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A History of the County; its. Townships. Towns, Churches 

Schools, etc.; General and Local Statistics; Military 

Record; Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent 

Men; History of the Northwest Territory; 

History of Ohio; Miscellaneous 

Matters, etc., etc. 









TO rescufi from a fast engulfing oblivion the authentic events which 
have transpired in this region during a period of more than one hundred 
years, to preserve and to do honor to the memory of those who first dwelt 
within its boundaries, and to present an historical view of the institutions 
and industries of town and hamlet and township, is the object we have had 
in purpose in the preparation of this work. It has been our endeavor to 
glean the facts thoroughly, to present them simply and plainly. 

As the table of contents indicates, the work is divided into four parts. 
Parts First and Second treat briefly the history of the Northwest Territory 
and the State of Ohio. Parts Third and Fourth are chiefly devoted to 
Wyandot County. 'The twelve chapters embraced by Part Third, as well as 
l/the history of the town of Upper Sandusky found in Part Fourth, have been 
prepared by Capt. John S. Schenckj a gentleman of wide experience in thej 
compilation of local annals. The remainder of Part Fourth, mainly bio- 
graphical in its contents, has been arranged by a staff of competent, pains- 
taking writers, and possesses additional value from the fact that each bio- 
graphical sketch has been submitted for correction and approval before going 
to press. This department of the work was largely prepared by C. G. Har- 
raman. Part Third contains the general history of the county, and inci- 
dentally some fragments of the history of Northwestern Ohio. In Part 
Fourth, which is supplementary to Part Third, those minor details are pre- 
served in connection with the township histories, which could not well be 
given place in the chapters upon a broader class of subjects. In these will 
be found carefully made records of the early settlements, accounts of 
churches, schools, etc., and much of incident illustrative of the men and 
manners of early days. 

Returning to the general history, or Part Third, we will remark that 
within the first pages the effort is frequeiitly made, not only to chronicle 
facts, but to show their relation as causes and effects in the great chain of 
events by which a portion of the American wilderness was reclaimed and 
added to the mighty realm of civilization. In the first few chapters of this 
part, succeeding Chapter I, a chronological order of arrangement is main- 
tained, as nearly as may be, while in the later ones the topical form is re- 
sorted to as more practical and appropriate, and for other reasons which 
should be obvious to the reader. 

Chapter I describes the location, extent, and natural features of the 
county. Then follows three large chapters which tell the story of the Wyan- 
dot Indians, and of other Ohio tribes, from time immemorial to 1843. Under 
the title "Early Settlements." etc., is given a brief history of the settlement of 
the county, with a few remarks showing the retarding effects caused by the 
Wyandot Reserve being located within its borders. Many of the trials of pio- 
neer life are also dwelt upon in the same chapter, and the building of the 


log cabin, the dress, customs, and occupations of the first settlers are 
minutely described. A separate chapter is devoted to the civil history of the 
county, and outlines its formation and organization, the establishment of 
its courts, refers to notable public transactions, the erecfion of the county 
buildings, township divisions, and the results of elections, including also 
a valuable reference list of county officials, and the representatives of 
the county in the State and Federal Government. The Bench and Bar, the 
Medical Profession, the Newspaper Press and Educational Interests like- 
wise have each separate ]^laces in the volume. The chapter styled "Mate- 
rial Progress " embraces a variety of topics, articles upon population, the 
more important county societies, post offices, productions, etc., and the pub- 
lic improvements in the county, from the days when the " mud road " was 
the only means of communication and travel down to and including the era 
of railroad development. The county in the dark days of the rebellion re- 
sponded to the call for troops in a manner of which her people may ever be 
proud. For that reason the soldiers* record is given the large space which 
its importance demands and thus occupies a large chapter. 

In conclusion, we add that this work contains the essence of many vol- 
umes of pertinent Federal, State, County and Township Archives, of al- 
most complete newspaper tiles, and the invaluable recollections of the best- 
informed people of the county. Especial acknowledgments are also due to 
the editors and publishers of newspapers, to the pastors of churches, to 
county, village and township officials, the members of the bar and medical 
profession, the olficers of public institutions, and the members of various 
secret orders, all of whom, without a single exception, have responded prompt- 
ly and most courteously to requests for data. AVe are especially indebted 
to Hon. John D. Sears, for his able articles on the Newspapers of Upper 
Sandusky to 1871, and on the "Early Poets and Poetry " of the county, as 
well as for valuable assistance in other departments of the work. To El. D. 
Dumm, Esq., we are under many obligations for his well- written Rem- 
iniscences, and for his able and earnest co-operation in each and every de- 
partment of the history; and lastly we acknowledge iu a general manner, 
for their generous assistance, our obligations to Hon. L. A. Brunner, Pietro 
Cuneo, Hon. Robert McKelly, Hon. Chester R. Mott, Col. Moses H. Kirby, 
Hon. D. D. Hare, Hon. George W. Beery, J. G. Roberts, Thomas E. Beery, 
George Harper, and many others who aided materially in the preparation of 
the History. 

As completed, the work is now presented to its patrons. That some ei-roi-s 
will be found in the spelling of proper names, and in an occasional date 
furnished from memory, is not improbable. That such can be avoided, how- 
ever, is equally as impossible, from the fact that the persons mentioned 
aggregate many thousands, traces of whom have been obtained, largely, 
from written records, prepared very frequently by those who were, seem- 
ingly, not particular whether they wrote legibly or spelled the proper 
names correctly or not. Yet, firmly believing that the History of Wyandot 
County will prove eminently satisfactory after a careful perusal and 
investigation, it is without further remark or explanation respectfully 

Chicago, August, 18S4. 





Geographical Position 19 

Early Explorations 20 

Discoverj' of Ohio 32 

English Explorations and Settlements 34 


American Settleiuunts 59 

Division of the Northwest Territory 65 

Tecumseh and the Warof 1812 69 

Black Hawk and the Black Hawk War 73 


History of Ohio 93 

French Historv 96 

Ordinance of 1787, No. 32 105 

The War of 1812 122 

Banking 126 

The Canal System 128 

Ohio Land Tracts 129 

Improvements 132 

State Boundaries 136 

Organization of Counties 137 

Description of Counties 1.37 

Early Events 137 

Governors of Ohio 160 

Ancient W^orks 174 

Some Genera'; Characteristics 177 

Outline Geology of Ohio 179 

Ohio's Rank During the War 182 

A Brief Mention of Prominent Ohio Generals... 191 

Some Discussed Subjects 196 

Conclusion 200 

Comments upon the Ordinance of 1787, from the 

Statutes of C)hio. Edited by Salmon P. 

Chase, and Published in the year 1833 204 


CHAPTER I.— Geology 215 

Location and Extent 215 

Natural Features 215 

Geological Structure 216 

CHAPTER II.— Indian Occupancy (from time 

immemorial to 1782) 224 

Legendary Accounts Concerning the Dela- 
ware and Iroquois Indians 224 

TheShawanese and Eries 230 

The Hurons or Wyandots 231 

CHAPTER III. — Indian Occupancy Continued 

(Events from 1782 to 1818) : 240 

The Equipment of Col. Crawford's Com- 
mand 241 

The Expedition to Upper Sandusky 242 

The Battle and Defeat 246 

Col. Crawford's Capture 247 

Dr. Knight's Narrative of the March, Battle, 

Capture and Death of Col. Crawford 247 

Treaty of 1785 258 

Treaty of Greenville, 1795 263 

Treaty of 1805 264 

Treaty of 1808 264 

Treaty of 1817 205 

CHAPTER IV.— Indian Occupanc(^' Continued 

(from 1816-18 to 1843) 274 

The Wyandots in 181G 274 

John Stewart, the Colored Preacher 274 

Rev. James B. Finley Appointed to the Wy- 
andot Mission 278 

The Mission School 285 

The Delawares Cede Their Lands to the 

United States 290 

The Wyandots Cede Their Reservation to 

the United States 295 

Their Departure for Kansas 299 

CHAPTER v.— Early Settlements— Picture of 

Pioneer Life 302 

First Settlers in the Several Townships 303 

A Picture of Pioneer Life 304 

CHAPTER VI.— Civil History 312 

A Glance at This Region Prior to the For- 
mation of Wyandot County 312 

Formation, Organization, etc., of Wyandot 

County 313 

Copy of the Act of Congress 317 

Public Sale of Town Lots at Upper San- 
dusky 319 



Townships 323 

Public Buildings, etc 325 

A Few Notable Proceedings of Courts 326 

Election Returns Since the Organization of 

the County 331 

Representiitives in Congress 348 

Slate Senators 348 

State Representatives 348 

County Officers 348 

CHAPTER VII.— The Bench and Bar 353 

Introductory 353 

The Bench 354 

Supreme Courts .3.59 

District Courts 359 

Court of Common Pleas 360 

Some of the Associate Judges 361 

The Bar 364 

CHAPTER VIII.— The Medical Profession 374 

Physicians of the County in 1845 375 

Biographical Sketches of Some of the Early 
Physicians 376 

CHAPTER IX.— The Press 378 

Upper Sandusky's Journals and Journalists. 378 

The Wyandott ''Telegraph " 376 

The "Pioneer" 381 

The "Tribune" 383 

The "Vindicator" 385 

The "Herald" 385 

The "Union" 385 


The "Pioneer" Changed to the "Repub- 
lican " 386 

The "Chief" 386 

Biographical 386 

Carey Publications 399 

The Carey "Blade" 399 

The Carey " Weekly Times " 399 

The Nevada "Enterprise" .399 

The Sycamore "News" 400 

CHAPTER X— Educational Interests— Clerical 

Profession — Early Poets and Poetry 402 

Educational Interests 402 

Clerical 408 

Early Modes of Religious Worship 408 

Early Ministers of the Gospel 409 

Early Poets and Poetry 410 

CHAPTER XI.— Material Progress 419 

Pojiulatiou 419 

The Standing of Townships in 1845 420 

Transportation Facilities „ 421 

Post Offices 430 

County Agricultural Society 435 

CHAPTER XII —The County's Military Record 438 

Early Wars 438 

The Revolution 438 

The War of 1812-15 438 

The Mexican War 439 

The War of the Rebellion 439 

Regimental Histories and Soldiers' Roster.... 443 


CuAPTER I.— Town of Upper Sandusky 483 

Location 483 

Original Plan of the Town as Surveyed 483 

The Streets and Lots 484 

Early White Inhabitants 485 

Incorporation of the Town 487 

R. D. Dumm's Reminiscences 488 

Corporate Hi-story 528 

Officers of the Town since 1857 529 

Banks and Bankers 533 

Manufacturing Interests 534 

Church Organizations 537 

The Wyandot County Bible Society 543 

Wyandot Sabbath School Union 544 

Oak Hill Cemetery 54,', 

Secret Associations 546 

The Public Schools 551 

Crane Township 553 

Biographical Sketches 355 

Chaptek II.— Antrim Township 673 

Biographical Sketches 692 

Chapter III.— Crawford Township 737 

Biographical Sketches 764 

Chapter IV.— Eden Township 811 

Biographical Sketches 815 

Chapter V.— Jackson Township 832 

Biographical Sketches , 838 

Chapter VI.— Marseilles Township 852 

Biographical Sketches 860 

Chapter VII.— Mifflin Township 883 

Biographical Sketches 888 

Chapter VIIL— Pitt Township 897 

Biographical Sketches 904 

Chapter IX. — Richland Township 932 

Biographical Sketches 939 

Chapter X. — Ridge Township 962 

Biographical Sketches 966 

Chapter XI. — Salem Township 974 

Biographical Sketches 980 

Chapter XII.— Sycamore Township 992 

Biographical Sketches 1000 

Chapter XIII.— Tymochtee Township 1029 

Biographical Sketches 1040 


Altstaetter, Henry 4G0 

Between-the-logs (Indian) 261 

Bravton, William 688 

Briukerhoff, A. W 169 

Bruuner, Hon. L. A 333 

Carey, Mcl>. M 513 

Dumm, R. D .388 

Kn^el, John K 477 

Ewing, Samuel, Sr 6.53 

Harpster, David 212 

Lee, B. F 620 

McConnell, Dr. James 316 

McKelly, Hon. Robert 369 

McKelvy, Robert 496 

Mononcue (Indian) 280 

Peters, Henry 405 

Rieser, J. F 441 

Sears, Hon. John I) 352 

Seider, John 424 

Straw, David 188 

.straw, Lewis 532 

Van Gundy. William 549 

Walton, L. R 585 

Walton, William 568 

Wood, John , 721 




■Source of the Mississippi 22 

I.a Salle Landing on the Shores of Green Bay.... 24 

Buffalo Hunt 26 

Trapping 2S 

Mouth of the Mississippi '-il 

High Bridge 33 

Pontiac, the Ottawa Chieftain 42 

Indians Attacking Frontiersmen 55 


Present Site Lake Street Bridge, Chicago, in 1833 .58 

A Pioneer Dwelling 60 

Lake Bluff. 62 

Tecumseh, the Shawnee rhieftain 68 

Indians Attacking a Stockade 71 

Black Hawk, the Sac Chieftain 73 

Perry's Monument, Cleveland 91 

Niagara Falls 92 


Biographical Sketches, Index to ix 

Map of Wyandot County 14-15 

Constitution of the United States 79 

Area of the United States 203 

Wyandot County Court House, Lithograph 279 

Wyandot Mission Church, Lithograph 243 

Indian Jail, Lithograph 225 

Population of Principal Countries in the World 203 

Population of Ohio by Counties 203 

Population of Wyandot County 419 




Agerter, John 555 

Ahlefeld, Samuel 939 

Allen, Archibald 5.56 

Allien, Jacob 764 

Allis, Justin.. 939 

Alter, David 838 

Alter, Jeremiah M 839 

Alter, John 839 

Alter, J. R 939 

Althouse, Christian 556 

Althouse, .Samuel 815 

Altstaetter, Henry 557 

Altvater, Frederick 980 

Anderson, James 692 

^ Armstrong, George 816 

I Armstrong, Samuel 816 

^Arnold, Elias 981 

Arter, Jacob P 557 

Aspinall, William 76-1 

Ayres, David 557 

Babcock, Peter L 10-10 

Bachtell, Emmet E 692 

Bachtell, Joseph 692 

Bachtell, Samuel 693 

Bachtell, Uriah L 817 

Bacon, Irvin 693 

Badger, George 1040 

Badger, Jesse 1040 

Baker, David L 940 

Baker, Jacob 940 

Raker, Job 1000 

Baker John 764 

Baker, Samuel 840 

Baker, William 940 

Baldwin, George W 904 

Balliet, Leonard 817 

Bare, Dr. Hiram 1001 

Barick, J. L 558 

Barr, Dr. James D 860 

Barth, Christian 904 

Bartram, Ezra G 861 

Baughman, Daniel 941 

Baughman. Ebenezer 966 

Baum, Peter 1041 

Beam, Mrs. Mary 558 

Bechler, 8everin 559 

Bechtel, Daniel 765 

Bechtel, Orren M 941 

Bechtel, Samuel 941 

Beebe, Buell S 766 

Beer, J. Adam 818 

Beer, Hon. Thomas 364 

Beery, Brooks 5.59 

*^Beery, Hon. George W 560 

v'Beery, Frank 563 

VBeery, Isaac H 563 

W^eery, Thomas E 564 

Beidler, Peter B 565 

Bender, Andrew F 1001 

Bender, Jacob 905 

Benner, John 566 

Berg, Frederick 566 


Berlien. J. P 840 

Berlien, Reuben 840 

Berry, Jr., Hon. Curtis 569 

Berrv, Hon. John 569 

Bertsch, William 981 

Betz, Michael D 1002 

Between-the-Logs (Indian) 264 

Betzer, William 1002 

Betzer, William W 1003 

Bever, Samuel 694 

Bies, Charles 767 

Billhardt, Dr. A 570 

Binau, John 981 

Binau, Peter, Jr 981 

Blair, Theodore F 1003 

Blair, William L 694 

Bloom, Jacob 967 

Blow, Joseph 861 

Blue, Abraham 1041 

Blue, Chester C 1042 

Bope, Conrad 1042 

Bowen, Hon. Ozias 362 

Bower, Henry S 841 

Bower, .Jefferson D 841 

Bower, Michael 861 

Bowers, John S 570 

Bowlby, D. W 905 

Bowlby, Emanuel 695 

Bowlby, James 767 

Bowman, Thomas M 905 

Bowman, Dr. Isaac N 571 

Bowsher, Clinton 571 

Bowsher, Jesse 571 

Bowsher, William E 572 

Brashares, Plenry .'...1045 

Brashares, Perry 942 

Brashares, Truman 1045 

Brauns, Edward A 572 

Brauns, Ewald 572 

Brayton, Dr. Asa 767 

Brayton, Oliver 768 

Brayton, William 768 

Breese, John E 1004 

Bretz, Andrew J 1004 

Bretz, David S 906 

Brewer, Jacob A 906 

Bricher, C. P 888 

Brinkerhoff, A. W 573 

Brinkerhoff, M. H 576 

Bristoll, William 942 

Brown, Abraham 696 

Brown, Asa 1004 

Brown, Henry 818 

Brown, Henry P 769 

Brown, Johu'X 943 

Brown, Joseph 982 

Brown, .Joseph A 696 

Brown, Wilber 1005 

Brown, William 576 

Brunner, Hon. Louis A 393 

Bryant, Benjamin F G97 

Buckles, S.B "0 



Bunn, Alva 1005 

Burbaugh, Samuel 697 

Burke, Charles W 698 

Huruett, Samuel M 842 

Burnside, James 698 

Buser, John 577 

Byron, Dr. D. W 577 

Bvron, Dr. W. K 578 

Caldwell, Rev. David S 699 

Caldwell, Martha 819 

Carey, Hon. John 770 

Carey, McD. M 773 

Carey, Robert 578 

Carothers, Wilson 770 

Carr, Daniel 769 

Carter. Richard 907 

Case, Myron B 819 

Castanien, David 908 

Castauieu, Frank P 907 

Casvanien, John 907 

Caughey, William A 1006 

Chamberlin, James M 1044 

Chance, James P 699 

Chatlain, Frederick H 821 

Clabaugh, Henry J 1044 

Clark, Dr. S. L 943 

Clayton, D. D 578 

Clinger, Daniel 888 

Close, James T 579 

Coates, Sylvanus R 944 

Cole, Barnet 820 

Cole, Isaac H 944 

Cole, Lewis A 945 

Cole, William H 820 

Consteiu, William 580 

Cook, L Hopkins 908 

Cook, James L 700 

Cook, Simeon B 862 

Cook, Stephen R 908 

Coons, Daniel 908 

Copley, William H 770 

Corfman, Jacob 1045 

Corfman, William 1007 

Courtad, Martin 580 

Courtad, Peter 581 

Cramer, David 581 

Cramer, Francis M 582 

Craner, Louis 701 

Crawford, James 582 

Crawford, Col. William 254 

Crites, Jonas 945 

Cross, Henry C 821 

Cummins, James S 821 

Cummings, William 822 

Cuueo, Pietro 396 

Curlis, David A 1045 

Dahmer, Henry H 909 

Daniels, Myer 583 

Davis, Alfred K 774 

Davis, Ephraim W 701 

Davis, Dr. Jacob W 583 

Dean, Hamilton 889 

De Bolt, Silas 584 

Demarest, Peter L 863 

Dickerson, W. T 774 

Dirmeyer, John 587 

Dotts, Andrew 701 

Dotts, William H 702 

Downev, Solomon F 1007 

Duffield, W. W 945 

Dumm, Robert D 394 

Dunlap, Daniel 1008 

Dunlap, Fayette 1008 

Durenberger, Arnold 842 

Dustman, Rev. J. M 774 

Dye, Andrew 702 

Kdgington, Jesse 822 

Ekleberry, Alice 1009 

Ekleberry, Levi 1046 

Ekleberry, Nathan 822 

Emptage, William 863 

Enders, Abner E 983 

Engel, Christian 587 

Engel, John K 588 

England, Daniel 775 

England, John 775 

Ewart, Oliver C 703 

. PAGE. 

Ewing, John M 982 

Ewing, Samuel, .Sr 982 

Eyestone, Edmond K 1008 

Eyestone, George W 1009 

Faul, Henry 775 

Fehl, Frederick 863 

Feichter, Charles 909 

Fernbaugh, Henry 843 

Fernbaugh, William 588 

Fetter, Ileury 776 

Flickinger, Andrew H 703 

Flock, Daniel 703 

Forney, J. H 844 

Fowler, Dr. Stephen 376 

Fowler, C. Rush 909 

Fowler, Scott M 910 

Fowler, Stephen P 911 

Fox, Cieorge W ;. 864 

Frater, William H 911 

Frazier, David 589 

Frederick, Mrs. Barbara 589 

Freet, George W 590 

Fulk, Abraham 946 

Gamel, Thomas J 983 

Gangwer, John 704 

Gantz, George W 983 

Garfield, Joseph E 590 

Gaster, John J 844 

Gates, Horatio S... 864 

Gault, Jordan 1046 

Gault, .Jordan S 1009 

Gaver, Ephraim 823 

Gear, Eugene M 776 

Geiger, Madison P 1010 

Gibbs, Addison E 776 

Gibbs, Dr. Isaiah B 1010 

Gibbs, William 1011 

Gibson, Isaiah 823 

Gibson, James : 889 

Gibson, Joel W 590 

Gier, W. Scott 1047 

Giles, W. T 386 

Gilliland, Jacob 1047 

Gilliland, William 824 

Gipson William A 591 

Gintert, John 777 

Goetz, ^iicholas F 592 

Goodbread, James N 705 

Goodbread, William F 704 

Goodman, David 1012 

Gordon, Capt. E. A 592 

Gottier, .Tacob 983 

Gray, Lauren 706 

Gregg, George W 705 

Greek, Alexander J 946 

Greek, George 967 

Greek, Jacob 593 

Greek, John 967 

Greek, William 968 

Greer, John 777 

Griffith, Cyrus 1011 

Griffith, Harvey 1011 

Grubb, Leuis 1048 

Grummel, Peter 594 

Grundtisch, Henry 593 

Gump, Jonathan i 594 

Haas, John J 595 

Hale, Daniel 595 

Hale, Capt. George W 595 

Hall, Edward 706 

Hall, (ieorge W 596 

Hall, Goodwin 707 

Hall, Jude 364 

Hall, Judge Lawrence W 361 

Handchy, Henry 866 

Haner, John 89u 

Hardy, Dr. Neil 597 

Hare, Curtis B 597 

Hare, Hon. D. D 597 

Hare, John K 778 

Harman, Samuel 912 

Harmon, Henry 600 

Harper, George 598 

Harpster, David (Pitt Township) 912 

Harpster, David (Crawford Township) 779 

Harris, L. B 599 

Harris, Z. W 947 



Hart, .Tacob P 600 

Hart, John D 778 

Hart, Silas S 913 

Hartle, Adam M 86.5 

Hartle, Socrates 86.5 

Hartsough, Capt. Daniel 600 

Hayman, Jacob 1049 

Healy, J. E 890 

Hedges, Wesley 601 

Hehr, Jacob 602 

Heilman, Eli 1049 

Heistand, George 1012 

Heller, Philip 844 

Henderson, Avery 603 

Henderson, Dr. R. A 602 

Hendrickson, Russell B 890 

Henige, Valentine 779 

Herring, Henry 914 

Hershberger, Aaron C 1013 

Hesseldenz, George 845 

Hetzel, George 1050 

Hetzel, Michael 10.50 

Hewlitt, Thomas 866 

Hibbins, James 984 

Hickel, Jacob 780 

Hildreth, David B 867 

Hildreth, Stephen 867 

Hile, Levi 780 

Hill, Jonathan 1013 

Hill, Samuel P 867 

Hines, George H 845 

^Hitchcock, \V. B 604 

Hite, lienjamin 707 

V Hite, John 707 

v/tlite, Simon 708 

Hofftuan, Daniel 604 

Hohwald, (^'asper 605 

Hoke, George 1 915 

Hollanshead, Jacob 891 

Hollanshead, Milton M 891 

Holmes, Frank 400 

Honsberger, Abraham 1013 

Hopp, Benjamin 708 

Hornby, Charles 916 

Hostler, Charles W 947 

Hough, Alvin M 605 

Hough, Frank B 605 

Hough, Milton B 606 

Houk, I^aul and Anna 781 

Houston, John M 606 

Howe. Philip M 709 

Hoyt, Charles 781 

Huffman, Simon 607 

Hughes, Burnet 914 

Hughes, James Lindsey 914 

Humbert, William K 782 

Hunt, Ambrose C 915 

Hunt, Col. S H 607 

Hunt, William S 915 

Hunter, James A 968 

Hunter, Thomas 782 

Hutter, Joseph 608 

Illig, Dr. Edward 783 

Illig, Dr. Gus. F 783 

Inman, Harkless K 984 

Irmer, Earnest R 709 

Jackson, Jacob 969 

Jaqueth, B. F 1014 

Jaros, Charles 609 

Johnson, Isaac. 868 

Johnson, Dr. J. D 948 

Johnson, Miles C 1051 

Jonas, Frank 609 

Jones, Dr Charles P 709 

Jump, Virgil 1014 

Jury, Henry C 916 

Jury, JohnR 710 

Juvinall, Jacob 609 

Kail, Andrew J 891 

Kail, Samuel P 892 

Kail, William D 610 

Karg, Jacob P 610 

Karr, Charles M 784 

Karr, Henry W 784 

Karr, Nathan 785 

Kauble, David 948 

Kear, Byron 1051 


Kear, Doctor 1052 

Kear, Henry 984 

Kear, James 985 

Kear, Milton 985 

Kear, Moses 985 

Kear, Nathan 986 

Keller, Henry 611 

Keller, Jacob 711 

Keller, John 711 

Keller, Levi W 611 

Kelly, A. P 785 

Kelly, David R 612 

Kemmerly, John 786 

Kemp, Dr. G. W 868 

Kenan, Alvin 612 

Kenan, Franklin P 613 

Kenan, George 613 

Kenan, Samuel 613 

Kendall, Thomas 710 

Kennard. tieorge G 614 

Kennedy, B. F 869 

Kennedy, John W 869 

Kenttield, David L 786 

Kerr, James 614 

Kerr, Johnston 916 

Kerr, Robert 712 

Kerr, Robert E 614 

Kime, Henry 949 

Kimmel, Joseph 949 

King, Peter C 1052 

Kiniey, Frederick 824 

Kinley, William 1015 

Kirby, Gen. Isaac M 616 

Kirby, Col. Moses H 615 

Kitchen, William B 1015 

Klingler, John M 713 

Kneasal, Jacob 787 

Konkle, Jehiel T 1016 

Koontz, John A 986 

Kotterman, Michael 917 

Kotterman, Solomon 917 

Krabill, John W 969 

Kramer, George 917 

Kramer, G. G 617 

Krisher, Lemuel 870 

Kromer, Frederick 618 

Kuenzli, Henry 618 

Kuenzli, Samuel 618 

Kuenzli, Samuel E 621 

Kurtz, H. B 787 

Lambright, Michael 825 

Landon, L. E 846 

Laudenschlager, George 621 

Lautinslager, Jacob 846 

Lawrence, Hon. William 363 

Layman, Joseph H 713 

Lea, Henry G 714 

Lease, Jacob 1016 

Lee, Benjamin F 871 

Lee, Joanna 1016 

Lear, Chauncey M 870 

Leith, Hiram 714 

Leith, James S 715 

Leslie Harmon R 892 

Leslie, John 871 

Lewis, Miles S 918 

Lewis, Sumner E 918 

Lidle, finest 716 

Liles, Isaiah 949 

Lile^ J. A 846 

Lime, John 621 

Lindsey, Robert 872 

Lininger, Cxodfred 918 

Lohr, Conrad 716 

Long, Henry 1053 

Long, Maj. Hugh 873 

Long, James 986 

Long, John R 986 

Loubert, John 847 

Loudermilch, William J 623 

Lowery, Robert 783 

Lowmaster, Reuben 825 

Lowry, Josiah J 622 

Lupton, Lewis 1053 

Lyle, Col. Aaron 367 

Mackey, Abraham 825 

Maddux, Henry 367 



Maffett, Gibson A 623 

-Mann, George 623 

Maun, Isaac 62-t 

Mann, Job G 624 

Mann, John 987 

March, John II 847 

Margraf, William 025 

Martin, B. W yi8 

Maskey, Dr George 625 

Maskey, William M 716 

Mason, Hugh 893 

Matteson, Job 987 

Mawer, John 919 

Maxwell, Joseph A 625 

McBeth, John 717 

Mclieth, Thomas (' 717 

McHeth, William 718 

McClaiu, Abraham 626 

McClain, Archibald II 627 

McClaiu, Thomas 919 

McCleary, John 873 

McClelland, David 950 

McClelland, William 950 

McCleary, John W 893 

McClure, Russell 788 

McClure, T. W 788 

JlcConnell, Dr. David W 874 

McConnell, Dr. James 627 

MeConnell, Dr. R. N 629 

McCutchen, Hon. Joseph 1053 

McFarland, Nelson 630 

McKelly, Hon. Robert 630 

McKelly, Robert A 631 

McKelvy, Robert 631 

JlcKelvy, William J 632 

McLaughlin, James 826 

McPeek, Elias 848 

Miller, Dr. A. F 789 

Miller, Clay 91<i 

Miller, George W 826 

Miller, Capt. Henry. 632 

Miller, Isaac 718 

Miller, John R '.'.'"".'. 789 

Miller, Reuben ." 719 

Milligan, John W .".' 826 

Milligan, William A ......1017 

Milum, Joel 1055 

Mitchell, George A '„,[ G33 

Mitscb, John ..'".'. 634 

Mitten, Miles A , ."!!l055 

Mohr, Isaac [".'.. 951 

Moody, Lyman C 987 

Moody, T. Y ;;;". 6.36 

Mouser, David D 920 

Mouser, William 920 

Mo-noneue (Indian) 277 

Montee, William ".".' 720 

Montgomery, John F !.lol7 

Morris, Benjamin 827 

Mott, Hon. Chester R .....'.'.'.'. 636 

Musgrave, Joseph " 951 

Myers, Dr. A. II '. ...'.'.'."'. 790 

Myers, Benjamin B ..,,, 720 

Myers, John F 634 

Myers, Jr., John F 635 

Myers, Levi T \", 635 

Myers, M. Baker 921 

Myers, Michael ,„', 635 

Nagel, William 987 

Neally, James ; 723 

Nelson, James N 637 

New hard, Jay '.'.'.".'.'.'... 791 

Newhard, Jacob 790 

Newman, Joseph .......' 827 

Nichols, Daniel W 988 

Niel)el, Abraham A .'...".1056 

Niederhauser, Christian 921 

Niederhauser, John 921 

Nigh, Aaron ........'..'.".'. 791 

Nigh, George A 791 

Noll, Henry 792 

Nutter, Isaac .......'. 921 

Nye, David S 799 

Nye, H. H .■...".;:■.;;■.;■.■. 792 

Odenbaugh, Dr. J 957 

O'Donnell, Michael 638 

Pahl, Francis 793 


Pahl, Joseph 793 

Palmer, John E 723 

Parker, Henry 1057 

Parker, William 922 

Pease, James C 10I8 

Pease, Loren A 724 

Peifer, Peter 638 

PenniDgton, Levi 1U18 

Pennington, Levi M 10I8 

Pennington, I^eter 1019 

Peters, Henry.... 638 

Peters, Henry W 639 

Peterson, David S 640 

Pickett, Dr. Samuel 952 

Pierson, Mrs. Delilah 640 

Pittsford, John A 794 

Plants, Hon. Josiah S 363 

Phillips, Samuel 875 

Pool, James B §75 

Pool, James M 641 

Pool, Robert W S27 

Pool, William F 642 

Pontius, Andrew 1057 

Powell, Daniel 794 

Price, George B 828 

Quail, Asa 893 

Quail, Henry 876 

Quail, John 894 

Ragou, John 642 

Rauck, Jacob 724 

Ranger, Luther G 795 

Ratz, Nicholas 725 

Reisterer, Joseph 988 

Rex, Caroline 725 

Reynolds, A. S 952 

Reynolds, John G 795 

Rieser, George 894 

Rieser, John F 643 

Ritterspach, Henry 726 

Ritterspach, Jacob W 726 

Ritterspach, Simon 726 

Roberts, James G 643 

Rogers, Denton V 1019 

Rogers, Rev. L. D 953 

Rogers, Thomas 1019 

Ronk, Soloman 1058 

Rood, George 727 

Roppold, G. H 644 

Rosenbury, A. F 954 

Rowland, Marquis L S94 

Rowse, Walter R 922 

Royer, Dr. J. A 796 

Rummell, Riner V 954 

Russell, John 727 

Saltz, William 797 

Saltsman, William R 645 

Sampson, Dr. George W 377 

Sanfurd, Walter S48 

Sankey, James'E 828 

Savidge, Foster W 989 

Savidge, George W 797 

Schriver, Henry 849 

Schuetz, William 1058 

Schug, John T 922 

Scott, James B 989 

Sears, Col. Cyrus 923 

Sears, Hon. John D 645 

Seider, John 647 

Seiger, Joseph '. 728 

Seligman, Lewis A 877 

Seligman, William ^.. 876 

Senseny, Rev. .John yy/.. 647 

Shafler, Isaac X. 989 

Sheaffer, Peter K 1021 

Shatt'ner, Joseph W 1058 

Shealey, John 648 

Shellhouse, Albert J 955 

Shellhouse, Edward S 797 

Shellhouse, Perry M 989 

Shoemaker, Joseph 990 

Shoup, Samuel 970 

Shoup, SaxtonC 970 

Shuler, Jacob C 798 

Shultz, Henry 648 

Shuman, Frederick 799 

Shuman, Joseph 799 

Shuman, Sylvester 799 



Siddall, James R 8U0 

Simpson, Samuel 877 

Smalley. Allen 649 

Smalley, Dr. Jacob W 649 

Smalley, James 650 

Smallev, Jesse 650 

Smallev, M. A 800 

^mith, Clinton 800 

^mith, David (Pitt Township) 924 

_gniith, r>avid (Crawford Township) 801 

^mith, John H 925 

-Smith, John M 970 

-Smith, Joseph M Gol 

-ismith, Landline 652 

Smith, M. B 801 

Smith, Philip 1022 

-^Smith, William F 894 

-Smith, Zachariah T 924 

'*6nodgrass, James F 1022 

Snyder, Jesse 652 

Snyder, John W 925 

Spencer, Samuel 1022 

Spoon. Daniel 956 

Spoon; David F 9.56 

Spoon, Solomon 956 

Stafford, Andrew 1023 

Stalter, Hiram 925 

Starr, F. M 803 

Starr, Hiram J 802 

Starr, William B 1023 

Staum. Jacob 1020 

Stecher, George J 655 

Stetler, Amos .» 803 

Sterling, John 9.55 

Sterner. John D 6.55 

Sterner, Michael 6-55 

Stevens, William C 1024 

Stevenson, George B 656 

Stevenson, James M 657 

Stewart, James A 728 

Stewart, Dr. Robert M 729 

Stinchcomb, John W 1020 

Stiner, Michael 804 

Stockton, Dr. James A 657 

Siokely, Lewis M 1059 

Ptokley, Reverdy 1024 

Stoker, John L 658 

Stoll, Jacob F 805 

StoU, John J 658 

Stoll, Ludwig K05 

Stonfeburner, Noah 926 

Straser, John 659 

Straw, David 805 

Straw, D. H 807 

Straw, Lewis 926 

Straw, Orrin F 895 

Strebv, Wintield J 6,59 

Studebaker, John 877 

Stury, Christian 928 

Swank, Casper S 829 

Swann, James 659 

Swartz, Jacob 660 

Swerlein, John 10.59 

Swerline, Albert 1060 

Swihart, Jeremiah J 927 

Swihart, Peter M 927 

Swinehart, Jacob 927 

Swinehart, Joseph P 928 

Taft, Hiram 957 

Tallman, George H 399 

Tarhe (Indian) 272 

Taylor, George , 1025 

Tavlor, James 829 

Thiel, George.!'. 895 

Thomas, Enoch 878 

Thompson, William M 660 

Tilton, Charles O 661 

Tilton, John 662 

Tivens, Patrick 729 

Tobias, Elizabeth J 662 

Tracht, H. A 398 

Tracht, Philip 663 

Tracy, H. P 662 

Traxler, Daniel 730 

Traxler, Daniel C 730 

Traxler, Peter 829 

Tripp, Sr., Frank 663 


Tripp, Frank T 398 

Trish, Henry 731 

Troup, Henry 928 

T.schauen, Christian 664 

Tschanen, (jeorge W 665 

Tschaneu, William T 665 

Turney, Dr. .loseph 731 

Ulrich, John H 9D0 

Uncapher, Andrew 878 

Uncapher, Philip 879 

Updegraff, Ann E 971 

Updegraff, John M.... 972 

Updegraff, Ner L 971 

Van Buren, Ezra II 957 

Van Buren, Martin 958 

Van Gundy, George 1025 

Van Gundy, William 1026 

Vanorsdall, Abraham H 849 

Vanorsdall, Jonathan 895 

Van Pool, George 1060 

Veith, Jr., Charles F 666 

Veith, Sr., Carl F 665 

Veith, Casper 666 

Vogel. Frank 667 

Von Stein, John H 666 

Von Stein, Dr, Leonard 667 

Wagner, John S 1060 

W^alborn, Jonathan Z 990 

Walborn, William A 807 

Walter, Dr L. P 668 

Walton, Lemar 830 

Walton, L. R 1061 

Walton, William 1062 

AVallermlre, M. H 850 

Ward, James P 9.58 

AVaters, Henry 668 

AVatson, David G 1026 

Wear, William K 367 

Webber, A. Royal 879 

Webber, William E 880 

Welch, Frank M 830 

Welch, James A 732 

W'elch, William 732 

Welsh, Henry M 732 

Welsh, Manington 733 

Wentz, ,Iohn... 959 

Whaley, W. W 896 

White, Daniel 991 

White, Dr. James W 669 

W'hittaker, James 928 

Wickiser, Albert 9.59 

Wickiser. J. D 959 

AViest, Christopher 929 

Wilcox, Joseph M 400 

Wilkin, David 880 

Williams, Benjamin 929 

Williams, D. B 960 

Williams, Saxton C 807 

Williams, D. H. S 669 

Williams, Edegar R 7.34 

Williams, Evan T 1027 

AVillson, Edwin S 1062 

Wilson, George C 1027 

Wilson, A. Z 1027 

Wilson, William T 467 

Wininger, Charles L 1062 

Wininger, George L 1063 

Wininger, Joel 1063 

Wininger, John 1064 

Winslow, Philip 881 

Wirick, Samuel J 670 

Wise, Jacob 960 

Wise, Jerome 961 

Witzel, William 069 

Witzel, W^illiam 699 

Wright, Catharine 991 

Woessner, John 7;J4 

Worthington, Joseph C 881 

Worth, Hon. S. M 071 

Wohlgamuth, Isaac 972 

Wohlgemuth, Jonas 972 

Wolf, David B 734 

Wood, John 930 

Wood, Jr., John 9.30 

Wood, Lester 1064 

Wood, Reuben 930 

Wood, Reuben S 931 



Wonder, Andrew J 808 

Wonder, David H 808 

Wonder, Fred H 809 

Wonder, Mai bias 809 

Woolsey, William B 735 

Worallo, Francis J 810 

Worley, Jacob G 931 

Yambert, William 10G5 

Yark, Reuben 831 


Young, George W 961 

Young, Hezekiah 850 

Young, John R 735 

Zellner, Tilghman 1028 

Zimmerman, Elizabeth 671 

Zimmerman, JohnF 810 

Zimmerman, Peter 851 

Zimmerman, Simon 851 

Zulauf, Samuel 736. 





N I a hi V H 

V'^ H 

The Northwest Territory. 


When the Northwestern Territory was ceded to the United States 
by Virginia in 1784, it embraced only the territory lying between the 
Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that portion of 
Minnesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The United 
States itself at that period extended no farther west than the Mississippi 
River ; but by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary 
of the United States was extended to the Rocky Mountains and the 
Northern Pacific Ocean. The new territory thus added to the National 
domain, and subsequently opened to settlement, has been called the 
''New Northwest," in contradistinction from the old "Northwestern 
Territory. " 

In comparison with the old Northwest this is a territory of vast 
magnitude. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles ; being greater 
in extent than the united areas of all the Middle and Southern States, 
including Texas. Out of this magnificent territory have been erected 
eleven sovereign States and eight Territories, with an aggregate popula- 
tion, at the present time, of 13,000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one third of 
the entire population of the United States. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, and the larger rivers of the continent 
flow for a thousand miles through its rich alluvial valleys and far- 
stretching prairies, more acres of which are arable and productive of the 
highest percentage of the cereals than of any other area of like extent 
on the globe. 

^or the last twenty years the increase of population in the North- 
west has been about as three to one in any other portion of the United 




In the year 1541, DeSoto first saw the Great West in the New 
World. He, however, penetrated no farther north than the 35th parallel 
of latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than 
half his army, the remainder of whom found their way to Cuba, thence 
to Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. DeSoto founded no 
settlements, produced no results, and left no traces, unless it were that 
he awakened the hostility of the red man against the white man, and 
disheartened such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery 
for better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready to seize 
upon any news from this extensive domain, and were the first to profit by 
DeSoto's defeat. Yet it was more than a century before any adventurer 
took advantage of these discoveries. 

In 1616, four years before the pilgrims " moored their bark on the 
wild New England shore," Le Caron, a French Franciscan, had pene- 
trated through the Iroquois and Wyandots (Hurons) to the streams which 
run into Lake Huron ; and in 1634, two Jesuit missionaries founded the 
first mission among the lake tribes. It was just one hundred years from 
the discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto (1541) until the Canadian 
envoys met the savage nations of the Northwest at the Falls of St. Mary, 
below the outlet of Lake Superior. This visit led to no permanent 
result ; yet it was not until 1659 that any of the adventurous fur traders 
attempted to spend a Winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, 
nor was it until 1660 that a station was established upon their borders by 
Mesnard, who perished in the woods a few months after. In 1665, Claude 
Allouez built the earliest lasting habitation of the white man among the 
Indians of the Northwest. In 1668, Claude Dablon and James Marquette 
founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two 
years afterward, Nicholas Perrot, as agent for M. Talon, Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada, explored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as far south as the 
present City of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations to meet him at a 
grand council at Sault Ste. Marie the following Spring, where they were 
taken under the protection of the king, and formal possession was taken 
of the Northwest. This same year Marquette established a mission at 
Point St. Ignatius, where was founded the old town of Michillimackinac. 

During M. Talon's explorations and Marquette's residence at St. 
Ignatius, they learned of a great river away to the west, and fancied 
— as all others did then — that upon its fertile banks whole tribes of God's 
children resided, to whom the sound of the Gospel had never come. 
Filled with a wish to go and preach to them, and in compliance with a 


request of M. Talon, who earnestly desired to extend the domain of his 
king, and to ascertain whether the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico 
or the Pacific Ocean, Marquette with Joliet, as commander of the expe- 
dition, prepared for the undertaking. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, the explorers, accompanied by five assist- 
ant French Canadians, set out from Mackinaw on their daring voyage of 
discovery. The Indians, who gathered to witness their departure, were 
astonished at the boldness of the undertaking, and endeavored to dissuade 
them from their purpose by representing the tribes on the Mississippi as 
exceedingly savage and cruel, and the river itself as full of all sorts of 
frightful monsters ready to swallow them and their canoes together. But, 
nothing daunted by these terrific descriptions, Marquette told them he 
was willing not only to encounter all the perils of the unknown region 
they were about to explore, but to lay down his life in a cause in which 
the salvation of souls was involved ; and having prayed together they 
separated. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan, the 
adventurers entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox River and 
Lake Winnebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here Mar- 
quette was delighted to find a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, 
which these good people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank him for the pity he had bestowed on them during the Winter in 
giving them an abundant " chase." This was the farthest outpost to 
which Dablon and Allouez had extended their missionary labors the 
year previous. Here Marquette drank mineral waters and was instructed 
in the secret of a root which cures the bite of the venomous rattlesnake. 
He assembled the chiefs and old men of the village, and, pointing to 
Joliet, said: " My friend is an envoy of France, to discover new coun- 
tries, and I am an ambassador from God to enlighten them with the truths 
of the Gospel." Two Miami guides were here furnished to conduct 
them to the Wisconsin River, and they set out from the Indian village on 
the 10th of June, amidst a great crowd of natives who had assembled to 
witness their departure into a region where no white man had ever yet 
ventured. The guides, having conducted them across the portage, 
returned. The explorers launched their canoes upon the Wisconsin, 
which they descended to the Mississippi and proceeded down its unknown 
waters. What emotions must have swelled their breasts as they struck 
out into the broadening current and became conscious that they were 
now upon the bosom of th3 Father of Waters. The mystery was about 
to be lifted from the long-sought river. The scenery in that locality is 
beautiful, and on that delightful seventeenth of June must have been 
clad in all its primeval loveliness as it had been adorned by the hand of 



Nature. Drifting rapidly, it is said that the bold blufifs on either hand 
" reminded them of the castled shores of their own beautiful rivers of 
France." By-and-by, as they drifted along, great herds of buffalo appeared 
on the banks. On going to the heads of the valley they could see a 
country of the greatest beauty and fertility, apparently destitute of inhab- 
itants yet presenting the appearance of extensive manors, under the fas- 
tidious cultivation of lordly proprietors. 


On June 25, they went ashore and found some fresh traces of men upon 
the sand, and a path which led to the prairie. The men remained in the 
boat, and Marquette and Joliet followed the path till they discovered a 
village on the banks of a river, and two other villages on a hill, within a 
half league of the first, inhabited by Indians. They were received most 
hospitably by these natives, who had never before seen a white person. 
After remaining a few days they re-embarked and descended the river to 
about latitude 33°, where they found a village of the Arkansas, and being 
satisfied that the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, turned their course 


up the river, and ascending tlie stream to the mouth of the Illinois, 
rowed up that stream to its source, and procured guides from that point 
to the lakes. " Nowhere on this journey," says Marquette, •' did we see 
such grounds, meadows, woods, stags, buffaloes, deer, wildcats, bustards, 
swans, ducks, parroquets, and even beavers, as on the Illinois River." 
The party, without loss or injury, reached Green Bay in September, and 
reported their discovery — one of the most important of the age, but of 
which no record was preserved save Marquette's, Joliet losing his by 
the upsetting of his canoe on his way to Quebec. Afterward Marquette 
returned to the Illinois Indians by their request, and ministered to them 
until 1675. On the 18th of May, in that year, as he was passing the 
mouth of a stream — going with his boatmen up Lake Michigan — he asked 
to land at its mouth and celebrate Mass. Leaving his men with the canoe, 
he retired a short distance and began his devotions. As much time 
passed and he did not return, his men went in search of him, and found 
him upon his knees, dead. He had peacefully passed away while at 
prayer. He was buried at this spot. Charlevoix, who visited the place 
fifty years after, found the waters had retreated from the grave, leaving 
the beloved missionary to repose in peace. The river has since been 
called Marquette. 

While Marquette and his companions were pursuing their labors in 
the West, two men, diifering widely from him and each other, were pre- 
paring to follow in his footsteps and perfect the discoveries so well begun 
by him. These were Robert de La Salle and Louis Hennepin. 

After La Salle's return from the discovery of the Ohio River (see 
the narrative elsewhere), he established himself again among the French 
trading posts in Canada. Here he mused long upon the pet project of 
those ages — a short way to China and the East, and was busily planning an. 
expedition up the great lakes, and so across the continent to the Pacific, 
when Marquette returned from the Mississippi. At once the vigorous mind 
of LaSalle received from his and his companions' stories the idea that by fol- 
lowing the Great River northward, or by turning up some of the numerous 
western tributaries, the object could easily be gained. He applied to 
Frontenac, Governor General of Canada, and laid before him the plan, 
dim but gigantic. Frontenac entered warmly into his plans, and saw that 
LaSalle's idea to connect the great lakes by a chain of forts with the Gulf 
of Mexico would bind the country so wonderfully together, give un- 
measured power to France, and glory to himself, under whose adminis- 
tration he earnestly hoped all would be realized. 

LaSalle now repaired to France, laid his plans before the King, who 
warmly approved of them, and made hiin a Chevalier. He also received 
from all the noblemen the warmest wishes for his success. The Chev- 



alier returned to Canada, and busily entered upon his work. He at 
once rebuilt Fort Frontenac and constructed the first ship to sail on 
these fresh-water seas. On the 7th of August, 1679, having been joined 
by Hennepin, he began his voyage in the Griffin up Lake Erie. He 
passed over this lake, through the straits beyond, up Lake St. Clair and 
into Huron. In this lake they encountered heavy storms. They were 
some time at Michillimackinac, where LaSalle founded a fort, and passed 
on to Green Bay, the " Bale des Puans '' of the French, where he found 
a large quantity of furs collected for him. He loaded the Griffin with 
these, and placing her under the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors, 


started her on her return voyage. The vessel was never afterward heard 
of. He remained about these parts until early in the Winter, when, hear- 
ing nothing from the Griffin, he collected all the men — thirty working 
men and three monks — and started again upon his great undertaking. 

By a short portage they passed to the Illinois or Kankakee, called by 
the Indians, "-Thcakeke," ivoJf, because of the tribes of Indians called 
by that name, commonly known as the INIahingans, dwelling there. The 
French pronounced it Kiahiki, which became corrupted to Kankakee. 
"Falling down the said river by easy journeys, the better to observe the 
country," about the last of December they reached a village of the Illi- 
nois Indians, containing some five hundred cabins, but at that moment 


no inhabitants. The Seur de LaSalle being in want of some breadstufPs, 
took advantage of the absence of the Indians to help himself to a suffi- 
ciency of maize, large quantities of which he found concealed in holes 
under the wigwams. This village was situated near the present village 
of Utica in LaSalle County, Illinois. The corn being securely stored, 
the voyagers again betook themselves to the stream, and toward evening, 
on the 4th day of January, 1680, they came into a lake which must have 
been the lake of Peoria. This was called by the Indians Pim-i-te-wi, that 
is, a place where there are many fat beasts. Here the natives were met 
with in large numbers, but they were gentle and kind, and having spent 
some time with them, LaSalle determined to erect another fort in that 
place, for he had heard rumors that some of the adjoining tribes were 
trying to disturb the good feeling which existed, and some of his men 
were disposed to complain, owing to the hardships and perils of the travel. 
He called this fort " Crevecoeur'"' (broken-heart), a name expressive of the 
very natural sorrow and anxiety which the pretty certain loss of his ship, 
Griffin, and his consequent impoverishment, the danger of hostility on the 
part of the Indians, and of mutiny among his own men, might well cause 
him. His fears were not entirely groundless. At one time poison was 
placed in his food, but fortunately was discovered. 

While building this fort, the Winter wore away, the prairies began to 
look green, and LaSalle, despairing of any reinforcements, concluded to 
return to Canada, raise new means and new men, and embark anew in 
the enterprise. For this purpose he made Hennepin the leader of a party 
to explore the head waters of the Mississippi, and he set out on his jour- 
ney. This journey was accomplished with the aid of a few persons, and 
was successfully made, though over an almost unknown route, and in a 
bad season of the year. He safely reached Canada, and set out again for 
the object of his search. 

Hennepin and his party left Fort Crevecceur on the last of February, 
1680. When LaSalle reached this place on his return expedition, he 
found the fort entirely deserted, and he was obliged to return again to 
Canada. He embarked the third time, and succeeded. Seven days after 
leaving the fort, Hennepin reached the Mississippi, and paddling up th« 
icy stream as best he could, reached no higher than the Wisconsin River 
by the 11th of April. Here he and his followers were taken prisoners by a 
band of Northern Indians, who treated them with great kindness. Hen- 
nepin's comrades were Anthony Auguel and Michael Ako. On this voy- 
age they found several beautiful lakes, and " saw some charming prairies." 
Their captors were the Isaute or Sauteurs, Chippewas, a tribe of the Sioux 
nation, who took them up the river until about the first of May, when 
they reached some falls, which Hennepin christened Falls of St. Anthony 



in honor of his patron saint. Here they took the land, and traveling 
nearly two hundred miles to the northwest, brought them to their villages. 
Here they were kept about three months, were treated kindly by their 
captors, and at the end of that time, were met by a band of Frenchmen, 


headed by one Seur de Luth, who, in pursuit of trade and game, had pene- 
trated thus far by the route of Lake Superior ; and with these fellow- 
countrymen Hennepin and his companions were allowed to return to the 
borders of civilized life in November, 1680, just after LaSalle had 
returned to the wilderness on his second trip. Hennepin soon after went 
to France, where he published an account of his adventures. 


The Mississippi was first discovered by De Soto in April, 1541, in his 
vain endeavor to find gold and precious gems. In the following Spring, 
De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, and worn out with his wander- 
ings, fell a victim to disease, and on the 21st of May died. His followers, 
reduced by fatigue and disease to less than three hundred men, wandered 
about the country nearly a year, in the vain endeavor to rescue them- 
selves by land, and finally constructed seven small vessels, called brig- 
antines, in which they embarked, and descending the river, supposing it 
would lead them to the sea, in July they came to the sea (Gulf of 
Mexico), and by September reached the Island of Cuba. 

They were the first to see the great outlet of the Mississippi ; but, 
being so weary and discouraged, made no attempt to claim the country, 
and hardly had an intelligent idea of what they had passed through. 

To La Salle, the intrepid explorer, belongs the honor of giving the 
first account of the mouths of the river. His great desire was to possess 
this entire country for his king, and in January, 1682, he and his band of 
explorers left the shores of Lake Michigan on their third attempt, crossed 
the Portage, passed down the Illinois River, and on the 6th of February 
reached the banks of the Mississippi. 

On the 13th they commenced their downward course, which they 
pursued with but one interruption, until upon the 6th of March they dis- 
covered the three great passages by which the river discharges its waters 
into the gulf. La Salle thus narrates the event : 

" We landed on the bank of the most western channel, about three 
leagues (nine miles) from its mouth. On the seventh, M. de La Salle 
went to reconnoiter the shores of the neighboring sea, and M. de Tonti 
meanwhile examined the great middle channel. They found the main 
outlets beautiful, large and deep. On the eighth we reascended the river, 
a little above its confluence with the sea, to find a dry place beyond the 
reach of inundations. The elevation of the North Pole was here about 
twenty-seven degrees. Here we prepared a column and a cross, and to 
the column were affixed the arms of France with this inscription : 

" Louis Le Grand, Roi de France et de Navarre, regne ; Le neuvieme April, 1682." 

The whole party, under arms, chanted the Te Deum^ and then, after 
a salute and cries of " Vive le Roi,'' the column was erected by M. de 
La Salle, who, standing near it, proclaimed in a loud voice the authority of 
the King of France. La Salle returned and laid the foundations of the Mis- 
sissippi settlements in Illinois ; thence he proceeded to France, where 
another expedition was fitted out, of which he was commander, and in two 
succeeding voyages failed to find the outlet of the river by sailing along 
the shore of the gulf. On the third voyage he was killed, through the 



treachery of his followers, and the object of his expeditions was not 
accomplished until 1699, when D'Iberville, under the authority of the 
crown, discovered, on the second of ]\Iarch, by way of the sea, the mouth 
of the " Hidden River." This majestic stream was called by the natives 
*''• Malhouchia,'" and by the Spaniards, " Za Palissade,'" from the great 




number of trees about its mouth. After traversing the several outlets, 
and satisfying himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its western 
outlet, and returned to France. 

An avenue of trade was now opened out which was fully improved. 
In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some European colo- 
nists. In 1762, the colony was made over to Spain, to be regained by 
France under the consulate of Napoleon. In 1803, it was purchased by 


the United States for the sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory 
of Louisiana and commerce of the Mississippi River came under the 
charge of the United States. Although LaSalle's labors ended in defeat 
and death, he had not worked and suffered in vain. He had thrown 
open to France and the world an immense and most valuable country ; 
had established several ports, and laid the foundations of more than one 
settlement there. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia, are to this day monu- 
ments of LaSalle's labors ; for, though he had founded neither of them 
(unless Peoria, which was built nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecceur,) 
it was by those whom he led into the West that these places were 
peopled and civilized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of 
the Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and honored." 
The French early improved the opening made for them. Before the 
year 1698, the Rev. Father Gravier began a mission among the Illinois, 
and founded Kaskaskia. For some time this was merely a missionary 
station, where none but natives resided, it being one of three such vil- 
lages, the other two being Cahokia and Peoria. What is known of 
these missions is learned from a letter written by Father Gabriel Marest, 
dated " Aux Cascaskias, autrement dit de I'lmmaculate Conception de 
la Sainte Vierge, le 9 Novembre, 1712." Soon after the founding of 
Kaskaskia, the missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia, while 
Peoria arose near the ruins of Fort Crevecceur. This must have been 
about the year 1700. The post at Vincennes on the Oubache river, 
(pronounced WS-ba, meaning summer cloud moving swiftly^ was estab- 
lished in 1702, according to the best authorities.* It is altogether prob- 
able that on LaSalle's last trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia. In July, 1701, the foundations of Fort Ponchartrain 
were laid by De la Motte Cadillac on the Detroit River. These sta- 
tions, with those established further north, were the earliest attempts to 
occupy the Northwest Territory. At the same time efforts were being 
made to occupy the Southwest, which finally culminated in the settle- 
ment and founding of the City of New Orleans by a colony from England 
in 1718. This was mainly accomplished through the efforts of the 
famous Mississippi Company, established by the notorious John Law, 
who so quickly arose into prominence in France, and who with his 
scheme so quickly and so ignominiously passed away. 

From the time of the founding of these stations for fifty years the 
French nation were engrossed with the settlement of the lower Missis- 
sippi, and the war with the Chicasaws, who had, in revenge for repeated 

* There Is considerable dispute about this date, some asserting it was founded as late as 1742. When 
the new court house at Vincennes was erected, all authorities on the subject were carefully examined, and 
1702 fixed upon as the correct date. It was accordingly engraved on the corner-stone of the court house. 


injuries, cut off the entire colony at Natchez. Although the company- 
did little for Louisiana, as the entire West was then called, yet it opened 
the trade through the Mississippi River, and started the raising of grains 
indigenous to that climate. Until the year 1750, but little is known of 
the settlements in the Northwest, as it was not until this time that the 
attention of the English was called to the occupation of this portion of the 
New World, which they then supposed they owned. Vivier, a missionary 
among the Illinois, writing from " Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort 
Chartres, June 8, 1750, says: "We have here whites, negroes and 
Indians, to say nothing of cross-breeds. There are five French villages, 
and three villages of the natives, within a space of twenty-one leagues 
situated between the Mississippi and another river called the Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias). In the five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred 
whites, three hundred blacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The 
three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight hundred souls all 
Id. Most of the French till the soil; they raise wheat, cattle, pigs and 
horses, and live like princes. Three times as much is produced as can 
be consumed ; and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to New 
Orleans." This city was now the seaport town of the Northwest, and 
save in the extreme northern part, where only furs and copper ore were 
found, almost all the products of the country found their way to France 
by the mouth of the Father of Waters. In another letter, dated Novem- 
ber 7, 1750, this same priest says : " For fifteen leagues above the 
mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwellings, the ground being too low 
to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans, the lands are only partially 
occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and red, not more, I 
think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come all lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease ; and above all, pork 
and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, as forty 
vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans, 
plantations are again met with ; the most considerable is a colony of 
Germans, some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty-five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five 
or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues farther 
up is the Natchez post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners 
through fear of the Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee, they raise 
excellent tobacco. Another hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, 
where we have also a fort and a garrison for the benefit of the river 
traders. * * * From the Arkansas to the Illinois, nearly five hundred 
leagues, there is not a settlement. There should be, however, a fort at 
the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which the English can reach the 
Mississippi. In the Illinois country are numberless mines, but no one to 



work them as they deserve." Father Marest, writing from the post at 
Vincennesin 1812, makes the same observation. Vivier also says : " Some 
individuals dig lead near the surface and supply the Indians and Canada. 
Two Spaniards now here, who claim to be adepts, say that our mines are 
like those of Mexico, and that if we would dig deeper, we should find 
silver under the lead ; and at any rate the lead is excellent. There is also 
in this country, beyond doubt, copper ore, as from time to time large 
pieces are found in the streams." 


At the close of the year 1760, the French occupied, in addition to the 
lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, one at Du Quesne, one at 
the Maumee in the country of the Miamis, and one at Sandusky in what 
may be termed the Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the Northwest 
they had stations at St. Joseph's on the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 
at Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit), at Michillimackanac or Massillimacanac, 
Fox River of Green Bay, and at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of 
LaSalle were now fully realized. The French alone were possessors of 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settlement. Another 
nation, however, was now turning its attention to this extensive country, 


and hearing of its wealth, began to lay plans for occupying it and for 
securing the great profits arising therefrom. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, namely, the 


This " Beautiful " river was discovered by Robert Cavalier de La- 
Salle in 1669, four years before the discovery of the Mississippi by Joliet 
and Marquette. 

While LaSalle was at his trading post on the St. Lawrence, he found 
leisure to study nine Indian dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois. 
He not only desired to facilitate his intercourse in trade, but he longed 
to travel and explore the unknown regions of the West. An incident 
soon occurred which decided him to fit out an exploring expedition. 

While conversing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea, but at such a 
distance that it required eight months to reach its mouth. In this state- 
ment the Mississippi and its tributaries were considered as one stream. 
LaSalle believing, as most of the French at that period did, that the great 
rivers flowing west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to 
embark in the enterprise of discovering a route across the continent to 
the commerce of China and Japan. 

He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the approval of the Gov- 
ernor. His eloquent appeal prevailed. The Governor and the Intendant, 
Talon, issued letters patent authorizing the enterprise, but made no pro- 
vision to defray the expenses. At this juncture the seminary of St. Sul- 
pice decided to send out missionaries in connection with the expedition, 
and LaSalle offering to sell his improvements at LaChine to raise money, 
the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two thousand eight hundred 
dollars were raised, with which LaSalle purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the outfit. 

On the 6th of July, 1669, the party, numbering twenty-four persons, 
embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence ; two additional canoes 
carried the Indian guides. In three days they were gliding over the 
bosom of Lake Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity of the present 
City of Rochester, New York. Here they expected to procure guides to 
conduct them to the Ohio, but in this they were disappointed. 

The Indians seemed unfriendly to the enterprise. LaSalle suspected 
that the Jesuits had prejudiced their minds against his plans. After 
waiting a month in the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian 



from the Iroquois colony at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured them 
that they could there find guides, and offered to conduct them thence. 

On their way they passed the mouth of the Niagara River, when they 
heard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract. Arriving 

\ ^, 


among the Iroquois, they met with a friendly reception, and learned 
from a Shawanee prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks. 
Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready to resume 
their journey ; but just as they were about to start they heard of the 
arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring village. One of them proved 
to be Louis Joliet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West. He 


had been sent by the Canadian Government to explore the copper mines 
on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his way back to Quebec. 
He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the 
lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Indians in 
that quarter. This induced the priests to determine on leaving the 
expedition and going to Lake Superior. LaSalle warned them that the 
Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet 
with a cold reception. Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and 
after worship on the lake shore, parted from LaSalle. On arriving at 
Lake Superior, they found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, 
Marquette and Dablon, occupying the field. 

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted 
no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him their patron 
saint ; and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal the following June 
without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian. 

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois 
village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a 
tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far 
as the falls at Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the 
persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669. 

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anony- 
mous paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle 
himself during a subsequent visit to Paris. In a letter written to Count 
Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he 
discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls. This was regarded as 
an indisputable fact by the French authorities, who claimed the Ohio 
Valley upon another ground. When Washington was sent by the colony 
of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec 
replied : " We claim the country on the Ohio by virtue of the discoveries 
of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English. Our orders are to 
make prisoners of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio Valley." 


When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Father of Waters 
and the Great Northwest, all was still wild save at the French posts 
already described. In 1749, when the English first began to think seri- 
ously about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were yet 
under the dominion of the red men. The English knew, however, pretty 


conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds. As early as 
1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had commenced movements to 
secure the country west of the Alleghenies to the English crown. In 
Pennsylvania, Governor Keitli and James Logan, secretary of the prov- 
ince, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the neces- 
sity of securing the Western lands. Nothing was done, however, by that 
power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain 
to this unexplored wilderness. 

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a 
discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, her grants 
to the colonies extended " from sea to sea." This, was not all her claim. 
She had purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of land. This lat- 
ter was also a strong argument. As early as 1684, Lord H oward. Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations. These were the 
great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Afterward the Tuscaroras were 
taken into the confederacy, and it became known as the Six Nations. 
They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in. 
1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed, 
was drawn up and signed by the chiefs. The validity of this claim has 
often been disputed, but never successfully. In 1744, a purchase was 
made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the " Colony of 
Virginia," for which the Indians received .£200 in gold and a like sum in 
goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel 
William Beverly. As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was 
called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the mountains with, 
presents to appease the savages. Col. Lee, and some Virginians accompa- 
nied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings 
regarding the English. They were not satisfied with their treatment, 
and plainly told the Commissioners why. The English did not desire the 
cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In 
1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant 
of land beyond the Alleghenies. This was granted, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hun- 
dred thousand of which were to be located at once. Upon the 12th of 
June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was 
made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 
acres were given to the Greenbriar Company. All this time the French 
were not idle. They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in the 
West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French 


settling upon it, but in time would come to the lower posts and so gain 
possession of the whole country. Upon the 10th of May, 1774, Vaud- 
reuil, Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the 
consequences that must arise from allowing the English to build trading 
posts in the Northwest, seized some of their frontier posts, and to further 
secure the claim of the French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis Cel- 
eron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, plates of lead, on which 
were inscribed the claims of France. These were heard of in 1752, and 
within the memory of residents now living along the " Oyo," as the 
beautiful river was called by the French. One of these plates was found 
with the inscription partly defaced. It bears date August 16, 1749, and 
a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the 
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, 
among whose journals it may now be found.* These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and 
though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and 
it was only a question of time when the storm would burst upon the 
frontier settlements. In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio 
Company to examine its lands. He went to a village of the Twigtwees, 
on the Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles above its mouth. He 
afterward spoke of it as very populous. From there he went down 
the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, 
and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands. Dur- 
ing the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for the 
Greenbriar Company. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also sent a small party 
of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having heard of the Eng- 
lish post on the Miami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and 
Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of 
the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
(They were probably garrisoned in a block house). The traders were 
carried away to Canada, and one account says several were burned. This 
fort or post was called by the English Pickawillany. A memorial of the 
king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in the center of the terri- 
tory between the Ohio and the Wabash. The name is probably some 
variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written by Rev. David Jones 

* The following is a translation of the inscription on the plate: "In the year 1749. reign of Louis 3tV., 
King of France, we. Celeron, coinmanclant of a detachment by Monsieur the Marquis of Gallisoniere, com- 
mander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried this plate at the confluence of the Toradakoin, this twenty- ninth of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise 
Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken of the said river, and all its 
tributaries; inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by their arms and 
treaties; especially by those of Kyswick, Utrecht, and Aix La Chapelle." 


This was the first blood shed between the French and English, and 
occurred near the present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at a point about 
forty-seven miles north of Dayton. Each nation became now more inter- 
ested in the progress of events in the Northwest. The English deter- 
mined to purchase from the Indians a title to the lands they wished to 
occupy, and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washing- 
ton at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and 
Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty of Lan- 
caster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June, 
these Commissioners met the red men at Logstown, a little village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the site of Pitts- 
burgh. Here had been a trading point for many years, but it was aban- 
doned by the Indians in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize 
the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour, 
the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a 
chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in their 
favor. This he did, and upon the 13th of June they all united in signing 
a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a 
settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should 
not be disturbed by them. These were the means used to obtain the first 
treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trying to out-manceuvre 
each other, and were professing to be at peace. The English generally 
outwitted the Indians, and failed in many instances to fulfill their con- 
tracts. They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further 
increased the feeling by failing to provide them with arms and ammuni- 
tion. Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1758 : " The Indians on the Ohio 
left you because of your own fault. When we heard the French were 
coming, we asked you for help and arms, but we did not get them. The 
French came, they treated us kindly, and gained our affections. The 
Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when 
we wanted help, forsook us." 

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by 
title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannon 
and military stores to be in readiness for the expected blow. The Eng- 
lish made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until 
the Summer could the Indians be gathered together to discuss the plans 
of the French. They had sent messages to the French, warning them 
away ; but they replied that they intended to complete the chain of forts 
already begun, and would not abandon the field. 

Soon after this, no satisfaction being obtained from the Ohio regard- 


ing the positions and purposes of the French, Governor Dinwiddie of 
Virginia determined to send to them another messenger and learn from 
them, if possible, their intentions. For this purpose he selected a young 
man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank 
of major, and who was thoroughly posted regarding frontier life. This 
personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, who then 
held considerable interest in Western lands. He was at this time just 
twenty-two years of age. Taking Gist as his guide, the two, accompanied 
by four servitors, set out on their perilous march. They left Will's 
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and on the 22d reached the Monon- 
gahela, about ten miles above the fork. From there they went to 
Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations. From them he learned the condition of the French, and 
also heard of their determination not to come down the river till the fol- 
lowing Spring. The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to 
turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on to 
Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek. Here the 
French had a fort, called Fort Machault. Through the rum and flattery 
of the Frencli, he nearly lost all his Indian followers. Finding nothing 
of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 
11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek. Here 
he delivered Governor Dinwiddle's letter, received his answer, took his 
observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one 
but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians who still remained true to him, 
notwithstanding the endeavors of the French to retain them. Their 
homeward journey was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, yet 
they reached home in safety on the 6th of January, 1754. 

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by 
Washington to Governor Dinwiddie, it was learned that the French would 
not give up without a struggle. Active preparations were at once made 
in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, while the French 
finished the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications, 
and gathered their forces to be in readiness. 

The Old Dominion was all alive. Virginia was the center of great 
activities ; volunteers were called for, and from all the neighboring 
colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac 
men were enlisting under the Governor's proclamation — which promised 
two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent 
had come for assistance for his little band of forty-one men, who were 


working away in hunger and want, to fortify that point at the fork of 
the Ohio, to which both parties were looking with deep interest. 

" The first birds of Spring filled the air with their song ; the swift 
river rolled by the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting snows of 
Spring and the April showers. The leaves were appearing ; a few Indian 
scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at hand ; and all was so quiet, 
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, who had been left by Trent 
in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten 
miles up the Moiiongahela. But, though all was so quiet in that wilder- 
ness, keen eyes had seen the low intrenchment rising at the fork, and 
swift feet had borne the news of it up the river ; and upon the morning 
of the 17th of April, Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw 
upon the Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink — sixty batteaux and 
three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and 
stores. * * * That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecoeur, 
and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men 
and tools, marched up the Monongahela." 

The French and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narrated show the 
French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries ; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue 
of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New- 
foundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the 
English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted 
disastrously to them. The French and Indians immediately completed 
the fortifications begun at the Fork, which they had so easily captured, 
and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek when the news of the capture of the fort arrived. 
He at once departed to recapture it. On his way he entrenched him- 
self at a place called the ^ Meadows," where he erected a fort called 
by him Fort Necessity. From there he surprised and captured a force of 
French and Indians marching against him, but was soon after attacked 
in his fort by a much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the 
morning of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned four campaigns ; one 
against Fort DuQuesne ; one against Nova Scotia ; one against Fort 
Niagara, and one against Crown Point. These occurred during 1755-6, 
and were not successful in driving the French from their possessions. 
The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General 
Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 


acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered such an inglorious defeat. This 
occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle 
of Monongahela, or " Braddock's Defeat." The war continued with 
various vicissitudes through the years 1756-7 ; when, at the commence- 
ment of 1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then Secre- 
tary of State, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to 
carry on the war. Three expeditions were planned for this year : one, 
under General Amherst, against Louisburg ; another, under Abercrombie, 
against Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third, under General Forbes, against 
Fort DuQuesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg surrendered after a 
desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the 
Canadian possessions fell into the hands of the British. Abercrombie 
captured Fort Frontenac, and when the expedition against Fort DaQiiesne, 
of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it Avas 
found in flames and deserted. The English at once took possession, 
rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the 
name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of 
Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; Amherst was to 
reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to 
capture Niagara. This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant 
Prideaux lost his life in the attempt. Amherst captured Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point without a blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memor- 
able ascent to the Plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated 
Montcalm, and on the 18th, the city capitulated. In this engagement 
Montcolm and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's successor, 
marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of 
defeating the English, and there, on the 28th of the following April, was 
fought one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War. It 
resulted in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the City of Montreal. 
The Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Canada was 
surrendered to the English. This practically concluded the war, but it 
was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that year, and 
under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of 
the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England. At the same 
time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. 

On the 13th of September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers was sent 
from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post 
in the territory. He arrived there on the 19th of November, and sum- 
moned the place to surrender. At first the commander of the post, 
Beletre, refused, but on the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the 


French arms, surrendered. Rogers remained there until December 23d 
under the personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to whom, 
no doubt, he owed his safety. Pontiac had come here to inquire the 
purposes of the English in taking possession of the country. He was 
assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not 
desire their country. This answer conciliated the savages, and did much 
to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while 
on their journey home. 

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one 
month on the way. His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence 
across the present State of Ohio directly to the fort. This was the com- 
mon trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of 
the Ohio. It went from Fort Sandusky, where Sandusky City now is, 
crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to " Mohickon 
John's Town " on Mohickon Creek, the northern branch of White 
Woman's River, and thence crossed to Beaver's Town, a Delaware town 
on what is now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's Town were probably one 
hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of 
cleared land. From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across 
Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork. 

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under the English rule. 
New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large 
trade was speedily manifested. Had the British carried out their promises 
with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpe- 
trated, and the country would have been spared their recital. 

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these 
atrocities. We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading 
events in his life. The earliest authentic information regarding this 
noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader named 
Alexander Henry, who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as 
far as Missillimacnacl Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, 
but a bitter foe of the English, whom he considered as encroaching on his 
hunting grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian 
to insure safety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached 
him and the English for their attempted subjugation of the West. He 
declared that no treaty had been made with them ; no presents sent 
them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation. 
He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was 
civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatamies. 

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carolina, 
were united in this feeling, and at the time of the treaty of Paris, ratified 
February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly 





upon the frontier British posts, and with one blow strike every man dead. 
Poutiac was the marked leader in all this, and was the commander 
of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares 
and Mingoes, who had, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unit& 
in this enterprise. 

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 176^, 
Nine British posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped up in the hollow 
of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton. 

Pontiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit. 
Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing 
the plot the evening previous to his arrival. Everything was carried out, 
however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when 
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indian 
chiefs, suddenly drew aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed 
musket. Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled. He 
saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared. He 
endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions ; but the guilt 
was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a severe 
reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post. 

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort, and until the treaty of peace 
between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August, 1764, 
continued to harass and besiege the fortress. He organized a regular 
commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark, 
which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed. At 
the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went 
further south, living many yeass among the Illinois. 

He had given up all hope of saving his country and race. After a 
time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis 
in a war with the whites. His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a 
quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom soon 
afterwards killed him. His death was, however, avenged by the northern 
Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed. 

Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan 
for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly 
have been carried out. 

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alex- 
ander Henry went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest 
feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and 
were doing nothing to conciliate the natives. Here he met the chief, 
Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in a speech the idea that their 
French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said : 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 


yet conquered us ! We are not your slaves! These lakes, these woods, 
these mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, like 
the white people, can not live without bread and pork and beef. But you 
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided 
food for us upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

He then spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, 
no presents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war. 
Such were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after 
the English took possession of their country. These feelings were no 
doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the 
French arms might prevail. The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the 
English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going 
on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments. 

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to pre- 
vent it falling into the hands of the English, who were becoming masters 
of the entire West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fon- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States 
and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great 
Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these 
sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States ; and 
twenty years still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to 
France, and by France sold to the United States. 

In the half century, from the building of the Fort of Crevecoeur by 
LaSalle, in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French set- 
tlements had been made in that quarter. These have already been 
noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on the American Bottom, a large tract 
of rich alluvial soil in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St. 

By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including 
ail these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England ; 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 1765, when 
Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty of England, established him- 
self at Fort Chartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, 
dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Cath- 
olics who worshiped here, and a right to leave the country with their 
effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen. 
It was shortly after the occupancy of the West by the British that the 
war with Pontiac opened. It is already noticed in the sketch of that 
chieftain. By it many a Briton lost his life, and many a frontier settle- 


ment in its infancy ceased to exist. This was not ended until the year 
1764, when, failing to capture Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confed- 
eracy became disheartened, and, receiving no aid from the French, Pon- 
tiac abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom 
he afterward lost his life. 

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began 
rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation. During the 
year 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces 
explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Mononga- 
hela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha. This 
was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washing- 
ton was a party. The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford 
and others, on the 20th of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pitts- 
burgh to the mouth of the Kanawha ; ascended that stream about fourteen 
miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which 
were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort. 

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clus- 
tered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders. This 
same year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages. 
He found there about sixty -five resident families, and at Cahokia only 
forty-five dwellings. At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and 
at Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong. For a year 
or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally 
Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still main- 
tained some feelings of hatred to the English. The trade from the posts 
was quite good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of pork and 
flour found their way to the New Orleans market. At this time the 
policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension 
of the colonies west. In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal 
proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the 
sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. At the instance 
of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement 
without the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy 
reach of Great Britain. 

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 1769 : " In the 
course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they 
extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for 
themselves, and when all connection upheld by commerce with the mother 
country ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow. ' 

In accordance with this policy. Gov. Gage issued a proclamation 
in 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their set- 
tlements and join some of the Eastern English colonies. To this they 


strenuously objected, giving good reasons therefor, and were allowed to 
remain. The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its 
change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French 
population. In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned 
the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which 
was granted, and Parliament passed an act on June 2, 1774, extend- 
ing the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

In consequence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Govern- 
ment toward the French settlers in the West, they were disposed to favor 
that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies ; but the 
early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side 
of the war for independence. 

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration 
to the Western lands. He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the 
pretense that the fort was under the government of that commonwealth. 
One of these justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the 
Ohio Valley, gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it 
Fort Dunmore. This and other parties were formed to select sites for 
settlements, and often came in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed 
portions of the valley, and several battles followed. These ended in the 
famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and 
driven across the Ohio. 

During the years 1775 and 1776, by the operations of land companies 
and the perseveranceof individuals, several settlements were firmly estab- 
lished between the Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a council held 
in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of English traders, calling 
themselves the "Illinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on 
the east side of the Mississippi River south of the Illinois. In 1775, a mer- 
chant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincennes 
as the agent of the association called the " Wabash Land Company." On 
the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 
37,497,600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, attested 
by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in 
the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia. This and other land com=- 
panies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all 
were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution. On the 20th of 
April, 1780, the two companies named consolidated under the name of the 
" United Illinois and Wabash Land Company." They afterward madf 


strenuous efforts to have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all 
signally failed. 

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky was an unor- 
ganized country, though there were several settlements within her borders. 

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated that at that time 
*' Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 white and black in- 
habitants — the whites being a little the more numerous. Cahokia con- 
tains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were 
east of the Mississippi River, about the j^ear 1771 " — when these observa- 
tions were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and 
nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a report 
made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778. From it the following 
extract is made : 

"Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which 
appears to have contained nearly eighty families from the beginning of 
the late revolution. There are twelve families in a small village at la 
Prairie du Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village. There 
are also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philips, which is five 
miles further up the river." 

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time con- 
tained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all the country 
west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained so until 
ceded again to Spain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the 
country including New Orleans to the United States. At Detroit there 
were, according to Capt. Carver, who was in the Northwest from 1766 to 
1768, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled for more 
than twenty miles, although poorly cultivated — the people being engaged 
in the Indian trade. This old town has a history, which we will here 

It is the oldest town in the Northwest, having been founded by 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701. It was laid out in the form of an 
oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width. 
As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent 
resident of the place, in 1778, it. comprised within its limits that space 
between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block) and Capt. Perkins' house 
(near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, 
and was bordered in front by the Detroit Riv«r. It was surrounded by 
oak and cedar pickets, about fifteen feet long, set in the ground, and had 
four gates — east, west, north and south. Over the first three of these 


gates were block houses provided with four guns apiece, each a six- 
pounder. Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and in a 
parallel direction with the block houses. There were four streets running 
east and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and the rest fifteen 
feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from ten 
to fifteen feet in width. 

At the date spoken of by Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the 
enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the present 
northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street. The citadel was 
inclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two 
stories high, sufficient to contain ten officers, and also barracks sufficient 
to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick. The 
citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house. The old town of 
Detroit, in 1778, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, 
with a few a story and a half in height. They were all of logs, some 
hewn and some round. There was one building of splendid appearance, 
called the " King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east 
gate. It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned 
by the British, There were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and 
the other near the Government House. Each of the guards consisted of 
twenty-four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning 
between nine and ten o'clock. Each furnished four sentinels, who were 
relieved every two hours. There was also an officer of the day, who per- 
formed strict duty. Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset, 
even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all the keys were 
delivered into the hands of the commanding officer. They were opened 
in the morning at sunrise. No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter 
town with any weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife. It was a stand- 
ing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of 
every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were 
restored to them on their return. No more than twenty-five Indians were 
allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only 
at the east and west gates. At sundown the drums beat, and all the 
Indians were required to leave town instantly. There was a council house 
near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians. 
The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two 
hundred males and one hundred females. This town was destroyed by 
fire, all except one dwelling, in 1805. After which the present " new " 
town was laid out. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of 
importance in the West. Kentucky was formed as a component part of 
Virginia, and the sturdy pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, 


and recognizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the trade in 
this part of the New World, held steadily to their purposes, and those 
within the commonwealth of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their 
civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Richard Gallaway^ 
burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state. 
Early in September of that year (1777) the first court was held 
in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, who had arrived 
in August, was made the commander of a militia organization which 
had been commenced the March previous. Thus the tree of loyalty 
was growing. The chief spirit in this far-out colony, who had represented 
her the year previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
unequaled in its boldness. He had been watching the movements of the 
British throughout the Northwest, and understood their whole plan. He, 
saw it was through their possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy 
access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British 
intended to penetrate the country from the north and soutn, ana annihi- 
late the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic man was Colonel, 
afterwards General, George Rogers Clark. He knew the Indians were not 
unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could 
the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives 
might be easily awed into neutrality ; and by spies sent for the purpose, 
he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements 
might easily succeed. Having convinced himself of the certainty of the 
project, he repaired to the Capital of Virginia, which place he reached on 
November 5th. While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th, 
Burgoyne had been defeated, and the spirits of the colonists greatly 
encouraged thereby. Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at 
once entered heartily into Clark's plans. The same plan had before been 
agitated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the 
scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, having satisfied the Vii-ginia leaders of the feasibility of his 
plan, received, on the 2d of January, two sets of instructions — one secret, 
the other open — the latter authorized him to j)roceed to enlist seven 
companies to go to Kentucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three 
months from their arrival in the West. The secret order authorized him 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand 
at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather 
to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew all were needed 
in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. W. B. Smith to Hoi- 


ston for the same purpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required 
number of men. Tlie settlers in these parts were afraid to leave their 
own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to 
join the proposed expedition. With three companies and several private 
volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he 
navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified 
Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, 
Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of this fortification may 
yet be found. At this place he appointed Col. Bowman to meet him 
with such recruits as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and 
as many as could be spared from the station. Here he announced to 
the men their real destination. Having completed his arrangements, 
and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the island, and on the 
24th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured 
no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with 
his chosen band, fell down the river. His plan was to go by water as 
far as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. 
Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to 
Cahokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he 
intended to march directly to the Mississippi River and cross it into the 
Spanish country. Before his start he received two good items of infor- 
mation : one that the alliance had been formed between France and the 
United States ; and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to 
believe by-the British that the " Long Knives" or Virginians, were the 
most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped a foe. Witli 
this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would 
cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from grati- 
tude would become friendly if treated with unexpected leniency. 

The march to Kaskaskia was accomplished through a hot July sun, 
and the town reached on the evening of July 4. He captured the fort 
near the village, and soon after the village itself by surprise, and without 
the loss of a single man or bj^ killing any of the enemy. After sufficiently 
working upon the fears of the natives, Clark told them they were at per- 
fect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the 
great conflict they would, also he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foe. This had the desired effect, and the inhab- 
itants, so unexpectedly and so gratefully surprised by the unlooked 
for turn of affairs, at once swore allegiance to the American arms, and 
when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accom- 
panied him, and through their influence the inhabitants of the place 
surrendered, and gladly placed themselves under his protection. Thus 


the two important posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the English 
into the possession of Virginia. 

In the person of the priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain possession 
of the Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians within its boun- 
daries, he must establish a government for the eolonies he had taken. 
St. Vincent, the next important post to Detroit, remained yet to be taken 
before the Mississippi Valley was conquered. M. Gibault told him that 
he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to throw off its connection 
with England. Clark gladly accepted his offer, and on the 14th of July, 
in company with a fellow-townsman, M. Gibault started on his mission of 
peace, and on the 1st of August returned with the cheerful intelligence 
that the post on the " Oubache " had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the Old Dominion. During this interval, Clark established his courts, 
placed garrisons at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his 
men, sent word to have a fort, which proved the germ of Louisville, 
erected at the Falls of the Ohio, and dispatched Mr. Rocheblave, who 
had been commander at Kaskaskia, as a prisoner of war to Richmond. 
In October the County of Illinois was established by the Legislature 
of Virginia, John Todd appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor, 
and in November General Clark and his men received the thanks of 
the Old Dominion through their Legislature. 

In a speech a few days afterward, Clark made known fully to the 
natives his plans, and at its close all came forward and swore alle- 
giance to the Long Knives. While he was doing this Governor Hamilton, 
having made his various arrangements, had left Detroit and moved down 
the Wabash to Vincennes intending to operate from that point in reducing 
the Illinois posts, and then proceed on down to Kentucky and drive the 
rebels from the West. Gen. Clark had, on the return of M. Gibault, 
dispatched Captain Helm, of Fauquier County, Virginia, with an attend- 
ant named Henry, across the Illinois prairies to command the fort. 
Hamilton knew nothing of the capitulation of the post, and was greatly 
surprised on his arrival to be confronted by Capt. Helm, who, standing at 
the entrance of the fort by a loaded cannon ready to fire upon his assail- 
ants, demanded upon what terms Hamilton demanded possession of the 
fort. Being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, he surrendered to 
the British General, who could scarcely believe his eyes when he saw the 
force in the garrison. 

Hamilton, not realizing the character of the men with whom he was 
contending, gave up his intended campaign for the Winter, sent his four 
hundred Indian warriors to prevent troops from coming down the Ohio, 


and to annoy the Americans in all ways, and sat quietly down to pass the 
Winter. Information of all these proceedings having reached Clark, he 
saw that immediate and decisive action was necessary, and that unless 
he captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Clark received the 
news on the 29th of January, 1779, and on February 4th, having suffi- 
ciently garrisoned Kaskaskia and Cahokia, he sent down the Mississippi 
a " battoe," as Major Bowman writes it, in order to ascend the Ohio and 
Wabash, and operate with the land forces gathering for the fray. 

On the next day, Clark, with his little force of one hundred and 
twenty men, set out for the post, and after incredible hard marching 
through much mud, the ground being thawed by the incessant spring 
rains, on the 22d reached the fort, and being joined by his " battoe," at 
once commenced the attack on the post. The aim of the American back- 
woodsman was unerring, and on the 24th the garrison surrendered to the 
intrepid boldness of Clark. The French were treated with great kind- 
ness, and gladly renewed their allegiance to Virginia. Hamilton was 
sent as a prisoner to Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement. 
During his command of the British frontier posts, he had offered prizes 
to the Indians for all the scalps of Americans they would bring to him, 
and had earned in consequence thereof the title " Hair-buyer General," 
by which he was ever afterward known. 

Detroit was now without doubt within easy reach of the enterprising 
Virginian, could he but raise the necessary force. Governor Henry being 
apprised of this, promised him the needed reinforcement, and Clark con- 
cluded to wait until he could capture and sufficiently garrison the posts. 
Had Clark failed in this bold undertaking, and Hamilton succeeded in 
uniting the western Indians for the next Spring's campaign, the West 
would indeed have been swept from the Mississippi to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and the great blow struck, which had been contemplated from 
the commencement, by the British. 

" But for this small army of dripping, but fearless Virginians, the 
union of all the tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies might 
have been effected, and the whole current of our history changed." 

At this time some fears were entertained by the Colonial Govern- 
ments that the Indians in the North and Northwest were inclining to the 
British, and under the instructions of Washington, now Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colonial army, and so bravely fighting for American inde- 
pendence, armed forces were sent against the Six Nations, and upon the 
Ohio frontier. Col. Bowman, acting under the same general's orders, 
marched against Indians within the present limits of that State. These 
expeditions were in the main successful, and the Indians were compelled 
to sue for peace. 


During this same year (1779) the famous " Land Laws" of Virginia 
were passed. The passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the Northwest than the gaining of a few Indian, 
conflicts, Tliese laws confirmed in main all grants made, and guaranteed 
to all actual settlers their rights and privileges. After providing for the 
settlers, the laws provided for selling the balance of the public lands at 
forty cents per acre. To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature 
sent four Virginians westward lo attend to the various claims, over many 
of which great confusion prevailed concerning their validity. These 
gentlemen opened their court on October 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and 
continued until April 26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided 
three thousand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, who 
came in the person of Mr. George May, and assumed his duties on the 
10th day of the month whose name he bore. With the opening of the 
next year (1780) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Spanish Government exacted such measures in. 
relation to its trade as to cause the overtures made to the United States 
to be rejected. The American Government considered they had a right 
to navigate its channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. The settle- 
ments in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by emigrants. It was dur- 
ing this year that the first seminary of learning was established in the 
West in this young and enterprising Commonwealth. 

The settlers here did not look upon the building of this fort in a 
friendly manner, as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. Spain had 
been friendly to the Colonies during their struggle for independence, 
and though for a while this friendship appeared in danger from the 
refusal of the free navigation of the river, yet it was finally settled to the 
satisfaction of both nations. 

The Winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusually severe ones 
ever experienced in the West. The Indians always referred to it as the 
"Great Cold." Numbers of wild animals perished, and not a few 
pioneers lost their lives. The following Summer a party of Canadians 
and Indians attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possession of it 
in consequence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolting 
colonies. They met with such a determined resistance on the part of the 
inhabitants, even the women taking part in the battle, that they were 
compelled to abandon the contest. They also made an attack on the 
settlements in Kentucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable 
manner, they fled the country in great haste. 

About this time arose the question in the Colonial Congress con- 
cerning the western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachusetts 


and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this subject finally led New 
York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to pass a law giving to the dele- 
gates of that State in Congress the power to cede her western lands for 
the benefit of the United States. This law was laid before Congress 
during the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until Sep- 
tember 6th, when a resolution passed that body calling upon the States 
claiming western lands to release their claims in favor of the whole body. 
This basis formed the union, and was the first after all of those legislative 
measures which resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of the same 
year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The conquest might 
have easily been effected by Clark had the necessary aid been furnished 
him. Nothing decisive was done, yet the heads of the Government knew 
that the safety of the Northwest from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important post., the only unconquered one in the 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into the Coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Fayette and Jefferson, and the act establishing the Town 
of Louisville was passed. This same year is also noted in the annals of 
American history as the year in which occurred Arnold's treason to the 
United States. 

Virginia, in accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d 
day of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the United 
States upon certain conditions, which Congress would not accede to, and 
the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old Dominion, failed, nor was 
anything farther done until 1783. During all that time the Colonies 
were busily engaged in the struggle with the mother country, and in 
consequence thereof but little heed was given to the western settlements. 
Upon the 4th of July, 1773, the first birth north of the Ohio River of 
American parentage occurred, being that of John L. Roth, son of John 
Roth, one of the Moravian missionaries, whose band of Christian Indians 
suffered in after- years a horrible massacre by the hands of the frontier 
settlers, who had been exasperated by the murder of several of their 
neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to humanity, a 
deed which forever afterward cast a shade of shame upon their lives. 
For this and kindred outrages on the part of the whites, the Indians 
committed many deeds of cruelty which darken the years of 1771 and 
1772 in the history of the Northwest. 

Durino- the year 1782 a number of battles among the Indians and 
frontiersmen occurred, and between the Moravia-n Indians and the Wyan- 
dots. In these, horrible acts of cruelty were practised on the captives, 
manv of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of the notorious 


frontier outlaw, Simon Girty, whose name, as well as those of his brothers, 
was a terror to women and children. These occurred chiefly in the Ohio 
valleys. Cotemporary with them were several engagements in Kentucky, 
in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, often by his skill 
and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved the outposts from cruel destrue- 


tion. By the close of the year victory had perched upon the Americaa 
banner, and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of peace had 
been arranged between the Commissioners of England and her uncon- 
querable colonies. Cornwallis had been defeated on the 19th of October 
preceding, and the liberty of America was assured. On the 19th of 
April following, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 


proclaimed to the army of the United States, and on the 3d of the next 
September, the definite treaty which ended our revolutionary struggle 
was concluded. By the terms of that treaty, the boundaries of the West 
were as follows : On the north the line was to extend along the center of 
the Great Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Superior to Long Lake ; 
thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi 
River ; down its center to the 31st parallel of latitude, then on that line 
east to the head of the Appalachicola River ; down its center to its junc- 
tion with the Flint ; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and 
thence down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several posts 
were still occupied by the British in the North and West. Among these 
was Detroit, still in the hands of the enemy. Numerous engagements 
with the Indians throughout Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whose 
lands adventurous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by 
the proper treaty. 

To remedy this latter evil. Congress appointed commissioners to 
treat with the natives and purchase their lands, and prohibited the set- 
tlement of the territory until this could be done. Before the close of the 
year another attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in the Northwest 
she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, having on the 20th of 
December preceding authorized the whole of her possessions to be deeded 
to the United States. This was done on the 1st of March following, and 
the Northwest Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To Gen. Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract of one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situated any where north of the 
Ohio wherever they chose to locate them. They selected the region 
opposite the falls of the Ohio, where is now the dilapidated village of 
Clarksville, about midway between the Cities of New Albany and Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana. 

While the frontier remained thus, and Gen. Haldimand at Detroit 
refused to evacuate alleging that he had no orders from his King to do 
so, settlers were rapidly gathering about the inland forts. In the Spring 
of 1784, Pittsburgh was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur 
Lee, who passed through the town soon after on his way to the Indian 
council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very prepossessing in 
appearance. He says : 

" Pittsburgh is inhabited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who 
live in paltry log houses, and are as dirty as if in the north of Ireland or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, the goods being 
l>ought at the vast expense of forty-five shillings per pound from Phila- 


delphia and Baltimore. They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and 
money. There are in the town four attorneys, two doctors, and not a 
priest of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
was beginning to discuss measures for a separation from Virginia. A 
land office was opened at Louisville, and measures were adopted to take 
defensive precaution against the Indians who were yet, in some instances, 
incited to deeds of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, although no 
entries were recorded until 1787. 

The Indian title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished. They 
held large tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Congress 
adopted means for treaties with the original owners and provided for the 
surveys of the lands gained thereby, as well as for those north of the 
Ohio, now in its possession. On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made 
with the Wabash Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made 
in 1784. That at Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and through these much land 
was gained. The Wabash Indians, however, afterward refused to comply 
with the provisions of the treaty made with them, and in order to compel 
their adherence to its provisions, force was used. During the year 1786, 
the free navigation of the Mississippi came up in Congress, and caused 
various discussions, which resulted in no definite action, only serving to 
excite speculation in regard to the western lands. Congress had promised 
bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, but owing to the 
unsettled condition of affairs along the Mississippi respecting its naviga- 
tion, and the trade of the Northwest, that body had, in 1783, declared 
its inability to fulfill these promises until a treaty could be concluded 
between the two Governments. Before the close of the year 1786, how- 
ever, it was able, through the treaties with the Indians, to allow some 
grants and the settlement thereon, and on the 14th of September Con- 
necticut ceded to the General Government the tract of land known as 
the " Connecticut Reserve," and before the close of the following year a 
large tract of land north of the Ohio was sold to a company, who at once 
took measures to settle it. By the provisions of this grant, the company 
were to pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a deduction 
of one-third for bad lands and other contingencies. They received 
750,000 acres, bounded on the south by the Ohio, on the east by the 
seventh range of townships, on the west by the sixteenth range, and on 
the north by a line so drawn as to make the grant complete without 
the reservations. In addition to this. Congress afterward granted 100,000 
acres to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under the 
resolutions of 1789 and 1790. 



While Dr. Cutler, one of the agents of the company, was pressing 
its claims before C6ngress, that body was bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. When the 
cession was made by Virginia, in 1784, a plan was offered, but rejected. 
A motion had been made to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition 
of slavery, which prevailed. The plan was then discussed and altered, 
and finally passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
' By this proposition, the Territory was to have been divided into states 


by parallels and meridian lines. This, it was thought, would make ten 
states, which were to have been named as follows — beginning at the 
northwest corner and going southwardly : Sylvania, Michigania, Cher- 
sonesus, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Illenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Poly- 
potamia and Pelisipia. 

There was a more serious objection to this plan than its category of 
names, — the boundaries. The root of the difficulty was in the resolu- 
tion of Congress passed in October, 1780, which fixed the boundaries 
of the ceded lands to be from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles 


square. These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts, they desired a change, and in July, 1786, the 
subject was taken up in Congress, and changed to favor a division into 
not more than five states, and not less than three. This was approved by 
the State Legislature of Virginia. The subject of the Government was 
again taken up by Congress in 1786, and discussed throughout that year 
and until July, 1787, when the famous "Compact of 1787" was passed, 
and the foundation of the government of the Northwest laid. This com- 
pact is fully discussed and explained in the history of Illinois in this book, 
and to it the reader is referred. 

The passage of this act and the grant to the New England Company 
was soon followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, for a grant of the land between the Miamis. 
This gentleman had visited these lands soon after the treaty of 1786, and, 
being greatly pleased with them, offered similar terms to those given to the 
New England Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury 
Board with power to act, and a contract was concluded the following- 
year. During the Autumn the directors of the New England Company 
were preparing to occupy their grant the following Spring, and upon the 
23d of November made arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, 
under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Putnam, to set forward. Six 
boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of January the sur- 
veyors and their assistants, twenty-six in number, were to meet at Hart- 
ford and proceed on their journey westward ; the remainder to follow as 
soon as possible. Congress, in the meantime, upon the 3d of October, 
had ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western settlers, and 
to prevent unauthorized intrusions ; and two days later appointed Arthur 
St. Clair Governor of the Territory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of the Northwest Territory was now com- 
plete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of Indian affairs, settlers from 
the East began to come into the country rapidly. The New England 
Company sent their men during the Winter of 1787-8 pressing on over 
the Alleghenies by the old Indian path which had been opened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since been made a national turnpike 
from Cumberland westward. Through the weary winter days they toiled 
on, and by April were all gathered on the Yohiogany, where boats had 
been built, and at once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived 
on the 7th of that month, and unless the Moravian missionaries be regarded 
as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly claim that honor. 



Gen. St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the Northwest, not having 
yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, written out, and published by 
being nailed to a tree in the embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed 
to administer them. 

Washington in writing of this, the first American settlement in the 
Northwest, said : " No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at Muskingum. 
Information, property and strength will be its characteristics. I know 
many of its settlers personally, and there never were men better calcu- 
lated to promote the welfare of such a community." 




On the 2d of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held 
on the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpose of naming the new- 
born city and its squares." As yet the settlement was known as the 
"Muskingum," but that was now changed to the name Marietta, in honor 
of Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the block -houses stood 
was called '•'' Oampus Martins ;'' square number 19, '•'• Capitolkim ;'''' square 
number 61, '■'•Cecilia ;"' and the great road through the covert way, "• Sacra 
Via." Two days after, an oration was delivered by James M. Varnum, 
who with S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong had been appointed to the 
judicial bench of the territory on the 16th of October, 1787. On July 9, 
Gov. St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume form. The act 
of 1787 provided two district grades of government for the Northwest, 


under the first of which the whole power was invested in the hands of a 
governor and three district judges. This was immediately formed upon 
the Governor's arrival, and the first laws of the colony passed on the 25th 
of July. These provided for the organization of the militia, and on the 
next day appeared the Governor's proclamation, erecting all that country 
that had been ceded by the Indians east of the Scioto River into the 
County of Washington. From that time forward, notwithstanding the 
doubts yet existing as to the Indians, all Marietta prospered, and on the 
2d of September the first court of the territory was held with imposing 

The emigration westward at this time was very great. The com- 
mander at Fort Harmer, at the mouth of the Muskingum, reported four 
thousand five hundred persons as having passed that post between Feb- 
ruary and June, 1788 — many of whom would have purchased of the 
"Associates," as the New England Company was called, had they been 
ready to receive them. 

