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Full text of "History of York County, Maine. With illustrations and biographical sketches of its prominent men and pioneers"

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3 1833 01083 7331 






'^ith |(II«straiions and Hgiogra^lucnl ^hetclie^ 

ITS :PK.o:M:i3NrEisrT ns/CEir j^hstid i=iOiTEEi?.s. 







— ^191395 

The present volume is the first published History of York County, Maine. Aitliough materials Irnve 
existed for such a publication, they have not been found in any siK-cial or <,'eneral collection, and the lalwr of 
collecting them chiefly from orij,rin:il sources, and of arnin^nn^r d,,.,,, j,, ;, liarmonious and consecutive narra- 
tive of events extending through a period of more than two iituuhcd and fifty ye-ars, hiw liocn by n«. means 
a light or trivial tiisk. How well or ill tlic !al)or has Ihiii |>crform(d is now left to the judgment of the 
intelligent reader. Doubtless some crroi-s have crept into the work in spite of our utmost care and 
vigilance, but we trust that none are of so grave a character as to impair the general a<«nracy and value of 
the history. With regard to the plan of llic work, it is only ncccssiiry to say that it has been arrange<l 
with reference to the most economical use of spa<e, with a general and locid de(mrtment. The general 
history, embracing that which is common to the county at large, has been i)lace<l in a de|)artment by 
itself in the forepart of the book ; this has been followed by separate histories of the cities, towns, and 
villages of the county, interspersetl with numerous biographies, ))ortrait.s and other illustrations, and the 
whole carefully indexed to facilitate reference. 

To the citizens of York County who have aided us in the work, we take this opjMirtunity to return 
our tlianlvs. Our acknowledgments are especially due to Hon. Etlward P. Buridiam, of Saco, a member 
of the Maine Historical Society, for a ready fund of valuable statistics which has been conlially placed 
at our command, and for information on several topics, rendering our lalxirs less dilHcult than they 
otherwise would have been. Hon. Nathaniel G. Mai-shaii, of York, ha.s kindly rcvicwe«l c-onsiderable por- 
tions of our general history, and aided us materially in the preparation of the history of his native town. 
Like acknowledgments are due to Edward E. Bourne, Esq., and Dtuiiel Remich, Esq., of Kennebunk ; 
to Hon. John M. Goodwin and Thomas Quinby, Esq., of Biddeford ; to Rev. .John G. T. Nichols, DJ)., 
Rev. William J. Alger, George F. Calef, Esq., and Horace H. Burbank, E-stp, of Saco. The York 
Institute, through its president and members, has furnished some valuable materials and given hearty 
encouragement to our enterprise. We also tender our acknowledgments to the memliers of the county 
press, and to the county and town officials generally. 

The following-named gentlemen have been consultetl and have renderetl more or less assistance in 
matters pertaining to their respective town histories : Charles M. Came, Esq., and Asa L. Ricker, Alfred ; M. 
C. Hurd, Esq., Hon. Zebulon G. Home, Horace Botlwell, Acton ; John H. Stillings, Frederick A. LonI, 
Richard L. Goodwin, Berwick; Hon. Samuel A. Hill, Robert A. Bradbur)-, Hon. Charles E. Weld, Bux- 
ton; Howard Brackett, Dr. W. B. Swasey, Hon. Caleb R. Ayer, Cornish; John W. Clark, James K. 
Huntress, William R. Buzzell, Dayton ; George E. Ireland, John L. Jenks, J.iscph Hnmraon.l, Jr., Eliot ; 


Deacon James Moultou, Melville B. Smith, Hon. H. K. Bradbury, Hollis; Dennis M. Shapleigh, J. R. 
Philbrook, M. F. Wentworth, M.D., Kitterj ; Hon. James W. Grant, John E. Chamberlain, John E. 
Moody, Esq., Lebanon; F. "W. Libby, Hon. A. Burbank, J. C. Lane, Limerick; Dr. S. M. Bradbury, Gen. 
William M. McArthur, W. G. Lord, M.A., Liraington; Hon. Dimon Roberts, Hon. Hiram Waterhouse, C. 
W. Murphy, Esq., Hon. Jame.s Xason, Lyman; Roscoe S. Holmes, J. M. Moulton, Stephen Adams, M.D., 
Newfield; Hon. John Hail, Haven A. Butler, Esq., Deacon Ebenezer Hobbs, North Berwick; Silas H. 
Cartland, Hon. John Brackett, Parsonsfield ; John A. Dennett, Hon. Howard Frost, Deacon Stephen Dor- 
man, Sanford; Edwin A. Moulton, Esq., John Hemingway, Hosea Merrifield, Shapleigh; Charles C. 
Hobbs, Esq., Hon. Jolni B. Xealley, E. R. Mclntire, South Berwick ; E. H. Hobbs, Isaac N. Deering, Henry 
Gowen, Waterboroiigli ; Barak Maxwell, ^Vells ; and Hon. Enoch Cousens, Keimebunkijort. 

W. W. C. 

January 24, 1880. 

C ( ) N 1^ E N T S. 



I.— Eftily Discoveries auU Sittl.meuls . 


II.— I'atonta Granted by the Plymoulh 


III.— First Civil Govorninent in Mi.ii>c . 


IV.— AJminiistralion of Thomas 0..rge« . 


V.-UovcrniDCnt under Alexander Uigl.v 


VI.— Adiniuislration of Edward Godfrey 


VII. — Jurisdiction of .Massacliuselts . 


Vni.—Ilevival of the Gorges Claim . 


IX.— Indians of Yorl< County 


X.— The First Indian War 


XI.— (iovernmcnt under Danforlh .... 


XII.— Frencli and Indian War, ir.8S-«2 . 


XIII.— Continuation of Indian Ilostililics . 


XIV.— Civil Affairs under tlieCliarter of 1 Gill . 


XV.— Progress of Settlements after the War . 


XVI.— Fourth Indian War 


XVII.— War between France and Enghmd . 



XIX.— Division of the County 

XX.-Period of the Ucvolution .... 


XXI.— Under the Constitution of Mas.-aihuselis 


XXIII.— Uench and liar— (Continued) .... 


XXIV lieneh and Bar (Conlinuedl 


XXV.— York County Civil I,isl 

XXVII.— York County Press 


XXVIII.— Medical Profession 

1 li'i 

XXIX.-Warofthe Rebellion (with r..-iers ..frbe r.-i..K-.,t- 



T..«n ..I Vork . 

• Kvnn.bui.k . 
■' Bu.xlon 

• Alfred .... 

• Kitlery . 

• lierwiek 
.\..rlh Itcrwi.-k 

• .<uulh Ilerwick 
Pnrson'field . 

<■ Limerick 

llnllis . 
Wells . 
Liminslun . 
Kliut . 
Aclon . 


B I O G R.^ I^ECI G^ L. 

Noah Emery 
David Sewall 
Moses Emery 
Daniel Sewall 
James .Sullivan . 
Judge George Thacher 
Dudley Hubbard 
Prentiss Mellen . 
Edward P. Ilaymai. . 
Cyrus King 
John Holmes 
William Lambert 
Benjamin Greene 
Judge Joseph Howard 
George W. Wallingfor.l 
Xicholas Emery . 
Judah Dana 
Joseph Dane 
Samuel A. Bradley 
Edward E. Bourne, LL.D. 
Joseph Barllctt . 
William B. Sewall 
Samuel Hubbard 

Charles X. Cogswell 
William P. Preble 
Ether Sheplcy . 
Philip Eastman 
Daniel Ooodenuw 
Nathan D. Appleton 
Kufu! P. Taplcy 
John M. Goodwin 
Samuel Bradley . 
John Shepley 
Samuel W. Luques 
James .M. Slone . 

Nathaniel G. Marsh.ill 
Charles Tnift..n. M li. 
John A. Berry. M.D. 
Horace Bacon, .M.II. . 
Frnnci? G. Warr.n. M. 
Orr.n Ross. M.D. 
Koscoe ti. Dennett, .M. 
Gen. William .M. -MoA 
Capt. <;e«rgc A» De<?rii 
Col. Horace H. Borbai 





Capt. James F. Miller 

Horace Woodman 

Stephen and William Littletield 

Uon. John Fairfield . 

Tristram Jordan . 

Capt. .«amuel and J. F. U 

Rev. John T. G. Nichols, 

Abraham Cutter . 

David Fernald . 

Benjamin Patterson 

John Johnson 

Thomas (juiub,v . 

Ebenezcr 0. .Staples . 

Joeiah Calcf 

Edward P. Burnliam . 

George .^oaniman 

Oliver l)ycr 

Cornelius Sweetser 

Aaron McKennr 

George A. Carter 

James .M. Decring 

Mo.'ies Lowell 

Samuel A. Millikcn . 

John Gilpalrio 

James 1). Patten 

PbdI Chiidbuurne 

Daniel >l. Owen . 

Eli Edgciomb . 

Uonry Simpson . 

Ira V. IJoe . 

Abel II. Jclle.sou . 

Barnabas E. Cutter 

Timothy Shaw, Jr. 

James A. Strout . 

Charles . 

Leonard .Andrews 

James Andrews . 

.Simeon P. .McKi-nncy 

E.<reir II. ISanks 

Joshim Jloorc . 

Deacon Thoma.^ II. t'oli. 

.Soleucus Adams . 
^Samuel Peir.soii . 
'nun. William Berry . 

Jeremiah GohUbrougli 

William P. Ilnincs 

Col. Josiah Ilobbs 

Reuben M. Ilobbs 

Enoch II. McKenncy . 

John T. .<mitli . 

Dr. Thoma.' Haley 

Capt. Jotham lii-nsun 

.Simon M. niake . 

Capt. Charles 0. Clark 

Hon. E. C. .Moody 

<fOorgo Donncll . 

James A. lirngdon 

Horace Porter 

9etb E. Ilryani . 

.lames M. Couaens 

Rev. Daniel Little 


acing 152 

Daniel Remioh . 


James K. Remich 

between 150, 15" 

James Osbovn . 

facing 15S 

Joseph Hatch . 


Stephen H. Berry . 


Aaron McKenney 

■ i 


.Mark P. Emery . 



Abram L. Came . 



Aaron Clark 



IScnjamin J. Palmer . 



Joel M. Marshall 


AVilliam Emery . 


Sylvester LittlefleUl . 


J. B. -('ance 


JIoscs A. Safford 
Wilson Ilammons . 


Asa L. Rickor . 


Lorenzo R. Hersoni . 


William J. Copeland . 


lirackett Hall . 


James L. Prcscott 


Isaac Varney . 


William Hill 


Albert C. Buffiim 


Benjamin Nason 


Hon. John H. Burleigh 

. facin. 


Samuel G. Dearborn . 


Maj. Thomas Churchill 


Hon. Abner Burbank 

. filcinn 


Samuel C. Adams 
Abijab Usher . 



Hon. Ellis B. Usher . 


Uon. Nathaniel J. Millei 


AFilliam Emery . 


George A. Frost . 

jctwccn 19 


Hon. B. F. Hanson . 



George Nasson . 



Jeremiah Moulton . 


Darling H. Ross 


en 2( 

J, 205 

Thomas Goodall . 


John Storer 


Joseph Ridley . 


Hon. Enoch Cousens . 


Charles W. Smith 


The Strout Family 


Barak Maxwell . 


Arthur McArthur 


William M. McArtbur 


Sylvester Bartlett 


Hiram Jones . 


Newell Goodwin . 


Melvin AVentwovth . 


Thomas M. Wcntworth 



Joel <i. Hersom . 



Edmund Goodwin 


Ivory and Levi Bragdon 


Henry Ross Thing . 



Rensselaer W. Thing . 



Charles F. Sanborn . 



Col. John Smith . 


facing 298 
between 302, 303 
facing 304 

facing 330 

facing 364 
. 306 

facing 368 

facing 400 
between 402, 403 
" 402, 403 
lacing 40S 
" 410 

ctwecu 432 


Oullino Map of York Cminty H'. 
Portrait of Moses Emory . 

" John Holmes (stool i 
" Edward E. Hournu ( 

William B. Sewall 
Philip Eastman 
•' Daniol Uoodenow (si 

Riifus P. Taplcy 
8amuol Bradley 
'• Samuel \V. Lu(|ucs 
" Col. Jos. M. ?tonc 

Residence of N. G. Marshall (w 
Portrait of Dr. Charles Trafton 
" Dr. John A. Berry 

Dr. Horace Bacon 
Dr. Francis G. Warr 
Dr. Orrcn Ross 


Dr. K. 


Residence of .Foseph G. Deorinf; 

" Horace Woodman (with |iorti 

Portraits of Stephen and Wni. Liltlendd 
Portrait of Hon. John Fairlicld 

Tristram Jordan 

John F. Hartley 

Rev. John T. G. .Nichols (steel 

.\braham Cutter 


nald . 

Benjamin Patterson . 

John Johnson . 

Thomas Quinl.y 

Ebenczer C. Staples . 

Josiah Calef (steel) . 

Edward P. Burnham (steel 
*' George Scamman 

Oliver Dyer (steel) . 
" Cornelius Sweetscr . 

Aaron MeKenny (steel 
Residence of Aaron McKenny 
Portrait of James M. Deering 
*' George \. Carter 

" Hon. Moses Lowell . 

John Gilpatrie . 

Samuel A. Milliken . 

James D. Patten 

Daniel JI. Owen 

Eli Edgecoml. . 
•' Henry Simpson 

Ira C. Doe 

liU of Ja.iall and l(eul»n M. I|..t>>» . 
lit ..I Knw!h II McKennry 

•lohn T. .<mith . 

I>r. Thnmn> Hulev . . 

lupl. .1 
K.'Mden.'.- ..r Sim.. 

M. Illake(wilh 

Resi.lenee of Tlie«loro Wen-, Jr. 

C. C. Barrell . 
Portrait of Capl. Charlc. 0. Clark 

Hon. E. C. MooJy . 
Marshall House, and oilier Viewr 
Portrait of George Donnell 
lie«idenee..f Janie- A. Bnigdon ( » 


,it of Horace Porter , 
Seth E. Bryani 
James G. Cousens 
Palmer Walker 
hiiiiiol Remich (Steely 

' .lames K. Remich fst» 

James O.horii (.l-.l 


i.h Hul.'h 


Residence' .,( the late Capl. S. II. Berry (with portraili faeiDfC 249 

I!. J. Palmer (with pnrtrmils* " 2iJ 

A. I.. Came (with portrait) . . 2i4 

'• Aaron McKenuey (with porlmitl . " 2i!< 

Portrait of .Mark P. Emery (steel I lirtween 2I>«, 2A0i 

Residence ..f the late Thoma- Emery (with porlraiK) "• 260, 2r.0J 

*■ .Aaron Clark (with portrailsl . . facing 260J 

Portrait of Joel .M. Marshall 2r.oi 


Residence of William Emory (with portmil > facing 261 

Portrait of Hon. Sylvester LitHefiell. " 2IM 

View of the Shaker village - 26« 

Portrait of J. B. Vance " 26S 

Portraits of Moses A. .'^nfl'or"!. Wil«nn llinunons, and 

A«n I,. Bicker . •• 27i 



Portrait of Abel H. Jelleson .... 

B. E. Cutter 

Residence of Simon Newcomb (with portrait) 

Portrait of Timothy Shaw, Jr 

" James A. Stroul 

Charles Hardy 

" Leonard Andrews .... 

Residence of James Andrews (with portrait i 
Portrait of Simeon P. McKenney 
Hon. E. n. Banks . 
Joshua Moore .... 
" Deacon Thomas H. Cole ( teel 

" Scleucus Adams (steel I 
" Samuel Peirson 
" Jeremiah Goldsbrough 

facing 19S 

between 204. 20.) 
facing 20j 

of George .Moore . . lacing ; 

Loreni.) B. Her«r.m (with portrait) " ; 

William J. Coppland (with portntil) k«tw<wD 302, : 


Portrait "f Itracketl Hall . 
Views of the Residence and Millt of Willii 
Portraits of James L. Presoott and Wif* . 
Portrait of Isaac Varney (steel i 
WiMiam Hill (Steel) 
Portraits of All«>rt C. Buifum »nd Wifr- 

facing .104 

Hill between 30«. 307 

facing 310 

belwceo 312, 313 

312. 3IS 


Residence of the late Hon. J. H. Burleigh 
Portrait* of Benjamin Xasnn and Wife 




Residence of C. F. Sanbo 

ith portraits) 


" Maj. Thomas Churchill (with portraits) between 326, 327 

" T. S. Churchill (with portraits) . " 326, 327 

Portrait of Samuel G. Dearborn •'""'"g ^30 

Wm. D. D. Churchill ... "331 

Portraits of C. 0. Nutc and Wife 331 



Portrait of : 

1 C. Ada 

Ilcr . 


Residence of the late Ellis B. Usher . 
« " •' Nathaniel J. M 

Portrait of Abijah Usher . 

Ellis B. Usher (steel) 
" Nathaniel J. Miller (steel 


Portrait of William Emery 

" Ceorge A. Frost 
Residence of B. F. Hanson (with portrait) 

" George Nasson (with portrait) 

" Jeremiah MouUon (with portrait) 

Portrait of Darling H. Ross ... 
Residence of Joseph Ridley (with portraits) 
Portrait of Hon. Thomas Goodall (steel) 

" John Storcr (steel) . . . . 

Dr. Alvah Dam ... 

facing 362 



Residence of Hon. Enoch Cousens (with Portrait) . facing 37S, 

Charles E. Perkins .... "380 

C. C. Perkins "380 

View of the Parker House, etc "382 

Residence of S. H. Gould (with portrait) ... " 384 

View of Ocean Bluff Hotel 441 


Portrait of Charles W. Smith facing 388 

Residence of H. L. .Strout (with portrait) ... " 393 


Portrait of Barak JIaxwell facing 400 


Arthur McArthur . betwe 

Wm. JI. McArthur ... 


of Sylvester Bartlett (with portrait) 

of the late Thomas M. Wentworth . 

Joel G. Hersom .... 

Hiram Jones (with portrait) 

Newell Goodwin (with portrait) . 

Melvin Wentworth (with portraits) 


402 and 403 
402 and 403 


(with portrait 

. bet. 4.32 and 438 

gdon . 

facing 434 

f. Thing 

" 437 





YORK C O U N T Y. .\ I A 1 N E. 


CIlAl'THK 1. 


Maine Di.'covorcd in 15LM— Charls nf Knniusio— Chnmiiliiin's Voyage.* 
— Charter of Acadia — French SettUMiicnts in Mnine — Eitglisli K.\- 
plorers — First English Charter — Popham Colony — Voyage of Ciipl. 
John Smith. 

Mainf, was undoubtedly the fir.«t portion of New Eng- 
land taken possession of bj- anj' European nation. Aside 
from the discoveries of the Scandinavians and Northmen, 
who at a very remote period of antiquity are said to liavc 
penetrated to these shores and made a .settlement in Rhode 
Island, we have positive evidence that Maine was di.scovercd 
by Giovani da Verrazano, an Italian navigator, under the 
auspices of Francis I., king of France, in 1524. This 
was seventy-eight years before the first English navigator, 
Gosnold, had arrived on the coast of Maine. \'errjzano 
took possession of the country in the name of the king of 
France and carried the news of his discovery to Europe, in 
consequence of which Crigiion, the French geographer, was 
sent out in company with Capt. Farnicntier, in 152'J, to 
obtain accurate information respecting the country. Sailing 
southwestward from Cape Breton " a good five hundred 
leagues towards tiie country of Florida," they took accurate 
observation of the direction of the coast, determined the 
latitude and longitude, noted the natural products of the 
country, and the character and habits of the natives. In- 
formation was thus obtained for the first valuable contribu- 
tion to the cartography of Maine, which was published in 
the celebrated collection of Ramusio, in Italy, in 1550. 
Thus it appears that the French and the Italians were the 
first geographei-s of the coast of New England, and that 
students in those countries were studying the geography of 
Maine more than half a century before the subject had 
awakened any interest in England. Ramusio says he had 
compiled his maps and charts, " such as they were, not bo- 
cause he thought them perfect or complete, but becau.«e he 
wished to s:\tisfy the desire of Italian students, entertaining 
the hope that in some time to come they would be im- 

Crignon, who wrote the descriptive portion accompanying 
the map of Xeto France in Ramusio's collection, siiys, — 

" Going beyond the Cape of the Bretons, there is a coantry contig- 
uous thereto, the coast of which trends to the west a quarter south- 

Historical Collections, vol. 

wt>t lo thi- (.MMiiilry nf Kloriilji, and runi along for a |foo<l firr hundred 
IcMigucs, which cuasi wa< di>cuvcre<l Sftc«n yrar> ago, by Mailer liiu. 
vani da Vcrraiiinu, in thi- name of the King of France and Madame 
la Kegenit-: and thin oounlry in tailed by many ' I.a Frao;ai«,' and 
even by the Portuguefe themselri'*. Itf end i» tuwani* Florida, under 
TS" west and .IS" north. The inhabiunU of thii country an a Tery 
pleasant, tractable, and peaceable people. The country aboundi with 
all sort^ of fruits. There grow orangen, almonds, wild grap«*. and 
many other fruits of o<loriferous trees. The country it named by the 
natives ■ Norumbega,' and between it an<l Rraiil is agrrmi gulf in which 
are the islands of the West Indies iliscovered by the .<panianis."t 

This rcmarkiible pa&sagc is, no doubt, hi.siorii'ally ax well 
as gcfigniphically correct, and overtunis the theories of 
some of our English writers with regard to the discovery 
of this country, and the nation to whom that honor be- 
longs.]; It was known to the Portuguese, the Spanish, and 
the French navigators, who made various voyagi* to the 
northern part of the coast during the fir^st half of the six- 
teenth century. The latter nation laid claim t'l the country 
.southwc-itward from the Gulf of St. Lawn^nce, including 
Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, and Maine, and their right i<c«?ms 
to have been generally recogni»xl by the other natiiin.<< of 
Continental Europe. It is called New France in all the 
earlier charts and collections, and al.-<o in the I^tin geogra- 
phy of John De Laet. which was published at Leyden as 
late a.s ll>14.;i Andre Thevct, a French navigator, viaitcd 
the Penobscot in 1 556. He give* the following deacriptioo 
of his entrance into that river: 

■ Here we entered a river which is one of the finest in the world. 
We call it Nnrambega. It is marked on some charts as Uraod River. 
The natives call it Agoncy. fpon its banks the French formrrly 
erected a small fort, about ton leagues from its mouth. It was calM 
the Fort of Xoruiubega. an<l surrounded by fr<->h water."] 

We learn from this that the French, at a very early day, 
claimitl the eastern part of Maine ; that chart;* had been 
made of its ci>ast and principal rivers ; and that they had 

t Ibid., p. 2.11. 

♦ Folsom says (Saeo and Biddeford, p. 9). "The dijcovery of S»w 
England may justly be ascribed to Bartholomew liofnold. an enter- 
prising and intelligent navigator, who, in the yc«r \6v2, performed a 
voyage to this part of North America, kt/urt .^knixm lo ti< orilitrd 
KorW." He also says i page li i. " The French were aomewbat htkimJ 
the English in making voyages of diacovery to the Americaii eoBli- 
neoU" The truth is, they were nearly a eenlory «*«>■< of then, if 
we exi-ept the voyages of the CaboU, who, so far aa we know, serely 
passed by the const .f New England, without teUing foot on any por- 
tion of it. 

\ Xovus Orbis New World j, etc.. lib. ii. c. 1». 
Singularities of .Antarctic Fran 


Iberwise called America. 


built a fort upon the Penobscot, ten leagues above its mouth, 
before the year 1556. 

The first movement of the French towards the establish- 
ment of a colony in this territory was made near the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century. On the 8th of November, 

1603, Henry IV. of France granted to De Monts the charter 
of Acadia, embracing all the country on the North American 
coast from the fortieth to the forty-sixth degrees of north 
latitude. There can be no doubt but that the English 
charter of 1606 was an infringement upon this grant, the 
French having the prior right as the discoverers and occu- 
pants of the country. De Monts having obtained a com- 
mission as Lieutenant-General of New France, fitted out his 
expedition for the establishment of a colony in Acadia in 

1604. He was accompanied by Samuel de Champlain, who 
four years later founded the city of Quebec, and who had 
previously explored the river St. Lawrence. 

Champlain was commissioned to join the expedition of 
De Monts as royal geographer, with instructions to make 
discoveries, prepare maps and charts, and i-eport directly to 
the crown. He remained three years in the Gulf of Maine, 
faithfully executing these orders under cii-cumstances of 
great hardship and peril ; and the record he has left is a 
marvel of accuracy, patience, and indomitable courage. The 
entire coast line of Maine was reconnoitred and described, 
and charts made of the principal harbors, which were 
published in Paris, under his own personal supervision, in 

The expedition of De Monts was prepared with great 
deliberation, and its composition arranged with thoughtful 
reference to the needs and possibilities of the future colony. 
The company numbered on its rolls soldiers inured to for- 
eign service, sailors who were familiar with American 
waters, skilled mechanics, and gentlemen of rank. De 
Monts sailed from Havre de Grace on the 7th of April, 
1604, in a ship commanded by Capt. Timothee, in com- 
pany with the Sieurs de Poutrincourt, Champlain, and 
other gentlemen. On the 10th of April, the other vessel, 
commanded by Capt. Morel, of Honfleur, with the Sieur 
de Pont-Grave and the rest of the company, sailed with 
stores to join De Monts at Canseau, which had been 
selected as the place of rendezvous. While at sea De 
Monts changed his purpose, and directed his course ftr- 
ther to the westward. On the 1st of May he sighted 
Sable Island, on the 8th the mainland at Cape la Heve, 
and on the 10th made a harbor at the present Liverpool, 
called by him " Port Rossignol." On the 13th the party 
disembarked at " Port au Mouton," and proceeded to erect 
shelters, having determined to await here the arrival of their 
consort, in search of whom a small party was sent towards 
Canseau in a shallop, with letters of advice. 

On the 19th of May, Champlain, accompanied by the 
Sieur Ralleau, secretary of De Monts, and two men, left 
" Port au Mouton" for the purpose of making a reconnois- 
sance of the coast. He rounded Cape Sable and skirted 
the western shore of Nova Scotia to nearly the present site 
of Annapolis, and then returned to "Port au Mouton" 
about the middle of June. On the following day the com- 
pany, now increased by the arrival of the other vessels, 
abandoned their temporary shelters, and following the 

course which Champlain had taken, diligently explored 
the south and north shores of the Bay of Fundy, but 
without determining upon a place for their settlement. Pro- 
ceeding westward from the mouth of the St. John, they 
discovered the cluster of islands now known as " The 
Wolves," and the island of Grand Menan, called, as 
Champlain says, by the natives, " Manthane." Passing 
by the present site of Kastport, they entered Passama- 
quoddy Bay, and ascending the St. Croix River, disem- 
barked on an island and began the necessary preparations 
for their winter's residence. The settlement called the 
" Holy Cross," which gave its name to the river, was the 
first attempt to plant a colony on the shores of Maine. 
The island on which it was made is now called Neutral or 
De Monts' Island. 

On the last day of August, De Poutrincourt was sent 
back to France with Secretary Ralleau, the former to make 
arrangements for his adventure at Port Royal, the latter to 
put in order some of the afliiirs of the company. What 
follows we give, as far as space will allow, from Gen. 
Brown's excellent translation of Champlain's own account: 

"After the departure of the vessel the Sieur de Monts determined 
to send an expedition, without loss of time, along the coast of Norum- 
berjite, and this he committed to my charge, which was much to my 
liking. To this end I left St. Croix the 2d of September, 1604, with 
a jniUache of seventeen or eighteen tons, twelve sailors, and two sav- 
ages as guides. This day we found the vessels of the Sieur de Pou- 
trincourt, which were anchored at the mouth of the river on account 
of the bad weather, and from this spot we could not move until the 
.5th of the same month, and then, when two or three leagues at sea, 
the fog came up so thickly that we soon lost their vessels from sight. 
Continuing our course along the coast we made this day some twenty- 
five leagues, and passed by a great quantity of islands, shallows, and 
reefs, which extend seaward in places more than four leagues. We 
have named the islands ' Les Isles Raiiyees.' . . . This same day we 
passed quite near an island, which is some four or five leagues long, 
and were nearly lost on a little rock just under water, which made a 
small hole in our bark near the keel. . . . The island is very high, 
and so cleft in places that at sea it appears as if seven or eight moun- 
tains were ranged side by side. ... I have named this island ' L'Isle 
tics Mouts-deserts ,•' its latitude is 44i°. The next morning, 6th of 
September, we made two leagues, and perceived a smoke in a creek 
which was at the foot of the mountains, and saw two canoes propelled 
by savages, who came within musket-shot to reconnoitre us." 

This narrative of Champlain's is exceedingly interesting, 
because it names and locates many places on the coast now 
quite familiar to the modern traveler. At Mount Desert, 
on the southwestern side of which he appears to have 
anchored and stayed overnight, he had an interview with 
the savages, who, after receiving presents in exchange for 
fish and game, consented to guide them to their home at 
Peimtegouet, where they said their chief, Bessabez, was. 
Referring to the Penobscot, he says, — 

" I think this river is the same called by several pilots and histo- 
rians Nontmbeijne, and which has been described by most of them as 
broad and spacious, with very many islands, with its entrance in 43° 
to 43i° of latitude, or, according to others, in 44° more or less. As 
fur the longitude, I have never read or heard any one speak of it. 
They say, also, there is a great city well peopled with savages, adroit 
and skillful, and used to the manufacture of cotton. I am sure that 
most of those who speak of these things have never seen them, and 
derive their authority from men who know no more than themselves. 
I am ready to believe there are some who have seen the mouth of the 
river {i.e., the bay), because there are a great many islands there, and 
it is in 44°. But there is no appearance of .any one's having entered 
there, for they would have described it in quite another fashion in 


order to riil many of the doubt. I sliiill, tlierul'orc, niin-atu truly illl 
th-.t I have discnvereil .and seen the- bcKinniiij; .is fur as I hav... 

Champlain then describes in great detail the physical fea- 
tures of Penobscot Bay, which he makes extend from Mount 
Desert on the east to the promontory of Bedabedee on the 
west, — the present Owl's Head. Midway, and out at sea, 
he describes that singularly picturesque island named by 
him Isle Haute, — a name it still bears. Fish of all kinds 
abound, and game, which make the numerous islands a 
frequent resort for the natives during the season. On the 
western shore are the mountains of Bedabedec, the Camden 
Hills of the present day, and everywhere are wooded islands, 
low-lying rocks, and dangerous reefs. With the scrupulous 
care which characterizes him everywhere, he gives the neces- 
sary directions for entering the head-waters of the bay. Take 
the following : 

" Coming to the south of the Isle Haute, and ranging along the 
shore for a quarter of a league, where are some rocks just out of water, 
and then beading to the west until you open all the islands which lie 
to the north of this island, and you may be sure that when you see 
the eight or nine summits of Isle des Monts-Deserts and the heights 
of Bedabedec you are directly opposite the river of Norumbegue ; to 
enter, you must head to the north towards the very high mountains 
of Bedabedec, and you will see no islands before you, and can enter 
safely with plenty of water." 

Entering the bay, Champlain proceeded, under the guid- 
ance of the savages, to the narrows at the mouth of the 
river, and ascended the river to the mouth of the Ken- 
duskeag, at the present site of Bangor. Here the party 
met Bessabez, the chief of the tribe of that region, and 
Cabahis, who had jurisdiction of a tribe to the westward. 
There was great stir among the natives at the sight of the 
strangers, dancing and singing, and much consumption of 
tobacco. But Cabahis drew himself apart from the noisy 
throng for a while, because, as the narrative says, " it was 
the first time he had ever seen a Christian." 

The day following, which was the 17th of September, 
Champlain took the altitude, and found 45° 25' north lati- 
tude. He then began the descent of the river, and so con- 
tinued coasting westward. At what has been judged to be 
St. George's River the native guides left them because the 
savages of the Quinbequy were their enemies. Champlain 

" We ranged along the coast some eight leagues to the westward as 
far as an island distant some ten leagues from the Quinbequy, where ■ 
we were obliged to stop on account of bad weather and contrary 
winds; in one part of our route we passed a quantity of islands and 
breakers, very dangerous, and shelving out into the sea some leagues." 

At this point the weather, head-winds, and scarcity of 
provisions compelled our hardy adventurers to retrace their 
steps. On the 23d of September, three weeks after leaving 
St. Croix, they set out on their return, and in nine days 
after were greeted by their companions. The little band at 
St. Croix had busied them,selves in making preparations for 
the winter. They were scanty enough for the inclement 
season, and disease of a virulent type soon broke out among 
them ; before spring set in the little cemetery on the island 
had in it thirty-five graves. De Mouts resolved to abandon 
his plantation and return to France; but on the 15th of 
June the little company was gladdened by the arrival of 
two ships from France bringing men and pro\ 

" On the 17ih of the month" (says Champlain) "the Sieur de Monts 
decided to seek for a place better suited for habitation than nurs, and 
on the 18th he left the Island of St. Croix, with some gentlemen, 
twenty sailors, and two savages, Panounias and his wife, whom he did 
not wish to leave behind, and whom we took with us as a guide to the 
country of the AtmoMchiquoin, hoping by means of her to see and 
learn more of the country, for she was a native of it." 

In this second voyage Champlain and his party sailed 
westward to the mouth of the Sheepscol River, which they 
ascended to its head, probably at the site of what is now 
Wiscasset. On the way up the river they narrowly escaped 
being lost on a rock which their vessel grazed in passing ; 
farther on they met some savages in two canoes, who were 
accosted by the aid of the wife of their guide, and induced 
to conduct the party to their chief, Manthoumermer, whose 
village was at the head of the river. Here they met the 
chief and some twenty-five or thirty savages ; the conference 
resulted amicably, and a treaty of alliance was entered into 
between the natives and the French. The former conducted 
Champlain and his party down the river on the following 
morning. Passing some islands, each of the savages left an 
arrow near the cape by which all must pass, assigning as a 
reason for this custom that unless they did it the evil spirit 
would bring about some misfortune. 

" Near this cape," says Champlain, " we passed a fall of water; but 
it was not done without great difficulty, for, although we had a fair 
and fresh wind, and carried all the sail we possibly could, we were 
obliged to take a hawser ashore and fasten it to the trees, and then 
pull with all our strength, and thus by main force and the favoring 
wind we got through. The savages who were with us carried their 
canoes along the shore, being unable to make headway with their pad- 
dles. After having passed the fall we saw beautiful meadow-lands. I 
was much astonished at this fall because we descended easily with the 
tide, but at the fall it was against us, but above the fall it ebbed as 
before, much to our satisfaction." 

Says General Brown in commenting upon this passage, — 

•' It is evident that Champlain ascended the Sheepscot to the northern 
extremity of Westport, descended the river on the west side of the 
island, passed close to is now Hockamock Point, pulled the 
vessel through upper Hellgate, and so entered the Kennebec proper, 
and passed on to Merrymeeting Bay. The descent was made by the 
true channel to the site of Fort Popham, where they probably anchored, 
unless they made a harbor a little farther to the westward." 

Coasting to the westward, the vessel of Champlain next 
came to anchor oS' Old Orchard Beach, and inside of 
Stratton's Island. Here they saw a large number of natives 
on the main shore, with whom they held a friendly confer- 
ence. They visited Wood Island, which Champlain named 
" L'Isk de Bacchus," on account of the grapes which he 
found there, the first, he says, he had seen after leaving 
" Cape la Hive." " At high water," Champlain continues, 
" we weighed anchor and entered a little river (the Saco), 
which we could not do sooner on account of a bar, on which 
at low tide there is but one-half a fathom of water, but at 
the flood a fathom and a half, and at the spring tide two 
fathoms ; within are three, four, five, and six fathoms," — 
a very accurate description of the physical features appar- 
ent to this day. Champlain, with his customary exactness, 
enters into minute details of the habits, appearance, and 
character of the people. The river, he says, was called 
the river of the Chouaevet* country. They landed and 

Pronounced awaw-co, — very nearly the sound of the present ] 


examined tlie little gardens of the inhabitants ; Cham- 
plain and De Monts were interested in the culture of 
maize. " They plant," says the narrative, " in gardens, sow- 
ing three or four grains in one spot, and then with the 
shell of the signoc they gather a little earth around it ; 
three feet from that they sow again, and so on." 

We can scarcely improve even now on this method of 
planting corn, which Champlain calls '■ wheat of India." 
The shell-hoe used by the natives, which Champlain calls 
the signoc, was probably the curious shell of the horseshoe- 
crab, and those familiar with it can easily understand how 
serviceable it may have been in their simpler gardening 
operations, particularly in the soft sandy soil. Champlain 
made a chart of this harbor, giving all the prominent 
features of the coast and river line, with soundings, just 
as he had conscientiously done before at the Kennebec, the 
St. Croix, on the shores of the Bay of Fundy, and Nova 
Scotia. These were all studies for the maps which, as 
Royal Geographer, it was his special mission to prepare. 

On Sunday, the 11th, the little company left Chouacoet, 
making some twenty miles to the westward, where, on ac- 
count of contrary wind, they were compelled to anchor ; 
on the main shore they saw two natives, who fled at their 
approach. They describe the country here as abounding in 
meadow-lands of great extent, wild grapes, walnuts, and 
luxuriant verdure. The wind continuing, they retraced 
their course six miles, and found a harbor at Cape Por- 
poise, which Champlain calls Port aux Isles, on account of 
the three islands which furnish shelter there. He also 
notices the entrance to Kennebunk River, and gives a cor- 
rect description of the harbor, with such sailing directions 
as would make the passage easy to any navigator who might 
follow him. His computation of the latitude of this point 
is within five one-hundredths of a degree. On the 15th of 
the month they proceeded upon their journey, coasting 
along the sea-beaches of Wells, York, and Hampton, pass- 
ing the Merrimac and its surrounding marshes, which, in 
the dim twilight, seemed like a great bay ; they caught 
glimpses, in the east, of the Isles of Shoals, and at last 
anchored, under the shelter of Cape Ann, to await the day. 
In their progress farther southward they crossed Massa- 
chusetts Bay, entered, on the 18th, the harbor in which, 
fifteen yeare later, the Pilgrim Fathers found their home, 
rounded the sandy promontory of Cape Cod, and terminated 
their southward journey at what is now Nauset. To Cape 
Cod, Champlain gave the appropriate designation of Cap 
Blanc, — the white cape. 

On the 25th of July, De Monts, finding his stores rap- 
idly diminishing, decided to return to St. Croix. On his 
return he stopped again at Saco, and here had an interview 
with Marchim, the sagamore of Casco Bay, " who had the 
reputation of being one of the bravest men of his country, 
and he had a fine manner, and all his gestures and move- 
ments were grave and dignified, savage though he was." 
They gave him presents, and he, in turn, gave them a young 
Etechemin, from the eastward, an Indian boy, whom he had 
made prisoner in some foray. From the Saco they pro- 
ceeded to the Kennebec, arriving there on the 29th of July. 
Here they had an interview with a chief named Annassou. 
Champlain says, — 

" He tolil us there was a. vessel six leagues from the harbor, which 
iiad been engaged in tishing, and the people on board had killed five 
savages of this river, under the pretense of friendship, and according 
to his description we judge them to be English, and named the island 
where they were ' Le Nrf' because at a distance it had that appear- 

(That is, it looked like the hull of a ship.) The 
island was Monhegan, and the vessel referred to the 
"Archangel," under Capt. George Weymouth. This is the 
only allusion made by Champlain to any contemporary 
English discoveries on the whole coast, so far as his explo- 
rations extended. 

Leaving the Kennebec, Champlain and his company 
returned to St. Croix, where they arrived on the 2d of 
August, and found a vessel and supplies from France. 

Dissatisfied both with his settlement at St. Croix, and 
his discoveries to the south and west along the coast, De 
Monts now determined to transport his colony to Port 
Royal. He himself returned to France. Champlain re- 
mained to complete his discoveries, his desire being to 
extend them in the direction of Florida. On the 1st of 
March, 1606, the Sieur du Pont-Grave fitted out a vessel 
of about eighteen tons ; on the 16th they set sail, but were 
obliged to seek a harbor on an island to the south of Grand 
Menan. On the following day they encountered a severe 
storm, which drove them ashore, and after repairing their 
bark they returned to Port Royal. On the 29th of April 
they made another attempt, only to meet with fresh disas- 
ters ; at the entrance to Port Royal they were wrecked, 
losing their vessel, and running imminent risk of their lives. 
Disheartened at these disasters and the non-appearance of 
the vessels which were expected with supplies, Du Pont 
decided to return to France, and on the 16th of July they 
abandoned Port Royal, leaving two men who had bravely 
volunteered to remain and guard the property which was 
left behind. After having rounded Cape Sable, however, 
they were gladdened by the sight of a shallop, in which was 
Sieur Ralleau, secretary of De Monts. He announced the 
arrival of the "Jonas," a vessel bringing new accessions to the 
colony, under the command of Poutrincourt, among others 
the versatile advocate Lesearbot, the future historian of New 
France. So they gladly retraced their steps, and on the 
31st of July arrived once more at Port Royal. While the 
new-comers set to work with commendable vigor to make 
preparations for their stay, Du Pont decided to return to 
France, and to take with him all the company who had 
spent the previous winter in the colony. A few desired to 
remain, and among the number was Champlain, who says, — 

'* I remained also, with the Sieurde Poutrincourt, intending, b}' the 
grace of God, to finish and perfect the chart which I had commenced 
of the country and the coast," 

In this third voyage the company left Port Royal ou the 
5th of September, 1608, and, after visiting the St. Croix 
and Kennebec, arrived at Saco River on the 21st. No in- 
cident of interest is mentioned in the narrative in connec- 
tion with their landing here, except that the Indians had 
finished their harvest. 

From this point they made Cape Ann, and so to the 
southward. In a conflict with the natives they lost several 
of their company. On the 2Sth of October they set sail 
from Malabarre for the Isle Haute, on their return voyage. 


ell as on the banks of i\ 
be preserved in the gri 

On the 31st, between Mount Desert and the mouth of the 
Machias, they lost their rudder, and were in imminent peril. 
With much ingenuity they succeeded in reachini; a harbor, 
but not until the 14th of November, after many dangers 
and disasters, did they reach Port Royal. 

Thus closes our hasty account of the services to geo- 
graphical science of a very remarkable man, whose three 
voyages of discovery furnish the first intelligible contribu- 
tion to the cartography of Maine. In the language of the 
translator of his narrative, J. Marshall Brown, of Portland, 
whose valuable paper we have substantially followed in the 
account of these voyages, — 

" His monument is here, ai 
Lawrence, and his memory \ 
on our coast, which bear the names he gave them two hundred and 
seventy years ago." 

The colony planted at Port Royal (now Annapolis, Nova 
Scotia) continued to prosper for a time; from it originated 
the second settlement by the French on the coast of Maine, 
— the mission at Mount Desert founded by the two Jesuit 
priests. Fathers Biard and Masse. These priests had been 
brought from France to Port Royal by Biencourt in 1(308, 
to take charge of the spiritual interests of the plantation, 
and had assumed to exercise a controlling influence in civil 
affairs ; for this cause a quarrel ensued between them and 
the Governor which resulted in their separation from the 
colony. They went to Mount Desert, where in 1609 they 
established the mission of St. Sauveur, planted gardens, 
laid out grounds, and entered with zeal upon the work of 
preaching their faith to the natives in that vicinity. Prior 
to 1613 the French had built a small fort at the mouth of 
the Penobscot. Their disposition to occupy the country 
farther west aroused the alarm of the English colony 
established in Virginia, and in 1613 they sent Capt. Ar- 
gall to drive out the French, who, in the summer of that 
year, seized their forts at Mount Desert, St. Croix, and 
Port Royal, and carried their vessels and ordnance, together 
with their cattle and provisions, to Jamestown. The power 
of the French in this quarter was thus interrupted for 
several years. The conflicting claims growing out of the 
French and English charters inaugurated a series of wars 
which were perpetuated between the colonies of the two 
nations, enlisting on one side and the other the savage 
ferocity of the Indian tribes, for more than a hundred and 
fifty years, and were never finally settled till the conquest 
of Canada by the English, in 1760. Between the province 
of Maine and the French colony of Acadia the situation 
was about as follows : the English occupied the country 
exclusively as far east as the Kennebec, and the French, 
except when dispossessed by treaty or actual force, had ex- 
clusive occupation as far west as the Penobscot. The coun- 
try between these two rivers was debatable land, both parties 
continually claiming it, and each occupying it at intervals. 
In the commission to the French Governor before the treaty 
of Utrecht, in 1713, Acadia is described as extending to 
the Kennebec River, and the whole was then ceded to the 
English. But in the construction of that treaty the French 
restricted the territory to Nova Scotia. 

After the expeditions of the Cabots, 1497-98, the Eng- 
lish made little eflfort to discover or acquire territory in the 

new world for more than a century. In 1602, Gosnold 
sailed along the coast of Maine, and in 1603, Martin Pring 
discovered Penobscot and Casco Bays, and sailed up the 
Saco River to the falls. The voyage of George Weymouth, 
in 1605, was the first attempt which had been made by 
English navigators to sail due west from England to the 
coast of North America. His course brought him to Mon- 
hegan Island, eighteen miles from the mainland at Booth- 
bay. He anchored three miles north of the island, which 
he named St. George's, in honor of his patron saint, in a 
harbor which he called Pentecost Harbor. The vessel in 
which he arrived was named the " Archangel." He re- 
mained upon the coast for several weeks, proceeding in his 
pinnace several miles up a " most excellent river," and 
carrying home with him five Indians, whom he treacher- 
ously decoyed into his vessel, three of whom he gave to Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges, by whom one of them was sent back 
in 1607, with Capt. George Popham. 

James Rosier, an gentleman, who accompanied 
Capt. Weymouth as chronicler, wrote a glowing account of 
the newly-discovered country in 1605, but omitted all names 
and observations of latitude and longitude, in order, it is 
said, to prevent navigators of other nations from seeking 
the same spot. The consequence has been that the river 
has been guessed to be the Hudson, the James, the Saco, 
and, more recently, the Penobscot, the Kennebec, and the 
arm of the sea north of Monhegan, running up to South 
Thomaston, and known as the St. George's. Capt. Wey- 
mouth also discovered the fishing-banks, which are still 
known as the George's banks : and although his name has 
failed to displace the old Indian name of Monhegan, there 
has been a strong presumption that the nameless river 
which he found might still wear, like the banks, the name 
of his patron saint. Dr. Belknap, the historian of New 
Hampshire, however, conjectured that Weymouth had 
ascended the Penobscot River, and this opinion was gener- 
ally followed until the late John McKeen, of Brunswick, 
suggested that Rosier's description better fitted the Kenne- 
bec, and a few years later Rev. David Cushman, of Warren, 
contended that the St. George's River was intended. 

All these conjectures, however, were set at rest by the pub- 
lication, in 1849, by the Hakluyt Society (and afterwards 
by the Historical Societies of Maine and JIassachusetts) of 
William Strachey's account of the Popham settlement, writ- 
ten not later than 1618, and preserved in manuscript in the 
British Museum. Strachey was the secretary of the Vir- 
ginia Company, and was in Virginia from 1610 till 1612. 
He says, in so many words, that Captain Weymouth made 
a search " sixty miles up the most excellent and beneficyall 
river of the Sachadehoc." But the Sagadahoc is only an- 
other name for the waters of the Kennebec below Merry- 
meeting Bay, including the waters which flow out through 
the passage opposite Bath into the Sheepseot, and the 
Sheepscot itself, which may be regarded as one of the 
mouths of the Kennebec. Thus the question has finally 
been set at rest. 

The expedition of Captain Weymouth, together with the 
active movements of the French at this period, served to 
awaken an interest in England in the colonization of North 
America; and in April, 1606, a charter was obtained from 


King James for the whole extent of country lying between 
the 34th and 44th degrees of north latitude. This large 
tract was divided between two companies ; the first, reach- 
ing to the 41st degree of north latitude, was bestowed upon 
a London company, the founders of the settlement at 
Jamestown, Va. ; and the northern part was granted to a 
company in the town of Plymouth. Under this charter 
the respective companies sent out colonies in 1 607. With 
the one destined for Virginia we have nothing to do in this 
connection ; the one from Plymouth, destined for the north- 
ern shores, consisted of two ships and one hundred and 
eight men, under command of Captain George Popham as 
president, and Captain Rauleigh Gilbert as admiral. They 
sailed from Plymouth on the 31st of May, and arrived at 
Monhegan, on the coast of Maine, August 11th, and thence 
continued on to the Kennebec, where they planted them- 
selves on the west bank of the river upon the peninsula now 
known as Hunnewell's Point, called by the Indians Sabino. 
This was the first English colony, not merely in Maine, but 
upon the whole New England coast. Here they erected 
Fort St. George,_on the site of which the United States 
government has built a fort called Fort Popham, in honor 
of the first president of the colony.* 

Although the ample preparations and other circumstances 
attending the expedition show that the adventurers intended 
to make a permanent settlement, yet a succession of pecu- 
liarly unfavorable circumstances terminated the hopes and 
the existence of the colony in one year from its commence- 
ment. They retired from the contest with savage and in- 
hospitable nature, not without strong prejudices against the 
country, feeling, as Capt. Smith expressed it, that it was 
" a cold, barren, rocky, mountainous desert." Prince says 
that " they branded the country as over cold, and not habit- 
able by our natives." 

Capt. Popham died during the winter, which was one of 
great severity, and Rauleigh Gilbert was obliged to return 
to England. on account of the death of his brother. 

From this time for several years little was done on the 
coast of Maine except fishing and trading with the Indians. 
The two principal actors in these enterprises were Sir Fran- 
cis Popham and Sir Ferdinando Gorges, — the latter, as a 
future ruler, proprietor, and promoter of colonization, de.?- 
tined to play a very important part in the afl'airs of tlie 
country. In 1(314 an expedition was fitted out by these 
gentlemen, under command of ('apt. John Smith, '• to take 
whales, and also to make trial of mines of gold and copper." 
If these failed, " fish and furs were then to be their refuge."| 
Smith adds, — 

"We found this wbiiK'-fisbing to be a very costly cunclusion : we 
saw many and spent much time in chasing them, but could not kill 
any ; they being a kind of jxibartea, and not the whale that yields 
fins and oil, as we expected." 

They were also disappointed in the mines, and he thinks 
the representation was " rather the device of the master to 
get a voyage, than any knowledge he had of such matters." 
During this voyage, Capt. Smith left his vessel, and with 

® In August, 1S62, the Maine Historical f^ociety ami a very laige 
concourse of people assembled here to celebrate the two hundred and 
fifty-fifth anniversary of the planting of the colony. 

f Smith's f 

eight men in a boat traversed the whole coast from the 
Penobscot to Cape Cod. He describes Casco Bay, and 
other places along the coast 

After speaking of Casco Bay, under the name of Auco- 
cisco, and describing it as '• a large deep bay full of many 
great islands, he comes to Sawoco-tuck, in the edge of a 
large sandy bay, which hath many rocks and isles, but few 
good harbors, except for barks." This last- mentioned river 
was evidently the Saco, from which the last syllable j if 
ever really attached to it) was sub.?equently dropped. 

In 1615, Capt. Smith was again employed by Gorges 
and others to visit New England with a view of beginning 
a settlement ; for this purpose he was furnished with two 
ships and a company of sixteen men as emigrants. But 
he was unsuccessful, being driven back to port in a violent 
storm which carried away his masts ; on the second at- 
tempt he was captured by the French. It does not appear 
that this celebrated adventurer came to America after 1614. 
He published his description of New England in London, 
in 1616, and died in that city, in 1631.+ 

Every year after this vessels were sent to the coast to 
trade with the natives and to fish, many of which made 
profitable voyages. In 1615, Sir Richard Hawkins sailed 
from England, with a commission from the Council of Ply- 
mouth to do what service he could for them in New Eng- 
land ; but on his arrival here he found a destructive war 
prevailing among the natives, and passed along the coast 
to Virginia.^ In 1616, four ships from Plymouth and two 
from London made successful voyages and obtained full 
cargoes of fish, which they carried to England and Spain. 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges also, the same year, sent out a ship 
under the charge of Richard Vimes, who afterwards became 
prominent in the early history of Maine, particularly in 
that portion of it of which it is the object of this work 
especially to treat. He passed the winter at the mouth of 
the Saco River, from which circumstance the place received 
the name of Winter Harbor, which it still bears. 

The next settlement planted in Maine was that estab- 
lished by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, on the Island of Monhe- 
gan. in 1621. This plantation was established as a fishing 
and trading post, but it had become of sufiicient importance 
to draw thither for supplies the people settled in ]\Iassa- 
chusetts Bay, during the hard winter of 1623. || This was 
the first settlement which continued for any considerable 
length of time within any part of the territory of Maine. 
We find also that a settlement was commenced at New 
Harbor, on Pemaquid, in 1625, which continued to in- 
crease without interruption till the destructive war of 1675. 1| 


Sir Ferdiiiandu (iorges— His Agency in Procuring the New Charter 
— Council for the .Settlement and Government of New England- 
Landing of the Pilgrims — Summary of Grants made by the Council. 

A NEW movement was now about to be made for the 
more effective colonization of the country. Sir Ferdinando 

% Willis' History of Portland. ? 2 Prince, p. 43. 



Gorges, whose commercial operations on the coast of Maine 
had ah-eady become conspicuous, was the prime mover in 
a petition to the king for a new charter prescribing a defi- 
nite extent of territory, the necessary powers and privileges 
of the patentees, and giving an exclusive right to the soil 
and to the management of the fisheries and trade within its 
limits. The charter was granted on the 3d of November, 
1620, its corporators consisting of forty noblemen, knights, 
and gentlemen, who were collectively styled " The Coun- 

Devon, for Planting, Ruling, and Governing New 
England in America." Among the gentlemen com- 
prising this Council were the Duke of Lenox, the Mar- 
quises of Buckingham and Hamilton, the Earls of Pem- 
broke, Arundel, Bath, Southampton, and Warwick ; Sir 
Edward Seymour, Sir Dudley Driggs, Sir Perdinando 
Gorges, Sir Francis Popham, and many other distinguished 
men and dignitaries, designed to give strength and charac- 
ter to the movement in view of which public attention 
was largely attracted to New England. 

The more zealous and prominent men in the Council 
were two who may properly be placed "at the head of the 
list. One was Sir Perdinando Gorges. He had been presi- 
dent under the former charter ; his many years' experience 
of the country, through his various agents, had given him 
a knowledge of New England which no other member pos- 
sessed ; and the settlement of the country was still his fa- 
vorite pursuit. Capt. John Mason, returning home about 
this time from Newfoundland, of which he had been Gov- 
ernor, also exhibited great courage and confidence in the 
cause ; and when there was an occasion to fill an early 
vacancy in the Council, he was elected a member and 
became the secretary.* 

The territory granted in the charter embraced all the 
country between the fortieth and forty-eighth degrees of 
north latitude, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean. It included in width the whole coast line between 
Pennsylvania and the Bay of Chaleurs, which opens into 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

The charter of 1606, and all the settlements made and 
possessions acquired under it, were expressly recognized by 
the new charter. The privileges granted in the former 
were confirmed, such as the rights of citizenship, the ex- 
clusive trade and fisheries within the limits of the grant, 
importation from England free of duty for a period of seven 
years, and the right to expel all intruders. The coining 
of money and the settlement of Catholics was prohibited 
in the colonies. This charter, which existed upwards of 
fourteen years, or till its surrender to the king, in 1635, is 
the foundation of all the subsequent patents by which New 
England was at first divided, and its settlements and colonies 
located and limited. 

In order to clear the ground of difficulties which may 
otherwise arise in our future history, it may be well, before 
proceeding further, to give a brief summary of the grants 
made by the Plymouth Council during the period of its 
existence as a body corporate. 

It may be remarked here that the movement of the 

= Belknap's New Hampshire, p. 14. 

Pilgrims, which resulted in their settlement at Plymouth, 
Mass., had no connection with the doings of the Plymouth 
Council, which was not fully organized until after they had 
undertaken their voyage. Indeed, the charter was granted 
only seven days previous to their arrival at Plymouth Rock, 
on the 10th of November, 1620. Without any concert 
with the patentees, without their concurrence, in fact, with- 
out any design of their own, it would appear they had 
reached a place on the shores of New England, in the 
afiFairs of which, and of the county at large, they were des- 
tined to exert a controlling influence. This company of 
Pilgrims started from Leyden, Holland, to which they had 
before removed from England, determined to seek security 
and freedom of worship in the wilderness of America. In 
the summer of 1620 they commenced their voyage for the 
Hudson, designing to make a settlement somewhere on 
that river or in the vicinity ; but, either by design or acci- 
dent, they fell short of their destination, and landed at Cape 
Cod on the 10th of November. Here they determined to 
remain, and selecting a spot, previously named Plymouth 
on Capt. Smith's map, established there the first permanent 
settlement in New England. The French had then a plan- 
tation at Port Royal, Nova Scotia, and the English had 
settlements in Virginia, Bermuda, and Newfoundland. 

From this brief digression we return to the grants of the 
Plymouth Council. 

1. On the 10th of September, 1621, the northeastern 
part of the territory included in the charter was granted by 
James I. to Sir William Alexander.| This was done by 
the consent of the Council, as Gorges expressly declares. 
The grant, to which the name of Nova Scotia was given, 
extended from Cape Sable north to the St. Lawrence; it 
included Cape Breton, all the islands within six leagues of 
the eastern, western, and northern shores, and within forty 
leagues south of Cape Sable. In 1622, Sir William Alex- 
ander subdued the French inhabitants within his grant, 
carried many of them prisoners to Virginia, and planted a 
colony there himself J 

2. On the 10th of August, 1622, the Council of Plym- 
outh granted to Sir Perdinando Gorges and Capt. John 
Mason " all the lands situated between the rivers Merri- 
mack and Sagadahock, extending back to the great lakes 
and river of Canada." This grant was called the province 
of Laconia, but it retained that name only for a short time. 
In 1623 the proprietors sent over David Thompson, Edward 
and WUliam Hilton and others, who commenced a planta- 
tion upon the west side of the Piscataqua River, which was 
the first settlement in New Hampshire, and the beginning 
of the present city of Portsmouth. Gorges and Mason con- 
tinued their joint interest on the Piscataqua, having pro- 
cured a new patent in 1630, including all their improve- 
ments on both sides of the river. In 1634 they made a 
division of their property. Mason taking the west side of 
the river and Gorges the east side, each procuring distinct 
patents for their respective portions. The grant to Mason 
became New Hampshire ; that to Gorges, New Somerset- 
shire, afterwards changed to Maine. Gorges did not con- 
fine his attention exclusively to Piscataqua. In February, 

t 2 Hazen, p. 387. 


1623, we find that he had already the plantation established 
upon the island of Monhegan, referred to in the preceding 
chapter, which had been founded at a considerably earlier 
period, — some think before the landing of the Pilgrims. 
The plantation is admitted to have been in existence in 
1621, and how much earlier cannot be positively deter- 
mined. It was a well-known settlement in 1623, as is 
proven by the fact of the Plymouth colonists coming here 
for provisions in the winter of that year. 

3. On the 9th of November, 1626, the Council of Plym- 
outh granted to the New Plymouth Company a tract of 
land on the Kennebec, which was subsequently enlarged 
so as to include the Penobscot, the company having erected 
a trading-house on Bagaduce Point, at the mouth of that 
river. They also erected a trading-house on the Kennebec, 
in 1628, and supplied it with corn, and the necessary 
accommodations for trade up the river.* 

■i. In 1628, Thomas Purchase settled at Pejepscot Falls, 
now Brunswick, having, in connection with George Way, 
obtained a grant of land of the Plymouth Council. The 
name of Mr. Purchase appears frequently in the early 
political affairs of York County. He was a fisherman, and 
trader with the Indians, prior to the war of 1675. The 
land included in his patent subsequently passed into the 
hands of the Pejepscot proprietor's. I 

5. In 1628 the Massachusetts Bay Company procured 
a charter from the Council of Plymouth, and in June sent 
over Capt. John Endicott and a few associates to take pos- 
session of the grant. They arrived in September, at Maum- 
beag, now Salem, and laid the foundation of that respect- 
able town and the colony of Massachusetts Bay. 

6. In 1629, Aldworth and Elbridge sent over to Shurte 
a patent from the Council of Plymouth for twelve thousand 
acres of laud on Pemaquid. A settlement was made on 
the grant the same year, as appears from the wording of a 
subsequent grant. Thomas Elbridge, the son of Giles, the 
patentee, came over a few years after, and held court within 
this patent, to which " many of the inhabitants of Mon- 
hegan and Damariscove repaired, and made acknowledg- 
ment of submission.! This court was probably at a later 
date than the one held at Saco in 1635. 

7. On the 12th of February, 1629, the Council of Ply- 
mouth made two grants on the Saco River, each being four 
miles upon the sea aud extending eight miles into the 
country. The grant upon the west side of the river was 
made to John Oldman and Richard Vines Oldman had 
lived in the country six years, partly within the Plymouth 
and partly within the Massachusetts jurisdiction, and Vines 
had become acquainted with the country by frequent voyages 
to it, and by spending one winter in the place where his 
patent was situated. He took possession of his grant June 
25, 1630, and entered with zeal and ability into the means 
of converting it into a source of profit. This patent, in 
later years called the Biddeford patent, was the foundation 
of the present flourishing city of Biddeford. 

* 2 Prince, p. 62. f History of Brunswick. 

X In 1675 there were no less than one hundred and fifty-six fami- 
lies east of Sagadahock, and near one hundred fishing-vessels owned 
between Sagadahock and St. George',* River.— A',7rri;ii(« /7<,i/,' sinie- 
menl to the Council in 1675. 

The patent upon the east side of the river was given to 
Thomas Lewis and Richard Bonython. The patentees 
undertook to transport fifty settlers here in seven years at 
their own expense. Livery of seizin was given June 28, 
1631, and the proprietors in person successfully prosecuted 
the interest of their patent. This patent was the beginning 
of the settlement which has since grown into the prosperous 
city of Saco. This subject will be found more fully treated 
in the histories of Biddeford and Saco, farther on. 

8. In 1630 the colony of New Plymouth procured from 
the Council a tract of land fifteen miles wide on each side 
of the Kennebec, extending as far up as Cobbiscontee. 
Under this grant they carried on trade with the Indians 
upon the river for many years, and in 1660 sold the title, 
for £400, to Messrs. Tyng, Brattle, Boies, and Winslow.§ 

9. March 13, 1630, a grant was made to John Beau- 
champ, of London, and Thomas Leverett, of Boston, Eng- 
land, of ten leagues square between Muscougus, Broad 
Bay, and Penobscot Bay. Large preparations were imme- 
diately made for carrying on trade there, and agents were 
employed. This was originally called the Lincoln grant, 
and afterwards the Waldo patent, a large part of it having 
been held by Gen. Waldo, to whose heirs it descended. It 
now forms the county of Waldo. |] 

10. In 1630 the Council of Plymouth granted to John 
Dye and others forty miles square, lying between Cape 
Porpoise and Cape Elizabeth. This was named the Pro- 
vince of Lygonia,^ though commonly known as the 
'■ Plough patent," probably from the ship called the 
'• Plough," which brought over the first company. They 
arrived at Winter Harbor in the summer of 1631, in the 
ship " Plough," but not being satisfied with the prospects 
of the country, most of them continued on to Boston and 
Watertown, where they were soon broken up and scattered. 
In 1 643 the grant fell into the hands of Alexander Rigby, 
under whom a government was e.stablished, which will claim 
our attention farther on. The claim to soil and sovereignty 
in the Province of Lygonia, as it was called, occupies con- 
siderable space in the early history of this portion of Maine 
and of York County, and gave birth to a conflict with 
Gorges and his heirs, which was only finally settled by the 
submission of all the contestants to the authority of Massa- 
chusetts in 1653 and 1658. 

11. The next grant we meet with was that of Black 
Point, now Scarborough. This was made by the CouncQ 
of Plymouth to Thomas Cammock, Nov. 1, 1631. It ex- 
tended from Black Point River to the Spurwink and back, 
one mile from the sea. Cammock is supposed to have been 
a relative of the Earl of Warwick, one of the members of 
the Council. He was one of the company sent to Piscat- 
aqua, and was there as early as 1631. Possession of his 
grant, which included Stratton's Island, lying about a mile 
from the Point, was given him by Capt. Walter Neal, May 
23, 1633.** The patent was confirmed to him by Gorges 

§ Archives of Maine Historical Society. 

II Willis' History of Portland. 

^ From William Lygon, of Madresfield, Worcestershire, an ancestor 
of the Earl of Beauchamp, and father-in-law of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges. See Gorges Genealogy, chap, v., this work. 
«» York Records. 


in 1640. The same year he save a deed of it to Henry 
Jocelyn, to take effect after the death of him.self and wife. 
He died in the West Indies in 1643. Jocelyn married his 
widow, Margaret, and came into possession of the whole 
estate. The tract is now held under this title by convey- 
ances from Jocelyn to Joshua Scottow, July 6, 1666. 

12. Dec. 1, 1G31, the Council of Plymouth conveyed to 
Robert Trelawny and Moses Goodyeare, merchants of Plym- 
outh, England, the tract lying between Cammock's patent 
and the bay and river of Casco (^Fore River), extending 
northward into the mainland as far as the limits and 
bounds of the land granted to the said Thomas Cammock 
do and ought to extend.* This included Cape Elizabeth, 
but Winter, the agent of the proprietors, contended for a 
larger extent north, which, under the management of 
Winter's attorney and executor, Robert Jordan, led to a 
severe contest of many years' continuance. The limits 
claimed included nearly all of the ancient town of Falmouth 
and part of Gorham. The claim, after several attempts to 
establish it, was finally decided against Jordan, and wholly 
relinquished by his heirs. 

13. In 1634, Edward Godfrey procured of the Council 
of Plymouth a grant for himself and associates, Samuel 
Maverick, William Hooke, and others, of twelve thousand 
acres of land on the north side of the river Agamenticus. 
The same year another grant was made, of twelve thousand 
acres, on the south or west side of the river, to Ferdi- 
nando Gorges, grandson of Sir Ferdinando. 

Edward Godfrey had settled at Agamenticus (now York) 
in 1629, five years before his patent was obtained. He 
was for several years an agent for the Lacouia Company at 
Piscataqua. After he establishe'd himself in Maine his ac- 
tivity and intelligence soon brought him into notice. Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges appointed him a councilor of his prov- 
ince in 1640 ; in 1642 he was mayor of Gorgeana; he was 
chosen Governor by the people in the western part of the 
province in 1649, and was the first in Maine who exercised 
that office by election. He died about 1661. 

All the grants which we have thus briefly alluded to 
were made by the Council of Plymouth, notwithstanding 
the patent to Gorges and Mason of 1622, which nominally 
covered the whole territory. From this circumstance it is 
reasonable to conclude that the patent of 1G22 was unexe- 
cuted, and that no title passed by it. Such we find to be 
the fact. In the opinion of Sir William Jones, the attor- 
ney-general in 1679, it is stated that "the grant was only 
sealed with the Council seal, unwitnessed, no seizin endorsed, 
nor possession ever given with the grant.f It is obvious 
that the conveyance must have been incomplete, for Gorges 
himself was sitting at the council-board, and was a party to 
all the subsequent conveyances. Besides, he and Mason 
both procured new grants in 1630 to portions of the same 
territory lying on each side of the Piscataqua River. 

York Records. 

t 1 Hutchinson, 258; Hubbard, BU. 



Rulers Appointed by the Council of Plymouth— Operations of ijorges 
at Agamenticus — The Council Surrender their Charter — Government 
formed under William Gorges — First Courts at Saco — New Charter 
obtained by .''ir Ferdinando Gorges — Peculiarities of his Govern- 
ment over the Province of Maine. 

The first civil rulers in Maine were those sent over by 
the Council of Plymouth, — Robert Gorges, Francis West, 
and William Merrill, — who were invested with authority to 
superintend and manage all the public affairs of New Eng- 
land. Gorges was a son of Sir Ferdinando, an active, en- 
terprising man and a brilliant officer. He was commis- 
sioned lieutenant-general and governor-in-chief of the coun- 
try. His Council was to consist of Francis West, Christo- 
pher Leavitt, the Governor of New Plymouth, and such 
others as he might select. Francis West was commissioned 
admiral of New England, with special instructions to re- 
strain all unlicensed ships from fishing or trading within 
the limits of the Plymouth patent, or to exact penalties 
from all interlopers. He proceeded to execute his orders 
with so much rigor that the fishermen and traders revolted 
against his authority. He returned to England only to 
find that the mariners had preferred charges against him 
before Parliament for interfering with their rightful em- 
ployment, and had requested an order to make the fisheries 
entirely free. The Commons, being opposed to exclusive 
corporations created by the king, were ready to view the 
charter of the Plymouth Council as a public grievance. 
Sir Ferdinando was called to the bar of the House to an- 
swer for his management, and that of his associates. He 
defended the conduct of the Council with great spirit and 
ability. The matter was laid before the king, who refused 
to revoke the charter ; nevertheless, the Council, in defer- 
ence to public opinion, concluded to suspend their opera- 
tions, and call home the Governor. Thus, in about a year 
from its inauguration, the first attempt at a general govern- 
ment of the colonies proved a signal failure. 

Disappointed with the general state of affairs. Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges now turned his attention to the establishment 
of an independent colony at his own expense. He selected 
for his site the river Agamenticus, which afforded a good 
harbor at and above its mouth, on both sides of which he 
procured by patent from the Plymouth Council twelve 
thousand acres of land. The immediate management of the 
settlement was intrusted to William Gorges, his nephew, 
" a young gentleman of rank and ambition, and to Francis 
Norton, who, having risen by his own merits to a 
lieutenant-colonel, was desirous to perpetuate his fortune." 
Sir Ferdinando bestowed special attention on the new 
colony, and expended his fortune freely to promote its 
interests. He provided his first company of emigrants with 
every facility to make a successful beginning in a new 
country. The first company sent over by him embraced 
artisans, mechanics, and husbandmen. He supplied them 
with implements and machinery to clear away the forests, 
manufacture lumber, build mills and ships, and cultivate 
the soil. This settlement became in a few years the capi- 
tal of the province, and the first incorporated city on the 


continent of North America. The history of this city, 
however, and of the remarkable form of government estab- 
lished for the province, belong to a later period than that of 
which we are now speaking. 

The affairs of the Plymouth Council becoming compli- 
cated and wearisome to the corporators, they resolved to 
surrender their charter to the king. Before doing so, how- 
ever, they divided the territory of Maine between three of 
the patentees. Gorges' share extended from the Piscataqua 
to the Kennebec, or Sagadahock ; another portion lay be- 
tween Sagadahock and Pemaquid ; the third extended from 
Pemaquid to the St. Croix.* The proprietors of the two 
latter divisions are not named, and there appears to be no 
evidence that any occupation was had of them under this 
title. The prospect of trouble with the French at that 
period, who claimed as far west as the Kennebec, probably 
deterred the proprietors of these eastern grants from making 
any attempt to settle their patents. Gorges considered him- 
self peculiarly fortunate in securing that portion of the ter- 
ritory about which there was no dispute with the French.f 
In the instrument of surrender the Council provided for all 
existing titles made by them, and prayed the king to con- 
firm the grants which they had divided among themselves. 
These were recorded in a book which accompanied the sur- 
render. The division among the patentees was made by 
lot, on the 3d of February, 1635, the grant was executed 
April 22d, and on the 7th of June, following, the President 
and Council made a full transfer of their charter to the 
king. They, at the same time, urged upon the king the 
necessity of taking away the charter of Massachusetts Bay, 
and of appointing from among the lords proprietors a gen- 
eral governor for the whole country. This met with some 
favor, and probably would have been done but for the 
breaking out of the civil war in England, which soon 

We have now only to follow the history of one division 
of this great charter, viz., that granted to Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, which embraced the original pi-ovince of Maine 
extending from the Piscataqua to the Kennebec. Gorges 
lost no time in improving his acquisition. To his province 
he gave the name of New Somersetshire, from the county 
in England in which his estates were situated. He sup- 
posed that his patent conveyed to him, with the soil, the 
sovereignty or right of government which the company 
possessed before their dissolution. Hence, to organize and 
establish an administration of justice, he sent over in 1635, 
or early in 1636, William Gorges, his nephew, in the ca- 
pacity of Governor. He is described as " a man of sense 
and intelligence, equal to the importance of the trust." 
He entered upon the duties of his office at Saco, then the 
most flourishing and probably the oldest settlement in the 
province.^ Gorges commenced his administration at the 
dwelling-house of Richard Bonython, situated not far from 

51 Gorges' Narrative. 

t The French continued in possession of the Penobscot till a.d. 
1664.— W«(cAi'.i«o7i, p. 49; 1 H'lV/inmsoii, 264. 

J " It had now enjoyed a form of government several years, which 
might originally have been a social compact or voluntary combination 
for mutual safety and convenience. In the mean time Richard Vines 
had officiated as Governor and Richard Bonython as assistant." — Wil- 
liameon. ii. 264. 

the shore on the east side of Saco River. Here he opened 
a court March 28, 1636 ; present, Richard Bonython, 
Thomas Cammock, Henry Jocelyn, Thomas Purchase, Ed- 
ward Godfrey, and Thomas Lewis, Commissioners. This 
was the first organized government established within the 
irreseut State of Maine. 

" The court was continued for several days. T. Williams was 
bound in the sum of £100, with sureties, to answer to the suit of Mr. 
T. Lewis at the next General Court, and a sufScient jury of this 
Province returned to try the same. There were several actions, — 
Mrs. Joan Vines rs. Bonython and Lewis, about planting corn ; W. 
deadlock IS. M. Howell, debt; T.Page vs. 3. Richmond, trespass; 
and there were orders passed against drunkenness, against mischievous 
Indians," etc.J 

" The Governor," says Williamson, •' in the discharge of Ms official 
duties, found it necessary to look into the concerns and conditions of 
the several settlements in the Province, which, including the one at 
Saco, consisted of si>. I. Agamenticus, a place of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges' particular patronage, originally settled by husbandmen and 
artisans, twelve or thirteen years before, had assumed the appearance 
of prosperity, with a slow but gradual increase of inhabitants. II. 
The Piscataqua Settlement or plantation, consisting of families scat- 
tered from Kittery Point to Newichawannock and the northern Isles 
of Shoals, were variously employed, though principally in the fish- 
eries and lumber business. These were first under the superintend- 
ence of Walter Neal, then Francis Williams, till the arrival of William 
Gorges. III. Black Point Settlement, begun about six or seven years 
before by Thomas Cammock, Henry Jocelyn, and Mr. Gains, con- 
sisted of several houses, and included Stratton's Island. IV. The 
Lygonia Plantation, which embraced Richmond's Island and most 
of the patent of Robert Trelawny and Moses Goodyeare, undertaken 
six years previously and deserted the succeeding summer by most 
planters under the * Plough patent.' The inhabitants consisted 
principally of fishermen, hunters, .and traders, whose dwelling-places 
were iit Spurwink, Purpooduck, and on the peninsula, collectively 
called at the time Casco. Thomas Bradbury and George Cleaves had 
agencies under Gorges in 1636-.37, and John Winter, as early as 1631, 
was the active agent here of Trelawny and Goodyeare. V. The Pe- 
jepscot Settlements, originating in the enterprise of Thomas Purchase 
and George Way, who established their residencej at the head of 
Stevens' River, a.d. 1624-25,1[ consisted at this time of a very few 
habitations. They claimed on both sides of the Androscoggin to the 
falls; southwardly to Maquoit; also the Merriconeag peninsula, Se- 
bascodegan, and other islands, upon which there might possibly have 
been several stages for fishermen. VI. The people residing within 
the Kennebec patent, who were under the jurisdiction of New 

The government under William Gorges existed less than 
two years. It was really without a basis of authority upon 
which to rest ; for the grant from the Plymouth Council 
conveyed no right of civil jurisdiction to the grantee. The 
Council itself had possessed this right by virtue of its char- 
ter, but it was not transferable with grants made under its 

At this time the increasing troubles in Church and State 
in England, and the growing strength and influence of the 
Puritan colonies, aroused the fears of the king, and he de- 
termined to establish a strong government over New Eng- 
land. The man whom he selected out of all his realm to 
place at the head of this government was Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, whom he appointed Governor-General in 1638. The 
charter of Massachusetts was the only formidable barrier 
to the successful inauguration of this scheme, and the king 
resolved peremptorily to dispose of that ; he, therefore, com- 

I Folsom's Saco and Biddeford. 

