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.;1,,/. Of the WORK of ^-•-— <^-;:/ 



The Outlines of a Body of Divinity^ 

In a Method entirely neiiV* 

By the late Rexerend 

Pfcfident of the College cf Vvw Jerjty 


EDINBURGH Printed : 

BOSTON : Reprinted by Draper Sc Potsoji'j 
near the Market, 



IT has long been dciired by the friend? 
of Mr. Edwards, that a ninnbcr of his 
manufcripts ih mid be puhliilied ; but the 
difad vantage under which all poithumous 
publications mud neceilarily appea4% and 
the difficuky of getting any conflderabla 
work printed in this infant country, hi- 
therto have proved fufficient obilaclcs to 
the execution of fuch a propofal. The 
firll: of thefe obftacles made me doubt, for 
a confiderable time after thefe manufcripts 
came into my hands, whether I could con^ 
lillently with that regard which I owe to 
the honor of fo worthy a parent, fuffer any 
of them to appear in the workU However 
being diffident of my owafentiments, and 
doubtful whether 1 were' not over-jealous 
in this matter, I determined to fubmit to 
the opinion of gentlemen, who are friends 
both to the charafter of Mr. Edwards and 
to the caufe of truth. The confequence 
was, that they gave their advice for 
publifliing them. 

The other obftacle was removed by a 
gentleman in the church of Scotland, 
who was formerly a correfpondent of Mr, 
Edwards. He engaged a bookfeller to 
undertake the work, and alfo lignified 
bis defire that thefe following difcourfes 
in particular might be made public. 


P U E F A C E. 

Mr.Edwards had planned a body of di- 
vinity, ill a new mcihod, and in the form 
of a hiilory ; in whtiihe was firit to fllovv, 
how the moil remarkable events, in all 
ages from the fail lo theprefent times, re- 
corded in facred and profane hidory, were 
adapted to promote the work of redemp- 
tion ; and then to trace, by the light of 
fcrlprure-prophecy, how the fiime work 
Ibould be yet further carried on even to 
the end of the world. His heart was fo 
much fet on executing this plan, that he 
was confiderably averfe to accept the pre- 
iidentfliip of Prince-town college, left the 
duties of that office fliould put it o;it ot 
his power. 

The out lines of that work are now 
offered to the public, as contained in a fe- 
ries of fermons, preached at Northampton 
in 1739*, without any view to pubiicati* 
on. On that account, the reader cannot 
reafonably expeft all that f/om them, which 
he might juftly have expelled, had they 
been written with fuch a view, ar.d prepa- 
red by the Authors o\yn hand for the prefs. 

^s to elegance of/compolltion, which 
h now elteemed Co eltcniirtl to all publicati- 
ons, it is well known, that the author did 
not make that his chief iludy. However, 


*' Thrs '^ nccfiiT^r^ to be rffmetnbcrcd l5y the 'ead^r, in crdcr to 
'.I f^me chrt!iiO::4giCalobrcfv?fU;n3 in the fcilcwiDg woik» 


his other writings, though deftitute of the 
ornaments of fine language, have it fcems 
that iblid merit, which has procured both 
to thcmfelves and to him a confiderable re- 
putation in the world, and with many aa 
high eltcem. It is hoped that the reader 
will find in thefe dilcourfes many traces 
of plain good fenfe, found reafoning, and 
thorough knowledge of the facred oracles^ 
and real unfeigned piety : and that, as the 
plan is new, and many of the fentiments 
uncommon, they may afford entertain- 
ment and improvement to the ingenious, 
the inquifitive, and the pious reader; may 
confirm their faith in God's government 
of the world, in ourholyChriftianreligioa 
in general, and in many of its peculiar 
dortrines ; may aflilt in ftudying with 
greater pleafure and advantage the hifto- 
rical and prophetical books of fcripture ; 
and may excite to a converfation become- 
in g the gofpel. 

That this volume may produce thefe 
happy effects in all who Ihall perufe it, is 
the hearty dcfire and prayer of 

The reader's moft humble fervant,' 

Ncwhaven^ Feb* 25 • 


Jonathan Edwards. 


THEY who have a reliQi for the ftudy 
of the fcriptnrcs, and have accefs to 
perufe the following flieets, will, I am per- 
fiiaded, deem themfelves much indebted to 
the Reverend Mr. Edwards of Newhaven 
for confenting to publifli them. Though 
the acute philofopher and deep divine ap- 
pears in them, yet they are in the general 
better calculated for the inftruaion and im- 
provement of ordinary Chriftians, than thofe 
of Preiident Edward's writings, where the 
abftrufe nature of the fubjec% or thefubtle 
objeaions of oppofers of the truth, led him 
to more abttraft and metaphyfical reafon- 
ings. The manufcript being intruded to 
my care, I have not prefumcd to make any 
Change in the fentiments or compofition, 
I have, however, taken the liberty to reduce 
it from the form of fermons, which it ori- 
ginally bore, to that of a continued trea- 
tife ; and I have fo altered and diverfified 
the marks of the feveral divxfions and fub- 
divifions, that each clafs of heads might be 
cafily dlftinguifhed. 

Edinburgh, yipril 29 • 

1774. John Erskine. 


Gentral intrcdu^ion, ..-w - ^-^ - 6, 


Ffcm tU fall to the incarnation of Chrifi, , - •' l8 

From ihs/all to ths flood, .^ - m # ^ ^ XJi 

PART 11. 

Froin the flood to thi calling of AhraKavt, - 34. 


from tht calling of Abraham to Moftt, 4X0 

p A R T IV, 

Wnm Mofet to. David, - - - - -- 53* 


Fr9m David to tht BabyUnifh captivity f 11* 


From th Bahylonijh captivity to the coming of Chrift, 100. 


Uf miration, exctlUncy, and ujtfulneft cf tht booh of the Old 
teflament, l^c. - - J*^- 

P E R I O D 11. 
TTie time of Chrift't humiliation, IJ7» 


Of Chrifl't becoming incarnate to capacitate kimfelf for 

the pur chafe cf redemption, - *3» 

0/ the fuuhafe itfelf, - - ^4? 

Sect. I. 
What is intended by ChriftU purchafng redemption, 145* 

S K C T. II. 

Gineral obfervations eonctrning ihfe things by -which (bit 
p%7chafe vi&t madh " '^** 


Sect. IIT. P.gc. 

Th* ohedt'enes end fujfcrjngt h\) yvhick ChriJ} purch.aftd 

rtdcmption particularly cctifijertd, 1^8. 

1 iM P R O V F: M E N T. 

Sect. L 
Vieprofif of unbelief i fdf rtghcoufafft , end careltfi neglcH 

OJ Jaivatiott, ' ' 1 6^, 

S V. C T. H. 

Encouragetfictti ic kurd.Kcd fouli to tt cjr tt\ Clirif for 
foivuiion, . - - 170 

P K K i O D. in. 

From Chrifi't refsrrc£iijr. to the und cf the -world, ^71 

I N r R O O U C T I O K. 
Gtneral obfervations concerning this psriodt 111 


Of thfs tk'Kgi tvhcrfhy Chriji -was put inii- cn irTiViiedtats 

Capacity jpr accomj^lf/hmg the end} of ka purch^Jt, iZx 

How Ckriji cecomplijhed ihit fucesfs^ 

S E C T. I. 

JIqv) this fuuifi It azeompfijhsd by God'j grasi hn, 

^ I. The ms^nt rf thl. fucgcft Bpablifhid^ajur Ckri/t't 

% II The fucc^f, iifelf, -) 

VlKST, la tke/mf/crt/sg /fate tf iht church frcm the V 150 v^ 

rcfur>i^.on (f Clirifi lo t hi fall of AntUh/Jfi. J 

I. From Cbrifi's refurTcStiontH! iht dfftru5fion cf Jirufahirtt l()Z 

II. From ths deJi'uSiion of ysru/alim to the deftrul^ion of 

iht Usathcn (mpire in the fime oj Cou/}.:tiri'ne ih< Great, 200 
Infer £MC£, I'mth cf ChrifHanity arfi^utd from the fucctft 

of the gcfpsl in both thtfe periods, 2c8 

III. Sucetft cf redtmpuon from the time of OnfiaHiiHC the J 

Great nil the fall of Antichriji, C 2II 

%fi< Fr«m Conjianiine till the rife of Antichriflt j 
gi/y, from the rife of Ami thrift till the Reformation, 21$ 

3<i/v Fi-om the Ref,rma'ion till ths prefetit tims, 7 

t. Of ths RcformAtiou itfdf, * 5 ^^^ 



Z Of thf rpp'fijion n'hf'ch ths devil hat made to the intertfi$ 

of rcliguH in tht cht^chet cf the Kefcrmation 224 

3 Pf'^hatfucceji the g' fpel hat lately had in thefs churchtt, 230 

4 Prcftntftate of thiftgt -with regard 10 ihefuccejt of thtgefptl, 235 


r frufh of ChriflUnhy argued from the eventi of thii period, 237 

2 The fpirit of true Chriftians a fpirit cf fuffeting, 

3 IVhat reofon -we haye to expeSf that tvtntt foretold in 

fcr'pjure not yet fulfilUa, Jhall be accomplijhed, 
^fhly How the fuccefi of Ttdemption/hali be carried on from 
the prefetit time till Antichrifi it fallen. 

Secondly Succf of redemption thro* that f pace wherein' 
thtChriJiian church fha II jet rhe mo/i part enjoy pro fperity, 

I. Profperityof the churchthro' the greater part of thit period} 

II. The great apo/afy that fhall take place, and the danger 
thai Jhall threaten the church towardt the end of thit period, zOj 

Sect. II. 

How the fuccefi of redemption /hall be accomplijhed in ^lory, 7 
General remarks en thitfuccefs, 5 ^^^ 

The particular manner in which thit fuccefi is aecomplijhed, 271 


I. How greet a wcrk the work of redemption it, 283 

II. God the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and ending 

9f all things, 285 

III. ChrjJ in all things has the pre eminence, 287 

IV. The tonfiflency order, and beauty of providence, 288 
V The fcripiuret the word of God, 2S9 
Vf, The ntaje^y and pr.wer of God in the work of redemption 291 
VII The ghrioas wifdom of God in the work of redemproa.. zgz 
Vni The Ji ability of God's mercy andfoithfulnefi tuhii peiplt, 29L3 

IX. How happy m fctety the church cf Ckriji is, 7 

X. thi mifcry of thoff that Are not inter ejied in Chrijf, > ^"^ 


Of tbi WORK of 


I S A I A H li. 8, 

Por i^8 meth Jhall :at them up like a garment, and lit vtortnjhall 
c^t them Ukt -iv^d : bu: my rightsoufntpjhall be for ever, andrng 
jalvation from generaticn to generation. 

HE dcfign of xhlt chapter is to comfort the church 
under her fufferings, and the pcrfeculions of her 
enetn cs ; and the argument of confoUtroa m- 
Mcd on i«,th€ comftancy and perpetuity ofGod'i 
mercy and faiihfulncfi towards her, which (hall 
be manifcfl in continuing to work falvatioQ for 
her, proteaing her againft all affauhs of her cnenmiei, and car- 
Tying tier fafely though all the changes of ibc world, and finally 
crowning her with vi«ftory and deliverance. 

In the text, this happincft of the church of God is fct forth hj 
«jomparing it with the contrary fat« of her enemies that opprcfi 
her. And therein we may obfcrve, 

I. How ft'>ort lived the power anfl profpcrity of the church'f 
enemies are : The moth/hall eat thtm up like a garment t and tht 
i^srm /hall eat them like wool ; i. c. however great their prof- 
P«'»ty is, and however great ihcir prefeni glory, ihcy (hall by dc. 
grees confume and vanifh away by a fecrel curfe of Gad, till they 
come to noAing ; and all their power and glory, and fo their per- 
fccujioQii Qtcrci!ly ccafc, and they t>€ fiailly andiricccvcrably ru- 
.- - " incd 

A II I S r O R Y of -2 

ired ; ss the fincft and mo/l glorious apparel will in time wear 
away, and be confunocd bymothi and rottcnncfi, Wc learn wbd 
thofe arc ihiit ihsll thus confume away, by ibc foregoing verfe,viz» 
thofc that arc the cnemici of God'g people : Htarkitt unto >»/, ^t 
that k/iotv righteoufneftt the people in whoje heart st my lawg 
ftMT ye fto} the reproach of men, neither be ye afraid ef their rt' 


2. The contrary happy lot and portion of God's church, cz- 
preffcd ia thefe wordi, Aly riiute9ufnef$ JhalL hi for ever, and my 
falvation froth generation to generation* Wao arc meant ai thofc 
that fbsllhavc the benefit of ihii, we alfo learn by the preceding 
vcrfe, v?z. They that know rightecufneft, etnd the people in ivhoft 
hart is Go4's iaw i or, in one word, the church of God, And 
concerning thii bappinefi of thtiri hcic fpokca of, wc may 
obferve two things, yiz, i* Wherein it coniifti ; 2. Iti coa- 

( I ) Wfaciein it conlini , vis. In God's rightccufnefi and fal* 
vstion toward them. By God's rigbtcoufneft bttc, if tneant hit 
faitbfulnefs in fulfilling his covenant promifei to bis church, orbit 
faiibfulnefs towards bis church and people in bcftowing the benefits, 
of the covenant of grace upon them ; which benefits though they 
are beftowed of free and fovereign grace, at hthg altogether ua- 
dcferved ; yet as God has been picafcd, by the proaaifes of the co- 
venant of grace, to bind himfelf to bcftow them, fo they ate be- 
flowed in the ex^rciie of God's rightetufnefs or juflfiec. There- 
fore the apoflls fays, Heb. vi. 10. God it not unrighteous, t9 
forget your luork and labour of love. And fo, I.John i. 9. Ifvoe 
eonfefs our fins, he ii faithful, and jujl to forgive US our fins, and 
to eleanfe us from all our unrighteoufnefs* ^o the word rightaouf- 
neffisvay often ufed in fcripiure for God's covenant-faith fulnefi; 
fo it ii ufcd in Nchcm. ix. 8, Thou haft performed lAy words, for 
thou art righteeat. So we are often to underftand righteoufneff 
and covenant- mercy for the fame thing ; as ?fal. xxiv. 5. He 
fhall receive the bhjjing from the Lord, and righteottjnefs from the 
God of his falvation, Pfal. ixxvi. 10 Continue thy loving kind- 
neff to them that linovj thee, and thy righteoufne/t to the upright in 
heart. And Pfal. Ii. 14. Deliver me from bbod-guiltincfs, O God, 
thou Godcfmyfalvation:andmy tongue ffiallfing aloud of thy 
Tighecufnefs, Dm. ix. i6> O Lord, according to thy righteouj- 
neft,Jbefcecb thee, let thine anger and thyfttry be turned away. ..^-^-^ 
And fo in innumerable other placet. 

The other word here ufed i« falvation. Of ihefe two, God's 
'?Ightcoufnefs and his falvation, the one is the caufe, of which 
ihcolbcr-isthctfFea. God's rightcoufa«f», or covcaant-mcrcyp 


t Cfea We!k o! REOEMPTIONf. 

fa the root of which hit falvation is the faith. Both of them re- 
late to the covenant o« grace. The one i« God"* covenant- mere/ 
and faithfulnefi, the other intend* that woik oiGoa by which thii 
covenant mercy ii accompHfted in the fruits of it. For falvatioa 
ii the funo of all thofc works of God by which ths benefits that 
ire by the covenant of grace are procured and beftowed. 

(j) We may cbfcrve iu continuance, fignificd here by two sx- 
prefTions ; for ever, and from generation to generaficn The latter 
fccmitobc explanatory of the former. The phrafe /^r ewr, !8 
vaiiobfly ufed in fcripture. Some!ime» hereby is meant as long 
af a man livei. So it is faid, the fcrvsnt that ba» bis ear bored 
through with an awl to the door of his maftcr.ih^U be his for tver. 
Sotoeiimei ihcieby is meant during the cootiuuance of the Je^viih 
ftate. So of miny of the cercmoaial and Levisical laws it is faid 
that they (houJdbc ftalueaf*?*' svsr. Soooeiimei it means as long 
as the world (h^!l i^and, or So ths end of the generstions of men. 
So It is fiid, Ecclcf i. 4. '• One generation paiTetb away and a- 
nother cometh ; but the carlh sbUcih forever," Sometimes there- 
by 13 ift=snt to all eternity. Sa it is laid, •' God is blcfied far 
tver,^* Rom. i 25 And fo it i^ faid. John vi. 51. ** Uany 

than eat of (hi« bread, he iha!l live for ever." •Which of ihcfe 

fenfes is here lobe undert^ood, the next words determine, v«z. to 
the end of the woild, cr to thccnd of ihc generations of men. It 
£« faJd in the next words, " and my falvaiion from gsnsraiicn to 
teneration.*' Indeed the fruits o) God'i falvation fliail remain af- 
ter ihe end of the world, as appears by the Cih vctfe : <» Lift up 
ycur eyes to the heavens, and look upon the earlh beneath : for the 
heavens fhall vsni(h away like fmoke, and the earth fhall wax old 
like a garmc^ t,and they tb<^t dwell therein (h^lldie in like manner* 
tut my falvationjhall be for iMer^andmy righttottfntfijhall not be 
abelijlud." But tkc work of faWation itfclf tovs^ards the church 
(ball continue to be wrought till then : till the end of ;hc world, 
God will go en to accomplifh deliverance and falvation for the 
church, from all her enemies j for that is what the prophet is here 
fpcaking of ; till the end of the world ; till her enemies ceafe to 
be, as to any power to mole^ the church. This crpreflFion, fratu 
gtHeration to generation, may dcicrmine u« a« to the lime which 
Gud continues to carry on the work of falvslion for hia church, 
both wiih refpecl to the beginning and end. It ta from genersiioa 
to generation, i,e* throughout all generations; begincirg with 
the gererations of men on earth, and not ending till thcfe genera- 
tions end, at thccn4 of lilt world; ■ fhcrcfore we deduce from 
shcfc werds thii 


9 A H I S T O R V of 

Tlie work of redemption is a work that Go»;1 tar. 
ries on from the fall cf man to the end of tli^ 

The generations of manklnci on the farth did not begin till after 
ihc fajl. The beginning of the porterity of our firrt p'-irems was 
after the fall ; for all ihcir poftcrity, by ordinary generation, are 
partakers of the fall, ?Jnd of the corrupiion of nature (hat followed 
from it ; and ihcfc generations, by which the human race i; pro- 
pagated, Jhall continue to the end of (he world : fo thtfe two ara 
the limits of the gencraiions of men on the earth ; the fall of man, 
the beginning ; and of the end of the world, or the Jay of judgc-i 
mcnt, the end. The fame arc the limits of the work of re- 
demption as to thofe progrc/Tivc works of God, by. which that 
lederapilon is brought about and accompliihed, tho* not as to tea 
fruits of it ; for they, ;js was faid before, Jhall bfi to all eternity. 
The work of redemption and the work of falvation are the fame 
thing. What is fcmctimes in fcripturc called God's faving 
his people, is in other places called his redeeming them. So 
Chrift is called both the Saviour and the Redeemer of his people* 

Before entering on the propofed Hiftory of the Work of 
Redemption, 1 ivouldt 

1. Explain the terms made ufc of in the doftrine,-— nnd, 

2. Show what thofe things are that arc defigncd to be accom- 
plished by this great work of God: 

Firfi, I xjould (how in what fenfc the terms of the dcflrinc are 

ufcd. /^a.d, 1. 1 would liiow how I would be undcrfiood whca 

I ufc the word redemption i-^and, z. how I -would be unde.f^ood 
when 1 fay, this work is a work of God carried on from the fall 
of man to the end of the world. 

I. I would fliow how 1 would be underfbDod when I ufc the word! 
redemption. Here ir may be obfcrved, thst the work of re- 
demption is fomctimcs understood in a mere limitc I fenfc, for 
the purchafe of falvation ; for fo the word Aridly flgaific^, a pur- 
chafe of deliverance ; and if we take the word in this rif^rii^cd 
fcnfe, the work of redemption was not fo long Jq doing. Jiut it 
was begun and^ fiaifu-d with GhrilVs humiiation. It was all 
Wrought while Chrifl was upon eaith. It was begun xvith Chrift 'a 
incarnation, ar,d carried on thro' ChriP's life, and finifbed with his 
l!cath, or the time of hit rem iining uadar ihc power of dcaih,which 
<aded in hit rcfurrc(flion : and fo we fay, that the day of thrift's 
fefitricaioa is the day when Chfift fioiflicd t!i* woik of redemption, 
A I, #, 

ilie Wojk of REDEMPTION. i« 

/ t. then ibc purchafe was finifhed, and the wurk iifelf, and all thst 
appcrteined to it, was virtually done and fini(hcd,bul not aSfually, 

Jtlut then fomctimcs the work of redemption \% taken mor« 
largdy, including all thai God works or accompllfhci tending la 
this end ; not only the pui chafing the redemption, but aFTo all 
God's works that were properly prcpar^itory to the purchife, or 
SI applying the purchafe and accomplirhing the fucccf* of it : fo 
that the vvnolc difpenfalion, as it includes the preparation, a»d 
the purchafe, and the application and fuccefs of Chrifl's redemp- 
tion, is here called ihc work of rtdcmpticn. All that ChriA doej 
in this great aff iir as mediator, in any of his cffice?, either of 
prophet, pricfi, or king ; either when he was in this vrarld, in hrj 
human nature, ca before or fince ; and not only what Chrirt the 
mediator hai done, but alfo what the Father and the Holy Ghoil, 
have done, as united or confederated in this dcfign of redeeming 
finful tnen ; of, in one word, all that is wrought in execution o^ 
the eternal covenant of redcoDption ; this is what I call the work 
of redemption in the dof^rine ; for it is all but one work, one 
dcfign. The various difpcnfations or works that belong to it, are 
but the fevernl parts of one fchctne. It is but one dtfign that is 
formed, to which all the offices of Chrifl do dircdly tend, and in 
which all the p:rfons of the Trinity do confplrc.snd all the varioui 
difpenfationa thit belong to it arc united ; and the feveral wheeif 
are one mschinc, to anfvrcr one end, and produce one effect. 

11. When 1 isLj, this work is carried o» frcm the fall of man t« 
the end of the world ; in order to the full undcrftanding cf my 
meaning in it, I would dcfire two or three thingi to he obfcrvcd. 

I. That it is not meant, that nothing was done in order to iX 
before the fall of man. There were many things done in order 
to ihil work of rcdeioptlon before that. Some things were done 
before the world was created, yea from all eternity. The pcrfons 
of the Trinity were as it ^ere confederated in a defign and cove- 
nant of redemption ; in which' covenant the F-ther had appointed 
the Sjn, and the Son had undertaken the work ; and all things to 
be accompliHicd in the work were fttpulated aud agreed. Bcfidcf 
thefe, there were things done at the creation of the world, in order 
to that TTork, before man fell ; for the world iifclf fcems to have 
been created in order to it. The work of creation was in order 
to God's works of providence : So that if it be enquired, which 
of thefe kinds of works is the greatefl, the works of creation or 
the works of providence ? I ^nfwer, the works of providence ; 
becaufe God's works of providence arc the end of his works of 
Crcttionf as the building an houft, or the forming an engine cr 
muhtHt, it foi iti ufc. But God'f maia work of providence 


in A H I S T O R Y 6r ' 

is this great work of God that ihc do£lrinc fpcaks of, aiJtiay 
more fully appear hereafter. 

The creation of heaven was in order to the work of rcdctnpiion : 
it wai to be an habiiition for ihc redeemed : Miith. xxv. 34, 
" Then (ball the King fay unto them on his rijjhi hand. Come, yc 
bleflcd of my Father, inhrrit the kingdom prepared for you from ih* 
foundation of the world." Even the angch were creaccd to ht 
employed in thii work. Therefore the apofile calls them, ** mi- 
tiijiring fpiritt, fcnt forth to miniftcr for ihtm who /hall bt 
icirs of falration," Hcb. i. 14. A« to thi* lower world, it wai 
doi btlefs acated to be a Oage upon which thi» great and wonderful 
woik of redemption fliould belranfafl-ed : and tKcrcfore, ai might 
be (liown, in many rcfpe^s this lower world ii wifely fitted, In !h« 
formation, for fuch a ftate of man as he is in llncc the fall, under 
a po(I:b'iliiy of redemption ; fo thai when it is faid, that the work 
of redemption is carried on from the fall of man to the end of the 
world, it is not meaot, that all that ever w^s done la order to 
redemption ha« been done fince the fall. Nor, 

2. Is it meant that liicre will be no remaining &uil8 of thit work 
after the end of the world. The grcatefl fruits of «li will be after 
that. That glory and blciTcdoefs that will be the fum of all the 
fruits, will remain to all the faints after ihat. That work of rcdctEp- 
tion is not an eternal work, i. c, it is not a work always a doing 
and never accompllfhed. But th« fr<iit8 of this work are eternal 
fruiti. The work hat an iffue. But in the iiTue the end wjll be 
obtained ; which €nd will never have an €nd. As thofc thing« 
that were in order to this workbelorc thctkginning of the world, 
as God's elcding love, and the covenant of rrJenrption, never had 
9 beginning ; fo the fruiti of this work, that iLail be afttr t'lC cndi 
«f the world, never will have an end. therefore, 

3. When it is faid in the doftrinc, tjiat thj» is n. work that God 
h carrying on from the fall of man to 11 c er.d of the world, wLat 
I mean i*, tha4 thofc things thst belong to this work ufclf, and ar« 
parts of this fchcane, 2r« all this while accomplifliing. There !.re 
things tiiat are in ord« to It that are brforc the beginning of it, 
and fruiti of it that ar« afcer it is finifhed. But the work itfelf h 
fo long a doing, even frora the fall of man to the end of the worH, 
it is all this while a carry irg on. . It was b^gun imcicdlatc^y upc^a 
the fall and will coitinue to the ccd cf the world, and th<a will L>€ 
finifljcd. The various difpcnfations of God that are in this fp«ce, 
do belong to the fame work, and tp fhc fame de^gn, and have al2 
os€ iflTue ; and therefore arc all to be reckoned but ai fcvcral paru 
of one work, as it were fcvcral fuccijITirc motions cf oac machintt^ 
Id bring iibout i& the co^dufiQc 9Zi g^ir^^ qyczU 


Ikt Work cf R E D E M P T I N. it 

Here alfo we muft diAinguifti between the part* of redemption 
ftfclf, and the parts of the work by which that redemption l* 
wrought out. There is at dilTcrcnce the parts of the benefits 
pjocurcd and bcftowed, and the parts of the work of God by ivht'cb 
thofe benefits were procured and beAc^cd, As, for exampJe, 
there is a d.ffcjencc beivrcen the parts of the benefit that the chil- 
dren of Iirael received, confifling in thcJrrcdesnptionout of Egypt, 
and t'iC psrts of that work of God by which this was wrought. The 
redemption #of the children of Ifracl out of Egypt, confidcrcd ai 
the bsj-ifit which they enjoyed, confiPted of tw» parts, v'z. their 
cicliverence frosa their former Egyptian bondage and mifery, and 
Jheir being brought into a raorc happy ftate, as the fcrvants of 
Godf an'* heirs of C*naan. But there are many more things which 
are pans of that work of GoJ which is called his work of redemp- 
tion of Iffiel out of Egypt. To this bthngt his calliag of Moles, 
his fcndiog him to Pharaoh, and all the figns and wonders he 
wrought in Egypt, and his bringing fach terrible judgements on 
the Egyptians, and many other things. 

It ii this work by which God cffe(^s redenaption that wears 
fpeaking of, This work is carried on ffom the fall of man to 
Iht* :i. * oi the woild ; and it it fo in two refptds. 

( I ) With refpeit to the c fll'd wrought on the fouls of the redeem* 
«d ; wh'ch is cctDiTiaa to all ages from the fall of msn to the end of 
the ^V'>.ld. This cficO. that I here fpeak of, is the application -wiik 
refpcif :o the fouls cf particular peifons, in convening, juftifying, 
far.iityiDg, ^nd glorifying them. By thcfe things the fouls of 
pftiiicuU: pt-rfons-are adu&Hy i'edecmcd, and do receive the bene- 
fit of khc work of rcdempiien in its ef!ed in their fums. And ia 
tbu umc the wGrif ol fsdemption u carried on in all ages of the 
•world J i:ccDi the fail of man to ihe end of the world. The worl; 
of God in converting fouls opening blind eyes, unfiopping deal 
«ar>, raifiKg '"icid fouls to life, and refcueing ihcmifeiable cspti- 
vated fcuU out of the^.ands cf Sitan, was begun fooa after the fall 
of uaan, has been carried on in the world ever iincc to this dsy an4 
will be to the end of the world. God has always, ever fincc the 
^rft ticking of the church of the redeemed after the fall, had facli j^ 
a church in the world- Though cftentim$sjihzi been reduced to/" '^^ 
ft very narrovt compaf»,and to low circumftances ; yet it hat nevct 
wholly fcilcd. 

As God caraes on the work of conYCrting the fouls of fallea 
men through all ibefe ages, fo he goci on to juftify them, to blot 
out all their fias, and to accept them as righteous ia his fight, 
through the rJghieoufnefs of Chrift, and adopt and receive thetJH 
fioai bsing the chiiiica of Satao, to b? bJJ ovra ehildrca ; fo alff 


13 A H I S T O R Y of 

he goes on to fan(flify, or ro c^rry on the work of hif grace, which 
he has begun in them, and to comfort thcnn with the confolalious 
of his Spirit, and to glorify them, to bcfto.v upon ibem, when 
their bodies die, that eternal glory which ii the fruit of the purch- 
afco/Chrift, Whit is f^id, Rom. viii. 30, ** Whom he did 
predeftinstc, them he alfo called ; and whom he called, them h« 
alfojuAificd ; and whom he juUificd, ihcm he alfo glorified ;" I 
fay thiv is applicable to all ages, from the fall, to the end of the 

The way that the work of redemption, with refpea to thcf«? 
cfFcc'is of it on the fouls of the redeemed, is carried on from the 
fall to the end of the world, is by repeating and continually wort- 
itig the fame work over sg\ln, though in dificrsni pcrfons, Ixom 
age to age. But, 

(?) The work of redemption with refpc(fl to the grand dcJign 
in general, as it refpcfts th.: univcrfal fubicd and end, is carried 
on from the fall of man to the end of the world in a differeni 
manner, not merely by rcpciUngor renewing the fame effcd in 
the different f'ibj<:<n;8 of it, but by many fuccellive works and dif- 
pcnfationi of God, all tending to on* great end and effcd, all 
united as the feveral parts of a fchcme, and all together making 
up one great work. Like an houfc or temple that is building 5 
fittif the workmen are fent forth, then the caitcrisla arc gathered, 
then the ground fitted, then tfcc foundation is bid, then the fupcr- 
ftru<?lure is eretlsd, one part after another, till at length the top- 
fione is laid, and all is firiiftjsd. Now the work of redemption in 
that Urge fenfc that has beca explained, may be compared to fuch 
a buiWing, that is carrying on from the fall of rfian to the end of 
the world. God went about it i^^fimediatcly after the fall of m^n. 
Some things were done towards it immed^iatcly, as may be fhowa 
hcrtafter ; and foGod has proceeded, as it were, getting materials 
and building, ever fincc ; and fo will proceed lo the end of ibe 
world ; and then the time will come when the top i^.onc Ihall b« 
brought forth, and all appear coaiplefc and confummatc. The 
glorious Aru£^ure will then f^and fo^th in its proper perfection. 

This work in the fornicr refpe6l thst has been mentioned, / 
V'a. 25 to the cfFcdl on the fouls of particular pcrfons that art / 
redeemed, by iii being an cficifl that is common to all agct. / 
The woik in this laYter rcfpefl, v'z. as it refpeclj the church of 
God, and the grand dcllgn in general, is carried on, not only by 
that which is com&ion to aH i>gc!, hut by fuccefTive works wrought 
In different ages, 2II parts of one whole, or one g.cai fchemc, 
'thereby one work h brought aVout by various i\epi, one fl<rp ia 
CAC age, aud aaoUier h a'4o:hi:r. it is Ctils carryicg pn of th< 

the Work of R E r E M P T I O N. 14 

work of rcdetrptlon tbat I itall chiefly infift uprn, though not ex- 
cluding the former ; for o^c neccfl'a'ilj fuppofcs tht other. 

Having thys explained what I m.'.ao b> the terms of ihc do£lrinc : 
that you m^y ihc more clearly fee bow the great dcfigr. and work 
of redemption is cirrkd on from the fall of man to the end of ihc 
Hcrld ; I fay, in order to this, 

1 novr proceed, in the fccond place, to ftow what i» the defign 
of this great work, or what things 5rc defined to be done by it. 
In order lo fee how a dtUgn is carried on, wc mu!\ fir A knowr 
what ihedefign is. To know bow a workman proceeds, and !• 
undcrfiand the varices fttps be lakes id order to accomplifti a 
piece of woik, wc need to be informed wiaat he is about, or what 
the thing is thst he intends to accooipHlh ; other wife we may Aand 
Jdj, and fee him do one thing after another, and be qci^e puzzled 
and in the dark, feeing northing of his fcheme, and uridcrAanding 
nolhing pf what he means by it. If an architect, with a great 
Rumb^ir of hands, were a building fomc great palace, and oce tb^j 
WHS a Arangcr to TuGh tilings fhould Aand by, and fee fome mea 
tligging in the caith, others brirging tlmbcrj, others hewing flones, 
sad the like, he might fee that there W2S ? great dtal idonc ; but 
if he knew not the dcfign, it wo aid all appear to bltq coniufion. 
Therefore, that the p;reit works and difpsnfations ef God thzt bt • 
Iphg to this great afi^h of redeii^ption mpy not ."ppear like con- 
fusion to you, I would fet before you briefly the main things dc* 
fj^ncd to be accomplifhcd in ihi-: great work, to accomplifb which 
G^i began to work prefently after the fall of man, and will con- 
tinue working to the end of the world, %vben the whole work will 
appe&F completely fin iihed. The main ihingi dtiigned tc be done 
hy it sre thefcthat fellow. 

I. It is to put all God's enemies Uuder hit ^cet, and ihsl thp 
^oodneff of God r»:ould finally appear triumphing over all tvil, 
Soon alierthc woild v^as crcaied, evil entered into the world in 
the fall of the &Lgc!s and man. Prefently after God had made ra- 
tional crc&turcis, iligre xi\'ra enemies vAo rofc up agsinft him from 
«mong them ; and in ibc fail of man evil cnteicd into this lower 
•y-cild, 3nd God's enemici rofe up againft him here. Satan rofc 
wp againf: God, endeavouring to fruftratchis defign in the creati- 
on of this lower world; and 10 deuroy his workmanfhip here, anj 
to wre«l the government of ihii low er world out of bis hands, and 
tifurp the throne himfclf, and fet up hiaxfelf a^ god of this world 
in/lead cf the God th»t m^de it. To tbefe ends he introduced fitt 
into the world ; and having rxiade o^sr God's enemy, he brought 
fjuilt on man, sni brought dca^h aad ths tnoft ciucme and dread- 
fd aiifcry into Vac world, 

Ho IP 

15 A H I S T C R Y of 

Njw one great dsiign of God in ih^ tffi«r of rcdimptioa ^at, 
tprrduce and fubd'.ie tbofc encnii^s of G. '^, till i^ey iLoulJ ail b« 
put under G.:C*s feet : I Cor. xv. 2$. '* He mu^l Je?ga lill he 
hath put all enemies under his fcef. ' Things \ic:<2 origiailiy fo 
planned and dcfigncd, that hccji^hi difappoiat and cocfcMnd, ana 
iriurrph over §atan, and that he might be bruifed under ChriA't 
feet, Gen iii. 15. The prcmif^i was given, that ihs feed of the 
Woman Qiould bruifc ihc iVrpeni'i head. It was a part of Goi't 
original defign in i^iis work, 10 dcAroy the wo^ks of the devil, and 
conftund him in all his pujpofcs : i John iii 3. *' For this pur- 
pcfc was the Son of God manifeftcd, that he might dertroy the 
works of the devil." It naj a part of his dcfsgn, to triumph over 
fin, and over ths corrupiions of mzr, and to ropt them out of the 
bcarti ©f his people, by conforming them to hiinfelf. He dcfigncd 
iHo, that his grace i^c\*\d triumph over man's guilt, and that in* 
finite demerit that there is i.i fin. Again, it was a part of his defign, 
to triumph over death ; and however this is the laft enemy ihat Ihall 
fee deAroycd, yet that fbill finally be vsnquifhed and deftroycd. 

God thus appears glorioufly above all evil ; and triumphing over 
all his enemies, was one great thing that God intended by the work 
of redemption ; and the work by which this was to be done, Goi 
immediately went about as foon as ecan fell ; acd fo goes on till 
he fully accompiifties it in the end of the world. 

11. In doing this, God's defign was perfcdly to rcf^.orc all cb« 
ruins of the fall, fo far as concerns the eleft pnrt of the work', by 
his Son ; and therefore wc read of the refiittiticn of all tkingt, 
AO.s iii. 21. " Whom the heaven muf^ receive, untiil the tinica 
of the nftitution of all ihingt ;** and of the times of rcfrcfilng 
from the ptcfence of the Lord Jif^a, AiTts iii. 19. *' Kepent ye 
therefore and he converted, that your fins may be bloited out, when 
the timit of refrrfnin^ flball con?.c from the prcfcncc of the Lord." 

Man's foul was ruined by the fall ; the image of God was ruin- 
ed ; man's nature was corrupted and def^ioycd, and man becsmt 
dead \n fin. The dcngn of God .ifa<»x to reftcrc ihc foul of man ; 
to rcf^ore llf; to \i, and .he itrjagc of Gjd, iu conveifion, sfad to 
carry on the rsftoration in faR<'."lif!ca»iou, andtoperfc<^t it in g'ory. 
Man's wcdy was ruined ; by the f.^ll it became fubjc^fl to deatia. 
The d;fign of God was, to rcflcre it from this ruin, acd cot only 
10 deliver it from death in the refurrcf'^icn, but to deliver it from 
monallty iifclf, in making h like unto Chi .'ii'.^ glorious body; 
The world was lu'ned, as to m?in, as cfFc^^uall)' 5S if it had bica 
reduced to chaa sgain ; all heaven and earth >Tere ov«/Jhrown« 
But the defign of God was, to rcPxcre all, and s< it were to create 
laewhcaTea and a acw earth : If. Ixv. 17. ** Behold, I creat 

the Work of R E D E M ? T I O M. l^ 

new heavens, and a new earth ; and the former (hall not be re- 
membered, nor come into mind." 2 Vet. iii, 13. " Nevcrihclcri 
we, according to his promife, look for new heavens, a ncvr 
earth, wherein dwcllcth righteoufncfs." 

The work by which this was to be done, was begun immediately 
after the fall, and fo is cirricd on till all ii finifhcd at the end, 
when the whole vYorld, heaven and earth, (hall be reftorcd ; and 
there (hall be, ss it were, new heavens, and a new earth, in a 
fpiritu;il fcnie, at the end of the world. Thus it is reprcfented. 
Rev. xxi. I. •* And I faw a new heaven, and a new earth ; for 
the firfi heaven and the fir ft earth were paffcd away." 

111. Another great dc(ign of God in the work of redemption, 
was to gather togbthcr in one all things in Cbrift, in hcavco and 
In earth,//, r. all cl6(fl creatures ; to bring all cled creatures, in 
heaven and in earth, to an union one to another in one body, under 
one head, and to unite all together in one body to God the Faihcr. 
This was begun foon after the fall, and is carried on through all 
8ge3 of ths i^orld, and finilbed at the end of the world. 

iV. God deiigned by this work to perfcd and complete the 
glory of all the cled by Chrirt. It waj a dcfjgn of God to advance 
the elc£l to an exceeding pitch of glory, *• fucb ss the eye bath 
not fccn,nor ear beard, nor has sver entered into the heart of man.'' 
He intended to bring them to perfccl excellency and beauty in hit 
image, and in hoUnefs, whi\:h is the proper beauty of fpititual 
beings ; and to advance them to a glorious degree of honor, and 
alfo to an ineftabls pitch of pleafure and joy ; and thus to glori- 
fy the whole church of eledlt men in foul and body, and with 
them to bring the glory of the cleft angcli to its highcfl pitch 
under on^ head. The work which tend: to this, God began 
immedia'eiy after the fall, and carries oa through all ages, and 
will have psrfeffled at the end of the world. 

V. In ail this God defignci to accomplifn the glory of the blefied 
Trinity ia an exceeding degree. God had a dcfign of glorifying 
bimfelf from cierniiy ; to glorify each perfcn in the Godhead. 
The end mnil be cyinfidered as firft in order of cature, and then the 
cneans ; and therefore we mufl conceive, that God having pro* 
fcfled this end, had then as it were cbc means to chufc ; and the 
principal rnean that he pitched upon was this great work of re- 
demption that we are fpeaking of. It was h's dengn in this work 
to gforify his only begotten Son, Jefas Chrtft ; and it was hit 
dcfign, by the Son to gUrify the Father : John xiii. 31. jl. "Norr 
[s the Son of man glorified, and GoX is glorifiwd in him. H God 
be glorified in him, Gjd al.^o fball glorify him in himfelf, and 
i\iifi ftraigbtway glorify him." It was his detlgo that the Son (bouli 




be glorified, and iliould glorify the Father by what (hould be ac- 
complifl^ed by ihc Spirii to the glory of the Spirit, that the whole 
Trinity, conjundly, and each pcrfon fmgly, might be cxcccdirgly 
glorified. The work that was the appointed means of this, wat 
begun immediately after the fall, and is carried on t!ll,and finilhei 
al, the end of the world, when all this intended glory Ihall be 
fully accoiuplifhed in all things. 

Having thus explained the ternw made ufe of in the dcS.T\ne, 
and Ihovtn what the things are which are to be accocnpliftied by thii 
great work of God, I proceed now to the propofed Hiftory ; that 
is, to (bow, how what was dcfigned'by the woik of redemption has 
been accomplilhed, in the various Aeps of this work, from the fall 
of man to the end of the world. 

In order to this, I would divide this whole fpace of lime into 
three periods : the 

if>, reaching from the fall of man to the incarnation of Chrifl ; 

2d, from Chrift*8 incarnation till his rcfurre£lion ; or the whote 
lime of Chrift's humiliation ; — the 

3d, from thence to the end of the world. 
It may be feme may be ready to think this a very unequal diviilon r 
and it is fo indeed in fomc refpcds. It is fo, becaufc the fecond 
period is fo much the greateft : for although it be fo much fhoriet. 
Ihan cither of the other, being but between thiity and forty years, 
whereas both the other contain thoufands ; yet in this aflfair that 
we are now upon, it is more than both the othcri. — I wouki 
therefore proceed to (how diftindly how the work of redemption 
is carried on from the fall of man to the end of the world, 
through each of ihefc periods in their order ; which I would do 
under three propofitions ; ore concerning each period. 

I. That from the fall of man till the incarnation of Chrift, GoJ 
was doing thofe things that were preparatory to Chrift's coming, 
and working out redemption, & were forerunners andearneHs of it» 

II. That the time from Chrift's incarnation, till hia refurre£lIonj 
was fpent in procuring and purchafing redemption. 

III. That the fpice of time from the refurrc^ion of Chrifi to 
the end of the world, is all taken up in bringing about or accoxn- 
^lilhing the great effed or fuccefs of that pur chafe. 

In a particular confideration of thefc three propofitioni, tht 
^rcat truth taught in the doftrine may pcih?»ps appcsr in ■ dear 
light, and we may fee how the work of redctnptign is carried oa 
ffoin the fall of maa to the end of the world. 

B " f ro(p 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. it 


From the Fall to the Incarnation. 

Y firit talk is, to (how how the work of rtdemption it 
_ _ carried on from the fall of man to the tHcarnation of Chrrfi, 

Thai the fpace of time from the fall of man to the incarnation 
of ChriA, wa$ taken up in doing thofe things that were forcrunncti 
and cirncfts of Chrift's coming, and working out redemption* 
«nd were preparatory to it. 

The great works of God in the world during th?s whole fpace of 

time, were sll preparatory to this. There were many great changei 

and revolutions in the world, and they were all only the turning of 

of the wheels of provideocc in order to this, to mak^ way for the 

coming^f Chrift, and what he was to do in the world. They sU 

fiointei hither, and all ilTucd here. Hither tended cfpcci^ly all 

God'* great works towards his church. The church wa» under va- 

ricus difpcnfations of prcvidcn/;e, and in very various circumltan- 

cc3 before Chrift came. Bu^ all thefe difpenfations were ko^rc, 

pare the ^'ay for his coming, God wrought fc^Ivaticn for the foult 

of men through all ihst fpace of time, though the number was very 

fmdl to what it was afterwards ; and all ihh falvation was, .s it 

Wdrc. by way of anticipatioft. All the fculs that were f aved before 

Chrift c'me. were only a, it were the earneft.of the future barvefl. 

Gri wrought many leiTcr falvations and deliverances for hl| 

church and people before Chrift came. Thcfe falv.tions were all 

but fo many images and forerunners of the great falvation Chrift 

was to work out when he ftiould come* God revealed himfclf of 

old from time to time, from the fall of man to iLc coming ofChrift* 

The cHirch during that fpace of time enjoyed the light of divmc 

teveUuon, or Ggq sword. They b.d in * degree the light of tnc 

cofp-^l But all thefc revelation* were only to many forerunner! 

and cainefts of the great light tha he ihould bring who came lo be 

the light of the woild Th:it whole iyzc: of time was as it were 

the time of nifht,'wherein the church of God was not indeed whoL 

ly without light : but it waslike the light of the nioon and f^ar. 

tLt Wc have in the night ; a dim lif ht m cotr.panfon of the light 

of the fun. and mixed with a great de. of darkm-fs. Jt had r.o 

glory, by reafon of tke glory that e'^cdlcth t Cor. in. lo. The 

church had indeed the light of the fun, but it was only a« rcflcaed 

froo, the moon and ftars. The church all that whde ^^^J ^'^o'' 

This the 3i>oaie evidently teaches in Gal. iv. l. 2. 3.^ Wow i 

f .y, that the heir as long as he is a child, diflPercth ncliung from » 

f.Jvant, thoughhebelotdofalljbutis under tutors «nd g^T"^- 

i«)«,u^ul the lim. .?po*mt€d of th. f*th«, Ev^n fo wa,wh«^ wi 


were children, were in bondage under ihc elements oftfee wotld.*' 

But here, for ihc greater clcaruefs and diftin<5\ncfs,Iwould fubdl- 
vide this period from the fall of man to ihe coming of Chrift into 
fix Idler ptriodi, or pa-ri : The 

l{\, extending from the fall to ihc flood ; — the 

2 i, frooi thence to the calling of Abraham ; — ihc 

3d, from thence to Mofcs ; — the 

4th, frobti thence to David ; — ihe 

§\h, from David to the c'piiviiy into Bsbylon ;— and the 

6th« from thence to the incarnation oi Chrilt, 

From the fall to the flood. 

THIS wai a period faribeft of all diftant from Chrift's incar- 
nation ; yet then this gre^t work was begun to be carried 
on ; then was this glorious building begun, that will not be finifhcd 
till the end of the world, as 1 would now ftiow you how. To this 
purpofe I would obferve, 

I, As foon as ever man fell, Chrift entered on his mediatorial 
work. Then it was that Chrift firft took on him the work and 
cfiice of a mediator. He had undertaken it before the wor!d was 
made. He ftood engaged with the Father to .';pp;ar as mm's me- 
diator, and to lake on that oflfics when there (Viould be cccafion, 
from all eternity. But now the time was come. When man fdl, 
then the occafion came ; and then Chrift immediately, without far- 
ther delay, entered on his work, and took on him that oiTfice that 
he had ilood engaged to take on him from eternity. As foon at 
ever maa fell, Chrifl the eternal Son of God ciotfacd hiiafelf with 
the mediatorial charatler, and therein preftnted himfcif before 
Ihe Father. He immediately ftcpped in between an holy, infinite, 
offended Majcfty, and cfferding mankind ; and was accepted in 
his interpofition ; and fo wrath was prevented from gcing forth i.i 
the fu'l execution of that aaazing curfc that man had brought oa 

It is manifcft that Chrift began to crcrclfe the office of medir^tcr 
between God and man as foon as ever man fell, bccaufe m^rcy be- 
gan to beexcfcifcd towards mm ijijmcdiately. There was mercy 
in the forbearance of G )d, ihst he did not deftroy him, 2s he dij 
the angels when they fell. F.jt there is no mecy excrcifed to- 
ward fallen man but through a mediator, if God had not in mcr- 
• cy retrained Satan, he would immediately have fc'zed on hij i>^cy, ■ 
Chria began to do the part cf an intsrcfror for man as foon as hs 
f .11. There is no mercy rxcrcifed towards min but wh'^l i« ob- 
tained through Chrifi's interccflTion : fo that now Chri/l wos cn- 
IftfLii oa bis woikthat he was to contiuf.j ia thMy^^huu; sll a^ci 


Ihe Work of R E D E M P T ION, 2« 

of the world. From that day forward Chrift took on him the art 
of the chu'ch of the cletft : he took on him the care of fallen nnan 
in the cxcrcife of all h:« offices; heundcjtook thenceforward 
to teach mankind in the czcrcife of his prophcticil ofRce ; 
and alfo to intercede for fallen man in hi* pricftly ofPice ; and he 
took on him, as it vrere, the care and burden of the government 
of the church, and of the vyorld of mankind, from this day forward. 
He from that time took upon him the care of the defence of his 
elc6l church from all their enemiei. When Satan, the grand tnt' 
my, had conquered and overthrown nan, the bofmcfs of refilling 
and conquering him was coramiited to Chrifl. He thencefor- 
ward undertook to manage that fubt'c powerful advcrfary. He 
vras then appointed the Csptain of the Lord's hoAc, and the Cap- 
tain of their falvation, and always a^led as fuch thenceforward : 
and fo he appeared from time to lime, and he will continue to 
ad as fuch to the end of the world. Henceforward this lower 
world, with all its concerns, was, as it were, devolved upon the 
Son of God } for when caan had finned, God the Father would 
have no more to do with man immediately ; he would no more 
have any immediate concern with this world of mankind, that 
had apoftalizsd from and rebelisd againAhim. He would hence- 
forward have no concern with man,, but only through ;i mediaiOT, 
eiiher in teaching men, or in governing oj U^owing any bccc- 
His on thcoo. 

Therefore, when we read in facred hiftory what God did from 
time to time towards his church and people, and what ht hid to 
them, and how he revealed himfclf to ihe«i, we are to underi^acd 
it especially of the fccond psrfon of the Trinity. When we read 
of God's appearirg after the fall, from time to time, in fomc vlfi- 
hie form or outward fymbol of his prefcnce, wc arc ordinarily, if 
»ot univerfally, to undsriland it cfpccislly of the fccond perfon of 
the Trinity ; which may be argued from John i. 18. *' No man 
hath feen God at any time ; the only bcgo-ten Son, v;hi<ph is in the 
bofom of the Father, he haih declaicd him." He is therefore call- 
ed " the image of the invifiblc Goi," Col. i. 15. ; intimating, 
that though Goi the Father be invifible, yet Chrifl is his imJgc or 
repfsftncation, by which he is feen, or by which the church of God 
hath often had a repr.-fcniation of him, that is not invifible, and ia 
pirt'cular that Oirift has after appeared in an human form. 

Yea not o)ily wis this lower world devolved on Chrift, that he 
mig: th^vc the care and government of ii, and ord^r it agreeably 
to his defign of redemption, but alfo in lomv: refpcft the whole u- 
niverfc. The angtls frcm that time were committed to him, to 
be fubjert to him in his mediatorial office, to be minifiring fpi- 
riis to him in this afTair ; and accordingly were fo from this time 
lot ward, as ii snacifeftby the faipturc-hiftpry, wherein we have 



accounti from time to time of thefr ailing as mtniftring fpiritt in 
the ai)\irs of the church of Chrift. 

Therefore wc may fuppofc, that immediately on the fall of man, 
it was made known in heaven among the angels, that God had a 
dcfign of redemption with refped to fallen man, and that Cbrift 
bad now taken upon him the office and work of a mediator be- 
tween God and man, that they might know their bufincfi hencefor- 
ward, which was to be fubfeivlent to Chrift in this office . As 
Chrift, in this office, hai fmce that, as God -man. Mediator, 
been folemnly exalted and enftalled the King of heaven, and 
is thenceforward as God-ilnan, Mediator, the Light, and as 
it were, the Sun of heaven, agreeable to Rev. ixi. 25. ** And 
the chy had no need of the fun, neither of the moon, to Ihine 
in it ; for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the 
light thereof ;*'fo this revelation that was made in heaven a- 
iBong the angels, of Chriil's now having taken on him the office 
of a mediator between God and man, was as it were the firft dawn- 
ing of this light in heaven. When Chrift afcended into heaven 
after hit paflion, and wss folemnly infcallcd in the throne as King 
pf heaven, then this fun rofe in heaven, even the Lamb that is the 
light of the ncwjerufalcm. Bat the light began to dawra immedi- 
ately after the fall. 

II, Prefently upon this the gofpcl was firft revealed on the earth, 
inthcfe words, Gen. iii. 15. " And I will put enmity between 
thee and the woman, and between thy feed and her feed : it (hall 
bruife thy head, and thou fbalt bruife his heel." We muft fup- 
pofc, that God's intention of redeeming fallen man was fir/l fig- 
pified in heaven, before it was figniticd on earth, bccaufc the bufi- 
cefs of the angels as miniftring fpirits of the Mediator required it ; 
for £J foon as ever Chrift had taken on him the work of a media- 
tor, it was requifitc that the angels ftiould be ready immediately 
to be fubfervient to him in that office ; fo that the light firft dawn- 
ed in heaven ; but very foon after the fame was 'fignified on earth. 
In ihofc words of God there was an intimation of another furety to 
be appointed for uim, after th^ firft furety had failed. This was 
the firft revelation cf the covenant of grace ; this was the firfi dawn- 
ing of the light of the gofpel on earth. 

This lower world before the fall enjoyed noon -day light; the 
light of the knowledge of God, the light of his glory, and the light 
of his favour. But when man tell, all this light was at once cx- 
tinguilhed, and the world reduced back -gain to total darknefs ; 
a worfc darknefs thaa that which was in the beginning of the world 
that wc read of Gen. i. 2. •* And the earth wa? without form, and 
void, and datkneft was upon the face of the deep." This wai 
a darknefs a thoufand times more remcdilcfi than that* Neither 


abc Work of R E 1) E M P T I O N. th 

Win nor angels could find out any way whereby this darkneft might 
fcf 'V.itle'cd. This darkncfs appesrcd in i» blacknefs then, when 
JUam snd bis wife faw that thty were naked, and icwcd fig leaves, 
and when they heard the voice of tbc Lord God walking in th« 
garden, and hid thcmfclvei among the trees of the garden ; and 
when God firft called them to an account, and f;^id to Adam^ 
What h this that l^ou haft done ? *' Haft thou caicn of the lrce» 
^rhcrtof I commanded thee, that thou fhouldft not eat V Then 
wc may fupprfe that their hearts were filled with Ihame and terror. 
Bui thefc words of God, Gen. in. 15. were the firti dawning of the 
lightofihegofpel after this darkncff. Now firft appeared fome 
glimmering oflightafrer this difmal darknefs, which Moic this 
was without one glimpfc of light, any beam of comfort, or any 
the Icaft hope. It was an obfcure revelation of the gofpcl ; and 
was not mwde to Adam or Eve dirc^ly, but it was in what God 
laid to the fcrpent. But yet it was very coroprehenrivc, as might 
be eafily fljown, »rould it not take up too much time. 

Here was a certain intimation of a merciful defign by " the feci 
©f the woman," which waslikc the firn glimmeringf of the light of 
the fun in ihceaft when the day firft dawns. This intimation of 
mercy was given them even bef >r€ fentence was pronounced on ei- 
ther Adam or Eve, from tenderncfs to them, to whom God defigncd 
mercy, left ihey ihouldbe overborn with a fentence of condemna- 
tion, without having any thing held forth whence ibey could ga- 
ther any hope. 

One of thofe great thingf that were intended to be done by the 
fyork of redemption, is more plainly ir.rlmated here than the reft, 
viz. God's fubduing his enemies under the feet of bis Son* Thif 
was threatened novy,andGod*fidefign of this was now firft declared, 
whicn was the work Qhii{\ U^d now undertaken, and which he foon 
began, ?.nd carried on henceforward, and will perfeftly accomplifli 
at the end of the v/orld. S^-tin probably had triumphed greatly ia 
the fall of man, as though he had defeated the defign of God in the 
creation of man and the world in general. But in thefe words 
God gives him a plaJa intimation, that he fiiould not finally tri- 
uttiph, but that a complete vidory and triumph Ihould be obtained 
ovef him by the feed of the woman. 

This revtJaiion of the go«pe! in this vcrfe was the firft thing 
that Chrift did in his piophetical ofificc. You may remember thut 
ilwss f id in the firil fit ihofe three propofitions that have been 
inentiorii,d, that Ircm the fall of m?n to the incarnation of Chrift, 
God was ^oing ihofc things that wc^e preparatory to Chriii's com- 
ing and working out redemption, 'ad were foreruunciS snd car- 
ncf^ii of it. And one of ihofc thing* which God did in this time 
to f reparc ths way for Chuffs coming into the world, was to 


53 A HISTORY o! 

forctcl and prosiife it, si he did from time to time, from age to 
age, till Chrii^ came. Thii was the hrft promifc thatCTcr was gU 
ven of it, the tit A prcdidicn that ever wai made of it on canb, 

III. Soaft after ibis, thccm\omof facrihcing was appointed, 
lobe <» <lcady type ofthe iacrificc ofChrift till be ftiould cooic. 
and olTerup bimftif a facriticc loGod. Sacrificifjg wns not acujlom 
£:ft crtabliilicd by the Ltvitical law of Mofcs ; for it had been a 
jiart of God's inftitutcd worfliip long before, even ftom the be* 
ginning oi God's vifible church on earth . We read of the patri- 
archs, Abraham, Ifaac, and Jacob, offering facrificc, and before 
them Noah, and before him Abel. Thii was by divine appoint- 
ment ; for it was pirt of God's wordup in his church, that was of- 
fered up in faith, and that he accepted : which proves that it 
was by his inftitution ; for facrificing is no part of natural 
worfhip. The light of nature doth not leach to cfTer up 
hearts in facrifice to God ; vand feeing it was not enjoined 
by the law of nature, if it was acceptable to God, it muft bo 
by fome pofiuve command or inftitution ; for God has declared 
his abhorrence of fuch worfkip as is taught by the precept of men 
without his inftitution : If. xxix. 13. ** Where fore the Lord fai<f, 
Forafmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and 
with their lips do honour me, but have removed their hearts far 
from me, andtheirfear lownrds me is taught by the precept of men j 
therefore behold, I will prcceed to do a marvellous work," &c* 
And fuch worfbip as hath n9t a warrant from divine inPiitutiont 
cannot be offered up in faith, bscaufc faith has no foundation where 
there is no divine appointment. It cannot be oiFered up in faith 
of God's acceptance ; for men have no warrant to hope for God*f 
acceptance, in that which is not of his appointment, and in that to 
which be hath not promlfcd his acceptance : and therefore it fol- 
lows, that the cufiom of offering facrifices to God was infbitulcj 
fooQ after the fall ; for the fcripture teaches ui, that Abel offered 
•' the tirfllings of his flock, and of the fat thereof," Gen, iv. 4. j 
and that he was accepted of God in his offering, Heb. xi. 4. And 
there is nothing in the Aory that looks as though the ioAitutioa 
was firft given then when Abel offwed up that facrifice to God ; 
but it appears as tho' Abel only therein complied with the cufiom al- 
ready eAabliflicd. 

It is very probable that It was inflituted immediately after God 
had revealed the covenant of grace, in Gen. iii. 15. ; which cove- 
nant and promife was the foundation on which the cufiom of fa- 
crificing was built. That promife was the firft ftone that was laid 
towards th'is glorious building, the work of redemption, which will 
be finiQxed at the end of the world* And the next ftone which wat 
laid tpou that, was the iaAiiutioa of lacxiticeii to be a type of the 

the Work of R E D E M P T 1 O N, 24 

The next thing that we have an account of after God had pro- 
nounced fcntence on the ferpcnt, on ihc woman and on the man, 
wai, thai God made them coats of Ikini and cloathed them ; wbich 
by the generality of divinei, arc thought to be the Ikins of bcaf^i 
(lain in facrificc ; for wc have no account of any thing clfc that 
ibouldbcthc occafion of man> flaying bcafls, but only to offer 
them in facrifice, till after the flood. Men were not wont to cat 
the flsih of beafli for their common food till after the flood. The 
fin^ food of man in paradifc before the fall was the fruit of the irccs 
of paradifc ; and when he wai turned out of paradifc after the fall 
then his food was the herb of the field : Gen. iii, 18. ''And 
Ihou (halt cat of the herb of the field." The firfi grant that he had 
10 est fldih as his common food was afjcr the flood : Gen. ix, 3. 
Every moving thing that livcth fhsll be meat for you ; even as the 
green herb have I given you all things." So that it is likely that 
thcfc fkins thaiAdam and Eve were clothed wiib, were the flcinsof 
their facf ificei. God's clothing them with thefe was a lively figure of 
their being clothed with the rightcoufnefiof Chrift, This cloth- 
ing was no clothing of their own obtaining ; but it was God that 
gave it them. It is faid, ** God made them coats of flcini, and 
clothed them ;" as the righteoufnefs our naked fouls are clothed 
with, is not our righteoufaefa but the righlcoufacfi which is ofGod, 
It ii he only clothes the naked foul. 

Our firft parents, who were naked, were clothed at the expence 
of life. Bcaf^s were flain, and refigned up their lives a facrifice to 
God, to afford clothing to them to cover iheir nakednefs. So dotb 
Chrifl, to sflford clothing to our naked fouls. The flcin fignifiei 
the life: Sojob ii. 4. " Skin for fkin.yca all that a man hath will he 
give for his life ;" /. e, lift for Ufe^ Thus our firft parents were 
covered with fkins of facrifices, as the tabernacle in the wildcrnefs, 
which fignified the church, was, when it was covered wilh rsmi 
fliinsdied red, as though they were dipped in bJcod, to figni- 
fy that Chrlfi's righteoufnefs was wrought out through the paiai 
of death, under which he (bed his precious blood. 

We obferved before, that the light that the church enjoyed from 
the f ^11 of man, tillChriil came, was like the light ^^hich we enjoy 
in the night ; not the light of the fun dire(5^1y, but as refle£led from 
the moon and ft ifs ; which light did forcftiow Chrif>, the Sun of 
righteoufnefs that was afterwards to arife. This light of the Sua 
of righteoufnefs to come they had chiefly two ways : oflt was bjf 
prediflions of Chrift to come, whereby his coming wai foretold 
and promlfed ; the other was by types and (hadowjj, whereby hii 
coming and rede«ption were prefigured. The firH thing that wat 
done to prepare the way forChrift in the former of thefe ways, was 
ta that prQmif^ th&t vrai jul\ taken doU«$ of U the foregoing par- 


licular ; and the firft thing of the Litter kind, v*i. of types, to 
forclho.v Chrift's c raing, wa« thit in/lituiioa ot facriHces that WC 
arc no^ upon. A» that promifc iti (j:n. iii. I S • wai the firft davrn 
of gofpcl-Iight after the fAl in prophecy ; (o ths inftitution of fa- 
CrjHcsi was the firnhintc( it in types. The giving of that pro- 
mifc ♦f-JJ the fir-'t thing rhit wai done after the fall, in this work, 
in ChrilVj oiYicz ; inflitution of facriikes wai the fiift 
thing that we read of after iht fail, by which efpecially Chrift ex- 
hiWited himfcif in his prJcPtly office. 

The inftitution of facrifiies was a great thinj;: done towards pre- 
paring the way for Chriil'sccminis;, and working out rcdemptron. 
For the faerifices of the OldTcAament were the main of z.'.\ the O'i 
Tcftameat types of Chrifl and his redemption ; and it tended toefU- 
b'iih In the minds of God's vifiSIc church the neccfTityof a piopitia- 
tory facrlrtce, in order -to the D.-risy's being fatisficd for fin ; and fo 
prepared the way for th^ reception ni the glorious gcfpc!, that re- 
veals the gre^t facrificc in the vlfibic churchy. -J&d not obTv fo,but t^ro* 
the world of mankind. For froa this inftitution of facrlfices that vraj 
after thtf fail, all nations derived *he cuftom of facrificirig For thif 
euflooa of offering up facrificcs to the gods, to aioa« for their (ius, 
was common to all nations. No nation, however barbarous, was 
fo'ind without it any where. This is a great evidence of the tiutbcf 
theChrinian religion ; for no nation, but only the Jews, could tell 
how I hey csmc by this cuflom, or to whai ptispofc it was to ofTsr 
facrificcs to their deities. Tgc light of natuifc did ncl teach th^m 
anyfuch thing. That did not teach ihi«n that the godi wcrehucgry, 
2ad fed upon to« flclh which ihcy burnt in ficrifice ; and yet they 
all had this cufiom ; of which no other account csn be gKvcn, but 
that they derived it from Noah, who had it fcom hts snceffors, 
on whom God had enjoined it as a type of the great fac:Ifice of 
Chrift. However, by this mesr.* ail natioas oi the wodd had 
their minds poilcffed with this notion, that an atonement orftcji- 
fice for fm was ncceffary ; and a way made for tbcJr core rea- 
dily receiving the great do<^rine of the gofpcl of Chru% which 
teaches us the atonement and iacririce of Chfirt. 

IV. G^d did fooa after the fall begin a<flu3!1y to {avc Teu?* 
of men through Chrift's redemption. In tbid Chrift, wnio h;»cl 
lately taken upoa him the work of Mcdiitcr betweenGodaEd roan, 
did firft begin that work, wherein he appeared in the cxercife of 
his kingly officc,ai in the facrificcs he was repicfcutcd ia hi?prj<;ft. 
ly office, and in the firft prcdidlion of rcdcar.ptJonby Chrtft ho had 
appeared in the excrcifc of his prcpheuc?.! OiTict. In that pzc- 
dicUon the light of ChriiVs rcdccnpiion firfl besjan to di»#n in the 
prophecies of it ; in the inftitution of facrifiscs it f^rft bcga jt^j 
dawn i.i the types of it ; lathis, viz. his tcglnniog aftL3«?Vv »o five 
f|ea« is lixit bsgaa to dawa la the fiuil cf it. It 

26 tkc Work of K: E 0E M P T I d M. 

It If probable, hcrefore, that At^ara and Eve were the ^rft 
fruits of CnntVj rcdea>ption ; it ii probable by Go^'i manner ol 
Ifritiag them, by nil comforting them ai he did, after ihcir a- 
w-ksniny^s ^j\J tr.-.ior3. They were awakened, and afhamed with 
a fcn^c of thtir pcrilt, after their fall, when t^icir cyci were opened, 
and tbey favr that they vretc niked, and fe\yed rg-lcavci To cove/ 
ihcir Hiike^ncfj •, as the finnef,undcr the t:;j'i awakenings, is wont to 
endeavour vo hide the nakftdnefn of his foul, by patching up a right- 
co<jfncfi of hij own. Taen tbey were furth'^r terrified a&d aw«»k- 
e>.cd, by hearing the voice of God, as he was comirg to condemn 
thccj. Tincir coverings of fig Icavei do noi anfwcr the purpofc j- 
buif noznUhPidndiug thcfe, they ran to hide theaafclvo amorg the 
V.cci of the g^ffen, bccaufc iIk;- ^'crc naked, not daring to truft 
tc rhe^r fi'jj Ic^res to hide t'resr a«kednefi from G">d» T^ea thrj 
wcic fuTthcr awakened bvG-od's catliogof tbcm to a (k/i^ ?ccnuLr» 
' B;^ Tff.ifc heir terrors were raifci to fucb a height, and thry ftood, 
a:< ¥* may fappofe, ircmbllng. snd afloo ifibed before ihcirj<jdge, 
vicho'jt any thing to r.ittch hold of, whence they could gather atiy 
hope, then God took cWe to hold forth feme encouragement to 
theci, to icecp thtm ^rom tile dreadful tfifjclj of difpair under 
their aw ^kcri'Ir»g£^by giving a hint of a dcfi^gn of mercy by s5>Aviour,= 
even before he pronounced fentcncc againft tbem. And when af- 
ter thii he proceeded to pronoaace fentencc^ whcicby we m^y fup* 
pofe ibcir tcrrori were farther r^sifsd, God foon after took care fo 
ciic^urajrt th-".ii, an 1 to- let then fee, th>it he h^d not v»holIy caft 
them cff, by taking a fatherly care of ih?m in ti^eir fafldn, naked, 
and mif«rahle ft^te, by making them costs of ^ins ard clothing 
them. Which alfo n>inifc fled an aceeptance of thofa f crificej 
Ih^i they off-Tcd toG i *or fin, that ihofe were the fkins of.whf'ch 
were Jypci of whaiG" .d h<d p.omif;;J, when he faid^ ** The fed 
of the wom-in (h dl briiift thj krpcnt'^&h'iad :" wKch promifc,lhere 
h rcafon to ihi ik, tbey believed ^nd emoraced. Eve feems plain- 
ly to crprcfi her hop-: i.) and ri'ptndcncc on that piomife, in what 
Ikt f^y» at the birth o» Cs'n, G-n, iv. r, '* I h;;ve gotten a mar? 
fro.n the Lord ;'' /. i- «• G -i Las p-omifcd, rhat my feed (V.ould 
bruifc the firpeni's hc;^d ; f^nowtiasG^d given m^ thii pledge 
and token of it, that I >.avc a feed born. Sh* plainly owr$, that 
thif her cnild was from G j1, and hoped th^t her promifcd feed 
was to be J this her eldcft fon ; though (he wai mift ken, as Abra- 
ham wa- 'h refpeft u IJhmatL ^^J^c^ ^a$ with rcfpf^^ wEfav, 
and 3S Sam'rd whs wit^.-cfpca to her ti^ft bom of Jtfft, Efpc- 
cially doe» vhat (fee f/H ^x ihc biuh t f Srth, exprefi her hope and 
dcpc dcncc on 'he promJfe cf (rod ; fre ver. 2^5. " For God bah 
ippuintc'd anc sndibcr Utip inftead of Abd, whom Cain flew." 
^^ Thua 

A H I S T O R y of «7 

Ttiui 11 U exceeding probable, if not evident, that as Chrlft took 
on him the work of mediator as ioon as man tell ; fo thii he new 
iamcdiately began hi> work of rcdcmpiion in its tfT-.d, and that 
be immcdiatc'.y encountered bis great enemy fie devil, nhocn he 
i:ad undertaken to corvqfjcr, and re>cued ihofc two firfl c»piivR5 owt 
of hi* hands ; therein b-.ffl /.^ hliXi, foon after his triumph lor the 
vidory he obtained over them, whereby he bad made them his 
captirei. Though he \r^*, as it were, fure of them arc! all their 
poftcrity, Chrift the Redeemer fcon fhowed him, that he wa* 
miftakcn, and ihat A^ was able to fubdue him, and deliver fallevi 
man. He let him fee ii, in delivering hofc iirft capiiwcs of hii j 
and fo foon g^jre him an inllance of the fulfilment of that lh»eat- 
cning, '* The feed of the woman Iball brutfc the fcrpent'i; bead ^;'* 
and in this iiiftancc a prcf^ge of th* fuliiiment of one great ch«ng 
he had tndertakeni viz. his fubdning ail his enemies under his feeU 

After tbii we have another infiance of redemption in ar.e of 
fiheir children, v<3 in righscous Abel, as the fcrLpture calU him, 
V7hofcfoui perhaps was tbefi.n that w-ent to heaven dirougliChrifl's 
KdemptioQ, In him we have at Us.Cz the firu irti^ancc of the deatb 
of a tedcemcd perfon that is recorded in fcriptiire. If he was the 
Tirft/ then as the redemption of Cfarifi begaa lo d5.wi-i befcic ivi the 
fouls of men in their converlion atvd juf^iiication, in hicfi it firft 
:beg«n to dawn in glorification ; and in htm the!^ bfgan (irft 
to do the part of miciftririg fpirits to Chrifl, in gob-g fotih to 
conduft the fouls of the redeemed to glory, Jn him the clccft an- 
gels in heaven had the ^rft opportuniiy to fee fo won<^erful a ihing 
at the foul of one of the fallen race of mankind, jthat bad been 
^unk by the fall iisto fuch an abyfs of fin and mifcry, brought tu 
heaven, and in the enjoyment of heavenly glory, which was ai 
C3uch greater thing thsn if they had fccn h''m return to tie earthly 
p:cadi(c. Thus they by this faw the gloriou* ciTi:(X of CLiifi's re- 
demption, in the grest honour and happincff that was procured for 
finful, miferabic creatures by it. 

V. The nest reroark;sbk thing that Qod did in iK* farihcr carry- 
ing on of this great s^air of redemption .that 1 fliall tsskc notice of*, 
was the fif ft rejoiarkablc pouring out of the Spirit through Chr'^ 
Shat ever was, which Kgsinthc days cf Ekos* This fecms to 
have been the rert rcm.arkahic ihin^ that was dooe toward crcifling 
ibis glorious building that God had begun snd Uli the foundati- 
on of in Chrift the Mediator, We read, Gen, iv. 26. *' Then 
l^egan men to call upo« the name 0/ the Lcrd." The meaning of 
ehcfc words has been confidcrably controverted smorg (divines. 
We cannot fuppofe the meaning ii, that that time was the firfi th^f 
«.Tcr Kin pcrforocd ihz duty of prayer. Prayer is z jdoty of i^s- 

28 the Work of REDEMPTION. 

tufaS rergon,aod a du?y to vhich :< fpirii of piety docs moft natu» 
rally icad men Pra^ er is «s it were the ve?^ breath of a (pi.irof pi- 
ety ; and wc cannoj fuppofc therefore, that thofc holy men ihat had 
been bcfjre ior ^bovc 2 nundrci years^ had lived alUhatwhlk y.iih* 
out any prayer, Therefore foine divinci think ibat the meaning is^ 
that then men firil began 10 perform public worihip, or to call up- 
on the name of ihe Lord in pul^lic afTcmblies. Whether it he fo 
tp bs under Oood or no, yet fo much muft nccfejTarily be unidcrrtood 
by it, viz. thif th^re \va» fomttliing new in the villb!* church of 
God with refp^<fl to the duty of prayer, or calling upon the n^smc 
of the iiOrd ; that thtrc was a gccai addiiion to the perltoimar.ce of 
this duty j and that in fomc rcfpcd or oihcr it was carried far bc- 
yoad what it ever had been bctorc, which muft be the confcqucrice 
of 3 rctr*ark-.bie pouring cut of the Spirit of God. 

If it W4» Roxv firft th«r ciirn were Airrcd up to get together m 
aiT-mblics to help and a-li'^t one another in iccking God, fo ai thry 
ucver had done before, it argues fomcthing extraordinary as the 
caufc; ^nC c:uld be frotn nothing bur uncommon influences ofGod'i 
Spirit. W" fee by exper i-^nce, that a ren^arkablc pouring out of 
God'i Spirit is cilway, attcndsd with fuch an effed, via. a great 
incrc^fc of the pc-i Torqianceuf the oi^y of prayer. When ihc 
Spirit of G06 begins a worlf. on men's hearts, it itnmcdia.'tly fcts 
thctn to csLtJirg on the nanjc of the Lord. As it wm with Fiul 
iificr the Spirit of Qod hi<d Jaid hold of him, then the next news 
h» *' Bthold, hs prayetii !" fo it has been in all rcjnaikabie pour- 
ings out c^ thii Spirit of ^od that vfc hrive aay particular account 
of in fcripturr- ; and fo it is foretold it will be st the great pouring 
out o^ the Spirit 0/ God ii ihc latter days. It is foictold, ih t it 
will be po'jjcd out as a fpiritof grace and fupplicsiion, Z-^ch. xis 
10. Sic alfo Z:ph. iii, 9. " vo^ then will I turn to the people a 
pure language, that ihcy aiay aH all upon the nan^c of the Lord, 
to ferve hiaa with one confent." 

When it i& faidp *' Then began raco to call upon the name of 
the Lord," no more can be intended by it,ihan that thii was the ni;t 
remarkable fcafon of this nature that ever was, li was the begin- 
ning, orthefii-ft, of fuch a kind of work of God, fuch a pouring 
out of the Spirit of God. After fuch a manner fuch an cxprefTion 
is commonly u fed in icripvurc : fo, i Sam.xiv. 35. " And Saul 
built iin aUar unto the Lord, the fame was the Urii altar th->t he 
built into the Lord," In the Hebrew it is, as you may fee in the 
xnargin, " that altar he began to build unt.o the Lord." Heb. ii. 
3. '• How (haP we cfcapeif wc neg!c<^ fo great falvation, which 
tirft began to be fpoken by the Loro ?" 

It m-iy here be obfsr\ed, that from the fall of tr^an, to thiidsy 
j^bcrein wc live^ the waik of rcdccoptitj^a Iq iu sifiit has mainly 

A H I S T O R Y of <9 

been carirJei on by remarkable pourings out of the Spirit of God, 
Though ibcre be a tnost conilant influeiiCc of God's Spirit alwiyt 
in fome degree aetending hiiordiaaaces ; yet the way in which the 
grcateft lhing« have been done towards carrying oa this work, il- 
way» has been by rciirjaikable pourings out of the Spirit at fpecfal 
fcafon» of picrcy, a* may fulJy appear hereafter iaour further pro- 
fecution of the iubjedl we are upon. This pouring out of the Spirit 
ia the days of £«;?/, was the fi« ft reaiarkable pouring out of the Spirit 
of God ihat LvcT was. There had been a faving woik of God on 
tbe hearts o^ fume before ; but now God was picafcd to grant a 
more large trTufion of his Spirit, for tbe bringing in an harvsfl of 
fuuli to Chrift J fo that in ihis we fee ihat great building that is 
tbe fubjct^ of our prefeut difcourfe, which God laid the foundation 
^i immediately after ihe fall of raan, carried on further, and built 
higher, than ever it had been before. 

VI. The next thing I ftiail tnke notice of, fs the eminently holy 
life of Enoch, who wc have rcafon to think was a faint of greater 
caninency than any ever had been before him ; fo that in this rcf- 
peSt the work of rcdsmpiion was carried on to a greater height than 
6\,'ct it had been before. With refpedt to its ctTecfl in the vifibU 
church in gcnersi, we obfervcd juft now how it was carried higher 
in the days of Enot ihsn ever it had been before. Probably Enoch 
was one of the faints of that h&rvcft ; for he lived all the days that 
he did live on earth, in the days of Knot, With refpcfl lo the 
de^jtee to which this work was carried in the foul of a particu?ar 
jDci Ion, i« wai raifed to a greater height in Enoch than ever bc/orc. 
His foul, ai it was built on Cbrifl, was built up in holinefs to a 
greater hcij^ht than there had been any inftancc before. He waj 
a wonderful inflancc of Chfifi's redemptioa, and the efficacy of 
bis grace. 

VII. In EnccVt titrje, God did-^iore expresfly reveal the com- 
ing of Chrift than he had done before, in the prophecy oi Enoch 
ih'it we have an account of in the 14th and i^ih vcrfesof the cpiftic 
of Jade : *' And Erioch alfo, the fevcnth fiooa Ad^m, prophtficd 
of thefe, uying, Behold, the Lord ccmeih with ten thoufand of 
his faints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince ail that 
arc ungodly among them, of their ungodly deeds which they hare 
ungodly coirmiilcd, and of all their hard ipefches which ungodly 
fnners h?vc fpokcn againii him " Here Enoch pil^hcfies of the 
coming of Chrift. It docs not fecm to be cm fined to any particular 
coming of Chrift j but it has rcfpect ia general lo Chriii's coming 
in his kingdoai, and is fulfilled in a degree in both the firft and fe- 
cond coming of Chrifi ; and indeed in evrjy rccnirk-«b!c m^nifclla- 
tion Chrift has made pi himfcU in the world, for tr c faviog of hu 
jptypl«,a;.d ihc deftio^ing of hia tiicmics, It ia very p=^ial'.ci in ' iS 

Sl^ t5ic Work of REDEMPTION. 

refpeft wiih tSs^ny other propbecies of (he corning of Chrift, thaE 
were given u^sdcr the Ol ! Tefiamcnt ; and, in particular, it fccnnj 
to be parallel vriih that grcit piophccy of Chuft's cociing in hif 
kingdcm tha? v/c have in ihc jih chapter of Daniel, whence thp 
Jews principally took their notion ol the kingdom of heaven. 
Sec ver, lo. ** A fiery i^rcam ilTued, ^nd came forth froni before 
him : Tboufand sboufandj miiaifircd vnto h m, and ten ihoufand 
lioao ten ihoufand ftood before him : the jadgmeut was fet, snd 
the books were opened/' And ver, jj, 14 " i (kyr w the nlght- 
vifioDS, and heboid, one like the fon 01 man, cr^me with the clouds 
of heaven, and ca^e to the ancient of days, and thej brought him 
pear before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, 
and a kingdom, that all people, nationj, and languages, Ih-uli 
ferve him : his dominion it an cvcrlafting dominion, which (hM 
pot pafi away, and hit fcinj»dom th^^t which flaall not be defiroycd/* 
Though It is not unlikely that Enoch might have a more immtihta 
rcfped in thit prophecy to the approaching dcftruftion of the old 
world by the ftood, which wai a remarkable rcfemb!r,nce of'Chrift'« 
deftiuftion of all hit enemies at hii fccond coming* jet it doubtlcfe 
looked beyond the type to the antitype. 

A» thit prophejcy of Chrif/s coiziiDgi« more cs^prcft than any ha<J 
foecQ before ; fo it is as inflance of the incrcafe of that gofpel Irghl 
that b?gan to dawn prefently aftsnhefall of man; and is an inftance 
of that building that is the fuhjcd of our prefenl difcourfe, being 
yet further carried on, and built up higher than it had been bcfo»c. 
Here, by the way, £ would obferve, thst the incrc£.fe of gofpel« 
light, and the carrying on the work of rcdcmpiion, as it rcfpc(5lt 
tiic cleft church in general, from the firft crc^ing of the church 10 
|he er>d of ihc s^orld^ if very much after the fame «anner ss the 
carrying on of the fame work 2nd the fame light in a particular 
foul, from the time of iti cooycr/Ion, tiH it is pcrfedled »mi c^ownrd 
in glory. The work in a particular foul hat its up« and dowrs ; 
fomctimes the light fhincs brighter, and fometimct it is a d^tk, 
time ; fomctimct grace fectti> to prcvsil. ^r other time* it feemi 
80 languiftt for a great while together. >nd corruption pfevailj, and 
ibcn grace revivet again. But in gcrrra!, grace is growing : from 
its firft infufion, till it i« ncrfcdcd in glory, the kingdom of Chrift 
M buildisg up in the foul. 

So it it wjib refpc(f^ to the great ?ffiir in general, at it relate* 
to the imiverfai fu'jeO of it, --» it i« carried on from the firft begin- 
jQiag cf it after the fall, ri'? it h p'rrfrftcd at the end of the world, 
« will more fuUy aj:pcar by .1 particular view of this affair frotn 
fceginnir^g to end, in ti c profccution of rhis fubjeft, if Gcd gi?c 
4)pportunity to cany it through 31 | propofe. 


A H I S t O R r of 31 

Vni. The nfxt rcmirksble tbiflg towards carry Jng on this work, 

that wc have an account of in fcripture, h the tranflation of Enoch 

into be ven. The acconnt wc have of it is in G«n. v. 24. "And 

Enoch walked vyiih God, and he was not ; for God took him." 

Here Mofcs, in giving sn account of tbc genealoj:v of fbofe ihal 

were of the line of Noah, docs not fay cooCtrning Enoch, be lived 

fo Jong and he died, as be docs of the rcfk ; but, he vjat not, for 

Ood tcck him ; /. *. be tranflatcd him ; in body and foul carried 

him to heaven without dying, a$ it is explained in Hcb. x'u J. 

«* By fliih Enoch was tranilated ihal he liould not fee d'jatb/* 

B) this wonderful woik of God, the xroik of redemption was car^* 

ricd to a greater height in fevaral rcfpe6iS, than it had been before, 

y lu may remember, ihat when I was flbowing what were the great 

things th^t Goi aimed at in the work of redemption, or what tho 

anta thingi were that he intended to bring ic pafs ; I among other 

things mentioned (p. 12 )ihc perfcft reftoring the ruins of tbc ftU 

with refpc^t to the eledt, and fcftoring man from that deAia£lion 

th^t he had brought on bimfelf, boih In foul and body. Now this jtion of Enoch was tbc firft inftance that ever was of refloring 

the ruins of the fall with refpec^ to the body, Therehad been many 

inftanccs of rcftoring the foul of man by Chrift's redemption, hut 

none of redeeming and s<f^ual!y faving »he body till now. All the 

bodies of the chCt are to be faved ss well as their fouls. At the 

end of tbc world, all the bodies of the fainti (hall a^uallybc rc- 

deemsd ; thofc that then (hall have been dead, by a refurrcftion 3 

and others, that thca (b-Al be living, by caufing them to pafi undci 

a glorious change. There wa» a nuncber of the bodies of faints rail« 

cd and glorified at the refurre^tion and afccrfioo of Chrift ; and 

before that there wss an invlsrcc of a body glorified in Elijah. 

But the fi a iadance of all was this of Enoch, that we are novr 

fpcaking of. 

The work of redcnsption by this was carried on further tba& 
ever it had been before ; as, by ihis wonderful work of God, there 
Was a great iocreafc of gofpcl light to the church of God, in thii 
rcfpca. that hereby the church had a clearer naanifeflationof a fu- 
«ure ft^tc, ind of ihe glorious reward of the faints in heaven. Wc 
are told, 2 Tim. i 10. '* That life and imaioftality are brought 
to light by the gofpel," A-jd the more of thit is brought to light, 
the more clearly does the light fhinc in that rcfpcA- What waa 
faid in theOldTeftament of a future iftaie, is very obfcurc, in com- 
p^rifon with the more full, plain, and abundant revelation given 
of it in ihe N^w. But yet even in thofe early days, the church 
of God, in this inf^ance, was favored with an inftancc of it fef 
before tkeir eyes^ in that one of their brethrea nrai a^uaUy takes 


32 the Woik of REDEMPTION. 

lip to heaven without dying ; which wc have all reafon to think 
tbcchurchof God knew then, as ihey afterwards knew Elijah's 
tranflarion. And a§ this wra? a clearer msnifcflaf'cn of a iuiuic 
ft»te ihan the church hdd had before, fo it was a plec^c or can efi 
of that future glorification of ali the faints which God intended 
through the redemption of Jefus Chriih 

IX The next thing that I ihzU ol fcrve, was the upholding the 
chuich of God in th? faoRjJy of which Chrift was to proceed, in 
the time cf that great an.-^ general de'^ei^tl^n ef the world of man- 
kind that Wis before She flood. The chu'ch of God, in all pro- 
b.^bility, was fmall, in comparifon with the reft of the world, (rem 
the beginning of the licac that m^r kind fift bi^gan to tnuhiply oa 
the face of the earth, or from nhe time of Cain't detcdion, and^ de- 
parting horn amonf?^ the people of God j the time v»c read of.Gtnf 
iv. 16. " VVncn Cain went c*jt from the prcfence of the JLotd, 
and dwelt ia the land oi Nod ;" which being interpreted, is the 
land of banifl>cncnt : I fay, from thii lim^ of Cain's departure and 
feparation from the church of God, it is provable that the chursh 
of God wa» fma!i in coaiparifon with the rot of the world. The 
church fccrns to have been kept up chiefly in the poftcrit? of Seth j 
for this was the feed ihsl God appointed inftead oi Abel, whcna 
Cain fiew. But wc cannot rcafonably fuppofc, that S'tf/.V; poflc- 
fily were one fiftieth part of the world J '* For Adam was orsc 
hundred and :hirty years old when Seth wsjj born." Bui C<3/>»jWh3> 
feemslohavc been the ringleader of ihofe that were not of ihc 
church, was Adam's cldci^ child, and probably was born foon after 
the fall, which doubtlefs was foon after Adam's creation ; io that 
there waa time for Cain to have many foos before Seth w«s Lorn, 
and bcfidci many other children, that probably Adam and Eve had 
before this time, agreeably to God's bicfTing that be gave thcm» 
whon he faid, "Be fruitful, and multiply, andrepknid the earth;" 
and many of thcfe children might have children. The f\ory of 
Cain before Sstk was born, fcems 10 rcprcfent as though there were 
great numbers of men on theearth : Gen. iv, 14. 15. *' Behold, 
thou haft driven mc out this day from the face of the earth : and 
from thy face ll\all I be hid, and I thall be a fugitive and a vaga- 
bond in the earth ; and it fhiU come to pafs, that every one that 
findethmefh-Jl fluy me. And the Lord faid unto him, ''Therefore 
whofocvcf ilnyeth Csin, vengeance fhall be tsken on him fcvcn- 
fold. And the Lord fct a oj^rk upon CMin Ufi any finding hiai 
ftjould kill him/' And all thofe that were then in being when Stth 
wa« born, muft be fuppofed then to (^and in equal capacity of m J- 
tiplying their poflerity with him ; and therefore, as I faid before, 
Stth' I poftcrity were but a faiail part of ihciatwibiUntj of the world. 


the Work of REDEMPTION. jj 

Bu? after the days of Enos and Enochf {tor Rnock wai tranflatcd 
before Enof died) ;'[ fay, after their days, the church of God great- 
ly dla^iRiifccd, in proponicn as multitudes that were of ihc line oi 
Ssih, and had been born la the church of God, fell avyay, and join* . 
ed with the wicked world, principally by meant of iiitcima? iagct 
wahthem : ai Gen. vi. i» 2. & 4. ** And it came topafs, whca 
men began to multiply on ihe fane of the earth, and daughters were 
born untoihcm, that the foni of God faw the daughters of raen, 
that they were fair ; and they lock them wives of all which they 

Chofe There were giants id the earth in thofc days ; and alfo 

after that, when the fons of Gpd caoie in unto the daughters of 
men, and they bare children to them, the famie became rnighty men, 
which were of old men of renown. " By the fons cf God bc:c, sre 
doubilcfi meant the chilfiren of the church. It is a denominatloa 
often given them in fcripture. They intermarried with the wick- 
ed world, and fohad their hearts led away frocn God ; and there 
was a great and coniiauil defection from the church. The church 
of God, that ufed to be a reftraint on the wicked world, diminiih- 
cd eiccsdiogly, andfo wickcdncfr went on without reftraint. And 
Satan, th^t old fcrpcnt the devil, that tempted our firf^ parents, and 
fct up hlmfclf as God of this world, raged exceedingly j and eve-- 
ry imagination of the thoughts of man's heart was only evil cob- 
tinually, and the earth was filled with violence. It fcemed to be 
deluged with wlckcdncfs now, as it was with water afterwards ? 
and mankind in general were drowned in this deluge ; almoft slS 
were fwnllowcd up in It. N^w Satan made a moft violent and po- 
tent attempt to fwallow up the church of God ; and had aiscofb 
done it. But yet G^d prefcrved h In the mldft of all this liood of 
wickedncfs and violence. He kept it up in that line of which 
Chrift was to proceed. He would not fuifer it to be deftroytd, 
for a fclciTing was in it. The Lord the Redeemer was in this 
branch of mankind, and wa» afterwards to proceed frem It. 
There was a particular family that was a root in which the great 
Redeemer of the world was, and whence the branch of rjgbtcouf" 
ccfs afterwards wis to (hoot forth. ThcrefcfCjhowevrt- ihc branches 
wer« lopped off, and the tree fcemed to dcftroyed ; yet God 'p the 
midft of all this, kept alive this root, by h's wonderful reflccnning 
power and grace,fo thai the gates of hell could not prevail agalaflit* 

Thus I hare (hown how God carried on ?1^ gr^?.t affair of re- 
demption ; how the building went on that G ><^ * egan after the fall^ 
during this fifft period of the times of the Olu Teftamcrft, viz. from 
the fall of man, tiUGod brought the flood on the ear»h. And I 
Would take notice upon it, that though the hiviory which Afofcr 
gives of the great works of God during that fpaee be very fijort ; 
yet it B cxcscding comprehenfivc and iaAru(^.irc* It nr-y slfo be 

D proiltftbte 

U A H I S T O R Y ol 

profitable fcr uf here to cbfcrvc, the cflicacy of that purchafc cf 
rcjcajption :hat had fuch great cffcas crtn in ihc old world fo ma- 
ny agei before Chrifl appeared himfclf to purchafc redemption, 
that hi> bldoj fhoald have fuch great e/ficacy fo long before it vraj 


i^rom tile flood to the calling of Abraham. 

T PROCEED now to (ho^ how the farac ^ork was carried oth 
X through^ihQ fecoad ptriod of the Old Teftamcnt, that frcrn tht . 
beginning of the fiood tillihi culling of Jbraham : for though that 
mighry, overfiuwing, univcrfal deluge of waters overthrew the 
world J yet it diJ not overthrow this building of God, the work of 
rcjca:ption. But this went on yet ; aod infttad of being over- 
thrown, continued to be built up, and was carried en to a furtkcf 
preparation for the great Savicut'i coming into the world, and 
working out rcdeoapiion for his people. Here, 

I. The flood itfcif was a work of God that belonged to this 
great aiTair, and tended to promote is. AlJ the great and mighty 
works of God from the fall of man to the end of the world, arc 
reducible to this great work, sad, if feen in a right view of ihcm, 
>vin appear as parts of it, and fo many ftcps that God h^s taken ia 
order to it, or ai carrying; it on } and doubik;fi fo great a woik, fo 
fcmarkablc and univcrfala cataHrophe, as the deluge wa», canncS 
be excepted. It was a work that Gcj wrought in order to it, as 
^hereby God removed out of the way the tncipics and obftaclcs of 
it, that were ready to overthiow ita 

Satan fcema to have been in a dfcadfut rage juj^ before the flood, 
and his rage ihe-n doubtlc^'f, was, as it alvv^ys has been, chiefly a- 
gainft the church of God to overthrow it 5 and he had filled thi 
earth with violence and rage againft it. He had drawn over al- 
moft all the world to be oa his nJe, and they lifted under his ban- 
tier againft Chriil and his church. We icad, that the earth *' wss 
filled with violence ;" and doubtlcfs that violence was chiefly a- 
gain ft the church, in fuifilaacnt of what was foretold, I will pvt 
iftmity between thy fee li and her Jeed, Their enmity aad violence 
was fo great, and the enemies of the church fo numerous, ih« 
whole woild being againft the church, that it was come to iht: 
lift cxtrerttity. Noah's reproofs, and his preaching of righteouf- 
rcfs, were utterly difrcgsjrdcd. God's fpirii had ftrivcn with them 
sn hundred and twenty year8,,and all in vain ; and the church was 
Si\mof\ fwallovired up. It fecms to have been reduced to fo narroMf 
HaiJs, p% to be corfincd fo ore family. And there was no prof" 
pc(ft of any thing c'fe b^ut of thci*- totally fwallowing up the church, 
and that in n very lUtlc time ; and fo wholly deftroying that fmall 
root that had the blcfiing in it, ojr whsnc« the Redcesier was to pro* 
cccd. Thtrcforc, 

the Woik of REDEMPTION. ' r> 

Therefore, God's dcftroying thofe cncmici of the church by the 
jS'ood, belongi to this affair of redemption : for h wai one ihin^ 
.fbat was done in fulfiloacnt of the covenant of grace, as it was re- 
'yealcd te Adam : ^* 1 will put enmity between ihcc and the wo- 
apian, and between thy feed and her feed ; it Hiall bruile iby head." 
This deAruiflion was onljj a dcf^ru<^ion of the feed c/ the fcrpcnt 
in the midft of their violent rige againft the feed of the woman, 
and fo delivering the fcid of \tz woquin from them, when \xi 
utonoft peril by thcm» 

Wc read of icarce any great dcftruOioa of nation* any where In 
Scripture, but that one main reafon given for it is, their cnmi'y 
£nd injuries againfl God's church ; and doubtlcfs thio was one wain 
reafon of the dcriruC"tion of all nations by the flood. The giants 
that were ia thofe days, in all likelihood, got iheoafclvcs their re- 
nown by their great exploits againA Htxycn, and againA Chrifi 
and hii church, the remaining fonc of God thaj had not corrupted 

Wc read, that juft before the world (hall be deftroyed by fire, the 
nations that arc in the four quarjcrc of the earth, (hsll gather to- 
gether againH: the church as the fand of the fra, and ft^all go up ca 
the breadth of the earth, and compsfs the camp of the faii'ts about, 
and the beloved city ; and then tire (hall cooie down iiom God 
out of KeavcB, and devour them, Kcv. sa. 8. 9. And it fccmi 
as though there was that which was very parallel to it, juft before 
the world was dcftroycd by water. Tl»crcfore tbcir defuudion waa 
a work of Qo<i that did ai much belong to the work of fedemplioc, 
ss the de/trudion of the Egyptiar.t belonged to the rec'.cmption of 
the children of ffracl out of Egypt, or as the .defiru^ion of Sen'* 
nacherib's mighty arii^y, that had compafTEd about jerufalem to 
deftroy it, belonged to God's redcroption of that city from thcoi. 

By means of this flood, all. the enemies of God's church, againft 
whom that liulc handful had no f rcngth, were fwcpt rff at once. 
God took their part, and appeared for them ?gainfl their enccnicf, 
and drowned thofe o^ whom they had been afraid in the flood of 
water, as he drowned the enecsies of Ifraci that purfued them ia 
the Red fea. 

Indeed God could fcave taken oth« methods to deliver hit 
church : he could have converted all the worJd inftcaJ of drowning 
it ; and fo he could have taken another method than drowning th^ 
^gyptiani in the Red fea. But that u no a-gumcnt, that the 
luethod that he did take, was not a method to (how bis redeeming 
mercy to them. 

By the wicked world's being drovvacd,the wickcd,thecofmic« of 
God's people, jffcrc difpofieiTed of the earth, and the wFclp ea:^ 
^ivco 10 Noah and hij hmWy to poflcfi \u quiet : as God nude 


Yj a H I S T O R T of 

room for the 7/Vtff//l*/ in C^naen, by eafting out their eQCrafes 
fiQTT^ before ihcm. And 6ad'i tUiw taking the poflcfTion of ihc 
dncm'.cs of the church, ;)nd givisjg it all to his church, wagagrcc- 
sblc io Eh£t prooiirc oi the covcaantof grace : Pfal. xxxvti. 9. 10, 
XI. •* i^'or evil doers ihall bt cut ofi : but thofetbat wait upon the 
L::rd, they ftia!! inherit the earth. For yci a Utile while ^nd th« 
wicked Cji-;* not be t yea th;:)u (bait di?'gcntly contidlir his place, 
aad h IhaSS no'i bt. But the meek ftiall inherit £hc earth, siid ^all 
HcH'^hs ihc2i^£.5vcs in the abundance of peace.'" 

21. Another thing here belonging to the fame work, wxsGod's fo 
vyoadcyfiiliy prsfck-vi^g that fa an ily of which the Redetmcr wa$ 
to proceed, when sU the I eft of the world was drowned. Gcd'» 
drownixig the world, and faving Nc^A' and lus family, both were 
woiks reducibiC to this gic&t work. The faving Noah and hit 
limiJy belonged to it vvo ways. As thit fajnily was the family 
of which the Redeemer was to proceed, and as that family was the 
church thst he had ycduemcd, it was the myftical body of Chrift 
ahat was jhere faved, Ti^e majincr of God's faviKg thofepcrfons,, 
when ali the worSd ber^dcn was to overthrown, was veiy wonder- 
lu! &nd reaiarkabk. Is was a vrondetful tnd remarkable type of 
Khs redemption of Chri^^, of that redcirspiion that is fcaled by the 
baptifm oif water, and 38 fo fpoken of in the New Tcfisment, as 
1 Peti iii, 20. 21, "' Which fooie tijriC were difcbcdient, whea 
©nee thi long-fuiferbg c-f God wailed in she days of Noah, vyhile 
ahc ark was pfgp^iriag, wherein few, that is cij^ht fouU, were faved 
by watcr» The Hke %«re \rhcreunto, evsn baptifm, doth alfo cow 
jfavc us, (coc the putting «way of the tilth of the fiefii, but the aa- 
f-,vcr of a good coafciencc to»-ards God) by the rcfurreftion of 
JeftiflChrir^." That waser that wraihcd away the filth of the world, 
^ai cleared the world of wicked men, was a type of the blood of 
Cbrii^, that ta^cs away the fin of the world. That water thai 
dcHvered Noah and his fens froai their enemies, is a type pf the 
Hood Jhst'deliversGod s church from their fins, their worft enemies, 
5'hat water that was fo plentiful and abundant, that it filled the 
world, £nd reached above the tops of the bigheft raountains, was a 
Cype of that blood, the fufticicncy of which t» fo abundant, that i^ 
h fuificient for the whole world ; fullicicnt to bury jhc bigbefi: 
ssountaini of fin," The ark, that was the refuge and hiding place 
of the church in this timeof i^orm and flood, was a type of Chrirtp 
^he true hiding phce of the church from the Aorms and floods of 
God'a wrath* 

111. The next tbirg I would obferve if, the new grant of ?hc 
Otnh God made to Noah and bis faaaily insmcdiately after the 
liood, as founded on the covenant of grace. The i'acrifice 0£ 
^hiiii vTu3 rcprcfGsitsd by Ni>i.^'» bwUing ^u alrtt :o the Lord and 

&t Work of REDEMPTION, 


oflfcfiftg a facrificc of CTcry clean bcaft and fowl. And wc have an 
iccount of God'f accepiiog this facriticft : and thereupon hii blcfTcd 
Noah, 2nd el\ab!i(hcd his covcnani wiih him, and with his Iced, 
promifing to dcTiroy the caiih ic like manner no snore j fignifying 
how that it ii by the facrificc of Cbfift thaiGcd'i favour it obtain- 
ed, and fail people arc in fa/ciy frccn God's dsfiroyir.g judgement*, 
and do obtain the blcfnng of the Lord. And God noiy> ca occilioc 
of thi> facfiricc that Noah oifcrcd toGcd,givcjr him and hi« poflerity 
a new grant of the earth ; a new pov»/cr ot dominion over tbccrea* 
turcs, as founded on that facrifice, and fo founded on the coven- 
ant of grace. And fo it is to be looked upon as a divcrfc graz»8 
from that which was made to Adam, tfa<it we have, Gen. i. 28, 
^' And God bleifcd them, and God faid unto them, Kc fruitful, 
and multiply, and rcplcr.ikh the earth, and fubdue it ; and have 
dominion over the fi(h of the fea, and over the fowl of the air, ancj 
over every living thing that moveth upon the earih." Which 
grant wa« not founded on the covenant of grace ; for it was given 
to Adara while he was under the covcnml of works, and therefore 
was antiquated when thai eovena^nt ceafcd. The Hrft grant of the 
tarih to Adam was founded on the firft covenant ; and therefore, 
when tliat firft covenant was broken, the right conveyed to hica 
by that firfl covenant was forfeited and ioJt. Hence it cacne to pafs, 
«hal the earth was taken away from mankind by the flood : for the 
firll grant was forfeited ; and God had never made another after 
that, till afccr the flood. If the firfl eovcnan? had not been brok« 
en, God never would have drowned the world, and fo have taken 
it away from mankind : for then the firft grant made to mankind 
wc>uld have ftood good. But that was broken ; and fo God after 
a while, dcflfcycd tfec earth, when the wickedrjcfs of man wasgreai* 
But after the flood, on Noih's offering a facrifice that reprcfcnfe- 
?d the facrifice of Chrif>, God, ia fmelling a ftvect favour, or ac- 
cepting that facfific?,a8 it was a reprcfcnUtfon of the true facrifice 
«)f Chrift, which is a fwect favour indeed to God, he givn Noah 
a new grani of the «rth, founded on Jhst facrificc of Chrift, o** 
that covenant of grace which is by that fscrihcc of Chrift, with a 
promife annexed, that now the earth fiiould no more be dcnroyed„ 
till the confujcmation of all things i at you may fee in Gen. viii, 
to, 2;. 22. and chaptar ir. i. 2- j. 7. The rcafcn why fuch 
a prcmifc. ^hat Gcd would no more dcftroyihe earth, was addeJ 
to this grant made to Noah, and not to that made to Adam, waj 
becaufe this was founded on the covenant of grace,of which Chrift 
was the furciy, and therefore could not be broken. Therefore it 
comes to pafs now, that though the wickcdncfsof man has dtc^d" 
iii\ly raged, and the earth been filled with violence aod wicked- 
8|£fi ihoufands of Siacs, aad 02c a^c afi^f saothcr, and much mere 


(dreadful and aggravated wickedncfs than the world wi» full of before 

the flood, being againft fo much grcjrcr light and mercy ; cfpccwl- 

ly in thcfe d«yi of the gofpcl : yet Qod's patience holes out ; God 

.does not dcftroy the earth j his mercy and forbearance abides ac- 

^ cording to hii prcBȣc ; and his grant eniabllAicd with Noah and 

' bis fons abide* t^rca and good, being founded oa the covenant of 


IV. On this God renews with hToab and bis ions the covenant- 
of grace, Gen. ix, 9. 10. " And I, behold^ I eAabiifii my <io- 
venant vt"Ilb you, and with your feed after you, and with every 
living creature that is with you," &c. ; which was the covenant of 
grace ; which C7cn the brute creation have this bcneist of, that k 
fliall never be dcftroycd again till the confunr.mation of alt thi»j^« 
When we have this cjsprefiion in fcripturc, my covenant, it com- 
laonly is to be undcrftood of the covcnsat of grace. The manner 
p( ciprellion, ** 1 will cftabliCh my covenant with you, and witb 
your feed after you," Ihc^^s plainly, that it was a covenant already 
in being, tliat had btca made already, and that Noah would ua- 
derftand what covenant it w^i by that dcoorcinalion, viz. thjB 
sovcnsnt of grace. 

V. God's difappolnting it-e<!c:r?gn of build ijtg the city and toircf 
of Babel. This work of God belongs to thegreat work of redemption^ 
For that buildiag was undertaken in oppofition to this great build- 
ing of God that we arc fpcaking of, Mcn» going about to build 
fuch a city and tower was an c^cd of the corruption that mankind 
v/erc now foou fallen into. This oiiy sad tower wa» fcl up in op- 
pofition to the city of God, £s the god that tbey buiU it to, wa§ 
{jhcir pride. Being fuok into adifpofiiion lo forfakc the trucGodp 
£hc firft idol tbey fet up in hii roon;, was thjemfclyes, their oivn 
glory and fame. And as this city and tower bad their foundation 
iaid in the pride and vanity of men, and the haughtinefi of their 
minds, fo is wss built on a foundsition exceedingly contrary to 
the nature of the foundation of the kingdom of Chrift, and hi« 
jTcdeemed city, which has its foundation laid in humility. 

Therefore God faw that it tended to fruftrate the defign of that 
great building that was founded, not in the haughtincf* of men, 
but Chrifl's blood : and ihstcforc ihc thing that they did difpleafed 
«he Lord, and fee baffled and confounded the de*'ign, and did not 
fuffer thc« to bring it to perfection ; as God will frufUatc and 
confound all other buildings, that are fct up in uppofuicn to tha 
great building of the work of redemption. 

In the fccond chapter of Ifaiab, where the prophet is fcretcK'nC 
God's fctting up the kingdom of Chrift in the world, he forcicW 
bow God wisi, in order to it, brirg .iown the huuiiuinefs o- nit^ 
i&cd bQVf the day of the Lord ihaU bf 00 fviry high to-wtr, aifS 


tiic Work of K E D E M P T I O N. 39 

upon every fcnud wjH, (^c. Chrift'i kingdom is cftabliAccf, by 
bunging down every high thing to maks nty for it, z Cor. x. 4. ja 
•* Kor the weapons of ojr warfare arc mighty through God to the 
pulling down of flrong holJ«, cafliflg down ioiaginationf, and 
every high iLingihat exalteihijfelf againfl the kno^rlcdgc of God.'* 
What it done in a p;irticular foul, to make way for ths fcttin^ up 
6f Chrin'i kingdom, i* to dcRroy Babel ia that fou?. 

They !n{cnded to have built B^ibcl up to heaven. That building 
that is the fubjccl ws are upon, is a building that ia intended tobebuiU 
fo bi^h, its top Rnll reach to heaven ind^«d, as it will to the higheft 
heavens at the cad of the world, when it (hall be fiaiflied* and there- 
foreGod would not fuffcr the building of hiicncmics,ihat Ihcydefign 
ed to build up to hcivcn ia oppofuiou toit.ioprofper. If they had 
gone on and profpcjcd in building that city and tower, it might 
have kept the world of wicked men, the cncmici of the church, 
together, as that was their dcfigH. They might have remained 
initcd in one vaft, powerful city ; and fo they might have been 
too powerful for the ciiy of God, and quite fwallowcd it up. 

This city of Bibel is the fame with the city of Babylon ; fof 
Babylon in the original is Babel. But Babylon was a city thMt h 
always fpoken of in fcripturs as chiefly oppofite to the city of 
God. Babylon, and Jcrufalem, or Zioa, are oppofed to each 
other of<en both in the Old Tcftamcnt and New. This city wu a 
powerful and terrible enemy to the city of God afterwards, not- 
withftanding this great check put to the building of it in the begin- 
ning. But it might have been, and probably would have been 
vaftly more powerful, and able to v»x and deftroy the church of 
(Sod, if it had not been thus checked. 

Thus it was In kindncfi to his chureh in the world, and Irx 
profecution of the great defign of redemption, that God put a 
flop to the building of the city and tower of EabcK 

VI. The difperfing of the nations, and dividing the earth among 
lis inhabitants, immediately after God had caufed the building of 
Babel to ceafa. This was done fo as moi^ to fuit that great defiga 
of redemption. And particularly, God therein had an «y« to the 
future propagation of tVic gofpcl among the nations. They were 
fo placed, the boyt]* of their habitation fo limited round about 
the land of Cinain, the place iaid out for the habitation of God's 
people, ai mo.t fuitcd the dcHgn of propagating the gofpel among 
them: Dsut, xxxif. 8. "When theMofiHigh divided to the nalloni 
their inheritinc«, when he fcparated tba fons of Adam, he fet the 
bounds of the people according to the number of the obildren of 
ITrael.'* Afti xvii, 26. 27* ** And hith made of one blood all 
liitioas of men, for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and batb 
tfetcrmiaed the times before appointed, and the bounds of thecr 

babitaiioQS ; 


fcabifations ; that they flnould fcek the Lord, if haply they tsa'f^Vf after him, and tind him." The land of Canaan wa« the ttooft 
conveniently fituatcd of any place m tbc world for the purpofe of 
fprcading the light of the gofpcl thence the nations In ge- 
neral. The inhabited world wa« chicfty in the Roman cropirt io 
the tifflci immediately after Cbrift, which was in lh« countries 
round about Jcrufalean, and fo propcdy fiiuated for the purpofe of 
diffufing the light of the gofpel aaiong them from that place. The 
^cvil feeing the xdyantagc of this ijtuaiion of the nations for 
promoting the great woi^ of redemption, and the difadvantigc of 
ij with rcfpcd to the imcrcfts of his kicgdom, afterward led a^ay 
many oatioiw into the rcmotcft parts of the world, »o that cndi 
Jo get them out of ihc way of the gofpcl. Thu» he led fome into 
Aojcrica j and otheii into northern cold rcgioni, ihat arc alaioft 

VII. Another thing I would mention in this period, wa» God'i 
preferring tnc true religion in the line of which Chrift was to pro- 
ceed, when the world in general apoftatized to idolatry, ^nd the 
church were in inamincnt danger of bdng fwallowcd up in the ge- 
BCfal corruption. Although God had lately wrought fo wonderful* 
3y for the delircrancc of his church, and had fbewn fo great mercy 
«o«rardi it, as for its fake even to deAroy all the refl of the world . 
asd aiihough he had lately renewed znd eftablift^ed his covenant of 
grace with Noah acd his foas ; yet fo prone is the corrupt heart of 
laan to dcpar? from God, and to fjnk into the depths of wickcdnefiif 
and fo prone to d^rkncfs, dclufion, and idohtfv, si ihat the world 
foon after the f.ood fell intogrofs idolatry 5 fo that before Abra- 
haga the diiiecnper was bccorae almo>1 univsrf&l. The cartk was 
become very corrupt st the lime of the building of Babel ; and c- 
^zn God's people them feivcj, even that line of which Chrift was to 
came, were corrupted in a meafurc with idolatry : Jolh, iriv. 2, 
^' Vour fathers dwelt on the other fide of the fiood ir> old lisQc, 
even T:rah the fathtr of Abraham, and the father of Nahor ; aod 
thcyfervsd othr guit** The either fide of the flood means beyond 
tbc river Euphrates, where ihc anccllors of Abraham lived. 

Wc arc not to undcrfland, that they were whoJly drawn ©fT to 
idolatry, to forfakc the true God. For God is faid to be the Qod 
of Nahor : Gen, xxxt. n« '* ''^h® ^^^ o^ Abrahata, and the God 
©f Nshor, the God ot thsir father, judge bcc^Mst us." But they 
only partook in fomc mca fure of the general and almoft univerfal 
corruption of the times ; as Solomon was in a larafurc infe^id 
with idolatrftus corruption ; and as the children of Ifracl in Egypt 
«rc faid to fcrvc other gods, though yet there was tbc true chureti 
©f God among them ; and as thcfc were images kept for a conq- 
uerable tictrc in the family of Jacob ; the corruption being brou§;h| 

froojt PAdaa*Ara», whcno« he fetched bis wives, 


Ac Work of R E 1) E M P T I O N. 4* 

Thi« WM the fecond lime that the church wit ilmoA brought to 
nothing by the r.oryuption and general dcft^'ion of the world from 
true religion. Bat fliil the true religion vf^t kept up in the fami- 
ly of which Chrir: wai to proceed. Which ii another inPisnce of 
God's rcnsarkably prcferving; hii church in a ticie of. a general de- 
ladgc of wiekcdnefs ; and wherein, alihowgh the |od of this world 
raged, ar.d bad almoft fvrallowcd up God's chuicb, yet God iid 
iict fuiFcrthe gates of hell :o prevail sgaini^ it, 


PART iir. 

From the calling of Abraham to jMofbsJ 

I PROCEED now to (how ho'.y the work of rede mpticn ttrat 
Carried on through the third ptn'od o( ihc times of tht O.d-Tcf- 
t;imcnt, beginning with the filing of Abraham, and extending to 
Mofgf, Here, 

1. It pleafcd God now to fepsra^e thst perfon of whom *Chrift 
was to come, /rem the reft of the world, that bis church migh! b« 
upheld in his family an< pofteriiy till Cbrif^ fhould come ; as he 
dii in calling Abraham out of his own country, and from his kin- 
dred, to gcxinto a diOant country, that God fliould (how him, and 
bringing him firii^ out of U/ of lh« Chaldcei to Charran, and thea 
to the land of Canaan. 

It was before obfervcd, that the corruption of the world with ido- 
latry was now become general; mankind werealmoft wholly oyer- 
run with idolatry : God therefore faw it necefTary, in order to cp« 
hold true religion in the world, that there (hould be a family fc« 
parated from the reft of the world. It proved to be Ihfgh time to 
lake this courfc, Uh tht chuich of Chrift ih-uH whol'y be carried 
away with the apoi^afy. For the church of Gad iifclf, that had 
been upheld in the line of Abrahsm's anceftor?, was alreac'y con- 
fldcrably corrupted, Abraham's own country and kindred had 
moft of ihem fallen off; and without fotne extraordinary intcrpo- 
fition of Providence, in all likelihood, in a generation or two more, 
the true religion in this line would hare been extin^. Thcrcfor« 
.(rod faw it to be timt to call Abraham, the perfon in whofc f«^ 
mily he intended to uphold the true religion, out of his own eoun* 
try, and from his kindred, to a far diftant ccuntry, that hit poAe* 
tity might there remain a people feparatc frcKi all the reft of the 
world ; that fo the true religion might be ophtld ifecre, nhile aaQ4 
kind bcfides w«re f wallowed up in Heathen ifm. 

The land of the Chaldces, thai Abraham war called fo go rut of, 
wasthec-^untry a'oout B>bel ; Bibel. or Babylon, was the chief 
city of the laad of Chaldea. L'^arncd men fuppofe, by vihal thcf 
ptthcr ffom fomc of the moft anient accoUDlj of thhgt, th^t It 

£ wai 


«fii in thii land khit idloUtry ^rft begin ; thit Babel ic() CbtMex 
were the original and chief feat of »hc wroilhip of idols, whence it 
fprcid into other nations. Therefore the land of the ChaWcar.s, 
or ihccouatrj of Babyton, is in fcriplure called the land cf graven 
im^get ; as you miy fee, Jer. i. 35. together with ver. 38. *• A 
fwQcd is upon the Chaldeans, faiiti the Lord, and upon the inbabi* 
tattii of Bibylon, and upon her princes, and upon her wife men.— 
A drought it upon her watcri, and they (hill be dried up ; for it U 
the land of graven imAgcs, and they are eiad upon their idol«." 
God calls Abraham out of this idohtroui country, to a grejt dif- 
taace froto it. And when he came there, he gave him no inheri- 
tance in it, no not fo much as to fet hti foot on ; but he remain- 
ed a ftrangcr an 1 a foj mrrier, that he and hii family might be 
kept fcp irate from all the world. 

Tnia vras a new thing ; God had never taken fucb a method be- 
fo f, Hts church had not in this manner been feparated from the 
reft of the world till dqvt ; but were wont to d^ycH wiih thcm,with" 
out any bar or fence to keep them feparate j the mifchicvous con- 
fcqucnccs of which had been found once and again. The efiedt 
before the flood ofGod'i people living inrcrmiagled with the wick- 
ed world. Without any rcsi^arkable wall of ftparalion, was, that 
%ut font of ihe church j lined in marrisge witb others, and thereby 
almoft all foon became infc^f^cd, and ih« church was almoft bro'i 
to nothing. The method that God took then to fence the church 
wai. to drown the wicked world, and fave the church in the ark. 
And now ihc world, before Abraham was called, was become cor- 
rupt ag^in. But now God took anothef method. He did not 
dcil'oy the wicked world, and fave Abrahara, and his wife, and 
l..)t. in an ark ; but he calls thefe perfons to go and live feparatc 
from the reft of the world. 

Tnis was a new thing, and ^ greil thing, thsl God did toward 
the work of reJcmption. Thi« thing was done now about the 
midtlle o'the fpace of lime between the fall of man and the com- 
ing of Ctvri'^ ; and ihc.c were about two tboufand years yet to 
cone before Chi ift the great R.dcemcr was to come. But by this 
calling of Abraham, the anccftor of Chrift, a foundation was laid 
for the upholding lh3*chureh of Chrid in the world, till Chiift 
fhoul4 come. For the world having^ idolatroui, there was 
a neccflTity th;*t tne feed of the woman ft\ould be thus feparated from 
the idolatrous world in order to that. 

And then it was needful that there fhould be t particulir nation 
fep:*rated from the reft of the world, to receive the types and pro- 
phecies that were needful to be given of Chrift, to prepare the way 
for bis coming ; that to them might be committed the oracles of 
God i and (ti^tb^f (bc« the bi^ory of God'i gttn woiki of cr««. 


tke Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 4J 

t!pn and provideocs might be upheld ; and ihii fo Cbrift might be 
bora of this nation ; and that from hence the light of ihc gofpcl 
might Ihinc forth to th« reft of the world. Thcfc endi could not 
well be obtained, if God's people, throi^gh all tbefc tvro thoufand 
yeari, had lived intermixed with the heathen world, S j that ihii 
calling of Abraham may be looked upon ai a kind of a new foun- 
dation laid for the vifiblc church of God, in a more diOin^ and re- 
gular ftaie, to be upheld and built up on thii foundation from hence* 
forward, till Chrift Ihould aftually come, and then through hiai 
to be propagated to all nations. So that Abraham being the ptr- 
fon in whom this foundation is laid, is lepicfenled in fcripiuie u 
though he were the father of all the church, the father of all them 
that believe ; as it were a root whence the vifiblc church thence- 
forward through Chrift, Abraham's root and oifspring, rofe as a 
tree, diftindl from all other plants ; of which tree Chrift wa» 
the branch of Vighteoufncfs j and from which ircc after Chrift 
came, ttie natural branches were brolren off, and the Gentilci 
were grafted into the fame tree. So that Abraham Oill 
remaini the father of the church, or root of the ifcc, through 
Chrif^ hii fctd. It it the fame tree that flourifhei from that fm^ll 
begifinttig, thit was in Abraham's time, and hzt in thefe days of 
the gofpel fpread its bran/:bes over a great part of the earth, ^nd 
will fill the whole earth in due lime, and at the end of the woild 
fin ill be tranfplanied from an earthly foil into the paradifc of God, 
II. Th:re accompanied this a more particuUr and full i€vcUtic 
oi and conHrmation of the covenant of grace than ever bad bcea 
before. There had before thii been, as it were, two particular and 
foicmn edi(ions or confirmationi of this covenant ; one at the be- 
ginning of the fiifl period, which was that whereby the covenant 
of grace was revealed to our firft parents, foon after the fall ; the 
oihcr at the beginning of fhe fccond period, whereby God folctnn- 
ly renewed the covenant of grace with Noah and bis family fooa' 
sfter the fiood j and now there if a third, at the beginning of the 
third period, at and after the calling of Abr*ham. And it now be- 
ing much nearer the time of the coming of Chrift jhan when toe 
covenant tsf grscc wa« firft revealed, it being, a; it was faid before^ 
about half way between the faU and the coming of Chrifl, the rcvc^ 
lation of the covenant now wai much more full then any thai had. 
been before. The covenant was now more particular!) revealed. 
It was now revealed, not only that Chrift (hould be ; but it was 
revealed to Abraham, that he lliould be hit feed ; ana it was now 
promifcd, that all the families of the earth fhould be blrlTcd in 
bim. God was much in the promifcs of i\is ro Abraham. T^c 
fir»l promife was when he drft called him, Gen. »i». 2. * A^i 
I vill mike of thee a great nation, and I will b!ef« hcc and o ake 
|hj nur.c great ; and Ihou ihallbe j bUffiagr Aga iu the hm' p»p. 