On the 26th of November, 1787, Symmes issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his contract and the plan of sale he intended to adopt. In 
January, 1788, Matthias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest 
in Symmes' purchase, and located among other tracts the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one-third of this locality, he 
sold the other two-thirds to Robert Patterson and John Filson, and the 
three, about August, commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which 
was designated as being opposite Licking River, to the mouth of which 
they proposed to have a road cut from Lexington. The naming of the 
town is thus narrated in the "Western Annals " : — " Mr. Filson, who had 
been a schoolmaster, was appointed to name the town, and, in respect to 
its situation, and as if with a prophetic perception of the mixed race that 
were to inhabit it in after days, he named it Losantiville, which, being 
interpreted, means : ville, the town ; anti, against or opposite to ; os, the 
mouth ; L. of Licking." 

Meanwhile, in July, Symmes got thirty persons and eight four-horse 
teams under way for the West. These reached Limestone (now Mays- 
ville) in September, where were several persons from Redstone. Here 
Mr. Symmes tried to found a settlement, but the great freshet of 1789 
caused the " Point," as it was and is yet called, to be fifteen feet under 
water, and the settlement to be abandoned. The little band of settlers 
removed to the mouth of the Miami. Before Symmes and his colony left 
the " Point," two settlements had been made on his purchase. The first 
was by Mr. Stiltes, the original projector of the whole plan, who, with a 
colony of Redstone people, had located at the mouth of the Miami, 
whither Symmes went with his Maysville colony. Here a clearing had 



been made by the Indians owing to the great fertility of the soil. Mr. 
Stiltes with his colony came to this place on the 18th of November, 1788, 
with twenty-six persons, and, building a block-house, prepared to remain 
through the Winter. They named the settlement Columbia. Here they 
were kindly treated by the Indians, but suffered greatly from the flood 
of 1789. 

On the 4th of March, 1789, the Constitution of the United States 
went into operation, and on April 30, George Washington was inaug- 
urated President of the American people, and during the next Summer, 
an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north of the Ohio. The 
President at first used pacific means ; but these failing, he sent General 
Harmer against the hostile tribes. He destroyed several villages, but 

The frontage of Lake Bluff Grounds on Lake Michigan, with one hundred and seventy feet of gradual ascent. 

was defeated in two battles, near the present City of Fort Wayne» 
Indiana. From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events were 
the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 1796, General St. Clair 
was appointed in command, and marched against the Indians ; but while 
he was encamped on a stream, the St. Mary, a branch of the Maumee, 
he was attacked and defeated with the loss of six hundred men. 

General Wayne was now sent against the savages. In August, 1794, 
he met them near the rapids of the Maumee, and gained a complete 
victory. This success, followed by vigorous measures, compelled the 
Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, the following year, the 
treaty of Greenville was signed by the principal chiefs, by which a large 
tract of country was ceded to the United States. 

Before proceeding in our narrative, we will pause to notice Fort 
Washington, erected in the early part of this war on the site of Cincinnati. 
Nearly all of the great cities of the Northwest, and indeed of the 


whole country, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer structures, 
known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, Washington, Pon- 
chartrain, mark the original sites of the now proud Cities of Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Detroit. So of most of the flourishing cities east and west 
of the Mississippi. Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a 
rude but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a number of 
strongly-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for soldiers' barracks 
were a story and a half high, while those composing the officers quarters 
were more imposing and more conveniently arranged and furnished. 
The whole were so placed as to form a hollow square, enclosing about an 
acre of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 

The logs for the construction of this fort were cut from the ground 
upon which it was erected. It stood between Third and Fourth Streets 
of the present city (Cincinnati) extending east of Eastern Row, now 
Broadway, which was then a narrow alley, and the eastern boundar}^ of 
of the town as it was originally laid out. On the bank of the river, 
immediately in front of the fort, was an appendage of the fort, called the 
Artificer's Yard. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by 
small contiguous buildings, occupied by workshops and quarters of 
laborers. Within this enclosure there was a large two-story frame house, 
familiarly called the " Yellow House," built for the accommodation of 
the Quartermaster General. For many years this was the best finished 
and most commodious edifice in the Queen City. Fort Washington was 
for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military governments 
of the Northwestern Territory, 

Following the consummation of the treaty various gigantic land spec- 
ulations were entered into by different persons, who hoped to obtain 
from the Indians in Michigan and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. 
These were generally discovered in time to prevent the outrageous 
schemes from being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States and Spain 
was signed, whereby the free navigation of the Mississippi was secured. 

No sooner had the treaty of 1795 been ratified than settlements began 
to pour rapidly into the West. The great event of the year 1796 was the 
occupation of that part of the Northwest including Michigan, which was 
this year, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated by the British 
forces. The United States, owing to certain conditions, did not feel 
justified in addressing the authorities in Canada in relation to Detroit 
and other frontier posts. When at last the British authorities were 
called to give them up, they at once complied, and General Wayne, who 
had done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and who, before 
the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, transferred his head- 


quarters to the neighborhood of the lakes, where a county named after 
him was formed, which included the northwest of Ohio, all of Michigan, 
and the northeast of Indiana. During this same year settlements were 
formed at the present City of Chillicothe, along the Miami from Middle- 
town to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers and speculators 
began to appear in great numbers. In September, the City of Cleveland 
was laid out, and during the Summer and Autumn, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the first manufactory of paper — the " Red- 
stone Paper Mill" — in the West. St. Louis contained some seventy 
houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along the river, contiguous 
to it, were more than three thousand inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, 
Indians and half-breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that 
part of the Northwest. 

The election of representatives for the territory had taken place, 
and on the 4th of February, 1799, they convened at Losantiville — now 
known as Cincinnati, having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and 
considered the capital of the Territory — to nominate persons from whom 
the members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance with 
a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, the Assembly 
adjourned until the 16th of the following September. From those named 
the President selected as members of the council, Henry Vandenburg, 
of Vincennes, Robert Oliver, of Marietta, James Findlay and Jacob 
Burnett, of Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. On the 16th 
of September the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 24th the two 
houses were duly organized, Henry Vandenburg being elected President 
of the Council. 

The message of Gov. St. Clair was addressed to the Legislature 
September 20th, and on October 13th that body elected as a delegate to 
Congress Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, who received eleven of the votes 
cast, being a majority of one over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of 
Gen. St. Clair. 

The whole number of acts passed at this session, and approved by 
the Governor, were thirty-seven — eleven others were passed, but received 
his veto. The most important of those passed related to the militia, to 
the administration, and to taxation. On the 19th of December this pro- 
tracted session of the first Legislature in the West was closed, and on the 
30th of December the President nominated Charles Willing Bryd to the 
office of Secretary of the Territory vice Wm. Henry Harrison, elected to 
Congress. The Senate confirmed his nomination the next day. 



The increased emigration to the Northwest, the extent of the domain, 
and the inconvenient modes of travel, made it very difficult to conduct 
the ordinary operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible. To remedy this, it was deemed advisable to 
divide the territory for civil purposes. Congress, in 1800, appointed a 
committee to examine the question and report some means for its solution. 
This committee, on the 3d of March, reported that : 

" In the three western countries there has been but one court having 
cognizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which offenders 
experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned crim- 
inals, and at the same time deters useful citizens from making settlements 
in. such society. The extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assist- 
ance is experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * Xo 
minister a remedy to these and other evils, it occurs to this committee 
that it is expedient that a division of said territory into two distinct and 
separate governments should be made ; and that such division be made 
by a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary between the United States 
and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance with its 
suggestions, that body passed an Act extinguishing the Northwest Terri- 
tory, which Act was approved May 7. Among its provisions were these : 

" That from and after July 4 next, all that part of the Territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north 
until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a 
separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territor3^" 

After providing for the exercise of the civil and criminal powers of 
the territories, and other provisions, the Act further provides : 

" That until it shall otherwise be ordered by the Legislatures of the 
said Territories, respectively, Chillicothe on the Scioto River shall be the 
seat of government of the Territory of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio River ; and that St. Vincennes on the Wabash River shall be the 
seat of government for the Indiana Territory." 

Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison was appointed Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and entered upon his duties about a year later. Connecticut 
also about this time released her claims to the reserve, and in March a law 


was passed accepting this cession. Settlements had been made upon 
thirty-five of the townships in the reserve, mills had been built, and seven 
hundred miles of road cut in various directions. On the 3d of November 
the General Assembly met at Chillicothe. Near the close of the year, 
the first missionary of the Connecticut Reserve came, who found no 
township containing more than eleven families. It was upon the first of 
October that the secret treaty had been made between Napoleon and the 
King of Spain, whereby the latter agreed to cede to France the province 
of Louisiana. 

In January, 1802, the Assembly of the Northwestern Territory char- 
tered the college at Athens. From the earliest dawn of the western 
colonies, education was promptly provided for, and as early as 1787, 
newspapers were issued from Pittsburgh and Kentucky, and largely read 
throughout the frontier settlements. Before the close of this year, the 
Congress of the United States granted to the citizens of the Northwestern 
territory the formation of a State government. One of the provisions of 
the " compact of 1787" provided that whenever the number of inhabit- 
ants within prescribed limits exceeded 45,000, they should be entitled to 
a separate government. The prescribed limits of Ohio contained, from a 
census taken to ascertain the legality of the act, more than that number, 
and on the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed the act defining its limits, 
and on the 29th of November the Constitution of the new State of Ohio, 
so named from the beautiful river forming its southern boundary, came 
into existence. The exact limits of Lake Michigan were not then known, 
but the territory now included within the State of Michigan was wholly 
within the territory of Indiana. 

Gen. Harrison, while residing at Vincennes, made several treaties 
with the Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of lands. The next year is 
memorable in the history of the West for the purchase of Louisiana from 
France by the United States for $15,000,000. Thus by a peaceful mode, 
the domain of the United States was extended over a large tract of 
country west of the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction 
of the Northwest government, and, as has been mentioned in the early 
part of this narrative, was called the "New Northwest." .The limits 
of this history will not allow a description of its territory. The same year 
large grants of land were obtained from the Indians, and the House of 
Representatives of the new State of Ohio signed a bill respecting the 
College Township in the district of Cincinnati. 

Before the close of the year. Gen. Harrison obtained additional 
grants of lands from the various Indian nations in Indiana and the present 
limits of Illinois, and on the 18th of August, 1801, completed a treaty at 
St. Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of lands were obtained from the 


aborigines. Measures were also taken to learn the condition of affairs in 
and about Detroit. 

C. Jouett, the Indian agent in Michigan, still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, reported as follows upon the condition of matters at that post : 

" The Town of Detroit. — The charter, which is for fifteen miles 
square, was granted in the time of Louis XIV. of France, and is now, 
from the best information I have been able to get, at Quebec. Of those 
two hundred and twenty-five acres, only four are occupied by the town 
and Fort Lenault. The remainder is a common, except twenty-four 
acres, which were added twenty years ago to a farm belonging to Wm. 
Macomb. * * * A stockade incloses the town, fort and citadel. The 
pickets, as well as the public houses, are in a state of gradual decay. The 
streets are narrow, straight and regular, and intersect each other at right 
angles. The houses are, for the most part, low and inelegant." 

During this year. Congress granted a township of land for the sup- 
port of a college, and began to offer inducements for settlers in these 
wilds, and the country now comprising the State of Michigan began to 
fill rapidly with settlers along its southern borders. This same year, also, 
a law was passed organizing the Southwest Territory, dividing it into two 
portions, the Territory of New Orleans, which city was made the seat of 
government, and the District of Louisiana, which was annexed to the 
domain of Gen. Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was formed, 
Wm. Hull was appointed governor, with headquarters at Detroit, the 
change to take effect on June 30. On the 11th of that month, a fire 
occurred at Detroit, which destroyed almost every building in the place. 
When the officers of the new territory reached the post, they found it in 
ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the country. Rebuild- 
ing, however, soon commenced, and ere long the town contained more 
houses than before the fire, and many of them much better built. 

While this was being done, Indiana had passed to the second grade 
of government, and through her General Assembly had obtained large 
tracts of land from the Indian tribes. To all this the celebrated Indian, 
Tecumthe or Tecumseh, vigorously protested, and it was the main cause 
of his attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with the 
settlers. To obtain a full account of these attempts, the workings of the 
British, and the signal failure, culminating in the death of Tecumseh at 
the battle of the Thames, and the close of the war of 1812 in the Northwest, 
we will step aside in our story, and relate the principal events of his life, 
and his connection with this conflict. 






This famous Indian chief was born about the year 1768, not far from 
the site of the present city of Springfield, Ohio. His father, Puckeshinwa, 
was a member of the Kisopok tribe of the Swanoese nation, and his 
mother, Methontaske, was a member of the Turtle tribe of the same 
people. They removed from Florida about the middle of the last century 
to the birthplace of Tecumseh. In 1774, his father, who had risen to be 
chief, was slain at the battle of Point Pleasant, and not long after Tecum- 
seh, by his bravery, became the leader of his tribe. In 1795 he was 
declared chief, and then lived at Deer Creek, near the site of the 
present City of Urbana. He remained here about one year, when he 
returned to Piqua, and in 1798, he went to White River, Indiana. In 
1805, he and his brother, Laulewasikan (Open Door), who had announced 
himself as a prophet, went to a tract of land on the Wabash River, given 
them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos. From this date the chief 
comes into prominence. He was now about thirty-seven years of age, 
was five feet and ten inches in height, was stoutly built, and possessed of 
enormous powers of endurance. His countenance was naturally pleas- 
ing, and he was, in general, devoid of those savage attributes possessed 
by most Indians. It is stated he could read and write, and had a confi- 
dential secretary and adviser, named Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, who 
afterward became chief of the Pottawatomies. He occupied the first 
house built on the site of Chicago. At this time, Tecumseh entered 
upon the great work of his life. He had long objected to the grants of 
land made by the Indians to the whites, and determined to unite all the 
Indian tribes into a league, in order that no treaties or grants of land 
could be made save by the consent of this confederation. 

He traveled constantly, going from north to south ; from the south 
to the north, everywhere urging the Indians to this step. He was a 
matchless orator, and his burning words had their effect. 

Gen. Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, by watching the move- 
ments of the Indians, became convinced that a grand conspiracy was 
forming, and made preparations to defend the settlements. Tecumseh's 
plan was similar to Pontiac's, elsewhere described, and to the cunning 
artifice of that chieftain was added his own sagacity. 

During the year 1809, Tecumseh and the prophet were actively pre- 
paring for the work. In that year. Gen. Harrison entered into a treaty 
with the Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians 
and Weas, in which these tribes ceded to the whites certain lands upon 
the Wabash, to all -of which Tecumseh entered a bitter protest, averring 


as one principal reason that he did not want the Indians to give up any 
lands north and west of the Ohio River. 

Tecumseh, in August, 1810, visited the General at Vincennes and 
held a council relating to the grievances of the Indians. Becoming unduly- 
angry at this conference he was dismissed from the village, and soon after 
departed to incite the southern Indian tribes to the conflict. 

Gen. Harrison determined to move upon the chiefs headquarters at 
Tippecanoe, and for this purpose went about sixty-five miles up the 
Wabash, where he built Fort Harrison. From this place he went to the 
prophet's town, where he informed the Indians he had no hostile inten- 
tions, provided they were true to the existing treaties. He encamped 
near the village early in October, and on the morning of November 7, he 
was attacked by a large force of the Indians, and the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe occurred. The Indians were routed and their town broken 
up. Tecumseh returning not long after, was greatly exasperated at his 
brother, the prophet, even threatening to kill him for rashly precipitating 
the war, and foiling his (Tecumseh's) plans. 

Tecumseh sent word to Gen. Harrison that he was now returned 
from the South, and was ready to visit the President as had at one time 
previously been proposed. Gen. Harrison informed him he could not go 
as a chief, which method Tecumseh desired, and the visit was never 

In June of the following year, he visited the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Here he disavowed any intention to make a war against 
the United States, and reproached Gen. Harrison for marching against his 
people. The agent replied to this ; Tecumseh listened with a cold indif- 
ference, and after making a few general remarks, with a haughty air drew 
his blanket about him, left the council house, and departed for Fort Mai- 
den, in Upper Canada, where he joined the British standard. 

He remained under this Government, doing effective work for the 
Crown while engaged in the war of 1812 which now opened. He was, 
however, always humane in his treatment of the prisoners, never allow- 
ing his warriors to ruthlessly mutilate the bodies of those slain, or wan- 
tonly murder the captive. 

In the Summer of 1813, Perry's victory on Lake Erie occurred, and 
shortly after active preparations were made to capture Maiden. On the 
27th of September, the American army, under Gen. Harrison, set sail for 
the shores of Canada, and in a few hours stood around the ruins of Mai- 
den, from which the British army, under Proctor, had retreated to Sand- 
wich, intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the Valley of 
the Thames. On the 29th Gen. Harrison was at Sandwich, and Gen= 
Mc Arthur took possession of Detroit and the territory of Michigan. 



On the 2d of October, the Americans began their pursuit of Proctor, 
whom they overtook on the 5th, and the battle of the Thames followed. 
Early in the engagement, Tecumseh who was at the head of the column 
of Indians was slain, and they, no longer hearing the voice of their chief- 
tain, fled. The victory was decisive, and practically closed the war in 
the Northwest. 



Just who killed the great chief has been a matter of much dispute ; 
but the weight of opinion awards the act to Col. Richard M. Johnson, 
who fired at him with a pistol, the shot proving fatal. 

In 1805 occurred Burr's Insurrection. He took possession of a 
beautiful island in the Ohio, after the killing of Hamilton, and is charged 
by many with attempting to set up an independent government. His 
plans were frustrated by the general government, his property confiscated 
and he was compelled to flee the country for safety. 


In January, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michigan Territory, made a 
treaty with the Indians, whereby all that peninsula was ceded to the 
United States. Before the close of the year, a stockade was built about 
Detroit. It was also during this year that Indiana and Illinois endeavored 
to obtain the repeal of that section of the compact of 1787, whereby 
slavery was excluded from the Northwest Territory. These attempts, 
however, all signally failed. 

In 1809 it was deemed advisable to divide the Indiana Territory. 
This was done, and the Territory of Illinois was formed from the western 
part, the seat of government being fixed at Kaskaskia. The next year, 
the intentions of Tecumseh manifested themselves in open hostilities, and 
then began the events already narrated. 

While this war was in progress, emigration to the "West went on with 
surprising rapidity. In 1811, under Mr. Roosevelt of New York, the 
first steamboat trip was made on the Ohio, much to the astonishment of 
the natives, many of whom fled in terror at the appearance of the 
" monster." It arrived at Louisville on the 10th day of October. At the 
close of the first week of January, 1812, it arrived at Natchez, after being 
nearly overwhelmed in the great earthquake which occurred while on its 
downward trip. 

The battle of the Thames was fought on October 6, 1813. It 
effectually closed hostilities in the Northwest, although peace was not 
fully restored until July 22, 1814, when a treaty was formed at Green- 
ville, under the direction of General Harrison, between the United States 
and the Indian tribes, in which it was stipulated that the Indians should 
cease hostilities against the Americans if the war were continued. Such, 
happily, was not the case, and on the 24th of December the treaty 
of Ghent was signed by the representatives of England and the United 
States. This treaty was followed the next year by treaties with various 
Indian tribes throughout the West and Northwest, and quiet was again 
restored in this part of the new world. 

On the 18th of March, 1816, Pittsburgh was incorporated as a city. 
It then had a population of 8,000 people, and was already noted for its 
manufacturing interests. On April 19, Indiana Territory was allowed 
to form a state government. At that time there were thirteen counties 
organized, containing about sixty-three thousand inhabitants. The first 
election of state officers was held in August, when Jonathan Jennings 
was chosen Governor. The officers were sworn in on November 7, and 
on December 11, the State was formally admitted into the Union. For 
some time the seat of government was at Cory don, but a more central 
location being desirable, the present capital, Indianapolis (City of Indiana), 
was laid out January 1, 1825. 


On the 28th of December the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, was 
chartered, with a capital of $300,000. At this period all banks were 
under the control of the States, and were allowed to establish branches 
at different convenient points. 

Until this time Chillicothe and Cincinnati had in turn enjoyed the 
privileges of being the capital of Ohio. But the rapid settlement of the 
northern and eastern portions of the State demanded, as in Indiana, a 
more central location, and before the close of the year, the site of Col- 
umbus was selected and surveyed as the future capital of the State. 
Banking had begun in Ohio as early as 1808, when the first bank was 
chartered at Marietta, but here as elsewhere it did not bring to the state 
the hoped-for assistance. It and other banks were subsequently unable 
to redeem their currency, and were obliged to suspend. 

In 1818, Illinois was made a state, and all the territory north of her 
northern limits was erected into a separate territory and joined to Mich- 
igan for judicial purposes. By the following year, navigation of the lakes 
was increasing with great rapidity and affording an immense source of 
revenue to the dwellers in the Northwest, but it was not until 1826 that 
the trade was extended to Lake Michigan, or that steamships began to 
navigate the bosom of that inland sea. 

Until the year 1832, the commencement of the Black Hawk War, 
but few hostilities were experienced with the Indians. Roads were 
opened, canals were dug, cities were built, common schools were estab- 
lished, universities were founded, many of which, especially the Michigan 
University, have achieved a world wide-reputation. The people were 
becoming wealthy. The domains of the United States had been extended, 
and had the sons of the forest been treated with honesty and justice, the 
record of many years would have been that of peace and continuous pros- 


This conflict, though confined to Illinois, is an important epoch in. 
the Northwestern history, being the last war with the Indians in this part 
of the United States. 

Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or Black Hawk, was born in the principal 
Sac village, about three miles from the junction of Rock River with the 
Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa or Pahaes ; 
his grandfather's, Na-na-ma-kee, or the Thunderer. Black Hawk early 
distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted 
to paint and was ranked among the braves. About the year 1783, he 
went on an expedition against the enemies of his nation, the Osages, one 





of whom he killed and scalped, and for this deed of Indian bravery he was 
permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years after he, at the 
head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the 
Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to 
his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. The 
Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees 
for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them, near the present City 
of St. Louis, his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of 
the " Medicine Bag," at once announced himself chief of the Sac nation. 
He had now conquered the Cherokees, and about the year 1800, at the 
head of five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and a hundred lowas, he waged 
war against the Osage nation and subdued it. For two years he battled 
successfully with other Indian tribes, all of whom he conquered. 

Black Hawk does not at any time seem to have been friendly to 
the Americans. . When on a visit to St. Louis to see his " Spanish 
Father," he declined to see any of the Americans, alleging, as a reason, 
he did not want two fathers. 

The treaty at St. Louis was consummated in 1804. The next year the 
United States Government erected a fort near the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who 
at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of 
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Des Moines River. The fort was 
garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. The difficulties 
with the British Government arose about this time, and the War of 1812 
followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, by 
giving them arms and ammunition, induced them to remain hostile to the 
Americans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on 
his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn Massacre 
had a few days before occurred. Of his connection with the British 
Government but little is known. In 1813 he with his little band descended 
the Mississippi, and attacking some United States troops at Fort Howard 
was defeated. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United States 
and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black Hawk did not 
sign any treat3% however, until May of the following year. He then recog- 
nized the validity of the treaty at St. Louis in 1804. From the time of 
signing this treaty in 1816, until the breaking out of the war in 1832, he 
and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and Fox 


Indians were urged to join the lowas on the west bank of the Father of 
Waters. All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of 
which Black Hawk was leader. He strenuously objected to the removal, 
and was induced to comply only after being threatened with the power of 
the Government. This and various actions on the part of the white set- 
tlers provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his 
native village now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and 
his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been 
acquiesced in at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would 
have been prevented. 

Black Hawk was chief now of the Sac and Fox nations, and a noted 
warrior. He and his tribe inhabited a village on Rock River, nearly three 
miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, where the tribe had lived 
many generations. When that portion of Illinois was reserved to them, 
they remained in peaceable possession of their reservation, spending their 
time in the enjoyment of Indian life. The fine situation of their village 
and the quality of their lands incited the more lawless white settlers, who 
from time to time began to encroach upon the red men's domain. From 
one pretext to another, and from one step to another, the crafty white 
men gained a foothold, until through whisky and artifice they obtained 
deeds from many of the Indians for their possessions. The Indians were 
finally induced to cross over the Father of Waters and locate among the 
lowas. • Black Hawk was strenuously opposed to all this, but as the 
authorities of Illinois and the United States thought this the best move, he 
was forced to comply. Moreover other tribes joined the whites and urged 
the removal. Black Hawk would not agree to the terms of the treaty 
made with his nation for their lands, and as soon as the military, called to 
enforce his removal, had retired, he returned to the Illinois side of the 
river. A large force was at once raised and marched against him. On 
the evening of May 14, 1832, the first engagement occurred between a 
band from this army and Black Hawk's band, in which the former were 

This attack and its result aroused the whites. A large force of men 
was raised, and Gen. Scott hastened from the seaboard, by way of the 
lakes, with United States troops and artillery to aid in the subjugation of 
the Indians. On the 24th of June, Black Hawk, with 200 warriors, was 
repulsed by Major Demont between Rock River and Galena. The Ameri- 
can army continued to move up Rock Rivei- toward the main body of 
the Indians, and on the 21st of July came upon Black Hawk and his band, 
and defeated them near the Blue Mounds. 

Before this action. Gen. Henry, in command, sent word to the main 
army by whom he was immediately rejoined, and the whole crossed the 


Wisconsin in pursuit of Black Hawk and his band who were fleeing to the 
Mississippi. They were overtaken on the 2d of August, and in the battle 
which followed the power of the Indian chief was completely broken. He 
fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes and delivered to the whites. 

On the 21st of September, 1832, Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds con- 
cluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sacs and Foxes by which they 
ceded to the United States a vast tract of country, and agreed to remain 
peaceable with the whites. For the faithful performance of the provi- 
sions of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it was stipulated that 
Black Hawk, his two sons, the prophet Wabokieshiek, and six other chiefs 
of the hostile bands should be retained as hostages during the pleasure 
of the President. They were confined at Fort Barracks and put in irons. 

The next Spring, by order of the Secretary of War, they were taken 
to Washington. From there they were removed to Fortress Monroe, 
"there to remain until the conduct of their nation was such as to justify 
their being set at liberty." They were retained here until the 4th of 
June, when the authorities directed them to be taken to the principal 
cities so that they might see the folly of contending against the white 
people. Everj'-where they were observed by thousands, the name of the 
old chief being extensively known. By the middle of August they 
reached Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, where Black Hawk was soon 
after released to go to his countrymen. As he passed the site of his birth- 
place, now the home of the white man, he was deeply moved. His village 
where he was born, where he had so happily lived, and where he had 
hoped to die, was now another's dwelling place, and he was a wanderer. 

On the next day after his release, he went at once to his tribe and 
his lodge. His wife was yet living, and with her he passed the remainder 
of his days. To his credit it may be said that Black Hawk always re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among 
the Indians, living with her upward of forty years. 

Black Hawk now passed his time hunting and fishing. A deep mel- 
ancholy had settled over him from which he could not be freed. At all 
times when he visited the whites he was received with marked atten- 
tion. He was an honored guest at the old settlers' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and received many tokens of esteem. 
In September, 1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his 
annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted 
in a fatal attack of bilious fever which terminated his life on October 3. 
His faithful wife, who was devotedly attached to him, mourned deeply 
during his sickness. After his death he was dressed in the uniform pre- 
sented to him by the President while in Washington. He was buried in 
a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. " The 


body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture, upon a 
seat constructed for the purpose. On his left side, the cane, given liim 
by Henry Clay, was placed upright, with his right liand resting upon it. 
Many of the old warrior's trophies were placed in the grave, and some 
Indian garments, together with his favorite weapons." 

No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers began 
rapidly to pour into the northern parts of Illinois, and into Wisconsin, 
now free from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown to a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into prominence. 
In 1835, the formation of a State Government in Michigan was discussed, 
but did not take active form until two years later, when the State became 
a part of the Federal Union. 

The main attraction to that portion of the Northwest lying west of 
Lake Michigan, now included in the State of Wisconsin, was its alluvial 
wealth. Copper ore was found about Lake Superior. For some time this 
region was attached to Michigan for judiciary purposes, but in 183() was 
made a territory, then including Minnesota and Iowa. The latter State 
was detached two years later. In 1848, Wisconsin was admitted as a 
State, Madison being made the capital. We have now traced the various 
divisions of the Northwest Territory (save a little in Minnesota) from 
the time it was a unit comprising this vast territory, until circumstances 
compelled its present division. 



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union^ 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common 
defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution 
for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem- 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the 
electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The 
number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, 
but each state shall have at least one Representative ; and until such 
enumeration shall be made the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plan- 
tations one, Connecticut five. New York six. New Jersey four, Pennsylva- 
nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten. North Carolina five, 
and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years ; 
and each Senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 


tion of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that 
one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by 
resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any state, 
the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty years and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he 
shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President fro 
tempore^ in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise 
the office of President of the Unite<l States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Sen- 
ators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the Legis- 
lature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter 
such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish ita 
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house 
on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journal. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the United States They shall in all cases, except treason, 



felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house 
they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during such time ; and no person holding any office 
under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President 
of the United States ; if he approve he shall sign it ; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if 
approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned 
by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the 
tjnited States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by 
him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and lim- 
itations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the comniGii aefense and general welfare of the United 
States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
States, and with the Indian tribes ; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures ; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States ; 

To establish post offices and post roads ; 


To promote the progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing, 
for Umited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their 
respective writings and discoveries ; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and offenses against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water ; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
use shall be for a longer term than two years ; 

To provide and maintain a navy ; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and 
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the disci- 
pline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the 
consent of the Legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings ; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any depart- 
ment or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, 
but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may 
require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion 
to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev- 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of 
the receipts and expeditures of all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 


No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the 
consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confeder- 
ation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills of 
credit ; make anytliing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of 
debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts 
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
Treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the Congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on 
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term 
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same 
term, be elected as follows : 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress ; 
but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

[ * The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of 
the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the 
persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Pres- 
ident of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. 
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal 
number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have a ma- 
jority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like 
manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote 
shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one 
vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members 
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, 

•This clause between, brackets has been superseded and annulled by the Twelfth amendment. 


the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be 
the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have 
equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-Presi- 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and 
the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the office of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that 
office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been 
fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said 
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-Puesident, and the Congress 
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inabil- 
ity, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall 
then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the dis- 
ability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any other emolument from the United States or any of 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, 
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and 
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States ; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective 
offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardon for offenses 
against the United States, exoept in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present con- 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice of the Senate, 
shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of 
the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose 
appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in 
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which 
shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information 
of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such mea- 
sures as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may on extraordinary 


occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagree- 
ment between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may 
adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper ; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers ; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the ofiScers of the United 

Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and con- 
viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III. 

Section I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or wdiich shall be made, under their authority; to all cases 
affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states ; 
between a state and citizens of another state ; between citizens of differ- 
ent states ; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants 
of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall 
have been committed ; but when not committed within any state, the 
trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levy- 
iug war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the tes- 
timony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, 
except during the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV. 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And 


the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which sach 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, 
who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand 
of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdicl'.on of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on the claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this Union ; 
but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, 
or parts of states, without the consent of the Legislatures of the states 
concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful 
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging 
to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Execu- 
tive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against domestic vio- 

Article V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the ap- 
plication of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call 
a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution, when rati- 
fied by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by con- 
ventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratifi- 
cation may be proposed by the Congress. Provided that no amendment 
which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth 
section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall 
be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Article VI. 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under 
this Constitution as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land ; and the Judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in 
the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem- 



bers of the several state Legislatures, and all executive and judicial offi- 
cers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound 
by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution ; but no religious test 
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
the United States. 

Article VII. 

The ratification of the Conventions of nine states shall be sufficient 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying 
the same. 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the 
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our names. 

President and Deputy from Virginia. 

New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

Nathaniel Gorham, 
RuFus King. 

Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 
Roger Sherman. 

Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. BroOxVI, 
Gunning Bedford, Jr., 
Richard Bassett. 

James M' Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer. 

Neio York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey. 
WiL. Livingston, 
Wm. Paterson, 
David Brearley, 
JoNA. Dayton. 

John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Williamson, 
Rich'd Dobbs Spaight. 

B. Franklin, 
RoBT. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, 
Geo. Clymer, 
Jared Ingersoll, 
Gouv. Morris. 

South Carolina. 
j. rutledge, 
Charles Pinckney, 
Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney, 
Pierce Butler. 

William Few, 
Abr. Baldwin. 



Articles in Addition to and Aimendatory of the Constitution^ 
OF THE United States of America. 

Proposed hy Congress and ratified hy the Legislatures of the several states, 
pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

Article I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment cf religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Article II. 

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free 
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Article IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated ; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be isearched 
and the persons or things to be seized. 

Article V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be sul)ject 
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law ; nor 
chall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

Article VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and 
cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; 
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 


tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States than according to the rules of the common law. 

Article VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX. 

The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, 
or to the people. 

Article XI. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one 
of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or sub- 
jects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same state with themselves ; they shall name in their 
ballots the person to be voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the 
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- 
President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign 
and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the 
highest number not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to 
a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a Presi- 
dent whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as 
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be the majority 
of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a major- 


itj; then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose 
tha Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds 
of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible 
to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Article XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

Article XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to 
vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice- 
President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the execu- 
tive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the Legislature 
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 
twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way 
abridged except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the num- 
ber of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twenty-one years of age in such state. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, 
or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or 
military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previ- 
ously taken an oath as a Member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any state Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any state to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, 
by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be ques- 
tioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall pay any debt 
or obligation incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States, or any loss or emancipation of any slave, but such debts, 
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 


Article XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not 
be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race, 
color, or previous condion of servitude. 


On Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. 




IT is not our province in a volume of this descrij^tion, to delineate the chronol- 
ogy of prehistoric epochs, or to dwell at length upon those topics pertaining 
to the scientific causes which tended to the formation of a continent, undiscov- 
ered for centuries, by the wisdom and energy of those making a history of the 
Old "World, by the advancement of enlightenment in tae Eastern Hemisphere. 

Naturally, the geological formation of the State of Ohio cannot be entirely 
separated from facts relative to the strata, which, in remote ages accumulated 
one layer above the other, and finally constituted a "built-up" America, from 
a vast sea. The action of this huge body of water washed sediment and what- 
ever came in its way upon primitive rocks, which were subjected to frequent 
and repeated submersions, emerging as the water subsided, thus leaving a 
stratum or layer to solidify and mark its number in the series — a system of 
growth repeated in trees of the forest — in those descernible rings that count so 
many years. The southeastern part of North America emerging a second 
time from the Silurian Sea, which extended west to the Rocky Mountains and 
north to the primitive hills of British America, a succession of rock-bound, 
salt-water lakes remained. These covered a large portion of the continent, and 
their water evaporating, organic and mineral matter remained to solidifyo This 
thick stratum has been designated by geologists as the water-lime layer. This 
constitutes the upper layer of rock in the larger portion of the Avest half of 
Ohio. In other sections it forms the bed rock. 

Following the lime-iock deposit, must have been more frequent sweeps of 
the great sea, since the layers are comparatively thin, proving a more speedy 
change. During this scientific rising and falling of the sea, other actions were 
taking place, such as volcanic and other influences which displaced the regular- 
ity of the strata, and occasionally came out in an upheaval or a regular perpen- 
dicular dip. A disturbance of this character formed the low mountain range 
extending from the highlands of Canada to the southern boundary of Tennes- 
see. This "bulge" is supposed to be the consequence of the cooling of the 
earth and the pressure of the oceans on either side of the continent. Geolo- 
gists designate this as the Cincinnati arch. This forms a separation between 
the coal fields of the Alleghanies and those of Illinois. 

Passing over several periods, we reach the glacial, during which the topog- 
raphy of the continent was considerably modified, and which is among the 
latest epochs of geology, though exceedingly remote as compared with human 


history. Previously, a torrid heat prevailed the entire Northern hemisphere. 
Now the temperature of the frigid zone crept southward until it reached Cincin- 
nati. A vast field of ice, perhaps hundreds of feet thick, extended from the 
north pole to this point. As this glacial rigor came southward, the flow of 
the St. Lawrence River was stopped, and the surplus water of the great lake 
basin was turned into the Ohio and Mississippi. This glacial sea was by no 
means stationary even after its southern limit had been reached. It possessed 
the properties of a solid and a fluid. Its action was slow but powerful, grind- 
ing mountains to powder and forming great valleys and basins. Separating 
into two glacial portions, one moved toward the watershed north of the Ohio 
River ; and, continuing westerly, it hollowed out the basin of Lake Erie and 
crushed the apex of the Cincinnati arch. From this point, it turned south- 
ward and swept with a regular course through the Maumee and Miami Valleys 
to the Ohio River. The southern border constantly melting, and flowing toward 
the Gulf of Mexico, the great field was pressed forward by the accumulations 
of ice in the northern latitudes. Thus for ages, this powerful force was fitting 
the earth for the habitation of man. The surface was leveled, huge rocks 
broken and reduced to pebbles, sand, clay, etc., other soil and surface-material — 
while the debris was embedded at the bottom. In some sections, as the ice 
melted and freed the bowlders and rocks, the lighter material was swept away. 
The glacier moving forward, and the forces proving an " equilibrium," the 
edge of this ice-field Avas held in a solid stronghold, and the material thus de- 
posited forms a ridge, called by geologists "terminal moraine," first exemplified 
in Ohio by the "Black Swamp," in the Maumee Valley. 

The most extreme rigor of this period beginning to wane, the ice of the 
Maumee and Miami Valleys began to move slowly forward, toward the north, 
reaching the points now termed Hudson, Mich.; Fort Wayne, Ind., and Kenton, 
Ohio — reachino; somewhat further south than Lima and Van Wert. The edge of 
the glacier was defined in outline by the present western border of Lake Erie, and 
parallel with it. Climatic influences "acting and counteracting," the glacial 
force was concentrated, the Maumee Valley being subjected to a grinding proc- 
ess, and a deposit of material going on, which now forms the boundary of the 
"Black Swamp." As our readers are aware, the waters of the St. Joseph and 
St. Mary's meet at Fort Wayne, and their united waters form the Maumee ; 
thence the turn is northwest, and, wearing an outlet through the ridge, it 
reaches the head of Lake Erie. 

The torrid zone yet gaining the ascendency, the ice-fields continuing their 
reverse motion, and retreating toward the north, the basin of the great lakes 
was formed ; and the blocks of ice melting therein, a vast sea of fresh water was 
formed, which gradually overflowed a portion of Canada and Michigan^ But 
the St. Lawrence, that important outlet, was under the restraint of an ice 
blockade, and the surplus water of the fresh sea was turned into the Ohio and 
and Mississippi. 


Later, mountains of ice-float were drifted from the north by winds and cur- 
rents, into temperate latitudes, and melting, deposited rocks, stones and general 
debris. Following the iceberg-drift, came the permanent elevation above the ocean- 
level. The St. Lawrence outlet was formed. The inland sea was assuming its 
division into lakes. The united waters of Erie and Huron flowed through the 
Wabash Valley and into the Ohio, until, through some agency, that section was 
dry, and the lakes drained in another direction. The action of the glacial 
period in the Erie basin vicinity created what is known as the " Niagara lime- 
stone," by grinding upper strata and drifting the debris elsewhere. This seems 
to have occurred at intervals, exposures being made in Seneca, Sandusky and 
Wood Counties, and beneath the axis of the Cincinnati arch. Oriskany lime- 
stone is also available in another stratum, which has been brought to the surface. 
Again, there is a carboniferous stratum of limestone, and along the Maumee is 
a thin exposure of the Hamilton limestone and shale. 

A glacier having both fluid and solid properties, it will readily be compre- 
hended that obdurate projections of rock resisted its action, and created currents 
in other directions, for its forces. When this specified epoch had ceased to be, 
Ohio was a rough, irregular and crude mixture of ridges and knobs and pinnacles, 
which were " leveled up " and finished by iceberg-drift and inland-sea deposits. 
This settled and accumulated, and the work of hundreds of years produced a 
beautiful surface, its inequalities overcome, the water having receded and "terra 
firma " remaining. A deep bed of clay, sufficiently compact to hold the germs 
of organic matter, and sufficiently porous to absorb moisture, was especially 
adapted to encourage the growth of vegetation. These seeds had been brouo-ht 
by the winds and waves and natural agencies, and now began to produce jilants 
and shrubs, which withered to enrich the soil, after scattering broadcast seeds 
that would again perpetuate verdure. Worms, land crabs and burrowing ani- 
mals assisted in the creation of soil, while the buffalo, deer and bear followed, 
as soon as forestry appeared. Decomposed foliage and fallen timber aided in 
the great work of preparing the present State of Ohio for the habitation of man. 
Prairie, marsh, forest, rivers and lakes were formed, which, in turn, were modi- 
fied and prepared for a grand destiny by other influences. 

In glancing over the compiled histories of Ohio, those containing details of 
her early struggles, afilictions and triumphs, we are especially impressed with 
its near and sympathetic relation with the great Northwest, and the republic of 
the United States of America. From the early years when white men built 
their rude cabins in the then tangled wilderness, to the opulent and magnificent 
present of this united nation, Ohio has been stanch, loyal and earnest, both 
in action and principle. 

We shall endeavor to trace the history of the State concisely and accurately, 
according to the data given by the most reliable historians. We are obliged to 
glean the prominent events only, our space being limited, compared with the 
multitudinous interests connected with this important part of the United States. 



All through early French history, is the fact especially prominent, that in 
their explorations and expeditions, they united piety and business. They were 
zealous in sending out their missionaries, but they were always attended by 
traders and those who were as skilled in the world's profit and loss, as their 
companions were in propagating Christianity. 

Prior to the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers upon Plymouth Rock, the 
Upper Lakes were visited by the French, and records prove that during the first 
half of the seventeenth century, a vagabondish set, working in the interests of 
the fur company of New France, understood the geographical position of the 
lakes and their tributary streams. M. Perrot, an intelligent explorer, made 
overtures of peace to the Indian tribes around these bodies of water, and 
effected a treaty, which, it is claimed, established the right for the French, in 
the name of their king, to hold the place near St. Mary's Falls. They further 
assert that the Mississippi was discovered by the French from Lake Superior, 
but this is not authenticated, and Father Marcpiette and M. Joliet are accepted 
as the first who found this large stream, in 1763. The good missionary won 
his way with his patient and sympathetic nature. 

Ohio was, like the other portions of the West, originally in the possession 
of aborigines or Indians. Of their origin, many suppositions are advanced, 
but no certainties sustained. From practical evidences, the Mound-Builders 
were active in Ohio, and here as elsewhere, their work marked retrogression 
rather than advancement. The territory of Ohio was claimed by the French, 
and included in that wide tract between the Alleghanies and the Rockies, held 
by them under the name of Louisiana. Before the year 1750, a French trad- 
ing-post was established at the mouth of the Wabash, and communication was 
established between that point and the Maumee, and Canada. Between the 
years 1678 and 1682, the intrepid La Salle and Father Hennepin, assisted by 
Fondi, an Italian, with a small band of followers, inaugurated a series of 
explorations about the great lakes and the Mississippi, building forts on their 
way and planting the French priority. In 1680, La Salle erected a stockade at 
the foot of the rapids of the Maumee, which was a general rendezvous for mission- 
aries, traders and explorers, besides constituting a primitive "stock exchange." 

The English colonies were at this time feast of the Alleghanies, wdiile the 
French were establishing themselves west of this range, gaining an entrance 
north and south, the two portions separated by hostile and barbarous foes. 
La Salle's spirit of adventure led him into new fields, but Father Hennepin 
was detailed to investigate that part of the world now known as the State of 
Ohio. The records assert that he published a volume containing an account of 
his observations "in the country between New Mexico and the frozen ocean," 
in 1684, together with maps of Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan, and a plat 
of the laro-er streams in Ohio. 


Apparently, the French more speedily comprehended the value of their 
advantages in the New World than the English, and vigorously inaugurated and 
sustained commercial and religious projects. They were essentially benefited 
by the mediation of the Catholic priests between settlers and Indians, this 
really earnest class everywhere ingratiating themselves with the savages. The 
Order of Jesuits were very vigorous, and representatives were stationed at every 
trading-post, village and settlement. The English colonists engaged mostly in 
agriculture, while the French took a lively interest in the fur trade with the 
natives, probably from their former settlement in Quebec and thereabouts, where 
the climate is advantageous for this business. This added to the influence of 
the priests, and the natural assimilation of French and the Indians, through 
the tact and amiability of the former, the French possessions gained more 
rapidly than the English or Spanish. They courted their daughters and 
married them. They engaged in feasts and trades, and took advantage of 
those unimpeded times to extend their dominion with surprising celerity. A 
chain of trading, missionary and military posts extended from New Orleans to 
Quebec, by way of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, thence via Mackinaw and 
Detroit to Lakes Erie and Ontario. This route was shortened thereafter by 
following the Ohio River to the Wabash, following the latter upward, and 
down the Maumee to Lake Erie. 

About the same time, and to check the advancement of the French, the 
Ohio Company was formed by the English. This was an outgrowth of the 
contest between these two nations for the ascendency, whether empire, settle- 
ment or individual. After thirty years' peace between these two nations, 
"King George's War" opened the campaign in 1744, but terminated in 1748, 
the treaty at Aix-la-Chapelle unfortunately omitting a settlement of any division 
of claims in America. The English, French and Spanish were the first to 
enter America, and the right of possession by each monarch or empire was 
held by right of a first discovery. The only right that England could advance 
regarding Ohio was that the portion of the Six Nations found in the Ohio 
Valley had placed some of their lands under British jurisdiction, and that other 
portions had been purchased at Lancaster, Penn., by means of a treaty with 
the same nations. All this was strenuously denied and ignored by the French. 
Thus several conflicting influences swept carnage over fair Ohio. The Indians were 
allied to one side and the other, and were against each other. The Indians and 
French would advance against the English, and they, in retaliation, would 
make a raid into the Indian territory and overcome a French settlement. 
Whenever they could as well, Indians would take the cause in their own keep- 
ing and fight each other. The wide, verdant fields of Ohio were drenohed 
ghastly rod under a glowing sun, and the great forests echoed moans from the 
dying and distressed. The English colonists had partially overcome their 
deprivation, caused by a struggle for subsistence, and means to guard against 
the savages — this distress augmented by campaigns against Canada — by their 


increased numbers and wealth, but were now alarmed by the French rule in 
America, which gained so rapidly, unmolested as it was by Indian raids and 
other devastating circumstances. A constant conflict was going on between 
Lake Erie and the Upper Ohio. Atrocities and massacres were committed 
indiscriminately, which opened the Avay for a desperate class of marauders and 
villains from the colonies and European States. These people enlisted with 
the Indians on either side for the purpose of leadership and plunder. Every 
fortification, trading-post and settlement was garrisoned or deserted, and the 
ground between the Alle2;hanies and the Maumee became a conflict field, rife 
with thrilling deeds, sacrifice and adventures, the half never having been 
chronicled, and many heroes falling uncrowned by even a lasting memory, since 
during these times the people kept few annals, and cared less for historical 
memories than anything on earth. They were living, and dying, and struggling, 
and that was more than they could carry through safely. The French formed 
a road from the Ohio River to Detroit, via the foot of the Lower Rapids of the 
Maumee, and the foot of the Lower Rapids of the Sandusky. 

The Ohio Company obtained a charter under English views, from the 
British Government, with a grant of 6,000 acres of land on the Ohio. The 
English now reverted to the times of the Cabots, and protested that by right 
they held the entire country between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, bounded 
by those parallels of latitude defining their Atlantic coast settlements. France 
claimed the region drained by the Mississippi and tributaries, the great lakes 
and their tributaries, the area being west of the Alleghanies. Ohio was thus 
included in the disputed tract. 

The Ohio Company was formed in 1748, by a number of Virginians and 
Londoners, two brothers of George Washington taking conspicuous parts in the 
movement ; Thomas Lee Avas especially active. When the surveys were begun, 
the Governor of Canada entered vigorous protests, and indicated his displeasure 
by a prompt line of posts from Erie to Pittsburgh, named respectively, Presque 
Isle, Le Boeuf, Vedango, Kittaning and Du Quesne. The latter was begun 
by the English, captured by the French, and by them completed. 

The first English settlement of which we can find traces was a block-house 
at Piqua, about the year 1752. It was attacked, and a bitter struggle ensued, 
resulting in the death of fourteen of the assailants. Those within the garrison 
sufiered severely, many being burned, and the remainder captured and dis- 
patched to Canada. 

In 1753, the French and Indian war actively began. It did not extend 
beyond the American continent until 1756, when the home governments took 
an interest in its progress beyond encouraging their respective colonists to pur- 
sue the war-path to a direful finale for their adversaries. For four years, the 
French captured and conquered, spreading terror wherever they went, and 
they followed every Englishman that set his foot on Ohio soil to the death. 
We may state that these people had not retained their civilized habits, and 


constant association with savages had embued them with barbarous methods of 
warfare which were sickening and revolting to the English, and to which they 
could not resort. It is highly probable that French success was vastly brought 
about by these means, together with the assistance of their Indian allies. In 
1758, when the English hope was almost exterminated, the elder Pitt being 
placed at the head of the administration, a new and energetic system was 
inaugurated, wise measures instituted, and military science triumphed over 
savase cunning and French intrigue. The first brilliant English achievement 
was the conquest of Canada. When the home governments interfered, the 
war assumed the character of a French and English conflict, regardless of 
Indian right, yet the tribes continued to participate in the carnage. 

A certain Christian, Frederick Post, a Moravian missionary, located upon 
the Muskingum, near Beavertown. Heckewelder consented to become his 
associate. The Indians receiving them kindly, under conditions that Post 
should serve as tutor, this missionary began clearing a field for the purpose of 
planting corn for sustenance. This did not accord with Indian logic. They 
had stipulated that he teach and he was planting corn, which to them was a 
signal of the coming of other whites, the building of a fort and encroachments 
upon the Indians. They referred to the French priests, who were in good 
physical condition, did not till land, but were in charge of the Great Spirit 
who provided for them, a conclusive proof to them that when divine work was 
acceptable to the Great Spirit, priests were somehow sustained by other than 
the plans which disturbed their great hunting-grounds. However, they 
allowed him a small space, and he remained with them, preaching and teaching 
during the summer of 1762, when, accompanied by one of the principal chiefs, 
he returned to Lancaster, Penn., where a treaty was concluded. On his return 
to his post, he was met by Heckewelder, who imparted the tidings that friendly 
Indians had warned him that the war was about to sweep over their section, 
and destruction awaited them if they remained. The mission was accordingly 
abandoned. This failure was not so bitter as the English effort to sustain their 
trading-post in 1749, on the Great Miami, afterward called Laramie's store. 
It pursued a feeble existence until 1752, when a French raid upon the Twig- 
twees and English colonists proved fatal. 

A European treaty now excluded the French from any rights to make 
treaties with the Indians, and the English, in their flush of victory after Pitt's 
succession, assumed the authority over Indians and lands. The savages did 
not accept the situation with anything resembling the gentle spirit of resigna- 
tion, and the Ottawa chief, Pontiac, led the several tribes into a general war 
against the intruders. It was no longer French and English, but Indian and 
English, the former being instigated and assisted many times by the French, 
now desperate and unscrupulous in a mad spirit for revenge. 

The intention of the Indians was to drive the whites east of the mountains, 

destroying their numerous strongholds in Pennsylvania and Virginia, if they 


failed in their hope of utterly exterminating them. Pontiac had effected a 
consolidation of the tribes ranging from Mackinaw to North Carolina, thus 
being enabled to swoop down upon all the settlements simultaneously. A 
deadly beginning was made in the Ohio Valley, and only two or three English 
traders escaped out of the one hundred and twenty located in that vicinity. 
The forts at Presque Isle, St. Joseph and Mackinaw, were captured amid scenes 
of slaughter too terrible to perpetuate in description. The years 1763 and 
1764 were literally drenched in human carnage and anguish. Ohio was a 
great field of crime, murder, pain and horror. The expeditions of Bradstreet 
and Boucjuet crushed the war in 1764, and Pontiac with his Ottawas removed 
to the Maumee and settled. English settlement now progressed with great 
rapidity, but this was destined to be disturbed in 1774, by the action of Lord 
Dunmore, who led an expedition against the tribes of the Ohio country, termi- 
nated by his treaty on the Scioto plains. At this period, the colonists were not 
in strict harmony with England, and the spirit of revolution was spreading 
every day. 

When Lord Dunmore made his treaty, the affirmation was made and gained 
ground that he, being a thorough loyalist, had compromised under such terms 
as held the Indians British allies against the settlers. Directly following this 
treaty, was the deliberate murder of a number of Indians, near Wheeling, 
including the family of the great chief, Logan — Avhich inaugurated retaliating 

In the year 1773, July 4, the first white child was born within the 
present limits of Ohio, and was christened John L. Roth, son of a Mora- 
vian missionary. All the settlers of these Moravian towns on the Muskingum 
were made prisoners in September of the same year. Heckwelder was trans- 
ported to Detroit, but English tyranny foiled to find any evidence against him 
or his colaborers, and they were reluctantly released, and returned to their fam- 
ilies in Sandusky. Poverty added to their sufferings, and in the forlorn 
hope of finding a remnant of their property at the old settlements, which might 
assist in mitigating their necessities, they wearily went thitherward. They 
began gathering their grain, but the Wyandots attacked them, and many lives 
were lost. Frontiersmen had also grown jealous of them, and a body of about 
ninety marched out together, for the fiendish purpose of pillaging, slaughtering 
and laying waste all Moravian towns and posts. With the wily insidiousness of 
savages, they went about their diabolical plan. The Moravians were cordial and 
bade this band welcome, when they reached their towns in the guise of friend- 
ship. AVilliamson, the leader, and the gleaners, were called from the fields, 
when, to the dismay of these trusting and frank people, they were all bound, 
and only fifteen out of the marauding band of ninety were in favor of even 
sparing the lives of these hapless men, women and children. Forty men, 
twenty-two women and thirty-four children were then cruelly and heartlessly 
murdered, their sufferings laughed to scorn, and the last sound that fell on their 


ears was exultant derision. Succeeding this tragic event was the expedition 
against the Indian towns upon the Sandusky. The hostile Indians had been 
making frequent incursions upon the settlements of Western Pennsylvania and 
Virginia, destroying both life and property. There seemed to be no bounds 
to their bloody work, and it became necessary, for the peace and safety of the 
settlers, to take some measures to prevent their outrages. Accordingly, in 
May, 1782, Gen. William Irvine, who was then commander of the Western 
Military Department, with headquarters at Fort Pitt, called a council of the 
officers of his department to meet at Fort Pitt. At this meeting it was de- 
cided to form and equip a body of men, and make an expedition into the 
Indian country. Upper Sandusky, then the rendezvous of the hostile Wyan- 
dots, Delawares, Shawanese and Mingoes, was to be the point of attack. 

Col. William Crawford led the expedition, which counted 480 men. Warn- 
ing had in some manner reached the towns, and the troops found them de- 
serted. But the Indians were incensed, and their wrath had not driven them 
to hiding-places, but to a preparation to meet their foes. They fought desper- 
ately, and Crawford's troops were defeated and scattered, many being capt- 
ured, and among them Col. Crawford himself. It is hardly probable that 
Crawford could justly expect much mercy at the hands of his captors. Ac- 
counts state that Crawford implored the aid of Girty, and at last secured a 
promise to use his power to obtain the Colonel's pardon. However, this was of 
no avail, and it is doubtful whether Girty was disposed to intercede. The 
prisoners were tortured and put to death, and Crawford's agonies were pro- 
tracted as long as possible. Dr. Knight managed to disable the Indian who 
had him in charge, and made his escape to the settlements, where he related 
the result of the expedition and the tortures of the captured. 

On October 27, 1784, a treaty was concluded at Fort Stanwix, with the 
sachems and warriors of the Mohawks, Onondagas, Senecas, Cayugas, Onei- 
das and Tuscaroras, and the Six Nations then ceded to the Colonial Govern- 
ment all claims to the country west of a line defined by the western boundary 
to the Ohio — thus rendering the Indian claim to a large portion of Ohio lands 
practically extinct. 

Although the French and Indian war was a series of heart-rending events, 
it was a serious and remarkable school of discipline for the untrained troops 
which soon engaged in the Revolutionary struggle. On the fields of Ohio, many 
valuable officers, who earned distinction in the war of independence, learned 
their first lessons in intrepid valor. 

During the Revolution, the colonial troops were engaged east of the mount- 
ains, and western settlements and frontier people were left alone to defend 
themselves and their property against encroachments and attacks. 

The Indian tribes again became belligerent, and united with the English 
against the " Americans." The latter held a line of posts along the Upper 
Ohio, while the British were stationed in the old French strongholds on the 
lakes and the Mississippi. The unscrupulous whites and Indians ranged at ran- 
dom between this boundary and the Cuyahoga, thence southerly to the Ohio, 


thus including the Scioto and Miami Valleys. Southeastern Ohio constituted 
"the neutral ground." 

Gen. Clarke's expedition, although chiefly confined to Indiana and Illinois, 
greatly influenced the settlement of Ohio. His exploits and the resolution of 
his troops were chiefly instrumental in holding the country west of the Alle- 
ghanies, and insuring its possession by the United States during the Revolution. 
The British had been emphatic, in the Paris treaty, at the time of the settlement 
of the French and English difiiculties, in demanding the Ohio River as the 
northern boundary of the United States. The American Commissioners relied 
upon Gen. Clarke's valor and energy in holding the country west of the Alle- 
ghanies, Avhich he had conquered, and the British Commissioners were compelled 
to give their consent, under civil and military measures. In 1783, by the 
treaty of Paris, at the close of the Revolutionary war, the English relinquished 
all rights to the fertile territory between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi, 
and the United States held undisputed possession. 

January 10, 1786, Gens. Rufus Putnam and Benjamin Tupper circulated a 
pamphlet, proposing the formation of a company for the purpose of settling the 
Ohio lands, and soliciting the attention and consideration of all those desiring a 
future home and prosperity. A meeting was also called, to assemble during the 
following February, and select delegates to represent each county in Massachu- 
setts. These dignitaries should convene during the month of March, at the 
" Bunch of Grapes " tavern, in Boston, for the purpose of definitely forming the 
association, and adopting such measures as would benefit all directly interested. 
The meeting and " convention " followed, and the subscription books were opened. 
One million dollars, chiefly represented by Continental certificates, was the 
price of the land. The shares were valued at |1,000 each, and there was a 
division of a thousand shares. The first payment was to be $10 per share, this 
money to be set aside for such expenses as might accrue. A year's interest was 
to be devoted to the establishment of the settlement, and those families who 
were unable to incur the expense of moving were to be assisted. Those who 
purchased shares to the number of twenty were entitled to a representation by 
an agent, who was permitted to vote for Directors. This plan matured and was 
acted upon during the following year. It may be that the action of Connecti- 
cut, in ceding her territorial claims to the General Government, Avith few excep- 
tions, greatly encouraged this new undertaking. That tract was, until recently, 
designated the " Western Reserve " — an extent 170 miles from the western 
boundary of Pennsylvania, and parallel thereto, being reserved. 

On October 27, 1787, a contract was made between the Board of the Treas- 
ury, for the United States, and Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargent, agents 
for the Directors of the New England Ohio Company, for the purchase of a tract 
of land, bounded by the Ohio, and from the mouth of the Scioto to the inter- 
section of the western boundary of the seventh townships, then surveying ; 
thence by said boundary to the northern boundary of the tenth township from 


the Ohio ; thence, by a due west line, to the Scioto ; thence, by the Scioto, to 
the beginning. 

However fertile and attractive Ohio was known to have been, settlement did 
not gain rapidly after the close of the war with England, although the United 
States has gained her freedom. It was more than six years after Cornwallis 
laid down his sword, before a white settlement was formed on the Ohio side of the 
river. The French and Indian war had incited the English to be jealous of her 
colonial conquests, and mistrusting their loyalty, they had, so soon as the French 
claims were annulled, taken measures to crush all colonial claims also, and a 
royal proclamation rescinded all colonial land grants and charters, holding all 
the country west of the sources of the Atlantic rivers under the protection and 
sovereignty of t!ie king of Great Britain, for the use of the Indians. All white 
persons were forbidden to remain or settle within the prescribed limits. Parlia- 
ment then attached this tract to Quebec, and the English Government felt assured 
that the thirteen colonies were restricted and held secure east of the Alleghanies. 

The result of the war between the colonies and England did not constitute 
an Indian treaty. Although England signed over her title and right, the sava- 
ges held the land and ignored all white agreements, one way or the other. 
Whenever an attempt at settlement was undertaken, Indian depredations proved 
disastrous. The tribes were encouraged by the English fur traders, and the 
English commandant at Detroit incited them to destroy all Americans who 
attempted to usurp the rights of red men. 

Added to this serious difficulty was the unsettled debate regarding State 
claims, which rendered a title precarious. A treaty, signed at Fort Mcintosh, 
previous to the war, and authenticated, shows that during the conflict the Dela- 
wares and Wyandots occupied the Indian and British frontier, on the southern 
shore of Lake Erie, from the Cuyahoga to the Maumee, and from the lake to 
the sources of its tributaries. Later, these two tribes ceded to the United 
States "the neutral ground," by warranty deed, and by quit-claim, the terri- 
tory south and west of the described tract, set apart for their use. 

By special measures, the grant of Congress in the matter of the Ohio Com- 
pany extended to nearly 5,000,000 acres, valued at $3,500,000. The original 
Ohio Company obtained 1,500,000 acres, the remaining being reserved by indi- 
viduals, for private speculation. 

The same year, Congress appointed Arthur St. Clair, Governor, and Win- 
throp Sargent, Secretary, of the Territory. 

Fort Harmar had previously been built, at the mouth of the Muskingum, 
and in 1788, a New England colony attempted the "Muskingum settlement," 
on the opposite side, which was afterward named Marietta. In July, 1788, the 
Territorial officers were received in this village, and there established the first 
form of civil government, as set forth in the Ordinance of 1787. Three United 
States Judges were appointed, and Courts of Common Pleas, Probate and 
Justice were established. 


If the stormy times were supposed to be of the past, that composure was 
rudely broken by the utter disregard of the Shawnee and other Indian tribes, 
who soon induced the Delawares and Wyandots to repudiate their consent in the 
matter of settlement. The miseries of frontier horrors were repeated. The 
British commandant at Detroit instigated many of these hostilities, yet the 
American Government took honorable action in assuring the English represent- 
ative that American military preparations in the West was not an expedition 
against Detroit, or other British possessions, although the possession of Detroit 
by that nation was in direct opposition to the treaty of 1783. Gov. St. Clair, 
to avert the direful consequences of a border war, dispatched a Frenchman, 
Gameline, to the principal Indian towns of the Wabash and Maumee countries, 
to request them to meet the United States agents, and make a compromise for 
the benefit of both parties, at the same time reiterating the desire of the General 
Government to adhere to the Fort Ilarmar treaty. The Miamis, Shawnees, 
Ottawas, Kickapoos and Delawares received this representative kindly, but 
declined the wampum sent by the Governor, and deferred giving an answer 
until they had considered the subject with the " father at Detroit." 

Blue Jacket, chief of the Shawnees, informed the Frenchman that the Indi- 
ans doubted the sincerity of the Americans. The new settlement on the Ohio 
was a proof that the whites intended to crowd further and further, until the 
Indians were again and again robbed of their just right. He then emphatically 
asserted that unless the north side of the river was kept free from these inroads 
there could be no terms of peace with the Shawnees, and many other tribes. 

Blue Jacket was unusually intelligent and sagacious, and expressed himself 
eloquently. He was persistent in his determination to engage in the war of 
extermination, should the white settlements continue north of the Ohio. 

These overtures were continued, but they foiled in producing any arrange- 
ment that permitted the whites to locate north of the Ohio. 

Congress called upon Kentucky and Pennsylvania to lend the aid of theii' 
militia. Gen. Harmar was instructed to destroy the Miami villages at the 
head of the Maumee. Late in the fall of 1790, he executed this order. 

The Indians had stored a large quantity of provisions, in expectation of a 
campaign, and this dependence was devastated. Without authority, and with 
undue carelessness, he divided his army and attempted to achieve other victo- 
ries. He more than lost Avhat he had gained. Two raids upon the Wabash In- 
dians, thereafter, proved successful, but the campaign under Gov. St. Clair was 
not calculated to establish peace or obtain power, and was deemed but little less 
than a failure. 

The year 1792 was a series of skirmishes, so far as a settlement was con- 
cerned, but 1793 succeeded well enough to convene a meeting of United States 
Commissioners and representatives of the hostile tribes, at the rapids of the 
Maumee. It is highly probable that a satisfactory treaty might have been 
arranged, liad it not been for the intervention and malicious influence of the 


British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Col. McKee, his assistant Capt. 
Elliott, and the notorious Capt. Simon Girty, who instigated the savages to 
deeds more horrible than their own barbarisms. 

It was evident that a severe struggle must ensue, and Capt. Wayne, in 
1792, appointed to the command of the Western army, was called upon to con- 
duct the campaign. He exhibited his wisdom in the beginning, by preparing 
his men in military discipline and fully equipping them before marching to meet 
a savage foe in a wilderness. Various causes detained the army, and it was not 
until the fall of 1793, that the force marched from Fort Washington (Cincin- 
nati) to begin the battle. 

It was already late in the season, and, before any progress had been made, 
the army went into winter quarters at Greenville, on a branch of the Big 

In the mean time, the Ohio Company had not matured its practical " settle- 
ment plan," although a generous grant had been obtained. In 1792, they 
received a clear title to 750,000 acres of land, for which the full price had pre- 
viously been paid, in Continental currency. Congress set aside 214,285 acres 
as army bounties, and 100,000 acres to actual settlers. The two latter appro- 
priations joined that of the Ohio Company. 

There had been numerous conventions, discussions and other fruitless 
attempts to somehow form a plan for the government of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, but it was not until July 13, 1787, that an ordinance was passed, and that 
was the result of Dr. Cutler's efforts. Every State sustained its measures. 

This ordinance was the foundation of the constitution of the future State of 
Ohio, and indeed, permeates the entire Northwestern creed. 

ORDINANCE, OF 1787.— No. 32. 
An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, Northwest of 
THE Ohio River. 

Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assevibled, That the said Territory, for the pur- 
pose of government, be one district; subject, however, to be divided into two districts, as future cir- 
cumstances may, in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid. That the estates of both resident and non-resident 
proprietors in the said Territoi-y, dying intestate, shall descend to and be distributed among their 
children and the descendants of a deceased child, in equal parts; the descendants of a deceased 
child or grandchild to take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them. And 
when there shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the next of kin in equal . 
degree ; and among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister of the intestate shall 
have, in equal parts among them, their deceased parent's share; and there shall in no case be a 
distribution between kindred of the whole and half blood, saving in all cases to the widow of 
intestate, her third part of the real estate, for life, and one-third part of the personal estate ; and 
this law relative to descents and dower, shall remain in full force until altered by the Legis- 
lature of the district. And until the Governor and Judges shall adopt laws as hereinafter 
mentioned, estates in said Territory may be devised or bequeathed by wills in writing, signed 
and sealed by him or her in whom the estate may be (being of full age), and attested by three 
witnesses ; and real estate may be conveyed by lease and release, or bargain and sale, signed and 
sealed, and delivered by the person (being in full age) in whom the estate may be, and attested 


by two witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, and such conveyances be acknowledged, or 
the execution thereof duly proved and be recorded within one year after proper magistrates, 
courts and registers shall be appointed for that purpose. And personal property may be trans- 
ferred by delivery, saving, however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of 
the Kaskaskias, St. Vincent's and the neighboring villages, who have heretofore professed them- 
selves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in force among them, relative to the 
descent and conveyance of property. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid. That there shall be appointed from time to time, by 
Congress, a Governor whose commission shall continue in force for a term of three years, unless 
sooner revoked by Congress. He shall reside in the district and have a freehold estate therein, 
of a thousand acres of land while in the exercise of his office. 

There shall be appointed from time to time by Congress, a Secretary whose commission shall 
continue in force for two years, unless sooner revoked. He shall reside in the district, and shall 
have a freehold estate therein in 500 acres of land, while in the exercise of his office. It shall be 
his duty to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the Legislature, and the public records 
of the district, and the proceedings of the Governor in his executive department, and transmit 
authentic copies of such acts and proceedings every six months, to the Secretary of Congress. 
There shall also be appointed a court to consist of three Judges, any two of whom to form a 
court, who shall have a common law jurisdiction and shall reside in the district and have each 
therein a freehold estate in 500 acres of land, while in the exercise of their office, and their 
commissions shall continue in force during good behavior. 

The Governor and Judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and publish in the district 
such laws of the original States, criminal and civil, as may be necessary and best suited to the 
circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress from time to time, which laws shall be 
in force in the district until the organization of the General Assembly therein, unless disapproved 
by Congress. But afterward, the Legislature shall have authority to alter them, as they shall 
think fit. 

The Governor, for the time being, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, appoint and 
commission all officers in the same, below the rank of general officers. All general officers shall 
be appointed and commissioned by Congress. 

Previous to the organization of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint such mag- 
istrates and other civil officers in each county or township, as he shall find necessary for the 
preservation of the peace and good order in the same. After the General Assembly shall be 
organized, the powers and duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and 
defined by the said Assembly, but all magistrates and other civil officers not herein otherwise 
directed, shall, during the continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the 

For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or made shall have force 
in all parts of the district, and for the execution of process, criminal or civil, the Governor shall 
make proper divisions thereof, and he shall proceed from time to time as circumstances may 
require, to lay out the parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall have been extin- 
guished, into counties and townships, subject, however, to such alterations as may thereafter be 
made by the Legislature. So soon as there shall be 5,000 free male inhabitants of full age in the 
district, upon giving proof thereof to the Governor, tlmy shall receive authority with time and 
place, to elect representatives from their counties or townships, to represent them in the General 
Assembly. Provided, That for every 500 free male inhabitants, there shall be one representative, 
and so on progressively with the number of free male inhabitants, shall the right of representa- 
tion increase, until the number of representatives shall amount to twenty-five. After which, the 
number shall be regulated by the Legislature. Provided, That no person be eligible or qualified 
to act as a representative unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States three 
years, and be a resident in the district, or unless he shall have resided in the district three 
years, and in either case, shall likewise hold in his own right in fee simple 200 acres of land 
within the same. 


Provided, Also, that a freehold in 50 aci'cs of land in the district, having been a citizen of 
one of the States, and being a resident in the district, or the like freehold and two years' resi- 
dence in the district, shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative. 

The representatives thus elected, shall serve for the term of two years. And in case of the 
death of a representative or removal from office, the Goveunor shall issue a writ to the county or 
township for which he was a member, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the 

The General Assembly or Legislature shall consist of the Governor, Legislative Council, and 
a House of Representatives. The Legislative Council shall consist of five members, to continue 
in office five years, unless sooner removed by Congress ; any three of whom to be a quorum. 
And the members of the Council shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to wit : 

As soon as representatives shall be elected, the Governor shall appoint a time and place for 
them to meet together, and when met, they shall nominate ten persons, residents in the district, 
and each person in a freehold in 500 acres of land, and return their names to Congress, five of 
whom Congress shall appoint and commission as aforesaid. And whenever a vacancy shall hap- 
pen in the Council by death or removal from office, the House of Representatives shall nominate 
two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return their names to Congress, one of 
whom Congress shall appoint and commission for the residue of the term. And every five years, 
four months at least before the expiration of the time of service of the members of the Council, 
the said House shall nominate ten persons qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to 
Congress, five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as members of the 
Council five years, unless sooner removed. And the Governor, Legislative Council and House 
of Representatives shall have authority to make laws in all cases, for the good government 
of the district, not repugnant to the principles and articles in this Ordinance, established and 

And all bills having passed by a majority in the House, and by a majority in the Council, 
shall be referred to the Governor for his assent. But no bill or legislative act whatever, shall be 
of any force without his assent. The Governor shall have power to convene, prorogue and dis- 
solve the General Assembly, when in his opinion it shall be expedient. 

The Governor, Judges, Legislative Council, Secretary, and such other officers as Congress 
shall appoint in the district, shall take an oath or affirmation of fidelity and of office. The Gov- 
ernor before the President of Congress, and all other officei's before the Governor. 

As soon as a Legislature shall be formed in the district, the Council and House assembled 
in one room, shall have authority by joint ballot to elect a delegate to Congress, who shall 
have a seat in Congress, with a right of debating, but not of voting, during this temporary gov- 

And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, which forms 
the basis whereon these republics, their laws and constitutions, are created ; to fix and establish 
those principles as the basis of all laws, constitutions and governments, Avhicli forever hereafter 
shall be formed in said Territory. To provide for the establishment of States, and permanent 
governments therein, and for their admission to a share in the Federal Council on an equal footing 
with the original States, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general interest. 

It is hereby ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid, That the following articles shall 
be considered as articles of compact between the original States and the people, and States in 
said Territory, and forever remain unaltered unless by common consent, to wit: 

Article II. The inhabitants of said Territory shall always be entitled to the benefits of the 
writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury; of a proportionate representation of the people 
in the Legislature, and of judicial procedure according to the course of common law. All per- 
sons shall be bailable, except for capital otfenses, where the proof shall be evident or the pre- 
sumption great. All fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unreasonable punishment shall be 
inflicted. No man shall be deprived of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers 
or the law of the land. And should the public exigencies make it necessary for the common 
preservation, to take any person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation 


shall be made for the same. And in the just preservation of rights and property, it is under- 
stood and declared that no law aught ever to be made or have force in the said Ten'itory, 
that shall in any manner whatever interfere with or effect private contracts or engagements bona 
fide and without fraud, previously formed. 

Art. III. Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The 
utmost good faith shall always be observed toward the Indians; their lands and property shall 
never be taken from them without their consent ; and in their property, rights and liberty they 
shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress. But 
laws founded in justice and humanity, shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs 
being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them. 

Art. IV. The said Territory and the States which may be formed therein, shall ever remain 
a part of the confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the articles of confedera- 
tion, and to such alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made, and to all the acts and 
ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled conformable thereto. The inhabitants and 
settlers in said Territory shall be subject to pay a part of the federal debts contracted or to be 
contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses of the Government, to be apportioned on 
them ])y Congress, according to the same common rule and measure by which apportionments 
thereof shall be made on the other States, and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be laid 
and levied by the authority and directions of the Legislature of the district or districts or new 
States, within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. The Legisla- 
tures of those districts or new States, shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil 
by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find neces- 
sary for securing the title in such soil to the bona-fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on 
lands the property of the United States, and in no case, shall non-residents be taxed higher than 
residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St Lawrence, and the carry- 
ing places between the same, shall be common highways, and forever free as well to the inhabi- 
tants of the said Territory as to the citizens of the United States and those of any other States 
that may V)e admitted into the confederacy, without any tax, impost or duty therefor. 

Art. V. There shall be formed in said Territory not less than three, nor more than five, 
States, and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession and 
consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to Avit : The western State in 
the said Territory shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, the Wabash Rivers ; a direct 
line drawn from the Wabash and Post St. Vincent, due north to the Territorial line between the 
United States and Canada; and by the said Territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Missis- 
sippi. The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post St. Vin- 
cent to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great 
Miami to the said Territorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned 
direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania and said territorial line. Provided, however, and it is further 
understood and declared, that the boundaries of those three States shall be subject so far to be 
altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one 
or two States in that part of the said Territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn 
through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And wlienever any of the said States 
shall have 60,000 free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted by its delegates into the 
Congress of the United States on an equal footing with the original States in all respects what- 
ever, and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government. Provided, 
The constitution and government so to be formed, shall be represented, and in conformity to the 
principles contained in these articles ; and so far as it can be cojisistent with the general iiiterest 
of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be 
a less number of free inhabitants than 60,000. 

Art. VI. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said Territory, 
otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. 
Provided ahvai/s, That any person escaping into the same from whom labor or service is lawfully 


claimed in one of the original States, each fugitive may be lawfully claimed and conveyed to the 
person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid. That the resolutions of the 2.3d of April, 1784, 
relative to the subject of this ordinance, be and the same are hereby repealed and declared null 
and void. 

The passage of this ordinance, since known as the " Ordinance of 1787," 
was immediately followed by an application to the Government, by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, in behalf of the country, between the Miamis, and a 
contract was concluded the following year. The Ohio Company were exceed- 
ingly energetic in inaugurating settlements. Gen. Putman, with a party of 
forty-seven men, set out on an exploring expedition, accompanied by six boat 
builders. On the 1st of January, 1788, twenty-six surveyors followed, from 
Hartford, Conn. They arrived in Ohio on the 7th of Aj^ril, 1788, and their 
active energy founded the permanent beginning of this great Western State- 
When we review the dangerous experiments that have been made, in this land 
west of the Alleghanies, the horrors which had overwhelmed every attempt, we 
can faintly realize the stalwart courage that sent these men on their way, and 
sustained them in their pioneer hardships. With characteristic vigor, they 
began their little town. Enthusiastic and happy, they did not rest from their 
toilsome march over the old Indian roads, but kept busily at work to estab- 
lish an oasis in this wide expanse of wilderness, before they should take nec- 
essary ease to recuperate their strength. 

The wise men met on the 2d of May, and the little town was named 
Marietta. Situated as it was, in the midst of danger, they had used precaution 
to build and equip a fortified square, which was designated Campus Martius ; 
Square No. 19 was Capitolium, and Square No. 61 was Cecelia, and the main 
street was Sacra Via. 

Marietta was especially fortunate in her actual "first families." Ten of the 
forty-eight men had received a thorough college education ; the remaining were 
individuals of sterling merit, honorable, and several had already attained reputations 
for superior excellence of abilities. Patriotic and brave, the settlement certainly 
possessed a foundation that promised well for the future. The following 4th of 
July was an auspicious event, and the Hon. James M. Varnum was the eloquent 
orator of the occason. 

The opening of the court, on the 2d of September, was a solemn ceremonial, 
the High Sheriff leading with drawn sword, followed by citizens, with an escort 
of officers from Fort Harmar, the members of the bar, the Governor and Clergy- 
men, the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas — Gen. Rufus Putman and 
Benjamin Tupper — all these constituted an imposing spectacle, as they pro- 
gressed over a path which had been cut through the forest to Campus Martius 
Hall, the edifice of law and order. 

The Judges took their seats, a prayer was ofiered by the Rev. Dr. Cutler, 
and immediately the Sheriff, Col. Ebenezer Sprout, proclaimed the response, 
and the court of impartial justice was convened. 


This ceremonial was, perhaps, made all the more impressive by the presence 
of several powerful Indian chiefs, who had journeyed to Marietta for the pur- 
pose of making a treaty. 

The settlement now increased rapidly, new cabins were erected constantly. 
On the 17th of December, a society event occurred, in the form of a grand ball, 
fifteen ladies being present. 

John Cleves Symmes had contracted for 2,000,000 acres of land, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining his grant, but circumstances prevented him from meeting 
his part of the obligations, and the specification was reduced to 1,000,000. 
After vain attempt to make his payments, a settlement was finally efiected for 
248,540 acres, and Symmes was prepared to dispose of clear titles to new-com- 
ers. In 1788, a town was established within the boundaries of his grant, at the 
mouth of the little Miami, known as Columbia, and in the early part of 1787 
another was formed opposite the mouth of the Licking River, by name Losanti- 
ville, analyzed by a frontier scholar — ville, the town ; anti, opposite to ; os, the 
mouth of; i, Licking. 

Judge Symmes had projected building his main town at North Bend. This 
plan was frustrated by reason of Ensign Luce — who had been commissioned by 
Gen. Harmar to erect a fort — deciding that North Bend Avas not suitable for the 
purpose. He selected Losantiville for the purpose, and Fort Washington was 
the result. In 1790, Gov. St. Clair was called to inspect the settlement, and 
proceeded to organize Hamilton County, at the same time calling the town 

It will be remembered that Connecticut ceded most of her western lands to 
General Government, retaining, however, a minor portion. As the settlements 
began to increase on the "Virginia Reserve" and between the Scioto and Miami 
Rivers, all those holding claims were not disposed to part with them, while 
others were anxious to secure grants for the purpose of speculation, rather than 
the advancement of civilization. The Scioto Company was a questionable ad- 
herent of the Ohio Company, and began operations, which resulted Avell, what- 
ever their purpose may have been. 

Gen. Putnam cleared the land and directed the building of 100 dwellings and 
six block-houses. During 1791, the colony arrived, consisting of 500 persons. 
Only ten of these were tillers of the soil. Viscount Malartie ventured into the 
wilderness, but instead of settling, joined Gen. St. Clair's army, and was ulti- 
mately his aid-de-camp. Indian conquests were not to his taste, and he soon 
returned to France. This new colony was essentially French, and its location 
was Gallia County. The name " Gallipolis " was selected. 

These settlers, being unaccustomed to severe toil, and disinclined to learn 
its hard lesson, soon became demoralized, through deprivation and absolute 
want. Congress came to their aid Avith a land grant of 24,000 acres, but few 
of them cared to enter claims, and soon all traces of the old toAvn were lost, and 
its inhabitants scattered. 


Gen, St. Clair having become unpopular, through repeated fiiilures in Indian 
campaigns, and Gen. Anthony Wayne having wintered at Fort Washington, 
the spring of 1793 was opened by a march of the army, well disciplined and 
led by " Mad Anthony," on a campaign that must crush the rapidly increasing 
depredations of the Indians, notwithstanding which these new settlements had 
been made. All winter. Gen. Wayne had dispatched scouts, spies and hardy 
frontiersmen on errands of discovery, and his plans were, therefore, practically 
matured. His army cut its way through the forests, gathering horses, provis- 
ions, etc., as they marched, and finally came nearly up to the enemy before dis- 
covery. They again returned to Fort Washington, as the Commander-in-Chief, 
under the order of the Executive, had proclaimed inaction until the Northern 
or British Commissioners and Indians should convene and discuss the situation 
and prospects. Gen. Wayne, meantime, drilled his men at " Hobson's Choice," 
a place near Fort Washington. 

The Commissioners came from Detroit, and assembled at Capt. Matthew 
Elliot's house, at the mouth of the Detroit River. 

A meeting was called at Sandusky, and twenty Indian representatives were 
present, to argue the grounds of a treaty. Simon Girty acted as interpreter, 
and has been vehemently accused of unfaithfulness in this trust, since he did 
not advocate the adjustment of matters on any grounds. The Indians reiterated 
their rights and wrongs, and offered to receive the half of the purchase money, 
provided the actual settlers would accept it as the price of the land, move away, 
and leave the original owners the proud possessors of their lands. The Govern- 
ment would then expend less money than they would have done in a full Indian 
purchase, or a long and cruel war. This being out of the question and rejected, 
a decided specification was made that the Ohio boundary was to be obliterated, 
and a new one adopted, that encompassed a mere fraction of territory. This 
was also rejected. The Indians indignantly bade the Americans to go back to 
their father, and they would return to their tribes. 

The council was terminated in confusion. It is highly probable that some 
settlement might have been made, had it not been for English influence which 
instigated the savages, in the hope of ultimately making conquests for them- 
selves. The commander at Detroit evinced great uneasiness whenever there 
was a shadow of an opportunity for a peaceful understanding. 

On Christmas Day, 1793, a detachment of the army encamped on the 
identical ground made memorable by St. Clair's horrible defeat. A reward was 
offered for every human skull that was found, and 600 were gathered. The 
bones of the victims were removed from the spot where they built Fort Recovery. 
This point was left in charge of Alexander Gibson. 

Early in the year 1794, Lord Dorchester addressed the Commissioners in 
behalf of the English. Even at this time, Gen. Wayne, to avoid the terrors of 
a great war, again made overtures of peace, dispatching Freeman, Trueman and 
Hardin, all initiated in savage tactics, on errands of mercy — and the three men 


^iret'e inhumanly murdered. The English went so far as to order Gov. Simcoe 
to erect a fort, in April, 1794, on the Rapids of the Maumee, thus rousing the 
Indians by a bold proof that they had espoused their cause. In May, the 
Spanish, who were ever jealous of colonial encroachments, were willing to aid 
in a general raid ao;ainst the Americans. 

In June, a scouting party from Fort Recovery, fell into an Indian ambush 
and suffered severely, their foes following them to the very entrance. The siege 
cor.tinued for two days. It was plainly evident that white men augmented the 
Indian force ; ounce balls and buck-shot surely came from their rifles. Again, 
the Indians immediately began a search beneath the logs where pieces of artillery 
were hidden during the great battle of St. Clair, but fortunately, Fort Recovery 
had the use of them and they accomplished much. 

On July 26, Scott joined Wayne at Greenville, with 1,600 mounted 
Kentuckians, and on the 28th, the legion took up its line of deadly march. 
Halting at Girty's Town, they built Fort Mary's, later on Fort Adams. Throw- 
ing the enemy off their guard by feints and counter-marching, the troops surprised 
the Indians, and without the slightest resistance took possession of their villages 
at the confluence of the Auglaize and Maumee. They found provision in 
abundance, and tarried a week building Fort Defiance. 

Again Gen. Wayne would have made terms of peace, on the principle of the 
Government to arrest bloodshed, but the Indians were rendered cruelly intent 
on war by an addition of a body of British militia from Detroit, and by regulars 
stationed at a fort they had built on the left bank of the river, below the rapids, 
called Fort Miami. The "Fallen Timber" ground was selected as the field 
for a battle by the savages, in the expectation that the trees cast down by a 
tornado and there remaining, would seriously impede American progress. 

August 15th, Wayne marched down the river, and at Roche de Boeuf, erected 
a fortification for their stores and luggage, naming it " Fort Deposit." On the 
20th, the American army began the attack. Maj. Price and Maj. Gen. Scott 
were heroic in their assistance, and after a sharp, deadly conflict, the enemy 
was routed, fleeing in confusion, and leaving their dead and wounded strewn 
thickly over the field. The savages were pressed to the front always, and when 
the carnage was painful, tlie British troops not engaged looked on coolly from the 
fort and offered no assistance, aiding their own, however, when possible. Gen. 
Wayne being an ardent soldier, was apt to forget his position, and impetuously 
place himself constantly in danger. Lieut. Harrison is reported to have 
requested the General not to forget to give him field orders, in his own partici- 
pation in the battle, and to have received the reply that the standing order was 
alivays to charge bayonets. 

Notwithstanding the treaty of 1783, and the fact that the British were tres- 
passing, they encroached upon the Ohio soil, and essayed to vindicate their 
action by discarding American claims and recognizing the Indian rights, whereby 
they might seek their own colonization and make treaties. 


Maj. Campbell was in command at Fort Miami, and when he saw the sava- 
ges being cut down almost mercilessly, he not only refrained from offering aid, 
but when, in their desperate retreat, they attempted to enter the fort for pro- 
tection, he ordered the doors closed in their faces. 

On the following day, Campbell sent a message to Wayne, demanding a 
reason for hostile action, adding that Great Britain was not now at war with the 
United States. He received a characteristic reply. 

During the Revolution, Detroit was an important British point, and the 
Maumee was its outlet. Therefore, the English clung tenaciously to this posr 
session, giving, as it did, the advantage of the great fur trade. The English 
Government evidently regretted ceding so much of her territory in the West, 
and were searching for an excuse to quarrel and attempt to regain at least a part 
of what they had lost. Their policy was to sustain the bitter hatred between 
the Indians and the Americans. 

The settlement of the Maumee Valley had been rapid, but the very name 
was an agony of remembrance of frightful massacres and atrocities. Col. 
McKee, the British Indian agent, and his assistant, Capt. Elliott, were from 
Pennsylvania, but being Tories, they had assimilated with the Indians. They 
joined the Shawnee tribe and married Indian wives, and made their fortunes 
thereby, through British appointments to secure the savage interests. The 
Indians were directly served by McKee and Elliott, Avith ammunition and sup- 
plies, during the Wayne conflict. 

Several skirmishes ensued, but severe Aveather approaching, the troops 
moved for quarters, and on the 14th day of September, they attacked the Miami 
villages, captured them with provisions and stores, and erected a fort, leaving 
it in charge of Lieut. Col. Hamtramck. With cheers and rifle-shooting, this post 
was named Fort Wayne. The main army marched into Greenville and Avent into 
winter quarters. 

Wayne had achieved a brilliant victory, but his success did not overcome his 
practical reasoning, and he was unAvilling to subject his men to a severe Avinter's 
campaign unless necessity was peremptory. 

Gov. Simcoe, Col. McKee and a few of the most savage Indian chiefs 
attempted to rally the Indians for a ncAv attack. Gov. Simcoe, of Detroit, was 
aAvare that the mounted volunteers under Wayne had been allowed to return 
home, and that the term of service of a portion of the " Legion " was about to 

The British and Indians held a conference, but the latter were weary with 
fighting for the glory of the Great Father at Detroit, and did not enter into the 
plan. The Avinter proved most poverty stricken to them, the English failing to 
supply them, and their crops and sustenance having been destroyed by Wayne. 
They Avere then fully prepared to listen to the faintest signal from Wayne ta 
conciliate affairs, and the Wyandots and DelaAvares Avere the first to confer Avith 
him on the subject. Their position was exposed and they had suffered severely. 


They soon influenced other tribes to consider the question. As a mass, they 
were convinced of their inability to overcome the Americans, and had become 
impatient and disgusted with the duplicity of their British friends, who had not 
hesitated to sacrifice them in every instance, and who deserted them in their 
hour of distress. United, they sued for peace. Terms were made, and about 
the 1st of August, the famous Greenville treaty was ratified and established, 
and the old Indian war in Ohio terminated. 

The Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, 
Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws and Kaskaskias were thus 
conciliated. The old Indian boundary line, settled upon at the Fort Mcintosh 
treaty, was retained, and the southwestern line was prolonged from old Fort 
Recovery, southwest of the Ohio River. 

" The general boundary lines between the lands of the United States and 
the lands of the said Indian tribes shall begin at the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River, and thence run up the same to the portage between that and the Tus- 
carawas Branch of the Muskingum ; thence down that branch to the crossing- 
place above Fort Laurens ; thence westerly to a fork of that branch of the 
Great Miami River (running into the Ohio), at or near which fork stood Lar- 
amie's store — Mary's River, which is a branch of the Miami that runs into Lake 
Erie ; thence a westerly course to Fort Recovery, which stands on a branch of 
the Wabash ; thence southwesterly on a direct line to the Ohio, so as to inter- 
sect that river opposite the mouth of the Kentucky or Cuttawa River." 

This boundary line has, ever since this memorable treaty, been a prominent 
landmark, and may now be traced as the southern boundary line of Stark, Ash- 
land, Richland and Marion Counties, and the northern line, in part, of Tuscar- 
awas and Knox. Old Fort Recovery was located in Mercer, near the Indiana 
line. Laramie's store was in Shelby. 

Within the Indian Reservation, the United States held sixteen distinct sec- 
tions of land, for the purpose of military posts, so arranged that the Govern- 
ment had full right of way north and west. 

The "Joy treaty " between England and the United States was ratified early 
in 1796, and the British were obliged to vacate Detroit and Fort Miami, and recall 
the fact that they had no claim or right to either points. Gen. Wayne received 
them, and accompanied by Gov. St. Clair, proceeded to Detroit. Here the lat- 
ter laid out a county, calling it Wayne, and designated Detroit as its seat of 
justice. This was the fifth county in the Northwest Territory, north of the 
Ohio River. Washington County, with Marietta as a seat of justice, was first 
established ; next Hamilton, with Cincinnati as a county seat. Wayne County 
was organized in 1796, and included about twenty-six of the present counties, 
in the northwest part of the State, covering about a quarter of its area, besides 
parts of Indiana and Michigan. 

In other parts of the State, the population was rapidly increasing. In May, 
1795, the Legislature authorized a committee to institute measures for the 


disposal of their Western lands. The Virginia and Connecticut Reservations 
required some action on the part of Government, inasmuch as ceding a portion 
and re-selling had in a measure disturbed free titles. Fifty-six persons negoti- 
ated and purchased lands, receiving quit-claim titles and entire rights. They 
re-sold to John Morgan and John Caldwell and Jonathan Bruce, in trust. Thus 
3,000,000 acres were prepared for settlement. Upon the quit-claim deeds of 
these representatives, the full title of lands included within the old Western 
Reserve rests. 

Judge Symmes began his active operations in 1796, and by the close of 
1797 all lands east of the Cuyahoga were laid out in townships, five miles square. 
The agent of the Connecticut Land Company was Gen. Moses Cleveland, and in 
his honor the leading city in the Reserve was named. Some townships were 
retained for private sale, and others were disposed of by lottery, in 1798. 

Wayne's treaty led to the formation of Dayton, and the peopling of that 
section. A difficulty arose regarding the original Symmes grant and its modifi- 
cation. Symmes had sold land titles, in good faith, beyond his vested power, 
and Congress was now called upon to adjust these claims and titles. Seventeen 
days after the Wayne or Greenville treaty, St. Clair, Wilkinson, Dayton and 
Ludlow contracted with Symmes for seven and eight ranges, between the Mad 
and Little Miami Rivers. November 4, 1795, Mr. Ludlow laid out Dayton. 

During the years 1790 and 1795, the Governor and Supreme Judges of the 
Northwest Territory had published sixty-four statutes. Thirty-four of these 
were ratified at Cincinnati, for the purpose of forming a complete statutory. It 
was termed the " Maxwell Code." 

Mr. Nathaniel Massie founded a town on the Scioto, which was called 
Chillicothe. The Iroquois treaty had previously invited settlement, and embryo 
towns had begun as early as 1769, under the protection of the Connecticut 
Company. A land company was organized in Hartford, Conn., in 1795, sending 
out forty-three surveyors to divide the townships of that part of the Western 
Reserve, east of the Cuyahoga, five miles square. The first resident of the town 
of Cleveland was Mr. Job Stiles and family, and Mrs, Stiles was the mother of 
the first white child born on the Reserve. Some other parts of the territory 
progressed more rapidly in population. 

Along the Muskingum, Scioto and Miami, towns began to spring up, which 
might perhaps better be termed farming settlements. 

Cincinnati was increasing, and in 1796, had reached 100 cabins, 15 frame 
houses and 600 persons, with prospects for a firm future. 

The Virginia Military Land District was between the Little Miami and 
Scioto, and was rapidly increasing in population. 

Mr. Massie was unceasing in his efforts to advance the West, and laid out 
Manchester, offering inducements that could not fail to attract settlers. 

Ebenezer Zane procured a grant in consideration of opening a bridle path 
from the Ohio River at Wheeling, over the country via Chillicothe, to Limestone, 


in Kentucky. The year following, the United States mail was taken over 
this route. 

The comparatively tranquil condition of the country and the inducements it 
had to offer encouraged a rapid settlement of the Territory. A prominent 
feature of the early growth of Ohio was the general prevalence of reliable, 
stanch principle. The people were of the good colonial stock. 

In 1800, Chillicothe was denominated the seat of the Territorial govern- 
ment, and the first stone edifice in the State was begun in this town, soon after 
this appointment. About this time, a serious difficulty suddenly occurred to 
those individuals who had taken lands on the Western Reserve of Connecticut. 
That Eastern power had, it is true, ceded a part of her claim to the General 
Government, and had stipulated for the sale of certain other tracts. At the 
same time, the State had not signed away her jurisdiction over some sections of 
her claim, and those unfortunate people in and about Dayton found themselves 
without any government upon which they might depend in a case of emergency. 
The matter was, accordingly, presented to the Territorial government, which 
interceded with the Eastern State, and, sanctioned by the Assembly at Congress, 
Connecticut relinquished her jurisdiction in 1800. 

Cleveland was an important point, and was growing in the mean time. How- 
ever, it had suffered exceedingly from the ravages of fever and ague. For a 
period of two months, there was not an individual, but a boy thirteen years 
of age, able to procure food for the others. Flour was out of all rational con- 
sideration, and the meal upon which they lived was pounded by hand. In 
1799, Williams and Myatt erected a grist-mill at the falls, near Newbury. 

A startling agitation occurred in 1801, which in these days would cause but a 
ripple in the political sea, but happening during a time when legislative dignity 
and state authority were regarded with reverential awe, it created the most 
intense feeling. Great indignation was openly expressed. 

The Governor and several legislators felt that they had been insulted in 
the performance of their respective duties, at Chillicothe, while the Assembly 
was in session in 1801. No measures being taken by the authorities at the 
capital to protect the Executive, a law was passed removing the seat of govern- 
ment to Cincinnati. 

This circumstance led to a general consideration of the advantages of a 
State government, and a popular desire was expressed for a change in this 
respect. Gov. St. Clair had fallen into disfavor through his failure as a military 
leader and his failures in the Indian campaigns, and from his assuming powers 
which were not vested in him, especially the subdivision of counties. He was 
also identified with the Federal party, which was not popular in Ohio. The 
opposition was strong in the Assembly, but was in the minority in the House of 
Representatives. The boundary question was agitated at the same time. The 
intention was to thus effect the limits of Ohio that a, State government would 
. necessarily have to be postponed. Against this measure, Tiffin, Worthington, 


Langham, Darlington, Massie, Dunlavy and Morrow strenuously objected. After 
considerable discussion, Thomas Worthington obtained leave of absence from 
the session, and journeyed to Washington in behalf of a State government. It 
was obvious that the Territory, under the ordinance, was not entitled to a 
change. Massie suggested the feasibility of appointing a committee to address 
Congress on the subject. This the House refused to pass. 

An effort was then made to take a census, but any action on this subject 
was postponed until the next session. 

During all this ineffectual struggle, Worthington was doing his best in Wash- 
ington, and succeeded so well that on March "l, a report was made to the House 
in favor of the State government. This report was made on a basis that the 
census, in 1800, summed up over 45,000 for Ohio. 

April 30, C(5ngress passed a law carrying into effect the views expressed on 
this subject. A convention met on November 1. Its members were generally 
Jeffersonian in their views. Gov. St. Clair proposed to address them as their 
chief executive magistrate. Several members resolutely opposed this action, 
insisting upon a vote, which, through courtesy and not a sense of right, resulted 
in permitting him to address them. He advised the postponement of the State 
government until the original eastern portion of the State was sufficiently pop- 
ulated to demand this right. Only one, out of thirty-three, voted to sustain 
the Governor in these views. 

The convention agreed to the views of Congress. November 29, the agree- 
ment was ratified and signed, as was the constitution of the State of Ohio. 
The General Assembly was ordered to convene the first Tuesday of March, 1803. 

This was carried into effect. A constitution was framed for the new State, 
adhering to the Ordinance of 1787. The rights and duties of citizens were 
plainly set forth, and general business was transacted. The new State consti- 
tution was signed by : 

Edward Tiffin, President and Representative from Ross County. 

Adams County — Joseph Darlington, Israel Donalson, Thomas Vinker. 

Belmont County — James Caldwell and Elijah Woods. 

Clermont County — Philip Gatch and James Sargent. 

Fairfield County — Henry Abrams and Emanuel Carpenter. 

Hamilton County — John W. Brown, Charles Willing Byrd, Francis Dun- 
lavy, William Goforth, John Gitchel, Jeremiah Morrow, John Paul, John Riley, 
John Smith and John Wilson. 

Jefferson County — Rudolph Blair, George Humphry, John Milligan, Nathan 
Updegraff and Bezaleel Wells. 

Ross County — Michael Baldwin, James Grubb, Nathaniel Massie and F. 

Washington County — Ephraim Cutler, Benjamin Ives Gilman, John Mc- 
Intyre and Rufus Putnam. 

Thomas Scott, Secretary. 


The first Legislature of the State, under the new constitution, created eight 
new counties, viz., Gallia, Scioto, Franklin, Columbiana, Butler, Warren, 
Greene and Montgomery. 

The first State officers were : Michael Baldwin, Speaker of the House ; Na- 
thaniel Massie, President of the Senate ; William Creighton, Secretary of 
State ; Col. Thomas Gibson, Auditor ; William McFarland, Treasurer ; Return 
J. Meigs, Jr., Samuel Huntington and William Sprigg, Judges of the Supreme 
Court ; Francis Dunlavy, Willis Silliman and Calvin Pease, Judges of the Dist- 
rict Court. 

