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HISTORY OF 
THE YANKEE DIVISION 




Marceau 



Major-General Clarence R. Edwards 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



YANKEE DIVISION 



by 



HARRY A. BEN WELL 



< I 



tvith appreciations by 



GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING 
MAJOR-GENERAL CLARENCE R. EDWARDS 



and 



SECRETARY OF WAR NEWTON D. BAKER 




THE CORNHILL COMPANY 

BOSTON 



(LtA 



Copyright, 1919, by 

THE CORNHILL COMPANY 

Boston 



Copyright, 1919, by New England Newspaper Publishing Company 



CONTENTS 



Chapter 


I. 


Chapter 


II. 


Chapter 


III. 


Chapter 


IV. 


Chapter 


V. 


Chapter 


VI. 


Chapter 


VII. 


Chapter 


VIII. 


Chapter 


IX. 


Chapter 


X. 


Chapter 


XI. 


Chapter 


XII. 


Chapter 


XIII. 


Chapter 


XIV. 


Chapter 


XV. 


Chapter 


XVI. 


Chapter 


XVII. 


Chapter 


XVIII. 


Chapter 


XIX. 


Chapter 


XX. 


Chapter 


XXI. 


Chapter 


XXII. 


Chapter 


XXIII. 


Chapter 


XXIV. 


Chapter 


XXV. 


Chapter 


XXVI. 


Chapter XXVII. 


Appendix 


.— Ros 



page 
vii 



IX 



Jr nliii' AC'Cjf * • • • • •  •  * * 

General Pershing's Tribute to the Yankee Division, 

General Edwards' Tribute to the Yankee Division, . . . xi 

Secretary Baker's Tribute to the Yankee Division, . . . xiii 

History of the Yankee Division, ...... 3 

Organization, ....... 11 

Expands All United States Units, ... 23 

Training in France, ...... 32 

Enjoy Old-fashioned Christmas, .... 39 

• First United States Divisional Shot in War, . . 47 

• Yankee Spirit Amazes the French, ... 56 
Move to Start a Big Drive, .... 62 

Battle of Apremont, ...... 70 

How They " Kept the Faith," .... 79 

Boche Beaten at Own Game, .... 86 

"Saviors of Paris," 92 

• Germans " Pinched Out." 101 

• General Degoutte's Tributes, .... 106 

• Sniper "Gets" Young "Scotty," . . .114 

• St. Mihiel Salient Wiped Out 137 

 Flank of Twenty-sixth Uncovered, . . . 144 

 102d Infantry Cited 152 

 Edwards' Report on St. Mihiel, .... 156 

- 102d Takes Prisoners 164 

- Colonel Bearss's Report, ..... 171 

- Yankees Create Diversion, ..... 176 

• Transferred to Verdun, ..... 180 

- Praised for Action at Hattonchatcl, . . . 192 

- The Cessation of Hostilities, .... 204 

- President Wilson Dines with the Twenty-sixth, . 208 

- Animals of the Division, ..... 222 
-" Homeward Bound," 234 

Roster of OflScers, Twenty-sixth Division, as Originally 

Organized, ........ 249 

Individual Servicb Record, ........ 275 



PREFACE 



In preparing the *' History of the Yankee Division," 
the author is indebted to Major-General Clarence R. 
Edwards, General John J. Pershing, Secretary of War 
Newton D. Baker and Brigadier-General Harry C. Hale 
for tributes to the Twenty-sixth Division, which appear 
as forewords. 

Thanks are also due for personal assistance rendered 
in the compilation of the work by Major-General 
Edwards, Brigadier-General Charles H. Cole, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Andrew L. Pendleton, Brigadier-General George 
H. Shelton, Major John W. Hyatt, Lieutenant-Colonel 
James L. Howard, Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton R. Hor- 
sey, and other members of the Division, both officers and 
enlisted men, together with Bert Ford, Boston's own war 
correspondent; and also to The New England Publishing 
Company for the pennission to reprint the work which 
appeared serially in the Boston Sunday Advertiser and 
American and the Boston American. 

It is hoped that readers of this book, especially those 
associated with the famous Yankee Division, will accept 
it in the spirit in which it is offered, — as a tribute to 
the men of the Division and to its great leader, Clarence 
Ransome Edwards. 



GENERAL PERSHING'S TRIBUTE TO THE 
YANKEE DIVISION 



American Expeditionary Forces, 
Office of the Commander-in-Chief, Marct21, 1919. 

Major-General Harry C. Hale, Commanding Twenty -sixth Division, 
American Expeditionary Forces, Ecommoy. 

My Dear General Hale : — It gives me a great 
deal of pleasure to congratulate you, and through you 
all the officers and men of the Twenty -sixth Division, 
on their splendid appearance at the inspection and review 
which was held near jficommoy on February 19. The 
spirit and soldierly bearing of all ranks pleased me very 
much, and was what one would have expected of a division 
with such a long and excellent record in France. 

Arriving in the autumn of 1917, the division went 
through the prescribed course of instruction until early 
in 1918, when, brigaded with the French, it entered the 
line for a month and a half's further training north of 
Soissons, in the Chemin des Dames sector. It was with- 
drawn for rest when the German offensive of March 
21 necessitated its immediate return to the line in the 
La Reine and Boucq sectors, north of Toul. Here it 
had two important engagements, — one in the Apremont 
Forest, where it repulsed with loss a heavy German raid, 
and at Seicheprey, where casualties on both sides amounted 
to approximately 2,000 men. 

On July 18 the division was thrown into the battle 
between the Aisne and the Marne, advancing in seven 
days more than 17 kilometers against determined enemy 

ix 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

opposition, and capturing the towTis of Epieds, Trugny, 
Torcey, Belleau and Givry. 

It next took part in the American offensive of Septem- 
ber at St. Mihiel. Operating under the Fifth Corps 
in the Rupt and Troyon sectors, north of St. Mihiel, it 
captured Bois-des-Eparges, Hattonchatel and Vigneulles. 

Later, during the Meuse-Argonne offensive, it attacked 
northeast of Verdun, and aided in the storming of Etrayes 
Ridge, capturing Bois-de-Belleu and the Bois d'Ormont, 
one of the most formidable heights in that region. The 
division was in this sector when the armistice called a 
halt to active operations. 

Each soldier should be proud of the share which the 
Twenty-sixth Division has had in adding glory to the 
fighting record of our armies, and I want every man to 
know of my own appreciation, and that of his fellows 
throughout the American Expeditionary Forces, for the 
splendid work which has been done. 

Very sincerely yours. 



X 



GENERAL EDWARDS' TRIBUTE TO THE 
YANKEE DIVISION 



Headquarters Northeastern Department, 

99 Chauncy Street, Boston, Mass. 

In answer to your gracious request that I give to you 
some words of mine that you may use in your paper as a 
tribute to the Yankee (Twenty-sixth) Division, that it was 
my good fortune to command until the twenty-fifth day 
of October, 1918, I hasten to say to you that the Yankee 
Division proved itself to be a stout-hearted lot of lads, 
whose acts, determination, dash and enduring carrying-on 
ability under the greatest handicaps and desperate tests 
in critical times of this great war definitely proved that 
the blood of New England had not attenuated. 

Advance notice of the authority to organize this divi- 
sion was received by telegram from Washington, August 
13, 1917; the birth of the division dates from August 22, 
very nearly simultaneously with the formal authority to 
organize it. On that date it was fully organized through- 
out and its ranks full. 

It was never concentrated as a division until after it 
reached France. It was the first division to be fully 
organized under the American flag. The whole division 
went into the firing line on the Chemin des Dames on the 
6th of February, 1918, after three months' training under 
diflSculties which were as great as ever fell to the lot of a 
division. It was forty-six days in the first-line trenches, 
without one case of absence without leave, on the Che- 
min des Dames, where it was first concentrated as a 
division. 

xi 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

With the exception of a ten days' training period after 
Chateau-Thierry, at Chatillon-sur-Seine, where it absorbed 
6,000 replacements, this division, without one day's fur- 
lough, was fighting and functioning as a division with 
every element complete and in co-ordination tested out 
by the most desperate battles of the war. No division 
had harder service, no division was longer in the line or 
gained more distance or fought off more attacks than did 
this division. 

It was not a Regular Army division, it was not a 
National Guard division, nor was it a National Army 
division; it was a division of the army of the United 
States in accordance with the President's orders, and no 
better division ever fought under the American flag or 
any other flag. 

This division had an "esprit," a soul, which well took 
the place of the lack of time heretofore deemed necessary 
to fit a division to fight as this division did. The record 
of the Twenty-sixth Division, — its discipline, its accom- 
plishments, what it did to the enemy compared to its 
own losses, — is a valuable lesson to the United States to 
indicate what can be accomplished in the shortest time, 
and its best argument in support of universal training of 
the youth of America, which I hope and pray will not be 
ignored. It tells how citizens can be mobilized, and any- 
body who approaches the defence of the United States 
from the standpoint other than the mobilization of all its 
citizenry fails to solve the problem of defence. 

Loyalty is the priceless jewel of chivalry, and that 
jewel was in the hearts of the men of the Twenty-sixth 
Division. 




xu 



SECRETARY BAKER'S TRIBUTE TO THE 
YANKEE DIVISION 



The Twenty-sixth Division, under the command of 
Major-General Clarence R. Edwards, embarked for France 
in September, 1917. It trained actively after its arrival 
in France, and in March, 1918, was associated with the 
Eleventh French Army Corps. It was with this corps 
until it moved to the district of Toul to take over the sec- 
tor occupied by the First Regular Division of the United 
States Army. In July it engaged in active offensive oper- 
ations as a part of the Sixth French Army. It participated 
in the attack north of the Marne, and later played a 
decisive part in the battle of the St. Mihiel salient and in 
the battle of the Argonne. 

Throughout its career it won the high praise of its French 
associates for its gallantry and soldierly qualities. It is 
one of America's veteran divisions, and it has left a record 
in France which is its full share of the glory achieved by 
our great anny there. The people of the New England 
States who contributed these soldiers to the American 
Expeditionary Forces can welcome their heroes back, for 
they are heroes — men who have had a perilous and diffi- 
cult duty and who have done it to the admiration of all 
beholders. They have had losses, and many of the men 
returned with wound chevrons to show the fierceness of 
the contests in which they participated, but they have 
exalted the traditions of the country from which they 
came, they have played the part of men on the greatest 
stage in the world, and they bring back glory for their own 
achievements and victory for the national cause. 

Secretary of War. 

• • • 

XllI 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



History" of 
THE YANKEE DIVISION 



"The Yankee Division!" 

A name to conjure with wherever fighting abihty is 
respected. 

A division that will go down into immortality as hav- 
ing gloriously upheld the martial traditions of New Eng- 
land, and established new standards of fighting efficiency 
in the great war for democracy. 

A division that carried out the most brilliant attacks in 
the face of all obstacles, and whose sheer, indomitable 
spirit caused these heroes to go on, superior to exhaustion 
and disease. 

Time and again the Twenty-sixth achieved what the vet- 
eran French believed to be impossibilities, and as a result 
the Yankee Division came to be known as "Shock Troops." 

The first full division to be organized and transported 
to France, and the first to occupy a sector as a full divi- 
sion, the Twenty-sixth had nearly ten months of contin- 
uous service, and took part in the bloodiest battles of the 
war. 

Chemin des Dames, the Toul sector, Chateau-Thierry, 
Seicheprey, Belleau Wood, the St. Mihiel salient, Argonne 
Forest and many others testify to the high emprise and 
daredevil courage of the fighting New Englanders. 

Carrying out their operations with skill, endurance, 
bulldog tenacity and cold nerve that has never been sur- 
passed, the division was time and again selected to hold 
the hardest positions, and as a result thousands of the 
men were cited for bravery or won the Croix de Guerre. 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The Twenty-sixth Division led all other National 
Guard divisions in the number of decorations received, 
and stood fourth in the list of American divisions in the 
matter of citations. 

The colors of the 104th Infantry, formerly the 2d, 6th 
and 8th Massachusetts, were decorated with the Croix 
de Guerre, and for a long time this was the only regiment 
in the United States Army to be so honored by a foreign 
government. 

As a further testimonial, and owing to the fact that it 
had seen the most service, the Twenty-sixth Division was 
host to President Wilson at a Christmas dinner while he 
was in France attending the Peace Conference. In addi- 
tion, a battalion of the division acted as guard of honor 
to the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the United 
States. 

From February 6, 1918, until the signing of the armis- 
tice, the Yankee Division was almost continually in action, 
with the result that the men were too exhausted to make 
up a part of the Army of Occupation, and thereby carry 
out their cherished desire of marching into Germany. 

Shunted from one part of France to another wherever 
there was a difficult task to be done, the Twenty-sixth 
Division scarcely ever knew where it would be next day. 
At one time the Yankees were the only troops between 
the German and the beautiful French capital which he 
had sworn to occupy. They threw him back, and for 
that act were hailed as the *' Saviors of Paris." 

Undaunted by cold, fatigue, insufficient food and cloth- 
ing, and an almost paralyzing lack of sleep, they pressed 
on, with only ten days' rest in nearly ten months. 

When the end came, and they were selected to make 
up part of the Army of Triumph of General Foch, it was 
found that they were done. Casualties had reduced the 




Major-General Harry C. Hale 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

companies to half strength. Human beings could stand 
no more. Their shoes were worn out, their clothing was 
in rags, they had but a handful of emaciated horses, 
and their equipment was in terrible condition. There- 
fore they were compelled to move to a training area for 
the rest and recuperation, refilling and refitting, to which 
they were so justly entitled. 

From beginning to end the record of the Twenty-sixth 
Division was one that should make every New Englander's 
heart swell with pride. Not only in battle did the New 
England boys conduct themselves like heroes, but while 
on leave their conduct was so exemplary that the gen- 
eral in command of the leave area was forced to comment 
on it. 

They added another chapter to New England history, 
and their deeds will take rank with those of the heroes of 
Bunker Hill and the Green Mountain boys at Ticonderoga. 

Many failed to come back, but they gave up their 
lives for one of the most worthy causes the world has 
ever known. They sleep in hallowed graves, which are 
carefully tended by grateful French women, who breathe 
a prayer with every flower they lay on the last resting 
places of the chivalrous Americans. 

The division sailed from the United States with nearly 
28,000 New Englanders, but when the armistice was 
signed less than 30 per cent, of the original members 
remained. The casualties numbered 11,955, and the New 
Englanders were further reduced by transfers. 

The Yankee Division spent an aggregate of two hun- 
dred and ten days on the firing line, and while in the La 
Reine and Boucq sector, north of Toul, was engaged in 
the first two battles in which the Americans fought with- 
out the support of French infantry. 

It was never concentrated as a division until it went 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

into the line for the first time, on the Chemin des Dames 
sector, north of Soissons, when it was placed in support 
of the French on February 6, 1918. For nine months 
following this time the division spent only ten days in a 
rest area, yet it captured thousands of prisoners and 
material, and advanced a total depth of 37 kilometers. 

The impression made by the division on the enemy 
was shown by an extract from a confidential document, 
captured from the Nineteenth German Army, and made 
public by British general headquarters, which read : — 

The Twenty-sixth American Division is a fighting division 
which has proven its qualities in battles on various parts of the 
front. 

The division was cited in General Orders No. 7, Head- 
quarters Eleventh Army Corps (French), March 15, 1918. 

Cited (104th Infantry) in General Orders No. 737A., 
Headquarters Thirty-second Army Corps (French), April 
26, 1918. 

Commended (101st Infantry) in service memorandum, 
Headquarters Eighth Army (French), June 8, 1918. 

Commended in memorandum, Headquarters Seventh 
Army (French), June 17, 1918. 

Congratulated in memorandum. Headquarters Thirty- 
second Anny Corps (French), June 18, 1918. 

Cited in General Orders No. 131, Headquarters Thirty- 
second Army Corps (French), June 18, 1918. 

Commended (103d Infantry) in letter from General 
Headquarters, A. E. F., June 20, 1918. 

Cited in General Orders No. 133, Headquarters Thirty- 
second Army Corps (French), June 27, 1918. 

Congratulated in letter, Headquarters Sixth Army 
(French), July 29, 1918. 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Cited in General Orders, Sixth Army (French), August 
9, 1918. 

Cited in General Orders, General Headquarters, A. E. F., 
August 28, 1918. 

Cited (102d Infantry) in General Orders No. 19, Head- 
quarters Fifth Army Corps, A. E. F., September 18, 1918. 

Commended in letter from Headquarters Second Colo- 
nial Corps (French), October 7, 1918. 

Commended in letter from Headquarters Second Colo- 
nial Corps (French), October 24, 1918. 

Commended in letter from Headquarters Seventeenth 
Army Corps (French), October 24, 1918. 

Commended (104th Infantry) in letter from Head- 
quarters Eighteenth Division (French), October 17, 1918. 

Commended in letter from Headquarters Second Colo- 
nial Corps (French), November 14, 1918. 

As has been stated, there were many individual cita- 
tions for bravery in the division, — in fact, one of the 
largest lists in the American army, but there were also 
many other acts of heroism which were overlooked in the 
excitement of battle. Practically every man in the organ- 
ization bore himself like a hero, and it is related how, 
during attacks, general prisoners working near the front 
lines seized rifles from wounded or dead comrades and 
fought on like demons. 

An incident typical of many heroic acts was that which 
resulted in the citation of the first man awarded the 
Congressional Medal of Honor, the highest award in the 
gift of the United States. The citation read : — 

Private First Class George Dilboy (deceased). Company 
H, 103d Infantry. 

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond 
the call of duty in action with the enemy on July 18, 1918, 
near Belleau, France. 

7 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

After his platoon had gained its objective along a railroad 
embankment. Private Dilboy, accompanying his platoon leader 
to reconnoiter the ground beyond, was suddenly fired upon by 
an enemy machine gun from 100 yards. From a standing 
position on the railroad track, fully exposed to view, he opened 
fire at once, but, failing to silence the gun, rushed forward with 
his bayonet fixed, through a wheat field towards the gun em- 
placement, falling within 25 yards of the gun, with his right 
leg nearly severed above the knee, and with several bullet holes 
in his body. With undaunted courage he continued to fire into 
the emplacement from a prone position, killing two of the 
enemy and dispersing the rest of the crew. 

Too much cannot be said in regard to the work done 
by the divisional chaplains. Not only did these men of 
God hold services whenever the opportunity presented 
itself, but their very presence and cheerful attitude did 
much to uphold the wonderful spirit of the men. Fur- 
thermore, a number went "over the top" with their boys, 
and all were decorated for their splendid work in tending 
the wounded under fire and serving hot coffee and food 
to the men in the front line. 

They took part in the men's joys and shared in their 
sorrows, administered both physical and spiritual aid, 
and wherever they might be were loved and revered as 
true servants of Christianity, 

One of them. Chaplain Danker of Worcester, made 
*'the great sacrifice," being killed by shell fire, and a 
number of others were wounded while ministering to the 
wounded. 

The division first went into line on February 6, 1918, 
on the Chemin des Dames sector, and was withdrawn on 
March 21. In this connection it may be said that dates 
of entry and dates of withdrawal are the dates on which 
the command passed to or from the Twenty-sixth Divi- 

8 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

sion. These dates, as a matter of fact, do not in reality 
show the exact time which all units served in line. There 
were several instances where regiments and brigades 
entered the line several days in advance of the passing of 
command to the division. 

On April 3 tlie division moved into La Reine and Boucq 
sector, north of Toul, and stayed there until June 28. On 
July 10 the Pas Fini sector at Chateau-Thierry was entered, 
and the division was withdrawn on July 25. September 
8 marked the entrance of the organization into the St. 
Mihiel salient, where it fought until October 8, and on 
October 18 it moved into the line north of Verdun, being 
withdrawn November 14, three days after the signing of 
the armistice. 

During these nine months' service the division spent 
only ten days in a rest area, just prior to the battle of St. 
Mihiel, the rest of the time being occupied in moving 
from one sector to another, or in support position await- 
ing entry into line. 

Important features of the line in the several sectors 
held by the division were in the — 

Chemin des Dames: A, the Chemin des Dames; B, 
Fort de Malmaison; C, Chavignon Valley; D, Laffaux 
Valley; E, Pinon V/oods; F, Cheval Mort Hill; G, Aisne 
River; H, Rouge Maison; I, Rochefort. 

La Reine and Boucq: A, Mont Sec; B, Bois Brule 
(Apremont Woods); C, Seicheprey (Remiere Woods and 
Jury Woods); D, Xivray-Marvoisin; E, Dead Man's 
Curve. 

Chateau-Thierry: A, Bois Belleau; B, Hill 190; C, 
Bouresches railway station; D, Trugny Woods; E, Epi- 
eds; F, Vesle River (Artillery Brigade); G, Vaux. 

St. Miliiel: A, Les Eparges; B, Vigneulles; C, Hatton 
Chatel; D, Demmartin; E, Bois de St. Remy. 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Argonne-Meuse: A, Bois Bellieu; B, Hill 360; C, 
Bois d'Omiont; D, Bois d'Haumont; E, Bois d'Etrayes; 
F, Les Houppy Bois; G, La Wavrille; H, Bois de Ville 
devant Chauinont; I, Cote de Taloii. 

Despite the fact that this division was composed of 
National Guard troops, with practically no previous expe- 
rience, and lacking the lengthy training deemed so neces- 
sary by regular army officers, the Twenty-sixth went 
through the terrific struggle with no lowering of its mag- 
nificent morale. Though suffering the most terrible pun- 
ishment in the various engagements, the Twenty-sixth 
came through with flying colors, and at the end it might 
well have been said, as it was of Napoleon's famous Old 
Guard, "The division dies, but never retreats." 



10 



CHAPTER I 
Organization 

The history of the Twenty-sixth Division is practically 
the history of the accomplishments of one man, Clarence 
R. Edwards, Major-General, U. S. A. 

He organized the division, took it to France, and there 
by personal contact built up the wonderful morale which 
he had no time to secure by prolonged training. 

A clear-visioned fighter of the old school, with a healthy 
contempt for theory and army red tape, he did not know 
the meaning of the word "can't." General Edwards led 
his division from one brilliant success to another, con- 
stantly endearing himself more and more to his men. 
The *'01d Man," as he was called, was regarded with 
almost fanatical affection and veneration. 

When General Edwards was relieved from command on 
October 25 and returned to the United States, the men 
of the Twenty-sixth were stunned, and tears came to the 
eyes of many war-worn veterans. Although succeeded by 
Brigadier-General Frank E. Bamford, who in turn on 
November 19 was relieved by Major-General Harry C. 
Hale, General Edwards continued to be "Our General" 
to the men of the Twenty-sixth Division. They wrote 
letters to their parents, urging them to go and hear the 
speeches being made by General Edwards, who had 
assumed, for the second time, command of the Depart- 
ment of the Northeast, with headquarters in Boston. 
And those of the men who were already at home, having 
been discharged after recovering from wounds, never 
failed to turn out to listen once more to the voice of their 
beloved commander. 

11 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

General Edwards acquired his first experience as a 
fighter in the PhiHppines, and later was placed in com- 
mand of the Panama Canal Zone. There he acquired 
much experience in administration, and expended large 
sums of money in the bettennent of conditions. 

Wlien the Department of the Northeast was organized, 
General Edwards was placed in command. He came to 
Boston gladly, as both he and Mrs. Edwards had rela- 
tives in this city, as well as many friends. 

With other far-sighted men General Edwards believed 
that the United States would be drawn into the war. As 
a result of this belief he began a study of the New Eng- 
land National Guard as soon as his new command was 
smoothly under way. 

He found the National Guard, on the whole, to be in 
good shape, having been well equipped by the various 
States. The Guard obtained valuable experience on the 
Mexican Border in 1916, although there were some inci- 
dents connected with that affair which were not of much 
credit to any one. 

When the time came for this country to take part in 
the mammoth struggle overseas, General Edwards was 
thoroughly familiar with the material of which the heroic 
Yankee Division was to be composed. 

On August 14, 1917, he received a letter from the Adju- 
tant-General's office, dated the previous day, containing 
authority to organize a full division from National Guard 
troops, under the new tables of organization which had 
just been adopted by the War Department. It was 
decided that this division was to be known as the Twenty- 
sixth Division of the National Army, and "National 
Guard" was to be forgotten. 

This letter was delivered to General Edwards by the 
then Major George H. Shelton, General Staff, who later 

12 




Brigadier-General Charles H. Cole 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

became a brigadier-general. Shelton also brought ad- 
vance copies of the new tables of organization, which 
showed radical changes in the make-up and personnel of 
military units. These copies were secured nine days in 
advance of their issue by the War Department, and as a 
result of this fact the general was enabled to speed up the 
organization of the division and get the jump on other 
organizations. 

The War Department instructions allowed considerable 
leeway in working out the reorganization of the guard 
outfits, and General Edwards took advantage of this 
fact. It was apparent, from his study of the local con- 
ditions, that the War Department plan did not meet 
them fully, so he went ahead and worked out a different 
combination. 

Establishing his headquarters at No. 25 Huntington 
Avenue, General Edwards sent for all organization com- 
manders affected, who could be conveniently brought to 
Boston. He explained the situation to them in confi- 
dence, and then outlined the plans he proposed to follow 
to meet it, together with the military emergency which 
rendered reorganization necessary. Among these officers 
were Colonels George S. Simonds, J. W. Beacham, H. P. 
Hobbs, L. W. Cass and C. M. Dowell, all regulars, who 
had been assigned from Washington. 

In a similar way, either in person, by a staff officer or 
by letter. General Edwards informed all of the Governors 
of the New England States in confidence of the situation 
and the plans evolved to meet it. Full co-operation was 
promised and given, and it proved to be complete, intel- 
ligent and helpful. 

As was expected, some opposition arose to the breaking 
up of established National Guard organizations, and to 
the transfers from one organization to another as required 

13 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

to meet the conditions of the problem. Some of this 
opposition was direct, some of it was indirect, through 
members of Congress and State officers, and through 
appeals to the War Department. Much of it was based 
on ignorance, and some of it upon misunderstanding of 
the facts of the case. Wherever it was possible to explain 
the matter in detail to those interested opposition was 
rapidly dissipated. 

During the time of organization General Edwards, 
Major (then Captain) John W. Hyatt, his aide, Major 
Shelton and others sat up seventy-two hours at a stretch, 
at times, working out details. There were many obstacles, 
some of them apparently insurmountable, but the opti- 
mism and initiative of General Edwards, which, through 
his remarkable personality, he was able to transmit to 
his staff, overcame them. 

As has been stated, the National Guard was fortunately 
well equipped with motor transport, animal transport, 
combat wagons and other material. What was needed in 
the way of clothing and other supplies was on hand, 
owing to the aforementioned foresight of the general. 

When he was commander of the Northeastern Depart- 
ment, Colonel Williamson, the depot quartermaster, had 
presented a requisition for supplies. These called for 
enough for about 50,000 men only. General Edwards 
immediately told him to make it a million, but William- 
son demurred, claiming that he had no authority, where- 
upon General Edwards ordered him to do it, and the 
matter was settled. 

And so the work of reorganization went on. General 
Edwards brought a keen, trained mind to the task, and 
displayed none of the usual attitude of the Regular Army 
officer toward National Guard organizations. His spirit 
of frank, manly good fellowship and consideration for 

14 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

others in a short time made him the idol of all his oflScers, 
and aided him greatly in securing results. 

Within a very few days a plan of organization was 
worked out and the division formed. Major Shelton was 
promoted to lieutenant-colonel and made chief of staff. 
The General's aides included Captain Hyatt, Captain 
A. L. Pendleton and Captain "Nat" Simpkins of Boston, 
who later died in France, and who was mourned by the 
commanding officer as he would have mourned a son. 
Colonel Simonds was made divisional adjutant and 
Colonel Cass assistant adjutant. 

Division headquarters was made up of officers assigned 
by the War Department and officers and enlisted men 
transferred from the division at large and by enlistment. 
Troop B of the old Massachusetts Squadron of Cavalry 
became the Headquarters Troop, commanded by Captain 
Oliver Wolcott. 

The next unit to be organized was the 101st Machine 
Gun Battalion, which was composed of the 1st Con- 
necticut Squadron of Cavalry, with additional strength 
from the 1st Vennont Infantry. This outfit was com- 
manded by Major James L. Howard of Hartford, Ct., 
an old National Guard officer. The battalion was en- 
camped at Niantic, Ct. 

There were two infantry brigades, the Fifty-first and 
Fifty-second, and the Fifty-first Artillery Brigade. 

Brigadier-General Peter E. Traub was given command 
of the Fifty-first Infantry Brigade, and Brigadier-General 
Charles H. Cole, former Boston fire commissioner, of the 
Fifty-second. General Cole, having previous experience 
as a National Guard officer, had enlisted as a private 
when the United States entered the war, and his promo- 
tion was rapid. 

The artillery brigade was commanded by Brigadier- 

15 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

General William L, Lassiter, a Regular Army officer, as 
was General Traub. 

The Fifty-first Infantry Brigade was largely made up 
of Boston and other eastern Massachusetts troops, and 
for that reason was most popular locally. It consisted 
of the 101st and 102d Infantry and the 102d Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

Men from the famous "Fighting 9th" Massachusetts, 
with the 5th and a part of the 6th, made up the 101st, 
and Colonel Edward L. Logan, who had led the 9th on 
the Mexican Border, was placed in command. Colonel 
Logan was judge of the South Boston Police Court, and 
had been an officer of the 9th for years. His lieutenant- 
colonel was John H. Dunn, Boston street commissioner, 
who enlisted in the 9th in 1888, and saw service in the 
Spanish -American war. 

iinother Boston city official in the regiment was Major 
William J. Casey, commanding the 2d Battalion and 
former superintendent of the city printing plant, who, 
like Dunn, first enlisted in the 9th in 1888, and was a 
veteran of the Spanish war. Lieutenant William L. 
Drohan was clerk of Colonel Logan's court in South 
Boston. 

Owing to an intense spirit of pride in their respective 
organizations, which had been manifested by the men of 
both regiments time and again on the Border, there was 
some confusion at first when the reorganization went into 
effect. 

This was straightened out within a short time, however, 
unlike similar incidents in certain other divisions. 

The 102d Infantry was a combination of the 2d Con- 
necticut, with additional strength from the 1st Con- 
necticut, 1st Vermont and 6th Massachusetts. Colonel 
Ernest S. Isbell was made regimental commander. 

16 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The 102d Machine Gun BattaHon was the old Massa- 
chusetts Squadron of Cavahy, less Troop B, with addi- 
tional strength from the 1st Vermont Infantry. Major 
John Perrins, Jr., was given command of the battalion. 

The Fifty-second Infantry Brigade was made up of 
the 103d and 104th Infantry and the 103d Machine Gun 
Battalion. The 2d Maine Infantry, with additional 
strength from the 1st New Hampshire, made up the 103d. 
The 104th Infantry was composed of the 2d Massachu- 
setts, with additional strength from the 6th and 8th 
Massachusetts. 

Colonel Frank H. Hume was made commander of the 
103d Infantry, and Colonel William C. Hayes of Spring- 
field assumed command of the 104th. 

The Rhode Island Squadron of Cavalry, less Troops 
B and M, and the New Hampshire Machine Gun Troop, 
with additional strength from the 1st Vermont Infantry, 
went to make up the 103d Machine Gun Battalion of 
which Major Walter G. Gatchell was made commanding 
officer. 

With these units organized, the next task was the 
formation of the Fifty-first Field Artillery Brigade. It was 
decided to make it up with the 101st, 102d and 103d 
Field Artillery, the latter a regiment of "heavies," and 
the 101st Trench Mortar Battery. 

The 1st Massachusetts Field Artillery, with additional 
strength from the New England Coast Artillery, composed 
the 101st Field Artillery, and Colonel John H. Sherburne 
became regimental commander. 

The 2d Massachusetts Field Artillery, helped out by the 
New England Coast Artillery, made up the 102d, Colonel 
M. E. Locke, commanding, with Lieutenant-Colonel 
Thorndike D. Howe second in command. 

For the heavy regiment were taken Batteries A of New 

17 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Hampshire, E and F of Connecticut, and 1st Battalion 
Rhode Island Field Artillery, with additional strength 
from headquarters and supply companies, composite 
cavalry regiment, Troop M, Rhode Island Squadron of 
Cavalry and part of the New England Coast Artillery. 
The regimental commander was Lieutenant-Colonel 
Richard Hale. 

The trench mortar battery was made up of the 1st 
Maine Heavy Field Artillery. This battery was com- 
manded by Captain Roger A. Greene. 

It then became necessary to secure an engineer regi- 
ment, and for this purpose the 1st Massachusetts Engi- 
neers were at hand. Originally the old First Corps of 
Cadets, Boston's crack National Guard organization, 
the outfit had changed to an engineer regiment when it 
was learned that there would be no chance for it to get 
into action in any other way. With additional strength 
from the 1st Maine Heavy Field Artillery and the New 
England Coast Artillery, the organization became the 
101st Engineers, commanded by Colonel George W. 
Bunnell. The Massachusetts Field Signal Battalion was 
taken over complete as the 101st Field Signal Battalion 
under Major Harry G. Chase. 

Then came the 101st Train Headquarters and Military 
Police, commanded by Colonel Warren E. Sweetser, 
formerly of the 2d Massachusetts; the 101st Ammunition 
Train, composed of the 1st Vermont Infantry and local 
coast artillery, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel William 
J. Keville of the old 8th Massachusetts; the 101st Supply 
Train, from Troop B, Rhode Island Squadron of Cavalry, 
with additional strength from the 8th Massachusetts, 
and commanded by Captain Davis G. Arnold; the 101st 
Engineer Train, from the 6th Massachusetts, First 
Lieutenant S. R. Waller, commanding, and the 101st 

18 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Sanitary Train, Lieutenant-Colonel J. L. Bevans, com- 
manding. This sanitary train was composed of Ambu- 
lance Companies Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, and Field Hospitals 
Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4. The 1st and 2d Massachusetts Ambu- 
lance Companies made up Ambulance Companies Nos. 
1 and 2; the First Connecticut Ambulance Company 
became Ambulance Company No. 3, and the First Rhode 
Island Ambulance Company became Ambulance Com- 
pany No. 4. 

In the same way the 1st and 2d Massachusetts Field 
Hospitals became Field Hospitals Nos. 1 and 2; the First 
Connecticut became No. 3, and the First New Hampshire 
became Field Hospital No. 4. A mobile ordnance repair 
shop was formed by transfers from the division at large. 

All the remaining troops under General Edwards' 
jurisdiction were assigned to the Fifty -first Depot Brigade, 
consisting of 35 officers and 596 enlisted men from the 
1st New Hampshire Infantry; 29 officers and 284 enlisted 
men from the 1st Vermont Infantry; 37 officers and 503 
enlisted men from the 5th Massachusetts Infantry; 18 
officers and 360 enlisted men from the 6th Massachusetts 
Infantry; 28 officers and 406 enlisted men from the 8th 
Massachusetts Infantry; 20 officers and 365 enlisted 
men from the 1st Connecticut Infantry; 40 officers and 
776 enlisted men from the 1st Maine Field Artillery; 3 
officers and 62 enlisted men from Company B, New 
Hampshire Signal Troops; 3 officers and 64 enlisted men 
from Company A, Connecticut Signal Troops; 1 officer 
and 109 enlisted men from the first separate company, 
Connecticut infantry; and 3 officers and 149 enlisted men 
from the first separate company of Massachusetts in- 
fantry. This was a total of 217 officers and 3,674 enlisted 
men. 

Following are copies of the General Orders issued by 

19 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

General Edwards officially organizing the division on 
August 22, 1917: — 

Headquarters Twenty-sixth Division, 
Boston, Mass., August 22, 1917. 

General Orders,1 
No. 2. J 

1. In compliance with telegraphic authority of the War 
Department dated August 13, 1917, and in accordance with 
confidential tables of organization published by the War De- 
partment, the Twenty-sixth Division is hereby organized from 
the units of the New England National Guard, as follows : — 

Divisional Headquarters Troop, Captain Oliver Wolcott, com- 
manding. 

101st Machine Gun Battalion, Major James L. Howard, com- 
manding. 

Fifty-first Brigade, Brigadier-General Peter E. Traub, commanding; 
101st Infantry, Colonel E. L. Logan, commanding; 102d Infantry, 
Colonel E. S. Isbell, commanding; 102d Machine Gun Battalion, 
Major John Perrins, Jr., commanding. 

Fifty-second Brigade, Brigadier-General Charles H. Cole, com- 
manding; 103d Infantry, Colonel F. H. Hume, commanding; 104th 
Infantry, Colonel William C. Hayes, commanding; 103d Machine 
Gun Battalion, Major W. G. Gatchell, commanding. 

Fifty-first Field Artillery Brigade, Brigadier-General W. Lassier, 
commanding; 101st Field Artillery, Colonel J. H. Sherburne, com- 
manding; 102d Field Artillery, Lieutenant-Colonel T. D. Howe, 
commanding; 103d Field Artillery, Lieutenant-Colonel Richard 
Hale, commanding; trench mortar battery. Captain Roger A. 
Greene, commanding. 

Engineer Regiment, Twenty-sixth Division, Colonel George W. 
Bunnell, commanding. 

Field Signal Battalion, Twenty-sixth Division, Major Harry G. 
Chase, commanding. 

Headquarters Train and Military Police, Colonel W. E. Sweetser, 
commanding. 

Ammunition Train (to be designated), commanding. 

Supply Train, Captain Davis G. Arnold, commanding. 

Engineer Train, First Lieutenant S. R, Waller, commanding. 

20 




Bachrach 



Major-General Peter E. Traub 




Company D, 104th, Yankee Division, Getting into Shape for the 
Hardships of Overseas' Service 




Troops leaving for Debarkation Overseas 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Sanitary Train, Lieutenant-Colonel J. L. Bevans, commanding; 
Ambulance Company No. 1, Ambulance Company No. 2, Ambulance 
Company No. 3, Ambulance Company No. 4, Field Hospital No. 1, 
Field Hospital No. 2, Field Hospital No. 3, Field Hospital No. 4. 

2. The transfers and assignment of commissioned and en- 
listed personnel to accomplish the organization of the new units 
in accordance with the War Department tables of organization 
will be as set forth in detail in letters of instruction from the 
chief of staff to organization commanders concerned. 
By command of Major-General Edwards, 

George H. Shelton, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, General Staff, 

Chief of Staff. 
Official : 

George S. Simonds, 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Infantry, N. A., 

Adjutant. 

Headquaeters Twenty-sixth Division, 
Boston, Mass., August 30, 1917. 

General OrdersA 
No. 3. j 

1. In accordance with instructions from the War Depart- 
ment dated August 13, 1917, Brigadier-General E. Leroy 
Sweetser, National Army, is assigned to the command of the 
depot brigade of the Twenty-sixth Division. 

2. The following troops are assigned to the depot brigade 
of the Twenty-sixth Division : — 

1st Regiment, New Hampshire Infantry, National Guard. 
1st Regiment, Vermont Infantry, National Guard, 
5th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, National Guard. 
6th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, National Guard. 
8th Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, National Guard. 
1st Regiment, Connecticut Infantry, National Guard. 
1st Regiment, Maine Field Artillery (Heavy), National Guard. 
Company B, New Hampshire Signal Corps, National Guard. 
Company A, Connecticut Signal Corps, National Guard. 

21 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

And all other officers and enlisted men of the National Guard of the 
New England States in active service, exclusive of those belonging to 
or on duty with the coast artillery or assigned to duty with the active 
organizations of the Twenty-sixth Division. 

By command of Major-General Edwards, 

George H. Shelton, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, General Staff, 

Chief of Staff. 
Official: 

Horace P. Hobbs, 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Infantry, N. A., 

Acting Adjutant. 



22 



CHAPTER II 
Expands All United States Units 

In ordering the organization of the division, the War 
Department had asked General Edwards if he could ship 
part of it the 1st of September and part the 15th^ He 
replied that he could ship all by the 1st of September. 
They again wired asking, "Are you reasonably sure?" 
to which the general replied, "I am not reasonably sure; 
I am certain." 

Prior to this war the largest regiment in American 
service contained 2,000 men, which was 600 larger than 
anything we had .had in actual practice. The new organ- 
ization required 1,000 men in every battalion, and very 
nearly 1,000 men in the headquarters, machine gun and 
supply companies, making little less than 4,000 men in 
a regmient. Those 4,000 men per regiment meant a 
bigger regiment, of greater strength, than the largest 
brigade United States Army officers had ever thought of. 
The brigade was some 7,800 men, and the division about 
32,000, greater than an army corps in the civil war. 

The command was virtually organized in forty-eight 
hours, day and night work, and this accomplishment was 
largely due to the co-operation furnished by the press of 
Boston and New England. In the words of General 
Edwards, "everybody played the game." After taking 
100 integral numbers for what the regular army might 
expand in, it took 25 numbers of the Regular Army, and, 
therefore, the division became the Twenty-sixth. 

General Edwards found it necessary to take a large 
number of coast artillerymen, and for this he was criti- 

23 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

cised by the War Department. He said he was very 
sorry, but they had sailed, whereupon the War Depart- 
ment replied: "In the next war don't you dare do it 
again." He also took some draft men from Camp 
Devens. 

The division was not concentrated at any one point, 
and as a matter of fact never came together as a whole 
unit until it entered the front line in France. Division 
headquarters, with the Headquarters Troop and 101st 
Field Signal Battalion, as well as the 101st Engineers, 
were at Boston. Framingham was headquarters of the 
Fifty -first Infantry Brigade, the 101st Infantry and the 
102d Machine Gun Battalion. The 102d Infantry was 
at New Haven, Ct., the 103d Machine Gun Battalion 
was at Quonset Point, R. I., the 101st Machine Gun Bat- 
talion at Niantic, Ct., while the whole of the Fifty-sec- 
ond Infantry Brigade was at Westfield, Mass., and the 
field artillery at Boxford. 

General Edwards made almost daily inspections of the 
camps, and on every occasion exhorted the men to pull 
together. He inspired the officers with his spirit, and 
they made frequent speeches to the men, dwelling on the 
value of team work and discipline. 

As soon as the division was fonned, General Edwards 
notified the War Department, and Camp Greene, N. C, 
was specified as a concentration point. A sergeant and 
ten men were sent down to Camp Greene to locate divi- 
sional headquarters. 

In the meantime the General, who overlooked nothing, 
had sent an officer to Hoboken to see what could be done 
in the way of securing transports. This officer reported 
that there were no boats available, and there would be 
none in the near future, as it was the intention of the 
War Department to send over first the Forty-second 

24 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

(Rainbow) Division, it being made up of men from a large 
number of Stiites, and being considered representative. 

General Edwards refused to be discouraged by this 
report, and called into conference one of his aides, Cap- 
tain A. L. Pendleton, a young Regular Army officer with 
the reputation of doing things, and who later became a 
lieutenant-colonel. Here follows one of the most inter- 
esting stories in the history of the division. As a result 
of the initiative and enterprise of General Edwards and 
Captain Pendleton, the division was enabled to get 
away before the Forty-second, and was, therefore, the 
first full American division to reach France, Part of the 
First Division had gone over with General Pershing, but 
several units were absent. 

Captain Pendleton arrived at Hoboken with personal 
letters of introduction to General Shanks, commanding 
the port, and Colonel Carson, in charge of assignments 
of troops to ships. Captain Pendleton was assured by 
the two officers that no boats would be available in the 
near future, due to the fact that all coming in were to be 
reserved for the use of the Regular Army and special 
units of the Forty-second Division. 

Captain Pendleton patiently explained that the Twenty- 
sixth was fully organized and ready to move, which, he 
said, he did not think was true of others. He was again 
assured that the War Department had established these 
priorities and they would have to stand. 

Undismayed by these statements, the young aide went 
forth to see what might be done. He made the acquaint- 
ance of Major Hambleton, adjutant to General Shanks, 
and the two soon became great friends. Each found 
much to admire in the other. 

Pendleton spent much time with the major and im- 
pressed on him the fact that the Twenty-sixth Division 

25 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

was ready to move and that transports must be secured 
at all costs. 

Major Hambleton confidentially kept the captain 
posted on what boats would be available in the near 
future, and as there were no representatives from other 
units on the ground, the Twenty-sixth benefited. 

One day Captain Pendleton was suddenly notified that 
four boats would be available in three days, the "Tena- 
dores," "Pastores," "Mallory" and "Lenape." He was 
further advised that the units for which they were intended 
were not ready to take them, and was asked if he could 
use them for the Twenty-sixth. 

He replied that he could use all he could get even on 
short notice. He said that the division was ready to go 
to France and the men wanted to get away. 

Captain Pendleton called General Edwards on the 
telephone and told him that he could secure four boats. 
He asked the General to please have the chief of staff 
advise what units were to go first. In half an hour the 
chief of staff called up and gave him the assignments, 
which he handed to Colonel Carson. Colonel Carson 
was surprised as well as gratified at the quick action. 

The unit which had the honor of being the first to go 
was the 101st Infantry, "Boston's Own," regiment. 

Major George C. Cole of the Division Quartermaster 
Staff, who was with Captain Pendleton, got in touch 
with representatives of the American Railway Associa- 
tion at Hoboken, and in conference arranged for the 
reception of the troops at the 135th Street station. He 
also arranged for the ferrying of troops and baggage 
around to the Hoboken docks. Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph 
W. Beacham, Jr., divisional quartennaster, did excellent 
work at the Boston end, arranging the movement of 
troops here. 

26 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

It had been announced through the press that the 
previous Sunday would be "visitors' day." On that 
occasion thousands of relatives and friends of the soldiers 
flocked to the different camps, many of them feeling that 
this would be the last opportunity they would have to 
see their loved ones. 

At Framingham there was an address by Governor 
McCall in the name of Massachusetts, and Cardinal 
O'Connell gave the men his blessing. At Westfield there 
was a parade, and it was estimated that 100,000 civilians 
were present, and like conditions prevailed at Boxford 
and other camps. 

At noon of September 6 Colonel Logan of the 101st 
issued the order turning the men out in full marching 
equipment, ready to entrain. 

Starting at midnight troop trains in various sections 
began rolling into New York. The men got off the trains 
at the 135th Street station and took the freight out of the 
baggage cars. They loaded it on lighters and then got 
aboard ferries, which moved them around to the Hoboken 
docks. 

Here, with only a few devoted friends present, including 
Boston officials, they were assigned to space aboard the 
transports, and in a short time were underway with no 
one in New York av\^are of what was happening. 

The farewell to the 101st was brief, but the men carried 
the remembrance of it with them for many a day. Among 
those who saw the troops off were the late Postmaster 
William F. Murray, Surveyor of the Port of Boston 
Joseph A. Maynard, Colonel Logan's brother Malcolm, 
Congressman James A. Gallivan, Congressman John F. 
Fitzgerald, Willard R. Gallagher and a number of others. 

This devoted little party embarked in a tug, and as 
the ships pulled out into the bay, steamed dow^i the 

27 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

harbor with Fitzgerald singing "Sweet AdeHne." The 
tug stayed with the transports until the Statue of Liberty 
was passed, and the troops said farewell to home and 
friends. 

The 101st Infantry got away first, while other transports 
carried Major William N. Tenney's Field Hospital No. 1, 
Major Charles F. Mains' Ambulance Company No. 1, 
and Colonel John H, Sherburne's 101st Field Artillery. 

Outside the boats joined other transports, and the 
whole were later picked up by a convoy and escorted 
across the submarine-infested ocean. 

Colonel Carson was so pleased at the manner in which 
the situation was handled that he was disposed to give 
the Twenty-sixth Division all the transports coming in. 
He hesitated, however, because of priorities of other units. 

After the departure of the first ships. Captain Pendle- 
ton returned to Boston for a conference with General 
Edwards and the chief of staff. He said he could get the 
boats as soon as they were available, and only wanted 
a list of divisional units showing the sequence in which 
it was desired they depart. He also asked for the approx- 
imate strength in oflEicers and men, as well as freight 
tonnage. This was quickly furnished. 

He then went back to Hoboken and found out from 
Major Hambleton the tentative schedules of transports 
for the future, which were given confidentially. Major 
Hambleton also furnished the capacities of the boats for 
oflScers, men and cargo. 

For his own amusement, and in order to be prepared 
for the call for troops on short notice by Colonel Carson, 
Captain Pendleton made up a schedule assigning certain 
units to certain ships in accordance with the dates of 
arrival and departure, reconciled, of course, with General 
Edwards' sequence list. 

S8 




Brigadier-General George H. Shelton 





MbJK 


 c »i- 


;.- «_ -»«■ 


 ^. BB -^^.^ 






---^If-- (■"-TpJT'S— - • • 


»■-, s ' 



Bishop William Lawrence and Chaplains at Westfield, Mass. 




Officers of the Ist Trench Mortar Battery with Governor Milliken 

of Maine 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

As soon as this was finished Captain Pendleton con- 
ferred with Colonel Carson and showed him what he had 
done. He demonstrated how the colonel had been saved 
much thought and work, and this was appreciated. 

When the next boats were available all the troops of 
the Forty-second Division had not yet arrived at their 
concentration camp, and the Twenty-sixth units were the 
only ones ready to move. 

Again the Twenty-sixth got the transports, and they 
were loaded with the same success as before. The em- 
barkation officials were highly delighted. 

It was then that Captain Pendleton learned that 
English ships were available at Montreal. He prevailed 
on one of the embarkation officials to go there with him 
and look over the situation. They found one ship with 
large capacity ready to pull out. A conference was then 
held with the officials of the White Star and other lines, 
who offered prospects of immediate sailings of big ships. 

Back again in Hoboken, Colonel Carson was informed 
of what had taken place, and it was arranged for Captain 
Pendleton to use ships out of Montreal. Colonel Carson 
and General Shanks arranged it through the War Depart- 
ment with our State Department and the Canadian 
government. By this move a number of ships were 
secured upon which no one had figured. 

The Canadian movements were cleverly arranged and 
executed. Canadian railroad and steamship officials had 
had so much experience that they handled American 
troop movements with excellent skill. 

The 2d Battalion of the 102d Infantry, under Major 
Alcorn, was assigned to the "Lenape," which had just 
returned from abroad after delivering some of the di- 
visional troops. The "Lenape" was out three days from 
New York with this battalion when it had engine trouble. 

^9 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The boat wallowed in the trough of high seas until every 
one was seasick, and then put back to port. The battalion 
was put ashore and the Fort Slocum authorities furnished 
tentage and took care of the men. They were later sent 
over on the "Tunisian," sailing from Montreal on Oc- 
tober 14. 

With the exception of this battalion, the last divisional 
unit to leave was the 101st Machine Gun Battalion, 
under command of Major James L. Howard of Hartford, 
Ct. The battalion left on the "Megan tic," which sailed 
from Montreal on October 10. Captain Pendleton accom- 
panied this battalion. 

The entire division thus left New England without 
any one except those directly interested knowing any- 
thing about it. 

While all this was going on, the New York papers were 
daily publishing stories, stating that the Forty-second 
Division was fully organized and equipped, and ready 
immediately to go abroad and be the first National Guard 
troops to arrive in France. 

The New England papers had loyally refrained from 
publishing anything about the Twenty-sixth Division, 
which all this time was quickly moving overseas. 

It was generally believed by those few who saw the 
Twenty-sixth movements that the troops were on the way 
to Camp Greene, N. C, for training. For months after- 
ward members of the division received mail which had 
been forwarded to them in France from Camp Greene. 
Although the division was in France in its training area, 
a great many people still believed that it was in North 
Carolina. In fact, the division moved out so rapidly 
that the sergeant and ten men sent to Camp Greene 
were nearly left behind. 

General Edwards and his staff sailed on September 25, 

30 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

on the commercial liner "New York," which was not con- 
voyed. They enjoyed an extremely pleasant trip. Later, 
the Navy Department took over this boat, making it a 
transport, and General Edwards and Major Hyatt 
returned to the United States on it in November of the 
following year. 

When the division was organized it had practically full 
equipment of animals, animal-drawn transport, motor 
transport and all other ordnance, signal corps and engineer 
equipment it was supposed to have. The War Depart- 
ment, however, refused to permit this to be taken along 
with the organization, but promised that it would be in 
France before the troops. In charge of a supply company 
it was sent to Newport News for shipment, and the divi- 
sion arrived at its training area with one Ford touring 
car, no animals, no wagons and two motor cycles. 



31 



CHAPTER III 
Training in France 

Some of the troops landed at Liverpool and some at 
St. Nazaire, France, but all were quickly forwarded to a 
training area in the vicinity of Neufchateau, where the 
entire division, less the artillery brigade, with ammuni- 
tion train and trench mortar battery, was concentrated. 
These latter were sent to Coequidon for artillery training. 

The troops were quartered in billets within a radius of 
15 miles from Neufchateau, in which place divisional 
headquarters was located. General Edwards, Colonel 
Shelton and Captain Hyatt went to the British front for 
observation, and General Traub took command of the 
division. Divisional headquarters was opened at Neuf- 
chateau on October 31. 

The division was confronted by many problems, 
especially those of transportation and supply. Due to 
the lack of animals and transport in general, it was 
extremely difficult to feed and equip the troops. 

The weather was cold and it was sleeting most of the 
time. The roads were in bad shape, covered with mud, 
and it was necessary for the men to go to distributing 
points and bring back flour, bacon, coffee and other arti- 
cles of subsistence on their backs. To get firewood it 
was necessary for them to go into the forests, fell a tree, 
cut it up and bring it to camp. 

Colonel Beacham, who was then quartermaster, did 
everything he could to relieve the situation, and his per- 
sonality and advice to make the best of the situation and 

32 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

"play the game'* went a long way in keeping up the 
spirit of the division. 

The 101st Engineers had been detached from the divi- 
sion shortly after its arrival, and was engaged in putting 
up barracks for the Forty-second Division, which was 
then on the seas. A supply company had also been 
loaned to the First Division, Regulars, who had gone 
over with General Pershing, but were not fully organized. 
The Twenty-sixth was especially handicapped by a lack 
of rifle ranges, the men being forced to shoot at tin cans 
and bottles. Later, they built their own ranges. 

The situation is best described in the picturesque lan- 
guage of General Edwards : — 

They kept me away from the division for one month [he 
said], and I had the great privilege of serving with the famous 
Fifty-first Highlanders up near the Cambrai front. Then I went 
to the Irish Division, then to the Ulster Division, and saw their 
"shows," as they called them. One was a two-brigade raid. It 
was the most marvellous thing, where they went over the top, 
and where they used gas, large calibers and barrage, and made 
their raid and came back at night. Then every night they would 
give them what they called "a bit of chemical barrage," and 
that amounted to the Englishmen throwing over a double dose 
of gas, to discount anything the Boche ever did. 

Then I went to Chemin des Dames. On the 10th of November 
I joined my division. All but one battalion of the 102d Infantry, 
the Connecticut regiment, had arrived. They were in England. 
For ten days those 25,000 men had three trucks to feed them- 
selves. After that the French loaned us eleven and we got 
twenty-two Packard trucks. The men used to march 2 and 
sometimes 3 miles for their fuel. They would cut in the snow 
the saplings, and each man would take one in his hands, and they 
had no gloves. Then they would march back and cut up those 
saplings so they could smoke and put out their eyes in the cow 
stables they occupied. 

33 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The men went into billets; they went into garrets, but there 
was no fire. They went in pigsties and in cow stables. Their 
feet were wet. And then came the necessity of unloading big 
lots of trains, of digging sewers and building hospitals. 

At that time the labor troops had not arrived. It was neces- 
sary for the fighting troops to do the work. About 70 per cent 
of the men had bronchitis or pneumonia. You could not get 
one of them to go to a doctor. I had about as bad a cough as 
the rest, and I would run around among them myself. I told 
tlie doctors to put them on sick report, and that public opinion 
in the companies would take care of the malingering. 