44 AHlSTORYof 

mife irii rencved after he cimc into the land of Canatn, ch^p.xiU 
14 &c. Tqc coreoanc wa* again reiacvtred after Abrahaaa had re- 
turned from the flaughicr of the kingf, chap, xv, 5. 6, Again 
after hii offering up Kaac, chap. xxii. 16. 17. 18. 

In tbii fcncvral of the covcaant of grac« with Abraham, fcvcral 
particulars concsming that covenant were rcves'.cd morefuHy than 
«v4r had been before ; not only that Chiift waa to be of Abraham's 
feci, but alfo, the calling cf tbtGeiUilei » and the bringing all nali» 
oru into the churchy that alt the f^tnilies of the earth wtre to be 
blcffsd, vra5 new made known. And then the great cor.djiion of 
the covenant of grace, which it faiib, was now more fully made 
kflow^. Gen. xv. 5. 6. *' And be faid uatobim. So Ifaall thy 
feed be. And Abraham bc!icve»i God, and it was counted unio 
bimfor rigbScoiirncfs." Which ia much taken notice of in the 
ticw Teiiiment aa thai whence Abrahaci wa« calleif the father of 
them that beilcve. 

Aj ihexe was now a further revclalion of ibc covenant of grace, 
io there was a further cotifi:maiion of it by fcala and pledges, thea 
ever had been bifoie ; a», particularly, God did now inf^itute a 
certiin facfamcutjto be a ileady fcal of :h'i» covenant in thvC viiible 
church, till Chrift il;iould eooic. triz. ciFCumciuon. Circumcifioii 
wa» a fcal of this covcnaot of grac^, as appears by the firft infti- 
tuiioa, a* we have an account oi it la the 17th cb.nptcr of Gcncfii. 
It there appears to be a of that covSi»aai by vthichGod prcmifei 
to make Abrahritn a faShar of many nations, as appears by ihe 5lh 
verfc, coa>pifi'd with ih-^ ()ih and lOth verf^g. We xre fxpusfly 
taught, Jhii it vrat a feal of :hc righteoufccfs cffahh, Rooi. 4. 11. 
Speaking of Abraham, the apovile fays, ** he received the fign of 
circumcifjovi, a fcal of the righteoufncfs of fassh." 

As i obftrved before, God caikd Abrahamj that hit family and 
pofteri'.y might be kept fcpsratc from the reft of the world, till 
Chrift fhoul'j comi, which God faw to.bc necelfary on the fore- 
mentioned accounts. And thi« facrament was the principal walj 
of feparadun ; it chiefly difiingUiHicd Abraham's feed fi'om the 
world, and kept up a dii^iriclioa and feparatloa more ihaa anjt 
Other particular obfctvancc whatfover. 

Befidcs thi^ there weic oiher occifional fealt, p'sdgea, and -^^n*' 
firmatioas, thai Abraham had of llils covenant ; as, particdas'ly, 
God gave Abraham a remarkable pledge pf the fuJfilmeoa of the 
promifc he had mads bias, in bii vltiafy over Cfaedorlaomcr and 
the kings that were wish him, ChedorSaomer fecmi to have bee» 
a great emperor, that reigned over a great part of the world at that 
day ; and though he h^d hii feat at E'am. which waa riot m«'ch if 
•nv thing ftujrt of a thouftnd miU» dlf^aui from the land of C^r^^an, 
Seethe ex-ended hh empire fo ai ro reign over m^ny prrf of ib« 
kad cfCsapn, iJ appf an bycb'F^'siv 4 5 ^ 7* 1- ^*/"?* 

the Wotk of R £ D E M P T I O N. 45 

pofcd by learned men, that he wa« a king of the AfCyrhn etnpite 
flt ttU»t djiy, wiisch had been before begun by Nimrod si B.bcl. A« 
it wii the honor ol king* in ihok* days to buil J new caici to be 
m*dc?he fcsi of thcJr caipirc, m z\-)^czti by G<:ti. x. 10. 11. 12.; 
fo it i» conjciiijrtd, that be had gene forth and buili him a ciiy fa 
EUm, and m«de that h'M feat ; and th»t thofc olhcr kingi, who 
C&me with him, were his dt'putlei in the feveril cities and counirict 
"fvLerc ihey reigned. But yet a« mtghty an cuipite at fee had, and 
Sf gie«i sn army aa he now cime with into the land vrhcre Abraham 
was, yet Abrxbsm, onliy with hi» trained fcrvJints, that vrcre bora 
in hii own boufe, conquered, fubdued, and balTlsd ihis mighty 
•mneror, and the kingi that came with him, and all their arniy. 
This he received of Gad as a pledge of what he had prcmifed, viz. 
The vidory that Chrii^ his feed fiiould cbisin over the nations o£ 
the earth, whereby he fiiould polTefs the gjitci of hii enemies. It 
Is plainly fpokcc cf at fucU ia the ^.i^ of Ifaiah. In ihtt cbspifer 
is foretold jhc future glorious viftory the church (VtU obtain cv<.r 
ihe nations of the vrorld ;•<$ you rnsy fee in the i ft, loth, and i^xh 
▼Cffcs, tic. Bui here thit vidory of Abraham over fuch a great 
emperor aad hli rairghty forces, i« fpcken of as a pledge and carntit 
of this viftory of the chufch, ss you aaay fc« In 2d and 3d verfes. 
•* Who raifcd up the righteous ttian from the cafr, called him to 
fciifcot, gave the nations before him,indraidc him rule over kings ? 
H3 gave them as the duft to his f.vorJ, aad as driven flubblc to hii 
bo-*'. He purfucd them, and polled fxfcly ; even by the way that 
be had not gone >yiih his feet/' 

Another remarkable confstmation Abraham received of the ccx'c- 
atntcf grace, nas when he returned from the flaughtcr of the kit?gt; 
i^'hersMJchifedcc the kiog of SaUm he the prieA of thtMcrt High 
God, that great type of Chrift, met him, and bleded him, and 
bicu^ht forth bread ;ind wine. The bread iiud wine fignified ihc 
Uait bttfHngs of the co"v«BftM of grace, thii ihe bread and *vinc 
do£R !ri the ficramcni of the Lord't fuppcr. So that es Abrahsna 
bad i -•^-«*c cf the co/cnant in circumciiion that Vfk* cquivaJent to 
fa^ptifm, fo riow be h^d a ic;'i of it tquivalcni to ihc Lord'* A pper. 
Mcichifedee'j coming to mteuhffn with fixb a fcsl of ihe covenant 
of grace, on the occifioa cf this victory of his over the ki«g» oi 
the north, confirmt, that the ^i(frory vyai a pUdgs of God's fulhl- 
m«n: of tne f»rae covenant ; for ihi>K is the mercy that ?4clchifcdcc 
with his bread and wine takes nciic^ of ; as jou may fee by 
wiiat he fays in Geo. xiv, 19. 20. 

Another ccr.firmation th»t God gave Aibrzhsin of the covenant 
cf g^^ce, W28 ih: vifioo that he had in the d<cp flrcp thai fell upcia 
him, cf the fmoking furnace, and burni'-g lamp, that puffed he- 
Jiweca ihepariiofthc f&aifitfe, a« ia the latter p3« of ihe ijsh 



chapter of Gcnefii. The fasrifi .c, asal! facrifi«i do, fi^nifed »h« 
facrificc of Chriftt Tnc fraoking iiirnacc that pa fled throu^ti .he 
m'ldCt of th^t f/crificc fir^, fgnified thr f'.ffiriLgs o* Chrif^. But 
«hc burning lamp ihat followed, which iTjoiiC witfe a clear bright 
light, (ignifies the glory th«t foUo^vcd Chrift's fuiiifhigs, and wa« 
pjocurt i oy ih«tn. 

Another icmarkable pJsdg^e th?it God gave Abraham of the lul- 
fi mcnt of the covcnrini ct grace, wia hia giving ol il>c child of 
whom Catiii wss to come, in bii old a^e This is fpoken of at 
fuch in Icfipture ; H<.b, xi. ! 4. jz. and alfo Roan. iv. 18. &c. 

Again, anoihtr rcmajkabk pledge that God gtivc Abraham of 
the fu'fimcnt of the covenant of grice, was his dcliveiirg Ifaac, 
after he wa» laid upon the wood of the facriticc ro be flain. Thit 
was a confi<tx)«uoa of Abrabacn's faith iu the pro mife that God 
had maJc of Cbri^, that he tfcould be of Il'aac'i poftcriiy ; and wa» 
a reprcfcntavion of tha rcfuric^tion of Chrijl ; ai you mny iec,Heb» 
xi. 17. 18. 19" Anu bfccaufc this was given as a confirmation of 
the covsnafii of grace, therefore God leoewcd fhit covenant with 
Aorvh m on this occafioc, as you may fee, Gen. xxiv, 15* &c. 

Thu» yow fee h<iw much mors fully the covenant of grace wat 
revpaled and confirmed in Abraham's time than ever it had bees, 
before ; by o^cacJ of which Abrah?ro fcemi to have had a more 
clear urdciftandirgatid light oi Cbrift the great Redeemer, and the 
future thing* that were lo be a;;cofnp)irt)cd by him, than any of the 
faint! thiil had goae bi-^forc. Ir.cicforc Chri'^ takej notice of it, 
that. Abraham rejoiced to icQ th Jay, and he irw k and wat glad, 
J )hu viii. 56 So gfeai an ^idv^nccdid it pIcafcGodnoN'?' to m%kc in 
tbi» building, whicti h<i hid beca carrying on Trom the beginning 
of the woiiJ. 

HI. The next thing <bat 1 would take notice of here, is Qod't 
prefcfvirg »he patti^rchs for fo lorg a time in ihc midfiof ihc 
wicked inh .biiar.ii of Canaan, and trom all oiher enemies. Th^ 
patiiarcM Abraham, lf«sc, and Jacob, v» ere ihofc of whom Chrift 
was to proceed ; *utl xhty rcienow icpuatcd frcai the world, ibx% 
in ihcmh IS thujfij nJ^ai be i-.phcld, TMc>t:forc,in prefervingthem, 
the great d';r'^;n of r.dtn^iion wss upheld snd canried on, H€ 
p-r.fcrvcd ihrtai, ill J V.tpt iht Jnh J)iti(;is of the land where ihry fo« 
j jurncd 'rom dcf^joj injj thcra ; which wa» a rcmaik ib2e difptwfa- 
lion of providence. For the inb:. bitanti ot the land were at that 
iJay exceeding witkcd» though ihcy grcv»^ mo^e wicked afierwardf* 
T»i» ^prca<» by Gen. XV. i^-. 5<^ In the four;h gcneraiicn they 
ftj.lS cctYxt x\Abcr 3g3!a , fo* be iniquity of the Can^anitc* is not 
yet tu't :" A*mucb a* »c -fiv, Thou^jv it V-cvcrv gre*t, yd it it 
rot vif! Ui!l. T; ci? great wicxedncf.* a'fo sj. p<?r6 by A*n"hir.m sr\i 
LA*c*fc *vfirr]»>n to mcii mtrr^ing any of m .: .u^a?c'i of 

the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 47 

the land. Abraham, when he wai oIJ, could net be content till 
he bad n^de Iim fi^ivaut fwe«i ihst be would not lake at wife tor hit 
fon of the daughter* of t'le J*nd. Aod If.^^c and Rcbtcca vtcic 
content to fend away J cob to fo great a dif^ance ai Padan Aram, 
to take hfoa a wife thence. And wben Efiu married feme of the 
dauj(btcrt of the land^ we are told, that tbey were a grief of miod 
to lfk4cand Rebecca* 

Another argument of their great wickcdncfi, h the Inflancc ^e 
have of Sodom and Gomorrah, Af'uiah and Z boiai, which wert 
f)ine of the cities of Caoaan ihougU they wcte piobably di(\tQ- 
guiihingty wicked. 

They being thui wicked, were liktly to have the «noi> bitter eft- 
inity tfairA thefeholy men : agrccihic to what wai declared al 
fifft, ** I will put e-jcnity between ihec and the womarj, and be- 
tween thy feed rtod her feed," Theii holy lives were a coaiinual 
condemnation of "heir wickeJncA, Bcfifcs, it cculd not be olher- 
wifsp but that they muR be touch ii> tcproving their wickednefi* 
11 we Lot wai in Sudom ; «h 1, we are told, v^x^4 hli right* 
coui foul with their unlawful deeds, aod wai a pieaeher of right- 
coufncfi to them. 

They were the moreexpofed to thrm, being Grangers and fcjour- 
nert in the land, and having no inheiitaace the:e as^ret. Men 
are more apt to find fault with Grangers, sad be irritated by any 
thing in them that cifendt them, ai they were with Lot in Sodom* 
He very gently reproved their wickednefi ; and they fay upon it, 
<* Thii fellow came in to fcjourn, and he will necdi be a ruler aud 
a judge ;" and the^tened what they *ould d to him. 

But Gjd wonderfully piefervci \brshim ^nd Lot, Ifaac and 
Jicob, and their f^militi, among/tthem, though they were few in 
number, and they might quickly have def^royeJ them ; which if 
taken notice of aia wonderful io^^anee oi Gjfi't prefeiving mercy 
towards bit church, Pfal. cv. 12. &g. •* When they were but few 
men in number ; yea, very few, and ftr ngeri m it. When they 
went from one nation to another, from one kingdcm to another 
people. He fuffred no man to do them wrong ; yea, Ke reproved 
kings for their fakes, faying, Touch not mi&e anointed, and do my 
prophets no harm." 

This prefervatioQ was in fome inftan<res efpacially very remark* 
able ; tbofe inf^ances that we have an account of, wherein the peo* 
pie of the land were greatly irritated and pri voked ; as they were 
by Simeon and Levi's treatment of the Shechemiies, as you may 
fee in Gen. xxxiv, 30. ficc. Gad then ftr;<: gel v prefer ved J. cob 
and his family, reAraining the prov<-k'H renp'e by an urufual ter- 
ror on their minds, ai you m^y fee in G 1. xxxv. ^ *< And the 
terror of G^d was upon the cities th^r wnre round about them, and 
tbcj did aot putfuc after the foot of J«ccb.'' Qo^'§ 


God's prcfcrvirg them, not only from ihe Cansinhej, is here 
Jo be taken notice of, bui bis prcfervJcg thtm from all oibcri ihal 
intended mifchitf lo ihtm ; m his p?c/«fviog J^cob sirxd his com- 
pany, when purfued byL?.ban, full of fagr,j>ndsclJfpo(!Jion to over- 
take him ai an enemy : God mci hicn, asd rebuked h^j» and Jaid 
<o him, " Tike heed thai thou fpcak not lo J^.r.ob chhcf good or 
bad." How wonderfully did be a!fo pjcfenrc him from Efju hit 
brciher, when he came forth wilh an a"my, with « full <iefign M 
cut hifT. off } how did God in anCwcr to hi* prayer, when he wrcft' 
Ud wilh Child At PsnucI, wondcrfally Jurn Efau'shjsn, and make 
hicn, iuftead of mectioghim 48 2tt cn-my with (laughter and de- 
iliu<fi:Ion, to meet hina as a friend acd brother, doing hit?» no harm I 
Thia were this hand fi:!, ihii litderoo! that bad the bUfnng of 
the Ridccm^r in it, prcferved in ths mid't of c»cmie« a.nd dangers, 
whieh wat not un^like to the prefervlcg the ark is the midft of the 
tccapef?uoui deluge, 

IV. The ntxx thim^ I woiM mention is, I'ne awftjl dc{inj<f\Ion of 
Sodocn and Gjono/iah, and she n:IghboU'ing ciiiei, Thii tended 
to prcmoJ«t the great dcilgn and work that i» the fubjeft of noy pre- 
fcnt undertaking, two vray?. It did fo, as it tended powerfully to 
retrain the inhabitants of the Uni frosa injuring ihofc holy f.rsn- 
gers that G^d hadbrou2ht to fujourn amcngfl them. Lot waj one 
of tbofe ftrangcrs ; he came into the land with Abrsham ; and 
Sodom w?5 dcilroyed for their sbufivC difrcgard of Lotjthe preach- 
er ot rJghteotjfncfj, that Gcd had fent arcong thftn. And thcif 
deftru^ion CiiGi: jufl upon their committirg a mcft irju^ious and 
abomtnJible infuU on Lot, and she flrangcrjs that were cocr.e into hit 
fc >ufc, evcnthofc angcb, who:n they prcbably took to be feme cf 
Loi'a form-r acq.nintan^c come from the country that he csme 
from, to x'lfiz him. They - : a moft outrageous manner befciLot'i 
fcoufi, initndinjj a monftrcrn abufe and aft of violence on thofe 
ftrangrrs tnat were coaje thither, aiid threatening to fcrye Lot 
wovfe i:,in the»n, 

Butin the midA of ihii God ftfiote them with blin^Jnfifs ; and 
the next morniug the city and the country about it wat overlhrowa 
in a mo<t terrible ftorco ol fi.'c and brimi^onc ; which dreadful dc- 
f^ru'-^ion, ^% it wa> ir» iht: Ctghi ®i the ro'k of the inhabitants of the 
land, therefore j^reat I y tended lo ref^rain them from hurling thofc 
fcoly ftrangfrs any more ; doubflef* f^rock a dread and terror on 
theif minds, and mads them afraid to hurt ihcm, and probably 
wai one principal meani to rtlVain them, and prcfcrve the patri- 
arch*. And when th^t rcsfon it gi^cn *hy the inhabitantf of the 
Ifind did '^-i purfuc after Jacob, when they were fo provoked by 
?hc defru.^'on o? the Sh^rh^aiJttJ, v?z. *• that the terror of ihe 
JLord was upon thcaa.'* h w very probafclc, that this wii a twrc^ 


the Work of R E 1) E M P T I O N. 49 

that wai fct heme upon ibem. They yemewbcrcd the steniing it- 
rtruftion of Sodom, ar.d the eiucs of the fliin, that came upon 
them, upon ihcir iibulive ircatmcni of Lol, and fo durfl not hurl 
Jficob and hit hmiVy, ihou^h ibey were fo much provoked to it. 

Another way ihit ihii awful dcflrudion tended to promote thif 
gccat alTair of rcdeaipiion, was, ihat hereby God did remarkably 
csLiiibii chc terror! ot ibis law, to make men fenfiblc of their need 
ot rcdeetoirtg mercy. The work ol redemption never wai carried 
ca without this. The law, froai the beginning, ii made ufe of as 
t fchooI-Gnafter to bring men toChrift. 

Bui undtr the Old Tcftamcnt there wa» much iftorc need of fome 
cxlraordjnary, vifible, and fenublc manifcftation of God'i wrash 
a^ainft fin, than in the days of the gofpcl ; iincc a future flate, and 
the ctcrnai mifery of hell, is mors dearly revealed, led fincc the 
aivfui juAice qI God zg%'inh the dnt of men hat been fo wonderful* 
ly dtfpiaycd iu the futTeringa of Chjift. Therefore the revelation 
that God gave of hiis^fdf in thofe days, ufcd to be accompa&icd 
with much more terror than it ii in ihefe day* of the gofpel. So 
when God appeared at Mount Sinai to give the law, it wai with 
thuadcrs 2nd lightningFj and a thick cloud, and the voice of tit 
trumpet es^cesdin*^ loud . JBut fome externa!^ awful manifcftatisni 
•f God°i wrath againfl (In were on fome account! efpccially necef- 
fary before the giving of the law ; and therefore, before the flood, 
the terror! of the law handed down by tradition fromAdam fervcd* 
Adam lived nine hundred and thirty years birafclf, to idl tho 
eburch of God'i awful threatening! denounced in the covenant 
made with birr., and how dreadful the confequencc! of the fall vrcre^ 
at he was an cye-witnefi and fubjed ; and others, that coaverfcd 
with Adam, lived till ihc flood. And the dcftsudicn of the wor^d 
ky the flood fcrved to exhibit the terror! of the hw, and manifeft 
the wrath ofGed againfl fin ; and fo to make men fecfrble of the 
abfolute neccHity cf redeeming mercy. And fonc that faw ihfi 
fiood were alive in Abraham'! time* 

But thia ;vai now in a great mcafure forgotten ; now therefore 
God was plesfed again, in a moft araadng manner to fiiow hi« 
wrath againO i\o, in the dcfrruflion of thefc ciziei ; which vra! af!er 
fucla a manner ai to be the Hvelief^ iraagc of hell cf any thing that 
ever had been ; and therefore the apofile Judc fsyi, *' They fuffet 
the vengeance of etcroal fir«," Jude 7., God rained ftorms of fire 
and brimftone upon ihc»n. The vi^ay that they vyerc dcftroycd pro- 
bably wai by thhk fiaf-/^! of lightning. The i^rcam^ of brimftont 
were fo thick ai to burn up tli thefe cities ; fo that rhey perilled ia 
the flames of divine wrath. By thit mijht be fccn the dreadful 
wrath of God agtinA the ungodlincfi acd uafightcoufncfi cf mtn 5 
•rh\th tended to (V\ow men tbc ficcefl:ty cf rcdcisplion, and fo t« 


V. Gd^ sga'ft renewed and confirmed ihc covenant of gTace i?o 
}{>'*'■. anfl to Ja*ob. H< diJ fa t6 Ifaic, «t you m?y fee, Gen, 
xxvi 3. 4. " A 1^1 I will prrform the oath which I fwiir« unio 
Abr;jhsm thy fithcr ; and 1 will male ?hy feed to muhiply ai iht 
ftars ot he;tvcn, and wi»l give untu thy feed a?J thcfe countries ; 
ani in Jhy feed Ifcall all the nationi of the earth be bh fftd." Attcr- 
wardi it wai renewed ^rui cor,fi;med to Jvcob ; fiift in lf<ac'» bJcf- 
fing of him, i*hercin he a('t«<i and fpokc by cxiraoidinary divine 
diredion. In that blcffing, the bIcfTingi of the covcoanl of grace 
were tfr ♦bliH^ed withjacob and hi» f^cd ; ti Gen. xxvii. %<), ** Lci 
p>«'^p'c ferve thet, and n«tioni bow down to thee ; be lord oYcr thy 
brethren, and let thy mothei's fons bow down to thee : Corftd 
b': every one »hai curfcrh thee, snd blclTcd be he thai blcifcth 
thee." rhireforc E.f»u, in mi/ilng of this b'ciTir^* mi/Ted of being 
blffifcdf at an heir of the bcnct5ti 0/ ihe covenant of grace. 

Tnii covenant W4i again renewed and confirmed lo Jacob st 
Fttfnel, in hii vifion of i\.c hAdtr that rtsched to teatefe ; wbicli 
hidtt wai a fymbol of the way of falvriion by Chtif>. For ih« 
ftoRt tbas Jacob refltd on waj a tye of Chrift, the ftonc of Ifrael, 
v/hicb the fpiiitusl Hrad or Jacob icAs upon ; ai ii ci-ident,bcc«wfe 
fihii non« wai on this occahon anointed, and was xnzde ufc of as sn 
iltcr. Bui «rc kaaw that ChriA it the ai^ciated of Ood, snd ii ih« 
cnly true altar of God. Whllejacob waa rcftin^ on ihii ftche, and 
faw this ladder, God appears to him at bis covenant God, and re, 
ncvri the covcnacl of grace with him ; at inGen, xxviii. 14. "Aad 
ghy (t^d ih-ill be si ihs du!*^ of the txnh ; and ih«u t)>alt fpread abroad 
to the weft, and to the ca^, and to the noah, and to »he fouth ; acd 
in ihe« and in ihy ftcd fi^jiil all tV^e famUlei of the earth be blciftd." 

Jicobhii inJthrr rcsna kable confifmaticm of thli covenant al 
Pcaud, where he wrcdacJ withGod, snd prevailed; whcreChrfft ap- 
pear«1 to him in a hum«n forui, in the form of ihat nature which he 
wai after wardi to receive Uto a pcrfi-nal anion with his divine siture* 

G0I rc'\9JV9A hiicovcruR* withhi>ti Jjiin, after he wras come 
«ut of Paian-aram, and was come up to DetheJ, to the fionc tha: 
he bad reded on. ':»ad where he had the vifioa of ibc ladder ; a» 
you m'v fceinOir^ xixv. 10 &c. 

Th«« thf covcaaiit cf grace 'rai no^w often renewed, much oftenct 
ihar. !t hai been befo-.c. The lifht of the gofpti now began to Hiins 
•»«ch b'i^htcr, a-, thi timt draw mesrer ihtit ChriA fhould come. 

VI The ntxK thing 1 would obfervs, i» God's ren»arkably ^rc 
fcrving tha f»fxiily of which Chrif^ w^ to proceed from periajicj 
by faaa'r\t, by the inftrun^nt-^^'ty of Jofcph. When there was « 
fcVen-y^urs famine .'ooroichiug, God was pleafed, by.a wonderful 
f)rovidenoe, to UM Jofeph ip^o Ei?yp^ 'here to provide for, and 
feed Jacob and hii family, and to keep the holy feed alive, which 
oihat wiff weald hav* pcrlibed. Jofcph was ftal ini^ EgyP^ ^^. 

tfce Work ©r R E D E M P T I O N, H 

thit tnd, aihc obfcrrci, Gen. I. 20. ** Bat ai for you, ye ibought 
cvii againft me ; but G >d meant it unto good, to favc much pcopU 
aliv2." How oficB had thi» holy root, that hid ihe fusurc bitnch 
of rlghtcoufntff, the glo;iout Rtdccrncr, in i , bctn in danger of 
being dcftroycd 1 8ut God K^.r>dt^fully prtfcivtd it. 

Tnij falvaiion of the hoafis of Ifr;»cl by the hxnd o' J )f<".ph, was 
t!pon fotnc accounts very much a rei'tmohnce of the falration of 
Cbfift. The children of Hfscl were f^vcd by Jofcph ikeir kinfman 
and brother, from pcrilbing by faminre ; ss he that fivo the fouli 
of tbe fpiriiual IfracI (roaa, rpirifu' fjcnine it ihtir near kinfiaaB, 
and one that is not aftiamcd to call them brtthrea. Jofcph wai a 
brother, that they b&d h.tcd, and fJd, and as it were killed ; fpf 
ihcy barf dcfigncd to kill hina, So Chri^i h one that we naiurally 
hate, and, by cur wicked tivci, h^vc fold for the vavn thingi gf 
the world, atid thae by cur fina we have fidn Jofeph wai i^ 
a ftate of humiliation i he waa a fo rant, as Chrid appeared in the 
fofin of a fcrvant ; and then was cafi; into a dw gcon, as Cb;if^ 
^tfccnded into thcgr^v: ; and then when herofc out of the dof5gco»n 
fee was \n a f\ ^ic of great cxiUaJan, at tne ki .g'« right h^nd as bij 
deputy, to fciga over all his kingrlonn, to prcrida food, to prefc»vc 
life ; and being in this ft&le c« txais«»3on, he di^pn fea toi d to 
bit Ijrcthren, and fo gives tbctn life ; as Chrift was tKalicd at God's 
tight band to be a prince and fdiviour to his brethren, ^rad received 
£;tfti for men, evcQ fc^r the rcbelUousi sod them that l*ited« ar^tj 
bad fold him. 

VII. After this ifecrc was a prophecy given forth of Chrift, on 
fome accounts, more parr^culir thin ever snyhid been before, even 
that which was in j^cob'sb^eflJ^2 his fon Judih, This was oicrs 
pirticuUr than ever any had been before, as it Ihowed of wnofe pof- 
tcrity he wss to be When God called Ab^ah^oj, it v^m reveal- 
Cd that he was to be of Abrahaara's poficriJy. Ei^ote, wz b«ve no 
account of any revcUuon coneernirgChrik'i Pcigct ccniS e- to 
narrower liffiils than the por^crity of Nouh : i'tu ibli it was ccn^ 
ftacd to ft ill narrower lianits ; for though Abr^bm bad Wrihy 
font, yet it was revealed, that Chrift was lo bt of Ifaac's pcftciiiy. 
And thea it wai limited oiore fi.Il ; for when lfa<^c had two »<.:if 
it was revealed that Chrif^ w^stobcof irrsci'is pofttritv, A d 
BOW though Ifrael had twelve fons, y«t it is revealed hut Chr-ft 
.Aiould be of Judah's Pof^crity : Cbrift is ibe lion of il.c tribe of 
Judah. Refpc^ is chiefly had to h"*- grcst iCit, when it ii f.^4 
tcrc, Gen. slix. 8- *• Judah) thou an be whooo tby brethren .ft^'I 
|)raife ; thy hand Haali be in the neck of tbine cncn^ict ; thy f.thr-*» 
children fti»Il bow down before thee. Jitdshisa lirn'* vhc'p | 
from the prey, aiy fon, thou arc gone up ; he Aocpe-' donr, b< 
;<^^«^ci 41 a iioa, aa^ ac aa Qld iloa ; wa^ ihtU ii#*i« ititn < p I'l 

ft A H I S T O R Y of 

An't t^en t' IS prt(3iction if roore particu^at concerning the time • f 
ChriiVs coaling, than any hsd been before .* as invcrf. lo. ** Th« 
fceptcr (hall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver frooo between 
b»9 fcci.unlili SKiloh come j and unSo hiin fhall «bc gathcrsngof the 
people be." The prophftcy here, of the calH;)g of thcGcntilci confe- 
qucnjonChrifi'i coa-iing/cems lo be move plain than any had bcca 
before, in the cxprcflion, to hhn Jhall the gathering cf the people bt, 
Thui you fee hovr lh*t gofpci-iight which dawned ioBmcdiatcIy 
after the fall of min, grsdually incrcafct. 

VIII, The work of 'redemption was carried on in thti period, ja 
O 'd'l vronderfully preferving the children of Ifrjscl in Egypt, when 
the power of Egypt was cngartd utterly to dcDroy them They 
fecacd to be wholly ia the hands of the Egypliahs ; they were their 
itt^xnxt, and weic fuhjcft to the power o^ Pharcah : and Phsroah 
let hicnfelf to weaken them with hard boadapc. And' whin he favr 
that did not do, he feihimfclf to crtirpstc tS« race of them, by 
comnnanding that et'cry m-.ile child (hould be drowned. But after 
^llbai Pnaraoh could do, God wcndtrfJiy prefcrvcd tbccn ; and 
not only fo, but incre^fcd thsru exceedingly ; fo that iaflead 6f 
bt'iog cztirpat^d^ they greatly muIvjpHcd^ 

IX. Here is to be obferved, not only tha prefer, -i^tioii of thcsa- 
tion, bu; God's wonderfully prcfcrving and upholding bis vifibit 
church in th^l nation, when in danger of being over whelmed la 
she idolatry of Egypt, Tl?e children of Ifr-'tl being long amocg 
the Egyptians, and being fervants under them, and fo r&t undef 
advantages to kccpG >d'« ordinances among ihcfiafclves, and main- 
tain any public worfhip or public inf^rudlion, whcitby thu true re- 
ligion m'ght be upheld, and there being row no written word ol 
God, they, by degrees, in a gre*t mcifuje loO the true rcligJoD, 
and borrowed the idolatry of Egypt ; and the greater pait of tlm 
people fell away to the woriVip of ihcii pad*. This w« learn by 
£zcL. 2r. 6. 7. S. and by chap, xxiii. |. 

This now was the third tireie that Gnd'* chyrch was -Jmof^ fwaN 
lowed up and carried away with the wjckedncfs of the world; once 
|:)eforc the flood ; the other time, before the calling of Abraham 5 
and no*r tlie third lime, in Egypt. Bui yet God did cot fufler bit 
church to be quite overwhelmed ; he, Tiill favcd it, like the ar|i 
Sn the flood, and as he fared Mofes in the midft of tie waters, fjs 
an ark of bulrufhei, where be was in the utmoft danger of bcic|j 
iwallawcd up. The true religion was ftill ktpiup with feme ; ani 
God had ftill a people among tfcctn, even in ihii mifefabh,corr'jpt. 
«nd dark time. The parents of Mofca were true fcrvaiili cf God, 
us we may learn by Kcb x\, 25. *' By faith Mofes, when he was 
born, was hid three mentbs of hit parents, Iccaufc tbcy faw thai hk 
was a proper child 5 ^wi ibc^ nc;G aot afjfcid pi Jtc iing'i co^* 

<t€ Work of R E D E M P T I O N. ji 

I b«vc now gene through the third period of the Old Tcftjtnicnt 
tiTOC ; sni have ftown hew tlic work of redemption wa> carried 
on from the calling of Abraham to Mo/sj ; in which wc hive ftco 
many great thingi done towirdi this work, and a great advaact- 
mcat oitbii building, beyond what had been before. 
From ^Niofcs to David. 

I PROCEED to ihi fourth ptricd, which rcachei from MofcB 
to David. — ^.1 would ft^ow how the work of rcdesnpiion wat 
carried on through thii alfo. 

1. The fir/l thing that offers itfclf to be confidcrcd it thercdcmp- 
lion of the church of God out of Egypt ; the rooit rcmarkible of all 
ihcOlJ Teft^QienS rcdcaiptioni of d:c church of God, and that which 
waa thcgrcateft pledge and forerur^ner of the rcdca:iptiun ot Chrift, 
of any ; and is much iEorc inllAcd on in fcripture than any other of 
thofc redemptions. Indeed it wai thegfeateft typeofChrilVarcdciBp- 
tion of any providential event whaifocver. Thif redf:mpticn waa by 
JefusCfcrift, as ii evident frooa thi«, that it wai wroughi by him thae 
appeared to Mofei in :he bii(h ; for shat was the perfon »h<i feniiMofi f 
to redeem that people. Bat thar waa Chrin, at is evident, bifcaufs 
be is called the angd of the Lord, Exod. iii. 2. 3. The tLfh rc- 
prcfcnted the human nature of Chrif^, that is called ihe bronchi 
Thii bufh grew en mount Sinsi or. Horeb, which it i wcrd ihstfigni- 
fiei a dry place, as the huxsn nature oJChrill was n rooi out oj a dry 
ground. The bufti burning with tire, repfcfcnied the (uiferingi of 
Chri/t, in the hre of God'i wraih. it burned, and wa» not confum» 
ed ; fo Chrift, though he fuflered extremely, yet pcrift-cd not; 
bui ovcrcioie at U^/ivA lofc f-oai^ futi";ringi Hccaufe tfjia great 
fiiy^sy of ihc incartjation and fufTcring* of Chri.'t was here repre. 
icviWd, therefore. Muffs fayf, " 1 will turn aiiue, anc' behold thit 
great fight," A grent fight he might wcli Ctll it, vthea there >tfas 
rcprefcnted, God m^nifcft in th« fiefit, sod fu^'etinf? a dreadful 
^t£th, and rifiog from the dead. 

This glorious Redeemer was hs that redecaied the church out of 
Eg) pi, ffooi under the band of Fharoah ; as Chrift, by hil d^aib 
and fuftcringt, r-decmed his people from Salan, the fpirilual Pha* 
faoh. He redeemed thctrj from £181 d fcf vice and cruel drudgery; 
as Chrill rerkemi his people from the cruel lUvtry of fm a\id Saian. 
Kc redeemed them, as it is fsid, from be iron furnace ; as Chrift 
fedeeoas hl» church from a furnace of tire and everlafliog burJiingt, 
He redcen^ed thero with a ftrong hand and out f^icicbed arm, and 
great and terrible judgcnoents on their enemies ; zjCbriO with migh* 
ty power triumph* over /r/«c/pfl//.'/V; and powers ^ and executes 
terrible judgements on his church's enemies, bruiiing the ferpcnt'i 
l«4d, U<; fgv?d tbcBJ, v.tca oihas vysre w!«f:roy«d^ by ^bc fprink* 

H A H I GTO R Y cf 

ling of the blood of the pafchsl la.nb ; ajGod'« church is fivedfrom 
death by thcfprinkliag of rhcb'.ood ol Cbrill, when the reft of iht 
world ii dcfiruycd. GoJ bought forch the people forelv *i!gsin?\ 
the w.iil of thcl{gypiu»i,whca tbcy could nor besr to hi them go ; 
fo Chrifl rcfcue^hi- peopl* out of 4h« hands of the ficvU, forciy 
agiinft til ••'iil, when hi» pfoud heart caar.ol bat to bs otfcicome. 

In ihu redemption, Chrift did noi only rcdecti) the pcppic ffcm 
ihe Egpy liana, but ha redeemed ihcna frotii ihc dtvih, ihc gcd» of 
^gyp^ J for bttforc^thcy had bees in a rt*te of fciviiadc lo ic.c gcdi 
of figyps, 2* well as to the men. Aad Chrift, the feed oJ the «fo- 
maiu dtd new, in a very rtinarfcibU m;<nncr, fulfii the curfc oa 
the fcrpent, in bruifjog hi» head : Kn-oci xii. 12. " Fuf I wiU 
pafi ttircugh the land of iL^ypi thi» night, snd vcili fcnJtc ail the 
firft born in the land of Egypt, both ccinn and btafc, and a^a-nft all 
the god» of Kgypt wiil 1 exf cute fudgeaaer;t.'' Hdl wag m much 
and more engaged in that l^sir, than Egypt was. Tht pride sndf 
«rucUy of Sat«n, that eld fcrpent, waa tx^ore concerned in it ihaa 
Pharsoh'a. tiz did his uimos't ?g'vir.'fi >he people, and to bis ut- 
SDoft oppofcd their redemption. But it is faid, that y^hcn God rc- 
iJerjsjcd his people out of Hlg* pr, he broke the heads of the dra- 
gons in the wsi£r», acd btok£ the hcid of Icviaihan in pieces, »n4 
gave hico to be meat for the pccpic inhibiting the wilocrncfs Ff«I, 
Ixtiv^. II 13. 14. Gcd forced their cjitooics loirt ihroa go, that 
they might fervc him ; as alfo Z^charias obfervci with iclptdt to 
the church uudcr the gofptl. Luke i 74. 75* 

The people of Kracl went o'U with an high hand, an4 Chri'l 
ircnt b'foff thccn in a pilisr of clotd and fire. Thcjc w.j» a [\\o' ovtr earih and ^ell in thst dd!vcranc«. And whcfi 
Pharaoh and ha* hofU., and *5atan by them, purfuei thep?opIc,Qh,ift 
ovcrthrgw them io the Usd fca ; the Lord triuaphcd gloi»».ufl> 5 
the horf« and his rider he cafl into the fea, and thtrc th^y fl-pl their 
lafl flcep, and never foUov^cd the children tf Ifraei any more ; ai 
all Chrift's enemies arc ovciihrown In hi* bleed, v^hishby irs abun- 
dant fufHcicccy, and the greatntf* of the fuffcrsng* wi.h which it 
was (VM:d, may wdl be riprefentcd by a hi. The Red fea did re- 
prefcnl Chrift's blood, as h evident, becaufe the *pofile con'.paci 
the children of IfracVi paiTagc through the Red fe^ to b^ptif;?), i 
Cor. x?i. 1. But we all kucw that the vsratcr of baptifm repie- 
ienti Chrifi'f blood. 

ThiM ChriO, the angel of God'» prefcccc, in hit love and hit 
pity, redeemed hi» p«opl«, and carried thcm.ih ihc day? of old at 
on eaglc'« wiugi, fo that none of their proud astd fpiuiul enemici, 
Bcithcr Egyptiani nor devils, could touch them. ' 

Tbii ^yy ^ahc a new thing ihat Gcd did low.^rds thU great work 
ef re>.;Tiption. God:-«r':r had done any thing lik^. it before; 5 
P^ui, iv. 32 , 33. 34. Tbii wai a. great *4vi5c;jasa: cl ihs « o ife . 

the Work of R E D E M ?T I O N. 5j 

«f redemption, that hid been begun tndl carried on from the fall 
of min ; t g;ic;x f^tptikcn in divine proviicncc io.v5irds a prcpa* 
rttion fof Chrifl's coming into the world, and wofkir.>g out hia 
great artd cfcfoal rcdcrrplion : forthli was I'n* pr. pic of Hhom 
Chrirt wai to come. New wc n\^y fee bow ihai plant fiourifVcd 
that Gad had phnted in Abraham. Though ih« family of which 
Chtift wai to cotne, had been in a degree fcparated frcm the icfl 
of the world before, in the calling of Abraham ; yet that fcparsli- 
on ihit wai then anadc, appeared not to be fufficient, witiiou* fur* 
Iher feparaticn. For though by that fcparation, they were kept 
«f Aran Jen snd fojoiiraeri, kept from being united with other peo» 
pie in i-he Tims political focstties ; yctlhcy remained miied among 
them, by which mcaot, as it had proved, they had been in danger 
of wholly lollng the true rellgton, and of being ovcnun with the 
idolatry of their neighbour*. God new, therefore, by this rcdcmp- 
tjon, fcparated them ai a naion from all other n^ttioni , to fubfift 
ty ihcmfctvci in their own political and ecclcfiii^ical ilatc, with- 
out hav4ng any coaccfn with the Heathen nationi, that they might 
fo be kept feparjtc till Chrift (liould come ; and fo that the churcli 
of Chri(^ might be upheld md might Veep the oracles of God, till 
Ihit tim: ? that in them might be kept up ihofc types and prophe- 
cies of Chrift, and thofe hii^orics, and other divine prrtioui in- 
flru£\Joni,thatwcrenccefrjry to prepare the way foiChrifrsccm-rg, 
IT. As thfa people were feparatcd to be Go^'s peculiar people^ 
fo all other people upon the face of th« whole eanh were wholly re- 
jcftcd and given over to Heaibenlfm, Thli, fo far ss the provi- 
dence of God wai concerned in it, belongs to the grfai aifalr ol 
r«dcmption^lhat wc are upon, and wm one thing that God ordered 
in his providence to prepare the way for Chrift'i comkng, and th« 
great falvation he was to accompUfih in the v^orld ; for it was only 
to prepare the wny for the nacre glorious and fignal viiflory and 
triumph of ChriAVpowsr and grace over the wicked and miferable 
world, and thit Chrifl's fsilvaiion of the world of mankind mij^hi 
fcecome the more fcnPble. Thia is the account the fcriptu#c itfclf 
gives us of the matter, Rom. xi. 30. 31. 32. The apoAle there 
fpcakiag to the Gentiles that had formerly been Heathens, fays^ 
•• As yc m times pai> hive not belicvcdGod, y*t have now chained 
mercy through their unbdief ; even fo hsve thcfc aj/o new QOt be- 
lieved, that through your mercy »hey alfo may obtain mercy* For 
God hsth cosiiuded them ail In unbelief, lutf he might have mercy 
rpca all.*' u t. li was the will of God, that the wholt world, 
- Jews, and Gentiles, (Viould be cor.cluded in vifiblc and profcflcd 
URbclief, that fo God'» me/'Sy md Chrifi's falva:ion towardi theai 
all might b? vifible and fcnfiblc. For the ipoAlc it not fpeaking only 
»f tb^at unbelief thai it sttural to all Ggd's profcfTifig people as weM 


5t» A H I S T O R r of 

«9 Other?, but tbat ithich eppesrs, 2nd is vifible ; fuchai the Jews f«n 
into, wtjcn they openly ft jcficdChrift, and ceafed to be a profciling 
people. The apoAlc cbfcrves, ko-fl- that firfl the Gentiles, ctcn th« 
Gentile nations, wcic included in a prof^^red unbelief and opca 
oppofition lo the true rciigJcn, before Cbrift cam«, to prepare the 
Way for the calling of kh^; Gentiles, which was foon aficr Chrift 
came, that God's mercy might be the more viiibic to ihzm ; anti 
ihal the Jcwg were rcje61cd, and spoftarizcd frcm the viiiblt 
churnh, tt) prtjiarc the way for th* calling of the jews, wbich ftiall 
hs in the httcr days : So that it iray be fccn of aH nzuoht, Jcwi 
and Gcntiks, that rhey are vinbly redeemed by Chifift, ffom being 
tilibly aliens from the cocinrionwcjalth qi IfracI, without hope, aijd 
without God in the world. 

We cznnci certainly detcrm'ne prccifety at what tinst the apft- 
ftafy of the Gentile naiiona from ;fcc tnis God, or there being cq.i^ 
eluded in vifihle unbelief, became univcrfal. Ttielr falitag awar 
wa» a gradual ihsng, as we obfcrved tsfore, it wiS gi'neral in 
Abraham'* time, but not uaivcrfal ; for then wc find Mclchiccdcc, 
occ of the kirgi of Canaan, was pric/l of ihe rnofl high God. Af- 
ter thi« the true religion vras kept up for a while aaaong fotnc of 
the reft of Abrahaaa'* pofterity, bcfrdjcj the fanjily of J^ccb ; and 
alfo in faXiC of ihs pafUrity of Nahor, 35 we have inftanccs in Job, 
and h!» three friendi, znd Elihu, The Jand of Uz, where Job lived 
wsit a land poiTtiTcd by the poftcrity of Uz, or Huz, the fon of 
Nahor, Abraham's brother, cf whoan wc read, Gen. "^tlu, 21. 
BiUzd thcShuhirs was.of the ofl^pring of Shush, Abraham's fen by 
K-tfu«b, Gen. xxv. i. 2. : ar4 ElVm ibc Busite, waarJ Eux the 
fon of Nahor, the brother cf Abrahsm. So the true religion Jailed 
among fomc other pc^nl-, bcf^dea the Ifraclucs, a while after 
Abraham. But it did Jiat hft long : and it is probable that the tlmt 
of their total rcjtdion^r.nd giving up to idolatry, wa« about the time 
when God fcpiratcd the chiSdrcn cf iiVscl from Egypt to fcrvs 
hicn ; for ih.;y arc often put in mhid on that occafion, that God had 
ttow fcpara^cd thera to'behis pecuKar people ; or tobedirtbgu^rti- 
ci from all oi'^cr prople upon earth, to be hi« people alone ; to hs 
^is portion, whcr* others were rejected. This feemi to hold forth 
thut much to u*, that God r.ow chofc tbcm in fuch a manner, that 
this vifible chc'Cif d them was acc\3mpanicd with a >:fiblc rejcc- 
tion of *1! other nal!oas in the world ; tlj3t God vif.b'y caaa?, and 
took up hii refidsncc w!?h *heai, as foffakin^ all other na;1on«« 

And £2 the fif ft call in? of the GentiJci after ChtiTt «amc, wst 
aacompanJed iviih the rtjedion of the Jews ; fo the firft calling of 
Sht Jews to be God'a people, when they were called out of Egypt, 
fr» accomp-JHscH with a rgjcrtion of the Gentilei. 

*rhM »U ths Goatik oatioas, thrci'ghout the whole world, all 

. lh« Work of R E D E M P T I O N, 57 

on«, but only the Ifraclitcs, and iboff: that embodied ihcmfe'ves 
with ihesn. ^vcrc Icfs end given up 10 idolafy ; and fo coDlinucd a 
great many agcj, even from this time tilJ Chrll* c«mc, which was 
abou? filtccrp. hundred ycjr?. They were conclu led fo long a tJma 
ia uabclicf, ihsil there txilghi be a thorough proof of ilc ncccfnty 
of a f.<viour ; that it ailghi: appear by fo long a i/ial, p:if{ all c^n- 
tradirtioo, ihat mar^kiad were uiierly infuflicicnt to deliver thcci- 
fclrrs f'oax thuJ groA o'^rkricfs aud riifery, and fuljcdion to tl.e 
dcvii, that tbcy had fallen under ; that it might appear that all :hc 
wifdom of the philofcphCiS, and the wifefl men that the Heathen 
had among ihcLa, could not deliver ihem from their darkncfj, for 
the greater glory tojcfui Cbrifr, who, when he came, enlightened 
and delivered ihtm by his glorious gofpe!. Herein the wonderful 
wifdom of God ?pp£areJ, In tbuj prcpari.ig the way for Chrifi's 
reJcmption, This the fci ipiufc tcsches us, as in 1 Cor. i. 21. 
' For after that, in the wlfdoci of Gud, the world by wifdcm 
knew not God, it p'eafci G^i by tks fooii^aeft of pr^-^ching to 
fave them that believe." 

Here I might coTiiiier as another work of God, whereby the 
general work of redeaipaoa .vas carried on, that wonderful deii^ 
vcrancc which he wrcight for the children of IfracI at theRedfe?, 
when they were purfucd by the hoiis of the Egyptians, and were 
juft ready lobe fv.allcwed up by thcrn, th^re being, to human sp- 
pearancc, no podibility of an efcaps. But as this may be referred 
to their redemption out of Egypt, and coafidered as a part of tha( 
mere general work, I fhali not further enlarge upon it. 

III. The next thing that I Ibali tz^z notice of here, v/h^t was 
done towarJs the work of redemption, is God's giving the ir'oral 
law in fo awful a manner at Mount Sinai. This was another nevr 
thing that Qod did, a new ^n^i taken ia this great affair. Deur, 
iv. 33. " Did ever a peopJ^ hear the voice of God fpcaking out 
of the midftof the fire, sa thou hsft heard, and live ?" And it 
was a great thir.g ih'.t God did towards this work, and that whcihcr 
we confidcr it as delivered ai a new exhibition of the covenant ot 
works, or given as a rule of life. 

The covenant of work? was here exhibited to boas a fchool- 
Diaftcr to lead to Chrifi, not only for the ufe of thn nation in the 
ages of the Old Teftamenc, but for the ufc of GoJa church through- 
out all ages of the world ; as an infcrum'ent that th>^ great redeemer 
makes ufe of to conviacc men of their ftn and mifery, and help- 
lcf» ftatc, and of God's awful and tjrmenduou* m-'jcriy and ju;i iec 
as a lawgiver, ar)d fo to mak': mr:n icrfibh of the ncceli tyofChrift 
as a faviour. The work of redemptic .in it* faving cfFtd en mens 
fouls, in all the progrcfs of it to the end cf it, is not carried oa 
Hfiihout the ufe of thia law that was now delivered at Sinai. 

G I?: 


It \rai given in an awful manner, with a terrible voice, exceed- 
ingj loud an ^^fJ., fo that all rhc people ih*i were in the camp 
Irc-nbled ; and Mofrj binfilelf, though fo intimate a friend of God^ 
yet f?id, I cxccdinj-y fear ^nd quake ; ihc voice being iccoon- 
paniad with thun-ftrsasid lightnings, the mou^-tain burning with 
fire to themidn cf heaven, and the earth itfclf fhaking a-nd trem- 
bling ; to make?*!! fenfiblc how gf^cat that authority, power, aid 
jufticc was, ih^t lioodl cr.gacj*^^ *o ex id thefuifi'mcnt of this law, 
and to fee it fuily uxscutcd ; tnd how ftridly God vrou'd require 
the fu'fi'm«nt : and how terrible his wrath would be *gainft every 
breaker of It ; that men being feniible of thtTe things, might have 
a thorough trial of thcmfcivcii, and mi^ht pi>0T^ their own hearts, 
aid know how impofT^blc it is for ttjoji to have falvation by the 
wo-ks of the law, and iiii|bt fee the abfJuie neceffity they ftocjcl 
in of a mtiiat ^r, 

V wc regard thi» 1 iw now given %* Mount SIbii, not a8 the eo- 
venint of works, b«l si a rule of life ; fo it is made ufe of by the 
Kcdscrnrr, from thn lime to the end of the world, ae a direftory 
to his pccp'e, to (k^w rhenn the way in which they rouft walk, at 
they would go to heaven : for a way of fin cere and utiiverfal ebc- 
dicact to ihis Uw is the narrow wzy rbit hzdi to life. 

IV, The n<xt tbitig that is oLfc* rsble in this period, is God't 
giving thetypicallS'V, In which I fcppo^t to be included moft or 
r!1 ihofs prcc^ipts that were given by Mofes, that did not properly 
bc!o' g to the njoral law ; rot only thofe Ir^.ws that are coiSimonly 
called csrtvisniiil, in <:liftir,dtitn from judicial I«W5, wUch are the 
laws prefcribing the cc-anfi'jnies and circuiiiftanccs of the JcwifJi 
woribip, tnd their ccckfu ft ic^Hiate ; but alfd many, if not all 
thofe divine Uwi that were political, and tor regulatiwf the Jcwifh 
COT.nnonweaUh, conaiv.i'y qA\c-A judt'tt^l \ai*v^ \ ihcfc were al 
belt many of ihena lyp'Gsl. The giving this typicAl law wai 
another great th'n| that Gad did ia this period, tcndi->g to build up 
this glorious f^rudurc of rtdemplioss A at God had been carying ca 
iiom the bediming of the wofl). There had been many typical 
evcntsof providtnct be'ort, >hat r«pi«fcni«d Cbri/J and hia re- 
demption, aid fonae typical ordinanef«,as particularly thofc two of 
ficriHcc* and circumcii^oi ; but now, iriUcad of rcprefentirj lh« 
great redeemer w. a lew i/ifiitutioni, God gives forth a law fuW 
of rothinj; elfe but various and innumerkfelt typical repjsfea- 
lationsof I lod thing* to come, by which that n«tion were diicd- 
cd how, erery yenr, m >n'.h. and day, in their rcl-gous actions, arcj 
in their coi'.ducl cf themfelves, in vtll that -»pperU5ned to their ec- 
cl«rnftiral ?.nd civil JUte, to fliow forth foaacvhiajg; oi Chrirt ; one 
obfcrvance (b )win| one thing, exhibiting one do<^ti inc, or one be- 
Qetii ; ftaotUr, aastber : fo that the whole nttioo by thii Iiw wai^ 

Ike Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 59 

as it were, conftiiutcd in t typJc*! flaie. T'*u« the torpel wai 
tbundintly held forth to iharnalion ; fo iha; there it fc«icj sr.y 
d idrineof if, but is pariictiliirly laLf;=-,t atr! txhibitcci by fume cb- 
fe of this hw ; ihojfh it vrai in fbadoi^s, aud under a vai!, 
a» ivlofjs put a vail on hi« uc* when itft)on«. 

To this typic*! law bet r,g»;iihcpjcccpis that fclatt to building 
the tabernacic, that wa» fct up in ih« wiiairacfs, aad all the f-^rir, 
ciicumtenc^S and utcnills of it. 

V About thi» time vr«8 given to God's church ihe fijft written 
word of God thai ever Wij enjoyed by God's pccplc. 'I his was a- 
nothcr great thing dene towardi the sifiir of redetrption, t nevr 
and glorious adviniccmdnt of the buiioing. Not iar fjcnn ibii 
tine, was the bcginntog of the great wfill«n fu!e, whi.:b God has 
given for the regulation of the taiih, wojlbip, and pr*dtce oi his 
church in all ige» henceforward to th« end pf the world j v^hich 
rule grew, smd was added to from that tirae, for mrny sgts, ilU it 
was fioiftcd, and the cmon of fcripture ccn-;plcrcd by the spo/^l« 
joha. li is not very material, whether the firi\ wiiuirn wcrd thai 
ever was, wa» the ten ccmnaandmcRtJ written on the trblc- of foLC 
whh the finger of Gcd, or the beck ot Job ; sad ubtihcr U c took 
of Job was wriiien byMofes, as foaac fuppofc, orbyhlHhu, a> ot::£ri. 
If it was written by EUhu, it wis wrietea bCiOr« mis pciicd th^it w€ 
ire now upon ; but yei cculd not b-- far irotr. ii,as appears by con- 
fi 'triag whofc pofterlty ihc perfons were ih;<t are fpokcn of in it, to- 
gether withjob's great age, that was palfcd before this was written. 

The written word of God is the main inf^ruzncnl Chrirt hss 
uaade ufc of to carry on hit work of redcinption w »!l ages fjECO 
i; was given. There was a recefPin- ijc'^ of the wcrd of God's be- 
ing c®maiitr«i to writing, for a ftc-idy rule of God s ctiuichp Be- 
fore this, the church hs.^ the word of God by if-.ditiL.n, tjihcr by 
i/Tjoiediatc tradition from cinJncnt men tbat Here I fpircd, that 
Wtfic then living, (for it wes a ccmjcon thirg in trofi days, be- 
fore there was a written word, forGod to reveal himfcif imrr.cdijtc- 
ly to cmineBtpcrfcm,as«pprjn by the book of Job, ai:d m:^ny 
ether things that mrgSt be mentioned, ta i)it bock of Giv.zd^), or 
elf: they had It by tridicion (rozi foras^r gencrAUcns, which 
be had with toIer^Maccrtiirry in agj^s prcccedlng ihlsby i«afoji of 
thclong lives of men. Njah mirht convcff.- with A^^itt, fisd' 
fcceive sraditions frorr hir^ ; and Nn»h lived till ,bont Abr&i^aa's 
lime: and the fons of Jacob lived a confi-lcrablc time to deliver tht 
revclitioas made t-Ahrahsm, If^ac, ?ndj*cob, to rhctr pofirrity ia 
Egypt. But the dif^ancc from th*- beginning of things vas beco«TC 
fofercai.aRd the livrs of men bccw^c fo Jhort, bcin j brot-'ght rlonjj 
to ?hcprefent<lani^fd about Mofc-'s tJ.T*-, and G^vj h:.vin7 ro'v 
Icp-rat-d 8 muon to be a prcolisr peor^e. putly /or th^i end to 
bf ik$ keepers vf ^^f gratis qi Gca -, G-^i Uvt it to fee a needful 


6o A HISTORY oi 

aa<3 c:nvv-n lent till? no«< to cc^Kpitbis word to vrrhlng, tr> ye- 
main henceforward /or a ft«ady ruk throu;;hout all »gcs. There- 
fore, bcfdcB ihs book of job, ChriA wrote ihs ten catnmandmcnti 
on tubki of fton«, wSth hhcwn firgcr ; »r.d aficr thii ihs whole 
law, J!s containing ihc febftancc of the fire books of Mofcs, was by 
GyS\ ffCchX coaiTiand coajmiaed <o writing, which Wis called thi 
hook of the lauj, and wi« hid inihe tabcm-icic, to be kept there fo; 
the life of the charch ; a« you ojsy fee, Dcut. xxxi. 24 2j. 26. 

Vi, God waji phafcvj now w^cndcfu'Iy to re-prcfsni the pro- 
grcfsofhii redeemed church through the wcrid to their eternal 
inhcrltaace, by the jo-.-rney of tht- cbiHrea-of Ifrael through the 
tvilderncfs, frcai Ejypt to Csaasr.. Here all the various flcps 
of the rcdetEpticn of the chuich by Chrift were rcprefcntei 
from the beginning to its confummation ia glory. The ftatc 
they are re:!ecmed from sa reprcfentcd by Egypt, and thcif 
bonda;:;^ ihers, which rhey left. The purchase of thuir te^ 
de.npti^a was reprcfented l;y th« fic:;ifi:e ot the pafcha! Iamb, 
which H-S.1 oiljrcJ up ihst night dut God fir.r all the firf;- 
boru of Egypt. The bcgisixing of ihe appUcarioa of the redemp- 
tion of Chrii'i'.! church in iheir coni^cilion, was reprefcRtci by If- 
TicVi going out of Egypt, End pafling through ths R^d fea in fa 
•^xtracriin^^iv Md mir:iCuIou5 a manner. The trrxvel of the church 
through this evil worli, aad the vtrious changes shrough which the 
churah paila, in tie diifercnt l^sges of it, was rcprefcnted by the 
j iurney of the Ifrailitcs through the wildernefa, Th« m^mner of 
their being conducted by Chrift, was reprcfent«d by the Ifraclitci 
bein,g led by the pillar of cictjd by daiyf and ihe pillar of fire by 
night. The manner of ihc chuich's being ftpporicd in their pro- 
grcfi, Slid fupp'ied from the beginning to ihc end cf it^ with fpi- 
ritual food, and ccntinual daily coramunieatiot^s frooc God^ wai 
reprcfentedby God's fup'plying the children of Ifrasl with bread, 
or mam%a from heaven, and water out of th« rock. The dangert 
thalihe f.jinl3n3uft meet with in their couifc ihrotigh the worlda 
were rciprefcnicd by th= f^ery fiying fcrpcnts which ihe children of 
ITraei iiit:t wi:h in the wildcmefs. Tiicconfl.'dls thcch¥rch has with 
bcr enet»ic3, wire repief^ntcd by their bau'e with the Amalekitcj,, 
and others they mttv^iih there. Innumirrble other things might 
be onentioned, wherein the things they met with were lively icaa- 
gcs of things which the church and fnnts noeet with in all pgc« of 
the world. Tbat thcfe thiig* are typical of thing* that pertain to 
the Chrinian church, U manifcit from i Cor, x. 11. *' Now all 
thefe things happened unto them for cafamplcs, and they v/crc 
wrii'en for our r.dmoniticn, upon whom the ends of the world are 
com?." Here ihf sT'oAlc 33 fpcaking of thofc very things which 
wc hwc now nQention«d, and he faya exprefsly, that thty «^2p- 
ptati uato ihcin for O'/'.'/ \ ^o it is ia the origicaU Vll. 

the Work of R E D E M P T 1 O N. 6i 

VII. Another thing here muft not br omitted, which wi» a 
great and rcoiarkible difpcnfation of Providence, refpcdUng the 
whole world of markicd, which wai finifhcd in ihii period ; ani 
that was, the fhoriening the dsys of mans life, whereby it wa» 
brought down from being betv.'Cca nine huridrcd and a ihoufand 
ycars^to be but about I'evtniy or eighty. Tht lifjt of man began to 
be fhorttncd immediarcly after iht flood : it wa« brought down the 
firfl generat'on to 600 years, and the next to between fcursad 5CO 
years ; and fo the life of man gradually grew fhortcr aad fhorter, 'till 
aboui the time of the great oiort^ility ihat was in the congregation 
of Ifrael, after they had murmured at the report of the i^its, and 
Ihcir carcalTts fell in the wilderacfs, whereby all the men of irar 
died ; and then the life of man wag rc^Juced to its ptefcul fi.-indard, 
as Mofcs obfcrvfs in that piiilm that he wrote on occafion of that 
mortality : pfjl. xc, 10. *' The day i of our years iire thrceicorc 
yciii k: d ten ; and if by rcafo,-! of ftrength ihty be fourfcorz years, 
yet U their f^rcr.gvh labour aad forrpw : for it is foon cutoff, aad 
we fly aw?.y." 
This great difpcnfalion of God tended to promote the grand dc* 
fjgn of the redemption of C.jri A. Man's life b«ing cat fo very 
Ihort in t4iii wold, tended to prepare the way for poor, mort?.!* 
fhort- lived men, the more joyfully lo cutcrrtaia the glad tidings of 
cvcrlafting life in another world, thii are brought so light hry the 
gofpcl ; and more readiiy to erobr^cc a faviour, that purchafcs aad 
ofFtrs fuch a b'.cfiing. if men's lives were Aill commonly about 
oi»:e hundred y.ars, how much kfs would they have to move ihetn 
to regard the profF-rs of a future life ; how much greater Jcmptati- 
on would th^y nave to reft in the the things of this world, they be- 
ing of fuch long continuance, ar^d to ncgkd sny ciher Jifc bi:t this ? 
This probably co;iirib'jtcd grcat!y to the wiV.kcdncfs of the aDt«- 
dcluvians. But now how much greater motives have mea to fcek 
redemption, snd a bcJtsr life than this, by the great kedccmcr, 
fine; the life cf man is net anc twclfih part of what it ufed to be. 
End men r.av univerfaHy dia a: the sgi when men formerly ufcd to 
he but 21 it were fetting out in the world ? 

VIII. The hmc work was carried on in preferring that psoplt* 
of whoai Chrift was to come, from totally perilling in the fvilder- 
nefs, by a con'Unt miracle of iirty years continuance. I cbfcrv- 
cd before roary iirr,«B, how God prcfcrvcd thofu: ol whom the Re- 
deemer wsi to procrrird in a very wonderful manner ; as he prcferved 
NaaJi and his fsnitiv from »,he flood ; and as he prcfcrved Abra. 
hsm, Ifaac, arid Jacob, with their families, \icm i.iC wicked inha- 
bitants of Canaan ; and as he prcfcrvcd Jicob and his family froia 
pcriiiing bv the famine, by jofeph in Egypt. But ihi» prcferva- 



Jion of the children of Unci f^r fo ^/;ig a t'Die in the wildcrncfj, 
V2*j| on fome a6Ct>unt<» miic nmu H.^bl< than awy of thctn j for it 
was by a continuJ mi*»clc of fo lon^ duriiion. fh«ic nras, ai 
may be fahij couipulci, a^ fi ft ivvj o\ liioai of fouli m that con- 
gregation, that coiil i not K dih aoy belter «Uhou; meat and drink 
ibaa oJh^r men. Bu£ ii (his had been with l4ld, they muft all bavt 
pe-'flicr i. every ci^n, woman, and chilJ, in lefs t.uD one month's 
tim«, fo thcr* vrauk4 not have b~«n one of ihtui ic^t. iiui y tt ihiJ 
Vi^ft miiUiiudc fubii:'icd for forty years tcgttUr, in ' a tjfy barrca 
wilderjicfs, witkout fowing or rciping, or uVi^g <ny iarci, having 
?heir bffa<i daily raiacd down to tbtm out of hcavca, aiid being 
furnifhcd with wtttr to faiiify them aiJ, out of a rock ; and tl c 
iimz clo8{hi with which ihcy caiTic cu? of Egypt, Uftin^, without 
weafiog out all lhj;l: ticns, Never hsj any inftanct iikt tfcis, of a 
nation beirg fo upheld for fo long a lioic rogeil'.cr, Itui God 
upheld hia ch;.rch by a coad.iui] iiiiisoU, and kept ative that people 
ia whom was the bkffin^j, th« piomifed f<j«,d, &nd great KcdctrEcr 
of (the wfcflJ. 

IX. God wit pier a fed, in this tia^s of she children of hcaeV* 
fccing in the wiljcracfs, to give a further ieveUtion of Chrift ih© 
Kcdcemer in th-: prcdi<t:l£oa3 oi hiin, than had been before. H^rc 
arc three prophecies given at thic tJme ih-«t I would take of. 
Tke fi:ft ii that of BalaiSi, Nua-.b xxiv. 17. jS. 19. ** I 1> ail fee 
b;m, but not now ; I fhaii behold him» but not nigh : There tball 
cot»c a Star out of Jacr b, dvA a S-f pTc iliall rife eiil of luael, and 
fiisii ftnlte {be rorntrso** ccftroy a^ltH« chiinrtn or Sheth. 
And fcJocn ih-ill be a p ITc Tion, Stir aifo fiviU be a pofiifHofl for 
^iscnrmics, and l(:s.t) (lull do vilianily. Out of Jacob Itali cc-jie 
fc« that (hail have liomln ion. and (liaU deftroy him thai rcmalnfll) 
ol the city." This i» a pi^incrp-ophecy of Chriiit, efp;cia!iy 
wiih regard to his Icirj^y (fficc, than any that had been before. 
Eiit wc have accthcr, ihaJ God £?ve byMoAts, that is phinrr f^ill, 
cfptcUlIy wiih regard to hs» prcpbctical ot^:cc, in L>ut. xviii» 18, 
&c, '* 1 will riif'« up a ftcm atr.cng their brethren, like 
thee, and will pj? my words iijto his mouth, and he Ihail fpcifc 
unto thsm all that I cofntn^nd him," &c. This is t pi&incr pro- 
phecy of ChrlA than sny tha» had been It ford, in this rcfpe^l, that 
al! the prcpij'^cics that had bc«n before oi Chrii^, were in Hj^uratire 
myf^ical langnagc. The f^rft prophf cy was fo, Tr^at the feed of 
the wcraan fl.ould bruise the ferpen*:'s head. The procnifes Oidt 
to Abraham, luac, and Jacob, "That in ihcir feed ail the families 
of the earth Qiouldbe blefT-id/' were alfo iryftical ; wh'ch prophecy 
is not fo pariicubr, becaufc the cxprc:Kon, thy feed, is gcne^ril, 
and not phinlv iic^i^ed to anr ps.'iic ihr pe^fon. The p ophecy 
of Jacob ia bU/Iag JudiSj, Geo, xiis. 8, u m myAical lancuage ; 

. the Wc-k of REDEMPTION. 63 

st'6 fo h that o^ B»l?3tn, which fpcaks of Chrift unf?er the fgi- 
raiivc exprellion of i/far. But this is a plain prophecy, wiii.out 
being vd.Ud in my rivlical laeguage at 4(11. 

1.' ere aic ftverai thing* cont:iined in this prophcry of Chrifl. 
Here i» hi" nn -rita'orial cffc- ;d j»».ntrr»l, vcr. 16. Here it is rc- 
Ycalc! how h:. <h juM he a ptrTod to ftsDfi bfiween tl.em and 0:-td, 
that v»a« f> terrible a being, a being of fuch aw^ul m«je<l:y, holinefj, 
snd ju^fic«, th-t they could not h?.ve come to him, and h-'ve intcr- 
courfe with hioi inorncdiatclv, wirbout a mt^iiator to f) nd bclwcca 
them ; bec^jfe, i- ihev csmc to fuch a r?rr»d^ul fia-rcveogitg God 
imrnc^i'Jtely, they fhwU'd di« ; God 'voulo pr/^ve a eonfumirg tif« 
to rh'«^. Aai then here is a paitic slar revelation of Chrift wiih 
rcfpc^ to his prophctJC*! cfFice : ** I vvill raifa ih^ m up a prophet 
from anoopg thci brethren, l<kc unto tbee," ^q. Furihtr, it is re- 
vealed wh^r kind of a prophet he fliould be, a pr( phellike A^-fei, 
vi'ho was the bc^d and le^ider of ail the peopis-, arid v^ho. urdcr 
God, had been their redeemer, to brirp them cut of the hcufe of 
bond?g'., was as It w«rc their ibephciid by Whorr> God ltd tfccca 
through the Red fca and wiK-e.'nefs, ind was an interc-ilT^.r /or ihem 
with Grd, and was both a prophet and a kii g in the coDgreg^iion ; 
for Mofci hid the power of a king smo g them h ii f«ld of hier, 
Deut. xxxiii. 5. he wai king ;n J.idiurun, and be wij the prophet 
by wkom God as it were built up hii church, and cJclirered h*i ia- 
ftrtjftions of worO^ip. Thus Chrift was tc be a proprtt like unto 
?^ofei J fo that this is both the phineft andfulJe/^ prophecy of Chrlft 
that ever had been from the beg'nnlrg of the woild to this time* 

The next prophecy that I fhill take notice of, rcfpc^i only the 
calling of the Gentiles, whsch (lould be sfter Chrift'j comfng, of 
which God gave a very plain prop^eey by Mofci in iha wlldeincfr, 
Deut, xxxii. 1 1. Here is a very plain prophecy of tha rejeftion of 
tht Jews and calling the Gentiles. Thry moved G.d fc je loufy, 
by that which was not a god, hy calling him off, and taking other 
gods, that were no gods, in h's ronm. So God declarei that h« 
wiil move them to jcaloufy ia tre like manner, by c^fiing th'^m off, 
and taking other people, that had not been his j- eople, in their 
room. The Apoflle Paul i-^kt rctlce of thh p'cphccy, ss fore- 
telling the callingof 'heG-n Hes, ^ Rom x 19 20 *' But 1 hy, 
DiJ not Ifrael know ? ** F'H, Mofcs faith, 1 wilt provoke you 
to jealcufy by them ih^t arc no p^.ople, and by i foo^ifh nation I 
will atger you. But Euis*. is very Wold, and f^Iih, I was fo«'r»d 
•f khem that fouj;ht me not ; I was mide manifcl} to them thai 
ailcad Mot after me " 

Thus you fee how the light of the pofpe\ i»hich firft brjjan t« 
^awn and glimmer im^r Jiaitc'y a^-r th« (-11, graduaUy increalei 

Ike c-earcc we ccaie to Chrift'a tloae* 


l4 AHlSTORTol 

X. Another thing by which God carried on this work ii thli 
lime, W21 a rcmxikablc pouring out of his fpirit on the ycurg 
generation in the wildemcfs. The generation that vras grown i p 
when they came cut of Egypt, from twenty years old and upward, 
was a very fro»vard and pervcrft. generation. They were tainted 
with the idchiry and wrickcdnefs of E-gypt, and vs-trc not wesncd 
from it, as the Prophet Ezekiel takts noiicc, E/.tk. xx. 6. 7. 8. 
HcGcc ihcy made ihe golden calf in itnitation of the idolstry of 
Egypt, that vras %yont to a boi! or "an ex ; and therefore 
cslilc are called the ahsmination of ihe Egyftiani, i. e. their irjol. 
This generation God was exceeding angry with, and fwore in his 
wrath, that they fhould net enter into hii reft. But the younger 
gtnemtlon were not fo ; the gcnsration that wert under iv*cnty 
y«ais old when they csact cut of Ei;ypt, and ihofj that were bcrn 
in the wildernefs, the gencraiion fpoken of Nuaib. xi-r. 31. "fJLt 
your little ones, whom )'e fald (houid be a prty, them vvili I bring 
in ; and ihcy (hall know the had tbat ye have dcfpif-d." Tni« 
was the generation with whom ihe ccvenani was renewed, as v t 
have an account in Dcutcrcnoaiy, and that entered into the land oi 
Canaan. This gcnervtion God was pleafed to mikt a gtseration 
to his prai/c, and ihcy were cmintnt for piety ; as appears by many 
ihings faid in fcripture about thcra ; as, pjirticuUriy, Jcr. ii.2. 3. 
*• I remember thee, the kindncfs of thy youth, the love of thine 
tfpoufals, when thou wcnteit afscr me in the uitderneis, in a UtA 
that was not fow*. Ifrael was holinefs to the Lord, a<ad the firf% 
fruit* of his in«rcafe." Here the generation that wsni after God 
in the wildcrnefi is fpokei of with very high cornar;cadatijns, as 
eminent for hoHaefs : Ifrael was holinefs to theLord, and the firfl 
fruits of hia incrcafe, Tb^ir love to God h fpciren of as diftin- 
guiflied like the love of a bride at her cfpoufals. The join^ aftcrGoi 
in the wilderncfs that is Kcrc fpoken of, is not the going cf th« 
children cf Ifrael out of Egypt into the wUdemcf* of Sinai, bus 
their following God through that dftadfui wildeincfs, that the 
eongregstioa long wanderei in, after they went back fromKadcdj- 
Barnea, which is fpoken of, D:ut. viii. i j. ** Who led thee thro* 
the great and terrible wildeniefs, wherein were fiery ferpcnts and 
fcorpioni, and drought, where there r^^as no water." Though this 
generation had a mych greater trial, thin the generation of their 
fathers had before they came to Kadcfla Bar«ea, yet they never 
mufmurcd againft God In any wife, as their faihcrs had done : But 
their trials bad a contrary cffc6l upon them, to awkkcn them, 
convince, and humble ih^m, and fit ihetn for great mercy. They 
were awakened by thofe awful judgments of Goi that he i^.flic^ed 
on their fathers, whereby their carcafTwi fell in the wildcrocfs, 
Aad Qui poured out his fpirii with itofc awaicning providencct 

tovai d» 

the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 6> 

toward! their falters, and lb«lr own travel in ihc wlldcmefi, and 
ihc word preached to lh<ai by Mofes ; hereby they wci^~grc4ily 
awakened, and made to fee the badncfs of their own hearts, and 
were humbled, ind at length multitude! of them favingly converted ; 
18 Deut. viii. 23." And thou ^dt remember the way which the 
Lord th)God Ic4 thee thefc forty years in the wildcinefs,to humble 
thee and to prove thee, and to kaow what wai thine hearty 
whether thou wouldfl keep hi> commaQdmentJ, or no. And 
he humbled thee, &:c. And, verfe 15. «« Who led thee through 
that great and terrible wilderncf*.— ihat he might humble thee, 
and that he might p.ov* thee, to do thee good at thy latter end.'* 
And therefore it ii faid, Hof. xiii. f . *• I did know ihc« in the 
nildernefs, ia the land of great drought." God allured them, and 
brought them into that wilderncfs, and fpake comfortably to thema 
as it was foretold that he would do afterwards, Hof. ii. 14. 

T^ofe terrible judgements that were executed in the congregatioa 
after their turning back from K^deih Birnea, in the maiter of 
K ) ah, and the maucr of Pcor, were chiefly on the old generation* 
whom Gil confu«i«d Ita the wilderncfs. Thofe rebellions were 
chiefly among the elders tf ihc congregation, who were of the oMer 
generatio.'i, that God bad ^iven up to their hearts luA ; and ihey 
walked in their own counfeU. and God was grieved with their 
manners forty years ia the wil^rnefs. 

But that this younger congregat'on ware cinment for piety, 
appears by all their hiftory. The fornj^r generation were wicked^ 
and were fo' lowed with cu<fes ; but this was holy, and wonderful 
blelTingi followed them. God did great thin^^ for them ; he fonfl^^ 
for them, and gave ihtm the poflclTion of Canaan. And it is God's 
manner, when he haih vety great mercits to beftow on a vifible peo- 
ple, liffl to fit them for them, and then to bcftow them on them/ 
8 J it was here : They believed in God, and by faith ovcrcameSihon 
and Og, and the giants of Canaan ; and are ccaDmendefii for cleav- 
ing unto the Lord : J .(h. xaiii. 8 joftua fays unto them, *' Cleave 
unto the Lord, as ye have done unto this day." Afld fo Ifrael did ail 
the while that generation lived. But whcnjoftiua and all that gene- 
ration were dead, there arofe another gcncrki/on that knew not th« 
Lord. This pious generation fliowed a laudable and fervent zsal 
for God on fsvcral occafions ; on occafion of Achan's fin ; but cf- 
pecially when they fufpeded the two tribes and a bali had fet up 
an altar in oppofition to the altar of burnt- off: ring. There never 
was any generation of Ifrael that fo much good and fo little evil 
is mentioaed of, as this generation. It is further obfcrvtable, that 
in the time of this generation was the fccoad general citcumcifion, 
whereby the rcp'-oach of Ifrael was- fully rolled away, and they 
betame pure ; and when after waids lb«y were poUuUd by Achao, 
ibfy purged thfmfeUcs again j H ?fc* 

Js6 A H I 5 T O R Y of 

Ti\c men of the former genrration being dead, and God haTirg 
f4n^[^^ this younger generation to himfeif, he foleronly renewed 
his cJiPiant with them, as we have a particular ;iCcounl in the 29th 
chapter 0/ D:utcronomy. We fiid that fuch folemn renov&iicnt 
of the covenant commonly acccmpAnied any remarkable pcurirg 
out of the Spirit, caufing a general reforoiiition i Sa wc find it was 
in Hczirkiah's and Jofiah's timei. It ii qurdionsble whether there 
ever was a time of fo great a flourifliiog of r6]fgion in the Ifraelinfh 
church, us in that generation : and ai, in the ChriAian church, 
religion was in its moft flouriihing circumdances in the day of itt 
efpoufals, or fii fi fctting up of that c''u ch, in the days of the 
apoftUs, fo It feems to have bean with the Jcwifh church in the 
days of its fi ft cflsbllfhmcr.t in Mofts'i and JofKua's times. 

TiiusGod at this time did glori«uily advance the wcrkof rccfenp* 
tion, both by his word and Spirit. By this pouring out of the Spirit 
of Gjd, the work of redemption wiS promoted, not only as it wa§ 
!n itfclf a glorious inftance of the carrying on of that rcdcmprion in 
the appllcauon of it, but as this was what God made ufc of as a 
means of the good and orderly cf>ablifliment<>f the church ©f Ifrael 
at its firft beginning, when It was fir ft fet>^«d ia tiie regular obfer- 
Vance of God's ordinacees in Canaan : Kven ai the pouring ott of 
the Spirit, in the beginning of the CAriftian church, wss a great 
means God made ufe of for thr well eftsblifhing ike Cbri/tiaa 
chu'ch ii the world in all furtJeedlng ages. 

XI. Tae ncit thing I w^JiJld obferve, is God's bringiiBg the 
people of Ifrael under ifceiiand cf Jcfbua, and fettling them in that 
land ft'here Chrift was *^ ^* born, iid which was the great type of 
**^ *»*ivcnly Canaay* which Chrlft has purchafed. This was done 
by Jjfhua, who vty% of Jofeph's pofterity, and was aai eminent t^pe 
of Chrrft, and is therefore called the (hepherd, the flone of Ifrael* 
in Jacob's blefling of Jjfcph, Gca. xlix. 14. Being fuch aiype o^ 
ChriA, he bore the name ofChrift. Jcjhua, tn^Jifm are the 
fame name, only the one is Hebrew, the oiher ii Greek: And 
therefore, in thn New Tcf^amcnt, which was originally written in 
G eek, J..(hua is tailed Jefus, A^s vii. 4;. •• Which alfo our 
fathers brought in \*ith Jefus," /.r. Jcihua ; Heb. iv. 8. Ifjefui 
kad given them ref^, Vc would not have fpoken of another day ;'* 
i. t. if J-fhua had givtn them rcfl, 

God wonderfully pofTeflcd his people of this find, coDqiicri». 
the former inhabitants of k, and the mighty giasits, as Cbrill con- 
e[uering the devil ; firft coftqueriug the great kings of that pan of 
the land thu was on the eaftern fide of Jordan, Sihon king of th« 
Amorites, and Og king of B^flxin ; and then dividing the river 
Jjrdan, as before he had done the Red fee ; cauficg the walti of 
J;ri€ho to fall dovfQ ^^ ()}c foufid gf ibc tnioipt ti of the priefti ; 


the Work of REDEMPTION. 6y 

ehat found typifying the found of the gofpcl by the preajjjing of 
gofpel-ioiniftfri, ihc wilU of the iccurkd oiy Jcntho fignilyiDg 
tbe walU of 8«Ua'r kingdom ; and«fier ihii woodci fully dcltroyicf 
the mljhfy hoft of iheAaioriice isndcr the Atc kings, caufii-g ihc fua 
and moott (» ftand P.ill, tu help the people agiinft ihcir cncmief^ 
at the prayer of the typical Jcfus ; plsiaiy holding this forth, that 
G:f4 would niike the whole coutfe of nature to be fubfervient to the 
affair of (edeoijiioo ; fo thai every tbiag iVtOuId yield to the pur- 
pofei of that woik, asd give pUctt to tbc welfare oi God'tt tcdcea- 
cd people. 

Tbus did Chrift (how hij great love to hia cU^, that he wouW 
make the courfc of natuie, ia the fraune of tho worli, that Le had 
giaat, arid that he govcrnec^, to give place to their happinefs ai?d 
profperity ; acd ihowed that the fun and moon, and all things^ 
vKible aad irviAble, were theirs by his pucchafe. At the hm^ 
tifBC, Chrii^ foughi at the Ciptain of their IqH, md c*f\ dotva 
great b«iIf^ones upon ihcii th«.i:-ics, by which more wne fl<in 
than by the fword of the children of IfraeK AiUf this Chrift 
gave the people a mighty viftory cv^r a yet grcoi*r arnn.y in the 
northern part of the land, that were gathered together at the wattrt 
of MerouQ, as the fand of the fca &ore, as it it f^id J. Qi xl 4, 

Thuk God give the people wh«ncc Chcift was to proceed, the ixnd 
where he was to be born, and Vive, ^nd prea*!:^ :r^ i^-orkmiraelca, 
tod die, aad rife again, wh«»icc he was to afcend into hca.rn, ?s the 
Umd which wai a great type of heavca : Which h another thing 
whereby a great advance wa$ m^de in the afftir of rcdcmpiion* 

XII* Another thing that God did low-rds eanyin j on this affair* 
was his adually letting vp lU ftalcd worlbip atoeng iht: people, as 
it had been before inrt;tut«d in the wildcrnv:f$. Th:« wofiiip was 
appointed at Moynt-Sinai, wholly ia fuburvlency to thia great 
pfTairofr^iennption. It was to rnikc wzyhi ibr cominj ofChriri; 
ar.d the innumerable cerenaonixl cbfervnticss of it were typical oi 
llim and hit redemption. Tc^ii vro.Tnip was el.icfjv irjiiiutcd at 
Mount Sinii; but ic was gradually fct up in prc^dic-. It w:ts partly 
let upin the wildsrntfs, were ih^ tibc riac^c ani its vcffc's were 
»ide ; but there were many paits of their infii'.utcd worihip that 
•ould not b< obfetrcd in the wildcni»fs,Ly re^fcn of their unfcrilcd, 
itinerant tiielfcc/e : and tlicn there \rcic many p::ccpi» ib^^t re- 
fpcO the hi»d oi C?nasn, an-i iheir ciiivfi and placn of hsbitat'ca 
Ihtre : which tLcr«;fore could rot be p:;t in pr?c1icc, till ihcv c^mc 
{ato that lard. But now, whta ihii wsk btou^hi to pafs, God fct 
•p his tabeinr-clf in rh; mid(\ ot Itii peop!c, a: he hfA tefo.e pro- 
mifedihem,Lcv.7:xv?. ii.««I will fct up my t.-bcrnadjamong vou" 
The t7bcr^?cje w« fet I'D si Snilr h. Jo(h. xviii. l, : d the pricflg 
«a4 Uviies had their tfficei appoiaiwd ihtaa, and ih^ cities o' ic« 

<S» A H I S T O R T of 

fugc wcrt appointed ; and now the pcop'< wcrt In a cordU'on to 
obfprvt their feiA»of ih« firf^- fruits, aad ihcif fejfls of iT.gatherlng 
and to bring all their tith«» and appointed c/Tcrings to the Lof4 ; 
«nd moft pirts of God's worfhip were fcl up, Uiough these were 
fome thinjj that vrore not obfcrve J ii!l afterwards. 

X[II. The next thing 1 would taka notice of, wai God*i .won- 
dtfrfuUy prcfcrving that p^»plc, from this time forward, whe^i all 
the ma?«» went up, three limes Vn the year, to iht phcc rtrcrc God't 
■ik ffas. Tnc people of lf<-ael were gcacrally furraundcd wiih 
enfmie», that fouj^hi all opportunities to dcAroy ihcm, and di^pof- 
fefi them of their land; and till D.rid'atimc there vvcrc great nutai- 
berd ia tfee land of the csiisn? of the Canaaaitc<, and the other 
former inh^bJtanti of the land!, that were bitter CDw-jiiei to the peo- 
p!^e"of Ifracl ; and thefe had from year to year, three in the 
year, a fair opportunity of over- running their country, and i,eutng 
polTefTion of their cfites, when all the m^Us were gone, «nd only 
the wroiaen, and thofc who wc'c not irble to go up, were left bc^ 
hind. Yet they witt rciaxrksibly prcfcrvcd througho^it all gene- 
rations at fuch ftuifons, agreeable to Jhc prqmife that God hadmad^ 
Exo'i. xxxiv 24. *♦ Neither fhaU any man dcfire thy had, when 
thou fltilt go up to appear bsforc chc Lord thy God thrice in thtt 
year," So woaderfuily did God ord?r aiTiirs, and lEflueace the 
bearts of their ecemies, thai though tb^y »ci« fo full of enmity 
sgainft Ifrael, and defircd to difpoiTsfs ihctn of iheit !and» and hid 
fo fair an opportunity fo often in their hand?, that the whole coun- 
try wai Icfi naked andcanpty of all that conld rcfift them, and it 
would have been only for theaa to have gone atid taken pclTefirion, 
and they cou .1 have had it without oppclition, and they were fo 
eager to take other cpportunitie« agaluft them j yet we never read, 
in all their hiftory, of any of their enciaies taking thtfe oppor- 
tunJtic* againA t^xm : which could be no kfs tban a continual 
miracle, that God, for the profetv^tion of his church, kept up for 
fo mnny generations, even throughout the ages of the Old Tef* 
tacnent. it wai fuiely » wTider/ul dlfpenfation of diviae provi- 
dent r to mu'ntnin and p'mott God's great tJtiign of redemption. 

XIV, God'i prefervijg hit church and the true religion from 
being wnol'y extihft in iht fre ,uent apoft ific« of the Ifraelite* ia 
the time of the judj^ei. How pfone wai th-,t people to forfake the 
true Q^d, that had dene fuch wonderful t ii.g» for them, and t3 
fall infO idolatry ! an4 ho^r lid the Ian*, ^rom ticne to lime, fcem 
CO be tlmofl over run w ih idolatry 1 Rut yet God never ftifcred 
tiis true woiihip to be tota'!y rooted i;u' : ^ is twbein^c'ic ftood, the ! 
ark was prcferved, the hock of th^ l«w *-3« k'-pt Ivm being def- 
troyed, G^d's prie^hood was upheld, an:. God f>i^J bed a church 
pmong iht people j lad xm% after im^p wttii itli^ioa fcemtd to j 

the Work of R E D I M P T I N. 6f 

be ilmoft gone, and it wai come to the laft (xttemity, thei God 
granted a reTiv^}, and fent fomc 2n|el or prophet, or raifcd up 
fotne emineat pcrf jn, to be an inft umcnl of their rsformation. 

XV. God's prel'ervinp, that nation from being deftroycd, and 
dclivf ring them from time to lime, alihcugh they were fo ofte» 
f'ibiued and brought under the dominion of iheir enemief. It ia a 
wonder, not only that the true religion wai not wholly rooted our, 
and fo the church dcAroyed that way ; but alfo that the very na- 
tion In which that church wa«, was not utterly dcftroycd ; they 
were fo ofien brought under the power of their encmici. Ont 
while they were fubducdbyCbufh-arilhatsim king of Mefopoia- 
alia, another while ihey were brought under 'the Moabites j and 
then thty -were fold into the hand oi Jibin k»ng of Canaan ; and 
then they were under the dominion of the Midianitci ; and then 
Wf re forcly diftrcffcd by the children of Ammon ; and then by the 
Philii^iaf 5. But yet God, in all thefe dangers, prcfcrved ihem, 
and k:pt thcKi from being wholly overchrowa : and from time to 
time, wh«i it was come to extremity, and GoA faw that they were 
upon the very brink of ruin, then God raifcd up a deliverer, a- 
greeabU to Deur. xKxii, 36. ** For the Lord flisH judge his pco* 
pie, and repent himfelf for his fervants j when he fecth their 
pcwer is gone, and there is none (hut up or left." 

Thofe remarkable dcfpsnfaiions of Providence are very Hvelily 
and elegantly fet forth by the FfalmifV, Pfal. cvi, 34. &c. 

Thife deliverers that God raifcd up from tiise to time were all 
typ« cfChri.'^, the great redeemer and deliverer of his church; 
tnd fomc of them very remarkably fo ; as, particularly, Barak, 
Jfphthah, Gideon, and Simfon, in very mary particulars ; and 
above ali in the a^s of Saofon, as might be fhown, were it not 
that this would take up too much tlme« 

XVI. It h obfervablc, that when Chrif^ appeared to tcarage the 
affairs of his church in this period, be often appeared in »he fojm 
of that nature that he took upon him in his iacarnalion. So h« 
fcemj to have appeared toMofes from time totitne,and par::«u!arly 
at that time when God fpake to him face to face, as 1 man fpeak- 
eth to his friend, andhs beheld the fii-nilitudc of the Lord (N-mb, 
xii; 8.), afier he ^.A befoughl him to ihow him } is glory ; which 
was the moft remarkable vi/ion that ever le had of Chfift. T;*er« 
was a twofold difcovery that Mofcs hid of Cbrift : one was fpirf- 
tual, made to his mind, hy the word thit wjs prcclilmcd, when ht 
proclaimed his name, faying, " The Lord, the Lord God, merciful 
and gracious, long fufferir.g, and ibur.dsni in goocnefs ard truth, 
keeping mercy for ihouf-jncs, fo. giving iaiqaity and tranfgrcfrioa 
and fifi, and ih?t willby no means clr-,r the guilty ; vlfiJing the 
iniquity gf itcUtUx* upoE the children, akd wpoa the children! 



ehiIdrcn,unto the third and to the foctrth gcr.crstion," K»cd. xxx?r. 
6 4cs. Another was external; wMch wssf^ai whichiMofcsfaw^whciji 
Chrift pafigd by, and put him in a cich of ihc rock, and eovcr cd 
bim writh bis hand, fo ihsi Mofrsfiwrbb back-parw. Wh<ii he 
{iw was doubilcfi the b^ck-pifts of a gWioushuojan form, in which 
Chrirt appcircd io him,an-J in ail Hkc^.ooi she foim cf his gJorifitd 
human naiure, in which he Ihouli a*ier\vird8 3ppc«r, H.: faw nci 
bis face ; for V: :.' not to b« fiippoicd thai any oiAn couJd Jul^/i.! uo- 
dcr a fight of ihe jjlcry cf ChriA's human na«urc is it notr appetri. 

So it was an hum iu io'-in in whichChrifi appeared to ibt (evenly 
ciders, of which we have ar* sccoumt Exod.xjciy.9 10. ji. "Then 
went up Mjfe> and Avon, Nid.ob and Abihu, and feveniy of the 
elders of Ifiael And they fiw thcGod of Ifrael : and there was un- 
der cih feet, 35 li v/crca psved work of a fipphirc-flone, and as it 
were the body of ! e&ven in hti clcarncfs. Aad upon the' nobles of 
jhc chiidfc: of Ifracl hs laid not his hand : alfo they faw God, 
and did cat and drink." Sj Chrjft appeared afterwards to J Ihua 
ia the for-n of the hviam naturt?, ]^{h. v. 13. 14, " Asd it came 
60 p.ifs when J.diui ivas by J-riaho, he lift up his cyci, and look- 
ed, and behol.', tbcre ftood a man ovir egahifl hirr;, wiih a fword 
drawn in hU hand : and Jjlliua went unto him, and faid u»to him. 
Aft thou fc? us or for our adrerfarics ? Aiid he faid Nf ay, but 
as captain of th*h'. A cf the Lord am I now come-" A:.d fo 
he appeared to Gideon, ]^dg. vi, u, i:c. and fo »lio to Manoali 
Jjdg. ziii. 17.— 21. Here Chriil rppcafcd to Mancsh in arcpr?» 
fcntavion both of his ihcar.ution aad dcstk j of his iacarnation, 
in ihn he zppc^rcd in a hi;L.i^n fcrm ; aod of hisdtfath and fuffcr- 
ings, rcpr£fc;nt<:J by the facrifice of a Icld, and by h*;' afcending 
up in iht flimc of tLt r;icritice ; ia;ia«ating, tbit it was he that wa« 
the great facriHje, that muft be offered up to God for * fwsct fa. 
VGur, in the tire of Ih wrath, at that kid wss burned asd fifceadcd 
up io the flame. Chrift thus appeared, licae after time, in the 
form Of that nature he was aftcrwaids to take upon him ; becauft 
he now appeared on the fame dcfign, and to carry, en iht fai^e 
wcrk.thithc was toappctv in that nature to work out and carry ©»• 

XVII. Another thing I would msniion, dc%:i in this peiriod to- 
wards the work of rcdcmptioi, is the beginning of a fuccefF.oa of 
prophets, and tvufiing a fchool of the p?cphetj, in Samuel's time* 
T;.e;« was fomething of this fplrit of prophecy in Ifratl after 
Vlofes, before Samue!, Jclhua and many of thejudges had a degree 
cfit, Deborah was a prophclefs ; and feme of the high- pricflt 
wt.rc Infpired with this fpirit ; particulaifly Eii : and that fpace of 
time w ^s not wholly without indances of ihofe that were fcl appart 
*f Goi efpcclaUy to this office, and fo wt:e called prophets. Such 
«a oac vrc read of, Jjdg^ vi, 8. *'ThcLord fen? aporpbet untoth^ 


the Wo,k of K E D E M P T I O H. . f i 

chiWrcD of Ifrscl, Which fa id unto them/' Lc. SucU an one il 
fctoi) to h'.ve been that we le^dof, I S^m, if. 27, " and there 
c^mc £ m*n ot God .0 E»i," &c. 

But ihcre w as no fuch crd'.r of cacn lip^c?d in JCcAt^ for any con* 
ftaacy, bcfcic SjxucJ ; the want ol h is i. k*- i.otict ol in I Sam* 
iii 1. *' And the woid ( f ibr Lord was prtciou* in thofe dayt } 
there was no open vifion," But in Samuel iLierc was Ligun a fuc* 
celfioa of prophets, that was maintained conlif;u-dl!y item that 
time, at Icart with very little interruption, till this fpiiit of pro* 
phecy ceafed, about MJaehi's time : and therefore Samuel i» fpok- 
cn in the Nev Tci^ament as the beginning of the fucc^fUon of pro- 
phctf. A£li iii. 24 Aad all th.^ propheii from Sjmuel, and ihofc 
that follow after, as mmy as hive fp^ken, have foretold of theft 
days." Aftc: Samuel was Nithan, and Gid and lido, and He- 
man, and Afaph, and others. And afterwards, in the latter end 
of Sjlomoa'f reign, we read of Ahijah ; and in J^^roboam and Kc- 
boboam's timcwc read of prophets ; and fo continually one pro- 
phet fuccccdcd another, till the captivity; We read in the wri- 
tings of thofe prophets that arc inferred into the caaon of the fcfp- 
turei, of prophets at being a coaflant order of men upheld in the 
land in thofc days ;^ and in the umt of the captivity there were 
prophet ft ill, a^b^zsluel and Dmicl ; and after the captivity there 
were prophets, a* Z::charklu Hig^^i, an<| Mslacht. 

Bccaufc God iatendscj a conftant fuccefiioo of prophets from 
Samuel's time, therefore in his time was begun a fchool of the pro- 
phets ; that is, a fchool of young men, that weretiained up under 
fome great prophet, who was their mafter and teacher in the ftudy 
ofdivine tbiijgs, and the pradice of holinefs, to fie ihtm for thif 
office as God fhould call them to it. Tnofe yourg m;n that be- 
longed to thcfc fchools, were chilled th* fon$ of the prophttt ; and 
oftentimes they aic called pr«>/:A#/;. Tbcfc at firft were uncc the 
tuition of Samuel. Thus we rc*d of SamutiV being appointed ever 
ihem, I Sam.xix. 20. " And when tncy faW ihc company of 
prophets prophefying,andSimuei ftaniirgas appoir ted over tf em.'* 
The company of ptcphcfs th;ii wi rc^.d of 1 Sam x. j. were the 
fame. Afterward* wc read of their b^ipg w f^xr E (ah. EIi(hz 
was one of h'» fon^ ; bui he d^fr-cd to hivc a double portion of hit 
fpirit, as his fuccrlTor, n» his fiilt born, a^ the el ic/t fon w^i wonC 
to have a double po. .i. n u» lie cft^fe of his fahcr ; and therefore 
the foil of the p'^0!)-''-V!», wh .n pecnveJ Jh-^r the fpiiit of 
Elijah reft«d on Elifh^., fubmJtted jhea)< l-^o to him, and owr.e4 
hia for their mn'tei, a> ihcy b-i'l done E.j b before him ; a« yoti 
may fee, 2 Ki.ifs li. ij *' And when tDc fons of the prophett 
which were to view ^t jrrich), f^w hi.-n, thi^> f^ii, T^^e fpiiit of 
Elijah doth refl on bllifba. And they bowed themfelves t# 
Ibe ground before him.'' Al(tt 


After this E'ifha was iheir mrifter or teacher ; he had tht care and 
Jaftru^ion of ihtm ; as you may fee, t Kings iv, 38. •» And EU- 
fiia came sgain to Gi]ga), and the;c vfas a dearth in the Isnd, and 
the fons of the prophets were fi ting before hiai : and he faid unto 
fcii fcrvant. Set on the great pot, and fecibc pottage for the foni 
of the prophets." In Elijah's and Elillia's n'me, there were fevc* 
ral places where there refidcd companies of ihcfs foni of the pro- 
phets ; St there was one at Bethel, and another at Jericho, and a» 
Dotber at Gilgal, unUfs that at Gi^gal and Jericho were the fame : 
and pofTibly that which is called the collegt, where the prophereft 
Huldah rcfided, wa§ another at Jerufalcm ; fee 2 Kings xx i 14. 
It is there fatd of Huldah the prophetefs, that *' Ihe dwelt in Jsru- 
falem, in •* the college." They had faoufes built, where th?y ufcd 
to dwell together ; and therefore thofe at Jericho bing mulliplicdt 
and finding their houfe too link for them, dcfired U^ve of their 
ID aRer and teacher Elifha, th^t they might go and h«w timber to 
build a bigger ; ai you may fee, 2 Kinga vi. I. 2. 

At fomc times there were numbers of thefe fons of the prophets 
in Ifracl ; for when Jfzsbd cut off the prophet* of the Lord, it if 
faid, thix Obadiah took an hua^ired of them, ar.d hid them by fi^^y 
ina cave, ] KipgJ xviii, 4. 

Thefc fchooU of the prophets bding fct iip by Samiiel. and after- 
wards kept up by fuch great prcpheis as Eh'jah ahd Eliiha, mufl 
be of divine appointment ; and accordingly we fiad, that thofe 
fons of the propheis were often favoured with a degree of infpira, 
tion, while they consipucd order luiricn in the fchools of the pro* 
phets ; and God coffifn >tily, whenhe calJcd any prophet to the 
conftant cxcrcift of the prophetical office, and 10 fonae extraordi- 
nary fervlce, took thcai out of ihcfc fchooli ;— though not univer- 
f'.lly. Ihncethe prophat Ainos, fpe^kiag of hij being called to 
-the p'ophctical cfiice, fay?, litat he was oae that had aot been edu- 
cated in the fchools ot the prophets, and was not ona of the font of 
the propheti, Aaiosvii. 14 ij. But A.nos'i tsking notice of it 
as rercarkablc, that he fhould be called to be a pjopbct that had cot 
be«a eduGstcd at thcfchoo'a of ibt propheta,0^owi thai it wai God's 
ordinary minner to take hiS prcpbcss out of ibcfe fchools; for 
therein he did but blcfs hisovyn inftitution; 

Now this r^mai kiblc difpe»f«tion of Providence that we arc 
upon, viz. God's bcgioniag a coriftant fuccelfioD of prophcii ia 
h\ Samue/s time, that was to laftnaany ^ge? ; and to thiit end. eila« 
blifhin^ a fchool of the prophet» und^r Samuel, thenceforward to bt 
continued in HracI, was aftep that God took in that grest affair ol 
If d'Ticpiion thu we arc upc»n. For the main bufincfs of this fuc- 
teflion ot prophets was, to forcllio%r Chrlft, and the glorious re- 
dcaaptloa ibkt ke iras X9 accompliib^ aad fo to prepart the way 


ih.e Work of R F. D E M P T I O N, 73 

for hii coming ; as appcin by ihit foremcnvioned place, Acii ii?. 
24. ani by Aet« x. 4.^ ** To him ^itc al! ihc prophets wijatfs ;" 
and by A^U ii'. 18. " Bui ihofc thingi which God before had 
(h-wtd by the mouih of nil hit prophets, ihat Chrift (bould fufTer, 
he hath fo fuitiilcd." 

As I obferted before, ihc Old T^flament tim= was like a time 
of night, wherein the church w^s not wholly without light, but had 
not the light of the fun dircftly, but as rcfl«:ded frotti the ftari. 
Njw ihcf : proph ts w«re the ft<ir* that 'cflet^cd the light of the fun ; 
an 1 acjordingly 8h y fpokc abundantly of Jefus Chrift, ai appears by 
what we have oi thiir prophecici in writing. And ihcy made it 
very much their bufmefs, whca they f.udlcd in their fchools or col- 
lects, and clfcwhtrc, to fearch out the work of rcdnmpiion ; sgree- 
sb'e to whatthe apo/\Ie Pc?cr fays of ihenti, i Pel. i. i*. 11. " Og 
which falvation the prophets have en :^uired, and fiarchod diiigcnS- 
ly, who prophcficd of ihe grace that Ibould come unto you ; feaich- 
ing what, or vyhat manner of time the Spirit of Chrift thai was in 
them did fignify.whchit taQiticdbcforchirtd tbefafTtrings o( Chrift, 
and the glory that ;!. ould follow." We arc toid, that the chuich o£ 
the Redeemer is built on the foundation of the prophets &r\i apofiieSf 
*b« Rcdcemffr himfclf being the chief corner ftonc, Eph. ii. 20. 

This was the iii ft thing Of the nature that ever wai doiis in the 
World ; and h ^z% a great thing that God 6id towards further ad- 
vancing this great building of redemption. Ther-1 had been btfcre 
oco^tfional prophecies of Chrift, as was Giown ; but now the time 
drawing neater when the Redeemer fhould comr, it picafcd God to 
appoint a tertain order ©f men, in confiant fucccflion, whofc main 
bufinefs it (liouJd b;, to forcihow Ch?ill and hi> redemption, and 
as his forerunners to prepare the way for his comiug ; and God 
cllabiiihcd fc'^oo^s, wherein multitudes were infiriidcd and trained 
up t^ that end. Rev. xix. lo. *' I am thy fellow- fervsv^r, and of 
thy brethren chaihive the tsftlmony of Jcfus ; for the tePaasony 
•f Jefus ii the fpifis of p/ophccy." 

From David to the Babylonifli captivity. 

I CO VIE now to t'-ic fifth pirir)d of the times of the Old Tcflamenl^ 
beginning withOuu/V, and extending to ihzBahyhniJh captivity ; 
and would now proceed to fhow how the work of rcdcmpilon wa« 

carried on through this period alfo. Aiid btrc, 

I. The firfl thing to b« taken notice of, is Gji't anointing l^at 
pcrfon that was to be the anceftor of Chcii^, to be fciag over hi* 
pcip'C. The difpenfitioas aJ Pi-ori denes that ha v<; been r^fcca 
naiice oi tbroj^h tke Uft period, from M ofes lo this time, rcfpcft 
^e pzj^U «rh;acc Chdi^ wai to pracscd. But aowr ^C fcripturc- 

J hifiury 


hiftory Ics-fi us to confi^ler Gjd'* providencs towardi that particular 
pcrfon whence Ch-ift was to proceed, viz. D^viJ, It plcafed Gvi 
at this time remarkably to fcleifl out ihjil pcrfoa of wbora Cferf(% 
w^is to come, from ail the thoufands of Ifriiel, and to put a moi^ 
feooor^ble mirk of diOAniilon upon him, by anointing him to Le 
ki^g Qver hi» pcopi*. It was only God ihst could find him out. 
His father's houfe i§ fpokcn of a* being little in ifraci, and he wai 
She youngcft of all the fons of his father, and was leaft expected to 
hz :he man that God had chofen, by S .tnucl. Gzd hsd before, in 
the /orEJcr «gcs of she world, rcmark^ibly diftinguifl^ed the perfons 
froaa whom Chrifi wa.* to come ; as be did Scth, and Noah, and 
Ab ah.a.m, and Ifaac, andjacob. But the lad wcb-vc any accouijt 
of Gad's marking oui in any notable manner, the veiy p«i fo' of 
whoni Chrivl w^s tp come, wat in Jacob's bleflmg Kis fon Judah ; 
unlcfs \vc reckon Nahfhon's advancement in the wildcrnefs to be 
the hsad of the tribe of Judah. Btit this cifiJnfiJon of the pf.jfo;i 
of whom Chriil: vi'as to come. In David, was very h ;ror2b!c ; for 
it W3a Goi's anoiniing him to be k*ng over his peopsc. There was 
fjmeihing further denoted by D^via's anoiniing, than was in ifiC 
anointing of Siul. God anointed Saul to be king pcrfonail}' ; but 
God intended fomcihing further by fending Samuel to anointDavid, 
viz, to cO.abhili the crown of Ifrael in him and in his family, as 
long as Ifra:! continued to be a k?ngdom ; and not only fo, but 
what wa< infinitely mere fJJl, eflabliihing tr e cown oJ hi» liniverf. I 
church, his fj ri uil Ifraci, in hi$ feed, to the end of the world, and 
throughout sll eternity. 

This was a great difpcnfation of God, and a great (\ep tak?n 
fo.vards a further advancing of the work of rcdcrnption, accord- 
ing as the ticne drew near wherein Chrht was to com.*. David, as 
he W5S the ancefiar of Chrifi, fo he w*s the grc^t^ft perfonal type 
ofChriil of ail under iheO i TcHarKect, Th« types of Chrift were 
of three for4i ; i)pci ci inftituiion, or in!titutcd types, sind provi- 
denu^lafld perfonal »ypcs. The ordinance of fdCriticing was the 
grcatcft of the fn'n»'uted types ; and the redemption out of J^gypt 
uas ine f^rcsf-;'^ t>i ths p-- -vjc^cfai^l -ypci ; ai^d D-v-d the grcatcft 
of the perff na' ryp<?s, H'nce Chiift is often exiled David in the 
proph-c;ei of fcriptu-e ; <s Ez:k. xxxiv. 23. 24. " And I will 
f',t (10 "-^e hcphcrd .ver thtm,and he fliall feed them, even my 
f:.v^i .: Di/id ; — ^Iv fervant David a prince among them ;" and 
fo in n iry other places : and he ii very often fpoken of as the 
feed ot D^vid, and the fon of D.vid. 

D vid bci^g t-e a-iccftor and great type of Chri<^, his being fo- 
len dy anoinjcd by God to bs king over his people, that the 
kfT g <om of hi« chu'ch oiff^ht be continued in his family for cver^ 
may ia io..? refpCwli bslo&kci u& at aa saointiogofChtl/lhimfclfj 

the Work of REDEMPTION, 7^ 

ChriA nu ss it were anointed in hiaa ; and therefore Cbrlil'i an- 
ointing arid D vid'g anointing, arc fpokcn of under one in fcrip- 
turc, as Pfal. Isxxix. 20. ** I have faund David my fcrvant ; with 
fcy holy oil hwc I anointed him." And David's throne and 
ChriiVi are fpokcn of as one : Luke 13;. ** And the Loid (hall 
give him the throne of bi« father David" A^s 11,30, *'D-vid— 
kn.owing th-'.t God hid fworn with an oath to him, that of the 
fruit of his loin«, according to ihe flel"h, he would isifc up Cbr|fk 
to fct on bis throne." Thus Good's beginning of the ki;.gda» of 
his church in the houfe of David, was, ss it weia, a new eJ-.ab4jfli- 
ing of the kingdom of Chrift ; the beginning of it in a f: ate of 
fuch vifibility as it thenceforward continued in. It was as it were 
God'i planting the root, whence that branch of rightcoufncfs wai 
aftcrwardi to fpringup, that was to bethe cveflaiting kingof hil 
iburcl ; and thtrefjrc this eveilafting king is csUcd tht brcnchfrom 
thejfem of Jejt, If. xi. I. ** And there ftiail coms forth a rod 
out of the ftcm of ]~^f!i and a branch fhall grow out of bis rcots," 
Jer. arxiii. 5, " SehoM, the days come, faith the Lord, that I wiil 
raifc up unto Divid a righteous brinch, and I kirg (bail reign and 
profpcr." So chsp. xaxiii. 15, «'ln thofediys, and at that tiiaei 
I will caufe the branch of rigbieoufncfs to grow' up to David, and 
he (hsll execute juctgemeijt and righiecufxicfs in the land." So Chriil 
in the New Tsfraasn:, is called the rcot and cffipring of David, 
Rev. XX ii. 16. 

It if obfe.-vable, that God anointed D^ivid after Saul to reign in 
his room. He took away the crjwn Trotn him and his fsmily, 
who w^s higher in ftaturc then any of his people, and wss in ttei'c 
eyes f\vci\ to hear rule, to give i-i to Divid, who was lov7 of Ma- 
ture, and in comparifori, of defpjcable appearance : fo Gcd was 
plea fed to (liowbow Chrift, who appC'rci defpicabfc, wiihoue 
form or comclincfs, and was defpifed and r«j^*.f^cd of men, ibouM 
take the kingdcna ffona the great ones of tic earth. AaJ alfo it is 
cbfcrvsble, that David was the }oupgcfi of J- fit's fens, a» j .cob 
the yojnger brchcr fupplanted E*fau, snd got the birihr [".ht and 
bleiTing from him: and as Pharez, another ofChrift'8a^.ct^.oiC, fup- 
pLnted Zuiih in the birth ; and a- Ifssc, nether of thf^ ancefrors 
of Chrift,C3ft cut hi? eldci brother Khcise! ; thus was that ircqoent 
f.-yingof Chri/^ fulfilled, *«The hft fti-illLc Hrft, and'ft 1-^./' 

11. The next thing I vyouldohfcrvc, is God's fo prcfcrving D> 
vld'i life, by a fcries of wonderful providences, tillSiurs death, 
] bcfare took rcticc of the wonderful prefervaiion of either parti- 
cular perfons that wens the anccRors of Chrift ; s$ No^h,Ab'3h.^rr, 
ir;«?.c, Jacob ; and have oblerved how, in thar Chrir^ the fttcat Re- 
dctT^er was to rrocccd from ihetn, th:.«: io r'-xrlr pre ft r vatic „ tha 
work of redcmptioa itfelf may bs Igyk;^ i*poa as prefaved fi .'ta 


76 AHlSTORTof 

beinp -{efe^tCvl, ^nd tke whole church, which h r«d;emcd thrcugk 
him ftarry being overtlvown. Ku» the prifcrvanon of D^vid w-s no 
Icfi rcnarkablc tbanth<ir of any Qthcrs thai h'ave been already taken 
fiottce of» Hovr often wa» it fo, that there wa» but a ftcp be^VJcea 
bfiB and death. The firfl ?niunce of it .^e hivc in hh encounter- 
iog a Ifon ani a bcar,vyhtn th^y had caught a lamb out of his floclcj 
^^-'li^^Jj without mkacalous afjiftancc, cuui'd at once hsve rent ihj^ 
yjuaPftripljpg in piece?, as they coull the hmb ihat he delivered 
ffOJrt them : fo ^Jter«rard» the root snd ofTioriog of David wa? 
prci*erved from ih-; roarln|9^ lion shat go^:? about fi^cking whotn he 
may devour, and tcnquered' him, and refcusd the poor fouls .of 
men » ihatl were as hmbi ia the cnoisth of ibis liori. Anojhcr re- 
inarksbie inflance w^a, in pfefeiyin^ ^^m fronn. that aaigh?y gisat 
Gafiath, who vyas ilror.g cnou^,h to have taken him, and picked 
him to piec?3 \yiih his tJ;i;^,ers, and gksn hia fiefh to the beafts of 
the ficid, and to the iovjh of the air, s^s he threate*jed him : but 
God prfefcfvcd him froas him, and g^we him the vi(?tory over him, 
fo that he cuiofF his heaci with his own fword, and msQe him there- 
in (ihc deiivsrcr of his people ; as Chiifi iltw the fpiriiual Golisth 
wlih his owti wt^pqn, ihccroft, snd io delivered hh people.. And 
bow rctnaric^bly slid God preserve him from being fiain by S^mJ, 
when he firA fo'jght hJ5 life, by giving him his daughter to be a 
faare to hini, thst the hand of the Philifiinc3 might be upsn him, 
requiring him to psy for htr ^.y an hu'.yJred ionikim of the ?hi' 
iif^incs, thaj fo hia lik wight be csfpofcd to .tbcpn ; and in pr«;ferv» 
£ng him sfterwardi, vfhcn S'iul fpske to Jonatbyn, atid to all his 
fcrvantj, to kill Drvid ; and is/inclining Jonathan, ir.v?ead of hi« 
kiiiing him, as his father bade hJiU, to to\*e him as his ovra fou?, 
snd to be a greaunf.rucnent of his psefervaiion, cw^n fo as to cx- 
pofe bi« own Jife to prcferve David j though one wculd hsv« 
thought that liOGC vKould h^vc been more wiriing; to have Driyid 
kiiled »h2n j^niiban, {onn^ that he wsc con-pel itor with him for 
lhi» father's crown ; and again faving hicp, whea Saul threw « 
jaweliri 2t him, to foaite him even to the wall ; and again 
pr«?fc' ving him vvben he fent mciJeogcrs to his hou'e, to watch fcim, 
when iVli^haJ Saul'* daughter let him down through % window ; and 
wkcn he afterwards (tnl mclTcngcrs to his hcuf^.to watchhim,and 
to kill hicp.whcnMicbal SlaurcdsL'ghterlethim down thro'awicdow; 
andwh«nhe afterw-ards fent meiTtrigcrs, onc^ & again, toNaioth in 
ILasnab, to take him, and ihcy were rcaaaykably prevented time 
after iin:e,by being ftizcd wiih mjracuJo?^s in'/prcfflons of the fpirit 
of God ; and afierwsrdi when SauJ, being refolute m the sffaii^- 
went hicnfcif, he alfo was aaaong the prophets : and after this, how , 
wcnd^rfully '^as David's Hfc prefcrved at Gath atiiong the PhJ- 
llAines, wrhcn he vrcnt to Achifh ^le king of Gath, and was there 
ji) the' band* ol JbcPoiiiftlaci, \vho, one would have shcwght, woul^ 

the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 77 

fisvedifpstchcdhim at once, he hiving fo much provoked thetn 
by brs exploits againfl ihcnj : and he was »gain wonderfully pre- 
fcrvcd at Kcibh, when he had entered inro a fenced town, where 
Saul thought he was furc of binn. How wonderfully waa heprc- 
fcrved from Sau!, when he putfued and hunted him in the nioun- 
talr.i ? How rcina?kably did God deliver hi«i in the wilderticfs of 
Maon, when 3aul and his army were compaiTing Divld ai|^ut ? 
How was he delivered in the c*ve of Engedi, when, inficad oi 
Saul'i killing David, God doHvcred Saul into his hands in the 
cive, indhecutoffbii ll^ift, and might as cafily have cut off bit 
head ; and afterwards ddivering him in like manner in the wil- 
jicrnefs of Ziph ; acd afterwards again prcfsjving him in the land 
cf the Philiitincs, ihou^^h David had fought againft the Philiiiincs, 
and conquered them st Kfcilah, Once he was laft them; 
which one would chink, would have been fulF.cicut warning i<j 
theai not to trui^ him, or let him efcapc a fecond time, if it%h 
they had him in their hands again ; but yet now, when they haoa 
fecond opportunity!. God wonderfully turned their hearts to him to 
befriend and protcd him, in/lead of deftroying him. 

Thus was the precium feed Joat vir r'jally contained the Kedeem- 
efj ^r\d all the blcffings of bis redcmpuoo, wonderfully prefcrvcd, 
when hell and earth were confpircd sgainft is to dcftroy it. How 
ofiea doss David bimfsif i.ske uoticc of this, wiih praife and ad- 
miration, in the book of PfaJnua ? 

HI. About this time, the written word of God, or the cannon of 
fcripturc, was added to by 5 imutj, I have before cbferved, hovr 
that the canon of fcripture was begun, and the firf: written word 
of God, the firft written rule of faith and manners that ever was, 
was given to the church about Mofcs's time ; and many, and I 
ki-.ow not but mof: divine*, think k was added to by JoQ-iua, znd 
that he wrote the Isft chapttr of Deuteronomy, and moft of the 
book of Joihua. Otheri think thst Jclhiia, Judges, Ruib, and part 
of the fifU book of Ssmucl, were vrfiten by Samuel, llowcve? 
that was, this we have good evidence of, that Samuel made an ad- 
dition to the canon of fcnptwre ; for Satr.usl is manifsftly men- 
tioned in the Ncw-Tcflxaicnt, as one of the prophets wbofe writ- 
ings we have in the fcripjurcs, in that fort mcnnontii AiHs iii. 24, 
** Yea and a]I the prophets from Ssmuel, ?nd tbofc that follow af« 
ter, as many as [use fpoken, have iikcwifc foretold oi ihofc days.*' 
By that cTtprefjion, " as many as hsvc fpolicn," cannot be mci^rf, 
as many as have fpoken by word of mouth ; for never was »r y 
prophet but wh;.t did that : but the n:jeanirg muft be, as many ai 
htvc fpoken by writing, fo that what they bare fpoLtn has come 
down to us, that wc may fee what it ij. 

The way tb«t SaubucI fpokcof lUffi U3ie! of Chri/lar i he rof- 

7« A H I S T O R T o! 

pel, was 5)y giving the hiftory of thcfe things that typified them, 
and poTcted lo thcrot particulsrjy ihe il" inj>« concerning' Dsvid 
that he wrote. The Spirit of God moved him lo comnoit tiofe 
thing! to writing, chiefly for that icsfon, bccaufc' the) poinud to 
Chrift, and the limes of the gofpcl ; and, as was hli Lefcre, ihif 
Waj» the: isain buf:r;::f$ of sli that fucwlfidn 0» prophtU, ibil bcgaa 
in S Qiuel, to fcrtfhow ihofe i5n-,c». 

