tober, Lucius J. Knowles presided, and a draft of the constitution and 
by-laws presented; on Nov. 27, 1877, officers were elected: Pres., George 
F. Hoar; Vice-Prests., Lucius J. Knowles, Edward H. Hall and Charles 
M. Lamson; Secy., Rebecca Jones ; Treas., Joseph E. Davis; Directors, 
Charles O. Thomson, Stephen C. Earle, Burton W. Potter, Mrs. Philip 
L. Moen and Mrs. Joseph H. Walker. The society was incorporated in 
December, 1887, when Nathaniel Paine was elected president. 

The first exhibition was held in the Board of Trade rooms in the 
Taylor building; and more than seventy water-colors and oil paintings 
lent by members were shown. Subsequently exhibitions were held reg- 
ularly ; lectures on art were given from time to time. The society 
became from the outset the leading organization devoted to art, until the 
Art Museum was erected. Since then its members have cooperated with 
that institution. 

The presidents have been, besides those mentioned above: Samuel 
S. Green, Charles S. Hale, Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, and Austin S. Garver. 
Rev. Dr. Garver is now writing a history of the society. Charles A. 



776 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Chase and Frederick S. Pratt served as vice-presidents ; Charles T. Davis 
clerk and Prof. Zelotes W. Coombs treasurer, and for many years the 
faithful secretary. 

As being the pioneer art organization in the city, the society exerci- 
cised a great influence for many years. Composed of leading citizens 
who were later prominently identified with the museum, it was undoubt- 
edly instrumental in no small degree in the establishment of that insti- 
tution by Mr. Stephen Salisbury. It continued its independent existence 
for some time, maintaining annual courses of lectures of much distinc- 
tion; then, the membership having declined, it voted to turn over its 
funds amounting to more than $2,000 to the Art Museum, to establish 
and administer a fund to be known as the Worcester Art Society Lecture- 
ship Fund. 

Art League. — At a meeting of the Worcester School Board in 
March, 1895, at the suggestion of Rev. A. S. Carver, a member, an organ- 
ization to be called the Worcester Public School Art League was form- 
ally approved, and the following persons were appointed to have charge 
of its management: John T. Duggan, M. D., and Rev. Austin S. Carver, 
representing the School Board ; the President of the Worcester Art So- 
ciety; the President of the Art Students' Club; the President of the 
Woman's Club ; the Librarian of Worcester Public Library ; the Super- 
intendent of Schools; the Supervisor of Drawing; the Art Supervisor 
of Drawing; Mrs. Edith Loring Getchell and Miss Frances M. Lincoln. 
Later the School Board gave the League the privilege of adding a 
limited number of persons to its membership. The first official meeting 
of the League was held April 9, 1895, through the courtesy of the 
Librarian, in his private room at the Public Library. The. following 
officers were elected: Rev. A. S. Carver, pres. ; Frances M. Lincoln, 
vice-pres.; Jeanie Lea Southwick, sec; Samuel S. Green, treas. 

With the clearly defined purpose of attempting to beautify the 
school-rooms, the Art League began its work. For several years the 
work was necessarily largely of an advisory nature, owing to the lack 
of funds at the disposal of the League. As time went on, private indi- 
viduals became interested, and many gifts were received, among them 
framed pictures, casts, and occasional small sums of money. 

During the past few years the work has been greatly enlarged, 
because of the generous annual gift of $500 from the St. Wulstan Society. 
With this sum each year added to the amount raised in many of the 
schools by the pupils, by means of entertainments, candy sales, and class 
gifts, it has been possible to reach practically every school-room in the 
city, and the work has overflowed to the corridors and school yards, 
until many of them are hardly recognizable, so great has been the 
improvement. 

The meetings of the League are held regularly at the Public Library 
the third Tuesday of each month of the school year. The annual meet- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 777 

ing occurs in January. The present officers are Pres., Frank J. Dar- 
rah; Vice-Pres., E. H. Thornhill ; Sec, Carrie A. Hildreth ; Treas., Rob- 
ert K. Shaw. 

From time to time lectures and exhibitions have been held under its 
auspices. 

St. Wulstan Society. — This was organized for social and literary pur- 
poses on the initiative of J. Everts Greene, who called the first meeting, 
held at his home in June, 1890. The original membership consisted of 
Senator George F. Hoar, Judge Hamilton B. Staples, Rev. Daniel Merri- 
man. Very Rev. John J. Power, Samuel S. Green, Stephen Salisbury, 
Judge Thomas L. Nelson, Frank P. Goulding, Dr. G. Stanley Hall, Dr. 
Leonard Wheeler, Dr. George E. Francis, Rev. Alexander H. Vinton, 
D. D., Henry A. Marsh, J. Evarts Greene and E. Harlow Russell. As 
vacancies have occurred, men of similar distinction have been elected, 
but the limit of membership has been kept at sixteen. At the meeting 
in October, 1890, Mr. Marsh, one of the executors of the estate of Helen 
C. Knowles, suggested that the society become trustees of the bequest 
known as the "Helen C. Knowles fund for the advancement of art educa- 
tion in Worcester," and, having accepted the proposition, the society was 
incorporated in 1891, "for the purpose of promoting literature, art, his- 
torical and social science in Worcester, and holding and administering 
the Helen C. Knowles legacy for promoting art education in Worcester 
and such other funds as may be acquired for the same and kindred 
objects." The fund amounted to about $35,000. The income has devoted 
to the Art Museum, the Art Society and other art organizations. The 
first officers were: Pres., George F. Hoar; Vice-Pres., Stephen Salis- 
bury ; Clerk, J. Evarts Greene ; Treas., Henry A. Marsh. 




FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY. 
An addition has since been built for a Children's Department. 



^OBf iC LfBRARY 



tj ^'„ -54,- 







PUBLIC LIBRARY, SOUTH WORCESTER BRANCH. 



CHAPTER L 

The Free Public Library — The Law Library — The Medical Library — 

Worcester County Athanaeum — The Art Museum — Art 

Students' Club 

The following is contributed by Mr. Robert K. Shaw : 

The Free Public Library.— The early history of the Free Public Library has 
been written so exhaustively by Mr. Samuel S. Green, Librarian Emeritus, for Kurd's 
"History of Worcester County," 1889 (vol. II, p. 1498-1504) that it would be useless 
to retrace the ground so admirably covered by Mr. Green. Suffice it to say that two 
private libraries, those of the Worcester Lyceum, organized in 1829, and the Young 
Men's Library Association, dating from 1852, were united in 1856, and three years lat- 
er gave their joint collections, amounting to some 4,500 volumes, to the city to form 
the nucleus of the circulation department of the Free Public Library. 

The Reference Department, at the same time, was set on a firm foundation by the 
munificence of Dr. John Green, who on December 27, 1859, gave to the city his splen- 
did private library of about 7,000 volumes "in trust for the free use of the citizens and 
the public forever, as a library of consultation and reference, but to be used only in 
the library building." 

To his gift of books Dr. Green added in his will a legacy of $30,000 for the main- 
tenance of the Reference Library, with the wise provision that one-fourth of the in- 
come should always be added to the principal until the latter should amount to $100,- 
000. Thus in the half-century since Dr. Green's death, his legacy has more than dou- 
bled, and furnished at the same time a steadily increasing source of revenue. 

After the close of Mr. Green's narrative of library history in 1888, the first import- 
ant event was the erection of what is now (1918) called the New Building, adjoining 
the old, which was erected in 1861. In 1888 the city acquired the land for $35,000, 
and three years later, in April, 1891, the building was opened for public use. Its cost 
was $100,000, and the architect, the late Stephen C. Earle. 

The early months of 1895 saw the small beginnings of our branch library system. 
Quoting from Mr. Green's annual report: "An expressman going thru Greendale on 
his way from West Boylston to Worcester, stops at a store in Greendale every Wed- 
nesday and Saturday; takes thence a locked box of books and cards of users to the 
library building, and, calling at the latter place in the afternoon, takes the box filled 
with newly selected books back to the store, at which residents call for them." For 
the next three years no more stations were added. 

In 1896 was issued the last supplement to the printed catalogs of the library, of 
which the first appeared in 1861. Formerly considered indispensable, such catalogs 
are no longer issued by the larger libraries, as their expense is enormous and they are 
out of date before received from the press. Monthly bulletins of new books and frequent 
reading lists on timely topics more than compensate for the absence of an obsolete 
printed catalog in the home. 

After several years of effort by the librarian and directors, in May of 1898 eight 
delivery stations at various points between Greendale and New Worcester were opened. 
At these stations, held in stores or private houses, books and readers' cards are sent 
back and forth between the station and the main library, twice each week. The 
falling far short of the facilities offered by branch libraries, they extend the library's 
clientele, and sometimes pave the way for the establishment of a regular branch. 



78o HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



At this same time the recataloguing and reclassifying of the hbrary were in full 
swing. Begun in 1894, this really heroic task of putting into logical arrangement for 
public use at the shelves, a great circulating library of 70,000 volumes, formerly shelved ^ 
in their order of accession to the library, required great courage on the part of the 
librarian to attempt, and persistence to execute. The same might be said of the prep- 
aration of three public card catalogs : in the Reference Library, a compete catalog of 
everything in the whole system ; in the circulation department another for that depart- 
ment and the children's room, which latter has also one of its own. 

The year 1900 saw the opening of the addition to the old building (20x35 feet) 
which cost $7,000 and provided also for the beginnings of a children's department on 
the second story. 

Five years later a modified form of civil service was adopted as a means for fill- 
ing all regular positions in the library except the very highest. By removing all 
chance for favoritism in appointments and making examinations absolutely free to 
all applicants, whether Worcester residents or not, the system has accomplished much 
good. Of the forty-three regular members of the staflf in 1918, thirty-four were ap- 
pointed through the library civil service. A set of printed rules for governing the Di- 
rectors, the library staff and the public, was adopted at the same time. Samuel Swett 
Green was the second librarian. Zephaniah Baker, the first, served from Feb. 17, 
i860, to Jan. 14, 1871. 

Early in 1909 Mr. Green resigned as librarian, on completing his thirty-eighth 
year of active service in that position. A pioneer and recognized leader in his profes- 
sion, and one of the incorporators of the American Library Association, Mr. Green 
gave practically all his best years to the upbuilding and maintenance of the highest 
type of public library in this city. For his unremitting zeal and persistence in making 
this library known and appreciated in Worcester, and throughout the country at large 
his native city must now and forever remain profoundly grateful. His successor, 
Robert K. Shaw, entered the library service as assistant librarian, in February, 1905, 
having resigned the librarianship at Brockton to accept this position. 

Branch libraries, after more than five years of agitation, finally became a reality and 
opened their doors to the public in February, 1914. First mentioned in library publica- 
tions by Mr. Green in his last report, for 1908, this movement received efficient support 
from Messrs. Charles T. Tatman and Frederick W. Vermille on the Board of Direc- 
tors. Chiefly to Ex-Mayor James Logan is due the credit for securing from Andrew 
Carnegie a gift of $75,000 to build three branch libraries, and from local property own- 
ers the admirable sites at 470 West Boylston, 812 Millbury and 705 Southbridge Streets 
respectively. At Greendale several manufacturers joined to present the land to the 
city; at Quinsigamond the American Steel and Wire Company and at South Wor- 
cester Messrs. Whittall and Thomas gave the sites. 

At the laying of the three corner-stones on March 27, 1913, Mr. Carnegie was 
present in person, entering with great zest into the proceedings. In the following 
February the buildings were opened to the public; Judge Frederick H. Chamberlain, 
president of the Board of Directors, conducted the simple exercises at all three 
branches in the presence of crowds that taxed the capacity of the buildings and made 
it impossible for many to find seats. Prof. Z. W. Coombs, president of the Library 
Board for 1913, deserves the enduring thanks of the library's patrons for the great 
amount of time and expert assistance offered in getting these branch libraries ready for 
the public. 

As aids in the development of community life, all three branches have enjoyed 
marked success. The community room, fitted up attractively in the basement, has 
been in each case, a welcome meeting-place for boys and girls clubs. Red Cross and 
other war relief work, food conservation demonstrations and classes, as well as many 
other activities. Since their opening the branches have been one of the library's most 
valued assets. 




PUBLIC LIBRARY, GREENDATE BRANCH. 




PUBLIC LIBRARY, QUINSIGAMOND BRANCH. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 781 



Overcrowding at the main library has grown steadily worse for many years, 
during which adequate service could not be rendered, while many priceless books and 
pictures have been in constant danger of destruction from fire. Plans for a new build- 
ing have progressed only so far as the endorsement by the Directors of a site at Salem 
Square. Our entrance into the war has necessarily postponed activity in this direction. 

Service to Worcester's highest educational interests has always been the library's 
watchword. With the development of the children's department, and of the intimate 
and helpful relations which the library has enjoyed during half a century with the 
public schools, has come an opportunity to instill into the mind and heart of the child 
a love for the best in all literature, domestic or foreign, which should help steadily to 
raise the ideals and morals of our people toward that noblest internationalism which 
alone can make future war impossible. 

The total number of volumes in the library in 1917 is 218,473, and in the branches 
17)395- The additions yearly are about 6,000 volumes. 

Worcester County Law Library. — This came into existence with the 
formation of the Worcester Coimty Law Library Association, June 21, 
1842, under the provisions of a law passed that year. The association 
consisted of the members of the bar of the county. From time to time 
amendments have been made, but the law has provided from the begin- 
ning a fund for the purchase and care of books, from the fees paid to the 
county clerk. The library has had quarters in the court house. From 
the beginning the clerk of the courts has been librarian. For many 
years the collection was small. Credit for making it a library of import- 
ance belongs to Judge Thomas L. Nelson, who for thirty years neglected 
no opportunity to build the library through gifts and purchase. In 1858 
Charles D. Bowman of Oxford bequeathed 800 volumes to the library. 
William T. Harlow was clerk of the association for many years. In 
1888 there were about 11,000 volumes. 

When an addition was made to the court house in 1878, a large room 
was provided for the library, and it was occupied until the last remodel- 
ing of the court house, when the present rooms in the old south wing 
were provided. 

Since 1898 the library has been in charge of Dr. George E. Wire, as 
deputy librarian, and its value and usefulness wonderfully increased in a 
card catalogue, through the accession of many thousand volumes of care- 
fully selected books, and the intelligent aid given to readers by the 
librarian. The aim of Dr. Wire has been not to get as large a collection 
or as complete a collection as some of the great law libraries, but to select 
books wisely for their value to workers. When he took charge there 
were 19,500 volumes; in 1917 there were 34,506. The collection includes 
all American law reports of value, text books, statutes, English law 
works, and some historical works. The library is open to the public as 
well as the courts and members of the bar. 

Dr. Wire's first assistant was Miss H. C. Taft. Miss E. A. Clark 
was assistant from 1899 to 1903. Miss Lydia L. Kirschner has been 
assistant since March 31, 1903. The directors in 1898 were Francis A. 
Gaskill, Thomas G. Kent and Theodore S. Johnson. Willis E. Sibley in 



782 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



1907 succeeded Mr. Kent who had been a director from 1884, and Arthur 
F. Rugg succeeded Mr. Gaskill in 1910. Mr. Gaskill was elected in 1898. 

As many as 25,000 books are used annually in the library, by about 
three thousand persons. On the walls of the library are portraits of 
Pliny Merrick, Benjamin F. Thomas, Charles Allen, Dwight Foster, Pe- 
ter C. Bacon, George F. Hoar, P. Emory Aldrich, W. S. B. Hopkins, 
Thomas B. Nelson. Other portraits belonging to the law library have 
been hung in the court rooms. Among the notable gifts of later years 
was the briefs of the late Frank P. Goulding, covering the period from 
1868 to 1900. 

Medical Library. — The library of the Worcester District Medical 
Society, a very valuable collection, is deposited with the Public Library 
and in the care of the librarian, though not owned by the city. The 
nucleus of this library was the collection of books given by Dr. Elijah 
Dix to the County Medical Society, which preceded the Worcester Dis- 
trict Medical Society (founded in 1804). In 1813 Dr. Oliver Fiske and 
Dr. John Green started a subscription to procure a library for the society, 
but the library amounted to little or nothing until 1823. In that year 
the society recevied a quota of books from the Massachusetts Medical 
Society as a loan, but practically as a gift, for the books were never 
reclaimed. In 1825 Daniel Waldo was thanked for "his splendid and lib- 
eral donation of books." It is estimated that the society then had about 
a hundred volumes. In 1836 it had 128 ; in 1843 over 200, but we are 
informed that the books were not used to any extent. In 1845 a bequest 
of $6,000 was made by Daniel Waldo, the income of which was used for 
the purchase of medical works ; in 1851 Dr. Charles W. Wilder of Leo- 
minster bequeathed $500 for the same purpose. In 1882 Harrison Bliss 
left the sum of $1,000 for library purposes. Since the library has been 
in the care of the Public Library, the interest of its funds have been 
devoted almost wholly to buying books, and the income of about $500 
has gone a good way to keeping a good medical library in the county. 
The books may be used by the public in the reference library, and may 
be taken out by members of the medical society. The books have a sep- 
arate card catalogue. 

Worcester County Athenaeum. — This was formed in 1830 for the pur- 
pose of establishing a public library. The funds were raised by issuing 
stock at $25 a share to members. The first officers were : Rev. George 
Allen, pres. ; Rev. John Nelson, vice-pres. ; Frederick W. Paine, treas.; 
William Lincoln, sec. The society opened rooms in Dr. Green's block. 
Main street. In March, 1830, the society received the library of the 
Worcester County Lyceum of Natural History. In the same month the 
society was incorporated. Later, the library of the society was deposited 
with the iVmerican Antiquarian Society, and it then ceased to be active. 

Military Library Society. — The first public library in Worcester was 
organized April 3, 1811, under an act of the legislature providing for 



AND ITS PEOPLE 783 

the creation and encouragement of a library designed for the military 
inquiry and the diffusion of military knowledge. The resounding title, 
"The Military Library Society in the Seventh Division," was adopted, 
and Maj. Levi Lincoln, Jr., Lt. Gardner Burbank and Dr. John Green 
appointed a committee to procure books. John W. Lincoln was the 
librarian and clerk, June 24, 1812, and Dr. Green, Mr. Lincoln and Maj. 
Isaac Sturtevant were made a committee to procure books. As to the 
library, nothing exists to show that it amounted to anything. It prob- 
ably contained a total of 33 books of a military character, afterward 
deposited in the library of the Odd Fellows, mentioned elsewhere. In 
1827 the Odd Fellows had 163 books. 

Worcester Art Museum. — The Art Museum began with a meeting 
called by Stephen Salisbury (3d) at his home, Feb. 25, 1896, attended by 
about forty men and women interested in art. Mr. Salisbury announced 
plans that he had made to establish an art museum, offering a tract of land, 
more than an acre, on Salisbury street, and a fund of $100,000, half for the 
erection of a building, the rest to be an endowment fund. On March 24, 
1896, steps were taken to procure a charter. Mr. Salisbury planned for a 
corporation of fifty to hold in trust the property given for the benefit of 
all the people of the city of Worcester. 

The first board of directors consisted of Daniel Merriman, pres. ; 
Francis H. Dewey, vice-pres. ; T. Hovey Gage, Jr., sec; Lincoln N. 
Kinnicutt, treas. ; Charles H. Davis, Lyman A. Ely, George E. Francis, 
John G. Heywood, Thomas C. Mendenhall, Mrs. Helen B. Merriman, 
Miss Mary Perley and Nathaniel Paine. 

The architects of the building were Earle & Fisher of this city, and 
Norcross Brothers were the contractors. In 1897 Mr. Salisbury gave 
more land at the rear of the lot and at his own expense graded and laid 
out the grounds. Subscriptions to the Art Museum in sums ranging 
from three cents to $3,000 increased its funds by about $50,000. The 
cornerstone was laid June 24, and Gov. Roger Wolcott and Mayor A. 
B. R. Sprague made addresses. The building was formally opened May 
10, 1898, with a loan exhibition of oil paintings and water-colors arranged 
by the Worcester Art Society. This society made the first gift, a cast of 
the Venus de Melos ; the Woman's Club presented a cast of Nike of 
Samthrake ; and soon afterward a score or more casts were presented by 
other organizations. The accessions grew from year to year. All 
classes of the people took keen interest in the upbuilding of the collection 
of paintings, statuary and other works of art. The society has a very 
large collection of photographs, colonial silver, the Bancroft collection of 
Japanese prints, old costumes, laces, pottery, etc. There is also a valu- 
able library. 

Rev. Austin S. Garver recently said : "It is difificult to assess the 
value of the treasures of all kinds now in the Museum. In one sense they 
are priceless. Perhaps half a million dollars would not be an excessive 



M'^'^ 




AND ITS PEOPLE 7^5 



prosaic estimate. Paintings constitute the most important part, many 
of them of first rank, and altogether as choice a collection as can be found 
anywhere." 

The munificent legacy of Stephen Salisbury made this institution one 
of the foremost in the country, as to endowment and resources. Other 
contributions of money and works of art have continued since this 
princely gift of about $2,750,000. The trustees in administering the gift 
have taken into account all the expressed wishes of the doner and have 
made various gifts to the city, the Woman's Club, and for other purposes 
that Mr. Salisbury had in mind. 

Raymond Wyer, of New York, a well equipped writer and lecturer 
on art, succeeded Philip J. Centner as director, Jan. 1, 1918. 

School of the Worcester Art Museum. — This was opened in 1898, 
and during the first three years the instruction was limited to drawing 
and painting. In 1901 design was introduced; in 1905 a class in metal 
work. After the death of Stephen Salisbury, his residence came into 
the possession of the Museum and was occupied by the metal and design 
classes that had previously had quarters in the museum. Shops were 
equipped and, since Sept. 23, 1907, the Salisbury mansion has been the 
home of the school. 

In September, 1908, weaving and bookbinding were added to the 
courses of instruction. In the next year H. Stuart Muchie, then instruc- 
tor in the George Washington University, was elected principal and 
teacher of design. In 1912 pottery was added and George W. Greene 
of Boston, chosen instructor. The glazing and firing are done on the 
premises. Otto Victor Humann, teacher of drawing and painting, was 
formerly instructor in the summer school of Columbia University. Grove 
R. Branch is in charge of the metal work. There are also classes in mod- 
eling. A slight charge for tuition in the day classes is made; all the 
evening classes are free. Miss Elizabeth G. Marcy, instructor of book- 
binding, studied her art under Cobden Sanderson in London and M. Do- 
mont and M. Nouhlac in Paris. The school is designed to teach students 
useful trades requiring special skill and gifts. Since 1914 architecture has 
been taught, Miss M. Sawtelle being first lecturer on this subject. The 
thorough work of the school has been demonstrated by the success of 
its graduates in their work as teachers and artisans. Mr. Michie says: 
"The aim of the school is not merely to assist the citizens of Worcester 
and its surrounding towns to a better appreciation of the beauties of 
art and nature, but to provide a thorough all round training for students 
desirous of teaching art or of employing it for illustrations, advertising, 
designing and crafts work, such as silversmithing, jewelry, pottery, book- 
binding, etc. The school is not intended for the dilettante but for those 
desirous of employing art in some form toward financial gain." 
W.— 1-50. 



786 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The trustees in 1918 are: Austin S. Garver, pres. ; Francis H. 
Dewey, vice-pres.; Lincoln K. Kinnicutt, treas. ; Thomas H. Gage, clerk, 
and Helen Bigelow Merriman, Frances M. Lincoln, Charlotte E. W. 
Buffington, Frederick S. Pratt, Alfred L. Aiken, Paul B. Morgan, Frank 
F. Dresser. 

Worcester Art Students Club. — The organizers were Mrs. A. C. 
Freeland, Miss Frances A. Knowlton, Miss Alice M. Fifield, Henry- 
Woodward, George E. Gladwin, Charles S. Hale, Andrew O'Connor, 
John A. Condy, Ward P. Delano, George H. Davis, Charles K. Hardy, W. 
T. Perry, Charles B. Merritt and Norton L. Cook, at a meeting on March 
24, 1880. The membership was limited to thirty "earnest students and 
workers in some branch of art and design." 

The first officers were : Pres., Henry Woodward ; \"ice-Pres., 
George E. Gladwin ; Sec, Charles S. Hale ; Treas., John A. Condy. The 
first room of the club was in the Mutual Insurance Co. block. The 
society was incorporated Jan. 13, 1887. The charter members were: 
Charles S. Hale, Eben Harrington, Henry Woodward, William C. Ste- 
vens, Abbie J.Trask, Anna C. Freeland, Jeanie Lea Southwick, Frances A, 
Knowlton, George E. Gladwin and Francis E. Higgins. In 1889 rooms 
were leased in the Walker building. The club outgrew the limit of thirty 
very soon, and its membership grew rapidly after the limit was removed. 

In 190-t the Arts and Crafts were recognized and soon became an 
interesting and important section in the organization. The club consists 
of earnest young men and women working in almost every branch of the 
fine and applied arts. Classes have been maintained in clay, woodcarv- 
ing, stencilling, leather tooling, basketry, etc., in later years. Painting, 
water colors, crayon and other forms of art, including photography, have 
been taught every year. The club received material assistance from the 
Norton Company, from which it received the clay needed and for two 
seasons the use of its kilns without cost. The St. Wulstan Society has 
given the club an annual grant of money in recognition of its excellent 
work. The coming of the Art Museum stimulated the work of the club 
and extended its sphere of usefulness and study. The Art Museum has 
exhibited the work of members of the club from time to time and given 
it other assistance. The exhibitions of the club have always been attrac- 
tive not only to lovers of art and artists but to the general public. 



CHAPTER LI 

Music and Drama — The Music Festival — Worcester Oratorio Society — 

Friday Morning Club — Symphony Orchestra — Theatres — 

Poli and His Theatres 

The Music Festival. — In this Festival, Worcester is unique. No 
other place in the world, it is said, has for more than sixty years with- 
out interruption maintained an institution of this kind. In fact, the city 
of Worcester is better known through its music festival than by any 
other feature or institution. For years it has been the first important 
musical event of the season in this country, if not the most important 
outside of the three great cities of Boston, New York and Chicago. In 
his historical sketch of the Festival in 1900, Walter Moody Lancaster, 
the musical critic of the Spy, wrote what is just as true at the present 
time : 

Evidence of this eminence is found, first of all, in the eagerness with which sing- 
ers seek a Worcester appearance. The high value set upon the festival as a professional 
opening and opportunity is no meaningless flattery to provincial pride ; for European 
singers of world-wide reputation cross the ocean solely that they may be heard in 
Worcester ; and go back the following week to fulfill engagements in England or on 
the Continent. Not a few American singers owe their present eminence to a fortu- 
nate performance in Worcester, where they first made their artistic abilities known 
to visiting managers, musicians and critics. No other festival is so liberally reported 
by the press of the large cities. Among the thousands at the festival are music teach- 
ers, professional singers and instrumentalists, drawn hither by the fame of the solo- 
ists, the musical novelties presented, the great chorus or the great orchestra. To hun- 
dreds this is the only opportunity for hearing large choral works given with complete- 
ness and becoming dignity and instrumental masterpieces performed by one of the 
most efficient orchestras in the world. No other festival draws its clientele from a 
field broad enough to cover New England, the Middle States, Canada and the Mari- 
time Provinces. Finally age lends prestige to the Worcester institution. 

The music festival was a natural development of earlier musical 
organizations here. The signing schools of colonial days and later, 
encouraged the study of music and cultivated promising voices. The 
musical conventions early in the nineteenth century developed the love of 
music and extended the interest in music here and elsewhere. In this 
field Edward Hamilton, B. F. Baker, E. H. Frost and A. N. Johnson were 
pioneers, followed later by L. H. Sotithard, L. O. Emerson and Solon 
Wilder. As a natural sequence came the choral societies. Before 1826 
the Harmonic Society was organized, and it continued until about 1839. 
The Sacred Music Society, the Mozart Society, the Beethoven Society, 
the Choral Union and other organizations followed. William Sumner, 
E. H. Frost, A. S. and B. D. Allen, E. N. Anderson and Seth Richards 



788 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

were prominent as conductors with Dudley Buck and Carl Zerrahn for 
short periods; Mrs. E. S. Dame, B. D. Allen, Mrs. A. H. Hammond, G. 
W. Sumner, Messrs. Leland, Morrison, Tucker and Ingalls were pianists 
and organists; G. P. Burt and C. C. Stearns, leaders of the orchestras. 

In 1852 A. N. Johnson and E. H. Frost attempted to hold a musical 
convention in Horticultural Hall, but the experiment was not a success. 
The first Worcester festival was held in response to a circular issued by 
Edward Hamilton and Benjamin F. Baker, on September 28, 29 and 30 
and October 1, 1858. This convention, as it was called, was successful 
enough to warrant another the following year. 

In 1858 a cantata, "The Burning Ship," composed by the conductor, 
Mr. Baker; selections from a hymn book compiled by Mr. Hamilton and 
choruses from The Messiah and The Creation were sung. In 1860 there 
were two formal concerts ; in 1866 there were four, one being an ora- 
torio. In 1863 there were two festivals or conventions, one in the City 
Hall, the other in Mechanics Hall, but the breach in the musical organi- 
zation appears to have been healed soon. The section that held its fes- 
tival in Mechanics Hall organized October 2, 1863, as the Worcester 
County Musical Convention, and elected Samuel E. Staples president. 
In 1866 this society adopted a constitution under which all who bought 
tickets (fifty cents for singer and seventy-five for visitor) became mem- 
bers of the convention. At the annual meeting October 26, 1871, the 
present name, the Worcester County Musical Association, was adopted 
and the annual gatherings designated as festivals. In 1879 the associa- 
tion was incorporated, the charter members of the corporation being : A. 
C. Munroe, I. N. Metcalf, W^illiam Sumner, J. Q. Adams, G. W. Elkins, 
J, E. Benchley, Charles E. Wilder, Charles M. Bent and Daniel Downey, 
all of Worcester; William R. Hill of Sutton, Israel Plummer of North- 
bridge, and Rev. G. M. Howe of Princeton. Since then the corporation 
has been small, the chorus having no voice in the management. 

During the earlier years the festivals were profitable, the salaries 
of the singers being modest and the other expenses low ; and the associa- 
tion laid by a surplus that carried it through various seasons of deficits 
in later years. In recent years the association has grown in financial 
strength. Mr. Lancaster says : 

For fifteen years it was a convention in fact as well as name. Its aims were neces- 
sarily modest and the materials crude. In the early years, chorus and orchestra and 
often soloists as well were volunteers and the rustic element predominant. There was 
not even an organ for accompaniments till 1864, when a committee of citizens raised 
a fund of $9,258 by popular subscription and presented the Mechanics Association with 
an instrument that was then the largest in the country except that in Boston Music 
Hall. 

As the old conventions were in session forenoon, afternoon and evening for four or 
five days, there was ample time for the much advertised discussion ; but rehearsals for the 
public concerts were not neglected. At the close of the afternoon session there was a 
social hour, an improvised concert (subsequently dignified with the name of matinee) 



AND ITS PEOPLE 7^ 



when "contribution of vocal and instrumental music were expected and solicited from 
members and also from solo artists." One by one the social hours expanded into 
formal concerts which were once golden opportunities for local aspirants and for 
debutantes from abroad; but in 1892 the last of the cheaper order of concerts passed 
away, greatly to the relief of the managers and the increasing dignity of the festival. 

The chorus is the mainstay of the festival, the cause of its existence; and the 
credit of moulding it belongs first of all to Mr. Zerrahn, who served as conductor for 
thirty-two years, coming here in 1866 and resigning after the festival of 1897. During 
eleven years he was the sole conductor, but previous to 1897 he had direction of only 
oratorios and similar works, while the church music, glees and smaller choruses were 
intrusted to such men as W. O. Perkins, George F. Root, L. H. Southard, L. O. 
Emerson and Dudley Buck, some of the most prominent leaders of the times, or to 
responsible musicians of local repute, as Solon Wilder, C. C. Stearns, C. P. Morri- 
son and B. D. Allen. From 1889 to 1891 Victor Herbert served as associate conduc- 
tor, taking the orchestral music and accompaniments as his share of the burden. Since 
then Franz Kneisel, Gustave Strube and Thaddeus Rich have been associates and the 
forceful skill with which they have discharged their duties have materially enhanced 
their fame in the country. 

In the beginning there were no rehearsals outside of festival week, and subse- 
quently only five outside, for the double reason that the managers could not afiford to 
pay the conductor, and a majority of the five hundred chorus could not attend be- 
cause they lived out of town. In course of time the attendance upon weekly and even 
semi-weekly rehearsals was made compulsory during the winter, spring and fall. 
Then it was that 375 country members showed their grit. Combining by towns or dis- 
tricts for fifteen and even twenty miles around, they hired special conveyances to take 
them to the rehearsals in Worcester and back the same night. For several seasons they 
persevered in this energetic course ; but one by one they dropped away, so that nowa- 
days in a chorus of rather less than 400 voices the suburban element is almost nil. 

The year before Mr. Zerrahn came, The Creation was sung, and in 
his first festival he presented Judas Maccabeus, repeating it the following 
year. In 1868 the Creation was given with an orchestra of eighteen 
pieces from Boston. Rossini's Stabat Mater was also on the program 
that year. In 1869 the orchestra numbered twenty-five, and a few years 
later was increased to sixty or more. The Boston Orchestral Union, 
generally led by Carl Eichler, served from 1868 to 1873, when the Ger- 
mania Orchestra was engaged, continuing until 1876. Since then with 
the exception of the years 1915 and 1917 the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
has furnished the instrumental music. In these two years 60 players from 
the Philadelphia Orchestra were secured and are re-engaged for 1918. 

Since 1878 two works requiring an entire evening for the perform- 
ance of each have been undertaken. In that year Handel's L'Allegro 
II Pensieroso and Mendelsshon's Elijah were sung. In 1881 three such 
works as Verdi's Manzoni Requiem, Haydn's Creation and Elijah were 
given and since 1884 three oratories have been presented regularly. 

One of the features of former festivals was the singing of such clubs 
as the Boston Philharmonic, the Mendelssohn Quintet, the Eicnberg 
String Quartet; the English Glee Club of New York; the Temple Quar- 
tet of Boston ; the Schubert Quartet ; the Schubert Concert Company ; 



790 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

the Weber Male Quartet and the Uterpe Quartet; the Orpheus Club of 
Springfield and the local German and Swedish singing- societies and 
choirs. 

In 1897 Mr. Zerrahn was succeeded by George W. Chadwick of Bos- 
ton. In 1901 Mr. Chadwick was succeeded by Wallace Goodrich. In 
1908 Dr. Arthur Niees of New York, was appointed conductor, a position 
he still holds. Under his guidance the advancement of the society has 
been steady and rapid. The list of choral works performed under 
his leadership have been as follows: 1908, Caractacus, Elgar; 1909, 
Missa Solennis, Liszt; Te Deum, Berleoz; 1910, Omar Khayyam, Bau- 
tock; 1911, Missa Solennis in D, Beethoven; 1912, Ruth, G. Schumann; 

1913, St. Francis of Assisi, Pierue; 1914, La Vita Nuova, Wolf-Ferrari; 

1914, Te Deum, Bruckner; 1915, The Children's Crusade, Pierue; 1916, 
Forty-Seventh Psalm, Schmitt; 191T, Marching Song of Democracy, 
Grainger; Ode to Music, Hadley. 

Here is a record for ten years that cannot be duplicated by any other 
society in the United States, if indeed in the entire world. 

The presidents of the association have been : Samuel E. Staples, 
1863-73; William R. Hill of Sutton, 1874-86; Hon. Edward L. Davis, 
1887-93; A. C. Munroe, 1895-96; Charles M. Bent, 1896-1902; Samuel 
E. Winslow, 1903; Paul B. Morgan, 1904-07; WlUiam H. Cook, 1908-14; 
Arthur J. Bassett, the present president, was elected in 1915. Officers 
in 1917 were: J. Vernon Butler, vice-pres. ; H. R. Sinclair, sec. 

Worcester Oratorio Society. — The following narrative is con- 
tributed: 

The Worcester Oratorio Society is the product of the musical intelligence and un- 
tiring energy of John Vernon Butler, who in 1897 conceived that there was opportunity 
and need in Worcester for the presentation of many choral works of the highest musi- 
cal value not within the scope of the Musical Festival scheme. They were to be free 
of charge, for the education and pleasure of music-lovers of all classes. Mr. Butler 
had already given performances of short choral works with his chorus of forty voices, 
and it was doubtless due to the public interest in these concerts that he was encouraged 
to broaden his aims and ambitions. Inspired by the enthusiasm and sympathetic co- 
operation of the late Dr. Carl Crisand, he therefore arranged for a chorus of seventy- 
five voices to inaugurate this new "Free Oratorio" series. 

After a few rehearsals the interest was so keen that the choir grew to 100 voices, 
and with this number the first concert was given Nov. 23, 1897. The program was of 
a miscellaneous character including Gaul's cantata Israel in the Wilderness, and the 
following soloists appeared : Miss Elizabeth Pelton, soprano ; Miss Louise E. Shumway, 
contralto; Dr. Paul Dufault, tenor; and Mr. Harry C. Robinson, bass. No admission 
was charged, but a collection was taken to meet expenses. Pilgrim Church was crowd- 
ed, and although a note on the program requested that the audience refrain from ap- 
plause, their approval could not be restrained. 

The second concert included The Last Judgment by Spohr, with the following so- 
loists. Miss Mary Mansfield, of New York, soprano ; Mrs. May Sleeper Ruggles, con- 
tralto ; Frank H. Mason, tenor ; and Chester T. Porter, bass. The church was again 
crowded, and the collection taken amounted to ^73, sufficient evidence that the evening 



AND ITS PEOPLE 79^ 



was fully enjoyed. Both works above mentioned received their first Worcester per- 
formances at these concerts. The following year the chorus numbered 125 voices and 
in 1899, when Handel's Messiah was given, it had grown to 140 voices. 

With the engagement of soloists of prominence outside of Worcester, the collec- 
tions taken at these concerts were insufficient to meet expenditures, and it became 
necessary to reserve a limited number of seats at a small cost, admission still being free. 
It was not until 1905 that the directors of these "Free Oratorio Concerts," Dr. Carl 
Crisand, S. W. Wiley, D. B. Tucker, F. P. Knowles, J. M. Russell, Alfred Thomas, M. 
J. Whittal, A. H. Stone, Dr. G. Stanley Hall and Chester T. Porter, moved by the 
growth of the chorus, its greater musical proficiency and the fast widening field of the 
work of the society, decided to give these concerts under the title of the "Worcester Ora- 
torio Society." There have been but five changes in the personnel of the directors. Dr. 
Crisand served as president 1905-11; Mr. Tucker was secretary and treasurer, 1905-06. 
Mr. Porter succeeded Mr. Tucker, and served until 191 1, where he was elected presi- 
dent on the death of Dr. Crisand. At that time Mr. Curtis and Mr. Spalding were 
elected secretary and treasurer respectively. 

All the concerts of the society were held in Pilgrim Church until 1906, when it was 
voted to give the Christmastide performance of the Messiah in Mechanics Hall, with 
full orchestral accompaniment. The chorus at this concert was made up of 200 voices. 
The concert was a success in every way and proved the beginning of a custom which 
has come to this city to stay. 

In 1914, when Mr. Butler became organist and choirmaster at Union Church, it was 
decided to hold all rehearsals as well as the opening concert of the season (the seven- 
teenth) in the auditorium of the church. In an environment of architectural beauty 
and dignity a very impressive performance of Horatio Parker's Legend of St. Christo- 
pher was given, and the following year Gounod's Redemption was given there also. In 
1916-17-18 all concerts have been given in Mechanics Hall, those of this season for the 
benefit of the Worcester Chapter of the American Red Cross. 

The list of choral works given by the society shows that not only have there been 
produced many of the old standard oratorios, but also a good number of the more 
modern choral compositions, some of which have received their first presentation in 
Worcester and New England, if not, indeed in the country. The list is too lengthy for 
reproduction here, but it includes various of the most famous works of Bach, Bee- 
thoven, Brahms, Dvorak, Dubois, Gaul, Gounod, Handel, Haydn, Liszt, Mozart, Men- 
delssohn, Rossini, Schubert, Sullivan, Spohr, and other masters. In these performances 
have appeared many of America's most prominent soloists, and the list of names would 
embrace practically all of note. 

The society has had for accompanists Mrs. J. Vernon Butler, pianist, and Mr. 
Charles H. Grout, organist, since the first concert in 1897 and to them must be credited 
a generous share in the success of the society. Among the many who have given gen- 
erous and efifective services must be mentioned J. Edward Bouvier, Charles E. Sar- 
gent, Will H. Beaumont, and Mr. and Mrs. Thomas H. Marshall. 

At the end of twenty-one years of service in the interest of choral music, the so- 
ciety points with pride to the adequate presentation of thirty-eight major works and 
many more minor compositions of the first rank, and with equal satisfaction to nineteen 
annual performances of the Messiah before capacity houses. It notes also the intro- 
duction to Worcester of many soloists who have achieved remarkable national success. 

Its chorus mainly recruited in the beginning from the choir of Pilgrim Church 
has been developed in the skilled hands of Mr. Butler into a grand choir of 250 voices, 
which in perfect balance, in tonal beauty and in musical intelligence and appreciation, 
will bear favorable comparison with the best choruses of New England. 

To Mr. Butler, who has given unstintedly of his time, strength, thought and sub- 
stance, Worcester owes more than it is likely to realize or acknowledge. The high char- 
acter of the concerts both as to program and as to execution, the personal loyalty and 



792 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



enthusiasm which the chorus has increasingly shown, the sustained interest of the pub- 
lic in the society's efforts, all testify to the intelligence, the zeal, the character and the 
broad public spirit of the conductor of the society. The society also records its great 
debt to and its lasting affection for Dr. Carl Crisand. Keenly alive to all beauty, and 
especially a lover of the best in music he had a pre-vision of and confidence in the fu- 
ture strength and breadth of its work. Mr. Butler is the architect and builder of the 
society. Dr. Crisand was his inspiring and never-failing helper. 

The Friday Morning Club. — This was for thirty-one years a distinct 
musical feature of Worcester, from its first meeting in 1883 to its last 
in 1914, when, with its passing ended the existence of the oldest woman's 
musical club in this country. The club was formed in November, 1883, 
at the home of Miss Frances C. Morse, by Miss Morse, Mrs. Charles A. 
Merrill, and Mrs. Henry A. Stinson. By its third meeting twelve ladies 
had joined, and later the number was increased to twenty and limited 
to thirty. The meetings were held at the different homes, fortnightly, 
until 1896, when the scope of work was enlarged and an honorary mem- 
bership formed of 100, afterwards increased to 250. There were fourteen 
to sixteen recitals given during the season, some by active members and 
others by well known artists, and many years operas studied, with expla- 
nations and illustrations, in fact the club work was largely educational. 
For many years four tickets were bought for the Symphony rehearsals in 
Boston, and used by members. $100 was annually subscribed toward a 
possible deficit of the Music Festival and many concerts were given for 
various charitable purposes, though never for the benefit of the club, 
which was sustained by membership fees entirely. At the time, in 
1914, when the club corporation was dissolved, the club owned two Stein- 
way pianos and a very valuable musical library. The latter, in its case, 
was presented to the Free Public Library, the music to be given out from 
the circulating department to music students. In 1914 but one of the 
original members was still an active member, Miss Morse, and three who 
were active in 1896, when the club was incorporated — Miss Mary L. 
Starr, Mrs. H. F. A. Schmidt and Mrs. Frank A. Stimfson. 

Worcester Symphony Orchestra. — The Worcester Symphony Or- 
chestra was organized by Daniel Silvester in March, 1914, and has 
already taken a prominent place among the musical organizations of the 
city, its sixty members all skilled and experienced. Mr. Silvester is 
leader of the orchestra of the Worcester Theatre and manager of the 
Silvester Violin School. A society for the business management of the 
orchestra was organized May 3, 1914. The officers are : W. A. Prouty, 
pres. ; A. R. Chase, vice-pres. ; H. G. Taylor, sec; C. A. Thompson, 
treas. ; Daniel Silvester, musical director, and Thomas Brown, librarian ; 
William Mullen, Frank J. Chaffin, Charles A. May and Charles Walker, 
directors. 

The Worcester Symphony Society was organized May 3rd, 1914, to 
control the Symphony Orchestra. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 793 

The name was copyrighted August 12, 191-i. The first public con- 
cert was given with sixty pieces at Poli's Theatre, November 29, 1914, 
for the benefit of the Belgian and British sufferers fund on account of the 
European War, under the auspices of Prince Consort Lodge, Sons of St. 
George. 

Theatres. — Thirty years ago the late Nathaniel Paine wrote a chap- 
ter in the county history entitled "The Drama in Worcester." The com- 
ing of the motion picture in popularity and the multiplication of the the- 
atres in recent years has made the word drama nearly obsolete. There 
were fifty-six halls and theatres in the city in 1917. At a dozen or more 
of these places moving pictures are given regularly or occasionally. At 
the present time not more than one theatre has regular theatrical per- 
formances. Occasionally first-class companies still appear at the Wor- 
cester Theatre. Some excellent stock companies have been well sup- 
ported at the old Franklin Theatre, now the Grand ; occasionally at the 
Worcester during the past dozen years. 

The theatre was tabooed by the early settlers. Dramatic exhibitions 
were forbidden in this province in 1750, and the act was not repealed until 
1794. In 1800 or soon afterward, English companies began to play in 
four or five of the cities in this country. There were occasional amateur 
performances in smaller places. In 1787 the play Cato was given here 
by the pupils in the school. A company from Boston presented several 
plays in June, 1797, in a hall over the school room. 

The circus was more popular than the theatre early in the nineteenth 
century. The first on record here was West's Circus, July, 1817, on a 
lot between Front and Mechanic streets; another came in 1818 and 
pitched its tents on the site of the Bay State House. 

Traveling shows came here from time to time, but no theatrical com- 
panies, as far as is known, until Dr. Robinson came with a play called 
"The Reformed Drunkard," in 1846. The interest in temperance was 
strong at that time, but the show evidently was not highly satisfactory, 
as Robinson was refused a second permit for his play. Next year, how- 
ever, a Boston company played in Brinley Hall for a fortnight or more. 
Mrs. Vincent was in the casts. But at that time the Aegis wrote edi- 
torials denouncing the theatre. Tableauz Vivants were presented by 
W. B. English in Brinley Hall in 1848, and drew large houses, and his 
company came again in 1849. In 1850 Charles C. D. Wilkinson, after- 
ward manager of the Worcester theatre, made his first appearance on the 
stage in Brinley Hall, and in 1851 he gave a series of plays here. 

A hall in the Flagg Block provided better facilities for theatrical 
performances, 1850-51, was called the Worcester Dramatic Museum, 
and was managed later by Noah Gates. In 1852 there was vigorous 
opposition to giving a license to the Museum, but the license was secured 
and plays given from April 8 to June 18, 1852. Persons under eighteen 
were excluded. In 1853 Denman Thompson came in a series of plays. 



794 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Uncle Tom's Cabin had a strong run. Opposition to the theatre again 
appeared at City Hall, but before the decision was made, Flagg's Block 
was burned, January 29, 185-i. 

The first theatre was built by William Piper, on Front street, and 
opened February 9, 1857, under the management of Wyzeman Marshall 
of Boston, with the play Ingomar. The season closed in May. Charles 
C. D. Wilkinson was manager during the second season opening August 
24, 1857; M. V. Lingham succeeded him in March, 1858, and in the fall 
Jacob Barrow took charge, bringing out many standard plays with an 
excellent stock company. The theatre was reopened March 28, 1859, 
witli-George Pauncefort as manager, and during the summer was visited 
by traveling companies. Myers Boniface managed the company in 1860; 
William B. English later in the same year, 

Charlotte Cushman played here in May, 1861, and in April Uncle 
Tom's Cabin was played again. During the Civil War there were few 
plays in the theatre. Laura Keene was here in June, 1863. In October 
of that year John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of Lincoln, appeared in 
Richard III and Lady of Lyons. The last performance in the Front 
Street Theatre was November 27, 1867, and the building was then 
remodeled for offices. 

The Worcester Theatre, on Exchange street, built by a stock com- 
pany and called Music Hall, until 1873, was opened under the manage- 
ment of J. B. Booth, March 9, 1869, with The Lady of Lyons. For 
a dozen years the theatre was controlled by the proprietors of the Bos- 
ton Theatre. Excellent performances were given. Mrs. Siddons was 
here in 1870; the elder Sothern in 1873; John E. Owens, Wyzeman 
Marshall, J. W. Wallack, Mr. and Mrs. Florence, Frank Mayo, Patti, 
Signor Mario, Lester Wallack, Bernhardt, Lotta, Edwin Booth and other 
famous artists were here in the seventies. 

In 1882 Mr. Wilkinson became manager, and for the first time mat- 
inees were given. The building was remodeled in 1882. About this 
time Henry Irving, Joseph Jefferson, Lawrence Barrett, Denman Thomp- 
son, Edwin Booth, Wilson Barrett, Charles Wyndham, J. T. Raymond, 
Modjeska, Salvini, E. A. Sothern, Frank Mayo, Mary Anderson, Fanny 
Davenport, Margaret Mather, Fanny Janauschek, Rosina Vokes, Mrs. 
Langtry and other famous actors appeared here. 

After the death of Mr. Wilkinson, March 2, 1888, his widow con- 
tinued as manager for two years. The theatre was burned in 1889 and 
the present structure erected on the old site. 

An annual event at this theatre since the Civil War has been the 
amateur production of The Drummer Boy for the benefit of Post 10, 
G. A. R. 

Before the days of motion pictures, Worcester was visited by the 
best theatrical companies and from 1890 until 1910 the Worcester Thea- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 795 



tre was well supported. During the season the theatre was seldom 
dark. 

It is proper to mention here William Charles White, player, poet, 
advocate and editor. (See Lincoln p. 302). In 1796 he had written 
Orlando, a tragedy that became widely popular. In the same year he 
played in Boston, and in 1797 appeared in several plays, and for a time 
was the chief attraction on the Boston stage. In July, 1797, he became a 
student in Levi Lincoln's law office here, was later admitted to the bar, 
and began to practice in Providence. He returned to the stage ; returned 
to the law in 1801 with an office in Rutland ; compiled law books in Bos- 
ton afterward; was county attorney, 1811-18; lived here from 1816 until 
he died. May 2, 1818. He was a frequent contributor to the Aegis; he 
published various pamphlets and wrote many plays. 

Poli and His Theatres. — The new era in theatrical history began 
with the opening of the original Poli Theatre. The patrons of the 
theatre prior to that time were divided between the well-to-do who 
patronized the Worcester Theatre exclusively; those who went to the 
vaudeville shows in the Front Street Opera House, later called the Bijou, 
(see biog. J. E. OfTner) (now the Park Theatre), and those who pre- 
ferred the melodramatic and sensational plays by traveling companies 
at the Lothrop's Opera House, Pleasant street, erected a dozen years 
before by R. C. Taylor, and now known as the Pleasant Theatre. 

S. Z. Poli bought the Crompton Block, Mechanic street, after it was 
gutted by fire, March, 1905. He remodeled into a theatre opened an 
entrance on Front street, making what was at that time one of the finest 
theatres in the State. He presented the best of vaudeville, and won the 
hearty support of the public here, as he had done elsewhere. 

When the Worcester Amusement Company, which had bought the 
old Lincoln house and begun to erect a theatre on the site, suspended 
operations on account of disagreement among stockholders, Mr. Poli 
bought the property, finished the theatre even more attractively than the 
other, and gave it his name. The old Poli Theatre then became the 
Plaza. About this time the motion picture became a feature of the 
Poli bills. Since 1912, when the Elm street house was opened, it has 
been devoted chiefly to vaudeville, while the Plaza has been used some- 
times by stock companies, sometimes as a vaudeville house, and some- 
times partly vaudeville and partly motion pictures. The Elm Street 
Poli Theatre is the largest in the city, seating 2,800 persons. He also 
purchased the Franklin Theatre (now the Grand) of the Taylor estate. 
This theatre has been since that time the home of Poll's stock com- 
panies nearly every year. At other times it has been in various circuits of 
traveling companies. Lovers of the sensational drama are given an 
opportunity to see the best of this class of plays. Where others had 
failed, Mr. Poli has had crowded houses. Though he has three large 
theatres in this city, he has made all of them very profitable. 



796 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The Strand Theatre, opened in 1916, is located between Front and 
Mechanics streets. Though mainly devoted to moving pictures, it also 
presents some vaudeville. It is one of the largest and best-appointed 
theatres of its class in the State. From the beginning it has had its 
capacity tested to the limits at almost every performance. Most of the 
other theatres, now devoted to moving pictures, have been located in 
old buildings. Some are merely stores altered for the purposes. The 
Royal Theatre occupies the old quarters of the Worcester Market; the 
Court Theatre near Lincoln Square was erected at the rear of an old 
building. 



CHAPTER LII 



Congregational Churches — Old South — Central — Salem Street — Union 

Church — Memorial Church — Plymouth — Piedmont — Pilgrim — 

Adams Square — Park — Hope — Lake View — Bethany — 

Greendale — Hadwen Park — Tatnuck — 

Congregational Club 

Old South Church. — The following narrative is condensed from the 
Worcester Magazine of June, 1916 : 

In observing the bi-centennial of the foundation of Old South Church, Worcester 
observed one of the iew institutions that have survived from the beginning of the 
town history. This church was formerly the Worcester meeting house. The church, 
in fact, was the organization. It was not good form in the early days to call the build- 
ing a church. 



/l/iDf- 




OLD SOUTH CHURCH. 

Though the first meeting house was not erected until 1719, the inhabitants of Wor- 
cester formed a religious organization in 1716. In the previous year doubtless there 
were gatherings on Sunday in the larger houses, and preaching by visiting ministers. 
Until 1715, Jonas Rice, who came in 1713, was the only inhabitant. Gershom Rice, his 



798 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

brother, and others came in 1715. The services were held in the house of Gershom 
Rice, later in the house of James Rice, near the corner of Franklin and Green streets. 
In 1719, the first meeting house was built on the present site of the City Hall, and the 
first minister, Rev. Andrew Gardner, was called. Some historians maintain that an 
earlier meeting house was built in 1717 near the house of James Rice. The town voted 
the minister a settlement of i6o, and an annual salary of £40. Daniel Heywood and 
Nathaniel Moore were elected deacons. It is estimated that there were then in the set- 
tlement 300 souls. 

Rev. Andrew Gardner, the first minister, was a native of Brookline (Muddy River) 
and graduated from Harvard College in 1712. His pastorate was short. A schism in 
1721 proved to be serious, and he was dismissed October 21, 1722. During the next 
three years the church had no settled minister. Rev. Shearjashub Bourne declined a 
call in 1724. 

In 1719, Rev. Edward Fitzgerald preached to the little Presbyterian congregation in 
the garrison house at the junction of the Boston and Lancaster roads. "Very soon 
they began to build a house of worship for themselves; but while it was in process of 
erection, a body of the inhabitants assembled by night and demolished the structure." 
They made no further attempt to build a church, but worshipped in the first church and 
soon many of them occupied places of leadership in the parish. The Presbyterians in 
Worcester withdrew from the church for a few years, under the pastorate of Rev. 
William Johnson, but finally returned to the First Church. From 1720 to 1730 the 
Scotch-Irish were nearly as numerous as the rest of the inhabitants of the town. A 
considerable part of them moved to Rutland, Barre, Pelham, Palmer, Athol, Lunen- 
burg and other towns, but religious differences had little if anything to do with their 
going. It is fair to recognize the important part taken by the Scotchmen in the found- 
ing and upbuilding of the First Church. The old lists of pew owners show how sub- 
stantial a part of the congregation they must have been. 

Rev. Isaac Burr was installed pastor of the First Church October 13, 1725. A 
long and quiet ministry followed. His relations with his parishioners were cordial. He 
was voted a salary of £80, and a settlement of £200. During his pastorate the famous 
George Whitefield came to Worcester and preached on the Common October 15, 1740. 
A controversy arose between the followers of the Whitefield and the more conservative 
of the congregation, and Air. Burr's health failed under the strain of the dissension. 
He was dismissed at his own request in March, 1745. Mr. Burr was a son of Thomas 
Burr of Hartford, where he was born in 1698. He graduated from Yale College in 
1717, and died at Windsor, Conn., in 1751. 