There were many articles of equipment which they could not 
get. Frequently there would be a deficiency in the rations. I 
never saw so much mud and rain in my life. Their feet were 
generally wet and we were experimenting with the shoes. We 
turned the leather v/rong side out and fixed the pores so that 
they would act like syphons — and fill our shoes with water. 
I never saw men put up with so many discomforts in my life. 

They had French methods to absorb. The French were keen 
and earnest to teach them what they knew. They had four 
years of trench warfare, and they came to the conclusion that 
the special methods and special instruments and arms which 
they were using were essential to their winning out. And as I 
recall it, they worked on this sewer problem, they worked on 
the sewer warfare, because they had to live ia the sewer. 

I am just sketching some of the difficulties, but the word 
I want to give you is that I never heard a complaint from these 
25,000 men. The one thing they demanded was, "General, 
let us get at those Boches!" 

During General Edwards' absence, Captain Malick of 
the French Army, a thorough gentleman and experienced 
officer of most pleasing personality and professional 
accomplishments, had been assigned to the division as 
senior officer of the French Mission attached to the 
Twenty-sixth. He saw the situation that existed, and 

34 



I 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

telegraphed to his chief that the Twenty-sixth Division 
needed trucks; had to have trucks. As a result a French 
company with thirty trucks came to their assistance, and 
stayed with the division until it went into an active 
sector. The trucks saved the situation. 

About this time Captain Pendleton, who had succeeded 
in securing transports from under the noses of other 
units at Hoboken, was sent on a scouting expedition to 
locate lost freight and baggage. He went to Folkestone, 
London, Liverpool, Southampton, Havre, Brest and St. 
Nazaire, and was able to find a great deal, but much of 
it was lost and never showed up, thus adding to the hard- 
ships of the division. 

Upon his return Captain Pendleton conferred with 
Colonel Beacham, the divisional quartennaster, about 
the transportation problem. The French trucks were not 
sufficient in capacity or number to take care of the divi- 
sion's needs. 

Colonel Beacham then suggested that the captain go 
to Paris and to the Reception Park at St. Nazaire to see 
what he could beg, buy or steal. This was done, and on 
his arrival in Paris, Captain Pendleton m.et General 
Edwards, who had just returned from the British front. 
Wlien informed of his aide's mission, the General said; 
"Go to it and don't come back without trucks!" 

At the Motor Reception Park at St. Nazaire were 
found any amount of 3-ton trucks. Ford ambulances, 
motor cars and motor cycles. Captain Pendleton wired 
to that effect, and suggested that it be taken up with 
general headquarters and an immediate assignment be 
secured. In the meantime he arranged Yviih. the Ameri- 
can military authorities at St. Nazaire for truck equip- 
ment for two truck companies of twenty-eight trucks 
each. The personnel of the 101st Supply Train, under 

35 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

command of Lieutenant Henderson, arrived and manned 
the fifty-six trucks. Captain Pendleton then took all the 
tnicks to the big quartermaster depot at St. Nazaire, 
and loaded them with flour, coffee, sugar, canned goods, 
rubber boots, ponchos, horseshoes, shovels, with some 
lumber, and sent them on their way over the roads to 
Neuf chateau. 

The arrival of these trucks with their supplies happily 
remedied the situation. Things were going along in good 
style, despite the handicaps. The 101st Engineers had 
not returned to the division, but were engaged in build- 
ing cantonments and hospitals. 

Battalions of infantry were digging sewers and drains 
when they should have been training. The weather was 
bitterly cold, and the men needed gloves, knitted hel- 
mets, heavy underwear and new shoes, which were not 
possible of procurement from a government source. 

About this time orders were received to send the new 
trucks with their personnel to the First and Forty-second 
Divisions. General Edwards immediately telephoned to 
General Pershing and explained the situation, with the 
result that permission was given to retain the trucks. 

A few days later the quartermaster of the Forty-sec- 
ond Division came down and told his story. They were 
even worse off than the Twenty-sixth, and so the Yankee 
Division turned over twenty-eight trucks to them. The 
personnel came back, but soon after orders were received 
to transfer the entire personnel of one truck company to 
the First Division. They never returned. 

Then wagons and animals began to arrive. The 
bakery company was turning out excellent bread in suffi- 
cient quantity to supply the division and the advanced 
section line of communication. This company was taken 
away from the division and with other companies put to 

36 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

baking bread for the lines of communication, which 
became the source of the division's bread supply. 

Colonel Beacham was shortly relieved as divisional 
quartennaster. Captain Pendleton was recalled from 
the General St-aff College by General Edwards, promoted 
to major, and detailed as divisional quartennaster. 

The new quartermaster sent out scouts, the greatest of 
whom was Captain *'A1" Ford, a former Boston news- 
paperman, to go to Paris, Nancy, Tours and other places 
to buy gloves, knitted helmets, underwear, shoes, etc. 
General Rogers, at Chaumont, approved of what was 
being done and gave blanket authority to purchase what 
the division needed. Captain Scorer, the disbursing 
officer, had about $6,000,000 to his official credit, so that 
it was possible to spend as much money as was necessary. 
There was always plenty of food during that period, but 
there was a serious shortage of hay and oats. Captain 
Henry H. Wheelock, assistant quartermaster, was instru- 
mental in purchasing all the hay and oats for miles around. 
In that way the divisional animals got full rations. It is 
a fact that at this time two of the other divisions lost 
great numbers of animals from starvation. The Twenty- 
sixth lost none. 

Then it grew so cold that the fuel problem became 
serious. No wood could be secured from the lines of 
communication, and the lack of fires was working an 
additional hardship on the men; also at this time the 
French peasants had become extremely despondent, and 
openly told the soldiers that their entrance into the war 
would merely prolong it four or five years. They declared 
they were ready to make peace even at the Gennan's 
terms. This attitude was not evidenced by the more 
intelligent French people, however, and it had absolutely 
no effect on the New Englanders. Lieutenant, later 

37 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Major, Theodore Baker and Lieutenant Dickson were 
sent out to buy up all the wood they could find. They 
made contracts for immediate and future deliveries which 
took care of the entire division. 

During this time the training of the men went on as 
steadily as possible, considering the number of working 
details necessary each day. The men were billeted in 
various small villages within a radius of 15 miles from 
Neufchateau, where, on the Rue St. Anne, divisional 
headquarters was located. Each morning they marched 
about 6 kilometers to their training fields, where they 
were put through an intensive course under the guidance 
of the French. The latter, after their three years of 
experience, were wedded to trench warfare, and at- 
tempted to concentrate on it. 

General Edwards, however, differed with them on this 
subject, and insisted that the men be given thorough 
training on the range and with the bayonet. He declared 
that the rifle had always been the reliance of the Ameri- 
can soldier, and that grenades and bombs were to be 
used only when the enemy failed to leave his dugouts. 
Subsequent operations of the division in battle proved 
the wisdom of his attitude. The French were also con- 
tinually dinning into the ears of the Yankees the danger 
of overconfidence. 

They attempted to instill a spirit of cautiousness, but 
it is not on record that the New Englanders were ever 
afflicted with it. Time and time again in the various 
battles in which they took part they went forward through 
barrages that were considered impassable. 



38 



CHAPTER IV 
Enjoy Old-fashioned Christmas 

The men had celebrated Christmas in the training area, 
an old-fashioned "white" Christmas, and, for many, the 
first one away from home. A week before hundreds of 
freight cars had arrived, laden with packages from'^home, 
and these were distributed to all by Christmas Eve. Men 
who had been unfortunate in receiving no gifts shared 
those sent to their comrades, so that every one was made 
as happy as possible considering the distance from home 
and loved ones, and the realization that all were shortly 
to go into action. 

On Christmas Day only the necessary military duties 
were performed, and the men were given the time to 
themselves. The majority took occasion on that day to 
attend services in some of the tiny chapels in the neigh- 
borhood and to pray for the folks at home. 

This attitude of devotion to Christian ideals on the 
part of the men of the Yankee Division was noticeable 
throughout their stay in France. It led to many com- 
mendations. Prior to leaving home the majority had 
been carefree, typical boys, who, though they realized the 
necessity of religion in daily life, more often than not 
gave little time to it. 

When they arrived in France, however, and began to 
come into contact with war's grim realities, they became 
more sincere. 

"God bless them," said Brigadier Mary Sheppard of 
the Salvation Army, who spent months with the division, 
"they were the best boys in the world. No words that I 
can use would be too good for them." 

39 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The days dragged on into January with General 
Edwards going about daily and establishing personal 
contact with his men. Practically every one, including 
the General, suffered from colds and bronchitis, but he 
continued his work of building up morale, which the 
lack of training time had prevented. 

I am an a^\^ully ingrained Yankee, [remarked General Ed- 
wards], and I know one American could lick four or five of those 
Dutchmen, If there is one thing in which we excel it is initiative. 

Now my job was to aid, pat on the back and capitalize those 
qualities which are not so prominent in otlier nations, — dig- 
nify the non-commissioned officer, tell the private he has a 
baton in his hand, pat the young commissioned officer on the 
back and say, "Go out and get killed if you cannot lick the 
Dutchman." 

I had to go along with the whole business and supply the 
lack of training and the lack of opportunity by capitahzing 
the traditions of our blood and individuality. 

So I took these battalions and said, "Bring them up around 
me." I had a bad cold which afterward resulted in pneumonia. 
We all had it. I would say to the men, "I am going to tell you 
what I have seen up in the British front, and I am going to tell 
you all that is going to take the place of training, and I want to 
say to each one of you, play the game with your whole heart, 
make good every effort. Just think of your home and mother 
every day of your life." 

"How about the salute.^" I'd ask. That is the thing that 
the American soldier has less sympathy with than anything 
else. If there is any way he can beat that salute he is going to 
do it. I have passed a big crowd and I know what they said: 
"Hell, here comes the old man," and then spend time trying 
to tie a shoe or looking the other way, or jumping into a billet. 

"You show me a crackerjack saluting command and I will 
show you a disciphned command. The British Army salutes 
and the Russian Army doesn't. Remember that a salute is 

40 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

nothing on earth in this game but the manifestation of a man's 
self-respect. Salute a man that you loathe, salute an empty 
automobile if you think there is some martinet inside of it, 
and always put yourself right with the command. 

"I believe that a salute is nothing in the world but an in- 
heritance from savages, who said, 'I have no arms. I am a 
friend, come on.' 

"When you salute, give me the salute with your eyes. Keep 
your eyes off the mud of France. When a man walks along 
like that, his stomach will not function. He has a bad tongue. 
His feet are wet. Keep your eyes up in the clouds and smile. 
When you salute, look at the man you are saluting; give him 
the tribute of your eyes and smile. Don't any one of you dare 
to salute me unless he smiles. Let me know the officer that 
does not smile back, and salute in acknowledgment of the 
tribute that you gave him." 

For the military police I had selected 325 men. Their colonel 
and their crackerjack Major Dolan were told to go and pick 
them, to be the rock of the Twenty-sixth Division. " Pick them 
for character," I said; "pick them for size, pick them for 
bowels, and I will show you the greatest military police in the 
world." 

They certainly picked them. I do not believe I ever had to 
court-martial one of those men. They had me afraid. 

One of them jumped on my automobile one day when that 
fine soldier. Captain Simpkins, was with me. The policeman 
said to my sergeant chauffeur: "The orders are 8 miles an hour 
up this narrow street. You are going 12; stop it." The sergeant 
looked at me. I said: "Obey him." I got to my house and 
told Captain Simpkins to go back and compliment that lad. 

Later I saw an officer in a magnificent trench coat pass one 
of those big policemen. The policeman saluted, but the officer 
gave him what Major Scorer used to call an S. O. S. salute. I 
called the captain back, and told him that he was not going the 
right way to pay a tribute to his flag. I said : " There is a man," 
pointing to the policeman, "who is playing the game, but you 



41 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

are not playing it. Salute him with the same care you salute 
me. I salute a military policeman with as much care as I 
would salute General Pershing." 

Two days later Captain Simpkins and I were coming back. 
The same big policeman stood there. There was a number of 
soldiers standing around. I called the men around me and 
said: "You see that street. Get down there double time, turn 
around, come back and see if you can salute that soldier as he 
should be saluted. I will watch it." They did as they were 
told. I said: "Sentinel, I don't think that is very good, do 
you?" "I don't think it is. General," said he. Then I told 
the men to go right back and try it over again, or they would 
trade places with the policeman. The next time the policeman 
admitted that the salutes were correct. 

That is merely an example of how I went after them every 
day. However, when they did anything right I would tell them 
so, and that was the soul of the Twenty-sixth Division. 

All through November the artillery, trench mortar bat- 
tery and ammunition train had been getting into shape 
at Coetquidon, the artillery training camp. Then on 
December 18, 500 ofBcers and men were sent to the divi- 
sion area at Neufchateau to prepare billets for the artil- 
lery brigade at Rimacourt. They were never occupied, 
however. 

The ammunition train, in command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel William J. Keville, was in particularly bad con- 
dition, owing to lack of equipment. 

Arriving in France with practically no mobile equip- 
ment, it was some time before the men of the train got 
even a single truck on which the drivers could be in- 
structed. A detail of twenty trucks was at length secured 
from St. Nazaire, and these were at once put into service 
hauling supplies to Coetquidon. The drivers were alter- 
nated, so that the inexperienced were enabled to get 

42 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

practice. The men also got some experience handling 
ammunition, carrying it up each day from Rennes for 
artillery practice. 

Like all other parts of the division, although it was 
one of the most vitally important, the train suffered from 
lack of necessary supplies. The men were also forced to 
take part in road building and the construction of artillery 
positions. 

There was no motor equipment, no trucks to speak of, 
and no machine shop in which to repair the trucks they 
had. Another train turned over twentv-two trucks to 
the 101st of which only three were mobile. However, 
Yankee ingenuity can accomplish most anything, and in 
a few days the men had fourteen of the trucks going. 

The expected equipment never came except in part, 
and for many months the ammunition train got along 
with an outfit that was badly handicapped. On Janu- 
ary 6 a divisional ordnance repair shop, mounted on a 
truck, was attached to the ammunition train, but imme- 
diately went to work repairing artillery material. 

The artillery also lacked equipment, but to no such 
extent, being helped out considerably by the French and 
British. 

The artillery had left its American 3-inch guns at 
home, and on arriving in France started in to learn to 
use the French *'75s" and the heavier "155s," corre- 
sponding to our 6-inch gun. 

The 75 was one of the most efficient weapons of the 
war, about the same caliber as a 3-inch, but with improved 
recoil mechanism and periscopic sight. With this gun 
the French had done tremendous execution on the enemy, 
and had attained an accuracy which it was impossible to 
better. However, the Yankees took the gun, and per- 
ceiving the advantages of the recoil mechanism, became 

43 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

so proficient in loading that the Germans afterward fre- 
quently declared they were using a 3-inch machine gun. 
The Yankee trick of loading on the recoil was difficult 
and dangerous, but was much more rapid than the regu- 
lation fashion. 

The *'Y. D." artillery also became extremely accurate, 
and learned to lay barrages with such deadly precision 
that the "doughboys" later on took to "leaning on" 
them. This expression means that the infantry kept so 
close to their own barrage that unless it were as accurate 
as possible in the nature of things, many of our own men 
would have been killed. 

Under the expert instruction of the French, who are 
declared to be the best artillerymen in the world, the 
Yankees became so proficient that they were frequently 
called on to go into a sector in advance of the infantry, 
and remain there to help out other outfits when their own 
division had pulled out. 

On the last Sunday in January the members of the 
division, together with French troops and peasants, were 
treated to an impressive spectacle. The 101st Infantry 
was lined up, the men all wearing new trench caps which 
had been secured for them by Colonel Logan, and Gen- 
eral Edwards presented a stand of colors. The colors 
were sent by Governor Samuel W. McCall of Massa- 
chusetts in behalf of the people of the State, and were 
accepted for the regiment by Colonel Logan. 

It became necessary to reorganize divisional head- 
quarters along new general staff lines developed by gen- 
eral headquarters of the A. E. F. 

This plan called for a chief of staff, — to which position 
Colonel Shelton was appointed, — assistant chief of staff 
G-1 for supply, administration and co-ordination, assist- 
ant chief of staff G-2 for intelligence, and assistant chief 

44 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

of staff G-3 for operation. Major Pendleton had done 
so well as quartermaster that General Edwards appointed 
him G-1 of the division, in which position he was in 
charge of all matters of transportation, supply of subsist- 
ence, equipment, ammunition, construction, evacuation 
of sick and wounded, replacements, material and person- 
nel, animals, etc. The other two appointees were Major 
Hyatt, aide to the General, as G-2, and Major Mack as 
G-3. 

In the meantime it had been decided that Major How- 
ard, commanding the 101st Machine Gun Battalion, 
should be made acting divisional machine gun officer, 
and in December he had been sent to a British machine 
gun school at Camiers. Then he joined the Canadians 
in front of Lens, observing the machine gun work, and 
did not return to the division until it had gone into an 
active sector. 

Soon after the organization along the new lines. General 
Edwards was ordered to go to general headquarters at 
Chinan. Taking with him his chief of staff and Major 
Pendleton, he presented himself and was informed that 
General Petain and the French government had persuaded 
General Pershing to allow some of the Twenty-sixth 
troops to go up to the Chemin des Dames and learn the 
German tactics. The plan was to send two battalions. 

General Castelnau, the "grand old man" in command 
of that sector, said: "We are anxious to tell you every- 
thing we know. We have lost thousands of lives that 
might have been saved, but I am an old man and I have 
got to admit that there is only one instructor in this war, 
and that is the Boche." 

Edwards was asked if he would allow these two bat- 
talions to go up. Straightening himself to his full height, 
he announced: "I want every man of the Twenty-sixth 

45 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Division, and I will take them all up to the Cliemin des 
Dames." 

He was told that all of his troops had not had sufficient 
training, but he replied: "Let them go up." 

He was taken at his word, and the artillery brigade, 
ammunition train, trench mortar battery and engineer 
regunent were directed to proceed to the new area and 
join the rest of the division. General Traub, who had 
commanded the division in the absence of General 
Edwards, with Major Pendleton and Captain Malick of 
the French Mission, went up to Soissons as the advance 
party of the division to make all arrangements. 

The division was assigned to the Eleventh French 
Corps under General de Mau d'Huy, part of General 
Duchesne's army. The movement was very successfully 
executed, and was witnessed by a number of American 
officers from general headquarters. 

The division entered the line on February 5 and 
remained in the sector about one and a haK months. 
The artillery went in first, and then the infantry, in 
companies and battalions, entered the sector and relieved 
the front line troops. 

For the first time the division was concentrated with 
every unit. The organization was split up and parts of 
it were assigned to the Fourth French Division as a 
matter of training. 

It was necessary to have eleven distributing points by 
motor beyond the end of the railroad, where all the sup- 
plies arrived. In other words. General Edwards had 
administrative control of the nearly 30,000 men, but did 
not have the tactical control. 



46 



CHAPTER V 
First United States Divisional Shot in War 

The guns of Battery A of the 101st Field Artillery 
went into action on the afternoon of February 5. At 
3.45 o'clock one of the 75s fired the first shot of' a full 
American division, much to the delight of the peppery 
Colonel Sherburne, commanding the regiment. The 
shell case was later sent home, and placed in the Massa- 
chusetts State capitol. The 101st Infantry went through 
to front line positions that night, and was the first National 
Guard outfit, representing a full division, to get into 
action. 

It was a new and somewhat nerve-wracking experi- 
ence for these New England boys. Filing one by one 
into the line in the darkness of night, with French soldiers 
guiding them, they took their places. It was a strange 
feeling to realize that but a short distance away were 
men who would gladly murder them at the first oppor- 
tunity. All that night the sentinels peered anxiously 
into the blackness of No Man's Land. Many times an 
overwrought lad believed that he saw large bodies of the 
enemy advancing toward the American lines. 

The division was under the French in all matters 
except supply, evacuation and ammunition. The troops 
were scattered over 40 kilometers of front, and the daily 
supply of various units with subsistence and forage, keep- 
ing them properly equipped and uniformed, was a problem 
which no other division had ever gone through or will 
have to in the future. The roads were in frightful condi- 
tion and it was a tremendous task to get supplies over 
them. 

47 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The various regiments went into different sectors [said Gen- 
eral Edwards], and when the green battaUons went in it became 
the duty of the German to identify them. In other words, 
you get an order for identification. That means you have to 
send out a raiding party, and you have to get some of the enemy 
and make them talk, telling what outfit they belong to and 
identifying the division, the battalion and the regiment. 

This was called a quiet sector at the time. The French, by 
a brilliant operation, had taken the Chemin des Dames in Oc- 
tober of the previous year. They did not have many troops 
and they sat dowTi and occupied it. The system of defence was 
a series of coups de combats, with trenches about to the knee 
and with tangent machine guns defending. The German im- 
mediately felt out every one of my regiments. The 104th went 
into this difficult place and the Germans put down a heavy 
barrage in the rear of these groups of twenty or forty men with 
machine guns. The idea was to prevent reserves from coming 
up, and in the meantime rush in, gobble up the men, take them 
home and say, "Here are some of these queer Americans we 
have heard about." 

The barrage was put down on those "green" men, and they 
did not even lie down. They crouched in their holes, with high 
explosives rattling on their helmets and killing several, and 
when the barrage was lifted, jumped up and made a lot of 
prisoners of the Germans. 

The Chemin des Dames sector was considered quiet 
by the French, but immediately after the arrival of the 
New Englanders the German gave them a baptism of 
fire. It was here that the first member of the division 
to become a victim of the enemy met his death from shell 
fire. He was Corporal John J. Crowley of the signal 
platoon of the 101st Infantry. 

During their six weeks' stay in the Chemin des Dames 
sector, where previously some of the most sanguinary 
actions of the war had taken place, the New Englanders 

48 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

participated in and repulsed a number of raids, but there 
were no really large engagements. They also received a 
trying out under fire which proved them to be of the best 
soldier material, and won warm words of praise from their 
French comrades. 

General Edwards made a custom of always preceding 
his troops into a new sector and making a personal recon- 
naissance of the front to be taken over. As a result of 
the knowledge thus acquired, he three times counter- 
manded written orders when emergencies arose, and by 
means of verbal directions saved his troops from unneces- 
sary casualties. 

Despite the fact that his action was opposed by the 
higher command, the sturdy old fighter persisted, and 
the results always justified him. In this way he saved 
the lives of many of his men, and demonstrated the fact 
that practical experience is superior to theory. 

In this sector the New England troops were sand- 
wiched in between French outfits, — a battalion of 
French, then a battalion of Americans, and so on. Raid- 
ing parties were made up of men from both armies, 
with usually a French officer or non-commissioned officer 
acting as mentor and guide. 

On St. Valentine's day, after the Yankees had been in 
action for a week, they got their really first opportunity 
to take part in a night patrol. An order came through 
calling for a patrol made up of 20 Americans and 20 
French, the whole party to be under the command of a 
French ofiicer. The 104th Infantry, which was holding 
this particular spot with a French regiment, was asked 
for volunteers, and the whole outfit volunteered to a 
man. However, only 20 could be taken, and Lieutenant 
James W. BrowTi was selected to lead them. 

At the word of command from the French oflacer, the 

49 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

party wriggled out of their "fox-holes" and started 
across No Man's Land. They had orders to go as far as 
the German wire, and if possible to secure prisoners. 

The German entanglements were reached without inci- 
dent, and the men turned back after looking over work 
which had recently been completed by the enemy. Part 
way back moving figures were discovered between the 
party and their own lines. Lieutenant Brown at once 
ordered his men to lie down flat and open fire. The 
Germans, for so they turned out to be, replied. The 
Americans were armed with automatic pistols and rifles, 
and their French comrades with rifles. 

After about half an hour the German fire died down, 
and the Americans and French started slowly forward. 
They found a wounded German and took him to their 
own lines, where he died a short time later. 

In the meantime Sergeant John L. Latzig, who was 
out on the flank of his patrol, in company with a French 
poilu, saw a German crawling away into the darkness. 
Latzig jumped on the German, and a rough and tum- 
ble battle took place, in which the American was the 
victor. 

When the reconnoitring patrol reached its own lines 
the roll was called, and eight men, together with Sergeant 
Latzig, were missing. Although it was almost daylight. 
Lieutenant Brown went out again to search for the miss- 
ing men. German machine guns opened up on him, but 
by diving from one shell hole to another he managed to 
avoid being hit. After some time he descried a moving 
party which turned out to be the men he was seeking. 

It transpired that Latzig had started his prisoner for 
what he believed to be the American lines. A flare 
showed that he was heading in the wrong direction. It 
also showed a number of Americans crouching in a near-by 

50 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

shell hole. The sergeant took command, and was on his 
way in when the lieutenant met him. 

For this act both the lieutenant and sergeant were 
awarded the coveted Croix de Guerre. 

A few nights later the Germans came over in a raid 
directed against a company of this same regiment which 
had come in for the first of its six days in the front line. 
Prior to the raid the German artillery bombarded the 
American lines, the fire waxing hotter until at 10 o'clock 
it was intense. In a short time it ceased, and a barrage 
was laid down which the German raiders followed. By 
the bright light of the moon the Germans were seen by 
the Americans passing through a wood. 

When they reached open ground, however, the enemy 
faltered and then broke. The "green" Americans, fol- 
lowing a terrific bombardment, were waiting, and poured 
in a fire which demoralized the Germans. 

These two incidents, which were typical of the Yankee 
Division, caused French commanders to shower General 
Edwards with compliments. 

The General's headquarters at this time were at Court- 
trelles, some distance behind the lines, but he refused to 
stay in them. Accompanied usually by his aide. Cap- 
tain "Nat" Simpkins, or by Major Hyatt, he visited the 
front daily, again and again subjecting himself to the 
enemy fire. At all times he kept his finger on the divi- 
sional pulse, dropping into regimental "P. C.s," or posts 
of command, visiting dressing stations, and stopping now 
and then for a few words of praise and encouragement 
for the men. On two occasions horses were shot by 
enemy aviators in front of him. In describing this later, 
General Edwards said : — 



51 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

We were being bombed every night, and nothing on earth 
gets on your nerves like bombing. The enemy had airplane 
superiority, and when I went riding on my horse, as I did with 
my staff officer, we always agreed whenever an airplane came 
around — and we were a little doubtful whether it had a Ger- 
man cross or a French circle on the fuselage — that we would 
take cover. He'd ride one way and I another, and then we 
would tumble from our mounts and roll into the woods. We 
had to do that three times. The aviators would come over, 
see some one on a good-looking horse, and turn loose with their 
machine guns. I had two horses killed right in front of me. 

They also attacked our balloons, and it was a commoa sight 
to see French observers jumping with parachutes and come 
floating do\sTi, depending upon the wind to take them over the 
line. 

An interesting story is told exemplifying the attitude 
of the men in regard to General Edwards' custom of 
visiting the trenches. One day at Chemin des Dames 
the General made an inspection of the line. After he had 
gone, Major Hammond of the 104th Infantry decided he 
would go through and see what had happened. 

In the trenches he came upon a spectacle which 
astounded him. A "buck" private was standing, first 
on one foot and then on the other, vigorously wiping the 
mud from his shoes on his breeches and coat. 

An irate sergeant, who had also witnessed the perfonn- 
ance, suddenly rushed up and profanely demanded to 
know what the private was doing. "Are you crazy?" 
he asked. "No," replied the "doughboy" solemnly, 
"but I'm damned if I'll let any General come through 
here with more mud on him than I've got on me." 

In this sector the 104 th was holding the line at Bois 
Quincy, about February 9 or 10, when on the third night 
the Germans attempted to put over a big raid. There 

52 




Brigadier-General John A. Sherburne 




International Film Service, Inc. 

Officers of 101st Regiment Infantry, Beaumont, France, May 6, 1918 



rfia- ^"^ ~ .J i"^ 




Billets of Company C, 101st Ammunition Train, France 



J 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

were no trenches at this place, nothing but fox-holes and 
heaps of mud at the outer edges of the woods. The 
kitchens in the woods were on top of the ground instead 
of underneath it, while officers and men lived in shacks. 
The Germans put down an intense barrage and then the 
raiding troops came over. They were repulsed with 
losses, while the Yankees had only one wounded. The 
following day Captain Hyatt went through the woods 
and found that the ground was literally peppered with 
holes, and the whole place torn up. He never could 
understand how the New Englanders had escaped with- 
out more casualties. 

Late in February a big raid was started by picked 
German troops, who were brought to the front in covered 
camions, or trucks. Following a violent barrage, which 
began at 9 o'clock of an extremely dark night, and which 
lasted half an hour, the Germans crossed the canal 
which divided the lines at this part of the front. The 
enemy split into three parties. 

One made a feint attack to draw the fire of the Ameri- 
cans and French; a second crept noiselessly straight 
across No Man's Land; while the third swung to the 
right and attempted a flanking movement on the out- 
posts. The watchful Yankees soon discovered what was 
taking place, and with a withering machine-gun fire 
broke up the attack. The picked German troops were 
unable to stand the intense fire and retreated. 

Prior to the beginning of this attack an American wir- 
ing party, consisting of 32 men, under the command of 
Lieutenant Ralph Bishop of the 101st Infantry, with a 
French sergeant as guide, had gone out into No Man's 
Land. Loaded with rolls of barbed wire and stakes they 
were busily engaged when the barrage began to drop 
around them. Lieutenant Bishop ran along the line, 

53 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

getting his men into small groups and ordering them into 
shell holes. Then he made his way through both Gennan 
and American barrages to his own lines, and reported to 
the French officer who was in charge of the wire laying. 
Again the young officer passed through the rain of shells, 
and ordered back all the men he could find. The central 
party of German raiders had in the meantime passed the 
Americans without seeing them. 

Lieutenant Bishop did not find all his men, and was 
himself forced to join the last group who shot their way 
back. On the way Bishop saw a badly wounded man. 
Taking two of his party he went out, found a stretcher, 
got the wounded man, and carried him to a dressing 
station. 

When the lieutenant left his own lines to go back 
through the barrage the third time Sergeant Eric S. Olsen 
and Corporal Earl H. Sanderson went back after him. 
All three were recommended for the Distinguished Sei*v- 
ice Cross. 

By the time the Yankees left this sector a large number 
had been recommended for Distinguished Service Crosses 
and Medals, and a respectable-sized group had been 
awarded the French War Cross. 

During this time the division had suffered very few 
casualties, and but twelve men had been sent to the hos- 
pital with gas poisoning. This was a remarkable testi- 
monial to the efficiency and morale of the men, — a 
morale which had been built up by General Edwards 
without the long months of training considered so neces- 
sary by the majority of Regular Army officers. 

There had already been many changes in the divisional 
personnel. Officers had been relieved and transferred, 
and other officers had been made from the ranks. Cap- 
tain Hyatt was succeeded as G-2 by IVIajor Mackall, a 

54 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

stranger to the division, who had been sent over from the 
States and who had had no experience. In January 
Colonel Shelton had been relieved as chief of staff, and 
succeeded by Colonel Dowell, while Major Maback, the 
G-3 of the division, was later succeeded by Colonel Knieger. 

These changes were made by general headquarters at 
Chaumont, and the policy was continued to the end. 
They constituted a great annoyance to General Edwards, 
who would no sooner get a man on whom he relied in a 
position, when an inexperienced Regular Army officer 
would be sent to relieve him. In some cases such an 
officer might have attended the Staff College for a time, 
and having absorbed a quantity of theories, was con- 
sidered to be perfectly capable of taking over the work. 

One other incident at Chemin des Dames is worthy of 
being recorded, as it exemplified the spirit of self-sacrifice 
and desire to "play the game" of every member of the 
division. 

During a German attack grenades were being handed 
to a squad of bombers by Corporal Homer J. Wheaton 
of the 101st Infantry, a former Worcester newspaper- 
man. These bombs were prepared by hitting the detona- 
tors, after which the bomber heaved it with a stiff-arm 
motion at the enemy. After the detonator is set off it is 
but five seconds until the bomb explodes. Wheaton had 
an armful of bombs, which he was handing out, when 
one of them dropped to the ground and struck on the 
detonator. The corporal saw it fall, and in a flash realized 
that an explosion would kill a large number of his own 
comrades. Without the slightest hesitancy he gently 
deposited the bombs he held in his arms, and, leaping 
forward, smothered the grenade on the ground with his 
body. The explosion took place, but Wheaton was the 
only man killed. 

55 



CHAPTER VI 
Yankee Spirit Amazes the French 

WTiile the infantry and artillery were getting their 
training under fire, the other units of the division were 
also learning rapidly. They also were under fire, but 
were unable to fight back. Supply and ammunition 
trains were continually coming up to the front over roads 
which were plotted out on German artillery maps, and 
which were swept by shell fire. 

The engineers were engaged in laying narrow-gauge 
railroad tracks, m.achine-gun emplacements, barbed-wire 
systems, dugouts, excavations and .trenches, frequently 
under direct fire from the enemy. 

The engineer regiment was split up, even companies 
being divided, so that it was extremely diflScult for 
Colonel Bunnell to keep in touch with all units. How- 
ever, he not only succeeded in doing this, but with the 
assistance of French instructors brought his outfit up to 
a high state of efficiency. 

The men displayed the same fighting spirit that ani- 
mated the other members of the division, and were 
always glad to lay down their picks and shovels in favor 
of the rifle. 

Later on, when casualties were heavy, volunteers 
would be called for to bury the dead. On these occasions 
the regiment volunteered to a man, although as it fre- 
quently happened, they had been working tirelessly for 
days. 

The same thing was true of the signal troops, hospital 
corps and ambulance men. In fact, every member of the 

56 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

division was always ready to volunteer for extra duty, 
and incidents occurred when men of the S. O. S. walked 
miles for an opportunity of begging some officer to allow 
them to get into the fight. 

The French had attempted to impress on the Ameri- 
cans the folly of volunteering for patrol duty, declaring 
"it is not good." There never was a time when volun- 
teers were called for to go out on patrol but that every 
man in the Yankee Division who knew about it insisted 
that he be one of those picked. 

This spirit amazed the French, who had been through 
three years of the most terrible warfare, and realized the 
value of conserving lives. 

Lieutenant Edward Hutchins of the lO^d Field Artil- 
lery is the son of Mrs. Susan Hutchins of Beacon Street, 
Back Bay, a cousin of General Edwards. Before the 
division left for France Mrs. Hutchins charged the Gen- 
eral with the welfare of her boy, and told him to be sure 
and see that "Ed" did not run into any unnecessary 
danger. The General agreed, and then, owing to the mul- 
tiplicity of his duties, promptly forgot the entire matter. 

It was recalled to his mind forcibly on the Chemin 
des Dames, when he and Captain Hyatt rode over to 
the aviation camp one day. There they met Lieutenant 
Hutchins. "What are you doing, Ed.?" asked the General, 
after the usual amenities. "Oh," replied the youth, 
carelessly, "I'm doing observation work in airplanes." 
"My God," groaned General Edwards, "what will I tell 
Susie .f*" For be it known that artillery observation from 
aircraft is probably one of the most dangerous jobs in the 
service. 

While in this sector the men of the division saw their 
first German airship brought down. It was reached by 
the anti-aircraft guns of the French at a height of 2,000 

57 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

feet. The machine broke in two, the pilot and observer 
fell out, and the wrecked craft dropped to the ground 
behind the allied lines. The Germans were almost bur- 
ied in the ground, so tremendous was the force of their 
fall. They were the first German dead the Americans 
had seen, and as a result the New Englanders were some- 
what awed. The French, on the other hand, were unaf- 
fected, except that they were pleased that two more of 
the enemy had ended their ability to make trouble. 
Captain Hyatt, who was one of the first on the spot, 
secured a map and pieces of the wrecked plane. 

The Chemin des Dames, or "Road of the Ladies," is 
a famous highway that runs along the top of a ridge. 
When the Americans went into this sector the highway 
had not been used since the beginning of the war, owing to 
the fact that it was in full sight of the guns of both parties. 

Shortly after arrival. General Edwards wished to go to 
the headquarters of Colonel Hume, which was located 
at Vaudesson. Captain "Nat" Simpkins, the General's 
aide, declared confidently that he could find the place 
with the aid of a map. The two climbed into the Gen- 
eral's big limousine, driven by Sergeant Shea, and started. 

Apparently Captain Simpkins' knowledge of map read- 
ing was somev/hat faulty, for the party drove out boldly 
on the Chemin des Dames, and proceeded jauntily down 
that highway under the eyes of the German gunners. At 
first the enemy was so astounded by this spectacle that 
he did nothing. In a short time, however, he recovered, 
and began sending over shells which landed in close prox- 
imity to the car. General Edwards leaned forward to 
tell the driver to go away from there, but it was not 
necessary. Later Captain Hyatt asked Sergeant Shea if 
the shells were falling close to the car. "I don't really 
know," replied Shea, "I was too busy feeding her gas." 

58 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Vaudesson, Colonel Hume's headquarters, had been a 
town, but at this tune there was no semblance of a build- 
ing and no cellars. "It was the worst shot-up town I 
ever saw," said Captain Hyatt. "There was not even a 
little pile of rock left. In a year or so, when the grass 
has grown up, it will be impossible to tell that the town 
ever existed." 

The French were accustomed to going on raids and 
patrols without rifles. They used knives, grenades and 
bombs. General Edwards insisted that the Americans 
carry rifles and pistols at all times. 

In the latter part of February the 101st Infantry sent 
over 40 men and the French contributed 40 men, all 
commanded by a French officer. The Yankees used rifles, 
and the party invaded the Gennan trenches, capturing 
23 prisoners, including 2 officers. The American forces 
had not a single casualty. The French had six. Fifteen 
New Englanders received the Croix de Guerre for their 
share in this raid. It was noticed that all the prisoners 
were displaying black eyes, which apparently had been 
acquired during the struggle in their trenches. 

The use of the rifle on this raid brought a comment 
from General de Maud 'Huy, which was extremely com- 
plunentary. He said that the French soldiers had for- 
gotten how to use the rifle, and must learn again to use 
it like the Americans, who had given a lesson to the 
French. 

During this raid the 101st Machine Gun Battalion 
helped put across a box barrage by indirect fire. This 
also brought a letter from General de Maud 'Huy, as it 
was the first time that machine guns had been used in 
co-operation with the artillery in putting down a box 
barrage. 

In this sector the German had almost entire superi- 

59 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

ority in the air. Gennan airplanes used machine guns on 
the roads, and flev/ low over the trenches, spraying them 
with bullets. One day General Edwards was riding with 
Captain Hyatt v/hen a wagon train appeared on the road 
ahead of them. Suddenly a German plane dropped out 
of the clouds, and, flying only about a hundred yards 
above the road, opened up with a machine gun, killing 
several horses. Not a shot was fired in return. 

During the big raid on Paris a German bombing plane 
was brought down in the sector occupied by the 104th 
Infantry. Captain Hartwell, the supply officer, and 
several of the men saw the descending light and followed 
it. The machine had hardly struck the ground when the 
captain pulled his pistol and called on the occupants to 
surrender. There were four men in the Gotha, all officers 
and all uninjured. They refused to talk to the Ameri- 
can intelligence officers and were turned over to the 
French. 

Captain Hyatt, being curious, the next day strolled 
over to French headquarters where he learned that the 
Germans' whole story had been secured. One of the 
Germans was commander of the squadron which attacked 
Paris. He told where they came from and furnished the 
order under which they were acting. They still had two 
bombs of 300 kilos which they had intended to drop on 
the American and French lines. They told their captors 
that the French barrage around Paris was so intense that 
they were unable to penetrate it. The Americans never 
had any further trouble in securing information from 
prisoners. 

When the Yankees had entered the sector they found 
that a sort of truce was maintained during the day. 
French and German soldiers had washed clothes in the 
canal at the same time, and it had been customary for 

60 




Colonel Frank M. Hume 




Colonel Frank M. Hume and StaS 




International Film Service, Inc. 

Engineers of Twenty-sixth Division supplying Field Artillery with 

Munitions, France 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

the men of both sides to move about freely outside the 
trenches. 

The New Englanders could not understand this state 
of affairs, and thej' called down the wrath of both sides 
by opening fire on the first Germans they saw. During 
this time one sniper of the 103d Regiment averaged one 
German each day. 

About the middle of March General Edwards received 
orders to move the division to the Bar-sur-AuEe area, 
where it was scheduled for a big advance problem. The 
division had completed its front line training much more 
quickly than had been expected, and the French were 
enthusiastic. 

As an evidence of the brotherly spirit existing between 
the two armies, General de Maud 'Huy, commanding the 
Eleventh French Army Corps, issued the following 
order: — 

Eleventh Army Corps, Staff, 
Headquarters, March 15, 1918. 

No. 9114 B-1, 

S. C. No. 4817. 
General Orders, No. 7. 

We regret that our comrades of the Twenty-sixth Division 
should leave us in order to fulfill their task elsewhere. 

We have been able to appreciate their bravery, their sense 
of duty and discipline, also their frank comradeship; they 
carry away our unanimous regrets. 

General Edwards has been pleased to consider the Eleventh 
Corps as godfather to the Twenty-sixth Division; the Eleventh 
Corps feels proud of the awarded honor, being sure that, wher- 
ever he may be sent, the godson shall do credit to the godfather. 

Le General de Maud 'Huy, 
Commandant le lime Corps d'Arm^e. 



61 



CHAPTER VII 
Move to Start a Big Drive 

The division started out on March 20. On the 21st the 
big Boche offensive began. A few days before the Ger- 
mans had put over a gas bombardment which lasted thirty- 
six hours. This was concentrated mostly on the 102d 
Infantry. The men wore their masks five or six hours, 
and the gas discipline was so good that the division had 
only 250 casualties. 

The German long-range guns shelled the railroads and 
bombed the towns through which the Yankees passed on 
their way south. It was difficult to move during the 
day. It was at this time that Major H. B. Estes of 
the 101st Engineers and Lieutenant Ralph Hopkins of the 
101st Supply Company won decorations for sticking to 
the job of entraining and loading supplies under the most 
intense fire. 

The infantry entrained at Soissons and Brisnes, and 
proceeded down to the area around Bar-sur-Aube. The 
artillery, ammunition train and other mobile units went 
over the road. The division was concentrated in the area 
about the 23d or 24th. 

Before he left the Chemin des Dames the General had 
received orders to hold maneuvers at Bar-sur-iVube for 
the solving of practical problems. They were to advance 
against the Forty-second Division, and plans were com- 
pleted and about to be put into operation when they 
were called off on account of the Boche offensive. The 

62 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

division was then marched overland to the training area 
around Ruynel, where division headquarters were located 
for two days. 

This territory had not felt the hand of the great rav- 
ager, War. The houses were whole and inhabited by 
warm-hearted French peasants, who fed the men to reple- 
tion with fresh vegetables, milk and eggs. There were 
also streams of fresh water in which the men might bathe, 
and the two days spent there were reminiscent of home 
to the Yankees after their six weeks in the Chemin des 
Dames sector. The inevitable rain was also absent, and 
the sun shone brightly. 

During this time the men of the division were visited 
by Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. The secretary 
made but a brief stay, and did not interfere with routine 
by having the men turned out for inspection. 

A short time later the Massachusetts Commission, 
composed of Lieutenant-Governor Louis Frothingham, 
Charles W. Baxter and Dr. John Coughlin of Fall River, 
arrived. They visited the Massachusetts boys, and took 
messages for their friends and relatives at home. 

Two days after the division was concentrated in this 
area order was received to proceed to the Toul sector 
and relieve the First Division, part of which was in that 
line, and a French division. On the day of the move the 
orders were changed nine different times. Everybody 
was up in the air. The order indicated an emergency 
which necessitated the movement of many of the infantry 
units by motor bus, while the annuals, supply company 
wagons, and equipment were marched over the road 
with the artillery and other divisional units. 

The big German drive of March 21 had started, and 
was sweeping along as though nothing in the world could 
stop it. It was vitally necessary that the troops be placed 

63 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

in the Toul sector to relieve the French who had been 
holding it with a part of the First Division. 

Though the men had been able to secure but two days* 
rest, they set off on their long journey with the custom- 
ary, "C'est la guerre." Rain and snow fell alternately, 
and the weather was cold, while at times it was impos- 
sible to bring up supplies to every organization. The 
mix-up in orders had prevented any real plan for supply 
being made, and the result was that sometimes both men 
and animals missed a meal. 

The men stood tlie discomforts of the journey remark- 
ably well, and the division reached the Toul sector on the 
last day of March, immediately starting the relief of the 
First Division and the French troops. 

There had been so many changes in orders, and the 
various movements had to be executed so quickly, that 
all orders regarding supply were given verbally. As a 
result there was some confusion in the sector. Some of 
the infantry units of the Twenty-sixth, due to their 
movement over the road by bus, were separated from 
their transport, for several days. Advance preparations 
had been made for their supply in the new sector. It 
becam^e necessary to send up truck companies immedi- 
ately to establish a quartermaster depot at the First 
Division railliead, from which supplies were drawn daily. 

The relief of the First Division by the Twenty-sixth 
has been the subject of comment. There were two inex- 
perienced officers, perhaps prejudiced, who made a report 
of this relief, much to the disadvantage of the Twenty- 
sixth. This report was read at the General Staff School 
at Langres, and while the designations of the two divi- 
sions were not mentioned, being referred to as "X" and 
"Y" divisions, the nature of the report clearly indicated 
that the First and Twenty-sixth were meant. 

64 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

According to authorities, the report the two officers 
made was unfair in every detail and showed prejudice. 
It was also said to have been proved by the report that 
the two officers lacked the experience which would have 
justified them in any criticism. 

After the relief was completed the Twenty-sixth occu- 
pied a front extending about 18 kilometers, which had 
previously been held by one infantry brigade of the 
First Division and a full French division. Therefore the 
Twenty-sixth was the first American division to occupy 
a sector as a division. 

On April 3 the First Division was entirely relieved, and 
General Edwards was given command of the sector. 
It was the first time that the division was in line by 
itself and under the control of its own officers. 

It was fairly quiet here, with a little artillery strafing 
at meal times. At breakfast, dinner and supper the 
Boche would send over a few gas and high explosive 
shells in an endeavor to put the kitchens out of business. 

The 104th Infantry was occupying a salient between 
Apremont, inclusive, and Bois Brule to Bussons, at the 
foot of Mont Sec. This sector was on a level plain of flat, 
marshy land from Apremont up to Flirey. The only ele- 
vation occupied by the Twenty-sixth was Beaumont 
Ridge. There was a bend in the road leading to Beau- 
mont which was called Dead Man's Curve. The Ger- 
mans held Mont Sec and the heights of the Meuse River. 
They were able to overlook the Yankee sector and could 
see directly into the lines. Every one hated Mont Sec and 
the men would gladly have rushed it, but were not per- 
mitted to do so. The German salient protruded into the 
allied lines like a sore thumb. 

When the Boche captured Mont Sec the French lost 
10,000 men. The hill was honeycombed with concrete 

65 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

dugouts, machine-gun emplacements and observation 
posts. 

WTien the French occupied the sector the Germans 
made strong attacks when their morale was low and cap- 
tured numbers of prisoners. The next day the German 
communique would call it a victory. 

To the left of this wide sector was a salient in the Bois 
Brule, or Apremont Woods, where the French had lost a 
great many men, and where the Germans frequently took 
prisoners. General Marchand of Fiishoda fame, who was 
in command of the division on the left, afterwards told 
General Edwards that three times the Germans had 
attacked the salient and taken the garrison. As General 
Edwards described it : — 

The Toul sector we were in was a marsh. On the left were the 
heights of the Meuse, with Apremont on our right, the salient 
extending down to the Bois Brule, in front of Luneville, a 
wood in a marsh, and all under the smashing fire of the Boche 
artillery. At Bois Brule there was an entering curve on a 
high mountain, and the place opposite where I had to put a 
battalion had sixteen minnenwerfer. They have a normal 
range of 600 yards, and they could smash down on the advance 
trenches and do terrible damage. General Marchand of the 
famous Fashoda incident was there, and he quietly told me 
that he had been there about three years. He said that every 
time the Boche morale was low all the enemy had to do was 
to put a barrage beyond his front trenches, come over and take 
some prisoners. That was the prospect. 

I put Colonel Shelton, who had been placed in command of 
the 104th Infantry, in that awful hole. I put the 102d in the 
Bois Remiry, and I put the 101st in Rombacour, right between 
the two of them. The sector had never been organized; it had 
never been wired; it was two and a half times the size of an 
ordinary sector. 

And this green division went in and took over that sector as 

66 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

the first independent thing they ever did. Everybody told me 
it was the worst place on the western front; that more French- 
men had been killed there than was necessary. Behind that, 
a little way, was the famous fort of Luneville, about which 
there was a good deal of sentiment, like the Toul fort. 

Dominating the entire sector was Mont See, held by 
the Germans, which will never be forgotten by those who 
took part in these battles. Whatever was attempted by 
the Americans and French came directly under the view 
of the Boche observers at Mont Sec. 

As was customary, General Edwards went down and 
made a personal examination of the sector. When he 
saw the position held by Colonel Shelton he ordered him 
to pull his troops back from the front line. The French 
corps commander demurred to this proceeding, but Gen- 
eral Edwards insisted that his order be carried out. He 
declared that he was responsible to his own conscience 
which would not permit him to sacrifice his men unneces- 
sarily. He asserted that the G^nnans could cut oflF the 
entire salient and capture the biggest part of the men of 
the 104th. 

The French commander said that the Germans would 
come over and occupy that trench if the Americans gave 
it up. Edwards replied: "That's just what we want 
them to do. If they come over we'll lick hell out of 
them." 

That is exactly what happened. The Germans came 
over, and the New Englanders withdrew and allowed them 
to occupy the front line at Chauveau, as this particular 
spot was known. Then, w^ith wild cheers, the Yankees 
fell on the Boche with their bayonets ; killed a large num- 
ber, took about forty prisoners, and drove the enemy 
back to his own lines. 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

General Edwards described it in these words : — 

The second night we were there the Boche attacked after put- 
ting down a barrage. My men did as they were told and ran 
back. The Boche advanced, as the French thought they would. 
They filled up the Chauveau front, and when they lifted the bar- 
rage, without any order, the platoons of the 104th Infantry got up, 
and, singing "Hail, Hail, the Gang's All Here," went after them. 

At the same time Colonel Sherburne dropped a smashing 
American barrage on the Chauveau front with his 75s. He 
lifted it and allowed the Yankees to go ahead. They went 
ahead, driving the Boche before them. They charged up the hill 
into the front line German trenches, overrunning their objec- 
tives, and had to be called back. 

The plan of defence of the French on the left warranted a 
fall back. The liaison between the Second Division was not 
complete, and the Tenth Colonial Division fell right back and 
exposed the flanlcs of the 104th Infantry. The enemy curled 
round and got in behind it. The second day they brought up 
700 shock troops, because the first time we had licked them and 
had taken the first prisoners that had been taken in Apremont 
for six months. Each lad got 1,000 francs reward for taking 
those prisoners, which belonged to the Fifth German Landwehr. 

I am getting a little ahead of my story. Two days after 
they brought up 700 shock troops, together with two other 
battalions, and they said: "We will show these Americans." 
They came down again and got in behind our flanks. Our 
men did the same thing again. And as soon as they had chucked 
the Boche out of one place they would whack him in another. 
The lieutenants did not have to do anything. The sergeants 
would get up and indicate: "Follow me." They didn't say 
it, because they could not have been heard above the shells. 

And those men fought there for five days around Hill 320 
in front of Apremont. They wiped out the 700 Germans, made 
40 prisoners and buried 200 Boches. The French Army com- 
mander cited 117 men of the 104th and they got the Croix de 
Guerre m a very impressive ceremony when they were with- 

68 




Harris & Erviug 



Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew L. Pendleton 




Number of 155 m.m. French Guns at Valdahon, France 




American Soldiers being rushed to the Front in France 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

drawn. They also pinned the Croix de Guerre on the colors 
of the regiment, and I don't know that that ever occurred before. 

During the engagement General Marchand was down in 
the post of the Italian command. The French corps com- 
mander was at my headquarters, and the French Army com- 
mander visited me three times that day. He told me an old 
observer who had been at Laonville for four years said that we 
were whipped; that we had lost Hill 222; and that he could 
understand why. I laughed at him and smoked a^cigarette. 
It was very natural. 

A new French division came to us about which we knew 
nothing, and at the end of the thing the officer said that it was 
about as game an action as he ever saw. It was the first time 
that troops had ever won in that sector, and from that time on 
we absolutely owned No Man's Land. 

This general of the Thirty-seventh Division was General 
Sabatier. He was relieved by the Tenth Colonial. When re- 
lieved he said: "Those Americans are the queerest things I 
have ever seen." He said that a Boche prisoner had told him 
the Yankees were crazy. The Boche said: "They sing when 
they use the bayonet, and they follow you right into your 
own wire." 

This general was a very generous man in his tribute. He 
said: "I have lost a garrison generally whenever the Boche 
wanted to come over and take it. I didn't know how to stop 
it. A great American division comes in here and suggests a new 
method to us people who have been fighting for three or four 
years. The Boche had got our goats. Now that is all changed. 
Now the Americans have got their goats. They don't need 
anybody on the flank of their liaison. They have destroyed the 
Fifth Landwehr division. They own No Man's Land. I take 
off my hat to the Twenty-sixth Division." 

In that warfare written orders were issued covering the 
most minute details, but in this case the General stepped 
in, and through his knowledge of the situation gave 
verbal orders which were a decisive factor in our success. 

69 



CHAPTER VIII 
Battle of Apremont 

On the morning of April 10 the Boche attacked in force 
the lines of the 104th Infantry. There were 800 men in 
the raid, and they penetrated for a short distance into the 
front lines. The 104th then counter attacked. They 
fought through the night of the 10th and all day of the 
11th, drove the Boche out of their lines, captured 48 
prisoners and killed a large number. The American casu- 
alties were very light. 

After that fight General Edwards had a conference 
with General Passaga, the French corps commander, and 
it was decided to build a trench, wiping out a salient. 
The 101st Engineers did this, working nights between 
bombardments, and finished it in a few days. 

During this battle of Apremont Forest there were inci- 
dents of personal bravery too numerous to mention. The 
men proved themselves to be absolutely fearless, while 
their reckless bravery and ability with the bayonet 
daunted the Hun. One incident, however, will bear repe- 
tition at this time. 

On the morning of April 12 orders had been received 
for an advance by the 104th Infantry. Sergeant John A. 
Dickerman of the Headquarters Company was in charge 
of two Stokes mortars, the small trench artillery which 
did so much damage. These two mortars were placed in 
a screen just behind the second line trench. With Dick- 
erman were Privates Alson, Knutson, Cole and Hovvdand, 
and Corporal Henry Mack. Dickerman had orders to 

70 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

lay down a barrage of three minutes, after which the artil- 
lery was to take it up and drop a barrage behind which 
two companies were to go over the top in the first wave. 
There was a heavy fog that morning. 

Dickerman laid dowTi his barrage as ordered, but there 
was no sign from the artillery. In the fog the signal had 
not been seen. Then the Boches came over in an attack 
against the American lines, and Dickerman opened up 
with his mortars. They were the only protection between 
the Boche and the 104th first line. 

The men v/orked madly, dropping round after round 
into the mortars, which took deadly toll in the attacking 
force. Then the Germans started a creeping barrage. 
The shells from the enemy guns exploded nearer and 
nearer to the little party working the mortars. Sergeant 
Dickerman and the men knew that it was only a question 
of time, as it was easy to locate them. Still, they held 
out. Suddenly a shell landed in the midst of the party. 
Alson, Knutson and Cole were killed, and Rowland was 
wounded. Corporal Mack escaped. Dickerman lost his 
right eye and right foot, his left leg was torn and he had 
many other wounds. For this all of the party, living 
and dead, were given the Croix de Guerre. 