T-il^Sairue! arfdcd t;; th^ canon of the fcrlptures fpcms further 
■to appfar from i Chron. xx'x. 29. •' Now the ^tls of D:vid tht 
king, firft and laft, beheld, they arc written in the bookoi Samuel 
the fccr." 

Whether the book of JoHius was written, by Samuel or not, yet 
jt h the general cpirion of divines, thsl tSc book* of Ju':'ges, and 
Ruth, and part of the tirit bcjck ©f i; n.ue', were [cnner! by him.- 
The back cf Ruth was penned "^ for that rcafon, bccaufs though it 
f%^'^ ^° trestcf private gflpiir?, yet the perfonfchi^-ily fpokcn of 
^^¥ ^00^ vs'Cfe of tb« family whsnc: D^^vid and Chr ift piccced- 
ed* arid fo po'ntcd to what the spofiJf Peter obfervcd of Sa- 
muel and the otber prcphc:i, in the 3J chapter of Adh. 
The thus bidding to the canon of the fcriptu^es, tha great and maici 
in^^riiment of the application of rsdempiion, h to be looked upoa 
as a furtiie? carrying on of that work, and kn addition made to that 
great buiiding, 

IV. Another thing God did tc^srds tMi wotk, at th^t lime, 
wag his irii'pii'ing D^vid to Ihow forth Chri!l; and his redetnptioB, 
in div!nefcng?, which flsouli be fcr'ihe ufe of the chuich, in pub- 
lic worO^jp, ihroughom a!! a^^ei. David hianfcU' endued wKh 
the fpirit of prophecy. He is czWcd a prcph ft, AcU^ i'l. zg 30. 
*' Let me freely fpeak to you of the pstriarch D^vid, ih^? he ii 
tothdcjsd and buried, and his fepiuchrc is with ui urrothis d^v : 
therefore being a prophet, x^d knowing that God had (worn with 
an oath," &c. So that here!'* ■ c ^as a type of Chrir*-, that he tflraf 
both a prophet and kino;. We have no cci rain account of the time 
whrn D::v:d w^% firft cniied with the fpirit of p-op^^ecy ; but It is 
in3ni/c-3, that it either wiS atrhr fia c that Samuc! anri >td him, or 
very fo^n after ; for he appeari foon a^tcr ■^c]cd by th's iprit, in 
the sffiir of GoUarh : and then great psri of &s pfaltns wee perTci 
j'l the lime of b»3 trouble*, ^efo^e he c;rne 10 the crown ; as might 
be m^jde manJftft by an In''u<f^ior» o^ r>a'-«5culj*'S. 

The oil that w3? ufed in af^oioiiog D«vid »» <js a type of r^c Spirit 
of God ; snd the type and the intrtvpp were given b »:•'■ rogett;ei ; 
sswe arc told, i Sarr. xv'v, 13. "Then Sr.rrmel tcokt^e horn of 
oil, ?nd jrolrrcd him in the n idO qf h>? bred icn ; *rd thr ^ph'tt 
of ihe Lord came down rpur D^vid from that day forw^trd :" • i'i 
^ IS probfcblc^ ihii it cgvr came upon lim ia U* prophetic^) •• fla- 

the Wor'x of R E I) E M P T 1 O r^. 7^ 

The vvsy that tliis fpirit influenced him was, to- infpire hitn to 
fho*r forth Chrift, and the g!oriou» things of his rcdconpu^^n, in 
diviot fongi, fwcelly exprcffing the bieaihingi uf a pious foul, 
fuU of admirarion of thr glorioui things cf ihc RcJeemcr, infl^ui- 
cd with diviac love, .^rd li'te ' op ♦li'h praifc ; and therefore he it 
€-i\U6 thsfwttt pfaln7i/i of IfracL 2 Sam. xxiii. I. *' Ni>w 
thcfc be the Isfl words oi David .- D^vid the fon of J /Td faid, ard 
the mm who vr»> railed up on high, the anointed of the God of 
Jacob, «ndl'C fwcet pfalmilt of Ifr;*cl." The main fv-bjcds of 
ihcfc fvvcet fjng? we.e the glorious things of jhegofpd ; at ii evi- 
dent by the interp/ctition that is often put upon thtrr, and the uft 
that u m-cc of ihcm in the New Tcflament ; for there is no one 
took of the 0!d Tcftainent that is fo often quoted in the New, at 
ihe book of Pf^lms. joyfully did this holy msn fing of thofc great 
thing* of Christ's redemption, that had been the hope and expecta- 
tion of God's church and people from ihe beginning of the church 
cf God on eart- ; andjoy'ully did others follow him in ir, as A- 
f:ph. Hcman, E'.han, and oihers ; for the book of Pfalms was not 
al! penned by David, though the gr^iater part of it was. Hereby 
the canon of fcripture was further added to ; and an excellent por- 
lion of divine writ was it that was added. 

Thii was a great advancement that God made In this building ; 
and the light of the gofpel, which had been gradually growing froia 
the fall, was exceedingly incrcafed by it : for whereas before thtre 
was but here and there a prophecy given of Chrift in a great many 
ages, now here ChriU is fpoken of by his anceftor David abundant- 
ly, in multitudes of fongs, fpcaking of hii incarnation, life, death, 
.refurre<ftion, afcenfion into heaven, his fatisfaftion, interceflion ; 
his prophetical, kingly, and prieAly office ; his glorious benetita 
in this life and that which is to come ; his union with the churchy 
and bleiTednefs of the chi'rch in him ; the calling of the Gcntilet, 
the future glory of the church rear the end of the world, andCbrift'g 
coming to the final judgement. All thefe things, and many more, 
concerning Chrift and his redemption, arc abundantly fpoken of 
In ttic book of Pfalm?. 

Thi> was alfo a glorious advancement of the affair of redemption, 
es God hereby gave his church a book of divine fongs for their 
ufc in that part of their public worfhlp, viz. Ticg'ng his praifcs, 
throughout all ages to the ecd of the world. It is manifcft the 
bcok of Pfalms wa? f^iv^n of God for this end. It was ufcd in the 
church of 1 '>>rl by God's appoinvment : this is manifefl by the titio 
of m?>ny of th? j-fafms, in which they are infcribed to the chief 
muHcian, /, *, to the man th^t vai appointed to be the leader of 
d'v'ie fongs in ihctctpplc, in thft public worfhip of Ifrael. %9 
Diviaif called^ rAr/ii^Ki pfalmijl of If rat I, bccaufc he f^enaed 

%o A H I S T C R T of 

pfalms for the ufe of the church of Ifracl ; «nd accordingly wc h«ve 
aa account that ihcy were adlually made ufe of in the church of If- 
rael for that end, tvcn ages aficr David was dead; as 3 Chion, 
xxix. 30. " Moreover, Hrzckiah the king, and the princes, com- 
manded the Leviic* to Ung praifcs unto the Lord, with the woids 
©f David, and of Af^ph the fccr." And re find that the faoie src 
appointi-d! in the New-TcHament to be msdc ufe of in the Cbrifiiaa 
church, in their worfeip : Eph. v. 19. " Speaking to yourfdvc* in 
fifalmsf hymBJ, and fpiritua! fongs." Col. iii. 16. ** Admorjtih- 
iBgone another in pfslms, hymns, and fpirilual fongi." And fa 
ehcy hivs hesn, and wi'il to tisc end of the world be made ufe of in 
the church so celebrate the praifcs of God. The people of Go^l 
were wont fomejimcs to wcrfhipGod by Ringing fongs lo his praifc 
before ; as they did at \\\^ Red fca ; and they had Moici's pi'ophe- 
lieal fong, mthe 3 2d chapJer of Dtutcronc.Txy, comcDine(s to iS»cm 
for that end ; and Deborah, and Barak, and Hsanah, fung praifc* 
to God >but now firi^ did God commit to his church a book ol di- 
vine fongs for their conHant ufe. 

V. The next thing I would take notice of, ij God'« s^iually ex- 
alting David to the throne of Ifracl, notwitbftanding aU the oppo- 
sition made to it. God was determined to do it, and he made 
every thing give place that #iOod in the way of ir. He removed 
Saul aod his fons out of ihc way j and fir ft fee David over the tribe 
of Judah ; and then, having removed liliboflbt-^h, fct him over all 
IfraeJ. Thus did God fulfil his word to David. He took hiai 
from the fl>eep cote, and msde him king over his people ifrac], 
Ffal. lixvlii. lo,'}i. And coiY the throne of Ifrael was cftablifh • 
ed Ib that family in which it was to cosiiini** for ev«r, even for 
ever and ever. 

• VI. Now firft it was that God proceeded to chufc a particular 
city out of all the tribe? of Ifrael \o place his name there. There 
h fcveral times mention rnsde in she hw of Mofcs, of the chil- 
dren^ of Ifrael'fl bringing their oblatioas to the place whicii 
God fbouldchufe ; as Dcul. sii. j. 6. 7. aisd fo in many other 
places ; brit God bad never proceeded to do it till now. The ta- 
bernacle atjd ark were n«ver fixtd, but fcmeiJEocs in one p'ac<, and 
fomctimcs in another ; but now God proceeded to chufc Jeruf^leRi, 
The c'ty of Jerufalem was never thoroughly conquered, or tok;n 
outof the hands of the Jcbufitcs, till David's time. It is faid in 
Joiiiaa XV. 63. ** Ai for the Jcbufftei, the inhabitants of Jerufalem, 
the children of Judab could not drive them cut : but the jebufitcs 
dwell with the children of Judah at Jerufalem unto this day." But 
nowr David wholly fubdued ie, ai we have an account in 2 Sarii. v, 
Aad aow God proceeded to chufe tbsit city to pUse his naue there, 


t!.c Wofk of R E O E M P T I O iC, U 

af sppesrs by Divia'g bringing up the ark thither foon after ; and 
tberfrtore ibis is cncntioncd aticiwards a» the fi:0 limc God pro- 
ceeded to chufc a city to phcc bis name jhcrc, 2 Chron. vi. ^. 6, 
and chap. xii. 13 A'^tcrv»ard» God procjeded to rtiow D^vtU the 
v?ry place where he would have his temple built, vli. in the tbicfh* 
in g floor of Araunah the Jebii^ie. 

This city o< }:Tu(ihm 1% therefore called the holy city ; aftd it vaB 
the grestcfi type of the church of ChriA in all the Oid Teriamcnt. 
It was redeemed by David, ihe captain cf the hoft« of Ifrael, cut 
of th«i hands of the Jcbuxhes, to be God'a city, the holy place o£ 
bis reft forever, where he would d«'cll ; as Chrifl, the csptai* o^ 
fcis peoplc'i falvation, rcdecrijs his church out of the hands of dcTilf^ 
to be his holy and beloved city. Therefore bow often doca the 
fcripturc, when fpenking oC Chrifx's redcroption of his church, cal! 
it by the nacn.fs of Tjion and JerufaUm ? This was the city thst 
God had appointed to be the place of the firft gstkcrihg andertf^ing 
ef the Cbriftian church after Chrid's refurrcdion, of that rcmarfj- 
able pouring out of the Spirit of God on the spofllea and pri- 
ttiitlrcChril^ians, ar.d the place whence tb« gofpel «^as to found 
forth into all the world ; the place of thft fi.ft Chriftian church, than 
was to be, as it were, the t3Fiother of all other churches through iha 
world; agreeable to that prophecy. If. ii. 3.4. "Out of Z'on fhalj 
Y^o forth the law, and th« word of tht Lord from Jerufalem : and he 
Ihall judge an:ionj5 the nations, and (hall rcbekc many people/' &c, 

Tgus God chofe Mount Sion when the gofpcl was to be fouodedl 
forth, as tht law had been from Mount Sinai. 

VII. The next thing to be obfctvcd here, is (7od*8 folejhnly re- 
tiewirg the covenant of grace with David, and pfora:fing that tie 
MefTiah fhould be of his feed. We hav.? an account cf it in the 7ihi 
chapter of the fecond book of Samuel. It wss ioxxt on cccaflon ol 
She thoughts David c-.tcrtssincd of building God in houfc. On »h88 
occaHon God fends Nathan the prophn to him, with ;he g.'o^ou© 
promlfcs of the covenant cf grace. It is efpccially contained in 
thefc words in the i6th vcrfe : *« And thy houfc «nd thy ki'-pr'ojn 
ftiHll be eflablillisd forever before thcc ; thy throne fhUl be tfisbi fhcd 
forever." Wfilch promifc has jcfpecfl to Chr'ft, tht feed o' D^vid, 
and IS fulfilled in him only : for the kingdom cf D vid ha* lorg 
fincc ceafed, any oihcrwifs than as it is upheld in Chri{^, T.'.e 
temporal kingdom of the houfc of David has isov^ ccafcdfor agrcaB 
many ages ; nriuch longer than ever it ftood. 

That this covenant that God now cflabnilicd with Davtd byNalhaa 
the prophet, was ihfi covenant ©f grace, U cviccnt by the plain 
teiVimony of fcripturc, in If. Iv. i. 2. 3. There vvc have Chrift 
inviting finneri to coT5ie to the watci*^ 9)cz^ And in the 3d vtrft, 
k& fa; a, *'iacline your ear, come yclo roc ; hear, and ycvr fotila 

U A H I S T O R Y of 

ih^II live ; and I wil? m ke wiih you an ererlafttng cntenflT t, trcn 
«h« fure mcrciei of vid " Hcr« ChfiT' otf«;\ lo poor firnerp, if 
Ibev will corn- to .: m. to give them an intef ft in ih< latnt tvtr- 
lafting cjv£,iui tbJit bch^d in.<j«le wuh D virf, co vcyii g it jh m 
the fame f; c ^n'^ ciei. Bj! what i» ibai covenant (n«ii finBcrt cbi^ia 
au inr ■e'r n^ v»i-cn i' ey come toChrlft, bu» the covcnani ofgract i 
Trti* w^» h; fifth foit:a)n cfrshiiflicnent ofihc covenant o; R«»co 
wJth t".c cha :h « icr the fall. Ths c <v.jnint of gr^ec wa" rcvra»e(l 
soA <fiA-A <Titd all along. But there ba.i been pan-cular fc. Ions, 
%)fhe cia Gad bad in a very folcoin aiinricr renewed tr i% covenant 
with hit church, giving forth a new ediilon anrJcAalMhoaer i of it, 
wvsaling it in a new manner. Tnis wai now «h« fiuh folcmn 
eftabb'fliinent of thai covenant. Tfte Hrft w?.$ withAi m, bt fccond 
waj with N^^h, the ^hir'f ^35 wi h the p:iria ch , Ah .ith^ra, If x, 
and Jacob,^as in Jhe wildcraefs by M.i'e , and now 
the HiiL h this made to D;?id, 

Tau cf^jbli^menl of the covtnan! of gfice with D^vi ', D^vii 
alwiyi ej^cemcd the grcjicft fmile of God upon him, the jjresif .^ 
honor of a'l that God Lad put upon bim ; he prfz^d i;, aed rrjc'^ed 
inn above all 0\c other blcffings of hh reign. Y~u nry ^^ ^ow 
juyfuUy and ihankfully ho received it, when N^shjin Ckir*t to bim 
with tic glorioui mtfT^ge. in 2 Sam. vii. 18. Sfc. Aud f Ddvid, 
la hi§ laft \v . i3, declares ihii lo be all his f-Wauon, snd all hif 
dcfirs ; »^ : ou naay fee, 2 S^m. saiii. 5, *' H« haih made wiih 
me an cverlafling covenant, ordered in JtW things and fure : For 
thi^ U all my falvtion, and sll my dcfirc " 

VI 11, It was hv Divid that God firft gave hU people IfraeJ the 
polfeifion of the ^hSie p<omifcd land. 1 have before fiown, how 
G >i*s ^ivinjy the poifcffiort of the prtmifed land belonged to the 
covenant of giar«. Thif t» »> done in a grcsi aae«fure by Jcdiua, 
lu' no: fully. JifhuH iid not wholly fubdue thai p^rt of the pro- 
icifri hn 1 thil w*s f^ri''^!y c-JIcri ihe land of Cana<in, and thrft wai 
cJivi^H by lot to f-e fercr*! uites ; bai thcfc wc7i great nun^.bcrj 
c the old i habit-*! tt ictt utifubjut'f, ft* we rcai in the beck? of 
J.!h(ji sori J ilgc» ; ^nd ihetc wctc ms«ny left to prove Ifr;^el, ami 
lo b^ thorpf M tH' t fiJcs, aj.d p ick» in i^-cir ey*. There were the 
J;b- fites in f:i«f lem, and rn*.,y of the Canaanites, and the vtho.'c 
t!'*iv^ of t P uiirrine*, wtio al' -Jwclt in that part of the land 
» - wa» divide^ Hy lot, snd chitlly in th^t part of the land thiit 
fclrnjed to the .. it)ei cif Juisr. and E^hraim. 

r 'ii thcfe fcm^ini of the '^14 inV<ib)itanti of Cana»n fcntirued 
lUjf'.ib'Jued lillD na'i time ; but he nh'^'y fubducd them 'A\ Which 
J3 to v^ntt St. Scep^c > ol f ivf>, Af}» vii. 45. " Which 
aK'.i . .r "fathers brought in vralj fw (f. t, Jofhua) into the prfiifHon 
o! 4ft« GwiitiitfJ, wh jua Gdu <2*l*vc wUi before the hsc of our father s» 


tfic Work of R E 1) E M P T I O NT. tZ 

lMt» th* dayi o^ D ivid." T cy were till the days oi David io driv 
lag ihcm oa, Uiuic ibcy had Ktholly iubducd ihcoa. Bui D.vid 
CDAitly brought them undw. tic ftbJucd ibc Jcbuiiui, ani be fub- 
llued the «*hoJc naiion ol iKc i'hilifimes and all the icft of the rt- 
cnaiui ot ibc fcvca nation! of Canaan : i Cbion. aviii. i. " Nowr 
after (hii ti came to pafi« that Divid fmote the I'nilirtiaeif and 
fubiu*^ them, ani took GiCb aad her towc» out of the baau* uf 
the Pnilift^ncs." 

After ihM, all the remiict of the formtr inhibitants o* C>naa« 
were miie bond ('efvaots to the UnzVnzs, The ptTc it) ci tfcs 
G * co:jilc* bec-me fcrvants before, htwcii of vkcoc, *rO cisiwer* 
of water, for II € hoafc of God. But Solomon, D vid% fon in4 
luccclfof, put aii the other remains of the feven nations of Canaan 
Io b jnd-(divicc } tt leafl m^de them pay a tribute of boDd-fcrvice, 
ai you oi^y fee, i Kings iic. to. 21. 22. And hence we read of 
tthc children of Jljlo.iion*i fcrvants, after the rclwn from the 
B>«byloniifa captivity, Ezra ii. f 5. and Nch. xi, 3, They were the 
cb<l-lreQ or pjf^erity of the feven nationi of Caoaao^ ihatSo^offiOO 
bad fiibjcfted to boad-fcr?ice. 

Thu* Divid fubdued the whole land of Canaan, ftriclly foc5??cdo 
But then that was not one half, nor quarter, of the land Got* baci 
prooaifed to their falhcn. The land that God had oUcr. p'ooiifco to 
their fafbers, included all the countries itom th«x ivcr o Egypt to 
the sivcr Euphrxtjs. Thefs were the boundi t f iht Unci prom i fed 
t^ Abrafeaoa, Gca. »v. 18. *' In that fame day the Lord midc t 
Covenant with Abrahaos, faying. Unto thy feed have i given thit 
laud, from the river of Ki,ypt, unto the great r ivsr, the river 
£uphr-tc«." iloagainGodpioaitfcdaiMountSinaijExod. KJtiii. 31, 
*' A^a 1 will fct thy bounds from the Red fca even unto the fea of 
the Piuiiftincs, and from the defcrt unto the river : for 1 will dcli- 
fcr ihe ithabitanis of ih« Utii into your hand ; and ihou (hAt drive 
tbjctn out before thee." So ag^in, Deut. xi. 24, ** Every pbc* 
whcieon the foic« of your feet ihall trcsd, fiiall be yours : tr#ni 
the wilderncfi, and Lebanon from the river, the river Euphraict, 
even unto the uttcrmofl fca, (bill your coaft be " A;}?ir, i?}c fame 
p:oojif< ii made to Jolhua : Jofh. i. J, 4. «' li»c y place that ihe' 
foul of your feci (hall tread upon, bavt I g vf i uaio you, at I f^tij 
SAto Mcfai ; from the wilderntfs and ihi^ Lcbxnon, even utto tfaa 
great river, the river Euphratei, all the had of the Hittitca, ani 
unto the great fea, towards the p-oing Ocwn of iti: fcm, (hn\ bt 
your coafl." But the land thatjofbifca g&vc the p^o^'c ihe pofT-efKcn 
of, wa« but a little part of thi? land. And the people never h&i 
liad the pofTcflloa of it, till now wbea God g^ve it tlicm by David. 
TbiBbrge country did not only indude (hat C^nzan thii was 
llvldedby bt to tbofc vrbo eastern wirb Jc&ui« but the hnd o( 


the MoabltM an<J Atamonkcs, the land of Jhc Amal«kitc§, and tfcs 
ref^ of ihe Edosuhfis, and ehe country of Z bsh, Ali tl.efe nati- 
ons vrcre fubducri and brought uvAqt the chiMrea of Ifrsd b)Davii, 
And he put garrifoas p the fe-zera? cotintrics, and they bccstne 
Divid's Ut}fi'M*i,^t wc have a panicuUr accou-t ia iha Shchapjeif 
Oi' 2d Simusl : and David extended ihcii" border to the river Eu- 
phrates, as was profDifcd ; lee the 3d verf? : *' And David fosotc 
alfo Kjdadczirthc foo of llchob, king of Zcbab, as he went to 
recover his border at the river Euphrates." Accordingly we i«id, 
that Salomon his i'oa reigned over «|} the region on this fide tkq 
river, I Kings iv. 24. *• For he had douitnion over si! lbs re- 
gion on ihii jidc the ri7cr, fromXiphfah even unto Azzah, Qvcr 
aU the king* on this fide the sivcr. " Thi« Ariazcrxss king of Per- 
fit takes notice of lonjj afier : Ezra iv. 50. <' There have been 
mighty king! «lfo over J«rufa>em, which hiive ru!«d over ail courrries 
beyond ihe nyer ^ and tcl:, tribute, "vJd cuy'totp yi'as paid unto them." 

So thitjornuaahat type ofChrift, did but b:-gin tha work of givir.g 
Ifrael the poiTe^rico of th« proraifed isnd ; but l£.^r it to be<l:£;i 
by thdt much grtjaier typ; and.ancef^or of Chrift, ?ven David, who 
fubducd hr oore of ^hat Jand sha* ever jolhua had done. In this 
extent cf fail and Sclornon'a donainion was focne rcfcmblanc* of 
thegreaz cxtsaiof Chiiit'2 kir.gdoni J aRd ihtr^iont the extent of 
Chriu'i kingdcni is hi forth by thjj very tbirg, of m being over 
&ii lands from the R-id fea, to the fca of tke FhiUftinss, and ovct 
all lands from Ehcncs to the rJ¥cr Euphratci ; £s Fhl. Isrii. 8. ''He 
ihall have dominion alio frcxn fca to fea, and from the five? unto 
she ends af tbs earth.'* Sec slfo 1 King* viii. 56. 

IX. C:^i by DiviJ perfcQcd ;hc jzwiih worihip, and added to 
It fcv«rAi new inftitutioa!. The hw was given by ^4ofcs, but yc{ 
all ihs infti.utions of the Jswilh worfhip ivcie not given byMofcs ; 
1j312 were a !dcJ by divine dircilion. So this grcateft of all per- 
son*! typ23 of Chrift did not only pcrfed jcftvja'a woik, in giving 
JfrasI il.c pofi":(nonpf vhc protrjifcd land, but be aJfo finifhed Mofcs's 
woxl:, inp«rfiding the inriitqtcd worfhip of Ifracl. Thus ihert 
tsmii be a number of typical prophtttn, pricf'^j, snd puncea, 10 com- 
plete o ic figure or fludow of Ccri:! the aatctypc, he being the fub- 
itanceof tlj the lypcs and fbsdows. Offounuch mora glory was 
Chrifi accounted wofthy, than Mofcs, joihuz, Divid, and Solo- 
mon, aqj i|: the gnjit propheti, pricjla, and prio^M, judges, aa^ 
f aviourj of iht O^i Te ftam-scts put together. 

The orjina^Ciis of U<vid arc mcitioned as of parallel validity 
wilb ihofe of Mof«i,2 Chroa. jfxUi. j8. " A)foJcho}ada sppoini- 
cd the cfHcci of ihe honfc of the Lord by the hand of the pricfts 
|hc Lcyiio, vvhcm David had difiiibufed in the hoyfeoi the i.ord, 
to pii";; lU Imai-cireriugs oi ihc Lord, &5 it is viruico jj^ ibc la/? 

the Work of REDEMPTION, 8 

•jTMrfcs, with rfjoicing and wiih Tinging, as it wa» ordained by 
Ddivid." The worlhipot llraci w^s p^rkcUd by David, by lh« 
addition that be made to the ceremonial bw, which wc have an 
iccouatof in the 23d, 2 4tJi, ijih, and 26'.h chapters of the firft 
hook of Choniclci, corifijiing in the fevcral orders and courfcs in- 
to which D ivid divided the Lcvltes, and the work and bufinefs to 
¥ebich he appointed them, diiTcr«ni from whar Mofts had appoint- 
ed them to i and alfo ia the divifions of the prices the fon$ o/Aaron 
ialo four and twenty ccurTcs, a^gniog to every courfc their bufl- 
nefi in the houfe of the Lord, and their particular rlutsd times of 
aitcniifltc there ; and sppointing fomc of the Lcvites to a new of-, thi^ had not been appointed bcfare j and that was the office 
cf dingers, and particularly ordering and regulatitig of ihcm jn thai 
oriice, as you may fee in ths 25ih chapter of ift Chronicles ; audi 
appointing others of the Leviics by law to the fcvcral fdrvices of 
pojicrs, trcafureri, ofricers, and judges : and shcf« ordinances of 
P^vid were kept up hcncsforth in the church of Ifrael, as long as 
the Jcwilh church lafted. ThL'S wc tind the fevsral orders of priefii 
and the Levites, th* portcrfp and fingers, after the captivity. So 
wc fiad the courfes of the priefl-s appointed by David fiill conti- 
nuing in the Nsw-Tcftamcnt ; fo Z xharias the father of John the 
Eeipiirt w<i3a prieft of ths courfc of Abia ; which is the hmc with 
the courfc of Abljah appointfd b> David, that wc icad of 1 Chroa. 
^fxiv. 10. 

Thus David as well at Mofcs was m^dc like to Chrift the fon 
©f Divid, in this refpe/i, that by him G jd g^ve a new cccIefiaAi-!- 
tdl cftabiilhm^nr, *nu new inUKuiionacf woJh'p. Divid did not 
caly add to the inftiiuiioni oi Mofes^ but by thofe additions he 
aboliUjcd feme of the old cnftiiuiions of Mofcs that had been in 
force till that time j parcicuiifly thofc laws of Mofca that appoint- 
ed the bufincis of the Lcvlccs, which wc bavs in the jd and 4th 
ch*pt:ri of Numbers, v/hich very much confifted in their charge of 
|he Icveraj paris aijd utci^tili of iht taSsrujclc, there afHgo'd them, and 
io cxrryin^ thofe fevcral pa? ts oi ihr: tybaraicle' Bu: thofe hws were 
tjovv abotilhcJ by David j and they wc/e no mere to carry thofe 
things, at they had been ufed to do tiil David's lime. But Djv:4 
appointed tht:m to other work inftcad of it ; fee i Chron. xxiii, 
26. '* And alfo unto ihc Lcyltes^ they (ball no more »carry the ta- 
befoaclc, nor any vclTtis of it for the fcrvicc thereof:'' A fur* 
evidence that :hc «ereaionial hw ;i;Ivca by Mofca is not pcrpcltjal, 
^s the jews luppofci : but mi^ht be wholly abolillicd by Chrift: 
for if D ivid, a type of th« Mtlfiab, aaighi sLclifli t)-.e law of Mo- 
izi in part, much mo.'c mijiht the MefTiah himfclf kboiilh the whole, 
D^vid, by God's ajppointmcnt, :; all ufe of ihc tabcrta^ 
C'It^;h*v ^A$ baj» byMcfcs, a»vi gl nhiciitie b*i ihc psitcrn frcai 

S6 A H I 5 T O R T of 

Gad : for G9S now revealed it to D^vid to be bis wi!!, that a tern* 
pie ih'^u^d be buiii. that fbould be inftcad of ih<* labcrnacie : A 
^r:ai p efage ol whai Chrift, the foii of David, fbould do, whca 
he (hould cume,v!z. abulUh the wbclcjcwifh ccclcfiaftica' conftitu- 
tion» which wa>but ^^ a moveable tabernacle, to fci up ibc fpii itual 
gofpcl- temple, which ^as to be far more glorious, and gfeatef 
txtcnt, and wa^ to laft for ever. D.vid had the pattern of all 
thing* pcrtatnJng to the temple (hovcd him, cv»n in like m^nrer 
ai Mofei had the pattern of th« tabernacle : and Solomon built the 
temple according to that pattern which be had fiom hit father 
i)*vid, which A/ received trcni God. l Chron. xatviii il, J2, 
•'Then David gave to Sjlomoa hii foa tiic pattern of the porch, 
and of the houfci thereof, and of the treafutits thereof, and of th« 
ijpper chambers thereof, and of Kht inner parlours thersol, and of 
the place of the mercy -(car, and the patierfl of a!i that he had by 
the fpirit, ©f the court* of th« houfe of the Lord, and of all th« 
(fhambe.'S round about, of the trea furies of the houfe of God, and 
«f the treafurieiof she f'cdicatc sbings." And, vtr. 19. ** All 
fihii, f id D vid, she Lord midc me uadcrftand in writing by bit 
iiand up n me, «ven all the woris of thi« pattern." 

X The canjn of fcripturs fcem* atof after the clofcof David'i 
reign to be added to by the prophets Nathan aod Gad. It appctra 
prcbvblehy she fcrjpturca.that they carried on thtbiflory of the two 
tiook»of Smuel from thepJace vvbere§atr»ucl left it, andfintfbed it. 
Thcfe two books of Ssmuel fcem to be the book that in fcripturc io 
«i!!ed tht beck of Stmutl th far, end Nmtkan tkt prophet, tizd 
Gad the fger, as in i Chron. zxis. 29. ** Now the zf\» of Divid 
ttc king, fir*^ and laft, beheld, they arc written ia ihc book oC 
Samuel the fsrr, and in the book of Nathan the piopbcl, and ia 
the bock of G^d the fecr." 

XI. The next thing I would take notice of, i? God's wonflcrfully 
continuing the kingdom of his vifible people in tfac line o? Oirift't 
legal anccfirors, as* long as they remained an inf/Jepcndeni kirgdom. 
Thus it was withoit any interruption worth t^k ng notice. I dtt^ 
the kingiom of all the tribes of Krael was not kept in that line ; 
but the dominioti of thai part of 1ft acl in whi«h the true wot Jh p ol 
God was upheld, and fo of that part that were God's vfible ptopic, 
was aSw^ys kept in the family o. David, as long as there w^s any 
fuch thi?'^ as an independent king of IfratI ; accordirg to hi« pro- 
inife to P vid : And rot oi'y in the family of D^vld. hut a^vvayi 
in that p:irt of David's poftc hv that vras che Uoe whenct Cr«ri<t 
W3S legally defccnded ; foth^t rhc very pfrfon that xvuCt»i<r*f 
Kg?l ancefror was zlftfdyt in the throne, earcfpting Jcho-ih -z wH«i 
reipoed three months, and Zsdukuh i as you may fee ia Mjvic-v'i- 


the Work of XXDEMPTIOW. 9f 

Chrlil wai legally dcfccnded from the kiogi of Judih, ibougk 
be was no» naturally dtfcendcd from them. He waiboih Icgal'y ani 
naturally dcfccndcd from David. He wai naturally dcfccndcd froai 
N than the fon of David ; for Mary his mother w^i one of the 
pofterity cf Divid by Nathan, as you a.ay fee -nL'jkc's genealogy 2 
bu'jofeph, the reputed and hgal father of Chrift, was naturally 
defcendcd of Sclomon and his fucceffori, as we have an account \m 
M^itthC'vN g'nealogy, Jcfui Chrift, though he was not the natural 
fon of J jfcph, yet, by ths Uw and conflituiion of the Jc«fs, be *rai 
J')fcph*» heir ; bcciufc he was the lawful fon of Joleph'i lawful 
wife, conceived while (he was his legally efpoufcd wife. The 
H 4y Gooft raifcd up feed to him. A perfon, by ihc law of M- fes, 
might be the legal for. and heir of another, whofe r atural fon h« 
was not ; x% fomct.'m<s a man raifid up feed to his brother : \ 
brother, in feme cafes, wsi to build up a brother'i boufe ; fo the 
H-Iy G\o(i built up Jofeph's boufe. 

J jfcph being in the oirc£^ line of the ki.ngt of Judab, of the houfe 
ef Divid, he was the Icg^l heir of the crown of D^vid ; and Chrift 
being legally hi« fitft-born fon, he was his heir ; and fo Chrift, by 
the law, was the proper heir of the crown of David, aad is thcit* 
fore faid to lit upon the throne of his father David. 

The crown •{ God's people was wonderfully kept in the line ef 
thrift's legal ancertors. When David was old, and not able any 
longer to minnagc the affairs of ichc kingdom, Adonijah, one ot 
fcis fons, fct up to be king, and feemed to have obtained his purpofc| 
all thing* for a wbilt fccmed fair on his fide, aad he thought hiafilf 
f^rong ; re thing be aimed at feemed to be accompliftied. *ut f« 
it was, Adon'JAh was not the fon of David that was the tnceHor o£ 
Jofeph, the legal father of Chrift ; and therefore how wonderfully 
did Providence work here ! what a firange and fudden revolution I 
all Adonijah's kingdom and glory vinilbed awsy as foon as it wai 
begun ; and SolomoHi the legsl ancellor of Chtifi, was eftabliiked 
in the throne* 

Afjer Solomon's death, when Jeroboam had confpired agatnfk t^t 
family, and Keboboam carried himfelf fo that it was a wonder all 
Ifrael was not provoked toforfake him, and ten tribes did aftually 
forfake him, and fel up Jeroboam in oppofition to him ; and tho* 
be was a vricked m»n, and deferved to have been rcjcdled altogether 
from being king ; yet he being the legal anceftor of Chrifk, Go4 
kept the kingdom of the two tribes, in which the true rtllgioo waf 
VpSeld, in his pcfTefTion : And though he had been wicked, and hit 
fw Abijim was ;inothcr wicked prince ; yet they being legal aft* 
•ei^ors of Chrifl, God Aill continued the crown in the family, ani 
{avc it to Abij^m'k fon Afa. Afterwards, though many of the king^ 
•f Judah wcfc very wicked meoj and horridly provoked God, at 


,^8 A H I S T O R T of 

parJjeularly Jchoram. Ahsz^iah, Ahsi, Man^.ffiih, and Atncn ; yc» 
God did not take away she crown from thecr fsmily, bit gave it 
to their fom, bccaufc they wrjc tht anccf ors of Chrift, God's re- 
membering his covenant th^t be had cfublifted with David-, is givcfi 
as ?h« rca^^on v»'h)(jr.>d did thus, notwJthflanding their wicked lives ; 
a» 1 Xing' sv 4 fpssking trcreof Ahij m's wickc^Jncf?, it is f#>d, 
•' Ncvcrthclcfs, for D. vici** fikc did the Lord his God give hiQT a 
lamp in Jtrufaicm, to fct up his fon after hitr, and fo eftablifh 
Jcrufalem :" So, Chron. xxi. 7. fpes king there of Jchoracr/* great 
wickedncfs, it is faid, '* Kovvbtit the Lord wcuM not dci^rcy ihe 
houfc of Divld.bcciufc of the covenant ihathehad made vrithDi^vid, 
and as he promifed jo give a light unro him, and to his fons fortver.'* 

Thi €ro\v*'iJ of the ten trib-<^8 w?.i charged from one family 19 
another continuaUy. Firft, Jerobosm tcck it ; but the crown ri* 
maiaed in hi» family but for one generation after his death ; it 
only defccndrd to his fon Nadab : aod then Baafh;:, that was of a- 
nother family, took it ; and it remained in his poftcriiy but on« 
generation after hif diiath : and »hen Zlcari, that w^s his fr.rv.^R!, 
and not of bis posterity, took it *, and then, without defccndirg kt 
all to his po^eriiy, O^r*, that was of aaother family, took it ; 
and the crown continued in his family for three fuccedions : an4 
thea Jehu, that xvas of another family, tock it ; and the crown 
continued ia his family for thrgc or four fucceliions : and ihca 
Sballuw, that was oi another family, lock it : and the crown did 
cot difcead at all to his pofteriiy ; but Mcnahcra, that was of ano- 
thtr family, took it ; aud it remained in his family but one gere- 
latioji after hisn : and then Fckah, ihat was of another fatn/iy, 
took it ; aud afjc himH^fhea, that was f^ill of another family, took 
it : fo greil a diffejencc w.^s there between the crowti of Ifrsc!, and 
the cro^'D of Jud .h ; the one was continfed evctmorc in the fame 
family, and with very little interruption, in one right line { the 
other w2»coniiriU3l5y tofTed sbout frooi one family to another, as 
if it were the fport of fortune. The rcafon was not, fcccatefc the 
Itingi of Judab, many of them, were better than the kings of Ifra-' 
cl ; but the one hid the blcffing in xhttn ; tbcy were the ancitllori 
of Chrift, whofe right it w^i to fu on the ihrone of If ae'. But 
wkih the kings of Ifracl it was rot fo ; and therefore r,vin« Pro» 
vidcnce cxercifcd a CGnti.iualcare,4hrough all tKe charge* that hap. 
pened through fo many genepaiiors, and fuch 4 lor jr fpsceof tirDc, 
to keep the crown of jjdah io one dire<fl line, i i fu fiUncr.t cf the 
cvcrlafling covenant he hai mcide with Divid,the mccics of vrhicli 
covenant were fu:e n-.erciei ; but in the other cafe theie wat n0 
fuch covenant, sn J fo no fjch care of Providence. 

Here it muii not be omitted, that there wai once a very firong 
coafpirzcy of the kings of Syria an4 IfracI, ia the time of that 


i?i« Wof fc of R E D E M F T I O H. t^ 

Mckid Ifing of Jud^h, Ahrz, to d£fpc:Tr^fj Ahazand hii famity sf 
the throne of ] adat^, xud to fci one; of SDOttcr family, even tb« 
£on •.^ T^tjca!, on it ; s* you m^y itt in If. vil. 6. •• Let us go 
vp agaiu'C jud^h, «nd v:x it, and Ui us make a breach ihcrcla for 
U5» an.J fst a kiiig in iht midft cf it, even ihe foa of T«bcal.'« 
Aad they fccmod v^ry likely to «ecoa:pJ:ih their piurpofe. Thcr« 
fcrcoed io b« fo great « likelihood ci ii, that th« tesrts of ibt pco- 
p?c funk within ibee^i ; tht.y g&vs up t'ue caufc, It ii fatd, " The 
bczn of ^hf7^ and hii people was mcvfid as th« trees cf the wood 
ire moved with the wind," On this occafion God fent the pro- 
phet ifiiih to cacouragc the people^ and ic\l ihcm ihvt it fiiculd ttO» 
•omc to pafs. Artd beciufc it Jooksd (a much like a gone «aufe, 
thaiAhas tsd the pcopl« wcuH very diiTicdttly believe ihai it would 
•ot be, thcr«for« God dlrc^* the pFop'^ict to give ihem tbiffign oi 
h, viz* that Chrif. (houM be born of th« Ugal feed of Ahax : a» 
If. vii. 14. ** Therefor* the Lord himfcK Iball gha you 3 figr; : 
" Bchoid, a virgin (fcall eonceiy*, and bear a fo^, ar:d (hall call 
his name Emi^SRuel." This W3« a good fign, si-d a great confiyrrsa* 
tioa of the truth cf what God promifed by lUUh, viz, thtt the 
kings of Syria and Ifrscl fhould never accoirpUJh their piirpofe of 
difpoffefiifjg the fataily of Ahai of the $rcv/nof Jti^ah, and fetdng 
up th€ fon of Tabcal ; fcr Chrii^k the Iram^pu^I wzi so be cf thein* 

I have mentioned this difptnfation of Prcvldcnss in this f^zcsg 
iecauft though it w^s continuid f»r fo lc:.| a tiac, yet it began ia 
•olc^on's fucccfTicn to the throst of hit father Divid, 

JCII. Tne n«t thing I w^sid tike Ba{ice of is, the buiMiiig ot 
the tcmpU : a great ty^e cf thrc-5 thing?, vfx. of Chtiil, trffccially 
the human nstwrc of thrift ; of the cl:ufch of Chrif^ ; and of heaven. 
The t^bernack fccmed yaihis- to repTcfcn: tijc church in in ircvcable, 
chaDgeable i'iatc, here in this worJd. But ihst be?uriuil, gloricu*^ 
coftly ftrudure cf the tsxph, \h \t fuG:ecd£d the t;»bem^c!e, and 
wa» a fixed, and not a movcsbk thing, fcesis efpcctally to rcpre- 
fent the chtirsh in ies gJarificd ftrc in heavi-n. This temple wai 
built according to the pattern iho'To by the Holy Ghofl to David, 
and by divine dirccflioB given t© Dav'.d, In the pbce where \rii$ th« 
threflbiog- floor of O^nao ih:t J<;buiVe, in M:;';ni Mori^h, 2 Chroo» 
iii. 1. ; in the fame oiountaiii, and uoubticis in the very fione phcCn 
%btrc AbnhaaQ ofYired up his fou L''»r>c ; for that is faid ta be « 
ttounuio in the hnd of Monnb.. Gen- xxii. 2 which mctntaia 
was called tkt mountain ef thi Lari, ai fiiis mount-iia of the tcmpk 
Was, Otis. XX.:. 14 *' And Abjvhsm ca!lct? l^c natae of that placs 
Jckovah ji-reh ; as it a faid to this d;y. In the mouat of the Lord 
k (hill be foen." * 

This was the boufs where Ch4fl dvrel', till he came to dvte?! m 
tke temple of kb body^ or kMmsa D^tMtc^ vkich nu t^ ^ntctyp^ 

9« A Fi I S T O R Y of 

of this Icmp'e ; zs appears, bc-sufc Chiifl, on occa.^on of Avowing 
him ihc tcar.pic of Jerufakm, fayj», *' Dcftroy this teniple, snd i^ 
three days will 1 raife it up," fpsakiag of the tstrple of his bof^y, 
John ii. 19. 20. This houf^, cr an houfe built in ibis phcc, con- 
tinued to be the houfe of God, the place of the worHiip of hig 
church, till Chrift came. Here was ihc place that God chofe,whcre 
all their facrifices were offere j up, titl the great facrifice c?:me, sari 
mada the facrifice and oblation to ceafe. into bis temple in thii 
place the Loid came, even the meflcngcr of the covenant. Here 
fee oficn delivered his heavenly doftifine, and wrought miracles 1 
bcrc his church was gathered by the pouring out of the Spirit, aftar 
his afcenfioc. Luke xxir, 53. fpcsking of the 'difciplcs, after 
Chriri'i afcenfioa, it is faid, ** Acd they wer« continually in the 
lecnple, praifing and blefiiDg God." And, AAsii,46. fpcaking 
>©f the muhitudes that were converted by that great outprouring of 
the Spirit that was on the day of Pcntecoft, it is faid, ** And they 
conlinutd duly with one accord in the itraplc." And, Ads v. 42. 
fp<.ikiog of che apcn:'es, " And daily in tbc temple, and in every 
houfe, tbcy cc^u'eJ not to t^ach and preach Jefus Chrift." Henci 
the iound cf the gofptl went tortb, and the church fpread into ail 
the world. 

XUI. It is here worthy to be cbf:i»ved, that at this time, Ii 
Solomor/s reign, after the temple was finifhed, tbc Jcwifh churcij 
was rifen to it* highcft external glory. The Jswiih churchy or ihs 
«r-<'r3»ace3 and con ft hwt ion of it, is compared to the mcon, in 
Rfev. xii. I. ** And there appeared a gfcat wonder in heaven, a 
woman clothed wiih the fun, and the moon vmder her f^et, and 
wpon her ^tsd a crown of twelve ftara." As this churdi vm% like 
tkcmuon in m^ay othtr rcfpcds, fo it was in this, that it waxed 
and waned i;ke ,tfec moon. From the firPt foundation of it, ihj«t 
was laid^n the ccvexant made with Abraham, when thij moon was 
now beginning to appear, it had to this time been gradually ia- 
creafiig in its glory. This time, wherein the temple was f^nifhed 
&rA dedicated, was about the middle bttwecn the calling of Abrahasj 
and the coming of Chrift, and now it was full moon» After this 
the glory of the jcwiih church gradually decreased, till €hri/l came ; 
ai I (hsll have occa^cn more particularly to obfcrve afterwards, 

Wow the ckturch of Ifrael was in its hfgheO external glory: Now 
Ifrael was mu!tiplied exceedingly, fo that they feemei to have be- 
oowclike the fand on the fea fhorc-,! Kings iv,20.Now the kiugdom 
of Ifrac! v^u firmly e*^abHflK^ in the right family, the h^iily of 
whichCb'ifl vifss to cone : No'v GcJ hr-i cbofcn tht city w!:ert he 
would pl^ce bit naajt : Nj>v God had fti'.iy givf» his piopla lh« 
poffeliioii of the promifcd Unil ; and icy now poffeiTed tha domi-' 
ai©n of it all in (j^icsiicfs §pd peace, %v9fi from the river of Kgypt* 

the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. ^i 

•o sire ^reat river Euphrates ; all thofe nations nUt bad formerly 
been their caemics, quietly fubmlitcd lo them ; cone prctend«d to 
•«hc! afi^inft ihcm : — Notr ihajewifh wcrlhip in all its ordinancei 
was faily fctt!-J : — No«r, leftcad of a moveable tent and taber- 
nacle, ih«y ha^ a glorious teirplc ; the moft magnificent, beauti- 
ful, aad coftfy ftru^lurc, that thtrc was then, ever h«d bctn, or ever 
has betn fiiice : Nonv, the people ccjoytd peace and plenty, an J 
every man fat under his vine and fig-tree, eatisg and df ink.iag,and 
making meriy as i Kings iv £0. : — Now they were ia the highcft 
pitch of carihly profpfrity, filver being ss pleaty at ftonci, and 
iVii land ftill of gold and precious flonc% and other p'«ci3U3 fcreiga 
commodilie«, which wcr€b?ovight by Solomon's (hips frojn Ophir; 
and which came from other psits of th« world : — Now they had a 
king f cigTiing over them that was the wif::ft of men, and probably 
thcgresteft earthly prince that ever w«s : — Now iheir fame 
abroid into all the earth, fo that they came from th2 utmcft psrif 

' cf the earth to fee their glory and their happincfi, 

Tbus God was picafcd, in ona of the anccftors of Chrift, remark* 
ab>y to (hadow forth the king<ioni of Chrift reigning in bis glory. 
Divid, that was a man of war, a man who had Ihea much Wcod, 
and wfhofe life v/ss full of troubles 2cd ^on^Atlt, w^a more of a 
reprefcntaiion of Ghrift in hii ftite ol ku'.r.iliaiion,his miiiiani i\Me, 
wlievcia he was cotaflifiing with his ensonics. But Sdomon, thai 
VfLi a man of peace, was a rcprefentation more cfpeciJly of GUxift 
esalted, triumphing, and reigning in his kingdom of ptace. And 
the bjppy glodous ftate of the Jcwifb church at th?t time, did re- 
markably reprcfent two things : i. That g'o^ious ftitc of the church 
on earth, ii.u fiiall be ia the Utter a^'£« oi ihc wcrJd ; thofe daya 
of peace, when nation ftiall not lift fword againf: natioo, ncr learn 
war any more. j. The future glorified ft?.i« cf the church ia heaven. 
The earthly Canaan never was fo lively a type of the heavtdy 
Canaan, ai it was then, when ihs happy people of IfracJ did 

'^' indeed enjoy it as a land flowing vvi'.h aiii^ and honfy. 

XIV. AJter this the glory of thejewilli church gr^tiu^Jly declined 
more and more till Chri/t cAine ; yet not fo bit ihm lijc ^rork o£ 
r&Jemplion till v/ent on, Wnattver falkd or deciir:eu, God f^iij, 
carried on this work from age to ?gc ; ihb Luiidirg ^a§ fli'l ad- 
Yancing higher and higher. Thisgi ftiii vvcnt on, during itr de- 
elins of the Jewiih church, lownrds a further prcparatic*: of thingi 
for the comin* of Cbrift, as well as durinj-» its int^c^ff; ; for fo 
wonderfully wcr« tilings ordered by the ictiiiircly wik jiwcrror of 
the world, that whatever hap;, wrs ordered for go^d to tU'p j^e* 
Bcr<ildcftgn,and made a mCaDS of p-ctiiolivigir.Wi ea tha pco>'eal 
thcJ«*-8flouTifhcf^,«ind were it prof pc:rity, he made tj-st toe rtrrbr.rc 
IP the pfomoiingthis dcng« ; and whea :hcy were h advcrfty,G;>J 
Ml* ^4* 9)i^ ^^ t»^Uu;m« t^ ^ QUfyli'^ Q.i ef it? fame i-f;^ 

f^ , A H I S T O r Y of 

While ll<e Jivf iih a„?.vh wa: in it? IncrcaHng flare, the work oi 
ffcdcstp'ion v/a* carficci en by thsir i'-iafiafe ; and 'Ahtn ihey canic 
to the if tiet.!iaing fufc, nhiub ibey W«i."C ^.n irom Sofomua's V.inz 
exU ChriO, Goiil cjrrie j au the w«j«"k o? i.^iemp»5r, r-y iJiat. Thai: 
decline kfclf v^s o^c ih^'og that (jraci made ufc of ai a furt]:Sf 
prcpiratijn for Chrifi ♦ tomiug. 

A« the naooa, from ihc time c* f(f fuil, is approacl^jf^g nerrci 
jjpd nearer to htr cc-njiJ»icti'op uj*h the fun; fo her ii$^ht is ftiH 
moie and cnre cJccrtafiDg, illl at length, wbea ib.Q conjunction 
copes, it 13 wholly f^jtl/ow^J t'p in lbs ligh! of the fun. So it 
was \7!*h i5'< JtNvii;'] church {;<•» <he timr: of in bightft glory in 
^oloroor/g time, !n its iatrer tnd ot Selosnon's rtign, the ftatc 
of thing* t)i'giii t.: d-rh;?n, by 2olojr oi's coirupsiDjt; birafclf wiih 
idoUiry, \fthfch inucii obicurcd the glory of this crJ.gbty and wile 
prince ; ar^d \yitha*l '.roubka began to jirifc in his kiiigdom ; and 
after his d^ath the kingdom was divided, znd tf.Ti Uit:f% revchcd, 
and withdjev,' ihtU ii{bjc.''ca from the htLie ol David, wiihal 
ifalUng away frcna ibc tri:^ vroriJiip of God in ihe lesEplc ;»t Jeru- 
ialcm, 2nd uifisg up the goMen calve* of Bethel «nd P>in» PiC- 
fatly after ibis the cumber cf ihe t^ii :ribex 'A-aa gs-esiJy d'aninidted 
ia the baitlc cf J-'rcboaai v^iih Abij;ih, wherein ilctc icll down 
flair! of Ifratltive husdred shoufaritl chofer rr.Ci-) ; which lofs ihc 
"kiDgdotn of ifriti probably never ja ac y Lscsfuve rvcoycrcd. 

The ten tribes Mr. ^'Hyiipot^&tifid from th& true God uudcr Jero- 
|>oac3i, and the lirigdooi oi Jiuhh wss gscaiiy corrupted, and frc-i^ 
th^ttltae forvvajd wer* more gcneraiiy ia 3i corrupt fiaie than o- 
filicivi'ife. Id Ahab's time the kirigdotn of Ifrael did not cnJy \rorr 
iliip the cak'?:a of Ktth?! and Dan, but the worflsip of Eaal wa« in- 
troduced. Before vlcy pretended to vroifiap the {rue God by thtfc 
images, the calves of Jeroboam ; but now Ahab intiodiiced grofj 
Idoiatty, anjj the direct worjlr.p of fajfc gods io the room of ihc 
true God ; and x^oon after the wofiLip of Ba?.J was introduced intcd 
the kinjj -otn cf jidab^ vi*'. in jcboraui'a reign, by hi« marzyiji^ 
AEhilish; ♦Lc daughter of Ahsb. Afscr this GoJ began to cut Ifr^el 
fec:t^ by buAly ^U'- J^^ying' srtl /tndJog into captiviiy ihatpsri cf 
the hf?d ihnt vvas btvcnd jfvckyrii tt you may fee in 2 Kings ar. 33 
^c, Anr^" ihcr. ?a-ic.' tb\3 T/gJath-Pilezcr fubdued and capjivaitd 
ali the no^•^ie^n paris cf the !aad ; 2 Kings xv. 29, and ihea a? hfl 
sU ih« Ia:Ml of Ve teri tribes was fubdiisti by Saimaiiefer, aad they 
were fi7.,-i:\y carried czpzh'c cut of tlacir oif a land. Afier this Ufo 
ihe km^cicei of Jurfah w&» csrr led eapijve into Dabylcn, snd a 
Srcai psfi Gt jhc natioo never rctuf:ied. Thofe that retuf^ed v^era 
iisut s ir.i:fi nucibcr, cottpaited with what had been carri^ captive : 
arid for 5':« moil pari afi<*r this they were eependans on the pc\y^ 


the Work of R £ I) E M P T I O N. 93 

io ibz Siona-chy of the Grecians, smJ ihcii to the Romarw. And 
before Chrii^'s time, ihc cbujcb of the Jew* was Icccti.^ exceeding 
corrupt, over run with fupcffiiiion and fclfrigh.coufncfs. How 
fmall a fl jck sr&s the churcli of CnriTt ia the day* of his incarnation I 
God, by this gradual tkclinc of ihe Jcwin* .'tatc anu chufch ficia 
Solomon '• time, prepared the way for the coming of Chtiil fcvcral 

1. The decline of \\)S glory rf this legs! difptnfation, made 
Yf&y for the introdudion of fhc more glorioua difpcnfiiios of the 
gofpcl. Th:: decline of the glory of the legal difpenfstion, waf 
to make way for the inirodudion ci ihc evangelic -y. difpcnfation, 
that was fo much raorc glorious, ihat the lega^/'^^ni •*v^;ion hsd no 
glory in comparifon with it. The glory of *i --H 'nt difpenfa' 
lion, fuch as it was in Solomon's time, confiH*^^^' fe^mech in ci- 
tcrnal glory, was but a childifc glory, compared with the fpi» itual 
glory of the difpcnfd'.ion iatroduscd by Cfarirt. The church, 
undci- the Old Tsfiiimeat, was a child under tutors and govcrnorSj 
»rjd God derih vsritu it as a child. Thofc pompous ext:rn«1s arc 
tpalied by the apofilc, zveak and beggarly sisvisntt. It was tit th^t 
tbofc things fhovld bcdiciinifbcd a;< Cbf!i\ appioachcd , as John 
the Bsptlit, the fore-runutr of Chrii^, fpeafeing of Chi:i'>, f^ys, 
'* He mu<^ in«f eafc, but I miif^ decreafe," Jehu iii. 30. It is fi| 
that the twinkling {\ax% ftiould gradually withdraw their glory, 
vthcn the f'jn is approachijig towards his rifing. The glory oi the 
Jcwifhdifperiiation muft bs f;radu2Hy diminiftedj 10 prepare th« 
way iorihi* n'-orc joyft'.' rcccplion cf ilic fpiriual &*ory of the gof- 
f^eh If the Jcvifli church, vi^hcn Ciuift cainc, I^ad been in tha 
fame cKtcrrj?i glory that it wss in, in the reign of Solomon, mea 
wrould havchrJ ibeii eyes fo dsz/'.fcd wi4h it, '-hst thsy would fret 
bivebesn liitdy j.'>yfulJy So crrhangs fuch grcai cztt:.:aa! gbiy, 
for ori?y the fpiri?ual «:;bry of the poor defoifcd Jcfus. Agaic^ 

2. This gradual decline cf the g»oiy a>f ths Jcwlfh l^alc, teadci 
to prepare rhc: way for Chri.n's comifij; another way, vi^. as it 
tended 10 D3akc the glor)' of God's power, in the %'t^t elfctli cf 
CbriA**. redemption, the more confpicuows. viod'i people's b::ing 
fo ri'ffliniibcd and weskcncdby cie I'^ep afie? another, till Cor:?t 
fame^ was vsty much like rhcdimini&ing Gldcoe's \rmy, Goi 
told Giucoe, that the people ih*t was Tilth hiu3, was too otany fcx 
himtodcliver thi Midiantri* into their hsadi, kft Ifracl fhould 
vaunt ihcosftlves sgainfi him, f*yikjg» ** My own hsnd favfd 
me." Thcref'jre all ibac were fearful were coamanded to rtVivo ; 
and there retufned I wcniy aad two tboBfai:d, in4 tbere fciaalaci 
lea thoufand. £ut flill they were too msny ; aad then, 'uy trying 
the peo)»Ie at ibe water, they were rcdnccd to ihue h::pdrcd bicb, 
<s |h? pco|,lf y| S^ii^agft S ^ij.c ircfC t?f t&s:^v^ §8v xi^ghty anrf 

fi A H I S -^^ '^- ■• Y 

■ ■ iji-iij) 

iag off the ten u iha ; aqd ihc.i he 'cJlauiiifhs-i tE;!!;. sg?V!n tTy the 
caj-'Uvity itjio H^byJoTi ; rni iV^r. i~ii:y v»evc fufia^roiajii^jiicd Ly 
th:; g:r:>.: :i-d gjricralie::!:-^: -> :h ■: :^.l:"e Vi^s lihCr^ Chriir c*\Be ; 
fothitChrifi idund Vv lOiig th'cci :' and 

iviib a fonsH h.ii^fu? c, .:-.-.._..„, ^ „,. .uc:;cJ ifi6' vvcrM. 

Thvg highjtl^ags .vyers? brQu^;b^ dp-^'n, ihiiCkrift mj^ht^be Cicsh^d* 
■ 3. Thhpr.- .' ' ' CLuAS cGDuiri^/;'^^ K 'cft^deihe 

falvaHofi of ( - - .^.vcd by Cbiitt^ l'?'b<l',ii:'0'td feu- 

nbk ?ijd viJjb ^ ,;,a ^hc git^UT ^^irt of the n^-u'da of kb3 

Js«'3 wag fcj ',- . • ^^'k^.^^^i^ cX.t6 Jii.^iLt^h fo'im i,"^ 6^ ihcTt 
ivcre a! g>\. /«* '-"-.. ::' .a thai'wcrc TciV".d by ChUf! 

afetrhl^^ : ■ • >^ \^ -^S}^'^i They besrg t:^li;cn r>oa> lb 

l-i^vs?!- "^' ^'^«!pcrilc';. .-ci: bondage •.>?hfcK:>n-;ans, 

andiior. j&^<?2^ rup^i-^ii-iivv' SiiJ ^i-Ickcdacfs,' IJy:^: the 

JiwJfh t; iben f^iie:;^ :f-?o i :: ii:a;iit their fijJciiipi'on the 

anr-rs fcn^biy £::a vlfibiy ^Tcfli/u-?. 

I'hsivt E:.kc:n r:ciic£of this difi^cnru:!^:' '' ■:.:;. l;!^ucc ).> she 
•radua* dtcUm of th'^ Jsajfii chtifca in thb pj*icc> bscaufu ii bt-gsa 
is the reign of Si>lGtacD. 

XV. i \v<Mi\dhcrt i<ikar:o*^.cs of lbs sJaJ-iu:*^ tl^at were m.-^o-r 
lo tb« catnon of Tcripvure in pr fooa s^i^r thdiesj^a of oo'orcion. 
There ^^tr^ covjfiitr^ble addfilpas n^sje by ^c.iomou hbiifelf, wHo 
wroic fb:Lc'Qks of Pfovcrfas snd ticcfcf-artcs, pi-.b^bly nsitr ihc 
«lof£ cf hiiiei^;^. His writbg the Scug of Sor^s as ft h ca^Icdj 
B whst is cfptchl!y hue to bs taken notice of, uhich i:» whcUy oh 
ihe iubjcvJl thai w* xrfi upon, v>*?- Cbrin end hrs feci«:mp»onj 
reprcfenurg the w^gh and glorious reialfon, and ur-io:?, and 
lcv«, that is between Chritl and his rcflcexcd church. Anc^ 
the h:f*ory of the fcripiure f^scms, in Solomon's reign, ar^d foi^e 
of Vne FC£t fuccfsding rcijns, to have bacn added to by the; pro* 
fhtH Nsthsn and Ahij:;b; andSbsmaiah snd Iddo. It b proba- 
lU xh-it part of lis hiitory which vye hsvc in the firil of Kingi, wai 
Wi-itcti by ihcra, by what h faid 2 Chrcn. fs. 29, and in clup iii, 
J5. and incbap. kIH. £at. 

XVI. G.)d'3 wonueffu"y uphc!clbf^ Jj's c!:urch a?id the ?ruc re- 
lijion thrc'uj'^h this period. It was very Vfondcrful, conndcring 
i>he msny and greii apoi^afics thsi tbeie were of ttzi p€*7ple to ido- 
Utry. VVh«D -he ten f?iba» had generally and finally forfakcn the 
true vroff^-iip oKJ-^d^ God kept up the true religioa in i!;e kmi^dcos 
of Jud<jh; ^nd trhcn tb<y corrtspfcd thcaifelvcs, as thsy ve.y ofien 
^fd ei'Cfccdingiy, and idolstry was ready totally lo fwallow a!t up, 
yn Or^^J k«tpi uic lansp alive, and was often pIe<ifod v^i.cti tbitigs 
feemed t? te come io an crtreaiity, and rcligicn at ira. laft gafp# 
to grant blcfTcd 'tvivih by remarkable out pourings of his Splri*^ 

the \y^rk. of I^E B E M P T I O rf . ^f 

XVI', r.r.! r^n-'.rTf:i!i\' tcpt ihc hc-»l^of ihcUw ffCiH btif/J 
kit : g contioi^Cv^ rtjcc^ <>f a^d ctunitv 

a^^ln.- ;\ ' " :'■ of ihi> kicj ihai wahivc, 

Hiis ite p jvf in rbc linao of the fieat 

apclsfy cuili"^; '-ii* f^jca?c:>'i ^ . -^^i rtf^u of M;i»i^rih, 

whiah L!n^(Kii>y-fi¥« yc"^r5, -- ::fir tbat.ihc iciga of Aai*n 

h?5 i' .:. This while ihc book qf ihc !a.y wm (q. jnych r.C2'eft««<, 
snJ f.jch a cirwlcfjiand profans psnjgcicnt of tli« affalri of the 
Utnpk prcvsiipJ, that thc-bock of Jh« laT, that uf'2 to be hid up 
by the fidsof tie srk ia ihc Roly cf Ho^es, waj Iqil for a long 
time ; nobody >n£>v whcrs jt was. But yet God pr:/erv£(i it from 
.jbcing liaa'ly IojI. , I^ JoHin .1 time, wbsn they csme to itpair the 
temple, it A'as found lurhtd in lubbldi, after it ha4 been left fo 
long t'cst Jofiah hia'.felf fe-itns tohayc uea much aftranjcrla it till 
now. Sec 2 Kfars xkI'u 8. &c. 5 

XVIIl. Gdfi't rctaarkibly prcfsrving ihe tribe of which Chrlft 
was to proceed, from bdcg rui.ned through the many and great daa- 
gcrs of this period. The viflblc church of Cl^rift fio'ci So!omon*j 
fcign, wa», wainly in the tribe cf Judah, The tribe of Bccjaoiin, 
that was ^hntxcA to them, was but a very fmall tribe, and the lrib« 
©f Judab excc2d!ng large ; and as Ji-dah took Benjamin under his 
covert when he went inloEgypt to briaji;cDra,fo the tribe of BcRJa* 
mia fecincd toLei.pder the jov&rt ct Judah ever after ; and tbonjfi^ 
on occafioa of Jerobo5ia^fr:tling up the calvei at Bethel and Djb, 
the Levitei reformed to^-^lout of 2II the.iribes of Ifrael (iChra* 
xi. 13.); yet tbty wire 'sifo fmati, and not reckoned among the 
Uibss ; and ihc.ugh m^.ny of the ten tribes did 3lfo on that o€«afioB, 
for the fake of i:he word' Ip cf God iu the teaplc.lcavc tbeir ifiheri- 
tsnces in ih«fr fe^-er^) uibej, and ri:aicv«d and fettled im Judah, 
?aid fo were iniTOJporatcJ y»uh theai, ss we hive sccowit In ths 
chapter jolt quoted, and i6th venc ; yet th: trib* ©f Juilah wsi fa 
Ciuch th« pr«v«»i!ir.j/ part, that ib^y v/';.}:c called by one nswe, they 
ircre called yudak : there fcr? God fa id to Saloiacn, 1 Ki»f5 xi. 
I j# " I will not rend Hwjiy 3JI <ha kingr?om ; but will givt ent 
iribe to thy foa, for D?vi i my ifj7inx's (aks, and Vr Jeruffifta'j 
fake, which I have cbofcn," atad fo vcr. 52.56^ £0 whrn tht ten 
tribea were carried csprtve, it U hli, there was none left but the 
tribe of Judah only : 2 Kings xvil- i3 " There fnrs the Lor^ was 
very wroth with. Ifracl, and removed them out of Lis fight ; there 
wai none left but the tribe o^ Judab only." VV'hcncc they were all 
•ailed ytwf, which is a wo; i th?ii comes from Judah, 

This was the tr'bcof which Chrift was to ccme ; and in thfi 
•hiefly did God's vifjblc church cocfiil, fromSjlomon'i time : and 
this was the people ovc whoa ths kings that wxjc legal anccftorf 
•f O^rift, aud were of tkcjjoufc ff D&vid, reigacd. This people 

^6 A H I S T O R Y of 

vai won-ferfully prefcrved frosj def^ru^lion during thft period, 
when th«y often fccaicd to be upon the brink hf rurn,ynd juft rea- 
dy to he fvvallovTcd up. So it was in Rchobcacn's time, when 
$hifli<k king of Egypt csmc agaiafV Juiah wirh fjch s vaft force ; 
yet then Go6 maoi/cftly prcftrved them from bcirg def^roycd, Oi 
this we read in the beginning of the 12th chapter of 2 Chron. So 
it wj» again in Abijab's lime, when Jeroboam fet ibe banlc in array 
againft him with eight hundred tfcoufand chofcn men ; a aiighry 
army indeed. We read of it, 2 Chron. xiii. 3. Then God wrought 
deliverance to Judah, out of regard to ibe covenant of grace eftab- 
Ihl^ed with David, as is evident by ver 4. and 5. ; and the victory 
they abtained was bccaufe the Lord was on their fide, as you may 
fee, ver. 12 So it was again inAfa's time, whenZ^rah the Ethio- 
pian came ag.iinft him with a yet larger army of a thoufand thoo- 
ftnd and three hundred chariots, zChron. ativ. 9. On this cccafion 
Afa cried to the Lord, and Iruftcd in him, being fe:ifJb!e that it 
was nothing with him to help thofe that bad no power ; ref. il, 
•' And Afa cried wnto the Lord his God, and faid^ Lcrd, it is so- 
ibiDg with thcc to help, whether with many, or wirh t^.o^etbat hav« 
»o povrer." Accordingly God gave ihem a glorious viBcty ovet 
this mighty hoft. 

So again it wag in Jeholbapfca't's time, when the children of Mo* 
sb, and the children of Ammos, andtbj inbsbitsr.ts of MountSeif, 
combined together sgaintl Judah with ^ IjijJ^Jy army., a force vafl- 
hy fypefior to any that Jehefhaphat ccftlWlifa : and Jchofhaphat 
snd his people were greatly afraid : yet tbe^ fer them fc Ires to feck 
God on this occafios, and ?rufled in hiim ; n^ii God toM them by 
ORC of his prcphrt?, that they need not fesr thccn, nor ihould they 
hava any occsilosj Jo flight this battle, they ihould or.Jy i^aid uil^ 
and fee the ffeJvation of ifee Lord. Acc'jrd'.n% to his dircdtion. 
they only ftood Hill, and i?ir^^ praifes to God, ind God made their 
enemies do the work thecDfelvo^, and fcf shcai so killirg one sno 
2her ; and the children of Judah htd nothb^ t^ do, but to gatbef 
the fpoil, w-hich wan more than they could carry away. Wchavtf 
tht ftory in z Chron. xx. 

Jo it was again in Ahaz's 6imc, Tih?n F^zziTk ihc king of Syria, 
and Peksh the fonof R.5maliih, the ki- j*; cf Ifr^d, confpircd a- 
gaiof^ Jtjdah, and fcemcd to be furc of their ^yarpofe j of which -ac 
have fpokcfi already . So it wss sr, iu Hes^kiah'« time, whea 
Sesnacbcrib, thai grc3t king of Affrris, and besd of thegrea?c^ 
csjonarflby that was then in the woiMxt'kic up agsin^^ aii the fenced' 
cities of Judah, after he h«d co:»quercd cioft of the neij^hbouring 
eouatrlci, sni feat R3t)fci<cch, the Siro^rxin of b?.9 boil, agaicjt 
Jarufalecr;, who came, »nd in a very prcsvJ and fcomful aianaee 
ibf«It«l Hetel5;iah a«d hH pco|j3cj as bcins; fu^ ©/ v'Q^iy 5 SR^ 

the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 97 

the people were trembling for fear, like Iambi before a lion. Tljen 
Goi fcnt Ifaiah the prophet to cotnfort them, and afTurc tbcra that 
Ihcy Ibculd not prevail ; as a token of which he gave ihcm thii 
%n, via that ihc cs.-th, for two, 3'esrs fuccelfively, flboi'ld bring 
fcs tb f ©oi of irfcIF, from the roots of the old ftaiks, without their 
plowing or owing ; snd then the third year they (hould fo\T and 
rcip, anip'ant viacyArds, and cat ihs fruit of them, and live on 
the fruits of their labour, as they were ryont to do before. See z 
Kings xlx, 29. Ttiis is mentioned as a type of what is promifed 
l:\ ver. 30. 31. " And the remnant that is efcapcd of ihc houf« 
of Judah, (hall ydl again take root downward, and bear fruit up- 
Mrard. For out of Jtrufaletn fflall go forth a rtmnsnt, and they 
that cfcapc, out of Motjot Zbn : the zt\\ of th'? Lord of hofl* 
Ihali do this." The coco's fpringing agaia after it had been cut off 
v?hh the fick?e,3nd bringing forth mother crop from the rcctj, shas 
fecmed to be dead, and fo once and agiin, rcprtfcnts the cburch'i 
reviving again, as it were out of its own alhes, ahd fiourifhlai^ like 
a plant after it had fcemicgly been cut down pafl recovery. Wbca 
the enemies of the church have done their utcioO:, end fcem" tc have 
;^ain«j their point, and to have overthr(>wn ihe chu'Ch, fo thst the 
being of it is fcsrccly vifible, btu like a livirg ro'>t hid under 
ground ; yet there is a fecrct luc in it that wlJl csufe it to fi.;uri(h 
again, and to take root Qo|fnvf.-ard, and bear J^^ruir upwi^rd, Tht« 
Kas fulfilled now at this time : For ».he kitg of Alfyrii' Ip^d aire dy 
t?.kcn and carried captive th-; ten tribes ; and Sennacherib had alfo 
taken all the fenced ciiics of Jud'h, and rangfrd the covi.'tiy ro'.»ndl 
about, ?nd Jerufalem dn^y tcinained ; aod R .bfhikeh h^d in hif 
©wn imagination already fv^^illowcd that up as be hn^ a To in the 
fearful appreheonon? of thf Jews ihemfelves. Bu' yet *"? >d wrc'.j;ht 
1 wonderful deliverance. Kc feni an argel, that >a one night fm tc 
an hundred fourfcorc snd five thoufand in the eremy s csrrp 

XIX. In thcre'gh of Uzi'^h, and the follo»ving -'.'gn«, G-^cI 
iras pl<;*fcd to r;ife up a fct of eminent p.ophets, whc (h uld crm- 
ttjit their prcphecicr^io writing, and ''.*;,ive t^en^ for fhe ufe of hi« 
church in all agvs. We bcf j-c obfr-vca, how ih-tG"^ t~eean a 
con A ant fuCccifion of prophe»s in iff ;c1 in S^m ^e^'s »ini*., ^K-d ma* 
ry of thcfe prophcs wtotc by divine h-><p>HUott, an i fo addc' to 
the csnon of fcripturc before: Uzzirh'i lim:'. But none oi them are 
fuppofcd to have written books of prcpheclcs till now. Scvtral 
of them wrote hidories of the wondcr'ul difpcnfation) of O^n to- 
wards hii chnrch. This we r. ' ve ohferv«d a^re^^'W of ShoiucI, who 
if ftippofcd to have wsitrtn Ju^^g^s an > Ru i), ;-nc* parr of tKc fir ft 
of S-vmuel. if not the book of ]o(liu-4. And Nathan and Oai 
fecm to have wriuen the reft of «he twr^ book? o^ Samuel : and Na- 
Iban, with Ahijah and Iddo, wrote the biftory of Scloraon, which 

9t A H I S r O R Y of 

it probably ihst which we have in the firft book of Kingt. Th« 
hifVory of Ifrael fccoQS to have been further carried on by Iddo and 
Shcmtiah ; 2 Chron. xii. 15. ** Now the s<f^i of RhehoboiOB, 
fi:k and Uik, are they not written in the book of Sbemaiah the 
prophet, and Iddo thefcer, concerning gcncaUgiei ?" And after 
that the hiftory fceoji to have been further carried on by the pro- 
phet Jehu, the fon of Hao^ni i 2 Chron. xx. 34. «* Now the reft 
of the adts of J-^hofhaphat, firft and laft, behold they art writtcM 
in the book of J ;hu the fon of Hanani, who is meniioncd in the 
book of the kingf of Ifrael," as we find him to be 1 Kings xvi, i. 
7. And then it was further continued by the prophet Ifaiah : 2 
Chron. xxvi. 22. '* Now the reft of the a6^s of Uzziah, firli and 
lail, did Ifsi.ih the prophet the fon of Amos write " He probably 
did it as well in the fcconci book of King?, as in the book of hii 
prophecy. And the hiitory was carried on and fiaiihed by oth^f 
prophets after hioa. 

Thus the prophets, even from Samuel's time, had from time to 
time been sdding to the cannon of fcripiurc by iheir hif^orieal 
writings, But now, in the days of Uzziah, did God fir/l raifc up 
a fci of great prophets, not only to write hiOories, but to write 
bv^oks of their prophecies. Tlv: firft of ihefe ii be Ho- 
fca the fon of Beeri, and therefore his Jrophecy, or the word of 
the Lord by lAm, is called the beginning of the "word of tht Lord i 
asHof. i. 2. •* The beginning of the word of the Lord by Hofea ;" 
that is, the beginning, or the tirft part, of the written word of that 
kind, vis. th^t which is wristen in books of prophecy. He pro- 
ph'-fi'^d in the days of Uiziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hczeklah, kings 
of Judah, '.^nd in the days of Jeroboam, the fon of Joafli, king of 
Ifr icL There were many other witncfTes for God laifcd up abcut 
the fame time to commit their prophecies to writing, Ifaiah, and 
Amos, and Jonah, and Micah, and Nahuro, and probably fome 
cth^r- ; and fo from that time forward God feemed to continue • 
fucccfiion of writing prophets^ 

This was a great difpenfation of Pforic^encc, and a great advance 
made in the affixr of redemption, which appears, ifwcconfidct 
whit w^s faid before, that the main bufmefs of the prophets was to 
foi .(hew Chiift and his redemption. They were all forerunners of 
t»jc great prophet. The main end why the fpirit of prophecy wu 
g;ven ti;«m was, that they might give teftimony to Jefus Chrift, th* 
gi-eat Redeemer, that was to come ; md therefore the teftimony of 
Jefus, and the fpirit of prophecy, arc fpoken of as the faiaae thing : 
Rev. x\x. io» •' And I fell at his feet to worfliip hiia : and he 
faid unto me. See thou do it not : I am thy fellow-fervant, and o£ 
thy brethren that have the teflimony of Jefus : worfliip God : for 
the scflimonY of Jcfua is the fpizit of prophecy," Therefore wt 


ihc Work of REDEMPTION, ^f 

tiad, that the great and main thing that the mofl of the prophctt 
in their written proph«ciM infifted upon, ii Chrift aid his rcdtmp- 
tion, and tne glorious timci of the gofpcl, which fhould be in the 
latter days, according to their manner of exprellion. Though 
many other ihij^g* went fpckcn of in their prophecies, yet it feems 
to be onJy as inirodu£lory to their pjophecy of th«fe great things. 
Whatever they pr^phefy of, here their prophecies cca>-mon'y ter- 
minate, as you may fee by a careful perulal of their writings. 

Thefe prophets vrcre fct to writing their prophecies by the Spirit 
of Chrift that was in them, chiefly lor that end, to foreihow and 
prepare the way for the coming of Chrift,and the glory that fl;ould 
follow. lo what an exalted ftrain do they all fpcak of thofe things! 
Many otaer things they fpeak of in men's ufual language. But 
when they come upon this fubjed, what a joyful heaven fublimity 
is there in the language thsy ufc about it ! Some of theai are very 
particular and full in tDeir prediftions of thcfe things, sad above 
all I he Prophet Ifaiah, who is therefore defer vcdly called the tvan- 
gtlicul prSpket, He feems lo teach the glorious doftrines of the 
gofpdi almofl as plainly as the ApoAles did, who preached aficf 
Chriil wa? aftuaily come. The Apoftle Paul therefore takes notisc, 
that the Prophet Efaias is very bold, Rom. x. 20. i.e. as the mean- 
ing of the Word, ai ufcd in the New T«ftameat, is very plain, h« 
fpeaks out very plainly and fully ; fo being *' very bold" is ufcd 
2 Cor. iii. 12. we ufe ** great plainnefs of fpcech," 9t "boldnefsp" 
as it is in the margin. 

How plainly and fully does the Prophet Ifais^h defcrile the 
manner and circumAances, the nature and end, of the fufterirgt 
tnd facrifice of Chnf\, in the 5 5d chapter of his prophecy. There 
11 fcarce a chapter ia the New Tcftament itfelf which is more fgll 
on it ! and how much, and in what a glorious ikT^in, docs the 
fame prophtt fpeak from time to time of the glorious bcretiis, of 
Chrift, the unrp«ak3ble ble/Iings which ihall redound to hii church 
through his redemption ! J^fus Chrift, the perfon that this propSee 
fpoke fo much of, once appeared to ifaiah in Khe form of the hu- 
snan nature, the nature that ht Ihjuld aflerwarda take upon him. 
We have an actount of h in the 6ih chapter of his prophecy st the 
beginning : ** i faw alfo the Lord fitting on a throrc, high and 
lifted up, and his train filled the leoip-u/' &c Tbi^ was Chiifk 
that Ifaiah now faw, as wc src expruiily toid in the Ne^ Tefta*.^ 
ment. See John rii. J9. 40. 41. ^^^ 

If we Gonfidcr the abundant prophecies of th*< and the ether |fo» 
phets, what a great inc?cafc Is there of 'the Jigh* of the gofpdS, which' 
ba4 been growing f*cm the fall of man to this day ? Hoe plentiful 
fire the revelatiobs and prophecies of Chrift now, to what *hev were 
i& ihii fiifi p«rio<l of the Old Teftaxaen?, from Adsm so Naah ? or 


100 A HISTORY cf 

to 'vhisX tSey vrcrciT th« fscnud, from Noah to Abraham ? n,- ^o ^y]'i^t 
they were before Mofcs, o? hi the timci of M:f"e5, j:(hua, and tbe 
J t:igej ? This difi'Snf ti.on that •«%« src now frtsktrgof, was slfo z 
glorious advance cfthc ircrk. cf rcicraption by Ehcgrcst addition! 
that were mide to the canon of fcripsure. Great pari of the Old 
TcAament was ticken now from thcd2y!i of Uzzi?.') io vhc captivity 
into BiLulon. An:! bo* excellent «rc ihofe portionaof it ? What 
a prtciom treafirc have thcfc prcpheti rommitt.r'd to the church of 
God, JcnJb^ g*-3dy to cocfirm ths gofpd of Cbrift ? and wbiok 
fcasbicn o*^ gjcat comfo^t"^?:d bcncHr lo God'* chmch ia all ages 
iiiieSj, a'ld doubtkfs wiiibe to ihe end of tt2 woili, ^ 


Frcxn ihc Eabjlonifli captivity to tlie coming of 

COME now to the h/^ ptncd of the Old Ttitament, viz. that 


which begins with /A(? F«*3.'/;^»jY/j captivify, snd extendi to thg 
ecwing cfChrtJ, being the gresiieft part ci Ux hundred years, to 
ikow how the work oi redempUon was cfinied on thro* this period. 

But bsfors I cnt?r upon pajticulsrs, I would obfervc in tkrce 
things W'heifein this" period as di*^inj;uifbed from the preceding 
periods of the times of the Old Tcftasn'cnt. 

I, Though v»e have no acccuniof a great part of this period 
in the fcriprurc-h:(!:ory, yet the events of this pssiod arc mors the 
fubje£l of fcriplure-prophecyj than any of the preceding periods". 
There are two ways wherein the fcnpture gives accj'jnl of the 
cvfcnts by which the work of rcdsmptJou is carried on ; one iaby 
hirtory, and another is by prophecy : and in one or the other of 
tbcfe wiys wc have coHSaincd in the fcripturcs an sccsunt ho> the 
work of redemption is carried on from the begianioj^ 60 the end. 
Although the fcripturc do not contain a prcpbr faif^ory of the 
whole, yet there is contasrjed ihe whole chain of gscst cveow by 
whir.h this affair hath bc«n cafried on from the foundation, foon 
after she fall rf man to the finiihing cf it at the cad v)f ihc worldt 
chhcr lo hffiory or prophecy. 

ll is^obs obfcrved, that were the fcripture is wanting to one of 
theft wayt ., it is mad« up in ihc oiher. Where fcripture-hificry 
fails, there prophecy takes pkce : fo that the account is ftiU c^r- 
f zed on, atd ti -e csain h net brokco, til! we come to the very !«X 
link of it in the confummaiion of ail ihtnjf. 

Accordingly it is obfcrvable of this period or fpaceof lime that 
wc ar« ypcn, that though it is fp much lei's the ^bjfdi of fcripturc - 
biftory, thm taoft cf the preceding pcriodj, lb mat tb«re is above 
lour bundisd yut^ of h ilm the fsiipluuj g\vei ui dq hiftory oC , 

the Work rf R E D E M P 1 I O :>^. I«i 

yettbc cvcnti of ih?« pcrijJ arc more ihe fuljii'l of fciipturc- pro- 
phecy, ibai the tvcnts of all the preceding pciiods ptu logciber. 
. Moft of tLofe rfTuurkabic pro{,hcc:cs of ibc bock of Dhuitl dt» re- 
fer to events that were accompU{l-d in thi» pciJod : fo raoft of 
ibofe piopaccies of Ifahh, »nd Jeremiah, *nd Ezzkkl, agairil 
Babylon, ain;! Ty'vi'., &rJ iigz\u\\ Egypt, and many other aation", 
were fulfilled hi fhis period. 

So th^it the rc<*fon why the fcr-'pture gives m no hif^ory of (o 
^reata parf of this period, ianol bccaufcihc cvcnu of thJs period 
were not f© iaiporttnt, or lefs worir-y to be takea notice of, than 
the events ef the foregoing periods ? for I itsll h||cahcr Cnow how 
great snddifiisguthtdly rsmarkabic the events of Iriii pcridd were* 
But there are fcvsral other rcafons which way b* given of it. One 
is, that it was the will of God that tha fpidt of prophecy (hoyld 
ccafc in this period, (for f^afoni thai cay be given hereafter) ; fo 
that there were no prophets to write the hiftory cf thef^ firaes ; and 
therefore God dcKgntng this, took care that the great evcuts of this 
period (could not be without nicniicn in his word ; and fo ordered 
it, that the prophecies of fcripsure fhcuid be more full hare, than 
ill tht preceding periods. It is obfcrv&blc, that that fet of wiilic^ 
prophets that God raifed up in Ifraci, were railed up that the latter 
end of the foregoir^g period, aud at the beginning of this ; whicb 
it is Jikcly was partly for thai reafon, thait ibc lime was now ap- 
proaching, of which the fpirit of prophecy having ceafed, there 
was to be no feripture-hitloryi,aiid therefore no Other fcriptuic - 
account but what was givin iti prOphecy. 

Another rcafun that may be givsn why there was fo great a part 
ef this period left whhout an hiftorical account in fcripture, is, that 
God in this provMcncc took csre, that ttierc ftiould be authentic 
and full accounts of Jhe cvems of ihii period prcfcrved ia profane 
b'dory. It ia remaikabis, and Ye^ry worthy to be takjsn ncucc of» 
that with refpe(ft to the events of «he Hvc preceding periods, of 
which the fcripturcs givs tljc hiftcry, profsnc biflory gives us bo 
account, or at ieaft of but very few of thsia* There are many fa- 
bulous and uncertain accounts of things that happened before ; buj 
the beginning of the tiaiesof authentic profane hiftory ii judged to 
be but a little before Ncbuchadncza-^r's time, about inhun^'jcdycsrj 
before. The learned men among the Greeks end ivooians, ufed 
to QiW the ages before that the fabulcus cgt ; but the licacs after 
that they called ;A* hiJ}orical agt. From ^bout that time to the 
cotniog of Chrift, we have undoubted account* in profane hJAory 
of the principal events ; accounts that won^ierfully agree with "the 
many proph«?c)c» th;.t we have in fcripturc of thofe limes. 

Thus did the great God, that dlfpofei all d^rgi, cr-'.cr it. He 
took care t9 give aa bidoiical icccunc of itingifiwm sU bt^inni^ng 


lee A H I S T O R Y of 

of tbs worli, though all tbofc foricer agea which prolans hiHcry 
doc» not fC2ch, anci ceafcd net till be came to thofe hicr ages in 
which profane hi r;oryreIitcd ihingg with fome certainty: and 
concerning thcic tiroes, he gives U3 abundant acsoimt In prophet:)', 
that by comparing profane hiitQryyrithtbore prophecies, we might 
lee the agreement. 

2 This ptriod being the laft period of she Old Ttf^smcnt, and 
ihc next to the coming of Chsift, fceais to have been rcaiaikabJy 
dinirguifhed from all others in the g:«at revolutions that were a- 
mong the nationi ct the earth, to m«ke way for the kingdom cf 
Chrift The tiiue now drawing nigh, wherein Ghrift, ti^e g^'ca? 
King 2nd SivimJf of the ivorld, was to cumc, great and mighty were 
the charges that were brought to pafs in order to it. The way had 
been preparing for the coming of Chi iH: from the fall of man, 
through ail the foregoing periods r but now the time drawing 
nigh, things beg^n ro ripen apace for Chrift'i toming ; and there- 
fore divine providence wrought wcnderfuliSy now. The grcatcfi 
revolutions that any hiHory whatfosver gives an account of, that 
ever had berw from the flood, fcii out in ihii period. Almoft ail 
the then luno'vn world, i. e. all the nations ihai were round about 
the land ofCa.isasHjfar and near, ih^it were within the reach of their 
knowledge, were cverturced again and again. A:i landii were in 
their turns fubdu^d, captivaicd, and as it were emptied, and turned 
upftde down, and ths; moft of them repeatedly, in thii ptriod ; 
agreeable to that prophecy, if, xxiv, i. ** Bchoid, the iLord 
makcjh the earth empiy ; ke makct^i it waflf , ajid lurneib it up- 
Cide down, and fcattcicth abr <ii :>^r: inhabitants thereof. 

This ccsprving, and lurning upJ^dc down, began with God's vi- 
fible church, in their captivity by the king of Bi*bylon. Then the 
cup frcci them went round to all other naiions, agreeable to what 
God rcvea'.^d to the Prcphet Jerc-niah, xrv. 1 5 .—-2 7 • Here fpe- 
cial rcfpeift fecm? to be had to the great revolutions ibal there were 
on the face of the earth ia the limss of the Babyloniffc cirpMe. But 
after that there werd three general overiurnings of the wo Id before 
ChriA came, in the fuccefHon of the three great monarchies of tb« 
world that were after theBabylonifii empire. The king of Babylon 
11 reprefcnted in fcripturt as overturning of the world : but a^ter 
that, theBaby Ion ilhcnjpirc was overthrown byCyrus ; who founded 
the Pcrfian empire in the room of it ; which was of much greater ex- 
tent than theBabylonilh empire inits'greateil glory. Thus the worSd 
W5i9 overturned the fccond time. After that, the Pc^fian empire 
was overthrown by Alezrander, and the Grecian empire w-is f«i up 
upon the ruina of it ; which was ftill of much greater txtcni than 
the Pcrfian ccopire : and thus there was a general overturning cf 

the world 2 ihicd ii»e, Afur that, the Gtccisa empire was oi i.- 


, the Work of R £ I) E M P T I O N. I0| 

thrown by »hc Ro-nan*, ^ind the Ri>*)^n emp?re was cft^hlifV-cd ; 
which vaO'y exceeded all ihc foregoing empires ie power and cxicnl 
of dominion. And fo ihe world wai ovci turned the fourth time. 

Thcfc fevcral caonarchits, and the great revolutions of the world 
under them, ere abundantly fpcLcn of in the prophecies of Daniel* 
Tkcy arc reprcfcnted in Nebuchadnezxer's image of gold, ^Iver, 
brafi, and iron, and Daniel's inttrpretation of it in the fecond 
th-iptcr of Daniel ; and then iQ Daniel's vi^on of the four beaftf, 
•nd the angel's interpretation of it in the fevcnth chapter of Daniel, 
And the fucccffion of the Perfiaa snd Grecian monarchies is more 
particularly reprefcfitcd in the eighth chapter in L^mcI's vifion of 
th« ram and the he-goaf, and again in thcviith chl^r of Daniel* 

Bcfiies ihcfc four geneial oveiturnings of th« world, the world 
was kept in a conftant tumult between whiles : and indeed the 
World wa» »5 it were in a continual convulfion through the whole 
period »iU Chrit^ caune Before this period, the fsicc of the earth 
was comparstlve^y in quietnefs : though they were many great 
wart among t^c nations, yet we read of no fuch mighty and uni- 
rerfal convulfions and oversuruirigs as there were in this period* 
The nations of the world, moft of them, had loag remained om 
their lees « it werr, without being emptcd from vciTcIto vcflcl, at 
if faid of Mjib, J^^r. xlviii, ii. Now thef« great ovciturningt 
were b€c;.ufe the time of ihe great MefRah drew nigh That they 
were to prepare t* c way for Chrift's coming, is evident by fcripture 
p:rticu)%rly by Vz k. xxi. ^^. •* I will overturn, ovciturn, otjcftura 
it, and it (hall he no more, until he come whofe right it is, and I 
will give it him." Th§ prophet, by repeating the word cuerturm 
three times, hau rcfpcfl to the three overturnings, as in the Reve- 
lation, viii 13 T ae repeiinon of the word wo three times, fignifiet 
three diftin<^ wors ; a« sj.oears by what follows, ix. 12. ** One 
wo is paft ;" ar-ixi. 14, '* Th« fecond wo is paft, and behold 
the third vo cometh quxidy/' 

It mu^ be noted, that the P-oohet Ezekicl prophefied in the time 
of the B;bylorilh captivity ; kad therefore there were three great 
md general ove 'turnings of the world to come after this prophecy, 
before Chrift cims ; the tir*"^ by th*- Pcffixns, the fecond by the 
Grecians, the third by the Romans ; and then af«er that Chri{V, 
whofo right it was \o tike the dJidem.and reign, (hould come. Here 
Ihcfe g?en ovcriurn;nj2;$ *f- evidently fpoken of as preparatory to 
tbe comiag snd kingdom of Chrift. But to underftand the wordi 
aright, we mutt note t'le particular cxprcflion, ** 1 will overturn, 
cverturn, overturn iV," i. e. the disdcm and crown of Ifrael, or 
the fjDTtOTc temporal -dominion ovsr God's vifible people. Tbif 
G.d faid (hnald be ri^. more, i c. the crown fliould be taken off, 

eud the diadem renoved, at it is f«i4 ia tiic foregoing vcrfe. The 


104 A H I S T O R Y of 

%remc poorer over Ifrscl (hould be eso raort in il- royal iinc of 

David, to which it preperly beSongcd, but flhculd br rcaaovcd away, 

and given to others, and cvcriurncd from o^ae to another : Firit 

the fi'prcmc power over Ifrasl ihovld be in the bands ol ihePcrfians ; 

and then it ihould be overturned again 5 and then it fhotsld be in the 

hands of the Grecians; and then it (hoxild be overturned sgsia, and 

cJtec into tb^ hands of the Romans, and (fcculd be no nior« in the 

Jinc of David, sill that very pcrfon fcould coc5C,that vrzi the fon of 

David, whofe proper right it wa8,ind ihcnGijd iTculd give it to him. 

ThaJ thofe great takings and revolutions of the nations of the 

world, were a^o prepare the way for Chrsft's coshlng, and felting 

up his kingdVPin the world, is further manlftft by Haggai, ii. 

6. 7. «* Fcr thus faith the Lord of hofli, Yst orcc, it is a little 

while, and I vvjll ffcake the heavens, and the ear^h, and the fea, 

Snd the dry hnd ; and I w ill {h?kc all nations, and the defire of 

listions ihail cordis?, and I ^i\\ fxli thi« ho!i/"e with glory, fs?th the 

Lord cf hefts." And again, vcFfe 21. 22. and 23. Ir is evident 

ny thi«, tha» shcfe great revolutions and 1^-^ kings of the natfont, 

whereby the thrones of k:i;gdcnis and ar ncic? were ovcrrhrovvn, and 

every one came down by the fwosd of hh brother, were to prepare 

nfec viray for the coming of him who ,19 the dcfire of all nations* 

The great changes and troubles that hsve fometimes been in the 
vifiblc church of Chrif>, £re in Rev. jcii, 2. compared Jo the church's 
being in travail to bring forth Chrift : So thefe great troubles and 
mighty revolutions that wtre in the vsrorld before ,Chrift vr3S born^ 
V!^erc, ^s it were, the world's being in travail to brirg forth the 
Son olGod, The Apof^Ie, in the 8ih of ^omsn?, tcprtfcnt^ th« 
whrile crep.lion as groaning and tri5V5i1ing in paZii together until 
n«w, to brin^ forth the Uberty and jDanifel^.tion of the children 
cfGod, So the world as it were travailed in ps/.i, and was in 
continual ronvulfions, for fevera! hundrfr-! years together, to brisg 
forth the firfl born child,, zni the only begotten Son of God, And 
thofe rotghtv revolutions were as fo niany p^n^f and throes in or- 
der to if. The world being fo Song a time kept in a f^ate of war 
snd bloodflned, prepared the Way for the coming of the Prince of 
peace, as It Ihowed 3 gre^t need the world ftood in of fuch a princ« 
io dalivier the world from its miferits. 

It p!e?.fe'J God to order it in his providenfce, that earthly power 
and dominion (liould be mifcd to its greateft height, and appear in 
its ijtmoft glory, in thofe four great monarchies that fucoeedcd one 
another, and that every one ftould be greater and roort glorious 
than the preceding, before he fet up the kingdom of his Son* B/ 
this it appear how much more glorious his fpiritual kingdom wai 
than the moft glorious temporal kingdom. The ftrength and glo' 
rf qI Satan's kingdom In rhcfe fcur mighty monarchies, appeared 


ths Work of R E D E M P T I O N, los 

in iH grtatefl height : for thcfc monarchies were the monarchlti 
of the dirnhea world, and f^ ibe firength of them '^ss the ftrcnglh 
of Saian'j kingdooa. Gjd fufferffd Satan's kingdom to rife to fo 
great a height oi power and rr>*gniticcn.ce bciore his Son came to 
orrerlhrow it, to prepare the way for the tnorc glorioui triumph ot' 
his S©n. Gwli.tth otuft have on all hii fplcnclid armour when tliC 
ilripling Ddvld comes againft hita with a fiing and a ftone, for the 
grcatsr glory of Davids vidory. God futfcrcd one of tbofc great 
fnooarchtcs to lubdue another^ and crcd itfclf on the othcr't ruins, 
appearing ftili in greater ftrength, *nd ihc laft to be the /^rongcft 
and mighti«ft of all; that foChriA, in ovcrthrowin^fcat, might as 
it »vere overthrow them all at onc« ; as the ftone cut out of the 
mountain without hands, is rcprcfcntcd as dcf^roying the whole 
image, the gold, the filvcr, the braf§, the ij'on, and the clay ; fo 
that al) became as the chalf of the fummcr threfhing-floor. • 

Thcfc might}/ empires were fuffcred thus ro overthrow the world 
and might dei^roy one another : and though their power was fo 
great, yet they could not uphold themfelves, but fcJi one after 
another, and came to nothing, even the laft of them, that was the 
ftronffcft, and had f wallowed up the earth. It pleafcd God thus to 
(how in them the inftability and vanity of all earthly power and 
greatnefs ; which fcrvcd as a foil to fct forth the glory of the 
kingdom of his Son, which never fhallbe deriroyed, as appears bv 
Din. it. 44. "In the days of thefc kings DialltheGod of heaven fct 
up a kingdom, which fliall never be deAroyed ; and the kingdom 
(hall not be left to another people, but it (hall break in pieces, and 
confume all thcfe kingdoms, and it fliaUflgnd forever." So great- 
ly docs this kingdom differ from all thofc kingdoms : they vanifli 
away, and are Ic^t to other people ; but this ftiall not be left to 
other people, but fliall ftand for ever. God fu^cred the dcvi! to do 
his utmoft, and to eftablifh his intere/l, by felting up the greatei^, 
ftrongea, and moft glorious kingdoms in the world that he could 
before the defpifcd Jcfus overtkrtw him and his empire, Chrift 
came into the world to bring down the high things of Satan's king- 
dom, that the hand of the Lord might be on every one that fs 
proud and lofty, and every high tower, and every lofty mountain • 
as the Prophet If^iah fays, chap. ii. iz.fec. Therefore thcfc things 
were fuffcrcd to rife very high, that Chrift might appear fo much 
the more glorious in being above them. 

Thus wonderfully did the great and wife governor of the world 
prepare the way for the ere£^ing of the glorious kingdom of his be* 
k>vcd fon Jefus. 

3. Another thing for which this lafl period or fpace of time be- 
fore Chrift was particularly remarkable, was the woodcrrul pre- 
^va{i«B of the church through alt thofc OTcrturoingi. The p' ^^ 

N ferratiga "' 

id(5 A H I S T O R Y of 

fevaiion of the church wss on feme accounii more recaarkabk 
through this period, tbsn through any of the foregoing, It wi% very 
wonderful that the church, which in this period was fo weak and in 
fo loir a ftate, and moftly fubjcdl to the dominion of Hcithcn mo- 
narchies, ihoxild be pteferved for five or fix hundred years together, 
while the world was fo often overturned, and the earth was rent 
in pieces, and fnade fo often empty and waAc, and the inhabitant* 
of it Came down foofien every one by the fword of hii brother* 
I fay it was wonderful that the church in hi weak and low Aate, 
being but a little handful of men, (faould be preferved in all theft 
great conVulfy||| ; efpecially considering that the land of Judea,the 
chief place of roc church's refidcnce, lay in the midft of them, as it 
were in the middle between the contending parties, and was very 
much the feat of war amongft ihcm, and was often OTer-run and 
fubdued^ and fometimes in the hands of one people, and fometiane^ 
another, and 7Cjy much the objed of the envy and hatred of all 
Heathen nations, and often almoi^ ruined by them, often great 
multitudes of its inhabitants being flain, and the land in a great 
meafure dcpopulafedj and thofc who bad them in their power.oftcn 
intended the utter deftru6Hon of the whole nation. Yet they were 
upbcld; they were prefcrved in their captivity in Babylon, and 
they were upheld again under all the dangers they paffcd through, 
under the kings of Pcrfia, and the much greater dangers they wei* 
liable to under the empire of the G:cck%, asd afterwards when the 
world was trodden down by the Romans, 

Their prefervation through this period was alfo dininguifliingly 
remarkable, in that we never read of the church's fuffcring pcr- 
fecution in any former period in any meafure to fuch a degree as 
they did in this, under Antiochus Epiphanes, of which more after- 
wards. This wonderful prefervaiioii of the church through all 
thcfe overiurnings of the world, gives light and confirmation to 
what we read in the beginning of the 46th Pfalm : " God is our 
refuge asd Arength, a very prefect help in trouble. Therefore 
will not we fear, though the earth be removed, and though the 
mountains be carried into the midA of the fea ; though the waters 
thereof roar, and be troubled ; though the mountains (bake with 
the f welling thereof." 

Thus I have taken sotlce of feme general things whtre?B this 
laA period of the Old-TeAament times was diAiuguiihcd, I corns 
BOW to conftdcr how the work of redemption was carried on in par- 

I, The firft thing that here offers is the captivity of the Jews in-< 

to Babylon. This was a great difpenfation of providence, and 

fuch as never was before. The children of Ifrael in the timt of 

the judges, bad oftt n bcco brought uadcr their enemies ; and mamy 

, particula* 

the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. w? 

par titular perfons were carried captive at ether times. But nc? er 
had there been any fuch thing as deAroying the whole land, the 
fan£lu«ry, and the city of Jcrufalem, and aU the citici and villagct 
of the land, End carrying the vr hole body of the people out of their 
oivn land into a country many hundred milci' diitant, and leaving 
th« land of Canaan empty of God'i vifible people. The ark had 
ouce forfakcn the tabernacle of Shiloh, and was carried captiv* 
into the land of the PhiliAincs : but never had there been any fuch 
thing ai the burning the fandluary, and utterly dcflroyirtg the ark, 
&nd carrying away all the facred veffels and uteniilsi and breaking 
up all their flated worship in the land, and the land's lying wafle 
and empty for fo many years together. How Ii4lly are tbofe 
ibiog* fei forth in the Lamentations of Jeremiah ! 

The work of redemption was promctsd by this remarkable dlf- 
pcafation in thcfe following ways. 

I. It finally cured that nation ^J their itch after idolatry. The 
Piophct Ifiiah.fpeaking of the fitting up of the kingriom of Chrlft, 
chap. ii. iS. fpeaks of tl<e abolilliiug idolatry as one thing that 
Ifcould be done to this end : "And the idols he fliall utterly abolilh," 
When the tim« Wds drawing near, ihatGod would abolilb Heatlica 
idolatry, throu£b the greater part of the known world, as he did by 
the preifiiifftg of the gofpe? after Chrift came, it plesfed him firft to 
aUiiifK Heathenifm among hit own people ; and he did it bow by 
their c?.pli*^ity into Babylon ; a prcfagc of that abolilbing of idolij 
thit God was about to bring to pafs by Chrift through io great * 
part of the Heathen world. 

This nation that was addi<fled to idolatry before for fo many 
ages, and that nothing would cure them of, not all the reproofs, 
and warnings, and corre<f^ions, that they had, an:^. ail the judge - 
meats God infli<^cd en them for it ; yet aow were finiilly cured : 
f« that however fome might fall into this fin aftcrxvards, as they 
did about the timcof Antiochus'a pcrfccution, yet the nation, as s 
nation, never fliewcd any h^rtkerjng after this fm any vnozt. This 
was a remarksible and wonderful change in that people, and wh^^S 
directly promoted the work of rcdempiion, £3 it was a great ad- 
vancement of the intereft of religion, 

2. It was one thing that prepared the way for Chfift's coming, 
and fctting up the glorious difpcnfition of the gofp^?, <%s h took 
iwiy many of thpfe things wherein corfiif d the gloiy of the 
JcwiQj difpenfatioa. In order to introduce the plorl'cus dlfpen- 
fation of the gofpel, the external glory of the J2H ilh church muft 
be diattnifhed, as we obfervcd befo?e. This the Kcbylouilh cap- 
tivity did many ways ; it brought the people very \ )W. 

Fi:ft, it removed the temporal diadem of the houfe of D^vld a- 
Wa^' fjoai tbcjD, i. c, ihc fuprcaac aud iudtp crid:ai ^ovircircnt cf 


loS A H I 8 T O R Y of 

thcmfclvcs. It took r,wqy the crown and diadem ffom the nation. 
The time now approaching when Chri^^, the great and CTtrlafling 
king of bts church, ^hh to re'^gn, h was ti'ne for the typical kingi 
towiihdrawr. A> God faid by fekitl, ch, xxi. 26. " Ha re- 
moved the crown and dia'i<Jia, that it might be no more, till he 
fhou!d corns vYhofc right it was," The Jctj hcnccfcrvrard vreic 
7>\ways dependent oq the;ig power of oihcr n<ition», until 
ChriA CJ^nr, for near fix hundred ycara, excepting about 90 years, 
flaring whirh fp,H".e they mainti;r)';d ;j fort of independence, by con- 
liau-?! vyars under the dominion of ihcMaccabLcs ani their poftcriiy. 

A;.^atn, by the captivify, ihc glory and magnificence of the ttci- 
plc wss taLWawav, an4 the temple that was buik afterwards, was 
jjothing iacompirifcn with it. Thus it was uiest, that when ti^c 
lims drew uigh ihat the glortcus ?.ntcr.ypc of the temple t^iould ap- 
pear, that the typical tcinpk foauld hive its g'ory withdrawn. 

Again, another thing ibat they loft by the captivity, was the 
•VTO tables of ths t:iUo^ai3y dcliv^fcd to IVIofcs, wriitcn with the 
f.ngcrof God ; tin two tables on whif.h God with his own tingcr 
A'icte the ?2n commandmen»fi on Mount Sirai. Thefc fccm 10 have 
'i.zcn prcfervfd in the ark tiil the c-iptivity. Thcfc were in the ark 
Hhcn Solomon placed tht srk in the temple, i Kings viii. 9. 
''.'here was nothing in the ark, favc the two tsibles of ^ione, which 
iMofcs put there at Horeb. And we have no xsafoa to fcppofc 
any other, but that they remained there 3> long as thai <tcar.plc iloccj, 
^us the Jews fpeak of {hefe as finally lor: at that tinre ; though the 
isme commandments vyere preserved in the book of the law. Thtfe 
fiblcs alfo were withdrawn on the approach of their antetype. 

Agam, another thing that was !o)t that the Jcwa had bc/Dre, was 
the Urim and Thumciira. This is evident byEzra, ii. 63. "And the 
TirlliHths hid unto tbcm, that they ftiould not eat of the tro/I holy 
ihtngSi, till (here (liould -Oaad up a prteii withUriixi and Thunimim.*' 
wc have no account that this was ever rcflorcd ; but the ancieut 
writingi of the Jews fay ihe contrary. What ihif Urim and Thim- 
xnim was, 1 (ball not now enquire ; but only obfervc, thst it w.'^.g 
fomething by which the high pricfl enquired of God, find receivei 
icacnodiatc aafwcrs from him, or by which God gave forth imirs- 
diate or'cles on particular occsfioos. This w&t now withdrawn, 
t.hc tidic sppfoaching when Chrifr, the antetype of she Urioa ^zA 
Thummjcn, the great word and oracle of Gcd, was to roasc. 

Aaoiber thing that the ancicr.t J-:w5 fay v/as wanting in tht 
fcc:ond temple, was the Shcchinah, or cloud cf glory ever the mer^ 
cy fcst. This was prooiifcd to la In the Ubrrnaclc ; Lcvi||.:^v:. zj 
** Fox I will sppesr in the tabcrnacJe upon the roercy- /♦»:." V«;e 
read elfe-.vhcrc of the cloud cf alery dcfc:ndicg into tb< tabernacle, 
lixbi. si. 35 J and fo r t do Ukr^-ii's witb :cfpca to Solomon's 

»he Work of REDEMPTION. 


temple. But we have no account that this cloud of ^lory wa» in 
the fecoad tcmpit. And tht anelcni accounts of i\.c Jew* f^y, ihat 
there wa» DO fuch thing in the fccond ttaiplc. Thii was n'rcdlcr* 
In the fccoad temple, confidcring ihat Goa had prc.mifed that [9 
t^ould fill ihii temple with gljry ^nether way, viz. by C!-,rifi's 
comicg into it ; which ivas after "t'Cirds fulfilied. Sec H.-jgg,!!, 11.7, 
'* I will (hake all nations, and the dcfire of ail naliojis ihall come, 
and 1 win fill this houfc v.ish glory, faith the Lord cf hofis." 

Another thing, thai the jcw» in their sncicnt writings mcntioa 
as being now withdrawn, was the lire frcrii heaven on 4hc alt.-?r. 
When Mofcs built the tabernacle and ahar in the wiiderncfa, and 
the fifft facrificcs were offertd on it, fire came down from heaven, 
and ccnfuiucd the burnt- ofTcrirg, as in Levii. ix. 24 ; and fj 
again, whenSolomon buih tteetcmple, andcfftfrcdthchist faciiticcs, 
as you may f-e in 2 Chron. vii. 1. And this fire was never to go 
out, but with t^iegreatcA care to be kept alive, a»God commanded 
Lcvit. vi, 13. '* The fire (hall ever be burning upon the altar ; 
It fball nev«r go oiil." And ihcie h no reafoR to fuppofe rhe tiic 
Ja Solomon's rime ever went out till the temple was defiroycd by 
the Babyloai-ins, But then k was exiin^iUicd, ar.d ncvir was 
rcf^cred. We have no account of in being given on tb.e Duilcing 
of the fccond tcruple, as we have ^t S;hc builair.g of the cdbcmaciq 
and firfl temple. But she J?ws, after their return, were forced to 
make uf« of thfir Common titc inA^ad of it, according to the an- 
cient tradition of the Jews. Thus the lights cf the Old Tefiamfnt 
go put on the approach of the glorious Sua of righteoufnefs. 

2- Tht captivity into Babyloa wa§ the occalicn of another thing 
"vyhich did aftcrwaxdi much promote tba fetting up of Chrifi'sking* 
dom in the world, aad th^< was the difpcr(?cn of the Jcvrs thrcu. h 
the greater part of the known world, before the coming of CLnit, 
For the whole nali(?n being carried away far out cf Chcir CMrn land, 
and continuing ia a fiaie ©f cspdvity for fo long a time, they got 
them polTc»!ions, and built ihem houfes, and fitiicd thcmfcives n\ 
the land of their captivity, sgrccaLk to the dirtdlon thst Jcremi^^ 
gave them, ir^ the letter he wrote to Ihtir* in the 29:h chapter of 
Jeremiah. Thcrcfcrc, when Cyrus gave them lihtcty to return t.:i 
^hc land where they had forEr.cily dwelt, m<ny cf thcas otver le* 
turned ; they were not wtliiog to leave their fcttlcmcnts at\d pof- 
Xe(fions there, to go into a dcfolate ccaritiy, maay hundred milti 
^il^anl, which none but ihe old men amor^: *h».m had ever fccq j 
and therefore they were but few, bui a fmall number, that return- 
td^ as we fte in the accounts wc Lave in the bookik of lizra and 
Kchcmiah. Great numbers tarried behind, though ihty rii?i re- 
tained the fame religicD with thofc that returned, fo far as it covif^I 
|€ pra^Kc<J i^ a fcrc3gnj«.td, Thofc tttTcngcu itat liic read cf ia 

ito A Hi STORY of 

the 7th chapter of Zechi»riihjtb'i*C2nL;e 10 cnqurs of the pric/l:3 ard 
prophet! in JeiufalcLT, Sh-::czcr and Regcu^'Ct.c^cch, are fuppofcd 
to be meiTcngcri km from the Jews that rctHabed fiill in Babylon, 

Thofc Jewi tiias icouiacd ftiH io thai country were fgon, by 
the great changcj that happened la the world, dJfpsrfcd thence in- 
to all the adjacent countrits. Hence we riad, iha? in Hrthcr'i time, 
which was after i!'.^ return from the captivity, the Jtnvs were 1 
people that were dlfpcrfcd throi'.gfcout all paxis of the vaft Peifian 
empire, th;ii extended froc laJia to Ethiopia ; as you may fee, 
Efth. iii. 8. '* And Hasian faid unto Khg Ahafueruj, There is a 
certain people fcattcred sbroad, and difperlcd amoiig the people 
in all the provinces ot thy klngdocn," &c. And fo they continued 
difperfed tillCfcrlft came, and til* the apoi^lcj went forth to preach 
the pofpel. But yet iheie difperfed Jews retained their religion ia 
tfaisdifperfioa, Tncir captivity, as I faid before, thoroughly cured 
them of their idolatty ; and it was their manner, for as many of 
them as couU fjrom time to time, to go up lo the land of Judea to 
Jsrufalem at their grsut fcafts. Hence we retd in the 2d chapter 
of Atls, that at the licrie of the fjjes^i {e&i\ of Pcntecofi, there were 
Jew* abiding at Jcrufalciu out of every nation under heaven. Thef« 
were Jews come up from all countries where they weie difperfed, 
to waclhip ae th^l tcalfe. Hence we find, in the hiflory of the Adli 
of the Apcfilea, thai wherever the Apofibs went preaching through 
the woil.i, ihey fotad Je'AS. They came to fuch a city, and to 
fucb s city, and *'?ee« into the fynagogue of the Jaws, 

Anticznu^. the Gfcar, about tvj'o hundred years before Chrift, oa 
a cert>:ia occafion, tranfpkntcd two ihoufand familice of Jews fisjtn 
ti>i,.couv.:;ry about S^byion into Afia tTic Lefs ; and fo they «nQ their 
pwficrity, many of them, feuled ia Pontui, GJ^itia, Phrygia, 
V'impiiyih, knd in Ephefus ; *nd from thsncc fettled in Athtcs, 
Corinth, and Hox'e. Whence came tfcof« fynigogaes ia thofc 
places that the Apo'tie Paul ri<;-ched i/i. 

Now, this (lltpii:C.^.u of tuc Jews through the world beforcGhrjft 
came, did t:;:\any wayi prepare the way for his coming, aad fetsing 
up hii kingioiXi in the world. 

One was, that thi» was a mfc«Bi of r^ifing a general expeftatipft 
of ihc MefHah through the world about the time that he adluajly 
came. For the Jaws, vyhcrc-evcr they were di/pcifed, canied the 
holy fcriprurcs Y/t± them, and fo the prophecies of the MclTiab ; 
and being convcrfanl with the nations among whom they lived, 
they, by that mean«, became acquiintcd wiih thcfe prophecies, and 
with the cxpedatioas of the Jews of theii glorious MefTirh ; and 
by this means, the birth of fuch a glorious pcrf»?a in Judea about 
that time beg:ia to be the general etp.edadon of the nations of th« 
wor-Jdj as sppe^fs by the wfilinss ot lh€ Icf?»2^ »ca cf th? Hc&tben, 

tiic Work of REDEMPTION* iii 

ihit lived about that ti^ie/ which arc ftill cxtsnt ; particularly 
Virg'.l, the famons poet tha<1iVcd ia Italy a little before Chrift 
was born, has a p tro "abo'^t the exprif^^tion of a preut prince that 
ws» fo be born, and lh« ha^.^py titrr* of rightccwfnefs and pc;Tce 
tb?i he vrns to introduce ; fomc of it very much in the Iangu»|^c of 
the prophet Ifaiah. 

Another ^*'3y that ihii difperfad ftita cf the Jewt prepared the 
trsy for Cbrift vras, that it Ibo^cd ihc nccrflitv of abollilirg th« 
Jewilli difpcafalion, and introducing a new difpcnfation of the 
cctenaDl.of gr^cc. It (hovred the ncccff.ty of abol^bing the cere- 
monial lavr, and the old Jcvriih ^rorlhip : For, by ihi« means, the 
obfcrvance of that ccren:onia! hvr became imprafticable «ren by 
the Jews themfcWes ; for the ceremonial law was adapted to the 
f^ate of a people dwelling together in the fame land, where was the 
city that God had chofen ; where was the temple, the only place 
where th^ might ofe facrifices ; and where it was lawful for their 
priefls and Levrtes to cffieiatCj where they we'-e to bring their firf\ 
fruits, and where th^ were their cities of refuge, and the like* 
But the Jews, by this difj^erfion, lived, many of them, In other 
lands, more than a tboufand miles diftant, when Chrift ome ; 
which made the obfcrvat>on of their laws of facrifices, and the like, 
iBipra(f^icab!e. Though their forefathers might be to blame in not 
going up to the land of Jur^ea when they were permitted by Cyruf, 
yet the cafe wsi now, as to many of them at leaft, become iro- 
pradicable ; which fbewcd the neceffity of introducing a new dif- 
pcnfation, that fhculd be fitted, not only to one particular land, but 
to the general circumftances and ufe of all nations of the world. 

Again, another way that this difpcrfion of the Jews through the 
world prepared ihc way for the fetting up of the kingdom cf Chrift 
ici the world, was, ihst it contributed to the makkg the fadts con- 
cerning Jcfus Chriil publicly known thro' the world. For, as t 
obfervcd before, the Jews that lived in other countries, ufed frc- 
qucntljr^ to go up to Jerufslcra at their three great fc^fts, which 
were from year to year ; and fo, by this means, they could not but 
become acqu;iint«d with the news of the wonderful things ihatChrifl' 
did in that land, We find tbait they were prefcnt at, and t^oit 
great notice of, that great m!f?:cle o( raifingLazarus, which e:icitcd^ 
the curiofity of thofe foreign Jews that come up to the feafi of ihg 
Paffoverto fee Jefus ; asyonmsy fe« in John xii. ig, 20. ji. 
Thefe Grceki were foreign Jews and p'-ofelytes, as is erident by 
thelr^ coming to wor fill pat the feaft of the Pafibver. The Jews 
that lived abroad among the Greeks, and fpoke ibeir language, 
were called Gretkt vr UelUnifit : io they arc called GrtfUnt, A€ti 
vi. I . Thefe Grecians here fpokcn of were not GentilcCbriftians • 
fw thb W2I beftare the calling of the Gcatilca. ^ 


i^ A K I S:T O K T o« 

By the fimrz xcani, the Jc^vs thai wtnt up from ot*ncr countrict 
becacac ac^ivain?cdl wiih Chrift's crucifiiion. Thus the dii'ciplcs, 
p;oing to Emmius, fay to Chri/i, when ibey did not know hira, 
Luke, XXIV. 18, ** Art thou only a flrangcr la Jcrufslcm, and 
hart not knovva the tbingi which have conoe to pafs there io thcfc 
day* ?" plainly intia-.ating, th^t the things concerning Jcfus were 
Co publicly known to all ckq^ ihst it was wondctful to find any man 
unaequaintr:^ -.vith Ihcm. And fo afterwards they became acqusict- 
ed with the news of his rtimctiion ; and when they went honae a- 
g^in into their own cour.:ric3, they carried ths news wi«h ih^ai, and 
fo mndc thcfc fads public through the worid, as they had made the 
pirophccks of them public before. 

After this, ihofe foreign Jews that cime to JcrufsSenn, took grett 
notice of the pouring out of the Spirit at Fentecoft, a^d the won- 
derful efifccfis of it ; and many of tbcai were converted by it, viz. 
Parthian», Mcdcs, Elawiitca, and the dwellers in Mcfa^o^imlt, 
and in Egypt, and tks parts of Libyia about Cyrcr.e, and tbt f.ran- 
geri of Rocnc, Jews and Profclytes, Cretei and Arabians, Ab4 
fo tbcy did not only carry back the ncwi of the fails of Chrifti** 
nity, but Cnii It ianiJy itftif, inio their own countries with them ; 
which contributed much to the fpreading pf it through the world. 
, Again, another way that the difperfion of the Jews coTitributcd 
to the feuing up of ths gofpcl kirgdrm in the worid was, that it 
cpeccd a door fcr the inirodudion of ihc apofilen in all placCf 
ni'herc thty earnt to preach the gafpel. Fcr ala-ic^ la all places 
wherG sbsy came :o preach the gofpel, ihcy found Jcwi, and fy- 
nagogues of the Jews, where the holy fcriipturcs were went to be 
lead, and the true God woifuipped ; which was a great advantage 
to the apof\iC3 in their fp.cading the gcfpcl ihiotigh the world. 
For their way wa«, into vvhstever cily they came, firft to go iQia 
the fynagor^uc cf the J:ws, (ihcy bciDg people of the faoit lation), 
SDd th*re to pr2a«h the gofpei unto them. And hereby their coal- 
ing, and d:cir naw dcf^rine, wac taken notice of by their (IfBntiie 
xicighbours, whofe curiollty excited thcta to hear what tbey bad to 
iay ; which became a fsir occafioa to the apof.les to preach the 
gofpcl to tUm. It appeari that it viti tkw, by the aecoimt wt 
^avc of fhing;s m the Ac^s of the Apciuos. T/iefe Geniilti hir- 
ing been before, many of them, prepared In fouie mcafuPt. by the 
|:now?er!ge nbcy had oi the Jews religion, and cf thelf worfhip of 
cne God, snd of their prcphecies, and cxpeftation of a Mcffiah ; 
vrhlcb knowledge they derived from the Jews, who had long been 
their neighbours ; this opened the door for the gofpel to have ac- 
ccfi to them. And the work of the apofilci with them was doubt- 
lefi much eafisr than if they never had heard anything before of 
any cxpc(f^ation of fuch a perfon as the apoftlcs pteach^df or any 
tbiog abaut tht worfhip of one only true G^d* So 

the Work of REDEMPTION. ii| 

%6 manv ways did the Bibyloai/h captivity greacly prepare tht 
way for Chrift'i coming. 