II George Way, though associated with Purchase ii 
'as a resident of Pejepscot. 

U Purchase settled \62i.— History of Brunswick. 


manded the authorities to surrender it, or they must expect 
a total dissolution of the corporation. The reply which 
they made, or at least a certain sentence in it, opened the 
eyes of Gorges to the true situation of things more than 
any other argument could have done : " If our charter be 
taken away, and we be dissolved, we must leave our habi- 
tations for some other place, and the whole country will fall 
into the possession of the French on the one hand, or the 
Dutch on the other." He saw that the Massachusetts gov- 
ernment was the principal barrier to the encroachments of 
the French. To weaken it would be to encourage the pre- 
tensions of D'Aulney and endanger the safety of his own 
province. Hence, he declined to accept of the situation of 
Governor-General, although flattering to his personal am- 
bition. Abandoning this object, he now devoted his ener- 
gies to the single purpose of obtaining a royal charter for 
the government of his province. He succeeded in obtain- 
ing one, the privileges of which ought to have been sufli- 
cient to satisfy any ambition, so far as the extraordinary and 
almost unlimited powers which it granted were concerned. 

This memorable charter bears date April 3, 1639. It 
embraced, as did the former grant, the country between the 
Piscataqua and the Kennebec, extending northwestward 
into the country one hundred and twenty miles, including 
the northern half of the Isles of Shoals, the islands Capa- 
woek and Nautican, near Cape Cod, and all the islands and 
inlets within five leagues of the main, along the coast, be- 
tween said rivers of Piscataqua and Sagadahock. By this 
charter the territory and the inhabitants upon it were in- 
corporated into a body politic and named The Province 
OR CoUNTT OF Maine, — the name being given, it is 
thought, in compliment to the queen, who had an estate of 
the same name in France.* 

We quote the following respecting the powers of this 
charter from Williamson's History of Maine : 

" Sir Ferdinando, his heirs and assigns, were made absolutely Lords 
Proprietors of the province, excepting the supreme dominion, faith, 
and allegiance due to the crown, and a right to e.\aet yearly a quart 
of wheat and a fifth of the profits arising from pearl-fishing and from 
gold and silver mines. 

"The articles of faith and forms of ecclesiastical government used 
by the Church of England were established ; and to the proprietary 
was given the patronage of all churches and chapels, and the right of 
dedicating them according to English usages. 

■'In concurrence with a majority of freeholders, or their represen- 
tatives, assembled for legislation, the proprietor was authorized to 
establish any laws or orders which the people's good required, — ex- 
tending for sufficient cause to life or member, and conforming as far 
as practicable to those of England. Likewise to him, as proprietary 
Governor, belonged the power to erect courts of justice, civil and ec- 
clesiastical, for determining all manner of causes by sea or land : to 
appoint judges, justices, magistrates, and their offices, and to displace 
them; to prescribe their respective jurisdictions; and to frame the 
oaths to be taken by officers and witnesses. Also to him, or his deputy, 
appeals were generally allowed in all cases whatsoever, which could 
in England be carried before the king. 

" The executive powers of the Lord Proprietor, or deputy Governor, 
were plenary. He had the appointment of all executive, military, 
and ministerial officers, life-tenants, and deputies; the pardon of all 
offenders and offenses, and the execution of the laws. To provide 
suitably for emergencies, when assemblies of freeholders for making 
laws could not be convened, he had power by his deputy or magistrates 

* The name may have been of earlier origin, derived from the ex- 
pression "the Main," in distinction from the many islands along the 
shore, which is common among the old authors. 

to establish all fit and wholesome resolutions and orders, provided they 
did not extend to any person's life, freehold, or chattels. ' Whereas 
the Province,' in the language of the charter, ' is seated among many 
barbarous nations,' and has been sometimes invaded by them, by 
pirates, and others, it is ordained that the Lord Proprietor be invested 
with the amplest authority to arm all his provincials in defense, and 
to fortify, resist, conquer, and recapture in all cases according to his 
pleasure and the laws of war; and, also, amidst all hostilities or 
tumults, to execute martial law, as fully as any of the king's captain- 
generals could do within the realm.' He had a right to build or 
establish aji many cities, boroughs, and towns as he chose; to grant 
them charters of incorporation, appoint markets, and prescribe tolls. 
He likewise of right designated the ports of entry rated and took 
to himself the duties on imports, and yet his provincials have only to 
pay in England, on their export thither, the same customs paid by 
natural-born citizens of the realm. All English subjects had free 
privilege to take fish in .any of the w.aters of the province. ... To 
the Lord Proprietor belonged all waifs, wrecks, escheats, and the 
estates of pirates and felons, whenever liable to seizure or forfeiture ; 
also admiralty jurisdiction, so that all maritime causes arising in the 
province, or within twenty leagues of it, were subject to his adjudica- 
tion, under the paramount authority of the English Lord High Ad- 

We will quote no further ; enough has been given to 
show the spirit of the charter. " The government which he 
formed under it was unique. Retaining the supreme exec- 
utive power in his own hands, he chose to appoint a council 
of seven members of his own selection, and to provide for 
a popular branch consisting of representatives chosen by 
counties. The commissions to the councilors, together 
with an exact transcript of the charter and a code of ordi- 
nances and instructions, under his hand and seal, Sept. 2, 
1639, were transmitted to the province with a request to 
the council to proceed in the execution of their trust with- 
out delay, and to read the whole at the opening session, so 
that the people of the province might know how they were 
to be governed. After waiting six months and receiving 
no intelligence of the arrival of the papers, he carefully 
executed a duplicate set, somewhat enlarged and improved, 
March 10, 16-tO, which were duly received and became the 
foundation of his government. 

The permanent councilors appointed were Thomas Gor- 
ges, deputy Governor; Richard Vines, of Saco ; Henry 
Jocelyn, of Black Point; Francis Champernoon, of Kit- 
tery ; Richard Bonython, of Saco ; William Hooke, of 
Agamenticus ; and Edward Godfrey, of Piscataqua, 

There were seven general provincial officers, as follows : 
The deputy Governor was the president of the board, and 
chief magistrate under the Lord Proprietor, and held his 
office for three years ; the chancellor was appointed to de- 
termine all differences between parties in matters of equity ; 
the marshal had the command and management of the 
militia, and was invested with power to hold courts by a 
judge-marshal, where all military cases of honor or arms, 
capital as well as technical, were to be tried ; the treasurer 
received and disbursed the public revenue ; the admiral had 
charge of all naval forces, and either by himself or his lieu- 
tenant, or a subordinate judge, determined all maritime 
causes ; the master of ordnance took charge of all public 
military stores, both for the sea and land service ; the sec- 
retary was the Lord Proprietor's and Council's official corre- 
spondent and keeper of the province seal, which he was to 
impress upon all the receipts and processes of that body. 

The councilors, besides taking the oath of allegiance 


according to the form prescribed in England, were also to 
take an oath in the words following : 

" I do swear to be a faithful servant and councilor unto Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges, knight, my Lord of the Province of Maine, to his heirs 
and assigns ; to do and perform all dutiful respects to him or them 
belonging, conceal their counsels, and without respect of persons to 
give my opinion in all cases according to my conscience and best un- 
derstanding, both as I am a judge for hearing causes and otherwise; 

freely to give my opinion as 1 

I councilor for matters of the State or 
Commonwealth ; and that I will not conceal from him and his Council 
any matter of conspiracy or mutinous practice against my said lord, 
his heirs and assigns : but will instantly after my knowledge thereof 
discover the same unto him and his said Council, and seek to prevent 
it, and by all means prosecute the authors thereof with all severity, 
according to justice." 

The Council were directed to appoint a clerk or register 
to record their proceedings, and a provost-marshal to exe- 
cute their precepts, judgments, and sentences, who was to 
be provided at the public charge with a suitable building 
for the confinement of prisoners. It was also enjoined 
upon them to hold their court regularly on a stated day 
every month, and in a place most central and convenient 
for the inhabited parts of the province. The jurisdiction 
of the Council extended to all cases both civil and criminal. 
In addition to the seven standing councilors who constituted 
the Supreme Court of judicature, there were to be elected 
eight deputies by the freeholders of the several counties as 
representatives in behalf of the country, who were authorized , 
in virtue of their places, to sit in the General Court as as- 
sistant members, and give their opinions according to right 
and justice. These fifteen formed the legislative branches 
of the government, and without the advice and consent of 
the whole, duly assembled, no measure could become a law. 
For the administration of justice in each county and the 
maintenance of the public peace, a lieutenant and eight 
justices were to be appointed by the executive, and these, 
in session, were to appoint two head constables for each 
hundred, and for each parish one constable and four tithing- 
men. No provision was made for public institutions nor 
for schools. 



First Court under the Charter— York County Records^Agamenticus 
Incorporated — City Government — Revolution in England — Con- 
federate Alliance of the Colonies — Maine refused admission on 
Religious Grounds— Revolt of the Northern Isles of Shoals. 

The first General Court under the charter was opened at 
Saco, on the 25th of June, 1640, and held by four of the 
council, viz., Richard Vines, Richard Bonython, Henry 
Jocelyn, and Edward Godfrey. They called themselves 
" Councillors of Sir Perdinando Gorges, for the preserva- 
tion of justice through his Province." Thomas Gorges had 
not yet arrived in the country. The members present took 
the qualifying oath and proceeded to business. They ap- 
pointed Roger Garde, of Agamenticus, Clerk or Register ; 
Robert Sankey, of Saco, Provost-Marshal ; Nicholas Frost, 
of Piscataqua, Michael Mitten, of Casco, and John Wil- 
kinson, of Black Point, Constables for those places. At 
the first session there were eighteen civil actions, and eight 

complaints. At this court George Cleaves, who had taken 
up two thousand acres at Spurwink, on the promise, as he 
claimed, of a grant from Gorges, and had been ejected and 
removed to Falmouth Neck, brought suit against John 
Winter in two actions, for intrusion and trespass, in taking 
possession under the patent to Trelawny and Goodyeare, and 
recovered. John Winter, the agent of Trelawny and Good- 
yeare, who was a large trader on Richmond's Island, was 
also indicted for taking a premium of more than five per 
cent, upon the cost of his merchandise. There were sev- 
eral civil actions brought, among which were the following : 
A. Browne vs. Thomas Purchase, for slander, — verdict five 
pounds; R. Gibson vs. J. Bonython, for slander, — verdict 
six pounds, six shillings, six pence. 

It is said that policy dictated the holding of the first 
court at Saco, for the purpose of exercising jurisdiction over 
the territory claimed by the Lygonia patentees, although 
the people of Agamenticus and Piscataqua felt disappointed, 
and complained of the distance as a grievance. 

The Council, in deciding to hold the court at Saco, were 
also justified on the ground of their instructions, which re- 
quired them to select a situation the most central. Taking 
into consideration the most eastern settlement at Pejepscot 
and the most western at Piscataqua, within the province, 
the situation at Saco was certainly well chosen. Never- 
theless, in view of the fact that the western people had 
expected Agamenticus to be the seat of government, the 
Council determined to hold a session there also, and to re- 
quire the settlers at Piscataqua (Kitteryj to attend at Saco 
only on the annual election days in June. 

Thomas Gorges arrived in the summer of 1G40, com- 
missioned by the Lord Proprietor deputy Governor of 
the Province. " He was a young gentleman who had re- 
ceived a law education at the Inns Court in Westminster, 
whose abilities, qualities of heart, sobriety of manners, and 
liberal education qualified him well for the office. His in- 
structions were to consult and counsel with the magistrates 
of Massachusetts as to the general course of administra- 
tion expedient to be pursued ; and such were his own reso- 
lutions that he determined to discharge the duties of his 
office with fidelity and promptitude." 

At this time, at Agamenticus, was a notorious character 
named George Burdett. He was noted for his lewdness 
and misconduct generally, and yet he was a man of a cer- 
tain kind of political influence. He had been a minister 
in Yarmouth, England, and also in Salem, Mass., whence 
he removed to the upper plantation of New Hampshire, 
and, by his ability at intrigue, succeeded in 1636 in sup- 
planting Thomas Wiggin, the Governor, and obtaining the 
office himself His true character being soon exposed, he 
fled to Agamenticus and took up there the functions of a 
minister. He was exercising these functions, together with 
practices debasing to public morals, when he was arrested 
by order of the deputy Governor for breaches of the sev- 
enth commandment, and bound over to answer for his crimes 
at the next Councilor's Court at Saco. At this session of 
the court, which commenced September 7th, Mr. Gorges 
presided, juries were impaneled, and justice was regularly 
administered. At this session there were pending about 
forty cases, thirteen being indictments. 


We give the following from the records of this court, 
which are still preserved. It may be well to premise that 
these records were originally made upon books of one or 
more fjuires of paper, stitched together, and without any 
covering of parchment or strong paper to preserve them 
from injury. Prior to 1774, they had no marks to dis- 
tinguish them, but at that date Hon. David Sewall, of York, 
upon examining them for mere curiosity, lettered them re- 
spectively, A, B, C, and so on as far as G. These books, 
known as the " York County Records," are the oldest col- 
lection of records in the State, and among the oldest in New 
England, and are of great interest for the light they shed 
upon the history of those early times. They are a mixture 
of legislative and judicial orders and decisions, of a criminal 
and civil nature, interspersed with inventories of estates of 
intestates, wills, accounts of administrators, and the like, 
made by the clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, in whose 
custody they were kept before the Revolution, in an old 
chest, with other papers belonging to the oifice. They are 
now in the oifice of the clerk of the Judicial Courts, in the 
County of York, at Alfred. 


"8th September, 16411, General Coiivt at Saeo. Befoio Thomas 
Gorges, Richard Vines, Richard Bonighton, Henry Josselin, and Ed- 
mund Godfrey. 

"Mary the wife of George Puddington of Agamenticus is here In- 
dicted by the whole Bench for often frequenting the House and com- 
jiany of Mr. George Burdett, minister of Agamenticus aforesaid, 
privately in his bed-chamber and elsewhere in a very suspicious man- 
ner, notwithstanding the said Mary was often forewarned thereof, by 
her said Husband, and the Constable of the said Plantation with 
divers others ; and for abusing her said Husband to the great dis- 
turbance and scandall of the said plantation, contrary to the peace of 
our Sovereign Lord the King. This Enquest find liiUa vem. 

" Whereupon the Court enjoyneth the said Mary to make this pub- 
lick confession, here in this Court, and likewise at Agamenticus afore- 
said wh^ she shall be thereto called by the Worship'l Thomas Gorges 
and Edmund Godfrey, two of the Cotmcellors of this Province. Her 
confessions followeth. 

"I Mary Puddington, do hereby acknowledge that I have dishon- 
oured God the place where I live, and wronged my Husband by my 
disobedience and light carriage for which I am heartily sorry, and 
desire forgiveness of this Court, and of my Husband, and do promise 
amendment of life and manners henceforth; and having made this 
confession to ask her husband forgiveness on her knees. 

"Mr. George Burdett minister of Agamenticus is Indicted by the 
whole Bench for a man of ill name and fame, Infamous for inconti- 
nency, a Publisher and Broacher of divers dangerous speeches, the 
better to seduce that weak sex of women to his Incontinent practices 
contrary to the peace of our Sovereign Lord the King, as by Deposi- 
tions and Evidences. This Enquest find BHUi ocra. 

"Whereupon the said George Burdett is fined by the Bench for 
this his offence ten pounds sterling to our Sovereign Lord ye King. 

"Mr. George Burdett is also Indited by the whole Bench for De- 
flowering Ruth the wife of John Gouch of Agamenticus aforesaid 
as by depositions and evidence appeareth, contrary to the Peace of 
our Sovereign Lord the King. This Enquest find Billa t-eru. 

" Whereupon the said George Burdett is fined by the bench for this 
his oflTence Twenty Pounds Sterling to our Sovereign Lord the King. 

" Mr. George Burdett being found guilty by the grand Enquest for 
entertaining Mary the wife of George Puddington in his House as by 
the first Indictment against the said George Burdett appeareth, is 
therefore fined by this Bench Ten Pounds Sterling to the said George 
Puddington for those his wrongs and Damage sustained by the said 
George Burdett. ]iage 29. 

" Ruth the wife of John Gouch being found guilty by the grand 
Inquest of Ailultcry with Mr. George Burdett is therefore censured Ijy 
this Court, that six weeks after she is delivered of child, she shall 

stand in a white sheet publickly in the Congregation at Agamenticus 
two several Sabbath Days, and likewise one day at this (general Court 
when she shall be thereunto called, by the Councellors of this Prov- 
ince, according to his majesty's laws in that case provided. 

"At a general Court held at Saco September ITth 1640. It is 
ordered by this Court, that in regard of the great Damage the Inhab- 
itsints of this Province do sustain thro' the loss of their cattle by the 
devouring Wolves, that from henceforth if any one shall kill any wolf 
between Pascattaqua and Kenebunk, the partie so killing them shall 
have 7'wcfrc jieuce for every wolf so killed from every Family between 
Konnebunk and Sagadahock, for every Wolf so killed within those 
limits, and that the partie killing any Wolves (repairing to the next 
Councellor of this Province within said Limits,) shall have order for 
taking up of the said money. 

" It is ordered by this Court that the Worshipful! Thos. Gorges 
and Edward Godfrey Councellors of this Province shall order all the 
Inhabitants from Piscatiqua lo Kennebunk, which have any children 
unbaptized, that as soon as a minister is settled in any of their plan- 
tations, they bring their said children to Baptism, and if any shall 
refuse to submit to the said order, that then the partie so refusing 
shall be summoned to .answer this their contempt at the next General 
Court to be holdiu in this province." 

Upon the establishment of the Gorges government the 
province was divided into two districts east and west of the 
Kennebunk River. The western gradually acquired the 
name of York and the eastern was commonly called Somer- 
set, or New Somerset. For the former, terms of the Infe- 
rior Court were appointed to be holden at Agamenticus 
three times a year, and for the latter three terms annually 
at Saco. It was also ordered that henceforth there shall be 
one General Court holden at Saco for the whole province of 
Maine every year on the 25tb of June, or on the next day, 
if that should fall on the Sabbath. Other sessions of the 
General Court could be convened at the discretion of the 
Council. The Inferior Courts had no jurisdiction in capi- 
tal felonies nor in civil actions involving titles to lands. 

The energetic measures of the administration gave general 
satisfaction throughout the province, excepting in the settle- 
ment upon the northern bank of Piscataqua, where some dis- 
content appears to have prevailed. Disinclined to acknowledge 
the jurisdiction of Gorges' charter, yet complaining of the 
great evils they had suffered from the want of civil govern- 
ment, they entered into a social compact Oct. 22, 1640, and 
by articles to which Richard and William Waldron, Thomas 
Larkham, and thirty-eight others were subscribers, com- 
bined them.selves into a body politic for the free exercise 
and preservation of their civil rights. They professed to 
be the king's loyal subjects, and said they should observe 
his laws in connection with those of their own making till 
he .should give them further orders.* The compact soon 
fell asunder, and we find the leaders of this pure democracy, 
Waldron and Larkham, soon after at Dover, N. H., where 
they probably went to participate in a government more 
liberal than that of Gorges. 

Sir Ferdinando, in his special patronage of Agamenticus, 
gave it a charter of incorporation, by which he erected it 
into a borough. It embraced the territory three miles 
every way from the " church, chapel, or oratory of the 
plantation," and invested the " burgesses" or inhabitants 
with powers to elect annually a mayor and eight aldermen, 
and to hold estate to any amount. Thomas Gorges was 
first mayor, and the aldermen were Edward Godfrey, Roger 

s Hazen, p. 482 ; Hubbard's New England, p. 222. 


Garde, George Puddington, Bartholoiuew Barnett, Edward 
Johnson, Arthur Bragdon, Henry Simjison, and John 
Rogers. The mayor and the board were authorized to make 
by-laws, to erect fortifications, and to hold courts in the 
" Town Hall" once in three weeks, for the trial of misde- 
meanors and all civil causes. 

The inhabitants, in the enjoyment of these exclusive 
privileges, were jealous of the jurisdiction of the General 
Court, and when that body convened at Saco in June, 16-41, 
and was opened by the deputy Governor, and councilors 
Vines, Bonython, Jocelyn, and Godfrey, three of the alder- 
men and a delegate from the burgesses appeared and pre- 
sented a special memorial, declarative of their corporate 
rights and duties, giving assent to the authority of the gen- 
eral government of Gorges, and at the same time protesting 
against any infringement of their borough-privileges. The 
memorial is as follows, copied from the York Records : 

" Leaf 19. Whereas, divers privileges have heretofore bin granted 
to the Patentees and Inhabitants of Agamenticus, as by several pat- 
ents doth and may appear,, we whose names are here subscribed, being 
deputed for and in behalf of the said Inhabitants, do in behalf of our- 
selves and those we are deputed for pi-otest as followeth : That our 
appearance at this Court shall be no prejudice to any grants or privi- 
leges which we now enjoy or ought to enjoy by Virtue of the said 
Patents or otherwise, and that whatsoever we shall do or transact in 
this Court shall be, saving this Protestation. Notwithstanding we 
do humbly acknowledge his Majesty's Grant of the Provincial Patent 
to Sir Ferdinaudo trorges, and humbly submit ourselves thereunto so 
far as by law we are bound. We also desire that a copy of this Prot- 
estation may be taken by some Notary or other officer of this Court, 
here to be recorded. 

" Edw. Johssox, Geo. Puddisgtox, 
"JoHX Baker, BAiixno'w B.vrnett, 
" Deputies for the InJinlitniits of Agamenticus. 

" It was ordered at this Court by Richard Tines, Richard Bony- 
thon, Henry Jocelyn, and Eilward Godfrey, Esq'rs, Councilors for 
this Province, that the Government now established in Agamenticus 
shall so remain until such time as the said Councilors have Certified 
the Lord of the Province thereof and heard again from him Concern- 
ing his further pleasure therein." 

Sir Ferdinando's " farther pleasure therein" proved to 
be the enlargement of the corporate privileges of Agamen- 
ticus. Determined now to erect the borough into a city, 
he executed another and more perfect charter, March 1, 
1641, by which he incorporated a territory of twenty-one 
square miles, and the inhabitants upon it, into a body 
politic, conferring upon it the dignity of his own name, — 
" Gorgeana." The territory of the city " lay, in the form 
of a parallelogram, on the northern side of the river Aga- 
menticus, extending up seven miles from its mouth, and a 
league upon the sea-shore." The government consisted of 
a mayor, twelve aldermen, twenty-four common councilmen, 
and a recorder, elected annually, March 25th, by the free- 
holders. The mayor and aldermen were ex-officio justices, 
and had the appointment of four sergeants, whose insignia 
of oiEce was a white rod, and whose duty it was to serve 
all judicial processes. The first city mayor was Edward 
Godfrey ; the aldermen were probably those under the for- 
mer charter.* Mr. Godfrey affirmed that " he had been a 
promoter of this colony of New England from a.d. 1609, 
and above thirty-two years an adventurer in that design." 

The population of Gorgeana at this time consisted of about 
three hundred souls, but Gorges was actuated by great ex- 

Williamson, p. 289. 

pectations and generous designs : his ambition was to found 
a prosperous and successful colony, and to organize and 
establish a capital commensurate with his general plan of 
government. To this end he labored earnestly, adopted 
the policy which he thought best adapted to promote the 
general welfare, and expended liberally of his own private 
fortune to build up settlements, and to increase the com- 
merce of the province. If he erred, it was in not perceiving 
more clearly the signs of the times in which he lived, and 
the tendency, both in England and in the colonies, to a 
more liberal and democratic system of government than 
that which he had so laboriously and ingeniously planned. 
But he was a loyalist, and a zealous churchman, and had 
already taken part on the side of the king, in the struggle 
going on in the mother-country. 

" More than ten years the city of Gorgeana acted in a 
corporate capacity, making some grants of land, and man- 
aging affairs in a manner most beneficial to the interests of 
the people. As the mother-country was in a revolutionary 
state, the Province of Maine might have been an asylum 
for loyalists and Episcopalians, and some such, without 
doubt, emigrated from the flames of civilwar enkindled in 
England. But the provincial government was not suffi- 
ciently settled, energetic, and methodical to secure confidence 
to a great extent." The revolution in England added 
largely to the accessions of wealth and population in the 
colonies. jMassachusetts rose rapidly to an ascendency in 
her political character over the other colonies. New Hamp- 
shire sought an alliance with her in 1642, and was admitted 
to a political union, which lasted thirty-eight years. The 
first portion of Maine which submitted to her jurisdiction 
was the Pejepscot tract, or grant, which was assigned to her 
Governor, John Wiiithrop, by conveyance from Thomas 
Purchase, executed Aug. 22, 1639. In this instrument 
was conceded to the government of Massachusetts the same 
power and jurisdiction as she possessed within the limits of 
her own charter, and, in return, the protection of the gov- 
ernment was pledged to Purchase and his associates. 

The acts of the Massachusetts Colony were viewed by 
many of the malcontents of Maine as unwarranted stretches 
of power, and often, in repayment for their severe strictures, 
some of them received retaliatory treatment, but too severe. 
A sermon, preached by Rev. Mr. Larkham, of Dover, New 
Hampshire (then under Massachusetts), against hirelings, 
was an evident aim at Rev. Richard Gibson, of Maine, and 
gave him great umbrage. He was an Episcopalian, a good 
scholar, a popular .speaker, and highly esteemed as a min- 
ister, especially by the settlers and fishermen at Richmond's 
Island, and on the Isles of Shoals, among whom he had 
been for some time preaching. He, in reply, wrote an 
insulting letter to Mr. Larkham, and likewise accused Mas- 
sachusetts of usurpation in endeavoring to rule over the 
Isles of Shoals. In this state of irritation Gibson provoked 
the islanders, in 1642, to revolt, and submit to Gorges' 
government, several of the cluster being included in his 
charter. But he was glad to escape the indignation of that 
colony by making an humble acknowledgment, and, per- 
haps, promising that the islanders should be urged by him 
to return to their allegiance.f 

t Hubbard's New England, p. 331 ; quoted by Williamson. 


On the 19th of May, 1643, while the English House of 
Commons was peculiarly favorable to the Republican and 
Puritan portion of the colonies, Massachusetts, Plymouth, 
Connecticut, and New Haven seized the opportunity to 
form a confederacy, by which they entered into a compact 
to afford each other mutual advice and assistance on all 
necessary occasions. Among the reasons assigned for this 
union were the dependent condition of the colonists ; the 
vicinity of the Dutch and French, who were inclined to 
make encroachments ; the hostile appearance of the neigh- 
boring Indians ; the commencement of civil contests in the 
parent country, the impracticability of obtaining from 
thence suitable aid in any emergency ; and the union al- 
ready formed by the sacred ties of religion.* The Province 
of Maine, being under rulers of Episcopal tenets, could not 
be admitted to this union. 

Governor Gorges was far from taking pleasure in the 
present aspect of his provincial affairs. The renewal of 
difiSculties with the French, the restlessness of the Indians, 
and, above all, the revival of the proprietary claim to Ly- 
gonia, all served to render his situation anything but 
encouraging, and he resolved to retire from the government 
at the end of the three years for which he had been com- 



Purchase of the Lygonia Patent — George Cleaves, Deputy President 
— Conflict between the Rigby and Gorges Governments — Contro- 
versy decided in favor of Rigby — General Assembly of the Province 
of Lygonia — Life and Character of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. 

The success of the Republicans in England, in 1643, 
brought again Lygonia, or the Plough patent, into notice. 
The eastern parts of the territory had been progressively 
settling thirteen years, and several places within its limits 
had become of considerable importance. Alexander Rigby, 
a high Republican, and member of the Long Parliament, 
became the purchaser of the original grant and charter, in 
the full determination to assume possession of the country 
and of the reins of government. He commissioned George 
Cleaves, then in England, his deputy president, and directed 
him to immediately take upon himself the administration of 
affairs. Cleaves had been for thirteen years a resident at 
Spurwiuk and on Falmouth Neck, now Portland, and was 
well aware of the resistance he might have to encounter 
from the Gorges government, which had for six or seven 
years exercised undisputed jurisdiction over Lygonia. 
Cleaves, however, had calculated on the assistance of 
Massachusetts to establish him in power ; and accordingly, 
on arriving in Boston, in 1644, he submitted the matter 
to the advice of the magistrates, and besought their inter- 
position. They prudently declined to interfere in the affair. 
Cleaves returned to Falmouth Neck, and about this time 
Governor Gorges returned to England.f 

^' This union lasted forty years. 

t The government residence of Gorges while in the province was 
about a mile above Trafton's Ferry, near Gorges' Point : the cellar of 
his dwelling-honse remains to this day. 

Cleaves called a convention, and organized a form of 
government at Casco. But his every movement encoun- 
tered the unqualified opposition of the Gorges government. 
Vines convened the Council at Saco : in the consideration 
of the subject, they thought the patent of Lygonia could 
possess no powers of government since the dissolution of 
the charter, whereas Gorges had obtained a royal charter 
from his majesty, and by his officers and agents had exer- 
cised a continued jurisdiction over the province for many 

On the other hand, Cleaves could show the original 
patent to Dye and others, executed in 1630, a possession 
taken soon afterwards under it, a deed of the late assign- 
ment to Higby, and satisfactory evidence that, when the 
Plymouth Council was dissolved, there was a reservation of 
all prior grants and existing rights. Still, to avoid a rup- 
ture, he sent his friend Tucker to Saco with a proposal of 
submitting the controversy to the magistrates of Massa- 
chusetts, and abiding their decision till a final one should 
arrive from England. Vines had the messenger arrested 
and thrown into prison, and he was not permitted to depart 
till he had given bonds for his good behavior and his ap- 
pearance at the next court at Saco. 

The course of Vines in this respect was severely censured. 
Cleaves made a representation of the facts to the Massa- 
chusetts authorities, and requested them to espouse his 
cause. He and the chief men of Rigby's province also 
sent to the commissioners of the united colonies a written 
proposition, signed by some thirty, in which they requested 
that Lygonia might become a member of the confederacy. 
This was objected to on several grounds. The province of 
Lygonia, they said, had no settled and well-organized gov- 
ernment. She had not complied with an important article 
of the confederation, which was that no colony while ad- 
hering to the Episcopal Church communion of England 
could he admitted to membership. Rigby himself was a 
zealous Episcopahan and a friend to the hierarchy, although 
a good Republican commoner in Parliament, and most of his 
provincials were of the same sentiments.^ 

At length — both parties agreeing to submit the contro- 
versy to their arbitrament — the Massachusetts magistrates 
appointed June 3, 1645, as a day for hearing the case. 
Cleaves and Tucker appeared in behalf of Rigby, and 
Jocelyn and Robinson in defense of the Gorges govern- 
ment. The trial was before a jury, duly impaneled. Cleaves 
was unable to show a sufficient assignment to Rigby, the 
one produced being executed by a minority of the patentees ; 
nor could he make it appear by legal proof that the terri- 
tory in controversy fell within Rigby's patent. The de- 
fendants were in a similar predicament, for they could only 
produce a copy of Gorges' charter, attested by witnesses, 
without any verification upon oath or official certificate. 
The court, therefore, dismissed the cause, advising the dis- 
putants to live in peace till a decision could come from the 
proper authorities. The contest remained undecided for 
two years. § 

j " The Province of Maine was not admitted into the confederacy: 
the people ran a diflfereut course from us both in the ministry and in 
L-ivil administration." — Winthrop's Journal, p. 275. 

I Hubbard, 270; Sullivan, 314; Williamson, 298. 


After the retiremeut of Thomas Gorges, Sir Ferdinando 
appointed no successor, leaving his province to the manage- 
ment of his Council. 

" He himself, though now more than serenty years of age, had 
joined the army of the crown in the civil wars, anil was with Prince 
Kupert the last year of the famous siege of Bristol; and when that 
city was taken by the Parliament forces. Gorges was plundered and 
thrown into confinement." 

In 1 644, Richard Vines was elected deputy Governor. He 
presided in the General Court held at Saco in August, 1 645, 
at which session five members of the Council were present, 
viz., Henry Jocelyn, Richard Bonython, Nicholas Shap- 
leigh, Francis Robinson, and Roger Garde. 

At the Court of Elections, held at Saco, Oct. 21, 1645, 
only three of the standing councilors were present, viz., 
Richard Vines, deputy Governor, Richard Bonython, and 
Henry Jocelyn. The board, to the number of seven, was 
filled by election, Francis Robinson, Arthur Macworth, 
Edward Small, and Abraham Preble being chosen. 

At this session the following order was adopted : 

" Ordered by the General Court that, whereas, we have not heard 
of late from the Hon. Sir Ferdiuando Gorges, knight, lord proprietor 
of this province of Mayne, for a full establishment of Government 
within the said Province for our peace and safety, this 21st of Oct., 
1645, have chosen for our Deputy Governour, Richard Vines, Esq., 
for one whole year, and order yearly to choose a Deputy Governour ; 
and further order that, in case the said Richard Vines, Esq., should 
depart the country before the year he expired, then we nominate and 
choose Henry Joselin, Esq., Deputy Governour in his place and stead. 

"William Waldron, Recorder for the Province of Mayne, chosen 
and sworn for one year."* 

The tax laid upon the province by the court at this ses- 
sion was £4 lis., in the apportionment of which they as- 
signed to the Piscataqua plantation £2 10s. ; to Gorgeana, 
£1; to Saco, lis.; and to Casco, 10s. It appears from 
this that the General Court still held jurisdiction from 
Piscataqua to Casco. 

We quote from the records of this session the action of 
the court in the case of John Bonython, who had set at 
defiance the authority of law, and offered violent resistance 
to the officers sent to arrest him : 

"21st of Oct., Ili45, at Saco. Ordered, that whereas, John Boni- 
thon, of Saco, in the Province of Mayne, hath been summoned divers 
time, in his Majesty's name, to appear at our Courts, and ha'h refused, 
threatening to kill and slay any person that should lay hands on him, 
whereupon the law hath laid its due proceedings to an outlary^ and 
divers judgments, executions, and warrants of the good behaviour, 
against him. We therefore, at a General Court assembled, adjudge 
the said John Bonithon outlawed and incapable of any of his majes- 
tey's laws, and proclaim him a RebcU. 

"Ordered, by concent of the Court, that if Mr. John Bonithon be 
taken, that he be sent to Boston to answer such things as sh,all there 
be brought against him. 

" Ordered, for the charges of the General Court at Saco, for the 
Province of Mayne, 21st of Oct., 1645 : Saco to p.ay Us. : Casco,lU».: 
Gorgiana, £1; Piscataqua, £2 Ills. Total, £4 Us." 

Two law cases which occurred at this session may be 
worthy of mention. One was an action of account pre- 
sented by John Trelawny, of Piscataqua, for services in the 
fisheries at Richmond's Island, against John Winter, a 
trader there ; the other was a suit by Edward Godfrey, of 
Agamenticus, one of the Council, to recover £20 awarded 
him by the High Court of Star Chamber, in England, 
* York Records, Book A, leaf 33. 

against George Cleaves, the deputy President of Lygonia, 
resident at Casco, now Portland. Both judgments were 
for the plaintiflFs. 

The decision of the authorities in England, which Cleaves 
and his associates had been waiting for nearly two j'ears, 
had now arrived, and the paramount authority of the gov- 
ernment of Gorges within the Rigby patent was at an 
end. The subject had been referred to the Governor-Gen- 
eral and Commissioners of the American Plantations, who 
made their rep6rt in March, 1646. They decided "that 
Alexander Rigby, in virtue of the deed and documents 
adduced, is the rightful owner and proprietor, in fee-sim- 
ple, of the territory or province of Lygonia ; being a tract 
of land forty miles in length and forty miles in breadth, 
lying on the south side of the Sagadahock, and adjoining 
unto the great ocean or sea called Mare del Nort ; and in 
him is settled the right of planting, ruling, ordering, and 
governing it.' 

Thus the government of Cleaves, under Rigby, was au- 
thoritatively installed, the commissioners ordering all the 
inhabitants of the province " to yield obedience to the 
constitution of government," and directing " the Governor 
of Massachusetts, in case of any resistance, to aflbrd the 
officers appointed by said Rigby all suitable assistance." 

"According to this decision," says Williamson, "the river Kenne- 
bunk proved to be the divisional line between the two provinces; and 
the only remaining settlements within Gorges' charter were those of 
Wells, Gorgeana, Piscataqua, and the northern Isles of Shoals. No 
decision could be more unwelcome and offending to the adherents of 
Gorges. If the land-titles of settlers under him within the patent of 
Lygonia were not thereby put at hazard, three of his councilors, 
Vines, Jocelyn, and Bonython, .and several other officers, fell within 
Rigby *s jurisdiction, and must either yield allegiance to his govern- 
ment or leave their estates and homes. To resist would only expose 
them to the coercive power of Massachusetts, which, they had reason 
to believe, she would be by no means displeased to exercise. Hence 
Henry Jocelyn prepared to remove to Pemaquid, and some others did 
actually quit the province." 

In October, 1645, Richard Vines sold his estate to Rob- 
ert Childs, and returned to England, whence he proceeded 
to Barbadoes. He was a high royalist, and was deeply 
chagrined and disappointed at the unfortunate turn aflFairs 
had taken both in England and in the province. He had 
been one of the earliest and most zealous promoters of the 
colony, having first come over in 1609, and been constantly 
in the country lor thirty years. His residence was near 
Winter Harbor, on the sea-shore. 

Henry Jocelyn succeeded Vines as deputy Governor, and 
presided over the court held at Wells, July 6, 1646 ; pres- 
ent, Richard Bonython and Edward Godfrey, commissioners ; 
Henry Boade, Bazil Parker, and Abraham Preble, assist- 
ants. j" It appears from this that some change had been made 
in the style of the officers of this court ; they are no longer 
called " Councilors for Sir Ferdinando Gorges," but " Com- 
missioners." Williamson saj-s a court was convened at 
Wells this year '• to revive and organize a new administra- 
tion, lately so mutulated and crippled," which " elected 

Godfrey, Governor ; Richard Leader, Nicholas Shap- 

leigh, Thomas Withers, and Edward Rishworth, Council- 
lors, — the latter being appointed also Recorder." There 
may have been a movement of this kind, in the absence of 

t York Records, Book A. 


Jocelyn, piiur to the session of the court on July 6th, but 
Jocelyu had been appointed by the court the successor of 
Vines, in case of the removal of the latter from the coun- 
try, and the records show that he was iu his place as dep- 
uty Governor, at the session of the court, as above, on the 
6th of July, 1646. The following is from the record of a 
court held in June the following year : 

'■./"lie 30, 16+7.— The Indictment of Charles Frost. 

■' Whereas, there was slain Warwick Heard, of Sturgeon Creeli, by 
Charles Frost, does stand here presented and Indicted, that he Felon- 
iously contrnry to the peace of our Sovereign Lord the King, his 
Crown and Dignity did the 23d day of March last with a fowling- 
piece murder the said Warwick Heard ; having not the fear of God 
before his eyes. You are therefore to inquire whether it was wilfully 
done with malice pretence, quarrell, or by accident or unawares, or 

" The .lury find that Charles Frost did kill Warwick Heard by mis- 
adventure. And Charles Frost quit by proclamation." 

At the Court of Elections, Oct. 20, 1647, no changes in 
the officers of government are mentioned. Great care was 
taken of the public interests, and the people enjoyed con- 
siderable prosperity. One memorable act was passed by 
this court, viz., the incorporation of the Piscataqua plan- 
tations into a town by the name of Kittery, which embraced 
the present towns of Kittery, North and South Berwick, 
and Eliot. It was the first incorporated town in Maine, 
Gorgeana being a city not a town. The town records begin 
March 19, 1648.* 

A curious memorial presented to the court this year re- 
flects some light upon the faint delineations of these times : 

" The humble petition of Richard Cutts and John Cutting sheweth : 
That contrary to an order or act of Court which says, ' no woman 
fhall the on the Isles of Shoah; John Reynolds has brought his wife 
hither, with an intention to live here and abide. He also hath 
brought upon Hog Island a great flock of goats and swine, which, by 
destroying much fish, do great damage to your petitioners and others ; 
and also spoil the spring of water upon that island, rendering it unfit 
for any manner of use — which affords the only supply and relief to 
all the rest of the Islands. Your petitioners therefore pray that the 
act of Court may be put in execution for the removal of all women 
from inhabiting there ; and that said Reynolds may be ordered to i-e- 
move his goats and swine from the Islands without delay ; and as in 
duty bound is your petitioners' prayer." 

In compliance with the request, the court ordered the 
said Reynolds to remove his swine and goats from Hog Is- 
land within twenty days, and also from such other islands 
as were inhabited by fishermen. But " as to the removal 
of his wife, it is thought fit by the Court that, if no furtlier 
complaint come against her, she may enjoy the company of 
her husband."! 

In dismissing the subject of Sir Ferdinando Gorges' gov- 
ernment, it may be well to insert a brief biographical 
sketch of one so intimately identified with the early history 
of York County. 

Sir Ferdinando Gorges was the younger son of Edward 
Gorges, Esq., of Wraxall, Somerset, will, dated 
Aug. 10, 1568, was proved Sept. 17, 1568. The elder son 
was Sir Edward Gorges, Kt., and died at Wraxall, where 
he was buried, Dec. 16, 1624. It is not certain that Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges was born at Wraxall, and the probability 
is that he was not, as the Wraxall registers, which have 

« See History of Kittery in this work 
f Collection vii., Mass. Hist. Soc, p. 

been carefully kept, contain no record of his baptism. 
Moreover, his father, Edward Gorges, died at Clerkenwell, 
Aug. 29, 1568. His funeral certificate is in the College of 
Arms (i. 5, 161). The mother of Sir Ferdinando was 
Cicely, daughter of William Lygon, of Madresfield, Wor- 
cestershire, an ancestor of the present Earl of Beauehamp. 
She married, secondly, John Vivian, Esq. 

Edward Gorges, in his will, bequeathed to his son, Fer- 
dinando, " a chayne of gold, waying 23 oz.," one hundred 
pounds sterling, and his "manor of Bridcomb, Wraxall, to 
have and to hold to him and his assigns, for and during the 
term of xxiv. years, if he shall so long live." The date of 
his birth is given in the genealogy as "between 1565 and 
1567." He was knighted for gallatit services at the siege 
of Rouen, France, by Robert, Earl of Essex, in 1591.| 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges' first wife was Ann Bell, daughter 
of Edward Bell, of Writtle, Essex. They were married at 
St. Margaret's, Westminister, Feb. 24, 1589-90. She was 
buried in St. Sepulchre's, London, Aug. 6, 1620. They 
had four children, — John, Robert, Ellen, and Honoria ; the 
two last died young. He married, secondly, Mary Fulford, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Fulford, and sister of Bridget Ful- 
ford, the wife of Arthur Champernown, of Dartington, 
Devon. Mary Fulford was the widow of Thomas Achim, 
of Hall, Cornwall, whose will was proved 1619. She died 
1623. It was through this marriage that Francis Cham- 
pernown (spelled in America Champernoon), the son of 
Arthur and Bridget Champernown, is called the nephew of 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges. Sir Ferdinando married, thirdly, 
Elizabeth Gorges, one of the daughters of Tristram Gorges, 
son of Sir William Gorges, Kt., of St. Budeaux, Devon, 
by Elizabeth, daughter of Marty n Cole. He was her third 
husband. She died in 1629. They had no issue. He 
married, fourthly, Elizabeth (Gorges) Smyth, third daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Gorges, Kt., by Helena Shackeuburg, 
the widow of William, Marquis of Northampton. They 
lived at Lower Court, called sometimes " Ashton Phillipps," 
Long Ashton, probably the dower house of his wife. She 
died about 1658. Sir Ferdinando Gorges died at Long 
Ashton, and was buried there May 14, 1647. His will was 
in the Diocesan Registry of Wills, Somerset, but cannot 
now be found. 

31uch respecting the life of this distinguished man, the 
founder of Maine and patron of the earliest settlements in 
New England, will be found in the State papers and other 
printed documents. Reference may also be had to Old- 
mixon's "History of the Stewarts," vol. i. p. 76; Seyer's 
" History of Bristol," vol. ii. pp. 309 and 404 ; Barrett's 
" History of Bristol," p. 414; "New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register," pp. 42-47 ; " Archseologia" 
of the Society of Antiquaries (vol. xxxv. part i.), entitled 
" New Materials for a Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, by J. 
Payne Collier," read before the society June 22, 1853 ; 
also iv. Hume, p. 350. 

Gorges and Sir Walter Raleigh, whose acquaintance was 
intimate, and minds equally elastic and adventurous, turned 
their thoughts at an early day to the American hemisphere. 

Being many years the survivor, he had the superior ad- 

J Journal of the Siege of Rouen, by Sir Thomas Coningsby; edited 
by John Gough Xichols, F.A.S. 


vantage. He took into his family several transported na- 
tives, and by listening to narratives about their people and 
country he was amused, informed, and animated. Sanguine 
in the belief that rich and powerful states would rise in this 
region, his mind and his tongue dwelt with rapture upon 
the theme. 

Although his schemes may have been sometimes visionary, 
and inspired by views and motives out of harmony with the 
spirit of the times, yet no one can charge him with dishon- 
esty or a lack of energy in the pursuit of what he con- 
scientiously believed to be right and to the best iuterests of 
the early colonists whom he induced to come to New Eng- 
land. In religion an earnest adherent of the English 
Church, he never manifested bigotry or intolerance towards 
other forms of faith, or persecuted Puritans, Quakers, or 

In the grand patent of New England he was an active 
and able member, the principal advocate of their rights, and 
the most powerful champion in their defense. None did 
more towards planting a colony at Sagadahock, and subse- 
quent settlements in the vicinity. He sacrificed his time, 
expended his money, and sent over his own sou and kindred, 
fully confident of final success. 

His death, at the advanced age of seventy-four, in arms 
on the side of his king, from whom he had received so 
many tokens of favor, gave fuH proof of his fidelity ; and 
his life and name, though by no means free from blemishes, 
have just claims to the grateful recollections of the Eastern 
Americans and their posterity. 

His eldest son, John, succeeded to his estates and title ; a 
man of no considerable energy, who survived his father 
only a few years. He left a son, Ferdinando, who inherited 
the title and some of the energies of his grandfather. 

We turn now to the Rigby-Cleaves government. George 
Cleaves had no sooner received the decision of the commis- 
sioners in favor of the title of Rigby to Lygonia, than he 
convened a court under the authority of the proprietor at 
Saco ; at which place, at Casco, and at Black Point, he 
held sessions, at appointed intervals, three or four times a 
year. The style of the court was the " General Assembly 
of the Province of Lygonia," and consisted of assistants 
and deputies chosen by the people. Founded, as this gov- 
ernment apparently was, in rightful authority, and backed 
by the constant menace of the authorities of Massachusetts, 
it was useless for those disaffected towards it east of the 
Saco River to make any resistance, or to place themselves 
in an unfriendly relation to it. Hence we find several of 
the former prominent friends of Gorges giving in their ad- 
hesion, and accepting offices under Cleaves. Among these 
were Henry Jocelyn, of Black Point, and Robert Jordan, 
of Spurwink, who soon became prominent in the new gov- 
ernment. The officers of this government were a deputy 
president and six assistants, who were chosen from among 
the justices or judicial magistrates. The deputy presidency 
was conferred by Rigby upon George Cleaves, who appears 
to have held that office as long as the government remained 
in force. 

During this time Cleaves made many grants of land. As 
early as May, 1647, he granted to Richard Moore four 
hundred acres at Cape Porpoise, and in September of the 

same year he conveyed to John Bush a tract in the village 
of Cape Porpoise. He also made grants in Scarborough 
and Falmouth, all of them as the " agent of Col. Alexander 
Rigby, President and Proprietor of the Province of Ly- 

Records of only three courts held by Cleaves are now to 
be found, and these are very imperfect. One relates to a 
court held at Black Point, by George Cleaves, Henry 
Jocelyn, and Robert Jordan, in which merely the appoint- 
ment of an admini.strator is noticed ; and the others, held 
in Casco in September and December of the same year, ex- 
hibit the proceedings which took place on the petition of 
Robert Jordan, the executor of John Winter, for the allow- 
ance of his claim against Trelawny. The proceedings of 
the Assembly in September, 1648, are subscribed to by 
George Cleaves, William Royall, John Cousins, Peter Hill, 
and Robert Booth. Royall and Cousins were from Wes- 
custogo, now North Yarmouth ; Hill and Booth were from 
Saco ; Watts was from Scarborough. 

The government of Cleaves possessed considerable energy, 
and for awhile was wafted by the popular breeze of repub- 
licanism. We meet with nothing in the records to indicate 
that the affairs of the province were not well administered, 
and conducted without interruption, until the death of 
Rigby, which took place in August, 1650. 

Rigby was a gentleman of excellent character. He has 
been described as " the patron of Episcopal ministers and 
the friend of enterprising, ignorant poor." His" early and 
generous exertions to send religious instruction to his prov- 
ince, to the islanders, and to the fishermen upon the coast, 
were conspicuous before his purchase of Lygonia. He 
encouraged Richard Gibson, before mentioned, to protract 
his mission in these parts, and was a friend of Robert Jor- 
dan, an Episcopal clergyman for thirty-six years at Rich- 
mond's Island and Spurwink, where he lived till the time 
of the first Indian war. No doubt this affinity of religion 
had a great deal to do with the reconciliation of Jordan, 
and also of Jocelyn, to their association with Cleaves in the 
Rigby government. 

The authority of Cleaves seems to have been overturned 
by political combinations among his associates. At least 
Cleaves, who was in England, >o reported to Edward Rigby, 
son of the proprietor, after the decease of his father, who, 
on the 19th of July, 1652, wrote a letter to Henry Joce- 
lyn, Robert Jordan, Thomas Williams, Arthur Macworth, 
Robert Booth, Morgan Howell, John Wadleigh, Jonas 
Bailey, Hugh Mosier, Thomas Morris, and all others whom 
it concerned in Lygonia, severely animadverting upon 
their conduct, and informing them that all political power 
derived from his late father had expired with his death. 
Portions of this letter will here be quoted to set the matter 
in a clear light. After speaking touchingly of the death 
of his father, he says, — 

" I am greatly displeased with the muvements and illegal proceed- 
ings among you, of which, according to the information derived from 
bis late deputy president, you are the instigators or advisers. They 
were unexpected ; nor shall your wrongs and abuses oiferedto our au- 
thority be overlooked without due and timely submission. All politi- 
cal power derived from him, you must be aware, expired at his death ; 
and I command you whom I am addressing, and such others as have 
been commissioned by him to be the public officers of the Province, to 


desist and abstain wholly from further transactions virtntc ejfu-iif 
till you have directions from me, which, 1 assure you, will be com- 
municated without delay. 

"Heartily, Gentlemen, do I regret to learn that my father's kind- 
ness and generosity towards you, and his confidence in your probity, 
should be repaid in a manner so wholly prejudicial to his interests 
and mine. Again, let me tell you, that if, after receiving this notice, 
you do not lay aside your private and secret combinations, and ab- 
stain from unlawful measures, and unanimously join with me and uiy 
deputy and other officers in the plans devised to promote the peace 
and good of the Province, I shall adopt and pursue such a course 
towards you as will enforce submission and effectually rectify all your 
misdeeds and wrongs. At present I will not enumerate them, nor 
dispute with you about them. Suffice it to say, iTiat I conreii'e all the 
o£icial ach, either of the depttly president, the six (tssistrtnts, the Judges, 
or atiy other officer whulsoever, in the commission of my father, done 
subsequently to his decease, which was in August, 1650, are utterly 

The letter of which the above is an extract was written in 
London, on the 19th of July, 1652. It put an utter end to 
the expiring government of Lygonia, and left Saco, the seat 
of it, and the other plantations to the eastward to act ac- 
cording to the dictates of discretion and policy. Cleaves 
returned to Casco the following year, but before his arrival 
Massachusetts had determined that her charter embraced 
both the rival provinces of Gorges and Rigby, and the 
people of the western portion bad submitted to her juris- 
diction. Before giving the history of this important 
change in civil affairs, it will be necessary to revert to the 
government established in the eastern portion of the province 
under Edward Godfrey. 



The Restricted Province of Maine— Affairs after the Death of Gorges 
—Death of Charles I.- Godfrey Elected Governor of Maine— Peti- 
tion to the House of Commons — Encroachments of Massachusetts — 
Articles of Submission to her Jurisdiction signed at Kittery and 

In our preceding chapter we had brought down the gov- 
ernment of Lygonia to its close in 1652. We are now to 
go back to 1648, and consider the state of civil affairs in 
the province of Maine, — i.e., the restricted province of 
Gorges, extending to the Kennebunk River. These two 
governments were co-exi.stent, and to some extent rival in- 
stitutions. The inhabitants were nearly equal under each, 
although the territorial limits of Lygonia considerably ex- 
ceeded those of Maine. In neither of the governments 
were the lines distinctly drawn between the legislative, ju- 
dicial, and executive departments. The same tribunal made 
laws, tried causes, and carried their sentences into execu- 
tion. The administration under Gorges possessed the most 
system and energy ; that under Rigby was the most popu- 
lar, the politics and sentiments of the provincial officers being 
more in unison with the triumphant Republicans in Eng- 
land, and the Puritan rulers of Massachusetts. 

The certainty of the death of Gorges having been ascer- 
tained, the people of Wells, Gorgeana, Kittery, and the Isles 
of Shoals held a popular convention at Gorgeana, in July, 
1649, for the purpose of a general consultation as to the 
best measures to be pursued with reference to the govern- 

ment of the province. A free discussion was had upon 
their rights, duties, and difficulties. 

" To promote the settlement and the greatest good of the country," 
said they, " has been our unchanging purpose ; in which we have en- 
deavored to manage and regulate its affairs according to the express 
powers given in the charter to the Lord Proprietor, the ordinances 
established by hiui and the Provinciiil General Court, and the laws and 
usages of England. But most of his charter councilors have departed 
the province, — the Parliament of England has commanded us not to 
intermeddle with the patent to Mr. Rigby,— and since Sir Ferdi- 
nando's death no instructions have been received, nor can any be 
reasonably expected from the parent country, so long as it is filled 
with the present distractions, and involved in civil war." 

In view of this state of affairs, — entertaining doubts of 
the continuance of the governmental powers of the charter 
after the death of the Lord Proprietor, and perhaps fear- 
ful to offend Parliament if they acted under that instrument, 
— after premising that the privileges of Agamenticus, or 
Gorgeana, should be preserved entire, they formed them- 
selves into a social compact, in the words following : 

" We, with orn free axd voluntary consent, do bind ourselves 
in a body politic and combination, to see these parts of the 
cou.ntry and province regulated, according to such laws as have 
formerly been exercised, and such others at shall be thought 
meet, but -not repugnant to the fundamental laws of our native 

Having further ordained that an annual election of Gov- 
ernor and councilors should be had by the majority of 
voters, they proceeded immediately to elect Edward God- 
frey, Governor, and Richard Leader, Nicholas Shapleigh, 
Thomas Withers, and Edward Rishworth, Councilors. Mr. 
Rishworth was also appointed secretary or recorder. The 
administration was continued in the same hands the two 
following years, and the proceedings were conformed substan- 
tially to the provisions of the charter and the usages already 
existing. " Determined according to the dictates of wis- 
dom and prudence to be obedient subjects to the predomi- 
nant powers of the realm, they professedly approved of 
their measures, and when they heard that Charles, their 
sovereign, was no more, and that the reins of government 
were in the hands of the Commons, they readily took direc- 
tions from that body." Dec. 1, 1651, the following peti- 
tion was sent by Governor Godfrey, with the concurrence 
of his court, to the House of Commons : 

" To the rlijht hoiioralle the Council of State appointed by Parlia- 
ment : AVe esteem it our greatest honor and safety to be under the 
present government, established without king or house of lords, and 
request the benefit and the common safety and protection of our 
nation. We beg leave also to state that divers inhabitants of this 
Province, by virtue of sundry patents and otherwise, hare for these 
twenty years been under the power and guidance of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, who had these parts assigned to him for a Province. But he 
being dead, and his son, by reason of heavy losses sustained, taking 
no care of our political welfare, and most of the charter Councillors, 
or Commissioners, having died or departed the Province, we were 
under the necessity of combining together for the purposes of govern- 
ment and self-protection, according to the laws of the realm. It is 
our humble prayer, therefore, that our confederate union may be con- 
firmed ; that we may be declared members of the Commonwealth of 
England; that the privileges and immunities of freeborn Englishmen 
may be griinted and secured to ourselves and our posterity as estab- 
lished rights usually enjoyed by other Provincial subjects; and that 
the same favors may be bestowed upon us as upon the other 'Colonies. 
" Per me, Edward Godfrey, Got., 

" in behalf of the General Court." 

-s Massachusetts Hist. Soc. Coll., vol. i. p. 163. 


Previous to this petition to the House of Commons, Mas- 
sachusetts had determined to extend her jurisdiction over 
the eastern provinces. To this end, in 1651, at the Octo- 
ber session of the General Court, it was directed that ad- 
dresses be prepared and transmitted to Edward Godfrey 
and his Council, and to the inhabitants at large in the 
Province of Maine, acquainting them with the grounds and 
reasons of their claim. They also appointed three of their 
most distinguished citizens commissioners, viz., Simon 
Bradstreet, a venerable councilor, Daniel Deunison, com- 
mander-in-chief of the militia, and William Hawthorne, 
Speaker of the House, with instructions to repair to the 
province and admit the inhabitants, by their consent, into 
the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. Should they meet with 
opposition, they were directed to protest against all pretended 
combinations, governments, or exercises of authority therein, 
and in general to proceed according to the dictates of their 
discretion.* The commissioners made their appointed visit, 
but returned without success. The General Court, now 
fully determined to pursue her claim, ordered a survey made 
of the boundaries of the Massachusetts charter, which was 
accordingly done, and the report made, showing that Maine 
as far east as Clapboard Island, near the mouth of the Pre- 
sumpscot River, was included in the charter of that colony. 
These movements met with decided opposition from Gov- 
ernor Godfrey, who addressed a letter to the General Court, 
stating his surprise and resentment at their conduct : 

" An attemiU to hold the Province of Maine under jour charter," 
said he, " or by any legal title, without the p'retense either of pur- 
chase, prior possession, or anterior claim, and also without the peo- 
ple's consent, is the height of injustice. Far different treatment have 
you received from your eastern neighbors. Yes, when that charter 
of yours was heretofore threatened with a quo tcnrrauto, at the Coun- 
cil Board in England, and your agents were struck with the muteness 
of statues, it was I who answered the objections and obviated the 
cavils. Hitherto you have declared yourselves satisfied with your own 
possessions, as bounded on a line parallel with the Alerrimack, three 
miles distant from its source, and its northerly bank, following its 
meanders to its mouth; whereas you are now bursting your bounds, and 
stretching your claims across provinces to which, till lately, no man, 
however visionary, so much as imagined you had any right. Your 
commissioners, it is true, have communed with us plausibly about privileges; yet such is the charity you have heretofore mani- 
fested towards our religion and other interests, that we trust you will 
excuse us if we are the more wary of your proposals and promises." 

This spicy letter called forth a reply from the General 
Court, signed by Edward Rawson, their secretary, of the 
following tenor : 

" Worshipful Sir, — Our patent, by Divine Providence, continues to 
be firmly established, under the great seal. It is true, it was de- 
manded, yet never prosecuted to final judgment ; and the Common- 
wealth of England has, by e.iipress recognition since, given it fresh 
and full validity. Though the ' Grand Patent of Plymouth' has been 
dissolved, ours, sanctioned by a Royal Charter, has successfully en- 
countered every attack. Nor do we now claim an acre beyond its 
true limits ; and had you attentively examined its articles, you must 
be satisfied with the correctness of our construction. For several 
years the extent of our jurisdictional rights were not fully understood ; 
and so long as doubts remained,— so long as the people of Maine were 
contented with the regular charter government established among 
them and a friendly intercourse between them and us was continued 
uninterrupted,— we were disposed to forbear, though we have never 
abandoned the pursuit of our utmost claim and right. 

" In your resistance, probably a majority of the provincial inhab- 

*2 Mass. Records, p. 84. 

itants are your opponents; for they are greatly desirous of being 
united with us, and they richly deserve our protection and assistance. 
Most heartily we thank you for your service rendered us before the 
Lords Commissioners of Plantations ; but nevertheless, we are bound 
to inform you that the inhabitants and lands over which you claim to 
exercise authority are within the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, and 
that we demand our rights, assuring you at the same time that you 
all shall share equal acts of favor and justice with ourselves, should 
a coalescence be amicably formed. If, however, neither rights nor 
reasons will induce you to hearken, we shall continually /jro/e*/ against 
ail further proceedings of yours, under any pretended patent or com- 
bination whatever. And, finally, that our conduct and record in this 
affair may be such as will be promotive of God's glory, and the peace 
of yourselves and us. are the aim and prayer of your cordial friends. 
"Edward R.iwson, Secretnri/." 

GOVERNOR Godfrey's second letter. 

'•Sir, — Our rights are equally invaluable as yours. Though you 
may boast of being owned by the Commons in Parliament, and ex- 
pect to dwell in safety under the covert of their wings, we also are 
under the same protective power, and are resolved to continue in the 
possession and exercise of our privileges till that venerable body 
shall otherwise order. The dissolution of the Grand Patent had no 
more effect upon ours than upon yours. Indeed you have, in various 
ways, for more than twenty years acknowledged the authority of our 
patent, and we marvel greatly at your movements and discontent, 
more especially since we have given you no occasion ; and since it 
has been solemnly settled long ago that your patent should begin on 
the sea-shore, three miles northwardly of the Merrimack. If, accord- 
ing to your intimations, there be a party of malcontents among us, I 
am acquainted with two or three only of that character, and these 
are such as have fallen under the penalties of the law. Yet, were 
they tenfold that number, it were neither honorable nor just to pro- 
ceed against us on such grounds. No ! nor yet for the uncertain and 
unknown favors which you proffer ought we to barter away our 
rights and dear-bought liberties ? It would be treason ! To talk 
gravely of artists to settle your latitude, to run your lines and survey 
your limits, in these parts, is preposterous. We, ourselves, know 
something of geography and cosmography, and our exclusive aim is 
the good and peace of the country. 

•'Edwakd Godfrey, dovernor." 

Upon the receipt of the above letter three commissioners 
were sent from Boston to hold a conference with the authori- 
ties of Maine. By appointment, they met Governor God- 
frey and his Council at Kittery Point on the 11th of July, 
1652, where, after a spirited controversy, they were unable 
to come to any terms of reconciliation. The commissioners, 
finding their adversaries inexorable, publicly proclaimed to 
the people of Maine the right of Massachusetts to govern 
them as her colonists. They protested against the exist- 
ing government as having no binding authority, and virtu- 
ally absolved the provincials from all allegiance to Godfrey 
and his associates. This was followed by another, on the 
part of Godfrey and his Council, remonstrating and com- 
plaining bitterly that, after having lived twenty years in 
contentment, and expended thirty-five thousand pounds 
in money, and endured innumerable hardships for the 
sake of rational and civil liberty, they must now submit to 
the dictation and control of others, against the principles of 
right and justice and against their own consent. 

But all this availed nothing. Oct. 23, 1652, the General 
Court of Massachusetts issued the following commission : 

" To our trusty and well-beloved friends, Mr. Simon Bradstreet. Mr. 
Samuel Simonds, Major Daniel Dennison, Capt. William Haw- 
thorne, Capt. Thomas Wiggin, and Mr. Bryan Pendleton : 
'•, you arc chosen Commissioners by this to settle the civil 

government among the inhabitants of Kittery, the Isle of Shoals, and 

so to the most northerly extent of our patent ; 


*' You, or any three or more of you, are hereby authorized and re- 
quired, with all suitable dispatch, to repair to those parts and summon 
together the inhabitants, in places which you shall judge most con- 
venient, and declare unto them our just right and jurisdiction over 
those tracts of land where they inhabit, requiring their subjection, 
and granting them equal protection and privileges with ourselves. 

" We further give to any three or more of you full power and 
authority to summon and hold courts there, for hearing and deter- 
mining all causes, civil and criminal, according to the statute regu- 
lations and usages of our County Courts; to appoint commissioners, 
constables, and such other officers as you shall judge needful for pre- 
serving the peace and establishing order and a civil administration of 
justice ; to invest the commissioners with such powers as a major part 
of you shall judge meet, and administer to them and the other officers 
the proper oaths ; to confirm and settle all lawful properties : to grant 
the people protection, and the privileges enjoyed by other inhabitants 
within our jurisdiction, and otherwise to act in the premises as this 
Court shall give you further orders: doing wh-itever in your wisdom 
and discretion will be most conducive to the glory of God. the peace 
and welfare of the inhabitants, and the maintenance of our own just 
rights and interests. 

" And we do hereby command all magistrates, commissioners, cap- 
tains, and other officers, civil and military, within the county of Nor- 
folk,* and all the inhabitants upon the Isles of Shoals, and those 
beyond the river Piscataqua, within the limits of our patent, to be 
aiding and assisting these our commissioners as they shall have cause 
to crave or require. In confirmation of all which, we have caused the 
seal of our colony to be hereunto affixed, this 23d day of October, 

Six of these commissioners, viz., Messrs. Bradstreet aud 
Simonds, of Boston ; Wiggin, of New Hampshire ; and 
Pendleton, of Maine, undertook the duties assigned them. 
They opened a court at Kittery, November 15th, and sent 
out under their hand a summons to the inhabitants, requiring 
them in the name of Massachusetts to assemble at the house 
of William Everett, between the hours of seven and eight 
o'clock the next morning, for the purpose of having an ad- 
ministration of justice established among them. Most of 
the townsmen attended, and the conference continued four 
days. The inhabitants at length proposed to subscribe to 
the article of submission, provided certain conditions pre- 
pared and submitted by them could be the terms of union. 
The court refused, saying they must first submit, then they 
could have a guarantee of their rights and privileges All 
further debate being useless, on the 20th of November 
forty-one subscribed to the following article : 

•' We, whose names are underwritten, do hereby acknowledge our- 
selves subject to the govern 

written, do hereby aekn 
of Massachusetts Bav 

The names of those in Kittery who subscribed were the 
the following, in alphabetical order: John Andrews, Philip 
Babb, Mary Baylie, John Bursley, Humphrey Chadbourne, 
William Chadbourne, Abraham Culney, Daniel Davis, John 
Diamond, Dennis Downing, Thomas Durston, James Emerie, 
Anthony Emerie (Emery), William Everett, Nicholas Frost, 
Charles Frost, John Green, Hugh Gunnison, John Hoord, 
Reynold Jenkins, Thomas Jones, George Leader,;}; Na- 
thaniel Lord, Antepas Hannericke, Robert Mendam, Joseph 
Mill, Hughbert Mattome, Richard Nason, William Pal- 
mer, Daniel Paul, Christian Renich, Nicholas Shapleigh,| 
Jemima Shores, Thomas Spencer, Thomas Spinney, Jona- 

* New Hampshire was then Norfolk County. 
t 2 Massachusetts Records, p. 128. 

X Former members of Godfrey's Council. The names above in- 
cluded most of the heads of families in Kittery. 

than Simonds, Richard Thomas, Robert Weymouth, John 
White, Gowen Wilson, John Wincoln, Thomas Withers.| 
In the proceedings of the commissioners at Agamenticus 
(York), on the 22d of November, a spirited discussion took 
place, in which Governor Godfrey was the leader. The 
opposition remained inflexible till a formal vote was called, 
when it was found that a large majority were in favor of 
the articles. The Governor then submitted with the rest. 
Their names are as follows, alphabetically arranged : Philip 
Adams, Sampson Angier, John Alcoke, Joseph Alcoke, 
Samuel Alcoke, Richard Banks, Nicholas Bond, George 
Beanton, Arthur Bragdon, Richard Codagon, Thomas 
Crockett, Thomas Cartoons, John Davis, Nicholas Davis, 
John Davis (2d), William Dickson, Thomas Donnell, 
Henry Donnell, Robert Edge, William EUingham, Andrew 
Everett, William Freathie, Hugh Gaile, Edward God- 
frey, William Gomsey, John Gouge,J John Harker, 
Philip Hatch, Robert Hetherse, William Hilton,;]; Edward 

Johnson,]; Robert Knight, Lewis, William Moore, 

Henry Norton, John Parker, George Parker, Abraham 
Preble,]; Francis Raynes, William Rogers, Edward Rish- 
worth,]; Edward Start, Sylvester Stover, Mary Tapp [acts 
only], John Tisden, Sr., John Tisden, Jr., Edward Wen- 
tome, Thomas Wheelwright,]; Peter Wyer, Roland Young. 



Terms of Submission — Organization of Towns — York made the Shire 
Town — Court at York — York and Kittery Represented in the 
General Court— Submission of Wells, Saco, and Cape Poi-poise — 
Their Incorporation as Towns — Order to Collect and Preserve all 
the Records of Former Administrations. 

The terms upon which the people of Kittery and Aga- 
menticus acceded to the submission and formed a coales- 
cence with Massachusetts, have been classified and arranged 
under the following articles, as ordinances of the commis- 
sioners : 

L The Isles of Shoals and all the territory northward of 
Piscataqua, belonging to Massachusetts, were erected into a 
county by the name of Yorkshire. A county court was 
established, to be holden alternately in Kittery and Aga- 
menticus, at appointed times twice a year, by such magis- 
trates or assistants as the General Court might from time to 
time designate, assisted by three or five resident associates, 
elected for the purpose within the county. The jurisdic- 
tion and authority of this court, in matters civil and 
criminal, were to be equal with those of the same tribunals 
in Massachusetts, and the court was also directed to ap- 
point three commissioners jn each township to decide petty 
causes where there was uo resident magistrate. 

2. Kittery was recognized as a municipal township, and 
the settlements of Agamenticus were made a town by the 
name of YoRK ; and both at the same time received a 
guarantee of equal privileges with other towns of Massa- 
chusetts, having severally the right and the liberty of elect- 


ing every year to the General Court one or two deputies or 
representatives, as the voters might prefer. 

3. The inhabitants, having taisen the oatli of freemen, 
were eHgible to any place of trust or honor within the gov- 
ernment, and invested with full right to vote for Governor, 
assistants, and other general ofiBcers of the country. They 
were also to enjoy equal acts of favor and justice with the 
people on the southerly side of the Piscataqua, and no per- 
son was ever to be drawn out of this county to any ordinary 
or general trainings without his own express consent. 

4. Each of the towns and evei-y inhabitant were forever 
to possess and enjoy all their just rights of property, titles, 
and interests in the lands and houses which they held and 
had occupied, whether by grant of the proprietor, the town, 
the Indians, or their former General Courts. 

5. The boundaries of Kittery, York, and Wells were to 
be examined and set out anew within the ensuing year by 
their respective townsmen, or by a committee appointed by 
the General Court. Until they were so examined and settled 
they were to remain as originally granted, or according to 
the survey and return of agents theretofore appointed by 
Provincial General Court. If, when the lines were run, 
they should cross the marshes or lands in Kittery and 
York in new places, the ownership of the soil was not to 
be thereby affected. 

6. To all who were admitted freemen the commissioners 
awarded an indemnity, and pronounced all breaches of the 
penal laws, and all the acts and exercises of civil govern- 
ment by them prior to October, mentioned in the last pro- 
test, to be forever exempt from prosecution. 

7. To receive the imposts and other moneys due to the 
corporations of Kittery and York, and pay what they were 
severally owing for public services, supplies, or otherwise, 
the commissioners appointed Nicholas Shapleigh collector, 
and directed him to make a report of his proceedings to 
them within one month. And in case of insufficiency 
collected to discharge the people's engagements, it was to 
be supplied by an assessment, or rates, according to the 
former custom. The commissioners also appointed Mr. 
Shapleigh " Shire Treasurer," — an office which was ordered, 
subsequently, to be filled from year to year by the County 

8. In organizing an administration of justice, several 
men of intelligence and distinction in each town were 
appointed town commissioners, who were authorized to 
meet in their respective towns between the terms of the 
County Court, and, with the associates, hear and determine, 
without a jury, all civic causes or personal actions not 
exceeding ten pounds. Also, each commissioner or magis- 
trate, in his own town, was empowered to sit alone in judg- 
ment, and decide upon misdemeanors and petty offenses, 
and in pecuniary trials of forty shillings, and at his discre- 
tion to bind the offenders to keep the peace, admit them to 
bail, or commit them to prison. They were, moreover, 
severally invested with authority to solemnize marriages, 
and to administer all qualifying oaths, as well to those who 
might wish to become freemen as to those elected or 
appointed to office. 

9. Any two of the commissioners were empowered to 
confirm or sanction the choice of all military officers of and 

under the rank of a captain ; to grant licenses to keep 
taverns or ordinaries, and for retailing spirituous liquors 
and wines ; and it was enjoined upon them to provide their 
respective towns with " The Book of the Laws,'' and such 
other acts as had been passed " since the last book came 
forth in print." 

The Massachusetts Commissioners next proceeded to 
select and constitute the officers necessary to carry these 
regulations into effect. The town commissioners they ap- 
pointed in York were Edward Godfrey, Abraham Preble, 
Edward Johnson, and Edward Rishworth ; in Kittery, 
Bryan Pendleton and Thomas Withers, — Hugh Gunnison, 

A county court, formed by a Massachusetts magistrate 
and one of the above sets, was to hold a term in their re- 
spective towns once a year, having power to try all causes 
not capital. Grand and petit or trial juries were also to be 
appointed at each term of the court, summoned proportion- 
ately from the towns of York and Kittery. Edward Rish- 
worth was appointed clerk of the writs and county recorder, 
and Henry Norton was chosen marshal. The constables 
appointed and sworn were four, viz., Thomas Davison and 
Robert Mendam, of Kittery ; Nicholas Davis, of York ; and 
Philip Babb, of Hog Island, whose jurisdiction extended 
to all the Isles of Shoals except Star Island. The keep- 
ers of ordinaries licensed were John Davis, of York, and 
Hugh Gunnison, of Kittery. The latter was required to 
pay a license of " 20s. the butt" on liquor dispensed to his 

The General Court held at Boston in May, 1653, ad- 
mitted for the firet time two representatives from Maine ; 
they were John Wincoln, of Kittery, and Edward Rish- 
worth, of York. At the same session five town commis- 
sioners were appointed, upon the Isle of Shoals, to deter- 
mine small causes of £10, and in other respects to act as 
magistrates. Also the chief military officer there was di- 
rected to take command of the militia upon all the islands. 

The first county court under Massachusetts was held at 
York on the 30th of June, 1653. The record is as fol- 

"The Court holden this 30th of June, 165.3, at York, in the County 
of York, by the Right Worshipful Richard Bellingham,® Esq., Capt. 
Thomas Wiggin, Magistrates : Edward Godfrey, Capt. Nicholas Shap- 
leigh, Edward Rishworth (Recorder), Associates for the present year 
for the said county.'' 

Among other acts at this session the court commanded 
the inhabitants of Kittery and York severally to elect three 
associates to assist at future sessions of the court, accord- 
ing to established law, instead of the local or special com- 
missioners mentioned. 