The enemy was comparatively quiet after this until the 
attack on Seicheprey on April 20 to the 22d. The Ger- 
man "Sturntruppen," or Hindenburg's Traveling Circus, 
as it was called, led the attack. These were a body of 
picked shock troops, who traveled from place to place, 
along the German line and delivered raids at regular 
intervals. After a heavy bombardment they came over, 
about 400 in number, with about 2,500 more Germans 
following to consolidate the positions the raiders were 
expected to take. They came over with full packs and 
with orders to take the lines and hold them until they 

71 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

could be consolidated. Evidently the attack was designed 
to break down the Yankee morale. 

The Boches were favored by a heavy fog, and were 
upon the New Englanders before they realized what had 
happened. Company C of the 102d Infantry was sur- 
prised, and practically the whole unit was captured. 
Many desperate combats took place in the mist. 

It was at this time that Colonel Bertrand, command- 
ing a French regiment, led his troops in a counter attack 
on Fleurv, mounted on a horse. 

The fighting became general. Like their forefathers at 
Lexington, the Americans fought from behind walls in 
the little towns behind the front, and any other cover 
they could find. Armed with machine guns and rifles, 
some of these detachments held on for two days. At 
the end of the fight Lieutenant Lockhart, unshaven, 
drawn and haggard, reported to his commanding officer 
and apologized for his appearance. He said that he had 
been in a trench with his platoon and not a man had left. 
Asked how many remained alive, he replied: "Nine sir." 

Word came that at the convergence of two lines of 
trench there were a party of Boches in a strong point. 
Lieutenant Wilcox, with an automatic rifle and four men, 
went up one trench. His platoon had been relieved, but 
he could not take it out because of the barrage. At the 
same time Lieutenant Horton Edmands, former Boston 
newspaperman, took five men and went up the trench at 
the left, headed for the same point. Lieutenant Wilcox 
left two of his men to bomb a dugout on the way up, and 
therefore had but two men with him when he came on 
nineteen of the enemy in a communicating trench. He 
immediately commanded them to throw up their hands, 
and the whole party were taken prisoners. 

In the meantime Lieutenant Edmands arrived at the 

72 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

strong point and found eleven Boches waiting for him. 
Edmands ran up, pistol in hand, and his appearance so 
terrified the Gennans that one of them threw his arms 
around the young officer's neck and begged for mercy. 
The man had been wounded in the arm, and his blood 
flowed all over the American. Edmands gathered up his 
prisoners, the wounded being placed in makeshift litters 
and went back down the trench. For these acts both 
lieutenants received the Croix de Guerre. 

General Edwards told of the battle in these words : — 

Then came an incident that is very important to me, and I 
think I analyze it properly. That is the battle of Seicheprey, 
where the 102d was stationed. It was the first battle where 
any number of prisoners were taken. We had all become a 
little cocky. The 104th stayed there, although they were 
pretty badly cut up, because we had only a few divisions then 
and the Boche divisions were in superior numbers on the western 
front. We knew they were going to try to break through, 
and the master minds had to keep divisions in reserve to rein- 
force any line that might be threatened. 

On the morning of the 20th of April we had a little bit of 
evidence of larger concentration of Boche guns, and they were 
a little bit more active. Early in the morning, 4 o'clock, the 
most violent bombardment on all the rear areas, on Seicheprey, 
Rombacaur and on the connecting trenches, took place. The 
101st were at Ramschelle, and Colonel Logan's headquarters 
were smothered. He was in the cellar of a church, and he and 
Father O'Connor wore their masks for five or six hours. We 
could not tell at first where the smash was coming. There was 
a tremendously heavy mist, and the Boche was favored. Thir- 
teen hundred shock troops came down between Seicheprey and 
Ramschelle, and another 1,500 came around from Remier, 
starting for Seicheprey, and the artillery just smothered us. 
It was as much as a man's life was worth to try to get out of 
Seicheprey by Beaumont, but they did it. There Lieutenant 

73 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

H. Comfort, a doctor, ran back and forth through the barrage. 
The ambulances ran on the main road to Seicheprey. A gallant 
sergeant timed the shots and would shoot through. Most of 
them were hit right into Seicheprey. 

The Germans swept down into the middle of the town. 
They overran our machine guns, and they had big clubs; they 
carried 5-kilogram nitroglycerine boxes, and they all had trench 
knives. This man. Captain Stanchfield, stood there. The 
first thing he saw was two automatic guns playing on him, not 
more than 10 feet away. They got into the middle of Seiche- 
prey. And there v. as a gallant fellow by the name of Major 
Rau, since killed, who stood there. There was also Lieutenant 
Thompson, who gathered his men together and fought them. 
And Captain Griswell, who came home suffering from shell 
shock, was surrounded. 

Three of our machine-gun crews were found sitting on their 
machines with their heads down. Only one man got away 
alive. In front of each machine gun were 10 to 15 Boches 
lying around; there were over 400 Boche helmets on the ground. 

They outgunned us by 4 or 5 to 1, and they kept up this 
artillery concentration for over thirty-six hours. It was as 
much as your life was worth to go anywhere. I would not let 
them go to pick up our dead. We buried 164. The Boches 
worked thirty-six hours with twenty-six pairs of litter bearers 
taking away their wounded. We carefully examined prisoners, 
and everybody else after that, and there is no doubt that their 
casualties amounted to 1,200. We lost very nearly 150 pris- 
oners. We had gassed or slightly wounded about 600, and the 
permanent losses were about 200. 

We found the Boche coming down the Laiville trench, and 
we put all the Twenty-sixth artillery on that trench, as well 
as the 69th, and we massacred them. 

That night the Yankees counter attacked under Major 
Rau, drove the enemy from the American trenches, cap- 
tured a few prisoners, and buried more dead Huns than 

74 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

the Twenty-sixth had suffered in killed, wounded or 
missing. 

The 102d Infantry bore the brunt of this engagement, 
and acquitted themselves in a way that brought more 
compliments from the French. About thirty or forty 
general American prisoners, with the 102d Infantry at 
this time, were w^orking in this vicinity. When the fight 
began the prisoners grabbed rifles from wounded and 
dead comrades, jumped into the midst of the fray, and 
each and every one proved himself to be a hero. 

The bombardment which began on Saturday morning 
was the m.ost terrific the Americans had yet experienced. 
High explosives mixed with gas were sprayed all up and 
down the line. The Boche was following the barrage 
closely at right angles, and a great many Germans got 
through the loosely held front line, which was nothing 
but an irregular string of strong points. 

The Germans intended to hold this line with their 
storm troops until reinforcements could come up and 
organize it. The Germans shelled the roads leading to 
the front line in an attempt to prevent the Yankee reserves 
from comJng up, but they came up. 

In the midst of a deadly storm of shells they fought 
with the rifle, bayonets, grenades, pistols and even their 
fists. Although heavily outnumbered, the New England- 
ers fought on and on. Hand-to-hand combats took place 
in the streets of a little town just behind the lines. 

Then the Boche retreated, carrying his own wounded 
and also taking some prisoners. In retreating the Boche 
came upon isolated platoons of Yankees, and swept some 
of them along with them. Captain Griswold was with 
one of these, but he managed to escape when a shell 
dropped near his captors. 

In the meantime the American artillery was pouring a 

75 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

devastating fire on the first line trench, now held by the 
enemy. 

During the engagement the engineers in this sector 
fought abreast of the infantry. The 2d Battalion of 
Infantry, which had just been relieved before the fight 
began, returned to the front and "stood to." Many 
small units which were not relieved stayed in their posi- 
tions until the end. 

The moral effect of Seicheprey on the allies was very 
great, in that it showed the Yankees had, in their first 
serious engagement, been able to stand up, take punish- 
ment, and hold ground against especially trained shock 
troops. 

On April 28 the 104th Infantry was decorated with the 
Croix de Guerre for its work in the battle of Apremont. 
There were also 116 individual decorations given out that 
day to officers and men of the regiment. 

The ceremony took place in a large field, the battalion 
marching from the billets, where it was being held in 
reserve, having left the front line for rest. General 
Edwards and his chief of staff were present, as was Brig- 
adier-General Cole, commanding the brigade. 

General Passaga, in his gray-blue uniform, arrived in a 
big automobile and was greeted by the American officers. 
With his aide. General Passaga advanced to the colors of 
the 104th, followed by General Edwards, and pinned the 
Croix de Guerre to them. He said: "I am proud to 
decorate the flag of a regiment which has shown such 
fortitude and courage. I am proud to decorate the 
flag of a nation which has come to aid in the fight for 
liberty." 

He then decorated Colonel Shelton and the remainder 
of the oflScers and men who had been cited. Among 
these were Father Des Saulles, the Knights of Columbus 

76 




Captain Nathaniel S. Simpkins (deceased), Second Aide-de-Camp 
to Major-General Clarence R. Edwards 




Members of Twenty-sixth Division leaving for the Front, France 




Captain H. M. Howe inspecting Members of Company C, 101st 
Ammunition Train, in France 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

chaplain, and the Rev. Walter Danker of Worcester, the 
Protestant chaplain, who was later killed. 

The order which resulted in these decorations was 
issued by General Passaga, and read as follows : — 

Thirty-second Army Corps, 

Headquarters, April 26, 1918. 

Staff G-1. 
General Orders, 
No. 737-A. 



1 



General Passaga, in command of the Thirty-second Army 
Corps, mentions in the army corps dispatches : — 

One Hundred and Fourth Infantry Regiment, U. S. A., 
under command of Colonel G. H. Shelton: — 

For greatest fighting spirit and self-sacrifice during action of April 
10, 12 and 13, 1918. Suffering from very heavy bombardments and 
attacked by very strong German forces succeeded in preventing their 
dangerous advance, and with greatest energy reconquered at the 
point of the bayonet the few ruined trenches which had to be aban- 
doned at the first onset, at the same time making prisoners. 

General Passaga, 
Commanding Thirty-second Army Corps. 

A few days previously the following was issued : — 

Headquarters Twenty-sixth Division, 

American Expeditionary Force, 

France, April 15, 1918. 

General Orders,! 
No. 29. j 

1. The following General Order, issued by the general com- 
manding the Thirty-second Army Corps, French, is published 
for the information of this command : — 



77 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Eighth Army, Thirty-second Army Corps Staff-, 

Third Bureau, Headquarters, April 14, 1918. 

No. 1870-3. 
General Orders, 
No. 124. 

On April 12, just past, the enemy, supported by powerful artillery, 
made an attack in force on the lines held by the left of the Twenty- 
sixth American Division and the right of the Tenth Colonial Division. 

The struggle continued throughout the day and the nigbt of April 12 
and 13. 

In the course of the engagement, thanks to the vigorous and repeated 
counter attacks of the Americans and of our Colonials, the enemy, in 
spite of his superiority in numbers, was thrown back from several 
trench positions where he had gained a foothold, and left in our hands 
more than forty prisoners and a large number of dead. 

During this fight, carried on under a severe bombardment, the 
American troops gave proof not only of their splendid courage, which 
we know, but also of a brotherhood in arms which was absolute and 
ever present. 

With such men as these the cause of liberty is sure to triumph, 

Passaga. 
Headquarters, April 14, 1918. 

General Passaga, commanding the Thirty-second Army Corps. 

2. The division may well be proud of such praises from one 
so well qualified to speak of merit on the battlefield. I con- 
gratulate the entire command, and desire especially to mention 
the gallant conduct of the Third Battalion, 104th Infantry, 
Second Battalion, 104th Infantry, and Company C, 103d 
IMachine Gun Battalion, Vv^ho bore the brunt of the fight, 
as well as Batteries D, E and F, 101st Field Artillery, three 
platoons of 90 m.m. guns, manned by men of the 101st Field 
Artillery, and the 101st Trench Mortar Battery, whose able 
support of the infantry and machine guns made victory possible. 

C. R. Edwards, 
Major-General, Commanding. 



78 



CHAPTER IX 
How They ** Kept the Faith " 

The exercises connected with the awarding of decora- 
tions were an ordeal to many of the men concerned. It 
is related how when General Passaga was pinning the 
Croix de Guerre on members of the 104th Regiment, one 
boy, whose bravery had been of a superhuman order, 
turned pale and fainted. French officers stated that this 
was common, and that it was generally the most indom- 
itable fighter who was most affected. 

It was during this time, when one of the regiments 
was in billets, that its colonel made an address to the men 
which, for frankness and straight from the shoulder 
expressions of opinion, had never been equaled in the 
division. 

He prefaced his remarks by recalling a talk he had 
given the outfit before starting for the front. 

I asked you then [said the colonel], to have faith in me. I 
ask you now whether I have kept that faith, and whether what 
I told you then was true, and whether I have helped to redeem 
the promises I made you? 

I feel that you have kept faith, and because of what you 
have done I am proud of you; your superiors, the American 
Army and your country are proud of you. 

I told you three months ago that we were going to the front. 
We did, and we gave a good account of ourselves. Then we 
were sent to another front; we have here given an even better 
account of ourselves, and for this you are largely to be thanked. 

I warn you that the end is not here; after our rest we shall 
be back in the line somewhere. Wherever we are, I count on 

79 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

you for the same loyal service you have given, the same grit, 
the same determination to meet the Boche and to do him. 

Don't let any one get the idea that we have done our full 
part, for we may be called on soon to do more. 

We are now in a rest period. But I have some bad news for 
you; while resting we shall probably be requested to amuse 
ourselves by putting up barbed wire. 

I asked you to exercise self-control in that other talk and 
you did. Courts-martial were wiped out. There has been a 
little reaction, and I am appealing to you once more on this 
score. 

After all, it is up to you to keep your comrades from going 
A. W. O. L, I don't want a yellow man in the regiment, and 
when there is one I want you to help me get rid of him. And 
the next time we go in — and it may be soon — I want you 
to see that every man of your own squad is on his job. 

Now, in spite of the presence of the chaplain, I'm going to 
preach a little hate. You know now what war is, and you have 
seen the men, face to face, who produced this war. In your 
hearts you know the Boche is yellow. You have shown that, 
man for man, you are the better. And you can beat him at his 
own nasty game, if he is bound to fight that way. 

You have seen your fellows hit and you have taken prisoners, 
4 to 1, I believe. But that's not enough. 

The Boche is a bully and he is always yellow. He can fight, 
and he will go on fighting beyond where we can win. He will 
try every nasty trick to kill you and to make you suffer. Don't 
forget that. When you meet him remember what he has done. 
I shan't be satisfied with even 40 to 1, and I don't want you to 
be. Get every one you can. Go in cool of head, but with hatred 
in your hearts and venom in your bayonets. Every Boche 
killed brings the end of the war nearer. 

The next engagement was in the rear of Fleury on 
May 20, the division having taken over two more kilo- 
meters of line on the right to relieve the French division. 

80 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The Boche heard of it and attacked. Major McCarthy's 
battahon of the 101st defended the sahent. 

The attack was a failure. As the enemy came over, 
he was met with a smashing rifle and machine-gun fire 
which took the heart out of him and forced him to retreat. 
During the engagement Major McCarthy sent back 
word to divisional headquarters at Boucq: "We're ready 
for them, but they are not coming over fast enough." 

Probably the most interesting event during the Twenty- 
Sixth's occupancy of this sector was the early morning 
when a battalion of gas engineers put on a projector gas 
attack on the unsuspecting Boche in the vicinity of 
Fleury. Very little gas had been used by the Yankees up 
to this time. 

Major Watson, commanding the gas battalion, was 
greatly pleased with the encouragement received from 
General Edwards, and made finished preparation for this 
attack. The projectors were placed under ideal condi- 
tions, and the atmospheric conditions were most favor- 
able. It was learned from prisoners late that night that 
a regimental relief was going on when the projector gas 
was put over, and they estimated that 2,500 Bodies were 
evacuated. 

It is known as a fact that within an hour following the 
attack the Boche was desperate. He turned loose all the 
artillery he had and peppered the entire sector without 
any regard for where he was shooting. All the towns in 
the back area, including Boucq, were subjected to bom- 
bardment by long range guns. 

The next event of importance on this sector was the 
raid of Major Hickey's battalion of the 101st Infantry at 
Reichecourt. Four or five days before the raid, about 
May 25 or 20, the battalion was withdrawn from the line 
and was taken to the rear. Here a place had been chosen 

81 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

as nearly like the terrain of the German lines as possible. 
Aerial photographs furnished the necessary information 
from which trenches like the Germans' were laid out. 
There were also dugouts and machine gun emplacements. 
The men of the battalion were then sent into these imi- 
tation trenches, and for several days they practiced 
taking them. 

On the night of May 30 the divisional artillery laid 
down a barrage and gassed the German second and third 
lines and communication trenches. Then the battalion 
went over. They found a few Boches left in the trenches, 
and these they killed or captured. The remainder had 
been destroyed by the artillery. This was the first big 
all- American raid. 

During these engagements the majority of the orders 
were transmitted by telephone. There was constant tele- 
phonic communication between divisional headquarters 
and brigade and regimental commands. 

On the morning of Sunday June 16, about 3.30, a 
German plane came over and dropped bombs on Boucq, 
where divisional headquarters were located, and Roy- 
au-Meix and Juy-sous-les-Cotes, the towns in which 
the headquarters of the two brigades were functioning. 
These bombs were undoubtedly dropped so that the 
Boche artillery could get the range. 

The division suffered quite a few casualties, due to the 
erratic fire. Also, as there were no dugouts at Boucq, 
it became necessary to move divisional headquarters to 
Trondes, where the staff could function. 

One shell landed in the midst of a crowd of men who 
had just come from church at Roy-au-Meix. Several cas- 
ualties resulted, one of those killed being Chaplain 
Danker. General Shelton's orderly was another. He 
seemed to know by intuition where the shell was going 

82 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

to burst, and threw himself between his commanding 
officer and the deadly projectile. The orderly was killed 
but Shelton received only a wound in the cheek, while 
his uniform, a new one that he had put on to wear to 
church, was torn in several places by splinters. 

The last engagement in this sector was at Xivray on 
this date. The Boche laid down a terrific barrage, and 
then advanced in three columns, two from the north and 
one from the west. The enemy intended to surround 
and capture the garrison, which was made up partly of 
the 103d Infantry and Company D of the 103d Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

One of the enemy columns tried to get in behind from 
the west and was annihilated by machine-gun fire. The 
other two columns became confused under the treatment 
they were receiving and fell back, leaving a number of 
prisoners and many dead. The corps commander said of 
this that it was the most brilliant piece of work he had 
seen on any front. 

The Germans had brought in long-range railway guns 
near the foot of Mont Sec, which opened up and dropped 
shells on the headquarters towns. A barrage was then 
laid down on the first line at Xivray-Marvoisson, where 
the 103d Infantry was holding. About 4 o'clock a strong 
force came over and attacked. They got as far as the 
village of Xivray when the Yankees made a stand. The 
Germans did not get into the town. The few platoons of 
New Englanders who were holding the front line then 
counter attacked and drove the Boche back to his own 
lines. Several prisoners were captured by the Americans, 
whose casualties were slight. 

Six hundred Germans were in the raiding party which 
had for its object the envelopment of the ruins of Xivray- 
Marvoisson. Before the raid had really started, the 

83 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

American observers saw the Boche in front of his own 
hnes, called for artillery and machine-gun barrage, and 
created considerable havoc before the German barrage 
started. 

The Germans went forward, and one officer took a 
platoon across the road running from Xivray to Boucin- 
ville, following his own barrage. One of his men being 
wounded, he stopped to ascertain the extent of the inju- 
ries. On looking up he beheld a group of Yankees with 
fixed bayonets dashing at him, while his own party had 
disappeared. The German officer surrendered, but later 
complained bitterly about Yankee tactics. "The Ameri- 
cans had no right to be where they were," he said. "They 
were coming right through the German barrage and 
might have been absolutely wiped out." 

In the meantime the reserve units had gone forward 
automatically to the relief of the Yankees in the front 
line, and the Boche was once more driven off. 

It was during this time that Captain Henry D. Com- 
erais, on the staff of Colonel Logan, was wounded. He 
was working on a map hanging on a wall in the head- 
quarters of the 101st Infantry, up near the front. Colonel 
Logan had just left his seat by the window when a frag- 
ment of shell flew by the spot where he had been seated, 
and, striking Captain Comerais on the right hand, tore 
most of it away. His absence in the hospital as a result 
was a great loss to Colonel Logan. 

Before and after these engagements small raids were 
being carried out. The results were not of sufficient 
importance to obtain mention in the daily intelligence 
bulletins. Nevertheless, these raids frequently developed 
instances of dare-devil bravery and quick thinking which 
were typically American. 

On one occasion Lieutenant Thomas J. Quirk and 

84 




Marceau 



Major John W. Hyatt 




Unclerwooil tV Underwood, New York 

Sergeant John Latzig, Company E, 104th Infantry, 
with First German captured by an American 
Soldier, February 17, 1918 




Guarding an Old German Dugout, Bois d'Esparges, France, Septem- 
ber 12, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

thirty-six men worked through the Boche wire by means 
of a gateway which the enemy kept open for his own 
patrols. The patrol managed to get into the town of 
Apremont, well inside the German lines, when they were 
discovered. 

Before the Yankees could take cover a burst of machine- 
gun fire got six men. Lieutenant Quirk decided that his 
party were too few in number to stay and fight it out. 
He gave the order for the men to retrace their steps. This 
they did, taking the wounded with them. On arriving 
at the gate in the wire they found that the opening was 
being swept by a hail of machine-gun bullets, through 
which no man might pass. After a short time devoted to 
deliberation of the problem, the oflBcer decided that all 
the bullets were flying at least 2 feet above the ground. 
Whereupon he ordered his men to lie down and roll 
through, which they did, dragging their wounded with 
them. Every man got back to the Yankee trenches. 



85 



CHAPTER X 
Boche Beaten at Own Game 

And so the days and nights dragged by. The New 
Englanders had by this time found themselves. They 
were confident and assured, knowing that they had 
received everything the Boche had to offer, and had 
beaten him at his own game. 

They had stood all sorts of hardships uncomplainingly, 
had gone without sleep, food and equipment. And worst 
of all, they had lived in horrible mud and the almost 
continual rain without any lowering of morale. As a 
matter of fact, they had grown stronger, and bore them- 
selves with a quiet self-confidence which had been lacking 
in the days of training at Neuf chateau. 

While the Twenty-sixth Division occupied the Toul 
sector, it was visited by Elsie Janis, the famous actress. 
She immediately became extremely popular with the men, 
and called the Twenty-sixth "my division." The young 
woman, who was accompanied by her mother, wore three 
silver stars, so that she could outrank General Edwards, 
and Captain "Al" Ford was made her chief of staff. She 
remained three or four days, giving outdoor entertain- 
ments, and cheered the men up. Miss Janis paid the 
division three visits in all. 

On May 25 the Germans had started a drive on the 
Chemin des Dames, which the Twenty-sixth had pre- 
viously occupied. In order that the French on the Toul 
sector might send units to take part in this battle, the 
Yankee Division troops took over two more kilometers 
of front, making 20 kilometers they were holding alto- 

86 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

gether, or more than twice the size of a normal sector. 
The line extended from Boucainville up to Limay, and 
included both places. 

Owing to the great width of the sector, the problem of 
bringing up food and ammunition was a tremendous one. 
The roads were continually under shell fire, and during 
the various engagements the truck drivers worked night 
and day. During the Bois Brule fight, which lasted 
five days and five nights, the guns consumed enormous 
quantities of shells, but Seicheprey was the worst with 
which the men had had to deal. During this engagement 
the men of the ammunition train worked forty-eight 
hours steadily, despite the fact that Colonel Keville in 
command had attempted to arrange eight-hour shifts. 

The road leading from Beaumont to Fleury ran prac- 
tically parallel with the front, along a ridge of high ground 
part of the way. The road from Beaumont left Fleury 
road and wound down i^ito a valley, toward Mandres, 
with a sharp curve. This was the famous Dead Man's 
Curve, and was the scene of many casualties. A camou- 
flaged battery was located in the vicinity and the German 
shells were continually seeking it. 

Throughout the Seicheprey engagement ammunition 
and supplies were continually brought over this road, 
notwithstanding the enemy shells. As a result the mem- 
bers of the ammunition train came out with casualties 
and not a few decorations. 

One of the French regiments relieved by the Twenty- 
sixth was the 162d, commanded by Colonel Bertrand. 
He had been wounded six times and wore the Legion of 
Honor, the Military Medal and the Croix de Guerre. 
His regiment had also been cited many times, and was one 
of the elite organizations of the French Army. Colonel 
Bertrand, who was later seriously wounded and promoted 

87 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

to brigadier-general, always led his men into action, 
sometimes mounted and sometimes on foot. 

On the last of June an order was received to the effect 
that the New Englanders would be relieved by the Eighty- 
second American Division, less its artillery, and a French 
division which had just come out of the big offensive in 
the vicinity of Soissons. The relief occupied three days 
and nights. Fifty-two thousand troops were in motion 
in this one sector during the three days of relief. So 
well, however, were the plans for the relief, prepared by 
the staff of the Twenty -sixth, executed that the Boche 
had no intimation that relief was going on, and not a 
single casualty resulted. This was something unprece- 
dented in the history of relief. 

The division concentrated in the next few days in the 
vicinity of Toul, with Boche airplanes hovering over- 
head and continually dropping bombs. 

Then orders came for the division to proceed to a new 
area, the location of which was not designated. How- 
ever, information had been received that the division 
was to be stationed in Pantin, a suburb of Paris, and 
every one was jubilant. All believed that the Yankee 
Division was to march in the July 4th parade in Paris. 
Equipment was furbished up, and plans were made to 
enjoy the leaves which every one was sure would be given. 
The men had had but two days' rest up to this time, and 
they felt that they were entitled to a change from the 
life at the front. 

The troops piled aboard the combination horse and 
passenger trains which pulled out with their shouting 
and singing freight. As the trains passed the tiny French 
villages the men cheered and enthusiastically returned 
the waving and cheering of the inhabitants. 

Before the first train had reached Pantin, however, the 

88 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

men experienced acute disappointment. The station 
was changed to Noissy-le-Sec, and the trains started 
back for the front. It then dawned on every one that 
the division was destined to go back into Hne. 

The trains were dispatched to detraining points in the 
vicinity of Meaux and Le Ferte, close to the sector lying 
to the north of Chateau-Thierry. 

On the 1st and 2d of July orders came in to relieve the 
Second with the famous 5th and 6th Regiments of Marines, 
which at Bois Belleau had stood off one of the worst of 
the German drives. The marines and the remainder of 
the Second Division had suffered heavily in withstanding 
this push, and were badly in need of rest. 

On the 6tli of July the Yankee Division had one brigade 
of infantry in line, and the Second Division had one 
brigade of infantry out. Then the Boche started the 
Marne offensive, called the second battle of the Marne. 
It was believed that this would extend to the north of 
Chateau-Thierry, and orders came from the higher com- 
mand to dispense with the relief. General Bundy, com- 
manding the Second Division, was told to hold the 
advanced sector with the troops he had, including one 
brigade of the Twenty-sixth. General Edwards, with 
his division, less the one brigade of infantry, and plus 
the one brigade of the Second Division, was told to hold 
the second line. 

This situation continued three or four days, until it 
was clearly indicated that the Boche would not extend 
his operations north of Chateau-Thierry. An order then 
came to renew the relief. 

The division came up to the Chateau-Thierry sector 
with the knowledge on the part of the stiiff officers that 
what had gone before was practically child's play to what 
was to come. They anticipated the break-through, but 

89 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

it is doubtful if any one realized that this battle was to 
be the turning point of the war, and that much of the 
success gained there by allied arms would be due to the 
Twenty-sixth Division. 

Not even General Edwards, confident as he was of the 
ability of his men, realized that it was here they were to 
make a name for themselves which would go ringing 
down the corridors of time; that the story of their dogged 
pertinacity, dare-devil courage and sheer cold nerve, 
which carried them forward when their overworked 
brains refused to function, would be hailed as the most 
remarkable exliibition of fighting efficiency that had as 
yet been seen. 

As the division took over the sector General Edwards 
issued the following : — 

Headquarters Twenty-sixth Division, 

American Expeditionary Forces, 
France, July 11, 1918. 

General Orders,! 
No. 60. / 

1. At the moment that the Twenty -sixth Division takes up 
its position on its third sector in three months it is fitting and 
proper that the division commander should take this oppor- 
tunity to thank and congratulate the officers and men of the 
Yankee Division on the record that they achieved, since the 
division actively took its place in the fighting lines of the 
allies for the common cause. 

2. You have been taken from a sector where in three battles 
you have shown that the blood of New England has not atten- 
uated, and that the same spirit and traditions which your fore- 
fathers made glorious at Lexington and at Bunker Hill still 
survive in the generation which at Bois Brule, Seicheprey, 
Humbert Plantation and Xivray have met and defeated the 
picked troops of the enemy. His four years of experience in 
active warfare and the ferocity of his methods have not daunted 

00 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

you, and on every occasion where you have been called upon 
to face him you have distinguished yourself with notable valor, 
and brought credit upon your division and upon the people of 
New England from which you have come to engage in this 
righteous conflict. 

3, A great honor has been conferred upon the whole division 
in that the French and American high command has at this 
time picked your division to come into this critical sector. 
That you have been so hurried to this sector is the evidence to 
you all of the opinion of the high command of the mettle of 
which this division is constituted. 

4. The past months in battle have brought men and oflBcers 
into that close union of confidence and affection which have 
resulted in the growing morale of this division. Looking back 
on the past four months with its spotless record and known 
achievements, which have been recognized by both France and 
America, it is with unqualified faith in the future and pride 
of the past that I see the Twenty-sixth Division go into a new 
sector, certain in my conviction that the men of New England 
will prove once more that they are capable of every effort and 
every sacrifice which the future may demand of them. 

C. R. Edwards, 
Major-General, Commanding. 



91 



CHAPTER XI 

" Saviors of Paris " 

The entire Second Division was immediately relieved, 
concentrated in the Meaux area, and the majority re- 
moved to Soissons. The Yankee Division men took 
over the sector on an extended front, and were the only 
troops between Chateau-Thierry and Paris. As a result 
of their defence of this line they received the name of 
the "Saviors of Paris." 

Then Marshal Foch pulled off the boldest stroke 
of the war. With the Boche very much occupied to the 
east of Chateau-Thierry in the second battle of the 
Marne, with his reserves drawn there in support of 
operations. General Foch decided it was an opportune 
moment for a counter attack to the right of the Boche 
right flank; that is, on the sector north and west of 
Chateau-Thierry. Chateau-Thierry was the nose of 
a big salient, and was the pivot of Foch's plan to envelop, 
by an advance towards the east and south, the Boche 
in the salient. It was a bold stroke in that he had no 
reserves, yet he knew that the Boche had pulled all his 
reserves away to strengthen his attack on the Marne. 

At this time Colonel Shelton had been promoted to 
brigadier-general, and was in command of the Fifty- 
First Infantry Brigade, General Traub having been trans- 
ferred to another division ; General Cole still commanded 
the Fifty-Second Infantry Brigade, while Colonel Sher- 
burne of the 101st Field Artillery had been made brigadier- 
general and commanded the artillery brigade. 

"The Stars and Stripes," the paper published behind 

92 




Colonel George W. Bunnell 




Underwood & Underwood, New York 
Wild Boar, Mascot of M. D. S. Riders, Boucq, France, 

April 4, 1918 





V /f 



WMLit' 




/ 



"'■''. 




lOlst Ammunition Train Theatre, France 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

the lines by members of the American Expeditionary 
Forces, comprehensively described the part taken by the 
Twenty-sixth Division in this battle, as follows: — 

The sector northwest of Cli^teau-Thierry was not a pleasant 
place in the middle of July, 1918. The shallow and incomplete 
trenches extending from near Vaux and Bouresches around the 
east and north edges of the Bois de Belleau to a point near 
Bussares were under constant harassing fire from the German 
batteries running far back across the hills to the northeast, 
while German machine guns and snipers were comfortably 
installed all along the edges of the woods, the banks of the Ru 
Gobert creek, and in the ruined villages of Belleau and Torcy, 
close to the American front lines. 

After a week of existence under such circumstances the 
situation became irksome, and there was no regret or hesita- 
tion in the ranks of the Twenty-sixth, when, on the night of 
July 17, orders came from General Liggett, commanding the 
First United States Corps, to go over next morning and chase 
the Germans out. 

There was no hesitation, but from the tactical standpoint 
the problem was a diflScult one. As the division lay in sector, 
the 101st Infantry was on the extreme right near Vaux, facing 
north; then came the 102d Infantry, extending to a little 
beyond Bouresches, facing east; then the 104th Infantry, in 
the Bois de Belleau, facing east and northeast; and then the 
103d Infantry, on the extreme left, facing northeast and north. 

By the terms of the general counter-offensive the Twenty- 
sixth Division was to act as a pivot until the bulge in the allied 
front running northwest toward the Forest de Villers-Cot- 
terets should be hammered in. This required the left of the 
division to attack northward and northeastward, pivoting on 
Bouresches and guiding on the One hundred and Sixty-seventh 
French Division to its left, never getting ahead of the latter, 
but swinging gradually to the northeast until the whole front to 
its left should have been straightened. 

This accomplished, it would next be necessary for the right 

93 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

of the division to attack, half of it to the eastward and half of 
it to the northward, conquer the woods in front, and then 
execute a half turn to the northeast to bring itself in alignment 
with the general front. Then, and then only, a straightaway 
advance to the northeast would be in order. It was a problem 
for Yankee ingenuity to solve, and as usual it was solved. 

Three support battalions of General Cole's brigade went 
through the front line without artillery preparation, but covered 
by a neutralization fire from the batteries of the 101st Field 
Artillery, at 4.35 o'clock that morning, — the 2d Battalion 
of the 103d Infantry, charging northeast out of the Bois de 
Belleau to take the railroad line in the creek valley between 
Bouresches and Belleau; the 3d Battalion of the 104th going 
north to take Belleau and Givry and the railroad between them; 
and the 3d Battalion of the 103d, on the left, also going north 
to take Torcy and the railroad beyond. 

A hea\y morning mist favored the attack, and the enemy 
— the Two hundred and First Division of General von Boehn's 
Seventh German Army — was taken by surprise. At 5.40 a.m. 
a signal rocket, thrown up from Torcy, announced to the 
American observation posts that Major Southard's men were 
in the town, which, in fact, they immediately went beyond, 
taking the railroad grade and creek bank, where they consoli- 
dated their position. 

The center battalion, becoming confused in the darkness of 
the Bois de Belleau, had its attack delayed and did not jump off 
until 7.30. But then, although the enemy was now thoroughly 
aroused and making a vigorous resistance, the Americans 
went through everything, — cleaned up Belleau and then 
Givry in a sharp bayonet fight which was over by 8.30, and 
then, emulating the Union troops at Missionary Ridge, rushed 
on half-way up the slopes of Hill 193, north of Givry, before 
they could be stopped. 

This hill, however, was in the sector of the One hundred and 
Sixty-seventh French Division, and though the advancing 
troops of the latter were still far from it, the Americans were 
recalled and the German machine gunners reoccupied it, as 

94 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

from it they had a commanding enfilade fire westward along 
the front of the One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division, and 
a still better fire southward on any position the Americans 
might take up along the creek valley or the hills east of it, as 
far as Bouresches. 

This last fact had a direct bearing on the attack of the Ameri- 
can right battalion which went over, with the center battalion, 
at 7.30 and captured the railroad and also the creek beyond, 
but was obliged to fall back from the latter and to remain 
clinging only with the greatest difficulty to the railroad grade, 
owing to the enfilade from Hill 193. Here Captain Hosford's 
men, burrowing out fox-holes along the grade, stayed all day, 
while many such acts of heroism were performed as those of 
Mechanic J. A. Thibodeau, who aided the wounded under 
fire until a shot in the hand prevented him from carrying 
stretchers any longer, when he joined the line and continued 
fighting until shot again in the leg. 

But across the fire-swept belt in rear of them it was im- 
possible to bring supplies of ammunition, and after dark they 
fell back to the edge of the woods, the detachment of the 102d 
Infantry, which had gone forward with them and taken the 
Bouresches railroad station, contriving to remain in possession 
of this slightly less exposed point. 

The battalion in Torcy and that under Major Lewis in Bel- 
leau and Givry were not so badly off where they lay, but the 
ground between them and the woods was an inferno, and on 
it out of 22 runners going back and forth with messages during 
the day, 5 were killed and 12 wounded, only a few getting 
through, as did Private John W. Roy, Company H, who deliv- 
ered one message after seeing three preceding rimners killed 
and one wounded on the same route which he took. 

There was nothing now for the Twenty-sixth to do but 
hold on grimly and wait for the One Hundred and Sixty -seventh 
Division to attain its first objective, the line Givry-Monthiers, 
which included the summit of Hill 193. On the evening of the 
18th the French were nearly up to Licy-Clignon, and the next 
evening they were circling the western base of Hill 193. So, 

95 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

assuming that they would take the hill in a simultaneous assault, 
a general advance of the Twenty-sixth Division was ordered 
for 3 o'clock on the afternoon of the 20th, the object being to 
align the whole front facing northeast on an intermediate 
objective hne along the hill crests beyond the creek valley, and 
extending from Les Brusses Farm, about a kilometer east of 
Belleau, through Hill 190 to La Goneterie Farm. 

There was no preliminary fire by the corps artillery, but 
under such barrage as could be afforded by that of the division 
the attack went off on time. On the division right the assault 
troops of General Shelton's Fifty-first Brigade successfully 
solved their difficult problem, the 3d Battalion of the 102d 
Infantry, on the left, going northeast into the Bois de Bou- 
resches and clearing it, after which, on the other flank, the 
3d Battalion of the 101st Infantry drove north into the Bois 
de la Halmardiere, echeloning on the left when in contact 
with the other battalion, and thus swinging itself to face north- 
east also. 

On the division left, the Fifty-second Brigade had a harder 
time. The shifting of battalions under the enemy's fire from a 
front facing north to make an attack eastward involved some 
nice maneuvering, but Major Lewis' tired men w'ent out of 
Belleau, up the railroad, across the creek and took Les Brusses 
Farm on schedule time, while Major Hanson's 1st Battalion 
of the 103d Infantry, leaving the Bois de Belleau and sur- 
mounting the same obstacles a little farther south, rushed 
several machine-gun nests, took some prisoners, guns and 
ammunition, and was firmly in possession of Hill 190 and in 
liaison with the troops in the Bois de Bouresches by 6 p.m. 
But unfortunately, the One Hundred and Sixty-seventh French 
Division, in two gallant assaults, was unable to take Hill 193, 
and through the night the German machine guns so swept the 
American left that the captors of Les Brusses Farm were 
isolated there. 

The nut, however, was cracked. On the morning of the 
21st the Germans, reeling from their repulse along CO bloody 
miles to the eastward, and fearful now of being strangled 

96 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

out of Chdteau-Thierry between the Twenty-sixth and Third 
United States and the Thirty-ninth French Divisions, were 
in full retreat. 

Leaving behind them at last the woods and the fields in 
which for more than seven weeks, while the wheat ripened and 
the poppies bloomed and faded, the doggedness of America 
had been pitted against the stubbornness of Germany, the 
Twenty-sixth swept forward in pursuit. 

All day long it was a matter of marching across xountry 
in columns headed by advance guards, and it was not until 
near evening, after a march of nearly 9 kilometers had carried 
the advance far across the Soissons-Chdteau-Thierry highway, 
that heavy machine-gun fire stopped the forward movement 
and brought warning that the enemy had made a stand in 
the broad, shallow creek valley in which lie the tiny villages 
of Trugny and, a kilometer north of it, Epieds. 

Half a kilometer east of the villages, up the gently sloping 
fields, was the leafy margin of the Bois de Trugny, bristling, 
of course, with hidden machine guns, and spreading out south- 
ward into the greater forest of the Bois de Barbillon. The 
same old allied divisions, in fact, were up against the point of 
the same old German salient, somewhat blunted, since it had 
dropped back 6 kilometers from Chdteau-Thierry, but still 
a point, with the Twenty-sixth United States on one side of 
it, the Thirty-ninth French tearing blindly at the apex in the 
obscurity of the Bois de Barbillon, and the Third United States 
on the other side scaling the ravines from the Marne, with its 
left flank at Mont St. Pere, not 4 kilometers from Trugny. 

Excepting for the advance guard under Major Lewis, most 
of the troops of the Twenty-sixth snatched a few hours' rest 
two or three kilometers west of the German machine guns in 
Epieds and Trugny, and along the country road between. 
But at gray dawn they assaulted, one battalion each of the 
103d and the 104th Infantry advancing on Epieds, two and 
one-liulf battalions of the 101st moving along the edge of the 
Bois de Barbillon, about a kilometer south of Trugny, in an 
attempt to flank the villages. 

»7 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The divisional batteries, emplaced four or five kilometers 
back, did not know where the front lines were, and could not 
deliver an effective barrage, while the enemy's artillery, ad- 
justed by airplanes, poured in a deluge of gas and high explo- 
sives. Moreover, there was an uncaptured German machine- 
gun stronghold at La Gouttiere Farm, in the sector of the 
One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division, which galled the 
assaulting troops in left flank and rear. 

Yet the men of the left and center went, 1,000 or more, into 
the edges of Trugny and Epieds before they were turned back, 
while the 101st Machine Gun Battalion, skirting with the 
infantry of its regiment the Bois de Barbillon, penetrated the 
Bois de Trugny, and, when finally forced back by concentrated 
fire, stopped defiantly directly south of Trugny and stayed 
there, on the enemy's flank. Three battalions of General 
Cole's troops repeated the attack on the left in the afternoon, 
but with no better success, for La Gouttiere Farm was still 
untaken, the One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division being 
engaged all day in a bitter struggle beating off German counter- 
attacks, — a struggle in which the Twenty-sixth Division 
artillery several times took a hand by extending its zone of 
fire entirely across the One Hundred and Sixty-seventh's sector. 

Liaison was very difficult under such conditions, but it was 
maintained by men like Corporal J. L. Casey, Company I, 
102d Infantry, who once established communication between 
his own and the regiment on the left across an open field 500 
yards wide after three other men had been killed by machine 
guns in making the attempt. 

The location of the American front line being more accurately 
known on the morning of the 23d, the artillery prepared the 
way by fire of destruction for a renewal of the attack from 
the right flank on the Bois de Trugny, which was made by the 
101st Infantry, extended to the left by the 2d Battalion of the 
101st Engineers, under Major Greenway. 

At first handsome progress was made, and at noon the battle 
line was in the eastern part of the woods. But later it en- 
countered concentrations of machine guns in front and on 

98 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

both flanks so numerous and so skilfully concealed that they 
could not be overcome, and the assailants, after suffering heavy 
losses, were forced to fall back to the other edge of the woods, 
leaving a good many wounded men among the trees. The 
intensity of the struggle here was illustrated by such acts as 
that of Sergeant J. W. Casey, Company F, who, after capturing 
with his platoon two machine-gun nests and killing the occu- 
pants, dashed out single-handed and killed three German 
snipers who were shooting at his men. 

The division by this time was so wearied by its losses and its 
desperate fighting that during the night the corps command 
placed Brigadier-General Wilham Weigel's Fifty-sixth Infantry 
Brigade of the Twenty-eighth United States Division at the 
disposal of General Edwards, to assist in carrying forward the 
attack. Dispositions were made accordingly, but about 4 
o'clock on the morning of the 24th patrols found that the 
enemy, like a fencer on guard, had again jumped back. 

Once more came the majestic forward sw^eep of the allied 
battle front across the hills, the Twenty-sixth following in its 
sector with the motorized 101st Machine Gun Battalion (divi- 
sional) in lieu of cavalry, leading the pursuit in the direction 
of the Jaulgonne-Fere-en-Tardenois highway, a good 5}/^ 
kilometers northeast of the Bois de Trugny. Pushing through 
the central part of the Foret de Fere, the advance was held 
up just west of the road early in the evening by machine-gun 
fire, coming from the clearing and the massively constructed 
buildings of La Croix Rouge Farm. 

The flank divisions having also been stopped by opposition 
along the same line, the Twenty-sixth waited for daylight to 
resume the push toward the Ourcq, but before that time the 
arrival of the Forty-second United States Division by autobus 
permitted the weary Twenty-sixth to be at last relieved. Leav- 
ing the 51st Artillery Brigade and the 101st Engineers to go 
on for a time with the fresh division, the Twenty-sixth marched 
back to a rest area at Etrepilly, the command of the front sector 
passing from General Edwards to General Menoher at 7 p.m., 
July 25. 

99 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The division, in its eight days of continuous battle, had 
advanced a distance of 18}/^ kilometers, captured about 250 
prisoners, four field-pieces, numerous machine guns, one pon- 
toon train and quantities of ammunition. Its losses had been 
about 5,300 officers and men, of whom 600 were killed. The 
general commanding estimated that the permanent losses, 
including killed, missing and badly wounded or gassed, were 
about 2,000, many of the casualties being due to the fact that 
the division, after gaining its first objectives, had to wait during 
two days under severe fire for the forces to the left to come up 
to the line established at the pivot by "New England's Own." 



100 




Colonel W. E. Sweetser 




Underwood & Underwood, New York 

Decoration of Regimental Colors of 104th Infantry (the First Ameri- 
can Regiment decorated with Croix de Guerre for Bravery under 
Fire), Boucq, France, April 23, 1918 




I iiIiTiiat iiiiial liliii SiT\"ii'i', [uc. 

Members of lOlst and 103d Field Artillery, Rangeval, France, 

April 29, 1918 



CHAPTER XII 
Germans '* Pinched Out" 

The *'Sta,rs and Stripes'" description of the battle, 
while extremely comprehensive in the larger phases, 
naturally omits many important details which at the 
time it was impossible to secure. For instance, when 
the division was held up at Epieds and Trugny, they 
were ordered to make a frontal attack, after having 
already made two without success. General Edwards 
thought that would entail too great a sacrifice. 

He suggested a flank attack, which would require the 
division to move over to the right in the French sector 
to launch the attack. Permission was given to do this 
by the French corps commander on the right, and the 
attack was made, but met with very strong and deter- 
mined resistance. Then, at night, a situation arose that 
demanded immediate action. General Edwards called 
General Shelton on the telephone, and again gave him 
verbal orders to attack through the Trugny Wood, 
against which General Shelton and Colonel Logan advised. 
Nevertheless, General Edwards ordered this movement 
carried out and assumed the entire responsibility. His 
instructions were obeyed, with the result that the Ger- 
mans were pinched out of the stronghold, which made it 
possible for the division to advance with little resistance 
the following morning. 

We had so many casualties [said General Edwards, in speak- 
ing of this incident], that I went out and took a look for myself. 
"Stop it," I said, "You're disobeying the orders of your array 

101 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

commander," said General Shelton. I said: "There is one 
thing I'm going to take home with me, and that's my own 
self-respect. I asked them to go and they'd go. I've got to 
answer my own Leader: 'Have you done everything in your 
power to win that battle with the least number of casual- 
ties?'" 

I ordered the 101st up at Trumiere. Some one said it couldn't 
be done. I said: "It will be done. If necessary I will com- 
mand the leading battalion myself." 

Colonel Logan heard this. "General," he said, "if you 
want it done it certainly will be done." I was told that Logan 
said: "Tell General Edwards we will go any place under God's 
sky that he suggests." 

Captain McConnell led his command through those woods. 
There were machine-gun nests in the trees, fox-holes and 
snipers, and a gas barrage. Captain Leahy was killed. That 
night I heard that they had left 400 of their wounded. I told 
them to go back and recover the wounded and keep going. 
They had been fighting steadily for seven days. They marched 
forty-eight hours, night and day, without sitting down. General 
Shelton said they were near done. They would fall asleep 
against a tree and sleep sixteen hours. The word went down: 
"Edwards wants it," and they went through out of personal 
loyalty to me. There were many dead men, but the losses, 
as always, were exaggerated. 

When the Fifty-second Brigade relieved the marines in 
Belleau Wood I walked around with fingers crossed and did 
a little private praying. I was told of the large number of dead 
marines and Boches. I'm a crank on things that affect morale. 
It's a bad thing when making a relief to come on the dead 
bodies of comrades. I decided they must be buried before our 
men came in. I said: "Go and see if any of the engineers will 
volunteer." Their colonel said that every company would 
volunteer. That shows the camaraderie of this division. 
Standing two days under fire and going out to bury thousands 
of men. 

Captain "Nat" Simpkins, my aide, begged me to keep 

102 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

away from the front lines. I wouldn't pay any attention to 
him, and on the Marne I spent as much time with my boys as 
I could. 

On July 21 orders were received from the corps com- 
mander to move divisional headquarters from Mery-sur- 
Marne to Lucy-le-Bocage. The latter was formerly a 
village, but at this time there was nothing left but piles 
of stone which afforded no shelter. This place was 
located on the side of a hill and was under constant shell 
fire. The Yankee troops were moving forward at this 
time, but it was decided to set up the headquarters kitchen 
and serve luncheon. While luncheon was being served 
the enemy began to drop gas shells in the vicinity, and 
eating became a problem for General Edwards and his 
staff. At length Captain Hyatt, declaring that if he 
didn't eat he would die anyway, took off his mask and 
finished lunch, an example which was followed by the 
others. 

Headquarters was then moved to Grand Ru Farm, 
nearby, through fields covered with dead Germans. The 
farm had been a Boche dressing station, and there were 
a number of dead Germans in the barn. 

The place was in filthy condition, and it was necessary 
for it to be cleaned up before the staff could occupy it. 
The thousands of dead men and horses had attracted 
myriads of bluebottle flies, whose buzzing, of course, 
could not be heard over the tremendous din caused by the 
constant shelling. There w^as wreckage and debris every- 
where, a typical scene of death and destruction. Because 
of the flies, many of the men became aflSicted with acute 
dysentery. 

Owing to the fact that labor troops and engineers had 
been so busy in keeping up the roads, and also taking 

103 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

part in the fighting, it had been impossible for them to 
bury any of the dead. After the fight was over, and the 
Boche had been driven back, Captain Hyatt made a 
tour of the area, and saw thousands of German bodies. 
He also saw enormous quantities of ammunition brought 
in by the Germans for their offensive towards Paris. 
There were piles as large as houses, some of which the 
enemy had tried to blow up in his retreat, but without 
success. 

At Trugny the Yankees captured a German howitzer, 
which later found its way to Boston Common. The 
question as to how this was accomplished is answered by 
the following letter: — 

Headquarters Twenty-sixth Division, 

American Expeditionary Forces. 

From: Commanding General. 

To: Commanding General, First Army Corps. 

Subject: Disposition of Captured 210-m.m. Howitzer. 

1. The troops of my division captured several field pieces 
and other munitions, and also a 210 m.m. howitzer. This latter 
piece was captured by infantry on the 22d of July at Trugny. 

The piece is pretty well battered up, showing several shrapnel 
and shell-splinter wounds on the wheels of the piece, as well as 
the piece itself. 

2. I request authority to ship this piece to Boston, to be 
placed temporarily, at least, on the Boston Common as a 
capture of this division, pending its ultimate disposition. This 
piece is quite an unusual relic. It would delight everybody 
in New England, and I believe it would have a propaganda 
effect of stimulating recruiting. I understand this is not with- 
out precedent, as other units have sent pieces to West Point. 

3. I have this piece under guard at my headquarters, prop- 
erly marked, and in view of the possible immediate move of 
this division to some other locality I request that the piece 

104 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

be shipped to some A. E. F. base so that it may be forwarded 
to the destination I suggest. 

C. R. Edwards, 
Major-General. 

After the men of the Yankee Division had been fighting 
for six days or more without rest or sleep, their food was 
brought up and put into their mess kits. Each man would 
then seek a stump or rock to lean against, and it was a 
common occurrence to see men sitting down, sound 
asleep, with heaped-up mess kits in their hands. 

Literally thousands of citations, both divisional and 
French, were made as a result of the heroism of the 
members of the Twenty-sixth during this battle. French 
commanders showered General Edwards and his men with 
compliments, and declared that it was the most brilliant 
piece of work they had ever seen. 



105 



CHAPTER XIII 

General Degoutte's Tributes 

The following is General Degoutte's marginal comment 
given to the French press after the advance of the New 
Englanders at Chateau-Thierry : — 

If one wants to judge the offensive spirit which animates 
the Americans and their tactical methods, one has only to 
follow in detail the operations of a division since the beginning 
of our counter attack between Chateau-Thierry and Soissons. 

It was on the 18th, at 4 a.m., that the order to take the first 
line of German positions was received. The American division, 
whose movements we will relate, was at that time northwest of 
Chateau-Thierry, in the Bois de Belleau, at the pivot of the 
Degoutte Army. This division was made up of New England 
troops, and had taken the place of a division which took part 
in the operations of Belleau and Bouresches, and it wanted to 
distinguish itself as well as those €[\ie troops. But the divisions 
placed at the pivot have to advance slowly, according to the 
progress made by the wings. 

On the very first day it was necessary to moderate the order 
of the Americans, who would wilhngly have gone farther 
than the first objectives. Indeed, at the signal of the attack 
the American troops went with perfect discipline, in rear of 
the artillery barrage, to the Torcy-Belleau-Givry line and the 
railroad line up to the Bouresches station. They reached this 
line in one sweep, almost without meeting any resistance, and, 
excited by their success, they wanted to go farther. 

However, it was necessary, before continuing the general 
advance, to take Monthiers and Petret Wood, still strongly 
occupied by the Germans. There was hard fighting on the part 

106 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

of the French troops on the left to annihilate the resistance of 
the enemy. 

In order to relieve them, the Americans, on the evening of 
the 20th, made an enveloping maneuver which was crowned 
with success. With splendid valiance they went in one sweep 
as far as Etrepilly height, the Gonetrie Farm and Halmardiere. 
It was a model surprise attack, and it was a revelation of 
American audacity. Notwithstanding the machine-gun bar- 
rage and the enemy's islands of resistance, they advanced for 
2 kilometers, capturing three guns, a big minnenwerfer and 
numerous machine guns. Moreover, 200 prisoners were taken 
by the Americans. 

I could not have done better in a similar occasion, with my 
best troops. 

The Germans then found themselves in such an unfavorable 
position in Monthiers that they had to begin a retreat. 

On the 21st the whole German line was in retreat, and the 
Ch^teau-Thierry-Soissons highway was reached. The Ameri- 
cans were cleaning the ground and vigorously pursued the 
enemy's rear guard. 

On the 22d a battalion of Americans occupied Epieds. There 
was hard fighting in the village, and the enemy opened a violent 
barrage fire. The fight was in open country, and on that day 
it was not possible to take the village entirely. Rather than 
to sustain heavy losses the commander of the American divi- 
sion preferred to take his troops to the rear. It was necessary, 
if the difficulty was to be overcome, to start the surrounding 
movement again, and on the 23d the Americans sought to 
enter the Trugny Wood, south of Epieds. The Germans 
strongly opposed this attempt, and counter attacked with 
energy, but they learned at their expense what American 
tenacity is. Stopped once in the maneuver, the Americans 
occupied the fringe of the wood on the 24th, entered it delib- 
erately, took a whole company of German pioneers, and con- 
tinued their advance with such fury that about 3 p.m. they 
were at the fringe of the Fere Wood, and on the same evening 
had reached the road from Fere-en-Tardenois to Jaulgonne. 

107 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

This American division has, therefore, realized in three 
days an advance of as much as 17 kilometers at certain points, 
fighting continuously night and day, and displaying the finest 
military qualities. 

All the liaison services worked perfectly, both at the right 
and left wings, and between the units of the division, — a disci- 
pline which caused the Germans to wonder and admire ani- 
mated the attacking troops. They were marching with their 
oflBcers at the head of the column and their bodyguards on the 
flanks, as the French troops. The German prisoners were 
astonished. "We do not see often those who command us," 
they declared to their captors; "you're lucky; like the French 
you are led to the fight by your officers." The French and 
American high commands worked during the action in as close 
a harmony as the troops. 

The general commanding the division in question is a leader 
of men, broad-minded, precise in his orders, of practical mind, 
who, from the first moment, dealt with the problems raised 
by the operations under way with a mastery which cost dear to 
the enemy. 