The General Assembly held a second session in December, at which time 
the militia law was revised, also giving aliens equal proprietary rights with native 
citizens. The revenue system was modified and improved. Acts authorizing 
the incorporation of townships were passed, and for the establishment of coun- 
ties. Furthermore, Jacob White, Jeremiah Morrow and William Ludlow were 
authorized to locate a township for collegiate purposes, according to previous 
specified terms of Congress. The Symmes grant and the college specification 
collided materially, but the irregularity of the former was not to create any 
inconvenience for the latter. Mr. Symmes had in good faith marked off this 
township, but circumstances preventing the perfection of his plans, that lapsed 
with the others, and the original township was now entered by settlers. 

Accordingly, thirty-six sections, west of the Great Miami, were selected, 
and are now held by the Miami University. 

Gov. St. Clair, notwithstanding his unpopularity, was re-appointed. 

Ohio was under a system of government which guaranteed the best improve- 
ments ; her Legislature being composed of her best statesmen, and the laws 
passed having the general interest of the people embodied in them. 

A bill was passed, appropriating the net proceeds of the land lying within 
said State, sold by Congress after the 20th day of June, 1(S02, after deducting 
all expenses incident to the same, to be applied to the laying-out of roads, 
leading from the navigable waters emptying into the Atlantic to the Ohio, to 
the said State, and through the same ; such roads to be laid out under the 
authority of Congress, with the consent of the several States through which the 
road shall pass. In conformity with these provisions, steps were taken, in 1805, 
which resulted in the making of the Cumberland or National road. 

Burr, at this time, began an organization for the ostensible purpose of 
making a settlement on the Wachita, but his party being armed and his plans 
not being frankly disclosed, an investigation proved that his real design was a 
mutinous revolt against Governmental powers, and to gratify his ambition by 
founding his own kingdom in Mexico, and defeating the Spanish. If success 
crowned his efforts, his ultimate victory Avas to rupture the Union by forcing the 
Western States to withdraw from their allegiance. By gaining an influence 
over the noble but misguided Blennerhasset, he established his headquarters on 
his island in the Ohio. The history of Burr's expedition is already well known. 


The final capture by Gov. Tiffin, of ten boats loaded with stores, on the Mus- 
kinofum, and four near Marietta, decided the fate of this scheme, and Burr was 
finally arrested and put on trial May 22, 1807. 

The advancement of the settlement of the State was in no manner impeded, 
and towns sprang up, farms were laid out, and all other improvements inaugu- 
rated which tended to a permanent prosperity. 

In 1808, Tecumseh left Greenville to join the Prophet on the banks of the 
Tippecanoe, a tributary of the Upper Wabash, on a tract of land granted herein 
by the Pottawatomies. 

The Indians were virtually by treaty allowed but a small proportion of land 
within the boundaries of the State, and were maintaining peaceful attitudes 
toward the whites, with exceptional border depredations, which were settled by 
mutual understanding. 

Although the United States had gained independence, and was treating with 
England as with other foreign powers, the British persisted in violating the 
national rights of the United States, impressing American seamen into the 
British service, seizing American vessels engaged with France in trade, and 
otherwise violating the rights of an independent nation, at peace with the Brit- 
ish power. 

The mission upon Avhich Henry was sent by the British, to create disturb- 
ance between the States, and thus broken, to weaken the strength of the Gen- 
eral Government, added fuel to the fire, and united indignation cried for war. 

British agents again bargained with the Indians of the Wabash and Maumee 
Valleys, desiring them to inaugurate another war upon the western sections and 
to make a desperate attack upon the settlements south of the lakes. The Brit- 
ish agent at Maiden negotiated in rifles, powder, ball, merchandise, .lead, blank- 
ets and shirts. The Indians were inspired again with the hope that the whites 
would be driven back, and that all the country north of the Ohio would again 
revert to them. 

The Canadians in league with the English, gave the savages unlimited 
quantities of whisky, which naturally aroused their fierce natures to acts of 
violence and blood. It is highly probable that the use of liquor was the main 
cause of the deterioration of the best traits of the Indian character, after the 
Revolution. Again, many unscrupulous men upon the frontier did not hesi- 
tate to commit the most merciless crimes against the Indians, such was the 
prejudice against them, and the courts invariably failed to indict them for these 
atrocities. This error on the part of the Americans served to influence the 
savages against them. 

At this time, the seats of justice were distant over a hundred miles each 
from the other, uninhabited tracts frequently extending between them Avhich were 
absolute wildernesses. The routes were in many cases difficult and circuitous. 

As early as 1808, there was a mail communication for the people on the 
Lower Maumee, many days elapsing between tlie arrivals and departures of 


the same, however. Horace Gunn was the carrier. Benoni Adams brought 
the news from Cleveland to the same point, his trip requiring a fortnight. It 
must be remembered that this journey was mostly made on foot. The Black 
Swamp could not be traversed in any other manner. 

THE AVAR OF 1812. 

The war of 1812 can be called a continuation of the Revolution, with all 
justice. Although rumors had reached Ohio, that active preparations were 
being made for general action, no official tidings had been sent to Hull, com- 
mander-in-chief of the Western forces. 

The Secretary of War, instead of sending a special messenger directly to 
Hull, communicated with the post adjacent, depending upon a continuation of 
the news from that point. At the same time, advices were sent the British 
post at Maiden and Detroit. Hull sent out a packet with official papers, stores, 
etc., the day previous to that on which the official intelligence arrived that an 
open rupture existed between the two powers, and this was of course captured. 

The Western forces marched to Detroit and crossed over to Sandwich, pre- 
paratory to attacking Maiden, a post most favorable for the transportation of 
stores, troops, etc. which Avas therefore considered valuable. 

Peter Minard first gave the news to the settlers of the Maumee. He had 
heard from a Delaware chief, who assured him a general massacre was to take 
place in the valley. Maj. Spalford paid no heed to this "idle fear," until a 
few days thereafter a messenger came to his quarters, reporting a band of fifty 
Pottawatomies on the march to join the hostile tribes near Maiden. They had 
plundered and burned Monclova, and had nearly reached the rapids. 

The Major, with his family and settlers, immediately launched a barge on 
the river and were able to reach old Fort INIiami just as the savages reached 
Maumee City. They could plainly witness the flames that devoured their old 
homes. They kept on their way in their miserable craft, until they reached 
Milan, where they learned that the entire country Avas in danger. 

Although the Indians were defeated in the battle of Tippecanoe in the fall 
of 1811, they plotted vigorously with the English for the iuA'asion of Ohio. 

Gen. William Hull marched from the southwestern part of the State 
directly north, crossing the counties of Champaign, Logan, Hardin, Hancock 
and Wood, establishing military posts along the route and cutting a way 
through the Avilderness of the unsettled portions. He crossed the Maumee on 
the 1st of July, and marched to Detroit. 

Hull was evidently actuated in his succeeding disgraceful failures by tAvo 
fears — lack of confidence in the ability of his troops, and the belief that they 
might desert him in action. He proclaimed freedom, and a necessity of sub- 
mitting to the Canadians under existing circumstances. He held out induce- 
ments to the British regulars to desert their cause and essayed to pacify the 
savages, but he accomplished nothing beyond jeopardizing the American cause 


and disgracing his army. His men became restless. Col. Miller and Col. 
Cass were delighted when detailed on scouting expeditions, and did not hesi- 
tate to attack advancing squads of the enemy. At last, an attack was made on 
the Niagara frontier, and Hull speedily abandoned his project and collected his 
forces at Detroit. 

Meantime, Col. Proctor had reached Maiden, and quickly perceiving the 
advantage of a post at that point, whereby he could cut off supplies and starve 
Hull into subjection, he massed his forces about this section, captured Van 
Horn and his two hundred men, and withstood the attack of Miller, although 
he gained nothing by so doing. Again Hull displayed his weakness by recall- 
ing his forces from further molestations. 

Gen. Brock, however, reached Maiden on the 13th of August, 1812, and 
began war preparations. 

Gen. Dearborn placed a force on the Niagara frontier, but an armistice was 
made with the British. Hull dispatched a third party under McArthur, to 
open communications to the Raisin River. 

Gen. Brock appeared at Sandwich and began to erect batteries, which Hull 
would not allow to be molested. The result was, that on the 26th of August 
Detroit was surrendered to the enemy, and not a blow had been struck in its 

By this dastardly act, 1,400 brave men who had not been permitted to 
make a single effort to sustain the American cause, were surrendered to 300 
English regulars, 400 Canadians and their Indian allies. Gen. Hull was, in 
consequence of this series of "mistakes," accused of treason and cowardice, 
and convicted of the latter. By the middle of August, the British had gained 
the control over most of the Northwestern Territory. 

The appointment of William Henry Harrison to the position of com- 
mander in chief of the Western forces, was most opportune. He speedily 
raised a vigorous army, and advanced by three routes to the foot of the rapids. 

Gen. Harrison commanded the right wing, and marched by the way of Upper 
Sandusky, where he located his depot of supplies. Gen. Tupper commanded 
the center, Fort McArthur, in Hardin County, being his base, while Gen. Win- 
chester marched from Fort Defiance down the Maumee to the foot of the rapids. 

A large force of British and Indians moved up the left bank of the Mau- 
mee toward Fort Wayne, and Gen. Harrison, to intercept them, marched to 
the confluence of the Auorlaize with the Maumee. 

Harrison was aware that the enemy would be also hemmed in by Win- 
chester. The weather was rainy, and the prospects were that a most unfortun- 
ate season was to follow the expected engagements. Harrison heard that 
Winchester had reached Fort Defiance, and that the Indians and British were 
retreating down the Maumee. He followed, and marched to Winchester's 
camp, where he arrived in season to quell a mutiny under command of Col. 
Allen, of the Kentucky troops. 


In January, 1813, Winchester had reached the rapids, where he received 
tidings that Frenchtown was menaced and exposed. Without orders, he sent a 
party to the rescue, which defeated the enemy. The weather was intensely 
cold, and the company lay within eighteen miles of Maiden, where the enemy 
was collected in full force, consequently re-enforcements must be dispatched 
immediately or the town again left to its fate. 

Winchester then marched with a force of 259 men, and upon arriving at 
nightfall, insisted upon remaining on open ground, although warned repeatedly 
that this would be a most dangerous experiment. 

In the morning, he was surprised by the enemy, massed directly before 
him, with a battery within three hundred yards of his camp, and a shower of 
bombs, balls and grape-shot falling among his exposed troops, and the yells of 
Indians reminding him of his fatal error. Lewis, who led the party out in the 
beginning and had apprehended the danger, bravely defended himself behind 
garden pickets. Winchester was defeated on the 22d of January, 1813, and 
the Indians were permitted to massacre the prisoners and the settlers. 

Harrison fell back to the foot of the rapids. On the 1st of February, he 
began the construction of Fort Meigs. On the 27th of April, Proctor and 
Tecumseh attacked this fort, and laid siege with the full expectation of success. 
The stipulation was that Gen. Harrison was to be delivered to Tecumseh. 
While the balls and bombs were making havoc with the fort, the Indians were 
climbing trees and pouring a galling fire down upon the troops. Gen. Proctor 
invited Harrison to surrender, which was politely declined, with the assurance 
that the British General would have the opportunity to distinguish himself as a 
soldier before such a proceeding was enacted, 

Gen. Clay was descending the Maumee with 1,200 Kentuckians in flat 
boats. Orders went from Harrison that 800 men should land on the left bank, 
take and spike the British cannon, and then to enter the fort, from which 
soldiers were to issue to assist the re-enforcements. 

Capt. Hamilton was to pilot Gen. Clay to the fort, cutting their way 
through. All succeeded, Col. Dudley taking the batteries and spiking the 
cannon. But his men, too much elated by their success, against orders, and 
against the repeated expostulations of Col. Dudley, insisted on pursuing the 
Indians. Col. Dudley would not desert them. This act proved their ruin. 
By a decoy, they were led into a defile which proved an ambush, and the men 
found themselves surrounded by savages, without means of escape. 

A most frightful massacre began, and every man Avould have fallen had not 
Tecumseh sternly forbidden the cowardly carnage. One of his principal chiefs 
ignored this order, and the next instant the great warrior buried his hatchet in 
his head. The brave Col. Dudley was, however, tomahawked and scalped. 

There were no immediate signs that the fort would be surrendered, and the 
siege was raised on the 9th of May. It was renewed on the 20th of July, and 
abandoned a few days later. The enemy decided this stronghold was invulnerable. 


On the 1st of August, the enemy proceeded to Fort Stevenson, at Lower 
Sandusky, garrisoned by 150 men under Maj. Croghan. The fort had the 
use of but one piece of cannon. The enemy with Tecumseh's Indians num- 
bered 3,300 strong, with six pieces of cannon. 

Gen. Proctor again tendered the offer to surrender, adding that a refusal 
would only bring about a useless resistance, and a massacre by the Indians. 
The reply was, that before the fort went over to the British, not an American 
would be left to be massacred, as they should hold out to the last man. Proc- 
tor opened fire. The first movement was an assault upon the northwest angle 
of the fort, as if to make a breach and thus carry the works. The command- 
ant strengthened that point by bags of sand, and during the night stealthily 
placing his one cannon in a concealed position, he filled it with slugs. 

The following day, the fire again swept the northwest corner, and, evening 
approaching, a column of 850 men swept up within twenty yards of the walls. 
They were met by the musketry, Avhich had little effect, and the ditch was soon 
filled with men. The next instant the hidden cannon, so placed as to sweep 
the ditch, suddenly began action, and the surprised assailants quickly recoiled, 
and the fort was saved, with the loss of only one man. 

The next morning, the enemy had disappeared, evidently in haste, as guns, 
clothing and stores were left behind. They had lost over one hundred and 
fifty men by this useless attempt. Croghan had previously received orders to 
evacuate the fort from Gen. Harrison, and his determination to hold the position 
merited Harrison's reprimand and remand of commission. Such was the sev- 
erity of military law. However, the rank of Colonel was immediately conferred 
upon him by the President, for his gallantry. The ladies of Chillicothe pre- 
sented him with an elegant testimonial in the shape of a sword. 

It was decided to make a naval warfare effectual in the recovery of the 
Northwestern Territory, and accordingly vessel-building began under Commo- 
dore Perry's supervision. 

The British looked upon this proceeding with derision, fully intending to 
use these boats for their own purpose. They publicly proclaimed their intention. 

By the 1st of August, 1813, Commodore Perry set sail a flotilla, the Law- 
rence and the Niagara, of twenty guns each, with smaller vessels following. 
Some difiiculty was encountered in launching the larger vessels, on account of 
the shallowness of the water. 

Perry's first destination was Put-in-Bay, thirty miles from Maiden, Avhere 
the British fleet lay under the guns of the fort. On the 10th of September, 
the British fleet — exceeding the American by ten guns — under Commodore 
Barclay, appeared off Put-in-Bay, distant about ten miles. Perry immediately 
set sail. The wind shifting, the Americans had the advantage. 

Perry hoisted the Union Jack. A general preparation was made for the 
conflict. An ominous silence settled over all as the fleets approached. A 
bugle sounded on the enemy's ship Detroit, and a furious fire was opened upon 


the Lawrence. The frightful and desperate battle that ensued is so familiar 
that it is not necessary for us to repeat its details. It forever remains in his- 
tory as a prominent, desperate struggle that turned the tide most decisively in 
favor of the Americans. Hand to hand, for three hours, this furious struggle 
surged, resulting in a pronounced victory for the Americans. 

Commodore Perry immediately requested parole for his severely wounded 
antagonist. Commodore Barclay. Capt. Elliott was at this engagement highly 
commended by Perry for his bravery. 

Gen. Harrison now made preparations to follow Proctor, and reached Mai- 
den on the 27th of September. 

Proctor had retreated to Sandwich, and thence Harrison followed him, 
overtaking the enemy on the 9th of October, on the bank of the Thames. An 
engagement ensued, which was not particularly marked in its events, but which 
practically terminated the war in the Northwest. 

Tecumseh fell during this battle, and his death disheartened the savages to 
such an extent that they were willing to make terms of peace. Accordingly 
a treaty was concluded on the 22d of July, 1814, with the Wyandots, Dela- 
wares, Shawnees, Senecas and Miamis, the tribes engaged in hostilities. 

Again Ohio was able to turn her attention to the improvements within her 
own boundaries. Weary and disabled though she was, her ambition and 
energy were unimpaired. The struggle had been severe, but a grand reward 
had been won, and peace and independence belonged to these sturdy, earnest, 

In 1815, a town was founded near Fort Meigs, and, in 1816, Gen. John 
E. Hunt and Judge Robert A. Forsythe located at Maumee. 


Up to the year 1817, Ohio had no banking system, and on the 28th of 
January of that year, the United States Bank opened a branch at Cincinnati, 
and yet another during the following October at Chillicothe. These branches 
found a large amount of business to transact, and while being of assistance in 
various ways to the State, also received a fine revenue themselves. The State 
therefore resolved upon a tax levy, and, in 1819, the branches were to pay 
$50,000 each, and the State Auditor was authorized to issue his warrant for 
the collection of the same. 

The bank branches demurred, but the State was decided, and the banks 
accordingly filed a bill in chancery, in the United States Circuit Court, setting 
forth reasons whereby their prayer that Ralph Osborn, State Auditor, should 
be restrained from making such collection, should be seriously considered. 

Osborn being counseled not to appear on the day designated in the writ, an 
injunction was obtained, with the security given in the shape of bonds from the 
bank, to the amount of $100,000. On the 14th of September, the bank sent a 
commissioner to Columbus, who served upon the Auditor a copy of the petition 


for the injunction, and a subpoena to make an appearance before the court 
on the first Monday in the following January. Osborn submitted both the 
petition and the injunction to the Secretary of State, with his warrant for col- 
lecting the tax. Legally, the matter was somewhat complicated. 

The Auditor desired the Secretary of State to take legal advice, and if the 
papers did not actually amount to an injunction, to give orders for the execu- 
tion of the warrant. 

The decision was that the papers did not equal a valid injunction. The State 
writ for collection was therefore given over to John L, Harper, with directions 
to enter the banking-house and demand the payment of the tax. In case of a 
refusal, the vault was to be entered and a levy made upon the amount required. 
No violence was to be used, and if force was used to deter the act, the 
same was to be reported to a proper magistrate and an affidavit made to that 

On September 17, Mr. Harper went about his errand, taking with him T. 
Orr and J. MacCollister. After securing access to the vault, a demand was 
made for the payment of the tax. This was promptly refused, and a notice 
given of the granting of the injunction. This was disregarded, and the officer 
seized $98,000 in gold, silver and notes. This was placed in charge of the 
State Treasurer, Mr. H. M. Curry. 

The officers were arrested and imprisoned by the United States Circuit 
Court, and the money returned to the bank. The case was reviewed by 
the Supreme Court, and the measures of the Circuit Court were sustained. The 
State, therefore, submitted. In the mean time, the Legislature had prepared 
and passed a resolution, as follows : 

Resolved, by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That in respect to the powers of the 
Governments of the several States that compose the American Union, and the powers of the Fed- 
eral Government, this General Assembly do recognize and approve the doctrines asserted by the 
Legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia in their resolutions of November and December, 1798, 
and .January, 1800, and do consider their principles have been recognized and adopted by a 
majority of the American people. 

Resolved further, That this General Assembly do assert and will maintain by all legal and 
constitutional means, the rights of States to tax the business and property of any private corpo- 
ration of trade, incorporated by the Congress of the United States, and located to transact its 
corporate business within any State. 

Resolved further. That the bank of the United States is a private corporation of trade, the 
capital and business of which may be legally taxed in any State where they may be found. 

Resolved further. That the General Assembly do protest against the doctrines that the politi- 
cal rights of the separate States that compose the American Union and their powers as sovereign 
States, may be settled and determined in the Supreme Court of the United States, so as to con- 
clude and bind them in cases contrived between individuals, and where they are, no one of them, 
parties direct. 

The bank was thus debarred from the aid of State laws in the collection of 
its dues and in the protection of its rights. An attempt was made to effect a 
change in the Federal constitution, which would take the case out of the 
United States Qourts. This, however, proved ineffectual. 


The banking system in Ohio has, by reason of State surveillance, not been 
subjected to those whirlwind speculations and questionable failures which have 
marked many Western States, in the establishment of a firm basis upon which 
a banking law could be sustained, with mutual benefit to the institution and the 


In the first part of 1817, the Legislature considered a resolution relating 
to a canal between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. No action was taken and 
the subject was not again agitated until 1819. Gov. Brown appointed three 
commissioners in 1820, for the purpose of employing an efiicient engineer and 
such assistants as he deemed necessary, for the purpose of surveying a practical 
route for this canal. The commissioners were restricted in their actions until 
Congress should accept a proposition in behalf of the State, for a donation and 
sale of the public lands lying upon and near the route of the proposed canal. 
A delay Avas thus occasioned for two years. 

In 1822, the matter was referred to a committee of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. This committee approved and recommended the employment of the 
engineer. They furthermore added illustrations to prove the feasibility of the 

James Geddes, a skillful engineer of New York, was in due time appointed 
to the position and instructed to make the necessary examinations and sur- 

The surveys were made, and estimates given of the expenses, which docu- 
ments were laid before the Legislature at several sessions. 

In 1825, an act was passed providing for the internal improvement of the 
State by navigable canals. Directly thereafter, the State set vigorously about 
the work of constructing two canals, one leading from the Ohio to Lake Erie, 
by way of the valleys of the Scioto and Muskingum, the other from Cincinnati 
to Dayton. 

The first canal-boat from Cincinnati to Dayton, reached her destination in 
1829, on the 25th of January. This outlet of communication was extended 
to Lake Erie, and was completed in 1845. The largest artificial lake now 
known is on the elevation between the Ohio and the lake, in Mercer County, 
and supplies the St. Mary's feeder of the Miami Canal, about three miles dis- 
tant, eastwardly. This reservoir is about nine miles long, and from two to 
four broad. 

Two walls of earth, from ten to twenty feet high, were formed, on the east 
and west, which united with the elevations north and south, surrounded this 
basin. When the water was admitted, whole farms were submerged, and the 
"neighbors" complained lest this overflow should tempt miasma. So great 
was the excitement, that over one hundred and fifty residents of the county 
united, and with shovels and spades, made a breach in the embankment. 
Many holding prominent positions in the county were engaged in this work, 


and all laid themselves liable to the State laws, which made the despoiling of 
public works a penitentiary offense. 

The matter was taken up by the courts, but a grand jury could not be 
found in Mercer County to find a bill of indictment. 

The officers who had charge of the work, ignored the law requiring the cut- 
ing and saving of the timber on lands appropriated, for canal reservoirs. The 
trees were ruthlessly girdled, and thousands of acres of valuable timber that 
might have been highly desirable in the building of bridges, etc., were 
destroyed. However, an adjustment was finally effected, and the work was 
prosecuted with the entire approbation of the people, who were convinced that 
convenient transportation was to be desired. 


A fter the Indians relinquished all claims against the lands of those States 
west of the Alleghanies, as they had been obtained by conquest, the United 
States, as a government, owned the soil. When Ohio vfas admitted into the 
Union, a stipulation was made that the fee simple to all the lands within its 
boundaries, with the exception of those previously sold or granted, should vest 
in the General Government. At the present writing, but few tracts remain 
that can be called " public lands." In this, as in other States, tracts are des- 
ignated by their pioneer signification or the purpose to which they were origi- 
nally devoted. In Ohio, these tracts are known as : 


Congress Lands. 


Symmes' Purchase. 


Maumee Road. 


United States Military. 


Refugee Tract, 


School Lands. 


Virginia Military. 


French Grant. 


College Lands. 


Western Reserve. 


Dohrman's Grant. 


Ministerial Lands. 


Fire Lands. 


Zane's Grant. 


Moravian Lands. 


Ohio Company's Purchase. 


Canal Lands. 


Salt Sections. 


Donation Tract. 


Turnpike Lands. 

The lands sold by the direct officers of the Government, under the direc- 
tion of Congress, according to the laws, are known as Congress lands. They 
are properly surveyed, and laid out in townships six miles square, under the 
direction of the Government, and the expense incurred settled by Congress. 
These townships are subdivided into sections, containing 640 acres. One sec- 
tion is reserved, in every township, for educational purposes, to b^ utilized in 
any manner approved by the State as being the best to aid the cause for which 
they arc assigned. 

The Western Reserve will be remembered as the tract originally belonging to 
Connecticut. It lies in the northeast quarter of the State. A half-million acres 
were donated by the old Eastern State, when her claim was in force, to sufferers 
from fire during the Revolutionary war, which created the name, " fire lands." 
Many settled here whose homes were destroyed by the British during the war. 

It will be remembered, that on account of discoveries by subjects of empires, 
in the New World, the " Old World " kings laid claim to different portions 


of the young continent. At that period, European knowledge of American 
geographical positions and limits was exceedingly meager, which occasioned 
several wars and more discussions. These Old-World sovereigns also assumed 
the authority to sell or present tracts of land to their subjects, in those terri- 
tories they deemed their own. 

King Charles II of England granted to his loyal subjects the colony of 
Connecticut, in 1662, placing with them a charter of right to all lands within 
certain prescribed boundaries. But these " boundaries " frequently conflicted 
with those of others, and sometimes extended to the Pacific Ocean, or " South 
Sea," as it was then termed. Connecticut, by her original charter rights, held 
all lands between the forty-first and forty-second parallels of north latitude, and 
from Providence Plantation on the east, to Pacific Ocean on the west, except- 
ing the New York and Pennsylvania colonies. As late as the establishment of 
the United States as an independent government, those colliding claims fre- 
quently engendered confusion and warm discussion between the nation and 
Connecticut, regarding the original colony claim. This was compromised by 
the national claims being relinquished in regard to the territorial claim in Ohio, 
and Connecticut holding the 3,800,000 acres described as the " Western Reser- 
vation." The Government held the right of jurisdiction. 

In 1796, Congress set aside a certain division of land, to satisfy the claims 
of officers and soldiers of the Revolutionary war. It includes the 2,500,000 
acres between the Greenville treaty line and the Congress and refugee lands, 
and "VII ranges of townships," on the east, and the Scioto River, west. This 
constitutes the " Military Tract." The " Virginia Military Tract " lies between 
the Scioto and Little Miami Rivers, and extends south to the Ohio. 

James I, in his authorized charter to the Virginia colony, in the year 
1609, made rather visionary boundary lines, sw^eeping over the continent, west 
of the Ohio River, " of the north and south breadth of Virginia." Virginia 
reconciled the matter by relinquishing all her claims northwest of the Ohio 
River, with the exception of a tract for the purpose of donating the same to her 
troops of the Revolution — their claims demanding such a return in some section. 
Unfortunately, this tract was not regularly surveyed, and conflicting " lines " 
have given rise to litigation ever since that stipulation was made. 

The Ohio Company's Purchase has already been described — as has the 
Symmes Purchase. 

The Refugee Tract covers an area of 100,000 acres, extending eastwardly 
from the Scioto River forty-eight miles, in a strip of country four and one-half 
miles broad, north to south. Columbus, the capital of the State, is situated in 
the western portion. This land was donated by Congress to those individuals 
who left the British dominions and rule, during the Revolution, and espoused 
the American cause. 

The French Tract borders on the Ohio River, in the southeastern quarter 
of Scioto County. It includes 24,000 acres, and was ceded to those French 


families tliat lost their claims at Gallipolis, through invalid titles ; 1,200 acres 
were added, after the above grant of 1795. 

Dohrman's Grant includes a section, six miles square, in the southeastern 
portion of Tuscarawas County. It was granted to Arnold Henry Dohrman, a 
Portuguese merchant, as a token of appreciation of the aid and shelter he ren- 
dered American cruisers and vessels of war, during the Revolution, 

The Moravian Lands were originally grants by the old Continental Con- 
gress, in 1787, and confirmed by the act of the Government Congress, in 1796, 
to the Moravian Brethren, of Bethlehem, Penn., in sacred trust, and for the 
use of those Indians who embraced Christianity and civilization, desiring to live 
and settle thereon. These three tracts include 4,000 acres each, and are situ- 
ated in Tuscarawas County. In 18"23, the Indians relinquished their rights to 
the 12,000 acres in this county, for 24,000 acres, in a territory designated by 
the United States, together with an annuity of |400. 

Zane's Tracts included a portion of land on the Muskingum, whereon Zanes- 
ville was built ; another at the crossing of the Hocking, on which Lancaster is 
located ; and yet another on the left bank of the Scioto River, opposite Chilli- 
cothe. These grants were made to Ebenezer Zane, by Congress, in 1796, 'as a 
reward for opening a road from Wheeling, Va., to Maysville, Ky. In 1802, 
Mr. Zane received three additional tracts, one square mile each, in considera- 
tion of being captured and held a prisoner, during the Revolutionary war, 
when a boy, by the Indians. He lived with these people most of his life, secur- 
ing many benefits for the Americans. These tracts are located in Champaign 

The Maumee Road Lands extend the length of the road, from the Maumee 
River, at Perrysburg, to the western limits of the Western Reserve, a distance 
of forty-six miles — in a strip two miles wide. This includes about 60,000 
acres. These lands were ceded by the Indians, at the treaty of Brownstown, in 
1808. The original intention of Congress was to mark a highway through this 
strip, but no definite action was taken until 1823, when the land was ceded to 
the State of Ohio, under an obligation that the State make and sustain the pro- 
jected road, within four years after the transfer. 

The Turnpike Lands extended over 31,360 acres along the western side of 
the Columbus & Sandusky Turnpike, in the eastern parts of Seneca, Craw- 
ford and Marion Counties. They were designed for the transportation of mail 
stages, troops and other United States property, free from toll. The grant was 
made in 1827. 

" The Ohio Canal Lands " comprise about 1,000,000 acres, set aside for the 
purpose of canal construction. 

When Ohio was admitted to the LTnion, a guarantee was given that the State 
should not tax Government lands until they should have been sold for five years. 
That the thirty-sixth part of all territory^ within the State limits should be de- 
voted to educational purposes, for the general benefit of the population. In 


order to secure tracts which wouki prove available, and thus insure returns, 
they were selected in small lots. No. 16 was designated as the sectional portion, 
in each township of Congress lands, the Ohio Company's and Symmes Pur- 
chases, the United States Military Lands, the Connecticut Reserve, and a num- 
ber of quarter townships. These school lands were selected by the Secretary 
of the Treasury. 

The college townshij^s are thirty-six miles square. A section, thirty-six 
miles square, in the center of Jackson County, in the vicinity and containing 
the Scioto Salt Licks, was also reserved by Congress, together with a quarter- 
mile township in Delaware County. This swept over 27,040 acres. In 1824, 
Congress authorized the State to sell these lands. The proceeds were to be 
devoted to literary requirements, such as might be specified by Congress. 


We have heretofore briefly alluded to the canal system of Ohio, which in 
the beginning caused considerable anxiety to settlers directly in the course of 
its survey. The Legislature passed the " Internal Improvement by Navigable 
Canals " act, in 1825, and the work was immediately inaugurated and hastened. 
The " Ohio Canal '" extends from the lake to the Ohio, and the " Miami " con- 
nects Cincinnati Avith Dayton. The latter was completed to Toledo in 1844, a 
length of 493 miles. Its total cost, including reservoir cutting and feeders^ was 
17,500,000. The Ohio Canal was finished in 1833. 

During the construction of these canals, the curiosities which have attracted 
antiquarians and scientists, in the State of Ohio, were found in various places. 
Relics were discovered that must have belonged to a giant race. Nearly 3,000 
graves were found, of the " mound type." 

A third canal was begun in 1836, reaching from Walhonding, in Coshocton 
County, to Roscoe, its length being twenty-five miles, involving an expense of 
1610,000. This Avas completed in 1842. The Hocking Canal, between Car- 
roll, in Fairfield County, and Athens, in Athens County, a distance of fifty- 
six miles, was also cut, about the same time, at a cost of nearly SI, 000, 000. 

The Muskingum improvements were also being carried forward. Locks and 
dams were requisite for the perfection of navigation in this water-course, from 
Dresden to Marietta, a distance of ninety-one miles. This added an expense 
of $1,630,000 to the call for improvement appropriations. To the Miami Canal 
Avas added a feeder, known as the Warren County Canal — extending from 
Franklin to Lebanon, which was not completed, although over $250,000 were 
expended in its construction as far as it Avent. 

Raihvay transportation Avas a subject Avhich engrossed the attention of those in- 
terested in State perpetuity and general prosperity. About the year 1831, the Leg- 
islature received applications for railway charters. The first one granted was the 
" Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cle\'eland Railroad," on June 5, 1832. The " Sandusky, 
Mansfield & Newark Railroad " obtained a charter in 1836, March 11, followed, 


three days thereafter, by the "■ Cleveland, Columbus k Cincinnati Railroad." 
The " Little Miami " was begun in 1837. NotAvithstanding these chartered 
rights, but 129 miles were completed in 1847, and in operation. In 1878, 
the mileage had increased to 6,264. The valuation of the operating roads 
was estimated the same year, at $76,113,500. Their taxation summed up 

No State in the Union has been more zealous in her educational interests than 
Ohio. Public lands were generously granted by Congress, and the State added 
her affirmation. However, no practical and effectual system was adopted until 

An act was then passed to tax all real property one-half mill per dollar for 
the establishment of schools in each township, and the support of the same. 
An act of 1829, increased the tax to three-fourths of a mill. Trustees of 
townships were instructed to make divisions and locate convenient school dis- 
tricts. Householders were to elect three school directors, a clerk and treasui-er 
annually. Privileges and restrictions were enjoined in all cases. The house- 
holders were allowed their discretion, governed accordingly, in imposing taxes 
for the erection of school buildings. The Courts of the Common Pleas 
appointed a committee to examine the qualifications of those individuals mak- 
ing application for the position of teachers. The school extended equal privi- 
leges to all white children. Those of colored parentage were excluded, and no 
tax was levied for school purposes upon colored parents. An amendment has 
admitted the children of colored parents. The system has continued the same, 
with a few amendments. A State Commissioner of Common Schools is elected 
every third year, who has general charge of the interests of public schools. A 
State Board of Examiners, composed of three persons, appointed by the State 
Commissioner, for two years' term, is authorized to issue life certificates of high* 
qualifications, to such teachers as it may find to possess the requisite scholarship, 
character, experience and ability. These certificates, signed by the Commis- 
sioner, are valid throughout the State. A County Board of Examiners, of 
three members, is formed in each county. Boards of education, for cities, are 
made up of one or two members from each ward. City Boards of Examiners 
are also appointed. Section 4 of the law of 1873, was amended in 1877, which 
made the territory annexed to an incorporated village, at the option of the 
voters of the village and tributary section, whether it be included with the vil- 
lage as one school district, or left as two school districts. Section 56 of the law was 
amended, in its bearing upon cities of 30,000 to 75,000 inhabitants, by limiting 
to five mills on the dollar of taxable property, the levies in such cities for con- 
tinuing schools, for purchasing sites for schoolhouses, for leasing, purchasing, 
erecting and furnishing school houses, and for all school expenses. The public 
funds are subject to the discretion of voters, and boards are authorized, under 
instructions, to make the best use of such funds. Taxation is subject to the 
discretion of the State, certain limits being prescribed. 


In 1878, the number of youth of the school age numbered 1,041,963. 
On the rolls, 740,194 names were recorded. In the year 1878, 23,391 teach- 
ers were employed, receiving $4,956,514.46 for their services. 

Ohio not only sustains her public schools on a broad, liberal basis, but she 
encourages educational pursuits in superior universities and colleges throughout 
the State. These institutions are not aided by State funds, but are sustained by 
society influence, added to their self-supporting resources. Ohio also possesses 
a large number of normal schools, academies, seminaries and business colleges. 
These are not entitled to the privileges of the school fund. Scientific, profes- 
sional, theological, legal and medical instructions are in no manner limited in 
their facilities. Industrial and reformatory schools are especially thorough. 
Institutions for the instruction of the deaf and dumb, and blind, and feeble- 
minded, are under the best discipline. 

We may add, many female seminaries have been established which are entirely 
sustained by other than State aid. Ohio has, from its inception, been solid and 
vigorous in whatever tended toward improvement and enlightenment. 

We have also referred to the banking system of this State, as being first 
established on a basis through a contest between the State and the General 
Government. Authorities diifer regarding the exact date and location of the 
very first house established in the State for the purpose of transacting banking 
business. It is highly probable that Marietta is more directly associated Avith 
that event than any other town. There are at present over one hundred and 
sixty-seven national banks, with an aggregate capital of |27, 794,468. It also 
has eighteen banks of deposit, incorporated under the State banking laws of 
1845, representing an aggregate capital of $539,904. Twenty-three savings 
banks, incorporated under the State act of 1875, with an aggregate capital of 
$1,277,500. Of private banks it has 192, with an aggregate capital of 
$5,663,898. The State represents in her banking capital over $36,275,770. 
The First National of Cincinnati has a capital stock of over $1,000,000. 
The others fall below that sum, their capital diminishing from 10,000 sliares of 
$100 each. The valuation for taxation is $850,000 — Merchant's National of 
Cincinnati — to the valuation of a tax of $5,000 on the First National of 


We must not omit the subject of the State boundaries. Ohio was especially 
the field for most animated discussions, relative not only to State limits but 
county lines and township rights. In 1817, a severe controversy arose, which 
was settled only after violent demonstrations and Government interference. 

In primitive times, the geographical position, extent and surface diversities 
were but meagerly comprehended. In truth, it may be asserted they could not 
have been more at variance Avitli actual facts had they been laid out " hap- 
hazard." The ordinance of 1787 represented Lake Michigan far north of its 
real position, and even as late as 1812, its size and location bid not been 


definitely ascertained. During that year, Amos Spafibrd addressed a clear, com- 
prehensive letter to the Governor of Ohio, on this subject, relative to the 
boundary lines of Ohio. Several lines of survey were laid out as the first 
course, but either Michigan or Ohio expressed disapproval in every case. This 
culminated in 1835, when the party beginning a "permanent" survey began 
at the northwest corner of the State, and was attacked by a force of Michigan 
settlers who sent them away badly routed and beaten. No effort was made to 
return to the work until the State and various parties had weighed the subject, 
and finally the interposition of the Government became necessary. 

A settlement resulted in Ohio being bounded on the north by Lake Erie 
and the State of Michigan, on the east by Pennsylvania and West Virginia, on 
the south by the Ohio River, and on the west by Indiana. 

It is situated between the 38° 25' and 42° north latitude, and 84° 50' 
west longitude from Greenwich, or 3° 30' and 7° 50' west from Washington. 
From north to south, it extends over 210 miles, and from east to west 220 
miles — comprising 39,964 square miles. 

The State is generally higher than the Ohio River. In the southern 
counties, the surface is greatly diversified by the inequalities produced by the 
excavating power of the Ohio River and its tributaries. The greater portion 
of the State was originally covered with timber, although in the central and 
northwestern sections some prairies were found. The crest or watershed 
between the waters of Lake Erie and those of the Ohio is less elevated than 
in New York or Pennsylvania. Sailing upon the Ohio the country appears 
to be mountainous, bluffs rising to the height of two hundred and fifty to six 
hundred feet above the valleys. Ascending the tributaries of the Ohio, these 
precipitous hills gradually lessen until they are resolved into gentle undulations, 
and toward the sources of the river the land is low and marshy. 

Although Ohio has no inland lakes of importance, she possesses a favorable 
river system, which, aided by her canals, gives her prestige of a convenient 
Avater transportation. The lake on her northern boundary, and the Ohio 
River on her southern limit, afford most convenient outlets by water to impor- 
tant points. Her means of communication and transportation are superior in 
every respect, and are constantly being increased. 


Adams County was named in honor of John Adams, second President of 
the L^nited States. Gov. St. Clair proclaimed it a county on July 10, 1797. 
The Virginia Military Tract included this section, and the first settlement made 
within its boundaries was in this county in 1790-91, between the Scioto and Little 
Miami, at Manchester, by Gen. Nathaniel Massie. In this town Avas held the 
first court of the county. 

West Union, the present county seat, was laid out by the Hon. Thomas 
Kirker. It occupies the summit of a high ridge. The surface of this county is 


hilly and broken, and the eastern part is not fertile. It produces corn, wheat, oats 
and pork. Beds of iron are found in the eastern part. Its hills are composed of 
aluminous shale. The barren hills afford a range for cattle and hogs. A sort 
of vagrant class derive a support by collecting stones, hoop-poles and tanners" 
barks from these hills. 

Ashland County is one of the finest agricultural sections. It was formed 
February 26, 1846. Wheat comprises its principal crop, although large quan- 
tities of oats, corn, potatoes, grass and fruit are raised. Ashland is its county 
seat, and was laid out by William Montgomery in 1816. It was called Union- 
town for several years. Daniel Carter raised the first cabin within the county 
limits in 1811. 

Auglaize County was formed in February, 1848, from Allen and Mercer 
Counties. Wapakoneta is its county seat. 

Allen County was formed from the Indian Territory April 1, 1820. Lima 
is its county seat. 

Ashtabula County was formed June 7, 1807, and was organized January 
22, 1811. The surface is level near the lake, while the remainder is undulat- 
ing. The soil is mostly clay. Very little wheat is raised, but considerable 
corn and oats. Butter and cheese are the main marketable productions. This 
was the first county settled on the Western Reserve, and also the earliest in 
Northern Ohio. On the 4th of July, 1706, the first surveying party arrived 
at the mouth of Conneaut Creek. Judge James Kingsbury was the first who 
wintered there with his family. He was the first man to use a sickle in the 
first wheat-field in the Western Reserve. Their child was the first born on the 
Western Reserve, and was starved to death. The first regular settlement was 
at Harpersfield, in 1798. 

Jefferson is the county seat. Ashtabula is pleasantly situated on the river, 
with a fine harbor two and a half miles from the village. 

The first church on the Western Reserve was founded at Austinburg in 

Athens County was formed from Washington INIarch 1, 1805. It produces 
wheat, corn, oats and tobacco. The surface is hilly and broken, with rich bot- 
tom lands between. Coal, iron ore and salt add materially to its commercial 
value. It has the advantage of the canal, as well as other transportation. 
Athens, its county seat, is situated on the Hocking River. The Ohio Uni- 
versity, the first college founded in the State, is located here. We have 
mentioned the ancient mounds found in this county, heretofore. Yellow pine is 
abundant in the lower part of the Hocking Valley. 

Brown County was formed March 1, 1818, from Adams and Clermont. It 
produces wheat, corn, rye, oats and pork. The southern part is prolific in 
grain, while the northern is adapted to grazing purposes. The surface is undu- 
lating, with the exception of the Ohio River hills. Over this county Tecumseb 
once held sway 


Georgetown is the county seat, and was laid out in 1819. Ripley is the larg- 
est business town in the county. 

Belmont County was announced by Gov. St. Clair September 7, 1801. It 
produces large crops of wheat, oats, corn and tobacco, an annual crop of over 
2,000,000 pounds of the latter being the average. It also trades largely in 
wool and coal. It is a picturesque tract of country, and was one of the 
pioneers in the early settled portions. 

In 1790, Fort Dillie was erected on the west side of the Ohio. Baker's 
Fort was a mile below the mouth of the Captina. Many desperate Indian bat- 
tles were fought within the limits of this county, and the famous Indian scout, 
Lewis Wetzel, roamed over the region. 

St. Clairsville is the county seat, situated on the elevation of land, in a fer- 
tile district. Capt. Kirkwood and Elizabeth Zane, of historic fame, were early 
pioneers here. 

Butler County was formed in 1803, from Hamilton. It is within the blue 
limestone formation, and one of the most fertile sections of Ohio. It produces 
more corn than any other county in the State, besides fine crops of wheat, 
oats and large quantities of pork. Hamilton, the county seat, is situated on the 
Great Miami. Its hydraulic works furnish superior water-power. Rossville, 
on the opposite side of the Miami, is a large mercantile town. 

St. Clair passed through this county on his Indian campaigns in 1791, 
building Fort Hamilton on the Miami. 

Champaign County was formed March 1, 1805, from Greene and Franklin. 
It is drained by Mad River and its tributaries, which furnishes extensive mill 
privileges. Nearly a half is undulating, a quarter rolling, a fifth hilly, and 
5 per cent wet prairie. The soil is fertile, and produces wheat, corn, oats, 
barley, hay, while beef and wool add to the general wealth. Urbana, the 
county seat, was laid out in 1805, by Col. William Ward. He was chief owner 
of the land and donated many lots to the county, under condition that their 
proceeds be devoted to public improvements. Joseph Vance and George 
Fithian were the first settlers. The Methodists built the first church in 1807. 
The main army of Hull concentrated at this point before setting out for Detroit. 
Many Indian councils were called here, and Tecumseh was located for a time 
near Deer Creek. 

Carroll County was formed from Columbiana in 1832—33. It produces 
wheat, oats and corn, and valuable coal and iron. The surface is hilly. Car- 
rollton is its county seat. At Harlem is a celebrated chalybeate spring. 

Clark County was formed March 1, 1817, from Champaign, Madison and 
Greene. Its second settlement was at Kreb's Station, in 1796. It is highly culti- 
vated, well watered and very fertile. The Mad River, Buck and Beaver Creeks 
furnish abundant water-power. It produces principally wheat, corn and oats. 

Tecumseh, the old Indian warrior, was born at the ancient Indian vil- 
lage of Piqua, on the Mad River, on the site of New Boston. Piqua was 


destroyed by Gen. George Rogers Clarke. Skeletons, beads, gun barrels, 
tomahawks, kettles, etc., have been found in the vicinity. 

Springfield, the county seat, is situated on the National road. It has con- 
venient transportation facilities, is handsomely laid out, and is noted for its 
cultured citizens. It is near Mad River, and Buck Creek runs through it. 

Clinton County was formed in 1810. It produces chiefly wheat, oats, 
wool and pork. Its surface is undulating, in some parts hilly, and the soil fer- 
tile. Its streams furnish desirable water-power. The county was settled in 
1798-99. Wilmington is the county seat, and was laid out in 1810. The first 
log house was built by William Hobsin. 

Clermont County was the eighth formed in the Northwest Territory, by 
proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, December 9, 1800. The soil is exceedingly 
rich, and the surface is broken and, near the Ohio, hilly. Wheat, corn, oats, 
hay, potatoes, tobacco, barley, buckwheat and rye form the main crops, while 
beef, pork, flour, hay and whisky constitute its main exports. Its streams 
furnish good water-power. Batavia, its county seat, is situated on the Little 
Miami River, and was laid out in 1820, by George Ely. 

Columbiana County was formed March 25, 1803, from Jefferson and Wash- 
ington. Its soil is very fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats and potatoes. It 
is wealthy in mineral deposits, coal, iron ore, lime and freestone being abun- 
dant. Its Avater-lime stone is of superior (juality. Salt water is found on Yel- 
loAv and Beaver Creeks. This is also the great wool-producing county of 
the State. It was settled in 1797. New Lisbon, its county seat, is well 

The first paper-mill in Ohio was erected in this county, on Little Beaver 
Creek, by John Coulter and John Bever. 

Coshocton County was organized April 1, 1811. Its principal products are 
wheat, corn, oats and wool. Hills and valleys alternate along the Muskingum 
River. Abrupt changes are strongly marked — a rich alluvum being overhung 
by a red bush hill, while directly beside it may be seen the poplar and sugar 
tree. Coal and iron ore add to its general importance, while salt wells have 
proven remunerative. 

Coshocton, the county seat, is built on four wide, natural terraces, at the 
junction of the Tuscarawas with the Walhonding. 

Cuyahoga County w^as formed June 7, 1807, from Geauga. Near the lake, 
the soil is sandy, while a clayey loam may be found elsewhere. The valleys 
near the streams produce wheat, barley and hay. Fruit is successfully grown. 
and cheese, butter, beef and wool are largely exported. Bog iron is found in 
the western part, and fine grindstone quarries are in operation. The sandstone 
from these quarries is now an important article of commerce. As early as 
1775, there was a French settlement within the boundaries of Cuyahoga. In 
1786, a Moravian missionary came to the present site of Cleveland, and set- 
tled in an abandoned village of the Ottawas. Circumstances prevented a 


permanent settlement, and the British tacitly took possession, even remaining 
upon the lake shores after the Revolution. 

The first permanent settlement was made at Cleveland in 1796. Mr. Job 
V. Stiles and flimily and Edward Paine passed the first winter there, their log 
cabin standing where the Commercial Bank is now located. Rodolphus 
Edwards and Nathaniel Doane settled here. The town was, in 1813, a depot 
of supplies and a rendezvous for troops engaged in the war. 

Cleveland, the county seat, is situated at the northern termination of the 
Ohio Canal, on the lake shore. In 1814, it was incorporated as a village, and 
in 1836, as city. Its elevation is about a hundred feet above the lake. It 
is a lovely city, and has one of the best harbors on Lake Erie. 

Ohio City is another important town, nearly opposite Cleveland, on the 
Cuyahoga. It was incorporated in 1836. 

Crawford County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian territory. 
The entire county is adapted to grazing. The soil is generally composed of 
rich vegetable loam, and in some parts the subsoil is clay mixed with lime. 
Rich beds of shell marl have been discovered. It produces wheat, corn, oats, 
clover, timothy seed, wool and cattle. Fine limestone quarries are worked with 

Bucyrus is the county seat, and was laid out February 11, 1822, by Samuel 
Norton and James Kilbourn, original owners of the land. The first settler in 
the town proper was Samuel Norton. A gas well has been dug in Bucyrus, 
on the land of R. W. Musgrove, which burns in a brilliant light when con- 
ducted to the surface by means of pipes. Crawford's Sulphur Springs are 
located nine miles from Bucyrus. The water is impregnated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen. It deposits a reddish-purple sediment. In its nature the water is a 
cathartic, and is diuretic and diaphoretic in its effects. A few rods away is a 
burning spring. The Annapolis Sulphur Spring is clear and has gained consid- 
erable fame by its curative qualities. Opposite Bucyrus is a chalybeate spring 
of tonic qualities. 

There are some beds of peat in the county, the most extensive one being a 
wet prairie called Cranberry Marsh, containing nearly 2,000 acres. 

Darke County was organized in March, 1817, from Miami County. It is 
abundantly timbered with poplar, walnut, blue ash, hickory, beech and sugar 
maple. It yields superior wheat, and is well adapted to grazing. In this 
county occurred the lamentable defeat of St. Clair, and the treaty of Greenville. 

Greenville is the county seat, and was laid out August 10, 1808, by Robert 
Gray and John Dover In December, 1793, Wayne built Fort Greenville on 
this spot, which covered about the same extent as the present town. . 

Delaware County was formed February 10, 1808, from Franklin. It pro- 
duces mainly wheat, corn, oats, pork and wool. 

Delaware is the county seat, and was laid out in the spring of 1808, by 
Moses Byxbe. The Delaware Spring in the village is of the white sulphur or 


cold hydro-sulphurous nature, valuable for medicinal qualities in cases of bilious 
derangements, dyspepsia, scrofulous affections, etc. 

Defiance County was inaugurated March 4, 1845, from Williams, Henry 
and Paulding. The Maumee, Tiffin and Auglaize flow through it. The Black 
Swamp covers much of its area. 

Defiance, the county seat, is situated on the Maumee. It was laid out in 
1822, by B. Level and H. Phillips. A large Indian settlement occupied its 
gite in very early times. Wayne arrived here August 8, 1794, captured the 
place, finding about one thousand acres of corn, peach and apple orchards, and 
vegetables of all varieties. Here he built Fort Defiance. 

Erie County w^as formed in 1838, from Huron and Sandusky. The soil is 
alluvial, and yields large crops of wheat, corn, oats and potatoes. It possesses 
inexhaustable quarries of limestone and freestone. Immense quantities of bog 
iron are also found. The Erie tribe is said to have once occupied the land, and 
were extirpated by the Iroquois. As early as 1754, the French had built set- 
tlements. In 1764, the county was besieged. Pontiac came here with warlike 
demonstrations, but made peace with the whites. Erie was included in the 
"fire lands" of the Western Reserve. 

Sandusky City is the county seat, and was laid out in 1817, then termed 
Portland. At that time it contained two log huts. The town is finely situated,, 
and is based upon an inexhaustible quarry of the finest limestone. In the 
"patriot war" with the Canadians, this city was the rendezvous for the 

Franklin County was formed April 30, 1803, from Ross. It contains 
much low wet land, and is better adapted to grazing than agricultural purposes. 
It was in early times occupied by the Wyandot Indians. Its first white set- 
tlement was made in 1797, by Robert Armstrong and others. Franklinton 
was laid out in 1797, by Lucas Sullivan. Worthington was settled by the 
Scioto Company in 1801. Col. Kilbourn, who was interested in the work, 
constructed the first map of Ohio during his explorations, by uniting sectional 

Columbus, the capital of the State of Ohio, is also the county seat of 
Franklin County. After the organization of a State government, the capital 
was "portable" until 1816. In 1810, the sessions were held at Chillicothe, 
in 1811 and 1812 at Zanesville, removing again to Chillicothe, and, in 1816, 
being located at Columbus. The town was laid out during the spring of 1812. 
A penitentiary was erected in 1813, and the State House was built in 1814. 
It was incorporated as "the borough of Columbus," February 10, 1816. The 
city charter was granted March 3, 1834. 

It is beautifully located on the east bank of the Scioto. The Columbus 
Institute is a classical institution. A female and a theological seminary also 
add to its educational advantages. The Ohio Lunatic Asylum is also located 
here — also the Ohio Institution for the Education of the Blind. East of the 


State House is the Ohio Institution for the Education of the Deaf and 

Fairfield County was formed by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, December 
9, 1800. 

The soil is varied, being in some parts exceedingly rich, and in others very 
sterile. It produces principally wheat, corn, rye, oats, buckwheat, barley, 
potatoes and tobacco. 

Lancaster is the county seat, laid out by Ebenezer Zane in 1800. In 1797, 
he opened the road known as "Zane's Trace," from Wheeling to Limestone — 
now Maysville. It passed through Lancaster, at a fording about three hundred 
yards below the present turnpike bridge. Near the turn stands an imposing 
eminance called " Standing Stone." Parties of pleasure frequently visit this spot. 

Fayette County was formed from Ross and Highland in 1810. Wheat, 
corn, cattle, hogs, sheep and wool comprise its main productions. " The bar- 
rens" are situated in the northeastern part. This tract is covered by a growth 
of grass. 

Washington is its county seat, laid out in 1810. 

Col. Stewart was active in the interests of this section, and his memory is 
sacredly revered. Jesse Milliken was prominent in public affairs. 

Fulton County, bordering on Michigan, was organized in 1850. It is 
drained by Bean Creek and other small affluents of the Maumee River. The 
surface is nearly level, and a large part of it is covered with forests of ash, 
beech, elm, hickory, white oak, black walnut, etc., furnishing excellent timber. 
The soil is fertile. Wheat, corn, oats and hay are the staple products. Wau- 
seon is the county seat. 

Guernsey County was organized in March, 1810. Wool is a staple prod- 
uct, together with beef, horses and swine. It produces wheat, corn and oats. 

Cambridge is the county seat and was laid out in June, 1806. Mr. 
Graham was the first settler on the site of the town, and his was the only 
dwelling between Lancaster and Wheeling. 

The first cannel coal found in the county was discovered near Mill's Creek. 

Greene County was formed May 1, 1803, from Hamilton and Ross. It 
produces wheat, corn, rye, grass-seed, oats, barley, sheep and swine. The 
streams furnish good water-power. There are five limestone quarries, and a 
marble quarry of variegated colors. The Shawnee town was on the Little 
Miami, and was visited by Capt. Thomas Bullit in 1773. When Daniel Boone 
was captured in 1778, he was brought to this town, and escaped the following 
year. Gen. Clarke invaded this county and the Indians reduced the town to ashes. 

Xenia, the county seat, was laid off in the forest in 1803, by Joseph C. 
Vance. The first cabin was erected in April, 1804, by John Marshall. The 
.Rev. James Fowler built the first hewed-log cabin. David A. Sanders built 
the first frame house. Nine miles north of the town, on the Little Miami 
River, are the Yellow Springs, which are impregnated with sulphur. 


Geauga County was formed in 1805 from Trumbull. It exports sheep, 
cattle, butter and cheese. It is situated at the liead of Chargrine, Cuyahoga and 
a part of Grand Rivers, on high ground, and is subjected to snowstorms more 
frequently than any other part of the Reserve. Its first settlement was made 
in 1798, at Burton. Chardon is fourteen miles from Lake Erie, and is GOO 
feet above it. It was laid out as the county seat in 1808. 

Gallia County was formed April 30, 1803, from Washington. Its princi- 
pal crops are wheat, corn, oats and beans. The surface is generally broken. 
Its first settlement was made in 1791, by a French colony, at Gallipolis. This 
colony was sent out under the auspices of the Scioto Company. This town is 
now the county seat. 

Hamilton County was the second established in the Northwestern Territory 
by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, January 2, 1790. Its surface is gen- 
erally rolling. It produces the ordinary farm products, and a great variety 
of fruits and vegetables for the Cincinnati market. Vineyards thrive well 
within its limits, and the manufacture of wine is carried on to a considerable 

This county was the second settled in Ohio, and the first within the Symmes 
purchase. Settlers arrived at the spot now occupied by Cincinnati, and three 
or four log cabins were erected. Gen. Arthur St. Clair arrived here in Janu- 
ary, 1790. The army of Wayne encamped here later, at Fort Washington. 
Mr. Maxwell established in 1793 the Sentinel of the Northwestern Territory, 
the first newspaper printed north of the Ohio River. In 1796, Edward Free- 
man became its proprietor, and changed the name to Freeman's Journal. 
January 11, 1794, two keel-boats sailed from Cincinnati to Pittsburgh, making 
regular trips every four weeks. In 1801, the first sea vessel built at Mari- 
etta came down the Ohio. 

Cincinnati, the county seat, was incorporated January 2, 1802. It was char- 
tered as a city in 1819. The city is beautifully laid out and delightfully situ- 
ated. Its public buildings are elegant and substantial, including the court 
house and many literary and charitable institutions. 

The Cincinnati College was founded in 1819. It stands in the center of 
the city. It is built in Grecian-Doric style, with pilaster fronts and facade of 
Dayton marble. Woodward College is also popular. 

The Catholics have founded the St. Xavier's College. Lane Seminary, a 
theological institution, is at Walnut Hills, two miles from the center of the city. 
It has over 10,000 volumes in its libraries. No charge is made for tuition. 
Rooms are provided and furnished at $5 per year, and board ranges from 62J 
cents to 90 cents a week. The Cincinnati Law School is connected with Cin- 
cinnati College. The Mechanics' Institute was chartered in 1828, and is in all 
respects well supplied with apparatus. A college for teachers was established in 
1831, its object being to perfect those contemplating entering that profession in 
their studies and system. 



The Cincinnati Orphan As^^lum is an elegant building, and has a library 
and well-organized school attached. The Catholics of the city have one male 
and female orphan asylum. The Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of 
Ohio was incorporated in 1821. 

Cincinnati is a large manufacturing city, and possesses fine water-power 
facilities. It communicates with the world by means of its canal, river, turnpikes, 
and railways. North Bend is another prominent town in this county, havin^ 
been the residence of Gen. William H. Harrison, and the site of his burial 
place. The town was of considerable importance in the early settlement of the 
State. About thirty yards from Harrison's tomb is the grave of Judge 

Hancock County was formed April 1, 1820. It produces wheat, oats, corn, 
pork and maple sugar. The surface is level and its soil is fertile. Blanchard's 
Fork waters the central and southern part of tiie county. Findlay, the county 
seat, was laid out by ex-Gov. Joseph Vance and Elnathan Corry, in 1821. It 
was relaid in 1829. William Vance settled there in the fall of 1821. At the 
south end of the town, are tAVo gas wells. In the eastern part, is a mineral 
spring, and west of the bridge, is a chalybeate spring. 

Hardin County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian Territory. 
It produces, principally, wheat, corn and swine. A portion of the surface is 
level, and the remainder undulating. Fort McArthur was built on the Scioto 
River, but proved a weak stockade. Kenton is the county seat, situated on the 
Scioto River. 

Harrison County was formed from Jefferson and Tuscarawas January 1, 
1814. The surface is hilly, abounding in coal and limestone. Its soil is clayey. 
It is one of the important wool-growing counties in Ohio. It produces large 
quantities of wheat, corn, oats and hay, besides a considerable number of horses, 
cattle and swine. 

In April, 1799, Alexander Henderson and family settled in this county, and 
at the same time, Daniel Peterson and his family resided at the forks of Short 
Creek. The early settlers were much annoyed by Indians and wild beasts. 
Cadiz is the county seat, and was laid out in 1803 and 1804, by Messrs. Briggs 
and Beatty. 

Henry County was formed from the old Indian Territory, April 1, 1820. 
Indian corn, oats, potatoes, and maple sugar constitute the main products. 
The county is well supplied with running streams, and the soil is unusually rich. 

The greater portion of this county is covered by the " Black Swamp." 
Throughout this swamp are ridges of limestone, covered with black walnut, red 
elm, butternut and maple. The soil is superior for grain. Fruit thrives and 
all varieties of vegetables are produced in large quantities. Simon Girty, noto- 
rious for his wicked career, resided in this county. Girty led the attack on 
Fort Henry, in September, 1777. He demanded the surrender of the fort, 
and menaced its inmates with an Indian massacre, in case of refusal. The 


action began, but the fort gained the victory. He led a ferocious band of Indi- 
ans, and committed the most fiendish atrocities. 

Napoleon, the county seat, is situated on the Maumee River. 

Highland County was formed in May, 1805, from Ross, Adams and Cler- 
mont. It is a wealthy, productive county. Its wheat commands a high mar- 
ket price. The crops consist of wheat, corn, oats, maple sugar, wool, swine 
and cattle. Its first settlement began in 1801, at New Market, by Oliver Ross, 
Robert Keeston, George W. Barrere, Bernard Weyer and others. Simon Ken- 
ton made a trace through this county in early times. Hillsboro is the 
county seat, and was laid out in 1807, by David Hays, on the land of Benja- 
min EUicott. It is situated on the dividing ridge, between the Miami and Sci- 
oto. The Hillsboro Academy was founded in 1827. 

Hocking County was formed March 1, 1818, from Ross, Athens and Fair- 
field. Its principal products are corn, wheat, tobacco and maple sugar. Its 
surface is broken and hilly, but is level and fertile beside the streams. 

The Wyandots once occupied this tract, and built a large town herein. In 
1798, a few white families ventured to settle. Logan is its county seat, and is 
situated on the Hocking River. 

Holmes County was formed from Coshocton, Tuscarawas and Wayne, Janu- 
ary 20, 1824. It produces wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, maple sugar, swine, 
sheep and cattle. The southwestern portion is broken. Thomas Butler was 
the first settler, in 1810. Millersburg is the county seat, and Avas laid out in 

Huron County was organized in 1815. It produces hay, wheat, corn, oats, 
barley, buckwheat, flaxseed, potatoes, butter, cheese, wool and swine. Nor- 
walk is the county seat. 

Jackson County was organized March, 1816. The country is rich in min- 
erals and abounds in coal and iron ore. The exports are cattle, wool, swine, 
horses, lumber, millstones, tobacco and iron. Jackson, the county seat, was 
laid out in 1817. The old Scioto salt-works were among the first worked in 
Ohio by the whites. Prior to this period, the Indians came some distance to 
this section to make salt. When Daniel Boone was a prisoner, he spent some 
time at these works. 

Jefferson County was proclaimed by Gov. St. Clair July 29, 1797, and 
was the fifth county established in Ohio. It is one of the most important 
manufacturing counties in the State. Its resources in coal are also extended. 
The surface is hilly and the soil fertile, producing wheat, corn and oats. The 
old "Mingo" town was on the present farms of Jeremiah Hallock and Mr. 
Daniel Potter. The troops of Col. Williamson rendezvoused at this point, 
when they set out in their cruel Moravian campaign, and also the troops of 
Col. Crawford, when they started on the campaign against the Sandusky 
Indians. Here Logan, the powerful and manly chief of the Mingo nation, 
once resided. He took no active part in the old French war, Avhicli closed in 



1760, except that of a peacemaker. He was a stanch friend of the whites 
until the abominable and unprovoked murder of his father, brother and sister, 
which occurred in 1774, near the Yellow Creek. He then raised the battle 
cry and sought revenge. 

However, Logan was remarkably magnanimous toward prisoners who fell 
into his hands. The year 1793 was the last spent in Indian warfare in Jeffer- 
son County. 

Fort Steuben was erected on the present site of Steubenville, the county seat, 
in 1789. It was constructed of block-houses, with palisade fences, and Avas dis- 
mantled during Wayne's campaign. Bezaleel Wells and Hon. James Ross laid 
the town out in 1798. It was incorporated February 14, 1805. It is situated 
upon an elevated plain. In 1814, Messrs. Wells and Dickerson built a woolen 
manufactory, and introduced merino sheep to the county. 

Knox County was formed March 1, 1808, from Fairfield. It is drained by 
the Vernon River. It produces wheat, corn, oats, tobacco, maple sugar, pota- 
toes and wool. Mount Vernon was laid out in 1805. The early settlers found 
two wells on the Vernon River, built of hammered stone, neatly laid, and near 
by was a salt-lick. Their direct origin remains a mystery. Oilman Bryant, 
in 1807, opened the first store in Mount Vernon. The court house was built 
in 1810. The Indians came to Mount Vernon in large numbers for the pur- 
pose of trading in furs and cranberries. Each Saturday, the settlers Avorked 
on the streets, extracting stumps and improving the highway. The first settler 
north of the place was N. M. Young, who built his cabin in 1803. Mount 
Vernon is now the county seat, beautifully situated on Vernon River. Kenyon 
College is located at Gambler. It is richly endowed with 8,000 acres, and is 
valued at $100,000. This institution was established under the auspices of 
Bishop Chase, in July, 1826, in the center of a 4,000-acre tract belonging to 
Kenyon College. It was chartered as a theological seminary. 

Lucas County is of comparatively recent origin. A large portion is covered 
by the "Black Swamp." It produces corn, wheat, potatoes and oats. This 
county is situated in the Maumee Valley, which was the great arena of histori- 
cal events. The frightful battle of Wayne's campaign, where the Indians found 
the British to be traitors, was fought near Fort Miami, in this county. Maumee 
City, the county seat, was laid out in 1817, as Maumee, by Maj. William Oliver 
and others. It is situated on the Maumee, at the head of navigation. The 
surface is 100 feet above the water level. This town, with Perrysburg, its neighbor, 
is exceedingly picturesque, and was in early times frequented by the Indians. 
The French had a trading station at this point, in 1680, and in 1794, the Brit- 
ish Fort — Miami — was built. Toledo is on the left bank of the Maumee, and 
covers the site of a stockade fort, known as Fort Industry, erected in 1800. 
An Indian treaty was held here July 4, 1805, by which the Indians relinquished 
all rights to the " fire lands." In 1832, Capt. Samuel Allen gave an impetus 
to the place, and Maj. Stickney also became interested in its advancement. 


Speculation in lots began in 1834. The Wabash & Erie Canal interest arose in 
1836. Mr. jNIason and Edward Bissel added their energies to assist the growth 
of the town. It was incorporated as a city in 1836. It was the center of the 
military operations in the " Ohio and Michigan war," known as the "boundary 

The Ordinance of 1787 provided for the division of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory into three or five States. The three southern were to be divided from the 
two northern by a line drawn east and west through the southern point of Lake 
Michioian, cxtendino; eastward to the Territorial line in Lake Erie. The consti- 
tution of Ohio adds a provision that if the line should not go so far north as the 
north cape of ^Nlaumee Bay, then the northern boundary of Ohio should be a 
line drawn from the southerly part of Lake Michigan to the north cape of the 
Maumee Bay. 

The line of the ordinance was impossible, according to its instructions and 
the geography of the country. 

When Michigan became a Territory, the people living between the " Fulton " 
and '• Harris " lines found it more to their wishes to be attached to Michigan. 
They occupied disputed ground, and were thus beyond the limits of absolute 
law. In 1835, the subject was greatly agitated, and J. Q. Adams made a warm 
speech before Congress against the Ohio claim. The Legislature of Ohio dis- 
cussed the matter, and an act was passed to attach the disputed section to Ohio, 
according to the constitutional decree. An active campaign opened between 
Mieliigan and Oliio. Gov. Lucas came out with the Ohio troops, in the spring 
of 1835, and Gov. Mason, of Michigan, followed the example. He marched 
into Toledo, robbed melon-patches and chicken-houses, crushed in the front 
door of Maj. Stickney's house, and carried him away prisoner of war. Embas- 
sadors were sent from Washington to negotiate matters — Richard Rush, of Penn- 
sylvania and Col. Howard, of Maryland. At the next session of Congress, the 
matter was settled. Samuel Vinton argued for Ohio, in the House, and Thomas 
Ewing in the Senate. Michigan received an equivalent of the large peninsula 
between Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior. Ohio received the disputed 
strip, averaging eight miles in width. ^Manhattan, Waterville and Providence 
are all flourishing towns. 

Lorain County was formed from Huron, Cuyahoga and Medina, on Decem.- 
ber 26, 1822. The soil is generally fertile, and the surface level. Wheat, 
grass, oats, corn, rye and potatoes constitute the principal crops. Bog-iron ore 
is found in large quantities. A curious relic has been found in this county, bear- 
ing the date of 1533. Elyria is the county seat, and was laid out in 1817. 
The first settler was Mr. Heman Ely. Oberlin is situated about eight miles 
southwest of Elyria. The Oberlin Collegiate Institute has attained a wide 

Logan County was formed March 1, 1817. The surface is broken and hilly 
near the Mad River, but is generally level. The soil is fertile, producing 


wheat, corn, rye, oats, clover, flax and timothy seed. The Shawnee Indians 
were located here, and built several villages on the Mad River. These towns 
were destroyed in 1786, by a body of Kentuckians, under Gen. Benjamin 
Logan. The whites surprised the towns. However, they returned after the 
work of destruction had been completed, and for many years frequented the 
section. On the site of Zanes field was a Wyandot village. By the treaty of 
September 29, 1817, the Scnecas and Shawnees held a reservation around 
Lewistown. April 6, 1832, they vacated this right and removed west. Isaac 
Zane was born about the year 1753, and was, while a boy, captured and after- 
ward adopted by the Wyandots. Attaining the age of manliood, he had no 
desire to return to his people. He married a Wyandot woman, who was half 
French. After the treaty of Greenville, he bought 1,800 acres on the site of 
Zanesville, where he lived until the year 1816, when he died, lamented by all 
his" friends. 

Logan County was settled about the year 1806. During the war of 1812, 
it was a rendezvous for friendly Indians. Bellefontaine, the county seat, was 
laid out March 18, 1820, on land owned by John Tulles and William Powell. 
Joseph Gordon built a cabin, and Anthony Ballard erected the first frame 
dwelling. ' 

Gen. Simon Kenton is buried at the head of Mad River, five miles from 
Bellefontaine. He died April 29, 1836, aged eighty-one years and twenty-six 
days. This remarkable man came West, to Kentucky, in 1771. He probably 
encountered more thrilling escapes than any other man of his time. In 1778, 
he was captured and suffered extreme cruelties, and was ransomed by the British. 
He soon recovered his robust health, and escaped from Detroit the following 
spring. He settled in Urbana in 1802. He was elected Brigadier General of 
the militia, and in the war of 1812, joined Gen. Harrison's army. In the year 
1820, he removed to Mad River. Gen. Vance and Judge Burnet secured him 
a pension, of $20 per month 

Licking County was formed from Fairfield March 1, 1808. The surface is 
generally level, diversified by slight hills in the eastern portion. The soil is 
fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats and grass. Coal and iron ore of good 
quality add to the wealth of the county. Wool and dairy productions are also 
staples. Newark is the county seat, and is situated at the confluence of the 
three principal branches of the Licking. It was laid out by Gen. William C. 
Schenk, George W. Burnet and John M. Cummings, who owned this military 
section of 4,000 acres, in 1801. In 1802, Samuel Elliott and Samuel Parr 
built hewed-log houses. The picturesque "Narrows of the Licking " are in 
the eastern part of the county, which have elicited general praise from scenic 

Lawrence County was organized March 1, 1816. There are many high 
and abrupt hills in this section, which abound in sand or freestone. It is rich 
in minerals, and the most important section of Ohio for iron manufacture. 


Coal is abundant, and white clay exists in the western part suitable for pot- 
tery purposes. Agricultural productions are not extensive. 

The county was settled in 1797 by the Dutch and Irish. The iron region 
extends through the west part of this county. Lawrence County produces a 
superior quality of iron, highly esteemed for castings, and is equal to Scotch 
pig for furnace purposes. Burlington is the county seat. 

Lake County was formed from Geauga and Cuyahoga March 6, 1840, The 
soil is good and the surface rolling. It produces wheat, corn, oats, buckwheat, 
barley, hay and potatoes. Dairy products, cattle and avooI are also staples. 
Its fruits — apples, peaches, pears, plums and grapes are highly prized. As 
early as 1799, a settlement was formed at Mentor. Painesville, the county 
seat, is situated on Grand River, in a beautiful valley. The Painesville Acad- 
emy is a classical institution for the education of both sexes. Near the town 
is the Geauga furnace. Painesville was laid out by Henry Champion in 1805. 
At Fairport, the first warehouse in this section, and probably the first on the 
lake, was built by Abraham Skinner in 1803. This town has a fine harbor, 
and has a light-house and beacon. Kirtland, southwest from Painesville, was. 
in 1834, the headquarters of the Mormons. At that time, they numbered 
about three thousand. The old Mormon temple is of rough stone, plastered 
over, colored blue, and marked to imitate regular courses of masonry. As is 
well known, the Mormons derive their name from the book of Mormon, said to 
have been translated from gold plates found in a hill in Palmyra, N. Y. 

Madison County was organized in March, 1810. The surface is generally 
level. It produces grass, corn, oats and cattle — the latter forming a cliief 
staple, while wool and pork add to the general wealth. 

Jonathan Alder was much interested in the settlement of the county. He, 
like some other whites, had lived with the Indians many years, and had formed 
a lasting aflection for them, and had married a squaw, Avith whom he became 
dissatisfied, Avhich caused him to desire finding his own family. He suc- 
ceeded in this through the assistance of John Moore. He left his wife and 
joined his people. 

This county was first settled in 1795. Benjamin Springer made a clearing 
and built a cabin. He settled near Alder, and taught him the English lan- 
guage. Mr. Joshua Ewing brought four sheep to this place, and the Indians 
exhibited great astonishment over these strange animals. When the hostilities 
of 1 812 began, the British oflfered inducements to the Indians to join them, and 
they consulted Alder regarding the best policy to adopt. He advised them to 
preserve neutrality until a later period, which they did, and eventually became 
firm friends of the Americans. 

London is the county seat, and was laid out in 1810-11, by Patrick McLene. 

Marion County was organized March 1, 1824. The soil is fertile, and pro- 
duces extensive farm crops. The Delaware Indians once held a reservation 
here, and conceded their claims in 1829, August 3, and removed west of the 


Mississippi. ^ Marion, the county seat, was laid out in 1821, by Eber Baker 
and Alexander Holmes. Gen. Harrison marched through this section durinsr 
his campaign. 

Mahoning County was formed in 1846, from Trumbull and Columbiana. 
The surface is rolling and the soil generally fertile. The finer qualities of wood 
are produced here. Bituminous coal and iron are found in large quantities. 
Col. James Hillman came to the Western Reserve in 1786. The settlement 
of the county went forward. Canfield is the county seat. 

Medina County was formed from the Western Reserve February 12, 1812. 
The surface is rolling and the soil is fertile, producing fine agricultural prod- 
ucts. The first trail made through the county was made by George Poe, 
Joseph H. Larwell and Roswell M. Mason. The first settlement was made 
by Joseph Harris in 1811. He was soon joined by the Burr brothers. Me- 
dina is the county seat. 

Meigs County was formed from Gallia and Athens April 1, 1819. The 
general character of the soil is clayey, producing large quantities of wheat, oats, 
corn, hay and potatoes. Vast quantities of salt are made and exported. Pom- 
eroy, the county seat, is situated under a lofty hill, surrounded by picturesque 
scenery. Mr. Nathaniel Clark was the first settler of the county. He arrived in 
1816. The first coal mine opened in Pomeroy was in 1819, by David Bradshaw. 

Mercer County was formed from the Indian Territory in 1820. The sur- 
face is generally flat, and while covered with forests, inclined to be wet ; but, 
being cleared, it is very fertile, and adapted to producing farm crops. St. 
Clair's Battle was fought on the boundary line between this and Darke County. 
The Hon. Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur made a treaty at St. Mary's with 
the Wyandots, Shawnees and Ottawas, in 1818. The odious Simon Girty lived 
at one time at St. Mary's. Wayne built St. Mary's Fort, on the west bank of 
the river. John Whistler was the last commander of the fort. The largest 
artificial lake in the world, so it is asserted, is formed by the reservoir sup- 
plying the St. Mary's feeder of the Miami Extension Canal. It is about nine 
miles long, and from two to four broad. Celina is the county seat. 

Miami County was formed January 16, 1807, from Montgomery. It abounds 
in excellent limestone, and possesses remarkable water-power facilities. Its agri- 
cultural products rank highly in quality and quantity. John Knoop came into this 
section about the year 1797, and its first settlement began about this time. Troy, 
the county seat, is situated upon the Great Miami. Piqua is another lovely 
town. The Miami River aifords delightful scenery at this point. 

Monroe County was formed January 29, 1813, from Belmont, Washington, 
and Guernsey. A portion of its surface is abrupt and hilly. Large quantities 
of tobacco are raised, and much pork is exported. Wheat and corn grow well 
in the western portion. Iron ore and coal abound. The valleys of the streams 
are very narrow, bounded by rough hills. In some places are natural rock 
grottoes. The first settlement was made in 1799, near the mouth of the Sunfish. 


At this time, wolves were numerous, and caused much ahirm. Yolney entered 
this county, but was not prepossessed in its favor. One township is settled by 
the Swiss, who are educated and refined. Woodsfield is the county seat. 

Montgomery County was formed from Ross and Hamilton May 1, 1803. 
The soil is fertile, and its agricultural products are most excellent. Quarries of 
grayish-white limestone are found east of the Miami. 

Dayton is the county seat, situated on the Great Miami, at the mouth of Mad 
Iliver. A company was formed in 1788, but Indian wars prevented settlement. 
After Wayne's treaty, in 1795, a new company was formed. It advanced 
rapidly between the years 1812 and 1820. The beginning of the Miami Canal 
renewed its prosperity, in 1827. The first canal-boat from Cincinnati arrived 
at Dayton on the 25th of January, 1829. The first one arrived from Lake 
Erie in June, 1845. Col. Robert Patterson came to Dayton in 1804. At one 
time, he owned Lexington, Ky., and about one third of Cincinnati. 

Morgan County was organized in 1818, March 1. The surface is hilly and 
the soil strong and fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats and tobacco. Pork is a 
prolific product, and considerable salt is made. The first settlement was made 
in 1790, on the Muskingum. McConnelsville is the county seat. Mr. Ayres 
made the first attempt to produce salt, in 1817. This has developed into a 
large industry. 

Morrow County was organized in 1848. It is drained by the Vernon 
River, which rises in it, by the East Branch of the Olontangy or Whetstone 
River, and by Walnut Creek. The surface is undulating, the soil fertile. 
The staple products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, wool and butter. The sugar 
maple abounds in the forests, and sandstone or freestone in the quarries. 
Blount Gilead, the county seat, is situated on the East Branch of the Olen- 
tangy River. 

Muskingum County was formed from Washington and Fairfield. The sur- 
face is rolling or hilly. It produces wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, tobacco, wool 
and pork. Large quantities of bituminous coal are found. Pipe clay, buhr- 
stone or cellular quartz are also in some portions of the State. Salt is made in 
large quantities — the fine being obtained from a stratum of whitish sandstone. 
The Wyandots, Delawares, Senecas and Shawanoese Indians once inhabited this 
section. An Indian town occupied the site of Duncan's Falls. A large Shawan- 
oese town was located near Dresden. 

Zanesville is the county seat, situated opposite the mouth of the Licking. 
It was laid out in 1799, by Mr. Zane and Mr. Mclntire. This is one of the 
principal towns in the State, and is surrounded by charming scenery. 

Noble County, organized in 1851, is drained by Seneca, Duck and Wills 
Creeks. The surface is undulating, and a large part of it is covered with for- 
ests. The soil is fertile. Its staples are corn, tobacco, wheat, hay. oats and 
wool. Among its mineral resources are limestone, coal and petroleum. Near 
Caldwell, the county seat, are found iron ore, coal and salt. 


Ottawa County was formed from Erie, Sandusky and Lucas, March 6, 1840, 
It is mostly within the Black Swamp, and considerable of its land is prairie and 
marsh. It was very thinly settled befere 1830. Extensive plaster beds exist 
on the peninsula, which extends into Lake Erie. It has also large limestone 
quarries, which are extensively worked. The very first trial at arms upon the 
soil of Ohio, during the war of 1812, occurred upon this peninsula. Port Clin- 
ton, the county seat, was laid out in 1827. 

Perry County was formed from Washington, Fairfield and Muskingum, 
March 1, 1817. Fine tobacco is raised in large quantities. Wheat, corn, oats, 
hay, cattle, pork and wool add to the general wealth. This county was first set- 
tled in 1801. First settler was Christian Binckley, who built the first cabin in 
the county, about five miles west of Somerset, near the present county line. 
New Lexington is now the county seat. 

Paulding County was formed from old Indian territory August 1, 1820, 
It produces corn, Avheat and oats. Paulding is the county seat. 

Pickaway County Avas formed from Fairfield, Ross and Franklin, January 
12, 1810, The county has woodland, barren, plain and prairie. The barrens 
were covered by shrub oaks, and when cleared are adapted to the raising of corn 
and oats. The Pickaway plains are three and a half miles west of Circlcville, 
and this tract is said to contain the richest land in Ohio. Here, in the olden 
times, burned the great council fires of the red man. Here the allied tribes met 
Gen. Lewis, who fought the battle of Point Pleasant. Dunmore's campaign 
was terminated on these plains. It was at the Chillicothe towns, after Dun- 
more's treaty, that Logan delivered his famous speech. Circleville, the county 
seat, is situated on the Scioto River and the Ohio Canal. It was laid out in 
1810, by Daniel Dresbach. It is situated on the site of ancient fortifications. 

Portage County was formed June 7, 1807, from Trumbull. It is a wealthy, 
thriving section. Over a thousand tons of cheese are annually produced. It 
also produces wheat, corn, oats, barley, buckAvheat, rye, butter and avooI. 
Ravenna is the county seat, and was originally settled by the Hon. Benjamin 
Tappen in June, 1799. In 1806, an unpleasant difiiculty arose between the 
settlers and a camp of Indians in Deerfield, caused by a horse trade betAveen a 
white man and an Indian. David Daniels settled on the site of Palmyra in 1799. 

Pike County was organized in 1815. The surface is generally hilly, which 
abound with freestone, which is exported in large quantities for building pur- 
poses. Rich bottom lands extend along the Scioto and its tributaries. John 
Noland and the three Chenoweth brothers settled on the Pee Pee prairie about 
1796. Piketown, the former county seat, Avas laid out about 1814. Waverly, 
the present county seat, is situated on the Scioto River. 

Preble County Avas formed March 1, 1808, from Montgomery and Butler. 
The soil is varied. Excellent water-power facilities are furnished. 

Eaton, the county seat, Avas laid out in 1806, by William Bruce, who owned 
the land. An overfloAving Avell of strong sulphur Avater is near the tOAvn, Avhile 
directly beside it is a limestone quarry. Holderman's quarry is about two 


miles distant, from -which is obtained a beautifully clouded gray stone. Fort St. 
Clair was built near Eaton, in the winter of 1791-92, Gen. Harrison was an En- 
sio-n at the time, and commanded a guard every other night for three weeks, during 
the building. The severe battle of November 6, 1792, was fought under its very 
guns. Little Turtle, a distinguished chief of the Miamis, roamed over this county 
for a time. He was witty, brave and earnest, and, although engaged in several 
severe contests with the whites, he was inclined toward peace. But when his 
warriors cried for war he led them bravely. 

Putnam County was formed April 1, 1820, from old Indian territory. The 
soil is fertile, its principal productions being wheat, corn, potatoes and oats. 
Laro-e quantities of pork are exported. Kalida, once the county seat, was laid 
out in 1834. Ottawa is the county seat. 

Ross County was formed August 20, 1798, by the proclamation of Gov. St. 
Clair, and was the sixth county formed in the Northwestern Territory. The 
Scioto River and Paint Creek run through it, bordered with fertile lands. 
Much water-power is obtained from the many streams w-^atering it. The main 
crops are wheat, corn and oats. It exports cattle and hogs. 

The Rev. Robert W. Finley, in 1794, addressed a letter of inquiry to Col. 
Nathaniel Massie, as many of his associates had designed settling in the new 
State. This resulted in packing their several effects and setting out. A triv- 
ial Indian encounter was the only interruption they n. " with on their way. 
After Wayne's treaty. Col. Massie and many of these early explorers met 
aa-ain and formed a settlement — in 1796 — at the mouth of Paint Creek. In 
August of this year, Chillicothe was laid out by Col. Massie, in a dense forest. 
He donated lots to the early settlers. A ferry was established over the Scioto, 
and the opening of Zane's trace assisted the progress of settlement. 

Chillicothe, the county seat, is situated on the Scioto. Its site is thirty 
feet above the river. In 1800, it was the seat of the Northwestern Territorial 
Government. It was incorporated as a city in January, 1802. During the war 
of 1812, the city was a rendezvous for the United States troops. A large num- 
ber of British were at one time guarded here. Adena is a beautiful place, and 
the seat of Gov. Worthington's mansion, which was built in 1806. Near this 
is Fruit Hill, the residence of the late Gen. McArthur, and latterly the home 
of his son-in-law, the Hon. William Allen. Eleven miles from Chillicothe, on 
the road to Portsmouth, is the home of the hermit of the Scioto. 

Richland was organized March 1, 1813. It produces wheat, corn, oats, hay, 
potatoes, rye, hemp and barley. It was settled about 1809, on branches of the 
Mohican. Two block-houses were built in 1812. Mansfield, the county seat, 
is charmingly situated, and was laid out in 1808, by Jacob Newman, James 
Hedges and Joseph H. Larwell. The county was at that period a vast wilder- 
ness, destitute of roads. From this year, the settlement progressed rapidly. 

Sandusky County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian Territory. 
The soil is fertile, and country generally level. It mainly produces corn, wheat, 


oats, potatoes and pork. The Indians were especially delighted with this tract. 
Near Lower Sandusky lived a band of Wyandots, called the Neutral Nation. 
These two cities never failed to render refuge to any who sought their protec- 
tion. They preserved their peacemaking attributes through the Iroquois 
conflicts. Fremont, formerly called Lower Sandusky, the county seat, is 
situated at the head of navigation, on the Sandusky, on the site of the old 
reservation grant to the Indians, at the Greenville treaty council. Fort 
Stephenson was erected in August, 1813, and was gallantly defended by Col. 

Summit County was formed March 3, 1840, from Medina, Portage and 
Stark. The soil is fertile and produces excellent fruit, besides large crops of 
corn, wheat, hay, oats and potatoes. Cheese and butter may be added as 

The first settlement made in the county was at Hudson, in 1800, The old 
Indian portage-path, extending through this county, between the Cuyahoga, and 
Tuscarawas Branch of the Muskingum. This was a part of the ancient boundary 
between the Six Nations and the Western Indians. Akron, the county seat, is 
situated on the portage summit. It was laid out in 1825. In 1811, Paul 
Williams and Amos and Minor Spicer settled in this vicinity. Middlebury was 
laid out in 1818, by Norton & Hart. 

Stark County was formed February 13, 1808. It is a rich agricultural 
county. It has large quantities of mineral coal, iron ore, flocks of the finest 
sheep and great water power. Limestone and extensive beds of lime-marl exist. 
The manufacture of silk has been extensively carried on. Frederick Post, the 
first Moravian missionary in Ohio, settled here in 1761. 

Canton is the county seat, situated in the forks of the Nimishillen, a tribu- 
tary of the Muskingum. It was laid out in 1806, by Bezaleel Wells, who 
owned the land. Massillon was laid out in March, 1826, by John Duncan. 

Shelby County was formed in 1819, from Miami. The southern portion is 
undulating, arising in some places to hills. Through the north, it is a flat table- 
land. It produces wheat, corn, oats and grass. The first point of English set- 
tlement in Ohio was at the mouth of Laramie's Creek, in this county, as early 
as 1752. Fort Laramie was built in 1794, by Wayne. The first white family 
that settled in this county was that of James Thatcher, in 1804. Sidney, the 
county seat, was laid out in 1819, on the farm of Charles Starrett. 

Seneca County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian territory. 
Its principal products are corn, wheat, grass, oats, potatoes and pork. 

Fort Seneca was built during the war of 1812. The Senecas owned 
40,000 acres of land on the Sandusky River, mostly in Seneca County. 
Thirty thousand acres of this land was granted to them in 1817, at the treaty 
held at the foot of the Maumee Rapids. The remaining 10,000 was granted 
the following year. These Indians ceded this ti-act, however, to the Govern- 
ment in 1831. It was asserted by an old chief, that this band was the remnant 


of Logan's tribe. Tiffin, the county seat, was laid out by Josiah Hedges in 
the year 1821. 

Scioto County was formed May 1, 1803. It is a good .agricultural section, 
besides producing iron ore, coal and freestone. It is said that a French fort 
stood at the mouth of the old Scioto, as early as 1740. In 1785, four families 
settled where Portsmouth now stands. Thomas McDonald built the first cabin in 
the county. The "French grant" was located in this section — a tract com- 
prising 24,000 acres. The grant was made in March, 1795. Portsmouth, the 
county seat, is located upon the Ohio. 

Trumbull County was formed in 1800. The original Connecticut Western 
Reserve was within its limits. The county is well cultivated and very wealthy. 
Coal is found in its northern portion. We have, in our previous outline, given 
a history of this section, and it is not, therefore, necessary to repeat its details. 
Warren, the county seat, is situated on the Mahoning River. It was laid out 
by Ephraim Quinby in 1801. Mr. Quinby owned the soil. His cabin was built 
here in 1799. In August, 1800, while Mr. McMahon was away from home, 
a party of drunken Indians called at the house, abused the family, struck a 
child a severe blow with a tomahawk and threatened to kill the fimily. Mrs. 
McMahon could not send tidings .which could reach her husband before noon 
the following day. The following Sunday morning, fourteen men and two 
boys armed themselves and went to the Indian camp to settle the difficulty. 
Quinby advanced alone, leaving the remainder in concealment, as he was better 
acquainted Avith these people, to make inquiries and ascertain their intentions. 
He did not return at once, and the party set out, marched into camp, and found 
Quinby arguing with Capt. George, the chief. Capt. George snatched his 
tomahawk and declared war, rushing forward to kill McMahon. But a bullet 
from the frontierman's gun killed him instantly, while Storey shot " Spotted 
John" at the same time. The Indians then fled. They joined the council at 
Sandusky. Quinby garrisoned his house. Fourteen days thereafter, the 
Indians returned with overtures of peace, which were, that McMahon and 
Storey be taken to Sandusky, tried by Indian laws, and if found guilty, pun- 
ished by them. This could not be done. McMahon was tried by Gen. St. 
Clair, and the matter was settled. The first missionary on the Reserve was the 
Rev. Joseph Badger. 

Tuscarawas County was formed February 15, 1808, from Muskingum. It 
is well cultivated with abundant supplies of coal and iron. 

The first white settlers were Moravian missionaries, their first visits dating 
back to 1761. The first permanent settlement was made in 1798. Miss Mary 
Heck ew elder, the daughter of a missionary, was born in this county April 16, 
1781. Fort Laurens w^as built during the Revolution. It was the scene of a 
fearful carnage. It was established in the fall of 1778, and placed under the 
command of Gen. Mcintosh. New Philadelphia is the county seat, situated on 
the Tuscarawas. It was laid out in 1804 by John Knisely. A German 



colony settled in this county in 1817, driven from their native land by religious 
dictation they could not espouse. They called themselves Separatists. They 
are a simple-minded people, strictly moral and honest. 

Union County was formed from Franklin, Delaware, Logan and Madison in 
1820. It produces corn, grass, wheat, oats, potatoes, butter and cheese. 
Extensive limestone quarries are also valuable. The Ewing brothers made the 
first white settlement in 1798. Col. James Curry, a member of the State Leg- 
islature, was the chief instigator in the progress of this section. He located 
within its limits and remained until his death, which occurred in 1834. Marys- 
ville is the county seat. 

Van Wert County was formed from the old Indian territory April 1, 1820. 
A great deal of timber is within the limits of this county, but the soil is so 
tenacious that water will not sink through it, and crops are poor during wet 
seasons. The main product is corn. Van Wert, the county seat, was founded 
by James W. Riley in 1837. An Indian town had formerly occupied its site. 
Capt. Riley was the first white man who settled in the county, arriving in 1821. 
He founded Willshire in 1822. 

Vinton County was organized in ] 850. It is drained by Raccoon and Salt 
Creeks. The surface is undulating or hilly, and is extensively covered with 
forests in which the oak, buckeye and sugar maple are found. Corn, hay, but- 
ter and wool are staple products. Bituminous coal and iron ore are found. 
McArthur is the county seat. 

Washington County was formed by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair July 27, 
1788, and was the first county founded within the limits of Ohio. The surface 
is broken with extensive tracts of level, fertile land. It was the first county 
settled in the State under the auspices of the Ohio Company. A detachment 
of United States troops, under command of Maj. John Doughty, built Fort 
Harmar in 1785, and it was the first military post established in Ohio by 
Americans, with the exception of Fort Laurens, which was erected in 1778. 
It was occupied by United States troops until 1790, when they were ordered 
to Connecticut. A company under Capt. Haskell remained. In 1785, the 
Directors of the Ohio Company began practical operations, and settlement 
went forward rapidly. Campus Martins, a stockade fort, was completed in 
1791. This formed a sturdy stronghold during the war. During the Indian 
war there was much sufiering in the county. Many settlers were killed and 

Marietta is the county seat, and the oldest town in Ohio. Marietta College 
was chartered in 1835. Herman Blannerhassett, whose unfortunate association 
with Aaron Burr proved fatal to himself, was a resident of Marietta in 1796. 
About the year 1798, he began to beautify and improve his island. 

Warren County was formed May 1, 1803, from Hamilton. The soil is 
very fertile, and considerable water-power is furnished by its streams. Mr. 
Bedell made the first settlement in 1795. Lebanon is the county seat. Henry 


Taylor settled in this vicinity in 1796. Union Village is a settlement of 
Shakers. They came here about 1805. 

Wayne County was proclaimed by Gov. St. Clair August 15, 1796, and 
was the third county in the Northwest Territory. The settlement of this sec- 
tion has already been briefly delineated. Wooster is the county seat. It was 
laid out during the fall of 1808, by John Beaver, William Henry and Joseph 
H. Larwell, owners of the land. Its site is 337 feet above Lake Erie. The 
fii'st mill was built by Joseph Stibbs, in 1809, on Apple Creek. In 1812, a 
block house was erected in Wooster. 

Wood County was formed from the old Indian territory in 1820. The soil 
is rich, and large crops are produced. The county is situated within the Mau- 
mee Valley. It was the arena of brilliant military exploits diiring early times. 
Bowling Green is the county seat. 

Williams County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian territory. 
Bryan is the county seat. It was laid out in 1840. 

Wyandot County was formed February 3, 1845, from Marion, Hardin, Han- 
cock and Crawford. The surface is level, and the soil exceedingly fertile. 
The Wyandot Indians occupied this section, especially the reservation, from 
time immemorial until 1843. The treaty of 1817, by Hon. Lewis Cass and 
Hon. Duncan McArthur, United States Commissioners, granted to the Indians 
a reservation twelve miles sqiiare, the central point being Fort Ferree, now 
within the corporate limits of Upper Sandusky. The Delaware Reserve was 
ceded to the United States in 1829. The Wyandots ceded theirs March 17, 
1842. Col. John Johnston, the United States Commissioner, conducted the 
negotiations, and thus made the Indian treaty in Ohio. It was the scene of 
Col. Crawford's defeat and tragic death, June 11, 1782. The Wyandots were 
exceedingly brave, and several of their chiefs were distinguished orators and 
men of exalted moral principles. 

Upper Sandusky is the county seat, and was laid out in 1843. Gen. Har- 
rison had built Fort Ferree on this spot during the war of 1812. Gov. Meigs, 
in 1813, encamped on this river with several thousand of the Ohio militia. 

The Indian village of Crane Town was originally called Upper Sandusky. 
The Indians, after the death of Tarhe, or " the Crane," transferred their town 
to Upper Sandusky. 


The Territorial Governors we have already mentioned in the course of our 
brief review of the prominent events of the State of Ohio. After the Terri- 
tory was admitted as a State, in 1802, Edward Tiffin was elected to that posi- 
tion, and again received the same honor in 1804 and 1806. In 1807, circum- 
stances led him to resign, and Thomas Kirker, Speaker of the House, acted as 
Governor until the close of the term. 

Edward Tiffin was born in Carlisle, England, coming to this country in 
1784, at the age of eighteen. He entered the University of Pennsylvania, and 
applied himself to the study of medicine, graduating and beginning his practice 
at the age of twenty, in the State of Virginia. In 1789, he married Mary, 


daughter of Col. Worthington, and sister of Thomas Worthington, who subse- 
quently became Governor of Ohio. In his profession, Gov. Tiffin was highly 
esteemed, and his public labors were carried forward with a zealous earnestness 
which marked his career as one of usefulness. He settled in Chillicothe, Ohio, 
in 1796, where he died, in 1829. 

Samuel Huntington, the recipient of the honor of second Governor, was 
inaugurated in 1808. He was an American by birth, Norwich, Conn.^ 
being his native place. He was a diligent student in Yale College, graduating 
in 1785. He removed to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1801. He attained a reputation 
for integrity, ability and rare discretion. As a scholar, he was eminently supe- 
rior. He resided in Cleveland at the time of his death, in 1817. 

Return Jonathan IVfeigs followed Gov. Huntington. He was born in Mid- 
dletown, Conn., in 1765. He was also a student in Yale College, graduating 
in 1785, with the highest honors. He immediately entered the study of law, 
and was admitted to practice in his twenty-third year. He married Miss Sophia 
Wright, and settled in Marietta, Ohio, in 1788. He took his seat as Gover- 
nor in 1810, and was re-elected in 1812. In 1813, President Madison appointed 
him to the position of Postmaster General, which occasioned his resignation as 
Governor. Othniel Looker, Speaker of the House, acted as Governor during 
the remainder of the term. Mr. Meigs died in 1825, leaving as a memento of 
his usefulness, a revered memory. 

Thomas Worthington, the fourth Governor, was born in Jefferson County, 
Va., in 1769. He gained an education in William and Mary's College. 
In 1788, he located at Chillicothe, and was the first Senator from the new 
State. He was also the first man to erect the first saw-mill in Ohio. He 
served two terms as Senator, from 1803 to 1815, resigning in 1814, to take his 
position as Governor. In 1816, he was re-elected. He was exceedingly active 
in paving the way for the future prosperity of Ohio. His measures were famous 
for practical worth and- honesty. Chief Justice Chase designated him as "a 
gentleman of distinguished ability and great influence." He died in 1827. 

Ethan Allen Brown followed Mr. Worthington. His birthplace was on the 
shore of Long Island Sound, in Fairfield County, Conn., July 4, 1766. His 
education was derived under the most judicious instruction of a private tutor. 
In classics, he became proficient. Directly he had reached the required stand- 
ard in general education, he began the study of law, at home. After becoming 
conversant with preliminary requirements, he entered the law ofiice of Alex- 
ander Hamilton, who at that time was a national pride, as a scholar, lawyer and 
statesman. Opportunities coming in his way, Avhich promised a fortune, he 
abandoned the law, and achieved success and a fortune. He then decided to 
return to his study, and was admitted to practice in 1802. Thereafter, he was 
seized with an exploring enthusiasm, and with his cousin as a companion, set 
out upon a horseback tour, following the Indian trails from east to west, through 
Pennsylvania, until they reached Brownsville, on the Monongahela River. Here 


they purchased two flatboats, and fully stocking them with provisions and 
obtaining efficient crews, started for New Orleans. Reaching that city, they 
found they could not dispose of their cargoes to any advantage, and shipped the 
flour to Liverpool, England, taking passage in the same vessel. They succeeded 
in obtaining good prices for their stock, and set sail for America, arriving in Bal- 
timore nine months after first leaving " home," on this adventure. Mr. Brown's 
father decided to secure a large and valuable tract of Western land, as a per- 
manent home, and authorized his son to select and purchase the same for him. 
He found what he desired, near Rising Sun, Ind. After this, he settled in 
Cincinnati, and engaged in the practice of law, speedily achieving prominency 
and distinction. Financially, he was most fortunate. In 1810, he was elected 
Judge of the Supreme Court, which position he filled with honor, until he was 
chosen Governor, in 1818. He Avas re-elected in 1820. In 1821, he received 
the honor of Senator, and served one term, with the highest distinction, gain- 
ing emolument for himself and the State he represented. In 1880, he was 
appointed Minister to Brazil. He remained there four years, and returning, 
was appointed Commissioner of Public Lands, by President Jackson, holding 
this position two years. At this time, he decided to retire from public life. 
Since he never married, he was much with his relatives, at Rising Sun, Ind., 
during the latter part of his life. His death was sudden and unexpected, occur- 
ring in February, 1852, while attending a Democratic Convention, at Indianap- 
olis, Ind. He was interred near his father, at Rising Sun. 