When the business of the court was finished, the board 
of legislative commissioners, Messrs. Bellingham, Dennison, 
Wiggin, Rawson, and Pendleton, repaired to Wells, and 
immediately summoned the inhabitants of that town, Saco, 
and Cape Porpoise to convene at the house of Joseph Emer- 
son, July 4th, for the purpose of being admitted freemen 
-of the colony. On the day appointed six in Wells took 
the oath, and on the day following twenty others, the 
names being as follows: Samuel Austin, John J. Barrett, 

* Mr. Bellingham was lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts. 


John Barrett, Henry Boad, Joseph Bowles, John Buck, 
Nicholas Cole, William Cole, Joseph Emerson, John Gooch, 
William Homans, Ezekiel Knight, Arthur Littlefield, 
Francis Littlefield, Thomas Littlefield, Edmund Littlefield, 
Francis Littlefield, Jr., Thomas Millot, John Smith, John 
Saunders, John Thing, John Wadly (Wadleigh?), Robert 
Wadly, John Wakefield, John White, William Wardell, 
and Arthur Warmstall. Richard Ball, Edmund Clark, 
John Elson, and Richard Moore were admitted afterwards. 

The next town called was Saco. More than common 
interest was felt in her decision, as she was the most con- 
siderable plantation within the Lygonia patent, and had 
been the seat of the governments now to be superseded by 
the authority and jurisdiction of Massachusetts. She had, 
however, had enough experience in a state of civil affairs 
which had degenerated into revolution and anarchy, and 
which offered no promise of anything better in the future. 
Her people were therefore ready for the change, and on 
the first call sixteen subscribed to the submission and took 
the oath. Their names are as follows : George Barlow, 
Robert Boothe, Richard Cowman, James Gibbins, Thomas 
Hale, Peter Hill, Philip Hinkson, Richard Hitchcock, 
Christopher Hobbs, Thomas Reading, Thomas Rogers, 
William Seadlock, Ralph Tristram, Henry Waddock, John 
West, and Thomas Williams. To this list John Smith, 
one of the original patentees of Lygonia, caused his name 
to be added by proxy.* 

At the same session in Wells twelve from Cape Porpoise 
appeared before the commissioners, and by subscribing a 
submission and taking the oath, as others had done, all 
became freemen of Massachusetts. The names of the sub- 
scribers are John Barker, Stephen Batons, Andrew Bussey, 
John Cole, Gregory Hoskeries, Morgan Howell, George 
Jeffreys, Grifiin Montague, William Reynolds, Christopher 
Squirrell, Simon Teoft, Peter Tenbatt, and Thomas Warner.f 

The commissioners at this time erected the plantations of 
Wells, Saco, and Cape Porpoise into towns, and consti- 
tuted them municipal portions of Yorkshire. They were 
made eligible to ail the rights and privileges of the other 
towns, with the exception of sending representatives to the 
General Court. 

Henry Boade, Thomas Wheelwright, and Ezekiel Knight 
were appointed town commissioners for Wells ; and these, 
with John Wardly and John Gooch, were designated select- 
men. Joseph' Bowles was appointed clerk of the writs, 
and Jonathan Thing constable. 

The town commissioners of Saco were Thomas Williams, 
Robert Boothe, and John West, who were also the select- 
men. William Seadlock was clerk of the writs, and Ralph 
Tristram constable. Grifiin Montague was constable for 
Cape Porpoise. 

The Massachusetts commissioners, as a board, possessed 
sovereign power and authority, and yet it must be admitted 
that they exercised it without abuse. In a liberal and gen- 
erous spirit they expressly stipulated that the inhabitants 
of all the towns of Maine should be forever exempt from 
public or colony taxes, being obliged to defray only their 
own charges, including those of their courts, and to dis- 

* 1 Williamson, p. 350. 

t 2 Mass. Rec, p. 190 ; Williamson, p. .351. 

charge their own debts. Their acts and measures extended 
to matters prudential, judiciary, executive, and ecclesias- 
tical. In some of these they descended to minute local 
affairs. For instance : the inhabitants of Wells, Saco, and 
Cape Porpoise were required within one year to lay out and 
make a road from town to town, sufficient for footmen and 
horses, and to clear and fit for carts the highways from 
house to house, within their respective towns, otherwise 
their delinquency would incur a fine of ten pounds. They 
licensed " Robert Boothe, a pious layman," to hold religious 
services in Saco till some " provision should be made by law 
for supplying this and other destitute places with accredited 
ministers." They silenced George Barlow, an erratic and 
visionary declaimer, of Saco, who had been complained of 
to them as a disturber of the peace; commanding him 
never more to " preach or prophesy" in this place, assuring 
him that his disobedience would expose him to pay a fine 
of ten pounds and cost. J In the case of John Baker, of 
Cape Porpoise, excommunicated for •' uttering opprobrious 
speeches against ministers of the gospel," pretending to 
have " a spirit of prophecy," and other things charged against 
him, the Board heard the evidence, put the said Baker 
under a recognizance of twenty pounds to appear and answer 
at the next County Court in Yorkshire, to be of good be- 
havior in the mean time, and never more preach publicly in 
any part of the colony. These acts were acknowledged as 
favors, for Maine at that time was cursed with irresponsible, 
self-constituted pretenders to the ministry, and many com- 
munities " were disquieted by new-fangled doctrines, or rent 
in pieces by turbulent, self-willed, noisy disputants, or dis- 
orderly communicants." Three persons classed in this 
category, viz., Henry Boade, Edmund Littlefield, and Wil- 
liam Wardwell, had been excommunicated from the church 
in Wells ; the commLssioners heard the facts in the case 
and sanctioned the excommunication, admonishing them to 
desist from all acts of obstinacy and disturbance, and pursue 
a Christian course of conduct, lest they, who had professed 
themselves to be the disciples of peace, should at last be 
the subjects of penal severity.§ 

Apprehensive of meeting with difficulties in their attempts 
to execute their commission further eastward, the board 
closed their official services with the following Protest, which 
the marshal of the county publicly proclaimed : 

" Whereas, we have declared the right of the Massachusetts gov- 
ernment to the towns of Wells, .Saco, and Cape Porpoise; and the in- 
hahitants thereof, being summoned, did appear before us at Weils, on 
the 5th of July, 1653, and acknowledge themselves subject thereto, 
and took the oath of freemen and fidelity to that colony ; and the un- 
dersigned, her commissioners, have appointed and settled a govern- 

" We do now, therefore, protest against all persons whatever that 
shall challenge jurisdiction, or that shall e.xercise any act of authority 
over them, or over any other persons to the northward, inhabiting 
within the limits of our patent, which doth extend to the latitude 43° 
43' 7" northwardly, but what shall be derived from us as Commission- 
ers or from the General Court of Massachusetts. 

" Given under our hands at Wells, in the county of York, July 6, 

" Richard Beelingham. 

" Daniel Desnisos. 

"Thomas Wiggik. 

" Edward Rawsox. 

"Bryan Pendletos." 

j 2 Mass. Rec, p. 

^ Ibid., p. 187. 


The change already effected was followed by a legislative 
order to collect all the remaiuing records of different admin- 
istrations in Maine into one office, appointed to be kept by 
the County Recorder. In pursuance of this order the col- 
lection of judicial, legislative, and executive proceedings, 
including many curious laws and ordinances, and not a few 
cases which shed a quaint and even ludicrous light upon 
the customs and manners of the early times, has been 
wonderfully preserved through subsequent wars and numer- 
ous other perils, and are now to be seen in the offices of 
the clerk of the courts and register of deeds in the county 
of York. This collection is invaluable to the historian : 
from it we have made many quotations in the foregoing 
chapter, and we shall make others equally interesting as we 

The whole number of men in the five towns who at first 
signed the act of submission was about one hundred and 
fifty ; others took the oath afterwards. The public mind 
became very much tranquillized ; still there was a large 
and formidable minority, and in its ranks were several men 
of the largest wealth and influence in the eastern planta- 
tions. One of these was George Cleaves, of Casco, late 
deputy president of Lygonia ; another was John Bonython, 
of Saco, a turbulent and lawless man, who had been con- 
demned by the court as an outlaw ; a third was Henry 
Jocelyn, of Black Point (Scarborough), formerly one of 
Gorges' Council ; and a fourth was Robert Jordan, of 
Spurwink (Cape Elizabeth), an Episcopal clergyman of 
learning, and the proprietor of a large estate. There were 
many other malcontents, though of less boldness, activity, 
and influence. 

Cleaves was in England when the first measures of the 
General Court towards subjecting Maine were undertaken. 
The court sent him a conciliatory and respectful letter, 
stating anew to him the grounds of the claim, the gener- 
ous course pursued, and the voluntary submission of five 
towns, assuring him of their determination to prosecute and 
maintain the rights of their patent still further eastward ; 
and that, if the obstinacy of opposers could not be abated 
by reason, justice, and liberal treatment, they must expect 
rigor. After repeated and exhaustive efforts on the part 
of the General Court for a period of about three years, 
during which every reasonable inducement, urged to gain 
the consent of the people of Lygonia, was met by stubborn 
opposition on the part of Cleaves, Jocelyn, Jordan, and 
their associates, the government of Massachusetts resolved 
to enforce her claim by stronger measures. 

The militia was considered at this early day the safe- 
guard of the public ; and the General Court caused military 
companies to be formed in Kittery, York, Wells, and Cape, erected the whole into a regiment, and appointed 
Nicholas Shapleigh sergeant-major and commandant. He 
was also required to meet with the company officers for 
improvement in military tactics, and to see that the soldiers 
were well armed, equipped, and disciplined. This was in 
1656. In August of this year seventy of the inhabitants 
of Saco, Cape Porpoise, Wells, York, and Kittery addressed 
a petition to Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, stating 
that they were "a people few in number, not competent to 
manage weighty affairs," and praying to be continued under 

the government of Massachusetts. The malcontents in 
Lygonia had previously addressed a letter to Cromwell 
complaining of Massachusetts, whom they charged with 
" usurpation and avarice," to counteract which she had 
furnished Mr. John Leverett, her minister at London, with 
facts and instructions which insured the continued good 
graces of the Lord Protector. 

In 1657 the inhabitants within the patent eastward of 
Saco were summoned to appear before the County Court at 
the June term in Yorkshire, for the purpose of taking the 
oath of allegiance. They paid no regard to the summons. 
They were then commanded to answer for their default 
before the General Court in October, to which they replied 
through Cleaves, protesting against the legality of the legis- 
lative authority, and declaring their firm intention to main- 
tain their independence. The court met this threat in a spirit 
of conciliation and reason, assuring them that nothing but 
equal justice and the good of all concerned were intended. 
This mildness and forbearance had the effect of disarming 
in a great measure their resentment, and prepared the way 
for an amicable arrangement which was soon entered into 
for the establishment of the contemplated union. ]\Iean- 
time, Jordan, Jocelyn, and Bonython, on account of their 
violent opposition, had been arrested by order of the Gen- 
eral Court and taken before that body, where, for the sake 
of regaining their liberty and avoiding fines, they thought 
it most prudent to subscribe to a humble submission, and, 
after taking the oath of allegiance, were discharged.* 

The commissioners appointed by the General Court to 
take the submission of Lygonia were Samuel Simonds, 
Thomas Wiggin, Nicholas Shapleigh, and Edward Rish- 
worth. With instructions to admit the remaining eastern 
inhabitants of the patent, settle a government among them, 
and give them a guarantee of equal rights enjoyed by other 
freemen of the colony, they repaired to the house of Robert 
Jordan, at Spurwink, where, on the 13th of July, 1658, a 
conference was held, and after mutual agreement upon terms 
of union, thirty-three of the inhabitants subscribed to the 
freeman's oath. 

Thus was the jurisdiction of Massachusetts extended over 
all the territory embraced within her charter. The rights 
and privileges granted to the eastern section were the same 
as those which had already been conferred upon the western. 
The article granting religious toleration was not only a just 
but a wise concession to a people differing generally in re- 
ligious belief from the Puritan faith prevailing and estab- 
lished by law in Massachusetts and in the other colonies in 
alliance with her. Although the original province of Maine 
could not be admitted into the union of colonies on account 
of a difference of religious faith, it was deemed wise by 
Massachusetts to waive that condition for the purpose of ex- 
tending her dominion over the same province a few years 
later, and guarantee that difference of religion shall work 
no forfeiture or abridgment of civil rights. The fifth article 
of the compact is — 

" That none of the privileges hereby granted and secured shall ever 
be forfeited by reason of any difference in matters of religion, nor be 
affected otherwise than by known and established ordinances and pe- 
nal laws formally enacted by the General Court.'' 


n, p. 371; 


n, p. 391. 


By the action of the commissioners Scarborough and Fal- 
mouth were erected into towns, and there was now a chain 
of incorporated uiunicipaHties — seven in number — extend- 
ing along the entire sea-coast from the Piscataqua to the 

In 1(359, Falmouth and Scarborough, unitedly, elected 
Edward Rishworth, of York, their first representative to 
the General Court. Saco was admitted to the privilege 
about the same time, and elected Robert Boothe. 

The delegation from Yorkshire now consisted of five 
members, and might be ten if the towns sent all they were 
entitled to. The assistants designated this year to preside 
in the County Court of Yorkshire were Thomas Danforth 
and Thomas Wiggin ; and the people of JIaine, in their 
connection with Massachusetts, enjoyed peace and pros- 
perity several years. In the County Court held at Scar- 
borough in September, 1659, Henry Jocelyu, Nicholas 
Shapleigh, Robert Jordan, Edward Rishworth, and Abra- 
ham Preble were associates. It had been so arranged that 
one term should be held annually in the western, and one 
in the eastern part of Yorkshire. 



Restoration of Charles II.— Effect on the Royalists— The Gorges 
Claim revived by Ferdinaodo, Grandson of the Lord Proprietor — 
Conflict with Massachusetts— The King and Council decide in 
Gorges' Favor — Letter from King Charles — Arrival of the King's 
Commissioners— Collision between the Two Sets of Justices at York. 

Oi>r the restoration of Charles II. to the throne of Eng- 
land, in 1660, the heirs of Rigby, and of Gorges, renewed 
their respective claims to the provinces of Maine and Ly- 
gonia. Edward Rigby, the son of Sir Alexander, was the 
lawful heir of the latter province, but having neither influ- 
ence with Cromwell, on account of his adherence to the 
Episcopal Church, nor with the newly-restored king, on 
account of his Republicanism, he had failed to prosecute 
his claim. His rights, once established, might, under mofe 
favorable circumstances, have been recovered, but all at- 
tempts made by his agents to derive some advantage from 
the patent proved fruitless. 

Not so with Ferdinando Gorges, the grandson of the 
Lord Proprietor of Maine. From the well-known devotion 
of his family and himself to the royal cause, and the poli- 
tics of the new ministry, he might make large calculations 
upon court favor. Nor was he without able assistants to 
advocate his cause, and mould public sentiment in his favor 
in Maine. The former adherents of his grandfather were 
still alive, and powerful, and it was not without a struggle, 
and a humiliation which they keenly felt, that they had 
submitted to the authority of Massachusetts. No wonder 
that now, when they had an opportunity, they should seek 
to be avenged. Edward Godfrey, although he had sub- 
mitted, and borne office under Massachusetts, owed that 
colony a grudge for deposing him from the governorship, 
which he was ready, at the first opportune moment, to pay. 
Hence, at the first movement of Gorges, in England, to 

recover his province, Godfrey became his agent, and in- 
defatigable attorney before the king and court, having 
repaired to England for that purpose, where he was zeal- 
ously assisted by Ma.son, one of the heirs to the province 
of New Hampshire. They had succeeded so far as to 
bring their claims before the king and council, and before 
Parliament, and to secure the appointment of a legislative 
committee of seven, to whom the matter was referred for 

Aware of these proceedings, the General Court, in De- 
cember, 1660, presented addresses, both to the king and 
Parliament, which produced a favorable impression, although 
no answer was received for more than a year. In the mean 
time the committee appointed by Parliament on the Gorges 
and Mason claims reported in favor of the rights of the 
heirs, and that Massachusetts had usurped authority over 
the province, to the great damage of the rightful owners. 
They also included Godfrey in the claim for damages, say- 
ing, " Mason and Godfrey have themselves been damnified 
at least £5000, with what pretence of right your committee 
have been unable to ascertain." Nevertheless, the General 
Court received a gracious answer from Charles, in return 
for which they proceeded, on the 7th of August, 1662, 
with suitable pomp and ceremony, to proclaim him king, 
and, according to his requirements, sent to England two 
ministers, or agents, — Mr. Simon Bradstreet and Mr. John 
Norton. These men, though well received, returned the 
next summer, bringing with them the Act of Uniformity, 
by which about two thousand dissenting ministers were 
removed from their livings, and the king's letter, by which 
the charter of Massachusetts was fully confirmed. 

Symptoms of revolution in Maine were now everywhere 
apparent. Although the towns might send ten representa- 
tives to the General Court, not one this spring was returned. 
Great disaifection existed towards Massachusetts. Gorges 
contemplated assuming the reins of government, and, it 
is said, gave commissions to several officers, while he united 
with others in urging the king to commission and send over 
a governor-general of New England, including New York. 
To counteract these movements the General Court displaced 
Maj. Nicholas Shapleigh and appointed William Phillips, 
of Saco, major-commandant of the provincial militia; and, 
before the usual time for holding the County Court in York- 
shire, directed Richard Waldron, of Dover, N. H., to pre- 
side and discharge the ordinary business of the term. The 
General Court, furthermore, sent a precept to the people of 
Maine, which was promulgated through the recorder and 
constables to all the towns, as follows : 

" To the Iiihahitanis of Yorkshire. 

'*Tou and every of you are hereby required in his Majesty's name 
to yield faithful and true obedience to the government of this juris- 
diction, established amongst you, according to your coven.ant articles, 
until his Majesty's pleasure be further known."-' 

In 1663 the excitement had considerably abated, and 
three representatives were returned to the General Court, 
viz., Roger Plaisted for Kittery, Edward Rishworth for 
York, and George Cleaves for Falmouth and Scarborough. 

The assistants, Thomas Danforth, William Hawthorne, 

* 3 Mass. Rec, p. 53. 



and Eleazer Lusher, who were appointed to hold the York- 
shire court this year, were instructed to confirm any officer, 
civil or military, whom they could approve, and to punish 
every one pretending to possess or to exercise adverse civil 
authority, unless he could show it derived immediately from 
the king. At this court many were fined for acts of oppo- 
sition to Massachusetts ; the town of Scarborough was also 
fined, as a municipal corporation, for acts of disobedience. 
James Wiggin was indicted for swearing, with a profane 
oath, " that if his trencher of fish was poison he would 
give it to the Bay magistrates," and was sentenced to pay 
a fine and give bonds for hLs good behavior. When ar- 
raigned, he said he was a marshal under Gorges, and the 
court had no right to try him. William Hilton, of Cape 
Porpoise, was found guilty of " tearing a seal from the war- 
rant issued for choosing a deputy to the General Court, and 
for contempt of authority," was fined. Robert Boothe, 
of Saco, was presented by the grand jury for saying of the 
Bay magistrates, " They are a company of hypocritical 
rogues ; they fear neither God nor the king." Among 
others censured and fined for this class of offenses were 
Francis Champernoon, Robert Jordan, 3Iajor Shapleigh, 
and Francis Small, all men of wealth, enterprise, and stand- 
ing in the province. As a sort of counterpoise to this se- 
verity the General Court this year confirmed to their tenants 
nearly all the lands in Falmouth, and allowed purchases to 
be made of the Indians. Nicholas Shapleigh and Francis 
Small, about this time, purchased of the Indians an ex- 
tensive tract between the Ossipee Rivers, which has ever 
since been holden under their deeds. 

On the 11th of January, 1664, Ferdinando Gorges ob- 
tained from the king an order to the Governor and Council 
of jNIassachusetts, by which they were required forthwith 
to restore to him his province, and give him quiet posses- 
sion of it, or else without delay assign their reasons for 
withholding it. 

On the 15th of April. 1664, the king appointed a board 
of Royal Commissioners, consisting of Col. Richard Nichols, 
Sir Robert Carr, Mr. George Cartwright, and Mr. Samuel 
Maverick, to settle affairs in the colonies generally. The 
plan contemplated taking New York from the Dutch and 
conferring it upon James, the Duke of York and Albany, 
which was successfully done, giving to that province the 
name of New York, in honor of the Duke ; settling the 
affairs of the Duke's province at Sagadahock ; taking away 
the charter of Massachusetts ; restoring Maine to Gorges ; 
and establishing over the whole territory, fr-om the Hudson 
to the Penobscot, a vice-regal government under a governor- 
general appointed by the king. Having settled the govern- 
ment of New York, the commissioners proceeded to Boston 
in February, where they were received with undisguised jeal- 
ousy, and soon encountered direct opposition. The people 
of Massachusetts determined " to adhere to their patent, so 
dearly obtained and .so long enjoyed." After a long and 
stormy debate with the authorities at Boston, the commis- 
sioners left in June for New Hampshire, Maine, and Saga- 
dahock, " denouncing upon the colonists and government of 
Massachusetts the doom due to rebels and traitors." 

With the commissioners came one John Archdale, an 
agent of Gorges, bringing orders relative to the province of 

Maine. He gave commissions to Henry Jocelyn, of Scar- 
borough, Robert Jordan, of Spurwink, Edward Rishworth, 
of York, and Francis Neale, of Falmouth, who took upon 
themselves to rule ; but their regency was cut short by 
the entrance of the king's commissioners into the province. 
Charles having resolved to put Gorges in possession of 
Maine, addressed to the provincials a letter dated the 
11th of June, 1664, which was probably communicated 
through his commissioners. As this is probably the only 
letter which the people of this portion of Maine ever re- 
ceived from the hand of royalty, we give it entire : 

•' Tn „ur Initli/ and well-beloieii subjects and I'lilwb^lanls in the Prov- 
ince of .V'd'jfe, and alt whom it may concern. VTe greet yon icell, 
" As we are informed, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, the grandfather of 
the present proprietor, and a generous promoter of foreign planta- 
tions, obtained a royal charter of Maine, and e.xpended in settling it 
more than £20,000, and yet was wholly prevented from reaping the 
fruits of bis expenditures and labors by the unhappy civil wars, 
wherein he, though advanced in age, bravely engaged in his master's 
service. In the meantime, his opponents, intoxicated with success, 
as we understand, and deaf to the voice of justice, have given coun- 
tenance to measures by which the provincials have been brought within 
the jurisdiction of Massachusetts Bay, and the proprietary deprived 
of all the issues and profits of his property, though according to the 
decision of our ' Counsel learned in the law,' his right to tfie charter is 
fnlli/ established ; the Prorince was in possession of the original pro- 
prietor and under his government several years ; the large sums men- 
tioned had been by him eu-pended in settling and managing it; he has 
in the late civil wars been plnudered and imprisoned several times ; and 
being exhausted by losses and ill-treated by the jiretended ' Committees 
of foreign plantations,' he and his agents in those times of trouble had 
left the inhabitants to the temporary government of their oicn choice. 
Since the restoration, he, by his commissioners, has endeavored to re- 
possess himself of his Province, and two years since proclaimed his 
Majesty king, established courts, and gave to many the oaths of al- 
legiance ; but the government of Massachusetts prohibited all further 
proceedings of those commissioners till they had orders from the su- 
preme authority of the kingdom. We have therefore taken the whole 
matter into our princely consideration, and have thought fit to signify 
our pleasure in behalf of Ferdinando Gorges, the present proprietor, 
and do require you to make restitution of the Province to him or his 
commissioners, and deliver to him peaceable possession thereof, or 
otherwise without delay show us reasons to the contrary, -ind so we 


The General Court decided that the " distracted condi- 
tion of the people in Yorkshire" required rather their pro- 
tection and assistance than the withdrawal of their juris- 
diction, and that the government of their choice should not 
be hastily vacated. They spoke with an authoritativeness 
not to be mistaken : 

" A County Court will be holden at York in the present as in previ- 
ous years. All civil officers will continue to exercise and perform 
their duties, and the inhabitants will show as formerly due obedience 
to the colony administration. If Edward Rishworth neglect his duty 
as County Recorder, Peter Wyer will take his place, and to him the 
present incumbent will deliver the books and papers. Since there is 
no resident magistrate in that County, Ezekiel Knight, of Wells, will 
act as such in every particular, till the further orders of the Legisla- 
ture. Messrs. Simonds and Danforth will hold the usual term of the 
Courts in York the current year, and all transgressors of the law, if 
any, will have its ])ena1ties measured to them with nil retributive 

By the middle of June this year (1665) the king's com- 
missioners had arrived in Kittery. They seemed equally 
to oppose the governments of Gorges and of Massachusetts, 

Hutchinson's Coll., pp. 385-388. 


ai)d exhibited a petition for signatures addressed to the 
king, praying for a new colony charter. They found sev- 
eral people who were dupes enough to sign their petition. 
They passed several days at York, undertaking to establish 
a superstructure of civil government. At length they issued 
their proclamation, thus: 


■ >,.lll;n,j Ihe nf, 

X,ne En,, 

"We having seen the several charters granted to Sir Ferdiuando 
Gorges and the Corporation of Massachusetts Bay, and duly weighed 
the matter in controversy, do now receive all his Majesty's good sub- 
jects living within the Province of Maine under his iuimediate pro- 
tection and government. We also appoint and conslitute Francis 
Champernoon and Robert Cutts, of Kittery ; Edward Rishworth and 
Edward Johnson, of York ; Samuel Wheelwright, of Wells; Francis 
Hooke and William Phillips, of Saco: George Mountjoy, of Casco; 
Henry Joeelyn, of Black Point; Robert Jordan, of Richmond's 
Island ; and John Wincoln, of Newichawannock, Justices of the Pence, 
and constitute them a Court to hear and determine all causes, civil and 
criminal, and to order all the affairs of the said Province for the peace 
and defense thereof: proceeding in all cases according to the laws of 
England as near as may be till the appointment of another govern- 
ment by the Crown. 

'* In his Majesty's name we require all the inhabitants of the said 
province to yield obediences to the said Justices', and forbid as well 
the Commissioners of Mr. Gorges as the Corporation of Massachu- 
setts Bay to molest any of the inhabitants of this Province till his 
Majesty's pleasure be known. 

" Given under our hands and seals at York, within the said Pro- 
vince, the 2.M of June, 1666. 

" Robert Cark. 


i-Ei, Ma 

The commissioners, after establishing a similar form of 
government in the Duke of York's province, returned and 
held courts in Casco in October, and Saco in November, 
1665. This latter court must have had considerable busi- 
ness, such as it was, judging from the following report of 
its doings, taken from the York Records, Book B: 

"Court at Saco, 1665, Nov'r. Edward Rishworth is Plant. In an 
action of the case for not paiment of a Debt due to him out of Mr. 
Green, his Estate, deceased, contra Jere. Sheers adminisr. of the said 

"The Court finds a non suit against the plant, and gives the de- 
fendant his charge, 18s. Because he is not capable to be sued within 
one year, and one day after Letters of admn. taken. 

"We present Jo.ane Forde, the wife of Stephen Forde, for calling 
the constable Hornheaded Rogue and Cowhead Rogue. Joane Forde 
punished for this ofi'ence by nine Stripes given her at the post at a 
Court holden at York, Decemr., 1665. 

"We present Joseph Winnock, of Black Point, for abusing Mr. 
Francis Hooke, Just. Peace, by saying that he was no more Drunk 
than Mr. Hooke, and called the said Hooke Mowne Calfe. 

"Joseph Winnock fined for ofl'enee Forty shillings. 

" We present Joane Forde, the wife of Stephen Forde, of the Isle of 
Shoales, for reviling and abusing the Neighbours by very evil speeches. 
Jane Forde for abusing the Constable and other Her Neighbours, is 
appointed to have Ten lashes at the post, which was by John Parker, 
in presence of the Court, accordingly executed. 

"In his majestys behalf we Indite Rich'd White, of York, for 
swearing and calling his wife whore. 

" Richard White fined for swearing 2». 6t/., and for abusing his wife 
20«.; the fine of 20». for abusing his wife, upon her Request and his 
promise of amendment, is remitted, and he paying 5s., for the officers 
fees, is discharged. 

" In his majestys Behalf We Indite Richard White, of York, for 
Abusing Thomas Bragdon, one of the grand Jury, by saying that the 
said Bragdon was not fitt to be a grand Juryman, and that he would 
complain upon him to-morrow and have him put out of his place, for 
he was a Knave. 

" Richard White fined for hi! 
• the officers fees, is acquitted 

Of this provincial government York was made tlie chief 
seat. To that place the commissioners repaired after hold- 
ing court at Saco, and prolonged their stay for a consider- 
able time The General Court, to oppose them in the 
exercise of authority, sent Messrs. Danforth, Lusher, and 
Leverett to hold a term of court in Yorkshire in October. 
But they were stopped at Piscataqua, October 10th, by a 
sharp letter sent to them by Col. Carr, who ordered them 
to desist from their purpose and proceed no farther. They 
therefore returned to Boston. On the arrival of the Com- 
missioners there soon after, they were charged by the Gen- 
eral Court with being disturbers of the public peace, and were 
requested to meet a committee for the purpose of a confer- 
ence. " No, nut a word need pass," replied Carr ; " but 
remember, the kind's pardon, of the late rebellion is Con- 
ditional, and the authors of t/i£ opposition among you mnst 
expect the punishment awarded to the rebels in England ; 
and you well know their fate." Here all intercourse with 
them terminated. 

The commissioners were soon recalled to England, and 
the affairs of Maine, left in the hands of the justices ap- 
pointed, many of whom were unpopular, soon degenerated 
into lamentable confusion. Fur three years no representa- 
tive from the province appeared in the General Court. In 
1668 that body appointed Maj.-Gen. John Leverett, Mr. 
Edward Tyng, Capt. Richard Waldron, and Capt. Richard 
Pike commissioners to hold a court at York, appoint civil 
and military oflScers, and take all necessary measures to re- 
establish civil government over the people. This effort on 
the part of Massachusetts was met by strong remonstrance 
on the part of Governor Nichols, of New York, who wrote 
a threatening letter, charging Massachusetts with a breach of 
good faith in again interfering in the affairs of Maine, so 
long as the king had not declared what was his further 
pleasure respecting that province. " I am," said he, " not 
a little surprised to find that you are preparing to usurp 
again the government of Maine ; at a time, too, when the 
rights of ownership, which have been submitted to the 
king by different claimants, are still awaiting his royal de- 
termination." The authorities of Massachusetts were not 
affected by the letter of Governor Nichols. The commis- 
sioners (excepting Mr. Pike), accompanied by a military 
escort, arrived at York on the 6th of July, intending the next 
day to proceed with their court. They appointed Peter 
Wyer (Weare) clerk, and finding Nathaniel Masterson im- 
prisoned by the dominant party, they appointed another 
marshal pro tempore, whose duties, however, were soon sus- 
pended by the incumbent's release. Without much ceremony 
or formality they were presently met at their lodgings by 
Henry Joeelyn and the other justices appointed by the 
King's commissioners, when they all agreed to a free con- 
ference the next morning. At the hour appointed the 
parties met, and the commissioners in justification of their 
proceedings said, — 

"His Majesty directed Massachusetts either to resign the province 
to Mr. Gorges, or assign to him our objections ; and it is well known 
we have chosen the Litter alternative. The cause is still under his 
consideration ; and when have we been required by our common sov- 


The commissioners then repaired to the meeting-house 
and opened court. Between the hours of adjournment and 
the re-assembling in the afternoon, the opposition justices 
took possession of the meeting-house, with a considerable 
force which they had summoned, and sent a crier about 
town to warn the people that his majesty's justices were in 
session. On repairing to the meeting-house the commis- 
sioners found it full of people, and upon the marshal order- 
ing them to give place a scene of tumult ensued ; several 
rose from their seats and began to speak. The commis- 
sioners commanded silence, and ordered the marshal to clear 
the house. As the justices were leaving their places, Mr. 
Jocelyn, one of them, prudently advised his partisans near 
him to retire. As soon as the excitement was allayed and 
the assembly had dispersed, the commissioners and justices 
held a conference, at which the former, by request, read the 
king's letter of the lUth of April, and the latter also read 
their commissions. After the reading of these papers, and 
an expression of determination on the part of the commis- 
sioners to go forward with the duty they had undertaken, 
the justices retired, and the commissioners proceeded with 
their court. 

It appeared from the canvass of votes that five towns out 
of the seven had made returns. Five associates were de- 
clared elected, viz. : Bryan Pendleton, of Saco ; Francis 
Raynes, of York ; Francis Neale, of Falmouth ; Ezekiel 
Knight, of Wells ; and Roger Plaisted, of Kittery. 

Xiifi military of Yorkshire were formed into six compan- 
ies, duly oflficered, and united into a regiment. Bryan 
Pendleton, of Saco, was made major by brevet, and com- 
manded the battalion at Black Point. 

In Kittery, Charles Frost was Captain ; Roger Plaisted, 
Lieutenant ; and John Gattery, Ensign. In York, Job 
Alcock, Lieutenant; and Arthur Bragdon, Ensign. In 
Wells, John Littlefield, Lieutenant ; and Francis Little- 
field, Jr., Ensign. In Scarborough, Andrew Alger, Lieu- 
tenant. In Falmouth, George Ingersol, Lieutenant. 

In the General Court held in Boston in May, 1669, there 
were three representatives from Y'orkshire, viz. : Charles 
Frost, from Kittery ; Peter Wyer (Wearej, from York ; and 
Richard Colicott, from Falmouth and Scarborough. 

In 1670 the interior regulations of Yorkshire were com- 
pleted. Thomas Danforth, an experienced assistant of ten 
years, was designated to preside in the County Court ; and 
Elias Stilman, of Great Island ; John and Richard Cutts, 
of Kittery ; and three or four others in diflferent towns 
were appointed commissioners as usual, invested with the 
authority of magistrates, to try small causes, solemnize 
marriages, administer oaths, and take the acknowledgment 
of deeds. The Legislature now solemnly enacted that the 
several towns and inhabitants should be secure in the enjoy- 
ment of the same civil and political privileges which were 
granted to them when they were first brought under the 



Distinct Tribes— Two Languages Spoken— Indians East and West of 
the Saco River — Passaeonaway — Remarkable Prediction of Eowles 
— Wonnolaneet — Blind Will — Abenaques — Sokokis — Etechemins — 
— Squando — Form of Government among the Indian Tribes. 

The Indians within the territory of this county were 
originally of two distinct races or families, separated from 
each other by a radical difference of language. The divi- 
sional line was somewhere between the Saco and the Aga- 
menticus Rivers. Those on the Saco, and eastward as far 
as Passamaquoddy, spoke one language, or a language so 
nearly the same that the different tribes could easily under- 
stand one another ; while those at Agamenticus, Piscat- 
aqua, and Newichawannock, spoke the language of the 
Abergenians, or Northern Indians. It was observed by 
Mr. Goodkin, who was superintendent of Indian affairs, in 
1656, that the Piscataqua Indians could not pronounce the L 
and the R ; as for instance, the word lobster they called nob- 
steii, whereas the tribes to the eastward sounded these let- 
ters easily. There was another fact having a very significant 
bearing on this question. A copy of Mr. Eliot's Indian 
Bible, printed in 1664, was obtained by Rev. Daniel Little, 
missionary to the Indians of Penobscot and St. John, since 
the Revolution, which he carried with him ; but he said 
not one word of their language could be found in it. On 
the other hand, in a vocabulary compiled by Mr. Cutter, 
keeper of a trading-house upon the Saco River, Mr. Little 
discovered a great similarity of language with that spoken 
farther eastward. 

There were in New Hampshire, and the western part of 
Maine, four tribes of the Abergenians, existing in a sort 
of political alliance or confederacy, the most powerful of 
which were the Pentiickets and Pennacooks, of whom the 
former, in 1630, were the more numerous people. At 
Squampscot, now Exeter, there dwelt a chief who was the 
head of a small inland tribe in that vicinity. Another, or 
fourth tribe, inhabited the banks and branches of the Pis- 
cataqua, including the Indian settlement at Cocheco, now 
Dover. These were commonly called the Newichawan- 
nocks, although Goodkin calls them the Piscataquas, — of 
whom Rowles, otherwise named Knolles, was for many 
years the sagamore. All of them were under colitical 
subordination to the celebrated Passaeonaway, chief of the 
Pennacooks, whom they acknowledged to possess a rightful 
and paramount superiority.* 

The dwelling-place of Rowles was on the northerly side 
of the Piscataqua, not far from Quampagan Falls, in Ber- 
wick, formerly Kittery. He was a sagamore of some ce- 
lebrity. In 16-13 he conveyed lands in his vicinity to 
Humphrey Chadbourne, and afterwards to Spencer, the 
former being the oldest Indian deed in the records of 
Maine. It is certain that all the Indians upon the river 
to its mouth were his subjects,"}" though he was under 
Passaeonaway, his superior lord. 

The depredations frequently committed by the Tuvra- 

CoU., p. 142 ; Bel- 

« Hubbard's New England, p. 32 ; Ma: 
knap's New Hampshire, p. 289. 
t 1 Morse's Geography, p. 310, ed. 1812; Sullivan, p. 143, 



fines upon the people of these tribes induced the saga- 
mores to encourage English settlements among them, in 
expectation of their assistance against the enemy. It is 
stated by Belknap that the four chieftains, May 17, 1629, 
joined in a quit-claim to John Wheelwright and his asso- 
ciates of all the country between the Piscataqua and the 
Merrimac, below Quampeagan and Amoskeag Falls. The 
veracity of this transaction has been doubted, but it is cer- 
tain that the natives lived for many years on terms of 
friendly intercourse with the settlers. In the first Indian 
war the sagamore.s of these tribes resolved to be neutral ; 
but their conduct was evidently controlled by fear more 
than by friendship, and, above either, by a presentiment 
that all quarrels with the English would be ruinous to the 

Fassaconaway possessed talents and sagacity, which gave 
him most exalted rank and influence among his country- 
men. He was a prophet, or powiooio, as well as a civil ruler, 
and by that claim to the supernatural which has always 
exerted a potent spell over the savage mind, he swayed and 
controlled them at his pleasure. He made them believe he 
could give nature's freshness to the ashes of a burnt leaf, 
raise a living serpent from the skin of a dead one, and 
transform himself into a flame. Becoming old, he made a 
great feast in 1660, to which he invited his tribes, call- 
ing them his children. He spoke to them as a dying 
man to dying men, in words which seem almost prophetic. 
" Hearken," said he, " to the last words of your father and 
friend. The white men are sons of the morning. The 
Great Spirit is their father. His sun shines bright above 
them. Sure as you light the fires, the breath of heaven 
will turn the flames upon you and destroy you. Listen to 
my advice. It is the last I shall be allowed to give you. 
Remember it and live." 

Similar presages afiected the mind of Bowles. About 
1670, when bedridden of age and sickness, he complained 
of the great neglect with which the English had treated 
him. At length he sent a message to some of the prin- 
cipal men of Kittery, now Berwick, to visit him. "Being 
loaded with years," said he, " I had expected a visit in my 
infirmities, especially from those who are now tenants on 
the lands of my fathers. Though all of these plantations 
are of right my children's, I am forced in this age of evils 
humbly to request a few acres of land to be marked out for 
them and recorded, as a public act, in the town-books, so 
that when I am gone they may not be perishing beggars in 
the pleasant places of their birth ; for I know a great war 
will shortly break out between the white men and the In- 
dians over the whole country. At first the Indians will kill 
many and prevail, but after three years they will be great 
sufierers and finally be rooted out and utterly destroyed."* 

Wonuolancet, the son of Fassaconaway, and Blind Will, 
the successor of Howies, heeded the premonitory counsel 
of the chiefs with sacred respect, and perpetuated peace and 
amity with the whites. A few facts must here be related 
of Blind Will, who was a brave ally of the whites in King 
Fhilip's war, and was afterwards slain through a mistake 

* The facts of this prediction, attested by Maj. Waldron, Capt. 
Frost, and Joshua Moody, are published in the Supplement to King 
PhiUp'e War, p. 82. 

by a company of Mohawks, who had come down the coun- 
try at the request of Maj. Waldron. 

It must be borne in mind that the Mohawks and their 
associates of the Five Nations, otherwise called the confed- 
eracy of the Iroquois, inhabiting New York from the Hud- 
son to Lake Erie, were at this time the most powerful 
confederation of Indians on the continent, and a terror to all 
the tribes of New England as far east as the Kennebec River. 
They had carried their conquests into Canada, subjugating 
the once powerful nation of the Hurotis, and hung like a 
scytiie of death upon the borders of New France, and at its 
very heart and citadel, which they repeatedly besieged. 
They had conquered and placed under tribute the tribes on 
Long Island and on the Connecticut, had subdued the Eries 
and Neutral Nation in Western New York, driven the 
Adiroiidacs from their mountain fastnesses across the St. 
Lawrence, conquered the Andastes of the Susquehanna, 
the Delawares on the bay and river of that name, and had 
carried their victorious arms into the valleys of the Ohio 
and the Mississippi. Smith, in his " History of New York," 
says that all the surrounding tribes had been conquered by 
them, and acknowledged their subjection by paying them 

The Mohatvks, the most eastern of the Five Nations, 
were the neighbors of the New England Indians on the 
west, and their friendship for the English and great repu- 
tation as fighting men induced Maj. Waldron to invoke 
their powerful aid against the Tarratines of the Penobscot, 
who were pushing their depredations as far west as New 
Hampshire. Accordingly, in 1677, two messengers — Majs. 
Pinchon and Richards — were sent to the country of the Mo- 
hawks to secure their assistance. They were kindly re- 
ceived, and secured the promise of aid. About the middle 
of March some parties of them came down the country, 
and the first alarm was given at Amoskeag Falls, where the 
son of Wonnolancet, being out hunting, discovered fifteen 
Indians on the other side, who called to him in a language 
which he did not understand, upon which he fled, and they 
fired several shots at him without effect. Presently they 
were discovered in a woods near Cocheco. Maj. Waldron 
sent out eight of his Indians, whereof Blind Will was one, 
to make further discoveries. They were all surprised to- 
gether by a company of Mohawks ; two or three escaped, 
the others being killed or taken prisoners. Will was 
dragged away by his hair, and, bemg wounded, perished 
in the woods on a neck of land formed by the confluence 
of the Cocheco and Isinglass Rivers, which still bears the 
name of Blind Will's Neck.f This was evidently a mis- 
take on the part of the Mohawks, supposing that the friendly 
Indians sent out by Maj. Waldron, merely for the purpose 
of inspection, were a band of the enemy. 

The Indians of the Saco and eastward, except the Mick- 
macks, of Nova Scotia, were undoubtedly all of one race 
or tribe, — the Ahenaqves, or Men of the East, and the Ete- 
chemins, or Eastland People. Williamson says, — - 

" They were all without doubt descendants of the same original 
stock, and for an unknown period after the discovery of America the 
tribes were probably members of the same political family, differing 
little in language, looks, habits, or ideas of confederate union."' 

t 1 Belknap's Hist. N. H., p. 128. 


It would appear from the testimony of Captain Francis, 
of the Penobscot tribe, who is admitted to have been excel- 
lent authority on the subject, that the migration of the 
tribes was eastward from the Saeo River, where the oldest 
of them had their ancient seat. He assured Mr. William- 
son that all the tribes between the Saco and the St. John, 
both inclusive, were brothers ; that tbe oldest lived on the 
Saeo ; that each tribe was younger as we pass eastward, 
like the sons of the same father ; though the one at Pas- 
samaquoddy was the youngest of all, proceeding from those 
upon the rivers St. John and Penobscot. 

" Always," he says, " I eould understand these brothers well when 
they speak, but when the M!ekmacks, or the Ahjunqnum. or Canada 
Indians speak, I cannot tell all what they say." » 

The Ahenaques were divided into four tribes, viz., the 
Sokokis, or Sacoes, sometimes called Sockliigones, who 
lived on the Saco River; t\\e Anasagunticooks, -^ho held 
dominion upon the Androscoggin; the Canihits, or Kenahes, 
who had their villages upon the Kennebec ; and the Wawe- 
nocks, who inhabited the country eastward of the Kenne- 
bec, to and including the St. George's River. 

The Sokokis, or Saco Indians, were a numerous people 
till the first Indian war. The immediate residence of their 
sagamores was upon Indian Island, just above the lower 
falls. Two of them, Fluellen and Captain Sunday, con- 
veyed lands, but when their successor, Squando, died, the 
glory seemed to depart from the tribe, and it gradually 
wasted away. In 1615 there were two branches of the 
tribe, and two principal villages ; one was within the great 
bend of the river at Pequawket, or Fryeburg, the other 
fifteen or twenty miles below on the banks of the Great 
Ossipee. Here, before King Philip's war, they employed 
English engineers and carpenters and built a strong fort of 
timber, fourteen feet in height, with flankers, intending it 
as a protection against the Mohaivks.f 

No people ever defended their native country with more 
valor and obstinacy than did the Sokokis theirs, especially 
in Lovell's war. A number of them, relinquishing the 
French interest in 1744 for the ranks of the English, at 
the siege of Louisbourg distinguished themselves among 
the bravest soldiers. Afterwards they could muster only 
about a dozen fighting men, and before the capture of Que- 
bec the tribe had become extinct. 

The Anasagunlicooks, or Amarascogiiis, as they are 
called by Slather, Hubbard, and others, were originally a 
numerous and powerful tribe, inhabiting the country upon 
the waters of the Androscoggin, from its source to Merry- 
meeting Bay, and on the west side of the Kennebec to the 
sea. At Pejepscot, or Brunswick Falls, they had their 
usual encampments, or place of resort. This was one of 
the great trails or passes between the eastern and western 
tribes, where the savages met in council to plan expeditions 
against the English. + 

The Anasaguiitkooks were a warlike people. A short 
distance above the Great Falls they had a fort, which was 
destroyed by the English in 1690. " No tribe," says Wil- 
liamson, " was less interfered with in their fishing and fowl- 

s Drake's Book of the Indians, iii. p. 173. 

t La Houtan ; Gorges, p. 85 ; Hubbard's Indian Wars, p. 359. 

X Sullivan, p. 178. 

ing, and yet none were more uniformly and bitterly hostile 
towards the colonists." There were two rea.sons for this : 
the first was that the early European explorers, particularly 
the Portuguese and the English, had been treacherous 
towards them, decoying them into their vessels and kidnap- 
ping their chiefs, and taking them away to foreign countries 
to dispose of them for slaves ;§ and, in the second place, 
they were under the influence of the French, who taught 
them to hate and distrust the English. The venal and 
mercenary character of some of the early traders also de- 
stroyed their confidence, and they wreaked their first re- 
venge upon those of that class nearest to them. Tarumkin, 
Warumbo, and Hogkins, their sagamores, were brave men, 
but their tribe wasted away during the wars, and in 17-l-t 
they were able to muster only sixty fighting men. Wa- 
rumbo and five other sagamores sold the lands between 
Sagadahock and Maquoit to the sea, and the islands, July 
7, 1683.11 

These Indians were the earliest whom the French drew 
off' to the St. Francois settlements in Canada. When the 
Revolution commenced there were only about forty of the 
tribe, who made the shores, the ponds, and the islands of 
the Androscoggin their principal home. Philip Will, who 
afterwards became a chief of this tribe, was in the siege of 
Louisbourg at the age of fourteen, and was taken prisoner 
by the French. Remaining with the remnant of his tribe, 
he was brought up in the family of Mr Crocker, where he 
was taught to read and write the English language, and 
arithmetic. He was six feet three inches in height and 
well proportioned. The tribe made him chief, and for 
many years he was instrumental in preventing their utter 

The Pejepscot Indians were in all probability a sub-tribe 
of the Anamgunticooks. They had customary places of 
resort, if not permanent places of residence, — at Brunswick 
Falls, at Magquoit, and at Mare Point. It is now consid- 
ered probable, from the remains and relics found there, that 
the latter was the place of one of their villages in the six- 
teenth century. 

The plague which broke out among them about the year 
1616 so reduced them that they numbered only fifteen hun- 
dred warriors. They were still further reduced in numbers 
by war and other causes, so that there were, according to 
one authority, Nov. 25, 1726, only five Indians in the tribe 
over sixteen years of age. John Hegon was their sachem 
at this time. Twenty-five years later there were one hun- 
dred and sixty warriors in the tribe. This was a large in- 
crease in number, yet it shows how weak the tribe had 

The settlement of the region occupied by this tribe, sub- 
sequent to the time of King Philip's war, presents continual 
scenes of carnage and destruction, midnight massacres and 

^ Casper Cortereal, the Portuguese navigator, in 1500, enticed fifty- 
seven of the natives (men and boys) on board his ship, and luring 
tliem below deck, closed the hatchways upon them, and carried them 
off to sell them as slaves in Spain. Weymouth, the captain of the 
"Archangel," in 1605, kidnapped in a similar manner five natives, all 
men of rank, and took them to England. One of them, Squantum, 
after his return, was the first Indian who visited the Pilgrims on their 
arrival at Plymouth.— See Life of Miles Standish. 

II Kennebec Cljiims, p. 7. \ Hutchinson, p. 266. 


conflagrations, until the tribe itself became extinct. The 
language of the Ahenaque nation has been carefully studied 
by many competent students, but the difficulties in the way 
of thoroughly understanding the diiFerent dialects are so 
great that much uncertainty still exists, both as to the cor- 
rect pronunciation and derivation, and also as to the mean- 
ing of very many of the names formerly applied to locali- 

The Guiibas had their residence on the Kennebec River, 
where, Hubbard says, " were great numbers of them when 
the river was first discovered." The tribe consisted of two 
or three branches; for while Monquine, Kennebis, Abbaga- 
dusett, between 1648 and 1655, in the capacity of chief 
sagamores, conveyed to the English all the lands (ten miles 
in width) on each side of the river from Swan Island to 
Wessarunsett River, Elderumken, another sagamore, made 
conveyances on Stevens and Muddy Rivers in 1670, and 
Essemenosque certified, in 1G53, that the region of Tecon- 
net belonged to him and the wife of Watchogo. The 
principal residence of the Kennebis, the head chief, and of 
his predecessors of the same rank and title, was on Swan 
Island in a most delightful situation, and that of Abbaga- 
dusett between a river of his name and the Kennebec on 
the northern borders of Merrymeeting Bay. The terri- 
tories which the tribe claimed extended from the sources 
of the Kennebec to Merrymeeting Bay, and included the 
islands on the eastern side of the Sagadahock to the sea. 

While Jeff'reys, Charlevoix, La Houtan, and others, call 
this tribe the Caiiibas, the name of Norridgewochs is given 
them by Mather, Douglas.s, and most modern English 
writers, evidently from the name of their famous village. 
This was the residence of the French missionaries, who 
early taught the tribe the forms of worship and doctrines 
of the Roman Catholic religion. The derivation of the 
name Norridgewock has been given as follows : " Norridge' 
{falls) and " wock" {smooth loafer), i.e., little falls and in- 
tervals of smooth water above and below.* This old village 
of the Indians was a very pleasant site opposite the mouth 
of Sandy River. It was the general and almost the only 
resort of the tribe immediately after their ranks became 
thinned, and a spot consecrated to them by every sacred 
and endearing association. 

The Wawenocks inhabited the country east of the Kenne- 
bec, to and including the St, George's River, Capt, Smith, 
while in the harbor of the latter river in 1608, was urged 
by the natives to pay court to the great Bashaba, the ruling 
prince or superior chief The early colonists, also, at the 
mouth of the Kennebec, were urged by the natives to pay 
their respects to this great chief, Moxus, Wegunganet, 
Wivourna, and succeeding sagamores, sold lands to the 
English at Woolwich, Damariscotta, and other places in that 

The habitation of the Bashaba was near Pemaquid. But 
subsequently to his death the principal headquarters of the 
tribe was on the westerly side of the Sheepscot River, near 
the lower falls. From this circumstance Hubbard speaks 
of them as the " Sheepscot Indians." Broken and wasted 
by the disasters of the great war, in which the Bashaba was 

' Capt. Francis, quoted by Williamson, p. 

slain, they were never afterwards either powerful or numer- 
ous. In 1747 there were only two or three families re- 
maining, and in a few years after, all of them were induced 
by the French to join the St. Francois settlement in Canada. 
They were a brave, active people. Capt. Francis said the 
name Wawenocks signified " very brave, fearing nothing." 
According to Capt. Smith, they were strong, beautiful, and 
very witty. The men had a perfect constitution of body, 
were of comely proportions, and quite athletic. They would 
row their canoes faster, he says, with five paddles than his 
own men could their boats with eight oars. They had no 
beards, he says, and thought ours counterfeits. Their 
women, though of lesser stature, were fleshy and well 
formed, all habited in skins like the men. This tribe was 
always in alliance with the Caiiibas, unchanging in peace 
and in war, and appear in this character until their last 
treaty with the English. 

The other divisions of the aboriginal people of Maine — 
the Etechemins, inhabiting the eastern portion of the State — 
we can only briefly mention. The geographical territory 
of the tribes of this division is placed by Hermon Moll, 
upon his map of the English Empire in America, along the 
banks and at the heads of the rivers Penobscot and St. 
John, eastwardly to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and south- 
wardly to the Bay of Fundy. The charter of Nova Scotia, 
to Sir William Alexander, 1620, mentions the Bay of Fundy 
as dividing " the Etechemins on the north from the Souri- 
quois, or Mickmaclis, on the south." This great tribe or 
nation of Indians was divided into the Tarratines, the 
native inhabitants of the Penobscot ; the Openagoes, or 
Quoddy Indians, who had their residence at the Schoodic 
and Passamaquoddy Bay ; and the Marechites, who 
inhabited the great river St. John, called by them the 

Of the Tarratines, Williamson says, — 

" They were a numerous, powerful, and warlike people, more bardy 
and brave than their western enemies, whom they often plundered and 

According to Hubbard and Prince, they kept the saga- 
mores between the Piscataqua and the Mystic in perpetual 
fear. After the conquest and glory achieved in their bat- 
tles with the Bashaba and his allies, they were not, like 
their enemies, wasted by disease and famine. They retained 
their valor, animated by success and strengthened by an 
early use and supply of firearms with which they were 
furnished by the French. Less disturbed than the western 
tribes in the enjoyment of their po.ssessions, and also more 
discreet, they were always reluctant to plunge into hostilities 
against the English, and hence were neutral, and were sup- 
plied with provisions by Massachusetts during the first 
Indian war.t 


This chief, whom Mather calls " a strange enthusiastical 
sagamore," was a sachem of the Sokokis or Saco tribe. 
Hubbard says he was " the chief actor, or rather the be- 
ginner," of the ea.stern war of 1675. The provocation 
which excited him to hostility — the upsetting of a canoe 
in which were his wife and child by some sailors on the 

t Massachusetts Records, pp. 50-66. 



Saco River, to see if youDg Indian children could swim 
naturally like wild animals, which Squando resented as a 
great indignity, and to which he attributed the death of 
the child soon after — is related in the history of the war, 
farther on. But probably that was only the occasion, not 
the cause, of his ill-will, for he claimed to have a special 
revelation that the Great Spirit had left the English people 
to be destroyed by the Indians. Squando possessed great 
strength of mind, and was very grave in his manner and 
impressive in his address. In the spiritual devotions of 
the Indians he was a leader and an enthusiast, claiming to 
have direct intercourse with the spirits of the invisible 
world, who imparted to him a knowledge of future events. 
" An angel of light," said he, " has commanded me to 
worship the Great Spirit, and to forbear hunting and labor- 
ing on che Sabbath." 

The Indians were not without a form of government, 
which had great similarity among all the eastern tribes. 
The chief aboriginal monarch of the east was entitled the 
Bashaba. His residence was with the Wawanock tribe. 
This ruler is frequently spoken of by the earliest navigators, 
but the line seems to have been terminated by his overthrow 
as early as 1616.* 

At the head of every tribe was a sagamoref or chief 
magistrate, whose councilors, or wise men, were denomi- 
nated sachems, in modern time captains. In council they 
directed war and peace. The government was patriarchal. 
The sagamore possessing superiority of rank and power 
always presided when present, and next to him was a 
sachem of secondary grade and influence On great occa- 
sions all the principal men of the tribe were assembled and 
consulted, much as the people in a democratic form of gov- 
ernment among white men are called upon to vote on 
questions intimately affecting the interest of the whole 
community. Their assemblies, from which females were 
usually excluded, were conducted with the utmost order 
and decorum ; the old men spoke first, and were especially 
venerated by the younger members for their wisdom and 

The office of sagamore continued during life. When a 
sagamore died the tribe preferred to have his son or some 
near relative succeed him ; but the choice was always by a 
popular election, and party spirit and rancor often ran high 
in these contests, as in the political campaigns of more 
civilized communities. 

There being such a similarity between the political sys- 
tems of the Etechemins and their English neighbors, it 
has been easy for them to boiTow the very names of the 
latter for their officers of state, such as governor, lieuten- 
ant-governor, captain, etc., names which, in modern times, 
they have generally adopted. The three Etechemin tribes 
had, from time immemorial, chosen their sagamores and 
sachems by a general election, and those of each tribe were 
inducted into office by delegations chosen from the other 
tribes. The ceremonies of induction^ were often very inter- 

« "The Saco is the westernmost river of the Bashebez."— /"iircAas" 
Pilgrims, book 10, chap. 6. 
. t Soundetl by the Indians " S'ii>iA--a-mii;(." 

% See Williamson, vol. i. p. 496, for an account of the induction of 
Aitteon, Neptune, and others, of the Penobscola. 

esting. Of course, their laws were few and simple, con- 
sisting of those unwritten maxims handed down from one 
generation to another. But simple as they were, they were 
often of greater binding force and more generally observed 
than the complicated enactments of civilized nations, which 
cumber volumes of statute-books. 

The character of many of the Indians was noble, es- 
pecially when uncontaminated by contact with civilized 
men, and their orators have left us examples of eloquence 
unsurpassed for native force, strength, and sublimity. 
When the passions engendered by strife with them shall 
have died away, the American people will look upon them 
with a more just appreciation of their character, and study 
their history with greater interest. 



Cause of Hostilities— Attack on the House of Thomas Purchase- 
Murder of the Wakely Family— Massacre at Dunstan— Attack on 
Maj. Phillip.s' Garrison— Bloody Tragedy at Salmon Falls— Murder 
of Roger Plaisted ;ind his Son— Attack on Falmouth— Capture of 
the Fort at Black Point— Daring assault on Wells— Death of Mugg. 

At the breaking out of King Philip's war the Gen- 
eral Court, apprehensive of Indian troubles in the eastern 
settlements, appointed Capts. Patteshall, Lake, and Wiswell 
a committee to superintend military affairs at Sagadahock. 
They were instructed to furnish themselves with all neces- 
sary munitions of war for the common defense, and to sell 
neither gun, knife, powder, nor lead to any Indian except 
those well known to be friendly to the English. The In- 
dians were the most numerous in this portion of Maine and 
were supposed to be the most dangerous. Although at this 
time England and France were in close alliance, the Indians 
had obtained of the French traders in Canada and on the 
Penobscot a supply of arms and ammunition, and had gener- 
ally become well acquainted with their use. Of all the 
gifts of the European to the savage, this instrument, the 
gun, which enabled him so surely and readily to take the 
game upon which his subsistence depended, was the most 
highly prized. 

This fact is alluded to because in its light will be more 
readily seen the ill-advised attempt of the committee to dis- 
arm the Indians in order to prevent them from destroying 
the white settlements. It is said that when the news of 
Philip's war reached York, on the 11th of July, 1675, 
Henry Sayward, of that place, dispatched a messenger to 
Sagadahock, with a letter to the committee, in which he 
mentioned the expedient of taking from the Indians along 
the coast their firearms and ammunition. The committee, at 
all events, acted upon the plan, and through a Mr. Walker, a 
trader at Sheepscot, many of the Indians in that vicinity 
were induced to give up their guns and knives. A band 
of some twelve others was soon brought in from the Ken- 
nebec, who did likewise. On this latter occasion a serious 
quarrel occurred between an Indian and a white man named 
Mallet, the Indian only being prevented from taking Mai- 


let's life by being arrested and confined in a cellar. He, 
however, made confession, gave hostages for his good be- 
havior, and offered a ransom of forty beaver-skins, upon 
which he was released and set at liberty. 

Although Capt. Lake made every effort to conciliate the 
Indians, and Robinhood made a great feast to celebrate the 
" peace" with song and dance, yet the Indians were dissat- 
isfied, and complained that their arms were taken from them 
to prevent their hunting game, in consequence of which they 
suffered greatly, and many had been reduced nearly to star- 
vation. They also, at a later stage, charged the English 
with the systematic attempt to disarm them, so that they 
might destroy them and take their lands. This charge was 
not well founded, but the measures adopted afforded a pre- 
text to the Indians generally to engage in the destruction 
of the white settlements. 

There were other causes. Squando, the far-famed saga- 
more of Saco, had long cherished a bitter antipathy towards 
the English, and his resentment had recently been provoked 
by an affront which he could not overlook. As his squaw 
was passing along the Saco River in a canoe, with her infant 
child, she was accosted by several rude sailors, who, having 
heard that the Indian children could swim as naturally as 
the young of the lower animals, approached her, and, in a 
fit of inconsiderate humor, overset the canoe to try the ex- 
periment. The child sank, and though the mother, diving, 
brought it up alive, it soon after died ; and the parents im- 
puted its death to the ill treatment received. So highly 
did this exasperate Squando that he resolved to use all his 
arts and influence to arouse and inflame the Indians against 
the settlers. 

Many of the early traders also overreached and deceived 
the Indians, and thus brought upon themselves their merited 
vengeance. Such was Walter Bagnall, whom the Indians 
killed on Richmond's Island in 1631; and such was Thomas 
Purchase, who had lived near Brunswick Falls for thirty or 
forty years, and had acquired a large fortune by the spoils 
of Indian trade. 

Though he had courted their friendship, and in 1639 
had put himself and his possessions under the protection of 
Massachusetts, he was the earliest eastern sufferer in the 
war. What would have been his fate personally had he not 
been absent when the Indians visited and devastated his 
plantation, on the 5th of September, 1675, is unknown; 
but probably his life would not have been spared. As it 
was, the savages spared his wife ; contented themselves with 
securing what plunder they could ; killing a calf and some 
sheep near the door ; rifling his store of liquors, and making 
themselves merry with the booty. In the midst of this 
scene a son of Purchase, suddenly returning home, on horse- 
back, was an eye-witness of the mischief But he was 
powerless to prevent it, and his own life being in danger, 
he fled, pursued by a sturdy and swift-footed Indian, with 
a gun concealed under his blanket. Being on horseback, 
however, he made good his escape. 

On the 12th of September an Indian party made a 
descent on the Wakely family, living remote from neigh- 
bors at the Presumpscot River, in Falmouth. The family 
consisted of nine persons, at the head of whom was Thomas 
Wakely, an old man. Thomas Wakely himself was killed. 

his wife, his son John and wife, and three of their chil- 
dren ; two were taken captives, and the house reduced to 
ashes. " The flames and smoke brought to the place Lieut. 
George Ingersoll, and a military party from Falmouth Neck, 
too late, however, to do more than see the ruins and relics 
of this ill-fated family. The body of the aged man the 
fire had half consumed. The only remains of his wife and 
son were their bones burnt to a cinder. His daughter-in- 
law, near confinement, was pierced and mangled in a man- 
ner too horrid to be described ; and three of her children, 
whose brains had been beaten out, were partly hidden under 
some oaken planks. The other, if surviving and made a 
captive, probably soon sank into the arms of death through 
fatigue and want, nothing afterwards being heard of the 
little sufferer." Elizabeth, the youngest daughter of Mr. 
Wakely, about eleven years old, was carried into captivity, 
where she remained nine months, when she was restored 
to Maj. Waldron, at Dover, through the agency, it is said, 
of Squando. 

After this a son of Lieut. Ingersoll was killed, and his 
house and those of his neighbors burnt. 

The marauding bands of savages at this time seemed to 
be seeking the more remote and exposed settlements. On 
the 20th of September a company entered Scarborough, 
and killed several at Blue Point, a woman and six children 
being among the sufferers. They next visited Dunstan, at 
a considerable distance from the sea-coast, where the Algers 
had settled in 1650, having purchased one thousand acres 
of land from the Indians. On the 12th of October, An- 
drew Alger was killed, and his brother Arthur mortally 
wounded. A deposition in the old York records says, — ■ 

"Their families and their children and their families were driven 
off, their houses and barns burnt, their cattle killed, and the chief of 
all they had was destroyed." 

The main settlement at Saco was at this time at Winter 
Harbor. But mills had been erected at the Lower Falls, 
surrounded by a few dwellings and tenant-houses. On the 
eastern side of the river, half a mile below the falls, stood 
the house of John Bonython, which in anticipation of In- 
dian troubles had been fortified. A stronger garrison house, 
that of Maj. William Phillips, stood on the opposite side, 
near where the present bridge crosses the river. Bonython 
had been informed by a friendly Indian that a party from 
the hostile tribes had been at his wigwam trying to excite 
the So/cokis to lift the hatchet against the white settlers, 
and that they had passed on to the eastward, whence they 
expected soon to return with a larger force. This warning 
induced the settlers, to the number of about fifty persons, 
to take refuge in the garrison-house of Maj. Phillips. They 
had not been long within its walls, when they saw Bonython's 
house in flames. Maj. Phillips, on looking out of his 
chamber window, was wounded in the shoulder by a shot 
from an Indian concealed near the building. He stepped 
back from the window, to avoid being the mark for a second 
shot, when the Indians, supposing he had fallen dead, rallied 
with a shout from their ambush to attack the fort. At that 
instant they were tired upon from the house and flankers 
of the garrison in such a manner as to wound several of 
them, and deal a shot to their leader of which he died soon 
after. The Indians, however, rallied, and besieged the 



house till near morning, when, discouraged in their attempts 
to take it by assault, they constructed an engine of combus- 
tible material on a cart, which they thought to push near 
enough to the garrison to set fire to it. But in this scheme 
they were thwarted by an accident ; one wheel of the vehicle 
being obstructed by a gutter, over which they were attempt- 
ing to push it, caused the engine to swing round towards 
the right flanker, exposing the whole party to a fatal fire, 
which was quickly improved. Six Indians fell and expired, 
fifteen were wounded, and the remainder, discouraged and 
mortified at their repulse, withdrew from the scene of action. 

Maj. Phillips, finding his ammunition and supplies ex- 
hausted, and being unable to obtain succor, removed with 
the other settlers to Winter Harbor. His house was left 
unoccupied, and was soon after burnt by the Indians. They 
destroyed all the houses about Winter Harbor, and carried 
captive Mrs. Hitchcock, who never returned. It was re- 
ported that she died from eating some poisonous roots which 
she took to be ground-nuts. 

About this time the Indians killed five travelers, whom 
they overtook on the banks of the Saco River. 

About the same time Ambrose Boaden was killed, and 
Robert Jordan's house with its contents was consumed, at 

Hearing of the defenseless condition of Saco, Capt. Win- 
coin, of Newichawannock,* and sixteen volunteers, pro- 
ceeded to their assistance by water. On landing at Winter 
Harbor they were fired upon by several prowling savages, 
and two or three of their number killed ; the savages gave 
the alarm to their confederates, who were still in the vicinity 
in large numbers, and Wincoln, on landing with his little 
band of brave defenders, was met by one hundred and fifty 
Indians, well armed and equipped. Wincoln, overpowered 
by superior numbers, retired behind a pile of shingle-bolts, 
from which breastwork he contested the ground so vigor- 
ously with his adversaries that they were forced to retire 
with considerable loss. They, however, retired only to 
form an ambush near the place where Wincoln's boats had 
landed, into which his brave little band, joined by nine 
others from the town, unconsciously fell, and were shot 
down and nearly all killed. 

The enemy now marked the settlements above the Pis- 
eataqua for destruction, and in marching thither killed 
several people in Wells. 

About one hundred and fifty rods above the garrison and 
mills at Salmon Falls dwelt John Tozier, whose habitation 
was on the extreme frontier. He and the men of his 
neighborhood were absent with Captain Wincoln. His 
family consisted of fifteen persons, all women and children. 
Against this defenseless family, Andrew of Saco, and Hope- 
hood of Kennebec, two of the boldest warriors of their 
tribes, led on the attack. Their approach was first discov- 
ered by a young girl of eighteen, who shut the door and 
held it fiist till it was cut in pieces by their hatchets, and 
the family had escaped the back way. Mad and disap- 
pointed at finding the house empty, some of the savages 
inflicted repeated blows upon the heroic girl, till she was ap- 
parently expiring, and the rest, in pursuit of the family. 

overlooked two of the children ; one, three years old, being 
too young to travel, they at once dispatched, and the other 
they took and kept with them six months. The young 
heroine revived after their departure, and repairing to the 
garrison, was healed of her wounds and lived many years. 

The incendiary savages the day following set fire to the 
house and buildings of Capt. Wincoln, which stood near the 
upper mills, and reduced them and their contents to ashes. 
One of the barns contained more than a hundred bushels of 
corn. The men from the garrison pursued them till night, 
firing at them occasional shots, but the darkness put an end 
to their pursuit. In the morning the savages appeared on 
the western shore, and fired several shots across the river at 
the workmen in the mill. At twilight they appeared more 
conspicuously, and flung their taunting speeches across the 
river, calling the people " English dogs" and " cowards." 

Many of the eastern Indians had remained thus far 
peaceable. At Sagadahock the Canibas had retired with 
their families to the trading-house under charge of Capt. 
Silvanus Davis, and were receiving a regular distribution 
of supplies. Abraham Shurte, chief magistrate of the plan- 
tation, had drawn them into a treaty to live in peace with 
the English, and to prevent, if possible, the Anasaguiiti- 
cooks from committing any more depredations upon the 
.settlers or the traders. But in the excitement of the times 
many acted with great indiscretion, especially the islanders 
of Monhegan, who offered a bounty of £5 for every Indian 
scalp that should be brought to them. 

In October, 1675, the General Court, in order to secure 
as far as practicable the co-operation of such Indians as 
were disposed to be friendly, ordered moneys to be dis- 
tributed out of the public treasury for the relief of those 
who would become the subjects and allies of the colony, 
and appointed Maj. Richard Waldron, of Dover, and 
Capt. Nicholas Shapleigh, of Kittery, to negotiate a treaty 
with the friendly tribes upon terms congenial to their 
wishes. The court also directed the eastern trading-house 
to be discontinued, and made provisions for an expedition 
into Maine under Maj. Clarke. A vessel was laden 
with military stores and provisions, and sent from Boston 
with a force of fifty soldiers, commanded by Lieut. Joshua 
Scottow. We learn from Scottow's journal that he arrived 
with his soldiers at Black Point about the last of October, 
and had command of the garrison there, which was the 
headquarters of the " Maine Guard." October 31st, Capt. 
John Wincoln was sent up to Dunstan with sixty men to 
save corn and fight the Indians. November 2d, in the 
afternoon, twenty-nine of the inhabitants, while threshing 
grain, were nearly surrounded by seventy or eighty Indians. 
They were relieved by a force under Sergt. Tappen. 

On fast day, 7th of October, a man in Newichawannock 
(South Berwickj was shot from his horse and soon died. 
Two boys, about a mile ofl^, sufiered the same fate, and 
were stripped of their clothing and guns. These acts were 
but the precursors of a savage onslaught, which indicated 
that the whole settlement had been doomed for destruction. 
October IGth, a hundred Indians assailed the house of 
Richard Tozier, killed him, and carried his son captive. 
Lieut. Roger Plaisted, the commander of the garrison, an 
oflicer of true courage and a man of public spirit, having a 


partial view of the massacre about one hundred and fifty 
rods distant, dispatched nine of his besit men to reconnoitre 
the enemy, who falling into an ambush, three were shot 
down, and the others with difficulty effected their escape. 
Plaisted on that day dispatched a letter to Major Waldron 
and Lieutenant Coffin, at Dover, saying, — 

■' The Indians are just now engaging us with at least one hundred 
men, and have slain four of our men already— Richard Tozier, James 
Barry, Isaae Botts, and Tozier's son — and burnt Benoni Hodson's 
house. Sirs, if ever you have any love for us and the country, now 
show yourselves with men to help us, or else we are all in great danger 
to be slain, unless our God wonderfully appears for our deliverance. 
They that cannot fight, let them pray." 

While Plaisted was attempting to bring in the bodies of 
his slain companions, one hundred and fifty savages, rising 
behind a stone wall, poured upon his soldiers a well-directed 
volley, and leaping over the wall pursued the assault. The 
oxen took fright and ran to the garrison. The engagement 
instantly became fierce though unequal. Plaisted and his 
men withdrew to a more eligible spot of ground, and being 
greatly overmatched by numbers, the of them with- 
drew ; but he, disdaining either to fly or to yield, though 
urged again and again to surrender, fought with desperate 
courage till literally hewed to pieces by the enemy's hatch- 
ets. A fellow-soldier, and Plaisted's eldest son, unwil- 
ling to leave the intrepid man, sought their retreat too late 
and were slain. Another son, a few weeks after, died of 
his wounds. The father had represented Kittery four years 
in the General Court, and was highly respected for his un- 
common valor, worth, and piety. He and his sons were 
buried on his own land near the battle-ground, in full view 
from the highway leading through Berwick, whose lettered 
tombstone tells succeeding ages — 

" A'.-nr this place Ues buried the hody of Roger I'laitlell, who wui 
killed by the Indians, Oct. 16, 1675, aged ii ijearn ; also, the bodij of 
his son, Roger Plaisted, who was killed at the same time"''^ 

The murder in Wells of Mr. Cross, Mr. Isaac Cousins, 
and a hired man of William Symonds, whose house they 
laid in ashes, completed the bloody work of the savages for 
the year. They had fought for revenge and plunder, and 
they were gratified, if not satiated. It was intended to 
lead a winter campaign against them in their fastnesses at 
Pequawket, Ossipee, and Pejepscot; but the unusual depth 
of snow caused the enterprise to be abandoned, and brought 
the destitute and sufl^ering Indians to sue for peace. Messrs. 
Waldron and Shapleigh entered into a treaty with them ; 
and it has been thought that " the dying embers of war, kept 
smothered through seven succeeding months," might never 
have been rekindled had the white people been governed by 
maxims of justice and prudence. But during the winter 
influences were brought to bear upon Maj. Waldron which 
induced him to issue general warrants for the seizure of 
every Indian known to be a manslayer, traitor, or con- 
spirator. Armed with this authority, the unscrupulous 
traders along the coast, for purposes of their own private 
gain, went to seizing Indians, irrespective of their character 
or complicity with the war, and carrying them off to foreign 
countries to sell as slaves. A trader of tiiis sort was warned 
away from the shores of Pemaquid by Mr. Shurte, who 

»1 Wi 

p. 528; Sullivan, p. 250. 

entreated him to depart, as the English and the natives in 
that vicinity were in a state of profound peace. Yet he 
treacherqusly caught several, and carried them into foreign 
countries and sold them into slavery.f Another, by the 
name of Laughlin, with one of Maj. Waldron's warrants, 
seized several Mickmacks at Cape Sable for the same da.s- 
tardly purpose. Thus were the Indians, who might have 
been friends, made enemies, and the area of their hostility 
vastly extended, so that all the eastern tribes to Nova 
Scotia and the St. John were ready to raise the hatchet 
against the English. Mr. Shurte did everything in his 
power to conciliate them, assuring them that, if their friends 
were transported, they should be returned to their homes, 
and the trangressors arrested and punished. 

Through the influence of Capt. Silvanus Davis and 
others, he induced the Anasuffunticooks and Canibas to 
agree to a council with a view of forming with them a 
treaty of peace. They met the sagamores in council at 
Teconnet, and were kindly and courteously received. The 
point which the Indians insisted upon was that they should 
be supplied with ammunition, so that they might be able 
to pursue their hunting and furnish themselves with sub- 
sistence. The English doubted the propriety of this step, 
lest they might use the ammunition against the settlers or 
furnish it to the western Indians, and a long parley ensued. 
Finally, Madockawando said, " Do toe not meet here oh 
equal ground? Where shall we buy powder and shot for 
ovr winter s hunting when we have eaten up all our corn ? 
Shall we leave Englishmen and apply to the French ? or 
let our Indians die? We have waited long to hear you 
tell us, and now we want yes or no.'' 