These days, from the 18th to the 26th, give a new and em- 
phatic proof of what the alliance of France and the United 
States can do on a battlefield. 

Later, General Degoutte sent the following communi- 
cation to General Edwards : — 

Army Headquarters, July 29, 1918. 

From: Major-General Degoutte, commanding the Sixth Army. 
To : General Edwards, commanding the Twenty-sixth Ameri- 
can Division. 

The battles fought by the Twenty-sixth American Division 
from the 18th to the 24th of July have demonstrated the fine 
military qualities of this organization and the gallantry of its 
commander. General Edwards. 

Co-operating in the attack north of the Marne, the Twenty- 

108 




Chaplain Michael J. O'Connor 




International Film Service, Inc. 

Anti-aircraft Gun of 101st Field Artillery, Chemin des Dames, France, 

March 5, 1918 




International Film Service, Inc. 
Major-General Peter E. Traub and Staff at P. C. L'Hermitage, France, 

May 11, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

sixth Division fought briUiantly on the line Torcy-Belleau, to 
Monthiers, to Epieds and Trugny and in the Forest of Fere, 
thus making an advance of more than 15 kilometers in depth, 
in spite of the desperate resistance of the enemy. 

I wish to express to General Edwards and to his gallant 
division my high esteem and happiest congratulations for the 
manner in which they have served the common cause. 

Degoutte. 

General Edwards, in reviewing the activities of his 
division in the second battle of the Marne, issued the 
following : — 

Headquarters Twenty-sixth Division, 

American Expeditionary Forces, 

France, August 2, 1918. 

General Orders, 1 
No. 67. j 

To the Officers and Men of the Twenty-sixth Division. 

On July 18 you entered, as part of the allied drive against 
the enemy, upon the offensive, and continued the offensive 
combat until the major portion of the command was relieved on 
July 25. 

On the assumption of the offensive your position in the line 
demanded an important and difficult maneuver. Your success 
in this was immediate and great, and the way in which you 
executed it elicited high praise from the French Army com- 
mander. The eight days from July 18 to 25, marking the first 
great advance against the enemy in which American troops 
bore proportionately a considerable share, are sure of historical 
setting. Your part therein can never be forgotten. In those 
eight days you carried your line as far as any part of the advance 
was carried. Torcy, Belleau, Givry, the Bouresches Woods, 
Rochet Woods, Hill 190, overlooking Chateau-Thierry, 
Etrepilly, Epieds, Trugny, and, finally. La Fere Woods and 
the objective, the Jaulgonne-Fere-en-Tardenois road, belong to 

109 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

your arms. You are the recipient of praise, thanks and con- 
gratulations of your Commander-in-Chief, You went unafraid 
into the face of the enemy's fire; you forced him to withdraw 
before you or to accept the alternative of hand-to-hand combat, 
in which you proved yourselves morally and physically his 
superior; you gave freely and gave much of your strength, 
and of your blood and lives, until, pushed beyond mere phys- 
ical endurance, fighting night and day, you still forced your- 
selves forward, sustained almost by spirit alone. 

These things are now part of your own consciousness. Noth- 
ing can detract from them. Nothing that I can say can add to 
them. But I can testify in this way to my pride in command- 
ing such troops, so capable of achieving success in every under- 
taking; and this testimony I give to each of you gladly and 
with deep gratitude. 

C. R. Edwards, 
Major-General, Commanding. 

These magnificent tributes to the boys of the New 
England division were still further added to by com- 
mendations from President Poincare of France and the 
mayors of the arrondissement of Meaiix. These were 
contained in the following order issued by General 
Degoutte : — 



No. 2283-3. 



Sixth Army Staff, Third Bureau, 
P. C, July 26, 1918. 



Memorandum. 



The President of the Republic, during a visit to the Sixth 
Army, expressed his satisfaction over the results obtained, as 
well as the proofs of valor and endurance shown by all the 
units of the army. 

The commanding general of the Sixth Army takes pleasure 
in communicating to the troops of his army the congratulations 
of the President of the Republic. 

General Degoutte. 

110 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Sixth Army Staff, Third Bvrbav, 
P. C, July 26, 1018. 

No. 2284-3. 

Memorandum. 

The Commanding General of the Sixth Army brings to the 
attention of the troops of the army the following address received 
from the mayors of the arrondissement of Meaux, in meeting 
assembled, on the 20th of July, 1918: — 

The mayors of the arrondissement of Meaux, in meeting assembled, 
on the 20th of July, 1918, are happy to acknowledge the great victory 
of the Sixth Army which, as at the time of the battle of the Marne, 
has just saved their commune from the invasion which was threaten- 
ing them. 

Send to the valiant troops of the Sixth Army the most earnest 
expression of their gratitude and admiration. 

The President of the Congress of Mayors, 

G. HUGEL, 

Mayor of Meaux, 
Deputy from the Department of Seine and Marne. 

The Commanding General of the Sixth Army takes pleasure 
in transmitting these congratulations to the troops of his army. 

General Degoutte. 

Again, on August 9, General Degoutte issued a General 
Order, which read : — 

Before the great offensive of July 18 the American troops, 
forming a part of the Sixth French Army, distinguished them- 
selves by taking from the enemy the Bois de la Brigade de 
Marine and the village of Vaux, stopping his offensive on the 
Marne and at Fossoy. 

Since then they have taken a most glorious part in the 
second battle of the Marne, rivaling the French troops in ardor 
and gallantry. In twenty days of incessant fighting they lib- 
erated numerous French villages and made, over difficult 
terrain, an advance of 40 kilometers, which carried them beyond 
the Vesle. 

Ill 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Their glorious advance is marked by names which, in the 
future, will make illustrious the military history of the United 
States: Torcy, Belleau, Plateau of Etrepilly, Epieds, le Charmel, 
the Ourcq, Seringes-et-Nesles, Sergy, the Vesle and Fismes. 

The new divisions, under fire for the first time, showed them- 
selves worthy of the old fighting traditions of the Regular 
Army. They had the same ardent desire to whip the Boche, 
and that discipline which always insures the carrying out of 
orders of their commander, whatever the difficulties to be over- 
come or the sacrifices to be made. 

The magnificent results obtained are due to the energy and 
skilfulness of their commanders, and to the bravery of the 
soldiers. 

I am proud to have commanded such troops. 

Degoutte, 
The Commanding General of the Sixth Army. 

The final eulogy came from General John J. Pershing, 
Commander-in-Chief of the American Expeditionary 
Forces, who, in a General Order dated August 28, 1918, 
said : — 

It fills me with pride to record in General Orders a tribute 
to the service and achievements of the First and Third Corps, 
comprising the First, Second, Fourth, Twenty-sixth and Forty- 
second Divisions of the American Expeditionary Forces. 

You came to the battlefield at the crucial hour of the allied 
cause. For almost four years the most formidable army the 
world had yet seen had pressed its invasion of France, and 
stood threatening its capital. At no time had that army been 
more powerful or menacing than when, on July 18, it struck 
again to destroy in one great battle the brave men opposed to 
it, and to enforce its brutal will upon the world and civilization. 

Three days later, in connection with our Allies, you counter 
attacked. The allied armies gained a brilliant victory that 
marks the turning point of the war. You did more than give 
our brave Allies the support to which as a nation our faith was 

m 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

pledged. You proved that our altruism, our pacific spirit, our 
sense of justice have not blunted our virility or our courage. 
You have shown that American initiative and energy are as 
fit for the test of war as for the pursuits of peace. You have 
justly won the unstinted praise of our Allies and the eternal 
gratitude of our countrymen. 

We have paid for our success in the lives of many of our 
brave comrades. We shall cherish their memory always, and 
claim for our history and literature their bravery, achievement 
and sacrifice. 

This order will be read to all organizations at the first as- 
sembly formation after its receipt, 

John J. Pershing, 
General, Ccymmander-in-Chief. 
Official: 

Robert C. Davis, 
Adjutant-General. 



113 



CHAPTER XIV 
Sniper ** Gets " Young " Scotty " 

''Scotty" was a sixteen-year-old member of an auto- 
matic rifle squad of Company H of the 101st Infantry. 
During the fight at Chateau-Thierry he was left the only 
member of his squad, all the others having been either 
seriously wounded or killed. "Scotty" was covering a 
defile in a round through the woods, and with his auto- 
matic rifle killed 3^ Germans who attempted to get by. 
At length one of the enemy who could speak English 
cried out, "Don't shoot, I'm an American." "Scotty" 
raised his head, and a German sniper got him. His mother, 
Mrs. Stuart C. Scott of Brookline, received the Croix de 
Guerre awarded her dead son. 

On July 15, when the enemy started his attack, the 
101st Infantry absolutely wiped out a German attacking 
party. Other attacks were made, however, and there 
was almost incessant fighting for the next few days. 

On the morning of July 18, when the allied offensive 
was launched, the Fifty-second Infantry Brigade went 
over with only four minutes of artillery preparation. 
The Fifty-first Infantry Brigade was ordered to hold up 
and wait for the advance of the line to the north. 

One battalion of the 104th Infantry got lost in Belleau 
Woods while on the way to the jumping-off place. The 
men were subjected to gas and high explosives bombard- 
ment, and had to scatter. After the bombardment 
the battalion commander started to round up his men, 
but it was some time before he got them all together, 
and as a result the attack was late. 

114 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The other battalion of the 103d Infantry got off on 
the dot, and with a rush took Torcy, Belleau and Givry 
in half an hour. Then they chased the Boche up Hill 
190, but were recalled. 

The battalion of the 104th, although starting late 
captured all objectives, — Bouresches, the Bouresches 
railroad station, and a mile of railway line. Then the 
French on the left were held up and the Americans were 
forced to hold on for two days, the 18th and 19th, while 
subjected to flanking machine-gun fire. It was difficult 
to restrain the men, who wanted to go forward and chase 
the Boche into Germany. They wanted to attempt the 
capture of a number of big guns which the Germans had 
on their front. 

On the morning of the 20th the line up north had 
advanced far enough so that the New Englanders were 
given orders to attack. Then the French were held at 
Hill 190, and General Edwards was given permission 
to go out and flank the hill. This v/as done by one bat- 
talion who helped the French to capture this German 
stronghold. The French then went on to Petret Woods, 
where they were again held up by machine guns. 

On the 21st the New Englanders captured Etrepilly 
and Etrepilly plateau, and helped the French flank out 
the machine guns. General Degoutte, commanding the 
Sixth French Army, conducting the attack from the 
Ourcq River to Chateau-Thierry, said that the capture 
of Etrepilly plateau enabled the whole army to advance 
on the next day. 

By the 22d the Yankees had reached the Chateau- 
Thierry-Soissons road, and on the 23d had gone as far 
as Epieds and Trugny, which the 101st Infantry had 
captured, but from which it was driven out by machine- 
gun and artillery concentration. The Yankees attacked 

115 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

again on the afternoon of the 23d and recaptured both 
towns. On the 24th the Americans reached the Jaiilgonne- 
Fere-en-Tardenois road, where they were reheved on 
the night of the 24th and 25th by the Forty-second Divi- 
sion and elements of the Twenty -eighth Division. 

When the Boche started his attack on the 15th there 
was not a single organization between the Twenty -sixth 
Division and Paris. 

During this battle Major Green way of the 101st Engi- 
neers took his battalion and helped capture Trugny. 
This was but one of the many times when the engineers 
fought as infantry. 

The Twenty-sixth of course had no cavalry, and when 
the enemy began to retreat, was apparently "out of it." 
General Edwards, however, called up the motorized 101st 
Machine Gun Battalion, gave it the right of way, and 
sent it after the Boche as independent cavalry, with 
orders to pursue with all speed. These were the first 
troops to reach the Jaulgonne-Fere-en-Tardenois road. 

The infantry only were relieved, the artillery and 
engineers remaining until the line reached the Vesle 
River. They were withdrawn on August 3, after having 
advanced over 40 kilometers. 

The whole division was then concentrated around 
La Ferte, and on August 7 entrained for the training 
area at Chatillon on the Seine River. 

The following report of operations in the Chateau- 
Thierry offensive was made by General Edwards : — 

Headquarters Twenty-sixth Division, 

American Expeditionart Forces, 

France, August 7, 1918. 

1. Following the receipt of memorandum of July 16, 1918, 
Headquarters First Army Corps, subject, "Action to be taken 
by the First Army Corps in case of the withdrawal of the 

116 




Chaplain Lyman H. Rollins 




International Film Service, Inc. 
Interior of Post Office on "Mother's Day," Boucq, France, May 12, 

1918 




International Film Service, Inc. 

Officers of 101st Infantry examining Captured Machine Gun, Berne- 
court, France, May 31, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

enemy," the division commander issued instructions No. 74, 
and held several conferences with his brigade commanders, 
discussing general plans for an offensive. (The location of the 
troops of this division at this time in Pas Fini sector is shown 
on Map A.) 

July 18 

2. In compliance with Field Orders No. 9, First Army Corps, 
dated July 17, 1918, 17.30 o'clock (received at 22.15 o'clock), 
these headquarters issued Field Orders No. 51, July 18, 1918, 
0.30 o'clock, ordering an attack by the Fifty-second Infantry 
Brigade (less 1-104 held as corps reserve) reinforced by three 
half companies 101st Engineers, 101st Machine Gun Battahon, 
and detachments 101st Field Signal Battalion and Sanitary 
Troops, and supported by the Fifty -first Field Artillery Brigade 
(plus 3d Battery, 181st French Artillery) and machine-gun fire 
by units of the 51st from Givry to Bouresches (exclusive). 
Brigade commanders with other essential division officers were 
present at division headquarters when the division commander 
explained the plans of the corps commander with whom the 
division commander had been in conference. 

3. On July 17, the commanding general. Fifty-second In- 
fantry Brigade, had formulated and issued his general plan 
of attack, and this plan, with some modifications due to a 
change in the initial mission given the division, was issued as 
an order to subordinate commanders immediately upon receipt 
of division order for attack. The brigade commander ordered 
three battalions, with machine-gun support, to attack at H 
hour (4.35 o'clock, July 18), the remainder being disposed as 
support and reserve troops. (See Map B.) 

4. The left battalion (111-103) attacked at H hour and en- 
tered Torcy at 5.40. The center battalion (111-104) was de- 
layed, due to its difficult march in the dark in Belleau Wood 
under shell fire. Captain McDade, temporarily commanding 
111-104, was relieved by the brigade commander and was re- 
placed by Major E. E. Lewis, 104th Infantry, who was in com- 
mand of the front line in Belleau Wood. The attack was 

117 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

launched at 7.30 and* Belleau and Givry were taken by 8. SO. 
The enemy was pursued up Hill 198 (north of Givry), but be- 
cause this was outside the zone of action assigned to this division 
the troops were withdrawn to the northern edge of the town. 
The right battalion (11-103) could not reach its parallel of de- 
parture at the designated hour, but attacked at 7.30, and at 8 
had gone beyond the railroad to the Ru Gobert and had taken 
Bouresches station. 

5. The designated objectives were captured and held, but 
the retention by the enemy of Hill 193 enabled him to impose 
an effective machine-gun fire on our right battalion. This 
battalion was also subject to a severe fire from Bouresches 
Wood, both artillery and machine-gun. At nightfall, there- 
fore, it was thought best to retire this battalion to the Belleau 
Wood and relieve it by 1-103. (The disposition of troops 
night of July 18, 19, is shown on Map C.) 

Jnhj 19 

6. Field Orders No. 11, First Army Corps, July 18, 22.40 
o'clock, ordered a resumption of the attack on the following 
morning, "particular attention being paid to regulating the 
advance of each unit by the progress of the unit on its left." 
At the request of the division on our left Major Lewis (111-104) 
attacked Hill 193 from the south at 22 o'clock, July 18, and 
established a line running north from Givry, but was obliged 
to withdraw upon receipt of a message from the division on 
our left to the effect that they could not co-operate in the 
attack. The commanding general. Fifty-second Brigade, re- 
ports that this difficult withdrawal "was executed with great 
skill by the battalion and without any casualties." In view, 
therefore, of the order that troops must regulate on units to 
their left, this division made no advance on July 19. 

July 20 

7. In compliance with Field Orders No. 15, Army Corps, 
July 20, 11.20 (received 13 o'clock), this division issued Field 
Orders No. 55, July 20, 14 o'clock, ordering an attack on the 

118 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

entire division front at 15 o'clock. The most serious resistance 
encountered by the Fifty -first Infantry Brigade was the machine- 
gun and minenwerfer fire from the western edge of Bois de 
Borne, Agron and Bois du Rochets, as well as an enfilade fire 
from the dominating Hill 204 to the right of Vaux in the French 
sector on our right. 

The right of the Fifty-second Infantry Brigade was subjected 
to disastrous artillery and machine-gun fire, but overcame the 
machine-gun nests and occupied Hill 190. The advance of 
the left of this brigade was retarded by enfilading machine- 
gun fire from the left. The position of the elements of the 
division before and after this attack are shown on Map D, the 
line held on the night of July 20, 21 being as follows: Givry 
Woods, one-half kilometer north of Les Brasses Farm, Hill 
190, La Gonetrie Farm, Hill 201, Point 192 Vaux. (As shown 
by the map.) Major Lewis, commanding, had to make the 
detour into the French sector on his left north of Les Brasses 
Farm. 

Field Orders No. 17, First Army Corps, dated July 20, 20 
o'clock (received at 21.10 o'clock), directed an energetic ad- 
vance in column. Orders for this advance were issued by in- 
dorsement at 21.35 o'clock, and were followed by Field Orders 
No. 56, these headquarters. These orders contemplated ad- 
vancing without reference to the progress of neighboring 
divisions. Open warfare methods were employed. Field 
Orders No. 18, First Army Corps, July 20, 23.30 o'clock, or- 
dered the advance continued at dawn. 

July 21 

8. At 4 o'clock, July 21, the advance was resumed in accord- 
ance with Field Orders No. 57, these headquarters, and the 
Chateau-Thierry-Soissons road was crossed shortly after noon. 
Division headquarters was opened at Lucy-le-Bocage at 5 
o'clock July 21, and v/as moved to Grand Ru Farm at 15 
o'clock the same day. At 16.25 a message was sent to brigade 
commanders to press the advance with \'igor. A telephone 

119 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

message received at 16.36 from the corps commander, followed 
by a written memorandum received at 18.30, directed that the 
troops reach the Fere-en-Tardenois-Jaulgonne road by day- 
light July 22, and in further compliance therewith. Field Orders 
No. 58, Headquarters Twenty-SLxth Division, July 21, 17.25 
o'clock, were issued directing that the attack be pushed with- 
out delay or cessation. Our troops rushed forward until our 
line reached the vicinity of Epieds and Trugny and road to 
Verdilly (as shown on Map E), where the enemy had prepared 
strong defences. 

July 22 

9. Field Orders No. 19, First Army Corps, July 21, 22.40 
o'clock, were received July 22, at 0.30 o'clock. This order 
at the time was not brought to my attention. As it was based 
on army orders, my chief of staff thought it only necessary 
to repeat it to the brigades, which he did, as follows : — 

July 22, 1918, 1 o'clock. 

Chi^ of Staff to Commanding General, Fifty-Jirst Infantry Brigade. 

Herewith copy of Field Orders No. 19, First Army Corps. In com- 
pliance therewith your brigade will take over the zone of action of 
Twenty-sixth Division at 3.30 a.m. to-day. Fifty-second Brigade 
will take over zone of action of One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Divi- 
sion at 3.30 A.M. to-day. Make necessary dispositions to push on 
vigorously. 

10. This order was received at the Fifty-first Infantry Bri- 
gade headquarters at 2 o'clock July 22, and immediately trans- 
mitted to the regimental commanders, the 102d Infantry being 
ordered into the zone of action of the Fifty-second Brigade. 
The order did not reach the commanding general. Fifty-second 
Brigade, until 5.30 o'clock. He had already (at daylight) 
launched an attack against Epieds and Trugny, the 102d In- 
fantry participating. 

11. As soon as this order came to my attention, I was fear- 
ful that the order — delivered in the dark to troops fighting 

120 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

as they were in assault night and day, and moving forward at 
the rush with their objectives in mind — was bound to result 
in the intermingUng of units, and probably confusion. As 
soon as this matter was brought to the attention of the corps 
commander he gave verbal instructions to suspend it, which 
instructions were rushed to the front. But some units had 
already taken their new positions. I quote the pertinent para- 
graphs of this order: — 

July 22, 1918, 1.05 o'clock. 
Chief of Staff to Commanding General, Fifty-second Infantry Brigade. 

Herewith copy of Field Orders No. 19, First Army Corps. In com- 
pliance therewith your brigade will take over zone of action of One 
Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division. Fifty-first Infantry Brigade will 
take over that part of Twenty-sixth Division zone which you now 
cover. Movement will be completed by 3.30 a.m. to-day. Push on 
vigorously. Map herewith. 

July 22, 1918, 1.10 o'clock. 
Chief of Staff to Commanding General, Fifty-first Field Artillery Brigade. 

Herewith copy of Field Orders No. 19, First Army Corps. In com- 
pliance therewith following changes to be completed by 3.30 this date. 
Fifty-first Infantry Brigade takes over entire Twenty-sixth Division 
zone of action. Fifty-second Infantry Brigade takes over zone of 
action of One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division Infantry on our 
left. Govern your dispositions accordingly. 

1. (a) General Situation. — The enemy is retreating on the entire 
front of the Sixth Army. At 6 p.m. our troops had passed the ChMeau- 
Thierry-Soissons road between the Ourcq and the Clignon, and reached 
the road Bezu, Epieds, Chartreves. 

(b) Mission of the Entire Army. — The same as to-day; that is, 
strenuous pursuit of the enemy, each unit driving ahead with all its 
power, without waiting for the other or paying attention to alignment, 
to make the enemy's retreat a rout. 

To hasten the advance, division commanders will conduct the fight 
by going forward when they can exercise control. 

(c) Action of Neighboring Corps. — The Seventh and Thirty-eighth 
Corps will continue to advance alongside of us. They will protect 
our flanks. Every one will push straight ahead. 

121 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

(d) Action of Cavalry. — A cavalrj' division, following in rear of 
the Seventh Corps, will, at the proper time, pass through to the front 
in the direction of Clerges, Coulonges, Courville, to intercept and 
disorganize the enemy's communications. 

2. (a) Action of First Army Corps. — The action will continue 
to-night without cessation by the Twenth-sixth and One Hundred 
and Sixty -seventh Divisions abreast, in their respective sectors. 

On account of the narrowness of the corps' zone of action, the ad- 
vance at daylight will be made by the Twenty-sixth Division, covering 
the entire corps front. The One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division 
at daylight will stand fast until the portion of the Twenty-sixth Divi- 
sion assigned to take up the advance in the One Hundred and Sixty- 
seventh Division sector has, with its reserves and divisional artillery, 
passed through the One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division. 

When this has been accomplished, the One Hundred and Sixty- 
seventh Division will follow the Twenty-sixth Division in the second 
line at 3 kilometers distance, taking great care to avoid interference 
with the movement of the rear elements of the Twenty-Sixth Division, 
and the replenishment of ammunition supply. 

12. The attack on Epieds-Trugny was pushed with vigor. 
In the attack and after gaining the objective the troops were 
subjected to machine-gun fire, not only from the region of 
Epieds and Trugny, but also enfihiding fire from La Goutterie 
Farm in the sector of the One Hundred and Sixty-seventh 
Division, which enfiladed the attacking hnes from the left 
rear. The 101st Machine Gun Battalion (divisional), as well 
as the machine-gun companies assigned to regiments, advanced 
with and gallantly supported the infantry in the attack. The 
101st Infantry simultaneously attempted to outflank Trugny 
on the east, but succeeded only in establishing itself in the 
woods south of Trugny. The troops in Epieds and Trugny were 
subjected to a heavy concentration of artillery and machine- 
gun fire, and were withdrawn to permit further artillery prepa- 
ration. The attack was resumed at 16 o'clock; the same char- 
acter of artillery and machine-gun fire prevented retention of 
the forward positions gained. At this time the division on our 
left had not captured La Goutterie Farm, from the vicinity of 

122 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

which the enemy employed machine-gun fire with teUing effect. 
During that day our artillery vigorously shelled La Goutterie 
Farm, and by liaison we informed the division on our left that 
we would cease at 17 o'clock, hoping that that would make the 
way easier for its capture. (Map F illustrates the action of 
July 22, as well as the situation at the close of the day.) 

13. Our experience in the rush forward had shown the futil- 
ity, without undue losses, of attempting a head-on attack of 
Epieds and Trugny. The open wheat fields gave tao good a 
sweep for the enemy's machine guns. I, therefore, determined 
to throw in a wedge on the road through the Bois de Trugny, 
and was confirmed in this decision by the verbal instructions of 
the corps and by Field Orders No. 20, First Army Corps, in 
accordance with which I confirmed my previous verbal orders 
by Field Orders No. 59, Twenty-sixth Division, July 22, 22.30 
o'clock. These orders demanded the penetration of the enemy's 
line by a regiment in each division, with exploitations by the 
entire division. The following message was sent to the Fifty- 
first Infantry Brigade, and copies to other commanders for 
their information : — 

Headquarters Twenty-sixth Division, Expeditionary Forces, 
July 22, 1918, 21.10 o'clock. 
Message No. 2. 

To Commanding General, Fifty-first Infantry Brigade. 

1. Inclosing four copies of Field Orders No. 20, c. s.. Headquarters, 
First Army Corps, for his information. 

2. The 101st Infantry is designated to carry out the attack. 

3. Orders will issue later. 

By command, etc. 

14. The Fifty-second Brigade had suffered a good many 
casualties as well as the 102d Infantry, and I ordered Major 
Greenway and his detachment, consisting of two and one-half 
companies of 2d Battalion, 101st Engineers (with headcjuarters 
at Etrepilly), to move forward and take the position previously 
occupied by the 104th Infantry, and exploit the thrust of the 

123 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

101st Infantry extending to the right to gain liaison, antici- 
pating that this thrust would outflank, as it did, the resistance 
at Trugny and Epieds. Major Greenway encountered some 
remaining machine-gun nests southwest of Epieds, and kept 
them actively engaged, struck out to the right, in front of a 
portion of the 102d Infantry on his right, and gained contact 
with the 101st Infantry, when its leading elements fell back 
from its advanced positions in the Bois de Trugny. He was 
sent orders to take defensive position and hold ground gained 
that night. 

15. In the meantime, after a thorough artillery preparation, 
the 101st Infantry attack was launched at 6 o'clock, and the 
eastern part of the Bois de Trugny gained before noon. (Map 
G illustrates this phase, showing also the position of remain- 
ing troops held in readiness.) Good reports of the success of 
this thrust continued to reach division headquarters — that 
they had overcome all resistance, which consisted mainly of 
machine-gun fire, gas and high explosive shells. Therefore 
complete plans had been laid out for an additional push the 
next morning by this regiment, both northeast and northwest, 
and to move up available troops so that when it became neces- 
sary to leapfrog through, the reserve battalion of this regi- 
ment, or other troops, could push forward and force the pursuit. 
At 2 o'clock that night report was received that the leading 
battalion of the 101st Infantry had been subjected to a wither- 
ing machine-gun fire from the front and on both flanks and 
from machine guns in trees, with much gas; that the leading 
elements were forced to withdraw, leaving a considerable num- 
ber of wounded in their front, which they hoped to get out 
that night and evacuate them to the right area in safety. This 
announcement prevented a continuation of the artillery prep- 
aration on the following morning. 

16. At 12.30, July 23, Field Orders No. 21, First Army Corps, 
were issued reinstating Field Orders No. 19 (directing the as- 
sumption of the entire corps front by the Twenty-sixth Divi- 
sion) and placing the 111th Infantry (Fifty-sixth Brigade) at 
the disposal of the commanding general. Twenty-sixth Division, 

124 




Bachrach 



Colonel J. L. Bevans 




Captured Boche Gun, Place de la Concorde, Paris, France 




luti'inational Film Servicv, Inc. 

Bringing in Broken Rifles after Fight at Seicheprey, Menil-la-Tour, 

France, May 2, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

for July 23 only, as division reserve. The Fifty-first Infantry 
Brigade was directed by Field Orders No. 60, Twenty-sixth 
Division, July 23, 16 o'clock, to take over the entire zone of 
action of the Twenty-sixth Division, and the Fifty-second In- 
fantry Brigade was ordered to assemble preparatory to reliev- 
ing the One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division, two battalions 
of the 111th Infantry being placed at the disposal of the Fifty- 
second Brigade to assist in accomplishing this purpose. How- 
ever, Field Orders No. 22, First Army Corps, July 23, 19 
o'clock, directed an attack by both the Twenty-sixth and One 
Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division, necessitating the revo- 
cation of Field Orders No. 60, Twenty-sixth Division, July 23, 
20 o'clock. 

17. About 18 o'clock, while at the front impressing brigade 
and regimental commanders with the necessity of sparing no 
men or ounce of energy in the pursuit of the enemy on the fol- 
lowing morning, I received a telephone message that G-3 
from the corps was waiting at my headquarters with important 
orders. I immediately returned to my headquarters, which I 
reached, as I recall, at about 18.30, and received letter No. 130 
G-3, Headquarters First Army Corps, July 23, stating that the 
Fifty-sixth Brigade of the Twenty-eighth American Division was 
placed at my disposal, and that I was directed to utilize this 
brigade and place it in line without delay in order to comply 
with current orders of the Sixth Army Commander to drive 
line forward. The orders further directed that as soon as the 
Fifty-sixth Brigade had taken over the line from the Fifty- 
second Brigade of my division to proceed promptly to the reor- 
ganization of the Fifty-second Brigade with a view to utilizing 
its battalions or regimental units as fast as they could be 
reconstructed to carry forward continuously the front line of 
my sector. I had before ordered two battalions of the 111th 
Infantry of this brigade to be placed at the disposal of the 
Fifty-second Brigade to assist in pushing forward his line and 
relieving the Fifty-second Brigade. As soon as I received this 
order I summoned all the brigade commanders, including Brig- 
adier-General Weigel, commanding Fifty-sixth Brigade, and 

125 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

directed him to relieve the Fifty -second Brigade, and take com- 
mand of the left subsector so that he could push forward in 
the morning. 

18. With the above letter I received a letter from the corps 
commander directing me not to commit the 'Fifty-sixth Brigade 
or elements thereof into the attack until they had time to make 
reconnoissance. This seemed to be in conflict, and I therefore 
directed my chief of staff to take the matter up, and he reported 
to me between 20 and 21 o'clock that the provisions of this 
last letter should obtain. 

19. At 22 o'clock I received the report of the check of the 
leading elements of the 101st Infantry. Being forced to con- 
tinue the thrust through the Bois de Trugny until I could find 
out whether the wounded reported in front of this element 
had been evacuated, I communicated to the chief of staff of 
the corps and was informed by him that the push forward must 
be made by the Fifty-sixth Brigade, and that the army orders 
would prevail. 

July 24. 

20. Having again summoned all the brigade commanders, 
as well as Brigadier-General Weigel, I directed the latter to 
move forward at H hour (4.05 o'clock), promising him com- 
plete artillery preparation in the left subsector. He was also 
instructed to send a battalion of the 112th Infantry to the 
commanding general. Fifty-first Brigade, to move up through 
the Bois de Trugny and pass through the leading elements of 
the 101st Infantry, and continue the pursuit in that subsector 
as well as the left subsector. This procedure was confirmed by 
Field Orders No. 62, Twenty-sixth Division, July 23, 12.30 
o'clock. 

21. General Weigel told me that his men had not had any- 
thing to eat for two days, and had no emergency rations; had 
been marching two nights; that his 112th Regiment was in 
corps reserve, and being unfamiliar with the ground, it would 
be difficult for him to do so. I replied that he must overcome 
all these difficulties and must move out as ordered, this being 

126 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

in accordance with my orders and the known wishes of the 
corps commander. I ordered Major Greenway, who knew the 
ground, to report to him so that the colonel of his 111th In- 
fantry would have the advantage of Major Greenway as a 
guide. I directed my chief of staff to accompany the battalion 
of the 112th Infantry that had been turned over to Brigadier- 
General Shelton with orders to explain the mission and push 
them forward with all haste. I furthermore ordered another 
of my trusted staff officers, Major Alfonte, to accompany the 
leading elements of the 111th Regiment on the left. These 
two oflScers, as well as Major Greenway, did everything pos- 
sible to push this pursuit. In the morning, at daylight, Briga- 
dier-General Weigel reported to me that in spite of the aid of 
all my officers he had not been able to get his battalions up 
and get them off at the H hour, and that he had had to delay 
the attack. About that time, through liaison with the One 
Hundred and Sixty-seventh Division, I learned that after artil- 
lery preparation and the advance of the infantry they had found 
none of the enemy on their front, and by the employment of 
cavalry patrols they were moving out ahead of General Weigel's 
left. I immediately declared off the divisional artillery prepara- 
tion and directed him to send out strong patrols and to rush 
and get in contact v/ith the enemy by every means possible — 
to go out without any caution and get in touch. 

22. I afterwards, being without cavalry, ordered my motor- 
ized divisional machine gun battalion to move out, gave them 
the right of way, and by all expedition to reach the objective, 
the Jaulgonne-Fere-en-Tardenois road. During the evening the 
advanced elements of the division, although later in starting, 
were the first to reach this road and this objective, where severe 
machine gun fighting was encountered. The other elements 
were abreast those of the French, the division occupying a line 
in the Foret de Fere (as shown on Map H). 

23. Field Orders No. 23, First Army Corps, July 24, directed 
the relief of the Twenty-sixth Division and Fifty-sixth Brigade 
by the Forty-second Division. Field Orders No. 63, Twenty- 
sixth Division, July 24, 16.45 o'clock was issued in accordance 

127 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

therewith, the Fifty-first and Fifty-sixth Infantry Brigades 
being directed to continue the pursuit until relieved. The 
Sergy plateau was designated as the next objective by Field 
Orders No, 24, First Army Corps, July 24, and by Field Orders 
No. 64, Twenty-sixth Division, July 24, 20.30 o'clock. 

July 25 

24. The night of July 24, 25 was spent in carrying out the 
relief of elements of this division and of the Fifty-sixth Brigade, 
the infantry of this division being concentrated in the vicinity 
of Bois de Trugny and Chante Merle. The Fifty-first Field 
Artillery Brigade and the 101st Engineers were attached to 
the Forty-second Division, and continued in the operations. 

The command of the zone of action passed to the command- 
ing general. Forty-second Division, at 19 o'clock, July 25. 
The reports of the commanding general, Fifty -first Field Artil- 
lery Brigade, and the commanding officer, 101st Engineers, 
will therefore cover a longer period than that contemplated 
by this report. 

25. During the period July 18-25, 1918, the following cap- 
tures were reported: — 

248 prisoners. 

1 210-m.m. howitzer. 

2 177-m.m. minenwerfer. 
4 77-m.m. minenwerfer. 
1 small minenwerfer. 

1 88-m.m. field gun. 

2 77-m.m. field guns, 

9 machine guns (complete). 
14 machine guns (incomplete). 
1 pontoon wagon train (for infantry foot bridge). 

A large quantity of ammunition, consisting of shells of all calibers 
and small-arms ammunition. 

26. The records of the statistical section corrected to date 
show the following casualties : — 

128 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Casualties, Offensive 


commencing July 18, 


1918. 








"6 


f 




>> 

o 


■3 

O 


.9 
J 
1^ 




Division Headquarters, 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


101st Machine Gun Battalion, 


8 


8 


26 


- 


1 


- 


43 


lOlst Infantry 


54 


127 


111 


20 


232 


41 


585 


102d Infantry, 


139 


415 


35 


44 


17 


308 


958 


102d Machine Gun Battalion, 


13 


2 


70 


13 


- 


13 


111 


103d Infantry 


176 


307 


290 


18 


335 


74 


1.200 


104th Infantry 


115 


331 


151 


54 


55 


54 


760 


103d Machine Gun Battalion, 


18 


3 


83 


8 


- 


10 


122 


lOlst Field Artillery 


19 


7 


18 


6 


10 


- 


60 


102d Field Artillery 


23 


19 


13 


2 


3 


1 


61 


103d Field Artillery 


13 


5 


42 


- 


2 


- 


62 


101st Trench Mortar Battery, 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


3 


101st Engineers 


8 


18 


47 


2 


26 


1 


102 


101st Field Battalion Signal Corps, . 


5 


- 


2 


2 


2 


- 


11 


101st Ammunition Train, . • . 


2 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


6 


101st Sanitary Train 


- 


- 


3 


- 


16 


- 


19 


40th Engineers 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


29th Engineers 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Fifty-first Field Artillery Brigade, 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Totals 


595 


1,245 


897 


169 


699 


503 


4,108 



This does not include the evacuation of sick and exhausted 
which I estimated about 1,200. 

27. It will be noted that this division not only gained its 
objectives as ordered, but on occasions went beyond and had 
to be restrained. Our losses were increased, due to the fact 
that this division, being on the pivot and so early gaining its 
first objectives, was exposed to disastrous artillery and machine- 
gun fire while awaiting the general movement. After capturing 
Torcy, Belleau and Givry, the left wing was obliged to wait 



129 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

thirty-six hours before starting out for their new objectives. 
The division fought continuously, day and night, for eight 
days. It made a total advance from its first line of 183^ kilo- 
meters, and on the second double change of direction on both 
flanks advanced 17 kilometers in four days. 

28. The cold facts of the work of the 51st Field Artillery are 
set forth in Brigadier-General Aultman's report. The work of 
the artillery was magnificent. Every battery was ready and 
willing to answer any call at any hour of the day or night. 
Liaison with the infantry was the best liaison that was exhib- 
ited during the attack. There were times when the difficulty 
of accurately locating the most advanced infantry units made 
it impossible to employ the artillery with fullest effect, but in 
general the infantry was able to tell the artillery where to put 
its fire and the artillery always promptly responded. 

The infantry of this division was relieved on July 25. The 
artillery was continued in the advance and paved the way, 
first for elements of the Forty-second Division and later for 
elements of the Fourth Division, being finally relieved on August 
4, after seventeen days' continuous participation in the attack. 
That the officers and men of this brigade have returned to this 
division in a cheerful, enthusiastic frame of mind speaks vol- 
umes for their discipline, training and physical condition, and 
the fact that comparatively few animals were lost illustrates 
the thoroughness with which this brigade has been trained. 

29. The particular part the engineers played in offensive 
action has been embodied in my report. In addition to this, 
the officers and men of the 101st Engineers were indefatigable 
in the work assigned to them. They worked in removing 
road obstructions and repairing roads and bridges, and made 
possible an uninterrupted flow of communication between the 
advanced troops and the ammunition and supply echelons. 
They were relieved August 2. 

30. The supply system functioned perfectly. At no time 
was there lack of supplies nor any great difficulty in getting the 
supplies to the troops. The distributing points were advanced 
as the troops advanced, and supply trucks delivered their 

130 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

rations to advanced positions, often under shell fire. The rail- 
head remained at Nanteuil-sur-Marne. The initial distribut- 
ing points were Montreuil-aux-Lions and Villiers-sur-Marne, 
and later Vaux and Bouresches, although it was frequently 
necessary to distribute supplies at more advanced positions, 
particularly to elements of the Fifty-sixth Brigade, which had 
been obliged to cut loose from their trains in order to enter the 
zone of action on the prescribed day. The division continued 
to supply its artillery and engineers until they were relieved; 
some of them were 50 kilometers away. 

31. The assistant chief of staff, G-1, suggests that during 
an advance it would be preferable to issue canned meats, 
canned vegetables, canned beans, canned potatoes, hard bread, 
pulverized coffee, milk, sugar, salt, pepper, canned fruits, pre- 
serves and jam in lieu of the regulation daily issue of fresh and 
frozen beef, fresh vegetables, extracts and such articles as were 
received during the advance. I indorse this suggestion. 

32. The officers and enlisted personnel of the sanitary units 
exhibited tireless energy in evacuating and caring for the 
wounded. The commanding officer of the 101st Sanitary 
Train reports the evacuation of 4,065 cases, the largest number 
in any one day being 1,227 on July 23. These figures include 
some cases of other divisions evacuated over our line, especially 
during the latter portion of the period. The 102d Field Hospital 
established a sifting station at Bezu-le-Guery, receiving wounded 
from the ambulance companies, and, after giving such surgical 
treatment as was immediately necessary, evacuating them as 
follows : — 

(a) Seriously wounded to 103d Field Hospital at La Ferte- 
sous-Jouarre. 

(6) Wounded to Evacuation Hospital No. 7 at Montan- 
glaust. 

(c) All others to 101-104 Field Hospital at Luzancy, where 
patients expected to return to duty within five days were re- 
tained and others evacuated to Hospital No. 7. 

At times the stream of wounded was so heavy that the 
regular facilities for transportation were reinforced by 10 trucks 

131 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

from the 101st Supply Train, 11 trucks and 12 ambulances 
from the 116th Sanitary Train, as well as the trucks of the 
101st Sanitary Train, making the total number of vehicles 
about 140. 

33. Telephone and radio connection was maintained by 
division headquarters with First Army Corps and with sub- 
ordinate commanders. The personnel of the signal battalion 
in the advanced areas was continually working under severe 
fire and exhibited exceptional bravery, at times being compelled 
to leave their work to join the infantry in the actual defence of 
positions. 

Aeroplane liaison did not work out as satisfactorily as might 
be desired. Infantry units were reluctant to show their panels 
because of the frequent presence of enemy planes, but the avia- 
tion service gave us, as far as their material permitted, valuable 
information of the movements of bodies of troops. 

Combat liaison with adjacent divisions was maintained with 
practically no interruption. Forward communication was con- 
tinually maintained by telephone, couriers and runners, and 
supplies and ammunition were delivered every day to battalions. 

34. Machine-gun Nests. — The greatest difficulty the divi- 
sion encountered in meeting the demands and purposes of the 
higher command to rush forward to pursue, irrespective of 
flanks or any other elements, was the cleverly and ingeniously 
placed machine-gun nests. Torcy-Belleau-Givry were the 
main German line of defence. Again, Bouresches Wood, Borne 
Agron and Rochet line were cleverly arranged machine-gun 
and artillery positions. But the toughest nut to crack was the 
concentrated defence on the crest of hills on the far side of 
Epieds and Trugny, and finally the use of machine guns in 
the Foret de Fere and vicinity. 

35. These machine guns were located generally in the edge 
of woods, in fox-holes, the depth of a man's shoulder, and oc- 
casionally double-gun holes. Out in front, distributed in the 
wheat fields, and excellently camouflaged, were any number 
of other of these holes, mutually supporting, giving a field of 
fire from 3,000 yards up to the gun. These guns not only 

132 



XJjMj^jA^g^j^^^^ , 


i ' ^~!PI^9Hllii 


t 




k.i 1 




K 1 


1 



Colonel Ernest L. Isbell 




Service, Inc. 



Hidden Kitchen of 101st Infantry, Bois de la Voisogne, France, 

May 31, 1918 




International Film Service, Inc. 

Officers decorated with Croix de Guerre for Conspicuous Bravery, 
Mononcourt, France, June 11, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

commanded the terrain of the reverse slope, but also the direct 
slope to the gun. 

36. An inspection of this groimd raises the question: How 
could they have been taken? 

37. I believe the tactics and methods to be employed wherever 
time will allow is to feel out these gun nests by specially devel- 
oped scouts with qualifications corresponding to those successful 
in our Indian warfare, to discover the positions and avoid the 
losses that a reconnaissance in force would suffer. 

38. The 155's are the best agency when this information is 
gained. We have just received our Newton-Stokes mortars. 
The trench mortar battery therefore becomes another excellent 
agency to destroy and neutralize these nests. In addition, the 
woods may be combed from 3,000 yards with a hail of our own 
machine-gun bullets, as well as the 115's, with time fuses, to 
wipe out those nests cleverly located in trees, which is one of 
the new elements of the German defence. 

39. It goes without saying that wherever possible machine 
guns must be flanked out by infiltration from both sides, and 
this method was constantly used by battalion and regimental 
commanders whose function it becomes in a rush of this kind. 

40. Automatic Rifles. — The casualties of the Chauchat men 
were abnormal. A great majority of the teams of the 102d 
Infantry were casualties. As soon as a man dropped another 
man would pick up the Chauchat and he would become a 
casualty. Plainly, the cause to my mind is the exposure, 
greater than with the rifle, of the man necessary to the effective 
use of this arm, and I fancy furthermore that the glistening 
barrel which results from the extra care necessary with this 
arm, keeping it well oiled, discloses it to the German sniper 
who has been instructed that it must be destroyed. 

41. I understand that this exposure is eliminated in the 
Browning automatic rifle, which has many other points of 
superiority over the Chauchat. From reports it would appear 
to me that the supply ought to be great enough to arm this 
division immediately with these rifles. I cannot too strongly 
urge that course in the reconstitution of this division, and I 

133 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

recommend a slightly greater proportion of Brownings than the 
present Chauchat equipment. The Chauchat, since this 
battle, is an unpopular arm in this division, due to the excessive 
casualties. Men used to volunteer for it. 

42. Artillery. — The function of the division artillery in 
such an advance is solely to protect and permit the advance of 
the infantry. The artillery did its work excellently. They had 
too few gas shells. The proportion should be much greater 
hereafter, even in open warfare. They can be effectively used 
against machine-gun nests where the proper interval elapses 
between the preparation and the assault. I also recommend a 
much greater allowance of gas shells for all calibers for counter 
battery work of the corps artillery as one of the best agents in 
the neutralization of opposing batteries. 

43. Tanks. — Several occasions in this eight-day advance 
showed the practical use of tanks. Three or four times it came 
forcibly upon us that we could get through with tanks easily 
and save lives. 

I have already made a special report recommending that 
where the terrain permitted their use, tanks should be provided 
in the proportion to each infantry battalion of three mitrail- 
leuses tanks and one field-gun tank. 

General Passaga, my former French corps commander, wrote 
a memorandum on this subject, which I submitted to General 
Headquarters. I am more convinced than ever that his recom- 
mendations should be indorsed; that with our 155 artillery, 
the use of the tanks that I suggest is the solution for over- 
coming the German machine-gun tactics if we ever expect a 
clean march through. 

44. There is need of greater air service than we had in this 
engagement, although I cast no reflections upon that air serv- 
ice. Its personnel was excellent, and where the material held 
out they did everything that could be expected, considering 
their numbers. We suffered much from artillery concentra- 
tions in conjunction with the opposition of machine-gun nests. 

45. Information. — The most important thing of all to my 
mind that confronts a division commander is the answer to 

134 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

the question: "Where is my infantry?" "The French and Eng- 
lish commanders tell me it is the most difficult problem of all. 
This information is essential for divisional artillery to perform 
its role. Brigade and regimental commanders are reluctant to 
give it its full protective employment unless the infantry line 
is definitely known. We had a great casualty list of runners; 
in some cases five runners would be shot down one after the 
other, and it would be next to impossible to get through. The 
wires provided in an organization would be cut by ^hell fire. 
Airplanes, especially in a wood, could not discover infantry 
panels. Our service in this sector, which made it mandatory 
to take cover from all airplanes, made it difficult in the midst 
of a fight, and hail of shells and machine-gun bullets, to dis- 
tinguish between friendly and hostile airplanes, and the char- 
acter of the terrain, covered with woods, as I say, when panels 
were displayed, made it difficult for the machine flying even at 
100 meters' height to distinguish them. 

46. I purpose to use hereafter, if I can get the material, two 
thin, light-weight wires per company, with three or four spools, 
each holding a kilometer of wire, per telephone. This will 
give eight wires to a battalion, the least number, I believe, 
that will insure this information which must be had. Scien- 
tific men tell me that a wireless field telephone is the answer. 
But in the meantime I recommend the eight wires per battalion. 

47. The Ford ambulances with which the divisional machine 
gun battalion is equipped, though insufficient in numbers, 
were of value in quickly transporting elements of this bat- 
talion to the zone of action and in carrying ammunition. This 
battalion could be made of much greater tactical value if 
equipped with armored cars. It could then be used to material 
advantage in exploiting a successful attack, 

48. It was the constant endeavor of my staff to issue attack 
orders as soon as possible after receipt of corps orders, for the 
purpose of giving the maximum amount of time to subordinate 
commanders to study the local problems and make appropri- 
ate dispositions. Often, however, changes in the situation 
necessitated changes in approved dispositions, and left insuffi- 

135 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

cient time to subordinate commanders for the deliberate exe- 
cution of their missions. The telephone and verbal warning 
anticipating army orders of which I was advised by the corps 
were invaluable. The officers of my staff, as well as the com- 
manding officers of troops, were indefatigable in the perform- 
ance of their duties. 

49. Morale. — The morale of the division was beyond all 
praise. The infantry had to be restrained. The ground they 
gained, casualties suffered and length of time of their effort 
speaks for itself. I submit a copy of General Orders No. 67, 
these headquarters, as my estimate of the conduct of officers 
and men. 

C. R. Edwards, 
Major-General, Commanding. 

This report gives an intimate view of the manner in 
which modern battles are conducted from the various 
headquarters of the high commands. It also shows some 
of the difficulties encountered, and the manner in which 
they were overcome. It will be noticed that General 
Edwards speaks of the lack of airplanes, and also con- 
demns the French "Chauchat" or automatic rifle. He 
advocated the use of the new Browning gun, but it is 
interesting to observe that although the War Depart- 
ment claimed to be turning out thousands of these weap- 
ons daily, the division was never outfitted with them. 

In connection with the number of missing, reported 
by General Edwards, it may be observed that the ma- 
jority of these men later reported to their various com- 
mands. In the excitement of battle many men become 
separated from their individual units, and attach them- 
selves to others. Then, when the battle is over and 
things get straightened out, they return to their own 
organizations. 



136 



CHAPTER XV 
St. Mihiel Salient Wiped Out 

The division got no rest at Chatillon, but at once began 
work on training problems which are usually given to 
troops before they enter the front line. The men worked 
ten hours a day, going through close order drill and open 
warfare, putting in three weeks. 

On August 30 and 31 the division entrained at Chatil- 
lon and proceeded to Bar-le-Duc and stations near by. 
Then by night marches they moved to Suilly, south of 
Verdun. It was originally the intention of the high com- 
mand to put the Twenty-sixth into the sector around 
Suilly and supply tanks. It is believed that extensive 
operations looking to the reduction of Metz were con- 
templated. These plans were changed, however, and 
the Yankee Division was put into line between Les 
Eparges and Vaux-les-Palameix. 

An attack was decided upon for the purpose of re- 
ducing the salient, and the artillery preparation started at 
1 A.M. September 11. The troops who were to take part 
were concentrated as secretly as possible by night. The 
Gennans, however, had some inkling of what was to 
take place, but believed the attack would be made two 
or three days before the scheduled time. When it did 
not take place they decided that it had been postponed, 
so that on September 12, when it was actually launched, 
they were taken by surprise. 

The 26th Artillery was augmented by other regiments 
of artillery, and a tremendous bombardment was put 
over. At 7.30 p.m. on the night of September 12 General 

137 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Edwards was alone in divisional headquarters at Rupt- 
en-Woevre, when a telephone order was received for the 
troops to jump off that night. The chief of staff and 
all the staff officers being out, the General telephoned 
to General Shelton's headquarters. Lieutenant F. M. 
Linton answered the phone and reported that the brigade 
commander was at the front. General Edwards asked 
the young officer if he thought he could deliver a mes- 
sage to General Shelton in a very short time. Lieutenant 
Linton replied that he was sure he could. He was then 
given an order to have troops pull out as soon as possible 
for Vigneulles. Making his way through the lines of 
trenches to the actual front, the lieutenant found Gen- 
eral Shelton, delivered his message, and at 9 p.m. the 
lO^d Infantry was under way for Vigneulles. This is con- 
sidered a remarkable feat, owing to the difficulty of get- 
ting through the lines during an action. In less than one 
and one-half hours from the time the order was received 
at divisional headquarters it was delivered at the front, 
18 kilometers away, and immediately carried out. 

Rupt-en-Woevre, the seat of divisional headquarters, 
had absolutely no protection. That night, just at dusk, 
a German flew over the town in a captured Allied plane. 
Descending to within about 100 feet, he opened fire with 
a machine gun and swept the streets. Fortunately there 
were no casualties. 

That same night airplanes bombed La Ferte, destroy- 
ing the railroad station where four or five American 
officers, ordered home, were waiting, together with a 
number of French poilus. By some peculiar freak the 
poilus were killed and the American officers escaped. 
They drew their pistols, and, rushing outside, opened 
fire in a vain attempt to bring down the aviators. At 
Nanteuil, near Meaux, General Edwards, staff officers, 

138 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

and every one else were driven into the cellar of a chateau 
one night by Boche avions. They found, however, that 
the floors offered no protection so went back upstairs. 

The bombs made tremendous holes, two of which were 
about 500 yards from the chateau. These were in an 
orchard, but when Captain Hyatt went over to examine 
them, strange to say he found the trees were uninjured. 
The noses of the bombs were pointed, causing them to 
stick into the ground, and the force of the explosion was 
downward. 

At Couvrelles the Boches flew over every night on their 
way to and from Paris, and seemed to be about to fly 
into the windows of the billets. 

One of the most beautiful sights I ever saw [said Captain 
Hyatt], was after we took the St. Mihiel salient. The British 
planes were bombing over Metz, and were focussed in German 
searchlights. Way up in the air one could discern a tiny twinkle, 
then two long fingers of light would go reaching up and up, until 
one would locate the airplane. Then the other would be thrown 
on it in such a way that they held it like a pair of shears. Im- 
mediately shells would begin bursting around the plane, which 
either rose higher and disappeared, or was brought down in 
flames. 

At the St. Mihiel fight [said Captain Hyatt], the troops on 
our southern side went over at 5 a.m. There were two American 
corps with reserves, and they had tanks and cavalry. On the 
northwest side the Twenty-sixth attacked alone with a French 
division on either flank. We had no cavalry and no tanks. 
We did not attack until 8 a.m., so that the Germans were 
warned and ready from the earlier attack. However, when 
we went over we did it so quickly that the Boche was taken 
by surprise. During this scrap a battalion of the 103d cap- 
tured a battalion of Germans. The German major was a 
count, while Major Shumway, commanding the Yankees, was 
only twenty-four years old. 

139 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

We got our objectives on time, after heavy fighting over the 
most terrible terrain. This was filled with concrete pill boxes 
and machine-gun nests, and the woods were full of barbed 
wire. There were scores of ravines running perpendicular to 
our attack, so that it was necessary for the men to fight over 
each one. The ground was covered with bushes about 5 or 
6 feet tall, with a few trees, and barbed wire interwoven. This 
sector had been held by the Boche since September, 1914, and 
naturally was as well fortified as they could make it. 

I don't know yet how the men got through this country 
in the time they did, and with only 55 killed. I am willing 
to wager that a man could not go there now, and with the same 
obstacles, less the enemy fire, cross that ground as rapidly as 
our men did that day. 

After the first day's objectives had been gained we were 
supposed to go to Thillot on the heights of the Meuse. The 
telephone message received at 7.30 p.m., however, changed 
the orders and directed us to proceed southeast to Vigneulles 
and make contact with troops from the south. General Cam- 
eron, who gave the order, in doing so said to General Edwards: 
"Go to it, old boy; its a race between you and the First Divi- 
sion." The Twenty-sixth had been ordered to reach there by 
daylight if possible, but the town was captured at 2 a.m. Patrols 
were immediately put out and they established contact with 
the First Division at Creue. The First Division did not arrive 
until 10 A.M. 

It was in this battle that Captain Joseph McConnell was 
killed. 

Captain McConnell was leading his men over the Veau-St. 
Remy road on the morning of September 13, in an attack on 
the German positions, when he was hit by a shell fragment. 
When the shell struck, McConnell ordered his men to dive for 
cover, but did not have time to get into it himself. 