Jeremiah Morrow, the sixth Governor of Ohio, was born at Gettysburg, 
Penn., in October, 1771. His people were of the " Scotch-Irish " class, and his 
early life was one of manual labor upon his father's farm. During the winter, 
he had the privilege of a private school. With a view of establishing himself 
and securing a competency, he bade the old home farewell, in 1795, and set out 
for the " Far West." A flatboat carried him to a little cluster of cabins, known 
by the name of Columbia, six miles from Fort Washington — Cincinnati. He 
devoted himself to whatever came in his way, that seemed best and most worthy 
— teaching school, surveying and working on farms between times. Having 
accumulated a small capital, he ascended the Little Miami, as fir as Warren 
County, and there purchased an extensive farm, and erected an excellent log 
house. In the spring of 1799, he married Miss Mary Packtrell, of Columbia. 
The young couple set out upon pioneer farming. Gaining popularity as well as 
a desirable property, he was deputized to the Territorial Legislature, which met 
at Chillicothe, at which time measures were inaugurated to call a Constitutional 
Convention, during the following year, to organize the State of Ohio. Mr. 
Morrow was one of the Delegates to this convention, and steadfastly worked in the 
interests of those who sent him, until its close in 1802. The following year, 
he was elected to the Senate of Ohio, and in June of the same year, he was 
appointed the first Representative to the United States Congress from the new 


Ohio was then entitled to but one Representative in Congress, and could not 
add to that number for ten years thereafter. During these years, Mr. Morrow 
represented the State. In 1813, he was sent to the United States Senate, and 
in 1822, was elected Governor of Ohio, almost unanimously, being re-elected in 
1824. It was during his administration that work was begun on the Ohio 
Canal. Mr. Morrow received the national guest. La Fayette, with an earnest 
and touching emotion, which aifected the emotions of the generous Frenchman 
more profoundly than any of the elaborate receptions which paved his way 
through America. On the 4th of July, 1839, Gov. Morrow was appointed to 
lay the corner stone of the new State capitol, at Columbus, and to deliver the 
address on this occasion. Again, in 1840, he was in the House of Representa- 
tives, filling the vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon. Thomas Corwin. 
He was elected for the following term also. He died at his own homestead, in 
Warren County, March 22, 1853. 

Allen Trimble was a native of Augusta County, Va. The date of his birth 
was November 24, 1783. His ancestors were of Scotch-Irish origin, and were 
among the early settlers of Virginia. His father moved to Ohio in 1804, pur- 
chasing a tract of land in Highland County. His cabin was remarkably spa- 
cious, and elicited the admiration of his neighbors. He cleared six acres of 
land for an orchard, and brought the trees on horseback, from Kentucky. Be- 
fore this new home was completed, Allen, then a young man of twenty, took 
possession. This was in the year 1805. Four years thereafter, he occupied 
the position of Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas and Recorder of High- 
land County. He was serving in the latter capacity at the breaking out of the 
war of 1812. Naturally enthusiastic and patriotic, he engaged a competent 
person to perform his civil duties, while he went into active service as Colonel 
of a regiment he had summoned and enlisted. He was always eager to be in 
the front, and led his men with such valor that they were termed soldiers who 
did not know the art of flinching. His commanding General lavished praises 
upon him. In 1816, he was in the State Senate, representing Highland 
County. He occupied the same position for four terms, two years each. In 
1818, he was Speaker of the Senate, over Gen. Robert Lucas. He remained 
in this office until elected to the United States Senate, to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of his brother. Col. William A. Trimble. In October, 1826, he 
was elected the seventh Governor of Ohio, by an astonishing majority. The 
united vote of his three competitors was but one-sixth of the vote polled. Gov. 
Trimble was an earnest Henry Clay Whig. In 1828, he was re-elected, 
although Jackson carried the State the following November. Gov. Trimble 
was married in 1806, to Miss Margaret McDowell. Tliree years thereafter, 
she died, leaving two children. He was united in marriage to Miss Rachel 
Woodrow, and they lived together sixty years, when he died, at home, in Hills- 
boro. Highland County, February 3, 1870. His wife survived him but a few 


Duncan Mc Arthur, the eighth Governor of Ohio, was born in Dutchess 
County, N. Y., in 1772. While yet a chikl, his parents removed to the west- 
ern part of Pennsylvania, where they entered upon the hard life of pioneers. 
While there, young Duncan had the meager advantages of a backwoods school. 
His life was a general routine until his eighteenth year, when he enlisted under 
Gen. Harmer for the Indian campaign. His conduct and bravery won worthy 
laurels, and upon the death of the commander of his company, he was elected 
to that position, although the youngest man in the company. When his days 
of service had expired, he found employment at salt-making in Maysville, Ky., 
until he was engaged as chain-bearer in Gen. Massie's survey of the Scioto 
Valley. At this time, Indian atrocities alarmed the settlers occasionally, and 
his reputation for bravery caused him to be appointed one of the three patrols 
of the Kentucky side of the Ohio, to give the alarm to scattered cabins in case 
of danger. This was during the summer of 1793. Gen. Massie again secured 
his services, this time as assistant surveyor. He was thus engaged for several 
years, during which time ho assisted in platting Chillicothe. He purchased a 
large tract of land just north of town, and under his vigorous and practical 
management, it became one of the finest estates of Ohio, which reputation it 
sustains at the present time. He amassed wealth rapidly, his investments 
always being judicious. In 1805, he was elected to the State Legislature. 
He was a Colonel of an Ohio regiment, and accompanied Gen. Hull to Detroit 
in 1813. At Hull's surrender he was a prisoner, btit released on parole, 
returned to Ohio in a state of indignation over his commander's stupidity. 
Soon thereafter he was sent to Congress on the Democratic ticket. Soon there- 
after he was released from parole by exchange, and, greatly rejoiced, he 
resigned his seat, entered the army as a Brigadier General under Gen. Harri- 
son, and the following year succeeded him as commander of the Northwestern 
forces. At the termination of the war, he was immediately returned to the 
State Legislature. He occupied State offices until 1822, when he was again 
sent to Congress. Serving one term, he declined re-election. In 1830, he 
was elected Governor of Ohio. When his term expired, he decided to enjoy 
life as a citizen on his farm, " Fruit Hill," and lived there in contentment until 
1840, when he died. 

Robert Lucas was another Virginian, having been born in 1781, in Jeifer- 
son County of that State. While a boy, his father liberated his slaves, moving 
to Chillicothe as one of the early settlers. He procured a proficient tutor for 
his children. Robert became an expert in mathematics and surveying. Before 
he reached his majority, he was employed as surveyor, earning liberal compen- 
sation. At the age of twenty-three, he was appointed Surveyor of Scioto 
County. At twenty-five, he was Justice of the Peace for L^nion Township, 
Scioto County. He married Miss Elizabeth Brown in 1810, who died two 
years thereafter, leaving a young daughter. In 1816, he married Miss Sum- 
ner. The same year he was elected a member of the Ohio Legislature- Tor 


nineteen consecutive years he served in the House or Senate. In 1820 and 
1828, he was chosen one of the Presidential electors of Ohio. In 1832, 
he Avas Chairman of the National Convention at Baltimore, which nom- 
inated Gen. Jackson as President of the United States. In 1832, he 
became Governor of Ohio, and was re-elected in 1834. He declined a third 
nomination, and was appointed by President Van Buren Territorial Governor 
of Iowa and Superintendent of Indian Affairs. On the 16th of August, 
1838, he reached Burlington, the seat of government. He remained in Iowa 
until his death, in 1853. 

Joseph Vance, the tenth Governor of Ohio, was born in Washington 
County, Penn., March 21, 1781. He was of Scotch-Irish descent, and his 
father emigrated to the new Territory when Joseph was two years of age. He 
located on the southern bank of the Ohio, building a solid block house. This 
formed a stronghold for his neighbors in case of danger. In 1801, this pioneer 
decided to remove north of the Ohio River, and eventually settled in Urbana. 
Joseph had the primitive advantages of the common schools, and became pro- 
ficient in handling those useful implements — the plow, ax and rifle. The first 
money he earned he invested in a yoke of oxen. He obtained several barrels 
of salt, and set out on a speculative tour through the settlements. He traveled 
through a wilderness, over swamps, and surmounted serious difficulties. At 
night he built a huge fire to terrify the wolves and panthers, and laid down to 
sleep beside his oxen, frequently being obliged to stand guard to protect 
them from these ferocious creatures. Occasionally he found a stream so swol- 
len that necessarily he waited hours and even days in the tangled forest, before 
he could cross. He often suffered from hunger, yet he sturdily persevered and 
sold his salt, though a lad of only fifteen years. When he attained his major- 
ity, he married Miss Mary Lemen, of Urbana. At twenty-three, he was 
elected Captain of a rifle company, and frequently led his men to the front to 
fight the Indians prior to the war of 1812. During that year, he and his 
brother piloted Hull's army through the dense forests to Fort Meigs. In 1817, 
with Samuel McCullough and Henry Van Meter, he made a contract to supply 
the Northwestern army with provisions. They drove their cattle and hogs 
many miles, dead weight being transported on sleds and in wagons. He 
engaged in mercantile business at Urbana and Fort Meigs — now Perrysburg. 

While thus employed, he was elected to the Legislature, and there remained 
four years. He then purchased a large tract of land on Blanchard's Fork, 
and laid out the town of Findlay. He was sent to Congress in 1821, and was 
a member of that body for fifteen years. In 1836, he was chosen Governor of 
Ohio. Again he was sent to Congress in 1842. While attending the Consti- 
tutional Convention in 1850, he was stricken with paralysis, and suffered 
extremely until 1852, when he died at his home in Urbana. 

Wilson Shannon was a native of Belmont County, Ohio. He was born 
during 1803. iVt the age of fifteen, he was sent to the university at Athens, 


where he remained a year, and then changed to the Transylvania University, 
at Lexington, Ky. He continued his studies two years, then returning home 
and entering upon reading law. He completed his course at St. Clairsville, 
Belmont County, and was admitted to practice. He was engaged in the courts 
of the county for eight years. In 1832, the Democrats nominated him to Con- 
gress, but he was not elected. He received the position of Prosecuting Attor- 
ney in 1834, in which position his abilities were so marked and brilliant that 
he was elected Governor by a majority of 3,600. He was re- nominated in 
1 840, but Tom Corwin won the ticket. Two years thereafter, he was again 
nominated and elected. In 1843, he was appointed Minister to Mexico, by 
President Tyler, and resigned the office of Governor. When Texas was 
admitted as a State, Mexico renounced all diplomatic relations with the United 
States. ]Mr. Shannon returned home, and resumed the practice of law. He 
was sent to Congress in 1852. President Pierce conferred upon him the posi- 
tion of Territorial Governor of Kansas, which duty 'he did not perform satis- 
factorily, and was superseded after fourteen months of service. He settled in 
Lecompton, Kan., and there practiced law until his death, which occurred in 

Thomas Corwin, the twelfth Governor of Ohio, was born in Bourbon 
County, Ky., July 29, 1794. His father settled at Lebanon in 1798. The 
country was crude, and advantages meager. When Thomas was seventeen 
years of age, the war of 1812 was inaugurated, and this young man was 
engaged to drive a Avagon through the wilderness, loaded with provisions, to 
Gen. Harrison's headquarters. In 1816, he began the study of law, and 
achieved knowledge so rapidly that in 1S17 he passed examination and was 
admitted to practice. He Avas elected Prosecuting Attorney of his county, in 
1818, which position he held until 1830. He was elected to the Legislature of 
Ohio in 1822. Again, in 1829, he was a member of the same body. He was 
sent to Congress in 1830, and continued to be re-elected for the space of ten 
years. He became Governor of Ohio in 1840. In 1845, he Avas elected to 
the United States Senate, Avhere he remained until called to the cabinet of Mr. 
Fillmore, as Secretary of the Treasury. He was again sent to Congress in 
1858, and re-elected in 1860. He was appointed Minister to Mexico, by Pres- 
ident Lincoln. After his return, he practiced law in Washington, D. , 
where he died in 1866. 

Mordecai Bartley was born in 1783, in Fayette County, Penn. There he 
remained, on his father's farm, until he Avas tAventy-one years of age. He mar- 
ried Miss Wells in 1804, and removed to Jefferson County, Ohio, where he 
purchased a farm, near Cross Creek. At the opening of the war of 1812, he 
enlisted in a company, and Avas elected its Captain. He entered the field under 
Harrison. At the close of the war, he removed to Richland County, and opened 
a clearing and set up a cabin, a short distance from INIansfield. He remained 
on his farm twenty years, then removing to Mansfield, enter<ed the mercantile 


business. In 1817, he was elected to the State Senate. He was sent to Con- 
gress in 1823, and served four terms. In 1844, he became Governor of Ohio, 
on the Whig ticket. He declined a re-nomination, preferring to retire to his 
i home in Mansfield, where he died in 1870. 

William Bebb, the fourteenth Governor, was from Hamilton County, Ohio. 
He was born in 1804. His early instructions were limited, but thorough. He 
opened a school himself, when he was twenty years of age, at North Bend, 
residing in the house of Gen. Harrison. He remained thus employed a year, 
during which time he married Shuck. He very soon began the study of law, 
continuing his school. He was successful in his undertakings, and many pupils 
were sent him from the best families in Cincinnati. In 1831, he was admitted 
to practice, and opened an office in Hamilton, Butler County, remaining thus 
engaged for fourteen years. In 1845, he was elected Governor of Ohio. In 
1847, he purchased 5,000 acres of land in the Rock River country. 111., and 
removed there three years later. On the inauguration of President Lincoln, he 
was appointed Pension Examiner, at Washington, and remained in that position 
until 1866, when he returned to his Illinois farm. He died at Rockford, 111., 
in 1873. 

Seabury Ford, the fifteenth Governor of Ohio, was born in the year 1802, 
at Cheshire, Conn. His parents settled in Burton Township. He attended 
the common schools, prepared for college at an academy in Burton, and entered 
Yale College, in 1821, graduating in 1825. He then began the study of laAV, 
in the law office of Samuel W. Phelps, of Painesville, completing his course 
with Judge Hitchcock. He began practice in 1827, in Burton. He married 
Miss Harriet E. Cook, of Burton, in 1828. He was elected by the Whigs to 
the Legislature, in 1835, and served six sessions, during one of which he was. 
Speaker of the House. He entered the State Senate in 1841, and there 
remained until 1844, when he was again elected Representative. In 1846, he 
was appointed to the Senate, and in 1848, he became Governor of Ohio. On 
the first Sunday after his retirement, he was stricken with paralysis, from which 
he never recovered. He died at his home in Burton in 1855. 

Reuben Wood, the sixteenth Governor, was a Yermonter. Born in 1792, 
m Middleton, Rutland County, he Avas a sturdy son of the Green Mountain 
State. He was a thorough scholar, and obtained a classical education in Upjjcr 
Canada. In 1812. he was drafted by the Canadian authorities to serve against 
the Americans, but being determined not to oppose his own land, he escaped 
one stormy night, accompanied by Bill Johnson, who was afterward an Ameri- 
can spy. In a birchbark canoe they attempted to cross Lake Ontario. A 
heavy storm of wind and rain set in. The night was intensely dark, and Ihey 
were in great danger. They fortunately found refuge on a small island, where 
they were storm-bound three days, suffering from hunger and exposure. They 
reached Sacket's Harbor at last, in a deplorable condition. Here they were 
arrested as spies by the patrol boats of the American fleet. They were prisoners 


four days, when an uncle of Mr. Wood's, residing not far distant, came to 
their rescue, vouched for their loyalty, and they Avere released. Mr. \\ ood 
then went to Woodville, N. Y., where he raised a company, of which he was 
elected Captain. They marched to the northern frontier. The battles of 
riattsburg and Lake Champlain were fought, the enemy defeated, and the com- 
pany returned to Woodville and was disbanded. 

Young Wood then entered the laAV office of Gen. Jonas Clark, at Middle- 
bury, Vt. He Avas married in 1816, and two years later, settled in Cleveland, 
Ohio. When he first established himself in the village, he possessed his Avife, 
infant daughter and a silver quarter of a dollar. He was elected to the State 
Senate in 1825, and filled the office three consecutive terms. He was appointed 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He was promoted to the Bench of the 
Supreme Court, serving there fourteen years, the latter portion of the term as 
Chief Justice. He was termed the "Cayuga Chief," from his tall form and 
courtly bearing. He was elected Governor in 1850, by a majority of 11,000. 
The new constitution, Avliich went into effect in March, 1851, vacated the office 
of Governor, and he Avas re-elected by a majority of 26,000. The Democrats 
holding a national convention in Baltimore in 1852, party division caused fifty 
unavailing votes. The Virginia delegation offered the entire vote to Gov. 
Wood, if Ohio would bring him forward. The opposition of one man pre- 
vented this. The offer was accepted by New Hampshire, and Frank Pierce 
became President. Mr. Wood Avas appointed Consul to Valparaiso, South 
America, and resigned his office of Governor. He resigned his consulship and 
returned to his fine farm near Cleveland, called "Evergreen Place." He 
expected to address a Union meeting on the 5th of October, 1864, but on the 
1st he died, mourned by all Avho knew him. 

William Medill, the seventeenth Governor, was born in Ncav Castle County, 
Del., in 1801. He Avas a graduate of Delaware College in 1825. He began 
the study of law under Judge Black, of Ncav Castle, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1832. He removed to Lancaster, Ohio, in 1830. He Avas elected Rep- 
resentative from Fairfield County in 1835. He was elected to Congress in 
1838, and Avas re-elected in 1840. He was appointed Assistant Postmaster 
General by President Polk. During the same year, he Avas appointed Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs. In 1851, he was elected Lieutenant GoA^ernor, and, 
in 1853, he became Governor. He occupied the position of First Comptroller 
of the United States Treasury in 1857, under President Buchanan, retaining the 
office until 1861, Avhen he retired from public life. His death occurred in 

Salmon P. Chase was a native of Cornish, N. H. He was born in 1803. 
He entered Dartmouth College in 1822, graduating in 1826. He was there- 
after successful in establishing a classical school in Washington, but finan- 
cially it did not succeed. He continued to teach the sons of Henry Clay, 
William Wirt and S. L. Southard, at the same time reading laAV when not busy 


as tutor. He was admitted to practice in 1829, and opened a law office in Cin- 
cinnati. He succeeded but moderately, and during his leisure hours prepared 
a new edition of the "Statutes of Ohio." He added annotations and a well- 
written sketch of the early history of the State. This was a thorough success, 
and gave the earnest worker popularity and a stepping-stone for the future. 
He was solicitor for the banks of the United States in 1834, and soon there- 
after, for the city banks. He achieved considerable distinction in 1837, in the 
case of a colored woman brought into the State by her master, and escaping 
his possession. He was thus brought out as an Abolitionist, which was further 
sustained by his defense of James G. Birney, who had suffered indictment for 
harboring a fugitive slave. In 1846, associated with William H. Seward, he 
defended Van Zandt before the Supreme Court of -the United States. His 
thrilling denunciations and startling conjectures alarmed the slaveholding 
States, and subsequently led to the enactment of the fugitive-slave law of 1850. 
Mr. Chase was a member of the United States Senate in 1849, through the 
coalition of the Democrats and Free-Soilers. In 1855, he was elected Gover- 
nor of Ohio by the opponents of Pierce's administration. He was re-elected 
in 1859. President Lincoln, in 1861, tendered him the position of Secretary 
of the Treasury. To his ability and official management we are indebted for 
the present national bank system. In 1864, he was appointed Chief Justice of 
the United States. He died in the city of New York in 1873, after a useful 

William Dennison was born in Cincinnati in 1815. He gained an educa- 
tion at Miami University, graduating in 1835. He began the study of law in 
the office of the father of George H. Pendleton, and was qualified and admitted 
to the bar in 1840. The same year, he married a daughter of William Neil, 
of Columbus. The Whigs of the Franklin and Delaware District sent him to 
the State Senate, in 1848. He was President of the Exchange Bank in Cin- 
cinnati, in 1852, and was also President of Columbus & Xenia Railway. He was 
elected the nineteenth Governor of Ohio in 1859. By his promptness and 
activity at the beginning of the rebellion, Ohio was placed in the front rank of 
loyalty. At the beginning of Lincoln's second term, he was appointed Post- 
master General, retiring upon the accession of Johnson. He then made his 
home at Columbus. 

David Tod, the twentieth Governor of Ohio, was born at Youngstown, Ohio, 
in 1805. His education was principally obtained through his own exertions. 
He set about the study of law most vigorously, and was admitted to practice in 
1827. He soon acquired popularity through his ability, and consequently was 
financially successful. He purchased the Briar Hill homestead. LTnder Jack- 
son's administration, he was Postmaster at AVarren, and held the position until 
1838, when he was elected State Senator by the Whigs of Trumbull District, by 
the Democrats. In 1844, he retired to Briar Hill, and opened the Briar Hill 
Coal Mines. He was a pioneer in the coal business of Ohio. In the Cleveland 


& Mahoning Railroad, he was largely interested, and was its President, after the 
death of Mr. Perkins. He was nominated, in 1844, for Governor, by the Dem- 
ocrats, but was defeated. In 1847, he went to Brazil as Minister, where he 
resided for four and a half years. The Emperor presented him with a special 
commendation to the President, as a testimonial of his esteem. He was also the 
recipient of an elegant silver tray, as a memorial from the resident citizens of 
Rio Janeiro. He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention, which 
met at Charleston in 1860. He was Vice President of this Convention. He 
was an earnest advocate for Stephen A. Douglas. When the Southern members 
withdrew, the President, Caleb Cnshing, going with them, the convention 
adjourned to Baltimore, when INIr. Tod assumed the chair and Douglas was nom- 
;nated. He was an earnest worker in the cause, but not disheartened by its 
defeat. Wlien Fort Sumter was fired upon, he was one of the most vigorous 
prosecutors of the war, fiot relaxing his active earnestness until its close. He 
donated full uniforms to Company B, of the Nineteenth Regiment, and contrib- 
uted largely to the war fund of his township. Fifty-five thousand majority 
elected him Governor in 1861. His term was burdened with war duties, 
and he carried them so bravely as Governor that the President said of him : 
" Governor Tod of Ohio aids me more and troubles me less than any other Gov- 
ernor." His death occurred at Briar Hill during the year 1868. 

John Brough was a native of Marietta, Ohio. He was born in 1811. The death 
of his father left him in precarious circumstances, which may have been a discipline 
for future usefulness. He entered a printing office, at the age of fourteen, in 
Marietta, and after serving a few months, began his studies in the Ohio Uni- 
versity, setting type mornings and evenings, to earn sufficient for support. He 
occupied the leading position in classes, and at the same time excelled as a 
type-setter. He was also admired for his athletic feats in field amusements. 
He completed his studies and began reading law, which pursuit was interrupted 
by an opportunity to edit a paper in Petersburg, Va. He returned to Marietta 
in 1831, and became editor and proprietor of a leading Democratic newspaper 
— the Washington County Republican. He achieved distinction rapidly, 
and in 1833, sold his interest, for the purpose of entering a more extended field 
of journalism. He purchased the Ohio Eagle, at Lancaster, and as its editor, 
held a deep influence over local and State politics. He occupied the position 
of Clerk of the Ohio Senate, between the years 1835 and 1838, and relinquished his 
paper. He then represented the counties of Fairfield and Hocking in the Leg- 
islature. He was then appointed Auditor of State by the General Assembly, 
in Avhich position he served six years. He then purchased the Phoenix news- 
paper in Cincinnati, changed its name to the Enquirer, placing it in the care 
of his brother, Charles, while he opened a law office in the city. His editorials 
in the Enquirer, and his activity in political affiiirs, were brilliant and strong. 
He retired from politics in 1848, sold a half-interest in the Enquirer and carried 
on a prosperous business, but was brought forward again by leaders of both 


political parties in 1863, through the Vallandigham contest, and was elected 
Governor the same year, by a majority of 101,099 votes in a total of 471,643. 
He was three times married. His death occurred in 1865 — Charles Anderson 
serving out his term. 

Jacob Dolson Cox, the twenty-second Governor, Avas born in 1828, in Mon- 
treal, Canada, where his parents were temporarily. He became a student of 
Oberlin College, Ohio, in 1846, graduating in 1851, and beginning the practice 
of law in Warren in 1852. He was a member of the State Senate in 1859, 
from the Trumbull and Mahoning Districts. He was termed a radical. He 
was a commissioned Brigadier General of Ohio in 1861, and, in 1862, was pro- 
moted to ]\Iajor General for gallantry in battle. While in the service he was 
nominated for Governor, and took that position in 1865. He was a member of 
Grant's Cabinet as Secretary of the Interior, but resigned. He went to Con- 
gress in 1875, from the Toledo District. His home is in Cincinnati. 

Rutherford B. Hayes, was the nineteenth President of the United States, 
the twenty-third Governor of Ohio, was born at Delaware, Ohio, in 1822. He 
was a graduate of Kenyon College in 1842. He began the study of law, and, 
in 1843, pursued that course in the Cambridge University, graduating in 1845. 
He began his practice at Fremont. He was married to iNIiss Lucy Webb in 
1852, in Cincinnati. He was Major of the Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry in 1861, and in 1862, was promoted to Colonel on account of bravery 
in the field, and eventually became Major General. In 1864, he was elected to 
Congress, and retired from the service. He remained in Congress two terms, 
and was Governor of Ohio in 1867, being re-elected in 1869. He filled this 
office a third term, being re-elected in 1875. 

Edward F. Noyes was born in Haverhill, Mass., in 1832. While a lad of 
fourteen, he entered the office of the Morning Star, published at Dover, N. H., 
in order to learn the business of printing. At the age of eighteen, he entered 
the academy at Kingston, N. H. He prepared for college, and entered 
Dartmouth in 1853, graduating with high honors in 1857. He had beiTun the 
study of law, and continued the course in the Cincinnati Law School, and be<Tan 
to practice in 1858. He was an enthusiast at the opening of the rebellion and 
was interested in raising the Twentieth Regiment, of Avhich he was made Major. 
He was promoted to Colonel in 186i5. At the conflict at Ruff's Mills, in 
Georgia, in 1864, he was so unfortunate as to lose a leg. At the time, amputa- 
tion was necessary, but was unskillfully performed. He was brought to Cincin- 
nati, and the operation was repeated, which nearly cost him his life. He reported 
three months later, to Gen. Hooker for duty, on crutches. He was assigned to 
command of Camp Dennison. He was promoted to the full rank of Brigadier 
General, and while in discharge of his duty at that place, he was elected City 
Solicitor of Cincinnati. He occupied the position until 1871, when he was 
elected Governor, by a majority of 20,000. He went to France in 1877, as 
Minister, appointed by President Hayes. 


William Allen, the twenty-fifth Governor of Ohio, was born in 1807, in 
Chowan County, N. C. While an infant, he was left an orphan, and his sister 
superintended his education. He was placed in a private school in Lynchburg, 
Va., at the age of fourteen. Two years later, he joined his sister and family, 
in Chillicothe, and attended the academy a year, when he entered the law office 
of Edward King, and began a course of study. In his seventeenth year, he 
began practice, and through his talent speedily acquired fame and popu- 
larity. Before he was twenty-five, he was sent to Congress by a strong Whig 
district. He was elected United States Senator in 1837, there remaining; 
until 1849. In 1845, he married Effie McArthur, who died soon after the 
birth of their daughter. In 1873, he was elected Governor. His adminis- 
tration gave general satisfaction. He died, at his home at " Fruit Hill," in 

R. M. Bishop, the twenty-sixth Governor of Ohio, was born Novem- 
ber 4, 1812, in Fleming County, Ky. He began the vocation of mer- 
chant, and for several years devoted himself to that business in his native 
State. In 1848, he engaged in the wholesale grocery business, in Cincinnati. 
His three sons became partners, under the firm name of R. M. Bishop & Sons. 
The sales of this house frequently exceeded $5,000,000 per annum. Mr. 
Bishop was a member of the Council of Cincinnati, and in 1859 was its Mayor, 
holding that office until 1861. In 1860, the Legislatures of Indiana and Ten- 
nessee visited Ohio, to counsel each other to stand by the Constitution and the 
flag. At the reception given at Pike's Opera House, Mayor Bishop delivered 
an eloquent address, which elicited admiration and praises. During the same 
year, as Mayor, he received the Prince of Wales in the most cordial manner, a 
national credit as a mark of I'espect to a distinguished foreign guest. In 1877, 
he was elected Governor of Ohio, by a large majority. 

Charles Foster, the present and twenty-seventh Governor of Ohio, was born 
in Seneca County, Ohio, April 12, 1828. He was educated at the common 
schools and the academy at Norwalk, Ohio. Engaged in mercantile and bank- 
ing business, and never held any public office until he was elected to the Forty- 
second Congress ; was re-elected to the Forty-third Congress, and again to the 
Forty-fourth Congress, as a Republican-. In 1879, he was nominated by the 
Republicans and elected Governor of the State; was re-elected in 1881. 

In reviewinof these slio-ht sketches of the Governors of this grand Western 
State, one is impressed with the active relationship they have all sustained, with 
credit, with national measures. Their services have been efficient, earnest and 
patriotic, like the State they have represented and led. 


Ohio has furnished a prolific field for antiquarians and those interested in 
scientific explorations, either for their own amusement and knowledge, or for 
the records of " facts and formations.*' 


It is well known tliat the " ]\Iound Buildei'S " had a wide sweep through this 
continent, but absolute facts regarding their era have been most difficult to 
obtain. Numerous theories and suppositions have been advanced, yet tliej are 
emphatic evidences that they have traced the origin and time of this primeval race. 

However, they have left their works behind them, and no exercise of faith 
is necessary to have confidence in tliat part of the story. That these works are 
of human origin is self-evident. Temples and military works have been found 
which required a considerable degree of scientific skill on the part of those early 
architects and builders. 

Evidently the Indians had no knowledge of these works of predecessors, 
which differed in all respects from those of the red men. An ancient cemetery 
has been found, covering an area of four acres, which had evidently been laid 
out into lots, from north to south. Nearly 3,000 graves have been discovered, 
containing bones which at some time must have constituted the framework of 
veritable giants, while others are of no unusual size. In 1815, a jaw-bone was 
exhumed, containing an artificial tooth of silver. 

jNIounds and fortifications are plentiful in Athens County, some of them 
being of solid stone. One, differing in the quality of stone from tlie others, is 
supposed to be a dam across the Hocking. Over a thousand pieces of stone 
were used in its construction. Copper rings, bracelets and ornaments are 
niynerous. It is also evident that these people possessed the knowledge of 
hardening copper and giving it an edge equal to our steel of to-day. 

In the branch formed by a branch of tlie Licking River and Raccoon Creek, 
in Licking County, ancient works extend over an area of several miles. Again, 
three miles northwest of this locality, near the road between Newark and Gran- 
ville, another field of these relics may be found. On the summit of a high hill 
is a fortification, formed to represent an alligator. The head and neck includes 
32 feet ; the length of the body is 73 feet ; the tail was 105 feet ; from the termini of 
the fore feet, over the shoulders, the width is 100 feet ; from the termini of 
the hind feet, over the hips, is 92 feet ; its highest point is 7 feet. It is composed 
of clay, which must have been conveyed hither, as it is not similar to the clay 
found in the vicinity. 

Near Miamisburg, Montgomery County, are other specimens. Near the 
village is a mound, equaled in size by very few of these antiquities. It meas- 
ures 800 feet around the base, and rises to a height of sixty-seven feet. Others 
are found in Miami County, while at Circleville, Pickaway County, no traces 

Two forts have been discovered, one forming an exact square, and the other 
describing a circle. The square is flanked by two walls, on all sides, these 
being divided by a deep ditch. The circle has one wall and no ditch. This is 
sixty-nine rods in diameter, its walls being twenty feet high. The square fort 
measures fifty-five rods across, with Avails twelve feet high. Twelve gateways 
lead into the square fort, while the circle has but one, which led to the other, at 


the point "where the walls of the two came together. Before each of these 
entrances were mounds of earth, from four to five feet high and nearly forty 
feet in diameter. Evidently these wxre designed for defenses for the openings, 
in cases of emergency. 

A short distance from Piketon, the turnpike runs, for several hundred feet, 
between two parallel artificial walls of earth, fifteen feet high, and six rods 
apart. In Scioto County, on both sides of the Ohio, are extensive ancient 

" Fort Ancient " is near Lebanon in Warren County. Its direct measure- 
ment is a mile, but in tracino; its aniiles, retreating and salient, its leno-th would 
be nearly six miles. Its site is a level plain, 240 feet above the level of the 
river. Tlie interior wall varies in height to conform with the nature of the 
ground without — ranging from 8 to 10 feet. On the plain it reaches 100 feet. 
This fort has 58 gateways, through one of which the State road runs, passing 
between two mounds 12 feet high. Northeast from these mounds, situated on 
the plain, are two roads, about a rod wide each, made upon an elevation about 
three feet high. They run parallel to each other about a quarter of a mile, 
when they each form a semicircle around a mound, joining in the circle. It is 
probable this was at some time a military defense, or, on the contrary, it may 
have been a general rendezvous for games and high holiday festivities. 

Near Marietta, are the celebrated Muskingum River works, being a half- 
mile from its juncture with the Ohio. They consist of mounds and walls of 
earth in cir(;ular and square forms, also tracing direct lines. 

The largest square fort covers an area of 40 acres, and is inclosed by a wall 
of earth; 6 to 10 feet in height, and from 25 to 30 feet at its base. On each 
side are three gateways. The center gateways exceed the others in size, more 
especially on the side toward the Muskingum. From this outlet runs a covered 
means of egress, between two parallel walls of earth, 231 feet distant from each 
other, measuring from the centers. The walls in the interior are 21 feet high 
at the most elevated points, measuring 42 feet at the base, grading on the exte- 
rior to about five feet in heigth. This passage-way is 360 feet in length, lead- 
ing to the low grounds, which, at the period of its construction, probably reached 
the river. 

At the northwest corner, within the inclosure, is a plateau 188 feet long, 
132 feet broad and 9 feet high. Its sides are perpendicular and its surface 
level. At the center of each side is a graded pathway leading to the top, six 
feet wide. Another elevated square is near the south wall, 150x120 feet squav?,- 
and 8 feet high, similar to the other, with the exception of the graded walk. 
Outside and next the wall to ascend to the top, it has central holloAv ways, 10 
feet wide, leading 20 feet toward the center, then arismg with a gradual slope to 
the top. A third elevated square is situated at the southeast corner, 108x54 
feet square, with ascents at the ends. This is neither as high or as perfect as 
the others. 


Another ancient work is found to the southeast, covering an area of 20 acres 
with a gateway in the center of each side, and others at the corners — each of 
these having the mound defense. 

On the outside of the smaller fort, a mound resembling a sugar loaf was 
formed in the shape of a circle 115 feet in diameter, its height being 30 feet. 
A ditch surrounds it, 15 feet wide and 4 feet deep. These earthworks have 
contributed greatly to the satisfactory results of scientific researches. Their 
builders were evidently composed of large bands that have succumbed to the 
advance of enlightened humanity. The relics found consists of ornaments, 
utensils and implements of war. The bones left in the numerous graves convey 
an idea of a stalwart, vigorous people, and the conquests which swept them away 
from the face of the country must have been fierce and cruel. 

Other mounds and fortifications are found in different parts of the State, of 
which our limited space will not permit a description. 

Many sculptured rocks are found, and others with plainly discernible 
tracery in emblematical designs upon their surface. The rock on which the 
inscriptions occur is the grindstone grit of the Ohio exports — a stratum found 
in Northern Ohio. Arrow-points of flint or chert have been frequently found. 
From all investigations, it is evident that an extensive flint bed existed in Lick- 
ing County, near Newark. The old pits can now be recognized. They 
extended over a hundred acres. They are partially filled with water, and sur- 
rounded by piles of broken and rejected fragments. The flint is a grayish- 
white, with cavities of a brilliant quartz crystal. Evidently these stones were 
chipped into shape and the material sorted on the ground. Only clear, homo- 
genous pieces can be wrought into arrow-heads and spear-points. Flint chips 
extend over many acres of ground in this vicinity. Flint beds are also found 
in Stark and Tuscarawas Counties. In color it varies, being red, white, black 
and mottled. The black is found in Coshocton County. 


Ohio, as a State, is renowned as an agricultural section. Its variety, quality 
and quantity of productions cannot be surpassed by any State in the Union. Its 
commercial importance ranks proudly in the galaxy of opulent and industrious 
States composing this Union. Her natural resources are prolific, and all improve- 
ments which could be instituted by the ingenuity of mankind have been added. 

From a quarter to a third of its area is hilly and broken. About the head- 
waters of the Muskingum and Scioto, and between the Scioto and the two 
Miami Rivers, are wide prairies ; some of them are elevated and dry, with fertile 
soil, although they are frequently termed ''barrens." In other parts, they are 
low and marshy, producing coarse, rank grass, which grows to a height of five 
feet in some places. 

The State is most fortunate in timber wealth, having large quantities of 
black walnut, oak of different varieties, maple, hickory, birch, several kinds of 


beech, poplar, sycamore, papaw, several kinds of ash, cherry, whitewood and 

The summers are usually warm, and the winters are mild, considering the 
latitude of the State. Near Lake Erie, the winters are severe, corresponding 
with sections in a line with that locality. Snow falls in sufficient quantities 
in the northern part to aiford several weeks of fine sleighing. In the southern 
portion, the snowstorms are not frequent, and the fall rarely remains long on 
the ground. 

The climate is generally healthy, with the exception of small tracts lying 
near the marshes and stagnant waters. 

The Ohio River washes the southern border of the State, and is navigable 
for steamboats of a large size, the entire length of its course. From Pitts- 
burgh to its mouth, measuring it meanderings, it is 908 miles long. Its current 
is gentle, having no falls except at Louisville, Ky., where the descent is twent^?- 
two and a half feet in two miles. A canal obviates this obstruction. 

The Muskingum is the largest river that flows entirely within the State. It 
is formed by the junction of the Tuscarawas and Walhonding Rivers, and enters 
the Ohio at Marietta One hundred miles of its leno-th is navigable. 

The Scioto is the second river in magnitude, is about 200 miles long, and 
flows into the Ohio at Portsmouth. It affords navigation 130 miles of its length. 
The Great Miami is a rapid river, in the western part of the State, and is 100 
miles long. The Little Miami is seventy miles in length, and enters the Ohio 
seven miles from Cincinnati. 

The Maumee rises in Indiana, flows through the northwestern part of the 
State, and enters Lake Erie at Maumee Bay. It affords navigation as far as 
Perrysburg, eighteen miles from the lake, and above the rapids, it is again nav- 

The Sandusky rises in the northern part of the State, is eighty miles long, 
and floAvs into Lake Erie, via Sandusky Bay. 

Lake Erie washes 150 miles of the northern boundary. The State has sev- 
eral fine harbors, the Maumee and Sandusky Bays being the largest. 

We have, in tracing the record of the earlier counties, given the educational inter- 
ests as exemplified by different institutions. We have also given the canal system 
of the State, in previous pages. The Governor is elected every two years, by 
the people. The Senators are chosen biennially, and are apportioned according 
to the male population over twenty-one years of age. The Judges of the 
Supreme and other courts are elected by the joint ballot of the Legislature, for 
the term of seven years. 

During the early settlement of Ohio, perfect social equality existed among the 
settlers. The line of demarkation that was drawn Avas a separation of the goodl 
from the bad. Log-rollings and cabin-raisings were mutual affairs. Their 
sport usually consisted of shooting, rowing and hunting. Hunting shirts and 
buckskin pants were in the fashion, Avhile the women dressed in coarse material, 



woven bj their own bands. A common American cotton cbeck was con- 
sidered a magnificent addition to one's toilet. In those times, however, the 
material was $1 per yard, instead of the shilling of to-day. But five yards 
was then a large "pattern," instead of the twenty-five of 1880, In cookino- 
utensils, the pot, pan and frying-pan constituted an elegant outfit. A few plain 
dishes were added for table use. Stools and benches were the rule, although a 
few wealthy families indulged in splint-bottom chairs. The cabin floors were 
rough, and in many cases the green sward formed the carpet. Goods were very 
expensive, and flour was considered a great luxury. Goods were brought by 
horses and mules from Detroit, or by wagon from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, 
and then down the Ohio. Coarse calicoes were $1 per yard ; tea $2 to $3 per 
pound ; coffee 75 cents ; whisky, from $1 to $2 per gallon, and salt, $5 to $6 
per barrel. In those towns where Indian trade constituted a desirable interest, 
a bottle was set at each end of the counter — a gratuitous offering to their red 


Should we group the rocks of Ohio, according to their lithological characters, 
we should give five distinct divisions. They are marked by difference in appear- 
ance, hardness, color and composition : 

1 — Limestone. 

2— Black shale. 

3 — Fine-grained sandstone. 

4 — Conglomerate. 

5 — Coal series. 

They are all stratified and sedimentary. They are nearly horizontal. The 
lowest one visible, in a physical as well as a geological sense, is " blue lime- 

The bed of the Ohio River near Cincinnati is 133 feet below the level of 
Lake Erie. The strata incline in all directions from the southwestern angle of 
the State. In Scioto County may be seen the outcropping edges of all these 
rocks. They sink at this point in the direction south 80|° east ; easterly at tlie 
rate of 37^^ feet per mile. The cliff limestone, the upper stratum of the lime- 
stone deposit, is 600 feet above the river at Cincinnati ; at West Union, in 
Adams County, it is only 350 feet above the same level. 

The finely grained sandstone found on the summit of the hills east of Brush 
Creek and west of the Scioto sinks to the base of the hills, and appears beneath 
the conglomerate, near the Little Scioto, Although the rock formations are the ' 
same in all parts of the State, in the same order, their thickness, mass and dip, 
are quite different. 

Chillicothe, Reynoldsburg, Mansfield, Newburg, Waverly and Rockville, are 
situated near the western border of the " fine-grained limestone." Its outcrop 
forms a continuous and crooked line from the Ohio River to Lake Erie. In the 
southwest portion of the State is the "blue limestone," occupying a circular 


space from West Union via Dayton, to the State line. The conglomerate is to 
the east of the given towns, bending around from Cuyahoga Falls to Burton, in 
Geauga County, and then eastward into Pennsylvania. Near this outcrop are 
the coal-bearing rocks which occupy the east and southeastern portions of Ohio. 
From Rockville to Chillicothe, the course is north, about 10° east, and nearly 
corresponds with the line of outcrop of the fine-grained sandstone for an equal 
distance. The dip at Rockville, given by Charles Whittlesey, is 80|°, almost 
at a right angle, and at the rate of 37 feet per mile. 

At Chillicothe, the other end of the line, the general dip is south 70° east, 
30 feet to the mile, the line curving eastward and the dip line to the southward. 
This is the universal law. 

The northern boundary of the great coal fields passes through Meadville, in 
Pennsylvania, and turning south arrives at Portage Summit, on the summit of 
the Alleghanies, 2,500 feet above the ocean level. It then plunges rapidly to 
the westward. From the Alleghanies to the southwest, through Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and Tennessee, sweeps this great coal basin. 

Much of the county of Medina is conglomerate upon the surface, but the 
streams, especially the South Branch of the Rocky River, set through this sur- 
face stratum, and reach the fine-grained sandstone. This is the case Avith 
Rocky, Chagrin, Cuyahoga and Grand Rivers — also Conneaut and Ashtabula 
Creeks. This sandstone and the shale extend up the narrow valleys of these 
streams and their tributaries. Between these strata is a mass of coarse-grained 
sandstone, without pebbles, which furnishes the grindstones for which Ohio is 
noted. In Lorain County, the coarse sandstone grit nearly displaces the fine- 
grained sandstone and red shale, thickening at Elyria to the black shale. South 
of this point, the grindstone grit, red shale and ash-colored shale vary in thick- 
ness. The town of Chillicothe, the village of Newburg, and a point in the west 
line of Crawford County, are all situated on the "black shale." 

Dr. Locke gives the dip, at Montgomery and Miami Counties, at north 14°, 
east, six feet to the mile ; at Columbus, Whitelesey gives it, 81° 52' east, 22y^^ 
feet to the mile. The fine-grained sandstone at Newburg is not over eighty 
feet in thickness ; at Jacktown and Reynoldsburg, 500 ; at Waverly 250 to 
800 feet, and at Brush Creek, Adams County, 343 feet. The black shale is 
251 feet thick at Brush Creek ; at Alum Creek, 250 to 300 feet thick ; in Craw- 
ford County, about 250 feet thick. The conglomerate in Jackson County is 
200 feet thick ; at Cuyahoga Falls, 100 to 120 feet ; at Burton, Geauga County, 
300 feet. The great limestone formation is divided into several numbers. At 
Cincinnati, at the bed of the river, there is : 

1 — A blue limestone and slaty marlite. 

2 — Dun-colored marl and layers of lime rock. 

3 — Blue marl and layers of blue limestone. 

4 — Marl and bands of limestone, with immense numbers of shells at the 


In Adams County, the detailed section is thus: 

1 — Blue limestone and marl. 

2 — Blue marl. 

3 — Flinty limestone. 

4 — Blue marl. 

5 — Cliff limestone. 

The coal-fields of Ohio are composed of alternate beds of coarse-grained 
sandstone, clay shales, layers of ironstone, thin beds of limestone and numer- 
ous strata of coal. The coal region abounds in iron. From Jacktown to Con- 
cord, in Muskingum County, there are eight beds of coal, and seven strata of 
limestone. The distance between these two points is forty-two miles. From 
Freedom, in Portage County, to Poland, in Trumbull County, a distance of 
thirty-five miles, there are five distinct strata. Among them are distributed 
thin beds of limestone, and many beds of iron ore. The greater mass of coal 
and iron measures is composed of sandstone and shale. The beds of sandstone 
are from ten to twenty or eighty feet thick. Of shale, five to fifty feet thick. 
The strata of coal and iron are comparatively thin. A stratum of coal three 
feet thick can be worked to advantage. One four feet thick is called a good 
mine, few of them averaging five. Coal strata are found from six to ten and 
eleven feet. There are four beds of coal, and three of limestone, in Lawrence 
and Scioto Counties. There are also eight beds of ore, and new ones are con- 
stantly being discovered. The ore is from four to twelve inches thick, occasion- 
ally being two feet. The calcareous ore rests upon the second bed of limestone, 
from the bottom, and is very rich. 

The most prominent fossils are trees, plants and stems of the coal-bearing 
rocks, shells and corals and crustaceae of the limestone, and the timber, leaves 
and dirt-beds of the " drift " — the earthy covering of the rocks, which varies 
from nothing to 200 feet. Bowlders, or " lost rocks," are strewn over the State. 
They are evidently transported from some remote section, being fragments of 
primitive rock, granite, gneiss and hornblende rock, which do not exist in 
Ohio, nor within 400 miles of the State, in any direction. In the Lake Supe- 
rior region we find similar specimens. 

The superficial deposits of Ohio are arranged into four geological formations : 

1 — The ancient drift, resting upon the rocks of the State. 

2 — The Lake Erie marl and sand deposits. 

3 — The drift occupying the valleys of large streams, such as the Great Miami, 
the Ohio and Scioto. 

4 — The bowlders. 

The ancient drift of Ohio is meager in shell deposits. It is not, therefore, 
decided whether it be of salt-water origin or fresh water. 

It has, at the bottom, blue clay, with gravel-stones of primitive or sedimen- 
tary rocks, containing carbonate of lime. The yellow clay is found second. 
Above that, sand and gravel, less stratified, containing more pebbles of the 


sedimentary rocks, such as limestone and stone, iron ore, coal and shale. The 
lower layer contains logs, trees, leaves, sticks and vines. 

The Lake Erie section, or "Lake Erie deposits," may be classed in the 
following order : 

1 — From the lake level upward, fine, blue, marly sand — forty-five to sixty 

2 — Coarse, gray, water-washed sand — ten to twenty feet. 

3 — Coarse sand and gravel, not well stratified, to surface — twenty to fifty feet. 

Stratum first dissolves in water. It contains carbonate of lime, magnesia, 
iron, alumina, silex, sulphur, and some decomposed leaves, plants and sticks. 
Some pebbles are found. In contact with the water, quicksand is formed. 

The Hickory Plains, at the forks of the Great Miami and White Water, and 
also between Kilgore's Mill and New Richmond, are the results of heavy dilu- 
vial currents. 

In presenting these formations of the State, we have quoted from the experi- 
ence and conclusions of Charles AVhittlesey, eminent as a geologist, and who 
was a member of the Ohio Geological Corps. 

Ohio's rank during the avar. 

The patriotism of this State has been stanch, unswerving and bold, ever 
since a first settlement laid its corner-stone in the great Western wilder- 
ness. Its decisive measures, its earnest action, its noble constancy, have earned 
the laurels that designate it "a watchword for the nation." In the year 1860, 
Ohio had a population of 2,343,739. Its contribution of soldiers to the great 
conflict that was soon to surge over the land in scarlet terror, was apportioned 
310,000 men. In less than twenty-four houi^s after the President's proclama- 
tion and call for troops, the Senate had matured and carried a bill through, 
appropriating $1,000,000 for the purpose of placing the State on a war footing. 
The influences of party sentiments were forgotten, and united, the State 
unfurled the flag of patriotism. Before the bombardment of old Fort Sumter 
has fairly ceased its echoes, twenty companies were offered the Governor for 
immediate service. When the surrender was verified, the excitement was 
tumultuous. Militia officers telegraphed their willingness to receive prompt 
orders, all over the State. The President of Kenyon College — President 
Andrews — tendered his services by enlisting in the ranks. Indeed, three 
months before the outbreak of the war, he had expressed his readiness to the 
Governor to engage in service should there be occasion. He was the first citi- 
zen to make this offer. 

The Cleveland Grays, the Rover Guards, the State Fencibles, the Dayton 
Light Guards, the Governor's Guards, the Columbus Videttes and the Guthrie 
Grays — the best drilled and celebrated militia in the State — telegraphed to 
Columbus for orders. Chillicothe, Portsmouth and Circleville offered money 
and troops. Canton, Xenia, Lebanon, Lancaster, Springfield, Cincinnati, 



Dayton, Cleveland, Toledo and other towns urged their assistance upon the State. 
Columbus began to look like a great army field. The troops were stationed 
wherever they could find quarters, and food in sufficient quantities was hard to 
procure. The Governor soon established a camp at Miamiville, convenient to 
Cincinnati. He intended to appoint Irvin McDowell, of the staff of Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, to the leading command, but the friends of Capt. McClellan became 
enthusiastic and appealed to the Governor, who decided to investigate his case. 
Being satisfied, he desired Capt. McClellan to come up to Columbus. But that 
officer was busy and sent Capt. Pope, of the regular army, in his stead. This 
gentleman did not suit Gov. Dennison. The friends of McClellan again set 
forth the high qualities of this officer, and Gov. Dennison sent an earnest 
request for an interview, which was granted, and resulted in the appointment 
of the officer as Major General of the Ohio militia. Directly thereafter, he 
received an invitation to take command of the Pennsylvania troops, but Ohio 
could not spare so valuable a leader. 

For three-years troops were soon called out, and their Generals were to be 
appointed by the President. Gov. Dennison advised at once with the War 
Department at Washington, and McClellan received his appointment as Major 
General in the regular army. 

Cincinnati and Louisville became alarmed lest Kentucky should espouse the 
Confederate cause, and those cities thus be left insecure against the inroads of a 
cruel foe. Four hundred and thirty-six miles of Ohio bordered Slave States. 
Kentucky and West Virginia were to be kept in check, but the Governor pro- 
claimed that not only should the border of Ohio be protected, but even beyond 
that would the State press the enemy. Marietta Avas garrisoned, and other river 
points rendered impregnable. On the 20th of May, 1861, official dispatches 
affirmed that troops were approaching Wheeling under the proclamation of 
Letcher. Their intention was to route the convention at Wheeling. 

Military orders were instantly given. Col. Steedman and his troops crossed 
at Marietta and crushed the disturbance at Parkersburg — swept into the country 
along the railroad, built bridges, etc. Col. L'vine crossed at Wheeling and 
united with a regiment of loyal Virginians. At the juncture of the two tracks 
at Grafton, the columns met, but the rebels had retreated in mad haste. The 
loyal troops followed, and, at Philippi, fought the first little skirmish of the war. 
The great railway lines were secured, and the Wheeling convention protected, 
and West Virginia partially secured for the Union. 

After preliminary arrangements, McClellan's forces moved in two columns 
upon the enemy at Laurel Hill. One remained in front, under Gen. Morris, 
while the other, under his own command, pushed around to Huttonsville, in 
tlreir rear. Gen. Morris carried his orders through promptly, but McClellan 
was late. Rosecrans was left with McClellan's advance to fight the battle of 
Rich Mountain, unaided. Garnett being alarmed at the defeat of his outpost, 
retreated. McClellan was not in time to intercept him, but Morris continued 


the chase. Steedman overtook the rear-guard of Garnett's army at Carrick's 
Ford, -where a sharp skirmish ensued, Garnett himself falling. The scattered 
portions of the rebel army escaped, and West Virginia was again free from 
armed rebels — and was the gift of Ohio through her State militia to the nation 
at the beginning of the war. 

At this period, Gen. McClellan was called to Washington. Gen. Rose- 
crans succeeded him, and the three-years troops left in the field after the dis- 
banding of the three-months men, barely sufficed to hold the country. He 
telegraphed Gov. Dennison to supply him immediately with re-enforcements, the 
request being made on the 8th of August. Already had the Confederate lead- 
ers realized the loss they had sustained in Western Virginia, and had dispatched 
their most valued General, Robert E. Lee, to regain the territory. Rosecrans 
again wrote: "If you. Governor of Indiana and Governor of Michigan, will 
lend your efforts to get me quickly 50,000 men, in addition to my present 
force, I think a blow can be struck which will save fighting the rifled-cannon 
batteries at Manassas. Lee is certainly at Cheat Mountain. Send all troops 
you can to Grafton." Five days thereafter, all the available troops in the 
West were dispatched to Fremont, Mo., and the plans of Rosecrans were 

Heavy re-enforcements had been sent to the column in Kanawha Valley 
under Gen. Cox. He became alarmed, and telegraphed to Gov. Dennison. 
Rosecrans again appealed to Gov. Dennison, that he might be aided in march- 
ing across the country against Floyd and Wise to Cox's relief, "I want to 
catch Floyd while Cox holds him in front." 

The response was immediate and effective. He was enabled to employ 
twenty-three Ohio regiments in clearing his department from rebels, securing 
the country and guarding the exposed railroads. With this achievement, the 
direct relation of the State administrations with the conduct and methods of 
campaigns terminated. The General Government had settled down to a sys- 
tem. Ohio was busy organizing and equipping regiments, caring for the sick 
and wounded, and sustaining her home strength. 

Gov. Dennison's staff officers were tendered better positions in the national 
service. Camps Dennison and Chase, one at Cincinnati and the other at 
Columbus, were controlled by the United States authorities. A laboratory was 
established at Columbus for the supply of ammunition. During the fall and 
early winter, the Ohio troops suffered in Western Virginia. The people of 
their native State responded with blankets, clothing and other supplies. 

In January, 1862, David A. Tod entered upon the duties of Governor. 
The first feature of his administration was to care for the wounded at home, 
sent from Pittsburg Landing. A regular system Avas inaugurated to supply 
stores and clothing to the suffering at home and in the field. Agencies were 
established, and the great and good work was found to be most efficacious in 
alleviating the wretchedness consequent upon fearful battles. A. B. Lyman 


had charge of affairs in Cincinnati, and Royal Taylor held the same position 
in Louisville. J. C. Wetmore was stationed at Washington, F. W. Bingham 
at jNIemphis, Weston Flint at Cairo and St. Louis. Thus the care which Ohio 
extended over her troops at home and in the battle-field, furnished a practical 
example to other States, and was the foundation of that commendable system 
all over the Union. Stonewall Jackson's sudden advent in the valley created 
the greatest consternation lest the safety of the capital be jeopardized, and the 
War Department called for more troops. Gov. Tod immediately issued a 
proclamation, and the people, never shrinking, responded heartily. At Cleve- 
land a large meeting was held, and 250 men enlisted, including 27 out of 32 
students attending the law school. Fire bells rang out the alarm at Zanesville, 
a meeting was convened at 10 in the morning, and by 3 in the afternoon, 300 
men had enlisted. Court was adjourned sine die, and the Judge announced 
that he and the lawyers were about to enter into military ranks. Only three 
unmarried men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-three "were left in the 
town of Putnam. Five thousand volunteers reported at Camp Chase within 
two days after the proclamation. 

Again in June, the President called for troops, followed by yet another call. 
Under these calls, Ohio was to raise 74,000 men. The draft system was 
advised to hasten and facilitate filling regiments. It has always been a repul- 
sive measure. To save sections from this proceeding, enormous sums were 
offered to induce men to volunteer, and thus fill the quota. 

Counties, townships, towns and individuals, all made bids and urged the 
rapid enlistment of troops. The result was, that the regiments were filled rap- 
idly, but not in sufficient numbers to prevent the draft. Twenty thousand four 
hundred and twenty-seven men were yet lacking, and the draft was ordered, 
September 15. At the close of the year, Ohio was ahead of her calls. Late 
in the fall, the prospect was disheartening. The peninsula campaign had failed. 
The Army of Northern Virginia had been hurled back nearly to Washington. 
The rebels had invaded Maryland ; Cincinnati and Louisville were threatened, 
and the President had declared his intention to abolish slavery, as a war meas- 
ure. During the first part of 1862, artillery, stores and supplies were carried 
away mysteriously, from the Ohio border ; then little squads ventured over the 
river to plunder more openly, or to burn a bridge or two. The rebel bands 
came swooping down upon isolated supply trains, sending insolent roundabout 
messages regarding their next day's intentions. Then came invasions of our 
lines near Nashville, capture of squads of guards within sight of camp, the seizure 
of Gallatin. After Mitchell had entered Northern Alabama, all manner of depre- 
dations were committed before his very eyes. These were attributed to John 
Morgan's Kentucky cavalry. He and his men, by the middle of 1802, were 
as active and dangerous as Lee or Beauregard and their troops. Morgan was a 
native of Alabama, but had lived in Kentucky since boyhood. His father was 
large slave-owner, who lived in the center of the "Blue Grass Country." His 


life had been one of wild dissipation, adventure and recklessness, although in 
his own family he had the name of being most considerate. The men who fol- 
lowed him were accustomed to a dare-devil life. They formed and independent 
band, and dashed madly into the conflict, wherever and whenever inclination 
prompted. Ohio had just raised troops to send East, to assist in the overthrow 
of Stonewell Jackson. She had overcome her discouragements over failures, 
for the prospects were brightening. Beauregard had evacuated Corinth ; Mem- 
phis had fallen ; Buell was moving toward Chattanooga ; Mitchell's troops held 
Northern Tennessee and Northern Alabama ; Kentucky was virtually in the 
keeping of the home guards and State military board. And now, here was 
Morgan, creating confusion in Kentucky by his furious raids ! On the 11th of 
July, the little post of Tompkinsville fell. He issued a call for the Kentuckians 
to rise in a body. He marched toward Lexington, and the southern border of 
Ohio was again in danger. Cincinnati was greatly excited. Aid was sent to 
Lexington and home guards were ready for duty. Morgan was not prominent 
for a day or so, but he was not idle. By the 9th of July, he held possession of 
Tompkinsville and Glasgow ; by the 11th, of Lebanon. On the 13th, he 
entered Harraldsburg ; Monday morning he was within fifteen miles of Frank- 
fort. He had marched nearly 400 miles in eight days. Going on, toward 
Lexington, he captured the telegraph operator at Midway, and his messages 
also ! He was now aware of the plans of the Union armies at Lexington, 
Louisville, Cincinnati and Frankfort. In the name of the operator, he sent 
word that Morgan was driving in the pickets at Frankfort ! Now that he 
had thrown his foes off guard, he rested his men a couple of days. He 
decided to let Lexington alone, and swept down on Cynthiana, routing a few 
hundred loyal Kentucky cavalrymen, capturing the gun and 420 prisoners, and 
nearly 300 horses. Then he was off to Paris ; he marched through Winchester, 
Richmond, Crab Orchard and Somerset, and again crossed the Cumberland River. 
He started with 900 men and returned with 1,200, having captured and paroled 
nearly as many, besides destroying all the Government arms and stores in seven- 
teen towns. The excitement continued in Cincinnati. Two regiments were 
hastily formed, for emergencies,* known as Cincinnati Reserves. Morgan's raid 
did not reach the city, but it demonstrated to the rebel forces what might be 
accomplished in tlie " Blue Grass " region. Jnly and August were passed in 
gloom. Bragg and Buell were both watchful, and Chattanooga had not been 
taken. Lexington was again menaced, a battle fought, and was finally deserted 
because it could not be held. 

Louisville was now in danger. The banks sent their specie away. Railroad 
companies added new guards. 

September 1, Gen. Kirby Smith entered Lexington, and dispatched Heath 
with about six thousand men against Cincinnati and Covington. John Morgan 
joined him. The rebels rushed upon the borders of Ohio. The failure at Rich- 
mond only added deeper apprehension. Soon Kirby Smith and his regiments 


occupied a position Avliere only a few unmanned siege guns and the Ohio 
prevented his entrance through Covington into the Queen City. The city was 
fully armed, and Lew. Wallace's arrival to take command inspired all with 
fresh courage. And before the people were hardly aware that danger was so 
near, the city was proclaimed under strict martial law. " Citizens for labor, 
soldiers for battle." 

There was no panic, because the leaders were confident. Back of Newport 
and Covington breastworks, riflepits and redoubts had been hastily thrown up, 
and pickets were thrown out. From Cincinnati to Covington extended a pon- 
ton bridge. Volunteers marched into the city and those already in service 
were sent to the rescue. Strict military law was now modified, and the city 
being secured, some inconsiderate ones expressed themselves as being outraged 
with " much ado about nothing." But Gen. Wallace did not cease his vigilance. 
And Smith's force began to move up. One or two skirmishes ensued. The 
city was again excited. September 11 was one of intense suspense. But 
Smith did not attack in force. He Avas ordered to join Bragg. On the Mon- 
day following, the citizens of Cincinnati returned to their avocations. In the 
spring of I860, the State was a trifle discouraged. Her burdens had been 
heavy, and she was weary. Vicksburg was yet in the hands of the enemy. 
Rosecrans had not moved since his victory at Stone River. There had been 
fearful slaughter about Fredericksburg. 

But during July, 1863, Ohio was aroused again by Bragg's command to 
INIorgan, to raid Kentucky and. capture Louisville. On the 3d of July, he was 
in a position to invade Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky. He continued his depre- 
dations, bewildering the militia with his movements. His avowed intention 
was to burn Indianapolis and " take Cincinnati alive." Morgan's purposes 
were never clear. It was his audacious and sudden dashes, here and there, 
which gave him success. Before Cincinnati was aware, he was at Harrison — 
13th of July. He expected to meet the forces of Burnside and Judah, and to 
cut his way through. His plans here, as everywhere, were indefinable, and he 
succeeded in deceiving everybody. While printers in Cincinnati were setting 
up " reports " as to his whereabouts, he was actually marching through the sub- 
urbs, near troops enough to devour them, and yet not encountered by a single 
picket ! They fed their horses within sight of Camp Dennison. At 4 
o'clock that day, they were within tAventy-eight miles of Cincinnati — having 
marched more than ninety miles in thirty-five hours. 

The greatest chagrin was expressed, that Morgan had so easily eluded the 
great military forces. A sudden dash was made to follow him. There was a 
universal bolting of doors, burying of valuables, hiding of horses, etc., all along 
the route of the mad cavalryman and his 2,000 mounted men. They plundered 
beyond all comparison. They made a principle of it. On the 14th of July, 
he was feeding his horses near Dennison ; he reached the ford at Buffington 
Island on the evening of the 18th ; he had encountered several little skirmishes, 


but he had marched through at his own will, mostly ; all the troops of Kentucky 
had been outwitted. The Indiana forces had been laughed to scorn. The 
50,000 Ohio militia had been as straws in his way. The intrepid band would 
soon be upon friendly soil, leaving a blackened trail behind. But Judah was 
up and marching after him, Hobson followed and Col. Runkle was north of 
him. The local militia in his advance began to impede the way. Near Pome- 
roy, a stand was made. Morgan found militia posted everywhere, but he suc- 
ceeded in running the gantlet, so far as to reach Chester. He should have 
hastened to cross the ford. Fortunately, he paused to breathe his horses and 
secure a guide. The hour and a half thus lost w^as the first mistake Morgan is 
known to have made in his military career. They reached Portland, and only 
a little earthwork, guarded by about 300 men, stood between him and safety. 
His men Avere exhausted, and he feared to lead them to a night attack upon a 
position not understood perfectly ; he would not abandon his wagon train, nor 
his wounded ; he would save or lose all. As Morgan w^as preparing next 
morning, having found the earthworks deserted through the night, Judah came 
up. He repulsed the attack at first, capturing Judah's Adjutant General, and 
ordering him to hold the force on his front in check. He was not able to join 
his own company, until it was in full retreat. Here Lieut. O'Neil, of the Fifth 
Indiana, made an impulsive charge, the lines were reformed, and up the Chester 
road were Hobson's gallant cavalrymen, who had been galloping over three 
States to capture this very Morgan ! And now the tin-clad gunboats steamed 
up and opened fire. The route was complete, but Morgan escaped with 1,200 
men! Seven hundred men were taken prisoners, among them Morgan's brother, 
Cols. Ward, Duke and Huffman. The prisoners were brought to Cincinnati, 
while the troops went after the fugitive. He was surrounded by dangers ; his 
men were exhausted, hunted down ; skirmishes and thrilling escapes marked a 
series of methods to escape — his wonderful sagacity absolutely brilliant to the 
very last — which was his capture, on the 26th, with 346 prisoners and 
400 horses and arms. It may be added, that after several months of con- 
finement, Morgan and six prisoners escaped, on the 27th of November. Again 
was he free to raid in the " Blue Grass " country. 

John Brough succeeded Gov. Tod January 11, 1864. His first prominent 
work was with the Sanitary Commission. In February, of the same year, the 
President called for more troops. The quota of Ohio was 51,465 men. The 
call of March added 20,995. And in July Avas a third demand for 50,792. In 
December, the State was ordered to raise 26,027. The critical period of the 
war was evidently approaching. Gov. Brough instituted a reformation in the 
" promotion system " of the Ohio troops. He was, in many cases, severe in his 
measures. He ignored " local great men " and refused distinction as a bribe. 
The consequence was that he had many friends and some enemies. The acute- 
ness of his policy was so strong, and his policy so just, that, after all his severe 
administration, he was second to no statesman in the nation during the struggle. 


Ohio during the war was most active in her relief and aid societies. The most 
noted and extensive organization was the Cincinnati Branch of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, The most efficient organization was the Soldiers' 
Aid Society of Northern Ohio. 

When the happy tidings swept over the land that peace was proclaimed, an 
echo of thanksgiving followed the proclamation. The brave sons of Ohio 
returned to their own soil — those who escaped the carnage. But 'mid the 
rejoicing there was deepest sadness, for a fragment only remained of that brave 
army which had set out sturdily inspired with patriotism. 


George Briton McClellan, the first General appointed in Ohio, was born 
December 3, 1826, in Philadelphia. His father was a physician of high stand- 
ing and Scottish descent. Young George was in school in Philadelphia, and 
entered West Point at the age of sixteen. At the age of twenty, he was a bre- 
vet Second Lieutenant, tracing lines of investment before Vera Cruz, under the 
supervision of Capt. R. E. Lee, First Lieut. P. G. T. Beauregard, Second Lieut. 
G. W. Smith. At the close of the Mexican war, old Col. Totten reported in 
favor of them all to Winfield Scott. He had charge of an exploring expedition 
to the mountains of Oregon and Washington, beginning with the Cascade Range. 
This was one of a series of Pacific Railway explorations. Returning to Wash- 
ington, he was detailed to visit the West Indies and secretly select a coaling sta- 
tion for the United States Navy. He was dispatched by Jefferson Davis, 
Secretary of War, to Europe, with instructions to take full reports of the organ- 
ization of military forces connected with the Crimean war. This work elicited 
entire satisfaction. He returned in January, 1857, resigned as regular army 
officer, and was soon installed as engineer of Illinois Central Railroad. In 1860, 
he was President of the Ohio & Mississippi. He removed to Cincinnati, where 
he was at the opening of the war. 

William Starke Rosecrans was born September 6, 1819, in Delaware County, 
Ohio. His people were from Amsterdam. He was educated at West Point. 
When the war opened, he espoused the cause of the Union with enthusiastic 
zeal, and was appointed by McClellan on his staff as Engineer. June 9, he 
was Chief Engineer of the State under special law. Soon thereafter, he was 
Colonel of the Twenty-third Ohio, and assigned to the command of Camp 
Chase, Columbus. On May 16, his commission was out as Brigadier General 
in the United States Army. This reached him and he was speedily sum- 
moned to active service, under Gen. McClellan. After the battle of Rich Moun- 
tain, he was promoted to the head of the department. 

In April, 1862, he was succeeded by Fremont, and ordered to Wash- 
ington to engage in immediate service for the Secretary of War. About the 
loth of May, he was ordered to Gen. Halleck, before Corinth. He was 
relieved from his command December 9, 1864. 


Ulysses S. Grant, whose history we cannot attempt to give in these pages, 
was born on the banks of the Ohio, at Point Pleasant, Clermont Co., Ohio, 
April 27, 1822. He entered West Point in 1839. 

" That the son of a tanner, poor and unpretending, without influential friends 
until his performance had won them, ill-used to the world and its ways, should 
rise — not suddenly, in the first blind worship of helpless ignorance which made 
any one who understood regimental tactics illustrious in advance for what he 
was going to do, not at all for what he had done — but slowly, grade by grade, 
through all the vicissitudes of constant service and mingled blunders and suc- 
cess, till, at the end of four years' war he stood at the head of our armies, 
crowned by popular acclaim our greatest soldier, is a satisfactory answer to 
criticism and a sufficient vindication of greatness. Success succeeds." 

" We may reason on the man's career ; we may prove that at few stages has 
he shown personal evidence of marked ability ; we may demonstrate his mis- 
takes ; we may swell the praises of his subordinates. But after all, the career 
stands wonderful, unique, worthy of study so long as the nation honors her 
benefactors, or the State cherishes the good fame of the sons who contributed 
most to her honor." 

Lieut. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman was another Ohio contribution to 
the great Union war. He was born at Lancaster February 8, 1820. He 
entered West Point in June, 1836. His " march to the sea " has fully brought 
out the details of his life, since they were rendered interesting to all, and we 
refrain from repeating the well-known story. 

Philip H. Sheridan was born on the 6th of March, 1831, in Somerset, 
Perry Co., Ohio. He entered West Point in 1848. During the war, his 
career was brilliant. His presence meant victory. Troops fighting under his 
command were inspired. Gen. Rosecrans said of him, "He fights, he fights." 
A staff officer once said, " He is an emphatic human syllable." 

Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson was born in Sandusky County, town of 
Clyde, November 14, 1828. 

Maj. Gen. Q. A. Gillmore was born February 28, 1825, at Black River, 
Lorain Co., Ohio. 

Maj. Gen. L'vin McDowell was born at Franklinton, Ohio, October 15, 

Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell was born near Marietta on the 23d of March, 
1818. His grandfather on the maternal side was one of the first settlers of 

Maj. Gen. 0. M. Mitchell was a native of Kentucky, but a resident of 
Ohio from the age of four years. 

Maj. Gen. Robert C. Schenck was born October 4, 1809, in Franklin, 
Warren Co., Ohio. 

Maj. Gen. James A. Garfield, was born in Orange, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 
November 19, 1831. 


Maj. Gen. Jacob D. Cox was born in Canada in 1828, and removed to 
Ohio in 1846. 

Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman was born in Pennsylvania July 30, 1818, 
and removed to Toledo in 1861. 

Maj. Gen. David S. Stanley was born in Wayne County, Ohio, June 1, 

Maj. Gen. George Crook was born in Montgomery County, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 8, 1828. 

Maj. Gen. Mortimer D. Leggett was born in New York April 19, 1831, 
and emigrated to Ohio, in 1847. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. John C. Tidball was born in Virginia, but removed while 
a mere lad to Ohio with his parents. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. John W. Fuller was born in England in 1827. He 
removed to Toledo in 1858. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. Manning F. Force was born in Washington, D. C, on 
the 17th of December, 1824. He became a citizen of Cincinnati. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. Henry B. Banning was born in Knox County, Ohio, 
November 10, 1834. 

We add the names of Brevet Maj. Gens. Erastus B. Tyler, Thomas H. 
Ewing, Charles R. Woods, August V. Kautz, Rutherford B. Hayes, Charles 
C. Walcutt, Kenner Garrard, Hugh Ewing, Samuel Beatty, James S. Robinson, 
Joseph W. Keifer, Eli Long, William B. Woods, John W. Sprague, Benjamin 
P. Runkle, August Willich, Charles Griffin, Henry J. Hunt, B. W. Brice. 

Brig. Gens. Robert L. McCook, William II. Lytle, William Leroy 
Smith, C. P. Buckingham, Ferdinand Van Derveer, George P. Este, Joel A. 
Dewey, Benjamin F. Potts, Jacob Ammen, Daniel McCook, J. W. Forsyth, 
Ralph P. Buckland, William H. Powell, John G. Mitchell, Eliakim P. Scam- 
mon, Charles G Harker, J. W. Reilly, Joshua W. Sill, N. C. McLean, Will- 
iam T. H. Brooks, George W. Morgan, John Beatty, William W. Burns, John 
S. Mason, S. S. Carroll, Henry B. Carrington, M. S. Wade, John P. Slough, 
T. K. Smith. 

Brevet Brig. Gens. C. B. Ludlow, Andrew Hickenlooper, B. D. 
Fearing, Henry F. Devol, Israel Garrard, Daniel McCoy, W. P. Richardson, 
G. F. Wiles, Thomas M. Vincent, J. S. Jones, Stephen B. Yeoman, F. W. 
Moore, Thomas F. Wilder, Isaac Sherwood, C. H. Grosvenor, Moses E. 
Walker, R. N. Adams, E. B. Eggleston, I. M. Kirby. 

We find numerous other names of Brevet Brigadier Generals, mostly of late 
appointments, and not exercising commands in accordance with their brevet 
rank, which we omit quoting through lack of space. They are the names of 
men of rare abilities, and in many cases of brilliant achievements. 

In looking over the "War Record of Ohio," we find the State a great 
leader in men of valor and heroic deeds. It was the prolific field of military 


Ohio was draped with the garb of mourning at the close of the war. Her 
human sacrifice in behalf of the nation had been bitter. There were tears and 
heart-aches all over the land. Her ranks were swept by a murderous fire, from 
which they never flinched, and many ofiicers fell. 

Col. John H. Patrick will be remembered as opening the battle of Lookout 
Mountain. He fell mortally wounded, during the Atlanta campaign. May 
15, 1862, while actively engaged. He was struck by a canister shot, and 
expired half a hour thereafter. 

Col. John T. Toland, in July, 1863, was placed in command of a mounted 
brigade, including his regiiuent, and was instructed to destroy the Virginia & 
Tennessee Railroad. He reached Wytheville, Va., on the afternoon of the 
18th of July. The rebels were safely intrenched in the house, and poured a 
galling fire mto the national troops. Col. Toland was on horseback, at the 
head of his command. A sharpshooter sent a bullet with fatal certainty, and 
he fell on the neck of his horse, but Avas instantly caught by his Orderly 
Sergeant, who heard the fervent words : "• My horse and my sword to my 

Lieut. Col. Barton S. Kyle accompanied his regiment to the battle of Pitts- 
burg Landing. The regiment was forced back, though resisting bravely. 
Lieut. Col. Kyle was at his post of duty, encouraging his nien, when he received 
a bullet in his right breast. He survived five hours. »^ 

Col. William G. Jones was engaged m the battle of Chickamauga, June, 
1863. His regiment, the Thirty-sixth Ohio, was included in Turchin's Brigade 
of the Fourteenth Corps. He wrote in his pocket memoranda : " Off to the 
left ; merciful Father, have mercy on me and my regiment, and protect us from 
Injury and death " — at 12 o'clock. At 5 that afternoon, he was fatally wounded 
and expired at 7 that same evening, on the battle-field His remains were 
taken by the rebels, but in December, 1863, they were exhumed and interred 
in Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati. 

Col. Fred. C. Jones held command of the Tenth Brigade, in October, 1862, 
marching from Wild Cat, Ky., to Nashville, through a perpetual skirmish. 
During the battle of Stone River, Col. Jones' regiment, the Twenty-fourth, was 
on the front and left of the line. During the afternoon, when the rebel assault 
upon the left became furious. Col. Jones ordered his men to lie down and hold 
fire, which was obeyed. They rose to pour a deadly volley into the rebel ranks, 
and rush forward in a fierce charge. The capture of an entire rebel regiment was 
thus effected, but Col. Jones was shot in the right side. He was carried to the 
rear. " I know it ; I am dying now ; pay no attention to me, but look after 
my wounded men." He survived about ten hours. His remains are buried in 
Spring Grove, Cincinnati. 

Col. Lorin Andrews went with his command to Western Virginia, where 
he succumbed to exposure and severe duty. He was removed to his home, 
Gambler, Ohio, where he died surrounded by friends September 18, 1861. 


Col. Minor Milliken was sent to repel tlie attacks of the rebels at the rear. 
He led a superb cavalry charge against the enemy, vastly superior in numbers, 
and was cut off with a small portion of his regiment. He disdained to sur- 
render, and ordered his men to cut their way out. A hand-to-hand conflict 
ensued. Col. Milliken, being an expert swordsman, was able to protect himself 
with his saber. While parrying the strokes of his assailant, another shot him. 
The regiment, again charging, recovered his body, stripped of sword, purse and 

Col. George P. Webster, with his regiment, the Ninety-eighth, left Steu- 
benville for Covington, Ky., August 23, 1862, marching from that point to Lex- 
ington and Louisville. _He was placed at the command of the Thirty-fourth 
Brigade, Jackson's division, Cooke's corps. He fell in the battle of Perryville, 
and died on the field of battle. 

Col. Leander Stem w^as appointed Colonel of the One Hundred and First 
Ohio Infantry August 30, 1862. His premonitions that he should fall during 
his first regular engagement proved too true. As the army was advancing on 
Murfreesboro, the engagement of Knob Gap occurred, when Col. Stem's regi- 
ment charged and took a rebel battery, with several prisoners. The army 
closed around Murfreesboro, and on the evening of the 30th, the One Hun- 
dred and First was engaged in demonstrations against the enemy. Next 
morning, the battle of Stone River began in earnest. When Col. Stem's regi- 
ment began to waver, he called out: "Stand by the flag now, for the good 
old State of Ohio ! " and instantly fell, fatally wounded. 

Lieut. Col. Jonas D. Elliott held his position in May, 1863. During the 
summer of 1864, he commanded the left wing of the regiment at Dodsonville, 
Ala.; in September, he was sent after Wheeler, and was ordered into camp at 
Decatur. On the 23d, he was dispatched to Athens, to participate in the attack 
of Gen. Forrest, of the rebels. Col. Elliott was sent out, with 300 men, and 
being surrounded by Gen. Forrest, with vastly superior numbers, a forced resist- 
ance enabled them to sustain their own ground, until a fresh brigade of rebels 
arrived, under Gen. Warren. This officer instructed one of his men to shoot 
Lieut. Col. Elliott, and a moment later he fell. He lingered nineteen days. 

Col. Joseph L, Kirby Smith took command of the Forty-third Ohio Regi- 
ment. He fell at the battle of Corinth, under Rosecrans. 

Lieut. Col. James W. Shane fell, June 27, 1864, in an assault upon the 
enemy's works at Kenesaw. He survived but forty minutes. 

Col. Augustus H. Coleman displayed the abilities of a successful commander. 
He was in the first charge on the bridge across Antietam Creek. He was 
fatally wounded. His last words were inquiries regarding his men. 

Col. J. W. Lowe commanded the Twelfth Ohio, and was ordered to assist 
the Tenth in the battle of Carnifex Ferry. Cheering his men, in the thickest 
of the fight, a rifle ball pierced his forehead, and he fell dead — the first field 
officer from Ohio killed in battle in the war for the Union. 


Lieut. Col. Moses F. Wooster was engaged with his regiment, the One Hun- 
dred and First Ohio, at Perryville. He was mortally wounded on the 31st 
of December, 1862, in the grand effort to stem the tide of defeat at Stone 

The list of staff officers we refrain from giving, through lack of space. 

At the opening of the war, William Dennison was Governor of Ohio. David 
Tod succeeded him. John Brough was the third War Governor. 

Secretary Edwin M. Stanton was one of the most popular war Ministers. 
He was born in Steubenville, Ohio, in 1815 ; he was engaged in the United 
States Circuit Court, in 1860, in a leading law suit, at Cincinnati, known as the 
Manny and McCormick reaper trial ; on the 20th of January, 1862, he was 
appointed Secretary of War by Mr. Lincoln. 

Ex-Secretary Salmon P. Chase's public services in Ohio have already been 
mentioned in these pages. In 1861, he was appointed Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, in Mr. Lincoln's cabinet. 

United States Senator B. F. Wade made his reputation in Ohio. This 
Senator of the State stood at the head of the Committee on the Conduct of the 
War throughout its duration. 

United States Senator John Sherman was a leading member of the Finance 
Committee, during the war. For some time he was its Chairman. 

Jay Cooke was the financial agent of the Government, furnishing money for 
the payment of the troops. He was born in Portland, Huron Co., Ohio. 

In our brief review of the war record of Ohio, we have omitted a vast 
amount of detail information that would prove interesting to our readers. We 
believe we have been accurate in whatever we have given, taking as our authority, 
that accepted "encyclopedia" of Ohio war facts — Whitelaw Reid, who has pub- 
lished a valuable volume on the subject. 


It may be well in glancing over the achievements of Ohio, her momentous 
labors and grand successes, to refer to the Ordinance of 1787, more minutely 
than we have done, in relation to many events, since its inherent principles are 
not only perpetuated in the laws of the entire Northwest, but have since been 
woven into the general Constitution of the United States. It made permanent 
the standard and character of immigration, social culture and political and edu- 
cational institutions. It was thoroughly antislavery and denounced involuntary 
servitude, which was sanctioned in every other State at that time, with the 
exception of Massachusetts. It protected religion and property. As late as 
1862, Gen. William Henry Harrison, Governor of Indiana, called a convention 
for the purpose of considering the slavery question, and the feasibility of intro- 
ducing the system in the new States and Territories being formed. There 
was at this time a spirited contest, and Illinois, Indiana and possibly Ohio, 
barely escaped a decision that a full support should be given its introduction 


into these States. Its adoption was based upon certain specifications and 
limits of time, which upon a deeper consideration was deemed perplexing and 

An animated discussion arose not long since, regarding the correct author- 
ship of this important ordinance, and its chief worker in gaining its sanction 
by Congress. 

Mr. Webster ascribed its authorship to Mathew Dane, of Massachusetts, 
which statement was immediately refuted by Mr. Benton, of Mississippi, who 
laid claim to it as the birthright of Thomas Jefierson, of Virginia. 

It has been almost impossible to obtain accurate reports of the actions of the 
old Continental Congress, from the fact that its meetings were held in secret, 
and any reports either narrated or shown in schedules or lists, were deemed a 
striking lack of trust on the part of the person who furnished the information. 
It was sufficient that its acts and conclusions be proclaimed without any prelude 
or reasoning process. Hence it has been difficult to obtain early Congressional 
documents. But it has been conclusively proven that the great motive power 
in gaining the approbation of the Ordinance of 1787, was neither Dane nor 
Jefferson, but Dr. Cutler. 

He arrived at New York, July 5 of that year, after a journey from Ipswich, 
Mass., in his sulky. He obtained lodgings at the "Plow and Harrow," and 
saw that his good horse was properly cared for and fed at the same place. 
Congress was then in session, and he had come on a mission for the Ohio Com- 
pany, to negotiate their grant and its privileges in the new Territory of Ohio. 
He remained in New York three weeks, constantly engaged in the work vital to 
the interests of the future great State. But he secured the installment of the 
principles deemed the corner-stone of a future powerful State constitution. Mr. 
Poole, Librarian of the Chicago Public Library, searched assiduously for con- 
clusive proof of Dr. Cutler's right to this honor, and in the North American 
Revieiv, Xo\. 122, this is emphatically set forth with substantiating proof under 
his signature. * 

Other facts have been discussed and proven at a very recent date, relative 
to the State of Ohio, Avhich heretofore have been omitted, and nearly lost from 
the historic thread which unites the present with the past. 

The first settlement of the lands of the Northwest is necessarily surrounded 
with interest. But those were exciting, troublesome times, and a few links 
were passed over lightly. However, the years ara not so far removed in the 
past but the line may be traced. 

Mr. Francis ^Y. Miller, of Cincinnati, has supplied some missing chapters. 
The earliest documentary trace extant, regarding the southern settlement at 
Cincinnati, is an agreement of partnership between Denman, Filson and Pat- 
terson, in the fractional section of land to which the city of Cincinnati was 
originally limited. It bears the date August 25, 1788. This was entered on 
the records of Hamilton County, Ohio, October 6, 1803. 


A letter from Jonathan Dayton to the Hon. Judge Symmes, dated Septera- 
her 26, 1789, says: "You have been selling your lands, I am told, for two 
shillings specie, the acre. The price at this moment is, and seems to be, and 
undoubtedly is, a good one; but as much cannot be said of it when you find 
hereafter that in consequence of the rise of certificates, another acre, in another 
payment, may cost you in specie two shillings and sixpence." 

A letter from John C. Symmes to Capt. Dayton, dated April 30, 1790, 
says : " The land in the reserved township is held at much too high a price. 
Not a foot of land beyond the five-acre lots will sell. Five shillings, specie, 
or two dollars in certificates, is the utmost they will bring, and they will rarely 
sell at that." 

This state of affairs was in a large degree brought about by the breaking-up 
of North Bend and a removal of the town to Fort Washington, or Cincinnati, 
later. A search through the old letters and other preserved documents prove 
that North Bend was at one time the beginning of the great city on the Ohio, 
rather than Cincinnati. Judge Symmes wrote. May 18, 1789: " I have not as 
yet been able to make a decisive choice of a plat for the city, though I have 
found two pieces of ground, both eligible, but not upon the present plan of a 
regular square. It is a question of no little moment and difficulty to deter- 
mine which of these spots is preferable, in point of local situation. I know 
that at first thought men will decide in favor of that on the Ohio, from the 
supposition that the Ohio will command more trade and business than the 
Miami. * * * g^^ -f jj. ^^^^e built on the Miami, the settlers 
throughout the purchase would find it very convenient." 

Another of the earliest selections of town sites was adjacent to the most 
southerly point of what is now Delhi Township. To this the name of South 
Bend was given. Judge Symmes reports November 4, 1790, of this place, 
over forty framed and hewed-log two-story houses, since the preceding spring. 
Ensign Luce is said to have taken his troops to North Bend, but decided to 
remove to Cincinnati, on account of the object of his affections having settled 
there — the wife of a settler. But this story is refuted by contradictory evi- 
dence from Judge Symmes' letters, which illustrate the 'fact that the post of 
North Bend was abandoned by Ensign Luce and his men in consequence of a 
panic, caused by Indian attacks. The removal of the troops caused a general 
decline of the town. Again, history and letters from the same eminent Judge, 
assert that Fort Washington was completed and garrisoned by Maj. Doughty 
before the close of that same year, and was begun by him during the summer, 
that Ensign Luce must have still been at his post at the bend at that time. It 
has been, therefore, recently accepted that the traditional "black eyes" and 
the "Indian panic," had nothing to do with the founding of Cincinnati, and 
that the advantages of the position gained the victory. 

Cincinnati has advanced, not only in prosperity and culture, but in national 
significance. Our readers must have observed, in perusing these pages, that 


from this city and the State which it represents, have emanated some of the 
superior intellects which have used their wise faculties and talents, tempered by 
a wise judgment, in behalf of the American Union. 

The originality of the Senecas and Wyandots have been debated at some 
length, while others have called the tribes the same, having two branches. We 
have searched the earlier records and have found an authenticated account of 
these tAvo tribes. 

The Indian tribes of Ohio Avere originally bold, fierce and stalwart. The 
country watered by the Sandusky and its tributaries was frequented by the 
"Wyandot tribe, who came from the north side of the St. Lawrence River. The 
Senecas were blood relatives of this tribe. Both tribes were numbered by the 
thousands. A war originated between them, in this manner: A "Wyandot 
chief desired to wed the object of his affections, who laughed him to scorn, 
because he had taken no scalps, and was no warrior " to speak of." To change 
her opinion, he led out a party, and falling upon a number of Senecas, slaugh- 
tered them mercilessly, that he might hasten to the side of his dusky belle, with 
his trophies. This act inaugurated hostilities, which extended through a century. 
The Wyandots began to fear extermination, and, gathering their entire effects 
the natives escaped to Green Bay, and settled in several villages. But the Sen- 
ecas made up a war party and followed them, killing many Wyandots and burn- 
ing some of their villages. They then returned to Canada. Soon thereafter, 
they secured fire-arms from the French. Again they followed the Wyandots, 
firing their guns into their huts, and frightening them severely. They did not 
succeed as well as they expected. But the third party nearly exterminated the 
villages, because the young warriors Avere nearly all gone to Avar Avith the Foxes. 
The fcAv at home escaping, promised to return with the Ser.ccas, but desired 
tAvo days for preparation. The Wyandots sent word to the two villages left 
undisturbed, and held a consultation. They decided to go as near the Senecas 
as possible, unobserved, and discover their real motive. They found them feast- 
ing on two roasted Wyandots, shouting over their victory. They danced nearly 
all night, and then fell asleep. A little before daylight, the Wyandots fell on 
them, leaving not one to carry back the news. 

The Wyandots then procured guns, and began to groAV formidable. They 
set out to return to their own country, and proceeded on their way as far as 
Detroit, where they met a party of Senecas, on the lake. A fierce conflict 
ensufd, and the Wyandots beheld the Senecas fall, to the last man, suffering 
fearful carnage themselves. They soon settled in this part of the Avorld, their 
principal village being on the Sandusky. Northwestern Ohio Avas particularly 
dangerous with new Indian tribes, and the Wyandots Avere cruelly aggressive. 
The death of their chief, and their total defeat by Harrison, destroyed their 
power forever. 

On the 29th of September, 1817, a treaty was held, at the foot of the rapids 
of the Miami of Lake Erie, between Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, 


Commissioners of the United States, and the sachems, chiefs and warriors of the 
Wyandot, Seneca, Dehiware, Shawnee, Potawattomie, Ottawa and Chippewa 
nations. All their lands in Ohio ivere ceded to the United States forever. 

There was really not a Seneca in the Seneca nation. They were chiefly 
Cayugas, Mohawks, Onondagas, Tuscarawas, Wyandots and Oneidas. But the 
Mingoes were originally Cayugas, and their chief was the celebrated Logan. 
After the murder of his fiiniily by the Avhites, the Mingoes were scattered over 
the territory northwest of the Ohio. 

The notorious Simon Girty was adopted by the Senecas. Girty's name was 
a terror and fiendish horror for many years. He not only led the Indians in 
their atrocities, but he added barbarism to their native wickedness. 


When peace was proclaimed, after the surrender of Gen. Robert E. Lee to 
Gen. U. S. Grant, the volunteer troops disbanded, and a return to home indus- 
tries instituted, Ohio, like many other States, gave direct attention to the inter- 
ests of returned soldiers. The thrift of the State was augmented by a spasmodic, 
and thereafter recognized as a fictitious, demand for products, commercial and 
industrial pursuits redoubled their forces. But the great wave of stagnation 
swept over this fair land — the re-action of a war excitement. Laborers were 
many, but wages were inadeijuate. Deeper and deeper settled this lethargy — 
called by many " hard times" ' — until the wheels of commercial life revolved 
slowly, and from the workshops and the factories went up the echoes of priva- 
tion and distress. There was no famine, no "fever, no epidemic, it was simply 
exhaustion. In the larger cities there was much suffering. Idle people loitered 
about, barely seeking employment, the task seeming worse than hopeless. 

During the years 1870, 1871 and 1872, the stringent measures brought 
about by the depressed state of business retarded any material advancement in 
general matters. The years 1873-74 were marked by a preceptible improve- 
ment, and a few factories were established, while larger numbers were employed 
in those already founded. The year 1875 was under the direction of a Demo- 
cratic Legislature. It was marked in many respects by a "reverse motion " in 
many laws and regulations. 

The Legislature which convened in 1876, January 3, was Republican in the 
main. It repealed the " Geghan Law " passed by the preceding body. At 
the time of its adoption, there Avas the most intense feeling throughout the State, 
the charo;e being made that it was in the interests of the Catholics. Amono; 
the general enactments were laws re-organizing the government of the State insti- 
tutions, which the previous Legislature had ordered according to their own belief 
to follow new doctrines. The office of Comptroller of the Treasur}^ was abolished. 
The powers of municipal corporations to levy taxes was limited, and their 
authority to incur debts was limited. Furthermore, this body prohibited any 
municipal appropriations, unless the actual money was in the Treasury to meet 


the same in full. A law was passed for the protection of children under fourteen 
years of age, exhibited in public shows. 

The temperance cause received more vigorous and solid support than was 
ever rendered by the State previously. A common-sense, highly moral and 
exalted platform was formed and supported by many leading men. 

This year witnessed the serious "strikes" among the miners in Stark and 
AVayne Counties. The consequences were painful — distress, riots and distruc- 
tion of property. 

The State Mine Inspector reported 300 coal mines in the State, with only 
twenty-five in operation. Not over 3,000,000 tons of coal were raised during 
the year, owing to the dullness of the times. 

The State charities reported the aggregate number under public care to be 
29,508. The taxation for the maintenance of these classes was one and one 
six-hundredth of a mill on each dollar of taxable property. 

The reports given of the year 1877 indicated a revival of business interests 
and prosperity. The State produced of wheat, 27,306,566 bushels ; rye, 
914,106 bushels; buckwheat, 225,822 bushels; oats, 29,325,611; barley, 
1,629,817 bushels ; corn, 101,884,305 bushels ; timothy, tons of hay, 2,160,334 ; 
clover, tons of hay, 286,265; flax, pounds of fiber, 7,343,294; potatoes, 
10,504,278 bushels; sweet potatoes, 126,3541 bushels; tobacco, 24,214,950 
pounds; sorghum, sugar, 7,507|^ pounds; syrup, 1,180,255 gallons; maple 
sugar, 1,625,215 pounds; maple syrup, 324,036 gallons; h,oney, 1,534,902 

The year 1878 was marked by a more vigorous and combined effort of the 
people to entirely overcome the stagnation of business, the influence of the 
lethargy yet combating the awakened interest. This energy was amply rewarded 
in 1879, by a general dawning of the "good times " so ardently desired. New 
enterprises were instituted, manufactories erected, improvements carried on, and 
agriculture was successful. Before the year closed, the State was basking in 
the light of prosperity, and the year 1880 was ushered in when the confidence 
of the people was again a permanent incentive — confidence in the nation, 
their State, each in the other and themselves. The old-time crown of power, 
influence and integrity, which Ohio has earned, is conspicuous in this year of 
1881. The jewels have been reset, and we confidently doubt not that their 
luster will remain undimmed intrusted to so faithful and so earnest a people. 












Tbe state 

















































Columbiaua . . 























































Holmes .* 




























Meigs . 


361 58 













21 138 


• 19482 





































































Wyandot .'. . . 





























New Hampshire., 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina..., 

































R. R. 



864,694 2,266 
622,700 958 





1,648,690 1,714 
9b9,946| 999 
934,9431 1,047 

l,783,0S5j 1,934 





1.131,116 1,753 
1. 399,7501,619 
3,198,062 6,663 




Pennsylvania ... 
Rhode island.... 
South Carolina. 





West Virginia... 

Total States ., 




Dakota , 

District of Columbia 



New Mexico 




Total Territories.. 

Aggregate of U. S... 2,915,203 









330,551 1 



R. R. 













• 1,483 






50,155,783 . 





British India 


United States — with Alaska. 

German Empire 


Austria and Hungary 



Great Britain and Ireland... 







Sweden and Norway 



Dominion of Canada 









Argentine Confederation 






San Salvador 




San Domingo 

Costa Rica 








































350.000 i 

300,000 j 










































49, ,500 





Pekin , 


St Petersburg (1881) 












Rio de Janiero 










La Paz 


Caraccas , 



Buenos Ayres (1881) 


Santiago de Guatemala . 



Port au Prince 

San Salvador 




San Domingo 

San Jose 























[It would be difficult to find a more comprehensive review of the founda- 
tions of our system of laws than is given in the " Preliminary Sketch of the 
History of Ohio," by this distinguished representative of the bench and the 
bar of America. The work is now out of print, and is not easily obtained; 
besides, its great author has passed away; so these extracts are made more 
with a view of preserving old historical literature, than of introducing new; 
furthermore, the masses of the people have never had convenient access to the 
volumes, which, for the most part, have been in the hands of professional men 
only. The publication of the work first brought its compiler before the public, 
and marked the beginning of that career which, during its course, shaped the 
financial system of our country, and ended upon the Supreme Bench of the 

By the ordinance of 1785, Congress had executed in part the great national 
trust confided to it, by providing for the disposal of the public lands for the 
common good, and by prescribing the manner and terms of sale. By that of 
1787, provision was made for successive forms of Territorial government, 
adapted to successive steps of advancement in the settlement of the Western 
country. It comprehended an intelligible system of law on the descent and 
conveyance of real property, and the transfer of personal goods. It also con- 
tained five articles of compact between the original States, and the people and 
States of the Territory, establishing certain great fundamental principles of 
governmental duty and pi'ivate right, as the basis of all future constitutions and 
legislation, unalterable and indestructible, except by that final and common 
ruin, which, as it has overtaken all former systems of human polity, may yet 
overwhelm our American union. Never, probably, in the history of the world, 
did a measure of legislation so accurately fulfill, and yet so mightily exceed 
the anticipations of the legislators. The ordinance has been well described, as 
having been a pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night, in the settlement and 
government of the Northwestern States. When the settlers went into the 
wilderness, they found the law already there. It was impressed upon the soil 
itself, while it yet bore up nothing but the forest. The purchaser of land 
became, by that act, a party to the compact, and bound by its perpetual cove- 
nants, so far as its conditions did not conflict with the terms of the cessions of 

the States. 


This remarkable instrument was the last gift of the Congress of the old 
confederation to the country, and it was a fit consummation of their glorious 


labors. At the time of its promulgation, the Federal Constitution was under 
discussion in the convention ; and in a few months, upon the organization of 
the new national government, that Congress was dissolved, never again to re-as- 
semble. Some, and indeed most of the principles established by the articles of 
compact are to be found in the plan of 1784, and in the various English and 
American bills of rights. Others, however, and these not the least important, 
are original. Of this number are the clauses in relation to contracts, to slavery 
and to Indians. On the whole, these articles contain what they profess to con- 
tain, the true theory of American liberty. The great principles promulgated 
by it are wholly and purely American. They are indeed the genuine princi- 
ples of freedom, unadulterated by that compromise Avith circumstances, the 
effects of Avhich are visible in the constitution and history of the Union. 