" You may," said the agents, " have ammunition for 
necessary use ; but you say yourselves there are many 
western Indians who do not choose peace. Should you let 
them have the powder we sell you, what do we better than 
cut our own throats ? This is the best answer we are 
allowed to return you, though you wait ten years." This 
answer displeased the chiefs, and they declined any further 
talk. The agents returned home, apprehending a speedy 
renewal of hostilities. 

About this time the eastern Indians had been reinforced 
by some of the most cunning and desperate adherents of 
King Philip, who, upon the fall of their leader, Aug. 12, 
1676, had dispersed themselves among the Penacoohs and 
Abenaques, inflaming them with their own maddened pas- 
sions, peculiarly in harmony with the spirit of Squando, 
who burned with impatience to see the work of destruction 
renewed. Three of the most noted fugitives had taken or 
acquired the English names of Simon, Andrew, and Peter. 
They had escaped to the Merrimac River a short time 
before the downfall of their prince, and had killed Thomas 
Kimball, and taken captive his wife and five children. 
They then endeavored to conceal themselves among the 
Penacooks, who had been neutrals in the war; but 'they 
were seized on one of Maj. Waldron's warrants, and closely 
confined at Dover, whence, in July, they effected their es- 
cape, and went to Casco Bay, where they murdered and cap- 
tured the Brackett family, killed Michael Mitten, Robert 
Corbin, Humphrey Durham, and Benjamin Atwell. The 
t Hubbard's Indian Wars, p. 332. 


surviving inhabitants hastily fled to a garrison on Munjoy 
Hill, but feeling that they were not safe there, seized the 
opportunity, while the Indians were hurrying away their 
captives, to retreat in boats to Bangs' Island, where they 
protected themselves. The peninsula of Falmouth Neck 
(now Portland) was, during a subsequent period, wholly 
deserted, thirty -four persons being killed in this surprise, or 
carried into captivity, and nearly all the property of the 
place destroyed. The inhabitants did not return generally 
till the peace of 1678. In one month fifteen leagues of 
coast eastward of Falmouth were laid waste. The inhab- 
itants were either massacred, carried into captivity, or 
driven to the islands or remote places, and the settlements 
abandoned or in ruins. 

The inhabitants had endured with fortitude a series of 
hardships for many years, and those of the peninsula in 
particular could not entertain the thought of abandoning 
their homes and their all to the savage destroyer. Upon 
Munjoy 's Island, two leagues from the shore, was an old 
stone house, which was easily made a shelter for a few of 
them ; and upon Jewell's Island others fortified themselves. 
The Indians, flushed with success, resolved to overleap even 
these water-barriers, and attack the English in their island 
retreats. In September, while the men were engaged in 
fishing and the women washing by the water-side, the In- 
dians, who had secretly landed in their canoes, made a rush 
upon them. At first a brave lad fired from the house and 
killed two of the enemy. Mrs. Potts and several of her 
children were quickly seized. On the arrival of some of the 
men, who by this time had heard the alarm, the Indians, to 
protect themselves from the shots, seized the children and 
held them between their own breasts and the guns, so that 
the parents dare not fire. The most of them, however, 
rushed with great intrepidity into the midst of the Indians, 
and, with the loss of a few killed and made captives, suc- 
ceeded in driving them to their canoes. The assailants pro- 
ceeded to Spurwink, where they killed two and wounded 

Massachusetts, amidst these alarming depredations, raised 
a military force of one hundred and thirty English and 
forty Natic Indians, who arrived at Dover September 6th, 
where they formed a junction with the soldiers under Majs. 
Waldron and Frost. At this time four hundred Indians of 
diff'erent tribes assembled at Dover, many of them known 
to be malignant fugitives from the westward, others, treach- 
erous violators of the treaty, and all acting in concert that 
boded ill to the whites. Waldron, by means of his noted 
" sham-fight," which he proposed that the Indians should 
engage in on one side and the English on the other, suc- 
ceed in "bagging" the whole four hundred in the most 
unsuspected way. The amusement was continued a short 
time, when Waldron induced them to fire a grand round, 
and the moment their guns were discharged, his troops sur- 
rounded the unwary Indians, seized and disarmed them, 
without the loss of a man on either side. Wonnolancet and 
his tribe, all adherents to the English and neutrals in the 
war, were discharged. The " strange Indians" from the 
westward, and every one who had been guilty of bloodshed 
or violence since the treaty (^abuut two hundred in number) 
were confined and sent to Boston. They were tried by the 

Supreme Court, and seven or eight executed ; the others, 
receiving the sentence of banishment, were transported to 
foreign parts. This conduct on the part of Major Waldron 
was the subject of much criticism and considerable division 
of sentiment among the people, but it was approved by the 
government. The Indians, however, considered it a base 
Yankee trick, and they never forgot nor forgave it. 

On the 3d of September, the troops, under the senior 
command of Capt. Hawthorne, proceeded to Falmouth, 
where they arrived on the 20th, having visited by the way 
Wells, Winter Harbor, Black Point, and Spurwink. On 
their arrival at Falmouth Neck, Fort Loyal was erected ; 
the troops remained upon the Neck about three weeks, 
during which time a company of residents going to Peak's 
Island to kill and dress some sheep was surprised by the 
Indians, and all killed except one. They were all heads of 
families and prominent men, and their deaths, especially 
that of George Felt, were deeply lamented. This event 
occurred on the 23d of September. The next day a large 
lurking party at Wells shot James Gooch from his horse as 
he was returning from worship, on Sunday ; his wife being 
on the same horse, was cut to pieces by their hatchets. 
At Cape Neddick they brained a nursing mother, pinned 
her infant to her bosom, in which condition it was found 
alive with one of the breasts in its mouth. Again they 
entered Wells, and killed George Farrow. 

The troops left Falmouth on the 12th of October, and 
spent the remainder of the month in South Berwick. The 
Indians watched them till they had passed Black Point, 
and on the second day after, one hundred and twenty of 
them made a furious assault upon the garrison there, under 
the arch-leader, Mugg. Henry Jocelyn, who was in com- 
mand of the garrison, was induced to come out and hold a 
parley with the Indians, under the pretense from Mugg that 
if he would surrender he and all the inmates should be al- 
lowed to depart with their efi'ects unmolested. While Jo- 
celyn was holding his parley, the inmates, all except his 
household servants, had taken to their boats and departed, 
and he, being left alone, was obliged to surrender. Blue 
Point had been sacked the year before, and this success of 
the Indians completed the ruin of Scarborough. Mugg 
took great pride in his achievement. 

But the most daring exploit of the savages during this 
autumn was the seizure of a vessel and crew at Rich- 
mond's Island. This vessel was under the command of 
Capt. Fryer, of Portsmouth, and had gone to Richmond's 
Island, at the solicitation of Walter Gendall, to remove 
the remaining stores there for fear the Indians would de- 
stroy them. While they were loading, the savages came 
upon them ; the sailors on shore were seized, those on 
board driven below deck ; by leaping into canoes, the bolder 
savages cut the cables ; the wind blowing strongly from 
the southeast, drove the vessel ashore. " Surrender" cried 
the Indians, " or flames will soon make you prisoners of 
death .'" 

In this wretched predicament, as Capt. Fryer lay wounded 
and bleeding, the men had no choice but to surrender them- 
selves to the tender mercies of infuriated savages. Eleven 
of them were made prisoners. In the cartel, it was specified 
that they were to ransom themselves by delivering a quantity 


of goods in a certain limited time ; to procure which two 
were released, who, departing, returned with the goods 
before the time expired. But as the exactors were absent 
on some new expedition, their fellows took the ransom, 
killed one of the bearers, and retained the rest of the crew 
in custody. 

On their way to Piscataqua, on the ISth of October, 
Mugg landed with a force at Wells, and sent his prisoner, 
Walter Gendall, to demand a surrender of the garrison. 
"Never," said the commander, " never shall the gates be 
opened till every one within is dead." Repelled by this 
reply, yet bent on mischief, Mugg and his men killed two 
persons, wounded a third, cut the throats of thirteen cattle, 
from which they took only their tongues, and disappeared. 

Soon Blugg arrived at Piscataqua, bringing in Fryer 
dying of his wounds, and declared upon his faith, which 
he said was still good, that the prisoners taken at Rich- 
monds' Island would shortly be restored without ransom. 
He proposed in behalf of Madockawando and others to 
negotiate a peace. Unreasonable as this may seem, the 
treaty proposed was actually made in Boston between 
Mugg and the Governor and Council on the 6th of No- 
vember, 1676. Gendall and a few other prisoners were 
surrendered. The treaty was ratified by the sagamore of 

Little faith was put in the sincerity of this treaty, and 
in the winter of 1677 apprehensions were generally enter- 
tained of a renewal of hostilities the following spring. 
The General Court ordered a winter expedition eastward, 
which was sent, February 7th, under Majs. Waldron and 
Frost, and landed at Mare Point in Maquoit Bay on the 
18th. The force consisted of one hundred and fifty men 
and sixty Natic Indians. On landing at Mare Point they 
were hailed by a large party of Indians, among whom ap- 
peared Squando and "Simon, the Yankee-killer." The 
Indians said they desired peace and had authorized Mugg 
to make the treaty. Upon being asked why they did not 
release the prisoners, Squando replied, " I will bring them 
in the afternoon." Nothing more was seen of the Indians 
till noon the next day, when a flotilla of fourteen canoes 
was seen pulling up the bay and nearing the shore. 
Presently a house was seen in flames. The Indians, how- 
ever, were severely punished by the soldiers, several of them 
being killed and wounded. 

Waldron arrived with his force at Pemaquid on the 26th 
of February. Here a treaty was proposed in which it was 
agreed that arms should be laid aside on both sides during 
the conference. In the afternoon Waldron discovered the 
point of a lance under a board, and in searching further 
found other weapons concealed. Taking one, he brandished 
it towards the council, exclaiming, ^^ Perfidious wretches ! yov 
intended to get our goods, and then kill us, did you ? They 
were thunderstruck ; yet one more daring than the rest 
seized the weapon and strove to wrest it from Waldron's 
hand. A tumult ensued in which his life was much endan- 
gered. Maj. Frost, laying hold of Megannaway, one of the 
barbarous murderers of Thomas Brackett and his neighbors, 
hurried him to the hold of his vessel. Meanwhile an ath- 
letic squaw caught up a bundle of guns and ran for the 
woods. At that instant a reinforcement arrived from the 

vessels, when the Indians fled in all directions, pursued by 
the .soldiers. In their ha.ste to get away one canoe was cap- 
sized, from which five Indians were drowned ; an old saga- 
more and five Indians were killed and four others were taken 
prisoners. The expedition, after leaving a garrison of forty 
men at Arrowsic, under Capt. Silvanus Davis, returned to 
Boston on the 11th of March without the loss of a man. 

But the town which the savages seem to have marked 
out this year for utter destruction was Wells. From their 
first entering it, April 6th, when they killed three, to the end 
of the month, they made attacks upon the people and their 
garrison several times. On the 13th, John Weld and Ben- 
jamin Storer were killed. The fort was commanded by 
Lieut. Swett, a brave and vigilant oflicer. Seeing a stroll- 
ing Indian, who was in fact a decoy, Swett sent eleven of 
his men towards the place to reconnoitre. By venturing 
too far they fell into an ambush, when two were shot dead 
and one mortally wounded. 

The garrison having been re-established at Black Point 
under Lieut. Tappen, a man of great courage, the Indians 
attacked it, May 16th, with uncommon boldness and perti- 
nacity. The siege was continued three days in succession, 
— the assailants determining to force a surrender or perish 
in the attempt. Of three Englishmen taken and slain, 
one was barbarously tortured to death. One of the enemy 
brought to the ground by a particular aim was then sup- 
posed to be old Simon, but was afterwards found to be the 
celebrated Mugg. The loss of their leader so dampened 
the courage of his companions that they, in despair of 
victory, departed. 



Purchase of Maine by Massachusetts — County Court — Trial of James 
Adams — Form of Government adopted for Maine — Thomas Dan- 
forth appointed Deputy President — Civil Officers — Confirmation of 
Land-Titles — Vacation of the Charter of Massachusetts. 

In 1676 the lords chief justices of the King's Bench 
and Common Pleas, and the lords of trade and plantations, 
decided adversely to Massachusetts' claim of jurisdiction 
over Maine. To avoid further controversy and trouble, 
Massachusetts now decided to purchase of Gorges all his 
right and interest in the province, and to this end instructed 
Mr. John Usher, of Boston, then in England, to negotiate 
the purchase, which he did, closing the contract for twelve 
hundred and fifty pounds sterling, on the 6th of May, 1677. 

This transaction, while it settled a troublesome contro- 
versy, also originated a very important question, viz. : How 
should Maine be governed ? The question, however, was 
not immediately made prominent, but for two or three years 
the General Court pursued its usual policy of administra- 

In the spring of 1678 three assistants were admitted for 
Yorkshire, and Thomas Danforth was designated to preside 
in the County Court. The persons clothed with judicial 
authority for the year 1679 were Joseph Dudley and Rich- 
ard Waldron, Commissioners, and Edward Rish worth, 


John Wincoln, Joshua Scottow, and Samuel Wheelwri^jht, 

The last ses.sion of these judges in the County Court 
under the colony administration, held at York in July, was 
made memorable by the trial of James Adams, of York, for 
one of the most singular and inhuman crimes of which 
criminal courts furnish any record. Adams had become 
affronted with Henry Simpson, one of his neighbors, and 
determined to avenge himself upon two of Simpson's unof- 
fending sons, whose ages were respectively six and nine 
years. His contrivance and crime were the more satanical 
as they were deliberate. In a solitary place, four or five 
miles from any of the dwellings of the inhabitants, he built 
of logs, beside a ledge of perpendicular rocks, a pen, or 
pound, several feet in height, incHned inward from the bot- 
tom to the top. After this he decoyed the boys into the 
woods under a pretense of looking for birds'-nests, and had 
the art to draw them within the pound,* where he left 
them to perish with famine and suffering. The children 
were soon missed, and the alarmed inhabitants searched the 
woods for them thoroughly more than forty-eight hours 
without success. The boys, presently aware of their 
wretched situation, made various trials to get out, and at 
length, by digging away with their hands the surface of 
the earth underneath one of the bottom logs, effected their 
escape. They wandered in the woods three days, being at 
last attracted to the sea-shore by the noise of the surf, 
where they were found. 

The depraved criminal was soon arrested, and after con- 
viction received this sentence : 

" The Court, having considered your inhuman and barbarous oflfense 
against the life of the children, and the great disturbance to the 
country, do sentence you to have thirty stripes, well laid on ; to pay 
the father of the children £5 money, the treasury of the county £10, 
out of which the expenses of postage and searching the town are to 
be discharged ; also to pay the charges and fees of the prison, and 
remain a close prisoner during the Court's pleasure, till further 

The same month sureties entered in recognizance of one 
hundred pounds before two of the associates, " conditioned 
to send him, within twenty-one days, out of the jurisdic- 
tion. "f 

At the October session of the General Court, the affairs 
of Maine were made the special subject of legislative dis- 
cussion. In February, 1680, it was determined to assume 
the royal charter granted to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, and, in 
conformity with its provisions, to frame a civil administra- 
tion for the government of the province. This duty was 
assigned by legislative enactment to the Governor and 
Board of Colony Assistants, who decided that Maine should 
have a Provincial President, chosen by the Governor and 
said Board of Assistants from year to year ; and a L'gisla- 
twre of two branches or houses, — the upper one to consist 
of a Standing Council of eight members, and the other a 
popular body, consisting of Deputies chosen by the towns, 
as in Massachusetts. 

The Council was made appointive by the Board of As- 
.sistants and to continue in office at their pleasure ; they 

•9 The place was afterwards called " the Dcml'e LivniHon." 
t Hon. David Sewall, 1794; ;) Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., p. SI : 1 Coll. 
Maine Hist. Soc, p. 2S5. 

were also to be the judges of a Supreme Court and magis- 
trates through the province. The legislative body was to 
meet once at least in each year. 

The Board of Assistants then proceeded to elect a presi- 
dent, and the choice fell upon Thomas Danforth, at that 
time deputy Governor of Massachusetts. He was a gen- 
tleman of fine talents and good education, and possessed at 
this period great weight of character. He was born in 
England in 1622, came over early in life, and before being- 
first deputy Governor, in 1679, had been an assistant for 
twenty years, president of the Board of Commissioners for 
the United Colonies, and had sometimes presided in the 
County Court of Yorkshire. His wisdom, firmness, and 
prudence qualified him to conduct difficult public affairs 
with success, and his high-minded republican principles 
rendered him preeminent in popular estimation. 

To assist President Danforth in organizing and arranging 
the civil affairs of the province, and holding a term of the 
judicial courts the present season, the Board of Assistants, 
after the general election in May, appointed Samuel Nowell 
a special commissioner. He was an assistant this year 
(1680) and the next, and was appointed against his will to 
the office of joint agent with Mr. Stoughton to England. 
He had been a minister of the gospel, and was a man of 
reflection and good, and, moreover, in politics strongly 
attached to the high republican party of his time. 

The freeholders of the province, being summoned, met 
at York, March 17, 1680, and a commission, under the seal 
of the Governor and Council of Massachusetts, was exhibited 
and read, declaring themselves " the lawful assigns of Sir Fer- 
dinando Gorges," and giving notice that they had " erected 
and con.stituted a Court and Council, and deputed Thomas 
D&nforth, Esq., for the first president, to the end that the 
above-named province might be protected in the enjoyment 
of her rights and privileges, according to the rules of his 
majesty's royal charter granted unto the above-named Sir 
F. Gorges, Kt." Warrants for the choice of deputies to 
the General Assembly, to be holden at York in the follow- 
ing spring, were issued. Maj. Bryan Pendleton was ap- 
pointed deputy president, and authorized, with the assist- 
ance of other members of the Council, or magistrates, to hold 
intermediate terms of the court. 

Mr. Pendleton was among the earliest colonists of Massa- 
chusetts, and settled in Watertown, which he represented six 
years in the General Court, and in 1646 he commanded the 
military corps since denominated the '• Ancient and Hon- 
orable Artillery Company" in Boston. He resided in Ports- 
mouth several years, from which he removed to Saco in 
1665. He signed a petition to the king, in 1680, praying 
for aid in " rebuilding the towns wasted and desolate by 
reason of the late Indian war." He died soon afterwards, 
and was succeeded in the office of deputy president by John 
Davis, of York. 

Deputies were chosen by towns, and annual sessions of 
the General Assembly were held at York for five or six 

The first General Assembly under the new form of gov- 
ernment convened at Y'^ork, in June, 1G81. Bryan Pendle- 
ton, of Saco, as before stated, was deputy president. The 
Council, in addition to him, consisted of Charles Frost, 


Francis Hooke, John Davis, Joshua Scottow, Samuel 
Wheelwright, and John Wincoln. Edward Rishworth was 
secretary or recorder of the province. Messrs. Frost and 
Hooke were both of Kittery ; the former had represented 
his town several years in the General Court, and was now 
appointed commandant of the regiment ; the latter, sup- 
posed to have been the son of William Hooke, oue of 
Gorges' first council, was provincial treasurer. Mr. Davis 
lived at York, had been commanding officer of the militia 
company, and in the lafe war had distinguished himself as 
a brave and discreet officer. Mr. Scottow, originally from 
Boston, had come to Scarborough with the troops from that 
city at the beginning of the war, and became a prominent 
and wealthy citizen. His name is identified with the au- 
thorship of " The Old Man's Tears."* Mr. Wincoln lived 
in Newichawannock, then a part of Kittery, where he was 
captain of the town military company ; he was a brave 
officer, and had been several years a representative to the 
General Court. Mr. Wheelwright was the son of the 
reverend founder of Wells, aud afterwards a councilor in 
the General Court of Massachusetts. These councilors or 
magistrates were also called justices, as they held the ju- 
dicial courts of the province. 

The number and names of those in the lower house this 
year are not given, but four years afterwards the number 
of deputies was twelve. 

By a writ of quo warranto sued out of the Chancery 
Court at Whitehall, July 20, 1683, the charter of Massa- 
chusetts was declared vacated on the 18th of June, follow- 
ing. The king appointed Col. Kirke Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, Plymouth, New Hampshire, and Maine, — an 
appointment universally displeasing to the colonists, but 
one which, fortunately or providentially, was never actually 
inflicted upon them ; for the king dying Feb. 16, 1685, his 
brother and successor, James II., formerly Duke of York 
and Albany, did not incline to confirm or renew the appoint- 

At the meeting of the Provincial General A.ssembly at 
York, in April, the new monarch was publicly proclaimed. 

The administration of President Danforth continued 
popular and efl"ective ; the legislative body met annually, 
and the general government, as well as justice, was satis- 
factorily administered for six years. One of his measures 
of public policy, in view of the danger apprehended by the 
Indians, was to maintain a garrison at Fort Loyal, in Fal- 
mouth, which appears to have been an object also of gen- 
eral concern. For this purpose a tax was laid upon all the 
saw-mills of the province, which amounted to the sum of 
ninety-three pounds yearly. Most of the mills were at that 
time within the territory now embraced in York County. 
At a session of the General Assembly at York, May 24, 
1682, Anthony Brackett was employed for one year to take 
command and charge of the garrison, to furnish provisions, 
ammunition, and every necessary article, and to man it with 
six men in summer and four in winter, for one hundred 
and sixty pounds. Edward Tyng, a worthy and active 
citizen, who had been an assistant in the General Court of 
Massachusetts, was commander of the fort the year pre- 

« Muss. Hist. Coll., p. 300. 

ceding. He was afterwards one of the councilors under 

The deputies or representatives in the General Assembly 
in 1682 were Nicholas Shapleigh, of Kittery, Abraham 
Preble and John Puddington, of York, John Harmon and 
Benjamin Blackman, of Saco, and Anthony Brackett, of 
Falmouth. In 1685, George Turfrey was representative 
from Saco, and George Ingersoll from Falmouth. 

At the August session in 1682, William Screvens, a 
zealous and devoted Baptist minister, was fined ten pounds, 
and commanded " never more to have any public religious 
exercises whatever, at his own house or elsewhere, especi- 
ally on the Sabbath." His refusal to submit to the injunc- 
tion was deemed a contempt of his Majesty's authority ; 
hence the court awarded, — 

" Thnt he in future forbear from his turbulent (mil cuiitciitious prac- 
tires, ijhe bonds fur Iris good behamom; and atnnd committed till the 
judgment of the Court be complied with. 

" Edward Rishworth, llecorder. 

"August 17, 16S2." 

This is said to have been the only case of religious per- 
secution that ever occurred in the province, — i.e., by the 
provincial authorities. Sarah Mills, in Scarborough, had 
previously received twenty stripes " for Quakerism," by the 
authority of Massachusetts. f In the case of Mr. Screvens, 
it was the first appearance of a Baptist in Maine. He 
lived in Kittery, wheie several persons had embraced the 
tenets of this faith and been baptized by immersion. He 
was born in England in 1629, and came to Kittery early 
in life. Having great zeal and devotional gifts, he was 
commended to the fellowship of his Baptist brethren in 
Boston as " one whom God had qualified and furnished 
with the gifts and graces of his Holy Spirit to open and 
apply the good word, which, through the blessing of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, might be by him made effectual and 
useful." A small church was constituted Sept. 25, 1682; 
but the next year they removed with Mr. Screvens to Cooper 
River, in South Carolina.^ 

Another important work of the government was that of 
confirming the land-titles, for which purpose President 
Danforth, in 1684, conveyed to several boards of trust the 
townships of Scarborough, Falmouth, and North Yarmouth, 
reserving to the chief proprietors a small quit^rent. The 
trustees then proceeded to make surveys and assignments to 
settlers and proprietors, according to their just claims and 
rights, whereby settlements were encouraged and advanced. 

It was necessary in_ those days to proceed with great cau- 
tion in forming new plantations, on account of the known 
danger from the Indians. In the spring of 1685 they dis- 
closed unusual restlessness and symptoms of malignity. 
Francis Hook this year sent a letter to Capt. Barefoot, at 
Portsmouth, saying there were just grounds for apprehend- 
ing an outbreak, " for the Indians have been guilty of 
affronts in the vicinity of Saco, threatening the people, and 
killing their dogs, and within the last three days they have 
gathered all their corn, and moved off pack and baggage. 
A word to the wise is sufficient. Myself and the rest in 
commission with us are settling ourselves in a posture for 

t 3 iMaine Hist. Coll., p. 154: Soutbgate, Hist. Scarborough. 
X Greenleaf s Ecc. Hist., p. 240. 



defense, and to-morrow our council meet to consider what 
is needful to be done." By the timely and energetic 
measures which resulted in a treaty, the anticipated mischief 
was averted. On the 8th of September, 1685, the treaty 
was concluded, and signed by Lieutenant-Governor Walter 
Barefoot and three of his Council, on the part of New 
Hampshire, and Francis Hook and John Davis, two of the 
Councilors of Maine. It was signed on the part of the In- 
dians, at different times, by twelve sagamores and chiefs, 
from Penaoook, Saco, Androscoggin, and Kennebec. 

Massachusetts had partly kept up her colony government 
since the vacation of her charter. May 12, 1686, only 
thirty-six deputies took their seats in the General Court, 
and the arrival of a commission from the king, appointing 
Joseph Dudley governor, put an end to that body on the 
third day of the session. Mr. Danforth was now removed 
from the presidency of Maine, and a court substituted, 
which was composed of Hon. William Stoughton, Judge ; 
John Usher and Edward Tyng, E.sqs., Assistants ; and a 
justice was appointed in each town. The court sat at York 
in October. 

Governor Dudley's administration lasted only four 
months and twenty-six days, when he was superseded by 
Sir Edmund Andros, who arrived in Boston on the 20th of 
December. Sir Edmund, between 1674 and 1682, had 
been ducal governor of New York and Sagadahock, and had 
displayed an imperious and arbitrary temper. For his ad- 
herence to the prerogatives of the crown, his grateful 
master, James II., had now made him governor-general 
over all his colonies and dominions in New England. 



Policy of Governor Andros — Indignity Offered to Baron Castine — 
War Dti^ared between France and England — Savages let Loose 
upon the Frontiers — Conquest of Acadia — Expedition against 
Quebec— Capture of Fort Loyal— Assault ui>on the Garrison at 
Wells— Destruction of York. 

Governor Andeos entered upon his administration 
with more vigor than prudence. Determined upon the en- 
largement of his dominion as well as upon the unlimited 
exercise of power, he resolved to seize upon the country 
lying between the Penokscot and the St. Croix, which, 
though included in the ducal patent, was nevertheless 
claimed, and to some extent occupied, by the French. The 
Baron de St. Castine had his establishment upon the pen- 
insula of Bagaduce, where he had lived for some time on 
the most intimate terms with the Penobscot Indians, into 
the fiimily of whose chief he had married, and whose mode 
of life he had in a great measure adopted. 

Andros proceeded to Pemaquid, where he fitted out an 
expedition under Capt. George, of the frigate " Rose," and, 
joining with his sloop and bai-ge, they made sail for Baga- 
duce. Arrived in the harbor, near the fort and habitation 
of the baron, the Governor sent a lieutenant with a notice 
of his arrival and readiness foi- an interview, if tlie baron 

But the baron, too wary to be made a prisoner 
by surprise, had already taken his family and retired to the 
woods, leaving all to the will of the expected visitors. 
They found household furniture, firearms, ammunition, and 
coarse cloth, all of which they put on board the frigate, in 
nowise injuring his Catholic altar, chapel service, pictures, 
ornaments, or buildings. Having done this, they embarked 
and returned to Pemaquid. 

The treatment which Castine thus received gave him 
great umbrage. He considered the plunder of his house 
a wanton outrage, being fully able, as he believed, to justify 
all his conduct towards the English ; and he fully deter- 
mined never to submit to their domination. Nor had he 
any great regard for the government of France, with which 
he became offended on account of being deprived, as he 
thought without just reason, of an honorable military com- 
mand which he once held. He preferred to be the ruler 
of the Indians, with whom his friendship and address had 
rendered his influence supreme. 

Castine had a terrible power to turn against his adver- 
saries, — no less than the savage foe who had a few years 
before spread desolation and death along the whole frontier, 
— nor was he slow to invoke the renewed vengeance of 
these murderous hordes. 

In August the Indians commenced hostilities. Imme- 
diately every fort between the Piscataqua and the Penobscot 
was repaired and put in the best posture for defense, and 
in September soldiers were enlisted and detached for an 
eastern expedition. But when Governor Andros returned 
to Bostou he wholly disapproved of the measure and utterly 
refused to have war declared. He issued a proclamation, 
October 20th, ordering all the Indian prisoners to be dis- 
charged, commanding the Indians to set at liberty every 
one of his Majesty's subjects, and strongly recommending 
the tribes, if they desired peace and safety, to dwell near 
the English settlements. The savages paid no regard to 
his mandates or encouragements. The prisoners held by 
the English, being released, returned to their tribes, while 
the English prisoners among the savages were retained to 
be tortured or put to death in their barbarous frolics. 

Perceiving that war was inevitable, he rushed to the op- 
posite extreme, determined now to subdue the savages or 
frighten them into terms. xVlthough it was late in Novem- 
ber, he collected a force of eight hundred men and led them 
into the eastern country. No Indians were to be seen, for 
at this season of the year they were usually upon their 
hunting-grounds in the interior. The expedition, as could 
easily have been foretold, proved an utter failure. Indeed, 
it had been opposed by all the more wise and considerate, 
who saw the folly of such au undertaking at that season. 
To cover liis defeat, however, he set a force at work build- 
ing garrisons ; eleven of these structures were erected and 
manned, but this was done with injudicious haste and bad 
judgment as to the proper places and distribution of the 
men. At Pemaquid he placed Col. Edward Tyng and 
Capt. Minot, with one hundred and eighty militia and 
thirty-six regulars ; at New Dartmouth he placed twenty- 
four of the regular soldiers under Lieut. Jordan, and Capt. 
Withington's company of sixty militia ; at Pejepscot he 
placed forty regulars and two militia companies of sixty 


each ; at Fort Loyal, Falmouth, sixty men under command 
of Capt. George Lockhart ; at Saco, Capt. Lloyd with his 
company of sixty, and twenty-eight drawn from the com- 
mands of Maj. Henchman and Capt. Bull ; at Kennebunk, 
Capt. Puddington was to draw in an emergency from Saco ; 
the garrison at Wells was to be relieved in the same man- 

What Governor Andros would have done further had he 
remained in power is not easy to conjecture. But an ad- 
ministration of sixteen months closed his career in New 
England. The people had too much independence, too 
high a sense of liberty, and too much practical wisdom in 
the management of affairs which they understood better 
than any inexperienced foreigner to submit tamely to his 
domineering spirit, his arbitrary measures, or his repeated 
blunders, which were rapidly involving the affairs of the 
colonies in confusion and ruin. Hence they put an end to 
his government in a revolution at Boston in April, 1689, 
and reinstated the Danforth government over Maine. 

Meantime, on the 12th of December preceding, James 
II., succumbing to the revolution in England, had abdi- 
cated the throne and fled to France ; and on the 16th of 
February, William, Prince of Orange, and Mary, daughter 
of James, had been proclaimed king and queen of England. 

This affair embroiled England and France, so that war 
was declared between the two nations ; and extending to 
Canada and Acadia, enlisted the French of these provinces 
and their Indian allies in a desultory and barbarous war 
against the English colonies, in which the province of 
Maine suffered most severely. 

On the 15th of May, 1689, the Danforth government 
was fully established, the former councilors of the province 
being confirmed, viz., Charles Frost, Francis Hook, Edward 
Tyng, John Davis, Joshua Scottow, Samuel Wheelwright, 
and John Wincoln. 

Madocjiawando, chief of the Peuohncols, at this time 
visited Boston with several of the leading men of his tribe. 
He represented the grievances of Castine, and how highly 
he was affronted at the plunder of his house by the Eng- 
lish. The authorities sent the baron a conciliatory address, 
assuring him that the outrage had been committed by a 
party now out of power, and for whose conduct the present 
government was not responsible ; neither did it approve the 
act. TJiey sent also presents and conciliatory messages to 
the Indians ; but in the present state of affairs between 
England and France it was impossible successfully to secure 
their peace and friendship. The French on this side of the 
Atlantic began aggressions with eager haste and pursued 
them with malignant fury, those of Canada taking the lead 
in instigating the Indians to join them and fall with exter- 
minating ferocity upon the outer settlements of New Eng- 
land, particularly those of New Hampshire and Maine. 

As soon as war was declared in Boston, December 7th,* 
the General Court resolved upon measures for regaining 
Nova Scotia and reducing Quebec The first of these ob- 
jects was successfully accomplished by an expedition under 
Sir William Phips, who completed the conquest of Acadia 
without resistance. Phips also sailed to Quebec with an 

It ha,.l be 

Li-ed in Eugliiiid May 

army, landing thirteen hundred effective men on the Isle 
of Orleans ; but his note to Frontenac demanding a sur- 
render being treated with haughty disdain, and learning 
the great strength of the fortifications, he con.sidered it 
discreet to re-embark, and hasten away as precipitately as 
possible. His fleet, overtaken by a violent tempest in the 
St. Lawrence, was dispersed ; two or three of the vessels 
were sunk, one was wrecked, others were blown off to the 
West Indies, and the remainder were more than a month 
on their way home. 

Thus the expedition ended in disaster and defeat. Maj.- 
Gen. Winthrop, who had marched with an army to the 
head of Lake Champlain, intending a descent on Montreal, 
and a junction with Sir William at Quebec, was also dis- 
couraged, and returned without crossing the lake. 

These disasters only rendered the French more bold and 
insolent. The Indians, encouraged by the sympathy and 
assistance rendered them, especially by the Baron de St. 
Castine, had begun their work of plunder and destruction 
upon the frontier settlements. 

Tiie first blood in this war was shed at Dartmouth, near 
Pemaquid, early in September, 1688. A few days after, 
Capt. Walter Gendall and his servant were killed at North 
Yarmouth. Towards winter two families in Kennebunk, of 
the names of Barrow and Bussy, were murdered. In 
April, 1689, the savages began hostilities at Saco, but no 
lives appear to have been lost. Two or three months later 
four young men of Saco, going to seek their horses for the 
purpose of joining a military party under Capt. Wincoln, 
were surprised and killed. A company of twenty-four 
men were immediately raised to search for the bodies of the 
slain, who, falling in with the savages, pursued them into a 
vast swamp, probably the Heath, but were obliged to retire 
with the loss of six of their number. 

The year 1690 was signalized by the destruction of the 
settlement at Salmon Falls (Berwick), and the capture of 
Fort Loyal, at Falmouth, by two parties of Freuch and 
Indians. The garrisons in Cape Elizabeth and Scarbor- 
ough were so discouraged at these events that they drew 
off immediately to Saco, and from Saco, in a few days, to 

There were at this time in Wells, between the present 
highway and the beach, several houses constructed of hewn 
timber, with flankers, and on each a watch-tower, — all of 
which were fortified, and might be occupied and used as 
garrisons. One of the largest and strongest was Mr. Storer's, 
situated near the old meeting-house, which was considered 
at this period a public fortification. 

Seouting-parties were employed during the summer be- 
tween Portsmouth and Falmouth, by reason of which the 
Indians were restrained from further depredations of any 
magnitude. In September, Col. Church was sent into the 
province with a considerable force, partially of friendly 
natives of the Old Colony. They landed at Pejepscot, where 
the fort built by Governor Andros was in possession of the 
Indians, who hastily fled upon their approach, leaving be- 
hind them several women and children ; these were seized 
and all put to death, except the wives of two chiefs, whose 

t Mather's Magnalia. 


influence was wanted to obtain a restoration of prisoners. 
From that place Col. Church sailed to Winter Harbor. The 
next morning they discovered some smoke arising towards 
Scamman's garrison. Church immediately sent in that di- 
rection a scout of sixty men, "and presently followed with 
his whole force.* 

" This garrison,'' says Folsom, " was about tliree miles below the 
Falls, on the eastern side of the (Saco) river; when the detachment 
approached it they discovered the Indians on the opposite side. Three 
of them, however, had crossed the river, and seeing our men, ran with 
great speed to their canoes: in attempting to recross, one who stood 
up to paddle was killed by a shot from the party, and falling upon 
the canoe caused it to break to pieces (says Church), so that all three 
perished. The firing alarmed the other savages, who abandoned their 
canoes and ran from the river. ' Old Doney,' a noted Indian, was at 
the Falls, together with a prisoner, Thomas Baker (of Scarborough), 
and hearing the guns, came down the river in his canoe ; but on per- 
ceiving Church's men, ran his canoe ashore, and leaping over the 
head of Baker, escaped to the other Indians. Col. Church afterwards 
went to Casco Bay, and from thence back as far as Wells, where the 
chiefs whose wives had been spared '' came and said three several times 
that they would never light against the English any more, for the 
French made fools of them.'"t 

The chiefs referred to in the above extract were two saga- 
mores who had been taken at Pejepscot. They came to Wells 
in October, 1689, where their wives were retained, and 
agreed to enter into a treaty at any place the English might 
appoint. It seems that the appointment was made for a 
conference at Sagadahock ; for, on the 29th of November, 
the commissioners of Massachusetts met six sagamores at 
that place and a truce was signed between them for the 
suspension of hostilities till the 1st of May following, when 
they agreed to repair to Storer's garrison in Wells, bring 
in the captives and there conclude a lasting peace. Ten 
English captives were released, with one of whom, Mrs. 
Hall, they parted very reluctantly, because she was a good 
writer and had served them as a secretary.]; 

This was almost the only good fortune which had thus 
far been attained in the war. Never had Maine witne.ssed 
a darker season. Only four towns survived the ravages of 
the Indians, viz.. Wells, York, Kittery, and Appledore, or 
the Isles of Shoals. These the enemy had evidently marked 
out for utter and speedy destruction. 

Col. Church, having collected and buried the mouldering 
bodies of the people slain in the capture of Falmouth, re- 
turned home in the autumn, leaving one hundred of his 
men at Wells under Capt. Converse and Lieut. Plaisted. He 
kindly collected a considerable contribution in Plymouth 
Colony, which he transmitted to the eastern sufferers, ac- 
companied by a letter to Maj. Frost, John Wheelwright, 
Esq., and others, encouraging their expectations of still 
further relief. 

At the time appointed. May 1, 1691, President Dan- 
forth, attended by several members of the Council and 
guarded by a troop of horse, arrived in Wells for the pur- 
pose of meeting the Indians and forming the expected 
treaty. Not one of them appeared, — being evidently de- 
terred through French influence. A few who were in the 
neighborhood were brought in by order of Capt. Converse, 
who said they had forgotten the time, but promised to 

'Church's Wars, 
f Saco and Bidde 
J 1 Williamson, p 

J. 117. 

bring in the rest in ten days, and in proof of their sincerity 
gave up two captives. To try their faith and honor, they 
were dismissed, but nothing more was seen of the Indians. 
President Danforth and his associates returned to York, 
promising to send Capt. Converse a reinforcement of thirty- 
five soldiers from the county of Essex, which arrived on 
the 9th of June. 

In half an hour after the arrival of these troops the gar- 
rison was furiously beset by Moxus and two hundred In- 
dians. Being repulsed, they presently withdrew, and pro- 
ceeded to Cape Neddick, in York. Here they attacked a 
vessel and killed a greater part of the crew, set the little 
hamlet on fire, and then scattered in difierent directions. 
Madockawando is said by a captive to have remarked, 
" Moxus miss it this time ; next year I'll have the dog Con- 
verse out of his den." 

Four companies of troops were dispatched late in July 
into the eastern service, commanded by Capts. March, King, 
Sherburne, and Walton, the first being the senior officer. 
They landed at Maquoit and proceeded to Pejepscot Falls. 
Returning to their vessels they had a sharp engagement 
with a large body of Indians, in which Capt. Sherburne 
was killed. Nothing was eifected by this expedition, except 
to deter the Indians from their contemplated attack upon 
the Isles of Shoals. 

The Indians, with their usual craftiness, delayed their 
attack upon York till the dead of winter, at which time 
they well knew it was the habit of the place to be less on 
their guard than common. Early in the morning of Mon- 
day, Feb. 25, 1692, at the signal of a gun fired by the 
enemy, the town was furiously assaulted at difierent places 
by two or three hundred Indians, led by several Canadian 
Frenchmen, who had crossed the country on snow-shoes. 
Although several houses were strongly fortified, the sur- 
prise of the town was complete, and the attack consequently 
more fatal. " A scene of fearful carnage and capture in- 
stantly ensued, and in one half-hour more than a hundred 
and sixty of the inhabitants were expiring victims or trem- 
bling suppliants at the feet of their enraged enemies. The 
rest liad the good fortune to escape with their lives into 
Preble's, Harmon's, Alcock's, and Norton's garrisoned 
houses, the best fortifications in town. Though well se- 
cured within the walls, and bravely defending themselves 
against their assailants, they were several times summoned 
to surrender. " Never,'' said they; " never till we have shed 
the last drop of blood." 

About seventy-five of the inhabitants were killed ; the 
savages, despairing of securing the other victims by capitu- 
lation, set fire to nearly all of the unfortified houses on the 
northeast side of the river, which, with a large amount of 
property, besides the plunder taken, were laid in ashes. 
The savages then hastened away with their booty and their 
prisoners, " near an hundred of that unhappy people," says 
Dr. Mathei'. " Nay, it was now their hard destiny to enter 
upon a long journey amidst a thousand hardships and suf- 
ferings, aggravated by severe weather, snow, famine, abuse, 
and every species of wretchedness." 

Rev. Dr. Dummer, who had long been their able and be- 
loved minister, now in his sixtieth year, was found by some 
of the survivors fallen dead upon his face near his own door, 


having been shot as he was about startino; on horseback to 
make a pastoral visit. His house was on the sea-shoie, not 
for from the Roaring Rock. He was a graduate of Har- 
vard College in 1656, and married not long after the 
daughter of Edward Rishworth, Esq. She was among the 
captives, and heartbroken and exhausted with fatigue, soon 
sank in death. 

A party instantly rallied at Portsmouth and pursued the 
enemy, but it was too late either to give battle to the In- 
dians or to rescue the prisoners. So fatal was the blow to 
York that but for the timely aid and encouragement of 
Massachusetts, the remnant of the inhabitants would have 
abandoned the place during the war. 

Wells was next singled out as the object of attack. Ma- 
dockawando had not forgotten his threat to •' have that dog 
Converse out of his den." Hence a formidable force, 
consisting of five hundred French and Indians, including 
the chief sagamores, under command of the French officer 
Portneuf, invested the place on the 10th of June. The in- 
habitants were dispersed among the fortified houses. Con- 
verse and fifteen soldiers were in Storer's garrison. On the 
9th two sloops, which had been sent to supply the distressed 
and suffering inhabitants with provisions and ammunition, 
had arrived under command of Samuel Storer and James 
Gouge, having on board fourteen men. The first evidence 
of the presence of an enemy in proximity to the settlement 
was given by the cattle, which hurried in bleeding from the 
woods and put the inhabitants upon their guard. The next 
morning, before daybreak, John Diamond, a passenger who 
had arrived on one of the vessels, on his way to the garri- 
son, was seized by Indian spies and dragged away by his 
hair. He was taken into the presence of the French offi- 
cers, who were attended by Madockawando, Egermet, 
Moxus, Warumbo, and several other sagamores. They 
closely examined him to obtain all the information they 
could about the place. Either by mistake or design, he 
said there were in the garrison with Capt. Converse thirty 
brave men well armed. To show how certainly the enemy 
anticipated success, it is stated that they proceeded to " ap- 
portion the soldiers, the inhabitants, Mr. Wheelwright by 
name, the women and children, the sailors, and the plunder 
among the officers, the sagamores, and the army. Then 
one habited like a gentleman made a speech to them in 
English, exhorting them to be active and fearless." All 
being in readiness, they raised a hideous shout, and assaulted 
the garrison with great fury. The assault was continued 
throughout the day without success. A party also con- 
structed a breastwork in front of the sloops, from behind 
which they fired guns and blazing arrows, setting fire to the 
vessels. The crews extinguished the flames by wet mops 
attached to the ends of poles, and fired with such precisiou 
and rapidity that the enemy were compelled to abandon 
their works. They next attempted to set fire to the sloops 
by means of an engine rolled on wheels, containing flaming 
materials, which they succeeded in bringing within a few 
rods of the vessels, but could not get near enough to be 
effective. In these operations several Indians and French- 
men were killed. 

The French and Indians, combining their forces, on the 
next morning moved the whole body towards the garrison. 

It was at this time that one of Converse's soldiers proposed 
a surrender. " Utter the word again," said the captain, 
" and you are a dead man." Continuing his orders, " All 
lie close," said he, " and fire not a gun till it will do execu- 
tion." As the besiegers with firm steps approached they 
gave three hideous shouts, one crying out in English, " Fire 
and fall on, brave boys !" The whole body then, opening 
into three ranks, discharged their guns all at once. A 
blaze of fire was returned both from the small arms and 
the cannon, some two or three of which were twelve- 
pounders ; women heroically supplied ammunition, and in 
several instances acted as gunners. It was a crisis of life 
and death, and the English were victorious. The repulse 
was so complete that the attack was not renewed. 

The Indians made another attack on the ves.sels, having 
constructed a fire-boat eighteen or twenty feet square, which 
they towed towards the vessels and in the current of the 
tide left it to float in flames directly against them. This 
would have inevitably proved their destruction had not a 
counter-breeze sprung up just at the opportune moment, 
which carried the flaming magazine to the opposite shore, 
where it split and filled with water. 

At about ten o'clock in the evening the enemy retired, 
discouraged and mortified at their ill success. " A siege of 
forty-eight hours prosecuted by a host against a handful," 
says a historian, " was in the sequel no less a disgrace and 
a discouragement to the one than animating and glorious to 
the other." To retaliate for the death of one of the French 
officers, the savages put their only captive, John Diamond, 
to the torture. They stripped, scalped, and maimed him ; 
slit his hands and feet between the fingers and toes ; cut 
deep gashes in the fieshy parts of his body and stuck the 
wounds full of lighted torches, leaving him to die by piece- 
meal in the atronies of consuming fire.* 



Sir Williani Phips— His Measures for prcisecuting the War— Maj. 
Converse promoled to the Chief Command — Stone Fort erected in 
Biddeford— Depredations of the Indians— Lieut. Fletcher and his 
two Sons captured — Humphrey Scamman and his Family taken 
Captives— Continuation of the Struggle till the Peace of 171.',. 

The new administration, under the charter of William 
and Mary, commenced in the spring of 1692. Sir William 
Phips was commissioned royal Governor. He was a native 
of Maine, born in Woolwich, upon the Sheepscot, Feb. 
2, 1650, and was one of the youngest of his mother's 
twenty -six children, of whom twenty-one were sons. His 
wife was a daughter of Roger Spencer, of Saco. Bereaved 
of his father when a child, he passed his boyhood with his 
mother until he was eighteen, afterwards learning the trade 
of a ship-carpenter, and acquiring some education. About 
the time of King Philip's war he built a ship on the 
Sheepscot River, and, being driven away by the Indians, 
ia-faring adventurer. 

Mather's Magnalia, pp. 532-36; 2 Hutchinson, p. 07. 


In some of his voyages he heard that a Spanish ship, 
laden with silver, had been wrecked and sunk, half a cen- 
tury before, not far from the Bahama Islands. He told the 
interesting story to the Duke of Albemarle, and entering 
into an agreement with him, sailed twice under his auspices 
from England, into those waters, in search of the wreck. 
During the second voyage, in 1687, after indefatigable 
eflForts, he found it between forty and fifty feet under water, 
and took from it the immense treasure of thirty-four tons 
of silver, besides gold, pearls, and jewels, equivalent in value 
to one million three hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Of 
this treasure his part exceeded seventy thousand dollars, be- 
sides a golden cup, worth four thousand dollars, presented to 
his wife by his noble patron. For his enterprise, success, 
and honesty King James II. conferred upon him the order 
of knighthood, and appointed him high-sherifi" of New 
England. This was during the administration of Governor 
Andros, with whom he differed so widely in politics that 
he declined the olEce. The conquest of Nova Scotia and 
the disastrous expedition against Quebec, at the beginning 
of the war, have already been noticed. 

As royal Governor of Massachusetts under the new char- 
ter, Sir William took active measures to carry on the war 
against the French and Indians. He was authorized by 
the charter and advised by the Legislature, if necessary, to 
march the militia against the common enemy. A board of 
war was at once organized, consisting of three military men, 
and Benjamin Church was commi.ssioned major-command- 
ant of the forces. The Governor himself, attended by 
Maj. Church and four hundred and fifty men, embarked 
early in August for Pemaquid, where he had decided to 
establish a strong garrison. This was erected in a few 
months, under the direction of Capts. Wing and Ban- 
croft, with two companies retained to do the work, and 
was finished by Capt. March. It was a quadrangular 
structure of solid masonry, measuring seven hundred and 
forty-seven feet around the exterior walls, and containing 
within the inclosure a strong citadel. The height on the 
south side fronting the sea was twenty-two feet, and the 
great flanker, or round tower, at the southwest corner, was 
twenty-nine feet in height. Eight feet from the ground 
the walls were six feet in thickness, and there was a tier of 
twenty-eight port-holes. Eighteen guns were mounted, six 
of which were eighteen-pounders, and Fort William Henry, 
as it was called, was garrisoned by sixty men. The cost of 
the structure was about twenty thousand pounds. 

The expedition of Maj. Church eastward was attended 
with no important results, the Indians in several places 
disappearing on his approach, and hiding themselves in the 
thickets of the forest. Madockawando, in August, made a 
journey to Quebec, and it was agreed with Count Prontenac 
that, upon his sending two ships of war and two hundred 
Canadians to Penobscot, they should be reinforced by 
three hundred Indians under Madockawando, and the whole 
force should proceed to destroy Wells, Y'ork, Kittery, Pis- 
cataqua, and the Isles of Shoals; and having done this, 
return and demolish Fort William Henry. This project 
leaked out through John Nelson, whom Sir William had 
made Governor of Nova Scotia, who bribed two French- 
men to convey the intelligence to Boston. Late in the 

autumn, D'Iberville and the Chevalier Villebon, with two 
vessels of war and a great body of Indians, proceeded from 
Penobscot to attempt the reduction of Fort William Henry. 
But struck with its great strength, and finding an English 
vessel riding at anchor under its guns, the commanders 
concluded to abandon the enterprise. The Indians were 
so disappointed that they stamped the ground in rage. 

In the spring of 1693 the intrepid Converse was com- 
missioned major and commander-in-chief of the eastern 
forces, including the garrison, soldiers, and three hundred 
and fifty new levies. He ranged the country in quest of 
the enemy ; was at Piscataqua, at Wells, at Sheepscot, at 
Pemaquid, at Teconnet ; and on the side of the Saco, 
near the Falls (Biddeford) he, with the aid of Maj. Hook 
and Capt. Hill, erected a very strong stone fort. The re- 
mains of this fort were visible on the high bank where the 
shops of the Water-Power Machine Company now stand 
when the excavations were made for these works in 18-10. 
The remnant of the fort was demolished at that time. It 
is said to have been built with so much strength that the 
Indians never attempted to take it ; of course, it afforded 
great security to the inhabitants. A number of soldiers 
were stationed here under the command of Capt. George 
Tuifrey and Lieut. Pendleton Fletcher. So much energy 
was shown in the preparations for war in the early part of 
this year that the Indians became alarmed, sued for peace, 
and in August a treaty was made at Pemaquid, signed by 
the principal sagamores of all the Indians belonging to the 
several tribes of Penobscot and Kennebec, Androscoggin 
and Saco. The following summer, however, hostilities were 
renewed near the Piscataqua, at Spruce Creek, and in 
York. The leaders were fortunately seized, — Robin Doney 
and three others at Saco fort, and Bomazeen, at Pemaquid, 
in 1694. The latter was sent to jail in Boston. 

The next March two soldiers belonging to the fort in 
Saco fell into the hands of the enemy, one of whom was 
killed and the other carried into captivity. The savages 
appear to have lurked about the fort, watching an opportu- 
nity for mischief Sergt. Haley was cut off in this manner, 
venturing carelessly out of the fort in the latter part of the 
summer. The next year five soldiers, in a similar way, 
lost their lives. They had discovered the enemy in season 
to make their escape, but not agreeing about the course to 
be taken (being at a considerable distance from the fort) 
they unfortunately fell into an ambush and were all slain. 

Maj. Charles Frost, of Sturgeon Creek, in Kittery, was 
killed on Sunday, July 4, 1697, returning from public wor- 
ship at Berwick, — " to repair unto which," says Mr. Mather, 
" about five miles from his own house, he had that morning 
expressed such an earnestness that much notice was taken 
of it." Two others were killed at the same time ; but two 
sons of Maj. Frost, who were in the company, happily 
escaped. The Indians had secreted themselves behind a 
collection of boughs lying near the road ; the place was 
open and level, and apparently much less likely to conceal 
an enemy than other parts of the road which they had 
passed. Maj. Frost had filled various offices of great 
respectability. In 1693 he was a member of the Council 
of Massachusetts, elected by the people under the provis- 
ions of the new charter. He had been an officer in King 


Philip's war, and was much feared by the savages. His 
father, Nicholas Frost, heretofore mentioned, was one of the 
first settlers of Kittery, and died in 1663, at the age of 
seventy-one, leaving two other sons, — John and Nicholas. 

The capture of Lieut. Fletcher and his two sons took 
place the same year. Of this Dr. Mather gives the follow- 
ing account : 

" Three soldiers of Saeo fiirt, cutting some firewood on Cow Island 
for the use of the fort, were by the Indians cut oiT while Lieut Flet- 
cher, with his two sons, that should have guarded them, went afowl- 
ing, and by doing so they likewise fell into a snare. The Indians 
carrying these three captives down the river in one of their canoes, 
Lieut. Larrabee, who was abroad with a scout, waylaid them, and 
firing on the foremost of the canoes, that had three men (Indians) in 
it, they all three fell and sank in the river of death. Several were 
killed aboard the other canoes, and the rest ran their canoes ashore 
and escaped on the other side of the river; and one of the Fletchers, 
when all the Indians with him were killed, was delivered out of the 
hands which had made prisoners of him, though his poor father after- 
wards died among them." 

About the same time Humphrey Scamman and his 
family were taken and carried to Canada. The story of 
their capture is thus related by an aged lady, a grand- 
daughter of Samuel, the youngest son of Mr. Scamman : 

"When Samuel was about ten years old, as his granddaughter has 
often heard him relate, he was sent one day by his mother with a mug 
of beer to his father and brother, who were at work on a piece of 
marsh In the neighborhood of the lower ferry. He had not gone far 
from the house when he discovered a number of Indians at a distance, 
and immediately ran back to inform his mother. He regained the 
house and wished to fasten the doors and windows, but his mother 
prevented him, saying that the Indians would certainly kill them if 
he did. They soon came into the house and asked the good woman 
where her snnap (husband) was. She refused to inform them, when 
they threatened to carry her off alone; but promised, if she would 
discover where he was, to take them together without harm. She 
then told them. After destroying much of the furniture in the house, 
breaking many articles on a flat stone by the door, and emptying the 
feather-beds to secure the sacks, they went away with the prisoners 
towards the marsh, where they succeeded in capturing Mr. Seamman 
and his other son. A boy named Robinson had been for the team, 
and as he was returning he perceived the savages in season to make 
his escape. Mounting a horse, with only his garters for a bridle, he 
rode up to what is now Gray's Point, swam the horse to Cow Island, 
and, leaving him there, swam to the opposite shore, and reached the 
fort in safety. He found only a few old men and women in posses- 
sion of the place. The guns were immediately fired to alarm the 
soldiers belonging to the fort, who were at work some distance off. 
The women in the mean time put on men's clothes and showed them- 
selves about the fort, so that they could be seen by the Indians, who 
had come up to the opposite island. Deceived hy this stratagem 
(supposing the fort to be well manned, as they afterwards acknowl- 
edged), they did not venture an attack, but drew off with a number 
of prisoners besides Scamman and his family. As the peace took 
place soon after, the prisoners were all restored, having been probably 
about one year in captivity. Mr. Scamman, on his return, found his 
house in precisely the same condition in which it had been left; even 
the mug of beer, which Samuel had placed on the dresser, was found 
remaining there. This mug is still in existence, preserved by our 
venerable informant as a memorial of the dangers and suflferings to 
which her ancestors were exposed. It is a handsome article of brown 
ware, with the figure and name of King William stamped upon it. 
Its age is about one hundred and forty years."* 

In 1698, the war between England and France being at 
an end, the Indians made new overtures for peace, and 
commissioners were sent to treat with them, who concluded 
a treaty at Mare Point, in Casco Bay, Jan. 7, 1699. Thus 

I and Biddeford, i 

1830, p. 1S7. 

ended a bloody war which had continued with little inter- 
mission for ten years. 

The settlements enjoyed, however, but a short respite 
from the unspeakable miseries of savage warfare. The 
succession of Queen Anne to the throne in 1702 
was followed by a renewal of hostilities with France. The 
next year Governor Dudley appointed a conference with the 
eastern Indians at Falmouth. Delegates appeared from the 
different tribes, who declared to the Governor " that a.s high 
as the sun was above the earth, so far distant was their 
design of making war upon the whites." Yet in August, 
six weeks after the conference, a body of five hundred 
French and Indians fell upon the settlements between 
Casco and Wells, burning and destroying all before them. 
One hundred and thirty people were killed and taken pris- 
oners in the course of this devastation. f The garrison at 
Winter Harbor and the stone fort at Saco Falls were at- 
tacked by this party. The former, after a stout resistance, 
finally capitulated on favorable terms. In the assault on 
the fort at Saco eleven were killed and twenty-four taken 
prisoners, who were carried into captivity. At Spurwink 
twenty-two persons, all of the Jordan families resident 
there, were either killed or captured. The garrison at 
Scarborough this time held out against an attack. At Pur- 
pooduck (Cape Elizabeth) twenty-five were killed and eight 
taken. The inhabitants, having been lulled into security 
by the result of the conference at Casco, were taken by 
surprise, and became the easy victims of the perfidious 
cruelty of the savages. 

Towards the close of the year five of the inhabitants of 
Saco who were getting home wood were surprised by the 
enemy, and three of them slain. The next month (January, 
1704) a body of Indians attacked the garrison at Saco, at 
that time commanded by Capt. Brown, but were repulsed. J 

In 1705, Capt. Joseph Hill, who had fallen into the 
hands of the enemy and been taken to Canada, was sent to 
obtain an exchange of prisoners. He reported that there 
were at that time with the French one hundred and four- 
teen captives, and seventy with the Indians. About this 
time Ebenezer (afterwards Deacon) Hill and his wife were 
taken captives and carried to Canada, where they remained 
three years. Their oldest son, Ebenezer, called in after- 
years " the Frenchman," was born either in Canada or 
while they were on their return. Mr. Hill's house was 
on the west side of Saco River, near the head of " Ferry 

In 1707 an engagement took place at Winter Harbor 
between a fleet of fifty canoes, manned by one hundred and 
fifty Indians, and two small vessels, in which were Capt. 
Austin, Sergt. Cole, Mr. Harmon, and six others. Seeing 
the canoes approaching in a hostile manner, the men fired 
upon them as soon as they came near enough, producing 
some confusion among the savages ; a brisk action ensued, 
in which the Indians captured one of the vessels, the men, 
however, making their escape to the other, with the loss of 
one man, Benjamin Daniel, who was shot through the 
bowels. As he fell he exclaimed, "I am a dead man ;" 

t Penhallow'a Wars of New England. 

X Judge Sewall's MS. Diary. 

^ Folaom's Saco and Biddeford, p. 199. 



but recovering a little, he added, " Let me kill oue before I 
die." His strength, however, failed hitn ere he could get 
his gun to his shoulder, and he sank down and expired. 

In 1708 the General Court passed an order directing the 
removal of the forces from the stone fort at Saco Falls 
(Biddeford) to Winter Harbor, where a new fort was 
built on the extremity of the point at the entrance of the 
Pool. Three hundred pounds were appropriated for this 
object, and Joseph Hammond and Capt. Lewis Bane were 
appointed to carry the order into effect. In 1710 one hun- 
dred pounds were granted by the court for the completion 
of the fortification, which was called Fort Mary. A supply 
of snow-shoes and moccasins was voted at the same time. 
The point where this fort stood is still called Fort Hill. 

In August of that year about fifty French and Indians 
made an assault on Winter Harbor, killed a woman, and 
took two men, one of whom, Pendleton Fletcher, was cap- 
tured for the fourth time. The garrison redeemed him. 
The next week a large party came, killed three and carried 
away six. They barbarously stripped off the skin from one 
of the slain, and made girdles of it. Col. Walton, with 
one hundred and seventy men, soon after visited the place 
and marched up the Saco River, but succeeded in destroy- 
ing only two of the enemy and taking five prisoners. Corp. 
Ayers, of Fort Mary, about this time fell into the hands 
of the savages, but was liberated immediately, the Indians 
being weary of the war, which had reduced the number of 
their fighting men nearly one-half They, therefore, sent a 
flag of truce to the fort and desired a treaty. But some of 
them committed depredations afterwards in Wells, York, 
Kittery, and Dover, N. H. 

The year 1712 was, indeed, more calamitous and eventful 
to the people of Maine than several of the preceding years 
had been. About twenty-six persons were killed, wounded, 
and taken prisoners in York, Kittery, and Wells. The 
enemy first appeared at York, and in April or May shot 
Samuel Webber, between the village and Cape Neddick. 
Another party fell upon several men with teams in Wells, 
when three were killed and as many wounded. Among 
those who fell was Lieut. Littlefield, a brave and valuable 
man, whose death was deeply lamented.* He had for a 
longtime commanded the militia company of his town, and 
was a skillful engineer, especially in waterworks. He had 
been taken a prisoner four years before, carried to Canada, 
and lately ransomed from his captivity. The Indians soon 
after were bold and daring enough to penetrate into the 
heart of the town, where they caught and hurried away two 
of its inhabitants with fiendish shouts of triumph. The 
repetition of these desperate adventures was enough to 
wither every hope and fill every heart with despair. No 
age, no condition, no place could enjoy the least rest or 
security. One boy was killed and another taken about this 
time at Spruce Creek, in Kittery. 

As a scouting party was marching from the garrison in 
York towards Cape Neddick, May 14th, it was assailed by 
a body of thirty French and Indians. Nalton, the sergeant, 
was shot, and seven others seized and confined. The com- 
mander and others retreated and fought till they arrived at 

• * Supposed to be the same Josiah Littlefield who represented Wells 
in the General Court in 1710. 

a great rock, which sheltered them from the fire and fury 
of their pursuers, and enabled them to keep their ground 
till relieved by Capt. Willard and a " flying guard" from 
the fort. Every motion and movement of the inhabitants 
seemed to lie under the inspection of a lurking, malignant 
foe. John Pickernell, at Spruce Creek, was shot June 1st, 
as he was locking his door, on the way with his family to 
the garrison ; his wife was wounded and a child scalped. 
Seven weeks after this a man was killed at Berwick, 
another at Wells, and a negro taken captive. 

The last memorable skirmish which occurred in York 
County (and indeed in Maine) before the close of this ter- 
rible war, happened in the autumn of 1712, at Wells. It 
was on the wedding-day of Capt Wheelwright's daughter. 
A considerable number of guests were pre.sent, some of 
whom had attended Mr. Plaisted, the bridegroom, from 
Portsmouth. When the marriage ceremonies were over, 
and the attendants were preparing to depart, they were 
informed that two of their horses were missing and could 
not be foufld. Several proceeded immediately in search of 
them, two of whom were shot down a few rods from the 
house, and others seized by the savages. Alarmed at the 
report of guns, Capts. Lane, Robinson, and Heard dis- 
patched twelve men from the garrison across lots to meet or 
intercept the assailants, while they themselves, in company 
with Mr. Plaisted and his friends, mounted the bridled 
horses and gave them whip and rein in pursuit. In a few 
minutes these all fell into an ambush ; Robinson was killed 
on the spot, the rest were dismounted, yet every one of them, 
except Plaisted, effected an escape. Plaisted was, however, 
in a few days, ransomed by his father, though the crafty 
savages required him to pay over three hundred pounds.")" 

This was the last act of savage barbarity in the county 
during the war. The treaty of Utrecht, which made peace 
between England and France, w;is signed March 30, 1713. 
The Indians, who had long been impatient for peace, but 
whose resentment had been kept alive by the French long 
after they were heartily sick of the war, now hastened to 
make peace with the English. By request of the sagamores, 
presented through Capt. Samuel Moody, of Falmouth, the 
Governor appointed a conference, to be held at Portsmouth 
on the 11th of July, at which the chiefs of the different 
tribes appeared and signed a treaty of perpetual peace and 
amity. Although they had inflicted terrible ravages upon 
the settlements, they themselves had been great sufferers by 
the war. More than a third of their fighting men had, 
within the ten years, wasted away or been killed, and pro- 
bably an equal or a greater portion of their women and 
children. The warriors of the Ahenaques and Etechemins 
— the two most powerful tribes — had been reduced to three 
hundred, while three tribes — the Wowenocks, Sokokis, and 
Anasaffu/iticooks — had lost their separate tribal distinction, 
and become mixed or blended with St. Frangois and others. 
The force of the natives appeared in a great measure broken 
and their leaders disheartened. 

t 3 Mass. Hist. Coll., p. 140. 




Tevritorial Extent of Maine — Government Formed under the Charter 
— Officers Appointed and Elected — Representation of the Towns in 
York County — Revision of the Judiciary System — Probate, Chan- 
cery, and Admiralty Courts Established — Militia Laws — Religious 
Toleration — Education. 

Having followed the history of the struggle with the 
French and Indians up to the peace of Utrecht, July 30, 
1713, we are now prepared to go back a few years and con- 
sider the civil aifairs of the province under the charter of 
William and Mary. This famous instrument was granted 
to the colony of Massachusetts on the 7th of October, 
1G91. It was brought over by Sir William Phips, the first 
royal Governor under its provisions, and went into effect on 
the 14th of May, 1692. 

By this charter the province of Maine, as to its terri- 
torial limits, was made to extend from the Piscataqua to 
the Kennebec, and all east of that, including Nova Scotia, 
was the province of Sagadahock. In 1696, Massachusetts 
surrendered the government of Nova Scotia to the erown, 
and at the peace of Utrecht it became a British province, 
which it has remained ever since. 

The charter provided that three members of the Council 
— which was the upper house in the legislative body — 
should always be taken from the province of Maine, and 
one from Sagadahock. The whole number of councilors 
were at first by name inserted in the charter, and were 
charter members, to hold their places until the election in 
May, 1693. Those for Maine were Job Alcock, Samuel 
Donnell, and Samuel Hayman ; and for Sagadahock, Sil- 
vanus Davis. Mr. Alcock and Mr. Donnell were both resi- 
dents of York, and both were afterwards for some time 
justices of the Inferior Court, or Common Pleas. Mr. 
Alcock was one of the ancient, most respectable, and wealthy 
men of his town, and had been commander of the militia 
twenty years before ; nevertheless, being somewhat ad- 
vanced in years, he was never re-chosen to fill a position 
in the Council. Mr. Donnell was elected the next year, 
and once subsequently. He also represented his town two 
years in the House. Mr. Hayman, having an oversight 
and interest in public affairs at Berwick, received this 
mark of distinction on account of his personal worth ; yet, 
owing probably to his short residence in Maine, he is not 
known to have been a member of the Council after the 
expiration of his charter term, nor to have filled any other 
public oflBce in the province. Mr. Davis was a gentleman 
of good capacity and great fidelity. He had been an in- 
habitant of Arrowsio. and in superintending the interests of 
Clark and Lake upon that island and in the vicinity had 
acquired an eminent character for integrity, business enter- 
prise, and prudence When that island was laid waste he 
removed to Falmouth, and was there in command of the 
garrison when it was attacked and taken by the combined 
force of French and Indians on the 20th of May, 1690. 
Mr. Davis was taken prisoner, and was twenty-four days 
marching through the country to Quebec, where he re- 
mained four months, and was exchanged on the 15th of 
October for a Freuchman who had been taken by Sir Wil- 

liam Phips.* Mr. Davis was a worthy member of the 
Council, and elected to the same body the next year. 

In the places of Messrs. Alcock and Heyman, Francis 
Hooke and Charles Frost were elected in 1693. They had 
been members of President Danforth's Council, and were 
two of the most popular and useful men in the province. 
In the first Inferior Court, or Common Pleas, they were 
both judges, and Mr. Hooke was two years judge of probate 
in Yorkshire, or the county of York. In 1694, they were 
re-elected. The same year the places of Messrs. Donnell 
and Davis were filled by Mr. Samuel Wheelwright, of Wells, 
son of Rev. John Wheelwright, the original and principal 
proprietary settler of that town, and Mr. Joseph Lynde, 
who was a non-resident proprietor of lands in Sagadahock .f 
He lived in Boston, and was province treasurer. The Sa- 
gadahock territory was represented in the Council by a non- 
resident landholder, with a few exceptions, through a period 
of sixty or seventy years. When elected, and before taking 
the qualifying oath, he usually made aflfidavit at the Board 
that he was a proprietor of lands in said province. 

The council was annually chosen on the day of general elec- 
tion in May, by the members of the Board and the new House 
of Representatives assembled in convention, and if any va- 
cancies happened during the political year they were filled in 
the same way by the two branches united. Seven formed a 
quorum for the transaction of business, the Board being 
both a co-ordinate branch of the General Court and an 
advisory Council of the Governor. When the oflnces of 
Governor and Lieutenant-Governor were vacant, all acts of 
execritive power were exercised by a majority of the whole 
Council, and there have been instances, especially in the 
Revolution, when commissions were signed by fifteen coun- 

The other branch of the General Court, called the House, 
was constituted of deputies, or representatives, elected by 
incorporated towns. Governor Phips, for the first time, 
issued warrants. May 20, 1692, to every town " to choose 
two and no more," and appointed a session on the 8th of 
June, when one hundred and fifty-three were returned. In 
this Legislature eight appeared from Maine, or Yorkshire, 
viz., two from each of the towns, as follows : Kittery, James 
Emery and Benjamin Hodson ; York, Jeremiah Moulton 
and M. Turfrey ; Wells, Eliab Hutchinson and John 
Wheelwright ; Isles of Shoals, Roger Kelley and William 
Lakeman. Subsequent to the first year, the Isles of Shoals 
were never represented in the General Court, nor did any 
town in Maine afterwards for sixty years return at the same 
time more than a single member to the House. Some of 
the towns were always represented during that period, ex- 
cept in 1697. The whole delegation from the province in 
any single year never exceeded ten or eleven. The entire 
number in the House for the first ten years was usually 
between sixty and eighty, never, till 1735, exceeding a hun- 
dred members. Forty constituted a quorum for doing bus- 
iness ; every one was entitled to a daily compensation of 
three shillings for his attendance, but was finable five shil- 
lings if absent a day without leave. 

■s Report of Capt. Davis, on file in Massachusetts office of State. 
I The charter did not require councilors for that province to be 
residents, if they were proprietors of lauds there. 



Kittery was represented iu 1693 by James Emery; in 
1694, by William Serevens; in 1695,' by James Emery, 
again ; in 1696, by John Shapleigh, and in 1698, by Rich- 
ard Cutts. York and Wells, united, were represented in 
1694 by Ezekiel , Rogers, Jr.; and, in 1698, Abraham 
Preble represented York alone. Any one twenty-one years 
of age, worth forty pounds sterling, or a freehold which 
would yield an annual income of forty shillings, was entitled 
to vote. Every town having thirty votes and upwards 
could return one representative ; one hundred and twenty 
voters, two ; having less than thirty, it might unite with 
the adjoining town in the election of a representative. 

The General Court, consisting of both legislative bodies, 
had full powers to establish, with or without penalties, all 
wholesome and reasonable laws, statutes, ordinances, and 
orders not repugnant to those of England ; to name and 
settle annually all civil officers whose appointment was not 
otherwise provided for, and to levy taxes needful for the 
support of the government and the protection of the people. 
But all orders, laws, statutes, and ordinances had to be 
transmitted by the first opportunity after enactment to the 
king for his approval under the royal signature. Hence 
the laws under this system were denominated the statutes 
of the reigning monarch who approved them, as, for example, 
" the Statutes of William and Mary," " the Statutes of 
Queen Anne," etc. A law, however, not approved by the 
king and Privy Council within three years, became of full 
force by the lapse of time. The necessity of transmitting 
the laws across the ocean, and submitting them to the criti- 
cism and liability of rejection of the royal board, made the 
legislators exceedingly careful to pass good laws, and re- 
stricted the number of them to a very moderate quantity 
compared with those made in later years. But to avoid 
transmitting every minor act, the General Court often acted 
by Resolves, and thus introduced a practice in legislation 
still continued more or less. 

Among the first things done by the General Court under 
the new charter was to effect a thorough revision of the 
whole judiciary system. In the reorganization five judi- 
cial tribunals were established, viz., a Supreme Court, 
Common Pleas, Quarter Sessions of the Peace, and Jus- 
tices Courts ; afterwards Probate, Chancery, and Admiralty 
Courts. We give the following synopsis of these courts 
as furnished by Williamson in his " History of Maine :" 

1. The Superior Court consisted of one chief justice and 
four puisne or side judges, any three of whom formed a 
quoram. It was a tribunal of law and justice in all civil 
and criminal cases through the province, and of assize and 
general jail-delivery in each county. But the statute 
establishing it was not approved by the crown till nearly 
three years had elapsed, so that none of the judges, except 
the chief justice, was permanently commissioned till 1695, 
nor before Governor Phips' return to England. In the 
mean time the jurisdictional powers of this tribunal were 
exercised by special commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, 
one of which, for instance, was issued by the Governor, 
June 2, 1692, to try witches. But after the statute took 
effect, it was found in its practical operations not to be 
sufficiently broad and explicit ; and another was passed in 
1699, which gave the court a jurisdiction of all matters 

civil and criminal, including appeals from the lower courts, 
reviews and writs of error, as fully to every intent as the 
courts of Kings Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer, 
had within the kingdom of England. The judges were 
appointed in 1695, and held terms in most of the counties 
twice every year. In June the sessions of the court were 
held in Yorkshire, and the shire town till the close of the 
second Indian war was Kittery, subsequently York. 

The chief justice of this court was William Stoughton, 
first Lieutenant-Governor under the charter, a graduate of 
Harvard in 1650, appointed chief justice in 1695, and held 
the office till 1700. The judges were Thomas Danforth, 
late president of Maine, appointed judge in 1695, and held 
the office till his death, 1699; Elisha Cook, an eminent 
physician of Boston, appointed in 1695, and left the bench 
in 1702 ; Samuel Sewall, of Newberry, graduate of Har- 
vard College in 1671, put on special commission in 1692, 
appointed judge in 1695, chief justice in 1718, and left the 
bench in 1728; Wait Winthrop, appointed in 1696, and 
left the bench in 1717. Each judge's pay was a grant of 
£40 a year till 1700, when it was raised to £50.* 

2. An Inferior Court, or Common Pleas, was established 
in each county, consisting of four judges, who had cogni- 
zance of all civil actions arising within its limits triable at 
the common law. The statute constituting this court was 
also revised in 1699, but not essentially altered. The first 
bench of judges commissioned in Yorkshire, now commonly 
called the County of York, were Job Alcock, Francis 
Hooke, Charles Frost, and Samuel Wheelwright. The 
high-sheriff was Joseph Curtis. The terms in this county 
were holden at York on the first Tuesdays of April and 
July, and at Wells on the first Tuesdays of January and 
October. Appeals lay from the decisions of this court to 
next Superior Court sitting in the same county. 