11. The nest psrcicuUr that I would take notice of is, the ad. 
dition madt to the cannon of fcripture in ih< time of the captivU 
ty, in thofc t*iro resi^ikab^c per: ions of fcripture, the prophecies 
of £zekicl and Oiniel. Chrit^ appeared to eich of thcfc prophets 
in the form of that natu''e which he was afterwards to take u^oa 
him. The prophet fcr.kiel gives an account of hii tbui sppearing 
to hitn repeatedly. a» txik. i. 26, '* Aad above the tirmamcnt 
that wai over their heads, WaS the likenefa of a throne at the ap- 
pearance of a fspphirc-ftonc, and t>pon the Hkcnefs of the tbrona 
was the ifkenefs ai the appearance of a man above upon it," And 
fochap. viii. i 2. So Chrift appeared to the prophet Daniel & 
Dan. viii 15. 16. '* There (!ood before me as the appesranoft 
«f a man. And I heard a maa's voice between the ba^ks of Ul^i, 
which c-illcd; and faiJ, Gsbrltl, maks this razn to undcrftsnd tht 
viiion." There arc fcvcral things; that ai'ko it evident, that thit 
was Chri(\, that [ cannot now f^and to mention particularly. $9 
Chrif! appeared again &s a man to this prophet, chap, ji. 5. 6« 
*'. Then i lift up mine eyes and tooked, and behold, a ccrtsiv msn 
clothed in Hnen, whofe loins were girded with fine gold of Uphiz? 
bit body alfo wis like the beryl, and his f&ce as the appearance of 
l^ghtntnc^, and his eyes as lamps of f)ie, and hii arms aod his leet 
like in colour topoliihed brafs, and the voice of his words like the 
▼nice of a mjliitude." Comparing this vifion with that of th« 
Apoftlcjchn in the ift chapter of Revelation, tuakcs it xtjanifcft thai 
itwasChrti>. And the prophet D.4nie}, in the htOorical part of 
his book, gives an account of a very remarkable appearance o£ 
Chrifl in Nebuchadntxz^r's furnace, with Shadrach, Mcihach, anJ 
Abednego. We have the account of it in the 3d ch^pier. lo th« 
a 5th verfe, Chrifl is faid to be Jike the Son oi Go ! ; and it is asa* 
Bifcft that he appeared in the form of man : " Lo, I fee four msn 
loofe.r-and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God." 

Chrif! did not only here appear in the form of the hum?in n;3ture» 
Wit he appeared in a furnace, faving thofe pcrfon* who believed 
•n him from that furnace ; by wh'ch is reprcfcntcd to ui, ho^'. 
Ghrift, by coming himfelf into the furnace of God's wrath, favci 
thofe that believe in him from that furnace, f^ that he has to powef i 
en tnen ; an1 the wrjth of God never reaches or touches thesn^ 
fo much as to fingc the hair of their heads. 

Thcfe two prophets, in many rcfpc6ti,were more particular con** 
ccrning the coming of Chrifl, and hisglorica* goJpcl kirgdcm, 
than any of the prophets had been before. They both rf theim 
noention thof^ thTce great overturningsof the worlJ that (bould b9 
ktiozi he ca«e. Exckid it particular ia ftTcrsl placet concern* 
- Q lag 


Ing the coflp^n^ of ChrIA, The prophet Dasie! ii more partieifaf 
in loreicHing irc cimc of the coining of Chrift than ever any pro- 
IJ^htt ha'1 been before, in the 9 h chap, of hit prophecy ; who fore- 
told, that ii Ikooid be ftveniy weckt, / «. fcvcnty w&eks of yesirf» 
or fevciity times f even yeais, or four hundred and nincij yean, 
fiom {he decree to ebuild ani rcf^ore the Aate of the Jews, till the 
M iTiah ih uid be cruc«Hcd ; vrhich muft be rcckoaed frctn the cow 
mr^fton g.vcn to Ezr^ by Artaxcirxci that we h«ve an account of la 
the 7 h ch p o^ Exm ; vv^^ereby the very particular time ofChriA'l 
eruc'fix on «vai p >nted out, wrhicb never had been before. 

T'^c p cphetEitckfcl is very particular in the my(\ical deferiptlott 
of t^.c gofpcl criLfch, in hl» account of hii vifioa of the temple 
»nd city, in ine Lttcr part of his prophecy. The prophet 
D«niei points out the order of particular events that (hould come fo 
pafi fcl :ttng o ihe Chrtfttan church after ChriA was come, as iht 
rife of AitichriA, «nd the continuaucc of bis reign/ and his fall, 
and the g'cry that fnould follow. 

Thus'does jjofpcl light ftill incrcafe, iht nearer wc come to thf 
tia)c of Chri«*'> birth. 

Ill The nx* paHcu^ar I would mention i»^ the dci^ru(f^ion of 
Eabyfon, and the cverthrow of the Chaldean empire by Cyrus. 
The dcAru(f^ion of B bylon was in that night in which Be'fb naf 
the king, and the cay in general, was drowned in a drunken 
fel^ivsl, which they kept to their godi, when Daniel was called to 
ycad the hand writitig en the wal?, Dan. >. jo. and ir w?3 brought 
about in ^'irM a manner, as wonderfully to Ihow the hand of God, 
and T'-oiark b!y to fu'fi' his word by bis prophets, which I cinnol 
Jiow Hand part'^eularly to rdatc. Now that great ciiy, whick 
b^"* lonjj brcn an c^emv to the city of God, his Jerufaleia, wa« 
defVrovrd sfxrr it hal Aood ever f:r,cc the firft building of Babel, 
whicH vir^s about <'eventecn hundred years. If the check that wat 
fu* to the bu'-Min^ thii city at its beginning, whereby they^crt 
prevfRtcd from c^rryi^g of it to that extent and magnificence that 
they intend.'d ; I f^y, if this promot»d the work of redemption, aa 
I hire before fii iwn it did, much more did this dcAru<^ion of it» 
If was a rematkihle inftsrce of God'i vengeance on the enetnieSI 
of his redeemed church ; forGod brought this defiruaion onB^bjIoH 
for the injutir^ fhev did to God'i children, as is often fef forth in 
t>\t prophets, h A^io promoted the work of redemption, at thereby 
God's p-^opV. that were held c<.piWc by ihcm, were fet at liberty 
to return to thrif own land to rebuild Jcrufalem ; and iherefort 
Cyrus, who did it, i» cjlleiG)!'* (b*pherd therein, If. xliv. lallW^ 
end ; aod xlv. 1, And the^e are over and above ihofe ways where!* 
the fettin? up A^i ovcrihro vi i(i the foir mirnrchics of the worhf 
promote the work of redemption, whi«h hive been before ol-ferved.^ 
lY. Wlut ucEi followed ibii wai, tb« icimh ©f lUj**^ »^ •*'«^ 


the Work of REDEMPTION. iij 

Awn land, and rebuilding Jcrufalem and the icmple. C jruf , ai fooa 
as he oad dci^royed thci^dbyloniHi eo^piic, iind had cicdled the 
Persian empire od ill ruiDs, made a decree ia Uvcw. ot ihc JctM* 
that they might return to tneir own Und, and lebuilo iheir ciiy 
and icmple. Thii tcturn of the Jews wut oi the t5ibyioin(h cup- 
liriry ii, next to the rcdempiiou out oi tgypt the oj&ft ruD<iiJi<>bU 
•f all the Old ToUoacnt ledecnpiions. and moh iuhfied on ia 
fcflpture, ai a type of ihe great icccnipticn ot Jwlui ChrifU If 
wai under the hand of one of the legal Mnccfton of ChtiCt, y'nm 
Zerubbabcl, the foa of i»hcaliicl, Hhofe B<«byluri'(b e^Bie wai 
$;icibbaztar. He was the governor q{ the }wt, .ni their leader in 
the r firil return out of captivity ;, together wivh J (bua the 
Icn of jofcdek the high priel), had the duel band ia rcbuikhg th« 
Cempie. This redempton waibso't about by ttic hand o Z^iobtatcl 
and Joihuatbc pricft, as the redemption cut oi li^ypi was trcu^ht 
abvut by the hand of M jfcs and Aaron. 

Tac return out of captivity was a remarkable difpenfatioB of 
Providence, it vrai rema^kiblc, that :he heart of a Heathen piince« 
as Cyrus vrai, fhould be fo inclined to favour fuch a defign as he 
4ld, DJt only in giving the people liberty to return, atid rcbuitd 
the city ano temple, but in giving charge that they fhguld be helped 
with fiivcr and gold, and with goods, and w'ut beats, as we read in 
J^sra, i. 4. -^nd af^ei wards God wondcriuliy inclined thtthe«rt of 
Darius to further the building of thehoufe ofGod with hit own tribute 
.aioney, and by commandin^^ their bitter cnemic>,tht SsmaritanSfWho 
hai been Ariving tohiod^r them, tobejp them without fail,by furnifh* 
ingthem with aiithat tbcy needed in order to it, and 10 fupply thtna 
iiay by day ; making a decree, that whofucver tailed of ;r, limuer 
§iouli be pulled down cue of bis houfe and he hanged thercv n, and 
fcilhoufe m^tdc a dut.ghiH; ai weh^ve an account in ti e 6:t chaptCf 
ff \iad» And after this Irod inclined the heart of Art^kcixei 
mother king of Petfi;^, to piomote the work of jcf^o i g the ft^tc 
•f the Jews, by his ample commitfion to Hx a, w(;ich we r.«vt an 
tccouni of in the 7:h chapter of Ecra ; hipping ihtm .«Ur.d«tuiy 
«rith filvcr and gold of bis own bounty , and ctftiirg mo<c, a> iho^i^ 
J^ needful, out of the K<ng'« treafure houfe, >n 1 c^ mm-rdn ji hit 
treaiurcrs beyond the r.vcr liluphratca to give tnorc, «» fhotiiu be 
•ceded, mi to ao hundred t;<(ei 1$ ot tVivtr, ar.d anhu>diea uicafqref 
cf wheat, an hundred bath» of wine, «nd an huncied bJiK> of oil, 
and fall, without prcfcribiog bow mucn j «nJ giving lesvi io ef* 
tablib magiftratcs in the land j ana fc-jng the.piielh ci \p\\^ 
tfibutc, and euftom, and othtr thirg , wriici; rci-oci it»% Crcvea 
•■d commitfton by Art<^xcrxes the root! t<ill -in'i ample io t\ t Jcwt 
favoH- of any that, ac any time, had been ^ivcu lor t he rel!uri:jf 
Uf Jerufalem : And therefore,' in Daniel's prtphccy, tt i> i csilij 
Jk* dicret fr rehoring and builiiiag Jcruiaitjn ; aua Uict ([^ 
^ettaty wciki arc dated* ziuif 

ttS A M I 8 T O R Y 

A^t«r th'i, another favourable commiitioB was granted by the 
Khg of Pcrfii to Nchffmiah, whic% wc have an account of in th« 
fceond cbapU^ of NchcmJah. 

It wa« remark b!c, that the beam of Heathen pnneci ftiould be 
fo incJinci. It w4» the eiU.'\ of his power, who hath the beam of 
k'r,f»8 in hi» h^^n is ani tumeih them whitherfoever he will ; and 
it w-Ki a rema k^b'e jrii^nce o* hii favour to hi§ people. 

A lothcr fcrR^^k-.ble ciiCumflancc of tbi* rcititution of the (>ate of 
thf* |?.ws to l-eir own i.vnd wss that it was accoccpl'ft-itd againft fo 
m jc^o p fit Ion of their bhtcr indefatig^.bltcnemic:. thcSamaritar*, 
who, far » !ongt nc cogcther, with »U ihc maiice and craft they 
coul exe^cifc, oppofed ih;: ]:«?$ in thh alTa»r, atjd fought their 
deriru(f^(on ; oas 7r5l€ bj B ih!dm. Mithridath, Tabcel, R^hum, 
»ni S^imiVi^ »« J" E^t^ * iv. and then by T^tiy*', Sheihaibojnai. 
and their companions, a» in ch^p. v and a^terw^-rd* by S^abalUt 
and fobiah, a» wc read in the book ot Nch«en»ab, 

We h4vc ftj^wed before how the fci'lcmcni ot the people in thi« 
land in } j(hti^*i lime pro (noted the wurk of ledemp ion. On the 
fa .tit accoifit docs i c«r te^hfutii.n clong to the hmc wotk. »Thc 
fcfe!tl«^«* 't of ihrj:wi in the lani of Canaan bclor gs to this work, 
at it vrai. a nece urj mearsof prcfeiving' the Jcwilh church and 
difpcnf^tion in being, till Chrti^ tfeould c^me. If it had not beca 
for thif rcUoration ot the J wifl chuich, and tcroplc, and wo^ftjtp, 
the pcop'c hal rcoiiined without any temple, and land of their own, 
that would be as it were their bead quarters, a place of wrrfhip, 
feabitition, and ref jrt ; the whole conTtitution, which God bsd 
done fo ODuch to cftabUfk, would have been in danger of utterly fail- 
ing, long beioLC that fix hundred years bad bfen out, which was 
frcm about the dasc of the captivity till Chrift. And fo all ihaj 
preparation which God had been naaking for the conntng of Chri/l, 
iircm the tEcna of Ab-rahanR, wouldhavc been in vain. N w that 
very temple wai buiie that God would fill with glo'y by Chrif^'s 
coming into it, as the Prophets Haggai and Zechariab told ibe 
Jcwi to enc>.'\!rage them in building it. 

V. The neat particular 1 would obferve, ii the addition i»»de 
to the eanox of che fcfiptuiet fooa after the captivity b\ the Pro- 
phets H>^gg;at aad iucchariah, who were propbeis fent to eucouraga 
the people in their work of rebuilding the city end tenple ; and 
the main argument they made ufe of to that end, is the approach of 
the time of the coming of Chrift. Hi^ggai foretold that Chrin (bould 
he of Zcrubbabcl's legal poAerity, lai't chap, hft verfc This fccmf 
to be the hft and moft particular revclatioo of the defcent o^ Chriitg 
|oll the angel Gabriel was fent to reveal it to hit mother M^ry* 

VI. The tiext thing I would take notice o', wa> the pouring 

*e Work of REDEMPTION, '117 

ptscft after the c^ptiviiy. Thmhcrc was fu«h 1 pouring out of 
ihe Spirit of God that accoajp in led tz-*'* minillry, is manifeft 
by many thingi in the Oooki ot tzi and Nchcuoiih. P.cfcaily 
after Egra came up fr6mBabylon,*»itb the ample ccmmiiTion which 
^Artaxcrxcf give him, whence i^^iiitl's fcvcniy weeks bcgac, he 
'fet hioifelf 10 reforua the vicci aad Corrup^ioas he found smong 
the Jews ; and his great fuccuis in it we have an account of in tbc 
loih Chapter of Ezra j io thu there appeared a very general and 
great anourniug ot the cosigrejaiioa oi ITracl fo* then fins, which 
wai accompanied with a loktrja covenant that the people entered 
into with God ; and this was loilovved with a g'-eat and general 
refer matioti, as we have there aa account. The people »bout the 
fame time, with great zeal, and eaineftncf3,and revciencc, gaihcr- 
C'i thcnnfeivtj tcgcshcr to ^;ca^ ihe woru o? God read by iLzr { j and 
gave diligent aticaiion, while iizra and the oihcr prkiii p cached 
to them, by reading and expounding the law, and were greatly af- 
fed* 1 iQ the h«aiing oi it. Tney wcpi whsu ihcy heard ire worda 
©f ihs law, and fel ihemfelvci to oblctvc the la-v, and kept the 
fcaft of tabernacles, as the fciipiure oDiaves, attcr fuch a manner 
as ithsd not been kept fince ihe days oi Jj.htia «hc (ox of Nun ; as 
we have account in the 8ih chaptc.- oi Ncheoiiah : aher -this, hav- 
ing feparatcd tbcmfitivci fro n ill ttraogers, rhuy folciunly obfcrv- 
•d a faft, by ho^rirjg the Wv^rd of God, confe.'Hng their fins, and 
(renewing their covenant wi:h God ; and niipji'ciied their flacerity 
in that iranfadion, by atlaaliy riioroning many ibufcs in religion 
and aioralj ; at wc kara irona the c^ch and foii©wing chapteii of 

It ii obfcrvable, that it ha» been Goi'i manner in every retnar* 
kable ncvr cftabliib-ncnt of the ftate of his viliblc church, to give a 
retnarkable outpouring ot teis fpirit. So it was on the tirft cfUb- 
lilhcnant of the chufcri of the Jews it iheir tirit cocking into Ca. 
BununJcr Jolhu^, ss has been obferved ; and fo it was r.oA' ia 
tT-^« ftcond fcttlcai--ni of ihc church in ch^ fame bnd in the time of 
E^ra ; and fo it was on ihe ftrft eiiabJifhairnt oi the Chri'iiaa 
Chureb after Chrift's refurttai .n ; God wifcy and gracicufly by- 
i«g ihe foundation of thofc c'tabiifh^ in a work of his holy 
Spirit, for the lafiing benefit of th« liate of his church, thencefor- 
ward eontinucd in tho^c e.'t-ebliilj ncnrs. This pouring o^t of ihc 
Sp rit of God, was 2 fifj-^l cure of tii^t nation of that pn-iicolar fio 
wHic-i fufl befoT'tthrjy cfpecialfy run into, vi;:. in.e'm^rryir»g with 
the GtitiU^ ; for howeycr inclined to it they were bc/ojc, they e- 
▼er after fh-wed an avcrfion to it. 

VII Ez-a added t© the cannon of the fcripturei. He wrote the 
bo Ic of Eira ; and he is fuppofcd to have writ'cn the boQk of 
^^doidcf J li izid of csopiiing thcm^ if ht w^s qu ihc auibo' of 

al A HISTORY of 

riie matcrJali, or all the parii of thcfe writingi. That thefe booii 
were wriiicn, or coofjpllcd and completed, aiicrthe eapiivity, (the 
5hc thing* co.ilaincd irj she book.* tlKinfelvcs on^kc m;«DiJcft ; iot 
8hc gciicalogiei conuincd therein, arc brought du-n below ihc 
Captirity ; as i Chron. iii. 17. &c. We have ibtic nt\ dccou -tof 
ihc pof^crity of Jchoiach n for fcvcral fuccciiivf grnfei^iion And 
there is mention in thefe book* of this captivity into Babylon, 
as of a thing paft, and of ihin^i that were done on the return of 
the J9\f% after tlic c^ptiviiy ; as you may fee in the gt\ chapter of 
E CbfOQ. The ehaptsr is moOly tiJIcd tap w'th an account of 
things that came t j pafs after the captivity into Babylon, as you 
aaay fee by coiaparing it with what is faid in toe books of Ezra 
and Nchemkh, Thai Ezra v»Ji8 ihc perfon that compiled thcfe 
books, is probable by this, becaufc they conclude with words that 
Mtfc know are the words of Efds hiftory . The two Uh vcrfei are 
Esra^s words in the biftory he gives in the the two fiifi verfea of the 
book of Ezra, 

VIU. Eira it fuppofed to have colUcfled all the books of wbieji 
the holy fcriptures did then condft, and difpofed thcai in their pro. 
per order, Ezra is ofien fpoken of as a noted and eoxinent fciibc 
of the lavr of Gad, and the canon of fcripture in his time was naa- 
nifeftly under his fpecial care ; and the Jews, from the fit ft accountt 
we hare from them, have always held, that the canon of fcripture, 
fo much of it as was then extant, was eoUccled, and orderly dif- 
pofed and fettled by Ezra ; and that from him they have delivtrt^ 
it down in the order in which he difpofed it, till Chrift'i lime 5 
when the Chfiflian church received it from them, and have deli- 
Ttred it down to OAir tiincs. The tri;tb of thia ii allowed as uq« 
(doubted by divines in general* 

IX The work of redemption was carried on and promoted i^ 
this period, by greatly multiplying the copies of the Jaw, and ap- 
pointing the conflant public reading of thtm in all the citiei of 
Ifrael in their fynagogucs. It is evident, that before the eaptivi- 
ty, there were but few copies of the law. There was the original, 
laid up bcfide the ark ; and the kings were required to write otit 
acopy of thelaw for !heir ufe, and the law was required to bt 
read to the whole congregation of Ifrael once every fcvcnth year. 
We have no account of any other ft^ted public reading of the law 
before (he captivity but this. And it is manifefi by fcveral ihinga 
chat might be meDtioncd, that copies of ibe law were exceeding 
rare before the captivity. But after the captivity, the conAaai 
reading of the law was fct up in every fynaguguc throughout lb* 
land. Firrl, they began with reading the law, and then they 
proceeded toeflayifh the conftant readiig of the other books of tbf 
Oid Icftai&eQt» tclToai were rca4 out of tL« 014 Tcftamem, ap 

the Work o! REDEMPTION. n$ 

•rt^e uf^ o^ both thtUvy and the other parts of ths fcr!pture theft 
•xtani, in all the fynagoguo, which were fel up in every city, and 
tvery where, where ever the J W8 in any considerable number dwell. 
If our ttjeeitng houft* are. Thui we dhd il wa.t in Chrift'i and 
the -poftfcs tide, A^» iv. 2 1. *' Mofei of old tfuc hath in eve* 
ij ciry thctn that preach him, being read in the fynagoguci every 
fabbath day." This cuftom ii uoifcrfally fuppofed, both by Jew! 
Ind Cbrifti^nk, lobe begun by Eara. There were doubtlefi pub* 
ficaflcmblici before the captivity into Babylon. They ufcd to tf* 
fbmble at the temp^e at their great feaAs, and were direded, wkea 
they weie at a lofi about any thing in the law, to go to the prieil 
for inf^ruclion ; and rhey ufcd alfo to rcfort to the propfaci't 
houfei : and wc read of fynagogucs in the land before, Pfal Izziv* 
f . But it fi not fuppofed that they had copiei of the law for co«- 
ftanr public reading and expounding through the land before, at 
tfterwardi Ttiii was one grv^at oacans of tbcif being prcferved 
from idolatry. 

X T t next fhing I wouH mention, !i G^d'i rttnirkably 
^referving the chu'ch aod nation of the Jcwi, when they were in 
incroincnt Harger of being univerfally deftroyed by Haman, Wc 
bavc the i^ory in the b ok of Efthcr, with which you are aciuiinl- 
•d Thit ferica of providence. wa$ very wonderful in preventing 
tfaii dcftru^ion. Efthcr wa» doubilcfi both for tbii end to be the 
inftrument of thfi rema'k.Me prcfervation. 

Xf. After ihi« the canon of fcriptHre wa§ further added to la 
•hebooki of Ntbcmiah and Either ; the one by Nehemiah bimfelf} 
and when the otheri wai written by Nehemiah, or Mordeeal, or 
Malachi, ii not of importance f(-r ui to know, fo long at it ii on« 
•f thofe books that wcie alw yi^ admitted and received as a part 
•f their canon by ibc; Jews, and wai among thofe books that tb« 
Jewscallcd their fciptures in Chri<^*» time, and asfueh was ap« 
jjirovcd by him : For Chrift does often in bis fpcechcs to thcjewt 
oaanifeftly approve and confirm thofe books, which amongft tbeot 
went by the name of the feripturtf, as might cafily be (hown« ii 
there were ttmft for it. 

Xn. Afterthis fhe canon of the Old Teftament was complcat* 
•d ani fcafcd by M Jachi. The manner of his concluding his pro- 
phecy fcems to imply, th^t thry were to expe<ft no more propheeicf, 
and no more written revelations from God, till Chrift fhould come. 
For la the laft chapter he prophecies of Chrift's coming }- ver, t . j. 
•' Ent unto you that fear my name, ihall the Sun of righteoufueft 
trife with healing in his wings ; and ye (hill go forth and groif 
up as calves of the Aall. And ye fliall tread down the wicked ; 
lor thry fhxll be as ailiei under the foles of your feet, in the day 
tfcttlfk^UdeihiitfaitbthelMdofkofiK*' Tbea we read in vcr« 

izft A H I S T O R Y of 

4. " R^i1*mSef yc the Uw of M^fci my fcrvinf, which I ccm- 
nimdcd unto'oiji in Horeb for all Ifrscl, with iho flatuteJ aid 
)iii^f:m€n\%," i. c. Rctntmbcr and improve what ye have ; k«cp 
c'ofc to ih it written rufc you have., as expcd Lg no more ^tddiEi* 
on» to it, til! the night of »bc Old FdUoicr.l ii over, and th« Sun 
of rightfcufncfs ifcall nt length arife. 

XIII Soon after this, ihc fpirit of p^o^Vecy ccafcd smonp that 
peop'e till ihe time cf the Ne'V Tcft;,mcnf. Tn us the Old Tcfla* 
B>ent light, ihc fla*s of the long ni^ht, iregan apace 10 hide their 
fceads, the time of the Sun of righteoufncfs now dewing nigh. 
We before ohfervcd, how the Kingi of the houfc of Davfd ceafei 
before the true King sad head of ?he church came ; and how the 
cloud of g^cry v^-iibdrcw, before ChriR, the brjghtnefa of the Fa- 
llens glory, apj^esred ; and fo as to fercral other things And 
DOW at {aft the fpirit of prophecy ccafcd. The tione cf the great 
prophet of God was now fo nigh, it was ttjnc for their topical pro* 
pheti to br. filent, and (huf theif eaouthi. 

Wf. hste now j^ooc through with the trmcthst we have any hl- 
floficv.) account ol in ihc wrstins^s of the OM TcftacBcnt, and the 
laft thJr g that wa£ mentioned, by which the work of redcaaptioa 
wa< prom ^ted, was the ce^fing ©f the fpirit of prophecy. 

I n ^w p or.ced to tk j v haw the work of redemption wa» carried 
en through the remaining tinnc that were before Chrii% : in whisll 
wc h^vc not that thread of fcripture hif^ry to guide uj thai we have 
bad hiihcrto ; but have tbcfe three things to guide lu, v z theprophe- 
cies of ihcOid TeAsonpnt, hunaan hiAorics of ihofe times, 5^nd fome 
ijccifional mention m^ide, and fome evidence given, of fome thingi 
which happcnd in thoft tiiorjei, in the New rcftan-ent. Thetefore, 
XIV. The next psrticular that I (h til msution uvrsdcr this periods 
is the deftru£tion of the Petf'an empire, and fiiting up of the G'e- 
cian erapnc by Altxanacr. This came to pafs about fixty or fe* 
TCniy years after the tttacs wherein the prophet Mialachi is fuppofed 
to have ppophtficd, and about three hundred and thirty years before 
Chrif^. This was the third overturning of the world that came t* 
jsafs in this period, aad was greater and more remark;«ble thaa 
either of >lie f jrc»oing. It was very remarkable ©n account of the 
fuddcnnefi of th»»t conquel't of the world which Alcicandtr mad©, 
ttrd the grcatnefs of the empire whioh he fet up, which much ex» 
fec'ed all rhe toregoing ia it« extent. 

This fvfnt is much fpokcn of in the prophecies of Dmiel. Thtt 
empire is repref«n»ed by the third kingdom of brafs iti Daniel't 
Jrtefprctation of Nchuchadnc/iar's dream, as in Dia. ii. ; and ffi 
Daniel's vifioo of the four hearts, is reprefented by the third heaft 
that was lika a leopird, that hadoB his b^ck four wingi of a fowl, 
tp fcprtfsnt the (wiftncfa^f its coaqucft, chap. vit. j and is more 


th« Work of R E D E M P T TON. , 121 

particularly reprcfentcd by the he goht in tht 8 h chapter, ihatcsmt 
from ihe weft on ihc face oi ibe *tholc catih, nd Jouchcd uot the 
ground, to rcprefcnt how fwifily Akxandcr over- ran the wojIJ. 
The ang*:l himfeif decs cx^icfjlj intc-prtt th•l^c-^;oal to O^jriiiy ha 
king of (Jecia, vcr. 21. The rough gost in ih' klvg of Grccia ; 
and :bc gcal horn that it between his eyes is the hn: king, i. c. 
Alexander tii'mfclf. 

After Alexa der had conquered the wo^Iff, he fcon died ; and 
fcti dominion did not dcfccnd to his poftcriiy, but four of hii 
principal csptairis diviir'^ his empire bctwcccj them, as it there fol- 
lo#rs. Now that being bioktn, whereas four iiood up for it, four 
king ioms (hall ftand up out of the nation, but not in hii power ; 
fo you may fee ii3 the iiihchip. of Daniel. The angel, after 
foretelling of the Perfian empire, then proceeds loforetel of Alex- 
ander, ver. 3. " And a mighty king ihall ftandup, that fhali rale 
with great dominion, and do according to his wiii." And tlen he 
foretcis, in the 4th verfe, of the dividing of hi? kngdom bcnveen 
his four captains : •* And when he (haM /land up. his kingdom 
AihSI be broken, and (h^ll be divided toxvard the four winds ol he^- 
Tcn ; and not to hii pwlterity. nor according to his dominion whicb 
he ruled : for his kir.gdcm (hsll be plucked up even for others bc- 
fiies thofe." Two of ihcfc four captain?, whufe kingdoms were 
next to Judea, the one had Egypt and the neighbouring countries 
on the fouth ot Judea, and the other had Syria and the neighbour- 
ing countries north of Judea ; aud thefc two arc thofc that are 
called the kings of the north and of the fcuth in the iithch*ipter of 

Now this fetting up of the Grecian empire did greatly prrotr* 
the way for thccjming^of Chrift and fetting up lis kii g on^ i' the 
world, B:fides ihefe ways common to t t o he ovc ujning^ of 
the world ih this perioi, that have bfr*n 4reaf1y mcntJoncd. there it 
cne peculiar to this rev j^ution which I would t ke notice v f. wh cfci 
did remarkably promote the w-w k of redemption ; and that wa«, 
that it made the Greek language common in the wor'r*. To have 
one common language underfiood and ufe'^ thTugh thr gteater 
part of the world, was a thinjr th^t did g-e^ilv pTp- e rhc way for 
the fetting up of Chrif^'s kingdom This g-ve 3nv:^r» c*" for fprcad- 
itig the gofpcl from one nation to anoth-r, and fr^ 'hrouph a'l na- 
tions, with vail'v g' eater cafe, than if every ni.t i^ h;?d a -^fnct 
language, and did not underft^nd each oiMcr, For »h u-:h foixe 
©f thefirft preachers of the gofpel hid the fifr of I rpu g<*s fo that 
thev couH preach in any Imguage ; yet all hjd not <his parficu**.? 
gift ; and they that had, could not rxcere 'fe ir **dien ihev would, 
but only at fpecial feafons, whrn the fpirit o^ G ^^ wpi p^ea'ed to 
inf^ire ibcoi la tj^is way. The chuisb^ ia ' diffcrcat parts of tho 
f world. 


world, M the churchc!» of jttuhhna, Antioch.Galaiia.Gorintfe, amd 
cihcri, which ^crc in countries dii^ant o.ic from anotherj ce^ild not 
have had that communic-iiioa one vrith another, whi«h wchavc ant 
*ccount cf in t.^.e hock of Mli» if they bad bad ne commoa lan- 
guage. So it v»ai before the Grecian empire Tvasfttt up. Bat af- 
ter this, miny in ^11 thofe countrici vreli undcri^ood the facne Ian- 
gu^^c, viz the Greek laRg^iagc ; which wonderfully opened ifec 
door for mJtual communication between thofe churches » fo far 
feparatcd QIC irooQ another. Again, tht making: the Greek Isa- 
gu.^gc coniaDOB through fo great a part of the world, did wonder- 
fully make .tay for the fet;ing upof ihe kirgdcm ef Cfarift,bec«ufe 
it was the language i» which the New Tcftament wai to be origi- 
HaUy writtca. Tne spoft'cj propngated tba gofpsl through many 
fcorc« of nanons ; and if rhfy could not have underftood the Eiblt 
any other wife than a* it was tranfl>tcd into fo many langyagcs, tt 
would h-^vc rendered thefpreading of the gofpel vaftly more difit- 
cult. But by the O cek language being made common to til, 
they al! undcrftoorf the N<?wT«ftamcnt of Jefus Chrif^ in their lan- 
guage in which the apofliesand CTangelifls originally wrote it : (m 
that as fox' as ever it was Written by its original penmea, it ian- 
mediately lay open so ihe world in a language that was commonly 
tinderrtood every where, as there was no language that was fo com- 
moaly unicr'^o^d in the world in Cbrift's and the apoftles times ai 
the Greek ; the caufe of wbick was the felting up of the Gre«iaft 
empire ia she world. 

XV. The next thing I fliall take notice of is, the traoflatioa of 
the fcripturei of itc Old Tcftamcnt iato a language that was com* 
»only underfVood. by the Gentiles. The tranflatien thst I htre 
fpe^-k of it that into the Greek language, that is commonly called 
the Scptuagint, or the trai.flatioa of the Seventy. This it fuppofci 
to have been m dc about titty or fwiy years after Alexander't con- 
quering rhe world. This is the firfl tranfiation that «7cr was made 
of the fcrip'jjres that we hive any credible account of. The canoB 
of the Old Tefk-iment had been compleaied by the prophet MiiacM 
but about an bunired and twenty years before in its •riginal ; and 
hitherto thefcriptureshad reraaiaed locked up from all ether nati- 
ons but the ]^v^$, in the Hebrew tongue, which was ondcrf^cod by 
no other nation. But now it was tranrtated into the Greek lan- 
guage, which, as we obferved be 'ore, was a language that wis 
commonly underAood by the nations of the world. 

This iranflation of the Old Teftament is flill extant, and U com- 
Bionly in tbe hands of learned men in thefe days, aad is made 
Ijreat ufe of by them. The Jews have many fables about the occa- 
fion and manner of tbii tranfiation ; but tbe truth of the eafe U 
Ivppofcd to be thit^ tbat mukitutloi •! tba Jcwi IiTing in oth« 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 123 

^srti of the world bcfi:i» Judea, and being born and bred among 
the Gre. k«, ihc Greek Dcc-oic ihcir Cumwoo language, anJ iDcy 
did wot under fiarid the original Hebrew ; and turrctOiC ifccy {>ro- 
wred thefcripturei to be (r«(.ncited /or their ufe into the G cck 
larjv,uage : and fo henceforward the Jew», in all countries, except 
Judca, were wont in ttieir f)nagcguci 10 auake ufe oi this tianna* 
tioa inftcai of the Hebrew. 

Thia traollition oi the fcrl{f>tures into a language commonly 
uodcrftood ihreagb the world, prepared the way for Chrlft'f com- 
ing, and fctting up his kingdom in the world, and afterwards olid 
greatly promote it. For as the apdi^Ies went pfc.-ching ihrougli 
the world, they made great ufe of the fcripturca oi the Old fefta- 
meat, and efpecialty of the prophecies conccraing Chtilt that were 
contained ia them. By oceans of this tranflation, and by the Jcwt 
being fcattered every where, they had the fcriptures at hand in « 
language that was undcrflood by theGentiles : and they did princi- 
pally make ufe of this tranllrUion in their preaching and writingi 
where-ever they went ; as is evident by this, that in a!l the innu- 
merable quotations that are made out of the Old Tcftoment is their 
writings in the New-Tellament, they arc yimoil evrry »»hete ia 
the very words of the Scpcuagint. The fenfe is the fame as it is ia 
the original Hebrew ; but very often the words arc diifcrent, as all 
ikat are acqudiinted with their Bibles know. V/hcn the apof^lct in 
their epiftles, and the evatgelifls in their hiftorics, cite paif^gst 
out of the Old Tei^amcnt, it is very often in difFcieid word* from 
what we have in the Old Teftament, ai all icnow. But yet jt tfc 
•Stations arc almoft univcrfally in the very word* of rht S^ptuagia* 
▼cffion ; for thit may be fecn by g ihcm together, tncy 
b:ing both written in the fane language, r&is makws it evideat, 
that the apoftles, in their preaching and writings, commonly m^dt 
ofc of this traii3itiun, i»o this very tiar<i.^tion was that which vt aS 
pfiiicipBlly ufed in Cbrifti-in chufchc* through moft naiions of tht 
world for feveral hundred years after ChriA. 

XVi The next thing is the wonderful prefervationof the church 
ivhcn it was imminently tbrcatcned and p^rlwcu^ed under tac Gre- 
cian empire. 

The tiffl time they were ihrcitencd w^s by Alcxan !cr Hmftlf. 
When he was btfuging the c ty oi lyre, icnJmg to t^e J. ws for 
«fl&i\ancc and fuppiie« for his army, and chcy f»; uhng.oui oi -j ton- 
fcicntious reg-irj to their OAib 10 the iting ot PcJii, he txm^ a 
min of a very lurious tpirir, agreeable to ttc Icr jpiuie repreftnra- 
lion of the rough he got!, maicbcd jigainft tncm, with iOzf^gn ta 
cut them uflf. But the prierts going out to aicai tim i\i their pne^l* 
Ij garments whei he met taem, Gad wonacrfuUy turned h.i hear 
to fparc them, ni favoof iAwJAj m^ctk as he (lid ih« heart of Efaf 

13:4 A ^ I S T O R Y of 

A'^ier this, one of the kings of Egypt, a fuccefifcr cf oneA!cxan» 
dct'si four captains ent«:ri.^ined a ddign of rtcfttoying ihc nation 
of the Jews ; but was remark.tbly and wonderfully prevented by 4 
ftrongcr iatcrpolition of Hf^avcn for their prcfcrvation. 

But the moft wondesfai p.efcrvarion of ihcaa all in this period 
wai under the crud pcrfccuuon of Adiiochus Epiphsncs, king of 
Syria, and fuccelTor of another of A'ciander's four cs-ptains. The 
Jews were at that time fiitjeif^ to the power of Aatiochus ; and he 
being enraged agiinft them, lorg ftrovc to hi* utmofl utterly to 
dcfiroy th-on, and root them out ; at l;aft all of ihcm that would 
not for2<ikc jheir religion, and i*'orlbip &h iioU : and h« did in- 
deed in a grsat mastfure waiU tht country, and depopulate the ci* 
ty of Jcrafakm ; and profaned the temple, by fetiing up his idol* 
in foaae parts of it ; and perfccjtcd the people with irjfaiiab'e cru- 
elty ; fo that we have no account of any perfec»;sIon like his before* 
Many of theparticuhr circumftancea of ibi« p<jrfcc»tion would be 
very kffcdting^, if I had time rv>*m(i:t on them. This cruel pcrfccu- 
tion began about an hundreci and feventy years before CfciiH It i» 
much fpoken of in tii« prophecy of Daniel, as you m^y fee, Dan. 
viii. 9 — 25. ; xl^ 51.-— 38. Tnefe perfccations are ai fo fpoken 
of in ihcNsW'T^ltaxenr, as, Hcb" xi. 36. 37. 38. 

Anriochus intended net only to txtirpais ih« Jcwift* religion, 
but, ai far as in hioj lay, the very nation ; and particularly bbor- 
ed to ihcutaai^ to dtftroy ail copies cf the law. And corifidering 
how weak they were, in compsri-fon with a kinjof fuch vaft do- 
minion, the prcvidencs of God appears very wonderful in defeat; 
ing his defign. Many times the Jews fetmed to be on the very 
bunk of ruin, and juft ricady to be wholly fwallowcd up : ikeir c- 
ncmics often thought theoaftlvcs furc of obtaining their purpofe. 
They once came againft the people wiih a mighty army, and witk 
a dzfign of killing all, except the women and children, and of fel- 
ling thcfe for Haves ; and tb«y were fo confident of ©btaining their 
purpofe, and others of fiurchafidfg, that above a thoufand iiercharils 
came with the army, with money in their hands, lobuy the flaves 
that fnould be fold. But God wonderfully {lirr«d up and afliftf d 
C'C judas, and oihcrs bis fucceffois, thai were called the Macca- 
bees, who, with a foiaU handful in comparifon, vanquifhed their 
enemies time after tiKic, and delivered their nation ; which wsi 
foretold by D^nid, xi. 32 Speaking of Antiochus's pcrfeculioa, 
fee f^ys, *' And fuch as do wickedly againft the covenant, (Lall he 
corrupt by flatteries : but the people that do know their God, Ihall 
be Arong, and do exploits." 

God afterwards brought this Antiochui to a feaiful, mifcrabic 
end, by a loathfome difcsfe, under dreadful torments of body, and 
horrors of mind ; which was foetold, Dan. xi. 45. in thef? wo»ds, 
* Yd be ihiil come to bis ead^ aad Qoac iball help him*'^ Aitet 

t^e Work of REDEMPTION. 125 

After his death, there were attempti ftill to deflroy the church 
of God ; but God baiHed ihcm all. 

XVU. Ihc next thing 10 be taken notice of is the def^.ru^ioii 
of the Grecian empire, and fctting up of the Roman empire. Thit 
was the fourth ovcriurning of the world that was in this period. 
A::d though it wait brought to pafs more gradually than the fetting; 
up of the Grecian cmpiic, ytt it far exceeded that, and was much 
tbc grcstcft and largeit temporal monarchy that erery was in the 
world ; fo that the Roman empire was commonly called all thg 
Mtorli ; as it is in Luke ii. I. " And there went out a decree from 
Qxidt Auguftuj, that all the world Ihculd be tared ;" i. c. all the 
Roman empire. 

This empire is fpoken of as much the ftrongeft and greatcft of 
any of the four : Dan. ii. 40. ** And the fourth kingdom Ihall 
b: tirong as iron : forafmuch as 'ron breakcth in pieces, and 
fubdueih all things : and as iron that breaketh all thefc, (hall is 
break in pieces, and bruife." So alfo Daniel vii 7. 19. 23. 

The time that the Reman: firfl conquered and brought under tKc 
land of Judca, was between fixty and fever ty years before Chrifl 
was born. Soon after thik, the Roman empire was cftabii(hed in 
in greatci^ extent ; and the world continued fubjedt to this empire 
henceforward %i\\ Chriil came, and m<iny hundred years afterwardi* 

The nations of the world being united in one monarchy when 
Cbrift came, and when th'e apofties went forth to preach the gofpel, 
did greatly prepare the way for the fprcading of the gofpcl, and 
the fetiing up of Chrift's kiagdooa in th« world. For the world 
being thuf fubjcit to one government, it opened a communication 
from nation to nation, and fo opportunity was given for the more 
f wifely propagating the gofpci througa the world. Thus we find it 
to be now ; as if any thing prevails ia the Englifh nation, th« 
communication is quick from one p^rt of the nation to an6thef» 
throughout all part* that are fubjcd to the Englilh government, 
much caficr and quicker than to other nations, which are not 
fubjcd to the Engiiiii government, and have little to do with them* 
There are innumerable difficuhici in travelling through different 
nations, that arc under difecat independent governments, which 
iLcrc arc not in travelling Jhrough different parts of the fame realm, 
or different dominions of the fame prince. So^'^e world being 
under one government, the government of the Romans, in Chrlft's 
and the apofties times, ficiiiiatcd the apofties travelling, and the 
gefpcl'* fprcading through the world, 

X\rui. Ab)iit the fame time learning and philofpphy were 
rifcn to their greateft height in in the Heathen would. The time 
of Icaraing'ft fiourifhing in the Heathen world was principally in 
this period* Almofiali the f amoui philofophcra th&t we have an 



account of among the Hcat'otn, were after ihe captirlry Into Ba* 
fcylon. AJmoft iil the wife men of Greece and Komc fl:>anfh- 

ca io this lione. Thcfe pbilofopbcrs, many of ihem, wcc inficcd- 
Biea of great temporal wifdom ; and thai which they in genersii 
chiefly profefTci 10 make their bulincfs, wai to inqui;e virljeiein 
mati's chief happt:i«fj lay, and the way in which men mi^ht obtaia 
bappincfs, l"c:ai:d carrjc ily to bufy thcnfelvc* in lhi» in- 
quiry, 2Dd wrote rrultijudt* of booki about it, many of which are 
ftill Citanl. And they were exceedingly divideJ in their opinion* 
about it. There have been reckoned up fcvcral hundrtd* of differ' 
en t opinions that they had cjaceratng it, Thui they we-tricd 
thcmr<:Iv« ia ?aio, wiadercd i.i the dirk, not having the gtoriou* 
gofpelto guide them. God was ple^fed to fuffer men to do ihft 
mmoft that they cowld wiih human wifdom, snd to try the extent 
of their own uaderftandings to find out the way to h^ppincft, be- 
fore the truelighi caeoe to calightcn the world ; bcfoso he f^nt the 
great Prophet to isid men in the right way to happincfs. Oo4 
fuffcrcd thcfc great phiiofophers to try what they could do for fix 
hundred years logniher ; and then it prcvsd, by the events of io 
loug a time, ihii all they cou'd da ivaa ia vain ; the world cot be- 
coming wifer, better, or happier under their inftrufiionii but grow- 
ing ojore and more foolifb, wicked, and milcrabie. He fufferei 
their wifdom and philofophy to come to the gftateli height before 
Cbrift came, that it m'lghi be fcsn bow far rfcafoa and philofophy 
could go in their higaerc afccnt,ifeat the necefliiy of a divine teacher 
might appear befor* Chrift came, And God was pleafcd to 
enakc fcolifti ihe wifdom of this woiId,to (hew men the folly of their 
beft wifdom, by the dof^trincs of his glorious gofpel which weff 
above the reach ©^ all their philofophy. Sec i Cor. i. 19 to. zi; 
After God hadHicwcd the vanity of learning, when fet 
up in the room of the gofpcl, God was pleafsd to make it fubfcr^ 
vient to the purpofei of Chrifl's kingdom, as an handmaid to di- 
vine revelation ; and fo the prevailing of learning in the world ba- 
forc Chrift came, made way for his coming boththefc w*y», viz, 
911 thereby the vaniry of hu«an wifdom wa> (bawn, and the necef- 
fty of the gofpcl appeared ; a«d alfo as hereby an h«ndm«id wai 
prepared to the gofpel : for fo it was made ufe of io the Apoftit 
P uJ, wko wa* limed for his much learning, as you may fee Ada 
xxvi. 24. and wis fkillsd not only in the learning of the Jews, but 
fclfo of the philofophcrs ; and improved it to the purpofes o'. the 
gofpcl ; ss you may fee b« dii in difputing with ihcphilofopbers at 
Athens, A£is xvii. 21. kc. He by his learning knew how to a«- 
comasodate himfe'if ii his difcourfes to learned »icn, as appears by 
this difcourfa of his ; and he knew well how to improve what h« 
kii rcidia ibeir WiidaiS ; aaiu t.rc cuu ihw own poets. Now 

^t Work cf R S D E M P T I O If . I*f 

fisJonyfiuii, that wai a phHofopher, w«g convtrtcd by him, and af 
ecckliafifc^l fciv^ory give* u» an Recount, made a gtcai indrument 
»f pr .moting thi: go'pcl. And ibcrt wcf< many othcri in ihat anJ 
lh« JoUjwing a^ic^, viho wcrt eminently ufcful by ihcir butDail 
Udrain^ in prooiuting ^^c iniercfts of Chiift's kingdom. 

XIX Juil before Cti:u\ wai born, the Roman empire wai raif. 
«d <oii» grciicrt ncight, and alfo fculcd m peace. About four 
and twcn y ycat» bd'oicChiift was born, Au£uf*.ui Casiaf, lK« tirtl 
Jioorian coa^cror, bcgsn to rule aft cmpcicr of the world. Till then 
the R Qiiji exrpiic h%\ cf a lorg time been a commonwealth cndcr 
tfci govcp wen of the fcnale : but then it an abfoiutc mo- 
oarchy. Thi» Ai-g^^ftu C^far, ai he wssihcfiift, fo he wai the 
greatcft ©f all the Roman emperors : be reigned in the greateft 
glory. Thui the. power of the Heathen world, which was Sa- 
tan's vifib'e kingdom, was raifcd to its prciUft height, after it 
had been iifing higher an<i higher, and ftrengihenbg itfcif more 
aid m»rc from the days of Solomon to this day, which was abcut 
Mth ufandy<ari. Now it appeared at a greater height ihan ever 
«l appeared frcm the firrt beginning of Sjtaa'iHeathtn.ih lingdonn, 
which was prob.bly about the time of the building of B.bcl. Ns-^w 
the H*athei world was in its grtattft gtory lor ftrcngih, wealth, 
lad Icarniag. 

God did two things to prepare the way for Chrift's crming, 
whertb he took a contrary method from ih^l which hiiman wifioaa 
w»ttld have taken. He brought hii own vifible f eoplc very lew, 
and made them weak ; but the Heathen, that were his enemiei, he 
•xslted to the greatest height, for the more gloriobs tiiumph of the 
•rofs of Chrii'^. Wjth a fmall number in their greateft weakn< fs. 
ke conquered bis enemies in their greateft glory. Thus Chrift tri- 
•mphed over principilitics and powers in his crofs. 

AuguftosCacfir had been for many years eftiblifliing the ftale 
•f the Roman empire, fubduing bis ctiemici in one part and ano- 
ther, till the very ycjr that Chrifl was born ; when all his enemiei 
Veing fubducd, and hts dominion over the world feemed to be fet-, 
tied in its greateft gJ«ry, All was eftablifhed in peace ; in lokea 
whertof ihe Romans (hat the temple of Janus, which was an cAab- 
lifli-d fymbol amoogthcm of there being aalverfal peace through- 
out the Romw empire. This univcrfal peace, which was bcgua 
that year that Cbfift was born, l.fled twelve years, till the ycai 
that Chrifl difputid with dolors ia the temple. 

Thus the world, afi«r it had been, as it were, in a ootjtinual Con* 
Tulfion for fo many hundred years together, like the four windf 
#rivin|; together on the tumultuous raging ocean, whence arofc 
Ikufe four great monarchies, being now eltabiifhcd in the greatefl 
height «ftkcieurtbaA4 lad Qoniichy, and fettled ia quictnefi ; 

128 A H I 8 T O R T of 

BOW all thingi »re ready for the birih of Chri#. Thii remarkable 
unlverfat pcacc^afccr fo many agc» of tumult and war, waj a fit i rc- 
lude for the ulhcring of the gloriouspA-incc of peace into the world. 
Thus I have gone through the firft grand period of the whole 
fpacc betA'cen the fall of man and the end of the world, vi z that 
from 'he fall to the time of the incarnation of Chrift ; and hare 
ihow^ the truth of the firft propofiiion, viz That /row the fall 0/ 
man to the incarnation cfChriJi, God was doing thofe things thai 
were preparatory to Chrift'i ceming, and were forerunners of It. 


BEFORE I proceed to the next propofuion, I would make 
fome few remarks, by way of improvement, upon what 
bas been faid under this. 

I. From what has been faid, we may firongly argue,thaijcfu« of 
Nazareth is indeed the Son ofGod, andtbtSiviour of the woiH ; and 
fo that thcChriftian religion, is the true religion,fceing that Ch. iA i| 
the very pcrfon fo evidently pointed st,m aU the great difpecfatioa* 
of divine providence from the very iall of man, and was fo undoubt- 
edly in fo many inAances foretold from age to age, and fhadowcci 
forth ia a vaft variety of types and figures. If we fcriouuy con- 
fider ihc courfe of things from the beginning, and obferve the mo- 
tions of all the great wheels of providence from one age to another, 
we fhall defcern that they all tend hiihcr. They arc all as fo many 
lines, whofe courfe, if it be obfcrved and accurately followed, it 
will be found that every one centers here. It is f© very plain i« 
many things, that it would argue Aupldity to deny it. This there- 
fore is undc»iab!e,thai this perfon h a divine perfon fcnt ffOis.God, 
that came into the world with his commiflion and authority, to do 
Jiis work, and to declare bis mind. The great Governor of the 
world, in all his great works before and fincc the flood, to Jews and 
Gentiles, down to the time of Chrif^'s birth, has declared it. It 
cannot be any vain imagination, but a plain and evident truth, 
that that pcrfon that was bornin Bethlcheai, and dwelt at Nsrireth,- 
end at Capernaum, and was crucified without the gales of Jerufa* 
lem, mufl be the great Meifiah, or anointed of God. And bUfl*- 
ed are all they that believe in and confefs him, and miferable ar« 
all that they deny him. This (hows the unrcafonablcnefs of the 
Delfts, irfeo deny revealed religion, and of the Jews, who deny that 
this Jefus is the Mefliah foretold and promifcd to thtir fathers. 

Here it may be fome perfons may be ready to obje('i, and fay. 
That it may be, fome fubtle, cunning men contrived this hiftory, 
and thefe prophecies, fo that they flaould all point to Jefus Chrift 
on purpofc t© confirm it, that he is the Mefliah. To fueh it may 
be replied. How could fuch a tbiag be c^^airiTed by euoning men, 


Ihe Work of REDEMPTION. i^^ 

to point 10 Jefui Chrift, long before he ever vrai born ? How 
could mcy krjovr that ever any fuch pcrfon would bt barn ? Acd 
kow cculd their craft and fubtiliy help them to forcfce and pjiat 
at an cvcai that vra to come to pzU many agc» aftervraidi ? /or no 
faCl can be more evident, thsn that the Jews hsd thofe vMiiingi 
lonj before Chrii: was born ; as they have ihcai ftili in great vei e- 
ration, whercr-cver they arc, in all their d if pci lions ihrouith the 
World ; and they would acver have tcctived fuch a coitrivanct 
iVooa Chriftiani, to point io aiid contirm Jcfui to be the M-ifiJih, 
whom they alvvsys denied to be the Mclfuh ; and much lcf» would 
fhey have been lEadc to believe thit ihay alwayihad hail thof:loolLJ 
fo their hands, when they were firft ftiadc and impofcd upon 4h<m» 

II. What has been faid, :^fF'jrd» a ftronj iTgument for the di- 
vine authority of the books of the Old Tefiamentj frooi that id- 
»'irabl« a^roiony there ii in them, wncrcby tKey ail point to ihs 
fame thing. For we m^y fee by what has been faid, how all thtg 
parts of the Old T«i1ament, though written by fo many diffsient 
penmen, and in ages dif^ant one from another, do ail haronor.izC 
oae with another; all agree i» one, and all Centre in the fame thing* 
and that a future thing ; an event which it wai impoflible any one of 
thsOT Ihould know but by divioc revclauon, event the future ccmi g 
of Chrift. This is haoi^ vvideat and ORisifcfl in thcta, as appears 
hy what has been laid. 

Now, if the Old Telhcnent was not mfpired by God, whal 
account can be given of fueh an agrtemeBi ? ior if thefc bookl 
were only human writings, writtea without any divine diredlort, 
then uone of thcfe penmen knew thst there would come fuch % per* 
foD as Jefus Chrif\ into tbe world ; his coming Was only t mers 
$gmeat of their own brain ; and if fo, how happened it, that tbii 
^gmcnt of theirs came to pafs > H jw catoc a vain imagination of 
theirs, wMch they foretoW without any manner of ground of their 
prcdidto.v, to beeza£)ly fulfilled ^ and efpecially how did they 
some all to agree in it, all pointing cxifAly to thef^me ihiof^tho' 
Inany of them lived fomany hundred years diftlnt one from ancttei^ 

This admirable confent and agreement in a future event, is there- 
fore a clear and sertaia evidence of the divine authcrity of ib«f« 

ill. Hence we may learn wkat a weak and ignorant objs^foa 
it li that feme make again/t fomc parti of the Old Tcftament'i be^ 
iDgthc word of God, that they confif\ fo much of hifloriei of the 
Iran and civil tranfadions of the kings and people of the natioa 
of the Jews. Same fay, We find here among tbe books of a par- 
ticular naticn,hirrories which they kept of the ftaie of their nailoa 
from one age to aaoiber; hiftoriea oi their king& and rular»,w;A«rIei 
fi Uteir wart with the neighi^ouriog naiiooii Acd kufiorics of ikg 

(4 f^ujiei 

il9 A H I S T O R Y •! 

ch^nfff' tS»t hippcned from time to time in their ftue and gov«rii« 
inert ; and fo Wf fi d th*t oiber nations ufcd to keep h'tUoriw of 
of ihcir public aflf«iri, as well as they ; and why then rtiould wt 
think that ihrfc hiOoriet which ihrjtvri kept are the word of God« 
lBor6 than thofe of other people } But what has been faid, (hows ihtt 
folly and viniry of fuchan o j e^io-». Far hcrtby it appciri, thai 
thccafs of (he hi^^orics is very different ffoai that pf all other hif- 
tories Thii hiftory alone g'vsi us an account of th« firft original 
ofallthirg^ ; and this hif^ory alone dcdtccs things down in « 
won-lerful fcriei from that original, givirg an idea cf the grand 
fcheme o^ divine providenee, as tcnditig to itsgre;^^! end. And to- 
gether wi h the dod^rines and prophicei contained in it, the 
fame book gives a view oi the whole feriei of the great events of di- 
vine p ovid<:ncc, frorti the firft original to the lafl end and conftim- 
st'i 1 of nil things, g'ving an excellent and gloriour account of thd 
tififc and holy dcfigns o^ ivhc governor of the world in all. 

N ) coiT>min hillo y has fuc i ptiimen as this hiftory, which wtl 
all wriiren b\ men whi came with evident figns and ttfliaconicf 
of t^cir bfinj» p ophcts of the moi\ high G>d inamedistely infpired. 
T,-)i. hiOorics that were wriitcn, at wc have fcen from, what hat 
b-ert f«id tinrfcr this propofiiion,do all eont^tin thofe great events of 
p (>wir»cnc^, by which it >ppeai8 how God has been c.rryiag on tht 
gicr'ojt d viie w ;rk of rcdcnnptioa from age to age. Fhi ugh tkey 
are hiftoricf, yet they aie no left full of divine mfliuclion^ and 
thofe thi'Ng^ that fliow forth Chril^, and hii glorious gofpel^ this 
Other put* of ihc holy fen p;ures which *r€ not biflorical. 

T) J'>je 1 ig^in^ a bj k's being divine, merely bccxufe it i§ 
hiftoficjl, is 1 poor ol jftion ; jufl as if that could not be ihc word 
of G > 1 w'lic^ ^ivcj an <ccjuni o^ what is p^(k ; or a« though it wert 
not rcifon^blc to fi ppofe, thai God, In a revelation he (hould givt 
ai'ilciil. wjili g!/e u« any reUtioi of tke difpenfationi of bit 
o«vn provider ce. If it be f.-», it muft be becaufc hi» works arc nog 
uronhy to be related ; it itiuf^ be becaufc the fcbemc of his ^ovcrq. 
mcnt, and f«rie« of his difpcnfations towards his church, and to- 
ur <rdj nc w)rld that be ha« mide, wheieby he has ordered anddif- 
pofd it from age to age, is not worthy that any record (hould be 
Jccpt of it. 

The of i;''>ion th^t is mide, Tnat it is a common thing fof nati- 
on« and kin^^dnms to write hino' ies and keep records of their wari| 
ynd the revjiution* tha' come to pafi in their territories, is fofar 
f on heir (^ a weighty ot:j <^ioo againfl ibe hiftorit<<l part of fcrip- 
lure. »» though It v^e e not the word of God, that it is a fliong 
a'g'iment in favour of it. For if re^fon and the light of nature 
teach^i all civil'zed nations to keep records of the eveali of tbeif 
kuoaa govcian«at| aad the luici of ihtii adaiaiArationi » and t* 


Ihe Work of R E D E M P T I O M. ijj 

pubUfb hiAorie* for the information of otheri ; how much eoort mry 
wc cxpcft that Gjd would give iqc world a rtcjrd of ihc difpcnf i- 
tioas o( hi* divine govcrnoient, which d<^ubtlefs it inHniicly ido 9 
worthy of an hiftory for out iDfonnotioo ? if wife kingi have u- 
ken care ihst there fhuuld be good hiftoriei written of the nation! 
over which they have reigned, fh.U we think it incredible, ihit 
Jcfus Cbrifl OiJuld tike care that his chu'^ch, which i* his naiion, 
bi» pt^culiar people, (hould have in ibeir hands a certain infallible 
liiftory o( their nation, and of his government of theoi ? 

It ii hid not been for the hif^ory of the Oid Tcfumcnt, ho^f 
wofully ffaould we have been left in the d^k about iii.sny tbtrgt 
which the chui^ch of Qjd ijeed* to know ! How ignoram (hou'd w^ 
kave been o^ God's dealings towards oiaiikind, and tcwardi big 
church, fro® the beginning I and we would have been whol!y m 
the dark about the creation of the world, the fall of m^n, the fiift 
fife and continued progfcfs of the difpenfations o> gr;iice towirdi 
fallen mankind ! and we fhould have known nothing bow Gud at 
a it fct up a chuich in the world, and'how it was prcfcrved ; after 
what tnanner be governtd it from the beginning ; bow the light of 
the gofpel firft began to dawn in the woild ; how it incfcifcd, aa4 
bow things were preparing for the coming of ChtKk, 

If we are ChriAians, wc belong to that building of God that hat 
been tbe fubjsdl of our difcourfe from this text : but if it had not 
beea for the kiftory of the Old Tcftament, we (hould never have 
known what was the fiifl occafion of God's going about this build- 
ing, and how tbe foundation of it was laid at fii ft, and how it ha« 
gone on from the beginning. The times of the bifiory of ihc Old 
Tedament are moflly times that no other hiflory reaches up 10 j and 
therefore, if God ha^ not takca care to give and prefervc an ac» 
eount of thefe things for uf ,we lhc»u!d have been who I y without thcin 

Thofc that objed againft tbe authority of the Qld Tcftiocni 
bitory of the nation ot the Jews, nssy as well make i( an objc(f^ioa 
againt Mofes's account of the creation that it is hiftotic4! ; for, 
in the other, wc have anhiftory of a wo;k : o. lefs impotiarit v z, 
the work of redemption. Yea, this is a far greater and moc go 
f ious work, as wc obferved before ; that if it be inq/iied which of 
the two works, the work of creation, or the work of provi !cnct, 
is greattft ? it muft be anfwered, the work of providence ; but the 
work of redemption is the greate(\ of 4k woiki of povidencc. 

Let thofe who make this cbj-.aion cnnfider what part of ih' O'i 
TeAameni hiilory can be fpared, without making a grea't breach in 
that thread or ferlcs of events by which this glorijus work has bc€i| 
carried on.— -This leads me to obferve, 

IV. That, from what has been faid, we may fee much of ih« 
V^UdoA of Godia ibc covpofitioa of tbe fcri()turci pfihiOld Tcf^^. 


lit A H I S T O R Y of 

movjt, !. e. in the parts of which It confilb. By nhat it ha* beef 
Itjd, wc miy fee ihatGod hath wifely givrti U5 fuch revelation* in 
the O'.d Tcftrtment as we ncrdcd. Ltt r.s briefly lake a view cf 
$be fcvcfiij parts of it, aad of the need there was of thcoa. 

Tbuf it waa neci-lpry ibat wc (l^ou^J hav** {c>ti*.z account of ibe 
^rcacioQ ci the wo? Id, ard o* the cJegcncrary oif it» and cf the 
iiniverfr*! d«j5uge, »nd fomc account of s'-e oiigla of nations after 
this dKfi:v;u:lioti of m^akifc^. 

It fcftorjs ncceffayy that there ihoxxld bp fome accc5«nl of the AiC' 
ficffioo Qf i|iC church of Gad frcai the bzglunmg : and feeing God 
fuffcrci all the vrorsi to vjIegCRs/src, and cr;!y toe* or.c nation t«* 
be his people, to prcfervs the true woffbip sr.d rcf/gi?^ »iU tbe 
Saviour cf (he •rorld J'hould coroc, thai «n ihcjr< th« vrofid might}' be prepared fpr that gieat Sigh?, ajid ttofe woncJerfal. 
iniigi that he wa» to be the sythor of, i^ th»t they ir'ght be * 
fcypicai nation, and th-i^ m !hc«r.God mighc ('lacSovv foifih and teach, 
as undtr a vtt), all future ,g'oyjf>ui ih^r-gs of tl^c gofpel ; it wsf 
therefore r,«cefTary ths? v^e fno^lal hav* fcire scc^iunt of this thing* 
liovv it wasfirf^ dont b}f the EsMlng of Abr&haa», atici by their beirjj. 
bond-Haves in Eg.ypt, arid' ho ^ tocy Wiire brcught to C»naan. It 
wa? ncccfTs'y '^^t we ^loull have fanise rcc.ou:it cf the feveiallo* 
^'hich God tiisd«: of h:f»felf to tasi p?op'e, in giving their law, and 
in the appo'-n^^a^nt of their rypicst w^crOipj s?;d thofc thirgt 
wherein the gofpcl is V3,ikd, and of the forming of thut people^, 
both as. ^Q their cW'l ai*^:? eeG!cicafuca1 f^a»e. 

It f«cms exceeding ncccfTary tkat v/e iboj!d have forae accoup!^ 
of their bsifig a!!^ua!ly brovghr to Canaaiif the rountr^ that wag 
ftheir promifei isnd, and wh<;*c they anv^-ya dwdt. U (ct.m% very 
nec^lTspy that we ib&uid h;.vc an htf^ory of the fucettnons of the 
churcli of ifTae^., and of thofe providences o? God to«vards ihero., 
%hicK were moli confj jcrablc and f ulleft of go fpel myAcfy. It fecms. 
Btccffary that ^rc faouJd have feme account of the hfghefi ptomifcd 
external g'Ory of thaJ natitm tender David and Solcnncn, and that 
we (fejuli have a very partictilar account of David, ^fhofe hifiory 
h fo full of the gofpfil, and fo nccefTary in order to i!it!oducc tht 
Jcfpti into the world, and in whom began the race of their king* l 
and ibiit v/e (bou!d have fome account of the building of th« tsnipU, 
which wsB alfo fo full of gofpcl-myftcry. 

It is a matitrr of great eookquence, that vrc fbouli have feme 
account of Ifraci's dividing from Jud?,h, and of the ten tribes cap- 
tivity and utter rejedion, and a brief account why, and therefore 
a brief hif*orv of them till that tiaoe. I: i» nccefTit v that wc (liould 
bavc an. account, of the fucceffiott of the kings of J ida, ?nd of the 
church, till their captivity into Babylon ; sad that wc fhould have 
icvae account of their return from their csptivitv, and rcfcttlcment 
IB thair own hnd, and of the origin of lbs laf: ftjitc that the thurc^^ 
gp|.i U Ixf^re Qhiift 6»mc»^ A. 

Ae Work of K E O E M P T I O M. 135 

• A IhiU confi.'«rav.on will conviof? fvery onr, tl^st sll thcfe 
things were ncr.riTivy, and that none of them '-ou*d be fpartd ; apd 
in the genera!, thxt it ws« necefliry that mc fJiouM have an hifiotf 
otG.>d'8 church tiil fuch titnr j i»» »rc wirhin the re ach of htman 
hirtor'Cf ; and it was of vail iirporlsncc that wc jO^ould hivc st] 
ini'pircd hif^ory of thofc times oi the jcwifb cf^urch, wherein there 
Vf:i.i kept up a mart ertraordinjtry intctcourft between God and 
:hcafi, and while he ufcd to c\wc}\ aracnp: them ss it were visibly, 
revealing himfclf by the Shcchina, by Ufim ar.d Thuorstnim, and 
by prophecy, and (o tnorc imtctdiatcly to oidcr their h.ff?Ar9, And 
it was ncceilary tha: wc l];ou!d have fouie account of the prcal dif" 
pcafations of God ia prophecy, which were to be sfter the ficifbing 
of infp'red hif»ory ; sjifS fo it was exceeding fuiubJe snd needful 
thai there ft^ould be a r.umbcr of prophets rai;c'i who fl^ould forcicl 
ibt coming of the Son of God, and the aature and glory of hit 
kingdom, to be as fo many harbingers to make way for him, and 
that their prophccits fhouid remain in the church. 

It vr29 zHo a matter of great corJcqasnce th?.t the church fViouId 
havt a book of divine fongs fitca by irsfpiriuon frouiGo4l,\rhercia 
there iho'jld be s lively r?:pr«reiuauon of the true I'ptrit of devoti- 
on, of faith, hope, sad divine iove, joy, rtfig nation, humiiity, 
cbcdisnce, rcperxtance, fcc, and alfo tost we fh«uld have frooaGocI, 
fjch books oi moral ioftrutUoas as we have in Proverb* 3rd EccU', 
fiiOcB, relating to the sfFiirs asd ftslc of tR2jiiind, and llic coti- 
ccrns cf human life, containing rules of true v/ifdom and pru- 
dence for our conduA in all circumftanccs ; and thst wc fhouid 
have particuhrly a foDg rtprefeniirg the grcii love between Chi ill 
ani his fpoufe the chur*h,particubrly adspjcd to the iljfpcfidon and 
holy iff:tlions of a true Chriftian foul towards Cbrift, and rcpr«- 
feniing his grace and marvellous to, and delight in, his peo« 
pic ; ai we have in Soloooou's Soi?g ; and efpcciaUy that wc fhouid 
have 2 book; to tcscb us how to conduft ourfclves under ^ftii(f^ion, 
feeirg tfec church ofGodherc is in a niil!t5nr natc, snd Gad's peo- 
ple doth^.-^ugh much !;ibuhiioi«ntcr into the kingdom of heaven ; 
and the churai >$ for fo long a time uader trcubic, and ractts with 
fuch cxcscding f:ry trials, and extreme futrcring", before her tioi* 
cf peace and rci't in the laltci yges of the world I'hail ccmc ; there- 
fore G0..I has giv<in us a book mcPs proper in xhs^c circumfiances, 
«ven the book o£ Job, writlen ipon or.ciiion of the ?itIi(^iorj» of a 
partlr-vvr faint, and was probably at (irtl given to the church fti. 
Egypt under her afRidtfoni ihcfc ; ynd is madeufc of by the Apof- 
lie to comfort Chj I:r:>.4a under pcrfccutioi-n, Jimci v. 11, *• Ve 
l^ave heard of the patieriCS of Job, zrA have fccn the end of ths 
Lord ; that the Lord is very pitiful, and of rt^dcr mercy." GofJ 
w;j8 alio pleafed, in this bo;>k cf Job, to give fomc view of the an* 
«icot divinity before the giving of the Uwa Xbttfa 

if|4 A H I S T O R Y of 

Tbu^, front tlili brief review, I think it sppcarj, that everv pat* 
•f tht fcrtptMrcf of the Old Ttft^tmcnt is rery ufcful urA jxcccffdry. 
Mid no f4Tt of it cm be fparcd, without lots to the church. A d 
therefore, ii I faid, the wifdom of Goii U conrpicuous in ordcrirg 
that the fcripmrca of ibe Old TclUaical Ijaould coDfiit of ibofc vc.y 
books of which they do confill. 

Before I difmifs fihh particular, I would adi. that it ii very cb* 
fcrvcabic, that the hiftory of the Old Ttftamcni it large and p»r» 
ticufar where the gre-« ^ffnir of rcdtsnpsicn rtquircJ it ; ai v»herc 
there ^« moft done towardi tliit work, and moft to typify Cr-iift, 
and to prepare the way for him, TiiUi it ih very Utgc ar»d pa»tl« 
fular in th* hiftory of Abraham and the oikcr pstriaichs ; but ve- 
ry ihort iQ the ascouat we have of the tiase which the ehildren of 
Ifracl fpent in Egypt. So again it i% lasgc in the sec unt of tha 
f cdempiJon out of Kgypt, and thefirfl fctJing of the iff^iri of ihc 
J^wiih church ani nation in Mofcs and J.fhua'i time ; but much 
fls^rter in the aecount of the times of the judges. S j ag^in, it i| 
large and pariicuhr in the account of David's and Solcmon's tionei^ 
tod then very fborl in the hiAory of ibc cnfuir.g reigns. Thus tb« 
accounts are Urge or (horl, jaft as ther^ is more or lefs of the af- 
fair of redemption to be Ucn in them. 

V. From wttai hai bsea faid, we artiy feCj that Chrlfi and hit 
redemption arc the great fubj .d of the whole Bible. Conctrning 
the N.w.Tcfiamen!, the maitei is plain ; and by what hJia beea 
faid on this futj;!6t hitherto, it appears tp be fj aifo with refped to 
the Old Tcftamcnt, Chrift and his rcdtmpdon is theg.eai futjc<^ 
<)f the p ophccics of the Old T»ftament, as has been ifeown. It haf 
alfo been &own, tkat he is the grcai fubj & of the fongs of the 04 
TeAiment ; and the mora! rules and prcc4p a are all given ^n iub« 
ordination lohim, AndChiiftand his re ctcption are alfo tht 
great fcbj (^ of the hiftory of the Old Icrt^mcnt Irom the begin- 
ning allalong ; and even thehiRory of the creitioo is brought ir| 
as an introdudion to the hiAory of redemption that imoicjia.cly 
foSiows it^ The whole bock, both Od reiUmeni and New, is 
fi'ed up with ihcgofpd ; only with this difference, that the 01<f 
Tcftament coQCains the gofpel under a vail, Dvit thcNrw contains it 
unvailed, fo that we may fee the gtory of the Lord with open face. 

VI. By whst has been faid, we may fee the ufcfuloef* and tx» 
teMenc} of the 0*d Tcftameol. Sjme arc ready to look on th« 
OiJ TeAament as being as it were out of date, and ai if wc 
in thefe d^ya of the gofpel have but little to do with it ; 
which is a vey great miTtakc, arifing from want of obfcrving tht 
nature and f^tfign of the Old Teft?ment, which, if it were obfcrve«% 
would appe?.r full of the gofpel of Chrift, and would in an c»ce|« 
leal ma&aer iiibitr&;c aaci coafun the gloiioui dcdriou and piQ^ 


\U Work of H E D E M P T I O N. t}f 

aisfcs of she Nrvy T.f^amcnt. Thofc p»rti of the 0!d TeflimcaC 
which arc commonly looked upon as conJaining ihc Icaft divine in« 
Urutlion, ate at it urcrc minci and trcafures of gofpcl knowledge | 
•nd the rcafon why ihcy arc thought to contain fo Hillt it, bccaufe 
pcifons do but fu($erii:i^iiy read them. The trcafurei which ar« 
hid underneath dre not obfeivcd. They only look on the top of 
the ground, and fo fuddenly pafi a judgement that there if nothinf^ 
there. Bat they never dig into the mi&e r if they did, they wouI4 
find it richly f^ored with fiiver and gold, and would be abvmdtallf 
rcq litcd for their p:)ins. 

WQ4t h«i been fiid, miy fiaovr ut what a preciotu tieafurc 6odf 
hn comnitted into our hands, in that he hai given us the Biblc« 
Hjw little do mof^ perfons confider, how much they trjoy, in thai 
they hive the pafr^iftja of that holy book tht Bible, which the^ 
have in their handi, and may converfe with it ai they pleafe. What 
tn excellent book ii this, and how far exceeding allhunan writings, 
that reireats G jd to ui, and gives ui a view of the grand defign an4 
glorious feheine of providence from the beginning of the world, 
either in hiftory or prophecy j that reveals the great Redeenacr and 
liis glirious redemption, and the various Aepi by which God ac« 
•omp'idies it from the Hrft foundatioa to tht top-()one I Shall 
we pr't ' an hii^ory which gives us a clear account of fome grtal 
earthly princr, or mighty warrof, as of Alexander the Great, o§ 
Jjlius Caf^r, o*- the Djke of Marlborough? and (hall we rot priie 
the hiAory tha:G )d gives us of the glorious kingdom of his Soa 
J:;fus Chrift, the P.ince and Saviour, and of tht wars and other 
great tranfadions of that K«ng of kings, and Lord of armies, the 
Lord mighty in battle ? the hiftory of the things which he bat 
Wrought for the redemption of his chofen people ; 

VII. Wh»thas been faid, may make us fcnfiblc howamcfa mof^ 
l^eifons are to blame for their inattentive, unobfervaat way of 
reiding (he fcriptures. H >>v much do the fcriptures contain, if 
It were but obferved ? The B ble is the mof^ comprebenfivt book 
in the world. But what will all this (ignify to us, if we read it 
without obfcrving what Is the drift of the Holy Ghoft in it > Th€ 
PfalmiA. Pfal. cxix. i8. begs of God, " That he would enlighten 
his eyes that he might behold wor.drous things out of his law'* 
The fcriptures are full of wondrous things. Thofe biftorles whiek 
are coirmonly read as if they were only hiftories of the private 
concerns cf fuch and fuch particular perfons, fuch as the hif^o.iet 
•f Abraham. Ifaac, and J^cob, and Jofeph, and the hiftory of 
Kuth, and th<; hiftories of particular lawgivers and princes, as the 
tiflory of Jofhua and the Judges, and David, and the Ifraelitift 
princes, are accounts of vaTtly g-eatcr things, things of greater in* 
ynrtance, and more extcnfive concernacQtj thaa thtj that read 
%Mi Me coou&ooly aw4ie qL Tkt 

13§ A H I S T O R Y of 

T.'ic hti^ories of fcripiure arc commonly read aa if iL-xy^cfc Ho- 
ricf wriiten only lo cnttirtaiii mcn» iauati, ^hd io while away 
their Icifuie houci, when tiic infiGioit^Jy gtc-i iuUjp:* comaiotd cs 
p:>iitcj It ia them i.-c pjlfcd over and ncvrrt^kKci noli*;* of, VVaai- 
«ver tr««fuj«8ri* /€fipiur«* conuin, live l< ntvcr the btticr 
for ihcrn if wc Co not ohfcrvc ihcm. He thai b*i a Bible, iia4 
4oc» not obCcive what h cootaincd i^i it» is iik: ^ us&n who h&s <» 
box fuH of lilvcr and gold, aiiu docs r.-ci know ir, uccs lioi otf<i;ify« 
that it ii my thing xnorc ihau a vclTcl filled wiih cooimoa Acnicsi; 
A» long as i« ii lhu» vciih hiaa, h« will be never ihc b-;i:cr lor hii 
frcjfurc : for he th^t kno«r$ n^s thai he hai a trcifurc, will never 
nukeufc of what h« has, and Ki mi^hi as well be without it. Us 
>vho has a plenty of the choicci'^ food J^ofcd up la iii» houfe, hiA 
does not kaow it, wiil never isAc what h« has, &ud vrill b« as «Ik«< 
ly to liarve as if hii houfe wcr« cmp'^y. 

Vlilv VVhat has bftcn fa id, may ihoW us kow grcs: a pcrfest 
Jcfus Chrift is, and how great an errand he came into the wo; Id 
upon, feeing there was fo much done to prepare ihc way for his 
loaning. God had been d«ing nothing clfc but prepare th<i way fci 
his comings zn J doing the work which ce had to do in the world* 
thro' ail ag€S of the world from the very beginning. If we bad notiet 
«f a tertaini^ranger's being about to cocnc into a country, anil 
/hould cbffirvc ihat a great preparation wss inadc for his comings 
ihat many months were taken up it it, and great things wcrcdoncjj 
many great alterations were mads in the fute of the whole coua- 
Mryt a^d thsi miay bands were employed, and pcrfons of grea^ 
aoic vrarecng"g-d in making preparation for theooming cf ibii 
pcifon, and the whole country was overturned, and all the if[ii.i 
and concerns ofihs cojiitry were ordccd fo as to be fubfcrvitnt w 
the design of entertaining that pcrfoii whfin he fhould come ; it 
wculj be naiurfei for us to ihink with ourfclves, why, furety, tfiU 
perfoni* f3me extraordinary pcrfoa indeed, and i: is fomc very 
©real buf)'5cfs thi^i he is coming upon^ 

H >w grsata perfoa thea muft he be, lor whofc cOstinj Jnt» ih^ 
wotld the great Gj.\ of heaven afii earth, and governor of all things, 
fpinl four ihoyf*(.d y«^rs in preparing the way, going about it 
foon after the world wai created, and from age to age doing great 
things, bringing toighty events to pafs, accomplifhing wonderi 
wUhout nunrtbcr, often overtufniug ibc world in order to it, ciufmg 
every thingin the finu of mankind, and all revolutions and change! 
in the lubitible worlcj from «<iieratio« to geaeration Id be fukfer- 
vient to this f real dcfigr. > Surely ibis muft be f<jmc great and ex- 
traordipa'y pei foa indeed, acd a gi^at VOifc igdtcd it ffivi> ntudi 
\U tha he if QQs^iag nbom. 

tbe Work o! k E D E M P T I O J^. t j; 

W« r«id, Matth xti. 8. 9. 10. ibst whenChrlft wa» coamjr i»td 
jerufaUoi, ind the iftulticudri r«n before htoi^sncl cut dowa hrar.chfS 
of p\\aa -trees anJ Areircd then In the wiy, and others fpread iheir 
gsrtocnti iQ ihc waj'. and errcd/'Hof?r1na to the fon of Divid'' 
the wfdk city «m «fco¥cd, faying, VKbo i« ihii ? They wo»dered 
^ho that extrtcdinary ^trfon ikould be, that there fh ould be fwch an 
ado made on cccafTon of hit comlog into the city, tikd to prepare iht 
way before bin. l^Mt if wk c^nfittr what bjti been faid on thii ful jc(^o 
what great ihiiigi wz» done it all agei to priepire the way foiCbriA'* 
cominf iatc the W«rld, aad how the world was often oYtrtarncd to 
make way for it, aauch ikort »*y wc cry out. Who i* thii } What 
freat perfoo ii this ? and fay, aiinPfal. xxiv. I. 10. " Who h thtfe 
iLiag of {lory, " thatG(»d diotfld ftow frich refpiO, and put fv<h yi,^ 
hottonf upoa hioi ^ Suftly this jMrfaa it honourable indeed inGod'a 
«yct, and greatly beloved o( hiai ; and furcly it is 1 great errsn(fl 
upon which he 11 feat into the world, 


HA V I N 3 IVown how the work of redcaaptioa wsi ttrriedf 
on through the firft ptriod^from the fait of lEtin to the iccar- 
SiBfioB of CbriA, 1 coaie aow to the feeond period, viz, tbe tiai« 
of Chrit'i huaiiliation, or the fpaeefroBi the incaraatio» cfChriil 
&« therefurrc^^ian, Ithli 11 the rio^ reiaarkable article of tine 
that ever wai, or ever will bt. Th© it wai b«t between 30 and d.o 
yearl, yet more waa doot ia It tbtn had been doae from the be- 
ginning of the world to that tia::e, Wt hart obfcrTcd, that alf 
that had been done frorii tbt fall to the iccirBatioB of Ckrift, w«i» 
only preparatory for what wai dose aoW. It aiay aUo be olBferv-- 
ed, tbit all that Wat doae before iht beginning of time, in the etef* 
nal coueciltof God, and that eternal tranfadion there waabetwcett 
the perfoni of the Trinity, chitty re'^pefted this period. Wc 
therefore now proceed to confider theftcen^ protcfidok, n'lz. 

That rikiriog ibc li«e of ChriA'f huaiilfaiioa, froa hit incarna- 
tioa to hit refurrc^ioa, the parchafc of redadsptioa wat made. 

Though there were ai^ay thing* done in the affair of redemptiota 
from the fall of to lhi» time, though millions of ficriHees aa(S 
been offered up ; yet nothing was done to purchafc redcciption be- 
fore ChfiA'i inCarnatioD : n* part oi tbe purchafe was (ra(^e, n^ 
l?irt of the price was off:rcd till now. But asfoon as Ckrift was 
ine»raate,iheR tbe purcbaCe began immediately without any delay. 
And the whoW tiaic of Ckrifl's humiliation, from the morning fijt 
Chri^ begjtn to be incaruale, till the morning that hs arofe froia 
the dead, was takea up in this purchafe. And then rhc purchalC 
was entirely and coaapleatly finiftied. Ai nothirg was done Ufore 
Qbrift* iacarnaiioa, fp noihiag wai dene tficr his refurreflfon, \m 

H purchafC;, 

83« A H 1 S T O K Y cl 

pur^hifc rcdtoflptioa for bcd. Njr will there ever be any tking 
more done to aU eternity. But that very time thkt the buoian 
aaturc of Cbriil ceafctl to remain under tkc povrcr of detth, rhc 
urmoft faribing waj paid «f the price of the faWaiioa of ivf-ry cnc 

But for the more orderly aad regular eor.fijcration of the great 
tYAngi done by our R«dcf oner to purchife redemption for us, 

1, I «rou!d fpeakof Chfift's bccoofiing incirnatc to eapacitals 
himfelff^r this purchafc ; — 2nd, 

2, 1 would fp»ak of ihe purchafe itfslf. 

PART i. 

FIRST, I would coufidcr Chrift'i coming into the w«rld, o^' 
hii takinj upon hfm our nature to put hzaafcif in a capacity 

to purchafe redcoiption for us.-^ — Cfcrifr. became incarnate, 

or, which is the fame thing, bccantc man, to put himfelf in a ca- 
pacity for working out our redtrnption : for tho¥gh Chrift, aiGod, 
\ra$ infinitely fwfficient for the work, yet to hfi bciaj in an imr&c- 
elialc capacity for it, it wss needful that he ftauld sot only be God 
but man. If Chrif^ had remained only in the divine riature, he 
would not have been in a capacity to hzvi purchafcd curfalvation ; 
aot from any iffipcrffiftion of the divine nature, but by rcafon of its 
. abfolufec and infinite pcrfedion : for Chrift, merely as God, was 
not cspabls titlacr of that obcd?eftCC or fuffcring that was needful. 
Th« divine nature is not capable of fttFcrlng : for it is infinilcHy 
above ailfuffsring. Neither is itcap-ible of obedience to that ]ivr 
that wsi given to wian. It is as impoiTibkikat «ne who 1$ only God, 
ihoRid obey the law that was ^y«j^tp n^tij as It 'a that h« flicLfid 
ftlfdr aim's puriHhracnl. ,. 

It was ccccJlary not «a*y shat Chrift fkouli tabs upon him a 
treated nature, but thai he /iioald tak« upon feijn our fiamrf, I» 
would act Rive fufiiccd for us for Cbrifl to have became xa arg*!, 
znd to have obeye^i and fuffcrt d in the zTn^tVic gature. Beat it w«j 
iec«ffiry that he fhouldbecocRt a man, anti thatupc^ tbrte acc<fUBij!«, 

I. It Wit needful to anf-wer the Uw, that that naturtjhuuld 
»hey th* Uw, it wki'eh the Uiv ruat givTti. Ma»'s law Cdidd not !>* 
aifwered, but by bclsg obeyed by asai. God ialif^e^ upon I?, 
Ihat iht law which he ba-l given to nan fho«!«! be honoured anci 
fuboftiltcd i«, and fulfilled by the nature »f ma« ^ otberwifc the la\f 
•ould not be anfwcred for men. The wcrds that were fpokcn,Thoa 
tiAi not eat thereof. Thou fk^ilt; or Thou fhalt not do thus or thus, 
were fpoken to the race of mankind, to the huinan nature ; and 
therefore the ht'oiaa nature auf% fulfil tkcm* 

J, It ^»*«i nie^nl t§ anfvar tkt Uiv thtt lie n$tiirt thatfrnnid 

the Work of REDEMPTION, 139 

JfiouU dfe, Thefe wcrdi, *' Thou IhjU fcrtly die," rtfpc^ the 
husnaa satcrc^ the fzmc nature to trhicb the command w ;ii givcn^ 
nrai the nature t^ vrhich xht threatcuirg w%s direi^cd. 

3. Godfu-wiHsttfikai tht fame -world which ruat tkf fiage cf 
man'; fall And ruin, Jhould alfj bt thifisge of kit rcdanplion. Wg 
rsid ohca oJ his coming iato ihe world lu favc fin5icif,^:n Vo* Gcd'g 
fending him into the worli for this pui j;r.fe. It vvi» needful that he 
Ih^uU come into this finful, njif:::iiblc ur.dcnc wor^d, to fcrtore and 
favc it. In order lo man's rceoyery it was necdCuI thst tc (hould 
coaic down to naaa, to iUc world thsi was ruin's proper habrtiiion, 
and that he rtiouid labern^^clc v/ith uj : John i. 14, " The Word 
waa nj^de fl.fh, and dwelt ampng us." 

Concern I KO the incaroatica cf Chrlfl, 1 would obfcrvo 
thefe follpwing things, 

I. ^Thc iocarratioa itfplf ; IiMvhich cfpechlly two things are 
to be confijertd, vi?., 

1. His conceptioa, which W2? in i!)e \Tomb of one of the racej 
©''minicind, whcreb;j- he bceaoae iru-y ihe %on of nPiin, as h« was 
oi'ien called. Yi^ wag one of the poP.crity of Adam, and a child 
«i^ AJiabarB, and a fon of D.vid according to Q:)d,'% prcs^ife- 
But hi* conception wa« npt in the way efordbary gwcraiitn, bwi 
by thepstrerof tht Holy Ghoi^. . .ChriA^waj fcrcacd in the womU 
of the Virgil, of the fubhaecc of her body, by the pcvycr ef the 
Spirit of God, fa thai he vr?,s .he imihiiiate foa of ih'i wam-a, 
but not the immediat'-* fon of any male whatfccver; and fowas the 
feed of liic wogian, and the (on of a Virgin, ©n«i th«t hai never 
koown man. .••<., 

2. His binn.--^-—^— Though the conception of Chrlft wsf 
faptrnatural, yet afier he was conceived, snc^ fo the incarnation cf 
Cbfiff b£gua,bis huffiau nature was gradvialfy p^rfc^fitd in the woir.b 
cfthc virgin, ia a way of natural prog^cf: i scd f.)his birth wa« In 
a way of nature But hi* conception being fuperri.itural,by the poacr 
of the H^'y Q-oft, he was bath conc?iv.;.i and h.>r* rrhh^-J'- ^i "•• 

II. The fceord thing I would obfcrv? ccncerning the incarnR- 
tioa of Chrift, is the futaefs of the time in which n vys? acGEpIlfh- 
ed. It was after things had bren picpari-;;^ for il from the very 
Inrfl fall of mankind, and when all ihi ^,g». v.zrc '.Cvdy h Cdmc t^ 
pafj at a time, which in ir^finie wifc^om war- ikeoaoil fit and pros- 
per : Gal. iv. 4. *' But when the fulncfs of time w^&, coff.^, Goi 
fent forih his Son, Kade of a woraaa, m^dc under the law." 

It was now the moft prcpw v.m.yc on every Recount. Any tirrc 
before the flood would net h^ivc been fo tit a time. Fcr then ihc 
nijfchiaf and ruin that the f^ili b-cught on Rurkind, wis xpt fp 
fUIy feen. The cirfc did not f j ttily cumi on :he canh befo'f 
thf ^aod, as it dill afterwaitj : for ilci-gli the gr««^.d vi3 cur^ci 

U» A H I S T Q R Y of 

in H. grcai tncafurc b«fcre, y«t it picafcd God ithat lb« curfe IfliouM 
oijc*, before she rcftoratlon b.y Ciiitft, be cxccittd \n an (iniverfai 
«icftru4ijn, as ft yim^, oi th* v74*fy htm of tHc carih, thai the dire 
ei(2Cts cf the {^.\l «*Jii;hf onee in fuch a Wc?y be fien before the rc- 
cavery by Cnrra. Thoujh mankind were morul befordt the floods 
yer their llvws vrcrs ihc greater part of a thoufand ycsis in length, 
a kind i>f irftiaortality in ttoaopiiriroa witri what the J.i?e of bbsr 
h no*, h plt.fcd Gvvd, thu ihit curfs, *• pafl thou ait, and unt© 
daft ih-u iisJi rtturo," ihculd have its full acccmpliftirocnt, and hs 
txecut^i m ijs gftalclt degree on mankind., bef6y« the KcJccmc]? 
catnc ti> pjrch:»fc a never- ending life for laan, 

Ii would nor hi.u'c b^etn T* fit * ttine ioc Chri.*^ toccige, after the 
^fiood, before Mjfr.s'* tim- ^ for iUl th«a manl^ifitl vrcre cot fo uai- 
'»tSff.Jiy apon^.(i:'J flora Ihc true God; tlcy were not iiiilcn unf- 
vcrUJiy ir.toHcAJhcnih datknaU j and i'o t^c Lccd of Chrift, the 
light of the vroili, Wit noi fo evident : and the wofvjl cofiftqu*?!fccc 
of 4tic *^ll wUh ftfpcCt ;o min'j tnortJiiiiy, #^s not fo fully fnani". 
^eft tiii xr.e.i ; for mi^'i IIU wa %ox io thoBmed ai to bs reduce^ 
80 ice picfcol ft;ifidj!rd liU about Moft§*t tiafte. 

U WAS SBOlt fii that ?he time of ih*? Mcffiiih'j Coming i2i .uld no? 
be t;Ji •jT.iny age* after Muf«»*» time ; tfli all nit«on$, but rhs chil- 
dren ot ffr^jjl, had Uin foaj in Hcxtheaiih d^rkccfs ; that ihc re- 
aajrdikffiitfi of their difcafemi^ht by long cxpeiiencebc fern, and 
f. the rtbf j.luit fc^ccTity of the hcuvcnly phyfician, lefouc he came. 

Another reafon ^thy Gferii"^ did not cosnc faon after the $ocd pro- 
bably yn%, thit the car ih oji^t be full of people, ths? Chrift mtghx 
hive the ajjr« cKicafive kingdom, and that th* cff^di of his light, 
and po*»cr, ksd grace, m!ght bt gloii<^cd, and that hii ▼i<ft ay 
C'^'Q: S/ii^iitftijjhi be at:cndtd with the more glory in the multitude 
oi his conquest, it was aifo needful that ihe coming of ChriTs 
ib.u'd be CQiny agei ifttr Mjfei, thai the church wight be prepar- 
ed which wdf fo>msd by Mofei for hii ccaaing, by the Meffi^h'i 
btJtng loRg-prcfi.;ufcd, by his b«f»g mary wayi foretold, and by 
bi» b^^ing io'ijj cxpcftcd. It wai not proper that Chrift fhould 
cocac bef.Tctbe Bdbylonifh captivity, bccaufc Saian'i kingdom 
was not thea come to ih« height. The Heathen wcrld before fha$ 
confiiid otleffcr kingdoms. But God few nastt that the iVlcfruh 
^.^uid coona in the time of one of the four great monarchic of the 
world. Nor was it proper that he fboijld come in the time of the 
BabylorJfh monarchy ; for it wai God's will, that feveral general 
inonarchies flmould follo^y one another, and that the coming of the 
M.fiTnh (hould be in the time of the laft, which appeared above 
thiix. all. T-iZ Pr^ffian monarchy, by overcoming the, 
appeared above itx^nd fo iheGrccian, by ovcrcomirg the Pofiati," 
«^i.:i.fe4 ab^n that : avi foi th? fame xoafQpi the Kon^an abcvs^ 

ih« W*>jk of R K D E M P T I O ?^. i^i 

the Gr«scian. Novr it was th« wiH ot God, ihathii Son lliouid 
makehij spj>cajancc in ibc world in the lime of lb\i jycat- ii and 
ftrongcit ttiuintcbj', whicij wa» S.itaa's vifibic kiiig^dGai in the 
world 9 thal» by overcoming this, he migh: vilibly cvcrconnc Si- 
fan's kingdom ia it« grcatftfi I'trcngth and giory, and fo cb'arjj th« 
more co«3p!ctc triuicpl; ove; Ssun hitufdf. 

It was net proper that Chriil (h uJd cjtpf. before the Bsbyloijiia 
fapuvity. Vor^ hiforc thit, we h*v« no^ lu/toric* of the iuie o» 
the Hcatbca iroila, to gjive us an idea of the need ol a favjour. 
^nd bcfides, before ih-i, koriiing did not much tJouiiDi, ani fp 
*therc had not been an opportunity to Oiow iL« infulnclcncy of hu- 
mafi lesrning and wifiom co reform and fave uiwjikJn.-i. AgRi'ii, 
before that, the Jtv^'fl wert not difpc»fc<i oyer the worl-d., as ih<:y 
were afterwards ; and fo things were nut prepared in this icfpetft 
for the comini' of Chrift. The nesc(Hty of abolishing the Jewiiij 
difpenfation wai net tnen fo ^pparcr.l ?s it wa» afterwards, by rca- 
fon of the d ifptr fon of ih? Jc'** ; nciikcr wai the way prepared 
for the prop tg^tion of the gofp-1, as it was aficr^'srds^ by the fame 
difpcrfion. M^ny other things alight be mentioned, by- which h 
would appear, that no other ti(9«: before Lhat vary time in which 
Cbrif: did ccaic, would have been proper for his appearing in tht 
world to purchf fc the redemption of men . 

ill. The next thi'';!g that I wc'iid ohftrvs coDC«rring tha incar- 
nation ol ChrifT, 's the grcawtffs of this event, Chrin's inc^trnati. 
•n W2sa greater and nna«e wonderful thing than ever had conae to 
pafs ; and tiiere has b«:cn but one that has ever come to paf* which 
was grfcijter, Xii ihai v/:i$ the death of Chiif^, which was ?*ftcrward<. 
But CbrA's inetvnitioa wa? a greater ihing ih\n had ever come ro, 
pafs bsfare. TV? src<tioa of the world wa» a viry great thing, 
but not fo j!reat a thing mthc iiicaraaiion (*i Cluif:. It W3« a great 
thing foi G A to maki? the crea^ura, but not ie jgceat as iOr God, as 
for lh« creator birafeU, to be«otac a creature. Wt have fpoken 
of many £f«Ht ^hir^s JftEt were sccompliflaed frosi one age to aao- 
thtr, in the flgc* b<:i.v?en the iAl of rx\un and ibit incarnation of 
Chrift : but God's beeon^ifig n.rm was a greater thing thaathey all. 
When Chrift ^&3 born, the greateft peifon was born liiat ever was, 
or ever will be burn 

IV. What I wouli next ohfcrrs conwrnlng tkc incarnation cf 
Chrift, are the rcn3srk%blc circuojf^anccs of it ; fuch as his being 
born of a poor vir<2;in, that wa? a piouy holy pcrfon, but poor, as 
sppeqrcd by her oil:riag at her purification : Luke it. 24. ** And 
to oijfvr a facrifice according to that which i* fsid in the law of the 
Lord, a pur of turtle dovci, or two ycun^ pigconJ." Which t«* 
Icrt 'o *.'v. V, 7. '* And if (t:; be not able to bring a Isnnb, thea 
$1;. iiiili idling two turiki, or two vour-g pigeoat." And this poor 


•jhi A K I S T O R Y of 

virgm wascfpo^jfed to an huibincS wIjo w;if a po»r wan. Thcu^h 
Ibey were both cf the royal family of Pivid, the iivafj honourhble 
fam iy, and J-l'cpb vras tas rightful bcir to the ccwn ; yet the fa- 
wily was reduced to a very io«' fl^tc ;.v5'hich is ftprcferjis'j by [ha 
tabernsclc'of D.-vii's being fiilea or brck^n Cc\^t.^ Amos iz. ii. 
^* In that day w ilf I raifc: up the t«bcrrt2c)c; cf Dxivid tjiat is fallen, 
and clui'c: tip theb«cichcs ihcr^cf, and 1 wiliraifc up|iis rubf, aa^ 
I will build it as inihe.days ©i cl-i." " ^ , . 

H- wa? born iri the lortii of B^^^Uchcai/ p.s wss foirctoJi : and 
there was a vsry r cai a| k^iblc providence of Go d^|.c^ biir;g sb-^ul the 
fulfil nvzTii of t'iaii l^^o'^ti^icy ^x\ip^ uxirg c-f all the Auguf. 
hu5 Cxdt, as la Lul^^ ii. He waa.bjrii ki a very JoW gondiiion, 
even in al^sblc, tud \uS in a ra-n-r: ."'*! 

V. [ wGuId ol^fcive ihepon 5 ihls gi'cat cvcat, or the 

rco'.srkabie cvtnts wifh^wKich it -..^y ...iccrtcd.— — Ar;dl,. 
, ' 1 .- The Fi» ft thIo| 1 wo-ili ?,-,k€ notice of ibit attetvJed the i.-i- 
■earaat'iorr'of Chrii^; -.yas ih^- r;:tiin> of iUe %iV;/ j whicih indeed bc- 
■ga;i s Itielc lefofc tiit incarn^iion cl Cbiift ; but yet was given on 
Dccsfio:! of t|iot, as it was ^i tcvesl eltlie? his birth, or the birth of 
his fGrc-rurjn«;r }jhn tht Be.pti^. fhave b^nforc obfervcd how the 
fpirit of prcphr;cy ctiCcd net lonjj khcr rhe book of MtUchi was 
wri'.iiica, ^\cLri aboi^t :':£ fr^mc tlrnc yitlont and in^uicuiaic reve- 
laiioni ccaftd xUd. 8jt r.b^r, p:"J this occafi.>n, ihcy arc grsBtci 
anew, and tl<^ Splrli I35 thife cp.tTri!ipn5 rcturv)» ;/gsifl. The li.Tt ir.- 
^anceqf it« i'£>l.ofiiion thai we have any «"iccoun: of is in the vifion 
of Z'lcharl-is, thi faxhsr »f Jakn thfi B iptifl, whish we read cf in 
¥hc rft ch^pTeV v^f Luke. The ncrt is rn chc rifi■c^i^. which th.-.Virgii 
Miry hsd, of which w< rr^i.^ alfo fh fhe fsmc chspt^r. The third is 
in. the viion v^'hich Jofeph had, cf which we read in the ift Ghajnter 
of M.'it^^.ev/,- la tbf fftra place, the ^pfrit wss given to Elifabcth, 
Luke J. 4t. K::xt, it fi&i given to Mary, at ap;j<:Rrs by her fong, 
L".kc i. 46, &*«. Then to Zachariah agsin, ;if/i. vtr.- 64 Then it 
was ftnt to the fhcphcids, of which wc have ^n feccciirir i-*: Luke it. 
9. Thcu it wasgivcn toSimconj Luke ii. 25. Thca loAnM, vr.r. j6.« 
Ttca to tfcc wife mien in ttt 6«(h . to J )feph 3giiin, dircding 
hitn to ilec into Egyp^r ^^^^ «f^c;- that directing his rtiura^ 

2, The next coriCQcnitaat of Chri^/fi incarnation that £ would 
ofeftrvf U, \\.t (j'^«t DOii^e ihst w»s tskcr\ cf it in heaver, and ca 
earth. Hjw 11 wi? roticcd by the gloriow. irihabitantJ of tht hes- 
vtniy TTorld, appear? by their joyful fongs o» ihii occjif.on, hcsrd 
by the fh:?hcrd!> in ths night. This wa* the grcaieA cvzr.t ©f Prd,- 
videncc that ever the ingtU h«?i beheld. Wc read of their ftngiog 
praifes when thev f*w the forsnatioa ®f this lower world : Job 
xxxvIh. 7. " wnc.1 the ra^raing-itars fing togelhtr, and a.11 the 
font c' Go-i 6K.'Jttd for jiy ," Arid as they fsng praifci then, fp 
they d > »-o«y^ en \.hh nruch ^re-^vcr occalion, of the birth of the 
$Qn of G-d, ^71.0 it Jic c:Ciior of the wcrld, Thf. 


Work of R E D E M P T I O r.'. 143 

T)^c g'o. iou^ anjcU had 'M along cspe(flccs rhir event TKcy h&d 
taken grc .: rxticc of <Jit p'^phf-cits «ny prumii>i u^ il'icfc ihif.jj** 
a?! alorg, : ?or v/c Arc Jclr!, 'vl^.v l.c j.^gcl* .kfu* to Icr.Jt the 
aifjifs oJ' f«(icfr.f.?ion, 1 fct. 3(2, They ha^i a!t nlo't^K b^cn thci 
inmift-.jsofChrii'^ in thi.' . ff-«- pf rccica^piion.iftall (he <tv(:rd fUfi 
of it dcvvn frrm i'r* very f^U of m>.r,. i . wc fc«d, that they \*crc 
employed in God's fft-linj A'ah Ahrahta, and in h\f dcsli>gj 
withjncob, ftr "! b hu dciling^ ^\\h &.t ifrtc\h<t'i frrna liir.c to iime» 
And doubi'cfj ihcy bad Jorq joyfully cxpcttctl thf. comir g ofChxift ; 
but now thty fee ti accooipiiHicd, and ihcrefoia great y rejoice, 
acd {Vg p'silcs en this ccsij; ;n. 

N jiice vfit' r-^ktr. of it by fomc attong thcj-w? ; as particularly 
by Etizabefh arc? ibc V« gin Msry before the bnfh ofChrift ; not 
to fay by Juhi. the B;;p:jft bcfcr; he 1^2.1 barn, when he lQ-^p:6 Itt 
his mother's wouib as it were foT j.-y, at the voice oJ ihe falutatioa 
of Mafy. Bur Elizabeth and Mary do m6{\ j^yfiWy praifc G-^J 
together, when they meet with ChriH: and his forerunner in thtif 
woiobs, and the Holy Spirit in their fouls, An4 afteiwarc* what 
joyful notice is taksn of this fvcht by th« flijphcrdi, and by thofe 
boly pcrfons Zachiria.i, and Sr'oieon, and Anna ! Hovr do they 
praife God on this occr-fjon. ! Thus the church of God in heaven, 
and tht church en carib^ do as it were units in their joy and praifc 
©n this occ:f;cn. 

Notice vi-33 taken of it cy the G^n tiffs, which appeared in the 
wif« men of shs eaft. Great part of the 'jnirevfe 4<ycs as it were 
kikc a joyf'Jfl notice of the incarnatica of Chrifl. Hasten takci 
•oticc of ir, and !he inhabitmls fing for joy. This lower vtorJd, 
the world of msrkmd, dc«s a!fc take notice of h in both pjrti el 
it, Jews snd GzhllUj, It pleafcd God to pu».honor on hit Son, 
fey wonderfully rtiuing up feme ci' th« wifefl of the G^atils* to 
come a lon% joatncy to fe; and worship the Son of God at his birth, 
being led by a ajlr^cu'otti ftir, %-i''> :*^S the birth of that g!ono«s 
jperfoc, who h tkti b?ig>-t aad nscrriijg ftir, going before, snd lead- 
ing tfetm to the vsry pliCt Where t^c yourg child w?j, 8eiae think 
they were infl.u^^cd by the prophecy of Bda.m, who dwelt is tht 
eaAern mm, and fcreio'd Chri{\'i ccn:irg «» a ftar that ftiowW rife 
•ut mi Jdcob- C- thty Bi'ght be inAruded by that general eipec- 
taiion there wai of the McjTi.ih's comrog about that I'me, before 
fpokcn of, from the notice tb«y had of it by the prophcciei the Jews 
kid of hioa in their difpsTtl^r.i in all paai of the world at that lime, 

J The nf.x.t concom'!ist of thf birth c^ Chfift was kii cir9um- 
eifioa. Buc t'^ii Hn?y mo»c properly be fpckia of under a&othcff 
fccrid, and fo I will not hf\^ upon it now. 

4 The n.-:x» eonccmftynt ws? hii firft coming into the fecond 
ttwpie, whicif WM hit baing brcujht titithcr vh^ an infant, 09 

t44 A H 1 S T O 11 Y of 

occallon of the purtficstiaa of the bleffcd Virgin. We read, Hag|^, 
ii, 7 '•' Tkc dcHrc of ail naticnit ftnll corne, and I vj-lU fill thh 
i;:oui'£.(or ^<{mp*e) »iih glcy-*' And in Mai. iii, I, *« The Lord, 
whom yc feck, Ci)i\U fu2idei:.Iy coae to hij ttrr^pU, tnn ihc mef- 
fenger of ta« covr^nint." Ai->d now wai the fijA inftance of the 
ji.ifi<aicnl of Ihefc prophcciei. 

5". The I31I conco-j&ftaRt i fhsll mcnlion is ^he fcepsrc's dtparl- 
isg ffcsa Ji.idah» In shs death of Herod the Great. The fceptr« 
bad jjevtr ^of.il2y flep>a«e i'rotn Judaih liU no«r. Jud*h'« fccptr« 
iar-? grer.tly diKsJnifhcd in the ie<ju!t of ihe ten tribct iiiJcrcbo;.»*5 
time ; nni the fccptrs departed fran Ifrae) or £phr?iit5B at the tii«e 
of tee capvtviiy of tht ien Jribesby Shaliiunefer. But ya the fc.*ptr« 
irsnuiincd m tii«? tfibc SI ju<d:ih, under the kingi of tke houfe of 
David. And when the iribci of judaih and Bcrjv»inJ« we.-e carried 
c^puveby Ncbucr.«Qr,tzzar, the fcepireof judsh ceafed fora little 
whik, tiJi the retur's Irom ihc esptlviry under €^vt«s : and then, 
ifaougbthcy -Aere not an independent j;oYern«ient, as they bad beeni 
tefori, but o^ti f^^slty toih- kings of fcvlii : y«t their gevcrnor 
TfrsB of thcrcf^K'e«, who had the power of life a!»d deat^, and they 
Tiere goverr.t*:? by their own laws ; and fo Judah ;h»d a lawgiTCt 
from beivifen his feet during the Perfiai? sud Gf^chn monarchies, 
To^vards the latter part of ihc Orccian o!o»arehy, the people \Vere 
govcrri«d by kioj^^i of their own, of the face of «be Macfiabee?, for 
iliC gfestcr part of an hiwdre^ yeafi ; sad afrar that they were fub- 
duccs by the Romant. But yit th4i Roaiani fufferad then to ^c 
goveraed by their ovrn la^rt, and t» htt« a king of tlwir owtk* 
Herod the Great, who rcljned iboyt forty years, aad f overnttl 
with proper kinfly authority, only payiwjbo«a(|« to the I^omaaf^ 
But prcfenily after Chrifl Wiiborn bt dh4, ai wt hare an aecounK* 
^Matth. ii. 19, ?nd Archelaut fuccctdad htm ; but ^ni foon put 
pjwn by the Roms.n Ercperor ; and then tha fceptre depart- 
ed from Jw^iih. Tnere were n ^ more teaiporal king* of J^jdah 
after th^t, icither h«d that peop!a their {OTernors fro^ the midft 
of tbemfrWes after that, bmt were rule<i by a Rooian governor fen5 
sftiong them ; and they coifed any osorc to have the power of life 
and licath anion| ihemfelve*. Hence the Jews fay to Pilate, ** It 
h not lawful i'or us to put any man todcaib," John xviii. 31. Tht* 
ihc fceptre departed frooi judah whea Stiilch iame« 

PART ir. 

MA V T NO thus coaidcrcd CbriA's coming info ihc wotU^ 
" and bte taking on hiaa our r^ature, to put hiiafelf in a capacity 
f«r the pnrchafe of fedatopiioa, fcoma now, n dly, lo fpcais 
0f ike parcfenfc hfelf. — ^— And in fpeaking of thi», I would, 
Z, Shovr what h inissdad by the purchafe of redamptioa* 

Ac Work of REDEMPTION. 145 

2; Obfcrvc fomc things in general conccrnbg thofc thingi by 
which this purchafe was made. 

5. I would orderly confdcr thofc things which Chrift did and 
ia^citdj by which that purchafe was ai^ds. 

Sect. I. 

IW O U L D (how what is here intended by Chrifl's purchaf- 
ing redcnaptioD. There arc two ihingi that arc intended by i'^ 
viz. his fatisfadion, and his merit. All Is done by the price thai 
Chrift lays down. Bui the price thra Chrifl hid down does two 
•hings : it pays our debt, and fo it fatisf a : by its intrinfic value, 
ind by the agreement between the Fatfesr and the Son, it procures 
a title to us for happincfs, and fo it msritt. The fatisfa^tion 
of Chrift is to free us from mifcry, and the merit of Chrift is to 
purchafe happincfs for us. 

The word purchafe, as it is ufed with refp-fl to the pLTchafe of 
Chri."*, it taken either more ftriflly or more largely. It is often- 
I'oass ufcd »orc itridly to fignify only the merit of Ghrift ; an4 
fomeiicnes more largely, to fignify both his fatisfac^ion and merit. 
Indeed moftof the words which arc ufcd in this affnir have vsri- 
eus figniftcations. Thus fcmeUFncs divines ufe vterit in this af- 
fair iot the whole price ih^il Chrift offered, both fatisfatficry, ?nd 
and alfo pofitivcly meritorious. And fo the word fatiifa^icn i» 
f*;)metime5 ufed, not only for his propitiation, but alfo lor his me- 
ritorious obedience. For in fome fcnfe, liot only fufF-ring ihe. 
penalty, but pofitive!y obeying, is needful to fatisfy the law. The 
rcafoa of this various ufcof thcfe terms fccms to be, that fatisfac- 
lion and merit do not differ fo much really as relatively. They 
both corifi.'t in paying a raluable price, a price of infinite val^c i 
but only that price, as it rcfpeds a debt to be paid, h called /a/r;- 
f action ; and a« it refpcAs a pofiiivc good to be obtained, is called 
fatrit. Tne difference between paying a debt and making a po- 
fi:ive purchafe is more rebiive than it ii effcctial. He who hys 
<5«wn a price to pay a debt, docs in fome fenfcm^k; a p«rchafc : 
he purchafes liberty from the obligation. And he who hys down 
a price to purchafe a good, does as it were mzke fatisf^dlion : he 
• fatisfles the conditional demands cf him to whom he pays- it. 
Tkis miy fuilice concerning wh^t is m<:ant by the purchafe of 

Sect. II. 

IN O W procted to fome general obfervatJons, concerning 
thofc things by which this purchafe was made. -And hcic, 

I. I would obfeivc, that whatever in Chrift had the nature of 
fitif fa^icMf it was by virtue of the fufTcring or humiliation that 
%at in it. Bat whatcvar kad the nsture of merit, it was by virtue 
fl Ike eUdicacc gr rightcoufcofs thc;e tra» is it. Tbi I^tisfa^t- 

14^ A H I S T O R Y cf 

on of Chrift corfifts ia bit anfwcring the demands of law on maui 
which were co:^ftq jcnt o« ihc breach of the law, Thcfe were an- 
fvrercd by fcffwfirg the penalty of ihe lawa tht merit of Chrift 
cotiCidt in what be did to anfwcr the demands of tho law, which 
were pfior to man's breach of ?he law, orio fulfil what the law 
demanded before man finned, which wat obedience. 

The fatisf adion or propitiation cf Chrift confiAs either in bif 
fuffcring evil, or hij being fubj^i!t to abtfeificnt. For Cbrift did 
not only make fati*fafticn by proper fulTcring, but by whatever 
h.d the maturt of htmiliatioB, ssd abafemcnt of circumftantci. 
Thui Chrift made fadsfadion for £n, by continuing under the pow- 
er of death, while he hy buried in the grave, though acither hit 
body nor foul properly endured any foflcrirg after he wai dead; 
Whatever Chri/l was fubjstl la that was the judicial fruit of fin, 
had the nature of faiisfadion for fm. But not only proper fufFcr- 
ing, but gll abafcment sad dcprefPion of the ftatc and circuinfU^.- 
ees of aaankind below its primitive honour and dignity, fuch at 
his body 'i rcmiinirg uader death, and body and foul reinaining 
. feparate, and other thiegt that might be mentioned, are the judiei* 
al ftuits of (iiu And all th&t ChriA did in bit f^ate of humiltatt^ 
on, tkst had the nature of obedience or moral virtue et goodnefi 
in it, in one refpecl or another had the aature of merit in it, and 
was p^-rt of the price with which he pui chafed hsppinefs for the ele^. 

a. I would obf:rvc, that both Chrift's fatisfadtibn for fie, and 
tlfo bis meriting hspplnefs by his righteoufncfs, were carried on 
through the whole lime of his humiliauon. Chrift'i Uthh&ion. 
for fin was not only by hii Uft ftffirings, though it was principal- 
ly by then ; but all hij fuffrringf, and all the humiliation that he 
Waf fuijed tof om the fi^i\ mo.'s.ent of his incarnation to his re- 
fu.r^ticft, were propiiiatory or faiiifaflory, Chrifl's fatisf^e^ 
tton wa» chiefly by hiide^th, bccaufe hii fufftrings and huonilia'^ 
tion in th«t was gcatcft. Sut all his other fuffcrings, and all hif 
other huaoiUati on, alt along had flie nilure of fatisfad^ion, Sa 
h^d the me '.n circuaii^ances in which he vvas bern. His being 
born in fuch a low condition, was to make fstisf^i^ion fof 
fin. H'sbcirgborn o^a peer virgin, in a flable, aad his beiig 
laid tn a oiangcr ; bi^ t,ki- g the htman r)ature upoa him is it) 
low ft^'C. and unBer ih»fe infi-miiics brought upon it by the fall ; 
hi< bcii>g bom in the form of fiufu' flw^, had the nature of fatia- 
f*^ion. A d fo all h58 fufFsrings in his infancy and childho«d» 
and T.V that l^bcur, and contemp^i and rcproaeh, and tCfnptatioBy 
and difTi*'»lt\ of ^ay kind, or that >"e fiffercd through the whbit 
C0U fc of hh li^c, w^s of a propitiatory and falisfaftory sature. 
AaU fo hia puiGliafo •( happincfi by bii rightcoufneri was affci 


the Work of R E D E M P T ION, 147 

earriedon through tk$ whole time of bit humilintioQ till his refur- 
re^lioQ s not ooly in that obedience he performed through the 
«ourfc of hii life, butalfo in the obedience he performed in laying 
down his life, 

3. It was by tktt fame things that Chri/l hath fatisficd God's 
juftice» 9nd alfo purchafed eternal h.ppiucfs. This fatisfadioa 
tnd putchifc of CbriA wtre not only botb carried on through ih« 
whole time of ChriiVs humiliatioa, but (bey w$/e both carried on 
by the fame things. He did not make fatiiiadiqn by fome things 
that he did, and thea work out a righteoufnefs by oibci diifcrc&t 
thipgi ; but in the fame ads by which he wrought out righteouf- 
vcfs, he alfo made fatisfadioo, but only taken in a dij3eient rela- 
tion. Oac and the fame a(f^ of Chrift, cjK^Jc.ed with refpefl t« 
the obedience there was in it, was part of his righteGufn«:fs, and 
purchafcd heaven : b«t co'^fiJerf d with refpcfl to the fclf-d«nial, 
and difficulty, and humiliation, with which he performed it, hai 
the nature of fati&faftion for fin, and procured our pardon. Thui 
his going about doing good, preaching the gofpel, and teaching 
hii difciples, was a part uf his righteoufncfs, and purchafe of hea- 
ven, as it was done ia obedieace to the Father ; and ths fame was 
part of his fatisfa^tion, as he did it with great labour, trouble, sn«t 
wearinefs, and under great temptations, cspo/ing himfelf hereby to 
reproach and coatcmpt. So bis hying down his life had the nt- 
turt of Xatiifadion to God's offended jaftice, confidercd as hifl 
bearing oi;r punifhmenl in our ftead : b«£ confidercd as an a<fl of o* 
bediiace to Qod, who had given him this comnamd, that he (hcuM 
lay down his life for fmncrs, it was a part of his righccoufocfsp 
and purchafe of heaven, and as much the principal part of his righ« 
Icoufnefa as it was the principal part of bis faiisf^dion. And (o 
to inftancc in his circumcifion, what fee fuffcred in that, had thi 
nature of fatiafadlion : the blood that wss {^cd in his circuaciHon 
wai propitiatory blood ; but as it was s conformity to the law of 
Mofes, it was part of his meritorious lightcoufncfs. Thougk it 
was aot properly the aft of his hum^n na-ujc, he being an infant 5 
yet it being what the hutnan nature wzs the fubjf ft of, and being 
the aft of ibat perfaa, it was accepted as an aft of dit pbcdicnce, 
as our mediator. 

And fo even his born in fuch a low cond'!rcn, bsd ihc 
•aturc of fatisfaftion, by rcafun of the humnir-tion that was in it, 
and alfo of rig»^teoufnefs, ai it was the sft of ris pcrTor in ohe4i- 
cncc to the Father* aad what the human n'<tirc \V3« ihe fu! jrft cf, 
and what the vill of the human nature did flcqjiefce in. ihougli 
there was no aft of the will of the human nature prior to it. 

Th ESK things may fufficc to have obfervrd in the general ccs- 
etcaing th« purcbafc Cojift «ad«r of ttdsit.plon, 

' "■" § 2 C T, 

t4^ A H I :? T O R Y of 

Sect. Ill, 

I NOW proceed to fpcolc morr particularly of tnofc things «fcfcli 
Chrift did, and was ?hc fubjcci of, duriog tht titne of hh hn- 
Biiliaiion, whereby this puishafc was made.—— -The nature cf tfcc 
purchafe of Chrifr, ks it has been cxpUined, leadi us to coafider 
thcfc thsngs under twcfold vi«w, viz. 