The first form of civil government, provided by the ordinance, was now 
formally established within the Territory. Under this form, the people had no 
concern in the business of government. The Governor and Judges derived 
their appointments at first from Congress, and after the adoption of the Fed- 
eral Constitution, from the President. The commission of the former ofiicer 
was for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked ; those of the latter 
were during good behavior. It was required that the Governor should reside 
within the Territory, and possess a freehold estate there, in one thousand acres 
of land. He had authority to appoint all ofiicers of militia, below the rank of 
Generals, and all magistrates and civil officers, except the Judges and the 
Secretary of the Territory ; to establish convenient divisions of the whole dis- 
trict for the execution of progress, to lay out those parts to which the Indian 
titles might be extinguished into counties and townships. The Judges, or any 
two of them, constituted a court with common law jurisdiction. It Avas neces- 
sary that each Judge should possess a freehold estate in the territory of five 
hundred acres. The whole legislative power which, however, extended only to 
the adoption of such laws of the original States as might be suited to the cir- 
cumstances of the country, Avas vested in the Governor and Judges. The laws 
adopted were to continue in force, unless disapproved by Congress, until re- 
pealed by the Legislature, which was afterward to be organized. It was the 
duty of the Secretary to preserve all acts and laws, public records and executive 
proceedings, and to transmit authentic copies to the Secretary of Congress 
every six months. 

Such was the first government devised for the Northwestern Territory. It 
is obvious that its character, as beneficent or oppressive, depended entirely upon 
the temper and disposition of those who administrated it. All power, legisla- 
tive, judicial and executive, was concentrated in the Governor and Judges, and 
in its exercise they were responsible only to the distant Federal head. The 
expenses of the Government were defrayed in part by the United States, but 
were principally drawn from the pockets of the people in the shape of fees. 


This temporary system, however unfriendly as it seems to liberty, was, 
perhaps, so established upon sufficient reasons. The Federal Constitution had 
not then been adopted, and there were strong apprehensions that the people of 
the Territory might not be disposed to organize States and apply for admission 
into the Union. It was, therefore, a matter of policy so to frame the Territorial 
system as to create some strong motives to draw them into the Union, as States, 
in due time. 

The first acts of Territorial legislation were passed at Marietta, then the 
only American settlement northwest of the Ohio. The Governor and Judges 
did not strictly confine themselves within the limits of their legislative author- 
ity, as prescribed by the ordinance. When they could not find laws of the 
original States suited to the condition of the country, they supplied the want 
by enactments of their own. The earliest laws, from 1788 to 1795, were all 
thus enacted. The laws of 1788 provided for the organization of the militia; 
for the establishment of inferior courts; for the punishment of crimes, and for 
the limitations of actions; prescribed the duties of ministerial officers; regu- 
lated marriages, and appointed oaths of office. That the Governor and Judges 
in the enactment of these laws, exceeded their authority, without the slightest 
disposition to abuse it, may be inferred from the fact that except two, which 
had been previously repealed, they were all confirmed by the first Territorial 

At this period there was no seat of government, properly called. The 
Governor resided at Cincinnati, but laws were passed whenever they seemed to 
be needed, and promulgated at any place where the Territorial legislators hap- 
pened to be assembled. Before the year of 1795, no laws were, strictly speak- 
ing, adopted. Most of them were framed by the Governor and Judges to 
answer particular public ends; while in the enactraant of others, including all 
the laws of 1792, the Secretary of the Territory discharged, under the author- 
ity of an act of Congress, the functions of the Governor. The earliest laws, 
as has been already stated, were published at Marietta. Of the remainder, a 
few were published at Vincennes, and the rest at Cincinnati. 

In the year 1789, the first Congress passed an act recognizing the binding 
force of the ordinance of 1787, and adapting its provisions to the Federal Con- 
stitution. This act provided that the communications directed in the ordinance 
to be made to Congress or its officers, by the Governor, should thenceforth be 
made to the President, and that the authority to appoint with the consent of 
the Senate, and commission officers, before that time appointed and commis- 
sioned by Congress, should likewise be vested in that officer. It also gave the 
Territorial Secretary the power already mentioned, of acting in certain cases, 
in the place of the Governor. In 1792, Congress passed another act giving to 
the Governor and Judges authority to repeal, at their discretion, the laws by 


them made; and enabling a single Judge of the general court, in the absence 
of Ills brethren, to hold the terms. 

At this time the Judges appointed by the national Executive constituted the 
Supreme Court of the Territory. They were commissioned during good 
behavior; and their judicial jurisdiction extended over the whole region north- 
west of the Ohio. The court, thus constituted, was fixed at no certain place, 
and its process, civil and criminal, was returnable wheresoever it might be in 
the Territory, Inferior to this court were the County Courts of Common Pleas, 
and the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace. The former consisted of any 
number of Judges, not less than three nor more than seven, and had a general 
common-law jurisdiction, concurrent, in the respective counties, with that of 
the Supreme Court; the latter consisted of a number of Justices for each 
county, to be determined by the Governor, who were required to hold three 
terms in every year, and had a limited criminal jurisdiction. Single Judges of 
the Common Pleas, and single Justices of the Quarter Sessions, were also 
clothed with certain civil and criminal powers to be exercised out of court. 
Besides these courts, each county had a Judge of Probate, clothed with the 
ordinary jurisdiction of a Probate Court. 

Such was the original constitution of courts and distribution of judicial 
power in the Northwestern Territory. The expenses of the system were de- 
frayed in part by the National Government, and in part by assessments upon 
the counties, but principally by fees, which were payable to every officer con- 
cerned in the administration of justice, from the Judges of the General Court- 

In 1795, the Governor and Judges undertook to revise the Territorial lawt. 
and to establish a complete system of statutory jurisprudence, by adoptions 
from the laws of the original States, in strict conformity to the provisions of 
the ordinance. For this purpose they assembled at Cincinnati, in June, and 
continued in session until the latter part of August. The judiciary system un- 
derwent some changes. The General Court was fixed at Cincinnati and Marietta, 
and a Circuit Court was established with power to try, in the several counties, 
issues in fact depending before the superior tribunal, where alone causes could 
be finally decided. Orphans' Courts, too, were established, with jurisdiction 
analogous to but more extensive than that of a Judge of Probate. Laws were 
also adopted to regulate judgments and executions, for limitation of actions, 
for the distribution of intestate estates, and for many other general purposes. 
Finally, as if with a view to create some great reservoir, from which, whatever 
principles and powers had been omitted in the particular acts, might be drawn 
according to the exigency of circumstances, the Governor and Judges adopted 
a law, providing that the common law of England and all general statutes in 
aid of the common law, prior to the fourth year of James I, should be in full 
force within the Territory. The law thus adopted was an act of the Virginia 
Legislature, passed before the Declaration of Independence, when Virginia was 


yet a British colony, and at the time of its adoption had been repealed so far 
as it related to the English statutes. 

The other laws of 1795 were principally derived from the statute book of 
Pennsylvania. The system thus adopted, was not without many imperfections 
and blemishes, but it may be doubted whether any colony, at so early a period 
after its first establishment, ever had one so good. 

And how gratifying is the retrospect, how cheering the prospect which even 
this sketch, brief and partial as it is, presents! On a surface, covered less 
than half a century ago by the trees of the primeval forest, a State has grOwn 
up from colonial infancy to freedom, independence and strength. But thirty 
years have elapsed since that State, with hardly sixty thousand inhabitants, was 
admitted into the American Union. Of the twenty-four States which form 
that Union, she is now the fourth in respect to population. In other respects, 
her rank is even higher. Already her resources have been adequate, not only 
to the expense of government and instruction, but to the construction of long 
lines of canals. Her enterprise has realized the startling prediction of the 
poet, who, in 1787, when Ohio was yet a wilderness, foretold the future con- 
nection of the Hudson with the Ohio. 

And these results are attributable mainly to her institutions. The spirit of 
the ordinance of 1787 prevades them all. Who can estimate the benefits 
which have flowed from the interdiction by that instrument of slavery and of 
legislative interference with private contracts? One consequence is, that the 
soil of Ohio bears up none but freemen ; another, that a stern and honorable 
regard to private rights and public morals characterizes her legislation. There 
is hardly a page in the statute book of which her sons need be ashamed. The 
great doctrine of equal rights is everywhere recognized in her constitution and 
her laws. Almost every father of a family in this State has a freehold interest 
in the soil, but this interest is not necessary to entitle him to a voice in the 
concerns of government. Every man may vote; every man is eligible to any 
office. And this unlimited extension of the elective franchise, so far from pro- 
ducing any evil, has ever constituted a safe and sufficient check upon injurious 
legislation. Other causes of her prosperity may be found in her fertile soil, in 
her felicitous position, and especially in her connection Avith the union of the 
States. All these springs of growth and advancement are permanent, and 
upon a most gratifying prospect of the future. They promise an advance in 
population, wealth, intelligence and moral worth as permanent as the existence 
of the State itself. They promise to the future citizens of Ohio the blessings 
of good government, wise legislation and universal instruction. More than all, 
they are pledges that in all future, as in all past circumstances, Ohio will cleave 
fast to the national constitution and the national Union, and that her growing 
energies will on no occasion, be more willingly or powerfully put forth, than in 
the support and maintenance of both in unimpaired vigor and strength. 





Q^^i^'^ ^ayh^l±I^ 



m n 
.. U 


Sir cronisr s. scuEztTOKi. 




Situation— Boundaries — Area — Streams — Surface — Soil— Geological 
Structure— Material Resources. 

location and extent. 

BY reference to the State maps, the reader will observe that Wyandot 
County lies in the northwest quarter of the State of Ohio, nearly equidis- 
tant from Lake Erie on the north, and the Indiana State line on the west. That 
the counties bordering upon it are Seneca on the north; Crawford on the 
east; Marion and Hardin on the south; Hardin and Hancock on the west; 
and that its thirteen subdivisions, known respectively as Antrim, Crane, 
Crawford, Eden, Jackson, Marseilles, Mifflin, Pitt, Richland, Ridge, Salem, 
Sycamore and Tymochtee Townships, contain eight square miles more than 
eleven surveyed townships, or 258, 560 acres. 

natural features. 

Its Streams. — Lying near the great water-shed of the State, just on its 
northern slope, it contains no large streams. Tymochtee Creek with its 
tributaries, and the head-waters of the Sandusky River, comprising the Lit- 
tle Sandusky and the Broken Sword Creeks, and the small streams known as 
Sycamore Creek, Tyler's Run, Sugar Run, Negro Run and Rock Ran, are 
the drainage system of the county. Their general course is due north, ex 
cept that the eastern tributaries of the Sandusky have a direction westerly 
or southwesterly, until they descend upon the area of the water-lime, and 
are well within the drainage valley of the Sandusky. The Tymochtee 
Creek, throughout the most of its course in Wyandot County, is a slow 
stream and has a clay bottom. Its valley is as wide and its banks as high 
as those of the Sandusky itself, although less water actually passes down its 
channel. The Sandusky, on the contrary, more frequently runs on a rock 
bottom, and its current is more rapid. It affords occasional water-power 
privileges. The same is true of the small creeks entering it from the east. 

The Surface. — The topography of the county is quite simple. The 
western half is gently undulating or flat. The excavated valley of the Ty- 
mochtee Creek, which is usually about a hundred rods wide, and rarely 
exceeds two hundred rods, presents, in its abrupt descents, the most notice- 
able changes of level. There ai'e several extensive prairie- like tracts, 
which have a black soil and were never clothed with forest. They are in 


the higher levels, and give rise to some of the tributaries of Tymochtee 
Creek. One is north and west of Carey, extending largely into Seneca and 
Hancock Counties, known as Big Spring Prairie. Another covers much of 
the township of Richland, known as Potatoe Swamp, and a third occupies 
the southeastern part of Mifflin and the southwestern part of Pitt Town- 
ships, extending also into Marion County. The Cranberry Marsh, in Jack- 
son Township, also extends largely into Hancock County. That tract known 
as Cranberry Marsh, in Crane Township, and the marshy tract in the center 
of Tymochtee Township, are of less extent but in every way analogous to 
the rest. These marshes were probably, once the sites of lakes, which 
have become filled by the slow accumulation of vegetable matter, and the 
washing in from the adjoining land of the finer materials of the drift. 
This is particularly noticeable about the ridges and knolls which inclose 
Big Spring Prairie. Besides these untillable marshes, most of the territory 
lying between the Tymochtee Creek and the Sandusky River, has a black, 
loamy soil, and was once, probably, subject to inundation by those streams, 
although now it is generally laid out in fine farms. 

East of the Sandusky River the surface is more broken, and there is a 
noticeable ascent from the area of the water-lime to that of the corniferous. 
There is a tract of elevated land, like a fragment of a glacial moraine, along 
the west side of Broken Sword Creek, extending from Eden Township to 
the Little Sandusky in Pitt Township. Besides these undulations in the 
original surface of the drift, that part of the county east of the Sandusky is 
subject to erosions by frequent small streams, which have worn channels in 
the drift and sometimes in the rock itself. 

Where the streams of the county run through level tracts, they present 
the usual terrace and flood-plain. The former is the old drift surface, and 
rises from twenty to forty feet above the level of the water. The latter, 
which is constantly changing its position and its contents, is, of course, de- 
pendent on the greatest freshet rise of the stream. Along the Tymochtee 
Creek it is sometimes twelve feet or more above the summer stage of the 

The Soil. — The prevailing feature of the soil is clay. This, however, 
is variously modified. In the higher parts of the county, it is gravelly, and 
often contains stones and bowlders. It is compact, and almost entirely 
without stones or even gravel in the level tracts, especially where there has 
been a gradual tilling up, with slow or imperfect drainage. The soil of the 
prairies, which is black, consists very largely of vegetable matter in various 
stages of decay. Drainage is especially needed in the western part of the 

The Geological Structure.* — The Niagara limestone underlies a tier of 
townships along the western side of the county, spreading to the east so a8 
to include the village of JMarseilles. The western boundary of the Lower 
Corniferous enters the county from the north, about two miles east of Mex- 
ico, passes through Bellevernon and Little Sandusky, and leaves the couuty 
in Section 11, Pitt Township. Hence the most of the county, which is 
specially characterized by its flat surface, is underlain by the water- lime 
formation. It is necessaiy to say, however, that the western central 
portions of the county are entirely without rocky outcrops, and it may be 
that the Niagara underlies more area than has been ascribed to it; also that 
the boundary between the water- lime and the corniferous, as above located, 
is to a certain extent conjectural. 

♦Compiled from the report of N. H. Wiuchell, as published by authority of the State Legislature, in 


The Niagara limestone has near Carey an unusual and somewhat re- 
markable exposure The surface of the country for many miles in every 
direction is flat, without exposure of rock. At this point the Niagara 
swells up suddenly in two separate moands or ridges, which rise so obtru- 
sively that the drift has been in many places entirely denuded. They rise 
to the height of forty to fifty feet. They are each about five miles long, 
and are so situated toward each other, and in relation to the direction of 
the natural drainage, that they inclose the marsh known as Big Spring 
Prairie. They are distinguished as the North Ridge and the West Ridge. 
The included prairie is of the shape of a horseshoe, the toe turned a little 
east of north, the West Ridge filling in the bow. It is usually about a 
mile wide, with a length of ten miles. It is drained in opposite directions. 
Spring Run drains it into the Sandusky River, and a stream known as the 
" Outlet " drains it into the Blanchard. The soil is so wet that at present 
it is impossible to till it. Good progress has, however, been made in drain- 
ing some portions, which now produce corn of prodigious growth. The de- 
scent to the prairie from the north or from the west, su as nt5t to be inter- 
cepted by either of the limestone ridgeg, is very gradual, even unobserva- 
ble. The soil changes imperceptibly from a more or less gravelly clay to a 
fine, tough clay; then by the addition or vegetable matter the surface soil 
becomes black and moist, and all vegetable growth disappears except grasses 
and sedges. Efforts were made to ascertain the thickness of this black 
muck, but no result was obtained other than the fact, that wkile it exceeds 
eight feet in some places, it is usually but four or five. It is thin about 
the margin of the marsh, and seems to be generally underlain by a tough, 
blue clay, often so calcareous as to constitute a marl. This blue clay is 
sometimes itself overlain by a bed of quicksand. Within the muck the 
horns of elk are said to have been found, and logs several feet in diameter. 
Along the south margin of the prairie, within the bow, there is consider- 
able sand, as if the deposit of a lake shore. Within the bow of the prairie 
there is also considerable flat land not marshy, the surface rising very gent- 
ly toward the south for the distance of nearly one mile, when the West Ridge 
rises suddenly to the height of nearly fifty feet. The prairie is crossed by 
three public roads. These are constructed by throwing together the dirt 
from two parallel ditches, on which is placed first corduroy, and afterward, 
when repairs are needed,. stone hauled from the ridges, giving the road a 
rough macadamizing. Many months in the year the prairie is covered with 
water, and it is only in the driest months that cattle venture on it for 
grazing. Within it are sometimes little undulations or hillocks, on which 
grow bunches of shrubs and large herbs. 

The rock here exposed has been found to contain characteristic Niagara 
fossils only in the North Ridge. There are no perpendicular sections of the 
bedding, except in small quarries on the slopes of the ridges near their 
bases. In these openings the stone appears very different from that seen 
in bare places higher up the ridges and on their summits, and the dip is 
uniformly toward the low ground, whatever the position of the quarry. 

The quarry of Mr. Samuel Shoup, situated on the western slope of the 
West Ridge, about three miles from Carey, shows the rock dipping about 
fifteen or eighteen degrees toward the southwest; that is, toward the near- 
est low ground. It is in thin, fragile beds, of a light drab or buff color, 
porous, and soft under the hammer, showing no distinguishable fos.=5ils. 

In the quarry of Mr. Thomas Shepherd, northeast quarter Section 11, 
Ridge Township, about a mile northwest of Mr. Shoup's, the beds are thin 


and so carious they can hardly be lifted, in even sheets of a bufif color, 
sometimes reduced to sand by the weather. Then comes a bed three to 
eight inches thick; vesicular; of a buff color; easily worked. Then it is 
irregularly bedded; lenticular or massive; buff color; carious; with traces 
of fossils. 

Mr. F. J. Worrello's quarry, northeast quarter Section 16, Crawford 
Township, is in the same kind of stone, but it is so far removed from the 
ridge that beds have not been tilted by it. They lie horizontal, or with a 
very slight inclination southwest. The rock is here very near the surface. 
The same is true at Carey, where it is sometimes reached in digging post- 
holes for fences. 

The quarry of Mr. Jonas Huffman is in the west slope of the North 
Ridge, situated in the northwest quarter of Section 4, Crawford Township, 
and shows the following descending section. Dip toward the west, 10°. 
The rock here is overlain by about two feet of drift and loose fragments; 
then comes about two feet of confused and lenticular in the bedding, with 
larger pores or cavities, sometimes filled with calcite; fossiliferous, showing 
two species of bivalves, cyathophylloids and favositoids. Then two feet of 
hard, close-grained; light drab; beds four to eight inches. The close- 
grained has a bluish tint. 

Mr. Peter Kibbler's quarry at Springville affords a slight exposure of 
the same kind of stone, with a gentle dip west or toward the prairie. The 
stone here seems a little more firm, but is generally porous, with fine cavi- 
ties; fossils wanting or so absorbed as to be undistinguishable. The color 
is a light drab, varying to buff, and also to gray, especially when thrown 
in piles. The stone is not handsome, the beds being uneven and contain- 
ing some white chert. At Mr. David Smith's quarry, in the northeast 
quarter of Section 3, in Amanda Township, Hancock County, the stone is 
buff, porous and thin, the beds being only about two inches thick. Stone 
thrown out from these quarries becomes a light buff, sometimes almost white 
under the weather, and although not of a durable quality, it has been used 
considerably in ordinary walls and foundations. 

In passing over the ridges which are occupied by good farms, stones are 
often seen gathered from the fields and deposited in piles or in the coi'ners 
of the fences, or laid up in walls. They consist of fragments from the un- 
derlying rock, and of northern bowlders, the former greatly predominating. 
Along the road the rock is frequently seen bare, and, as already remarked, 
it is different, lithologically, from that seen in the foregoing quarries. It 
is most frequently a dark drab or brown, hard, crystalline rock, apparently 
in a rough, massive condition, containing cavities sometimes two or three 
inches in diameter. It nowhere appears in even beds. It is rarely vesicu- 
lar, like the stone seen in the quarries described, but contains large cavi- 
ties, irregularly scattered through it. The color is sometimes a bluish drab, 
and it not unfrequently shows obscure traces of fossil remains. These occur 
sometimes in rock otherwise compact and solid, or they may be so numerous 
as to make the rock porous and loose, the interior shell being entirely want- 
ing. The fragments furnishing these fossils are, however, more vesicular 
and lighter colored than the stone usually seen scattered over the surface of 
the ridges. They have the lithological characters of that phase of the 
Niagara seen in the Sandusky River at Tiffin, Seneca County, and at Genoa, 
in Ottawa County. In the northeast quarter of Section 32, Crawford Town- 
ship, a ridge may be seen of the same kind of stone as those north of Carey, 
running north and south, visible about one-half mile, slightly exposed on 
land of Joseph Pahl. 


It would seem a3 if the conditions of the ocean's bed in which the 
Niagara was formed were not uniform. While regular strata were being 
deposited in a wide area, including portions of Seneca and Hancock Coun- 
ties, without disturbance or contortions, a concretionary and crystallizing 
force sprang into operation in the northwest corner of Wyandot County, 
which in working from below, caused the even beds of deposition to swell 
upward or over the growing mass or masses. In some cases, it aided in the 
preservation of fossil remains; in others it hastened th«ir absorption into 
the mass of the rock. This is a peculiarity of the rock formation not con- 
fined to the Niagara, but is displayed conspicuously in the water-lime above, 
and it has been seen in the Lower Corniferous. When the lapse of time 
brings such hardened masses into contact with the erosions of ice and water, 
they cause the prominent features of the landscape by the removal of the 
more destructible parts about them. Such may be the explanation of the 
remarkable ridges about Carey, the even, friable beds seen in the quarries 
about their flanks having once been continuous over the summits, but, un- 
able to resist the forces of the glacial epoch, were denuded down to the 
more enduring rock. 

Within these ridges are several caves, the entrances to which are small 
and have been accidentally discovered, sometimes by men plowing in the 
field. One particularly, on the farm of Mr. Adam Keller, northwest quar- 
tei' Section 2, in Ridge Township, is described as having a perpendicular 
descent of sixty-tive feet to a stream of water which is very deep and sepa- 
rates one apartment by a narrow passage from another. The entrance is 
about five feet across and the sides are of rock. 

The Niagara, in the southwest corner of the county, rises rapidly in the 
same way from below the water- lime which lies to the north, the dip being 
northeast and to the amount of twenty-five degrees along Sections 18 and 
13 near the county lines. It here appears as a thick-bedded gray and 
crystalline limestone. It also shows in the Tymochtee Creek, at the village 
of Marseilles, in a characteristic surface exposure. About five feet of 
thick, hard beds may be seen along the creek, lying nearly horizontal, or 
with a very slight dip south -southwest. It is slightly porous and fossilifer- 
ous. It is sometimes blotched with blue and drab. These are the beds 
that rise so rapidly about a mile further south, forming a little ridge or 
brow of prominent land facing north. On this brow is situated the resi- 
dence of Mrs. Socrates Hartle. The rock is shown in the excavation for 
the cellar about the center of Section 13, in Marseilles Township, also, in 
a ditch by the roadside in Section 18, about sixty rods east of Mrs. Hartle' s 
house, where the rapidity of the current of water has cleaned ofi' the 
smoothed and striated rock in a handsome exposure. A little stream, locally 
known as Little Tymochtee Creek, makes eastward along the north side of 
this brow of land, and on Section 13, less than a quarter of a mile north of 
Mrs. Hartle's house, and perhaps thirty feet below the Niagara outcrop near 
it, the blue slaty beds of the water-lime may be seen in the creek. 

In the southeast quarter Section 13, in Marseilles Township, Mr. Heck- 
athorn has a qviarry in the Niagara. The beds here are three to six inches 
in thickness. The stone is rather firm, though somewhat porous. It is 
used for quicklime and for general building purposes. Southeast quarter 
Section 11, in Marseilles Township, D. Heckathorn burns lime from the 
Niagara; dip north; beds about four inches. Within forty rods north of 
Mr. H. 's quarry the water-lime appears in the Little Tymochtee Creek. In 
northeast quarter Section 11, Marseilles Township, H. H. Cary burns lime 


and supplies building stone from the Niagara; beds three to five inches-, 
dip east exposed eighteen inches. Near the village of Marseilles, in the 
same township, Mr. Charles Norris and Michael Keckler have small quarries 
of Niagara limestone. 

The water- lime formation, which in counties further north presents 
three distinct, general lithological characters, in Wyandot County, is 
mainly reduced to one. That aspect of the water-lime designated "Phase 
No. -3," passes, with the addition of much bituminous matter, into a thin 
bedded, even, slaty condition, which, first black, weathers blue on the sides 
of the bedding, or lastly a chocolate color, while the fractured edge is a 
very drab. Throughout the couctry it is known in this condition as "blue 
slate." When the bituminous matter is more evenly distributed through 
the rock, instead of being confined to the thin partings, the beds are thicker 
and of a blue color. 

The principal outcrop of the water-lime within the county is along the 
left bank of the Tymochtee Creek, in Section 27 and 34, in Crawford 
Township. The banks of the creek expose perpendicular sections of four 
to eight feet of these thin beds. The dip being continuously toward the 
southwest, a connected section of eighty- four feet ten inches may be made 
out in a descending order. The beds are homogenous, tough, thin, some- 
times having so much bituminous matter as to appear like the great black 
slate. The thinnest beds are. however, streaked with alternations of dark 
drab, and a bituminous brown. When wet the brown is almost black, but 
when dry and weathered it sometimes assumes a blue color, and if long 
weathered it becomes chocolate. There are among these occasional patches 
of thicker, even drab beds, which finally become so pei'sistent upward as 
to require a special designation. 

Mr. McD. M. Carey has a quarry in these thin, blue beds and on Section 
27, which has acquired considerable notoriety for the large, smooth slabs or 
flagging it affords. Some of the thicker beds furnish also a handsome and 
useful stone for building. The dip is toward the south -southwest exposure 
abovit twelve feet perpendicular. The stone here shows the charac- 
teristic Leperditia aitu. The quarry is in the old river bank or hard-pan 
terrace, about forty rods from the stream. This water- lime is seen in the 
following places in Wyandot County: 

In Section 16, southwest quarter, in Crane Township, at the old ' 'Indian 
Mill," these blue flags have been taken out of the bed of the Sandusky and 
used for foundations for the mill. But in the construction of the bridge 
at the same place, the stone used is said t,o have come from Leesville, Craw- 
ford County. 

In Section 21, Crane Township, at Carters dam, in the Sandusky River, 
Mr. John Strasser has opened the water-lime. The stone is in irregular, 
thick and thin beds. When freshly quari'ied, it is blue-drab, and of a tine 
grain. Exposed a short time to the weather, the whole pile becomes a bright 
blue. The fracture of the beds, however, becomes a much more ashen or 
drab-blue than the sides of the bedding. The dip in W. Strasser's bed is 
about nine feet deep. About thirty rods east of Strasser's quarry, in the 
bed of the Sandusky, blue flagging is taken out like that of Mr. Carey's 
quarry on the Tymochtee Creek, except that here the blue color pervades the 
white mass. Fragments of this, whenever bituminous and jointed, come 
out in long tapering pieces. These flags show a fossil which appears like 
a species of modiolopsis. In Crane Township, southwest quarter, Section 
22, in a bed of Rock Run, a finegrained blue stone is quarried and used for 


foundations. It weathers a drab color to the depth of a half- inch or an 
inch, all uver the outside. One only of six inches is exposed. In the 
northwest quarter of Section 27, in the same township, along the bed of 
Rock Run the water-lime is abundantly exposed, with a general dip south- 
east, changing to west at the west end of the outcrop. Mr. Peter Weinandy 
here burns lime and sells stone. This bed has a depth of about tifty-seven 
feet. Beds which certainly cannot have been fractured more than a few 
months, were seen to have already acquired a coating of drab one-eighth to 
one- fourth of an inch thick over the fractured surface. The layers them- 
selves, before quarrying, are sometimes one half to two-thirds drab, with a 
blue streak through the center. It would seem as if the drab were entirely 
an acquired color, and that perhaps the whole water-lime was at first a blue 
rock. The access of air or aerated water seems to cause the change. The 
fact that the lower, regular beds (as at this quariy), shut off the percola- 
tions of water through the rock, may account for the longer preservation of 
the blue. Whenever the beds are lenticular or irregular, or are so situated 
that the atmosphere finds free access to them, they are drab. They are seen 
to be blue only when deep-seated or lying very true. 

In Section 28, east side of Tymochtee Township, the Tymochtee slate 
is seen in the bed of the Sandusky, at Haymau's mill. Handsome flags, 
about two inches thick, are taken out. In Section 22, Pitt Township, Mr. 
James Anderson's quarry shows the following section in the bank of the 
Sandusky : Bituminous drab, ten inches ; very hard, flinty, irregular beds, 
five feet. 

There are sometimes bituminous films visible on the fractured edge ; no 
fossils. In Pitt Township, on the southwest quarter of Section 10, Mrs. 
Rebecca Smith owns a quarry in the Sandusky, from which a fine-grained, 
even bedded blue stone is taken, which weathers an ashen color. Here are 
some' handsome beds, six to eight inches thick, affording a fine building 
material. Dip southeast. At various points in Pitt Township, the same 
features of the water-lime may be seen. No reliable estimate can be made 
of the thickness exposed, or of their relative places in the formation, the 
outcrops are so isolated, and show so nearly the same characters. The 
same stone is quarried in the river at Upper Sandusky by Mr. William 
Frederick. The same stone is found in Section 17, in Crawford Township, 
on lands of Mr. George Mullholand, and on Section 24, in the quarries uf 
Messrs. Mitten and O'Brien, in the water- lime. The stone from these open- 
ings is in thick beds, much like the gray, hard beds of the quarries at 

The lower corniferous may be seen in interrupted outcrop along the 
Sycamore Creek, from Benton, in Crawford County, to Section 18, in Syca- 
more Township, Wyandot County. Through the whole of this distance it 
is so hid by drift that no reliable section can be obtained. It is of the 
doarse-grained, thick-bedded, harsh and magnesian type until just within 
Section 17, Sycamore, the character of the rock c'nanges. It assumes 
very much the aspect of the drab, thin- bedded water- lime. A little further 
down the creek the soft, thick beds of the lower corniferous return. 
Further still, there is another similar change to a fine-grained, compact, 
light-blue stone, without fossils. This character continues through the 
most of Section 27, and some in Section 21, evinced not often by rock in 
situ, but by the angular, bluish, fine-grained pieces in the stream. This 
member of the lower corniferous was also seen near Melmore, in Seneca 
County No opportunity has been offered to ascertain its thickness, but, 


judging from tho superficial expose, it may have a thickness of thirty or 
even forty feet. In the northwest quarter of Section 21, Sycamore, about 
eighteen inches of similar compact blue limestone maybe seen in the creek, 
underlain by a blue shale, which crumbles conchoidally and shows spots of 
darker blue or purple. It is sometimes quite rocklike, yet when long 
weathered it crumbles. Its thickness cannot be stated, though there can- 
not be less than ten feet, judging from the distance it occupies the bed of 
the creek. On Section 18 of the same township, a thick-bedded, even- 
grained rock, harsh, like a sandstone, is slightly exposed. It is gray, with- 
out visible fossils, and weathers buff. It is impossible to give its dip, 
thickness, or relation to the shale just mentioned. It is probably below 
that. Near the same place, land of Andrew Bretz, there are also large frag- 
ments of a fragile, bituminous, crinoidal limestone, seen in the bed of the 
creek. In Pitt Township, southwest quarter of Section 25, on the land of 
Jacob Brewer, the lower corniferous is slightly exposed in the upper bank 
of the Sandusky River. The rock consists almost entirely of the coral 
Coenostronia ynonticulifera vein. On a thickness of about a foot can be 
in situ, but a mass of two feet thickness is tilted up so as to present the 
edges of the beds in a perpendicular position. 

The Drift. — Wherever sections were observed throughout the county, the 
drift shows, as in counties further north, the two usual colors. The first is 
light brown, or ashen, and extends downward about twelve feet. It may be 
stratified or entirely unstratified, and forms the soil where it has not been 
covered with alluvial or marshy accumulations. Its color alone distinguishes 
it from the underlying blue or Erie clay. They both contain bowlders that 
show glacial action. On Section 24, Crawford Township, the lower member 
was seen exposed twenty- seven feet four inches in the bank of Tymochtee 
Creek, embracing beds of gravel and sand. The upper overlaying was 
twelve feet, and entirely unassorted, yet on Section 18, Tymochtee Township, 
both are more or less stratified. No two sections of this bank would be the 
same. The greatest uniformity in the order of alternation is ia the upper 
part. The blue hard pan sometimes extends upward quite to the brown 
clays and sands, and in one ease the whole bank consists of hard pan, the 
upper portion having the brown color. Hence the general character of this 
bank, and of the drift in Wyandot County, is as follows: Brown clay and 
sand, stratified; brown hard pan; statified brown clay; stratified blue clay 
and sand; finer blue clay and blue hard pan; brown clay; blue clay; debris, 
bowlders and slides. On the opposite side of the creek this bank is entirely 
wanting. There is a bank of a trifle over twelve feet, composed of agglu- 
tinated, rusty sand, without gravel or bowlders, at the base of which, near 
the water, is a bed of vegetable remains containing some pretty large limbs, 
and numerous branches of wood. Such deposits are common in the alluvial 
bottoms bordering the streams. There is a gradual ascent from the Jevel of 
this bank to the height of the bank on the opposite side of the river, attain- 
tain that elevation in a distance of forty rods. 

Material Resources. — The chief source of material wealth in W^yandot 
County, as with other counties in Northwestern Ohio, lies in its rich and 
exhaustless soil. The streams are generally too small or too sluggish to be 
reliable for water-powers. The rocks themselves are not known to possess 
any deposits of valuable minerals. They will serve for common use in 
building, and will make an excellent quicklime. There is reason to believe, 
also, that the water- lime, when having the characters seen in the quarry of 
Mrs. Smith, Section 10, Pitt Township, will afford a cement of hydraulic 



Good bricK, of a red color, are made in different places in the county 
from the surface of the drift. Such establishments are owned at Upper 
Sandusky by Jacob Gottfried & Brother, and by Ulrich & McAfee- also 
on the southeast quarter of Section 11. Salem, and on the Infirmary Farm 
by Jacob Ulnch. Sand for mortar is easily obtained from the numerous 
natural sections of the drift along the drainage valleys. A sand bank at 
Upper Sandusky was observed to underlie a deposit of eighty feet of brown 
hard pan, and was excavated to the depth of ten feet. The layers of sand 
lay nearly horizontal. 



(from time immemorial to 1782.) 

Introductory Remarks— Legendary Accounts Concerning the Dela- 
ware AND Iroquois Indians— Their Wars— The Iroquois Finally Vic- 
torious—The Shawanese— The Eries— The Huron-Iroquois, or Wyan- 
dots — Cartier Discovers The Latter on the Shores of Lake Huron 
in 1535— Champlain's Operations— The French and Hurons Defeat 
THE Five Nations— The Latter Bide Their Time, and Finally Total- 
ly Defeat and Disperse the Hurons— Under French Protection, the 
Hurons are Again Assembled Near Detroit— Their Characteristics 
IN A Savage State— Their Wars— They Occupy the Sandusky Coun- 
try—As Allies of the British, They Commit Many»Atrocities on the 
American Frontier Settlements— The Americans Retaliate by 
Sending Various Expeditions Into the Indian Country. 

PROBABLY no county in the State of Ohio is richer in historical data 
concerning its aboriginal inhabitants than this, and to none were left so 
many landmarks indicating the life, habits and characteristics of its former 
occupants— the Indians. Here, within its borders, the brave but unfort- 
unate Colonel Crawford fought his last battle, and suffered a death which 
will render his name conspicuous for all time in American annals; and here 
the Wyandots (who owned the land, who roamed at will beneath its forest 
shades, who chased the wild game through its tangled thickets, and who, 
under the fostering care of Christian ministers, had made many advances 
toward civilization) remained until within the memory of many now 
living — ux^til they were the last of the Ohio tribes to be removed to new 
homes beyond the Missouri. For these reasons, therefore, no further apol- 
ogy is deemed necessary in explanation of the large amount of space which 
is here devoted to the Indians, and to their occupancy of this and adjacent 

Respecting the early history of the tribes once the claimants and occu- 
pants of these regions, the most rational and lucid accounts are obtained 
from the journals of the Jesuit and Moravian Missionaries, men who, 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, penetrated into this terri- 
tory far in advance of the boldest hunters and trappers. They were in- 
formed by the old men of the Delawares (the Lenni Lenape, or original 
people, as they called themselves) that many centuries previous, their ances- 
tors dwelt far away in the western wilds of the American Continent, but 
emigrating eastwardly, arrived after many years on the west bank of the 
"Namoesi Sipu" (the Mississippi), or river of tish, where they fell in with 
the Mengwes (Iroquois), who had also emigrated from a distant country in 
the direction of the setting sun, and approached this river somewhat nearer 
its source. The spies of the Lenape reported the country on the east of the 
Mississippi to be inhabited by a powerful nation, dwelling in large towns 
erected upon the shores of their principal streams. 

This people bore the name of Allegewi. They were tall and strong, 
some were of gigantic size, and from them were derived the names of the 



Allegheny Kiver and Mountains. Their towns were defended by regular 
fortifications or intrenchments of earth, vestiges of which are yet seen in a 
greater or less degree of preservation throughout the Mississippi and Ohio 
valleys and in the regions of the great lakes. The Lenape requested per- 
mission to establish themselves in their vicinity, a request which was re- 
fused, but leave was given them to pass the river and seek a country farther 
to the eastward. But while the Lenape were crossing the river, the Al- 
legewi, becoming alarmed at their number, assailed and destroyed 
many of those who had reached the eastern shore, and threatened a like fate 
to others should they attempt the passage of the stream. Frenzied at the 
loss they had sustained, the Lenape eagerly accepted the proposition from 
the Mengwes, who had hitherto been spectators only of their enterprise, to 
conquer and divide the country of the AUegewi. A war of many years' du- 
ration was waged by the combined nations, marked by great havoc and loss 
of life on both sides, which Unally resulted in the conquest and expulsion 
of the Allegewi, who fled by the way of the Mississippi River, never to re- 
turn. Their country was apportioned among the conquerors — the Meng- 
wes or Iroquois choosing the neighborhood of the great lakes, and the Len- 
nape or Delawares possessing themselves of the lands to the southward. 

Many ages after, during which the victors lived together in great 
harmony, the enterprising hunters of the Lenape tribes crossed the Alleghany 
Mountains and discovered the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers and the bays 
into which they flowed. Exploring the Sheyichbi country (New Jersey), they 
arrived on the Hudson River, to which they subsequently gave the name of 
the Mohicannittuck. Returning to their nation after a long absence, they 
reported their discoveries, describing the country they had visited as 
abounding in game and fruits, fish and fowl, and destitute of inhabitants. 
Concluding this to be the country destined for them by the Great Spirit, 
the Lenape proceeded to establish themselves upon the principal rivers of 
the east, making the Delaware, to which they gave the name of Lenape — 
Wihittuck (the river of the Lenape) the center of their possessions. 

All of the Lenape Nation, however, who crossed to the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi, did not move toward the Atlantic coast, a part remaining behind to as- 
sist that portion of their people who, frightened by the reception which the 
Allegewi had given to their countrymen, fled far to the west of the Namoesi 
Sipu. Finally the Lenape became divided into three great bodies. The 
larger half of all settled on the Atlantic and the great rivers which 
flow into it. The other half was separated into two parts; the stronger 
continued beyond the Mississippi, the other remained on the eastern bank. 

Ultimately, that part of the Lenape Nation who located on the east side 
of the Mississippi, became divided into many small tribes, receiving names 
from their places of residence, or from some circumstance remarkable at 
the time of its occurrence. Thus originated the Delawares, Shawanese, 
Nanticokes, Susquehannas, Nishamines,Conoys, Minsis, Abenaquis, Pequots, 
Narragansetts, Miamis, Illinois, Sauks, Foxes, Menomonees, Chippewas, 
Ottawas. Pottawatomies, and the Southern Cherokees and Choctaws. Ac- 
cording to those who have made a special study of Indian history, all of 
the tribes above named belonged to the great Algonquin race, and spoke 
dialects of the Algonquin language, so similar that the members of any 
tribe could communicate with those of all others without the aid of an in- 

For some years the Mengwes (Iroquois), who, as before stated, consti- 
tuted a separate race, remained near the Great Lakes with their canoes, in 


readiness to fly should the Allegewi retui'n. The latter failed to appear 
again, however, and becoming emboldened and their numbers rapidly in- 
creasing, they stretched themselves eastward along the St. Lawrence, and 
finally locating, for the most part, in the present State of New York, became, 
on the north, immediate neighbors of the Lenape or Algonquin tribes. In 
the course of time, the Mengwes and Lenape became enemies, and, dread- 
ing the power of the Lenape, the Mengwes resolved to involve them in war 
— one Lenape tribe with another — to reduce their strength. They com- 
mitted murders upon the members of one tribe, and induced the injured 
party to believe they were perpetrated by another. They stole into the 
country of the Delawares, surprised and killed their hunters, and escaped 
with the plunder. 

The nations or tribes of that period had each a particular mark upon 
its war clubs, which, left beside a murdered person, denoted the aggressor. 
The Mengwes committed a murder in the Cherokee country, and left with 
the dead body a war-club bearing the insignia of the Lenape. The Chero- 
kees in revenge fell upon the lattei", and thus commenced a long and bloody 
war. The treachery and cunning of the Mengwes were at length discovered, 
and the Delaware tribe of the Lenape turned upon them with the determi- 
nation to utterly extirpate them. They were the more strongly induced to 
take this resolution, as the man-eating propensities of the Mengwes, accord- 
ing to Heckewelder, had reduced them in the estimation of the Delawares 
below the rank of human beings. 

To this time, each tribe of the Mengwes had acted uader the direction 
of its particular chiefs, and, although the nation could not control the con- 
duct of its members, it was made responsible for their outrages. Pressed by 
the Lenape, they resolved to form a confederation, which might enable 
them better to concentrate their forces in war, and to regulate their affairs 
in peace. Thannawage, an aged Mohawk, was the projector of this alliance. 
Under his auspices, five^ nations* — the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Ca- 
yugas and Senecas — foi'med a species of republic, governed by the united 
councils of their aged and experienced chiefs. The beneficial effects of this 
confederation early displayed themselves. The Lenape were checked, and 
the Mengwes, whose warlike disposition soon familiarized them with fire- 
arms procured from the Dutch on the Hudson River, were enabled at the 
same time to contend with their ancient enemies and to resist the French, 
who now attempted the settlement of Canada, and the extension of their 
dominion over a large portion of the country lying between the Atlantic 
Ocean and the Mississippi River. 

However, becoming hard pressed by the Europeans, the Mengwes, or 
Five Nations, sought reconciliation with their old enemies, the Lenape; and 
for this purpose, if the traditions of the Delawai'es be accredited, they 
affected one of the most extraordinary strokes of policy which aboriginal 
history has recorded. 

"When Indian nations are at war, the mediators between them are the 
women. However weary of the contest, the men hold it cowardly and dis- 
graceful to seek reconciliation. They deem it inconsistent in a warrior to 
speak of peace with bloody weapons in his hands. He must maintain a de- 
termined courage, and appear at all times as ready and willing to fight as 
at the commencement of hostilities. With such dispositions, Indian wars 

*To these a sixth nation, the Tuscaroras, was added in 1712. This last tribe originally dwelt in the 
western part of the present State of North Carolina, but having become involved in a war with their 
neighbors, were driven from their country northward, and adopted by the Mengwes or Iroquois confederacy. 


would never cease if the women did not interfere and persuade the combat- 
ants to bury the hatchet and make peace with each other. On such occa- 
sions, the women would plead their cause with much eloquence. " Not a 
warrior," they would say, " but laments the loss of a father, a son, a brother 
or a friend. And mothers, who have borne with cheerfulness the pangs of 
childbirth and the anxieties that wait upon the infancy and adolescence of 
their sons, behold their promised blessings crushed in the held of battle, or 
perishing at the stake in lanutterabie torments. In the depths of their 
grief, they curse their wretched existence, and shudder at the idea of bearing 
children." They conjured the warriors, therefore, by their suffering wives, 
their helpless children, their homes and their friends, to interchange for- 
giveness, to cast away their arms, and, smoking together the pipe of peace, 
to embrace as friends those whom they had learned to esteem as enemies. 

Such prayers thus urged seldom failed of the desired effect. The Meng- 
wes solicited the Lenape to assume the function of peacemakers. " They 
had reflected," said the Mengwes, "upon the state of the Indian race, and 
were convinced that no means remained to preserve it unless some magnani- 
mous nation would assume the character of the ivoman. It could not be 
given to a weak and contemptible tribe; such would not be listened to; but 
the Lenape and their allies would at once possess influence and command 
respect. " The facts upon which these arguments were founded were known 
to the Delawares, and in a moment of blind confidence in the sincerity of 
the Iroquois they acceded to the proposition and assumed the petticoat. 
This ceremony was performed at Fort Orange (now Albany, N. Y.) amid 
great rejoicings in 1617, in the presence of the Dutch, whom the Lenape 
afterward charged with having conspired with the Mengwes for their de- 

The Iroquois now assumed the rights of protection and command over 
the Delawares, but, still di'eading their strength, they cunningly involved 
them again in a war with the Cherokees, promised to fight their battles, led 
them into an ambush of their foes and deserted them. The Delawares at 
length comprehended the treachery of their so-called friends of the North, 
and resolved to resume their arms, and, being still superior in numbers, to 
crush them. It was too late, however. The Europeans were now making 
their way into the country in every direction, and gave ample employment 
to the astonished Lenape. 

On the other hand, the Mengwes denied the story told by the Lenape. 
They always asserted that they had conquered the Delawares by force of 
arms, and made them a subject people. And though it was said they were 
unable to detail the circumstance of this conquest, it is more reasonable to 
suppose it true than that a numerous and warlike people should have volun- 
tarily suffered themselves to be disarmed and enslaved by a shallow artifice, 
or that, discovering the fraud practiced upon them, they should unresist- 
ingly have submitted to its consequences. This conquest was not an empty 
acquisition to the Mengwes. They claimed dominion over all the lands oc- 
cupied by the Delawares — from the head-waters of the Delaware and Susque- 
hanna Rivers on the north, to the Potomac on the south, and from the At- 
lantic Ocean westward to the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers — and their claims 
were distinctly acknowledged by the early whites when treating for the ces- 
sion of lands. It is also recorded in history that from about 1617, until the 
Indian title to the territory just described was extinguished, parties of the 
Iroquois or Five Nations (afterward known as the Six Nations) occupied and 
wandered over the country of the Delawares at pleasure. True, the cow- 


ardly Delawares and the perfidious Sbawanese always boldly claimed these 
grounds as their own (except when confronted and rebuked by the chiefs 
and head men of the Six Nations), yet the proprietaries wisely recognized 
the claim of the Six Nations, and it was with that great confederation of 
red men they treated when purchases of territory were made. 

The Shawanese came from the South. They were a restless, wandering 
tribe, and had occupied regions now embraced by the States of Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Georgia and the Carolinas, before locating with their allies, the 
Delawares, in the province of Pennsylvania. After passing a few decades in 
that province, they migrated, or rather were driven, westward, and by the 
middle of the eighteenth century the entire tribe had settled on the Ohio 
River and its large tributaries. 

Meanwhile the Six Nations were ceding to the Penns the lands occupied 
by the Delawares in Pennsylvania. Hence the latter were gradually yet 
peaceably pushed back to the westward by the constantly advancing tide of 
European emigration, until the beginning of the " Old French and Indian 
war" of 1754-33, when they, together with the Shawanese, Wyandots and 
other tribes of the great Northwest, became the allies of the French, and for 
many years thereafter ravaged at frequent intervals the western frontiers of 
Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia. Immediately after their defeat at 
Kittanning by Col. Armstrong in September, 1756, the Delawares fled into 
Ohio; they refused to settle again on the east of Fort Du Quesne, and 
seemed quite willing to have that fortress and its French garrison placed 
between them and the English. However, while extremelv careful to main- 
tain their old men, wives and children far to the westward of Fort Du 
Quesne, afterward Fort Pitt, the Delaware and Shawanese warriors (assisted 
until 1763 by the French) dominated over all of the country (with the ex- 
ception of small circles surrounding Forts Pitt and Ligonier) lying imme- 
diately west of the Allegheuies, until 1764, when Gen. Henry Boquet, with 
a strong force of Pennsylvania and Virginia provincials marched into the 
"Muskingum country." He defeated the savages in several encounters, and 
caused them to sue. for a peace which continued until after the beginning 
of the war for American independence. The British then rendered their 
name forever odious by marshaling under their banners the Delawares, 
Shawanese, Wyandots, Pottawatomies and other Northwestern tribes, besides 
the Six Nations of New York, whose warriors, after being fully supplied 
with English munitions of war, were sent forward to massacre, irrespective 
of age, sex or condition, the unfortunate residents of American border set- 

Having related thus much of the traditional and authentic history of the 
Delawares and Shawanese — tribes which many years ago were prominent in 
the region now embracing Wyandot County — we turn our attention to the 
"Erigas,"or Eries, and the Huron Iroquois, otherwise known as '" Yendots," 
or Wyandots. 

Of the Eries but little is known, and that little consists mainly of a few 
meager traditions. Indeed, some writers doubt whether such a tribe ever 
existed on the southern shores of Lake Erie, as claimed. However that may 
be, it is fair to presume that if such a race did once occupy the lake shore 
described, they were at the same time occupants of the territory now within 
the limits of Wyandot County, The early French priests, or missionaries, 
are quoted as authority for the statements, that about 230 yeai's ago a 
powerful tribe of savages, termed variously the Eries or " Cat Nation,'' the 
Erigas or "Neutral Nation," occupied a wide expanse of country on the 


southern border of Lake Erie, extending from the Niagara River on the east 
to the Miami River on the west; that they possessed fortified towns, and 
could muster four thousand warriors or fighting men, famed for their ex- 
ploits in archery. Finally, however, they became involved in a war with 
the Iroquois or Five Nations, which continued until the entire tribe of Fries 
was either killed, adopted into the powerful confederacy of the Five Nations, 
or driven to other regions far to the westward. This misfortune, we are 
told, befell the Fries about the year 1656, and it is supposed that from the 
date last mentioned until the coming of the Wyandots or Hurou-Iroquoi.s, 
the territory lying immediately to the southward of Lake Erie remained as 
abandoned or neutral ground. 


The first European to make mention of the tribe of Indians, since known 
to history as the Wyandots, was the celebrated French navigator and 
explorer Jacques Cartier, who in the summer of 1535, sailed up the St. 
Lawrence River to a place called by him Mont Royal (afterward changed 
by the English to Montreal), and formally took possession of all the country 
round about (in the name of King Francis the First), under the title of 
New France. Soon after, Cartier and his men extended their explorations 
along the Huron Lake, where, on its southern shores, they suddenly dis- 
covered themselves to be intruders upon the territory of a powerful tribe of 
savages, who called themselves, as did the New York Iroquois, Ontwaonwes, 
meaning " real men, " but known in French and English history as the 
Hur on -Iroqu ois, or more commonly the Hurons from their proximity to the 
lake of that name. The immediate territory occupied by them (lying about 
100 miles south of the mouth of the Ottawa or French River), was only 
about sixty miles in extent, yet. according to French writers, they then had 
twenty-fi ye to wns, and were about 30,000 in number. 

The Hurons, like all untutored aboriginal tribes, were chiefly employed 
in pursuits of the chase and warring with their no less savage neighbors. 
Yet it cannot be said of them, as of the Five Nations, that they were par- 
ticularly a warlike and vindictive people. However, they could not for a 
moment tolerate a tr ibal insult . Though they were, without a doubt, Men- 
gwes or Iroquois Indians, possessing many characteristics in common with 
their New York brethren, yet they were sworn enemies, and their tribal and 
personal vindictiveness was proverbial among all Indians. As the New York 
Iroquois was a confederation of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayu- 
gas and Senecas, so the Huron-Iroq uois was a league of the Hurons proper, 
and various tribes of the Algonquin race, and long before Cartier navigated 
the waters of the St. Lawrence these leagues and confederations of red men 
had waged wars of extermination against each other. Cartier made some 
attempts at colonization along the St. Lawrence, but in 1543 the few French 
settlements had all been abandoned and for more than half a century there- 
after, the disturbed condition of France entirely prevented its people from 
utilizing his discoveries. 

In 1603, however, Samuel de Champlain, another distinguished French 
mariner and explorer, led an expedition to Quebec, made a permanent set- 
tlement there, and, in fact, founded the colony of Canada. From Quebec 
and from Mont Royal, which was soon after established, the adventurous 
French explorers, fur traders, voyageurs and missionaries, pushed rapidly 
into the Western wilderness, and as early as 1615, Champlain himself 
visited the Hurons on the shores of Lake Manitouline. Quite as early, too, 


priests of the R6collet or Franciscan order, established missions in the 
same locality. 

As before indicated, the Hurons had been reared to hate the very name 
of the Irocj^uois — their Southern brethren — and from the remotest period of 
their tribal existence, the defiant warwhoop, Bounded by either of the bel- 
ligerents, was sufficient for the commencement of another bloody chapter in 
the unwritten history of their career. The Harons, therefore, hailed the 
arrival of Champlain with delight. They considered the brave bearing, 
and improved weapons of the French soldiery (added to their numerical 
strength, and their perfect acquaintance with the nature of the territory of 
their mortal enemies), would be a force sufficiently effective for the annihil- 
ation of the vindictive Iroqvuxis. Terms of alliance with the French were 
soon proposed by the Hurons to Champlain, who, not willing that his power 
should be unknown and unfelt in tjie Western wilds, and particularly that 
his dusky neighbors should be acquainted with the fact that opposition to 
his policy meant that they had in their own midst an enemy of territic ven- 
geance, whom it was always better to placate than offend, terms of alliance 
were at once consummated, by which, either in times of war or peace, the 
\__JHuron8 and French were to act as one people. 

Very naturally the Sout hern Iroquo is, or Five Nations, looked upon the 
French settlements on their Northern border with deep aversion. Already 
the Dutch had established themselves at New Amsterdam (New York) and 
along the Hudson River, the Swedes were occupying the Lower Delaware 
Valley, the English were making settlements at Plymouth Rock, and Salem, 
and Dorchester in New England, also in Virginia, and now the French 
encroachments upon the north aroused all their slumbering suspicions as to 
the final result, if foreign peoples were permitted to invade their territory, 
curtail their hunting-grounds, and thus trifle with their hitherto unlimited 
authority. Therefore, the ever alert and fie ry Monaw ks soon found an 
occasion for taking up the tomahawk against the French and the Hurons. 
Their example became infectious, anrl soon the whole confederation — the 
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onundagas, Cayugas and Senecas — took the war-path 
against their enemies in the North. Advised of the approach of the Iro- 
quois, Champlain made choice of his battle-field on the lake, which still 
bears his name, and with his own ships, surrounded by a fleet of bark 
canoes bearing his Huron allies, he met the enemy in mid-lake. Of course 
the advantages were all with the French, for water is never the selected 
battle-field of the Indian and bows and arrows were no match for musketry, 
and after a short, though stubbornly contested fight, the Iroquois gave way, 
and rowed their light, birch-bark canoes almost with the bounding of the 
deer to the shore from which they had embarked, hotly pursued by the 
equally light canoes of the Hurons. By the time they had reached the 
shore, the panic was complete. The forest offered them no encouragement 
to make a stand, so on they went, followed by the musketry of the French 
and the victorious whoop of the Hurons, till further pursuit was useless, 
and the chase was abandoned. 

The defeat sustained by the Five Nations on Lake Champlain, at the 
hands of the French and Hurons, as well as the constantly spreading out 
of white settlements in New England and New York, caused the terrible 
Iroquois confederates first mentioned to confine their attention to matters 
nearer home, and to remain comparatively (though not wholly) peaceable 
for many years. Meanwhile, or about 1(325, there had arrived on the shores 
of the St. Lawrence a few Jesuits, the vanguard of a host of those fiery 


champions of the cross who were destined; it appears, to crowd aside the 
more peaceful or more inert Franciscans throughout the whole river and 
lake region in the North, and substantially to appropriate that missionary 
ground to themselves. Their course was generally across Canada by land 
to Lake Manitouline, and thence in canoes through Lakes Huron, Michigan 
and Superior; for the more convenient route by way of the Niagara River 
and Lake Erie was guarded by the ferocious Iroquois, whom Champlain, by 
his ill-advised attack, had made the implacable enemy of the French. Dur- 
ing the period referred to, the Jesuit fathers were assiduous in their atten- 
tion to the Hurons; many of the latter were willingly made converts of the 
Catholic faith, and also showed a rapid advancement in the ways of civiliza- 
tion, particularly in the cultivation of the soil, and the production of corn, 
beans, pumpkins, squashes, etc. A number of schools and churches were 
likewise established at St. Louis, St. Ignatius, and other of their chief 
towns, and stockades erected to protect them from surprise by the dreaded 

Th^ Iroquois, however, were only biding their time. For about two 
score years had they smarted under the stigma of the defeat I'eceived at the 
hands of Champlain. Another generation of warriors had grown up among 
them, and the sons were eager seekers of an opportunity by which the shame 
of the past might be obliterated in the glory of the future. This oppor- 
tunity was afforded them as early as 1648, when, by a treaty with the Dutch, 
they became well supplied with firearms, which previous to that time had 
been denied them by the Dutch authorities. The tireless, irreconcilable, 
unforgetting and unforgiving Iroquois were now ready for the war-path. 
The terms of the treaty above mentioned prevented the possibility of a 
conflict with the Du tch alon g the Hudson River, and as a similar peaceful 
state of affairs prevailed between them and the New England colonists, the 
young and restless warriors of the confederation turned to more remote 
fields in search of an enemy upon whom to test the virtues of their newly 
acquired implements of war. ^ 

Such an enemy was soon found (if any credence be given to traditional 
narration) in the persons of the Eries . who then inhabited the country 
lying to the southward of Lake Erie, and as a result, the latter were 
vanquished and destroyed. Our " Romans of America," the confederated 
Iroquois, then turned upon their ancient enemy, the Hurons . This war be- 
tween the Hurons and Iroquois raged for several years, or until about 
1 659, wh en the latter invaded the country of the former in great forces, de- 
feated them at every point, massacred large numbers, including several 
French priests, destroyed their crops and towns, and pursued the panic- 
stricken fugitives to remote quarters. Some of the Hurons sought protection 
under the walls o f Quebe c; others made their way to the frozen borders of 
Hud son's B ay; others again reached in safety the upper part of t he Lower 
Peninsula of Michigan; but the greater portion fled to the Ojibway, or as 
now termed, Chippewa hunting-grounds, on the southern shore of Lake Su- 
perior. The implacable Iroquois even followed the fugitives westward to 
their new haunts, but the latter, by the help of the Chippewas, were enabled 
to repulse their arrogant enemies, who thenceforth seldom sought a war- 
path which led so far to the Nor thwest ./ 

For a number of years the Hurons, the Ottawawas, or Ottawas, and the 
Dinondadies — tribes which had been driven from Canada by the fierce Iro- 
quois — led a restless, nomadic life in the Lake Superior region. At length 
they were visited by Fathers Jacques Marquette and Claude Dablon, who 


began to organize the Hurons. under their various chiefs, as a permanently- 
established, self-reliant people, and had succeeded in a measure, when a 
war with the Sioux compelled their removal to Michillimacinac, now known 
as Mackinaw. The assembling at Mackinaw of the Hurons and other tribes 
friendly to the French, took place about the year JUxI.l , and there they re- 
mained until 1703 ; when La Motte Cadillac, who hadl^een for several years 
the commandant at Mackinaw, established a pei'manent post on the " detroit," 
or strait, between Lakes Erie and St. Clair, which was at first known as 
F(>rt Ponchartrain, but soon after received the appellation of Detroit, which, 
as post, village and city it has retained to this day. Cadillac immediately 
made strenuous efforts to induce all the various tribes of the Northwest who 
were friends of the French to locate around and near Fort Ponchartrain, 
evidently desirous to have them well in hand, so that the French command- 
ers could more easily lead them on warlike expeditions against the English 
and Iroquois. The Hurons at Mackinaw (as well as various other tribes) 
promptly accepted his invitation. At Detroit, they were joined by quite 
large bands of Hurons and Dinondadies from Charity and Great Manitouline 
Islands. Subsequently new tribal compacts were perfected, and the re- 
united and combined tribes of Hurons and Dinondadies then became known 
as the Wyandots, meaning " Traders of the West." 

The warriors of the various tribes assembled at Fort Ponchartrain 
usually acted together in their numerous warlike expeditions. Of the con- 
flicts which they waged with other savages, however, there is seldom any 
record unless they fought in connection with the French. Even in that 
case the accounts are few and meager. It appears that the Indians in Mich- 
igan under French control were almost continually at war with the Iroquois, 
and, notwithstanding the acknowledged valor and sagacity of the Six Na- 
tions, the former (having the support and sometimes the active assistance of 
the French) were able after 1707 to hold their ground, and. to remain in 
41flaa^ai£!a.,Qtiliilt4?en insular throughout the centjiry. 

Early in May, 1712, when the warriors at Cadillac's settlement at the 
" detroit " were nearly all absent, hunting, a large body of Outagamie 
(Fox) and Mascoutin Indians, supposed to be in league with the Iroquois, 
suddenly appeared before Fort Ponchartrain, erected a breastwork, and 
made other preparations for an assault. Du Buisson, the commandant, 
who had only about twenty men with him, sent runners to call in the hunt- 
ing-parties, and then awaited ihe assault of his foes. It was made on the 
18th of May, and, though temporarily repulsed, there was every prospect 
that it would be successful on account of the comparatively large numbers 
of the assailants. 

While the fight was going on, however, the Wyan dots, Ottawa, and Pot- 
tawatomie warriors returned, and immediately attacked Du Buisson's 
assailants. The latter were driven into their own defenses; those defenses 
were assaulted by the French and their allies, and these in turn were re- 
pulsed by the Foxes and Mascoutins. Thus the conflict continued with 
varying fortunes for no less than nineteen days, when the invaders fled. 
Sevei'al miles north of Detroit they halted, and built a rude fortification, 
but the French and their allies attacked them with two small pieces of artil- 
lery, and routed them after three days more of fighting, when the Wyan- 
dots, Pottawatomies and Ottawas massacred eight hundred men, ivomen and 

In fact, the Fox nation was reported completely destroyed, but this was 
not the case. Some of its warriors joined the Iroquois, while the main body 


fled to the west side of Lake Michigan, where they were long distinguished 
for their especial hatred of the French. On the other hand, the friendship 
then cemented between the French and the 'W3'andots, Pottawatomies and 
Ottawas, endured through more than half a century of varied fortunes, and 
was scarcely severed when, throughout Canada and the West, the Gallic 
flag went down in hopeless defeat before the conqtiering Britons. 

From Detroit the Wyandots gradually extended their hunting-grounds 
to the southward (the strength of the Iroquois, after a thirty years' war with 
the French, having been much reduced, and their hostile incursions into 
the Lake Erie region successfully repelled), and as early as 1725 were in 
quiet possessioQ of the country about Saadusky Bay, and also claimed 
ownership to all the lands lying between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In 
1740, they consented to the proposition that a considerable body of Dela- 
wares, who had been driven out of Pennsylvania by the Iroquois, should oc- 
cupy the Mu.skingum country. Finally, the entire Delaware nation, as well 
as the major portion of the Shawanese, became established in the present 
State of Ohio, and in conjunction with the Wya)idots (all allies of the 
French), desolated and laid waste the border settlements of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and Virginia for many years. 

Our researches have not led us to believe that the Wyandots were any 
worse or any better than the average North American savage. They had the 
usual characteristics of the Indians, both of the Algonquin and Iroquois 
races, of which races, indeed, during the later years, they were a mixture. 
Less terrible in battle, less sagacious in council, than the men of the Six 
Nations, they were, nevertheless, like the rest of their red brethren, brave, 
hardy and skillful warriors, astute managers so far as their knowledge ex- 
tended, generally faithful friends, and invariably most implacable enemies. 
Their own time they devoted to war, the chase or idleness, abandoning to 
the women all the labors which could be imposed upon their weary 

They lived in the utmost freedom which it is possible to imagine, con- 
sistent with any civil or military organization whatever. Their sachems 
exercised little authority, save to declare war or make peace, to determine 
on the migrations of the tribes, and to give wise counsels allaying any ill 
feelings which might exist among the people. There was no positive law 
compelling obedience. 

Even in war there was no way by which the braves could be forced to 
take the war-path. Any chieftain could drive a stake into the ground, dance 
the war dance around it, strike the tomahawk into it with a yell of de- 
fiance, and call for warriors to go forth against the foe. If his courage or 
capacity was doubted, he obtained but few followers. If he was of approved 
valor and skill, a larger number would grasp their weapons in response to 
his appeal; while if he was a chieftain distinguished far and wide for deeds 
of blood and craft, the whole nation would spring to arms, and all its vil- 
lages would resovind with the terrific notes of the war song, chanted by 
hundreds of frenzied braves. Even after they had taken the field (or more 
properly speaking, the woods) against their enemies, they could not be com- 
pelled to fight, except by the fear of being called a " squaw," which, however, 
to the Indian mi ad was a very terrible punishment. 

With the Indian method of warfare, the American mind is pretty well 
acquainted, so that we need not give a detailed description of it here. Few 
have not read how. the warriors went forth against their foes, clad chiefly in 
hideous paint, but aimed with tomahawk and scalping-knives, and those 


who have been suflScieutly successful in fur-catching, carrying also the cov- 
eted muskets of the white man; how they made their way with the utmost 
secrecy through the forest until they reached the vicinity of their enemies, 
whether red or white; how, when their unsuspecting victims were wrapped 
in slumber, the whole crowd of painted demons would burst in among them, 
using musket, knife and tomahawk with the most furious zeal; and how, 
when the torch had been applied, men, women and children were stricken 
down in indiscriminate slaughter by the luried light of their blazing homes. 

It is well known, too, that those who escaped immediate death were often 
reiserved for a still more horrible doom; that the fearful sport of running 
the gauntlet when a hundred weapons were flung by malignant foes at the 
naked fugitive, was but the preliminary amusement before the awful burn- 
ing at the stake, accompanied by all the refinements of torment which a 
baleful ingenuity could invent, yet supported with unsurpassable fortitude 
by the victim, who often shrieked his defiant death song amid the last con- 
vulsions of his tortured frame. Their religion was what might have been 
expected from their practices — a mass of senseless and brutal superstition 
— and Pere Marquette, the most zealous of missionaries, after several years 
of labor among the Northwestern Indians, could only say that the Hurons 
" retained a little Christianity." 

It would be foreign to the design of this work to attempt to give an 
extended account of all the wars, movements, etc., of the Wyandot In- 
dians, subsequent to their occupation of the Sandusky River country, even 
if such were possible. They were simply in common with all other tribes 
in the neighborhood of the great lakes, the friends and allies of the 
French, the foes of the English and Iroquois, and until the termination of 
the French power in America, had assisted the troops of that nation to 
fight many battles. Thus in 1744, when war broke out between France and 
England, numerous bands of savages from all the Northwestern tribes 
sought the service of the French. Some of them assailed the frontiers of 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, while others made their way to Montreal, where 
they were furnished with arms and ammunition, and were sent forth against 
the settlers of New York and New England. In 1745, one of the numer- 
ous records made by the Canadian ofiicials states that fifty "Poutewatamies," 
fifteen "Puans" and ten "Illinois" came to go to war. Another mentions the 
arrival of thirty-eight "Outawois, " seventeen "Sauternes," twenty-four 
Hurons, and fourteen "Poutewatamies." Similar official memoranda show 
the sending out of not less than twenty marauding expeditions against the 
English colonists in one year, frequent mention being made of the part 
taken by the Hurons or Wyandots in these bloody raids. 

After the close of that war by the treaty of Aix-la Chapelle in 1748. 
there was comparative quiet among the red men of the Northwest until the 
opening of the great conflict known in Europe as the seven -years' war, but 
in America called the " Old French and Indian War." This contest was 
commenced in the spring of 1754, by a fight between a body of Virginia 
rangers, under Lieut. Col. George Washington, and a company of French 
sent out from Fort DuQuesne, and continued until toward the close of 1762, 
when, by a treaty of peace between France and England, the former power 
gave up all claims to the Northwest Territory, and from that date their 
authority here ceased forevermore. 

Meanwhile, true to their promises and their friendships, the Hurons or 
Wyandots had participated side by side with the French in numerous con- 
flicts. They assisted to defeat Braddock in front of Fort Du Quesne. Sub- 


sequently, nearly every Wyaudot who could lift a tooiahawk, went forth 
upon the war path against the hapless inhabitants of the Pennsylvania and 
Virginia frontiers. They served under Montcalm in Canada. Again were 
they summoned to the defense of Fort Da Qaesne when it was threatened 
by Gen. Forbes' army, and the following year, under D'Aubry, they pro- 
ceeded to the relief of Fort Niagara. That fortress soon surrendered to the 
English, however, and a little later the fall of Quebec (at which a large 
body of the Northwestern Indians was present) virtually decided the fate 
of Canada and the Northwest. The Indians then began to lose faith in the 
omnipotence of their French friends, and our Wyandots, together with 
other tribes, returned to their homes on the shores of the Great Lakes and 
rivers of the West, and gloomily awaited the results referred to at the 
close of the preceding paragraph. 

When, in 17(33 , Pontiac, the renowned Ottawa chieftain, marshaled un- 
der his leadership the Northwestern tribes for the purpose of overthrowing 
British supremacy in that region, the Wyan dots joine d him. After the 
siege of Detroit had continued for several weeks, the Wyandots and Potta- 
watomies made a treaty of peace with Maj. Gladwyn, the besieged English 
commander, but when Maj.Tlogers and Capt. Dalzell led a party from the 
fort to attack Pontiac in his camp, the treacherous Wyandots and Pottawat- 
omies fiercely assaulted the flank of the British column. Dalzell was 
killed, and it was only by the most desperate exertions that his successor, 
Capt. Grant, with the aid of Maj. Rogers and his American rangers, was 
able to make good his retreat to the fort, after a fourth of his men were 
killed or wounded. 

The next summer, 1864, Gen. Bradstreet* occupied Detroit with a con- 
siderable force of English, Americans and Iroquois, the appearance of 
whom, together with Gen. Boquet's successful campaign into the Muskin- 
gum Country, doubtless tended to strongly impress the power of England on 
the hitherto hostile tribes. In 1765, George Croghan, Deputy Superintend- 
ent of Indian A£fairs, under the celebrated Sir William Johnson, baronet, 
his Majesty's sole agent and Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the North- 
ern Department of North America, etc., etc., etc., held a grand council meet- 
ing at Fort Pitt, and also at Detroit, with the Northwestern tribes. They 
had by that time become thoroughly humbled, and were sincerely desirous 
of peace and the re-opening of the fur trade. After the treaties then made, 
all these tribes remained steady friends of the British, so long as that na- 
tion had any need of their services. 

Pontiac himself gave in his submission at another council held in Au- 
gust of the same year. This celebrated chieftain was murdered by an Illi- 
nois Indian near St. Louis, in 1769. The Wyandotts, the Ottawas, and 
other tribes which had followed his lead, sprang to arms to avenge the mur- 
der, and almost exterminated the Illinois. Except this and similar conflicts 
with neighboring savages, also a slight participation in Dunmore's war, the 
Wyandotts remained at peace until the out-break of the Revolutionary war. 

The British then made strong and, as we shall see, successful efforts to 
obtain their assistance, and in the summer of 1777, several hundred Wyan- 
dots, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Chippewas, Wiunebagoes and others from 
the region of the Great Lakes, all under Charles de Langdale, a French and 

* During the same season, Gen. Bradstreet, with his forces, ascended the Sandusky River as far as it was 
navigable tor boats, where a treaty of peace was signed by the chiefs and head men of the Wyandot na- 
tion. It is probable that he penetrated as far inland as the old Indian town of Upper Sandusky, which 
stood on the right bank of the river, about three miles above the present town of Upper Sandusky. Gen. 
Israel Putnam, then a Major in command of a battalion of American provincials, was with Bradstreet. 


Indian half-breed, and another French officer, joined the English Army of 
Gen. Bargoyne. They accompanied him in his invasion of New York, but ac- 
complished little, except to burn some houses and slaughter a few families. 
Burgoyne made some efforts to restrain their ferocity, which so disgusted 
them that they nearly or quite all returned home before his surrender to 
Gen. Gates. They also complained that Burgoyne did not take good care 
of them, and that over a hundred of their number were needlessly sacrificed 
at Bennington, Vt. 

Although the Wyandots and their neighbors — the Ottawas, Chippewas, 
and Pottawattomies on the north, and the Delawares and Shawanese on the 
south — were opposed to taking any further part in the war under the direct 
command of British officers, and as part of a British Army, yet as it appears, 
they were not at all avei'se to making war upon the Americans in their own 
way, and under the lead of their own chiefs. Hence, late in the fall of 
1777, the Wyandot, Delaware and Shawanese warriors appeared in West- 
moreland County, Penn., where (many of the arms-bearing population being 
absent as members of Washington's army) they gathered many scalps. 
Elated with their success, they crossed the Alleghanies and slaughtered 
many of the inhabitants of the region now embraced by the counties of 
Bedford, Blair, Huntingdon and Somerset. Neither age, sex nor condition 
were spared by the savages. Immediately after the French Government had 
relinquished control of Canada and the Northwest Territory, the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries retired tu the Canadian side of the Great Lakes and the river St. 
Lawrence, hence the Wyandots, thus left without the Christianizing influ- 
ences of their former teachers, soon relapsed to a degree of barbarity and 
ferociousness which placed them upon an even footing with their no less 
savage allies, the Delawares, Shawanese, Mingoes and Miamis. The Six 
Nations also took the war-path in the interests of the British, and under the 
lead of the villains Brant, Butler and various tories, committed many mur- 
ders in the frontier settlements of New York and Pennsylvania, the mas- 
sacre of the Wyoming settlers and the destruction of Hannastown being 
among their chief exploits. 

These forays and murdering expeditions on the part of the savages un- 
der British pay continued until the close of the struggle for American in- 
dependence. Meanwhile, the Americans were using all the means at hand 
in the endeavor to defend their border settlements in the interior, while at 
the same time engaged in lighting the British armies, then desolating their 
seaport towns. To this end, in 1778, Gen. Lachlin Mcintosh, commander 
of the Western Military Department, with headquarters at Fort Pitt (Pitts- 
burgh), marched forth with about 1,000 men. He was vested with dis- 
cretionary powers, but it was purposed that he should march his army to 
Detroit, or at least as far as the Indian towns on the Sandusky River, which 
seemed to be the general places of rendezvous for the hostile tribes of the 
Northwest. Gen. Mcintosh, however, lacked the qualifications necessary to 
conduct an Indian warfare successfully, and only proceeded as far as thy 
immediate vicinity of the present town of Bolivar, in Tuscarawas County, 
Ohio. He there halted, erected Fort Laurens, garrisoned it with 150 men, 
under the command of Col. John Gibson, returned to Fort Pitt, and soon 
after resigned his command of the department. 

Fort Laurens — named in honor of the then President of the Continental 
Congress, Henry Laurens — was the first substantially built work erected 
within the present limits of Ohio. Yet disasters attended it from the be- 
ginning. The Indians stole the horses, and drew the garrison into several 


ambuscades, killing fourteen men at one time and eleven at another, besides 
capturing a number of others. Eight hundred warriors, among them many 
Wyandots, invested it and kept up the siege for six weeks! The provisions 
grew short, and when supplies from Fort Pitt had arrived within a hundred 
yards of the fort, the gai'rison, in their joyousness. tired a general salute 
with musketry, which so frightened the loaded packhorses as to produce a 
general stampede through the woods, scattering the provisions in every di- 
rection, so that most of the much-needed supplies were lost. Although it 
was regarded very desirable, for various military reasons, to have a gar- 
risoned fort and depot of supplies at a point about equidistant from the 
forts on the Ohio River and the hostile Indians on the Sandusky Plains, 
yet so disastrous had been the experiences at Fort Laurens that it was 
abandoned in August, 1779. 

During subsequent years, other expeditions were organized in Pennsyl- 
vania and Kentucky for the purpose of chastizing with powder and ball the 
hostile Indians of Ohio. Thus Col. John Bowman took the field with 160 
Kentuckians in July, 1779; Col. George Rogers Clark, with about 1,000 
Kentuckians, in July, 1780; Gen. Daniel Brodhead, with 300 men from 
Fort Pitt, in April, 1781; and Col. Archibald Lochry, with about 100 men 
from Westmoreland County, Penn. , in July, 1781. These expeditions were 
attended with varying success, but as they had in view the punishment of 
the savages occupying the southern half of the present State, no special 
significance, as regards the history of Wyandot County, can be attached to 
their movements. 

However, notwithstanding the efforts put forth by the Americans, the 
savages remained masters of the field in Ohio, the neighborhood of the 
Great Lakes, and along the River St. Lawrence. The Wyandots of the 
Sandusky Plains (together with large numbers of the Delawares and 
Shawanese, who, driven from haunts farther South by the expeditions 
already mentioned, had established themselves near the Wyandots), fully 
supplied with war material from the British post at Detroit, still continued 
their massacres of the inhabitants of the frontier settlements of Pennsyl- 
vania. The fiendishness displayed by these savages in their attacks upon 
isolated white settlements was unbounded, and frequently every member of 
a family was found slain, scalped, their bodies otherwise horribly mutilated, 
and their dwelling burned to ashes. The prattling babe, as well as the 
tottering decrepit grandparents, all, all fell victims to a ferocity of dispo- 
sition and studied cruelty of purpose that is harrowing to contemplate, 
even after the lapse of more than one hundred years. At last, stung to 
desperation by the loss of parents, brothers, sisters, wives and children, at 
the hands of the savages, the sturdy Scotch-Irish residents of W^estmore- 
land and Washington Counties, Penn., determined upon the organi- 
zation of a force, under the authority of the military commander of that 
department, which should proceed to the Sandusky Plains (the rendezvous 
of all the hostile savages of the Northwest), and give battle to the Indians 
upon their own ground. This determination resulted in the formation and 
sending forward of a body of men under Col. William Crawford, whose 
movements, battles, etc., will be noted in the succeeding chapter. 




(Events from 1782 to 1818.) 

The Inception of Crawford's Sandusky Expedition— The March— Bat- 
tle — Results — Dr. Kntgiit's Narratio.v — Biographical Sketch of 
Col. Crawford — The Treaty of Fort McIntosh— Treaty of Fort 
Harmar— Sad Results Attending the ExPEDrrroNs under Gens. 
Harmar and St. Clair— "Mad Anthony" in the Field— He Defeats 
the Combined Savage Tribes at the "Fallen Timbers"— Indian Ac- 
counts OF THE Fight— Treaty of Greenville— Of Fort Industry — 
Of Broavnstown- The Wyandots the Friends of the Americans — 
War of 1812-15— Treaty of the Foot of the Rapids of the Miami 
OF THE Lake— Terms— Supplementary Treaty Held at St. Mary's — 
The Wyandots Finally Established on Reservations, i. e., Lands 
NOW Embraced by Wyandot County— Death of their Great Chief 
Tariie — Attendant Funeral Ceremonies — Tribal Names of the Wy- 
andots— Sketch OF Chief Tariie, as Prepared by William Walker, a 
Quadroon of the Wyandot Nation. 

AS ali'eady indicated, the year 1782, especially along the American 
border settlements, was one of war, bloodshed and carnage. LTrged 
on by the British officers at Detroit, the Indians sought every opportunity of 
wreaking their vengeance upon the unprotected settlers. The woods of 
Western Pennsylvania and Virginia teemed with savages the most vindic- 
tive, and no one was safe from attack unless protected by the walls of a 
fortified station. On the 28th of March, Gen. William Irvine, com- 
mander of the Western Military Department, with headquarters at Fort 
Pitt, issued a call to the ofiicers of the militia of the counties of West- 
moreland and Washington (which counties then comprised all that part 
of Southwestern Pennsylvania lying west of Laurel Hill, AVashington 
County, having been erected from Westmoreland in 1781) to meet in coun- 
cil at Pittsburgh on April 5, to take into consideration the adoption of 
some systematic defense of the exposed settlements. The council was large- 
ly attended, and the plan then agreed upon was to divide the regular troops 
equally between Forts Pitt and Mcintosh, and to keep flying bodies of 
volunteers marching from place to place along the line of the frontier. 

The county of Westmoreland agreed to furnish sixty-five men to range 
along the border from the Allegheny River to Laurel Hill, while Wash- 
ington County stipulated to keep in the field one hundred and sixty men to 
patrol the Ohio River from Montour' s Bottom to Wheeling. It was soon ap- 
parent, however, that this experiment or system of defense was inadequate, 
for in spite of every precaution, and in defiance of every expedient to 
thwart them, the wily savages would frequently cross to the left banks of 
the Ohio and Allegheny rivers, fall suddenly upon some unsuspecting and 
helpless settlements, and after completing their work of murder and pillage, 
would hurriedly recross the rivers, and be far away in the wettern wilds be- 
fore the patroling volunteers were aware of their presence. Therefore it 
was soon demonstrated to the entire, satisfaction of the majority of the en- 
dangered inhabitants that the only security for the frontier lay iri carrying 


the war into the Indian country, and in accordance with this feelino- Col. 
Marshall, the commandant at Fort Mcintosh, wrote to Gen. Irvine, on the 
2d of April, an follows : "This is most certain, that unless an expedition 
be carried against some of the principal Indian towns early this summer, 
this country must unavoidably suffer." Again, on the 4th of the same 
month, he wrote: "The people in general on the frontiers are waiting 
with anxious expectation, to know whether an expedition can be carried 
against Upper Sandusky * early this spring or not." 

It is claimed that Gen. Irvine was not in favor of carrying the war into 
the Sandusky country, but be that as it may, he soon after called a council 
of the officers of his department to meet at his headquarters, at Fort Pitt, 
on the 7th of May, to take the matter under advisement. A large number 
of officers were present, and many others who could not come were repre- 
sented in writing. There was a wonderful unanimity of opinion, at this 
meeting, as to the necessity of sending an expedition into the Indian 
country. It was known that most of the scalping parties prowling about 
the borders came from Upper Sandusky, not, however, that all the savao-es 
invading the settlements were Wyandots, but that their town was the grand 
rallying point for all the Northwest tribes before starting for the frontiers. 
Of the men called together at Gen. Irvine's headquarters, none failed to ap- 
preciate the pressing necessity for the destruction of the Sandusky rendez- 
vous. An expedition was determined upon, and Upper Sandusky, the fa- 
vorite point of assembling for the hostile Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanese 
and Mingoes, was named as the point of attack. 

Mingo Bottom, a point on the right bank of the Ohio River, about two 
and one-half miles below the present town of Steubenville, was designated 
as the place of rendezvous, and Monday, May 20, as the time for the assem- 
blage of those who were to take part in the movement. However, the vol- 
unteers did not all report until Friday morning, May 24, when the last one 
crossed to the west side of the river. The remainder of that day was occupied 
in the election of regimental and company officers, and in making prepara 
tions for the march to begin the following morning. Of the troops assem- 
bled, Washington County. Penn., had furnished three hundred and twenty; 
Westmoreland County, Penn.. one hundred and thirty; Ohio County, Ya., 
twenty; and other localities not known, ten; making a total of four hundred 
and eighty officers and men. In the election which took place for chief 
commander of the expedition. Col. William Crawford, of Westmoreland 
County, and Col. David Williamson, of Washington County — he who had 
commanded the expedition to the Tuscarawas countryf two months before — 
were the candidates. The vote stood two hundred and thirty- live for Col. 
Crawford and two hundred and thirty for Col. Williamson. Col. Crawford 
having been, by a small majoi'lty, placed at the head of the expedition, his 
competitor, Col. Williamson, was immedititely chosen, by a unanimous vote, 

* Upper Sandusky was then the place where the British paid their Western Indian allies their annuities. 

fWe are well aware of the fact that numbers of those who have heretofore written concerning Crawford's 
Sandusky expedition have managed to interweave in their narriitinns something about the wretched Moravian 
affdir. The Delawares under the partial control of the easy-going Moravian roissionarien may or may not have 
been guilty of ofTenses against the whiles ea-ft of the Ohio River. It his been claimed that Delaware Indians who 
spoke the German language, and wh'i claimed to belong to one of the Moravian villages, committed murders in a 
while settlement on the Pennsylvania border, also, that Williamson'o men found children's clothing in one of the 
Moravian towns, which was identified as having been worn by little while children when killed or cariied off' by 
Indians. Be this as it may, we consider an account of the .Moravian aflair as not pertinent to the histoiy of the 
Wyandot Indians, or of Wyandot County, and, therefore, forbear making further mention of it. If, however, it 
be asserted that by reason of the killing of tbe Delaware Indians, at the Moravian towns, the Delaware tribes 
were made more bloodthirsty, and burned Col. Crawford by way ot retaliation, we answer, that the Delaware* 
were always bloodthirsty, vindictive, treacherous, cowardly, and that they burned many white prisoners at the 
stake, both before and after the death of Crawford. 


the Senior Major, or second officer in rank. The other Majors were Thomas 
Gaddis, John McClelland and Maj. Brinton. Daniel Leet was elected 
Brigade-major; Dr. John Knight was appointed Surgeon; and JohnSlover 
and Jonathan Zane accompanied the expedition as guides. The force was 
divided into eighteen companies, some of which were commanded by the 
following named captains: McGeehan, Hoagland, Beeson, Munn, Boss, 
Ogle, John Biggs, Craig, Ritchie, John Miller, Joseph Bean and Andrew 

Gen. Irvine issued sealed orders directed to the "Commander-in- 
Chief of the expedition against the Indian town at or near Sandusky,'' in 
which he specifically set forth the object of his command to be " to destroy 
with fire and sword (if practicable) the Indian town and settlement at San- 
dusky, by which it was hoped to give ease and safety to the inhabitants of 
this country; but if that should be found impracticable, to perform such 
other services in his power as would, in their consequences, have a tendency 
to answer that great end." It was also directed to "settle all questions of 
rank before leaving their rendezvous; and to regulate their last day's march 
so as to reach said town about dawn or a little before, in order to effect a 
surprise." Gen. Irvine spoke of the expedition as being composed of "dis- 
interested and virtuous men, who had the protection of this country in view, 
and upon whom he enjoined it specially to act in such a manner as to re- 
flect honor on and add reputation to the American arms." The orders con- 
cluded " with the sincere wishes of the department commander for their suc- 

It will thus be seen that the Crawford expedition ivas not, as many 
have thought and asserted, an unauthorized, illegal, ill-considered or 
murderous raid — " a sudden and wild maraud " of "untamed bordei'ers" 
— an organization put on foot by lawless men, for the destruction of the 
remnant of the Moravian Indians that had been, during the previous 
year, forcibly removed from their villages on the Tuscarawas, by the 
British and Delaware hostiles to the Saadusky Plains. The massacre 
of innocent, inoffensive Indians was not the purpose of the expedition, 
commanded by Col. Crawford, to the Saudusky country, in 1782. It was 
to chastise hostile Indian tribes who had been and still ^were the deadly 
enemies of the settlers on the Western borders — enemies of our civilization 
— enemies of our common country — enemies of the white race. And all 
those writers who have maintained that Col. Crawford's command was com- 
posed of "bandits and murderers," and that their purpose was "to destroy the 
remainder of the Moravian Indians," were undoubtedly mistaken. Butter- 
field, in his admirable history of "Crawford's Sandusky Campaign," says, 
that " in all examinations of the correspondence of those projecting the 
expedition against Sandusky, and of those who took part in it, as well as 
of papers and documents of that period relating thereto, and of contempora- 
neous publications, he had not met with a single statement or word calcu- 
lated to awaken a suspicion, even of intended harm, to the Christian Indians 
upon the Sandusky. Whenever the objective point of the expedition is 
mentioned, it is invariably given as Sandusky, or the W^yandot town or 

Early on the morning of Saturday, May 25, Crawford's command began 
its march on horseback for the Sandusky Plains, distant about ]50 miles. 
They purposed making a rapid march, avoiding, as far as practicable, the 
Indian trails, so as to reach the Sandusky region without the knowledge of 
the Indians, and thus take them by surprise. The wily nature of the sav- 



ages, says Butterfield, was too well known to give assurance of security 
because no enemy was visible; hence Col. Crawford " took every precaution 
to guard against ambuscades and surprises." " Unceasing vigilance was 
the watchword." However, nothing worthy of note transpired until Mon- 
day night, the 27th, while at the third encampment. Here a number of the 
men lost their horses, which were hunted for the next morning without sue 
cess. It was then decided by Col. Crawford that these dismounted men 
should return home, as their crippled condition would contribute more to the 
burden and inconvenience of the movement than would their services toward 
securing its successful issue. On Tuesday, the 28th, the fourth day of the 
march, the command reached the Tuscarawas River, at a point about one 
mile below the present town of New Philadelphia, the county seat of Tus- 
carawas County. During the same evening, Maj. Brinton and Capt. Bean, 
while a short distance from the camp, discovered two Indians lurking near 
by, upon whom they immediately tired, but without effect. These escaping 
Indians, says Dr. Knight, gave notice to the hostiles ou the Sandusky of 
the movements of the Americans. The fact of the discovery while yet so 
remote from the objective point rendered the necessity greater for a rapid 
march. Therefore, on Wednesday morning, the 29th, the march was re- 
sumed with a rapidity not before attempted. The guides, Slover and Zane, 
in the advance, led off in a northwest course across the Killbuck, above the 
present town of Millersburg, county seat of Holmes County, leaving Woos- 
ter, the present county seat of Wayne County, about ten miles to the north, 
and Manstield, now the county seat of Richland County, a few miles south, 
and on the evening of Saturday, June 1, the entire command encamped at 
a point now known as Spring Mills, about eight miles east of the present 
town of Crestline, in Crawford County. On the following day, Sunday, 
June 2, the expedition arrived at the Sandusky River near the present vil- 
lage of Leesville, having marched about eighty -five miles during the last 
tive days. The Sandusky Plains were reached on Monday, the 3d day of 
June, and the mouth of the Little Sandusky on Tuesday, the 4th. Later 
on the same day, the troops reached the W^yandot town, then known as Up- 
per Sandusky, which was situated about three miles southeast of the present 
town of that name, but to the utter astonishment of Crawford and his 
men, not an Indian was to be seen, and the village appeared as if it had 
been deserted for some time. It was now afternoon. The men and officers 
dismounted, and while the horses leisurely grazed upon the luxuriant and 
abundant pasturage, and the men drank from a neighboring spring, Col. 
Crawford and his officers consulted as to what was best to be done. 

One of the guides of the expedition, Slover, had been a prisoner among 
the Indians, and was familiar with the localities in the Sandusky region. He 
communicated his opinion to Col. Crawford, that the Indians of the deserted 
Wyandot village, on hearing of his approach, had probably gone to one of 
their towns, situated about eight miles down the river. It was thereupon 
determined to move forward at once in search of them. A march of three 
miles brought them to the site of the present town of Upper Sandusky. 
After a, furthm' advance movement of about a mile, some of the men stated 
that they were short of supplies, and expressed a desire to retvirn instead of 
proceeding onward. A council of war was then held, to consider the ques- 
tion of the probability of the concentration of the hostile Indians in their 
front. Crawford and the guide, Zane, were of the opinion that there were 
indications that the Indians were bent on a determined resistance, and were 
then, probably, collecting their warriors. Zane advised an immediate re- 


turn home. The council, however, decided to continue the march during 
the remainder of that afternoon, but no longer. 

Col. Crawford had previously sent forward a small body of men for the 
purpose of reconnoitering. This party had gone but about two miles when 
they discovered the enemy in full force rapidly moving toward them. Im- 
mediately one of the scouts was sent back to Col. Crawford to inform him of 
the presence of the enemy. The council had just adjourned, and the troops 
were at once formed for action. After advancing about a mile, the enemy 
were found moving toward a grove, evidently meaning battle. Col. Craw- 
ford ordered his men to dismount and advance upon the Indians. They 
did so, and ere the expiration of many minutes the savages were dislodged, 
and the Americans in possession of the grove. Soon, the Delawares, with 
whom the battle was opened, were reinforced by the Wyandots, all being 
under the command of Capt. Mathew Elliott, an Irishman in the service of 
the British Government. Very soon, the action, which commenced aboiit 4 
o'clock P. M., became general. The infamous renegade, Simon Girty, was 
with the savages and acted a conspicuous part. The Indians were protected, 
in a measure, by the tall prairie grass, and the Pennsylvanians were also 
afforded some protection, too, by the grove, of which they had, by gallant 
fighting, obtained possession. The fight at " Battle Island," in what is now 
termed Crane Township, Wyandot County, continued with varying success 
until dark, when the Indians retired farther out into the prairie, and ceased 
firing. The loss sustained by the Americans was four killed and nineteen 
wuunded. Doubtless the Indians lost a greater number, but of course it 
was never known. 

Crawford retained his position in the grove during the night, his men 
meanwhile suffering terribly for lack of water. At daylight on the morn- 
ing of June 5 (Wednesday), the firing was renewed, but in a desultory man- 
ner, and at long range only, and so continued throughout the day. Hence 
little damage was done (the Americans having four more men wounded) and 
the relative position of the opposing forces remained unchanged. During 
the day, however, the enemy was reinforced by a body of white troops, 
known as " Butler's Hangers," also by about 200 Shawanese Indians. Sav- 
ages from other quarters also kept gathering in, so that the Americans were 
surrounded and greatly out- numbered. A council of war was thereupon 
called, which unanimously decided upon a retreat that night. The move- 
ment was to commence at 9 o'clock. Just as the hour had arrived for the 
retreat to begin, the enemy discovered the intentions of the Americans and 
opened fire from various points. Confusion followed, and some in the front 
line hurried off, followed by many pushing forward from the rear. The ad- 
vance, under command of Maj. McClelland, was furiously attacked by the 
Delawares and Shawanese and suffered severely, he being fatally wounded. 
The rear division was also attacked and suffered considerable loss. All 
through the night the retreat was continued, the enemy pursuing in consid- 
erable force, with more or less vigor and efficiency. The advance of Craw- 
ford's command arrived at the oldi town of Upper Sandusky about daybreak 
of Thursday, June 6, where, after a short time, about 300 of the original 
force were collected. 

It was then ascertained that Col. Crawford was missing. But none knew 
whether he was killed, captured, or was making his escape on some route 
other than that taken by the main body of his forces. Dr. Knight and 
John Slover, one of the pilots, or guides, were also among those unaccounted 
for. The retreating volunteers were now under the command of Col. Will- 


iamson, who is said to have conducted the movement as skillfully and suc- 
cessfully as could have been reasonably expected. When well along on the 
open country or "plains," a large body of mounted Indians and British 
cavalry came in sight of the retreating troops. The enemy pressed forward 
so closely upon their flanks and rear that the Pennsylvanians liually halted, 
formed their lines, and gave battle. This was at 2 o'clock P. M., on Thurs- 
day, June 6, near the eastern edge of the plains, not far from a small branch 
of the Olentangy Creek, a tributary of the Scioto, in what is now known as 
Whetstone Township, Crawford County. The enemy attacked on front, left 
flank and rear, but seemed glad to retire at the expiration of an hour's 
fighting. In this action, termed the " Battle of Olentangy,'' the Ameri- 
cans lost three men killed and eight wounded. The loss of the enemy was 
much greater. 

The retreat then continued in a chilly, drenching rain, the enemy still 
pursuing and occasionally firing a shot at a respectable distance in the rear. 
At night the opposing forces were encamped within a mile of each other. 
Scarcely had the Americans formed their lines at daybreak of the 7th, when 
the enemy opened fire from the rear. Here they captured tAvo of the Amer- 
icans, and it is supposed tomahawked them. But the main body was not 
pursued further, the last hostile shot having been fired near the present 
town of Crestline, in Crawford County. On their further retreat they 
had frequent accessions of stragglers, who had been detached by various 
means from the main body early in the retrograde movement. The home- 
ward march was along the trail of the troops when outward bound, as far 
as the Tuscarawas, which they crossed June 10. From that point to the 
Ohio River, Williamson's trail was followed. Mingo Bottom was reached 
on the 13th, where, to their gi-eat joy, they found several of their missing 
comrades, who had arrived before them. But the gallant Crawford was not 
among them, and about 100 of the 480 men that started with the expedi- 
tion never returned. Among the unre turned heroes were William Harrison, 
son- in-law, and William Crawford, the nephew of Col. Crawford. Harrison 
suffered death at the stake. 

John Slover, the guide, was captured by a band of Shawanese within 
twenty miles of the Tuscarawas River, at a point now within the limits of 
Wayne County. He was taken back to the Sandusky Plains, and from thence 
to the Shawanese towns near Mad River, now in Logan County, where he was 
beaten and made to run the gauntlet. Finally, he was taken to Wapatomica, 
an Indian village situated near the site of Zanesfield, in Logan County, 
where a council condemned him to die at the stake. Taken to Mack-a- 
chack, another Indian village, which stood near the site of the present town 
oP West Liberty, in Logan County, he was bound to a post and a fire kin- 
dled around him. Soon after the fire began to blaze a heavy rainstorm 
came on and extinguished it. The savages then postponed the burning un- 
til the next day. During the night, though bound with cords and guarded, 
he escaped, and finally reached the settlements, having crossed the Ohio 
River at W'heeling, July 11, 1782. 

We now give place to Dr. John Knight's narrative, which, written by 
him soon after his escape, tells of the march, battle, capture and death of 
Col. Crawford. It is as follows: 

" About the latter end of the month of March or the beginning of April, 
of the year 1782, the Western Indians began to make incursions upon the 
frontiers of Ohio County, Va., and Washington and Westmoreland Coun- 
ties, Penn.. which had been their constant j^ractice ever since the commence- 
ment of the present war between the United States and Great Britain. 


" In consequence of these predatory invasions, the principal officers of the 
above-mentioned counties, named Cols. Williamson and Marshall, tried 
every method in their power to set on foot an expedition against the Wyan- 
dot tow^ns, which they could effect in no other way than by giving all possi- 
ble encouragement to volunteers. The plau proposed was as follows: Every 
man furnishing himself with a horse, a gun, and one month's provision 
should be exempt from two tours of militia duty. Likewise that every one 
who had been plundered by the Indians should, if the plunder could be 
found at their towns, have it again, proving it to be his property; and all 
horses lost on the expedition by unavoidable accidents were to be replaced 
by horses taken in the enemy's country. 

"The place appointed for the rendezvous or general meeting of the vol- 
unteers was fixed on the west side of the Ohio River, about forty miles 
below Fort Pitt by land, and, I think, about seventy-tive by water. 

" Col. Crawford was solicited by the general voice of these western coun- 
ties and districts to command the expedition. He accordingly set out as a 
volunteer and came to Fort Pitt two days before the time appointed for the 
assembling of the men. As thpre was no surgeon yet appointed to go with 
the expedition. Col. Crawford begged the favor of Gren. Irvine to permit me 
to accompany him (my consent having been previously asked), to which the 
General agreed, provided Col. Gibson did not object. Having obtained per- 
mission of the Colonel, I left Fort Pitt on Tuesday, May 21, and the next 
day about 1 in the afternoon arrived at the Min.o Bottom. The volunteers 
did not all cross the river until Friday morning, the 24th; they then dis- 
tributed themselves into eighteen companies, choosing their Captains by 
vote. There were chosen also one Colonel commandant, four field Majors 
and one brigade Major. There were 465 who voted. 

" We began our march on Saturday, May 25, making almost a due west 
course, and on the fourth day reached the old Moravian town upon the river 
Muskingum, about sixty miles from the river Ohio. Some of the men, hav- 
ing lost their horses on the night preceding, returned home. Tuesday, the 
28th, in the evening, Maj. Brinton and Capt. Bean went some distance 
from camp to reconnoiter; having gone about one-quarter of a mile, they 
saw two Indians, upon whom they fired and then returned to camp. This 
was the first place we were discovered, as we understood afterward. On 
Tuesday, the 4th of June, which was the eleventh day of our march, about 
1 o'clock, we came to the spot where the town of Sandusky formerly stood; 
the inhabitants had moved eighteen miles lower down the creek nearer 
Lower Sandusky; but as neither our guides or any who were with us had 
known anything of their removal, we began to conjecture there were no 
Indian towns nearer than Lower Sandusky, which was at least forty miles 

" However, after refreshing our horses, we advanced on in search of some 
of their settlements, but had scarcely got the distance of three or four miles 
from the old town, when a number of our men expressed their desire to 
return, some of them alleging that they had only five days' provisions; upon 
which the field officers and Captains determined in council to proceed that 
afternoon and no longer. Previous to the calling of this council, a small 
party of light horse .had been sent forward to reconnoiter. Just as the 
council had ended, an express retui'ned from the above-mentioned party of 
light horse with the intelligence that they had been about three miles in 
front, and had seen a large body of Indians running toward them. In a 
short time we saw the rest of the light horse, who joined us, and having 


gone one mile further met a number of Indians who had partly got posses- 
sion of a piece of woods before us, whilst we were in the plains, but our 
men, alighting from their horses and rushing into the woods, soon obliged 
them to abandon that place. 