3. The Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace 
was holden by the justices of the peace within the county 
at the same time and place as the Court of Common Pleas. 
It had authority to determine all matters relating to the 
conservation of the peace, and punishment of offenders cog- 
nizable by them according to law. But it being a needless 
expense for all the justices in the county to meet four times 
a year to try a few minor offenses, the number was made 
by the revising statute of 1699 to consist only of those 
justices named in the commissions. Appeals were allowed 
from this tribunal to the Superior Court, the appellant 
being put under recognizance to prosecute the cause, to file 
his reasons, to produce copies of the process and of the 
evidence adduced at the trial. 

4. Justices of the peace were civil officers known under 
the charter of Gorges, but never hitherto in the colony of 
Massachu.-^etts, the assistants acting as justices through 
the jurisdiction. A considerable number was now ap- 
pointed and commissioned for each county by the Governor 
with the advice of the Council. They were to hold their 
office during good behavior. Each one had jurisdiction 
in all civil causes to the amount of forty shillings, and of 
all crimes so far as to commit or recognize to a higher tribu- 
nal all heinous offenses, and to punish such, as assaults and 

*■ Massachusetts Records, p. 391. 



batteries, violations of tlie Sabbath, gaiubl in g, drunkenness, 
profanity, and breaches of the peace, either by the stocks, 
cage, a fine of twenty shillings, or strijies not exceeding 

5. Probate business until the colony charter was va- 
cated was transacted in the County Court. But in 1687, 
amidst the changes in government, Joshua Scottow, of 
Scarborough, was commissioned judge, and his son Thomas, 
a young graduate of Harvard College, was appointed dep- 
uty recorder for Yorkshire. Under the new cliarter, a 
judge and register of probate were commissioned by the 
executive for each county, to hold office during good be- 
havior. In York County, in 1693, Francis Hooke was 
appointed judge, and John Wincoln register. Any ap- 
peal made from this court went directly to the Governor 
and Council. 

6. A Court of Chancery was established, with powers to 
hear all matters of equity not relievable by common law. 
It was held at Boston by three commissioners, assisted by 
five masters in chancery, all of whom were appointed by 
the Governor and Council. 

7. There was likewise an American Vice-Admiralty 
Court, and Wait Winthrop was appointed judge for New 
England and New York, by the crown. May 22, 1699. The 
successive judges were Messrs. Atwood, Mempeson, Na- 
thaniel Byfield, John Menzis, Robert Achmuty, and, in 
171:7, Charles Russell.* Besides this there was a Provin- 
cial Judiciary Court of Admiralty held by the Governor and 
Council, sitting with the judge of the American Vice-Ad- 
miralty Court and the Secretary of State, for the trial of 
piracies and other crimes committed on the high seas. 

From any decision of the Provincial Courts, in any per- 
sonal action wherein the matter in difference exceeded 
three hundred pounds sterling, the charter allowed an ap- 
peal to the king and Council of England. 

To revise and regulate the militia a statute was passed 
in 1693, which directed all the male inhabitants between 
sixteen and sixty years of age, other than those exempt by 
the law, to be enrolled and to do military duty four days in 
a year ; who were all to be armed and equipped with a fire- 
lock and its appendages, furnished at their own expense. 
They were organized by the captain-general and com- 
mander-in-chief into companies severally of sixty men, and 
classed into regiments, whose musters were directed to be 
triennial. All military officers of and above an ensign's 
rank, the commander-in-chief appointed and commissioned 
without the advice of the Council, and all under that rank 
were appointed by the captains. On any alarm given — 
which was understood to be a discharge of three guns in 
succession at measured intervals — all the soldiers in the 
same town were required, under heavy penalties, to convene 
in arms at the usual place of rendezvous, and await the 
orders of their officers. No officer could quarter or billet a 
soldier upon any other inhabitant than an inn-keeper with- 
out his consent. 

Liberty of conscience in the worship of God was granted 
to all Christians by the charter, except Papists, or Roman 
Catholics. No attempt to legalize the old platform of church 

government mot with any favor, nor would the General 
Court, after this period, be persuaded to interfere in any 
ecclesiastical disputes, otherwise than to recommend an ar- 
bitrament or compromise. To every church, with the ex- 
ception named, was given and secured by law all its rights 
and privileges in worship and discipline. The reason why 
the Catholics were not protected was, that the struggle 
against the French in England and America at that time 
was over the very question of Catholic rule, and a feeling of 
strong animosity existed against them, both in the cabinet 
of William, the Protestant king, and on the part of the peti- 
tioners for the charter. It was too much to expect that 
either party would be willing to grant free toleration to their 
open and avowed enemies. 

While this famous charter guaranteed the rights of reli- 
gion, it also provided for what was deemed scarcely less in 
importance, as the bulwark of justice and liberty, and the 
safeguard of good government, viz., education. While 
each town was required by law — a provision which was in- 
serted in each new grant for a colony or plantation — to 
supply itself with an able, learned, and orthodox minister 
as conveniently as practicable, and lots of land were required 
to be set off for the first minister who would venture into 
the new settlement, and for the support and maintenance 
of a constant ministry, they manifested equal care and zeal 
for the support of schools. Not only was a portion of land 
set off in each new settlement for educational purposes, but 
a law was passed making every town of fifty householders 
finable that failed to employ a schoolmaster constantly; 
and when the town embraced twice that number of families, 
it was required to employ an instructor capable of teaching 
the sciences and learned languages, or to support a grammar 
school. Hence it was that many of the liberally educated 
at Harvard and other colleges, who found their way into 
the new settlements, paved the way for professional life and 
for distinction in public affairs, by first being school-teachers. 
The names of many distinguished citizens of Maine, at a 
later day, such as David Wyer, Rev. Dr. Edward Fayson, 
Theophilus Bradbury, Judge Freeman, Judge Frothing- 
ham, and Theophilus Parsons, afterwards the learned chief 
justice of Massachusetts, who were a portion of their lives 
teachers of these grammar schools.f 

Without going further into details, it may be remarked 
that the political axioms of this period, drawn up in a 
statute, or hill of rights, was passed in 1692, showing in a 
peculiar manner the sentiment, sense, and intelligence of 
the federative community. By these no one might be 
despoiled of his liberties or rights, except by the judgment 
of his peers or the laws of the land. Justice shall never 
be sold, denied, nor deferred ; nor shall any one be twice 
tried or sentenced for the same offense. All trials shall be 
by juries of twelve men, or by prior established laws. Bail 
shall always be allowed, except in cases of treason and in 
capital felonies ; wherein reasonable challenges shall be 
granted at the trials. Writs of habeas corpris shall never 
be prohibited, nor shall any tax be levied or laid upon the 
people without an act of the Legislature. Such was the bill 
which was refused approval by the crown, because the Eng- 

1 Douglas Summ., p. 494. 

t History of Schools of Portland. 


lish ministry foresaw that it would be a security against 
taxation by Parliament. 

The administration of Sir William Pliips continued only 
about two years and a half. He embarked for Loudon, 
Nov. 17, 1694, where he died the ensuiug February. In 
his administration of the government he sought to promote 
the best interests of Maine, the province of his nativity. 



Towns Resettled— Civil Affairs— Committee of Claims and Settle- 
ments — Councilors and Representatives — Revival of the Superior 
Court— Trouble with the Indians— Depreciation of the Currency- 
Retirement of Sovernor Shute. 

The close of the war began to witness a fresh revival of 
settlements and public and private business. On the 9th 
of June, 1713, a new town was added to the list of those 
in York County by the incorporation of all that portion of 
Kittery above Thompson's Brook into a municipality by 
the name of Berwick. Ministers began to return to their 
scattered flocks, and parishes to be revived. This year the 
General Court ordered the resettlement of five towns ; these 
were Saco, Scarborough, Falmouth, North Yarmouth, and 
one on Arrowsic Island. The next year, 1714, these towns 
became inhabited by several returning families, to which 
accessions were annually made until they were enabled to 
resume their municipal privileges. The settlement of Saco 
Wis so rapid that in 1717 the inhabitants exhibited a com- 
pact hamlet at Winter Harbor, and to encourage their zeal 
in settling among them Rev. Mr. Short as their minister, forty 
pounds were annually granted them out of the provincial 
treasury, for four or five years, in aid of his support. 

Scarborough, prior to 1714, had been without inhabitants 
about ten years. The settlement of the town was recom- 
menced at Black Point, and was immediately followed by 
other settlements at Blue Point and Dunstan. In Decem- 
ber, 1719, a town-meeting was held, and the next year the 
records, which had been preserved in Boston, were safely 
returned. The number of families resettled at that time was 
about thirty. In 1727 a Congregational Church was formed, 
and Rev. William Thompson settled over them as pastor. 

None of the desolated towns were resettled earlier or 
more rapidly than ancient Falmouth. ■ The scattered in- 
habitants began slowly to return in 1709, and several dilapi- 
dated cottages upon the Neck were repaired so as to be ren- 
dered habitable. The first new framed house was erected 
by George Ingersoll, about 1714. To encourage the settlers 
the General Court, in 1716, granted them twenty pounds. 
At this time there were twenty families settled upon the 
Peninsula. In 1727 they built a meeting-house and settled 
their first regular parish minister. Rev. Thomas Smith. 

The resettlement of North Yarmouth was delayed several 
years, and Cape Porpoise became the town which had a 
simultaneous revival with those just mentioned. Though 
it had never before its destruction compared with its neigh- 
bors in wealth and population, it had been inhabited by a 

bold and resolute people, and on the 5th of June, 1718, 
the town was re-established by the name of Arundel, in 
honor of the Duke of Arundel, who was a member of the 
Plymouth Council. In 1723 it was represented in the Gen- 
eral Court by Alanson Brown, its first deputy to that body. 

The Committee of Claims and Settlement, in 1715, con- 
sisted of two councilors, John Wheelwright and Ichabod 
Plaisted, of Maine, and six members of the House, — Oliver 
Haynes, Edward Hutchinson, Adam Winthrop, Samuel 
Phips, Lewis Bane, and John Leighton. 

Blr. Joseph Hammod, of Kittery, was one of the mem- 
bers of the Council from Maine from 1700 to 1709, the 
date of his death. He was also one of the judges of the 
Common Pleas, and a man of great integrity and worth, 
whom the people held in high estimation. He left a son of 
the same name, the worthy inheritor of his virtues, who 
first represented his town in the Legislature in 1711, and 
in 1718 was chosen to the Council, of which he was a 
member twelve years. 

Jlr. Ichabod Plaisted was a member of the Council from 
1706 till his death. He was the grandson of Roger 
Plaisted, and the father of Samuel Plaisted, who died 
March 20, 1731, aged thirty-six years. Mr. Plaisted lived 
in Berwick, where he died Nov. 16, 1715, at the age of 
fifty-two, deeply lamented. No other name in the province 
of Maine had been more distinguished for military intre- 
pidity than that of Mr. Plaisted, and he was also an honored 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas for several years. 

Mr. John Wheelwright was a member of the Council 
twenty-five years. He resided in Wells, probably upon the 
patrimonial estate of his grandfather. Rev. John Wheel- 
wright, who was one of the original settlers of the town in 
1643, and of his father, Samuel Wheelwright, who was a 
member of the Council six years, from 1694. He died in 
1700. John, the grandson, was first elected in 1708, and 
was a member till 1734. He was also a judge of the Com- 
mon Pleas many years, and a gentleman of talents, merit, 
and distinction. He died in 1745. 

With the exception of one year, in which Mr. John 
Leverett was councilor, Mr. Joseph Lynde continued, by 
annual re-election, to hold his place in the Council from 
Sagadahock till 1716. 

On the memorial of the councilors and representatives 
from Maine, the General Court, June 5, 1711, revived the 
annual term of the Superior Court, appointed by law to be 
held at Kittery, for the county of York, which for six or 
seven years prior, by reason of the war, had been entirely 
suspended. This was followed the next year by a settle- 
ment of the county treasurer's accounts, a speedy return of 
order, and the regular administration of law and justice. 

This continued without interruption till 1722. In that 
year another town was added to the number of those 
already re-established. At the session of the General 
Court, in May, a petition was presented by John Smith 
and other proprietors of North Yarmouth, praying that the 
township might be re-established and suitable persons ap- 
pointed to revive and manage the resettlement, in place of 
the trustees who had been appointed under President Dan- 
forth. Accordingly, William Taller, Elisha Cooke, William 
Dudley, John Smith, and John Powell were appointed 



trustees, who held their meetings in Boston for five years, 
but afterwards within the townsliip. The heirs or assigns 
of Gendall, Royall, Lane, Sheppard, and a few others held 
their old lands, otherwise no regard was paid to the orig- 
inal allotments or to quit-rents. The town had laid waste 
since it was destroyed by the Indians in 1 688, eight years 
after it was first established. The records, which had been 
preserved in Charlestown, were returned, and the municipal 
government re-established. The town was laid out in a 
compact square of one hundred and sixty lots of ten acres 
each, so as to be more easily defended from attacks by the 
Indians. A fort was built and occupied by a small garri- 
son. The progress of settlement was not rapid, yet it was 
such that within the next eight years a meeting-house was 
built, and Rev. Ammi R. Cutter, the first resident minister, 
was settled among them. He continued till his death, in 
1763, and was succeeded by Rev. Edward Brooks, and he 
by Rev. T. Gilman, in 1769, who died in 1809. The nest 
minister was Rev. F. Brown, afterwards president of Dart- 
mouth College. 

This was the last effort made for several years to effect a 
new settlement in the province. Within the same year 
trouble again broke out with the French and Indians. The 
Governor, also, was not in harmonious relations with the 
House, and the currency of the country was very much 
depreciated. Large loans of paper money, made by statute 
order of the Legislature on pledge of lands, became oppres- 
sive to debtors. In 1719 it was ascertained by the Com- 
missioners of York County — Messrs. Preble, Leighton, 
Came, and Plaisted — that this county had received loans 
to the amount of one hundred thousand pounds ; yet they 
were to be discharged upon the payment in specie of fifty 
pounds, nineteen shillings, and nine pence.* Such was 
the depreciation of the paper currency. The hard times 
occasioned by it was one chief cause of the resignation of 
Governor Shute, in 1722. He had expected an e.stablished 
salary of one thousand pounds a year, whereas he was 
allowed only an annual stipend of five hundred pounds in de- 
preciated currency, — less, in fact, than two hundred pounds 
sterling. There had been a late instance when he could 
not so much as obtain a vote of the House to give an In- 
dian tribe ten pounds, though it were for the purpose of 
perpetuating peace. At length, tired of controversy, with- 
out popularity, pleasure, or emolument, he suddenly formed 
the resolution of retiring, which he did, and in December 
embarked for England. He had been Governor six years 
and two months. His administration, though not popular, 
was not wholly unsuccessful. 



AlltheEasternTribesEngaged— Measures of Defense— Indians Seize 
and Arm Englisli Vessels — Destruction of Norridgewoek — Death 
of Father Rale— Expedition of Captain Lovell— Desperate Battle 
with the Sokokis — Dummer's Treaty signed at Falmouth. 

The period from 1722 to the winter of 1726 was one of 
constant war with the Indians. All the eastern tribes were 

en<jaged in the struggle. Although the French did not 
appear openly in this war, for fear of violating the treaty 
between the two nations, yet they zealou.sly worked in secret 
by means of their priests and agents to incite the Indians 
to an attempt to dispossess the English of the lands which 
had been conveyed by their sagamores, and to either exter- 
minate the white settlements or restrict them to a portion 
of the country in the western part of the province. In an 
interview, in 1724, the sagamores told the commissioners of 
Massachusetts that " if the English would abolish all their 
forts, remove one mile westward of the Saco River, rebuild 
their churcli at Norridgewoek, and restore to them their 
missionary father, they would be brothers again." In the 
former treaty they had conveyed their lands to the English, 
and agreed to become British subjects. But they little un- 
derstood the import of these acts. The Indians supposed 
that all the conveyance which a sagamore intended to give 
was merely the consent of his people for the whites to occupy 
the lands in common with themselves ; whereas the English 
believed that all their rights to the land were entirely extin- 
guished upon the Androscoggin, the Kennebec, and other 
rivers of which the sagamores had given deeds. This con- 
troversy could only be settled in blood and the extermina- 
tion of the inferior race, as it has been settled over nearly 
the entire continent. The Indians, foreseeing that such must 
be the result of the struggle if they yielded to the English, 
resolved to unite their strength and make one more deter- 
mined effort to retain their country and the graves of their 
fathers. Every effort to conciliate them now proved fruit- 
less, and the war broke out on the 13th of June, 1722. 

At this time a party of sixty Canihas and Anaaagunti- 
cooks landed, in twenty canoes, on the northern shore of 
Merrymeeting Bay, and took nine families. At Damaris- 
cove, in North Yarmouth, they boarded a fishing-vessel, 
and when they had pinioned Lieut. Tilton and his brother, 
unmercifully beat the commander. They next made an 
attack upon Fort St. George, burnt a sloop, and took sev- 
eral prisoners. They, however, in the siege lost twenty of 
their men, and on account of the heavy rains were obliged 
to discontinue. Soon after, they set fire to the village of 
Brunswick, which was reduced to ashes. On the 12th of 
July they made an attack upon Casco ; the English were 
driven into the garrison, but at night the Indians were pur- 
sued by Capt. Starman, and several of them killed. On the 
25th of July the General Court declared war against the 
eastern Indians as the king's enemies, and as traitors and 
robbers. A force of one thousand men was raised, two 
armed vessels and several whaleboats brought into the ser- 
vice. These men were distributed as follows : one hundred 
at York, thirty at Falmouth, twenty at North Yarmouth, 
ten at Maquoit, twenty-five at Arrowsic, and twenty-five at 
Richmond fort. A large force was appointed to range per- 
petually between the Penobscot and Kennebec, and to de- 
stroy the strongholds of the Indians. Bounties of sixty 
pounds, afterwards raised to one hundred pounds, were 
awarded for Indian scalps, and other vigorous measures 
entered into. Command of the forces was given first to Col. 
Walton, and afterwards to Col. Thomas Westbrook, who 
made an expedition to the Penobscot, destroying considera- 
ble Indian property. 


In April an attack was made on Falmouth, and Sergt. 
Chubb, being taken for the commander of the garrison, was ] 
pierced by eleven balls. In May two men were killed in | 
Berwick, one iu Wells, and two on their way from that 
town to York. On the 19th of April and 26th of June the 
garrison-house of Roger Deering, in Scarborough, was sur- 
prised ; his wife, two of the inhabitants, and two soldiers 
were killed. Also, John Hunnewell, Robert Jordan, Mary 
Scamman, and Deering's three children, while picking ber- 
ries, were seized and carried into captivity. Five Indians, 
in August, entered the field of Dominicus Jordan, a princi- 
pal inhabitant of Saco, fired at him and wounded him in 
three places. He, however, protected himself with his gun, 
retreating backwards, while they were reloading, and made 
his escape to the fort. 

The Indians again appeared at Arrowsic, and beset the 
garrison, still commanded by Capt. Penhallow. Turning 
away suddenly, they made three of the inhabitants pris- 
oners, as they were driving their cows to pasture, nor did 
they leave the island until they had killed a large number 
of cattle. At Purpooduck, May 27th, a party killed a man 
and wounded another ; and about the same time David 
Hill, a friendly Indian, was shot at Saco. Afterwards the 
savages for a month or more withdrew from Maine to New 
Hampshire and the frontier settlements eastward. Never- 
theless, a party of twenty-five fell upon the garrison at 
Spurwink, July 17th, and killed Solomon Jordan at their 
first approach, as he was stepping out of his gate. This 
was a timely alarm. The next morning the enemy re- 
treated, pursued by Lieut. Bane, from the fort, attended by 
about thirty men, who, overtaking the Indians, obtained 
one scalp, which commanded a bounty of one hundred 
pounds to the pursuers. 

So well prepared this year were most of the places as- 
sailed that the savages obtained comparatively little booty. 
They therefore rushed down upon the sea-coast and under- 
took to seize upon all the vessels they could find in the east- 
ern harbors. New to them as this kind of enterprise was, 
they were in a few weeks in possession of twenty-two vessels 
of various descriptions, two of which were shallops taken at 
the Isles of Shoals, eight fishing-vessels, found at the Fox 
Island thoroughfare, one a large schooner armed with two 
swivels, and the others prizes taken at difterent places. In 
these successful feats of piracy they killed twenty-two men, 
and retained a still greater number prisoners. These were 
generally the skippers and best sailors, whom they compelled 
to serve on their motley fleet, and, supplying themselves with 
armed Mickmacks from Cape Sable, they became a terror 
to all the vessels which sailed along the eastern shores. 

One of the most noted events of the year 1724 was the 
destruction of the Indian settlement at Norridgewock, and 
the death of Father Rale, the Jesuit priest, who had long 
resided there, and whose influence in instigating the Indians 
to hostilities against the English settlers was well known. 
He had, indeed, been the chief agent by whom the Gov- 
ernor of Canada had kept the animosity of the savages in 
a continual blaze, and in his religious teaching, which ex- 
erted a strong influence over them, he had inculcated doc- 
trines which aroused their deepest passions and prejudices. 
For these reasons Norridgewock was singled out for de- 

struction. The execution was committed to a detach- 
ment of two hundred and eight men, divided into four 
companies, commanded respectively by Capts. Moulton, Har- 
mon, Bourne, and Bane. They left Richmond fort on the 
19th of August, and ascended the Kennebec River in seven- 
teen whale-boats, arriving about noon on the 22d in sight of 
the village. Here the detachment was divided, — Capt. Har- 
mon taking sixty men and going off towards the mouth of 
Sandy River, where smoke was seen, and it was supposed 
that some of the Indians were at work in their corn-fields, 
and Capt. Moulton forming his men into three nearly equal 
bands, and proceeding directly upon the village. All the 
Indians were in their wigwams, when one happening to 
step out, glanced around and discovered the English close 
upon them. He instantly gave the war-whoop and ran in 
for his gun. The amazement and consternation of the 
whole village were now exhibited ; the warriors, about sixty 
in all, seized their guns and fired at the assailants, but in 
their tremor and excitement they overshot them, and not a 
man was hurt. A discharge was instantly returned, which 
did eff'ectual execution. The Indians fired a second volley 
without breaking Moulton's ranks. Then, rushing to the 
river, they tried to escape. The stream at this season was 
only about sixty feet wide, and in no place more than 
six feet deep. A few jumped into their canoes, but for- 
getting to take their paddles, were in a hopeless dilemma ; 
and all, especially the old men, women, and children, fled 
in every direction. The soldiers shot them in their flight 
to the woods, upon the water, and wherever they could 
bring their guns to bear upon them. About fifty landed 
upon the opposite side, and about one hundred and fifty 
more effected their escape into the thickets, where they 
could not be followed. 

The pursuers then returned to the village, where they 
found the Jesuit in one of the wigwams firing upon a few 
of the English, who had not followed the escaping fugitives. 
He had with him in the wigwam an English boy, fourteen 
years of age, who had been a prisoner six months. This 
boy he shot through the thigh, as Harmon states upon 
oath, and afterwards stabbed in the body, though he finally 
recovered. Moulton had given orders to spare the life of 
Rale, but Jaques, a lieutenant, finding he was firing from 
the wigwam and had wounded one of the soldiers, stove open 
the door and shot him through the head. As an excuse 
for the act, Jaques declared that when he entered the wig- 
wam Rale was loading his gun, and declared he would 
neither give nor take quarter. 

Mogg, an aged and noted chief,* was shut up in another 
wigwam, from which he fired and killed one of the three 
Mohaicks who had accompanied the expedition. This so 
enraged his brother that he broke through the door and 
shot the old sagamore dead, and the soldiers dispatched his 
squaw and children. 

The soldiers, posting a strong guard, spent the night in 
the wigwams. When it was light, they counted, as two 
authors state, twenty-seven, and as a third says, thirty, dead 
bodies, including that of the Jesuit and several noted saga- 

» A different Indian from the chief Isnown as Muj,'g, killed near the 
close of the first war (see Chap. x.). 


The plunder they brought away consisted of the plate 
and furniture of the altar, a few guns, blankets and kettles, 
and about three barrels of powder. After leaving the 
place, on their march to Teconnet, one of the Mohawks, 
either sent back or returning of his own accord, set fire to 
the chapel and cottages, and they were all reduced to ashes. 
Rale, the Jesuit, had ministered thirty-seven years to the 
Indians in this place.* On the 27th the detachment ar- 
rived at Fort Richmond without the loss of a man. It was 
an exploit exceedingly gratifying to the whole country, and 
considered as brilliant as any other in any of the Indian 
wars since the fall of King Philip. Harmon, who was 
senior in command, proceeded to Boston, where he was 
honored with the commission of lieutenant-colonel. In 
this bloody event the glory departed from the celebrated 
Canibas tribe to return no more. The power and strength 
of the tribe were completely broken. 

Another expedition of deserved note during this war was 
that of Capt. John Lovell against the Sokokis, on the 
northern border of York County. Capt. Lovell resided at 
Dunstable, where his patriotism, military ardor, and suc- 
cess as a leader of expeditions drew to his standard a num- 
ber of enthusiastic and determined men, who were ready 
to fight the Indians anywhere under his leadership. On 
the loth of April, 1725, he had gathered at Dunstable a 
company of forty-six volunteers, well supplied and armed, 
and on the 16th they took up their line of march towards 
the Ossipee Ponds and the upper branches of the Saco River, 
the region and range of the remaining Sokokis tribe of 
Indians. The great bravery of these natives and their 
antipathy towards the English were characteristics well 
known. Lovell's lieutenants were Josiah Tarwell and Jon- 
athan Robbins ; his ensigns, John Harwood and Seth Wy- 
man ; his chaplain, Jonathan Frye ; and his chief pilot, 
Toby, an Indian. On their march Toby fell sick and re- 
turned. A soldier becoming lame was dismissed, though 
with reluctance, and was barely able to get home. An- 
other was brought down by fatigue and illness after travel- 
ing upwards of a hundred miles, when the captain came 
to a halt on the westerly side of the Great Ossipee Pond, in 
New Hampshire, ten miles from the west line of Maine. 
Here he built a small stockade fort, principally for a place 
of retreat in case of any misfortune, and partly for the accom- 
modation of the sick man, who was now left, with the sur- 
geon and some provisions, under a guard of eight wearied 

The number was thus reduced to thirty-four, including 
the captain, who, resuming their march, shaped their course 
northeastward till they came to the northwesterly margin 
of a pond, about twenty-two miles distant from the fort, — • 
since called Lovell's, or Saco Pond, which is situated in the 
southeasterly part of the present town of Fryeburg. They 
had passed by the bend of the Saco River, where it crosses 
the line between New Hampshire and Maine and turns 
northeastward, leaving the Indian Pequawket village (_now 
Fryeburg) between one and two miles north of them, and 
in the heart of the enemy's country, at the western corner 
of the pond, pitched their camp for the night. Early in 

V. i)._120, Paris ed., 17-14. 

the morning, May 8th, they heard the report of a gun, and 
discovered a single Indian standing on a point of land a 
mile distant, on the easterly side of the pond. They sus- 
pected that he was placed there to decoy them, and that 
the main body of the enemy was probably in their front. 
After a consultation they decided to inarch in that direc- 
tion. They had traveled about a mile when they met the 
Indian they discovered in the morning returning towards 
the village. As he passed he did not notice them till he 
received their fire ; then, instantly returning it, he wounded 
Lovell and another man with a charge of small shot. 
Ensign Wyman then shot him, and they took his scalp. 
Seeing no other enemy they returned towards a place 
where they had left their packs on their march up. The 
enemy, meantime, having discovered their tracks where 
they had crossed the trail leading to the village, and counted 
them to ascertain the number of men, had followed on till 
they came to the packs, and there lay in ambush, about 
fifty in number. The moment Lovell and his men reached 
the spot, about ten o'clock a.m., the Indians rose in front 
and rear, and surrounding them, rushed upon them with a 
horrid yell. The English received the shock with entire 
steadiness, returning the fire, and driving the foe several 
rods. They rallied again and again, till three rounds had 
been fired on each side, during which Capt. Lovell and 
eight of his men were killed, and Lieut. Forwell and two 
others wounded. Several more of the enemy fell, yet being 
superior in numbers, they endeavored to surround the 
English. The latter retreated in good order to near the 
edge of the pond, where, on their right, was the mouth of 
Battle Brook (since so called), and on their left a point of 
rocks which extended into the water, their front being shel- 
tered by a few pine-trees standing on a sandy beach, partly 
covered by a steep bog. Here they maintained the fight 
for eight hours against a foe superior in numbers and equal 
in courage, being at frequent intervals engaged in front and 
flank. At one time a group of savages appeared by their 
gestures to be engaged in a powwow, when Ensign Wyman, 
secretly approaching, shot the chief actor, and the others 
dispersed. Some of the Indians asked the English if they 
would have quarter. " Yes," they replied, ''■ at the muzzles 
of our guns." They were determined to meet a speedy 
and honorable death rather than fall into the hands of the 
savages, to be tortured or made captives. 

Mr. Frye, the chaplain, who was a young man much be- 
loved, fought with undaunted courage. About the middle 
of the afternoon he received a wound which proved mortal, 
but after he had fallen he was heard several times to utter 
an audible prayer for the success of his companions. 

John Chamberlain, a soldier, and Paugus, a noted chief, 
both men of undoubted courage and large stature, finding 
their guns too foul for proper use, accidentally stepped down 
to wash them at the same moment at the brink of the pond. 
Standing not far apart, they exchanged a few defying words, 
while, without waste of time, they washed their guns. The 
chief, as he forced down the bullet, called out to his foe, 
"Quick, me kill you now!" "May be not," said Cham- 
berlain, whose gun, by priming itself, gave him the advan- 
tage, and in an instant he laid the warrior low. 

At night the Indians retired from the battle, leaving the 


bodies of Lovell and his companions unscalped. The best 
authorities put the loss of the Indians at forty or fifty. 
Penhallow says, " Forty were said to be killed, and eighteen 
more died of their wounds." Of Lovell's band ten were 
killed, fourteen wounded, and one missing. Five of the 
wounded died afterwards. The uninjured ones were only 
niue. This battle broke the heart and spirit of the Sokolcis, 
and they were never able to inflict any more loss and suf- 
fering upon the English. Col. Tyng and Capt. White, with 
attendants from Dunstable, subsequently went to the spot 
and buried the bodies of the fallen heroes at the foot of an 
aged pine, on which their names were carved, marking the 
place where the battle was fought. 

The treaty of peace which closed this war was concluded 
at Falmouth, Aug. 6, 1726, and was signed and sealed by 
Lieutenant-Governor William Dummer, John Wentworth, 
Paul Mascerene, and several provincial councilors, and by 
Wenemovet. chief sachem, and twenty-five others of his 



The French Seize Nova Scotia — Maine and Massachusetts aroused — 
Expedition against Louisbourg Set on Foot — Its Complete Success 
—Part taken in it by Men of York County— Sir William Pepperell 
— War Declared against the Penobscot Indians — Local Military 
Operations — Depredations by the Indians — Dispersion of a-Freneh 
Fleet— Treaty of Peace. 

War again broke out between France and England in 
March, 1744, and before the intelligence reached Boston, 
the French Governor of Cape Breton liad sent eight or nine 
hundred men in armed vessels, and seized upon Canseau, in 
Nova Scotia, lying immediately across the strait from Louis- 
bourg, their stronghold and principal military station upon 
the island. Nova Scotia had been in the possession of the 
English since the peace of Utrecht, a period of thirty years. 
The houses at Canseau were burned by the French, and the 
garrison and inhabitants seized and made prisoners. This 
was followed by an attack upon Annapolis, the seat and 
garrison of the English Governor, who, not yet apprised of 
the taking of Canseau, was beset on the 30th of May by 
about three hundred Indians, led on by M. Luttre, a French 
missionary, who boldly demanded a surrender. But the 
Governor refused to capitulate, and immediately sent an ex- 
press to Governor Shirley requesting assistance. Meanwhile, 
Duvivier the Governor of Cape Breton, arriving with his 
forses, joined Luttre, and they both invested the place till 
July 3d, when a reinforcement of four companies from 
Massachusetts compelled them to retire. During the siege 
they had surprised and killed as many of the English as 
could be caught without the fort, and had killed their cat- 
tle and burnt their houses. 

This sudden onset of the French and Indians made it 
imperative that steps should immediately be taken for the 
defense of the eastern frontiers. It was readily seen that 
the Indians of the Penobscot — although by solemn treaty 
they had declared their allegiance to the English — might 
be induced to join the more eastern tribes in the war, and 

kindle a flame which would again sweep over the entire 
country. While, therefore, forces were hurried forward to 
supply the garrisons and to act as scouting-parties, and 
munitions of war were sent into all the townships and 
plantations, no time was lost in sending commissioners to 
the Indians to ascertain more definitely their temper, and 
to confirm them, if possible, in their treaty stipulations of 
friendship and alliance. A delegation from Boston met the 
sagamores of the Penobscot tribe at Fort St. George in 
July, and after a parley, received from them fresh assurances 
of their desire for peace. After this the eastern people felt 
some relief, and a part of the scouting soldiery was dis- 

The policy adopted by the Governor was to draw a line 
of separation between the Indians supposed to be loyal or 
neutral and those who had taken sides with the French, 
oflering the former protection and friendship so long as 
they kept good faith with the English, and had no inter- 
course with such Indians as were enemies. With the ad- 
vice of the Council he issued a proclamation, October 20th, 
publicly declaring war against the several tribes eastward 
of Passamaquoddy, and forbidding all the Indians westward 
of a line running thence to the St. Lawrence to have any 
correspondence with those Indian rebels. It was soon 
found, however, that geographical lines and executive edicts 
were an insufficient barrier against the natural attractions 
of race and the affiliations of old friendship. 

Doubts being entertained as to the loyalty of the Penob- 
scot tribe, it was determined to bring them to a decision 
one way or the other, and in November, Col. Pepperell was 
sent to require of them their quota of fighting men, accord- 
ing to the stipulation of the Dummer treaty. They were 
told that if they would enter the service they should receive 
soldiers' pay and rations, but if they failed to comply war 
would be declared against them at the end of forty days. 
In January they sent by express their answer to Boston, 
saying that their young men would not comply with the 
proposal of taking up arms against the St. John's Indians, 
their brothers. 

Preparations having been made for the winter 
of the garrisons, and one hundred effective men divii 
scouting-parties to patrol the country continually 
Berwick and Fort St. George, the Governor and Council now 
turned their attention more directly to the seat of war. 

The conviction had been growing throughout the autumn 
that Louisbourg must be wrested from the enemy, or it would 
always be a place of the greatest possible annoyance to the 
eastern colonists and to the New England fishermen. Gov- 
ernor Shirley had learned of the strength and situation of 
the place from the English prisoners who had been taken 
at Canseau and retained some time at Louisbourg before 
being exchanged and sent to Boston. He associated with 
himself William Vaughan, Esq., of Damariscotta, a son of 
Lieutenant-Governor Vaughan, of New Hampshire, and 
they by careful inquiry and close investigation made them- 
selves fully acquainted with the situation and strength of the 
place. Vaughan was largely engaged in the eastern fish- 
eries, and from those employed in that business he gathered 
many valuable flicts. The plan being laid before the Gen- 
eral Court in the winter was at first rejected, but was recon- 


sidered on the 26th, and carried by a majority of one vote. 
No sooner was the vote carried than there appeared through- 
out the province an uncommon degree of unanimity and 
zeal in the enterprise. 

Louisbourg was situated in the southeastern part of the 
island of Cape Breton, about twenty leagues southeast from 
Canseau, on the opposite side of the strait. The entrance 
to it was a fine harbor of nine to twelve fathoms of water. 
The exterior of the town was two miles and a half in cir- 
cumference. It was fortified on the southwesterly side by 
a rampart of stone, from thirty to thirty-six feet in height, 
and a ditch eighty feet wide. On the southeasterly side, 
along a space of two hundred yards, it was secured by a 
dyke and a line of pickets, where the opposite water was 
shallow and bordered by rocky cliffs, which rendered the 
place inaccessible to shipping. Its fortifications were very 
strong, there being six bastions and eight batteries, with 
embrasures for one hundred and forty-eight guns (forty-five 
mounted) and sixteen mortars. On the island at the en- 
trance of the harbor was planted a battery of thirty guns, 
carrying twenty-eight-pound shot, and in front of the 
entrance, four thousand eight hundred feet from the island 
battery, was the royal battery of twenty-eight forty-two- 
pounders and two eighteen-pounders ; and on a high cliff, 
opposite the battery, stood the light-house. The entrance 
to the city from the country was at the west gate, over a 
draw-bridge, near to a circular battery mounting sixteen 
guns of fourteen-pound shot. The streets of the town, 
which were wide, crossed each other at right angles, and 
the houses were well built. In the centre of the chief 
bastion, on the west side of the town, was a large stone 
building called the citadel, within which were the apart- 
ments of the Governor, soldiers' baiTacks, arsenal, and 
magazine, richly furnished with military stores. The 
French had been engaged in building and fortifying the 
place twenty-five years, and it had cost the crown thirty 
millions of livres. The conception of taking such a place 
by surprise was certainly a bold one, and was regarded by 
many as a wild and visionary scheme. Still every circum- 
stance .seemed to favor it, and no movement during any of 
the wars was entered into with so much ardor and enthu- 

Governor Shirley, in preparing for the expedition, se- 
lected his chief commanding officers from Maine. Captain 
Edward Tyng, of Falmouth, was made commodore of the 
fleet. He was a brave and skillful seaman. During the 
preceding summer, while cruising in the eastern waters, he 
had captured a French privateer and taken his prize, to- 
gether with the officers and crew, to Boston, a feat which 
gained him great applause, and made him the recipient of a 
silver cup, presented by the merchants of Boston, in token 
of their appreciation of his meritorious conduct. The se- 
lection of a chief commander was a matter of great moment. 
It was necessary to choose one whose character and abilities 
would insure popular confidence of success, and the choice 
fell on William Pepperell, Esq., of Kittery, then colonel of 
the western regiment of the York County militia. His 
new commission gave him the rank of lieutenant-general. 
He was a merchant of unblemished reputation and engaging 
manners, extensively known and highly popular throughout 

Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. The second 
in command was Samuel Waldo, Esq., who was commis- 
.sioned with the rank of brigadier-general. He was a native 
of Boston, son of Jonathan Waldo, a rich merchant of that 
city, and extensively interested in the Muscongus patent. 
At that time Mr. Waldo was colonel-commandant of the 
eastern regiment of York County, and the representative of 
Falmouth in the General Court. He was in the prime of 
life, a man of excellent understanding and great activity. 
The colonels in the Maine and Massachusetts troops were 
Moulton, Hale, Willard, Richmond, Gorham, and Dwight. 
Jeremiah Moulton, the third in command, was a native in- 
habitant of York, at that time a member of the Provincial 
Council, a judge of the Common Pleas, and county treas- 
urer of York Coui.ty. He had been in the public service, 
was acquainted with Indian warfare, and had acquired 
much credit in taking Norridgewock during the last war. 
Gorham had charge of the whale-boats, and Gridley com- 
manded the train of artillery. Mr. Vaughan was given a 
lieutenant's commission, without any particular command, 
he preferring the trust of such special duties as the com- 
mander-in-chief might consider his adventurous genius best 
suited to perform. 

In less than two months from the day the General Court 
resolved to undertake the expedition, an army of four thou- 
sand men was prepared to embark, and a naval squadron, 
consisting of thirteen vessels, besides transports and store- 
ships, carrying about two hundred guns, was ready to sail. 
Pepperell received his instructions from Shirley, March 19th, 
and on the 24th, at the head of his armament, put to sea 
at Nantasket. He was directed to proceed to Canseau, 
there build a battery and block-house, deposit his stores, 
and leave two companies to guard them. Thence they 
were to operate against Louisbourg, take the place by sur- 
prise, if practicable ; otherwise reduce it by siege. Every- 
thing was propitious ; the weather fair and beautiful ; and 
all circumstances seeming to concur to crown the efforts of 
the adventurers with success. 

We have not space to enter into the details of the siege. 
Suffice it to say, it was pushed with all energy and per- 
sistence, and on the 15th of June the French .surrendered. 
In the capitulation sixty-five veteran troops, thirteen hun- 
dred and ten militia, the crew of the " Vigilant," and 
two thousand of the inhabitants (there being four thousand 
one hundred and thirty in all) engaged not to bear arms 
against Great Britain or her allies for twelve months, and, 
embarking on board of fourteen cartel ships, were trans- 
ported to Rochfort, in France. The loss of the provincials 
was one hundred and thirty men ; that of the French, three 
hundred killed within the walls. The " Prince of Orange," 
one of the English vessels, was sunk in a storm, and her 
crew drowned. The weather, which during the last forty 
days of the siege had been remarkably fine, now changed, 
and an incessant rain of ten days succeeded. Had this 
happened before the surrender, hundreds then sick of the 
dysentery must have fallen victims to the disease. 

The news of this splendid victory filled America with 
joy and Europe with astonishment. It was celebrated in 
the New England towns by the ringing of bells, bonfires, 
and festivities, and July 13th by a public thanksgiving. 



Gen. Pepperell, for this splendid achievement, was made 
a baronet by the crown, and was ever afterwards known as 
Sir William Pepperell. Com. Warren, who joined the ex- 
pedition from the West Indies, was made admiral. The 
expense of the expedition was paid by Parliament about 
four years later, and two hundred thousand pounds sterling 
was shipped to New England for that purpose.* 

The following letter, written by Sir William Pepperell to 
Judge Hill, of Berwick, on the eve of the expedition, will 
be read with interest. It is copied from the original, now 
in a good state of preservation, in possession of N. J. Her- 
rick, Esq., of Alfred. The letter, as will be seen, was 
written one hundred and thirty-six years ago, just previous 
to his departure on the famous Louisbourg expedition, in 
which he achieved the highest distinction as a military com- 
mander : 

" KiTTERV, February 21st, 1744. 

" Dear Se,— The day Last past I heard that Capt. Butler had En- 
listed in Berwick his fifty brave Sold'rs; this news was Like a Cordial 
to me to heare that Berwick, Brother to Kittery, my own native 
Town, had such a brave English Spirit. I received Last night a 
Letter from Yr Honorable Committee of Warr who write that they 
tho.t there was upon our making up live or six companys of our brave 
County of York men Ye full number that was propo'd are Enlis'd & 
more so that there will be a number Clear'd oif, but you may assure 
Your Selfe that our brave County of York men Shall not be Clear'd 
oif without they desire it. 

" Speake to Capt. Butler to hasten down here, for I have some En- 
listing money sent me for him. I am sorry that some of your Com- 
mission officers in Y'our Town Seem to be uneasy because they had 
not had Ye offer of a Commission in this Expedition ; I understod 
you Spoke to them ; did they E.xpect that at this time I should have 
wait'd on them, I think if they had Ye Least inclination to have gone 
I think it was there Duty they owed to God their King Sc Country to 
come i ofter their Selves. 

" My Love to Yr Lady & all inquiring Friends. 
" I am your Alfectionate 

■• Friend & Serv't, 

'•■ Wm. Peppereli.. 

" I don't doubt in Ye Least but the Commission Officers in Berwick 
are Brave, good men as any in this Province, and would willingly 
Venture their Lives with their Collo, and I believe that nothing would 
now hinder them but their business in going on Y'e intend'd B.tpedi- 
tion, therefore I excuse them willingly ; please to tell them all I Sin- 
cerely Value and Love them, & that if there should be occation for 
forces to be Sent after us I don't doubt in Y'e Least but they will be 
I begg all their prayers. 

eddy I 

'Dear Brother 

vish 1 

'OnHisMajs'tys Service 

' To the Honorable John Hill, Es<^v Att Be 

■ W. P. 

The Penobscot Indians having failed to comply with the 
requisition made upon them for their quota of fightin" 
men, war was declared against them in August, 1745, and 
a high premium offered for scalps. The subtle and vindic- 
tive enemy, being now let loose from all restraint, started 
up from their swamps and morasses, harassing the whole 
line of settlements, and committing depredations upon the 
undefended plantations. Two companies were employed as 
scouts between Saco and Brunswick, who were unable to 
find the Indians collected in any force ; but individuals and 
small parties would make .sudden onsets for reprisal or 
revenge, and as suddenly disappear. In August a party 
was discovered in Gorhaiu, which was then a frontier post, 
containing only a few settlers, and in September some 
* 2 Williamson, p. 233. 

scattered Indians were traced in the neighborhood of Fal- 
mouth ; one was fired upon at Long Creek, and a few days 
after a son of Col. Gushing, of Purpooduck, was killed by 
them. Four companies were raised in Falmouth and the 
neighboring towns, in September, to go in quest of them. 
They were all, however, unsuccessful, for scarcely had the 
presence of an enemy created an alarm upon the whole 
frontier than they suddenly retired far beyond the reach 
of observation. They were seen no more in that direction 
during the year, but in the spring of 1746 they came in 
stronger force, and hung around the vicinity the whole 
season. On the 19th of April ten of them appeared at 
Gorham, where they killed Mr. Bryant and his four chil- 
dren, and killed or carried away his wife and several other 
persons. In June they attacked the family of Wescott, 
on Long Creek, killed and scalped two men, and took their 
clothes and guns. This was done by seven Indians, when 
there were twenty-five soldiers almost within gunshot of 
the place. A day or two later an Indian was fired upon 
from Mr. Frost's garrison at Stroudwater, and five days 
after another was seen lurking not far from that place. 
They hovered around the towns all summer, seeking an 
opportunity to plunder or destroy life. In August one 
of Mr. Proctor's family and two others were killed at 
Falmouth, where about thirty Indians were discovered. 
Philip Greeley and others were killed at North Yarmouth. 
In Scarborough, Mr. Hunnewell, while mowing in his 
field, had his gun stolen at the other end of the swath by 
a lurking Indian. He mowed his return-swath without 
appearing to notice the movement of the savage, and as he 
came to the bank behind which the Indian was concealed, 
leaped over with an astounding yell, and, as the savage 
rose from his hiding-place, cleft his body in two with the 
scythe. Other comrades were seen not far off, whose 
movements indicated that they were about to join in the 
fight, when Hunnewell brandished his weapon at them in 
such a defiant manner that they fled, not daring to ap- 
proach him. 

In the summer of 1746 additional men were distributed 
among the garrisons at Saco, Brunswick, and St. George's. 
The attacks of the Indians were chiefly upon the eastern 
settlements, — Georgetown, Broad Bay Plantation, Pema- 
quid, Sheepscot, and Wiscasset, — all of which suffered more 
or less in the loss of lives, property, and prisoners. 

In September the whole country was thrown into the 
utmost consternation by the arrival of a large fleet and army 
at Nova Scotia, from France, under the command of the 
Duke D'Anville, a French nobleman of great experience 
and ability. The fleet was the most powerful ever sent to 
North America. A force of seventeen hundred men from 
Canada, consisting of regular troops, militia, volunteers, 
and savages, was in readiness to join the fleet, but on ac- 
count of its delay they had started on their homeward 
march, and a messenger reached them in time to secure the 
return of only four hundred. This force was designed for 
the destruction of the chief settlements in New England. 
But on their way, and after their arrival in Nova Scotia, 
they met with great misfortunes. The duke died on the 
fourth day after their arrival ; the vice-admiral, in a delir- 
ium of fever, fell upon his own sword ; an epidemic fever 


of a very fatal type broke out auioiif; the luen, so that 
eleven hundred and thirty of the troops died after encamp- 
ment; and the Indians, flocking thither in great numbers 
for arms, ammunition, and clothing, took the fatal disease, 
which preyed upon them till it carried off more than a third 
of the whole Michmack race, and extended to the tribe on 
the river St. John. On the 13th of October part of the 
fleet, consisting of forty sail, left Chebucto for Annapolis, 
but being overtaken in a violent storm ofi' Cape Sable they 
were so shattered that they returned singly to France. 

This was regarded by the people of New England as a 
most signal providential deliverance. " Never," says an 
able and pious writer, " was the hand of Divine Providence 
more visible than on this occasion." 

In the spring of 1747 a premium of two hundred and 
fifty pounds was offered for every Indian's scalp taken west 
of Passamaquoddy, and one hundred pounds for every one 
taken elsewhere.* The first appearance of the Indians this 
spring was at Scarborough, where they killed young Dresser, 
April 13th. The next day, at Saccarappa, they took Wm. 
Knight and his two sons prisoners. Within a week Mr. 
Elliot and his son were slain, and Mr. Marsh carried into 
captivity. A body of fifty Indians entered Falmouth on 
the 21st, and, after slaughtering several cattle, fell upon the 
family of Mr. Frost, whom they dispatched while defending 
his family with great bravery, and carried captive his wife 
and six children. By the 1st of May the whole frontier, 
from Wells to Topshani, appeared to be infested by swarms 
of savages. Aware, probably, that there were no soldiers 
in this section, except Capt. Jordan's company at Topsham, 
the eastern portion being better defended, they chose this 
ground for their ravages and reprisals. Near Falmouth 
they killed two women ; at New Meadows, Mr. Hinkley ; 
at Scarborough they fired upon an inhabitant ; and at Wells 
they chased a man into the heart of the town. A party of 
some thirty entered Windham, probably with the intent to 
take captive every one of the settlers. By making an at- 
tack upon Bolton and young Mayberry, they probably 
thwarted their plan, for the report of the guns gave the 
people sufficient notice to secure themselves in the garrison. 
These were the last depredations committed in this por- 
tion of Maine prior to the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, con- 
cluded Oct. 7, 17-18. In June following the sagamores 
visited Boston to make terms of peace with the colonists. 
The time of the treaty was set for the last days in Septem- 
ber, and was appointed to be held at Falmouth. Accord- 
ingly, Sir William Pepperell, Thomas Hutchinson, John 
Choate, Israel Williams, and James Otis, commissioners, 
accompanied by a guard of fifty York County militia, re- 
paired to Falmouth, September 28th, where they waited 
till October 14th before a single Indian appeared, the 
French having been instrumental in keeping them back 
from the treaty. However, a considerable number arrived 
on that day, and the council was opened in the meeting- 
house of the First Parish. On the 16th the parties con- 
cluded and signed the treaty. They agreed to discontinue 
all hostilities, deliver up the captives without ransom, and 
never again molest the English settlements. 

By the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, each crown surrendered 
to the other all territorial conquests, and therefore the 
Island of Cape Breton again passed into the possession of 
the French. 

^6 Mass. C. Rec, p. 312. 



E,\tent uf the French Claims— Their Piinciijal Fortifications— Differ- 
ence between the French anil English Colonists — Forts and lilock- 
Houscs in Maine— Conquest of Nova Scotia— Removal of the Aca- 
diaus — Recapture of Louisbourg — Reduction of Niagara — Ticon- 
deroga— Crown Point— Fall of Quebec- Destruction of St. Franfois 
—Peace of the Colonies. 

Although there had been five consecutive Indian wars 
within a period of eighty years, which had greatly reduced 
the strength of the savages throughout most of New Eng- 
land, there were still several powerful tribes in the eastern 
part of Maine, in Canada, and Nova Scotia, which con- 
tinued troublesome so long as the French had any posses- 
sions on this side of the Atlantic. Happily for the peace 
and rest of the colonies, the time for the overthrow of their 
power was now rapidly approaching. The French had been 
very aggressive within the last few years ; they not only 
claimed Canada, Nova Scotia, and the part of Maine east- 
ward of the Penobscot, but the whole valley of the Missis- 
sippi, Ohio, and Michigan, and a large portion of Northern 
and Western New York. At the outbreak of the war in 
1754 they had taken military possession of a large part of 
this territory, and had the alliance of all the Indian tribes 
within its borders, except those conquered and under treaty 
with Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine, and the 
Six Nations of New York, whose powerful aid was given to 
the English in the war. 

The French had forts at this time at Louisbourg, in Cape 
Breton ; at Beau Sejour and Cape Verte, in Nova Scotia ; 
two on the river St. John, built three years since ; a strong 
fortress at Ticouderoga, on the isthmus between Lake 
George and Lake Champlain ; Fort Frederic, at Crown 
Point, on the western side of the last-mentioned lake ; Fort 
Frontenac, north of the outlet of Lake Ontario ; Fort 
Ontario, at Oswego River, on the southwest margin of the 
same lake ; Fort Niagara, just below Niagara Falls, on the 
southwest side ; Fort Pontchartrain, at Detroit ; Fort Du 
Quesne, at the head of the Ohio River, now Pittsburgh ; 
Fort St. Vincent, at Vincennes, Ind. ; Fort Gratiot, at the 
I foot of Lake Huron, in Michigan ; a strong fort at Macki- 
naw ; besides fortifications at Green Bay, Portage, and 
Prairie du Chien, Wis., and others at various points along 
the Mississippi and on Mobile Bay. Thus they had spread 
themselves by the interior watercourses across the entire 
continent, following the St. Lawrence to the great lakes of 
the Northwest, and thence to the Mississippi, and down 
that river to its confluence with the Gulf of Mexico. New 
France had thus the dimensions of a vast colonial empire, 
five thousand miles in length, extending from the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence to the tropics, embracing the largest rivers 
and lakes on the continent, and the richest lands of the 
Western Hemisphere. It was too large for the best re- 


sources of France herself to defend against a hardy and 
energetic race of Anglo-Saxons, who, although they moved 
more slowly, built more securely the foundations of per- 
manent and enduring society. The EngHsh colonists sub- 
dued the forests, made homes for themselves and their 
children, developed the resources of the soil, encouraged 
commerce and manufactures, built school-houses and 
churches, and laid the foundation of civil and re%ious in- 
stitutions, for the conservation of liberty, justice, and social 
and moral order among the people. This Anglo-Saxon 
energy and genius for the organization of stable institu- 
tions, which has made the descendants of the colonists the 
masters of North America, was more than a match for the 
French even in its cradle, and after a brief struggle the 
power and pretensions of the latter crumbled before it, and 
sank into utter decay and insignificance. 

The part taken in this struggle by tlie people of Maine, 
and particularly those of York County, makes it imperative 
that we should attempt at least an outline sketch of the 

In 175-i, when the war commenced, there was a line of 
forts and block-houses in Maine extending along the fron- 
tier from Salmon Falls to St. George's River. At Ber- 
wick, within two or three miles above Quampeagan landing, 
were several strongly fortified houses, known as Gerrish's, 
Key's, Wentworth's, and Goodwin's garrisons. There was 
also a picketed fort on the height of land at Pine Hill, 
formed of logs set in the ground, about twenty feet in 
height, and sharpened at the upper ends. Similar fortifi- 
cations and block-houses constructed of hewn timber, in- 
closed by palisades or other works of defense, were estab- 
lished in every frontier township or plantation in Maine 
and Sagadahock. The soldiers who kept these garrisons 
and the settlers who resorted to them in every emergency 
or alarm were at all times armed, whether they went to 
public worship, to labor, or on business. The moment a 
lurking savage was discovered, means were used to commu- 
nicate notice to the nearest block-house or garrison, when 
an alarm-gun was fired, and all the scattered people fled 
within the gates. If there were no large guns or swivels, 
three muskets were fired in succession at short intervals. 
Trained dogs were also used to scent out the footsteps of 
the lurking foe, detect skulking parties en route, or frus- 
trate ambuscades. The habits of the Indians were pretty 
well understood by the settler, though such was often their 
devilish ingenuity that they would decoy the most wary 
into ambuscades and traps. For example, they would 
sometimes detach the bell from the cow or the ox, and by 
making with it its usual sound, as if the animal were feed- 
ing or browsing, direct the steps of the hunter after his 
herd to the spot, and shoot him as lie approached, uncon- 
scious of the lurking foe. In such a state thousands of 
people lived during the war, being actually afraid to milk 
their cows in yards near the garrisons for fear of being shot 
by the Indians. 

The war was carried on by the united forces of the Eng- 
lish and the colonists. Early in 1755 four expeditions 
were undertaken against the French ibrts. Braddock was 
sent against Du Quesne, and was defeated in July. Sir 
William Johnson marched against Crown Point with six 

hundred provincials, and won a brilliant victory in the 
vicinity of that fort. Governor Shirley and Sir William 
Pepperell proceeded against Niagara and Fort Frontenae 
without success. In the midst of these expeditions two 
large French ships, belonging to a fleet which had just 
arrived from the harbor of Brest, were taken by the Eng- 
lish, the balance of the fleet escaping and making its way 
up the St. Lawrence. 

A force was raised at this time for the conquest of Nova 
Scotia. It consisted chiefly of two thousand men, raised in 
Massachusetts and Maine. They had like pay and treat- 
ment in every respect as the regular soldiers. Governor 
Shirley had chief command, with the rank of colonel, and 
John Winslow was lieutenant-colonel, upon whom the im- 
mediate command of the whole force devolved. They, with 
two hundred and seventy regulars, and a fleet of forty-one 
vessels, under command of Col. Monkton, reduced Nova 
Scotia, and early in 1755 effected the removal of the Aea- 
dians or French neutrals, whose melancholy fate is well 
known to the reader of history, and forms one of the saddest 
chapters in the events of those times. 

During this year the Indians were exceedingly trouble- 
some, plundering and killing in small parties, in the most 
defenseless settlements. They committed depredations and 
murders in Gray, Dresden, Newcastle, North Yarmouth, 
and New Gloucester. June 10th additional supplies were 
sent to the eastern garri.sons. On the 11th, war was de- 
clared against the eastern tribes, — all except the Penobscots. 
Companies of volunteers consisting of not less than thirty 
men were entitled to receive two hundred pounds for every 
Indian's scalp, and two hundred and fifty pounds for each 
captive. Individuals performing the same service were en- 
titled to one hundred pounds per scalp, and one hundred 
and ten pounds per captive. But this species of warfare, 
although in self-defense, was not desirable by the eastern 
people. They preferred a place in Col. Pepperell's regi- 
ment, where glory as well as wages presented motives to 
military ambition. Since the capture of Louisbourg in the 
last war, there was manifested among the young soldiery of 
Maine a glow of military ardor. 

In the distribution of the forces for the protection of the 
frontiers, fifty were placed on scout from Lebanon to Saco 
River ; sixty from Saco to Gray, by the way of Sebago Pond 
and New Gloucester ; ninety from Gray to Fort Shirley, at 
Frankfort ; and one hundred from thence to St. George's 
River. These arrangements and the successes in Nova 
Scotia overawed the Indians for a short time, till Capt. 
James Cargill, in July, falling in with a hunting-party of 
Penobscot Indians, shot down twelve of them, and so en- 
raged the whole tribe that conciliation was impossible, and 
war was declared against them on the 5th of November. 

The campaign for the year 1756 was settled in January, 
in New York, by a council of the colonial governors, Shir- 
ley being at that time commander-in-chief of the American 
troops. It was agreed that ten thousand men proceed 
against Crown Point ; six thousand against Niagara ; three 
thousand against Fort Du Quesne ; and two thousand up 
the Kennebec River, to destroy the settlements on the 
Chaudifere, and by ranging to the mouth of that river, keep 
all the neighboring parts of Canada in alarm. In the win- 



ter and spring a force of two thousand sis hundred men was 
raised in Massachusetts and Maine, and put under conimand 
of Maj.-Gen. Winslow, recalled from Nova Scotia to take 
charge of them. 

In June the king of Great Britain formally declared war 
against France, and in the same month Gen. Abercromhie, 
arriving with his army, took the chief command from Gov- 
ernor Shirley, who retired, and was subsequently Governor 
of the Bahamas. He had been Governor of Massachusetts 
since 1740. 

In March three hundred recruits were divided into scout- 
ing-parties for the continued defense of the settlements in 
Maine, according to the plan and order of the preceding 
year. John Wheelwright, of Wells, was commissary-gen- 
eral and superintendent of Indian trade, and was instructed 
to take care of the munitions, to see that the forts and gar- 
risons were in a defensible condition, and to procure all extra 
supplies necessary for the Kennebec expedition. 

The Indians appear this year to have marked the settle- 
ments from Brunswick to Saoo for destruction. But by a 
timely warning given by young Knight, who escaped from 
the enemy and put the settlers on their guard, the evil was 
in a great measure averted. Nevertheless the Indians made 
considerable havoc at North Yarmouth, Flying Point, Harps- 
well, New Gloucester, and Windham, at the latter place 
their chief, Poland, being killed in an engagement with 
several men, among whom Brown and Winship were vic- 
tims of savage slaughter. Depredations were also com- 
mitted farther east, and coasting vessels plundered while at 

The expeditions planned for the summer resulted un- 
favorably, except that against Fort Du Quesne, under Gen. 
Forbes. Ticonderoga and Crown Point were not reduced. 
The expedition against Louisbourg in June, 1758, proved an- 
other brilliant success against that city and fortress. About 
six hundred men for this campaign were recruited in Maine, 
besides three hundred raised for scout and garrison duty. 
The enterprise received the popular sanction with almost as 
much enthusiasm as in the last war, seven thousand men 
being easily raised in the province. Major-General Am- 
herst, commander of the regular and provincial forces, and 
Admiral Boscawen, with fifty-seven sail, mostly from Eng- 
land, anchored June 2d, in the bay opposite the city. The 
French garrison consisted of two thousand five hundred 
regular troops, three hundred militia, and sixty or seventy 
Indian warriors. The English, through the skillful and 
successful placing of the batteries by Gen. James Wolfe, 
soon gained complete command of the harbor, and several 
large breaches being made in the works, the French com- 
mander capitulated July 26th. The inhabitants of the 
island were sent to France, and the soldiers and mariners, 
five thousand six hundred and thirty-seven, sent as prisoners 
to England. 

Events hastened to a glorious conclusion during the year 
1759. Penobscot was taken possession of, and a strong 
fort erected on the west side of the river, about a league 
below the foot of Orphan Island, called Fort Pownal. Gen. 
Waldo, while surveying the spot, fell instantly dead of a 
stroke of apoplexy. The fort was garrisoned by one hun- 
dred men, under the command of Brig.-Gen. Jedediah 

Preble, of Falmouth. It was the most completely-con- 
structed and defensible fort in the province, and the ex- 
penses of building it were reimbursed by Parliament. 

In each of the three northern campaigns the English 
and provincial arms met with entire success. Niagara 
.surrendered, July 25th, to Sir William Johnson, Gen. Pri- 
deaux being killed. The second day afterwards Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point were reduced by Gen. Amherst. Before 
that time Gen. Wolfe had commenced the famous siege of 
Quebec, — a place of ten thousand souls, and more strongly 
fortified and better garrisoned than any other place in 
America. Scaling the heights, deemed inaccessible to hu- 
man skill, in a single night, that of September 13th, he 
commenced the attack upon the city. The battle, bloody 
and desperate, became general about nine in the morning, 
and before noon the victory of the English was decisive. 
Wolfe and Montcalm, the two opposing generals, were both 
killed, and with them fell sixteen hundred men, the loss of 
the French being about twice that of the English. On the 
fifth day the city capitulated, and, being reduced to the 
dominion of Great Britain, was garrisoned by about five 
thousand soldiers. 

The people of Maine partook largely in the general joy 
which this event diffused over the whole country, in a well- 
founded hope that now savage warfare and scenes of blood 
would cease throughout the whole land. Every great re- 
verse of fortune experienced by the French had a baleful 
effect upon the interest and affairs of the northern and east- 
ern Indian tribes. Beaten in Nova Scotia, and met at every 
avenue in their late hostile attempts upon the well-guarded 
frontiers of Blaine, they had entered the camp of the French 
to help them fight out their battles. They had thus changed 
the mode of warfare through necessity. Their bloody cru- 
elties and devastations in the outer towns and plantations 
of New England were yet by no means effaced from recol- 
lection, and a day of retribution had arrived. 

St. Francois, a village which had through a period of 
many years been enriched by the plunder of the English 
frontiers and the sale of captives, — the nest whence had 
emanated the most subtle and malignant tools of the French 
priesthood and authorities, — was now singled out for its 
deserved destruction. On the 13th of September, Gen. 
Amherst sent Maj. Rogers, with about two hundred rangers, 
to lay the place in ashes. After a fatiguing march of 
twenty-one days, he came in sight of the village, which he 
discovered from the top of a tree. Halting his men at a 
distance of three miles, he rested till twilight. In the 
evening he entered the village in disguise, with two of his 
officers. The Indians being engaged in a great dance, he 
passed through them undiscovered. Having formed his 
men into parties and posted them to advantage, he made a 
"eneral assault, October 4th, just before day, while the In- 
dians, ftitigued by exercise, were sound asleep. A general 
slaughter ensued. Many were killed, — shot and thrust 
through, falling upon the spot; others, attempting to escape, 
were pierced or shot by the soldiers. About twenty pris- 
oners were taken, and five English captives rescued from 
the horrid fate of their brethren, whose scalps, torn from 
their heads and waving from the tops of poles, met the gaze 
of the assailants as daylight revealed the sickening scene. 


Early in 1760 the Indians began to sue for peace, and 
treaties were made with the St. John, Fassamaquoddy, 
and Penobscot tribes. The conquest of Canada was com- 
pleted by the surrender of Montreal to the English, Sept. 
8, 1760. The whole acquisition received a solemn confir- 
mation at the close of the war by the sanction of a treaty, 
which was succeeded by a peace to the frontiers of New 
England firm and ending. 



Extent of Yorkshire— Term of Court extended to Falmouth— Act 
for the Erection of Cumberland and Lincoln— Boundaries of York 
— Location of the Courts— Revision of the Judiciary — Provincial 
Tax — Population and Valuation of the County. 

Yorkshire at first extended from the Piscataqua to a 
little east of the Presumpscot River, in what is now the 
town of Falmouth, Cumberland County. In 1716 the Gen- 
eral Court ordered that all the lands, families, and settle- 
ments eastward of Sagadahock, within the provincial charter 
limits, be annexed to Yorkshire. At this time York was 
made the shire-town for holding all the courts and keeping 
the registry of deeds. Yorkshire continued to embrace an 
extent of territory commensurate with the present geograph- 
ical limits of the State up to 1760. 

As early as 1733 the inconvenience of attending court 
at York by people in the eastern part of the county was so 
severely felt that the towns authorized their selectmen to 
petition the General Court to divide the county, or have 
terms of the courts held farther east. It was in consequence 
of this eflfort that a term of the Inferior Court and of the 
Court of General Sessions of the Peace was extended to 
Falmouth for one session a year in June, 1735. The first 
term of these courts was held in Falmouth in October, 1736, 
by Chief Justice William Pepperell, of Kittery. Roth 
courts were held at the same time and place. The judges 
were Samuel Came, Timothy Gerrish, Joseph Moody, and 
Jeremiah Moulton ; John Leighton was sherifl'. Falmouth 
thus became a half-shire town, and Yorkshire assumed the 
name of York County. In 1760 the two new counties of 
Cumberland and Lincoln were formed from the eastern por- 
tion. The boundary between York and Cumberland was 
made to run, as at present, northerly of Saco, Buxton, and 
Limington, to the point where the northwest line of Stand- 
ish intersects the Saco River, and thence north two degrees 
west, on a true course to the most northern limits of the 
province. In 1805 the section north of the Great Ossipee 
was cut off to form a part of Oxford County ; since which 
the boundaries of this once great jurisdiction have re- 
mained unchanged. 

The Supreme Judicial Court was held at Wells from 
1800 to 1802, when it was removed to Alfred. At the 
first session there the bench was occupied by Justices Dana, 
Gushing, and Thacher. The Common Pleas sat at Bidde- 
ford from 1790 to 1806, and at Waterborough from 1790 
to 1806, in which latter year the sessions of this court were 
to Alfred. The latter remained exclusively the 

shire-town till 1860, since which that honor has been 
shared by Saco. 

The Supreme Judicial Court for York County sits at 
Saco on the 1st Tuesday in January, and at Alfred on the 
3d Tuesdays in May and September. The Court of Pro- 
bate is held at Saco on the 1st Tuesdays of January and 
February, at Biddeford on the 1st Tuesdays of May and 
July, and at Alfred on the 1st Tuesdays of the other 

For the purposes of the Law Court, York County is 
associated with Cumberland, Oxford, Androscoggin, and 
Franklin Counties, forming the Western Judicial District, 
with annual term at Portland in July. 

In 1799 the General Court divided York County cross- 
wise along the Great Ossipee, forming a northern district, 
with Probate Court and Registry of Deeds at Fryeburg. 
This arrangement continued till 1805, when the northern 
district was included in the new county of Oxford. 

In 1800, in order to dispatch business which had accu- 
mulated on the docket, the number of judges of the Su- 
preme Court was increased from five to seven. Terms 
were holden twice each year in all the counties of Maine 
except Washington and Hancock, and, instead of all the 
judges being required to be present in the adjudication of 
causes, any three could hold a court, and sessions might 
be carried on at the same time in different counties. The 
act also authorized the appointment of a solicitor-general, 
with a salary of one thousand dollars a year. The com- 
monwealth was divided into three circuits. 

In 1805 the judiciary system underwent another modifi- 
cation. The number of judges of the Supreme Court was 
reduced again to five, any three of whom constituted a 
quorum for deciding cases of law in the spring circuit, and 
one judge alone authorized to preside in all jury trials. 
This introduction of the nis-i priiis system was an important 
improvement. It gave an opportunity to the judges to con- 
sult authorities, and centered the responsibility for correct 
and learned decisions in one individual, whose opinions were 
subject to revision upon a writ of exceptions before the 
whole court at the next term. With this improvement 
was also introduced a reporter of decisions, Ephraim Wil- 
liams, of Deerfield, being the first to fill that office. 

A law passed March 9, 1804, prescribed to the bench of 
Common Pleas a chief justice and two associates, instead of 
four judges, as previously ; and so extended their jurisdic- 
tion as to embrace all matters cognizable by the Quarter 
Sessions of the Peace, except what related to jails and other 
county buildings, to county taxes and accounts, and to 
licenses and highways. The sessions of the two courts, 
which had previously been held together, were thus sepa- 
rated. This was the first essential change made in the sub- 
ordinate courts for more than a century, or from their first 
establishment under the provincial charter of 1691. 

The year of the division of the county (1760) was sig- 
nalized by the accession of George III. to the throne of 
Great Britain. A provincial tax of £1000 was levied in 
1761, of which the proportion of York County was £38 
15s. 6d. The following apportionment exhibits the relative 
importance of the towns and plantations of the county at 
that time: York, £9 3s. 5d. ; Kittery, £9 10s. 8(^.3/. ; 


Berwick, £7 10s. 9d.; Wells, £4 17s.; Arundel, £2 9s. 
10(^. 1/.; Biddeford, £4 lis. lid.; Narragansett No. 1, 
or Buxton, lis. 10c?. On the 12th of March the same 
year, two shocks of earthquake were felt at fifteen minutes 
past two A.M., producing an undulatory motion of the earth 
quite perceptible in this region. The importation of tea, 
coffee, china-ware, and other articles into the province 
was at this time subject to excise duty, and Nathaniel Clark 
was collector for York County. 

A census taken in 1764 showed the white population of 
York County to be 11,14.5, distributed among the several 
towns as follows : York, 2277 ; Kittery, 23'-58 ; Wells, 1563 ; 
Berwick, 2374 ; Arundel, 833 ; Biddeford, 627 ; Pepperell- 
boro' (Saco), 538 ; Lebanon, 200 ; Philipstown (Sanford), 
150; Buxton, 225. There were 1734 families, 1281 
houses, and 215 negroes. 


TOWNS. 1860. 1870. Polls. Estates. PoUs. Estates. 

Acton 1,218 1,008 265 $277,816 270 8327,189 

Alfred 1,2SC 1,224 307 381,024 297 427,140 

Berwick 2,155 2,291 408 483,447 431 641,329 

Biddeford 9,349 10,282 1,615 4,593,047 2,205 5,682,402 

Buxton 2,853 2,546 645 686,353 631 829,899 

Cornish 1,153 1,100 267 268,405 257 310,678 

Dayton 701 611 180 199,478 164 242,043 

Elliot 1,767 1,769 396 460,438 399 535,982 

Hollis I.li83 1,541 379 348,599 424 444,428 

Kenncliiiiil, J.ilTa 2,603 637 1,659,902 610 1,5"7,.504 

KenTiriM ■ i-.s 2,372 629 890,229 622 901,431 

Kitlcr\ .'74 3,333 582 363,327 727 022,523 

LebaiMin -In 1,953 460 489,674 396 521,575 

Linifii, I, l.m 1,425 268 283,339 307 .392,6)7 

LimiTi-t :i -.'"4 1,630 436 468,228 420 667,808 

Lyman I,.ii7 1,052 286 269,853 209 ,345,340 

NewfirM l,;lv 1,193 287 252,839 275 298,895 

North l: 1 . l.l'.r.; 1,623 346 398,112 357 672,927 

Parsuii-lr I : .,1J,". 1,894 485 561,465 454 632,097 

Saco -.-'.i 5,755 1,173 2,991,564 1,349 3,116,374 

Shaid.-i^ii 1.:?:; 1,087 318 216,372 271 251,118 

SanlonI -,J-1 2,397 526 447,061 626 660,.542 

South r,ti" ,. -.'.^i 2,510 501 676,387 532 818,022 

WaterLiujuui^h 1,S24 1,548 .586 286,440 388 364,270 

Wells 2,878 2,773 652 691,001 639 683,940 

York 2,825 2,654 614 702,218 614 771,776 

Isle of Shoals 25 

Total 62,107 60,174 13,038 819,136,618 13,834 822,442,875 



pirit of the People of Maine — York County Congress — Resohitioni 
adopted by Towns — Excitement at the Court in York — Benuncia 
tion of Tories — Committees of Correspondence and Safety — Dele 
gates to Provincial Congress — Military Service — Notable Events o 
the Revolution in Maine. 

In no portion of the colonies, at the commencement of 
the war for independence, was the spirit of liberty and 
resistance to British aggression more pronounced than in 
Maine. The long discipline which the inhabitants had 
received in civil affairs and in war with the French and 
Indians, had prepared them to meet with intelligence and 
firmness the new issues involved in a struggle with the 
mother-country. That struggle, beginning at least ten 
years before the actual conflict of arms, during which the 
issues between the colonies and Great Britain were clearly 
defined, and the principles and rights of free government 
thoroughly discussed and understood, became the most 
valuable school for the training of a people who were after- 
wards to exercise the privileges of self-government. 

The spirit of these preliminary discussions is well ex- 

pressed by an able writer in a London magazine, who, upon 
reading the essays and resolves of that period, remarks, — 

" There is such just and cogent reasoning, and such a spirit of 
liberty breathing through the whole of the American productions 
upon the subject of civil rights, as would not have disgraced ancient 
Greece or Rome when struggling against oppression." 

The towns of York County held meetings at an early 
stage of the conflict, and resolved to uphold to the fullest 
extent the measures taken by the Provincial Congress to 
maintain the rights and liberties of the colonies. 

The " York County Congress," so called, convened at 
Wells on the 15th and 16th of November, 1774. This 
body was composed of delegates from the several towns in 
the county, and put forth the following declaration and 
resolves : 

"His Majesty's loyal subjects, the delegates of the several towns of 
the county of York, deputed to meet in County Congress, held at 
Wells the IGth day of November, 1774, truly professing ourselves 
liege subjects of His Majesty, King George the Third, and sincere 
friends to all our fellow-subjects in Britain and the Colonies, for the 
necessary defense of our liberties and privileges come unto the following 
resolutions : 

■' Reeolred, That tbe people have the right to tax themselves, and 
no other persons, assemblies, and parliaments have, and the English 
iicts to ta.'c them are unconstitutional. 

" Resuloed, That all civil officers in this county ought to exercise 
their powers as though these acts had not been passed; that venires 
for jurors ought to issue and be obeyed as before. 

" Resolved, That this Congress recommend to every individual to 
use their influence for peace. 