The town next made choice of Rev. Nathaniel Gardner as pastor, but he declined 
the call. In 1746 a covenant was adopted. The famous Rev. Jonathan Mayhew and 
Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty were candidates, and each preached a month. The choice of 
the congregation was Mr. Maccarty and he was installed June 10, 1747. A house with 
about two acres of land on the Common southeast of the meeting house was purchased 
for a parsonage and in 1765 this property was deeded to the minister. The property 
was recovered from his heirs, fifty years later, after a lawsuit, but again relinquished by 
the parish. His ministry covered a period of nearly forty years, including the Revolu- 
tionary War. He died July 20, 1784, aged 63 years. During his ministry a new meet- 
ing house was erected in 1763 on the Common. 

When Mr. Maccarty had grown old and his health failed, Rev. Aaron Bancroft 
filled his place for two months, and when Mr. Maccarty died, Mr. Bancroft was again 
called to the pulpit. His preaching caused a division in the parish. Those who wanted 
Mr. Bancroft for minister brought his name before a town mefeting, but they were in 
a minority. Defeated in their purpose to have a call extended, a voluntary association 
was formed and the Second Church (now the First Unitarian) was formed, having 
Mr. Bancroft for pastor. He was ordained February i, 1786. The second parish was 
known as a "poll parish," the first of its kind in the state. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 799 

After the seceders left, Rev. Daniel Story was called by the First Church and 
preached for two years. He was unsatisfactory to the conservatives, his preaching be- 
ing tainted with Arminian sentiment, and he was never installed formally. He was 
born in Boston, July 29, 1756, graduated from Dartmouth in 1780 and died at Marietta, 
Ohio, in 1804. He was an uncle of the eminent Judge Joseph Story of the United 
States Supreme Court. 

After six tumultuous years, Rev. Samuel Austin, D. D., of New Haven, was in- 
stalled September 29, 1790. A new creed and covenant were adopted of the strictest 
orthodox type. Dr. Austin was a soldier in the Revolution, a graduate of Yale in 
1784. He published the first complete edition of the works of the elder Rev. Jonathan 
Edwards. He was one of the founders of the General Association of Massachusetts 
and of the Massachusetts Home Missionary Society. He served often on church coun- 
cils ; many of his sermons were published. At the end of a quarter of a century in 
this parish he was elected president of the University of Vermont, but continued nom- 
inally as minister until 1818. From 1821 to 1825 he was pastor of the Newport, R. I., 
church, then he returned to Worcester. Lincoln's history of Worcester gives a list of 
thirty-three of his publications. 

Rev. Charles A. Goodrich was elected colleague of Dr. Austin and ordained Octo- 
ber 9, 1816, becoming the minister in 1818. During his pastorate another division in 
the church resulted in another secession and the organization of the Calvinist or Cen-. 
tral Church. After his resignation, November 14, 1820, on account of ill health, Mr. 
Goodrich became a compiler of school text-books. 

Rev. Aretius Hull, the next minister, was born in Woodbridge, Conn., in 1788, 
graduated in 1807 at Yale, where he was tutor six years, and was settled in Worces- 
ter May 22, 1821. He died May 17, 1826, and was succeeded by Rev. Rodney Augustus 
Miller, who was ordained June 7, 1827. During the seventeen years of his pastorate 
more than 400 joined the church. He was a graduate of Union College in 1821 and of 
Princeton Seminary. He was dismissed April 12, 1844. He died at Troy, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 29, 1876, aged 79 years. Mr. Miller was the first president of the first Temper- 
ance Association ever formed in Worcester ; was for some years one of the overseers 
of Harvard University. Rev. George Phillips Smith, a graduate of Amherst, 1835, was 
installed March 19, 1845, and died at Salem, while pastor, September 3, 1852. 

Rev. Horace James, a graduate of Yale, was installed February 3, 1853. He was 
chaplain of the 25th Massachusetts in the Civil War, and at his own request was dis- 
missed as pastor January 8, 1863. He died in Worcester, June 9, 1875. 

Rev. Edward Ashley Walker, a graduate of Yale in 1856, student in Heidelberg 
and Berlin, Germany, chaplain of the First Connecticut Heavy Artillery, was installed 
July 2, 1863, but his health failed soon, and he died April 10. 1866. During his ministry, 
September 22, 1863, the hundredth anniversary of the building of the meeting house 
was appropriately celebrated, Hon. Ira M. Barton and Dr. Leonard Bacon being the 
principal speakers. 

Rev. Royal B. Walker was pastor from January 2, 1867, to April 25, 1872. Rev. 
William M. Parry of Nottingham, Eng., was called but was never installed. His resig- 
nation was not accepted, but he left the pastorate, taking with him nearly 150 mem- 
bers, who formed what was called the Tabernacle Church. A church council declined 
to install Mr. Parry, but the congregation continued services until his death. Rev. 
Nathaniel Mighill, a graduate of Amherst, was installed September 25, 1875, died June 
15. '^877- He officiated at the exercises celebrating the hundredth anniversary of the 
Declaration of Independence. Rev. Louis Bevier Voorhees, a graduate of Princeton 
and Andover, was installed June 15, 1877, but three years later, on account of illness, 
was obliged to resign. 

During the pastorate of Rev. Joseph F. Levering, who was installed Alay 5, 1880, 
the city took possession of the church property and in 1887 the old meeting house was 
demolished. The cornerstone of the present structure was laid July 4, 1888, and the 



8oo HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



first services held January 30, 1889, though the auditorium was not occupied until Sep- 
tember 17, 1889. During the interim, services were held in Association Hall. The 
pastorate of Mr. Lovering closed July 3, 1890. 

The building of the new church marked the beginning of a new era in the life of 
the First Church. The church was fortunate in finding a pastor of genius peculiarly 
adapted to the conditions and gifted with the eloquence and magnetism that attracts 
new members to his congregations. Rev. A. Z. Conrad began his pastorate October 28, 
1890. He organized the activities of the church until he had a place of usefulness for 
every member. The membership grew three-fold; the church debt was paid. The 
twelve years under Dr. Conrad were a period of great expansion and development. 
Owing to ill health he was obliged to resign, April 18, 1902. 

From October 19, 1902, to May 6, 1906, Rev. Dr. Francis J. Van Horn was the 
pastor. He was a gifted preacher, and during his pastorate the church continued in 
growth and prestige, and added to his mission work. In May, 1903, Rev. John H. 
Matthews began his work as assistant pastor. 

Rev. Edward P. Drew, the present pastor, has been able to maintain the high stand- 
ing of the Old South pulpit, and "Old South" today ranks as the largest Congregational 
church in New England and the sixth in point of membership in the United States. 

In celebration of the completion of two hundred years of history, the week of May 
,22-29, 1916, was devoted to appropriate exercises and services. Beginning Sunday, 
May 21, Rev. Dr. Edward P. Drew, the pastor, preached an historical sermon, and in 
the evening Rev. Dr. Van Horn preached. On Tuesday evening a reception and ban- 
quet were held. There was an interesting exhibition of articles of historic interest in 
charge of Edwin H. Marble. At the banquet William F. Little was toastmaster. Among 
the speakers were: George E. Duffy, who gave to the parish a large American flag; 
Charles W. Gray, George R. Bliss, William I. Thompson, Miss Mary Ella Whipple, 
George B. Farnsworth, Deacon H. H. Merriam, W. M. Spaulding, and Genery Stevens. 
In a union service of all the Congregationalists of the city on Wednesday, Rev. Dr. 
Shepherd Knapp spoke on "The Development of Congregationalism in Worcester," 
and Rev. Dr. Rockwell Harmon Porter, of the Center Church, Hartford, on "The Mis- 
sion of the Meeting House." 

The most spectacular part of the celebration was on Thursday evening when a his- 
torical pageant was given in Tuckerman Hall, designed to present to the eye and ear 
old customs of daily life, church and community. Eight episodes were enacted in cos- 
tume, entitled "John Eliot preaching to Indians and Settlers on Pakachoag Hill, 
1674;" "A Gathering for Worship in the Meeting House;" "Discipline of Members;" 
"The Tory Town Clerk, 1774;" "Reading the Declaration of Independence from the 
Porch of Old South Meeting House, July, 1776;" "The Pastoral Visit;" "The Spin- 
ning Wheel;" "The Flag-raising." Miss Bertha L. Muzzy was in charge of the 
pageant. 

On Friday evening there was an interdenominational reception. Alayor George M. 
Wright represented the city. The visiting clergymen who spoke were : Rev. Dr. Vin- 
cent E. Tomlinson, Rev. A. S. Garver, Rev. Dr. Edward B. Simmons, Rev. Dr. Lewis 
G. Morris, Rev. Charles A. Fisher, Rev. Harry Minnick, and Rev. Francis A. Poole. 
The concluding services were on Sunday, May 29, when Rev. Dr. A. Z. Conrad preached 
in the morning and the oratorio "Elijah" was rendered in the evening. 

The most enduring memento of the eventful week was an illustrated pamphlet giv- 
ing a brief history of the church and its ministers, a list of the deacons, the officers of 
the church. Each of the organizations within the church is described and their history 
sketched. The final article is a history of music in the Old South Church. A tabulated 
report of the membership from 1848 to 1915 shows a growth from 322 to 1520. During 
that period 3556 members were on the rolls of the church. A list of the present mem- 
bers of the church, resident and non-resident will be of a great value. The compila- 
tion of the book required a vast amount of research and labor and reflects great credit 



AND ITS PEOPLE 8oj 

on the committee in charge. Deacon Henry H. Merriam was chairman of the Bi- 
centennial Committee and Allan B. Miller, secretary. 

The present membership of the First Church is more than 1500. 
The growth and development of the Sunday school has been steady, 
and the membership is now over 1200, with a working staff of 125. Mr. 
Morris M. Edgar is superintendent. The adult department has a mem- 
bership of 265, and one of the teachers, Deacon H. H. Merriam, has 
served for fifty years ; another, Jeremiah Winn, more than thirty years. 
William I. Thompson is superintendent of the senior department; Frank 
E. Drury of the intermediate, and Miss Louise K. Sprague of the junior 
department, organized in 1903; Miss Mildred L. Bacon of the kinder- 
garten, organized in 1893. The Home Department, both for adults and 
children, was organized in May, 1896; Mrs. J. W. Ewing is at present 
acting as superintendent. The "Cradle Roll" is now in charge of Mrs. 
Thomas W. Thomson; it was organized about 1906, and Mrs. Everett S. 
Eddy was the first superintendent. Miss Maude Jacobs is superinten- 
dent of the Children's Home Department, organized by Bertha Chase 
in 1913. 

The women organized in August, 1864, the Worcester Female As- 
sociation, the name of which was soon changed to the Ladies' Missionary 
Association, and continued under that name until 18T1. In 1886 the 
missionary society was revived. 

Even earlier the Ladies' Benevolent Society was formed to aid needy 
families and manage the church social affairs. The two organizations 
were united October 10, 1904, under the name. The Woman's Association 
of Old South. In addition to varied other activities, the society raised 
$10,000 for the payment of the building debt. Mrs. H. W. Cobb is pres- 
ident, 1917-18. ■•''■ 

The Men's Union, organized October 22, 1896, for social purposes 
and the support, of the church, has had many delightful banquets, 
instructive and entertaining lecture courses. The presidents have been : 
Edward R. Goodwin, Dr. Julius Garst, Otis R. Parker, Geo. B. Farns- 
worth,, Dana J. Pratt, Geo. R. Bliss, Edgar E. Thompson, Wallace A. 
Corey, Geo. D. Barber, Dr. Henry P. Cooke, Oliver M. Dean, Geo. K. 
Tufts, Jno. M. Kendall, Dr. Philip H. Cook, Leon. G. Fairchild,. Chas. 
E. Goodrich, Frederic L. Stone, Jos. B. Howe and Allie K. Gannon. The 
membership is 150. 

The Christian Fellowship League, founded in 1908, is an organiza- 
tion for adults similar in purpose to the Y. P. S. C. Ira A. Adams is 
president (1917). 

The Yjoung People's Society of Christian Endeavor of Old South 
was one of the first of this organization, founded in 1882.' Arthur E. 
Gray was the first president. A second society was formed in 1896, 
when the new church was occupied, called the Second Society, but the 

W.-I-5I. 



802 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



^^K 




CENTRAL CHURCH. 



^c;i 



^&5^^S 







OLD CENTRAL CH13RCH, MAIN STREET. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 803 

two were merged afterward. Howard M. Pomeroy president in 1917. 
In 1893 the Intermediate Y. P. S. C. E. was organized, the first of its 
kind, Emma D. Gates being superintendent. The Junior Society was 
organized in 1891 by Rev. Dr. Conrad. Miss NeUie Jerome was the 
first superintendent. 

The society known as the Little Light Bearers was organized about 
1895 by Mrs. Edward Jerome as an auxiliary mission society. Mrs. Ev- 
erett W. Durgin is the present superintendent. 

Other Old South organizations of recent date are the Boy Scouts, 
the Go-to-Church Band, the Camp Fire Girls, the Altruria Club, formed 
March 6, 1903, by Mrs. Herbert E. Chandler; the Olds Club, organized 
in 1903 by Mrs. L. O. Whiteman to assit the work in Japan ; the Rho 
Kappa Society, organized in 1910, previously known as the Sunshine 
Band, to assist the work of Mrs. Rachel Coan Felt in India and for local 
charity work. The Sigma Club of young girls was formed for the same 
purpose as the Rho Kappa. The Norwegian department is mentioned 
in the sketch of the Norwegian people. 

Central Church. — The following historical narrative is by Mr. U. 
Waldo Cutler: 

Central Church, first called the Calvinist Church, originated in a violent and long- 
continued dii^erence of opinion in the mother church of Worcester. Individual liberty- 
over against responsibility to the existing order had asserted itself in the world of 
men many times before this trouble began, in 1816, and has asserted itself many times 
since; but patience and judicious counsel and common-sense then, as always, have 
brought peace in the end. Ever since the final reconciliation, in 1827, there has been 
the best of good feeling between the first two Congregational churches here. 

The new church attained to definite and duly recognized standing through an ec- 
clesiastical council, held August 16-17, 1820, of which Rev. Nathaniel Emmons, D. D., 
of Franklin, was moderator. For nearly a year and a half religious services were main- 
tained, without parish organization or regular minister, chiefly at the home of Dea. 
David Richards, in what was known as Conference Hall, near where the Government 
Post Ofiice building now stands. In the spring of 1822 the Calvinist Parish was formed, 
and on April 3 regular public services were begun in the County Court House, Rev. 
Thos. F. Murdock and others acting as supply. 

At that time, besides the original First Church, long housed on the historic spot 
at the head of the Common, only two other ecclesiastical organizations existed in 
Worcester. For a generation the Second Parish (First Unitarian) had been main- 
taining its religious center on Summer street, near Lincoln Square, and for ten years 
the First Baptist had been holding services at Salem Square. Central is, then, the 
fourth in age among the one hundred and eleven or more churches and synagogues 
making up the ecclesiastical system of the present city. 

Among the come-outers from the Old South in 1820, was Daniel Waldo, whose 
name is among the most honorable in Worcester's earlier history. He had already 
served as one of the twelve Massachusetts delegates to the famous Hartford Con- 
vention of 1814, and was firmly established in his profitable business on Main street, 
north of George, and firmly established, also, in the confidence and regard of his fel- 
low-citizens. He was. able and ready to give financial help to the new North End 
movement, and on October 15, 1823, the Calvinist Church was able to move out from 
the Court House into the $14,000 meeting-house that Daniel Waldo had built for it, on 



8o4 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

his own land next to his store. On the same day the first pastor, Rev. Loammi Ives 
Hoadly, from Andover Seminary, was ordained and installed, Dr. Lyman Beecher 
preaching the sermon. Three years later, in 1826, the church property was legally made 
over to the trustees of the Calvinist Society. A later gift of $5000 from the same 
benefactor further established what we now know as Central Church on its long career. 
Additions to the early building were soon and repeatedly necessary, down to the time 
for leaving the old building for the new, in 1885, when the sale of the Daniel Waldo 
foundation provided a substantial part of the sum needed for the new venture near 
Armory Square. 

The records show Mr. Hoadly's salary to have been $800 without provision for a 
vacation. Aside from the income from the Waldo fund, the expenses were met through 
sale and rental of pews and a tax upon the membership, the wealthy Waldo and Salis- 
bury families representing about three-fifths of the required amount, till Mr. Waldo's 
death in 1845. 

For some years the social work of the church was all carried on in a "vestry," 
owned by Mr. Waldo, on the north side of Thomas street, next the Blackstone Canal. 
In 1842, however, he built a chapel to take the place of this, on the site of the present 
Swedish Methodist Church, at what is now the corner of Thomas and Commercial 
streets. 

Like so many other clergymen of earlier generations in New England churches, 
Mr. Hoadly was firmer in his doctrine and in gracious pulpit and parish helpfulness 
than in health, and in 1829 he asked dismission, though he lived on through many 
more years of varied usefulness, dying at the age of 93. 

Later pastors have been successively : Rev. John S. C. Abbott, 1830-35 ; Rev. David 
Peabody. 1835-38; Rev. Seth Sweetser. D. D., 1838-78; Rev. Henry E. Barnes, asso- 
ciate pastor, 1874-76; Rev. Daniel M-erriman, D. D., 1878-1900; Rev. Leon D. Bliss, as- 
sistant pastor, 1889-91; Rev. Edward M. Chapman, associate pastor, 1892-99; Rev. Al- 
bert W. Hitchcock, Ph. D., 1900-07 ; Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D. D., 1908 — . All these 
have been able men, whose services have by no means been limited to the years or the 
duties of the Worcester pastorate. Mr. Abbott became widely known as a popular and 
gifted author. Air. Peabody, a rare personality, died early as professor of rhetoric in 
Dartmouth College. It was during his pastorate that, in 1836, the first organ was placed 
in the church, in the gallery over the Alain street entrance. Dr. Sweetser, toward the 
end of his long and distinguished term of service in church and community, was re- 
lieved from active responsibilities, partly through the settlement of Rev. Henry E. 
Barnes, as associate pastor. 

Early in the term of Dr. Alerriman, the name Calvinist was changed to Central 
Church and Society in Worcester, it being a mistake, as he said, "to emphasize the 
mischievous fact of sect by giving the name of a man or of a theological system to a 
Christian church." A little later in the same pastorate the project of erecting a new 
and more useable centre for the varied activities of a live modern church was con- 
ceived and with marked success carried out, largely through the practical efficiency, 
artistic talent and skill, wide experience and financial co-operation of Dr. and Airs. 
Merriman. Upon resigning the active pastorate, in 1900, Dr. Alerriman was made 
pastor emeritus. 

Under the zest of new and more attractive quarters the membership of the church 
more than doubled in a few years. Three years after the new church was finished the 
Central Church parsonage was built, on the adjoining lot, fronting on Institute Road. 
In less than a decade the debt on the whole church property was extinguished, and 
the coming into the new section of the city of important public buildings and very 
many new homes soon justified the selection of the corner of Institute road and Salis- 
bury street as a strategic position for the renewed life of Daniel Waldo's church enter- 
prise. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 805 



Of the most recent pastors, Mr. Barnes, Mr. Bliss and Mr. Chapman withdrew to 
important pastorates elsewhere. Dr. Hitchcock died far too soon, almost at the begin- 
ning of what promised to be great usefulness in Worcester. During the pastorate 
still current many important steps have already been taken looking toward a better 
organized, more effective church life in the new age than even that of the first century 
of its history, now drawing to an end. In this connection it should be noted that in 
1917, the church was incorporated, and the parish as such passed into inactivity. 

While still in the old Main street building, the Central Mission Board was estab- 
lished for the better exercise of the local benevolences. From 1876 to 1903, Miss Sarah 
Cummings was the beloved church missionary and parish visitor. This office was later 
merged into that of pastor's assistant, ably filled between 1905 and 1913 by Miss 
Ethel M. Shepard, and more recently by Miss Annie M. Hanchett. 

Twelve years after the starting of the first real Sunday School in America, in 
Beverly, Mass., in 1810, the Central Church Sunday school was under way. At least 
there is an unsigned statement to that effect enclosed among the church records. This 
bears the date April 7, 1822. The earliest formal record, of August 31, 1827, states 
that Purly Torrey was elected superintendent and Parley Goddard and Samuel Tay- 
lor were chosen Sunday school directors. During the pastorate of Mr. Abbott the 
organization of the church school was advanced materially. The first mention of a 
Sunday school library is under the year 1831, though it was then apparently no new 
feature of the work. In 1840 the church passed a vote that the superintendent should 
be chosen annually. In 1841 action was taken relative to gathering colored children 
into the Sunday school, a year before the vote of the church denouncing slavery. In 
1846 female members of the church were allowed to vote in electing Sunday school 
officers. 

Since the first superintendent, above mentioned, the office has been filled by the 
following in succession: Simon S. Gates, 1833-38; Henry Wheeler, 1838-40; Geo. W. 
Russell, 1840-43; Rodolphus B. Hubbard, 1843-46; Simon S. Gates, 1846-50; Wm. R. 
Hooper, 1850-51; John H. Brooks, 1851-54; Geo. H. Estabrook, 1854-56; David Whit- 
comb, 1856-60; James K. Lombard, 1860-63; David Whitcomb. 1863-4; HAiry M. 
Wheeler, 1864-67 ; Henry Griffin, 1867-69 ; Chas. O. Thompson, 1869-73 ; Geo. I. Alden, 
1873-75 ; Nathan F. Heard, 1875 ; Jos. W. Fairbanks, 1875-77 ; Geo. E. Mackintire, 1877- 
83 ; John C. Woodbury, 1883-87 ; James Logan, 1887-88 ; Geo. L. Sanford, 1888-89 ; Rev. 
Leon D. Bliss, 1889-91; John S. Brigham, 1891-95; U. Waldo Cutler, 1895-98; Clinton 
Alvord, 1898-00; D. M. Wheeler, 1900-03; John C. Woodbury, 1903-04; Clarence W. 
Hobbs, 1904-11; Arthur D. Butterfield, 1911-12; Edwin G. Norman, 1912-15; Chas. F. 
Fuller, 1915-. 

Almost from the beginning the women of Central Church have met for mission- 
ary and social activities. Such meetings were at first held often in the Waldo home, 
which stood near the present site of Mechanics Hall, and the three sisters of Daniel 
Waldo were the leaders in all womanly activities, and generous in their support. A 
definite organization was first formed at Dr. Sweetser's house on November 21, 1839. 
Mrs. Sweetser was chosen president, and Miss Urania Woodward was the first secre- 
tary. This was called the Centre Missionary Circle, and fortnightly meetings were held 
in homes of the members, for benevolent work and social intercourse. The records 
show a large amount of good accomplished both at home and abroad. This early so- 
ciety for women continued, under changed names and with varied responsibilities, 
that were often shared with other societies as they were from time to time thrown off 
from the original nucleus, down to 1894, when all woman's work in the church was 
reassembled under one organization with co-operating departments, — The Woman's 
Association. The list of presidents of the older society previous to 1894 included such 
names as Mesdames Emory Banister, S. P. Miller, Samuel Banister, William H. San- 
ford, George H. Estabrook, Charles E. Stevens, Martin Lathe, Thomas H. Gage, George 
W. Russell, Fred J. Barnard, E. A. Summer, John S. Brigham, R. B. Fowler, J. H. 
Robinson, Miss Georgie Bacon. 



go5 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Among other organizations in the extensive Central Church system has been the 
Handicraft Society, started in 1883 to give substantial aid to the building fund. It is 
still active as opportunity for its special form of service offers. Its first officers were: 
Mrs. Daniel Merriman, president ; Mrs. George L. Brownell, treasurer ; Aliss Charlotte 
B. Cheever (later Mrs. William J. Tucker), secretary. 

The Children's Charitable Society, organized in 1864 for the purpose of training 
children in work for others, was continued by The Captains of Ten and its sister so- 
ciety, The Heart and Hand. The former of these was followed by the Central Church 
Cadets, in 1887. Out of these boys' organizations and the later Boys' Club emerged the 
present church troop of Boy Scouts of America. The Heart and Hand, as the church 
sewing school, is still an important feature of the work for little girls. 

The social activities of the young people were early centralized in the Young Peo- 
ple's Guild, among the various departments of which the Literature Department was 
the most active. As successor to this the Study Club was started, in 1904, and is still 
doing good work by furnishing incentive to thoughtful discussion of books and matters 
of the higher life. A Christian Endeavor Society, in 1887, grew out of the less formal 
Young People's Meeting. In 1906 all the activities of the young people were merged 
into the present Young People's Association. 

For many years George W. Mackintire has been treasurer of the church, and Rev. 
Robert A. Hume, D. D., has been supported as foreign missionary pastor since 1900. 
Since 1910 the church has issued annually a Year Book, containing a review of the 
previous year's activities, a calendar of church events for the year to follow, the list of 
officers in the various departments, etc. A Central Church Brotherhood has recently 
been formed among the men in any way connected with the work of the parish. For 
seven years, from 1887 to 1894, Edward N. Anderson was choir master, and did very 
much to establish the musical interests of Central Church on a high plane. With the 
exception of one year, Mr. Charles H. Grout has been the constant and efficient or- 
ganist since April, 1887. 

The deacons from the beginning have been as follows: David Richards, 1820-29; 
Samuel Taylor, 1824-64; John Coe, 1830-46; Simon S. Gates, 1846-61; Estes H. San- 
ford, 1849-88; Wm. R. Hooper, 1852-66; Orrin P. Gilbert, 1852-59; John H. Brooks, 
1863-79; Luther Phillips, 1865-69; Marcus Moore, 1869-77; Geo. E. Gladwin, 1869-83; 
Aldus M. Chapin, 1877-81; B. J. Boutwell, 1879-85; Geo. I. Alden, 1881-83; Henry M. 
Smith, 1881-83; Geo. W. Russell, 1883-88; Stephen H. Earned, 1883-86; Lewis C. 
Batson, 1883-87; O. S. Gordon, 1886-92; John C. Woodbury, 1887-91; U. Waldo Cutler, 
1888-1905; James Logan, 1888- ; Wm. E. Sawtelle, 1888-92; E. O. Price, 1889-03; G. L. 
Sanford, 1892-94; Frank Colegrave, 1894-04; John Brigham, 1896-97; E. A. Put- 
nam, 1897-06; Clarence W. Hobbs, 1901-07; George Sieurin, 1903-09; D. M. Wheeler, 
1904-08; Hobart A. Whitman, 1905-11 ; Frank Drew, 1906-08; John C. Woodbury, 1906. 
07; Chas. F. Fuller, 1907-13; John C. Woodbury, 1908-14; Clinton Alvord, 1909-15; 
Wallace E. Sargent, 1910-16; Geo. L. Clark, 1911-17; Wendell L. Parker, 1912-16; Ho- 
bart A. Whitman, 1912-14; Francis Bergstrom, 1912-13 ; Fred. L. Willis, 1913-17; Ar- 
thur D. Butterfield, 1913-; Chas. F. Fuller, 1914-; U. Waldo Cutler, 1914-; Clarence W. 
Hobbs, 191S-; Clinton Alvord, 1916-; Edwin G. Norman, 1916-; Burtis W. Fames, 
1917-; Wendell S. Parker, 1917-- 

The successive clerks of the church have been: Samuel Taylor, 1824-27; Laommi 
I. Hoadley, 1827-30; John S. C. Abbott, 1830-35; Henry Wheeler, 1835-40; Walter 
Johnson, 1840-41 ; John C. Newton, 1841-48; John Rice, 1848-76; Geo. I. Alden, 1876-81 ; 
Thos. W. Thompson, 1881-83; Geo. L. Brownell, 1883-85; Orange S. Gordon, 1885-87; 
U. W. Cutler, 1887-89; Wm. B. Childs, 1889; Geo. W. Mackintire, 1889-95; Clinton 
Alvord, 1895-98; Wm. H. Sanford, 1898-02; Chas. F. Fuller, 1902-05; Frank Colgrove, 
1905-17; Carl R. Brownell, 1917-- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 807 

Salem Street Church. — This was formed from the congregations of 
Old South, the Calvinist and Union churches. The church was formally 
recognized June 14, 1848. It began with a membership of 133, eighty 
being former members of Union Church. The place of worship was in 
the old City Hall until December 12, 1848, when the structure on Salem 
street was occupied. The cost was $28,000, and the funds were raised 
in the three older churches. Rev. George Bushnell was ordained, De- 
cember 13, 1848, and installed as pastor ; the sermon was preached by 
his brother. Rev. Dr. Horace Bushnell. The pastor was educated in Yale 
College (1842) and at Auburn and New Haven seminaries. He resigned 
nine years later to accept the office of superititendent of schools in this 
city, but was not dismissed until Jan. 27, 1858. 

A call was extended to Merrill Richardson of Fall River, and 
declined. He accepted a second call, and was installed January 27, 1858, 
and was pastor twelve years, being dismissed at his own request on 
account of failure of eyesight. He was afterward pastor of the New 
England Congregational Church, New York, and of the Milford Church. 
He died in 1876. He was a liberal preacher, a faithful pastor and pre- 
served harmony in his congregation. Rev. Charles M. Lamson of North 
Bridgewater accepted a call dated March 8, 1871, and was installed May 
3. The creed was made more liberal. After fourteen years of entire 
harmony and affection between pastor and people, he resigned on 
account of ill health, and was dismissed Sept. 28, 1885. Rev. Isaac J. 
Lansing of Brooklyn, the next pastor, was of the Methodist denomina- 
tion. He was installed Nov. 11, 1886; resigned in 1891. He was 
rather sensational in preaching, but was successful in drawing large 
congregations and in providing funds to pay the church debt. Rev. 
William W. Sleeper became assistant pastor October 18, 1888, and had 
charge of the music of the church, besides other special duties. Rev. 
Frank H. Vrooman was pastor, 1892-94; Rev. Samuel A. Harlow, 
1895-96. 

The church was consolidated with Union church in 1896. The 
meeting house was sold to the First Swedish Congregational Church 
(q. v.). 

Union Church. — The following historical narrative is contributed : 

Union Church was incorporated March 11, 1835, and at a council of churches held 
February 3, 1836, the church was formally approved. The society held its first meeting 
March 5, and the new house of worship was dedicated July 6. It was a plain brick 
house, 54 by 90 feet on Front street, opposite the Common ; enlarged in 1845-6. A new 
edifice was built on the same site in 1880. 

The first pastor was Rev. Jonathan E. Woodbridge, who was installed Nov. 24, 
1836. Because the society voted to permit anti-slavery speakers in the church, the 
pastor resigned on Feb. 2, 1838, and was dismissed Feb. 14. He was afterward editor 
of the New England Puritan. 

The second pastor, Rev. Flam Smalley, was installed Sept. 19, 1838, and his m.in- 
istry was successful, the church growing constantly, making additions to the meeting 



8o8 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 




X 
u 

u 
o 



AND ITS PEOPLE 809 

house necessary. Deacon Ichabod Washburn, the principal founder of this church, 
provided at this time a vestry in the basement. At the request of Dr. Smalley, Ma> 
8, 1854, he was dismissed to become pastor of the Third Street Presbyterian Church, 
Troy, N. Y., where he died July 30, 1858. In 1851 he published "The Worcester Pul- 
pit" a valuable source of church history. 

The church called Rev. J. W. Wellman, graduate and later a trustee of Dartmouth 
College, but he declined. Rev. Ebenezer Cutler of St. Albans, Vt, accepted a call and 
was installed Sept. 6, 1855. He was pastor until 1865 when he was elected president of 
Vermont University and declined ; made professor in Hartford Theological Seminary, 
but declined, at the urgent request of his congregation. He was prime mover in form- 
ing the Congregational Club and became its first president. On account of throat 
trouble, he resigned in 1878 and was dismissed Oct. 11, 1880. He continued to worship 
here and was made pastor emeritus. Dr. Cutler died January 16, 1898. 

For nearly two years Rev. George H. Gould supplied the pulpit. During this period 
the new meeting house was erected on Front street at a cost of $37,500 and dedicated 
Oct. ID, 1880, the sermon being preached by the pastor-elect Rev. Henry A. Stimson, 
who was installed on the 14th. He was a Yale graduate and had been a successful 
pastor in Minneapolis. He introduced new ideas ; printed a weekly bulletin ; established 
free seats at Sunday evening services. His congregations were large. He was dis- 
missed in June, 1886, to accept a call in St. Louis. 

Rev. William V. W. Davis was the fifth pastor and was installed April 15, 1887. 
He was a graduate of Amherst College and his first pastorate was in Manchester, 
N. H. From Manchester he went to Cleveland, Ohio, as pastor of the Euclid Avenue 
Presbyterian Church and from this church he came to Worcester. On the first of 
September, 1889, at the request of Dr. Davis, the church engaged Rev. W. S. Kelsey 
as pastor's assistant, coming here from Windham, Conn. He took charge of the Sun- 
day school, the Christian Endeavor Society and assisted Dr. Davis in his pulpit and 
pastoral work. After remaining in this position until October, 1890, he resigned to ac- 
cept a call to a similar position at Berkeley Temple, Boston. The pastorate of Dr. 
Davis continued until July 9, 1893, on which date his resignation was read, but he 
continued to be responsible for the supply of the pulpit until October ist. In the early 
part of Dr. Davis' ministry he agitated the idea of having a parsonage and within a 
short time a lot was secured on Ashland street. Dr. Davis drew the plans of such a 
house as he wished which were accepted by the Union Society. A building committee 
was chosen and the result was the large and beautiful residence on the east side of 
Ashland street. Dr. Davis and family continued to live in this house until he left 
Union Church when it was then sold. He was a man of a "warm sympathetic nature, 
had a wide acquaintance with literature and took a deep interest in current events. 
While he was liberal in his interpretations of the scriptures he essentially maintained 
the faith of the fathers and his utterances were in accord with the articles of faith of 
this church and with the accepted standards of our own and other evangelical denomi- 
nations." Shortly after he resigned he received and accepted a call to the Congrega- 
tional Church in Pittsfield, Mass., where he remained until he met with an accident in 
falling over a precipice which caused his death. 

The two or three years following the departure of Dr. Davis, Union Church was 
without a permanent pastor. During that interval Rev. F. F. Emerson was engaged 
most of the time as acting pastor and his sermons were always very interesting and 
scholarly. 

It was in January, 1896, that a communication was received from Salem Street 
Church asking for a conference with Union Church with a view to uniting the two 
churches. Union Church had a new meeting house under construction on Chestnut 
street which was nearing completion and at a meeting of representatives of the two 
churches the opinion was that the time had come when the best interests of Christ's 
kingdom in our city would be promoted by such a union. Consequently by a vote taken 



8io HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

February 19, 1896, the union of the two churches was consummated and the name of 
Union Church was retained and to date from 1836, the time of the organization of the 
older church. This union of the two churches was made complete by the calling of a 
mutual council which met May 8, 1896, in the Salem street meeting house and declared 
its approval and extended to the united church the recognition and fellowship of their 
sister churches. The two churches were authorized to unite by a special act of the 
legislature April 28, 1896. The first services of the united churches were held on the 
second Sunday in May, 1896, in the large hall of the Y. M. C. A. on Pearl street and 
were conducted by Rev. Dr. C. M. Lamson, who was pastor of Salem Street Church 
from May 3, 1871, to Sept. 28, 1885. The church continued to worship there until 
Sept. 6, 1896. 

At a special meeting of Union Society October 23rd, 1894, a committee of fifteen 
was elected to act with the Prudential Committee to "consider ways and means and so- 
licit subscriptions for a new lot and church building, and in case sufficient funds are 
in their judgment subscribed, they are hereby empowered to sell the present property, 
select and purchase a new location and erect a new church building." The Kinnicutt 
estate on Chestnut street opposite Pearl street was the site selected and was purchased 
in February, 1895, for $55,000. Ground was broken July 24, 1895, and the corner- 
stone was laid by Albert Curtis, a charter member of Union Church, February 3, 1896, 
on the sixtieth anniversary, with appropriate services. An address was made by the 
acting pastor, Rev. F. F. Emerson, and the benediction was pronounced by the pastor 
emeritus, Rev. Ebenezer Cutler, D. D. This edifice may be said to consist of three 
buildings, the Memorial Chapel, Parish House and Church Auditorium. The Chapel 
and Parish House being completed the first services were held in them Sunday, Septem- 
ber 6, 1896. The Auditorium being completed the first services were held there Sunday, 
February 14, 1897. In the construction of this edifice the Gothic style was adopted 
with twin towers at the front ninety-two and a half feet high. The matericil selected 
is pink Milford granite with its natural split face for the walls, relieved for the cut 
work with Longmeadow brownstone which is both easy to work and very durable. The 
Auditorium is cruciform in plan, the roof of which is covered with Vermont red slate, 
the color of which tones in with the copper covered slender spire rising to a height of 
one hundred and eighty feet at the crossing of nave and transepts. The main facade 
shows a symmetrical treatment on which are grotesque forms as gargoyles which are 
symbolical of evil spirits fleeing in all directions from the sacred precincts, while archi- 
tecturally their salient forms give life and vigor to the skylines of the building. The 
Auditorium is fifty-seven feet in its widest diameter, the nave and transepts each forty- 
five feet wide, flanked by aisles about six and a half feet wide. Its total length is nine- 
ty-three and a half feet and greatest width across transepts is eighty-nine feet. 

The semi-detached Memorial Chapel is complete in itself, with its special entrance 
through a picturesque mosaic-floored open porch and vestibule. Directly opposite the 
porch entrance is a bronze mural tablet, designed in style to harmonize with the archi- 
tecture of the building, commemorating the gift of the chapel dedicated to the purposes 
of divine worship in loving memory of Philip Louis Moen. The chapel is thirty-four 
by fifty feet and has sittings for three hundred and fifty people. It is provided with a 
very superior two manual pipe organ filling a projecting bay near the platform. A 
rich stained glass window over the platform has for its subject the Angel of Praise. 
The parish house has a Sunday-school room forty-six and a half by fifty-eight and a 
half, and twenty-four feet high, with two stories of class rooms, nine in number, about 
twelve feet square, each separated from the main room by flexible sliding doors. 

The first pastor of this united Union Church, Rev. John EUery Tuttle, D. D., 
was pastor of the College Church at Amherst and Professor of Biblical Literature. A 
unanimous call was sent to him October 18, 1896, was accepted by him October 23rd, 
and he began his work Sunday, November 29th, 1896. During his pastorate the church 
was in a prosperous condition, large congregations filled the church every Sunday. On 



AND ITS PEOPLE 8ii 

account of impaired health after a pastorate of four years, he resigned September i6, 
1900. At a special meeting the following Wednesday evening the church voted to lay 
his resignation on the table and the following week at a special meeting the Union 
Society voted to grant him six months leave of absence. After four months however, 
a letter was received from him from California stating that his physicians advised 
him not to return to New England for the present and urging the church to accept his 
resignation. Consequently at a special meeting of the church March 20, 1901, his resig- 
nation was accepted and on the twenty-second of April the pastoral relations were dis- 
solved by a mutual council. An Outlook Committee was appointed by the church to 
secure a success or to Dr. Tuttle, and after an interval of nearly a year the Outlook Com- 
mittee had found a minister whom they desired to recommend to the church. A special 
meeting of the church was therefore called on February 5, 1902, and the Rev. Nacy 
McGee Waters, D. D., of Binghamton, N. Y., was the minister recommended. The 
church voted unanimously to extend the call. This call, however, was declined by 
Dr. Waters and the Outlook Committee were obliged to look further. It was not until 
July 30, 1902, that a special meeting of the church was called to listen to another report 
from the Outlook Committee. At this meeting they reported the name of the Rev. 
Frank Crane, D. D., of Chicago. The report of the committee was accepted and by a 
ballot being taken the call was extended to Dr. Crane. The letter sent to Dr. Crane 
was dated August i, 1902, and the call was accepted by him August 24th. He began his 
labors with this church September 7, 1902, and was installed by a Council October 
2ist. He remained with the church nearly seven years, reading his own resignation 
at the annual reunion January 6, 1909. in which he gave six months notice in accordance 
with the contract when he was called. At a meeting of the church February 10, 1909, 
it was voted to accept his resignation and on Sunday, June 27th, he preached his fare- 
well sermon. Dr. Crane "from Sabbath to Sabbath for nearly seven years presented the 
deepest and most important truths in such a clear and forcible manner as to impress 
both young and old. He spared not sin in high as well as in low places. He brought 
to his people the results of incessant study and thought in messages enlightening, 
warning and full of inspiration." An Outlook Committee was appointed February 10, 
1909, by the church to secure a pastor to succeed Dr. Crane. On the 29th of June this 
committee made its report to the church recommending the name of the Rev. Francis 
Alden Poole, of Barre, Vermont. The report of the Outlook Committee was accepted 
and Mr. Poole was given a unanimous call to the pastorate. In a letter from him dated 
July 15th, Mr. Poole accepted the call and stated that he would begin his work Octo- 
ber 1st. From October ist, 1909, to October ist, 1917, Mr. Poole was the pastor of 
Union Church. During the summer of 1917 while on his vacation at his summer home 
in Vermont he received a call to the South Congregational Church, St. Johnsbury, 
Vermont, and on the first Sunday in September his resignation from Union Church was 
read. During his pastorate of eight years he established the free pew system, had the 
church incorporated so that the Union Society was done away with, and succeeded in 
materially reducing the church debt. He received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 
during his pastorate. Although Dr. Poole was not a strong man physically he was a 
faithful worker for the best interests of Union Church. Being a man of saintly char- 
acter he was respected, esteemed and loved by all who knew him. 

After an interval of nearly three months the Outlook Committee at a meeting in 
December, 1917, recommended the name of the Rev. Benjamin F. Wyland of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., to succeed Dr. Poole as pastor of the church. The church accepted the report 
and unanimously voted to extend the call to Mr. Wyland. On the 20th of December, 
Mr. Wyland accepted the call and began his labors January 20, 1918. He is a man 
thirty-five years of age and has had several years experience of church and pulpit work 
at the Tompkins Avenue Congregational Church of Brooklyn, the largest church of 
our denomination in the country. He is the much loved pastor of Union Church at 
the present time. 



8i2 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Memorial Congregational Church. — The follo^ving is from the pen 
of Rev. E. E. Eels : 

The Memorial Church, corner of Summer and Bridge Sts., was founded by 
Ichabod Washburn, who caused its building to be erected in 1854. Unlike Mr. Wash- 
burn's other foundations — Memorial Hospital, the Home for Aged Women, the Wor- 
cester Polytechnic Institute or Mechanics' Hall, this church was a part of his life 
work, growing out of a Sunday school which he organized in Pine Meadows (as the 
locality was then called) soon after coming to Worcester. 

The object of the foundation is set forth in the preamble to that legacy of Mr. 
Washburn's will, which reads as follows : 

"Whereas I have long felt it was desirable to devise some means by which a 
pretty numerous class of persons in the city of Worcester, who are living without the 
benefits of moral and religious instruction and restraint which grows out of an habitual 
attendance upon the ministrations of the gospel should be supplied with opportunities 
and inducements to enjoy the same. 

"And whereas, it has seemed to me that the readiest way of accomplishing this 
purpose would be to open for the use of all who may be disposed to avail themselves 
of the same a suitable and respectable place of worship, etc." 

The enterprise was known as "the Mission Chapel" until it was organized into "The 
Church of the Summer St. Mission Chapel," on Jan. 22nd, 1865. Up to this time its 
pastors were Revs. W. T. Sleeper, 1855-6 ; Samuel Souther, 1856-63 ; W. P. Reynolds, 
1863-64; and Mr. Cheever again at the time of the church's organization. Mr. Souther 
was the founder of the Industrial School in connection with the church. He was a 
member of the state legislature. He enlisted in the army and fell in the battle of the 
Wilderness May 6th, 1864. His widow and descendants still reside in Worcester. 

Mr. Sleeper again became, pastor in 1865, serving till May, 1894. Like his predeces- 
sors, he was also superintendent of the Worcester City Missionary Society and founded 
Lake View Church, the Church of the Covenant on Hoten St., Bethany, and Park 
Church. He was followed by Rev. O. C. Bailey 1894 to 1903, John W. Norris, 1904, and 
Rev. O. J. Billings, 1905 to '08. 

The aim of the present pastor has been to restore tho former intimate relation be- 
tween the church and the Worcester City Missionary Society, and to carry out the far- 
sighted purpose of the founder in developing a modern institutional church with the 
pastor residing again in the manse connected with the church building, to make it a 
Christian community house and social center. The Industrial School has been broad- 
ened into a varied group of helpful social agencies and the attraction of the Sunday 
evening services has been increased by the sacred use of motion pictures. 

Plymouth Congregational Church. — The following narrati\'e is con- 
tributed : 

Fourteen young men, members of the Young Men's Christian Association, at a 
meeting in Mechanics Hall building, April 15. 1869, decided to form a new Congrega- 
tional church. Francis B. Knowles was chairman, Lucius P. Goddard, secretary. Oth- 
ers present were Henry M. Wheeler, Lyman Drury, Charles H. Morgan, Charles G. 
Reed and Asa L. Kneeland. Six men pledged themselves each to be one of fifty to 
guarantee the expenses. Mr. Knowles was active in organizing and arranging for the 
finances. A week later another meeting was held and Rev. R. B. Stratton, pastor of 
Old South, spoke in favor of the new church; Deacon Luther Philips presided. It was 
decided to hold services in Mechanics Hall, and it was engaged for Sundays for the 
following year. At the third meeting a finance committee was appointed, viz : Francis 
B. Knowles from Union Church ; Charles G. Reed from Old South ; Henry M. Wheel- 
er from the Calvinist ; David F. Parker from the Salem street and Charles H. Morgan 
from the Mission Chapel Church. Moses Church was afterward added to the com- 
mittee. Subscriptions to the amount of $3,340 were made. E. A. Goodnow gave $500. 
At the next two meetings the amount was increased to $4,260. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 813 

The first services were held in Mechanics Hall, May 9, 1869, Rev. Dr. Webb being 
the preacher. At the first session of the Sunday school the same day, over which Jo- 
seph B. Knox presided 450 persons were present. Rev. Julius H. Seelye of Amherst 
College preached the following Sunday ; Charles H. Morgan was elected superintendent 
of the Sunday school. 

An agreement to form a society, dated May 8, was signed by seventy-one persons, 
and the meeting to organize was held May 20. C. B. Metcalf was elected moderator; 
Edward M. Rockwell, clerk ; Edward A. Goodnow, treasurer ; and Constant Shepard, 
collector. The first assessors were S. R. Heywood, C. B. Metcalf, William P. Daniels, 
F. B. Knowles and S. J. Wilcox. 

The church was organized May 13; Charles H. Morgan, presiding, and the Arti- 
cles of Faith adopted June 13. It was voted to call it the Sixth Congregational Church. The 
council to recognize the new church met in Old South meeting house July 7, 1869, and 
127 joined by profession, 67 by letter. At a church meeting soon afterward, S. R. Hey- 
wood was elected permanent moderator ; Charles G. Reed, clerk and treasurer ; P. B. 
Gilbert and Jonas White, deacons ; Charles H. Morgan, Luther Phillips and William 
F. Fames, standing committee; C. B. Metcalf and F. B. Knowles, supply committee. 

The name Plymouth Church was adopted August 26, to accord with the name of 
the society. A communion service was given by E. A. Goodnow and Mrs. Catherine B. 
Goodnow, Sept. 2, 1869, and at the same time C. H. Morgan and Luther Phillips were 
elected deacons ; Lyman Drury and F. B. Knowles succeeding them on the standing 
committee. During the five years in which services were held in Mechanics Hall, the 
congregations were large, and on one Sunday the attendance in the Sunday school 
reached 679. 

Rev. Nelson Millard of Montclair, New Jersey, was called as pastor, but he de- 
clined. Oct. 5, 1870, Rev. W. J. Tucker, afterward president of Dartmouth College, 
was called and he also declined. Rev. B. F. Hamilton, called April 19, 1871, declined. 
Rev. George W. Phillips of Columbus, Ohio, called Oct. 18, 1871, accepted on condi- 
tion that a meeting house be erected. He was installed Dec. 28, 1871. Rev. Dr. Webb 
preached the installation sermon. Mr. Phillips was a graduate of Amherst College 
and Andover Theological Seminary, and his ministry was long and fruitful. 

When it was decided to build the new church at the Pearl and Chestnut street lo- 
cation, April 18, 1872, those who favored the south end, decided to separate and es- 
tablished Piedmont Church. (See Piedmont). The following building committee was 
elected May 16, 1872; C. B. Metcalf, Alfred Parker, William L. Clark, William P. 
Daniels, John Boyden, W. C. Barbour, Osgood Bradley, A. M. Howe, Jonas White, 
S. A. Porter, William F. Fames and John E. Spaulding, and later C. H. Morgan and 
S. R. Heywood, to fill vacancies. The cornerstone was laid April 26, 1873. The chapel 
was dedicated April 19, 1874, and the first sermon preached there May 2, 1874, and it 
was used for services until the church was completed. The church was dedicated April 
29, 1875, Rev. Dr. Alex. McKenzie preaching the sermon. The building is of Fitwilliam 
granite, having a spire 193 feet in height; it cost $150,000; the main auditorium 
seats 1250. The chapel seats 800. A. P. Cutting was the architect ; Jones & Linker, 
master masons. The chime of bells was given by Edward A. Goodnow in memory of 
Mrs. Catherine B. Goodnow : he also gave the organ in memory of his only son. In 
1881 the society was free of debt. The pews for which owners had paid $20,500 were 
surrendered to the society and since then the pews have been free. Since April, 1889, 
weekly calendars have been printed. 

Mr. Phillips resigned April 4, 1886. Rev. Arthur Little, D. D., of Chicago, was 
called, but declined. Rev. Charles Wadsworth of Philadelphia was installed April 7, 
1887, Rev. Dr. Harper of Philadelphia preaching the sermon. In May, 1888, he re- 
signed to accept a call in San Francisco, but the council advised against accepting, and 
he decided to remain. Edward Grier Fullerton was ordained as -Evangelist June 13, 
1889, and became pastor's assistant. Rev. Charles Wadsworth resigned Oct. 27, 1889, on 



gj^ HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



account of ill health ; his preaching attracted large congregations and he drew many 
young people into the church. Rev. Dr. Noble of Chicago declined a call in 1889. Rev. 
Archibald McCullagh, D. D., of Brooklyn, accepted and began his ministry Oct 5. 
1890, being confirmed by the council Dec. 9. Rev. Samuel H. Virgin, his successor, was 
pastor from 1900 to 1903. Rev. Andrew Burns Chalmers became pastor in 1903. He 
was succeeded by the present pastor. Rev. Robert McDonald in 1915. 

The church has six deacons, for six year terms. Since 1891 a lady visitor has 
assisted the pastor; Mrs. L. B. Hoit, the first visitor, served for many years. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary was celebrated with elaborate exercises beginning 
Sunday, May 6, 1894, and continued four days, Piedmont Church joining in the cele- 
bration.' Rev. Dr. McCullagh preached an historical sermon. The Sunday school had 
its celebration in the evening. On Monday evening an historical sketch of the church 
was read by Lucius P. Goddard, and addresses delivered by clergymen of various de- 
nominations. There was a social reunion on Tuesday evening and addresses by Rev. 
Dr. Edwin B. Webb and Rev. Dr. George W. Phillips. On Wednesday evening there 
was a prayer and praise service. A pamphlet containing a report of all the proceedings 
was afterward published. 

The Ladies' Benevolent Society was organized Oct. 6, 1869, and the following of- 
ficers elected at the home of Mrs. P. B. Gilbert: Mrs. E. A. Goodnow, Pres.; Mrs. 
C. B. Metcalf, Vice-Pres. ; Mrs. C. L. Gilbert, Sec. ; Sarah L. Phillips, Treas. Direc- 
tors : Mesdames Luther Phillips, H. M. Wheeler, Nancy Chapman, P. B. Gilbert, C. H. 
Morgan. Meetings were held at first in the homes of members. Afterward Mesdames 
C. A. Lincoln, C. H. Morgan, D. F. Parker, E. A. Goodnow, Drury, C. G. Reed 
and C. H. Stearns were presidents. This society contributed very effectively to raising 
the building fund and furnishing the church and chapel, providing carpets and keeping 
them in order ; repairing cushions and attending to the housekeeping of the church. It 
has contributed to educational and charitable organizations regularly. At the end of 
the first twenty-five years nearly $30,000 had been raised by this society, of which more 
than $15,000 was for the church building. 

Archibald IM'CuUagh, D. D., former pastor, graduated from Princeton in 1868, 
B. A., and graduated from Princeton Theological Seminary in 1871. He was licensed 
by the Presbytery of New York City to preach in 1870, and for three months supplied 
tiie pulpit of Rev. Dr. William Blacwood of Philadelphia, and was afterward asked 
to become his colleague but declined the appointment. Before he graduated he received 
unanimous calls from two churches in Philadelphia and from the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Germantown, and accepted the last, being installed May, 1871. In 1877 he 
received a call from the Ross Street Presbyterian Church of Brooklyn, N. Y., and, 
after declining several times, finally accepted, and began his work there April 2, 1878. 
During his pastorate of twelve years more than $200,000 was raised for various pur- 
poses in this church, including payment of a church debt of $50,000; and 550 names 
were added to the church rolls. , • o j 

Dr. McCullagh became pastor of Plymouth Congregational Church in 1890 and 
served with great success. Not only as a preacher but as an author Dr. McCullagh is 
widely known. He took rank among the foremost preachers of New England. In his 
pastoral work he made many friends. He was tactful, sympathetic and cheerful; his 
presence in the sick-room and the house of mourning was always welcome. He was 
pre-eminent as an organizer, and in managing the business affairs that fell to him in the 
course of duty. He received the honorary degree of D. D. from the University of the 
City of New York. For a number of years after resigning his pastorate here, he was 
engaged in the real estate business. At present he is preaching from time to time. He 
is always in demand on public occasions ; few public speakers have such a degree of 
popularity and none hold it longer in a community than has Dr. McCullagh. 

Robert AlacDonald, D. D., pastor of Plymouth Church since 1915, was born July 
22, i860, in Liverpool. Nova Scotia ; a graduate from Harvard College. B. A., in 1894, 
and from Harvard Divinity School the fololwing year. He received the degree of Ph.D., 
from New York University in 1910. He married, in Methuen, Massachusetts, Sep- 
tember 15, 1889, Ada Tenney, born in Salem, N. H., in 1865. Children: Robert T., 
born January 23, 1893 ; Milton T., October 22, 1895 ; Donald, July 5, 1897 ; Frances, De- 
cember I, 1898. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 815 



Piedmont Church. — The following is contributed : 

It being the conviction of the friends of Congregationalism in Worcester that 
the cause of Christ could be effectually promoted by the organization of a church in 
the rapidly growing southern section of the city, a meeting was called by Francis B. 
Knowles, a prominent member of Plymouth Church, then recently organized and 
worshipping in Mechanics Hall, April 25th, 1872. The proposal was freely discussed 
and favorable action decided upon. Public notice was given of the project and the 
co-operation of all interested solicited. So much interest was manifested that the site 
for the new church was selected July ist, at the corner of Main and Piedmont streets, 
at a cost of $25,000. It being the seventh organization of the order in the city, the name 
at first agreed upon was the Seventh Congregational Church ; later counsel, led to the 
selection of the name "Piedmont," by virtue of the location at the foot of Oread hill, 
the derivative meaning of the word "Piedmont" being "at the foot of the hill." 

The brethren of the Main Street Baptist Church offered the use of their building 
on afternoon of Sundays, and the offer was gratefully accepted. Rev. George W. 
Phillips, pastor of Plymouth Church, preached the first sermon. The first public 
service was held June 2nd, 1872. A Sunday school was organized with 190 members ; 
Francis B. Knowles, superintendent; Charles H. Hutchins, assistant. 