At this time Major Parker of the 103d Field Artillery was 
also killed, the only man to meet death in that regiment on 
that day. 

At Vigneulles American aviators were bombing, and on 

140 




Colonel Beaumont B. Buck 




International Film Service, Inc. 

Second Lieutenant Daniel Willard, 102d Field Artillery, being deco- 
rated with the Croix de Guerre for Conspicuous Bravery, France 




International Film Service, Inc. 
Members of Battery B, 103d Field Artillery, examining Damage done 
by German Shell, Rambucourt, France, June 24, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

account of poor liaison did not know that the Twenty-sixth 
Division had captured the town. As a result thirty New 
Englanders were wounded by bombs dropped by their own 
aviators. 

General Edwards, in arranging the original plan for the 
attack, had put three regiments in the front line, with one in 
reserve. As a result, when the change of orders came the 
reserve regiment was immediately sent forward. 

The fight lasted twenty-seven hours and was over by noon 
of September 13. General Edwards and myself went into Vig- 
neulles in an automobile, about 11 a.m. at which time we could 
see the Germans retreating. The 101st Engineers had done 
their usual wonderful work, and had built up the shell-torn 
road so that it was perfectly passable. 

When General Edwards sent the order to General Shelton 
to go ahead. Colonel Alfonte, the divisional signal oflScer, was 
sent out to see that the order was executed. By automobile 
and on foot Alfonte caught up with the 102d after they had 
been on the way about two hours. With his chauffeur he 
joined Colonel Bearss and Captain A. F. Oberlin at the head 
of the column, reaching the town about 150 yards in front of 
the troops. As the four men were proceeding down a side street 
they came upon a long German wagon train rolling down the 
main thoroughfare. As the head of the wagon train column 
came up Colonel Alfonte fired his pistol rapidly in the air. 
Captain Oberlin in the meantime had dashed around the 
block, and he too discharged a number of shots, giving the 
Boche the impression that the Americans were present in force. 
They immediately scrambled down from the wagons and threw 
up their hands. They were ordered to pass by the officers and 
drop their weapons on the ground. As the first rifle fell. Colonel 
Bearss, who was unarmed, picked it up. In the meantime the 
chauffeur had gone back and hurried up the troops, who took 
charge of the prisoners. 

Then Colonel Alfonte started a personal tour of inspection 
of what buildings were left standing. Opening a barn door he 
came upon an entire German machine-gun crew, asleep with 

141 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

their guns, and waking them up he took them prisoner, single 
handed. 

The Germans had a cage in the town in which they had been 
wont to display captured Americans. This was immediately 
filled with Germans, who seemed to resent turning the tables. 

In the wagon train the Americans found 70 French boys, 
about the age of fifteen, who were being carried into captivity. 
Great was the rejoicing of the youngsters when they were freed 
by "I'Americains." These boys had been torn from their 
homes in St. Mihiel. In this train were also found quantities 
of ammunition and plenty of good food, with the exception 
of bread, which was very poor; and a lot of stationery which 
was captured in a near-by town. As we were short of sta- 
tionery at the time it came in very handy. 

After the St. Mihiel fight. General Edwards and Colonel 
James L. Howard, the divisional machine gun oflScer, rode up 
and down in front of the front lines in an automobile, preparing 
for the defence of the heights. The Boche had not consolidated 
his position at that time, so the two officers were unmolested. 
During this time Captain "Nat" Simpkins, General Edwards' 
personal aide, was in a perpetual fidget, fearing that the Gen- 
eral would be wounded or killed. 

Colonel Alfonte was a remarkable character. Reserved and 
quiet, he was always anxious to get into action, and continually 
begged the General to allow him to go over the top. In the 
raid of Major Hickey of the 101st Infantry, Colonel Alfonte 
got permission to go along. His idea was to tap the German 
telephone system and listen in on their conversations. He 
went over with the raiding party, carrying telephone lines with 
him, and kept in constant communication with divisional head- 
quarters. The place was so shot up, however, that the German 
telephone system was out of commission, so Colonel Alfonte 
only got gassed for his pains. 

During the battle of Chateau-Thierry Colonel Howard, 
Colonel Duncan K. Major, the new chief of staff, and several 
other staff officers were at the front, when a shell landed near 
thejcn. The officers dived for a shell hole, but Howard, who 

142 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

was the last one in, was struck in the back by a splinter. He 
was then forced to walk 2 miles before he could get an auto- 
mobile to take him to the hospital. 

In the St. Mihiel fight a German officer brought up a train 
of empty trucks on the Tranchee-de-Calonne and drove right 
into our lines. Before he realized his mistake he, his men and 
the trucks were captured. There were eleven trucks, auto- 
mobile ambulances and 70 horses with wagons. The troops 
needed the horses badly, and as everything reported captured 
had to be turned in, they failed to report the animals. 

At Vigneulles we captured railway cars loaded with machine- 
gun ammunition. We also got butter, sugar, meat and bread, 
together with moving-picture machines and a very poor quality 
of tobacco, with 2,600 men. We furthermore secured quantities 
of beer. 

We sent 150 men to the rear in charge of two guards and 
put up a sign which read: "This way to the prison pen," so 
the Germans would be able to find it. 



143 



CHAPTER XVI 
Flank of Twenty-sixth Uncovered 

At the beginning of the St. Mihiel fight the direction of 
the American attack was southeast, the left half of the 
front through open fields, the right half through bushy 
woods. The French on the left of the Twenty-sixth ran 
into stiff opposition and did not really get started at all. 
The left flank of the New Englanders was therefore un- 
covered, but they kept going. There was very little 
German artillery fire, the majority of the Boche guns 
having been withdrawn to prevent capture. They had 
left a number of machine guns, however, which delayed 
somewhat the advance of the 101st Infantry. By enfilade 
fire the 101st drove out the Germans, capturing one lieu- 
tenant and his whole platoon. The right of the line then 
ran into machine-gun nests in the Remy Wood, but 
cleaned them out. 

The Yankees crossed the Grande Tranchee-de-Calonne, 
the main artery for Gemian supplies, and reached their 
objectives. Then it was that the telephone change of 
orders came, and the 102d passed through the line of 
the 101st and took up the advance to Vigneulles. 

Many Germans were taken prisoner, the enemy seeming 
only too anxious to "Kamerad" whenever Americans 
came upon them. Sergeant "Larry" Conry of the 101st 
brought the first prisoners in to divisional headquarters. 
He was in a party that got lost going through No Man's 
Land, when they came upon three Germans, one of 
whom spoke English. Conry told him to lead the way 
to the American lines and have no funny business about 

144 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

it. The prisoner replied that indeed he would make no 
trouble, and that he would advise every German they 
met to surrender. The result was that Conry eventually 
arrived at headquarters with 37 prisoners. 

On the night of July 14, at midnight, the Gennans put 
over a barrage of high explosives and gas which lasted 
for four hours and a half. The 101st Infantry was holding 
the line at this spot, which included Vaux, the farthest 
forward of any town in the line. Owing to the difficult 
terrain, consisting of alternate woods and wheat fields, 
both sides had night and day positions. 

On the morning of the 15th the platoons which had 
been holding the front line withdrew to their day posi- 
tions. A short time later bodies of men were seen coming 
down the hill and into the edge of the town. It was be- 
lieved that these were Americans going into day positions. 
The oncoming troops established a machine-gun strong- 
hold in the old railroad station at Vaux, and occupied a 
row of shell holes which comprised the only front line at 
that place. 

Then it was that Lieutenant Frank E. Bolin discovered 
that the men were Germans, and this information was 
sent back to Colonel Logan. The regimental commander 
turned to Captain Thomas F. Foley, who had brought the 
message, and said: "You've got to drive out those dogs 
or we will be the laughing stock of the army." 

Captain Foley went back and communicated by tele- 
phone with the lieutenants commanding the front posi- 
tions, who were "Jimmy" Rose and E. J. Price. 

Lieutenant Price went forward, and after securing a 
flanking fire on the enemy, started a counter attack. This 
was organized in groups of two or three men. In one of 
these groups was Douglas Ross of Hingham and Arthur 
G. Irwin of Hull. Coming upon a machine gun at a corner, 

145 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

with two men operating it, Ross sent Irwin back for 
bombs. When Irwin returned he found Ross in charge 
of the machine gun and the two Germans dead beside it. 
While waiting for Irwin, Ross shot one of the gunners. 
The other stooped over his comrade, and straightened up 
in time to see the young American charging at him. The 
unwounded Boche turned and fled, whereupon Ross 
shot him too. 

Ross was also in a group that stormed the railroad sta- 
tion, of which there was nothing left but four walls. They 
ran up on two sides, tossing grenades over the walls and 
bombing out the German machine gunners. As they 
ran out Alfred Hall of Hingham, armed with an auto- 
matic rifle, picked them off from a strategic post which 
he had taken on the railroad line. There was no time 
to take prisoners. 

Lieutenant Price extended his line to the left when the 
front-line shell holes were reached. Corporal Christopher 
Sullivan with Privates Reginald Bates and James Cres- 
well were sent to the left of a shell hole, and Arthur Irwin 
and Thomas Kraus were sent to the right. There were 
several of the enemy in the crater, and Private Reginald 
Beale was ordered to keep them down with an automatic 
rifle. The party worked up on the shell hole, with 
Corporal Christopher Sullivan tossing in bombs. At 
length they heard a cry of "Kamerad!" and, advancing, 
discovered ten frightened Germans with their hands in 
the air. 

Throughout this time various small engagements were 
taking place, little groups of Americans rushing the 
enemy, and either taking him prisoner, or putting him 
out of action. A hail of German shells was falling con- 
tinuously, and it seemed a miracle that there were so few 
casualties. 

146 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Another party of Germans was discovered in a crater 
on the right, and when Yankees advanced on them in 
skirmish formation the Boches dove into httle dugouts 
in the bank along the road. Lieutenant Frank E. Bolin 
noticed sniping, traced it to the bank, and led his men 
up. One of them who spoke German hailed the dugout 
and advised the Boches to come out and surrender. They 
promptly took him at his word and emerged. As they 
did so two Americans who had been lying in aiiear-by 
shell hole for some time, afraid to move, stepped out and 
took charge of the prisoners, who were eight in number. 

Company A, which was some distance back of the line, 
sent up a party of volunteer stretcher bearers. These 
men, who had begged for a chance to get into the excite- 
ment, were Sergeant W. G. Weir, Musician David Henry, 
and Privates John Mead, Garret Piggot, Roderick 
McLeod, Chester Griffin, Frank Manning and John 
Mitchell. The ground was so rough and so thoroughly 
covered by the enemy fire that it was some time before 
burial parties could go out and bury the German dead. 
It was here that the 101st Engineers had volunteered 
to bury dead marines and Germans after the Twenty- 
sixth took over the sector; and it was also at this place 
that Floyd Gibbons, the Chicago war correspondent, was 
wounded and lost an eye. 

The New Englanders were highly elated at their suc- 
cess, and for hours visited back and forth among the 
shell holes after the enemy had been driven off. The 
prisoners said they had been ordered to hold the rail- 
road bridge, and that a line regiment was expected to 
follow up their attack and consolidate the position. They 
said that four companies had been engaged in the attack, 
two of them in the center and two on the flanks in sup- 
port. They were from a regiment in the rear. 

147 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The part played by Major jMiirpliy of the Machine 
Gun Battahon in the capture of Vigneulles was of such a 
character that General Shelton, commanding the brigade, 
felt called upon to express his appreciation in a personal 
letter. This action is most unusual in military circles, 
and testifies to the importance of Major Murphy's ac- 
complishments : — 

Headquarters Fifty-first Infantry Brigade, 
Twenty-sixth Division, American Expeditionary Forces, 
September 15, 1918. 

Dear Major Murphy : — The march of the leading ele- 
ments of this brigade, consisting of the 102d Infantry and the 
102d Machine Gun Battalion, on the night of September 12, 
13, 1918, from our position at the close of the first day in the 
attack on the St. Mihiel salient, for more than 9 kilometers 
along the Grande Tranchee de Calonne to Hattonchatel and 
Vigneulles, was of such unique and important character, and 
was performed in such efficient and spirited manner, that I 
desire to place on record my personal appreciation of this ac- 
complishment. 

Our orders required the brigade to pursue the retreating 
enemy and to reach Vigneulles by daylight on the morning of 
the 13th and there gain contact with our forces advancing 
from the south and thereby prevent the escape to the north 
of any bodies of the enemy still in the salient. To have at- 
tempted to push forward a line covering our whole sector 
would have meant, in view of the woods and difficulty of the 
terrain, to fail in the accomplishment of our mission. The 
only alternative was to push boldly forward on the only acces- 
sible road through unknown hostile country, losing for the 
time being liaison with the elements of our forces on our right 
and left, and exposing the advance elements of this brigade to 
the possibility of being cut off and surrounded by the enemy. 
This alternative was chosen, and the lO^d Infantry and your 
Machine Gun Battalion were selected to lead the advance. 

The results are knov/n to you. You took up the march 

148 




Arthur S. Adama 



Colonel John F. J. Herbert 




Watering Horse Section, 101st Ammunition Train, France 




Underwood & Underwood, New York 

Group of Soldiers and Officers of Twenty-sixth Division who were 
Decorated for Conspicuous Bravery at the Front, La Ferte, France, 
July 12, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

about 21 o'clock on the night of the 12th. Before 2 o'clock 
the follo\\nng morning the leading elements of the column 
were in Vigneulles. Hattonchatel and Vigneulles were com- 
pletely in our possession by 3 o'clock. Soon afterwards the 
mission of the brigade had been completely accomplished. The 
roads leading from the southwest had been blocked. The sur- 
rounding towns had been garrisoned, our patrols seeking contact 
with our forces from the south were in the plain below the 
heights, and later this contact was established. Many pris- 
oners and a large supply of stores fell into our hands. ~ 

I congratulate you and your battalion upon this success and 
upon the bravery and fine spirit manifest throughout its 
accomplishment. 

Very sincerely j^ours, 

George H. Shelton, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. A., Commanding. 

During the battle of St. Mihiel, the little town of 
Rupt-en-Woevre was the advance post of command of 
the Twenty-sixth Division. After the Yankees broke 
through Les Eparges, driving back the Germans, General 
Edwards received a letter from the old cure, who had 
remained at his post while the enemy held the country 
for four years. This letter, voicing the heartfelt thanks 
of a people released from bondage, was made public in 
General Orders, and was as follows : — 

RupT-EN-WoEVRE, September 13, 1918. 

Sir: — Your gallant American Division has just set us free. 

Since September, 1914, the barbarians ha.ve held the heights 
of the Meuse; have foully murdered three hostages from 
Mouilly; have shelled Rupt; and on July 23, 1915, forced its 
inhabitants to scatter to the four corners of France. 

I, who remain at my little listening post upon the advice 
of my Bishop, feel certain. Sir, that I do but speak for Mon- 
seigneur Ginisty, Lord Bishop of Verdun, my parishioners of 

149 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Rupt, Mouilly and Genicourt, and the people of this vicinity, 
in conveying to you and your associates the heartfelt and un- 
forgettable gratitude of all. 

Several of your comrades lie at rest in our truly Christian 
and French soil. 

Their ashes shall be cared for as if they were our own. We 
shall cover their graves with flowers, and shall kneel by them 
as their own families would do, with a prayer to God to reward 
with eternal glory these heroes fallen on the field of honor, 
and to bless the Twenty-sixth Division and generous America. 

Be pleased. Sir, to accept the expression of my profound 
respect. 

A. Leclerc, 
Cur6 of Rupt-en-Woevre. 



At the same time General Edwards received a personal 
letter from General Hennocque, whose division, the 
2d Cavalry (Dismounted) was on the right of the Twenty- 
sixth during the battle of St. Mihiel. The French officer's 
father served as an officer in the Union Army throughout 
our civil war, and married a Gallipolis, Ohio, woman. 
The letter read : — 

2d Cavalry Division (Dismounted) Staff, 
P. C, September 16, 1918. 

My Dear Generax,: — Your letter of September 14 moves 
me greatly. My division and I are very grateful for the con- 
gratulations and thanks that you so kindly sent to us all, and 
especially to the 8th Cuirassiers. Great is my joy to have been 
able to be of service to one of those fine young American divi- 
sions which have not hestitated to leave their homes and to 
cross the Atlantic to come to our aid in the destruction of the 
noxious beast, the Boche. 

I am extremely happy to have fought by the side of such 
a commander as you, who, by communicating to his agreeable 
staff and to his troops his own dash, his optimism and his will 

150 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

to conquer, enabled his gallant division to smash the resistance 
offered to it on the 12th and 13th of September, and to win 
a brilliant victory. 

In return, be pleased. General, to accept my most sincere 
and enthusiastic congratulations upon the occasion of this fine 
success which, added to the Chateau-Thierry achievement, is 
but the first chapter of a famous epic. 

Repeating the expression of the deep friendliness I felt for you 
at the time of our first meeting, and my hope to fight again at 
your side, I beg you. Sir, to accept this expression of the most 
kindly feeling from your devoted "buck-eye." 

Hennocque. 



151 



CHAPTER XVII 
102d Infantry Cited 

The obliteration of the St. Mihiel saHent was a mo- 
mentous event, and won plaudits for the New Englanders 
from all sides. On September 18 the Fifth Army Corps 
of the American Expeditionary Forces issued in General 
Orders a citation which read : — 

1. During the recent operations for the reduction of the St. 
Mihiel salient, one regiment in particular of the Twenty-sixth 
Division should be mentioned as having acquitted itself in a 
most inspiring manner. The 102d Infantry (Colonel Hiram L. 
Bearss, commanding) was ordered late in the evening to march 
at once on VigneuUes, in order to close the remaining gap 
between the two attacks. 

The regiment marched 5 miles in darkness through woods 
infested with the enemy, captured 280 prisoners, and com- 
pleted its mission long before daylight. The main roads of the 
salient were cut off, and no more of the enemy could escape. 

This fine example of courage and soldierly acceptance of 
battle conditions is worthy of emulation. The corps commander 
congratulates them and looks forward with confidence to a 
continuation of their good work. 

By command of Major-General Cameron, 

W. B. BURTT, 

Brigadier-General, Chief of Staff. 

In his Order of the Day, issued September 28, General 
Edwards commented on the activities of his division as 
follows : — 

152 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

1. Again it becomes my duty and pleasure to congratulate 
this division on the important part it played in the battle of the 
St. Mihiel salient, September 12-14, 1918. 

Our task was to attack on the historic and hitherto impreg- 
nable ground near Les Eparges, where in the past so many 
thousands of French lives have been sacrificed. 

In front of us the fortifications were manned by Germans, 
with a No Man's Land on difficult slopes, churned and pitted 
by four years of shelling, and with a mass of wire and other 
obstacles from trench to trench. 

The three infantry regiments in line, — the 101st, the 103d 
and the 104th, — with the brigade machine-gun units, met a 
determined resistance. The enemy machine-gun fire was 
intense. The artillery without daylight registration did well, 
during that part of the night allowed for preparation, in cutting 
breaches through this mass of wire, which were completed by 
the infantry before and during the attack. 

The determined and effective methods of the infantry in the 
attack on the machine-gun nests, the deliberate locating of 
these nests, and the subsequent infiltration processes used 
in overcoming these nests; the bold dashes wherever oppor- 
tunity offered, in one case resulting in the 2d Battalion of the 
103d Infantry rushing and capturing a hostile battalion of 
greater strength before the enemy could raise his head; the 
fine liaison and co-operation of the artillery; the expedition 
with which follow-up roads were constructed by the engineers; 
the enterprise of the medical, supply and other auxiliary units, 
all combined to prove that its wide service and experience 
have made this a veteran division. 

I was pleased with all elements of the division, 

2. By dark on the 12th the principal resistance of the enemy 
had been overcome. Then came the order to close the gap 
between our forces on the north and our troops advancing 
from the south, in order to prevent the escape of the enemy 
from St. Mihiel. Our mission then was to reach VigneuUes 
before daylight, and there establish contact with troops of our 
Fourth Corps. 

153 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

3. The 102d Infantry, in the division reserve, which had 
followed the advance closely throughout the battle in readiness 
for any such emergency, was ordered to spare neither energy 
nor blood to accomplish this mission. The whole division was 
pushed forward through the night, the rest of the Fifty-first 
Infantry Brigade following the dash of the 102d Infantry, and 
the Fifty-second Infantry Brigade moving out on the left 
rear of the 102d Infantry, with the towns on the plain to the 
northwest of Hattonchatel, to include St. Maurice, as objectives. 

In less than one-half hour after receipt of this order the 102d 
Infantry and the 102d Machine Gun Battalion were on the 
march, led and inspired by the regimental and battalion com- 
manders in person. They marched over 9 kilometers on the 
only existing road, through a dense forest, in an unknown and 
hostile country infested with the enemy, losing for the time 
being liaison both to the right and left. The leading elements, 
passing through Hattonchatel, reached Vigneulles before 2 
o'clock in the morning, took complete possession of these two 
towns by 3 o'clock, and pushing out occupied Creue and Heudi- 
court and blocked the roads leading from the southwest, while 
sending patrols further into the plain to gain contact with the 
American forces coming from the south. 

This advance force captured many prisoners, much ammuni- 
tion, stores of all kind, and released many captive civilians from 
St. Mihiel that the enemy in his hasty retreat was forced by the 
102d Infantry to abandon. 

With this advance force were the entire 102d Infantry, three 
companies of the 102d Machine Gun Battalion, and part of the 
101st Machine Gun Battalion from the division reserve. This 
last part, abandoning its motors, marched 14 kilometers, carry- 
ing its guns by hand the entire way. 

By morning the whole command had taken possession of all 
the towns in the sector of its advance, and was impatient to 
pursue the enemy across the Hindenburg Line. 

4, The towns of St. Remy, Dommartin, Thillot, St. Maurice, 
Billy-sous-les-Cotes, Vieville-sous-les-Cotes, Hattonchatel, Han- 
nonvalle, Vigneulles, Creue, Heudicourt, Wadonville, Avillers, 

154 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

and Butgneville, as well as the entire length of the Grande 
Tranchee de Calonne, with a gain of 14 kilometers, belong 
to your arms. 

The division captured about 2,400 prisoners, large stores of 
supplies and ammunition, horses, and motor transportation, 
and about 50 guns. 

I am proud of you. You are a shock division. 

C. R. Edwards, 
Major-General, Commanding, 



155 



CHAPTER XVIII 

Edwards' Report on St. Mihiel 

In his report of operations in connection with the reduc- 
tion of the St. Mihiel saHent, issued October 7, General 
Edwards went into the fight in some detail. As was cus- 
tomary, he also made certain recommendations based 
on his observations. The report read: — 

1. On September G, 1918, Battle Instructions No. 1, Head- 
quarters First Army Corps, giving the general outline of pro- 
posed operations against the St. Mihiel salient, were received. 
On the same date the Twenty-sixth Division relieved the 
Second Division de Cavalerie a Pied in the Rupt sector, the 
Commanding General, Twenty-sixth Division, taking command 
of the sector on the 8th. 

On September 11 Field Orders No. 77, Twenty-sixth Divi- 
sion, were issued in accordance with Field Orders No. 17, 
Headquarters Fifth Army Corps, ordering an attack on D 
day at K hour. The attack was to be made with three regi- 
ments in line, the 102d Infantry and 101st Machine Gun Bat- 
talion being designated as division reserve. In each brigade 
sector there were to be two battalions in the front line, each 
battalion being assigned a machine-gun company, Stokes 
mortar and 37 m.m. platoons, a section of smoke and thermite 
troops of the 1st Gas Regiment, one-half company of engineers 
and one 75 m.m. gun. The attack was to be preceded by an 
artillery preparation and accompanied by a rolling barrage. 

2. The following additional artillery units were put at the 
disposition of the Twenty-sixth Division: 13th Field Artillery, 
77th Field Artillery, 203d Regiment (9 batteries) (French 75s 
motorized), 22d Battery, 5th R. A. P. (220 m.m. howitzers), 
1st Battalion (2 batteries), 73d Regiment (270 m.m. coast 

156 




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General Pershing decorating Members of the Infantry, Engineers, 
Artillery and Medical Corps with the D. S. C, La Ferte, France, 
July 12, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

howitzers), 28th Battery, 176th Regiment (240 m.m. trench 
mortar) . 

3. The artillery bombardment commenced at 1 o'clock 
September 12. The targets included five gaps in the wire to 
be cut by 75s, and one by 150 m.m. mortars. This work was 
done satisfactorily. Fire ceased for five minutes at H minus 
three hours, and for ten minutes at H minus one hour and five 
minutes, to allow sound ranging to be carried out. The pauses 
were follov/ed, respectively, by five and ten minutes' gas con- 
centration on back areas. 

4. At 8 o'clock, September 12, the infantry attacked, fol- 
lowing a rolling barrage, which advanced at the rate of 100 
meters in four minutes. Liaison was maintained with flank 
divisions by mixed combat groups, each consisting of one com- 
pany of infantry and one platoon of machine guns from each 
division, and between brigades by one platoon of infantry and 
one section of machine guns from each brigade, all groups 
advancing in line with support battalions. The terrain was 
exceptionally difficult, being wooded and rolling and much 
broken by trenches and shell holes and covered with mazes of 
wire entanglements. The crossing of the latter was made 
possible by the gaps cut by the artillery, and by gaps opened by 
the infantry and engineers by means of wire cutters and Ben- 
galore torpedoes. 

For the first kilometer little resistance was encountered, 
but later considerable machine-gun fire developed from Kiel, 
Essen, Stettin and Prusse trenches. There was also some 
hostile artillery fire; this v/as not very strong. The machine- 
gun resistance was overcome by infiltration combined with 
fire from the infantry weapons, and by gas and flame troops 
v/hich rendered invaluable assistance. 

A half hour's halt took place on the first intermediate ob- 
jective, the Vaux-St. Remy road, during which the assaulting 
battalions reorganized. Resistance was strongest on the right, 
and this had caused considerable disorganization of the right 
battalion, 101st Infantry. The reserve battalion was ordered 
forward, and the 1-102 was ordered to leapfrog, the division 

157 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

reserve having at 10.15 o'clock been ordered to follow up the 
assaulting troops. The advance continued from the first in- 
termediate objective without much opposition on the right, 
but meeting with stiff resistance on the left in I^e Chanot Bois. 
In spite of this resistance the objective for the first day, the 
Longeau Perme-Dompierre-aux-Bois road, was reached at 
about 19 o'clock. 

5. At 15.15 o'clock in the afternoon of the 12th Field Orders 
No. 19, Fifth Army Corps, were received, stating that the 
15th D, I. C. (French) would not advance beyond the line 
Hannonville-Longeau Ferme; that it would organize the cap- 
tured front from Montgirmont to Herbeuville (inclusive); 
that it would transfer to the Twenty-sixth Division the cap- 
tured territory lying between Herbeuville-Dommartin; and 
that the Twenty-sixth Division would take over from the 15th 
D. I. C. the captured territory above and would continue its 
advance to Thillot-sous-les-Cotes (exclusive) and Dompierre- 
aux-Bois (inclusive). 

A little later in the afternoon the commanding general of 
the 2d D. C. A. P., on my right, came to my P. C. and stated 
that as the left of his division had reached its objectives with 
the right of my division, he purposed, knowing the above or- 
ders, and although the 15th D. I. C. had not captured the above 
terrain, to continue his advance after the retreating enemy, 
bearing to the left, or west, his objective in direction of St. 
Maurice, and asked me if I would not go along on his left be- 
cause it was the purpose to take the Heights of the Meuse. 
I agreed to the proposition and sent out one of my staff officers 
to the Fifty-first Infantry Brigade to get the troops ready to 
participate. 

In accordance with later instructions, which I received about 
19.30 o'clock, this order was canceled, and I directed a push- 
through advance on Vigneulles on the Grande Tranchee de 
Calonne. I immediately transmitted this order myself by 
telephone to headquarters Fifty-first Infantry Brigade, re- 
ceived at 20.10 o'clock, and to the Commanding General, 
Fifty-second Infantry Brigade, received at about 21 o'clock. 

158 



I 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

An aide-de-camp of Brigadier-General Shelton received the 
message at headquarters Fifty-first Infantry Brigade and took 
the message to Brigadier-General Shelton, who was arranging 
the pass-through of the 102d Infantry which had been held in 
division reserve with the other elements in order to start this 
turning movement above described; but he immediately 
changed the objective to Vigneulles, and in a half hour after 
the order had been received the 102d Infantry was on the 
march. These orders were confirmed afterwards by Field 
Orders No. 78, these headquarters. 

The 102d Infantry, Machine Gun Company of 101st Infan- 
try, and the lO^d Machine Gun Battalion led the advance. 
The 101st Field Artillery was ordered to follow, escorted by 
one battalion of the 101st Infantry, and followed by the rest 
of that regiment. Due to the impassable condition of the 
roads the artillery could not go forward, and when this became 
evident the 101st Infantry proceeded without them. The 
101st Machine Gun Battalion, in division reserve, was also 
ordered to take part in this advance, and followed the 102d 
Infantry. The leading elements of the lO^d Infantry, after 
cleaning up Hattonchatel, reached Vigneulles at 2 o'clock, 
September 13, and the 101st Machine Gun Battalion arrived 
at the same place at 4.40 o'clock. One company of the 102d 
Infantry, accompanied by machine guns, was sent to Creue, 
and two companies, accompanied by machine guns, were sent 
to Heudicourt. Detachments had been left to block the roads 
crossing the Grande Tranchee de Calonne from the southwest 
and prevent the passage of the enemy. Patrols sent out from 
Vigneulles to the east and southeast gained contact ^\^th the 
leading elements of the First Division. The 101st Infantry 
reached Hattonchatel at 8 o'clock on the 13th. 

6. The Fifty-second Infantry Brigade had been making dis- 
positions to participate in the movement above indicated by 
the commanding general, 2d D. C. A. P., and at the same time 
I gave orders for the advance of the 102d Infantry I ad\ased 
the commanding general of the Fifty-second Infantry Brigade 
that he would move out by any roads that were possible, if he 

lo9 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

could find any, on the left and rear of the 102d Infantry ad- 
vance. The left of the Fifty-second Brigade had been advanc- 
ing irrespective of the fact that the 15th D. I. C. on the left 
had not kept up, and was subjected to a good deal of enfiladed 
fire from the territory in front of this French division through- 
out the day. 

Afterwards, when I learned of the impassability of the roads, 
I gave the objective of this brigade from Hattonchatel to and 
including St. Maurice. This brigade encountered considerable 
resistance from machine-gun nests, but reached their objectives 
indicated the next morning. There was great difficulty in the 
dark, and going forward as they had to in battle formation, to 
get messages from the leading assault battalions to the regi- 
mental headquarters. 

7. The movement forward of the artillery was delayed until 
a road could be constructed across No Man's Land. However, 
two of the accompanying pieces succeeded in crossing at 17 
o'clock on the 12th. The road was made practicable at 13 
o'clock, September 13, and the 101st Field Artillery, 102d 
Field Artillery and 77th Field Artillery immediately moved 
forward to new positions. 

8. Infantry. — As stated above, to each assaulting battalion 
were assigned a machine-gun company, Stokes mortar and 37 
m.m. platoons, a section of smoke and thermite troops from 
the 1st Gas Regiment, one-half company of engineers, and a 
section of 75 m.m. guns. This was found to furnish the in- 
fantry powerful means of overcoming machine-gun nests, but 
the accompanying thermite or gas weapons could have been 
more effectively used if commanders concerned had had more 
training together. The problems encountered were those of 
transporting the material across the difficult terrain and making 
the proper tactical use of them by infantry commanders. 
Combined training is necessary to produce complete co-opera- 
tion and secure the best results in battle. Possibly the Stokes 
mortar units could be equipped with the new long-distance 
shell with thermite charges. 

9. Engineers. — The divisional engineers are insufficient in 

160 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

number in an attack against long-established positions. The 
various missions of assisting the infantry advance by wire 
cutting, both by hand and Bengalore torpedoes; of getting the 
artillery, including the accompanying guns, over to No Man's 
Land; and of road building and general road repairing are more 
than one regiment can cope with. Although in this operation 
the 101st Engineers did unusual and devoted work, yet it was 
twenty-four hours before the main body of the artillery was 
able to cross No Man's Land. Engineers assigned to advanced 
road work should be given the authority of Military Police, 
and should receive instructions from the A. P. M. They will 
thus be assisted in their own work of road repair, and at the 
same time lighten the burden confronting the Military Police. 

10. Artillery. — The rolling barrage, advancing at the rate 
of 100 meters in four minutes, and uniform over the divisional 
front, proved to be too fast for the right battalions, whose 
terrain was covered with underbrush and much wire and 
entanglements, although the left battalions were able to keep 
close up behind it. It may not be practicable to have different 
rates of barrage on the same divisional front, but in this par- 
ticular operation the difficulty might have been met by the 
employment of progressive concentrations rather than a real 
barrage. This would not have given as much moral support 
to the infantry as would a rolling barrage, but it is believed that 
in this particular case our infantry has such confidence in our 
artillery that this added moral support could have been dis- 
pensed with in view of the advantages to be gained. 

11. Machine Guns. — The 101st Machine Gun Battalion 
(partially motorized), forming part of the division reserve, was 
pushed forward behind the 102d Infantry to Vigneulles. The 
roads across No Man's Land being impassable, the battalion 
unloaded its guns and ammunition and carried them by hand, 
accomplishing the march of 18 kilometers in seven hours, only 
one man failing to finish. This performance was remarkable, 
and was more than can normally be expected. Inasmuch as 
the condition of the roads in No Man's Land will seldom permit 
the motors to be pushed forward in the critical stages of the 

161 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

battle, it is believed that some form of light-wheeled mount 
should be provided that can be carried on the motors with the 
guns for use in such emergency. 

12. Reserve. — The advance on Vigneulles showed strongly 
the advantage of keeping a regiment as a unit in reserve. As 
this regiment had been kept well in hand, the march on Vig- 
neulles commenced within one-half hour after the order was 
received. 

13. Intelligence. — Prearranged plans for the collection and 
transmission of intelligence information worked well as far to 
the rear as brigade headquarters, but in rear of that intelligence 
was often sidetracked. It is recommended that a forward 
division intelligence center be established with direct wire 
connections to the brigades and to the G-2 office, and with 
runners for use in emergencies. 

In this operation the division observers were divided into 
two echelons so that one post was always in operation. The 
assignment of an officer to the observer squad, though not pro- 
vided in the tables of organization, greatly increased the value 
of the information obtained. It is believed that the tables 
of organization should provide for two officers with the divi- 
sion observers. This would greatly increase the efficiency of 
the service during attacks, and in quiet sectors these officers 
could be used to supervise the training of the observers of 
lower echelons. Observation posts selected during an advance 
should be as near the axis of liaison as possible; but even so, 
runners, telephone, wire, optical signalling apparatus and other 
portable means of liaison should be provided to enable informa- 
tion to get back promptly enough to be of value. 

14. Traffic Control. — Experience in this advance emphasizes 
the need of pushing traffic control posts forward closely behind 
the advancing infantry, and of laying down a schedule of traf- 
fic priority. During such an advance the allowance of Military 
Police is none too great for the needs of a division. They 
should not be depleted by detachments for corps or army 
duties in an advance. 

15. Air Service. — Although every effort had been made to 

162 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

improve the liaison between the air service and the infantry, 
the results were not satisfactory. Perfect telephone com- 
munication between division headquarters and the aerodrome 
is essential, and squadrons if not forming a part of a division 
should at least be permanently assigned to it, if perfect liaison 
is to be obtained. 

16. Liaison Agents. — Division liaison agents were assigned 
to both divisions on our flanks and to brigade headquarters. 

17. Posts of Command. — As above stated, the fact that the 
commanding officer of the regiment in reserve was aisle to be 
actually with his regiment enabled that organization to get in 
movement very promptly when orders for the march to Vig- 
neulles were received. On the other hand, an order received 
at a brigade P. C. could not be delivered to the commanding 
general for one hour, due to the fact that he was out with his 
troops. The lesson is that though a commander should be well 
to the front in order to follow the development of events and 
to have his units in hand, he must nevertheless be in touch with 
the higher command. These considerations can be reconciled 
by pushing P. Cs. well to the front, and by requiring each com- 
manding officer when he leaves his P. C. to have ready liaison 
with it, preferably, depending on the distance, by some means 
more rapid than runners. 



163 



CHAPTER XIX 
102d Takes Prisoners 

Having eliminated the big St. Mihiel salient, the 
Twenty-sixth Division was pulled back to its original 
sector, which extended way to the front due to the evacua- 
tion of the Boche. This sector was on the crown of a 
range of hills with the advanced posts far out in the plain 
below. It was an ideal position, and the New Englanders 
dominated the territory for miles around. The sector 
had originally included the little town of St. Hilaire, 
but because the terrain was difficult to hold, and be- 
cause of the fact that the town was well within range of 
the American artillery, it had been relinquished. It 
was here that the Germans sent over a raiding party, 
but it was met with a terrific fire, and turned back with 
heavy losses, leaving a number of prisoners behind. 

Meantime a conference of officers was held to meet the 
officers of the Second French Colonial Corps. Here Colonel 
Bearss, commanding the 102d Infantry, asserted that the 
Germans were showing signs of activity opposite his 
position, moving men down into the wood of Warville 
and the town of St. Hilaire. He asked and received 
permission to send out a strong patrol for the purpose of 
taking prisoners. 

Colonel Bearss, who was fonnerly an officer in the 
Marine Corps, then selected four platoons, taking them 
from every battalion in the regiment. Two of them, 
commanded by Captain Oberlin, were ordered to go 
straight into St. Hilaire and secure prisoners. The other 
two were to support the flanks of the attackers. Then 

164 




International Film Service, Inc. 
Lieutenant-Colonel William J. Keville 




One of United States Railway Guns in France 




Hearst News Film 

President Wilson saluting American Soldiers who aided in winning 
Victory at Chateau-Thierry, France 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

four more platoons were picked, under Captain A. W. 
Dillard, and an hour later than the St. Hilaire attack 
were sent into the Bois de Warville. 

WTiile waiting for the artillery preparation to cease, 
members of the two parties made many wagers on which 
would come back first with prisoners. 

At 10.45 P.M. the artillery strafing changed into a rolling 
barrage, and the St. Hilaire party jumped off. Then a 
box barrage was laid around the town, and the^platoons 
went forward, finding heavy iron wire on iron stakes 
stretching across the road into town. Under an intense 
machine-gun fire this obstruction was removed, and the 
main body, headed by Captain Oberlin, rushed for St. 
Hilaire. Just then there was a terrific explosion, and a 
section of the road rose in air, carrying the captain and 
several of his men with it. It had been mined by the 
enemy. Fortunateljs no one was seriously injured, and 
the party surged on. There was a scrambling in the town, 
and when the Americans reached there not a Boche was 
to be found. Angry and disappointed, the raiders were 
forced to return with no prisoners. 

At 11.45 the guns opened up on the woods which the 
other party were to attack, changed to a rolling barrage, 
behind which the American platoons crept, and then 
switched into a box barrage. The Germans had planted 
machine guns in the trees, and the bursts of flame from 
these v/ere seen by Colonel Bearss, who was watching the 
course of the attack. He immediately got in touch with 
the heavy guns, and after a few high explosives had 
dropped into the woods the machine-gun firing ceased. 

The New Englanders advanced into the woods, and 
there in the dark they engaged in hand-to-hand combat 
with a considerable number of the enemy. There was a 
good deal of confusion, ov/ing to the darkness, but the 

165 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

enemy fought only half-heartedly, and the Americans 
secured a number of prisoners. Then, the time being up, 
they returned to their own lines carrying fifteen of the 
enemy with them. Only two slight injuries were reported 
among the Yankee forces. 

Dr. Charles Comfort of New Haven went along with 
the St. Hilaire raiders, but had nothing to do. The Rev. 
James P. Sherry of Lowell, chaplain of the regiment, at- 
tached himself to the other party, and justified his action 
by boosting Private John Cummings of New Haven up a 
tree. Cummings wanted to locate a field piece and a 
machine gun that were firing from somewhere beyond the 
woods. This he succeeded in doing, despite the heavy fire 
and the fact that he afforded an excellent target for the 
enemy. 

The next engagement of the division was on Sep- 
tember 26, when the Argonne-Meuse offense opened. The 
Yankee Division made a diversion attack at this time in 
order to prevent the enemy from utilizing his artillery 
from Woevre. While this engagement was of practically 
small importance compared to the great offensive, it was 
one of the most intense struggles in which the division 
participated. 

Out in the great plain of the Woevre were two towns, 
Marcheville and Riaville. These towns were held by the 
enemy, and the Yankees were ordered to take and hold 
them for twenty-four hours. 

For weeks the preparations for the Champagne offensive 
had been going quietly on, and the Twenty-sixth were 
beginning to feel that they were to be overlooked. On 
the night of September 25, however, orders arrived. 
Company cooks were told to prepare two cooked meals, 
and the oflScers were then called to a conference at di- 
visional headquarters. It was then learned that the 

166 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

artillery preparation would begin at 11.30 that night, and 
at 5.30 the following morning the regiment, commanded 
by Colonel Bearss, would start an attack against Marche- 
ville. At the same hour the 103d Infantry would move 
against Ria,ville, over to the left. 

The whole attack was in charge of Colonel Bearss, who 
went over the top with the men, accompanied by Colonel 
James L. Howard, as liaison officer, and Major E. E. 
Lewis, who commanded the attacking battalion.' 

The two objectives were little villages, consisting of 
groups of houses on country roads. There is a road 
leading across the plain from Champion to Riaville, and 
another from Saulx to Marcheville, while a third road 
runs from Marcheville to Riaville. Crosswise there were 
trenches, and around each town broad belts of wire. 

It was still dark at 5.30, with blankets of smoke hang- 
ing over the positions, and concealing the men. The 
attacking parties worked up the trench systems until 
they encountered machine-gun opposition, which they 
flanked out. They reached the two towns some time 
after daylight, and were immediately subjected to a 
smashing artillery bombardment. Colonel Bearss and 
Colonel Howard rode into Marcheville ahead of the 
troops, and Colonel Howard personally directed the 
machine-gun fire. Major Lewis and Major Hanson were 
in and out of the two towns several times during the 
day, and continually exposed themselves while directing 
the attacks. At dark, orders were received to retire to 
the original positions, and the men went back in good 
order, one group holding back the enemy while another 
withdrew. Twenty -nine prisoners were taken at Marche- 
ville. 

Major Hanson and the battalion attacking Riaville 
early encountered opposition. They took cover in two 

167 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

mottes of trees, at the corner of a trench which ran across 
the foot of the hill in front of Riaville. Shelled out from 
these the Yankees came out into the fields, and under 
what cover they could find re-formed and moved up to 
the second ditch. Twice they reached a point a short 
distance from the town, and each time were held up by 
machine-gun fire. Then Major Hanson called for artil- 
lery, but the German positions were impregnable. The 
Boches were huddled in concrete pill boxes, against which 
artillery fire was useless. 

At 12.30 the artillery ceased, and the attacking forces 
managed to make their way into the town, driving off a 
counter attack. Then their machine guns held off the 
Boche, while the enemy artillery pounded the town. 

In the meantime the other party was having troubles 
of its own. On the brow of the hill it ran into machine- 
gun fire, and immediately started to flank out the em- 
placements, which were mostly pill boxes. Colonel Bearss, 
Colonel Howard and Major Lewis, with about twenty 
men, most of them runners, reached the westerly edge of 
the town, and took shelter under a high wall which was 
still standing. From there they penetrated to the main 
street, discovering a strong point and abri in a little square 
where the road made a turn. Here headquarters were 
established. 

In the meantime the troops had gotten into the town, 
and the Yankee machine guns drove the Boche out. The 
enemy retreated up a trench toward the next town, and 
from there launched a counter attack preceded by a 
terrific artillery bombardment. When this counter at- 
tack was made the New Englanders dropped back to the 
trench in front, as the enemy had gone around to the 
south and were attempting to flank them. 

The headquarters party knew notliing about this, and 

168 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

before they realized what was happening were menaced on 
three sides. They took up a position with their three 
machine guns in the middle of the town, and began to 
stand off the Germans. They managed to drive off the 
enemy from the south, and then, their ammunition running 
low, fell back around the wall, to the ditch. Here they 
were again forced to fight, and eventually fell back to the 
corner under an enfilading fire from the enemy. 

The members of the little party were in a precarious 
position when Lieutenant Linton, of General Shelton's 
staff, came to their rescue. He had heard of their diffi- 
culties back in Saulx, where he had gone with an order. 
Lieutenant Linton gathered together some 25 men, 
and dashing across the open country in face of the 
enemy's fire reached the town. The other party sig- 
naled from the trench, and he joined them. The in- 
creased forces were sufficient to get the entire party to a 
safer position. 

It was during this time that Lieutenant Paul Hines, a 
Boston newspaper man and assistant to the regimental 
adjutant of the 102d, did something which won him the 
Distinguished Service Cross. A wounded officer was 
lying in the open in front of Marcheville, and Lieutenant 
Hines announced he was going to get him. It looked to 
be impossible, but the remainder of the little head- 
quarters party agreed to give him what assistance they 
could. Spreading out they opened a hot fire, and while 
thus keeping tJie Germans busy the young lieutenant 
and two men rushed out and brought back the wounded 
officer. 

It was at Marcheville that Lieutenant Linton met his 
death, after conducting himself through the day in a man- 
ner which gained for him the Distinguished Service Cross. 
The citation read : — 

169 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

First Lieutenant Frederick M. Linton, deceased. Fifty-first 
Infantry Brigade. For extraordinary heroism in action near 
Marcheville and Riaville, France, September 25-26, 1918. 
Lieutenant Linton, while acting as haison officer with brigade 
headquarters, volunteered to carry a message from the front 
lines to the rear through a terrific barrage and murderous 
machine-gun fire. After successfully^ accomplishing this mis- 
sion he returned with a platoon of reinforcements across an 
open field through the same heavy fire. When the town of 
Marcheville fell into the enemy's hands he volunteered to lead 
a platoon in the counter attack, and was wounded while in 
command. He retained command and held his ground with 
the platoon until he received his second and fatal wound. 
Home address, Mrs. Frederick M. Linton, 38 Fletcher Street, 
Roslindale. 



170 



CHAPTER XX 

Colonel Bearss's Report 

The report of Colonel Bearss, who led the attack on 
Marcheville and Riaville, is a brief, soldierly document, 
and is of interest at this time. It read : — 

Headquarters 102d United States Infantry, 
American Expeditionary Forces, September 28, 1918. 

From: Commanding Officer, 102d United States Infantry. 

To : Commanding General, Twenty-sixth Division (through 

military channels). 

Subject : Report of attack on Marcheville and Riaville, Septem- 
ber 26, 1918. 

1. In accordance with the orders of the commanding general, 
Twenty-sixth Division, the following troops attacked Riaville 
and Marcheville: 1st Battalion, 102d Infantry; 1st Battalion, 
103d Infantry; Companies A and B, 102d Machine Gun Bat- 
talion, Fifty-first Infantry Brigade; Company B, 103d Machine 
Gun Battalion, Fifty-second Infantry Brigade; Machine Gun 
Company, 103d Infantry; Compa.ny B (less one-half), 101st 
Engineers; Company F (less one-half), 101st Engineers; Fifty- 
first Artillery Brigade; detachment, 101st Field Signal Bat- 
talion; detached Sanitary Troops and Stokes mortar platoon; 
37 m.m. platoons of 103d and 102d Infantry regiments. 

2. At 5.30 A.M. the troops commenced their advance. At 
6 A.M. a thick smoke screen, accompanied by a heavy barrage 
of artillery and machine-gun fire, was put down in advance of 
our line. At this juncture progress was very difficult and neces- 
sarily slow, and because of poor visibility, due to the smoke 
and resulting fog, our troops at times got to within 20 feet of 
machine guns without detecting their presence. Hand grenades 
too were thrown at us in abundance by a few of the enemy, 
unnoticed through the thick fog, in shell holes near by. 

171 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

3. The town was entered after stubborn fighting at 9 a.m., 
and our objective reached at 10 o'clock. In this primary action 
we captured about thirty prisoners. We found the town of 
Marcheville infested with machine-gun nests, pill boxes, snipers 
and grenade throwers. Old ruined buildings, broken-down 
walls, innocent looking pieces of tar paper and other debris 
concealed within or underneath machine guns and crews of 
grenade throwers. Undaunted by the constant sniping from 
ambush, and the persistent sputter of the hidden and unsus- 
pected machine guns, our men charged in the direction of the 
fire, routed the crews, and engaged them in a most bitter hand- 
to-hand struggle. The treachery of the enemy was once more 
manifest when they threw up their hands shouting, "Kamerad!" 
Hardly had we ceased firing and called to them in German to 
surrender, when we were greeted with a volley of grenades and 
a fusillade of machine-gun bullets from points in the rear and 
between the intervals of their formation. 

4. The enemy was reinforced several times during the day 
and counter-attacked violently, with the result that the town 
changed hands four times, leaving us, however, in full pos- 
session when at 19.45 o'clock, in accordance with our orders, 
we returned under cover of darkness. 

5. Our retirement was accomplished under the most terrific 
artillery and machine-gun fire, but fortunately without any 
serious casualties. 

6. Of the valor and courage of the officers and men who 
participated in the attack too much cannot be said in honor and 
eulogy. Those who survived the combat, as well as the brave 
officers and men who fell in the field, displayed that dashing, 
courageous spirit, that tenacity of purpose and willing accept- 
ance of hardship and sacrifice, that have become traditional 
in the Twenty-sixth Division. They fought from sunrise to 
sunset with but one thought and purpose, — to divert the enemy 
from every other direction and purpose, and engage him as 
bus'ly as possible throughout the day. 

7. Our losses due to the extremely heavy artillery and 
machine-gun fire, and the hand-to-hand fighting incident to 

172 



I 




Purdy 



Lieutenant-Colonel Frank S. Perkins 




International Film Service, Inc. 

Company B, 101st Supply Train,'' unloading Bread for Use en Route 
to Front, Chatillon, France, August 28, 1918 




International Filmj.Service, Inc. 
First American Wounded of the 103d 
Infantry, Bois d'Esparges, France, 
September 12, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

carrying on our mission, are greatly compensated by the realiza- 
tion that we carried out as perfectly as we could our mission 
contained in division orders. 

8. Among other officers who displayed exceptional courage 
and bravery I must mention Major E. E. Lewis, 102d Infantry, 
second in command of the attack, for his extraordinary initi- 
ative, energy and bravery. He organized the position in 
Marcheville, collected all the scattered units, established 
liaison, and in the hand-to-hand fighting attendant on the 
retaking of the town displayed a natural-born leadership, — 
those soldierly qualities of coolness and bravery that were an 
inspiration to all, and begot in the men under him a confidence 
and bull-dog tenacity of purpose that are always productive of 
success. 

H. I. Bearss, 
Colonel, U. S. M. C, Commanding. 

In indorsing this communication Brigadier-General 
Shelton said : — 

1. This attack was made under division orders and in ac- 
cordance with the plan of the 2d Colonial Corps for a deep 
raid on each division sector on the corps front simultaneously 
with and as a diversion for the main attack of the American 
and French armies northwest of Verdun. The division orders 
directed a raid by a battalion of the 102d Infantry on Marche- 
ville, connecting with the raid by a battalion of the 103d In- 
fantry on Riaville. Both operations were placed under the 
command of Colonel H. I. Bearss, 102d Infantry. The limits 
of the raid and objective were fixed practically by the limit of 
effective artillery fire from our guns on the heights of the 
Meuse. The plan further contemplated, after attainment of 
the objectives, that the troops should remain in possession 
thereof until nightfall. This was understood to be important 
in accomplishing the purpose of the diversion on this front, 
and was necessary to admit withdrawal of the troops across the 
open plain under cover of darkness. The artillery prepara- 

173 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

tion began at 23.30 o'clock, September 25, and continued until 
the infantry advanced at 5.30 o'clock, September 26. 

2. The foregoing report of Colonel Bearss covers briefly the 
main facts of the attack on Marcheville in so far as data were 
available at the time it was prepared, immediately after the 
return of his command to its normal positions. It does not 
cover so fully the attack on Riaville by the battalion of the 
103d Infantry because at the time of its preparation complete 
reports from this battalion were not at hand. But Colonel 
Bearss's bare recital of facts in no way does justice to the 
remarkable accomplishment of his troops throughout the day 
of September 26, and still less to his own fine conduct of the 
attack, his brilliant leadership, and his remarkable personal 
courage. The position attacked, known to be strongly held, 
had been reinforced, it appears from statements of prisoners, 
during the night preceding the attack. This reinforcement 
may have been due to the warning afforded by the artillery 
preparation, or to the activity of our troops in this sector 
during the preceding ten days. The difficulties confronting the 
attacking forces in this way were increased through the artil- 
lery fire which the enemy was able to bring upon the position 
while in our possession, and against which, due to the reactive 
location of the enemy artillery and ours, it was possible to 
bring no effective counter-battery work. 

3. Due to the darkness and fog and the smoke screen 
employed by the enemy, there was some delay in the first 
entry of the main attacking forces into Marcheville. Colonel 
Bearss, accompanying the advance with the liaison group con- 
necting the two attacking battalions, was, with his staff, 
actuallj^ on this account the first of our forces to enter Marche- 
ville. Thereafter he personally shared with his staff in all that 
his command endured throughout the day, and personally 
directed the combat on the ground. It is not easily possible 
to do full justice to all that was endured by all concerned in 
this part of the operations, or to describe the courage and 
fortitude that was displayed in the complete accomplishment 
of the assigned mission. In my judgment these operations 

174 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

form one of the unique and heroic achievements of the war in 
which every man taking part is entitled to credit. 

4. Colonel Bearss showed himself throughout these opera- 
tions, as he has shown himself on every other occasion since 
coming under my command, fully capable of exercising brigade 
command. Separate recommendation for his appointment as 
brigadier-general will be submitted. Recommendations for 
suitable rewards for others who distinguished themselves in 
these operations will be forwarded as soon as they^can be 
prepared. 

George H. Shelton, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



175 



CHAPTER XXI 
Yankees Create Diversion 

While occupying the Troyon sector, which it organized 
after the battle of St. Mihiel, the Yankee Division named 
its two subsectors "Massachusetts" and "Connecticut." 
Its various P. Cs. were also given names of the capitals 
of the States of New England. 

At the beginning of the engagement of September 26, 
from the Meuse beyond the Argonne, the role of the 
Yankees was to make the Germans believe that they 
purposed to break through and attack Metz. In this 
way they created a diversion and helped out the main 
attack on the Argonne-Meuse front. As a result of their 
activities the following letters were received : — 

Headquarters, Second Colonial Corps Staft, 
October 5, 1918. 

No. 29329. 

From: General Blondlat, Commanding Second Colonial 

Corps. 
To: The Commander-in-Chief (through channels, General 

commanding Second Army). 

Subject : Proposition for Citation in Army Orders in Favor of the 
1st Battalion, 102d Regiment of Infantry, U. S. 

I have the honor to send you the report which I had the 
General commanding the Twenty-sixth United States Division 
make on the very hard and glorious combat in which this division 
engaged on September 26, 1918. 

The Second Colonial Corps had received orders to carry out 
extensive raids to attract and fix the attention of the enemy as 

176 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

follows: "General Orders No. 20, September 20, 1918, of the 
General commanding the First United States Army. The 
Second Colonial Corps will hold the front of Bois le Chauffour, 
inclusive, to Mesnil, exclusive. The Second Colonial Corps 
will make a demonstration along its front, launching artillery 
bombardment as well as making extensive raids at H hour." 

The dimension and duration of the raid executed by the 
Twenty-sixth United States Division certainly deceived the 
enemy as to our intentions; the losses suffered by the^ troops 
taking part in this operation were fairly severe, but there is no 
doubt that those suffered by the Germans were much more 
serious. 