" Whereas, William Pepperell, baronet, in his lifetime honestly 
acquired a large estate, and gave the highest evidence not only of 
being a sincere friend to the rights of man in general, but having a 
fraternal love for this country in particular : and whereas his son Wil- 
liam, to whom his estate was devised, hath, with purpose to carry 
into effect acts of the British Parliament, made with the design to 
enslave the free and loyal people of the continent, accepted and now 
holds a seat at the pretended Board of Councilors in this province, 
and therefore forfeited confidence ; it is recommended to the people 
and his lessees to withdraw all connection, commerce, and dealings 
with him, and take no leases of his farms or mills ; and if anybody 
does deal with him, we recommend the people to have no dealings 
or intercourse with such an one. 

"Resolved, That the thanks of this county are due to the worthy 
and patriotic members of the Continental Congress for their noble and 
faithful exertions in the cause of their country. 

"William Laighton, Clerk." 

It is to be regretted that the names of the members of 
this Congress have not been preserved. But, no doubt, the 
body was composed of men of the highest standing in the 
county. The Congress convened at Littlefield tavern, and 
the bill of expenses, including considerable " brandy punch," 
" 26 men's dinners at lis. 'id.,'' " 23 men's dinners at lis. 
3<?.," and " 15 horses at lOrf.," is among the interesting 
relics of the meeting.* 

At no period during the Revolutionary war was the popu- 
lar excitement more intense than at this time. Men were 
denounced and proscribed not as comprehended under a 
general class, but individually, as persons with whom there 
should be no intercourse. There was no charity for dis- 
senters, for the weak or irresolute, much less for those who 
were holding offices under the king, or were suppressing 
their patriotism in the interests of commerce, or for those 
who were timid or trembling amidst the general commotion 

; Judge 

ory of AVells and Ke 

p. 471. 



which had been excited throughout the provinces. They 
could not tolerate even the presence of such uieu among 
them, regarding every one as either a friend or an enemy 
to his country. 

In the first week of January, 1775, the court was held 
at York. Such was the passion and excitement of the hour 
that no reasonable man could look for a just verdict in any 
cause. John SuUivan, who was accustomed to attend the 
terms of court, was full of the spirit of rebellion against 
the arbitrary measures of the British government, and was 
ready to meet any emergency to which his outspoken senti- 
ments of patriotism might lead. He was a member of the 
Continental Congress, and was full of the spirit just brought 
from a meeting of that body. He had expressed himself 
very freely in Congress, and was determined to express 
himself with equal freedom at court, irrespective of the 
conservatism of the judges, who were disposed, in view of 
the embarrassments of the occasion, to adjourn the session. 
This created a great popular clamor, and some of the ex- 
cited multitude threatened to pull the judges from their 
seats. Sullivan harangued the people with great power 
and eloquence, telling them that their rights and privileges 
were to be wrested from them, that they were to be made 
the slaves of arbitrary power, and that the courts were the 
willing instruments for putting the yoke upon their uecks. 
At the same time Capt. Daniel Bragdon, who had attended 
the Congress as an interested visitor, gathered a large mul- 
titude around him outside the court-house, and addressed 
them with all the eloquence of which he was master, call- 
ing upon them to arouse themselves in opposition to the 
acts of Parliament, and denouncing all as enemies of their 
country who would not come up to the work of resistance. 
Such was the excitement that the court adjourned without 
doing any business. Judge Sayward declared that he 
would not sit to hear an action through. Judge Moulton 
sympathized strongly with the great body of the people. 
James Sullivan, then in the practice of law at Biddeford, 
manifested somewhat more equanimity than his brother 
John, and, being desirous to avoid all collisions and polit- 
ical controversies in court, whereby its character might not 
be compromised, did what he could to maintain order and 
allay excitement, as also did David Wyer, then a prominent 
lawyer residing in Portland. 

Although the court was quietly adjourned without day, 
Sayward, from the spirit here manifested, felt himself to be 
in constant peril. The threats of the people daily reached 
his ears, and from this time till nearly the close of the war 
he was constantly watched, and escaped the fury of the 
mob only by concealment. Every one mistrusted was put 
under the ban of popular disapprobation, or compelled to 
sign an article disavowing Tory sentiments. Dr. Alden, of 
Biddeford, being strongly suspected of furnishing through 
Capt. John Stackpole materials for barracks for the Eng- 
lish soldiers at Boston, was waited upon by a multitude 
gathered at Saco from all the adjoining towns, and com- 
pelled not only to ask pardon on his knees, but to subscribe 
to the following declaration : 

" I have uttered many words, out of town and in, counte- 
nancing arbitrary .acts of Parliament, wliicli has given oBense to the now as.seiul.Icd, I do laercliy e.Knrcss uiy sincere i.cnitence tliere- 

for, and promise, on oath, not to be guilty of anything of that kind 
for the future. And, whereas I asked sundry persons to sign a paper 
to the board of commissioners, therein insinuating myself to be a Tory, 
I hereby declare I am sori'y therefor, and that I never will be guilty 
of anything of that kind for the future, nor do anything against the 
just rights of my country. 

"Oct. 18, 1774. Abiather Alden." 

We give below a few samples of the resolutions passed 
by different towns during the excitement of the preliminary 
struggle. The following, probably drawn up by Hon. 
James Sullivan, afterwards Governor of Massaehu.setts, were 
adopted with great unanimity by the inhabitants of Bidde- 
ford, at a meeting held on the 30th of July, 177-1:: 

" Whcrens, The Parliament of Great Britain has, for the express 
purpose of raising a revenue and an unconstitutional tax on the Eng- 
lish-American Colonies, made several acts highly distressing to said 
Colonies in general, and to this province in particular: by which acts 
the metropolis of the province is blocked up and distressed, the civil 
government of the province altered (as far as by said acts it can be) 
in the most material and privileged points thereof, and particularly 
the invaluable right of a trial by an uncorrupted jury, entirely de- 
stroyed ; 

" Therefore, Hegolved, That the inhabitants of this town, now as- 
sembled, will, in a resolute, manly, and determined manner, pursue all 
such legal and constitutional methods as shall by the other towns in 
the province be thought conducive to the restoration of our natural 
rights as men. and political rights as Englishmen ; and that no incon- 
venience, however injurious to the private interest of any of us, shall 
be a sufficient cause to break this resolution. 

" And whei-etts, The Committee of Correspondence for the town of 
Boston has transmitted to us papers to be signed by the inhabitants 
of this town, which papers contain covenant oaths and agreements 
that the subscribers thereto shall break off all commercial intercourse 
with the Island of (ireat Britain until the oppressive acts aforesaid 
are totally repealed : and the inhabitants of this town being very sen- 
sible that there is no method yet pointed out which tends so much to 
the advancing of the opulence of this country and happy extrication 
of it from its present difficulties and distresses as the universal coming 
into and the religious observation of those covenant oaths and agree- 
ments, or others somewhat similar thereto: 

" It is therefore liesohed, That if the Committee appointed by the 
late Honorable House of Representatives of this Province to meet the 
delegates of the other colonies in General Congress at Philadelphia 
or elsewhere; and the other members of .said Congress shall advise to 
a universal withdrawment of our commerce with the Island of Great 
Britain until the aforesaid oppressive acts of Parliament shall be re- 
pealed, we will strictly adhere thereto; And as our dependence under 
God is chiefly placed in the steady pursuance of such wise measures 
as shall be recommended by the Congress; 

'' We therefore Resolve, That whatever measure shall be by said 
Congress advised to and complied with by the majority of the other 
towns in this province, shall be literally and strictly adhered to by 

" And we further Reaulve, That if any person among us shall 
demean himself contrary to any plan that shall be laid for our deliver- 
ance by the Congress, and agreed to by this and the majority of the 
other towns in the province, we will have no society, trade, or com- 
merce with such person, but will esteem and treat him as an enemy to 
his country. 

(Attest) " RisHWORTH .JoRnAX, Toicn Cleric." 

At a subsequent meeting, Dec. 22, 1774, a Committee 
of Safety and Inspection was appointed, composed of Rish- 
worth Jordan, Esq., James Sullivan, Esq., Capt. Benjamin 
Hooper, Thomas Giipatrick, and Capt. James P. Hill. 
Mr. Sullivan was chosen at the same time delegate to the 
Provincial Congress, and empowered to correspond with the 
neighboring towns. It was also voted " that the delegate 
inform the Congress that his constituents think to keep 
their own money to form a magazine for their own defense." 



" Reeolied, That R. Jordan, J. Sullivan, B. Hooper, James Carlisle, 
Thomas Gilpatrick, Benj. Staples, Allison Smith, Josiah Stimpson, 
Jeremiah Hill, Jr., Simon Wingate, James Sta])les, Aaron Porter, and 
Jeremiah Cole be a committee to provide a town stock of six half 
barrels of powder, iive cwt. of lead, and a suflBciency of flints, ac- 
cording to the number of persons in the train-band and alarm-list in 
said town ; four barrels of which powder, and the whole of the lead 
and flints are to be kept entire until the town shall olherwise order, 
or it shall become necessary to deliver the same to the said persons in 
the train-hand or alarm-list. Also 

" Resolved, That the said committee dispose of the other two half 
barrels of powder at a reasonable price to such of the inhabitants of 
the town as have a mind to purchase the same with ready cash, to 
use it in defense of their country. 

'• Voted unanimously. Attest, 

"James Sullivan, il,„.lr,„u,i:- 
Mr. Sullivan represented the town in the Provincial 
Congress until its close, when he was appointed a justice 
of the Superior Court. Soon after that he removed his 
family to Groton, Mass. 

" A profound respect," says Mr. Folsom, " was ever entertained by 
our inhabitants for the character and talents of jMr. Sullivan from 
the period of his first settlement among them as a young attorney. 
He was himself ready to acknowledge, at a late date, when holding 
a high and enviable rank among his contemporaries, the obligations 
which their favor had imposed on him. * I have a grateful remem- 
brance,' he says, in a letter to Col. Tristram Jordan, 'of the marks 
of confidence and the acts of kindness done me by the people on your 
river, and whenever I can reciprocate their goodness, I shall cheer- 
fully do it.' " 

The patriotic views of Mr. Sullivan, ably and eloquently 
expressed, at the commencement of hostilities with Great 
Britain, materially assisted in securing a united support of 
the war, and a harmony and concert of action in both 

" Rev. Mr. Morrill was ardently engaged in the same cause. This 
gentleman, in the language of one intimately associated with him at 
that period, ' was a superior man, of deportment noble and dignified, 
seldom equaled and never surpassed in this quarter. To this was 
added a capacity fully corresponding; intelligent, easy of access, and 
communicative, he ranked high as a scholar, as a divine, and as a 
statesman. In such a melancholy season as our struggle for inde- 
pendence, considering the general weakness or ignorance of the 
people, the value of such a man was incalculable. So deep an in- 
terest did he take in that all-important concern, as a statesman, he 
spared no pains to guide every one into the right way, nor did he fail 
in this. To his long standing there and the confidence of the people 
in him, was it owing in a great measure that the principles of inde- 
pendence were easily disclosed and generally embraced. A remark- 
ably close and friendly intercourse between Mr. Morrill and Mr. 
Sullivan, uniting their exertions, bore down all opposition.' " 

The Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, and Safety 
in Biddeford for 1776 was composed of Benjamin Nason, 
Jonathan Smith, Joseph Morrill, John Dyer, and Amos 
Gordon. The following order of the Massachusetts Council, 
accompanied by a copy of the Declaration of Independence, 
was received and complied with at this time : 

"In Council, July 17, 1776, Ordered that the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence be printed, and a copy sent to the ministers of each parish, 
of every denomination within the State; and that they severally be 
required to read the same to their respective congregations, as soon 
as Divine service is ended in the afternoon, on the first Lord's Day 
after they shall receive it. And after such publication thereof, to 
deliver the said Declaration to the clerks of their respective towns 
or districts, who are hereby required to record the same in their re- 
spective town or district books, there to remain as a perpetual 
memorial thereof. In the name and by the order of the Council. 
"R. Derby, President." 

; Saco and Biddeford, 279. 

The Committee of Corre.spondence for 1777 consisted of 
James Sullivan, Esq., Joseph Morrill, Obed Emery, Joseph 
Tarbox, and James Emery. Thomas Cutts, Esq., repre- 
sented both towns in the Provincial Congress. Colonel 
Cutts wiLS devotedly attached to the cause of the Revolu- 
tion, notwithstanding his private interests suffered by the 
war to a very great extent. Fortunately for the country, 
the zealous Whigs of that day considered their personal 
losses as light in the scale, when weighed against the sacred 
rights and cherished principles in defense of which they 
took up arms. 

Pepperellborough also had its Committee of Correspond- 
ence, chosen Nov. 9, 1774, and both towns acted in 
concert. The first committee consisted of Tristram Jor- 
dan, Esq., Deacon Amos Chase, Paul Junkins, James Foss, 
and James Scamman. Messrs. Cutts and Junkins were 
appointed at the same time " Delegates for a County Con- 
gress." A separate Committee of Inspection was raised 
" to see that the several Resolves of the Continental, Pro- 
vincial, and County Congresses be complied with in said Pep- 
perellborough," consisting of Tristram Jordan, Eisq., Dea- 
con Amos Chase, R. Patterson, Deacon S. Seamman, Jo- 
seph Libby, Humphrey Pike, and Dominicus Scamman. 
At the March meeting, 1775, it was voted " to divide the 
Militia Company of the District into four separate squad- 
rons, to exercise half a day and once in every week for 
three months to come, and to begin their exercises at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, and to have a teacher to learn 
them the military art, and said teacher to be paid out of 
the District Treasury ; one part to be paid at the Old Or- 
chard, so called ; another, to be from Rumery's to the lower 
ferry ; another, from said Rumery's up to the head of said 
District (or town) ; and the other part at Dunstown, so 
called." The last division included the families settled on 
the Scarborough road, adjoining the parish of Dunstan, in 
that town. Rumery lived at the corner of Old Orchard 
and the Perry roads. It was also voted " to pay James 
Sullivan, Esq., a proportional part of his time and expense 
as a delegate to the Provincial Congress, with the town of 
Biddeford, for the time passed." 

The Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, and Safety 
for the following year were T. Jordan, Esq., Deacon A. 
Chase, Deacon S. Scamman, Joseph Bradbury, and Richard 

When the first blood of the war was shed at Lexington, 
York was the first town in Maine to send forward soldiers. 
News of the battle reached that town in the evening after 
the engagement. Early the next morning the inhabitants 
assembled, enlisted a company of more than sixty men, fur- 
nished them with arms and ammunition, and knap.sacks full 
of provisions, and, under command of Capt. Johnson Moul- 
ton, they marched fifteen miles on their way to Boston 
that day, besides crossing the ferry at Portsmouth. Capt. 
Moulton remained in the service, and rose to the rank of 
lieutenant^colonel in Scamman's regiment. 

In the summer of 1779 a meeting of the inhabitants of 
Pepperellborough was called to see if they would send a 
reinforcement to the army, when it was agreed that all 
those, and those only, in the first place shall be drafted 
that have not been heretofore drafted, and by law are liable 



to be drafted, except Lieut. James Foss' son, who has 
agreed to go into the Continental service ; and when any 
persons are drafted and shall pay their fine, said fine shall 
be laid out in hiring men for said Continental service ; and 
what sum or sums of money may be wanting, after the 
fines aforesaid be paid, the selectmen shall have full liberty 
to raise on the inhabitants of Pepperellborough, in conse- 
quence of a resolve of the Great and General Court, made 
and passed June 9, 1779. " The next year Capt. P. Jun- 
kins, Elisha Ayer, Nicholas Dennett, James Foss, and 
Thomas Dearing were chosen a Committee of Safety and 
Correspondence. And it was voted to raise three hundred 
and fifty pounds for the men raised to go to Camden, if 
they go, otherwise to be paid to the treasurer for the town 
service." In October the town " voted to raise money to 
pay for the beef for the army, agreeable to a resolve of 
Court." In January, 1781, Messrs. Samuel Boothby and 
James Coffin were appointed a committee " to hire six or 
seven men as soldiers for the army on the town's account, 
and not to exceed thirteen dollars, with the Continental 
pay per month." The town was required at this time to 
supply the army with eleven thousand and sixty-two pounds 
of beef The last Committee of Safety was chosen in 1782, 
and consisted of Col. James Scamman, Capt. Joseph Brad- 
bury, Lieut. Samuel Chase, Lieut. William Cole, and Mr. 
James Coffin. 

A large proportion of the inhabitants of these towns were 
occasionally in the service of the country during the war. 
Demands for men and provisions were constantly occurring, 
and no towns were more prompt and liberal in contributing 
to the wants of the army in both particulars. The exact 
number of men furnished at different times cannot now be 
ascertained, the necessary documents having perished. We 
give a partial list, such as has been preserved in the valu- 
able history of these towns by Mr. Folsom. 

" Col. James Scamman led a regiment to Cambridge early in 177J, 
and remained about one year. This gentleman was well fitted to 
shine in the military profession, possessing energy, vigor of mind 
and body, and gayety of temper that engaged the good-will and at- 
tachment of those under his command. We have been assured by 
those who served with him that his bravery couM not be justly ques- 
tioned, and yet a misdirection of his regiment on the memorable ITth 
of June has been made the occasion of reproach. Col. Scamman 
received orders to repair to Bunker liill; while on the march, learn- 
ing that the enemy were landing at Lechmere's Point, he deemed it 
his duty to advance on that quarter, and by this diversion failed to 
bo in the battle which followed on Bunker Hill. An investigation of 
the coloners conduct soon after took place, before the proper tribunal, 
when he was honorably acquitted. Attempts were, however, made to 
injure his reputation by individuals who .aspired to his commission, 
and at the end of the year he resigned. Col. Scamman afterwards 
entered into trade with his brother, Mr. Nathaniel Scamman, and 
built the large house now in the rear of Messrs. Scamman & Andrews' 
stone block, where at that period they both lived. The latter subse- 
quently built the house now occupied by his son, Hon. George Scam- 
man. The colonel died in 1804, at the age of si.xty-four years. » 

" Maj. Ebenezer Ayer accompanied A 
Canada through the wilderness of the 
guished for his energy and bravery at th 

the e.xpedition to 
:, and was distin- 
It is said he had 

i The following lines, furnished by Hon. Cyrus King, are inscribed 

his tomb : " A man of infinite jest; of most excellent fancy." 

" This stone to strangers may impart 

The place where Scamman lies ; 

But every friend consults his heart, 

For there he never dies." 

the courage to saw off the pickets of an English fort to enable the 
party to scale the walls. Maj. Ayer afterwards served in the engineer 
department, with the rank of major. He did not return to Saoo at 
the close of the war. 

'' The late Jeremiah Hill, Esq., enlisted a company for three years' 
service, which he led to Boston. His brother, Daniel Hill (of Gor- 
ham), held the commission of ensign. This company joined the regi- 
ment of Col. Joseph Vose (of Milton), at West Point, and was at the 
taking of Burgoyne, October, 1777. Capt. Hill returned at the expi- 
ration of one year, having resigned his commission. In 1779 he was 
appointed adjutant-general of the forces sent by the State to the 
Penobscot River. 

" The following names are those of non-commissioned oflicers and 
privates in the Continental service from Biddeford : Bellamy Storer 
(a brother of the late Capt. Seth Storer), who died at Mount Inde- 
pendence, opposite Ticonderoga, 1776 ; John Hill, a brother of Capt. 
Hill, died of smallpox at Brooklyn Fort, Long Island, the same year, 
where a grave-stone was erected to his memory. He was twenty two 
years of age at the time of his death; Jotham Hill, son of Mr. Eben- 
ezer Hill, died in the course of the war, near Albany; John Peirce, 
lived at Limerick after the war; Aaron Gray (deceased), a prisoner 
under the act of 1S18 ; Noah Smith, James Urian, Ezekiel Gilpatriek, 
John Griffin Davis, Samuel Gilpatriek, Nathaniel Gilpatriek, Caleb 
Spofford (died in the war), John Lee, Joseph Linscott, William Haley, 
James Pratt, Sylvanus Knox, Stephen Fletcher, Jonah McLucas (died 
in the war), John Haley, died at Mount Independence; Josiah Davis. 
Those surviving in 1S30 were the following: Col. John Smith, of 
HoUis; Jeremiah Bettis, Little River, in Biddeford; Ralph Emery, 
Philip Goldthw.aite, keeper of the Wood Island Light-House; Pela- 
tiah Moore, Joseph Staples, Dominicus Smith, Benjamin Goodridge, 
and Joseph Hanscomb, of Buxton. 

" From Pepperellborough (now Saco) the following persons were in 
the Continental service at some period of the war : John Googins, 
killed at the action at Hubbardstown, July 7, 1777, the day after the 
evacuation of Ticonderoga by the American troops. John was in the 
rear-guard, commanded by Col. Francis, a very gallant officer, who 
fell in the same engagement ; Stephen Sawyer, son of David Sawyer, 
Sr., died in the army ; John Hooper, died during the war, at Boston ; 
Abiel Beetle, Nicholas Davis, Jonathan Norton, Daniel Bryant, James 
Scamman, son of Ebenezer Scamman, John Tucker, John Runnels, 
John Ridlon, John Carll, Ebenezer Carll, Evans Carll, William Carll 
(sons of Robert Carll, the name was often written Kearl), Levi Foss, 
Pelatiah Foss,— the last fell at Ticonderoga (sons of Walter Foss) ; 
Zachariah Foss, Elias Foss (sons of Joseph Foss), John Duren, An- 
thony Starhird, William Starbird, died in the army; William Berry, 
James Evans, Samuel Sebastian, died on North River : .Toseph Norton, 
Mnj. Stephen Bryant, afterwards an officer in the militia ; Josiah 
Davis, Josiah Richards." 

Those living in 1830 were Ephraim Ridlon, Stephen 
Googins, who enlisted for the year 1776, and were in Capt. 
Watkins' company, under Col. Edmund Phinney, of Gor- 
ham. Ephraim enlisted again in 1777, in Col. John Crane's 
regiment of artillery, and was gone three years, two of 
which he was waiter to Gen. Knox ; Thomas Means served 
under Capt. Hart Williams, in Col. Phioney's regiment; 
Solomon Hopkins, James Edgeeomb, Solomon Libby. 

A company was raised for a short term of service in Feb- 
ruary, 1776, from Buxton, Arundel, Biddeford, and Pep- 
perellborough, commanded by Capt. John Elden, of Buxton. 
The other officers were First Lieut. Amos Towne, of Arun- 
del ; Second Lieut. Samuel Scamman, of Saco; Ens. Jere- 
miah Cole, of Biddeford. The subordinate officers and 
privates from Biddeford were the following : Moses Brad- 
bury, John Poak, Elijah Littleficld, Peirce Bickford, 
Phineas Mclntire, Thomas Gilpatriek, William Nason, 
John Chase, Jonathan Stickney, Humphrey Dyer, Jacob 
Townsend, Timothy Cole, Jedediah Smith, Eliakim Tarbox, 
Jonathan Smith, John Gilpatriek, Chris. Gilpatriek, Dodi- 
vah Bickford, Benjamin Woodman. 



From Pepperellborough : Jerathuel Bryant, John Muche- 
luore, Daniel Field, David Clark, Abner Sawyer, Joseph 
Norton, Andrew Patterson, David Sawyer, Jr., James Edge- 
comb, Robert Bond, Daniel Field, Jr., Abraham Patterson, 
Moses Ayer, John Young, Hezekiah Young, Joseph Pat- 
terson, WOliam P. Moody, Samuel Dennett, John Scam- 
man, Samuel Lowell. The company belonged to a regiment 
of militia under Col. Lemuel Robinson. 

We find in the Buxton centennial the names of four 
from that town who served in this company, furnished by 
Cyrus Woodman, Esq. They were James, Joseph, Benja- 
min, and John Woodman, — the latter a sergeant; there 
were probably many others. 

Of those from Arundel we find no record separate and 
distinct from that of those who served in other companies 
and regiments. Those from Buxton in Capt. Jeremiah 
Hill's company, of Biddeford, were as follows : Eddy Ward, 
sergeant; Phiueas Towle, sergeant; John Elden, corporal ; 
Matthias Redlon, corporal; John Cole, Nathan Woodman, 
Samuel Merrill, Jr., Robert Brooks, William Andros, James 
Redlon, Ezekiel Bragdon, John Sands, Mioah Whitney, 
Jonathan Fields, Joseph Goodwin, Samuel Woodsom, Ne- 
liomiah Goodwin, Daniel Hill, ensign. These men enlisted 
May 3, 1775, and formed part of Col. James Scamman's 
(30th) regiment of infantry. Col. Scamman and Capt. Hill 
both resigned at the expiration of one year. Part of the 
company joined the regiment of Col. Joseph Vose, at West 
Point, and were at the surrender of Burgoyne. Part of them 
were in the expedition against Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point, in Capt. Jabez Lane's company. Some of them 
served with Washington in New Jersey and in the South- 
ern campaign. John Cole was at the battle of Monmouth, 
and Joseph Goodwin was with Washington when he crossed 
the Delaware. 

The following are the names of Buxton men who were 
enlisted for three years and during the war by Capt. Daniel 
Lane, of Col. Ichabod Alden's regiment. The most of them 
were attached to the 7tli Regiment, Col. Brooks', and were 
in the Ticonderoga expedition with the forces of Gen. 
Schuyler, and were present at the surrender of Burgoyne at 
Saratoga. They were enlisted from Nov. 14, 1776, to 
March 20, 1777, and were accredited to different towns in 
Massachusetts : Daniel Lane, captain ; David Redlon, Eb- 
onezer Redlon, John Wilson, John Woodman, Nathan 
Woodman, Nathan Woodman, Jr., Samuel Cole, Benjamin 
Elwell, John Elwell, John Edgerly, Isaac Lane, John Cole, 
John Cole, Jr., William Hancock. Also Samuel Woodsom, 
John Woodsom, and John Smith, all of Buxton, appear on 
the pay-roll of the company, October, 1778. Capt. Daniel 
Lane was a prisoner, and was released Sept. 16, 1777, by 
order of Gen. Burgoyne, on his parole, to go home to his 
family. He served in the war till Jan. 1, 1780. 

Capt. Jabez Lane, also of Buxton, served through most 
of the Revolutionary war. He was captain of a company 
in the 6th Ma.ssachusetts Regiment, Col. Thomas Nixon. 
No muster-roll of his company has been found, but an ac- 
count kept with his men shows the following names of Bux- 
ton men, enlisted under his command : Benjamin Woodman, 
Phineas Towle, Lemuel Rounds, Robert Brooks, Elijah 
Bradbury, John Hancock, William Andros, Ebenezer Rid- 

ley, John Boynton, Daniel Boynton, Ephraim Sands, Moses 
Atkinson, James Woodman, Stephen Whitney, Richard 
Clay; and from Goodman's Narragansett, Samuel Brooks 
and Ezekiel Bragdon are added, who enlisted in the com- 
pany March 14, 1776. 

John Lane, of Buxton, raised a company in 1775, and 
was appointed captain of it. They were in Col. Foster's 
regiment eight months, and stationed at Cape Ann. At 
the expiration of this time they joined the regiment of 
Col. Varnura, on Long Island, and were engaged in a 
battle there. Col. Varnum's regiment was in the army of 
Washington, at Valley Forge, during the winter of 1777-78. 
The Buxton men, as far as known, were John Lane Han- 
cock, Elijah Bradbury, Joshua Woodman, Samuel Wood- 
man,* Abiathar Woodsom, and Samuel Woodsom. 

Stephen Whitney, Abijah Lewis, and Theodore Rounds, 
from this town, were in the company of Capt. Hart Lewis, of 
Gorham. They marched to Cambridge in 1775, and thence 
to Ticonderoga, in Col. Phinney's regiment. William 
Davis, Jonathan Whitney, and George Berry (?) were in 
the company of Capt. Richard Mayberry, of Windham, 
11th Mas.sachusetts, Col. Benjamin Tupper; were at Bur- 
goyne's suriender and at the battle of Monmouth. Samuel 
Rounds, Benjamin Emery, and John Smith enlisted in 1779 
in Capt. Alexander McLellan's company, Col. Jonathan 
Whitney's regiment, and were in the Penobscot expedition. 
Daniel Emery and Joseph Rounds were in Col. Phinney's 
regiment, and at Burgoyne's surrender. Thomas Harmon 
was an orderly in Washington's Life- Guard. Caleb Hop- 
kinson was one of Gen. Gates' body-guard. Michael Rand 
served five years ; was under Gen. Stark when he defeated 
Col. Baum at Bennington, Aug. 16, 1777, and after that 
was with Gen. Greene at the South ; fought at Cowpens, 
Guilford Court-House, Eutaw Springs, and was at York- 
town at the surrender of Cornwallis, Oct. 19, 1781 ; was 
then discharged and walked home. Roger Plaisted and 
Joshua Woodman were in the navy. Ebenezer Smith, 
Gideon Elden, Wiuthrop Bradbury, and John Wentworth 
served in the Revolutionary army nine months. 

The town of Kennebunkport (then Arundel) took an 
early and active part in the struggle for independence ; the 
list of its soldiers, as also the lists for Wells, Kennebunk, 
York, Kittery, Berwick, Lyman, and the other towns rep- 
resented in the army, will be found, so far as we have been 
able to obtain them, in their respective town histories. 

Among the important events which occurred during the 
Revolution in Maine was the burning of Falmouth by the 
British Capt. Mowatt, Oct. 18, 1775. Great distress 
prevailed in the eastern part of the province this year. 
Capt. James Littlefield, of Wells, was appointed deputy 
commissary-general for the three counties in Maine, and 
the Committee on Supplies was directed, during the recess 
of the Provincial Congress, to grant succor out of the pub- 
lic stores to any of the eastern inhabitants who might apply 
for it. The eastern Indians, soon after the Declaration of 
Independence, entered into a treaty of alliance with the 
Americans. Truck-houses had been established for their 
benefit at Fort Pownal and at Machias. 

i one of Washii 



In 1775 the Continental Congress first established a 
general post-oflBce, and put it in operation from Georgia to 



State Senators from Maine — County Attorneys— Circuit Courts of 
Common Pleas— Militia— War of 1812— Movement for tlie Erec- 
tion of Maine into a State — Brunswicli Convention — Portland Con- 
vention — Adoption of the Constitution — Delegates who signed it 
from the Towns of York County. 

Under the State constitution of Massachusetts, adopted 
June 14, 1780, Maine was constituted a district, entitled 
to four State senators. York County was allowed two, 
and Cumberland and Lincoln Counties one each. The 
senators elected for York County were Edward Cutts, of 
Kittery,aud Benjamin Chadbourne, of Berwick. In 1800 
seven senators were assigned to INIaiue, of whom York 
County had two. In 181 1 the apportionment of State sen- 
ators allowed Maine ten^ and seven representatives in Con- 
gress. The First Congressional District embraced most of 
York County, from which Hon. Cyrus King, of Saco, was 
returned. On the 24th of February, 1813, nine senators 
instead of ten were apportioned to Maine. 

In 1807, under Governor Sullivan's administration, 
county attorneys were made appointable by the Governor 
and Council, in.stead of by the Court of Sessions, and held 
oflSce at the pleasure of the appointing power. Those for 
York County under Governor Sullivan's and Gerry's ad- 
ministrations were Dudley Hubbard and William Pitt 

By the rearrangement of the judiciary in 1811, Cir- 
cuit Courts of Common Pleas were established, and three 
circuits assigned to Maine. Of the first circuit, composed 
of York, Cumberland, and Oxford Counties, the judges 
were Benjamin Greene, William Widgery, and Judah Dana. 

Militia laws were passed March 3, 1781, and March 21, 
1 783, making all able-bodied men between sixteen and fifty 
eligible to duty. The militia in the District of Maine was 
arranged into one hundred and twenty companies, and finally 
classed into thirteen regiments, three brigades, and two 
divisions. In the Massachusetts enumeration the divisions 
were the sixth and seventh. Ichabod Goodwin, of Ber- 
wick, was chosen by the General Court major-general of 
the former, embracing the militia of York and Cumberland 

Of the committee on public lands, Nathaniel Wells, of 
Wells, and Nathan Dane, of Beverly, were appointed mem- 
bers, March 19, 1784. 

War was declared against Great Britain, June 18, 1812. 
Additional taxes as well as privations were necessarily 
among the incidents of the war. Of the three million dol- 
lars directly levied by Congress on the lands of the United 
States, to be collected after the ensuing January, seventy- 
four thousand two hundred and twenty dollars were appor- 
tioned to Maine, — a tax which the majority of the people 
paid with patriotic spirit. Enlistments were animated, and 
it is believed that a larger number of troops were recruited 

for the army in Maine than in any one of the States, accord- 
ing to the population. 

The government called for one hundred thousand militia, 
of which Maine's quota was two thousand five hundred. 
There were at this time in the distiict, including cavalry 
and artillery, twenty-one thousand one hundred and twenty- 
one men. The number and names of those who actually 
entered the service from York County it is impossible to 

The following is a partial list of the companies, and the 
towns to which they belonged : 



Capt. Edward Small's company, of Limington. 

Capt. Joseph Stevenson's company, of Limerick. 

Capt. James Ayer's detached company of infantry. 

Lieut. David Maxwell's company, of Wells. 

Lieut. George Wheelwright's company, of Wells. 

Capt. Joseph Howard's detached company of artillery. 

Capt, B. Thompson's company detached militia. 

Sergeant's Guard, John S. Thompson. 

Capt. Thomas Cutts' company, of Kittery. 

Capt. James Woodman's company, of Buxton. 

Capt. Daniel Appleton's company, of Buxton. 

Lieut. Seth Fairfield's company, Saco and Biddeford. 

Capt. Rufus Mclntire's company United States artillery, 
two hundred men in service in Canada eighteen months. 

On the 6th of September, 1786, a convention was held 
at Falmouth to consider the question of a separation from 
Massachusetts and the formation of Maine into a State. 

The delegates present from York County were Thomas 
Perkins, from Arundel ; Nathaniel Low, from Berwick ; 
Henry Y. Brown, James Haywood, Samuel Haywood, from 
Brownfield ; Samuel Knight, Nathaniel Hill, from Buxton ; 
Joseph Frye, Paul Laugdon, Daniel Fessendeu, Isaac 
Walker, Nathaniel Merrill, from Fryeburg ; John Storer, 
from Wells. Resolutions were adopted favoring the erec- 
tion of the counties of York, Cumberland, and Lincoln into 
a separate State, and a committee was appointed to petition 
the General Court to that efi"ect. The petition was not 
granted, and the subject rested till after the war of 1812-14, 
when it was again renewed and warmly advocated by many 
leading men in the district. 

In January, 1815, a petition was presented to the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts from forty-nine towns, in their cor- 
porate capacity, in Maine, and by individuals in nearly as 
many others, asking for the privilege of calling a convention 
to adopt a State constitution. 

The Legislature submitted the question to the people of 
Maine to be voted upon, — " Shall the Legislature be re- 
quested to give its consent to the separation of the District 
of Maine from Massachusetts, and the erection of said dis- 
trict into a separate State ?" — requiring the affirmative, the 
negative, and the whole number of votes in each municipal 
corporation to be certified and sent under seal to the Secre- 
tary of State. 

At the session in June, 1816, the returns were counted, 
and it was found that there were 10,393 yeas, 6501 nays, 
and the whole number of voters 37,828, showing that a 


majority of the freemen had not voted upon the question. 
Notwithstanding this result, the Legislature, upon a petition 
of most of the representatives from Maine, granted a bill 
of consent for the separation, which became a law on the 
20th of June, 1816. 

On the first Monday in September the inhabitants of the 
towns and plantations of the District met to vote upon the 
<(uestiou, and also to choose delegates to meet in conven- 
tion at the meeting house in Brunswick on the last Monday 
of the same month, and if they found that a majority o^ Jive 
to four, at least, of the votes returned, were in favor of 
the proposed separation, the convention was authorized to 
frame a constitution. The names of the members of this 
convention we have not been able to obtain. The number 
of delegates was 185. William King was elected president, 
and Samuel K. Whiting secretary. There were 11,969 
yeas, and 10,34:7 nays, pre.senting a result much less than 
the statute majority required. The report did not satisfy 
the Massachusetts Legislature that the statute had been 
fiiirly compiled with, and the convention, which had ad- 
journed to meet on the third Tuesday in December, was 
dissolved by that body. 

In May, 1818, about seventy towns in Maine petitioned 
the Legislature for another separation act, which was 
granted on the 19th of June. The votes taken under this 
act showed 17,091 in favor, and only 7132 against the sep- 
aration. The Governor issued his proclamation announcing 
the result, and delegates being chosen, a.ssembled October 
11th, to the number of 269, at Portland. William King 
was chosen president, and Robert C. Vose secretary. A 
committee of» thirty-three, selected from each county, was 
raised to prepare a constitution, John Holmes, of York, 
being chairman. The committee continued their labors 
from day to day till the work assigned them was completed, 
Oct. 19, 1819. The members from York County who 
signed the constitution, and the towns which they repre- 
sented, were as follows : Elihu Bragdon, David Wilcox, 
York ; Alexander Rice, Kittery ; Joseph Thomas, Wells ; 
William Hobbs, Nathaniel Hobbs, Richard F. Cutts, Ber- 
wick ; George Thacher, Seth Spring, Biddeford ; Simon 
Nowell, Arundel ; William Moody, Ether Shepley, George 
Thacher, Jr., Saco ; David Legrow, Lebanon ; Gideon 
Elden, Josiah Paine, Edmund Woodman, Buxton ; John 
Low, John Burbank, Lyman ; John Leighton, Shapleigh ; 
David Marston, Abner Keazer, Parsonsfield ; Samuel Bra- 
deen, Henry Hobbs, Waterborough ; David Boyd, Liming- 
ton ; Thomas A. Johnson, Cornish ; John Holmes, Alfred ; 
Ellis B. Usher, Timothy Hodgdou, Hollis ; Benjamin 
Greene, South Berwick ; John Burnham, Limerick. 



Progress of the Profes.=ion of Law in Maine — Early Lawyers — Irregular 
Practice — Bar Regulations — Biographical Sketches — Customs of 
the Early Courts. 

During the exercise of royal authority in Massachusetts 
and Maine under the charter of 1691, the administration 

of justice went on pretty uniformly, and without essential 
changes. Li none of the common-law courts were any 
lawyers on the bench, except in the Superior Court, and in 
that, at intervals, only four, viz.. Judges Lyude, Dudley, 
Trowbridge, and William Gushing. The first act relating 
to attorneys was one passed in 1663, by which they were 
rendered ineligible to seats as deputies in the General Court. 
The next was passed in 1701, prescribing the form of oath 
to be taken on admission to the bar, and their fees, limiting 
them to " twelve shillings in the Superior Court, and ten 
shillings in the Inferior Court, and no more, any usage to 
the contrary notwithstanding." This could not be com- 
plained of, as the judges at this time did not receive over 
fifty pounds a year for their services. 

The clear and concise rules for legal practice published in 
the second volume of Reports were first introduced in 1806. 
They aimed, among other things, to maintain the character 
and purity of the profession. Examiners were appointed 
in each county consisting of the best qualified lawyers, 
who were carefully to examine candidates for 
both as attorneys to the Common Pleas and as 
to the Supreme Court. The requirements for admission 
were good moral character, three years' study with a coun- 
selor-at-law, if having graduated at a college ; otherwise 
the candidate was required faitlifully to devote seven years 
at least to the acquisition of scientific and legal knowledge, 
three years of which should be spent in professional studies 
with some counselor-at-law. This rule prevailed till 1843, 
when the Legislature of the State, under some strange in- 
fluence, enacted that "Any citizen of this State, of good 
moral character, on application to the Supreme Court, shall 
be admitted to practice as an attorney in the judicial courts 
of this State." The evil effects of this act were remedied 
in the act passed in 1859, by which " three or more persons 
learned in the law" were appointed in each county by the 
Supreme Court to " examine thoroughly into the qualifica- 
tions of applicants for admission to practice." No person 
could be admitted under this law without the certificate of 
the court, the payment of his dues, and the usual oath, 
which was the one originally prescribed. 

Willis, in his " History of the Courts and Lawyers of 
Maine," says that the profession of law made slow progress 
in the province, owing to the unsettled state of civil afiairs 
and trouble with the Indians, for more than a century after 
the beginning of colonization. " It was not until after all fear 
of Indian depredations had been removed that encourage- 
ment was given for permanent occupation and extensive 
improvement. And it was not, therefore, until that very 
period that educated lawyers began to seek this territory 
for the practice of their profession." 

Noah Emery, a native of Kittery, was the earliest resi- 
dent lawyer in Maine. Although not specially educated 
for the bar, he possessed much legal acumen and good abil- 
ities. His trade was that of a cooper, and he began the 
practice of law in 1725. He was descended from Anthony 
Emery, who came to America from Romsey, England, with 
his brother John, and settled in Kittery, where, and through 
Maine and New Hampshire, his descendants are numerous 



and many of them distinguished. Noah Emery was the 
sou of Daniel Emery and EHza, a daughter of William 
Gowen, and was born in that part of ancient Kittery now 
Eliot, Dec. 11, 1699. He married for his first wife Eliza- 
beth Chick, of Kittery, Jan. 22, 1722, and for hi.s second 
wife Mrs. Sarah Cooper, of Berwick, Oct. 30, 1740. His 
will, dated Jan. 1, 1761, was approved Jan. 6, 1762; in 
this he names but five children, viz., his eldest son Daniel, 
Noah, Richard, Japheth, and John. To Noah and Rich- 
ard he devLsed lands in New Hampshire, from which it is 
inferred by Mr. Willis that he was the ancestor of the Ex- 
eter family, in which the grandfather and father of Judge 
Nicholas Emery, formerly of Portland, were named Noah. 
They were probably the son and grandson of the subject of 
this notice. Mr. Emery had an extensive legal practice, 
and was several times, between 1741 and 1759, appointed 
king's attorney. He died in 1762. 


Caleb Emery, who was either a brother or a cousin of 
Noah Emery, succeeded him iu practice. He was admitted 
to the bar of the Common Pleas in York County in 1750, 
as appeal's fi-om a record of his oath before the Judges, Sir 
William Pepperell, Jeremiah Moultou, and Simon Frost. 
Besides his professional duties, Mr. Emery was generally 
employed in agricultural pursuits. He commenced prac- 
tice iu Kittery, whence he subsequently removed to York. 
In 1761 he was appointed king's attorney by the Common 
Pleas, — the duties of this ofijce being similar to that of 
county or district attorney at the present day. He retired 
from practice during the war of the Revolution, and ap- 
pears never to have resumed it. 


John Emery, another one of this family, was in practice 
as a lawyer in 1752 ; but little has been recorded of his 
connection with the courts, from which it has been inferred 
that his practice was not continued long. 

We find in Willis' '' History" the following notes of 
irregular practice taken from the York records : 

" In the July term, 1767, out of twenty-five entries, Thomas Brag- 
don, John Frost, Col. Donnell, anil Col. Sparhawk made ten, while 
John Sullivan made five, James Sullivan two, and David Sewall eight. 
In the April term, 1774, AVyer, of Falmouth, made twenty entries, 
Caleb Emery seven, Sewall thirty-two, James Sullivan twenty-four, 
and John Sullivan nine : irregular practitioners but six. John Adams 
(subsequently President of the United States), in his diary, speaks 
repeatedly of the evils arising from the practice of uneducated and 
ignorant men, as deputy sheriffs, etc., drawing writs and other pro- 
ceedings. It became so great an abuse that it was prohibited by law. 
Under date of 1763 (he says) the bar agreed upon four rules : 1st, That 
nobody should enter a suit but the plaintiff himself, or some sworn 
attorney, and that a general power should not be admitted. 2d. That 
no attorney's fee should be allowed where the declaration was not 
drawn by the plaintiff or a sworn attorney. :id, That no attendance 
should be taxed, unless the party attended personally, or by a sworn 
attorney. 4th, That no attorney be allowed to practice in the Su- 
perior or Inferior Courts, unless duly sworn. When these rules were 
preseused to the court for adoption, James Otis sharply opposed 
them, on the ground that * all schemes to suppress pettifoggers must 
re:, un ihe honor of the bar.' The luemljcrs of the bar were indig- 
nant at Otis for his opposition, and abused him without measure. 
Mr. Adams says that soon after his admission to the bar, in 175S, he 
ound the * practice of law was grasped into the hands of deputy 

sheriffs, pettifoggers, and even constables, who filled all the writs 
u]ion bonds, promissory notes, and accounts, and received the fees 
established for lawyers, and stirred up many unnecessary suits.'" 


David Sewall, a native of York, born in 1735, was de- 
scended from Henry Sewall, the first emigrant of the name, 
through John Sewall, son of Henry and brother of Chief 
Justice Stephen Sewall. He was a classmate at Harvard 
College with John Adams and Charles Cushing, where he 
graduated in 1755, and, after studying law with Judge 
William Parker, of Portsmouth, — whose daughter, Mary, 
he afterwards married, — established himself in practice at 
York in 1759. He continued to practice, with much suc- 
cess, in connection with his duties as register of probate, to 
which oflBce he was appointed in 1766, until his appointment 
as associate justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts 
in 1777. After an honorable service of twelve years in 
this court he was appointed by President Washington, in 
1789, a judge of the United States Court for the District 
of Maine. We give the commission, together with the com- 
mencement of the record of the court, which was made 
in the elegant handwriting of Henry Sewall, the first clerk : 

" Records of the District Court of the U. S., begun and held at Port- 
land, within and for the District of Maine, on the first Tuesday 
of December, a.d. 1789, being the fifth day of the same month. 
" The court being opened, the commissions following were read : 
[seal.] "George Washixgtox, President of the U. S. of A. 
"To all irho shall tee these presents, Greeting: 

" Know ye that, rei)Osing special trust and confidence in the wisdom, 
uprightness, and learning of David Sewall, of Maine District, Esq., I 
have nominated, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 

I appo 

him Judge 

, Cour 

nd fer the said Dis- 
trict ; and do authorize and empower him to execute and fulfill the 
duties of that office according to the Constitution and Laws of the 
U. S. And to have and to hold said office, with all the powers, priv- 
ileges, and emoluments to the same of right pertaineth unto to him, 
the said David Sewall, during his good behavior." 

The commission is dated Sept. 26, 1789, and signed 
" George Washington." 

Dec. 1, 1789, Judge Sewall took the oath prescribed by 
law before Samuel Freeman, Richard Codman, John Froth- 
ingham, and Daniel Davis, justices of the peace. 

On the same day the oaths prescribed by law were re- 
spectively administered by Judge Sewall to William Lith- 
gow, Jr., as district attorney, aud to Henry Dearborn as 
marshal, whose commissions also bear date Sept. 26, 1789. 

The next year after his appointment it fell to the lot oi 
Judge Sewall to have the first trial for piracy which had 
occurred under the new government. Tiie prisoner — 
Thomas Bird — was convicted and executed in Portland in 
June, 1790. Gen. Henry Dearborn was marshal, and 
officiated at the execution. Judge Sewall held this office 
until 1818, discharging its duties with great fidelity and 
urbanity, when the infirmities of age admonished him to 
retire from all active labors. He was president of the 
Board of Overseers of Bowdoin College fourteen years, 
and nearly seventeen years register of probate in I'ork 
County. He died in 1825, at the age of ninety, having 
filled the office of judge forty-one years. He left no fam- 
ily. Judge Sewall was a man of great bene 
suming iu his deportment, social and amiable i 
and of great purity of character. 


the oldest member of the York County bar, was born July IC, 
1794, at Minot Corners, Me. The name of Emery is of Nor- 
man origin ; was introduced into England in 1066 by Gilbert 
D' Armory, of Tours, in Normandy, a follower of William the 
Conqueror, and with him at the battle of Hastings. In 1635, 
John and son, John, and Anthony, his brother, born in Romsey, 
in Nantes, England, embarked from Southampton in the ship 
" James," Capt. Cooper, and landed in Boston, Mass., June 3d of 
that year. They at once proceeded to Newbury, where John 
settled, and died in 1683. Anthony came to Kittery, Me. 

Moses Emery's grandfather, Moses, came from Newbury, and 
settled in Minot, Androscoggin Co., where Moses Emery, Jr.^ 
father of the subject of this sketch, was born in 1772, and was 
the first white male child born in that town. He married 
Susannah Woodward, of Cape Ann, who was born in 1775, 
and died in 1845. He died 
in Minot, at the age of eighty- 
seven. Moses remained with 
his parents and grandparents 
until seventeen years of age, 
and became inured to more 
than ordinary hardships dur- 
ing boyhood. It was during 
this period of his life that he 
conceived the idea of obtaining 
an education. In this project 
he was strongly opposed by 
his father, who, like many men 
of the early days, thought 
manual labor the only way to 
obtain an honest livelihood. 

With the assistance of his 
Uncle Stephen, afterwards 
judge of probate, attorney-gen- 
eral, and judge of the District 
Court of Maine, he obtained 
some Latin books, and, unaided 
by teachers, during his times of 
rest and nights gained a good 
knowledge of Virgil, Sallust, 
and Cicero. In the fall of 
1813 he attended Bridgton 
Academy and pursued the 
study of Greek, and the fol- 
lowing winter taught school ; 

but his labors were all at once cut short, when his father came 
for him and he was obliged to return to the farm. During this 
experience away from home he had saved forty dollars, besides 
paying all his expenses. 

In 1814 he went to Brunswick after his Uncle Stephen to 
come to Minot to spend his vacation, and, through his influence 
while there, was examined, passed favorably by the board, re- 
ceived his ticket of admission to Bowdoin College, with leave of 
absence for one year. 

Upon his return home his certificate cleared him from a 
draft then being made to protect the country from the invasion 
of the British fleet, and was also a sudden surprise to his father, 
who knew nothing of his fitting for college, and at once put 
Moses in charge of his uncle, Nathan Emery, a Methodist 
minister in Brooklyn, N. Y., who got him a place in a dry-goods 
store on Broadway, New York, as cashier. In August, 1815, 
having reached his majority, he came to Boston by boat, 
thence to Brunswick on foot, and upon examination was admitted 
to the sophomore class of Bowdoin College, fron; which he grad- 

uated in 1818. During his college course he was a teacher at 
Brunswick, in the Buckfield High School and at Hebron Acad- 
emy, to get funds to complete his college course. In college he 
excelled in mathematics and the languages, and ever since he 
has had a fondness for their review, and even in 1879, at the 
age of eighty-four, he is engaged in a review of the Latin. 

Mr. Emery studied law with Judge Bailey, at Wiscasset, and 
was there admitted to the bar in August, 1821, where he re- 
mained in practice with the judge and by himself until August, 
1825, when he married Sarah C, daughter of Marshal Thorn- 
ton, and settled in Saco, where he has been in the practice of 
the law since. He found a galaxy of talent at the York bar. 
There were John Holmes, John and Ether Shipley, Daniel 
Goodenow, John Fairfield, Nathan Clifford, and others ; but he 
soon gained a large practice, and held it until he was sixty- 
five years old, when he began 
to give up his court practice to 
his son, George A., and has 
since confined himself to ofiice 

Mr. Emery was never a 
studied orator, but always 
aimed to reach the sympathies 
and the consciences of the jury. 
He always took a deep interest 
in equity cases, and such was 
his success that in nineteen 
eases he only lost two. He is 
known to the bar of York and 
adjoining counties as a lawyer 
of sound discretion, safe coun- 
selor, and honest in the trial 
of a cause, and his residence 
in Saco for a period of sixty- 
four years has made his name 
familiar, both as a citizen and 
a lawyer ; as a man, esteemed 
for his integrity of purpose, 
his honesty of conviction, and 
for his strong will power to 
carry forward whatever he con- 
ceives to be right to a success- 
ful issue. In politics he was 
a Whig until Webster made 
his 7th of March speech ; was a 
member of the county committee for twenty years, and of the 
State committee four years. Without solicitation on his part or 
being nominated, he was once voted for for member of Congress, 
and came within three hundred votes of an election. In 1836-37 
he was a member of the Legislature, and obtained against the 
opposition of the Portland delegation and John Holmes the 
charter of the Portland, Saco and Portsmouth Railroad, which 
charter he draughted. He has been fully identified with the 
interest of law and order and the education of the young ; and 
when his place in society becomes vacant the people of Saco will 
miss one of their most honored and useful citizens. 

His children living are Thornton C, of Nevada ; Charles C, 
a farmer in Kansas ; and George A., a graduate of Bowdoin in 
the class of '63, studied law with his father, was admitted to 
the bar in 1866, and has practiced law in Saco since. He was 
first judge of the Municipal Court of the city of Saco, from 
March, 1867, for four years ; appointed recorder in 1871 for 
four years ; acting judge, from April, 1873, to March, 1874 ; 
and reappointed recorder in March, 1878. 





Dauiel Sewall was born March 28, 1755. He was ap- 
pointed register of probate by Governor Hancock, March, 
1783, and held the office till 1820. In 1792 was appointed 
clerk of the Court of Common Pleas ; had been assistant 
clerk to Timothy Frost eleven years. His contract with 
Mr. Frost at first was to work for him from sun to sun for 
one shilling per day. When the law of 1797 made clerks 
of the Common Pleas recording clerks of the Supreme 
Court, he received that appointment for York County, and 
held it, with the exception of 1811, till 1820. He was 
appointed postmaster of York by Hon. Timothy Pickering 
in 1792, whicii office he retained fifteen years. In 1815 
to Kennebunk, where he died. 

Henry Sewall, already referred to as the first clerk of the 
District Court of the United States for Maine, was the 
eldest brother of Daniel Sewall, and was born Oct. 24, 1752 ; 
joined the army at the age of twenty-three and served hon- 
orably through the Revolution, rising to the rank of cap- 


Daniel Farnham was a lawyer of ability, who practiced 
extensively in the courts both of York and Cumberland 
Counties before the Revolution. He was a graduate of 
Harvard College in 1739, and was several times appointed 
county attorney for York County. He died in 1776, aged 
fifty-six years. His daughter, Sibyl, married Dr. Micajah 
Sawyer, a celebrated physician of Newburyport, and was 
the mother of Dr. William Sawyer, Harvard College, 1788, 
who died in Boston in 1859, aged eighty-eight. He left 
also a son, William. Levi Lincoln, the elder, of Worces- 
ter, studied law with Mr. Farnham. 


James Sullivan was among the most prominent and 
widely-known lawyers of this county. He was born in 
Berwick in 1744, studied law with his brother John, in 
Durham, New Hampshire, and opened an office in George- 
town, on the Kennebec, in 1767. He remained there but 
two years, when he removed to Biddeford. He was a very 
active and influential Whig at the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tion, and from its commencement to the close of his life, in 
1808, was constantly in official stations, as member of the 
Provincial and Continental Congresses, member of the 
Legislature, commissary of troops, judge of the Superior 
Court, attorney -general, commissioner of tiie United States, 
and Governor of Massachusetts. He died Dec. 10, 1808. 
Amidst all these multiplied duties, he found time to engage 
largely in literary labors, as the historian of Maine, a con- 
tributor to the collections of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, of which he was a prime mover and the first pres- 
ident, and, as a politician, to the public press. No man of 
his time was more full of active and successful labor than 
this accomplished lawyer and able advocate. 

At a meeting of gentlemen from several towns, held in 
Falmouth, Nov. 4, 1775, at Col. Tyng's house. Col. 
Mitchell moderator, " Mr. James Sullivan was chosen 

commander-in-chief of the militia and other companies 
now in pay in the province." " Voted, that four persons 
be appointed to assist Mr. Sullivan. Voted, that Col. 
Mitchell be second in command ; Col. Fogg, third." Mr. 
Sullivan was then but thirty-one years old. 

The following characteristic language is from a letter by 
him to Samuel Freeman, then in the Provincial Congress, 
Jan. 21, 1776: 

" I am surprised the militia bill is where you mention in your last. 
I fear our country will owe its destruction to thesqueamishncss of our 
General Court. Bold and manly strides are necessary in war ; what 
is ilone amiss in war may be set right in time of peace." 

" No lawyer," says Willis, " was thought better able than he to com- 
pete with the able jurists of Massaohu.setts ; and he and Par.=ons were 
very often engaged on opposite sides of a controversy, when the con- 
flict was severe, and in a high degree interesting. Their strong an- 
tagonism in politics also gave a zest to their encounters ; which, how- 
ever, from men of such superior intellect, were generally courteous 
and respectful. On one occasion Sullivan became much excited in a 
cause in which he was opposed by Parsons, and e.\claimed, ' I thank 
God, I never took a bribe from any man.' Parsons coolly replied, * I 
thank God. I never met a man who dared oH'er me one.' " 

It has been said that Governor Sullivan, when engaged 
in the examination of aged witnesses in court, would often 
lead his inquiries into a historical line, in order to extract 
information which would enable him to accumulate mate- 
rials for his " History of Maine." 

Biographies of these distinguished men have recently 
been published in extended form, — that of Parsons, by his 
son, the Professor of Law at Harvard, and that of Sulli- 
van by his grandson, Blr. Amory, of Boston. 

The three brothers, John, Ebenezer, and James Sulli- 
van, were all distinguished men. They possessed ability, 
wit, and astuteness, which they inherited from both father 
and mother, who were natives of Ireland, and settled in this 
county in 1723. The father, William Sullivan, was a 
highly-educated man, well skilled in classical literature, and 
a teacher of the classics. He died in Berwick, in 1796, at 
the age of one hundred and four years. The son, John, 
after trying his hand at sea, studied law in the office of Mr. 
Livermore, of Portsmouth, commenced practice in New 
Market, New Hampshire, whence he soon moved to Dur- 
ham, where he occupied a high position as a lawyer, gen- 
eral, member of Congress, attorney-general, and President 
of New Hampshire, and died, aged fifty-four, in 1795. 

William Symmes, a famous lawyer of Portland, fre- 
quently attended the courts in York. In the course of a 
trial in an action of trespass concerning a lot of boards, 
Symmes, in his formal, dignified manner, spoke of the 
" sanctity" of this pile of lumber. Ebenezer Sullivan and 
other members of the bar were amused with the use of the 
word in that connection, and Sullivan wrote an impromptu 
nearly as follows : 

" Moses of old, who led the Jewish race, 
Forbid but one, and that the holy place; 
Even God himself forbade that wood or stone 
Should have the homage due to Him .alone ; 
But Symmes, with wisdom greater than divine. 
Finds sanctity in boards and slabs of pine." 

It was very common for the wits of the bar at that time 
to amuse themselves in writing squibs and bon »io<3»during 

the tedious processes of trials. 



It was the custom among the early members of the 
courts while on the circuits to have evening gatherings, at 
which the favorite beverages of the day, flip and punch, 
were freely circulated ; and the gay seasons were often pro- 
tracted through the long hours of the night. On these 
occasions they frequently held mock courts, in which one 
of their number was appointed judge, and trials took place 
for breaches of good fellowship, or some imaginary offenses. 
On one of these occasions, in York County, Mr. Lowell, 
afterwards United States judge, arrived during the session 
of the court at Biddeford, and tying his horse at the door 
of the tavern, went in to seek lodgings. But the landlord 
being unable to accommodate him, he was obliged to obtain 
other quarters, and inadvertently left his horse all night at 
the door where he was first hitched. This was considered 
in the mock court a high offense, for which he was called 
to answer ; the landlord was also placed on trial for the 
neglect of the horse. David Farnham was appointed judge. 
After a long hearing and argument, the landlord was fined 
a bowl of good punch for his neglect, and Lowell was fined 
twice as much for suffering the poor animal to remain all 
night at the door. The sentence was carried into imme- 
diate execution. Mr. Lowell, born in Newbury, in 1743, 
became a distinguished judge of the United States Court, 
and father of the no less distinguished sons, John, Francis 
C, and Charles Lowell. He died in 1802.* 

" On another occasion, Noah Emery was accused of call- 
ing High-Sheriff Leightou a fool. For this weighty offense 
he was brought before the court, and the allegation being 
proved, the court, taking into consideration the circum- 
stances of the offense, ordered Emery to pay one pipe 
of tobacco, and the sheriff to pay one mug of flip for de- 
serving the appellation. The equity of this admirable 
institution will be at once perceived in the exact justice 
that was measured out to both parties, the penalties always 
inuring to the benefit of the company, of which both ac- 
cuser and accused were partakers." 


The successor of Mr. Sullivan at Biddeford was George 
Thacher, a descendant from Anthony Thacher, who came 
to this country in 1633. Mr. Thacher was born at Yar- 
mouth, Cape Cod, April 12, 1754. His father was Peter 
Thacher, and his mother a daughter of Geoige Lewis, of 
Barnstable. He graduated at Harvard in 1776, and pur- 
sued what was then a common path from college to the 
bar, that of school-teaching, while preparing for his profes- 
sion. He studied law with Shearjashub Bourne, of Barn- 
stable, and commenced practice in York in 1780 or 1781. 
In 1782 he removed to Biddeford, where the greater part 
of his life was spent. In 1788, Mr. Thacher was elected a 
member of the old Congress ; on the adoption of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, Maine was constituted one 
district, and he was elected the first representative from 
Maine in the new Congress. He held the office by succes- 
sive elections till 1801, when, on being appointed a judge 
of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, he resigned his 

Courts of Ma 

, p. 102. 

seat. He was the only representative from Maine till 1793, 
when it became entitled to three representatives, and Peleg 
Wad!5worth, of Portland, and Henry Dearborn, of Gardiner, 
were chosen as his colleagues. 

While in Congress Judge Thacher took an active part in 
the important debates of the times, and his speeches were 
able and forcible, and rendered peculiarly effective by his 
masterly wit and satire. The anecdote of the challenge 
sent to him while in Congress is familiar. A member had 
offered a proposition that the coin to be issued from the 
mint should bear the figure of an eagle. Mr. Thacher, by 
way of banter, offered an amendment, that the effigy should 
be a goose, for the old bird, said he, could be represented 
upon the large pieces, while the goslings would be suitable 
for the small ones. This he sustained in a humorous 
speech, which kept the House in a merry mood ; he 
alluded to the fitct that Rome had once been saved from 
the barbarians by the cackling of geese. The mover of 
the bill, assuming that this was an attempt to insult him, 
sent a challenge. Mr. Thacher told the bearer that he had 
no right to hazard his life on such chances, but would write 
to his wife, and if she consented he would accept the chal- 
lenge. But as a compromise, he proposed that his figure 
might be marked on a barn-door, and if the challenger, 
standing at the proper distance, hit it, he would acknowl- 
edge himself shot. The gentleman's friends finding they 
could do nothing with Mr. Thacher, abandoned the matter. 

Judge Thacher was a sound and acute lawyer, and a 
good general scholar. He carried to the bench a mind 
well stored with legal principles, and a memory always 
ready to furnish, from its ample stores, authority for unre- 
ported cases and fitting illustrations from observation and 
general literature. His integrity and impartiality were 
never questioned, though his manner upon the bench was 
not always pleasant. He was a man of genial temper in 
private life, of agreeable social habits, and remarkable con- 
versational powers. Judge Thacher married, July 20, 
1784, Mary, daughter of Samuel Phillips Savage, of 
Weston, Mass., by whom he had five sons and five daugh- 
ters, all of whom but one daughter survived him. Of the 
sons, George and Samuel Phillips Savage were educated 
for the bar, and, after many years' practice, are both dead. 
In his domestic relations Judge Thacher was a kind and 
indulgent husband and father, and his dwelling of peaceful 
enjoyment and generous hospitality. He continued upon 
the bench until January, 1824, and died in April of that 


Dudley Hul)bard was the first regularly educated lawyer 
who settled in South Berwick. He was born in Ipswich, 
Mass., March 3, 1763, and was probably descended from 
Col. Nathaniel Hubbard. He graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege, in the class of 1786, with Timothy Bigelow, Alden 
Bradford, and Chief Justice Parker. On leaving college 
he immediately commenced the study of his profession 
with Daniel Davis, of Portland ; was admitted to the bar 
in Cumberland County in 1789, and established himself in 
that part of Berwick which, in 1814, was incorporated as 
South Berwick. This was a beautifiil and prosperous vil- 
lage, containing an unusual number of well-educated and 



cultivated persons. Ebenezer Sullivan, a brother of John 
and James, was then in practice there. He was brilliant 
and eloquent, like his brothers, but irregular and desultory 
in his habits. He had served in the army of the Revolu- 
tion, and was captain of one of the two companies raised 
in South Berwick at the beginning of the war. He after- 
wards commanded a force on the western frontier in sub- 
duing the Indians. 

Mr. Hubbard soon rose to prominence in his profession, 
many of his clients being from Boston, with which Ber- 
wick was much connected in trade. He was for many 
years the leading lawyer of the York bar, and occasionally 
practiced in other counties. Being a very eloquent advo- 
cate, and uniting with a fine personal appearance, a pleasing 
address and dignified manners, he was soon introduced to 
an extensive and lucrative practice. His large business and 
standing at the bar drew numerous students to his office, 
among whom were some who became prominent in sub- 
sequent years, — such as Edward P. Hayman, Benjamin 
Greene, George W. Wallingford, William A. Hayes, Wil- 
liam Lambert, and Ether Shepley, late chief justice of 

The following anecdote is related of Mr. Hubbard and 
Judge Dana, of Fryeburg. On the first appearance of the 
latter in York County court, near the close of the last cen- 
tury, he took a letter of introduction to Mr. Hubbard. 
But he seemed to him so formal and distant in his de- 
meanor that he did not present the letter. Dana met there 
his classmate. Judge Nicholas Emery, who had just estab- 
lished himself at Parsonsfield, and was also attending his 
first term. As they were jogging on together towards 
home, on horseback, Dana told Emery about his letter to 
Hubbard. Emery replied that he also had a similar letter 
which he had declined presenting for the same reason. 
This shows how the reputation and dignity of Mr. Hub- 
bard overawed these modest young men. At that period 
the intercourse between the older and younger members of 
the bar was much less free than at the present day. 

Mr. Hubbard's fine conversational powers and agreeable 
address gave him the entree into the best society, not 
only at home, but in Portsmouth, Boston, and Montreal, 
where he went occasionally to visit his wife's friends. In 
consequence of a style of living and social entertainment 
beyond his income or means, he became later in life em- 
barrassed and despondent, and his cares pressing upon him, 
were supposed to have shortened his days. He died sud- 
denly, April 26, 1816, at the age of fifty-three. 

Mr. Hubbard married Olive Dame, of Trois Rivieres, 
Canada, a lady of great personal beauty and accomplish- 
ments, who survived her husband but a few years. She 
was educated at a convent in Montreal. They left one 
daughter, who married Benjamin Nason, of South Berwick, 
and the daughter of the latter is the wife of Edward E. 
Bourne, Jr., of Kennebunk, son of Judge Edward E. 


George Stacy, another member of the York bar, was con- 
temporary with Mr. Hubbard. He, too, was a native of 
Ipswich, born in 1764, and graduated at Harvard College 
in 1784. After beiuy; admitted to the bar he established 

himself at Biddeford about 1789, where his career as an 
attorney was short, owing to some social irregularity which 
obliged him to make a sudden departure from the place. 
He was afterwards consul at the Isle of France, and died 
at St. Mary, Georgia, in 1808. 

Prentiss Mellen, the distinguished chief justice of Maine, 
became a practitioner of law at Biddeford in July, 1792. 
He was the eighth of nine children of Rev. John Mellen, 
of Sterling, Mass., and was born in that town Oct. 11, 
1764. His mother was Rebecca Prentiss, daughter of Rev. 
John Prentiss, of Lancaster. His eldest brother, Henry, 
and himself were fitted for college by their father, who was 
a graduate of Harvard in 1741, and entered Harvard to- 
gether in 1780, from which they took their degree in 1784, 
in the same with John Abbott, Silas Lee, and others 
of future distinction. For a year after graduating, Mr. 
Mellen was a private tutor in the family of Joseph Otis, at 
Barnstable, where he pursued his legal studies in the office 
of Shearjasbub Bourne, and was admitted to the bar in 
Taunton in 1788. On that occasion, in conformity with an 
ancient custom, he treated the court and bar to half a pail 
of punch. His own version of the treat was as follows: 
" According to the fashion of that day, on the great oc- 
casion, I treated the judges and all the lawyers with about 
half a pail of punch, which treating aforesaid was com- 
monly called the ' colt's tail.' " 

Mr. Mellen, after practicing in Bridgewater till November, 
1791, was induced to remove the next year to Biddeford 
through the influence of his firm and constant friend. Judge 
Thacher, who was then representative in Congress. Here he 
commenced that career of successful and honorable practice 
which placed him at the head of the bar in Maine, and at 
the head of the highest judicial tribunal of the State. His 
beginning in Biddeford was of the most humble kind, and 
may give an idea of what professional men had to endure 
in that day. " I opened," he said, " my office in one of 
old Squire Hooper's front chambers, in which were then 
arranged three beds and half a table and one chair. My 
clients had the privilege of sitting on some of the beds. In 
this room I slept, as did also sundry travelers, frequently, 
the house being a tavern." The population of Biddeford 
did not then exceed eleven hundred, and that of the whole 
county, which embraced a large part of Oxford, was about 
twenty-eight thousand, — all served by three attorneys, viz., 
Dudley Hubbard, of Berwick, and Messrs. Thacher and 
Mellen, of Biddeford. There was then one term of the 
Common Pleas Court held at Biddeford, and one term of 
the Supreme Court at York for the year in this county, and 
one term of the Supreme Court in each of the counties of 
Cumberland and Lincoln for jury trials, which was all the 
favor the highest judicial tribunal was then permitted to ex- 
tend to the district of Maine. The law term for Maine was 
held in Boston, and the records kept there. Governor Sulli- 
van, who had practiced here, had removed to Boston, and at 
the time of which we are speaking was attorney-general of 

From 1804 till his appointment as chief justice in 1820, 
Mr. Mellen practiced in every county in the State, and was 


engaged in every prominent cause. In 1806, his practice 
in Cumberland County beeomiug extensive, he removed to 
Porthmd, where he met able and accomplished rivals in such 
men as Hopkins, Symmes, Davis, Chase, and Whitman ; 
but he was the peer of the best legal talent of the State. 
" His most constant opponent," said Professor Greenleaf, 
" was Judge Wilde : their forensic warfare, adopted by tacit 
consent, was to place the cause on its merits, produce all 
the facts, and fight the battle in open field." 

The life of Mr. Mellen was not entirely absorbed by his 
profession. In 1808, '9, and '17 he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council of Massachusetts, and in 1817 
an elector at large for President. In 1817, while he held 
the ofiice of councillor, he was chosen a senator from Mas- 
sachusetts in Congress, with Harrison Gray Otis as his 
colleague. This situation he held till Maine was organ- 
ized as a State, when, July 20th, he was appointed chief 
justice of the Supreme Court, receiving the same year the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from both Harvard and 
Bowdoiu Colleges. 

He continued to discharge the laborious duties of chief 
justice with singular fidelity and ability until October, 
1834, when, having attained the age of seventy, he became 
constitutionally disqualified for the ofiice. His able decis- 
ions and eminent labors in contributing to the first eleven 
volumes of the Maine Reports are no small share of the 
services he rendered to the jurisprudence of his country. 
Says a late biographer, — 

"Never were strict integrity, nor a more earnest desire to remler 
exact justice in every case, carried to the bench, and no judge ever 
performed his duties more conscientiously," 

During the two years from 1838 to 1840 he was at the 
head of a commission appointed by the executive to codify 
the public statutes of the State, the whole of which was 
completed under his supervision, embracing one hundred 
and seventy-eight chapters under twelve titles. This was 
adopted by the Legislature, and constituted the first volume 
of the Revised Statutes. This labor was the last public 
service of his long and useful life. He died on the last 
day of the year 1840, aged seventy-six years. 

The Cumberland Bar erected a solid and durable marble 
monument to his memory, with suitable inscriptions, in the 
cemetery at Portland, over his remains. 

His six children by his marriage with Miss Sally Hud- 
son, of Hartford, were all born in Biddeford. His oldest 
son, Grenville, a graduate of Harvard, 1818, is well known 
as a literary man and poet. He died in 1841. His son 
Frederick graduated at Bowdoin in 1825, and became an 
artist. He died in 1834. His daughters are also de- 


Edward Payne Haymau was a lawyer of South Berwick, 
who studied in the office of Dudley Hubbard, and was ad- 
mitted to the York bar in November, 1769. In 1800 he 
was elected clerk of the Senate of Massachusetts, The 
same year he was appointed assistant clerk of the Supreme 
Court, and the next year one the clerks of the Circuit 
Court, an office which embraced also the county of Essex, 
and which he held till the organization of the new govern- 
ment of Maine, in 1820, the duties of which he promptly 

and faithfully discharged. He returned to his profession 
on leaving the office; but was summoned from it in 1823, 
to assume the duties of cashier of the South Berwick 
Bank, incorporated that year, an office which he held till 
the time of his death, Dec. 25, 1831. 

Mr. Hayman was born in Boston, Feb, 22, 1771, the 
second son of Capt, William Hayman, He was a well-read 
and able lawyer, exceedingly methodical and exact in all 
his labors and practice. He married, in 1809, Sarah, a 
daughter of Rev, John Thompson, of South Berwick, and 
had several children, who survived him. As clerk of the 
Supreme Court of Massachusetts, he has been spoken of as 
" a model in that department of life," and also in " fidelity 
to all his trusts." 


Cyrus King was the son of Richard King, of Scarbor- 
ough, by his second wife, Jlary, a daughter of Samuel 
Blake, of York, He was born in Scarborough, Sept, 6, 
1772. His father was an eminent citizen of that town, to 
which he moved in 1746, from Watertown, Mass., where 
he had been engaged in commercial business, which he also 
carried on extensively in Scarborough, accumulating a large 
fortune, which is still enjoyed by some of his descendants. 
No family in the State has been so productive of distin- 
tinguished persons as this. The oldest son by his first 
wife, Isabella Bragdon, of York, Rufus King, was eminent 
and prominent in the civil history of the country, from the 
time of his graduation at Harvard, in 1717, to his death 
in 1829. The own brother of Cyrus, William King, of 
Bath, was the first Governor of Maine, and held numerous 
other offices of high trust under the State and general gov- 
ernments, which he ably discharged. The women of this 
family were the Doric mothers of children of much ability 
and usefulness. Mary married Dr. Robert Southgate, 
whose numerous family were conspicuous in the early part 
of this century ; Paulina married Dr, Allen Potter ; and 
Dorcas married Joseph Leland, of Saco ; and their blood 
flows through many channels, inspiring energy and use- 

Cyrus King was the fourth son and youngest child of 
Richard, and was two and a half years old when his father 
died ; but his mother lived to watch over and guide the 
expanding faculties of her son, and to enjoy the honors 
which he acquired. She died in 1816. 

Mr. King was fitted for college at Phillips Academy, at 
Andover, and entered Columbia College, New York, in 
1790, from which he graduated with the highest honors 
of his class. He commenced the study of law with his 
brother Rufus, in New York, who was then a senator in 
Congress, and on his being appointed ambassador to Eng- 
land, he accompanied him as his private secretary. He 
remained abroad one year, and returning, completed his 
legal studies in the office of Chief Justice Mellen, at Bid- 
deford, and was admitted to the bar in 1797. 

We cannot better portray the opening career of Mr. 
King than by adopting the language of Mr. Folsom in his 
" History of Saco and Biddeford" : 

" Possessing brilliant and highly-cultivated powers of mind, united 
with habits of patient and zealous application, Mr. King soon rose to 
eminence in the profession. As an advocate he was unrivaled; his 



style of speaking was elevated and commanding, rich in the higher 
graces of polished oratory, and at the same time argumentative and 
convincing. His addresses were more like an impetuous torrent than 
a smooth and gentle stream. 

" His ardent temperament and impetuosity as an advocate some- 
times carried him. in his addresses to a court and jury, beyond the 
limits prescribed in some of Hamlet's instructions to the players." 

But he was a sound lawyer and a safe counselor. 