1. With reaped! to bin righteoufntfr, which appeared in them, 

2. With refpcdt to thefufferings and kumiliaxion ibat be wa* 
fubjcjft lo in them in oui- i'tcad. 

§1 I win confj :er the thing? thst psfT-d during the time ol 
Chrift 's humili-ation, wi^k refpctl to the cheJience and *ighttcufnrft 
that he cxcrcifsd in thcoo. Affd this is fubjed to a ihiccfold dif- 
tribution. I fti^i' therefore confider his obcdicncCp 

1. W'th refped to the larvt which he obctyed. 

2. With rcfpsd to the different f ages vf k:s lift in which l« 
pcrformad it. 

3. With rcfpedl to the 'virtue f In extrcijei in his obciienc*. 

I. Ths firft dif^ribution of the ad« of Chrift** rightcoufocff ?s 
with refpcd to the la-wt -rvhich Chrift obiyed ia that righicoufnefi 
^hich he performed. But here it m\u^ be obferved in general, thai 
all the precepts which Chrift obtycd m^y be reduced ro one Isw, 
^nA that is that which thcApoitlccails the la-w sf ivorks,Rom. iii 27, 
Every command that Chrin obeyed may be reduced to ihit great 
find evcrbiUog law of Gjd that is contained in ihc covcnani of 
ivorks, that etcrna? ru'e of right which Gofi had cfiabiiiSitiG bf^tvveeo 
fcimfeifsnd mankind, Chfifi came in^o the world to fulfil snd 
aafwcr the covenant of" trorks ; that is, the eovtiiact ihaJ l» to (ran^l 
forcveir at a ruic of judgcyjsnt ; and that h the covenant that »e ha<i 
bicken» and that wai the cc'Vf.nsnt that Uiuft be ful{i*!ed. 

This law of works iadeed includes sU the la^ys of Gtid which eve? 
have been given 10 mankind ; for it h ?. f^wcral luis of the law of 
wofks, anci indeed of tbs Is-* of nature.. That God is to be obeyed, 
and thai he mufi: be fcbmiucd to inwhutewcr pofiiivc precept be is 
ptcafed to give us. it is a ritlc of the law of works. That men 
ihould obey their cat r y psrcrts : and it is certainly as much a 
rule of the fame law, Ti2?.i we fhcuM obey cur beavcnly Father : 
and lo the hxv of works requires cb«dicncc to all pofitivc cotJOffi^ndf 
of God. It iiquifcd /Idsni's cbedicncc to that pofitive comiDand, 
Not to cat of the forbiddtn f^uit ; and it required obedience of the 
Jews to all the poficive coffiniands of their intlitution. When God 
rjommandcd J ^nah to arife :tnd go to Nineveh, the law of woi'ij 
I rquired hioi to obey ; and fo it required Chrifl'i obedience to al* 
ihc pofitive commands which God gave him. 

Bdt nore parucuUrly, the cammandt cf God which Chrfjf obeyed, 


tlie Work of REDEMPTION, 149- 

•TCfC of three Iclnds; they were either fuck ps he W3»i fuKje<^ to 
xncrjiy ^jy ,*«aM, or fuch as he was fubjcft to ai In -wmi a JiW, or 
fuch a» he wai fubj;(5^ to purely tff Mtdiatsr, 

1. Htr obcytd !hofc commandls which he wai fubje(f\ to merely 
»3 r:«j« -• and they were the commands of the moral Jaw, which wa§ 
the famt with that which was given at Mount Sinai, written in two 
tables of ilortc, vAAch arc obl-gatory on mankind of all nation* 
and all ages of the world. 

2. He obeyed all ihofr: laws he was fubjcft to ?.s he was a Jrw/ 
Thus be was fubjefl to the ctrenrsonia! law, and was conformed to it. 
H^ was conformed to it in his b^ing crrcumclfed the eighth d»y ; 
and he ftriflly obeyed it in going up fo Jcrufakm to the temple three 
timci a-yesr ; atleaft after he was come to the age of twelve years,, 
which feems to have been the age when the males began to go up ta 
:he temple. And fo Chri(t coni^anily attanded the fcrvics of the 
temple, itnti of the fynagoguts. 

To this head of hii obedience to the Isw that be ;vai fubjed^ to a, 
a Jew, may be reduGcd his fubmiifion to John's baptifm. For it 
was a fpecial command to the Jews, to go forth to John the Bi<ptif^, 
2nd be bspiizsd of him i ^rA there/ore Chri(t being ajcw, was fub- 
jc6l to tfeis command : «nd therefore, when he cama to be baptized 
of J«hn, and John objedkd, that he had more need to come to hrai 
%• be b-jpt!z:d of hi»i, he gives this reafon for it, That is was need- 
ful that he fsiijuij do it, that he might f^HU all righieoufncft. See 
MiUh. ill. 13. 14. 15. 

3. Anoihci law that Car ift was fubje^ to, was //i* mediatorta! 
|tfu/V which Contained ihofe coaamands of Gjd to which he wa» 
fubjcdt, not merely as man, nor yet a< a Jew, but which related 
p.i»cly to his mcciicitorial ctliae. S'jch were the commands which 
the Father gave hsm, to teach fuch do<flrine«, to pre?.ch the gofpcl, 
10 work fuch aairacks, 10 call fuch difcip!«s, to appomt fiich or- 
dinances, and filially to Uy down his lile : for be did all thefe 
things in obedience to commandi he bad received of the Father, 21 
he often tells ua. And tkefc commands he was noi; fubjed t» merely 
«s man ; for they did not belong to other men : nor yet was he 
fttbj:(ft to ihcm as a Jew ; for they were no part of the Mcfaic law ; 
but lUcy wrert coaimands that he had received of the Father, that 
purely rcfpeded ih^ vrork he was to do in the world in his me- 
diatorial ofltcc. 

It is to be obfcrved, that Chrift's r-ghteoufnefs, by which he me- 
rited heaven for himfclf, and all who believe in him, confifts prin- 
cipally in his obedience to this mediatorial law : for in fulfiliirg 
this law confilicd his chief work an^ bufincfs in the world. The 
hiitory of the evangelift? h chiefly taken up in giring !in account 
^i bis obidicnce to this law : and tbit part of bii obedience »a* 


ifo A H I S T O R Y cl 

that which was attended wiih the grcatcft difficulty of ail j an<l 
therefore his obedience in it wxi moft meritorious. What Chrifk 
fcad to do in the world by virrue of his being Mc<lialor,w;4i infinitely 
more difficuU than what h«hai 2odo otierj^iy as a man^ or as a Jew. 
To his obedicoec to ihis mediatorial law belongs his going through 
hu ltd fuff;2riHgs, beginning waii his agony in the gard^i^ aod 
ending wi^ his rciurredion. 

A« the cbsdisnce of the fir/t Adani, frhereia hia rightcoufnefi^ 
Krould kzvc confi/led, if he had ftood, would have mainly conflflcd, 
nol hii in obedi«nce to the moral !aw, to whieh he was fubject 
casrcly as man, but in his obfidicn<:e to that fpccial law that he wat 
{iJbl<^t\ to 39 moral bead and furety of aiin^ind>even the command 
of ab{!*iaing from the tree of Itaowisdgc of good and evil ; fo tht 
obedience of the fecond Adam, wherein bis righteoufncfs confiAi^ 
lies mainly, not in his obedicnpe of the iaw that he was fubje<5i to 
merely as man, but to ihst fpeoial iaw which he was fubjeJl to m 
his office as iV4cdiator and futcty for man, 

Bfe Fo R. E I proceed to the aest diftribution of Chrift's righ^eouf* 
oefj, 1 would ubuivc shfcs things concerning Chrifl's obedience to, 
Ihefe laws. 

J, H« per formed that obedience to them which waj in every 
(pcfpcrt perf&£f. It Wis univcrfai as to the kinds of laws that he 
was futjttil to ; he obsyed each of ihcfc three laws ; and it was 
mniveri^l with rtfps^t to every Individual precept contained in 
{hefe laws, and h was perfcft &s to each comnaand. It wa^ 
perfcdl: as to pofuivc trsnfgjeflrons avoided: ^or he never tranfgrclT- 
ci in oiie laftancc ; be was gyiUy of no fin of comaiifTion. It wa» 
jfntieSi with 7efpc<^ to the worl^ comtBSDSled : he perfeded the 
whole work at each Goramand required, and nevcf was guilty of 
any fm of omiOioo* It was pcrfeft with refpedt to the principles 
from which be obeyed : his h;art was perfs^t, his principles were 
fshoUy rfght, there was no corruption in his heart. It was per- 
U4\ wijh refpcd 10 the cncis he a^ed for : for he never had any. 
by-ends, bu| tvaird perfcd^Iy et fuchcndt a$ the law of God requir- 
ed. It W3.% pcrfscl sfith rcfp-£i to the manner of perforta^nce i 
^very ciicuQr.A«nce of each ad was perfedly conformed to the com- 
jnand. h was perfed with refpc^ to the degree of the perform- 
rnce : he aded wholly up to the rule. It was perfcd wi:b refpcfl 
to the conftancy, of obedience : he did not only perfeflly obey 
fomeiinnes, but eonftanlly without any interruption. It was pet- 
fcft with rcfpcd to pei f cverance : he held out in peric<f\ obedience 
to the very end, through all the changes he palTcd thro«gci, and sfi 
the li'ials that were before hioa. 
Ta6i;erit9rigufi;i^fegfQhdrVto^e4^Cfice|4epeQJ9 on the per 
' '^" ■"" h^i9% 

the Work of * E D E M P T I O N. ift 

itftion of it. If ilbadfaUcd in ary ioRance cf pcrfcftion, if 
could not have been meritorious : for imperfect obedience is sot 
accepted as any obedience at all in the fight of the law of ^workso 
which wai that law that Cbrift was fuLjedl to ; for that is not ss* 
cepted as an obedience to a law that dots not anfwer that law* 

2. The next thing I would obferve of Cbrift's cbeditncc is, that 
it was performed through the great&ft trials and temptations that 
ever any obedience was. His obedience was attended with the 
greateft diffieuhies, and moA: extream sbafemcnt and fufTering 
thatcvcrany obedience was ; which was another thing that len- 
dernd it more meritorioui and thank-worthy. To obey another 
when bis commands are eafy, is not fo worthy, as it is to ob«y 
when it cannot be done without great difficulty. 

3. He performed this obedience with infinite refpe^ to Oorf* 
and the honour of his law. The obedience he performed was with 
infinitely greater love to God, and regard to his auihorityi than 
the angels perform their obedience with. The angels perform 
their ob«di-ncc with that love wh'cb is pcrfcd, with finlcfs perfec* 
tion ; but Chri^ did not do fo, but he performed bis obedience 
with much greater love than the angels do theirs, even irfinite love; 
for tho' the human nature of Chvift was not capable of love abfo- 
lutcly infiaitCj yet Chrift'a obedience that was performed in tbaS 
human nature, is not to be looked uf on as mearly the obedience of 
the human nature, but the obedience of kis perfon, a"! God man ; 
md there was infinite love of the perfon of Chrift manitcft in that 
obedience. And this to^;ether with the infinite dignity of th« 
pcrfori that obeyed^ rendered his obcdfenec inHniteJy meritoriouf. 

II. Tk p fccond d*/tri^u!ion o»~tbe a^s of Chrifl's obedience. 
Is with refpcifl t' the d'ffcrent partt cf his lift, wherein they were 
performed. And in this refpecl they m^y be divided into ihofs 
which were pcrforir^'i «n p ivatc li?e, and ihofc whicl^ were per- 
formed in his public n^'uiftry. 

ift» Thofe a{K^ ci p£/f' )rmcd durir^ hif private life. He wat 
pcrfcftly obedient in his chihJhood He ir, finitely differed from 
Other children, who, a* foonas they hzgvn to a<f^, begin to fin and 
rcbtl. He was futj-a to his ea thly parents, though he was Lord 
of all, Luke ii. 5 1 . ht ^as found about hit F;^ther's bufinefs at twelv* 
years of age in the tecnplc, Ltke ii 42. He then began that 
work that he had to dj in fulfilment of the mediatorial law, 
which the Father had given hJm. He continued his private life 
for about thirty years, dwelli»*g at Nszareth in the houfe of his re- 
puted father Jofepb, where he ferverGod a in private capacity, and 
in following the mechanical trade, the bufinefs of a carpenter. 

lily, Thofe afls which he performed during hb fuhlis mimijlrj 
igrbich began wbcn he was about thirty years ol ige, aad continue* 


IS* A H I S T O R Y of 

for iht three !aft years and an half of his life. M^ft of the 
liiftory of thf e^angcitAats takca up in giving an account of what 
paifrid during chcfe three years and an half i fo i» all the hiftory of 
4hc Evmgcli^t Maithcvr, cxccpiing the two tirft chr^ptcis. So it ihc 
vthole of the hiftory of thr, EvangcUft Mark ; it bigins and ends 
"<»-i{h it. And fo alfo ii aU the gofpsl of John, snd all the gofpel 
tif Luke, crccpiing the two liril chapicri ; cxocpting alfo what we 
tjnd in the evaageiifts concerning the miniiiry of John the Bapiii^, 
Chrift's rirfk appearing in his public miniiby, is what h often call- 
ed his coming, in fcripture. Thus John fpeaks of Chf ift's coming; 
as what is yet to be, though he had been born long before. 

Cuacerning tUc public aaiaiftry of Chrift, 1 would obfcrvc the 
foliowing things, i. The forerunner of it. 2. T&c manner of 
fcis firft ciitring upon it. 3. The works in which he was employed 
during the courfe of it ; and, 4 The manner of his finiAiing it. 

!• Tnc forcruancr of Chrift'scomimg in bis public ministry 
. was John the Baptifi: ; He came preaching repentance for the rc- 
miirion of iins, to make way for Chrift'a coming, agreeable to the 
prophecies of bim. If. xl. 34. 5. and Maith. iv. 5. 6. It is fup- 
polcd tbat John the fctapiili began ihe miniftsy about three ycarf 
and an half before Ciarift ; fo that Joha'« miniftry and Chrift's put 
togetber,made fiiven years, which was the Uft of Daniel's we*ks ; 
And this tiaic is intended in Dsd, ix 37. " He will confirm the 
covenant with many for one week." Chrift came in the midit of 
this week, viz. in th» beginning of ihc laft half of it, or the laft 
three years and an half, as Daniel foretold, as in the verfe jui now 
«5Uotcd : ** And in tb« midft of the week he (hill caufe the facrifice 
and the oblation to ccafc." John Baptifi's miniftry confiflcd prin- 
dpally in preaching the Uw, to awaken men and convince them 
of fia, to prepare men for the coming of Chrift,to comfort them, as 
the law is to prepare the heart for ihc entertainment of the gofpel. 

A very remarkable out pouring of ibc Spirit of God attended 
John's miniftry ; and the effcdt of it was, that Jerufalem, and all 
Jadea, and all the region round about Jordan, were awakened, con- 
vinced, went out to him, and fob.nkted to his baptifm, confcding 
their fms. ]^^o " fpoken of as the greatcft of all the prophets 
^ho cime before ChriiV : Maith. xi. ir. •* Among thofe that are 
born of worn:n, there hath not rifcn a greater than John the B--?p- 
lift i" f *' he had the moft honourable office. He waj as the morn- 
ing-ftar, which is the harbinger cf the approaching day, and fore- 
runner of the rifing fan. The other prophets wcic ftars that were 
to give light in the night ; but we have haard how thofe ftars weut 
out on the approach of the gofpel-day. But now the coming of 
Chrifl being very nigh, the morning ftar cotnes before bim, the 
brightcf^ of all the fiars^ as Jshs the BapuA wu ihe grcateft of alt 
the propbctt^ Wb€i| 

»hc Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 151 

When Chri:l ctmt in his public miQiiVy,the light of that mAra- 
ing-ftar d:crcafcii 100 : as wc fee, when the fun rift«, it diminMhci 
ihe light of the morning-/>.ir. So John the Eaptifi fayi of him- 
felf, John iii 30. ** He muft incrtafe, but I muft dccrcafc," 
A»d foon after c!;hrift began his public miniflry, John the Bapiift 
was put todeith ; at the mornin.;- Aar is vifibis a little while after 
the fun h rifen, yci foon goes cut. 

2. The next thing to be taken notice of i« Chfif^'s entrance oa 
his public miaiftry, which wa» by baptiioijfoliowcci with the temp- 
lanon in ihe wildernefs. His baptifm was as it wcifl his fc!ema 
iaa'jguratton, by which he entered on his minify ny ; ard was at- 
tended with hit being anointed with il\e Ho'y-Ghoft, in a feJcma 
and vifible manner, the HoljGhoft dcfcendii g- upoa him in a vifib'e 
fhapclikea dove, attended with a voice hum heaven, fi^yinge 
" Th's is my beloved Son, in whom I &m w«ll pleafcd," Matt* 
iii. 16 17. 

After this he was led by the devil into the wildernefs. Sstao 
made a violent onfct upon him at his ^ift entrance 00 his wovk ; 
and now he had a remarkable trial of bii obetiicnce ; but he got 
the viftory. He who had fuch fuccefs with the fiiil Adam, hai 
nunc with the fecond* 

3. 1 would tske not!f.« of the work in which ChriA wit 
cnaploycd during his minJAry. And hcic iirc/Arf» things chitfl/ 
io be taken notice of, viz his peaching, his woik'ng miracles, 
and his calling and appointing difsiples and minivers of bis 

( I.) His preaching the gofpcl. Great part of the work of hii 
public miniftry confifted in this ; a^.d much of that obedience by 
which he purchafcd falvalion for ua,wafi in his fp- aki-g thofe thlngt 
which the Father comuiaadcd bim. He more cbarly and abun- 
dantly revealed the mind and will of God, than ever it had U«q 
revealed before. He came from thcbofom of the Father, ^nd per- 
fedll) knew his mind, and was in the bcfk capsci'.y to reveal it. 
As the fun, as foon as it is rifsn, begins to ftjine ; foCh»IfV, as fc>on 
as he ea«e into bis publle miaiAry, began to trJigh»en the world 
with bis dcdrine. As the law w?i5 given at Mount Sinai, fo ChriH: 
delivered his evangelical dotuine, full of bleffings.and not cui fes, 
to a mu'iilurfe on a mountain, as wc have an account in the 5th, 
6ih, and 7th thapiers of Matthew. 

When he preached, he did not teach as the fcrlbes, but he taught 
as oa« Laving authority ; fo that his hearers were aftcaiihcd at hit 
do^Uinc. He did not reveal the mind and will of God in the 
ilyle in which the prophets ufed to preach, as riol fpe^ktng their 
own words, but the words of another ; and ufcd to fpeak in fuch 
» ftyle 39 \bb, \[ Thui faith th* Lord ;" but Chtift, in fuch a fiyla 

X as 

ift A H I S T O R Y of 

at thti, " I fay unto you," thus or thus ; «* VerHy, vcriJy, I fay 
I'nto you." He delivered his dodrinei, not only ai the doftrinti 
of God the Father, but as his own do^rincs. He gave forth hit 
comaiandi, not as the prophets were wont to do, as God's com- 
xnands but as his own coaimsnds. He fpakc in fuch a (lylc as this, 
•' This is mycommandmsHt," John xv. 12. *' Yc are aoy friradt, 
if ye do wbatfover / command you," ibid. 14, 

(3.) Another thing thatChrift was imployed in during she 
courfc of his aiiniftry, was working miracles. Concerning which 
we may obftrve fcvc r^I thirrgilf 

Their »j«/f/*/«/^j. Befides particular inf^ancci, we often have 
an account of multitudes cojaisg at once with defcafes, and bis 
heaUng them. 

They were -worht cf mgrcy. In them was difplaycd not only 
his infiaitc power and grcamefi, but his inflaitc mercy and good- 
ncfs. He went about doing good, hcaiirg the fick, rcftoring fght 
to the blind, hearing to the deaf, and the proper ufe of their iieibf 
to ihe hme and hah ; feeding the hungry, dcanfing the leprous and 
raiHng the dead. 

They were almoft all of thim fuch at had beenfpekin of at tks 
pscxUar werki of God, in the Old Tcflament. So with rcfpcd 
to ftilling the fea, Pfal. cvii. 29. ** He maketh the florm a calm, 
i'o that the waves thereof arc Aill." So as to walking on the fci 
in a^orm : Job. ix. 8. " Which alone — treadeth upon the wavet 
of the fe3." So as to cafting out devils : Pfal. Ijrxlv. 14. "Thou 
breakeft the heads of leviathan in pieces." So as to feeding a 
mulritudc in a wildernefs : Deut. viii.,16. " Who fed thee in the 
wildernefs with manna." So as to telling man's thoughts : Ames 
iv, 13. «« Lo, he that — declarcth unto ir-an what is his thought — 
the Lord, the God of hods is his name." So as to raifng the dead: 
Pfa^ Ixviii 20. "UntoGod the Lord bcfong ikc ilTue.-! from death-'* 
$0 as tj opening the eyes of the blind : Pfal. cxlvi. 8. " The 
Lord openeth the eyes of the blind." So ai to healing the fick : 
Pfal. clil. 3. " Who healeth ail thy difeafes." So as to lifting up 
thofe who are bowed together : Pfal. cxlvi- 8. " The Lord raifetia 
them that are bowed down." 

They were in general fuch works as were imaget cf the great 
work which he came to -wsrk en man t heart ; reprefeuting that in- 
ward, fpiritualcleanfin^, healing, renovation, and rcfurredtion, 
which all his redeemed arc tbc fubje^s of. 

Hi ivrcught them in fuck a manner as toJJiow, that he did them 
hy hit Pivn power, and not by the power of another, at the other 
frepketi did. They were wont to work all their miracles in the 
name of the Lord : but Chrift wrought in his ;cwn name. Mofts 
was forbidden to cater into Caaaan, bccaufc he fcemed by hh 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O iN. 153 

fpcecb to alTuoic the honour of working only one miracle to him- 
fclf. Nor did Chrirt woi k miracles as the apo/ilcs did, who 
wrought ihem all in the name of Chrift ; but he wrought ihtm ia 
fcls own nime, ajid by his own authority and will : Thus, faiih be 
*'i will be thou clean." Matlh,viii.3. And in the f-mc ft rain he put 
the qaefiion, "Believe ye that 1 am able to do this ?" Mauh ix. 28, 

(}.) Another thing thatChrift did in the courfc of hii miniftry, 
wij to call his difciplcs. He called many difciplcs. There were 
many that he employed as minifiers ; he fent fevcrity difciplcs at 
one time in this woik : but there were twelve that he fct apart ai 
apoftles, who were the grand mtniftcrs of his kingdom, and as k 
were the twelve foundations of his church,S!se Rev. xxi. 14. Thcfc 
were the main inftrumcnts of fctting up his kingiorii in the world, 
and therefore (hall fit on twelve thrones, jurfging the twelve tribes 
of Ifrael. 

4. I would obferve how he f5niilicd his msniflry. And this wat 

(i .) la giving his dying counfcis to his difciplcs, and all that 
fr.ould be his difciplcs, which we have recorded particularly in the 
I4'h, 15th, and i6th chapters of John's gjfpel, 

(2.) In iaAiiuting a folemn Rpemorial of his death. This he 
did in inftituting the facrament of the Lord's fupper, wherein uc 
have a rep^cfcntation of his body broken, and of his blood fled. 

(3) In efTering up himfcif, a^ God's high prieft, 1 ficriiice to 
God, which he did in hii laft fuffbrings. This ad he did «s God's 
miniflcr, as God's anointed prieft ; and it was the grcv^cfi ad off 
kis public miniftry, the greaieft ad of his obedience, by wfcicti he 
purchafed heaven for bclicvir?. The prisfts cf o!d ufcd to do ma- 
ny ether things asGod's minificrs ; but then were they in ihc high- 
eft execution of :hcir office when they were adually offering f^cii- 
ficeon the altar. So the greaieft thing that Cbrift did in the exe- 
cution cf his pricftly office, and the j;r«r«Jci'i thing that he ever did,, 
and the greate.^ thing that ever was done, wss the offcrirg up him- 
fcif a facrifict to God . Herein he was th^ antetypa of al! that had 
been done by all iheprlcfts, and in all their faciificcs and oficrirgs, 
ficm the beginning of the world.. 

III. The third dii^ribuiicn cf thcad* by -*hich Chr ifl purchaf- 
ed redemption, regards the vinuti that (JJtri/i ifttrr.ijtd and Tnani" 
jtfiid\v\ them. And here I would cbferve, that Chnft in doing 
the work that he bad to do here in the wor!d for our redemption, 
excrcifcd every poflible virtue and grace, Inctccd there arc fome 
particular virtues that Cnful man may have, ?hit were net inChrif^ ; 
not from any waat or dcfed of virtue, but Ircsufe his virtue waa 
perftd and without dcfed. Such is the viriui of rf pentancc, and 
brokcnncfs of heart for fin, and raortificaticn, and dtnying of lufl. 
Xb9f<: vlr(uci were QOt xq Chriil^ becguft hs hzi no fin of bii owa 


iS\. A H I S T O R T of 

^orcp'llf o^ nor any h?t to d°ny. But all virtues wh?ch do not 
prcfui p. f.: Aj-, were in hira, ?Bd that in a higher degree ihan ever 
ihty were in any other man, or anv jierc creature. Every virtue 
in h na w«it pe,f-ct. Virtue it/;if \va» greater in hina (ban in a- 
By o'her ; and il W3i unicr g'-catcr 3'.;va".t3g''.8 fc(hinc in hioi «h:a 
in any oth<:r. frird virtue mo^^ when moU irica : but ne- 
ver a'-jv viivue had fuch triuls as Cbiiirt had. 

The virtue that Chrift cj^ercrfcd in the work he :)\d, m^y be dit- 
Tlded into three, f-.^rw, viz the vittu« which more immediately rcf- 
pcL^ God, ihofe which imaotdlaitfiy refpc(^t hinifclf, asd ihofc 
fyhich imrncoiajt'ly rtfpcift uicn. 

1. Xhoit viiiuei vjhich more imimdiaicly refpeH God, appeared 
in Chrift in the work that he did for our led-mption. There ap- 
peared in him an holy fear and reverence towards God the Father. 
Chrift had a grente- i: m! c? hii virtue in thia tcfpcd^ than any o- 
thcrhsd, from the honourablcncf'! of hh pc^fon. Toil was the 
icraptaticn of the angel* jhat fell, \o cafl cifiheir wcrihlp of Goe}, 
and revtrcccc of his oriijcf^y, that thcj weie beings of fuch cx^iltcd 
dignity and woi-toincfsthwOifcive!. Eut Chrili waa infi.'iite)y mora 
worthy aod honoiiratlc than ihey ; for he %va3 the ciernal S»a of 
G.jd, and hb pttrfon waseqi'al to the psrfon of God the Father : 
snd yet, as he had tgk;eri on him the ofTicc of mediator, and the na- 
ture of man, he was fall of rci'-crcncc towards God. He adcrcd 
him in the moft reverential m;-.naer time after time. So he mani- 
fcAcd a wonderful Jove to^vards God. The sngcls pivc great tcflj- 
jiioiucsolthcir iove towards Gcd, ia their conftancy and agility 
in doing the will of Gcd ; and muny faints have given gr?:at tcfti- 
monies of tbcir Icvc, who, from love to God, have endured greaj: 
labours and fi ffcrirg-i ; but none ever gave fuch tcfi.imonies of love 
so God a» CbrifT hss given ; cone ever performed fuch a labour of 
love 23 he, and fufi*c"cd io much from love to God. So he mani- 
fcftcdthc moft \Tondcrful fubmifilon to. the will of God. Never 
■was any one's fubmifilon £o tried sa his was. So he iranifeftcd 
ihe moft wondcrtui fpirit of cbcGlcnc^ that ever waa manififred. 

2, In this work he naofi: vfonderfuliy manifeftcd thofc virtu:: 
ivliich morf immediately refpcSled himfdf ; as particularly humility, 
paricncc, and contempt of lbs world. Chri»l, though he wis the 
jnoft cscelient and honorable of all men, yet y:zz the moft humble ; 
yea, he w-ns the mcft huar.ble of ail cre^nsrcs. No ang«l or man 
ever cqualJed bias ia humility, though he ttas the higheft of all 
creatures i.': dignity and honoraklcn efs. Chrift would have been 
under the grcateft temptstions to pride, if it had beca pofT.blcfcr 
:my thing to be s tcmptaiion to him. The temptation of the ajjgejs 
t.hat fell was the dignity of thf:ir nature, and the fconorablrncfa ^f 

C-h^if circuai^r.sces j bu5 Cb:i/l F5« ipfinittJy laore boaQrallc th'irs 

"■ .--... - ' ^ gj^^^ 

the Work o! R E D E M P T 1 O N. 155 

they. The human nature of ChriA wai fo honored ai to be in the 
fame perfon with the cteraal Son of God, who was equ»l with God ; 
and yet that human nature was not at all lifccd up with pride. Noy 
was the man Chrift Jcfus at ai! lifted up with pride with all ihofe 
wonderful works which he wrought, ot healing the fick, curirg 
|he blind, lame, a^d maisied, ind raifing th« dea^'. Though 
he knew that God had appointed hie to be the king ever bcavca 
and earth, angels and men, as he fays, M^lth. x'l. 1:7. *'Jll thing! 
are delvvetCv-l unto mc of nayFaihcr ;" tho' he kn«w he was fuch an 
infinitely honorable perfon, and thought it not robbery to be equal 
with G d ; and though he knew he was the heir of God the Father'? 
kingdom : yet fi'ch was kis bumiiity, that he did sot difdain tp 
be abafed and deprclTed down into lower and viler circumfuncts 
and {uflf;:r!ngi than ever any other eled creature was ; fo that he 
became leaft of all, and lowed of all. The proper trial and evi- 
dence of humility, is looping or complying with thofe atis or 
circum fiances, when called to it, which are very low, and contain 
great abaftmcnt. But none ever Aoopcd fa low as Cbrift, if we 
confiicr either the infinite height that he looped from, or the great 
depth to which he rtood. Such was his humiJity, thai tbou^h he 
knew his infinite wortblncfs of honor, and of Icing honored tea 
thoufand times as much as the hi^hcH: prince on carih, o? angel in 
heaven j yet he did not think i: too much when called to it, to be 
bound as a curfed malefaftcr, and to become the iaughit g-Hock 
and fpiliing-ftcck of the vileft of men, and to be ctowacd with 
thorns, and to have a mock robe put upon hira, sr.d to be crucified 
like a Have and malcfa^lor, and as cne of the mcsnefi and wcrfl 
of vagabonds and mifcreanti, and an accurfci enemy cf God and 
men, who was not fie to live on earth ; and this not for himfcif, but 
for feme of the meancft and vilcf: of creatures, feme of thofe 
accurfcd wretches that crucified him. Was not this a wonderful 
manifeftation of humility, when be chcarfuly gnd mofx freely 
fubmitttd to this abifcm-nt ? 

How did his patience rniae forth under all the tcrrib'e fLfTcnngs 
which he endured, when he was dumb, and opened not his mouth, 
but went as a lamb to the Il^ughter, snd was ilkc a psiient lamb 
under ail the fufferings he endured from firft to iafl. 

What contempt of the glory of this world w;is there, \'>hcn he 
rather chofe this contempt, and meanncfs, and fuflcring, than to 
wear a temporal crown, and be invcfied with the cxternai glories 
4|i an eartlily prince, as the multiiuc'c often folicitcd him ? 

3. ChriA, in the work wiii«!i he wrought out, in a wcnderful 
manner cxercifed thofe virtutt ivhich mere immediately refpeci 
^shr men, Thcfc may be fummcd up under two heads, v!«. 
fccekDcf?, aad love. 


Chrsfii's mcckncfs wai his bumble calmncfs of fpirzt uadcr the 
provocations thai he met with. None eye- met with fo great pro* 
vocations ai he did. The grcataefs of prov<,'Cj!ioD l\v.% in two 
things, vJi, in jjjc degree of oppofitbn by which th«j provocation 
h given ; and, fccondiy, in the dej^rcc of the unrcafonablcftcfs oH 
that oppofition, or in its being very caufalcfj, and without rcafoo» 
vni the grcit degree of obngation to the contrary. Novv,if we con- 
fider both thcfe thin^!, no man ever met whh f'jch provocation* as 
Ghrift did, whr:n he wa? upon faith If we ccnfidti how much he wat 
hate-ii v?ha! cbufcs he fiiflerfd from the vilcfl of men, bow great his 
fviffcrings from men wire, and how fpitefd and how contempJuoui 
they wzttf in offering him ih^ f..* abufcs ; and alfo confidcr bow 
cauieiefs and unreafon&blc thef? abufe» were, how undcfcrving he 
Wits of them, and haiv much dcfsrvlog of the contrary, tIz. of iove, 
and honor, .stjid good trcittirj^nt at their b^ndf ; i f^iy^ if ^c coa- 
fvhr thcfe things, no msn ever oast with a thcufanKth part of the 
provosatioc ihsj ChnC\ met -.^.'ih *rom jnen ; and yet haw meek 
,w 5 he uidf-r all ! how ccmpofed ard quiet hl» fpirit ! how far from 
biiag in a rufiL' and tuaiult ! VVhsn he was reviled, he reviled n^t 
again ; sad as a (hezp before {he, Or.earers is dumb, fo he opened 
cot his tnouth. NDsppcarsEce iva? ihrrs of a revengeful ipi'.h 
on the contrary, wh?.t a fphh of fof^'vericfs d*fd he erhibit ! fo 
that he fervently z^\d cf[r.tlut\\y prayed for their forgivencfs, whea 
hey were in Jheh'-pheA siS. of provocation that ever they perpttratf:.'', 
viz. nailing hioi to the crofs : Luke xxlii, 34. ** Father, fbrgive 
them ; for they know not what they do." 

Ntver did rhere appear fuch aji inHsnce of love to men, Ch?lftj 
love to mt:i thil he (howcd when on earth, artd efptcially in go- 
ing through hh iaff fuiicrings, sni cilering up hb life and foul un- 
der thofe fufFerings, which was biigreateft ad of iovc, was far b<5- 
yond a!l parallel. There have been very rtmajkabie maDifcflati- 
ons of love in fon^e of the fsinti, za in the Apoftlc P<<uJ, the A pof- 
tlc John, and clhcrs : but the love to lacn that Chrifl (l)cwcd whca 
•on earth, as much exceeded the love of all oibei' men, as ll^s 
ocsan exceeds a UnsM Dream, 

It is to be obferved, that all the virtucf which appeared in Cbrirt 
Clone brighicft in the clofe of his life, under the triaU he met with 
ihcn. Eminent virtue always (i)c>^i brighiei^ in the lire. Fufc 
gold fiaowi its purity chief!)' in the furnscc. It was chiefly undyi 
thofe trial* v^hich Chdft underwci^t in the clofc of his life, ihst hi* 
love to God, his honor of God's msjefiV, and hii regard 10 tije 
boner of his hw, and his fpirit of obedicnc^^, and hii hunrjility, and 
contempt of the v/crld, and his patience, and hii mcekricfi, m,d 
his fpirit of forgivcncfs towards men, appeared. Iad«iCd every thing 
ihatpirift did to work cut redemption for ut appcan mainly in t^e 
clofe of his life. Here mainly is his fatiafaOion for fin, and fce^e 
chiefly is his merit of eternal life for fnncrs, S: h«rc cbi^fty »ppeaf 
the Uightacfj ^f bis cxair;ple, wbicj^ hs hiib Ut U5 to follow, 

1. H 1/ S 

ifcc Work of R E D EM P T I O N. 157 

Vhus wc hsvc tsrkcn a brief vicv? of tb* things whereby th* 
j urchafc of reilcmplion'wai made wiih rcfpcd to his right coufneft 

that appeared in ihcm 1 proceed now, 

§ II. To take a vicvr of ihcni with rcfpcft lo Xht fata faH ion that 
he ihercb> made for fin, or ihc fujfd ring t or kuTsiliation that he 
was the fiibjcd of in ihcm on our accouut. And here, 

I. He was fubjcd to uncommon humiliation and fuflerings in hrs 
iafancy. Ke was born to that end that he might die ; and therefore 
he did as it vrcr« begin to die as foon as he was born. Fiis Abiher 
futfcrcd in an urjccmmon manner in bearing him. WhdH'liflt travail 
came upon her, it ii,faid, ** there was no room in the inn," Luke 
ii, 7, She was forced to betake hcrfcif to a (table ; an*ihcrcforc 
Chriit was born in the place of the bringing forth of the beaftf* 
Thus he fufTwei in his birth, as though hs had lecti meaner Ifed 
viler than a man, and not poffcflcd of the dignity of the human 
nature, but had been of the rank of the brute creatures. And wc 
may eoneludc, that his mother's circum Ranees in other rcfpcAi 
were ^roportionably ftrait and dltiiGuIc, and that (he was deflitute 
of the conveniences nectffary for fo young an infant which others 
were wont to have ; for want of which the new-born babe with- 
out doubt fuffered much. 

BefiJes, he was perfceutcd in his inftncy. They began to feek 
his life as fjon as he was born. Herod, the chief man cf the land, 
was fo engaged io him, that, in order to it, he killed all the chil- 
dren in Bcthleheas, ami in all the coaf^s thereof, from two yean 
old and under. Chrift fuffered banifbmcnl in his infancy, wai 
driven out of his native eountry into Egypt, and without doubt 
fuffeied much by being carried fo long a journey, when he was fo 
young, into a ftrsngc country. 

11. Chrift was fubjecft to great humiliation in his private life at 
Nazareth. He there led a fervile obfcure life, in a mean labori- 
ous oecup^tion : for he is called not only the carpenter' if on, but 
the carpenter : Mark vi, 3. ** Is not this tfec carpenter, the bro- 
ther of l^mes and Jofes, and Juda, and Simon ?" He, by halrd 
labour, earned his bread before he ate it, and fo fufTered that curfe 
which God pronounced on Adsm, Gen, iii. 13. •* In the fwe« 
of thy face (halt thou eat bread," Let us corJlder how great a 
degree of humiliation the glorious Son of God, the creator of hea- 
ven and earth, was fubjeft to in this, that for about thirty years he 
jQK)uld live a private obfcure life among labouring m*en,2nd all thii 
<llile be overlooked, and not taken ootiee of in the world, as more 
<han other coarimon labourers. Chrift's humiliation in fome ref*' 
pedis was greater ia private life than in the time of his public mi- 
oii^/y. Tiicre were many manifeftationsof his glory in the word 
^\e preached, and the great miracles he wrought ; but (he firft ihffiy 
r^art of his life he fpcne among meao ordinary menj 33 it were ia 


I5« A H I S T O R Y of 

filence, wiihoHt thofs minifcAations of his glory, or any ihxng to 
make him to be taken notice of mere than Koy ordinary mtchanic^ 
but only the fpotltfi purity and eninenl hoSIacii of his life ; and 
that \ras in a great mc^furc hid in obfcurity ; fo that he was lit- 
tle taken noiicc of till after his baptifm, 

III. Chfi ft was the fubjirCl oT great humiliaiJon and fuffcring 
during his public life, frocn his baptifai till the n:gbt wherein he 
wasjbttrayed. A« parucularly, 

iJ|H[c fiiffered great poverty, (o that he had not " where to Isy his 
bead,"<^]|l%h. viii* 20. andcoaamonly uf^d to lodge abroad in the 
open aii:,,for want of a Tnelier to bf.take himfcif to ; as you will fee 
is manifel^i if you compare the folio A'ing plaoei together, which I 
ihall but npone to you, ev«n M;jtth. viiJ. 20. and John xviii. i. 2., 
stftd LukoxKijf 37. and ch. xxsi. 39. So that whu was fpoken of 
Chrift in v. 2. ** My head is tilled vriih dew, »nd my locks 
with the drops of the n:ght," wis liicrally fulfiled, Tnrough hij 
poverty he doubtlefa was often pinched with hunger, and thirft, and 
cold. Ws; rcadjMatih, iv. 2. that ha was an hungrcd ; and fo agaia 
in Malt. xxi. i3 H's mother and natural relations were poor,and 
not abl« to help him : and be was maintained by the charily of 
fomc of his difclplei while he lived. So we resd in Luke viii. at 
»bc beginning, of a certain wotnen that followed his, and minifler- 
td to him. of their fubnance. fc!e w?.s fo poor, that he was not 
able to piy the tribute that was dcaiandcd of him, without the mi- 
raculous coming of a fill to bria^ him the money out of the fea in 
hh mouth. See M;Uth. rviii. 27, And when be ate his laA paf- 
fover, it was not at his own charge, but at the charge of anoiherji 
«s appears by Luke X3:ii. 7, &-« F.'om his po'^crty he had no 
grave of his own to be buried in. ft wss the manner of the JewSj 
unUfs they were very poor, aad were not able, to prepare them- 
felv«s a ffipulchcr while they lived. But Chrilt had ao land of bli 
own, thcup^h he was polTclTor of heaven and earth ; and therefore 
was buried by Jcfcph of Arimathca'a charity, and in his own tomb* 
which b^. had prepared for himfelf. 

i. Hi fufferd great haJred and reproach, He wat defpifed 
and rcjedcd of men. He was by mofi el^cemed a poor infignifi- 
tant perfon ; oneof Iltvle sccount, flighted for his low parentage* 
An!^ his mean city Nazareth. He was reproached at a gl'Jtton and 
drunkard, a friend of publicans and finoers ; wu called a deceiver of 
the people; fometimei was allied a madman, and 3S9m.iririan,3nd 
oncpofTefied with a devil, John vii. 20. and viii. 48 and s. 20. lie 
was called a blafphemcr, snd was accounted by m?ny a wizzard, oi 
ore that wrought mirac'esby the black art,and communiciiion with 
Bce^zabub. They excommunicated him, and aprced to excommuni' 
«ate any enaa that lliould own iiim, £s, John ix, 23. They wiihcd 


the Work of REDEMPTION. 159 

l^ita dead, and «rcre continually feeking to murder him; fomctimci 
by force and fomeiimcs by craft. They often took up ftoncs to 
fionchim, and onccled hitn to the bro^rofa hil^l, intending tp 
throw him dovrn the pTecipIce,toda(ltliim In pieces again ft the recks. 

He wij ihuj hated and reproached by bU own vifible people r. 
John i. 1 1. * He came to his own, ^d bii owrt^received him n ot»" 
He was principally dcfpifed and hated by thofe who were in chic| 
repute, their grcatcft men. And ihe hatred wherewith he wai 
hated ysras general Into whstever part of the land he went*, ht 
met with hatred and contempt* He met with thefe in Capernaum, 
and when he went to Jericho, when he went to Jerufalcm, which 
was the holy city, wUcn he went to the temple to worship, and al- 
fo in Nazareth, . his own city, and among his own relations and 
his old neighbours, 

3. He fuffercd the buffetiags of Satan in an uncommon man- 
lier. - We read of one time in particular, when he had a lorgcon- 
fii<^ with the devil, when he was in the wildcrnefs forty days, witb 
nothing but wild beafts and devils ; and was fo expofed to the de- 
vil's power, that he was bodily carried about by him from placo to 
place) while he was otherwife in a very fuffering ilate. 

So much for the humiliation and fuffering of Cbrift'r public life 
from his baptifm to the night wherein he was betrayed. 

IV, I come now to his laft humiliation and fuffcrings, from 
the evening of the night wherein he was betrayed to his refured^ion* 
Ucre was his greateft humiliation and fuffcriog, by which princi- 
pally he made falls faction to the jufticc of God for the fits of mc6. 
Firft, his life was fold by one of his own difciplcs for thirty piecef 
of filvcr, which was the price of the fife of t fervant, as you may 
fee in Exod. zxl. 32. Then he was in that dreadful agony in tha 
garden^ There came fuch a difmal gloom upon his foul, that he 
began to bcforrowful and very heavy, and faid,his ** foul was ex» 
ceeding forrowful even unto death, and was fore amazed." So 
violent was the gloom of hit foul, as to force the blood through th» 
pores of his ikia ; fo that while his foul was overwhelmed with a- 
mazing forrow, his body was all clotted with blood. The difci- 
ples, who ufcd to be as his friends a»d family, at this time above 
all appeared cold towards him, and unconcerned for him, at the 
fame time that his Father's faec was hid from him. Judas, to 
whom Chrift had been fo very merciful^ and treated as one of hii 
family or familiar friends, comci and betrays him io the moll: 
deceitful, and treacherous manner. The offiesri annd foldiers ap« 
prebend and bind him ; his difciplcs forfake bi«i,aDd flcs ; his owa 
bc^ friends do not ftand by him to comfort him in this time o£ 
liii d'ditch, tie is led away as a malefadtor to appear before the 

V priefit. 

i6o A H I S T O n Y of 

ptltfii gnef fcribes, h's vcnoihous, mortal enftmics^ iljat Aey mighi 
*it as bi« judges *ho fat un all night, to have ihc picafurc of InfuU- 
irtg him, now rhty hid T^i hlrn into ihcir hands. But bttaufc 
they aiaced at nothing ftiort of his life, ikey fcl thcmfelvci to find 
fomc colour to put him to death, and feck for witneffcs againft 
him. When none appeared, they fct foc"; to bear falfc vritncft ; 
ind when their wiinefi did not ajrcc togetl^er, then they go to 
ftranji'ning blm, to C£tch fomcthi»g out of his own mouth. They 
hoped he would fay, that he was the Son of God, and then they 
thought they Ukatild have enough. Bu: bccaufc they fee they ara 
not like to obtain it without it, they then go to force him to fay 
it, by adjuring hinj, ia the name of God, io fay whether he was or 
aoi : and vrbcn he confcffcd that he was, then they fuppofed tbe^ 
had enough ; and then it was tinac of rejoiceing >*ith lh«ni, whicX 
they fliow, by fall'fng upon him, and fpitutig in his face, and blind* 
folding bim,snd arikcng Chiift in tU face with ibe palms of thtif 
hand«, and then bidding him prophefy who it wan that ftruck him 5 
thus ridiculing him for pretending to be a prophet, * And the rery 
fsTrants have a hand in the fport : Mark, xiv. 65. «' And the fer* 
▼an!s did ftrikc him with the palms of their hands." 

During the fuiferings of that night, Ftfter, one of the chief ol 
kis own difciplcs, inilead of fkandfng by him to comfort him, 
appears ashamed to o>vn him, and denies and renounces him withr 
•aths and curfcs. And after the chief priefts and elders had iiiTilh« 
ed the night in fo ilaamefulty abufirg him, when the morning wztf 
come, which was the morning of the moft wonderfitlday that c- 
ticrwas, they led him away to Pilate, to be condemned fo deatK 
by bim, becaufc they had not the power of life and death ia their 
own ha.rJs. He is brought before Pihtd's jadgement feat, and 
there the priefts and eldsr* atcufc hi.-n as a traito^. When PiUte, 
upon examining into the mattc?,declarcd he fcunduo fault iri hini, 
the Jews were bat the more fiierce and violent to have him condemned. 
Upon whieh Pihte, after clearing htm, very anjuilly brings hrm 
vpQn a fec&nd trial ; and then net finding any thing sgaiuft hiiff 
Acquits him :»galn. Pifate treats him as a poor worthlefs f^llbw j 
but is aibamed on fo little pretence to condemn him as a traitor. 

Then he wis fcnt to Herod to be tried by hira, and tfas brought 
before Htrdd's jndgtncnt-feal ; and his enemies followed, aid vi- 
rulently aeeufed him before Herod. Herod docs not condemn him aif 
a traitor,or one that would fet up for a kif»g,but looks upcnhim at 
Pilate didiat a poor worthlsfs cre^ture^not worthy to be taken notict^ 
of, and do« bu: make a flocrtt Iiugb of the Jews iiecuHng him as a daa* 
gcrooi perfon to Cajfar, at o«e thtt was in danger of fctticg «p to NF 
a kiag againfk him ; and therefore, indcrifion, drcfTes him up in tf 
9i9ck tab; and aiakes fpoti of him^ and fcadt bim baok through 

the .Work of REDEMPTION, 161 

the Areeti of JemfaUas to Pilate nith tbe mock robe on. 

Then the Jcwi prctci B^rabbai before him, and .re inftant and 
violent v*ith loud yaicet to Pilate, to crucify him. So Pilate, af- 
Ur he had chared him iw'ce, and Hciod once, very ucrightcoufly 
b/inji him on trial «h< thiidlime, to try if be could not find fon'C- 
thing igaiaft him fLfficient to ciucify him. Chfift iras dripped 
and fcourgcd : thus he gave hi« back to the fmiter. After that, 
though PtUte lUll declared that he found no fault in him j yet fp 
UBJuft was he, that for fear of the Je wi he delivered Chrift to be 
cruciried. Bui before they execute the fectcncc, hii fpitcful and 
eruel enemies tske the plcafure of another fpcll of mocking him } 
they get round him, and make a frt bufinefs of it. They )\ripped 
him, and put on him a fcarlet robe, and a reed in his band, and » 
crown of tboroi sn hit head. Both Jews and Koman foldieri were 
united in the tranfadion ; they bow the knee before him, and in 
deriiba cry, " Hail, king of the Jewi." They fpil upon him 
slfo, and take the reed out of his hand, and fmite him on the head. 
After this they led him away to crucify him, and made him carry 
his own crofi, till be funk u»dcf it, his Arength being fpcnt ; and 
^h«i they laid it on one Sipion a Cytenian. 

At leogtb, being co«»e to Mount Calvary, they execute the fcn- 
teacc which Piiate had fo uitrighteoufly pronounced. They nail 
him to bis crofs by |sis bands and feet, then raife it ere£^, and fix 
one end in the ground, be being Aill fufpended on it by the nsils 
which pierped his hands and feet. Now Chrift 's fuiferiogs arc 
come to the extremity : now the cup, which he fo earncftly prayed 
that it might pafs from him, is come, and he muA, he does drink 
it. In tbofc days crucifixion was the moA tormenting kind of 
death by which any were wont to be executed. There was no death 
wherein the per foe expired fo mueh of mere torment : and kence 
the Roman word, which fignifies torment, is taken from this kind 
ofdecth.^- — Bc6des what our Lord endured in his excruciating 
death in his body, he endured vaflly more in his fcul. Now was 
that travail of his foul, of which we read in the prophet ; now it 
pleafed God to bruifc him, and to put him to gdtt ; now he ;'** ;r. 
ed out hit foul unto death, as in If. liii. If the mere forethought 
of this eup made hioo fweat blood, hosr much more dreadful and 
^cruciating muft the drinking of it have been ! Many mgrtyri 
Itave endured much in tbeir bodies, while their iculs have been 
Joyful, and have fungfor joy, whereby they have been frpponci 
under the fufTcringsof their outward man, and have triumphed o- 
ver them, $ut this was not the cafe with Chrift ; he bad no fuch 
fuppori ; but his fuflcrings were chiefly ihofi of the mind, tbo' 
ihe olhet were extremely great. In his crucifixion Chr ill did no* 
V««t Uood| ti be bad bcfcre« bccaufc his blocd had vent cthe^r 


iCz A H I 5 T O R Y of ' 

wife, and not becaufc his agony was now not fo great. But tho' 
he did not fwcst Mood, yet fuch was the fuffering of his foul, ihat 
probably it rent his vitals ; as fcems probable by this that wUcn 
bii fide wai pierced, there csmc forth blood and water. And fa 
here W38 a kind of literal fulfilment of that in Pfal. xxii. 14. *♦ I 
am poured out like wstcr : — my heart ii like wax, it is melted in 
the micft of my bowels." 

Njvt under allihefs fuff^rings the Jews ftill mock him ; and 
wag.^ing their heads fay, '* Thou that dcftroycft the te«»ple, and 
buiidcft it in three days, fave thyfi:lf : if thou be the Son of God, 
comedown from the cfofs.'* And even the chief pricfts, fcribes, 
ni5d ciders, joined l\ the cry, fayinjj, *^ He fs-vcd others, himfclf 
he cannot fivc." Prcbsbly iht: devil st the f^-me lime loraieritid^hirQ 
to the utmoft oftii? power ; and hence it is faid, Luke xxii. 53. 
•* Xhh is your hour, and the po'ifsr of dsrknefs," 

Uader thefe fuffsringt, Chrift havi ;g cried out once and sgaim 
nilh a loud voice, at latl ht faid, *' It is Hn fhed/' (Jokn xfx. 30 ), 
"* zni bowed the head, and gave up the ghoit." And thus was 
finiihtd the greatcf^. and moft won^'-cful thing that ever was donc^ 
Now the angels beheld themoil wonderful fight that ever thty faw. 
NoAr'was accompHilied the main thing; that had been pointed at by 
ihc various inrdtutions ef the ceremonial hw,and by all the typical 
djfperfatiorjan.d by all thcfacrincca rromthebcginning of the world* 

Chrifi being thus brought under the power of death, continued un- 
der it till the morning of the nsxt dsy bu* onci and then was finifbei 
that great work, the purchafe of our redemption, for which fuch 
j;reat preparation had been msdc from the beginning of the wo-!d. 
Then was liiiifhsd all that was rf.qulrcd la order to fatisfy the 
ihreatcnings of the hw, and all that was neceifary in order to fatisify 
ci i vine juft ice; then the Htmoft that vindidivc juftice demanded, 
even the whole debt was piid. Then was tinifbed the whofc of the 
purchafe of eternal iife. Now there is no aecd of any thing more 
to be done towards a purchafe of falvaiion for finncri ; nor has 
tvcr any thing been done fince, nor will any thing more be done 
lL#evcr and ever, 

I JM P R .,0 V E M E N T. 

N furveying the bi^ory of redempdoo, from the fall of man lo 
the end of the world, *ir« have low i^aowa how this work w^j 
carried ontbrrugh ihe two former of^hcilbree main periods into 
which this nhole fpacc of time wh« divided, viz. from the fall to 
ihc incarnation of Chrifi, and from thence to the end of the lime 
of Chiij't'. ■. 'nlliatioH ; and have particularly explained how in 
ihefirfi of ■ 'e periods God prepared the way for ChrifiB ap pea?- 
iog a&d pttrcfeaHjag tedqiap^ipo i aad kQVff ia the fccQa4 pcfiQ^o 

ihc Work of R 1 D E M P T I O N. 165 

that purchafe wai made and finidied. I would now inak« fome 
iraprovcofient of whal hss been faid or both ihcfc fubjsds eonfidtf* 
cd conjun<^Iy.— Thii I would do, 

I. la an ufe of reproof. 
- 2i -In an ufe of encouragement. 

"" ' Sect. I, 

IBE G I N with an ulie of reproof ; a reproof •f three things : 
I. Of unbelief* 

£. Offeif-righlcoufneff, 

3. Of a oarelcft ncgleft of the falvation of ChriA, 

I. If it be as wc have heard, how greatly do thefe things reprove 
thofc who do not believe in, but rej*(5l the Lord Jtfuj Chrift ! i, e, 
all thofc who do not heartily receive him. Pei fons msy receive 
biai in profefl[ion,and carry well outwardly toj^ards hino, and may 
widi that they had fome of thofc benefits that Chri/l has purchafcd, 
and yet their hearts not receive Chrifl ; ibcy may be hearty in no- 
thing that they do towards Chrift ; they may have -1:0 high tfleem 
of Chrifl, nor any finccre honour or rcfped to Chrift ; they may 
never have ppcncd the door of their heart to Chiift, but have kepi 
hina fliut out all their days, ever fince they firft beard of Chrift, 
and hiff falvation has baen offered to them. Though their hearts 
have been opened to others, their doors have been flung wide ope« 
to them, and they have had free admittance at all times, and havt 
Lficn embraced and made much of, and the bcft room in their hearts 
has been given them, and the throne of their hearts has been allow- 
ed them : yet Chrift hss always been fljut out, and they have bcca 
deaf to all his knocks and calls. They never could find an inclina- 
tion of heart to receive him, ndr would they ever trufl in him. - 

Let me now call upon you with whom it is thus, to confider how 
great your fin, in thus rcjefting J.fus Chri/^, appears to be from 
thofc things that have been faid. You fiight the glorious pcrion, 
for \^hofe coming God mad« fuch great preparation in fuch a fc- 
ries of woaderful providences from the beginning of the world, and 
whom, after all things were made ready, God fcnt into the ivorldj 
bringing to pafi a thing before unknown, viz. the ynion of the di. 
vine nature with the human ia one pcrfon. You have bcch guilty 
€f flighting that great Saviour, who, after fuch preparation, sc- 
tualfy accomplifhed the purehafc of redemption ; and who, aftci 
he had fpcnt three qt foar and thirty years in poverty, labour, and 
contempt, in purchafing redemption, at lafi finiffccd the purchafe 
by clofiag his life under fuch extreme fufferirgs as you haveheardj 
and his death, and continuing for a time under the power of 
death, completed the whole. This is the pcrfon you rcjeft and def- 
pifc. You make light of all the glory of bis pcrfon, and of all 
tlse gbricus love gt Goi the Father^ in fending hio) into the 


.|64 4L JH I S T O R y 9l 

^crldi fn^ .f^I hit wonderful love appesriiig ia Ihc whpb 
|(^f ILbi9 afTair. That prtciow ftoEC ifcat God hach l*id in Zion for 
k foundation in fuch a manner, and by fuch iBrondfriuJl .f t>;ki ai 
you have heard, is a ilonc fet at noughs by you. 

Sinnc'i fomctimes are ready to ircjidcr why the fin of uplpelief 
ihould be looked upon as/ucb as a great Cm : but if you confider 
what yo'J have heard, how oan you ponder ? If it bjp ip, thai thif 
i^aviour if fo g^c&l a Saviour, and tb s work fo great a work, and 
fuch great things have been done is ord/r to it, ^ru'y there ii no 
caufe of tvonder .that the fin of unbcli^, or the reje6lion of thii 
Saviour, is fpolcen of in fcripturcas fuch a dr^ad'u) fia, fo provok- 
ing to God* ^d what brings greater guilt than tl^e fins of t^e word: 
of the Heathen, who never heard of fbefe things, aer have had thit 
Sav,iour offered to them. 

II What has been faid, affords njaticr of reproof tp fhofc whp, 
iwAead of believing in Chrif^, iruft in ihemfelves for falyation. It 
is a common thmg with snen to take It upon tbcmfelvei to purcbafc 
falvation for themfdve?, an4 fo to do that gr^at work wbichCbrlil 
«3me into the world to do. Arc there none fucji here who trufk ia 
|heir prayers, and in ihgir jgpod converfatio.ns, and thepaini they 
take in religion, i^nd the reforaiation of their lives, and in 'heir 
felf'denia!, to recofnmcnd them to God, to make fogpe atonement 
for their paft fiui, and to draw the heart of God to them 1^ 

Confider three things ; 

% . How great a thing that is which you take upon you. Tpi 
take upon you to do the v/ork of the great Saviour of the world* 
You truft in yowr own doings to uppcafcGod for your fins, and 
to incline the heart of Qod to you. Though you ?re poor,worth- 
Icfs, vile, polluted worms of the dull ; yet fo arrogant arc you,that 
you take upon you that very work, that the only begotten Sop of 
God did when upon earth, and that he became man to capacitate 
himf^lf for, and in order to which God fpent four t|ioufand ycart 
in all the great difpcnfatisns of his providence ia the government 
,of the world, aimiug chiefly at this, to make way for Chrift> 
.^oming to do this work. Tnis is the work that you take upon 
yourfelf, and foollfbly think yourfelf fu^cient for it ; as though 
your prayers, and other performances, were excellent enough for 
ibis purpofe. Confider how vain is the thought which you enter- 
tain of yourfelf. How much fuch arrogance appear in the fight of, 
Chrifl, whom it coil fo much to make a purchafe of falvation. 
when it was not tp be obtained even by him, fo great and glorious 
a perfon, at a cheaper rate than his wading through a fet o£ 
blood, and pafHng through the midflof the furnace of God's wrath* 
And how vain mufl your arrogance appear in the fight ofGod,wbeii 
be fc^ you ima^ioipg yourfi:U fu/Hcioati 9nd youi woitblcfs pol- 


tic WotI: ot REVi^'^TlOyf. i6^ 

iuifed pcrrormancci ^xccHcnt enoO^ for th6 iteotfjplilTifwg 6f thit 
work of his 6wa 3atJ, to prepare the w'ay for which he was einploy- 
td in ordering ill the great sffairs of the \iotM fai* fo many agei I 
2. If there be ground fo? yeu to truft, as you rfo, m your own 
tighteoufnefs, then all that Chrift did to puFchifi falvation when 
on earth, and all that God did ffocn the firft fall of i«an to that iFnidT 
to prepare the wsy for it. Is in vain. Tout fdfi'ighteoufrtefl 
chifgei God with the grcatcft fory, although he hsJ done all thftigi 
fn tain, cvia fo much in vain, ihathcbas done aHthis to bring 
aboai an accoaipliflbtnentof that which ycu iJone, a Utile worm. 
With your poor polluted prayers, and the little pains you tak* ior 
religion, mingled with all thit hypocrify and filthlncfs, arc fuf- 
ficieni X6 accompHfti for yotirfelf without Chrift'i help. For it 
you cati appeRfcGod'i anger, and can commendjyourfelf to God by 
thefc mcsns|thcn you have no need o^Chrift; bur be is dead in vaia^ 
Gal. ii 2t. " If rigbtcoufncfi come by the law, then Cbrift ii 
tfiead in vain. 

If you can do ihi» by our prayen and good worfci, Chrift might 
ktve fparcd his paini ; he might hate fpared hi» blood ; he might 
hire kept within the bofons of hi» Father, without coming dowrt 
iflto thiv evil world to be defpifed, reproached, and pcrfccuted t<^ 
death ; Ood needed net haved bufied bimfelf, a* he did for four 
thoufamcf years together, caufing fo many chssgcj in the ftatfc of th« 
world all that while, in order to the bringing about that which yow, 
as little as you are, can accomplifli in a few days, only with ihe 
trouble of a few fighs, and groans, and prayers, and fomc other 
religious performances. Confidcr with ycurfcH what greater folly 
could you have dcvifcd to charge upon God than this, to do all 
thofe things before and after Chrift came into the world fo need- 
lefiiy ; when, inftead of all ibis, he might only have called you 
forth, and committed tlie bufmefs to you, which you thiak you 
fcan do fo eafily. 

Alas ! how blind are natural men f bow fottifh are the thought! 
they have of things ! and cfpeciaily how vain are the thoughts wbicfai 
^ey have of thcmfclves L How ignorant of their own littlenefs and 
pollution ! How do the> exalt ihemfclvit up to heaven ? What 
great things do they affume to themfelves ! 

3, You that truft to your own righteoufntfi, arrogate to your,. 
fclves the honor of the greateft thing that ever God himfelf did ; 
not only as if you were fufficient to perform divine works* and to 
accomplifli feme of the great works of God ; but fuoh is year pride 
and vanity, that you are not content without taking upoa you to 
do the very grtateft work that ever God himfeH wrought, even thQ 
work of redemption. You fee bow Gad'§ works of provi'> 
denae arc greater tkaa kit wvrks af •teation, and that aU 

i66 A HISTORY of 

6od'i works of providfncs, from the beginning of thc^ ge. 
Derations of mcD« were in order to this, to make way for the 
purchafing of redemption. .But thij is what you take upon 
yourfclf. To lake on yourfelf to work out redemption, is a greater 
thing than if you had tiken it upon you to create a worM. Coiifider 
with yourfclf what a figure you a poor worm would make, if you 
(hould ferioufly go about to create fuch a world as God did, (hould 
fwcll in your owa conceit of yourfelf, fijould deck yourfclf with ms« 
jefty, pretend to fpeak the word of power, and call an univerfe out 
of nothing, intending to go on in order, and fay, '* Let there be 
light } Let there be a firmament,." &c. Bat then C3nfidcr,tiiat in at- 
tempting to work cut redemption for youi-fcif»ycu attempt a greater 
thing than this, sad arc ferious in ir, and will not be bea^ off from 
it ; but ftrivc in it, and are full of the thought of yourfclf that ycu 
are fufficient for it, and always big ftith hopes of accomplifhing it. 

You take upon you to do the very greatcft and moil difficult part 
of this work, viz. to purchafe rcdempJion. Chrifl can accomplifh 
other parts of this work without coft, without any trouble and dif- 
ficulty : but this p^irt coft him his life, as well as innumerable painS 
and labours, with very great ignominy and contempt befidcs. Yc^ 
this is that part which felf- righteous perfons go about to accomplifh 
for themfelvcs. If all the angels in heaven had been fufficient for 
this work, wowld God have fet himfelf to elfed fuch things as he 
did in order to it, before he fent his Son into the world ? and would 
fee ever have fent his own Son, the great Creator and God of the 
angels, into the world, to have done and fuffered fuch ihingi ? 

What felf-rightcous perfons take to themfelvcs, is the fame work 
that Ghrift was engaged ia when he was in his agony and bloody 
fweat, and whefl he died on the crcfj, which was the grcatcft thing 
thai ever the eyes of angels beheld. This, as great a?, it ii, they 
imagine they «3n do the fame that Chrift accomplifhcd by it. Their 
fclf-rightcoufocfs docs in Q^^a charge Chrift's offering up himfelf 
in thefe fufferiogs, as the grcateft inftancc of fotly thst ever men 
or angels faw, inftcad of being the moft glorious difplay of the 
divine wifdom and grace that ever was feen. Yea. felf-rightcoufncfi 
makes all'that Chrift did through the whole courfc of his life, and 
all that he faid and fuffered throygh that whole tim». aid his in- 
carnation itfelf, and not only fo, but all that God had been doing 
in the treat difpenfattons of his providence from the bcgmning of 
the world to that time, as all nothing, but a fccnc of the moft wild, 
and extremand tranfccndent folly. r - •. • r^ - 

Is it any wonder, then, that the felf.r.ghtcous fpirit is fo re. 
prefented in fcripture, and fpoken of, as that which is moft fatal 
to the fouls of men ? h it any wonder, that Chnft ts reprefenutd 
Vi fcripture as being fo provoked witii the Pharifces and others. 

tltc Work oF R 1 D E M r T I O N. 1^7 

who truf^cd in thcmfelves that ihey were righteous, and were prouci 
of ihrir goodncfs, znd ikought that their own p^rforiaancci wcrt 
a valuable price of God's favour and love ? 

Let pcrfons hence be warned againfl a fclf righteous fpirit4 
Tou that are fccking your fa'.v^tion, and taking pains in rclgion, 
tzkz heed to yourfelrcs that you do not trufl in what you dc; that 
you do not harbour any fuch ihoughti j that Gad now, feeing how 
much you arc reformed, howyou tike p\:ns in religion, and how you 
arc fomitiiaca cflfcdtcd, will be pacified towards you wiih rcfpe^ 
to your fins, and oa sccount of it will not be fo angry for your for- 
mer fias ; and that you flull gain on him by fuch ihingt, and 
draw his heart to Oiow you mercy ; or st Icaft that God ought to 
accept of what you do, fo ai to be incli^ncd by it in feme meafur« 
to forgive you, and have mercy on you. If you entertain thia 
thenght, that Gjd is obligee! to do it, and does not a{t jufily if he 
refufc to regard your prayers and pains, and fo quarrel wiih God» 
and complain of him for not doing, this /howsjwhat your opinioa 
1$ of your own rightcoufnefs, viz. that it is a valuable price of fal« 
vation, an4 ought to be accepted of G^d as fuch. Such complain- 
ing of God, and quarrelling with him, for not taking more notico 
ef your righteoufncfs.plain^y (hows that you arc guilty of all that 
arrogance that has been fpoken of, tiainking yourfcif fuflicicnt to 
cffsr the price of your ewa falvatbn. 

III. What has been faid on this fubje<£!:,affords matter of reproof 
to thofe who carclefily ncglcdcd the falvation of Chrift ; fuch ai 
live a fenfelefs kind of life, ceglcdihg the bufinefs of religion and 
their own fouls for the prefent, not taking any courfc to gel an 
intered in Chrift, •t what he has done and fuffcred, or any part 
in that glorious fslvation he has purchafed by that price, but rathcff 
kavc their minds takea up about the gains of the world, or sbout 
the vanities and plcafurcs of youth, and fo make light of what they 
hear from time to time of ChrilVs falvation, that they do not al 
prefent fo much as feck after iti. Let me here apply myfdf t9 
you in fome expoflulatory interrogations. 

I. Shall fo many prophets, and kings, and rightcoua mea have, 
their minds fo much taken up with the profpcdi, that the purchafe 
of falvation was to be wrought out in ages long after their death ; 
and will you negledl it when a<5^ually accompliflieii > You hivt 
beard what great account the church in all ages made of the futurt 
redemption of Chrifl ; how joyfully they cxpeftcd it, how ihcy 
fpokc of it, bow they Audied and fcarched into thcfe tl ings, how 
they fung joyful fongs, and had their hearts greatly engaged aboHt 
it, and yet never eaperted to fee it done, and did net cxp^ft that 
it would be accomplilhcd till many ages af^er their death, 1. Pe% 
XI* 11* IS* ^ow much di4 Uaiah and DjQicl« and other pro- 

X phcti. 


pbetJ, fpiak concrrnlng ih's redemption ! Ho^ much were thti> 
hearts cngnjcrj, and dicir itrcntion and ftudy fixed upon ill How 
vras D ;v«ci'!! mind tr^kcn up in in ihis fubjed ! He declared that it 
W5« all hi» fij'vM'ioo, and all his d -lire ; 2 Sana, arxiii. 5. Ht>w 
did He omploy h?> voic: and hsrp id cdcbnring it, and lh« gloricut 
di/pl^y of divlnz grace therein exhiblrc.'? ! snd s!I this aliho* ihty 
bcuclfJ it not 91 ye; accompI;(V«cd, but fa»y thsJ it was to be brought 
to pxh fo Ic^g a timz after their d.^y.— ^—Before thit, bovr did 
Abraham and ^h" ether patriar'thi rtjotce in »he profpcdt of Chrift'f 
d?jy, aa:l th«; veJe-nption wMch he was to p».ir«hafe ! Even the ftints 
brJoffi th*; fi:.'o'{ were aftc(^i«d snd ebied in lie •xpe4itax^op of this 
g'oiiru? evc-nt, thcug'i it ^VaS shea fo bag fuiute, sad it wai f© 
very hiinuy sr^d ob'tfjrely revealed fa ihcm, 

Nc.y I'ctfc thin^^a tTt dtdsitd to you as sduslly fu^fi'ltd. Tha 
t>?ni'.ali now has fecn sccoit^pUQeed ail ihofc gf€*t things which they 
fcvjoyftjiiy piophttficd of ; and you are abundactly Ihown how thofe 
things we»« Kccompl'f^ecJ : Miith.xiii. 17, *' Verily I fay ucro 
you, tbxi taj-ny prophets and righteous men have dcfitcd te fee 
thofe things wbiuh je ke, arjd hsvc not fa^rn ; and to hear thofo 
thiiij^f yi/hUci y<^. hear, ami have not heard fhem/' Yet, whca 
th"»'c thing* ?fe thm sbundrir.dy f-^t before you as already acccm • 
pA^cd, h-y-A- do ycu flight them ! How sight do you msk« of ihcQi I 
H:>w iitilc are ihty t;^kcn notice of by you ! How urconeerDcd 
are ycu about thcm^ foUo^irjg 0'h«r thtr-gi, and not fo much as 
feeling sny irtercCi \n \hcai ! Indeed ycur fin is estrcmely s^ga- 
Vited ii\th: fig'ii of God, Gori has put yeu n^iicr great sdv^rtsgc 
lor vour titcfnai f -i.Ivatbn, far greater ih&Ti vhof* f-inrs of old «n- 
joyed. Hi b38 P'-'i" ycu under a more ploiicusdirpeafiUou ; h«t 
given you a more clear rcvelutLon of Chri;^ xnd his falvation ; 
and yet yeu iicg'c6i aii thcfs advsnt^ges, snj ga on irx a carcicfs 
cou^fc: of life, a» though noihisg hsd been done, uo fuch propofal* 
and ofY^n hsd been mide you. 

^.. Have ih2 angles b;en {9 engaged abciit this fa^vatjon which 
?3 by Chiift tvur fincc th« fall of man, though they are uot im- 
mediiitily concerned ia it, and wi!! you who n?cd it, and have it 
©ff.:ie.i to you, be (o carc^cfj about it ? Von have heard kcw the 
angbs St fiift were fjbjcfled to Chnft at meviaJor, and how they 
hive aU slmg b«cri muiiifltring fp'ritsto him in this sffair. In «1J 
the grent drfpenfations which you h^ve heard of from ifee begin - 
ring of t>^e worH; they have been a«^Hvc and as a fl^nae of fire in 
this affair being mofi diligently employed si mlniftring fpirits to 
miniftertoChr?ft in this grentaffurof man's redemption. And whea 
C'ir:ft c.rae.howcngaged nerc their mindtlTh^y came toZ icharirt?, 
to informeihina of the comi-g of Chrift's forefunner : Tbcy came 
to ibtVirginMiry, to inform her ot the spproaching birth o<Chru1: 


Ae Wo.k of R E D JE M P T I p N. 169 

tfee rcw born Saviour, and to point out to him the wesns of f?:fe- 
ty. Haw were ihcir miuds engaged at ihe time oi the binb of 

- Chrift ! Tnc vrhoie mu tituJc oi trie hca 'cnly hoi\% fang priiks 
tipon the occafian, faying, •• Glory to God in the highcft, -nd on 
o<iiftb peace, xnd good will towardi men." Afterward!, fiora lime 
to time, they mmiftvrcd to Chrifi when on earth ;^thcy Q d io at 
the lime of his temptation, ?.t the time oi his cgony in t.'^c garden, 
at hi« rcfurfcdion, and at hia afcenllon. All thcfc things fhow, 

' that they were gieatly^tdla this affair ; snd the fcr.'pturc in- 
forms ns, that Jh*y fry inta ihsic ihin s : 1 Pi:t. i. 12. ♦* Which 
lhi&f;i the angles difi.M to lock into," Ho*./ are ihcy rcprcfcntcd in 
chc Revdallon as being employed iu lieaTsn rmgirgpraifes to I'lax 
that fitttih on the ihronr, and to the Lamb ! Now, (ti&U ihtft: 
talc fo much ■otici; of ihis itdcaiption, and of ihe parcharerjuho 
riced it nc>t for thcmfelvc*, and h;ivc no Imsitdijiic concern or in- 
tercft in it, or offer of it ; and v.i!i you, to who* it is cffwicd^and 
who are in fucb cxticme ncccffity of it, negli^l ar^d ukc lo no- 
tice of ii ? 

3, Was it worth the while for Chri.'^ to labour fo hard, ?nd do 
indfufTer fo ffiiich to procure this filvaticn, and is it not worth 
the while for you to be at fome labour in fceking it ? W«s it a 
thing of fo great importance, thst fa vsiion faou'd be procuicd for 
fianCiS, ai that it was worthy to Jie withfuch weight on the n:in(4 
of Chrift, as to induce him to become man, ted to fLffsr con- 
tempt and labo'jr,and ctea death itfeif, in order to prccutc it, 
though he ftood in need of nothing, though he wis lifc.;; to gJn 
HO addition to his eternal hsppircfs, iLoi^h he couM get r:cihi::g 
by thofc that he favtd, ihcugh he did not need ifccm ; was it of 
fuch im^jortatice that = nncrj fhould be faved, thai he might pro- 
peily be induced to fubmilto fuch humiHation zrA fLfTcring ; srcJ 
yet is it not worih the while fo/ you, who arc one of thc.fe mlfcrz- 
b!e fiiincrs that need this falvation, and mtft pu'ifa cfernaHy with- 
out ir, to take earneft pains to obtaia an iiitcicii in it aiicr if is 
j»fv/i^;cdp 2nd ::!l thing? are ready? 

4, Shail the Gad be fo concerned about this f^Jvation, 
cs fo often to ovcjtu^o the world to m.kc way for it j snd whea 
all is done, is it not wo-th your fctkeng after ? hew has (h 
Lord of Kravcu and cartel been as it were engaged abou« this af- 
fair ! Woat great, what wonderfu! ihing- Iuj he fiom. odc 
rgclo anotbi.!-, rc«oving kings, andifittcnv;]; up ki'.gs rsili-.g up a 
great numhtr of prcphtls, ftpiratino; a diflif«^t r^Uon tie 
left of'the world, ovcrturnsfg one Laticn and kingdcra, sr,d ^feo- 
Cher, and oftin ovcriurnicg the ftstecf tie woilo ; and lo has con- 
tinued briogirg about one ch.^rge aj.d revolution after arx bcf 
fpny ctiiiurics in fuccsiTion, to mike way for tie pic-rur'ry of 

17® ,A H I S T O R T of 

f-lvq\t0n f And wh-n he ha* done all ; a?>d when, at tht : 
cii'.fc of tK«fe ages, the great S.viour comes, and, becoming 
iucarnatc, and paifiDg ihicugh a Icng feriea of repra?.cb and 
fuffcfing, and thsn ftffcring all the warej and biiiows o{ 
God's wra'.h for mens fins, infoinuch that they ovcrwhtlmci 
his foul ; aficr all thefe thinga done « o procure folvaiicn for Hn- 
ncrs, is h not worthy of }our taking fo much notice of, or being 
fo much coiicerncd sbaut, though you srt thofepsifons who need 
ifna fa.-Yation, but that ii fhould be Uiro^yn by, ancj miitJcDoshiig 
of in coaipiiifon of worldly g"^ in, or gay clothiicg, or youthful 
ciivc"fiaa3, andoebcrfuch trifJ-j^g things? 

O ! ihat you who Hve ntg5ig*nt of this falvatlon, would confi- 
^er what you do ! What you have heard from this fubj-dl, may 
i^.O'-v you what reafon there is in ^ha; exdamaiion of the Apof^lc, 
llch. ii. 3. •* How fti^Ii r.-e cfcaps ifwc ECgkdl fo great falvati- 
on T'ani in ih3t,^(fis sUi, 41. ** B«hold, yc dcfpifers, and 
wonder, 2nd pcrifh: for 1 work 2 irorkioyour days a work whicil 
you fjiali in do wif<: bciicve, though a man declare it unto you." " 
God locks on fuch as yen «p f/^^^ enemies of the crofs of Cbrill, 
s^d adrcrfatics and d^ipifirs ot &)\ the glory of this great work. If 
Goi his nasde (ao^ <^«coual of the gicry of faivaiion as to dei^roy 
nia»y naticnSjand (o oixn ovc.-turn ?}} n2S*ons,to pi f pare the way - 
f-sr the glory «i his $*n in ihia affair ; bow \h\lc account will 
he make of the Viva and f::uJs of ten shoufand fuch oppofer§ and 
^cfpifgrs as you lh?t continue impen'tcnt, ia compsrifonof thai 
glory when he fiiaii hcreafttr come sni fi idthat'your welfare ilandi 
Is the ^ay qf ^that glory > Why furcly you (ball be daHbtd to 
pieces 83 a potter's veffei, aad trodden down as the aire of the 
ftrecls. Gid may, through wonderful patience, kcar with hard- 
C'.ed carclcfs fiiners for a vrhiJc ; but h^' will no: long bear with 
fuch defpifcrs of hisckarSon, and bis grea? falvation, the glory 
of^ which he hai hsd fo much at heart, bcfoic he will uiwrly 
confume tham without remedy or mercy. 

Sect. II. 

J WILL conclave with a feoond ufc, of en^ruragemenl ro b«F- 
dened fouls to put their truft in Chrift icr hU^tion, To all 
fuch as are not carelefs and.negligent, but do ni^.kc fecking an in- 
terc/t in Gbrirt ihcir main bufiiefs, being fcnfiblc in foBit meafurc 
«)f their neccflity of an intercft in Chrift, being afraid of the wrath 
to com!; ; to 'uch what has been faid on ^bis fuKj^dl holds forth 
great m.^^cr of encouragemtnt, to come and rcnturc their fouls oa 
the Lord JcfusChrirt : and as motives proper to excite you fo to 
do, let me icad you lb confir'er two things in particular. 

1. The ccmpktencl:- of thepurchafe which hss been »ade. Aj 
|eu bars hssr^, ibis wcik of puithaf rg falvisica was wholly 


the Work of R E D E M P T 1 O rf . i?* 


jiaifl»cd during the tim« of Ckri^'i kuaiilialion. When Chrift rofe 
fsK'Oi «hc dcHJ, and v*^» cxallcd trom that ab^fcmcnt to which htt 
fubmi'ted for our fxlv-ticn, ihc purchife of ctem-I li^e wr.a com- 
pletely mddc, fo that there was no need of any thing wicrc co be 
done in order to ir. But now :hcfc<vauts w<.rc fcrit for»h with 
th« meff-gc which wchavc accouot of in MAiih, xxii, 4. ** Be- 
hold, I have p eparcdmy dinucr : my oxen and my fauHrgs art 
kilied, and all thingi arc r«ady : com^ uni;.> the marriage." There- 
fore all things being ready, ate your fins many and great? Here 
11 enough done by Chriil to prcctuc their pardon. There is no 
need of ary righfeoufaefs of ycurs to obtain your pirdon and juf- 
tiiicalion : no, ycu May come frteiy, without money and without 
price, liticc ihCiefoiC there it fiiih a free and gracious invitatioa 
giTcn you, come ; co»c naked as you are ; comt ?.s a poor con- 
demned criminal ; come and caft youi fdf do'^n at Chnfl's feet, 
SB OEcjuf^Iy condemned, and utterly hc'pkfs in yourfclf. Here U 
a complete fslvaticn wrought cut by Cfcrill, and ihrongh hiaa 
offered to yoj. Coins, therefore, accept of it, and be favcd. 

2. For Chfift to rej^^fl one that thus comes I© him, would b« t^ 
fr-rtrate all thofs g^e^t things which you hsve heard that Goi 
brought to pafs from the fall of mm to the incarnation of Chrift» 
It would alfo frudrate ail iha»Chiift did and fiiflcred while on earth; 
yea, it would frufiraic the iiicainsdcn of Chrii*^ iifcif, and all the , 
great things done in prcpiratipn for his incarnauon ; for all ihcfs 
things were for that end, that thofc might be favcd who (fcouM 
corns to Chrif^. Therefore ycu msy be fur e Chrift will not be 
backward in fivir.g thofs who come to hits, s^nd truft ift him : foi 
hf h28 no dtfire to iTufti&rt himfcif in hia owrj work ; it cofl hiot 
too dear for that. Niither wJll God the F. rher refufe you ; fof 
be has no dcf^c to fruftratc bimfdf h-i all that he did for fo mwf 
hundreds and ihonfanis of yc2r«.. to prepare the wry for the fal- 
vaiion of finDcrs by Chiift. Come, therefore, hcaikriD to lh« 
fwcet sLTid earned C5!ls of Chrii^ to your fou!. Do* as he ia^irei, 
and as he com^mndg you, Matth. xi. 28. 29. 59 •* Ccia^ un- 
to rae, all ye th^tkbcu^ and are he^vy iaden, snd I will fjMw 
you rcfl. T ke my yoke upon you, and learn of me ; and vc (halt 
find re/1 uaio your fouls. For my yoke is eafy, an;i aiy Lurdca is 


IN dif«ou-rfing on this fubte^, we have already (hown how the 
'York of redcriipii,^'-. wai canlci on through the two iinl o.'thfi 
three periods into which we diviried tSc whok fpicc of tirae front 
the fall to the end of the world j and we arc now ccwe tv-^ 

The third and U-ft period, b^girnirgwilh Cbrifi's rtfiTfcdion, 
and reaching to the enjd of the world ; and would corr ihcvy how 
this work v>as ajfocujiicd en ihicigh this fcnc4, ^fotn this 

>7t A H I S T O R T of 

PRCfosiTioH, That the fpace ofiime fiom tli© 
end of Chri/rs hiuniliatioii to tlic end ol'the worid 
15 all taken up bringing about the great effect or 
ihcccfs of Chrid's pinchafKr. 

Not but that there were great ea:6ls and g^orioui fucccfs of 
ChriA'j purchafi of rcdempdon before, even frcra the beguming 
of the generations of men. Eut all that fucccfs cfChrifi's rcdcrapdoa 
which W8S bciorc, was Oh\y prcparalory, snd was by '.-yay of an- 
ticipation, as feme few fruits src gathsrcd before the h&rvcft. There 
was no more fucscfs beforcCDfill came ihiinGod fsw needful toprc- 
p«rclhc "-ay for his or-mJng. The proper t:rac of ihc fuc^tfsor eftlft 
ofChrift's purehifeof rs Jcgnptioii is af«cr th? purchafchas been made, 
as the propcf time for the worH tocrjoy ib« Iigh«of tke fun is day- 
tiaifj afj«r the fun U rifcn/.ho'we may have fcms fm:41 matter of it 
r«:fl?<5lc-Jffocn the moon 3^ planets bcfcrc. Ertn tha fiicccfi cfChrifi't 
redemption while he himfelf was ca earth, was very fwali in eom» 
pirifon of what it was after th« coRclufion of his humiliation, 

Sttt Chrift having finifhtd that grirateft and mo«l difficult of all 
worki, the work ol the pu'chsf* of rcdeiaptiofj, riow h come the 
time for obtaiiiing the end of iv, the g'ot ious cffidi of h. This is 
the next work he gees sbout. Having gone thro' the whole ccurfc 
©f his fufferings and humtllsiicn, there h aa end to all ihiagt 
of ihatntture : he is never ;o ftfT-r any tacre. But now is the 
time for birr, to obtain the joy that was fct before him. Having 
laade his foul 01 cffciing for fin, now 13 the time for him to fee 
feis feed, and to have a portion divided to him with the great, and 
to divide the fpcii with the f^rong. 

Oa« dcfign of Cfcrift in what he did ia his humiliation, waf to 
lay a foundEUCJi for the OTcrthrow cf Satan's kingdom ; and novr 
is ccme the lime to cffe£l it, asChrift, a liul« before his crucifixion, 
faid, John xii. 31. " Now h the judgement of this vforld i now 
fl^all the prince of this wodd be caft out." Anothtr dt%n was, to 
f»ather t«^^gcth€r in ofte all things in Cbrifr. Now it coa\e the lio^e 
for this alfo : John 211 31. ** And 1, if 1 be lifted up, will draw 
el! men unto mc ;" which is agfceabl* tojACcb't prophecy of Chrift, 
thai ** when Sfilhk ftjoa!d come, to him fi-iou^d the gsthcriog of 
the people be," Gen, slix, 10 Ano;hcr dcfign i? ite falvation 
cf the cicd. Now when his fufTcrings are fin;, end his 
liumiliation is pcrfe£led, the time is come for thai slfo s 
lisb. V. 8. 9. *' Though he were a Son, yc\ learned he obedience 
by the things which he fufifcrcd : and bciog raadf perfcdi, he be- 
came the amhor of eternal falvation unto 41 iham that obey him." 
Ano-her defigs was, to acc<smpUft» by thcfe things great glory to 
ih^ pel fons of tht Trinity. Now alfo is come the time for that : 
I^a zvii. 1. *• Father, ibc b9W " com* j thtify iby Son, that 

U-^ Work cf &ESEMPTION. »7S 

thy Son slfo aay glorify thee." Ancthcr dcfign was the gl®ry d 
the faints. No*v is the tim? aifo for this : ** John xvii. 2. "At 
thou haAg^iTcn him power owrailflaCi, thatbt fhould gi?e ctcr* 
nij life to 31 maay as th.u haft glvca him." And all iht difpcn^ 
fafions of God's prcvid«ncc henceforward, even ta the final «on* 
fummalic4. of 2llthinj;sa»^c to give Chrift hit reward, end fulfil 
his end in whvt he did 2nd fufT^jcd upon tarth, aod to fulfil tk« 
joy tkat WIS fet before hioi. 


BEFORE, I enter on the confidsration of any particular thingf 
ac«ompIifh-d ia thii period, I wotald briefly obfcrvc fomt 
things in genes al concerning it ; and particulafly kow ihc tlnKi %i 
this period are Kp;efeatcd in fcripturc* 

I. Tkc iim-:a of this period, for ih? moft part, are ihofe which 
IB the OUi Tcftai«»Tjl «c called ih lattsr days, Wc often, in th« 
prophets of the Old Terjimant, read ef fiich and fuch things tkat 
fcculdcom* tftpafs U the latter dayt, and fo»«timcs in tht lajt 
dayu Njw thcfe catptclTions of the prophets arc moft commonly 
to be uoderi^ood of the time* of the period that we ire now upon« 
They are cilleJ tht latttr days, and ihelaji days ; beeaufs thit it 
the laft pr' iod of the ferica ot Gcd'a providences on earth, ihia laft 
period of that great wo. k of providence, the work of redemption; 
whieh as it were the fum of ©od's works of providence, the 
ti«e whe'ein the church is under the laft difpenfatioa of the co«- 
vcnant of gr^ce that ever it will be under on eirlh. 

II. The whole time ot ihi? period is fomctimei in fcripturc cal- 
led the end cf the world, ss, i Cor. 2. 1 1. •* Now all thefe tbingf 
happened unto them for enfamples : and ihcy were written from 
our a>-d monition, upon whom the ends of the world arc come." 
And the Apoftle, Heb, ix. 26, in ihiscxprcflioa oi the end of tlf 
•vcorld, means the who!e of the gofpic d-iy, from the birth of Chrift 
to the finilhing of the day cf judgment : ** But now once in the 
end of the world, ha:h he appeared, to put sway fin by the facri- 
fice of hirafclf'" This fpace of lioQ!; m^y well be called tha tndof 
the werld : for thii whole time was taken up in bringing thitgs to 
their great end and IlTue, to that great iffuc ihst God bad been pre- 
paring ihcwsy for, 'u\ ali the great difpenfations of providancc, 
from the firi^ fall of m^n to this tine. Befare, things were in a 
kind of prtparitory ftate ; but now they are in a fini&ing Aate* 
It is the winding up of things which is all this while accompliflaing. 
An end is now brought to the former carnal Hate of things, whick 
by degrees vaniihes, and a fpiritual ftatc begiai to b« eftabllibci, 
and to be cftabliflied more and more. Firl\, an end it brought to 
the former f^ate of the tkurch^ which nay be called iu worldly 

174 A H I $ T O R r of 

ftaie, tht liatc whereia it was fubjc<f^ to carnal ordinancej, ani 
ihcrudlaicntj of ihc world : and then in end vraii b-ought to the 
Jcwtfii I'isiic, In thcdiftrMfticn of their city snd country, and then, 
aftcnhat, an end is brought to fh« old Heathen empire in Coii- 
Ikantini'c tjms ; ;vhich is anothif and further degree of the wind- 
ing up ^r;d fii'ihirgr^of the world : aad the BCxt f\cp is the fia- 
ifhin^ of SaUn'» vifib]* k'rgicm in the world, upon lUc fall of 
Anlichi LI, and the calling of the Jews : and hit will come lh« 
iIcftru<fiion of the outward frame of the world itfclf, at the co^clu- 
fon of th'^ d^y ofjjJgias.-it, Bat the world is aU thii while a? it 
were a fini;hirq,tho' it cornea to aiend by fcveral fieps and dtg-ees, 
HcaYci! snd bvrth bfg»n to order to a dJffo]!utio», acced- 
ing to »h« propKtey of Haggai, before Chrift came, that foor.iy 
tfeefe thingi that cannot be ilia ken may remuin i.e. tkat thofe 
thiogs th'itafc to comcio an end m^y tcmc to anend, and that 
©nly thofc ihJnge may remain which arc to remain to r?I eternity* 
So, ill \b.9 fi.ft p?sce, the cnrnal ordinances cf the Jewifli wor- 
fhip «aiiie to an end, to rcekc w^y for jhc efr£bi.fx;mcn! of ihat fpf- 
tituai worfw^p, »he worlbip of the heart, which ii to ondure to a't 
•tcrnlty : Joha iv. 21. *' J^fua faith unto the woman. Believe 
mt, the hourcomcsh, when ye fliAli neither in this mountain, nor 
yet at Jerufiieoj, wo?fmp the Father/' 'Verf. 23 " Bu» ^i<& 
iour Cometh, and no>,y ib, r;bcn the true ^-offtilppcrs (bill woffiil;j 
ibc Father in fpjrtt and io J^'U'h : f«r the Faihcr fctkcih fuch t» 
woifhip him." Thii is one inBarxe of tic tsmpcrary worlu'g 
coming to an end, and the fiternal wor!d*« bcgEnnbg. After thai, 
Ihc oulw.ird temple, and th« otnwatd city Jerufalcna, csme to an 
tnd, to give place to the fining up of the fpiritual temple and the 
fpiritu?.! city, which are to hd to eternity j which U another in- 
ftance 0/ rcjs?07ing th.">f«: thingi which arc ready to vanifh a'A'ay, 
that thofe things which cannot be (luken rmy remain. After that 
the old Hiathen empire ccnr\cs to aa end, to tnske way for the •m- 
pirc of Chrift, which (hsH Uh to all eternity ; which i« another P«ji 
of bringing the teaiporal world to an end, and of the beginaing of 
the wer!d to come, which h an eternal world. After that, upon 
the fall of Antichrift and end is put to Satan's vifible klnzdon 
OR earth, to cftablifh Chrifi'i* kingdom, which is an eternal king- 
dom ; ai the prophet Daniel fsyi, cb:'p, vii, 27. " And the king- 
dom and dominion, end the j rcatncfs cf the king;dcii uncfer the 
whole heaven, fhall be gi c» to the people of tS«« faints of thcM^jft 
High, whofe kisgdota is an cverlafiing kingdoai, and all domlri- 
ions {hall ferve aad obey him : ** whieh Is another itiAance oltho 
•nding of tfes tcnaporary world, and tkc beginning of the cserna! 
one. Laftly, the very frame of this corruptible world (hall eomc 
•o an end, to make way f^ ihc ehorch to dwell in another dwell- 
ing- place, which Oiali Uk lo cteciitj i ^lUk it ttc U^ iaft?«6^ 
•f the fame thiog* 

the Work of REDEMPTION, 17$ 

Becaufc the world is ihus coming to an end by various f>€ps and 
degrccfl, the Apofllc perhaps ufcs thif cxpreffion, that ihc tnds of 
the world arc «omc on us ; not the tnd, but the ends, of the plural 
number, as ihcugh the world as feveral endings ©ne af«r anoiher. 

The gofpel-difpcnfattoa is thchft ftatc ol things in the world j 
and this ftate is a ftnilhing fialc : it is all fpcnt in iaifl.iag things 
off which before had been prtrpsring, cr aboliihing things which 
before had ftood. It is all (pent as it were in fummirg ihings up,and 
bringing them to their ifl*«es, and their proper fulfilment. Now all 
the old types arc fulfiled, and all the prophecies of all the prophets 
from the beginniRg of the world (hill be aecomplifhed in this period. 
III. That ftate of things which is attained in ibe cvtnts of thi« 
j^^zlod U cskUcd a new haven and a new garth: If. 1x7. 17, 18. 
" For behold, I create aew heavens, and a new e^rth : and the 
former fhall not be remembered, nor come inio mir.d. Bat Ic 
you gla4 and rejoice forever in that whick I create : for behold, £ 
create Jerufalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy" And 6b» ^ 
Ixvi. 22. "For as the new heavens and the new earth which I 
x&ike, iiall remain before me ; fo (hall your feed and your name 
remain." Seealfoch li. 16. As the former ftate of things, or 
the old world, by one Aep after another, is through this perl«il 
coming to an end ; fo the new ftate of things, or the new worlds 
which is a fpiritaal world, is beginning and fctting up. 

. The heavea and earth which are ccrruptable, are fhaking, that 
the new heavens and new earthy which cancot be fhaken, may bo 
cf\i\)\l{hcd and remain. 

In confequencc of each of thcfc finilhirgs of 6he old ftate of 
things,there is a new beginning of a new and eternal ftate of things. 
So was that which acconpanicd thedeftru^ion of Jerufalcm, which 
was an cftablifhing of the fpiritaal Jerufalcm, iaftead of the literal. 
So with refpcd to the deftru^ion of the old Mcathcn empire, and 
all the other endings of the old ftate of things, till at length the 
very outward frame of the old world itfelf fhall come to an ecd ; 
and the church fhall dwell in a world new to it, or to a great part 
of it, even heaven, which will be a new habitation ; and then 
Ihall the utmoft be accomplllhed that is meant by the new bcaveof 
and the new earth. See Rev. xxi. i. 

The end of God'f creating the world was to prepare a kicgdom 
for kis Son, (for he is ?ppointed heir of the world), and that he 
itiight have the poffeiT.on of it, and a kingdom in it, which fhall 
remain to all eternity. So that, fo far forth as the king^ 
dcm of Chrift is fet up in the world fo far is the world 
brought to its end, and the eternal ftate of things fet up. So far 
are all the great changes and revolutions of the ages of the world 
brought to their everlafUng ifTue, and all things oome to their ulti- 
mate period. 9o far arc the waters of the locg channel of divine 
Y providcacc. 

i?^' A H I S T O R Y of 

pfoviJence, wiichhas fo miny branches, and fo msny windings 
and turnings, emptied out into their proper oc^;an, whick ihey hav'e 
kce.i fcalctng froaa the beginning aad bead of thtir eourfc, and fo 
arc come to their reft. So far as Chrift's kingdom i§cftabl»(hed in 
the world, fo far are things wound up and fetilcd in their cverlaft- 
iBg ftate, and a period put to the courfe of thirgs in this chacgca- 
ble world ; fo far are the i\r{{ heavens and the fi ft earth come to 
an end, and the new hftayetrs and the new earth cemc -to wend/ ard 
the new heavens and the new eanh, the everlafiing heavens and 
earth, cfhbllflKd in their room. This leads me to cbfervc, 

IV. That the f^a?e of things which is attained by the events of 
this period, is what is fo often called th kingdom of htaven, or tht 
kingdom of God. We very often read in the New-Teftamenl of 
the k'ngiom of heaven. John theBaptirt preached, thst the kingdosi 
of heaven was at hand ; and fo did Chrifl, and his difcip'cs after 
him ; refering to fomething that the Jews in thcfs days expei^ed, 
and very much talked of, which they called by that name. They 
feemtohave taken their expccSiatlon and the name chitfly frcm 
that jprophecy of Dinic! in Nebuchadnezzar's dream, Dan. ii. ^4, 
** And in the days of thefe kings lb all the God of heaven fct up 
a kingdom ;" together wi>h that in chap, vii, 13, 14. 

Now this klngJom of heaven is that evangelical ftate cf things 
in his church, and in the woild, wherein confi/^s the fucecfs of 
Chrift's reicraptiob in this period. There had been often great 
kingdoms fct up before, which were earthly kirgdooas ; as the Ba- 
bylonifb, Perfian, theGrecian,andtheRoman monarchies. ButCbrift 
came to fct up the laft kingdom, which is not an earthly kingdom, 
but an heavenly, and fo is the kingdom of hcsven : John xviii, 
36. " My k'rjgdom is not cf this world.'* Thi« is the kingdoat 
of which Chrift fpeaks, Luke xxii. -29. *' My Father hath zp- 
pointed tome a kingdom." This king«Jom began focn aftei Chrift's 
refurre£^ion, and was acccmplifhed in various ftcps from that time 
to the end of the wcrld. Sometimes by the kingdom ef heaven, h 
meant that fpiritua! ftauc of the church which brgan foon aftcrChriftV 
refufredion ; fometimes that mere pcrfed Hate of the church whicb 
(ball obtain after the downfall of Antichrift ; and fometimes that 
gloiious and bUlTcd ftatcto wfcich the church fhall be received at the 
day of judgement : i Cor. xv. 50. the apofile, fpeaking of the 
refurredion, fays, '• Thii I fay, that flcli\ and blood cannot in- 
herit the kingdom of God." 

Under this head I would obf«rvc fcvcral things particularly, for 
the clearer uaderftanding of what the fcriplure fays concerning thii 
peiiod. ► ^ ^ 

I. The felting up of the kingdom of Chrift is chiefly accom- 
plifh«d by four fuccelfivc great events, each of which is in fcrip- 
lure aallsd Chriji'f coming in hit kingdom. The whole fucecfs of 


the Work of REDEMPTION. 177 

Chrift'l redemption ii comprehended ia one word, viz. his fctting 
up his kingdom. This is chiefly done by four great fucccffive dif- 
penfations of providence ; and every «ne of them is reprcfcntsd in 
fcripturc as Chrift's coming in his kingdom. The firft is Chrift's 
appearing in thofe wonderful difpenfitions of providence in thea-* 
poftlesdays, in felting up his kingdom, and dcftroying the ene- 
mies of his kingdom, which ended in the dcftcudion of JcrufBlem, 
This is called Chrii^'s coming in his kingdom, Matth. xvi. 28. 
** Verify I fay unto you, there be feme ftanding here, which lliall 
not taf^e of death til! they fee the Son of man coming in his king- 
dom.'' And foit is reprefcntcd in Matth. xxiv. The fccond is 
that which was accomplilhcd in Conliantinc's time, in thedeAruc- 
tion of the Heathen Roman empire. This is reprcfentcd asChrift'a 
coming, and is compared to his coming to judgement, in the 6:li 
chapter of Revelation at the latter end. The tbird is that which 
is tobc accompli(hc4 at the deflrudion of Antichrii^. Tnis alfo 
is reprefented as Chrift's coming in his kingdom in the 7th chsptc'" 
of Diciel, and in other places, as I may po/Tibly Ihow hereafter* 
when I come to fpeak of it. The fourth and laft is his comirg to 
the hftj'jdgemcni, which is the event principally fignificd in fcrip- 
turc by Chriji's coming into his Kingdom. 

2. I would obferve, that cac;h of the three formrr of thefe h a 
lively image or type of the fourth and laft, viz, Chrift's coming 
to the final j idgcment, as the principjil difpenfations of providence 

before Chrifl's firft coming, were typcj of that ^id coming. . 

As Cbrift's laA coming to judgement is accDmpained wiih a refur- 
rc(^ion of the dead, fo is each of the three forcgorng with a fpirl- 
tual refurre(f^ion. That coming of ChriA, which ended in the de- 
fjru'-Hon of Jsrufalcm, was p'ccede<lby a glorious fpiritwal rcfur- 
lef^ion of fouls in the calling of the Gentiles, and bringing home 
fuch multitudes of fouls to Chria by the preaching of the gofpcl- 
So GhriA's coming in Conftsntlnc's lime, was sccompanicd with a, 
glorious fpiritual rcfurrc(^ion of ihe greater put cf the known 
world, in arefioratioa of it to a vifiblc-cl uich ftole, from a Aaic of 
Heatbenifm, SoChrift's coming at the dcA:u6lion o^Antichriil:,wil! 
be attended with a fpiritual rcfurredion of the church iaftcr it had 
been long as it were dead, in the times of AntichrJA. This is cal- 
led the firjl refurre^ion in the 20lh chapter of Revelations. 

Again, as Chriit in the hA judgement will glorioufly mnnifeft 
biaifclf coming in the glory of his Father, fo in each cf ihe three 
foregoing events Chrift glorioufly manifcfled himfelf in fending; 
judgements upon his enemies, and in ihowing grace and fi»vour \o 
fjii church ; and as the laft coming of Chrift will be attended with 
a literal gathering together of the cieft from the four winds of hea- 
ven, & wc:c each of the preceding attended with a fpirituil gither^- 


118 A H I S TO R Y of 

ing in of the aUS., As this gathering together of the deft wUI 

hi effcif^ed by G jd'i angels with a great found of a trutnpat, as ia 
Maith. xxiv. 31. ; f o wsre each of the preceding fpiritual inga- 
therings cffrilcd by ihc trumpet of the gofpcl, founded by the mmi- 
flcrs of C^^rift. As iherc fnail precede the \ai\ appsaraace of Chrift, 
atitue of gye:it degeneracy and wickedacfs, fo this has been, or 
Wiil be, ihc cafe with each of the other appeafi^nGes. Before each 
of them is a time of great opp.irjsion to tbe church: before the 
firft by the Jcv^a, in tbar pcvfecuiions that wc read of in the New 
Teftaincnt ; before the ficond, vix. io Conftan'an^i'a time, by the 
Heathen, in fevcral fucc:;!f:i'e pesfecutioRS raifcd by the Romaa 
emperors againll the Chfifiiaris ; bc^fore the third, by Aatichrift ; 
before the lart, byGog and Migog, 8s defcnbed i» the Revelation. 

By each ®f thcfe coaaingis of Chrift God works a glorious dc- 
livtrance for his church. Eaeh of them ii accompanied with a 
glorious advanccqisat o^ the I'^ate of the church. The firft, whick 
ended ia the deUrudicn of Jcrufaiem, was attended with bringing 
fhe church into the glorious it ale of the gofpd, a glorious fiAicot 
the cUuroh very much piophefied of old, whereby the chureh wa« 
advar\«ed ifitofar more glorious circunriflances than it was in before 
under the Jorifh difpeufation. The fecond, which was in Con- 
fi^ntine's tioic, was accompanied with an advirxsmcat of the 
church into a ft ate of liberty from perfccution, and the counte- 
nance of civil authority, and triumph over their Heathen perfetu- • 
tors. The third, which flbali be at the dowafall of Antichrift, 
\wiii be accompanied with hn advaicsmcnt of the church i»to that 
itate of the g^^^Ious pr:°va!en«e of truth, liberty, peace, and joy, 
that we fo often r«ad of ^a the propbcircal parts of fcripture* 
The laft win be attended wiih the advanceoaent of the church to 
coafuoanatc glcry in both foui and body in heaven. 

Each of thofs cocoings of ChriU is accompanied with a terrible 
dcrwruftion of the wicked, and the enemies of the church : the firft 
wiih the dcftruftion of the perfccuiiog Jews, which was amazingly 
terrible ; the fccond, with dreadful judgements oa the Hcaihca 
perfecutors of the church, of which more hiereaftcr ; the third, with 
^e awful dei^rudion ef Antichrif^. the moD crutl and bitter eae^ 
m^ that ever the church had ; the fourth, with diviac wrath aad 
vengeance on all the ungodly. 

Further, there is ia each of thefe earnings of Chrift an ending 
of the old heavens and the old earth, and a beginning of new kea- 
Teat and a new earth ; or an end of a temporal (late of things, an4 
a baginning of an eternal f^ate. 

3. I would obferve, that eaeh of thofe four great difpcnfatio&f 
Hrhich arc rtprefentcd as Ghrifl's coming in his kingdcm, are but' 
fomaoy ftcpr an^ degrees of lb? sccQttJpli&msaj of one evevit, 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 179 

They art not the fetiingup of fomanydiftindt kingdoms ©! Chrift; 
tbcyflroallof ibcoaonly fcvcra I degrees of the accomplilhmeBt 
of that one even prophelicd of, Dan. vii. 13. 14. *' And 1 faw ia 
the night viiioai, and bcisold, one like the Son of man, came vriih 
the doqds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they 
brought him near before him. And there was given him domini- 
on, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, oaxionj, and 
Janguagci,ll«ould fcffve him : bis dominion ia an everUiiing domin- 
ion, and his kingdom that which Ihall not be deftroycd," This is 
what the jews expected, and called *' the coming •! the kingdom 
of heaven ;" and what John the Bapti^ and Chrift had refpett to, 
when they faid, *' The kiogdom of heaven is at hand." This 
great event U gradually aceompli&ed, or is accomplilked^ by feve- 
ral ilcps. Thofc four great events whiph have been mentioned, 
were fcveral fteps towards the accompli(hmcnt of this grand event. 

When Chrift came with the preaching Af the apoftie*, to fct up 
his kingdom in the world, which difpcnfation ended with the de- 
f^rud^ion of Jerufilcm, then it was aceoaplilhed in a glorious de- 
gree ; when the Hsathen empire was deilroyed in Conftantine'i 
time, it was fulfilled in a further degree ; when Antichrift (hail be 
dcftroyed,it will be accompHfh^d in a yet higher degree ; bjt when 
the end of the world is come,ihcn will it be acompliihtdin its meft 
p irfcd degree of all ; then it will be fi lally &completly accomplilhcd. 
And becsufe thefc four great evtnts are but images one of another 
and the three former but types of the lafl, and fiacc they are all 
only fevcral flcps of the acccmpllihment of the fame tbirgs ; hence 
we fiaJihcm all from time to limeprophecicd of under one,a8 they 
are in the prophecies of Daniel, and as they are in the 24!h chapter 
of Matthew, whsrc fome things fecm more applicable to oca of 
them, and others to a&other. 

4. I would obferve, tbat ns there asc fcveral fteps of the accom- 
pliOimsnt of the kingdom of Chrift, fo in each one of them Vaz 
event is accompliftitd in a fuithcr degree than in the foregoing. 
That in the timsof Coaftaniine was a greal>;r and further accuta- 
pliflntneot of ihe kingdom of Chrift, than tbat which ended in tho 
deftrudion of Jwrufalcm ; that which (hall be at the fall of Anti- 
chf iftjwill be 4 further accomplifVimcni of the fame thing, than th'.t 
which took place in the time of Conftantlcc ; and fo on with re- 
gard to each : fo that the kingdom of Chrift is gradually pre- 
yailing and growing by theft fcveral great ftcps of its fuililment, 
from the time of Chrift's refurre^tion, to the end of the world. 

5 . And Lftly, It miy be obfervcd, that the great prcvlJcnces 
of Gjd between thefc faur great events, are to make way fwr th« 
kingdom and glory of Chrift in the great event followir^, Thofe 
difpcafalioBS of p:ovi^c;^ce vhkb were ^iwudi th& chui;;^ cf God 


i8o A n J S T O R Y of 

and the worli, before the dcAruflion of the Heathen empire in the 
lime of Conftantine, I'ceni all to have been to ma he way for !he 
glory of Chrift, and the happincfs of the church la that fvcnl. 
Aad fo the great providcnc-s of G:id which arc after that, till the 
dcflruftion of Antichrift, fcnd the beginning of the glovioui times 
•f the chujch, ivhich follow^, fccm all to be to pripare the way for 
the grcJter glory of Chrifl and his church in that event ; and the 
providences cf God which (hall be after that to the end of the 
u'ovid, fecm to be for the greater manifcftation of Chriil's glory at 
the end of the world ; and in the coGfuaimaii©n of all things. 

Thus I thought it needful to obfcrve thefc things in general con- 
oerniHg thia laft psdod of the ferles of God's providence, before 
I tak« notice of the pariicular providences by which the work of 
rcdcHiplion is carried on through this period, in their order : and 
before 1 do that, I will alfo briefly anfwer to an Inqjjiry, viz. 
Why the fctring upofChrift's kingdom after his humiliation, (hould 
be fo gradual, by fo many fteps that are fa long in acccraplifhing, 
fincc God cculd eafily have li.iifhcd it at once ? 

Though it would b: prefumptson in uj to pretend to declare all 
the ends of God in this, ycx doubtlcfs much cf the wifdora of God 
may be ken in it by us ; and particularly in thcfe two things. 

1. In this way the glory of God's wifdom, in the manner of 
doiHg this, is more vifiblc to the obfervation of creatures. If it 
had been done at once, in an inftant, or in a very ftiort time, there 
would not have been fuch opportunities for creatures to perceive 
and obf«rv« the particular i^eps of divine wifdom, si when the 
wo.k is gradusUy accompllfhcd, and one efTeifl cf his wifdom i» 
held forth to obfervation after another. It is wifely determined of 
God, to accomplilh bis great defign by a wendcrful and long fcries 
of events, that the glory of his >vifdom may be difplayed in the 
whole fcries, and that the glory of his perfcdioas may be fcen, 
appearing, S8 it were, by pirts, a^sd in particular fucceflivc mani- 
feftations : For if all that glory which appears ia all thcfe events. 
had been manifefled at once, it would have been too much for ui, 
and more than we at once could take notice of ; it would hav£ 
daz«!ed our eyes and overpowered our f;ght. 

2. S-itan is more gloriouHy triumphed over — (!^od could eafily, 
by an a(^ of almighty power, at once have crufhed Satan. But by 
giving him time to ufe his utmoft fubtilty to hinder the fuccefs of 
what Chrift had do»c and, he ii not defeated merely by 
furprife, but has large opportunity to ply h*3 utmofl power and 
fubtilty again and again, to rtrengthen his own intcreil all that he 
can by the work of many ages. Thus God deftroys and confounda 
him, and fetf up Ghrift's kingdoM time after time, in fpitc of all 
his fubtls machioadow aad great wotkfp aa;2 by every p,«p advaa= 

the Wcik of R E D E M P T I O N. i?l 

«es it ftill hrghcr and higher, till at Icnglh ft is fully fct up, and 
Satan perffc(^lly and cterriaUy vanqutlhsd in the end of 3II thinjrj, 

I now psocced to take notice of the particular cvr.nts, wl cicby, 
from the end of Chrifi'j hurailiation to \he end oi the world, ihe 
fucccfj of Chrii.'s purchafc has Lccn or (h .11 be accompllfh d. 

I. 1 would take notice of thofe things whereby Chril^ wss put into 
an immediate capacity for accomplifhing the end of hi» purchsfe. 

2. I woCjIJ (how how be obtained or ac«ompUfhid thai fucccfs, 


I WOULD take notice, firl^, of thofc thing? by which Cbrift 
was put into a capacity for accoroplilhingthe end of his purchafc. 
They arc two things, viz. his refurreflion, and hii afcenlion. As 
wc obfcfvcd before, the incarnation of Chrii^ wai neccffary in order 
to Chfift's being in a near capacity for the purchafe of redemption ; 
fo the rcfurrcf^ion and afctnfion of Chrift were rcquifitc in order 
to hts accomplifhing the fuccefs of his purchafc, 

I. His refurreftion. It was ncccfTary in order to Chrift's ob- 
taining the end and cffeft of his purchafc of redemption, that he 
fhould rife from the dead. For God the Father had committed the 
whole affair of redemption^ not only the purchafing of it, but the 
beftowing of the blcffings purchafed, to his Son, that he Ihoald not 
only purchafc it ai priol, bat aftually bring it about as king ; and 
that he (hould do this as God man. For God the Father would have 
nothing to do with fallen man in a way of mercy but by a mediator. 
But in order that Ghrifi might earry on the work of redemption, 
and sceomplifh the fuccefs of bis own pnrpofe as God -man, it was 
Dcceffary that he fhould be alive, snd fo that he ihould rife from 
the dead. Therefore Chrift, after he had finiHied this purchafc" by 
death, and by continuing for a lime under the power of death, rifes 
from the rfead, to fulHi the end of his purchafc, and himfelf to 
bring about that for which he died : For this matter God the Father 
had committed unto him, that he might, as Lord of all, manage 
all to his own pu<-pofes : Rom. xiv. 9. " For to this end Chrift 
•* both died, and rofe, and revived, that he might be Lord both 
©f the dead and of the living." 

Indeed Ciirift's refurrcftion, and fo his afccnfion, was part of 
the fuccefs of what Chrift did and fuffcrcd in hb humiliation. 
For though Ch;ift did not properly purchafc redemption for him- 
fclf, yet he purchafed eternal life and glory for himfcif 
by what he did and fufifcred j and this eternal life aad glory 
was given him at a reward of what hs did and fuifered , Phil. ii. 
8.9. "H^ humbled bimfclf, and become obedient unto death, 
even the death off the crofi. Wherefore God alfo hath highly ex- 
altei him/'^ It may be looktd upon as part of the fuccefs ofChrift'i 


s8i A H I S T O R Y of 

purchaft, if it be fo cofcfidcrcd, that Chrift did not rife as a pri- 
vate perfon, but as the head of the elect church ; fa that they tiid, 
as it were, aU nfc with him. Chrift wa« jufiifiad in his tefurrcc- 
tion, i e. Go4 acquued and difchargcd him hereby, a* haviojj done 
end fuff« red enough for the (in« of ail the eSc£l .• RO01. iv. 25:. 
«* Wbo vraj delivered lor ouf offences, snd raifcd 3w^i»in for our 
juftificatioa," AudGadputhim in p-llefflon of eXtrnkl life, as 
the he a« of rhc church, as a fare e-iraeft tij*t they fhould follow. 
For whea Chsift rofe from the dead, that was the beginning of 
ctcrn*^i ^i^e in him. His life Deforc his death was a morral liis, a 
temporal iiffl ; but hi» life after ih iduuisdion wa» an ex'^nal life ; 
Rem, vi 9* " Knowing that Chrift being r^ifed from the dead, 
dielh no more ; detlh hath no more dominion over him." Rev. 
i. 18 ** lam he ihat iiveth, and wai dead ; and behold, 1 am 
aUv2 for evermore, Amen,"— But he was put in pofTclTion •£ 
this eterral Wis, as the head of the body ; and took polfsffujn of it^ 
not on^y to e Jc-y himfelf, but to beftoA' on all »vho bciive in him ; 
fo that thf wh'Ac chuich, as it were, rifes in him. Aad now he 
wfe© lately f fccd io eouih, after ihi^ h tofuffer n© more for cvcr» 
but to eattr into etcrnii gbry. God ihe F uher ncishcr espcdh nor 
deiiicfl any more fufFiriru^. 

This rcfur -cclioa of Ch*- ifr ii the mcf^ joyful event that ever c?me 
to pafs ; becauft hcicby Chnh reftcd from the great and difficult 
work of puTchafirg fcdemption, and received God's tcftimony, that 
It wtis fiailbed. The dccth of CkiiAwasthe gieattlt and moi} 
vrondcrful event that ever came to ps^U ; but that has a great deal 
an it that is forrowful. Bat by the rcfurfc6lion of Chrift, that 
forrow is turned into joy. The htad of the wholr chuich, in that 
great events enters on the poffeffion of eternal ^ffe ; and the whole 
church is, as it were, ** begotten again to a iiveJy hope," i Pet. 
h 3. "Weeping hsd continued for a night, but now joy comcth in 
ihc morning, the mofi joyful morning that ever was. This h the 
day of the reigaing of the head of the churchy and all the church 
reigns with him. This is fpckcn of as a day which was worthy to 
be commemorated with the greatcft j ;y of all dsys : Pfal. cxviii. 
24. ** This is the day which the Lord hath made, we will rejoice 
aijd be glad in it." And ihcrtfore this above all other days is 
appointed for the day of the church's fpiritual rejoicing to the end 
of the world, to be weekly fandiiied» as their day of holy ttfi and 
joy, that the church therein may reft and rejoice with her head. 
And as the 3d chapter of Gcnefis is the moft forrowful chapter in 
the Bible ; fo thofe chapters in the evangelifts that give an account 
of the refurreftioft of Chrift, may be looked upon as the moft joy- 
ful chapters in all the Bible : for thofe chapters give an account •£ 
the fini(bing of the purcbafc of redemption, and the beginoing o£ 
the glory of the bead of the cburcbi as the greateft fcal and carneft 


Ihe Work of R E D E M P T I O N. lU 

mf the ecernal glory of all the reft. 

It i« further to be obfcrvcd, that the day of Ae Rofpcl moft pro- 
perly begins with the rcfuire^ioa of Cbiift.— — TiU Cbfift rofc 
froai the dead, thcOld-Tcl^jiment difper.faiioo rem ined : but now 
itceafei, all being fulfilled Mai wm thkdowed forth in the lypicil 
ordinanccj of that difpenfation ; fo that here moft properly i» the 
end of the Olu Tcfkamcni night and Chrift fifing from ibc grave 
with joy and gVo; y, wai as the j ^yful bride groom of the church, 
si%* glorious conqueror to fubdue their enemies under their feet ; 
or was like the fun rifing as it were from under tlx earth, after a 
long night of da '-kncfft, and coming forth as a bade grocm, pre* 
pared as a Arorgman to run bis race, appearing in jo>fu) light to 
enlighten the M^orld. Now that joyful and excellent difpcnfalioa 
begins, that gloiious difpenfation, of which the prophets propbe* 
fied fo much ; now the gofpel fun is lifen is glory, *' and with 
bealiag in his wings," that thofs who fear God's name, may go 
forth, and grow up as calrcs of the ftall,'* 

U. ChriA's afecntion into heaven. la this I would Include bit 
fitting at the right band of God. For Chrift *s afcenfioB, and fit- 
ting at the righ't hand of G<j4, can fcaroely be looked upon as two 
diftint^ chirgs : forChrifl's afccofion was nothing elfe, but afcend- 
ing toGod'i right hand ; it was coming to Tit down at hit Father's 
right hand in glory. Tnts was ar other thing whereby Chrift was 
put intoa capacity far ihe sccompKih'ng the cife^ of his purch^fe ; 
at one that comes to be a deliverer cf a people as tbeii .king, in or- 
der to it, and th^t be may be urder the bcf^ rapacity for it, ii iiril 
inrlallcd in his throne. We are told, thatChriA was exriUcd for 
this end, that he might accompi*ib the fuccefs of bi^ redemption : 
A<'lsv 31. *' Hi 01 hath God exalted with his rtghr hand, for 
to give rcpcntaijce unto Ifrael,and the rewiflfion of fms." 