The spirit of sacrifice and magnificent courage displayed by 
the troops of the Twenty-sixth United States Division on this 
occasion were certainly not in vain. They seem to me worthy 
of recompense and praise. Therefore I directed the General 
commanding the division to address propositions to me on this 
subject. 

I urgently request that the 1st Battalion of the 102d In- 
fantry be cited in Army Orders on the following grounds : — 

Picked troops who, trained by Colonel Hiram J. Bearss, who led 
the attack in the first line, carried out brilliantly and with splendid 
energy a particularly delicate operation; engaged battle with a superb 
dash; won a victory after a violent combat over an enemy who was 
both stubborn and superior in numbers, entrenched in concrete shelters, 
strongly supported by numerous machine guns and powerful artillery, 
and who made use of, in the course of the action, infamous methods 
of warfare; heroically carried out their mission in capturing in heavy 
fighting a village where they maintained themselves all day in spite 
of four enemy counter attacks, and thus furnished the finest example 
of courage, abnegation and self-sacrifice. 

» 
I request further that the officers and men mentioned in 
General Edwards' report receive each and severally the rewards 
suggested for them by name. 

Blondlat. 

177 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Headquarters, Second Colonial Army Corps Staff, 
October 7, 1918. 

No. 29431A. 

At this time, when the Twenty-sixth Division is leaving the 
zone of the Second Colonial Army Corps, I wish to forward to 
General Edwards and to his gallant division the expression of 
my complete satisfaction, my best wishes for its successes to 
come, and my hearty thanks for the brilliant services in the 
attack on the St. Mihiel salient. 

Although the Twenty-sixth Division was only under my 
orders for a short time, I discovered on the part of all, both 
officers and men, those qualities of discipline, ardor and esprit 
de corps which characterize picked troops. 

I thought it but my duty to call to the attention of the 
French high command the fine conduct under fire of your men 
in the glorious battle of September 26 ; they demonstrated once 
again their high qualities of energy and spirit of sacrifice. I 
have requested that citations be bestowed upon the brave men 
whose conduct has been especially reported to me. 

Blondlat. 

The Distinguished Service Cross and the Bronze Oak 
Leaf *'for extraordinary heroism in action" were awarded 
Colonel Bearss, Lieutenant Colonel (formerly Major) 
Lewis and Lieutenant Colonel Howard for the part they 
took in the attack on Marcheville and Riaville. In an- 
nouncing the awards the commanding general issued the 
following: — 

Colonel Hiram I. Bearss, 102d Infantry, for extraordinary 
heroism in action at Marcheville and Riaville, France, Sep- 
tember 26, 1918. 

Colonel Bearss's indomitable courage and leadership led to 
the complete success of the attack by two battalions of his 
regiment on Marcheville and Riaville. During the attack these 
two towns changed hands four times, finally remaining in our 
possession until the troops were ordered to withdraw. Under 
terrific machine-gun and artillery fire Colonel Bearss was the 

178 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

first to enter Marcheville, where he directed operations. Later, 
upon finding his party completely surrounded, he personally 
assisted in fighting the enemy off with pistol and hand grenades. 

Lieutenant Colonel Evan E. Lewis, 102d Infantry, for extraor- 
dinary heroism in action near Marcheville, France, September 
26, 1918. 

Being second in command of the assaulting troops. Lieutenant 
Colonel Lewis displayed great bravery and rare initiative. 
While under terrific artillery and machine-gun fire he reor- 
ganized scattered units, established and organized positions in 
depth, set up haison from front to rear, and in hand-to-hand 
fighting personally led his men, inspiring in them a confidence 
and tenacity of purpose that v>^ere productive of success. 

Lieutenant-Colonel James L. Howard, division machine gun 
officer. Twenty-sixth Division, for extraordinary heroism in 
action at Marcheville, France, September 26, 1918. 

Lieutenant Colonel Howard directed the machine-gun at- 
tack in person. Entering Marcheville ahead of the troops, he 
rendered great assistance while the town changed hands four 
times. A\Tien he was in a small party, cut off and surrounded 
by the enemy and under fire from every direction, by his cool- 
ness and resourcefulness he assisted materially in aiding the 
party to withdraw. He effectively organized machine-gun 
defences when the enemy was endeavoring to drive our troops 
from the town. During the entire day he was under intense 
artillery bombardment, machine-gun and rifle fire, and in 
hand-to-hand conflict with the enemy. 

Thirty-two other officers and men were awarded the 
same decorations at this time for the part which they 
had played in various engagements. These included 
Captain Robert Blood, Medical Corps, 103d Infantry; 
Captain Charles W. Comfort, Medical Corps, 102d In- 
fantry; First Lieutenant Henry Christiansen, Medical 
Corps, 101st Ambulance Company; and First Lieutenant 
Joseph H. Dunn, ambulance section, 101st Sanitary Train. 

179 



CHAPTER XXII 
Transferred to Verdun 

Following the successful diversion in the Woevre, the 
Yankees were pulled out and transported up to the famous 
citadel at Verdun, where they became the army reserve. 
On October 16 three companies of the 104th Infantry 
went into line. They marched 24 kilometers with noth- 
ing to eat, and then, assisted by fifteen French tanks, 
fought until morning. Fourteen tanks were lost in this 
engagement, and the New Englanders had about 250 
casualties. That afternoon they again attacked and 
gained all their objectives. 

As a result of this action. General Andlauer, the French 
commander, sent the following commendation : — 

Third Bureau, October 17, 1918. 

From: General Andlauer, Commanding the Eighteenth Divi- 
sion of Infantry. 
To: The Commanding General, Twenty-sixth Division. 

General: — At the moment that the Eighteenth Division 
of Infantry is relieved in its sector by the Twenty-sixth Division 
of Infantry, United States, I wish to send you my heartiest 
thanks for the support given to its comrades of the 77th Regi- 
ment by the 104th Infantry, which since its arrival in the sector, 
attacked with tanks and succeeded, thanks to a stubborn in- 
fantry battle, in forcing the evacuation of half of the edge of 
the Bois d'Haumont by the enemy. 

Andlauer. 

The attack in question was of comparatively small 
moment in the general scheme of things, but for those 

180 




Bachrach 



Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph W. Beacham, Jr. 




Internationul Film Service, Jiic. 

General Pershing, General Edwards and Brigadier-General Cole 
reviewing Troops at the Front, France 




IntiTiiatioiial Film^^Scrvice, Inc. 

German Signal Station, captured by Twenty-sixth Division at Bois 
des Tetes, Ferine, France, September 13, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

who participated it was one of the hottest engagements 
they had seen. The troops gained their objective, but 
were unable to hold it, owing to the intensity of the fire 
from the enemy. The ground was extremely muddy, and 
the tanks went out of action either by sliding into shell 
holes or capsizing. 

There were numerous instances of personal bravery. 
Lieutenant W. M. Leonard with his men held their place 
for an hour and a half. Lieutenant Walter A. Tisdell, 
who was alongside, joined Lieutenant Leonard, and with 
two squads of men the young officers crawled through 
the devastated area that had once been a wood to find 
and rescue wounded. Lieutenant D wight T. Colby also 
gained his objective when the tanks gave out, and he also 
returned with his wounded at the close of the day. Cor- 
poral John LaFleau was in a platoon which was sur- 
rounded by the enemy and which shot its way out; the 
corporal, however, was captured. Sergeant Benjamin 
Shapiro captured a machine gun single handed. Only 
one of the crew got away. 

Charles R. Reville, a stretcher bearer, carrying in a 
wounded man with a companion, felt the other end of 
the stretcher sag. He looked around and found that his 
comrade had been hit. Reville managed to drag the man 
on the stretcher into a dressing station, and then went 
back five times, bringing in a wounded soldier each time. 

Another typical incident illustrating the spirit of the 
division occurred during this tank attack. A company 
of the 104th Infantry was lying in reserve near a dressing 
station. The wounded were coming in faster than the 
stretcher bearers could transport them to the ambulance 
post two kilometers below. The "doughboys" were 
asked for volunteer stretcher bearers, and the whole 
company responded. They were immediately accepted, 

181 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

and for the rest of the day passed back and forth over a 
shell-swept road, carrying wounded, although they knew 
that it would be necessary for them to go back into the 
line shortly. 

The next day the division came up, and relieved the 
Eighteenth French Division. The 101st Infantry was 
given the left end of the line, on the crest of a hill. Next 
to the right was the 102d, with the 103d on another hill 
and the 104th in reserve. This sector was under severe 
and constant shelling, which made it extremely difficult 
to get up supplies and ammunition. Even the back areas 
were sprayed by shells each day, and the German guns 
were registered on crossroads and traffic thoroughfares. 

However, the Fifty-first Artillery Brigade was heavily 
reinforced, even naval 14-inch railway guns coming up 
on the far side of the Meuse. These guns constantly 
replied to the German bombardment, and the resultant 
din was terrific. 

It was at this time that the division received its greatest 
blow, and one from which it never fully recovered. On 
October 22, while General Edwards was organizing an 
attack to start the next morning, he received orders re- 
lieving him from his beloved command. The men of the 
division were stunned. General Edwards had just taken 
over a sector on the worst point of the whole line; for 
three days he had suffered the most intense grief over 
the death of his only daughter Bessie, who fell a victim 
to pneumonia while working in a cantonment hospital 
in the United States; and his personal aide, "Nat" 
Simpkins, was also at death's door from the same disease. 

The order relieving the General stated that he was to 
be detached from the division and the American Ex- 
peditionary Forces, and return home to train a new 
division. 

182 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

For days he had been laboring under a tremendous 
responsibility, submerging his own troubles under a 
mass of details which customarily were handled by his 
aides. Captain Hyatt had been promoted to major and 
sent to the Staff College. Then Captain Simpkins was 
taken sick and on October 12 was evacuated to the field 
hospital. At the same time Brigadier-General Shelton 
was also evacuated, suffering from Spanish influenza, 
and Colonel Bearss replaced him. Lieutenant XHolonel 
E. E. Lewis, who had just been promoted, succeeded 
Colonel Bearss in the command of the Connecticut regi- 
ment. 

The story of how he received the news of the death 
of his only child at Camp Meade was told by General 
Edwards in the following words : — 

I was up in the trenches when some one approached me. 
" WTiat is the worst news you could receive? " he asked. " Mad- 
ame?" I asked, in return [that being the manner in which the 
General refers to his wife]. He shook his head and said that 
wasn't it. Then I knew it must be Bessie. He gave me a 
clipping. I was worrying about Captain Simpkins at the time. 

The night was a terrible one. The roads were almost im- 
passable and were raked by shell fire. The nearest cable oflSce 
was about 14 miles away. I spoke to some of the motorcycle 
despatch riders. I told them I must send a cable. Every man 
volunteered. One of them then rode through with the cable 
for Madame. 



The gloom caused by this latest bereavement is best 
reflected in a letter which the Rev. M. J. O'Connor of 
Roxbury, senior chaplain of the division, and formerly 
chaplain of the 101st Infantry, sent to General Ed- 
wards : — 

183 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Heajjquarters Twenty-sixth Division, 
American Expeditionary Forces, October 17, 1918. 

My Dear General Edwards: — I know how futile are 
words to assuage the grief that has come to you in the loss of 
your only daughter. I know how dear she was to you, and her 
loss by death at a time when you are far from home and so 
deeply interested in the destinies of the men under your com- 
mand will draw from you all the virility of your manhood to 
sustain the blow. 

I realize that a heart like yours which has caused you to 
show so much sympathy for afflicted parents and wounded 
soldiers must feel deeply the grief that has come to you. Were 
it possible for the officers and the men under your command to 
lighten this burden, every man of them would feel it an honor 
if his life could restore hers to you. 

But we are powerless; yet if there be consolation in knowing 
that there are thirty thousand hearts which desire to lessen your 
sorrow, the Twenty-sixth Division grieves with you. 

May God, who has placed this burden on you and your good 
wife, give both of you the strength to accept it with Christian 
fortitude. 

Sincerely yours, 

M. J. O'Connor, 

Chaplain. 

In that letter Chaplain O'Connor expressed the senti- 
ments of every man in the division. General Edwards 
replied thus : — 

Headquarters Twenty-sixth Division, 
American Expeditionary Forces, October 25, 1918. 

My Dear Chaplain O'Connor: — Your note will be treas- 
ured by my poor wife. It is beautifully like you, and I appreci- 
ate it very much. 

I got an official cablegram from the War Department about 
Army Nurse Bessie Edwards, quoting a message from Mrs. 
Edwards, the first I had received, that she had cabled me three 

184 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

times, that she was wath our daughter to the last, that she died 
happy, and that Bessie had sworn in as a nurse with a chance 
to come to France. 

I did not beheve that God's inscrutable ways would demand 
a daughter for the cause, and a second but more successful sac- 
rifice than the other member of the family. However, it has 
come, and it must be borne, together with this last separation. 

Just say to the individuals of this Yankee Division as you see 
them that my one wish is that they should carry onjunder the 
new commander and continue in their glorious record. That is 
the thing that is on our conscience that nobody can deprive 
us of, and their loyal devotion and success are a great com- 
pensation and a great comfort to me. 

I will see you before I go. 

Faithfully yours, 

C. R. Edwards. 

On the morning of October 12 word came from the 
hospital that Captain Simpkins was very low and could 
not recover. The Spanish influenza, from which he first 
suffered, was complicated with nephritis, and pneumonia 
set in. Word was sent to his two brothers, Captain John 
Simpkins of an artillery outfit, and Lieutenant William 
Simpkins, aide to General Shelton. 

Captain John Simpkins managed to reach the hospital 
shortly before noon, and found his brother conscious. 
A short time later the stricken oflScer lapsed into a coma 
and died. 

In the meantime a press of business kept General 
Edwards at his headquarters at Bras. WTien he did 
manage to get away and rush to the hospital in a motor, 
he arrived too late. His aide was gone. 

The young man's death was a tremendous shock to 
the General. They had been almost inseparable, and 
occupied more the position of father and son than superior 

185 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

officer and subordinate. From the time the New England 
division entered the Chemin des Dames until he became 
ill, Captain Simpkins was constantly with the General, 
and did what he could to protect him. General Ed- 
wards' custom of exposing himself on the front was a 
source of tribulation to his young aide, who vainly begged 
him to be more careful. 

Captain Simpkins seemed to possess the faculty of 
knowing what the General was going to say before he 
said it, and anticipating his wishes. After the departure 
of Captain Hyatt, all the details of General Edwards' 
business at headquarters fell on him, in addition to his 
other duties. 

Before visiting the hospital General Edwards sum- 
moned his commanding officers to headquarters to bid 
them good-by. They came, hardened fighters, who had 
participated in all the famous battles of the division, 
and General Edwards was the only cheerful appearing 
man of the lot. Bravely and skilfully hiding his sorrows 
and disappointments, the sturdy old soldier broke the 
news. In a few simple words he told them what they 
and the division had come to mean to him, and declared 
that he would never forget them. He said that he had 
received permission to remain with the organization 
until the arrival of his successor, Brigadier-General 
Bamford, for whom he bespoke the same loyalty and 
devotion. 

At the conclusion of that conference, hardened, war- 
worn officers, who had been through all the hell that the 
enemy had to offer without a sign, came out with tears 
openly streaming down their faces. The most intense 
gloom settled down over the division as soon as the news 
became generally known. 

For about nine months, with General Edwards to lead 

186 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

them, the New Englanders had gone through the most 
strenuous experiences with only a few days of rest. Un- 
deterred by fatigue, sickness, shortage of suppHes or 
any of the fiendish methods employed by their resource- 
ful enemy, they had piled up a record which vied with 
that of the elite troops of the French Army. They had 
been complimented and cited and decorated time and 
time again. They had been hailed as shock troops and 
"Saviors of Paris," and their fame was known through- 
out the length and breadth of the land. And all their 
glory they attributed to the leadership of Clarence R. 
Edwards. He it was who stimulated them with his own 
indomitable spirit, and caused them to go forward when 
it seemed that human nature could do no more. It was 
he whose unflagging optimism and cheery words lifted 
them up, superior to privations and hardships. It was 
their General who watched over them, cared for them, 
and saw to it that their lives were not unnecessarily 
sacrificed. 

Nevertheless, it was necessary to "carry on," and the 
New Englanders carried on. On the night of October 22 
Colonel Bearss sent out an order announcing that the 
attack on the following morning would probably be the 
last fight the men would have an opportunity to make 
under their beloved commanding officer. He urged every 
man who was to take part to make the engagement a 
fitting climax to the brilliant record of General Edwards. 

In Colonel Bearss 's original order, which was issued 
somewhat earlier, tlie last paragraph read : — 

Every officer, non-commissioned officer and man, is de- 
pended upon to uphold the glorious traditions of the Twenty- 
sixth Division. All hell's flying artillery cannot stop this bri- 
gade when it has once gone into action. 

187 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

On the following morning the attack began on the Bois 
d'Haumont, the Bois des Chenes and the Bois d'Ormont, 
with Hill 360 at its eastern edge. All the objectives were 
gained except Hill 360. It was here that Colonel Logan 
and Major Greenway of the Engineers personally urged 
their men forward. It was also in this fight that Major 
Hickey's battalion came to grief in the Bois Belleau, when 
his rockets were not seen by two other battalions which 
were to join in the advance. 

The oflficial notes on the operations of the division at 
this time said : — 

The first day of the present effort to obtain possession of 
the commanding heights in the easterly part of the region 
between Bois de Consenvoye and Flabas ended to our ad- 
vantage. At 19.15 o'clock of October 23 it was announced that 
the division had reached its normal and exploitation objectives 
(the latter being the Bois Belleau). The work of consolidating 
the new positions and rectifying the line was ordered to be 
begun at once, so as to insure us the possession of the Bois 
Belleau, Bois des Chenes and the ground between, while patrols 
were directed to maintain close contact with the enemy in the 
Bois d'Ormont. 

But the Germans came back strongly and at once. Under 
the pressure of a heavy counter attack, supported by an in- 
tense flanking artillery fire, the battalion of the 101st Infantry 
which had gone through Bois Belleau was forced to relinquish 
its gains, so that morning (October 24) found that part of our 
newly won ground still in the hands of the enemy, — an enemy 
who, as was learned from prisoners and deserters, had just been 
reinforced and partially relieved by fresh troops of the one 
Hundred and Ninety-second Division, — a class one organiza- 
tion. 

Our attack was, however, promptly renewed. Supported 
most efficiently by the preparation, encaging, and smoke screen 
concentrations of the divisional and corps artillery, and by 

188 




Lieutenant-Colonel P. W. Arnold 




International Film Service, Inc. 
Rushing Supplies to the Front, Mouilly, Prance, September 14, 1918 




International Film Service, Inc. 
Members of 101st Engineers filling in Shell Holes near St. Remy, 
Meuse, France, September 16, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

the machine gun battahons, the 2d BattaHon, 101st Infantry, 
advanced against Bois Belleau at 15 o'clock October 24, while 
the 102d Infantry (less 1st Battalion) attacked a line in which 
the principal objective was Hill 360, starting at 16.30. Once 
more a violent resistance was encountered. By the most varied 
means, ranging from machine-gun nests hidden in trees and 
the work of skillful snipers to bombardment by minenwerfers 
regulated by aeroplane observation, the enemy contested every 
inch of our advance. This was pushed steadily, nevertheless, 
until darkness made a halt and a new consolidation necessary. 
We had penetrated Bois Belleau to a depth of 500 meters, and, 
further to the south, had advanced to the lower slopes of Hill 
360. Night brought a new enemy reaction. Against the 
heavily tried battalion of the 101st no less than four furious 
counter attacks were directed in quick succession. Three were 
resisted successfully, but the fourth pushed our troops back 
again beyond the western edge of the Bois Belleau, only to have 
them re-form and return to the attack at 2.30 o'clock. This 
time they succeeded in establishing a line well in advance of 
their original parallel of departure, while the 3d Battalion, 
101st Infantry, moved up and extended the new line westerly. 
Two companies of the brigade reserve (1st Battalion, 101st 
Infantry) were sent in to support the 2d, which had suffered 
considerably. At 11.30 o'clock (October 25), following a violent 
interdiction and destructive fire by our artillery, the 2d and 3d 
battalions of the 102d Infantry took up their advance once 
more against Hill 360, while the 101st (less one battalion) 
moved again to penetrate and exploit the Bois Belleau. Despite 
the determined character of the attack, the enemy's resistance 
was not overcome, and our line at noon of October 26 remains 
practically where it was established at the conclusion of the 
initial attack on October 23. The advance will be renewed 
October 27. 

Losses have not exceeded the normal, considering the in- 
tensity of the fighting and the strength of the enemy's resist- 
ance. What is noticeable is the unflagging spirit and deter- 
mination of the troops, the tirelessness of the artillery, and the 

189 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

prompt and liberal assistance and co-operation we have re- 
ceived from the resources of the corps. The task is recognized 
as exceedingly difficult by all competent critics, but there is 
every expectation that it will be successfully accomplished. 

The fighting continued for five days and nights, through 
underbrush and stumps that was old fighting ground. On every 
hand were skeletons of French and German dead, which had 
lain there unburied for several years. The artillery concentra- 
tion was terrific, and frequently caused the New Englanders to 
relinquish their gains, only to counter attack and retake them. 
The 101st Infantry fought back and forth across one strip of 
territory at least four times. On October 27 the objectives 
were gained, and the fighting died down, to remain quiet until 
after the 1st of November. 

In the meantime, on October 24, General Edwards 
issued his famous good-by order to his division. It read : — 

1. In compliance with paragraph 48, Special Orders No. 
293, General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces, 
the undersigned relinquishes command of the Twenty-sixth 
Division. 

2. He thanks the division for its loyalty to him and for what 
it has accomplished in the common cause. He bespeaks for his 
successor in command the same loyalty and devotion, and he 
leaves the division in full confidence that its same fine work 
will continue to the end. 

C. R. Edwards, 
Major-General, Commanding. 

At the same time he issued a farewell commendation 
order to the Fifty -first Artillery Brigade, saying: — 

1. To the artillery of the Twenty-sixth Division is due my 
expression of admiration for its efficiency and aggressive fight- 
ing qualities, and for its indefatigable support of our fine 
infantry. Artillery can desire no higher tribute than the 

J90 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

conscious fact that it has gained the confidence, rehance and 
thanks of the infantry. 

2. During more than eight months of fighting service the 
spirit of loyalty displayed by every officer and man of the Fifty- 
first Artillery Brigade toward his duty, toward the Yankee Di- 
vision and toward the division Commander has been fine. 

3. The record of the Fifty-first Artillery Brigade in the 
second battle of the Marne is glorious. It went with, sup- 
ported and protected the infantry in its advance of 183^^ kilo- 
meters by Chateau-Thierry, and afterwards, in succession, two 
other divisions in the advance from the Marne to the Vesle 
for a period of eighteen days, between July 18 and August 4, 
with a gain of over 40 kilometers. It is a record of which the 
entire division and our country justly may be proud. 

I congratulate and thank the artillery brigade of the Yankee 
Division. 

C. R. Edwards, 
Major-General, Commanding. 



191 



CHAPTER XXIII 

Praised for Action at Hattonchatel 

On October 23 General Edwards issued a citation of 
his troops for their work in the operations at Hatton- 
chatel. This citation, which was issued in General 
Orders, read : — 

1. The division Commander extends to the commanding 
officer, Fifty-first Infantry Brigade, and the officers and men 
of the following organizations, his hearty congratulations on 
their great success in the operations of this date for the capture 
of the heights of the Meuse in the region of Le Houppy Bois and 
Belleau Bois: Fifty-first Infantry Brigade; 101st Infantry; 102d 
Infantry; 101st Machine Gun Battalion; 102d Machine Gun 
Battalion; Detachment, 101st Field Signal Battalion; De- 
tachment, 101st Sanitary Train; 281st Aero Squadron (French) ; 
Balloon No. 25 (French); Fifty -first Artillery Brigade; and 
1st Battalion, 211th Field Artillery (French). 

2. The attack as planned was difficult of execution, and 
only to be attempted by trained troops. You carried it out 
like the veterans you are, and with a dash and valor worthy 
of the best traditions of the Twenty-sixth Division. 

C. R. Edwards, 
Major-General, Commanding. 

In connection with the same operations the following 
tribute was paid by the French corps commander: — 

Headquarters, Seventeenth Army Corps Staff, 1st Bureau. 

October 24, 1918. 

From: General Claudel, commanding the Seventeenth Army 

Corps. 
To: The Commanding General, Twenty-sixth Division. 

General: — The reputation of your division preceded it 
here far ahead. 

192 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

To all its titles of glory gained in fierce struggles, and only 
recently at the signal of Hattonchatel, it has added on the 23d 
of October a page which perhaps is more modest, but still does 
it great honor. 

In a few hours, as at a maneuver, it has gained all the ob- 
jectives assigned it in the difficult sector of the Woods of 
Houppy, Etrayes and Belleau. 

This operation is evidence, indeed, of superior instruction, 
mobility and will. 

I do not know how to thank you sufficiently for your as- 
sistance, dear General, and it is my great desire to express to 
you all our grateful admiration for your splendid division 
which thus has added its name to all of those who have fought 
to hurl the enemy back from the outskirts of Verdun. 



On October 26 Brigadier-General Bamford arrived, 
and General Edwards took his last farewell. He had 
been given permission to take with him one aide, and 
therefore asked for and obtained Major Hyatt, who had 
been with him for years. His aide at the time of his 
departure was Lieutenant Daniel Willard of the artillery, 
a son of the president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 

The final leavetaking was described by Dr. Morton 
Prince of Boston in a letter to Governor McCall of Massa- 
chusetts. He said in part: — 

The American soldier from every part of the Union, as all 
know, has won his place as a fighting man, and the Yankee 
Division has earned a fame that can never be taken from it. 
It need only point to its record when asked, "How have you 
done?" Although the boys have been almost continually 
fighting for nine months, with scarcely a respite, they are still 
full of grit. The morale is as fine as ever, and the Ssprit de 
corps and pride in the division undiminished. 

I mention these things now because the first chapter in its 

193 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

war history is completed, the division having just bidden good-by 
and God-speed to its beloved Commander, who has handed 
over his devoted troops to another's able hands. 

His great work in the field is finished unless the war con- 
tinues. He trained and welded into a fighting unit an inex- 
perienced collection of 27,000 men, a little army in itself, self- 
sustaining in that it comprised every branch of the service, — 
infantry, artillery, transport, intelligence, supplies, medical 
corps, etc., and then he fought with them and led them to vic- 
tory in one battlefield after another. 

No wonder his soldiers are proud of their Chief. His great 
talents as a soldier, testified to by his corps and army com- 
manders, are now to be utilized by the high command for other 
important service. 

I arrived at divisional P. C. (the advanced post of command 
during battle) just as the Commanding General was trans- 
ferring his command to his successor, an able officer of experi- 
ence who surely will lead the Yankee Division to further vic- 
tories. Headquarters was a picturesque group of dugouts 
arranged in two rows facing one another along an alley camou- 
flaged overhead with boughs of leaves from enemy aeroplanes. 

In the Commanding General's dugout were high officers and 
members of his staff, while in the alley were grouped other staff 
officers and headquarters troops. It was but natural and 
pardonable that depression and gloom were depicted on the 
faces of all, and that they should speak in subdued voices. 

Though anxious to give the same loyalty to their new com- 
mander,- they could, for the moment, think only of the past. 
They were losing their chief to whom they owed everything, 
and whom they had followed during nine months of constant 
fighting. 

The departing General was the only cheery one of the lot. 
Wliatever he may have felt when leaving the soldiers he loved 
and who loved him, he did not betray, nor did he give the least 
sign of his private sorrows, for sudden news had just brought 
grief into his heart in the death of two that were very near to 
him, — his own daughter and an aide who was like an own son. 

194 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

This we all knew. But private grief was not allowed to weigh 
with duty. He was a soldier through and through. 

A few routine details had to be finished, papers had to be 
signed. Then came the presentation of his staff to the new 
commander, with a generous word of commendation for each; 
a word of good-by and a grasp of the hand with one another; 
the same with a kind word to each enlisted man at headquarters; 
then he sprang into the motor car. At his invitation, I was 
privileged to accompany him, and with a wave of his hand 
and a last cheery good-by we were off, leaving sad faces be- 
hind us. 

The next day after a night at the main working headquarters 
a final good-by was said by the remainder of the staff, and as 
we turned back from where the departing motor left us we 
heard the explosion of a great 14-inch shell that dropped its 
fragments close to the car as it sped away, as if the German 
in a last vain effort sought to destroy in impotent rage the man 
who had beaten them on many a field, and there came to us 
from a distance the cheers of the soldiers wishing their general 
Godspeed. 

There is not a soldier or officer in the division that does not 
take the General's departure as a personal loss. 

Following the relief of General Edwards the division 
sustained another shock when Colonel Logan was relieved 
from command of the 101st Infantry. With this famous 
Boston outfit, a part of which as the old 9th IMassachusetts 
he had commanded on the Mexican Border, Colonel 
Logan had taken part in every battle fought by the 
division. The regiment was considered one of the best 
in tlie Yankee Division, and Colonel Logan was always 
actively in command during its engagements. He was 
sent to the reclassification area at the rear and there 
acted as counsel for oflScers sent to Blois or Hendrecourt 
for reclassification. He never lost a case. 

A week after Colonel Logan's det)arture Colonel Frank 

195 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

H. Hume of the lOSd Infantry was also summarily re- 
moved from command and sent to the rear. That left 
only Brigadier-General Cole, Colonel Bunnell of the 
engineers and Colonel W. J. Keville of the ammunition 
train as the only commanding officers who went abroad 
with the division. Major Pendleton, the G-1 appointed 
by General Edwards, who had the task of looking after 
supply from Neufchateau to Verdun, was also relieved 
and sent home. 

Lieutenant Colonel Cassius M. Dowell, who had been 
the G-3 or operations officer of the Division, was given 
command of the 103d, and his post was taken by Captain 
Emmons H. Taylor of Hartford, who had been Colonel 
Dowell's assistant. Colonel Dowell first appeared in the 
division as chief of staff, succeeding Colonel Shelton. He 
was replaced by Colonel Duncan K. Major, and then 
sent away to a Staff School. 

Colonel Logan was replaced by Colonel Horace B. 
Hobbs, who had been division inspector for a few 
months. 

The next blow sustained by the New Englanders came 
on November 8, just three days before the signing of the 
armistice, and was a crushing one. It consisted in no 
less than the removal of Brigadier-General Charles H. 
Cole from the command of the Fifty-second Infantry 
Brigade, which he had held from the time of its organi- 
zation. Officers and men alike were stunned. They won- 
dered where the lightning would strike next. Great was 
the astonishment, not to say a stronger feeling, when it 
was learned that General Cole was charged with lack of 
"aggression" and permitting his troops to fraternize with 
the enemy. 

The man who had led one of the most famous brigades 
in the American Expeditionary Force, a brigade contain- 

196 




Eichler Studios 



Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred F. Foote 




International Film Service, Inc. 

General Edwards decorating Sergeant Joseph W. Casey, Company F, 
101st Infantry, Moulin Brule, France, October 15, 1918 




International I'ilni .Ser\ icr, inc. 

Members of 103d Field Artillery inspecting 6-inch Gun near 
Samogneux, Meuse, France, October 19, 1918 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

ing the 104th Infantry, the first American regiment to be 
decorated by the French, was not considered aggressive! 
It was also pointed out that General Cole had issued 
orders prohibiting fraternization before such orders came 
down from the high command. 

General Cole was relieved by an order from Brigadier- 
General Bamford, who had been in command of the divi- 
sion but a short time, and knew practically nothing con- 
cerning his brigade commanders or other officers. 

"I immediately demanded a board of inciuiry," said 
General Cole. "They never called it. I was reinstated 
by special order of General Pershing, as were both Colonel 
Logan and Colonel Hume. They never asked me to sub- 
mit any evidence in support of my assertion that there 
was no foundation for the charge against me. And they 
never submitted any evidence in support of the charge, 
although the burden of proof was on them. They did not 
have anything to submit." 

The other regiment in General Cole's command, the 
103d, was cited by both the French and the American 
high commands for valor in action, and has a record for 
prisoners captured superior to any unit in the American 
forces in France. 

General Cole's report to General Pershing gave a de- 
tailed account of the work of the Fifty-second Brigade, 
showing that it had earned the plaudits of the French 
during the heaviest fighting of the war. He also showed 
that he had served under eight division commanders 
without a single complaint. 

Within a short time official vindication and reinstate- 
ment was received by the Massachusetts oflScer in the 
following order: — 



197 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

France, November 30, 1918. 

From: Adjutant-General, American Expeditionary Forces. 

To: Brigadier-General Charles H. Cole, Center of Infor- 

mation, A. P. O. 714, American Expeditionary 
Forces. 

Subject: Relief from Fifty-second Infantry Brigade. 

1. I am directed by the Commander-in-Chief to inform you 
that upon his personal examination of the papers reporting the 
facts incident to your relief from command of the Fifty-second 
Brigade, he is of the opinion that the facts did not warrant 
your relief, and he has therefore directed that you be reinstated 
to your former brigade. 

2. Accordingly, orders will be issued in the near future. 

By command of General Pershing, 

Robert C. Davis, 
Adjutant-General. 

The reinstatement of Colonels Logan and Hume did 
not come until February 4, during which time Colonel 
Logan was busily engaged at Blois acting as counsel for 
other officers so unfortunate as to come beneath the ban 
of general headquarters. 

This last battle of the Argonne was part of a gigantic 
offensive planned by General Foch, which broke the Ger- 
man line in several places and forced the enemy to come 
to terms. Picked American divisions -u^ere used in con- 
junction with the Allies, and the Twenty-sixth was one 
of ten of the American divisions which went into line 
twice during this battle. 

Following the pinching off of the St. Mihiel salient, 
which the New Englanders were instrumental in doing, 
the stage was set for the big drive. The Yankee Division 
held the right of the American line in what was known 
as the Neptune sector. They were on the right bank of 
the Meuse, with the other American outfits on the left 

198 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

bank, driving towards Sedan. To the New Englanders 
fell the lot of pushing into the Argonne Forest, where 
Major Whittlesey's "Lost Battalion" gained its fame. 

The Yanlcee Division at this time was in the Fifth 
Corps, commanded by General Charles P. Summerall, 
which was a part of General Hunter Liggett's First Army. 
In describing operations after the Twenty-sixth entered 
the battle. General Pershing said : — 

On October 18 there was very fierce fighting in the Caures 
Woods east of the Meuse, and in the Ormont Wood. On the 
14th the First Corps took St. Juvin, and the Fifth Corps, by 
hand-to-hand encounters, entered the formidable Kriemhilde 
line, where the enemy had hoped to check us indefinitely. Later 
the Fifth Corps penetrated farther the Kriemhilde line, and the 
First Corps took Champigneulles and the important town of 
Grand Pre. Our dogged offensive was wearing down the enemy, 
who continued desperately to throw his best troops against us, 
thus weakening his line in front of our Allies and making their 
advance less difficult. 

On the 23d, the Third and Fifth Corps pushed northward to 
the left of Bantheville. While we continued to press forward 
and throw back the enemy's violent counter attacks with great 
loss to him, the regrouping of our forces was under way for the 
final assault. Evidences of loss of morale by the enemy gave our 
men more confidence in attack and more fortitude in enduring 
the fatigue of incessant effort and hardships of very inclement 
weather. 

With comparatively well-rested divisions the final advance 
in the Meuse-Argonne front was begun on November 1. Our 
increased artillery force acquitted itself magnificently in support 
of the advance, and the enemy, by its persistent fighting of the 
last weeks and the dash of this attack, had overcome his wnll to 
resist. The Third Corps took Aincreville, Doulon and Ande- 
vanne, and the Fifth Corps took Landres-et-St. Georges, and 
pressed through successive lines of resistance to Bayonville and 

199 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Chennery. On the 3d the First Corps joined the movement 
which now became an impetuous onslaught that could not be 
stayed. 

On the 3d advance troops were hurried forward in pursuit, 
some by motor trucks, while the artillery pressed along the 
country roads close behind. The First Corps reached Authe 
and Chattillon-sur-Bar, the Fifth Corps, Fosse and Nouart, 
and the Third Corps, Halles, penetrating the enemy's line to a 
depth of 12 miles. Our large caliber guns had advanced and 
were skillfully brought into position to fire upon the important 
railroad lines at Montmedy, Longuyon and Conflans. Our 
Third Corps crossed the Meuse on the 5th, and the other corps, 
in full confidence that the day was theirs, eagerly cleared the 
way of machine guns as they swept northward, maintaining 
complete co-ordination throughout. On the 6th a division of 
the First Corps reached a point on the Meuse opposite Sedan, 
25 miles from our line of departure. The strategical goal which 
was our highest hope was gained. We had cut the enemy's main 
line of communications, and nothing but surrender or an armi- 
stice could save his army from complete disaster. 

In all, forty-four enemy divisions had been used against us 
in the Meuse- Argonne battle. 

One incident in this last fight, when the names of Bois 
d'Ormont and Bois Belleau were added to the rolls of the 
Twenty-sixth Division, was related by General Cole. 
Between these two places the New Englanders sustained 
a bombardment exceeding anything which they had ever 
undergone. High explosive and gas, mingled with machine- 
gun fire, created a hell in which they fought and struggled 
on for days. 

On October 13 [said General Cole] General Edwards read the 
newest list of citations to the men of the 104th Infantry. In- 
cluded in this list was the name of Lieutenant Chester R. 
Howard. The citation was for extraordinary heroism in action 

200 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

at Trugny on July 22. Although twice wounded, the young 
officer had refused to be evacuated, and continued on duty 
with his company during the attack and capture of Trugny 
under hea\y fire, until he was incapacitated by a third wound. 
Lieutenant Howard disclaimed this citation, declaring it must 
be for some one else. Questioned by General Edwards it was 
learned he had performed similar feats but on a different date. 
The General promised to investigate the matter. 

Howard told my aide. Captain Leggat, that he <^ould not 
wear a medal belonging to another man, and asked him to 
keep the matter before me. 

The following day, when the 1st Battalion of the 104th was 
detailed to the French, Lieutenant Howard was ordered to 
take twenty-nine men and reach the town of Flabos. Howard 
and his men never came back. 

Until November 9 it was impossible to reconnoiter the ground 
over which they had passed. On that day, however, — the 
day on which I was relieved from command, — my brigade 
went forward, taking the town of Flabos and passing beyond 
its objectives. It was then we learned what had become of 
Lieutenant Howard and his platoon. The bodies of the thirty 
men were discovered in skirmish line on the ground, that of the 
lieutenant slightly ahead of the others. Apparently they had 
charged a machine-gun strong point, and had been wiped out. 

We also found out later that Lieutenant Howard was the 
right man named in the citation. 

When General Cole was relieved, Brigadier-General 
Shelton was transferred to the Fifty-second Brigade, and 
Brigadier-General L. L. Durfee was assigned to the Fifty- 
first. The division continued to carry on, although the 
majority of their old officers were gone. Daily and nightly 
they harassed the enemy. Many were the heroic feats 
performed, and many were the Distinguished Service 
Crosses and Croix de Guerre awarded as a result. It was 
shortly before this time, on October 23-24, to be exact, 

201 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

that Captain David J. Brickley of the 101st Infantry 
won the Distinguished Service Cross and promotion from 
first 'heutenant. Brickley, who had risen from the ranks, 
was decorated for "stubbornly resisting three strong 
enemy counter attacks, and then, without aid, going 
forward, and by effective machine-gun fire, driving the 
enemy from and capturing a strong pill box which had 
been raising havoc in our ranks." 

Another Distinguished Service Cross man was Cap- 
tain Edward Edmunds, Jr., of the 102d Infantry. On 
October 27 Edmunds, then a first lieutenant, having 
received an order from division headquarters for an accu- 
rate report of the strength present in the front line, 
crawled from shell hole to shell hole in broad daylight 
and in plain view of the enemy, who kept him under con- 
tinuous sniping fire from numerous machine guns. Unde- 
terred, Edmunds counted every man in the front line of 
the battalion he was commanding, and then returned and 
made his report to the regim.ental commander. 

First Lieutenant George L. Goodridge of the 101st In- 
fantry, on November 8, with about thirty men, secured a 
footing in an advanced enemy trench. The attacking 
battalion met with stubborn resistance and fell back to 
the starting point. Goodridge and his men held on until 
relieved November 1 1 . He also received the Distinguished 
Service Cross. 

On October 25, Mechanic William F. Bolack, Machine 
Gun Company, 104th Infantry, while taking a train of 
machine-gun carts to the relief of his company in the 
front line, was caught in a terrific bombardment. His 
train was scattered, several of the mules killed and 
Bolack was wounded. He had his wounds dressed, and, 
refusing to be evacuated, passed through the bombard- 
ment three times while reorganizing his train and carry- 

20^ 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

ing out his mission. He received the Distinguished Serv- 
ice Cross. 

On November 9 Private First Class Abraham Cohen, 
Sanitary Detachment, 103d Infantry, after three others 
had failed in the attempt and were wounded, went out 
under terrific machine-gun fire and gave first aid to a 
wounded soldier. He also received the Distinguished 
Service Cross. 

The above are but a few instances, but they give a good 
idea of the morale of the division, which, despite its cas- 
ualties, hardships and the loss of its favorite officers, 
including the beloved General Edwards, fought sternly 
on. 



203 



CHAPTER XXIV 
The Cessation of Hostilities 

Despite the fact that rumors of the signing of an 
armistice were being freely circulated, there was no let-up. 
In fact, on the morning of November 11 the 101st In- 
fantry was ordered to advance three times, and the 103d 
was engaged in cleaning out machine-gun nests when the 
firing ceased. 

This cessation of hostilities was so abrupt that for a 
time the New Englanders could not realize what had 
happened. The artillery, of course, had been forewarned, 
and shortly before 11 o'clock the shell fire increased in 
intensity. Shells of all calibers went shrieking across, and 
the din was terrific. The infantry paid but slight atten- 
tion, however, being inured to bombardments. They 
were going about their allotted tasks in the thorough 
manner for which they were famed, when they suddenly 
realized that the guns had ceased. The first feeling of 
the "doughboys" was wrath, because they thought the 
artillery had left them unprotected. Then they noticed 
that the enemy were appearing openly behind their own 
lines. Gray -clad figures were seen capering about in 
strange postures. It seemed like a nightmare. Even 
when panting runners came through, and confirmed the 
shouted tidings of the Germans, the only feeling was that 
of incredulity. When at last it was borne in on the dazed 
minds of the men that war was over, at least for the time 
being, they had but one thought, — at last they could 
rest. All over the sector they dropped to the ground and 
proceeded to take the first real rest they had enjoyed 

204 




Bachrach 



Lieutenant-Colonel Horace P. Hobbs 




Actual Combat between Allied and Hun Planes 




ManoBuvering for Position 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

since leaving home, — it seemed years before. Through- 
out the long days and nights when they had struggled on, 
fighting on sheer nerve, peace had appeared to be some- 
thing which would never come. Tho.se who thought about 
it at all were in the minority, and even these regarded it 
hopelessly and dully as a beautiful dream which would 
never come true. 

It was some time before the men in the front lines were 
able to participate in the gaieties indulged in by those 
in the rear. The Germans, however, seemed overjoyed, 
and attempted to fraternize with the Americans. 

French and American troops in the rear, together with 
civilians, cheered and shouted. The artillerymen had 
attached ropes to their lanyards, so that every member 
of a gun crew could help fire the last shot. After this 
salvo they too joined in the celebration. 

In villages behind the lines there were celebrations and 
flag raisings all day. At night, in the city of Verdun, 
French and New England troops took part in a parade. 
This parade, held in one of the most historic and vener- 
ated cities of France, was a climax to days of toil and 
bloodshed and exhaustion. The parade, which included 
Sengalese, the colored Colonial troops of the French forces, 
was led by General Marchand. Four of the Yankee Divi- 
sion regimental bands took part and gave concerts on 
every public square. General Marchand made speeches, 
and the populace and soldiers cheered until they were 
hoarse. 

In the meantime the sky was emblazoned with rockets 
and flares sent up from all along the line, so that, except 
for the lack of noise, it resembled an intensive bombard- 
ment. That was the peculiar part of the whole day after 
11 o'clock, — no noise; also lights burning at night, where 
for years there had been darkness. 

205 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The celebration in Verdun continued for several hours, 
during which time Yankee Division men raised an Amer- 
ican flag to the top of the wireless tower, and it flung 
out over the broken land of France like a comforting 
hand. 

Immediately upon the cessation of hostilities General 
Bamford secured permission for a percentage of the men 
to go to the leave area at Grenoble. Shaved, bathed and 
attired in clean clothing, the fortunate soldiers were re- 
juvenated, and departed for their first leave in months 
like a crowd of schoolboys. 

On November 18, the day the division left the line, 
General Bamford was relieved of command and Major 
General Harry C. Hale assigned. On this day General 
Bamford issued the following order : — 

Officers and enlisted men of the Twenty-sixth Division, I 
congratulate you upon your success in the war which has been 
fought to a victorious end. 

From your entry into the battle line on February 5, 1918, 
at Chemin des Dames, as a division of recruits, until the cessa- 
tion of hostilities on the 11th of November, 1918, when you 
laid down your arms, fighting in the front line as a veteran 
division, you have shown yourselves worthy sons of the country 
that gave you birth. 

Bois Brule, Xivray-Marvoisin, Torcy, Belleau, Givry, 
Bouresches, Hill 190, Epieds, Trugny, St. Mihiel salient, Bois 
d'Haumont, Bois Belleau, Bois d'Ormont and Bois de Ville are 
indelibly written on your banners. 

Of what followed after this, Lieutenant Colonel Hamil- 
ton R. Horsey, assistant chief of staff, Gr-2, said : — 

On November 18 the division was relieved in the sector 
north of Verdun by the Sixth Division. It was then ordered 
to march to the area east of Chaumont at Montigny le Hoi, or 

206 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

the eighth training area, a distance of about 137 kilometers from 
the Neptune sector. The march was completed in seven days 
by the division, with the exception of the artillery brigade, which 
suffered casualties among the horses which made it barely 
possible for the 101st and 102d Field Artillery to withdraw their 
guns from the lines. It was necessary to furnish motor trucks 
to haul the guns and caissons of the 103d Field Artillery (155m.) 
from the line. For this reason it was impossible for the artillery 
to proceed farther than Suilly, about one-third of the distance, 
where was located the headquarters of the First American 
Army. The artillery remained in the vicinity of Suilly until late 
in December, when the brigade with material moved by train to 
the Montigny le Roi area, where it again joined the balance of 
the division. 

Three days after arrival in the training area the division began 
work on a program of intensive training, and started at once to 
receive replacements for its greatly depleted units. Every 
efiFort was made to bring the equipment of the division up to a 
high standard, as we were constantly reminded by corps and 
army headquarters that the existence of the armistice did not 
necessarily mean a complete suspension of hostilities. It was 
also stated that there was a possibility that the division might 
have to go back in line. 

The morale of the division at this time was especially good, 
with the exception of the keen disappointment, which almost 
bordered on disgust, felt by all oiBcers and men that the Twenty- 
sixth had not been included in the Army of Occupation and per- 
mitted to move forward from the advance line taken from the 
Germans, together with the First, Second and Forty-second 
Divisions, into and actually occupy the enemy territory. How- 
ever, this point soon was forgotten, and the sole idea that seemed 
to predominate the command was to adhere closely to the train- 
ing program and polish up the efficiency of the division, absorb- 
ing the large percentage of replacements in order that they 
could present the best possible appearance to the people of 
New England upon arrival home, which every one thought 
would be in a short while. 

207 



CHAPTER XXV 
President Wilson Dines with the Twenty-sixth 

The division took a keen interest in the arrival in France of 
President Wilson, because they rather anticipated they would 
receive recognition from him while he was on foreign soil. They 
were not disappointed in this, as an announcement soon came 
from general headquarters that the President planned to spend 
part of one day which he would devote to the troops in the field 
with the Twenty-sixth Division, and would take Christmas 
dinner with them. 

The President, after reviewing a composite division made up 
of troops from all divisions in the First American Army at 
Hume (Haute Marne) on Christmas morning, proceeded by 
motor, together with General Pershing, Mrs. Wilson, Ambas- 
sador and Mrs. Jusserand, General Liggett, commanding the 
First American Army, General Summerall, commanding the 
Fifth Army Corps, General Harts, commanding the Paris dis- 
trict. Admiral Cary Grayson and the personal staffs of these 
generals, to Montigny le Roi, where dinner was taken v/ith all 
of the officers of the Twenty-sixth Division. 

The 102d Infantry, at the request of General Pershing, sent to 
Chaumont on Christmas morning one battalion which acted as a 
guard of honor for the President at general headquarters. This 
battalion afterwards received letters of congratulation from the 
Commander-in-Chief on its fine appearance and soldierly bear- 
ing throughout the ceremonies. 

After dinner the President, accompanied by General Pershing 
and his party, inspected several of the billets of the 103d Infan- 
try, and later returned to Chaumont, where he was again met 
by the honor guard of the 102d. They conducted the President 
to his train on which he returned to Paris. 

The first indications received that the division had been 
scheduled to return with the first units of the American Expedi- 

208 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

tionary Forces of the United States was closely following a 
general inspection made of the division by fifteen staff officers 
from headquarters of the First American Army. This inspec- 
tion was the most thorough to which the Twenty-sixth had ever 
been subjected, including as it did a close investigation and 
survey into every phase of equipment and tactical efficiency. 
Reports made by these officers to the army commander were 
most flattering. Personal comments of the inspectors before 
their work was half completed were that of five divisions they 
had already inspected in the First Army, the Twenty-sixth 
Division was rated by far the highest in every way. In fact, 
this report was so flattering that many comments were heard 
among the officers that it really sounded too good. 

Telegraphic orders then arrived from the army directing the 
Twenty-sixth Division to move by train into the American 
embarkation center and prepare for their embarkation to the 
United States. The movement was to begin on or about the 
17th of January. 

Close upon this order followed advices from general head- 
quarters that French general headquarters had cited the 1st 
Battalion of the 102d Infantry for its remarkable work in con- 
nection with the operations against Marcheville on September 
26, and that the battalion would be decorated with the Croix 
de Guerre with palm by Marshal Petain, commander of the 
French Armies of the East, on January 15, 

Preparations for the ceremony were made, and Marshal 
Petain, accompanied by General Pershing, arrived. The cere- 
mony was very impressive. The battalion was paraded and 
presented to the Marshal, together with the regimental colors, 
and the latter was decorated, in the name of the Commander- 
in-Chief of the French Army, with the French war cross. 

At this ceremony Marshal Petain took the opportunity to 
also decorate General Pershing with the Croix de Guerre, which 
was one of the few foreign decorations which the American 
Commander had not received from the Allied governments. 

The Yankee Division arrived complete in the Le Mans area 
of the American embarkation center on February 4, and division 

209 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

headquarters was established at Econmoy (Sarthe). Immedi- 
ately a plan was evolved by the division commander. General 
Hale, for a training program to cover a period of one month, 
which was to be in the form of elimination contests, including 
both military and athletic features, to culminate in an extensive 
military and athletic tournament. 

The entire division entered into this idea of training with 
the best possible spirit and enthusiasm. As a consequence the 
tournament was held on March 10, 11 and 12 with wonderful 
success from every standpoint. This scheme of training and 
organized amusement for the division was a novelty in the 
American Expeditionary Forces, and has since been adopted 
by them for other divisions remaining in France. There were 
no individual contestants in the tournament. All units were 
represented by teams of one squad of eight men to one company 
of two hundred and fifty men. Prizes were given to each mem- 
ber of winning teams. These were handsome silver and bronze 
medals presented by Mr. E. A. Filene of Boston, and espe- 
cially struck by a Paris jeweler from a design prepared by the 
division. 

General Hale also presented a beautiful silver cup to the 
regiment whose team scored the greatest number of points in 
the tournament, the cup going to the 104th Infantry. 

Frequent comments were made by the headquarters of the 
American embarkation center on the high efficiency of adminis- 
tration of the Twenty-sixth Division while they were in the 
Le Mans area. The division being a veteran organization, 
having eighteen months' experience in service in France, they 
seldom found it necessary to call upon other headquarters for 
assistance or advice in administering their own affairs. This 
was in decided contrast to other organizations who lacked the 
advantage of long service overseas. 

Orders were received at last for the division to proceed by 
rail to the port of embarkation at Brest, where transport would 
be provided to Camp Devens, Ayer, Mass. It was announced 
that the division would sail about April 1, and tremendous 
enthusiasm was aroused by the announcement that Boston 

210 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

had been designated as the port of debarkation in the United 
States. 

A fitting climax was then reached in the Yankee Division 
service in France, where they had acted as the advance guard 
of the American Army, and were pioneers in blazing the tra,il 
for other divisions which followed them. They had also been 
of great assistance to the balance of the army by furnishing 
both officers and men for the establishment of many army 
services which later cared for the supply and training- of the 
American Expeditionary Forces. 

This climax consisted in the erection at Le Mans of an im- 
mense building to be used as a Y. M. C. A. hut for the American 
Army who would return after the Twenty-sixth and pass 
through the embarkation area on the way to the United States. 
The funds for construction of this hut were contributed by the 
town of York Harbor, Me., v/ho sent Miss Grace Thompson to 
France to arrange the location of the building. 

Actual construction work was done by the 101st Engineers 
who added to their already enviable record in the American 
Expeditionary Forces by completing the building, including 
grading the ground, construction and wiring for electric lights, 
in the remarkable time of thirty-two hours. 

This building was located by permission of the French gov- 
ernment in the Place des Jacobins in Le Mans. Facing the 
large and historic cathedral is a most complete recreation 
plant, containing a theatre, a large rest and social room with 
cozy fireplaces, a canteen, administrative ofiices, ladies' rest 
room, five sleeping rooms and a kitchen. 

The building was made as typical of New England as pos- 
sible, being painted white with green trimmings, and lattice- 
work effect which broke the severe lines. The interior was 
decorated with shields on which were painted the seals of 
each of the New England States, and the insignia of the dif- 
erent units of the Twenty-sixth Division, including the famous 
"Y. D." 

The structure was dedicated "York Harbor Y. D. Hut," 
and at a formal ceremony held in the theatre, at which were 

211 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

present representatives of all units in the division, was placed 
in the care of Major-General Edward Read, commanding the 
American embarkation center. Co-operating with the Y. M. 
C. A. he will operate this Yankee Division Memorial for the 
comfort and pleasure of the American soldiers in France. 

The Christmas dinner, described so briefly by Colonel 
Horsey, was indeed an event for the Yankee Division. 
Because of their long service, and the fact that they were 
one of the premier fighting divisions of the American Expe- 
ditionary Forces, the Twenty-sixth was selected by Presi- 
dent Wilson to act as hosts for him at dinner. 

It was originally planned that he should eat with the 
enlisted men only, and preparations were begun days 
ahead of time. However, because of weather conditions, 
and the fact that it would be necessary for the Chief 
Executive to wade through mud, the plan was changed. 
It was then decided that the presidential party would 
dine with selected officers only. 

The President arrived at Chaumont early in the morn- 
ing and was greeted by General Pershing. The honor 
guard from the 102d Infantry was on hand, as was the 
famous band of the 101st Infantry, said to be the best 
military band in France. 

The official party proceeded to Humes, near Langres, 
in automobiles, and found troops of a composite division 
drawn up at attention waiting for the review. The 
Yankee Division was represented by Company B of the 
101st Infantry; Company K of the 102d Infantry; 
Company F of the 103d Infantry; Company L of the 
104th Infantry; a company of the 101st Field Signal 
Battalion; Company F of the 101st Engineers; and 
Companies A, B, C and D of the 102d Machine Gun Bat- 
talion. 