" The enemy, being by this time re-inforced, flanked to the right and a part 
of them coming in our i-ear quickly made the action more serious. The 
tiring continued very warm on both sides from 4 o'clock until the dark of 
the evening, each party maintaining their ground. And next morning about 
4 o'clock, some guns were dischai'ged at the distance of 200 or 300 yards; 
which continued till day, doing little or no execution on either side. The 
lield officers then assembled and agreed as the enemy were every moment 
increasing, and we had already a number wounded, to retreat that night. 
The whole body was to form into three lines, keeping the wounded in the 
center. We had four killed and twenty-three wounded, of the latter seven 
very dangerously, on which account as many biers were got ready to carry 
them; most of the rest were slightly wounded and none so bad but they 
could ride on horseback. After dark the officers went on the outposts and 
brought in all the men as expeditiously as they could. Just as the troops 
were about to form, several guns were fired by the enemy, upon which some 
of our men spoke out and said our intention was discovered by the Indians, 
who were firing alarm guns, upon which some in front hurried off, and the 
rest immediately followed, leaving the seven men that were dangerously 
wovinded, some of whom, however, got off on horseback by means of some 
good friends, who waited for and assisted them. 

" We had not got a quarter of a mile from the field of action, when I 
heard Col. Crawford calling for his son, John Crawford, his son-in-law, Maj. 
Harrison. Maj. Rose, and William Crawford, his nephew, upon which I 
came up and told him I believed they were before us. He asked, ' Is that 
the doctor? ' I answered, 'yes.' He then replied that they were not in 
front, and begged of me not to leave him. I promised him I would not. 
We then waited and continued calling for these men until all of the troops 
had passed us. The Colonel told me that his horse had almost given out, 
that he could not keep up with the troops, and wished some of his best 
friends to remain with him; presently there came two men riding after us, 
one of them an old man, the other a lad. We inquired if they had seen 
any of the above persons, and they answered they had not. 

"By this time there was a very hot tiring before us, and, as we judged, 
near where our main body must have been. Our course was then nearly sovith- 
west, but, changing it, we went north about two miles, the two men remain- 
ing in company with us. Judging ourselves now out of the enemy's lines, 
we took a due east course, taking care to keep at the distance of fifteen or 
twenty yards apart, and directing ourselves by the north star. The old 
man often lagged behind, and when this was the case he never failed to 
call for us to halt for him. When we were near the Sandusky River, he 
fell one hundred yards behind, and bawled out for us to stop, as usual. 
While we were preparing to I'eprimand him for making a noise, I heard an 
Indian halloo, as I thought, 150 yards from the man, and partly behind 
him. After this we did not hear the man call again, neither did he ever 
come up to us any more. It was now past midnight, and about daybreak 
Col. Crawford's and the young man's horses gave out, and they left 
them. We pursued our journey eastward, and about 1 o'clock fell in with 
(3apt. Biggs, who had carried Lieut. Ashley from the field of action, who 
had been dangerously wounded. 


"We then went on about the space of an hour, when, a heavy rain 
coming on, we concluded it was best to encamp, as we were encumbered with 
the wounded officer. We then barked four or five trees, made an encamp- 
ment and a fire, and remained there ail that night. Next morning we again 
prosecuted our journey, and having gone about three miles, found a deer 
which had been recently killed. The meat was sliced from the hams and 
bundled in the skin, with a tomahawk lying by it. We carried all with us, 
and, in advancing about one mile further, espied the smoke of a fire. We 
then gave the wounded officer into the charge of the young man, desiring 
him to stay behind whilst the Colonel, the Captain and myself walked up 
as cautiously as we could toward the fire. When we came to it we con- 
cluded, from several circumstances, some of our people had encamped 
there the preceding night. We then went about roasting the venison, and, 
when about to march, we observed one of our men coming upon our tracks. 
He seemed at first very shy, but having called to him, he came up and told 
that he was the person that killed the deer, but, upon hearing us come up, 
was afraid of Indians, hid in a thicket, and made off. Upon this we gave 
him some bread and roasted venison, proceeded altogether upon oiir 
journey, and about 2 o'clock came upon the paths by which we had gone 
out. Capt. Biggs and myself did not think it safe to keep the road, but 
the Colonel said the Indians would not follow the troops further than the 
plains, which we were then considerably past. As the wounded officer rode 
Capt. Biggs' horse, I loaned the Captain mine. The Colonel and myself 
went about one hundred yards in front, the Captain and wounded officer in 
the center, and the two young men behind. After wo had traveled about 
one mile and a half, several Indians started up within fifteen or twenty 
steps of the Colonel and me. As we at first discovered only three, I im- 
mediately got behind a large black oak, made ready my piece, and I'aised it 
up to take sight, when the Colonel called to me twice not to tire; upon that, 
one of the Indians ran up to the Colonel and took hiin by the hand. The 
Colonel then told me to put down ray gun, which I did. At that instant 
one of them came up to me whom I had formerly seen very often, calling 
me Doctor, and took me by the hand. They were Delaware Indians of the 
Wingenin tribe. Capt. Biggs fired amongst them, but did no execution. 
They then told us to call these and make them come back, else they would 
go and kill them, which the Colonel did, but they four got off and escaped 
for that time. 

" The Colonel and I were then taken to the Indian camp, which was about 
one-half a mile from the place where we were captured. On Sunday even- 
ing five Delawares, who had posted themselves at some distance further on 
the road, brought back to the camp where we lay Capt. Biggs and Lieut. 
Ashley's scalps, with an Indian scalp, which Capt. Biggs had taken in the 
field of action. They also brought in Biggs' horse and mine. They told 
us the other two had got away from them. 

" Monday morning, the 10th of June, we were paraded to march to San- 
dusky about thirty-three miles distant. They had eleven prisoners of us, 
and four scalps, the Indians being seventeen in number. Col. Crawford 
was very desirous to see a 'certain Simon Girty,' who lived among the In- 
dians, and was on this account permitted to go to Tarhe the same night, 
with two warriors to guard him, having orders at the same time to pass by 
the place where the Colonel had turned out his horse, that they might if 
possible find him. The rest of us were taken to the old town, which was 
within eifrht miles of the new. 


"Tuesday morning, the 11th, Col. Crawford was brought out to us 
on purpose to be marched in with the prisoners. I asked the Colonel if he 
had seen Mr. Girty; he told me had, and that Girty had promised to do 
everything in his power for him, but that the Indians were very much en- 
raged against the prisoners, particularly Capt. Pipe, one of the chiefs. He 
likewise told me that Girty had informed him that his son-in-law, Maj. 
Harrison, and his nephew, William Crawford, were made prisoners by the 
Shawanese, but had been pardoned. This Capt. Pipe had come from the 
towns about an hour- before Col. Crawford, and had painted all the prison- 
ers' faces black. 

" As he was painting me, he told me that I should go to the Shawanese 
towns and see my friends. When the Colonel arrived he painted him 
black, also told him he was glad to see him, and that he would have him 
shaved when he came to see his friends at the Wyandot town. When we 
marched the Colonel and I were kept back between Pipe and Wingeniu, the 
two Delaware chiefs, the other nine prisoners were sent forward with an- 
other party of Indians. As we went along we saw four of the prisoners 
lying by the path tomahawked and scalped. Some of them were at the dis- 
tance of half a mile from each other. When we arrived within half a mile 
of the place where the Colonel was to be executed, we overtook the five 
prisoners that remained alive. The Indians had caused them to sit down 
on the ground, as they did, also, the Colonel and me at some distance from 
them. I was then given in charge of an Indian fellow to be taken to the 
Shawanese towns. 

*' In the place where we were made to sit down, there were a number of 
squaws and boys who fell on the five prisoners and tomahawked them. 
There was a certain John McKinley among the prisoners, formerly an offi- 
cer in the Thirteenth Virginia Regiment, whose head an old squaw cut off, 
and the Indians kicked it about on the ground. The young Indian fel- 
lows came often where the Colonel and I were, and dashed the scalps in 
our faces. We were then conducted along toward the place where the Col- 
onel was afterward executed. When we came within about a half mile of 
it, Simon Girty met ub, with several Indians on horseback; he spoke to the 
Colonel, but I was about 150 yards behind, and could not hear what passed 
between them. Almost every Indian we met struck us either with sticks or 
their fists. Girty waited until I was brought up, and asked was that the 
doctor. I told him yes, and went toward him reaching out my hand, but 

he bid me be gone, and called me a d d rascal; upon which the fellow 

who had me in chax'ge pulled me along. Girty rode up after me and told 
me I was to go to the Shawanese towns. 

" When we were come to the fire, the Colonel was stripped naked, ordered 
to sit down by the fire, and then they beat him with sticks and their fists. 
Presently after, I was treated in the same manner. They then tied a rope 
to the foot of a post about fifteen feet high, bound the Colonel's hands be- 
hind his back, and fastened the rope to the ligatures between his wrists. The 
rope was long enough either for him to sit down or walk around the post 
once or twice and return the same way. The Colonel then called to Girty 
and asked him if they intended to burn him. Girty answered yes. The 
Colonel said he would take it all patiently. Upon this Capt. Pipe, the 
Delaware chief, made a speech to the Indians, to about thirty or forty men, 
sixty or seventy squaws and boys. When the speech was finished, they all 
yelled a hideous and hearty assent to what had been said. The Indian 
men then took their guns and shot powder into the Colonel's body, from his 


feet as far up as his neck. I think not less than seventeen loads were dis- 
charged upon his naked body. They then crowded about him and to the 
best of my observation cut off his ears; when the throng had dispersed a 
little, I saw the blood running from both sides of his head in consequence 

" The fire was about six or seven yards from the post to which the Colonel 
was tied. It was made of small hickory poles, each about six feet long. 
Three or four Indians, by turns, would take up, individually, one of these 
bm*ning pieces of wood, and apply it to his naked body, already burned 
black with the powder. These tormentors presented themselves on every 
side of him so that whichever way he ran around the post they met him 
with burning faggots and poles. Some of the squaws took wide boards 
upon which they would put a quantity of burning coals and hot embers, and 
throw on him, so that in a short time he had nothing but coals of fire and 
hot ashes to walk upon. In the midst of these extreme torments and tor- 
tures he called to Simon Girty, and begged of him to shoot him, but Girty 
making no answer, he called to him again Girty by way of derision told 
the Colonel he had no gun, at the same time turning about to an Indian 
who was behind him, laughed heartily, and by all his gestures seemed de- 
lighted at the horrid scene. 

" Girty then came up to me and bade me prepare for death. He said, 
however, I was not to die at this place, but to be burned at the Shawanese 
town. He swore by G — d, I need not expect to escape death, but should 
suffer it in all its extremities. He then observed that some prisoners had 
given him to understand that if our people had him they would not hurt 
him; for his part, he said, he did not believe it, but desired to know my 
opinion of the matter. Being at that time in great anguish and distress 
for the torments the Colonel was suffering before my eyes, as well as the 
expectation of underging the same fate in two days. I made little or no 
reply. He expressed a great deal of ill will for Col. Gibson, and said 
he was one of his greatest enemies, and more to the same purpose, to all of 
which I paid very little attention. Col. Crawford, at this period of his 
sufferings, besought the Almighty to have mercy on his soul, spoke very 
low, and bore his torments with the most manly fortitude. He continued 
in all the extremities of pain for an hour and three-quarters or two hours, as 
near as I can judge, when at last, being almost spent, he lay down on his 
belly. They then scalped him, and repeatedly threw the scalp in my face, 
telling me 'that was my Captain.' An old squaw (whose appearance every 
way answered the idea the people entertain of the devil) got a board, took a 
parcel of coals and ashes, and laid them on his back and head after he had 
been scalped; he then raised himself upon his feet and began to walk around 
the post; they next put a burning stick to him as usual, but he seemed 
more insensible of pain than before. 

"The Indian fellow who had me in charge now took mo away to Capt. 
Pipe's house, about three-quarters of a mile from the place of the Colonel's 
execution. I was bound all night, and thus prevented from seeing the last 
of the horrid spectacle. Next morning, being June 12, the Indian un- 
tied me, painted me black, and we set off for the Shawanese town, which he 
told me was somewhat less than forty miles from that place. We soon came 
to the spot where the Colonel had been burnt, as it was partly in our way. 
I saw his bones lying among the remains of the lire, almost bui'nt to ashes. 
I suppose after he Avas dead they had laid his body on the fire. 

The Indian told me that was my 'Big Captain,' and gave the scalp- 


halloo. He was on horseback and drove me befoi'e him. I pretended to 
this Indian I was ignorant ot* the death I was to die at the Shawanese 
town; affected as cheerful a countenance as possible, and asked him if we 
were not to live together as brothers in one house when we should get to 
the town. He seemed well pleased, and said yes. He then asked me if 
I could make wigwams. I told him I could; he then seemed more friend- 
ly. We went that day, as near as I can judge, about twenty-live miles, 
the course partly southwest. The Indian told me we should the next day 
come to the town, the sun being in such a direction, pointing nearly south. 
At night, when we went to rest, I attempted very often to untie myself, but 
the Indian was extremely vigilant and scarce ever shut his eyes that night. 
About daybreak, he got up and untied me. He next began to mend the fire, 
and as the gnats were troublesome, I asked him if I could make a smoke 
behind him. He said yes. I then took the end of a dogwood fork, which 
had been burnt down to about eighteen inches long; it was the longest 
stick I could find, yet too small for the purpose I had in view; then I 
picked up another smaller stick, and taking a coal of fire between them, went 
behind him, then turning suddenly about, I* struck him on the head with 
all the force I was master of, which so stunned him that he fell forward 
with both his hands in the fire. 

" Seeing him recover and get up, I seized his gun, while he ran off howl- 
ing in a most fearful manner. I followed him with the determination to 
shoot him down, but pulling back the cock of the gun with too great vio- 
lence, I believe I broke the mainspring. I pursued him about thirty yards, 
still endeavoring to fire the gun, but could not; then going back to the fire, 
I took his blanket, a pair of new moccasins, his hatchet, powder-horn, 
bullet-bag, together with his gun, and marched off, directing my course toward 
the 5 o'clock mark. About half an hour before sunset, I came to the plains, 
which I think are about sixteen miles wide. I laid me down in a thicket 
till dark, and then by the assistance of the north star made my way through 
them and got into the woods before morning. I pressed on the next day, 
and about noon crossed the paths by which our troops had gone out. These 
paths were nearly east and west, but I went due north nearly all that after- 
noon, with a view to avoid the enemy. 

"In the evening I began to be very faint, and no wondei*. I had been six 
days a prisoner, the two latter days of which I had eaten nothing, and but 
very little the first three or four. There were wild gooseberries in abun- 
dance in the woods, but being unripe required mastication, which at that 
time I was not able to perform on account of a blow received from an In- 
dian on the jaw with the back of a tomahawk. There was a weed that 
grew in that place, the juice of which I knew to be grateful and nourish- 
ing. I gathered up a bundle of the same, took up my lodging under a 
large spreading beech tree, having sucked plentifully of the juice, and went 
to sleep. Next day I made a due east course, which I generally kept the 
rest of my journey. I often imagined my gun was only wood- bound, and 
tried every method I could devise to unscrew the lock, but never could 
effect it, having no knife nor anything fitting for the purpose. I had now 
the satisfaction to find my jaw began to mend, and in four or five days 
could chew any vegetable proper for nourishment, but finding ray gun a 
useless burden, left her in the wilderness. I had no apparatus for making 
fire to sleep by, so that I could get but little rest for the gnats and mosqui- 
toes. There are likewise a great many swamps in the beech ridge, which 

♦The Doctor was a small sized man. 


occasioned me very often to lie wet. This ridge through which I traveled 
is about twenty miles broad; the ground in general is very level and rich, 
free from shrubs and brush; there are, however, very few springs, yet wells 
might easily be dug in all parts of the ridge. The timber on it is very 
lofty, but it is no easy matter to make a straight course through the same, 
the moss growing as high upon the south side of the trees as on the north. 

" There are a great many white oak, ash and hickory trees that grow 
among the beech timber. There are likewise some places on the ridge, 
pei'haps for three or four continued miles, where there is little or no beech, 
and in such spots, black, white oak, ash and hickory abound; sugar trees 
grow there also to a very great bulk. The soil is remarkably good, the 
ground a little ascending and descending with some rivulets and a few 
springs. When I got out of the beech ridge and near the River Muskin- 
gum, the land was more broken, but equally rich with those before men- 
tioned and abounding with brooks and springs of water. There are also 
several small creeks that empty into that river, the bed of which is more 
than a mile wide in places. The wood consists of white and black oaks, 
walnut, hickory and sugar tree in the greatest abundance. In all parts of the 
country through which I came, the game was plenty, that is to say, deer, 
turkeys and pheasants. I likewise saw a great many vestiges of bears and 

"I crossed the River Muskingum about three or four miles below Fort 
Laurens, and crossing all paths, aimed for the Ohio River. All this time 
my food was gooseberries, young nettles, the juice of herbs, a few service 
berries and some May apples, likewise two young blackbirds and a terrapin, 
which I devoured raw. When my food sat heavy on my stomach, I used to 
eat a little wild ginger, which put all to rights. I came upon the Ohio 
River about live miles below Fort Mcintosh, in the evening of the twenty- 
first day after I had made my escape, and on the twenty -second, about 7 
o'clock in the morning, being the 4tb of July, arrived safe, though much 
fatigued." In 1784, Dr. Knight married Col. Crawford's half sister. He 
finally settled at Shelbyville, Ky., where he died March 12, 1838. 

As shown in the foregoing narration, the Delawares, true to their savage 
and cowardly nature from time immemorial, and led on by the chiefs, Capt. 
Pipe and Wingenund, were the guilty authors of this terrible act of bar- 
barity. This most atrocious deed, connived at by British officers, was 
perpetrated, it is claimed, in the present township of Crawford, on the south- 
east bank of Tyraochtee Ci'eek, a short distance northeast from the present 
town of Crawfordsville, and distant about seven miles northwest from 

/pper Sandusky, county seat of Wyandot County. 
Col. William Crawford, a son of Scotch-Irish parents, was born in the 
region now known as Berkeley County. W. Va. , in the year 1732. When 
about eighteen years of age, he became acquainted with George Washing- 
ton, who was of the same age with himself, and was at that time in ihe 
service of Lord Fairfax as surveyor. Crawford's early home was in the 
Fairfax grant, in which Washington was surveying, being in what was called 
the "Northern Neck of Virginia," or the northern portion of the since 
famous Shena ndoah Val ley. Their acquaintance soon ripened into warm 
friendship, which was never impaired or broken, or suffered the slightest in- 
terruption while life lasted. Crawford's whole life was passed upon the 
frontiers. Therefore, his education was limited, but his natural abilities, 
good judgment and knowledge of men were very remarkable. He was gener- 
ous in disposition, and in common with those of his lineage on the Pennsyl- 


vania and Virginia borders, possessed tlie most undaunted courage. He 
acquired a knowledge of surveying from Washington, and made it his busi- 
ness pui'suit in part until the openingof the "old French and Indian war," 
when he joined a company of Virginia Rangers, and participated in Brad- 
dock's disastrous expedition as an Ensign. For gallantry on the battle-field, 
he was promoted to a lieutenancy. During the subsequent two or three 
years, he was employed in garrison duty, or as a scout on the frontiers. 
In 1758, he was commissioned Captain of a company of Virginia Riflemen, 
which was attached to Col. George Washington's regiment of Virginians, 
and performed efficient service during Gen. Forbes' successful campaign 
against Fort Du Quesne. Capt. Crawford remained in the service of the 
colony of Virginia until th^ close of the war mentioned. 

In 1767, he moved to a point then and for years afterward known as 
"Stewart's Crossing " of the Youghiogheny, but afterward called New Ha- 
ven, a village opposite the present town of Connellsville, in Fayette County, 
Penn. Crawford was among the first to settle in that part of the present 
State of Pennsylvania, a region which was then claimed by the province of 
Virginia, and of which the Indian title was not extinguished until the fol- 
lowing year (1768) . However, from Stewart's Crossing. Capt. Crawford 
kept up his correspondence with his old friend Washington, and to the close 
of bis life (Washington having purchased from the Virginia authorities a 
large tract of land, lying in the present southwest quarter of Pennsylvania, 
west of Laurel Hill) served him as his land agent. In 177U, Washington 
and Crawford, with other gentlemen, voyaged together down the Ohio 
River, from Fort Pitt to the mouth of the Kanawha, and up that river, explor- 
ing with a view to the ulti mate lo cation and purcha se of lands. 

By an act of the General Assembly of the Province of Pennsylvania, 
passed on Saturday, March 9, 1771, Bedford was erected as the ninth county 
of the province. It embraced all of the settled regions lying west of the 
Tuscarora Mountain, or, in other words, the entire southwest quarter of the 
present State. On Monday, March 11, of the same year, John Fraser, Bar- 
nard Dougherty, Arthur St. Clair, W^illiam Proctor, Jr., Robert Cluggage, 
Robert Hanna, George Wilson, George Woods, William Lochry, William 
Crawford, Dorsey Pentecost, William McConnell, Thomas Gist, James Mul- 
ligan and Alexander McKee wei'e appointed by the same General Assembly 
Justices of the Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace, and of the 
County Court of Common Pleas for the new county. Nearly all of these 
men wore of Scotch or Scotch-Irish parentage, and all were stanch patriots 
during the Revolutionary war (which began four years later), a majority of 
them holding commissions high in rank. 

The great extent of Bedford County, originally, the sparse and widely 
scattered settlements contained within it, together with the lack of high- 
ways other than those constructed years before by the armies of Braddock 
and Forbes, made it an extremely difficult matter to transact the public bus- 
iness, to assess and collect taxes, etc. Besides, as Virginia claimed all that 
part of the province lying west of Laurel Hill, and northward to and in- 
cluding Fort Pitt, and as the authorities of that province were issuing cer- 
tificates for land in the disputed region at the rate of only ten shiiliugs per 
100 acres, it was but natural that a majority of those who had obtained their 
homesteads so cheaply should espouse the cause of Virginia (from which 
province they had recently removed) as against Pennsylvania, and in conse- 
quence refuse to recognize the authority of the Bedford County officials, or 
to pay the taxes levied upon them. 


Regarding these difficxTlties, the following letters, written by two of the 
first Justices of Bedford County, will afford a partial explanation : 

Stewart's Ckossings, Augt. 9th, 1771. 

Sir : I understand by Capt. John Harding, the Bearer of this, that there is an 
Agreement inter'd into be a Number of the inhabitants of Monongahalia and Read- 
stone, iio has Entered into a bond or Articles of an Agreement that Each man will 
Joyn and Keep off all Officers belonging to the Law, and under the Penalty of fifty 
pounds for to be forfeited by the party refusing to Joyn against all Officers whatsoever. 

I understand this was set on foot by a set of People who has maid a breach of the 
Law by Driving out a man from his home, for which there was a King's warrant Ishued 
against them, together with a notion Propegated by Coll. Croghan, that them posts 
would not fall into Pensilvania, he told me it was the Opinion of some of the best 
Judges that the Province Line would not E.xtend, by Considerable, so far, as it would 
be settled at 48 Miles to a Degree of Longetude which was the distance of a degree of 
Longitude allowd at the time the Charter was granted to Mr. Pen, and has since told 
those People that they had no right to Obay any presept Ishued from Pensj^lvania. 

He has run a Line from the mouth of Rackoon up the Ohio to Fort Pitt, and from 
thence up Monongahalia Above Pigeon Creek, and from thence Across till it strikes 
Rackoon Creek, ten Miles up it, and he Says he has one more grant of 100,000 acres 
more to lay of in a parelele with that. Many sirways he had cut to peaces and sold to 
sundry People that has bin returnd into your Office, some of mine which is not above 
3 or 4 Mile from Fort Pitt; one of mine he has and many others; it is a great Pity 
there is not a Stop put to such Proceedings, as it will be attended with very bad Con- 

I am informd there is a Large Number of Signers all redy to the paper, when I see 
it I will give you more Distinkt Account. 

Sir, I am with great respect, your most Huml. Servant, 

W. Crawford. 

To James Tilgham, Esqr, at Philadelphia. 

Per Caft. John HARDiNCi. 

We supplement Col. (then known as Capt.) Crawford's communication 
with one written on the same topic by his colleague, Col. Wilson, not be- 
cause of any pertinency to our subject, but by reason of the courage shown 
by the writer, and his quaint way of expressing his ideas. 

My Dear Capt: I am Sorey that the first Letter I ever undertook to Write you 
Should Contain a Detail of a Greivance so Disagreeable to me; Wars of any Cind are 
not agreable to aney Person Posesed of ye proper feelings of Humanity, But more 
Especially intestin Broyls. I no Sooner Returned Home from Court than I Found pa- 
pers containing the Resolves, as they Called them, of ye inhabitants to ye Westward 
of ye Laurall hills, ware handing fast abowt amongst ye people, in which amongst ye 
rest Was one that they Were Resolved to oppose everey of Pens Laws as they Called 
them. Except Felonious actions at ye Risque of Life, & under ye penelty of fiftey pounds, 
to be Recovoured, or Leveyed By themselves, off ye Estates of ye failure. The first of 
them I found Hardey anugh to offer it in publick, I Emeditly ordered into Custodey, 
on which a large number Ware assembled as Was Seposed to Resque the Prisonar. I 
indavoured, By all ye Reason I was Capable of to Convince them of the ill Conse- 
quences that would of Consecjuence attend such a Rebellion, & Hapely Gained on 
the People to Consent to Relinquish their Resolves, & to Burn the peper they had 
Signed. When their forman saw that the Arms of His Contrie, that as hee said Hee 
had thrown himself into would not Resque him By force, hee Catched up his Rifle, 
Which was Well Loded, Jumped out of Dors, & swore if aney man Cam nigh him 
hee 'would put What Was in his throo them; the Person that Had him in Custody Called 
for assistance in ye King's name, & in pirtickelaur Commanded myself. I told him 
I Was a Subject & Was not fit to Command if not Willing to obay, on which I 
watched his Eye untill I Saw a Chance, Sprang in on him & sezed ye Rifle by ye 
Muzle and held him. So as he Could not Shoot mee, until more help got in to my as- 
sistance, on which I Disarmed him & Broke his Rifle to peeses. I Res'd a Sore Bruze 
on one of my arms By a punch of ye Gun in ye Strugle. Then put him under a Strong 
Guard, Told them ye Laws of their Contrie was Stronger then the Hardiest Ruffin 
amongst them. 

I found it necesery on their Complyance & altering their Resolves, & his prom- 
ising to Give himself no more trouble in the affair, as hee found that the people Ware 
not as hardey as hee Expected them to be, to Relece him on his promise of Good Be- 

I am affraid Sum Who Have Been too much Countenanced By their King & ye 
province of Pensallvania are Grate accesoreys to those factions, & God knows where 


they May Eind. I have, in my Little time in Life, taken the oath of Ale^^ence to His 
Majestic seven times, & always Did it with ye Consent of my whole Heart, & am 
Determined in my proper place to Seport the Contents thereof to ye outmost of my 
power, as I look on it as my Duty to Let those things be Known to Government & 
my acquaintance at Philadelphia is none. I expect you will Commuuicat those things 
to them, that the Wisdom of Government may provide Remedies in time, as there are 
numbers in the Lowr parts of ower Settlements still incressing ye faction. 

It Givs mee Grate Pleasure that my nighbors are Determined not to joyn in the 
faction, & I hope the Difirant Majestrits in this side ye Mountains will use their influ- 
ence to Discorage it. I understand Grate thrates are made against mee in partikohiur 
if possible to intimidate mee With fear & allso against the Sherifs & Constables, 
& all Ministers of Justice, But I hope the Laws, ye BuUworks of ower nation, will be 
seported in Spight of those Low Lifed trifling Raskells. 

Give my Complements to Mr. George Wood, Mr. Doherty & Mr. Frazor, and Ex- 
cept of m3'n to your Self, 

Who am, with Respect, 

Your most obt Hble Sert 

G. Wilson.* 

Springhill Township, Augt 14th, 1771. 
To Arthor St. Clair, fEsq. 

In 1773, when the county of Westmoreland was organized from Bedford, 
Capt. William Crawford was the senior Justice of the Peace, and for that 
reason became the presiding officer of the courts of the new county. At 
the same time, Capt. Arthur St. Clair was commissioned as the first Pro- 
thonotary Clerk of courts, etc., of the new jurisdiction. The latter resided 
at Fort Ligonier, the former at Stewart's Crossing, and both within West- 
moreland County as then formed. In 1774, Capt. Crawford received 
another Captain's commission from the G overnor of Virginia for service 
against the hostile Indians. He at once raised a company and served 
through the campaign known as "Dunmore's war." While the 
main body of the army was lying at Camp Charlotte, he was sent out with 
a force for the purpose of destroying some Mingo towns up the Scioto. 
The object of the expedition was successfully accomplished, and a consider 
able number of Indians were captured and taken to Ft. Pitt. 

When the Revolutionary war began, Virginia had not yet relinquished 
her claim to the southwest part of the present State of Pennsylvania — a 
region which, as before mentioned, and had been largely settled to that 
time by natives of or immigrants from the Old Dominion. Hence, 
when volunteers were called out to defend their country against British 
arms, hired mercenaries and Indians; a majority of the men enlisting from 
the territory lying west of Laurel Hill, very naturally attached themselves 
to Virginia companies and regiments. Thus did it happen that in the 
year 1775, Col. William Crawford entered the American army as Lieu- 
tenant Colonel of the Fifth Regiment of the Virginia Line. Soon after 
he was commissioned Colonel, and commanded his regiment in the battle 
of Long Island, in the retreat through New Jersey, the crossing of the 
Delaware River with Gen. Washington on Christmas Day, 1776, and 
in the battle of Princeton, fought January 3, 1777. The next year he 
was in command of the Continental troops and militia at Fort Pitt. He 
also, during a part of the year 1778, commanded a Virginia regiment in 
service in the Western Military Department under Gen. Mcintosh. At 
the time he assumed command of the ill-fated Sandusky expedition, it 
appears that he was not in active service, but was living in comparative 
retirement at his home at "Stewart's Crossing." 

*Died at Quibbletown.N. J., in February, 1777, while serving as Lieutenant Colonel of the Eighth Reg- 
iment of the Pennsylvania Line. 

+Then known as ('apt. St. Clair, and serving as the first Prothonotary, Clerk of court.s, etc., of the 
county of Bedford. lie was afterward famed as Maj. Gen. St. Clair, Governor of the Northv.est Territory, 


Says a recent writer, Smucker: " Col. Crawford was cool, brave, patri- 
otic, and fitted by nature to be a commander. He was a man of mark, a 
leader, a man of courage and judgment, who rendered essential services to 
his country, especially to the West. He was greatly esteemed as a soldier, 
as a civil officer, and as a citizen, and as already remarked, his cruel death 
excited the sympathies of the entire country, and Gen. Washington was 
deeply moved by the awful death of the friend of his early years. His 
language shows the intensity of his feelings. He wrote: 'It is with the 
greatest soitow and concern that I have leai'ned the melancholy tidings of 
Col. Crawford's death. He was known to me as an officer of much care 
and prudence; brave, experienced and active. The manner of his death 
was shocking to me.' And no marvel! We can not fully estimate, and have 
not language adequate to express, the sum total of the agony and suffering 
endured by the noble Crawford; and when the terrible story of his torture 
was told in the border settlemei;ts among his kindred and friends who knew 
him well and esteemed him so highly, and when the frontiersmen came 
to realize that the brave soldier's life was tortured out of him by the 
slow burning fires kindled by the fiendish savages, and that the agony-rent 
soul of that pure patriot- hero, left his fire-crisped, charred, blistered body 
amidst the blazing flames of the stake, there was experienced such heart- 
rending anguish of soul as cannot be expressed in words. A gloom was 
spread in every countenance. Sympathy and commiseration went out from 
every heart. All keenly felt the tortures inflicted upon the heroic patriot 
soldier. Every one sorely lamented, with the Father of his Country, the 
melancholy, sad, sorrowful ending of the noble life of the brave companion 
in arms and friend of Washington. All hearts were moved by the tender- 
est sympathy when the announcement was made that there was such a sor- 
rowful termination to the valuable life of the brave pioneer of the Youghi- 
V At the close of the Revolutionary war, the treaty of peace gave to the 
United States the Northwest Territory, which inchided the State of Ohio, 
but English troops continued to hold Detroit and various other posts for 
years thereafter, and, as a natural result, the Wyandots, with other tribes 
of this section, were still under their baneful influence. 

However, on the 2l8t of January, 1785, a treaty was concluded at Fort 
Mcintosh with the Wyandot, Delaware, Chippewa and Ottawa Indians, by 
which the boundary line between the United States and the Wyandot and 
Delaware nations was declared to begin "at the mouth of the river Cuya- 
hoga, and to extend up said river to the portage, between that and the Tus- 
carawas branch of the Muskingum, thence down that branch to the crossing 
place above Fort Laurens, thence westerly to the poi'tage of the Big 
Miami, which runs into the Ohio, at the mouth of which branch the fort 
stood which was taken by the French in 1752; then along said Portage to 
the Great Miami, or Omee River (now known as the Maumee), and down 
the south side of the same to its mouth; then along the south shore of Lake 
Erie to the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, where it began." The United 
States Government allotted all the lands contained within said lines (which 
the reader will observe embraced the territory now forming Wyandot 
County) to the Wyandot and Delaware nations, to live and hunt on, and to 
such of the Ottawa nation as lived thereon; saving and reserving for the 
establishment of trading posts, six miles square at the mouth of the Miami, 
or Omee River; and the same at the portage, on that branch of the Big Miami 
which now runs into the Ohio; and the same on the lake of Sandusky where 


the fort formerly stood, and also two miles square on each side of the lower 
rapids of Sandusky River. 

On the 9th -Tanuary, 1 789, another treaty was made at Fort Harmer, 
between Gov. Arthur St. Clair and the sachems and warriors of the Wyan- 
dot, Chippewa, Pottawatomie, Sac and other nations, in which the treaty 
at Fort Mcintosh was renewed and confirmed. But it did not produce the 
favorable results anticipated. The Ohio and Michigan Indians still hated 
the Americans who were moving westward in a resistless column of emigra- 
tion, and were continually encouraged in this feeling by the British officials. 
They were also equipped with guns and ammunition obtained at the British 
post at Detroit. Therefore, as might have been expected, the Indians the 
same year assumed a hostile attitude, and again all the horrors of a relent- 
less, savage warfare were re-enacted along the line of the American border 
settlements. Block-houses were erected by the settlers in each of the new 
settlements, and in June, 1789, Maj. Doughty, with 140 men from Fort 
Harmer, commenced the building of Fort Washington, on a site now within 
the limits of Cincinnati. A few months afterwax'd Gen. Harmer arrived 
with 300 men, and assumed command of the fort. 

Again efforts were made to effect a peace with the hostile tribes, but by 
reason of British influence they proved unavailing, and as a last resort Gen. 
Harmer was directed to attack and destroy their towns. He marched from 
Fort Washington in September, 1790, with 1,300 men, of whom about one- 
fourth were regular troops. When near the Indian towns, on the Miami of 
the Lake, in the vicinity of what is now Ft. Wayne, Ind., an advanced de- 
tachment of 210 militia fell into an ambush and was defeated with severe 
loss. Gen. Harmer, however, succeeded in burning the Indian villages, 
and in destroying their standing corn. The army then commenced its march 
homeward. They had not proceeded far when Harmer received intelligence 
that the Indians had returned to their ruined towns. He immediately de- 
tached about one-third of his remaining force, under the command of Col. 
Hardin, with orders to bring them to an engagement. Hardin succeeded 
in this eai'ly the nest morning; the Indians fought with desperation, and 
the militia and regular troops alike behaved with gallantry. However, moro 
than one hundred of the militia, and all the regulars except nine were 
killed, and the rest were driven back to the main body. Dispirited by this 
misfortune, Harmer immediately marched to Fort Washington or Cincin- 
nati. Thus the object of the expedition in intimidating the Indians was 
wholly unsuccessful. 

Gaining increased confidence in their prowess and ability to successfully 
contend with the white troops of the Americans, by reason of their victory 
over a portion of Harmer's army, the Wyandots, together with other tribes 
composing the Miami league, continued hostile. Therefore, in 1791, anew 
army, superior to Harmer's, was assembled at Cincinnati under Major Gen- 
eral, or as then termed Gov. St. Clair. The regular force amounted to 
2,300 men; the militia numbered about 600. With this army St. Clair 
commenced his march toward the Indian towns on the Maumee. Two forts, 
Hamilton and' Jefferson, were established and garrisoned on the route, about 
forty miles distant from each other, yet misfortune attended the expedition 
almost from its commencement. Soon after leaving Fort Jefferson, a con- 
siderable number of the militia deserted in a body. The first regiment, 
under Maj. Hamtranck, was ordered to pursue them and secure the advanc- 
ing convoys of provisions, which it was feared they designed to plunder. 
Thus weakened by desertion and division, Gen. St. Clair approached the In- 


dian villages. On the 3d of November, when at what is now the line of 
Drake and Mercer Counties, and within two or three miles of the Indiana 
State line, he halted, intending to throw up some slight fortification for the 
protection of baggage, and to await the return of the absent regiment. On 
the following morning, however, about half an hour before sunrise, the 
American Army was attacked with great fury by the whole disposable force 
of the Northwest tribes — the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanese, Miamis, 
Ottawas, Chippewas and Pottawatomies. The Americans were totally de- 
feated. Gen. Butler and more than 600 subaltern officers and enlisted men 
were killed. 

The vigorous prosecution of the war for the protection of the North- 
west Territory was now urged by President Washington, but various ob- 
stacles retarded the organization of a new army. In the spring and sum- 
mer of 1794, however, an American Army was assembled at Greenville, in 
Darke County, under the command of Gen. Anthony Wayne, a bold, ener- 
getic and experienced officer of the Revolutionary war. His force consisted 
of about 2,000 regular troops and 1,500 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky. To oppose him the Indian tribes above mentioned had col- 
lected their whole force, amounting to more than 2,000 warriors, near 
a British fort, erected since the treaty of 1783, and in violation of its 
obligations, at the foot of the Maumee Rapids. They were well supplied 
with arms and ammunition, obtained at the British posts at Detroit and on 
the Maumee, and felt confident of defeating Wayne. But "Mad Anthony" 
was a difierent kind of General from those who had previously commanded 
in the West, and when, on the 20th of August, the hostile forces of red 
men and white men met at the Maumee Rapids, or "the battle of Fallen 
Timbers," the former were completely routed and fled in the utmost precip- 
itation from the field. 

Not long afterward a trader met a Miami warrior who had fled before 
the terrible onslaught of Wayne's soldiers, and asked him: 

"Why did you run away?" 

With gestures corresponding to his words, and endeavoring to represent 
the effect of the cannon, he replied : 

"Pop! pop! pop! — boo, woo, woo — whish, whish, boo, woo — kill twenty 
Indians one time — no good, by dam ! " 

■^ Robinson, a young half-breed Pottawatomie, afterward one of the 
principal war chiefs of that tribe, was present at the battle with Wayne, 
and in later years was in the habit of describing it very clearly. It appears 
that the chiefs of the allied tribes had selected a swamp for the battle- 
ground. They formed their line, however, half a mile in front of it, on the 
summit of a gentle elevation, covered with an open growth of timber, with 
no, intending, when AVayne attacked them, to fall back slowly, 
thus inducing the Americans to follow them into the swamp, where the 
Indians would have every advantage, and where they expected a certain 
victory. But "Mad Anthony" soon broke up their plan. As we have 
shown, nearly one-half of his little army was composed of mounted Ken- 
tuckians, whom he formed in front of his infantry. After a few volleys 
from his artillery, always very trying to the nerves of the red men, hb or- 
dered the mounted men to advance. The Indians had never seen men fight 
on horseback, and supposed they would dismount before reaching the top of 
the ridge. But instead of that they began to trot, then drew their swords — 
those terrible " long knives," which always inspired the Indians with dread 
— then broke into a gallop, and the next moment were charging at the top of 




their horses' speed, " yelling like hell," as Robinson expressed it, swinging 
their swords, and looking like demons of wrath to the astonished red men. 

"Oh," said Robinson, "you ought to have seen the poor Indians run 

They gave but one random fire, and fled as fast as possible toward the 
swamp. But it was too late. The mounted Kentuckians burst through 
them like a whirlwind, and then wheeled about to cut off their retreat, 
while the infantry came up on the double-quick and barred their escape in 
that direction. 

"Oh," the chieftain would continue, "it was awful." 

Robinson admired his conqueror so much that he named one of his sons 
"Anthony Wayne," and always expressed the most profound respect for 
that dashing soldier. 

Wayne's victory at the "Fallen Timbers" did not at once reduce the 
savages to submission. Hence their country was laid waste, and forts were 
erected in the heart of their territory. At length, however, they became 
thoroughly convinced of their inability to resist in a successful manner the 
American troops, and sued for peace. A grand council was therefore held 
at Greenville, in the summer of 1795, and on the 3d of August of that 
year, Gen. Wayne concluded a treaty of peace with the Wyandots, Dela- 
wares. Shawanese, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawatomies and Miamis, besides 
some less important tribes. More than one thousand Indians were present. 
The principal chiefs were Tarhe, or the Crane, of the Wyandots, Buckong- 
ehelas, Black Hoof, Blue Jacket and Little Turtle. A majority of the 
chiefs had been tampered with by the British agents and advised not to 
make peace with the Americans, but their people having been reduced to 
great extremities by the generalship of Wayne, were determined to make a 
permanent peace with the " Thirteen Fires " as they termed the original 
States of the federal Union. 

The basis of the treaty of Greenville was, that hostilities were to cease, 
and all prisoners be restored. Article 3 defined the Indian boundarv as 

" The general boundary line between the lands of the United States and 
the lands of the said Indian tribes shall begin at the mouth of Cuyahoga 
River, and run thence up the same to the portage, between that and the 
Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum; thence down that branch to the 
crossing place above Fort Laurens; thence westerly to a fork of that branch 
of the Great Miami River, running into the Ohio, at or near which fork 
stood Loromie's store, and where commences the portage between the Miami 
of the Ohio and St. Mary's River, which is a branch of the Miami which 
runs into Lake Erie; thence a westerly course to Fort Recovery [erected 
upon the grounds where St. Clair was defeated in November, 1 791], which 
stands on a branch of the Wabash; thence southwesterly in a direct line to 
the Ohio, so as to intersect that river opposite the mouth of Kentucky or 
Cuttawa River." 

By the terms of the treaty, the Indians also ceded to the United States 
Government various small tracts of land surrounding military posts erected 
and to be erected. Also, the right to the people of the United States of a 
free passage by land and water through the territory still owned by the 
Indians. The reader will understand that the Indians relinquished all 
claims to the lands lying eastwardly and southwardly of the line above 
described, in consideration " of the peace now established; of the goods 
formerly received from the United States; of those now to be delivered; and 


of the yearly delivery of goods now stipulated to be made hereafter; and 
to indemnify the United States for the injuries and expenses they have sus- 
tained during the war." 

On the 4th day of Jvily, 1805, at a treaty made at Fort Industry, on the 
Miami of the Lake, between the United States of America and the sachems, 
chiefs and Avarriors of the Wyandot, Ottawa, Chippewa, Muncie, Delaware, 
Shawanese and Pottawatomie nations, it was determined that " the boundary 
line between the United States and the nations aforesaid shall in future be 
a meridian line drawn north and south through a boundary to be erected 
on the south shore of Lake Erie, 120 miles due west of the west boundary 
line of the State of Pennsylvania, extending north until it intersects the 
boundary line of the United States, and extending south until it intersects 
a line heretofore established by the treaty of Greenville." Thus, all the 
lands lying east of the above-described line, bounded southerly and easterly 
by the line established by the treaty of Greenville, and northerly by the 
northernmost part of the forty-first degree of north latitude, were ceded by 
the Indians to the United States. By Article 4 of this treaty, the United 
States delivered to the Wyandot, Shawanese, Muncie and Delaware nations 
goods to the value of $20,000, and stipulated for a perpetual annuity of 
$9,500, payable in goods reckoned at first cost in the city or place in the 
United States where they should be procured. 

The Wyandots were also interested parties in the treaty of Detroit, 
which was concluded on the 17th day of November, 1807; but as the lands 
ceded were for the most part within the limits of the present State of Mich- 
igan, we refrain from further mention of its provisions, etc. 

The treaty of Brownstown was made November 25, 1808, between Will- 
iam Hull, Governor of Michigan Territory, and the Chippewa, Ottawa, Pot- 
tawatomie, Wyandot and Shawanese nations. This treaty related mainly to 
the cession of lands for roads throiTgh the territory still owned by the Indi- 
ans. Among the routes then ceded was "a tract of land, for a road only, 
of 120 feet in width, to run southwardly fi'om what is called Lower San- 
dusky, to thn boundary line established by the treaty of Greenville, with 
the privilege of taking at all times such timber and other materials from 
the adjacent lands as may be necessary for making and keeping in repair 
the said road, with the bridges that may be required along the same. " This, 
probably, was the first highway projected by the English-speaking whites, 
or Americans, in a direction which would lead through the present county 
of Wyandot. 

Meanwhile, from the date of the conclusion of the treaty of Greenville 
until the beginning of the last war with Great Britian — 1812-15 — the Wy- 
andots, true to their treaty obligations, remained at peace with the Ameri- 
cans. In 1812, however, at a time when the great Shawanese Chieftain, 
Tecumseh, and his brother the Prophet, were endeavoring to array under 
arms all of the Northwestern tribes against the Americans, a great Indian 
council of the Northern nations was held at Brownstown in the Michigan 
Territory. At that meeting Tarhe, or "The Crane" and Between-the- 
logs* were among the chief representatives of the Wyandots. The elo- 
quence of Tecumseh's adherents, and the glittering promises of the British 

*The distinguished chief, Between-the-logs, whose portrait the reader will find in this work, was 
born near Lowt r Sandusky about the year 1780. His father was a Seneca, and his mother a member of the 
Bear tribe of the Wyandot nation. When still in his teens, he, with other Wyandots, fought Gen. Wayne's 
troops at the battle of the Maumee Rapids, or "f^allen Timbers." He then lived 'at Lower Sandusky. He 
early became prominent in his nation, and when still a young man, because of his retentive memory and 
ability in discussion, was made a chief and appointed chief speaker of his nation. When al)Out twenty-five 
years old he was sent to fathom the doctrines and pretensions of a celebrated Seneca prophet, whose fallacy 


agents, proved to be as nothing to them, and they firmly rejected all over- 
tures to join in the war against the Americans. True, a few fiery younw 
warriors of the Wyandot nation did enter the British service. But Tarhe, 
Between- the-logs, Summandewat, Big Tree, and the major portion of 
the Wyandots remained faithful to their pledges. These chiefs left the 
Brownstown council, returned to Upper Sandusky, and immediately joined 
the American cause Fort Ferree, at Upper Sandusky, and Fort Meigs, 
at Lower Sandusky, were erected^upon their lands. Here were concentrated 
large numbers of troops from Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Ohio, under Gen. 
Harrison, and here were they treated in the most friendly manner by the 
Wyandots. When Gen. Harrison invaded Canada, he was accompanied by 
a large party of Wyandot chiefs and warriors. But the principal object of 
his Indian friends was to detach that part of the Wyandot nation from the 
British interest, who, by the surrounding Indians, had in a measure been 
forced to join the English. This was effected. 

We now come to the consideration of an event which, by its realization, 
placed the Wyandots upon a comparatively small tract of territory or " res- 
ervation," where they remained until within the memory of many of the 
present inhabitants of Wyandot County. We allude to the " treaty of the 
Foot of the Rapids, of the Miami of the Lake," which was concluded on 
the 29th day of September, 1817, between Lewis Cass and Duncan McAr- 
thur, Commissioners of the United States, and the sachems, chiefs and war- 
riors of the Wyandot, Seneca, Delaware, Shawanese, Pottawatomie, Ottawa 
and Chippewa tribes of Indians. The articles of this treaty which have an 
especial reference to our topic are as follows: 

"Article 2. The Wyandot tribe of Indians, in consideration of the stip- 
ulations herein made on the part of the United States, do hereby forever 
cede to the United States the lands comprehended within the following lines 
and boundaries: Beginning at a point on the southern shore of Lake Erie, 
where the present Indian boundary line intersects the same, between the 
mouth of Sandusky Bay and the mouth of Poi'tage River: thence running 
south v.'ith said line to the line established in the year one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety-five, by the treaty of Greenville, which runs from the 
crossing place above Fort Laurens to Loromie's store; thence westerly with 
the last mentioned line to the eastern line of the reserve at Loromie's store; 
thence with the lines of said reserve north and west to the northwest 
corner thereof; thence to the northwestern corner of the reserve on 
the River St. Mary's, at the head of the navigable waters thereof; 
thence east to the western bank of the St. Mary's River aforesaid; 
thence down on the western bank of the said river to the reserve at Fort 

he soon detected. About two years afterward he was sent on a like errand to a noted Shawanese prophet 
— Tecumseh's brother^with whom he staid nearly a year, and then returned, convinced and convincing 
others that the Prophet's pretensions were all delusion and destitute of truth. 

During the war of 1812-15, he was the firm friend of the Americans, and he was instrumental in 
detaching from the British interests a number of the young men of the Wyandot nation who had been 
misled. After that war he settled permanently in the neighborhood of Upper Sandusky. He now, in com- 
mon with many of the Wyandots, became addicted to habits of intemperance, and in a time of debauch and 
drunkenness killed his wife. When he became sober, the horror of this deed made so deep an impression 
un his mind that from that day he measurably abandoned the use of ardent spirits. In 1817, he made him- 
self conspicuous by visiting Washington, and securing advantages to the Wyandots, as shown in the text of 
this chapter relating to the treaty at St. Mary's. When ,Tohn Stewart, the colored exhorter, appeared among 
the Wyandots, hetween-the-logs became his friend, and soon after embraced Christianity. Soon after 
this, he was regularly appointed an exhorter in the church, in which relation he remained until his death, 
a devoted friend and advocate of (iod. He also watched with unremitting diligence over the temporal 
interests of the nation ; enduring the fatigues of business, and of the longest journeys, for the welfare of 
his people without complaint. lie was uniformly an attendant upon the(Jhio .\nnual Conference, at which 
he made some of the most rational and eloquent speeches ever delivered by an Indian before that body. He 
always manifested a deep interest in the welfare of the mission and school. He was rather above the 
medium height, of slight build, but well proportioned, with an open and manly countenance. He died of 
consumption January 1, 1827, and was buried in the grounds surrounding the Mission Church. 


Wayne; thence with the lines of the last-mentioned reserve, easterly and 
northerly, to the north bank of the River Miami of Lake Erie; thence down 
on the north bank of the said river to the western line of the land ceded to 
the United States by the treaty of Detroit, in the year one thousand, eight 
hundred and seven: thence with the said line south to the middle of said 
Miami River, opposite the mouth of the Great Auglaize River; thence down 
the middle of said Miami River, and easterly with the lines of the tract 
ceded to the United States by the treaty of Detroit aforesaid, so far that a 
south line will strike the place of beginning. 

"Art. 3. The Wyandot, Seneca, Delaware, Shawanese, Pottawatomie, 
Ottawa and Chippewa tribes of Indians, accede to the cessions mentioned 
in the two preceding articles. 

" Art. 6. The United States agree to grant, by patent, in fee simple, to 
Doanquod, Howoner, Rontondee, Tauyau, Rontayau, Dawatont, Manocue, 
Tauyaudautauson and Haudauwaugh, chiefs of the Wyandot tribe and their 
successors in office, chiefs of the said tribe, for the use of the persons and 
for the purposes mentioned in the annexed schedule, a tract of land twelve 
miles square at Upper Sandusky, the center of which shall be the place 
whei'e Fort Ferree stands; and also a tract of one mile square, to be located 
where the chiefs direct, on a cranberry swamp, on Broken Sword Creek, and 
to be held for the use of the tribe. ******* 

"Art. 7. And the said chiefs or their successors may, at anytime they 
may think proper, convey to either of the persons mentioned in the said 
schedule, or his heirs, the quantity secured thereby to him, or may refuse 
to do so. But the use of the said land shall be in the said person; and 
after the share of any person is conveyed by the chiefs to him, he may con- 
vey the same to any person whatever. And any one entitled by the said 
schedule to a portion of the said land, may, at any time, convey the same to 
any person, by obtaining the approbation of the President of the United_ 
States, or of the person appointed by him to give such approbation. And 
the agent of the United States shall make an equitable partition of the said 
share when conveyed. 

'•Art. 8. At the special request of the said Indians, the United States 
agree to grant, by patent, in fee simple, to the persons hereinafter men- 
tioned, all of whom are connected with the said Indians, by blood or adop- 
tion, the tracts of land herein described: 

" To Elizabeth Whitaker, who was taken prisoner by the Wyandots, and 
has ever since lived among them, 1,280 acres of land, on the west side of 
the Sandusky River, below Croghansville, to be laid off in a square form, as 
nearly as the meanders of the said river will admit, and to"^un an equal dis- 
tance above and below the house in which the said Elizabeth Whitaker now 

" To Robert Armstrong, who was taken prisoner by the Indians, and has 
ever since lived among them, and has married a Wyandot woman, one section 
to contain 640 acres of land, on the west side of the Sandusky River, to begin 
at the place called Camp Ball, and to run up the river, with the meanders 
thereof, 160 poles, and from the beginning down the river, with the mean- 
ders thereof, 160 poles, and from the extremity of these lines west for 

" To the children of the late William McCollock, who was killed in August, 
1812, near Maugaugon, and who are quarter- blood Wyandot Indians, one 


section, to contain 640 acres of land, on the west side of the Sandusky River, 
adjoining the lower line of tht? tract hereby granted to Robert Armstrong, 
and extending in the same manner, with and from the said river. 

" To John Vanmeter, who was taken prisoner by the Wyandots, and who 
has piver since lived among them, and has married a Seneca woman, and to 
his wife's three brothers, Seuecas, who now reside on Honey Creek, 1,000 
acres of land, to begin north, forty -five degrees west, one hundred and forty 
poles from the house in which the said John Vanmeter now lives, and to 
run thence south 320 poles, thence and from the beginning, east for quantity. 

"To Sarah Williams, Joseph Williams and Rachel Nugent, late Rachel 
Williams, the said Sarah having been taken prisoner by the Indians, and 
has ever since lived among them, and being the widow, and the said Joseph 
and Rachel being the children of the late Isaac Williams, a half-blood Wy- 
andot, one-quarter section of land, to contain 160 acres, on the east side of 
the Sandusky River, below Croghansville, and to include their improvements 
at a place called Negro Point. 

" To Catharine Walker, a Wyandot woman, and to John R. Walker, her 
son, who was wounded in the service of the United States at the battle of 
Maugaugon, in 1812, a section of 640 acres of land each, to begin at the 
northwestern corner of the tract hereby granted to John Vanmeter and his 
wife's brothers, and to run with the line thereof south 320 poles; thence 
and from the beginning west for quantity. 

"To William Spicer, who was taken prisoner by the Indians, and has 
ever since lived among them and has married a Seneca woman, a section of 
land to contain 640 acres, beginning on the east bank of the Sandusky 
River, forty poles below the lower corner of said Spicer's corn-field; thence 
up the river on the east side, with the meanders thereof, one mile; thence 
and from the beginning east for quantity. 

7ft ^ Tf! 7t\ yf^ 'I* 't* ~ 

" To Horonu, or the ' Cherokee Boy,' a Wyandot chief, a section of land 
to contain 640 acres, on the Sandusky River, to be laid off in a square 
form, and to include his improvements. 

" A.RT. 15. The tracts of land herein granted to the chiefs, for the use of the 
Wyandot, Shawanese, Seneca and Delaware Indians, and the reserve for the 
Ottawa Indians, shall not be liable to taxes of any kind so long as such 
lands continue the property of said Indians. 

■^ '1' fX', si- ^' .■O' ■'A'. -■d^ ^ 

y^ vf! vfz -ffz 717 Tfz yf^ ^ ^ 

"Art. 18. The Delaware tribe of Indians in consideration of the stip- 
ulations herein made on the part of the United States, dohereby forever cede to 
the United States all the claim which they the thirteen sections of land 
reserved for the use of certain persons of their tribe, by the second section 
of the act of Congress, passed March the third, one thousand eight hundred 
and seven, providing for the disposal of the land of the United States be- 
tween the United States Military Tract and the Connecticut Reserve, and 
the lands of the United States between the Cincinnati and Vincennes dis- 

"Art. 19. The United States agree to grant, by patent, in fee simple, 
to Zeeshawan, or James Armstrong, and to Sanondoyourayquaw, or Silas 
Armstrong, chiefs of the Delaware Indians, living on the Sandusky waters, 
and their successors in office, chiefs of the said tribe, for the use of the per- 
sons mentioned in the annexed schedule, in the same manner and subject to 
the same cc)nditions, provisions and limitations as is hereinbefore provided 


for the lands granted to the Wyandot, Seneca and Shawanose Indians, a tract 
of ]and to contain nine square miles, to join the tract granted to the Wyan- 
dots of twelve mileS square, to be laid oif as nearly in a square form as 
practicable, and to include Captain Pipe's village.' 

By this treaty the United States stipulated to pay the Wyandots a per- 
petual annuity of $4,000 ; to the Senecas, $500 ; to the Shawanese, 
$2,000 ; to the Pottawatomies, annually, for fifteen years, $1,300 ; to the 
Ottawas, annually, for fifteen years, $1,000; to the Chippewas, annually, 
for fifteen years, $1,000, and to the Delawares, $500, but no annuity. The 
United States also engaged to erect a saw and grist mill, for the use of the 
Wyandots ; and to provide and maintain two blacksmiths : one for the use 
of the Wyandots and Senecas, the other for the Indians at Hog Creek. 

The United States further agreed to pay the sums ToITowing for prop- 
erty, etc., injured during the war of 1812-15 : To the Wyandots, $4,819.39; 
to the Senecas, $3,989.24 ; to Indians at Lewis' and Scoutash's towns, 
$1,227.50 ; to the Delawares, $3,956.50 ; to the representatives of Hembis, 
$348.50 ; to the Shawanese, $420, and to the Senecas, an additional sum of 
$219. It was also agreed to pay the Shawanese, under the ti-eaty of Fort 
Industry, $2,500. By Article 17, the value of improvements abandoned, was 
to be paid for. 

A treaty supplementary to the "Treaty of the Foot of the Rapids of 
the Miami of the Lake," was concluded at St. Mary's, Ohio, on the 17th 
day of September, 1818, between Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, Com- 
missioners of the United States, and the sachems, chiefs, and warriors of 
the Wyandot, Seneca, Shawanese and Ottawa tribes of Indians. The fol- 
lowing are the articles of the supplemental treaty which were of special 
significance to the Wyandot nation : 

"Article 1. It is agi'eed between the United States and the parties here- 
unto, that the several tracts of land described in the treaty to which this is 
supplementary, and agreed thereby to be granted by the United States to 
the chiefs of the respective tribes named therein, for the use of the individ- 
uals of the said tribes, and also the tract described in the twentieth* article 
of the said treaty, shall not be thus granted, but shall be excepted from the 
cession made by the said tribes to the United States, reserved for the use of 
the said Indians, and held by them in the same manner as Indian reserva- 
tions have been heretofore held. But it is further agreed that the tracts 
thus reserved shall be reserved for the use of the Indians named in the 
schedule to the said treaty, and held by them and their heirs forever, unless 
ceded to the United States. 

"Art. 2. It is also agreed that there shall be reserved for the use of the 
Wyandots, in addition to the reservations before made, fifty-five thousand 
six hundred and eighty acres of land, to be laid off in two tracts, the first 
to adjoin the south line of the section of six hundi'ed and forty acres of 
land heretofore reserved for the Wyandot chief, the Cherokee Boy, and to 
extend south to the north line of the reserve of twelve miles square, at 
Upper Sandusky, and the other to join the east line of the reserve of twelve 
miles square, at Upper Sandusky, and to extend east for quantity. 

' ' There shall also be reserved, for the use of the Wyandots residing at 
Solomon's town, and on Blanchard's Fork, in addition to the reservations 
before made, sixteen thousand acres of land, to be laid off in a square 

* The twentieth article wholly related to a reservation granted the Ottawas, on the south side of the Miami 
of the lake. 


form, on the head of Blanchard's Fork, the center of which shall be at the 
Big Spring, on the trace leading from Upper Sandusky to Fort Findlay ; 
and ono hundred and sixty acres of land, for the use of the Wyandots, on 
the west side of the Sandusky River, adjoining the said river, and the lower 
line of two sections of land, agreed, by the treaty to which this is supple- 
mentary, to be gi-anted Elizabeth Whitaker. 


" Art. 3. It is hereby agreed that the tracts of land, which, by the 
eighth article of the treaty to which this is supplementary, are to be granted 
by the United States to the persons therein mentioned, shall never be con- 
veyed, by them or their heirs, without the permission of the President of 
the United States." 

By this supplement, an additional annuity was to be given to the Wyan- 
dots of $500, forever ; to the Shawanese, $1,000 ; to the Senecas, $500, 
and to the Ottawas, $],500. 

The circumstances which led to the supplementary treaty at St. Mary's 
originated in the following manner: When the United States Government 
had made arrangements to extinguish the Indian title to lands in the State 
of Ohio, an d after the Commissioners, and the sachems, chiefs and warriors 
of the various Indian nations had assembled at the foot of the Maumee 
Rapids, September 29, 1817, th e Wyand ots jrefused to sell their land. At 
this juncture, the Chippewas,* Pottawatomies* and Ottawas,* without any 
right or justice whatever, laid claim to a great part of the lands owned and 
occupied by the Wyandots; and Gabriel Godfroy and Whitmore Knaggs, 
agents for these nations, proposed in open council, in behalf of the Chippe- 
was, etc., etc., to sell said lands. Cass and McArthur, the Commissioners, 
then declared that if t he Wyandots would not se ll their lands, they would 
buy them of_the others — the Chippewas, Pottawatomies and Ot tawa s. The 
Wyandot chieftain. Between -the-logs, firmly opposed all of these measures; 
but however just his cause, or manly and eloquent in his arguments, they 
were lost upon men determined on their course. The Wyandots, finding 
themselves so circumstanced, and not being able to help themselves, were 
thus forced to sell on the terms proposed by the Commissioners. They did 
the best they could and signed the treaty; but only from a strong hope that 
by representing to the President and the Government the true state of things, 
before the treaty was ratified, they should obtain some redress from the 
Government. In resorting to this course, Between-the-logs acted a princi- 
pal part. Accordingly, he. with other Wyandot chiefs, and a delegation 
from the Delawares and Senecas, immediately proce eded to Washington, 
without consulting the Indian agents, or any other officer of Government. 
When they were introduced to the Secretary of War, he remarked to them 
that he was surprised that he had received no information of their coming by 
any of the agents. Between-the-logs answered, with the spirit of a free 
man, " We got up, and came of ourselves. We believed the great road was 
free for us. " He so pleaded their cause before the President, the Secretary 
of War and Congress, that the Wyandots obtained a n enlarge ment of their 
reservations and an increase of annuities, as shown in the articles of the 
supplementary treaty held at St. Mary's, September 17, 1818. 

During the same year, 1818, a grand Indian council was held at Upper 

*The members then composing these tribes seem to have been exceedingly crafty and avaricious in 
their nature. They jointly laid claim to the greater portion of the Northwest Territory as originally 
formed. They were always found present when treaties and cessions of land were to be made, and thus 
never failed to claim the " lion's share" when reservations were granted, or annuities and goods were to be 


Sandusky on the occasion of the death of Tarhe. or " the Crane, " the most 
celebrated chieftain the Wyandot nation ever produced. Col. John John- 
ston, of Upper Piqua, Ohio, who for about half a century served as an 
agent of the United States over the Indians of the West, was present, and 
in his " Recollections," gives the following interesting account of the 

" On the death of the great chief of the Wyandot s, I was invited to 
attend a general council of all the tribes of Ohio, the Delawares of Indiana, 
and the Senecas of New York, at Upper Sandusky. I found on arriving at 
the place a very lai'ge attendance. Among the chiefs was the noted leader 
and orator, Red Jacket, from Buffalo. The first business done was the 
speaker of the nation delivering an oration on the character of the deceased 
chief. Then followed what might be called a monody, or ceremony, of 
mourning or lamentation. Thus seats were arranged from end to end of a 
large council house, about six feet apart. The head men and the aged took 
their seats facing each other, stooping dOwn, their heads almost touching. 
In that position they remained for several hours. Deep, heavy and long 
continued groans would commence at one end of the row of mourners, and 
80 pass around until all had responded, and these repeated at intervals of a 
few minutes. The Indians were all washed, and had no paint or decora- 
tions of any kind upon their persons, their countenances and general de- 
portment denoting the deepest mourning. 1 had never witnessed anything 
of the kind before, and was told this ceremony was not performed but on the 
decease of some great man. 

"After the period of mourning and lamentation was over, the Indians 
proceeded to business. There were present the Wyandots, Shawanese, 
Delawares, Senecas, Ottawas and Mohawks. The business was entirely 
confined to their own affairs, and the main topics related to their lands and 
the claims of the respective tribes. It was evident, in the course of the dis- 
cus'^ion, that the presence of myself and people (there were some white men 
with me) was not acceptable to some of the parties, and allusions were 
made so direct to myself that I was constrained to notice them, by saying 
that I came there as a guest of the Wyandots by their special invitation; 
that as the agent of the United States, I had a right to be there as any- 
where else in the Indian country; and that if any insult was offered to my- 
self or my people, it would be resented and punished. Red Jacket was 
the principal speaker, and was intemperate and personal in his remarks. 
Accusations, pro and con, were made by the different parties, accusing each 
other of being foremost in selling lands to the United States. The 
Shawanese were particularly marked out as more guilty than any other; that 
they were the last coming into the Ohio country, and although they had no 
right but by permission of the other tribes, they were always the foremost 
in selling lands. This brought the Shawanese out, who retorted through 
their head chief, the Black Hoof, on the Senecas and Wyandots with 
pointed severity. 

" The discussion was long continued, calling out some of the ablest 
speakers, and was distinguished for ability, cutting sarcasm and research, 
going far back into the history of the natives, their wars, alliances, nego- 
tiations, migrations, etc. I had attended many councils, treaties and gath- 
erings of the Indians, but never in my life did I witness such an outpour- 
ing of native oratory and eloquence, of severe rebuke, taunting national and 
personal reproaches. The council broke up later in great confusion, and in 
the worst possible feeling. A circumstance occurred toward the close 


which more than anything else exhibited the bad feeling prevailing. In 
handing round the wampum belt, the emblem of amity, peace and good 
will, when presented to one of the chiefs, he would not touch it with his 
lingers, but passed it on a stick to the person next to him. A greater in- 
dignity, agreeable to Indian etiquette, could not be otfered. 

" The next day appeared to be one of unusual anxiety and despondency 
among the Indians. They could be seen in groups everywhere near the 
council house in deep consultation. They had acted foolishly— were sor- 
ry — but the difficulty was who would tirst present the olive branch. The 
council convened late and was very full; silence prevailed for a long time; 
at last the aged chief of the Shawanese, the Black Hoof, rose — a man of 
great influence, and a celebrated warrior. He told the assembly they had 
acted like children, and not men on yesterday; that he and his people were 
sorry for the words that had been spoken, and which had done so much 
harm; that he came into the council by the unanimous desire of his people 
present, to recall those foolish words, and did there take them back — hand- 
ing strings of wampum, which passed around and were received by all with 
the greatest satisfaction. Several of the principal chiefs delivered speeches 
to the same effect, handing round wampum in turn, and in this manner the 
whole difficulty of the preceding day was settled, and to all appearances for- 
gotten. The Indians are very courteous and civil to each other, and it is 
a rare thing to see their assemblies disturbed by unwise or ill-timed re- 
marks. I never witnessed it except on the occasion here alluded to, and it 
is more than probable that the presence of myself and other white men con- 
tributed toward the unpleasant occurrence. I could not help but admire 
the genuine philosophy and good sense displayed by men whom we call 
savages, in the translation of their public business; and how much we 
might profit in the halls of our Legislatures, by occasionally taking for our 
example the proceedings of the great Indian council at Upper Sandusky." 

At the time the events occurred, which have just been related, the 
Indian town known as Upper Sandusky, was located about four miles 
northeast of the present county seat (a point, it appears to which 
the Indians removed prior to 1782). After the death of Tarhe, however, 
they erected a council house on the site of the present town of Upper San- 
dusky (a place which was nearer the center of their reservation), gave it 
this name — Upper Sandusky, and called the old village Crane Town. The 
old council house mentioned by Col. Johnston, stood about a mile and a 
half north of Crane Town. It was built chiefly of bark, and in dimensions 
was about one hundred feet long by fifteen feet in width. Subsequently 
the temporary structure at the new town of Upper Sandusky gave place to 
a more substantial building. The frame council house known to early 
residents for several years, as the Wyandot County Court House, etc. — 
which was built probably about the year 1830, or a few years after the 
completion of the grist and saw* mill, provided for in the treaty of Septem- 
ber 29, 1817. at the foot of the Maumee Rapids. 

The Wyandot nation was subdivided into ten tribes. These tribes were 
kept up by the mother's side, and all her children belonged to her tribe. 
The totem of each of the ten tribes was as follows: The Deer, Bear, Snake, 

* Rev. James B. Finley, in his "History of the Wyandot Mission," when speaking of building the 
mission house, says, under date of October, 1821; "We hauled lumber to the saw mill, and sawed it our- . 
selves into joists and plank for the floor and other purposes." The mills referred to, which were built in 
1820 for the Indians by the (Government, were located about three miles northeast of Upper Sandusky, upon 
the Sandusky Kiver, and supplied the wants of the Wyandots, in these particulars — flour, corn meal and 
lumber— until they moved to Kansas. The old buhrs and bolting chest are still in use in the present mill, 
which was built about twenty-two years ago, some twenty rods north of the site of the old mill. 


Hawk, Porcupine, Wolf, Beaver, Bij^ Turtle, Little Turtle and Terrapin. Each 
of these tribes had its chief, and these chief s composed the grand council of 
the nation. The oldest mau in the tribe was generally the tribal chief, and 
all the persons belonging to a tribe were considered as one family— all near 
akin. Indeed, no law or custom among them was so scrupulously regarded 
and adhered to with so much tenacity as the tribe law in this particular. 
No person was allowed to marry in his or her own tribe, or to have any 
sexual intercoiirse with one of his own tribe. It was considered that no 
crime could so effectually destroy their character or disgrace them so much 
as this. Nothing could ever restore to them their lost reputation. Murder, 
adultery, or fornication were not deemed half as bad as a violation of the 
tribe law; and in some instances such violators were put to death. When 
a man wished to marry a woman, he first had to obtain the consent of her 
tribe, and most generally he went to live with his wife in her tribe, yet the 
woman was not bound to live with him any longer than she pleased, and 
when she left him would take with her, her children and property. 

From time immemorial until "Mad Anthony's" decisive battle at the 
foot of the Maumee Rapids, to the Deer tribe belonged the sce2:)ter and 
calumet of the grand sachems; but as a result of that battle, this tribe be- 
came so weak by the loss of their warriors that the nation deemed it best 
to take the burden off their shoulders, and placed it on the Porcupine tribe. 
According to Finley, the celebrated Tarhe, and his immediate successor, 
De un quot, as head chiefs and grand sachems of the Wyandot nation, were 
members of the last mentioned tribe. 

In a brief biographical sketch of the great chief, Tarhe, or" The Crane," 
which was published m the W^yandot Democratic Union, August 13, 1866, 
William Walkei*, a member of the Wyandot nation, says: "Tarhe was born 
in the year 1742, near Detroit, Mich., and died near Upper Sandusky in 
November, 1818. He belonged to the Porcupine tribe, a clan or sub- 
division of the Wyandot nation * * * j (>an think of no man in Ohio 
who in anywise resembled him in general appearance but one — the Hon. 
Benjamin Ruggles, who for eighteen consecutive years represented the State 
of Ohio in the United States Senate. Between these two there was a strik- 
ing resemblance, except that Tarhe's nasal organ was aquiline. 

" When in his prime he must have been a lithe, withy, wiry man, capa- 
ble of great endurance, as he marched on foot at the head of his warriors 
through the whole of Gen. Harrison's campaign into Canada, and was an 
taetive participant in the battle of the Thames, though then seventy- 
two years of age. He steadily and unflinchingly opposed Tecumseh's war 
policy from 1808, up to the breaking out of the war of 1812. He main- 
tained inviolate the treaty of peace concluded with Gen. Wayne in 1795. 
This brought him into conflict with that ambitious Shawanese, the latter hav- 
ing no regard for the plighted faith of his predecessors; but Tarhe deter- 
mined to maintain that of his, and remained true to the American cause 
till the day of his death. Gea. Harrison, in comparing him with cotem- 
porary chiefs of other tribes, pronounced him 'The noblest Roman of them 
all.' He was a man of mild aspect, and gentle in his manners when at re- 
pose, but when acting publicly exhibited great energy, and when address- 
ing his people, there «vas always something that, to my youthful ear, sound- 
ed like stern command. He never drank spirits; never used tobacco in any 

"Near the close of the war, Jonathan Pointer, a negro, who had been 
captured somewhere in Western Virginia by a Wyandot war party in 


early times, resided in Tarhe's family. Jonathan, who was not proverbial 
for honesty, was in the habit of abducting horses in the night belonging 
to teamsters who might chance to encamp in the neighborhood, and con- 
cealing them. The teamsters, of course, were in trouble and great per- 
plexity, perhaps unable to proceed without the missing animals. Jonathan 
was sure to be on hand, and offer to find them for a certain pecuniaiy re- 
ward. The old man found out the sharp practice of his protege, and took 
him to task; told him that if he ever heard of his playing any more such 
tricks upon travelers he would remand him back to his master in Virginia. 
This had the desired effect, and Jonathan ceased to speculate in that di- 

' • Many of the old settlers of Wyandot County will remember ' Aunt 
Sally Frost,' a white woman, raised among the Wyandots. Aunt Sally was 
Tarhe's wife when he died. He had one son, but oh, how unlike the sire! 
nearly an idiot, and died at the age of twenty-five. 

"His Indian name is supposed to mean crane (the tall fowl); but this is 
a mistake. Crane is mex'elya soubriquet bestowed upon him by the French, 
thus: 'Le chef Grue,' or 'Monsieur Grue,' the chief Crane, or Mr. Crane. 
This nickname was bestowed upon him on account of his height and slen- 
der form. He had no English name, but the Americans took up and adopted 
the French nickname. Tarhe or Tarhee, when critically analyzed, means. 
At him, the Tree, or At the Tree ; the tree personified. Thus you have in 
this one word a preposition, a personal pronoun, a definite article, and a 
noun. The name of your populous township should be Tarhe, instead of 
Crane. It is due to the memory of that great and good man.* " 

We have now arrived at the beginning of another interesting epoch in the 
history of the Wyandot nation — the establishment among them of a mis- 
sion of the Methodist Episcopal Church — the consideration of which 
will be reserved for another chapter. 

*Rev. J. B. Finley also testifies to the noble and generous character of this chief. He says : " I was 
once traveling from Detroit in the year 181)0, in company with two others. We came to the camp of old 
Tarhe, or Crane, head chief of the Wyandot nation. We had sold a drove of cattle, and had money, which 
we gave up to the chief in the evening. The next morning all was forthcoming, and never were men 
treated with more fervent kindness." 




(From 1816-18, to 1843.) 

Demoralized Condition of the Wyandots in 1816— John Steavakt, the 
Colored Preacher, Appears Among Them— Sketch of His Early 
Life— Coldly Received, rut Finally Gains Their Confidence— .\n 
Account of His Proceedings— Rev. James B. Finley Appointed Res- 
ident Missionary— His Trials and Triumphs — Deunquot, the Head 
Chief, Creates a .Sensation— Mission School Opened— The Mission 
Farm— Death of Stewart— Building the Mission Stone Chuuch— 
Prosperity— Chiefs Visit Eastern Cities— Finley Departs in 1327— 
The Savage Delawares Cede Their Reservation to the UnitedStates 
— An Account of Some of Them— An Indian Execution — The Wyan- 
DOTs Sell Their Lands— Terms— Their Final Departure for Regions 
West of Missouri— Farewell Song. 

AT the time of Gen. Wayne's treaty with the Northwestern tribes, the 
Wyandots, under the lead of Tarhe, including men, women and 
children, numbered about 2,200. From that time, until the date of their 
settlement upon the reservation in the present county of Wyandot, they 
had lost but very few men in battle, yet, by reason of being on the extreme 
borders of civilizalion, and mixing with the most abandoned and vicious of 
the whites, they had sunk in the most degrading vices, many of them be- 
came the most debased and worthless of their race, and drunkenness, lewd- 
ness and attendant diseases, had reduced them in twenty years nearly one- 
half in numbers. For many years, they had been under the religious in- 
struction of priests of the Roman Catholic Church, but, from the state of 
their morals, and from the declarations of those who professed to be Catho- 
lics, it seems that they had derived but little benefit. " To carry a silver 
cross, and to count a string of beads; to worship the Virgin Mary; to go to 
church and hear mass said in Latin; and be taught to believe that for a 
beaver's skin, or its value, they could have all their sins pardoned, was the 
amount of their Christianity, and served but to encourage them in their 
superstition and vice."* v 

Such was their condition when, in November, 1816, John Stewart first 
visited them. From Mr. Finley's "History of the Wyandot Mission," it 
is learned that John Stewart, a free-born mulatto, whose parents claimed to 
be mixed with Indian blood, was born in Powhatan County, Va. He became 
disabled in early life. When quite a youth, his parents moved to the State 
of Tennessee and left him behind. Subsequently he set out to join them, 
but on his way to Marietta. Ohio, was robbed of all his money. Discour- 
aged over his losses, he remained at that place for a considerable period, 
and gave full scope to habits of intemperance, in the drinking of strong 
liquors, to such a degree that at one time he determined to put an end to 
his miserable existence by drowning himself in the Ohio River. Finally 
he united with the Methodist Episcopal Church at Marietta, where, subse- 
quently, he engaged in his trade of blue-dyeing. 

*J. B. Finley. 


In the fall of 1814, he became very ill, and no one expected he would re- 
cover. But he invoked the blessings of God, and promised if he was spared 
that he would obey the call. Soon after this, he went into the fields to pray. 
" It seemed to me," said he, " that I heard a voice, like the voice of a woman 
praising God; and then another, as the voice of a man, saying to me, ' You 
must declare my counsel faithfully.' These voices ran through me power- 
fully. They seemed to come from a northwest direction. I soon found 
myself standing on my feet, and speaking as if I were addressing a congre 
gation. This circumstance made a strong impression upon my mind, and 
seemed an indication to me that the Lord had called on me to warn sinners 
to flee the wrath to come. But I felt myself so poor and ignorant that I 
feared much to make any attempt, though I was continually drawn to travel 
toward the course from whence the voices seemed to come. I at length con- 
cluded that if God would enable me to pay my debts, which I had con- 
tracted in the days of my wickedness and folly, I would go. This I was 
soon enabled to do; and I accordingly took my knapsack and set oflf to the 
northwest, not knowing whither I was to go. When I set off, my soul was 
very happy, and I steered my course, sometimes in the road, and sometimes 
through the woods, until I came to Goshen, on the Tuscarawas River. This 
was the old Moravian establishment among the Delawares. The Rev. Mr. 
Mortimore was then its pastor." Here Stewart found a few of the Dela- 
wares, among them the old chief Killbuck and his family. He remained a 
few days and was kindly treated by all. And it was here doubtless that 
Stewart learned something of the Delawares and Wyandots further to the 
north; for these Delawares had many friends and relations that lived at a 
point on the Sandusky River called Pipetown, after the chief who lived 
there; and to this place he next proceeded. 

At Pipetown was a considerable body <A Delawares under the control of 
Capt. Pipe, son of the chief of the same name, who was prominent at the 
burning of Col. Crawford. At this place Stewart stopped, but as the In- 
dians were preparing for a great dance they paid but little attention to him. 
The proceedings on the part of the Indians were all new to Stewart, and 
for a time their vociferations and actions alarmed him exceedingly, but at 
last they became somewhat quiet, when Stewart took out his hymn book and 
began to sing. He, as is usual with many of his race, had a most melodi- 
ous voice, and as a result of his effort the Indians present were charmed 
and awed into perfect silence. When he ceased. Johnny-cake said in bi'oken 
English, ' ' Sing more. " He then asked if there was any person present who 
could interpret for him; when old Lyons, who called himself one hundred 
and sixty years old (for he counted the summer a year and the winter a 
year) came forward. Stewart talked to them for some minutes and then re- 
iire(] for the night. In the morning, he almost determined to return to 
Marietta, and from thence proceed to the home of his parents in Tennessee. 
But so strong were liis impressions that he had not yet reached the right 
place, though he was invited by the Delawares to remain with them, that 
he continued his course northwesterly and finally arrived at the house of 
William Walker, Sr., at Upper Sandusky. 

Mr. Walker was an interpreter, and the United States Indian sub-agent 
at this point. At first he suspected Stewart to be a runaway slave; but the 
latter accounted for his presence here in such an honest, straightfoward 
manner, that all doubts or suspicions were at once removed. Mrs. Walker, 
who was a most amiable woman, of good education, and half Wyandot, also 
became much interested in Stewart after hearing his account of himself. 


She possessed great influence in the Wyandot nation; and this whole family 
became his hospitable friends, and the untiring patrons to the mission 
which was afterward established. Mr. Walker, Sr. , his wife and his sons, 
were all good interpreters, spoke the Indian tongue fluently, and all, except 
old Mr. Walker, became members of the church. 

This family directed Stewart to a colored man named Jonathan Pointer. 
The latter, when a little boy, had been captured by the Wyandots at Point 
Pleasant, Va. His master and himself were cultivating corn when the 
Indians came upon them. They shot his master, caught Jonathan, and 
took him home with them. This man could speak the Indian language as 
well as any of the natives. When Stewart called upon him, and made 
known his wishes, Jonathan was very reluctant, indeed, to interpret for 
him, or to introduce him as a preacher. He told Stewart that " it was 
great folly for him, a poor colored man, to attempt to turn these Indians 
from their old religion to a new one." Bat Stewart persevered; he believed 
that God had sent him here, and he was unwilling to give up until he had 
made a trial. 

Jonathan was going to a feast and dance the next day, and Stewart 
desired to go along, to which he rather reluctantly consented. Stewart in- 
duced him to introduce him to the chiefs, when he gave them an exhortation 
and sung a hymn or two. Finally he requested that all who were willing 
to hear him next day at Pointer's house should come forward and give him 
their hand. This the most of them did. But he was much disappointed 
the next day, for none of them came other than one old woman, to whom 
he preached. A meeting was appointed at the same place for the following 
day. The same old woman, and an old chief, named Big- Tree, were pres- 
ent. To these Stewart again preached. The next day being the Sabbath, 
he appointed to meet in the cou.ncil house. At that place eight or ten 
came. From this time his congregations began to increase in numbers, and 
it is presumed that nothing contributed more to increase them and keep 
them up for awhile than his singing. This delighted the Indians. No 
people are more fond of music than they are, and for that reason Stewart 
mixed his prayers and exhortations with numerous songs. 

Mr. Finley relates that many of the Wyandots had been Catholics, and 
they began to call up their old Catholic songs, and sing them, and to pray. 
By this means, some of them got stirred up, and awakened to see their lost 
condition. However, Stewart considered it to be his duty when they prayed 
to the Virgin Mary, and used their beads and crosses in prayer, to tell them 
that it was wrong. He also spoke against the foolishness of their feasts and 
dances, and against their witchcraft. These reproofs soon excited preju- 
dices against him. Many that had joined in the meetings went away, and by 
voice and actions did all the harm they could. Some even visited the 
Catholic priest at Detroit, related what was going on, and asked for in- 
structions. The priest told them, "that none had the true word of God, 
or Bible, but the Catholics; that none but the Catholic priests could teach 
them the trae and right way to heaven; that if they died out of the Catholic 
Church they must perish forever; and that they could not be saved in any 
other way, but must be lost forever." They came home from Detroit in 
high spirits, and soon it was reported through every family that Stewart 
did not have the right Bible, and was leading them wrong. Some charged 
him with having a false Bible, but how to test the matter was the difficulty. 
Finally, all agreed to leave it to Mr. Walker, Sr. The time was set when 
the parties were to meet, and he was publicly to examine Stewart's Bible 


and hymn book. The parties came together at the time appointed. Deep 
interest was felt on both sides, and all waited in solemn suspense. After 
some time had been spent iu the examination, Mr. Walker said that the 
Bible used by Stewart was a true one, and differed from the Catholic Bible 
only in this: one was printed in English, the other in Latin. He also af- 
firmed that his (Stewart's) hymn book was a good one, and that the hymns 
it contained were well calculated to be sung in the worship of God. 

This decision was received with joy by the religious party, and in a 
corresponding degree sunk the spirits of the other. It is believed, how- 
ever, that none were so influential in putting down the superstitions of the 
Catholics as Mrs. Walker. She was no ordinary woman. Her mind was 
well enlightened, and she could expose the folly of their superstitions better 
than any one in the nation. As she stood so high in the estimation of all, 
her words had more weight than anyone else. 

Stewart continued his labors among the Wyandots from November, 1816, 
until early in the following spring. His interpreter, Pointer, had professed 
to obtain religion, and also a considerable number of rather unimportant 
Indians; but the leading chiefs and head men of the nation stood aloof. 
After passing several months at Mariette, Stewart returned to Upper San- 
dusky in August, 1817. He found upcm his return that but few of his floek 
had remained steadfast. Most of them had fallen back into their former 
habits, and one of the most hopeful of the young men had been killed in a 
drunken frolic. At this time Monuncue* and Two- logs, or Bloody Eyes 
(the last mentioned chief being a brother of Between-the-logs), raised a 
powerful opposition to Stewart, and represented in most glowing colors the 
destruction that the Great Spirit would visit upon them if they forsook their 
old traditions; that the Great Spirit had denounced them as a nation, and 

* This renowned chief of the Wyandot nation was of medium stature, and remarkably symmetrical 
in form. Mr. Finley says he was one of the most active men he ever knew, quick in his motions as thought, 
and fleet as the doe in the chase. 

As a speaker, he possessed a native eloquence which was truly wonderful. Few could stand before 
the overwhelming torrent of his eloquence. He was a son of Thunder. When inspired with his theme, he 
could move a large assembly with as much ease, and rouse them to as high a state of excitement, as any 
speaker I ever heard. There is a peculiarity in Indian eloquence which it is difficult to describe. To form 
a correct idea of its character, you must be in the hearing and sight of the son of the forest; the tones of 
his voice and the flash of his eye must fall upon you, and you must see the significant movement of his 
body. As an orator, Mononcue was not surpassed by any chieftian. 

I will give a specimen or two of the eloquence of this gifted son of nature. Imagine yourself, gentle 
reader, in the depths of the forest, surrounded by hundreds of chiefs and warriors, all sunk in the degreda- 
tion and darkness of paganism. They have been visited by the missionary, and several converted chiefs. 
One after another the chiefs rise and address the assembly, but with no effect. The dark scowl of iufidelity 
settles on their brows, and the frequent mutterings of the excited auditors indicate that their speeches are 
not acceptable, and their doctrines not believed. At length Mononcue rises amidst confusion and dis- 
turbance, and ordering silence with a commanding voice, he addresses them as follows : 

"When you meet to worship God. and to hear from His word, shut up your mouths, and open your 
ears to hear what is said. You have been here several days and nights worshipping your Indian god, who 
has no existence, only in your dark and beclouded minds. You have been burning your dogs and vension 
for him to smell What kind of a god or spirit is he, that he can be delighted with the smell of a burnt 
dog? Do you suppose the great (lod that spread out the heavens, that hung up the sun and moon, and 
all the stars, to make light, and spread out this vast world of land and water, and filled it with men 
and beasts, and everything that swims or flies, is pleased with the smell of your burnt dog? I tell you to- 
day, that His great eye is on your hearts, and not on your fires, to see and smell what you are burning. Has 
your worshipping here these few days made you any better? Do you feel that you have gotton the victory 
over one evil? No! You have not taken the first step to do better, which is to keep this day holy. This 
day was appointed by God Himself, a day ot rest for all men, and a day on which men are to worship Him 
with pure hearts, and to come before Him that He may examine their hearts, and cast out all their evil. 
This day is appointed for His minister to preach to us .Tesus, and to teach our dark and cloudy minds, and 
to bring them to light." He here spoke of the Savior, and His dying to redeem the world ; that how life and 
salvation are freely ottered to all that will forsake sin and turn to God He adverted to the judgment day, 
and the awful consequences of being found in sin, and strangers to God. On this subject he was tremend- 
ously awful. He burst into tears ; he caught the handkerchief from his head, and wiped them from his 
eyes. Many in the house sat as if they were petrified, while others wept in silence. Many of the females 
drew their blankets over their faces "and wept. " Awful, awful day to the wicked 1" said this thundering 
minister. " Your faces will look much blacker with your shame and guilt than they do now with your 
paint." I have no doubt but God was with Mononcue on this occasion, and that many were convicted of sin 
and a judgment to come. 

Mononcue was of great service to the mission at Upper Sandusky as a local preacher, and was always 
prompt in the discharge of every duty. He remained a true Christian and friend of the whites until his 
death, which occurred some time before the removal of the Wyandots west of Missouri. 


would abandon them forever, if they left His commandments, and exhorted 
the people never to think of turning aside from their fathers' religion. 

Late in the year 1818, Stewart encountered other difficulties. It seems . 
that certain missionaries, traveling to the northward, passed through Upper 
Sandusky, and finding that Stewart had been somewhat successful in his 
labors among the Wyandots, wanted him to join their church, saying that 
they would assure him a good salary. He refused on the gi'ound of his ob- 
jections to the doctrines they held. They then demanded his authority as 
a Methodist missionary. As he held no other authority from the church 
than an exhorter's license, he frankly told them he had none. Through 
this means, it became known that he had no authority from the church to 
exercise the ministerial office; although he had both solemnized matrimony 
and baptized several persons, both adults and children, believing that the 
necessity of the case justified it. This operated greatly to his disadvan- 
tage, for the missionaries aforesaid and the traders asserted that he was 
an impostor. 

Stewart now determined to attach himself to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, at some point nearer than Marietta. The same winter •(1818-19), 
he visited a tribe of the Wyandots that lived at Solomonstown, oa the 
Great Miami River. He there formed the acquaintance of Robert Arm- 
strong, and some Methodist families living near Bellefontaine. From them 
he learned that the quarterly meeting, for that circuit, would be held near 
Urbana. To that place he proceeded (in company with some of the Indi- 
ans), recommended by the converted chiefs and others, as a proper person to 
be licensed as a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 
March, 1819, his case was brought before the conference, and by a unani- 
mous vote of that body, he was duly licensed. At this meeting, several of 
the local preachers present volunteered to go in turn and assist Stewart, 
but it appears that Rev. Anthony Banning, of Mount Vernon, anticipated 
their action, and was the first to aid him. 

At the annual confei,-ence, held at Cincinnati in August, 1819, the 
Indian mission at Upper Sandusky was named as a regular field of 
labor in the Lebanon District, which then extended from the Ohio River 
northward to and including Michigan TeiTitory. At the same time Rev. 
James B. Finley was appointed Presiding Elder of the district, and Rev. 
James Montgomery, missionary to assist Stewart. Subsequently, Mont- 
gomery was appointed by Col. John Johnston, sub-agent, over the Senecas, 
and Moses Henkle was employed to fill the position vacated by Montgomery. 
As a result of these proceedings, Stewart's prominence as a missionary among 
the Indians began to wane, and others proceeded to occupy the field which 
he had opened. 

Although Mononcue and other prominent men of the Wyandots 
opposed Stewart's efforts for a time, they were, comparatively speaking, 
early converts to Methodism Thus. Finley relates that the first quarterly 
meeting appointed for the benefit of the Indians was held at Zanesfield, 
at the house of Ebenezer Zane, a half-breed, in November, 1819. About 
sixty Indians were present, among them the chiefs known as Between-the- 
logs, Mononcue, John Hicks, Peacock, Squindighty and Scuteash. Robert 
Armstrong and Jonathan Pointer were the interpreters. All of the chiefs 
mentioned, besides several others, spoke to the white men and red men there 
assembled. The address of Between-the-logs, interpreted, was as follows: 

"Will you have patience to hear me, and I will give you a history 
of religion among the Indians for some time back, and how we have been 


OF THE ptETfiODIST Chd({Cii. 


deceived. Our fathoi's had a religion of their own, by which they served 
God and were happy, before any white men came among them. They used 
to worship with feasts, sacrifices, dances and rattles; in doing which they 
thought they were right. Our parents wished us to be good, and they used 
to make us do good, and would sometimes correct us for doing evil. But a 
great while ago, the French sent us the good book by a Koman priest, and 
we listened to him. He taught us that we must confess our sins, and he 
would forgive them; that we must worship Lady Mary, and do penance. 
He baptized us with spittle and salt, and many of us did as he told us. 
Now, we thought, to be sure we are right. He told us to pray, and to carry 
the cross on our breasts. He told us, also, that it was wrong to drink 
whisky. But we found that he would drink it himself, and we followed 
his steps and got dnink too. At last our priest left us, and this religion all 
died away. So, many of us left off getting drunk, and we began again to 
do pretty well. Then the Seneca prophet arose and pretended that he had 
talked to the Great Spirit, and that he had told him what the Indians ought 
to do. So we heard and followed him. It is true, he told us many good 
things, and that we ought not to drink whisky, but soon we found that he 
was like the lioman priest — he would tell us we must not do things, and 
yet do them himself. So here we were deceived again. Then, after these 
cheats, we thought oui" fathers' religion was still the best, and we would 
take it up again and follow it. After some time the great Shawanese prophet 
[Tecumseh's brother] arose. Well, we heard him, and some of us followed 
him for awhile. But we had now become very jealous, having been deceived 
so often, and we watched him very closely, and soon found him like all the 
rest. Then we left him also, and now we were made strong in the religion 
of our fathers, and concluded to turn away from it no more. We made an- 
other trial to establish it more firmly, and had made some progress when the 
war broke out between our father, the President, and King George. Our 
nation was for war with the king, and every man wanted to be a big man. 
Then we drank whisky and fought; and by the time the war was over we 
were all scattered, and many killed and dead. 

"But the chiefs thovight they would gather the nation together once 
more. We had a good many collected, and were again establishing our In- 
dian religion. Just at this time, a black man, Stewart, onr brother here 
(poiuting to him), came to us, and told us he was sent by the Great Spirit 
to tell us the true and good way. But we thought that he was like all the 
rest, that he wanted to cheat us, and get our money and land from us. He 
told us of all our sins; showed us that drinking whisky was ruining us; 
that the Great Spirit was angry with us; and that we must leave ofi" these 
things. But we treated him ill, and gave him but little to eat, and trampled 
on him, and were jealous of him for a whole year. We are sure if the 
Great Spirit had not sent him, he could not have borne with our treatment. 
About this time our father, the President, applied to us to buy our lands, 
and we had to go to the great city to see him. When we came home, our 
old preacher was still with us, telling us the same things; and we could 
find no fault or alteration in him. About this time he talked about leaving 
us to see his friends; and our squaws told us that we were fools to let him 
go, for the Great God had sent him, and we ought to adopt him. But still 
we wanted to hear longer. They then told us what God had done for them 
by this man. So we attended his meeting in the council house, and the 
Great Spirit came upon us so that some cried aloud, some clapped their 
hands, some ran away, and some were angry. We held our meeting all 



night, sometimes singing and sometimes praying. By this time we were 
convinced that God had sent him to us; and then we adopted him, and gave 
him mother and children. About this time a few of us went to a great 
camp-meeting near Lebanon, Warren County, Ohio, and were much blessed 
and very happy. As soon as this work was among us at Sandusky, almost 
every week some preacher would come and tell us they loved us, and would 
take us and our preacher under their care, and give us schools, and do all 
for us that we wished. But we thought if they loved Indians so, why not 
go to the Senecas and Mohawks? They have no preacher; we have ours. 
Some told us that we must be baptized all over in the water, to wash away 
our sins. And now they said they cared much for us; but before Stewart 
came they cared nothing for us. Now some of us are trying to do good, 
and are happy. We find no alteration in Stewart. But when others come, 
and our young men will not sit still, they scold; and we believe Stewari is the 
best man. Some of the white people that live among us and can talk our 
language say, ' The Methodists have bewitched you;' and that, 'It is all 
nothing but the works of the devil; and the whites want to get you tamed, 
and then kill you, as they did the Moravian Indians on the Tuscarawas 
River." I told them that if we were to be killed, it was time for us all to 
be praying. Some white people put bad things in the minds of our young 
Indians, and make our way rough." Between-the-logs concluded his ad- 
dress by telling of the goodness of the Lord, and requesting an interest in 
the prayers of his people. 

In August, .1821, in accordance with the suggestions of the Methodist 
preachers, the chiefs, Deunquot, Between-the-logs, John Hicks, Mononcue, 
Andauyouah, Deandoughso and Tahuwaughtarode, signed a petition, which 
was drawn up and witnessed by William Walker, United States Interpreter; 
and Moses Henkle, Sr., Missionary, requesting that a missionary school be 
established among them, at Upper Sandusky, and for that pui-pose they 
donated a section of land at the place called Camp Meigs, where existed a fine 
spring of water and other conveniences. The Indians also requested of con- 
ference that the teacher sent them should be a preacher, thus obviating 
the necessity of a traveling misssonary being continued among them. 
Thereupon Eev. James B. Finley, was appointed resident missionary and 
teacher at the Wyandot INIission. He says in his history of the mission: 
' ' There was no plan of operation furnished me, no provision made for the 
mission family, no house to shelter them, nor supplies for the winter; 
and there was only a small sum of money, amounting to $20U, appro- 
priated for the benefit of the mission. However, I set about the work 
of preparation to move. I had a suitable wagon made, bought a yoke of 
oxen, and other things necessary, took my own fui'niture and household 
goods, and by the 8th of October was on my way. I had hired two young 
men, and one young woman, and Sister Harriet Stubbs volunteered to ac- 
company us as a teacher. These, with my wife and self, made the whole 
mission family. We were eight days making our way out. Sixty miles 
of the road was almost as bad as it could be. From Markley's, on the 
Scioto, to Upper Sandusky, there were but two or three cabins. But by the 
blessing of kind Providence, we arrived safe, and were received by all with 
the warmest aflfection. There was no house for us to shelter in on the sec- 
tion of land we were to occupy, but by the kindness of Mr. Lewis, the black- 
smith, we were permitted to occupy a new cabin he had built for his family. 
It was without door, window or chinking. Here we unloaded, and set up 
oiir Ebenezer. The Sabbath following, we held meeting in the council house, 


and had a large congregation. Brother Stewart was present, and aided in 
the exercises. We had a good meeting, and the prospect of better times. 