Building operations proceeded rapidly, and the chapel was ready for use April 12, 
1874, on which date the hospitality of the Baptist church was relinquished. Until this 
date no formal organization of the church had been effected; it had been a purely vol- 
untary affair. A council of churches was called Sept. i8th, 1874, at the Baptist 
Church, at which legal steps were taken looking towards formal organization. Rev. 
Wm. P. Paine, D. D., was moderator, and Rev. George W. Phillips was scribe. The 
council voted favorably upon the action of the new organization, its confession of 
faith and covenant. Ninety-seven were proposed for charter membership— 47 from 
Plymouth Church, 18 from Old South, 14 from Union, 4 from Salem street, and 14 
from churches in other places. 

A building committee of eleven prominent members of the new society, with a 
finance committee of six, undertook to provide a new house of worship. The corner 
stone was laid Aug. 5th, 1873, with appropriate exercises under the general charge of 
Rev. George H. Gould, D. D. No attempt was made to secure a permanent pastor 
during the progress of the building enterprise, but Rev. George H. Gould, D. D., a 
resident minister without charge, was the unanimous selection for the time being. He 
would have been settled over the young organization if his assent to such action could 
have been secured. The church was dedicated Jan. 30, 1877. The first minister in- 
stalled (July 3, 1877) was Rev. David O. Mears, former pastor of North Avenue 
Congregational Church, Cambridge. His most successful pastorate continued over six- 
teen years, during which the church was completed at a cost of $125,500, including 
furnishings; an indebtedness of $83,000 provided for, as the membership increased in 
numbers and financial ability, and the membership was added to from year t9 year to 
the total number of 707. Under the leadership of Dr. Mears the activities of the 
church became numerous and varied ; no general movement in city or State failed to 
receive the active co-operation of the church and its aggressive pastor. The great wave 
of No license and Anti-saloon leagues set in motion in the early eighties was started 
at Piedmont Church. The formation of the local Y. W. C. A. was inspired if not act- 
ually promoted by the activities of Dr. Mears. Immanuel Church was the direct re- 
sult of the activities of the membership under the lead of Dr. Mears. For many years 
this branch organazition was supported and its equipment furnished by Piedmont 
Church, on the east side of the city. The pastorate of Dr. Mears ended amid universal 
regrets, March 19, 1893. The farewell reception was attended by about one thousand 
citizens of the city and adjoining towns, denominational lines being obliterated in this 
expression of appreciation. 



8i6 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 




PIEDMONT CHURCH. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 817 

Dr. Elijah Horr, D. D., the next pastor, was installed June 27, 1893. During his 
pastorate the parsonage was purchased at the corner of May and Woodland streets. 
After a successful ministry with the church Dr. Horr was dismissed by council June 
23, 1897. Rev. Willard Scott, D. D., was called from Chicago, and installed Oct. 6, 
1898. He became widely known and influential as a pulpit orator, and his occasional 
addresses outside of the pulpit marked him as a scholar of aggressiveness and of deep 
mental acumen. His pastorate was distinguished by a large increase in membership 
and all the early traditions of the church were maintained and significantly advanced. 
He was dismissed by council May loth, 1909. The fifth pastor, Henry Stiles Bradley, 
D. D., came from St. John's M. E. Church, South St. Louis, Oct. 3, 1909. He was in- 
stalled by council Jan. 18, 1910. His pastorate has been distinguished by the mainte- 
nance of the usual activities of a vigorous organization of this type, and has added 
many new features to its religious and secular endeavors. Among the significant en- 
terprises undertaken under his pastorate, are the entire support of a medical mission- 
ary in South Africa, undertaken in 1910; the organization of the men of the church 
in a social brotherhood ; a Boy Scouts organization in 1910 and since continued ; the 
standard of general benevolences raised beyond any previous record; articles of faith 
and a revised covenant adopted, of such simplified form as to give new emphasis to 
church membership and its obligations. A new organ was presented by a few of its 
members at a cost of nearly $20,000; the sub-basement was transformed into social 
assembly quarters. Dr. Bradley headed a vigorous general civic movement in protest 
against Sunday moving picture entertainments ; a considerable addition was made to 
. the church in 1916, providing an adequate kindergarten department and a pastor's 
room, the gift of a few members. 

The record of Piedmont Church for over 40 years has been particularly strong 
along lines having to do with the furtherance of civic and religious enterprises outside 
of its immediate organization and which have ministered to the broader demands of 
good citizenship and community welfare. 

Pilgrim Congregational Church. — The history of this church begins 
with a Sunday school service held May 13, 1883, at the home of Mrs. 
Fannie H. Mighill, widow of Rev. Nathaniel Mighill, former pastor of 
Old South, Hancock street. The Sunday school organized at that time 
was made permanent and chose for its name Pilgrim ; in seven weeks the 
attendance had reached sixty-nine and the school afterward met in the 
Woodland street school house. Arthur E. Gray succeeded Mrs. Mig- 
hill as superintendent, July 8, 1883. A prayer meeting was held Thurs- 
day evenings at the homes of members of the school, beginning Nov. 8; 
then preaching services. Rev. Albert Bryant, superintendent of the 
City Missionary Society, was the first to preach, and undertook the 
organization of a church. At the end of the first year fifty-seven had 
joined the organization to establish a church, and a lot at the corner of 
Main and Gardner streets had been given by Francis B. Knowles, of 
Piedmont Church, and Mrs. Helen C. Knowles of Union Church. Rev. 
Charles M. Southgate of Dedham was called as pastor, and began pas- 
toral work Nov. 16th. The wooden chapel which had been begun in the 
meantime, was first occupied for worship Jan. 24, 1885. 

Pilgrim Church was received into the Congregational fellowship 
and the pastor installed March 19, 1885, at a council of twenty-five 
churches. At the second anniversary the sum of $13,000 was pledged to 
W.— 1-52. 



8i8 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



build a new church. The cornerstone was laid Oct. 22, 1887, on the 
same day as that of Clark University, and the trustees and officers of 
the two institutions attended both exercises in a body. Stephen C. 
Earle was the architect; Cutting & Bishop, the contractors. The church 
was dedicated July 1, 1888, Rev. Dr. George W. Phillips preaching the 
sermon. Through the generosity of Francis B. Knowles, the old chapel 
was enlarged and refitted for the use of the Sunday school, for social and 
various church purposes. Mr. Knowles not only gave part of the land 
and remodeled the chapel, but he guaranteed the pastor's salary; made 
the largest gift to the building fund ; gave $500 to the organ fund, and 
gave often for other work in the church. 

After eleven years, Mr. Southgate resigned to become pastor of the 
Congregational Church at Auburndale, and was dismissed October 27, 
1895. He was succeeded by Rev. Alexander Lewis, Ph.D., pastor of the 
New England Congregational Church of Brooklyn, N. Y., who began his 
pastorate Jan. 1, 1896. During the next eight years 491 members were 
received; the large debt was greatly reduced, largest contributors being 
Loring Coes, Frank P. Knowles and John M. Russell. Rev. Clifton H. 
Mix succeeded Mr. Lewis in March, 1895, and in March, 1914, he resigned 
on account of ill health. His pastorate was exceedingly pleasant and 
successful. Rev. George L. Hanscom has been pastor since 1915. 

Adams Square Congregational Church.— Owing to the growth of 
the city in its vicinity, Adams Square Congregational Church has had a 
very rapid and healthful development since it was established in 1898. 
The meeting house is at 24 Burncoat street. The first pastor was Rev. 
John E. Dodge, formerly of West Boylston. He was succeeded in 1900 
by Rev. John Addison Seibert, whose pastorate lasted five years. From 
1905 Re-^ Percy H. Epler was pastor. He was exceedingly popular and 
took an active part in public aflfairs ; he resigned in 1916. Since 1916 
Rev. Edward C. Boynton has been pastor. 

Park Congregational Church. — This church was the outgrowth of a 
Sunday school established by Lydia A. Giddings in 1884. In May, 1885, 
the first sermon was preached in Agricultural Hall by J. F. Lovering, 
pastor of Old South. Rev. Dr. A. E. P. Perkins then took charge, and in 
1886 a chapel was erected and dedicated, Sept. 26, that year. The site, 
Elm and Russell streets, was the gift of David Whitcomb, and the title 
of the property valued at $9,000, remained for some years in the Chy Mis- 
sionary Society. The church was formally constituted Feb. 24, 1887, 
and Rev. George S. Pelton, formerly of Omaha, installed. A society was 
also organized according to Congregational custom, but later the church 
was incorporated under the State law Jan. 17, 1888, and since then parish 
and church have been identical. The present building was erected on 
the site of the original chapel. Rev. Inman L. Wilcox was pastor, 1891- 
1910. He was succeeded by Rev. C. F. Hill Crathern, whose pastorate 
ended in 1915. His successor, Rev. J. Farland Randolph, was pastor in 



AND ITS PEOPLE 819 



1916. Since then Rev. James Wylie, who came from England to accept 
the call to this church, has been pastor. 

Hope Congregational Church. — The following is principally con- 
densed from an historical pamphlet printed in 1915 : 

In 1856 Mr. Anson Bangs of the Union Church opened a Sunday school in the 
schoolhouse, now the ell of the old school building on Cambridge street. For eighteen 
years Mr. Bangs successfully superintended the school; the average attendance dur- 
ing his term was about sixty. In 1875 the school was moved to the hall of the new 
school building. The name of "Union Sunday School" was taken. 

In 1881 the City Missionary Society sent Miss Fannie C. Mason. Through her in- 
fluence, preaching services were held occasionally by volunteers from city churches. 
The hall had been made into a schoolroom and the Sunday school and preaching ser- 
vices were held in Miss Boyden's room. In December, 1882, the present chapel was 
dedicated, free from debt, the cost being about $2,450. Of this amount $1,000 was 
raised in South Worcester, the remainder being contributed by city churches. The 
deed of the property was given to the Congregational churches — Union, Piedmont, 
Salem and Plymouth — to hold until such time as the organization should be found 
strong enough to hold and manage its own property. 

Rev. E. D. Bailey was the first pastor; he remained during 1883. After this there 
was no regular preacher for a year, when Rev. Albert Bryant was sent by the Wor- 
cester City Missionary Society. He conducted services from November, 1884, until 
December, 1885, when the church was organized. At this time, at Houghton street, 
The Church of the Covenant was organized to embrace various missions in the city, 
under the care of the Worcester City Missionary Society. In connection with this, the 
present Hope Church was formed as the South Worcester Branch of the Church of the 
Covenant. The following were the charter members : Henry Gaunt, Mary J. Mee, Ann 
E. Foskit, Hattie E. Scott, Mary L. Gaunt, Emma G. Hall, Ann E. Coburn, S. Alicia 
Fay, Lorin Foskit, Sarah Jones and Eva L. Carleton, and on Dec. 29, 1885, officers were 
elected : Deacon, Lorin Fosket ; secretary, Mrs. Emma G. Hall ; treasurer, Henry 
Gaunt. Rev. Albert Bryant remained as pastor until June, 1889, when he resigned his 
position as superintendent of the City Missionary Society. 

On June 18, 1889, the Houghton street branch decided to dissolve the relationship 
between itself and the branch missions ; thus the South Worcester and the Lake View 
Branches were left to themselves. Up to September, 1889, services were held each 
Sunday afternoon ; thereafter the services were held in the forenoon. At the same 
time an additional deacon, George Mitcheson, was chosen. Mr. Foskit still retained his 
office. 

During 1888 and 1889 the church saw its hardest times. Few attended the services 
and money was scarce. We then heard of a young man who was attending the Wor- 
cester Academy and conducting a mission on Hacker street, Mr. Joseph Walthur. We 
secured his services as a supply until July, 1889, when he became acting pastor. On 
Dec. 21, 1889. the church was formally received by the Congregational churches of the 
city, and the name Hope Congregational Church was adopted. At the beginning of 1890 
there were fifty names on the membership list. The first officers were: Permanent 
chairman, Lorin Foskit; deacon for three years, Mr. Foskit; deacon for two years, Mr. 
Mitcheson ; deacon for one year, Mr. Holmes ; deaconesses, Mrs. Sarah Jones, Mrs, 
Bertha Chace and Mrs. Emma G. Hall ; clerk, Mr. Frank Thompson ; treasurer, Mrs. 
Eva L. Carleton; auditor, Mr. Lorin Foskit; collector, Mr. John Holmes. Standing 
Committee, John Holmes, James Gaunt, W. Hamilton, George Mitcheson, George Al- 
len, Lorin Foskit, Mrs. Emma Hall, Mrs. Nellie Dollen ; Pastoral Committee, Mrs. 
Hattie Scott, Mrs. Eva L. Carleton, Mr. Henry Norris. 



820 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



In November of the same year (1890), Mr. Walthur's resignation was accepted 
with much regret. Previous to Rev. Mr. Walthur's ordination, Rev. W. T. Sleeper, 
pastor of the Summer Street Church, officiated at communion services. At such times 
the pastor, Mr. Walthur, conducted services at the Summer Street Church. 

On September i, 1891, after successfully supplying the pulpit for some time, Rev. 
Ellsworth W. Phillips was installed as pastor. Before the close of the year, the church 
decided to build a new church edifice, not to exceed $7,000 in cost. The mortgage was 
cancelled on January 19, 1903. 

On Sept. 6, 1906, Rev. E. W. Phillips, accepted a call to Whitman, Mass. During 
his pastorate the church grew from 87 to 235 members ; the benevolent offerings were 
greatly increased; the church became self-supporting; the new church edifice was 
erected and paid for; a legacy from the estate of Miss Boyden, one of the most loyal 
supporters the church ever had, made possible the purchase of the present parsonage. 

Rev. Mr. King supplied about a year; then we were fortunate in securing Rev. 
Peter McMillan for three years. The Rev. Frederick B. Kellogg, present pastor, came 
in 1909. He resigned Dec. 31, 1917, to become pastor of Pilgrim Church, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Under his pastorate the church has grown rapidly, making necessary additions to the 
meeting house. He has been president of the Ministers' Club and active in the Y. M. 
C. A. and Congregational Club. His father. Rev. S. G. Kellogg, was for forty years 
in the Methodist ministry in New Hampshire. He prepared for college at the Metho- 
dist Seminary at Montpelier, and then studied at Boston University, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology and Union Theological Seminary at New York, from which he 
was graduated. 

For many years the Y. P. S. C. E. has supported a native worker, in China, and the 
church is supporting the only ordained native minister in the district. The Rev. E. H. 
Smith, the American missionary in charge, says, "Rev. Ling Jak Nok is my right arm 
in this field." The Senior Department of the Sunday school is keeping a day school at 
Zara, Turkey, in Asia, by paying the salary of the teacher. The Junior C. E. pays for 
four tuition tickets for poor children at Harpoot, Turkey, in Asia. 

In 1881 a few ladies formed a society for the purpose of obtaining means for so- 
ciety purposes and for mutual social intercourse. In 1883 the Social Union thus or- 
ganized had thirty members. The first president was Mrs. Cyrus Taft. It was chiefly 
through the work and influence of these few ladies that the Sabbath school was housed 
in a new and commodious chapel in 1883. The society was known as the South Wor- 
cester Social Union. In honor of the tenth anniversary of the Union, in 1892, a re- 
ception was tendered to the pastor and his wife. Rev. E. W. and Mrs. Phillips. In 1892 
the name of the society was changed to the Ladies' Social Union of Hope Congrega- 
tional Church. There have been but six presidents : Mesdames Cyrus Taft, Emma G. 
Hall, Henry Brown, E. C. Carleton, Mary Goddard and E. C. Carleton. The following 
have been treasurers : Mesdames Frank Moulton, Emma G. Hall, Hattie Scott, Ken- 
drick, Miss Whittaker and Mrs. Ezekiel May. 

Lakeview Congregational Church. — The following narrative is con- 
tributed by Caroline F. Baker: 

Lake View Congregational Church came into existence as a separate body Feb. 
23, 1890, but as a branch of the Church of the Covenant, organized Dec. 22, 1885, it had 
an earlier birth. Rev. William T. Sleeper, then a resident of Lake View, commenced 
holding meetings in the schoolhouse April 13, 1879, which were continued Sunday after- 
noons through the summer, and were soon supplemented by a Union Sunday school. 
During this summer what was called an Evangelical Religious Society was organized 
with trustees to whom Mr. J. J. Coburn deeded the double lot on which the church 
building stands, and during 1880 Mr. Sleeper raised the money by private subscription 
for building the church. The first meeting of any kind ever held in this was for a 



AND ITS PEOPLE 821 

Christmas tree, December 25, 1880, and the next day Rev. G. W. Phillips, of Ply- 
mouth Church, preached the first sermon in the same room, the basement being still 
unfinished, and continuing so for several years. 

The church was dedicated January 30, 1881, Rev. George H. Gould preaching the 
sermon. From that time religious services and a Sunday school continued to be regu- 
larly held in the church, largely through the help of pastors coming down from the 
city churches Sunday afternoons. In 1883 the Sunday school came under the care of 
Mr. Andrew Hamilton as superintendent, who so continued till his death in 1887. In 
1885 this congregation, with the one at South Worcester and that on Houghton street, 
were under the care of Rev. Albert Bryant, superintendent of city missions, and it was 
determined to organize a church of three branches from these separate congregations. 
An ecclesiastical council from the Congregational churches of the city met Dec. 22, 
1885, to advise with, and if thought wise to organize such a church. This being deemed 
advisable, six- persons from the Lake View congregation became united in the Church 
of the Covenant. Mr. Andrew Hamilton was elected deacon of this branch and con- 
tinued to be so till his death. The articles of faith and covenant common to the whole 
Church of the Covenant were approved by this branch of it. After the death of Dea- 
con Hamilton in 1887, Mr. F. E. Goddard was chosen to serve in his place as deacon. 
In process of time the three branches of the Church of the Covenant grew in numbers 
and, as was contemplated in the first place, one after the other was organized into a 
separate church — the Houghton street first, followed by the South Worcester branch 
soon after, and lastly, Feb. 23, 1890, the Lake View branch was organized into a 
separate church. 

Pastors: Rev. Albert Bryant, Supt. City Missions, Nov., 1883,-Dec., 1888; Rev. 
William G. Tuttle, Jan., 1889,-Sept., 1889; Rev. Wm. S. Kelsey, Asst. Pastor of Union 
Church, Sept., 1889,-Nov., 1890; Rev. Lawrence Perry, May, 1891,-Oct., 1891 ; Rev. J. 
K. Thompson, Nov., 1891,-Dec., 1892; Rev. John E. Dodge, Apr., 1893, -Dec, 1896; 
Rev. John H. Matthews, Jan., 1897,-Apr., 1903; Rev. A. V. House, Dec, 1903, -Jan., 191 1 ; 
Rev. J. L. Sewall, July, 1911,-Apr., 1917. 

Bethany Congregational Church. — The church was organized in 
1891, in which year Rev. Joseph Walker became pastor. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1892 by Rev. Henry E. Barnes. From 1893 to 1914 Rev. Al- 
bert G. Todd was pastor. Rev. Frederick K. Brown has been pastor 
since 1915. The place of worship was originally on Leicester street, now 
Main street. The chapel at 1189 Main street w^as occupied first in 1892. 

Greendale People's Church — This church (Independent Congrega- 
tional) was organized at Greendale in 1895. The pastors have been : 
Rev. J. Charles Villiers, 1896-97; Rev. Gavin H. Wrght, 1898-02; Rev. 
Samuel B. Haslett, 1903-16. Rev. J. Farland Randolph was acting pas- 
tor in 1917. 

Hadwen Park Church. — For a dozen years the City Missionary So- 
ciety maintained a Sunday school at Trowbridgeville, and during most of 
the time furnished preaching services. In late years it has been known 
as Trowbridgeville Chapel. At a council Feb. 10, 1916, it was decided 
to organize the Hadwen Park Congregational Church. There were 
forty-two charter members, when the organization was incorporated 
March 30, 1916. The church is on Clover street, corner of Knox. The 
acting pastor is Rev. Ellsworth W. Phillips. In 1917 Lloyd B. Hibbard 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



was superintendent of the Sunday school, with eighty members. The 
Christian Endeavor Society has 36 members; the Ladies' Aid Society 90 
members. 

Tatnuck Congregational Church. — This church was organized in 
1908 as the result of Sunday school and Christian Endeavor work on the 
part of several city churches for a long time. It was a community move- 
ment which Iniilt the building in 11)14, several local organizations giving 
property and funds. Their very commodious building stands in the 
centre of what was once Tatnuck Square, and affords a meeting place for 
several organizations not connected with the church, as the Farmers' 
Club and the Tatnuck Sewing Circle, an organization with seventy years 
of history. The church is in one of the most beautiful and rapidly 
growing sections of the city. Rev. John H. Mathews was acting pastor 
1908-10; Rev. Frank J. Lombard, acting pastor 1910-11; Rev. H. E. 
Lombard became the first regular pastor in 1911, and was succeeded in 
1914 by the present pastor, Rev. x\lbert S. Hawkes. The Woman's 
Association, which handles the women's activities in the church and in 
missions, was organized in 1912. 

Worcester Congregational Club. — The following narrative is con- 
tributed : 

When the Worcester Congregational Club was organized, only three others were 
in existence— the Congregational Club in Boston, the Essex Ct)ngregational Club in 
Essex county, and the North Bristol Congregational Club in Taunton. The first steps 
towards forming the club were taken late in the autumn of 1874. Upon invitation of 
Rev. E. Cutler, D. D., of Union Church, a few gentlemen from each of the Congrega- 
tional societies in Worcester, with others from neighboring towns, assembled on Nov. 
23rd in the parlors of the Central Church and effected a temporary organization by 
the choice of Dr. Cutler as chairman and Charles E. Stevens as secretary. Subse- 
quent meetings were held ; a constitution and by-laws were adopted, and the club was 
constituted. The first annual meeting was held in the Bay State House, Monday, Jan. 
18, 1875, and a permanent organization was effected by election of officers. The num- 
ber of members on the roll at this meeting was 71, all of whom, however, did not per- 
fect their membership, and the number of full members at the close of the same year 
was 87. 

The place of meeting was in hotels, halls and church chapels, the club finally set- 
tling upon the Association building. Since Association Hall has passed out of the 
hands of the Young Men's Christian Association the meetings have been held in the 
main dining room of the State Mutual Restaurant. Later at Washburn Hall, now at 
the Bancroft. 

In April, 1878, the membership was limited to 135 ; this was enlarged to 175 in 
April, 1882; in January, 1891, it was enlarged to 200; and again in January, 1897, it was 
enlarged to 225. On January 16, 191 1, it was voted to fix the limit of membership at 
250, where it now stands. 

In 1915 the club published a pamphlet containing a history with a list of the 
speakers and their subjects. Many of the addresses have been of high educational value 
and most of them interesting and instructive. The speakers have been: Revs. Dr. E. 
Cutler, J. E. Fullerton, Stacy Fowler, C. M. Lamson ; Hon. P. Emory Aldrich ; Revs. 
DeWitt S. Clark, Dr. Seth Sweetser, A. P. Marvin, A. H. Coolidge; Messrs. C. O. 
Thompson, B. D. Allen ; Rev. Dr. A. E. P. Perkins ; Hartley Williams, Chas. E. Stev- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 823 

ens; Revs. H. P. DeForest, G. H. DeBevoise, Geo. W. Phillips; A. G. Biscoe; Revs. 
Geo. M. Howe, J. H. Windsor, Dr. D. O. Mears, J. L. Ewell, Dr. Daniel Merriman, 
A. B. Emmons; Geo. I. Alden, W. H. Briggs; Rev. Chas. Wetherby; F. W. Russell, 
Edward P. Smith ; Revs. W. DeLoss Love, J. L. Scudder ; Edward Whitney ; Revs. 
Dr. S. L. Blake, J. F. Gaylor, H. A. Stimson, T. F. Levering; C. T. Symmes ; Prof. 
Egbert C. Smyth, D. D., of Andover; Rev. E. H. Byington ; Prof. Timothy Dwight, 
LL.D., of Yale; Rev. Geo. A. Putnam; Homer T. Fuller, Ph. D., Henry M. Smith; 
Revs. H. A. Stimson, C. P. Blanchard; Jos. A. Dodge; Revs. G. S. Dodge, A. Bryant; 
Prof. Benj. C. Blodgett; Revs. S. P. Wilder, W. T. Sleeper; Geo. W. Cable, Wm. T. 
Forbes ; Revs. A. H. Coolidge, C. M. Southgate, Caleb T. Symmes, Frank H. Allen ; 
Prof. John B. Clark; Burton W. Potter; Revs. Sylvanus Hayward, L J. Lansing, B. A. 
Robie, Dr. G. H. Gould, J. F. Gaylord, Dr. W. V. W. Davis ; Edwin H. Baker ; Revs. 
F. B. Makepeace, W. F. Crafts, Marshall M. Cutter, Dr. Graham Taylor, Alfred T. 
Perry, Edward G. Fullerton ; A. W. Edson, T. M. Balliet, Amos Armsby ; Revs. O. P. 
Gififord, Dr. A. McCullagh ; G. Henry Whitcomb ; Revs. Dr. A. Z. Conrad, John L. 
Scudder, J. Winthrop Hegeman ; Robert Woods, Samuel B. Capen ; Revs. Hugh Mont- 
gomery, Daniel Merriman; S. C. Willis, Jr.; Revs. Albert Bryant, Percy S. Grant; 
Hon. Geo. F. Hoar; Revs. Dr. C. L. Thompson, Dr. Elijah Horr, Dr. Geo. A. Gordon, 
W. D. P. Bliss, Geo. P. Eastman, Dr. A. T. Pierson, J. E. Hurlbut; Miss O. M. E. 
Rowe, Chas. Carleton Coffin, Chas. F. Carroll ; Rev. Dr. John Hall, T. G. Mendenhall, 
LL.D., P. W. Moen; Revs. W. B. Oleson, Dr. Josiah Strong, C. M. Southgate; M. M. 
Taylor ; Rev. F. F. Emerson, E. R. Goodwin, Sherman W. Brown, Geo. H. Mellen, 
L. C. Muzzy, W. H. Bartlett, L. P. Goddard, Dr. E. A. Murdock, Edgar E. Thomp- 
son, Jesse Allen ; Revs. Dr. Edward L. Clark, Stephen B. L. Penrose, Dr. A. H. Brad- 
ford, W. W. Jordan, Dr. Wallace Nutting, H. A. Blake, Dr. Eldridge Mix, Dr. Chas. 

E. Jefferson; Dr. John E. Tuttle, John E. Sewall, Dr. Geo. F. Pentecost; Mrs. Alice 
Freeman Palmer; Revs. Dr. A. F. SchaufBer, Alex. Lewis, Dr. W. H. Harris; F. O. 
Winslow, William Woodward ; Revs. Dr. Chas. M. Allen, Dr. David J. Burrill, Dr. Wil- 
lard Scott, A. J. F. Behrends, Frank L. Goodspeed, David M. Means; Prof. Wm. H. 
Ryder; Rev. N. Dwight Hillis ; Arthur R. Kinball, Thomas J. Gargan ; Rev. Amos 
H. Coolidge; Amos R. Wells; Dr. John C. Berry; Rev. Dr. John H. Barrows; Prof. 
Edwin A. Grosvenor, Prof. Williston Walker ; Rev. Dr. A. E. Dunning, Rev. Dr. 
Samuel H. Virgin, Rev. A. W. Hitchcock ; Booker T. Washington ; Revs. Dr. Edwin 
P. Parker, J. F. Gaylord; John A. Sherman, C. Henry Hutchins, G. Stanley Hall, 
LL.D. ; Revs. S. Parkes Cadman, Dr. Frank Crane ; John S. Gould ; Rev. Joseph W. 
Cochran; Helen M. Cole; Rev. Francis J. Van Horn; E. W. Wilder, Homer P. 
Lewis, Frank H. Robson, J. Chauncey Lyford, E. H. Russell, Louis Elson, Albert M. 
Shattuck, M. D. ; Rev. Chauncy Hawkins ; Prof. W. H. Burnham ; Rev. Dr. John 
W. Platner; Geo. P. Morris; Rev. Andrew B. Chalmers; S. B. Carter; Revs. F. E. 
Emrich, Dr. Reuben A. Beard, Dr. Chas. C. Hall, W. E. Darby, B. F. Trueblood, Arte- 
mas J. Haynes ; Clinton Alvord, M. P. Higgins, James Logan ; Revs. John L. Evans, 
Thos. E. Babb ; John F. Tobin, Hon. David J. Brewer ; Rev. Dr. William E. Griffis, 
Rev. Percy H. Epler; Robert S. Gailey, Rev. Chas. L. Close; Prof. John Duxberry; 
Rev. Dr. Washington Gladden; Prof. George E. Gardner; Rev. Clifton H. Mix; Prof. 

F. C. Sumicharst; Rev. Dr. John J. McCoy; Prof. Hugh Block; Rev. Lyman Abbott, 
Hon. E. C. Potter; Rev. E. G. Zellars ; Rev. Nacy McGee Waters, Rev. J. H. Mat- 
thews, Rev. Dr. E. P. Drew, Rev. Samuel McComb ; Dr. E. H. Trowbridge, Hon. 
Geo. B. Utter ; Rev. Rockwell H. Potter ; Gov. John L. Bates, Geo. C. Whitney, Chas. 
N. Prouty, E. T. Chapin, W. M. Spaulding, Richard Watson Gilder, Jacob A. Riis; 
Revs. Dr. Chas. H. Parkhurst, Peter McMillan; Prof. Edward A. Steiner; Revs. 
Dr. F. W. Gunsaulus, Dr. Henry C. King, Dr. Nehemiah Boynton, Dr. Henry S. 
Bradley, Dr. Charles R. Brown; Hon. Leslie M. Shaw; Revs. Dr. Gains G. Atkins, Dr. 
Newell D. Hillis, John L. Kilborn ; Gustatvus J. Esselen, Jr. ; Rev. Edward M. Noyes ; 
Drs. George Hodges, Cornelius H. Patton, Dr. Ernest F. Nichols; Rev. Dr. James 



824 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

B. Gregg; Prof. William Pickens; Rev. Jesse Halsey; Hon. A. J. Beveridge, Hon. 
Samuel W. McCall, P. P. Claxton, Robert A. Woods, Hon. Simeon D. Fess, Hon. 
John W. Weeks ; Rev. Dr. Raymond Calkins. 

Presidents.— Rev. E. Cutler, D. D., 1875-76; Philip L. Aloen, 1877-78; Rev. 

C. M. Lamson, 1879; C. O. Thompson, 1880-81; Rev. A. P. Marvin, 1882; Samuel 
R. Heywood, 1883; Edward Whitney, 1884-85; G. Henry Whitcomb, 1886-87; Rev. A. 
H. Coolidge, 1888; Arthur M. Stone, 1889-90; Rev. Geo. H. Gould, 1891 ; Rev. I. 
J. Lansing, 1892; W. T. Forbes, 1893; Rev. C. M. Southgate, 1894; Chas. A. Denny, 
1895; Rev. A. McCullagh, D. D., 1896; C. Henry Hutchins, 1897; Rev. A. Z. Conrad, 

D. D., 1898; James Logan, 1899; Rev. Geo. P. Eastman, 1900; John C. Berry, M. D., 
190 1 ; Rev. Alexander Lewis, 1902; Clarence F. Carroll, 1903; Geo. L Alden, 1903; 
Rev. John A. Thurston, 1904; John S. Gould, 1905; Rev. A. W. Hitchcock, 1906; 
Frank H. Robson, 1907-8; Rev. A. B. Chalmers, D. D., 1909; Charles F. Marble, 1910; 
Rev. Edward P. Drew, D. D., 1911 ; Charles E. Burbank, 1912; Rev. Percy H. Epler, 
1913; Hon. Clarence W. Hobbs, Jr., 1914; Rev. Francis A. Poole, 1915; Elmer C. Pot- 
ter, 1916; Rev. H. S. Bradley, 1917; Julius Garst, 1918. 

Vice-Presidents. — Philip L. Moen, 1875-76 ; C. L. Swan, 1875-76 ; Rev. C. M. Lamson, 
1877-78; Sam. M. Lane, 1877; Arthur G. Biscoe, 1878; L. J: Knowles, 1879 ; J. L. Bush, 
1879-80-81; Geo. H. Gould, D. D., 1880-81; William R. Hill. 1882; Dan'l Merriman, 

D. D., i882-'94; Rev. G. H. DeBevoise, 1883; Samuel E. Hildreth, 1883; Charles E, 
Stevens, 1884-85; Rev. A. H. Coolidge, 1884-5, '87; Rev. Henry A. Stimson, 1886 
Rev. J. L. Ewell, 1886-87; P. Emory Aldrich, 1888; Arthur M. Stone, 1888; Rev. I 
J. Lansing, 1889-90; W. T. Forbes, 1889-92; Chas. A. Denny, 1890-91; Rev. C. M 
Southgate, 1891-92; Rev. W. V. W. Davis, D. D., 1893; William Woodward, 1893 
George K. Nichols, 1894; Rev. A. McCullagh, D. D., 1895; G. Henry Hutchins, 1895 
Rev. A. Z. Conrad, D. D., 1896; L. L. Whitney, 1896; Sherman W. Brown, 1897 
James Logan, 1897-98; Rev. Geo. P. Eastman, 1898; Rev. Alexander Lewis, 1899 
Homer P. Lewis, 1899-1900; Rev. I. L. Willcox, 1900; Charles N. Prouty, 1901 ; W 
T. Forbes, 1901 ; Henry H. Merriam, 1902; Rev. A. W. Hitchcock, 1902; George I 
Alden, 1903; John S. Gould, 1903-04; Rev. F. J. Van Horn, D. D., 1904; Willis E 
Sibley, 1905 ; George L. Brownell. 1905 ; Rev. A. B. Chalmers, D. D., 1906 ; Rev. J 
J. Walker, 1906; Henry H. Merriam, 1907, 1908; Rev. C. H. Mix, 1907, 1908; M. P 
Higgins, 1909 ; Rev. E. P. Drew, D. D., 1909 ; Rev. Shepherd Knapp, 1910 ; Hon. Elmer 
C. Potter, 1910; Paul B. Morgan, 191 1; Rev. G. H. Cummings, 191 1; Rev. John L. 
Sewall, 1912; Hon. Charles N. Prouty, 1912; Rev. Henry S. Bradley, D. D., 1913; 
George F. Booth, 1913; Rev. Francis A. Poole, 1914; Hon. Julius Garst, 191 1. 

Secretaries. — Charles E. Stevens, 1875-77; Edward P. Smith, 1878-79; Rev. Geo. 
W. Phillips, 1880; C. Henry Hutchins, 1881-82; Henry M. Smith, 1883; Charles F. 
Mann, 1884-86; F. W. Southwick, 1887; U. W. Cutler, 1888; F. W. Ruggles, 1889; 
W. P. Rowell, 1890-92; Elmer G. Tucker, 1893-96; A. W. Edson, 1897; C. W. White, 
1898; Geo. L. Brownell, 1899; Geo. W. Mackintire, 1900-01; John W. Higgins, 1902- 
06; Fred L. Willis, 1907, 1908; Elmer G. Tucker, 1909-13; J. Harvey Curtis, 1914; 
George F. Booth, 1913; Rev. Francis A. Poole, 1914; Hon. Julius Garst, 1914. 

Treasurers. — G. Henry Whitcomb, 1875-79; Charles A. Lincoln, 1880-82; Edwin 
Eldred, 1883 ; Arthur M. Stone. 1884-86 ; George H. Estabrook, 1887 ; William Wood- 
ward, 1888; A. C. Munroe, 1889; E. M. Bond, 1890-91; Clinton AL Dyer, 1892-1901 ; 
A. H. Stone, 1902; H. Ward Bates, 1903-05; Frank A. Drury, 1506; Dana M. Dustan, 
1907-1915; Thos. Macduff, 1916-17-18. 

Auditors. — Joseph B. Adams, 1875-76; S. R. Heywood, 1877; Hartley Williams, 
1878-81 ; George L Alden, 1882 ; Arthur E. Gray, 1883 ; C. H. Hutchins, 1884-85 ; Thos. 

E. N. Eaton, 1886; Chas. A. Peabody, M. D., 1887; Charles H. Morgan, 1888; William 
Woodward, 1889; Amos Armsby, 1890; E. H. Baker, 1891 ; H. F. Wing, 1892; Ben- 
jamin Brierly, 1893; S. C. Willis, Jr., 1894; A. W. Edson, 1895; H. P. Starr, 1896; 



AND ITS PEOPLE 825 

A. L. Joslin, 1897; Arthur E. Gray, 1898; Wilber W. Hobbs, 1899; A. L. Fisher, 
1900; E. E. Howe, 1901-17; Joseph A. Dodge, 1902; J. D. Gregory, 1903-04; Geo. 
W. Mackintire, 1905-13 ; Edward C. Whitney, 1914-16. 

Speakers. — Prof. Edward C. Moore, D. D. ; Hon. Stephen Panaretoff, Bulgarian 
Minister to U. S. ; Amos P. Wilder, former Consul-General at Shanghai, China ; Prof. 
Albert Bushnell Hart, of Harvard University; Prof. Edward A. Steiner, of Grinnell 
College, la.; Prof. John Winthrop Piatner, of Andover Theo. Seminary; Dr. Howard 
W. Beal, of Worcester; Rev. Chas. E. Jefferson, D. D., of New York; F. A. Upham, 
of Three Rivers, Mass. ; Hon. Herbert Knox Smith, of Hartford, Conn. ; Prof. Al- 
bert E. Bailey, of Worcester; Hamilton S. Conant, of Boston; Margaret Slattery; 
Rev. James Wylie, D. D., of Worcester; Rev. Albert Parker Fitch, D. D., Pres. An- 
dover Theo. Sem. ; Rev. Hugh Black, D. D., of New York ; Rev. Frederick Lynch, D. 
D., of New York; Robert E. Speer, D. D., of New York; Dr. Eugene A. Crockett, of 
Boston. 



826 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 




FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 



CHAPTER LIII 

Baptist Church — The First — Main Street — Pleasant Street — Dewey 
Street — Lincoln Square — Newton Square — South Church — Adams 
Square — Greendale — Quinsigamond — Oak Hill — First Free- 
will — City Mission Board — Jamesville — City Mission 
Board — Missions — Social Union 

First Baptist Church. — The following narrative is contributed by 
Mr. Arthur J. Bean, clerk of the church: 

The First Baptist Church of Worcester was the third organized body of wor- 
shippers in the town, and in its early days met active opposition from the First or 
town church, now known as the Old South Congregational ; while the Second, or 
Unitarian church, possibly remembering its own struggle in 1785, was more friendly 
to the new organization. The only Baptists known here in colonial times were brought 
by the constables of neighboring towns to be held in jail for non-payment of their 
ministerial rates. 

In 1795 came James Wilson, from Newcastle-on-Tyne, England. He was an ardent 
Baptist, having left England to enjoy religious freedom, and became active in mis- 
sionary endeavor. Occasional meetings were held by itinerant elders at the house of 
Mr. Wilson. The first converts were baptized in May, 1812, and the whole Baptist en- 
deavor was carried on as a mission under the care of the Baptist church at Tiverton, 
R. I., whence came the first pastor of the local church, Rev. William Bentley, who settled 
here in the summer of 181*2 to be the resident preacher at a salary of $300 per year. 
On Dec. 9, 1812, the church was formally organized with twenty-eight members, four- 
teen each of men and women. The young church grew rapidly, and the first meeting 
house was built at Salem Square at a cost of $2,459.31, being opened for worship, Dec. 
23, 1813. Because of the small number of Baptist churches in this vicinity, the new 
church was made a part of the Warren Association and so continued for some years. 

In June, 1815, Pastor Bentley resigned, and in September following the church 
called Rev. Jonathan Going. On assuming his pastoral duties in December, he began 
to build foundations that yet remain in the policies and methods of the church. In 
1816 Elder Going organized the Sabbath-school, the first in Worcester county. He was 
especially active in temperance work, being considered a most radical extremist in 
those days. 

June 8, 1819, the Legislature granted an act of incorporation to the Baptist Society 
in Worcester, it not being until then a legal corporate body. From the beginning, a 
society had charge of the place of worship and of the raising of money for payment 
of its pastor and other expenses. This society now became the corporate body for le- 
gal purposes, and was distinct from its church proper, which embraced only baptised 
believers. 

Pastor Going was a man of great powers of organization, and to him must be 
given the credit for forming in 1819 the Worcester Baptist Association. He also 
called the meeting from which resulted what is now known as Worcester Academy. 
One-half of the first funds for this school were given by members of the First Bap- 
tist Church. In 1816 Dr. Going introduced a custom since maintained by the church 
of giving in a systematic manner for benevolent purposes. In 1826 the church build- 
ing was enlarged, and forty pews were added in a manner much more efficient than 
beautiful. A tower was also added, and a bell hung therein. Dr. Going resigned in 



828 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



December, 1831, to become corresponding secretary of the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society, which had been founded through his efforts. 

The pastorate of Rev. Frederick A. Willard, who succeeded Dr. Going, was three 
and a half years, and that of Rev. Jonathan Aldrich, the next pastor, was two and a 
half years. Both these pastorates were marked by intense revivals, 93 baptisms being 
reported in 1832, the first year of Mr. Willard's, while 79 united in 1837, the first year 
of Mr. Aldrich's pastorate. 

The church had now become "very large" and it was decided to build in a new 
location and form two churches. In April, 1836, the Elm St. Baptist Society was in- 
corporated and preparations were made to build upon the lot where the church of the 
Unity now stands, when on May 21. 1836, the First Church building and contents were 
burned, supposedly by an incendiary. There was no insurance, and the proposed divi- 
sion was abandoned. The new building, erected at a cost of $17,000, was dedicated in 
October, 1836, and is still standing on the site at Salem Square. 




SALEM SQUARE ("BAPTIST HILL"), 
Showing Church and Brick School House at the foot of the Common. 

Rev. Samuel B. Swain was pastor from April, 1839, to May, 1854, and his pastor- 
ate was one of power in his church, the town, and the denomination. In 1841, 67 mem- 
bers were dismissed to form the Second Baptist Church, known as the Pleasant St. 
Church, and thirty other members were soon after dismissed \q the new body. Rapid 
growth marked both bodies ; and in 1844 the First Church again enlarged the build- 
ing and a baptistry was installed. Previous to this, baptisms had been made usually in 
Flagg's pond, where St. John's Church now stands on Temple street, or in the vicinity 
of the old Crompton Mill. In a few instances the ordinance was observed at Salis- 
bury's Pond, and also at a place near the corner of Thomas and Union streets. In 1853 
the pews in the First Church were held as private property, and more than $10,000 was 
raised to purchase these rights, and all but one or two were thus acquired. A rental 
system was then established. 

Rev. J. D. E. Jones, pastor from 1855 to 1859, resigned to become superintendent 
of public schools. He was succeeded by Rev. Lemuel Moss, who was pastor from Au- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 829 

gust, i860, to July, 1864. On December 9, 1862, the church celebrated its fiftieth anni- 
versary, the address being given by Hon. Isaac Davis, a notable benefactor of the 
church, its historian, and a munificent contributor. His address was printed. 

Rev. H. K. Pervear was pastor from April, 1865, to December, 1872, and the church 
had so marked a growth that the meeting house was enlarged in 1868-69 at a cost of 
$13,000. In the plans for church work are to be noted a church census, and other very 
advanced means of evangelistic endeavor. 

The ninth pastor, B. D. Marshall, D. D., began his labors in April, 1873. This 
pastorate marked an interval in church life that has been called the family period, as it 
was especially a time for the cultivation of the home people and the children of the 
parish. Much missionary work was done and several of the endowment funds of the 
church were established to further special features. Missions were established and 
maintained at Quinsigamond (1875), Lincoln Square (1879), Greendale and Valley 
Falls (1876). Dr. Marshall resigned in April, 1887. 

In January, 1888, Rev. George G. Craft became pastor and served until October, 
1894. In 1889 the building was renovated and a new organ installed. In 1891 the mis- 
sion at Quinsigamond was organized, as a branch church. Rev. Mr. Craft resigned in 
November, 1894, being succeeded in January, 1896, by Spencer B. Meeser, D. D., under 
whose pastorate the church reached its largest membership at Salem Square, having 
531 members in 1897, the same year that saw the change of the Greendale mission into 
another independent church. In 1902 Dr. Meeser resigned to accept a call to Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

After Dr. Messer left, steps wer6 taken to again unite into one body the First 
Church and the Main St. Church, and in June, 1902, the final union was made, the first 
service being on Children's Sunday, when as a body the old First Church went to the 
Main street edifice. The consolidated church called as its first pastor. Dr. Lemuel Call 
Barnes, who began his work in November, 1902. Land was bought on Main street at 
the corner of Ionic avenue, and the present new stone building was erected, the corner 
stone being laid in December, 1905 ; the first service was held in the vestry in April, 
1907, and the dedication took place October 27, 1907. The entire cost of land and 
buildings were slightly more than $200,000. Funds were obtained from the sale of both 
the old meeting houses, and by subscriptions, the largest individual gift being $50,000 re- 
ceived from William H. Dexter. 

Dr. Barnes resigned in February, 1908, to become field secretary of the American 
Baptist Home Mission Society, leaving a church strongly organized in all respects. 
The membership at this time was 834 in the main church, while three branches at Bea- 
con St., Jamesville and Manchaug, brought the total enrollment to 1,071. During Dr. 
Barnes' pastorate over 500 names were added to the church rolls. 

After an interval without a pastor, Rev. AUyn King Foster assumed the office 
in November, 1909, and until December, 1915, he occupied the pulpit of what has been 
called the most strategic of any Baptist church in New England. In 1913 the entire 
mortgage indebtedness of about $40,000 was paid. Mr. Foster resigned in December, 
191S, having accepted a call to a Brooklyn, (N. Y.) pulpit. 

The centennial celebration of the church was observed during the week beginning 
November 10, 1912. On SuViday, Dr. Barnes and Dr. Spencer B. Meeser preached. 
A family gathering was held Monday evening, attended by 500, and addressed by form- 
er pastors Craft, Pendleton, Thomas, Bakeman ; Charles H. Moss, son of Lemuel, a 
former pastor, and F. B. Cressy, grandson of another pastor. On Tuesday evening a 
great gathering of the Young People's societies of the city was addressed by Rev. 
Allen A. Stockdale of Boston. All Baptist churches omitted Wednesday evening 
prayer meetings to unite with the church in a meeting at which Rev. Dr. F. W. Padel- 
ford and Rev. Dr. Weeks were the speakers. On Thursday there was a conference of 
Boy Workers under Ernest R. Whitman ; on Friday Rev. S. Parkes Cadman spoke at 
a great interdenominational meeting. (See Worcester Mag. Dec, 1912). 



830 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

In October, 1916, the present pastor, Rev. William Roy McNutt, began his service 
and the church is well entered on a phase of activity that may well be called institutional 
in character. The present membership is 906 in the main church, while the branches 
bring the total to 1103. The yearly budget includes $14,000 for local work and support, 
while total beneficence funds reach $4,700. In 1916 a floating indebtedness of $9,000 
was paid, leaving the church entirely free of any debt of any kind. 

A year's leave of absence was granted to Rev. Mr. McNutt in January, 1918, to 
permit him to go to France for the Y. M. C. A. National War Work. He sailed 
January i6th. A farewell reception was given by the church. 

Throughout its existence this church has been a missionary body, and has in- 
cluded in its membership more than the usual number of active missionaries and mis- 
sion workers. By its activity in the local field it has truly become the mother of the 
Baptist churches of the region. Marked by a particularly happy and harmonious 
existence the church stands today a worthy monument to the early efforts of the Bap- 
tists of the city. 

Pleasant Street Baptist Church. — At a meeting of twenty-five mem- 
bers of the First Baptist Church at the home of Daniel Goddard, Novem- 
ber 23, 1841, a conference for the purpose of forming a new church, was 
formed, with Martin Jacobs as chairman and Austin G. Fitch as clerk. 
Separate public service was held for the first time December 12, 1841, 
and at a council held December 28, the Second Baptist Church was for- 
mally recognized. Of the ninety-eight constituent members, eighty-nine 
w^ere from the First Church. Within a year the membership was 
doubled. The name was changed afterward to Pleasant Street Baptist 
Church. 

Rev. John Jennings, the first minister, accepted a call January 1, 
1842; he resigned November 27, 1849. Rev. Charles K. Culver, of 
Watertown, succeeded him, serving from April 14, 1880, to 1854. Rev. 
Daniel W. Faunce had a very successful pastorate from September 1, 
1854, to April 30, 1860. Rev. J. J. Tucker was pastor from June 18, 1860, 
to September 1, 1861; and Rev. David Weston from June 9, 1862, to 
December 4, 18T0. "He was a remarkably able preacher, a wise and 
judicious leader and teacher. During his years of service 100 were 
admitted by baptisms, 125 by letter and experience." 

Rev. I. R. Wheelock was pastor from July 10, 18T2, to March 31, 
1875; Rev. Sullivan L. Holman, installed June 10, 1875, resigned March 
10, 1882; Rev. Henr>' F. Lane, January 7, 1883, to March 1, 1888; Hor- 
ace Jerome White, August 1, 1888, to August 30, 1896; Rev. Woodman 
Bradbury, April 8, 1897, to March 10, 1901, (a most scholarly and spir- 
itual preacher; one of the happiest and sweetest pastorates of our recol- 
lection). Rev. George B. Lawson was pastor from September, 1901, to 
August 19, 1902; Rev. Simeon Spidle, June 14, 1903, to June 7, 1908; Mr. 
Spidle is at present professor in Acadia College, Wolfville, Nova Sco- 
tia. Rev. Thomas J. Cross, "one of the kindest and most faithful pas- 
tors this church ever had," served October 4, 1908, to October 1, 1911. 
Rev. William A. Lee began February 4, 1912, and closed it February 29, 
1916, to become pastor of the Central Congregational Church of Atlanta, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 831 

Georgia, "he was an interesting and eloquent preacher." The present 
pastor, Rev. Charles J. Jones, was called October 10, 1916, and installed 
in December. He had been for ten years and a half pastor of the Tren- 
ton Street Baptist Church of East Boston. 

The first place of worship was in the Town Hall. The first meeting 
house was built on Pleasant street, about 200 feet from Main, on a lot 
80 feet square, costing $1,600. No society was organized, the church 
itself being incorporated to hold real estate. The church was occupied 
January 4, 1844. In 1856 the building was remodeled. Steps were taken 
in 1889 to build a new meeting house and a building committee consisting 
of J. P. Cheney, R. F. Comstock, F. H. Pelton, C. F. Brooks and C. A. 
Goddard, was appointed May 7, 1889. The old building and lot were 
sold for $48,000, and the present structure erected at the corner of Pleas- 
ant and Ashland streets. Ground was broken June 9, 1890; the corner- 
stone laid August 4, 1890 ; the first service in the new church held Jan- 
uary 18, 1891. The total cost was $65,000, and the house was dedicated 
April 21, 1891, free of debt. 

The church has been loyal in support of home and foreign missions, 
and has been represented by a member in the foreign field. Miss Eliza- 
beth Lawson, since 1880. Aid has been given to the younger Baptist 
churches from time to time. Nearly seventy-five members formed the 
colony that established the Lincoln Square Baptist Church. 

In seventy-five years there have been but five clerks: Charles H. 
Hill, about fourteen years; Joel Howe, about nine years; Alden Howe, 
about five years; Charles Ballard, about five years; Joseph P. Cheney, 
since 1874. The following have been deacons: Daniel Godard (41 
years) ; Jeremiah Bond ; Martin Jacobs (27 years) ; Jonas Hartshorn 
(25 years) ; Luther Ross (17 years) ; Robert F. Comstock (41 years) ; 
Albert N. Chase; Joseph P. Cheney (since 1874); George W. Eames; 
Woodbridge Burnham ; Abram Everett ; Lyman E. Hastings (20 years) ; 
George F. Brooks (since 1895) ; Frank H. Howe (since 1899) ; James F. 
Upham; H. Joseph Knight; Benjamin F. Porter; Willis B. Chamber- 
lain; Fred E. Waring; Wright E. Burnham; Harry Pickwick; John 
Partridge. (See pamphlet written by Joseph P. Cheney, on the occa- 
sion of the seventy-fifth anniversary, Jan. 1, 1917). 

Main Street Baptist Church. — The second colony from the First 
Baptist Church was led by Eli Thayer and others in June, 1852. Rev. 
Dr. Sharp of Boston, preached the first sermon to the new church in the 
City Hall, and public worship continued there until November, after 
which Brinley Hall was the place of worship. A Sunday school was 
organized, and Rev. S. S. Cutting preached during the winter of 1852-53. 
A parish was formed February 26, 1853, under the name of the Third 
Baptist Society of Worcester. On March 6 the "New Hampshire Ar- 
ticles of Faith and Covenant" were adopted, and Rev. William H, F. 
Hansel called as pastor, but he declined. 



832 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The parish voted May 18, 1853, to build a chapel at corner of Lei- 
cester (now Hermon) and Main streets. The new church was formally 
recognized June 23, when Rev. Dr. Ide of Springfield, preached. The 
land and building cost $6,461.17, and the first services were held in the 
chapel on the first Sunday in January, 1854. Rev. H. L. Wayland, the 
first pastor, was ordained Nov. 1, 1854. After a highly successful pastor- 
ate he resigned in October, 1861, to become chaplain of the Seventh Con- 
necticut Regiment, and was afterward a college instructor and editor. 
His successor, Rev. Joseph Banvard, began his pastorate in May, 1862, 
and served four years. 

The plans for the first meeting house were adopted February 12, 

1855. Ground was broken in May, and the church occupied in January, 

1856. The cost of the property was over $25,000. The parish adopted 
the name, "Main Street Baptist Society," February 15, 1864. In 1877 
the chapel was enlarged at a cost of about $5,000. 

Under Rev. George B. Gow, the third pastor, April, 1867, — Nov., 
1872, Dewey Street Church was organized as the outcome of a mission 
conducted by the church. During this time Worcester Academy was 
kept as a separate and local institution by the gift of funds by the church 
members. 

The fourth pastor was Rev. F. W. Bakeman, May, 1873, — July, 
1876. 

Services for the French people then begun resulted in the present 
French chapel and work on Beacon street. Rev. George E. Hoar, pas- 
tor from November, 1877, to November, 1881, was active in forming 
the City Mission Board, and during his term the building was enlarged. 

Rev. Henry A. Rogers of Montpelier, Vt., was the sixth pastor, from 
January, 1883, — October 27, 1886. Canterbury Street Chapel was built, 
and in 1884 the Jamesville Branch was organized, and under the leader- 
ship of Rev. Mr. Rogers fifty-five members left to form the South Baptist 
Church. Prof. Charles R. Brown, of the Newton Theological Seminary, 
was acting pastor for a time. 

Rev. Charles H. Pendleton served Sept., 1887,— April, 1894, to be 
followed by Rev. Leo B. Thomas, July, 1896,— Dec, 1901. In 1895, 
Rev. Howard B. Grose was in charge. In this period the meeting house 
was renovated at a cost of about $9,000, and an new organ installed. 
The largest Main street membership was in 1901, 384 members. In 1902 
this church again joined with the First Church. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary of the ordination of the first pastor 
was appropriately celebrated November 2, 1879. Dr. Wayland himself 
preached and his discourse was published. After February 10, 1881, 
membership in the parish was limited to members of the church. In 
1883 a unique way of abolishing the double government was found. The 
property was deeded to the deacons in trust for the church and the parish 
meeting adjourned and though not formally dissolved, it was afterward 
defunct. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 833 



Dewey Street Baptist Church. — A Sunday school, organized in the 
Mason street school house, the first Sunday in August, 1867, by L. M. 
Sargent and others, was the foundation of this church. For many 
years Hon. Joseph H. Walker was superintendent, and the school grew 
rapidly. A chapel was built on Dewey street on a lot given by Hon. 
Francis H. Dewey, Sr., and Joseph Mason, the property valued at about 
$5,000. After the chapel was dedicated, February 8, 1872, religious 
services were held there and a church was organized July 8, with twenty- 
eight members. 