212 




Colonel Robert Goodwin 




I'lulerwood A: Underwood, New York 

Members of 102d Infantry loading Supply Wagons with Food for 
Men at Front, France, October 27, 1918 




'Fanny," the Kaiser's Goat, 101st Infantry, Company K, Hartford, 

Conn. 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

A reviewing stand, draped in red, white and blue bunt- 
ing, had been erected, and from this the President con- 
ducted the review. The troops were drawn up in a hol- 
low square, under command of General Alexander of the 
Seventy-seventh Division. On every hand were thou- 
sands of cheering French villagers, soldiers and officers 
who were not taking part in the ceremonies. 

The President addressed the throng of soldiers before 
the review began, speaking with extreme brevity. His 
speech followed a few introductory remarks by General 
Pershing, who said : — 

Mr. President and Fellow Soldiers: We are gathered here 
to-day to do honor to the commander of our armies and navies. 
For the first time an American President will review an American 
Army on foreign soil, — the soil of a sister Republic beside 
whose gallant troops we have fought to restore peace to the 
world. 

Speaking for you and your comrades, I am proud to declare 
to the President that no army has ever more loyally or more 
effectively served its country, and none has ever fought in a 
nobler cause. 

You, Mr. President, by your confidence and by your support, 
have made the success of our army, and to you, as our Com- 
mander-in-Chief, may I now present the nation's victorious 
army. 

Then the President stepped forward and said : — 

General Pershing and Fellow Comrades: I wish that I could 
give to each one of you the message that I know you are longing 
to receive from those at home who love you. I cannot do 
that, but I can tell you how every one has put his heart into it. 
So you have done your duty, and something more, — you have 
done your duty, and you have done it with a spirit which gave 
it distinction and glory. 

213 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

And now we are to hail the fruits of everything you have 
conquered since you came over, — what you came over for, — 
and you have done what it was appointed for you to do. I 
know what you expected of me. Some time ago a gentleman 
from one of the countries with which we are associated was 
discussing with me the moral aspects of this war, and I said 
that if we did not insist upon the high purpose which we have 
accomplished the end would not be justified. 

Everybody at home is proud of you, and has followed every 
movement of this great army with confidence and affection. 
The whole people of the United States are now waiting to 
welcome you home with an acclaim which probably has never 
greeted any other army, because our country is like this country. 
We have been so proud of the stand taken, of the purpose for 
which this war was entered into by the United States. 

You knew what we expected of you and you did it. I know 
what you and the people at home expected of me, and I am 
happy to say, my fellow countrymen, that I do not find in the 
hearts of the great leaders with whom it is my privilege now 
to co-operate any difference of principle or of fundamental 
purpose. 

It happened that it was the privilege of America to present 
the chart for peace, and now the process of settlement has 
been rendered comparatively simple by the fact that all the 
nations concerned have accepted that chart, and the appli- 
cation of these principles laid down there will be their appli- 
cation. 

The world will now know that the nations that fought this 
war, as well as the soldiers who represented them, are ready 
to make good, — make good not only in the assertion of their 
own interests, but make good in the establishment of peace 
upon the permanent foundation of right and of justice. 

Because this is not a war in which the soldiers of the free 
nations have obeyed masters. You have commanders, but you 
have no masters. Your very commanders represent you in 
representing the Nation, of which you constitute so distin- 
guished a part. 

214 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

And everybody concerned in the settlement knows that it 
must be a people's peace, and that nothing must be done in 
the settlement of the issues of the war which is not so handsome 
as the great achievements of the armies of the United States 
and the Allies. 

It is difficult, very difficult, men, in any normal speech like 
this, to show you my real heart. You men probably do not 
realize with what anxious attention and care we have followed 
every step you have advanced, and how proud we are that 
every step was in advance and not in retreat; that every time 
you set your face in any direction you kept your face in that 
direction. 

A thrill has gone through my heart as it has gone through 
the heart of every American, with almost every gun that was 
fired and every stroke that was struck in the gallant fighting 
that you have done, and there has been only one regret in 
America, and that w^as the regret that every man there felt 
that he was not in France too. 

It has been a hard thing to perform the tasks in the United 
States. It has been a hard thing to take part in directing 
what you did wdthout coming over and helping you to do it. 
It has taken a lot of moral courage to stay at home. But we 
are proud to back you up everywhere that it is possible to 
back you up, and now I am happy to find what splendid names 
you have made for yourselves among the civilian population 
of France, as well as among your comrades in the armies of 
the French, and it is a fine testimony to you men that these 
people like you and love you and trust you, and the finest part 
of it all is that you deserve their trust. 

I feel a comradeship with you to-day which is delightful. 
As I look down upon these undisturbed fields and think of the 
terrible scenes through which you have gone, and realize how 
the quiet of peace, the tranquillity of settled hopes, has de- 
scended upon us, while it is hard to be far from home, I can 
bid you a Merry Christmas, and I can, I think, confidently 
promise you a Happy New Year, and I can from the bottom of 
my heart say, Grod bless you. 

215 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

With blaring of bands the review then took place, the 
long columns swinging by in company front. The men 
plowed doggedly through the mud, and in a short time 
had all passed the reviewing stand. 

The President and his party then re-entered automobiles 
and proceeded to Montigny-le-Roi, where the Yankee 
Division was anxiously awaiting them. 

The dinner had been prepared under the direction of 
Mess Sergeant Herbert A. Hoey, a former Worcester, 
Mass., restaurant proprietor. He was assisted by Ser- 
geant Paul Dufourd, a Boston restaurateur. The two men 
had secured chickens, turkeys with dressing, cauliflower 
and mashed potato, with cranberry sauce and pumpkin 
pies. It had been a tremendous task to gather together 
enough turkeys, to say nothing of plates, chairs and tables, 
but it was done. 

The menus were gotten up by the topographical section 
of the intelligence department of the division, and con- 
tained eight pages. On the front page was the famous 
" Y. D. " with mistletoe. On the inside cover was the title 
page, headed by an American eagle perched upon a shield 
over which swords were crossed. Under this was printed : — 

Memento, Christmas Dinner for President Wilson, by officers 
of the Twenty-sixth Division, American Expeditionary Forces, 
Montigny-le-Roi, France, December twenty-fifth, nineteen 
hundred and eighteen. Printed in the field by Headquarters 
Twenty-sixth Division, American Expeditionary Forces. 

This last sentence was at the bottom of the page, and 
was flanked by two more shields, the whole page being done 
in colors. 

Other pages were bordered with war sketches, while 
the fourth and sixth contained brief histories of the battles 
and service of the Twenty-sixth. 

216 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The main ambition of the New Englanders at that 
time was deftly set forth upon the back cover, by the 
reproduction of a steamship plowing the Atlantic and 
headed for the United States. 

As the Presidential party entered the old school and 
former hospital in which the dinner was given, the band 
of the 102d Infantry outside gave ruffles and then played 
*'The Star Spangled Banner." 

The party took their seats, and, despite the fact that 
there was no napery or silverware, the meal was thor- 
oughly enjoyed. There was no speaking. As soon as the 
dinner was finished the President left, merely waving his 
hand and shouting "Good-by!" to the thousands of vil- 
lagers and soldiers clustered outside. He then entered 
his automobile and drove to some billets occupied by the 
103d Infantry, which were on the road to Chaumont. 
Two or three of these the President inspected, and in one 
occurred an incident that brought many smiles to the 
soldiers for some time afterward. 

On each man's bunk was laid out his equipment, with 
each article in a certain place, as prescribed by regula- 
tions. Noticing a jointed stick the President called it to 
the attention of General Pershing. The latter picked up 
the stick, and straightening it out, explained that it was 
one of the poles for a "pup" tent, so called, — the little 
two-man tents which are carried on the march. After 
examining it the President handed the pole back to Gen- 
eral Pershing, who tossed it carelessly on to the bunk. 
"But," said President Wilson, "suppose that man's bunk 
is inspected again. He would get into trouble with that 
pole lying like that. As your commanding officer I order 
you to replace the pole the way it should be." General 
Pershing snapped to attention, saluted and replaced the 
pole in its proper position. 

217 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

This billet was on the second floor of a French stable, 
and in order to enter it the President was forced to ascend 
a ladder. While engaged in this more or less awkward 
feat he was snapped again and again by moving-picture 
operators and photographers. 

In another billet the President started to relate a story 
to a squad of men who were standing rigidly at attention. 
Although the Commander-in-Chief put all his personality 
into the tale, it apparently had no effect on the soldiers, 
who continued to stare straight ahead. At last the Chief 
Executive of the United States stopped talking, con- 
sidered a moment, and then said: "I don't know what 
command to give you to make you do it, but I wish you 
would all relax a minute and look as though you were 
interested in the story." 

Promptly the corporal stepped forward one pace, faced 
smartly to the left, commanded: "At ease!" and the 
thing was done. 

The visitors then went on their way to Chaumont, 
while the remainder of the division proceeded to enjoy 
their own Christmas dinners. 

Later a telegram was received from General Pershing 
by General Hale, which read : — 

I desire to congratulate the division on the excellent work 
of the battalion which represented it as guard of honor at 
Chaumont; on the fine appearance and discipline manifested 
by the men during the visit of the President of the United 
States to the billets of the division; and on the splendid appear- 
ance made by the detachments representing the division in the 
review for the President at Humes, France, December 25, 1918. 

It was impossible for all of the oflScers of the division 
to attend the Christmas dinner, so only a certain per- 
centage were picked. A list of these follows. It will be 

218 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

noted that even this brief roster shows a great many 
changes in officers : — 

Major General Harry C. Hale, Commanding General. 

Brigadier-General George H. Shelton, commanding Fifty- 
first Infantry Brigade. 

Brigadier-General Pelham D. Glassford, commanding Fifty- 
first Field Artillery Brigade. 

Brigadier-General Charles H. Cole, commanding Fifty-second 
Infantry Brigade. 

Colonel B. Frank Cheatham, commanding 104th Infantry. 

Colonel Percy W. Arnold, commanding 103d Infantry. 

Colonel Duncan K. Major, Jr., chief of staff, division head- 
quarters. 

Colonel Horace P. Hobbs, commanding 101st Infantry. 

Colonel Douglas Potts, commanding 102d Infantry. 

Colonel Jacob A. Mack, commanding 102d Field Artillery. 

Colonel George W. Bunnell, commanding 101st Engineers. 

Colonel Warren E. Sweetser, commanding 101st Head- 
quarters Train. 

Colonel Robert E. Goodwin, commanding 101st Field Artil- 
lery. 

Colonel J. Alden Twachtman, commanding 103d Field Ar- 
tillery. 

Lieutenant Colonel Cassius M. Dowell, assistant chief of 
staff, G-3, division headquarters. 

Lieutenant Colonel William J. Keville, commanding 101st 
Ammunition Train. 

Lieutenant Colonel Alfred F. Foote, division inspector. 

Lieutenant Colonel Charles A. Stevens, di\Tision adjutant. 

Lieutenant Colonel Elon F. Tandy, division quartermaster. 

Lieutenant Colonel Harry B. Anderson, division judge advo- 
cate. 

Lieutenant Colonel William H. Dolan, division ordnance 
oflScer. 

Lieutenant Colonel John D. Murphy, division machine gun 
officer. 

219 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Lieutenant Colonel Frank S. Perkins, 101st Field Artillery. 

Major Amaury du Boisrouvray, French Army. 

Major Thomas L. Jenkins, division surgeon, 

ISIajor Fred E. Jones, commanding 101st Sanitary Train. 

Major William P. Carpenter, commanding 102d Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

Major Felix B. La Crosse, commanding 101st Field Signal 
Battalion. 

Major Thomas F, Foley, 101st Infantry. 

Major Edward J. Connelly, 104th Infantry. 

Major Henry H. Wheelock, 101st Supply Train. 

Major Norman D. McLeod, 103d Field Artillery. 

Major Herbert L. Bowen, 103d Machine Gun Battalion. 

Major Hamilton R, Horsey, assistant chief of staff, G-2, divi- 
sion headquarters. 

Major Albert Greenlaw, assistant chief of staff, G-1, division 
headquarters. 

Major Stanhope Bayne-Jones, division sanitary inspector. 

Captain Rawdon W. Myers, 101st Machine Gun Battalion. 

Captain Linwood M. Gable, Medical Corps, 104th Infantry. 

Captain Roger Williams, 103d Infantry. 

Captain Irving E. Doane, 103d Infantry. 

Captain John R. Feegal, 102d Infantry. 

Captain James Brown, 104th Infantry. 

Captain William F. Howe, 102d Field Artillery. 

Captain James G. Rivers, 104th Infantry. 

Captain Lee H. Cover, 102d Field Artillery. 

Captain John Rachek, 104th Infantry. 

Captain Robert O. Blood, assistant to division surgeon. 

Captain Joseph H. Dunn, Medical Corps, 101st Ambulance 
Company. 

Captain Charles W. Comfort, Medical Corps, 102d Infantry. 

Captain James H. Erlenbach, Medical Corps, 103d Infantry. 

Captain John Humbird, 102d Machine Gun Battalion. 

Captain Harry R. Howe, 101st Engineers. 

Captain Thomas G. Holt, 101st Field Artillery. 

First Lieutenant John P. King, division headquarters. 

220 




Lieutenant-Colonel Frank P. Williams 







Boston Committee on its Way to meet the Home-coming Yankee 

Division 




Transport "America" bringing Home Some of "New England's 

Own " 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Chaplain Michael J. O'Connor, division chaplain. 

Chaplain Lyman Rollins, 101st Infantry. 

Chaplain William J. Farrell, 104th Infantry. 

First Lieutenant Ross E. Weaver, Medical Corps, 102d In- 
fantry. 

First Lieutenant Harry Christiansen, Medical Corps, 101st 
Field Hospital. 

First Lieutenant Crawford J. Ferguson, 104th Infantry. 

Chaplain Thomas G. Speers, 102d Infantry. 

First Lieutenant William H. Murphy, 104th Infantry. 



Ul 



CHAPTER XXVI 

Animals of the Division 

At this point it may be of interest to include a history 
of the animals of the Twenty-sixth Division, which was 
compiled by Captain Nicholas Biddle, the remount officer. 
This history was gotten up and forwarded to General 
Edwards because of the latter's love of animals, together 
with the fact that they had served the Yankee Division 
well and played an important part in its successes. The 
history, although drawn up in military form, shows a deep 
understanding and love for animals on the part of Captain 
Biddle, and also again emphasizes the affection felt by 
officers and men for the former commanding officer. It 
follows : — 

Headquarters Twentt-sixth Division, 

American Expeditionary Forces, 

France, February 14, 1919. 

From : Division Remount Officer. 

To: Major-General Clarence R. Edwards. 

Subject: Report. 

The first issue of animals was received by the division during 
the middle of November when in training in the Neufchateau 
area. This issue consisted of some 400 head of French draft 
stock, mostly horses. When unloaded at Rebeuville many of 
them were in wretched shape, and a number died from emacia- 
tion. A telegram was sent for curry combs and brushes, but it 
was some time before a supply was received. The animals were 
later distributed to the various infantry units, but this dis- 
tribution was delayed, as there were not sufficient wagons or 
trucks on hand to haul forage for them. 

Shortly after this two shipments of good American stock, 
made up of some 665 mules and 230 horses, arrived at Liffol-le- 

222 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Grand from St. Nazaire. These animals were distributed to 
all organizations, wnth the exception of the artillery, which at this 
time was detached from the division. 

The artillery brigade in the meantime, at Coetquidon, re- 
ceived from the French remount service numerous issues of 
animals, so that early in January it had some 3,000 horses and 
200 mules. It was while there that the French mange first ap- 
peared among the artillery animals. The 1st of Februarj% 
just previous to the division moving to the Chemin des Dames 
sector, north of Soissons, there were on hand approximately 
280 draft horses, 330 riding horses, and 830 draft mules in the 
units outside the artillery. 

In the latter part of February, when the division w^as north 
of Soissons, some 1,000 mules and 700 horses, mostly of Ameri- 
can stock, were received from Bordeaux, St. Nazaire and the 
remount depot at Bourbonne-les-Bains. These animals were 
distributed to all organizations, including the artillery, which 
had left Coetquidon early in February. While in this sector 
nearly all the animals in the division were clipped. 

On March 1 a detail from the 101st Ammunition Train was 
sent down to the remount depot at La Rochelle and drew 500 
horses of American stock, part of whom were turned over to the 
artillery brigade in the rest area at Rimaucourt. 

On April 3, when the division moved into the Boucq sector 
north of Toul, there were several more small issues of French 
stock. It was at this time that the French mange made its 
appearance in earnest among the animals. Every effort was 
made by the division to stamp it out. A dipping vat was estab- 
lished at Sanzey, in charge of the IMobile Veterinary Unit. 
Practically all animals were dipped at least four times, so that 
when the division entrained for Chateau-Thierry scarcely a case 
of mange remained. 

It may be of some interest to relate at this point an incident 
told by Major Merrillat, later chief veterinarian of the First 
Army. At the time the division left the Neuf chateau training 
area, in early February, he was in charge of the veterinary hospi- 
tal at Neufchdteau. In a certain unit of the division horses 

223 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

of French stock had been received already badly infected with 
mange. An officer of the unit was most anxious to remedy 
conditions, and in order to try to do so he arranged with 
Major Merrillat to turn in to the hospital at Neufchateau a 
number of the worst mange cases and receive in return lighter 
mange cases, no other animals being available. This incident 
gives an interesting sidelight on the animal situation in the 
American Expeditionary Forces at this time. 

The 1st of July the division entrained for Chateau-Thierry. 
From July 10 to July 25, when the division participated in the 
great drive that was to decide the war, the horses and mules 
were called upon to do heart-breaking work. In the artillery 
brigade and ammunition train, especially, not only were the 
animals exposed to constant shell fire, but were continuously 
in harness from twenty-four to thirty-six hours, hauling guns, 
ammunition and supplies. Many a poor beast died in harness 
from sheer exhaustion, while others were blown to pieces by 
shell fire. Forage rations at this time were far below the allow- 
ance, and in order to keep the animals going at the front it was 
necessary to send forward most of the grain that was received, 
leaving the animals in the rear echelons to subsist on hay and 
such grazing as was possible. As an illustration of the extreme 
exhaustion to which the animals had been subjected, 800 ani- 
mals were evacuated at Nanteuil-sur-Marne between August 13 
and 22 by the Division Veterinary Corps. Tlihty of them died 
on the road, over a distance of 8 kilometers. The artillery 
brigade and ammunition train remained in line in this drive 
until early August, after other units had been withdrawn. 

The story is told by an eye-witness, after this drive, of a poor 
bedraggled artillery man who was seen literally dragging his 
exhausted horse behind him. Finally, both could go no farther, 
and man and beast lay down together on the side of the road, 
the man's head resting against the body of his faithful animal, 
both utterly worn out. 

At the time of the Chateau-Thierry drive the division had 
several issues of French draft stock, including draft stallions. 
A word about these stallions. Although big and powerful ani- 

224 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

mals they could not stand up under conditions at the front. 
They worked hard at first, in fact, too hard, and soon exhausted 
themselves, and fell off so in flesh and strength that most of 
them were later evacuated. Doubtless, previous to their pur- 
chase for the army, they had lived the well-regulated life of the 
French farm horse, — short and easy hauls, ample feed and 
shelter, with little or no hardships. Some of them had evidently 
been used for breeding purposes, which made them soft and 
unfit for hard continuous draft work without previous season- 
ing. The division at this time also received several issues of 
big fine French mares, beautiful stock, but many of whom later 
slipped foals prematurely on account of gun fire. Immediately 
they lost flesh and strength and appeared to shrink away, so 
that most of them also had to be evacuated. 

On August 11, when the division moved to the rest area at 
Chatillon-sur-Seine, forage was again extremely short, so much 
so, in fact, that the quartermaster authorized supply officers 
to purchase grain and hay direct from French civilians. Every 
opportunity was utilized to graze animals in this area. 

From Chatillon the division entrained for Bar-le-Duc, and 
from there proceeded over the road towards St. Mihiel, where, 
on September 8 to 12, it prepared and took part in the great 
American coup which flattened out the salient that had been a 
thorn in the side of the French for four years. Again the animals 
were exposed to heavy shell fire, but were not subjected to the 
tremendous exhaustion that they underwent at Chateau- 
Thierry. 

After the St. Mihiel push a new lease of life was given the 
animals of the division, and for about three weeks they enjoyed 
more rest, comfort and care than they had received for con- 
siderable time. 

The division was moved September 14 to the Troyon sector, 
and in the woods on either side of the Grande Tranchee most of 
the animals were picketed. At first a certain number of horses 
in the artillery were held up in the forward echelons, but after 
a number of the horses were severely gassed, and still others 
lost by shell fire, it was considered advisable to move practically 

225 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

all of them back to the rear echelons. This was done in spite 
of the fact that they were a considerable distance to the rear of 
the gun positions. However, as the sector was a quiet one, it 
was thought better to move them back where they were far 
more protected from shell fire, and take the chance of rushing 
them forward if the gun positions had to be suddenly changed. 
If this had not been done it is doubtful whether the artillery 
would have been able to remain mobile, as there were no re- 
placements of animals at this time. The plight of the gassed 
horses was pitiable. Their skin became rough, they refused to 
eat, with a consequent falling off in flesh, so that practically all 
of them were subsequently evacuated. 

Previous to this time a motor truck had been converted into 
an animal ambulance by Captain Wilham C. VanAllstyne, 
assistant division veterinarian. The ambulance held five 
animals placed crosswise and separated by partition boards 
dropped in grooves. By means of a runway which let down 
behind it could be fully loaded in ten minutes. This truck 
ambulance did most excellent work transporting gassed, 
wounded and debilitated animals to the veterinary hospitals 
many kilometers to the rear. 

In spite of all efforts to prevent it, mange at this time again 
appeared among the animals, especially in the artillery, and this 
devastating disease appeared set on unhorsing the division. 

In the St. Mihiel drive from 70 to 80 horses were abandoned 
by the Boche and taken over by the division. Several of these 
were suspected of glanders and destroyed. Most of the re- 
mainder were good specimens, and later did excellent work. 
Unfortunately the exact number of horses captured remained 
somewhat of a mystery, as organizations were always most 
modest in reporting them on their returns. 

On October 8 the division, less the artillery brigade, moved 
over the road from the Troyon sector to Verdun, the animals 
making the distance of some 50 kilometers in excellent fashion. 
The artillery brigade followed a few days later, having to wait 
for the Fifty-fifth Artillery Brigade, attached to the Seventy- 
ninth Division, to relieve them. This brigade was sadly handi- 

226 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

capped by lack of animals, and consequently did not arrive 
when first expected. In fact, so limited was their animal strength 
that it was necessary for the horses of the Fifty -first Field Artil- 
lery Brigade to pull practically all of their guns into position. 
These had previously been hauled by motor trucks as far for- 
ward as possible. 

The artillery brigade came over the road toward Verdun in 
two night marches in excellent fashion, considering that many of 
the caissons and guns were drawn by only four horses. The 
brigade encamped in the Bois Sartelles, 5 kilometers south of 
Verdun. 

On October 18 the division received orders to enter the lines 
and organize for an attack. Immediately guns were hauled 
from 15 to 20 kilometers into position, all marches being made 
by night. 

It was at this time that a most stringent order was issued 
by General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces, in 
view of the serious situation of the artillery and animal trans- 
port of the First Army, due to the shortage of animals. It 
stated that every measure possible to conserve the strength 
and improve the condition of animals on hand must be taken, 
and that the continued mobility of the army depended upon 
the immediate adoption of most radical measures. This order 
further stated that only prescribed drivers should be permitted 
to ride on teams or vehicles, and that drivers of machine-gun 
carts and cannoneers would carry their own packs the same as 
infantry. In the artillery the drivers would alternate, riding 
one hour and leading the next, and at all halts drivers would 
dismount. 

The plan of keeping animals in forward echelons was again 
tried in the Verdun sector, but was met with the severest kind 
of animal losses from exposure, shell fire and gas. As a result, 
the greater part of the artillery animals were taken back to the 
more or less sheltered rear echelons, while the animals of the 
infantry and other divisional units were stabled in the some- 
what demolished but nevertheless sheltered casernes of Verdun. 
Mules for the rolling kitchens, ration carts, water carts, and a 

227 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

number of mules for machine guns, had necessarily to be kept 
up fairly close to the lines, and it was these animals that shared 
the brunt of shelling and exposure. The plan, however, was 
adopted to alternate these animals, so that after one had 
served several days at the front it was brought back to a rear 
echelon, rested and cared for, while another took its place. 

Up behind the lines picketing of animals in small groups of 
three, four and six was employed as protection from shell fire. 
There was an instance, however, in a certain machine gun com- 
pany, where this was not done, and twelve fine mules tied 
together on one picket line were completely wiped out by a 
shell landing directly beside them. 

A word here, it is believed, should be said about the men 
who drove the rolling kitchens, ration and water carts up the 
lines, often along roads with no protection whatsoever, and 
exposed to heavy shell fire. These so-called "mule skinners" 
took care of their animals under conditions when it was bad 
enough to have to look after one's self, yet without the glory 
of the men in the trenches, although their work was often 
equally as hazardous and courageous. An instance is brought 
to mind of one of these men in the 102d Infantry grooming 
his mules under shell fire who, when raising his head, was 
found to have a piece of shrapnel lodged in under the skin of 
his forehead. On being questioned as to why he did not go 
to a dressing station which was near by and have it removed, 
he replied, "I ain't had time as yet, but when I'm through 
grooming this here mule I expect I'll drop over there." "Did 
the shrapnel in his forehead hurt?" "Sure it did." 

Once more mange began to run its devastating and dis- 
heartening course through the artillery horses. As a preventive 
measure the manes of all animals in the division were clipped 
down close to the neck, while tails were clipped to a point 3 
inches below the dock. Shortly before this an order had been 
issued from the army that all horses infected with mange, or 
animals suspected to be infected, should be evacuated immedi- 
ately. The situation now became extremely grave. No stone 
was left unturned in an endeavor to procure animal replace- 

228 




S. S. Agamemnon steaming into Boston Harbor, April, 1919 




Welcoming Home the 102d Infantry and 101st Machine Gun Bat- 
talion, April, 1919 




Crowded Transport nosing into Pier, Boston Harbor, April, 1919 




Members of Twenty-sixth Division returning on S. S. Agamemnon, 

April, 1919 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

ments at this time, but the demand was so far greater than 
the supply that the task was well-nigh hopeless. The fact 
that was always brought forward when a desperate appeal was 
made for animals was that there were twelve or more divisions 
who were even worse off than the Twenty-sixth, certain artillery 
brigades not being able to move at all. Consequently what 
animals were being received at the army depots were being 
sent to them. 

At last, about October 17, a shipment of French stock en 
route from Bordeaux was switched at St. Dizier to the Twenty- 
sixth Division to be unloaded at Baleycourt. This shipment 
of 144 animals left Bordeaux made up of 96 artillery horses, 
32 cavalry horses and 16 mules. One of the horses died en 
route, and 38 horses and 4 mules were evacuated at the veteri- 
nary hospital at Treveray, being in far too poor condition for 
service at the front. Out of the 101 animals that arrived at 
Baleycourt, 48 had to be evacuated immediately for debilita- 
tion and mange, so that only 44 horses and 9 mules were left 
to be issued to the division. From this number only 10 of 
the horses could be considered draft animals, while only 5 of 
the mules could be considered for heavy draft purposes. The 
little, light-boned horses and mules, the latter doubtless Span- 
ish, were issued to the machine gun battalions for use in the 
machine-gun carts. Later the majority of these horses broke 
down on the march back from the front. The little mules, on 
the other hand, as usual went through everything, and at the 
end were still ready for more. 

The above shipment is just one illustration of the difficulties 
of securing animals at this time for a division at the front. In 
defence of this shipment it must be said that just previous, on 
account of the desperate animal situation, telegraphic instruc- 
tions had been issued to all remount depots to send forward all 
animals that were even in fair condition. 

Another order issued from general headquarters at this time 
stripped all wagon companies attached to depots in the S. O. S. 
to half strength. As a result of this the division was fortunate 
to receive 200 draft mules from one of these companies. These 

229 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

were all excellent animals of American stock, and literally 
saved the day for the infantry supply companies. Shortly 
afterwards there was one other shipment from Bordeaux, 
mostly horses in poor shape, besides one or two small or mis- 
cellaneous issues of animals, obtained only after the greatest 
effort. 

The Argonne-Meuse offensive was then at its height. As 
poorly horsed as the division was, all units were ready to push 
forward at a moment's notice. In fact, practically all animals 
and vehicles had been moved forward a short distance on a 
preliminary order, ready to take the road again at any moment. 
Events now happened in rapid succession. On November 11 
the armistice was signed, and on November 14 instead of going 
forward in the Army of Occupation, the division was ordered 
to the rear. For nine full days the division, with the exception 
of the artillery brigade, moved straight from the trenches over 
the road to the eighth training area, east of Chaumont. This 
was the last and longest hike the men and animals had been 
called upon to undergo. They both came through with flying 
colors, — certainly a record to be proud of. 

The artillery brigade, when it reached the area north of Bar- 
le-Duc, was detached from the division and became a part of 
the army artillery. At the same time all but 400 of their 
animals were turned over to the divisions that were going 
forward in the Army of Occupation. The brigade again 
joined the division in the eighth training area on the 20th of 
December. 

From the last of November to the middle of January the 
animals were billeted in the various towns of the eighth training 
area, some sheltered in temporary wooden stables, and others 
in the stone stables of the French peasants. The constant rain 
and mud during this period were the most discouraging features 
in the care of animals. There were also cases of mange that 
cropped out here and there among the animals, but these were 
evacuated so that mange generally was kept fairly well in 
hand. 

On December 4, by orders of the Fifth Army Corps, the divi- 

230 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

sion turned over some 800 draft mules and 200 riding horses 
to the Twenty-ninth and Eighty-second Divisions in the same 
corps. These divisions, after the signing of the armistice, had 
been ordered to turn over the greater part of their animals to 
divisions going forward in the Army of Occupation, and con- 
sequently were in a sadly depleted condition as far as animal 
transportation was concerned. The Twenty-ninth Division in 
particular had only some 350 animals at this time. 

The last part of December the Fifth Army Corps sent out 
notice of a horse show to be held at Nogent-en-Bassigny early 
in February, in which the division was to participate, along with 
the Twenty-ninth and Eighty-second Divisions. While prelim- 
inary plans were being made for entries from the division, orders 
for its return to the United States were received. As the first 
units were to leave for the embarkation area January 20, all 
plans for the participation of the division in the show were 
abandoned. However, four mules and an escort wagon belong- 
ing to Headquarters Troop had already been prepared for the 
show. They made a splendid turnout, and it is firmly believed 
would have carried off the blue ribbon. Significant of this is the 
fact that when the last turnover of animals was made to the 
Eighty-second Division, a special request was made for this 
team to be turned over ahead, so that it could be entered by 
them in the coming horse show. There were other equally 
excellent teams in nearly every other organization in the division 
which should have taken a prominent place in the show. 

The latter part of January, just previous to organizations 
entraining, all the remaining animals in the division were turned 
over to the Twenty-ninth and Eighty-second Divisions, as, 
with the exception of a few private mounts, no animals were to 
be taken back to the United States. There were many sad 
separations at this time. OflScers gave over their mounts who 
had carried them since the division entered the line, while 
teamsters gave up horses and mules who had borne every 
hardship with them at the front from Soissons to Toul. Each, 
doubtless, would never meet again. 

If the question were asked: "Who did more for the animals 

231 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

of the Twenty-sixth Division than any one else?" the unani- 
mous answer would be, "Major-General Clarence R. Edwards." 
It was not only that he was a true horse lover and possessed a 
thorough knowledge of animals, but it was the rare faculty that 
he possessed of making the men take a pride in their animals 
that did more for them than all the inspectors in the American 
Expeditionary Forces, and there were many of them. There 
was not a team that escaped his notice, and it was his quick 
and hearty words of praise that made the driver feel that, after 
all, his efforts were worth while. It was he who sat down and 
wrote off the horse order in the Neufchateau area when the 
first animals were received, and which was so excellent and com- 
plete that it was later republished by general headquarters as 
General Orders No. 65, April 30, 1918, to be followed by all 
officers and men charged with the care of animals in the Ameri- 
can Expeditionary Forces. It was also he who gave unlimited 
backing to the division animal inspector and remount officers 
who later joined the division, and made their work count for 
something. 

Great credit should be given to Captain John W. Mahoney, 
who was appointed inspector of animal transportation by Gen- 
eral Edwards in April, 1918, when the division was in the Toul 
sector, as well as to Captain H. Kendrick, who was remount 
officer with the division at St. Mihiel. Both of these men, 
through their conscientious and untiring efforts on behalf of the 
animals, were of great assistance to the division. 

The Division Veterinary Corps, although operating often 
under great difficulties, rendered much valuable service. A 
great deal of individual credit is due to a number of veterinary 
officers. 

In compiling this brief history of the animals of the division 
it is the hope of the writer that it will help the faithful beasts, 
who did so much towards its glorious record, to receive their 
share of the praise. They are now scattered far and wide, but 
the memory of many of them, it is believed, will remain forever 
with officers and men. 

To Lieutenant Colonel E. F. Tandy, division quartermaster; 

232 




S. S. Agamemnon bringing Home Victorious Members of Yankee 

Division, April, 1919 




Getting Straw for Bed-sacks on Arrival at Camp Devens 




Scrt-eu Telegram 

General Edwards decorating Lieutenant Paul Hines with the D. S. C. 

on the Boston Common 




Members of Twenty-sixth Division back Home at Camp Devens 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Major Albert Greenlaw, assistant chief of staff, G-1; Captain 
John W. Mahoney, adjutant, 101st Ammunition Train; and 
Captain William C. Van Allstyne is the writer much indebted 
for their assistance in the compilation of this history. 

Nicholas Biddle, 
Captain, Q. M. C, 
Division Remount Officer. 



233 



CHAPTER XXVII 

"Homeward Bound" 

On December 30 the division was delighted to receive 
a message from their former commander, General 
Edwards. This message appeared in General Orders No. 
122, issued by General Hale, which read: — 

1. The following cablegram from Major-General Clarence 
R. Edwards is published to the command : — 

Major-General H. C. Hale, Twenty-sixth Division. 

Delighted you have the division. My congratulations. Give my 
love to the stout-hearted lads and tell them to carry on. "We are all 
waiting to welcome you. 

Edwards. 

In the same order General Hale published a commen- 
dation from the corps commander of the conduct of the 
men while on leave. This read : — 

1. The corps commander desires to express his sincere com- 
mendation of the high standards of conduct and soldierly pride 
manifested by the members of the Twenty-sixth Division dur- 
ing their presence in the Auvergne leave area. Their behavior 
was such as to attract the favorable notice of the commanding 
officer of that area, and he was so highly impressed that he has 
communicated his sentiments in a complimentary letter with 
reference thereto. The members of this leave detachment 
reflected credit upon the division, the corps and the American 
Army, and have established a standard worthy of emulation 
by all who succeed them. 

2. It is especially desired to commend Captain William 
Walker, 102d Infantry, in charge of the leave train, who dis- 
played fine soldierly qualities, marked ability and earnest 

234 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

loyalty in the performance of all his duties. His leadership in 
retaining full control of his men under all circumstances is a 
high tribute to his eJBSciency. 

C. P. SUMMERALL, 

Major-General, Commanding. 
By command of Major General Hale, 

Cassius M. Dowell, 
Acting Chief of Staff. 

Following the inspection of the division, and the decora- 
tion of the battalion of the 102d by General Petain, pre- 
viously described by Lieutenant-Colonel Horsey, the next 
event of importance to the New Englanders was the 
order to move to the Le Mans area of the American 
embarkation center. This order was received with the 
greatest joy, as every member of the division. New Eng- 
lander or otherwise, was anxious to get back home as soon 
as possible. They were wearied of the inaction and 
longed for peaceful pursuits. They had come across 
willingly to do their share in the war, and had done it 
in a way that brought compliments and decorations from 
the greatest soldiers in the French Army. Now they 
wanted to get back to their homes and families and 
forget, if possible, what they had gone through. The 
personnel of the division was greatly changed. Of the 
National Guard officers who went over with the Twenty- 
sixth less than a handful remained. The following roster 
issued to the transportation officers at this time will show 
how many changes had taken place : — 

Roster of Commanding Officers. — Major-General Harry C. 
Hale, commanding; Captain Paul L. White, A. D. C; Captain 
Willis H. Hale, A. D. C; Captain Lawrence B. Cummings, 
A. D. C. 

Division Staff. — Colonel Duncan K. Major, Jr., chief of 
staff; Major Albert E. Greenlaw, assistant chief of staff, G-1; 

235 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Major Hamilton R. Horsey, assistant chief of staff, G-2; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Cassius M. Dowell, assistant chief of staff, G-3; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles A. Stevens, adjutant; Lieutenant- 
Colonel Alfred F. Foote, inspector; Lieutenant-Colonel Elon 
F. Tandy, quartermaster; Major Thomas L. Jenkins, surgeon; 
Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Dolan, ordnance officer; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Harry B. Anderson, judge advocate; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Charles N. Sawyer, signal officer; Lieutenant- 
Colonel John D. Murphy, machine gun officer; Colonel George 
W. Bunnell, engineer; Major Charles W. Lewis, dental sur- 
geon; First Lieutenant Keith P. Ribble, gas officer; Captain 
WiUiam J. Henderson, motor transport officer; First Lieuten- 
ant Otto J. Conzelman, acting veterinarian; First Lieutenant 
Michael J. O'Connor, division chaplain. 

Headquarters Troop. — First Lieutenant Thomas J. Byrne, 
commanding. 

101st Machine Gun Battalion. — Major Laurence H. Waters, 
commanding. First Lieutenant Chester F. Comey, acting ad- 
jutant. 

Fifty-first Infantry Brigade. — Brigadier-General George H. 
Shelton, commanding. Major Judson Hannigan, adjutant; 
First Lieutenant Silas S. Clark, A. D. C. 

102d Machine Gun Battalion. — Major William P. Carpenter, 
D. S., at infantry school; Captain John R. Sanborn, command- 
ing. First Lieutenant Gerald Courtney, adjutant. 

101st Infantry. — Colonel Horace P. Hobbs, commanding. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry N. Coleman, Captain Robert J. 
Hammerslag, adjutant; Major Sidney G. Brown, commanding 
1st Battalion; Major Thomas F. Foley, commanding 2d Bat- 
talion; Major Harry B. Gilstrap, commanding 3d Battalion; 
Major William J. McCarthy, unassigned. 

102d Infantry. — Colonel Douglas Potts, commanding. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Thomas M. Hunter; Captain Cyrus C. Wash- 
burn, adjutant; Major Clarence M. Thompson, commanding 
1st Battalion; Major Harry B. Bissell, commanding 2d Bat- 
talion; Major James D. Corbiere, commanding 3d Battalion; 
Major James F. Johnson, unassigned. 

236 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Fifty-second Infantry Brigade. — Brigadier-General Charles 
H. Cole, commanding. Major Robert H. Barrett, adjutant; 
First Lieutenant Francis V. Logan, A. D. C; First Lieutenant 
John C. Leggat, A, D. C; First Lieutenant H. G. Lund, 
A. D. C. 

103d Machine Gun Battalion. — Major Herbert L. Bowen, 
commanding. Captain Earle W. Chandler, acting adjutant. 

103d Infantry. — Colonel Percy W. Arnold, commanding. 
Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Beck; Captain William D. 
Martin, Jr., adjutant; Major Horace C. Bates, commanding 1st 
Battalion; Major Sherman M. Shumway, commanding 2d Bat- 
tahon; Major William E. Southard, commanding 3d Battalion. 

lOJ^th Infantry. — Colonel B. Frank Cheatham, commanding. 
Lieutenant Colonel Anton C. Cron; Captain William H. Stiles, 
adjutant; Major Edward J. Connelly, commanding 1st Bat- 
talion; Captain John Rachek, commanding 2d Battalion; 
Major James H. McDade, commanding 3d BattaUon; Major 
Harry A. Mushan, unassigned. 

lOlst Ammunition Train.  — Lieutenant-Colonel William J. 
Keville, commanding. Captain Oliver Turner, adjutant. 

101st Supply Train. — Major Henry H. Wheelock, command- 
ing. Second Lieutenant Francis Wyman, adjutant. 

101st Engineer Train. — First Lieutenant Schuyler R. Waller, 
commanding. 

101st Sanitary Train. — Major Fred E. Jones, commanding. 
Major Owen H. Kenan, commanding field hospital section; 
Captain Herbert W. Taylor, commanding ambulance section. 

Fifty-first Field Artillery Brigade. — Brigadier-General Pel- 
ham D. Glassford, commanding. Major Wayland M. Minot, 
adjutant; First Lieutenant Livingston Whitney, A. D. C. 

101st Field Artillery. — Colonel Robert E. Goodwin, com- 
manding. Lieutenant-Colonel Frank S. Perkins; Captain 
Benjamin H. Ticknor, adjutant; Major Erland F. Fish, com- 
manding 1st Battalion; Major Ivar Hendricksen, command- 
ing 2d Battalion. 

lOM Field Artillery. — Colonel Jacob A. Mack, command- 
ing. Lieutenant-Colonel John F. J. Herbert; Captain Ray 

237 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

Harrison, adjutant; Captain Lawrence B. Page, commanding 
1st Battalion; Captain Roger C. Swaim, commanding 2d Bat- 
talion. 

103d Field Artillery, — Colonel J. Alden Twachtman, com- 
manding. Lieutenant-Colonel Eugene T. Spencer; Captain 
Stuart L. Bullivant, acting adjutant; Major Norman D. 
McLeod, commanding 1st Battalion; Major Harold R. Barker, 
commanding 2d Battalion; Major Stanley Bacon, commanding 
3d Battalion. 

101st Trench Mortar Battery (Detached). — Captain James 
A. Walsh, commanding. 

101st Engineers. — Colonel George W. Bunnell, commanding. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Bartlett; Captain Herbert C. 
Thomas, adjutant; Major Porter B. Chase, commanding 1st 
Battalion; Captain George E. Parsons, commanding 2d Bat- 
talion; Major John F. Osborn, unassigned (D. S. at Paris). 

101st Field Battalion Signal Corps. — Captain Russell Hobbs, 
commanding. First Lieutenant Archie G. McPherson, adju- 
tant. 

101st Train Headquarters. — Colonel Warren E. Sweetser, 
commanding. Captain Charles E. Akeley, adjutant. 

26th Military Police Company. — Captain Michael J. Dee, 
commanding. 

101st Mobile Ordnance Repair Shop. — First Lieutenant 
James W. Armour, commanding. 

Mobile Repair Shop No. 1. — Second Lieutenant Harry C. 
Davis, commanding. 

Machine-shop Truck Unit No. 362. — First Lieutenant John 
C. Aikens, commanding. 

Machine-shop Truck Unit No. 377. — First Lieutenant Clint 
O. Perrins, commanding. 

Clothing Squad No. 11. — Second Lieutenant William E. 
Coffee, commanding. 

Salvage Squad No. 20. — Second Lieutenant Harding E. 
Sponsellor, commanding. 

Sales Commissary No. 10. — Second Lieutenant Sidney S. 
McKinley, commanding. 

238 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

U. S. A. P. 0. No. 709. — First Lieutenant Alexander Mac- 
donald, commanding. 

The entire division had arrived in the Le Mans area on 
February 4, and division headquarters was established 
at Ecommoy (Sarthe). 

It was on February 2 that General Pershing cabled to 
Director-General John Barrett of the Pan-American 
Union : — 

Replying to your cablegram it gives me pleasure to send you 
a message about Vermont and New England troops. Briefly 
stated, they merit the warmest praise by the people they rep- 
resent. They have maintained the best traditions of their New 
England ancestors, and the spirit of '76 has been theirs. They 
have played their full part in the splendid achievement of 
American arms on the battlefield and in the supporting serv- 
ices. 

On the same date Secretary of War Baker wrote to 
Mr. Barrett complimenting the Twenty-sixth Division. 
In the course of his remarks he said : — 

With the first and second Regular Army divisions, and the 
Forty-second or Rainbow Division, the Twenty-sixth is num- 
bered, they being considered the first four veteran divisions of 
our great American Expeditionary Forces, and I would be glad 
to have the people of New England know that their division, 
the first of the National Guard troops to embark overseas, 
bore itself with distinction and gallantry, and that it con- 
tributed on every battlefield to America's real participation 
in the fighting and the unbroken success of our arms. 

Things seemed to be coming the way of the division 
at this time, for on February 11 Colonels Logan and 
Hume, who had been relieved of their commands, were 
reinstated. The regiments of both oflScers turned out to 

239 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

meet them, after the colonels had reported to General 
Hale. Never was there such a greetmg. Marching at 
the head of their outfits the two colonels paraded to their 
billets, where each was greeted by his staff. Both officers 
found many strange faces. 

Colonel Logan, who had been acting as counsel for 
other officers at Blois, had presented his case to General 
Pershing, and demanded a hearing. He was informed 
that the officers he intended to summon as witnesses 
could not be procured, whereupon he incorporated in his 
brief summaries of what they would say. A hearing was 
never granted to either Colonel Logan or Colonel Hume, 
but both were simply ordered reinstated. 

The last act of Colonel Logan at Blois was to win the 
case of Major Allie Gray, also of the Yankee Division, 
who was removed for discussing orders. He was also 
ordered back to the division. 

On February 19 the division was reviewed by General 
Pershing, who pronounced it as one of the finest which 
he had ever seen, and the equal of any in the American 
Expeditionary Forces. The truck drivers worked for two 
days getting the troops up to the reviewing field, some 
of them being carried 20 miles. General Hale was so 
pleased with this accomplishment that he wrote the fol- 
lowing letter to Colonel Warren E. Sweetser: — 

Headquarters Twenty-sixth Division, 
France, February, 1919. 

Colonel Warren E. Sweetser, Commanding Train Head- 
quarters and Military Police, Ecommoy, France. 

The successful review of this division on February 19 by the 
Commander-in-Chief was made possible only by the extremely 
efficient co-operation of the personnel of tiie divisional trains 
in conveying a large part of the division to and from the review 
ground. 

240 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

I am aware of the serious obstacles that beset the truck 
drivers in carrying out their work in this connection, and have 
learned with gratification of their loyal, untiring and effective 
efforts in surmounting these obstacles. It is at times like these, 
when such unusual, unselfish and arduous work is demanded 
to insure success, that the mettle of the soldier is tried, and in 
this case the prompt and loyal response to the demand shows 
that the test was met in every instance. 

I take this occasion, also, to congratulate you and the officers 
and men belonging to the trains of this division upon their expert 
skill in so long maintaining the trains in a serviceable condition, 
and upon their labor and care in keeping them in a clean condi- 
tion. And their discipline and efficiency in those respects are 
equaled by their careful observance of road regulations. 

I congratulate and thank you all. 

Harry C. Hale, 
Major-General, 
United States Army, commanding. 

General Pershing made an extremely thorough review, 
after which he was entertained at a division show. His 
opinion of the entire affair was expressed in an order 
issued by Major-General Hale two days later, which 
read : — 



General Orders, 
No. 15. 



■} 



Hbadquartbbs Twenty-sixth Division, 

American Expeditionary Forces, 
France, February 21, 1919. 



1. The division commander congratulates the officers and 
men of this command upon the splendid example of soldierly 
appearance and efficiency presented by the division at the re- 
view by the Commander-in-Chief on the 19th instant. 

2. The magnificent spectacle of the entire division massed as 
a unit; the remarkably alert, cleancut and healthy appearance 
of the men; the uniformity and neatness of the equipment; 

241 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

the inspiring effect of the massed band; and finally the evi- 
dence of training manifested in the thrilling march past, — all 
were noted and repeatedly praised in warm terms by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, who desired that his satisfaction and admira- 
tion be communicated to the command. 

3. The division commander desires that this order be read 
to the command at the first formation after its receipt. 

By command of Major-General Hale. 

Duncan K. Major, Jr., 

Chief of Staff. 

The attention of the members of the division, which 
flagged somewhat after the review, was spurred by the 
military and athletic tournament. After this was over, 
however, every one once more devoted his thoughts to 
home. 

At last, toward the latter part of March, definite word 
came down that the division would begin to embark by 
the 1st of April. Great was the rejoicing. The day of 
days was at hand. 

In the meantime Brigadier-General John H. Sher- 
burne, who had been commanding a colored brigade, was 
returned to the 51st Field Artillery. A number of other 
former Twenty-sixth officers, including Colonel Thorn- 
dike Howe, who had been divisional postmaster, were 
also returned to the line. 

The 101st Trench Mortar Battery, commanded by 
Captain James A. Walsh of No. 12 Mayfair street, Rox- 
bury, was the first complete unit to get away. As a matter 
of fact, because they had turned in all their equipment 
early, they had been able to sail from St. Nazaire on 
March 30. This outfit, which was largely made up of the 
old 1st Maine Heavy Artillery, reached Hoboken, N. J., 
on April 12. The 3 officers and 184 men were immedi- 
ately sent to Camp Merritt for a few^ days, and then were 

242 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

shipped to Camp Devens, where they were demobilized. 
They immediately hurried to their homes for a while, 
pending the tremendous welcome which they were in- 
formed was being prepared for the division. 

On April 4, the big transport "Mount Vernon," formerly 
a German liner, steamed proudly up Boston Harbor, 
bearing 5,824 men of the Yankee Division, the vanguard 
of the famous New England organization. Never was 
there such a welcome as was given these home-coming 
men. Official welcoming committee of the State and city, 
headed by Governor Coolidge and Mayor Peters, met the 
"Mount Vernon" at quarantine, while other oflBcials, 
with friends and relatives of the returned heroes, almost 
swamped a flotilla of small craft. The soldiers were bom- 
barded with cigarettes, candies and all kinds of goodies, 
while frenzied shouts of greeting and the tearful cries of 
mothers were drowned out by a perfect din of whistles 
from every boat in the harbor and factories on shore. It 
was an indescribable scene and one never to be forgotten. 
New England was welcoming her own, returned with 
glory from a righteous war. Castle Island, Common- 
wealth Pier and all the piers along the waterfront were 
black with hysterical humanity. For many, however, 
it was a sad occasion, for their loved ones slept under the 
sod in France. 

The "Mount Vernon" carried Major-General Hale with 
his staff and division headquarters. Headquarters Troop, 
Military Police, Headquarters Fifty-second Infantry 
Brigade, 101st Engineers (less Company C), 104th In- 
fantry and 101st Engineer Train. One of the first to meet 
them and seize the hand of General Hale and his oflScers 
was Brigadier-General Cole, who had been sent over in 
advance of the division to help in the arrangements for 
its reception. 

243 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The first cry of the men, when the press boat neared the 
side of the big transport, was, "Where is General Ed- 
wards?" As it happened the General, believing that the 
ship would not arrive so soon, was on a speaking tour in 
Maine. Immediately, upon learning of the arrival of the 
"Mount Vernon," he canceled his engagements and 
hurried to Boston. He boarded the ship at 6 the next 
morning and was warmly greeted. 

The next day, April 5, with General Cole, he was on 
hand when the steamer "America," carrying Brigadier- 
General Shelton, Colonels Logan and Hume, and the 
Headquarters Fifty-first Infantry Brigade, 101st Infantry; 
103d Infantry (less Companies L and M), and Company 
C, 101st Engineers. 

The previous day's welcome was outdone, if that were 
possible, as Colonel Logan is a son of Boston and the 
commander of what was practically a Boston regiment. 
His parents. General and Mrs. Lawrence J. Logan, his 
brother Theodore, relatives and friends, including dele- 
gations from many associations, were on hand to greet 
him. 

The boats from then on came into Boston in almost daily 
intervals. On Monday, April 7, the "Agamemnon" 
arrived, with the 102d Infantry complete. Companies L 
and M of the 103d Infantry; 101st Machine Gun Bat- 
talion; field and staff officers of the 101st Field Artillery; 
Headquarters Company, 101st Field Artillery; A and B 
Batteries, 101st Field Artillery; casual companies for 
New York and Ohio, and 213 casual officers. 

A coincidence was the presence on board of Major- 
General Clement A. F. Flagler, commanding the Forty- 
second (Rainbow) Division, whose transports were se- 
cured by the Twenty-sixth in September, 1917, thus 
permitting the local troops to reach France first. 

S44 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 

The remainder of the boats came in on alternate days, 
until finally, on April 21, the battleship *'New Jersey" 
brought in the last units of the Twenty-sixth Division. 

For the only time in its life Boston went crazy on April 
25, when the reception and parade to the Twenty-sixth 
Division took place. Seats were at a premium, and men 
and women fought for places along the curb. Millions of 
people were in Boston at this time to see the parade of 
the Yankee Division, and a fitting reception was given to 
the men from New England who had made the world safe 
for democracy. 

Two days after the parade the Division was mustered 
out, and so ended the fighting New England organization. 



245 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 



Roster of Officers, Twenty-sixth Division, as Originally 

Organized 



Abbott, Frank J., . 
Adams, Burton A., 
Adams, Frederick J., 

Adams, Lee, 

Agnew, John A., 

Akeley, Charles E., 
Alcorn, William F., 
Alexander, Wilford S., 
Alfonte, William A., 
Allen, Bernard H., . 
Allen, Franklin E., 
Allen, Lew, 

Allport, Floyd H., . 

Ames, Charles E., . 

Amory, Harold, 

Anderson, Robert H., 
Andrews, Albert E., 
Angell, Isaac H., 
Appleton, Donald, . 

Apthorp, Robert E., 

Arnold, Davis G., . 
Arnold, Howard C, 
Ashby, Bertrand W., 
Ashley, J. M., . 
Ashworth, Arthur, . 
Atherton, Raymond M. 



1st Lieut. (Bat. D), 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Co. G), 104th Inf. 

Major, N. G. M. C. (comdg. San. Det.), 101st 

F. A. 
2d Lieut., Inf., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., 

S. O. 6, p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C. (Co. D), 101st Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Hdqrs. Train, Mil. Police). 
Major (comdg. 2d Bn.), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. I), 103d Inf. 
Major (Div. Sig. Officer), 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Dental Corps), 102d Inf. 
Captain, 103d F. A. 
2d Lieut., Inf., N. A., assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 2, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., Inf., O. R. C. (Co. D), 101st Mach. 

Gun Bn. 
2d Lieut., Inf., O. R. C. (Co. B), 101st Mach. 

Gun Bn. 
Captain (comdg. Co. E), 104th Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. K), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. C), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., F. A., N. A., assigned 102d F. A., 

S. O. 6, p. 2, 26th Div. 
Captain (R. I. Cav.), comdg. Sup. Train. 
2d Lieut. (Co. A), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Hdqrs. Troop), 26th Div. 
Major (Amm. Train, comdg. Horse Sec). 
Captain (comdg. Mach. Gun Co.), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Mach. Gun 

Bn., S. O. 6, p. 10, 26th Div. 



249 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Auer, Fred, 
Averill, Ernest L., . 
Avery, William J., . 



Babcock, Donald S., 
Babcock, Harold P., 
Backarack, Sydney, 

Badger, Phillip B., . 

Bailey, Carl R., 
Bailey, Harry M., . 
Bailey, Karl R., 

Bailey, Thomas W., 
Baker, Douglas M., 

Baker, Norman D., 

Baker, Theodore C, 
Balch, C. B., . 

Baldwin, D wight D., 

Baldwin, Robert, . 

Ballou, Lande E., . 

Barker, Harold R., 
Barnard, Charles T., 

Barnes, Raymond B., 
Barnett, William B., 

Barr, William H., . 
Barrow, William H., 
Barrows, Walter G., 

Barry, John J., 
Bartlett, A. L., 
Bateman, Charles J., 
Beacham, Joseph W., Jr 
Beard, Cornelius, . 
Beaucer, Fred W., . 
Beckman, Albert, . 
Beebe, Henry A., . 
Beers, Arthur C. T., 
Belcher, Alfred, 



2d Lieut. (Bat. F), 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut, (comdg. Sup. Co.), 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (8th Mass.), Adjutant and Sup. 
cer, Sup. Train. 