Chrift's afccnfion into heavtn was, as it were, bit folemn entbro- 
fittition, whereby thr Father did fet hia upof the throne, and fn« 
▼ert him with the glory of ht* kingdom which hf bad purchifcd for 
himfetf^ ih^ he might thereby ob^arn the fucceft of his redempti- 
on in Conquering all hit enemies : Pfal. ex i " Sit thoti at my 
tight hand, until 1 nuke thine enemies thy footftool." ChrL'V en- 
tered into heaven, in order to obtain the fuecefs of bit purchafCf 
at Ike high priefl of ol(^, after he had ofTered facrvfice, entered in* 
to the holy of holies with the blood of the fact ifice, in order to ob- 
tain thefticcefiofthefacrificc whichhe bad cffercd. Se Heb. 
ix. 11. He en teed into heaven, there to m ke inlerctifior foe 
his people, to plead the ficrifice which he bad made in order to 
the fucceft of it, Heb. vii. ij. 

As he «fcended into heaven, God the Father did in a v'fi\,U man* 
ter Ui bia oo the throne as k^r>g ol the unlTCtfe, He then put 

Z ibt 

l$4 A H I S T O R Y of 

the angcli all under hitn, and fatjc^cd heaven and earih under bita, 
Ihat he might QOTC*n them for ihc good of the people for whom 
be had died, Ej^h i so 21. 12 

As Chri(\ rufe from the dexd, (o he afcrndcd into heaven at the 
tiead of the body and forciunner of all the chwrch ; and fo ihcy, at 
it wert, afccnd with him, as well as rife wilh him : fo that we are 
bo»h raif^d up together, and midc to fit together in heavenly places 
in Chrifl, Eph ii 6 

Tne d^y of Chrift's af:enfion into heaven was doobtlcfs a joyful* 
glorious d^y in heaven. As heaven rcceivedChriO, God-man, as its 
king,fodoub!lcf$ it received a great acctfTion of glory and happiucfs, 
far bcyord what it had before. So that the times in both parts of the 
church, both that part which is in heaven, and al'o that which is on 
earth, ire become moregloriuosfinceChrijVshumilistion than before. 
So much for ihofe things whereby Chrift was put into the bcft 
capacity for obtaining the fuccefs of redemption. 


I Now procerdi to Chow how he accoroplifiicd this fuccefs. Here 
I would obferve, that this fuccefs confirts in two things, vii. ei- 
ther in grace, or in glory; That fuccefs which confiOs in the for- 
mer, IS to be feen in ihofe works of God which are wrought dur- 
ing thofc ages of the church wherein the church is continued under 
the outwird means of grace. That fuccefs which con fii^s in the 
latter of thefe, via glory : has its chief aceomplifhmcnt at the d^y 
of judgement. 

Sect. I. 

I WOULD fir ft confidei the former kind of fuccefs, confiAing 
ia G-»J*s grace here ; which mainly appears in the work of 
O »d during the timt that the Chriff iiii church coniirues under the 
weans of gracf ; which Is fromCh^iA's refur region to hii appearing 
in the clouds o* heaven to j idgcment ; which includes the three 
former of thofe grc^t events of providence before mentioned, 
which arc called Chip's toming in hit kingdom. In fpeakicg of 
this fuccefs, I would, 

I Mintion thofe things by which the means of this fuccefs 
were eft blifbed after Chritl's rcfurre<flion ; and, 

2. ConHder the fuccefs itfdf. 

^ I I W:>uldconfiJer thofe difpenfations of providence, by which ' 
the means of this fuccefs were eftabliflitd after Chr»ft'» rcfurreflion, 
^ I. The abolilViing of ihe Jcwlfh diipenfation. This indeed was 
gradually done, but it began fiom the rime ofChrift's refurreftion, 
in which the abolition of it is founded. This wa» the firfi thing 
done towards bringi-^g the former flate of the world to an end, 
Tiiii i« to be looked upon as the great mcani of the fuccefs of 

Chiift'f i 

the Work of REDEMPTION, il; 

Chrtd's redemption. Fo; the J::>«iih iifpeiifation was not fitted 
for more thaa one nation : it was not ti ted imt the prad ce of tt)e 
world in general, or for a church or God dwelling m ah pa ti of 
the world : nor would it h<tTe been in any wife pr<.^ic^ble by 
Ikem ; it would have been impolfiDle for men living in all parts of 
the world to go to J.*:ufalem three times a year, as was prcictibed 
in that conftitution; When therefore G^d had a defign of en- 
larging his churchy as he did after Chrifi's rcfurredionf it was no- 
cefTary that this difpenfation (houd be aboliltcd. It it ^ad been 
continued, it would have been a g.cai block «ad hinderance to the 
enlargement of the church. B:iiJes, their ceremonial la<w, by 
reafoo of its burden fomenefs, and great peculiarity oi fome of its 
rites, was as it were a wall of pircitioa : and was the ground 
of enmity between the Jews and OentUes, and would have kept 
the gtntiics from comply ing the true religion. This wall there- 
fore was broken 4own ta make way for the more eztenfive fueccf$ 
of the gofpel ; as Eph. ii 14 i^. 

II. Tiie next thing in order of time fcems tob? the appointment 
«f theCbriftiao fabbath. For though this was g ^dually e(\aba(h:i 
ia the Ghrif^ian church, yet thofe things by wnicb the revet i':^ri 
of God's mind and will was made, began on the dry ot ChrMt'f 
rcfurrettion, by his appearing then to his difeiplcs, juhr xx 19 ; 
and was afterwards confirmed by hh appearing trom vimn to i.^ic 
on that day rather than any other, John xx. 26 and by hm fcnamg 
down the Holy fpiiit fo remarkably en thar di<y, A^> ii I. and 
afterwards in dircdirsg that pubiic aiTcmblic^ ^ti-^ the publ'C wor» 
ikip of Chri/lians ibould be on that day, which m^y be concluded 
from Ads xx.7. i Cor, xvi. i. s, and Rt\. i. 10. And fo the 
day of the week on which Cnrifi arofc frcm the dc^ii, ihnt joy- 
ful day, i» appointed to be the day ol ir.c church's holy rtj icing 
|o the end of the world, and the day of their (l^ted puolic wor- 
iliip. Ttiis is a very great and principal mean* of the fuccefji 
which the gofpel has had in the wor d. 

III. The next thing wasCh irt'<appj!ntm?nlof the gofpel mia- 
ii^ry, and commiHionating and fending forth his apo. ic% to trach 
and bapr:2e all nations. O^ ihef« ihirgi we have sn ;jce,uni in 
Matih. xxviii. 19. 20. *• Go ye. therefore, and teach all nations, 
bapt'zing them io the oaire f^f the Fiither, and of the Son, and of 
the HolyGhoPt ; teaching them to obferve all thiiigs whitfocvcr J 
bave comm vidci you : ^ind lo, I am with you alway.cvcn unto t^c 
end of the world" Tbcie »rre ihiec thinj-s done by 
thU one inftru<;Uan and commi/rion of Chri^ to b.s Ap^filcs, v:^ 

I. The appointmer^t oMn^ office or the gjfpel mm. ftry, Fof 
this comji fGon whicm ChiiU g vcs to hi« apo^iits, in the mQ% 
cirentiat paru of it, belongs fO ill m.nifters ; 4)1 ; he c{.o riles-, by 
?ixtu? of i(| wcce miaiile*s or elucrs ot (he cjuich. $, 

,86 A H I S T O R T of 

1. Here ii fomething peculiar in ihif commlffion of the tpof- 
del, vi* to go forth from one nation to another, preaching ihc 
gofpcl in all the world. The apoftlei had fomething ^iborc what 
kclongcd to iheir ordinary charaticr as minifters ; ihey had an ex- 
iraordinary power of teaching and ruling, which extended to ail 
the cburchci ; aid not only fcH the churches which then were, but 
fill ihat ih lula be to the end of the world by their miniftry. And 
fo the aipoftlca wtre, ai it were, in fubordinaiion to Chiift, wade 
lov<nddtioDt of the ChriHian chuich. Sccl^pb.ii. 20. and Kcf. 

n . 14* 

J Here isan appo: ^toaentof Chriftiao baptifm. This or« 
diaancc indeed hal a beginning before; John the Bapiift aodChrifV 
bob baptised. Bui uo^ efpecially by this In/litution is it cfta- 
blil>i'-cl a» an ordin<.ncc to be upheld in the Cfarifiian church to 
the cad of the world -7—' — Tnc ordinance of the Lord's fuppec 
bad be?n eftabliQatd be Of ^j aft before ChriCi's crucifixion* 

IV* The next t i'g to ba obfei ved, h the cnduirjg the apoOIct 
a'^d others, witbextraordia)>ry and miraculous gifts of the Holy 
Ghoit J fuch as the gift of tongues, the gift of healing, of pro- 
phecy, He Xv.t Spuit of God was poured out in great abundance 
in ibi> reipcft » fo that not only miniftsrs, but a very great part of 
the Chril^ians through the world were endued with them, both old 
and yourg ; not only cfiicers and more honourable perions, but th« 
aaitantr fon of people, fervants and handmaids, were commonly ' 
endued with them, agreeable to Joel's pvophecy, Joel it. 28 29. 
of wnlcb) prophecy the Apoftie Peter takes noiice, that it is accom* 
pliihed in this d!lpanfatioo. Ads ii. 11. 

Ho ^ wonderful a difpcnfation was this! Undtr thtOMTeAameBtj 
but few had fuch honors put up n tbt'tn byGod. Mofes wiflied that 
9U thcLord's people were p-^ophcts, Nomb.xi tg ; whereas Jo(bu^ 
thought ii much that Eldad and Medad prophcficd. But now we 
find the wifl» ol Mofci fulfilled. This continued in a very consider, 
able degree to the end of the apoftolic age, or the firft hundred years 
titer (be birth ofChrift.woich is therefore csllai the agaf miraela. 

This was a ij'C^t means of the fuecefs of the gofpcl in that age, 
and Or' cfiaW (hing the ChriAian church in all parts of the woild ; 
and not only tn that age, but in all ugcs 10 the end of tbe w»rld s 
for ChriAianity being ^y this means cO^bl^fhed through {o great a 
part of the known wofld bv miracles, ir wai after th;4i Jijcrc eafily 
conttBU'^d by tTa-^»»? n j and then, by means of thefe extraordinary 
gifts of th-* H'>5 O^oft, tbe ■.pcftlcs, and others, were en«bled to 
trFite the New T Asment, to be an infalhb'C rule of faith and m-n» 
aers tothe chu'-ch^o the end of the world Fm thermore, tbcfc 
■ivraalei fland ^erorded in tloft- wr/ttrgsasa f^knding proof and 

iVitofie ef tbf u\i\k qI the Cbrifti«ii r<|i£ioa 10 «U agu» 

tkt Work of R E D E M P T I O K. 187 

T. The next thin j I wronuld obfcrve if the revealing thofc g!o- 
lious dodrtne^ of the gofpel fuliy ana plainly, which had unde' 
thcOUTctU'jieat been obfcureiy rev ci led The dodrine of ChriU'c 
f£tUf action and nghtcoufacfs, hit afcenfion and glory, and the 
way of lalvation, under the Old Tcftarocnt, weic in a great ffica- 
fure hid under the vail of typct and ftaadows, and more obfcure 
reveUtioni, a> M jfei put a v/iil on hit face to bide the ibining of 
it : but now the vail of t^t tempU it rent from the top to the bet- 
torn ; and Cnnft, the antetype of Mofes, ibines : the ibining of 
bit faceii without a vail ', 2 Cor. iii. it. 1^ &i 18. Now thefc 
glorious myi^eries are plainly revealed, which we;c in a great tnea- 
fure kept fecret from the foundation of the worlds Eph. iii. 3.4* 
5. ; R.)n». xvi. if. •• According to the revelation of the m> Aery 
which was kept iccret fince the world began, but now is uade ma- 
n'lieft i" and, C<»1. i. 26. ** Even the myflcry which hath beeft 
bid frca ageij and geaeratioas* but now u m^ic maniieA 10 bii 

Thut the Sun of righteoufnefi, after it ts rifcn from under th« 
earth, bc^ini to (bi \c forth clearly, and cot only by a dim rcftec* 
tion ai it did before. Chrift, before his death, revealed piany 
things more dearly than ever they h^d been revealed in the Oid 
Te^ament ; but the great m) fleiies oi Chrift'b redemption, and re« 
conciliation by his death, ana JLAtfication by #is rigbieoufnefs, 
were not fo phinly reve4ed befo*e Chrlft't rtfurrc^'tion. Chri/l 
gave this reafpn iar it, that he would not put new wine into old 
bt^i<'<« ; *nd ii was g'^adu.ylly done arter Chrift's refurredion. la 
all hkeUh.iod, Chrii mucti norc cleaily intlrufted them pcrfonal* 
ly aficrbiftrefurre.'ho'i, ano baiorc his afcenfton i as we read that 
bf CO .cirjwd with them foiiy d^yi, fp^iaking of tbe things pertaia- 
in^ otbe k:ngiom, A'^» i J • and that •*heop<rned their un- 
der <t,iidin]^«,^hey mig ut undcrftaid the fcriptures, " Luke 
XX. V 4|. ^u: the clear rcvcbtion o^ thcfc things was principally 
after t.e pouring oot of the Spirit on the day of Penteceft, a* 
grtc »b e \r. Crift'? pr«:mif» , J. ha xvi. it. 13. " I have yet ma- 
D> (h • g to iay unto you>u^ ye cannot bear item now. Hj^beit, 
when mc &.>i.)c of truth is come, he Aiill guide you into all truth." 
This c-ear revel tion o* the myileai;! of the gofpel,as they are deli- 
vered, we have chiefly through the hands of (he ApcA^t i^^iul, by 
whofe wrtingt a child ay come to know more of the do£)(ines of 
the gofpel, in many refpf d^-. ib^n the greaicA prophets knew ua« 
4er the darknefs of the O & leAament. 

Thui tre fee how the light of the gofpcl, which i)egan to dawn 
immediately after the fall, and gradually grew and increafcd thro* 
«ll tbe ages of the OM T^ftimcnt, as we olferved as we went a* 
long, IS row come to the lig>«t of perfefl day, and the brightnefi 
of Ihc fun ibiaing forsh io his unveiled glory* 

i88 A H I S T O R Y of 

VI. The next thing th^t I woold obfcrvff, is the apporutajent of 
ihc office of deacons in tne ChriHian churrh, vyhitb \^c an 
account of in the 6 h chapter of the A<'ts, to like care lor the out- 
ward fupply of the mr mSeis of Chrift's church, and the exercife of 
that great Chriftian virtue of cbariry. 

VII. The callioR, ad qualifying, and fending thrApoAle Piu!. 
This was begun in h-s conve.fian ws be was ^ojf>g lu Ddmafcusand 
was one of the grca'eft means of tic lucccis of Cbrjft's redemption 
that followed : for this fuacefs ivai more b) the lahouis, preaching, 
and writings of this Apoftle, than all the other apofiks put toge- 
ther. F«r, ashe fays, i Cor, xv. lo. he "laboured more abun- 
dantly than they all ;" (o his faccefs was cnoie abundant than that 
of them all. As he was the apoftie of the G^aule , fo it was main- 
ly by his ininiriry that the Gwntiles were called, snd ihc gofpel 
fpread through the world ; and our nation, and the oihcr nations 
of Europs, have the gofpel among them, chicflv through his means; 
and he was more employed by the H )ly G^ijii in revealing the 
glorious dodrincs of the gofpel by his writings, for the ufc of the 
chu»^ in sU sgcs, than all the otfter apotilcs uktn together. 

VIII. Tne next thing i would obfervc, is the inftiiution of ec- 
clefiiiVieal council*, for deciding controverfiej, and ordering the 
a^^irs of the cllbrch of Chrift, of which wc have ao account in the 
iSth chapter of Ads. 

IX. The laf^ thing I fb^H mention under #iij head, it the coi»- 
mitting the Ncw-TcftaBacst to writir.g Tc is was all written af- 
ter the refurredioo of Chrifl ; and all vvr?ticn, either by the spof- 
8le«, or by the evangclifts, who we.c companions of the ap6ttlea. 
Ail the new tcftamcnt was wrincn by the .p <f^«ea iherafeives, ex- 
eepling what was wriiten bv M rk ai^d Luk*. vx ihc gofptls cl' 
Mark and Luke, and the bo k f ths A rs oi I'.c Apofiles. He 
ahat wrote the gofpel of M^:k, is fuppufcd to be he wLofc molhcf 
was Mafy, in whofe houfc incy woe pi-^yinp lO P«r er, when he, 
brought out of prifon by the sngri, c^m-. and kno; kcd at the door ; 
of which wc read. Ads xii. 12. " A ad w^tri he had confidcred 
the thing, he came to the hcufcof iVla)y the mbrher o- John, whofe 
firname was Mark^ where mi<ny were gwih-re J ? "ge»he', praying," 
He was thecompanioa of theapofilcs BamsDas an-iSsul : Ads xv. 
37. ** And Barnabas deicrmiDcd to t&ke w-nk them J jbo, whoft 
fifname was Mark," He was Barnabas's fiber's fon, and feemt 
fometimcs to have been a companion of the Apo^le P<iul : C&f. 
ivi eo. " Ariftarchus, my fellow- ptifoner, faluteth you, and 
Marcus, fiHer's fan to Btrnabas*; touching whom ya received com* 
mandmsnt : if he come anto yeu, receive hia '' The apoftlei 
fcera to have made great account of him, as appears by thofe places, 
?ad alfo by Ads xii. 25, [[ Aa4 IJaraabas and Saul returned from 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 1S9 

Jerusalem, and look, wiih them John, whofc firnamc was Mark ;** 
and Ar\% xiii ^. " And when they were at Silatnis, they preach- 
ed the word o^ G >J in the fyn'^jjfogu?* of the Jtws ; and they had 
alfo Joho to their rn'riiAc ," ^n6. zTitn, iv, II, *V Only Luke 
is with me : take M •» k and bring him with ihec ; for he is pr©^ 
ft^^Hc to nn« ior the irinirtry.'* 

This Lukc.'who wrote the 'gofpel of L ke an-* the bock of A<f^f, 
wa§ a great corTp»ninn of the ApoftK P^ul. He is fpckcn of as 
being with him in thtf faftm?ntior.ed pl?cc, and fpcaks of himfelf 
ai accompanying him in his travels in the hifloiy of the A£^s ; and 
therefore he fpe?.ki in th<' firft perfon plural, when fpeaking of 
Paul's travels faying:. W:; went to fucb and fuch a phce ; We 
fct fail; Wc hnc^cd from fuch a pUcc ; and landed at fuch 
a place. He was g'-c^.tly hel ved by the Apoftlt Paul : 
he it that Wclovrd ph}fic an fpokrn o% Col iv, 14 Tke 
ApoAlc ranks M k and Luke amor.jj bis fellow labourcr», 
Philemon, 24. *' Marcus, A iftarcw, D.mas,L6C<ii« my fcUoMT* 

The reft of the books were all written by the apof^lcs thcmfelrst. 
Tbebooks of the N« IV Tf lament arc fither hifloricnl, or doft- 
rinal, or prophetic J The hiftorical books ate the writings of 
the four evangcUOs, giving uf the hif>ory o* Chrif^, ard bit pur« 
chafeof redemption, and his refurre^ion and afccnfion ; and the 
Afts of the apoftles, giving an 'jccount of the great things by wh'ch 
the Chriftian chureh .was firfl eftabliibed and propagated. The 
dodriaal books are the epilHes. Tbcfe, moft of ibcm, we havs 
from the great Aj^ioftle Paul. And we have one prophetical book, 
which takes place after the end of the hi/lory of the whole Bible, 
tad gives ao account of the gre^t events which wrre to come topifs, 
by which the work of redemptioo was to b: carried on to the c&d 
of ihe world. 

All thcfe bookf are fuppofed to have been written before the de» 
ilrudlioa of Jcrufalem, excepting thofc which were written by the 
Apof^le John, who lived the lorg^-ft ot all the apoftlesr, and wote 
what he wrote after the def*ru«*.t!on of J.-rufilem, as is fuppsfcd*/^ 
To this beloved difcipic it wis th«it Chrift revealed thcfe wonder-" 
f«l things which were to come to pafs in his chuich to the end of 
tim« ; and he was the psrfon that put 'he fi » 'Thing hand to 'he [ 
canon of the fcripturcs, and fealcd t»^e whole of it, S-. thatroir'' 
the canon of fcripture, that great and (landfiag writrtn iu!e, which 
was begun about Mofes't time is corrplcar^d and Tettled, and a 
ojrfe denounced againft him that adds anything 10 if. or denji- 
cKhei any thing from it. And fo all rbinp, src cAjihrfiicd and 
and completed which relate to the sppotntrd means of grace. 
All the fitted means of grace were fiuiihcd ia the apoAolieal age, 


»9» A H I S T O R Y of 

or before the deaihof the Apoftlc, and arc to remain unal- 
ttfcd to thed;iy of j j ^g? ntnt. 

Thus far we have co«,fiJcred thofc thingi hy which the mcani of 
grace were given and cAab!iihcd In the Corifuan church. 

} II. Th K other thing propofed relating to the fucccfs of 
Cb: i^*i redemption during the church's continuance under the meant 
of grace, was to (how bo«*' this fticccfA wai Caffied on ; which it 
wh^t I would now proceed to do. 

Here it is worthy so be remembered, fhai the C-JiAIan church 
during; its con?iaua£:c£ un:lcr the mc^uiA of gr^ce^ 1% iu ti^o very 
d.tifeient ftttM. 

i. In a fufTcrinjr, sffl!(^cd, perfecnfcd fts?e, as, for the moft 
pari it iiy fvum the rcfurrcdion oiChrifttill tiKfaii of Aaii' 

2. In a Aate c^ pesce and profprmy ; which h the fste that 
the chj-ch, for the moil part, i,» »u be -n sfte» 'he ialt of Ami- 

Fir sT,Iwou1d(hc»vhov» thttiU^ccfiO^Chri'-/* r-^cinpfioi is car- 
ried en duiing thcu>nunu»nce of th« church'.* ( '?--^i*!,Uam 
the rcfurreftion of Chrift to the fall of Antichrsfb. TKis fpace 
i>r tiai/., ^cthe tiVI pirt, «» * ftat-cof the cburcb't fiffi ings, & > 
ij fo reorcfe. ted'n fcripturc. Indeed God is p'eafed, out of love 
fend pity tohi3el^:d, to g'4ial tni«y ioferai-ffi^w^-. o- the chu'ch'i 
fsjff«ring» during this dms vj^Vt ft?;- ;t'Ofe-y<i of Mi-ulinioa are at 
ft were (hort ned* - B:.« j^ v>ifc C^rift's rcfurrcdion till the fall of 
Ami«hr«.'^, .* * r.^s -<ppoiot2d day of Zion's ♦rcu'.'et, Dj irg tbit 
fp^cs oi liaka, for ihf. mo^ part, fcm^- p.rt or other of the church 
h under pcrfecution ; and great part of the tiaae, the whole churchy 
or at !a*\ the generality o' God's people, have been petfccuted. 

For the *i.'ft three huadred years after Chrift, tho church was for 
the moft pait in a i^ate of great affliction, the cbje(5t of reproach 
and pcrfecution ; firft by the Jew?, and theo by ihcHisthea. A.'t«?r 
ihjt, from the baginnirg ot Confi-ntine's time, the church had rtii 
and profptrity for a little while ; which it rcprcfcnted in Rct. v I. 
at the beginnirg, by the ?ngrV^ folding the four winds for a little 
while. Bit prcfcntly a^ier, the ch«rch again fufFcred perfccutioa 
frpm the An^nft ; and after that, Antichriil rofe, and the c^u'^ck 
waa driven away iDto ihe wiMen efs, and was kept down in ob* 
fcurity, and centcmpt, and ftiffering, for a lorg timc,undcr An !• 
chrift, before the reformation by Luther and others. And flicc 
the reformation, the church's perfecutionsh-ve beer beyon'^all that 
crer were before. Though fomc part* of Grid's church f imc timet 
baTe had tc(^.^ yet to this dsy, for the moft part, the true church it 
Tdry much kept uader by its enemies, and fooie pa* is of it under 


the Work of KEDEMPtlON. 191 

gret ious pcrfccutioa ; and fo wc may cxpeft it will coan'rut till 
the f«ll of AatiohTx/^ ; and tbcn will come the appointed day of 
the church'i profperity on earth, the fet time in which God will 
favGur Zion, the time when the faint* Ihall not be kept uiidcr by 
wicked men, ai it has btea hitherto ; but wherein they ih^ll bz up- 
pctmoft, and fhaU reign on earth, a4 it iifaid, Fcv. v. 10. "And 
the kingdom (hill be given to the people of the faiuii of the moft 
High," Dan. vii. 27. 

This fuffcring ftaic of the church 11 in fcripturc reprcfcotcd aj si 
ftate of the church's travail, John rvi. 20. 21. and R.!v. xii. i. z^ 
What the church is in travail ftriving to bring forth during thh 
time, is that glory and profperiiy of the church tvliich Ojail be after 
the fall of Atitichrift, and then Ihall (he bring f&riL her child. Thifl 
is a long time of the church's trouble and afflid^ion, and is fo fpokea 
of in fcfipture, thd* it be fpoken of as being but for a liulc fcafon, 
in comparifon of the eternal profperiiy of the church. Hence tfa6 
church, under the long continuance of this afHi^ion, cries out, as 
in Rev. vi. 10, ** How long, O Lord, holy and t7iii^,\ doil thou 
aot judge and avenge o'Jr blood on them that dwcH oa the earth ?'*, 
And we are told, that •' white robes wer6 given to every one o| 
them ; and it wasfaid unto them, that they ibould lefl jret for a 
little feafon, until their fello^i^ fervants alfo, and their brethren^ 
that fliould be killed as they were, Hiould be fulfiled." So, Dan« 
rii. 6. ** How long {hail it be to the end of thefe wonders ?" 

It is to be obferved, that during the time of thefe fufferirgicf the 
church, the main inflrument of their fuiferiogs has been theRomaiit 
government : her aiTlidions hav« almoA all along been fromRoxhe. 
That is therefore in the New Teftament called Babylon ; bccaufc^ 
as of old the troubles cf the eity Jcrufalem were mainly from that 
advcrfe city Babylon, fo the troubles of the Cbrif^ian church, the 
fpiritual Jerufalem, during the long time cf its tribulation, h main- 
ly from Rome. ' Before the time of Conftantine, the troubles of the 
Chriftian church were from Heathen Rome : fiace that lime, its 
troobles have been mainly from Anticbriftian Rome. As of oldi 
the captivity of the Jews ceafcd on the deftrudion of Babylon, io 
the time of the trouble of the Cbriilian church will ceafe with the 
deftru<^ion of the church of Rome, that fpiritual Babylon. 

In Ihowing how the fuccefs of Chrift's redemption is carried oa 
during this time of the church's tribulation, 1 vrculd, 

t , Show how it was carried on till the deflru(flion of Jerufalcaij 
with which ended the firft great difpenfaiion of Providence which 
is called Chrtjt't coming in his kingdom, 

2. How it was carried on from thence to the deftruaion of the 
Heathen empire in the time of ConAaatine^ which is the fecond 
liifpcafjition called Chri/'t cowing ^^ 

igt A H I S T O R Y of 

J. Hew csrricd on from thence to the deftrui^ion of An- 
tichriit, when wiU be accompifticd the third great event called 
Chriji's coming, and vTith which the dayi of the church's tribuUtion 
snd travail end. 

I. 1 would fhovv how the fucccfs of Chrift's purchafe of r«- 
dctnptioa was carried on from Chrift's rcfurrcftton to the dcHrudll- 
on of Jcrufakm. In fpeaking of this, I would, l. take notice of 
the fuccefs itfeif ; and, 2. the oppoHtion made againft it by the ene- 
mies of It ; and, 3. the terrible judgcmsntsofGod on thofc enemies. 

I. I would obfcrvc the fuccefs itfdf. Scon after Chrift had 
iirtifhcd the purchafe of redemption, and was gone into heaven, k 
entered into the holy of holies with his own bicod, there began a 
g!orioa» fuccefs of what he had done and fufT^red. Having under- 
mined the foundation of Suan's kingdom, it bcgsn to fall 2pacc# 
Swiftly did it bafien to ruin in ihe world, which might well be com- 
pared to Sjtan's falling like lightning from heaven. Satan before 
had exalted his throne very high in this world, even to the very 
ftars of heaven, reigning with great glory in bis Heathen Roman 
empire ; but nevsr before had he fuch a do'vnfal as he had foon af- 
ter Chrifi's afcenJlon. He had, we may fuppcfe, been very lately 
triumphing in a fuppofcd victory, hiving brought about the death 
of Chrift, which he doubllefs gloried in as the grcateft feat that 
ever he did ; and probably iinagiaed he ha J totaUy defeated God's 
defign by him. But he was quickly made fenfiblc, that he bad 
only been ruining hii own kingdom, when he faw it tumbling fo 
faft fo foon after, as a conftquence of the dcith of Chrift. For 
Chtift, by his death, having purchafcd the Hc>ly Spirit, and hav- 
ing afccnded, and received the Spirit, be j ou;ed it forth abun- 
dantly for the convcrlioa of thoufands and aillHors of fouls- 

N:vGr had Chrift's kingdoixi besafo^ftl up in the world. There 
probably were more fouls converted in the age of the spcftles than 
had been before from the beginning of the world till that time. 
Thus God fo foon begins glorioufly to accomplifh his promifc to 
his Son, wherein he had piomifcd, that be Ihould fee his feed, and 
that the pleafure of the Lord fbould profpcr In his hand, if he would 
make bis foul an offering or fin. And, 

(i) Here is to obfervcd the fuccefs, which the j^ofpcl had a- 
mong the jews : for God firfl began with thsm. He being about 
to rejc6l the main body of that people, firft calls in his elcdt froito 
among them, before he for fook them, to turn to the Gentiles, 
It was fo in former great and dreadful j-idgcraents of God oh that 
nation ; the bulk of them were deftroyed, and only a remnant fav- 
cd, or reformed. So it was in the rcjcftion of the ten tribes, long 
before this rcje£lion : the bulk of the ten tribes were rejc6^ed,whcn 
they left the true worfbip of God ia Jeroboam's time, |and after- 

the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 193 

^ards more fully in Abab's lime. Bu» yet ihcrt waj a rcmnsnt of 
them that God refer vcd, A number left their poffcflicns in ihcfe 
txibci, and went and fettled in the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. 
And afterwards there ivcre feven thoufand in Ahab's time, who had 
not bowed the knee to Baal, And 10, in thi captivity into Ba- 
bylon, only a remnant of them ever returned to ibcir own land. 
And fo now again, by far the greater part of the people were rc- 
jeftcd entirely, but fome few were favcd. Therefore the Hcly 
GhoA compares this refervation of a number that were converted 
by the preaching of the apoftles, to thofc former remnants : Rom, 
ix. 27. Efaias alfo crieth concerning Ifracl, '* Though the num- 
ber of the children be as the fand of the fea, a remnant fhall be 
Uvcd," Sec K. x. 22. 

The glorious fucccfs of the gcfp'e among the Jews after Chriifl'a 
a fcenfion, began by the pouring out of the Spirit upon the day 
of Pcntccoft, of which we read in Atfls ii. So woridcrful was 
ibe pouring out of the Spirit,and fo remarkable and fwifi the effcft 
of it, that we read of three thoufand who were converted to the 
Chriflian faiih in one day, A8.$ ii, 41. P;ob5lbly the greater par^ 
of thefe were favingly converted. And after this, we read o'God'j 
adding to the church daily fudi as ihould be favcd, vcrf. 47. 
And foou after, wc read, that the number of them were about five 
thoufand. Thus were not only a multitude coriveitcd, but the church 
was then eminent in piety, as appears by Af^s ii. 46. 47. iv- 32. 

Thus theChriftian church 'was Hrft of all of the nation cflfr^e! : 
and therefore, when th< Gentiles were called, they were but as it 
were added to Ifrael, to the feed of Abrahsm . They were added 
to the Chriftian church of Ifracl, as the profelytes of old wcic to 
the Mofaic church of Ifrael ; and fo were as it were only grafted 
oa the f^cck of Abraham, and were not a diftintl tiec ; for ihsy 
arc all f^ill the feed of Abrahsm and Ifrael; ss Ruth, the Moa- 
bitefj, and Uriah the H'ttitc, and ether prcfclytca of old, vtccz 
ihc fame people, and ranked as the feed of Ifrsel. 

So the .Chriftian church at firftbegnn at Jerufskm, and from 
thence was propagated to all Rations : fo that this ch«rch of Jcru- 
falcm was the church that was as it were the mother of all other 
churches in the world ; 3;}jreeablc to the p-oph*rcy. If. ii. }. 4. 
** Out of Zicn fhall go fo-lh the law, and the word of the Lord 
from Jerufalcm : and he fhall yidgc among the nations, z^d rebuke 
many people," So that the vvhoJe church- of Go4 is f:i\l God't 
Jirufalem : they are his fpiritaal Jerufalcm, nnd are as it w\^re cn» 
ly added to the church, which was begun in thclitcrrl Jo:ruf?\?em." 

After this, we read of many thouf-inds of Jews that believed ;^ 
Jcrufclem, A6ls xxi. 20 And fo wc read of mul«itur3cs of jtrws 
whQ were coavciicd in oibcr cities of Juaca ; and not cnly fo, bm 


591 A H I 3 T O R Y of 

ev«n In other parts of the world. F»>r wbcrc-cvc? th<? apoftisi wcil, 
if tfe.'jre vjrcrc any Jsvrs there, their manner was, fiflt lo go into 
«he fynago^uci of the Jewi, and preach the go^p^J »o ihcno, and 
many in one place and another believed ; as inD'^cnafcus &c Aziicch, 
and xnany oihcr phcc» that v/t rcsd of in the Aftj of the Apoftlej. 

In thvs pouring out of the fpirif, which began at the Ponlcccft 
follovying Chrift's afcenfjon, began tb.Jt firf^ gsca? difpenfaiioa 
which is called Chri^' s cofning in kis kingdom. ChrJfti coaiirg 
thus in 3 fpiriiu^I n^anncr for the gloiious felting up cf his kingdocQ 
in the world, is reprefcnipd by Chrii'^ himfclf as his coming dowii 
ffrom heaven, whither bf hsd sfccndcd, Joh?) xiv. i8. There Chrift 
caving been fpcaking of his sfcenfiGn, faya ** I will not Jtiivc ycu 
comfonlcfs ; 1 will coaic uuto you," fpc^king of his conaitig by 
ihc coming of the Comforter, tbc Spliii of truth. And, y«jfc 28. 
** Ye have heard bow 1 faid unto you, I go away, and ccme again 
unto you." Thus the apofiks began to fee the kingdom of heaven 
come with power, as he promii'^d they fnould, Maik ix. s. 

(2) What is qext iq h^ obfervttd ii the facccfs of Khe gcfpe! among 
5hc Sjcoaritans. After the fucccfs of the gofpel had been io glor ioLfiy 
begun aq;^ong the proper Jcwa, tiie Spirit of God was next wonder- 
fully poured out on the Samaritans, who were not jews by nation^ 
but the pofierijy of thoic whpm the king of Ai^yria icnicved frooi 
different part! cf his domir^ons, and fettled in the land thai was 
inhabited by the ten tribes, whom he carried captive. Eut yet they 
bad receded the liv^e bocks of Moftr, and pradifcd nroft cf th^ 
xite? of ihe law of Mofcs, and fo were 9 foil of mongrel ^t^^ys, 
Wc do net find them reckoned as Gentiles in the New-TtAauitut i 
for the calling of thcGentiks is fpokcn of as a new thing after tbisa 
beginning with the converfion of Cornelius. But yet it was an 
i'lftancc of making that a people that were no people ; for they had 
corrupted the religion which Mofes ccoiaiandcd, and did not ga 
up tojerufalem to wortlnp, but had another temple of their owk m 
Mount Gcrizzim ; which is the mountain of which the woman o^ 
Samaria fpeaki, when ftie fays, " Our fathers worli^ipped in this 
mountain." Chrift there docs not approve of their feparation from 
thii Jews ; but tells the woman of Sssparia, that they woiihipped 
8hcy knew not what, and that fslvaticn is of the Jews, But 
now faivanon is brought from the Jews to them by the preachbg of 
?hilip, (excepting that bcforcCbrirt bad feme fuccefs among ihcm) 
with whofe preaching there was a glorious pouring out of the 
Spirit of God in the city of Samaria , where wc are told, that 
*' the people believed Philip preaching the things concerning tiic 
kingdom cf Chrift, and were baptized, both men and women S 
and that thtre was great joy in that city^" Afts viii. S. — iz^ 

Tb'jf Cbriii bad a gbikus harvcft ia Saiparu j which i» what 


ihe Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 155 

Cfarift feemt to have bad refpefl to, in what he faid to his dlfciplct 
St Jacob's well three or four years before, on occafioa of the people 
of Samaria's appearir g at a diilance in the fields comh^g to the ph:cs 
where ChriA y^an, at the indigatioo of the woman of Samaria. Oa 
that occalioD, be bids his difcipJes lift up their eyes to t&c 6eld, 
for thai they were white to the harveft, John iv. 35. 36. The dif- 
pofition which the people of Samaria (ho wed towards ChriA aT>d his 
gofpcl, (bowed that they were ripe for the harveft. But now 
the barvefl is come by Philip's preaching. There ufed to be i moil 
bitter enmity between the Jews and Samaritani ; but now, by their 
coDvcrfioo, the ChriAian Jews and Samaritans are all happily 
united : for in Cbrift Jefus is neither Jew nor Samaritan, but Cfarifi 
is ail in all. This was a glorious inftance of the wolf's dwelling 
with the lamb, and the leopard's lying down with the kid. 

(3) The next thing to be obfcrved is the fuccefs there was of the 
gofpel in caliiog the Gentiles. This was a great and glorious dif> 
pcnfation of divine providence, much fpokcn of in the prophecict 
of (he Old Teftament, and fpoken of by the apoftles time after time^ 
as a moft glorious event of Chrift's redemption. This was begun 
io the eonverfion of Cornelius and his family, greatly to the ad- 
miration of Peter, who was ufed as the infirumcnt of it, and of 
ihofe who were with him, and of ihofc who were informed of U i 
as you may fee. Ads x. and xi. The next inftance of it that we 
have any account of, was in the converfion of great numbers of 
Gentiles in Cyprus, and Cyrene, and Antioch, by the difciplei 
that were fcatiered sbroad by the perfecution which arofe about 
Stephen, as we have an account in Acis xi. 19. to. 21. Prcfently 
upon this the difciples began to be called Chriftians 6r(\ at Antioch^ 
ycffc 26. 

After this, vafi multitudes of Gentiles were converted in many 
different pans of the world, chiefly by the miniflry of the Apoi'^lc 
Paul, a glorious pouring out of Jbe Spirit accpmpanying his preach- 
ing in one place and another. Multitudes flocked into the church 
of Chrift in a great number of cities where the Apoftlc came. So 
the number of the members of the Chriftian church that were Geti" 
liics, foon fai exceeded the number of itsjewilh members ; yra fo, 
that in Icfs than ten years time after Paul was fent forth from Antx- 
Qch to preach to the Gentiles, it was faid of him and his compa- 
?iions, that they had turned the world upfidc down: A<^s xvii.6, 
** Thcfe that have turned the world upfide down arc come hither 
alfo." But the mof^ remarkable pouring out of the Spirit in a 
particular city tbag we have any account of in the New Tefta- 
ment, fccms to be that in the city of Ephefus, which was a very 
gread city. Of this we have aft account in Afts xix. There wat 
iUo a very estr&ordinaiy iDgathering ol fcuU at Connih, one ol 



the greateft citjjs in d! Greece. And after ibis many were con' 
vcrtsd in Rome^ th-s chjcf city of all the work! ; and thcgofpci 
was prcpcgated into all parts of the; Kodi^n empire. Thu» the 
gofpcMun, which had lately rifin on the Jiws, bow rofe upon» 
aad bcgsn totuh'gbienthe H^^aihen world, after they had continu- 
ed ingrafs Hcathcniih dar kncfs for fo rainy ages. 

This was a great thing, and a new thing, fuch a« never had 
Leeri before. All nations but ths jc'vVJ, and a few who had a: 
Qn£ umi and another joncd vyiththera, had been rcjrded from a- 
bout Mcfcs'D time. ThcGeatile «?cirld hzd been covered over with 
the thick darknefs of idolatry ; but now, at ths joyfu! glorioui 
found of ths gcfpe!, ihey begaa in a!J paris to forfske their old 
jdol5, and tp abhor jhcsn, and to cnA them to the rnole* and to the 
bats, and to learn to xtoiA^ip the trite God, and to truft in his Son 
JcfusChriit ; ancGod owtKo them for hispeopte; thofe who had fo 
hug hzen. afar cfi\wcre made nigh by Tne blood ofChriit. Men were 
changed from beingHc^uhcnilh & bruiilh, to be the children of God; 
were called out of Sanaa's hingdooi of da:k'nef3,andbro't rntoGod's 
mirvcIou3 light 2ndinalmofl all count* ies thro'out the known world 
wc?c affsmbiics of the people of God ; joyful praifes were fung to 
the trucGod, a^dJcfusChri'i the glorious Redeemer. Now that great 
buHding which God began foou afier the fajl of man, rifes glori- 
oLfiy, not in the fame manner thst it had done in former ages, 
bui iii quite s new caiucer ; cow Di^ni-rs propbeciei concerning 
the hh kingdom, which fi:\ou!i fuccccd the four Heathenilh mo- 
narchies, begics to be fulfilled ; new ibei^onc out cut of the iroun- 
tains without hands, b^gan to finite the image on its feet, and to 
bre.'ikit in pieces, and to gro^ great, and to make great advance* 
tcvards fiiliog the cgith ; and now God gathers together the clccl 
from the four winds cf heaven, by the preaching of the spoftles 
and other mirJitcrs, the angels of the Chriflisa church fent forth 
-with she great found of the gofpel-trumpci, before the deftrufliou 
of Ji;rufakm, agreeable to what Chrift foretold, Mattb. zcx'v. 31, 

Tais ',728 the fuccefa of Ghri^l's purchafe during this firft peri- 
od cf the Chrifliaa church, vyhi^h leiminaldid iii the deftrudion of 

2, I woiild proceed now, in the feccnd.plscc, to take notice of 
the cppciiillon wi-ich was made to this fucccfs of Chrift's purchafe 
by the enemies cf i:.—^r— Satan, who lately was fo ready to tri- 
umph and cxulr, ai though he had gaiced the vi<flory in putting 
Cbrif: to death, now finding himfclf fallen into the pit which he 
had digged, and finding hi* kingdom failing fo fai>, and feeing 
Chrift's kingdom make fuch amszing progrrfs, fuch as never had 
been before, we may coricludc he vt'as filled with the greatcf^^on- 
fulio^and aftonllliaent, and hell fccoicd to be cfFcdluslly alarmed 

" by 

the Work of REDEMION, I97 

by it to make the moft violent opporuionagainft it. F;rft, the 
devil i:irred up ihe js.vs, who h&d before crucified Chriii, to pcr- 
fecutc the church : for it is obfcrve«b!c, tkat the pcrfccution which 
the church futTcrcd during this period, was moftly from the J:wi. 
Thus we read in the Aas, ^yhcn, at Jsrufalcm, the Holy Ghoft 
was po ired out at Pcr.tecol^, how the Je;^-9 mocked, and faid, 
" Tbcfe men arc full of new wine ;" and how the fcribcs and 
Pharifce», and the captain of the temple, were alarmed, andbs- 
ftirredthemfclve.tooppofc and pcrfccute the apoftlci, and fiift 
apprehended and threatened them, and afterwards imprifoncd and 
beat thera ; and breathing out threatenings and flaughter againft the 
difciples of the Lord, they Aoned S:cphea in a tumultuous rage ; 
and were not content to pci fecute thofe that they could find m Ju- 
dca, but fent abroad to DamJifcus and other places, tp perfccu:c ail 
that they could find every where. Herod, who was chief smong 
them, (Iretched foah hii hands to vex the chyrcb, and kihed James 
with the f^-ord, and proceeded to take Peter alfo, and caft h:m w- 

So in oiher countries, we find, that almoft whcre-cvcr the apof- 
ties came, the Je^s oppofcd the gofpcl in a moft malignant man- 
ncr. contradifting and blafpheming. How many things did the 
blelTed Apoftlc Paul fuffer at their hands in one placc^and another! 
How violent and blood-thirAy did they (hew thcmfelves towards 
him. when he came to bring alms to his nation ! In this perfecu- 
tion and cruelty was fulfilled thai of Chnft. Matth- x.ui. 34j 

- Behold. I fed you prophets, «"V'^^%7''.'o?ttt'y.lf ve 
fome of ihem ye (hall kill and crucify, and fame of 'hem (ha ye 
fcourge inyour fyn.gogues.and perfecute them from city to city 

a. I proceed to notice of thofe judgements which were cx^ 
ccuted on thofe enemies of Chrift, the perfecuting Jews; 

(I) The bulk of the people were given up to judicial bimdnefs 
of «ind and hardnefs of he.rt. Cbrift denounced ^"^^^^ - J; 
on them in the days of his flefh ; asM.tih. 1 3; H| ;-Th» ^"J^^ 
was alfo denounced on them by the Apollle Faun Aftj --"v ^5' 
26. 27. ; and u^der this curfe. under this judicial bhndnefi and 
bardneft.they remain to this very day, having been fubjed to it 
for about' X700 the moft awful in.l.nce of fuch a judg^^ 
ment. and monuments of God's terrible vengeance, of ^n> Peo- 
pie that ever were. That they fhould from generation to 
Jnlration fo cb.inately to rcj.a Chrift fo that " " ^ -ry rare 

. . u » ^f .>,*.Tn i« converted to the Chnitian laiin, 

thine that any one ot toem is convc.icw . 

ho4h .heir own fcripture, of the Oid Tcftamcn. «b ch t y c- 
knowUdgc. arc fo iM of p'.am .ea.,„on.» »g nft .b.m. « a u 
mirfeabk evidence of .heir being dreadfully lefi of God. 
(^) They were rejerted .ad caii off ftom bemg wy J°''S^;'|°/ ' 

■ ■ ti 

J9t A H I S T O R Y of 

vifiblc people. They were broken off from the ftock of Abraham i 
■ and fincc that have no more been reputed hia feed, than the lIh;Y»a- 
clites or £cioinitc!i, who are as tciich his natural feed as they. The 
greaic part of the two tribes were now caft off, as ihc ten tribes 
bad been before, and another people were taken in their room, a- 
Rreeable to the predidions of their own prophets ; as of Mofesj 
Diut. xxxii. 21, ** They have moved me to jcaloufy with that 
which is not God ; they have provoked me to anger with their va- 
nities J and I will move them to jcaloufy with ihofe which are not 
a people, I will provoke them to anger with a foolifti nation ;" 
sod of Ifaiah, Ixv. i. ** 1 am fought of them that alked not ioi 

me ; I am found of them that foiight me nof" They were vi« 

fibly reje£ted and caft off, by God*£ dircdlng hia apoftles to turn a- 
"way from them, and let them alone ; ai Afts xiii. 46. 4.7. ** Then 
Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and faid, It was ncceiiary that the 
word of God fhould fifft have been fpoken to you : but feeing ye 
put it from you, and judge yourfelvcs unworthy of cvcrlalling life, 
lo, we turn to the Gentiles : for fo hath the Lord commanded us." 
And'fo Aftsxviii* 6. andxxviii. 28. 

Thus far we have had the fcripture-hiftory to guide us ! hcacff- 
forward «rc fflall hare the guidance only of two ihiogj, viz. of 
fcripture-prcphecy, and God's providence, as related ih human 
h4lftorics. — —But I proceed. 

(3) The thkd and laft judgement of God on thofc enemies of 
ttt fucccfs of the gofpe! which I lliall mention, is the terrible de^ 
firu(ftion of their city and country by thcRomans. They had great 
»rarBing3 and many means ufed with them before thia deftrus^tioa, 
Firft, johs she Baptift warned them, and loM them, that the ale 
wkslaid at the root of the tree ; and that every tree which n\ouId 
nott bring forth good fruity (hould be hewn down, and caft into the 
fire. Then Chru'l warned them very particularly, and told theoa 
of their apioaching dcftf u<^ion, and at the thoughts of it wept 
ever them. And ihea the apoftles after Chrift's a fcenf on abun- 
dantly warned them. But thty proved obftinaie, and went on iq 
their oppoKition to Chrift and his church, and in their bitter pcrfe- 
culing pra£\ices. Their fo malignantly perfecuting the Apo^le 
Paul, of which wc have an account towards the end of the A6^s of 
the Apollki, is fuppoled to have bstn not more than fevcri or eight 
jeafs b2fore the dcfiruflion. 

After this God was pleafcd to give them one more very remarka« 
blc warning by the Apoftle Paul, in his eplfile to the Hebrewf^ 
which is an cpiflle written to that nation of the Jews, as is fuppof<< 
sd, about four years before iheir de/lruiflion ; wherein the plaioefl 
and cleared arguments are fet before them from their own law, an^ 
frooi their prophets^ for whom they profcfTed fvcb s regard, to 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. lr>9 

pTOVt thatChri'^Jefus muft ht tht Son of God, and tbat all th«r law 
pointed xo him and typified hicn, and thai ihtir Jcudi difpcnfati- 
oa muft nccdi hsve now ceafcd. For though ihc epiltle was more 
immcdistcly directed to the CbriAian Hcbrcwf , yet the maner oi 
the cpilUc plainly (hows that the apoAic intended it for the ufc and 
convi^ion of the unbelieving Jews. In ihii cpiftic he mentions 
parlicularljr ths approaching dc)\i(uftIon, ai ch^p. k. 25. ** So 
much the more, as ye fee the day approaching ;'* and in verf, 
^7 he fpcaks of the approaching juigctacat and ticry indignation 
which (hould devour the adverfarics. 

6ut the generaliiy 0/ them refufing to receive conviftion, God 
^oon dcftfoyed them wilii fuch terrible circumOanccs, £3 the dc- 
itruftion of no ccuutry Of city fiQCc the foundation of the world 
can parallel ; agreeable to what Chrifl foretold, Mairh rxiv, 2i, 
•' For then Ihail be tribulation, fuch at wa« liOi from the begin- 
ning of the world to this timr, co, nor ever (ball be." The 
fidt d«(tfu(5licn of Jtrufalem by ihc Babylonians wsa very terrible^ 
as it is iii the moit «fF; (^ing manner dtfcribcd by the Prophet 
J:rcn::3b, in his Laoscntations j bui this was nothing to the dread- 
ful mifery and wrath which they f- fTircd in the dcfirudion ; Godj 
according as Chrifi foretold, brihgt^g onr thetn all the righteous 
blood that had bten died from the toundaiion of the world. Tfcui 
the enemies of GhriA were made his footftool oftcr hia afcenrion, 
agreeable to God*« promife in Pfal. ex. at the beginning; and 
CbriA rules them with a rod of Iron, Tney had been kicking a- 
jgainA Chrift, but they did not Ijick againft the pricks. The briari 
and thorns fet themfelves again A him in battle : but he wenS 
through them ; he burred them together. 

This deliruf^icn of Jetufalem was in all refpefts agreeable to 
what Chrift had foretold of it, Matlh. xih. by the account which 
Jofephus gives of it, who was then prefent, and was one of the 
Jews, who had a (hare in the calamity, who wrote the hiftory o£ 
their dcflrudlion. Many circumflanacs of this deftruftion rcfem- 
blcd the dcftrudtioo of the wicked at the day of judgement, by hii 
account, being accomplilhed with many fearful fights in the hea-. 
vcns. and wiih the feparation of the righteous from the wlcked#^ 
Their city and their temple were burnt, zed rafcd to the ground, 
and the ground on which the city flood was plowed ; and fo one 
ftone was not left upon another, Matth. xxiv. 2. 

The people had ceafcd for the moft part to be aa independent go- 
vernment after the Babyloniib captivity : but the fceptre entirely 
departed from Judah on the death of Arcbclaus ; and then Jjdca 
was made a Roman provi ce ; after this they were cafi off from 
being the people of God ; but now their very city and land are ut- 
terly dcftroyed, and they carried away from it j aad fohavc con- 
B b tinucd 

3^00 A H I S T O R Y cf 

tinuci in their difperfions through the world for now about 160& 

Thus there wit a fi.ul end to the OlJ-Tcilaaicnt world ; all was 
jRui(hed vrilh a kind of day of )':dgrmcnt, in the people of 
G0.I were f.^vH, and hiscnecntcs terribly dcflroycn.— - Thus docs 
he who waa fo lately raockcd defpifcd, and fpit upon by thcjcwi, 
and .vhofc follower! ihcy oi^ilignaully pcrfccut«d,fippcaf glorioulty 
cxaUcd OTcr h** encaiies. 

Hivioj* thus fhown how the fuccefiof ChriO^i purchafc was car- 
ried OQ till she deltfUi^iicn of Jr 'if^Icm, I come now, 

I I. To Ih i'v how if wa5 c >rir eJ on Uoax thar time till the de- 
<^fu.:^ ion of iht' Heathen cmp» re ii> the lime of Cv/flfftaniine tfee 
Great, whica is the fccond gre^i event which la in fcripturc coca- 
pared to Chrift'j oooi'ng to jijagmenr. 

JcrufaiCSQ wa* dtfiroyed about tbt ytar of our Lord 6S, and f3 

; before that gcn?raiion p^lIeJ aw.^y which wa«» coiitemporary wiih 

Chrift ; and it ^as about thirty tivc years after Ch.-ift's death. 

: The del>'UCtion of the Btratfacn empire undc; Conftantir.c, was a- 

. bout 260 yc^TS after this, in fhowing how the fucccfs of the gof- 

pci w<5 carried on through jhis time, I wauli, I. T"ke aotice of 

the oppofiiion made againf^ it by the Roman empire. :i How the 

, work of the gofpt! went on notwithftanding all that oppofition. 

3. The peculiar circumftar.ces of tribulation and difirefj that the 

church flras in ju'^ ba'^o^c tiitir neiivcrance by ConAantine. 4. 

The g^-eat revolution in Gonf^antine's time. 

I. I would briefly fV.ow what oppofiiion wai made againf^ the 
gofpsi, and the k'agdom of Chrift, by the R^maa empire- The 
opporuion that wa mid<: to the gofpciby tb-: H.aihca Roman em. 
pire, was mainly after the dcf^ruci Ion ofjtiufaltm, ihough their 
oppofiiion beg^a before ; but the oppofiiion thai wii before the 
deftruftion of j'-rufakm, was aainiy by the Jews. But when Jeru- 
falem was dcAroyed, the Jzwi were put out of a eapaciiy of mucjj 
troubling the church. Now therefore the devil turns his hand tlfe- 
. were, and ufes other inftruments. The oppofiiion v^hich «^ag mad^ 
in the R imaQ empire againfl tfic kingdom of Cxnr i/l, was chiefly of 
two kinds. 

(1) Tfacy employed all their learaiog, philofophy, and wk, 
la cppoling it, Cbrii^ csmc into the world in an sge whereia 
learning and philofophy were at their height in the R man empire. 
This was employed to the utmoft againft the kingdom of Chiift. 
The gofpel, which held forth a crucified Sayiour, was not at all a- 
gieeable to the notions of the pbilofopLers. The ChriAian fchemt 
of trufting in fuck a crucified Redeemer, appeared fooJifi and ri- 
diculous to ihcm. Greece was a country the moit famous for Icara- 
Ing of any in the R^sisq cuDpiic j but the apoiik cbfeives, tha 


the Work of R E D E M I O N, jo j 

«bc doilrinc of Chrift crucified r^ppcarcd fooliCbncfs to the Greckt, 
X Cor. i. 23. ; and therefore ibc wife men and phiiofcphcri oppjf^ 
cd the gofpcl with all the wit ihcy bad Wc have a fpccimea 
of their manner of oppofing, in the llory wc h^vc of their treat- 
mcnt of ihe Apoftic Pwal at Adicn*, which wag a city that had 
been for many sges the chief feat of phi^ofophera ot any in the 
wv hole world. We read in A<^« xvii. i3. that the philofophcri of 
the Epicurean and Sioirk? ercountcrcd hitn, f.ying, ** What will 
this babler fay ? He fccmeih to be a fetter forth of Orange gods.'" 
So they were wonfto deride -ini ridicule Chriftianity. AUcr lh« 
dcftrudtion of Jcrufalcm, lcvfc<al of thefe philofophcrs publilhcd 
books ?gain(t it i the chief of whom were Cclfus and P.rphyry, 
Thcfc wrote book* at^ainft the Chrifliau religion wiih a great deal 
of virulence and contempt, much after the manner that the D;:ifts of 
the p'cfent age oppofc an^i ridicule Chnftianity. Something of 
their writingt yet remains. As gicat encmici and defpifers as tbey 
were of ihc Chriflian religion, yet they never denied the fatfls re- 
corded of Chrifland his apoft!:i 'n the NcwTcftamer!t,pa!ticular- 
ly chc miracles which they wrought, but allowed them. They liv" 
ed too near the times wherein tncte miracles were wrought lo deny 
them ; for they were fo publicly done, and fo lately, that neither 
Jews nor Heathens in thofe days appeared 10 deny them ; but they 
jifcribed ihcm to the power of m^gic. 

(2) The authority of the Roman empire employed all their 
f^rength, time after time, to perfecute, and if polfiblc t& root out 
Chriftianity. This tKey did in tea "general fucccffivc perfecutfoiis. 
Wc have heretofore obfcrvcd, that Chriil came into the world, 
when the ftrength of Heathen dominion and authority was ths 
greatefl that ever it wss under tht: R )maD monarchy, the grealeii 
and flrongcf^ human monarchy that ever was on earth. All tl^c 
ftrcngth of this monarchy was employed for a long time to cppcfc 
and perfecule the Chriftian church, and if pr-mble to deftroy it, in 
ten fucccflTivc attempts, which are called the ttnHiatkcn perficutionsg 
which were before Conftanirnc. 

The firft of tbefc, which was the ptrfecuiion under Nero, was a, 
little before, the deftrjdion of Jerufalem, in which the Apcillii 
Pcttr was crucified, and the Apofllc Paul beheaded, foon afrcr he 
wrote his fccond cpiftle to Timothy. When he wrote that epif- 
ile, he was a prifoner at Rome under Nero, and was foon after he 
\Trote it beheaded, agreeable to what he fays, chap. iv. 6. 7 *< ^ 
am now ready to be oft'sred, and the time of my departure it tl 
band. I have fought a good fight, I have fiuilhed my courfc, i; 
t a ve kept the faith."— —There were many thcufands of o:her 
Chrirtians flain in that pcrfecution. The other nine pcrfccutiont, 
\jcrc all aflcj the defl?a6tioa of Jerufakm* Some of ibcfc wv'£. 

very ' 

2r>2 A n I S T O R Y of . 

very terrible indeed, and far escccded the firil pe^Ceeuticn under 
N^ro. One ctcperoT after another fet himfclf wiih the ulmoil 
rage to root out the Cbriftian church fiora the earth, that ther« 
fhould not be fo ojuch as the name of Chrii'tian left in the world* 
Thoufanda '^rid millions v/crc put to cruel deaihs in rticfe pcrfccu- 
tions ; foj ^b£y fparcd neither fcx nor age, but kiilcd ihem as faft 
as they cculd. Under the lecond gencn! pcrfccution, that which 
waa Hf St alter the deftrudicn of Jerufaletn, the Apo/\lc John was 
banlihci to the ills ofPatmos, where he had tbofc vifjons of which 
hchas given an account in the Revelation, Under that pcrfccu- 
tion it WZ8 reckoned, that about 40,000 fv-fTcrcd martydocn; which 
yet waf nointng £0 wh-^t were put eo death under fume fucceeding 
pCif:.cutiop.s. Ten thouiand fullered that one kind of cruel dcith^ 
crucirixion, in the third perfccut ion under the Euipcror Adriano 
Under the fourth pcrfccufioo, which h.-'an about the year ofChrid 
162^ ifi/iny f u ffta cd martyrd c 31 in England, the land of ouif fore- 
fathers, wherr- ChrinUnity h*)ci been piauted very early, and, ai is 
fuppofed, in the days of the apofties. In the later pcrfecutions, 
the Ror^isn csspercrs being vesed aj the truftration of their prcde- 
ceflo';^/who were not abi-- to extirpa'x Ghriflianity, or hinder ita 
progrefs, v/eic enraged to be the more violent in their atfcmptt, 
-' Trfus a gicat part of the lirfi 300 years after Chrift wasfpcnt in 
v'Oicnt an<i cruel ptrfsci:.Jios;s ol the church by the Roman powers, 
Ssian was very anvyilling to let go his hold of fo grca« ^ part of 
the world, and every way the chief part of it, «9 the countries cpn- 
iainrd in the Reman empire wtre, of which he bad bad the quiet 
poiFftllion for fo »r«3ny ^ges : and therefore, when he faw it going 
fo faft out of h;s hinds, be bcftired bia.felf to his utmoft : ail heli 
w-s, as it wcre,raifed sgsinft it to oppofe it wiih itsulmoft power, 
Siian thm cserdng hioifslf by the power of the Heathen Roman 
empire, is callc-J the great red dragon, in fcriplure, having' fevca 
hc^ds and'tcn homs. fighting againli the woman clothed with the 
fu» as in the 12th of Revelation. And the terrible con fiift ihcrs 
was between the church of Chrifl, snd the powers of the Heathen 
empire before Conft^niine's time, is there, in verf. 7. reprc- 
^Tented by the wiir between Michael and his angels, and the dragon 
and his angels : ** And there was war in heaven ; Michael and 
his angels foug^^t, arid the dragon fought and his angels." 

2. I wnu\d lake notice what fucccfs the gofpel had in the world 
before the time ofCorftaniine, notwithf^andiag all this oppofirion. 

.= Though the learning and power of the Roman empire wer. 

fo great, and both were employed to the utmofl agaioft Chriftiani 
8y to put a ftop to it, and to root it ou< for fo long a time, atid in 
io many repeated attempts; yet all wa« in vain ; they cOuld neiihe? 

i^ooi is out| opr put a ftop to it, J8ut (lill* in fpitc all that th^^ 
"••.. • ■ ■ ' '■ ■■ -^ ■ ■•■ couSd • 

,hc Workot REDEMPTION. «oj 

^uM<io,lhe.k^ng-lomof Ch.ift wonderfully p,«.iled. .nd &.- 
T.nHcL,n m couldccd .nd conlum.d -'Y b ore >U 

like . g. mcnt. .n^ .he .ro.m ft..ll e.. them Uke xvool. I. w« 
,c„obf«v,bie. .h,.Vo..hc moftp^r. lie mote (hey perfccu.ed more i< inceafcd ; inkmueb .h»> a com- 
mon (ay.rg Taeblooao. .he m.r.ys is. he feed ot the chu, h. 
Hc, ohucb proved .o bel.kc ap.lm "«.;°f "''' ^ 

,0 it, braccbe.. .be ::.o.e i. gro.. aod flou..(be, ; on which account 
probably the church is compared to a palm tree tn Cant, vn.^, 
I Thi/thyftatureU like to. palm -tree." Jun.n Martyr, ane- 
minen. father in the Cnriftian church, who l.vcd .n «he »ge ««« 
.fter the apoftU.. in fome writing, of h... are yet «t,nt, . 
fay,, that in hi, day, there wa, no part of ='«''-<''7'';"'!'^'",t^' 
or barbarian,, or by what name foever they were can=d. even the 
moft rude and unpclifhecl nation., where p.ayer, and thankfg.v.rg, 
Were not made to the great creator of the world, through the nam? 
of the crucified Jefu,. ' TertuUian, another cmintn, father m .!»: 
Chriftian church, who lived in the beginning of the 'onowtng age, 
in fome of hi, writing, which are yet ext.nt. fe., forth how that 
in hird.y the Ch.iftian religion bad extended itfelf to the utmoft 
bound, of the then known world, in wHch i^« 5«»'»"f ''"'"^f/. ■ 
country of our forefather, ; and •h'"«<'f'=°°''=";V;!'!f'*','''"/3, 
dom of Chrirt wa. then mo.e than any of the foj. great 
monarchic. ; and .moreover fay., that though the were 
i,firanBer.ofno!ongflaDd!ng, yet they had ft'led all pUce, of. 
the Roman dominion,, their citie., Ward., caftles. corpora- 
ticD,. council., armie,. tribe,, the palace, f.nate. and courti 
of judicature ; only .hey h-.d left to the He.ihen rhur temp.e. ; 
8„d that if thev fbould .11 «gree to retire ou! of the Ko=,an cn:p.r« 
the world would be =m.z=d at the folltude and f^^^''^^^^' 
would enfue upon it, there would be fo few lef:; and that .bev..hrtf. 
,i,n> were enough to be able eafily to defend themfdve,. .f in<:y 
we're difpofcd.o rife up in arm, ^g.infc the Heathen mag..<rate.. 
And Pliny, a Heathen who lived in tbofe day,, fays, muU.tudej 
of each fer, every age and qu^ity. were t,ecom= Chriftian,. Thii 
fuperfti.ion. fay, he, having infeaed and over-run not the c.y o,,. 
ly, but town. an<f ccuntric.. the temple, and facr.fice, a.e general- 
I» defolile and forfekcn. . . . .^ 

I. wa, r.markcd by both Heathen and Chriftian writer, in thofe 
day., that .he famou. Heathen oracle, in .heir terrplci. where 
prince, and other, for many p.ft "6" ^^^ '■>"" ^':""' '° '°^J"^f ""^- 
T.eeive anfwer. with an audible voice from their gods, which w.ra 
isiccdaafwcr. from tbc devil i 1 fay. tUok otaclcs were^now 


filcncsd and ftruck dumb, and gave no more snf i^'ers : and partU 
cularly :be oracJc sx D^lphoi, which vsai the moftVacnDus Hcc^ihco 
oracle ia thr whole world, \rtich both Greeks anrt Remans ufcd re 
confuU, be^an to ccafe to give any anlwcrs, even ficm the birth 
ofChrH ; andfhe fih'c deity whq wa^ worfiiipped, and ufcd to 
give anfvrcrf frorr) his oracle in that temple, being once inquired 
of, why he did now pivc anfwern as he was wont to do? made 
?hii rcp!y, ss fcveral H.^thcn biftorians who lived sbout thofc 
times relate, fbere is anHebrew boy, f^vs he, who is k'!,g of the 
godj, who has cojumanded inc to leave this hcufe, and be gone to 
hdi, and therefore you aic toexpcd no more anfweri Many of 
the Heathen writers t^ho lived about that time, fpe^k much 
of the oraqlcs being ilienced, £S a thing at which Wc-n-Iercd^ 
not knowing what the caufc fljould be. Plutaich, a H^athca 
writer of thofc times, v,-rotc a particular trep.iife about it, «»hich is 
flili cx:ant. And Porphyry, one of the Heathen writer* before- 
raenliooed, who oppofcd the Chtifiian "religio!?, in hi« writings 
has thefc wprds : It is rip wonder if the city for thefc fo many 
years has been ever-run with fcknefs ; Efculapiui, and the reft of 
the gods, having withdrawn their convcrfc with men r for fincc 
Jefus begC'jn to be woffh5pped, no man has received any public 
help or bcRefii by the gods." 

Thus dki the kingdom of Chrift prevail againf^ the kingdom of 

3, I now proceed to take notice of the peculiar eircumHances of 
tribulation and diurcfs juH before Conllantine the G-cat came to 
the throne. This dilL-efs they fc-fFcrcd under the tenth Heathen 
perfccution, which, ss it was the laft, fo it wnn by far the hcavieft, 
AT^d moil fcverc. The church before this, after the cesfing of the 
y>!nth perfecution, had enjoyed a time of quietnefs for about 
farty years together ; but, abufing their liberty, began to grow cold 
and lifchfs in religion, and carnal, and cont<*nnoni prevailed 
among them ; by which they offended God to fuffer this dreadful 
trial to come upon them. Satan havirg loA ground fo much, nol- 
withflanding all his attempts, now fcemed to beftir himfelf with 
more than ordinary rage. Thofc who were then in authority fet 
t^hcmfelvcs with the utaio<t violence to root out Chriftianily, by 
burning all Bibles, and dcftroying all Chriftians ; and therefore 
they did not (land to try or convitt them in a formal procefs, but 
fc!! upon them where ever they could ; fometimes fciting fire tp 
fcoufcs where multitudes of them were aflembled, and burning them 
sll together ; and at other times flaughtcring multitudes tcgcther r 
fo that fometimes their perfecutors were quite fpent with thclabo? 
of killing aad tormenting them ; and io fomc populous places, fo 
iDaoy were flain together, that the blood ran l»kc torrents. Jt i$ 
ctUtcd, that f£ventc£Q tlioufend martyrs vrcrc daia in one month's 


the Work of R K D E M P T I O N. 20S 

•iK\c ; and that duiing the conlinuMCC of this pcrfecufion, in the 
province of Egypt alone, no Uf» ihan 144,000 Chriftiani died 
by the violence of their pcrfecutori, befk^ci 700,000 (hat died 
through the fatigues of banilhmcnt, cr the public works to which 
they were condemned. 

This perfccution lafted for ten yciri together ; and as it exceeded 
all foregoing pcrfccuiions in the number of mai tyrs, fo it exceeded 
them in tbs variety and tnuhitude of inventions of torture and 
cruelly. Soma aushcrs who lived at that time, fay, they wer« 
innummcrablc, and exceed all account and exprcfTioa. 

This perfecution in particular was very (evcre in England ; and 
this is ihit perfccutioa which was foretold in Rtv. vi. 9. lo- *•' And 
when he had opened the fifth feal I f.*w under the altar the fouli 
of them that were llain for the word of God, and for the tcftiinony 
which they held. And they cried with a loud voice, faying. How 
long. O Lord, holy and true, doft thou not judge and avenge our 
blood on them that dwell on the earth ?" 

At the end of the ten ycais during which this perfccution con- 
tinued, the Heathen perfecutori thought the> had fi; ifticd their 
work, and boaited that they had uticily deflroycd the name and 
fuperftition of the Chriilians, and bad reftored and propagated 
(he worittip of the gods.^ 

Thus it was the darkeli time with the ChriAian church juf^ before 
the bresk of d*y Tfacy were brought to the greacci^ extremity juft 
before Gad appeared for their glorious deliverance, as the bondage 
of the Ifraelitcs in Egypt was the moft feverc and cruel juft before 
their deliverance by the hand of Mofes. Their enemies thought 
they had fwallowed them up jufl before their deflrue^ion, as it was 
with Pharaoh and his hoft when they had hemmed in the children 
of Ifrael at the Rcd-fci. 

4 I come now, in the fourth place, to the great rcvolutioo 
which was in the world in the days of Conftantine, which was m 
many refpe^s like Chrid's appearing in the clouds o^ heaven to 
fave his people, and judge the world. The psoplc of Rome being 
weary of the government of thofc tyrants to whom they had lately 
bctn fu^jefl, fcnt to Gonflanlinc, who was then in the city of 
Vork inEngland, to come and take the throne. He being encouraged, 
as is fal(f ,by a vifion of a pillar of light in the heavens, in the form 
of a crof;, in the fight o» his whole army, with this infcriptloo. 
In this ovtrcome ; and the night following, by Chrift'i appear* 
leg to him in a dream with the f^me crofs in his hand, who 
directed htm to make a crof!> I:ke that to be his royal ftacdard, that 
bis army might fight under thxt banner, and affurcd him that he 
fiio'uld overcome. Accord irglj bp did, and overcame his enemies^ 
«ttd rook pcffifHoa of lac J^peiiil thror.c,and cmbriccd iheChriftiaj^ 


3c? A H I S T O R Y o! 

uV' :' ' ~ 2 eivpcror thst rrcT ' "*- 

c?:r i a jc7 Ch i.t. T-;: nl 

«rc<]ld take noiicc of whicii iUcndcd or iaimcduteff 
ii_,^^., ^..fu- tint's ccajing to rfcs tfcron;. 

,(i) The CbrLtiia Ciurch wis cbcrsby rr^oXhj ddrrcrti froSs 
^«rfcrjtic2. N:w the iij of her dclircrara camt aftrr fuch a 
«Ji/k n'^h: of a.-rri^'^a : -it^ct-g hi^ ccada..tJ fcr a sigbt, btt 
row dt :-tr::5c; ar.d j.>v Cimt i* t*^c rrDr£:»cg. No>» G-jd stw 
ptarcs t? j_-£r hi* pcottc, ^nd rcp'ritd fctTfcff fcf hii fe.-T7r,t», 
wfccn he fi* -^cif po^tr wis goct, snd tfccre '▼a ncsr ^ci c^J 
orldL Ctrirruri bsd 20 fcrfec-tbns !2o^ to ft it. Tlxrr^cr- 
lecijtbt3 Lcw were ill p-Jt iDwr., and li:c!r mJrn ircre fete of 

(2) Gji r.Dv ippti'c^j 10 cTTO-'Tf ttrT?b!«'J.r?<»'«2^tf « their 
taeKio. X-aE2rt*b!e arc trt accc*j::rt wbids ' -» « of 

<it ic- fir! ti2<fc to Tftizi the H?ich« rtp ros, ^ - _ _:-.•, a?ttl 
g^&xi^, isd cspiiiaf, andw^er grrat trra c~!ac, wl^o h sd txcrtrf 
itecfcTTci ic pcffcciiti'-g the Ct* ^iaos •, cyi g niTfrT5t?ij, ote 
ird «:!C±E"^ undtr c?-; jfrte tc:tsfn»f of b^^j; 2^d fccrmn df 
Cocfcie-Ci, witb 1 aiC ~ ::r. So ifcit 

whst :;o^ C33i« to u; z ^ ^ r ^ircd to their 

lliding. fr-€m'^dv*3 in ih« dct>f asri rock* of tt-t aso-jiitainJ. 

(3} H-r^.h<iirfM co«^ ^31 b 1 jreit aicafu:^ iboiiflWd throu^:.- 
Ool iLc RjBan etaplre. lain;^ ^e*c vsO^f dc'troye*, «i:d Hca- 
4:r3 icx " ' - dowa. Iai?§?t of gold sad fi'vc^ were mtlrcd 

dowr, £" . iutoSBsacj. Sv-:e of :hc Ctitf of 6s?r itijtj, 

l»iiich were curicu^y vrrougbr, were bfocghl to Cjarunilaopk^ 
tsd dierr itivz wbh rof« up a::d down ib« Hrc^ti for ihc people 
lobefccld a^d Ucgb at, Ttc Hratha pncflj wcxft difpt-fcd aad 

(4) Tbc CbriftiaB dturdi vnt brocght tstc a ftatr of gf«t ptics 
tad y. Tion ill Heathen m-giilrat» wtrr p-'t dcTni, icd 

ot-l* 11 ircTC advanced to phces of author iry aH otct the 

CJEpi/c. Tcey had cow Chri.lian prcfycati, Chriftiin |GTrrtorf, 
Cbfif.Ian irrigcsand of?i:^i, iof^ead of their old Hraihta ih oaeJ« 
CooCa^ lice felbJHifeif ti put booou/ cpoo Cfinftiao biibcps of 
suaiftot, aiid to buiki and adora charchei ; 2nd dow largt and 
iJeawifa! Cfcnfilan churchea were creeled ia all-'paxu of tbc worlds 
iufy- - old H:5!Stn tetnpUi. 

I -.-:iin*air.e greattft ftrotaica and change ia the 

face of thisgi th^t ertr c^^m; 10 pafi In the ^^orld fines ihe &:iod, 
Satan, tiic prince of d^rk-tf*, ihst king ini g--d of the H^iih« 
wo/ld, WSJ caft «i?. Tbc roaring Hen wu ccrqjcred by th^L^oib 
<jifi3oA, in the ftrongei> doa'nion thai trer he had, crsr. tile Rd- 
CBrnjc, Thitwait r«!r«kibic icccapUAatal ^t, }«r- a:, iz. 

tbe Wofk cf REDEMPTION. i': 

'* The ^ t DOt i:i2dc ifac bcarcst vA ifee cirr*^ 

crcBtbcv „.. r ^aibe caiA, snd /ran uider ihrfe bca- 

Tcw." Tix chkl p*rt of the wwld »» CO* bna^ onci'iy *> 
'r^«4rcAlg«ii«a^ tfadioW iciigiaa, to »dss* «fecy Lad 
ftftfcrH' laych »cegcr liaii •oy ^f i^r tiaorio give an 
acoouDt of. TacT h&d c« i acc»iltci»od K> wortkif t^^ e:ct fo 
losg. tbaitbrr kbcw not a-.T cigbnit|5 erf it- i« wiJ fi^sscrly 
fpokco oiA» i icbf uafaicwa ior a naiio. loifcarge licir gcdi. 
Jcr.ii 10. II. ;bsnaow ik greaurr pirt cIxdc a*uoc* ct ibe 
ino-rn wc'W wert trocgbi to can off ibeir iom^ gods- TL« 
««liiiu^ccf2oditiiattbeyworifeif?«d wrrcaU fc^rfiicr. Tbc- 
ftnth of thr:^ w«rc ca* iwiy tor dsc wc^ihip cf lH> ir-t Go^, -^ 
C!:ri!^ tbe cnlj Siviwr : tat! there win- ^ ic*.t»l- 

laret of Aat lo If. H. i?. i5. •• And tbe ta ftatt 

be bowed down, aaf ibc hns^btk-cij of oca 0«il t« aiiic lew ; 
and ibc Lord aUmc ib.U be cztlttd ta Aal <Ut. Asd tbe fdoW 
IjcihaU tsierSy ^3li(b/' Siocc ^k^'nhateomc to par6, that ibofe 
goiiihai were o©ee fo faaawa ia d» worfd,ai Jcp«er, aod !«•■■, 
asd Min<rr3, and J«k>, «rc are ocly hewd of at iliwfi wMefc «cre 
c^okl. Tbey h27c CO tempJet, a6 akati, ao voifrippefs, aod 
fcarc nolhad for xna-.y b » drcd yean. 

N-w is cosac tbe end of ihc oW HtatJica w&r!d m rtt rrisctpd 
t, ibc Roaiancmpw* Tfeb great re»cfcrtk» and cksssgc 
itc of the wacld. whh that •etrMjle detnAio* cf Ae ftcit 
fc« who tui been perfeMtort, wco^pared. in KtT. w. toAe «i4 
of the wo;M, atid Chtill «»Bg to iiKfgeaicet ; and it wfcat b boAt 
xm-neiiatdy %iified amkr the firth fcal, wtids followed npo^ 
tfcc fo-Jsvodcr tac altar, crying, " Hdw bog. O Lord, holy and 
tn;e, do*^ thou not artage cm tfood on then that d#cil on Ac 
eanh ?*' Tail vi^sn cf t%c firtb fesl, by tbe general ccafent cf di- 
viaet and rxpofiton, bai refpca lo ibb dowcfal of thr Il.* ttc a 
Ro:r.ia csjpire ; though it ba amorc rcoicte rtfc'f^ to tic d^y «f 
jurJrtsirci, orthiswaiatjptofiL Tfce diy ofjuffostrt c&nnot 
be what is isimtiiaitly iatcndcd ; bccaufe wcbiTe sn arc-^ast of 
many CTcr.ti whicb were to conve to pa ft ccdir ibt firr-!b fef, 
and fo wtrr tc foliow after t^fc cf th< f^h fci^ Vrr^t «r:e ta 
pafs now if ih'o rcrrcfritcd ty it-c ii ~ ca^ cvt cf rtirrs 

to the earth. In his great f!rcr:gth ace , . . :U:ciij!:tj Rc=:aa 
cojpirc.bc had ai it were ezrl'cd his ibrcoc up to h^sven. Bet r.ow 
tcfclllike lighnbg {rzmbczrtn, a=d wai rorf:-ed to i-e cinh. 
HU kingdom waj coz^.:ici to e.c mcaser acd Bccre baiiaroa ?;a- 
rioni, or ;o the losrcr pirti of the wcHd of Tfiw is l^ 
event foretold. Rer. xii. 9. Sx, " A«»d the great dra;:oa wat 
*' call ouif iLxl oU fcrpeai, called ifce drrii iski SitK, wiacb da- 
(^ Q oehrsh 

xo8 A H I S T O R Y 

ccivcth the whole world : h^ wat caft out into the earth, »nd hU 
angels were ayi out with h>*m." &c. Saian templed Cfcrift, and 
promifcd to give him the glory of the kingdom« of the world j 
but now he ia obliged to give it to him even againft his will. This 
was a glorious fultilmcni of that prooiife which God made to his 
Son, that we have an account of in K. liii, 12. ** Therefore will 
I divide him a portion with the great, and he (hall divide the fpoil 
wiih the ftrong ; bccaufehc hath poured out his foul unto death : 
and he was numbered with the tranfg:elTor», and he bare the fin of 
many, and made intcrccffion for the tranfgrciTors." This was a 
great fulfilment of the prophecies of ibc Old Tcf^ament concerning 
the glorious time of the gofpcl, and particularly of \hc prnphccicB 
cf Danic!. Now the kin<»dom of heaven is come in a gloriou* de- 
gree. It picafed the Lord God of heaven, to fei up a kingdom oa 
the ruins of Satan's kingdom. And fuch fucccfs is there of the 
I'urch fc of Chtiri's redemption, and fuch honour docs the Father 
put up-in Chrift for the difgrscc he fufl'^red, when on earth. And 
now fee to what a height that glorious building is erc<^ed, which 
l);id been buiiJiag ever fmce the fall. 

In F E R K N c E. From what has been faid of the fucccfs of the gofpel 
fnmChrift's a^ceL^on to the liise of Conflantlne, wc may deduce a 
ftr rjji; arg'jcnent of the trueChr ftian religion, and that iht gofpcl oi 
JeiMiChrili is really from God. this wonderful fuccefs of it which 
has been fpokcn of, and the circumrtancei of It which have beea 
mentioned, arc a ftrong argument of ii fcveral ways. 

I. Wc may ga her from what has been faid, that it is the gof* 
pel, and that only, which has 2Ciuaiiy been the means of bring- 
ing the world to the knowledge of the true God, That thofe arc 
no gods whom the Heathen worshipped, and that there is but one 
only God, is what, now fincc the gofpel has fo tsught ui, we can 
fee to he truth by our own rcafon : it is plainly agreeable to the 
light of nature : it can be eafily fl)own by rcafon to tc dcmcnHra- 
biy true. The very Vslili thcmfelvcs acknowledge, ihit it can be 
demonftrated, that there is one God, and but os^c, who has made 
and governs the world. But now it is evident that it ii the gofpel, 
and that only, which has a<51ually been the means of bringing men 
to the knowledge of this truth : it was not the ini>ru<Sions of 
philofophers. They tried in vain : *' The world by wifdom 
knew not God.^' fill the gofpel and the holy fcriptures came a. 
broad in the world, all the world lay in ignorance of the true God 
and in the greateft darknefs wiih rcfpcd to the things of religion, 
embracing the abfurdeft opinions and prad^iccsf, which all civilized 
Qatirns now acknowledge to be child ilh fooleriei. And fo they lay 
cn«, age after another, and nothing proved cffe^^ual to enlightca 
shcsQt The lij>ht of oaturSf sad their own rcafca, at^d all the wif- 

th« Work of R E D E M P T( O N, 109 

dom of learned men, fignificd nothing till ihe fcrip^'jrcs cannc. 
But when thcfc cxme abroad, thc> were lucccfsful \o bring th« 
world to an acknowledgement of the cnc onl) iiuc God, and to 
worlLij and fervchira. 

Hence it is that all that part of the world «vhich now do€» own one 
only true God, Cbriflians,Jr:ws, Mahometars, and even Dcift* too^ 
originally came by the knowlcd^eot him. It is owing to this that 
they are not in general at thii day left in Hcathcnifli darkncfs. 
They have it all, tirA of all, either imniediat<;!y from ths fcriptuiej 
or by tradition from theii fathers, who l.«d it firft from the fcrip- 
tures. And doubtltfs thcfc who now dcfpife the fcripiurcs, ar;d 
boaft of the ftrengih of their own rcafon, as being f'jfficicnt to 
leal in'o the knovrledge of the one true God, if the gofpcl bad ne- 
ver come a broad in the world to enlighten thcii' forefathers, would 
have been as fottiAi and brutiih idolaters as the wcrld in general 
was before the gcf pel came abroad. The lVa'*on:ctana, who own 
i ur one true God, at firft borrowed the notici from the fcripiurcs : 
for the firftMahomctans had been educated inthcChrlRian religion, 
and apof^atizcd from it. This is evidential, that the fcripture* 
were defigned of God to be the proper means to bring the wcrld to 
the knowledge of himfclf, rather than human rcafon, or any thing 
elfe. For it is unrcafonabk to fuppofe, that the gofpel, and that 
only, which God never defigncd as the proper means for obtaining 
this cffe6>, (hould afllually obtain it, and that after human resfon, 
which hi dcligned as the proper irean, had been tried for a grciil 
many ages without any cffcjfl^ If the fcripturcs be not the wokd 
of God, then they are nothing but daiknefs and delufion, yea the 
greatei^ delufion that ever wai. Now, is it reafonable to fuppcfc^^ 
that God in his providence wculH make ufc of lalfthcod and delu- 
fion, and that only, to brinj; the world to the knowledge of hinr.- 
felf, and that no part of it (bould be brought to the knowledge cf 
bim any other way ? 

2. The gofpcVs prevailing at ir did sgainft fuch powerful oppo- 
fition, plainly fliowt the hmdof God. TncRornan gnvcrgncut, thag 
did fo violently fet itfcif to hinder the fucccfs of the gofpel, and 
to fubduethe chu>ch ofChrift, wa.s the moft powerful hnsisn govern- 
ment that ever was in the world : snd not only fo, but they fccmed 
as it were to have the church in their handi. The Chrirtians were 
moftly their fubje^ts, under their command, and never took up arms 
to defend thcmfclves: they did not gAilcr together. 3rd Aj-nd in therr 
own defence ; they armed ihemfelvcs with Dothirg but paiictice, 
and fuch like fpiritual weapons : and yet ih.'i mig'^ty povr?r could 
not conquer them ; but, on th: contrary, Christianity conquered 
Ihcm. The Roman empire had fjbducd the world ; they had fub- 
(Ckied m^ay mighty and potcct kijigrlQms ; jbcj fubdu:J cSe Gieeiaq 


310 A H I S T O R Y of 

monarchy, when they were not their fubje<fl?, and made the utmofV 
renftanoc : acid yci ibey cr.ulci not conc^ucr the church which wa» ta 

ihcir hand's ; but, on the contrary, were lubducd, and finally 
ti iumphed over by the church. 

3. No other fu^Hcicnt caufe can poilibly be afRgned of this proy- 
pag'lion ol the gofpcl, but only God't own power. Nothing clfe 
canbs dev'feJ^* tfie reason of it but thi». Their was ceruinly feme 
rcafon He c was a great and wonderful effect, the mo ft remarkable 
change thst ever was in the fscc of «hc world of mankind fince the 
fiood ; and ihis cft'ed was not without feme caufc. Now, what 
.other caufc can be dcvi/ed but only ihc divine power ? It wai nol 
the outstard ilreng>.h of the in{l:um«nt» whxh were employed ia ir» 
At fir!^, the goTpcl was preached only by a ftw tilicrmenj who were 
without powc-r ?n i worldly inicrcfc to ftpport then*. It wai not 
their craft and policy (hit produced this wonderful cffcft ; for they 
were poor iUittfate men. It was not the agrccaoicnefs of ih;f^ory 
they had to tell to the notions and principjs* of manicind. This 
was no p»c if ant fa We : A crucified God and Saviour was to the 
Jfivfs a numbling block, and 10 «hc G:ce^s fcolifhncft. It was not 
the sgrccablcncfj pf their dc>0rinc5 tp the difpofitions of men : for 
no'ii.;g is mere contrsry to the corruptions of men than the pure 
«3c<^rfncs of the grjfpcl. This rtlcd^ ihciefore caa have proccedc4 
frojij no othsr caufe shan thcj power and agency of God : and if the 
pnwcr of God was what was excrcifcd Jo c^uic the gofpel to pre- 
vail, then the gofptti h his word ; for furely God does not ufe his 
almighty power to promote a mere impoi^urc and ddufion. 

4. This fucc^fs is agreeable to wha; Chrift andhii apoftlci forc- 

toU.— Matih. ¥vj. iS" *'■ Upon this rock will i build my 

ciaufch : and the gates of hcU feall pot prevail a^aiafl it." Johci 
xii. 24. ** Verily verily I fay unio you. Except a corn of whtat 
fall into the ground and die, it abi Icth&Icnc : but if it die, it brings 
flh forth much fruit." And vcrf. 31. 32, " Now is the judge- 
ment of this worJtJ : now fhall the prince of this world be aaU out. 
And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw ail men unto 
me." John avi, 8. *' When he (the comforter) is cocnc, he will 
rcpcovt the world of fin, of righteoufncfs, and of judgcmeat,— be- 
caufe «he prince of thi» world is judged." 

So the Apoftle P^ul, in i Cor. chap. {, 21*— .28. declare?, hovr 
thai after the world by wifdom knew not God, it plcafcdGod by 
the foolillincfs of p'eaching, to favc them that believe ; and ihit 
God chofc the fooiiili things of the world, to confound the wife ; 
and wcsk things of the world, to confound the things which arc 
mighty: and liafc things of the world, and things which are dc- 
fpifsd, yea and things which are not, to bring to nought things 
tiiat >fc,------if any siaa forctcUi a thing, very likdy ia iifelf to 


the Work ol REDEMPTION. tti 

ccme to pafs, from caufca which can be forefeen,, it is cc great sr* 
gumcnt oi a revcUti<^n from God z but when a tbiog h foretold 
which is v^'ry ynlikcly ever to come to pafs, i« entirely contrary 
to the common courfc oi things, snd yet it does come to pafs jufl 
sgrceabie to the prediction, this is a ftrong argument that the 
prcdidion was Irom God. 

Thus the cotifideration of the manner of the propagation and 
fuccefs of the gofpel during the time which haa been fpoken of, 
affords great evidence that the fcriptures are the word oi God. 

Hi, lam toihowhowthe fuccefs of Chris's redemption ii 
carried on from the time of the overthrow of the Heathen Roman 
empire in the time of Conflantinc the Great, till the fall of Aati« 
chrilt, and tbedel^rudion of Satan's vifible kingdom on the earthy 
which )s the third great difpenfatioa which is in fcripture compar. 
cd to Chrift's coming to judgc^ncnt. This is a period wherein 
many great and wonderful things are btought to pafa. Heron is 
contained a long ferics of wonderi of divine providence towards 
the ©hriAian church. The grea»er part of the book of Revelation 
|» t^ken «ip in foretelling the events P^ ^^i* period. 

The fuccefs of Chrift's purchafe of redemption in this period, 
appears mainly at iheclofc of it, when Antichri/^ comes to faUp 
when there will be a far ojore glorious fuccefs of the gofpel than 
ever was before ; and that long fcrie» of events which are before, 
fiem to be only to prepare the way for it* in order to a moriR 
clear view of the great works of God in accomplifhing the fucceft 
of Chrift's redemption, and our feeing the glory of them, h wiU 
be necciTary, as we have done in the foregoing periods, to confider 
pot only the fuccefs itfelf, but the oppofiiion made to it, and the 
gre^t work« of Satan in this period ag^s^infl the church and kingdom 
of ChriA : and therefore, in taking a view of this period, I would 
take notice of events which c/iay be referred to either of tbcfc heads, 
yiz.cither to the head of Satan's oppofuioa to the fuccefs of Ghrifl'a 
redemption, or to the head of fuccefs of Chrift's redemption : and! 
for the more orderly confiderakion of the events of this period, £ 
•would divide it into thefc four parts : the htCi reaching from the 
deP^ruiflion of the Heathen empire to the rife of Antich/iit ; the 
fecond, fron the rife of Antichrii\ to the reformation in Luther'f 
time ; the third, from thence to the prefcnt time ; the fourth, from 
the prefent time, till Antichri/l is fallen, and Satan's vifible king- 
dom on earth is dci^roycd. 

jjti I would confider the events of the firft part of this periods 
reaching from the dcftru^tion of the Heathen empire to the rife of 
Antichrifl. Here, JirJ}, I would take notice of the opporiiion 
Satan made in this fpacc of time to the church J snd, J«ccr.dly^ 
Ihe fueccfs th^c the gofpel bad iii itt 

u Ih?; 

^'2 A HISTORY of 

I. The oppofiiion. Satan being cafi out of thij old Heathen 
empire, the great red drpgon, after fo foie a confiid with Michael 
and bit angcU for the greater par! of three hundred years, beirg st 
laft cntirciy routed and vanquiihcd, fo that no plicc wa§ found sny 
more in fccavcn ior him, but he \^-di caft down, at ti were, from 
heaven to tht earth ; yet does not give over his oppoiition to ihc 
woman, the church of Chrift, concerning which all this conflid 
had been. But he is ftiil in a rage, and renews his attenapts, and 
hai recojrfe to new devices agaiaft the church. The f-pcni, zhct 
he 13 cafl out of heaven to the earth, cafts out of his mouth water as 
a flood, to caufe the woman to be carried sway of &c flood. Tic 
oppofition that he made to the church of Chrift before the rife of 
Antichrift, was principally of two forts. It was cuter ly cor- 
rupting the church of Chrift with heredes, or by new endeavours 
10 reftore Pvganifm. 

(i) 1 would obfervc, tha! after the deAru^icn of the Heathcii 
Roman empire, Satan infcficd the church with hercfici. Though 
there had btfcn fo glorious a woik. of God in delivering the chuicb 
from her Heathen perfecutors, and overthrowing the Heathen 
empire ; yet the days of the church's travail not being ended, and 
the fet time of her profperity not being yet come, as being what 
was to fuccced the fall of Aotichrift, therefore the peace and prof- 
perity which the church enjoyed inConftantine's time, was but very 
ftierr : it was a refpite, which gave the church a time of peace 
snd filcnce, as it were, for kalf an hour, wherein the <ouf angels 
held the four winds from blowing, till the fcrvanti of God ihould be 
fealed in their foreheads. But the church foon began to be greatly 
iafcftcd with hercfies ; the two principal, and thofe which did molt 
infeft the ohurch, were the Arian and Pelagian here^cs. 

The Arians began foon after Ccnf^.antinc came to the throne. 
They denied the do(f^rin« of the Trinity, and the divinity of Chrii) 
and the Holy Crhoft, and maintained, that they were but mere cres* 
tures. This hcrcfy increafcd more and more in the church, and 
prevailed like a flood, which threatened to overflow all, and en- 
tirely to carry away the church, infomueh that before that age was 
cat, that is, before the fourth century after Chrift was hnifhed, 
the greater part of the Chriftian church were become Arians There 
were fome cmperon, the fucceflbrs of Conllantine, who were 
Arians ; fo that the Arians being the prevailing party, and having 
the civil authority on their fide, did raife a great perfecution a- 
gaiaft the true church of Chrift ; fo that this herefy might well be 
compared to a flood out of the mouth of the ferpent, which threat- 
ened to overthrow all, trnd quite carry away the woman. 

The Pelagian herefy arofc in the beginning of the next certury. 
It began by one Vdagivi, who was bora in Biiiain : bis Bfitifh 

the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 21} 

name was Morgan, He denied orginal fin, and ihc influence of 
the Spirit of God inconveilion, and held the power of free will, 
and many other thing-* of like tendency ; and this herefy did for 
a while greatly infcfl the chu'ch. Fcl.giui's principal antagonift, 
who wrote in defence of the orthodox faith, was St Auguftin. 

(2) The oihcr kind of oppcfilion which Satan made againft 
the church, was in his cndcavotTs to icftorc Faganifm, His firfl 
aitcQ pt was to reftorc it in the Koman empire, was by Julian the 
apoAace. Julian was nephew toConftantine the Great. When 
Conf^antinc died, he left his empire to his three fons ; and when 
they were dead, Julian the apoftatc reigned in their ftead. He had 
been a profeffed Chriftian ; but he fcli fromChriftanity, and turn- 
ed P^gan ; and therefore he i§ called tht apoftatt. When be 
came to the throne, he ufed his utmo^*^ endeavours to overthrow the 
Chri!\ian church, and fet up Paganifm again in the empire. He 
put down the Chriftian magii'iratei, and fet up Heathens in ihcif 
room : he rebuilt the Heathen temples, and fet up the Heathen wor- 
fh'p in ihs empire, and become amoft notorious perfecutor of the 
Chrirlians, and, as is thought, againft his own light : he ufed to 
call Chrift, by way of reproach, tht Galilean. He was killed with 
a lance in bis wars with the Pcrfians. When he faw that be wai 
mortally wouodtd, he took a handful of his blood, and threw it up 
towards heaven, crying out. Thou haft overcome, O Galileao. 
He is commonly thought by divines to have committed the unpar- 
donable fin. 

Another way that Satan attempted to reftore Paganifm in the 
Roman empire, was by tht invofiom and conquejii of Heathen nati" 
6ni* For in this fpsce of time that we are upon, the Goths and 
Vandals, and other Heathen barbarous nations, that dwelt in the 
north of the Roman empire, invaded the empire, and obtained 
great conqucft, and even over -ran the empire, and in the fifth cen- 
tury took the city of Rome, and finally fubducd and conquered, 
and took polTelTion of the Wel^crn empire, as it was called, or the 
weftcrn half of the empire, and divided it amongft them ; divided 
it into ten kingdoms, with i^Wch began the tea horns of the bcaft; 
for we are told, that the ten horns are ten kirgs, who fhould rife in 
the latter part of the R iman empire ; thcfc arc alfo rcprefentcd by 
the ten toes of Nebuchadnezzar's image. The invafion and con- 
quefti of ihcfe Heaihcn nations are fuppofcd to be foretold in the 
8th chapter of Revelation, in what came to paf$ under the founding 
of the four firft trumpets. Now thefc nations, who now took pof- 
(cfTIon of the Wcftern empire, were Healhcris ; io that by their 
means Hcathenifm wai again for a while rcllored titer it bad beca 
rooted out, 


fti4 A HISTORY of 

So much for the oppofnion of Satan againft the fucccfs of the 
^ofpel during this ipacc before the rife of Aniiebrift. 1 pro- 

2 To (ho^v what fuccefs there fras of the gofpel in this fpacc, 
COtwitbfUiDdfrjg thii oppoiilion. 

. (i) 1 waul i obferve, that the oppofitioti of Si«tan m ihoft th:ng« 
vras baffled. Thoogh the dragon caA out of his mouth fuch a floc7d 
after the woman i6 carry her away^ yet he could not obtain bit dc- 
rgn ; hu? t^c earth helped the woman, and opened her moiJth, and 
fwalJo wed up the flood which the dragon cafl out of his mouth* 
Thcfc hcrefies, which for a while fo ni^joh prcvsiJcd, yti aficr a 
whib dwindled away, and orthodoxy « as agam rcflorcd : and hi« 
attempt by Julian wa% baflUcd at hi* dtath. 

(2) The gofpel, during this fpace of time, was further propa- 
gsted ^mongft: many b^rbaroui* Heathen nations ii? the confines of 
the Roman empire. In the limc of Conftantine there was a catt' 
fidcrable propagation of the gofpc] in the E^ift- ladies, chicfiy lly 
the minlAry of one Frumentius. Great numbers of the Iberians 
an Heathen people, were converted lo Chriftianity by a ChriAian 
woman of eminent piety, whom they had taken c^ptitc. Some 
account i» given of fcveral other barbarous nations who ■ were not 
within the Roman empire, that great numbers of ihcm were bro'j 
to receive the gofpel by the tcar.hing and example of captives ^.hona 
they' had taken in war. After this» about the year of Cht'id 372* 
the gofpel was propagated among the barbarous people that dwell 
in Arabia ; as it was ilfo amafig fome of the northern nation? j 
particularly a prince of the country of the Gcths about this 'ima 
Ivccome Chrifiian, and a great number of his people with him* 
Tcwardf the latter end of this century, the gofptl was alfo further 
propagated among tht Pcrilans, and alfo the Scytiiiang, a barbarous 
people, that the apoftle mentions in Col. iii, 11. "Barbarian, 
Scythian, bend nor free." 

After this, about the year 430. there was n remarkable convcr- 
fion of a Heathen people, callctl the Burgundlan;, to the Chriftiari 
faith. Abe**: the fame ttme, in thi^ age, the gofpel began to bt 
prop?!gatedtn Ireland ; and the Irifh, who till now had been Hea- 
then, began to receive the Chruiian faith. About the fanic tim^ 
it was further propagated am'.;ng fomc barbarous people in Scot- 
land, and alfo m fome other places. In the next century to thif, 
one Z:3 thus :4 Heathen king, who ruled over a people called .r/r<t 
Colcbtans, was brought to renounce hi« Heathcnifm, and to cm- 
brace the Chriftian rc'»*^ion Several other barbarous nationi arc 
ffecorded to have renounced Heathcnifm and embraced Cbriflia&itjr 
about thii time, that I canao: Hand to mention, 


the Work of REDEMPTION. .215 

Thus I have briefly conTidercd the principal events of provider ce 
which concern the fucccfs of the gofpci of Chrift from Conftan!ia« 
to I e rife of Aniichnft. 

idiy, I come nortr to the fccond part of the time from C onfian- 
tiot lo ihcdtrrtrurtioaof Aniichri(l,viz thit nhich rcachci frcai the 
fife ot A->k':Chrift to the rcto* annuo by Luther and others ibis 
i« the darkcftand mof\ difmal day that ever the chriilian chwrch 
faw, and probably the da;kcft tbit ever it will fee. The time of 
the chu ch'i aHli<flion and psrfccuiion, ai «rai obferved before, is 
from Chrift'ii refurredion till the dtftruftion of Anrich/irl, except. 
ing wrhai the day ii, as it were, fiioisened by feme intermi/Iionj <nd 
timci of rcfpiic,whichG >d givei for the elcft's f-ke. But ihia 
from the rife of An'ichii/l till the Reformation, was a vkheic- 
in the Chriflian church waJ in 'ti grcatci^ dtp'b of dcprclJon, and 
its darkcfl lime of all. The true church in this fpacc was fo: many 
hundred years in a Aateof grea obfcurity, like the wcmsn ia ihe 
wildernefs : indeed (he wasalmoft hid from fght ;jnd obfcrv^tion. 
In fpeaking of the cvcnli of this fp^ce of time, I would, 1 , Take 
notice of the great machinations aed work* o^ the rcvil againft the 
kingdom of Chifl during this time j 2 Hjw the church of Cbtift 
was upheld during this time. 

I. I would t-ke notice of iht great worts of thedcvll agair /^ the 
kingdom of Chrif\ during this time. Satan h<d dene great thirgg 
againfl the Chriftian church be'orc, but had been b .fflcd orce and 
again. Michael and his angele had obtained a glorious vif'^cry. 
How terrible was this oppcdtion during the continuance of ih Hea- 
then empire j and how glorious W4» CnrilKs vi<^l ry and triumpli 
over him in the timcofConftamine ! Ic pleafed God now to pre- 
pare the way for a yet mof* glorious victory over him, to buffer 
bim to renew bis (\rcngth, and to do the utmcn th-t his power and 
fubtilty can help him to ; and therefore he fuff^rs him to have a 
long time to Uy his fchemes, and to e(labl*f1i hiii intercf), and m?ke 
his matters f^rong; and fuffcrs bim to carry his deflgns a great le? gt^ 
indeed almoft to the f wallowing up of his church ; and to exccr- 
cife a high, and proud, and almoin urcontrouled dominion, \^ 
the world, a long time before Chrift finally conquers, and fubducs, 
and utterly ruins his vifible kingdom on earth, as he will do in the 
time of thedeftrudion of Antichrti^ : thus glorioifly triumphing 
over bim, after be has done the uimoft that his power and fubnliy 
can extend to, and Ihowirg that he is above him« after he has dealt 
ttof) proudly, and lifted himfelf highei^ of all. 

The two great works of the devil which he in this fpace of tfme 
wrought againft the king ^om of ChrifV, are his creating his Anti- 
chriftian and Mahometan kingdoms, which have been, and ftijl 
are, two kingdoms of great extent and f^rength, both together fwaU 
lowing up the aocicnt Koman empire ; ibe kiogd&m o' AntickriH 
D d XwaiicwiDg 

2i6 A H I S T O R Y 

fwallowing up ihc Weft^rn empire, and Satan^s Mahometan kiri^^ 
dotn tbc E,.ft<:ra cmpivc. A* ;he fcripturcs in the book of Reve. 
htions reprcftntei it, it is in the deftruftiod of thefs that the glori.. 
ous viftory of Chrirt, at the fntrodu*'^soa of the gloiious time* of 
the ch'Kch, will mitnly conii\t. Here let ys briefly obferve bovi^ 
Satan cre.^J snci mn'ntains tbefc two great kingdoms of bis in op* 
pofiiion to the kingdom of Chri^. 

(i) With reV*"^^ *o ♦''« ^^fg^onr of Antichrif^. This fcewg 
to bethemafler piece of fill ihc conrrivances of tkc devil agaiaft the 
kingdom of Chrift, and is evidently fo fpoken of In fcripture, and 
therefore Aniichrift h the man of iic, or that man of fin* 2 Thcf. ii. 
3» He is fo CiMed f-nphatically, a« though he was fo eminently* 
So he is called yhtichri^, which fignifics the opponent or advcrfary 
of Cbrsi^. Not that he is thi only opponent of Chrift j there were 
many other* bciidcs hsm. The ApoRie John obfervcs, that in his 
days there were msny Aniichrifts. But yet this is called ths Jnti* 
chrijf, as though there were none but fie, bccaufe be was fo cmi. 
tsentiy, and above all oihtrr. So this contrivance of the devil, is 
salhd thi myjlery of iniqkity, t Tbcf, ii' 7' Wc find no enemy of 
Chrifi one oaif fo much iprkcn of in the prophecies of XcvisUliori 
as thijn ; and the def^rtiftiob of no enemy is fpoken of as fo glorious 
and happy for the church The craft and fubtilty of the devil, a. 
have all appears in this work of his ; as might be /hown,were it not 
that is would coafume too «uch time. 

This is a contrivance of the devil to tmn the miniftry of thcChrif- 
tiaa church into a mlnif^ry of th^, devil, and to turn thefe angels of 
the churches into f«llen ungeis^ and fo into devils. In the tyranny^ 
and fuperilition, and idolatry, and perfccution, which he fcts up, 
he contrives to make an i:»ugc of ancient P^ganifm, and more than 
to rcfiore what was loft in the empire by the overthrow of Pagsa- 
Uca. in the timr; of GonUantsnc : fo that by ibefc means the head 
of the beaft, which was wounded unto death in Conflantine, has bia 
deadly wound be 5kd in Antichrift, Rev. xiii 3. The dragon, thart 
formc»ly feigned in the H^^athen Roman empire, being caft out 
thence, aftci' the beal^ with fevcn heads and ten horns rifcs up out 
of the fea, gives him his power, and feat, and great authority ; and 
all the world wonders after ihe bcaft. 

I am far from pretending to detcroatne the time when the reign 
of Antichrift began, which Is a point that has bsen fo much con- 
troverted among divines and expofitors. It is certain that the 126(3, 
days, or years, which are fo often in fcriprure mentioned as the 
time of the continuance of Anticfarift's reign, did not commerrccf 
before the year of Chrift 479; becaufe if they did, they would have 
eroded, and Anticbrifi would have fallen before now. But I ibaU 
not prcteod to determi&e precifely bav lobgii was after this th;|;{ 

the Workof EEDEMFTION. ti? 

ihH period becan. The rife of Antiehrift wM gradual. TkChrif- 
tian church corrupted itfelf in »>ny .hi»g. prefentl, .ft« Conft.n- 
tine'. lio,e, growing more and more fuperftir.ous m .t. «°'^>V.\^^ 
degreei briogiog in many eercmon.e. .n.o the worib.p of God.tU 
at length they bro.ght in the worftip of f.i„t»..nd f.t «? .cn.g« m 
their churche., and the clergy in general, and efpecu .y the biftop 
of Rome, aff.imed more and more .ulbonty to bimfrlf. In tbe 
primitive timcibe wii only a miniftei of a congregaaon ; tlieB a 
Sanding moderator of a prcftytery ; then adiocef.c bifhop j then a 
metropolitia. which i. equivalent to an atchbiihop ; 'M" ^f *" " 
patriarch; then aftervrards he claimed the power of unlvetfalb.lhop 
over th. whole ,ghrifti»n church through the world ; wherein he 
wa, oppofcd for a while, but afterward, was conhrraed m it by ih^ 
civil power of tbe Emperor in the year 6c6 After tba I e cU.m 
ed the power of that temporal prince , and fo wa, won. o car y 
,wo fword.. to fignify Ihat both the .corporal *'>'!,;P';,'"''/*°'° 
was hfai and claimed more and more authority, till at length he. as 
Cbrift'. vicegerent on earth, claimed the very fame power tlu 
Cbrift would have, if he wa, prefent on e,nh. and «'g«d o^^ ^ ' 

throne, or the fame power that bt^S''"'^°'''r -U rhe^rircc of 
Gcd» .arih ; and ufed to be fubmuted to by alt 'b« ?";■="''' 
Chriftendom. He claimed power to crown prince,, and to drgrade 
them at hi. pleafute ; and thi. power wa. owned : and it can^e to 
that, that king, and empe-or. ufed to k.f. hi. feet. Tbe emperor, 
were wont to receive their crov/n, « hi. harvd., an:! prirce. w«e 
were wont to dread the difpleafure of tbe Pope, a. .hey would d^ead 
a thunderbolt from heaven ; for if th= Pope w=. pUafea to excom- 
municate a ptince.all hi. f»bjea! were at once freed from theu aHe- 
eiance to him ; yea, and obliged no? to own h.m any more.; on 
pain of excommunication } and not only fo, but iny man a;i.v I 
kill him where. ever he found him. A..d futther the Pope w,, 
believed to have power to damn .sen at pl=afure ; for whoejer d..d 
under hh eicommunication. wa. looked upon ""'^fj 1a,|,^.d 
And feveral emperor, were afiuaUy dcpofed and y- Oed. a,.d died 
miferable by hi. mean. ; and ii ih« people of a»y Kat-^ or kingdom 
did not pleafe had power to lay tba.ftatc or kmgdom under 
an interdia, which was a fentenoe p-onouac.d by .h= P.-pe agamft 
Ihat (late or kingdom, whereby aU facrcd adm.n.f.rauon. among 
,hem could have no validity. There could be ro valil bapttfat, 
orfaerament..orprayer.,or preaching or pudon.. till that in- 
•erdiawu taken o(r;fo that that peop.e remained, in ««.r ap^ 
prehenfion, in a mifer.ble, damnable fts.e and t!-.erefore dreaded 
• it., they would, ftorm of fire and br.mftonefrom heav..,. Inor- 
(Jer to execute hi. wrath on a prince or people with whom the I jpr 
waadifpleafcd, other priMCmuP. a'.fo be put to a deal o* 
ouble acd expence. 

*i? A H I S T O R y of 

Ai the P >pe and his clergy robbed the people of their ecdefiaftlca^ 
and civil liberties and privileges, (o they alfo robbed tbcm of their 
cAatcn, and drained all Chriftendom of their iponcy, and ingrcifccj 
the aEioft of their riches into their own coffers, by their vaft reve- 
nues, befdcs p;}y for pardons and indulgences, baptifais and eztreoi^ 
Unction*, dciivcraaccout of pu'galory, and an hundred other thing) 
—-See ho»» well this agrees with the prophecies, 2 Thef. ii. 3 4* 
D^n. vii 20 2 1. Rry xiii. 6, 7. and chap. xvii. 3 4. 

I)jring this time alfo rupcrftition and ignorance nioic and mor^ 
prevailed. Tnc holy fcripturcs by degrees were t ken out of the 
hands of the 1-ity the better to promote the unforiptualand vvrckti 
dcfigns of the P-pc and the clergy : and inHcacI of promoting 
knowledge amo;ig die pcopIc,they indiiftiriouflyproaaoJed ignorance* 
It was s receive;! m^itiqi acnong thca. That ignorance is the mothcf 
of devotion : and fo great was the cjarkncfs of rhofe times, that 
\ learning was altDoft cxunc^ in the world, the very prices them- 
iclves, moft of ttivCi, were barbaroufly ignorant as to any com- 
xncndabic learning, or any other Jsnowlcd^e, than their he'ilifti 
craft in cpprcifipg and tyrannizing' over the iciih of the pcople<> 
Tnc fupcrftitioa and ^Itkcdnefs oJ the church Rome, kept grow* 
ing worfe and worffi liU the very ilme oi the R-ioimaion ; and 
the whole Chriiiian world «ere led avyay ipto this great defedior^, 
excepting the rc^aaiiis of. ihtChriflian church in the Eaftcrn cmpite 
th«it had hot been utterly overthrown by the Turk?, 85 the Grctk 
church, and fenr.e oibcr?, which were alfo funk into great daikncfs 
and grofs fupcrftitioit, excepting alfo thofe few that were the pea- 
pic o God, who are rcprcfcnted by the vyoman in the i^ilderuc(^^ 
and Goi'i two wimcfTcs, of which laorc hereafter. 

Thi» is one of thofe two gqat kingdoms which the devil in ihiiJ 
period cred:d in oppofiu^n to the kingdom of ChriA, and wa« 
the greateft and chief. 1 come now, 

(2; To fpcrik of the other, the fecond, which is in tnany refpe^^s 
like: unto it, viz. his M homeian kingdom, which is another great 
kingdom of mighty power and vaft extent, fct up by Satan againft 
the kingdom of Chnft : he fet this up in ihc Ealtcrn empire, as he 
did tbnt of Antichritt in the Wef^em. 

Mihotnci wasb-nn in the yeir of Chrif^ 570, in Arabia. Whtn 
he was about foriy years of age, he began to give forth that he waf 
the great prophet of God, and began to teach iiis new invented 
religion, of which he was to be worfhippcd as the bead next under 
G.>d. He publJfhed his Alcoran, which he pretended he received 
from the angel G;*bricl ; and bcirg a fubtlc crafty man, and pof- 
lefTcd of confiderablc wealth, and living among a people who were 
very ignorant, and greatly divided in their opinions of idigioui 
mattori, by fubticty, sad fair promifcs of a fenfual paradil-, he 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. ii^ 

gained a number to be his followers, and fet op for their prince, 
and pop'g^tcfi hi> religion by ibc (word, and made it meritorioui 
of pdradifc to fi^ht for hioi. By which means hit party grew, and 
went on fighting till ihcy corqucred and biought over the neigh- 
bouring countriei ; and fo hii party gra'dutlly gr^w till they over- 
ran a great part of the worlrf. Firft, the S=*riceni, who were fomi 
of bis loHowtrs, and were a people of the country of Arabia, where 
M>thr met lived, about the year 700, bcgtn dreadfully to wafte 
the K. man empire. Xreyover-r n a great many countriei be- 
fungit g to the empire, and coi>tinued their coi.q<jeft for a long 
liiae. Thefc are fuppofed ro be meant by the locuftj that wc read 
of in the 9 h cnsptcr of Revelation. 

A^ter thii the Ta^ks, who were originally another pcopIc,difFer- 
«nr from the Saracfn*, but were followers of Mahomtt. conquered 
aii the Eifiern empire They began their empire about the year 
cf Chrifl 1296, and began to invade Europe about 1300, and iooIk 
Confiantinopte, and fo became masters of ail the E^fte/o empire 
jn the year 1453, which is near three hundred years ago. Tkus 
£li ihcfc cities and countries where were ihofc famous churches of 
olJ, that we read of in the New TeAament, as Jerufalem, Antiocb, 
Ephcfus, Corinth, tic. now all became fubjett to the Turks. And 
{hey took polTeiiion of ^onftanlinoplc, \%hi«h was nsmed after 
Conftantine, the Great, being wade by him the head city of tht 
Koman empire, whereas Rome had been till then. Thcfc arc fup- 
pofed to be prcpfatricd of by the hoifcmcn it^ the 9'.h chapter of 
Ktvclation, beginning with to* J 5 th vcrfe. The Kemains of the 
CbrJ/^ians that arc in thofc parti of the world, who are mcftly of 
the Greek cjurch, are in miferablc fisvery under thefc Tu^ks, and 
treated with a great deal of barbarity and cruelty, and are become 
moAly very ignorsnt snd fupcrf^itious. 

Thus 1 have rnowr- what great works of S^tan were wrought dur- 
iBg this fpacc of lime in oppofiiion to the kingdom of Chrifl. 

2. I come now to fhow how the church of Chrift was upheld 
ihrough this dark time " ." Hire, 

( I ) (t is to be obferycd, that towards the former part of thii fpace 
of lime, fomc of the natipni of Chrii^cndom held out a long time 
before they complied with the corrupiioRs and ufurp^tions of the 
church of Rome, Though all the world wondered after the bcaft, 
yet all nauons did not fall in at once. Many of the principal 
corruptions of the church of Rome were brought in with a great 
deal of ftiuggle and oppofition ; and particularly, when the Pope 
gave out, that he was univerfal bi(^op, many churches greatly op- 
pofcd him in it ; and it was a long time before they would yield 
Co hit exorbitant claims. And fo, Vfhen the worfhip of images 
mt firft brought into ibc churchei, there vcrc many who greatly 




oppofcd It. .nd long hdd out agatnft ... And {o rcfpta la 
o^er corruption, of th. church of Rome. 1 hof. pccpic 'h« d«=»« 
nMt« the cUv of R-me ecmplied fooncr. but feme thai were 
more remote, '««» a long tim« before they could f;""^""^."' 
pat their necS.. under the yoke : and p.ttSculatly ecclcfiaft.c.1 hif- 
iofv eive. »a account, tl;at It was fo with great part of the churehe. 
in England, and Scotland, and Fc.nce, who retained the ancient 
purity of dodtine and woiftjp much longer than many oiheri, 
who w"e nearer the chief feat of Antichtift. _ 

(t) in every age of this dark time, there appeared particular 
nerfont in ail puts of Chrifteadcm, who bore a teftimony agunfl 
fhe corruption, and tyranny of the church of Rome. There 
1 of Antichrift, c«a in the da.keft time, of all. but'f «'«'"• 
biftorian. mention great c-any by nam.. "'>°°"'f'f '»,!! f''I'°'; 
rencc of the Pope, and hi. idoUtrou, >.ccG,.p. and pl<aded for 
"ncien. purity ^f dodrinc and wo.lbip. GckI «a. p eafed to 
maintain an uninLrupted <u,«ffi«n of wimcTe. through the «hok 
.i,re in Germany, France. Britain, and other countrie. ; as 
"morhn, drontte. nnd mention .h,m by name and an 
account of the teftimony which they held. Many of «b«» *"« 
private perlon.. and mar^of .hem minifier., and fomem.g.ft.ates. 
.nd perfom of great diiliadlion. And there were number, m every 
lewho were perfecuted and put to for tbt, tefi.mony. 

(3) Befide^thefe p.rticuUr perfon. difperfed b«< »"«' '^;«' 
t^ere «a. a ce.t.m people, called the ITMcnJn. who l.«d fepa- 
au from all the reft of the world, who keptthemWve. pure and 
rlf>a.Hv bo'e a teftimony againft the church of ^ome through al 
bSd rk tte. The pi^ where they dwelt wa. the Vaudo .^ or 
Ihe f ve valley, of Eiedmont. a very mountampus '^"""'J'- b"""" 
l„l, and Fvance. The place the, lived 7" f """Pf fj, '^°^^ 
'^Sthofe exceeding high mountain, called ,*, ^/f.. .""f "'^^ 
Tlmoft impsMe. The paiTage over thefe mount.mou defe « 
rountrie, wa, fo ditScuU. that the valleyi where th.. people dwek 
^re monaacceffable. There , hi, people lived for ma.y age,,. 
r;'it were, alone, in a ft,te of reparation rom all the w rid - 
ing very little to do with any other people. Taere «h«y "' 

,.r fubmitled lo the church of Rome. One ol '^'/''P^* "^;",". 
Jpeaking of the Waldenfe,, fay.. The heref, of «h« Jf> ^"f^, '^ 
the oldeft herefy in the world. It i. fuppofed that thi, P«°P« J^" 
trok ifcemfclve. to ibi. defcrt fccrct pUee ataongthe tnounu.n,. 

the Work of R E D E M P 1 1 O N. 211 

ki hide themfelvcs from iht fcvcriiy of tht Hcaihca perfcciitiont . 
which were before Conftmtinc the Great, Thus the woman fled . 
into the wildern^fs from the face of the ferpent. Rev. xii. 6. And 
fo, vcrf, 1 4.. •' And to the woman were given two wingi of a 
great eagle, that (he might fly into the wildernefs, into her place : 
where fhe is nojrifhed for a time, and times, and half a time, from 
the face of the ferpent." The people being fettled there, their pof- 
ferity continued there from age to age afterwards : and being, as 
it were, by natural walls, as well as by God's grace, fcparated from 
the reft of the world, never partook of the overflowing corruption* 

Thefe efpccialiy were ihofc virjins who were not defiled with 
the refl of women, or when other women proflituted themfelvei and 
were defiled ; but they kept thecifelves pure for Chrift alone : 
they followed the Lamb, their fpiritual hufband, whitherfocver he 
went : they followed him into this hideous wildernefs, Rev. xiv. 4. 
^..;.....Thetr dodrine and their worfiiip, as there ftill remain ac« 
couftts of them, appear to be the fame with the ProteAani do^rine 
and worfli'p ; and by the confeifion of Popilh writers, they were a 
people remarkable for the ftrii^nefs of their Hvei, for charity and 
other Cbriftian virtues. They lived in external poverty i n thtt 
hideous country -, but they chofe this rather than to comply with 
the great corruptions of the refl of the world. 