" We now selected the place for building our mission house. It was on 
the spot called " Camp Meigs,' where Gov. Meigs had encamped with the Ohio 
Militia in time of the last war. on the west bank of the Sandusky River, 
about a mile below the post of 'Upper Sandusky." We commenced getting 
logs to put us up a shelter for the winter. The first week one of my hands 
left me. A day or two after, while we were in the woods cutting down 
timber, a dead limb fell from the tree we were chopping on the head of the 
other young man, so that he lay breathless. I placed him on the wa^on, 
drove home half a mile or more, and then bled him, before he recovered his 
senses. I now began to think it would be hard times. Winter was coming 
on, and my family exposed in an Indian country, without a house to shelter 
in. For years I had dont> but little manual labor. But the Lord blessed 
me with great peace in ray soul. My worthy friend, George Riley, recov- 
ered from his hurt, and we worked almost day and night, until the skin 
came off the inside of my hands. I took oak bark, boiled it, and washed 
my hands in the decoction, and they soon got well and became hard. 
We built a cabin house, 20x23 feet, and without door, window, or 
loft. On the very day that snow* began to fall, we moved into it. The 
•winter soon became extremely cold. We repaired one of the old block- 
houses, made a stable thereof for our cattle, and cut, hauled and hewed 
logs to put up a double house, forty-eight feet long by twenty wide, a story 
and a half high. We hauled timber to the saw mill, and sawed it ourselves 
into joists and plank, for the floors and other purposes. I think I can say 
that neither brother Riley nor myself sat down to eat one meal of victuals 
that winter but by candle-light, except on Sabbath days. We always went 
to bed at 9, and rose at 4 o'clock in the morning, and by daylight we were 
ready to go to work. In addition to this, I preached every Sabbath and met 
class, attended prayer meeting once every week, and labored to rear up the 
church. Brother Stewart assisted when he was able to labor, but his pul- 
monary affliction confined him the most of liis time to the house, and I em- 
ployed him to teach a small school of ten or twelve Indian children at the 
Big Spring; for these people were so anxious to have their children taught 
that they could not wait until preparations* were made at the mission house, 
and they wanted to have a separate school by themselves. To this I would 
not agree; but to accommodate their wishes until we were ready at the mis- 
sion house to receive their children, I consented that they might be taught 
at home." 

Mr. Finley remained with the Wyandots at Upper Sandusky (assisted 
meanwhile, at different periods, by Revs. John Stewart, Charles Elliott, 
Jacob Hooper, John C. Brooke and James Gilruth), about seven years, and 
his published statements of the proceedings while here, are quite inter- 
esting and complete. Yet, except in a few instances, the scope of this 
work — the great variety of topics to be treated — precludes the practicability 
of our giving full accounts obtained therefrom, or indeed of doing but 
little more, while speaking further of the Wyandot Mission, than to merely 
make mention of some of the most prominent events. 

While the chiefs and head men known as Between-the-logs, Mononcue, 
John Hicks, Squire Grayeyes, George Punch, Summundewat, Big-tree, 
Driver, Washington, Joseph Williams. Two Logs, Mathew Peacock, 
Harrihoot, Robert Armstrong, Scuteash, Rohnyenness, Little Chief, Big 
River, Squindatee and others (with a following of about one-half of those 


on the reservation), prof essed to have obtained religion, and were enrolled as 
members of the Mission Methodist Episcopal Church, Deunquot, who be- 
came the head chief of the nation npon the death of Tarhe, together with 
the other half of the Indians under his control, remained true to the 
religion (if so it maj be called) of their fathers. Finley speaks of an 
occurrence in which Deunquot prominently figured as follows: 

" Some time after this the head chief, Deunquot, and his party came one 
Sabbath to the council house, where we held our meetings, dressed up and 
painted in real Indian style, with their head-bands tilled with silver bobs, 
their head-dress consisting of feathers and painted horse hair. The chief 
had a half moon of silver on his neck before and several hanging on his 
back. He had nose-jewels and ear-rings, and many bands of silver 
on his arms and legs. Around his ankles hung many buck-hoofs, to 
rattle when he walked. His party were dressed in similar style. The like 
nesses of animals were painted on their breasts and backs, and snakes on 
their arms. When he came in he addressed the congregation in Indian 
style, with a polite compliment, and then taking his seat, struck lire, took 
out his pipe, lighted it and commenced smoking. Others of his party 
followed his example. I knew this was done by way of opposition and 
designed as an insult. Soon after I toek my text, John v, 16, 'Wilt thou 
be made whole?' etc.; and commenced on the diseases of man's soul, and 
showing from history the injustice of one nation to another; the treatment 
of the white people to the natives of North and South America; the 
conduct of man to his brother, and his conduct to himself, his drunkenness 
etc., and all the good we have comes from God, to make us happy. But 
that we, from the badness of our hearts, use these blessings to our own hurt; 
and that all evil proceeds out of the heart; therefore, all our hearts must 
be evil, and that continually; that we are proud, and of this we have an ex- 
ample before us in our grandfather, the head chief. Surely these things 
can do him no good, but to feed a proud heart. They will not warm his 
body when cold, nor feed him when hungry. 

"As soon as I sat down, he arose with all the dignity of an Indian, and 
spoke as follows: ' My friends, this is a ])retty day, and your faces all look 
pleasantly. I thank the Great Spirit that He has permitted us to meet. I 
have listened to your preacher. He has said some things that are good, but 
they have nothing to do with us. We are Indians, and belong to the red 
man's God. That book was made by the white man's God, and suits them. 
They can read it — we cannot; and what he has said will do for white men, 
but with us it has nothing to do. Once, in the days of our grandfathers, 
many years ago, this white man's God came himself to this country and 
claimed us. But our God met him somewhere near the great mountains, 
and they disputed about the right to this country. At last they agreed to 
settle this question by trying their great power to remove a mountain. The 
white man's God got down on his knees, opened a big book, and began to 
pray and talk, but the mountain stood fast. Then then the red man's God 
took his magic wand, and began to powwow and beat the turtle shell, and 
the mountain trembled, shook, and stood by him. The white man's God 
got scared and ran off, and we have not heard of him since, unless he has 
sent these men to see what they can do.' All the time he was speaking, 
the heathen party were on tip-toe, and often responded, saying, ' Tough 
gondee'' — that is, true or right; and seemed to think they had won the 

"As soon as he sat down, I arose and said: 'Our grandfather is a great 


man — he is an able warrior, a great, hunter, and a good chief in many 
things; and in all this I am his son. Bat when ifc comes to matters of re- 
ligion, he is my son and I am his father. He has told us a long and queer 
story. I wonder where he obtained it. He may have dreamed it, or he has 
heard some drunken Indian tell it; for you know that drunkards always see 
great sights, and have many revelations, which sober men never have. (Here 
my old friend Mononcue said, ' Tough gondee/) But my friend, the head 
chief, is mistaken about his gods; for if it requires a God for every color, 
there must be many more gods. This man is black (pointing to Pointer). 
I am white, and you are red. Who made the black man ? Where is his 
God? This book tells you and me that there is but one God, and that he 
made all things, and all nations of the earth of one blood, to dwell together; 
and a strong evidence is, that the difference of color is no obstacle to gen- 
eration. God has diversified the color of the plants. Go to the plains and 
see how varied they are in their appearance. Look at the beasts; they are 
of all colors. So it is with men. God has given them all shades of color, 
from the jet black to the snow white. Then your being a red man, and I 
a white man, is no argument at all that there are two gods. And I again 
say that this book is true in what it states of man having a bad heart, and 
being wicked; and that my friend has a proud heart is evident from his 
dress and painting himself. God made me white and that man black. We 
are contented. But my friend does not think the Great Spirit has made 
him pretty enough; he must put on his paint to make himself look better. 
This is a plain proof that he is a proud man, and has an evil heart.' Seeing 
that the chief was angry, I said, 'My grandfather will not get angry at his 
son for telling him the truth, but he might if I had told him a lie.' 

•'He then rose, considerably excited, saying: '1 am not angry; but you 
cannot show in all your book where an Indian is forbid to paint. You may 
find where white people are forbid, but you cannot show where an Indian is.' 
I then arose, and read from the third chapter of Isaiah, at the sixteenth 
verse; and told him that th^se people were not white men, as the Ameri- 
cans, and yet were forbidden to use those foolish ornaments. He arose 
and said I had not read it right. I then handed the book to one of the Mr. 
Walkers, and he read and interpreted it; so that the old man was at last 
confounded, and said no more.'' Nevertheless, Deunquot remained stead- 
fast in the belief of his ancestors until his death, which occurred about a 
year after the affair in the council house, just narrated. He was succeeded 
by the chief termed Warpole. 

In the summer of 1823, the mission school was formally opened. It was 
conducted according to the manual labor system. The boys were taught 
the art of farming, and the girls, housework, sewing, knitting, spinning, 
cooking, etc. The boys were averse to labor at first; but instead of force, 
stratagem was brought into play. They were divided into separate groups, 
and each encouraged to excel the others. Sixty scholars were enrolled in 
the year last mentioned, among them being a number of children sent from 
Canada, by members of the Wyandot nation there residing. Bishop Mc- 
Kendree also visited the mission and reservation during the same year. In 
a letter written by him in August, 1823, he said: "Our missionary estab- 
lishment is at Upper Sandusky, in the large national reserve of the Wyan- 
dot tribes of ludians, which contains one hundred and forty-seven thousaud 
eight hundred and forty acres of land; being in extent something more than 
nineteen miles from east to west, and twelve miles from north to south. 
Throughout the whole extent of this tract, the Sandusky winds its course, re- 


ceiving several beautiful streams. This fine tract, with another reservation 
of five miles square at the Big Spring, head of Blanchard's River, is all the 
soil that remains to the Wyandots, once the proprietors of an extensive 
tract of country. The mission at Upper Sandusky is about sixty- five or 
seventy miles north of Columbus, the seat of government of Ohio. To the 
old Indian boundary line, which is about half way, the country is pretty 
well improved. From thence to the Wyandot Reserve, the papulation is 
thinly scattered, the lands having been but lately surveyed and brought 
into market." 

During the same year (1823), Col. John Johnston, United States Indian 
Agent, likewise visited the Wyandots on their reservations. He passed 
several days among them, and at the close of his visit — August 23 — reported 
as follows: " The buildings and improvements of the establishment are 
substantial and extensive, and do this gentleman [meaning Mr. Finley] 
great credit. The farm is under excellent fence, and in fine order; com- 
prising about one hundred and forty acres, in pasture, corn and vegetables. 
There are about fifty acres in corn, which, from present appearances, will 
yield 3,000 bushels. It's by much the finest crop I have seen this year, has 
been well worked, and is clear of grass and weeds. There are twelve acres 
in potatoes, cabbage, turnips and garden. Sixty children belong to the 
school, of which number fifty-one are Indians. These children are boarded 
and lodged at the mission house. They are orderly and attentive, compris- 
ing every class from the alphabet to readers in the Bible. I am told by the 
teacher that they are apt in learning, and that he is entirely satisfied with 
the progress they have made. They attend with the family regularly to the 
duties of religion. The meeting-house, on the Sabbath, is numerously and 
devoutly attended. A better congregation in behavior I have not beheld; 
and I believe there can be no doubt, that there are very many persons, of 
both sexes, in the Wyandot nation, who have experienced the saving effects 
of the Gospel upon their minds. Many of the Indians are now settling on 
farms, and have comfortable houses and large fields. A spirit of order, in- 
dustry and improvement appears to prevail with that part of the nation 
which has embraced Christianity, and this constitutes a full half of the 
population." During the year 1823, the sum of $2,254.54 was expended at 
the mission, which had been gathered from various sources. 

The same year was also made memorable in the history of the mission 
by reason of the death of the colored preacher, Rev. John Stewart, who 
died of consumption December 17, 1823. It appears from Finley's account, 
that in 1820, conference appropriated money for the purpose of purchasing 
a horse for Stewart, and to pay for clothing he had bought; besides which, 
he received many presents from friends in and about Urbana. Soon after, 
he married a women of his own color, and wished to have a place of his 
own. Thereupon the venerable Bishop McKendree collected $100, with 
which sixty acres of land were purchased and patented in the name of 
Stewart. It adjoined the Wyandot Reservation, and was occupied by him 
from the spring of 1821 until his death. Afterward his wife and brother 
sold the land and appropriated the money to their own use. Stewart was 
the recipient of regular supplies from the mission to the time of his decease; 
although a year or so before that event he had withdrawn from the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, and joined the Allenites, a sect of colored 

In the spring of 1824, the Indians turned their attention to the improve- 
ment of their farms, and to the building of comfortable houses. A number 


of hewed-log houses were put up, with brick or stone chimneys; and great 
exertions were made to enclose large fields, for raising grain and grass. 
Many purchased sheep, and means were taken to improve their breed of 
cattle and hogs. With the means at their command, they did all they 
could to provide for the futuje, without following the chase, for they clearly 
saw that the white settlers would soon occupy all the country around them, 
and that they must starve unless they could procure the means of living at 
home. The same year, too, was built the mission church, now standing 
in ruins. Says Mr. Finley: " We were much in want of a place of worship, 
as there was no proper meeting-house. Sometimes we worshiped in the 
old council house, as the lai'gest and most roomy. Tl>is was an old build- 
ing, made of split slabs, laid between two posts stuck in the ground, and 
covered with bark peeled from the tx-ees. No floor but the earth — no tire- 
place but a hearth in the middle, and logs laid on the ground on each side 
for seats. In the winter we met in the mission schoolhouse, which was 
much too small. 

On my tour to the East, I visited the city of Washington, in company 
with the Rev. David Young. Here I had an interview with President 
Monroe, and gave him such information as he wished, as to the state of the 
mission and Indians in general. I had also an introduction to John C. 
Calhoun, Secretaiy of War. This gentleman took a deep interest in Indian 
afairs, and gave me much satisfactory information respecting the different 
missions in progress among the Indians; the amount of money expended 
on each establishment, and the probable success. I made an estimate of 
the cost of our buildings, and he gave me the Government's proportion of 
the expense, which amounted to $1,333. I then asked him if it would be 
improper to take that money, and build a good church for the benefit of 
the nation. His reply was, that I might use it for building a church; and 
he wished it made of strong and durable materials, so that it might remain 
a house of worship when both of us were no more. This work was per- 
formed, and the house was built out of good limestone, 30x40 feet, and 
plainly finished. So these people have had a comfortable house to wor- 
ship Grod in ever since. It will stand if not torn down, for a century* to 

* Such would have been the case, doubtless, if the successors of the Wyandots here — the white men — 
had exhibited the least particle of public spirit, or of pride, in the preservation of this, and other priceless 
mementoes of a past race and age. Under date of May 12, 18S1, the very able editor of the Wyandot Dem- 
ocratic t/H tore speaks of this; "The Last Landmark of the Wyandot Iteservation," in the following lucid, 
unmistakable style: * * * "We remember with what interest we viewed, on our first visit to the town 
— shortly after these so-called wild men had taken their departure — the council house, the block-house, 
many of their cabins, and especially the church, which had witnessed so many gracious manifestations of 
the presence of the Holy Ghost, and which now is almost a heap of ruins. Then they were considered 
souvenirs of the people that for generations had occupied the land, and whose untutored minds had formed 
certain well defined laws much in accordance with nature for their government; and who, to enforce them, 
had their officers, prisons and courts of justice. All these were left as mementoes of the age tliat had pre- 
ceded ours. They should have been protected by the people who succeeded them, and guarded as legacies 
handed down from those whose hands had built them. But this was not the case. X different spirit act- 
uated those who succeeded them, although they boasted of a higher order of civilization, that had the Chris- 
tian religion for its corner stone. The tide of emigration that pressed into the reservation under thfi new 
order of things, had no appreciation for the venerable relics they found standing everywhere, as rnonumeuts 
of the genius of the people who had preceded them, and with the greed ever manifested by the whites to 
gain property, and to turn everything found in their way into a channel that would lead to such results, 
therefore, nothing belonging to Indian mythology was deemed too sacred to be sacrificed to this unholy 
thirst for riches 

"After the organization of the county, the council house, which liad witnessed so many grand scenes 
connected with the primeval history of the Wyandots, was used for holding the courts of justice, and by 
sheer carelessness in storing ashes in a barrel, it took fire and was burned up. The block-house or jail gave 
way for a more imposing building, to be used as a dwelling-house. Other memorial stones that were set up 
as commemorative of Indian history were thrown down, and at last the 'Old Mission Church,' the only 
landmark remaining, is about to fall into decay. More than this, the vandal hand was seen a few years ago 
in the almost total obliteration of the marbleslabs that marked the last resting-place of a number of the 
most noteworthy of the Indian chiefs of the Wyandots, many of them having, ere they died, gloried in the 
power of the new birth, and believed in Him who is the resurrection and the life. But nevertheless, men 
calling themselves Christians, some of them ministers of the Gospel, with uplifted hands, struck piece after 
piece from these grave marks of tlie noble dead, until there does not remain a single one to tell where rests 


For the year ending September 30, 1826, the following report of the 
mission school, etc., was rendered to the War Department of the United 
States: Name of the site or station, Wyandot Mission School, Upper San- 
dusky: by whom established, by the Bishops ol the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, with the consent of the Ohio Annual Conference; when established, 
October 16, 1821; name of Superintendent, J._B^_Finley; number of schol- 
ars, sixty-nine; number of teachers, one male and one female teacher, prin- 
cipals — ten others — in all, twelve; amount of funds -received, including an- 
nual allowance of Government, $2,454.47i; amount of disbursements, 
12,600; deficiency, 1145. 52i; value of property belonging to the establish- 
ment, $10,000. At that time this was the most successful and prosperous 
Indian school and mission in the United States. We will also mention 
here, that the building known as the mission school and boarding-house was 
situated about half a mile northeast of the church. It entirely disappeared 
many years ago. It was commenced by Mr. Finley in the winter of 1821-22 
See his account as shown on preceding pages. 

In explanation of the number of white men or partly white men found 
am ong the W yandots, it appears that this nation, although never behind 
other savage tribes during their wars with the whites, were more merciful 
than their neighbors — the Delawares, Shawanese, Miamis, Ottawas, Chippe- 
was, etc. They saved more prisoners, and purchased many fi'om other lu- 
dians, and adopted them into their families. Thus did they become allied 
with some of the best families in the country. The Brow ns, an old Virginia 
family; the Zanes, another well-known family; the Walkers of Tennessee, 
and the Williams, Armstrongs, McCulloughs and Ma^ees of Pittsburgh, 
were all represented among them. Robert Armstrong, one of the best in- 
terpreters during Finley's time, was taken prisoner by the Wyandots about 
the yearl786, when a boy about four years old. His parents resided a few 
miles above Pittsburgh, on the banks of the Allegheny River. One Sunday 
morning a young man of the family, with little Robert, took a canoe and 
crossed over to the west side of the river to visit a camp of friendly Indians 
of the Cornplanter tribe. This camp was situated about four miles distant 
from the river. After they had made their visit and were returning home, 
in passing a dense thicket through which the path led, they heard a noise 
and stopped to look, and to their great surprise and teri'or, four hideously 
painted Indians of the Wyandot nation rose up and ordered them to stop. 

the sleeping dust of Mononcue, Sumniundewat, Between-the-Logs, Deunquot, or any other of the braves 
whose remains had been deposited in the ground around this ' Old Mission t'hurch.' It is a record at which 
the Christian should blush with shame. It was a vandalism of which the Goths, in their palmiest days, 
would have blushed to have been charged with, and yet in this advanced age, in the light of the sun shining 
on us in this, the nineteenth century, there were men wearing the livery of heaven that boldly, in open 
daylight, were guilty of this crime. 

"But the past cannot be recalled. AVhat has been done cannot be remedied. But the people of Upper 
Sandusliy have a sacred duty to perform in the preservation of what remains of the ' Old Mission f hurch ' 
from total obliteration. Last winter, had there been sufficient enterprise, the object sought for might have 
been attained. Through the persevering elforts of lion. K. B. Finley, a bill passed the Senate of the United 
States, appropriating $3,000 for repairing tlie Old Mission Church, and building a suitable monument in 
honor of the Wyandot nation. Mr. Finley notified our citizens of this fact, and invited their co-operation. 
What was done by our people'.' Simply nothing I We made an appeal to them through the columns of the 
Union. Our appeal had about as much etlect as pouring water upon a goose's back. We talked privately to 
our business men, but they turned a deaf ear to ;ill we said, and the result was that with the expiration of 
the last Congress, the bill died a horning in the house, and the town is out of the §3,000 for the fitting-up 
of the old mission grounds If our citizens would have met in public meeting, and taken steps to co-operate 
with Mr. Finley, our member of Congress, and sent a delegation to Washington to work up the matter, the 
bill could, we have no doubt, have been passed. But as it is, we see now no liope. The church that should 
stand as a monument of other days and of another people is going into decay, and it will not be long until 
there will be nothing left of it. We are chargeable with its destruction, and the generations that will come 
after us, looking for these mementoes of a pre-historic race, will condemn us for our want of liberality in 
not preserving them. We have now had our say on this subject, and we close by reiterating our former 
belief, that if our citizens had moved at the proper time, Finley's bill would have passed the National Con- 
gress, and an amount sufficient would have been placed at the disposal of the t>roper person to have put in 
repair this old landmark, and to have erected a suitable monument to the memory of the sleeping braves 
whose bodies have returned to dust around it." 



The young man attempted to make his escape by running, but had made a 
few steps only, when the Indians fired and he fell dead. Little Robert ran 
a few yards, but one of the Indians soon caught him and picked him up. 
Said he: "I was so scared to see the young man tomahawked and scalped 
that I could hardly stand, when set on my feet, for I expected it would be 
my lot next. One of the men took me on his back and carried me for sev- 
eral miles before he stopped. The company then divided. Two men took 
the scalp, and the other two had charge of me. Iq the evening they met, 
and traveled until it was late in the night, and then stopped to rest and 
sleep. The next morning I had to take it afoot as long as I could travel; 
and although they treated me kindly, yet I was afraid they would kill me. 
Thus they traveled on for several days, crossing some large rivers, until they 
got to an Indian town, as I learned afterward, on the Jerome's Fork of Mo- 
hickan Creek, one of the branches of Muskingum River. Here they rested 
awhile, and then went on until they came to Lower Sandusky." 

You ng Arm strong was adopted into the Big Turtle tribe of Wy andots,. 
and named 0-no-ran-do-roh. He became an expert hunter and a perfect 
Indian in his feelings and habits of life. He married an Indian woman or 
half-breed, and had so far lost the knowledge of his mother tongue that 
for years he could speak or understand but little of it. After Gen. Wayne's 
treaty he mingled more with the whites, conversed more in English, and 
finally learned to talk the language of his fathers equal to any of the 
traders or settlers. He became an excellent interpreter, and was employed 
in trading and interpreting the rest of his life. His wife w as a daughte r of 
Ebenezer Zane — a half Indian woman — and they raised a family of interest- 
ing children. He lived for some years at S olom onstown. Afterward he 
moved to Zanesfield, on Mad River, and from thence to Upper Sandusky, 
where he died of consumption in April, 1825. We have thus briefly 
sketched the career of Armstrong for the reason that it is a fair illustration, 
probably, of the life and experiences of many other whites who had been 
captured and adopted by the Wjandpts. 

In the summer of 1826, Rev. J. B. Finley, accompanied by the chiefs 
Mononcue and Between-the-logs, and Samuel Brown as interpreter, visited 
the cities of Bu.lfalo, Albany, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Wash- 
ington. At each point great crowds gathered to see and hear them, and all 
expressed the utmost surprise and delight after listening to the addresses of 
these eloquent. Christianized sons of the forest. They returned home at 
the end of three months. 

In the autumn of that year, Judge Leib, an agent appointed by the gov- 
ernment to visit all the Indian mission schools to which the government 
had made appropriations of money, reported to the Secretary of War as 
follows: "On Tuesday, the 10th of November last, I left Detroit for Upper 
Sandusky, where I arrived on the 12th, and found this establishment in the 
most flourishing state. All was harmony, order and regularity under the 
superintending care of the Rev. Mr. Finley. Too much praise cannot be 
bestowed on this gentleman. His great good sense, his unaffected zeal in 
the reformation of the Indians, his gracious manners and conciliating dis- 
position fit him in a peculiar manner for the accomplishment of his pur- 
pose, and the fruits of his labors are everywhere visible; they are to be 
found in every Indian and Indian habitation. By Indian habitation here 
is meant a good comfortable dwelling, built in the modern country style, 
with neat and well-finished apartments, and furnished with chairs, tables, 
bedsteads and beds, equal at least, in all respects to the generality of whites 


around them. The Wyandots are a line race, and I consider their civiliza- 
tion accomplished, and little short in their general improvement to an 
equal number of v^^hites in our frontier settlements. They are charmingly 
situated in a most fruitful country. They hunt more for sport than for 
subsistence, for cattle seem to abound among them, and their good condi- 
tion gives assurance of the fertility of their soil and the rich herbage which 
it produces, for the land is everywhere covered with the richest blue grass. 
" They mostly di-ess like their white neighbors, and seem as con- 
tented and happy as any other portion of people I ever saw. A 
stranger would believe he was passing through a white population, if the 
inhabitants were not seen; for besides the neatness of their houses, with 
brick chimneys and glazed windows, you see horses, cows, sheep and hogs 
grazing everywhere, and wagons, harness, plows, and other implements of 
husbandry in their proper places. In short, they are the only Indians 
within the circle of my visits whom 1 consider as entirely reclaimed, and 
whom I should consider it a cruelty to attemjyf to remove. * * * A good 
and handsome stone meeting-house, forty feet in length by thirty in breadth, 
has been erected since last year. * * * Xhe mission farm is well sup- 
plied with horses, oxen, cows and swine, and all the necessary farming 
utensils. I cannot forbear mentioning a plan adopted by this tribe, under 
the auspices of the Superintendent, which promises the most salutary effects. 
A considerable store has been fitted upon their reserve, and furnished with 
every species of goods suited to their wants, and purchased with their an- 
nuities. An account is opened with each individual who deals thereat, and 
a very small profit acquired. Mr. William Walker, a quadroon, one of the 
tribe, a trustworthy man, and well qualified by his habits and education to 
conduct the business, is their agent. The benefits resulting from this es- 
tablishment are obvious. The Indians can, at home, procure eveiy necessary 
article at a cheap rate, and avoid not only every temptation which' assailri 
him when he goes abroad, but also great imposition. The profits of the 
store are appropriated to the general benefit. This plan, it seems to me, 
promises many advantages. The merchandise with which this store is fur- 
nished was bought in New York on good terms." 

Between-the-logs died of consumption January 1, 1827. During the 
last part of the same year, Rev. Mr. Finley terminated his labors with the 
Wyandots, leaving Rev. James Gilruth in control. Among the successors 
of the latter were Messrs. Thompson, Shaw, Allen and Wheeler, ministers 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. It is probable, however, that the 
mission attained its greatest degree of activity and substantial prosperity 
just at the close of Mr. Finley 's superintendency. 

By a treaty concluded at Little Sandusky August 3, 1829, between John 
McElvaine, Commissioner on the part of the United States, and the chiefs 
and head men of the Delawares, the latter ceded their reservation to the 
United States for the sum of $3,000, and removed west of the Mississippi. 
This reservation was granted to the Delawares at the treaty of the Maumee 
Rapids. It contained nine square miles, and adjoined the Wyandot Reserve 
on the southeast, thus embracing portions of the present townships of An- 
trim and Pitt, in Wyandot County. By permission' of the Wyandots, these 
Indians made a village on the west bank of the Sandusky River, below the 
mouth of Broken Sword Creek, where a fine spring emerges from the river 
bank. Capt. Pipe, Jr , a son of the Capt. Pipe who burned Col. Crawford 
at the stake, was with them, and their village was called Pipetown, or 
Capt. Pipe's village. Among those named in the original grant at the 


treaty of the Maumee Rapids f^several of whom survived until after their 
removal beyond the Mississippi) were Capt. Pipe, Zeshauau or James Arm- 
strong, Mahautoo or John Armstrong, Sanoudoyeasquaw or Silas Armstrong, 
Rlack KaccooD, Billy Montour, Buckwheat, William Doudee, Thomas Lyons, 
Johnnycake, Capt. Wolf, Isaac Hill, John H411. Tishatahooms or Widow 
Armstrong, Ayenucere, Hooraaurou or John Ming and Youdorast. 

The Delawares were ever a savage, superstitious, treacherous race, and 
the whites of the pioneer days never placed much dependence upon their 
promises. Buckwheat, one of the Indians mentioned above, was part negro. 
About the year 1827 he was accused of witchcraft, and after having been 
tried and found guilty was sentenced to die by being burned alive. Maj. 
Anthony Bowsher, the founder of Bowsherville. and one of the very few 
surviving pioneers of the county, witnessed the burning. From his account, 
it appears that Buckwheat was first made so drunk with whisky that he was 
unable to stand: then he was bound and placed upon a blazing tire of brush, 
wood, etc., aad to insure his remaining thei'e, a heavy and long piece of 
green timber was placed upon his body, and that kept in place by Indians 
sitting upon both ends of it. Around the victim circled and danced all the 
Indians there assembled. All were maddened with whisky passed around 
by an old squaw, and the shouts and songs rendered were most terrifying. 
The hideous orgies continued for two days and nights. Even Bowsher 
was made to move ax'ound the burning remains of Buckwheat with them, 
but he states that he refused to taste any of the whisky. This affair took 
place near the bank of the river, opposite the present town of Little San- 

Thomas Lyons, or " Old Tom Lyons," as he was termed by the whites, 
was another conspicuous character among this small band of Delawaros. 
He claimed that Gen. Wayne gave him his name and a coat, likewise that 
he was more than one hundred and sixty years old. However, as old Tom 
counted the summer a year, and the winter a year, his alleged great age can 
easily be accounted for. He it was who interpreted for the colored man 
Stewart at Pipetown. in 18 16, when the latter was traveling toward Upper 
Sandusky. He had lived with the Delawares in Pennsylvania before these 
Indians were forced to remove to Ohio. He had been a strong, powerful 
man, and made many enemies among the whites, by I'eason of bis fondness 
in boasting of his deeds of prowess, and in relating many incidents of the 
wars through which he had passed. He seemed to take great delight in as- 
serting that he had killed and scalped ninety-nine whites, including rnen, 
women and children, and only desired to make the number an even one 
hundred before being called to the happy hunting-grounds. Various ac- 
counts have been published concerning the time and place of his death. 
One statement is that Samuel Spurgeon, who, in common with many other 
white men of his acquaintance, did not enjoy such boasting, met him alone 
one day in the woods and offered Lyons an opportunity to make him the 
hundredth victim, but Lyons failing in his aim, Spurgeon shot him dead 
and If^fthis body lying in the forest as food for wild animals. Another per- 
son claims that old Tom was shot in his wigwam, near Fort Ball, by two 
white hunters from Delaware County, while others assert that he died a 
natural death at Pipestown, on the Delaware Reservation. Lyons' wife is 
reputed to have been one of the finest looking squaws in the tribe, being, in 
fact, a queen of beaut}' among them. He was very proud of her. and kept 
her dressed in the height of Indian fashion, and did not compel her to per- 
form menial labor, as was the custom among the Indians. 


Solomon Johnycake, the husband of Sally Williams, was well known 
to the early settlers of the region now known as Wyandot County. He 
was a well-developed, good-natured, friendly hunter, and it was customary 
for Sally and the children to accompany him on his hunting excursions. 
He usually constructed a neat bark wigwam to protect his squaw and chil- 
ch-en from the storms and expcTsures of the forest, while he ranged the woods 
in search of game. He sometimes exchanged venison^for side-pork with 
the white settlers, and frequently parties, who had a curiosity to see Sally 
(who was a quarter blood) and the children visited his wigwam. Sally 
was regarded as a very neat housekeeper, and preferred, as far as possible, 
to imitate the whites. HeV mother, a white woman, by the name of Castle- 
man, was captured in girlhood, upon the Pennsylvania frontier. Johny- 
cake went West with his people. Three of his sons served in a Kansas 
Indian company of the Union army during the war of the rebellion. 

Capt. Billy Doudee, or Dowdee, was, in point of notoriety, nearly equal 
to Old Tom Lyons. Nickels, his son-in-law, was a very bad Indian, and 
Dowdee's son Tom was not much better. Capt. Beckle)-, in his reminis- 
cences of pioneer life, relates the following incidents, as told by Benjamin 
Sharroek, a former citizen of Marion County: 

" About the year 1821 or 1822, there were several Indians who fre- 
quently camped and hunted on the waters of the West and Middle Forks of 
the Whetstone, to wit, Capt. Dowdee, his son Tom, and Capt. Dowdee's 
son-in-law. Nickels (the bad Indian), the subject of this narrative. He was 
regarded as a dangerous man among his own companions. He had become 
embittered against Benjamin Sharroek, his brother, Everard Sharroek, and 
Jacob Stateler, who, with his three sons, Andrew, James and John (the two 
latter were twin brothers), lived in a cabin on or near the land now owned 
by George Diegle, Esq., in Tully Township. The Dowdees had frequently 
shared the hospitalities of our cabin and we regarded them as peaceable 
and well-disposed citizens. 

" Mr. Sharroek, in relating his difficulty with this bad Indian, says : 
"This Indian, Nickels, had been skulking around and watching my house, 
trying to get a chance to shoot me. I have seen him dodge from tree to 
tree when trying to get a shot at me. He also made threats of killing my 
stock. About this time, he and the two Dowdees were encamped on the 
boundary north of where Iberia now is. Mr. Catrell, my brother and my- 
self held a consultation, whei'eupon we resolved that this state of things 
should no longer be tolerated, and the next morning was the time agreed 
upon to bring this matter to the test. They were to be at my house fully 
armed for any emergency. They were promptly on time, and as Catrell 
had no gun, he took my tomahawk, sheath knife, etc. 

"In this plight, we went directly to their camp, called Tom Dowdee out 
and ordered him to take those coon skins oiat of "them'" frames. (They 
are stretched in frames to dry and keep them in shape. ) We next went to 
the tent of Tom's father, old Capt. Dowdee, and told him how Nickels had 
been watching my house, and that he threatened to kill me and my stock. 
I told him to call Nickels out, but he would not leave his hut. We told 
them we would not endure such treatment any longer, and that we had 
come to settle it right then and there, and were ready to fight it out. The 
Dowdees seemed to be peaceably inclined, and as Nickels did not show him- 
self, the matter was dropped for a short time. Some time after this, 
as I was retui'ning from Wooster, where I had been to enter a piece of 
land, I saw quite a niTmber of moccasin tracks in the snow near Hosford's. 


1 thought there would be trouble, as it appeared from the tracks that there 
were about thirty persons, and by the way they had tumbled about, con 
eluded that they were on a big drunk. I followed their tracks from Hop- 
ford's down the road leading to our cabin. They had not proceeded far before 
they left their tracks in the snow somewhat besprinkled with blood. I 
afterward learned that Tom Dowdee had stabbed another Indian, inflicting 
two dangerous wounds. They were camped north of my houpe on the 
land now owned by James Dunlap. The excitement among the settlers 
now became intense, and soon a number of us repaired to their camp, but 
we had not been there long before Tom Dowdee rushed upon me and grasped 
me by the collar, perhaps intending to retaliate for the visit we had made 
to their camp a few days before. I was not slow in returning the compli- 
ment by taking him by the throat, and my arms being the longest I could 
easily hold him at bay. At this moment we saw an Indian boy loading a gun. 
I told Dowdee several times to let me alone, but he still persisted in lighting 
me. I then attempted to give him a severe thrust with my gun barrel; he 
sprang and grasped the gun whichi the boy had just loaded, when several of 
the squaws also grasped it to prevent him from shooting mo. All this time 
I kept my rifle up with a steady aim upon the Indian, ready to fire before be 
should be able to fire at me. At this crisis Joel Loverick interfered and 
the Indians allowed him to take possession of the gun, so the quarrel was then 
settled without bloodshed. But what grieves me to this day is that Bashford 
and Loverick both knew that my rifle was not primed all the time I was 
aiming it at the Indian, and they did not tell me. The next day I was 
out in the woods with my gun, and came upon Dowdee before he discov- 
ered me. He had no gun with him, and he begged and implored me not 
to kill him, pr(>mising over and over that if I would not he would never 
molest me, but would be ray fast friend as long as he lived. I gladly 
agreed to his proposal, and to his credit be it said I never saw him after 
that time but that he met me with the kindest greetings. ' 

" About the same time some of the Indians told Stateler, ' Nickels, bad 
Indian, by and by he go to Stony Creek, before he go he say he kill State- 
ler and two Sharrocks, and we 'fraid that big fight. We want white man 
to kill Nickels, then Indians say Nickels gone to Stony Creek.' 

•' We never saw Nickels after about that time, but did not know at what 
moment he would come down upon us. I often asked the Indians whether 
they knew where Nickels was, and they usually replied that he had gone to 
Stony Creek. We had often seen a gun in the settlement, first owned by 
one, then by another, that I believed was Nickels' gun. Jake Stateler often 
stayed with us several weeks at a time, and many times when we spoke about 
those Indians, Jake would say, 'Nickels will never do you any harm,' but 
made no further disclosures until a long while after; when the subject again 
came up, he said: 

" 'Ben, Nickels will never hurt you nor your brother. 

" ' How do you know, Uncle Jake?' 

" ' I know very well how I know, Uncle Ben. ' 

" ' Did you never know what became of Nickels'?' 

'■ * No, Jake, I never knew what became of him any more than what the 
Indians told me, that he had gone to Stony Creek.' 

" ' I thought my boys had told you long ago, as they always thought so 
much of you. I will then tell you how I know what became of Nickels. 
After he was about ready to start for Stony Creek, he had only one more job 
to do before he could leave Pipetown. and that was to kill Stateler and you 


aod your brother, if possible. No sooner had Nickels left Pipetown than 
the Indians sent another Indian by a different route to give us notice of his 
coming and of his intentions, desiring us to kill him and they would say 
he had gone to Stony Creek. The messenger arrived in time and departed. 
I loaded my rifle, put it in good order and vfent up to Coss' cabin to watch 
the Pipetown trail, on which I expected him to come. I did not wait long 
before I saw him coming, and stepping behind a tree, closely watched his 
movements. After he had come within easy range of my rifle, he stopped 
and commenced looking all around, which enabled me to take a steady aim 
at him; I fired, he sprang several feet from the ground with a terrific scream 
and fell dead, and that was the last of "Bad Indian." We took his gun, 
shot-pouch, tomahawk, butcher-knife, etc., and laid them by a log, and 
buried him under the roots of a large tree that had been blown down near 
the foot of tlie blufif bank of the Whetstone, nearly opposite the old Coss 
cabin. Now, Uncle Ben, that is the reason why I know Nickels will never 
do you, or me, or your brother any harm.' " 

Capt. Pipe, Jr., son of old Capt. Pipe, who burned Col. Crawford, was 
a small, rather spare man, and taciturn in his disposition. He never mar- 
ried. He went West with his tribe and died on their reservation about 1840, 
Among his own people he had the reputation of being a great "medicine 
man." At an early day, Reuben Drake, who lived in Grand Prairie Town- 
ship, Marion County, had two children bitten by a rattlesnake, one of whom, 
died. Having heard of Capt. Pipe's reputation, he sent for him to come 
and cure the other child. Pipe is said to have been somewhat under the 
influence of whisky at the time, and refused at first to go; but being strongly 
urged, finally visited the cabin of Mr. Drake. Upon his arrival he looked 
at the child, which was in great pain, exclaiming, " great pain, very sick." 
He then stated he could do nothing for half an hour, and laid down by the 
cradle and snored soundly for some time, then arose and called for milk, 
which was furnished, when he pounded some roots, which he had brought 
with him, poured the milk over them, gave the child a poi'tion to drink, ap- 
plied more of the same in the nature of a poultice to the place bitten, rocked 
the child some time in its cradle, when it fell into a slumber and soon be- 
gan to perspire freely. Upon seeing this effect of his remedy, the Captain 
said, "It get well;'' and true enough the child recovered rapidly. 

TheDelawares as well as the Wyaudots, when journeying from their res- 
ervations in search of game, almost invariably stopped at all the houses of 
the white settlers, and when they came to a white man's cabin, expected tO' 
receive the hospitality of its inmates; if they did not, they were much of- 
fended. They would say, " very bad man, very bad man." They would 
never accept a bed to sleep upon; all that was necessary was to have a good 
back- log on, and a few extra pieces of wood near by, especially in cold 
weather, for them to put on the fire when needed. They usually carried 
their blankets, and would spread them upon the floor before the fire, and 
give no further trouble. Often they would leave those who had sheltered 
them a saddle of venison or some other commodity which they had to spare. 
Says an early pioneer: '* We have seen as many as twenty or thirty in a cara- 
van pass by here, with their hunting material and equipments packed on 
their ponies, all m single file, on their uld Sandusky and Pipetown trail. 
If we would meet half a dozen or more of them together, it was seldom that 
we covild induce more than one of them to say one word in English. One 
of them would do all the talking or interpret for the others. W^hy they 
did so I could not say. Tommy Vanhorn once related an amusing incident. 


He had been imbibing a little, and on his way home met one of those Indi- 
ans who could not utter one word of English, but used the pantomimic lan- 
guage instead — that of gestures or motions. But it so happened that while 
they were thus conveying their thoughts to each other, Tommy stepped 
around to windward of the red man or the red man got to leeward of Tommy, 
.and his olfactories not being at fault, inhaled the odor of Tommy's breath. 
He straightened up, looked Tommy square in the face, and lo! Mr. Indian's 
colloquial powers were now complete, saying in as good English as Lord 
Manslield ever could have uttered: ' Where you get whiskyf " 

In the fall of 3830, a young brave of one of the Wyandot tribes killed 
another of the same nation. The murderer was arrested, tried, found guilty 
and shot. However, this affair is best told by the chief, Mononcue, in a let- 
ter addressed to Mr. Finley, as follows: 

Upper Sandusky, October 29. 1830. 
Dear Sir: ********* 

One of our young men was killed by another about two or three vveeks ago. The 
murdered was John Barnet's half-brother, the murderer, Soo-de-nooks, or Black Chiefs, 
son. The sentence of the chiefs was the perpetual banishment of the murderer and the 
confiscation of all his property. When the sentence was made known to the nation, 
there was a general dissatisfaction; and the sentence of the chiefs was set aside by the 
nation. On Thursday morning, about daylight, he was arrested and brought before 
the nation assembled, and his case was tried by all the men (that vote) over the age of 
twenty-one, whether he should live or die. The votes were counted, and there were 112 
in favor of his death, and twelve in favor of his living. Sentence of death was accord- 
ingly passed against him, and on the second Friday he was shot by six men chosen for 
that purpose — three from the Christian party and three from the heathen party. The 
executioners were Francis Cotter, Lump-on-the-head, Silas Armstrong, .Joe Enos, Soo- 
cuh-guess. and Saw-yau-wa-hoy. The execution was conducted in Indian military 
style; and we hope it will be a great warning to others, and be the means of prevent- 
ing such crimes hereafter. I remain, yours affectionately, 
Rev. J. B. Finley. Mononcue. 

After the departure of their old neighbors — ^the Delawares — for the 
West, the Wyandots were the only considerable body of Indians remaining 
in the State of Ohio. Meanwhile the white settlers had encircled their 
reservations at Upper Sandusky and the Big Spring with towns and cultivated 
lands, and each year were asking Congress to purchase these reservations, 
and thus open the way for their occupation by the whites. Hence, in act- 
ing upon these unceasing urgent petitions, agents of the General Govern- 
ment had endeavored to open negotiations with the Wyandots for the pur- 
chase of their lands as early as 1825. But they firmly resisted all blandish- 
ments and pleadings to that end for nearly twenty years thereafter. How- 
ever, it seems that such a condition of affairs could not always exist; they 
had sadly degenerated from the prospeious state in which they were left by 
Mr. Finley in 1827. A majority of them had gone back to their old habits 
of intemperance and heathenism, and at last, when poor in purse and cliarac- 
ter, they were induced to give up their narrow possessions here in lieu of a 
great sum of money, and thousands of broad acres lying west of Missouri. 
Col. John Johnston, of Piqua, Ohio, conducted the negotiations on the part 
of the United States, and concluded the purchase at Upper Sandusky on the 
17th day of March, 1842. In speaking of this transaction and the proceed- 
ings which led to it. Col. Johnston has said: 

"About 1800, this tribe contained about 2,200 souls; and in March. 
1842, when, as Commissioner of the United States, I concluded with them a 
treaty of cession and emigration, they had become reduced to less than 800 
of all ages and both sexes. Before the Revolutionary war, a large portion 
of the Wyandots had embraced Christianity in the communion of the Roman 
Catholic Church. In the early part of my agency, Presbyterians had a mission 


among ttiem at Lower Sandusky, under the care of the Rev. Joseph Badger. 
The war of 1812 broke up this benevolent enterprise. When peace was restored, 
the Methodists became the spiritual instructors of these Indians, and continued 
in charge of them until their final removal westward of Missouri. The mis- 
sion had once been in a very prosperous condition, but of late years had 
greatly declined, many of the Indians having gone back to habits of intern- . 
perance and heathenism; a few continued steadfast to their Christian pro- 
fession. Of this number was Grey Eyes, a regularly ordained minister, of 
pure Wyandot blood, a holy, devoted, and exemplary Christian. This man 
was resolutely opposed to the emigration of his people, and was against me 
at every step of a long and protracted negotiation of twelve months' con- 
tinuance. I finally overcame all objections; on the last vote, more than two- 
thirds of the whole male population were found in favor of removal. The 
preacher bad always asserted that under no circumstances would he ever go 
westward. His age was about forty-eight years; his character forbade any 
approaches to tampering with him; and although I felt very sensibly his in- 
fiuence. yet I never addressed myself to him personally on the subject of the 
treaty. But as soon as the whoie nation, in open council, had voted to leave 
their country and seek a new home far in the West, I sent an invitation to 
the preacher to come and dine with me and spend an evening in consulta- 
tion; he came accordingly." As a result of this interview, it appears that 
Grey Eyes changed his purpose, for he removed West with his people. 

By the terms of tliis treaty, it was stipulated that the chiefs should re- 
move their people without other expense to the United States than $10,000, 
one-half payable when the first detachment should start; the remainder, when 
the whole nation should arrive at its place of destination. Further, that 
the Wyandots should receive for the lands ceded another tract of land west 
of the Mississippi. It contained 148,000 acres; a permanent cash annuity of 
$17,500; a permanent fund of $500 per annum, for educational purposes, 
and an appropriation of $23,860 to pay the debts of the tribe. They were 
also to be paid the full value of their improvements in the country ceded, 
and to be provided in their new home with two blacksmiths and a black- 
smith shop with necessary steel, iron and tools, and with an agent and an 
interpreter. However, instead of the 148,000 acres promised, the Wyan- 
dots received by purchase from the Delaware Indians 24,9.60 acres, and by 
a subsequent treaty (which will be referz'ed to in a succeeding paragraph) 
received in lieu of the balance t)f the 148,000 acres, $380,000, in three an- 
nual payments. 

In the spring and summer of 1843, in accordance with the stipulations 
of the treaty concluded the previous year, the Wyandots under the lead of 
Jacques*, their head chietV completed their arrangements for the removal 
to the new reserve in the then wild West. The parting scenes at Upper 
Sandusky were most affecting. Consultations were held in the council 
house, and religious worship in the church, almost constantly for days be- 
fore the final departure. Meanwhile, the remains of the chief, Summunde- 
wat, who was murdered by two white men in Wood County, Ohio, in the 
fall of 1841, also those of the colored preacher, John Stewart, were brought 
hither and deposited in the burial ground attached to their church. The 
last resting- places of other loved ones were likewise tenderly cared for, and 

* the death of Deunquot, some difficulty occurred in making choice of his successor, and as a re- 
sult of it the Wyandots chanijed their form of government and mode of choosing their governors. In- 
stead of being obliged to take their head chief out of the royal tribe, they then agreed to have the head 
chief and eight counselors chosen by election, on New Year's Day of each year. The first head chief 
elected according to the new plan was Warpole. 




marked with stone or marble tablets. Just before their strange and motley 
procession unwound its length on the highway leading southerly, Squire 
Grey-Eyes bade an affectionate farewell to the large number of whites pres- 
ent. He exhorted them to be good Christians, and to meet him in heaven. 
In a most sublime and pathetic manner he discoursed upon all the familiar 
objects of a home — no longer theirs. He bade adieu to the Sandusky, on 
whose waters they had paddled the light bark canoe, and in whose pools 
they had fished, laved and sported. He saluted in his farewell the forests 
and the plains of Sandusky, where he and his ancestors had hunted, roved 
and dwelt for many generations. He bade farewell to their habitations, 
where they had dwelt for many years, and where they would still wish to 
dwell. With mournful strains and plaintiff voice he bade farewell to the 
graves of his ancestors, which now they were about to leave forever, prob- 
ably to be encroached upon, ere the lapse of many years, by the avaricious 
tillage of some irreverent white man. Here, as a savage, untutored Indian, 
it is probable Grey-Eyes would have stopped, but as a Christian he closed 
his valedictory by alluding to an object yet dearer to him: it was the church 
where they had worshipped, the temple of God, constructed by the good 
white men for their use, and within whose walls they had so often bowed 
down in reverence under the ministrations of Finley and his co-laborers. 

At last, all being in readiness, all the sad duties having been performed, 
the train, consisting of horses and wagons hired from settlers living in the 
vicinity, Indian chiefs upon horseback, and many men and women on foot, 
began wending its slow way toward Cincinnati, where boats were waiting 
to take its members to the mouth of the Kansas River. This movement be- 
gan in the last days of July, and was participated in by nearly 700 of the 
Wyandot nation. Many ludicrous occurrences took place en route, but we 
have not space, in a topic already largely drawn out. to recount them. The 
end of the first day's journey found the Wyandots at Grass Point, in Har- 
din County, the second, at Belief ontaine; the third, atUrbana; the fourth, 
at Springfield; the fifth, at Clifton; the sixth, within four miles of Cincin- 
nati, and the seventh at the wharf of the latter city. The i-emainder of the 
distance to the new reservation, as before stated, was accomplished by 
steamboats via the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. The Wyandots 
left Cincinnati on the eighth day after leaving Upper Sandusky. Among 
their leading men at that time were Jacques, Bearskin, Blue Jacket, Big 
Tree, Black Sheep, Big River, Bull Head, Big Town, Curly Head, Caryhoe, 
Chop-the-logs, Lump-ou-the-head, Peacock, Porcupine, Providence, Split- 
the-log, Stand-in-the-water, White Wing, Mudeater, Warpole, Squire Grey- 
eyes, William Walker, a quarter- blood, who died in 1874, John Hicks and 

While the main body of the Wyandots was moving toward Cincinnati, 
Jacques, the head chief, accompanied by a few other leading men of the na- 
tion, visited Gov. Shannon at the State capital, when very feeling and inter- 
esting parting addresses were delivered by the chief and the Governor. 
Jacques' address, as printed in the Ohio State Journal of that date, was as 

" We have several objects in view in visiting you, the Governor of the 
State. First, it was due him, as the chief magistrate of this great State; 
and, secondly, it was due to the people of Ohio, to whom, through their 
Governor, we speak, and bid them an affectionate farewell. 

"We came here, also, to ask for the extension of executive clemency to 


an unfortunate brother of our nation, and we thank yon for granting oiir 
prayer in their behalf. 

" We part with the people of Ohio with feelings the more kind, because 
there has not been any hostility between your people and ours ever since 
the treaty of Gen. Wayne, at Greenville. Almost fifty years of profound 
peace between us have passed away, and have endeared your people to ours; 
whatever may be our future fate beyond the Mississippi — whither we are 
bound — we shall always entertain none but feelings the most kind and 
grateful toward the people of Ohio. Before Wayne's treaty there had 
been one long war between our fathers and your ancestors. At that treaty 
our people promised peace, and they have kept that promise faithfully; we 
will forever keep that promise as long as the sun shines and the rivers run. 

" When we arrive at the place of our destination, surrounded, as we 
shall be, by red men less acquainted with them than we are with white men, 
we shall always take great pleasure in telling the Indians of that western 
region how kind, how peaceful, how true, faithful and honest your people 
have been to our people. If, at any future day, any of our people should 
visit this State, we hope that your people will see that they do not sufier for 
food or any of the necessaries of life; that, when thirsty, you will give him 
drink; when hungry, you will give him food; or naked, you will give him 
clothes; or sick, you will heal him. And we, on our part, promise the same 
kindnesses to any of your people should they visit us in our far western fut- 
ure home. Our original intention was to have passed through Columbus 
as a nation on our departing journey from Ohio to the West; but for the 
purpose of shortening our route on so long a journey, the principal part of 
our people have passed through Urbana. But although, for the reason 
stated, our people have passed through Ohio by the shortest route, yet they 
could not forego the pleasurie of sending you their chiefs and addressing 
you, and through you the people of Ohio, in the language of truth, friend- 
ship and sincerity. 

"Our fathers have ranged this valley with your fathers in peace and 
friendship, and we wished your people to know that we have the same kind 
feelings that existed in times past, and we wish you to know that we wish 
to perpetuate and keep alive the same brotherly feelings. In other States 
and Territories the Indians have lived, surrounded by white men, with 
whom they had occasional outbreaks, wars and difficulties; but between us 
and your people the chain of peace and friendship has always continued to 
be bright, smooth, and free from rusty or bloody spots. You are the rep- 
resentative of your people; therefore be so good as to tell your people what 
we say on this final parting occasion, and say to them to believe us to be always 
hereafter — what we always have been — the friends of the people of Ohio." 

From the report of the United States Commissioner of Indian afifairs 
for the year 1843, we learn that the number of Wyandots who removed to 
their new reservation in July and August of that year, was 664, and that 
50 still remained in Ohio who were expected to emigrate the next spring. 
The following year (1844), the sub- agent reported only 585 W^yandots on the 
new reserve. During the year 1855, another treaty was concluded with that 
nation, wherein it was stipulated that in lieu of the 148,000 acres (less the 
24,960 acres purchased for the Wyandots from the Delawares in 1842), 
granted by the treaty of Upper Sandusky, the Wyandots were to receive $380,- 
000, in three annual payments. By this treaty, also, all provisions of former 
treaties guaranteeing permanent annuities, etc., were annulled. The Wyan- 


dots who remained in tribal relations and were located in the Indian Terri- 
tory on the 1st day of January, 1879, numbered 260. 

We conclude this chapter, likewise our account of the Indians, by add- 
ing the following poem, which, whatever its merits or demerits as a literary 
production, has been widely copied, frequently in works, where its mention 
of localities obtained for it no special significance. It was written, we be- 
lieve, by a resident of Wyandot County, and was first published in The 
Democratic Pioneer, of Upper Sandusky, under date of October 24, 1845. 

THE Wyandot's farewell song. 
"Adieu to the graves where my fathers now rest! 
For I must be going afar to the West. 
I've sold my possessions; my heart's filled with woe 
To think I must lose them. Alas! I must go. 

" Farewell, ye tall oaks, in whose pleasant green shade 
In childhood I rambled, in innocence played! 
My dog and my hatchet, my arrows and bow, 
Are still in remembrance. Alas! I must go. 

" Adieu, ye loved scenes, which bind me like chains! 
Where on my gay pony, I chased o'er the plains 
The deer and the turkey I tracked in the snow. 
But now I must leave them. Alas! I must go. 

, "Adieu to the trails, which for many a year 

I have traveled to spy out the turkey and deer! 
The hills, trees and flowers, that pleased me so, 
I must leave now forever. Alas! I must go. 

" Sandusky, Tymochtee and Broken Sword streams. 
Never more shall I see you except in my dreams. 
Adieu to the marshes, where the cranberries grow; 
O'er the great Mississippi, alas! I must go. 

"Adieu to the road, which for many a year, 
I travel'd each Sabbath, the Gospel to hear; 
The news was so joyful, and pleased me so. 
From hence where I heard it, it grieves me to go. 

" Farewell, my white friends, who first taught me to pray. 
And worship my Maker and Savior each day. 
Pray for the poor native, whose eyes overflow 
With tears at our parting. Alas! I must go." 



Thk Unusual Conditions Attending the Settlement of the County — 
Names of Early Pioneers, and Date of their Establishment in the 
Several Townships — Cabin-Building— Cooking Utensils and Ta- 
ble Ware— Food— Habits of the Pioneers— Employment of the men- 
Women's Work— Dress of the Pioneers— Their Books— Sense of Isola- 
tion—Hospitality — Whisky— Scarcity of Money— Of the Necessi- 
ties OF Life— Primitive Agricultural Implements— Wild Hogs- 
Gradual Improvements. 

early settlements. 

iN the course of events, over which those who were to become its pioneers 
exercised little or no control, the region now denominated Wyandot 
County was settled (as compared with most other districts) in a manner 
quite anomalous, yet in a way which is very easily comprehended when 
once explained. As already shown, the Indians, at the treaty held at the 
foot of the rapids of the Miami of the Lake in 1817, ceded to the United 
States Government all the lands i-emaining in their possession in the State 
of Ohio, except various small reservations then and there designated. Hence 
when it was agreed that the principal reservation of the Wyandots should 
have Fort Ferree at Upper Sandusky for its center, the central and greater 
portion of the present county was reserved to its aboriginal owners. The 
small Wyandot reserve at the Big Spring, and the Delaware rest-rve lying 
south east of the reservation iirst mentioned, also encroached upon the limits 
of the county as now formed, therefore, all of the white settlements began 
upon the outskirts, so to speak — to the north, east, south and west of the 
chief Wyandot reservation — and in either direction, distant seven to ten 
miles from Fort Ferree, the locality now known as the town of Upper 

In 1819, Deputy United States Surveyors* Sylvanus Burns and Thomas 
Worthington ran out the townships and subdivision lines of the county, 
and the following year the lands not reserved to the" Indians were offered 
for sale at the usual Government price per acre. Prior to the sale of any 
of these lands, however, quite a number of "squatters" had settled near 
the reservation lines, chiefly for the purpose of trading with the Indians 
and to gather in the greater portion of annuity moneys paid the red men 
in exchange for poor whisky, bright calicoes, brass trinkets, etc., etc. From 
the date last mentioned until 1842, the whites within the present 
limits of the county, increased but slowly in numbers, yet, on the northern 
border — in the townships of Crawford, Tymochtee and Sycamore — quite 
pojDulous communities were to be found, long before the removal of the 
Wyandots. However, by the purchase of the reservations of that nation, 
and the disposal of the same to individual owners, the population at once 
increased with astonishing rapidity. This is shown by the report of Col. 
Huber, Receiver of the Land Office at Upper Sandusky, who stated that 

*Samuel Holmes, Deputy Surveyor General, performed much work in the county in 1836, and William 
Brown in 1843. 


from the 1st of September, 1845, to January 1, 1846, he received for the 
sale of lands in Wyandot County the sum of $211,057.06. 

Having thus briefly pointed out the rather unusual conditions under 
which the county was peopled by the whites, the following conclusions are 
reached: That a few " squatters " settled in the county, outside of the Indian 
reservations, about the year 1817; that the first lawful settlers became estab- 
lished in the same localities not earlier than 1820; that the first white set- 
tlements were not made within the reservation lines until after the year 
1842, and but very few in the territory last referred to until 1845. 

The original settlers of the county were chiefly of English and German 
origin. Forty years ago, the English element largely predominated, but at 
the present time it is probable that those of German birth or descent, as a 
class, outnumber all others. The reader will find sketches concerning 
many of the past and present residents of Wyandot in the township his- 
tories of this work, hence it is not purposed to enter into a repetition here; 
yet a small number of the pioneers are named in tbis connection, merely 
for the purpose of the time when each township was first 
occupied by the white men. 


Antrim — Jacob, John and Adam Coon, John Heckathorn, Jacob Snyder 
and Valentine Mutchler, all Germans, who came from Pickaway County, 
Ohio, and squatted on the Delaware Reserve in the spring of 1819, are 
believed to have been the first white men to attempt a settlement. Their 
location afterward became known as " German town." 

Crawford — Daniel Hodges, who settled near the site of the present town 
of Crawfordsville, in 1821, was one of the first to locate in tbis township. 
Hon. John Carey became a resident in 1823, and he was' soon followed by 
Thomas Gale, Jesse Gale, Samuel Ritchie, Jonathan Kear, Asa Lake, 
Thomas Wallace, Curtis Berry, Sr. , and a number of others. 

Crane— As this township was embraced by the Wyandot Reservation, its 
lands were not offered for sale until the latter part of 1845. Prior to that 
date, its residents were all located at the town of Upper Sandusky. See 
history of that town for a list of its inhabitants and lot owners in 1845. 

Eden — Judge George W. Leith settled in what is now termed Eden 
Township in 1837. It had but a sparse population for a number of years, 
but among those who soon followed Mr. Leith to this then wild region were 
James Winstead, David Kisor, Z. P. Lee, John Horrick, John Leith, Solo- 
mon Brundige, Isa^c Miller and Solomon York. 

Jackson — Thomas C. Beaver settled in the township in 1826; John 
Abbott upon Section 3 in 1833, John Vanorsdall in 1834, John Flower 
and Jacob Dermiger in 1835, and William Fitch in 1837. 

Marseilles — It is claimed that John Heckathorn, before mentioned as a 
"squatter" in Antrim Township, settled in the present township of Mar- 
seilles about the year 1828. Charles Merriman located on the site of the 
village about 1830, and Hugh Long in the same place in 1832. 

Mifflin — Samuel M. Stansberry and family located within the present 
limits of the township in 1832. John Tanner, Daniel Straw, Israel Straw, 
Abraham Clark, Wesley Davenport, Jabez Halstead and Martin Dickens 
were also among the early settlers. Dr. Cover was the first resident physi- 

Pitt— Ebenezer Roseberry, a noted hunter and frontier sportsman, was 
the first to settle within the limits of the township, as now formed. An- 


thony Bowsher found Roseberry here in the spring of 1819, and informs 
us that the latter had already been established two or three years, at least long 
enough to have caught and placed his private mark upon scores of the wild 
hogs. During the years 1819 and 1820, Anthony Bowsher, Peter Bowsher, 
William Morral, Walter Woolsey, John Wilson, Jacob Snyder, Jacob 
Brewer, Alexander Frazier, Samuel Morral, D. H. Bargley, Cornelius Wil- 
son and John Wilson all settled just south of the reservation line in the 
vicinity of Little Sandusky. 

Richland — Hesoot Picket, the first settler of this township, established 
his residence on Section 28, in January, 1832. He came from Athens 
County, Ohio. Nathan Benjamin, from the same county, also settled here in 
1832. The following year, Philip Cole and (Charles ISmith became resi- 

Ridge — It is claimed that Homan and Andrew Bates became the first 
residents within the present township about 1833. John Salyards, Daniel 
Spade, T. N. Shepherd, Isaac Wohlgamuth, the Starrs and Grindles were 
also early pioneers. 

Salem — The first settler in this township was Ezra Stewart, a native of 
Connecticut, who settled upon Section 5 in October, 1831. He was followed 
by John Stewart in 1834, John Nichols and Arnold B. Inman in 1835, 
Daniel and Jacob Baughman and John B. Mann, or Mason, in 1836. 

Sycamore — Samuel Harper settled in the township as now formed in 
1821, and built the first dwelling — a log cabin. His sons who came with 
him were William, James, Samuel G. and George. Samuel Harper, Sr., 
had served as a Revolutionary soldier, and was wounded at Bunker Hill. 
He died in October, 1821. The Eyestones, Luptons, Kisors, Betzers, Pon- 
tius, Grifiiths and Van Gundys were also early settlers. 

Tymochtee — Henry Lish, of this township, and Ebenezer Roseberry, of 
Pitt, were the earliest settlers in the present county of whom any record 
has been preserved. Lish was a native of the State of New York, and it 
is claimed that he settled on the siie of the village of Tymochtee (where he 
soon after established a ferry over Tymochtee Creek) in 1816 or 1817, At 
his house the first election in the county was held on the 1st day of April, 
1821. Thomas Leeper and family, from Ross County, Ohio, became resi- 
dents in 1821, and soon after came Peter Baum, William Combs, Levi 
Bunu, John Taylor and George Bogart. At an early day this was the most 
populous district within the limits of the present county. In 1850, its in- 
habitants numbered 1,817. 



The pioneers of Wyandot as a rule, after long and tedious journeyings 
over Indian trails or roads rudely improved, brought very little with them 
with which to begin the battle of life among new surroundings. They had 
brave hearts and strong arms, however, and possessed invincible determin- 
ations to hew out for themselves homes which should in time become the 
abodes of happiness and plenty. Sometimes the men came on without 
their families to make a beginning, but more often all came together. The 
first thing to be done, after a rude temporary shelter was provided, was t«j 
prepare a little spot of ground for the growth of some kiud of crop. This 
was done by girdling the large trees, clearing away the underbrush, and 
sweeping the surface with tire. The ground was then broken as thoroughly 
as possible with the few rude implements which the pioneer possessed. 
Ten, fifteen, twenty, or even thirty acres of land might be thus prepared 


and planted the first season. In the autumn, the crop would be carefully 
gathered and garnered with the least possible waste, for it was the chief 
food supply of the pioneer and his family, and life and comfort depended 
upon its safe preservation. 

While the first crop was maturing, cabin-building occupied much of the 
attention of the pioneer. He would need a shelter from the storms and 
cold of the approaching winter, and perhaps a protection from wild beasts. 
The pioneer who was completely isolated from his fellow-men, occupied a 
situation truly unenviable, for without assistance he could construct only a 
poor habitation. In such cases a small and rough cabin was constructed 
of very light logs or poles, or else a three-sided, sloping-roofed shanty was 
improvised. In front of the fourth or open side of the shanty or " camp," 
as it was sometimes called, a hugh fire of logs was kept burning, and this 
primitive structure was occupied until other settlers should come into the 
owner's neighborhood, by whose help a more substantial dwelling could be 
built. Usually a number of families came into the country together, and 
located within such distance of each other that they were enabled to per- 
form many friendly and neighborly offices. After the first year or two 
from the time of the primal settlements, there was no difficulty in cabin- 
building. Assistance was always readily given a pioneer by all of the 
scattered residents of the forest within a radius of several miles. 

The site of the cabin home was usually selected with reference to a good 
water supply. It was often near a never-failing spring, or if such could 
not be found in a location otherwise desirable, it was not uncommon to first 
dig a well. If water was reached, preparations were made for building 
near the well; if not, the search for a situation affording it was continued, 
but there was little trouble on this score in the territory now known as 
Wyandot County. 

When the cabin was to be built, the few men in the neighborhood 
gathered at the site, and first cut down, within as close proximity as possi- 
ble, the requisite number of trees, as nearly of a size as could be found, 
but varying often from ton to fifteen inches in diameter. Logs, generally 
from fourteen to sixteen feet in length, were chopped from these, and 
rolled to the common center, where they were to be used in building the 
home of the pioneer family. Often this preliminary work was performed 
by the prospective occupants alone. If such was not the case, it would oc- 
cupy the greater part of the first day. The entire labor of erecting a good 
substantial cabin, would usually require two or three days. After the 
ground logs were laid, the others were raised to their places by the use of 
hand spikes and " skid poles," and men standing at the corners with axes, 
notched them as fast as they were laid in position. The place of " corner 
man " was one of honor and distinction, and the persons chosen for these 
positions were supposed to be particularly skillful in the use of the ax. 

Greater difficulty attended the work after the cabin was built a few logs 
high. It was necessary that the logs in the gables should be beveled, and 
that each succeeding one should be shorter than that on which it rested. 
These gable logs were held in place by poles which extended across the 
cabin overhead, serving also as rafters upon which to lay the rived " clap- 
board " roof. The so-called clapboards were five or six feet in length, and 
were split from oak logs, and made as smooth as possible. They were laid 
side by side, and other pieces of split stuff were laid over the cracks to keep 
out the rain. 

The chimney was likewise an important part of the structure. In some 


cases it was made of stone, and in others of logs and sticks, laid up in a 
manner similar to those which formed the walls of the house, and plastered 
with mud. It was built outside of the house, and at one end. At its base 
a huge hole was cut through the wall for a lire-place. The back and sides 
of the latter were formed of large flat stones, when such could be procured, 
otherwise irregularly shaped stones, held to their place by a slab wall 
locked around them, and covered with mud, were utilized. 

An opening was chopped or sawed in one side of the cabin for a door- 
way. Pieces of hewn timber, three or four inches thick, were fastened on 
each side with wooden pins, or in rare instances with heavy iron nails, and 
these formed the frame on which the door (if there was one) was hung, 
either by wooden or leather hinges. The door itself was a clumsy piece of 
woodwork. It was made from a plank rived from an oak log, and held to- 
gether by heavy cross-pieces. There was a wooden latch upon the inside, 
raised from without by a string or thong of deer-skin, which passed through 
a gimlet hole. From this mode of construction arose the old and well- 
known phrase, indicating the hospitality of its inmates, "You will find 
the latch-string always out." When on rare occasions, it was pulled in, 
the door was considered fastened. Many of the pioneer cabins had no door 
of this kind until they had been occupied for years. Instead of the door 
on hinges, a blanket or some old garment was frequently suspended before 
the opening to guard the occupants of the cabin from sun or rain. 

The window was a small opening usually near the door, and in most 
cases devoid of frame or glass. In lieu of the latter, greased paper was 
often used, in rare instances thin deer skin well greased, and sometimes an 
article of the housewife's limited wardrobe constituted a cui'tain. 

The floor of the cabin was made of puncheons. These were pieces of 
timber split from trees about twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, and 
hewed smooth as possible with a broad-ax. They were usually half the 
length of the floor surface. Indeed some of the cabins earliest erected had 
nothing but earth floors. Occasionally there was one which had a cellar — 
that is, a small excavation under the floor — to which access was had by 
removing a loose puncheon. Very commonly the cabins were provided with 
lofts. The loft was used for various purposes, and among others as the 
"guest chamber," which pioneer hospitality was offered to the wayfarer and 
the stranger. It was reached by a ladder, the sides of which were split 
pieces of sapling. 

Although the labor of building a rough log cabin was usually performed 
in two or three days, the occupants were often employed for months in 
finishing aud furnishing it. The walls had to be "chinked and daubed," 
various conveniences furnished, and a few rude articles of furniture manu- 
factured. A forked stick set in the floor and supporting the ends of two 
poles, the other extremities of which rested upon the logs at the side and 
end of the cabin, formed the basis for a bedstead. A common form of table 
was a split slab supported by four rustic legs, set in auger holes. Three- 
legged stools were formed in similar simple manner. Pegs driven in auger 
holes in the logs of the wall supported shelves, and upon others were dis- 
played the few articles of wearing apparel not in use. A few other pegs, 
or perhaps a pair of deer horns, formed a rack where hung the rifle and 
powder horn, which no cabin was without. These, and a few simple articles 
in addition, formed the furniture and furnishings of the pioneer's cabin. In 
contrast with the rude furniture fashioned by the pioneer with his poor 
tools, there were occasionally a few souvenirs of " the old home." 


The utensils for cooking and the dishes for table use were few. The best 
of the latter were made of pewter, and the careful housewife of the olden 
time kept them shining as brightly as the pretentious plate in our latter-day 
fine houses. Knives and forks were few, crockery vexy scarce,' and tinware 
by no means abundant. Food was simply cooked and served, but it was, as 
a rule, of the best and most wholesome kind. The hunter kept the larder 
well supplied with venison, bear meat, squirrels, wildtuikeys, and the many 
varieties of small game. Plain corn bread, baked in a kettle in the ashes, 
or upon a board or board chip, in front of the great, open tii"e-place, was a 
staple article of food. Corn was either pounded into coarse meal, or carried 
a long distance to mill to be ground. The wild fruits in their season were 
made use of, and afforded a pleasant variety. In the lofts of the cabins 
was usually to be found a collection of articles making up the pioneer's 
materia medica — the herb medicines and spices — catnip, sage, tansy, fennel, 
boneset, wormwood and pennyroyal, each gathered in its season; and there 
were also stores of nuts, strings of dried pumpkin, with bags of berries and 

Well water was generally drawn up with what is called a "sweep," which 
was a long, heavy pole, hinged in a fork at the top of a tall post, and a rope 
or chain attached at the end over the well, with the bucket. Water could 
be drawn more rapidly with this simple apparatus than with the windlass 
or any modern pump. 

The habits of the pioneers were of a simplicity and purity which was in 
conformance with the character of their surroundings and belongings. The 
days were full of toil, both for man and woman. The men were engaged 
constantly in the rude avocations of pioneer life — cutting away the forest, 
logging, burning the brush and the debris, preparing the soil, planting, 
harvesting, and caring for the few animals they brought with them or soon 
procured. The little openings around the log cabins were constantly made 
larger and the sunshine year after year admitted to a larger area of the 
virgin soil, which had been growing rich for centuries, and only awaiting 
cultivation to give evidence of its fertility. 

While the men were engaged in the heavy work of the field or forest, 
their helpmeets were busied with a multiplicity of household duties, provid- 
ing for the day and for the year; cooking, making or mending clothes, 
spinning and weaving. They were heroic in their endurance of hardship 
and privation and loneliness. They were, as a rule, admirably fitted by 
nature and experience to be the consorts of the sturdy, industrious men 
who came into the wilderness of Western Ohio. Their cheerful industry 
was well directed and unceasing. Woman's work, like man's, in the years 
when this country was new, was performed under many disadvantages, which 
have been removed by modern skill and science, and the growth of new 

The pioneer woman had not only to perform what are now known as 
household duties, but many which were removed in later years. She not 
only made clothing, but the fabric for it. Money was scarce, and the 
markets in which satisfactory purchases could be made were far away. It 
was the policy of the pioneer (^ urged by necessity) to buy nothing which 
could be produced by home industry. And so it happened that in nearly 
all of the cabins was to be heard the drowsy sound of the softly whirring 
spinning wheel, and the rythmic thud of the loom, and that women were 
there engaged in those old, old occupations of spinning and weaving, which 
have been associated with her name in all ages but our own. They are- 


occupations of which the modern world knows little, except what it has 
beard from the lips of those who are orrandmothers now. They are occupa- 
tions which seem surrounded with the glamour of romance as we look back 
upon them through tradition and poetry, and they invariably conjure up 
thoughts of the virtues and graces of the generations of dames and damsels 
of the olden time. The woman of pioneer time« was like the woman of 
whom Solomon sang: " She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly 
with her hands; she layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the 
distaff." Almost every article of clothing, all the cloth in use in the old 
log cabins, was the product of the patient woman-weaver's toil. She spun 
the flax, and wove the cloth, for shirts and ti'owsers, frocks, sheets and 
blankets. The linen and the wool, the "linsey-woolsey" woven by the 
housewife, formed nearly all of the articles of clothing worn by men and 

These home fabrics were died with walnut bark, indigo, copperas, etc., 
and striped or checkered work was produced by first dyeing portions of the 
yarn their respective colors before it was put into the loom. 

Nearly every farmer had a patch of from a quarter to half an acre of 
flax, which was manufactured into cloth by the family. Tlie flax, before it 
Tyas ready for spinning, had to be put through the process of " hackling" 
and " scutching," and the latter of these operations frequently furnished 
occasions for " bees," at which the people combined industry with merri- 
ment and sociability. Clothes entirely of home manufacture were almost 
universally worn during the early years, and the wearing of " store " clothes 
was thought by many to be an evidence of excessive vanity. 

Men in the pioneer days commonly wore the hunting- shirt, a kind of 
loose frock reaching half way down the thighs, open before, and so wide 
as to lap over a foot upon the chest. This generally had a cape, which was 
sometimes fringed with a piece of raveled cloth of a color different from 
that of the garment. The hunting-shirt was always worn belted. The 
bosom of the garment answered as a pouch in which could be carried the 
various articles needed by the hunter or woodsman. The shirt, or more 
properly, coat, was made of coarse linen, of linsey or deer-skin, according 
to the fancy of the wearer. Breeches were made of heavy cloth or of deer- 
skin, and were often worn with leggings of the same material, or of so nee 
kind of leather. The deer-skin breeches or trousers were very comfortable 
when dry, but when they became wet, were cold to the limbs, and the next 
time they were put on, were almost as stiff as if made of boards. Hats or 
caps were made of the various native furs, in crude form, each man 
being his own hatter until, a few years after the first settlements, men 
who followed hat-making as a trade came into the country and opened little 
shops, in which they made woolen hats. 

The pioneer women were clothed in linsey petticoats, coarse shoes and 
stockings, and wore buck-skin mittens or gloves, when any protection was 
needed for the hands. To a wardrobe of this kind were added a few articles 
obtained from some distant village, or brought from their old homes in the 
East. Nearly all of the women's wearing apparel, however, like that of 
the men, was of home manufacture, and was made with a view to being 
comfortable and serviceable. Jewelry was very rarely seen, but occasionally 
ornaments were worn which likewise had been brought from former homes. 

The Bible was to be found in the cabins of the pioneers almost as fre- 
quently as the rifle. In the cabins of some families, a few other books 
were occasionally to l)e met with, such as "Pilgrim's Progress," Baxter's 


" Saints' Rest," Hervey's " Meditatious," ^sop's '^Fables" and the like. 
The long winter evenings were spent in poring over a few well-thumbed 
volumes by the light of the great log fire, or in knitting, mending, caring 
furs, etc. 

The pioneers had many discomforts to endure, and some dangers to en- 
counter. True, when Wyandot County was settled, the danger of Indian 
depredations had passed away forever, but a vaguely defined apprehension 
existed in the minds of not a few of the first settlers, that they were not 
entirely secure in their forest homes. The larger wild beasts were a source 
of dread, and the smaller ones a source of much annoyance to those who 
first dwelt in this region. Added to this was the liability to sickness, which 
always exists in a new country. Then, too, in the midst of all the loveli- 
ness of their surroundings, there was a sense of loneliness which could not 
be dispelled, and this was a far greater trial to many men and women on 
the frontier of civilization, than is generally imagined. The deep-seated, 
constantly-recurring feeling of isolation made many stout hearts turn fond- 
ly back to remembrance of the older settlements, the abodes of comfort, the 
companionship and sociability they had abandoned. 

However, the traveler always found a welcome at the pioneer's cabin. 
It was never "full." Although there might be already a guest for every 
puncheon, still there was "room for one more." If the stranger was in 
search of land, he was doubly welcome, and his host would volunteer to 
show him all the first-rate claims in "this 'ere neck of the woods," going 
with him for days, showing the corners and advantages of every "Congress 
tract " or unclaimed section within a dozen miles. To his neighbors, the 
pioneer was equally liberal. If a deer was killed, the choicest bits were 
sent to them — a half-dozen miles away, perhaps. When a "shoat" was 
butchered, the neighbors were also kindly remembered. If a new-comer 
came in too late for " cropping," the neighbors would supply his table with 
the same luxuries they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal quantity, until 
a new crop could be raised. Often the neighbors would also cut and hew 
logs, and haul them to the place of the new-comer's future residence, con- 
cluding the jubilee task with a grand house-raising. The first night after 
completing the cabin, they would have a '"house-warming" and a dance, as 
a sort of dedication. The very next day, the new-comer was about as wealthy 
as the oldest settlers. 

As the settlement increased, the sense of loneliness and isolation was 
dispelled, the asperities of life were softened, its amenities multiplied. 
Social gatherings became more numerous and more enjoyable. The log- 
rollings, harvesting and husking bees; the occasional rifie matches for the 
men, and the quilting parties for the women, furnished frequent occasions 
for social intercourse. Hospitality in the olden time was simple, unaffected 
and unbounded, save by the limited means of the people. Whisky was in 
common use, and was furnished on all festive occasions. Those of the set- 
tlers who could aflbrd it, had a barrel stored away, and there were very few 
so poor that they could not have at least a jugful. The liquor at first in 
use was brought from the Monongahela country. It was the good old fash- 
ioned whisky — "clear as amber, sweet as musk, smooth as oil" — that the 
octogenarians and monogenarians of to-day recall to memory with an imc- 
tious gusto, and a smack of the lips, which entirely outdoes the descriptive 
power of words. A few years after the first settlements were made, stills 
•were set up in the lax-ge towns to supply the home demand, and corn whisky 
was manufactured, which, although not held in as high esteem as the "old 
Monongahela," was used in large quantities. 


Commercial transactions were generally carried on without money, that 
is, by exchanges of commodities, called "barter" in the books. In this 
system, sometimes, considerable ingenuity was displayed. "When commod- 
ities were not even in value, ci'edit was given. But for taxes and postage 
neither the barter nor the credit dodge would answer, and often letters were 
suffered to remain a long time in the post office for want of the 25 cents in 
money demanded by the Government. With all this high price on postage, 
by the way, the letter had not been brought several hundred miles in a day 
or two, as now- a- days, and delivered within a mile or two of the person 
addressed; but it had been weeks on the route, and delivered, probably, at a 
post oflSce five, ten or twenty miles distant. Peltries came nearer being 
money than anything else, as it became the custom to estimate values in 
peltries; thus such and such articles were worth so many peltries. Even 
some Tax Collectors and Postmasters were known to take peltries and ex- 
change them for the money required by the Government. Orders on the 
store were abundant, and served as a kind of local money. When a day's 
work was done by a working-man, his employer would ask: "Well, what 
store do you want your order on V The answer being given, the order 
was drawn, which was nearly always honored. 

When the first settlers came into tbe wilderness, they generally sup- 
posed that their hard struggle would be principally over after the first year; 
but alas! they often looked for "easier times next year" for many years before 
realizing them; and then they came in so gradually and obscurely as to be 
almost imperceptible. The sturdy frontiei'smen thus learned to bear hard- 
ships like soldiers on duty. The less heroic would sell out cheap, return to 
their old homes East and spread reports of the hardships and privations on 
the frontier, while the sterner class would remain and also take advantage 
of these partially improved lands thus abandoned, and in time become 

At one time, tea retailed at $2 to $3 a pound; coffee, 75 cents; salt, 
from $5 to $6 a bushel of fifty pounds; the coarsest calico, $1 a yard, and 
whisky, $1 to $2 a gallon, and all this at a time, too, when the poor pio- 
neers had no money to buy with, except the little they sometimes obtained 
for peltries. 

About 1837. a farmer would haul his wheat to Sandusky City, over 
swampy roads, requiring six to eight days to make the trip, and sell his 
grain for 60 cents a bushel. On returning, they brought out merchandise, 
at the rate of 50 cents a hundred weight. 

Flour, for some time, could not be obtained nearer than Zanesville or 
Chillicothe. Store goods were very high, and none but the most common 
kinds were brought here, and had to be packed on hoi'ses or mules from 
Detroit, or wagoned from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, thence floated down 
the Ohio River to the mouth of the Scioto, and then packed or hauled up. 
The freight was enormous, often costing |4 a ton. 

Bread, the "staff of life," was the most difficult of all to procure, as 
there were no mills in the country to grind the grain. The use of stump 
mortars and graters already referred to, were tedious and tiresome proc- 
esses. A grater was a semi-cylindrical piece of thickly perforated tin, 
fastened upon a board, and operated upon as is a nutmeg grater. The corn 
was taken in the ear, and grated before it got dry and hard. By and by a 
horse grist mill was put up here and there, and then water grist mills along 
the principal streams; but all these together could not keep pace with the 
demands of the rapidly growing settlements. When there was water 


enough to run the mills, the roads were too muddy and small streams too 
high for teaming and taking the grain to the mills. Horse mills were tuo 
slow, and thus the community had to plod their weary way along until 
steam flouring mills were introduced. 

The implements used by the first farmers in this State would, in this 
age of improvement, be great curiosities. The plow was of the wooden 
mold-board, bar-share pattern, difficult to describe. The reapers were the 
sickle and the cradle. Harrows, with wooden teeth, were simply brush 
heaps dragged over the ground. Hoes were almost as heavy as grubbing 
hoes. Threshing machines were flails, or the grain was trodden out by 
horses or oxen. A sheet or quilt, with a stout person at each end to swing 
it simultaneously, sometimes constituted the fanning mill; or sometimes the 
grain and chaff would be dipped up with a pail, held aloft and slowly 
poured out, while the wind was blowing. Handbreaks were used for break- 
ing flax, and hemp. 

When the earliest pioneer reached this Western wilderness, game was 
his principal meat, until he had conquered a farm from the forest or prairie. 
As the country filled up with inhabitants, game grew correspondingly 
scarce, and by 1840-50, he who would live by his rifle would have had but 
a precarious subsistence had it not been for "wild hogs." These animals 
— the descendants of those left by home- sick emigrants who had returned 
East — multiplied and thrived in a wild state, their subsistence being chiefly 
acorns, nuts, sedge stalks, and flesh of carcasses and small vermin. The 
second and third immigration to the country found these wild hogs an un- 
failing source of meat supply for a number of years. In some sections of 
the West, they became altogether too numerous for comfort, and the citi- 
zens met, organized and adopted measures for their extermination. 

Meanwhile, during all the early years of the settlement, varied with oc- 
casional pleasures and excitements, the great work of increasing the area of 
tillable lands went steadily on, and true, the implements, as already men- 
tioned, were few and of the most primitive kind, yet the soil which held in 
reserve the accumulated richness of unnumbered centuries, produced splen- 
did results. Although the development of the country and the improvement 
of individual condition was slow, nevertheless it was sure. Hence year 
by year, the log houses became more nvimerous, and the forest shrank 
away before the woodman's as. The settlers brought stock into the country 
as they became able, and each one had his horses, oxen, cows, sheep and 
swine. Among the earliest evidences of the reward of patient toil were the 
double cabins of hewed logs, which took the places of the earlier hut like 
structures. Then frame houses began to appear, and hewed-log barns, and 
later, frame barns were built for the protection of stock and the housing of 
the crops. Simultaneously with the earliest indications of increasing thrift, 
society began to form itself; the schoolhouse and the church appeared, and 
advancement was noticeable in a score of ways. 

Still thex-e remained a vast work to perform, for as yet only a beginning 
had been made. The brunt of the struggle, however, was past. The pio- 
neers had made a way in the wilderness for the advancing hosts of the army 
of civilization. 



This Region Prior to 1845— Organization, etc., ok Wyandot County— Act 
OF Congress Relating thereto— Public Sale of Town Lots in Upper 
Sandusky — Names ofPurohasers— Townships— Public; Buildings— No- 
table Proceedings of Courts- Results of Elections— Officers Elect- 

A glance at this region prior to the formation op WYANDOT COUNTY. 

As already explained, the Wyandot Indians were the acknowledged owners 
of all this region prior to September 29, 1817. They then ceded (with 
the exception of some small reservations, also heretofore described) their land- 
ed possession to the United States Government, and agreed to retire to, and re - 
main within their reservations, with the privilege granted them, however, of 
hunting over any and all parts of the broad domain so lately theirs, until 
the same was requii'ed for actual occupation, and improvement by the 
whites. During the two or three years immediately succeeding this cession 
of lands, certain officials, styled Deputy Surveyor Generals, acting under the 
orders of 'the Surveyor General of the United States, ran out the township 
and sectional lines over a large portion of this, the new purchase. A region, 
wMch it appears, remained without the limits of civil jurisdiction, until by 
an act of the State Legislature passed February 12, 1820, to take effect on 
the Ist day of April following, a number of counties were erected from 
the new purchase, or what was then termed the "Old Indian Territory." 
Among them Crawford, Hancock, Hardin, Marion and Seneca. As these 
counties (except Seneca) originally embraced the territory now known as 
Wyandot County, we will glance at the their original dimensions. 

Hancock County, to include Townships 1 and 2 south, and 1 and 2 north, 
in Ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12. Hardin County to include all the last-men- 
tioned ranges, south of said second townships, and runfiing south with the 
range lines to the northern boundaries of the organized counties. Craw- 
ford County to include Townships 1, 2 and 8 south, in Ranges 13, 14, 15, 
16 and 17, and all that may lie between the same and the west line of Rich- 
land County. Marion County to include all of the last-mentioned ranges 
south of said third townships, and to run south with said range lines to the 
northern boundaries of the organized counties, and east with the township 
lines to Richland County line. 

By the provisions of the same act — the act passed February 12, 1820 — 
Crawford County was attached to Delaware for judi^'ial purposes. The 
former county in part then embraced all that portion of the present county 
of Wyandot designated Townships 1, 2 and 8 south, in Ranges 13. 14 and 
15 east, and it was while under the jurisdiction of the Delaware County 
officials, and by virtue of an order issued from the Court of Common Pleas 
of Delaware County, directed to the qualitied voters of Crawford Township, 
in (^rawford County, that the tirst election was held within the present lim- 
its of Wyandot County. Crawford Township then comprised the present 
townships of Crawford, Tymochtee and Sycamore. In pursuance of the 


order of court, the electors assembled at the house of Henry Lish (who then 
operated a ferry over Tymochtee Creek in the present township of Tymoch- 
tee), on the 1st day of April, 1821. After the appointment of a Chairman, 
and the election viva voce of Ira Arnold and Seth Crocker as Clerks for the 
day, John Gordon, James Richards and James Whitehead as Judges, the 
legal voters present, tliirteen in number, proceeded to elect by ballot .the 
following named township officers: Ira Arnold, Clerk; John Gordon, James 
Richards and Ichabod Merriman, Trustees; Elijah Brayton and Rufus Mer- 
riman. Appraisers; Elijah Brayton, Listor; Thomas Leeper, Treasurer; 
Philip Peer and Henry Lish, Supervisors; Myron Merriman and James 
Whitehead, Fence Viewers; Isaac Walker, Constable, and Ciprian Stevens, 
Justice of the Peace. 

The county of Crawford remained under the jurisdiction of Delaware 
until by the passage of a legislative act of date December 15, 182B, to take 
effect May 1. 1824, Marion County was organized and Crawford was ordered 
to be attached to it for judicial purposes. During the same session, how- 
ever, by an act approved February 17, 1824, it was further ordered " that 
so much of the county of Crawford as lies north of the Wyandot Reserva- 
tion, including one tier of townships lying east and west, be, and the same 
is hereby, from and after the passage of this act, attached to the county of 
Seneca for judicial purposes, until the county of Crawford shall, be organ- 
ized." During subsequent years a few other changes in jurisdiction took 
place from time to time, but no alterations in boundary lines occurred 
(where Crawford, Marion, Hardin and Hancock Counties joined each other), 
until the erection of Wyandot County. 


By the provisions of an act of the State Legislature approved February 
3, 1845, entitled " An act to erect the new county of Wyandott,* and alter 
the boundaries of the county of Crawford," Wyandot was formed from parts 
of Crawford. Marion, Hardin and Hancock Counties. The sections of the 
act which have an especial reference to this (Wyandot) county read as fol- 
lows : 

Section 1. Be it enacted bj' the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That 
such parts of the counties of Crawford, Marion, Hardin and Hancock, as are em- 
braced within the boundaries hereinafter described, be, and the same are hereby 
erected into a separate and distinct county, which shall be known by the name of 
Wyandott, and the seat of justice within and for said county shall be and is hereby 
fixed and established at, or in the immediate vicinity of Upper Sandusky to wit: Be- 
ginning at the southeast corner of Section 10, in Township 4 south, in Range 15, of the 
public survey of lands, in Marion County, and running thence north on the sectional 
lines, through Crawford County, to the north line thereof, between Sections 2 and 3, in 
Township 1 south, in Range 15, aforesaid; which line shall form the east boundary of 
said county of Wyandott, and the west line of Crawford County; thence west on the 
base line to the northwest corner of Section 2, in Township 1 south, of Range 12, in 
Hancock County; thence south on the sectional line to the northeast corner of Section 
22, in the township and range last aforesaid; thence west on the sectional line to the 
northwest corner of said Section 22; thence south on the sectional line to the south line 
of said township as originally surveyed, between Sections 33 and 34; thence west on 
said township line to the northwest corner of Section 5 in Township 2 south, of the 
range last aforesaid; thence south on the sectional line through said Township 2, to 
the south line thereof, at the northwest corner of Section 5, in Township 3 south, of 
the range last aforesaid, in the county of Hardin; thence east to the northeast corner 

* Before the organization of Wyandot County and the adoption of a county seal, this term had been 
written and printed in various ways as Wyandot, Wyandott and Wyandotte. Therefore, soon after the or- 
ganization, the qufstion of adopting a uniform style of spelling the county's title was considered by the 
first county officials, when at the suggestion of John D. Sears, Esq., the form of orthography still in use — 
Wyandot — was approved and so entered upon the records. 


of said Section 5; thence soutli on the sectional line to the southwest corner of Section 
9, in Township 4 south, in the range last aforesaid; thence east, to the northwest cor- 
ner of Section 13, in the township and range last aforesaid; thence south to the south- 
west corner of said Section 13; thence east on the sectional line to the southeast corner 
of Section 13, in Township 4 south of Range 13; thence north to the northeast corner 
of said last-mentioned Section 13; thence east, on the sectional line to the place of be- 
ginning: Provided, That the passage of this act shall not prevent the Mad River & 
Lake Erie Railroad Company from extending an arm from the main track of said rail- 
road to the town of Fiudlay in the county of Hancock, as was secured to said company 
in the original act of incorporation. 


Sec. 4. That all Justices of the Peace, within those parts of the counties of Craw- 
ford, Marion, Hardin and Hancock, which by this act are erected into the county of 
Wyandott, and also within those parts of the counties of Richland and Marion, which 
by this act, are attached to the county of Crawford, shall continue to exercise the func- 
tions and discharge the duties of their respective offices, until their time of service shall 
expire, and their successors be elected and qualified, in the same manner as if they had 
been commissioned for the counties of Wyandott and Crawford respectively. * * * 

Sec. 5. That the legal voters residing within the limits of the county of Wyandott, 
shall on the 1st Monday in April, in the year 1845, assemble in their respective town- 
ships, at the usual place of holding elections (where the usual places of holding elections 
are within the limits of the county of Wyandott, and in cases of fractional townships, 
where the usual places of holding elections are not included within the limits of the 
county aforesaid, the voters residing in each of such fractional townships, shall assem- 
ble in the township immediatelj^ adjoining such fractional township, and lying toward 
the center of said county), and proceed to elect the different county officers in the man- 
ner prescribed in the act to regulate elections, who shall hold their offices until the 
next annual election, and until their successors are chosen and qualified. 

Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the Commissioners of Wyandott County when elected 
and qualified, to make the most favorable contract or contracts with the Government 
of the United States, or with any person or persons for donations of land, town lots, 
moneys, or other property, for the erection of county buildings, either in the town of 
Upper Sandusky, or on land adjoining the same, as they may think most advantageous 
to the county of Wyandott; p7'oz)irfe(7 that the county buildings of Wyandott County 
shall not be erected at a greater distance than one-fourth of a mile from the State road 
leading from Columbus through Delaware, Marion and Upper Sandusky to Lower San- 
duskv *-»** ****** 

Sec. 8. The Commissioners of the respective counties from which territory is hereby 
taken, shall have power immediately upon the passage of this act, to attach fractionall 
townships to other townships in their respective counties, or to organize such fractiona 
townships into separate townships, as they may deem expedient, which power shall ex- 
tend to the counties of Crawford and Wyandott, for the purpose of disposing of frac- 
tions coming within the limits of said counties made by this act. 

*** *** ***** 

Thus, by a scrutiny of Section 1 of the act just quoted, it is ascertained 
that Wyandot County was formed from Townships No. 1, 2 and 3 south, in 
Ranges 13 and 14 east, and the fractional or western two-thirds of Town- 
ships 1, 2 and 3 south, in Range 15 east, of Crawford County; from frac- 
tional parts of Townships 1 and 2 south, in Range 12 east, of Hancock 
County; from fractional parts of Townships 3 and 4 south, in the range last 
mentioned, of Hardin County, and from fractional Townships 4 south, in 
Ranges 13, 14 and 15 east, of Marion County. 

In accordance with the provisions of Section 5 of the act above quoted, 
on Monday, April 7, 1845, the legal voters of the county assembled in their 
respective townships, at the several places designated for holding elections, 
and proceeded to the exercise of their rights as American freemen by voting 
for the various persons nominated to till the county offices. In the aggre- 
gate, 1,289 ballots were deposited, and as a result the following officers were 
in due time declared elected: William Griffith, Stephen Fowler and Ethan 
Terry, County Commissioners; Abner Jurey, Treasurer; Samuel M. Worth, 
Auditor; Lorin A. Pease, Sheriff; John A. Morrison, Recorder; Albert 
Bixby, Coroner; Azariah Root, Survej'or; and Chester R. Mott, Prosecuting 



(7'^^ ??^'^fy^y^--^^ <^^^^^ 


Concerning the political complexion of the oflScers first elected we learn 
that Griffith, Jurey, Pease and Root were Whigs, while Fowler, Terry, 
Worth, Morrison, Bixby and Mott were Democrats. These gentlemen at 
once attached their signatures to the required oath of office, filed their 
bonds uf indemnity, etc., and within two weeks after their election were 
prepared for the transaction of public business in such apartments in and 
about the new and straggling built-up town as were found most convenient. 
In describing the initial proceedings, which took place in their respective 
departments, we turn to the records for the following items. 

On the J 6th day of April, 1845 (nine days after their election), Stephen 
Fowler, William Griffith and Ethan Terry, Commissioners- elect of the 
County of AVyandot (the same having taken the i-equired oath of office 
before Abner Jurey, Esq.), first convened (the minutes fail to state where) 
for the transaction of business. Thereupon the bond of Samuel M. Worth, 
the Audi tor- elect, was presented and approved, with Zuriel Fowler, Joseph 
Shorb and Guy C. Worth as his sureties. The Commissioners then author- 
ized Guy C. Worth (who was then officiating as Clerk of the courts, by ap- 
pointment) to contract for the purchase of the necessary books and station- 
ery for the use of the different county offices; also to purchase an "iron 
press" for the Clerk's office, "if, in his opinion, it be advisable to obtain the 
same." On the same day the following resolutions were considered and 
approved : 

Resolved, That the proposition of Moses H. Kirby to transfer his possessory right 
to the Indian Council House at Upper Sandusky to the county of Wyandot be accepted, 
and the Auditor authorized to issue an order in favor of Col. Kirby for $30 in full pay- 
ment of his interest in said house. 

Resolved, That the different officers of Wyandot County be authorized to obtain 
the necessary cheap furniture for the use of their respective oflBces, and present their 
bill to the Board of Commissioners at the June session. 

Resolved, That the Auditor of Wyandot, County is hereby authorized to procure 
the necessary abstracts from the tax duplicates of Crawford, Marion, Hardin and Han- 
cock Counties, and that he procure, if need be, the services of the Auditors of the said 
counties respectively to assist him in obtaining the same. 

Resolved, That the Auditor cause such repairs to be made upon the upper part of 
the Council House as will be required for the accommodation of the county officers." 

The Commissioners then approved of the bond of Abner Jurey, Treas- 
urer-elect, with John Jurey, Benjamin S. Welch, Christian Hoover and 
Jacob S. Staley as his sureties, and adjourned to meet in special session on 
the 28rh day of April following. 

As determined, the Commissioners again met on Monday, April 28, 
1845, when it was ordered that the area of Jackson Township be increased, 
and Marseilles Township be erected. On the following day, their proceed- 
ings were far more important, and as follows: 

Upper Sandusky, Wyandot County, Ohio, April 29, 1845. 

The Commissioners of Wyandot County this day met, and after a due considera- 
tion of the proposition for the establishment of the seat of justice of Wyandot County 
at the town of Upper Sandusky, adopted the following preamble and resolutions: 

Whereas the Congress of the United States by an act* approved the 26th day of 


Chapter 23.— An act vesting in the County Commissioners of the county of Wyandot the right to cer- 
tain town lots and outlets in the town of Upper Sandusky in the State of Ohio. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of .^^merica 
in Congress assembled, That the right to one-third part of the unsold town lots in the town of Upper San- 
dusky by the act entitled " An Act providing for the sale of certain lauds in the States of Ohio and Mich- 
igan ceded by the Wyandot tribe of Indians, and for other purposes," passed March 3, 184.3, directed to be 
laid out and surveyed, and to one-third part of the outlets of said town, be and hereby is vested in the 
County Commissioners of the county of Wyandot, in the said State of Ohio ; on condition, nevertheless, 
that said Commissioners, or other competent authorities of said State of Ohio, shall permanently locate and 
fix the seat of justice of the county at said town, and that the net proceeds of the sales of said town and out- 


February, A. D. 1845, have granted to the Commissioners of Wyandot County, one- 
third part of the inlots and outlots of the said town of Upper Sandusky, upon the con- 
dition that the said Commissioners should permanently locate and fix the seat of jus- 
tice of said county at the said town of Upper Sandusky. 

Be it therefore Resolved, That the seat of justice of said county of Wyandot be and 
hereby is permanently located and fixed at the town of Upper Sandusky. 

Resolved, That the Register and Receiver of the Land Office at Upper Sandusky be 
requested to advise the Board of Commissioners of Wyandot County what lot or lots 
in the town of Upper Sandusky embrace valuable improvements made by this Indian 
agency at Upper Sandusky. 

Land Office Upper Sandusky, April 29, 1845. 
To THE Commissioners of Wyandot County: 

Gentlemen: The following resolutions passed by your board have this day been 
duly placed in our hands, to wit: '-Resolved, that tlie Register and Receiver of the 
Land Office at Upper Sandusky be requested to advise the Board of Commissioners 
what lot or lots in the town of Upper Sandusky embrace valuable improvements made 
by the Indian Agency at Upper Sandusky." In reply to which we have to state that 
Outlot No. 49f , embraces all the valuable improvements made at Upper Sandusky for 
the use of the Indian Agency. Very respectfully, 

Albur Root, Register, 
Moses H. Kirby, Receiver. 