The first pastor was L. M. Sargent, a layman, founder of the church; 
he was called May 2, 1872. The church was formally recognized in a 
council held September 5. Mr. Sargent resigned on account of ill health. 
May 2, 1873. Rev. D. F. Lamson, the second pastor, served from June 
1, 1973, to January 1, 1882; Rev. B. H. Lane from June 1, 1882, to Octo- 
ber 15, 1884; Rev. Darius H. Stoddard from October 19, 1884, to Mar. 
24, 1893; Rev. Albert W. Weeks, Aug 1, 1893, to May 19, 1895; Rev. 
Harlan Page Smith, Apr. 1, 1895, to June 30, 1898 ; Rev. Orson E. Mal- 
lory, Oct. 1, 1898, to Oct. 1, 1911; Rev. John C. Breaker, Mar. 20, 1912, 
to Nov. 5, 1916; Rev. Matthew Francis came March 1, 1917. 

The meeting house at 305 Park avenue was built during Mr. Stod- 
dard's pastorate. He was aided by the City Mission Board, which con- 
tributed $7,000, and more land was purchased. The church cost $14,- 
666.18. It was first used for services on Thanksgiving Day in 1886, and 
dedicated January 13, 1887. There is no parish organization ; the seats 
are free. From time to time the church has been altered and improved. 

Lincoln Square Baptist Church. — This church was organized April 
4, 1881, with thirty-one members, coming chiefly from the Pleasant Street 
Church. During the following summer Rev. D. F. Lamson of the Dewey 
Street Church filled the pulpit. The first pastor. Rev. Judson J. Miller, 
came in October. Services were first held in a hall, but through the 
energy and industry of the pastor funds were raised, and in May, 1882, 
the lot on Highland street near Main was occupied by the present meet- 
ing house was bought and the church dedicated June 10, 1884. The 
total cost was about $30,000, the largest contributors being Hon. Joseph 
H. Walker and the Main Street Baptist Church. The seats are free; 
there is no parish. 

The church has been favored with able and popular ministers. Mr. 
Miller's pastorate ended in 1892. He was succeeded by Rev. Frank S. 
Weston, 1892-95; Rev. Frank D. Penny was pastor from 1897 to 1902; 
Rev. Edward M. Saunier, 1903-1913; Rev. David Miller, since 1914. 
The church had an Italian Mission on Shrewsbury street. Gaetano Lisi 
was in charge 1911-12; and Antonio Sannella has been pastor since 1914. 

Newton Square Baptist Church. — This church was organized as the 
First Free Baptist Church of Worcester, April 7, 1881. For several 
W.-I-S3. 



834 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

years the place of meeting was a hall in the Clark Building. The brick 
church building erected on Wellington street was first occupied in 
March, 1892. 

The Wellington street property was sold to the United Presbyterian 
Church in May, 1903, and used jointly by the two bodies until the com- 
pletion of the new frame building erected at the corner of Pleasant street 
and Elm avenue, now Elmwood street. This building was first occupied 
March 30, 1905. 

The church was recognized as a regular Baptist church April 10, 
1911, and the corporate name was changed to "Newton Square Baptist 
Church of Worcester, Mass." 

The church has been served by eleven pastors as follows : Revs. A. 
J. Eastman, 1880-1882; Hibbert Lockhart, 1883-87; D. D. Mitchell, 
1887-89; F. D. George, 1890-92; C. G. Mosher, 1893-95; John Malvern, 
1896-97; Essek W. Kenyon, 1897-98; A. C. Thompson, 1898-1903; R. 
S. W. Roberts, 1904-07; E. R. Coswell, 1907-10; George L. Hibbard, 
1911 — . 

South Baptist Church. — This church was organized Oct. 28, 1886, 
in the Canterbury street chapel, by a colony from the Main street church, 
from which 57 persons were dismissed for that purpose. Rev. Henry A. 
Rogers was the first pastor. The oflfer of the Pilgrim Congregational 
Church of the use of their meeting house was accepted vuitil the new 
church had a home of its own. A lot was bought at the corner of Main 
and Gates streets, of Calvin Hartshorn. Deacons Richardsons, Stevens, 
Moulton and Ellis were elected trustees. 

The City Mission Board offered the new church a chapel that was to 
be moved from the Dewey street lot. Dean & Son contracted to move 
the building, and the work was finally accomplished. The route was 
through Park avenue, Shirley street, through vacant lots along Wood- 
land street, across Clark University land to Main street, a distance of a 
mile and a quarter. It was soon repaired and occupied. It was decided 
to erect a new building, May 2, 1896. Fuller, Delano & Fuller prepared 
the plans. The final service in the old church was held July 5, 1896, and 
it was immedately taken down. J. G. Vaudreuil was the contractor at 
about $15,000. William Wattie was chairman of the building committee. 
Reed of West Boylston built the new organ. The building was partly 
occupied the first Sunday in February, 1897. John R. Back, Rufus 
Colby, W. J. Eddy, Dr. M. B. Flinn and James McNeill served on commit- 
tees on organ, pews, heating, etc. The ladies of the church worked hard 
to raise funds. A memorial window was given by Miss Carrie Pickford ; 
another by Mr. Back; a third by the Young People's Society; a fourth 
by Mr. and Mrs. Henry Howard ; and others by Sunday school classes. 
Mr. Rogers was pastor until 1889. Since then the pastors have 
been: Rev. E. B. Haskell, 1890-92; Rev. T. Richard Peede, 1893-1901; 
Rev. Arthur S. Burrows, 1902-12; Rev. Manford D. Wolfe, 1913 — . 



AND ITS PEOPLE 835 

Adams Square Baptist Church. — This church was organized in 1889. 
Its place of worship is at 190 Lincohi street, corner of Oilman. Rev. 
Daniel W. Hoyt, the first pastor, from 1889 to 1897, and now, pastor 
emeritus, is living in this city. Rev. John S. Holmes, 1898-1902, was 
succeeded by Rev. Francis L. Church, 1903-05 ; Rev. Frank Hare was 
pastor 1906-08; Rev. C. Percy Christopher, 1908-12; Rev. Mahlon S. 
Tuneson, 1912-13. Since 1916, Rev. John S. Blair has been pastor. 

Greendale Baptist Church. — This church grew out of a Baptist Sun- 
day school established in 1884 and maintained until the church was 
organized in 1897. Rev. Joseph Ellison was pastor in 1893. The meet- 
ing house is on West Boylston street, Greendale. 

The pastors have been : Rev. Guy F. Wheeler, 1897-1901 ; Rev. 
Darius H. Stoddard (acting), 1902-03; Rev. WiUiam D. Mackinnon, 1904- 
06; Rev. Charles T. Reekie, 1907-09; Rev. Walter L. Stone, the present 
pastor, since 1910. 

Quinsigamond Baptist Church. — This church, organized in 1901, has 
its place of worship at Stebbins street. It grew out of a mission of the 
First Baptist Church, organized in 1885 at Quinsigamond Village. Rev. 
Guy F. Wheeler was pastor, 1892-96; Rev. Howard H. Roach, 1896-97; 
Rev. John H. Bourne, 1898-1900; Rev. C. W. Turner, 1901-02; Rev. 
Herbert J. Lane, 1903-05; Rev. Charles A. Nutting, 1905-1908; Rev. 
Hamilton E. Chapman, since 1908. 

Rev. Hamilton Edgar Chapman was born at North Stonington, Conn., August 14, 
1865, son of Edgar and Mary H. (Smith) Chapman. He graduated from Brown 
University (A. B. 1890) and Newton Seminary (1893) ; was pastor of churches at 
New Hartford, Conn., 1893-95; Haverhill, 1895-1905; Millbury, 1905-09. He has been 
clerk of the Worcester Baptist Association since 1908. He is a member of Phi Delta 
Theta. He married in this city, June 18, 1890, S. Belle Coffin, born here December 15, 
1869, daughter of George W. and Isabel (Carr) Coffin. Her father was born in 
Lowell, 1832, was a wholesale confectioner in this city for thirty-five years, died here 
in 1905; her mother was a native of Newmarket, N. H. Rev. Mr. Chapman has four 
children: George H., graduate of Middlebury College (1916), now in the Coast Artil- 
lery; Mabelle S., graduate of Wheelock School (1916) ; Eugene, married, 1915, Velma 
Wood, and has a son, Carl W., born 1916; C. Barnard, born 1900. 

Oak Hill Baptist Church.— The Oak Hill branch of the Lincoln 
Square Baptist Church was started as a French mission by the Pleasant 
Street Church in 1893, and became an independent church since Nov. 21, 
1916, with 61 members. The place of worship is on Orient street. The 
pastors have been : Rev. Arthur St. James, 1893-1903 ; Rev. William 
D. MacKinnon, 1905-06 ; Rev. John H. Lingley, 1907-11 ; Rev. Fred. D. 
Johnson, 1912-15; and Rev. Frank L. Hopkins, since 1916. Harry A. 
Merson was clerk, 1917. 

First Freewill Baptist Church. — The first meeting of the Freewell 
Baptists was held at the home of Newell Tyler, September 14, 1880, and 
from that time meetings at various houses were held until the church was 
organized April 7, 1881, with thirty members. The church was incor- 



836 HISTORY O'F WORCESTER 

porated September 1, 188T. Rev. A. J. Eastman, the founder, was first 
pastor, installed April 7, 1881. Rev. H. Lockhart, second pastor, served 
from May 1, 1883, to March 1, 1887; Rev. D. D. Mitchell, 1887-90; F. 
D. George, 1890-93; Rev. C. G. Mosher, 1894-5; John Malvern, 1896-7; 
Rev. Essek W. Kenyon, 1897-98; Rev. Albert C. Thompson, 1898-1903; 
Rev. Richard W. Roberts, 1904-07; Rev. Ernest R. Caswell, 1904-10. 
George A. Whittemore was superintendent of the Sunday school for 
many years. 

The place of worship was in Free Baptist Hall, in the Clark Build- 
ing, 492 Main street, until the building of the meeting house at 63 Well- 
ington street, in 1892. The church was disbanded in 1910. 

Jamesville Baptist Mission. — In 1885 a mission was established on 
Clover street under the leadership of the old Main Street Baptist Church. 
This mission has since grown to the proportions of a church in member- 
ship and usefulness to the community. Among its ministers were : 
Rev. S. T. Livermore, 1892-93; Rev. Arthur St. James, 1894-95; Rev. 
Guy F. Wheeler, 1896-98; Rev. Charles R. Simmons, 1902; Rev. John 
H. Lingley, 1905-06; Rev. Albert S. Woodworth, 1907-10. During the 
years when there was no regular minister, the church was supplied by 
pastors of the different churches. Rev. Leo Boone Thomas of the Main 
Street Church, Rev. Simeon Spidle of the Pleasant Street Church, and 
Rev. William D. MacKennon of the Greendale Church were among 
these. 

Since 1910, under the present leader, Curtis H. Morrow, the mis- 
sion has doubled its membership, which is now 56, and trebled its Sun- 
day school which now numbers 100. 

Baptist City Mission Board. — This was organized in the Main Street 
Baptist Church, November 6, 1880. Rev. G. E. Horr of the Main St. 
Church, was chairman, and Rev. D. F. Lamson of the Dewey St. Church 
was clerk. Four members of the First Baptist, Pleasant St., Main St. 
and Dewey St. churches constituted the original board. 

The immediate object of the Board was to have oversight of Bap- 
tist missionary work already begun among the French of the city, and 
to engage a resident missionary. Since its organization, its work has 
been to aid churches, and to establish missions in the city wherever it 
was thought advisable. Several of these missions have since become 
self supporting churches. 

The Beacon St. Chapel was the first built by the board ; then the 
colored Baptists were aided in building a chapel on John St. The Swed- 
ish brethren, after holding meetings in a hall, were aided to build a 
church, and now there are two strong Swedish Baptist churches. Finan- 
cial aid has been given in the building of Lincoln Square church, Dewey 
street, Jamesville, South Baptist, Adams Square, Quinsigamond, Green- 
dale and Oak Hill. Resident missionaries among the French Swedes, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 837 

Finns, and Italians have been supported wholly or in part, and have done 
faithful work. The Board have expended upon the work more than $65,000 
in the thirty-seven years. 

Baptist Missions. — The French Baptist Mission founded in 1873 ; 
The Harlem Street Baptist Church; The First Swedish Baptist Church; 
the First Swedish-Finnish Baptist Church ; the French Baptist Mission- 
ary Church, and the Italian Mission of the Lincoln Square Baptist 
Church, are given under the heads of the nationalities to which they 
belong. 

The First Baptist Church supported a mission at 170 Beacon street 
for many years ; it was founded in 1890. Rev. Arthur St. James was pas- 
tor, 1892-1903, and Rev. S. C. Delagneau, 1903-1914. 

A mission at Lakeview was flourishing in the early nineties, and had 
as pastor Rev. J. H. Elison in 1893. 

Baptist Social Union. — This was a loosely formed organization 
founded in 1893 for holding dinners and social occasions at which mem- 
bers of the denomination could be addressed by celebrated speakers from 
outside. Franklin A. Caswell has been president in recent years ; John 
R. Back, vice-president. 

The Conference of Baptist ministers of Worcester and vicinity 
includes in its membership the various clergymen of this denomination. 
Rev. E. J. Nordlander was president in 1917. 



CHAPTER LIV 

Methodist Episcopal Church — Trinity Church — Grace Church — Trow- 
bridge Memorial — Park Avenue — Church of the Covenant — Coral 
Street — Laural Street — Various Societies 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — The foundation of the present Trinity 
Church, formerly the First Methodist, was laid when a parish known as 
the "Methodist Episcopal Religious Society in the town of Worcester," 
was formed by thirteen persons. Rev. Freeborn Garrettson visited the 
town in 1790, and Bishop Asbury in 1798, 1805, 1807, 1813 and 1815. But 
Rev. John E. Risley preached the first Methodist sermon, in 1823, in the 
school house in New Worcester. Rev. Dexter S. King was appointed 
here in 1830, organized a class at New Worcester and preached once in 
two weeks. Solomon Parsons and wife became Methodists and joined 
in 1833 ; Jonathan L. Estey, who came in 1833, was the leader in the vil- 
lage, hiring a room at the corner of Mechanic and Union streets early in 
1833 for the use of a class. Rev. William Routledge preached here from 
time to time; also in the vestry of Central Church and in the Baptist 
Church. In the fall of 1833 the Town Hall was secured for meeting. 
Early in 1834 Joseph A. Merrill, who was Conference Agt., occupied 
the pulpit in Town Hall and it was this year that a legal organization 
was formed, July 8. Under the advice of Bro. Merrill the people met 
in Town Hall and a legal organization known as The Methodist Epis- 
copal Religious Society in Town of Worcester was formed. 

In June, 1834, Rev. George Pickering was appointed preacher and 
had charge of classes in adjacent towns. In the first year the member- 
ship grew to 107. In 1835 Rev. John T. Burrill was appointed. An 
historical incident occurred Aug. 10, 1835, during the delivery of an 
anti-slavery sermon by Presiding Elder Rev. Orange Scott, who was 
assaulted by Levi Lincoln Jr. and another, who tore his sermon into 
pieces. The selectmen then notified the church that no more anti-sla- 
very sermons would be permitted in the town hall, which was the place of 
worship at that time. 

In 1836 the building of a meeting house was begun at the southeast 
corner of Exchange and Union streets, completed March, 1837, and ded- 
icated. The Spy advertised the dedication but gave no account of it 
afterward. Rev. James Porter was pastor in 1837, and 175 were added 
to the membership that year. Rev. Johan Horton was pastor next 
year (1838). 

Following have been pastors since then : Moses L. Scudder, 1839- 
40; Miner Raymond, 1841-3; Charles K. True, D. D., 1843; Amos Bin- 
ney, 1844-5; Jona. D. Bridge, 1846-7; Loranus Crowell, 1848; Nelson 



840 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

E. Cobleigh, 1849-50; Zacheus A. Mudge, 1851-2; Daniel E. Chapin, 
1853-4; Fales H. Newhall, 1855-56; Chester Field, 1857-58; John H. 
Twombly, 1859-60; John Wm. Dadmun, 1861-3; Daniel E. Chapin, 1863- 
4; John H. Mansfield, 1865-6-7; Chas. N. Smith, 1868-9-70; Willard 
Francis Mallalieu, afterward bishop, 1871; Ira G. Bidwell, 1872-3; V. 
A. Cooper, 1874-5-6, (who reduced the debt by $35,000) ; Amos A. B. 
Kendig, 1877-78; J. A. Cass, 1879-80-81; Chas. S. Rogers, D. D., 1882- 
83-84; Willard T. Perrin, 1885-7; Wm. H. Thomas, 1888-89-90; John 

D. Pickles, 1891-4; Raymond F. Holway, 1895-7; George W. King, 
1898-1902; Samuel M. Dick, 1903-06; Harvey W. Ewing, 1907-14; Leo- 
pold A. Nies, since 1914. 

While the new church was building services were held in the town 
hall. 

The original church was burned in 1844 during the pastorate of Mr. 
True. The new church on Park street on the present site of the Ban- 
croft Hotel was dedicated August 16, 1845. The next building, corner 
of Main and Chandler streets, was dedicated April 25, 1871; cost $100,- 
000. This is the present edifice. 

Grace Church. — This was organized in 1867 as Main Street Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, and Rev. J. Oramel Peck was its first pastor, 
1867-69. Meetings were held in Washburn Hall and the Lincoln House. 
The Sunday school became one of the largest in the city. In the first 
two years the society raised about $20,000. The meeting house on Wal- 
nut street was completed in 1872, and the name changed to Grace M. 

E. Church. The vestry was occupied in July, 1871 ; the church was ded- 
icated in January, 1872. The second pastor was Rev. Andrew McKeon, 
1870-71, and the third Rev. J. O. Knowles, 1872. He w^as also twice 
pastor of the Webster Square Church. Pastors since then : C. D. Hills, 
1873-5; Geo. S. Chadbourne, afterward presiding elder, 1876-8; J. W. 
Johnston, 1879-81; D. H. Ela, D. D., 1882-4; Geo. Whitaker, prominent 
in no-license work here, afterward president of Wiley University, 1885- 
87; John Galbraith, 1888-90; Wm. T. Worth, 1891-93; Wm. J. Thomp- 
son, 1894-8; James B. Brady, 1899-1903; Edmund B. Patterson, 1904- 
06; Frederic A. Gould, 1907-8; John S. Charlton, 1909-11; Berton L. Jen- 
nings, since 1912. 

Trowbridge Memorial Church. — The Third Methodist Church was 
formed by a colony from Trinity in 1860, and its first pastor was Rev. 
Daniel Dorchester, a prime mover in its organization. He had previously 
been a State senator in Connecticut and was afterward in the General 
Court of this State ; became very prominent as historian and statistician, 
temperance advocate ; was presiding elder, etc. 

At first the new church worshipped in Union Hall. The pastors 
have been since the first: Rev. Wm. Gordon, 1863; Wm. A. Braman, 
1864; Wm. Pentecost, 1866; Edward Virgin, 1867; Benj. F. Chase, 
1869; Chas. H. Hanaford, 1870-1; Pliny Wood, 1872; Mr. Parsons, 1873; 



AND ITS PEOPLE 841 

E. A. Titus, 1875; V. M. Simmons, 1878; Daniel Richardson, 1879; J. 
W. Finn, 1880; N. Fellows, 1882; J. O. Knowles, 1883; L. W. Staples, 
1886 ; some serving for several yearly terms, the date being given only 
of their first year. Since then: Rev. Henry Duer, 1888-91; W. N. 
Richardson, 1891-6; Geo. W. Mansfield, 1896-9; Benj. F. Kingsley, 
1899-03; J. O. Knowles, 1903-05 (second pastorate); W. H. Dockham, 
1905-13; Frank T. Pomeroy, 1913-14; Carl G. Bader, since 1914. In 
1917, Rev. Tobias Foss (April to Dec.) resigned on account of ill health. 
Rev. Arthur G. Wright succeeded him. 

The meeting house was erected at Webster Square in 1871, the 
largest contributors to the building fund being Albert Curtis and the 
Goes family. It was dedicated April 37, 1871. It cost about $30,000. 
The name was changed in 1901: from Webster Square Church to the 
present name, Trowbridge Memorial Church. 

Park Avenue Church. — This church was established in 1891, its 
meeting house on Park avenue near May street. Rev. Alonzo Sander- 
son was pastor from 1893-1901; Lauress J. Birney, 1901; Alfred C. 
Skinner, 1903-05; James W. Higgins, 1905-06 ; Isaac H. Parkhurst, 1907- 
10; Howard F. Legg, 1910-11; Herbert G. Buckingham, 1911-14; George 
E. Folk, 1915-17; Charles E. Spaulding, 1917; Mr. Folk is in France 
(1918) in Y. M. C. A. work. He was pastor of Upham Church, Dor- 
chester, in 1917. 

Bethel Church. — This was founded in 1867. Its place of worship is 
at 369 Park avenue. Rev. William B. Perry has been pastor since 1903. 

For First and Second Swedish Churches, see chapter on Swedish 
people. 

Church of the Covenant. — The following narrative is by Mr. Jerome 
M. Stone: 

A Sunday school was organized Oct. 19, 1884, in the house of John Streeter, corner 
of Grafton street and Grafton Place, by the young people of Union Church, with W. 
W. Green as superintendent. The young people did not feel confident to take a class 
of eight grown-up people, so the class was asked to select a teacher and J. M. Stone 
was chosen. There was an attendance of about 60. Then they began to talk of a 
church. The people in this section said that if that was done it would be necessary to 
have prayer meetings, but the Union Church people objected. 

Rev. Albert Bryant, superintendent of Worcester Missionary Society, was con- 
sulted, and it was decided to have cottage prayer meetings and J. M. Stone was asked 
to take charge. Once a month pastors from other churches preached, and meetings 
were held weekly on Thursday evenings, with an attendance of from thirty to sixty. 
Many homes were opened for the meetings. 

June 15, 1885, it was decided that a chapel on Houghton street was needed to 
relieve Mrs. Streeter and also to give us more room. A building committee was 
chosen to solicit funds and find a suitable lot : P. W. Moen, W. W. Green, L. Stowe 
and J. M. Stone. J. M. Stone was elected treasurer, and put in charge of the build- 
ing. The contract was awarded to Frank Holland for $1150. The chapel had but one 
room, which is the present auditorium. This was dedicated Oct. 15, 1885. Rev. Albert 
Bryant, pastor, preached mornings at Houghton street. 



842 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

A council was called to organize the church with three branches : viz : Houghton 
street, South Worcester, and Lake View, Dec. lo, 1885. The council desiring more 
time, council adjourned to Dec. 22, to meet in the vestry at Plymouth Church. The 
council organized with Rev. Geo. W. Phillips, D. D., moderator, and Rev. H. A. 
Stimson, D. D., scribe. Exercises of recognition; reception of members, Rev. H. A. 
Stimson, D. D. ; right hand of fellowship, Rev. W. T. Sleeper; charge to church, Rev. 
C. M. Southgate; prayer of consecration. Rev. Albert Bryant. 

Officers of Houghton Street Church: Pastor, Rev. Albert Bryant. Members of 
Advisory Board: from City Missionary Society: P. W. Moen, Solon Bryant. Su- 
perintendent of Sunday school, W. W. Greene. Deacons, Jerome M. Stone, Benjamin 
F. Scribner. Treasurer, Romeo D. Learned. Secretary, Henry L. Scribner. 

There were 23 charter members at Houghton street, Oct. 14, 1889, Rev. M. H. 
Hitchcock then acting pastor. It was decided that each section of the Church of the 
Covenant be made a separate church, and that, if the other sections approved, they 
adopt a name. Lake View adopted that name and South Worcester chose the name 
of Hope Church, Houghton street to retain the present name. A committee from 
each section was chosen to call a council. Nov. 6, the City Missionary Society approved 
(records missing) ; but the council was called and approved, and the new Church 
of the Covenant was received into fellowship in the Worcester Central Conference, 
and later incorporated according to the laws of Massachusetts. 

In the fall of 1892 it was decided to raise the church up and put a vestry under 
it and to put on the front vestibule. It was dedicated March 17, 1893. The order of 
services was as follows : Scripture Reading, Rev. W. T. Sleeper ; Statement by Pas- 
tor, Rev. J. E. Hurlbut; Addresses by Rev. Daniel Merriman, D. D. ; Rev. David 
O. Mears, D. D. ; Rev. Archibald McCuUough, D. D. ; Presentation of keys, L. P. 
Forbush; Acceptance, William Allison. 

Pastors: Revs. Albert Bryant, Milan H. Hitchcock, John E. Hurlbut (10 years), 
Lyman Mevis, Eugene B. Hughes, Baptist, J. H. Alathews, Geo. D. Bivin, Rufus M. 
Taft (taken ill after six months' service, and died in September, 1912). 

In December, 1912, on advice of the Worcester City Missionary Society and the 
superintendent of the Massachusetts Home Missionary Societies, it was unanimously 
voted to extend an invitation to Coral Street Methodist Episcopal Church to bring 
their pastor and to worship with us. The invitation was accepted; after due delibera- 
tion, it was decided to call a council of Congregational Churches to advise with the 
Church of the Covenant. A plan was formed to unite with Coral Street. On March 
9, 1913, at the communion service, 91 members of the Church of the Covenant joined 
Coral Street Methodist Episcopal Church by letter and 9 on confession, making 100 
at the service. Addresses were given by Rev. W. G. Colgrove, Rev. Geo. D. Bivin, 
and J. M. Stone. The fellowship and brotherly love with which all have worked 
together since has been wonderful. 

The finances of the Church of the Covenant were a matter of difficulty at first. 
The City Mission Society gave $400 a year; and for the past few years, $300, the 
Massachusetts Home Mission Society giving the same amount. The Church of the 
Covenant has taken in 209 members ; many have moved away, and 18 have died. 

Coral Street Church. — The following is condensed from an histor- 
ical narrative by Mrs. C. E. L. Merrill : 

Coral Street Church stood upon historic ground. History tells us that the Indian 
name of Sagatabscot was given to designate the beautiful hill southeast of the little 
village of Worcester. But before the onward march of civilization the Indian must 
recede, his name be forgotten, so Sagatabscot gave place to Union, which is now, as it 
has been since, the name of the hill where the church was located. In 1869 the first 
prayer meeting was held in the home of Jerusha Adams, on Branch street. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 843 

The Ladies' Aid Society started its work early in 1871 before the land was pur- 
chased, and was called the Union Hill Circle, with Mrs. Hannah Lincoln, a Congre- 
gational lady, as first president. Rev. Andrew McKeon, the most prominent Metho- 
dist pastor in the city, was the father of the church; and with a voluntary com- 
mittee from the different M. E. churches on Sept. 15, 1871, a lot was purchased on the 
corner of Waverly and Coral streets at a cost of 40 cents a foot. Open-air services 
were held in September, and when the weather became too cold the meetings were 
held in what was then known as Schofield's Block, at the corner of Coral and Grafton 
streets. 

Through the earnest efforts of Bro. McKeon, $1800 was accumulated for a build- 
ing fund, and the following committee was formed to carry on a mission : Rev. A. 
McKeon, Fred A. Clapp, P. F. White, Grace Church; Rev. C. N. Smith, Alpheus 
Walker, Geo. F. Buttrick, Trinity' Church ; Rev. Wm. Pentecost, L. W. Pond, Geo. 
W. Paul, Laurel Street Church; and Rev. John Toulmin, of Webster Square Church. 
Jan. 14, 1872, a Sunday school was organized, with John L. Parker as superintendent. 
March 27, 1872, Rev. E. S. Chase was appointed pastor, and regular preaching ser- 
vices were held in the same block. May 8, 1872, the church was organized with 17 
members : Mr. and Mrs. Wm. H. Van Ornum, Mr. and Mrs. Lyman Bowers, Han- 
nah M. Keyser, Jerusha Adams, Waldo Adams, Alpheus Walker, Jos. Dyer, Fred 
E. Grover, Caroline Grover, Geo. H. Mills, Alary J. Mills, Elisha Perry, Mary J. 
Perry, Kate M. Thurston, Geo. H. Whittemore. 

Adeline Gordon broke the ground, throwing the first shovel of earth. Soon after 
the building was begun, N. H. Clark became one of the trustees and proved a liberal 
helper and friend for many years. April 16, 1873, the church was dedicated as the 
Union Hill M. E. Church. Bishop A. Wiley was present, and Rev. B. L Ives of 
New York gave the dedicatory address. Bro. Chase was a hard-working, earnest 
Christian, and under his administration, 50 were baptized, 98 received into membership, 
and 175 in the Sunday school. In the spring of 1875, Rev. H. D. Weston became pas- 
tor. 

In the fall of 1875 the society bought a new camp-meeting tent at Sterling Junc- 
tion. Jan. 29th it was resolved to build a vestry under the audience room, and Dec. 
12, 1875, the vestry was dedicated; $1500 was raised that day, and the vestry paid for. 
In 1877-78 it was voted to build a parsonage on the lot adjoining the church, and this 
was dedicated and occupied by the pastor Feb. 21, 1878. 

In 1876 the name of the church was changed to Coral Street M. E. Church. The 
church property was much improved but its members faced an enormous debt. Rev. 
Jesse Wagner was sent to the church in 1878, and the debt at that time was $19,550.00, 
which was not reduced during Bro. Wagner's ministry as no satisfactory settlement 
could be arranged, but many were added to the church. During December a fair net- 
ted $1000. A Little Old Folks' Concert was held in Coral street, later in Horticul- 
tural Hall, and finally in Mechanics Hall,— the first of its kind ever held in Wor- 
cester. It was under the leadership of Mrs. J. Wagner and Mrs. H. W. Hastings; 
seventy children were in costume of "ye olden tyme," with George W. Hastings, aged 
12, as Father Time. 

In the spring of 1880 the alteration in the location of organ and choir was made, 
and the church carpeted. In April, 1881, came Rev. A. F. Herrick. Early in his 
pastorate there was a marked religious interest, with the help of Mrs. Maggie Van 
Cott; 41 were baptized, 50 received into full membership. A dark cloud arose in the 
form of financial difficulty, but Mr. H. C. Graton saved the church from financial 
bankruptcy, and in 1882 all claims were settled. 

During April, 1883, Rev. Charles Young was appointed pastor ; 26 were taken 
into the church and 16 baptized; the first wedding was held in the church December 
10, 1885, C. E. Linnie Johnson and Ernest R. Merrill being the contracting parties. 
Rev. William P. Ray came in 1886; owing to much sickness in his family, he did his 



844 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



work under trying circumstances ; 31 were baptized, 59 received into full member- 
ship. In 1889, Rev. J. O. Knowles became pastor. In November of 1890 a chapter 
of the Epworth League was organized, with Geo. W. Hastings as president; 51 mem- 
bers were registered. The church was painted, beside other minor repairs; 39 were 
received into membership, 13 baptized. On May 8, 1890, was observed the twentieth 
anniversary. The grounds were graded, and the fence built to enclose the church 
property. 

Rev. J. H. Emerson followed Bro. Knowles in July, 1893. November 6, 1893, Mrs. 
Grace Weiser Davis conducted revival services for twelve days; 32 persons were 
received into the church as the fruit of these meetings. In April, 1895, the conference 
sent Rev. H. P. Rankin. A revival conducted by Bro. Webber was held, and 24 were 
received into full membership and many on probation. In 1896, Rev. Geo. E. Sander- 
son was appointed pastor. His executive ability is undisputed and the financial stand- 
ing of the church was greatly improved. In a report Bro. Sanderson states that "up 
to this time there have been 235 persons baptized, 356 received on probation, 505 taken 
into full membership. Raised for benevolent purposes, $6500, current expenses, 
$14,700, and for salaries, $41,231. At the present time the membership is 120." 

Sunday, December 5, 1898, was celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary, with a 
powerful sermon by Rev. M. B. Chapman of Boston University; Dec. 8th, an anniver- 
sary banquet was held, with former pastors and members present. October 30th, revival 
services were held by Bro. William Park and wife. During 1899 the vestry was reno- 
vated. In 1901 the auditorium was frescoed and painted, at an expense of $300. 

Rev. J. W. Fulton was sent in April, 1901. He came with a full determination 
to pay off the church debt, and with the aid" of the City Missionary Society, and the 
estate of one of our most faithful members, Jared Allen, he was successful. Mr. 
Allen was a generous giver to the church he loved in life, and at his death gave his 
home on Mendon street to help pay the debt. Bro. Graton once more proved a friend 
in need, and in January, 1906, at a gathering of presiding elders, former pastors and 
members, a jubilee was held to celebrate the cancelling of the mortgage. 

In April, 1906, Rev. Geo. H. Cheney became pastor. He remained two years, and 
was followed by Rev. Arthur Wright in 1908. This was the first young man we had 
had, and he came full of life and enthusiasm. The Baracca Class was used by Bro. 
Wright in spiritual work, and a kindergarten organized under the Philatheas to care 
for the children during morning service proved a great success. In 1909, Mr. Geo. C. 
Bryant of Trinity Church gave an altar for the vestry. 

January 25th, 191 1, Mrs. Mary A. Whitney entered into rest. She left to Coral 
Street Church the sum of $500 to be known as the A. T. Whitney Fund, the income 
to be used in general work. The membership increased from 115 to 144 during Bro. 
Wright's three years' pastorate. The last wedding held in the church was that of 
George W. Green and Luna Belle Stanley. 

The last pastor sent to the Coral Ctreet Church was Rev. Gladstone Colgrove, 
who came in April, 1912. After being here a few months he was convinced that it 
was advisable to sell the Coral street property and buy the Houghton street, uniting 
the two churches. On Jan. 13, 1913, the trustees were authorized to purchase the 
Houghton street property, and to sell the Coral street property. The last service held 
in the church was the funeral of Hannah M. Johnson, who had been a member since 
September, 1873. After taking up the work of the Covenant M. E. Church, the lot on 
Hamilton street was bought, the price being $9000. A parsonage was built costing 
$4700 completed, exclusive of land. The uniting of the two churches proved to be a 
success and union and harmony prevailed. 

Rev. E. C. Bridgham succeeded Bro. Colgrove in April, 191 5. In the spring of 
1917 ground was broken for the new church on Hamilton street, the cost to be $25,000; 
$17,000 was given by the City Missionary Society, the balance of $8000 to be cared for 
by the church. Edwin T. Chapin was the architect, and L. O. Irish of Auburn the 



AND ITS PEOPLE 845 

contractor and builder. The laying of the cornerstone was May 26, 1917. To date 
the membership stands 213, in full membership, and 13 probationers. 

Laurel Street Church. — A colony from the First Methodist Church 
left when the Park street location was fixed. For a time the congrega- 
tion had its place of worship on Thomas street. The church organiza- 
tion dates from July 20, 1845. The meeting house on Laurel street was 
dedicated Feb. 27, 1849. The first pastor, Richard S. Rust, remained 
seven months. Then followed Revs. J. W. Mowry ; George Dunbar; 
Francis A. Griswold ; Cyrus S. Eastoman, Wm. M. Mann, 1850; David 
H. Higgins; Jos. W. Lewis, 1853; J. W. Mowry (second pastorate); 
Henry W. Warren, afterward bishop, 1855 ; Ichabod Marcy, 1857 ; Sam- 
uel Kelly, 1858; Jos. C. Cromack, 1860-61; Rev. Jona. Hascall, former 
pres. elder, 1861, filling out the term of Mr. Cromack who became chap- 
lain of 19th Mass.; T. W. Lewis, 1862-3; James Dean, 1863; M. M. 
Parkhurst, 1864 ; Samuel Kelly (second pastorate) ; Angelo Carroll, 
1867; Wm. Pentecost, 1869; H. D. Weston, 1872; Wm. Pentecost 
(again), 1875; Fayette Nichols, 1878; Garrett Beekman, 1880 (under 
whom the congregation doubled); G. M. Smiley, 1883-6; Ira G. Ross, 
1886; Alonzo Sanderson, 1887-92; Joseph F. Kennedy, 1892-5; Geo. 
W. Mansfield, 1895-6; Harvey H. Paine, 1898-1903; Albert Sidney 
Gregg, 1903-05 ; Wm. A. Wood, 1905-08 ; Herbert G. Buckingham, 1908- 
12; Edward E. Small, 1911-15; A. Earl Kernahan, 1915-16. 

In 1916 the church became the Grace Church Branch, Laurel street, 
and the present pastor is Rev. Burton L. Jennings. 

Various Societies. — The Methodist Episcopal City Mission and 
Church Extension Society is similar to those of the other denominations. 
The officers in 1915 were: Vice-Pres., John Legg, E. Avery Brewer, 
Lester V. Bailey, Henry C. Graton; Sec, William A. Warden; Treas., 
H. Edwin Green. 

The Methodist Ministers Meeting of Worcester and vicinity has 
been in existence for a number of years and is similar to that of the other 
denominations. Rev. G. Edgar Folk was president in 1917. 

The Epworth League was organized May 15, 1889, in Cleveland, 
Ohio, uniting five organizations then existing in the Methodist churches. 
Leagues were organized here, as follows : Trinity, Oct., 1889 ; Grace, 
Oct., 1889; Laurel Street; Coral Street, Nov. 17, 1890; Webster Square, 
April 21, 1890; Thomas Street (Swedish) May, 1892; Bethel A. M. E. 
(colored). The work of each is similar. Weekly meetings are held; 
certain charities supported. The various societies, one in each of the 
Methodist churches, form the Worcester Circuit, of which Jonathan 
Cartmill has been president for several years. 



CHAPTER LV 

The Presbyterian Church — The First Church — Westminster United 

Presbyterian Church 

First Presbyterian Church. — The families of Scotch descent and 
Presbyterian principles who emigrated to this country from the North 
of Ireland, came to Worcester and established a church in the old garrison 
house near the intersection of the Boston and Lancaster roads. Rev, 
Edward Fitzgerald, from Londonderry, Ireland, was their first pastor 
and preached to them for some months. Soon they began to erect a 
church building, but this did not meet with approval of other inhabitants, 
who gathered and destroyed the building which was well under way. 
Discouraged by this opposition, they made no further attempt to build 
a sanctuary. Rev. Mr. Fitzgerald was compelled from want of financial 
support to leave and was later succeeded by Rev. Wm. Johnston. In 
1736 the congregation attempted to have their taxes for the support of 
the Old South Minister (the town minister) abated, because they were 
supporting another minister, but like all other such attempts to avoid 
the church rates of the Puritans, it failed. The church soon afterward 
seems to have disbanded and the members returned to the Congregational 
fold. Thus ended the first attempt to establish a Presbyterian church 
here. 

For nearly one hundred and fifty years there was no Presbyterian 
church in Worcester, no further efifort being made until Feb. 25, 1886, 
when a group of men and women met in the Y. M. C. A. rooms on Elm 
street to consider the organization of a Presbyterian church in connec- 
tion with the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America. Rev.' Joseph W. Sanderson, superintendent of N. E. 
Mission, presided. Elder Robert Gilchrist of Boston represented the 
Presbytery. No definite action was taken at this meeting, which was 
adjourned and met March 25 in Mechanics Hall. At this meeting fifty 
were present, and the following committee was elected : Geo. Edwards, 
R. J. McKay, Dr. H. D. Kurtz, Thos. Hamilton, Geo. Weir, James Rus- 
sell and Wm. Findlay, this committee to act until formal organization 
was perfected. 

On April 1, 1886, the first prayer meeting was held at the home of 
George Edward, 114 Beacon street, and was led by Dr. H. D. Kurtz. On 
April 4, 1886, the first preaching service was held at St. George's Hall. 
Rev. J. H. Ralston, from McPherson, Kansas, appointed by the Presby- 
tery to take charge, preached in the afternoon. A canvas of the city by 
Mr. Ralston soon settled the question of a church organization. A peti- 
tion signed by over one hundred names was presented to the Presbytery 



848 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

of Boston requesting the organization of a church in Worcester. This 
was granted, and May 27, 1886, Rev. V. A. Lewis of Boston presided 
and proceeded to organize the church in due form with 57 members. At 
this meeting Mr. Ralston was duly installed as pastor; the first elders, 
Geo. Edwards, Geo. Weir and Wm. Findlay, were also installed. 

In June, 1886, the church began to hold meetings in Continental 
Hall, and continued there until Sept. 1, 1887, when services were held 
in Curtis Hall, Y. M. C. A. building. Rev. Thos. Atkinson succeeded Mr. 
Ralston; he was installed May 1, 1890, and resigned in January, 1894. 
On Sept. 28, 1890, the meeting place changed to Horticultural Hall, and 
on April 5, 1891, to Washburn Hall. The next move was Sept. 27, 1891, 
to the church building on Kilby street which was bought from All Souls 
Universalist Church. 

The next minister was Rev. Alvah R. Scott, who came June 27, 1894, 
and was installed in October. He resigned Oct. 5, 1898. During his 
pastorate he studied at Clark University, and later received his degree 
of Ph.D. from the University of Wooster, Ohio. Rev. Andrew J. Bruck- 
lacher was pastor from May 1, 1899, until April 18, 1900. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Francis W. Beidler, who came Sept. 1, 1900, installed 
April 30, 1901, resigned June 18, 1902. During this period it was found 
that the church building on Kilby street was too far from the center of 
the city, so it was decided to locate further down town. On Oct. 2, 1901, 
Malta Temple on Main street, now occupied by the Hadley Furniture Co., 
was the next meeting place. Rev. McLeod Harvey was the next pastor, 
called from Haverhill, Mass.; he was installed Dec. 17, 1902, and 
resigned in August, 1913. During his pastorate the church acquired the 
church building formerly occupied by the Main street Baptist brethren at 
the corner of Main and Hermon streets. The acquisition of a church 
home meant much, even although loaded down by a heavy burden of 
debt, but through the efforts of the pastor and Rev. Chas. T. Schaeffer, 
chairman of the board of trustees, the Board of Church Erection of the 
Presbyterian Church made it possible to carry the burden. 

Rev. Chas. Allen Fisher, the present pastor, was installed Dec. 17, 
1913. John W. Armour was superintendent of the Sabbath school from 
Sept. 15, 1890, to Feb. 20, 1899, and from March 19, 1903, to March 31, 
1911, and from April il, 1915, to the present time. 

Westminster United Presbyterian Church. — The First United Pres- 
byterian Church was organized Jan. 29, 1895. The congregation was 
formed from colonists from Canada, and members from local churches, 
principally the United Presbyterians moving to Worcester from Whit- 
insville and Clinton, and from the First Presbyterian Church. For some 
time previous to organization, services were held in St. George's Hall, 
492 Main street, under the leadership of Rev. S. B. Haslett, Ph.D., pastor 
of the United Presbyterian church at Wilkinsonville, and shortly after its 
organization. Rev. Robert Hughes, of the Canadian Presbyterian Church, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 849 

began as supply. Mr. Hughes was called and installed as the first pastor, 
April 9, 1896, and continued until Oct. 20, 1901. The succeeding pastors 
have been: Rev. Newton J. Walter, 1902-03 (during whose pastorate 
the present property at 63 Wellington street was purchased and reded- 
icated) ; John B. Pollock, 1904-05; Matthew S. McCord, D. D., 1905-12; 
John A. Shaw, 1913; Paul L. Reynolds, 1914-17; F. Wight Tingley, 
1917 — . Rev. Mr. Tingley assumed charge in 1917. The name was 
changed from the First to the Westminster United Presbyterian Church 
when it was incorporated in 1903. The United Presbyterian denomi- 
nation is a psalm-singing body, and its missionary and educational work 
is of note. 



W.~I-54. 



CHAPTER LVI 

Protestant Episcopal Church — All Saints — St. John's — St. Matthew's 

St. Mark's— St. Luke's— Episcopal Church Club 

All Saints Church. — After one attempt that failed, Episcopalian ser- 
vices were held here in 1835, beginning Dec. 13 and attended by sixty- 
persons, Rev. Thos. H. Vaill being the preacher. A corporation, "Pro- 
prietors of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Worcester," was created 
April 8, 1836, Thos. H. Vaill, Ira M. Barton and Edward F. Dixie being 
named in the act. Mr. Vaill went away at the end of six months, dis- 
couraged at the prospects. He was afterward bishop of Kansas. 




ALL SAINTS' CHURCH. 

Services were resumed in 1842, and Dec. 35th, there was a service in 
the Central Church chapel, Thomas street, in charge of Rev. Fernando 
C. Putnam. He was succeeded by Rev. Henry Blackaller. At that time 
Thomas Bottomly and Chas. S. Ellis were wardens. Rev. Geo. T. Chap- 
man, D. D., came at Easter in 1844, and worked zealously for two years. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Geo. H. Clark, the first settled rector. He 
resigned in January, 1849, on account of ill health. His successor, Rev. 



852 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Nath. T. Bent, remained until the spring of 1852. During the next four 
years Rev. Archibald M. Morrison was rector. For three years the 
church was without a rector, Revs. William H. Brooks and Albert C. 
Patterson having charge. Rev. E. W. Hager became rector in Decem- 
ber, 1859, and resigned in August, 1862. 

The ministry of Rev. William R. Huntington, beginning Dec. 3, 
1862, when he was ordained here, and lasting twenty-one years, was a 
period of great growth and development, Nov. 26, 1883, Dr. Hunting- 
ton resigned to become rector of Grace Church, New York. After a 
period during which Rev. Lawrence H. Schwab was in charge. Rev. Alex. 
H. Vinton was chosen rector, April 11, 1884, and began his duties Sep- 
tember 1st. He resigned Feb. 25, 1902, and became Bishop of Western 
Massachustets. He was succeeded Jan. 1, 1903, by Rev. Thos. F. Da- 
vies, who resigned Oct. 15, 1911, to succeed Bishop Vinton. Since Oct. 
16, 1912, Rev. Lewis G. Morris has been rector. Revs. Chas. L. Short, 
Frederic C. Lauderburn, and Donald K. Johnston have been assistant 
ministers or curates since 1893, for various periods. Rev. Richard A. 
Kirchhoffer has been curate since 1916. 

The first church was on Pearl street, erected in 1846. In 1860 it 
was enlarged, and during twenty-eight years three times received altera- 
tions. It was destroyed by fire, April 7, 1874. A building committee 
was appointed May 15, and ground was broken on a lot at the corner 
of Irving and Pleasant streets Dec. 29, 1874. The cornerstone was laid 
July 21, 1875, and the building consecrated Jan. 4, 1877, by Bishop 
Paddock. This church has held its place among the most beautiful 
and artistic structures of the city. The material is red sandstone. Ste- 
phen C. Earle was the architect. The builders were Norcross Bros. 
Embedded in the walls are stone relics of mediaeval period presented by 
the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral of Worcester, England. The 
church building contains a chapel and a parish library. 

In 1916 a parish house was erected upon land adjoining the church 
on Irving street. This building is of brick, designed by Cram & Fergu- 
son. Early English in character, and connects with the main building. 
Offering as it does every facility for the activities of a growing parish 
this recent acquisition realizes the cherished hope of a generation of 
worshippers at All Saints. 

The Wednesday Club of All Saints Parish had its origin March 8, 

1876, at an informal meeting of ten young women, and was known at 
first as the L. B. Club, the name Wednesday Club being adopted in 

1877. The objects are mutual improvement and to advance missionary 
and charitable work. At a fair in 1876 the club made $500, and the 
money was contributed for the middle window in the chancel. For 
many years the club trimmed the church for various festivals. The tenth 
anniversary was observed, the club history (1876-86) published, and a 
crayon portrait of Dr. Huntington given the parish at that time. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 853 

In 1890-91 the club rented and furnished a house, 26 Irving street; 
in 1891 rooms were opened at 15 Irving street, and maintained there until 
1896. The twentieth anniversary was celebrated with elaborate exer- 
cises, an account of which is given in a pamphlet published at that time. 
A memorial window was given to mark the occasion, known as the 
"Ruth" window. The club in later years has raised money for the par- 
ish house fund ; $380 for the renovation of the library ; $565 for the 
repairs in the church and parish building ; $700 raised by honorary mem- 
bers for similar purposes; contributions to various local organizations 
such as the Boys Club, Associated Charities, Day Nursery Employment 
Society. 

The following have been presidents: Corinne L. Nichols, 1876-7; 
Agnes Clary, 1877-8; 1880-81; Isabel F. Hapgood, 1878-9; Emily Chase 
(Mrs. J. Russel Marble), 1879-80; Annie M. Lincoln, 1881-2; 1885-6; 
Sarah B. Hopkins, 1882-3; 1895-6; Grace Whiting (Mrs. G. F. Myers), 
1883-4; L. Stella Whitcomb (Mrs. J. F. Browning), 1884-5; Camilla G. 
Whitcomb, 1886-7; 1892-3; 1900-01; Elizabeth S. Howe (Mrs. S. H. 
Colton), 1887-8; 1890-91; Sarah J. Hill (Mrs. W. M. Lancaster), 1889- 
90; Elizabeth P. Hopkins (Mrs. A. L. Aiken), 1891-2; Lilian A. 
Mathews, 1893-4; Mary Louisa Trumbull Cogswell (Mrs, E. M. Rob- 
erts), 1894-5; Georgiana L. Stone (Mrs. James E. Ives), 1896-7; Edith 
Almy Barton (Mrs. Edgar M. Atkin), 1897-8; Grace Bliven, 1898-9; 
Ada Drenna (Mrs. Frederick G. Dews), 1899-1900; Anne W. Lovell, 
1901-02; Florence L. Cobb, 1902-03; Elizabeth H. Pratt (Mrs. E. Irving 
Clark), 1903-04; Helen C. Marble, 1904-5; Rosaline Brand (Mrs. Suth- 
erland), 1905-6; Georgiana H. Boyd, 1906-7; Margaret Lovell, 1907-8; 
Mrs. Kendall Emerson, 1908-10; Mary C. Kessell, 1910-12; Mrs. S. H. 
Colton, 1912 — . 

St. John's Church. — Dr. Huntington's idea of forming four missions 
in the city, naming them from the first four Evangelists and developing 
four churches has been realized. St. John's was the second. A Sunday 
school was established March 11, 1883, in an upper room in a building on 
Lincoln Square. The first services there were conducted by Rev. Henry 
Hague, of St. Matthew's, Jan. 6, 1884 ; and the first regular Sunday ser- 
vices were begun March 9, following, Rev.. John S. Bens, general mis- 
sionary of the diocese. At the same time Rev. Edward S. Cross began 
missionary work, and took formal charge April 13. Land on Lincoln 
street for a church was bought April 21, and ground was broken May 
13. The cornerstone was laid July 5. Stephen C. Earle was the archi- 
tect. Public worship in the new church was held for the first time on 
Christmas Day. For a time the free church system was tried, but was 
soon abandoned. In 1887 it was necessary to enlarge the church, increas- 
ing the sittings to 308. The parish was organized Sept. 18, 1884. 

Mr. Cross preached his farewell sermon Oct. 19, 1884, and was suc- 
ceeded as rector by Rev. Francis C. Burgess, Nov. 30 that year. Rev. 



854 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



<^ 




ST. MATTHEW'S. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



855 



Eliot White succeeded Mr. Burgess in 1897, resigning in 1907. Since 
then Rev. Walton S. Danker has been rector. 

St. Matthew's Church.— A mission chapel fund of $721.21, raised 
at a Christmas sale by the women of All Saint's Church in 1869, was 
the beginning of the foundation of St. Matthew's Church. Added con- 
tributions allowed the purchase of a lot at the corner of Southbridge 
and Washburn streets, in South Worcester ; an association was formed 
by twelve prominent members of All Saints for the management of the 
mission and to act as trustees. In the summer of 1871 the chapel was 
erected under the supervision of Rev. Dr. W. R. Huntington, by Orlando 
W. Norcross, and it was dedicated Sept. 21, St. Matthew's Day. The 
speakers were : Dr. Huntington, Revs. Mr. Howe of Milford, Jones of 
Fitchburg, and John Gregson, who took charge of the chapel as assistant 
to the rector of All Saints. Rev. Thos. A. Robertson succeeded Mr. Greg- 
son, Oct. 1, 1872, after an interim during which Mr. Thomas Mackay, 
a student, conducted services. Mr. Robertson resigned July 1, 1873, and 
Mr. Mackay again had temporary charge until Jan. 1, 1874, when his 
father. Rev. Henry Mackay, of Pittsburg, Penn., became rector's assistant 
in charge of the mission. 

The parish was organized May 5, 1874; William Lancaster was 
elected clerk. The charter members were: Henry Mackay, Henry L. 
Parker, William Lancaster, Matthew J. Whittall, James Ballantyne, Sum- 
ner Cummings, Sampson Austin, William R. Hamilton, Thomas Parker, 
.Francis Boston, Joseph Crawford, George Lancaster. The following 
officers were elected : Senior Warden, Henry L. Parker. Junior War- 
den, Matthew J. Whittall. Vestrymen, Sampson Austin, James L. 
Ballantyne, William Lancaster, William R. Hamilton, Sumner Cum- 
mings. Treasurer and Collector, M. J. Whittall. Clerk, William Lan- 
caster. 

Rev. Henry Mackay, the first rector, resigned July 1, 1875. Rev. 
Amos Skeele succeeded him April 24, 1876, resigning in 1877. Albert 
Schmidt became clerk, Oct. 29, 1877. Rev. George S. Paine had charge 
of services six months. He was succeeded by Rev. Alex. Mackey Smith, 
later rector of St. John's Church, Washington, D. C. Rev. George E. 
Osgood, assistant at All Saints, became the rector here June 1, 1878. In 
the same month James L. Ballantyne succeeded Henry L. Parker as war- 
den, and in turn was succeeded April 14 by Charles Booth. 

In 1880, through the generosity of the late Sumner Pratt, the debt 
was removed and the property deeded to the parish. The church was 
consecrated Feb. 8, 1880, by Rt. Rev. B. H. Paddock, Bishop of Massa- 
chusetts, assisted by Revs. George E. Osgood, the rector, George S. 
Paine and Thos. F. Fales of Waltham. At that time the church had fifty 
communicants ; the Sunday school an attendance of 125 persons. Henry 
Gaunt was elected clerk and treasurer April 6, 1880, to succeed Mr. 



856 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Schmidt. The people of Cherry Valley joined the new church Nov. 1, 
1880, and the rector ceased to be assistant minister of All Saints. 

Mr. Osgood resigned Jan. 16, 1881, to become rector of Grace 
Church, North Attleborough, and during the vacancy Henry L. Parker 
served as lay reader. Rev. Julius H. Waterbury, called April 26, 1881, 
was the next rector. He resigned in November and died on Good Fri- 
day, 1882. In April, 1881, Alfred H. Booth succeeded Mr. Gaunt as 
clerk and treasurer. Again Mr. Parker officiated as lay reader. Rev. 
Henry Hague began his duties as rector Aug. 1, 1882. In the meantime 
plans for an addition to the church had been made, land purchased at 
the corner of Southbridge and Cambridge streets, and funds raised. 
The building committee consisted of M. J. Whittall, James Cunningham, 
J. W. Young and Alfred Thomas ; Edward Snyder was the contractor. 
The hall, designed for the Sunday school and parish work, was dedi- 
cated in December, 1882, the speakers being Dr. Huntington, Hon. Ed- 
ward L. Davis, James Cunningham and the rector. The building cost 
nearly $6,000. The parish was admitted to the diocesan convention in 
1883, and the delegates were Messrs. Whittall, Cunningham and Parker. 
James Cunningham succeeded Charles Booth as junior warden, July 
26, 1882. 

Through the generosity of Mr. Whittall, the rector was given an 
assistant, Rev. George E. Allen, who came to his duties Good Friday, 

1889, and remained thirteen months. He was ordained to the priest- 
hood while here. He died in Fall River, Feb. 19, 1896. 

It was decided to buy land for a new church in April, 1890, and a 
building committee was appointed: Mr. Whittall, Mr. Cuningham and 
Mr. Thomas. The site of the present church was acquired ; the ground 
was broken July 5, 1890, for the rectory, which was completed Nov. 22, 

1890, at a cost of nearly $5,000. The old church was burned on the 
night of Jan. 6, 1893 ; the hall was removed to make way for the new 
church ; the old building was sold and services held in the parish hall 
temporarily. Work began on the new church in December, 1893 ; the 
cornerstone was laid May 26, 1894, by Bishop Lawrence. The dedica- 
tion had been set for May 23, 1896, but on May 8th Mr. and Mrs. Mat- 
thew J. Wliittall assumed the balance of indebtedness, $30,000, in order 
that the building might be consecrated. The consecration services were 
held May 22d by Bishop Lawrence, assisted by a large number of 
clergymen. Mr. Hague was rector until 1914. 