They lived in fo fecret a place, it was a long time before they 
feem to have been much taken notice of by the Romanifts ; but a8 
lafl falling under obfervation, they went out in mighty armies a. 
gainft them, and fell upon them with infatiable cruelty, barbarouf- 
ly mafl'acring and putting to death, men, women, and children^ 
with all imaginable tortures ; and fo contiaued perfecuting them 
with but little intermilTion for feveral hundred years ; by which 
means many of tbem were driven out of their old habiutioni in 
the valleys of Piedmont, and fied into all parts of Europe, carrying 
with them their doctrine, to which many were brought over. Sd 
their perfecutors could not by all their cruelties extirpate the church 
of God 5 fo fulfilling bis word, '* that the gates of hell (hould not 
prevail againf^ it." 

(4) Towards the latter part of this dark time, feveral noted di- 
vines openly appeared to defend the truth, and bear teftimony a- 
gainft the corruptions of the church of Rome, and had many fol« 
lowers. The fird: and principal of thefe was a certain Englifli dU 
vine, whofc name was yohn fViMfft who appeared about 140 
years before the Reformation, and ftrenuoufiy oppofed the Popifli 
religion, and taught the fame do(^rinc that the Reformers after- 
wards did, and had many followers in England. He was hotly 
perfecuted in his life-n'mc, yet be died in peace ; and after he wag 
juried, his bones were dug up by his perfecutocs, and burnt. Hit 
followers remaiacd in costJldcrable n«mb::rs in Ecgland till the Rc- 


CJ2 A H I S T O R Y of 

fot-mation, sod were cruelly perfecutcd, and multiludei ^Ut to 
death for their reiigioa. 

Wickliff bad many difciplci and followeri, not only inEngland, 
but in other parts of Europe, whiihcr his book» wcfe ckxnai ; and 
particularly in Bohemia, among vihom were two eminent divines» 
the n-^me of one Was y^hn Hufs, the ether's name was "Jtrom, a 
divine belonging to Prague, the chief city of Bohcmis, Thefc 
ftrenuoufly oppofed the church of Rome, snd had many w^o ad* 
hercd to them. They were both burnt by the Paplfh fi-r thei doc- 
trine ; ^Tid their followers in BDhemia were cruelly pcrfwcuicd, bul 
never extirpated till the Reformation. 

Thus having gone through this dark time of the church, which it 
the fecond p rt of the fpjcc from Conftantine to the deiirudtion o£ 
Anlichr'n, I come now, 

3<y/y, To the third pirt, v^t. that which feeg'ns with the Refor- 
mation, an^ reaches to the pre fenl time. And here 1 wouH, I. 
Spe;k of the Rcformuion iifelf ; 2, The cppofition which the 
devil h^« made to the Reformed church ; 3 Wtiat fucccfs there hat 
lately been of the gofpel in one place and another ; 4 What the 
flate of things is now ia the wo.ld with regard to the church o£ 
Chrift, and the fuccefi of hii puchaf^. 

I. Here thefift thing lobe taken notice of is the Reformation. 
Thi« was begun about 220 years ago : fifl in Saxony in G-imany, 
by the preaching of Martin Luther, who, being ftirred in his fpir- 
it, to fee the horrid practices of the Pvpifti clergy, and having fet 
hfmfelf diligently to inquire after truth, by the rtudy of the holy 
fcriptures, and the wiitings of the ancient fathers of the church, 
Tcry openly and boldly decried the corruptions and ufuipatiocs of 
the Romiih church in his preaching and writings, and had fuona 
great number that fell in with him ; among whom was the Eledor 
of Saxony, the fovcreign prince of the country to vyhich he belong- 
ed. This greatly alarmed the church of Rome ; and it did as it 
were rally all its foree to oppofe him and his doctrine, and fierce 
wars and perfecutions were raifed against it : but yet it went on 
by the labours of Luther, and Melandbon inGermany, and Zuing* 
lius in Switzeilaad^and other eminent divines, who werecotexpo* 
rary wiih Luther, and fell ia with him ; and particularly Calvin, 
who appeared fomething after the beginning of the Reformation, 
but was orK of the mo/i eminent Reformers. 

Many of the princes of Germany foon fell in with the Reformed 
religion, and many other if itcs and kingdoms in Europe, as Scot- 
land, Sweden, D:nmark, Norway, great part of France, Poland, 
Lithuania, Switzerland and the Low Countries. So that \^ \% 
thought, that heretofore about half Chriftcndom were of theProtcf- 
tant religion ; though, fince, the Papif^s have gained ground ; fo 
4«t the PrQUflaoti now h«ve not fo egreat a proporticDb 


tfa« Work of R E E M P T I O N. %i% 

Th«« Godbcj5«n glorioufly to revive bis church zgain, and ad- 
vance the kingdom of hit Son.afier fuch a difm^l nighi of daikncf* 
j|» had been before froia ihc rUt: of Anlicbrift lo thai liajc There 
. bad been many cnic^ivourfl uf«i by the ^riincfics for ihe truth tor 
I reformat 01 before. But now, when God » sppointcd time wa^ 
«ojnc. hii work was begun, and went on with a f^^'ifi «nd wonder- 
ful progrcfi ; in 1 Aatichrift, who had been lifing higher anri higher 
from hi« very firlt beginning till that time, w^a fwifily and fuddcn* 
ly brought down, and fell half way towards uacr ruin, and ncvef 
bai been able to rife ag*sii to his former height. A certain very 
late eipofito^ (Mr. LcTrman) whoenplaio the five fi-0 vials tn 
the i6.K chapter of Revelation, with greater pr bsbility pcrh^pt 
Ihan any who went be/ore hita, enpUins the fi^rh vial, which wai 
|>^uredout oa the feat of the beaft, of what came to paf« in tht 
Keformalion ; ©apbinstg the foyr prrccding viali of certain greit 
Judgements C^d brought on the ^.>pi(h dominions before the Re« 
formation.. It is fa id, R v, xvi. lo. that " the fifth ange! pour* 
%i out hit vinl on the fe^t of the beafl j'* in the original, it it th§ 
ikronf c/tke htafi \ •* and hit kingdom i^as full of darkneft, aaj 
they gnawed their tongues forptin, and biarphcmed the God of 
Eeavcn becaufe o? their patas and their fores, and repented not of 
their deeds." He poured outbii vial upon the ihroce of the beafj, 
J. e. on the authority aiid dominion of the Pope: fo rbe wordi 
ikrom is often ufed in fcrlprure ; fo I Ringj i. 37, «• As the Lord 
hath been vrith my lord the king, even fo be he with Solomon, 
and make his throne greater than the throne of my lord Kir? Da- 
vid ;" i. e. m5ke his dominion and authority greater, and his king- 
dom more glorious. * 

But now, in the Reformation, ihe vlalt of God'i wrath werd 
poured out ow the throne of the beaf^. His throne was terriWa 
f^aken and dimini&ed. The Popc'a amhority and doir Jnion was 
greatly dimini<hed, both at to the extent arid S^ptt^ He \o9^, as 
was faid before, about half his dominions. Btfidei, fince thr Kc- 
iforination, the Pope has loil great part of that authority, even it) 
ihe Popifli dominions, which he had before. He is not regarded, 
ind kii power ii dreaded in no meafure aa it wa« wont to be, Tb« 
powers of Europe have learned not to put their necks under the 
Pope's feet, as formerly they were wont to do. So that he U a§ 
a lion that has \o(k. hil teeth, in comparifon of what|k waj once. 

When the Pope and his clergy, enraged to fee their su'.horiiy Jq 
tiiminiflied at the J^eformalion, laid their heads tcp'ether, and 
joined their forfcci to dcflroy the Reformation ; their policy, which 
was wont to fervc them fo well, failed; and they fowjd ibcir 
kinedom full of darknefi, fo that they could do rorhrrg any 
lAore than ibc figyptiast, w^ rofe not froa their fcati for thrett 

ft • «}a^9» 

"4 AHlSTORiro! 

dayi. The Reformed church was defended as Lot and the angeh 
Ircrc in Sodoro, by fmiting the Sododiitei with darknefs or blind- 
ntfs, fhat ibcy couM not fiod the door, God then fuitilled 
that in Job V. ii. 6c-. *' To fct up on high thofe that be 
low J th;it thofc which mourn may be exalted to fafcty H« 
difappointftS ?hc dcvcci o£ the crafty, fo thai their handi cannoi 
perforcQ zbc^t enterprife. He taketh the wife in their own craiti- 
ncfs : and thecounfel of the froward ii carried headlong. They 
meet with :5arkncf« in the day- time, and grope in the noon-day 
as in the nigbt. But he f^rcth the poor from the fword^ fjoai 
*be;r mouth, and from the hand of the migaty/' 

Thofc pro»jd CDcmlci of Gjd's people being fo difappolfited, anr! 
find; gthcmfelvei fo unable to uphold their own dominion and 
authority, this nraade them as it were to gnaw their tonguci fof 
pain^ or biiic their tonguei for mere rsge. 

• 2 I proce«?d thcrciore to ihow what oppofition hat been made 
tothls fu-r-fs of Chrift'i purcfcafc by the Rrformation by Satan 
«n.d hi* adherents 5 obfervlog, as we go along, how far they have 
been b;*ffled, and bow far they ha7e besn fucccfsful. 

The oppofition which Satan has made againft the Reformed rc=« 
ligion has been principally of the foHowing kinds, viz. that which 
was made, i . by-* general council of th<i church ot Rome ; 2 by fecret 
plots and devices ; ?. by opan w%r» and iovafoni ; 4 by cruel op- 
prcHTion and pe>fecut:on ; aad, 5 by bfingiog in corrupt opinions. 

(1) The ft. ft oppofiticn that 1 fhall take noiicecf is that which 
was made by the ctergy of the church of Koasc uaidng together ia 
a general council. This was the famous council of Trent, Which 
the Pope calkd i Vmh while after the Reformation. In that coua- 
cil, thcr« met together iix cardinals, thirty- two afohbiftiopi, tw^j 
hundred and twenty -eigh: biibops, biJides innumerable others of 
the Romifti clergy. This council, in all iheir llttiiig?, including 
the time* of intermiflion between their lutings, was h/cld for iwensy 
five years together. Their in»in bufinefs all this while was to con- 
cert mcafures ioreftablifhing the church of Rome againA the Re- 
formers, and for deftroying the Reformation. Bjt it proved that 
they were not able to perform their citerpriae. The , Reformed 
church, notwifhfianding their holding fo great a council, and for fj 
Jong a time together againfl it remained, and remains ftill. S^ 
that the couuilbl of the froward iifcarried headlong, and their king, 
dom is full of darknefs, and ihey weary themfelvcs to find the door. 

Thu« the church of Rome, inftead of repenting of thei*- deeds, 
when fuch rbar light was held forth to them by Luther and other 
fcrvant* of God, the Reformers, does, by general agreement ixi 
council, pe>iiA in their vslc corruptions and wickcdacfs, and ©b- 
dinate oppoBtion to the kingdom of Chriit. Ihs dc^lrines aa 


the Work of REDEMPTipN. J2j 

f)r&£^icci of the church of Rome, which wete chiefly condcoined 
by ifcc Kcfoiaisd, were co»tirmcd by the dccces ot iLcir council } 
^nd t\\t cjrruptions, in oisny rcipe(^b, yrcic c:.rried h gher than 
Cv^r b'.forc ; and they uttered bUfphemous reproaches and curfe* 
again fl :he Reformed religion, and all the Keform«d church wat 
cxcommunicHtcd and aQ^thematized by them ; and io, according 
Co the prophcfy, " ihey bhfphcme:! God." Thui God hatdeati 
ibeir hearts, intending to dcAroy ihem, 

(2) The Pipift* have often endeavoured to overthrow the Re- 
formation by fecret plot) and confpir^icies. So there were many 
plot! againA the life of Luther. Ti^^ Papifti v*tre ent^^gcd iv, con- 
triving to difp^td) hiqi, and to put him out of their w^y ; md he, 
^s he vrii a very bold man, often very much expofcd hi ^nfe^f in^he 
^aufc of Ghrift: but yet ihcy were wonderfully prevented fvoa-; hurt- 
ing him, and he at lafl died in hi$ &«d iu peace. And fo there hav^ 
been frotn time to tine innumerable fchemei fccrctly laid for ^be 
pverthrow of the Proteflant religion ; • aaong which, that whicl^ 
feem to be moA confiderable, and which feeircd to be the Tt\c(' likely 
to have taken cffetfl, was that which wss in the ticceof KingJ:^mei 
II, of EngUndj which is within the memory of many of us. Thrre 
wa%at that time a /Irong confpiiiacy between the King of E'^^Iand 
atid Lewis XIV. of France, who were both Paj)ifts, to extirpate th« 
Noitbero hcrefy, as ibey called the Proicrtant religion, not only 
out of England, but out of all Europe ; and had laid their fchemei 
fo,that they feeaed to be almof^ furc of their purpcfe, Tlicy 'ook° 
^d upon it, that if the Reformed religion were fu^jpreiTed in the 
Britiik realms, and in the Netherlands, which were the ftrongcft 
part, and chief defence of the Prcteftanl inteicfr, they i^ould have 
eafy work with the reft. And jufl as their m itiefs leemed to become 
to a head, and their enterprife ripe for execution, Gd. in his pro^ 
vidence, fuddenly daihed all their fchems in pieces by the Revolu- 
tion, at the coming in of King William and Queen Maty ; by which 
aU their deigns were at an end; and the ProteAant ioitrc^ was 
more ftrongly eftablifiied, by the crown of lingland's bcirg efta- 
bliOied in the Proteftant houfc of Hanover, and a PapiO bring, by 
the eonftitution of the nation, for ever rendered ^nc^p^bJr cf wear- 
ing the crown of England. Thus they groped in da'knefi at ttoon 
day as in the night, and their hsinds could not perform their enter- 
prife, and their kingdom was full of darkacfs, and. they gnawed 
their tongues for pain. 

After this, thers was a deep deiign laid to bring the fame thing to 
pafs in the latter end of Q^eeo Anne's reign, by the bringing in of 
the Popiih pretender ; which was no lefs fuddenly and ictiUy baf- 
fled by divine Providence ; as the plots agtiaft the Reformatiow.p 
bf bringing in the pr«:eader« have besn froos time to time. 

(3) Tlw 

•44 A H I S T O R Y of 

(j) The ReformatioQ has offcn been oppofcdby op«n waM sn4 
invafions. So in !he beginning of the Tclonttmion, ite Em'peioi ol 
Gciqiany, Jo fupv^efs the Rcto-mation, declared war with ihtDake, 
of S.jKowy, and ihc p incipal jn«n wUo tavaurcl and received Lu^ 
thei't doctrine. Uiiihcy couid ret obtain ibclr end ; ihry cudld 
not fupprefi the li^ oiaaation. For the f-mr end, the Kng ol 
Spain dQiiintaiticd a long war with Holland and the Low Countriel 
in ihc entury bcfo c l^A. B .1 thol'c crUcl wars Kfucd greatly lo th* 
difidv.nt'ige uf iht Rjm.fh church, as iticy oceafioncd the fuiing 
up of one of the csjft povic ful Proieftanl Aaics in Europe, which* 
next to G cat Brkianj U she chief barrier of iht Froiel'^ant teiigioo« 
And the citfign o^ the Spanifb snv Jion cf England in Queen E!if,4« 
IsetbVti.iic, wa« to fupprefa and root cut the Kc^oroDcd religion i 
and there lore i'hty brought in their fleet ail maniier of inftrucncnito* 
Cruelty whcrcwuhio tpriu e tbi Proteftants who would rot renounce 
the F*. tert^int religion. But their defign« wcrfi totally biJflcd, and 
their tnghiy fuct in a great tneafure ruined. ' ' 

(4) Siian has oppofed the Reformation with crue! pcy-fcculiont. 
Thcpcrfscutione with which the Proicftants in one kingdocn and 
another have been pcrfecuted by the chuch of Ri>mc, have in many 
irefpctle been fix beyond sny of the Heathen pcrfccution* wiich 
iirerc before Conftantine ihc Great, and beyond all that ever wert 
before, i?oth»J Antichrift has proved the grcaieft and cruelcift e* 
licaay to the church ofChnft that ever was in the world, in this, a« 
Well as m all other rcfpcd* ; agrrcablc to the Jefcrlption given o^ 
the church of Rome;, Rev. xvii. 6. ** And I f^w a woman drunk- 
en with the blood of faints, aind with the blood of tfce martyrs of 
Jcfus/* And, chap, xviii. 24. " And on her was found the blood 
of prophets, and of faints, and sU of tbcm cbaS were flain upoa 
Che earth." 

The Heathen perfecutlons bad been very dreadful : but nov 
perfecution by ilit church of Roonc was inDprovfd andf^udicd, and 
©uliivatei.'is aa'art or fciencc/ Such ways of afHiifing and torsaen- 
jing were found out, as are beyond the thought aid invention ol 
oromkry men, or <nen who arc unftudied in ihofe thing*, and be- 
yond the invention of all former ages. That perfecution oisgh^l 
tc managed tf^e more cfrcdually, there were certain focieties o^ 
toen eftabl'Gied in varioiii pans of the Popiflo dominions, whofc 
buOneftit (abuld be to fVudy, and improve, and praftife perfccuti- 
on in it< highe(^ perfcdion; which are' thofc focieties called iks 
courtt cf in^ui/itioM. A reading t>T the particular biftorics of the 
E n ^ pctfecuiion, and their courts of inquifiiion, will give thas 
idt» which a few words cannot cxprefs. • 

Waen the Reformation began , the beaft with fcven heads aad 
^ hWQt Ugsii ta rage m a. dregful 8Ba&&£?a After the Rcforma!^/ 

the Work of REDEMPTION. 2*7 

•n, the church of fiomc rentwci ui perfccuuon of the poor Wal- 
dc<<fcs and grcit ma.tiiuJcs of .hem were cruelly torlu.ed^nd pMt 
I . otath Sojii 'after the Reformat ion, thoc were icrriblc pcrfccuti* 
ioni in v.^riou* pans oi'r'.iin^ny ; mO cfpccially 'n Bohemia, which 
laft* d tor ihiriy ye rs tcgctbcr j in wnich fomuch biooo «ra» (hed 
for tht f^kc of religion, ih^l a certain wriicr ccmparts it to the 
pi n y of watffs o' ihc g'cit rivo of G« rmany. Toe counirici of 
PjI ml L(i^-u<ii^, and Hupgary, were in like thaancr deluged 
With P/o^eftani blood. 

By mens of the fc and other erac\ peTfeculioni, the Proteftant 
Re i^ion Wat in a great mcafure fuppscifcd in BobOtnia, and ihc 
PJaiinati, ^nd H^^giry, which before were ai it were Protcftunt 
tountriM. T^us w*s 'ulfilled what was foretold of ihc iiitic hump 
D^n. vii. 20 21 ** — .nd of the ten horni that were in his bead, 
and of the other which came up, and before whoio three fcH, tvcn 
rvf ti\a: horn that had eyes, and a mouth that fpake very great 
Shings, whofe look was more flout than hi* fellowi. I beheld, antl 
»ud the f^me horn made war with the faints, and prevailed againil 
Ihem." And what was foretold of the beaft having fcvca heads 
ind ten horns, Rev. riii. 7. And it was given unto him to make 
war wjjb the fiinis, and to overcome them : and power was given 
M:3 ever all kindreds, and tongyes, and nations." Alfo Hol- 
land and the other Low Countries were for many years a fcene of 
nothing but the molt aif^d^ing and amazing cruchici, being delu- 
ged with the blooJ of Protet^ants, under the mercilefs hands of the 
Spaniards, to whom they were then in fubj £lion. But in thit 
pcrfccution, thtdevilin a great m^ afure failed of his purpofe ; ai 
it iffucd in a {rreat part of the Netherlands caAing cf( the Spanilb 
yoke, and fettingupa v»e*)thy and powerful Proteftant ftate, to 
ihe great defence of the proteftant caufe ever fmcc. 

Prance alfo is another country, which, fmce the Reformation, 
in fomc refpcc^s, perhaps more than any other, has been a fccnc 
of dreadful cruelties fuffcrcd by the Protcftants there. After many 
cruelties 'had btcn cxrrcifed towards the Protcftanti in that king- 
dom, there waj btg'in a pcrfccution of them in the year 1571, io 
Khe rc7gn of Cbafle* IX K'ng of France. It began with a crud 
maffacr*. whfrcin 70.006 Proteftant* were ilain in a few dayi 
time, at the K ng bo^ftcd : and in all this pcrfccution, be flew, a* 
isfuppofcd, 300000 m^ryis. It h reckoned, that about ihii 
time, within thirty years, there were martyred in this kingdom, 
for theProtcr^antreJigion, 39 princes, 148 counts, s 34 barons, 
147,51^ gentlemen, and 760.000 of the common people. 
" Uax all thefe perfecutfoas were, for exqOiliic cruelty, tar cxceedj> 
ed by thofc which followed fn the rcigo of Lewis X'V. wfaicb 
iaii:«i lie fuppo&d to ezc-rcd &H oiheri that ever have bcea } acd 


m^ A H I S T O R Y of 

being long conlin»Jcd, by reafon of the long reign of that Kiri^i 
almoft wholly extirpated rhc Protcftant religion out of thst kfrg- 
dom, where had been betorc a multitude of laaaous Protcftant 
cfeujxhcs all over the kingdom, Thw it wa« givcu to the bcall to 
make war with tbc fainU, and to ovCiComc thcoa. 

There wai tlfo a terrible perfecution ioEng'iind inQucen Mary'i 
time, wherein ^great nuoibcrjin all parts of the kiagdoao were 
burot alive. A/ier thii, though the Protcftant religion ha&bccn 
for the moft part crtsblifiied by law in Englaad, yet there have 
been very fevere pcrfeciitioni by the high ctiurcb men, who fymbo- 
lizc in many thingi with ihp P.^piAs. Such a perfecution waJ 
ihat which occafioned our forefathers to flee from their native coun- 
try, and tocojueaad fctlSc in this hqd, which wai then anhidcoa? 
bowling wildcrncfs. Thefc perfccutions were continued with 
little ifitcrroiffion tiii King Wiliiam caine to the throne* 

ScotUnd air> hasbeen ihc fcenc, for many ycart together, of 
crueltlci and tlocd by the hands of high -churchmen, fucb as came 
very little fhort of the Popilli perfecution in Quten M^<"y'* ^^y*o 
dnd in mat y things much exceed it, vrbioh coatipusd tiii they 
were delivered by Kiog Wflliasri. 

Ireland alfo Has been as it were oycrwheltDed with Proteftant 
blood In the days of King Charles 1 of England, above 2oo,oo» 
Pfoteftants were cruelly murdered in that kingdot?i in a few days ; 
the Papif^s, by a fecret agreement, ri6ng all over the kingdooi a{ 
an apppointcd tioae, intending to j^ill every PfoteftaoC in the 
kingdom at once. 

Befidck thefc, there have been very cruel perfccutions in Italy. 
snd Spain, and other places, which I (hall oot ftaad to relate. 

Thus did the devil, and his great miniAer Antichrli^, rage witb 
fufh violence ant^ cruelty agsinft the church of Chrift I and thm 
did the whore of Eabyloo make herfelf drunlc with the blood of the 
faints and martyrs of Jefus i and thus, by thefe perfecutions, the 
Proteftant church has be«n much diminifted ! Yet with all hav^ 
they not bern able to prevail ; but ft ill the Proteftant' church is 
upheld, and Ghrift fulfils his promife, tha^ " the gates of hell iLall 
not prevail againft his church." 

(5) The laft kind of oppofition that Satan has made to the Refor- 
niation is by corrupt opinions. Satan has oppofed the light of the 
gofpel which ftionc forth in the Reformatiorj with many corrupt 
opinions, which he has brought in and propagated in the world. 

Here,inthcfirftpIace,tbefirftoppDrtion of thiskindwasbyraiiing 
up the fca of the Anabapiirfi,which began about four or five yeaiji 
after the Reformation itfelf began. This fedl,a8 it firft appeared in 
Germany, were v.ifily more extravagant ihsfl theprefentAnsbaptiftsj 
97t i&Epgland, They teld s great many ecceediog corrupt pp'nioni. 


jhc \Vork of R E D £ M P T I O H. «»9 

One tenet of thein wsf , That tbtre ought to be no civil authority, 
and fo that ft w^s lawful to rebel againft civil authority. On tbit 
principle, they refuted to fiibfliit to magiftratc*, or any buoaaa 
laws ; and gathered together in vafl aroaics, to defend tbemfeWeft 
again^ their civil rulers ; and put ail Germany into an uproir, 
and fo kept it for fomc time. 

Tbc nett oppoPtion of tbit kind to the Reformation was that 
which was made by enthuf;ails> Thofe arc called entbufiaAi who 
falfely pretend to be lafpired by the Holy Ghoft al the prophets were. 
Thefe began in Germany about ten year» after Luther began the 
Reformation ; and there arofc various fc£ls of them who were 
exceeding wild and cstravsgant. The followers of thefe are the 
Quakers in England, and other parts of the Brltafh dominions. 

The next to thefe were the Sotinians, who had their beginnin|» 
chiefly in Poland, by the teaching of two men ; the name of the 
one was Lceliut Sccinus, of the ether, fauftui Sccinus, They heldj, 
that Chrift was a mere man, and denied Chrifl's fatisfadiion, and 
mo(t of the fundamental do£\tines of the ChrlAian religion* Their 
herefy has fiiice been greatly propagated among Prote/lanu la 
Poland, Germany, Holland, England, and other placet. 

After thefe arofe the Arminians. Thefe iiri^ appeared iaHollan4 
about 1^6 ycais ago. They take their came from a Dutchman^ 
whofe name was Jacobut Van HarmiHt wtich, turned into Latin* 
b called jacobutArmiaiut ; and from his name the whole fc6l are 
called Arminiant, This Jacobus Arminius was firfl a miniAer at 
Am(\erdam, and then a profeffor of divinity in the univer/ity of 
Lcyden. He had many followers in Holland. There was upon 
this a fynod of all theRtio:mcd churches cnlled together, who met 
at Oort in Hc^iand. The fynod of Dort condemned them ; but 
yet they fprcsd and prevailed* They began to prevail in England 
in the reign of Cbailes t. cfpectally in the church of England. The 
church of England divir4eft bc'orc that wefe almoA univerfally 
Ca!vioiAi:1}ut fince th?t,A:miaiaii!fm has gradually more and more 
prevailed, till they iire become a'.injft univerfally Arminians. And 
not only fo, but Arcninianif'n has greatly prevailed among the 
DiflcPiters, and hat fprtad g-£:<l> inNew Koghnd, as vrell as Old. 

Since tbi«, Arianifm has revivfd. As I told you before, Ari- 
anifm, a little after Conftantine'« time, almoi) fwallowed up the 
Cfariftian wo'ld, like a fluod owt of the mouth of the ferpent whicfi 
threatened to fwallow up the womaD. And of late years, this here- 
fy has been revived in England, and preaily prevails there, both 
in the church of Englano, and among D-ffeoters. Thefe boId,that 
Chrifl is but a mere creature, though they grant that be is the 
jrcateft of all creatures. 

Again, another ihin^ wiiicb has of late erccedingly prevailed 


tf A H I S T R T ot 

tmong Proteftanti, ^rx^ crpeci^lly to England, ii Dciftir* Tfea 
Dcifta wholly caft off the L.hiiftian religion, and arc profeficd 
iD^Jels They arc no» like the heretics, Artans Sociniani, and 
othtri , who own the fcripture to be the word of God and Kold e*^ e 
ChriAian religion to be the true religion, hut only deny ibcff 
and thefe fundamental doftrincs of the Chriftiaii religion : they 
deny the whole Chriftiai religion. Indeed ihcy own tht being of 
God ; but deny that Chrift wa? ;he Son o» God, arri fay he wat a 
»erc cbcai; and fo they fay all the prophets and apoftlc* wc^et and 
Ibey deny the whole fcripture* They deny that any of it is the 
word of God. They deny any revealed religion, or any word of 
Go<i at all ; and fay, that God hai given onankiod no other light 
to walk bybut their own reafon. Th«fc fentitnents and opinioftt 
6ur nation, which is the jsrincipal nation of the Reformsiion, if 
tery tnuch over- run with, and ihey prtvail more and more. 

Thm touch concerning the oppofition.that Satan h*« made t* 
gainft the Reforaaation, 

' J» I proceed now to (hntr what fuccefs th« go f pel hat more 
l«tcly had, or what fuccefs it hai had in thefe later times of the 
Reformed church. This fuccefs m-.y be reduced ?o thefe three hcsds: 
1. Reformuiion in do^rine and worfbtp in counries called Chrif* 
lian ; 2. Propagatibn of the gofpcl amorg the Heathen ; 3. R«* 
vival of religion in the power and praftice of it. 

(i) As to the firft, vh. refoTmaHon in dotlrine, the saoft con-^ 
£derablc fuccefi of the gofpel that has been of late of this kind, ha^ 
been in the etYipirc of Mufcovy, which is a country of vaf^ rxtent* 
The people otthh country, fo many of them a* eal! tbecnfelvcii 
Chriftiani , profefTed to be of the Greek church ; bist were barbar- 
oufly ignorant, and very fupcfftitioui, ti!i of Iste years. Their 
late Emperor Peter the Great, who reigned kill within »fee(c twenty 
years, fet bioafelf to.refoToa the people o' his dominions, and took 
great pains to bring thSm out of their darknefs. and to have thetiU 
inftruded in religion. A-.d to that end, he fet wp fchools of learn- 
ing, and ordered the Bible to be printed in the language of fh<5 
countfy, and made a hw th^t every family fhould keep the holy 
fcripture* in their boufes, and that every pei fon fhould be able to 
read the fame, and that no psrfon (houM be allowed to marry till 
they were able to reid thi* fcripturcs. He alfo reformed the churcbet 
of his country of tniny of their fuperrtitions, wherrby the religioQ 
profcffed and prac^ifed in Mufeovy ii much nearc to that of the 
Pfoteflants than formerly it ufed to be. This emperor g ve greai 
encouragement to the excercifc of the Proiefrant religion in hii do-% 
ihinions. And fince that Mufcovy U become a land of light, iq 
eptopailfon ofwhatic #ai before. Wonderful alterationt hsTO 


the Work of R E D E M P T 1 O N, 231 

bcM brought c'bout in the face of reljgioa for the better withia 
Jhtfc fifty years paft. 

(2) As to the fccond kind of fucccfs which the gofpcl has !ait- 
fiy had, v\t its prop^g-tioa among the Heathen, 1 wo'jid take no* 
licft of three things. 

[i] The propagation there hat been of the gofpcl among t'e 
Heathen here in Aancfica. Th'a American comment on which ^g 
live, which ii a vc/y greai pirt o^ the world, and, together with 
iits neighbouring fcs» adjoin ng, takes up one Ode of <he globe, was 
wholly unknown to all Chriftian nations till ihcfc Uacr times. 
It was not known that there was any fuch p^rt of the wotld,thoL:gh 
it was very full of people : and therefore here the devil had ihc 
people that inhabited this part of the world ai it were fecurc to him- 
fclf, out of the reach of the light of the gofp*;!, and fo out of tha 
way of molcftation in his dominion over them. And here the 
many nations of Indians worlhipped him an God from zge toagCj, 
while the gofpel was confined to the oppofite fide of the globe. It 
is a thing which, ifl remember right, I have fomc where fit of, at 
probably fuppofcd from fome remaining accounts of thingi, thag 
occafioned the pccpleing of America was this, th;jt the devil beit^g 
alarmed and furprifed by the wonderful fucccfs o^ the gofpel whicli 
Bhcrc was the tirft three hundred years after Chrif^, and by the 
downfal of the Heathen cmpiie in the time of Conftannnr ; and 
feeing th« gofpel fpread fo faO, and fearing his Heatbcnilh king- 
dom wouH be wholly overthrown through the world, led away « 
people fro-n the other continent into America, that they might fe 
quite out oUhc reach of the gofpel, that here he might quietly 
pofTcfs them, aod reign over them as their god. It is what many 
writers give an account of, that fome of the nations of Indisn?^ 
when theEuropealisfirrt came into America, had a tradition among 
them, chat their god fi. ft led them intothii cootzoent, and vrens 
before them in an ark. 

Whether this was foor not, yet it is certain that the devil ditf 
fcere quietly enjoy his dominion over the poor nations of Indiant 
lor many ages. Bur in later times God has fent the gofpel into 
thefe parts of the world, and now theChriftian church is fei up here 
in New Engia d, and in other parts of America, whtr bffore had 
been notbrng but the groflfeft Heathen iili darknefs. Great part of 
America h now full of Bibles, and full o^ at leaf^ the form of the 
ivorihip of the true God and Jefu» Chrift, where the name oiChrift 
before had not been heard of for m <ny ages, if at all. And tho* 
«here has been bnt a fmall propagation nf the gofpH among the 
Heathen hers, in comparifon of what were to be wifhed for ; yet 
there has been fomrthinp worthy to be t^kcn notice of. There was 
ibxeshi^^g £«Biarkab2c In the firft tii^ei pf New £o^laad|and fomcr. 

232 AHlSTORYo! 

thitjjz rcnoark^We ha» appeared of Uic here, and in other parb o£ 
AmeriCdk ^mong nmny Indians, of an iaciination to be inftruttcd 
iu ib^i ChiifUan religion 

Ho^rcvci fmal! the propagation of the gofpel among the Mea* 
thei bcrc in Aoicrica has been hi.hcj to, yet I think we may well 
look upon the liiCovrry of fo grcit apart of the world a» America^ 
an'l biingiag the g->fpc. into it, a* oae th ng by which divine pro* 
vidence «i preparing the way for trie future glorious tiines of the 
church 5 when Sijao'i kingdom ihail be ovcfthrown, not only 
thro'ighoui iheRuoaao empire, bui throughout the whole habitable 
gt^be on every Tide, and ot all its con cinema. When thofc times 
come, then ooubtiefs the gofpel, which is abcady brousvht over in- 
io A^nerica, (ball have glorious fucceft, ard all the inhabitants of 
this ncw-difcoveicd world (hA\ become iubjefit of the kingdom of 
Chftfl, a« wcfl as all the other ends of the earth : and in all proba- 
bility providence has fo ordered it, that the mariner"! compafs, 
which was an invention of later times, whereby men arc enabled to 
fail over the wtdeft ocean^ when before they durft not venture far 
from land j (houH prove a preparation for w^at God intend* to 
bring to pafs in f^c g*oriou» ilrm of the church, viz the fending 
fo th the gofpel wherc-evcr any o? the children of men dwe!l,how 
far focver off, and however fcparated by wide oce%ni froa thofc 
^arts of the world which are already ChriAianized* 

[2] There has of late years been a very confiderable pj-opagatioa 
of the gofpel among the Heathen in the dominions of Mufcovy» 
1 hivc already ai3fe'ved the reform-idon which there has lately 
fceer. among ihofe who are called Ckriftidns iherc : but i noir 
fpcik of the H<?*rhen. Great part of the vaft dominion* of rhe 
EoQpcror of M^^covy ar« grofs Heathens The grflatcr part of Great 
Tai- try, a HsUhen country, has in later times beea brought un-iet 
«he Murcovirc government ; and there have been of late gre^l -um- 
bers of th )(c Heachcn? who are renounced sheir Hcatheoifm, and 
h^v'C embraced the Chriftian rehgton. 

[3] Thr-e has been latfW 1 very con fidcr able propagation ol 
the Ciri^Jan religion ail )ng the tfcatbco in the E*;^ Indic» ; par- 
Siculirlv, many in a country in the Eail: Indiei called Malabar ^ 
have he^'n brought over to theChriftran Proieftant religion, chicfiy 
by the liborsof cerial 1 miflionaries fcnt thither to inilnji'^ them by 
tfte King of D^imark, who have brought over many Heathens to 
the '^hrSftian faith, and have fei up fchools among them, and 4 
printing-prefi to p^int Bib'cs and oihet books for th«ir inftru^ion> 
|n h<'ir own l«nfu»go, with great fuccefs. . 

^0 The laf* kind of f'^C'-fs which there has lately been of the 
gf r:e\ wh'ch I ikal! rake ror'ce of. Is the revivals of the power 
ar. nri^ic^ o' religion which have lately bscn. Here I fiiall 
Cake notice oi btit two inftancet, (>) 

the Warl: of JR E D E M P T 1 O W. 1 3 j 

(i) Tbcrc bat not lorg fince becD • icmarkiihle revival of the 
pnwei ano practice ofreiigton in SaXony m Getmany, through 
the cndeavori of an eminent divine there, whofe name wat Augi/i 
Htrtnon frank, pDttffor of divinity at Hall in S^iony, who bci 
fng a perlon ot eminent charity, the gteat worlc that God iviought 
by bim, began Mritb hit fetting on foot a charitable detign. It be- 
gan only with hi§ placing an alms box at bis fludy -door, into which 
fomepoor mitts wc^c thrown, whereby bocks were bought for the 
ini^ruAion of the poor. God ^was plcafed lo wonderiully to (mile 
on bis defign, and fo to pour out a fpirit of charity on people there 
on that occaiion, that with their charity he was enabled in a little 
time to ere A public fcnooli for the mitrudiion of pooi chiUren, 
and an orphan- houfe for tht fupply and ini^rudion of the poor $ fo 
that at laft it came to that, that near five hundred children were 
maintained and inftruficd in learair g and piety by the charity of 
other! ; and the number continued to increafc more hxi6 more for 
many years, and till the laft accounts 1 have feen. This was ac- 
companied viitb a wonderful reformation and revival of religion^ 
and a fpirit of piety, in the city and univcrfity 0/ Hall ; and thus 
it continued. Which alfo hadjgreat influence in many other pl^ccf 
in Germany. Their example fcemed rcopgrkabiy co fcir up mul* 
titudes to their imi ration. * 

(2) Aiioiher thing, which it would be great 'ul in us not fo t5«kc 
notice of, ii that remarksble pouring cut of the Spiric o^Gcd which, 
feas been of late in this part of New-Ergland, of which wc, iq 
this town, have had fuch a (hare. But it is needle fs for roc par- 
ticularly to defcribe it, it being what you have fo lately betn cye- 
witntiTcs to, and I hope multituots of youfci fiblc of the heticfv of. 

Thus I have mentioned the more rcoa^rkabit infianccs of the 
fuccefs whfch the gofpel has lately had in the world- 

4. I proceed now to the layl ih«ng that was propofcd to be con- 
iidcrcd reiatirtg to tQe fuccef» of Chiiil't redcmpaon during this 
fp.*ce, viz. what the ftate of things is now in the wot Id with rtjv, ^d 
to the church of Chrift, and the fuccefi of Chrift's purchsfe. '""nia 
2 would do, by (l^.owing hew ihirg* are now, coir,p?rcd ."ith the 
firft times of the Reformation i, I would (bow wherein the ??je. 
of things is altered for the worfc ; and, 2. How ii U altered foe 
the better. 

(i) 1 would /how wherein the f}?tc' of things is altered ^cr>^ 
what it was in the beginning of the Kc^ormaiion, for the wt.fej 
and it is fo cfpccially in thefe three re(pcrH. ^ 

[i] The reformed church is much dimini(bed. The Refcrmatioa 
in the former times of it, a& was obferved btfore, was iuppofcd to 
Sake place through one half of Chrif^cndom, exccpilng »► c Greek 
cborch ; or that there were as many Protcftsnts ai P^fMfjji, iJut 
90«r it it i^QX (0 g the FrotcAant church is much dieii..i(i d. Here* 

2|4 A H I S T O R T of 

tcforc s'nerehsve been oiuUitud^s o^ Protcftanta in Fraftce ; msny 
finous Hrolcftant chuichc» wsrc a?l over thai country, who ufe4 
to mert togpihcr in fynonds, and maintaia a very rcg;ular difci- 
p'f'nc; and! great p-ifi of ihat k'ngdom were PiolcO^nrta, The 
F otcftant church of France w-i» a grc4t pa-.t of the glory of the. 
Reformation. Bat now it jb far oiher*srifc : this chtich i» all 
biokcn ro pieces arA fcaitcyei. The pjoteftanl religion is almoft 
l»hoUy rooted out of that kingdom by the crud pc-ftcutions which 
bivcbcen there, aid there arc now but very few FrotcfUnt alfem» 
b'cs in all that k igiom. The Protei'lant infercf^ is alfo great* 
ly imini{hcd ir Germany. There were fcvcrsl fovercign princes 
there former Jy who were Protedants, rvhofc fucct'fTors are now 
P-p!»\'; ; as, p^rticuhrly, the Elector Palatine, and the E'''<^or of 
Sax >ny. The kingdom of BoJicnria was formerly aProteAani king- 
dom, but i» now in the hands of the P pi''^» : and fo Hungary vyaP 
formerly a Poteftant couritry ; bu- the Po^cftan^s there hivc bcca 
gteatly reduced, and in a g<eai me^fure (ub'^ued, by tfcie perfccuti- 
or« that have been there. And the Pfotel^ant insercfl has bo. way 
Semarkibly gained ground of late csf thf*. church ci Rome. 

(2) Anoti er tbiDg -^ 'thin the Oatc of things if altered for the 
wcrfc from ii what v/; .l|r; :h£ fotmer times of the Kcformation, i^ 
the prevailing of licertiouincf.* in principles and opinions. There 
19 not now that fpirit of orthodoxy which there was then : there it 
rei'V little appearance of ?.«l for the mytkrioub and Spiritual 
r^ctlrinef of Chr i<^ia»ity ; and they never were fo ridiculed, and 
tad in contempt, ai they are in the prcfenl «ge ; and cfpecial^y m. 
England, the p incipal kingdom of ihe Kcfcrmation. In thij^ 
Jifrgdom, Jhofe pritiCJple*, on which the power of godlincfs Hc«» 
depr rid«, arc in a great me^furc eapl dcd, and Ati^nifm, the So-^*. 
rinian'fm, and Arminiariifm, bpo Dcifrn, arc the thing* which 
irriv.ij, and csfry altroft a1! before them. Particularly hiviory 
gtvts no account of any "'g*" wl.erein thtre was fo gre^t an apoflafy 
o' ihofe who bad been b'ough? up wnder the light of the gofpcJ^ 
le infidelity ; never was I'r.cre fuch d ciCiing off of the Chriftia'.i 
ard ail revealed religion ; never yny »ge wherein was fo much. 
fcoffing at and rediculing she gospel of Chriftc.hy thofe who hare 
bct:D brought up under gofpel light, nor ary ihirg like it, as there 
38 at clay. 

[3] Another thi^g wherein thing? are altered for the worfe, U^ 
that thee is much Irfs of the prcvale^cy of the power of godiinef^p 
thar ♦here was at the beginning o^ th<? Rc''ormation. Thc?e w£9 a 
jt'orious out pouring of the Spirit of God thit accompanied the firft 
J^eformstion,nol only to convert mutitudes in fo fhort a time from 
Popcfytotbe Hue religion, but to turn many to God and trutr 
godlineiko Heligfon gionoudy flourished in one country 2nd aaoi* 

the Work of REDEMPTION. S3f 

,»fcep, at tnoft rem tkably appeared in tboft limea of terrible pcf. 
fccuti^n. which have alicady been fpckcn of. Bui now there it 
an exceeding great decay of vual piciy ; yea, 'i lecms to be dcf- 
ptfcd, c^^llcd tntkufiajmt v>himfy, nhO Janaticijm. Ttolc who are 
«x\j!y religious, aic coooxnoiiiy looked upon lo be cr^ck brained^ 
ana bcfidc ibcir right mind ; and vice and profanenel* dreadfully 
prevail, like a fiood which thteatcaa to bear down all bclore it.«- 
Bat I proceed now to ffajw, 

(2) In what rclpctt things arc altered for the bclier from what 
ihcy wefc in ihc tirit Kertrmalion. 

[i] Tnc power ot the Pope ii much diminifhsd* 
Al»bLUg; , fince the fonncr times o* the. KtfformaticD he has gained 
grouuo in exfcni o dooiicior; yet be b^slofl in degrtf ol iuflucr.ce* 
The vial which in iht beginning of the Kcfoimiiiton wat poured 
out on the throne ot the bcaft, to the great dienini(hii)g of his pow- 
er and authority in the world , ha$ continued running ever fince* 
The Pope, loon 4fter the Kef ortn^riori, became Icfs regarded by 
the princes of Europe than nc bad been bc«ore ; and fo he bat bcea 
fmce Icfs and leii. Many ot the popifh princes themfelves feeni 
cow to regard him very little moic than they thirk will ferve their 
own defigns 4 of wbicb tbccc have bcea feveral rcmarkabk proofs 
and inAanccs of late. 

[2] There is far Icfs pcrfecut?on now than there was in the firft 
^UQCs of the Kclormaiion. You h^ve heard already how dreadfully 
pcrfecution raged in the former times of the RcTormation ; and 
^cre i& fotnething of i» f^ill Soire pans of the PkOtcftant church 
are af; this day under perfccution, and fo probably will be till tbo 
day of the church's ful^crii g and travail is at an eodiWhich Will no| 
be tiU the fail of Antichrifi. Hut it is now in no mcafure as it wat 
heretofore. There does n(^t fccm to be the fame fpirit of pcrfccuiioa 
prcv>iiling ; it is become more out of Uih'ion even among the 
Popifh princes. The wickedncfs of the enemies of Chrin ; and 
fthc oppofi.ion againii his caufe, fccm to lua in another channet. 
The humour now it, todefpifc and laugh at all religion ; and 
their feems tobea fpirieof indifTcrency about it. Howevtr, fo 
far the f^ste of things is Lctici tfcar it has been, that there it fo 
much Icfs of pcrfecution. 

(3) There is a great increafc of rearnitig. In the dark t?mct 
of Popery before the Reformation, learning was fo far decayed, 
that the world fccmed to be overrun wish barbarous igrorancc. 
Their very pricfts were many of ihem groiily ignorant. Learning 
beg:4n to revive with the R,- formation, which w^s owing very 
much to the art of printing, which was invented a little before 
the Rt^omuton ; and fmcc that, learning has incrcafed more 

sadsDOie^ asdattbit 4if i% undoubtcdij raifed to vMy a greater 


2^6 A H I S T o a y of 

hsight than ever it wat before : &nd though no good ufe <f made of 
ii by the greatci part of learned men, yd the iucr^afe oi kariiing 
in itfcU it a thing to bQ rejoiced in, becaufc ii i« a good, aiirt, J 
duly applied^ an excellent hiindmild to divinity, and is a talent 
\yhich, if God gitct to locn an hcaii, aifordi them a g^eat advan- 
tage tp do great th»ngi foi the advanccDDcnl ol the Jiingdom of 
Chiifl, and ihc g od of the fouls of men. That learning aad 
know)' dgc fr.ouM grcatHy incrcafe before the glorious limcj, fieeaai 
Jo be foiciold, l)ao.xu 4. ** ^«t thou, O Daniel, fhut up the 
vcrd?,ancf fe^i tfit bool^, even to the time of iLe end ; many fhall 
run 10 knd fro, and knowledge feall be incrcafcd." And howc'icir 
hwt now leainjng is applied to the advancement of religion ; yet 
we naay hope that the d*y.« arc approaching whcreinGud will make 
grc<L\ ufe of it ior the advancemc<;t of tbc kingdom of ChriO, 

God in hi? pifovifjcricc now ftcms to be ading over a^^in the 
favr. part which he did a iiti'e bc[ur«?Chr»ft c.>mc. The age where- 
in Chfift name i'to the ^rorll, was an age whcjcin leafoiug great* 
ly prevailed, and was at a greiSer height ihan ever it had been be- 
fctc ; and yei wickedncfs never prevailed more loan then, God 
W3S pleafcd to fuftcr human karnJ.ig ro cooiv. to fuch « height be- 
fore he fcntforth tbcgofpci mio the world, ibat the world mig^t 
fee the infufliciency oJ ajhheif own •vifdora ♦or the obtaining the 
knowledge of God, withoui the gofp*^! of Cnrij^, ;^nd the tcacbingf 
of his Spirit : ar/ithfn, after that, in the wifdona of God, the 
the world by wifiom ki^ew nor Gad, it plcafeo God, by the fool" 
jflhnefs of' preaching, to iive thesi th^t believe. And when the 
gofpclcaone to prevail iint wittjout the help of ;»an's wifdom, be* 
God was p!eafe(S to make uic of learning as an handmaid. So 
now learning is at a grcsi height at this day in the world far be- 
yond what it was in the age when Chr'it appeared ; and now the 
world, by their learning ar,d wifdom, a not k ^ow God ; and tbey 
feem to wander in darknefs, arc mifcr^bly dcjuded, Puiablc and 
fall in maUert of religion, as in oiidn'ghc-darkncfs, Trufting to 
their learning, they gropt in th«j day time ?% in the oight. Learn- 
ed men are -.xccedingly divided in then opinions concerning th^ 
matters of re? "gion, run intoa'i manner of corrupt opinions, and 
pernicious and fooiifh errors. They fcoiT 10 fubtmii their reafon to 
divine revelation, to believe any ihtng that is above their compic- 
fccnfiou ; and fo b:in^ wife in their own eyes, they bccosac fools, 
and even vain i.-* iheir imaginations, an^-^ turn the trirthof Godrnto 
a lie, and their fool'fh hesirts arc darkened. See Rom. I 21 €rG« 

But yet, when God has fu/ficicnlly (hown men tae infufficicacy 
of huojan wifdcm and learaing for the purpofes of rdig'on, snd 
when the api..>inted tiojc come* for t^at glorious outpouring of the 
S^iriiot'God, wheo he will himfcU by his owa ioam-ui^jc ''^u- 


(ha Work of REDEMPTION. «3^ 

tnce enliB^wn men. miod, , thcnm.y w. hope .hatGod *«! «,ke 
ufc o« tbe gr.:.. incrc.fe of .. .« h-nima.d .« «1.g.onr 
., , m«n. of the gloriouf advancement of the kinglom of h'. S >n. 
Then (l..Ufcu»an learning be fubfcvienl to the '-'•''"^'^'^"'"e ?* 
.be fcripture.. and to a clear exphna.ion and a g'""""* J/Jf^ 
of .he doftrine. of There .. aodoubt to be made of 
n *,. God in hi, providence ha. of late given the worla .be ar, 
o plting, and fuch a great incrcafe of learning, to P'«P'« '°' 

what he defi^n. to accon,p>iO' f°' ^'' '^Tch " >" '^^-12^ 
on.. p.ofp«i.y. Thu. .he wealth of the w.cked .. U.4 up fo. .be 

^ Ha V , N now (hown how the wotk of redempt.on ha. been 
eartied on from .he MI of man to the prefen. .ime, befoie I pro- 
ceed any further. I would make fome Al-ri-iCATloH. 

, From wha. ha. been faid. we ma, fee great ""»«"" «*^ 
„u.h of *eChrifii.n religion. »<« .hat the fcr.p.we. a.e .he word 
of God. There are three argu-ent. of th... I ftall take 
flOtice of, wUch may be drawn from what ha. been fa.d. 

(i) I. mav be arg..ed from .hat violen. and inveterate oppofiu. 
onVereha. alw.,. appeared of *' "'^kednef.oMh. world aga.^ 
thi. religion. Tbe religion that the church of God *^» f'^^'f^^ 
from the firft fonnding .f the church after the fall to tho time, has 
.lw.,.been the fame. Though the difpenf.t.on. have been alter- 
ed ve. the religion which the church ba. profeiTerf ha. always, a. 
.0 i» efre„.ial.:been .he fame. The church of God. from th. be. 
ginning, h.. been one fociety. The chrif\.aD church ha. 
bcenfince Chnft'. afceofion, U m.nifeftly .he fame fof'^'T e°»."" 
.^d wiTh the church, .hat wa. before Chrift came The Ch«ft..a 
church i. grafted on their root : .hey are built on the fame founda- 
tion The revel «ion on which both have depended, i. 
the fame- for a- .heChriftianeburch U built on .he holy fer.p.uret, 
fo wa. .he Jewifh church, .hough now ihe fcriptute. be enlarged by 
,he ,^di,ionof the New ; U.t .Mil '' ;«,/<Te"«""y *« 
fame reveUtion with .ha, which wa. g.ven .n ,heOldTeftame«..on. 
Iv the fubieflj of divine revelation are now more clearly revealed m 
,he New Te^lamen, than -hey were in .he Old. «"' 'k«/»" "<• 
fubfl.nce of ho* the Old Tenamen. and New. ..Chr.ft and h.. re- 
iempln The religion of .he church of Urael. -" «"y 
Ihe f me religion wi.h .ha. of the church, a. "^^^J 
appear, from what h.. bee. faid. The ground^work of the rel.g!. 
or of .he church of God, bo.h before and fince Chr.ft ha. appeared. 
}. the fame great fcheme of redemption bv tbe Son of God ; and 
fo the church that wa. before tbe Ifraelitiih church, wa. fl.ll the 
fame fociety, a. it wa. efTtn.ially the fame relig.on that wa. pro. 
Mtd and p«aUed in it. Tbu. it w». from ISoah w Abraham.and 

jj^Z A H I S T O R y of 

thus !i was before ihc flood And this focicry of men that Is €iU 
Udtht church, hai always been built on the foundation o thofe rc- 
velvitlons whfcb «reh<vc in the fcriplurtf, which always bcca 
efTentially the fina<r, inough gradually Incrcsfi: g The church be- 
fore the fljod, was builr on the foundation of thofe revelationi oit 
Cknil which kvcre given to Adam, and Abel, and Enoch, of which 
we have an account in the former chapter! of Genefig, and othcit 
of the like import. The chu>ch after the flood, was built on the 
foundation of the Tevclations made to Noah and Abraham, to Mcl- 
chifcdck, If^ac, and J^cob»io Jof^ph, Job, and otncr holy iiien of 
whom wc have an account in the fcripmrcs, or other revclaiionf 
that were to the f one purpofc. And after ibij the church depended 
on the fcriptu'c* themfclves as they gfadusily inercafed ; fo th<it 
the cliurch of God has Jw ys been built on the foundation of divia6 
revelation, snd always o thofe revelations that were effcniislly 
the fame, and which arc fuvroaarily comprehended In the holy 
fcriptures, and ever fitice about y.^zi% time have been built on tbc 
fcriptureg themfelves. 

So that the oppofition which has been made to the church of 
God in all ages, has always b^en igainA the fame religion, and 
the fame revelation. Now therefore the violent and perpetual 
oppofision ihat has ever been made by the corruption and wicked* 
scffl of mankind again^ this church, is a Ihong argument of the 
tfuth of this religion, and this revelation, upon which this church 
bas always been built. Csntraries arc tveli argued one with a- 
cother. We may well and fafely argue, that a thing is good, acr 
cording to the degree o' oppofition in which it ftands to evil, of 
•he degree in wbieh evil oppofes it, and is an enemy to it. Wc 
xn^y well argue, that a thing is li^hr, by the great enmity which 
darknefs has to it, Now h is evident by the thing* which you have 
heard concerning the church of Chrifl, and ihil the holy religion 
of lefus Chrift which h hss prafefTcd, that the wickcdnefi of the 
world has had a perpetual hatred to it, and h&i made moft violent 
oppofition againf^ it. 

That the church of God has always met with great oppofitioa 
In the world, none can deny. This is plain by profane hiftory aa 
far as that reaehci ; and before ^h%t, divine htftory gives us the 
fame account. The church o^ Orti, and its religion and worihtp^, 
began to be oppofed in Cain's and Abel's time, and was fo whea 
the earth was filled with violence in Noah's time. Alter this, how 
was the church oppofed in E^ypt I and how was th« church of 
Ifracl always hated ^y thena>ions round about, agreeable to that ia 
Jer. xii. 9 '* Mine heritage is unto me as a fpeckled bird, the 
birds round about are againft her." After the Bhylonilb capfivi- 
ty« bow V9aa this chuicU periecutod by Aaciochua Epiphanes and o- 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O ?^. «3^ 

thers ! andho^ wsi Chiift pfirfccotcd when he vraion earth ! and 
bow were the apolUe* and other Chriftiani pcrfccatcd by the Jews, 
before the dcftrurtior\ of Jcrufalcmby the Romani ! How violent 
were thai pct?p1e againft the church ' and how dreadful was the op- 
politioa of the Heathen world againfl the ChriftUn church afic? 
this before Conflantin* ! How great wai their fpitc againli the 
true rcixgioa ! Siiictthar, how yet more violent, and fpitcful^ 
and cruel, haa been the oppofiiion of Aniichrift againft the chureh I 

There h no other fuch inftancc of oppolition- Hifrory givei no 
account of any other body of men that have been fo hnted, and fni 
malicJoully and infaliibly purfucd and perfccutcd, nor aay thing 
like it. No other religion ever was fo naalign<:d ags after age. The 
nations of other profellioni have enjoyed their religion in peace an J 
and quietnefs, however rhey have diifcred from their, neighbours* 
One nation hai worfljippcd one fort of gods, and oiheri another,' 
without molcfting or difturbing one another about it* All the 
fpile and oppofuion'has been againft thi« religion, which ihcchurcb 
of Chrift has profeffcd. All other religions have feeaaed to Qkow 
an implacable enmity to this ; and men have fccmed to have, frooft 
one age to another, fuch a fpitc againft it, that they have fcemcJ 
88 though they could never fatisfy their cruelty. They put their 
inventions npon the rack to find out tormcati that (hould be cruel 
enough ; and yet, after all, never fccmed to be fatisfied. Thetic 
thirft has never been fatisf^cd with blood. 

So that this is out of doubt, that this religion, and thefe fcrip- 
tures, have always been malignantly oppofcd in the world. The 
only queftion thai remains ii. What it is that has made this oppo- 
fition ? whether it be the wickednefs and corruption of the world, 
or not, that has done this ? But of this there can be no greater 
doubt than of the other, if we confidcr how caufclcfa this cruelty 
has always been, who the oppo^crs have been, and the manner ia 
which they have oppofcd. The oppofuion has chiefly been from 
Hcathenifm and Popery 4 which things certainly arc evil. They 
are both of thtm very evil, and the fruits of the blindncfs, cor- 
ruption, and wickednefs of men, as the very Uei^s thcmfclves 
confefs. The light of nature iliows, that the religion of Heathens, 
confifting in the worfhip of idols, and facrilicing their children to 
them, and in obfceric and abominable rites and ceremonies, ie 
wickednefs. And the fupcrfliiions, and idolatries, and ufurpaii'* 
ons, of the church of Rome, are no lefs contrary to the light 
of nature. By this it appears, that this oppcfition which hae 
becu made againft the church of God, has been made by wicked! 
men. With regard to the oppofition of the Jews in Chrif^'s and 
iheapoftles times, it was in a mofl corrupt time of that oationi» 
wbcQ the people were generally become otcesding wicked^ as fomc 

G g oC 

^-P • A H I S T O R Y of 

of the Js^fxih writers t'eiiifelrci, ii Jof:phlif fnd oiberf, #ho iivei 
av>ovj» ^iat lime, do r xprcflly Tiy. \TL3t it has been ancre wicked- 
Dcia thai ha« maie this oppofition, if trjHaifcft from t^c manner 
ofoppofitioa, rhc extreme violence, Jnju/licc, and cfueliy, with 
«^iich the church of God has been treated. It fccms to Ihow the 
She hand of miligna;.: infernal fpirits in it. 

N^vf vvbit reafon e^^Ji be affigncd, why the corri^ptjoa and »vick-. 
tdnefs of the world »l»ouM fo implacably fit itfdf againft this reli- 
gion of J^fus Cusist, and againit ibe fciiptufOi but only that ihcy 
af^*? contrary to **i^[cvj Jnefs, 2nd coafcquently arc good and holy ? 
^*^ay Ihould the enemies of Chriil, for fo many ihoufand ycafs 
together, mmUaik fur.h 3 mortal hatred of this religion, but only 
ihat it 19 the caufsof God ? If the fcripujrts be not the word of 
Gjd,aud the rcligtoa of the church of Chri it bu not the true religion, 
*/!j'in ii mu4 follow, ihst it 43 a moft v%Ickcd religion ; nothing 
buv a pacJc of Uts and aboMfnablcdclurions, invented by the cne- 
isihs of God thcEofcIvcs. If this w^re fo, it is not isfcely th.^t the 
fnemica oi'Gji, acd jI;2 wickedncfs of the world, would have 
mabtsined fuc'i a ps^p^jvusl and itaplactbh enmity againft it. 

i (z) h is a great ,;^'gnm.:nt that the Chriftian church and m reli- 
g?Oi2 i.3 froii Goi, that h has been upheld hitherto through all th« 
obp 'fltlon 5T>d dangsrs it has paijFci throughi That the church 
cf Gad Avd the trjs a'iigion, which has been fo eontinuaHy and 
violently oppjfed, with fo many endeavours tor overthrow it, 
and whi-i) haS fo oftea been bfcught to the brhkoi ruin, and al- 
moil fwaliovTrtd up, through the grea>eft p-art of fix tboufand ^ears^ 
h*3 yet been upheld, clo':« uiuH remar^.^bly Oio^ »hc hand of God 
ijl favourol £he chuifch. if we coTjfiicr it, jj vrill appear cqe oi 
the fireaicft wonders n^d miracles that cv.*r Cime to pafi. . There 
iJf vjihing c'ff:: {Ike h apon the fjce of the earth. T'^cre k no o- 
tlKr fcciety of msn t'. ;i has Aood as ih; church has. As to the 
cM woridjiphich wat before the /]ocd,that was overthrown by a dc- 
Stge .^f wniars : buJ yet the church of God #as prefcrvtd. Sit^te's 
v^ihit kltipdtc-i on e<:rih was then ones entirely ov«rthrown ; but 
1 he viable king jcui of Chrift never his been overthrown. All 
tiiofe ancient h'Jtnan kingdoms and oionarchiei of which we read, 
And A'hlch hare b^ren in forrtier ages, they are long fiuce cou:c to 
an C'rii?. Vi-oie. kiogdoiis of which we tcad in the Old Tcftament, 
of the Mo^hftvt, the AmmonHcf , the Edomiies, &«Cc they arc al! 
Ictjg ^j*^o come to an end. Thoft four great moaarahies of the , 
irorU ha^e b-en overthrown one after another. The gicat empire 
^projsi ' ?by2on was overthro'vn by the Pcrfians ; and thcji the' 
i'lfun vvi'je w^j ovcrthfo-v;, by the Greeks ; after this the Gre- 
cian cicpire w.^n overthrown by the Romans ;— aad, SinaUy, the 
Koman caip»rc h\i a facritice to various barbarous nations. Hcr« ^ 
is a teaaarksbl© faLilacat of the wo;d|©f the tpxt with refpcft to 


the Wark of R E D E M P T lO N, ' 241 

other things even the grcAlcift and mcft glorious of tbcai t thfjr' 
ha/eaH gro^v n old, and have vanilhed rMnky ; *» The incth has- 
eascn Jhcm up like a garment, the worm catca ibtm like vrooli"but 
yet GjJ'i church remaini. 

N-vcr where there fo many aud fo potent endeavours to deftroy 
any thing elfc, as there hnvo been to deftroy ifce chu'ch. Oihc" 
kingdomi and focicties of men, which have appc^rcci to be ten 
times as frrong ai the cbuvch of God, hc:vj' been dcilroyed with an 
hundredth part of the oppofiiion which ibc church of God h^s DiCf. 
with : which (hpwt, that it is Goa who haj been the protcdor of 
the church. For it is moft plnin, that it has not uplcld iiftli by 
i*8 own (Ircrjgth. For the mofi part, it has been a very weak fo- 
ciety. T.ey have been a lililc fiock : fo tb;y were of old. The 
children of IfracI were but a fmaJl handful of people, in cotup-irifoD: 
s*f thi many who often fought their overthrow. And fo in QiiiH'i • 
Um2, and in the beginning of the Chrifiian church afrer Chri.'f's 
refurro^icn, ibcy were but a remnant : whereas the whole multitude 
of the J-wi(h nation were againft them. And fo in the bcgii4r;ing 
of the Gentile church, ihey were but a fm.-iU number in conparifon 
with the lieaihcn, who fought their overthrow.. And fo In the 
dark times of Aiuchrift, be^'orc the Re>LTmatfon, tney f-cr^ibuj:' 
a handful ; and yet their enemies could nevcT overthrow theji, Jg 
has commonly been fo, that the encinici of the church h^ve not onlj^ 
Lad the greaiefl nutpbcr of their Hie, but tl^.y h^vc had tre itrengtb 
of their fiie in other nfpcds, Thf^y h^ve commoiJy had aii the 
civil authority r.f their fiie. So it wjs in Egypt : the civU 
authority wat of the fide of the Evgnt;s,ns ar.l the church were 
only their (laves, snd wrre in their hdnds ; and yet they could 
not overthrow them. So it wis in the t:mr or t'\e pe, cii 
Antiochus Epiph-^ncs : the auiIiCrily was all on the fsd.j o; the pcr- 
^cuiors, and the church was under their dominion j and yet all 
their cruelty could sot extirpate it. So it w^s after ivards in the 
time of the Heathen Ronjan government. And fo it was in ili 
lime of JuU.«a the apoftale, who tlid his utn^eit to overthrow irc, 
Chriftian cliurch, and to reftorc H^athcnffm. So ii ha? tccr. iot- 
the moft part fince the rife of Ar.n'ch. ;f^ ; for ? rrcjt mur/ igx;#, 
the civil authority w^s all on the (iic of Aotlch*ifi, acu the- 
church feeaied to be in th<;xr hands. 

Not only has the Arcrgib of the enemies of ihe'tburch been 
greater than the /^rerigth of the church, bu: ordinarily chc Cburcb 
has net ufsd what ftrcngth tbey have hrd in iV^ir own defcrctj b'lt 
have committed tbemf*lves wholly 10 Go:L S© it wss in. ibc i^ns 
cfthe Jewifh pc:fec»j»ions before the rfcfiruifi ion of jrruMem by 
the Romaot ; and fo it was ii the t.Vc of the Heathet^ peVfccuticn* 
before Canftantinc ; ?hc Cbrifiians did not crjy not rife up Jn arms 
to defend, thcmfelvc.*, but they JId not pre en i ?o mike any fcrCiMc; 
leriflcncc to their Heathen perficutors. £0 it has act the rrcl* rirt 

«4* A H I S T O R Y of 

been under thcPopifh ptrrfecutions ;, and yet tbcy have nev^er bcea 
able to ovcithro»v the church of God ; but it fiands to this very day. 
This is i\il! the more exceeding wonderful, if wc confi^cr how 
often the church has been brought to the brink of ruin, and the cafe 
fccmed to be defpcrate, and all hope gone, and ihcy fccracd to be 
fvrallowed up. in the timtof the old world, when wickcdricfa fo 
prevailed, s* thnl but one fstijUy was left, yet God wonderfully ap- 
peared, and overthrew the wicked world with a itood, and prcferv- 
ed hii church. So at the Rcrd fea, when Pfasroah aad his ho<t 
though they were quite furc of their prey ; yet Gad appeared, aad 
dellfoyed ihcen, and delivered hi« church. So was it from lime to 
time in the church of Ifrad, as has been fhowri. So under the 
tenth and laft Heathen perfccution, their perfecuiors boaAcd thai 
BOW they had done the bufincfs for the Chriftians, and had Over- 
thrown the Chriftian church ; yet in the mid (I of their triumph, the 
ChrilUan chureh rifcs out of the 6n^ a^d prevail, and the Heathen 
empire totally falls before it. So when ihcChriAianchnrch fcemed 
Ecady to be f-^allowed up by the Arian hcrcfy ; fo w^cn Antichrift 
f?afc and prevailed, and all the vrofJd wondered after the bcaft, and 
8hc church for maoy hundred years was reduced to fuch a fmail 
number, and fecmeti so be hidden, and the power of the world was 
cngagtd to deftioy thofc Unit rcmamdcrs of the church ; yet they 
could never fully accomphi]! their dtfign, and at laft God wonder- 
fuK-y i-cT-ived his chu^cb in the time of ih« Rcfoirination, and made 
it So Aand as h were on iis htt, in the fight of ifs eacmies, and 
raiTed it out ofythsir rcsch. So fincc, svhcn the Popifb powers bavs 
^ iOtied tb'^ overthrow of »he Reformed church, and have feemcd 
jfjfl about to bring thek taattcra to a conclufion, and to finiih ihcir 
de%n, thenGod has wcnderfdly appeared for the deliverance of hi* 
church, as it war in the tins^ of the Revolution by King William. 
So it has been froca ilnifz io time : prefcntly after the darkcft time? 
of thexhurch, God has isade his church nioft glorioufly to floufi&. 

If fuch a prcfcrvaiibn cf toe church of God, from the beginning 
tit the world hitherto, attended with fuch circuooftances, is not fuf- 
ificicnt to (hew a divine hand in favour cf it, what can be dcvifed 
that would be fufF:c»cnt ? But if this be ficm the divine hand, then 
God o*vns thechuch, and owns her religion, and owns that reve- 
lation and thofe fcr?pturǤ on which (be is built ; and fo it will fol- 
low^, that their religion !b the troe religion, or God's religion, sni 
that the fcriptures, which ibcy make their rule, arc his word. 

(3) Wc may draw this funher arguoiect for the divine authori- 
ty of the fcriptures from what'has been faid. viz, that God has fo 

fulfilled thofc things which arc foretold in the fcriptures. 1 

fcave already obfervcd, as 2 went along, how the prophecies of the 
fcripturc were fulfilled : I ihali now therefore Hogle out but two 
safiaQcei of the fui£lmcct of fciipturc prophecy* (1) 

As Work cf R E D E At P T I O N. 24$ 

(1) One 11 in preferring bis church from being ruined. I have 

juft now (hown what an evidence thii ii of the divine authority of 
ibe fcriptui-'C) in itfcii coniidercr]: 1 now fpeak of it as a fulfilment 
of fcfipiure-prcphccy. This is abundantly foretold and promif- 
ed in the fcripturef , at particularly in the text ; there it i% foretold 
that other tbinj^s ihould fail, other kingdoms and monarchies, which 
fet thcDofelvcs in oppoftiion, (hould come to nothing : " The moth 
fhould eat them up tike a garment, and the worm Ihould eat tbeoi 
like wool." So it has in fa<^ come to pafs. But it is here foretold, 
•feat God's covenant mcfcy to his church (hould continue for ever ; 
and fo it bath hitherto proved, tbo' now it be fo many agei fince, 
and though the church has paiTcd through fo many dangers. The 
fame is pfomifcd, If. liv, 17. ** No weapon that is formed a- 
gainit thee, fltall profpcr ; and every tongue that fball rife againfl 
the in judgcirent, thou (halt condemn.*' And again. If. iclix. 14, 
15. 16. '* But Zion faid. The Lord hath forfaken me, and my 
Lord hath forgotten me. Can a wcntan forget her fucking child, 
that fhould not have compaflion on the fon of her womb?,yea,they 
may /®rget, yet will 1 col forget thee. Behold, Ihavc graven thee 
upon the palms of ray hands, thy walls are continually before mc,*» 
The f^me is promifed again in If. lis. 21. and If. xliii. i. 2. 
and Zscb. xii. 2.3. So Chrid promifes the fame, when he fays, 
** On this rock will 1 build my church, and the gates of hell fball 
not prevail againft il." Now if this be not from God, and the 
fejiptures be not the word of God, and the church of Chrift built on 
?hc foundation of this word be not of God, how could the perfont 
who foretold this, know is ? for if the church were dot of God, it 
was a very unlikely thing ever to come to pafs. For they foretold 
the grcae oppofuion, and the great dangers, and alfo foretold that 
uilicr kingdoms Oiould come to nought, and that the church fl^ould 
often he almofl fwallowcd up, as it were eafy to fhow., and yet 
foretold that the church fbould remain. Now how could they 
forefccfo unlikcJy a thing but by divine infpiration ? 

(2) The Other remarkable infVance which I Qiall mention of the 
fulfilment of fcfipture-prophccy,is in fulfiUingwhat is/orctold con- 
cerning Antichrirt, a certain great oppofcr of Chrift and his king- 
dom. The way that this Antichrift (hould arifc. Is foretold, viz. 
not among the Heathen, or ihofe nations that never profcfTcdChrif- 
tianity ; but that he (hould arife by the apoftafy and falling away 
of the ChriAian church into a corrupt Aaie : 2 Thcf. ii. 3. *' For 
that day fliall not ccme, except there come a falling away firft, 
and that man of fm be revealed, the fon of perdition.*'— —It ii 
prophcfisd, that this Aniichrifl, or man of fin, fhould be one, that 
ihould fet himfelf up in the temple or viable church of God, pre* 
tending to be veded with the power of God hiftfelfi at head of the 


44 A H I S t C E Y r>» 

ct^ufcfe, ajin the fam«?ch3p. verf. 4. A?l this is exa<^l3r coaie 
topsfsin iht church of P^m'^. A^aln, it i» ih*!frt?tcd, that the. 
rifs of Aatichrifl fhoulJ be gr^do^iJ, as there, vzrf. 7. " For the 
myircry of intqulty doth already work ; otly he sho now Icticih,' 
will let, until he be taken out of ihc way" Thij >^ifo came to 

pifi,-— Again, it is propbcficd ct /ur.ha grest and mighiy e- 

reray of lh<! G^iri^ian churchy that he Ihould be a great pvincc or 
tno^arch of the R^m-in tmpire : fo he is rcprcftnted as an horn of 
tii^fouflhbi2(tiv.D\nh\, or fou-th kiog^'Oin or monarchy upon 
ea??o, ai the angili himfif exphintit, 35 you m^y fee of the little 
horn In the yih ch '.ptcr o{ D^uicl. This aifo c^me to pafi — 
Vc-a it 13 proplicfi'id, that thr: feat of this g:e3t prfhcc, or prctendei 
\h:s of God, and hc?d of feii church, fbould be in the city ofRcme 
iddf» In the i7-h chapter of Rsvehrton, it h faid exprefsly, that 
tie fpirim^S whore, or 'fa! fef church, ftioulJ have her feat on fevcn 
mountains Of hilh : JRi'v, xvi«. 9.. ** The fs^en heads are fcven 
mountain's, on whtch the woman il'teth :" and in the hft vcrfe o^ 
the chapier, it i? f?M fa:,prell}y, ** Tlic woman which tho« faw'eft* 
is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the carlh ;*' 
Vihich it is cerlain was at thiit.tioic ihe cisy o^ Rome. Tiiis pro- 
phecy glfo ha? comcto p3f« in ths church of Kcme. 

Furtker, hvva? proph^Oed, thif thi* Antichnft fhou!d rrign cvc^ 
peoples, and multuuncs, and nations, snd tongues, Rev. xvii. 15. ; 
i\ti that all the world fhould woivdcr after the beaft, Rtv xiii. 3^' 
This alfo came to oafs ia the church of Rojt.c. It Was foretold that 
tiiisAntichrift fh mid b^^ eminent nnd :<:m-rrkable for the fin of pride, 
pretendiDg to grcas: things, and affuoniiiig very much to himftif • ; fo 
sn ibcfcremaitianed p!<^ce in Thc(ia!on:ans, ** Thalhefhould cx- 
sh hiaaldf above ^:\l shal is calkd God," or that is wcrfrJped. So 
Rsv, xiii. r. "Arid there wp? given unto him a mouth fper^king 
gre;>l thing*, and bl^rphemies." Dan. vii. 20. the little born «» 
faid to have a mouth fpcaking very great things, and his look to 
lie more iloui'tban Ih fellows, Tl ?3 slfo csme to pafs in thePcpe, 

znd the church of Rome. It was alfo prophefed, that An- 

tichrrfl liiould bean eicceding cruel perftcutor, Dan, vii. 2!» 
The fame horn madcwarwah :^c faint5,and prevailed againft them; 
Rev. xiii, 7. *' And it was gW-n »:nto him to make was v ith the 
famts, and to cverccmc them." Rev. xvii. 6. •* And I fsw the 
v/omaa drur^kcn with the blood of the faints, and with the blood of 
the m?.nyf» of Jcfus." Thii alfo came to pafs in the church of 
Koirt:.— — It wsi forett^d, that Amichrift f^Juld excel in 
craft and policy : Dan, vii. 8. '* Inthisho^n were eyes like the 
eyes of a.m^n." And verf. 20. •* Even fo that horn that had 

eye?." This alfo csmc to paf« h the church of Rome. -It 

was foretold, tbit the kings of Cbiiftctdoaa fhculd be fubjeft to 

Aallchrifl ; 

the Work of REDEMPTION. 24^. 

AntichrU ; Kev. xvii. 12. 13. " And the ttn hcrni ivliich 
ihou favTcff, arc len kings, which dave received no kingdoms aft yet; 
bul receive power at kioos one lioiif with the bci^'/t, Thcfc have 
one mini, and iball give ibeir^power snd ftrergth unto the bca<t." 

l>ji» Aio Cham to psfi with lefpcd to ifx R aivlh cbuich. It 

w.^s forp.iold, that beChouH pcrtorua pretended miraclci and ly jg 
vroaderi : 2 Thcf. ii. 9* ** Whofc <x,a»ing is after trjc working of 
Satan, with all p:jwcr, and fignf, an- lying wondcri,'\ Kcv xiii, 
^3. 14, *' And he doth great woaJ^iis, fo that lic maketb fir^ coni6 
down from hcav»:a on the earth, in the ilghi of men, and dccelvcth 
thcai thai dwell O'i ihc caah, by the means of ihcfc miracles whiwh 
bt had power to do In Jfac fight of she bcaft," This alfo came to 
l^afs fo the church of Rome, Fire's coming down from hcavso, 
fccmcd to have reference to their txcoa>cauaica5ion», which vyciro 
drc'idcd like fire from heaven. —— It w^s foretold, thai he 
(bould fpfbid to m:-<fiy, and to abi^am from meats : 1 Tim. iv, 3* 
** F.^rbiddiig to marry, and commanding to sbftaia from meats^ 
which Goi h^tli created io be received with thankfgiving./' This 
alfo v- exaClJy fulfil^d in the church of Rome, — j-It was fore- 
told, that hcfhould be very rich, and arrive at a great degr«c oi 
earthly fplendor aiid glory : Rsv. xvH. 4, *' And the wcman was 
arrayed in purple, and fcarlct colour, and.deckcd^ with gold and 
precious ftones, and pearis, nsving a golden cup in her hand.** 
And fo chap, xviii. 7, 12. 13. 16. This aifo 13 come lopsfi 
with rcfpt^ to the church of Rjrac.—— It was foretold, that he 
fliould forbid ar.y to buy or fell, wiibcut tKry bac^ bis mark : Kcv. 
xiii. 17. ** And ih&t no man might buy or fell, favc ha th^t had 
the mark of the beail, or the number of bis name." . This aifo U 

fulfilled in 4h« church of Rome. It was foretold, thai be 

fhouldf«ll the fouls of men, Kcv. xviJi. 13 wbcic, in cnuaaera- 
ling the article* of hii racrchandife. tit feuli of -mtn arc mentioned 
as one. This alio is cxicily fulfiiied in the fdm?. church.— —It 
was foretold, thai Antichrift would not f. fFvf the bodies of God.*% 
people to be put into gMve» : R v. xi. 8: 9. ** And their dead 
bodies iLall lie in the ftren of the gr^it city — aad they — (tall 
not fuifer their dead bodies ?o bo put la graves,',' Tnis aifo has 
literally copae to pafs wish tefpeil to tj-c church of Rome.-*—! 
ipight^mcntion many other things which .were loretcl? a* Aptichrifl- 
or that great enemy of ibc church fo often fpok^n of la fcriptuTc, 
and (how that they vi^it fuifiled moftcxatlly in the ?o^ aad the 
chu-ch of Rome. ' . -* .*. ' 

Hew firong an argument is this, that the fcrjpturci are the word 
of God i 

.2 Bui { come now to a fecond r'nfirence ; -vbich h this : Frotn 
wbai bai bcco ffid, we may learn what the fi^Iiil of irui Chrifiiaai 

<46 A H I S T O R Y of 

if, vis. a fpirJt of fuffaring. SeciogGod hsa fo ordered it In hh pro- 
vidence, that bis church (kould for Co loug a ttht, for the greater 
part of fo many sgw, be in a fufFering fta?c,yea, and often in a ftalc 
of fuch cxiream fuircriag,wc may conclude, that thejfptrii of thenuc 
church w afuffcringfpirit. ofUcrivifcGod never would have ordered fo 
«uch fufFering for the church ; for doubtlcfiGod accommodates the 
ftate and circumflancsi of the church to the fpirit that he hsi given 
them. We fee by what hat been faid, ho«r many amd great fuffeHngt 
gheCbfii^' in church for the moft part has been under for thcfe 1700 
•/ears • ' wonder therefore that Ghrift fomuch inculcated upon his 
Jifcij ; i, that if was neccffary, that if any would be his difciples, 
'They muli deny thenifeivei,&nd take up their crofa and follow him/ 
We may argue, that the fpirit of the true church of Chrifb is a 
fufFering fpirit, by the fpirit the church hai fliown and exccrcifcd 
uader her fufFering; She has aftua!ly, under thofc terrible pcrfccu- 
tioni though which (be has palTed, rather chofcn to undergo thofc 
dreadful torments, and to fell all for the pearl of great price, to fuf- 
fcr all that her bittcreft cacmiei could inflid, thantorcncunccChrii^ 
and his religion. Kiftory furnifhcs m \ykh a grcst number Of rc- 
fliarkable inftances, fets in view a great cloud of witnclTes. This 
abundantly confirmi the ncccffity of being of a fpirit to fell all for 
Ghrifl, to renourice our own cafe, our own worldly profit, and 
honour, and our all, for him, and for the gofpel. 

Let us inquire, whcthc; we are of fuch a fpirit. How does it 
pravc upon trial ? Does il prove in fad tiiat we are willing to deny 
ourfelves, a:nd renounce ^ur own worldly intcrcft, and to pafs 
through the trials to which we a^e called in providence ? Ala9,how 
fmail arc our trials, compared with thoie of many of our fellow 
Chriflians in former ages ! I would on this occati jn apply that m 
Jcr. xii. 5; «* If thou haft run with the footmen, and they wea- 
ried thee, then how caaft thou contend with horfcs ?" If you 
have not been able to endure the light .trials to which you have been 
called in this age, and in this land, how would ytsu be able to 
endure the far greater trials to which the church has been called in 
former ages t Every tiue ChriAisn has the fpirit of a martyr, and 
would fuffcr as a martyr, if he were called to it in providence. 

3. Mencc we learn what great reafon we have, affuredly to 
sxpcCt the fulfilment of what yet remains to be fulfilled of things 
foretold in fcripture. The fcriptures forctcl many great things ycf 
to be fulfilled before the end of the world. But there fecm to be 
tpreat difficulties in the way. Wc fccm at prefeai to be very far 
from fuch a ftaie as is foretold in the fcriptures ; but we have a- 
bundant rcafon 10 expert, that thefe things, however fcemingly dif- 
ficult, will yet be accomplilbed in their feafon. We fee the faith- 

fulncfi of Gcfd to his promif^i hitherto, Ho^ trye his God bcca 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 247 

to hii chuvh, and remembered his mercy from generation to gcne- 
ration ! Wc may fay concerning what God has done hithcrio for 
hii church, as Jofhua faid to the the children of Ifracl, ]o(b. xxi=i, 
I4. " That not one thing hath failed of all that the Lord our God 
hath fpoken concerning hii church s" but all things ;»re hitherto 
come to paf« agreeable to the divine prcdidion. This fhouli 
Arengtheu our faith in ihofe promifes, and encourage us, and ftir 
us up to earneft prayer to God for the atcompliflimcDt of the great 
and glorious things which yet remain to be fulfilled. 

It has already been fiiown how the fuccefs of Chrift's redemp- 
rion irai carried on through various periods down to the prefcnJ 

4ihly. I come now to Hiow how the fuccefs ofChrift*s redemption 
#111 be carried on from the prefent time, till Aniichrift is fallen, and 

Sitan's vifible kingdom on C3rth is dcfiroyed. And with rcf- 

pc(fl to this fpace of lime, we have nothing to guids us but the 
prophecies of fcripture. Through mof^ of the time from the fall 
of mau to the deArudion of Jerufalem by the Romans, we had 
fcripture- hiftory to guide us ; and from thence to the prefent time 
we had prophecy, together with the accomplilhment of it in pro* 
vidence, as related in human hi/^ories. But henceforward we have 
only prophecy to guide us. Here I would pafi by thofe things that 
are only conjcftural, or that are furmifed by fome fro'm thofe pro, 
phecies which are doubtful in their interpretation, and (hall infiil: 
only on thofe things which are more clear and evident. 

Wc know not what particular events are to come to pafs before 
that glorious work of God's Spirit begins, by which Satan's king- 
dom is to be overthrown. By the confent of moft divines, there 
are but few things, if any at all, that are foretold to be acccmplifli- 
cd before the beginning of that glorious work of God. Some 
think the flaying of the witneffes. Rev. xi, 7. 8. is not yet accom- 
piilbad. So divines differ with refpe(fl to the pouring cut of the 
fcven vials, of which we have an account. Rev. xvi. how many 
a^e already poured out, or how many remain to be poured out * 
though a late cxpofitor, whom I have before mentioned to you, 
ftems to make it very plain and evident, that all are already pour- 
ed out but two, v'z the fizth on the river Euphrates, and the fe- 
venth into the air. But I will not now ftand to inquire what is in- 
tended by the pouring out of the fixth vial on the river Euphrates, 
that the way of the kings of the eaft may be prepared ; but only 
■would fay, that it feems to be fomcthing immediately preparing the 
way for the deftrudion of the fpiritual Babylon, as the drying up 
of the river Euphrates, which ran through the mid ft of old B;?by- 
lon, was what prepared the way of the kings of the Mcdcs and Per- 
fians, the kings of the caf^j to come in under the wallsj and def* 
troy that city, H h But 

248 A H I S T O R Y of 

But whatevir thi* be. it doci not 8pp«ar that it U fny thing 
whici^ ftiill be accocn^hhed before ihal work of God's Spirit is Ix;- 
gun. by which, «s it rocs on, S^tan'i vifrble kingdom on earth Ihili 
he uticvly over thrown* Therefore I wculd proceed dircc^Uy to coii- 
MzT what the fc.-iptuie rcvc&is concerning the work of God itfclf, 
by which he will bring about this great event, as being the next 
thing wbith is to be accoffiplifhed that wc are certain of from the 
prophecies of fciipiuic. 

FirA, I .vould obfcrvc two thing? in general concerning it. 

I, We have all reafon to concluJe from the fcripturcj>, that juft 
before this work of Gad begins, it wiSl be a very daik time >yith 
rcfpc^ to the i.iterc/ls of rciigion in the world. It has been fo bo- 
fore thofc glorious reyivals of religion that hwe been hitherto. It 
was fo when Chrift cnm^ ; it was an excseding degenerate titne a* 
mong the Jev/s : and fo it was a very dirk time before the Rsfor- 
msiion. Not only fo, but it fcems to be foretold in fciipture, 
that 'n IhaU be a time of but Hide religion, when Chrift OaAi come 
to fv^t up his kJngflom in the world. Thm when Cbriil fpake of 
bis coming, to cncotfrage hi« e!cd, who cry to him day and night, 
In Luke xviii. 8 he adds this, *' Ncvcribclcfs, ♦' when the Son 
of man Cometh, (hsU he find faith on the earth ?" Which feems to 
denote a gvcatprev^kncy of infidelity juft before Chrifl's coming 
to avenge his fulTering church. Though Cbrift's coming at 
the laft pi'lgsm-^nt is not here to be excluded, yet there fe«m» to 
be a fpccial refp-d to hii c^jming to deliver his church from theit 
Ior:g continued fufF>:fing pi-rfecuted iiate, which is accomplilhcd 
only at his coming at the de^ruftion of Antichri^. Thst time thai 
the dcO: c-y to.Gdi, es in Rev. vi. lo. •' How long, O Lord, 
holy and tnie., doft „tho'j not judge avxd svsnge our biood on them 
thit d^'cll on the canh ?'* and the tioie fpckcn of inRev, sviii/ 2o> 
"R jaice over her, thou heaven, and ye ho'y Apoft!es, ard prophets, 
fof'^j i hi.h 37?iig2:! youoi hi:r," will :bea be accomplilhei* 

It is now a very dark time with refpcA to the interefrs of re- 
ligion, snd fuch a Jtme 2s :his prcpheficoi of in this pl»cc j wherein 
their is but little iahhj aod a great prevailing oir ir.fikHty on the 
csrtb. There if uow a rem-rkible fuitilment of that in 2 P^t, iii. 3, 
•' Knowing this, that there (hAl con-?e in the hft days fcoffcrs, 
w?.^k*ng 2fer their own l».fts/' So Jude, 17, 18. '* But beloved, 
rcmett).bt:r yS *he wor^^s which were fprken before of the apoftlei 
of cur Lot'd Jeius Ch<'ift ; how that they told you there fliould be 
mockers in tb*; l^ii time, who flvjuid walk after sh^^ir own ungodly 
luft!." Whether «he timei ftaU be any darker Ml, or how much 
darker, before the beginning of this glorious wotk of God, we 
cannot tell, 

?, There is no reafon from the word of God to thisk any other, 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 246 

tbsn that ihii great work of God wiiJ be wrought, though vcty 
fwiftly, yet giadually. As chi chiidicn cf Ifiaci were g aiuJly 
brought out of the Babyloriirti captivity, fiii'toDC company, and 
then another, and gradually rebuilt iLcir city ar d tempc ; and at 
the Heathen Roaisn cmjjiie was dcftroye.-J by a g-adu.l, »hough a 
very iwUt prcvilcncy of she gofpel ; fo, though there arc many 
things which fccm 10 bold loilh a*. »bough ibc wcik of GoJ houM 
be exceeding {jfin, and many grsat srd wourtcitul tv-nf? IhouM 
very fuidcnly be brought to p..ij, ; ncl f jmc grc?t p-fts of Satan's 
vifible kingdom ftiodd have a vc»y fiiddcn iall, jet ail will rot be 
accompliihcd at once, as by fom^: great miracle, ^s the refurrec^ion 
of the dead at the end of the world will be ail ?ii once ; but ?hi$ u 
a woik which will be accofnplifl;\cd by meani, by ihc prcschtDg of 
the gofpel, and the ufc of the ordinary rasa;is of grsce, and fo ihall 
be gradually brought to pafs. Socit {hail bs converted, snd be the 
means of others converfion. God'» Spiiii fl^iall be poured ou» firft 
to rsifc up infuuaients, and ihca ihofe icftrumenu Or.Al be ufcd 
and fuccecdcd. Doubilcfs one nation (hall be enlightened and 
converted after another, one faife religion andfalfe way of wo^ihfp 
exploded after another. By the reprcfcntsiion in Dan. ii. 3.4. ihc 
ftone cut out of the mountains without bands g' adually grows. So 
• Chrift teaches us, ihit the kingdou of he;, ven is like a grain of 
muftard'fecd, Matth- xiii. 31 32 and like leaver* hid in three 
mcafurei of mcsl, vcrie 33, Tne fame reptefentaiion we have in 
Mitkiv. 26. 27.28. andirnhevifion of the waters of tbefandfuary, 
Ez-k, xlvii. — —The fciipturcs ho!d forth £i thour-h there (bould 
be fcvcral fucceflivc gic^t and glorious cvcctj, by which tkis glo- 
rious wdrk (bouid be sccomp'allicd. The angel, fpcjiking to the 
prophet Daniel of thofc glorious times, mention* iwo glorious 
periods, at theendof whxhglorioui ihhi^^^s Giouhihe icccmpliftit j; 
Dan. xii. 11. ** And from the time that iiie daily f.^ciificc Ibaiibe 
taken away, and the abcminatioa that m kcth defor^tr fct up, there 
Ihsll be a thoufand two hundred and nir-cty c**.yf " But ir en he 
adds in the next verfc, ** BkfTed is he that w.-attm, and ccjr.cih 
to the thoufand three hundred and five and thivty G3>5 ;" ict^ma- 
ting, that Ibmcthing very glorious fliouid be accoiTjphihcd at »hc 
end of ihc former period, but fomctbii^g much moic glcriouR ;t 
the end of the latter. 

But 1 now proceed to fttow ho^ ihii glorious work n;a!l be 

I. The Spirit of God ihall be gloriotfly poured cut for the 
wonderful revival and propagation of rclii>ion. Tui* gvc.t wjrk 
lliall be accompliftied, not by the auibcrily ol'princ*"-, 3Cf by the 
wifdom of learned men, but by Goi'i Ii Ay Splut : Z ch. iv. 6. 7. 
'* Not by might, nor by po aw, but by my Spirit, f^.nh xhc 


250 A H I S T O R Y of 

Lord of hof^s. Who art thou, O great mounrain ? before Zerub- 
babcl thou Ihalt becoaie a pbin, and he (hail bring forth the head- 
ftonc thereof vflth fhoulings, crying Grace, grace unto it.*' So the 
prophet Ez.kicI, fpe^king of this great woik of God^ faySi chap. 
xxx'ix. 29 "Neither will I hide any face any or. ore fjotn ihem ; for 
I have paurcd out my Spiiii on tie houfc of ifraci, faith the Lord 
God.*\ Wj kiovy noi where this pouring out of the Spirit iball 
begin, or whether in nsany places at or,cc, or K-heiher, what hath 
already been, be not fome forerunner and beginning of it. 

This pouring oUt of the Spirit of God, when it is begun, fhal! 
fooii bring great multitudes to forcf^:kji ihat vice and wickcdncfa 
which noiv fo generally prevails, aad fhall csufi that viral religi- 
cn, which is new fo dcfpifcd and b-ughcd st in the world, to re- 
vive. The work of conversion fi-jeli bre^k forth, ^and go on in fuch 
a manner ss rever has i^scn hitherto ^ sgree iblc to that in If. rliv. 

3,4. 5. Ciod, by pouring out his Holy Spirit, will furni& 

n:jen to be glorious infiruinents of cayrying en this work ; will fill 
them with knowledge and wifdoci, and fervent 'zeal for iht pro- 
moting the kingiom of ChriJI, and the falvation of foub, and 
propagating the gofpd in the world. So that thegofpel ftiall be- 
gia to be preached wiih abundantly greater clearnefs and power 
vhan had hertitoforc been : for this great work of God (hall be 
brought to pafs by the pj^aching of the gofpel, as it i< rcprcfcntcd 
in Rev. xiv. 6 7. S- liu: before Babylon falls, the gofpel Ihall bs 
powerfully preached and propagated in the world. 

This v/ai typinid of old by the founding of the filver trumpets 
in Ifracl in the beginning of jheir jubilee : Lev. xiv. 9. ** Thet2 
Ihalt thou Ciufe ihc trumpet of the jabilec to found on the tenth day 
of the fevenlh month ; on the day of atonement fhall ye make 
the tiumpet found throughout all your land." The gloricuB times 
"Which are approaching, arc as it were the church's jubilee, which 
ftall be iniroduced by the founding of the filver trumpet of ths 
gofpel, as U fojeiold in if. xxvii. 15 "And it Ihall come to pafi 
in that day, that t'gfi great trumpet ihdll be blown, and jhcy (hall 
com; which were ready to pe:i(h in the land of AiTyih, and the 
cutciilj of the land of E^jypr, and (hall wor(hip the Lord in the 
holy mount at Jerufal-m." There (hall be a glorious pouring out 
of the Spirir with this clear and powerful preaching of the gofpc!, 
to make it fucccfsful for rev' v- ng thofs holy dodlrincs of icligion 
vhich arc now chiefly ridiculed in the world, and turning many 
from hercfy, and from Ropery, and from other falfe religion ; 
and alfo for turning many from iheir vice and profancncfs, and for 
bringing vaft multitudes favingly home to Cbrifl. 

That work of convcifion (hall go on in a wonderful manner,and 
fprtad more and mere. Many (hall flow together to Jbc goo<i- 

the Work of REDEMPTION. ^ji 

uefs of the Lord, and (hallcomeai it were in flocks, one flock 
and muhitudc after another ccntiaual'y flowing in, as in If. Ix* 4. 
5. ** Lift up thine eyes round about, and fee ; ?.H they g^iihcr 
themfclvcs tcgeihcr, ibcy come to thcc ; thy foii* ihall come from 
far, and thy d-UghtCi* fhali be nurfcd at thy fide. Then thou {halt 
fee and flo-.v together. " And fo verf- 8. <« Who are thcfe thai 
fly as a cloud, and as the cioves to their winf^cA* ?" It being rc- 
prcfentcd in the forcmeniionca place in the R^veiaiion, that ihq 
gofpel fiiatlbe preached to every tongue, unci k'ndfcd, and nation, 
and people, before the /all oi Anti^brift ; fo wcmsy fuppofc, that 
it will fooa be glorioufly fucccfjfui to bring in multitudes from 
every nation ; and it fhi^il fpread more and more with wondeiM 
f\4riftref€,ann vaft numbers (hull fuddcniy be brought in aa at once, 
ut you may fee. If. Isvi, 789. 

2. This pouring out of the Spirit of God will not affc6l the over- 
throw of Satan's vifible kingdom, till there has. fi;>: bf*cn a violent 
and mighty cppofition made. In this the fcripiutc h plain, that 
when Chrift is thus glorioufly coming forth, and ihc deftrctftion of 
Antichriil is ready at hand, and Satan't kingdom begins to totter, 
and appear to to be imminently threatened, the powers of tho king- 
dom of darknefs will rife ^p, and mightily exert themfclves tQ 
prevent their kingdom being overthrown. Thus after the poucr- 
ing out of the fixib vial, which was to dry up the river Euphrates, 
io prepare the way for the deftrudion ,of the fpiriiual .Babylon, it 
is reprcfer ted in Rev. xvi. as though the powers of hell will be 
mightily alarmed, and iiould Air up themfclves to oppofc the 
kingdom of Chrifb, before ifie fcvealh and laft: vial fhall be poured 
out, which (hill give them a i]aal and complcat overthrow. We 
have an account of the pouring out of the fixth in verf. 12. Upoi\ 
this, the beloved difciplc informs us ihit in the following vcrfci, 
that *• three unclean fpirits like froga fliall go forth unto ihekingq 
of the earth, to gather them together to the battle of the great day 
of God Almighty." This feemi to be the laft and greatefl clTort of 
Satan to fave bis kingdom from being overthrown ; though per- 
haps he may make as great towards the end of the world to re> 
gain it. 

When the Spirit begins to be fo glorioufly poured forth, and the 
devil fees fuch multitjidcs fl xking to Chnfl in occ nation and a- 
Qother, and the foundations of his kingdom daily underminicg, 
and the pillars of it beaking, and tfie whole ready to come to 
f^wrift and fuddcn dcflrudion, it will greatly alarm ali hell. Satan 
bas ever had a dread of having his kingdom overthrown, and he 
has been oppofing of it ever fince Chrift s afccnHon, and has beei^ 
doing greet work? to fortify his kingdom, and to prevent it, ever 
feice the day of Coa^actiof the Great, To ihi« snd be bss fc^ 

2;^ A H I S T O R Y of 

up ihofc two fcJghty kirjgdcms of Ant'chrivl and Mahorcef, and 
brought in ail the hcitcr::;s, and fupcfituians, and cor»up: opiiuor.i 
which thcic arc iti chc world, isur ivheo he fcca JA begins lo faiJ 
il wiilroure him exceedingly, li Satan dreaded being c^n out of 
t'fce Rouvaa empi.c, how much moic decs be cJtcid being caft oui 
of tbc vyhok wo:M I 

It {ccva^ as though in this h^ grcr.t oppcfHion which Ihall be 
niade aor-iinft the chuich lo defend ih^ k.riguom of Siiun, all lbs 
forces ot Antichfin, and Mat'iorcaariifm, and Hiiaihcnifm, will 
bciznteed J aacj ai! the forcesof Sitaa's vifible kinglom through 
the whvie world of mankind. Iherc/orc it is fa^d, that " {pum 
cf dcviblbili go forth ltaZo ihc kings of the earth, and ct the 
wbc!c woiid, so gather them together to ihe bitttie of the grsat day 
of God AliD'glitv." Thefe fpinis afc f^'d to come out of the 
mouth of ihi: d^ogoa, and out of the tnouih of tpc bcail, and out 
of tine mouth c* the folfc piopbcis j i.e. there lliail be the fpirit 
oi J'opet y, aiid the fpirii of Mahorntianiftn, ^nd the fpirii ciHca- 
t^iCnifjQ, all un ted. By the beau i!. meant Antichnft ; by the 
dragon/ In shi» bQ-jk, h commonly cic.-.nithc devil, ss he fcigni 
over his Heathen kh gdom ; by the ■ alfc prophet, in this book, is 
fofncii(2i£4 mean: the Pope and bii ck*s^y : but here an eye fecmj 
to be bad to Mahomet, vvho.ii his fdlowcn call a great prophet of 
Goi. Tills will be as it were the dying ft^'uggles of the ol i fcr- 
pcat : a battle vvhere5n he wiH fight ai one that i* almoft defperate» 

Wc kno-.y not particuir^rly in wh it manner this opp^^'fiiicn (hdl 
be made Ij is rcprsfentcd ;.3 abauic ; it is caUed the battls of 
ihf great day of God Jimtghty. There will be fome way or o- 
thcr a mighty i^fugglc bet v«cen Satana kingdcm and the church, 
2nd probably In all ways of oppofition that can be ; and doubt- 
^fa great oppcfhioa by external force ; wherein the princes of the 
vrorid who are on the devil's liae fhill join hand in hand : for it is 
faid, *•' The kings of the earth are gathered together to battle ;'» 
Kev. x?x. 19 Probibty withal there will be a great oppofit ion of 
fubile difputtrs and carnal reafoiiing, and great pcrlcculion in 
inanyplacej, and great oppolition by virulent rep-o-hcs, and A{o 
great oppaftiioi by craft and fi.btlety. The devil now doubtlcfj 
will ply his ficij, as well as ftrength, to the u^moft. The devils, 
$nd thofc who belong to their kirgdom, will every where be ftir- 
red up, and engaged to make an united and violent oppofiiioa 
againfl this holy religion, which they fee prevailing fo mightily 
in the wor*d But, 

3. Chrif: and his church ftiall in this battle obtain a compleat 
and entire vidory over their enemies. They fhall be totally rout- 
ed and overthrown in this their hh effort. W^cn the powers of 
fccll and canh ^rs thus gathered tagctt!tr againft Chrift, and bin 


the Work of REDEMPTION. 253 

arralei fijall ccmc forth againft ibein by his word an^ fpirit to fight 
With hem, ia bovr au^^jft, snd pompous, and plorioui a mannci 
is this comfnj; foUh of Chri(Und his church ».o ihis battle riefcri- 
bed. Rev. x.i ii &r ! To rcpfcfcnt to u: how great the v<c- 
tory l\},>uid >; which' Vicy (houM obtiin, and how m'igh?y the over- 
throvr of ihtir cnfmie»» it is faid, verf. 17&18. that " ?11 the 
fowls of bc^ vcn ;uc cillfed iOgc'.hcr, to eat lie great fupper given 
*heoi, of the flcih of kings, and capuins, and mighty men/' &r. ; 
and then, in the following vcrfc?, we have an accounijof the vic- 
tory snci ovciihrow. 

li thra vicrory, the fevcnth vial Iha'l be poured out. It is faid, 
Rtv, xvi 16. of thi great army that Should bu gathered together 
againft Chr'ft : *' And be gathered them togC't^cr into a place 
called in ihc Hrbrcw tongue Armageddon •/' and then it is faid, '* 
And the ffv^nrh angci poared out his vial into the air ; and there 
came a g^a voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, 
faying, it is done." Now the bufincfs is done for Satan and hi« 
adherents. Waen this vidlory is obtained, all is in cffed done. 
Satan's l:fl and grea^eft oppoiition is conquered ; all his meafurci 
are defeated ; :he pl^igrs of hii kingdom broken afunder, and will 
fall of C3urfe. The devil is utterly b siBcd and confounded, and 
knows not what elfc to do. He now fees hif Antichiiftiao, and 
Mihomctan, and tisathcn^fh kingdoms through the world, all 
tumbling about his e^«'s. He and his mofb powerful instruments 
are taken captive. Now that is in effect done which the church 
of God had been fo long waiting and hoping for, and fo earneilly 
crying to God for, faying, *' How long, O Lord, holy and 
true ?" now the time is come* 

The a»gcl who fsl his right foot on the fea, and his left foot 
on the earth, lift up iiis hand to heaven, andfwore by him that 
livcth forever and ever, who created heaven, and all things that 
therein are, and the csrih, and the things that therein are, and 
the fea, and the things- which are therein, that when the fev»?nth 
angel fhould come to. found, the time fliould be no longer. Now 
the time is come ; now the fevcnth trumpet founds, and the fe- 
▼enth vial is poured out, both together ; intimating, that now all 
if fiai&ed ai to the overthrow of Satin's vifibk kingdom on earth. 
This vidory (U^M be by far the greate»1 that ever was obtained 
over Satan and bis adherents. By this bIow» wiih which the flone 
cut out of the mountain without h^nds, flnSl ftn'ke the image of 
gold, and filver, and brafs, and iron, acd clay, it ib;4il aii be 
broken to pieces. This will be a fin-ihing blow to the image, fo 
that it (hail become as the ch&ff of 'he fuaimcr thrcfhing floor. 

1q this victory will be a mufi glorious d/fplay of divine power, 
Chi-if^ (haU therein appear in the chirac»T of King of kings, and 
Lord of lords, as in Rev. xix, i6r Now Cbril't (hall dafn his 


«54 A H I S T O R Y o£ 

enemies, even the ftrongcft and proudcfl of them, in pieces ; £i« 
pott-r's vcfTcl (hall they be broken to Olivers. Then fhali Strength 
be (hjwn out o/ wcakacfs, and Chrift fhsll caufc hh church as is 
were to rh-elh thernjuntalnsas in If. x'u t^: •* Behold, I will 
m:^ke rhce anew iharp threffcing-inftrument having teeth? thou 
fh^It ihrrOi the mountains, and beat tbcm fnT^l!, and (lialt msktf 
ihc hills as ch.ff/' Then itall be fu:fi:!cithat in If.x'ii, 13 14 15. 

4 Cjnfcqucnt on this vilory, Satan's vifible kingdom oa 
earth ihW bcdeftroyed. W:.en S«itan is cci quercd in ihis hi{ bat- 
tle, tHe church of Chrift will hav: eafy work of it ; as whin Jo- 
ihji M the chiHrsn of ItVad had obtained mat viaory over 
the five k ngs of the Amoritcs, when the fun ftood ftiW, and God 
fcnt grc-st haii-f^or.Gii on Jheir ftnemiss, they after that went ffoni 
one city to mother, and burnt them with fire : ihcy had cafy 
^urk of fubduing the citiei and country to which ihc) belonged* 
Sait was a'fo after thst other g-eat b-ttlc ihat Joihm had witb 
that great mnhitude at the praters of Mcrod. So after this glo- 
riom vidnry of Christ md hts church ever their cnemiv?, over the 
thief powers of Satan's kingdciH, ihcy fhall deftfoy that kingdoiri 
and all thole cilia's and coimiries to which they belonged. After 
this the word of G^d Ahnll ha^e a fpecdy and fwift progref* ihrough 
the eaith ; .is it is faid,lhat on the flouring out of the fcvcnth vial, 
the cities of the nations fell, and every ifland ficd away^ ind 
the naountains were not found," Rev. xvi. 19 20. When once 
the ftone cut out of the tUouataia without hands had broken the 
im^gc in pieces, it was eafy to abolifh all remains of it. The very 
Vfind will carry it away ai the chsfFof the fummsr thrcfliing floor. 
Becaufc Sitaa's vifible klngdono on earth (hall now be deftroycd, 
therefore It is faid, that the fcventh vial, by which this (hall be done, 
ihall be poured out into the air ; which is reprcfentedin fcripture 
as the fpecial feat of his kingdom ; for he is called the pn'ncs of the 
power of the air, Eph. ii, 2. Now is come the time of punlfhing 
Leviathan, that piercing ferpent, of which we read in If. xxvii, r. 
*' In that day the Lord with hit fore and great and ftrong firord, 
fliall punifii Leviathan the piercing ferpent, even Leviathan, that 
crooked ferpent, and he (hall flay the dragon that is in the fca," 

Concerning this overthrow of Satan's vifrbTe kingdom on earth, 
I would, I. Show wherein this overthrow of Satan's v^fible king- 
dom will chiefly confiil ; 2. The extent and univcrfality of thii 

I I would (how wherein this overthrow of Satan's kingdom will 
chi''fly cor fill. I (hall mention the particular things in which it 
will c;;rjfift, without pretending to determine in what order thcy 
ihall come to pafs, or which fh II be accompliihcd firfi, or whether 
they (hill be accomplilhed together. 

(i) Kcrefics, and infidelity, and fuperflitiofi, among thofe whoi 


th2 Work of REDEMPTION. t;$ 

have been brought up under the light of the eafpii, wiii then be a- 
boliibcd, l>x.i there \til5 be an end lo Sainiau^fm, ma A la- 
nifm, and Qur.kcrifm, and A'minianliui ; unc DtUn, "br;. It 
DO>y fo bold aad confident in ittfidility, fhill then be citlhc J, «^nd 
driven away^, and v^.nilli tonoihing ; and all (hall zg-ee in the fame 
great and important doiirincs of rhc gofpei ; '^gi-tkHa to irr, ia 
Zcch, xiv. 9. '* And ihc Lord ihail be kiijg over all -.c catsh ; ia 
that day (ball ihctebo ovm Loid, aad hi« name 01 c." Ihc. (iuil 
be abolifhcd all fupcrftitiou^ ways of worfb.p, and -L (h^ll ^gfcc 
in wci {hipping God in his own w:iyi : Jer. xjtxii 39 •* A..d I 
willgive them one heart, and one wsy, th tiLcy m^y fear me 
for ever, for the good of thcm« and of their cmldrcn aflcc 
them " 

(2) The kingdom of Antichrift (hall be utterly overthrown* 
Hij kingdom and dominfon has been much brought down already 
by the vial poured out on bis throne in ihr Reform? t ion ; but then 
it (hail be utterly deftroyed. Then (b^ll be proclaimed, *' Baby- 
lon is fallen, is fallen." When the fevenih angel found*, ** the 
time, timci and half, fliall be out, and the time faall be no 'origer.'* 
Then (hall be accomplilhcd concerning Antichrift the things whiclr 
arc written ia the i8 h chapter ofRevelation of the fplritu^l B^by-^ 
Ion, that great city Rome, or.ihe idolatroui Roman goveinmcnr^ 
that has for fo many ages been the great enemy of the Chriftiaa 
church, 6rfl under Hcathenifm, then under Popery ; ihat proud 
city which lifted herfclf up to heaven, and above God himfclf ia 
her piide and haughtincfs ; that cruel, bloody city,(hall comedown 
to the ground. Then Ihall that be fulfilled. If. xxvi, 5. " For he 
brlngcth down them that dwell on high, the lofty city he layeth it 
low, he layeth it low, even to the ground, he bringeih it even 
to the duft." She (hall be thrown down wiih violence, like a 
great milftonc ca*^ into the fca, and (hall be found no more at all, 
and (hall become an habitation of devils, and the hold of every 
foul fpifit, and a cage of every unclean and hatcfi^l bird." Now 
fii^ll (hs be Gripped of all her glory, and riches, and ornaments, 
and (hall be caft out as an abominable branch, and Ihill be trodea 
dawn as the mire of the (Greets. All her policy and craft, in whicK 
ihc fo abounded, (hall not faveher. God (hall make his people, 
who have been (o psrfccutcd by her, to come and put their foot 
on the neck of of Anlichri(t, and he (hall be their footOooI. All 
the (^rength and wifdom of this great whore (hall fail her, and 
there (hill be none to help her. The kings of the earth, who be- 
fore gave their power and ftrength to the beaft, (hall now hale the 

, whore, and (hall make her defolatc and naked, and (hall eat hcf 
flc(h, and burn her with fire, Rsv. xvii. 16. 

(3) That other great kingdom which Sitan has fct up in oppo« 

I i fition 

iS^ A H I S T O R Y of 

fin'on to the Chfiftian church, vix. his Mahometan kingdom, A»tt 
be utterly ovcrlhrovrn. Tne locuf^» and horfcmcn in the gih of 
Xrvelalion, have iheff appointed and limited time fct them there, 
and the falfc prophet ik^W be taken and deltroycd> And then, tho' 
l^4ahoanctanifm has been fo vafiiy prop^jgated in the world, and ii 
upheld by fuch a great ctnpifc^ this fmoke, which has afccnded out 
Qf the bottomlcfs pit, (hail be utterly fcattercd before the light o( 
that glorious day, and the Mahometan empire (hall fall at ths 
found of the great trumpet which (hall then be blown. 

(4) J«wiili infidelity (hall then be overthrown. However ofa- 
fiinate they have been now for above 1700 years in their rejefti- 
on of Cbrift, afid inftancci of the converfion of any ai that nation 
have been fo vzry rare ever fince the dsftrudion of Jsrufalcm, but 
they have, againft the plain teachings of their own prophets, con- 
tinued to approve of the cruelty of iheir forefathers in ctccifying 
Chrift ; ^et when this day comes, the thick vail that blindi their 
eyes (hail be reasioved, aCor. iii* 16- ; and divine grace (hall melt 
and renew their hard hearts, " and they (hall look on him whomi 
they have pierced, and ihsy (hall mourn for him, as one mourneih 
for his only f on, and (hall be in biiiernefs as one that is in bixtevncfs 
for his (irfl born," Z-ch. xii. 10. &c. Th<:n (hall the houfe of 
Ifrael be faved ^ the Jews in all their difpenfations fhall cad away 
their old infidelity, aad (hall wonderfully have their hearts chan- 
ged, and abhor themfclvcs for their paft unbelief and obftinacy ; 
and (haU flow together to the blelfed Jcfus, penitently, humbly, and 
joyfully owning him as their glorious King and only Saviour, and 
(hall with all tbeir hearts, as with one heart and Voice, declare hit 
praife unto other nations. 

Nothing is more certainly foretold then this national converfion 
of the Jews is in the I tth chapter of Romans. And there are alfo 
many paiTages of the O-d Tefttmcnt which cannot be interpreted 
in any other fenfe, which I cannot now ftand to mention. Sefidec 
fbe prophecies of the calling of the Jews, we have a remarkable 
feal of the fulfilment of this great event in providence, by a thing 
which is akiad of continuil miracle, viz their being prefervcd a 
dfftitidt nation in fuch a difpcrfed condition for above 1600 years. 
The world affords nothing clfe like it. There is undoubtedly a 
fcmarknblc hand of providence in it; When they (hall be called, 
then (hall that ancient people, that were alone God's people for fo 
long a titfje, be Grid's people again, never to be rcjc^cd more s 
they (hall then be gathered irto one fold together with the Gen- 
tiles ; and fo alfo Ihsll the remains of the ten tribes, wherever thejr 
be, and though they have been rejected much longer than the Jews, 
be brought in with their brethren the jews. The prophecies of 
Hdf^a €ff ecially fecm to bold this fonb^ that la the future glorious 


the WoTk of R E D E M P T I O N. 297 

timci'of the church, both Jidah and Ephraixn, or Judah and the 
ten tribei, ihili be Dtought in logethcr, and (hail be united as one 
peopU, ai they iormeily vrerc unde^ D.ivid and Solomon ; a» Hof. 
i. II. ; and fo in the UH diapter of Hofea^ and other parts of 
bis prophecy. 

Though wc do not know the time in which "this 'coaverfion of 
the nation o^ Ifrael will conae to paf« ; yet thus much we may de- 
termine by fcfipiurc, that it will be before the g'ory of the GeotiJ9 
part of the church ffaall be fully accompli&ed ; becaufe it h faid« 
that their coming in ihall be life from the dead to the Gentiies, 
Rom. xi. 12. 15. 

( j) Then (hall alfo Satan's Hcathenifh kingdom be overtbrowi^, 
Grof» Heathenifm now pciTcflcs a great part of the earth, and tlsera 
are fuppofed to be more heathens now in the world, than of all 
other profeffions l^ken together, J<JW8,Mshomctans, or Chriftians. 
But then the Heathen nations (hall be ciiiighttned with the glorious 
gofpel. There will be a wonderful fpirit of pity towards them, 
and seal for their inftruftion and convcrfion put into muhitadcj,3nd 
many (ball go forth and carry the gofpel unto them ; and then £ball 
the joyful found be heard among them, and the Sun of righieoufncfs 
fhati then arife with his gloric^js light (bining 00 thoft^ many vad 
regions of theeanh that have been covered wiih Hcathcnifh dark- 
ncfs for many thoufand yesfs, many of them doublefs ever fincc 
the times of Mofes and Abraham, and have lain thus long 
in a mifcrable condition, under the cruel tyranny of the d«« 
vil, who has aU this while blinded and befookd them, and domi- 
neered over them, and made a prey of them from generation to ge* 
neration. Now the glad tiding* ol the gofpel (ball found there, 
and they (ball be brought out of darkncfi into marvellous light. 

It is promifed, that Hcatbcnilm (bsR thus be def^roycd in many 
places. God has faid. That the ^ods that have not made thefe 
heavens and tht« carsh, (hall periib from ♦He earth, and from under 
the fe heavens, Jer x. 11. and tha: he wni utterly abolifb idolj. 
If* ii. 18— Then (ball the m^ny n»tion» ot AfnC3, the nsticns cf 
uegroes, and other Heathens who chiefly fill that quarter of the 
world, who now feem to be in a ftate but lit:!e above the bcafif, 
and in many refpeds much below them, be enlightened with glo« 
rious light, and delivered from all their daikncfs, and (ball beo ^le 
a civil,Chri(iian, undcr(\anding, and holy pecple. Then flidll the 
▼aA continent of America, which now in fo great a part of it is 
covered with barbarous ignorance and cruelty, be every where 
•overed with glorious gofpel-ligbt and Chrifaan love ; and inftead 
mi worfbipping the devil,a8 now they do, they (ball fcrvcCrod, and 
praifei (ball b« fung every where to the Lord Jcfus Chrift rb« 
iblcfied Sivioitfof the world. So may ire esped a will be in tboi 

258 A H I S T O R Y of 

great and populous part of the world, the E^AIndici, which are 
now mrjJuy 'nhablrcd by the worlhippcrs of the devil; and fo 
througi.oul i^hc r vart counfy ^rcat Tartary, and .hen the kingdom 
ofChfiftwili be diabli'ilitd in thoic continents which have been 
more lately r^ifcovcred towards the north and fouth poles, where 
now msn dllfer very lat^c from the wild bcafts, cxceptinj^ ihat 
thw wcrfhip riic devil, and Dcafti do not. The JgcDC will be 
the cslc with rcfpcC^ to tbofe countries vshich hsve never yn been 
dif'ovcfcd. Thus will be gbrioufly fulfilled thrii in If. xxxv. i; 
♦' The wildcrritf* ;ind ^he ioliury place i^aW be $lad for tbem : 
and the defer-, iball rejoice, and bkiTjai as the rofe." bi.c alfo 
vcrf. 6. 7. 

2. Hav'ni^tbu? faown wherein thi«i overlhrovy of SaUn*« kingdom 
will confift, I covnQ no* to t^e thing tobci obfnrv':;;^ concerninR it, 
▼!z. ili univerf I extrnt. t^c vUhlc ktr-gdotn of Satin fiiall be 
ovcrlhrovifn, and the kingdcm cf Chrift fct up on »hc ruins of It, 
every where throng out the whole habitable globe. Now flj.-?U tbc 
promifc made to Abrah-^ai bs fulfilkd, That '• in him and in bis 
fee' (h'.U »H the families of the cdrth be bleifcd ;" and Chrift 
now fh.ili b*oom«i th'^ c'efi.e of ^W naMons^sgreeable toHaggai ii.7. 
No* the kitfgJom of Chrifl ihAi iiJ^ihe moft ftrid and littT^I fenfe 
be extended to -all nations, and the whole earth. There are many 
p aff.ges of fcripture that can be underftood in no other fcnfc. What 
c.^n be m-jre univcrfal than that in if, x\, 9. ** For the earth fhall 
be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as ibe waters cover the fca.*' 
As much as to fay, As there is no part of the channel or cavity of 
the fca any where, but what is covered with water ; fo there (hall 
be no part of the world of mankind but what fhall be covered with 
the knowledge of Gnd, So it is foretold in If.xlv. 22. that all the 
ends of the earth ffeall look to Chrift, and be favcd. To (how that 
the vTords arc to underftood in the moft univcrfal fcnfc, it is faid 
in the next vcrfe, ** I have fworn by myfelf, the word is gone 
out of my mouth in rightcoufnefs, and (hall not return, that unlO 
xne every knee (ball bow, every tongue fhall fwear.'" 

S J the moft universal expreffion is ufed, Dan. vii. 27. " And 
the kingdom and dominion, and the greatncfs of the kingdom undef 
the whole heaven, (hall be given to the people of the faints of the 
Moft High God." You fee the cxprcllioii includes a// under the 
'whole heaven. 