At the height of party feeling growing out of the dec- 
laration of war under Mr. Madison's administration, Mr. 
King was elected in 1812 to the Thirteenth Congress, the 
representative of the York District, as successor to Col. 
Richard Cutts, who had held the office from 1800 ; and he 
was re-elected for the next term. He was an ardent and 
zealous member of the Federal party, and entered into all 
their measures in opposition to the war with the same 
heartiness and vehemence which characterized his impas- 
sioned addresses at the bar. He took a very active part in 
the debates through the four years that he held a seat in 
Congress, and at times rose to a height of eloquence rarely 
surpassed in that body. Henry Clay was Speaker during 
the whole period. The Federalists, though in a small 
minority, had great ability among their representatives, 
and it is said that none displayed the graces and force of 
oratory, or commanded more attention, than Mr. King. 
Among the latest of his addresses in the House was a 
speech on the repeal of the internal duties : he spoke on 
the 19th of February, 1817, at considerable length and 
with great fervor. He returned home at the close of the 
session, March 3d, and died suddenly at Saco, April 25th, 
deeply lamented by all who knew him. 

His wife, whom he married in October, 1797, was Han- 
nah, daughter of Capt. Seth Storer, of Saco, by whom he 
had one son, William Rufus, and several daughters. His 
son graduated at Bowdoin College in 1823, became a law- 
yer, and moved to the West, where he died in 1836. 


BBWCH AND BAH— (Continued). 

Lawyers at Difierent Periods in Maine — Lawyers in York County in 
1800— Comparative Time Consumed in Causes— Long Tenure of 
Office— Biographies of Members of the Bar and Courts. 

The lawyers at diiferent periods in Maine are thus 
summed up by Mr. Willis : 

" In 1800 the number of lawyers was Jiflij -three. The population 
of Maine at that time was 151,719. In 1820, the date of separation, 
the population had nearly doubled, being 298,335. The number of 
lawyers had increased to two hundred and seven. In 1840 they had 
more than doubled, being /<»«;■ hundred and thirti/seven, distributed 
among the counties as follows: York, .34; Cumberland, 66; Lincoln, 
49 ; Oxford, 26 ; Franklin, 20 ; Kennebec, 59 ; Penobscot, 74 ; Han- 
cock, 12; Somerset, 2.5; Piscataquis, 10; Washington, 29; Waldo, 29; 
Aroostook, 4. Bangor, with a population of 8634, had forty-eight 
lawyers ; Portland, with a population of 15,218, had thirty-seren. In 
1860 the number enrolled in the profession was five hundred and 
tu-enty-nine, the population of the State being 628,801. 

" The lawyers in York County, in 1800, were Prentiss Mellen, Cyrns 
King, George Thacher, Ebenezer Sullivan, Judah Dana, Nicholas 
Emery, Edw.ard P. Hayman, John Holmes, Dudley Hubbard, George 
W. Wallingford, Joseph Thomas, Temple Hovey." 

The customs of the bar and mode of conducting busi- 
ness of the courts have very much changed. In the early 
days bar-meetings were regularly hold, and the openings of 
the courts were always attended by a procession of the 
judges and lawyers, preceded by the sheriff and his depu- 
ties, — the former in his official costume, with staff, sword, 
cocked hat, blue coat, and buff vest. Before the days of 
bells the opening of court was announced by the beating 
of drums, or by a crier going through the streets. In the 
proceedings of the courts the lawyers were much more 
concise in their arguments, both to the court and the jury. 
Mr. Parsons, in his interesting memoir of his father, the 
distinguished chief justice, says he was seldom over half an 
hour in his addresses to a jury, and these were directed 
without ornament to make clear and plain to their minds 
the precise point of the case. And Chief Justice Mellen, 
in an article written for " Coleman's Miscellany" in 1839, 
observes, — 

" Thirty or forty years ago a cause was argued in half an hour, or 
an hour at the most, which now demands half a day; and in accom- 
plishing the task there is as much circum-round-about declamation, 
phraseology, and traveling backwards and forwards, as there was in 
Corporal Trim's story to Uncle Toby, about the king of Bohemia and 
his seven castles.'' 

The long tenure of office and the multiplication of offi- 
ces in the same hands were striking features of the early 
courts. In York County John Wheelwright was thirty 
years judge of probate and of the Common Pleas ; Simon 
Frost was register of probate, clerk of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, and register of deeds twenty years, or there- 
abouts, from the middle of the last century ; Daniel Sewall 
was thirty-seven years register of probate, and about thirty 
years clerk of the courts ; Ichabod Goodwin was sheriflF 
twenty-seven years. Mr. Sewall moved from York to Ken- 
nebunk in 1815. He retired from his long official services 
upon the reorganization of the courts under the State in 
1820, at the age of seventy-five, to spend the remainder of 
his days amidst the enjoyments of a cheerful and happy 
family circle, and in communion with books, in which from 
childhood he had taken great satisfaction. 


John Holmes was for many years one of the most promi- 
nent lawyers of Maine. He was the son of Malchiah 
Holmes, and was born in Kingston, Mass., in March, 1773. 
His early life was passed as a manufacturer in the extensive 
iron-works of his father in his native town, where his in- 
telligence attracted the village school-teacher, who advised 
his father to give him an education. After some prepara- 
tory study he was admitted to Brown University, one year 
in advance, in 1793, and graduated in 1796. He imme- 
diately entered upon the study of law with Benjamin 
Whitman, at Hanover, and was admitted to the bar in 
1799. The same year he resolved to seek his fortune in 
the eastern country, and in pursuance of his purpose settled 
in Alfred, in this county, in the month of September, then 
a district of the town of Sanford, and containing about eight 
hundred and fifty inhabitants. The town was not incor- 
porated till 1808, but it afforded a favorable opportunity for 
a talented young lawyer to rise in the profession. Mr. 
Holmes was for several years the only attorney in the 


neighborhood. The titles to land in that part of the 
country were in an imperfect and unsettled state ; the set- 
tlers had made their pitches upon vacant spots in what was 
called the Fluellen or Phillips grant, and made their im- 
provements without a shadow of title. The proprietors had 
just begun to make an investigation of their rights. Mr. 
Holmes was employed by them for thi.s purpose, and pur- 
sued the inquiry and the prosecution of claims witli great 
industry and success. Many actions were necessarily 
brought, and much exasperated litigation was the conse- 
quence, which called forth great legal talent from Maine 
and Massachusetts, and settled some very important ques- 
tions of law and real estate. 

These cases brought Mr. Holmes into extensive practice, 
and a familiar acquaintance with the laws relating to titles. 
At the time Mr. Holmes commenced practice the Supreme 
Court was composed of Chief Justice Dana, and Justices 
Paine, Bradbury, Nathan Gushing, and Dawes, and was 
held at York once a year. The Common Pleas consisted of 
Nathaniel Wells, Edward Cutts, Jonas Clark, and Simon 
Frye, none of whom were educated as lawyers. There 
were three terms a year of this court, held respectively at 
York, Waterborough, and Biddeford. 

The courts in York, besides their own lawyers, were at- 
tended by the late Chief Justice Parker, Mr. Symmes, and 
Solicitor Davis, of Portland, some New Hampshire lawyers, 
and occasionally by a professional gentleman from Massa- 
chusetts. The judges and lawyers, on account of the bad- 
ness of the roads, generally performed their circuits on 
horseback, and often met with poor fare and rough usage; 
but they usually contrived to season these adversities with 
merriment and good fellowship, to which Paine, Davis, and 
Thacher contributed not a little. The mail was also trans- 
ported on horseback, and it is related that a respectable 
lawyer, on one occasion, as he was passing through the 
Saco wood, met the mail-carrier, and as he was expecting a 
letter from Boston by the mail, which only came once or 
twice a week, he requested the carrier to examine the mail 
there in the woods and see if his letter was not in it. The 
accommodating rider took oiF his mail-bag without hesita- 
tion, poured the contents upon the ground, and they both 
went to work searching for the desired object, which was 
soon found, as the pile to look over was not large. The 
number of lawyers in Maine at this time was forty-five, of 
whom ten resided in the county of York, viz., the late 
Chief Justice JNIellen, and Judge George Thacher, of Bid- 
deford ; Cyrus King, of Saco ; Dudley Hubbard, Ebenezer 
Sullivan, and Edward P. Hayman, of Berwick ; Joseph 
Thomas and George W. Wallingford, of Kennebuuk ; Ju- 
dah Dana, of Fryeburg; and Nicholas Emery, of Parsons- 
field. These were all distinguished in their profession, and 
most of them in public life. 

Mr. Holmes was a good lawyer ; while he was not defi- 
cient in logic and sound argument, few men knew how to 
handle the weapons of wit with more skill and effect. An 
opportunity was rarely lost by him of exhibiting his oppo- 
nent in a ridiculous position. An instance of this kind 
occurred in the Senate of the United States, in the discus- 
sion on nullification. Mr. Tyler alluded to a satirical re- 
mark of John Randolph, in which that gentleman had 

some time before designated certain active politicians as 
partnere, under the firm-name of " James Madison. Felix 
Grundy, John Holmes, and the Devil," and a.sked Mr. 
Holmes, with a view of making a severe cut, what had 
become of that celebrated firm. Mr. Holmes immediately 
sprang to his feet, and said, '' Mr. President, I will tell 
the gentleman what has become of that firm : the first 
member is dead, and the second has gone into retirement, 
and the last has gone to the nullifiers, and is now elec- 
tioneering among the gentleman's constituents ! and thus 
the partnership is legally dissolved." The laugh produced 
on the occasion was wholly at the expense of Mr. Tyler. 

Many similar anecdotes illustrative of his ready wit might 
be related. He was once assisting a client in the survey of 
a parcel of land, about which he was quarreling with his 
neighbor. Neither of the parties was of unimpeachable 
character. As they were passing through a portion of the 
disputed territory, they came to a swamp covered with 
bushes and almost impassable. One of the litigants said 
to Mr. Holmes, " This, 'Squire, is the devil's hop-yard." 
" Ah !" said he ; " then I think the devil must be dead, for 
I see his sons are quarreling for the inheritance." " Then 
you expect to prevail," said the opposing counsel, " as your 
client is the oldest heir." "It is not certain," said he; 
" my client, to be sure, is the oldest, but yours Is the most 

During a portion of the time of Mr. Holmes' practice, 
Joseph Bartlett also practiced at the Y^ork County bar.- 
He was a graduate of Harvard, of the class of 1782, and 
settled first in Woburn, 3Iass., but came to Saco in 1802. 
He was a fine scholar, a man of polished wit and insinu- 
ating manners, and possessed a peculiar influence over the 
minds of young men. In other respects he was profligate and 
unprincipled, and ended a career which began with much 
promise in shame and disgrace. 

Mr. Holmes was not content with the quiet pursuit of 
professional duties, but participated largely in the political 
contests of his time. He began life as a Federalist of the 
old school, and was elected by that party in 1802 and 1808 
to the Massachusetts Legislature, from Sanford and Alfred. 
It was not till a considerably later day that the decline of 
Federalism in Maine, and the increase and strength of 
Democratic sentiments, compelled him to change over to 
the popular current. As late as 1810 his wit and sarcasm 
were exhibited in song, taking off' the doings of a Demo- 
cratic caucus held that year in Kennebunk for the purpose 
of nominating candidates. It was said by their opponents 
that they determined at this caucus to try the efiScacy of 
treating at the election. Mr. Holmes, with a good deal of 
tact, satirized this in six published stanzas, from which 
we take the first and the last. 


" SOXG. 

•• The York County Vemus of late held a meeting : 
The object was great, but the party was small. 
The marshal had issued his circular, greeting. 
To tag, rag, and bob-tail to meet at the call. 
" He called for attention 
While he made objection 
To Gore's re-election, 

And wished they'd be mum : 


But while he was stating 

The cause of the meeting. 

The Caucus was parting, 

And calling for — rum. 

* So bribing the printer, and treating the voters, 
Was the plan they adopted the elections to carry, 
And ride by the help of those tipsy supporters, 
Into office by votes they had purchased for Gernj. 

*' When all shouted apjtlause 
To the Jacobin cause, 
And declared by the laws 
They would never be dumb ; 


3lV ! 

Than to re-elect Uuie 
They had rather give more 
Than a hogshead of rum.'^ 

In the latter part of 1811 he became the advocate of the 
national administration and the war measures of Mr. Madi- 
son, and on the next election was returned a representative 
to the General Court from Alfred. So proud were his new 
friends of their acquisition that he was put forward at once 
as their candidate for Speaker of the House in opposition 
to the old incumbent, Timothy Bigelow. A large majority 
of the House were the political friends of Mr. Bigelow, and 
he was re-elected : but Mr. Holmes became an untiring 
assailant of the measures of the majority, and an active 
leader of the party he had espoused. He was elected to 
the Senate of Massachusetts in 1813, and continued a mem- 
ber of that body during the trials and excitements of the 
war, boldly and ably sustaining the policy of the national 
government, and contending, with unabated ardor, against 
all the anti-war measures of Massachusetts. He was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-colonel in Col. Lane's Regiment, United 
States Army, in 1813, but declined the appointment. 

The struggle of Mr. Holmes against all the opposition, 
sarcasm, and ridicule of his former associates, now his po- 
litical enemies, exhibits in a strong light his great abilities 
and wonderful resources in self-defense and in the main- 
tenance of his influence and popularity. The keen severity 
of Daniel A. White, the polished irony of Harrison Gray 
Otis, the caustic humor of Josiah Quincy and Judge Put- 
nam were not spared in the frequent and sharp encounters 
which the political heat of the day engendered. And it 
would be doing great injustice to Mr. Holmes not to say 
that he sustained himself with great ability in these trying 
and unequal contests. For wit he returned wit in full 
measure ; for argument, argument ; for coolness, courage, and 
self-command, he was the equal of his opponents, and 
for readiness to turn the current against them in debate 
more than a match for his ablest antagonists. If at any 
time the regularly marshaled forces of logic and argument 
seemed deficient, no man had a readier or happier faculty 
of pressing into the service the auxiliaries of wit and satire. 
Although in Massachusetts the strength of the Federalists 
was powerful, he felt that he had in Maine a growing and 
vigorous constituency that would ardently sustain his 
measures and carry him triumphantly through the struggle. 
At home, both at the bar and in politics, he had an able 
and accomplished opponent in Cyrus King, of Saco, a man 
of equal power as a public speaker, of ardent temperament, 
and of elevated moral character. If anything, however, 

was wanting in Mr. King, it was the coolness of Mr. 
Holmes, which sometimes gave the latter the advantage. 

In 1815, Mr. Holmes was appointed by President Madi- 
son commissioner, under the fourth article of the treaty of 
Ghent, to make division between the United States and 
Great Britain of the islands in Passaniaquoddy Bay. The 
next year ho was elected representative to Congress from 
the York District to succeed Mr. King, and was re-elected 
in 1818 without opposition, receiving eleven hundred and 
six out of eleven hundred and eighty-two votes. While he 
was engaged as commissioner and as member of Congress, 
he was actively employed in eifecting the separation of 
Maine from Massachusetts, in which he was not only a 
zealous worker but the acknowledged leader. In a conven- 
tion composed of the ablest men in Maine to draft a con- 
stitution for the new State, which was to take its place 
as another star in the national flag, he was appointed 
chairman of the committee which drafted the instrument, 
and upon the admission of the State was honored with the 
place of its first senator in Congress. He continued to 
hold that honorable station by re-election till 1827, and in 
1828 was again elected to fill the unexpired term of Albion 
K. Parris, who was appointed to the bench of the Supreme 
Court in June of that year. In 1833 his congressional 
life ceased, and he returned with all the freshness and vigor 
of youth to the practice of his profession, after an uninter- 
rupted and most successful political career of over twenty- 
two years, in which there was not a year when he was not 
occupying some public station. In 1836-37 he was elected 
a representative from Alfred to the Legislature of Maine, 
and in 1841 appointed by President Harrison United 
States district attorney for the District of Maine, in which 
office he died, July 7, 1843. 

Few persons have had their ambition more fully gratified 
than Mr. Holmes. His popularity at one time in Maine 
was very great, and he managed matters nearly in his own 
way. To say that some ot his public acts were severely 
criticised by his opponents, is only to assert what might 
reasonably have been expected. But no impeachment has 
been cast upon his honor or integrity, or upon his private 
and domestic character. He was a kind husband, a tender 
and judicious parent, and a good neighbor. As a towns- 
man, he was always exceedingly vigilant in promoting the 
interests of his fellow-citizens in all matters of education 
and municipal improvement. From the time he settled in 
Alfred he never ceased his exertions till he had procured 
all the courts of York County to be held in that place, 
which was finally accomplished in 1833. He also suc- 
ceeded in having a route for a railroad from Portland to 
Dover (now the Portland and Rochester Railroad) laid out 
through his adopted town, although he failed to raise the 
means for completing it. 

Mr. Holmes first married Sally Brooks, of Scituate, in 
September, 1800, by whom he had two sons and two 
daughters, — all of his children. His eldest daughter mar- 
ried Hon. Daniel Goodeuow, Judge of the Supreme Court 
of Maine ; she died in 1840. His second wife was the 
widow of James Swan, sou of Col. James Swan, of Boston, 
and the accomplished daughter of Gen. Knox, to whom he 
was married in July, 1837. He removed the next year to 


her seat at Thouiaston, the late residence of lier father, 
where he lived the most of his time till his appointment as 
United States district attorney, when he divided his resi- 
dence between Thomaston and Portland. In 1840 he 
published, under the name of " Statesman," a digest of the 
public and private laws of Maine, in one octavo volume, 
confining himself to a succinct statement of the general prin- 
ciples of constitutional and municipal law. 


William Lambert and Benjamin Greene were both ad- 
mitted to the bar in York County in 1801 ; both studied 
their profession with Dudley Hubbard, and settled beside 
their teacher in South Berwick. 

Mr. Lambert was born in Rowley, Mass., July 22, 1778, 
and being fitted for college at the celebrated Dunimer 
Academy, took his degree at Dartmouth in 1798. By close 
attention to business he succeeded in attaining a remunera- 
tive practice, which he continued till his death, Dec. 11, 
1824. He was twice married, and left two children, a son 
and a daughter. The son, Rev. Thomas Ricker Lambert, 
was lately rector of the Episcopal Church in Cliarlestown, 
Mass., although, previous to becoming a minister, he liad 
studied law with Judge Nicholas Emery, in Portland. The 
daughter was the wife of the late Hon. John P. Hale, 
United States senator for New Hampshire. 


Benjamin Greene was the second son and fourth child of 
Benjamin and Martha (Brown) Greene, of Waltham, Mass., 
and was born in that town May 5, 1764. He graduated 
at Harvard College in the class with Chief Justice Mellen, 
Professor Abbott, of Bowdoin, President Webber, of Har- 
vard, Silas Lee, and Benjamin Pickman, in 1784. He 
first studied divinity, and was settled in the ministry at 
Medway in 1788. In 1797 he was invited to take charge 
of the Berwick Academy, which he accepted, and while 
pursuing the duties of preceptor, entered his name as a law 
student in the office of Dudley Hubbard. He closed his 
vocation as teacher and was admitted to the bar at the same 
time, in 1801, as has been said, " full fledged for law and 
politics, and on a hearty pursuit of both." He commenced 
with a full maturity of powers, and with adequate learning 
and large knowledge of the world. In 1809 he was elected 
representative to the General Court, and continued to be 
elected for nearly every year afterwards till the separation 
from Massachusetts. When the old Common Pleas was 
abolished under Governor Gerry, in 1811, and the Com- 
monwealth and Maine divided into circuits, Mr. Greene 
was appointed chief justice of the eastern circuit, including 
York, Cumberland, and Oxford Counties, with Judge 
Dana and W"illiam Widgery as associates. He entered with 
vigor and vivacity upon his new sphere of action, which he 
sustained with dignity, promptness, fidelity, and ability. 
He held the office till the establishment of the new Court 
of Common Pleas, under the act of Maine, Feb. 4, 1822. 
In 1824 he was a member of the Legislature, and Speaker 
of the House. In September, of the same year, he was ap- 
pointed by President Adams marshal of Maine, as the 
successor of Thomas G. Thornton, of Saco, who had held 

the office from 1803. This was his last public service, 
which ending in 1830, he removed to Athens, Me., where 
his son. Dr. Benjamin F. Greene, then resided, where he 
passed the remainder of his life in peaceful retirement, and 
died Oct. 15, 1837, in the seventy-fourth year of his age. 
Judge Greene was an easy and graceful speaker, though, it 
is said, somewhat inflated in style. He was considered a 
good lawyer and an impartial judge, and presided with 
dignity on the bench. 

Judge Greene married Lydia Clark, of Lexington, Mass., 
by whom he had five sons. His oldest son, Benjamin F., 
was a physician, at Parkinan, Me., where he died. Charles, 
born at Marblehead, Feb. 21, 1796, graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1811 ; was a successful lawyer, first at 
South Berwick, and then at Athens, Me., where he con- 
tinued to practice till his death, Aug. 24, 1852. He was 
a State senator in 1835, a member of the Executive Coun- 
cil in 1836, and judge of probate for Somerset County 
from 1841 till the time of his death. He married Sarah 
Sawtelle, of Norridgewock, by whom he had several chil- 
dren. Frederick, born at South Berwick in 1807, was a 
lawyer, at Saco, where he practiced till his death, Aug. 1, 
1865. He was a member of the Senate in 1835-36, and 
a representative in 1842. In 1849 he was chosen judge 
of the Municipal Court of Saco, a position which he occu- 
pied till 1852. He married, Nov. 23, 1841, Lydia, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Coleman, of Kennebunkport. One of his sons, 
Frederick Greene, is now overseer in the Pepperell Mills, at 
Biddeford, and with his brother, Joseph Leland, served in 
the war of the Rebellion, enlisting Oct. 3, 1863. in the 29th 
Maine Regiment ; was under Gen. Banks in the Red River 
expedition, in Louisiana, and afterwards in the Shenandoah 
Valley and Virginia. His two sisters, Ellen and Mary, are 
both living, and reside in Massachusetts. Bowen Clark 
Greene, another son of Judge Greene, was admitted to the 
bar, but did not follow a regular practice of the law. He 
was postmaster in Saco from 1845-49, and deputy collector 
of customs at that port several years. He had been clerk 
in the Secretary of State's office in 1835, '36, '37, and a part 
of that time deputy secretary. He was never married. 
He died at Saco, Aug. 3, 1860. Another son, Henry 
Bowen Clark Greene, was a distinguished physician ; he 
began his practice in Saco, and removed to Boston, where 
he died, Jan. 31, 1848. He married. May 27, 1823, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Capt. Samuel Hartley, of Saco. 


Judge Joseph Howard was born in the year 1800 at 
Brownfield, Oxford Co. At the time of his death he was 
seventy-seven years of age. His preliminary education was 
obtained at Fryeburg Academy. He graduated at Bowdoin 
College in 1821, taking a high rank in his class, and im- 
mediately commenced the study of law in the office of 
Judge Dana, at Fryeburg. He completed his studies in 
the office of Judge Daniel Goodenow, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1824. He first opened an office in Bridgton, 
Cumberland Co. Within a year John Burnham, a success- 
ful lawyer in Limerick, York Co., died suddenly, and Mr. 
Howard immediately removed there, where he remained in 
successful practice for twelve or fifteen yeai's. While quite 


young he received the appointment of county attorney for 
York County, and very ably performed the duties of that 
office for about ten years. 

In 1837 he removed from Limerick to Portland, and 
soon after formed a partnership with Henry B. Osgood, his 
brother-in-law, their wives being the accomplished daugh- 
ters of Judge Dana and sisters of the late Governor, John 
W. Dana. After the decease of Mr. Osgood, he and the 
late George F. Shepley, Judge of the United States Circuit 
Court, formed a partnership which continued till 1848, 
when the senior partner, Mr. Howard, was appointed a 
justice of the Supreme Judicial Court. Prior to that time 
he had for several years filled the office of United States 
Attorney for the District of Maine. When his term of 
office on the bench of the Supreme Court expired he was 
in the prime of life, and soon after formed a partnership 
with Sewall C. Strout, Esq., of Portland, which firm con- 
tinued several years, when it was dissolved to enable the 
judge to associate with him in business his son-in-law, 
Nathan Cleaves, late judge of probate for Cumberland 
County. Afterwards Henry B. Cleaves, Esq., late solicitor 
for the city of Portland, was admitted as a member of the 
firm, which continued till the death of the subject of this 

From the Memorial of Judge Howard in the sixty- 
seventh volume of the Maine Reports, we select a few ex- 
tracts bearing upon his life and character. 

Hon. N. S. Littlefield said,— 

" The circumstances of his death were peculiar. On an early day 
in the month of December last he left his home in this city with the 
intention of spending the balance of that day with his only brother 
and family, on the old homestead in Brownfield, and of spending the 
next day in Fryeburg, where the O.^ford County December term of 
this court (Supreme Judicial) was being held by Judge Virgin. .Ar- 
riving at Brownfield about noon, he went to his brother's home, and 
after dinner, it being pleasant, he went out alone and went over the 
farm on which he was born. Failing to return as soon as expected, 
search was made, and his lifeless body was found not far from the 
dwelling-house. It was evident that death overtook him while on his 
return from his excursion. He had in his hand a bunch of evergreen, 
emblematical of his memory, which will twine around our hearts till 
they cease to beat. . . . 

" As a son, as a brother, as a husband, as a father, as a friend, as a 
man, and as a gentleman, he was all that could be desired; he was as 
near perfection as humanity will allow. As a counselor he was in all 
respects reliable and safe. As a prosecuting oiiiccr he was energetic 
and thorough. As a judge he was patient, affable, untiring, and an 
earnest seeker after truth. He would rule a point against counsel in 
so kind and conciliatory a manner that the disappointment would be 
shorn, to a great extent, of its unpleasantness. His opinions on 
questions of law are models of conciseness, not at the expense of per- 
spicuity. He never buried his ideas in words." 

Sewall C. Strout, Esq., said, — 

" I had the pleasure of his intimate acquaintance for thirty years, 
nine of which I was his partner in the practice of law. This asso- 
ciation taught me to revere his character, and to love the man as a 
father. Few men possess the power of self-control which he habitu- 
ally exercised. . . . His tastes were pure and elevated. ... In his 
friendships he was tender and unselfish. His charities were numerous. 
... As a judge he worthily maintained the dignity of the bench.*" 


ge rsarrows saic 

" I miss his presence and his cordial greeting, and in their stead 
receive the funeral garland which your affectionate respect devotes 
o decorate his tomb ; and I listen to the tribute you pay to departed 

worth, and strive to recognize the fact that in these 
has so long been busy he will appear no more forevc 

George Wa.shington Wallingford was born at Somers- 
worth, N. H., Feb. 19, 1778. Left an orphan in infancy, 
he was compelled to struggle through many hardships and 
trials. He took his first degree at Harvard in 1795, and 
studied law with Dudley Hubbard, at South Berwick. 
Being admitted to the bar in 1798, he established himself 
in the practice of law at Kennebunk in 1800. Joseph 
Thomas was the only practitioner in the Village, then a 
part of tlie town of Wells. But two years later Mr. Wal- 
lingford encountered a competitor, in all respects his equal 
as a lawyer, an advocate, and a man, in the person of 
Joseph Dane, of whom more will be said hereafter. Pos- 
sessing strong will and determination, together with his 
pleasing address and fine qualities as an advocate, he soon 
attained high rank in the profession. He was a Federalist, 
and took a prominent part in the contests which fiercely 
raged in the early part of the present century. In 1813 
he was elected one of the representatives of Wells to the 
General Court, and was successively re-elected till Maine 
was admitted as a separate State, in 1820. He was a mem- 
ber of the convention which formed the constitution of 
Maine, in October, 1819, and had taken a leading part in 
the preliminary convention held at Brunswick in 1816. 
When the constitution was drawn up he did not, however, 
sign it, but stood with the thirty-one other objecting mem- 
bers, the principal objection being the apportionment of 
representatives, which was considered by the minority as 
unjust towards the larger towns, in that it deprived them 
of an equal proportion of the members in the legislative 
body. He was likewise opposed to the separation fi-om 
JIassachusetts till Maine should acquire greater wealth and 
importance ; but still represented his town in the State 
Legislature in 1823, which was the last public act of his 
life. He died Jan. 19, 1824, at the age of forty-eight, in 
the midst of his vigor and usefulness, having in a large 
measure the confidence and esteem of his fellow-citizens. 
His first wife was Abigail Chadbourne, of Berwick, whom 
he married in 1806, by whom he had one daughter, who 
married and died without issue. His wife died in 1808. 
He married, for his second wife, Mary, daughter of Dr. 
Jacob Fisher, of Kennebunk, by whom he had one son and 
four daughters, who survived him. 


Nicholas Emery, the classmate of Judge Dana, opened 
his law-office in Parsonsfield at the same time his friend 
established himself at Fryeburg, the autumn of 1789. Mr. 
Emery was born in Exeter, N. H., Sept. 4, 1776, and was 
prepared for college at the far-famed Phillips Academy of 
that place. After graduating at Dartmouth College, in 1795, 
with the honors of his class, he studied law with Edward 
St. Loe Livermore, of Portsmouth, and was admitted to 
the bar in the autumn of 1798. His accomplishments as 
a lawyer, and his easy, pleasant manners soon brought him 
into notice, and after seven or eight years' successful prac- 
tice in Parsonsfield and in the adjoining county of Straf- 
ford, N. H., he removed to Portland, in the spring of 1807. 


In the autumn of the same year he married Ann T., eldest 
daughter of Governor Oilman, of New Hampshire. His 
career in Portland was one of uninterrupted success in his 
profession, although brought into competition with the 
finest legal talents of the time. 

In 1834, on the retirement of Chief Justice Mellen, 
Judge Weston was promoted to his place, and Mr. Emery 
was appointed to fill the vacancy on the bench of the Su- 
preme Court. With honorable fidelity and capability he 
discharged the duties of his ofiioe through the constitu- 
tional term of seven years. His opinions during this 
period are recorded in the eight volumes of the Maine Re- 
ports from the 12th to the 19th, inclusive, and evince care- 
ful and diligent research and sound and just conclusions. 
He never took much part in politics, although he was a 
delegate to the convention of 1816, and also to that which 
framed the constitution of Maine. In 1832 he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners of the State to negotiate 
with the United States government for a cession of the dis- 
puted territory, under the treaty of 1783. His public life 
closed with the termination of his judicial ofiice, but he 
lived to be past eighty-four years old, and died Aug. 24, 


Judah Dana settled at Fryeburg in September, 1798, 
when that town was included in York County. He was a 
son of John Winchester Dana and Hannah Pope Putnam, 
a daughter of Gen. Israel Putnam, and born at Pomfret. 
Vt., April 25, 1772. He graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1795, studied law with Benjamin I. Gilbert, of Hanover, 
and was admitted to the bar in Grafton Co., N. H., in Sep- 
tember, 1798. He practiced law at Fryeburg nearly half a 
century, having, besides his practice in York and Cumber- 
land Counties, a large practice in New Hampsliire. He be- 
came a leading advocate, and, as he was a careful and labori- 
ous student, he acquired a high reputation and a lucrative 

His first competitor, who settled in a neighboring town, 
was his classmate, Nicholas Emery, at Parsonsfield. Jacob 
McGaw, from New Hampshire, and two years after him in 
college, settled in the same town in 1801, and a sharp 
rivalry and competion sprang up between them. Two years 
later Mr. McGaw removed to Bangor, and was succeeded 
by Samuel A. Bradley, a graduate of Dartmouth in 1799, 
who for a long series of years was a competitor both in law 
and politics with Mr. Dana. After Oxford County was 
erected, in 1805, both lawyers found places in the Probate 
Court, — Mr. Dana as judge, and Mr. Bradley as regi.ster. 

Mr. Dana continued in active practice for many years, 
with increasing success both in the Common Pleas and the 
Supreme Court, and was appointed to several political of- 
fices. In 1833 he was one of the Executive Council in the 
administration of Governor Smith. In 1836-37 he was 
one of the bank commissioners. In 1836 he was appointed 
by Governor Dunlap United States senator for the re- 
mainder of Judge Shepley's term, who resigned that office 
on being appointed judge of the Supreme Court. An in- 
timate friend of Judge Dana gives the following estimate of 
his character and abilities : 

" He was a ready speaker, urbane and conciliating, but of unques- 
tioned firmness. In all public positions he was true and faithful, and 
fully equal to the demand upon him. In private life no gentleman 
could be more genial. Time and chance were never wanting with him 
to say and do kind things to every one within his circle. In a large 
sphere of professional life, .Tudge Dana could have acquired a more 
brilliant reputation, but he loved the country and its retirement, and 
there chose to act his part, keeping fresh, however, in the world's his- 
tory, living and past." 

He was one of the trustees of Bowdoin College from 1820 
to 1843, and a member of the convention at Portland to 
form the constitution of Maine. 

Among the students in his office were Daniel Webster, 
for a short period. Gen. Samuel Fessenden, Peter C. Vir- 
gin, of Rumford, Gen. Eleazer Wheelock Ripley, Joseph 
Howard, Philip Eastman, of Saeo, Henry B. Osgood, and 
several others. Mr. Webster graduated at Dartmouth in 
1801, and in the latter part of the same year took charge 
of the academy at Fryeburg. While occupying this posi- 
tion he was reading law in Mr. Dana's office. An interest- 
ing correspondence between the great statesman and Mr. 
Dana took place on this subject in 1804.* 

Mr. Dana's first wife was Elizabeth, the youngest daugh- 
ter of Prof Sylvanus Ripley, of Dartmouth College ; his 
second wife was the widow of Gen. John McMillen, of 
Fryeburg. His only son who survived infancy was Hon. 
John W. Dana, one of the Governors of Maine. Of his 
several daughters, one married Judge Howard, of Portland ; 
another Judge Goodenow, of Alfred. 

Temple Hovey studied law with Dudley Hubbard, of 
Berwick, and was admitted to the bar in 1800. He died 
about two years after his admission to practice. He was a 
son of Dr. Ivory Hovey, of South Berwick, and a descend- 
ant of Rev. Ivory Hovey, a learned clergyman of Plymouth 
and Rochester, in the Old Colony, who died in 1803, at 
the age of eighty-nine. 


Joseph Dane, for fifty years a distinguished lawyer at 
Kennebunk, was the son of John and Jemima (Fellows) 
Dane, of Beverly, Mass., in which town he was born on 
the 25th of October, 1778. He was a nephew of the emi- 
nent lawyer and statesman, Nathan Dane, and a descendant 
of John Dane, born in Colchester, England, in 1613, who 
came with his parents and two sisters to Roxbury, Mass., 
in 1636. 

Mr. Dane's parents were natives of Ipswich. His father 
died in 1829, in his eightieth year; his mother in 1827, 
aged seventy-six. 

His preparatory studies were pursued at Phillips Acad- 
emy, at Andover, after which he entered Harvard College, 
where he graduated in 1799, and at once entered the office 
of his uncle, the distinguished Nathan Dane, of Beverly, as 
a student-at-law. In June, 1802, he was admitted to prac- 
tice in Essex County, and immediately opened an office at 
Kennebunk, then included in the town of Wells, where he 
soon became prominent as a sound lawyer, an able advocate, 
and an upright man. " He continued to practice till 1837, 


ad Courts of Main 




having maintained for more than a third of a century a 
character for spotless integrity, and for great honor and 
ability in his profession ; and during the latter portion of 
the time was a leader at the bar of York County." 

Mr. Dane's natural conservatism and high sense of the 
dignity of his profession kept him, for the most part, out 
of the political arena. He scorned the tricks of the dema- 
gogue, and accepted office only at the urgent solicitations of 
his fellow-citizens. He, however, took a deep interest in ques- 
tions of public policy, and was active in the measures taken 
for the organization of Maine as an independent State. He 
was a member of the preliminary convention held at Bruns- 
wick in 1816, and of that which fi-amed the constitution, 
in 1819, and was a member of the very able committee 
appointed to draft that instrument, in which his judicial 
and statesmanlike qualifications were brought into appro- 
priate exercise. In 1818 he was chosen one of the two 
Executive Councilors of Massachusetts, then allowed to 
Maine, but he declined the office. In 1820 he was chosen 
a member of the Sixteenth Congress, for the unexpired 
term of Mr. Holmes, who had been elected to the Senate. 
He was re-elected to the Seventeenth Congress, and, having 
served out bis term, declined to be again a candidate. He 
served his town as representative in the State Legislature 
in the years 1824-25, 1832-33, and 1839-40, and the 
county in the Senate in 1829. At the of the session 
of 1840 he retired from public life altogether, having de- 
clined the appointment of commissioner to revise the pub- 
lic statutes and the office of Executive Councilor, both of 
which were honorably tendered him. His preference was 
for the enjoyments of private life, and the repose of his 
own excellent family, for which he was eminently fitted by 
his strong domestic attachments and his genial and social 
qualities. In every public office, and in every act of private 
life, his conduct was characterized by a firm, undeviating 
sense of right, and a conscientious determination neither to 
do nor to submit to what was wrong or unjust. The record 
for more than half a century, which he left among his 
fellow-citizens, his neighbors, and his most intimate acquaint- 
ances, is unblemished. 

His wife was Mary, daughter of Hon. James Clark, of 
Kennebunk, to whom he was united in mamage in Octo- 
ber, 1808. She was a lady of great excellence of charac- 
ter, and survived her lamented husband many years. Of 
the two sons and one daughter, the fruit of this union, the 
eldest son, Joseph, succeeded to his father's profession and 
business, in which he is still engaged at Kennebunk. 
(More will be found of his life on another page.) His sec- 
ond son, Nathan, a farmer, residing in Alfred, was member 
of the State Senate from York County in 1857-58, and 
State treasurer subsequently. 

Mr. Dane died at his residence, in Kennebunk, on the 
1st of May, 1858, aged seventy-nine. 


Among the eminent lawyers who settled at the beginning 
of this century in Fryeburg was the subject of this notice. 
He was a college friend of Daniel Webster and two years 
his senior, and through his persistent effijrts Mr. Webster 
was received into the office of Hon. Christopher Gore, of 

Boston, as a law-student. Mr. Webster was then unknown 
except to a few personal friends and at Dartmouth College, 
where he had just graduated. Mr. Bradley '.s application 
was at first rejected. At last he carried to him one of Web- 
ster's literary productions (a Fourth of July oration) and 
requested Mr. Gore to read and then see if he would not 
change his decision. Mr. Gore took it with .some impa- 
tience, saying he was very pertinacious, and dipped into it 
here and there, finally commenced at the beginning and 
read it through ; then said, " Bring your young friend 
along and I will see him." Mr. Gore received him into 
his office, and frequently afterwards, when meeting Mr. 
Bradley in the street, would speak to him pleasantly for 
bringing that young man to his office. 

We transfer from Mr. Willis' work on lawyers the fol- 
lowing racy letter of Mr. Webster to Mr. Bradley : 

"BoscAWEN, August 19, 1806. 

*' Dk.vr Sir, — Circumstances do not permit me to see you tliis week 
at Gilmanton. I am late from Boston, and at present am greatly 
pressed in my time by some little affairs. I have made up my mind 
to escort you to Commencement, if you desire to take that mode of 
conveyance. I have a comfortable chaise and an ordinary horse, that 
can draw us from this lo Hanover in a day. If you have a nag to 
put before him to open the cause, mine, I think, would bring up the 
rear of the argument pretty well. However, we shall do tolerably 
well with one horse. 

" I shall expect to see you this way on Friday or Saturday, when 
we will make a detinite arrangement. I should choose to be early at 
Hanover, and leave immediately after Commencement. Thursday 
and Friday are languid days. Dr. Perkins is expected this way to- 
morrow. His wife is at Hanover, and so ia Mrs. Ticknor. I hear of 
many people who think of visiting Commencement, — probably be- 
cause they know you and I will be there, — and the collection, I fancy, 
will be numerous. 

"Yours, verily, D. Webstkr. 

" P. S. — Rebecca — Miss Rebecca McGaw — has just ridden by my 
window, going to Commencement. How the girls expect us !" 

An anecdote of these two young lawyers and friends is 
thus related : they had been attending court at Sanborn, 
N. H. After the adjournment Mr. Bradley took Mr. Web- 
ster in his sleigh on their return home. He had a fine 
large horse, justly called " Old Mars." As they were rising 
a hill towards night, they overtook a feeble old man who 
was struggling up the hill with a load of wood drawn by a 
poor, broken-down horse. The man, in turning his horse 
from the path to let the travelers pass, found his team sunk 
in the deep snow on the side, from which neither man nor 
horse seemed able to get clear. Webster and Bradley saw 
the sad plight and sadder countenance of the poor wood- 
man, and without a moment's delay they took their power- 
ful horse ofi" their sleigh, and putting him before the wood- 
man's load and horse, soon extricated them, and moved the 
whole safely up the hill, to the infinite joy of the poor old 
man and their own bappy consciousness of a good deed 
promptly done. They had a hard struggle to get the load 
out of the deep snow. Mr. Webster used a rail behind the 
load and Bradley led the horse. The latter, in relating the 
story in after-years, said, " Webster lifted like a giant." 

JMr. Bradley established himself at Fryeburg in 1803 
or early in 1804, finding there Judah Dana and Jacob Mc- 
Gaw, — a large supply of legal talent for the small population. 
But then their practice was extended into a considerable 
of the adjoining portion of New Hampshire, as well as 


southward and eastward. Mr. McGaw moved to Bangor 
in 1805, where he became eminent, and left Judge Dana 
and Mr. Bradley for some time alone. There was much 
rivalry between these gentlemen, not only at the bar, but in 
political life ; for Mr. Bradley was a very ardent Federalist, 
and Judge Dana, although belonging originally to that party, 
had zealously espoused the rising Democracy ; and the town 
in its political character was very nearly equally divided. 
Mr. Bradley held the office of register of probate from the 
formation of the new county of Oxford till 1810, when he 
resigned, and devoted himself with all the ardor and enthu- 
siasm of his nature to the practice of his profession, and to 
the discussion of the political issues of his time. 

During the exciting periods of the embargo, the war of 
1812, and the discussion on the policy of separation, he 
threw himself with all his warmth of feeling into the con- 
flicts of the party. He was five years a member of the 
General Court from Fryeburg, from 1813 to 1818, and was 
a violent opponent of the war with Great Britain, and of the 
erection of Maine into a State. His town voted against the 
separation in 1816, but in favor of it by a majority of 
seventy-eight to seventy in 1819, when the measure was 

In 1825, Mr. Bradley moved to Portland, and engaged in 
speculations in timber-lands, and other interests outside of 
his profession, by which he became wealthy. In his prime 
he was a tall, well-proportioned man, of handsome person 
and pleasing address. 

After his career in Portland he returned to Fryeburg in 
July, 1841, and died at the house of his brother Robert, 
September 24, 1844, at the age of sixty-nine years and ten 
months. He was never married. 


Edward Emerson Bourne, LL.D., was born at Kenne- 
bunk, then a part of the town of Wells, in the county of 
York, March 19, 1797. His father was John Bourne, 
born at Wells, Aug. 14, 1759, a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, and son of Benjamin Bourne (, of the same place. 
Early in the war, — in the fall of 1775, — when only sixteen 
years of age, John enlisted in the service of the country, 

and marched in company of Capt. Sawyer, to Lake 

Champlain. He was stationed at the village of St. John's, 
at the outlet of the lake, during the principal part of the 
year 1776. His mother died when he was seven years of 
age, and his father subsequently married Hannah Sewall, 
of York. His father dying when he was eighteen years 
old, the care and responsibility of the family devolved upon 
him. He at one time embarked on a three-months' cruise 
on board the privateer '• Sullivan," but the voyage, financially 
considered, was a failure, no prizes being taken. 

Feeling the importance of doing something by which a 
comfortable maintenance might be assured, he learned the 
trade of shipwright. Having perfected himself in the 
trade, he commenced business at the landing in Kennebunk. 
There he built many ships for Theodore Lyman, Esq., a 
wealthy ship-owner, then a resident there, but subsequently 
removing to Boston, Mass. 

On the removal of Mr. Lyman, Mr. Bourne bought his 
homestead, and continued building ships on his own account. 

in most of which he retained an interest ; so that previous 
to the war of 1812 he had acquired a comfortable compe- 

Mr. Bourne was thrice married. His first wife was Miss 
Abigail Hubbard, to whom he was married Feb. 6, 1783, 
who died Dec. 10, 1787. Their children were Olive, born 
July 10, 1784; Samuel, born Dec. 1, 1785; and Benjamin, 
born Sept. 3, 1787. 

His second wife was Sally Kimball ; married June 19, 
1788; died May 29, 1794. Their children were John, 
born Nov. 1, 1799; James, born Aug. 5, 1792; Charles, 
born Dec. 10, 1793. 

His third wife, to whom he was married Sept. 10, 1794, 
was Elizabeth, widow of Israel Wildes. (Her maiden name 
was Elizabeth Perkins. They had three children, — Susan, 
born June 26, 1786; Eliza, born Nov. 5, 1787; Abigail, 
born June 6, 1790.) 

The issue of this third marriage were Israel W., Edward 
E. (the subject of this sketch), Thomas P., George W., 
Julia A., and Olive. The sons have all deceased. The 
daughters survive, — Julia A., as the wife of Henry Kings- 
bury, who succeeded Mr. Bourne in business, with his son, 
George W. Bourne, under the firm-name of Bourne & 
Kingsbury, and who still occupies the old homestead ; and 
Olive, the widow of the late Capt. Ivory Lord, also living 
at Kennebunk. 

Mr. Bourne, fully appreciating the importance of a good 
education, which the early death of his parents and the 
unsettled state of the country had precluded him from en- 
joying, determined that a portion of the fortune which he 
had accumulated in his manhood should be devoted to a 
liberal education of the children then growing up ; and 
although by the time the sons were old enough to enter 
college the war had made sad inroads upon his estate, pre- 
venting the prosecution of his ordinary business, — his ships 
lying idle at the wharves, — he still adhered to his cherished 
object of investing a portion of what remained in a colle- 
giate education of hLs sons, where, safe from the contin- 
gency of material mishaps, it should continue to yield to 
them, through all their lives, its fi-uits of increased useful- 
ness, joy, and satisfaction. 

Israel, Edward, and Thomas were educated at Bowdoin 
College. George, preferring a more active life, remained at 
home, and on becoming of age, entered into the business 
of ship-building with his father, under the firm-name of 
John Bourne & Son. 

Preparatory to entering college, Edward was sent to 
South Berwick Academy in 1811. At the commencement 
in September of the next year he was admitted to Bowdoin 
College, graduating from that institution at the age of nine-, 
teen. Among his classmates were John Searle Tenney, 
chief justice of the Supreme Court of Maine, Prof Al- 
pheus S. Packard, of Bowdoin College, and the late Ran- 
dolph A. L. Codman, of Portland, Me., one of the most 
brilliant lawyers of his day. 

Immediately after graduation, Mr. Bourne entered the 
office of George W. Wallingford, Esq., at Kennebunk, and 
prosecuted his legal studies there, and at the office of Thomas 
Bigelow, Esq., at Philadelphia, during the term of three 
years then required of law students, and at the October 


tenn (1819) of the Court of Comnion Plea.s n)r York 
County was ndmitted to the har. 

Always anxious to be at work, he felt that he must locate 
hiTnself at once for business. Accordingly, having procured 
letters of introduction from Mr. Wallint^ford, Hon. Joseph 
Dane, and others to prominent men in the eastern part of 
the State, he set forth, believing that that section afforded 
a good field for practice. After looking over Kennebec 
County, he concluded to settle in the little town of Fairfax, 
now called Albion, there being no lawyer there, and came 
back to his home to make the necessary preparations. On 
his return to Fairfax he was surprised to find that an older 
lawyer had in the mean time stepped into the place which 
he had supposed to be his own by right of discovery. A 
practical view of the matter showed to him at once that the 
business of the place could not well support two of the pro- 
fession, and although assured by .some of its citizens that 
he would have his full share of the patronage, he preferred 
to return to his native town and take his chance with three 
other lawyers then in practice, two of whom- — Mr. Walling- 
ford and Mr. Dane — were prominent practitioners in the 
county. He opened an office, but had hardly commenced 
business when Jeremiah Bradbury, then practicing in the 
town of York, was appointed clerk of the courts, necessi- 
tating his removal to Alfred, the county-seat. The death 
of Isaac Lyman, and the removal of Asa Freeman to Dover, 
N. H., at about the same time, left the ancient town of York 
without a resident legal adviser. Thither Mr. Bourne went, 
and took the ofiice vacated by Mr. Bradbury in October, 
1820. There, amidst pleasant surroundings, with fair busi- 
ness prospects, he would probably have remained, but Hon. 
Joseph Dane having been chosen to represent his district in 
the new State of Maine in the Seventeenth Congress of the 
United States, proposed to Mr. Bourne that he should re- 
turn to Kennebunk and occupy his office, tendering him 
the free use of his valuable library. This flattering offer 
he gladly accepted, and in the course of about two years 
he became so assured in his position as to feel justified 
in taking to himself a wife. He was married Oct. 31, 
1822, to Mary H., daughter of Richard and Dorothy 
(Moodyj Gilpatrick. Mr. Gilpatrick was a man of wealth 
and position, and engaged at that time in various business 
enterprises. He was the proprietor of what is now known 
as the " Factory Privilege" at the village, upon which he 
built an iron-manufactory, located below the lower dam, and 
a cotton-factory, in which he had a half-interest, standing 
on the site of the present saw-mill. 

Mrs. Bourne died March 23, 1852, at the age of fifty- 
two. Of her Judge Bourne says, in his manuscript his- 
tory of the Bourne family, " She was naturally of a lively, 
animated, happy disposition, and in her deportment gentle, 
kind, and courteous, looking to the ease and happiness of 
all with whom she associated. Her soul yearned to do 
good, and, under the impulses of such a spirit, she was 
ever given to hospitality, ready to supply the needs of the 
poor who sought her aid, and on all occasions to do all in 
her power to lighten the burdens and sorrows of others." 

Mr. and Mrs. Bourne had four children, viz., Julia M., 
Edward E., Lizzie G., and Mary Olivia Edward alone 
survives, and is now practicing law at Keuuebuuk. Mary 

Olivia died in infancy. Julia M. died Nov. l.S, 1851. 
Lizzie G. perished, overtaken by a sudden storm of wind, 
while ascending Mount Wa.shington, in company with her 
uncle and cousin, Sept. 14, 1855. 

Mr. Bourne was again married on Feb. 16, 1853, to 
Mrs. Susan H. Lord, widow of Capt. Tobias Lord, and 
daughter of the late Capt. Joseph Hatch, of Kennebunk, 
whose refined society and congenial ta.<tes contributed in a 
large measure to the happiness of his home during all his 
remaining years. 

Mr. Bourne in early manhood manifested a zealous in- 
terest in all the moral, social, educational, and political 
questions of the day. When the attention of the people 
was first called to the evils of intemperance, he enlisted in 
the cause with all his accustomed earnestness and vigor. 
During the entire winter of 1832, whenever the weather 
permitted, he was abroad with his co-laborers holding meet- 
ings in the several school districts of the town, endeavoring 
to impress his hearers with the importance of the subject, 
and the necessity of action upon it. 

In 1 82-1 the question of the removal of the courts from 
Alfred to Kennebunk was agitated. In this he naturally 
took great interest, writing frequent newspaper articles upon 
the subject ; and when, in 1859, the question of the re- 
moval to Saco was presented, he was called upon to repre- 
sent the petitioners before the Legislative committee. His 
argument there was considered one of his most successful 

In 1817 au artillery company was formed in Wells, em- 
bracing several members from Arundel. It was organized 
by choice of Barnabas Palmer, Captain; William W. Wise, 
Lieutenant; Edward E. Bourne, Ensign; and Davenport 
Tucker, Clerk ; and when afterwards Capt. Palmer was 
elected major, Mr. Bourne was appointed adjutant. 

Mr. Bourne was elected one of the selectmen of his 
native town in 1828, and continued in that capacity until 
1833. He represented the town in the State Legislature 
from 1826 to 1831, inclusive. While there he took an 
active part in the debates, always advocating what he be- 
lieved to be right, regardless of party dictation. This 
characteristic was strongly apparent in the course taken by 
him in the proceedings in filling the several vacancies oc- 
curring by the death of Governor Lincoln, who died in 
office during the year 1829. On the assembling of the 
Senate in January following, it appeared that only sixteen 
out of the twenty senators were elected by the people, and 
those sixteen were equally divided between the two political 
parties. After occupying several days iu unsuccessful 
attempts to elect a president, — each party voting for its 
own candidate, — the National Republicans, with whom Mr. 
Bourne was in sympathy, gave way so far as to take a new 
candidate from the opposing party, voting for the Rev. 
Joshua Hall, senator from Waldo County, which, with the 
aid of his individual ballot, secured his election. The 
constitution provides that whenever the ofiice of Governor 
shall become vacant, by death or otherwise, the President 
of the Senate shall exercise the duties of Governor until 
another shall be " duly qualified," and that " his duties as 
President shall be suspended, and the Senate shall fill the 
vacancy until his duties as Governor shall cease," 


It was supposed that President Hall would at once vacate 
his office and assume the duties of Governor ; but, contrary 
to expectation, he remained, voting with his party in their 
declared purpose of preventing a convention with the House 
to fill the vacancies. 

This state of things continued through the month of 
January, when, at a private consultation of the Nationals, 
it was determined that a convention of the two branches 
should be formed by the House appointing the hour and 
giving notice to the Senate, and if the Senate refused to 
concur, or act upon the proposition, then all the Republi- 
can senators should meet the House, and, as a convention, 
the two branches should proceed to fill the vacancies. 
Against this proposed action Mr. Bourne protested, declar- 
ing that it was illegal, and contrary to the provisions of 
the constitution. He stood alone. All his political asso- 
ciates accepted the proposition. The two branches met in 
that manner, and thus filled the vacancies. But when after- 
wards (Feb. 15, 1830) the opinion of the justices of the 
Supreme Court was taken by Governor Hunton, it was held 
by the court that the vacancies were illegally filled, thus 
sustaining the position taken by Mr. Bourne. (See Opin- 
ion of Justices, " Greenl. Rep.," vol. vii. page 489.) 

Early the next session a bill was introduced, called a 
" Healing Act," to confirm and legalize this illegal pro- 
ceeding. This measure Mr. Bourne opposed for the same 
reason. He would not lend his aid in favor of his own 
party to an attempt to legalize a proceeding which he be- 
lieved to be illegal, and which was unauthorized by the con- 
stitution as construed by the Supreme Court of the State. 

The following year Mr. Bourne declined a renomination, 
and from tliat time devoted himself to his profession. His 
business increased until he was engaged in a large propor- 
tion of the litigated cases in his county. As a lawyer he 
was faithful to his clients, giving to each individual case his 
best effort. While he was untiring in his labor when once 
enlisted in a cause, he always remembered the oath taken 
on his admission to the bar, — " I will not wittingly or wil- 
lingly promote or sue any false, groundless, or unlawfiil suit, 
nor give aid or consent to the same," — and would on no 
account lend his services to the prosecution of a claim not 
well founded in law or fact. 

In 1818 he was appointed by the Governor State's attor- 
ney for York County. In this office he was superseded by 
a political opponent the following year, but was re-appointed 
in 1841, and when afterwards the office was made subject to 
the popular vote he received the nomination, but, his party 
being in the minority, fiuled of an election. 

By an amendment of the constitution in 185G the office 
of judge of probate became elective. Mr. Bourne received 
the nomination for his county, and was elected by a large 
majority. Such was his popularity and acknowledged fitness 
for the position that, contrary to the usual party custom, he 
was four times elected, — holding the office sixteen years, — 
when failing health rendered it necessary for him to retire 
from the public service. 

Upon his retirement the members of the bar presented 
him with a valuable gold watch as a token of their respect 
for the faithful and impartial manner in which he had dis- 
charged the duties of his office during his long term. It 

may be remarked in pas.sing that it was regarded as a good 
practical joke by his most intimate friends, who well knew 
his marked jmnctuality upon any and all occasions, impor- 
tant or otherwise, — so marked that, as one of the family play- 
fully said, it had become one of his " greatest failings," — 
that the members of the bar should select a watch, and the 
teachers of the Sunday-school of which he was superin- 
tendent, a few years previously, a mantel-clock, as a token 
of regard. 

His court was holden monthly, and although held in 
several towns in the county, oftentimes requiring a long 
ride in an inclement season, he never but once failed to be 
present promptly at tho, hour during the sixteen years. 
That one exception occurred during the winter of his last 
year of service, when, on account of the sickness of the 
judge, the register adjourned the court two days. That 
term being holden at Saco, and the Supreme Court being 
at the same time in session, but little inconvenience was 
occasioned to the members of the bar in attendance there. 

Judge Bourne never allowed personal convenience to in- 
terfere in the slightest degree with a prompt discharge of 
duty. Once when the court was holden at Alfred, a dis- 
tance of twelve miles from his home, he started in a snow- 
storm, with his son, in his private conveyance, and by 
shovelling through the drifts arrived in due time, opened 
his court, and continued the session all day, although but 
one other person (besides the register living in town), a resi- 
dent lawyer, was present during the court. It was a source 
of satisfaction and a sufficient reward to him that he had 
been able to be present in his place, although he only umited 
the entire day. 

" The.v also serve who only stand and wait." 

Early in life Judge Bourne manifested an interest in his- 
torical matters. In 1831 he wrote a history of his town, 
which was presented by him (in manuscript) to the library 
of the First Parish Sunday-school. This was designed 
more especially for the children. He afterwards, at the re- 
quest of the Maine Historical Society, prepared an elabo- 
rate history of the towns of Wells and Keunebunk, down 
to 1820, when the latter town (before that time a part of 
Wells) was incorporated, wliich was published by his son 
soon after his decease. 

In 1834 he was elected a member of the Maine Histori- 
cal Society, and on the resignation of the Hon. William 
Willis of the presidency was chosen in his place. He con- 
tributed many valuable papers to the society. With his 4 
accustomed promptness he was uniformly present at the 
meetings, many of which were holden at a long distance from 
his home, and it was his practice always to prepare two or 
more papers to be read in case others who were expected to 
address the meeting fiiiled. Several of these were lefl un- 
used at his decease. Prof. Packard, in a letter to his widow, 
written shortly after his death, says of him, " The success 
of the ' Field Days' of the society was largely due to liis 
energy, and at the close of a recent one it was a common 
remark, 'We owe our success and enjoyment of the day to 
Judge Bourne.' " 

In 1866, Judge Bourne was elected a member of the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society. He was an 


occasional contributor to the Hisloricdl and Genealogical 
Negister, and also to the Ilisturlcal Magazine. In the 
hinguage of C. W. Tuttle, Esq., in liis remarks before the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society relative to the 
death of Judge Bourne, " He kept pace with the progress 
of historical investigation and discovery in all directions." 

From early youth he was a devout believer in the Chris- 
tian religion. lu April, 1829, he united with the church of 
the First Congregational Parish of Konnebunk (Unitarian"), 
and from that time to the day of his death was an earnest 
working member. He was a regular attendant upon the 
services of the Sabbath, as well as the week-day evening 
meetings, vphere he was always ready to assist in the ser- 
vice by words of exhortation and encouragement. 

He was the originator of the Wednesday evening prayer- 
meeting, established in 1830, the first meeting being held 
at the house of Capt. Levi P. Hillard. 

He was connected with the Sunday-school of the parish 
})io/e than half a century, — a teacher in 1819, and super- 
intendent from 1826 to his death, excepting a short time when 
the school was in charge of his brother, George W. Bourne. 

His religion regulated and controlled his daily life. To 
use a homely expression, " he lived up to it." As an in- 
stance of the practical nature of his religious sentiments, we 
advert to the fact that one of his first official acts, upon as- 
suming the office of judge of probate, was the changing of 
the day of holding his court from Monday to Tuesday, 
that there might be no necessity of traveling on Sunday. 

Judge Bourne was for seven years a member of the board 
of trustees of Bowdoin College, and in 1872 received from 
that institution the degree of Doctor of Laws. President 
Chamberlain, in a letter written not long after his death, 
says, " Judge Bourne was one of my truest and most 
valued friends. He was one of the few I have known the 
ardor of whose attachments to person or party never im- 
paired the soundness of their judgment, nor obscured their 
sense of justice. He could be a warm friend and a cool 
judge ; he could be true to each and just to all. I honor 
his memory, and shall still cherish his friendship." ■ He 
died Sept. 23, 1873. 

The writer is aware that the design of this book will not 
admit of any extended individual biography, and perhaps 
he has already occupied his full share of the space allotted 
to biographical sketches; but he hopes that he will be par- 
doned for adding the following quotation from the memoir 
of Judge Bourne, by Hon. Edwin B. Smith, published soon 
after his death by the New England Historic Genealogical 
Society, detailing some interesting facts connected with his 
last hours, and bearing upon his distinguishing character- 

" The common expression ' he will be missed' has a 
peculiar signification when applied to Judge Bourne. Not 
only as the historian, the judge, the safe and prudent coun- 
selor shall we miss him, but as the bright, cheerful Chris- 
tian gentleman. Perhaps it was this quality, more than 
any other, that peculiarly endeared him to his friends. His 
cheerfulness under all the dispensations of the Heavenly 
Father (and he was called to endure severe afflictions in the 
removal of all, save one, of his immediate family, to whom 
he was tenderly attached) was remarkable. It was a cheer- 

fulness founded on full faith in Divine Providence, — a faith 
which rendered the blessings of life more joyous, while it 
sent a bright gleam through the deepest affliction. It did 
not fail him at the last. 

" Contrary to the expectation of him.self and his friends 
(who had supposed a sudden death probable), he was for 
the last three or four weeks a great suffijrer. He was 
obliged to sit in his chair most of the time, day and night, 
and could get but little sleep. His disease was of such a 
nature that some effort was required for respiration, and 
when for a moment he was overpowered by sleep, and, 
losing consciousness, ceased to make the unusual effort re- 
(|uisite, he was immediately awakened by the most excru- 
ciating suffering, — probably caused by partial strangulation. 
Yet, when he was permitted to enjoy temporary relief, he 
was inclined to talk, and conversed with his friends in his 
old cheery way, seldom alluding to himself or his suffer- 
ings, but showing the same interest as formerly in others, 
their pursuits and enjoyments. He kept up his participa- 
tion in spirit in whatever interested the community. Only 
a day or two before his death, he reminded his pastor that 
the one hundredth anniversary of the occupancy of the 
old church in which he had so long worshiped would 
occur on the second Sabbath of January next (1874). He 
thought there should be some commemoration of the event, 
and remarked that he had contemplated preparing an ap- 
propriate address for the occasion. He referred his pastor 
to some minutes of facts in his possession compiled for that 
purpose, and requested him to prepare an address. 

" Judge Bourne seldom spoke of his religious 
even to his most intimate friends. It was a sacred i 
to him, — too sacred to be talked about on ordinary occasions. 
In his last hours, when suffering intensely, and when he 
knew that he could live but a few hours at most, he several 
times expressed the wish that he might soon be released ; 
but as to the untried scenes upon which he was conscious 
he was about to enter, he said but little. He felt no appre- 
hension. He merely said to a clerical friend, with whom 
he had lived on terms of great intimacy for many years, 
' I have no anxiety about the future.' 

" ' His was a faith sublime and suie.' 

" It is very seldom, indeed, that the name of any citizen 
is so closely and thoroughly identified with every interest, 
civil and military, religious, moral, and social, commercial, 
business, and personal, of the community in which he lives, 
as Judge Bourne's has been for the last half-century with 
those of the town of Kennebunk, where he spent a life use- 
ful and happy to its close, without reproach, and where his 
death is universally lamented." 


BENCH AND BAE— (Concluded). 

Biugraphical Slietciies — Brief Mention — List of the Present Members 
of the York County Bar. 

In 1803 came to Saeo Joseph Bartlett, an eccentric 
man, and one of the wits of the bar. He was born June 


10, 1762, in Plymoutb, Mass., and graduated, with honor- 
able standing, at Harvard in 1782 ; his scholarship being 
such as to entitle biui to membership in the highest literary 
society of the college, — the Phi Beta Kappa. He pursued 
the study of law for a while at Salem, but at the close of 
the Revolution went to England, where be led a wild, 
irregular life with boon companions, in whose society his 
wit and reckless manners made him acceptable. He passed 
his time in London iu gambling and dissipation, and, 
getting into debt, was thrown into prison, from which he 
procured his release by writing a play, in which he appeared 
as one of the actors. He then procured, upon credit, a 
cargo of goods, with which he set sail for America, but his 
vessel was wrecked on Cape Cod. We next hear of him 
among the forces of Massachusetts raised to put down the 
Shays rebellion, where he appears as a captain of volunteers, 
but returning to the law again after the war. He com- 
menced practice in Woburn, whence he removed to Cam- 
bridge in 1796, and became zealous in the affairs of the 
town and the college. He seems to have been still honored 
by the Phi Beta Kappa, for in 1799 he delivered a poem 
before that society, which was considered a talented per- 
formance, in bis peculiar vein of wit and satire. In a trial 
at Plymouth between a mother and a son, during the time 
of his residence in Cambridge, be delivered a speech, or 
rather a serio-comic argument, some passages of which well 
illustrate his manner of mingling the pathetic and the ri- 
diculous. He commented upon the sadness of such a 
quarrel between a parent and a child, and, said he, '' It is a 
shame that such a thing should occur here in the old town 
of Plymouth, under the shadow of the hill on which were 
the graves of the foreftithers, and on which I have myself 
often picked huckleberries." 

In Saco he took the popular side in politics, being an 
ardent Democrat. By his long experience, his readiness as 
an advocate, his fastidious and agreeable manners, he became 
very popular, and for a while had a great run of business. 
He was elected to the Senate of Massachusetts in 1805. 
He afterwards attempted to set up Daniel Cleaves as a can- 
didate for Congress, in opposition to Col. Richard Cutts, 
who was first elected from that district in 1800, and held 
the office, by six successive elections, through the adminis- 
tration of Mr. Jefferson and part of that of Mr. Madison. 
In attempting thus to usurp the management of the party 
against such leaders as Col. Cutts and Dr. Thornton, he 
overestimated his personal strength vastly, and iu the rash 
and egotistical attempt was the chief sufferer. The organs 
and leaders of the party opened upon him with great 
severity, and withered him and his business together into 
insignificance. Although he brought an action against 
Nathaniel Willis, of the Eastern Argus, for libel and im- 
prisoned him and recovered damages, it did not help bis 
cause ; while it put money in his pocket it ruined his busi 
ness in Saco, and he was obliged to move out of the town. 
He left the State in 1809 or 1810, and lived afterwards on 
his desultory literary labors. He drifted about from place 
to place, and finally turned up in Boston, where, on the 
4th of July, 1823, he delivered an oration in the hall of the 
Exchange Coffee-House, and recited an ode entitled the 
" New Vicar of Bray," which are mentioned by Mr. Lor- 

ing in his " Hundred Boston Orators." The same year 
he published an edition of poems, dedicated to John Quincy 
Adams, to which he appended " Aphorisms on Men, Prin- 
ciples, and Things." While living in Saco he edited a 
paper called The Freeman's Friend, and on the 4th of July, 
1805, delivered an oration at Biddeford. In 1827, at the 
age of sixty-five, he wrote the following epitaph upon him- 

" 'Tis done ! the fatal stroke is given, 
And Bartletf s fled to hell or heaven ; 
His friends approve it, and his foes applaud, 
Yet he will have the verdict of his God." 


" No name," says Mr. Willis, " was more honored at the 
bar and in the courts of Massachusetts and Maine, for more 
than a century, than that oi' Seivall. Prom 1692 to 1819 
— a period of one hundred and twenty-six years— one of 
the family had a seat upon the bench of the highest courts 
for one hundred years, about twenty-five of which as a 
chief justice: these were Samuel, Stephen, David, and 
Samuel, all descendants from Henry, the first American 
ancestor, who came to Newbury, Mass., from Coventry, 
England, in 1634. Besides these were Jonathan, attor- 
ney-general before the Revolution, and Daniel and Henry, 
in this State, clerks, time out of mind. They seem to have 
had a prescriptive right to the bench and bar and places in 
court, nor were they much less prominent in the church, 
whose pulpits they have filled with eminence, all along the 
course of our history. Pew names in our annals have had 
a higher rank and distinction than theirs." 

William Bartlett Sewall was the only son of Daniel Sewall, 
the time-honored clerk of the courts in York County, who 
descended from the first Henry, through his second son, 
John. He was born in York, Dec. 18, 1782. His mother 
was Dorcas Bartlett, daughter of John H. Bartlett, of Kit- 
tery. He was prepared for college at a grammar school in 
York, and entered Harvard in 1799, where he was a class- 
mate of Benjamin Ames, Dr. Asa Eaton, of Salem Church, 
Boston ; Prof John Parrar, of Harvard College ; Rev. Na- 
than Parker, of Portsmouth ; Rev. Dr. Payson, of Portland ; 
James Savage, of Boston ; and Samuel Willard, D.D., of 
Deerfield. He was a member of the highest college society. 
On taking his degree he entered the office of Judge Isaac 
Parker, of Portland, in December, 1803, and, on account 
of the retirement of Judge Parker, in 1806, completed his 
legal studies with Edward St. Loe Livermore, at Portsmouth, 
and was admitted to the bar in Essex County. He returned 
to Portland, where he opened an office, was admitted to the 
Supreme Court in Cumberland County, and soon became a 
partner with Chief- Justice Mellen. On the 26th of No- 
vember, 1816, he married Betsey Cross, of Portland, who 
lived about three years after their marriage ; and Mr. Sewall, 
upon her death, in 1819, removed to Kennebuuk, and re- 
occupied, with his aged father and sisters, the old home- 
stead. He assisted bis father in the duties of his offices, as 
clerk and register of probate, during the remainder of the 
time he continued to hold them. In 1823 he returned to 
Portland and took charge of the editorial department of the 
Advertiser, which he continued to conduct several years, 
adding in the mean time a semi-weekly edition. In 1837 he 


returned to Keoocbunk, where he married for his second 
wife Mariah M. Gilpatrick, daughter of Richard Gilpatrick, 
of Kennebuiik, Jan. 26, 1841, in whose congenial society 
ho passed the remainder of his days, in the calmness and 
serenity which wait on a genial temper, and follow towards 
its close a life of gentleness, purity, and uniform benignity. 
He died at Kennebunk on the 4th of March, 1869, leaving 
no children. 

Mr. Sewall was a good lawyer, had a clear and discrimi- 
nating mind, and had great accuracy and familiarity with 
the forms of practice and the art of conveyancing. But 
his extreme diffidence and modesty deterred him from mak- 
inn any exhibition in court, or taking any position as an 
advocate. Perhaps the circumstance of his connection 
with Mr. Mellen, in the early years of his practice, re- 

the scholar to the wrangles of the bar, and devoted much 
time to poetry and prose composition, which illuminated 
the columns of the newspapers and periodicals. In con- 
nection with the wits about town, — Savage, Payson, Daveis, 
Deering, Carter, Wright, and others, Portland was kept in 
good humor ; and the Pilgrim, Prowler, Nlght-TIaioh, and 
Torpedo flashed with merriment which would have done 
honor to the Salamagundi or to the modern Punch. 

When he went to Portland, in 1808, he found his class- 
mates. Savage and Payson (afterwards the distinguished 
preacher, but at that time the preceptor of the new acad- 
emy), pursuing their studies there, and, to amuse them- 
selves, they were writing a series of articles in the Old 
Portland Gazette (then edited by Isaac Adams) over 
the signature of " Pilgrim." They immediately pressed 

Photo, by J. T. Locke, Kennel.unk, 

yU^:iKJ , <^^^^z.^:^ 

strained him from aiming at or acquiring any experience 
as an advocate. Mr. Mellen argued all his own causes, as 
well as many of those commenced by other lawyers, with 
rare zeal and ability, so that a junior partner could have 
no opportunity to acquire facility in the art. Mr. Sewall 
had great delicacy and sensitiveness of taste ; nothing com- 
monplace or inferior could ever satisfy the demand of his 
own criticism. He had had also a shrinking diffidence 
which seemed to be natural to the family, — his father and 
uncles, Jotham and Henry, had it ; so had the excellent 
judge, David Sewall, and the wise and modest chief jus- 
tice, Samuel Sewall, who died while holding court at Wis- 
casset in 1814. 

Mr. Sewall was a scholar and a ripe one, of cultivated 
taste and fine thought. He preferred the quiet pursuits of 

Sewall into the service, and ho became a joint contributor 
to those agreeable literary productions, which instructed and 
amused the town. The Prowler followed, and these more 

formal essays were intenspers 


3y a squH 


New Year's Hudibrastic verses, which lighted up the pro- 
saic columns of the Gazette. 

Mr. Sewall had a great fondness for mathematical studies, 
which he pursued to a large extent in college, and was re- 
warded for his attainments in that branch by an assign- 
ment of " exercises in mathematics and astronomy ' at 
commencement, with two others of his classmates, Nathan 
Parker and Daniel Swan. This taste was probably imbibed 
in early life from his father, who had quite a genius for 
mathematical calculations, which manifested itself in the 
preparation of almanacs, and the like labors. Both father 


and son worked much in that line, in which they took 
pleasure and made great proficiency. The son, when young, 
assisted his father in almanac-making ; and, when in the 
practice of his profession, beguiled the leisure time in pre- 
paring a " Register for Maine," which he published several 
years after the separation from Massachusetts. In connection 
with Judge Bourne, of Keuuebuuk, he prepared the " Reg- 
ister of Maine for 1820." This being the first published in 
the new State, was very full, and contained a vast deal of 
useful information, in a compact form. It contained a 
chronological account of the various settlements in Maine 
from the earliest time, with notice of early grants, etc. ; the 
act of separation, the new constitution, and the list of dele- 
gates to the convention, tariff' of duties, army and navy reg- 
ister, besides the usual matter embraced in such works. He 
continued the publication of the " Register" several years ; 
for the labor, care, and investigation in which, the sales 
poorly compensated. These humble but very valuable sta- 
tistical works are not appreciated in their day so much as 
tliey ought to be ; nor is the labor and skill necessary in 
the preparation sufficiently estimated. A full series of these 
works is invaluable to one who is collecting materials for a 
history, or who desires to see the form and pressure of the 
times long gone by. 

In all works of this kind, and others involving .statistical 
habits or knowledge, Mr. Sewall had few equals in his day. 
What he did he did thoroughly and well, and he was con- 
stantly busy about something useful or amusing. He was 
one or two years secretary of the Senate, soon after the 
separation, which gave him facilities in his favorite pursuit; 
and he was often afterwards employed by members and 
committees to draft and prepare bills and other papers to 
be laid before the Legislature, in which his dear and con- 
cise method rendered him a model worthy of all imitation. 
It would have promoted the accuracy and precision of the 
statutes if this practice had been continued. 

He was always cheerful, social, and often gay ; hif^ hu- 
mor was racy, and the play of mind was lambent and genial. 


On the removal of Judge Miller to Portland in 1806, his 
place at Biddeford was occupied by Samuel Hubbard, who 
afterwards became a distinguished lawyer and judge in 
Massachusetts. Mr. Hubbard was born in Boston, in 1785, 
and graduated at Yale College in 1802, at the age of seven- 
teen. He studied his profession in New Haven, in the_ 
office of Judge Chauncey, for two years, and completed his 
course with Charles Jackson, the eminent lawyer and judge 
of Boston. Immediately after his admission to the bar in 
SuflFolk County he came to Biddeford, where Mr. Mellen 
had built up a large and, for that period, profitable practice, 
the result of fourteen years' earnest and diligent labor. It 
could hardly be expected that a young lawyer, only twenty 
years of age, and just entering upon his practice, however 
fine his abilities, could fill at once the wide circle made by 
his eminent predecessor, especially as the flourishing village 
on the opposite side of the river furnished older and more 
experienced competitors in Cyrus King, Jeremiah Brad- 
bury, and the eccentric Joseph Bartlett, who were in prac- 
tice there at that time. Still, Mr. Hubbard did a successful 

business, and remained in Biddeford till 1810, when he 
returned to Boston and formed a partnership with his 
former teacher. Judge Jackson. The appointment of Mr. 
Jackson to the bench, in 1813, left him a large and lucrative 
practice. He was elevated to the bench of the Supreme 
Court to fill the place made vacant by the death of Judge 
Putnam, in 1842. which position he filled with great ac- 
ceptance rill his death, Dec. 24, 1847. 