The present rector Rev. George S. Southworth, has served since 
1914. The first superintendent of the Sunday school was Henry C. 
Wadsworth. His successors have been Henry L. Parker, J. Brown Al- 
den, E. J. Ryan, James Cunningham, and various rectors of the church. 
The school has grown from a membership of a hundred to about 400. 
A history of the church and its various organizations was prepared by 
James Cunningham and published in 1896. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 857 

The Ladies' Parish Aid Society has been an active and useful adjunct 
of the church ahnost from the beginning. St. Andrew's Brotherhood 
for more than twenty-five years has held regular meetings and per- 
formed useful service in the parish. In another field the Young People's 
Social Society has been also helpful. The Altar Society organized in 
1893, has performed its duties faithfully since then. St. Margaret's 
Guild was organized in April, 1895. 

St. Mark's Church. — St. Mark's probably began in the mind of the 
Rev. Dr. William R. Huntington, who for many years had been rector of 
All Saints. For Dr. Huntington, with characteristic mental precision and 
spiritual prevision, saw All Saints Church, Worcester, surrounded by four 
Episcopal churches in the four corners of the city each named for one of the 
four Evangelists. And nearly three years before the first steps were taken 
to organize St. Mark's, Dr. Huntington sent a money offering which had 
been put in his care, to Mrs. Abbie A. Bigelow, asking her to keep it 
"against the right moment for the spade to be struck into the ground 
for the Mission of St. Mark." This money Mrs. Bigelow did not keep 
"in a napkin." It soon went far to purchase the land on which St. 
Mark's now stands. 

On September 5, 1887, in the office of Attorney Henry L. Parker, an 
informal meeting was held to consider starting a new Episcopal church, 
and nine days later, at the residence of Orlando W. Norcross, the fol- 
lowing committee was appointed : Henry L. Parker, James Cunning- 
ham, Mrs. O. W. Norcross, Mrs. Abbie A. Bigelow, Chas. A. Allen, 
Jos. Jackson, Chas. H. Devoe, and Reuben Colton. To this committee 
Mrs. Arnold Kabley, S. Hamilton Coe and J. A. Norcross were soon 
added. 

The first service was held October 16, 1887, in the South Baptist 
Church ; and, thanks to the courtesy of that society, the services of St. 
Mark's Mission were held in the South Baptist Church for nearly a year. 
They were led by the Rev. Thomas Nickerson until Feb. 3, 1888, when 
Rev. Langdon C. Stewardson, the first rector of St. Mark's, was elected. 
The Mission was organized as a parish, September 13, 1888. The first 
parochial officers were: Senior warden, Henry L. Parker; junior war- 
den, Lemuel A. Bishop; vestrymen: Orlando W. Norcross, S. Hamil- 
ton Coe, Louis N. Wilson, A. M, Powell, Thos. B. Cowan, James W. 
Allen, Edgar E. Fay, Herbert Moulton ; treasurer, Joseph Jackson ; 
clerk, Charles A. Allen. 

Meanwhile the present church building, designed by Stephen C. 
Earle and constructed by O. W. Norcross, was approaching completion. 
The first service in that building was held February 7, 1889. The next 
day it was resolved at a parish meeting that all seats should be free. Mr, 
Stewardson, the first rector, was ever a vigorous advocate of freedom : 
"A free pulpit, encouraged by the congregation to speak its mind with- 
out fear or favour ; free pews, in which there shall be no distinction 
between rich and poor; and free-will offerings." He preached a virile 



858 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Christianity, and had a loyal following. Later he became president of 
Hobart College, Geneva, New York. 

From Jan. 26 to Aug. 1, 1898, Rev. Willis H. Hazard was rector, 
but Mr. Hazard soon found himself obliged to give up work on account 
of an unsuspected impediment in his speech. The Rev. Henry B. Wash- 
burn, of a family conspicuous in the annals of Worcester, was elected 
rector on October 11, 1898. Under his able leadership the parish soon 
became free from all indebtedness, and looked to larger fields by start- 
ing a parochial mission in Stoneville. After nearly ten years of devoted 
service Mr. Washburn resigned to accept the office which he now holds. 
Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the Episcopal Theological School 
at Cambridge. 

The present rector, the Rev. Kinsley Blodgett, was elected Nov. 
25, 1908. The parochial officers at present are: Senior warden. Prof. 
Zelotes W. Coombs; junior warden, Hon. John A. Thayer; vestrymen: 
S. Hamilton Coe, Wm. F. Cole, Edward L. Dunn, Harry Hodgkinson, 
Lafayette B. Holt, Wm. H. Larrabee, Reginald D. Lidstone, Chas. E. 
Lyon, O. W. Norcross, James H. Shattuck, Marvin M. Taylor, Geo. 
W. Warren; treasurer, Joseph Jackson (who has held that office ever 
since the mission was organized) ; clerk, Merrill D. Brigham. 

St. Luke's Church. — The fourth of the Episcopalian churches that 
Rev. Dr. Huntington planned for the four quarters of the city was estab- 
lished in 1908. The church was built soon afterward, and remained in 
charge of the rector of All Saints Church until 1913. Since that time. 
Rev. Frederick H. Danker, whose brother is rector of St. John's, has 
been the rector. The church is growing rapidly. St. Luke's Church on 
Pleasant street, near Flagg street, is a gem of architecture. 

Episcopal Church Club. — The origin of the club dates from a dinner, 
January 17, 1888, given by vestrymen of various parishes in St. Mat- 
thew's Hall, South Worcester. The formal organization came a year 
later, when, by invitation of the rector, wardens and vestrymen of St. 
John's Church, forty-six members of the various parishes of the city met 
in St. John's Parish Hall, January 15, 1889. After supper. Rev. Francis 
G. Burgess presided at the business meeting, at which by-laws were 
adopted and officers elected. The membership soon increased to more 
than a hundred. Dinners have been held since then in the spring, fall 
and winter. From 1889 to 1899 these gatherings were in the Bay State 
House. Distinguished speakers were guests of the club. The later 
dinners have been in the Bancroft Hotel. 

Some of the principal speakers have been : Rev. P. M. Washburn, 
of Northampton, May 21, 1889; A. J. C. Sowden, Oct. 15, 1889; Bishop 
Dudley, Jan. 20, 1890; Rev. L. Shapardson, May 20, 1890; Gen. Schaflf 
and Rev. Wilberforce Newton, Oct. 21, 1890 ; Rt. Rev. Thos. M. Clark, 
Bishop of Rhode Island, Jan. 17, 1891 ; Rev. W. R. Huntington, May 19, 
1891 ; Prof. L. L. Conant and Rev. Percy S. Grant, Oct. 20, 1891 ; Rev. 
Sidney Partridge of China, Jan. 19, 1892; Rt. Rev. Phillips Brooks and 



AND ITS PEOPLE 859 

Hon. Robt. Treat Paine, May 24, 1893; Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Hon. 
S. C. Darling, and Rev. Mr. Vrooman, Oct. 11, 1892; Hon. E. L. Davis 
and Rev. Dr. Lemon, Jan. 10, 1893; Rev. F. B. Allen and Hon. John D. 
Washburn, May 9, 1893; Dr. Chas. L. Nichols and Rev. John C. Brooks, 
Oct. 4, 1893 ; Rt. Rev. Wm. Lawrence, Hon. Edward L. Davis and 
Winthrop C. Durfee, Jan. 9, 1894; Rathbone Gardner, of Providence, 
and Dean Hodges, of Cambridge, May 8, 1894 ; Dr. G. Stanley Hall, 
Hon. Geo. F. Hoar, Oct. 9, 1894; Rev. L. C. Stewardson, Dr. T. C. 
Mendenhall and Hon. Chas. L. Denney, of Leicester, Jan. 7, 1895; Rev. 
J. Harris Knowles, Stephen C. Earle and Clarence F. Carroll, superin- 
tendent of schools, June 11, 1895; T. Clemson, Oct. 29, 1895; Rev. Wm. 
Sheafe, of Woonsocket, R. L, and Jno. H. Stiness, of Providence, Jan, 

14, 1896 ; Rev. Chas. M. Addison, archdeacon of Worcester, and Rev. 
Edmund Sweet Rousmaniere, archdeacon of New Bedford, June 9, 1896 ; 
Hon. Robt. Treat Paine and Rev. Fred. B. Allen, of Boston, Nov. 10, 
1896 ; Rev. Jno. P. Peters, of New York, Feb. 9, 1897 ; Rev. Eliot White, 
Rev. Mr. Haughton, of Clinton, and Rev. Dr. Vinton, and Hon. Henry 
L. Parker, Oct. 12, 1897; Rt. Rev. Percy T. Rowe, Bishop of Alaska, 
and Hon. E. L. Davis, Nov. 8, 1898; Rt. Rev. Wm. H. McVicar, Bishop 
coadjutor of Rhode Island, Very Rev. Wilford L. Robbins, Dean of All 
Saints, Albany, Feb. 6, 1899; Rt. Rev. T. F. Davis, Reginald Wash- 
burn and Dr. Langdon C. Stewardson, Dec. 14, 1914; S. Hamilton Coe, 
March 24, 1915; Hon. W. T. Forbes, Nov. 17, 1915; Rt. Rev. T. F. 
Davies, Rev. E. S. Rousmaniere, Harry G. Stoddard and Robert K. Shaw, 
Feb. 9, 1916; Rev. Walton S. Danker, chaplain of 2d Mass. Regt., Oct. 

15, 1916 ; Dr. Martin Prince, Bishop Davies and Rt. Rev. James DeW. 
Perry, Jr., Bishop of Rhode Island, Feb. 8, 1917; J. W. Mawbey, J. 
Burford Parry of Springfield; Lt. Col. E. K. Massee, April 17, 1918. 

From 1899 to 1914 the club was dormant. Largely through the 
efforts of Alfred T. Howarth, the organization again became active. Its 
present membership is about one hundred. The presidents of the club : 
Matthew J. Whittall, 1889; Chas. M. Bent, 1890; Stephen C. Earle, 
1891; Henry L. Parker, 1892; Dr. Chas. L. Nichols, 1893; Jas. Cunning- 
ham, 1894; Jos. Jackson, 1895; Edward L. Davis, 1896; Chas. G. Wash- 
burn, 1897-1914; D. W. Carter, 1914; Edward T. Esty, 1916; Z. W. 
Coombs, 1914-15; Rev. Mr. Roots, 1914-15; R. D. Lidstone, 1916 — ; 
M. Bent, 1889; Stephen C. Earle, 1890; Henry L. Parker, 1891; Chas. 
L. Nichols, 1892; Jas. Cunningham, 1893; Jos. Jackson, 1894; Alfred 
Thomas 1895-97 and 1914-15; Jos. Alden Shaw, 1898-1914; Z. W. 
Coombs, 1914-15; Rev. Mr. Roots, 1914-15; Al. R. D. Lidstone, 1916 — ; 
Edmund C. Mayo, 1916 — ; A. A. Burbank, 1918 — . Clerks: Stephen 
C. Earle, 1889; Alfred Thomas, 1890-93 and 1898-1914; Edmund L. 
Parker, 1894; Francis W. Blacker, 1895; Jos. Jackson, 1896; Jno. A. 
Thayer, 1897; Frank E. Dodge, 1914 — . Treasurers: Jos. Jackson, 
1889-94; Chas. A. Allen, 1895-97; Jos. Jackson, 1898-1914; Alfred 
T. Howarth, 1914 — . 



86o 



HISTORY OF J V ORG ESTER 





ST. ANNE'S. 



ST. JOHN'S. 





ST. PETER'S. 



IM.MACULA 1 E CUXCEPTIOX. 



CHAPTER LVII 

The Catholic Church — Its Establishment in Worcester — St. John's 
Church — St. Anne's — Sacred Heart — St. Paul's — Immaculate Con- 
ception — St. Peter's — St. Stephen's — Ascension — Blessed Sac- 
rament — St. Bernard's — Our Lady of the Angels — Home for 
the Aged — The Gray Nuns — Ladies' Benevolent 
Association 

The Roman Catholic Church. — The first body of Catholics came to 
Worcester in 1826. They were Irish laborers, young men brought here 
by contractors engaged in constructing the Blackstone canal. This 
work kept them employed two years, and some of them became per- 
manent residents. It is not known that any earlier settlers of this faith 
became permanent settlers. The construction of the railroad from Bos- 
ton to Worcester brought more Catholic Irish laborers here, and some 
of them also remained after the work was done. 

A search of the town records shows that few births were recorded 
before 1840. All that have been found were George, son of Patrick and 
Catherine McKenna, b. Dec. 2, 1828, (also James, b. 1837, Julia Ann, 

b. 1838) ; George Goulding, son of and Catherine Tighe, b. Dec. 3, 

1828 ; Robey Ellen, daughter of John and Mehitable McGrath, b. June 
18, 1829, (these parents also had Edward and Mary Jane before 1840) ; 
Carlos, son of Patrick and Bridget Murray, b. July 12, 1835; William, 
son of Wm. and Margaret Underwood, b. Feb. 23, 1835, (also John 
Underwood, b. April 11, 1837, and Sarah Ann, b. June 23, 1839) ; James, 
son of Francis and Ann Flanigan, b. June 15, 1836, (Carlos, b. March 
11, 1839, son of Francis and Ann Flanigan) ; Edward, son of Patrick and 
Margaret Conway, born June 13, 1837, and Nicholas, by same parents, 
born March 6, 1840 ; Andrew Laverty, born Oct. 14, 1836, and Catherine, 
born Feb. 14, 1838, children of Robert and Mary Laverty. 

After 1840 the vital records contain numerous records of births in 
Irish families, and the baptizmal records of St. John's furnish many 
more. It may be assumed from the careless way records were kept 
that at least a dozen perhaps a score of Irish Catholic children were born 
here before 1840. But the larger part of the population of this faith 
before that date were young men without families. 

Bishop Fenwick in 1834 appointed Rev. James Fitton, then pastor at 
Hartford, Conn., to visit this town once a month. When he came he 
found eighty persons of his faith in this section. April 4, 1834, Chris- 
topher Columbus Baldwin, librarian of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety, wrote in his diary (p. 288) : 



862 HISTORY OP WORCESTER 



I had a visit today from the Rev. James Fitton, a CathoHc Priest from Hartford, 
Conn. He told me he was the first native of Boston who had ever preached the 
Catholic faith in New England. He was born in Boston, April lo, 1805, and is going 
to spend his birthday with his mother at Boston on Thursday next, when, he says, he 
shall be twenty-nine years old. He was the editor of the Catholic Press, a newspaper 
published at Hartford, which, he says, run him in debt a thousand dollars. Before 
he went to Hartford he was among the Passymaquoddy Indians. His father's name 
was Abraham Fitton, who came from the county of Lancaster, England, to Boston, 
about 1790. His mother's name was Welch (should read Williams), a native of Wales, 
and is still living. His father is dead. 

April 7, 1834. Mr. Fitton yesterday assembled the Catholics now in this town, and 
with those who came from the factories at Clappville and Millbury, he had about sixty, 
besides women and children. He was subjected to some difficulty in finding a con- 
venient place to hold a meeting, but at length obtained consent to hold it in the new 
store erected by Mr. Bailey, which is constructed of stone and stands on the north side 
of Front street on the west bank of the Blackstone Canal. 

I believe this to be the first Catholic sermon ever preached in this town. After 
service was over, a subscription was taken, with the view of raising money to erect a 
chapel or church, and, what is very surprising, five hundred dollars were soon sub- 
scribed. And in addition to this, another hundred dollars were procured to defray 
Mr. Fitton's expenses from Hartford here and to enable him to visit the Catholics in 
different places in Alassachusetts and Connecticut. 

The Boston vital records show that Abraham Fitton and Sarah Wil- 
liams were married by Rev. Francis A. Matignon, Aug. 1, 1801. The 
census of 1790 has no record of Abraham Fitton. 

It must have been on his fourth visit that Father Fitton bought a 
lot on Temple street for a church, July 7, 1834. His first attempt to buy 
was frustrated by the prejudice of the owner against Catholics. He 
bargained for land at the corner of Salein and Park streets, and the deed 
was made out before the owner discovered the purpose for which the 
land was to be used, whereupon he destroyed the deed. Father Fitton 
was aided in securing the lot on which St. John's Church was stibse- 
quently erected by William Lincoln, Francis P. Blake and Harvey 
Pierce. The two last named afterward became Catholics. At the time 
the deed was received by these three men, the lot was part of an old 
pasture. An old wagon track ran from Green street toward the Canal, 
and along this track Temple street was laid out. 

Williain Lincoln assisted Father Fitton more than once in purchas- 
ing land. He deeded to James Fitton, clergyman, Dec. 14, 1835, a lot 
130 by 180 on the east side of Green street and the north side of a new 
street leading from Green street to the Blackstone canal (described in a 
deed dated May 1, 1834, from Joel Putnam to William Lincoln, Wor. 
Deeds, 298-517). Joel Putnam bought this land of George Denny, 
Timothy W. Bancroft and Lewis Bigelow, June 20, 1832 (Wor. Deeds 
299-108; 312-130). William Lincoln sold to James Fitton, clergyman, 
for one dollar Nov. 4, 1835, land deeded to Lincoln, Oct 20, 1833, by Har- 
rison D. Goodnow, in the east part of Boylston. This land had a mort- 
gage to secure payment by Thomas Dunlavy. (Wor. Deeds 311, 62-64). 



AND ITS PEOPLE 863 

Father Fitton laid the foundation of Holy Cross (q. v.). Even 
among Protestants he was beloved. James Schofield of North Grafton, 
a former mill superintendent, now an aged man, tells of Father Fitton's 
kindly ministrations in his family, which was Episcopalian. Father 
Fitton went to Newport, R. I., and built there the first splendid Catholic 
church. Interesting in this connection is the fact that Lieuts. Rose- 
crans and Sherman, afterward great generals in the Civil War, acted 
as engineers for him and laid out the lines of the church foundations. 
He died full of years and honors, pastor of the Catholic church in East 
Boston, Mass. 

St. John's Church, — The foundation for the first church in the town 
and the first in the present Springfield diocese was laid July 7, 1834, and 
a frame building 32 by 62 feet was subsequently erected. During the first 
year services were held in the basement, and McKillup's building on 
Front street, near the viaduct, where the first masses were said, was 
vacated. Masses had also been said in various sections of the town. 
During the railroad construction mass was said every Sunday when the 
priest could be present, on the large rocks on the little knoll near the 
deep cut between the city and the lake. A rude altar was sheltered 
with evergreen boughs and decorated with wild flowers. Rev. Dr. 
McCoy says that even before these services by Father Fitton, there was 
a service and sermon preached in the dining room of the "Old Elephant," 
a tavern near C. G. Houghton's shoe factory. Some say Bishop Fen- 
wick was the preacher, others Father Fitton. 

In 1835 the superstructure of the church was erected and in 1836 
it was completed and free of debt. "It was erected by the Irish laborers 
employed on the railroad," according to the old records. In May, 1836, 
Father Fitton, who had been making monthly visits, came here as resi- 
dent pastor, living first with Henry Murray's family. Afterward he 
lived at Mt. St. James, and finally in a small house between the church 
and the house of Patrick McKenna. At first the church was known 
as Christ's Church. The services were attended by Catholics from all 
surrounding towns. When the priest was not present, prayers were 
read and the litanies recited. Richard Roche, Henry Murray and John 
O'Sullivan were the lay readers, at what the people humorously called 
"dry masses." 

The Sunday school was organized by Eliza Whitney, a convert, 
whose sister married Francis McKenna, United States marshal. She 
was assisted by John and Robert Laverty, young lads, and there were 
seven children present the first Sunday, including James Underwood and 
his brothers, and William and Charles Rourke, sons of Patrick. Fifteen 
attended the second Sunday. Miss Whitney was succeeded by Henry 
Murray, Joseph Fitton and Catherine Reilly. The first choir was com- 
posed of Mary Fitton, Patrick Sheridan and Henry Murray ; the orches- 
tra, Patrick Sheridan, John Laverty, Robert Laverty, Anthony Carpen- 



864 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

ter and Henry Murray. The first altar boy was James Underwood, 
and the first altar society consisted of Mrs. Henry Murray and Mrs. 
Richard Rourke. 

In the early days came every summer a pilgrimage of Penobscot In- 
dians of the Catholic faith, old friends of Father Fitton. After mass 
they gathered outside the church door, kneeling in a circle until Father 
Fitton came out and placed his hand on each of the bowed heads in bene- 
diction. When the United States soldiers were stationed here in the 
old storehouse of the canal, training for the war against the Florida In- 
dians, the Catholic recruits attended mass. 

Father Fitton left Worcester in 18-i3 and was succeeded by Rev. A. 
Williamson. The Catholic church owes much to the energy and execu- 
tive ability of Father Fitton. He not only founded the church, but in nearly 
every town of the county held the first services of his denomination. 
In 183-1 he began his mission in Northbridge, Westborough, Webster, 
Millbury, Grafton, Blackstone, and as far as Woonsocket in the Black- 
stone Valley. Before and after he came here he was at Northampton 
holding services ; in 1839 he said masses at North Brookfield, Warren, 
and soon afterward in Barre, Southbridge, Northborough. His succes- 
sors in Worcester continued the work he began until pastors were 
appointed. 

Father Williamson was ill when he came, and his stay was brief. 
He left early in 1845 and died of apoplexy at Baltimore, Md., April 29, 
1845, bequeathing to the bishop for the benefit of this church various 
church and household articles. Rev. M. W. Gibson came as resident 
pastor, April 5, 1845. He was born in Hexham, Northumberland county, 
England, May 15, 1817, and entered Ushaw College at the age of eleven; 
came with his parents to America; studied at St. Mary's College, Em- 
mittsburg, until May, 1834, completing his education for the priesthood 
at the College of the Propaganda. Returning to America in 1841, he 
was ordained by Bishop Kenrick of Philadelphia and assigned to Loretta, 
in the Alleghany mountains. In 1844 he withdrew from the priesthood 
and spent some time in the Jesuit novitiate at Frederick. He was sent 
to Holy Cross College, where he was laboring when appointed pastor 
here. 

The great increase in the Irish population in the early forties made 
it necessary to provide a larger edifice. In 1845 the old church was 
moved away. About two hundred men of the church congregation dug 
the cellar for the new church, Sunday May 11, 1845; the cornerstone 
was laid May 27 by Rt. Rev. John B. Fitzpatrick, Coadjutor Bishop of 
Boston, and the sermon preached in English and French by Rev. Nicho- 
las O'Brien. The church was dedicated June 24, 1846, thirty-two clergy- 
men taking part, Bishop Fitzpatrick presiding. Rev. Dr. Ryder preached 
the sermon. The old church building was transformed into a parish 
house. The Catholic Institute, and opened for meetings April 21, 1847. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 865 

The church suffered from the outbreaks of the Molly Maguires and 
the Shamrocks at this time, but the firmness of the pastor, sustained by 
the bishop, finally brought the disorderly members of the parish to 
their senses with an apology, April 30, 184T. In ]847 the people were 
called upon to aid famine-stricken Ireland and responded generously. 
Hundreds of emigrants came, bringing the fever, and many died on the 
way or soon after reaching America. 

Father Boyce came as associate pastor Nov. 14, 1847. In the year 
1848 there were 407 baptisms, and there were twelve missions attended 
from Worcester — Fitchburg, Webster, Millbury, Clinton, Milford, South- 
bridge, Uxbridge, Templeton, Barre, Winchendon, West Boylston and 
Hopkinton, 

During the fanatical Know-nothing period the Catholics bore their 
share of persecution. '"'So high did the feeling run," writes Dr. McCoy, 
"that the church property w^as in danger of destruction." Father Boyce 
at this juncture took the keys of the church to the mayor of the city, 
saying, "On your head, sir, I place the responsibility for the protection 
of the church. If you do not protect it, we will ; but at the city's door 
will lie the blame." The Civil War soon afterward effectually wiped 
out prejudice and antagonism against the Catholics. 

Father Boyce became pastor when Father Gibson left in 1856, and 
remained sole pastor until his death, Jan. 2, 1864. He was succeeded 
by Rev. P. T. O'Reilly, who was pastor until Sept. 25, 1870, when he 
became Bishop of Springfield. Then Rev. Thomas Griffin, assistant 
since July, 1867, was appointed chancellor of the new diocese and admin- 
istrator of the parish of St. John's. He was made rector May 30, 1885. 

The curates of St. John's have been Rev. Fathers T. A. McAvoy, 
Reardon, Williamson, L'Eveque, Quaille, Noiseux, Dolan, D. O'Keefe, 
Kenny, P. J. Garrigan, Robert Walsh, T. J. Conaty, McCourt, J. J. 
O'Keefe, M. J. Murphy, J. L. Torpey, D. H. O'Neil, Chas. Grace, Jas. 
Donahoe, J. J. McCoy, D. Higgins, P. H. Gallen, W. T. Finneran, Jas. 
M. Cruse, W. C. McCaughan, T. P. McDonnell, W. H. Adrain, J. A. 
O'Malley, C. M. Foley, M. S. O'Brien, O. A. Sullivan, J. A. Hurley, 
Jno. F. Boland, Geo. H. McDermott, Jno. F. Boyle, Cor. F. Donoghue, 
Austin D. O'Malley, Jas. W. Burke, Geo. W. (Welch?), Jas. B. Dona- 
hue, Florence A. Lane, Mich. J. McKenna, Jas. P. Lynes, Wm. F. Davitt, 
Chas. H. Duffy and Wm. E. O'Gorman. 

The parish now controls the Catholic Institute, a brick presbytery, 
the Brothers' monastery in brick, the Sisters' chapel, a fine brick school 
for boys between Temple and Winter streets, and the brick school for 
girls on Vernon street; also considerable land with dwelling house 
fronting on Temple street, and a large cemetery in South Worcester. 
The parish school for girls opened in 1872 with an attendance of 300 chil- 
dren. The Christian Brothers opened the Bovs' School on Temple street 
W.-I-ss. 



866 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



with 240 pupils. The present attendance is about 500. The Xaverian 
Fathers have had charge since 189-1. In the same building the Sisters of 
Notre Dame have 162 pupils in the primary grades. 

On July 16, 1911, St. John's parish .was divided and a new parish 
formed in the Vernon Hill section, with Rev. James J. Farrell as pastor, 
and the church to be called Church of the Ascension. Revs. John J. 
O'Malley and John E. Welch, assistants. 

The present rector, Rev. Thomas S. Donoghue, was appointed per- 
manent rector June 21, 1911, and took office June 24th. His asssitants are 
Rev. James P. Curran, appointed in 1912 ; Rev. John F. McDonnell, 1913, 
and Rev. John P. Sullivan, 1916. 

Right Rev. Thomas Griffin, D. D., pastor of St. John's Roman Catholic Church, 
was born in Cork, Ireland, Jan. 7, 1836, died in St. Vincent's Hospital, Worcester, Dec. 
14, 1910. He was educated in the best of schools in his native land. From the age of 
five to fourteen he was under the instruction of the Christian Brothers. In 1852 he 
came with his parents to Salem, where his father established himself in business as a 
tanner and became highly prosperous. He left a large business which his sons have 
continued. 

Thomas was sent to St. Charles College in Baltimore, Md., on the advice of Rev. 
Thomas Shahan ; afterward pursuing his theological course in St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore, where he was ordained June 29, 1867. In July following he was appointed 
by Bishop Williams curate in St. John's parish in this city, under Rev. Patrick T. 
O'Reilly, afterward Bishop. He began his duties July 12, 1867, taking charge of the 
missions at Holden, Shrewsbury and Stoneville. In a few years he had established 
churches in place of, these missions— St. Joseph's of Stoneville, St. Theresa of Shrews- 
bury, and St. Mary's of Jefiferson. 

When the diocese was created in 1870 and Father O'Reilly made Bishop, Father 
Griffin was appointed pastor of St. John's, and also made Chancellor of the Diocese. 
In 1872 he bought the Bigelow estate on Vernon street, now the site of Notre Dame 
School and Convent, turning the mansion into a home for the Sisters of the Order of 
Notre Dame, whom he called from Cincinnati to the work in this city. Later he built 
the house for a parochial school for girls, and also made use of the Catholic Institute 
on Temple street for school purposes. In 1891 he built for boys a school house ac- 
commodating 600 pupils, the finest in the diocese at that time. In 1871 he bought land 
on Prescott street and built the Church of the Immaculate Conception, of which 
Rev. Robert Walsh became pastor. In 1880 he bought the lot and supervised the build- 
ing of the Church of the Sacred Heart, of which his curate. Rev. T. J. Conaty, became 
rector. Next he erected St. Peter's Church at the corner of Main and Grand streets, 
and Father D. H. O'Neill was made its rector. His last work in building new churches 
and forming new parishes was the selection of a site for St. Stephen's Church, in 1888. 
He founded seven churches. 

While he was in Europe in 1889 with Bishop O'Reilly, he was invested with the 
title of Monsignor by Pope Leo XIII, June 30, making him a domestic prelate of the 
Vatican. In the same year his o/;na ;;;a?cr conferred upon him the degree of D. D. He 
was made a permanent rector of St. John's Alay 30, 1885, and at the time of his death 
was the oldest permanent rector of the diocese. 

His school for boys was started in a block of houses and the old Father Mathew 
Temperance Society building on Temple street, opposite his church. In 1890 he 
brought the Christian Brothers from Ireland as teachers for his boys school. When 
the new school house was opened in 1894 it was placed in charge of the Xaverian 
Brothers. It has a large assembly hall for parish gatherings. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 867 

He purchased eight acres on Vernon and Winthrop streets in 1893, and at first 
used the mansion for offices and dormitory for the Brothers who were teaching in 
the parochial school. After a home for them had been built at the corner of Temple 
and Harding streets, he made plans for St. Vincent's Hospital. The first building was 
at the corner of Vernon and Winthrop streets, now used for a Home for Aged People, 
in charge of the Sisters of Providence. Subsequently the present hospital building 
was erected. He also founded Mt. St. Joseph Industrial School at Millbury for way- 
ward boys. He acquired the site for Notre Dame Normal Institute on Plantation 
street, now used for the care of sick and aged members of the Sisters of Notre Dame. 
He erected in 1892 the convent buildings for the Sisters of Notre Dame on Vernon 
street, one of the largest and best buildings owned by that order in New England. 
From time to time he purchased for the parish of St. John's real estate intended for 
parish purposes, but for the present held as income-producing property rising in value. 
He was shrewd and far-sighted in business. Two great events of his pastorate were 
the celebrations of the golden jubilee of the original Christ Church in 1884, and of the 
founding of St. John's, June 24, 1896. 

An indication of the love and respect in which he was held by his parishioners and 
the other people of the city was afforded by the greeting of 30,000 people, who wel- 
comed him on his return from a visit to Ireland in 1909. In later years he was widely 
known as the "Grand Old Man of the Springfield Diocese." For many years he pre- 
sided over the most notable church gatherings, and everywhere he was honored and 
esteemed. He loved his city, his country, and his native land, and helped every worthy 
movement to forward the cause of Ireland. He was proud of his parochial schools, 
and was honored as a pioneer in the Catholic world, as the pioneer of the parochial 
school movement. He took pride also in his St. John's Cadets and St. John's Guild. 
He was the first Catholic priest invited to open a session of the General Court. He 
was active to the time of his death. He celebrated mass the day before he died. He 
was old but rugged. Few men of his age were as strong and active. He loved his 
work. He preferred to walk rather than ride, and throughout his parish he made his 
way on foot on his daily errands of mercy. 

He left five nephews: J. J. Griffin, of Boston, James and Martin Griffin, of Salem; 
John Ryan, of Peabody; James Ryan, of Maiden; and two nieces: Mary Ryan, of this 
city; and Mrs. David Kingsley, of Chelsea. 

St. Anne's Church. — After the French-Canadians failed in an attempt 
to erect a church for French-Catholics, 1852-5-4, the funds were passed 
over to the pastor of St. John's, Father Gibson, who decided that another 
church was needed, though his associate disagreed. In 1855 Father 
Gibson began to build St. Anne's Church, on Shrewsbury street, at an 
estimated cost of $6,500. In about a year he collected $1,383.81, not 
including about $200 that he advanced. In 1856 he left the city and the 
mortgagee foreclosed, buying the property for $725. 

Rev. John J. Boyce succeeded Father Gibson, but he could not 
give his personal attention to the parish, and besides he was no financier 
or business man. He urged upon the bishop the urgent necessity of 
appointing some priest who would be equal to the task of extricating the 
parish from its difficulties and he appointed Rev. J. J. Power pastor, 
Aug. 7, 1856. 

Rev. John J. Power was appointed rector Aug., 1856, but he had no 
church. For $1,000 he redeemed the property; paid other debts; com- 
])leted the building, and it was dedicated Christmas Day, 1856 ; Rev. 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



James A. Healy preached the sermon. This humble structure was used 
until October, 1885, with frequent repairs and renovations. Father 
Power built a small rectory on Shrewsbury street in 1863; and next year 
gave it for a convent home for the Sisters of Mercy, whom he called from 
New York, Oct. 2-1, 1865, and for whom he also provided a small hos-^ 
pital. It was the first public hospital in the city. (See Hospitals). 

In 1866 Father Power began to erect St. Paul's Church (q. v.). Rev. 
Denis Scannell, his assistant, became pastor of St. Anne's, Oct. 1, 18T2, 
and two years later built a parochial residence on Shrewsbury street. 
On Sept. 5, 1882, this site of new St. Anne's was bought of trustees of 
Worcester Lunatic Asylum for $10,685.08. The cornerstone was laid 
June 15, 1884, by Right Rev. Bishop O'Reilly. The first mass was said in 
the basement, Oct. 11, 1885, by Rev. J. J. Power, V. G., and Rt. Rev. S. 
J. Burke preached the sermon. At the dedication, Oct. 21, 1891, by 
Bishop O'Reilly, the sermon was preached by Rev. J. J. Power, and Rev. 
Thomas D. Beaven preached at the vesper service. The church is located 
at the corner of Eastern avenue and. Gage street. Its dimensions are 143 
by 69 feet; the material is brick, except the basement walls, which are of 
granite. The style is Gothic ; the site is unsurpassed ; the building 
imposing. It seats 1,150. In 1891 a spacious rectory was built at the 
rear of the church. 

Rev. Father Scannell died Aug. 20, 1899. Rev. Fr. James P. Tuite 
was appointed his successor, in 1899. He built the Academy of the 
Sacred Heart in 1903, and died Sept. 6, 1905. Rev. John J. McCoy, 
LL.D., has been rector since 1905. 

The curates have been : Revs. Jno. Conway, Feb. 8, 1874, to Sept. 
10, 1876; J. E. Garrity, Nov. 8, 1876, to death, Nov. 2, 1877; J. P. Tuite, 
Jan. 13, 1878, to May 4, 1880; J. B. Drennan, May 30, 1880, to Nov. 10, 
1887; E. D. Casey, Jan. 14, 1883, to Jan. 4, 1886; Rev. E. F. Brosnihan, 
July 19, 1887, to Aug., 1899; Thos. Fitzgerald, July 11, 1887, to Feb. 
1890; Wm. F. Hartigan, Jan. 5, 1890, to 1900; Jas. M. Cruse, 1899-1902; 
Jno. J. O'Malley, 1900-1902; M.J. Slattery, 1902-1905; Thos. Donaghue, 
1902-1905; Oliver M. McGee, 1905-1909; Thos. P. McDonnell, 1905- 
1910; J. A. Riordan, 1910-1912; Patrick A. Manion since 1910; Jno. B. 
Farrell since 1912. 

The parish school of St. Anne's is known as the Academy of the 
Sacred Heart. The school building was erected and the school founded 
in 1904 by Rev. James P. Tuite, then pastor of St. Anne's. It was dedi- 
cated on the Feast of St. Anne, July 26, 1904. At the opening, the enrol- 
ment was 740, with seventeen teachers, Sisters of St. Joseph. The school 
has the full academic course, and prepares for college. The highest 
average number of pupils since opening was 833 ; the present number is 
720. There were twelve graduates in the first class, June 22, 1908. Ten 
classes have graduated to the present time with a total of 190, of whom 
fifty-five have entered colleges; thirty-nine various Normal Schools; 




REV. JOHN J. McCOY, LL. D. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 869 



five schools for training nurses ; three have entered the priesthood, and 
three others now in the Seminary are preparing for the priesthood. The 
school building is of brick, well designed, and located at the corner 
of Eastern avenue and Gage street. John William Donohue of Spring- 
field, was the architect. 

Rev. Denis Scannell, Pastor of St. Anne's Church, was born in County Kerry, 
Ireland, July, 1846. His grand-uncle, a distinguished priest and teacher of classics, 
prepared him for college. At the age of eighteen he came to this country, studied for 
a time in St. Charles College, Maryland, and then entered the Theological Seminary at 
Alleghany, where he was ordained June 20, 1870. For a time he was locum tcncns at 
Blackstone ; succeeding Rev. William Power as assistant to Father Power at St. Anne's 
in this city in October, 1870. Two years later he succeeded Father Power as pastor of 
St. Anne's. 

"Father Scannell," writes Dr. McCoy, "was an unaffected, kind-hearted man, honest 
in every thought and act. It might be said that no priest in New England was more 
beloved by his fellow priests than he. In times of grief or joy, Father Scannell fre- 
quently was appointed deacon of the ceremonies, and, because of this, he was pleasantly 
called the 'diocesan deacon.' That he was capable of great work, severe and long 
continued, the excellent condition of the parish property at the time of his death am- 
ply proves. He found in St. Anne's a small wooden church at his coming, but he left 
it with a magnificent temple of brick and stone, with a splendid presbytery and grounds 
adjoining. No man ever had an unkind thought or word to say against Father Scan- 
nell ; and so innocent was his life that the priests believed the alb he put on his shoul- 
ders the day of ordination was still white when they laid him away for his eternal rest." 
He died August 20, 1899. 

Rev. John Joseph McCoy, present rector of St. Anne's Church, was born at Tariff- 
ville, Conn., Nov. 29, 1853. When a year old he was taken by his parents to Holyoke. 
He made his classics at Holy Cross College, where he graduated (A. B.) in June, 
1876. He studied theology in the Grand Seminary of Montreal, and was there or- 
dained by Bishop Fabre in December, 1879. He was assigned as curate at St. John's 
Church, Worcester, where he labored near to eight years, when he was made pastor 
at Westboro, Feb. 3, 1887. Westboro knew his labors till called to succeed Dr. Rob- 
inson as rector of the Church of the Holy Name, Chicopee, Mass. He was eleven 
years the permanent rector of Chicopee, when appointed by Bishop Bevan to St. Anne's 
Church, Worcester, Sept. 2;^, 1905. 

Dr. McCoy is one of the advisory board of this history. He wrote a "History of 
the Catholic Church, Springfield Diocese" (1900), and other historical works. He is 
a member of the American Irish Historical Society. 

He has been prominent in various movements for public welfare in the city, serv- 
ing on the plajgrounds commission and on the Parks and Recreation Commission. He 
is chaplain of Alhambra Council, Knights of Columbus. He received the honorary de- 
gree of LL. D. from the College of the Holy Cross in 1904. The foregoing is in the 
handwriting of Mr. North, author of this work. 

Church of the Sacred Heart. — The parish known as Sacred Heart 
was taken from St. John's Jan. 24. 1880, and Rev. Thos. J. Conaty, who 
from the time of his ordination had been a curate there, was appointed 
rector. As early as 1867, Rev. P. T. O'Reilly, pastor of St. John's, had 
bought a lot on Cambridge street, and Father Griffin broke ground there 
for a church July 2, 1879, laid the cornerstone Sept. 21, and soon after- 
ward services were held in the basement. Father Conatv first lived in 



870 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



a rented house at the corner of Cambridge and Sheridan streets. He 
said his first mass in the completed church on Easter Sunday, 1881. In 
March he was given charge of the mission at Stoneville, and continued 
until it was transferred to the Oxford parish in 1885. In April, 1881, 
Father Conaty bought for the parish the Gilchrist estate on which he 
was then living, removed the old house, and erected the parochial resi- 
dence, which was completed in January, 1883. 




CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART. 

The church was dedicated Sept. 21, 1884, by Bishop O'Reilly. Rev. 
Charles E. Burke preached the sermon, and Rev. P. J. Garrigan preached 
at vespers. Father Conaty erected a parish hall next year; it was ded- 
icated June 25th. It faces Sheridan street, at the rear of the rectory; 
has a gymnasium, lecture hall, and rooms for other parish purposes. A 
four-tenement house on Sheridan street was bought May 9, 1882, and 
remodeled for a parish lyceum club house. Father Conaty was made 
president of the Catholic University in Washington, Jan. 10, 1897, and 
was succeeded Jan. 24th by his brother, Rev. Bernard S. Conaty, who was 
rector until 1913. Rev. Wm. E. Foley has been rector since 1913. The 
curates have been: Revs. Jno. J. O'Keefe, E. D. Casey, Jas. F. Galvin, 
M. W. Mulhane, J. A. Hurley, P. F. Hafey, J. J. Tirrell, W. E. Foley, 
Jno. F. Griffin, Francis A. O'Malley, Jno. J. Broderick. 

MoNsiGNOR Thomas J. Conaty, Bishop of Los Angeles, first pastor of the Church 
of the Sacred Heart, was born in County Cavan, Ireland, Aug. i, 1847, son of Patrick 
and Alice (Lynch) Conaty. His father came with his parents to Taunton, Mass., in 
1830, when he was seven years old, but at the age of fourteen returned to Ireland 



i 






i 



-4^ 



^ i^S^- 




ST. PAUL'S CHURCH 



AND ITS PEOPLE 871 



with the family, and remained there until alter his marriage in 1846, making his home 
in Taunton again in 1849. Patrick Conaty lived during his active life in Taunton, but 
died here while visiting, Dec. 4, 1904, at the Presbytery on Cambridge street. The 
mother died in March, 1872. Of the eight children born to Patrick and Alice Conaty, 
one died in infancy in Ireland ; the following were born in Taunton : Frances P., Cath- 
erine C, Rev. Bernard S., John S., Peter F., and Joseph A. 

Dr. Conaty attended the Taunton public schools until 1863, when he entered Mon- 
treal College; in 1867 he became a student in Holy Cross, graduating in 1869 with the 
B. A. degree. His theological training was received in the Seminary at Montreal, 
where he was ordained December 21, 1872. He was appointed in January, 1873, curate 
of St. John's Church in this city, continuing in this office until he was made rector 
of the Church of the Sacred Heart in 1880. His work in this pastorate has been de- 
scribed. In 1893 his fellow priests made him one of three to represent them on the 
Bishop's Council. He received the D. D. degree from Georgetown College at the time 
of the Centennial Jubilee. In July, 1892, he was made president of the Catholic Summer 
School. When Bishop Keane was called to Rome, Dr. Conaty was appointed head of 
the University, and in October, 1897, he was made a Monsignor. He was consecrated 
Nov. 24th, 1901, titular bishop of Samos, and March 27th, 1903, he was appointed Bishop 
of Monterey and Los Angeles. He died at Coronado, Cal., Sept. i8th, 1915. 

Dr. Conaty's fame as a public speaker became national. Dr. McCoy wrote of him : 
"By nature he is an agitator and loves the work of multitudes. We can easily imagine 
him a Peter waking up Europe to the Crusades, but would find it hard to see in him 
the same Peter in a hermit's cell. Dr. Conaty is a masterful man and brings with him 
wherever he goes the hum of assemblies. God made him an active man and in every 
agitation for the people's health he is the angel who, stronger than the rest, can best 
stir the waters. Every great movement in church and state toward public reform, 
popular education, or charity, now for nearly three decades has found his name in 
places of honor, and had heard his strong voice lifted up for the true, the beautiful 
and the good." 

St. Paul's Church. — With a view of estabhshing another parish, 
Father Power, then pastor of St. Anne's Church, bought the lot at the 
corner of Main and Chatham streets, of George T. Rice and John Milton 
Earle, for $15,000 in August, 1866. At a meeting of Catholics in Jan- 
uary, 1867, $7,100 was subscribed to the building fund, and ground was 
broken in the spring of 1868. The granite basement was completed, 
covered with a temporary roof, and building suspended to await the 
necessary funds. The first mass was said in the basement by Rt. Rev. 
John J. Williams, Bishop of Boston, and Rev. James Fitton preached the 
first sermon, July 4, 1869, on the occasion of laying the cornerstone. 
Thereafter services were held regularly. Father Power assumed charge 
of the new parish, giving up his charges in Grafton and Millbury to oth- 
ers. He became administrator of the diocese during the absence of the 
bishop, and while in authority, October 1, 1872, took charge of St. Paul's, 
appointing his curate. Rev. Denis Scannell, to the pastorate of St. 
Anne's. 

Five years after the laying of the cornerstone, the church, excepting 
the tower, was completed. It was dedicated in 1874 by Rt. Rev. Bishop 
O'Reilly. Rt. Rev. James A. Healy, Bishop of Portland, Me., preached 
the sermon at the dedication. The tower was added in 1889. The 



872 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



building is of dark granite, 91 by 168 feet, and 96 feet in height. It is 
cruciform, occupies a convenient and commanding site, and is one of 
the finest churches in the city. 

It was no small task to raise the funds for this costly building and 
the purses of the parishioners and the resourcefulness of the pastor were 
taxed to their utmost for many years. They had reason to take pride in 
the achievement. The church was out of debt, January 1, 1895, and 
since then it has been in excellent financial condition. In thirty-two 
years Father Power raised for parish purposes a quarter of a million 
dollars, and when he died he left nineteen thousand dollars in the treas- 
ury of the church. Father Power at first made his home on the parish 
lot on the corner of High and Main streets, after coming to St. Paul's. 
In the same year he bought the land now occupied by the Orphan Asy- 
lum and the rectory on High street. A house was standing on the lot, 
and he gave it to the Sisters of Mercy from St. Anne's, the first religious 
order established in the city, for their home. The orphans of the parish 
were sheltered in a house at the rear of the convent house. The orphan- 
age was soon afterward destroyed by fire, and Father Power erected the 
present edifice which was hardly completed when his own house on 
Main street was burned. After living in the new orphanage for a short 
time, he moved to the present parochial residence at High and Chatham 
streets. 

St. Paul's Parish School was erected in 1912, on Chatham street. 
The building was opened in September that year, in charge of the Sis- 
ters of Mercy, who have been located in this city for fifty-two years 
(1917). In design, construction and architecture the school house has 
no superior in the city. It conforms to the regulations of the Boston 
School House Commission and is as sanitary and hygienic as a hospital. 
The material is Pennsylvania Harvard brick. The architect was John 
William Donahue of Springfield. The cost of the school building and 
equipment was about $100,000, and the debt was extinguished October 

19, i9ir. 

There are nine grades in the school, and nine teachers, with nearly 
400 pupils. 

Rev. Dr. Goggin, through whose efforts the school was founded and 
the building erected, has good reason to feel pride in his achievement. 
(See Worcester Gazette, April 20, 1912, for the architect's description 
of the building). 

Very Rkverend John J. Power, D. D., Vicar General of the Diocese of Springfield, 
wa.s born in Charlestown, Aug. 2^, 1828, died Jan. 27, 1902. He attended the public 
schools of Charlestown, and at the age of fifteen began the study of the classics under 
the instruction of his pastor, Rev. Geo. Goodwin. He entered Holy Cross College 
July 7, 1847, and was graduated July 24, 1851. He then became a student in the Grand 
Seminary at Montreal, but the climate there taxed his frail constitution severely and 
he completed his theological training in the Seminary at Aix, in the South of France, 
where he was ordained a priest. May 17, 1856. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 873 

He was appointed curate to Father Boyce in this city, and his health at that time 
warranted the message sent by the Bishop: "Take good care of this young man; he 
will not trouble you more than a few months." Three months later, Aug. 6, 1856, he 
was appointed pastor of the new parish of St. Anne's here. "He gathered his flock 
about him," writes Dr. McAleer, "and soon his winning personality, ascetic life, earn- 
estness, self-denial, lucid instructions, fatherly exhortations and devoted ministrations, 
added to its numbers, and extended his rapidly growing fame and influence for good 
throughout the city and surrounding country." (Hist, of St. Anne's, Wor. Mag., April, 
1902). When his church had outgrown the accommodations of St. Anne's, he under- 
took the building of St. Paul's Church, and established another parish. He was ap- 
pointed Vicar General, Jan. 29, 1874, and on June 25, 1874, received the honorary de- 
gree of Doctor of Divinity from Holy Cross. 

During the Civil War his rousing words of patriotism sent many a stalwart sol- 
dier to the front. He gave the city for many years valuable service in the school com- 
mittee, and was one of the committee that decided on the plan for the original Classical 
High School building. He always took a keen interest in the public schools. He was 
also a director of the Free Public Library, and a charter member of the St. Wulstan 
Society. 

"In his sermons," says Dr. McAleer, "he never followed a beaten path nor the 
stereotyped method of introduction, development, climax and conclusion ; but no man 
could choose more fitting words to express his thoughts nor lodge them with more 
directness and force into the minds and hearts of his hearers. He was blessed with 
brilliant talents which he rendered more brilliant by constant study, meditation and use 
^and to these he united a keen and practical judgment. He lived in an atmosphere 
above and beyond the humdrum of everyday life, and continually strove for some- 
thing higher — but had but scant courtesy for those content to remain at low levels. 
While childlike in his simplicity, a characteristic of the truly great, he gave added 
honor and dignity to the priest and citizen. He was too great to lower himself to the 
ways of the politician, the tricks of the stage, or to burn red fire to capture the applause 
of the unthinking multitude. He read not, he studied not, he appealed not for mere 
intellection — but that he might give color and form and life and inspiration that would 
stimulate to greater endeavors and lead up even to heroic achievement all who were 
given in charge to him — so that the service of the creature might be more worthy of 
the Creator. Justice, stern, rigid and exacting, was a very prominent and positive con- 
viction, and his sterling manhood could not tolerate temporizing vacillation, time-serving- 
insincerity — yet with such thoughtful consideration, gentleness and kindness of heart 
which he had in over-abundance for all, he never transgressed the bounds of charity, 
nor found bitterness in his heart for those who opposed, ofifended or were not of his 
faith. He ever waged ceaseless warfare against intemperance and especially the curse 
of drunkenness. For the tempter he had less charity than for the tempted and his 
scathing denunciations of the saloon bore wholesome fruit and will long be remembered. 
He left the impress of his personality upon his day and generation; and he will long 
be remembered as the beloved pastor, the sympathetic friend and the ideal citizen." 

On the forty-eighth anniversary of laying the cornerstone of St. Paul's Church, a 
bronze tablet was unveiled in the main vestibule July 4, 1917, in memory of Father 
Power. It was the gift of Dr. and Mrs. George McAleer. The tablet was blessed by 
Rev. Father Goggin, the pastor, who also preached the sermon. Reynolds McAleer, 
brother of Dr. McAleeic, unveiled the memorial. Andrew O'Connor was the sculptor; 
the Gorham Manufacturing Company designed and made the memorial. The inscrip- 
tion reads : "In loving and prayerful memory of Very Rev. John Joseph Power, D. D., 
V. G., born in Charlestown, Mass., August 23, 1828. Graduated from the College of the 
Holy Cross, July 24, 1851. Ordained to the Priesthood at Aix, France, May 17, 1856. 
Appointed pastor of St. Anne's Church. Worcester, August 6, 1856. Founder and pas- 
tor of St. Paul's Church, Worcester, July 4, 1864. Vicar General of the Diocese of 



874 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Springfield, January 24, 1874. Honored by his Alma Mater with the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity, June 25, 1874. Died at the Parochial residence, January 27, 
1902. Buried in Saint Anne's Cemetery, Shrewsbury. Esteemed when living— hon- 
ored when dead. Rcquiescat in Pace." 

Dr. and Mrs. McAleer enjoyed the friendship of "Father John," as he was affec- 
tionately called, for thirty-seven years. He officiated at their marriage. 

Church of the Immaculate Conception. — Rev. Robert Walsh, form- 
erly curate under Father Griffin at St. John's, then pastor at Otter 
River, was first pastor of the Church of Immaculate Conception, 
appointed in November, 1873. At that time there was no church; the 
parish had just been outlined, but Father Griffin had two years prior 
to that time bought a lot on Prescott street. He held services first 
in a cottage on this lot, Nov. 7, 1873, and made his home there and con- 
tinued for a year to say masses there. It was then moved to another lot 
on the same street, and he continued to live in it, renting from the new 
owners. Fifty men in the parish contributed their labor to remove the 
orchard and excavate for the foundations, but when it was found that 
the city desired the gravel for use in road-building the work was com- 
pleted without cost to the parish or further free labor. 

The corner-stone of -the church was laid in June, 1874, by Bishop 
O'Reilly. Father Joseph O'Hagan, then president of Holy Cross College, 
preached the sermon. In the meantime services continued in the rec- 
tory. Rev. Thomas Griffin preached at the Mass; Rev. Thomas D. 
Beaven at vespers. The church was dedicated Dec. 8, 1878. The church 
is 64 by 140 feet, of Gothic style. In 1876 the adjoining lot was bought 
by the pastor and he made his home in the house on that lot; afterward 
he bought a house and lot north of the church property and another on 
Lexington street. In 1891 the house on the corner lot was demolished 
and a handsome residence erected and first occupied in March, 1892. In 
about ten years the parish was free of debt. 

Father Walsh had charge of missions in Holden and Rutland. In 
1882 these towns became a parish with a church of their own. Rev. 
James Donahue was rector from 1908 to 1913. He died Nov. 23, 1913, 
age 64 years, 5 mos., 23 days. Rev. Michael J. Coyne has been pastor 
since 1913. 

The curates have been : Revs. Richard Walsh, who came Aug. 22, 
1874 ; Rev. Jas. McCloskey, Jan. 6, 1877 ; Rev. Thos. F. Joyce, Jan. 5, 1879 
Rev. Chas. J. Boylan, Oct. 1, 1881; Rev. Jno. S. NelHgan, Sept. 10, 1881 
Rev. Denis MulUns, Jan., 1888; Rev. Jas. Kechnie, March 25, 1893 
Jas. F. Teahan, 1904; Jno. J. Lunney, 1904; Stephen C. Hallisey, 1909 
Richard J. Murphy, 1909; John S. Speelman, 1912; Wm. J. Foran, 1913 
Harry J. Hackctt, 1914. 

Rev. Robert Walsh, pastor of the Church of the Immaculate Conception, was 
born in Kilkenny, Ireland, April, 1841, died in this city, March 6, 1908. He studied at 
the college at Waterford, and make his theological and philosophical studies at St. 




ST. PETER'S CHURCH 



AND ITS PEOPLE 875 



John's College, Waterford. He had as professors during his course, Rev. Dr. Cleary, 
afterward Archbishop of Kingston, and Rev. Dr. Power, afterward Bishop of Water- 
ford. He was made a priest on Sexagesima Sunday, 1866; ordained for the diocese of 
St. John, N. B., by Rt. Rev. Dominick O'Brien, then Bishop of Waterford. He was 
received ' into the Diocese of Springfield by Bishop O'Reilly, just six weeks after 
the formation of the new diocese, and made assistant at Northampton, where he re- 
mained three months. Father Walsh came to Worcester, Jan. 22, 1871, as assistant 
to Father Griffin, in St. John's Parish. Dr. Power, then administrator of the diocese, 
appointed him pastor of Otter River, Nov. 11, 1872, and he did excellent work there, 
but was recalled by Bishop O'Reilly to this city in 1873, and remained pastor of 
the Church of the Immaculate Conception to the end of his life. Dr. McCoy describes 
Father Walsh as "a large, strong man, very soft-spoken, pleasant-faced and kindly. 
How wisely he has worked, his parish shows." 

St. Peter's Church.— This parish, in the west part of the city, was 
organized May 15, 188-i, by Rev. D. H. O'Neill appointed by the bishop 
for that purpose. The first Mass was said by the pastor May 25, 1884, 
in the house in which he was then living, 162 Canterbury street, and 
was attended by a congregation of twenty-five. He organized a Sunday 
school which met in the school house. The first business meeting was 
held in the old Catholic Institute, June 1, 1884. Ground was broken for 
the church June 6, and the corner-stone laid by Bishop O'Reilly, Sept. 
7; Rev. R. S. V. Burke preached the sermon. In the meantime Mass 
was said in the Canterbury street school house. The first Mass in the 
church was said in the basement on Christmas Day. The church was 
dedicated June 18, 1893, by Bishop Beaven. Bishop Bradley of Man- 
chester, N. H., preached the sermon, and Rev. J. J. McCoy preached at 
the vesper service. The building is 62 by 125 feet. It is located at 935 
Main street, opposite Clark University, and with the presbytery and 
lawns occupies a whole square. Father O'Neill began the parochial 
residence in 1881. It is located on the corner of the church lot. 