Waea the devil was caft out of the Rotsto empire, becaufe that 
was the highcft and principal part of the woild, and the other 
nations thac were left were low and mean in comparifon of thofe 
of that empire, it was reprcfcnted as Satan being cai! out of heavea 
to the earth. Rev. xii, 9 ; but it is rcprefented that he fhall be c^fk 
guK of the earkb tooi and (but up in bellj Kcv. xx* 1 . s* 5-— -^ 


the Work of R E DE M P T I O N. 3.5^ 

This Is the greatcft revolution by far that ever came to pafi : there- 
iots it is faid in Rev. 16 17. 18. ** That on the pouring out of the 
fevenih viat, there was a great earthquake, fuch ai wras aoi fince 
men were upon canh, fo mighty an earthquake ^nd fo great. This 
is the third great difpcnfation of providence «vhich i» in ftripiurc 
coojparcd toChrift's comi'^g to judgement So it i» i^R-v.xvi, i^. 
Tnere, after the fixth vial, and after the devil's armiei were gather- 
ed together to their great batle, and juf> before Chrifi'i g^u ioui 
vidory over them, it is faid, '* Beholn I crmc qiicklv ; bMTed is 
he that watchcih, and kcepeih hi»garmcnti." So ii i» caUcCi Ckrifi^ 
coming in 2 Thef. i^. 8. SpCakiog oi Anlichrirl, it »« laid, "And 
then (hall ihat wicked be revealed, whom the Lord (h^U con fume 
with the fpifit of his moo'h, and fb^ll deflroy with the brighioeff 
of his coming," 8ce alfo Dan. vii. 13. 14 where Chrift'* coming 
to fet up his kingdom on earth, asd to dcflroy Antichrift, is called 
toith clouds ef heav(n» And this is more like Chrift'i laft coming 
to judgement, than any of the preceding difpcnfalions which arc 
fo called, on thefe accounts. 

(i) That the difpenfation is fo much greater and more univer- 
fal, and fo more like the day of judgeocent, which refpedts the 
whole world, 

(2) On account of the great fpiritual refurrcdlioa there will be 
of the church of God accompanying it, more rcfcmbling the ge- 
neral refurredion at the end of the world ihan any other. This 
fpiritual refurrcdion, is the refurrcdlion fpokcn of as attended 
with judgement. Rev. xx, 4.' 

(3) Bccaufe of the terrible judgements and fearful deilru(^ioa 
which (hall now be executed o-.^ God's enemies. There will doubt- 
Icfs at the introducing of this difpenfation be a vifible and awfu| 
band of God againft blafphemers, Dcifti, and obftinatc heretics, 
and other enemies of Chrift, terribly dcrtroying them, with re- 
xparkablc tokens of wrath and vengeance ; and cfpecially will this 
difpenf-Uion be attended with terrible judgements on Atiiichrift ; 
and the crutl perfecutors who belong to the church of Rome, [fhail 
ia a moft awful manner be deftroycd; which is compared to a caft- 
ing of, Aniichrift into the burning flime. Din. vii. ii. and to 
Gaining him alive into the lake that burns with fire and brimllone* 
Rev. 3cix. 20. 

Then (ball this cruel perfecuting church fufler thofe judgements 
from God, which (hall be far more dreadful than her cruclefk 
perfecutions of the faints, agreeable to Rev. xviii. 6' y. ■ . 
The judgements which God (hall execute on the enemies of the 
churcb, arc fo great, that they are compared 1) God's fending 
great bail -ftones from heaven upon them, eve/y one of the weight 
of 4 tJ^CDti 48 it is faiij oa the pouriog out of the icrentb vial« 

#6<t A H I S T O R y of 

Rcr. icri. 2I» " And their fell upon men s great hail out of 
heaven, every ftonc about the weight of a talent ; aod men blapbc- 
mcd Gad, bscaufc of the plague of the hail j for the plague thereof 
WJS exceeding great." Now ftiall be that treading of ihc wiDC-prcfi 
fpckcn of, Rsv. xtv. 19 20. 

(4) This Ihall put au end to the church's fufTcriDg i^ate, and 
diaii be attended with their glorious and joyful praifcs. Ihe 
cburch'fc jffl'Cled ftatc 18 long, being continued, excepting fomg 
f\^ort inter mi ffioni, from the refurrc<flior of Chrift 10 this time 
But tsow (b/iU a fiijal end he put to her fuffering ftate. Indeed af- 
ter this near the end of the world, ibe church (hsill be greatly 
threatened ; but it ii faid, it ftiall be but for a Httic feafon, Rcv^ 
XX 3 : for as the limes ol tb« church'* rcl^ arc but ftiort, bcforg 
the long day of her af^i(f^ion« are at an end : (0 whatever afflidi- 
on fhc may fufTer after thh, it vriii be very fhort ; but otherwife the 
d^y of thcchurch'j afflidionand pcrfccution Ihallnow come to a 
final ccd. The fcripm^ei, in msny places, fpcali. of this tiqjc as 
the end of ihc fuifcring ftate of the church. So If. li. 22. God faya 
to his church with rcfpeft to this time, •* Behold, I have taken out 
of thine hand the cup of trembling, even the dregs of the cup of my 
fury,ihou fbalt no more drink it again," Then ih&\\ ehat be proclaim- 
ed to th« cbu: ch. If. xt 1 . 2. ** Comfort ye, comfort ye my people^ 
faiih your God. Speak ye comfortably to Jcrufalcm, and cry unto 
hcr,that her warfare is iccomplifhcd, that her iniquity is pardoned : 
for (be hath received of the Lord's h<itid double for all her fins." 
Alfo that in If. liv 8 9 belongs to this time. And lo that in If. 
Ix. 20. " The Lord fhall be thine everlafting light, and the dayg 
of thy mourning (I^all be ended." And lo Zcph iii. I j. " Tiic 
Lord hath taken away thy judgements, and hath caf^ out thine ene- 
my : the King of Ifrael, even the Lord, ii in the midft of .tUce t 
thou fhalt not fee evil any more." 

The time which had been before this, had been the church's fow- 
ing-timc. wherein fhc fowed in tears and in blood ; but now is her 
barvcft, wherein fhc will come again rejoicijig, bringing her (heaves 
with her. Now the time of the travtil of the woman clothed with 
the fun is at an end : now Ihe hath brought forth her fon 5 for thi, 
glorious fetting up of the kingdom of Chrift through the world, i, 
what the church had been in travail for, with fuch terrible pangf 
for fo many ages : If. xxvi. 17' ** Like as a woman with child 
drawcJh near the time of her delivery, b in pain, and crieth out ia 
ber pangs ; fo have we been in thy %ht, O Lord'' See If. Ix 20; 
and Ixi, 10. 11. —-And now the church fhail forget her 
forrow, fincc a m<inchild is born into the world ; now fuccccd her 
joyful praife and triumph. Her praifei ihall tbco go up to God 


the Work of R E D E M P T 10 N, z6i 

Irom all pi rN of the earth ; as If: xlii lo. ii. 12. And praife 
{^A\ not only fi!l the earth, but alfo heaven. The church on earth* 
and the church in heaven, (hall both glorioufly rejoice and praife 
God, ai with one heart, on that occafion. Without doubt it will 
be a time of very di/linguifhed joy and praife atnong the holy 
prophet! and apoAlcs, and the other faints in heaven : Rev. xviiit 
so. " Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and yt holy apoAles and 
prophets, for God hath avenged you on her." See howr univcrfal 
ihefe praifcs will be in If xUv. fj, " Sing, O ye heavens, for 
the Lord hath done it : fhout, ye lower parts of the earth : break 
forth Into fiDgl&g, yft mountains, O foreO:, and every tree thereini 
for the Lord hath redeemed Jacob, and glorified hioifelf in Ifracl/' 
Set what joyful praifes are fung to God on this occafion by the unl- 
verfal church in heaven and earth, in the beginning of the jgth 
chapter of Revelation. 

(0 This difpcnfation is above all preceding ones like Chrift't 
coming to judgement, in that it fo puts an end to the former Aate 
of the world, and introduces the everlafling kingdom of Chrift* 
Now Satan's vifible kiagdom fhall be overthrown, after it had ftoodl 
ever fiace the building of Babel ; and the old heavens and the old 
c&rtb (hall in a greater meafure be pafl'ed away then than before^ 
and the new heavens and the new earth fet up in a far tnore glori* 
ous manner than ever before. 

Txvs I have fbown how the fuccefs of Chrifl's purebafe hag 
been carried on through the times of the afBi^ed date of the Chrif* 
tian cbarch, from Chrifl's refurredlion, till Antichrift is fallen, aad 
Satan's vifible kingdom on earth h overthrown.*— ——Therefote I 
come now. 

Secondly, To Ikow how the fuccefs of redemption will be 
carried on through that fpaee wherein the Chriftian church (hall for 
the mo A part be in a dztc of peace and profperity. In order to 
this, ! would, 

1 . Speak of the profperous ftatc of the church through the greater 
part of this period. 

2. Of the great apoftafy there iliall be to»^ards the clofe of 
it : how greatly then the church (hall be threatened by her enenies 
for a (hort time. 

L 1 would fpeak of the profperous i^ate of the church through 
the greater part of thu period. In doing this, I would, I. Dc. 
fcribe this profperous flate of the church ; 2. Say fomething of itt 

ijf, I would defcribe the profperous ftate the churth ft>all be in* 

In the general, I would obferve two things. 

I. That this is mo() properly the time of the kingdom of hea' 
Ten upoa earth. Though the kingdom of bcayen was in a degree 


t6a A H I S T O R Y o! 

ftt up foon after Ghrift'i refurre<flion, and in a further degree fa 
the lime of Conftanlinc ; and though the ChriHian cljurch in all 
sgei of it hca\\&3itkg h'ngdom of heavtn ; yci this time that wc 
arc upon, is the principal time of the kingdom of heaven upon 
earth, the time principally intended by the piopheciei of D nicl, 
which fpeak of the kingdom of heaven, whence the Jews took ihc 
name of tks kingdom of ktaven 

z. Now is the principal fulfilmcat of all the prophecies of the 
Old Tcftament which fpcak of the glorious times of the gofpel 
which iliall be io thelarter d-*ys. Though there has been a glori- 
oua fultilmcnl of thofe prophecies alrcadv,iatheUmcB of the, 
and of Conflantine ; yet the expreflions are too high to fiit any o- 
thcr time entirely, but that which is to fuccced the fall of Anlichr ift# 
This 13 mofl properly the glorious day o( the gofpel Oihe^ llmci 
are only 'orf runners snd preparatories to this : other lime* were 
the feud- iime, but this is the haiveft ——But more particularly, 
(i) It will be a lime of great light and knowledge. The pse- 
♦fcnt dayi arc days of darkncfs; in comparifo^. cf ihofc days. The 
light of that glorious time th^U bz fo great, thn U U reprefcntcd 
as though there fV»ouM then be no night, but only day ; no evening 
aor darkncfs. *ScZ::ch» xiv. 6 7. '• And it flbaiicome to pafs 
in that day, that llit light ft\all not be cl?ar, nor dask. But si (hall 
be one day, which {hall bs known to the Lord, not dsy, nor night: 
but it (hall come to pafs, that st evening jimc it diall he light.'* 
—It is fu'ther reprefcnted, as though 6od would then give fuch 
light to his church, that it fhculd fo much exceed ibe glory of the 
light of the fun and moon,- that they (hauld be siliuacd : If. xsiv, 
23, •' Then the moon ihall be confounded, and the fua afhamed, 
when the Lord of hoils fhall reign in Mount Zion, andifn Jcrufa- 
lem, and before his ancients glo'lo'jfly." 

There is a kind of a vail now caft over the greater part of the 
wor1d» which keep*, them in darknefi ; but then this vail ihall be de- 
ftroyed : If. xxv. 7. ** And he will dcftroy in this mountain the 
face of the covering caft over all people, and the vail that 
is fpread out all nations." Then all countries and nsti* 
ens, even thofe which are now moft ignorant, fhall be full of 
light and knowledge. Great knowledge diall prevail every where. 
It may be hoped, that then many of the Negroes and Indians will 
be divines, and that excellent books will be publiihed in Africa, 
in Ethiopia, in Tartary, and other new and moA barbarous countries 
and not only learned men, but others of more ordinary education, 
fliall then be very knowing in religion : If. xxxii. 3. 4. •' The 
eyes of them that fee, fhiW not be dim ; and the ears of them that 
hear, Ihall hearken. The heart alfo of the ra(h (hall underfland 
knowledge* Knowledge shea ihall be yery unlyerfal among all 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 26^ 

forts of perfons ; agreeable to Jcr. xxxi. 34^ "And they ihull 
iesch no more every man hit neighbour, and every man hii bro- 
ther, fayiiig, Knovr the Lord : for they fhall all know me, from 
the leall 0/ Ihem ualo the grcsicfi of them," 

There (iall then be a wonderful unravelling of ifciedifiicutties In 
Hhc dcflrmcs of rcligicn,anQckAriDgup of feeoaing inconfii^encics: 
•' So crooked things lliall be made utraight, and rou^h places (iiall 
be made plain, and dar knefs (hail become light before God'« peo- 
ple." DifR-uItics in fcrrpturc'lhall then be cleared up, and won- 
derful things ftiall bedifcovered in the word of God, which were 
never difcovercd before. The great difcovery of thofe thing! in 
religion which had been before k-jpt hid, fecrnt to be coirpisrcd to 
removing the vail, and I'-fcovcriDg the art of the tcfiionony to the 
people, which before ufcd to be kept in the fecret part of the tem- 
ple, and was never feen by them. Thus, at the founding of the 
hventh angel, when it Is proclaimed, •' that the kingdoms of thi* 
world are become the kingdom? of ou? Lord snd of bis Chrift ;'* 
it is added that '* the temple of God was opened in heaven, and 
there was feen in his temple the arkofhis tcRamcnf."' Sogre?,t 
fliall be the increafc of knowledge in this time, that heaven fhall 
be as it were opened to the church of God on earth. 

fi) h iliall be a time of great holinefs. Novy vital rcIJg'oQ 
fb^il every where prevail and reign. Religion itial! not be an 
empty profeiTioil, as it now moftly is, but holincfs of heart and 
life (hall abandantly prevail. Thofe times fhnll be 2n cscepfion 
from what Chrifl fays of the ordinary fla'e of the church, viz. ih.a^ 
there (hall be but few faved ; for now hblinefs ftiall become genc- 
ya! : If. Is. 21. " Thy people alfo fnall be ail righteous." Not 
that there will be none remaining iu a Chriftlcfp condition; but 
?hst vsfihle wickcdnefs ihsll be fupprelT^d evtfy where, v^d true ho- 
5inefs ilijll becume general, though not univcrfal. It fhsU be a 
wonderful tide, not only for the multitude of godly men, but for 
cmincncy of grace : If. Ixv. 20, «' There ihall be no more thence 
an infant of day?, nor an old m.-?n that hath not filled bis dsys : for 
t're child iiiaJ! die an hundred years old, but the finrer being nn 
bun^'rcd ycarjotd, (iisll beaccurfed." And Zsch. ili. 8. " Hd 
thai is feeble ?:mong ih?m nt that csy fh?.ll be a? David ; and the 
houfe of Dwid fiiall be as God, as the pngel of the Lord before 
tham." Ko'inefs flaslltheh be ai it were infcribed on every thing, 
en all mens common bufinefs and employments, and the commod 
ulenfilf of iife : all ftaali be as it were dedicated to God, and ap- 
plied to holy purpofc* , every thing (nail then be don« to the glory 
of God : If. xxiii. 18. " And her mcrchandife and her hire fhail 

be holinefs to the Lord." And fo Zcch. xlv. 20. 21. -2^ 

God's people then (hall be eminent in holinefs of heart, fo.t!^ey 
&2li bz alfo £n holiacfs of life and'pradicr, M. k (3) 

264 A H I S T O R Y o£ 

(3) It l^^all be a time wherein religion ISiall ia every rtfpc<?5 
be uppcfmoft ia the world. It feall be had in great cftccm and 
honor. The faints have hitherto for the moft parr been kept under^ 
and wicked seen have go^crccd. But now they will be uppermoft. 
The kingdom ftiall be givaa into the hands of the faint of the Moft 
HighGod," Dan. vii. 27. ** And they 12sa!I re?gn on ihc earth/' 
Rev. V. 10. " They fhall iive and reign with Chrifta ihoufand 
years," Rev, ax. 4, In that day, fuch pejfons as are eminent for 
true piety and religion, (k^ll be chief! v promcted to places of truft 
«nd authority. Vital religion fhu) then take pofTrfSon of kingSp 
palaces and thrones ; at d thofc \rho are in highc/l advancement 
ihall be holy men : If. xllx, 23. ** And kings (hall be thy nurf- 
ing-fathers, and their queens thy nurfifjg mot. era." Kings (hdll 
cnaploy all their power, and glory, and riches, for the advancement 
of ».hc honour and glory of Chrift, and the good of his church : If. 
Is. 16, " Thou Oaak alio fuck the milk of the Gentiles, and /halt 
fuck the breaftfi of kings." The great men of the world, and lb« 
rich merchants and others who have great wealth and infliience, 
fiiall devote all to Chrift and his church: Pfal. xlv. 12. *« Tb^ 
daughter of Tyre fhall be there with a gift, even the rich among the 
people (hsU intreat thy favour. 

''■ (4) Thofc will be times of great'' peace and love. There fhalt 
then be a univcrfal peace and a good undcrftanding among the na- 
tions of the world, ia^ead of fuch confuSon, wars and blood Ihed? 
as have hitherto been from one age to another : If. ii. 4. " And 
be ih*Il judge Eaa en g the intions, and fhall rebuke many people t 
and they fhall beat shclr f words into plow fliarcs atid their fpearf 
into pruoing-hooks ; nation flball not lift up fwofd againft nation 
neither fhaD they iearp waT any jnore." So h h rcprefcnted as ij 
*II inftruratnts of war fhould be deftroycd, as bdng become ufc. 
Itfs : Pfal. xivi, 9. «» He maketh wars toccafe unto the end o{ 
the earth : and brsakcth the bow, and cuf icth the fpear in funder, 
he burncth the chiriot in the firs." Sie alfo Z=ch ix. 10. Then 
fhall all nations dwell qu'ctly aiid fafely, without fear of any enc. 
my. If. xzzii. 18. ** Aijd y:y people f^all dwellin a peacea- 
ble habitation, and in furc dwelUnga, and in qjiet refting-places.'' 
Alfo Zcch. viii. 10. 11. 

' Then ftiH malice, and envy, and wrath,and revenge, be fup- 
prcffed every where, and peace and love (hall prevail between one 
man and another ; which is mo^ elegantly fct forth in If. si. 6* 
— ^ 10* Then ftall there be peace and love between rulers and rul- 
ed. Rulers fliall love their people, and with all their might fcek 
their bc^ good; and the people ftialUove their rulers, and ftiall 
oy fully fubmit to them, and give them that bcncur which is their 
«?. A vi fo ihaU there be an happy love between ojinifters and 


kbe Work of R E D E,M P T I O N. 265 

fiieir people : Mai. iv. 6. ** And he (hall turn the heart of the 
fathers to the cbildreD,aodtbeheart of the children to their fathert.'* 
Then ifaall fiourifh in an eminent manner thofe Chriftian virtue! 
of meekncfi, forgivenefs, longfuffcring, gladnefi . goodncfi, bro- 
abcjly-kindncfs, thofe excellent fruits of the Spirit. Men, in their 
temper and difpofition, Caall then be like the Lamb of God, the 
lovely Jcfui. The body feall be conformed to the head. 

. Then Ihall all the world be united in one amiable focicty. AH 
aaiioni, in all part« of the world, on every fide of the globe, Ihall 
then be knit together ia fwcct harmony. Ml parts of God'i church 
ihali aifift and promote the fpiritaal good of one another. • A com- 
munication Ihail then bs upheld between all parts of the world to 
that end ; and the art of navigation, which i* now applied fo much 
to favour mcni covetoufncf* and pride, and ii ufed fo much by 
wicked debauched men, (hall then be confccr^tcd to God, and ap- 
plied to holy ufei, at we read in if- k. 5. — 9* It wiii then be 
a time wherein men will b^ abundant in cxprcifiog their love to 
ons another, not;only in worde, butin deedi of charily, at we Icara 
If. xxsii. ^. ** The vile perfonflbali be no more called liberal, 
nor the cbutl faid to be bountiful ;" and, verf, 8. But the liberal 
devifeth liberal things, and by liberal things ihall he flacd." 

(^) It will be a time of cxceEIeni order in the church of Chrift. 
The true government and difcipline of the church will then be fet- 
tled and put into praftice. All fihe world flball then be as one 
church, one orderly, regular, beautiful fociety. And as the body 
Shall be one, fo the mcnbera Ihall be in beautiful proportion to each 
ether. Then Oaall that be verified in Pfal. cxxii. 3. Jerufalemis 
builded as a city, that is compact together." 

(^) The chursh of God (hall then be beautiful and glorious cn 
thcfe account! ; yea, i« will appear in pcrfcftion of beauty : If. Ir. 
I. ** Arifc, fbinc, for thy light i« come, and the glory of the 
Lord ii rifca upon thee." If. Ixi. 10. ♦* He hath covered ms 
with a robe of rightcoufnefj, as a bridegroom dccketh himfelf with 
ornamenis, and aa a bride adorneth hcrlclf with her jewels," Ga 
thcfe forcmentioncd accounts, the church will then be the grcatcft 
Image of heaven itielf. 

(7) That will be a tiaae of the gre^tc/l temporal profperity. 
Such a fpiritual ftatc as we have juf\ dcfcribcd, has a natu^aJ ten- 
dency to temporal profperity : it has a tendency to health and long 
life ; and that this will adually be thecafc, iscvidcntby Zcch. viii. 
4. " Thus faith the Lord of bofts, Thcye flaall yet old mcnarici old 
women dwell in the ftrects of J^rufalem, and every man wiih bij 
Aaifin his hand for very age." It has alfo a natural tendency to 
procure eafe, qu'ctneff, plcafantncfs, and chearfulnefs of m>r-d,and 
alfo vrealsb. and great increafc bI cb«Idr:o 3 ii ii intimated in 

2f'6 A H I S T C H Y ot 

Zcch. viil, 5." And the Creels of the city fhall U fuU of beys 

andgirk playing in the flrcct» thereof." But further, the tem- 

poial profpciity of; the people of God will slfo be promoted by a 
fcciiiikable blcfling from heaven : If. Ixv. 21. " They ihsAl 
byUd boufcB, snd inhsbis th.*m ; and they ilyiU plant vine- 
yards, and cat she fruit of t^cci" And in Mic. iv. 4. '* But 
liifey ihdll i£t every man under his vine, and lender his tig- tree, and 
sionc Ifcsl! make them afrhtd." Ztch viii. 12. ** For the feed 
fliall b- profps:fC"43, the vine {hall give her fi*uit, and the ground 
Ihall ^jvc her iiicrcafe, and the bsavsns liiall give her dew^ 
and I will Ciufe she remnant' of this people to poi^efi all thefa 
jhing:;," Sse alfo Jcr. xsxi» 12, 13. and Amos ix. 13. Yea 
fihcn they fli;»'l receive &\l manner of tokens of God*s prefchce, and 
accsptaccc, and favour : Jsr. xxxiii. 9, ** And it l^jiibeto me i 
aams of joy, a praife and an honour before aiS the nations of the 
earth,vpn!ch is,,aU hear all ths good that I do unto them: and they ihM 
fear and trcjibk for all the goodncfs -^nd for a!i the profperity that 
I prociine unto it.*' Krircn tht dstjh of Solomon were but animsgeof 
thofc days,as to thi: tcEiporai prpfpcjrity which fliall obtain in thcoie 

(8) liv/ili alfp be a dmc of great rejoicing,; If. sxxv. ie>. 
"* the ranfonied oi the l^ord ilia!! return and come to Zion 
with fcnga, and everlailirg j jy upon thcii" heads : they r^ail obrai^ 
j.oy and giadnefs, and iofrovy and Hghing Ibal! flee away.*' Chap. 
^S 12' '* For 7e ^4311 go out with joy, and be led forth with 
pr:ace : the oioualains and the hiits ih-Al break fo?th before ycu." 
Chap, ixvi. II.. *'■ That ye uisy fuck, and be fatisficd with ihe 
bfeafts of her confoiations i thas ye may oillk out, aud be ddigvhi^ 
cd with the abundance of herpjory." Chap. xii. 3. " With joy 

fhaU ye draw ^ate? out of the wells of falvation."- Then will 

be a tiind of, Thst will he the church*a glorious wadding- 
day, 10 far as her wedding with Chri^^ (>iail ever be upon earth :r 
Rev. xix. 7. *' Lti ls be glad and rejoice, ind give honour to 
him ; for the marripgc of the Lamb i» come, and his wife hath 
made herfcif ready." Yed, 9. ♦* BIciicd are they which are caU- 
cd to the marriagc-fupper of the LaoTib.'' —But I ccmc novr, 

zaiy. To fay foocthing of the duration of this ftatc of the church'w 
profperity. On e: is iihail b« very brief. The fcfipture* every 
where it:p:efe.»c it to bs of long coutiauance. The former inter- 
vah of reft and profperity, as we before obfervcd, arc reprcfentcci 
to be but Oicrt ; but the rcprcfentations of this ftatc arc quiie dif- 
ferent ; Rsv. XX. 4. «' And I faw the louls of them that were be- 
headed for the witnefj of Jcfus,— and they lived and reigned with 
ChtUt a tkoufand y sari." If. Ix, 15. "Whereas thou haft bccd 
tforfaken and hated, fo that no marj went through thee, I will malisi 

ttesfcjiStcrcalcscsUeacy/ajoyof r;tfPj'£:5»fr<s^/fffv%^ , ' 

■^ — "• " • " ^ This 

kbe Work of R E D E M P T I O N, 267 

Th:« may fuffice as ?o ihc profperous ftaie of the church through 
.Joe greater part of ths jcricd from the dcftruftioa of Saaa's viJi- 
bU kirgiom in the world lo Chrift's appearing in the cloudi oi 
h?3vcn to judgement. 

il. 1 now come to fpcik of the great apoftafy there ftiall be to- 
wards the clofc'of t\\h pcriodj and hovr imminently the church 
faall be for a ihort time thrcattncd by her enemies. This 1 ihaU 
do under three particuiarSi 

1. Aliidc biforcthecvd of the world, there fhall be a yciy 
great apoftafy,vrhcrcia grcui part of the world Ihall fall away froai 
Chrift and his church. It is laid in Rev. xx. 5. that Satan ihould 
be caft icto the bottoralcfs pit, and (hut up, and have a fcal fci up- 
on hioj, chat he fhould deceive the nations no ooorc tiS! the thou- 
sand years ihculd be fulfilled ; and that after that he mull bcloofe4 
oat of his pr ifon for a liulc feafon. Accordingly wc arc told, ia 
the 7th and Sihvcifcs, that when the thoufand years are expired, 
^atan fhali be Joofcdout of his prifon, and fiiould go fonh to de- 
ceive the nstions^ which are in'thc four quarters of the earth, Gog 
and Magog, Wnich fccms lo (how as though the apoftafy would b$ 
very general The nations of the four quarters of the earth (hall be 
deceived ; and the number of thofc who fhall now turn enemies to 
Chrift fhall be vaftly great, as the army of Gog and Magog is r£« 
prefcntcd in E2:kiel, and as it is faid in Rev. xk, 8. that the num- 
ber of them is as the fasid of the fca, and that they went upon the 
breadth of the earth, as though they were aa army big enough to 
ffcrxh from on? Tide of the caith to the othc/. 

Thus after fuch an happy and glorious feafon, fuch a long day 
of ligrit and bolincfs, of love, and peace, and joy, now it fhall be- 
gin again lo be a dark time. Satan (hall begin to let up his do- 
minion again in the world. Tfci> world HiaM again become a fcene 
of darkncfs and wickedncfa. The bottomleft pit of hell ihall be 
Opened, "Sad devils foall come up again out of it, and a dreadfut 
fmokc ihall afccnd to darken the world. The church of Chrift, 
irJlead of extending to the utmoft bounds of the world, as it did 
before, fhall be reduced to narrow liraiti again. The world of 
Ksinkiad being continued fo long ia a /^atc of fuch great profpe- 
ji-y, (hall now' begin to abufc their profpcrity, to fcrve their \u{i 
aiid corruption. Tbia wc icarn from Luke xvii. 26. &c. 

2. Tnofc apof^ates fhail m^kc great oppoiiiicn to the church of 
Qod. The church (hall fecm to be ionminently threatened with a 
fddden and entire overthrow by them. It is faid, Sstaa (hail gather 
ihcm together to battle, as the fand on the fea ihorc ; and they 
lircniup on the breadth of the earth, and compafTed the camp of the 
fainis about, and the beloved city. So that this beloved city fhal* 
fecm jufl ready 10 tc fvrallowcd up by them : for her cncmicf 
^-.- ; - . - - ih-U ■ 

?69 A H I S T O K Y of 

(hal! not only ihrealcn her, bm (hall adlually have gathered rogethet 
agatnft her ; and not only fo, but (hsil have bcGcgcd bcr> (ball 
have corr>paJircd h<ei about on every fide. 

There is nothing m she pixpf.ecy which feems to hold forth ai 
though the church actually fallen into fhcir bands^ at 
ihff church had fallen into the bands of Antichrift,* to ■ 
whom it was given to m Jc? war with tl;ic faiaU, and to over- 
come them. God will v.tvtT LiiiTri- ihia to be again after the iall 
of Antichriil ; for ihco the cfay of her njourria^g fhaij. be todedc 
But she chuich f>isi! ktm moft emincntiy threat«iacd with utter and 
fiiddcn deftru^ioa» 

|. Now the ftate of things will feem mofl* remarkably to call 
for Cbnh'i immediate appearance to judgeaacnt. For then the 
vrorld {Lalibc filled with the moll aggravated wickeo'ncfs that ever 
it was. Foi- much the grsarcr part of the ^Torld fhall have bccoms 
vifiblv wicked and open enemies to Chrin, aad their wickednefs 
th&\i be dreadfully aggravated by iheir apoftafy. Before the fall 
of Antichrift, moh of the world was full of vifibly wicked men.' 
But the greater part of thcfe are poor Heathens, who never enjoy- 
ed the lighs of the gofpel ; and oihers are thofc that have been bred 
up in the Mahometan or Popifls darknefs. But sbefc arcthofe that 
bavc apoftatifed from the Chriiliaa church, and the vifiblc Jting- 
dom ofChri^pin which they enjoyed the great light and privileges of 
tbe glorious timcs^of the chus'ch, which fliall be incomparably grca'«cr 
than the light and privileges which the church of God enjoys now, 
^hls apoftafy will be n^.jl^ like the apoftafy of the devils of any 
chat ever had bi^fore been : for the devils apoAatifed, and turned 
e?»». mieg to Cbrift, tho' they enjoyed the light of heaven ; and thefc 
wiOapoiiitdfe, and turn enemies to him, though they have «njayed 
the light and privileges of the glorious times of the church. That 
fuch (houM turn open and avowed enemies to Chri«V, and fhould 
fsek the ruin of his church, will cry aloud for fuch immediate ven- 
geance as was executed on the devils when they fell. 

The wickednefs of the world will remarkably call for ChriA's 
immediate appearing in Homing fire to take vengeance on them, 

ecaufe of the way in which they (hall manifcil their wickednefs, 
v.'hich will be by fco^ng and blafphemirg ChriA and his holy rc- 
ji^'gion ; and particularly, they will fcoft at the notion of Chriil's 

:«jmiag to judgement, of which the church fh^ll be in expeftation, 
'iid of which they will warn them. For now doubtlcfs will be 
another fulfilment, and the grcateA fulfilment, of 2 Pel. iii 3. 4. 
•* Knowing this f^rft, that there (hall come in the laft day fcoffers, 
walking after their own lufts, and faying, Where is the promifc 
of his coming ? For fmce the fathers fell a flccp, all things con- 
tinue as they were from the bsginning of the creation." They fhal5 

te in no cspe^iUtion ui tiic coming of Chiift to judgement, and 

he Work of REDEMPTION. 169 

ftull laugh at ihe notion. They ft\3ll trample all fucb thingi undcf 
foot, and ihall give up thcmfclves to their luftf, or to cat and drink, 
and walloMT in ftnfual dciighif, ai though they were to be here for 
ever. They (hall defpifc the warnings the church fhall give them 
•of the comirrg of Chrift to judgcmcKjt, ai the people of the old 
world dcfpifcd whi»t Nosh told ibcm of the approaching flood, and 
as the people of Sodom did whenLot faid to them, "The Lord will 
dcAroy this city." Their wickcdncfs on thi» account wrill cry aloud 
to heaven forChrift's appearing in flaming fire to take vengeance of 
bii enemies ; and alfo becaufe another vray that they {hall exercife 
their wickcdnefs will be in the wicked dcfign and violent attempt 
thev (hall he engaged in againi! the holy city of God, »gain(t that 
holy city, wherein lately, and for fo long a time, fo much of the 
religion of Chrift had been feen. They (hall then be about to per- 
petrate the moft horrid defign againi^ this church. 

The n«meroufncfs of the wicked that (hall then be, if another 
thing which (hall efpccially call for Chrifl's coming : for tbc world 
will doubtlefs then be exceeding full of people, havicp: continued 
fo long in fo great a ftatc of profpcrity, without fuch terrible de-« 
folating extrcmi?ie8* as wars, peftllences, and the likc^ to dimi- 
ni(h them. The mofl of this world, which ftiall be fo populous, 
will be fuch wicked contemptaoui apofi:ates fromGod. Undoubtedly 
that will be a day wherein the wot Id will be by far fuller of wick- 
edncfs than ever bef'orc it was from the foundation of it. And if 
the wickedacfs of the old world, when men began to multiply on 
the earth, . called for the deftruftion oi the world by a deluge of 
waters, this wickednefs will ai much call for its deftrudioo by a 
deluge of fire. 

Again, the circumftanccs of the church at that day will alfo em- 
inently call for she immediate appearing of Chrif>, as they will be 
compaffed about by their blafphcmous murdcroOs enemies, jufl 
ready to be fwallowed up by them. And it will be a moft dil>re(iing 
time with the church, excepting the comfort they will have in the 
hope of deliverance fromGod : for all other help will fecm to fail. 
The cafe will be come to the hft extremity, and there will be an 
immediate need that Chrift fhould come to their deliverance. Tho' 
the church (hal! be fo eminently threatened, yet fo will Providence 
order it, that it (hall be pircfcrvcd till Chrift fhall appear in hij 
immediate prefence, coming in the glory of his Father with all hii 
holy angels. Then will come the time when all the elc£l (hall be 
gathered in. That work of cor vcrfation which has been carried 
on from the beginning of the church after the fall through all tbofc 
ages, (liall be carried on no more. There never (hall another foul 
fee converted. Every one of thofc many millioos, whofe name, 
were writtca in the book of life before thefoisndatico of the vrorld* 


£7-» ' A H I S T O R Y of 

ifcill be br5'!ght ia ; not one foul fhall be loft. The myArcsI body 
of Chrtft, which has be^r grc-tvin^i: fmce it firft began in th« 
days c.r Adam, will be camplcJc as to number of parti, having 
evejy one oi h& tncoibefi. . Id thh refpc£^jihc work of redempiioa 
vjfiil now hz fii.iihcd. Aivi now the end for wbid; the nicans cl 
grace have been tTnlitutsa (bait be obtained. All thai Ci'[^c\ which 
was intended to ba accompiiGied by tbem (hall now be accomplilhcd. 

Sect. II. 

TFt U S i have (bovvn how the fucce/s of Chfl'r.'6 rederaption 
basbcea accompl-.ibed during the continuance of thcChrifiian 
church under the means of grace. We have fecn what great rcvc» 
lutioni there have b^en and arc' to be, daring this fp?.r>e cf fimc i 
[low the greal wheels of providence hat/e gone round for the accom- 
prsdjmeat of th^t ijind of fucccfs of Ghrifi's purchafe, which confifti 
5n tbt beilcwaccnt of grace on the cUSl : and we are, in the pro- 
fecution of the fubjad, corae to iht time when all the whcclj have 
gone round ; the courfe of things in this ftate of it is finillied, and 
ali thing! are ripa for Chrift's coming to judgement. 

You may rcj^embeV, that when i began to difcourfcj of this third 
propoiition, viz. That from the refurrs<!ilion of Chrift to ibc end 
of the world, liie whole time h taken up ir* procuring the fuccefj 
and effcft of Chrift's purchafc cf r<rdemptio-; 1 cbfcrvcd, 
sbat the fucccfs of^Chtifi's purchafe is of two kindi, nonfift- 
either in grijce or g'ory ; and that the fuccefs cocfifting in the for- 
mer of thefo, is to be fe»!n in thofe works ^f Gq<\ which are 
wrought during thofe agfrs that the church 19 ccntinred under the 
we^n* of grace ; and thst th^fuccefs, confiiltng in the liUcr, will 
chiefly be accompliChed at the dsy of judgrmcpt. 

Having already ftwwa ho-v the former kla5 of fuccefs hp^bei 
sccoraplin-ysd, I cease row, in the fero^d pisre, .to the Istter, 
viz, that kind of fuccefi which h sccompHSiei in the bv>©\'. msnt 
of gbry on the churcb, which fliall chiefly be btftrwd on the 

©hurch St the day of ju:'gcmeot, -Here 1 would mention tvro oi 

Jhree things in ?he g!:neral coucerning this kind of fucctfa of 
Chrill's purchafe. ' 

I. How great the fucccfi of ChriA'i purchafe is, chiefly ?jpp:s?3 
m this. The fuccefs of Chrift'* purchafe doe? fumma?ily conHi^ 
an the falvation of the cka. But this bsflowmsnt of glory is c- 
TnlnentJy called their falvoiion: Hcb. ix. 2^8. "To them that 
look fp? hi.T!, fbali be appear tbc fecood time, witbcjs fin unto UU 
vation.'.— So it is called redemption, being cm'nenliy thai 
wherein the redemption of tbc church confifts. So in 'f^-j^h, iv. 30, 
•' Sealed unto the day of redemption ;" and Luk^xxi. 28. andl 
Epfe. I 14. " l&gdsaaption of the putcbafcd poiTciTion." 

ihc Work o! R E D E M P T I O N. t7« 

ft. All that is before th?i, virhilc the church is urdcr the meant 
of grace, U only to m.-ikc way for ihc fucccfi which is to be ac- 
complilhcd in the bcftowmcnt of glory. The means of grace are 
to fii for glory ; and Qod's grac« itfclf it bci^owcd on the ckd to 
make ihem meet for glory. 

3. All ihofc glorious things which were brought to pafs for the 
church while under the mcaris of grace, are but images and (hadows 
of this. S J were thofe glorious things which were accompUIhcd 
for the church in the days of Conftantine the Great 5 and fo ii all 
that glory which is to be accomplifhcd in the glorious times of the 
church which arc to fucceed tlie fall of Anticbrift. As great as ii 
U, it is all but a (hadow of what will be bcftoi^ed at the day of 
judgement : and eherefore, as I have already often obfervcd, alt 
thofe preceding events, by which God wrought glorious thingi 
for his church, are fpotca of in fcripturc as images of Chrift's laft 
coming to judgement. 

But I hailen more particularly to fiaow how this kind of fuccefii 
of Chriil's parchafe is accomplilhcd. 

i . Ghrift will appear in the glory of his Father, with al! his ho^ 
ly angels, coming in the clouds of heaven. When tbc world h 
thus revelling in their vyickednefs, and comparting the holy city 
shout, juft ready to dcftroy it, and when the church is reduced to 
fuch a great flraitj then (hall the glorious Redeemer appear. He 
through whom this redemption has all along been carried on, he 
/hall appear in the fight of the world ; the light of his glory (hall 
break forth ; the whole world fhall immediately have notice of itp 
and they fhall lift up their eyes and behold this wonderful fight. 

It is faid, " Every eye (hall fee him," Rev. i. 7 Chrift (ball 

appear coming in his human nature, in that fame body which wai 
brought forth in a (iable, and laid in a manger, and which after- 
wards was fo cruelly ufed, and nailed to the crofs. 

Men fhall now lift up their eyes, and fee him coming in fucb 
majcfty and glory as now is to us utterly inconceivable. The glo' 
ry of ihc fun in a clear firmament, will be but darkncf* in compa- 
rifon of it ; and all the glorioui angels and archangels (hall attend 
upon him, thoufand thoufauds miniftering to him, and ten ihou- 
fand times ten thoufand round about him. How different a per- 
fon will he then appear from what he did at his firft coming, whci 
he was a root out of a dry ground, a poor, defpifid, affli«ftecl 
man I How diflferent now is his appearance, in the midft of ihofe 
glorious angels, principalities, and powers, in heavenly pJa^ei, 
attending him aj his ordinary fervants, from what it was when in 
•the mid(\ of a ring of foldiers, with his mock robe and his crown 
of thorns, to be buffeted and fpit upon, or hanging on the croft 
between tvj^o thieves, with a multitude of his enemies about hira 
triumphing over him 1 

LI Thif 

272 A H I S T O R T ol 

Thif fight will be a moft uncxpcacd fight to the wiekci vi'orJd : 
it win come as a cry at mldcight : they ihill be »akoa in the tnidft 
of their wickcdncfs, and it m\\ give thcoi a dreadful alarm h 
will at once break up their rcvcU, their baling, and drinking, and 
caroufing. It will put a quick end to the dcSgn of the great army 
that irill then be compi/Hng the cacnp of the faints : it irill make 
them let drop their weapons out of their hands. The world, which 
»yiU then be very fuil of people, cioft of whoa will be wicked 
men, will then be filled with dolorous fh.iekJng and crying ; {qh 
all the kindreds of the earth Jhall wdl becaufc of him. Rev. i. 7. 
WaerclhJlihcyhidctheiiilelvcs ? Hjw will the frght of that 
awful majefty terrify them w'^cn taken in the midft of tV.Cir wick- 
Cviaefs ? Then they ihiil fee who he is. what kind of pcrfon he 
i*, whom they have aiockt^i and fcc^fd at, and whofe chu:ct^ 
thty hive been endeavouring to overthrow. This fight will change 
their voice. The vx-ice of ^hcir baghtcr and finging. while they 
arc marrying and giving in marriage, and the voice of their fcof- 
fing, ihzll be ehingcd inio hideous, yea hcM^fh yelling. Thei^ 
Co^mtenances IhsU bs chmged from .1 fhow of carnal mirth, haugh- 
ty pride, and conterapt of G^d'i peopk ; it (hall put on a fticvv 
of ghaftly terror aud ama^tfa.Gnt ; and irembling and chattering 
6f teeth (h^ll feizc upon thca> 

But wi:h r^fp^a to the faints, llie church of Chriil, it (bail bs 
a joyful and a moft gforious fight to them : for this fight will at 
dace (ielivsf ihcn:* f.-om ?!i isar of their enemici. Who were before 
comp-ifing them about, y^^Y ready to f rsUow them up. D::{iYef- 
anc2 QarA come in their ea^remliy : th^glofioui Captain of ihei'r 
fa'vaiio:i fljall appear iot thsm, at a time when no other help ap- 
peared. Then Qk^l they Viit up their bcais, and thc«r redcmp;io« 
J'iil? be drawing a igh. Like xjc? 28 — — Thu* Chri?^will appear 
tvith infii'tc nanjci^y, an-* yei at the fame timfc they fhill fee infi- 
nite love in hi3 couatenancc to them. Tnui to fee their Redeemer 
coming in the cbud^ of heaven, wili fiil their hearts full of glad- 
nefs. Their countenances alfo (hall be changed, but not as the 
coviitcnanccs o* the wick ;'1 but Ihill be changed from being icr- 
rowftil to be tsc-^cding j.^yful and triimphsnt. Now the work 
of redemption will bt finiftied in another fesifc,viz. that thcwhciC 
churc'^ ih.W bs cc>mpJc*e!y ^nd eternally freed ftom all pcifecuuv^a 
and m^lcftaucn from wicked men and devils, 

2 the^ trumpet (hill found, and the dead (hall be raifcJ* 
and the living changed, Ood fcnt forth his angels with a great 
found of s trump'^t, to gather together bis eledt from the four 
corners cf the earth in a myAical fenfe, before the de(^ru<^ion of 
Jcruf'1-an ; i. e, he feat forth the apofllei, and others, to preach 
the Kofpel all over the world. And fo in a myitical fenfe the great 


the Work cl 5 E D E M P T I O M. 275 

UUTcpct wai blovrn at the bcginn'ig of the glarioui time* of the 
ChufCQ. Bui now iht great irutnpet it blown in a taotc literal fcnfe, 
^ith mighty found, which (bake* ihc earth. Frxrc will be a 
great fignal given by a mighty found made, which ii, cslled ths 
voict of the archangtlf aibcinp, the angel of gr^aicA (^rerg h, 1 
Thcf iv 16, " For the Lofd himfeH ihall "ficfcend fi-cui hc«vcn 
^ith a (hout, with the voice o\ the aschangel, ard wiihti^c trump 
pf God." On the found of the grca^ trumpet, the 6ckd ftiall be 
raifed every where f^ovv the number o\ the dead ii very great. 
How many has death cut down for io long a licie aa fince the worSd 
has ftood. Bm then the number wiil be much greater after the 
world thall have (iood fo much longer, and through mo(i of the 
remaining time will doub':lcf!i be much fuller of inhabitatite thaa 
ever it has been. All ihefe flja!! now rife frcra the dead. The 
graves Ih^'l be opened every where in all parts of the world, and 
ihe fea fhall give up che innumerable d^ad th^t are in it, Rev. zs* 

Now all the mhabitanti that ever fball have been upon the face 
of the earth, from the beginning of the world to that t?mc, (liaU all, 
appear upon earth at once ; all that ever have been of the church o£ 
God in all ;^ge«, Ad?m anriEvc, the firft pare»^ts of minkind, and 
Abel, and Scth, and Mcthufelab, and all liie fronts who we.'^e their 
contemporaries, and Noah, and Ab:*hara, Ifazc, and ji^rcb, JirA 
the prophe:t of Ifracl, and the faints in the limt: of Antiochus 
Epiphancj, snd ail that were of tnc church in their times ; and ill 
ibc holy apo^tics of Jefus Chrift, and sil the faints of their timet • 
ard all the holy martyr? under the tec Hc?..then p<;rfccutfon«. And 
?!l eho belonged to the church in iti wiidcrnefs fiate, during »he 
dark times pf Ar ticbriil, and all the hcly mart' rs who have iui' 
fertA under the cruelty of ihtPopifo perfccutlcnsj and all the faints 
of the prcfcnt time, snd ^ill the faints who arc here in this afTcm- 
i)!y airotvg the reft 5 and all that (hAl be frcm hcLCC lo tSe end of 

the world. Now alfoall the cntmirs of the chtirch thsi h?>ve 

or {ball be in all the sges of the woild, (h 11 rpp-^ar upon ihe face 
of the earth again ; all the wicked tilled in the flood, snd trie 
muUitudcf that died all over the world amorg Gad'v 
people. Of otheci } all that died in all the Heathen nations before 
Chrift, and all the wicked Heathers, an<^ Jewi «nd MahoKttsrs, 
and papifls, that have died fincc ; sU thnll come together. Sin- 
ners of all forts ; dcmute hypocrite* ; thofe who have the f •'irrf^ 
andbcft ootfidc, and open profane drui kardt, whorcmafrerf. here- 
tics, Deifls, and all cruel perfecutors, and all chat have died or fhajl 
4ic in (in anongft us. 

At the fame time that the dead arc raifrd, the living flisll fc» 
cliaaccd. The bcdiet of the wicked who ftall ibcn be living^ 

«7+ A H I S T p R Y of 

fli^ll bi fo cbanged as to fit ihem for eternal torment without cof- 
rupiiop ; ^nd 'he bodiet oFall the liviBg faints fhall be changed 
to b' hkt Chrift's glorious body, i Cor. xv.^i 52. 53— — > 
The bodies of the fainrs Ihall be fo changed at to render them 
for ever ftjcapable ofpsinj or ^ffiitiion, or uncarincfi ; and all 
that duilri^is and hc3vincfsj and all that deform iry, which their 
bodies bsd U^foVir/fljall be put ofF j and »hey'fhali put onftrength, 
and bc;»u'y, .^nd sftivity, and incorruptible unfading glory. In 
lurh glj'-y'ihsfl the bodies of all the rifen faints appear. 

N nv the WO!' k o* redemption I'hali be tinifhed ih another rc- 
fped, v?2. that iiU the t\e£t JhaU now be sftuaHy redeemed ia 
boih'foul and bociy Before thi«, the work of redemption, ai to 
it- adYual fuccsfs, "was but incomplete and impcrfeft ; for only 
the fouls cf the redeemed wercaeViialiy favcd and glorified, except- 
ing in fome f^w inftanccc: but nb^r all the bodies of the fainti 
fcill be favcd and gVoriHed together; allthe c!e<!^ ftjalU be glo- 
irified in the v>holc man, and the foul and body in union one 
ivith the other. 

5. Now ih all the whole church of faints be eaught up in 
tbcclouds to ^:^ecft the Lord in rhc air, and all wicke-d men and 
devils Ikail be arrainged before the jucJgecnent feat. When the' 
dead faints are railed, then the vyhole cbyrch, confifting of all the 
cleft through all age?, will be (landing together on the face of th€ 
Caitb, at Icafl: all excepting thofe hw whoic bodies were glorified 
before ; and then they (hyll all mount up ?s with wings in the air to 
fccctChrift : for it fecmsthatChriO, when he comei to judgement, 
^il\ not come quite down to the ground, but his throne will be Hx* 
ed in the air, in the region of the cloud*, wh«:nce he may be fcen 
by ui! tliat vaft multitude that ISial! be gatbcied before him. Th« 
church of faints therefojs ibal! be taken up from the earth to af- 
cend up to their Siyiour. Thus the apci^le tells us, that when the 
dead in Chrlft are raited, and the living changed, then thofc who 
are alive and remaiti, ftall be caught up togeihcr with them to 
meet the Loid in the air, and fo flhall we be ever with the 
Lord, I Thef. iv. 16 17. What a wonderful fight will that be, 
«vhen all the many millions of faints are feen thus mounting up 
from all parts of the world I ' 

Then il»al! the work of rcdcmpiioa be finifhed in another re- 
fpd£i: then fhall the whole church be perfe£lly and for ever deliver- 
ed from this prefent evil world,forevcr forfake this curfed grounds 
they fhall take their cvcrlafiing leave of this earth, where they have 
been Grangers, and which has been for the moft part fuch a fcene 
of their troubles and forrcw ; where the devil for the moff part ba4 
reigned as god, and has greatly moleRed them, and which hat been 
^cb a fceae cf f iciiedDefs god aboejiaatioQ h wbcu Ctifii^ tbeL^ 

the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. S7| 

Jjord has been cruelly ufcd ; and where they have been fo hated» 
and reproached, and ^crfecutcd, from age to age, through moft of 
the ages of the world. They iball leave it under foot to go to 
Chrift, and never (hsll (cz foot on it again. And there fkall be 
an everlasting feparaiion made bst\yceo theoa and wicked men* 
Before ihcy were mixed together, and it was impofT.ble in many 
inftanccs to determine which were which ; but now all (ball become 
vi.lble ; both faints and Tinners (hall appear in their true chsra(^ers. 

Then fhall all the church be fecn flowing together in the air to 
the place where Chrif^ (hall have iizcd hli throne, coming from 
the eafl and weil, and north and fouth, to the right hand of Chrl/V. 
What a mighty cloud of them then will there be, when all that ever 
have been of the church of Qod, all that were before Chrif^, all that 
multitude of faints that were in the apoftles time, and all thai were 
in the days of Conftantine the Qreatj and all that were befofc 
and fince the Reformation, and alfo all that great multitude of 
faints that fhall be in all the giorioui timet of the church, when the 
whole earth Ihall for fo many generations be full of faintt, and al- 
fo all that ^ball be then living when Chrift iQiall come ; I fay, what 
a cloud of them will there be, when all thefc arc fcen flocking to- 
gether in the region of the clouds at the right hand of Chrift ! 

Then alfo (he work of redemption Vili be finifbed in anothcK 
refped, viz. that then rhe churiph (hall all be gathered together » 
They all belonged to one fociety before, but yet were greatly fe- 
paratcd with rcfpcft to the place of their habitaticn ; fomc being in 
fceaven, and ferae on earih ^ and tbofc who were on earth togetbef 
were fcparalcd one from another, csiany of them by wide oceanf, 
and vaA coclinents- But now they lliall all be gathered together, 
never to be feparalcd any more. Not only ihal! all the members of 
the church now be gathered together, but all ihall be gathered unto 
their Head, into his immediate ^Jorious prcfence, never to be fe- 
parated from him any more. T^ii never came to pafs till noT.^ 

At the fame time, all nicked men and devils (^^11 be brought 
before the judgement feat of Chri/^. Thefc (ball be gathered to the 
left hand of Chrift, and^ as it fcem«, will ftill remain upon the 
earth, and (hall not be caught up into the air, as the fain?5 lliall be. 
The devil, that, old ferpcnr, ikall now be dragged up cut of hell, 
liff, that firft procured the fall and mifery of mankind, and has (o 
fet himfclf agairf^ their redemption, and has ali along Ihownhim- 
fclf fucb an inveterate enemy to the Redeemer ; roxr he Ikall ne- 
ver more have any thing to do with the church of God, or be fuf- 
fered in the lcaf> to affli^ or molcft any member of it any mof*; 
fpr ever. Inllead of that, now he muft be judged, and receive the 
due reward of his dcedr. Now is come the time which he has al- 
ways drcadcdj aad trcfflblcd ^t ibe sj^ought of ; the lime wherein l^ii 

^7^ A>H I S T O R Y of 

shufl be judged, and recti'/e his full puiihmeni. He who byb|| 
Iwoptation tnslia^^y o:ocurf:d Chrift*> crurTiCtlon, and triumph* 
«d upon i», a» wcu^a he had obtain^:! the vi(^tory, even kt (hill 
fct the conff:qucac5« oi' th/: dcitb of Chrift which he procured : lor 
Gbrift'a coining to judge him in hi» hum ?rj nature ji the confe* 
<juence of it ; tor Chrifi obtained and puTch ifcd ibit gJp^y to him- 
felf by thst dcstb. Now he muft fund ba^orcthas faaac Jefu« 
wbofe death he procured, to be judged, condemned, ar.deicrnaily 
de^roycd b^ hiijj. If Satan, the prince of hell, trembles at the 
ihcughf of it tbocfands of yean beforehand, hojfr much more trill 
he srem>Je, a« proud and ai .-lubbers as hi h, vrhcn he comci tQ 
A*nd a« Cfarift's bar ! 

Then ftiall he a!fo fland at the bsr of the Winii, whoc) he hai ib 
hated, and siiiicled, and raolciled : for the faints fhall judge him 
with Chrift : i Cor. vi. 3 " K aov? ye no5 that we flaal! judge 
fingcls V* Now fnzW he be asii were fubducd under the church'c 
feet, agreeable to Rom. rvi, 20 — Satan, when he firft tempt- 
ed our fiift parcnt8 to fall, deceitfuUy and lyingly told thsna, that 
they fhodd be gcd5 : but liitlt did he think that the confcqucncc 
fncuid be, that they i'hould indeed be fo inuch as godj, as to be af- 
fefibrs ^J^hGod tojijdge him» Much left did he thin Jj, that that 
coftfcqueace wouSdfoilovr, that one of that nature which he then 
fctnptsd, cKt of the poAcrity of thofe pe«^fcns whom he Icinpted, 
fijould s6^ually b^ united to God, and ihsi -^j* Gcdhe (hoatd judgii 
the worjd, and t\nt h^ himfelf cauft ftand trernbHog and aftonifhed 
before bis judgecnent- feat. But thus all ihc devils in hell, who 
have fo qppofed Chrii^ and bis kingdom, ffcall now at laft Oand 
in utmc/^ amazement and horror before Cbrifi and his church, who 
(hall appj-ir to condcE?in them. 

Now alfo fiaall ail Chrifk's oiher enemies be brought to appear 
before him. Noi^ (bsU wicked proud fcribes and Fharifces, w^ho 
bad fuCh a malignant hatred of dtirift while in this ftate of humi- 
liation, and, who p^fccuted Cbrifi to d^ath, thofe before whofc 
Judgement- feat Chrift was ODCC called and flood, as a malafador 
at their bar, and thofe who mcckcd him, and buffeted him, and 
/pit in his face ; now fbal? they fee Chrift in his g'o'y, as Chrift 
forewarned them in tli« t'me of it, Mjtth. sxvi. 64- 65: Then 
Chrift W.-3 before their jur^gemenlfeat ; but now it is their turn, 
Thej £baU ftand before his judgement-feat with inconceivable hor- 
ror and amszcment, with ghaftly countenances, and quiking 
Eimbs, and chattering teeth, and knees fmiting one againf) ano- 

Now alfo all the cruel eremles and p<'rfecutors of the churclvthal 
have been in all ages, fhs'l come in light together Pharaoh and 

the EgyptuQ?^ .^ntiochus ^p<pbsnei| sad the petfecuting fcriM 


the Work of R E D E MP T I or?, «77 

an<i Pharifccs, the pet fccuting Heathen cmperorf, Julian the 8*^ 
pofiatc, the cruel pcrfccuiing Popes and P;ipif\s, Gog and M4g:og, 
ftiall all Kppeir at once bcfoic the jidgcment feat of CKrift. They 
and the faint» who have in every age been perrecuted by thein^ 
0>aH come snfig'il oneof anochcr, and sauflconfroiit one another 
now before iric great Judge, Now fhull the fainu on their glori- 
oui throDCS be made the judges of tbole unjuft king« and rulers vrh© 
have beiore judged and condemned them, and cruelly put them to 
death. Now (ball chofe pcrfccuior* behold the glory to woich they 
arc arrive 1 whom ibcy before fo cruelly defpifed, and fo cruelly 
(jfed ; and Chriil: wil^ make thofe holy thartyrt ai it were to ccme 
and fet their feet on the necks of their perfecutors ; they (hall be 
inadc their foot<>ool. 

Thus wonderfully will the face of things be altered from what 
ufed to be in the former times of the world ; now will all things be 
coming to tights 

4. The rightcoufnefi of the chu^'ch ikall be nanifefted, and all 
the wickcJncfs of iheii enemie« (hall be brought to light. Thofe 
faints who had been the cbjcdts ot hatred, reproach, and contempt 
in the world, and were reviled and Condemned by their perfccu- 
tori without caufc, (hall now be (uUy vindicated. They ihall new 
appear clothed wiih the glorious robe of ChriA'i rigbteouf- 
oefs. It (hall be mo(^ m^r ifeii before the world, that Cbrift't 
righteoufnefs is theirs and they ttxAl as it were glorioufly fliiae 
forth ia it. Then alfo fhil' their inherent holincf* be made mani- 
feit, and all their good w j ks (hall be brought to light. The good 
things which they did in fecret (hall row be manifci^ed openly, 
Thofe holy ones of Ood who had been treatcf^ as though they 
were the filth and offscouring of the earth, as thougr ihey were not 
fit to live upon earth, as worfe than beafts or deviN, ihA\ nowj 
when things (h?li apoear at they src, appear to h^vc beer, the excel- 
lent of the earth. N iw G )^ tvill bring fo=th their righteoufnefs ai 
the light, and theii jui^emcnt a^ the noon day. Now i« ihall ap- 
pear who were thofe wicked perfon» that were not tiv to live, when 
all the wickedncfs of the encmfes of Chrift and his church, their 
pride, their malice, their cucltv, their hatred of true religion^ 
(hall bfi fet forth in all the hurrid aOs of it, and with all its aggra- 
vations in iti proper colours. 

Now the rsghieout caiy be hrard before this great Judge, who 
could not be hc^rd before thofe nrjuft judges. Now they (hall de- 
clare their caufe, and QiAl rife up in judgement againft their per- 
fecutors. and (h?ll f*ccl re ho'v ihcv have been • rested by them. 
Now all the wickednef- o' the w'cked of the whole world (hall 
be brought to light. All their fecret wickcdncfi, and their very 
beartSi (hall be opened to the view^ and at it were turned inf:de 


t7t A H I S T O R Y of 

out before the bright light of thai great day : and things that ba^ 
been fpokcn in the ear, in the clofct, and done in the dark, (hsU 
be manifeftcd in the light, and proclaimed before all angelt and 
men that arc, ever were, or (ball be, 

5. The fcntencc fliall be pronounced on the rightcoui and thfe 
wicked. Chrift,tbc glorious judge, Ihall pafs that bleffcd fenicncc 
pn the church at hii right hand, ** Come, ye blclTed of my Fathcrj 
inherit the kingdom prepared fcr you from the foundation of tbi 
world." This fcnteticc ffcall be pronounced vtiih infiaire love, 
md the voice will be moft fweclj caufing every heart to flow with 
joy. Thui Chriil /hall pronounce a fcnieace of juftification oni 
ihoufasds and millions, who have before had a fcntcnce of con- 
demnation pafTcd upon them by their pcffccuiing rulers. He wiM 
thus put hbnor upon thofe who have been before defpifcd ; he will 
own them for his, and will u it 'ffcrc put a crown of glory upoti 
their heads before the world ; and then (hall they fliine forth as th6 
fun with Jefus Chrift in glory and joy, in the f^ght of all iheir cne- 

Then (hall thd fentepceof cohdcafnatjon be paffed on the wick- 
ed, " Depart, ye curfed, info cverlafting fire, prepared for the 
devil and his angels." Thus Ih all the church's enemies be con- 
demned ; in which fcntcnce of condemnation, the holy martyrs, 
who have fufFcred from tbem, fhall concar.^ When she Words of 
this fentencc arc pronounced, they will ftrik* every heart of thofe 
at the left hand with inconceivable horror and amazement Eve- 
ry fyllable of it will be more terrible than a flream of lightning 
through Rheir hearts. We can conceive but very little of thofe 
figns and exprefTions of horror which there will be upon it, of 
(bricking, quaking, gnafhing of teeth, diftortions of countenance, 
hideous looks, hideous actions, and hideous voices, through alS 
that vaA throng. 

6. Upon this Chrift and all his church of faints, and all the ho- 
ly angles miniileriog to them, (hall leave this lower world, and 
. aftend up towards the highefl bcaVcns. Chrift ihsW afcend in as 
great glory as he defcended, and in forae refpcdls greater : fcr 
now he ihall afcend with his cleft church with him, glorifj^ed in 
both body and foul. Chrift's firft afcenfion to heaven foon after 
his own refurrcAion was very glorious. But this his fccond af- 
cenfion, the afcenfion of his myftical body, bis whole cbiTcb, Ihall 
be far more glorious. The redeemed church (hall all afcend with 
him in a moft joyful and triumphant manner ; and all their cnemici 
and perfecutori, who (hall be left behind on the accurfcd ground 
to be confumed, (ball fee the ^ghl, and hear their fongt. 

Thus Chrift's church (ball for ever leave this accurfcd world, to 
to go into that more gloriout worlds the bighcfi hcaveni, into 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 279 

the paradifc of God, ihc kiingdoai that was prepared for them from 
the louiidrfiion of ihc wo* Id. 

7. When they arc gone, :hi£ ^orld (hall be fct on fire, and bs 
tUHicd into a gre^t furnace, wherein aUthc Ciicmic* oi ChJrt and 
his church (ball be tormented tor ever and ever. This is manifcfk 
by 2 Pel. ii!. 7. '• But jhc heavens and the earth whict) Are no^, 
by thi fatpc v^ord arc kept in <ioiC; refcivcl unto flic agiijift ihc 
day of'ju'J^ethenr, and pcfdision of ungodly rr:cn." ^VrcB Chtift 
and hu church ire afcondeci to 2 diftancefrooi this WLik>, thatmi* 
Icr^ble comp<*ny of wicked bciii^. Icit bchir.d,tohavc their fcnt<.ne« 
executed upon lhca{ here, ihcvi, fome way or other, ihis whole 
lower world (h.U be feion fire, c«ihcr by iir^ frcm heaven^ Or by 
fire bfcakipi^ out of ihs bowels of the earth, c: both, ae it wa» witb 
the w^icr in ihe iim« of the deluge. However, ihi» lov/er world 
fhail be fct aU on tire. — —How will it fuits ihc wicked witb 
horror, when the iiic begins lolsy hold upon i!"sin, and they find 
no way to tfc^pc it, or fice or hide from it • Wfaar Airicking 
and crying viiltherc be among thofc m.-ny thoufandi anda>A\\\ovi9, 
when they begin to enter into ihat g^cat fu»naoc, when the whole 
world (h'J! be a furnace of the fictccil and jLOit raging heat ! in" 
fo much that the ApoAlc Pete.- fayj^, ( 2 Pet. iiii io. iz. ), that 
•' the heavenji ihili paf» avs^ay wiih great noifc> and the clement* 
ili^U melt wiih fervent heat, the earth alfo and the works that ar«8 
therein, (!ial' bs burn? up j" and that the heavens bsiog on fire (l^aU 
be difful^ed, and the clcmcnti Jhall xaelt whith fervent heat.'* 
So fierce fivd] be iti heat, thai it lb 1) burn the ear^h intojits very 
ccntfc t which fttras to be what is mean<. Dent. :izz\L 22. ** For 
a fire ii kindlsd in my -snger, an'i (hall burn unto the lowci^ hell, 
and fh^li confute ire caiih with her increafc, and fet oc lire thtt 
foundations of the mouDt;^ins '* 

Here (hail ali the perfecuiors of the church of G d burn in ever-.' 
!aAing fire, who h^rc before burnt the faints at4he (Ijke, and d^all 
fufFer torTncnis far teyond all that their utmoft wit and oialicg 
could inflirt on the faint*. Heic the bodies of s!i ihc wickeo thall 
burn, and be tormented to all eternity, and nercrbs corfucneni andl 
the wrath of God fli.^il be p urcd out on their fouii. Though the 
fouls oi the vficke i in hell do now ftffwr dreadful punifhmeat, ycg 
their punifhmcnl will be inccafcH at the day or judgcmcpt, thac 
whatthey fufFe red before, is, in comp^rtfon of i , as an imprifon- 
mcnt to ibe execution which follo«r« it. Now rhc devil, that old! 
fcrpcnt, ihall receive his full punifbmcnt ; "low ibili that which hs 
before trembled for fcaii of, fully cnnne rpon hix». TKis world, 
which formerly ufed to be the place of his kingdom, where he fee 
up himfelf as God, (hill novr be the place ^i his complete puoiih-* 
meaij aadfuliaad cverlaning torment, 

U m la 

*8o A H I S T O R Y of 

lathit, onedc^gn of the work of redetcption which has been 
ooentioned, v;z. putting Chrift'a'cnemici under hii feet, fl^ali be 
perffi(ftly accoospiifhcd. His enemies Oiall now be made his foot* 
Aoo), in the fullcft degree. Nowrtiallbcthe moft pcrfeft iulfil- 
meni of fb«t in Gea. iii. 15- '• It fhail bruife thy head.*' 

8- At the fatcic tiae, aU the church ihal! enter with Chrifr, 
Sheir gJo.icus Lord, into the hightft heaven, and the/e (hall enter 
on the ftale of their highcfi and eternal bitffedaefs and glory. 
While the Sower t^orld, which they left under their feet, is fcizcd 
wirh the fire of God's veDgencc, and flames ate kindling upon it, 
Had the wicked arc entering into cverlaftingfirc, the whole church 
fhall cater, with their glorious head, and ail the holy angels attend- 
ing* in a joyful maoncr, into the eternal paradifc of God, the palact 
of the grest J^ihovab, their heavenly Father. The gates (ball open 
wide for them to ent^r, as d there Chrift will bring them into his 
chambers in the highcfi fcnfe. He will bring iheai into bis Fa- 
aher's houfc, into a world not like that which they have left. Here 
Chrif^ wi'l bring them, and prefent them in glory to hi» Faiher, 
^*yi"gi '* Here am I, and the children which thou haft given 
Ofic;'* as much as to fay. Here am I, with every one of thofc 
whom thou gaveft me from ctcrn'ty to t k« ihc care of, that they 
might be redeemed and glorified, and to redeem whom I have done 
and fuifsred fo much, and 4o make way for the redemption of 
whom I have far fc mariy ages been accompliChing fuch greaS 
changes. Here ih«y are no»^ pcrfc^ly redeemed in body and 
foul J I have pcift^tly delivered them from all the ill fruits of th? 
fall, and pcrfcdly freed ihcm from ail their enemies : 1 hayc 
brought ihtm all together into one glorious fociety : and united 
them all in myfclf : Ihive openly juftiHed them before all angels 
and mtn, znd here I have brought them all away from ihat accurf- 
sd world where they have fuffcred fo much, and have brought 
them before thy throne : I have done all that for them which thou 
ha{> appointed mt : I have perfectly cicanfcd them from all fthhi- 
nefs in my blood J and here they are in perfet\ bolincfs, ihining 
with thy perfect image. 

Then the Father will accept of them, and own them all for hii 
children, and will welcome them to the eternal and perfe^ inhtri • 
lance and glory of his houfe, and will on this occafjon give more 
glorious manifcftatiohs of his love than ever before, and will 
admit them to a more full and perfect enjoyment of hisnfell. 

And now ftiall be the marriage of the Lamb in the moil pcrfe^^ 
fenfe. The commencement of the glorious times of the church 
oa earth, after the f^j] of Antichrid, is reprefented as the marriage 
cf the Latnb ; and thiilhall be the marriage of the Lamb in the 
k^hcft fsnfe ihat ever ihail be oa earth : but after ibis we read of 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. iSe 

inoiher marriage of the Lamb, at ihc clofcof the day of judge- 
ment. A iter the beloved difciplc had given an account of the 
day of judgement, in the clofc of the 20th chapter of Revelation, 
then he procced« to give an account of what followi, in the lift 
and 22d chapters; and in the 2d vcrfc of the zift chapter, he givci 
an account, that he faw the holy city, the neiv jcrufakm, prepared! 
as a bride adorned for her hufband. And when Chrift OnAX brinij 
hii church into hi» Fatbcr'i houfc in heaven, after the judgement, 
he fhall bring her thither as his bride ' having there prcftntcd . her^ 
whom he loved, and gave himielf for, to himfelf without fpot or 
wrinkle, or any fuch thing. 1 

The bridegroom and the bride (hall then enter into heaves, 
both having en their wedding robci, attended with all the gloriftui 
angels. And there they enter on the fcaft and jo>s of their marriage 
before the Father ; they Chail then begin an cvcrlafticg wedding- 
day. This (hall be the day of thcgladncfc of Chrift's heart,wbeicia 
he will greatly rejoce, and all the faints ihall rejoice with them, 
Chrift QaAl rejoice over his bride, and the bride ihfeU rejoice in hcf 
hufband,in the ftate of hcrconfummate and evcrlafting bitffcdnefs, 
of which we have a particular defcription in the 2 1 A and 2 2d chap- 
ters of Revelation. 

Now the whole work of redemption u finiflied. We have fecn 
how it has been carried on from the fall of man to this time. But 
now it is complete with refped to all that belongs to it Now the 
top ftone of the building is laid. In the progrefs of the dif- 
courfc on this fubjcft, we have followed the church of God in all 
the great changes, all her tcfliogs to and fro that (he has been fub- 
)tt\ to, in all the ftorms and tcmpcfts through the mary ages of 
the world, till at length we have fecn an end to all thefe fiorms. 
We have fecn her enter the harbour, and landed in the highcfl 
heavens, in complete and eternal glory, in all her members, foul 
find body. We have gone through time, and the fcvcral ages of 
it, as the providence of God, and the word of God, have 
Jed us ; and now we have iffucd into eternity after time (hall be 
TiO more. We have fccn all the church's enemies fixed in endlcfs 
mifcry, and havefcen the church prcfentcd in her pcrfc<5l redemp- 
tion before the Father in heaven, there to enjoy this mofl unfpeak- 
ablc and inconceivable glory and blefTednefs ; and there we leave 
her to cnj«y thii glory tbroughou; the never ending s get of eter- 

Now all ChriA'f enemies will be perfcftly put under his feet, and 
and he iliall have his moft pcrfe<5l triumph over fin and Satan, and 
alibis inAruments, and death, and hell. Now fhall all tbepromi- 
ie% made to Chrift by God the Father before the foundation of the 
worlds the pro&ifet of the covenant of redemption, be fully ac- 


^^z A H I S T O R Y c3 

€omp!'fhcd, Chrift fjiaH now pcrfc<fUy have obtained the joy ttiaJ 
1V3S fet before him, <or which he undcrsook ihofe gfcat fuffcrings 
tvhich he undcr^-ent in hhO-Hcoi liunitibn'on. N» w fhall all the 
hope* and e5pc(^^a»ions of the fa?nts b«r fu]fill<^d The ftaie ci ihingi 
Jha4 the church wan in before, w -s ;i prog cfHvc snd preparatory 
i^atc : but now- Jhe js arrived to her mori pcr/cdi >taic of g-ory. 
A'l the glory ot ihs glorious t'lmti of the church on caj-th is b"45 
^ faint ihadow of hc«- ^orfuriimi<?e gJory in heaven. 

No«r Cbrife the g cat j^<.cu£ew)ei Siall be trofi psrfc^ly glori- 
fied vnd Gi'l t e F.^ther {ball bs glo'i^.cd in bim, sad 
the Hoy Gh ^ft (^.R bt rooi^ fully gloriiieri in the per- 
fedioiT o* hij work on th: hcxi^a of ail s,hc church- : r- 
Aftd now OiiH that "cvy heaven and new €3''thj or.ihst renewed' 
itai« of thingi, which k^vc been buibing up ever fincc Chrift's rc- 
furf(i(lion,bjJ coraplctcW Snidied, after every. cn^JSC^iaJ frsace of lb$ 
old heavens and Uie old'esrth arcdeftroycd : K'v xxi. l. *' And 
1 fdwa njvir be^v.-rn. ancJ a new canh : for ti c tift heaven and the 
firix cirth wfire pi/Ted av»\-<y'-' - « " Nojy will ihc grcar R:dcccQ<;r 
bavc pgrf'.?('^gd every thing that appettaias to tiic worfe of redeanp- 
fiion, v/hich he beg^n fo i'oon after the fall vf ojan. And wh^o, 
caQ Gaaccive of Hbe triujmpu of ihofe praif«« which /^sll be fung Jo 
l^esven on rhiiS g;,rea«: ccz-ifrju, fo much greater than iihst. of the h^l 
of A'^fkhriil, vvhi^h occa-Hons fuch praifes as '-%-c hsve s^efcribed in 
fibs f.9rh rb'pter of Rfvelaiion ! Tnc bslovsd difciple John fcrrne. 
t^ vs'an? Kji^prcvTions todeiciibe thofe pratfcT, and fsys, ** It was^ 
^« she vok« of ta'^ny .w.ncy5, and -'^ the voice cf mighty thunder- 
Ings, faying, AlkJuia t for the Lord God omn'p >teni reigncth*" 
Bu? much more incspr£ffib^^ VI ill ihofepr^vfes be, which will bn 
fang in heaven after tl:ci)nfl confuiT)m»'.ion of all ihings. H.ow. 
ijha'J the praifes of thzz vaft andg^oriQuJ rjiijiitudc be S8 mighSy 
ahundcringi indeed^ 

Now ^w arfi aU the forE^cr ihi!-;;;! palTed swrsy, snd. what a glp. 
rlous ft^fc arc thinj:* f^iici in to rctnain to all eternity ! —: — r As. 
Chrift, uhcn he nn\ cacered upon the work of redcnnption after the 
ial! of m'inr had the lursg-^om corriinittcd to hlciof ibcFathcr, and 
8ook on b-'nafclf the .^drninif^.ration of the afi"..ars of the univcrfe, to 
manage all fo as to fubfcrve the piirpofcs of thf«' kf^ni ; fo now, 
the WO; k being fin ifhad; he wil- deliver up tec kingdoon to God 
even the Father, i Cof, xv i.^ '* Then cometh she end, when ht. 
fhali have delivered up »he k^ugdom to Q.od, «ven the Father j 
when he iball hr-'n^ put down sJS rule, and all authority and pow* 
cr." Not that ChrrAihouM ccafc to rc'g:n or have a kingdoD;! af- 
ter this 5 for it i;^ faid, Luhc u 35. "He (hill rtign over the 
tiouf$ of j^cob for ever, and o his kingdom there fJiall be no 
^nd." Soinpan.viJ 14,. " That his dominion is an cver- 
M»9e <i»^miaioa^ vyhicb fcJl ot pafi away, , and his kingdom,. 

the Work of REDEMPTION. 2«| 

thst trfcich fhall not be dcrtroyed." But the meaning it.thatCbrift 
(h^.ll deliver up rhat kingdom or domiuion which he has over the 
world, as the F sthcr's delegate or vicegerent, which the Father 
Committed to him, to be managed in fubfcrvicrcy to this grcJit de- 
fign of icdcmption. T he end of this coinmUlion, or dejcgatioo, 
vs-hich he had from tncFather, fccms to be to fubfervethis p riicu- 
lar dcfign of redemption ; a r* therefore, when that defign is fully 
accompli (bed, thcconamiflion will ceafe, andChrift will dsliYcr it 
up to the Father, from whom he received it. 


Proceed now to enter upon fomc improvement of the whol^ 
that has been f aid from this doditine. 
I. Hence we may Icarn hovv great a work this work of redemp- 
tion is. We have now had it in a very impcrfe^^ manner fet forth 
before us, in the whole progrcfs of it, from its firfi beginning af- 
ter the fall, to the end of the world, when it is finifhed. We have 
feen how God has carried on this building from the fuft foundati- 
on of it, by a long fuccedion of wonderful works, advancing is 
higher and higher from one sge to -another, till the top-flone ie 
Jaid at the end of the world. Now lei us coniidcr how great a work 
this is. Dj men, when they behold fomc great palaces or churches, 
fomrtimes admire their magnificence, and arc almoft eflonifncd to 
condicr how great a piece of work it was to build fucb an houfe ? 
then how well may we adcpire the greafnefs of this building of God, 
which he builds up age after gge, by a feries of fuch great thingi 
^hich he brings to pafi ! There arc three things that have been 
«:xhibited to us in what has been faid, which do efpicially flaovr 
ihe g^catncfi; of the work of redemption. 

I, Tne greatnefs of thofe particular events, and difpenfationt 
of providence, by which it 13 accomplifhsd. How great are thofe 
things which God has done, which are but fo many parts of 
this great wprk ! What fijtcat things were done in the world ta 
prepare the way for Chrifl's coming to purchafc, and what grea^ 
(tbi igs were done in the purc'afe of redemption ! What a v.onder- 
ful thing was that which was sc:;3mpli(lied to put Chrift in an im- 
mediate c^.p^city for this purchafc, viz, his incarnation, that God 
ihould become m^n ! Whit gre:.t things were done in that pur- 
chafe, that a pcrfon, who is :hc eternal Jehovah, ih.-^uld live upon 
earth four or fiv-e and thirty yean together, in a mean dcfpifed 
condition, and that he ffcould fpcnd bis life in fuch Isbors and fi fFc- 
rlngs, and that at Is ft he fhould die on the crofi ! What great things 
have been done to accon^.plifb the fuccefs of ChriA*s redemption ! 
what great things to put him into a capacity to accomplif-e this fuc- 
cefj ! For this purpofe he rofe from the dead, and afcended up 
kt.Q heaven, aod all ihingi^ were tsad^ fubjcA to l?.in>. Hohe^ 

tH A H I S T O R Y c f 

Kiny miracles have been wrought, whatnaighry rc'^uluiiani hav5 
been brought to pift in the nrorid already, and hovr much grcsteir 
&al\ be brought to pafs, in order to it ! 

8, The number of tbofe great events by which God carries on 
thl§ work, (Vowa the greaincfi of the work, Thofc aaighiy revo- 
luiions arc fo many a« to fill up many »gcs. The particuUr won- 
derful events by which the work of creation was carried on filled 
up fm days : but the great difpenfations by which the work of re- 
deajptioa is carried on, are fo many, that ibcy fiJ up fix or fcvcn 
thoufand yean al Icaf>, as we have reafon to conclude from the 

word of God. 'There were great things wrought in rhb aifai' 

before the flood, aad in the fiood the world wai once dcftroyed by 
water, and God's chufch was fo wonderfully prcfcrved from~ihe 
^3od in ot6zc to carry on this work. After the flood, what great 
things did God work relating to the refettling of the world, to the 
buildir^gof Bibs), the difpcrliig of the nations, the ihortening of 
Ihs days of ram's llfnt the calling of Abrsbaro, the deftru£lion of 
Sodom and '3c-r3":Tr^h, and that long fcries of wonderful provi-' 
dences relating to Abrahavn, Ifaac, and Jacob, and Jofcph, and 
tbofe wonders in Egypt, and at the Red fea, and in the wilder- 
c^fi, and in Car.aan in Jofhaa's lime, and by a long fuccedion of 
wonderfuS provideacas from age to age toivards the aation of 
the Jews ! 

Waat great things were wrought by God, in fo often overturn- 
ing the \vor!d before Chrif^ came, to make way for his coming ! 
What great things were done alfo in Cbrift's time, and then after 
that in overturning Satan's kingdom in the Heithen empire, and 
and in fopseferving Lis cbureh in the dark times of Papery, and 
ia bringing about the Reformation { How many great and won- 
derful things will be effected in accomplilhing the glorious limCf 
of the church, and at Chrift'a laft coming on the day of judge- 
ment, in the deftrudiou of the world, and in carrying the whole 
church into heaven. 

' 3. The glorious iffue of this whole siTiir, in the perfeO an^ 
eternal deftrudion of the wicked, and in the confuinmate glory 
of the righteous. Now let us once more take a view of this build- 
ing, now all is fiaifhci and the top-ftonc laid. It appeared in a 
glorious height in the apoftles lime, and much more glori- 
ous in th« time of Gonflantine, and will appear much mors 
glorious ftill after the fall of Antichrift ; but at the confummaiion 
of all things, it appears in an inwnenfely more glorious height 
than ever before. Now it appears in its greatcft magnificence, at 
a compleat lofty ftrufture, whofctop reaches to the heaven of hea- 
vens ; a building worthy of the great God, the King of kings. 

From what has bceo faid, one may argue, that the work of re- 
itmptioa is the greattR of all God's works of which wc have aoy 

the WcOc of REDEMPTION. x8j 

notice, «nd ii ii the end of allhii other worki. It ippeari plaia« 
ly from what hai been faic^^that thii work i> the priflcipa of allGod'i 
works of providence, and that all other worki of proTidence arc 
reducible hither ; they are all fubordinate to ebe great affair of 
redemption. We fee that all the revolutions in the world are to 
fubferve this grand defiga ; fo that the work of redemptioa it, «■ 
it were, the fum of God's works of providenjce. 

This fhows us how much greater the work of redemption it, than 
the work of creation : fori have feveral timet cbfcrved, that the 
work of providence is greater than the work of creation, beeaufa it 
is the. end of it ; as the ufe of au houfe is the end of the build ioS of 
the houfe. But the work of redemption, as I hive juft faid, is the 
fum of a^l God'f works of providence; all are fubordinate to it : fo 
the work of the new creation Is more excellent than the old. So 
it ever is, that when one thing is removed by God to mske way 
for another, the new one excels the old. Thus the temple excel- 
led the tabernacle ; the new covenant the old ; the otw difpenfa- 
tion of the gofpel the difpenfation of Mofes ; the throne of Da- 
vid the throne of Saul ; the prietihood of Chritl the priefthood oi 
Aaron : the new Jerufalem the old ; and fo the new creation fsf 
excels the old. 

God has ufed the creation which he h^s made, for no other piir« 
pofe but to fubferve the defigns of this afFiir, To anfwer this entf^ 
he bath created and difpofed of mankind, to this the angels, to 
this the earth, to this the highefl heavens. God created the world 
to provide a fpoufc and kingdom for bis Son : and the fetting up 
of the kingdom of Chtlft, and the fpiritual marriage of the fpoufe 
to him, is what the whole creation labours and travails in pain to 
bring to pafs. This work of redemption it fo much the greatell 
of all the works of God, that all other works are to be looked upon 
cither as parts of it, or appendages to it, and all are fome 
way reducible to it j and fo all the decrees of God do fome way o» 
other belong to that eternal covenant of redemption which was be* 
tween the Father and the Sun before the fouc Jxiiion of the world* 
Every decree o/God is fouie way or other reducible to that cove« 

Seeing this work of redemption is fo great a work, hence we" 
•eed not wonder that the angels dcfire to look into if. We need 
not wonder that fo mucU is m:ide of it in fcripture, and that it is 
fo much iniif^ed on in the hitlories, and prophecies, and fongi of 
the Bible ; f jr the work of redemption is the great fubjeft of the 
whole, of its dodricei, its promifes, its types, its fongs, its hiflo^ 
ries, and its prophecies. 

II. Hence we may learn how God it the Alpha and Omcga« 

the beginning and ending of all things^ Such are the chara^er, 

ail titles we tiad oltea afcribsdto God la fcripture, ia tbofeplace^ 


A H I S T O R Y o! lU 

whcfe rhc fcripture fpeaki of the courfc of ihiagt, and (et'zi of 
events in provH^acc : If. xli. 4. '* \V!io hath wrought and done 
** it, calliog the gencraiiojs from the beginning ? 1 the Lord ihe 
fir/1, and with the laA, I am he>" And p^rticul rly does the fcrip. 
Jure afcribc fuch titles to God, where it fpcaks of the pfovidence 
of God, 9S itreUtes to, and 13 fuajmcd up in the great work ol 
redemption ; as if xHv 6. 7. and xlviti 12 wiih the context, 
beginning with the grh vcrTc. Sj God etuinCiiely appears as the 
iirA and the hft, by cotifid^iring the whole fchcme of divine 
providence as we have confidcrcd it, v/z; as all reducible to tbaK 
one great work of redetapiion. 

Therefore, when Chrift reveals the future grcaii events of p'ovi- 
dcncc relating tohij church and people, and this ;ifiif of redemp- 
tion, to the end of the world, to^fs ^•ifc'pl J hn, be oiten rcvcjia 
bimfelf under this Gharaaer. So Rev. i. 8 «' I am A'pha and 
Omega, the beginning and the eridtng, f^ih the L'>rd which, is, 
and which was, and which is to cocne, the A mighty." So af,vin, 
vcrfe 10 II. * I heard behind me a great voice asi of a truaipet Tty- 
ing, I am Alpha and Orega, the fij^l and the laft." Alpha snd 
Omega are the n?.mes of the fifft and hi\ letters of the Greek til- 
ph-bet, as J and Z -re of ours ; and therefore it fignifie* the fame 
as his being the iir/t and the hft^ and the beginairg and the end- 

Thus God is called ic the bc^mftingofthi* book ofMeveiation^ 
before the courfe of the p ophccy begins ; and fo *tgain he is cal- 
led at the end of it, after the courfe of events is gone through, 
and the liaal iffue of things is fccn : ss Rev, xxi. 6 ** And he 
faid unto me. It i$ done. I ^m Alpha and Omega, the beginning 
and the end." Aod fo chap. xxii. 1213. '* And behold, I 
come quickly ; znd my reward is whh me, to give every man 
according as his wor . ihall be. I am A'pha and Omega, the be« 
ginning and the end, the fiil and the laft. " 

We have fccn how this is true in the courfe of what I have laid 
before you upon this fubjVft. We have feen how things were 
from God in the beginning ; on what dcfi^nGcd began thccourfs 
of his providence in the beginning of the generations of upon the 
earth ; and we have fccn how it is God that ^as all along carried 
things on agreeable to the fame defie,n5 without ever failing ; and 
how at laft the conclulion and final iffue of things arc to God ; and 
fo we have fccn how all things are of him, and through h?m, and 
to him ; and therefore may well now c^y out with thcapoftlc,Rom, 
xi. J3 "O »he i:pth of the riches both of the wifdom and 
knowicdgc of God ! how unfearchable are his judgements, and hit 
ways paft finding out !" and verf. 36. '♦ For of him, and through 
bim, and to bim^ are all thiogi ; to whom be glory for ever. 
Aaacn,'* Wc 

the Wo k of R E D E M P T I O N^. t%J 

Wc have fdc« how oih;r thing* cumc to an end one after another; 
how ftate*, and kmglarns, and empJrcf, one after another, tell 
and CJme vj nothing, even the grcatefl and ft-ongcft oi ihcm ; we 
haV5 /cen ho«r ihc vrofid ha» btca often overturned, and will be 
more fciiia.rk bly 07crturncd than ever it ha» btcn yet ; wc have 
fccn ho'*v the vrorid c Jiucs to ^n cud, how it wai firft dcAroycd by 
water, and hovy at iaft it lh?ill be uttcily deft/oycd by fire : bu? ye| 
GjI remains ihc fam;: through all sgrs. He was before the begin- 
ning of this courlc oi Jhings, ani he will be after the end of ihtm ; 

agreeable to Pfal, cii. 2c. 26. Thus God is he ibac is, and thai 

w»<f, and that is to conne. 

Wchavefecn, in a variety of it:/l?ncci,how all other gods pcrfft ;' 
we have fccn how the ancient gods ot the Heat icn in the nationi 
abnu< Canaan, ^nd throughout the R'^man empire, are all dcHroyed^ 
and their worfhip long fince overthrown ; we have heard howAnti- 
chrift, who has called himfelf a god on earth, and how Mahomet, 
who claims religious honors, and how all the gods of the Hcatbea 
through the world, will come Co an end ; and how Saran, the g'eal 
dragon, that old ferpcnt, who has fet up bimfclf as god of thif 
world, will be caft into the lake of fire, there to fufFcr his complete 
punilhmenl : but J.hovah remains, and bis kingdom is an ever* 
lafting kingdom, and of his dominion there h no end, Wc havo 
fccn what mighty changes there have been io the world ; but Gcc4 
is unchangeable, ** the fame ycf^crday, to day, and for tvcr." 

We began at the head of the (tresm of divine providence, and 
have followed and traced it through its varloiii windings and! 
turning*, till we arc ccme to the end of it, and we (cq where it if- 
fues. As it began in God, fo it ends in Godi. God It the infiGite 
ocean into which it empties itrcSf.—— Providence is like a migh- 
ty wheel, whofc circumference is fo high that it u dreadful, wiih 
the glory of the God of Kr&el above upon it ; as It it reprcfentedl 
in EiCkiel's vlfion, We have fcen the revolution oftbiswhec!^ 
and how, as it was from God, (0 its return has been to God again. 
All the events of divine providence are like the links of a ehaio ^ 
lk€ firf^ link is from God and the lai^ is to hisi- 

III. We msy fee by what has been fa id, bow Cbri/l in aU 
things has the p:e-cmincnce. For this great work of rediimpt;o)!i 
is all his work : he is the great Redeemer, and therefore the worlg 
of redemption being as it were the fum of God's worts of provi* 
deoce, this fliows the glory of our Lord Jcfus Chrift, as being a- 
bove all, and through all, and in all. That God intended the 
world for his Son's ufe in the affair of redemption, is one reaiV^n 
that is to be given why he created the world by him, which feetru 
lobe intimated by the ^poftle in Epb» ii?. 9.—- 12. What Im 
Ijccn faid, (hows bow all the purpofes of God are purpoicd ta 

N a Clings, 

288 A H I S T O R Y ci 

ChrifV, and bow he 1$ before all and above all, and all thing* co»- 
fi(k by bim, and arc governed by hina, and are for him, Colof. i, 
15. 1 6, 17. 18. We fee by what bai been faid, howGod makei 
him his firft-born, higher than the kings of the earth, and fets hif 
ihronc above their thrones ; how God has always upheld his king- 
fhm, when the kingdoms of others have come to an end ; hovs* 
that appears at laft above all, however greatly oppofcd for fo many 
^ges r bow iinally all cihcr kingdoms fell, and hij kingdom ii ifc« 
iaft kiagdoc3.,and is a k?ngdc>ca that never gives p'acc to any other. 

We /ce, that «'batevsr chan-goa there are, and how ev^r highly 
Chrift'i enemies exalt the mfelvc J, that yei finally all his enemies 
become his footfbool, and he rcjgns in uncontroulcd power and inv- 
aasnfe glory : in she end his people arc all pcrfe<ftiy favcd and- 
iQfiade happy, and his cnemic* all become his fooi^ool.— ^And 
ihuj God gives the world to his Son for hia iahcritanct, 

' IV, Hence we may fsc what a ccnflAcnt thing divine provL 
d€nce !»• The cor.ftdcrarion of what has been faid, may greatly 
fcrvc to (how ui the confiHency, order, and beauty, .of God'» 
^orks of providence. If we behold the ev^nn of providence in a • 
2?y other view than that in which it has bc^n fet before w^. it wHJ 
sttlook like confuficn, like a number of i-Limbred events coooiogto 
f^h wlihoui any order or mufaodj like the lofling of the waves of 
the fea ; thin^^,? will look as though one confufcd revolution cacpg 
to p^fs after another, merely by blind chance, without any rcgula? 
or certain end. 

But if we confider the events of providence in the light in which 
they have been fet before us under this dodrine, in which the fcrip- 
Ijrcs fet them before us, they appear far from being jurabled and 
confufcd, an orderly fcries of cventi, all wifely ordered and dirc(fi- 
cd in excellent harmony and con^^ence,. tendmgall to one end. 
The wheels of providence arc not turned round by blind chance, 
bat they are full of eyes round shout, as Ezekiel reprefents, and 
they are gmied by the fpirit of God .' where the fpirit goes, ihcy 
ao: and all God*s works of providence through all sgts meet in 
in one at laft* as fo m^ny lines meeting in iine ser.ire. 

It is with God *a work of providence, as it is with hi* work of 
creation; it is but one work. The events of providence, are 
not fo many dii\in6V, independent, works of providence, but they 
are rather fo many d^fFirent parts of one work of providence : ii 
is all one work, one regular fcbcrae, God's works of providence 
arc not difunitcd and jumblci without c nneaion or dependence, 
but are all united, juft as fcveral parts of one building : there are 
many ftonei, many pieces of timber, but all are fo joined, and fit- 
ly formed together, that they make but one building : they 
have all but oae fouadalioa, and arc uailsd at laft in one top- 
ilonc. God'* 

jth« Work of R E D E MP T ION, 2^9 

Ood'i providence may not unfitly be compared to a Iarg:e and 
long river, having innumerable branches, beginning in different 
regions, and at a great difiance one from at: other, and all corfpir- 
ing to one common iffue. After their very divcrfc and contrary 
courfes which ihcy*held for a while, yet they ill gather more and 
atorc together, the nearer thty coaae to ihcir common end, and 
all at length difchargc ihcaiiclve* al one mouth irjlo the Uw.e 
ocean. The Qiifercnt ftuams ol ihii river arc stpi to appear iikc 
mere jumble and confufion to us, becaulc of the limiicdDcu oi our 
fight, whereby we cannot fee from one branch to another, and 
cannot Ice the whole at once, fo as to fee how ail are united in on€, 
A man who fees bat one or two ftrcams at a time, canaot teli what 
their eonrfe tends to. Their courfc fcems very crooked, and diftcr- 
cnl ftreasi* fecai to run for a while different and contrary wa)s ? 
and it we view things at a dift^ncc, there feem 10 b« inntmcrablc 
obftacles and impediments in the way to hinder their ever uriiting, 
And coming to the ocean, as rocks and mountains, stid the iiike i 
but yec if we tra^cc them, they all unit? at laft, and all ccmc to 
the fame iffue, difgorging ihemfclves in one into the fame great 
ocean. Not one of all the Areams fail of coming hither at laft. 
V. From the whole that has been faid, we may ftrongly argucj, 
that the fcrij|ves ar« the w^rd of God, becaufe they alone inform 
m what God k about, or what he aims at, in thefe works which he 
Is doicg in the world. God doublkfs is purfuing fomc dc%n, 
And carrying on fomc fcbemc, in the various changes and revola. 
tions which from age to age came to pafs in the Aorld. It is moft 
reafonable to fuppofe, that there is foma certain great to 
which Providence fubordjnates all the great fucceflive changes in 
the cffiiirs of the world which God has made. It is rcafonablc to 
fuppofe, that all revolutions, from the bcginniug of the woild to the 
end of it, are but the various part? of the fame fcheaae, all confpir- 
ing to bring to pifs that great event which ihe great cicator and 
governor of the world has uhimatcly in view ; and th; t the fchrmc 
will not be finiftied, nor the defign fully acccmpliibcd, and the 
great and ultimate event fully brought to pafs, till the end of the 
world, and the laft revolution ia bought about. 

Now there is nothing elfethat informs us what this fcLemc and 
dcfign of God in his woki if, but only the holy fcripturei. No- 
thingh^elfe pretends to fet in view the whole ferics of God's works 
of prov'dence frcmbeginnirg fo end, and to iniorm us how all 
things were from God at fiirt, ard for what end they are, ard 
how they were ordered from the beginning, and hew \hr.y 
will proceed to the end of the world, and what they wi^I 
come to at laft, and how then all things fttsU be to God. No- 
thing elfe but the fcrrj turcs has any pretence foi fhowing any man- 
esr of rcgdar fc^cme or drift in jhofe rcvolutioss whlvh God ot^ 

S^Q A M I S t O It Y of 

dcH from sge to age. Nothing dfe prctcodi to llinw ^hst God 
UroulJ b)" the things which he has done, and is doing,. and will doj 
what he fcekj and intends by ihccn. Nothing clfe prctcndi to 
ftiow, wi:h an> diitintlnefi or certainty, how the world bcgsn a« 
firfl, or to tcU uj the original of things. Nothing but the fcrip- 
tUTti fcts forth hovr God governed the world froca the begir.ning 
of the gensradoni of men upon earth, in an orderly hifbory ; snd 
nothing elfc fets before us how he will govern it to the en J, by.aa 
orderly prophecy of future events | agreeable to the challenge 
which God makci to the gods, and prophets, and terchcrs 'of the 
Heathen, in If. sli. 22. 23." Let ih'-m bring thtm forth, -Jnd 
I5icw us whatfhal! happen : let them ibew the fornser things what 
they be, that wc may co: (ider the®, and know the kicr end 
of them-; or declare t3 things for to coxnz» Shew the things that 
arc to come hercsfatr, that we may know jhai' yc are gods.'.' 

Reafon fi'.ows, that It is fit and rcquilltc, that the intcnigcnt and 
rational beings o? tht world fbcald' knew fosjcthJng'cf God's 
fdhcme and dzf^gn in bis work* : for they iji^ub'.Icfs are beings that 
are prindpaHy concerned. The thing that Uwo6\ grtsj dcfign in his . 
works, is doubdefs fos2SCthIng concci^nirg his rcafonable creciturej, 
rather than bruisbea^.5 snd lifckfs thing? The revelation by 
which God's g-?«at dewgr. is ijrought to paf», are'doubtlcf? revoluti- 
ons chkdy among thern, and which concern their ftate, and noS 
the (iite o( things vri?:hoiit lUz or reafon. And therefore furely ig 
Is ftquifise, that ihsy (houU know focrjethlhg of it j efpccially 
feeing that reafon tcsci-iC», that 'Gad hsa given his rational crea- 
tures m{on, and a capacity of feeing God In his works ; for this 
tniif they fee Gad's glory »n thcsu* and give hitn the glory of tbesn. 
Byt hon' can they fee God's glory in his wcrks, if they do ncJ 
know i'.ba: God's cJcf;gn In tbcm is^ aad t?hat he aims at by i>haC 
lie 13 doing in the world ^ '' ' •■"- - ^^ 

Further, it is fie that manldnd fbould be informed fomethiog of 
God's dcijga in the governnrscnt of the world, becaufe they arc 
tn^de c-*pible of aflivdy falling in with that dcfign, and promot- 
ing of it, and adihg herein as bis friends and fubjecis ; it is therfc- 
^ore rcafo.'iablc to fuppof^, that God has given TEankind feme re- 
velation 10 inforoj ihem of this : but there is nothing clfe thaS 
does St but the Bible, li the Bible this is done. Hence we may 
Beam an account of the finl original 0^ things, and an orde*?ly ac- 
count of the fcheme of God's works froai the firRbcginni::g through 
ihofc ages that arc beyond the reach of ail ether hiflories. H^tc 
«re are told what God aims at in the whole, what is the greater end, 
fcow he has contrived the grand dcfign he drives at, and the greag 
ihings ht would accomplift; by all. Here wc have a moft ratiorAal 
gSCcUsat aecounl of this ©aitcr^ ircrtby of Gpd, and esceedin^ly 

the Work of It E D E M P T I O N. ifn 

jhewfng fortfi the glory o'bii per fc^ ions, hi« msjefty, hlf wifdom, 
h'« glorious holircfi, ar^J grace, and Jove, and bit ezaludoa a- 
bov*!; fil , ftijvtinghoir be is ibc firft and the laft. 

Hrrc we are (h^iWo the conne<^iion of the variouf parts of the 
work o* provide cc, an : howr ail harmonifcf, and is conncd^ed to- 
gether «Q a regular^ beautiful, and glorious frame. In the Bible, 
we have an account of the whole fch^tnc of proviitnce, from the 
beginning of ide woiU to the end of it, either in hiliory or pro. 
phccy, and are told what will became of things at laft ; hovy V :; 
will be finiftier< ff by a great day of ju^grmcnr, and will if 
the fubd'jing of God's enemies, and in the falvnion ?»:■ 
of his church, felting up the cvi.rlai%Ji:g kingdona ot 'ah w-jw. 
Hjw rational, woahy, anc; c* ^^-ie:.; ,- r ;vr;Ution h this I and 
fcow excellent a bo; k Ji the B' ? ., .• i<in< fo much beyond 
all other books in the world ! -^n^^ *u< en ■r-yica are htJC of itt 
being indeed a divif c bock ! & book thit .be grt.^t Jehovah has 
given to mankind for their inftruciot:, xvishout which wc fhould 
fee left in mifcrabledsrknefs andconfi:fion ! 

V(. F;cm what ha* been (nd, wc ir^y fee the gloriout ma- 
jefty and power of God in this arfair of rec?eikiption : efpecially 1$ 
God gloriqus in power. His glorious power appears in uphold- 
ing hi? church for fo long a time, and carrying On this work ; up* 
holding it oftentimes when it was but as a little fpark of fJie, or as 
fmokipg flax, in which the fire Was almo/t gone out, and the powcj? 
of earth and hell were combined to dc/rroy it. Yet God lias never 
fuffered them to quench it, and finally will bring judgement forth 
unto viifioy. God glorifies his ftrength in his church's weaknefs ; 
in eaufing his people, who are like a number of little infants^finally 
to triumph ov&r all earth and hell ; fo that they (hould tread on the 
lion and adder ; the young lion and dragon Ihall they trample undee 
foot. The glorious power of God appears in conquering bis many 
and mighty enemies by that perfon who was once an infant in a 
manger, and appeared as a poor, weak, defpifed man. He conquers 
ihcm, and triumphs over tbera in their own *feapon, the crofs. 

The glorious majefty of God appears in conquering all thofs 
mighty enemies of thechurcb one age after another ; in conquer- 
ing Satin, that proud and ftrong fpirit, and all his hellifh hoft ; ia 
bringing him down under foot, long after he bad vaunted himfelf 
aspjod of this world,and wrhen he did his utmoft to fupporl himfclf 
in his kingdom 

God's power glorioufly appears in conquering Satan when exal- 
ted in that ftrongell and mo^ potentH:athen ktngdom thai ever he 
had, the Roman empire. Chri<t, our Michael, has overcome h;aci 
and the devil was caft out, and there was found no more place 
fps him in heaven } but he was caii out uolo the caitb^ aad bis ?q- 

a6t A H I S T O R y of 

gtls were oaft out whh him. Again, hit poyrcr glorioufly appwn 
incunquering him ia that kiogdom tirherein hb ptide, aud fubilcty, 
andcruciiy, ;»b.,vc «ll appcari, vje, the kiDgflom ot Anlichrift. It 
glorioufly appears in conquering him in that grcaieft and ftrongeft 
combinatioo and oppoiiiion of the dcviJ and his adhcrenli ag-mfk 
Ghriftand his church, jult before the fall of Aniichrift, whcreia 
fci»vifiblc itngdor*:! has a fatal blowgivea it, on which a univerfd 
downfall of it jfollown all over the world. 

The glcriou-j power of God appears in thuf conquering the de- 
" ''■■-■ V h'xn tender foot, t"mc after time, after long time 
r'^in hitnfclf to his utnaoft, as he wai once o- 
;- ' *5^i i^omsn empire, after he had been mak- 

l''^it. ^ "' ^ 'J "'' f.hs world, ever lince the build- 

lijg of f:' e/ crthrowiDg h.» kingdom more 

is.V.l}y ./ ' i or^ ^Qc world, after he had again ano- 

UiM ont. , :.^, (jj f«*'tgthcn himfelf to hit uimcft for 

many ag«, ty i- .. ^^ yp ihoVs ivfo great kingdoms of Antichrift 
and M^hoaict, aa^ f> cnablifh hii inicreft in the Hcaihcn world. 
Wc have iccn hov jfaefe hingdoajt of God'* enemies, that, before 
God appears, look flrong, as iho* it wa*,? impofTiblc to oYcnhrow 
them J yet, time after sime, wbea God appears, they fccm to mellt 
away, as the fat of Iambi before the fire, and are driven away 39 
the chafF before the whirl wind > or the fmokc out of the chimney, 

Thofe mighty kingdoms of Aatichrift and Mahomet, which 
have made fych a fsgurc for fo many ages together, and have tram- 
pled the world under foet, when God comes to appear, will vanilh 
away like a fludow, and will as it were diLppcar of ihcmfelves, 
and come to nothing as the darknefs in a room does, when the 
light is brought in. What are God's enemies in his hands ? How 
h their greatefl ftrength weaknefs when he rifcs up ! and bow weak 
^ill they all appear together at the day of judgement ! Thus we 
may apply thofe words in the fong of Mofcs, Exod. xv. 6. ''Thy 
^ight hand, O Lord, js become glorious in power: thy right hand, 
O Lord, hath daflaed in pcices the enemy." i^ow great doth the 
majefty ofGod appear in overturning the world from linic to time, 
to accomplifh his dciigns, and atlaft in caufing the earth and hca- 
veni to flee away,for the advancement of the glory of bis kingdom! 

yiL Prom what has been faid, we may fee the glorious wifdom 
of God. It fbows the wifdom of God in creating the world, in that 
he has created it for fuch an excellent ufe, to accomplilh in it fo 
glorious a work. And it ihow* the wifdom of divine Providence, 
that he brings fuch great good out of fuch great evil, in 
making the fall and ruin of mankind, which in itfelf it fo 
forrowful and deplorable, an occafion of accomplifhing fuch « 
glorious wosk as tbn work of redemption, and of crcding fuch 9 


the Work of R E D E M P T I O N. 191 

gloricui building, wbofc top.fhould reach unto heaven, and of bring- 
ing his t\ct\ to a ftatc oi fuch unfpcakabic happincfi. Howr glo- 
lioui doth the wifdom of Qod appear in that long courfe and fcries 
of great chingci in thw world, in bringing fuch order out of con- 
fufion, in fofrufitating the devil, and fo wonderfully turning all 
hU moii fubile machinationi to hii own glory, and the glory of his 
Son Jcfui Chrill, and in c^ufir.-g the greaieft worka of Satan, thofe 
in which he has moft gloriticd hinatcU, to be wholly turned into oc- 
cafioni of fo oauch the more gloiious triumph of hii Son JcfuiCbrif^ I 
Huw wonderful is the wifdom of God, in bringing all fuch maDi- 
fold and various changes and overturning! in the world to fuch a 
glo.'iouf period atlaft, and in fo directing all the whccli of provi- 
dence by his fkilful hand, that every one of them confpire», as the 
manifold wheels of a moA curious machine, at h(l to iUike out 
fuch an excellent iffue, fuch a manifeftation of the divine glory, 
fuch happinefs to hii people, and fuch a glorious and svcrlaf^ing 
kingdom of his Son I 

VHl. From what has been faid, we may fee the ftaf^iHty of 
God's mercy a^jd f^ithfuloefs to his people ; how he never forfakeo 
his inheritance, and remembers his covenanr to them throughout aH 
generations. Now we may fee what rcafon there was for the words 
of the tert, " The moth fljall eat them up like a garment, and the 
worm ihall eat them like wool ; but my lighteoufnefs (hall endure 
for ef er and ever, and my falvation from generation to generation." 
^ow we may fee abundant reafon for that name of God which he 
reveals to Mofet. Exod. iii. 14. ** And God faid unto Mofes» 
2 em that I am :" i.e. I am the fame that I was when I entered 
iiito covenanr with Abraham, Ksac, and Jacob, and ever (fcall be^ 
the fsmc : I (hall keep covenant for ever : I am felf fufficient, 
all'fufficient, and immutabTe. 

Now we may fee the trarh of that, Pfal. xtxvi. 5:. 6. *« Thy 
ftcrcy, O Lord, is ia the heavens ; and thy faiihfulnefs rcacheth 
unto the clouds. T^y righteoufnef* is like the great mountains ; 
thy judgcmenij are a great deep.*' If we confider what has been 
faid, we need not wonf^er that the Pf^lroiA, in the I3*6h 
fo often repeats this. For hit mercy tndartth for ever ; as if he 
were in an ccftafy at the confidcraticn ot the perpetuity of God'» 
mercy to his church, ard delighted to think of it, and knew not 
how but conti! ually to exprcfs it Let us with IJ e pleafure and 
joy celebrate the everla/ling duration of Gods mercy and faithful* 
ncfs to his church and people, and let us be comforted by it under 
the prefent dark citcumftances of the chu'-ch of Ood, and all the 
uproar and confufion* that ^re in the world ; and all the threat* 
inings of the church's enemies. Let us take encnuragemeni car- 
Bci^ly to pr^y fur thofe glorious things which God has promifcd 
«o acco3ipli& foi hia church, XI. 

«94 A H I S T O R T of 

IX. Hence we may learn how happy a focieiy ihe chuwh oi 
Chnft is. For all thu great woik is for thccn. Cbtxk uadtitpok 
it for their fak«i, and for their fakes he carriei it on, from the fall 
O' man to the end ot ihc world ; it is becaufc he hai loved them 
with an cverlafting love Far their fakes he overturns fTstts and 
kingdomf. For ibcir f ke« he ilidkes hcaven and caitb. He gives 
Boen for thcOT, and people tor their liie^ Since ihcy hsve been pre- 
cious in God'* fight, they h^ve been fiunorab'c ; and therefore he 
lirft g'vns the bljod of hii^owa Sjn to th^ m,and then, for fheir f^kci* 
givei the bio d of all their cnetnic«,» many ih' ufandi aud iti->II?tons* 
«ii f»at oni that Adnd in the^r w*y, as a f^ lo their good. 

For theirfakcs he made the world, and for their f kes he will 
defiroy it : for their f«ke» he built heaven, and for their fakes he 
makes bis angeia miniftnog fpirits Tnerefore the Apoftlc f^ys at 
he does, i Gor. iti, 21. &c. " All thing* are yours ; whether Ptul, 
orApollo.% or Cephas, or the world, or Hfe, or death, or ihings prc- 
icnt, or things to come ; all are yours." How bleflcd is this peoplfi 
who arc redeemed from among men, ard are the fir.'^ fruits unto 
God, and to the Lamb ; who have G^d in all ages for their pro-, 
t«ciion and help ! Dcut. xjtxiii. 29 *' H ppy art thou, O *' If- 
facl : who ii like unto thee, O pe .pie favcd by the Lord, the fhield 
of thy htlp, and who is the f word thv excellency ! and thine ene. 
mies fhall be found liari unto thee^ and thou ib^^t tread upon . their 
high places." 

Let who will prevail now, let the enemies of the church exalt 
themfclvcs as much as they will, tbefe are the people thai ikall fi- 
nally prevail. Toe laft kingdom (ball finally be theirs ; the king- 
dom djsil finally be given into their hands, and ihali not be left to 
other people. We haye fccn what a LlefTed iffue things fhall finally 
be brought to as to them, and what glory they fhall arrive ai, and 
remain in poffelfion of, for ever and ever, after all the kingdom* 
of the world are come to an end, and the earth is removed, and 
and the mountains are carried into the depth of the fea, or where 
the feawas, anrj this lower earth OnA\ all be diitolved. O happy 
people, and blcfTr J focicty ! Well may they fpcnd an eternity in 
praifes and hallaiuj lai to him who loved them from eternity, and 
will love them to eternity- 

X. And, laftly, hence all wicked men, all that are in a Chrift- 
lefa condition, may fee there exceeding mifery. You that are 
fuch, whoever you are, you arc ihofe who hsve no part nor lot in 
this matter. Yju are never the bftter for any of thofe thing! 
of which you have heard : yea, your guilt is but fo much the grea- 
ter, and the mifery you are crpofcd to fo much the more dread- 
ful You arc fomc of that fort, agaiaft whom God, in the progrcft 
of thd wot k.cxcrcifes fo much manifcft wrath j foase of thofe euc- 


Oie Work of REDEMPTION, s^f 

mlei who are lUbleto b: made Cbrift'i footflool, and to be rtUd 
with a rod oT iton, and to be daChed in piece*. You are fome at 
the feed of the ferpcnt, ro bruift the head pf which ii one great dc» 
ffgn of all thit work. Whatever gV^rioui thingi God accoiu^ 
Uikei for bii chtircb,. if you continue ia the i^ate you are now in, 
they will not be glorious to you. The mo(^ glorioui timei of the 
church are alwayi She moil difmai times of the wkked and impent- 

tent. This wt arc taugbi in If. Ixvi. 14. And io wc fjid, 

\irhereever glotiojt thing! are foretold coneeroing the church, 
there terrible things are foretold coocernitg^he wiclicd^ite enemiee* 
And fo it ever has been in hdt ; ia all remarkable delivcraj.cet 
wrought for the church, there has been alfo a remarkaUe czeouLioa 
of wfath on its eBcmlej. So irwas when God delivered the ehii^ 
drea of Ifrael out of Egypt; at the fame time he remarkably pour- 
ed out his wrath on .Pharaoh a:}d the £gyptAioi. So whca he 
brought them into Canaan by Jofhua, and gave thei& that good 
land he remarkably executed wrath upon the Canaanites. So whea 
they were delJvetcd^out ofthe Babylonifli captivity, fgnal ven- 
geance was infii^led oo the Babylonians. So when the G«:atilct 
were called, and the ele£l of Ood were faved by the preach^tng of 
the apodles, Jerufalem and the perfecutlng Jewt were dcAroyed ia 
a mod awful manner. 1 might obferve the fasze concerning the 
glory accomplilkcd to the church in the days of Con^laatinc, at 
the overthrow of Satan's viHble kingdom in the downfall of Anti- 
chrift, and at the day of judgement, la all thefe inftances, and 
efpecially in the laft, there have been, o? will b«, exbib ited moft 
awful tokens of the diviae wrtth agasnft the wicked. And to this 
dafs of men youtieloag; 

You are indeed fome of thut fort that God wiR make ufe cfia 
riiir affair ; but it wiil be for the glory of his juflicc, and not of hU 
mercy. You are fome of thofetcamieaof God who are referred 
for the triumph of ChriA't giorious power in overcoming and? 
punifhing them. You are fooae of that foil that (ball be confam- 
ed with this accurfcd world after the day of jud|geaKnt, vrhca 
Chrift and his church fhsll triumphantfy and gldrk>uny afcead-to 

Therefore \tv ill that arc in a CfcriM^fi coadttioa aaongft ut 
ferioufly confidcr thtfe things, and net b? like the t'opliih people 
©f the old world, who would not take warning, Kfecn Noah told, 
them, that the Lord was about to bring a Soodof waters tpon the. 
earth ; or like the people of Sodom,who would cot,fcgard,vrhcaLot^ 
told them that Qod would dcftroy that city, ted would nott 
flee from the wruliio couie, SQd fo were coaJutncd ia thtt tcri^ble 
deflrudlfpn., O a 

;f^6 AHISTORYcf 

1' iroiiM eoaelude ay whole difcourfc oa thii fubjea, in words 
likftborciaihff hft of the RcveUtioo : •' Tbefc fayings arc 
#ait)hful tad true, ud bleffcd it he tb&t ktcpeth thefe faylngt. Be- 
hoUi, Chrift eofficth quickly, aod hit reward ii with him, to reo^ 
der toetrery mn aecordiof ai hit vrork (hzll be. And he that x» 
unjtift, (hall be uajuft Aill ; and he that is filthy, ihall be filthy 
Hill^i aod be that ii holy, (hall be holy ftill, Blcffed are they that 
do hit commaodmentt, that they may hare right to t^.c tree of life, 
sad ^uay eater in through ^he gatei into the city : for without arc 
dogS). and forcereri, tad wboreiaoDgeri, aod aaurdereri, and idoI« 
aten, and frhofoeverlovetfaandaaketh alie. He that tefiifieth 
thefe thing!, faith» Surely I come quickly. Amen ; even fo coa&e 



fi^t 12, Ihe 37, for (t, read //. P. i6, 1. $, after hiavtnt, r» 
<icc/. P. 45,1. 29, dcIcAr. P. 48. I 4, from bottom^ r. that, 
p. 56, i.26, r. Shuhits — 1, 27, r. Keturah, P 58 J. i. for an r, 
tfad*. P. 65. after tvai, r. lo. p. 75, 1. 2. for «»(f#r, r. «/— I. 9, 
for fit, f* Jit' P. 88, 1. 9, r. 2. CAr«. P. 92, laftlinc, r. >Ar«. 
P. 99, !.I4I. hiaveniy. P. 113, 1. 38, for A«, r. it* P. 115, lafl: 
line, r. fivtnty, P, 116, 3d line froni bot. for toll r. rx7/i P, 117, 
2d I. from bot. for book r. /wo ^t^i^*. P. 219, 1. 27. for ivArn r,- 
fwhtkiT'^^for ethfrt r, otbtr. P. 120, I. 23, for /tiTJtf r. timtSm 
P. 137, 1. 9, for u»<j/r' 'u;rr«, P. 150, 1,29, ior tf/r, «;. P. 155 
L ^0,(01 ftocd t, Jliopid, P. IS7» ^ ^4' '- '^ *''^- ^' '*^J* '• *^» 
lor eur r^your, P. 167, 1. 9. for tfft^sdr. afidcd. P. 17 a, !» 
^^t^ in bringing, P. 173, dele the whole firA line — I. 28, for 
frmr, for. P. 174,1. 36, for«a</r. c«. P. I75# I. 4» fot i7# 
after W0r/<i, r. &«/. P 185, \. 15, after complying r.ruitk.- 
P, 190, 1. 29, for Ufi r. /r4^. P. 1^9, U 26, for not r, but, P« 
204, 1. 7, r, »«| aou;, ?. 216, 1, 24, for it r. it. f. zi-j, lafi 
line, r. trouhU, P, 220, 1. 29^ for cmtny r. country, P. «22, 5« , 
Sj, r. C^nflantint tht gnat-^l, 4?, after tff r. England. P. 223,^ 
8i 30, r ttrribh. P 232/I. 32, ddecrr. P 235, 1: 23, r. «»- 
grattftil, P, 20?, 1. 22,r. cftks truth, of thiChrifticn rtligionl, 
P. 243, Ir to, fo. iWjfA r. thought, P. 243, 1, 18, ry^r. P. 2,46, 
i. 16, forfftcw^A r. iir«>irg'A— !. «2, lor c^ft^*taji, P,'.256,l, 
;32, for dljpinfationi r. difptrfisnt. P. 259, 1. 16^ r. ccifih^, P» 
>6a, L 35, for fwf ri ^wr. P. g^Of !. 2«, r# confijiing^ 


THE late learned and ingenious Mr. Edwards 
left in M3. fevcral hundred fermons on doc- 
trinal and praftical fubjeft?, explications of above 
500 texts of fcripture,and effays on the truth andex- 
cellency of the Chriftlan religion, the harmony of 
the Old and NewTeftatnent, the divinity- of Chrift^ 
the neceffity and r eaibnablenefs of atonement and 
of the imputation of merit, the eternity of hcll- 
torments, the foreknowledge of God, prcdeftinati- 
on univerfal and particular redemption, efficacious 
grace, juftification, perliverance, &c. Though he 
had no defign to publifli thefe in the form in which 
he left them, yet, in the opinion of good judges in 
America who have perufed them, they contain a 
variety of new and ftriking fentiments, oh many 
important and difficult fubjecls, which might com* 
municate to the Chriftian world much ufeful in- 
ftruclion. When writers excel only in Q-.yle and 
compofition, they can derive little honour, and the 
public can reap fmall improvement, from the prin- 
ting their ioofe unfinifhed papers ; but important 
original thoughts, tho* not accurately methodized, 
nor adorned with the beauties of eloquence, will 
merit being prcierved from oblivion. If (b much 
of the authors penetration and judgement appear 
in the preceding fheets,written about 2oyears before 
his death, much more may be exp§v2:ed from com- 
pofitionsin a period, when years, ftudy and expe- 
rience, had greatly increafed his ftock of knowledge. 
Whether the pubiilher ihall favour the world with 
any more of thefe valuable remiins, will proba* 
bably in a good meafure depend on the encouraje- 
ment this work meets v/ith. 

Date Due 

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