Offi- 



Captain (comdg. Bat. C), 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Bat. A), 103d F. A. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C. (Co. A), 101st Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned lOlst Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. A). 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Hdqrs. Co.), 102d Inf. 
Captain, N. G. M. C. (Asst. Surgeon), S. O., 

Hdqrs. 26th Div. 
Ist Lieut., 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (San. Troops, Dental Corps), 101st 

F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Mach. Gun 

Bn., S. O. 6, p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Mass. Cav.) (Hdqrs. Troop). 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st F, A., 

S. O. 6, p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Bat. A), 103d F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C. assigned 101st Inf., S.O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. F), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf.. S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. L), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut., M. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 1st F. H. 
1st Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans., S. O. 3, p. 13, 

26th Div. 
Major (comdg. 1st Bn.), 101st Inf. 
Captain, 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut., 101st Eng. 
Lieut. Col., Inf., N. A. (Quartermaster). 
1st Lieut. (Co. A), 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (Co. G), 102d Inf. 
Major (comdg. 2d Bn.), 104th Inf. 
Major (comdg. 2d Bn.), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Sup. Co.), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. H), 104th Inf. 



250 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Bell, Edward C, . 
Benner, Fred W., . 
Bennett, Charles A., 

Bennett, Roger W., 

Bernheimer, Clarence M 

Bernheisel, George H., 

Berry, Bernard M., 
Bertholet, George P., 

Bevans, James F., . 
Binghon, Charles, . 

Bird, Edward S., . 
Bisbee, Spaulding, . 
Bishop, Ralph L., . 
Bishop, Wilton H., 
Bissell, Clarence E., 

Bissell, Harry B., . 
Bissell, Herbert G., 

Blackman, Floyd H., 

Blair, Frederick G., 

Blaisdell, Frank G., 

Blanchard, Hugh C, 
Blease, Ernest, 
Bliss, Henry M., 

Blood, Robert O., . 
Bobst, Frank T., . 

Bogan, Frederick L., 

Boldt, Herman St. J., 
Bonney, Timothy D., 
Bowen, Charles W., Jr., 
Bowen, Herbert L., 
Boyd, Walter E., . 

Boynton, William, . 

Brassil, Thomas E., 



2d Lieut. (Co. H), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Bn.), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C. (Co. B), 101st Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. I, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut.. O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 2, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. F), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Amb. Co. No. 4), 

R. I. Amb. Corps. 
Lieut. Col., Med. Dept. (Div. Surgeon). 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. A), 104th Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. B), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. F), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. B), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., N. A. Inf., assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. G), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., Inf., N. A., assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (comdg. Amb. Co. No. 

4), R. I. Amb. Corps. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. B), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. E), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. H. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 4th F. H. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
Major (comdg. Att. San. Troops), 101st Regt. 

Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. I), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. H), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. B), 103d F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Bn.), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26 th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (8th Mass.) (Hdqrs. Co.), 104th Inf. 



251 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Brearley, Harris J., 

Breen, Vincent C, . 
Breslin, Robert H., 

Brewer, Arnold, 

Brickley, T. J., 
Brigham, Arthur W., 
Brigham, William W., Jr., 

Bright, Horace D., . 

Brooks, John E., 
Brown, Arthur G., . 
Brown, Chester P., 
Brown, E. Lawrence, 

Brown, James, 

Brown, Joseph R., . 

Brown, Ray F., 
Brown, Thomas W., 
Bruce, John S., 

Brush, Edwin M., . 
Brushy, Willard E., 
Bryant, Myron E., . 

Buckminster, William R, 

Buehler, Arthur G., 
Buehler, Harold A., 
Bulkeley, Morgan E., Jr 
BuUivant, Stuart L., 
Burbanck, Frank J., 
Burdick, Harry R., 

Burger, Ernest R., . 
Burke, Daniel H., Jr., 
Burke, George E., . 
Burnap, Arthur E., 

Burnell, George W., 
Burnette, William H., 
Burns, Cliflford S. F., 

Burr, Eugene F., 



2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Mach. Gun 

Bn., S. O. 6, p. 10, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. D), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Amb. Co. No, 4), R. L 

Amb. Corps. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Horse Sec), Amm. Train. 
2d Lieut. (Co. E), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. H), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 1st F. H. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 2, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut , O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. H. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 2d F. H. 
2d Lieut. (Co. G), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. E), 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (Co. K), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. D. C, Att. 101st F. A., wait- 
ing assignment. 
2d Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. G. D. C. (San. Troops), 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut., N. G. D. C. (San. Troops), 102d F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Co. B), 101st Mach. Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. F), 103d F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. C), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Mach. Gun 

Bn., S. O. 6, p. 10, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Mach. Gun Co.), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. H. M. C. (San. Troops), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. E), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
Colonel (comdg. Regt.), 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (Co. H), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Mach. Gun 

Bn., S. O. 6, p. 10, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. H), 104th Inf. 



252 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Burton, A. W., 
Buxton, Bertram H., 

Byrd, Benjamin C, 

Cabot, Charles H., 

Cady, Francis L., . 
Cahoon, Harry E., . 
Call, Edwin C, 

Campbell, Harry B., 
Cannon, Charles J., 

Cannon, George B., 
Cannon, Peter L., , 

Capelle, George C, 

Carlson, Francis O. P., 

Carpenter, Hector J., 
Carr, Andrew J., 

Carroll, Edward E., 
Carroll, John C, 

Carter, Bernard S., 

Carter, Elliot A., . 

Carter, George M., 

Gary, Melbert B., Jr., 

Case, Norman S., . 
Casey, William J., . 
Cashin, Arthur H., 
Cass, Lewis W., 
Cavanaugh, Frank W., 
Chaffee, Everitte S., 



Chamberlain, Rodman W., . 
Chambers, Marten, 



Chandler, E. W., . 
Chandler, Theophilua P. 
Chase, Errol C, 
Chase, Harry G., . 
Chase, Porter B., . 



Captain (comdg. Motor Sec), Amm. Train. 
Ist Lieut, (comdg. San. Det.), 103d Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
2d Lieut. (Co. D), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. E), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. E) (absent, sick), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
Major (8th Mass.), trans. 104th Inf., S. O. 19. 
1st Lieut, (in hospital, struck by lightning), 

101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. B). 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
Lieut. (Asst. Topog. Officer), S. O. 91, N. E. D., 

101st Eng. 
2d Lieut. (Act. Sup. Officer), 102d Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Co. M), 103d Inf. 
Captain (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
Ist Lieut. (Co. G), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C assigned 101st Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut, (comdg. Bat. F), 103d F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Co. A), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
Major (comdg. 2d Bn.), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Eng. Train), 26th Div. 
Major, N. A. (Asst. Adjutant). 
2d Lieut. (Bat. B), 102d F. A. 
Captain, R. I. F. A. (Regt. Adjutant), 103d 

F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. E), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Bn. Adjutant), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. C), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Sup. Co.), 103d Inf. 
Major (comdg. Bn.), 101st Bn. Sig. Corps. 
Major (comdg. 2d Bn.), 101st Eng. 



253 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Cheney, George W., 

Chisolm, William F., 
Choate, Roland H., 
Choquette, Wallace A., 
Christian, Daniel E., 
Christie, Daniel F., 
Clapp, R. A., Jr., . 

Clark, Fletcher, Jr., 

Clark. Philip G.. . 
Clarke, James F., . 
Clifford, Charles C, 

Clogher, Ambrose, . 
Clunie, John T., Jr., 

Coar, Herbert C, . 

Cobb, William L., . 

Coburn, James F., . 
Cochrane, James E., 
Cochrane, Jerry, 
Cohn, Ralph, . 

Colbran, Paul T., . 

Cole, Charles H., . 
Cole, George C, 
Cole, Harry, . 
Coleman, Augustus P., 

CoUey, Dwight T., . 

Collins, George H., 
Comerais, Henry D., 

Comerford, John T., 
Comey, Chester F., 

Condren, George D., 

Connelly, Gregory L., 

Connelly, Peter F., 
Connor, Harold J., 
Connor, Michael A., 



1st Lieut. (Conn. Cav.) (Co. C), lOlst Mach. 

Gun Bn. 
2d Lieut. (Co. E), lOlat Eng. 
Captain (Regt. S. O.), 102d F. A, 
1st Lieut. (Co. D), 104th Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. M), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. F), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Bat, F), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. A), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. E), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Train Hdqrs. and Mil. Police). 
Chaplain, 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. C), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut.. O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., N. A., assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6. 26th Div. 
Brig. Gen. (comdg. 52d Brig.). 
Major, Q. M. C. (Asst. Quartermaster). 
2d Lieut. (Co. D). 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. E), 101st Eng. 
Captain (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Mach. Gun. Co.). 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Conn. Cav.) (Co. B), 101st Mach. 

Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Conn. Cav.) (Co. A), 101st Mach. 

Gun Bn. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C. assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
Captain (Co. K), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 102d F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Sup. Co.), 102d Inf. 



254 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Cook, Sydney A., . 

Corbett, Edward F., 
Corbin, George A., 
Corey, R. T., . 
Corkurn, A. D., 
Coughlin, Wallace E., 

Coulter, Andrew F., 
Courtney, Gerald, . 

Cousins, John W., . 

Cox, James H., 

Crafts, Addison F., 
Craig, George L., . 

Cramer, John S., 

Crampton, Earl W., 

Crawford, Douglas C, 

Crockett, Elbert M., 
Cronin, George J., . 
Crook, Roland D., . 

Cross, George I., 
Grossman, Charles T., 

Crowley, Edward W., 
Cummings, Frank B., 
Cunningham, Edward, 

Cunningham, Ralph D., 

Curran, Arthur M., 
Gushing, Henry Dwight 
Gushing, H. S., 
Cutchin, Joseph H., 

Cutler, David S., . 



Dabney, George B., 
Daley, J. T., . 
Daly, Thomas V., . 



2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. C), lOlst Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. G), 101st Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Horse Sec), Amm. Train. 
2d Lieut. (Co. A), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6. 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. E), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C. (Co. C), 101st Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C., assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Veterinarian), Hdqrs. 

Troop. 
Captain (comdg. Co. A), 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf.. S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C. assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut, (comdg. 4th Co.), Sup. Train. 
Captain (comdg. Co. D), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. F), 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (.5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. B), 102d F. A. 
Lieut. Col., 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned I04th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C, Dental Corps (San. 

Troops), 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 104th Inf. 
Major (Instructor), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
Captain (comdg. Motor Sec), Amm. Train. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 2d Amb. 

Co. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 

Captain (Adjutant, 1st Bn.), lOlst Eng. 
2d Lieut. (Detached Service), Amm. Train. 
Ist Lieut., N. G. M. C. (R. I. Amb. Corps), 
4th Amb. Co. 



255 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Dame, Ralph L., 

Dana, William B., . 

Daniels, Roy A., 
Danker, Walter S., 
Davis, Charles E., . 
Davis, Frank W., . 

Davis, Frederick K., 
Davis, George F., , 

Davis, Joseph C, . 
Davison, Harold K., 

Day, George T., 
Day, Wallace A., . 
Dean, Thompson, . 

Decker, Ray E., 

Dee, Michael J., 
Demelman, W^ alter W., 

Densmore, Edgar R., 
Desmond, Arthur W., 
Dewart, Murray W., 
Dexter, Allan L., 

Dickson, Robert B., 
Dinsmore, D. S., 

Doane, Harry L., . 
Doane, Erwin E., . 
Doherty, James A., 
Doherty, Walter G., 

Dolan, William H., 
Donahue, Louis A., 

Donavan, Frank L., 
Donavan, John J., . 
Dowd, Eugene, 
Dowell, C., 
Drake, Frank E., . 
Driscoll, Joseph H., 
Driver, Robert M., 

Drohan, William L., 



2d Lieut., O. R. C., assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 2. 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Bat. C), 102d F. A. 
Captain (Chaplain), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. I), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. I), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. A), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (6th Co.), Sup. Train. 
2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 2, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Captain (Hdqrs. Train, Mil. Police). 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. K), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (2d Bn. Adjutant), 101st Inf. 
Chaplain, 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf.. S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. B), lOlst Eng. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned lOlst F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
Major (comdg. 1st Bn.), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. L), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut., 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut., Dental Corps (San. Troops), 101st 

Inf. 
Major (Train Hdqrs., Mil. Police). 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Major (comdg. 3d Bn.), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Sup. Train). 
2d Lieut. (Veterinarian), lOlst F. A. 
Lieut. Col., N. A. (Div. Judge Adv.), 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Hdqrs. Co.), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. E), 103d F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf.. S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 20th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Sup. Co.), 101st Inf. 



256 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Drown, Henry C, . 
Dniry, Forrest H., 
Dudley, Oscar C, . 
Dume, Ralph L., 
Dunbar, Donald E., 

Dunn, Charles E., . 
Dunn, John A., 
Dunn, John H., 
Dunn, Leo F., 
Dwight, PhiUp J., . 

Dwyer, William J., 

Eadie, Harold F., . 

Eames, Harold M., 
Eaton, Ralph M., . 

Eaton, William S., . 

Echfeldt, Roger W., 
Eckert, John J., 
Eckle, John M., 
Edes, Samuel H., . 
Edgerley, Arnault B., 

Edmands, Horton, . 

Edmonds, Edward, Jr., 

Edwards, Clarence R., 
Edwards, Frank P., 

Edwards, H. Boyd, 
Elish, Carl M., 

Elliott, George R., . 
Ellis, Alexander, 
Ellis, Walter C, . 
Ely, Theodore W., . 
Emerson, Bisphane H., 

Emerson, Harry D., 
Emsley, George, 
English, Philip H., 
Enright, Thomas J., 
Erickaon, Edgar E., 



2d Lieut. (Co. F), 101st Eng. 

l8t Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), F. H. No. 4. 

Captain, N. G. M. C. (comdg. 2d Amb. Co.). 

2d Lieut. (Co. D), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. M), 104th Inf. 
Captain (Co. H). 101st Inf. 
Lieut. Col., 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. M), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut.. O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6. 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 101st Inf. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Veterinarian), 103d F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Conn. Cav.) (Co. C), 101st Mach. 

Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. D), 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Co. B). 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 
2d Lieut. (Co. F), 102d Inf. 
Captain, 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf.. S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
Maj. Gen. (comdg. 26th Div.). 
1st Lieut. (Sup. Officer, Bn. Adjutant), 101st 

Bn., Sig. Corps. 
1st Lieut., Chaplain, 101st Engineers. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. C), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. C), 101st Eng. 
Captain, 103d Inf. 

lstLieut.,N.G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.). 1st Amb. Co. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. I), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. F), 102d F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. M), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. M), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st F. A., S. O. 6. 

p. 1, 26th Div. 



257 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Erlenbach, James H., 
Erskins, Leroy G., . 

Estey, Harold W., . 
Evans, Charles H., 

Evans, James A., . 

Evarts, Joseph A., . 

Ewing, Arthur W., 

Ewing, John A., 



Fair, Harold I., 

Farris, Harry R., 
Fay, Henry A., 



Fay, William J., 
Felsted, Joseph E., 
Feltham, John H., Jr., 

Fenton, Roland T., 

Field, Charles W. W., 

Field, Elias, 
Findlay, Roland G., 
Finney, Lawrence, . 
Fish, Erland W., . 
Fisher, Neal H., 

Fitzgerald, William P., 
Fitzgibbons, John, . 
Flaherty, Lawrence J., 
Flanagan, James J., 
Flanders, Frank R., 
Fleming, John A., . 

Fleming, Nicholas A., 
Flenniken, John, 

Fletcher, Edward G., 
Flood, Martin J., . 

Foegel, John R., 
Foley, John F., 



. Ist Lieut, N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), lat F. H. 
. 2d Lieut., O R. C. assigned 101st F. A., 8. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
. Major (comdg 1st Bn.), 101st Eng. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
. let Lieut. (Vt. Inf.) (Co. D), 101st Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
. Ist Lieut., N. G. D. C. (San. Troops), Train 

Hdqrs., Mil. Police. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 

. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
. Major (comdg. San. Troops), 103d Inf. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st F. A., S. O. 6. 

p. 6. 26th Div. 
. 1st Lieut., M. C. (San. Det.), 102d Inf. 
. Captain (comdg. Co. E), 102d Inf. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Mach. Gun 

Bn., S. O. 6, p. 7, 26th Div. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Mach. Gun 

Bn., S. O. 6, p. 7. 26th Div. 
. Captain (comdg. Co. A), 101st Eng. 
. Captain (comdg. Co. C), 103d Inf. 
. 2d Lieut. (Amm. Train). 
. Captain (comdg. Bat. B), 101st F. A. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
. 2d Lieut. (Co. G), 101st Inf. 
. 1st Lieut. (Co. A), 102d Inf. 
. 1st Lieut. (Co. G), 101st Inf. 
. 1st Lieut. (Co. I), 101st Inf. 
. 1st Lieut. (Co. M), 104th Inf. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C. assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
. 1st Lieut. (Co. D), 101st Inf. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
. 2d Lieut. (Co. I), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
. 2d Lieut., O. R. C. assigned 103d Mach. Gun 

Bn., S. O. 6, p. 7, 26th Div. 
. 1st Lieut., 102d Inf. 
. 2d Lieut., lOlst Eng. 



258 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Foley, Thomas F., . 
Foote. Alfred F., . 
Ford, Alfred J. L., . 

Ford, Leonard G., . 

Forsberg, Oscar W., 
Forsythe, Edward C, 
Foss, Reginald E., . 

Foster, Chester C, 

Foster, Dwight, 

Foster, George W., 

Fowler, Mil burn M., 
Fox, M. K., . 
Frances, Donald S., 

Francis, Walter L., 

Franks, Jerome A. O., 

Freeland, George C., 
French, Prentiss, 

Frost, Rufus S., 

Frothingham, Huntington 



Fuessenich, L. C., . 
Fuller, William A., 
Fullerton, James R., 
Furber, Charles L., 

Gallulo, Michael J., 
Gallup, Dana T., . 
Galpin, Perrin C, . 

Galvin, John J., 
Gardiner, Edward H., 

Garland, Kimball R., 
Garlick, William J., 
Gatchell, Walter G., 
Gates, Ernest A., . 
Gay, Grant E., 
Geer, Clarence W., 



W., 



Captain (comdg. Co. G), 101st Inf. 

Major (comdg. 3d Bn.), 104th Inf. 

Captain, O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 11, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., M. G. M. C. (comdg. San. Troops), 

102d Mach. Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Co. B), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., 103d F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C. assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6. 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 2, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C assigned lOlst Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. G. D. C. (San. Troops), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. D. C. (San. Troops), 103d F. A, 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6. 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Mach. Gun 

Bn.. S. O. 6, p. 7, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. C), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 2, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 2, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C. assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. M), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut, (absent, sick since call), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. F), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. C), 101st F. A. 

2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.). 102d Inf. 

Captain (comdg. Co. C), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 2, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. L), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Mach. Gun 

Bn., S. O. 6, p. 7, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. F), 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (Co. A), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
Major (comdg.), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
Major (comdg. San. Troops), 104th Inf, 
2d Lieut., 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (Co. H), 102d Inf. 



259 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Genard, Aimes D., 
Geofifrion, Alfred J., 

Gettings, James A., 
Gibbs, Frank, . 

Giblin, John F. A., 
Gifford, Charles C., 
GUbert. W. J.. 
Giles, Charles B., 
Gillis, Fred K. J., 

Glass, James, . 
Gleason, Marten H 

Glynn, Edward J., 
Golver, Joseph A., 



Goodhue, Charles D., 
Goodnough, Henry E., 

Goodrich, George L., 

Goodwin, Robert E., 
Gordon, Douglas, . 
Gordon, Sumner S., 

Gorfinkle, Bernard L., 

Gould, Daniel I., . 
Guile, Edward M., 

Guinman, Clarence J., 
Gully, Edward J., . 
Gunter, Fred G., . 
Grabfield, Gustav A., 
Grandgent, L., 

Gravel, Romeo A., 
Gray, Albert C., 

Gray, Edwin R., 
Gray, John L., Jr., 
Green, Walter, 
Greene, Roger A., . 
Greenlaw, Albert, . 
Griffin, Ashley J., . 
Griffin, PhiUp J., . 



1st Lieut. (Co. A), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., 101st Eng. 
2d Lieut. (Hdqrs.), 101st F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Staff, Motor Sec), Amm. Train. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. F), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
Captain (Asst. Surgeon). 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned Amm. Train, 

S. O. 6, p. 12, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. C), 101st Bn. Sig. Corps. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Sup. Co.), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Major (comdg. 1st Bn.), 102d F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. I), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned Amm. Train, 

S. O. 6, p. 12, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned Amm. Train, 

S. O. 6, p. 12, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. G), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned lOlst Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Hdqrs. Co.), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. B), 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 1st Amb. Co. 
Captain, O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 11, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. E). 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (5th Mass.) (Aide-de-Camp, Brig. 

Gen. Traub). 
Lieut, Col., 104th Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. H), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. E), 103d F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Tr. Mor. Bat.). 
Captain (Regt. Sup. Officer), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. L), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 



260 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Grigas, Raymond B., 

Grimwood, Earl F., 

Grindle, Wade L., . 
Griswold, Alfred H., 

Hadley, Harold E., 
Hadley, John A., . 
Haggerty, James A., 
Hale, Richard A., . 
HaU, Harry G., 
Hall, John W., 
Hall, Murray T., . 

HaU, Ray W., . 
Hall, Roswell E., . 

Hall, Samuel A., 
Hallett, Ralph H., . 
Hamilton, Ralph S., Jr., 
Hammann, George L., 
Hammond, Ernest K., 

Hammond, Oliver W., 

Hammond, Thomas J., 
Hanley, Gerald T., 
Hannigan, Judson, . 
Hansen, Arthur B., 

Hanson, Roy L., 
Harbane, William C., 

Harbold, Robert P., 
Harding, Henry A., 
Hardwick, Sydney C., 

Hardy, John A., 
Harriman, Lynn H., 

Harris, Robert V. K., 
Harrop, Daniel S., . 
Hart, Charles E., Jr., 
Hart, Ezra D., 

Hartwell, Everett S., 
Hartwell, Herbert F., 
Hartwell, P. B., 



2d Lieut., O. R. C., assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C., assigned Amm. Train, 

S. O. 6, p. 12, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. A), 103d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. C), 102d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Co. E), 101st Eng. 

Major, 103d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Co. G), 102d Inf. 

Lieut. Col., 101st F. A. 

2d Lieut., 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Bn. Adjutant), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 

2d Lieut. O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. A). 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned Amm. Train, 

S. O. 6, p. 12, 26th Div. 
Captain (Hdqrs. Co.). 103d F. A. 
Captain (Regt. Adjutant), 101st Eng. 
Major (comdg. 1st Bn.), 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Co. M), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned lOlst Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. I), 104th Inf. 
Captain (Bat. B), 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut., 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. D), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Major, N. A. (Asst. Instructor), 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. E), 101st F. A. 
Captain, N. G. M. C. (comdg. San. Troops), 

Hdqrs. Train, Mil. Police. 
Captain, 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. F), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C, Amb. Co. No. 4. 
Ist Lieut. (Aide-de-Camp, Brig. Gen. Traub). 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. A), 103d F. A. 
Captain (Regt. Sup. Officer), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Staff, Horse Sec), Amm. Train. 



261 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Harwood, Benjamin P., 
Hascall, Theodore C, 
Hassett, Leonard W., 
Hasty, Percy A., 
Hause, Robert E., . 

Hawkes, Edgar B., 
Hayes, Robert, 
Hayes, William C, 
Hazel tine, Frank G., 

Healey, Thomas F., 

Healy, Jeremiah J., 
Healy, John E., 
Heiser, Jerome M., 
Helff, Joseph R., 
Hemingway, Harold, 

Hepburn, William, . 
Herbert, John F., Jr., 
Herrick, Harold W., 

Hickey, James F., . 
Higgins, Royal F., Jr., 

Higgins, William, . 
Hill, Lucius E., 
HUl, Mahlon T., . 

Hiller, John A., 

Hills, Orlando G., . 

Hinds, Charles S., . 
Hines, Paul H., 

Hobbs, Henry C., . 
Hobbs, Horace B., . 
Hobbs, Marland C., 

Hobbs, Russell, 
Hoegan, Joseph A., 
Holmes, John J., 
Holmes, Robert P., 

Homeister, Henry J., 
Hopkins, Ralph P., 



6, 



6, 



1st Lieut. (Act. 2d Bn. Adjutant), 102d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (San. Troops), 103d F. A. 

Captain, N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 101st Inf. 

Captain (comdg. Co. A), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Train Hdqrs. and Mil. Police). 
2d Lieut. (Co. I), 101st Inf. 
Colonel, comdg. 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Captain, N. G. M. C. (San. Troops). 102d 

Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. L), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. E), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. B), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 2d F. H. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. E), 102d Inf. 
Major (comdg. 2d Bn.), 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Conn. Cav.) (Co. D), 101st Mach. 

Gun Bn. 
Captain (Co. L), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. C), 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. D), 103d F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Hdqrs. Co.), 104th Inf. 
Lieut. Col. (Inspector). 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. B), 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut., 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. C), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 



6, 

assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 
assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

0.6, 



2G2 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Horn»r, Alb«rt A., . 

Hoiford, Elson A., . 
Hosmer, George W., 
Houley, Joseph P., 
Howard, James L., 

Howard, Ralph W., 

Howe, H. M., . 
Howe, Harry R., 
Howe, Thorndike D., 
Howe, William F., . 
Hoyle, Henry R., . 
Hudson, W. N., . 
Hugo, John G., 
Hume, Frank M., . 
Huntington, Frederic D 
Hurley, James S., . 
Hutchius, Edward, 

Hyatt, John W., 



l8t Lieut.. N. G. M. C. (Ft. Oglethorpe, Ga.), 

101st F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Co. L), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. E), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. D), 102d Inf. 
Major (Conn. Cav.) comdg. lOlst Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Motor Sec), Amm. Train. 
2d Lieut. (Co. C), 101st Eng. 
Lieut. Col., 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. C), 102d F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.), 104th Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Horse Sec), Amm.J^rain. 
Major, N. G. M. C. (Surgeon), 102d Inf. 
Colonel, comdg. 103d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Bat. A), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. G), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d F. A., S. O. 6, 

p. 8, 26th Div. 
Captain (Infantry) (Aide-de-Camp, Maj. Gen. 

Edwards). 



Inches, Henderson, 
Ingersoll, Colin M., 
Ireland, William D., 
Irving, George E., . 

Isbell, Ernest L., 

Jacobs, Carlton D., 
Jenkins, Lawrence D., 

Jenkins, Thomas L., 

Johnson, Albert E., 
Johnson, Edward A., 

Johnson, Norman P., 

Johnson, Orville P., 
Johnston, Clyde C, 

Jones, Fred H., 
Jones, Frederick E., 
Jones, John A., 
Jutras, William A., 



1st Lieut, (comdg. Bat. D), 102d F. A. 

2d Lieut. (Co. A), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Regt. Inf., 

S. O. 3. p. 13, 26th Div. 
Colonel, comdg. 102d Inf. 

Captain (Topog. Officer), 101st Eng. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Major, N. G. M. C. (comdg. San. Troops), 103d 

F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. C), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Hdqrs. Co.), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 104th 

Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Div. Staff), 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 
Major (Asst. Surgeon). 
2d Lieut. (Co. C), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. A), 103d Inf. 



263 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Kane, Robert, 

Kavanagh, Arthur J., 
Kearney, James R., 

Keenan, Barry, 
Kelleher, S. B., 

Kelley, Herbert N.. 
Kellog, Francis F., . 

Kells. Walter D., . 
Kelly, James V., 
Kenealy, Martin A., 
Kennon, Blaisdell C, 

Kenny, John, . 
Kerr, James, . 
Keville, W. J., 
Kilpatrick, Charles J., 

King, Frederick A., 
King, George M., . 
King, John P., 
King, Malcolm L., . 

Kingston, James M., 
Kirby, Edward J., . 
Kirkpatrick, A. H., 
Kirwan, Thomas A., 
Kittredge, Paul E., 
Kivenaar, William J., 
Kluge, Ernest J., 
Knauth, Felix W., . 
Knight, Henry P., . 
Knowlton, John G. W., 
Kroll, Nolan, . 



2d Lieut., N. A., assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. C), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans, 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. B), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), Amm. 

Train. 
Captain (comdg. Co. L), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (San. Troops), 101st Eng. 
2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.), 101st Inf. 
Captain (Regt. Sup. Officer), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. A), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 
2d Lieut, Co. M, 104th Inf. 
Lieut. Col. (comdg.), Amm. Train. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 103d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 4, 26th Div. 
Major, comdg. 2d F. H. 
Major (comdg. Motor Sec), Amm. Train. 
1st Lieut. (Officer Interp.). 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Veterinarian), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. K), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. A), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. M), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. C), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut., 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. A), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. H), 104th Inf. 
Major, N. G. M. C, comdg. F. H. No. 4. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 102d Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 3, 26th Div. 



LaDue, Charles P., 
Lahey, James D., . 
Lamb, Edwin E., . 
Lamkin, Howard W., 
Landon, Horace Z., 
Lane, Albert S., 

Lane, Ralph W., 

Lang, E. H., . 



2d Lieut. (Co. H), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. B), 102d Inf. 

Lieut. Col., 102d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Co. C), 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 

1st Lieut. (Co. B), 101st Eng. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Horse Sec), Amm. Train. 



264 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Langdon, Duncan, . 
Langdon, George, . 
Langill, Morton H., 
Larkin, George W., 

Lawler, Daniel H., 
Lawrence, William D., 
Leahy, Francis H., 
Leavenworth, Dana T., 
Lee, Christopher H., 
Lee, Joe, . 
Leggat, John C, 
Lentine, G. E., 

Leslie, Howard C, . 
Lewis, Lester T., 
Lewis, S. Alger M., 

Lincoln, Clark R., . 
Lincoln, Winslow S., 
Linton, Frederick M., 

Livingstone, Thomas F. 
Lockart, Charles E., 
Locke, Arthur F., . 
Logan, Donald B., . 
Logan, Edward L., 
Loomis, James L., . 
Lothrop, Everett W., 

Love, Robert W., . 

Lovely, Bernard H., 
Lovett, Robert N., 

Lowell, Eugene P., 
Lowell, Harry L., . 
Lucke, Frederick H., 
Lund, H. Gardner, 
Luscombe, Walter S., 
Luther, Earl F., 
Luther, Willard B., 
Lydon, John J., 
Lynch, James H., . 
Lynch, W, H., 
Lyon, James A., 



2d Lieut. (Bat. B), 103d F. A. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. A), 102d F. A. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 3d Amb. Co. 
2d Lieut. (Co. D), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. F), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. K), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. I), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Sup. Co.), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (D. S. Hdqrs., 52d Brig.), 6th Mass. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Surgeon), 101st Mach. 

Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Co. C), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. D), 102d F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. A), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. A), 102d F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut, (comdg. 3d Co.), Sup. Train. 
1st Lieut. (Co. E), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. M), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. D), 104th Inf. 
Colonel, comdg. 101st Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. B) , 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Jr. M. O.), F. H. No. 4. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 101st Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. G), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.), 104th Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. A), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. H), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. B). 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Sup. Co.). 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. E), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut. (D. S., N. E. D., S. O. 85), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. A), 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 
2d Lieut. (Veterinarian), 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 101st Inf. 



McDade, William A., 
MacDonald, Alexander, 



Captain, 104th Inf. 

1st Lieut. (3d Bn. Adjutant), 104th Inf. 



265 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



MacDonald, Herman A 
MacLeod, Colin G., 
MacLeod, Norman D., 
Mackenzie, John A., 
MacMillan, Robert W., 
Maddocks, L. E., . 
Madison, Burdette R., 
Mahoney, Daniel P., 
Mahoney, John W., 
Main, Mathew W., 
Mains, Charles F., . 
Malaney, C. E., 
Malcahyt, Raymond F. 
Maloney, Leonard J., 
Malonson, James H., 
Maloon, Robert I., 

Mansfield, Lawrence K. 
Mansfield, Thomas H., 
Manson, William B., 

Marion, John F., 
Marley, Thomas, Jr., 

Marston, Roy L., . 
Martin, Harry G., . 
Mason, Edward H., 
Master, Mellville E., 
Mattson, William R., 
Mau, Clarence R., . 
Maubach, A. A., 
Maynard, Oscar J., 

Mayo, Walter J., . 
McBrayne, Winfred, 
McCarthy, Eugene J., 
McCarthy, George E., 
McCarthy, William J., 
McConnell, Joseph W., 
McDowell, Jeremiah J., 
McGar, Frank H., . 
McGrew, Donald R., 
McKenna, Peter G., 
McKenney, Henry J., 
McLeod, Stuart, . 
McMath, D. E., . 
McMillan, R. F., . 
McNair, Morris L., 



1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 



1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut., 



1st Lieut. (Bat. F). 101st F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. C), 103d F. A. 

(Bat. B), 103d F. A. 

(Co. I), 104th Inf. 

(Co. D), 101st Eng. 

(Veterinarian), 103d F. A. 

(Mach. Gun Co.), 104th Inf. 

(Co. B), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 

(3d Bn. Adjutant), 101st Inf. 

(Co. F), 103d Inf. 
Captain, N. G. M. C, comdg. 1st Amb. Co. 
1st Lieut. (Horse Sec), Amm. Train. 

N. G. D. C. (San. Troops), 104th Inf. 

(Co. G), 102dlnf. 

, N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 2d Amb. Co. 

O. R. C, assigned lOlst Inf., S. O. 6, 
p. 1, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. D), 101st F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Co. M), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6. 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
1st Lieut. (Co. C), 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 5, 

p. 6. 
Captain (comdg. Co. E), 103d Inf. 
Captain, N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Co. K), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. E), 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut. (Adjutant, 1st Bn.), 102d Inf. 
Major, N. A. (Asst. Chief St.). 
2d Lieut. (R. I. Cav.) (comdg. 2d Co.), Sup. 

Train. 
Major, 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. F), 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 2d Amb. Co. 
2d Lieut. (Tr. Mor. Bat.). 
Captain (Co. B), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. A), 101st Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. D), 6th Mass. 
Captain (comdg. Co. L), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Hdqrs. Co.), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.) , 1st Amb. Co. 
2d Lieut. (Co. L), 103d Inf. 
Captain (Regt. Adjutant), 102d F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Horse Sec), Amm. Train. 
Lieut. Col. (Asst. Quartermaster). 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 
p. 6, 26th Div. 



266 



THE YANIvEE DTWSTON 



McNamee, Frank A., 
Merriam, Dana S., 
Merrill, Harold H., 
Metcalf, Donald C, 
Metcalf, Ernest T. H., 
Meyers, Richard F., 
Miller, Edgar F., . 
Miller, Richard H., 

Mills, Hiram W., . 

Miner, R. B., . 
Minot, Wayland M., 
Mitton, Harry D., . 
Montooth, Charles, 
Moore, E. Judson, , 
Moore, Russell V., . 
Morgan, William B., 
Morrill, William H., 
Morrison, Dana S., 

Morse, Charles H., 
Moyse, George G., 

Munyon, Benson G., 
Murphy, Edward R., 

Murphy, Gardner, . 

Murphy, John D., . 
Murphy, Thomas F., 
Murphy, William A., 

Murray, Archie F., 
Murray, William H., 
Murtaugh, Joseph E., 
Myers, Rawdon W., 

Nagle, William T., 
Nash, Arthur N., . 
Needham, Daniel, . 
Needham, Sumner H., 
Nelson, Gustav A., 
Nelson, Hendrick C, 
Newcomb, Erwin B., 
Newell, Harold G., 
Newman, William E., 
Newton, E. H., 
Newton, J. Willard, 



1st Lieut. (Bat. B), lOlst F. A. 

2d Lieut., 104th Inf. 

1st Lieut., 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Co. C), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut., 103d F. A. 

Captain (comdg. Co. B), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Hdqrs. Co.), 102d Inf. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 101st 

F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Bn. Adjutant), 101st Mach. Gun 

Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Horse Sec), Amm. Train. 
Captain (Bn. Adjutant), 102d F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Bat. D), 101st F. A. 
1st Lieut, (comdg. 1st Co.), Sup. Train. 
2d Lieut. (Co. E), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. D), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Bat. F), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. A), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Bat. A), 102d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Co. G), 104th inf. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 101st 

Eng. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 6, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Mach. Gun Co.), 101st Inf. 
Captain (Regt. Adjutant), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned 104th Inf., S. O. 6, 

p. 5, 26th Div. 
1st Lieutenant (Co. A), 104th Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. H), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. H), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. C), 101st Mach. Gun Bn. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 3d Amb. Co. 

Major (R. I. R. A.), 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Hdqrs. Co.), 101st F. A. 

Captain (comdg. Bat. F), 102d F. A. 

2d Lieut. (Co. A), 101st Mach. Gun Bn. 

1st Lieut. (Bat. C), 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Bn. Adjutant), 103d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Co. K), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. A), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Horse Sec), Amm. Train. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. E), 101st F. A. 



267 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Neval, Henry, 

Nevers, Harry H., . 

Nielsen, Edwin B., 

Norris, Robert B., . 
Northrop, George A., 
Norton. Charles N., 
Norton, Paul J., 
Nye, George I., 

Gates, William H., 

Oberlm, Frederick, 
O'Brien, James J., . 
O'Brien, Patrick, . 

O'Connell, Daniel, . 
O'Connor, Michael J., 
O'Donnell, Timothy J., 
O'Keefe, John A., Jr., 
Osborn, John F., 
Owen, Albert S., 



Page, Lawrence B., 
Palmer, Osborne, . 
Park, Joseph M., . 
Parker, George A., 
Parker, George O., 
Parker, Harold E., 
Parsons, George E., 
Paton, John A., 
Payne, Arthur N., . 
Peaslee, John D., . 
Pell, Charles E., . 
Pellett, Charles A., 
Pendleton, Andrew L. 
Penney, George S., 
Perkins, Frank S., . 
Perkins, Holton B., 
Perrins, John, Jr., . 
Petrofsky, Joseph J., 
Petty, Orville A., . 
Phillips, Edward H., 
Pickett, Samuel C, 
Pierce, RouU A., 
Pinches, Francis W., 



2d Lieut. (6th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
Major, N. G. M. C. (comdg. San. Troops), 101st 

F. A. 
Major, N. G. M. C. (comdg. San. Troops), 101st 

Eng. 
1st Lieut. (Co. C), 101st Eng. 
2d Lieut. (Co. I), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. F), 103d Inf. 
Captain (Regt. Adjutant), 104th Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. F), 103d Inf. 

Ist Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. B), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. E), 101st Inf. 
1st Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. lOlst Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
2d Lieut. (Co. C), 102d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Chaplain), 101st Inf. 
2d Lieut. (Co. H), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Bn. Adjutant), 101st F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Co. B), 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 101st 

Bn., Sig. Corps. 

Captain (comdg. Bat. B), 102d F. A. 

Ist Lieut. (Co. B), 101st Eng. 

1st Lieut. (Co. K), 102d Inf. 

Captain (comdg. Bat. C), 101st F. A. 

2d Lieut. (Train Hdqrs., Mil. Police). 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 2d F. H. 

Captain (Regt. Sup. Officer), lOlst Eng. 

2d Lieut. (Co. A), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 

Captain (Train Hdqrs., Mil. Police). 

2d Lieut. (Co. F), 104th Inf. 

Captain (Staff, Amm. Train). 

2d Lieut. (Co. B), 101st Mach. Gun Bn. 

Captain (Aide-de-Camp, Maj. Gen. Edwards). 

Captain (comdg. Hdqrs. Co.), 104th Inf. 

Major (comdg. 2d Bn.), 101st F. A. 

Lieut. Col., 101st Eng. 

Major, comdg. 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 

2d Lieut. (Co. B), 102d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Chaplain), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. E), 104th Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Co. F), 102d Inf. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O), Ist F. H. 

1st Lieut. (Hdqrs. Co.), 102d Inf. 



268 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Piper, Frank, . 
Plummer, Charles W., 
Pond, William G., . 
Potter, James F., . 
Powell, Lester L., . 
Power, John D., 
Powers, James J., . 
Powers, Theodore H., 
Pratt, Bronsdon A., 
Pratt, George L., , 

Quirk, Thomas J., . 

Rancourt, Mark P., 
Rancourt, Thomas J., 
Rand, Raymond R., 
Rapport, David L., 
Rau, George A., 
Reardon, Frank J., 
Redmond, Ernest R., 
Renth, Clifford, 
Reynolds, Charles P., 
Richardson, Edward B., 
Rieke, Henry A., . 
Rivers, James G., . 
Robart, Ralph W., 
Robbins, Howard W., 
Roberts, George A., 
Robinson, George K., 
Robinson, Warren E., 
Rodger, James V., . 
Rogers, Albert R., . 
Rogers, Fred H., 

Rogers, John A., 
Root, William H., . 
Rosoff, Abraham, . 
Rotch, Charles M., 
Rushford, Edward A., 

Safford, Ralph K., . 
Saltmarsh, Charles H., 
Sanborn, John R., . 
Sanders, Thomas, , 
Sargent, Lester F., . 
Sayrers, William J., 
Scanlon, Harry W., 
Scarborough, Clarence G 
Scarles, Herbert C, 



1st Lieut., N. G, M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 2d Amb. Co. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. A), 101st F. A. 

Captain (comdg. Hdqrs. Co.), 6th Mass. Inf. 

Captain (comdg. Co. M), 104th Inf. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 101st Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Bat. E), 102d F. A. 

Captain (comdg. Co. C), 6th Mass. Inf. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 3d Amb. Co. 

1st Lieut. (Sup. Co.), 102d F. A. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 103d Inf. 

Ist Lieut. (Co. K), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Hdqrs. Co.), 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Hdqrs. Co.), 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Co. C), 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 1st F. H. 

Major (comdg. 1st Bn.), 102d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Co. I), 104th Inf. 

Captain (comdg. Bat. E), 101st F. A. 

1st Lieut., N. G. D. C. (San. Troops), 104th Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. B), 101st F. A. 

Major (comdg. 1st Bn.), 101st F. A. 

2d Lieut. (Co. L), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. B), 104th Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. A), 104th Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Bn. Adjutant), 104th Inf. 

Captain (comdg. Co. K), 104th Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Co. B), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. C), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 2d F. H. 

(Bn. Adjutant), 103d Inf. 

(D. S. Hdqrs., 52d Brig.), 6th Mass. 



1st Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 

Inf. 
1st Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 
1st Lieut. 



N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), F. H. No. 4. 

(Bat. A), 102dF. A. 

N. G. D. C. (San. Troops), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. C), 101st Eng. 
Major (comdg. San. Troops), 102d F. A. 



1st Lieut. (Co. B), 104th Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. B), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 

1st Lieut. (Co. A), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 

1st Lieut. (Bat. D), 101st F. A. 

Captain (2d Bn. Adjutant), 101st Eng. 

2d Lieut. (Co. B), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. D), 6th Mass. Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.), 102d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Co. C), 104th Inf. 



269 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Schley, William S., 
Schuyler, Philip L., 
Scorer, Charles E., . 
Scott, Harley J., 
Searle, Chester A., . 
Shanahan, William J., 
Shanley, J. L., 
Shannon, William H., 
Sheldon, Harold P., 
Sheldon, Harry G., 
Shelton, George H., 
Sherburne, John H., 
Sherman, Roger, 
Shipke, John, . 
Shumway, Sherman N., 
Shunney, William P., 
Silbees, Henry O., . 
Simkins, William G., 
Simonds, George S., 
Simons, Aiken, 
Simpkens, Willard, 
Simpkins, John R., 
Simpkins, N. S., Jr., 

Slate, Demund J., . 
Small, Deane B., 
Smith, Arthur, 
Smith, Charles W. H., 

Smith, Corburn, 
Smith, Emery T., . 
Smith, Frank L., 
Smith, Harold W., . 
Smith, Harry F., . 
Smith, R. E., . 
Smith, S. Stewart, . 
Smith, Walter B., . 
Southard, William E., 
Spencer, Harry E., 
Sprague, Charles H., 
Spratt, Charles W., 
Stackpole, Markam W., 
Stanchfield, Charles C, 
Staten, Chester E., 
Stevens, Frank W., 
Stevenson, William, 
Stewart, Duncan M., 
Stiles, William H., . 
Stillwell, Thomas K. P., 



1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 2d F. H. 

Captain (Train Hdqrs., Mil. Police). 

Captain (Asst. Quartermaster), 26th Div. 

1st Lieut. (Co. B), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 

2d Lieut., 103d F. A. 

Captain (comdg. Co. A), 102d Inf. 

Captain (comdg. Motor Sec), Amm. Train. 

2d Lieut. (Veterinarian), 102d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Co. C), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 

1st Lieut. (Train Hdqrs., Mil. Police), 

Lieut. Col. (Chief of Staff). 

Colonel (comdg.), 101st F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Sup. Co.), 101st F. A. 

Captain (comdg. Mach. Gun Co.), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. E), 103d Inf. 

Captain, 103d F. A. 

Captain (comdg. Sup. Co.), 101st F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Co. C), 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 

Lieut. Col. (Adjutant), 26th Div. 

Captain (Asst. Ord. Officer), 26th Div. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. E), 102d F. A. 

Captain (comdg. Hdqrs. Co.), 102d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Aide-de-Camp, Gen. Edwards), 

101st F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Co. D), 104th Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. C), 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 
1st Lieut. (Co. G), 103d Inf. 
2d Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
Captain (comdg. Hdqrs. Co.), 101st F. A. 
Colonel, 103d F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. F), 101st F. A. 
1st Lieut. (Co. M), 102d Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. B), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 101st Inf. 
Captain (comdg. Co. B), 101st Bn., Sig. Corps. 
2d Lieut. (Bat. D), 103d F. A. 
Major, 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. D), 101st Eng. 
1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), 3d Amb. Co. 
Captain (comdg. Co. C), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 
1st Lieut. (Chaplain), 102d F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Co. B), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 
Captain, 104th Inf. 

Captain, N. G. M. C. (comdg.), 3d Amb. Co. 
Captain (Co. C), 104th Inf. 
Major, 6th Mass. Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. F), 104th Inf. 
Major, 104th Inf. 



270 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Stoddard, Malcolm L., 
Stowe, Roy E., 
Strickland, Daniel W., 
Stromwell, Edgar A., 
Strong, Joseph W., 
Sullivan, George W., 
Surls, Joseph K., . 

Swaim, Roger D., , 
Swan, Carroll J., 
Sweetser, Warren E., 
Swett, Guy I., 

Talbot, Bertell L., . 
Tarbell, George G., 
Taylor, Emerson G., 
Taylor, H. W., 
Taylor, John C., 
Tenney, Walter N., 
Tenney, William N., 
Thomas, Chester C, 
Thomas, Harold C, 
Thompson, Clarence M. 
Thompson, Frederick J. 
Thompson, Harold W., 
Tibbetts, George A., 
Tickner, Benjamin H., 
Tidd, John H., 



Tobey, , . 

Tobey, Walter P., . 
Toelken, Julius W., 
Toppan, William J., 
Towne, John G., 
Traub, Peter S., 
Trombly, Arthur P., 
Turner, Oliver, 

Twachtman, J. Alden, 
Twitchell, Clarence C, 
Tyler, Samuel A., . 

Vail, Robert, . 
Valle, Paul B., 
Vitalis, Mario M. de, 



Wade. William W., 
Walcott, William W., 



2d Lieut. (Co. I), 10.3d Inf. 

2d Lieut, (Bat. E), 103d F. A. 

1st Lieut. (Co. D), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. G), 104th Inf. 

2d Lieut.. 101st Eng. 

Captain (comdg. Co. E), 6th Mass. Inf. 

1st Lieut.. N. G. M. C. (San. Troops). lOlst 

Eng. 
Captain (D. S.. Ft. Sill, Okla.), 102d F. A. 
Captain (comdg. Co. D), 101st Eng. 
Colonel, comdg. Train Hdqrs.. Mil. Police. 
Ist Lieut. (Co. D). 103d Inf. 

Captain. N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. A), 101st Eng. 

Captain (Regt. Adjutant), 102d Inf. 

Captain, N. G. M. C. (San. Troops). 104th Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Co. M). 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. B), 102d Mach. Gun Bn. 

Major. N. G. M. C, comdg. 1st F. H. 

1st Lieut. (Co. C). 101st Mach. Gun Bn. 

2d Lieut. (Co. C). 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 

Captain (comdg. Co. K), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. D). 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. C), 102d F. A. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San, Troops), 101st Inf. 

Captain (Regt. Adjutant), 101st F. A. 

1st Lieut. (5th Mass.), trans. 101st Inf., S. O. 3, 

p. 13, 26th Div. 
Captain (Hdqrs. Co.), 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Bat. C), 101st F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. K), 104th Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. F), 101st Eng. 
Major, N. G. M. C. (Asst. Surgeon), 26th Div. 
Brig. Gen., comdg. 61st Inf. Brig. 
Captain (comdg. Bat. E), 102d F. A. 
2d Lieut., O. R. C, assigned Amm. Train, 

S. O. 6. p. 12. 26th Div. 
Captain (D. S.. Ft. Sill. Okla.), 103d F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Co. L). 103d Inf. 
1st Lieut. (Co. L). 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. B). 102d F. A. 
2d Lieut. (Mach, Gun Bn.), 102d Inf. 
2d Lieut.. O. R. C, assigned 101st F. A., S. O. 6, 
p. 6, 26th Div. 

Captain (Brig. Adjutant), 61st Brig. 

1st Lieut.. N. G. M. C. (San. Troops). 101st Eng. 



271 



THE YANKEE DIVISION 



Walker, William, . 
Wallace, George M., 
Wallace, John B., . 
Wallbridge, Robert E., 
Waller, S. R., . 
Walsh, James A., . 
Walsh, James F., . 
Walsh, James J., 
Ward, Stanley A., . 
Ware, George H., . 
Ware, John, 
Warner, Frederick L., 
Warren, Walter E., 
Washburne, Cyrus C., 
Waterman, Paul, 

Watson, Selden S., 
Watts, Edward R., 
Webster, Earle, 
Weeks, Charles S., . 
Weisel, Admund T., 
Welbourn, Marshall A., 
Welch, William H., 
Wendell, Percy, 
Wesselhoeft, Conrad, 

Westbrook, Stillman F., 
Wheeler, Carroll N., 
Wheelock, H. H.. . 
White, Ralph F., . 
White, Ralph G.. , 
Whitney, WilUam H., 
Wigglesworth, Norton, 
Wilcox, Leroy S., . 
Wilkerson, Charles P., 
Williams, Frank P., 
Williams, Howard S., 
Wilson, John E., 
Wing, Persons W., 
Winslow, Harold, 
Woef, Frank E., 
Wolcott, Oliver, 
Wood, Howard C, 
Wood, Jack B., 
Woods, John C, 
Woods, John F., 
Woods, Wesley H., 



2d Lieut. (Co. L), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. D). 101st Mach. Gun Bn. 

1st Lieut. (Adjutant, 3d Bn.), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. B), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 

1st Lieut., Eng. Train. 

1st Lieut, (Tr. Mor. Bat.). 

2d Lieut. (Co. L), 101st Inf. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (Jr. M. O.), lOlst F. A. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. C), 103d F. A. 

2d Lieut. (Co. D), 104th Inf. 

Ist Lieut. (Co. A), 101st Eng. 

Ist Lieut. (Co. D), lOlst Eng. 

1st Lieut. (Bn. Adjutant, 2d Bn.), 104th Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. H), 102d Inf. 

Major, N. G. M. C. (attached 101st F. A., await- 
ing assignment). 

Major (Asst. Quartermaster). 

1st Lieut. (Bat. F), 102d F. A. 

1st Lieut., N. G. D. C. (San. Troops), 103d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Bat. B), 101st F. A. 

Major (Div. Ord. Officer). 

lstLieut.,N. G. M. C. (Jr. M.O.), IstAmb. Co. 

Captain (comdg. Co. C), 101st Mach. Gun Bn. 

2d Lieut., 102d F. A. 

1st Lieut., N. G. M. C. (San. Troops), Train 
Hdqrs., Mil. Police. 

1st Lieut. (Co. B), 101st Mach. Gun. Bn. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. D), 101st F. A. 

Captain, Q. M. C. (Asst. A. M.). 

2d Lieut. (Co. K), 103d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. F), 103d Inf. 

Captain (comdg. Co. I), 102d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (1st Bn. Adjutant), 101st F. A. 

2d Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.), 104th Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. A), 102d Inf. 

Lieut. Col. (Asst. Surgeon). 

1st Lieut. (Mach. Gun Co.), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. D), 103d Inf. 

1st Lieut. (Jr. M. O.), F. H. No. 4. 

2d Lieut. (Bat. E), 102d F. A. 

Captain (comdg. Co. A), 101st Mach. Gun Bn. 

Captain (comdg. Hdqrs. Troops). 

2d Lieut. (Co. F), 104th Inf. 

2d Lieut. (Co. C), 103d Mach. Gun Bn. 

1st Lieut. (Adjutant, 2d Bn.), 102d Inf. 

2d Lieut., 101st Eng. 

2d Lieut. (Co. B), 103d Inf. 



Young, William H., 



2d Lieut. (Bat. E), 101st F. A. 



272 



INDIVIDUAL SERVICE RECORD 



INDIVIDUAL SERVICE RECORD 



Name 

Address 

Volunteered at 

Drafted at 

Draft number _. 

Called for service 

Age on entering service 

Trained at 

Length of training period in the United States. 



First Assignment 
Date 19. 



.at. 



275 



Sailing and Arrival in France 
Entrained at. 

Detrained at 

Embarked, port of 

OnS. S - 

Arrived, port of 

Disembarked at 

Entrained for 

Incidents of trip 



Beginning of Life ** Over There " 
Billeted in 19 to 19. 



Training Period Abroad 
.days at _ from 19 to 19. 

.days at from 19 to 19. 

276 



Departure for the Front 

Entrained at 19. 

Detrained at. 19. 

Off for the front 19 Arrived 19. 

Name of battle front Location 

Entered trenches first time ^..19. 

Number of days in trenches 

Longest period in trenches days at 

From 19 to 19. 



Battles 
Battle of 19 to 19. 



Battle of 


19.. 


..to 


19 


Battle of. 


19.. 


..to 


19 


Battle of 


19.. 


._to 


.19 


Battle of 


19.. 


..to 


.19 


Battle of 


19.. 


..to 


19 



277 



Furloughs 

Places Visited 

Casualties 

Injured at 19. 

Nature of injury 

Injured at 19. 

Nature of injury 

In hospital 19 to 19. 

In hospital 19 to 19. 

Convalesced at 19 to 19_ 

Gassed at 19. 

"Over the top" times, from 19___to 19 _ 

278 



Transfers and Promotions 

Transferred from 19. 

To at. 

Promoted from 19. 

To. _at_ 



Commanding Officers 



Honorable Mention 

Honorable discharge at close of war 19. 

At 

Cited for honorable mention for 



279 



Decorations received 



In Memoriam 

Name Age 

Killed in action 19. 

Died of wounds at - 19. 

Died of disease at 19. 

Died of accident at -19. 

Died at sea 19. 

Buried at 19. 



Mustered Out — Arrival Home 

Embarked for home on S. S . 19. 

At ---- 

Arrived, port of 19. 

Disembarked 19. 

Entrained for camp 19. 

At Detrained 19. 

Mustered out. 1 19. 

Entrained for 19_ 

Arrived home 19. 



280 



Incidents of Special Interest 



281 



Signatures of Commanding Officers and Men of My 

Division 



282 



Signatures of Commanding Officers and Men of My 

Division 



283 






Cl| 



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