In 1897 Father O'Neill introduced a community of five Sisters of St. 
Joseph, and this organization has worked in the Sunday school, cared 
for the altars, and attended the sick of the parish since then. He bought 
for them a convent home on Wyman street. Rev. D. H. O'Neill died 
Sept. 3, 1916. Rev. J. J. Howard was appointed pastor in October, 1916. 
The curates of St. Peter's have been: Revs. Wm. F. Grace, May 
21, 1890, to Mar. 1, 1894; Jas. J. Howard, from Oct. 6, 1893; PhiHp J. 
Lee from Mar. 1, 1894; Joseph Martin, since 1913; John F. Reilly since 
1915; J. P. Dalton since 1917. 

The estate of the late Hon. Joseph H. Walker, Main and Ripley 
streets, was bought, Dec. 16, 1916, for parochial school purposes. The 
mansion will be used for a school building. The lot is 207 by 352 feet. 

Rev. Daniel H. O'Neill, pastor of St. Peter's Church, was born in St. Albans, 
Vermont. He studied theology at Troy (N. Y.) Seminary, and was ordained there May 
25, 1872. For two years he was assistant at St. John's Church in this city, and then 
at St. Paul's under Father Power, until he was made pastor of the church at Green- 
field. Thence he came to this city again as pastor of St. Peter's Church, was honored 



876 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



by Holy Cross College with the degree of LL.D. He built and completed the splendid 
church and presbytery in St. Peter's parish. He died full of years and merits, Sept. 
3, 1916. His business training in early life had been put to good use, and when 
he died he left a respectable sum of money, nearly the whole of which by will was 
given to the Bishop of the Diocese for educational, religious and charitable purposes. 
"Father O'Neill," writes Dr. McCoy, "is acknowledged one of the keenest and most 
competent of our business men. This quality in him was recognized by the bishop 
when the Building Committee was formed, consisting of Fathers Harkins, O'Xeill and 
Boyle. He has been eminently successful through his life and as pastor has built up 
a parish which may be counted among the very best in the Diocese in appointments, 
completion of buildings and in reputation for wise management of afifairs." 

St. Stephen's Church. — This parish was taken from St. Jolin's in 
January, 1887, and Rev. R. S. J. Burke appointed its pastor Jan. 27, 
1887. Ten days later he said Mass in the unfinished attic of a school 
house at the corner of Wall and Grafton streets, and the parish wor- 
shiped there until the basement of the church was occupied, Jime 19, 
1887. The lot was bought in 1886 by Rev. Thomas Grififin, in anticipa- 
tion of the needs of the new parish. It was located at the corner of 
Grafton and Hamilton streets, near Elm Square, and cost $15,517.30. 




ST. STEPHEN'S. 

Father Burke pushed the work energetically. He formed a choir 
and April 10th sang High Mass in the school house. A fair netted $5,000. 
The church was built by Urgel Jacques, contractor, and was dedicated 
Sept. 4, 1887, by the Vicar General, Very Rev, John J. Power; the ser- 
mon preached by Rev. Dr. Thomas D. Beaven, then pastor of Spencer, 
Two years later F'ather Burke built the rectory. In 1895 Father Burke 










SAINT STEPHEN'S CHURCH, WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 



AND ITS PEOPLE 877 



was transferred to South Deerfield, and Rev. Daniel McGillicuddy, of 
Warren, succeeded him. Besides the 1200 Irish there is a percentage of 
Italian Catholics in this parish. The parish now has over 4,000 souls. 

The curates have been: Revs. Jno. C. Ivers, Mich. P. Kavanaugh, 
Jas. J. McGillicuddy, Patrick J. O'Malley, Jno. B. Farrell, Matthew M. 
Boyne, Jno. J. Kenney, 1913-1916; Rev. Jas. A. Noonan since 1916; 
Rev. Andrew J. Daley. 

The following is condensed from an historical pamphlet: 

Rev. Daniel McGillicuddy was born in Worcester, in the neighborhood of the 
old St. John's Church, May 13, i860. He passed through the city schools, received the 
degree of A. B. from Holy Cross College, and was ordained to the priesthood by 
Archbishop Fabre, Dec. 20, 1884. He was sent as a curate to Fr. Cudahy at Milford, 
and here he remained during the first seven years of his priesthood ; he afterwards was 
with Fr. Shiels at Leominster for a year, and then for one and one-half years at West- 
field, when he became pastor, in December, 1893, of the Church of St. Athanasius at 
Warren. He became pastor of St. Stephen's Church in 1895, and endeared himself to 
the people from the time he assumed charge until his premature death in 1908. He 
was mourned by the members of his flock and the people of his native city. 

The present rector. Rev. Thos. H. "McLaughlin, who has been here since 1908, 
was born in Clinton, Mass., Jan. i, 1861. He graduated from the public schools of his 
native town and went to Ottawa College, afterwards to Boston College, where he 
graduated in 1882. He studied theology at the Grand Seminary at Montreal, and was 
ordained by Rt. Rev. Patrick T. O'Reilly, Bishop of Springfield, Dec. 19, 1885, in the 
Springfield Cathedral. He was assigned as curate to Father Purcell at Pittsfield, and 
there filled out the whole term of his curacy, during a period of eleven years. 

Dr. McCoy writes: "Father McLaughlin is a man of good parts, is active, capable 
in business affairs, and of pleasant and amiable disposition. He has always been liked 
by the people he has served and enjoys today the complete good-will of the people of 
his parish." 

Since coming to St. Stephen's, Fr. McLaughlin has been anxious to erect a new 
and more commodious structure; and ground was broken for the new church, June 
I, 1916. The contract was awarded to McDermott Brothers of Worcester, and when 
completed will cost in the neighborhood of $140,000. 

In 1897 Fr. McLaughlin went to Huntington as rector of St. Thomas' Church, 
where he remained until August, 1899, when he was called to the rectorship of St. 
Thomas' Parish, to succeed Rev. Denis C. Moran. In Adams he remained nine years, 
laboring zealously, and completing the magnificent Gothic structure, St. Thomai' 
Church, considered one of the most beautiful churches in Western Massachusetts. 

In the new St. Stephen's Church, the style employed is a free adaptation of the 
motifs of that period of English Gothic architecture which flourished between the 
fourteenth and sixteenth centuries and known in architectural history as Perpendicular 
Gothic. The materials of construction are Harvard brick laid in true English bond, 
the trimmings of grey sand blasted terra cotta, the roof covered with an unfading 
green slate, and these materials when combined in the finished building producing a 
notable harmony of texture and color. 

The new church is 165 feet long and 90 feet wide; it is built in the form of a 
Latin cross with nave, aisles and transepts. A well proportioned tower on the corner 
of Hamilton and Grafton streets, twenty-two feet square, rises ninety feet above the 
finished grade. The ceiling of nave of church rises in an arch 50 feet above the fin- 
ished floor. The main ceiling will be finished in a plain barrel vault, the aisle ceiling be- 
ing in open timbered trusses. The interior finish of the church of brown ash stained to 



878 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



harmonize with the interior decoration. The main altar of Caen stone and quartered 
oak, the stations of the cross will be of special design. The main entrances of the 
church will be particularly pleasing; there will be two main doors on Grafton street, 
reached by a broad flight of granite steps. Over the door on the left hand side is a 
Latin inscription "Pax Intrantibus," and over the right hand entrance is the inscription 
"Sains Exeuntibiis" ; a free translation of these inscriptions is "Peace to those enter- 
ing" and "Salvation to those departing." 

Taken as a whole the new church shows original conception, refined taste and a 
studied design, all of the historical elements which go to make up this beautiful style 
having been strictly adhered to. (See Program of Harvest Festival, Oct., 1916.) 

Church of the Ascension. — This church on Vernon street, organ- 
ized July 16, 1911, serves the CathoHcs of the Vernon hill district who 
worshipped formerly in St. John's. Rev. James J. Farrell was appointed 
first pastor by Rt. Rev. T. D. Beaven, D. D., Bishop of Springfield. 
For a year after its establishment the people worshipped in St. 
Joseph's Chapel, in the basement of the parochial school. In the 
meantime the new church Avas being erected, and on August 11, 1912, 
was dedicated by Bishop Beaven, assisted by Rt. Revs. Monsignors Wm. 
P. ]\IcQuaid and Dennis F. O'Callahan of Boston, seventy-five priests 




CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION. 

from dififerent parts of New England and a great concourse of people. 
A unique feature of the celebration was the fact that the officers of the 
day were "boys" born and reared within the parish lines. Rev. Dr. John 
J. Foran celebrated the High Mass, which was his first High Mass, as 



AND ITS PEOPLE 879 



he had been ordained in Rome only a few weeks before. The dedication 
sermon was delivered by Rev. William A, Hickey, and in the evening 
the sermon was by Rev. Dr. M. J. Curran. 

While the Church of the Ascension is not an expensive church, it is 
considered one of the most devotional of the many Catholic churches of 
the city. The parish numbers at present 3000 souls. The church is free 
from debt, although there is a small indebtedness on the schools and 
convent. In the schools there are 675 girls under the tutelage of the 
Sisters of Notre Dame. Connected with the parish are St. Agnes' Guild 
and the Working Girls Home, while the priests of the parish care also for 
the sick in St. Vincent's Hospital. 

Rev. James J. Farrell, first pastor Church of the Ascension, was born in Web- 
ster, Mass., 1864, the son of Thomas and Catherine (Thompson) Farrell. He re- 
ceived his early education in the public schools of his native town, graduating from the 
high school in 1882. His college course was made at the University of Ottawa, where 
he received the degree of A. B. and was one of the honor men of the class. 

He entered the Grand Seminary of Montreal for his theological studies and was 
ordained Dec. 20, 1890. The first eight years of his priesthood were spent in the 
arch-diocese of Boston. His first appointment was at St. Francis de Sales Church, 
Charlestown, where he remained during the absence of the pastor, who was away on 
sick leave. His next appointment was to the parish of the Immaculate Conception, 
Everett, where he remained nearly eight years. In January, 1888, he was recalled to 
his own diocese and appointed assistant at St. Michael's Cathedral. While at the 
cathedral he was spiritual director of the Father Mathew Temperance Society and al- 
so of the Young Ladies' Sodality. He was also chaplain of the St. Valerian Court of 
Foresters and the Woman's Catholic Benevolent Society, and he has the distinction of 
having been the first priest to offer prayer at the opening of the Superior Court in 
Hampden county. 

His first pastorate was in Southboro, 1905-11. He not only made extensive re- 
pairs on the church and rectory, but practically rebuilt the mission church in Cordaville. 
Notwithstanding all the repairs he was obliged to make, he was able not only to pay 
for them, but also to reduce the debt from $10,000 to $4,000. 

The i6th of July, 191 1, he came to Worcester as pastor of the new Church of the 
Ascension. 

Father Farrell celebrated his silver jubilee Dec, 1915, and the receptions he was 
given by the church societies proved the great esteem in which he was held by his 
parishioners. He has travelled very extensively, and has given many lectures on the 
countries and places he has visited. His last long trip was to South America, 1915-6. 

Church of the Blessed Sacrament. — This parish was formed for the 
people in the vicinity of Park avenue and extending westward, 
including Tatnuck and Lenox. The land for the church was 
bought by Bishop Beaven, June 3, 1912. It was known as the Phelps 
estate, at the corner of Park avenue and Pleasant street. Rev. William 
E. Ryan was appointed pastor June 20, 1912, and took charge imme- 
diately. Ground was broken for the church October 2, 1912, and it was 
completed May 4, 1913, when the first Mass was said. During the con- 
struction of the building, the people worshiped in a vacant store at 258 
Park avenue. Since the completion of the church the parish has shown 
great prosperity and growth. 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Rev. William E. Ryan, who has been pastor from the beginning, was 
born in Rhode Island. He attended Mount St. Mary's College, at 
Emmitsburg, Maryland, graduating in June, 1890, with the degree of 
bachelor of arts. He then became a student in Mt. St. Mary's Seminary, 
and was ordained to the priesthood, June 23, 1894. His first appoint- 
ment was assistant at the Church of the Holy Rosary, Holyoke. Three 
years later he was appointed curate at St. Charles Church, Pittsfield. 
After five years he came to Worcester as curate at St. Paul's, where he 
served for ten years. From St. Paul's he came to his present pastorate. 
Rev. John F. Mungovan has been assistant since 1915; the present 
curate is Rev. M. Heaphy. 

St. Bernard's Church. — This is the latest church of the Catholic faith 
in this city. It was founded in 1916 by a division of the parish of Im- 
maculate Conception. Rev. George F. Flynn, the first rector, was for- 
merly pastor of the Upton Church. The present place of worship is in 
the hall of the Boys' Trade School on Salisbury street. The building 
contract was awarded to Patrick J. Mahoney of Westfield, and ground 
was broken in the summer of 1917. John W. Donahue of Springfield 
is the architect. The lot is at the corner of Lincoln and Harlow streets. 
The building will be of golden-browm brick. The auditorium in the 
basement, seating 850, will be used for the Sunday school and other 
gatherings; the main auditorium will seat 900. The estimated cost of 
the new church is $100,000. The first annual report in 1918 showed 
receipts amounting to $20,042.93. 

Church of Our Lady of the Angels. — This is a new parish, founded 
in 1916. Rev. Michael J. O'Connell is the rector. The place of worship 
is at the corner of Main and Montague streets. 

Saint Francis Home for the Aged. — This institution conducted by 
the Little Franciscan Sisters of Mary, whose doors are opened to the 
aged without home or abandoned, was founded in 1889 under the direc- 
tion of Rev. Joseph Brouillet, pastor of Notre Dame Church. The first 
home was situated at the corner of Southgate and Grand streets, and was 
destined as an asylum for orphans or homeless children and as a home for 
the aged and infirm. Applications for admittance increased daily, and 
from the beginning to January, 1891, there were registered 250 orphans 
of both sexes, and 15 aged and infirm. 

In January, 1891, advised by Rt. Rev. P. T. O'Reilly, then Bishop of 
Springfield, the community left its South Worcester house to establish 
itself in another section of the city, and in October of the same year the 
Sisters purchased their present house on Bleeker street. They soon 
became well known, and in a few months had over sixty orphans housed 
within their walls. By means of the daily house-to-house collection 
by the Sisters the children were supported. Were it not for general pub- 
lic assistance those little ones might often have gone to bed cold and 
hungry. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



In January, 1898, at the request of Rt. Rev. T. D. Beaven, the house 
was changed from an orphan asylum to a Home for the Aged of both 
sexes, who were in their sixtieth year or older. That year applications 
were so numerous that an addition was built to the home. Even this 
building became too small and the Sisters undertook the work of enlarg- 
ing the home, and in their efforts were generously aided by the citizens 
of Worcester. 

The new building was dedicated and opened on June 28, 1908. The 
edifice is four stories high, not including the basement, built of brick, 
with granite trimmings. It fronts Thorne street, and is composed of the 
main building and two wings, and is connected with the other house by 
a viaduct. It is equipped with all the latest improvements and modern 
architecture. The total cost of the structure is $G0,000. 

In St. Francis Home for the Aged, from January, 1891, to January, 
1898, the Sisters have cared for 245 orphans. From January 18, 1898, 
date on which the work was changed from orphans to aged, up to Jan- 
uary, 1917, the Sisters have harbored more than 893 aged people, and of 
this number 410 died in their care. There are at present 150 old peo- 
ple in the Home. The staff' comprises 37 professed Sisters and three 
auxiliaries. 

To help the Sisters to continue their good work, an association was 
established among the Worcester Catholics under the name of St. 
Francis Aid Association in the year 1900. This Association has been 
a wonderful help to the Sisters. 

The Gray Nuns. — The Gray Nuns came to Worcester, January 21, 
1891, and established themselves at the corner of Grand and Southgate 
streets. Two years later they purchased a farm of 150 acres on Granite 
street, at a cost of $15,000. The farmhouse was converted into a chapel, 
and an orphanage built at a cost of $31,000, completed January 31, 1893, 
and blessed by Bishop Beaven, May 21, 1893. Sister Piche was the first 
superior. Three sisters came at the beginning; now there are nine- 
teen. They assume the care of children above three years of age. When 
the boys reach the age of twelve they are returned to friends or sent to 
the House of the Angel Guardian in Boston to learn a trade, or to study 
further with the Oblate Fathers in Ottawa, Canada. The girls are 
taught sewing, cooking and household duties, and when old enough 
are returned to their friends or placed in good homes. Father A. Des- 
noyers, from St. Hyacinthe, Canada, was the first chaplain. 

Ladies Catholic Benevolent Association. — Branches of this organi- 
zation have been formed in four of the Roman Catholic churches, and 
have assisted the pastors materially in raising funds for charity and in 
performing the various benevolent duties of the churches. They are as 
follows : 
W.— I-s6. 



882 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



St. John's, first in Worcester county; Blessed Sacrament Branch, 
Mrs. Nancy Corkery, president, 1917; St. Anne's Branch, Mrs. Cath- 
erine Grace, president; St. Cecile Branch, Emma Rochon, president; 
St. Paul's Branch, Mary F. Timon, president; Immaculate Conception; 
St. Peter's; St. Stephen's ; Church of Ascension ; Sacred Heart. 



CHAPTER LVIII 

Other Churches — Unitarian — UniversaHst — Christian Scientist — Chris- 
tian (Disciples) — Adventist — Spiritual — Friends 

The following narrative of the origin of Unitarianism in Worcester, 
and of the First Unitarian (Second Parish) Church, is contributed: 

The Second Parish was formally established in March, 1785. But its real begin- 
nings must be sought in the intellectual and religious movements that were quietly 
but profoundly affecting the life of New England for many years before that date. 
The spirit of the Revolution extended beyond the consideration of political questions, 
and unconsciously influenced men's thinking on all vital themes. New ideals of Liberty 
in religious thought slowly emerged from the earnest discussion of the times. The 
placid orthodoxy of the earlier generations was disturbed by the pressure of new opin- 
ions. Still there was no open breach. No ecclesiastical antagonisms rent the peace and 
harmony of the community. It was the necessity of choosing a minister for the town that 
brought to a focus the differences of doctrinal belief that existed in the First Parish. 
Then it was found that the people were divided into two parties, broadly distinguished 
as conservative and liberal. Earnest efforts were made to compromise these differ- 
ences ; it was even proposed that two ministers be settled so as to avoid a split in the 
Parish. The Divine assistance was invoked by the appointment of a day of fasting 
and prayer. But all to no avail. 

So it came about that at the close of the pastorate of Rev. Thaddeus MacCarty, 
Rev. Aaron Bancroft was asked to supply the pulpit, and so pleased a portion of his 
hearers that they petitioned the town to take action to settle him. When this was re- 
fused, and when all efforts for a harmonious solution of the question failed, sixty- 
seven members of the congregation withdrew, and with the adoption of a covenant, 
formed a separate and voluntary organization. Of these only two men and four wo- 
men were members of the Church as distinct from the Parish, thus indicating in part 
at least the line of cleavage. There was no disposition to establish a new kind of 
church ; it was not at all a Unitarian movement. There was no intended break with 
historic traditions either of polity or the great affirmations of Christian faith. The new 
society called itself The Second Parish in the Tozuni of Worcester, and the religious 
organization was known only as the Second Congregational Church, thus acknowledg- 
ing its relation to the mother church. 

Public worship was instituted on the third Sunday of March, 1785, in the Court 
House, Mr. Bancroft conducting the service and preaching the sermon. He consented 
to become the pastor June 7 and was ordained Feb. i, 1786. The new Parish was incor- 
porated Nov. 13, 1787, as a poll parish, as distinct from a territorial, and was the first 
of the kind in Massachusetts. 

The circumstances under which the new parish was launched were such as to test 
the constancy of its members to the utmost. The times were hard. Out of meagre 
incomes they were obliged to support their own church at the same time that they 
were taxed by the town for the support of the First Parish. Until relieved of this bur- 
den by the General Court, they had to endure great hardships. Their minister said of 
them afterwards that nothing but their devotion to the ideals and principles of liberty 
of conscience which they had espoused, would have supported them in the sufferings 
and persecutions through which they had to pass. 

Moreover their cause was unpopular, and they with their minister were objects of 
religious aversion. It is impossible to imagine now the bitterness of the prejudice they 



884 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

had to encounter. Only gradually did it die out. In the end Dr. Bancroft overcame all 
opposition by the force of his character, by his quiet and valiant defense of his views, 
and by his work as a scholar and writer. 

The first meeting house which stood at the northern end of Summer street, was 
dedicated Jan. i, 1792. The land was given to the parish by Charles and Samuel Chand- 
ler, June 16, 1791, and the building, a plain wooden structure, was built by Ignatius 
Goulding and Elias Blake. A bell was purchased and a tower clock presented by Isaiah 
Thomas. Among the founders of the church were: Jos. Wheeler, Sam. Curtis, Tim. 
Paine, Palmer Goulding, Benj. Flagg, Sam. Bridge, Jno. Goodwin, Wm. Gates, Lem. 
Rice, Nath. Patch, Sam. Brazier, Nath. Paine, Ignatius Goulding, Thad. MacCarty, Jno. 
Pierce, Jno. Stowers, Chas. Stearns, Benj. Andrews, Jedediah Healy, Wm. Tread- 
well, Jno. Mower, Micah Johnson, Thos. Stowell, Jno. Walker, Jos. Miller, Wm. Jen- 
nison, Andrew Tufts, Simeon Duncan, David Chadwick, Benj. Stowell, Abraham Lin- 
coln, Sam. Mower, Jno. Barnard, Cornl. Stowell, Jos. Allen, Ephraim Mower, Eli 
Chapin, Jno. Smith, Phinehas Heywood, Levi Lincoln, Joel How, Sam. Allen, Isaiah 
Thomas, Thad. Chapin, Samuel Prentice, Nathan Heard, Jno. Stanton, Sam. Flagg, 
Abel Stowell, Clark Chandler, Chas. Chandler, Tim. Bigelow, Sam. Chandler, Edw. 
Bangs. (See Early Settlers). The building committee of 1828 consisted of: Fred. 
W. Paine, Rejoice Newton, Alpheus Merrifield, Col. Sam. Ward, Capt. Geo. T. Rice, 
Capt. Lewis Barnard and Pliny Merrick. Elias Curtis and Peter Kendall were the 
builders. (P. 304-5, Vol. II, Thomas' diary). 

After forty-one years in which Dr. Bancroft became one of the leading ministers 
of New England, a colleague was appointed, Alarch 28, 1827, Rev. Alonzo Hill. Aug. 
20, 1829, a new brick meeting house on the site occupied by the present structure on 
Court Hill was dedicated. The land was bought of Isaiah Thomas for $4,000; the 
building cost $13,000. Dr. Bancroft died Aug. 19, 1839, and Dr. Hill became pastor, 
continuing for more than thirty-one years. 

The present meeting house was dedicated March 26, 1851, the former edifice hav- 
ing been destroyed by fire, Aug. 29, 1849. In this church Dr. Hill preached an histori- 
cal sermon on the occasion of his fortieth anniversary as an ordained minister. He 
died Feb. i, 1871. "Dr. Hill was a man of rare benignity; his face was a benediction," 
writes Charles E. Stevens. "As a colleague he lived in entire harmony with his senior, 
and as a sole pastor he perpetuated all amiable traditions. For nearly a century the 
Second Parish flourished under the two pastorates in an atmosphere of peace, diffused 
by the personal influence of the two pastors." 

The third minister. Rev. Edward H. Hall, was installed as a colleague of Dr. 
Hill, Feb. 10, 1869, and became minister in 1871. After thirteen years he resigned to 
become pastor of the Unitarian Church in Cambridge, where he became highly dis- 
tinguished, living to a great age. Mr. Stevens says of him : "He had so endeared him- 
self to his parishioners that with unfeigned regret they yielded to the separation. He 
had continued and re-enforced the traditional amenities of the Second Parish minis- 
try. He had approved himself 'a scholar and a ripe and good one.' As a thinker, he 
had pushed his way among the deep problems of though, beyond what was commonly 
known of him. In the literature of art he was so much at home that many outside, as 
well as within his own parish, gladly came for instruction to the art lectures which 
he gave on several occasions. A broad and fine culture, coupled with a liberal faith, 
appeared to express the ideal towards which he continually aspired." 

Rev. Austin S. Garver was installed as his successor March 11, 1885. Rev. Ed- 
ward Everett Hale, D. D., preached the sermon from the text — "Seek ye first the King- 
dom of God and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you." A 
prosperous and happy ministry succeeded when on his twenty-fifth anniversary Mr. 
Garver tendered his resignation and was named minister emeritus. In 1900 a parsonage 
was built at the corner of Lancaster and Highland streets, a commodious and beautiful 
residence. The minister made frequent summer trips to Europe, and in 1885 he was 



AND ITS PEOPLE 885 



granted leave of absence for fifteen months during which with his wife he visited Sicily, 
Egypt, Palestine and Greece. With these exceptions, he applied himself closely to his 
•work as minister and pastor; he gave much time to the Sunday school, instituting 
methods in the use of pictures in teaching that were widely adopted. He studied art 
extensively and for many years conducted classes which were attended by many per- 
sons outside the parish. He has also taken an active interest in many matters of an 
educational and philanthropic character as well as serving for many years as a member 
of the school committee. 

Rev. Edwin M. Slocombe was installed in January, 1912. 

[Particulars of Mr. Garvin's ministry will be found in an article contributed to the 
Sunday "Spy," Jan. i, 1899, by Nath. Paine.] 

The foregoing account of the Second Parish was written in part by 
the late Rev. Austin S. Garver and the revised copy was received by 
the author two days before he died. From the article in the "Spy," the 
following is extracted : 

Rev. A. S. Garver is a man of broad, scholarly attainments and liberal religious 
views. He is prominent among those interested in educational and philanthropic prob- 
lems and has identified himself with the municipal life of Worcester since he came 
here. Mr. Garver is a deep thinker and a forcible and convincing pulpit orator. He is 
a man of very wide activities and is prominently identified with many educational and 
religious movements. Among other things which he has had to do with in addition to 
his parish duties is trustee of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute and member of 
numerous important committee of the corporation of that institution — a trustee of Lei- 
cester Academy and director of the American Unitarian Association ; director of the 
Worcester Conference; president of the Worcester Art Society, incorporator of the 
Worcester Art Museum, member of the Public School Art League and he has been a 
member of the Worcester School Board for terms aggregating ten years. 

He is a man of very busy habits, whose whole time is taken up with the work of 
his study, his church, his parish and his public duties in the municipality. He is a lib- 
ereal patron and appreciator of art and is a firm believer in the introduction of proper- 
ly conducted art study into the public schools. He is one of the most enthusiastic 
promoters of the Public School Art League, which has as its object the inculcation of 
a love of art in the minds of the children of the schools of the city. His own home 
is filled with dainty bits of artistic production, in the midst of which he works and 
writes in a most ideal atmosphere of refinement and intellectuality. 

Church of the Unity. — After a preliminary meeting of members of 
the First Unitarian Church, June 33, 1844, a meeting was held August 
25 and it was voted to raise funds for preaching and a place of worship, 
and to build a meeting house. The lot on which the Church of the 
Unity stands on Elm street was bought and ground broken the following 
spring. The first services were held Jan. 26, 1845, by Rev. Dr. James 
Thompson of Barre, in a hall of Harris's book store. The "Second Uni- 
tarian Society of Worcester" was incorporated Nov. 27, 1845, with 47 
incorporators, among whom were Pliny Merrick and Benjamin F. 
Thomas. The name became Church of the Unity by vote of the parish 
Feb. 7, 1846. 

Rev. Edward Everett Hale was unanimously called Feb. 10, 1846. 
The church was dedicated April 25, and the minister installed next day. 



886 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Rev. Orville Dewey, D. D.. preached the dedicatory sermon, and Rev. 
Samuel Lothrop, D. D., at the installation. No church was formed; 
no creed nor covenant adopted ; no deacons elected. Some of the min- 
isters have administered communion or the Lord's Supper; others have 
omitted all such ceremonies. The ministry of Dr. Hale continued ten 
years. He resigned June 30, 185(5. to accept a Boston pastorate. Dr. 
Hale subsequently became not only one of the most distinguished auth- 
ors and clergymen but perhaps the best known and most honored in the 
country. 

A call was extended to Rev. George M. Bartol of Lancaster, but he 
declined. Rev. Rush R. Shippen was installed as the next pastor, Dec. 
22, 1858. In July, 1871, he resigned to become secretary of the American 
Unitarian Association. He also became very prominent in the denomina- 
tion. In 1865 the church was enlarged and 46 pews added. 

Rev. Henry Blanchard, installed May 4, 1873, had been a Univer- 
salist; his resignation March 4, 1880, was accepted April 1. Rev. Ro- 
land A. Wood, installed June 1, 1881, resigned Sept. 14, 1884. In 1885 
the church was renovated and parish rooms added. Rev. Calvin Steb- 
bins was installed in January, 1886, and was pastor until 1899. He was 
afterward minister of the Framingham Church. He has a wide reputa- 
tion as a logical and convincing preacher. Rev. Frank L. Phalen, pastor 
1904, was gifted as a poet and editorial writer. His contributions to the 
"Spy" attracted much attention. He resigned on account of very severe 
and prolonged illness, but recovered and afterward was pastor of the 
beautiful church at Fair Haven, Mass. 

Rev. Charles Brown Elder, D. D., pastor 1905-15, and pastor emer- 
itus, still a resident of this city and a prominent member of the city 
school committee, took rank among the ablest preachers of the city.' Rev. 
Chas. E. Beals was minister from 1915 until early in 1917, when he 
resigned on account of differences with his congregation due to the 
European War. Rev. William Channing Brown is the present minister 

(1918). 

The long and devoted service of Charles M. Thayer in the Sunday 
school as superintendent and of the late Edward F. Tolman as parish 
clerk and in other offices, deserve special mention. 

South Unitarian Memorial Church. — The Third Unitarian Church 
(Congregational Unitarian) in the city was organized to provide for the 
needs of those living in the southern part. It was established in 1890. 
The Rev. Austin F. Carver was the chief spirit in founding the South 
Unitarian Church. The first services were held in the Freeland street 
school house, Mr. Carver and Mr. Stebbins alternating in conducting the 
services. Mr. Kent was the first settled minister, and under him the 
Society rented a vacant store opposite the present church building, where 
it remained for some time. Then Pilgrim Church Hall was rented and 
used until the present building was ready for occupancy. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



887 



The first minister, Rev. Geo. W. Kent, was installed in 1892, and 
his pastorate ended in 1900. Rev. Arthur L. Weatherly was minister, 
1900-08. The present minister, Rev. Samuel C. Beane, Jr., resigned in 

1916, removing to Dorchester. Rev. Chas. P. Wellman, acting pastor in 

1917, is now pastor. 

First Universalist Church. — The following is contributed : 

In 1834 Universalism was first preached here by Rev. Lucius R. Paige, historian of 
Hardwick and Cambridge, then settled in Cambridge. His meetings in the town hall 
were well attended by men, but by few women. Afterward Rev. Hosea Ballou, Rev. 
Thos. Whittemore and others preached here occasionally. In 1840 Rev. Walter Bul- 
lard did some pioneer work in this town, and in 1841 the Universalists effected an or- 
ganization and chose as pastor Rev. Stephen Preston Landers, after hearing him 
preach four sermons, the first being given March 28, 1841. He began his work May 




FIRST UNIVERSALIST CHURCH. 

2d, and the society was organized June 3d; his salary was $500 a year. He labored 
earnestly and successfully as pastor and Sunday school superintendent; he organized 
the Sunday school in his first year. 

At first the meetings were in old Brinley Hall, but Nov. 22, 1843, a meeting house 
was dedicated on the present location of the Worcester Institution of Savings, Main 
street. The pastor him-self was the largest contributor to the building fund. The lot 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



cost $5,500; the building was a wooden structure, with stores on the street floor, an 
nuditor'ium'on the second floor, later known as Continental Hall. The church was 
formally organized Nov. 21, 1843. 

Mr. Landers preached his farewell sermon June 16, 1845; was for five years m 
West Cambridge; then in Clinton, N. Y., but was not settled after leaving here. He 
died at Clinton, April 15, 1876. He was a native of Bainbridge, N. Y., born Aug. 22, 
/812; a graduate of the Clinton Liberal Institute; studying theology under Rev, 
Stephen R. Smith, ordained Sept., 1839, settled at Bethany, Pa., 1837, and at Andover, 
Mass., later that year; his widow, Emily (Barker) Landers, died June 15, 1886; their 
only child Margaret married Rev. Webster Bettes Randolph. 

The second pastor, Rev. Albert Case, served four years. He was born in Bark- 
hamstead. Conn. ; had been pastor at Charleston, S. C. ; was installed here March 12, 
1845. He was a 33d degree Alason, popular in social life; a successful pastor. After- 
ward he was pastor at Hingham, and later employed in the Custom House for a time; 
editor and insurance agent in Boston. He was struck by a street car in Somerville and 
killed, Dec. 29, 1877, aged about 70 years. 

The third pastor. Rev. Obadiah Tillotson, was also here four years. He was a 
doctrinal preacher, dignified and commanding, and a diligent worker. The increase in 
the congregations during his pastorate led to the addition of galleries in 1851. He was 
installed in June. 1849, and preached his farewell sermon, Oct. 31, 1852. He was born 
at Orford, N. H., May 9, 1816 ; began to preach when twenty-two ; was settled at 
Woodstock, Vt., Claremont, N. H., Lynn and Methuen, in this State. After leaving 
Worcester he preached at Hartford, Conn., and at Watertown, Mass. ; studied law at 
Harvard, and afterward practiced here for two years, continuing to supply pulpits also. 
Later he was minister at Stafford, Conn., and Northfield, Vt., where he died June 19, 

1863. 

Rev. John Greenleaf Adams, D. D., began his pastorate m April, 1853, and served 
seven fruitful years. He inaugurated Children's Day, and this church was the first 
to observe this day, now universally observed in all Protestant churches. Dr. Adams 
was a native of Plymouth, N. H., born July 30, 1810; in early life he was trained in 
the Church of the Christians and the Congregational ; in 1832 entered the Universal- 
ist ministry ; preached in Maine ; was ordained in Rumney, N. H., June 12, 1833 ; pastor 
later at Claremont, N. H., and Maiden, Mass.; editor of "Star in the East" several 
years. After leaving this city he was at Providence, R. L, Lowell, Mass., Cincinnati, 
O., and Melrose Highlands, Mass. He published fifteen books and many pamphlets. 
He died May 4, 1887. 

Rev. Lindley Murray Burrington, pastor from July 23, i860, to Jan. i, 1862, was 
born in Burke, Vt. ; educated in St. Johnsbury Academy, Green Mountain Institute and 
the University of Vermont; studied under Rev. J. S. Lee and the famous Rev. A. A. 
Miner; settled at Reading, Mass., in 1858. He resigned as pastor here on account of 
illness. Afterward was minister at North Adams four years, and afterward lived in 
Minnesota and New York; in 1884 became pastor of the Uxbridge Unitarian Church. 

Rev. Thomas Elliot St. John, settled April i, 1862, dismissed June i, 1866. He 
was a loyal Union man and did yeoman service not only in his church but in support 
of the Union. He was born in Canterbury, N. Y., March 2, 1831 ; graduated from 
Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, 1856, with highest honors, and practiced at 
Janesville and Prairie du Chein, returning to the college as professor in 1857. Con- 
verted from Methodism, in 1859 he began to preach; his first pastorate was at New 
Bedford, Mass., 1859-62. He preached in Chicago two years, then returned to this 
church, Feb. i, 1869, and for ten years was an able and successful pastor. The pulpit is 
his handiwork. After resigning, April i, 1879, he was at Plymouth, N. H. ; Auburn, 
N. Y., and Haverhill, Mass. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary was observed Oct. 10, 1866. Rev. Mr. Landers 
preached the sermon ; Rev. Dr. Adams read an historical poem ; and the new pastor, 



AND ITS PEOPLE 889 

Benj. F. Bowles, was installed. He resigned Dec. i, 1868, to become pastor of the 
church at Cambridgeport. He was born in Portsmouth, N. H., March 4, 1844; studied 
for the ministry in the Clinton Liberal Institute, and. was pastor at Salem, South- 
bridge, Natick and Melrose, Mass., and Manchester, N. H., where he represented his 
district in the state legislature. From Cambridge he went to a pastorate in Philadel- 
phia and afterward to Osage, Iowa; then San Francisco; resided afterward in Boston. 
His last charge was at Abington and South Weymouth. He died Jan. 2, 1892. His 
widow, Ada C. Bowles, was pastor at Pomona, Cal., some years. 

During the second pastorate of Dr. St. John, the present church on Pleasant street 
was erected. The corner-stone was laid June 8, 1870. The lot cost $6,500; the building 
$65,000. It was dedicated June 28, 1871, Rev. Mr. Adams and Rev. B. F. Bowles as- 
sisting the pastor in the services. 

Rev. Moses Henry Harris, D. D., was settled Oct. i, 1879, dismissed April 25, 1890. 
He was born in Greene, Me., May 14, 1845, fitted for college at the Edwards Institute, 
Me.; graduated from the Canton Theological School, 1870; settled as pastor at Brat- 
tleboro, Vt, 1870, remaining there until he came here; and while there established 
churches in Williamsville, Guilford, and Vernon, Vt, and Hinsdale, N. H. Largely 
through his efforts All Souls Church was iounded in this city, and during the last 
years of his life he was its beloved pastor. (See All Souls). After leaving the First 
Church he had a pastorate of ten years in Chicago. He received the degree of D. D. 
from St. Lawrence. 

Rev. Dr. Almon F. Gunnison succeeded Dr. Harris, May i, 1890. From the first 
he took a place among the foremost preachers of the city. During his pastorate many 
improvements were made in the meeting house. His annual lectures descriptive of 
travels ; his sermons on the early Christian martyrs, as well as his Sunday morning ser- 
mons, attracted many not of the church to his congregations. Dr. Gunnison was born in 
Hallowell, Me., March 2, 1844, and died in Brooklyn, in 1917. He was educated in 
Green Mountain Institute, Vt., Tufts College and St. Lawrence University (A. N., 
1868). His first pastorate was at Bath, Me., 1871-90; when he came here, he was pas- 
tor of All Souls Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. There he won a national reputation. The 
church flourished and his acquaintance became widely extended throughout the coun- 
try. His Sunday school was the largest in the State ; the society led in reforms, char- 
ities and various other activities. He received the degree of D. D. from St. Lawrence 
in 1885. Dr. Gunnison throughout his life was engaged in lecturing and editorial 
work. He contributed to many newspapers and periodicals. He was ever in demand 
as a public speaker at dinners, historic celebrations and other public occasions. 

In 1894 for the second time, he was elected president of Lawrence University, but 
declined; in 1899 he was elected again and accepted, serving with distinction until 
shortly before his death, when he resigned on account of ill health. 

The semi-centenary of the society was observed June 3, 1891. Rev. T. E. St. John 
preached the sermon. In the evening there was a banquet in Continental Hall, at 
which Rev. Drs. Thos. J. Sawyer, Alonzo A. Miner, George H. Emerson, Rev. T. E. 
St. John and others spoke. The semi-centenary of the church was observed Sunday, 
Nov. 26, 1893, by an historical sermon by Dr. Gunnison, and Nov. 28th by a reunion 
and supper, largely attended and provided with interesting exercises. Of Dr. Gunni- 
son the present pastor said in his anniversary sermon, 1916: "I think it simple justice to 
say that Worcester never had a pastor who gave himself more freely to every good 
cause ; who by his memorable lectures, his brilliant pen and ready helping hand, made 
himself and this church widely known and respected. And this he did, too, without 
abating in the least his loyalty to our faith or fearless championship of it." 

The present pastor. Rev. Vincent E. Tomlinson, who succeeded Dr. Gunnison in 
1899, has won a high place in the esteem of the city as well as in his own congrega- 
tion. Under his pastorate the church has shown gratifying growth. Charitable and 



890 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



parish endowment funds to the amount of $3,500 have been gathered by gifts and be- 
quests ; a beautiful memorial window was given by Capt. C. H. Pinkham. 

The seventy-tifth anniversary was celebrated Oct. 15-16, 1916, very elaborately. A 
full report of the exercises was printed in pamphlet form. At the morning service an 
anniversary poem was read by the author, Chas. M. Harrington, who was the poet at 
the semi-centenary. The pastor preached an historical sermon, from which data for 
this sketch has been used. Fred. E. Gunnison, son of Dr. Gunnison, spoke, bringing a 
message from his father. At a Z. E. H. meeting in the afternoon. Rev. Archibald AIc- 
Cullah and Hon. James Logan were the speakers. Ministers of various other churches 
assisted. 

At the anniversary supper Monday evening in the vestry, at which Judge George R. 
Stobbs presided, the speakers were: Rev. Dr. John C. Adams of Hartford, son of a 
former pastor ; Rev. Frank O. Hall, who spoke at the semi-centenary, and Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Dennis Chamberlain, who spoke of "Mothers in Israel." She spoke impressively 
of the period that had come under her observation and of the loyal women who toiled 
in church, Sunday school, the Ladies' Social Circle, the Z. E. H. Club and the Mission 
Circle. Mrs. Chamberlain presented her subject with much charm and magnetism and 
was happily effective in bringing out the points of her subject. 

All Souls Universalist Church. — The following is contributed: 

Under the direction of Rev. Moses H. Harris, while pastor of the First Univer- 
salist Church, a Sunday school for the south end of the city was opened in the home of 
Mr. and Mrs. Martin Russell, 10 May street, Jan. 27, 1884; 27 were present. A corpora- 
tion to be known as All Souls Universalist Parish was organized Oct. 13. 1884, with 
Martin Russell, president, and Jerome B. Knox, clerk. 

A lot of land on Kilby street was given by Airs. Lucy A. Stone and a small chapel 
was built and dedicated Jan. 27, 1885. June 14th of the same year a church organization 
was established and on June 28th Rev. M. H. Harris received 21 members into the 
church, twelve coming by letter from the First Church. Lee Howard Fisher, a senior 
at Tufts College, supplied the pulpit the first year, and the first settled pastor was Rev. 
Frederic W. Bailey, who remained from April, 1886, to January, 1889. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Francis A. Gray, during whose pastorate the present beautiful house 
of worship was erected at the corner of Woodland and Norwood streets. The corner- 
stone was laid June 3, 1891, and the building dedicated Nov. 20 same year. 

Rev. Mr. Gray closed his pastorate in April, 1893, and was followed in August by 
Rev. Benj. F. Eaton, who labored three years and was very active in raising funds for 
the large indebtedness. Rev. Dr. M. H. Harris was called to the church in 1896, and 
gave devoted and loving service until 1902. Rev. Dr. Andrew J. Canfield succeeded, 
and his death six years later while still an incumbent of All Souls, was a crushing blow 
to the people. Rev. Wm. J. Taylor came to the church in November, 1908, and June 
14, 1910, the 25th anniversary of the church was observed with fitting ceremonies. Mr. 
Taylor was followed in 1914 by Rev. Fenwick L. Leavitt, who has been very successful 
in his work, 90 new members having united with the church in three years. 

Among the auxiliary organizations connected with All Souls Church are the Sun- 
day school, and Ladies' Aid Society, both older than the church itself, and always of 
great help. The St. Makrina Club, of the younger women of the church, was founded 
by Dr. Harris's wife. The Young People's Christian Union has been a model for 
much larger societies in its efficiency and the interest of its meetings. The Marquette 
Club, founded in 1899, is a social organization of a very high order, and the Men's 
Club, of more recent date, is an influential factor for the brotherhood of the church. 

Universalist Ministers' Association. — The following is contributed 
by Mr. George F. Morton : 



AND ITS PEOPLE 891 



Central Massachusetts Universalist Ministers' Association was organized at Wor- 
cester, Mass., Jan. 6th, 1903. Rev. V. E. Tomlinson, D. D., of the Worcester First 
Church, seems to have been the prime mover in the matter, having invited the Univer- 
saHst ministers of Worcester county and vicinity to meet in the parlors of the Bay State 
House, to talk over the matter of forming a Ministers' Association. It was unanimous- 
ly voted to form an association with the above-mentioned name. 

The officers of the newly formed association were: Pres., Rev. A. J. Canfield, D. D. ; 
Vice-Pres., Rev. C. G. Robbins ; Sec'y, Rev. M. B. Townsend ; Treas., Rev. F. L. Mas- 
seek. The charter members were as follows : Revs. A. J. Canfield, D. D., Worcester ; 
V. E. Tomlinson, D. D., Worcester; I. M. Atwood, D. D., Rochester, N. Y. ; Chas. 
Conklin, D. D., Boston ; F. L. Masseck, Spencer ; E. W. Whitney, Milford ; G. E. Hunt- 
ley, So. Framingham ; C. G. Robbins, Leominster ; B. F. Butler, Charlton ; R. D. Van 
Tassel, Marlboro ; R. H. Dix, Warren ; M. B. Townsend, Southbridge. Additions from 
Oxford, Gardner, Fitchburg, Webster, South Acton, Putnam, Conn., and Woonsocket, 
R. I., were made at later mettings. 

The meetings are held in Worcester the second Monday of each month from Octo- 
ber to April, inclusive. The meetings are opened with a short devotional service, fol- 
lowed by the regular routine business of an organized body, after which one of the 
members reads a prepared paper, or gives a talk upon some helpful or inspiring sub- 
ject, at the conclusion of which there is a general discussion of the matter presented. 

Officers are elected annually. The following have served as president : Revs. A. J. 
Canfield, D. D., E. W. Whitney, F. L. Masseck, V. E. Tomlinson, D. D., Dr. Wm. G. 
Schoppe, E. W. Preble, H. A. Philbrook, A. Tyler, F. L. Leavitt. The following have 
served as secretary : Revs. W. B. Townsend, F. L. Masseck, M. C. Ward, W. J. Tay- 
lor, C. R. Tenney, G. F. Morton. 

First Church of Christ (Scientist). — No sect has shown such a 
remarkable growth as the Christian Scientists in recent years. Pre- 
Uininary meetings were held in this city from time to time, and since 1913 
regular services have been held. The meetings were in the Woman's 
Club House until 1913, when the very artistic meeting house on Main 
street near Oberlin was occupied. The readers have been : Burt L. 
Knowles and Mrs. Nellie B. Bush, 1913; Harry C. Higgins and Mrs. 
Anna G. Irvine, 1914; Herbert E. Cather and Mrs. Irvine, 1915-16; 
Henry C. Higgins and Mrs. Mary H. Cummins, 1917. 

Another church of this denomination was organized in 1914, and has 
had its place of worship since then in Dean Hall, the Woman's Club, 43 
Salisbury street. The readers have been : Otis Luscombe, and Mrs. 
T. D. MacDuflf, 1916-17. 

For several years there has been a reading room for the sale and dis- 
tribution of Christian Science literature, at 718 Slater building, removed 
in 1917 to the Park building. Mary G. Tucker is librarian. 

First Church of Christ (Disciples). — Organized Aug. 5, 1860, with 
sixteen charter members, two elders and two deacons in charge of its 
affairs, began to hold services in the little chapel on Thomas street. In 
1867 the chapel was expanded and a vestry added, making a comfortable 
church building. The church was incorporated in 1868. The property 
was sold in September, 1885, and the place of worship afterward was 
in the old Central Church, Main street, until the new church at 829 Main 



892 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



street was occupied. The cost of the new plant was $30,000. It was 
dedicated September 12, 1886. This church advocates a return to apos- 
tolic Christianity in faith and practice ; has no creed but the Bible and 
pleads for the union of all Christians on the Bible. Its communicants in 
the U. S. number more than 1,500,000. 

The ministers have been: Alanson Wilcox, J. M. Atwater, T. W. 
Cottingham, Frank N. Calvin, Dr. I. A. Thayer, 1887 to 1889; A. B. 
Chamberlain, 1889-9-4; Bela H. Hayden, 1895-96; Roland A. Nichols, 
1897-1901; Dr. J. M. Van Horn, 1901-05; Harry Minnick, since 1906. 
Prior to 1868 most of the preaching was done by the two elders, W. A. S. 
Smyth and Parritt Blaisdell, prominent manufacturers of Worcester. 
The present plant has been much enlarged and improved and has a val- 
uation exceeding $50,000. 

The second church of the denomination, the Highland Street Church 
of Christ, was a colony from the First Church. Organized in 1902 as a 
mission at 54 North Ashland street. Roland A. Nichols was the first 
pastor in 1903, and he remained until 1906. The meeting house on High- 
land street, corner of West, was occupied in 1905. Mr. Nichols was 
succeeded in 1906 by A. P. Finley, 1906-09; Jas. N. Lester was min- 
ister from 1909 to 1911; Albert B. Cunningham, 1911; Wm. C. Crerie, 
1911-12; Fred A. Robinson, 1912-11; Geo. Manifold, 1915-16. 

Second Advent Christian Church.— The Second Advent movement 
in Worcester was made in anticipation of the predicted end of the world 
on Feb. 15, 1843. On Thanksgiving Day, 1842, a meeting was held in 
East City Hall to arrange for services, which were held afterward nearly 
every evening for a time. After the fatal day had passed, a formal organi- 
zation of the Adventists took place. Records were not kept during the 
early years. The first note in the records of the church is dated April 
14, 1850, and includes. the articles of association. 

In 1866 the church built a chapel on leased land on Central street, at 
a cost of about $3,100, and it was dedicated June 14. A succession of 
elders had charge of the services until Dec. 15, 1870, when Elder S. G. 
Mathewson was engaged for "one half of his time," as pastor; he 
remained in charge until Oct. 17, 1875. In 1883 the chapel was sold and 
quarters rented in Clark block. Main street. Since 1893 the church has 
worshipped in the present edifice on Chandler street, corner of Piedmont. 
Rev. Franklin D. Barnes was pastor in the eighties for several years. 
The next pastor was Rev. H. F. Carpenter in 1894. Since then the 
church has had ministers as follows: Revs. Wm. A. Burch, 1895-1900; 
Geo. F. Haines, 1902-10; Isaac M. Blanchard, since 1910. 

First Spiritual Church, — Until the past few years this church has 
not been listed in the city directory, but the organization dates from 
1879. It has no meeting houses. Services have been in houses of mem- 
bers and in various halls. For several years the place of worship has 
been at 55 Pearl street. Since 1916 the church has had a pastor, Rev. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 893 

Henri Sentner. The officers of the society are : Pres., Chas. Coffin ; 
Treas., Wm. R. Irwin ; Sec, Mrs. Hattie Sherwood. 

Society of Friends. — The members of the Society of Friends from 
1816 to 1837 were not numerous in this town. They worshipped at first 
in Leicester. Their first place of worship here was in a room over a 
store in Paine's block. In 184G a meeting house was built on land given 
by Anthony Chase and Samuel H. Colton, members of the society. Tim- 
othy K. Earle made a gift of $5,000 for the benefit of the Worcester 
Meeting for repairs and improvement of the meeting house. 

The meeting house on Oxford street, corner of Chatham, was built 
in 1908. This building was made possible by the generosity and inter- 
est of D. Wheeler Swift, a loyal member of the Society. 

In the seventies and eighties, Lydia Haight and Susan A. Gififord 
were ministers. Stephen Cartland was minister, 1889-93 ; John Met- 
calfe, 1902-04; Earle J. Harold, 1904-11; J. Farland Randolph, 1912-14; 
John Metcalfe, since 1914. Alfred T. Ware has been the pastor since 
1915. 

The Bible School and Christian Endeavor meetings and Home and 
Foreign Missionary meetings are among the activities in which the 
membership are interested, and also in the various philanthropic works 
of the city. 



894 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 












rsj 



,js^<*|^|! ,■•■-1 




Y. M. C. A. BUILDING. 



CHAPTER LIX 

Religious and Reform Associations— Y. M. C. A.— Y. W. C. A.— Chris- 
tian Endeavor — City Missionary Society — Bible Students' Associa- 
tion — Washington Benevolent Society — Father Mathew Total 
Abstinence Society — Sons of Temperance — Reform Club — 
W. C. T. U. — Other Temperance Societies — Salvation 
Army — Volunteers of America 

Young Men's Christian Association. — The following is contributed : 

This association was organized June 14, 1864, in the old Lincoln House, Elm street, 
Worcester being the second city in the country to institute such work. The 
Boston Y. M. C. A. was then thirteen years old. In 1852 a society organized here 
for similar purposes became a literary society known as the Young Men's Library As- 
sociation (q. v.). Seven churches were represented at the first meeting of the new 
Y. M. C. A. The officers, elected a month later, were: Pres., Fred. A. Clapp, mer- 
chant; Harris R. Greene, principal of high school. Cor. Sec'y; Geo. A. Smith, book- 
keeper of the Quinsigamond National Bank, Treas. Rooms were opened in Mechan- 
ics building. Evangelistic services were held at Tatnuck, Brittan Square and South 
Worcester. In the first two years great progress was made. In addition to other 
mission work, religious services were held on the Common ; the reading room and 
library was better supplied with newspapers and books. Edmund M. Barton led in the 
work of aid to the needy and sick, furnishing watchers, distributing flowers and food. 
In 1872 the women organized a relief committee for systematic work among the poor. 

After a reaction during the seventies, the Association was given a new lease of 
life, June 7, 1877. The persistence of J. O. Bemis, Herbert Macy and Lucius P. God- 
dard kept the organization alive during this period of indifference. The Association 
had moved to Harrington corner, thence to the Chapin block, Pearl street, and thence 
to 411 Main street. From the time of incorporation in 1868 efforts had been made to 
secure a building. The incorporators were Philip L. Moen, Lucius W. Pond and John 
Quincy Adams. Albert H. Brooks left $102.24 as a nucleus for the building fund in 
1871 ; Mrs. Susan Mann's legacy of about $2,000 and other gifts increased the fund to 
more than $4,000 in 1885. In 1874 Albert Curtis offered to give $25,000 on certain con- 
ditions. In 1883 the Brown estate on Elm and Pearl streets was bought for $40,000; 
in 1885 the following building committee was appointed : Albert Curtis, Samuel R. 
Heywood, Samuel E. Hildreth, H. M. Hedden, A. G. Mann, Thos. M. Rogers, Chas. 

F. Rugg, Geo. T. Dewey and J. Orlando Bemis. $100,000 was raised from 3,000 con- 
tributors, the largest of which were Philip L. Moen, $10.000 ; Francis B. Knowles and 
Stephen Salisbury, $5,000 each; estate of Lucius J. Knowles, $3,000; David Whitcomb, 

G. Henry Whitcomb and Jared Whitman, $1,500 each; Wm. A. Denholm, Chas. H. Alor- 
gan, Geo. C. Whitney, H. B. Fay, Samuel E. Hildreth, Francis H. Dewey, Jos. H. Walk- 
er, C. M. Dyer, Ed. L. Davis, Ransom C. Taylor, Geo. M. Rice and Samuel R. Hey- 
wood, $1,000 each. The corner-stone was laid Aug. 27, 1886, Rev. Dwight L. Moody the 
speaker. The building was dedicated April 13, 1887. with much ceremony and rejoicing. 
Under the leadership of James Logan, who has since then made even greater records in 
raising funds for public and benevolent purposes, more funds were given and the debt 
soon afterward paid. A testimonial of appreciation was his visible reward for this 
great service. 



896 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Volunteers performed all the work until 1868, when Aaron Fay Greene was paid 
a small salary as secretary and manager. He was succeeded by Joshua Freeman in 
1871. In 1876 George Colby became secretary, and was followed by Herbert Macy. 
The first general secretary, H. Benson Van Vranken, succeeded Mr. Macy. Richard 
H. Shelton became general secretary in 1881 ; he resigned in 1887 on account of ill 
health due to overwork in the cause. Later secretaries have been : Samuel McCon- 
oughy, 1887-90; Herbert L. Gale, 1890-95; Walter B. Abbott, 1895; Halsey Hammond; 
C. C. Miles. Fred L. Willis served 1904-16, and during his term of office great pro- 
gress was made. Robert L. Moore, who served as educational secretary for five years, 
was recalled from the West Side Y. M. C. A., New York, to take up the general sec- 
retaryship of the Worcester Association. He was elected to this office in April, 1917. 