Thereupon the following communication was prepared by the Commis- 
sioners, and at once sent forward, by mail, to the Secretary of the Treasury 

of the United States: 

Upper Sandusky, April 29, 1845. 
To the Honorable Secretary op the Treasury of the United States: 

Sir: We herewith transmit to you official information of the permanent location of 
the seat of justice for Wyandot County at the town of Upper Sandusky; and we are 
advised by the acompanying communication from the Register and Receiver of the 
Land Office at Upper Sandusky that Outlot No. 49 is the only one contained in the 
said town which embraces valuable improvements made by the Indian Agency at Upper 
Sandusky. And as it appears that this lot would not fall to the county by a selection 
of everv third lot in alternate and progressive numbers in pursuance of the second sec- 
tion of "^the act of Congress of the 26th of February, A. D. 1845, entitled " An act vest- 
ing in the County Commissioners of the county of Wyandot the right to certain town 
lots and outlots 'in the town of Upper Sandusky in the State of Ohio, no substitution 
will, therefore, have to be made. 

We would respectfully request the Honorable Secretary of the Treasury to make 
the selection in pursuance to the said law as soon as practicable and transmit the same 
to us. 

We remain very respectfully your obedient servants, 

Stephen Fowler, 
William Griffith, 
Ethan Terry, 

Commissioners of Wyandot County. 
Communication from the Commissioner of the General Land Office in reply to the fore- 

General Land Office, July 28, 1845. 
I, James Shields, t Commissioner of the General Land Office, do hereby certify, 
that the annexed is a true and literal exemplification of the original on file in this 
office, approved bv the Secretary of the Treasury, on the 12th day of July, 1845. 

In testimony whereof, I hereunto subscribed my name and caused the seal of this 
office to be affixed, at the city of Washington, on the day and year above written. 
Ja.mes Shields, Commissioner of the General Land Office. 

lots be applied by said Coiintv Commissioners, or other proper authorities, to the erection of public build- 
ings, and the improvement of public squares and public grounds in said town. 

Sec 2. And be it further enacted. That the town lots and outlots of said town of Upper bandusky, so 
to be granted and applied, shall be selected bv alternate and progressive numbers (every third town lot 
and every third outlot according to their numbers respectively, being granted and applied as atoresaid) 
under the direction and subject to the control of the .Secretary of the Treasury ; Provided, that nothing here- 
in contained shall be so construed as to grant to and vest in said County Commissioners any lot or lots 
heretofore appropriated to and used by the Indian agency at Upper Sandusky, and upon which there may 
remain anv valuable buildings, orchard, or other valuable improvement belonging to the United States, 
and if any'such town lot or outlot, so bv its progressive number selected, should be found to comprise and 
include anv such valuable building, orchard or other valuable improvement then the said Secretary of the 
Treasury is hereby authorized and directed to substitute some other lot or lots, of a fair and proportionate 

Approved, February 20. 1845. 

+The site of Fort Ferree. , , ^ , , „. > ^ c-u- u 

JAfterward known (during the Mexican war, and the war of the rebellion) as Gen. Shields. 


List of town lots and outlots in the town of Upper Sandusliy, Ohio, selected under 
the provisions of the act of Congress entitled " An act vesting in the Commissioners of 
the county of Wyandot the right to certain town lots and outlots in the town of Upper 
Sandusky, in the State of Ohio, approved 36th of February, 1845." 

Town Lots numbered 3, 6, 9, 12, 15. 18, 31, 24, 27, 30. 33, 36, 39, 42. 45, 48, 51, 54, 
57, 60, 63, 66, 69, 73, 75, 78, 81, 84, 87, 93, 93. 96, 99, 103, 105, 108, 111, 114, 117, 130, 123, 
126, 129, 132, 135, 138, 141, 144, 147, 150, 153, 156, 159, 162, 165, 168, 171, 174, 177, 180, 
188, 186, 189. 193, 195, 198, 201, 204. 207, 210, 213. 216. 219, 223, 235, 228, 231, 234, 237, 
240, 243, 246, 249, 353, 255, 258, 261, 264, 267, 370, 373, 276, 279, 282, 285, 288, 291, 294, 
297, 300, 303, 306, 309, 312, 315, 318, 321. 334, 337, 330, 333, 336, 339, 343, 345. 348, 351, 
354, 357, 360, 363. 366, 369, 373, 375, 378. 

Out Lots numbered 3, 6, 9, 13. 15. 18, 31, 34. 37, 30, 33. 36. 39, 42, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57, 
60, 63, 66, 69, 72, 75, 78, 81, 84, 87, 90. 93. 96, 99, 103. 105, 108, 111, 114, 117, 130, 133, 
136, 139, 133, 135, 133. 141. 144. 147; 150. 153, 156. 159, 163, 165, 168, 171, 174, 177, 180, 
183, 186, 189, 193, 195, 193, 201, 204, 207, 210, 213,,216. 

At a subsequent meeting of the County Commissioners, held on the 
2d day of June, 1845. the boundaries of Pit , Crane and Antrim Town- 
ships were defined, and Eden, Ridge, Richland and Sycamore Townships 
were organized as separate townships. During the same session, it was 
further ordered that a tax of $1 be assessed upon each lawyer and physician 
practicing in the county. That a tax of four and one half mills on a dollar 
be levied for county purposes, also a tax of one and one-half mills on a 
dollar be levied for road purposes, and that the Auditor " be authorized to 
serve a notice upon John Shrenk* to leave the council house forthwith." 

The Commissioners again met for the transaction of business on Satur- 
day, July 26, 1845, and as the result of their deliberations, the following 
orders, etc., w^ere made a matter of recoi'd: 

Ordered, Tliat the lots vested in tlieir hands by the act of Congress, approved 
February 26, 1845, be exposed at public sale on the 2oth, 21st and 22d days of August, 

Ordered, That 200 copies of sale bills be printed, and that the same be published 
in the Ohio Statesman, Ohio State Journal and Wyandot Telegraph. 

Ordered. That the Auditor procure a sufficient number of blank title bonds for 
such sale. 

Ordered, That the lots be sold for one-fourth of the purchase money in hand, 
one-fourth in one year, one-fourth in two years, and ihe remaining one-fourth in three 
years; the payments to be secured with notes bearing interest. 

Ordered, That Inlot No. 147 be reserved from sale, and that Lots No. 145 and 
146 be procured for the use of the countj^ to erect public buildings upon. 

Ordered, That Mr. Joseph McCutchcn be authorized to engage the services of Mr. 
Bishop, of Seneca County, as crier on the days of sale. 

Ordered, That Peter B. Beidler be employed to copy from the records of the 
counties from whicli Wyandot County was taken, such records, surveys and field notes 
as may be strictly necessary to have in this county, also to make a plat of the county 
of Wyandot. 

The following is a copy of the " sale bill" above mentioned: 


The Commissioners of Wyandot Countj" will offer the following valuable town 
property for sale at Upper Sandusky, Ohio, upon the 20th, 21st and 23d days of August 
next, to wit: The in and out lots in the town of LTpper Sandusky vested in the said 
Commissioners by act of Congress approved February 36, 1845, being eveiy third of the 
in and out lots selected by alternate and progressive numbers, amounting to 126 inlots 
and seventy-two outlots. 

Upper Sandusky, a town laid out by the General Government, is delightfully situ- 
ated on the Sandusky River, near the center of the Wyandot Reserve, and the seat of 
justice of the new county of Wyandot has been permanently fixed at said town. 

Terms of Sale: One-fourth of the purchase money required in hand, the balance in 
three equal annual installments, secured by notes bearing interest. 

Stephen Fowler, 
William Griffith, 
Ethan Terry, 
[Attest] Commissioners of Wyandot County. 

Samuel M. North, Auditor. 

* Shrenk was the publisher of the Wyandot Telegraph, the first newspaper published in the county, and 
had occupied the council house as his printing house, from the middle of February, 1845. 



The Commissioners then adjourned to the 11th of Auc^ust following, for 
the purpose of appraising the lots. At the time designated, Augvist 11, 
1845, the members composing the Board of Commissioners met, and made 
an appraisement of the value of each lot, varying from $25 for the lowest, 
to $500 for the highest. They again met on the 19th day of August, 1845, 
and agreed upon the following terms of sale for the lots advertised to be 

One-fourth of the purchase money to be paid in hand, the residue in three equal 
annual payments, with interest, to be secured by promissory notes. 

The terms of sale to be complied with on the day thereof. A title bond to be 
given, conditioned for the making of a deed to the purchaser upon the payment of the 
notes. Delinquent bidders to be held subject to the liabilities and restrictions usual in 
such cases. 

Commissioners further order that Wyandot County orders and current bank papers 
of the Ohio banks be receivable in payment of the first installment. 

That the crops growing upon the outlets be reserved to the occupants putting them 
in, who are required to remove them bj' the 10th day of October next. 

Chester R. Mott, Et-q., was employed as assistant clerk during the sales, 
and David Bishop, of Seneca County, as crier. The sale commenced at 
10:30 o'clock A. M., on the 20th day of August, 1845, and continued three 
days. The following is a list of the lots sold, the names of purchasers, 
and the amount paid for each lot: 

[n Lot No. 3, Joseph McCutchen $ 26 

[n Lot No. 9, George Yenner 30 

[n Lot No. 13, Joseph Chaffee 37 

[n Lot No. 15, James McConnell 35 

In Lot No. 21, Stephen H. Sherwood 32 

In Lot No. 24, James McConnell 38 

[n Lot No. 30, Guy C. Worth 26 

En Lot No. 33. Guy C. Worth 25 

In Lot No. 36, John N. Reed 25 

[n Lot No. 39, Jacob Sell 55 

[n Lot No. 42, Lorin A. Pease 54 

[u Lot No. 48, Guy C. Worth 43 

InLot No. 51, Victor M. Griswold 34 

[n Lot No, 57, Samuel M. Worth 57 

[n Lot No. 60, Upton Flenner 141 

[n Lot No. 63, John Vandenburg 31 

[n Lot No. 66, Christian Huber 50 

[n Lot No. 69, James McConnell 48 

[n Lot No. 72, Abner Jury 30 

[nLot No. 75, Sanders A. Reed 46 

[n Lot No. 78, DavidLittle 185 

[n Lot No. 81. Upton Flenner 26 

[n Lot No. 84, Andrew Dumm 42 

[nLot No. 87. Samuel Miller 100 

[n Lot No. 93, Jaciob Rouk 60 

[nLot No. 96, Purdy McElvain 202 

[n Lot No. 99, Isaac C. Drum 29 

[n Lot No. 105, Isaac Ayers 125 

[n Lot No. 108, Chester R. Mott 35 

[n Lot No. Ill, John Mackey 115 

In Lot No. 114, John Shrenk 67 

[n Lot No. 120, John W. Senseny 262 

[nLot No. 129, N. P. Robbing 550 

[nLot No. 132, David Aj^ers 31 

[n Lot No. 138, Henry Houpt 48 

[nLot No. 141, David Ayers 200 

[n Lot No. 144, David Ayers 650 

[n Lot No. 150, David Ayers 252 

[n Lot No. 153, Joseph McCutchen 154 

[n Lot No. 156, Joseph McCutchen 134 

[n Lot No. 159, Jeremiah Miner 418 

[nLot No. 162, Jeremiah Miner 159 


In Lot No. 165, David Watson and John D. Sears 230 

In Lot jSTo. 174, Joseph McCutchen 300 

In Lot No. 180, David Epler '..".'."..'.'."..'."."'..'.".'! 61 

In Lot No. 186, James H. Drum 32 

In Lot No 189, Henry Mattocks ...............].... 167 

In Lot No. 192, Lemar Walton ."."..... 64 

In Lot No. 195, Robert Taggart 95 

In Lot No. 198, Daniel Tuttle '. 46 

In Lot No. 201. Samuel Roth .' .' " 33 

In Lot No. 204, Jerusha West ............" 27 

In Lot No. 207. Anthony Bowsher 84 

In Lot No. 210. Archibald Allen '...'.'.'.'.' 76 

In Lot No. 216. Christian Huber ' oqo 

In Lot No. 219, William Corbin .'...'.'. 113 

In Lot No. 228, Jackson B. Detray ' 46 

In Lot No. 131, Henry Mattocks I.55 

In Lot No. 234, Robert Taggart . " ' 39 

In Lot No. 237, Christian Huber 120 

In Lot No. 240, John Tripp '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. 26 

In Lot No. 243, Abner .Jury 93 

In Lot No. 246, Michael Barnhart ...'....'.. 40 

In Lot No. 249, John Owens ." . . . " " 52 

In Lot No. 252, Thomas Hughes 33 

In Lot No. 255, John W. Mavis 31 

In Lot No. 261, David Watson [ 27 

In Lot No. 264, John Buckingham 21 

In Lot No. 267, John S. Rappe 35 

In Lot No. 270, John S. Rappe 28 

In Lot No. 276, Robert Lambert 23 

In Lot No. 285, James R. Remington . 25 

In Lot No. 288, William B. Stokely ' 44 

In Lot No. 291, John S. Rappe ."'".'".'.'." 24 

In Lot No. 294, John Stewart 20 

In Lot No. 300, George Hayman 26 

In liOt No. 303, Purdy and Andrew McElvain .'..'.'.'.'.*.''' 32 

In Lot No. 306, A. M. Anderson, J. B. Alden and G. C. Worth. . . 57 

In Lot No. 309, Robert Cuppals 22 

In Lot No. 315, William Shaffer " 61 

In Lot No. 318, Purdy and Andrew McElvain ' " ' .24 

In Lot No. 330, William Hill. . . ^23 

In Lot No. 338, Enoch B. Elkins . . 31 

In Lot No. 336, John Tripp * 25 

In Lot No. 342, Daniel Wright ......[...[.. .1...]. ..[...[ 54 

In Lot No. 345, Antoine Christian. . . ... 30 

In Lot No. 348, John Tripp 27 

In Lot No. 251, Joseph B. Eraser 26 

In Lot No. 357, Chester R. Mott 20 

In Lot No. 360, Antoine Christian ' 26 

In Lot No. 363, George Orth 43 

In Lot No. 369, William Mvers 21 

In Lot No. 375, Robert Taggart " ' ' 24 

In Lot No. 378, William Ayers '..['.'.'. y. '.'.".'. '.' ' 20 

Out Lot No. 3, Stephen H. Sherwood 57 

Out Lot No. 6, James McConnell B 79 

Out Lot No. 9. James B. Alden 134 

Out Lot No. 12, David Wilson . 306 

Out Lot No. 15, Eli P. Quaintance ....'. 200 

Out Lot No. 27, George Robinson .53 

Out Lot No. 30, Chester R. Mott ' . . "'58 

Out Lot No. 33, Jeremiah Miner 63 

Out Lot No. 36, James McConnell 51 

Out Lot No. 39, Anthonv Bowsher. . . 12 

Out Lot No. 42, R. W. Kinkead .* '. . * 56 

Out Lot No. 45, David Avres 50 

Out Lot No. 48, Christian Huber 115 

Out Lot No. 51, John S. Rappe ^ 53 

Out Lot No. 54, James McConnell 56 

Out Lot No. 69. Thomas B. Ferguson 52 

Out Lot No. 84, David Ayers (forfeited) 


Out Lot No 87, Jacob Ronk 37 

Out Lot No. 90, Joseph McCutchen 32 

Out Lot No. 93, Chester R. Mott 35 

Out Lot No. 96, Chester R. Mott 36 

Out Lot No. 99, Joseph McCutchen 43 

Out Lot No. 102, Joseph E. Fouke 35 

Out Lot No. 105, William Bear 37 

Out Lot No. 108, William Ayers (forfeited) 

Out Lot No. Ill, Henry Kirby 36 

Out Lot No. 114, James B. Alden 43 

Out Lot No. 129, Amos Culver 33 

Out Lot No. 156, David Epler 30 

Out Lot No. 168, Hiram Flack 35 

Out Lot No. 171, Purdy McElvain 105 

Out Lot No. 174, John Kays 61 

Out Lot No. 177, Anthony Bowsher 25 

Out Lot No. 183, John Kays 65 

Out Lot No. 186, Joseph Mason 116 

Out Lot No. 189, Chester R. Mott 30 

Out Lot No. 201, Joseph Chaffee 30 

Out Lot No. 204, John W. Vandenburg 36 

Out Lot No. 210, Prudy McElvain 75 

Out Lot No. 213, Abraham Trego 45 

Out Lot No. 216, Joseph Chaffee 40 

Out Lot No. 207, Andrew Drum 30 

The total value of the lots sold during the three days amounted to 
),176. 50, upon which cash or its equivalent was paid to the amount of 

On the 27th of August, 1845, the Commissioners again met, as per ad- 
journment, when it was ordered, ." That the lots remaining unsold shall be 
open for entry until the 23d day of September next, with 50 per cent add- 
ed to the appraisement heretofore put upon them by the Commissioners. 

Ordered, That Samuel M. Worth be authorized to receive applications and make 

sales of such lots. 

The following bills were allowed, as expenses arising from the sales of the town 

lots, viz. : 

John Shrenk, printing $6 31 

David Bishop, crier of sale 43 00 

Chester R. Mott, clerk during sales 12 00 

Stephen Fowler, Commissioner 20 00 

William Griffith, Commissioner 22 00 

Ethan Terry, Commissioner 20 00 

Samuel M. Worth, fees as Auditor 30 00 

$153 31 


On Tuesday, September 23, 1S45 (as per order of the Commissioners), 
another public sale of town lots took place. The number of the lots, the 
names of purchasers, etc., being as follows: 

In Lot No. 6, Amos Colver $51 00 

In Lot No. 27, A. Montee 25 00 

In Lot No. 45, Robert Bowsher 34 50 

In Lot No. 54, Benjamin Chambers 30 00 

In Lot No. 102, John S. Rappe 63 00 

In Lot No. 168, Jesse Swan and Ezekiel Ervin 378 00 

In Lot No. 177, William Axt 131 00 

In Lot No. 183, Peter Ricker 33 00 

In Lot No. 225, Angelina Tannehill 26 00 

In Lot No. 258, George W. Cox 162 00 

In Lot No. 297, Michael Vangundy 22 00 

In Lot No. 324, A. Montee. . ^ 24 00 

In Lot No. 372, Samuel W. McDowell 37 50 

Out Lot No. 21, John March 32 00 

Out Lot No. 81, Michael Vangundy 51 00 

Out Lot No. 84, David Ayers 31 00 


Out Lot No. 108, Susannah Berry 33 00 

Out Lot No. 117, Christian Widman 43 00 

Out Lot No. 130, Hiram Pool 60 00 

Out Lot No. 180, Henry Backenstose 32 00 

Out Lot No. 192, Nathaniel C. Manley 21 50 

Out Lot No. 198, William Henry McKufe 35 50 

On the 2d of October. 1845, it was ordered by the Commissioners " that 
four hundred and ten dollars be appropriated out of the moneys received 
from the sale of lots to pay for In Lots numbered 145 and 146," which, 
with Lot No. 147, were set aside and designated as the site for the court 
house and county jail. The following day (October 3), additional lots were 
sold, as follows: 

In Lot No. 18, A. Montee |25 

In Lot No. 126, Daniel G. Weddle and A. Rice 105 

In Lot No. 171, John Lupfer 280 

In Lot No. 222, William W. Bates 229 

In Lot No. 273, Hugh Robertson 21 

In Lot No. 282, A. Montee 20 

In Lot No. 321, Alfred Randall 20 

Out Lot No. 18, Joseph McCutchen 81 

Out Lot No. 24, Chester R. Mott 40 

A number of the lots first sold were declared forfeited to the purchasers 
and reverted back to the county by reason of the non-payment of purchase 
monej according to the terms of sale, and were afterward resold to other 
parties as late as 1853. 

To June 11, 1853, the officials of the county had received in cash, for 
lots sold in the town of Upper Sandusky, the sum of $15,224.24, or in other 
words, the Govei'nment of the United States had donated to the county of 
Wyandot an amount sufficient to purchase sites, and to construct the pres- 
ent court house and jail building. 


Antrim — Was first organized as a township in Crawford County in 1822. 
It contains thirty-two sections, and was formed as it now exists June 2, 
1845, when the first Board of Wyandot County Commissioners ordered that 
the fraction (eight sections) detached from Township 4 south, of Range 
15 east, or Grand Prairie, in Marion County, be attached to it. 

Crawford — Was organized as a township in Crawford County in the year 
1821 Its nominal boundaries then included all, or at least nearly all, of 
that part of the former county now forming part of the county of Wyandot. 

The organization of Crawford County took place we believe, in the year 
1825, when Crawford Township was reduced to its present area — a full 
surveyed subdivision of thirty -six sections, known otherwise as Township 
No. 1 south, of Kange No. 13 east. 

Crane — We have not been able to ascertain when this township was so 
designated, though probably it was just prior to the formation of Wyandot. 
County. On the 2d of June, 1845, the Wyandot County Commissioners 
ordered that " the progressive numbers from Section 1 to 9 inclusive in 
Pitt Township be attached to Crane Township," and on the same day they 
likewise ordered, that "Sections 1, 12, 13, 24, 25 and 36 of the original 
surveyed Township No. 2 south, of Eange 14 east [Crane Township] be at- 
tached to Township No. 2 south, of Range 15 east." The same boundary 
lines prevail to-day, and thus Crane (it should be Tarhe) Township contains 
thirty-nine sections. 

Eden — The greater portion of this township was formerly part of 
Leith, a township which was formed by order of the Commissioners of 


Crawford County, in March, 1838. On the 2d of June, 1845, Stephen 
Fowler, William Griffith and Ethan Terry, the first Commissioners of Wy- 
andot County, ordered that Sections 1, 12, 13, 24, 25 and 36, of the orig- 
inal surveyed Township No. 2 south, of Range 14 east, be attached to Town- 
ship No. 2 south, of Range 15 east, and called Ecle^i Township." The 
same boundaries have continued to the present time. It contains thirty 

Jackson — Was organized as a township in Hardin County prior to 1840. 
By the organization of Wyandot County in 1845, the major part of the 
township became a portion of the new county, and for that reason, perhaps, 
it retained its original name. At a special meeting of the Commissioners 
of Wyandot County, held April 28, 1845, it was ordered " that Sections 3, 
4 and 9, in Township No. 4 south, of Range 12 east [Goshen Township] 
be attached to Jackson Township." The same boundary lines are still 
maintained, and the township contains twenty-seven sections. 

Marseilles — At a special meeting of the Commissioners of Wyandot 
County, held on the 28th day of April, 1845, it was ordered " that Sections 
1, 2, 10, 11, 12 and 13, in the aforesaid township and range [meaning 
Township No. 4 south, of RaDge 12 east], be attached to that portion of 
Township No. 4 south, of Range 13 east, taken from Grand Township, 
Marion County, and that the two fractional townships hereby attached shall 
constitute one township, and be called Marseilles." It will thus be observed 
that the present township consists of eighteen sections, or the northern half 
of the original township of Grand, Marion County, and six sections (1, 2, 
10, 11, 12 and 13) taken from Goshen Township in Hardin County. 

Mifflin — Although this township lay mostly within the Wyandot Reserva- 
tion, it was so named and organized as a township in Crawford County 
prior to 1840. AVe have not been able to ascertain the precise date of its 
organization. It is a full surveyed township of thirty-six sections, and is 
designated in the United States surveys as Township No. 3 south, of Range 
No. 13 east. 

Pitt — This township also lay mostly within the Wyandot Reservation, 
but it was known as a township in Crawford County before the beginning 
of the year 1840. Soon after the organization of Wyandot County, or on 
the 2d of June, 1845, the County Commissioners ordered "that the 

fractional part of Salt Rock Township [ Sections 1 to 12 inclusive, of 

Township No. 4 south, of Range 14 east, formerly part of Marion County] 
be attached to Pitt Township, and that the progressive numbers from Sec- 
tion 1 up to 9 inclusive, in Pitt Township, be attached to Crane Township. 
These boundaries are still maintained, and the township thus contains 
thirty-nine sections. 

Richland — Now comprising thirty sections of surveyed Township No. 
2 south, of Range No. 12 east, was organized as one of the divisions of 
Hancock County in 1835. Ten years later, the same township, with the ex- 
ception of the western tier of sections, became part of the then new county 
of Wyandot. On the 2d of June, 1845, the Commissioners of the last-men- 
tioned county directed " that Richland fraction be organized into a separate 
township and called Richland.'' 

Ridge — A fractional township of only fifteen sections, was detached 
from Amanda Township in Hancock County by the erection of the county 
of Wyandot. On the 2d of June, 1845, the first Board of Wyandot County 
Commissioners, ordered that " Amanda fraction be organized as a separate 
township, and called Ridge." 


Salem — This township comprises thirtv-six sections, or the whole of 
surveyed Township No. 2 south, of Range 13 east. It was largely embraced 
by the Wyandot Reservation and ^probably, was not organized and so 
named until just jjrior to the erection of Wyandot County. 

Sycamore — Containing twenty- four sections of surveyed Township No. 
1 south, of Range No. 15 east, was organized as a township in Crawford 
County in 1825. On the 2d of June, 1845, the first Board of Wyandot 
County Commissioners ordered " that the fractional township of Sycamore 
be organized into a separate township." 

Tymochtee — Embraces the whole of surveyed Township No. 1 south, of 
Range No. 14 east. Formerly attached to Crawford Township, it was or- 
ganized as a township in Crawford County, 1825. It was settled at an early 
day by an enterprising set of pioneers, and for a number of years was the 
most populous district in either Crawford or Wyandot Counties. 


The present court house and jail of the county stand upon grounds des- 
ignated in the original plat of the town of Upper Sandusky as lots No. 
145, 146 and 147. How these lots were acquired has already been shown. 
For several years the Indian council house was utilized for holding courts, 
etc., while the small block- house, known as the Indian Jail, answered for 
the incarceration of malefactors awaiting trial for or convicted of minor 
infractions against law and order. 

However, early in the autumn of 1845, it was determined to build a 
county jail. Thereupon, contractors and builders, through the public press, 
were invited to send in sealed proposals for the construction of the pro- 
posed building. On the 30th of October of that year, the Commissioners 
met, opened and examined the proposals sent in. It was then ascertained 
that eight proposals had been made as follows: Adam Bear, $3,800; 
Speelman & Donnell, $2,890; Vincent G. Bell, $4,000; John McCurdy, 
$2,740; Henry Ebersoll, $4,475; Sylvester Alger, $3,435; Kerr, Rambo & 
Osborn. $4,250; Jacob Ronk, $4,150. As McCurdy's bid was the lowest, the 
contract was awarded to him and he at once entered into an agreement, by 
which it was stipulated that he should complete the jail (the building still 
in use) on or before the 1st day of November, 1846. It appears that Mc- 
Curdy's contract was not a very good one — for him; for on the 9th day of 
March, 1848, he was allowed, by the Commissioners, " $500 over and above 
the contract price for building the jail." On the same day, too, that is, 
March 9, 1848, the following was made a matter of record: "Ordered, 
That the north bed-room in the back part of the jail, up-stairs, be appro- 
priated for the use of the Recorder for an office. That the Auditor be au- 
thorized to purchase stove and pipe for the use of the same, and that he 
engage Judge McCurdy to finish the room in a suitable manner for said 

On the 4th day of June, 1846, the first step was taken for the erection 
of the present court house. The County Commissioners then authorized the 
Auditor to cause a notice to be .published in the Democratic Pioneer. Ohio 
Statesman, and Ohio State Journal, offering $50 for the best draft and speci- 
fications for a court bouse building, to cost from $6, 000 to $9, 000. ' ' The 
draft and specifications to be forwarded to the Commissioners by the first 
Monday of August next, and the contract for building to be awarded on the 
10th day of September following." On the 11th day of September, 1846, 
an agreement was entered into between the County Commissioners and 


William Young, by the terms of which the latter agreed to build and com- 
plete a court house, on or before October 1, 1848 (according, to "a plan 
and specifications ") for the sum of $7,000. Young's sureties for the faith- 
ful performance of his contract were Andrew McElvain, David Ayres, John 
A. Morrison, Daniel Tuttle and T. Baird. However, in July, 1847, an- 
other agreement was made, relative to building a court house, between the 
County Commissioners and John W. Kennedy and John H. Junkins, which, 
after reciting that Young had assigned his contract to his sureties, who in 
turn had re-assigned it to Kennedy & Junkins, stipulated that Kennedy & 
Junkins should complete the structure according to the original contract, 
and for the original consideration of $7,000, less the amount already paid 
Young. Notwithstanding two separate agreements had already been made 
for the completion of the court house, and that nearly three years had 
passed since the work was commenced, the spring of 1849 found the last- 
named contractoi's still struggling under a non-paying, disheartening con- 
tract. The Commissioners then entered into a third agreement, and therein 
agreed to pay John H. Junkins for the completion of the building the 
sum of $9,800, less the amount already paid to Young, and Kennedy & 
Junkins. It is probable that the structure was finished during the last 
days of 1849, for on the 16th day of January, 1850, the Commissioners 
authorized the Auditor to sell the Council House (which to that time had 
served for holding courts, etc.), " for the sum of $250, and that the same 
time be given on the payments as other county lots." In October, 1851, 
John H. Junkins was allowed an extra compensation of $2,200 for work on 
the court house, thus making the total cost of the building, complete, 

In October, 1870, A. H. Vanorsdall, to serve for three years; Tilman 
Balliet, to serve for two years, and George Harpei', to serve for one year, 
were elected as the first Infirmary Directors of the county of Wyandot. Soon 
afterward, the present Wyandot County Infirmary was established on the 
Carey road, four miles north of Upper Sandusky. To that time the poor 
were " farmed out," a most wretched and heartless mode of procedure, which 
had been abandoned in many localities for at least half a century before. 
The farm consists of 200 acres, bfting in part the property once owned by 
Noah Eby. It occupies a beautiful and healthful location, and is amply 
supplied with water by a branch of the Tymochtee Creek. In the rear of 
the buildings are a few laige apple trees, said to have been planted by the 
Wyandot Indians. The principal building is constructed of brick, with a 
length of eighty feet and a width of forty-five feet. It contains two large 
halls — one on the first and the other on the second floor — on each side of 
which are the dormitories occupied by the inmates. On the first floor are 
the large and well-arranged dining room and kitchen. Generally speaking, 
all of the rooms are spacious and well lighted, and during the winter are 
made comfortable by the use of steam. In summer, cozy porticos afford 
pleasant resting places for those who find here their only home on earth. 
Since its establishment, the infirmary has been well managed, and its farm 
and garden products, always of the best, largely supply the wants of its oc- 
cupants. / 


The first court held within the county of Wyandot was a special term of 
the Court of Common Pleas. Its members — Abel Renick. William Brown 
and George W. Leith, Associate Judges — convened at the office of Moses H. 
Kirby, Esq., in Upper Sandusky, on Tuesday, April 8, 1845, or the day fol- 


lowing the lirst election for county officers, and after having appointed Guy 
C. Worth Clerk of Courts, ijro tempore, adjourned without day. 

The same Judges again met in special session on the 14th day of the 
same month and year, when a considerable and varied amount of business 
was transacted. Thus, the last will and testament of Adam AVeininger was 
admitted to probate; Jacob Smith, Aaron Welch and Charles H. Dewitt 
were appointed appraisers of the estate of Tobias Kneagel. deceased; Moses 
H. Kirby, Esq., Dr. Joseph Mason and John D. Sears, Esq., were appointed 
School Examiners* within and for the county of AVyandot, to serve for the 
term of three years; the bonds of Lorin A. Pease, Sheriff- elect, to the 
amount of $3,000, with William Griffith, Ransom Wilcox and Benjamin 
Knapp as his sureties, were approved; Chester R. Mott, Esq., Prosecuting 
Attorney elect, was sworn into office, and the bond of Albert Bixby, Coroner- 
elect, was also approved. 

However, the lirst regular term of the Court of Common PJeas, begin- 
ning July 1, iS-to, was held in the old Indian council house, which stood 
on the grounds now occupied by the old public school buildings, near the 
bluff, in the eastern part of Upper Sandusky. There was then present as 
officers of the court Hon. Ozias Bowen, Presiding Judge; Abel Renick, 
William Brown and George W. Leith, Associate Judges; Lorin A. Pease, 
Sheriff, and Guy C. Worth, Clerk, pro tempore. The court ordered that a 
' ' special venire be issued, commanding the Sheriff to summon forthwith 
fifteen good, true and lawful men. to serve the pi-esent term as grand 
jurors. Thereupon, the Sheriff returned into court the following panel:" 
Orrin Ferris, Enoch Thomas, Alvin J. Russell, Benjamin Knapp, Rodney 
Pool, John C. Dewitt. George W. Sampson, John Stokes, Hugh W^elch, 
Andrew M. Anderson, H. Montee, Joseph E. Eouke, William J. Clugston, 
John Gormley and William Jones. Subsequently, Daniel Tuttle was 
granted a license as auctioneer by the payment of $8. 

The first case brought before this court was entitled "Peter B. Beidler 
vs. Azariah Root, contested election of Surveyor for W^yandot County." 
The court decided that Beidler was entitled to the office, and that the con- 
testor should pay the costs. During the same term, the grand jury found 
true bills against some ten or twelve persons for keeping tavern without 
license, gaming houses, nine-pin alleys, assaults, etc. Before final adjourn- 
ment, Samuel Kenan, William J. Clugston, Daniel Straw, Moses H. Kir- 
by, John Houck, Reuben Savage and Andrew McElvain were granted per- 
mission to retail liquors, etc., by the payment of S2 each. 

Turning to the ■' Journal of the Supreme Court for the State of Ohio 
and County of Wyandot," we find the following as the first entries: 

The undersigned Judges of the Supreme Court, of the State of Ohio, do by these 
presents constitute and appoint Guy C Worth, f Esq.. of Wyandot County, Ohio, 
Clerk of the Supreme Court, for said county, until the lirst daj^ of the next term of said 
Supreme Court, and no longer. Before entering on the duties of his office under this 
appointment he is required to take the oath required bj' law, to give bonds in the sura 
of $10,000, conditioned as the statute requires, to the satisfaction of the County Audi 
tor, with two good and sufficient sureties, and deposit the same with the County Treas- 
urer and record tliis appointment on the journal of said court. 

Given under our hands in open court this 30th day of July, A. D. 1845. at Findlay, 
Hancock County, Ohio. 

[Signed.] Reubex Wood, 


It was proposed to hold a term of the Supreme Court at Upper Sandusky, 

*The same gentlemen served as School Examiners through several terms. 

fWorth was re-appointed Clerk of Courts from time to time, until July 22, 1S47, when he was appoint- 
ed Clerk for the full constitutional term of seven vears. 


commencing Monday, July 6, 1846, but when the time arrived it was ascer- 
tained that a quorum would not be present. Thereupon, the Clerk was 
directed by Hon. Matthew Birchard, one of the Judges present, to make an 
entry of the fact herein stated, and "that the said court stands adjourned 
without day." 

During the July term in 1847, the tirst case was acted upon in this 
court. It is made a matter of record, as follows: 
Elizabeth Whaley ) 

vs. j- In Chancery — Petition for Divorce. 

Thomas Whaley. ) 

On motion of tlie petitioner by Mr. Mott, her solicitor, the petition herein is dis- 
missed without prejudice." 

A glance at the records on file in the office of the Clerk of courts clear- 
ly indicates that during the nearly forty years which have pa.ssed by since 
the county was organized, a vast amount of business has been performed; 
that Wyandot has possessed its full share of those who apparently delight 
to indulge in litigation; yet to their credit be it said, the percentage of vio- 
lently vicious inhabitants seems to have been remarkably small. But a 
trivial number, comparatively speaking, have been placed upon trial 
charged with murder, mfinslaughter, or assault with intent to kill, and its 
residents have yet to witness the tirst public execution within the county 

Among those, however, whose trial for murder excited much public in 
terest, we cite the cases of Henry Gammell, Mrs. Bowsher. and James 
Wilson. It appears that during the year 1849, Henry Gammell and 
another man named McMullen (both of whom lived in or near Crawfords- 
ville), drank whisky and played cards together. Finally they quarreled, 
and in the hand to hand struggle between them which followed, McMullen 
received a knife wound from the effects of which he died. Gammell was 
at once arrested and confined in the county jail. His case was continued 
through several terms, but finally ho was tried and acquitted on the plea of 

At the February term in 1868, Mary L. Bowsher, a resident of Upper 
Sandusky, was indicted for the murder of William, Olive and Frances 
Bowsher, her children. Upon being arraigned, she pleaded not guilty. 
Thereupon it was ordered by the court that Robert McKelly and John 
Berry, Esqs., be appointed to assist the Prosecuting Attorney in the prose- 
cution of the case. During the May term, she was tried and acquitted on 
the tirst indictment — charging her with the murder of William Bowsher; 
but on the second indictment, charging her with the murder of Frances 
Bowsher, she was held to bail to the amount of $4,000, and on the third 
indictment, charging her with the murder of Olive Bowsher, she was also 
held to bail in the sum of $4,000. Finally, however, at the September 
term, 1868, a nolle prosequi was entered respecting the last indictments, 
and she was discharged "to go hence without day." It was supposed that 
she hastened the death of her children by administering poison. Her own 
death occurred recently. 

The murder of George W. Hite on the night of August 28, 1879, and 
the arrest, trial, conviction, and suicide of his murderer — Thomas Mc- 
Nurty, alias Patsey King, alias James Wilson — are events yet vividly im- 
pressed upon the minds of all present residents of the county. According 
to his confession. McNurty (he was tried and convicted under the name of 
Wilson), was a fair representation of a class so largely produced in the 
chief cities of our country — a class, usually direct descendants of foreign- 


born citizens, which takes to petty thieving, jockeying, gambling, drunk- 
enness, prize-tightiDg, burglary and murder as naturally as a duck takes 
to water. 

He was born in the city of New York in 1853. Ten years later, he was 
left to his own resources, and then began his career as a vender of news- 
papers, oranges, etc., in the city of his birth. His associations were of the 
vilest from the beginning, and it is probable that he could be termed a 
thief from the time he began to perambulate the streets of the great city. 
Next, he was known as a prize-package boy, on the lines of the Hudson 
River boats and railroad, then as a jockey rider at races, a brakesman on 
the New York Central Railroad, and a. hack driver at Niagara Falls. From 
thence he moved westward. Failing to get such positions as he wished, 
yet always stealing and fighting, he passed up and down the Mississippi 
Valley; thence to Omaha, and in the winter of 1873 and 1874, to San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. Returning from the las^-named place to Cheyenne, not many 
days elapsed ere he was at the Black Hills, and from that time until the 
spring of 1879 his life was passed on the frontier, or at various points 
from the Missouri River westward to Pike's Peak, Leadville, etc. Mean- 
while, he had continued his career of thieving and fighting, and had assisted 
in killing two or three men for their money, besides others out of mere 

Early in 1879, he returned to Chicago, and at that place engaged to 
work as a laborer on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad. 
With some others, he was sent to Upper Sandusky, but, after a few weeks, 
railroad work became irksome, and he abandoned it to engage in farm work 
for John Sell, who resided some distance to the eastward of Upper San- 
dusky. On the morning of August 28, Wilson and Sell effected a settle- 
ment. The farmer endeavored to "drive a close bargain" with his late 
assistant. The latter knew that Sell had money in his house, and out of 
revenge determined to return the same night and secure it, even if murder 
were committed. However, Wilson took the pittance due him, proceeded 
to the town of Upper Sandusky, and with other companions indulged in 
drinking whisky throughout the day. During that time, he met George W. 
Hite, a farmer, who resided about two miles south of the town of Nevada, 
and the two men partook of refreshments together. The result of Wilson's 
visit to town and his casual acquaintance with Hite are told in his confes- 
sion, as follows: 

" I did see Hite several times that afternoon, and ate some crackers and 
cheese with him, when he blowed about his wealth. I led him out to talk 
about his money, but made up my mind before we parted that it was all 
wind. I had no intention of injuring Hite or attempting to find any money 
about him. I had seen Sell put some money away in his house, and I 
thought that there was a pretty good roll of it, and in the absence of some- 
thing better, I concluded to call on Mr. Sell that night. I got rid of Caw- 
thorn in the evening, and this was as I desired. I then went west on the 
railroad to see whether my pistol would refuse. The first trial was a sac- 
cess, and that one satisfied me. 

" At Julian's saloon I had talked trade, in the hope that it would enable 
me to test it then, but that failed. When I came in from trying my pistol 
on the railroad, I stopped at O'Donnell's saloon, and I think took a glass of 
beer and sat down, and while there Hite went west, but I don't recollect 
the talk related by the Agent Holdridge. My mind was engaged with John 
Sell, his family and his money. I thought that Sell and his family would 


not refuse me shelter for the night, and when once peaceably in the house, 
I felt sure that I could secure the money quietly some time in the night, but 
if I failed in this I intended to crowd matters, and if necessary, get away 
with the whole Sell family in order to get the money. 

'• I wanted then to get to Sell about 9 o'clock, so as to avoid suspicion, 
for I wanted them to receive me. So I was about O'Donnell's and along the 
railroad until about dark, when I took a big drink of whisky and went down 
to Main street, and when I passed Hunt's stable Hite had his horse out ready 
to start, but I paid very little attention to this, and went straight ahead to 
the next street, on which I turned east. My object then in leaving Main 
street was to avoid Cawthoi*n, or any one else who would likely want to de- 
tain me. I got out of town without being noticed, and got somewhere near 
the river bridge when Hite overtook me, and at once drew up and com- 
menced his gab. I was annoyed at this, and in view of what might take 
place at Sell's, I wanted no truck with anybody else on the road. I thought 
he was riding a livery horse, and told him so, and this seemed to nettle him, 
and he wanted me to understand that he had a lot of horses, and good ones, 
too. I inquired about the size of his farm and the quantity of his stock 
and of his business generally, and he gave me such good, square rich 
answers that I thought my first opinion of him was wrong. He volunteered 
to tell me about turning oft" stock, I think that day, and collecting bills that 
day, so that I made up my mind soon after we turned into the Nevada road 
to investigate the matter. I walked along by his side to keep him company, 
and tried to interest him, and gave him my coat to carry for me, because it 
was too warm to wear it with comfort, and I knew that he would not run 
away and leave me while he had it. We then talked no more about money 
matters, but confined our talk principally to fast walking, fast horses, etc., 
until we got down to the woods beyond Sell's, when I took his horse by the 
bit and stopped him. I presented my revolver and demanded his money. 
He had not dreamed of any trouble, and this sudden turn in aflairs com- 
pletely unstrung him. 

' ' We were both pretty drunk at the time. He trembled so that he could 
hardly get out his pocket-book, but he made no resistance, but handed it 
out at once, and spoke not a word. His purse was small, and I could tell 
from the feel of it that there was little or nothing in it. I was disappointed 
and vexed. Still holding the horse, I opened the purse to assure myself of 
about the amount, and when I saw so small a sum to reward me for all this 
trouble, I was mad. Of course this work was all done in a hurry. The 
moment I looked into the pocket-book, I said to Hite: 'You son of a b — h, 
is this all the money you've got? ' and he faintly said ' Yes.' Then I said: 
' You son of a b — h, take that,' and fired. 

" I held the horse by the bridle when I shot. I did not intend to kill 
him, and did not think of trying to avoid killing him. I fired without 
thinking of where I would hit him, and caring as little. I blame my 
drunken condition for this dreadful \y\ece of foolishness. The instant I shot, 
it struck me that I had hit him too hard. He tried to speak after I fired, 
and could not or did not. I slapped the horse under the belly and started 
him myself, and then jumped over into the woods and walked several rods, 
when I recollected that I had forgot my coat. Hite was still on the horse, 
and I began to hope that his injuries were not serious, but I dare not then 
attempt to recover my coat. He was nearing a house, and I withdrew deeper 
into the dense woods, and laid down. I had got a half pint of whisky in 
the evening, I think at Julian's, and I had about half of this left, which I 


drank, and threw the bottle away. I emptied the contents of the purse into 
my pocket and threw it away. I was not in sight of the house at this time, 
but I soon heard confusion over there, and I concluded that it was time to 
pull out. So I started I know not in what direction, but I reached an open 
field an<l came to the raih'oad, where I got the direction all right again, and 
started east at a five-mile gait. Before reaching the railroad, I heard a 
farm bell ringing back in the neighborhood of the trouble, and took it for 
the alarm.*' 

It appears that Hite was shot through the heart, at a point on the Nevada 
road about two miles east of the Upper Sandusky. He kept his seat in the 
saddle until near the residence of Henry Keller, where, from appearances, 
he fell to the ground and at once expired. At 10 o'clock A. M. on the fol- 
lowing day — Saturday, August 29 — two suspicious-looking characters 
were arrested in Nevada, taken to the county seat and lodged in jail. One 
of them proved to be McNulty alias Wilson. At September term of that 
year, the grand jury found a true bill against him, charging him witli the 
murder of George W. Hite. He pleaded not guilty, whereupon Hons. Chester 
R. Mott and Curtis Berry, Jr., were assigned as counsel for his defense. 
The trial came on at February term, 1880, before Judge Beer and a jury of 
twelve men, and at its conclusion Wilson was found guilty of murder in 
the first degree. The judge then delivered his sentence, and ordered that 
he be hanged by the neck until dead, on the 18th of June following. The 
death warrant was duly issued by the State Executive, and all preparations 
were completed for the execution of the decree of court. But the con- 
demned prisoner cheated the gallows and saved the county a little additional 
expense by committing suicide on the night of June 2, 1880. Cyanide of 
pottassi was found to have been the poison used, and a small vial contain- 
ing somoi of the drug was found on the stand in Wilson's cell. His body 
was buried in the southeast corner of the Old Mission Cemetery, but ghouls 
— those who delight in grave-robbery on the plea of science — carried it 
away before the dawn of the next day. 


Under this head will be found a resume of nearly all general elections 
which have taken place in the county since it was organized. When the 
county started out upon a separate state of existence, there were amoncr its 
early inhabitants many who cherished fond anticipations that it would prove 
to be a W^hig district. The first newspaper — Shrenk's — was an able expo- 
nent of Whig principles, and the times seemed quite propitious for an 
organization which could boast of such leaders as Webster, Clay, Corwin 
and a brilliant host of others; but, as it proved, too many of the "original" 
inhabitants had already been rallied under the lead of "Old Hickory;" they 
were fresh from Democratic victories under Polk and Dallas, a hickory 
cudgel was yet the symbol of true Democracy, and when the smoke from 
the first political battle-field in the county uplifted, young Wyandot was 
found in alignment with the Democratic counties of the State. She has 
ever remained a Democratic stronghold, although occasionally a popular 
candidate from the ranks of the Republican party manages to secure an 
election to a county office. 

Election Apeil 7, 1845. 
Commissioner — Charles Merriman, Whig, 635; Jonathan Kear, Whig, 
638; William Griffith. Whig. 643; Robert Stokely, Democrat, 567; Stephen 
Fowler, Democrat, 669; Ethan Terry, Democrat, 678. Griffith, Fowler and 
Terry were elected. 



Treasurer — Abner Jurey, Whig, 662; David Ellis, Democrat, 588; 
Jurey's majority, 74. 

Auditor — Andrew M. Anderson, Whig, 618; Samuel M. Worth, Demo- 
crat, 668; Worth's majority, 50. 

Sheriff — Lorin A. Pease, Whig, 639; John Kiser, Democrat, 629; 
Anthony Bowsher, Whig, 9; Pease's majority, 10. 

Recorder — Joseph Chaffee, Whig, 578; John A. Morrison, Democrat, 
662; Samuel M. Worth, Democrat, 1; Mon-ison's majority, 84. 

Coroner — Albert Bixby, Democrat, 657; William Bevington, Whig, 624; 
John Ragon, Whig, 1; Bixby's majority, 33. 

Surveyor — Azariah Root, Whig, 638; Peter B. Beidler, Democrat, 616; 
Root's majority, 22. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Chester R. Mott, Democrat, 656; John D. Sears, 
Whig, 630; Peter B. Beidler, Democrat, 1; Mott's majority, 26. 

Election October 14, 1845. 
Commissioner — Silas Burson, Whig, 650; William Carey, Whig, 645; 
Jonathan Kear, Whig, 650; Stephen Fowler, Democrat, 678; Ethan Terry, 
Democrat, 693; William Bland, Democrat, 648. Terry, Fowler and Kear* 
were elected. 

Auditor— Moses H. Kirby, Whig, 614; Samuel M. Worth, Democrat, 
692; scattering, 14; Worth's majority, 78. 

Treasurer — Abner Jurey, W^hig, 660; George Harper, Democrat, 678; 
Harper's majority, 18. 

Sheriff — Lorin A. Pease, Whig, 658; Thomas Baird, Democrat, 660; 
Baird's majority, 2. 

Recorder — Joseph E. Fouke, Whig, 617; John A. Morrison, Democrat, 
683; Joseph Fouke, 1; Morrison's majority, 66. 

Survej^or — William Kiskadden, Whig, 640; Peter B. Beidler, Democrat, 
695; Beidler's majority, 55. 

Prosecuting Attorney — John D. Sears, Whig, 641; Chester R. Mott, 
Democrat, 680; Mott's majority, 39. 

Coroner — Peter Houk, W^hig, 633; Albert Bixby, Democrat, 693; Bix- 
by's majority, 60. 

Election October 13, 1846, for Oovernor. 


Crane. . . .f . 
Marseilles. . 





Sycamoref . 
Crawford . . 
Jackson. . . . 


Richland. . . 









Totals 446 

Majority for Tod 


* Kear and Burson had the highest and an equal number of votes ; it was decided by lot in favor of 

tThe vote in this township was not reported. 




Congressman — Ely Dresbach, Whig, 428; Rodolphus Dickinson, Demo- 
crat, 516; Joseph Jackson, 4; John K. Miller, 7; Dickinson's majority, 88. 

Senator — John L. Green, Whig, 238; Heniy Cronise, Democrat, 343; 
Cronise's majority, 105. 

Representative — James McCracken, Whig, 237; George Donenwirth, 
Democrat, 247; John M. Mahan, 37; Donenwirth's majority, 10. 

Election October 12, 1847. 

Representative — Joseph E. Fouke, Whig, 696; Michael Brackley, Demo- 
crat, 741; Emery D Potter, 20; Brackley's majority, 45. 

Commissioner — Rodney Poole, Whig, 684; John Welch, Democrat, 757; 
Welch's majority, 73. 

Auditor — Abner Jurey, AVhig, 660; Samuel M. Worth, Democrat, 767; 
Worth's majority, 107. 

Treasurer — John Ragon, Whig, 642; George Harper, Democrat, 778; 
Harper's majority, 136. 

Sheriff — Simeon E. Tuttle, Whig, 661; Thomas Baird, Democrat, 762; 
Baird's majority, 101. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Moses H. Kirby, Whig, 664; Aaron Lyle, Demo- 
crat, 767; scattering, 2; Lyle's majority, 103. 

Coroner — Stephen Whinery, Democrat, 668; Albert Bixby, Whig, 760; 
Bixby's majority, 92. 

Election October 10, 1848. 

Governor — Seabury Ford, Whig, 833; John B. Weller, Democrat, 939; 
Weller's majority, 106. 

Congressman — Cooper K. Watson, Whig, 832; Rodolphus Dickinson, 
Democrat, 934; Dickinson's majority, 102. 

Senator — Charles O'Neal, Whig, 835; Joel W. Wilson, Democrat, 933; 
W^ilson's majority, 98. 

Representative — William Griffith, Whig, 824; Machias C. Whitely, 
Democrat, 937; Whitely's majority, 113. 

Commissioner — James M. Chemberlin, Whig, 818; Ethan Terry, Demo- 
crat, 951; Terry's majority, 133. 

Recorder — Ernest M. Krakau, Whig, 819; John A. Mon-ison, Democrat, 
943; Morrison's majority, 124. 

Surveyor — Azariah Root, Whig, 812; Peter B. Beidler, Democrat, 951; 
Beidler's majority, 139. 

Election October 9. 1849. 

Congressman — Amos E. Wood, Democrat, 847; Daniel B. White, Whig, 
180; scattering, 43; Wood's majority, 667. 

Representative — Silas Burson, Whig, 720; Machias C. Whitely, Demo- 
crat, 828; Whitely's majority, 108. 

Commissioner — Rodney Poole, Whig, 776; Isaac Wohlgamuth, Demo- 
crat, 823; Wohlgamuth's majority, 47. 

Auditor — George W. Beery, Whig, 712; Chester R. Mott, Democrat, 
864; Mott's majority, 152. 

Treasurer — John Ragon, Whig, 687; George Harper, Democrat, 904; 
Harper's majority, 217. 

Sheriflf— William H. Renick, Whig, 678; Curtis Berry, Jr., Democrat, 
906; Berry's majority, 228. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Moses H. Kirby, Whig, 792; S. R. McBane, 
Democrat, 783; Kirby's majority, 9. 



Coroner — Saunders A. Reed, Whig, 677; John N. Reed, Democrat, 908; 
Reed's majority, 231. 

Convention — For. 916; against, 190; majority for, 726. 

Election Apbil 1, 1850. 

Senatorial Delegate to Convention— John Ewing, Democrat, 764. 
Representative Delegate to Convention — John Carey, Whig, 809; Ben- 
jamin P. Smith, 689; Peter B. Beidler, 8; Carey's majority, 120. 

Election October 8, 1850. 

Governor — William Johnston, Whig, 797; Reuben Wood, Demoerafc, 
1,002; Edward Smith, 2; Wood's majority, . 

Congressman — John C. Spink, W^hig, 566; Frederick W. Green, Demo- 
crat, 999; Green's majority, 233. 

Senator — Abel Rawson, W^hig, 553; Michael Brackley, Democrat, 991; 
Brackley's majority, 438. 

Representative — Wilson Vance, Whig, 570; Henry Bishop, Democrat, 
996; Bishop's majority. 426. 

Commissioner — Rodney Poole, Whig, 576; John Welch, Democrat, 
982; Welch's majority, 406. 


June 17, 1851, the State adopted the new constitution by 125,564 votes 
against 102,976 in opposition, and at the same time gave 104,255 votes for 
license, and 113,239 against it. In this contest Wyandot County gave 836 
for the constitution, 567 against it; and, 958 in favor of license, and 487 
against it. The aggregate votes on the new constitution do not contain 
the vote of Sycamore Township, the poll books of that township having 
never been returned. 

Election October 14, 1851. 

Governor — Samuel F. Vinton, Whig, 781; Reuben Wood, Democrat, 
987; Samuel Lewis, Abolitionist, 1; Wood's majority, 206. 

Supreme Judge — Allen G. Thurman, Democrat, 989; William B. Cald- 
well, Whig, 986. 

Common Pleas Judge — Cooper K. Watson, Whig, 777; Lawrence W. 
Hall, Democrat. 959; Hall's majority, 182. 

Senator — Abel Rawson, Whig, 781; Joel W. Wilson, Democrat, 968; 
Wilson's majority, 187. 

Representative — Ushler P. Leighton, Whig, 790; David Snodgrass, 
Democrat, 979; Snodgrass's majority, 189. 

Auditor — John Vanorsdall, Whig, 634; Chester R. Mott, Democrat, 873; 
Joseph E. Fouke, Whig, 209; Mott's majority, 239. 

Commissioners — Jonathan Kear, Whig, 856; William Irvine, Democrat, 
872; Irvine's majority, 16. 

Probate Judge* — Joseph Kinney, Whig, 840; Robert McKelly, Demo- 
crat, 840. 

Sherifif — William H. Renick, Whig, 791; Curtis Berry, Jr., Democrat, 
949; Berry's majority, 158. 

Treasurer — John Ragon, Whig, 566; George Harper, Democrat, 894; 
Joseph McCutchen, Democrat, 275; Harper's majority, 328. 

*Each candidate having an equal number of votes, it was decided by lot in favor of Kinney. 


Clerk of the Court— Guy C. Worth. Whig, 895; John A. Morrison, 
Democrat, 810; Worth's majority, 85. 

Recorder — Clark Glenn, Whig, 659; William B. Hitchcock, Democrat, 
1,088; Hitchcock's majority, 429. 

Surveyor— Ernest M. Krakau, Whig, 797; James Williams, Democrat, 
931; Williams' majority, 134. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Moses H. Kirby, W^hig, 893; Henry Maddux, 
Democrat, 796; Kirby's majority, 97. 

Coroner — John W. Senseney, Whig, 726; John N. Reed, Democrat, 
991; Reed's majority, 265. 

Election, October 12, 1852. 

Supreme Judge — Daniel A. Haynes, Whig, 784; William B. Caldwell, 
Democrat, 917; Caldwell's majority, 233. 

Congressman — George W. Sampson, Whig, 768; Frederick W. Green, 
Democrat, 909; Green's majority, 141. 

Probate Judge — Joseph Kinney, Whig, 940; Robert McKelly, Demo- 
crat, 753; Kinney's majority, 187. 

Commissioner — Jonathan Kear, Whig, 979; David Miller, Whig, 988; 
John Myers, Democrat, 765; Clark R. Fowler, Democrat, 651; Henry- 
Peters, Whig, 1; Kear and Miller were elected. 

Election October 11, 1853. 

Governor— William Medill, Democrat, 1,218; Nelson Barrere, Whig, 
774; Samuel Lewis, Free Soil, 58; Medill's majority, 444. 

Supreme Judge — Thomas W. Bartley, Democrat, 1,207; Franklin T. 
Backus, Whig, 806; Reuben Hitchcock, Whig, 28; Bartley' s majority, 401. 

Senator — Robert Lee, Democrat, 1,219; George W. Leith W'hig, 763; 
B. Kerr, , 1; J. W\ Vance, , 2; Lee's majority, 456. 

Representative— Peter A. Tyler, Democrat, 1,019; John Carey, Whig, 
939; John Halstead, , 2; Tyler's majority, 80. 

Auditor — James V. S. Hoyt, Democrat, 1,079; Joseph McCutchen, 
Democrat, 738; John Vanorsdall,Tndependent Democrat, 145; Hoyt's major- 

Sheriff — George P. Nelson, Democrat, 1,175 ; Joel Bland, Whig, 659 ; 
Thomas Gatchell, Whig. 137 ; Nelson's majority, 516. 

Clerk of Court — Curtis Berry, Jr., Democrat, 1,082; James McLane, 
Whig, 816 ; Robert Keed, Democrat, 116 ; Berry's majority, 266. 

Treasurer — William W. Bates, Democrat, 1,099; Henry I. Flack, Whig, 
805 ; David Watson, Whig, 133; Bates' majority, 294. 

Commissioner — John Welch, Democrat, 1,086 ; Isaac Bryant, Whig, 
772 ; John R. Lupton, Whig, 160 ; Welch's majority, 314. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Nelson W. Dennison, Democrat, 1,078 ; Moses 
H. Kirby, Whig, 878 ; George W. Beery, Whig, 1 ; Harmon Bower, 1 ; 
Dennison's majority, 200. 

Coronei' — Thomas Baird, Democrat, 1,068 ; Jonathan Hare, Democrat, 
751 ; Clark Glenn, Whig, 160 ; Baird's majority, 317. 

Election October 10, 1854. 

Supreme Judge — Shepherd F. Norris, Whig, 724; Joseph R. Swann, 
Democract, 1,101; Swann's majority, 377. 

Congrcissman — Josiah S. Plants, Democrat, 694 ; Cooper K. Watson, 
Whig, 1,129 ; Watson's majority, 435. 


Clerk of Court — Curtis Berry, Jr., Democrat, 767 ; Thomas E. Grisell, 
Whig, 1,065; Grissell's majority, 298. 

Recorder — William B. Hitchcock, Democrat, 814 ; Henry J. Flack, 
Whig, 1,019 ; Flack's majority, 205. 

Surveyor — James H. Williams, Democrat, 702 ; E. M. Krakau, Whig, 
540 ; Andrew Reynolds, Democrat, 9 ; Williams' majority, 162. 

Commissioner — Samuel Kenan, Whig, 633 ; Jonathan Kear, Democrat, 
1,191 ; Kear's majority, 558. 

Election October 9, 1855. 

Governor — Salmon P. Chase, Republican, 1,143; William Medill, 
Democrat, 1,045 ; Allen Trimble, Free Soil, 61 ; Chase's majority, 98. 

Supreme Judge — (full term), Jacob Brinkerhoflf, Republican, 1,202 ; 
William Kennon, Democrat, 1,048 ; Brinkerhoff's majority, 154. 

Senator — James Lewis, Republican, 1,188; Warren P. Noble, Democrat, 
1,047 ; Lewis' majority, 147. 

Representative — Elias G. Spelman, Republican, 1,183 ; Samuel M. 
Worth, Democrat, 1,061; Spelman' s majority, 122. 

Auditor — Joseph McCutchen, Republican, 1,127; James V. S. Hoyt, 
Democrat, 1,064; McCutchen's majority, 63. 

Treasurer — James C. Pease, Republican, 1,097; William W. Bates, 
Democrat, 1,137; Bates' majority, 40. 

Probate Judge — Joseph Kinney, Republican. 1,199; Jonathan Maffett, 
Democrat, 1,045; Kinney's majority, 154. 

Sheriff — Daniel Hoffman, Republican, 1,088; George P. Nelson, Demo- 
crat 1,139; Nelson's majority, 51. 

Commissioner — Hiram H. Holdredge, Republican, 1,180; Clark R. 
Fowler, Democrat, 1,056; Holdredge's majority, 124. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Moses H. Kirby, Republican, 1,178; Nelson W. 
Dennison, Democrat, 1,042; Kirby's majority, 136. 

Coroner— Albert Mears, Republican. 1,178; D. S. McAlmon, Democrat, 
1,060; Mear's majority, 118. 

Election October 14, 1856. 

Supreme Judge (long term) — Josiah Scott, Republican, 1,188; Rufus 
P. Ranney, Democrat, 1,174; Daniel Peck, American, 102; Scott's major- 
ity, 14. 

Supreme Judge (short term) — Ozias Bowen, Republican, 1,167; C. W. 
Searle, Democrat, 1,175; Samuel Brush, American, 113; Searle's major- 
ity, 8. 

Congressman — Cooper K. Watson, Republican, 1,164; Lawrence W. 
Hall, Democrat, 1,176; W. T. Wilson, American, 113; Hall's majority, 12. 

Common Pleas Judge — Daniel W. Swigart, Republican, 1,195; Machias 
C. Whitely, Democrat, 1,213; scattering, 4; Whitely's majority, 18. 

Commissioner — Milton Morral, Republican, 1,200; John Welch, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,136; Jacob Juvinali, American, 135; Morral's majority, 54. 

Bank Charter — For, 1,114; against, 418; neutral, 70; majority for, 696. 

Election October 13, 1857. 

Governor — Salmon P. Chase, Republican, 1,136; Henry B. Payne, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,257; P. Van Lump, 64; Payne's majority, 121. 

Supreme Judge — Milton Sutliff, Republican, 1,127; Henry C. Whit- 
man, Democrat, 1,264; John Davenport, 66; Whitman's majority, 137. 


Common Pleas Judge — John C. Lee, Republican, 1,141; George E. 
Seney, Democrat, 1,288; Seney's majority, 147. 

Senator — George W. Sampson, Republican, 48; Guy C. Worth, Repub- 
lican, 1,140; Robert McKelly, Democrat, 1,241; McKelly's majority, 101. 

Representative — David Ayres, Republican, 1,067; Chester R. Mott, 
Democrat, 1,305; P. C. Barlow, 41; A. C.Clemens, 2; Mott's majority, 238. 

Probate Judge — William A. Knibloe, Republican, 1,152; Jonathan 
Maffett, Democrat, 1,281; Maffett's majority, 129. 

Auditor — F. W. Martin, Republican, 1,179; James V. S. Hoyt, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,271; Hoyt's majority, 92. 

Treasurer — John Ragon, Republican, 1,174; James H. Freet, Democrat, 
1,264; Freet's majority, 90. 

Sheriff — Joseph McCutchen, Republican, 1,170; Curtis Berry, Sr., Dem 
ocrat, 1,212; Berry's majority, 42. 

Clerk of Court~T. E. Grisell, Republican, 1,140; Curtis Berry, Jr., 
Democrat, 1,294; Berry's majority, 154. 

Recorder — Henry J. Flack, Republican, 1,229; William B. Hitchcock, 
Democrat, 1,194; Flack's majority, 35. 

Surveyor — Aaron Bradshaw, Republican, 1,103; Peter B. Beidler, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,346; Beidler's majority, 243. 

Commissioner — Sheldon Beebe, Republican, 1,126; John Baker, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,310: Baker's majority, 184. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Moses H. Kirby, Republican, 1,211; George 
Crawford, Democrat, 1,229; Crawford's majority, 18. 

Coroner — Albert Mears, Republican, 1,178; Benjamin Williams, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,252; Williams' majority, 74. 

Election October 12, 1858. 

Supreme Judge— W. V. Peck, Republican, 1,288; T. W. Bartley, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,141: Peck's majority, 147. 

Congressman — John Carey. Republican, 1,414; L. W. Hall, Democrat, 

Common Pleas Judge — J. D. Sears, Republican, 1,342; J. S. Plants, 
Democrat, 1,080; Sears' majority, 262. 

Probate Judge — Moses H. Kirby, Republican, 1,369; Jonathan Maffett, 
Democrat, 1,044; Kirby's majority, 325. 

Commissionei' — H. H. Holdridge, Republican, 1,250; D. H. Curlis, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,110; Holdridge's majority, 140. 

Election October 13, 1859. 

Governor — Rufus P. Ranney, Democrat, 1,390; William Dennison, Re- 
publican, 1,295; Ranney's majority, 95. 

Supreme Judge Whitman, Democrat, 1,386; Gholson, Repub- 
lican, 1,281; Whitman's majority, 105. 

Senator — Thomas J. Orr, Democrat, 1,368; J. M. Stevens, Republican, 
1,296; Orr's majority, 72. 

Representative — J. M. White, Democrat, 1,396; J. F. Henkle, Repub- 
lican, 1,287; White's majority, 109. 

Auditor — Peter B. Beidler, Democrat, 1,344; Samuel Kirby, Repub- 
lican, 1,308; Beidler's majority, 36. 

Treasurer — James H. Freet, Democrat, 1,463; Charles Norton, Repub- 
lican, 1,204; Freet's majority, 259. 


Sheriff — James Culbertsun, Jr., Independent, 1,401; Alex Watson, 
Democrat, 1,243; Culbertson's majority, 158. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Henry Maddux, Republican, 1,384; George Craw- 
ford, Democrat, 1,279; Maddux's majority, 105. 

Commissioner — Milton Morral, Republican, 1,394; John Kisor, Demo- 
crat, 1,284; MorraPs majority, 112. 

Coroner — Benjamin Williams, Democrat, 1,381; Alex Shoemaker, Re- 
publican, 1,283; Williams' majority, 98. 

Election October, 9, 1860. 

Supreme Judge — Thomas J. S. Smith, Democrat, 1,624; Jacob Brinker- 
hoff, Republican, 1,569; Smith's majority, 55. 

Congressman- -Warren P. Noble, Democrat, 1,461; John Carey, Repub- 
lican, 1,738; Carey's majority, 277. 

Clerk of Court — Curtis Berry, Jr. , Democrat, 1,642; Joseph A. Maxwell, 
Republican, 1,544; Berry's majority, 98. 

Recorder— Henry Miller, Democrat, 1,681; C D. V. Worley, Repub- 
lican, 1,504; Miller's majority, 177. 

Commissioner— John Baker, Democrat, 1,616; Isaac Lundy, Repub- 
lican, 1,570; Baker's majority, 46. 

Surveyor — Andrew Reynolds, Democrat, 1,635; Aaron Bradshaw, Re- 
publican, 1,550; Reynolds' majority, 85. 

Election November, 6, 1860. 
President — A. Lincoln, Republican, 1,531; Stephen A. Douglas, Demo- 
crat, 1,617; Douglas' majority, 86. 

Election October, 8, 1861. 

Governor — David Tod, Republican, 1,384; Hugh J. Jewett, Democrat, 
crat, 1,562; Jewett's majority, 178. 

Supreme Judge — Josiah Scott, Republican, 1,379; T. J. S. Smith, 
Democrat, 1,568; Smith's majority, 189. 

Senator — W. C. Parsons, Republican, 1,364; William Lang, Democrat, 
1,545; Lang's majority, 181. 

Representative — F. F. Fowler, Republican, 1,354; Jonathan Maffett, 
Democrat, 1,549; Maffett's majority, 195. 

Auditor —George Crawford, Republican, 1,330; Peter B. Beidler, 
Democrat, 1,607; Beidler' s majority, 277. 

Treasurer— J. L. Cooke, Republican, 1,333; D. C. Murray, Democrat, 
1,588; Murray's majority, 255. 

Sheriff— C. P. Shurr' Republican, 1,327; William Marlow, Democrat, 
1,609; Marlow' s majority, 282. 

Probate Judge — M. H. Kirby, Republican, 1,550; John A. Morrison, 
Democrat, 1,345; Kirby's majority, 205. 

Prosecuting Attorney Plarrison, Republican, 1,349; John Berry, 

Democrat, 1,585; Berry's majority, 236. 

Commissioner— J, Edgington, Republican, 1,361; C. R. Fowler, Demo- 
crat, 1,586; Fowler's majority, 225. 

Coroner — William Irvine, Republican, 1,369; Benjamin Williams, 
Democrat, 1,559; William's majority, 190. 

Election October 13, 1863. 
Governor— John Brough, Republican, 1,666; C. L. Vallandigham, 
Democrat, 1,679; Vallandigham's majority, 13. 


Representative — Jonathan Mafifett, Democrat, 1,719; Samuel H. White, 
llepublican, 1.651; Maifett's majority, 68. 

Auditor — J. V. S. Hoyt, Democrat, 1,724; Frank W. Martin, Repub- 
lican, 1,647; Hoyt's majority, 77. 

Sheriff — Andrew W. Ingerson, Republican, 1,617 ; William Marlow, 
Democrat, 1,742; Marlow's majority, 125. 

Commissioner — John Kisor, Democrat, 1,730 ; Jesse Edgington. Repub- 
lican, 1,642; Kisor's majority, 88. 

Surveyor — Andrew Reynolds, Democrat, 1,725 ; James L. Cook, Repub- 
lican, 1,646; Reynolds' majority, 79. 

Treasurer — D. C. Murray, Democrat, 1,741; Addison E. Gibbs, Repub- 
lican, 1,641; Murray's majority, 100. 

Clerk of Court — Frederick Agerter, Democrat, 1,730 ; Henry Miller, 
Republican, 1,644; Agerter's majority, 86. 

Prosecuting Attorney — John Berry, Democrat, 1,726; Thomas E. Grisell, 
Republican, 1,641; Berry's majority, 85. 

Recorder — Simeon Inman, Democrat, 1,730; James K. Agnew, Repub- 
lican, 1,636; Inman's majority, 94. 

Coroner — Benjamin Williams, Democrat, 1,718; John Holloway, Repub- 
lican, 1,646; Williams' majority, 72. 

Election October 9, 1866. 

Congressman — William Mungen, Democrat, 1,925; Walker, Repub- 
lican, 1,734; Mungen's majority, 191. 

Common Pleas Judge — C. R. Mott, Democrat, 1,915; Cooper K. Watson, 
Republican, 1,722; Mott's majority, 193. 

Clerk of Court— Fred Agerter, Democrat, 1,932; S. S. Pettit, Repub- 
lican, 1,720; Agerter's majority, 212. 

Commissioner — John Ki^or, Demoei-at, 1,927; Roderick McKenzie, Re- 
publican, 1,731; Kisor's majority, 196. 

Recorder — Simeon Inman, Democrat, 1,943; Thompson, Repub- 
lican, 1,718; Inman's majority, 225. 

Election October 8, 1867. 

Governor — A. G. Thurman, Democrat, 2,183; R. B. Hayes, Republican, 
1,609; Thurman's majority, 574. 

Senator — C. Berry, Jr., Democrat, 2,188; John C. Leith, Republican, 
1,590; Berry's majority, 598. 

Representative — Samuel M. Worth, Democrat, 2,190; M. C. Gibson, Re- 
publican, 1,598; Worth's majority, 592. 

Auditor — J(mathau Maffett, Democrat, 2,198; J. K. Agnew, Republican, 
1,590; Maffett' s majority, 608. 

Treasurer — W. F. Goodbread, Democrat, 2,187; L. R. Seaman, Repub- 
lican, 1,596; Goodbread's majority, 591. 

Sheriff — William Michaels, Democrat, 2,192; D. Fishel, Republican, 
1,600; Michaels' majority, 592. 

Probate Judge— Peter B. Beidler, Democrat, 2,175; J. L. Cook, Repub- 
lican, 1,617; Beidler's majority, 558. 

Commissioner — J. Hollenshead, Democrat, 2,185; Isaac Mann, Repub- 
lican, 1,604; Hollenshead's majority, 581. 

Prosecuting Attorney — M. H. Kirby, Democrat, 2,170; Thomas E. Gri- 
sell, Republican, 1,597; Kirby' s majority, 573. 

Coroner — L. Gipson, Democrat, 2,192; J. Holloway, Republican, 1,597; 
Gipson's majority, 595. 


Convention to Amend the Constitution — For, 1,487; against, 2,258; 
Majority against, 771. 

Election October 13, 1868. 

Congressman — William Mungen, Democrat, 2,138; Thomas E. Grisell, 
Republican, 1,620; Mungen's majority, 518. 

Commissioner — D. C. Murray, Democrat, 2,157; Isaac Walton, Repub- 
lican, 1,609; Murray's majority, 548. 

Surveyor — John Agerter, Democrat, 2,131. (No opposition.) 

Coroner — Levi Shultz, Democrat, 2,138; D. Fishel, Republican, 1,630; 
Shultz's majority, 508. 

Election October 12, 1869. 

George H. Pendleton, Democrat, 2,069 ; R. B. Hayes, Republican, 
1,561 ; Pendleton's majority, 508. 

Senator — A. S. Jenner, Democrat, 2,060 ; S. R, Harris, Republican, 
1,572 ; Jenner's majority, 488, 

Representative — John Kisor, Democrat, 2,002 ; R. A. Henderson, 
Republican, 1,604 ; Kisor's majority, 398. 

Clerk of Court — William B. Hitchcock, Democrat, 2,060; — Brown, 
Republican, 1,515 ; Hitchcock's majority, 545. 

Prosecuting Attorney — M. H. Kirby, Democrat, 2,047 ; Adam Kail, 
Republican, 1,563 ; Kirby's majority, 484. 

Sheriff — Henry Myers, Democrat, 2,005 ; — Rieser, Republican, 1,518 ; 
Myers' majority, 487. 

Auditor — Jonathan Maffetfc, Democrat, 2,031; J. L. Cook, Republican, 
1,583 ; Maffeti's majority, 448. 

Treasurer — J. S. Hare, Democrat, 2,059 ; John Greer, Republican, 
1,479 ; Hare's majority, 580. 

Recorder — Adam Stutz, Democrat, 1,905 ; — Pool, Republican, 1,626 ; 
Stutz's majoi'ity, 279. 

Commissioner — ^William Beam, Democrat, 1,983; S. Watson, Repub- 
can, 1,594; Beam's majority, 389. 

Election October 11, 1870. 

Supreme Judge — Richard A. Harrison, Democrat, 1,649 ; George W. 
McElvaine, Republican, 1,211 ; Harrison's majority, 438. 

Congressman — Charles N. Lamison; Democrat, 1,650 ; I. D. Clark, Re- 
publican, 1,214 ; Lamison's majority, 436. 

Probate Judge — Peter B. Beidler, Democrat, 1,373 ; Michael Brackley, 
lodependent, 1,253 ; Beidler's majority, 120. 

Commissioner — Thomas McClain, Independent, 1,639 ; Jacob Hollens- 
head, Democrat, 1,180; McClain's majority, 459. 

Infirmary Directors — A. H. Vanorsdall (3 years), 1,638 ; Tilman Balliet 
(2 years), 1,636 ; George Harper (1 year), 1,637. 

Coroner — Levi Shultz, Democrat, 1,628 ; Daniel Fishel, Independent, 

Election October 10, 1871. 

Governor — George W. McCook, Democrat, 1,915 ; Edward F. Noyes, 
Republican, 1,580 ; McCook' s majority, 335. 

Senator — A. S. Jenner, Democrat, 1,912 , U. F. Cramer, Republican, 


Representative — John Kisor, Democrat, 1,893 : no opposition. 

Common Pleas Judge — C. R. Mott, Democrat, 2,634 ; A. M. Jackson, 
Republican, 762 ; Mott's majority, 1,872. 

Sheriff — Henry Myers, Democrat, 1,917 ; John F. Rieser, Republican, 
1, 573 ; Myers' majority, 344. 

Commissioner — Henry Parker, Republican, 1,671 ; Milton Morral, 
Democrat, 1,811 ; Morral's majority, 140. 

Surveyor — JohnAgerter, Democrat, 1,800; James K. Agnew, Republican, 
1,659 ; Agerter's majority, 141. 

Infirmary Director — Michael Depler, Democrat, 1,897 ; Henry Davis, 
Sr., Republican, 1,562 ; Depler's majority, 335. 

Constitutional Convention* — For, 2,009 ; against, 1,346 ; majority for, 

Election October 8, 1872. 

Supreme Judge — Isaac B, Riley, Democrat, 2,105 ; Richard R. Porter, 
Republican, 1,776 ; Riley's majority, 329. 

Common Pleas Judge — James Pillars, Democrat, 2,101. No opposition. 

Auditor — Robert A. McKelly, Democrat, 2,034 ; Henry Miller, Repub- 
lican, 1.841 ; McKelly's majority, 193. 

Clerk of Court — William B. Hitchcock, Democrat, 2, 130; Samuel Lutz, 
Republican, 1,755; Hitchcock's majority, 375. 

Recorder — Adam Stutz, Democrat, 2,095; Daniel Hartsough, Repub- 
lican, 1,771; Stutz's majority, 324. 

Commissioner — William Beam, Democrat, 2,096. 

Coroner — Edward Christen, Democrat, 2,104; Moses Waggoner, Repub- 
lican, 1,779; Christen's majority, 325. 

Infirmary Director — Tilman Balliet, Democrat, 2,099; John McBeth, 
Republican, 1,789; Balliet's majority, 310. 

Election October 14, 1873. 

Governor — William Allen, Democrat, 2,039; Edward F. Noyes, Repub- 
lican, 1,364; Allen's majority, 675. 

Senator — John Seitz, Democrat, 2,052; David Harpster, Republican, 
1,345; Seitz' s majority, 707. 

Representative — L. A. Bruuner, Democrat, 1,934; John Markley, Re- 
publican, 1,250; Brunner's majoi-ity, 684. 

Probate Judge — Joel W. Gibson, Democrat, 1,985; William R. De 
Jean, Republican, 1,404; Gibson's majority, 581. 

Prosecuting Attorney — M. H. Kirby, Democrat, 2,071 ; Henry Maddux, 
Republican, 1,347; Kirby's majority, 724. 

Sheriff — Jacob Schaefer, Democrat, 1,934; H. P. Marshall, Republican, 
1,462; Schaefer's majority, 472. 

Treasurer — William Smalley, Democrat, 3,261. 

Commissioners — Thomas McClain, 1,949; Samuel M. Worth, 1,864; 
Benjamin F. Kennedy, 1,470; Michael Bretz, 1,456; McClain's majority 
over Kennedy, 479; Worth's majority over Bretz, 408. 

Infirmary Director — Abram H. Vanorsdall, Democrat, 2,052; Moses 
Kirby, Republican, 1,362; Vanorsdall' s majority; 690. 

Election October 13, 1874. 
Congressman — J. P. Cowan, Democrat, 1,687; W. Armstrong, Repub- 
lican, 1,173; Cowan's majority, 514, 

* For a full reconstruction of the Constitution of the State. 


Common Pleas Judge — Thomas Beer, Democrat, 1,703; Josiah Scott, 
Republican, 1,164; Beer's majority, 539. 

Auditor— R. A. McKellv, Democrat, 1,732; J. D. Foucht, Temperance, 
930; McKelly's majority, 802. 

Commissioner — J. Yentzer, Democrat, 1,359; R. Bennett, Temperance, 
438: M. Morral, Independent, 1,055; Yentzer's majority, 304. 

Surveyor — J. Greek, Democrat, 1,705; James L. Cook, Temperance, 959; 
Greek's majority, 746. 

Coroner— Edward Christian, Democrat. 1,704; D. L. Kentfield, Tem- 
perance, 956; Christian's majority, 748. 

Infirmary Director — R. McBeth, Democrat, 1,764; H. Peters, Temper- 
ance, 934; McBeth' 8 majority, 830, 

Election Octobek 13, 1875. ' 

Governor — William Allen, Democrat, 2,305; R. B. Hayes, Republican, 
1,735; Allen's majority, 570. 

" For the Commission " — For, 1,998; against, 444; Majority for. 554. 

Senator— E. T. Stickney, Democrat, 2,287; William Monnett, Repub- 
lican, 1,734; Stickney's majority, 553. 

Representative — L. A. Brunner, Democrat, 2,256; Moses Gibson, Re- 
publican, 1,724; Brunner's majority, 532. 

Clerk of Court— R. D. Daram, Democrat, 2,238; R. M. Stewart, Repub- 
lican, 1,766; Dumm's majority, 473. 

Prosecuting Attorney— M.H. Kirby, Democrat, 2,279; Adam Kail, Re- 
publican, 1,715; Kirby's majority, 564. 

Sheriff— Jacob Schacfer, Democrat, 2,187; Lime, Republican, 

1,778; Schaefer's majority, 409. 

Treasurer — William Smalley, Democrat, 2,306; J. R. Swann, Repub- 
lican, 1,704; Smalley's majority, 602. 

Recorder — Simeon luman, Democrat, 2,236; John E. Goodrich, Repub- 
lican, 1,727; Inman's majority, 509. 

Commissioner -William Ayres, Democrat, 2,192; O. K. Brown, Repub- 
lican, 1.802; Ayres' majority, 390. 

Infirmary Director — Michael Depler, Democrat, 2,301; D. L. Kentfield, 
Republican, 1,743; Depler's majority, 558. 

Election October 10, 1876. 

Secretary of State — William Bell, Jr., Democrat, 2,483; Milton Barnes, 
Republican, 1,902; Bell's majority, 581. 

Supreme Judge — William E. Finck, Democrat, 2,489; Washington W. 
Boynton, Republican, 1.900; Finck's majority, 589. 

Congressman — Ebenezer B. Finley, Democrat, 2,490; Peter S. Gross- 
cup, Republican, 1,897;. Finley's majority, 593. 

Common Pleas Judge — Thomas Beer, Democrat, 2,491; no opposition. 

Probate Judge — Joel W. Gibson, Democrat, 2,475; David Harpster, 
Jr., Republican, 1872; Gibson's majority, 603. 

Auditor— John Agerter, Democrat, 2,332; Henry Miller, Republican, 
2,019; Agerter's majority, 313. 

Treasurer — George W. Biles, Democrat, 2,515; Edwin A. Gordon, Re- 
publican, 1,869; Biles' majority, 046. 

Commissioner — Peter Beam, Democrat, 2,519; Quincy A. Rowse, Re- 
publican, 1,841; Beam's majority, 678. 

Infirmary Director — Jacob Swartz, Democrat, 2,492; James C. Andrews, 
Republican, 1,907; Swartz's majority, 585. 


Coroner — Jacob Tribolet, Democrat, 2,459; Samuel Shepard, Repub- 
lican, 1.875; Tribolet's majority, 584. 

Election October 9, 1877. 

Governor — William H. West, Eepublican, 1,722; Richard M. Bishop, 
Democrat, 2,405; Bishop's majority, 879. 

Supreme Judge — William \V. Johnson, Republican, 1,734; John W. 
Okey, Democrat, 2,391; Okey's majority, 657. 

Senator — Lovell B. Harris, Republican, 1,711; John Seitz, Demo- 
crat, 2,391; Seitz's majority, 680. 

Representative — Isaac M. Kirby, Republican, 1,775; Willard D. Tyler, 
Democrat, 2,350; Tyler's majority, 575. 

Common Pleas Judge — Jacob F. , Republican, 1,735; Henry H. 

Dodge, Democrat 2.395; Dodge's majority, 660. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Miller B. Smith, Republican, 1,736; Moses H. 
Kirby, Democrat, 2,373; Kirby' s majority, 637. 

Sherifl' — John M. Houston, Democrat, 2,125; Joseph Hutter, Repub- 
lican, 1,819; Houston's majority, 306. 

Commissioner— Hiram J. Starr, Republican, 1,794 ; Jacob Yentzer, 
Democrat, 2,228; Yentzer' s majority, 494. 

Surveyor — William McDowell, Republican, 1,745; Jacob Greek, Demo- 
crat, 2,383; Greek's majority, 638. 

Infirmary Director — James H. Lindsey, Republican, 1,738; Robert Mc- 
Beth. Democrat, 2,396; McBeth's majority, 658. 

Free Banking Act — For, 605; against, 1,826; majority against, 1,221. 

Election October 8, 1878. 

Secretary of State — Milton 'Barnes, Republican, 1,907; David R. Paige, 
Democrat, 2,448; Paige's majority, 541. 

Supreme Judge — William White, Republican, 1,903; Alexander F. 
Hume, Democrat, 2,452; Hume's majority, 549. 

Congressman — E. B. Finley, Democrat, 2,354; Charles Foster, Repub- 
lican, 1,944; Finley's majority, 410. 

Clerk of Court — Robert D. Dumm, Democrat, 2,565; W. E. Benton, Re- 
publican, 1,787; Dumm's majority, 778. 

Auditor — John Agerter, Democrat, 2,119; Landline Smith, Republican, 
2,201; Smith's majority, 82. 

Treasurer — George W. Bates, Democrat, 2,525; Robert W. Pool, Re- 
publican, 1,831; Bate's majority, 694. 

Recorder — Simeon Inman, Democrat, 2,581; John E. Goodrich, Repub- 
lican, 1,766; Inman's majority, 815. 

Commissioner — William Ayres, Democrat, 2,042; Benjamin F. Ken- 
nedy, Republican, 1,992; N. Willoughby, Independent, 200; Ayres' ma- 
jority, 50. 

Infirmary Director — Elias Streby, Democrat, 2,450; James H. Lindsay, 
Republican, 1,899; Streby's majority, 551. 

Coroner — Jacob Tribolet, Democrat, 2,408; George W. Kenan, Repub- 
lic, 1,899; Tribolet's majority, 509. 

Election October 14, 1879. 

Governor — Charles Foster, Republican, 2,282; Thomas Ewing, Demo- 
crat, 2,812; Ewing's majority, 530. 

Supreme Judge — William W. Johnson, Republican, 2,261; William J. 
Gilmore, Democrat, 2,830; Gilmore's majority, 569. 


Senator — Stephen R. Harris, Republican, 2,240; Moses H. Kirby, Dem- 
ocrat, 2,825; Kirby's majority, 585. 

Probate Judge — William R. De Jean, Republican, 2,206; Joel W. Gib- 
son, Democrat, 2,849; Gibson's majority, 643. 

Prosecuting Attorney — William F. Pool, Republican, 2,213; George G. 
White, Democrat, 2,860; White's majority, 647. 

Sheriff — John M. Houston, Democrat, 2,820; Henry Myers, Repub- 
lican, 2,156; Myers' majority, 664. 

Commissioner — Benjamin F. Kennedy, Republican, 2,446; William M. 
Baldwin, Democrat, 2,604; Baldwin's majority, 158. 

Infirmary Director — John Greer, Republican, 2,260; John Swartz, Dem- 
ocrat, 2,822; Swartz's majority, 562. 

Election October 12, 1880. 

Secretary of State — Charles Townsend, Republican, 2,316; William 
Lang, Democrat, 2,920; Lang's majority, 604. 

Supreme Judge — George W. Mcllvaine, Republican, 2,316; Martin D. 
Follett, Democrat, 2,921; Follett's majority, 605. 

Congressman — S. E. Fink, Republican, 2,315: George W. Geddes, 
Democrat, 2,925, 

Commissioner — John Greer, Republican, 2,412; Abraham Bope, Re- 
publican, 2.125; Henrv Herring, Democrat, 2,791; George Harper, Demo- 
crat, 3,012. 

Treasurer — John L. Lewis, Republican, 2,314; George W. Freet, Dem- 
ocrat, 2,913; F reefs majority, 599. 

Surveyor — Isaac M. Kirby, Republican, 2,568; Jacob Greek, Democrat, 
2,596; Greek's majority, 28. 

Infii'mary Director — David S. Bretz, Republican, 2,306; Reuben Low- 
master, Democrat, 2.865. 

Election November, 1^80. 

President — James A. Garfield, Republican, 2,398; Winfield S. Hancock, 
Democrat, 2,983*; Hancock's majority, 585. 

Election October 1], 1881. 

Governor — Charles Foster, Republican, 1,963; John W. Bookwalter, 
Democrat, 2.644; Abraham R. Ludlow, 184; John Seitz, 1; Bookwalter's 
majority, 681. 

Supreme Judge — Nicholas Longworth, Republicao, 1,979; Edward F. 
Bingham, Democrat, 264; Gideon T. Stewart, 174; Longworth's majority, 

Senator — Moses H. Kirby, Democrat, 2,628; Martin Deal, 9; Kirby's 
majority, 2,619. 

Representative — L. A. Brunner. Democrat, 2,574; Samuel Lutz, Re- 
publican, 2,144; Brunner's majority, 430. 

Common Pleas Judge — Thomas Beer, Democrat, 2,631. No opponent. 

Clerk of Court — Hiram H. Hitchcock, Democrat, 2,140; Avery Hender- 
son, Republican, 2,540; Henderson's majority, 400. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Robert McKelly, Democrat, 2,516; Robert Carey, 
Republican, 2,149; McKelly's majority, 367. 

Sheriff— Charles F. Schuler, Democrat, 2,545; V. O. Tuttle, Republican 
2,521 ; Schuler's majority, 24. 


Auditor — John Agerter, Democrat, 2,175; Landline Smith, Republican, 
2,521; Smith's majority, 346. 

Recorder — Simeon Inman, Democrat, 2,854; Hazard P. Tracy, Repub- 
lican 1,893; Inman's majority, 961. 

Commissioner — John K. Hare, Democrat, 2,623; Cyrus Griffith, Repub- 
lican, 2,096; Hare's majority. 527. 

Infirmary Director — Elias Streby, Democrat, 2,627; David L. Kentfield, 
Republican, 2,108; Streby's majority, 519. 

Election October 10, 1882. 

Secretary of State — Charles Townsend, Republican, 1,850; James W. 

Newman, Democrat, 2,347; Fred Schumaker, , 20; George L. Hafer, 

. 1; Newman's majority, 497. 

Supreme Judge — John H. Doyle, Republican, 1,844; John W. Okey, 
Democrat, 2,356: John W. Roseborough, 21; Lloyd G. Tuttle, 1; Okey's 
majority, 512. 

Congressman — Lovell B. Harris, Republican, 1,844; George E. Seney, 
Democrat, 2,336; scattering, 13; Seney's majority, 492. 

Probate Judge — John L. Lewis, Republican, 1,826; Darius D. Clayton, 
Democrat, 2,356; Clayton's majority, 530. 

Treasurer — Henry Kear, Republican, 1,821; George W. Freet, Demo- 
crat, 2,393; Freet's majority, 572. 

Commissioner — Isaac Norton, Republican, 1,811; A. H. Vanorsdall, 
Democrat, 2,386; Vanorsdall's majority, 575. 

Infirmary Director — Joseph Ellis, Republican, 1,849; Jacob C. Wentz, 
Democrat, 2,352; Wentz' s majority, 503. 

Coroner— I. B. Gibbs, Republican, 1,844; James N. Nelson, Democrat, 
2,370; Nelson's majority, 526. 

Election October 9, 1883. 

Governor — Joseph B. Foraker, Republican, 2,241; George Hoadley, 

Democrat, 3,056; Ferdinand Shumacher, , 21; Hoadley's majority, 


Supreme Judge (short term) — William H. Upson, Republican, 2,233; 
Martin D. Follett, Democrat, 3,068; Follett's majority, 835. 

Supreme Judge (long and unex])ired term) — John H. Doyle, Republican, 
2,234; Selwyn N. Owen, Democrat, 3,068; Owen's majority, 834. 

Senator — John H. Williston, Democrat, 3,062. No opposition. 

Representative — L. A. Brunner, Democrat, 2,984; Joseph A. Maxwell, 
Republican, 2,290; Brunner's majority, 694. 

Sheriff — Charles F. Schuler, Democrat, 3,137; Irvin Bacon, Republican, 
2,139; Schuler's majority, 998. 

Commissioner — George Harper, Democrat, 2,849; Benjamin Morris, Re- 
publican, 2,416; Harper's majority, 433. 

Surveyor — William C. Gear, Democrat, 3,130; O. E. Reynolds, Repub- 
lican, 2,158; Gear's majority, 972. 

Infirmary Director — Reuben Lowmaster, Democrat, 2, 992 ; Milton Rear, 
, 2,262; Lowmaster' 8 majority, 730. 

constitutional amendments. 
Judicial Amendment — For, 2,064; against, 1,357; majority for, 707. 
Regulation and taxation of the liquor traffic — For, 771; against, 2,351; 
majority against, 1,580. 



Prohibition of intoxicating liquors — For, 2,674; against, 1802; majority 
for, 872. 

The following table shows the total vote in each township as cast at the 
October election of 1883: 

Antrim 135 

Nevada Village 4'^>'2 

Crane ^^51 

Upper Sandusky 870 

Crawford ! 581 

Eden 251 

Jackson 460 

Marseilles '/Ol 

Mifflin 2.G 

Pitt 313 

Richlatid 361 

Ridge 127 

Saleni 278 

Sycamore 825 

Tymochtee 386 

Total 5,336 


The following is a summary of those who have represented Wyandot 
County as United States, State and County ofiScers. 


John Carey, 1859-61; John Berry, 1873-1875. 



Amos E. Wood 1845-46 

Henry Cronise 1846-48 

Joel W. Wilson 1848-50 

Michael Brackley 1850-51 

Joel W. Wilson 1852-54 

Robert Lee 1854-56 

James Lewis 1856-58 

Robert McKellv 1858-60 

Thomas J. Orr^ 1860-63 


William Lang 1862-64 

TJiomas J. Orr 1864-66 

Curtis Berry, Jr 1866-70 

Alexander E. Jenner 1870-74 

John Seitz 1874-76 

E. T. Stickney 1876-78 

John Seitz 1878-80 

Moses H. Kirby 1880-84 

John H. Williston 1884-86 


Michael Brackley 

George Donnenworth. 

Michael Brackley 

M. C. Whitely 

Henry Bishop , 

David Snodgrass 

Peter A. Tyler 

Elias G. Spelman 

Chester R. Mott 



. . . 1845-46 James M. White 1860-63 

. . . 1846-47 Jonathan Maffett* 1863-64 

... 1847^8 Parlee Carlin 1864-66 

. . . 1848-50 Samuel M. Worth 1866-70 

... 1850-51 John Kisor 1870-74 

... 1852-54 L. A. Brunner 1874-78 

. . . 1854-56 Willard D. Tyler 1878-83 

. . . 1656-58 L. A. Brunner 1883-86 

... 1858-60 



William Griffith Spring, 1845 

Stephen Fowler Spring, 1845 

Ethan Terry Spring. 1845 

Jonathan Kear Fall, 1845 

Ethan Terry Fall, 1845 

Stephen Fowler Fall, 1845 

Isaac Wohlgamuth 1846 

John Welch 1847 

Ethan Terry 1848 

Isaac Wohlgamuth 1849 

John Welch 1850 

William Irvine 1851 

David Miller 1852 


Jonathan Kear 1853 

John Welch 1853 

Jonathan Kear 1854 

Hiram H. Holdridge 1855 

Milton Morral 1856 

John Baker 1857 

H. H. Holdridire 1858 

Milton Morral.^ 1859 

John Baker 1860 

C. R. Fmvler 1861 

John Kisor 1863 

John Kisor 1866 

J. Hollenshead 1867 

*R6-elected in 1864, but was contested and his seat given to Parlee Carlin. 



D. C. Murray 1868 Peter Beam 1876 

William Beam 1869 Jacob Yentzer 1877 

Thomas McClain 1870 William Avers 1878 

Milton Morral 1871 William M. Baldwin 1879 

William Beam 1872 Henry Herring 1880 

Thomas McChiin 1873 George Harper 1880 

Samuel M. Worth 1873 John K. Hare 1881 

J. Yentzer 1874 A. H. Vanorsdall 1883 

William Ayers 1875 George Harper 1883 


Samuel M. Worth 1845-49 J. V. S. Hoyt 1863-65 

Chester R. Mott 1849-53 Jonathan Maflfett 1867-72 

James V. S. Hoyt 1858-55 Robert A. McKelly 1872-76 

Joseph McCutchen 1855-57 John Agerter 1876-78 

James V. S. Hoyt 1857-59 Landline Smith 1878-84 

Peter B. Beidler 1859-63 


Abner Jurey 1845 — J. S. Hare 1869-74 

George Harper 1845-53 William Smalley* 1874-76 

William W. Bates 1853-57 George W. Biles 1876-78 

James H. Freet 1857-61 George W. Bates 1878-80 

D. C. Murray 1861-66 George W. Freet 1880-84 

W. F. Goodbread 1866-69 



John A. Morrison 1845-51 Simeon Inman 1864-70 

William B. Hitchcock 1851-55 Adam Stutz 1870-76 

Henry J. Flack 1855-61 Simeon Inman 1876-85 

Henry Miller 1861-64 

NAMES. years. NAMES. years. 

Guy C. Worth 1845-54 Fred Agerter 1864-70 

Curtis Berry, Jr 1854-55 William B. Hitchcock 1870-76 

Thomas E. Grisell 1855-58 R. D. Dumm 1876-82 

Curtis Berry, Jr 1858-64 Avery Henderson 1882-85 

NAMES. years. names. years. 

Joseph Kinney 1853-58 Peter B. Beidler 1868-74 

Jonathan Maffett 1857-58 Joel W. Gibson 1874-82 

Moses H. Kirby 1858-68 Darius D. Clayton 1882-8e 

NAMES. years. NAMES. years. 

Azariah Root 1845-46 J. H. Williams 1867-69 

Peter B. Beidler 1846-52 John Agerter 1869-75 

James Williams 1852-58 Jacob Greek 1875-83 

Peter B. Beidler 1858-61 William C. Gear 1883-8& 

Andrew Reynolds 1861-67 

NAMES. years. NAMES. years. 

Chester R. Mottf 1845-47 Henry Maddux 1860-62 

Aaron Lyle 1848-50 John Berry 1862-68 

Moses H. Kirby 1850-54 Moses H. Kirby 1868-80 

Nelson W. Dennison 1854-58 George G. White 1880-83 

George Crawford 1858-60 Robert McKelly 1882-84 

*Died and was succeeded in oiBce by J. S. Hale. 
fMoses H. Kirby was appointed May 22, 1847, vice Mott, resigned. 





Lorin A. Pease 1845-46 

Thomas Baird 1846-50 

Curtis Berry Sr 1850-54 

George P. Nelson 1854-58 

Curtis Berry 1858-60 

James Culbertson, Jr 1860-62 


William Marlow . . . 
William Michaels. . 

Henry Myers 

Jacob Schaefer 

John M. Houston . . 
Charles F. Schuler. 


Albert Bixby 1845-50 

John N. Reed 1850-54 

Thomas Baird 1854-56 

Albert Mears 1856-58 

Benjamin Williams 1858-68 

L. Gipson 1868-72 



Levi Shultz 

Edward Christen 

Jacob Tribolet 


James N. Nelson. 







Introductory — Early Judicial Proceedings in the Territory— The 
First State Constitution— Article IV,Constitution of 1851— Supreme 
Courts— District Courts— Courts of Common Pleas— The Judges of 
THE Same— Length of their Terms of Office— Biographical Sketches 
— Resident Members of the Bar— Brief Mention of Many of Them. 


THE part played by law in the organization of human society is that of 
an everacting force, a force essential to its very existence, and upon 
which human happiness and well-being are unceasingly dependent. With- 
out law, mankind would long ere this have perished, as no organization is 
possible without it. Upon the wise interpretation as well as the judicious 
framing of the laws, the well-being of a community is established as upon a 
rock-like foundation, whence it naturally flows as a consequence that the his- 
tory of those upon whom this duty devolves must form no unimportant 
portion of a work of this character. The whole superstructure of law is 
founded upon a few principles of natural justice, and, therefore, at its base, 
in its essential principles, "in its inmost bosom's core," law is the exponent 
of right and truth and justice; and, notwithstanding the efforts of the cun- 
ning and unscrupulous, it will still be found that on the whole