The first physical director was Lud C. Havener. Edward W. Wilder was in 
charge of this department ; at the end of twenty years of service he was given a gold 
watch as a testimonial of the appreciation of his work by the directors. He resigned 
in 1917 to become director of physical education of the city schools. Christopher 
Scaife, director of physical education of the Hartford Y. M. C. A., was appointed to 
his position in October, 1917. The new gymnasium of which Mr. Wilder was in charge 
was completed in the fall of 1915, and is said to be unsurpassed by any in the country. 
It is located on the Dodge lot, 766 Main street, and is connected with the main build- 
ing. The gymnasium was erected from the proceeds of the sale of the old Y. M. C. A. 
building on Elm .street, $150,000. The gymnasium is divided into two sections,— one 
for men, 50 by 97 feet; the other for boys, 45 by 66 feet. The two sections provide for 
about 2,000 men and 1,000 boys. Folding doors enable the two sections to be used as 
one. There are 1,500 lockers. Everything in the line of gymnasium apparatus is in- 
cluded in the equipment. The swimming pool is one of the largest in the Association 
world; it is 25 by 100 feet, and holds 110,000 gallons of water. The building com- 
mittee was : Albert H. Inman, DeWitt Clinton, John W. Higgins, Clarence W. Hobbs, 
Edward F. Miner, Paul B. Morgan, Lyman F. Gordon, and Fred L. Willis. (For full 
description see Wor. Mag., Oct., 1915). 

Educational work of a general character was introduced early. The first secretary 
was William P. Taylor. Lectures were given by distinguished men. A debating club 
called the Y. M. C. A. Lyceum was formed, and afterward the Bancroft Congress. 
Gradually this department became virtually a college under former educational secre- 
tary Robert L. Moore, and has become affiliated with the Northeastern College of Bos- 
ton, an outgrowth of the educational department of Boston Y. M. C. A. More than a 
thousand students are now registered annually in more than forty subjects. There has 
been a steady increase from 116 in 1905. The technical and commercial courses have 
been highly successful, supplementing the work of the public schools. Such men as 
Lester B. Edwards, chief draughtsman of the Central Building Co.; John S. Allen, 
chief engineer of Norcross Bros. Co.; Burtis S. Brown, consulting engineer, Boston; 
Raymond L. Whitman, of the W. P. I. faculty, have been recent instructors. The au- 
tomobile school has flourished in charge of H. F. Cleveland. Elbridge R. Holmes, of 
the Crompton & Knowles Development Board, has directed the draughting classes. 
Carl D. Smith, present educational secretary, has reorganized the work into four 
schools, viz. : Commerce and Finance, Engineering, Preparatory, and Automobile. Be- 
cause of affiliation with Northeastern College, Boston, students completing four years 
of satisfactory work are granted a degree. In addition to the regular classes, many in- 
structive lecture courses are given. Classes are conducted for teaching foreigners and 
many hundreds have learned to write and speak English here. (See Wor. Mag., Jan., 

1913)- 

Ben S. Huggins was the first secretary of religious work ; his department was es- 
tablished in 1906. Herman C. deAnguera succeeded him. Mr. deAnguera organized 
noonday meetings in thirty shops in the city. Bible Study clubs were formed in which 



THE NKW YORK 

FUBI.iC LlBiURY 







Y. W. C. A. BULDING. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 897 

over 100 young men were registered. John C. Grace succeeded Mr. deAnguera for one 
year, but in the autumn of 1917 resigned to reenter the ministry. The position is tem- 
porarily vacant. 

Through the support of the Twenty-Four Hour Club, Roscoe M. Hersey is main- 
tained as general secretary of the Association at Tientsin, China, and Herman deAn- 
guera is supported as general secretary in Montevideo, Uraguay. 

In 1891 O. E. Bourne became secretary of the boys' work. Hugh C. Leggat suc- 
ceeded him and made the High School clubs very popular. John H. Piper followed 
Mr. Leggat. Joseph B. Shaw filled the position for a few months in 1917, but in the 
autumn of 1917 Mr. L. F. Reichard, of Detroit, was appointed boys' secretary. 

The camp at Washington, N. H., was given in 1910 by Paul B. Morgan. There is a 
spacious farmhouse and a hundred acres of land bordering on Millan Lake ; $5,000 
was raised in the financial campaign for equipping the camp. The camp has been very 
popular and many boys spend their vacations there. Ten tent houses have been built, 
accommodating ten each, and a central lodge is to be built. 

In 1912 the dormito'y department was opened, in charge of Stacy H. Williams, 
affording accommodations for seventy young men, in the old Day and Gage buildings, 
Pearl street. The new building will provide two hundred and ten dormitories, and 
provision is made for an additional 100 rooms later. 

The old building was sold in 1915. The new building will be completed in the 
fall of 1918. Until then the Association will occupy temporary quarters on Main 
street, opposite the new location. The funds for the new buildings were raised in a 
week in 1916 ; the total was $376,000. When completed, the Worcester Y. M. C. A. 
will have the finest and most unique plant and home in the country. The building con- 
tains every facility for social, religious, physical, educational work, cafeteria, bowling 
alleys, billiard and pool tables, and grounds adjoining provide for a complete athletic 
field. The present building committee is : Albert H. Inman, chairman ; DeWitt Clinton, 
vice-chairman ; John W. Higgins, Clarence W. Hobbs, Robert L. Moore, Paul B. 
Morgan. 

The presidents have been: Frank. A. Clapp, 1864-65; Chas. Ballard, 1865-66; A.sa 
L. Burbank, 1866-67; Henry M. Wheeler, 1867-69; Lucius P. Goddard, 1869-70; Henry 
M. Merriam, 1870-71; Chas. B. Knight, 1871-72; Geo. C. Whitney, 1872-73, 1884-85; 
Chas. D. Tucker, 1873-74; Edward Whitney, 1874-75; Sam. W. Cooke, 1875-78; J. Or- 
lando Bemis, 1878-81, 1885-87; Wm. Woodward, 1881-83; James Logan, 1883-84; Wm. 
A. Denholm, 1887-89; Chas. F. Rugg, 1889-93; Henry D. Barber, 1893-96; Albert H. 
Inman, 1896-97; Alfred S. Roe, 1897-1904; Walter M. Spaulding, 1904-07; Frank H. 
Robson, 1907-13 ; Clarence W. Hobbs, 1913. 

Young Woman's Christian Association. — The following is con- 
tributed : 

The first meeting of subscribers to the agreement to form a society for helpfulness 
to wage-earning girls and women of the city was held in the Y. M. C. A. rooms, June 
13, 1885, and Mrs. Charles G. Reed was elected president. Rev. Dr. D. O. Mears pro- 
cured the incorporation of the Young Woman's Christian Association, and Mr. Dwight 
Reed contributed $1,000. Rooms were opened at 352 Main street, Feb. i, 1886. At the 
first annual meeting held in Plymouth Chapel, May 26, 1886, Mrs. Chas. F. Rugg was 
elected president and served until 1892. Mrs. Chas. H. Morgan was the third presi- 
dent. She was succeeded by the present president, Mrs. Frank L. Durkee, in 1913. 

In 1890 the old quarters were outgrown. Mr. Dwight Reed had left a bequest of 
$4,000; a campaign added a generous sum to this nucleus. Mr. E. A. Goodnow gave 
the largest contribution. The lot on Chatham street was bought for $18,000, and a 
substantial building erected at a cost of $87,651. The rooms were furnished by various 
churches and individuals. The new building was occupied in 1891, and in three months 

W.-I-57. 



898 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



all the rooms were taken. The Y. W. C. A. facilities, both restaurant and dormitory, 
have been tested to their capacity in recent years. The gymnasium is popular. The 
educational department has performed a highly useful service, having about six hun- 
dred register in the annual classes in recent years. The organization has about 1,500 
members. The annual budget is about $35,000. 

In 1916 more than $70,000 was raised for an educational and gymnasium building. 
Among the largest contributors were the estate of Charles H. Morgan, $10,000. Mr. 
David H. Fanning, and Mrs. Charles H. Stearns, $5,000 each. In the campaign to raise 
funds for war work in November, 1917, over $17,000 was raised for the Y. W. C A. 
war work, this being a part of the $4,000,000 raised throughout the country for this 
work. 

For two years, a summer camp for girls has been provided at Lake Lashaway, 
East Brookfield. 

The present officers of the organization are: Hon. Pres., Mrs. Chas. H. Morgan; 
Pres., Mrs. Frank L. Durkee ; Vice-Prests., Mrs. Kendall Emerson, Mrs. Leonard 
Wheeler; Clerk, Mrs. Robert W. Rollins; Treas., Mrs. Geo. F. Fuller. 

Christian Endeavor, — The Young People's Society of Christian En- 
deavor was founded Feb. 2, 1881, by Rev. Francis E. Clark of Portland, 
Me. It is unsectarian, but confined chiefly to the Congregational, Bap- 
tist and other "evangelistic" Protestant churches. The first society 
here was organized in the Old South, in the fall of 1884. The union 
was formed in 1887, Rev. W. V. W. Davis, president. The officers in 
1917 were: Lester N. Moore, pres.; Alice S. Nelson, cor. sec; Edith 
H. Foster, rec. sec. ; Frank P. Kendall, treas. 

City Missionary Society. — The following is contributed : 

In the fall of 1849 a meeting was called of those interested in employing a city 
missionary, two delegates from each of the four Congregational churches, and the 
First and Pleasant Street Baptist churches. Later the Methodists, Episcopalians and 
Adventists were included. It was a layman's movement, and included all of the Evan- 
gelical churches in the city and later took the name of the Evangelical City Missionary 
Society. Deacon Ichabod Washburn became president, and Deacon Philip L. Moen for 
a time secretary. 

The first person engaged for City Alissionary was I. Ellis Guild, for three months 
at a salary of $100 for the entire time. He was succeeded by Moses Brigham of New- 
buryport, who served two years at an annual salary of $600. The first subscription pa- 
per shows $510 raised to support the work. The first annual meeting was held in the 
fall of 1850 in the Old South Church. The speakers were Deacon Moses Brigham, the 
missionary, H. S. Washburn, Esq.. of the First Baptist Church ; Judge Emory Wash- 
burn of Central Church, and Rev. Mr. Bushnell of the Salem Street Church. 

In April, 1853, a senior from Andover Theological Seminary, Rev. Wm. T. Sleep- 
er, was engaged on trial, and in September was engaged permanently as City Mis- 
sionary. The housing and care of their one missionary enterprise of the day, the Pine 
Meadow Sunday School, was a problem. President Washburn built at his own ex- 
pense, the Alission Chapel (Memorial Church) at the corner of Summer and Bridge 
streets, and added an endowment of $20,000, the income to be used for the missionary's 
salary ; later he added $5,000 for industrial work. The Mission Chapel was dedi- 
cated in February, 1855. 

The Pine Aleadow Sunday School and a local Ladies' Aid Society were transferred 
to the chapel. Preaching services were begun which resulted immediately in a revival. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 899 

But the enthusiasm in the churches waned, funds came slowly, or not at all, the mission- 
ary became discouraged, and in 1856 resigned. The following year. Rev. Samuel Souther 
was engaged as missionary. Here the records of this first City Missionary Society end. 

The Mission Chapel, being endowed, continued its activity, and in 1865 a Congre- 
gational church was organized. This did not become vigorous until in May, 1875, 
after nearly nineteen years' absence from the city. Rev. W. T. Sleeper was recalled to 
its pastorate. He found twenty-six names on the membership roll, only sixten of whom 
were attending the church. Under his ministry the church took on a vigorous life 
It opened its doors to the "New Pilgrims" who were coming to the city in large num- 
bers. A GeriTian congregation, with its pastor, Rev. Mr. Rau, worshipped here for a 
time. Swedish services were first held here, which resulted in the formation of the 
First Swedish Congregational Church. The Armenina people worshipped here before 
they had a building of their own. A French church found a welcome and a home here 
for a time. (See Memorial Church). Rev. William Truman Sleeper in 1878 succeeded 
in interesting the seven Congregational churches to call a council to organize a Con- 
gregational City Missionary Society. Rev. Chas. M. Lamson was elected president of 
the new society, and Rev. W. T. Sleeper secretary. Lady visitors were employed, ex- 
isting Sunday schools were assisted and new ones established. Pilgrim, Park, Hope, 
Covenant, Lake View and Bethany churches were assisted. The following served as 
presidents of this society: Rev. Chas. M. Lamson, 1878; Addison Palmer, 1879; Samuel 
E. Hildreth, 1880-81; Edward Kendall, 1882; Chas. H. Hutchins, 1883. 

In June, 1883, the society decided to incorporate. It received its charter Dec. 10, 
1883, as the Worcester City Missionary Society and under that name and charter has 
continued its work to this day. 

The superintendents have been able and energetic men and the work has pros- 
pered under the leadership of each. Rev. Albert Bryant and Rev. William T. Sleeper 
were largely occupied in establishing new Sunday schools and missions and developing 
them into churches. Rev. Eldridge Mix gave his attention to strengthening the small 
churches and to social service work and work among the new Americans. Rev. John 
H. Matthews continued the ministries of Dr. Mix and developed the social settlement 
activities at the Endicott House. 

The enlarging work called for increase of revenue, but the churches were unable 
to keep up their former contributions and the result was indebtedness amounting at one 
time to $14,000. The reorganization came June 6, 1910, when the superintendent and 
lady visitors resigned, general activities ceased, and Endicott House was offered for 
sale. The directors gave themselves to extinguishing the indebtedness, aiding younger 
churches to pay their debts, or enlarge their buildings or erect new ones. At this time 
some legacies came to the society, which greatly aided it in its work of reconstruction; 
the few legacies previously received had been used for current expenses. The society 
now adopted a policy that all legacies, whether conditioned or not, should be applied to 
the endowment fund, the income only to be used, with the result that the society now 
has an endowment of $38,901.19. 

The reconstruction period since 1910 has witnessed the saving of the Park Church 
from being sold on the mortgage, and the payment of the entire debt of $17,000, 
Tatnuck Church has been provided with an $8,000 lot on which they have erected a $20,- 
000 church. Hope Church has been aided $3,000 in enlarging and rebuilding its edifice, 
and Lake View was assisted with $2,000 to enlarge its house of worship. One-half of 
the mortgage of Bethany Church, $2,616, was paid to enable the church to pay the 
other half. The Church of the Martyrs (Armenian) has been freed from debt, and 
assistance along the same line has been rendered the Second Swedish Church. Hope 
and Tatnuck churches have been assisted financially in paying the interest on their 
large mortgages, and the Memorial Church and the Trowbridgeville Mission have been 
aided financially in maintaining their work. Lake View, the Second Swedish, the Fin- 
nish, the Swedish-Finnish, the Church of the Martyrs, and the Tatnuck churches re- 



900 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

ceive aid from the Massachusetts Home Missionary Society. In Oct., 1915, the society 
engaged Rev. E. W. Phillips, a former pastor, director and secretary, to serve as ex- 
ecutive secretary and superintendent. 

The presidents have been: C. Henry Hutchins, 1883-84; Geo. L. Newton, 1885-88; 
G. Henry Whitcomb, 1889; Arthur M. Stone, 1890-92; Phil. W. Moen, 1893-96; Wm. 
Woodward, 1897-98; Dr. John C. Berry, 1899-1906; H. H. Merriam, 1907. 

The officers for 1918 were: Wm. B. Aspinwall, Pres. ; John A. Sherman, Vice- 
Pres. ; Theodore Nye, Sec; Charles W. Gray, Treas. ; Wm. Woodward, Auditor. 
Directors: H. H. Merriam, U. Waldo Cutler, Rev. Percy H. Epler, Chas. W. Gray, 
John A. Sherman, Wm. Woodward, Rev. Francis A. Poole, Rev. Geo. L. Hanscom, 
Henry Jerome. 

International Bible Students Association. — The following is con- 
tributed : 

In 1874 Charles Taze Russell and a few other Pennsylvanians organized a class 
for study of the Bible. From that grew the International Bible Students Association. 
Classes were formed all over the world. This work was incorporated in Pennsylvania 
as the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society in 1884. In 1909 another was formed in 
New York, the People's Pulpit Association. In 1913 the International Bible Students 
Association was incorporated under British laws. The purposes of these corporations 
are: The mental and moral and spiritual improvement of men and women, by teach- 
ing the Bible, by lectures and sermons, and by printing, publishing and distribution of 
Bibles, books, papers, tracts, sermons and other similar publications. This literature is 
published in more than thirty different languages. 

The Worcester Class of the I. B. S. A. was organized in 1900, with about a dozen 
members, and is now a large class, having seven ministers for local work. 

The first great convention at Worcester was held in Mechanics' Hall, Nov. 18, 
1906. The services of our ministers in supplying pulpits or serving at funerals are free 
to all, except when outside the city for which traveling expenses only are asked. Pub- 
lic services are held every Sunday in the Blue Hall, 19 Pearl street. During week nights 
there are four study classes in the English language and two in Swedish. These are 
open to all desiring Bible study. 

Washington Benevolent Society. — One of the earliest temperance 
organizations in the county was instituted in this town March 18, 1833, 
William Stedman being president, and Daniel Waldo, secretary. The 
certificate of membership w^as in the form of a booklet containing Wash- 
ington's Farewell Address and a portrait of Washington. In December, 
1813, Avas issued a circular signed by Nath. P. Denny, Jos. Goffe, Dan. 
Waldo, Isaac Goodwin and Bezaleel Taft, describing the evils of the dis- 
tillation of grain for strong drink and suggesting the propriety of 
petitioning Congress "to levy a tax on domestic spirits so heavy as to 
afford a rational prospect of diminishing the consumption." The annual 
meeting was held on the anniversary of Washington's first inauguration, 
and an oration delivered. Among the orators at these meetings were 
Samuel M. Burnside and John Davis. In August, 1836, the society was 
dissolved, and its funds and records transferred to the Worcester Agri- 
cultural Society. 

Father Mathew Total Abstinence Society. — Father Theobald Ma- 
thew, the distinguished Catholic temperance reformer, visited this city 



AND ITS PEOPLE 901 



in October, 1849, on invitation, and preached October 21 in St. John's 
Church, addressing a meeting in the City Hall two days later. He 
pledged more than- four hundred persons to total abstinence. A meeting 
was held Nov. 4, in Fenwick Hall, Temple street, attended by thirty- 
two who formed the Very Reverend Theobald Mathew Mutual Benevo- 
lent Total Abstinence Society, and elected the following officers : Pres., 
Rev. M. W. Gibson; Vice-Pres., Jno. O'Sullivan; Rec. Sec, Jno. 
Fay; Treas., Michael O'Rourke. The charter members were the officers 
and following: Robt. Laverty, Michael Toomey, Chas. O'Neil, Jas. 
Carroll, Jno. Carney, Thos. Lawler, Pat. Coflfey, Jno. Foley, Mark Sker- 
rett, Wm. Carberry, Wm. Laverty, Peter Givney, Michael Fleming, 
Tim. Coffey, Pat. Higgins, Jno. Davis, Michael Foley, Thos. Higgins, 
Tim. Luby, Thos. Duffy, Jno. Madigan, Thos. McGuinnes, Walter Henry, 
Mark Myans, Lawrence Lawler, Jas. O'Connor, Michael McLoughlin, 
Michael Dolan and Jno. Dolan. 

The first meetings were in St. John's Church, and then at Turner's 
Hall. In 1873 a house on Temple street was bought for $4,200, and a 
hall built there in 1874 at a cost of $3,100. In May, 1888, this was sold 
for $9,500, a lot bought corner of Green and Harrison streets for 
$6,000, and a building erected at a cost of $37,350. This has been the 
home of the society since then. 

The good work of this society is inestimable. It has been one of 
the strongest and most useful temperance organizations in the city. It 
has made good citizens out of many victims of the drink habit; it has 
cared for the sick ; buried the dead. Largely composed of men of Irish 
birth or descent, it has numbered in its membership most of the men 
of that race who have achieved distinction in this city. The society was 
incorporated in 1863. In 1899 it celebrated with formal exercises its 
fiftieth anniversary. The society has contributed generously to various 
charities and public funds. 

The society is founded on the total abstinence pledge of its members. 
It has always had club rooms for its members, believing that some place 
always open for young men to meet, read, play cards, etc., would tend to 
keep them away from the saloons. Except for the pledge taken, the 
society is purely social. 

The present officers are: J. Edward Cronin, pres.; Wm. Cahill, 
vice-pres. ; Jas. M. Rafferty, rec. sec; Jas. F. Power, fin. sec; Geo. 
H. O'Donnell, treas. The hall is at 4 Harrison street; the membership 
is over 300. 

Ladies' Father Mathew Society is an allied organization, meeting at 
6 Harrison street; Miss Margaret V. Hayes, president. 

Temperance Crusaders of 1874. — Women who took part in the 
famous crusade against the saloons in 1874, when attempts were made to 
destroy the drinking places by violence, have maintained an organization 
known as the Temperance Crusaders of 1874. The present officers are : 



902 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Mrs. Myra J. Churchill, pres. and secy.; Mrs. Mary Shekleton, vice- 
pres. ; Mrs. J. H. Martin, treas. 

Sons of Temperance. — Rainbow Division, No. 117, the first in this 
city, was organized July 35, 1859, flourished for a number of years, but 
surrendered its charter April 11, 1867. New Worcester Division, No. 
149, organized Dec. 30, 1859, lasted only three years, probably on account 
of the Civil War; its charter was surrendered April 17, 1863. Anchor 
Division, No. 56, organized Oct. 34, 1883, was active for a number of 
years; its charter was surrendered June 37, 1896. Washingtonian Di- 
vision, No. 176, organized July 13, 1865; disbanded many years ago; 
there is no record of a surrender of charter. 

Commonwealth Division, No. 56, was organized Dec. 8, 1898, with 
twenty-one charter members. The officers were : Jno. Rowland, grand 
worthy patriarch; Annie M. Nixon, G. treas.; Chas. E. Dennett, G. 
scribe; Jas. H. Nixon, P. G. W. A., and W. H. Williams, P. G. W. P. 
The division was obtained by the efforts of P. G. W. A. Mary J. Mon- 
tague. The present (1917) officers are: Mrs. Chas. F. Colby, W. P.; 
Mrs. Chas. L. Shaw, R. S. O. The lodge meets the last Tuesday in 
month, at 183 Pleasant street. 

Worcester Reform Club. — In the midst of a period of great activity 
in the temperance movement, the Worcester Reform Club was organ- 
ized Jan. 16, 1876, in the Old South Church by Dr. Henry A. Reynolds 
then of Bangor, Me., now of this city (1917). Mrs. Susan A. Gifford, 
known as "Mother" Gifford, minister of the Friends' Society, was 
leader of Temperance Crusaders and called the meeting. (See biog.). 
The club held its first meetings in rooms on Pleasant street, and their 
public meetings in various churches were largely attended. At the end 
of the first year the club had a thousand members, and many more had 
signed the pledge of total abstinence. During the first three years 3,410 
drinking men signed the pledge and joined the club; in the thirty years 
7,000 became members and 18,000 more signed the pledge. Perhaps the 
need of such an organization lessened in the more temperate years that 
followed. The work has continued, though the audiences are smaller 
and the membership not large. 

There have been two branches from the old club — the Worcester 
Temperance Club, which has disbanded; and the Catholic Temperance 
Society, of which James Burke was leader, and which has for many years 
been a highly effective organization. In eleven adjoining towns the Wor- 
cester Club assisted in forming similar organizations. 

The twentieth anniversary was celebrated in the Old South Church. 
Mother Gifford, Mrs. Sarah B. Earle, President William H. Robinson 
and Dr. Geo. H. Gould were speakers. The twenty-fifth anniversary was 
also celebrated in Old South. The Women's Temperance Crusaders of 
1874 were present in a body. The club has maintained rooms and held 
public meetings every Sunday evening during all these years except in 



AND ITS PEOPLE 903 

the summer months. An historical sketch of the club was written by- 
Major F. G. Stiles and published in a pamphlet. Wm. H. Robinson was 
one of the first seventeen who signed the pledge when the club was 
organized ; he was the first president and served for many years, laboring 
with heart and soul for the club and its purposes. Other presidents 
have been: Wm. H. Blanchard, Maj. Fred. G. Stiles, Thos. M. Dwyer, 
Lucius R. Paige and Wm. R. Mill. 

The club was incorporated in 1907. The present officers are : Pres., 
Jno. A. Stowell ; Vice-Prests., Rich. Leach, Edward Bancroft, Carl J. 
Rickert; Rec. Sec, Benj. T. Northridge; Fin. Sec, Adolphe D. Ma- 
jor; Treas., Rich. Leach. The rooms are at 271 Main street. 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union. — This was organized in 
1878, and has maintained a strong organization, actively at work since 
that time. Before the Woman's Club came into existence it was consid- 
ered the leading organization of women in the city. It has always 
exerted a strong influence in the temperance movement and other moral 
reforms. The headquarters for many years have been at 10 Walnut 
street. The present officers are: Pres., Mrs. Jennie Wilson; Vice- 
Prests., Mrs. Alice E. Prentice, Mrs. F. D. Switzer, Mrs. Edythe Mowry, 
Mrs. Lucy Knight; Rec. Sec, Mrs. Nettie Boutelle ; Cor. Sec, Mrs. Anna 
M. Foster; Treas., Mrs. F. W. Call. 

Other Temperance Societies. — Ebenezer Lodge, No. 6, Good Samari- 
tans and Daughters of Samaria, meets at 10 Liberty street; Mrs. Rachel 
Bosley, sec. Rising Star Degree, No. 1 ; Sec, Mattie E. Storms. 

Independent Order of Good Templars : 

Freedom Lodge, No. 139, Sec, Mrs. Marion Amidon ; Indepen- 
dence Lodge, No. 300, organized in 1890; C. T., P. J. Murphy; 
V. T., Maud Cleveland ; Sec, Grace S. Akers. Integrity Lodge, Sec, 
Mrs. Annie L. Pengalley; Quinsigamond Val. Lodge, No. 1, Pres., Axel 
M. Rosenlund; Eagle Lodge, No. 4, Deputy, John L. Youngberg; Kam- 
pen Lodge, No. 15, Deputy, Carl A. Johnson; Morgonstjarnon Lodge, 
No. 16, Deputy, Alfred Bogren. 

Salvation Army. — The Salvation Army work was begun in Wor- 
cester on March 9, 1889, by Captain May Harris and Lieut. Sadie Gra- 
ham. Meetings were conducted on Carletan (now Commercial) street. 
This is called No. 1 Corps. The Divisional Officer who assisted was 
Major Edwin Gay of Boston. 

No. 2 Corps (Swedish) was opened Feb. 3, 1891, by Capt. Carl 
Petterson, in the hall on Millbury street, near American Steel & Wire 
Co. Works. At present they are at 884 Millbury street, which is the 
property of the Salvation Army. 

No. 3 Corps (Swedish) was opened in 1894, at 47 Main street ; Capt. 
Hanson was the Opening Officer. At present they worship in the hall at 
135 Belmont street, which is the property of the Salvation Army. 



904 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

No. 4 Corps (Finnish) was opened in May, 1917, by Ensign Palmer. 
Meetings are held at 135 Belmont street. 

The Industrial Department of the Salvation Army, located at 146 
Southbridge street, was organzied in October, 1901, to care for the home- 
less man, giving the benefits of a well ordered home in exchange for labor, 
thus making it unnecessary for out-of-work men to become branded as 
paupers. A paper industry is carried on, also the repairing of old fur- 
niture, clothing, etc. The sale of paper stock and second-hand goods 
furnish the funds to prosecute the work. 

The institution has been enlarged from time to time to meet the 
needs of the city, and has accommodations for thirty men. 

Volunteers of America. — This body began work in the American 
Bible House, New York, March 9, 1896. Gen. and Mrs. Ballington 
Booth assumed the leadership, and organizations were formed in all parts 
of the country. Soon after 1896 the Volunteers began work in Worcester, 
along the same lines as the Salvation Army. Robert Henry is at present in 
charge. The headquarters are at 274 Main street. 



CHAPTER LX 

Charitable and Benevolent Societies — Associated Charities — Children's 

Friend Society — Employment Society — Society for Nursing — North 

Worcester Aid Society — Bethel Help — Door of Hope — Animal 

Rescue — Other Societies 

Associated Charities. — The Associated Charities of Worcester, 
organized March 18, 1890, was incorporated in 1903. Rev. Dr. W. 
H. Thomas of Trinity M. E. Church was prime mover in the organi- 
zation, though many others had manifested a strong interest in this 
method of charitable work for a number of years. The original direc- 
tors were : 

Stephen Salisbury, P. W. Moen, E. L. Davis, D. C. Leonard, F. A. 
Gaskill, E. I. Comins, Jas. Melanefy, G. C. Whitney, M. J. Whittall, H. 
A. Marsh, C. L. Nichols, W\ B. Fay, Josiah Pickett, C. A. Chase, A. M. 
Stone, F. H. Dewey, M. B. Lamb, H. L. Parker; Jas. Logan, H. H. Mer- 
riam, Dwight Smith. Mesdames Geo. Crompton, S. D. Davenport, F. 
H. Dewey, C. C. Houghton, F. B. Knowles, W. W. Rice, A. B. F. Kin- 
ney, J. H. Goes, W. W. Johnson. 

The first general secretary was Mrs. Eliza J. Lee. The lady direc- 
tors devoted two hours a day each in turn to assisting her in the office 
work. In 1895 when Miss Lee was succeeded by Miss Miriam L. With- 
erspoon, the present general secretary, one assistant was hired ; in 1905 
two were needed, and in 1910 a stenographer added. A visiting house- 
keeper has been employed since 1912. 

In 1893, during the hard times, a Citizens' Relief Committee was 
organized, using the rooms of the organizations, and aiding 821 families. 
In 1907, another period of* distress, the Associated Charities was able to 
relieve 324 families through special contributions. In 1914 another time 
of non-employment and suffering, the society co-operated with a com- 
mittee of the Chamber of Commerce, of w^hich Charles G. Washburn was 
chairman and Miss Billings, secretary, affording great relief to the needy 
and suffering, in 206 families. 

Besides the regular work of investigation, classification and co-oper- 
ation with the 75 other charitable organizations in the city to a greater 
or less extent, various other w^ork has been undertaken. The flower 
mission began in 1890 to distribute flowers and fruit to the sick. In the 
third year this department became a separate society known as the 
Fruit and Flower Mission, although working in co-operation with the 
Associated Charities and it has continued faithfully at its work ever 
since. 



9o6 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

The Mothers' Sewing Class was organized in 1893 to provide work 
for mothers, give them instruction, and double the aid of the society in 
providing clothing. Mrs. C. C. Houghton was in charge until 1907. 
The Home Savings Society was established to promote thrift among 
children. In the first season $30 was saved by the youthful depositors ; 
in 1913 over $3,000. This plan has since been w^idely extended by the 
"Woman's Club, schools and even the banks of the city. The Directory of 
Charities was published in 1903, a book of 46 pages, giving an account 
of 50 benevolent societies and 105 churches and missions. In 1902 Miss 
Witherspoon organized a Social Study class, which accomplished good 
results until it was given up in 1908. 

The following have been presidents : Hon. Stephen Salisbury, 
1891-94; Hon. Henry L. Parker, 1895-1901; Dr. Chas. L. Nichols, 1902- 
— . Secretaries: Dr. Chas. L. Nichols, 1891-94; Prof. Geo. H. Haynes, 
1895 — . The present officers (1917) are: Pres., Chas. L. Nichols; 
Vice-Prests., Chas. G. Washburn, Geo. Crompton; Sec, Geo. H. 
Haynes; Treas., Carl Bonney. 

Directors: Halleck Bartlett, Geo. Crompton, Dan. E. Denny, Chas. 
H. Derby, Francis H. Dewey, Edward T. Esty, Matthew B. Lamb, Paul 
B. Morgan, Miss Adeline M. Bisco, Miss Margaret Harlow, Chas L. Allen, 
Geo. H. Haynes, Chas. L. Nichols, Chas. M. Thayer, Chas. G. Washburn, 
Lemuel F. Woodward, Mrs. Jno. H. Coes, Mrs. Frank L. Dean, Mrs. 
Homer Gage, Mrs. Albert Wood, Edwin Brown, Edward A. Bigelow, 
Carl Bonney, Geo. A. Gaskill, W. S. B. Hopkins, Dan. W. Lincoln, Miss 
Isabel M. Crompton, Mrs. Frank L. Durkee, Mrs. Rufus B. Fowler, 
Mrs. Leon. P. Kinnicutt. 

Staff of Workers : Gen. Secy., Miss Miriam F. Witherspoon ; Asst., 
Miss Edith Billings; Registrar, Miss Loretta A. Luby ; Visiting House- 
keeper, Mrs. Charlotte L. Smith. 

Children's Friend Society. — The following is abstracted from an 
article by Mr. Frank F. Dresser, in the Worcester Magazine, January, 
1913: 

' The Worcester Children's Friend Society was founded by the efforts of Mrs. 
Jonas M. Miles, in 1848, a short time after the establishment of similar societies in 
Boston, Salem and Providence. Its first public appeal, prepared by Hon. Alfred D. 
Foster, stated that "The Visitor of the Poor in 1848 found more than four hundred 
children" — (the city then having a population of 17,000) — connected with families 
visited and aided by him, some of them so situated as to deeply move the pity and 
sympathy of the benevolent." The Society declared that it would never cause a sepa- 
ration of child from parent "unless it should be plainly apparent to us that the parental 
claim has been forfeited in some one of the following particulars : First, the entire 
desertion of the child without provision for its future wants. Second, the total inca- 
pacity of the parents to discharge parental duties by reason of habitual and inveterate 
habits of intemperance. Third, the certainty that the child, if left with the parents, 
will be sacrificed to vice. Lastly, when insanity, imbecility or peculiar providential 
dispensations have deprived the parents of the power to discharge their parental 
duties." 



AND ITS PEOPLE 907 

A home for children was provided for a few months in Mrs. Miles' house, corner 
of Chestnut and William streets, and later in a house on Pine street, given to the 
Society by Col. John W. Lincoln. The first year, fifty-two children were received 
twenty of whom were "placed in good families by adoption or otherwise," the Society 
thus early perceiving the modern theory that it is better to place children out in fam- 
ilies than to keep them in an institution. 

Col. Lincoln's house was occupied from 1849 to 1865, when a new house at the 
corner of Main and Benefit streets was purchased. This was occupied until 1902, 
when the "Orphans' Home," as it was commonly called, was finally abandoned, and 
the placing-out system adopted. During these fifty-four years 2,400 children were re- 
ceived — "one class as boarders to be reclaimed by their friends as fortune favored 
removal, while to another class the Home has been only a passport to a more perma- 
nent one." The first matron. Miss Tamerson White, watched over this household for 
thirty-six years, assisted the greater part of the time by Miss Harriet Knight. Six of 
her boys enlisted in the Civil War and three gave up their lives. The records of the 
Society contain many letters from men and women who made their way successfully 
in the world and gratefully recalled the help which they received from her. 

A Bureau of Council attempts to re-establish proper home conditions, so that the 
child may safely remain with its parents. This requires study of the particular case, 
giving advice or guidance, furnishing medical and dental care by the generosity of phy- 
sicians and dentists and the Children's Ward of Memorial Hospital, calling upon rela- 
tives, friends or employers for help, and getting the household in the right path, li 
the child can remain at home, it is visited frequently, to see whether the diagnosis of 
the case is correct and to render such aid as may be necessary. The Placing Out De- 
partment has a list of proper foster homes where children may be placed. 

While the Bureau of Council and the Placing Out Department comprise the chief 
work of the Society, and keep its four agents busily employed, there are other services 
to render. The Fresh Air Fund during the past two years has been managed by the 
Society, and more women and children have been given vacations and outings at less 
expense than ever before. The agents of the Society are frequently called upon by the 
court to act as guardians when no other proper persons can be found to serve. 

A few years ago, in co-operation with the three Boston societies, a system of rec- 
ords was devised which is now used throughout the country by all child-saving agen- 
cies. It co-operates with the School for Social Workers in Boston by receiving for 
six hours a week students who here supplement their course by practical work. 

At no time in its history has the Society been able financially to meet the de- 
mand upon it, yet through all its sixty-four years of existence it has been the recipient 
of generous legacies. In 1903, when the placing out work began, there were fifty chil- 
dren, and the expense for that year was $6,800. In 191 1, 233 children were referred to 
the Society, and the expense was a little over $14,000. In 1912, the number of chil- 
dren in the Society's care increased 17 per cent, with a consequent increase in expenses. 

Recent budgets are roughly divided as follows : For administration cost, rent, 
travel, salaries, etc., $3,400, a sum much less than the proportion expended by similar 
societies; clothing cost $2,650; board, $7,800; medical expenses, gifts, etc., $150; a to- 
tal of $14,000. The receipts were from three sources: Income, from invested funds, 
$6,500; payments by parents or friends of the children, $3,750; and public contributions, 
$2,800. The public contributions have shown but slight increase during the last few 
years, and are much less than similar societies receive and than the work requires. 

The officers in 1917 were: Pres., Mrs. Wm. Harrington; Vice- 
Pres., Frank F. Dresser; Sec, Mrs. Edmund M. Barton; Clerk, Mrs, 
Chas. W. Bruninghaus; Treas., Daniel W. Lincoln; Asst. Treas., Sally 
W. Oilman; Gen. Sec, Helen A. Woods. Directors: Mrs. Chas. P. 



9o8 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Adams, Alfred L. Aiken, Mrs. Fayette A. Amidoii, Geo. F. Blake, A. 
Geo. Bullock, Mr. and Mrs. Alex. H. Bullock, Mrs. Ed. C. Carleton, Mrs. 
Arthur C. Comins, Mary R. Colton, Mrs. Oliver R. Cook, Mrs. F. Hen- 
shaw De\vey,Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Geo. A. Gaskill, Mrs. Edward R. Goodwin, 
Mrs. Henry J. Gross, Mrs. Geo. L. Holden, Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, Mrs. 
Lucius J. Knowles, Mr. and Mrs. Jas. Logan, Mrs. Paul B. Morgan, Mrs. 
Jno. G. Murdock, Mrs. Wm. E. Norcross, Mrs. Edward Searle, Mrs. Wm. 
P. Searles, Mrs. Waldo E. Sessions, Dr. ^Myrtle Smith, Mrs. W. Virgil 
Spaulding, Albert L. Stratton, Mrs. D. Wheeler Swift, Mrs. Arthur P. 
Rugg, Chas. G. Washburn, Louis N. Wilson, Dr. Lemuel F. Woodward, 
Wm. Woodward, Mrs. Jas. E. Whitin, Mrs. Jno. C. F. Wheelock, Mrs. 
Burton H. Wright. The office is at 832 Slater building. 

Mrs. Edward R. Goodwin was elected president for 1918; Albert L. 
Stratton, Treas. ; Mrs. Wm. Harrington, Asst. Treas. ; Mrs. Edmund M. 
Barton. Sec; Mrs. Henry J. Cross, Clerk. 

Employment Society. — The People's Club, organized in 1871 with 
Hon. Henry Chapin president, began the work. The active work of 
the club was divided into three sections — benevolent, hospitality and 
educational. The benevolent section was subdivided into three depart- 
ments, one of wdiich, the employment committee, developed into the 
present Employment Society. The relief committee began to send 
women that it found wanting work to the employment committee. In 
about three years the club ceased to be active. 

Li ISTo the Employment Society was organized to continue the 
work, and a board of managers from various churches was formed. In 
1883 the society was incorporated. From time to time it has been aided 
by gifts and legacies, and has accomplished much good in providing 
work for women, and in utilizing garments made for charitable 
purposes. For many years the rooms have been at 36 Pearl street. 
The officers in 1917 were: Pres., Mrs. Chas. M. Thayer; Vice-Prests., 
Mrs. Francis H. Dewey, Mrs. Frank F. Dresser; Treas., Maud E. Chase; 
Clerk, Mrs. Leonard P. Kinnicutt; Chairman of Visiting Committee, 
Sally A. Flagg; Agent, Louise M. Pierce; Auditor, Mrs. F. H. Baker. 

Society for District Nursing. — This was incorporated in October, 
1899. It provided and supplies nurses, graduates from reliable training 
schools, and registered under State Laws, who care for the sick poor 
in their homes. The work was started in 1893 by the Memorial Hos- 
pital Aid Society and was directed by a special committee of which Miss 
Mary N. Perley was chairman, and who was the first president of the 
Society after its incorporation. In 1909 it assumed the work of the 
Good Samaritan Society. The present officers are: Pres., Miss Harriet 
E. Clarke; Vice-Pres., Mrs. Edwin Brown; Clerk, Mrs. Henry J. Gross; 
Treas., Mrs. Homer Gage; Supt., Miss Rosebelle Jacobus; Physician, Dr. 
Myrtle Smith. There is a staff of 14 nurses, and more are needed. Pa- 
tients pay when possible a small fee, five to fifty cents a visit, and the 



AND ITS PEOPLE 909 



Society furnishes nursing service to the industrial policy holders of the 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., the Society for the Relief and Control 
of Tuberculosis, the Denison Mfg. Co., and one or two other factories 
in the city. 

The Society has had many generous friends who have left substantial 
legacies, but it depends largely for its support on annual contributions 
and the expenses are steadily increasing as the demands for the nurses 
grow. In 1916 4909 patients were visited and 47,376 calls made. 

North Worcester Aid Society. — This was organized in the home of 
Mrs. Alfred Atherton, North Worcester, near Bryant's pond, in 1874, 
for educational, charitable, benevolent, social and religious purposes, 
and was the only organized charitable society in Worcester at that time. 
The Society started with about 55 workers, with the following officers: 
Pres., Mrs. Alfred Atherton; Vice-Pres., Mrs. C. Muzzy; Sec. and 
Treas., Mrs. L. B. Hoit; Directresses, Mesdames J. Pierce, Eben Jew- 
ett, Jno. Brooks. 

The first year's receipts were $113 and expenditures for charity $62. 
Through the generosity of Mr. Eben Jewett the Society was given the 
use of a piece of land on the easterly side of Holden street near Chester 
street, in time a hall was ready for occupancy and many generous gifts 
were made to the Society for use in their new home. Before the hall was 
completed the Society held meetings in the school house directly across 
the street from the hall. The hall was dedicated March 17, 1887. A 
charter was granted to the Society Jan. 27, 1887, and has the following 
signatures: W. C. Jewett, A. E. Young, Edwin W. Wheeler, Wm. H. 
Kilborn, S. E. Feischer, Eben Jewett, A. H. Crosby, W. M. Hodsdon. 

The Society has a membership of 113 and the following officers: 
Pres., Clifford T. Eldridge; 1st Vice-Pres., Mrs. C. H. Church; 2nd 
Vice-Pres., Mrs. Albert R. Brooks; Sec, Mrs. Helen M. Stimson; Treas., 
Mrs. Nancy G. Pierce. Directors: Nils Bjork, chairman, W. E. Sar- 
gent, Mrs. Albert Bloss, Mrs. Emma Davis, Mrs. Wm. Wheeler. 

Bethel Help Association. — Welcome Mission, founded by Mrs. Anne 
Fisher, did excellent work under the superintendency of William Oakley 
for twelve or fifteen years, at the corner of Madison and Portland streets. 
About 1900 Mr. Oakley decided to go into business; shortly after, the 
Mission was closed for lack of leadership. The equipment was taken 
over by the Salvation Army and the Volunteers, but later on was 
destroyed by fire. It was seven years before Bethel Mission emerged 
from the ruins. 

During this period the city harbored many tramps and wayfaring 
men, feeding them on crackers and water. Other cities were placing 
prohibitive laws on their statute books, and the crowd flocked to Wor- 
cester. About 1905-6 Worcester enacted a law making applicants for 
lodgings eligible to ten to twenty days in Summer street jail. This 
relieved the city of a large number of wandering characters, but there 



910 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

remained many native Worcester men incapacitated for self-support 
through the influence of the saloon. In 1907 Mr. and Mrs. Frank P. 
Rogers hired the building at 245-249 Front street, at their own expense, 
to provide a temporary shelter for homeless men. There were seven- 
teen rooms fitted up with fifty beds, baths, and later on lunch room 
and gospel hall. On account of ill health, Mr. Rogers transferred his 
interest to Mrs. Emma G. Hall in 1908. The work was continued under 
similar management until the building was torn down to make room 
for new Union Station. 

January 10, 1910, Bethel Mission was incorporated as the Bethel 
Help Association, with Winthrop G. Hall, president. Seven directors 
took over the conduct of the work. Extensive improvements were 
made ; seventy-five beds were installed, renting for 25c and 15c a night. 
Twenty to twenty-five thousand men are cared for annually. Twenty- 
nine nationalities have shared in the helpfulness of the home. The 
rooms are at 87-93 Mechanic street. 

Richard D. Murphy became superintendent in 1914. Under his 
leadership a strong Yoke-Fellows Band was formed among the con- 
verts. This band, with the delegations sent from the churches, have 
drawn into the nightly meetings, from the street and saloon, an average 
of 11,000 men a year. From two to three thousand free lodgings are 
given a year, fifteen thousand meals are supplied to men until they draw 
their pay, after getting on their feet again. Most of the cost of this food 
is returned by the men. Clothing, medical aid, temporary and perman- 
ent employment is furnished when neded. New courage is instilled in 
hopeless hearts. Letters are exchanged with men who have returned to 
their homes. Visits are made to hospitals and jail. Anniversaries are 
common events these days, taxing to the uttermost the capacity of the 
hall. Many pleasant social occasions are made possible by the hearty 
co-operation of Christian people. A number of the redeemed men have 
received the right hand of fellowship in the city churches, 

Gilbert G. Davis was President in 1917; Winthrop G. Hall, Treas. ; 
Harry Harrison, Clerk; Edwin Larken, Manager of the lodging house; 
Jos. McConnell, Supt. of mission. Directors : Jno. W. Armour, Rich. 
D, Murphy, Geo. E. Copeland, Dr. Julius Garst, Dr. H. Stiles Bradley, 
Fred L. Willis, Ed. F. Miner. 

Door of Hope. — In 1894 a mission was opened on Green street, and 
soon afterward a house was hired and Miss Gaines placed in charge of a 
shelter for homeless girls and women. In 1903 the corporation, "Door 
of Hope Society," with a board of directors from the various Protestant 
churches, assumed the work. Physicians gave generously of their time ; 
clergymen gave their aid and co-operation. 

A home was purchased at No. 5 Dudley Place, Dec. 24, 1911, and 
through the generous gift of $2,500 by Mrs. Charles H. Stearns, $500 
from the estate of Milton P. Higgins, and other smaller gifts, the prop- 



AND ITS PEOPLE 911 

erty was freed of mortgage debt. Mrs. Henry C. Graton and Thomas H, 
Dodge left legacies. The home was dedicated May 23, 1913. The 
Society depends upon subscription for its maintenance. Its annual bud- 
get is about $3,000. Its work in reclaiming girls who have gone astray 
is highly successful. The superintendent is Mrs. Helen J. Diamond. 
The officers are: Pres., Ella L. Barnard; Vice-Prests., Mrs. Clifton H. 
Mix, O. P. Taber, Jr. ; Sec, Mrs. Wm. F. Cole ; Treas., Mrs. Henry L. Mc- 
Clusky; Auditor, Mrs. Alonzo S. Morse. 

Worcester Annual Rescue League. — This was incorporated in March, 
1912, but was not very successful in making history until March, 1913, 
when it was reorganized. Mrs. Fred H. Smith was elected president, 
and continued in office three years, during which time much work was 
done among the dumb animals. Each year as the society became bet- 
ter known, the work increased, and in March, 1916, the League aban- 
doned the old barn at 2 Pratt Court, and moved into a comfortable 
house and barn of its own at 447 Grove street. With the acquisition of 
property, Mrs. Smith felt the work too much for one person, and resigned 
as president to become general managei- and treasurer, while Miss 
Frances Clary Morse assumed the duties of president. 

At the close of the first year of occupancy of their own home, the 
League had expended $500 in remodelling and repairing the place, and 
had paid off the second mortgage of $400, in addition to carrying the 
general expenses. Miss Morse and Mrs. Smith were re-elected to 
office, March 1, 1917, with Mrs. H. M. Witter as vice-president and Mrs. 
Wm. B. Aspinwall as secretary. Herbert W. Cooper has served the 
League as superintendent since the reorganization. 

Other Aid Societies — A useful charitable organization of recent 
years is the Emergency Society. The present officers are : Pres., Mrs. 
R. Homer Gould; Vice-Pres., Mrs. A. Jones; Rec. Sec, Mrs. Emma B. 
Ford; Treas., Mrs. Caroline M. Moore; Fin. Sec, Mrs. Ethel Whalen. 
Meetings are held in the homes of members. 

The Worcester branch of the Massachusetts Society for the Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Children has headquarters at 35 Pearl street, and the 
local officers are: Pres., Dr. Samuel B. Woodward; Vice-Pres., Rev. Dr. 
Austin S. Garver; Sec, Dr. Myrtle Smith; Treas., Halleck Bartlett. 

For a number of years the Worcester Tuberculosis Relief Associa- 
tion has been active in fighting the great scourge. The officers are: Pres., 
Dr. Albert C. Getchell ; Vice-Pres., Saul Elias; Sec, Dr. Myrtle Smith; 
Treas., Edgar L. Ramsdell. 

The Worcester branch of the Massachusetts Society for the Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Animals has headquarters at 306 Main street. The 
officers are: Pres., Mrs. Chas. F. Darling; Vice-Pres., Nellie Moore; 
Sec, Harriet O. Wood; Treas., Margaret H. O'Donnell. 



912 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 




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CHAPTER LXI 

Hospitals — City Hospital — Memorial — Belmont — Hahnemann — Other 

Hospitals — Home for Aged Women — Home for Aged Men — 

Whitcomb Home — Home and Day Nursery — Memorial 

Home for the Blind — Other Institutions 

Shortly before his death, Mr. Nutt, author of this work, condensed 
the following from an elaborate article from his own pen in the Wor- 
cester Magazine for April, 1916: 

Fifty years ago there were no general hospitals in Worcester, no surgeries, no 
public facilities for the care of sick or wounded. The present generation has seen 
the development of the modern hospital with its miracles of surgery, its trained nurses, 
its triumphs over contagion and disease. In many ways Worcester has taken rank 
among the leaders and today it can point with pride to the hospitals and kindred in- 
stitutions that have taken root here and grown to large proportions. In the five hos- 
pitals described in this article Worcester has invested more than two million dollars 
and an endowment of about $815,000. They are operated at a cost of a thousand dol- 
lars a day. During the past year 12,000 patients were treated, besides 20,000 out-patients 
of City and Memorial hospitals. They have 430 beds and employ 300 nurses. 

The City Hospital, the largest, was established by act of Legislature, May 23, 1871, 
and the first patient was admitted Oct. 26, 1871, when a dozen beds were provided in 
the Bigelow mansion. Three years later, owing to the bequest of George Jaques, the 
hospital was removed to his homestead on Wellington street, and accommodations in- 
creased to 16 beds. The first building on the present site was occupied Dec. 8, 1881. 
The training school for nurses was established in 1883; the Gill Memorial and Salis- 
bury wards opened in 1886; the Knowles Alaternity in 1888; the out-patient depart- 
ment in 1890 ; the Samuel Winslow surgery in 1896, and the male surgical building the 
same year. A heat, light and power plant was completed in 1900, and four years later 
new buildings were erected by the city at a cost of $300,000. In 1914 a new building 
was erected for the care of children exclusively. 

Twenty-one buildings are now in use. The administration building on Jaques ave- 
nue contains the offices, and in the basement the drug room. To the east are the 
buildings of the maternity ward and male surgical wards C and D; the women's sur- 
gical ward ; the Winslow surgery and the X-ray department. South of the offices 
are the kitchens and dining-rooms for the house doctors, matrons and other employees. 
West of the offices is ward M (women's surgical) ; ward G (women's medical) and 
ward S (for private patients) ; also a two-story building, known as wards H-i and H-2 
(men's medical) ; ward I-i and I-2 for private patients ; ward J for cases requiring iso- 
lation, such as alcoholics. On the extreme west is the laboratory. The power plant is 
to the north. On Chandler street are the Thayer Memorial Home for Nurses and the 
Thomas house, used as a dormitory for nurses, and the Out-patient department. The 
new children's building, two-stories high, has four wards with 50 beds. The City 
Hospital is now caring for about 6,000 patients a year. Nearly 90,000 patients have 
been received since the hospital was opened. 

The Worcester City Hospital compares favorably with any municipal institution of 
its class in a city of similar size. It is in the same class with the Massachusetts Gen- 
eral Hospital, the Rhode Island Hospital and the Hartford Hospital, all of which are 
endowed institutions under private management. 

W.— I-s8. 



914 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



The City Hospital is in charge of nine trustees, elected by the City Council— one 
alderman, two councilmen and six other citizens, each for a term of six years. The 
total amount of endowment is nearly $300,000. It costs the city about $90,000 a year, 
about half the total cost of operating, not including the permanent additions to the 
plant. The valuation of the hospital is $850,000. 

The superintendent and resident physician is Dr. Chas. A. Drew. His assistants are 
Drs. Edward P. Disbrow, Winthrop Adams and Wm. H. MacKay. Consulting physi- 
cians and surgeons: Drs. Sam. B. Woodward, Oliver H. Everett. Leonard Wheeler, 
Chas. B. Stevens, Wm. H. Rose. Stafif visiting physicians : Drs. Ray W. Greene, Geo. 
O. Ward, Wm. J. Delahanty and Galston Tripp. Surgeons: Drs. Homer Gage, Lem- 
uel F. Woodward, E. H. Trowbridge. Chas. D. Wheeler, Royal P. Watkins, Geo. H. 
Hill, John M. W. Farnham and Arthur W. Marsh. Specialists in various depart- 
ments: Drs. Foster H. Gary, Wm. E. Denning, David Harrower, Edward Swasey, 
John C. Berry, Chas. T. Estabrook, Denis F. O'Connor, F. H. Baker, E. L. Hunt, Ed- 
ward B. Bigelow, A. C. Getchell, John T. McGillicuddy, Phil. H. Cook, Benj. T. Bur- 
ley, Walter C. Haviland, How. W. Beal, Geo. A. Dix, Geo. E. Deering, Roy W. Stimp- 
son, John G. Perman, Ernest L. Hunt, W. Irving Clark, Frank L. Maguire, A. M. 
Shattuck, Timothy J. Foley, John E. Rice, Gordon Berry, Ernest L. Parker, Walter 
D. Bieberbach, O. Draper Phelps. 

About 150 nurses, graduates and undergraduates, are connected with the training 
school, and thirty-five or forty receive diplomas annually. To do justice to the train- 
ing of nurses and their work would require an article in itself. A two-years' course for 
male nurses is provided. 

Memorial Hospital. — This was established by act of Legislature in 1871. the same 
year that the City Hospital began its work, but as a general hospital its history begins 
in 1888. It was founded by Ichabod Washburn, head of the Washburn & Moen Manu- 
facturing Company, who died in 1868, leaving a bequest of 750 shares of stock in that 
corporation, for a hospital and free dispensary. The dispensary was opened Alarch 4, 
1874, in the quarters that the City Hospital had occupied at the corner of Front and 
Church streets, removing in 1881 to 11 Trumbull street and in 1888 to the present site. 

The hospital started at the present location in the mansion of the Samuel Davis 
estate on Belmont street with nineteen beds, which from the beginning were insufficient. 
In 1892, the present round wards, ten private rooms and a well equipped surgery was 
added. The care of women and children was made the special work of the hospital. 
The children's ward was named in memory of Philip L. Moen, who married the eldest 
daughter of the founder: the women's ward was named in memory of Dr. Henry 
Clarke, who was Mr. Washburn's family physician, and first vice-president of the 
board. Both Mr. Moen and Mrs. Clarke contributed funds for the equipment of these 
wards. 

The gifts of a modern surgery in 1902 by Mrs. Georgie Crompton Wood, in mem- 
ory of her husband, Albert Bowman Wood, was an opportune addition, but other needs 
were pressing. The children's ward was inadequate, and in 1905 Aliss Alabel C. Gage 
raised by subscription a fund of $34,000 toward the building of a suitable ward. A 
committee consisting of Charles A. Chase, Dr. Leonard Wheeler, Reginald Wash- 
burn and Dr. Homer Gage, aided by a committee of three from each city ward, con- 
tinued the work, which resulted in 1909 in the dedication of the Rebecca A. Morgan 
Maternity Ward, given by Charles H. Morgan as a tribute to his wife; the George L. 
Newton Building for private patients and the Children's Building containing 48 beds, a 
large play-room and roof garden. Several hundred persons contributed. From time 
to time the hospital has received from gifts and bequests many additions to its endow- 
ment and equipment. 

The trustees of the Memorial Hospital Hospital in 1916 are: Dr. Leonard Wheeler, 
Thos. H. Gage, Alex. DeWitt, Frank F. Dresser, Willis E. Sibley, Waldo Lincoln, t'ran- 
cis H. Dewey, Reg. Washburn, Paul B. Morgan, Dr. Sam. B. Woodward, Rev. Shep- 






MEAIORIAL HOSPITAL. 
The upper view is of the original building; the others are more recent. 



AND .ITS PEOPLE 915 

herd Knapp, Rev. Edward Eells. The consulting board : Drs. Ray W. Greene, Geo. O. 
Ward and Fred. H. Baker. Surgeons : Drs. Lein. F. Woodward, Homer Gage, Kendall 
Emerson, W. Irving Clark, Wm. H. Rose, Howard W. Beal, Walter C. Seelye, Frank 
W. George. Physicians : Drs. Lester C. Miller, Merrick Lincoln, Edward B. Bigelow. 
The following specialists not already mentioned : Drs. Albert C. Getchell, Gordon Berry, 
Oliver H. Everett, George A. Dix, Benjamin T. Burley, Charles B. Stevens, Ernest L. 
Hunt, Philip H. Cook, Roger Kinnicutt. Miss Lucia L. Jaquith is the superintendent. 
The staff of the dispensary includes many of the doctors already mentioned and also: 
Drs. Roy J. Ward, A. Wilson Atwood, Geo. C. Lincoln, Mary A. Charteris, Mary 
E. Barren, Myrtle Smith, David B. Lovell, Chas. T. Estabrook, John W. Cahill, Oliver 
H. Everett, Wm. E. Denning, Geo. A. Dix, John F. Moore. 

Memorial Hospital has 175 beds and in the past year treated more than 3,000 pa- 
tients. It costs $100,000 a year for current expenses. Of this amount a little more 
than half is derived from the payments of patients, the remainder is derived from in- 
vested funds and annual contributions. The seven hospital buildings and their equip- 
ment and three cottages used for nurses' homes, represent an investment of about $500,- 
000, while the endowment amounts to about the same amount. The next step will be 
the construction of a home for tlie nurses. It is planned to erect a modern building 
providing 100 rooms, as soon as -the funds are. available, and for this purpose the sum 
of $150,000 is required. . , ;.., , 

In 1918 Mrs. Elizabeth S. Newtoti, widow of George L., bequeathed $150,000 to 
Memorial Hospital. 

The importance of the out-patient department, as now conducted under the most 
approved social service methods, almost equals that of the hospital proper. The social 
service work is to make the work of the out-patient department as effective as possi- 
ble. The out-patient service is free, and the applicants for treatment come first to the 
social workers, who learn the conditions arid n-eeds of the patient. A total of 13,192 pa- 
tients were treated in one year in the out-patient department of this hospital. Me- 
morial is unique in this respect and its social service work has increased its value to the 
community incalculabh'. It has also the only dental clinic. Children to the number 
of 1,662 in 1915 came to have work done on their teeth. The best dentists of the city give 
their time to the work. 

The Memorial Aid Society, composed of charitable women of the city, furnishes 
funds for the social workers ; the Memorial Charity Club, provides for the dental clinic. 
These organizations have brought the attention of the public to this institution year 
after year, and have contributed and raised in various ways many thousand dollars for 
hospital equipment and operation. 

St. Vincent Hospital. — St. Vincent Hospital has no endowment, and it has been 
raised and supported mainly by men who labor with their hands. It is conducted by 
the Sisters of Providence, but does not restrict its usefulness to people of the Catholic 
faith; all races and creeds are accepted as patients. The hospitals was opened Sept. 9, 
1893. It has beds for a hundred patients. The grounds on Vernon Hill comprise an 
entire square, bounded by Winthrop, Providence, Vernon and Spurr streets. It is 
a general hospital. During one year, 2,478 patients were treated. From the receipts 
from patients able to pay for the service rendered, current expenses are met. The gifts 
of individuals and churches are used to add to the equipment as far as possible. The 
training school has forty students. All of the sisters are graduate nurses. The train- 
ing is similar to that given in similar institutions, consisting of a three-year course. 
May Stafford is president of alumnae association 1917. 

The work of the hospital has been extended by the purchase of a farm at Mill- 
bury, where provision will be made for maternity cases, and for others preferring a 
hospital in the country. It is known as St. Joseph's Institute. 



9i6 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 




ST. VINCENT HOSPITAL. 

The trustees of the corporation are the Bishop, Thos. D. Beaven of Springfield, 
president; Geo. Crompton, vice-president, and Mother Mary of Providence, treasurer. 
Sister Mary Agatha is the secretary. Executive board, Bishop Thos. D. Beaven, Rev. 
Wm. G. Goggin, Geo. Crompton, Dr. Thos. J. Barrett, Mother Mary of Providence. 
The consulting stafif of physicians and surgeons : Drs. Homer Gage, Leonard Wheeler 
and Michael J. Halloran. Visiting staff of physicians : Drs. John T. Duggan, Wm. J. 
Delahanty, Timothy J. Foley, Thos. E. McEvoy, J. J. Cummings, Theobald O. Mc- 
Sheehy, Geo. F. O'Day. Surgeon-in-chief : Dr. Michael F. Fallon. Surgeons : Drs. J. 
Arthur Barnes, Wm. F. Lynch. Aurists and oculists : Drs. David Harrower, Denis F. 
O'Connor, David B. Lovell, John T. McGillicuddy, John W. Cahill, John F. Moore, 
Gynaecologists : Drs. Mary V. O'Callaghan, Mary E. Barrell, Anna F. Murphy. Der- 
matologist : Dr. Clara P. Fitzgerald. Pathologist : Dr. James. W. McDonald. Roentgen- 
ologist : Dr. And. E. O'Connell. Dental surgery : Drs. Thos. J. Barrett and Michael 
J. O'Reilly. Rhinologist and laryngologist : Dr. John J. Brennan. Neurologist : Dr. 
Michael J. O'Meara. Obstetricians : Drs. J. J. Cummings and Step. Bergin. Cystoco- 
pist: Dr. George O. Brown. 

Worcester Hahnemann Hospital. — Incorporated in 1896, this hospital began in a 
house at 46 Providence street, given by Mrs. Elizabeth Colburn. This hospital is in 
charge of graduates of homoeopathic institutions, but any member of a recognized med- 
ical society may attend his private patient in the hospital. 

The hospital is indebted to David Hale Fanning of Worcester for its present high 
standing. In 1907 he gave the Roche estate with two acres and a half of land on Lin- 
coln street, at Brittan Square. The mansion was remodeled for an administration build- 
ing, and the handsome hospital building erected and equipped from funds raised by sub- 
scription. The new quarters have been in use since November i, 1909, representing an 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



917 



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9i8 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

investment of $75,000. The hospital has the nucleus of an endowment fund, amounting 
to about $15,000. Specially noteworthy are the Fanning surgery, the hydrotherapeutic 
equipment, provided by the generosity of Edgar Reed, and the latest X-ray apparatus. 
At present the hospital has 24 beds, but the demand is greater than the supply, and 
the number of beds will be increased at once. The hospital is supported entirely from 
the receipts from patients, and gifts. The annual cost of maintenance is almost $25,000. 
In 1916 a nurses home was secured, on an adjacent lot, increasing the number of beds by 
ten. This hospital has about 300 patients a year. An excellent training school for nurses 
is maintained, and ten or more graduates receive diplomas annually. The Senior Board, 
founded in 1897, is composed of women, and has for its object the furtherance of the 
objects of the hospital. A similar society of younger women, organized in 1903, is 
known as the Junior Board. These organizations are constantly aiding the hospital 
with funds and contributions of articles for the patients. 

The directors of Hahnemann are: Dr. J. K. Warren, president; Edward B. Miles, 
secretary ; Dr. Geo. A. Slocomb, treasurer ; Dr. Edgar A. Fisher, David H. Fanning, 
A. H. Fairbanks, A. H. Sears, Geo. A. Bigelow, Elbert A. Jones, Albert W. Gifford, 
Dr. Albert E. Cross, Ernest P. Bennett, Franklin B. Durfee, Chas. G. Hill, Geo. F. 
Brooks. Surgeons : Drs. J. K. Warren, Edgar A. Fisher, Edwin R. Leib and Leslie P. 
Leland. Medical staf? : Drs. John E. Willis, Amanda C. Bray, John P. Rand, Elbert 
A. Jones. Specialists : Drs. Albert E. Cross, Chas. A. Croissant, Leslie P. Leland, Lucy 
E. Wetherbee, Elbert A. Jones. Governing board : Geo. A. Slocomb, Albert E. Cross, 
Ernest P. Bennett, John K. Warren, Edgar A. Fisher, Chas. G. Hill. 

The Belmont Hospital. — This for the care of patients suffering from contagious 
diseases, known for many years as the Isolation Hospital, since the addition of the 
new tuberculosis ward, as the Belmont Hospital.- It is controlled by the City Board of 
Health. Besides the generous gift of land by Henry Putnam, the city has invested 
$275,000 in this hospital. 

The history of the institution begins in November, 1896, when the isolation wards 
were established. The Isolation Hospital began its work with half the present admin- 
istration building, a pavilion for cases of diphtheria and another for scarlet fever, 
each containing 25 beds, with provision for an increase of capacity in times of epidemic. 
Soon the hospital was overcrowded, and in 1900 its capacity was doubled. Another 
ward for diphtheria was added in 1907. In December, 1914, the Putnam Tuberculosis 
Ward was opened and necessary additions made to the heating plant, laundry and 
domestic service building. 

Worcester was a pioneer in providing for the care of diphtheria and scarlet fever. 
In the rooms of the Board of Health at City Hall may be seen a set of photographs of 
this institution, for which the city received a gold medal at the Paris Exposition. The 
Worcester plant has served as a model for many other cities. 

The Worcester Tuberculosis Relief Association was efifective in bringing public 
sentiment to the support of care for difficult cases of tuberculosis, and the agitation 
in Worcester was in no small measure responsible for the action of the Legislature of 
Massachusetts in requiring similar institutions throughout the Commonwealth. Dr. 
M. G. Overlock, organized the preliminary movement and under Mayor Hon. James 
Logan, the initial steps were taken. 

The hospital has no training school, but each student at the City Hospital has 
twelve weeks here during her training, and a course of four months in the care of con- 
tagious diseases is given for graduate nurses. All the 25 regular nurses are graduates. 
The full capacity of Belmont is 130 beds, but in emergency the isolation wards accept 
many additional patients. 

Other Hospitals. — The old Insane Asylum on Summer street, one of the pioneer in- 
stitutions of the country in the treatment of mental diseases and care of the insane, 
dates from 1830. It is now part of the Grafton State Hospital. Various changes in 
the name and management of the Summer street institution have been made. The 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



919 




920 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



Worcester State Hospital on Belmont street, opposite Shrewsbury street, in the sec- 
tion known as Bloomingdale, is the legal and historical successor of the Summer 

street hospital. 

Various private institutions supplement the work of the state hospitals. Herbert 
Hall is a private institution for mental and nervous diseases, of which Dr. Walter C. 
Haviland is superintendent. Another sanitarium for invalids and convalescents, located 
at 19 King street, is Maple Hall, in charge of Mrs. Florence M. Larned, superintendent. 
The Restaurare Institute, 15 Oread street, the old Estabrook mansion, for the treat- 
ment of alcoholism and drug diseases, of which Mr. John H. Brownell is director. 
Conducted by the Worcester County Medical Institute Co. 

Mr. Brownell was for 15 years editor of "The American Tyler," a masonic journal. 
He wrote "Moral and Ethical Philosophy of Free Alasonry," "Gems from the Quarry 
and Sparks from the Anvil," in three volumes. 

The Abbott, 12 Bowdoin street, is a sanitarium, of which Mrs. Clara L. Abbott is 
superintendent. Lincoln Hall Sanitarium, 128 Lincoln street, for invalids and con- 
valescents, is in charge of Miss Mary E. Flynn, superintendent. Oak Lodge Sanitarium, 
30 Berkman street, for invalids and convalescents, is in charge of Mrs. Harriet L. 
Shorey and Mrs. Emma J. Deland, nurses. A Franco-American Dispensary has also 
recently been added to the hospital resources of the city. 



CHAPTER LXII 

Homes for the Old and Afflicted 

The Home for Aged Women. — The following is contributed by Mr. 
William Woodward : 

The Home for Aged Women was founded by Ichabod Washburn of Worcester, a 
prominent manufacturer and philanthropist of his day, who left a substantial portion 
of his estate towards its endowment. In his devise Mr. Washburn states the reasons 
which actuated him in making the bequest, as follows : 

I have long had in contemplation the condition of aged indigent unmarried fe- 
males, who from loss of friends or other misfortunes are reduced from a state of 
comfortable and respectable competency to that of dependence upon charity, and have 
been led to regard them as peculiarly deserving the consideration of the benevolent. 
And it has seemed to my mind that the most desirable form in which such a charity 
could be administered would be by providing a respectable home, where females of 
this class may find the comforts and attentions suitable to their age and condition. 

It was Mr. Washburn's original intention to have his home-place on Summer 
street, near Lincoln Square, used for the purposes of the proposed institution, but 
later counsel convinced him of the wisdom of leaving the question of location to be 
decided by the trustees of the fund created. Quite minute directions were given in the 
will for the organization and management of the Home. The institution was incorpor- 
ated in 1869, and the Home was opened for inmates in 1873, the Cleveland mansion on 
Orange street being the location selected. Here for twenty-three years, by daily min- 
istrations to its aged beneficiaries, the Home was maintained in full accord with the 
spirit and purpose of its founder. 

The first board of trustees was composed of the following persons of recognized 
prominence a half century since: Rev. Henry T. Cheever, Augustus N. Currier, Philip 
L. Moen, Lucius W. Pond, Wm. A. S. Smyth, Chas. Washburn, Chas. F. Washburn. 
By the terms of the will, these trustees were responsible for the financial and property 
interests of the foundation; the internal managemnt of the Home was vested in a 
board of visitors, twenty of whom were women. The personnel of the original board 
of visitors was equally as representative of the highest social life and philanthropic 
spirit of this community as was the board of trustees. It was also provided by the 
will that "the Trustees and the pastors of the South, Central, Union and Salem street 
churches, the First Unitarian and the First Baptist churches in Worcester, and the 
minister for the time being employed in the Mission Chapel, be members ex-officio." 

In addition to the gift of the "dwelling-house and estate in which I now live," and 
in which, it was provided, Mrs. Washburn should retain a life interest, it was stipulated 
in the will that the sum of $25,000 be immediately set aside towards the endowment of 
the proposed Home, to be augmented at the decease of Mrs. Washburn by the gift of 
an additional $25,000. By agreement with Mrs. Washburn, the trustees of the Home 
disposed of their prospective interest in the real estate above mentioned, and the pro- 
ceeds were applied towards the purchase of the site on Orange street. At the decease of 
Mrs. Washburn the Home profited by the bounty of this estate much more largely than 
had been anticipated. 

The Home was opened for inmates Oct. i, 1873, with nine beneficiaries and four 
employees. At the present time (1917) and for several years past the Home has 
brought cheer and comfort annually to about forty needy women, cared for by ten 
employees. The first matron was Mrs. Harriet W. Hutchinson, who was in charge 



922 



HISTORY OF WORCESTER 



from 1873 to 1877. During the forty-four years since its foundation, seven matrons 
have ministered to the needs of the Home members, the present efficient head of the 
household, Mrs. Nettie C. Livermore having held the position nine years. 

After an occupancy of twenty years, it became apparent that the growing de- 
mands upon the Home and the need of additional administrative facilities were mak- 
ing imperative more ample quarters than were provided by the Orange street building. 
This situation was given more or less publicity at frequent intervals, finally resulting 
in a proposal from Francis B. Knowles and Albert Curtis, public-spirited citizens, to 
provide a lot of suitable size for a substantial and commodious building, on Leicester 
street, beyond Webster Square, if within reasonable time the building project should 
take definite form. In due course this proposal was accepted by the trustees, and the 
present Home at 1183 Main street was erected at an outlay of about $50,000. The new 
building was occupied May 21, 1896, and the steady growth of the endowment funds, 
through the generosity of many citizens of Worcester and vicinity, has made it possi- 
ble to more fully realize the purpose of the founder. 

The need of better facilities for the care of the sick having been long realized, 
the trustees in 1915 caused to be erected a commodious infirmary, connected with the 
main building, having every known equipment for ministering to those infirmities in- 
cident to old age. 

The corporate title of the institution as decreed by act of the Legislature, May 7, 
1869, was "Trustees of the Home for Aged Females in the City of Worcester." Agree- 
able to a petition signed by the trustees, the General Court amended the original title 
February 27, 1888, so as to read "Trustees of the Home for Aged Women, in the 
City of Worcester." 

That this form of public beneficence has strongly appealed to the sympathies of 
the liberally disposed, is made evident by the steady growth of the endowment funds 
now administered by the trustees of the Home. During the fifty years of its activities 
it has brought cheer and comfort to hundreds of aged people who otherwise would 
have been obliged to pass their declining years in the often uncongenial atmosphere of 
public institutions for the poor, or among unwilling friends. A long waiting list of 
worthy applicants for admission to the Home gives appealing evidence of the need of 
another institution of similar character and endowment in this city, a situation which 
the trustees are at present unprepared to meet, solely for financial reasons. 

The organization for 1917 is as follows : Trustees : Wm. D. Luey, pres. ; Wm. 
Woodward, sec. and treas. ; Irving E. Comins, C. Henry Hutchins, Geo. A. Gaskill, 
Paul B. Morgan, Geo. F. Blake. Mrs. Wm. T. Wardwell, first directress of board 
of visitors; Mrs. F. C. Thayer, sec. of board of visitors; Mrs. Nettie C. Livermore, 
matron. 

Home for Aged Men. — The following is from the published pamphlet 
of the institution : 

The Home for Aged Men was incorporated under the name of the Old Men's 
Home in March, 1874, but it was not until March 28, 1876, that the first board of officers 
was elected as follows : Pres., Henry Chapin, Vice-Prests., Isaac Davis, Emory Banister, 
Albert Tolman ; Treas., Nath. Paine ; Sec'y, Aug. N. Currier ; Directors : Sumner Pratt, 
Edward L. Davis, Geo. S. Barton, Edward W. Vail, Edward Whitney, Thos. H. Gage, 
Wm. H. Jourdan, Caleb B. Metcalf, Timothy K. Earle, John D. Washburn, J. Edwin 
Smith, Henry A. Marsh. 

The first contribution was $300 from the late Judge Henry Chapin, soon followed 
by the generous gift from Albert Curtis, of the valuable real estate on Main street, 
now occupied by the Home. Other legacies have been received under the wills of the 
following : Judge Henry Chapin, $5,400 ; Jos. A. Tenney, $S,ooo ; Chas. Hadwen, $200 ; 
Lucius J. Knowles, $10,000; Jos. Boyden, $1,000; Judge F. H. Dewey, $1,000; Emory 



• 



AND ITS PEOPLE 



923 



Banister, $500; Edwin Conant, $1,000; Albert Tolman, $350; Elbridge G. Partridge, 
$500; Warren Williams, $100; David M. Mclntyre, $4,262.67; Wm. T. Merrifield, $2,000; 
Sarah B. Ellis, $640.26; Lucy A. Stone, $100; Wm. H. Heywood, $100; Francis H. In- 
man, $1,000; Harriet W. Damon, $2,000; Z. Townsend, $325; Albert Curtis, $5,000; 
Jonas G. Clark, $500; Hester N. Wetherell, $10,000; Calista P. Goulding, $648; Jerome 
Wheelock, $5,000; Ann M. Bugbee, $500; Sam. Winslow, $2,000; Sam. D. Harding, 
$1,000; Harlan P. Duncan, $500; Edward A. Goodnow, $5,000; Stephen Salisbury, $5,- 
000; Anstis Houghton, $500; O. B. Hadwen, $1,000; Hannah J. Howe, $2,000; Asa Ross, 
$500; Jos. H. Heywood, $1,000; Horace A. Young, $2,000; Eliza D. Dodge, $3,000; Jos. 
A. Knight, $13,595.60; Emmons S. Kenney, $1,000; Geo. L. Newton, $1,000; Mary A. 
Richardson, $1,000; Angelo P. Blood, $200; Thos. H. Dodge, $300; Edwin T. Marble, 
$1,000; Henry Putnam,' $200 ; Louisa A. R. Field, $2,592.50 ;. Wm. H. Dexter, $2,000; 
Wm. Harrington, $2,000; Jane A. Taft, $5,000; Lorin Eddy, $250; Katharine Allen, 
$5,000; Mary A. Buck, $250; Perry Adams. $500; Chas. B. Eaton, $100, and Franklin 
Baldwin, $944.38. Contributions : Mrs. E. O. P. Sturgis, creating the Fred. W. Paine 
Fund, $1,000; Henry W. Aiken, $25; Sam. R. Heywood, $200; Mary A. Slater, $2,000, 
and Horace Wyman, $1,000. 




HOME FOR AGED MEN. 

In 1908 Wm. H. Brown became an inmate, transferring his property to the Home, 
which amounted to over $5,500, under an agreement that upon his death the Home 
should pay various relatives amounts aggregating $1,000. He died the following year 
and these payments were made. In 1893 the property at the corner of Harvard and 
Bowdoin streets came to the Home under the terms of the will of Abbie L. Young, 
which was sold in 1905 for $7,750. 

The aggregate of funds on hand in 1891 was about $25,000. A committee consist- 
ing of Albert Curtis, Stephen Salisbury, Edward I. Comins, Nath. Paine, Edwin T. 
Marble, Geo. S. Barton and Sam. R. Heywood, was appointed, and in May, 1891, rec- 
ommended that the building be put in order for the use of the Home. A committee 



924 HISTORY OF IV ORG ESTER 



was appointed to carry out the recommendations, consisting of Albert Curtis, E. I. 
Comins and E. T. Marble. An expense of about $2,500 was incurred, besides nearly 
$600 contributed by Albert Curtis for furniture, etc. The invested funds now amount 
to about $160,000, besides the real estate. 

November, 1891, the Home was opened and was in charge of Mrs. Mary Cun- 
ningham as matron, who served in that capacity faithfully and to the satisfaction of all 
until June, 1914, when she retired. She was succeeded by Mrs. Anna C. Tourtellot. 

A splendid new Home is now being erected on the old location through the gen- 
erosity of Harry W. Goddard, in memory of his father. The present officers are: 
Pres., Francis H. Dewey; Vice-Prests., Matt. J. Whittall, Waldo Lincoln, Harry W, 
Goddard ; Treas., Edward T. Esty ; Sec'y, Edward C. Whitney ; Directors : Lyman A. 
Ely, James Logan, C. Henry Hutchins, Edwin H. Marble, Fred. S. Clark, Willis E. 
Sibley, Frank. B. Durfee, Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, Harry W. Goddard, Geo. M. Wright, 
Chas. G. Washburn, Wm. T. Forbes, Edward C. Whitney, Harry G. Stoddard, Paul B. 
Morgan. 

Whitcomb Home for Aged Blind Men.— The gift of the former home 
of G. Henry Whitcomb at the corner of Harvard and Highland streets, 
in December, 1917, for a Home for the Aged Blind Men, gives another 
institution for the ameHoration of the unfortunate. It will accommodate 
twenty-two inmates, besides the necessary attendants. The institution 
at present has no endowment, but will be opened immediately, depend- 
ing for support on contributions. The home is the gift of the three sons 
of Mr. Whitcomb, Henry W., Ernest and David. Henry E. Whitcomb is 
in charge of the institution. 

Temporary Home and Day Nursery Society.— The following is con- 
tributed : 

The first day nursery in Worcester was started in 1883 by the women of Union 
Church, under the leadership of Mrs. Lucius J. Knowles, and was conducted by them 
for four years. After the death of Mrs. Knowles it seemed advisable to form a Day 
Nursery Society. Mrs. George H. Kendall, of Union Church, was elected president; 
Mrs. Wm. W. Rice, of the Church of the Unity, vice-president; Miss Harriet E. Clarke, 
treasurer, and Mrs. Edward L Comins, secretary. The board of managers consisted of 
two from' each of the following churches: Union, Plymouth, Salem St. Congregational, 
All Saints' Episcopal, First Baptist, First Unitarian, Church of the Unity and First 
Universalist. 

This society continued the Day Nursery in the same location on Southbridge street 
for two and a half years. The need of a place where women and children could be 
cared for temporarily, in emergencies, became so insistent that in October, 1889, the Day 
Nursery Society was merged in the Temporary Home and Day Nursery Society, which 
added to the care of the children of working mothers during the day temporary care, 
for a few days or weeks at a time, of women and children for whom, through sickness 
or misfortune, proper care in their own homes was impossible. Mrs. Wm. W. Rice be- 
came president of the enlarged society, serving until her death in 1900. The managers 
were increased to twenty-four, its members being chosen not wholly because of church 
affiliations but because of their interest in the work. 

The house on Southbridge street was purchased by three women deeply interested 
in the work, Mrs. Wm. W. Rice, Mrs. Henry S. Pratt and Mrs. Orlando W. Norcross, 
and was rented to the society at moderate rates. The first year 28 women and 31 chil- 
dren were cared for in the home-department, which provided 978 night's lodgings, 
and 2,863 meals for lodgers ; while 58 children, aggregating 2,992 days, received care for 



AND ITS PEOPLE 925 

the day only. In 1905 a lot on Edward street was purchased, to which a second lot to 
make room for a play-ground and garden, was afterwards added, the gift of Miss Har- 
riet E. Clarke who, with her mother, Mrs. Henry Clarke, have been most generous sup- 
porters of the work from the beginning. Mrs. Henry S. Pratt succeeded Mrs. Rice as 
president, and largely through her efforts a building fund was raised. Under her con- 
stant supervision the present home at 10 Edward street was built, and on June 15, 

1910, it was opened. The work has gone on with increasing usefulness. The last re- 
port, Oct. 1916, showed that 35 women and 125 children had received home care, in- 
cluding 3,046 night's lodgings and 9,410 meals for inmates, while 207 children were 
cared for in the nurseries, aggregating 15,305 days. The superintendent. Miss Charlotte 
Emerson, has held that position since February, 1894, with an absence of one year on 
account of ill health, and partial service for two years following. She has contributed 
much to the success of the institution. 

From 1905 to 1910 the society in co-operation with Miss Myra M. F. Holman, main- 
tained a branch nursery at 70 John street. Miss Holman served as matron but received 
no salary. Failing health obliged her to give up the work. On the removal from South- 
bridge street a branch nursery was established in a cottage at 5 Sigel street in charge 
of Miss Mary Chapin. The Sigel street branch Day Nursery Guild was formed in 

191 1, under the leadership of Mrs. Chas. F. Morgan, and the society was enabled to 
purchase the property and later to make a large addition to the building. The guild 
contributes largely to the maintenance of this nursery. 

Mrs. Pratt resigned as president in 1913, and her place was filled by the vice-president, 
Mrs. Chas. L. Gates, who had been a most active member of the board of directors 
for twenty-five years. Upon her death in 1914, Mrs. Wm. E. Rice, who had also served 
as vice-president and a director for many years, was elected and is still (1917) the 
efficient president of the society. 

Three women have served as treasurer: Miss Harriet E. Clarke, 1887-96; Mrs. 
Luther M. Lowell, 1896-1910; Mrs. Ernest P. Bennett, since 1910. Mrs. Edward L 
Comins has served as clerk since the organization of the society. The society was in- 
corporated in 1892. Its permanent funds have been formed by legacies and gifts, and 
have so increased that the property on both Edward street and Sigel street is held 
without incumbrance, and the income from the balance of funds provides for about 
one-fourth of the annual expense. For the remainder the society depends upon 
voluntary contributions. 

Memorial Home for the Blind. — Preparations for the Memorial 
Home for the Blind were started in memory of Miss Jennie A. Partridge, 
who died in this city April 30, 1905. A meeting was held in Piedmont 
Church, June 4, 1905, and attended by many who have since been active 
in supporting this institution. At an adjourned meeting August 1, 1905, an 
organization was perfected, entitled the Memorial Home for the Blind, 
and the following directors elected: Pres., Dr. John C. Berry; Vice- 
Pres., Dr. Julius Garst; Treas., Wm. Woodward; Clerk, Hon. Wm. T. 
Forbes; Mrs. Mary Howard Fowler, Mrs. Almira H. Barnard and Geo. 
F. Brooks. To the present, there has been but one change; Mrs. Wil- 
liam H. DeLong, succeeded Mrs. Barnard. The charter members besides 
the directors were : Mrs. Mary F. Blodget, Mrs. Kate C. Brown, Dr. 
Edith L. Clarke, Rev. Percy H. Epler, Hon. Jas. Logan, Miss Susan A. 
Patridge, Hon. Stephen Salisbury. 

A fund had been started in May, and in November the Home was 
opened in a dwelling house, 821 Main street, through the kindness of the 



926 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Worcester Children's Friend Society, of which Mrs. Barnard was presi- 
dent. Mrs. Rebecca Wiggin was the first matron; Mrs. M. E. Leard, 
assistant. The Home depended upon subscriptions, membership dues, 
churches, entertainments, and towns, for the support of the Home. 
There were seven inmates at the end of the first year. 

In 1910 a house at the corner of Ehn and Fruit streets was pur- 
chased for $8,500, renovated and furnished largely by special gifts. 
Various rooms were furnished by individuals. 

The matron, ]\Irs. Wiggin, resigned in the summer of 1912, and her 
assistant, Miss C. L. Kneeland, was in charge until November 1, 1912, 
when Miss M. E. Anderson became matron. Drs. John C. Berry, J. P. 
Rand, Myrtle Smith, Amanda C. Bray and Jennie T. Lane have con- 
tributed professional services to the Home. The gifts of food, fruit, and 
supplies, as well as furniture and furnishings, have been liberal. An 
endowment fund has grown to about $25,000 from legacies, of which 
that of James D. Rice was the largest. The cost of maintaining the 
Home is more than $5,000 a year. 

Other Institutions. — Woman's Board of Baldwinsville Hospital Cot- 
tages, Worcester Branch, was organized some years ago, and has been 
active. Mrs. Frank E. Williamson was president in 191T; Mrs. Jno. A. 
Sherman, vice-pres. ; Mrs. Herbert C. Fisher, sec. ; Mrs. Orlando S. 
Stetson, treas. ; Mrs. Chas. K. Bryden, auditor. Meetings are held at 
homes of members. 

Home Association for Aged Colored People. — Home is located at 
63 Parker street, and though not a large institution has been in existence 
since 1898. The officers of the association are : Pres., Mrs. Rhoda Stan- 
ley ; Sec, Mrs. Bertha Foreman ; Treas., Mrs. Henry A. Bowman. 

St. Francis Home for the Aged is located at 37 Thorne street. The 
Sister Superior in 191T was Mary Dolorosa. 



CHAPTER LXIII 

Masonic History — Lodges: Morning Star, Montacute, Athelstan, Quin- 

sigamond — Royal Arch Chapters : Worcester, Eureka — Council and 

Commandery — Other Masonic Bodies — The Eastern Star — 

Masonic Temple 

Masonic. — Morning Star Lodge was instituted March 11, 1793, 
with Isaiah Thomas as the first worshipful master. The lodge prospered 
from the first, and applications for membership were received from Wor- 
cester and adjoining towns. Efforts were twice made to have the lodge 
moved to Leicester, but failed. The lodge has been prominent in all of 
the important ceremonies connected with the dedication of town and 
city halls of Worcester. It has numbered among its members many of 
the most prominent men in the political, business and social life of Wor- 
cester. The lodge has occupied various quarters at various times, 
because of the growth of the lodge and the need of more room. It was 
located in Masonic Hall, 19 Pearl street, almost fifty years, moving from 
there to quarters in the Masonic Temple on Ionic aVenue, which was 
built for the use of all of the Masonic bodies of the city. Charity in its 
broadest sense has always been practiced by the lodge from its earliest 
days. The lodge possesses many interesting relics and properties. It 
is the Mother Lodge of the three younger Masonic lodges of the city. 

The Masters have been : 

Isaiah Thomas, Nath. Paine, Wm. Caldwell, Benj. Andrew, James Wilson, Benj. 
Heywood, Ephraim Mower, Enoch Flagg, Nath. P. Denny, John Wilder, Wm. Bentley, 
Otis Corbett, Ephraim Mower, Jr., Benj. Chapin, Lewis Bigelow, Wm. Trowbridge, Jr., 
Chris. C. Baldwin, Horace Chenery, Henry Earle, Jas. G. Henderson, Henry 
Goddard, John H. Matthews, Zebina Lee, John A. Dana, Benj. Lewis, Ranson M. 
Gould, A. H. Washburn, Jos. B. Knox, Chas. G. Reed, Henry C. Bigelow, Thos. E. St. 
John, Lewis C. Stone, Alfred B. Couch, Horace A. Richardson, Osgood Plummer, 
Clarke Earle, Albert J. Stone, Edwin S. Pike, Henry A. Southwick, Geo. S. Hale, 
Ed. E. Balcom, Henry S. Knight, Wm. A. Farnsworth, Wm. H. Rice, Fred W. Leavitt, 
Chas. A. Peabody, Walter A. Williams, Wm. H. Needham, Ed. J. Ryan, Ed. M. Wood- 
ward, Chas. W. Delano, Elmer C. Potter, Harvey T. Buck, Herbert P. Bagley, Frank 
M. Lord, Chester T. Porter, Chas. A. Normand, E. Arthur Denny, Albert G. Guy, No- 
ble O. Hayes, Walter S. Bliss, J. Otis Sibley, Thos. E. Babb, Jr., Arthur S. Houghton, 
Fred W. Vermilye. 

Montacute Lodge, second lodge, was chartered June 9, 1859. Mas- 
ters : 

Wm. A. Smith, Geo. W. Bentley, Jas. H. Osgood, J. D. Washburn, Benj. Lewis, 
Wm. S. Goodwin, Albert Walbridge, Emery Wilson, John W. Jordan, Henry C. Wil- 
son, Nelson R. Scott, Chas. W. Moody, G. Edward Smith, Geo. M. Taylor, Henry D. 
Barber, R. James Tatman, Geo. D. Boyden. Jeremiah Swasey, Thos. Talbot, S. Henry 
Shattuck, Quincy A. Thomas, Herbert J. Fisher, Geo. AL Rice, Fred W. Southwick, 



928 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Jos. H. Dunkerton, O. P. Shattuck, Alex. Foulds, Enoch Earle, Frank M. Heath, Robt 
W. Clifford, Forrest E. Barker, Edward P. Taft, Parkman H. Stearns, Frank A. Clark, 
Fred M. Sampson, Chas. M. Farnum, Harry A. Childs, Austin A. Heath, Wm. H. De- 
Long, Melville F. Heath, Geo. H. Mullen, Wm. H. DeLong, Oscar F. Burbank, Geo. 
H. Jewett, Albert R. Webb, Arthur L. Stone, Frank W. Ward, Clarence R. Goddard. 

Athelstan Lodge, the third lodge, was chartered June 13, 1866. The 
membership in 1917 was 608. Masters: 

Henry Goddard, S. T. Bigelow, E. P. Woodward, Jas. J. Russ, Nath. G. Tucker, 
Emerson P. Knight, Chas. S. Day, Hiram D. Dadmun, Henry Goddard, Bowen Adams, 
Jr., Geo. L. Allen, Wm. F. Knowlton, Dan. B. Starr, Horace F. Ball, Jas. E. Dennis, 
Francis A. Harrington, Alfred S. Pinkerton, Arthur H. Burton, Cyrus Stickney, Henry 
Walker, John A. Sears, John T. Wheeler, Harry S. Green, Wm. W. Macomber, Arthur 
W. Macomber, Frank E. Sessions, Chas. A. Harrington, Geo. A. Cheever, Henry A. 
Knight, Alatt. Gault, Frank C. Harrington, Fred Webber, Henry A. Macgowan, Wm. 
D. Chase, Wm. Turner, Wm. H. Pratt, Earle E. Howard, Geo. Gardner, Sylvanus L. 
Ricker, Geo. C. Halcott, Jos. H. Turner, Wm. C. Mellish, Wm. Chaffin Howe. 

Quinsigamond Lodge, the fourth, was chartered Sept. 15, 1871. The 
membership in 1917 was 295. Masters: 

Henry C. Wadsworth, J. Marcus Rice, David M. Earle, Edward W. Ball, Theo. 
C. Bates, Horace B. Verry, Antipas F. Earle, John L. Barker, L. Herbert Browning, 
Edward B. Dolliver, John P. Grover, Edward Mouhon, Isaac N. Duke, Brigham M. 
Scott, Benj. A. Barber, Warren H. Willard, Thos. T. Booth, Arthur C. Scott, J. Wal- 
ter Flagg, Henry H. Dyke, Fred. W. White, Otis C. White, Jas. H. Wall, John Mcin- 
tosh, Edward A. Mason, Eugene C. L. Morse. 

Royal Arch. — The following account of Worcester Chapter, Royal 
Arch Masons, is contributed : 

A charter was granted, Oct. 21, 1824, to Isaiah Thomas, Jas. Wilson, Jona. Going, 
Benj. Chapin, David Sherman, Amasa Roberts, Otis Converse, Otis Corbett, Eph. 
Mower, Lewis Bigelow, Jona. Wentworth, Sam. Ward, Seth Knowlton and Elias Mc- 
Gregory, to open a Royal Arch Chapter in this town, to take rank from Sept. 18, 1823. 
The first meeting was held Nov. 26, 1823. The following were the original officers: 
Benj. Chapin, H. P.; E. Otis Corbett, king; E. Ephr. Mower, scribe; Lewis Bigelow, 
P. S. ; Ephr. Robbins, C. of H. ; Sam. Ward, R. A. C. ; Jona. Wentworth, treas. ; Jas. 
Wilson, Sec. P. T. ; Jona. Going, chaplain ; Seth Knowlton, tyler. The place of meeting 
was in Healy Hall until 1825, on the present site of the Burnside building. Christo- 
pher C. Baldwin became a member Feb. 8, 1827, and kept the records ; the records of 
1824 are also in his handwriting. He was librarian of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety. 

The furious anti-Masonic activity forced the chapter to suspend, Oct. 4, 1827, 
and not until the tempest subsided was it revived. Seventeen members petitioned for 
a new charter, Feb. 12, 1846, viz: Leon. Worcester, Asa Walker, Albert Case. Alpheus 
Merrifield, Clarendon Wheelock, Henry Earle, Jas. Estabrook, Eph. Mower, Sereno H. 
Perry, Artemas Dryden, Lewis Thayer, John Green. Simeon Thompson, Horace Chen- 
ery, Edmund Babbitt, Geo. Day and Wm. Barros. The charter was granted, March 10, 
1846, taking rank from Sept. 18, 1823, and appointing Albert Case, H. P.; Horace 
Chenery, K. ; Jas. Estabrook, scribe. The first meeting was held in Dr. John Green's 
hall, 244 Main street. Oct. i, 1846, the chapter began to meet in Dr. B. F. Haywood's 
hall, 267 Main street, removed Oct. i, 1856, to Waldo Hall, 271 Main street, and Oct. 
I, 1862, to Montacute Hall ; to Masonic Hall, post office building, June 14, 1867, and then 
to the new Masonic Temple. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 929 

The business was mostly transacted on the M. M. M. degree until after Nov. 25, 
1870, since when business has been done on the R. A. degree. Forty-three members of 
the chapter left to join Eureka Chapter, organized in 1870, and others received demits 
later for the same purpose. Elaborate exercises were held to celebrate the semi-centen- 
nial, Sept. 18, 1873. An historical paper was read by Wm. A. Smith, written by Claren- 
don Wheelock. The last surviving charter member of the 1824 charter, Rev. Otis 
Converse, was present; he died in this city, Dec. 2, 1874. All the 1846 charter mem- 
bers are deceased. 

Various members received demits in 1873 to become members of Tyrian Chapter 
of Millbury at its organization. The chapter also contributed members to form Clinton 
and Doric Chapters in adjacent towns. 

The original charter of 1824 was revoked by Grand Chapter, March 10, 1840. It 
was restored in 1846, but its whereabouts being unknown, the 1846 charter was granted 
and used by the chapter till June 8, 1915, at which time it was ordered canceled by the 
Grand Chapter. Worcester Chapter therefore has the unique distinction of working 
for 69 years by authority of two charters, and as the original charter was found and 
restored to the Chapter in 1865, for forty years with both charters in its actual pos- 
session. It now holds the canceled 1846 charter as a souvenir. At the celebration of 
the 75th anniversary of the Chapter an historical address was prepared and read by 
Geo. M. Rice. The membership in 1917 was 466. 

In 1895 Geo. S. Clough, Henry Brannon and Caleb Colvin were elected members 
of the Masonic Building Association, afterward chartered as the Worcester Masonic 
Charity and Educational Association. The high priests have been : 

Benj. Chapin, Albert Case, Henry Earl, Hollis Ball, Horace Chenery, Jas. G. Hen- 
derson, Henry Goddard, Thos. E. St. John, Chas. G. Reed, Jos. B. Knox, Dan. W. 
Bemis, Dan. Seagrave, Chas. E. Nye, Edwin S. Pike, Thos. Talbot, Geo. M. Rice, Cyrus 
Stickney, Albert J. Stone, Thos. Piper, Jas. Pursey, Jas. H. Harrison, Chas. A. Pea- 
body, John F. Crowell, Geo. H. Williamson, Henry Walker, Walter E. Holmes, Wm. S. 
Flint, Edward J. Sartelle, Parkman H. Stearns, Wm. H. Needham, A. F. Hoyle, Arthur 
Macomber, C. W. Delano, Edwin A. Clarke, John P. Turner, Chas. O. Sykes, Fred 
Webber, Chas. A. Johnson, Wm. J. Chase, Aug. W. Sieben, Fred W. Leavitt, Arthur B. 
Chapin, Jas. Leigh, Lewis G. Chaffin, Wm. H. DeLong, George H. Peirce, J. Henry 
Jewett. 

The following account of Eureka Chapter is contributed : 

In 1870, 44 Royal Arch Masons petitioned the Grand Chapter for permission to 
institute a new chapter in Worcester and asked to have Thos. E. St. John appointed 
high priest, Henry C. Willson, king, and Geo. E. Boyden, scribe. At the annual con- 
vocation of the Grand Chapter, held Dec. 13, 1870, a favorable answer was given. A 
preliminary meeting of the chapter was held Dec. 12, 1870, when the following officers 
were elected in addition to the three mentioned in the above grant : Stillman L. Shaffer, 
treas. ; Justin E. Wood, sec'y; Henry C. Pyne, capt. of the host; David F. Parker, prin. 
sojourner; Geo. E. Smith, royal arch captain; W. Ansel Washburn, master of the 3rd 
veil; Osgood Bradley, Jr., master of the 2nd veil; Jas. J. Russ, master of the ist veil. 
The first regular convocation was held Dec. 29, 1870, in Masonic Hall on Pearl street. The 
charter from the Grand Chapter was dated May 25, 1871, and bears the name of the 
following companions : Geo. E. Boyden, Osgood Bradley, Jr., Sam. T. Bigelow, Geo. 
W. Brady, Fred. A. Blake, John Dean, Chas. H. Fitch, Robt. L. Colbert, Edw. E. Kent, 
Rich. Lindley, Chas. W. Moody, Calvin E. Newcomb, David F. Parker, Henry C. Pyne, 
Geo. P. Prouty, Lewis W. Prouty, Chas. G. Reed, Jas. J. Russ, Gilbert J. Rugg, Seneca 
M. Richardson, Geo. E. Smith, Thomas E. St. John, Nath. H. Sears, Stillman L. Shaf- 
fer, David Scott, Welcome W. Sprague, Alex. Y. Thompson, Geo. Tower, Nath. G. 

W.-I-S9. 



930 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

Tucker, Henry C. Willson, Henry C. Wadsworth, Emery Wilson, W. Ansel Washburn, 
Chas. B. Whiting, Geo. F. Wood, John M. Williams, Jas. H. Wall, Jr., Justin E. Wood, 
Lucien H. Wells. The first by-laws were adopted May 23, 1871. L. S. Carpenter was 
the first tyler. Henry H. Flint was tyler from 1874-1914, a period of 40 years. 

The first secretary, Justin E. Wood, was succeeded by Orman L. Taft, who served 
from 1877-89, followed by Chas. F. Mann, 1890-1910. The present secretary, Wallace 
A. Carey, has served since 1910. Since its organization, over 1,250 members have 
been enrolled, the present number being 769. Following is a list of the past high priests 
with the year in which they presided : Rev. Thos. E. St. John, Geo. E. Boyden, Henry 
C. Pyne, Geo. P. Buckingham, Wm. A. Farnsworth, Oliver P. Shattuck, Josephus C. 
Bean, Jas. E. Dennis, Fred. A. Atherton, S. Henry Shattuck, Forrest E. Barker, Geo. A.' 
Wood, Arthur H. Burton, Chas. A. Reed, Edw. M. Woodward, Brigham M. Scott, 
Edw. P. Taft, Fred. M. Sampson, Frank M. Heath, E. H. H. Wilson, Geo. O. Bridges, 
Fred. H. Clark, Henry A. Knight, Austin A. Heath, John T. Wheeler, Edwin C. Gil- 
man, Albert M. Powell, Wallace A. Corey, Geo. H. Mullin, Arthur H. Parker, Geo. H. 
Jewett, Fred. W. Vermille, John A. Cherry, Wm. H. Dunham, Robt. H. Kennedy, 
Clarence R. Goddard, Wm. J. Denholm. 

The members of Eureka Chapter were interested in the project of the new Masonic 
Temple, and voted certain sums for that purpose. In September, 1914, it held its an- 
nual convocation in the Egyptian Chamber of that building. 

Charter members now living: Robert L. Golbert, Stillman L. Shaffer, Wallace A. 
Corey. The membership in 1917 was 758. 

The Council. — Hiram Council, Royal and Select Masters, held its 
first meeting (under a warrant) Oct. 25, 1825, in Wilkinsonville Hall, in 
Sutton, and was chartered Dec. 13, 1826. Walton Felch was elected 
its first Th. 111. Master, and Amasa Roberts its first recorder. Feb. 27, 
1828, the council removed to Masons Hall, in Sutton. About this time 
the anti-Masonic fiasco had its innings during which time the charter and 
some other properties of the council were stolen, and no attempt was 
made to hold meetings from August, 1828, until March, 1858, when meet- 
ings were resumed in Masonic Hall, Worcester. 

May 6, 1858, the charter, which was supposed to have been stolen, 
having been recovered, was restored to the council, and Oct. 28, 1858, 
other properties which had been lost or stolen during the anti-Masonic 
period, having been found and purchased from those into whose hands 
they had come in possession, were restored to the council. Sept. 11, 
1862, the council removed to Montacute Hall, Foster street where its 
meetings were held until the Masonic Hall on Pearl street was completed 
in 1867, and occupied the following forty-seven years, when the council 
removed to the Masonic Temple. The membership in 1917 was 812. 

Thrice Illustrious Masters of Hiram Council : Walton Felch, Cy- 
rus Falkner, Geo. W. Bentley, Henry Goddard, Wm. A. Smith, Thos. 
E. St. John, Dan. Segrave, Geo. E. Boyden, Edwin S. Pike, Wm. A. 
Farnsworth, Geo. M. Rice, Herbert J. Fisher, Thos. Piper, Stillman L. 
Shaflfer, Frank A. Beane, Chas. A. Reed, Edward M. Woodward, Forrest 
E. Barker, Edward J. Sartelle, Fred M. Sampson, Frank L. Mellen, Wm. 
S. Flint, Geo. A. Cheever, Geo. H. Mullen, Alonzo F. Hoyle, Chas. W. 
Delano, Austin A. Heath, Henry A. Knight, Geo. H. Jewett, Herbert N. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 931 

Leach, Herbert A. Saunderson, Chas. A. Johnson, Sam. A. Stewart, Jr., 
Albert R. Webb, Wm. W. Brown, Herbert E. Davis. 

Knights Templars. — Worcester County Commandery, Knights 
Templars, was constituted in the Abbott Hotel at Holden, (formerly part 
of this town), Dec. 17, 1824, working under dispensation until it received 
its charter, June 16, 1825. The Encampment removed to Worcester in Jan- 
uary, 1831, meeting in Thomas Hall until June 19, 1833. The anti-Ma- 
sonic furor caused it to discontinue for ten years. A meeting was held 
in Sutton, Jan. 11, 1845, and it came again to Worcester, Aug. 3, 1845, 
meeting in Dr. Green's hall. In 1846 it met in a hall in Heywood's 
Block ; two years later it moved again to Waldo Hall. After the dedi- 
cation of Montacute Hall in 1861, the Knights met there until 1867, when 
Masonic Hall, Pearl street was occupied. The meetings have been in 
the Masonic Temple since its completion. The title was changed from 
Encampment to Commandery by order of the General Grand En- 
campment. 

The fiftieth anniversary was celebrated June 24, 1875, by a visit to 
Holden, a public parade and a banquet. Several mementoes of the early 
days w^ere secured, including the old chandelier. Since 1854 the Com- 
mandery has appeared in public parades nearly every year, and in many 
years on several occasions in this city and various other towns and cities 
in the state, often at the laying of cornerstones of public buildings and 
monuments. The membership in 1917 was 692. 

In a history of the Commandery (1878) sketches are given of the 
nine charter members : Rev. Benj. Wood, Jas. Estabrook, Dr. Geo. Esta- 
brook, Merrill Davis, Sam. Stratton, Wm. Newhall, Rev. David Holman, 
Dr. Geo. Willard, Wm. C. Capron. The Eminent Commanders have 
been : Jas. Estabrook, Jr., Geo. Estabrook, Rev. Albert Case, Levi 
Rawson, Asa Woodbury, Henry Earle, Seth P. Miller, Geo. W. Bentley, 
Henry Goddard, Jno. Dean, Rev. Thos. E. St. John, Henry C. Wads- 
worth, David F. Parker, Robt. H. Chamberlain, Jas. Tatman, Chas. 
G. Reed, Geo. E. Boyden, Francis A. Harrington, Geo. B. Buckingham, 
Oliver P. Shattuck, Geo. L. Allen, Wm. A. Farnsworth, Chas. A. Pea- 
body, A. Frank Gates, Phineas L. Rider, Wm. L. Davis, Robt. W. Clif- 
ford, Arthur H. Burton, Chas. F. Mann, Wm. W,. Johnson, P. G. C, 
Edward M. Woodward, Edward J. Sartelle, Chas. A. Harrington, Wm. 
W. Brown, Matthew Gault, Fred M. Sampson, Henry A. Knight, Ar- 
thur B. Chapin, Wm. S. Dadmun, Henry L. Green, Frank C. Harrington, 
Austin A. Heath, Albert A. Gordon, Jr., Wilton W. Dadmun, Herbert 
N. Leach. 

Other Masonic Bodies. — Worcester Lodge of Perfection, fourteenth 
degree, was instituted in 1863. 

Past Thrice Potent Masters. — Rev. Jno. W. Dadmun, Sam. T. Bige- 
low, Henry C. Willson, Geo. E. Boyden, Jas. W. Bigelow, Geo. E. Smith, 
Geo. E. Boyden (second term), Geo. F. Hewett, Fred A. Lapham, For- 



932 HISTORY OF WORCESTER 

rest E. Barker, Fred W. Soutlnvick, Chas. E. Davis, E. M. Woodward, 
Wm. L. Davis, Edward J. Sartelle, Arthur H. Burton, Henry L. Green, 
Arthur B. Chapin, Fred M. Sampson, Wm. W. Brown, Frank C. Har- 
rington. The membership in 191T was 812. 

Goddard Council, Princes of Jerusalem (loth and 16th degrees), was 
chartered in 1870. The membership in 1917 was 720. The Sovereign 
Princes have been : Henry C. Willson, Geo. E. Boyden, Josiah S. Love- 
joy, Marcus M. Allard, Geo. M. Rice, Chas. A. Peabody, A. Frank Gates, 
Forrest E. Barker, Edward M. Woodward, Wm. L. Davis, Chas. E. Da- 
vis, Edward J. Sartelle, Fred M. Sampson, Wm. W. Johnson, Chas. A. 
Harrington, Austin A. Heath, Herbert A. Sanderson, Frank C. Harring- 
ton, Albert S. Richey, Winfield F. Van Ornum. 

Lawrence Chapter of Rose Croix (17th and 18th degrees), was char- 
tered in 1870. The M. W. Masters have been: Rev. Thos. E. St. John, 
Henry C. Willson, Dr. Francis Brick, Geo. B. Buckingham, Fred A. Lap- 
ham, Enoch Earle, Wm. L. Davis, Jno. A. Sears, Edward M. Woodward, 
Edw. J. Sartelle, Chas. E. Davis, Frank M. Hearth, Arthur H. Burton, 
Fred M. Sampson, Walter H. Sears, Austin A. Heath. 

Aletheia Grotto, No. 13, M. O. V. P. E. R., was organized March 
28, 1904, by members of the various Masonic bodies of the city. Fred. A. 
Blake, the founder, presided, and Frank S. Ellard was secretary. The 
formal organization took place April 13, 1904, in Odd Fellows Hall, 
Chas. W. Mann of Bufifalo, grand monarch, presiding. The first officers 
were : Monarch, Fred. A. Blake ; Chief Justice, Frank L. Mellen ; 
Master of Ceremonies, Chas. A. Harrington; Treas., Matthew Gault; 
Sec'y., Frank S. Ellard ; R. Jas. Tatman, Hon. Francis A. Harrington and 
Gen. Robt. H. Chamberlain, trustees. There were 83 charter members, 
including two honorary. The succeeding monarchs have been : Henry 
A. Knight, Arthur H. Burton, Chas. A. Harrington, Ed. M. Wood- 
ward, Arthur Burtelle, J. E. Thompson, Elmer H. Loring, Geo. H. Hill, 
Alanson P. Robbins, Edwin P. Crerie, Harry W. Inett. Arthur Burtelle, 
present secretary, has been secretary since March, 1905, except during 
the year he was monarch, and two years of illness. 

Eastern Star, — Stella Chapter, No. 3, Order of the Eastern Star, con- 
ferred degrees in the winter of 1868-69 to the number of twelve. The 
first meeting was at the house of Daniel Seagrave, and during the next 
two years meetings were held in the homes of members. In 1870 the 
membership was ninety, and a charter was granted Jan. 11, 1871. The 
charter members were : Adelia L. Pond, Maria H. Parker, Mary E. 
Wilson, C. McFarland, Delia E. Seagrave, Sarah M. Cowen, Mary A. 
Edwards, Mary A. Johnson and Laura A. Lamb. The first regular 
meeting was held Jan. 4, 1871. The first oflficers were : A. L. Pond, W. 
M.; Daniel Seagrave, worthy patron; M. H. Parker, associate matron; 
M. A. Johnson, secy. ; Delia E. Seagrave, treas. ; Sarah M. Cowen, con- 
ductress; Laura A, Lamb, associate conductress. 



AND ITS PEOPLE 933 

The Grand Chapter was organized at the instance of Stella Chap- 
ter, which called a convention at Worcester, Dec. 11, 1876. Delegates 
from five chapters were present. The General Grand Chapter of the 
United States was organized Nov. 15, 1876, at Indianapolis,