William Allen Hayes, of South Berwick, was a worthy 
member of the bar, and long filled places of honor and trust 
in York County. He was the youngest of three sons of 
David Hayes, of North Yarmouth, in which town he was 
born on the 20th of October, 1783. He was prepared for 
college under the tuition of Rev. Tristram Gilman, and grad- 
uated at Dartmouth in 1805. He studied law first with 
Ezekiel Whitman, at New Gloucester, then for a short time 
with Dudley Hubbard, at South Berwick, and finished his 
course with Artemas Ward, of Charlestown, a celebrated 
lawyer of the Middlesex bar, aflerwards chief justice of the 
Boston Court of Common Pleas, who was a sound lawyer, 
with a very large practice. 3Ir. Hayes was admitted to the 
Middlesex bar in 1809, and immediately opened an ofiice 
at South Berwick, which place for the remainder of his life 
became the field of his labor, his usefulness, and his fame. 

The other lawyers at this time in that thriving village 
were Jlcssrs. Hubbard, Greene, and Lambert, the two for- 
mer of whom were giving much of their time to politics, 
and the latter not pushing business with much energy. A 
good opening therefore existed for a young lawyer like Mr. 
Hayes, and he occupied it and improved it with great as- 
siduity, soon acquiring a large business, which, by judicious 
management, accumulated to a handsome competence, won 
him the confidence and esteem of the public, and made him 
a leading man in that section of the country. He suc- 
ceeded, not only to the business of Dudley Hubbard, who 
died in 1810, but to his elegant mansion and farm, and made 
it one of the most beautiful and highly-cultivated spots in 
the country. Forty years of his busy life were spent in his 
practice and other public and private duties. For more 
than twenty-five years he was president of the South Ber- 
wick Bank ; about the same period president of the Bar of 
Y'^ork County ; he was many years president of the Board 
of Trustees of Berwick Academy, and for twenty years 
(1828-47) judge of probate for York County. In all 
these multiplied relations he maintained the character of a 
faithful, upright, wise, and good man. 

When his cares and labors had greatly increased, he 
found a partner, an able coadjutor, in a young man of fine 
talents and business capacity whom he took into his ofiSce, 
— Charles N. Cogswell, of whom we give a brief sketch 


Charles Northend Cogswell was the son of Northend and 
Elizabeth Cogswell, and was born in Berwick, April 24, 
1797. In 1814, at the age of seventeen, he graduated at 
Bowdoin College. He studied law with Mr. Hayes, with 
whom he entered into partnership on being admitted to the 
bar in 1817. It proved a most successful partnership, 


both being men of high intellectual endowments and large 
business capacity. It is said that for many years more 
business was done in their office than in any other in the 

Mr. Cogswell possessed the confidence of the community 
in a large degree, not merely in his professional services, 
but in his business relations and public duties. He was 
often elected to represent his town and county in the Legis- 
lature and Senate of the State, and was a member of the 
latter body in 1833-34. After an honorable and useful 
life he died suddenly on the 11th of October, 18i3, in the 
forty-seventh year of his age. Judge Goodenow, in reply 
to the application to place upon the records of the court 
the resolves of sympathy adopted by the bar, observed, 
" In a professional career of twenty-five years, few, very 
few, have accomplished it so well. His talents for business 
were indeed extraordinary, and be was most diligent in the 
employment of them. His memory was retentive, and he 
was exceedingly accurate in all his transactions in his office 
and in the courts. His whole demeanor was amiable and 

Mr. Cogswell was twice married. His first wife was 
Elizabeth Hill, of Portsmouth ; his second, Margaret E. 
Russell, daughter of Edward Russell, of Portland, by 
whom he left one son. 

Judge Hayes survived his junior partner eight years, 
and died April 15, 18.51, aged sixty-,seven. 


Judge William Pitt Preble commenced practice in York, 
the home of his ancestors, who had been distinguished in 
the early history of Maine. Abraham Preble, the first an- 
cestor in America, came from England, and was one of the settlers of Scituate, Mass., prior to 1637. In 1642 
he purchased a tract of land at Agamenticus, now York, 
where he settled and continued to reside till his death, 
which occurred in 1663. He sustained some of the most 
conisiderable and responsible offices in the province, having 
been councilor for Sir Ferdinando Gorges, in 1645, and so 
long as the government of the Lord Proprietor was main- 
tained ; member of the General Provincial Court ; com- 
missioner, treasurer, and chief military officer of the prov- 
ince. His son, Benjamin, filled many important offices, 
and his great-grandson, Brig.-Gen. Preble, was a renowned 
citizen, and father of Commodore Edward Preble. 

Judge Preble, the subject of this notice, was the son of 
Isaias Preble, and was born in that part of York called 
Scotland Parish, Nov. 27, 1783. He graduated at Har- 
vard in 1806, pursued the study of law, partly in the 
office of Benjamin Hasey, of Top.sham, and partly in that 
of Mr. Orr, in Brunswick. Commenced practice in York, 
whence in a .short time he removed to Alfred, and in 1811 
was appointed county attorney for York County. In 1813 
he removed to Saco. In 1814 he received from President 
Madison the appointment of United States attorney for the 
district, as the successor of Silas Lee, who died that year. 
In consequence of this appointment he removed to Port- 
land in 1818, which continued ever after to be the place 
of his residence. His great abilities as a lawyer soon placed 
him in the foremost rank of the bar of the State, an equal 

competitor with those honored in the several counties, — 
Dane, Mellen, Whitman, Holmes, Longfellow, Wilde, 
Allen, Greenleaf, Fes.senden, Crosby, 3IcGaw, and many 
others. He resembled Mr. Orr in the clearness and force 
of his style in presenting a cause to a jury, being plain, 
.solid, and matter-of-fact in his arguments. 

On the organization of the State, in 1820, he was se- 
lected as one of the three judges of the Supreme Judicial 
Court, — a position which he honored, by his weight of 
character and able opinions, during the eight years which 
he occupied the bench. He retired from the honorable 
position in 1828, to accept of the appointment to the di- 
plomatic service of minister plenipotentiary to the Hague, 
tendered by President Jackson. He received the appoint- 
ment to this critical and delicate service in view of the 
boundary-line question which had been .submitted to the 
arbitration of the King of Holland. The award having 
been unfavorable. Judge Preble entered against it a severe 
and able protest. He returned to Maine in 1831, and was 
appointed the State agent to proceed to Washington for 
the purpose of enforcing the rights of Maine, and induced 
the general government not to accept the award. In 1832 
he was one of the commissioners appointed to negotiate 
with the United States, and .secured a settlement of the 
controversy alike honorable to his judgment and ability as 
a diplomatist, and to the interests of the State of Maine. 

We have not space to give in detail the life of one so emi- 
nent in public services. His agency as a prime mover 
and negotiator, both in Canada and in England, in the 
measures whereby the connection between Portland and the 
Great West was secured by the Atlantic and St. Lawrence 
(now the Grand Trunk) Railway are well known, and be- 
long to another portion of the history of the country. Judge 
Preble died Oct. 11, 1857, at the age of seventy-three. He 
was twice married, his first wife being Nancy Gale Tucker, 
second daughter of Joseph Tucker, of York, at one time 
the collector of that port, whom he married in September, 
1810. His son by this marriage, William Pitt Preble, his 
namesake, has been for many years clerk of the District 
Court of the United States, residing at Portland. Judge 
Preble's second wife was Sarah A. Forsaith, of Portland, by 
whom he had one son. There were two daughters by the 
first marriage. 


Ether Shepley, late chief justice of Maine, was the second 
son of John Shepley, and Mary, widow of Captain Thur- 
low, of the Revolutionary army, a daughter of Deacon Gib- 
son, of Stowe. He was born in Groton, Mass., where the 
family was early settled, on the 2d of November, 1789, and 
received his elementary education at the Groton Academy. 
In 1811 he took his degree at Dartmouth College, in cla-ss 
with Prof Nathaniel H. Carter, Bezaleel Cushman, and Na- 
thaniel Wright, who were instructors in Portland after 
leaving college ; Dr. William Cogswell, Daniel Poor, the 
celebrated missionary ; Professor Parker, of the Harvard 
Law School ; Amos Kendall, postmaster-general under 
President Jackson, and other distinguished men. 

On leaving college ^Ir. Shepley entered the law-office of 
Dudley Hubbard, in South Berwick, where he remained 
two years, putting into an orderly and prosperous shape the 


large collection business of Mr. Hubbard, which had been 
suffering from the want of systematic attention. He con- 
tinued his studies with Zabdiel B. Adams, of Worcester 
County, and with Solomon Strong, of Hampshire, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1814, in July of which he commenced 
practice in Saco. Mr. Willis says of him, " With the ex- 
perience he had gathered, and the habits of business he had 
acquired, he was more than usually advanced over young 
practitioners in the knowledge of his profession, and in the 
use of its machinery, and early entered upon a successful 
and lucrative practice, which his industry, close application, 
and practical ability made secure, and gave to him a prom- 
inent place in the community in which he resided. 

In 1819 he zealously entered into the measures for the 
separation of Maine from Massachusetts, being that year a 
representative from Saco in the General Court. He was 
also that year chosen a delegate to the constitutional con- 
vention, in which body he took an active part. In Feb- 
ruary, 1821, he was appointed United States district 
attorney in the place of William Pitt Preble, who was 
elevated to the bench of the Supreme Court. This oflSce 
he held until his election as one of the United States sen- 
ators from Maine, in 1833, the duties of which, in connec- 
tion with his very extensive practice, he discharged with 
great promptness and fidelity, of which no better evidence 
can be adduced than the length of time he was permitted 
to retain it, — through the four closing years of Mr. Mon- 
roe's administration, the whole of Mr. Adams', and four 
years into Gen. Jackson's, and left it at last only for a 
more exalted station. He was elected to the Senate of the 
United States in 1833, as the successor of Hon. John 
Holmes, and in that body, by vote and voice, sustained the 
administration of General Jackson. In January, 1834, he 
made two earnest and able speeches on the exciting question 
respecting removing the deposits from the United States 
Bank. He remained a member of the Senate till Septem- 
ber, 1836, when he was appointed to the bench of the Su- 
preme Court, to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Judge Parris, who had been appointed by Mr. Van Buren 
second comptroller of the United States Treasury. '■ As a 
judge, both at nisi prius and in the law department, his 
ability, his industry, and his integrity fully justified the 
partiality and good judgment of Governor Dunlap's admin- 
istration, by which the appointment was made." 

In 1848 he was appointed chief justice, as tjie successor 
of Judge Whitman, with the general concurrence of the 
bar and pubUc sentiment. He continued in this high office 
till the autumn of 1855, when his constitutional term of 
seven years having expired, he retired from the bench with 
an exalted and unsullied reputation. " No judge ever more 
faithfully or more promptly discharged the duties of the 
bench than Judge Shepley ; and the ability which charac- 
terized his judicial career is amply illustrated in the twenty- 
seven volumes of the " Maine Reports," from the fourteenth 
to the fortieth, inclusive. His opinions are drawn with 
clearness, directness, and force, and no one can mistake the 
point which he endeavors to establish." 

The last public office he was called to perform was that 
of sole commissioner for the revision of the public laws, to 
which he was appointed by resolve of April 1, 1856. In 

accordance with this he prepared the " Revised Statutes of 
Maine," published in 1857. As a proper recognition of 
legal learning and judicial experience, Dartmouth College 
conferred upon him the honorary title of LL.D. 

Judge Shepley married, in 1816, Anna Foster, by whom 
he had five sons. One of his sons, John R. Shepley, 
graduated at Bowdoin College in 1837, and became a prom- 
inent lawyer in St. Louis. Another, the late George Fos- 
ter Shepley, judge of the United States Circuit Court, born 
at Saco, Jan. 1, 1819, graduated at Dartmouth at the age 
of eighteen, 1837 ; colonel of the 12th Maine Volunteers; 
promoted to brigadier-general ; commandant of New Or- 
leans ; military Governor of Louisiana ; chief of staff of 
Maj.-Gen. Weitzel ; and military Governor of Richmond 
at the close of the war. He resigned his commission July 
1, 1865, and on his return to Portland resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession. Dec. 22, 1869, he received the ap- 
pointment of United States Circuit Judge for the First 
Circuit, which office he held at the time of his death, July 
20, 1878. A short time previously, Dartmouth College 
had conferred upon him the honorary degree of LL.D., a 
suitable recognition of his eminence as a legal scholar and 


Philip Eastman (Asa", Jonathan*, Philip', Capt. Eben- 
ezer', Philip'^, Roger') is a lineal descendant in the seventh 
generation from Roger Eastman, who was born in Wales, 

Great Britain, in 1611. Married Sarah ; emigrated 

to America in 1640, and settled in Salisbury, Mass. He 
died Dec. 16, 1694. His wife died March 11, 1697. 
They had ten children. John, eldest son, represented 
Salisbury in the General Court of Massachusetts in 1691. 
Philip, third son, and in direct line of descent, born Oct. 
20, 1644, married, Aug. 22, 1698, Mary Morse, and settled 
in Haverhill, Mass. His house was burned by the Indians 
March 15, 1698, some of his family taken, and others dis- 
persed. He afterwards removed to Woodstock, Conn. 

"In answ' to the (ledtion of Philip Eastman humbly desiring this 
Court's favour, considyring his late captivity w**" the Indiaus & losse, 
that he luay be freed from the payment of suuh rates as have binn, or 
may be levyed this yeare for the use of the Country, the Court grants 
him his request." — Colmty llecurds of Ma8s.,\o\. v. page 114. .Sept. 
IB, 1076. 

Capt. Ebenezer Eastman, born Jan. 10, 1689, married 
Sarah Peaslee, March 4, 1710, and settled in Haverhill, 
where all his children were born. He was early a pioneer 
among the Indians ; afterwards a captain in the French 
war ; went to the capture of Louisbourg, under Sir William 
Pepperell ; had a garrison on the east side of the Merrimac, 
now East Concord ; was one of the grantees of Penacook, 
now Concord, and was one of the earliest, most active, and 
influential settlers. He died July 28, 1748. Philip, son 
of Capt. Ebenezer, born Nov. 13, 1713, at Haverhill, 
Mass., married Abiah Bradley, Slarch 29, 1739. She was 
sister of Jonathan and Samuel Bradley, who were killed by 
the Indians at Penacook. She often donned a man's hat, 
shouldered a musket, and took her stand iu the sentinel's 
box through the night to relieve her husband. He died 
Sept. 1, 1804. Jonathan, son of Philip, born June 10, 
1746, was a volunteer in Capt. Joshua Abbott's company 

O^f-^^-^^/a S~^ 

^L.^ ^ 


that marched to reinforce the Northern Army in September, 
1777. He married Molly Chandler, Jan. 5. 1769, and 
died Oct. 19, 1S34. His second wife, Esther, died the 
same year, aged eighty-one. Asa Eastman, son of Jonathan, 
born Dec. 5, 1770, married Dec. 31, 1795, Molly, daughter 
of Lieut. Phineas Kimball, of Concord. She was born 
May 15, 1775. About 1792 he and Samuel Ayer Brad- 
ley built a cabin and commenced clearing on the margin of 
Cold River, in the wilderness, four miles from the extreme 
fniiitier .settlement, on a tract of land purchased by their 
fathers from tlie commonwealth of Massachusetts, known 
as the " Bradley & Eastman Grant," now a part of the town 
of Stow, in the State of Maine. Bradley, after two seasons, 
determined upon a professional life; graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1799 ; studied law, and settled at Frye- 
burg, where he died. Eastman continued to clear his land, 
and taught school winters until his marriage. He first 
moved into a log house on the Chatham, N. H., side, which 
he built the previous summer, and there lived until 1801, 
when he built the first framed house (two story) in the sel> 
tlement (still standing), where he lived until his death, Aug. 
16, 1818. He was well educated, hospitable, a liberal and 
useful citizen, a judicious magistrate, and a legislator highly 
esteemed for his public and private worth. His wife died 
in Chatham, Dec. 4, 1859. Philip Eastman, son of Asa, 
born in Chatham, N. H., Feb. 5, 1799, graduated at Bow- 
doin College, in 1820, in the class with the late Judge 
Hathaway and Hon. Samuel Bradley. He read law with 
Stephen Chase, of Fryeburg ; Hon. Nicholas Baylies, of 
Montpelier, Vt. ; and with Judah Dana, of Fryeburg ; was 
admitted to the bar in September, 1823, and commenced 
practice at North Yarmouth, Me. 

He married, July 23, 1827, Mary, daughter of Stephen 
Ambrose, of Concord, N. H. She was born May 12, 1801. 
In 1836 he removed to Harrison, and in June, 1817, re- 
moved to Saco, and formed a law partnership with Mr. 
Bradley, his old classmate, where he remained in the jirac- 
tice of his profession until his death, Aug. 7, 1869. He 
was active, interested, and influential in town, county, and 
State affairs, and called by the citizens where he resided to 
occupy stations of responsibility and honor. 

He was chairman of the county commissioners for Cum- 
berland County from 1831 to 1837, and Democratic mem- 
ber of the State Senate in 1840 and 1842. In 1840 he 
was chairman of the committee on the revision of the stat- 
utes, and superintended their publication in the winter of 

In 1842 he was appointed chairman of the commissioners 
on the part of Maine to locate grants to settlers in the ter- 
ritory which had been claimed by Great Britain in the 
northerly part of the State, under tlie provisions of the 
Treaty of Washington, and was engaged in that business 
mostly in the Madawaska settlement during that and the 
following season. 

In 1849 he published a of the first twenty-sis 
volumes of the Maine Reports. He was a member of the 
Maine Historical Society, and was for several years a trustee 
of Bowdoin College. 

For six years prior to his decease he was president of 
the old Manufacturers' (now Saco Nationalj Bank, and was 

identified with all the social, religious, and business interests 
of the city of his residence. 

The following quotations are from addresses of members 

(if the Yui-k bar ; 

'" Philip Eastman was conservMtive in his character,— seldom, if 
ever, changed an opinion he had once formed, and in religion and 
politics always, to the time of his death, adhered to the associations 
of his youth, lie the Bible through many times in the course 
of his life, and manifested equal reverence for the Old and New Testa- 
ments. Ho, I believe, looked to the past as furnishing safe landmarks 
for the future. Hence we always knew where to find him. This and 
his fixed moral principles rendered him always reliable. The breath 
of slander never reached him. In bis undertakings I have reason to 
believe he always sought aid and guidance from above, and scrupulously 
acted according to the light given him. Hence the smooth and even 
tenor of his life — never ruffled — never disturbed — always (he same 
Philip Eastman — mild and benignant, but firm as the oak in his con- 
victions of duty. lie now rests from his labors, and his ' works do 
follow him.'" 


*' As a lawyer, he maintained an honorable status, acquired by 
many years of diligent study. Few members of the bar give them- 
selves so freely as he did to the acquisition of professional knowledge. 
He was always the diligent student, and, in consequence, became well 
versed in jurisprudence. Above all deception in his practice, and 
straightforward in the duties of his profession, he drew to himself a 
class of clients from the best ranks of society. The public always 
had confidence in him as a lawyer and as a man. Honorable and 
courteous in his .action in court, and frowning upon all chicanery and 
every species of low artifice, he .acquired also the respect of the 
members of tlie bar. He duly appreciated the dignity of the pro- 
fession, regarding the ministry of the law as one of the highest 
employments of life. His generous and liberal spirit would not permit 
him to say anything which would wound the feelings of another. He 
was a man of peace." 

Mr. Eastman left two sons and two daughters living, — 
Ellen Jane; ,\nibrose, a graduate of Bowdoin College, a 
practicing lawyer in Boston ; Edward, a graduate of Bow- 
doin in the class of 1857, studied law with his father, ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1860, and has since remained in the 
continuous practice of the law at Saco ; and Mary Searle 


Daniel Goodenow was born in Henniker, N. H., Oct. 
30, 1793. His parents removed to Brownfield, Me., in 
1802. In 1813 he entered the law-oflSce of Hon. John 
Holmes, at Alfred, and was admitted to the York County 
bar in 1817. While prosecuting his legal studies in the 
oflice of Mr. Holmes he at the same time carried on those 
of the sciences and classics so rapidly and successfully that 
in 1817 he was admitted to the senior class of Dartmouth 
University, and graduated there the same year. 

Having chosen Alfred as his home, he rapidly gained an 
extensive practice, and soon became a leader at the bar. 
In 1825, '27, and '30 he represented Alfred in the House 
of Representatives, and the latter year was Speaker. In 
1831, '32, and '33 he was the candidate of the Whig 
party for Governor; and in 1838 and 1841 he was attor- 
ney-general of the State. From 1841 to 1848 he was 
judge of the District Court for the Western District, and 
from 1855 to 1862 an associate judge of the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Maine. In 1860, the honorary degree 
of LL.D. was conferred on him by Bowdoin College, of 


which he was for twenty-five years a faithful and devoted 
trustee. He died at Alfred, Oct. 7, 1863. 

At the next term of the Supreme Court, held at Saco, 
in January, 1864, Judge Kent, one of his associates on the 
bench, made the following remarks : 

''Judge Goodenow has always been a marked and prominent man, 
and he has ever exerted a decided intiuence on society. This was the 
result of talents cultivated and wisely employed, of character unsul- 
lied, and integrity unquestioned, of that combination of intellectual 
and moral qualities which in their development give the world ' as- 
surance of a man' himself and true to his fellow-man. 

•* There was something in his character and in his success worthy of 
examination and imitation. His early life was one of struggle with 
adverse circumstances ; but this has been the fortune of many. He 
met and overcame obstacles, — and so have most of the leading men of 
our country. But it always seemed to me that our deceased friend 
early formed a plan of life and adhered to it: that in his years of 
early manhood, without wasting his da3's in repining, hQji.vcd his 111711 
high, and an earnest ambition to be a man among men — and they 
among the highest — stimulated him to excel. But he laid the foun- 
dation on which he hoped to rise not on low cunning, or mean in- 
trigues, or sycophantic flattery, but on the solid basis of integrity, sin- 
cerity, and industry ; hoping and straining always for honor and suc- 
cess, but compassing * noble ends by noble means,' and spurning 
everything which would justly lower him in the esiimation of good 
men, and would wound and tarnish his conscientious sense of right 
and duty. Tracing the life thus commenced, we find, in its develop- 
ment and it« history, the formation of a character less marked by 
startling brilliancy than by solid worth and firm principle, and the 
useful and honorable performance of the duties of daily life. In man- 
ners courteous and dignified, he was firm in his convictions, and de- 
cided in avowing and maintaining them. 

" Judge Goodenow had great seff-respect, which, no doubt, in his ear- 
lier years, and through his whole life, stood sentinel against low tempta- 
tions, and degrading or corrupting associations of habits. It never took 
the form of arrogance or of undue assumption, or of ascetic life, or of 
aristocratic contempt for those around him. But it was the result of a 
proper appreciation of his own character and position, of the true 
dignity of human nature, .and of watchful care that, whatever else be- 
fell, his own self-respect should not be lost or clouded by misfortune, 
OT by the malevolence or misconstruction of others. It produced in him 
a high sense of personal honor, which, whilst it rendered him courte- 
ous and gentlemanly and genial in social life, could repress inten- 
tional insults, .and cheek unseemly license, with dignity and effect. 

"He was & frank and a slmere man. He meant what he said, and 
he said what he meant. He was true, not merely in his words, but 
in his instincts and in his life. He professed nothing that he did not 
feel, and promised nothing that he did not intend to perform. His 
convictions were clear and strong, and held unwaveringly and with 
few misgivings, and he was ever true to them in word and in deed. But 
he was not dogmatic or offensive in uttering and maintaining them. 
What he claimed for himself he yielded to others. His popularity was 
never the result of that weakness or selfishness which fears to form a 
distinct opinion, or to express it when duty calls, but of the conviction, 
which even those who differed from him felt, that he was sincere and 
honest and truthful, and that whilst ever true to his friends, he was 
never false even to an opponent, or to an enemy, if he had one. 

" The professional life of our brother was honorable and successful. 
He seemed to have early formed a right appreciation of its true char- 
acter and highest dignity. It was never with him a mere trade, by 
which money was to be gained and a living secured. It was not to 
him an instrument to be used for chicanery and oppression, or to ex- 
tort unjustly, by by-paths and indirection, the hard earnings of the 
unlearned and confiding. It was never with him a cover to conceal, 
under forms of law, the grasping spirit of avarice, and he never 
stirred up strife among his neighbors that fees might flow into his 
coffers. To the just and reasonable and honorable pecuniary rewards 
of his professional labors he was not indifferent, but he claimed them 
as rightly paid for laborious and valuable service. But he felt, as every 
true and high-minded professional man must feel, that there are 
higher rewards and higher motives than those that are merely mer- 
cenary, which should move .and excite him to action. 

"No man who does not honor his profession can be honored by it. 

But the upright lawyer, who has spent his days and nights in prep- 
aration, and has mastered his profession in its principles and in its 
details, and stands up as the advocate of his fellow-man, when his in- 
terests, his character, or his liberty are in question, always feels that 
he has assumed a responsibility which mere money can never ade- 
quately recompense. And when engaged in the conflicts of the forum, 
earnest and faithful in presenting the cause of his client, and while true 
to him and his duty, equally true to the court and to himself, he 
thinks not an instant of his pecuniary reward, but he exerts his best 
powers of eloquence and argument in the discussion of great princi- 
ples or minute details with no other feeling than that of duty, and 
with no other thought than of the honorable fame which may follow 
from its performance. As soon would the true soldier, in the hour 
of the sternest strife on the battle-field, think of his pay and rations. 

"Judge Goodenow brought to the bench the learning, the expe- 
rience, and the maturity of mind and judgment acquired in his many 
years of laborious industry at the bar. He gave to the State his best 
powers, and he faithfully strove to administer justice without fear or 
favor, and, as far as possible, to reconcile the equity of particular 
cases with the established principles of law. The characteristics to 
which I have alluded, and which have been spoken of by our brother, 
were manifested in a marked degree in his judicial career. He was 
there, as everywhere, independent and firm, impartial and just, — 
more anxious to do his duty and satisfy his own conscience than to 
gain temporary applause. He claimed no exemption from error, 
but he must be convinced of his error before he would yield to the de- 
cision of a majority. When he left the bench, at the expiration of 
his term of office, we all felt that the State had lost a faithful, de- 
voted, and honest servant, and he retired with honor, carrying with 
him the best wishes of his colleagues and of the whole people. 

" It is cheering to contemplate such a life in all its parts until its 
earthly end. With no adventitious advantages, with no uncommon 
natural powers, but starting on the voyage of life with good sense and 
good purposes, and amid difSculties and trials and dangers, and the 
shoals and rocks, keeping his eye fixed on his polar star, he steers his 
course, ever ' steady with an upright keel,' never relaxing in his pur- 
pose, or yielding to fear or despondency, until his bark is safely moored 
in its \3St harbor and resting-place. Well may we — well, especially, 
may all young men — pause and contemplate and study such an ex- 

"! how often is it otherwise I Where one who can look back 
through a long vista of years recalls and counts up the multitude of 
young men who commenced life with him, with fair promise, full of 
hope and talent, and ambition and joyous anticipation, and with 
honest and earnest purpose to e.xcel, and then numbers the wrecks 
caused by want of a steady aim and a fixed plan of life, and remem- 
bers how many sank by yielding to sensual indulgence, or enervating 
indolence, or to the syren song of pleasure, luring them on to the 
rocks, or yielded themselves willing victims to that scourge of our 
land, intemperance, or fainted under difliculties, or gave up in despair 
at early failures of extravagant hopes, or by reason of disappoint- 
ments which they had not manliness and strength of will enough to 
make stepping-stones for new effort* and thus surmount them, — when 
the vast mass of ruin lies before him in his memory, he would fain 
turn from it and the sorrow which it creates to the contemplation of 
the life and history of those who, like our deceased brother, have 
weathered the storms and sailed over the seas in safety and with suc- 
cess. In the one class the young man may find beacons to warn ; in 
the other, charts to guide him in the voyage of life. 

" Our brother's death was startlingly sudden. And yet it was to 
him ' no unthought-of hour.' He had fixed his thoughts through life, 
and especially as it drew towards its close, on the high themes of death 
and immortality. He had the faith, and he lived the life, of a rational 
Christian. The foundation of all that was estimable and valuable in 
his character was his devout sense of responsibility to his Maker. 
The summons did not find him unprepared. His life's work had been 
done, and well done. He had reached the allotted time for man on 
earth. He had borne himself honorably through life, and possessed 
the love of his family and the esteem of his neighbors. With no stain 
on his character as a citizen, as a Christian, or as a man, but with a 
high and enviable reputation in all these relations, he has gone down 
to the grave, in the fullness of his years, without suffering and with- 
out the wasting pains of protracted sickness. 

" Although nature may prompt us, ordinarily, to join in the prayer 
of the Litany for deliverance * from sudden death,' yet there are cases 



1 but feel that a 



lings of the good man' 
the least may be the sudden summons which calls him away from suf- 
fering and sorrow, and from those years of protracted life which have 
no pleasure in them. ' Feux — xon tantum vit.f, claiutatk, skd 


Judge Goodenow had four bi-otlier.s, nil of whom were 
lawyers. Two of them — Hon. Rufus K. Goodenow, of Paris, 
and Hon. Robert Goodenow, of Farmington — were repre- 
sentatives in Congress from Maine. Two sisters — Mrs. 
Alpheus Spring, of Fryeburg, Me., and Mrs. Daniel P. 
Stone, of Maiden, Mass. — survive. 

He was twice married, — first to a daughter of Hon. 
John Holmes. Of their three children, the eldest is the 
wife of Rev. William H. Willcox, of Maiden, Mass. 

The eldest son, John Holmes Goodenow, graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1852 ; was admitted to the bar in Port> 
land in 1855 ; was a partner of Hon. Nathan D. Appleton, 
at Alfred ; was a member of the House of Representatives 
in 1859; president of the Maine Senate in 1861-62 ; and 
from 1865 to 1876 was consul-general at Constantinople, 
and three times charge d'affairs. 

The second son, Henry Clay Goodenow, graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1853 ; was admitted to the bar in 
1856 ; commenced practice at Biddeford ; removed to 
Lewiston, where he was a partner of Hon. Charles W. 

Hon. Nathan D. Appleton was born in Ipswich, Mass., 
in May, 1794, where his ancestors liad resided since the 
first of the name, Samuel Appleton, moved there from 
England in 1635. He graduated at Bowdoin in 1813, and 
seven years later settled in Alfred, having been admitted to 
the bar in 1816. His ripe scholarship and gentlemanly 
deportment soon gave him an extensive practice. In 1829, 
1847, and 1848 he was a member of the State Legislature, 
was president of the Senate in 1830 and in 1837, and in 
1838, 1850, and 1852 was the nominee of the Whig party 
for representative to Congress. Prom 1857 to 1860 he 
held the office of attorney-general. During the long period 
of over forty years in which Mr. Appleton practiced at the 
York County bar he always maintained an unblemished 
character and a high position as a lawyer and a man. He 
married Julia, daughter of Abial Hall, of Alfred. 

Rufus p. Tapley, son of Rufus and Rebecca (Josselynj 
Tapley, was born in Danvers, Mass., Jan. 2, 1823. In 
early life he was obliged to depend upon his own resources 
— willing hands and a resolve to work his own way — for 
obtaining an education. In this he was successful, and re- 


Goddard, and is at present judge of the Police Court in 

Judge Goodenow's second wife was a daughter of Judge 
Dana, of Fryeburg, and the widow of Henry B. Osgood, 
Esq., of Fryeburg. Their only child is the wife of James 
Hopkins Smith, Esq., of New York. 

ceived a liberal preliminary education in the schools of his 
native town and from private tutors. In 1846 he came to 
Saco, and began the study of law in the office of Bradley 
& Haines, and was subsequently a student with Bradley & 
Eastman. He was admitted to the bar in 1848, and has 
remained in the continuous practice of the law in Saco 



since. In 1858 he was a member of the State Legislature, 
and the next year was elected county attorney, holding 
the office for six years. In October, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned as colonel of the 27th Maine Regiment, which posi- 
tion he held until February, 1863, when he resigned and 
returned home. He was in the Legislature for the two 
following years, and in December, 1865, was appointed 
judge of the Supreme Court of the State, and held the 
office for seven successive years. Returning to practice, he 
was (in 1871) again elected to the Legislature. Judge 
Tapley is by universal confession a gentleman of marked 
ability and talent, and single-handed and alone, unaided by 
such accidents of life as wealth, social position, and family 
connections, has lifted himself by successive stages from a 
humble estate to a position of usefulness and honor. He 
is thoroughly identiiied with the town and county of his 
adoption, and has taken an active part in local and State 
legislation while pursuing his profession. As a lawyer, he 
is noted for the acuteness and discrimination of his mind, 
for his untiring industry, for the readiness with which he 
undertakes suits full of labor and difficulty, for thorough 
preparation of his oases, and a persistent faithfulness to his 

He is ready and fluent, with a good command of lan- 
guage, selfpossessed, logical, a keen reasoner, a pleasing 
speaker, and always has the closest attention of court and 

His opinions, as published in Reports, evince the same 
painstaking labor as is ever noticed at the bar. He thor- 
oughly investigates, closely digests the law and facts, and 
clearly states his conclusions. Independence of thought 
and character cause him to give dissenting opinions when- 
ever his researches lead to them. With unusual quickness 
of perception, he readily analyzes- the case, and never hesi- 
tates to present it to the jury as he sees it. Pleasant and 
courteous in his manners, kind in his feelings, generous in 
his acts, he has the respect of his community. He married, 
in 1853, Louisa K, daughter of Capt. Robert McMannus, 
of Brunswick, Me. The children of this union are Rufus 
P. Jr., Robert M., and Philip C. 

His wife died December, 1871, and in January, 1873, 
he married Lydia W., daughter of John Merriman, of 
Brunswick, by whom he has two children, — Edward K. 
and Linda M. 


John Monroe Goodwin was born in Baldwin, Me., on 
the 3d of September, 1822, prepared for college at North 
Yarmouth, under the instruction of Allen Weld, and grad- 
uated at Bowdoin in the class of 1845. He studied law 
with Judge Sewall Wells, at Portland, up to the time of 
the appointment of the latter to the bench of the Supreme 
Court (1847), and continued with Edward Fox, now judge 
of the United States District Court, and was admitted to 
the Cumberland bar in March, 1848. He first opened an 
office at Mechanic Falls, Me., whence he removed in one 
year to Portland, where he remained till 1850, when he 
removed to Biddeford, and has continued to practice there 
ever since. He was a member of the State Senate in 1856, 
a representative in 1863-64, city solicitor of Biddeford, and 
Democratic candidate for Congress in 1876. 

Mr. Goodwin married, in July, 1850, Harriet P. Her- 
rick, daughter of Benjamin J. Herrick, of Alfred, by whom 
he has had five children. His oldest son, Francis J. Good- 
win, is a graduate of Amherst College, and engaged in 
insurance business in Biddeford. His son, George B. 
Goodwin, is well known as the editor of the Bangor Com- 


Alexander Eraser Chisholm was born in Salem, Mass., 
Oct. 15, 1813; was a bookseller in Portland from 1832 to 
1841 ; studied law at Hollis, with Samuel Bradley, 1841- 
42 ; was a law partner with jMr. Bradley from October, 
1842, to August, 1845 ; removed in August, 1851, to Saco, 
where he practiced law till his death, Nov. 19, 1871. He 
was postmaster in Hollis, town agent, and a member of the 
school committee, — an office in which he also served in Saco, 
— and at the time of his death was president of the York 


Thomas M. Hayes was born in Kennebunkport, Aug. 
IS, 1819, and died in Boston, Feb. 1, 1869. He graduated 
at Bowdoin College in 1840, studied law, and practiced 
at Saco from 1843 till about 1864. He was State senator 
in 1854, and Democratic candidate for Congress in 1860. 
He removed to Boston, where he practiced his profession 
from 1864 to 1869, the time of his death. 


Joseph T. Nye was born in Saco, May 19, 1819. He 
practiced law, and was collector of customs at Saco from 
1849 to 1853, and judge of probate from 1854 to 1857. 
He died June 14, 1859. 


Samuel V. Loring, son of Rev. Levi Loring, born in 
Freeport, Me., Dec. 6, 1808, studied law with Samuel 
Bradley ; practiced first at Spriugvale, then at Saco, and 
removed to Boston in 1870. He was trial justice prior to 
1867, and recorder of the Municipal Court. He now re- 
sides in Arizona. 


Joseph Dane was born in Kenuebunk, Feb. 21, 1823. 
He is the son of Joseph Dane, a distinguished lawyer, who 
settled in that town in 1800, and practiced law there till 
his death. The subject of this notice graduated at Bow- 
doin College in 1 843 ; studied law with Judge Bourne, of 
Kennebunk, and Judge Dewey, of Worcester, Mass., and 
was admitted to the bar in 1846. lie has practiced law 
ever since in Kennebunk. 


William Cutter Allen commenced the practice of law in 
Alfred, in May, 1822 In 1828 he was appointed register 
of probate, and held the office, with the exception of one 
year, till 1841. In 1839, 1844, and 1845 he was a repre- 
sentative in the Legislature ; a senator in 1846 ; judge of 
probate from 1847 to 1854, when he received an appoint- 
ment in the Post-Office Department at Washington, which 
he held till his death, Aug. 12, 1859. He married a daugh- 
ter of Henry Holmes, Esq., of Alfred, and left two sons, 


The emigrant ancestor of the Bradley family so 
prominently identified with New England, Daniel 
Bradley, according to Savage, came in the "Elizabeth," 
from London in 1635, at the age of twenty, and settled 
in Haverhill, Mass., where he was killed by the In- 
dians, Aug. 13, 1689. Daniel, his son, with his wife, 
Hannah, and daughters, Mary and Hannah, were also 
killed by the Indians, March 15, 1G97. Josejih, who 
is known to have been the ancestor of Samuel, was 
surprised in his garrison house at Haverhill, Feb. 8, 
1704, and his wife was a 
second time taken cajitive 
and carried away by this 
relentless enemy. Abraham, 
son of Joseph, was the first 
of the name who settled in 
Penacook. He was one of 
the pioneers who moved up 
from the lower towns on 
the Merrimac to the rich 
meadows higher up this 
beautiful river. He died 
in 1754, leaving ten chil- 
dren by his wife, Abigail 
Philbrick. His seventh son, 
Samuel, was great-grand- 
fatiier of our subject. He, 
too, was inhumanly mas- 
sacred by the Indians in 
1746, leaving by his wife, 
Mary Folsom, of the Exeter 
family, a son, John, born 
Feb. 13, 1742, and a daugh- 
ter, Mehitabel, born inl745. 
John married Hannah Ayer, 
by whom he had nine chil- 
dren, of whom Robert, born 

June 17, 1772, married Abigail Bailev, by wiiom he 
had four children, — Samuel, the late distinguished law- 
yer of Saco, subject of this notice; Dr. Israel Bailey 
Bradley, born June 22, 1805; the late Alexander 
Ramsey Bradley, of Fryeburg, born Xov. 5, 1809; 
and Mary Ann Bradley, born June 2, 1814. Alexander 
R. Bradley graduated at Harvard University in 1831, 
and died in 1862. Samuel Bradley, born March 29, 
1802, married Jane M., daughter of Col. Isaac Lane, 
of Hollis. She died in Boston, Sept. 27, 1873, aged 
sixty-eight. He died June, 1849. Their children are 
Sarah J., wife of Hon. Edwin R. Wiggin, formerly 

So/Av^wU; fhricdl 

a lawyer of Saco, attorney for York County from 1856 
to 1859, a member of the State Senate in 1863, and now 
a resident of Boston ; and Robert, born in 1837, died in 

Mr. Bradley graduated from Bowdoin College in 1820; 
subsequently read law; was admitted to the bar, and from 
1824 to 1845 practiced law in Hollis. In the latter year 
he came to Saco, where he became a law partner with Hon. 
Wm. P. Haines (Bradley & Haines), and subsequently, 
in 1847, on the retirement of Mr. Haines, associated with 
him his old classmate, Hon. 
Philip Eastman (Bradley A 
Eastman), with whom he 
remained in practice until 
his decease. ^Nlr. Bradley 
was a man of keen, quick 
perceptions, and a ready 
speaker. When he came to 
Saco he was in the front 
rank of his profession, and 
engaged in a large and lu- 
crative practice, which was 
augmented by his connec- 
tion with Mr. Haines, then 
legarded as the best coun- 
selor at the bar. In their 
business in court the argu- 
ment of causes before the 
jury was prineipallyassumed 
by Mr. Bradley, who was 
then regarded as one of 
the ablest advocates in the 
county. With him his client 
was always in the right. It 
was a peculiarity of his that 
he always made his client's 
cause his own. He was an 
ardent Whig in politics. Here the same positive and 
affirmative elements of character as appeared in his law- 
practice were quite as demonstratively shown. He was 
no demagogue in any sense. In 1844 he was the Whig 
candidate for Presidential elector. In 1848 he was a 
delegate to the convention which nominated Gen. Taylor 
for the Presidency. To this nomination he was irrecon- 
ciled until the day before the election, when, feeling that 
his influence must fall upon one side or the other, he 
came out in a public speech in support of the nomina- 
tion. As a friend, no man was truer or more firm and 



Samitel W. IjUQUES was born in the town of 
Lyman, York Co., Me., Aug. 3, 1816. 

His grandfather, Antliony Luqnes, born in Retz, 
France, educated as a physician in Paris, came to 
the United States in 1785. He married, and settled 
at Beverly, Mass., wliero in 1791 iiis son Andrew, 
father of Samuel W., was born. In 1802 the 
family removed to Lyman, where Samuel W. spent 
his boyhood, and in 1824 went with the family 
to Kennebnnkport. Having received a good aca- 
demical education in early life, he entered tlie law- 
oftice of Hon. Edward E. Bonrne, at Kennebunk, 
and continued his legal studies at the Harvard 
Law School. In 1841, upon examination, he was 
admitted to the York County bar. 

Not finding a location favorable for business he 
did not .settle anywhere permanently until 1846, 
when he came to Biddeford, where he has since re- 
sided and practiced his profession. In 1852 he 

married Hannah M., second daughter of Elisha 
Child, of Augusta, Me. His children are Ed- 
ward C. and Herbert L., students at Dartmouth 
College; Frank A., a student at Phillips' Academy, 
Exeter, X. H. In 1856, upon the organization of 
the City Bank of Biddeford, which was afterwards 
changed to the First National Bank, he was chosen 
one of the directors, which office he continues to 
hold in 1879. 

In 1876 he was appointed judge of the Munici- 
pal Court of Biddeford, which office he retains in 

In his early political life Judge Luques was 
a Whig, but on the formation of the Republican 
party, being entirely convinced of the purity, sound- 
ness, and wisdom of its principles, he gladly iden- 
tified himself with that organization. In religion 
he is a Unitarian, believing in the liberal Chris- 
tianity of that denomination. 


viz., Henry W., a graduate of Dartmouth College, and 
a resident of New York City, and Weld N. Allen, a com- 
mander in the United States Navy. Judge Allen was a man 
of marked traits of charaeter. Singularly neat in dress and 
personal appearance, he was polite, precise, and systematic, 
a ftiithful public officer, and a respected citizen. 


John Shepley was a law-partner with his brother, P]ther 
Shepley, in Saco, from 182(5 to 1836. He also continued 
to practice in Saco till his death, which occurred Feb. 9, 
1857, aged sixty-nine years. Previous to settling in Saco, 
he practiced law in Rutland and Fitchburg, Mass., and 
was a member of the Massachusetts Court, a delegate to 
the convention to revise the Constitution of Massachu- 
setts in 1820, a senator in that State in 1821, and a rep- 
resentative in 1825, prior to his removal to Saco. He was 
reporter of the decisions of the Supreme Judicial Court of 
Maine, from 1835 to 1841, and from 1842 to 1850. 

George H. Knowlton was born in Portsmouth, N. H., 
April 11, 1835; practiced law at Biddeford ; was city 
clerk of Biddeford in 1860 ; register of probate trom 
1861 to 1869, in which year he became one of the editors 
of the Portland Press; and from 1870 until his death was 
United States assessor of internal revenue for the First 
District of Maine. 

Amos Gr. Goodwin, born in Eliot, Aug. 17, 1797, grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1821, studied law, and settled 
at Saco, where he practiced till his death, Jan. 22, 1840. 
He served on the school committee in 1836, and was town 
agent from 1837 to 1840. 


George Thacher, Jr., son of Judge Thacher, was born 
at Biddeford, Sept. 7, 1790, and died at Westford, Mass., 
June 12, 1857. He graduated at Harvard in 1812; 
studied law and practiced at Saco ; was register of probate 
from 1820 to 1828; removed to Monroe, Waldo Co., of 
which he was sheriff in 1838, and collector of customs 
at Belfast from 1841 to 1844. He was law-partner, in 
Saco, of Governor Fairfield. 


Samuel P. S. Thacher, another son of Judge Thacher, 
born April 23, 1785, was a lawyer at Arundel from 1812 
to 1815. He died at Mobile, Ala., Nov. 5, 1842. 

Lauriston Ward practiced law at Saco, and was deputy 
collector of customs till 1841. He removed to Washing- 
ton, D. C, in 1845, having been appointed to a govern- 
ment clerkship. He was born in Newton, Mass., June 12, 
1786, and died Jan. 27, 1852. 


George Hussey, son of a Quaker farmer in Berwick, 
read law with Jonathan Clark, of Sanford, in which town 

he married Hannah Moulton, by whom he had one son 
and a daughter. He died io Kriinebonk, July IS, 1834. 


Alonzo Marrett, now of East Cambridge, Mass., came 
to Kennebunk in 1842, and practiced law for a short time. 
He was a sou of Rev. Samuel Marrett, of Standish, in 
which town he was born in 1816. He graduated at Bow- 
doin College in 1838, and was a member of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature in 1862. His wife, Mrs. A. W. Marrett, 
died July 25, 1876, aged sixty years. 


John Hubbard was a lawyer at South Berwick, had a 
large law business, and was an able man. He was a grad- 
uate of Dartmouth, 1841 ; a representative in 1846. He 
died in 1849, aged thirty-four years. 


John Noble Goodwin was admitted to practice about the 
time of the death of John Hubbard, and took his 1 
He was afterwards senator in 1855 ; member of Co 
from 1861 to 1863; chief justice of Arizona in 1863; 
Governor of Arizona from 1863 to 1865 ; delegate in 
Congress from Arizona, 1865 to 1867. He graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1844. 


Joseph W. Leland, son of Joseph Leland, of Saco, mer- 
chant, was born in Saco, July 31, 1805, and died Sept. 7, 
1858. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1826, studied 
law, and practiced in Saco till his death. He was county 
attorney in 1837, 1839, and 1840, and from 1846 to 1849. 


George Folsom, the author of the " History of Saco and 
Biddeford." was a few years a lawyer in Saco. He was 
born in Kennebunk, May 23, 1802 ; graduated at Harvard 
in 1822. He removed to Worcester, Mass., and then to 
New York about 1838 ; was State senator in New York in 
1845 to 1847 ; United States minister to the Netherlands, 
1850 to 1853. Died at Rome (Italy), Mardi 27, 1869. 


Daniel T. Granger, born at Saco, July IS, 1807, grad- 
uated at Bowdoin in 1826, studied law with John and 
Ether Shepley, and practiced at Newfield from 1829 to 
1833, at Eastport from 1833 till June, 1855. He was 
appointed judge of the Supreme Court in March, 1854, but 


John T. Paine, of Sanford, was born at Wakefield, N. H., 
Aug. 20, 1831. He was county attorney, 1842 to 1846 ; 
representative from 1837 to 1842. He removed to Mel- 
rose, Mass., and had a law-office in Boston ; was a member 
of the Massachusetts Legislature in 1851. Now > 


Francis Bacon, son of Dr. David Bacon, of Buxton, was 
a lawyer, register of deeds, and register of probate. Died 
in Kittery. 



John Burnliam was born in Scarboiouub, and was a 
graduate of Harvard College in 179S; a student of Judge 
Prentiss Mellen, then of Biddeford. He was admitted to 
the York bar in 1801, and opened an office in Limerick the 
same 3'ear, and practiced there until his death, in July, 1825. 
He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 181 9, 
and represented the town in the Legislatures of 1820 and 


William Freeman was burn in Portland, in 1783, a son of 
Deacon Samuel Freeman, and brother of Rev. Charles Free- 
man, of Limerick ; graduated at Harvard in 1804, and was 
admitted to Cumberland bar in 1807. He practiced in 
Portland five years, and removed to Limerick upon the out- 
break of the war with Great Britain, and remained there 
eight years, engaged in professional work, serving the town 
in the General Court in 1818. In 1820 he returned to 
Portland, and, after a brief period, thence to Cherryfield, 
where he died in February, 1879. Like his brother Charles, 
he was a constant and zealous advocate of temperance, and 
did much literary work outside his profession. 


John McDonald was born in Limerick, in December, 
1800, and was educated at the local academy and at Bow- 
dom College in the class of 1823. His tutors in law were 
Gen. Fessenden, Hon. Rufus Mclntire, and John Burnham. 
He became a member of York bar and practitioner in Lim- 
erick in 1826. Nine years later he moved to Bangor ; was 
judge of the Mimicipal Court in 1837-39, and died in 
January, 1867, aged sixty-six years. He was a son of 
Gen. McDonald, of Limerick. 

Moses McDonald, a brother of the preceding, was born 
in Limerick, April 8, 1815, and received an academic 
and partially collegiate education. He was admitted to 
York bar in 1837, and succeeded Judge Howard (with 
whom he read law) upon the removal of tlie latter to Port- 
land. He was representative in Legislature in 1841-42 
and 1845, the last year being chosen Speaker ; State senator 
in 1847 ; State treasurer from 1847-50 ; representative in 
Congress from 1851-55 ; and collector of customs at Port- 
land under President Buchanan. He died at Saco, Oct. 
18, 1869, leaving a widow, the daughter of Rev. Elias 
Libby, of Limerick. 


Robert B. Caverly was admitted to the York bar ; re- 
moved to Limerick in 1837, with a degree of LL.B. from 
Harvard Law School. Here he practiced six years, and 
went hence to Lowell, Mass., where he now resides. He 
is a poet and author of favorable mention, and widely known 
as a lawyer. One of his wives was a daughter of Daniel 
Perry, Esq., of Limerick. His student and succes.sor was 


Caleb B. Lord was a native of Parsonsfield, who received 
an academic education in Parsonsfield and Limerick. He 

pursued his legal studies with Hon. Rufus Mclntire and 
Caleb Burbank, Esq. (his uncle, then of Cherryfield, Me., 
afterwards upon the bench of California), and was admitted 
to York bar in 1843. He practiced in Limerick until 
January, 1859, when he went to Alfred (his present resi- 
dence), serving as clerk of courts for nine years ending 
Dec. 31, 1867. His contemporary was 

Luther S. Moore was born in Newfield, and was educated 
at Limerick Academy. He became a member of the York 
bar in 1844, practiced a short time in Stetson, returned 
to Limerick, succeeding Moses McDonald (with whom he 
read law). He was in the Maine Senate in 1853, and its 
president in 1854, and in the House of Representatives in 
1858. He is a trustee of the State College of Agriculture, 
farms many acres in the village, and still pursues his pro- 
fession. His wife is a daughter of Hon. Simeon Barker, 


Edwin B. Smith was born in Kennebunk, Oct. 3, 1S32, 
and graduated at Bowdoin College in 1856. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in September, 1858, after reading with 
Judge E. E. Bourne, of his native town. His first prac- 
tice was in Limerick, from March, 1859, to September, 1862. 
He moved to Saco, and was partner of Hon. Rufus P. 
Tapley until the latter's elevation to the Supreme Bench in 
December, 1865. From this time he continued in a large 
practice until 1875, when he was commissioned as assistant 
attorney-general of the United States, and was succeeded 
by Burbank & Derby. He represented the city of Saco in 
the Legislature for three years, being Speaker of the House 
in 1871 ; was city solicitor three years, and reporter of de- 
cisions (S. J. Ct.) from March, 1873, to October, 1875, 
which appointment he resigned in consequence of his re- 
moval to Washington, D. C., into a national field of labor. 
His industry, his ability, and his cordial love of his cho.sen 
work have won for him State and national reputation. 


Hiram H. Brown was a native of Cornish, and pursued 
his academic studies in Limerick. Having read law with 
L. S. Moore, Esq., he was admitted to the bar in 1861, and 
entered upon his professional work in the same year in 
Limerick, where he lived about six years. He is now prac- 
ticing in Lowell, Mass. 


Horace H. Burbank, a son of Abner Burbank, Esq., 
was born in Limerick, Oct. 27, 1837, and received his edu- 
cation at Limerick and Yarmouth Academies, and at Bow- 
doin College, of which he was a graduate in 1860. For the 
ensuing five years he was either a teacher, law student, or 
a soldier. Entering the volunteer army as a private, he left 
in 1865 as a captain. He read law with L. S. Moore, Esq., 
and at Harvard Law School ; was admitted to York bar in 
1864, and began practice in his native town in 1865. ■ Here 
he remained ten years ; meanwhile holding various town 
offices, and representing the towns of Limerick and Lim- 
ington in Legislature of 1866. He was register of pro- 

Col. James M. Stone, tliird son in a family of 
six children of Capt. James and Lydia (Perkins) 
Stone, was born in Kennebunkport, Me., April 8, 
1826. He received his preparatoiy education in 
the Gorham, North Yarmouth, and North Bridgton 
Academies, and at Andover, Mass., and graduated 
at Brown University, Providence, E.. I., in 1853. 
He began teaching at the age of sixteen to obtain 
means for his college course, having been thrown 
upon his own resources at the age of twelve by the 
death of his parents. 

After leaving college he read law with the late 
Judge Bourne, of Kennebunk, and was admitted to 
the bar of York County in 1856. He formed a law 
partnership with E. E. Bourne, .Jr., of Kennebunk 
(Bourne & Stone). This firm continued practice 
until 1862, when he volunteered in the 27th Maine 
Infantry as a private. He was elected captain of 
Company I by his comrades, and upon the organiza- 
tion of the regiment, Sept. 30, 1862, he was com- 
missioned major. This regiment was stationed in 
Virginia, engaged in skirmishing and picket duty. 
On Feb. 11, 1863, he was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel, and was mustered out of service in the fol- 
lowing July. After his return from tlie war he 

practiced law alone for a time ; subsequently formed 
a law partnership with Addison E. Haley, which 
continued about two years. He continues the prac- 
tice of his profession in 1879, giving special atten- 
tion to, and is largely engaged in, patent law practice 
in Washington and New York City. 

He was formerly a Whig and is now a Republi- 
can. He was a member of the Maine Legislature 
for 1854 and 1855, from Kennebunkport; also, in 
1860, 1864, 1865, and 1870, from Kennebunk, and 
was Speaker of the House in 1866. The same year 
that he was Speaker of the House in the Maine Leg- 
islature, a gentleman of the same name was Speaker 
of the House in the Massachusetts Legislature. 

He was a member of the Republican National 
Convention of 1876, held at Cincinnati, that placed 
in nomination Rutherford B. Hayes for President of 
the United States, and has been a candidate for Gov- 
ernor of the State and member of Congress in vari- 
ous conventions. He is a member of the Congrega- 
tional Church at Kennebunk. 

Col. Stone married. May 4, 1859, Lucy W., 
daughter of James and Abigail (Durrell) Titcomb, 
of Kennebunk. They have three children, — George 
T., Abbie L., and James S. 


born in York May 2, 1812. He and bis sister. 
Eunice, born June 17, 1817, being the only chil- 
dren of John Marshall and Eunice, daughter of 
Joshua and Hannah (Simkins) Grant. His father 
was a blacksmith by trade. Of him but little is 
known, except that he was a descendant of the 
Marshalls, of Bridgewater, Mass. His mother 
was of Scotch descent,from James Grant, who was 
taken prisoner by the forces of Oliver Cromwell 
about 1645, and either escaped or was banished, 
and came to America about this timc^ the snb- 
ject of our sketch being of the seventh generation. 
His father disappeared mysteriously early in 1817, 
just before the birth of his sister Eunice, and was 
never heard from. His mother died Dec. 9, 1819, 
aged twenty-eight years, leaving him and his sis- 
ter to the care and protection of theirgreat-grand- 
parentu, David and Olive Grant. This great-grand- 
father died May 3, 1823, after which the great- 
grandmother assumed the care of our subject and 
his sister until her death, March 15, 1827, after 
wliich time, he being nearly fifteen years of age, 
he was left to shift for himself. At the age of 
eighteen he was qualified, under the tuition of 
the Hon. Alexander Mclntire and the Rev. Eber 
C. Carpenter, pa.<tor of the First Congregational 
Church, both of whom took a great interest in his 
behalf, to teach a sumntcr school in his native 
school district, and followed this occupation in 
the winter season until 1832, during the summer 
lime acting as clerk in the store of a trader in 
York. In 1832, when twenty years of ag», his apti- 
tude and ability for trade was such that he ob- 
tained credit to set up business for himself, in 
which he was moderately successful. In 1836 he 
was elected constable and collector of taxes ; in 
1838 elected town clerk-, in 1839 appointed 
deputy sheriff, and the same year formed a co- 
partnership in trade with Mr. Cbarles 0. Clark, 
which continued until l«4:i, when he bought his 
partner's interest and continued in business until 
1850, when the death of his sister and his ill 
health caused him to sell out his business. In 
1840 he was elected a member of the school com- 
mittee of his town; in 1841 was again appointed 
deputy sheriff; in 1849 was appointed collector 
of the customs for the port of York ; in 1856 was 
elected treasurer and collector of his town , which 
ofBces he held for several years, the duties of 
which he performed so faithfully as to elicit from 
the town a vote of thanks, as appears upon its 
records; in 1854 he was appointed by Gov. Crosby 
sheriff of York County ; in 1856, the office having 
become elective by a change in the constitution 
of the State, he was elected sheriff by a large 
majority ; in 1858, declining a nomination, he was 
admitted as a member of the bar of York County, 
and is now a member in good standing ; in 1860-61 
he was elected a member of the State Senate ; in 
1862 he "a- ,.|,|-i..t..a l.> l',.-il. t T.i„...l,, a- 

SeSSOr ..f il,t..ll,:,I l.■^. T)U. f ■ !h l:-r l-^fi.-t 
of MaihP, Ullirll .iUl. .• Ilr li:!.'l «i'!. ■:-■ I .i' l^ 

ity until Feb. 8, 1870, having tendered his resigna. 
tion in Deceinber preceding. He then retired from 
official life to the bosom of his family. 

In September, 1870, he purchased what is known 
as "Stage Neck," at the mouth of York Kiver, 
and during the following winter and spring 
erected the widely and favorably known summer 
hotel, called the Marshall House, now conducted 
by his eldest son, Edward S. Marshall, through 
whose good management the house has become 
the chosen resort of the best class of summer visi- 
tors from many States. The success of this large 
enterprise, undertaken, as it was, in spite of many 
predictions of failure, has proved his sagacity and 
forecast. The pretty town hall, as remodeled under 
his direction, and the address delivered by him 
at its dedication, is an evidence of his desire 
to improve the place of his nativity. Others of 
the best dwellings in the town were built or 
remodeled by him, and he has the credit of erect- 
ing and repairing more and better buildings than 
any other person in the memory of the oldest in- 
habitant. In December, 1874, he was appointed 
town clerk by the selectmen, to fill a vacancy 
occasioned by the death of his life-long friend, 
Charles 0. Clark, and at the annual meeting, in 
1875, was elected to the same office, which he 
now (December, 1879) holds. The records of this 
ancient to«n, dating as eariy as 1642, attracted 
his attentive admiration. The tirst two volumes, 
commencing in 1642 and ending about 1800, filled 
with matter without any order as to dates, have 
been copied by him in a plain, record hand, and 

a comple 

the order of date, and 
of the index, on which 
lake these new volumes 

labor in rearranging i 

n\ cun.^4'ryvQ^tu^^i_ 

nderful exhibition of vast 
laboi, embracing, as it does, the early families 
found on the scattering and tattered originiils; 
and he is now engaged in tracing the descendants 
in every form and possible direction. As to matters 
of antiquity and tradition he may be called a 
living cjclopffidia. He tells the author of this 
sketch that he could not have done so much 
but for the encouragement and aid of his wile, 
who passed away on the 17th of April last, since 
which time he has done but little in extending 
his investigations. He was married, April 2, 1841, 
to Sophia Baker, daughter of James and Mana 
(Baker) Bragdon. She was bora March 9, 1820, 
and was the eighth generation from Arthur Brag- 
don, who signed the submission to Massachusetts 
Nov. 22, 1652. Their children were bom as follows : 
Edward Simpson Marshall, bom Feb. 1, 1842; 
George Albert Maishall, born Oct. 4, 1843; Mary 
Ann Marehall, born April 8,1846; Samuel Bradley 
Marshall, bom Jan. 23, 1847; Juliette "—•■■■" 

, born Nov. 

EoiBirasE <oj^ ii€)ii. BAYii^mfg^ ®. mihnmAL<L, )i©mi, ^'VAii e©., mMiiw.. 


bate from January, 1869, to January, 1877, judge advocate 
on Governor Connor's staff in 1876-78, witli rank of col- 
onel, and county attorney in 1878. In September, 1875, 
he removed to Saco and entered into partnership Vi^ith Judge 
John S. Derby. He was chosen city solicitor of Saco for 
the years 1877 and 1878, and since 1873 has been one of 
the bail commissioners of the county. 


Frank M. Higgins read law with Messrs. Strout & Gage, 
of Portland, and entered Cumberland bar in October, 1875, 
whereupon he removed to Limerick and succeeded to the 
office and business of H. H. Burbank, Esq. 

John S. Berry studied law with Samuel M. Came and 
Edwin B. Smith, and was admitted May 18, 1870. He 
graduated at Bowdoin College in the class of 1868. He is 
a native of Alfred, — born June 16, 1846; was judge of 
Municipal Court of Saco from March, 1874, to March, 
1878, and since Sept. 1, 1875, a law- partner with Horace 
H. Burbank, of Saco. 

We give below a list of resident members of the York 
County Bar at the May term of 1870, with their places of 
residence at that time and the dates of their admission. 
Those marked with an asterisk have since died, and others 
have removed to Boston, Portland, and elsewhere, as indi- 
cated in foot-notes: 

Adams, John Q., Biildeford, 1.S68. 
Allen, Amos L., Alfred, 1866. 
Ayer, C. R., Cornish, 1838. 
Bacon, Francis.* Hollis, 1841. 
Bodwell, John B.,t 1862. 
Blazo, Robert True,*" Parsonsfield. 
Burbank, Horace H., Saco, 1864. 
Bourne, Edward E.,« Kennebunk, 1819. 
Bourne, Edw. E., Kennebunk, 1851. 
Butler, John E.,f Biddeford, 1867. 
Bradbury, Henry K., Hollis, 1847. 
Burnham, Edward P., Saco, 1849. 
Came, Samuel M., Alfred, 1863. 
Chisholm, Alexander P.,» Saco, 1842. 
Clifford, Charles E.,t Newfleld, 1856. 
Clifford, George F., Cornish, 1868. 
Copeland, William J., Berwick, 1861. 
Dane, Joseph, Kennebunk, 1846. 
Drew, Ira T., Alfred, 1841. 
Drew, Moses A., Alfred, 1869. 
Eastman, Edward, Saco, 1860. 
Emery, William, Alfred, 1847. 
Emery, Moses, Saco, 1821. 
Emery, George A., Saco, 1866. 
Fairfield, H., Saco, 1860. 
Frost, Howard, Sanford, 1860. 
Goodwin, John M., Biddeford, 1848. 
Goodwin, A. G., Biddeford, 1868. 
Guptill, F. W., Saco, 1858. 
Haines, William ?.,» Biddeford, 1835. 
Haley, A. E., Kennebunk, 1867. 
Hamilton, S. K.,§ Biddeford, 1862. 
Hamilton, B. F., Biddeford, 1860. 
Hobbs, Nathaniel, North Berwick, 1860. 
Hobbs, H. H., South Berwick, 1834. 
Hobbs, Charles C, South Benjick, 1857. 
Hobson, William,® Saco, 1867. 

* Deceased. j Removed to Portland. t Removed tu Kansas. 

Hayes, E. H., North Berwick, 1859. 

Hubbard, T. H.,» North Berwick, 1858. 

Jones, Samuel W., Lebanon, 1866. 

Jordan, Ichabod G.,» Berwick, 1830. 

Kimball, Increase S., Sanford, 1832. 

Knowlton, George H.,» Biddeford, 1862. 

Low, Asa, Sanford, 1845. 

Luques, Samuel W., Biddeford, 1842. 

Lunt, W. F.,? Biddeford, 1868. 

Lord, Caleb B., Alfred, 1843. 

Loring, Samuel V.,? Saco, 1836. 

Marshall, Joel M., Bu.xton. 

Morris, Edward S., Biddeford, 1844. 

McArthur, Arthur,* Limington, January, 1815. 

McArthur, William M., Limington, 1860. 

McKenny, Simeon P., Biddeford, 1845. 

Mclntire, James 0.,» Parsonsfield, 1845. 

Moore, Luther S., Limerick, 1844. 

Marshall, Nathaniel G., York, 1859. 

Mason, Luther T., Biddeford, 1856. 

Nealley, John Q., South Berwick, 1865. 

Oakes, Abncr, South Berwick, 1S51. 

Ridlon, Emery S.,» Parsonsfield, 1867. 

Scammon, John Q., Saco, 1842. 

Smith, Edwin B.,I| Saco, 1858. 

Stone, James M., Kennebunk, 1856. 

Stone, Edwin, Biddeford, 1869. 

Safford, M. A., Kittery, 1861. 

Tripp. Alonzo K., Wells, 1861. 

Tapley, Rufus P., Saco, 1848. 

Weymouth, G. N., Biddeford, 1865. 

Weld, Charles E., Buxton, 1842. 

Wedgwood, E. W., Biddeford, 1841. 

Wiggin, E. R.,J Saco, 1850. 

Yeaton, George C, South Berwick, 1859. 

Since 1870 the following have been added to the mem- 
bership of the bar, and are now resident lawyers iu the 
county : John S. Derby, Saco ; Richard H. Nott, Saco ; 
Edgar A. Hubbard, Biddeford ; Nathaniel B. Walker, Bid- 
deford ; Caleb P. Brackett, Buxton ; Harry V. Moore, 
Berwick ; Frank Wilson, Sanford ; Frank W. Roberts, 
Biddeford; Harry J. Tatterson, Biddeford; Frank Wells, 
Acton ; Charles W. Ross, Biddeford ; Jesse Gould, Bidde- 



Federal Government — State Government — Colonial Government — 
Judiciary — County Government. 

The following list of civil and judicial officers contains 
only the names of those who have resided or now reside in 
York County. 

John Holmes, Alfred, 1820-27. 
John Holmes, Alfred, 1829-33. 
Ether Shepley, Saco, 1833-36. 
John Fairfield, Saco, 1843-45. 



George Thacher, Biddeford, 1st to 7th Congress, 1789-1801. 
Richard Cutts, Kittery, 7th to 13th Congress, 1801-13. 

§ Removed to Boston. 

II Removed to Washington. 


Cyrus King, Saeo, 13th to loth Congress, 1813-17. 
John Holmes, Alfred, 15th to 17th Congress, 1817-21. 


Joseph Dane, Kennebunk, 17th Congress, 1821-23. 

Wm. Burleigh, South Berwick, ISth and 19th Congresses, 182.3-27 

Rufus Mclntire, Parsonsfield, 20th to 23d Congress, 1827-35. 

John Fairfield,* Saco, 24th and 25th Congresses, 1835-39. 

Nathan Clifford,! Newfield, 26th and 27th Congresses, lS39-43.t 

Joshua Herrick, Kennebunkport, 28th Congress, 1843-45. 

John F. Seamuian, Saco, 29th Congress, 1845-47. 

Moses McDonald, Limerick, 32d and 33d Congresses, 1851-55. 

Daniel E. Somes, Biddeford, 36th Congress, 1859-61. 

John N. Goodwin, gouth Berwick, 37th Congress, 1861-63. 

John H. Burleigh, South Berwick, 43d and 44th Congresses, 1S73- 


David Sewall, York, 1788. 

Nathaniel Wells, Wells, 1792, 1796. 

Andrew P. Fernald, Eliot, 1800. 

John Woodman, Buxton, 1804. 

Andrew P. Fernald, Eliot, 1808. 

Nathaniel Goodwin, Berwick, 1S12. 

John Low, Lyman, 1816. 

William Moody, Saco, 1820. 

Nathaniel Hobbs, North Berwick, 1824. 

Simon Nowell,^ Kennebunkport, 1828. 

Joseph Prime, South Berwick, 1828. 

Isaac Lane, Hollis, 1832. 

Sheldon Hobbs, North Berwick, 1836. 

Charles Trafton, South Berwick, 1840. 

Ichabod Jordan, Saco, 1844. 

Rufus Mclntire, Parsonsfield, 1848, 1852. 

James Morton, Buxton, 1856. 

Louis 0. Cowan, Biddeford, 1860. 

Richard M. Chapman, Biddeford, 1864. 

Esreff H. Banks, Biddeford, 1S68. 

James H. McMillan, Biddeford, 1872. 

Sylvester LittlefleUl, Alfred, 1876. 


CuHec(.-;».— Jeremi.ah Hill, 1789-1809,- Daniel Granger, 1809-29; 
John F. Scamman, 1829-41; Tristram Storer, 1841-45; Ichabod 
Jordan, 1845-49 ; Joseph T. Nye, 1849-53 ; Nathaniel M. Towle, 
1853-55; Alpheus A. Hanscom, 1855-60; Thomas K. Lane, 
1860-61 ; Owen B. Chadbourne, 1861-66; John Hanscom, 1866- 
67; William Hobson, 1867-69 ; Owen B. Chadbourne, 1869-72; 
Thomas H. Cole, 1872-75; Moses Lowell, 1875-78; Ivory Lord, 

Deputij roHectocs.— Peter Hill, Joseph Granger, Nathaniel Goodwin, 
Isaac Emery, Lauriston Ward; D. Cutts Nye, 1849-53; Bowen 
C. Greene, 1853; Oliver D. Boyd; Chas. Fred. Towle, 1858; 
Samuel F. Chase, 1S61; Edwin B. Smith, 1864; Edward East- 
man, 1866; Edwin B. Smith, 1867; Jason W. Bealty, 1869; 
Moses Lowell, 1872; Frad. W. Guptill, 1875. 

« Elected Governor of Maine in 1839, and also in 1841. 

t Attorney -General of the United States, 1 846 ; Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court, 1858, and now in office; residence, Portland. 

X The First (or York) Congressional District was composed of the 
county of York till 1843; from 1843 to 1853 it also included several 
towns in Western Oxford; from 1853 to 1863 the city of Portland 
and several towns in Cumberland County were embraced in the First 
District ; and from 1863 to the present time all the towns in Cumber- 
land County were included in the First District. In the Thirtieth 
Congress (1847-49) David Hammons, of Lovell, was Representative; 
in the Thirty-first, Elbridge Gerry, of Watcrford ; in the Thirty-fourth 
and Thirty-fifth, John M. Wood, of Portland ; in the Thirty-eighth, 
Lorenzo D. M. Sweat, of Portland; in the Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, 
Forty-first, and Forty-second, John Lynch, of Portland; and in the 
Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth, Thomas B. Reed, of Portland. 

'i Elector at large. 

Cc-Weo(r,r».— Jonas Clark, 1799-1809 ; Joseph Storer, 1809-25; Geo. 
Wheelwright, 1825-29 ; Barnabas Palmer, 1829-41 ; Daniel Re- 
mich. 1841-45: James Osborn, 1845-47 ; Abel M. Bryant, 1847- 
49; Daniel Remich, 1849-53 ; John Cousens, 1853-61 ; Nathan- 
iel K. Sargent, 1861-75; Jefferson W. Sargent, 1875. 

/><yji<(ie».— Henry Clark, Seth Burnham ; George AVheelwright, 1809- 
25; Daniel Wheelwright, 1825-29; John Herrick, 1829-41; M. Bryant, 1841; Oliver Walker, 1842-47; Joshua 
Herrick, 1847-49; Oliver Walker, 1849-51; Edward P. Burn- 
ham, 1851-53; Enoch Cousens, 185.3-61 ; Seth E. Bryant, 1861- 
64; W. F. Moody, 1864 ; Seth E. Bryant, 1865. 


Ci>Hecfo/«.— Richard Trevett, 1789; Joseph Tucker, 1801; Samuel 
Derby, 1805; Jeremiah Clark, 1809 : Alexander Mclntire, 1811; 
Jeremiah Bradbury, 1815; Thomas Savage, 1820 ; Mark Dennett, 
1829; Joseph P. Junkins, 1840 ; Jeremiah Brooks, 1841 : Joseph 
P. Junkins, 1845; Nathaniel G. Marshall, 1849; Luther Jun- 
kins, 1853: George Bourdon, 1860: Jeremiah S. Putnam, 18B1; 
Edward A. Br.igdon, 1869. 


, Johu Fiiirfield, Saco, Governor, elected i 


Caleb R. Ayer, C(u-nish, 1849. 
Luther S. Moore, Limerick, 1854. 
Seth Scamman, Saco, 1858. 
John H. Goodenow, Alfred, 1861-62. 
John E. Butler, Biddeford, 1874. 


Nathaniel Low, Lyman, 1826. 
William Trafton, Alfred, 1834. 
Louis 0. Cowan, Biddeford, 1853. 
William Trafton, Alfred, 1854. 
Louis 0. Cowan, Biddeford, 1855. 


Benjamin Greene, South Berwick, 1824. 
Daniel Goodenow, Alfred, 1830. 
Nathan Clifl"ord, Newfield, 1833. 
Moses McDonald, Limerick, 1845. 
James M. Stone, Kennebunk, 1866 
Edwin B. Smith, Saco, 1871. 



Nathan Clifford, Newfield, 1834. 
Daniel Goodenow, Alfred, 1838. 
Daniel Goodenow, Alfred. 1841. 
Nathivn D. Appleton, Alfred, 1857. 


1820-24.— Isaac L.ane, Hollis. 
1824-29. — Daniel Wood, Lebanon. 
1829.— Caleb Emery, Shapleigh. 
1830.— Elisha .\llen, Sanford. 
1831.— Isaac Lane, Hollis. 
1832-35.- Nathaniel Clark, Limington. 
1835-36.- Jabez Bradbury, Hollis. 
1837. — Henry Hobbs, Waterborough. 
1838. — Daniel W. Lord, Kennebunkport. 
1839. — Henry Hobbs, Waterborough. 
1840.— Gowen Wilson, Kittery* 
1S41.— Increase S. Kimball, Lebanon. 
1842.— Gowen Wilson, Kittery. 


1843-44.— Barnabas Palmer, Kcnnebunk. 
] 8.1 6-47.— Samuel Mildram, Wells. 
1849, 51-53.— Simeon Strout. 
1854.— (3 ideon Tucker, Saco. 
1S57.— Ichabod Frost, Sanford. 
1859. — Almon Lord, Parsonsfield. 
1861-62.— George A. Frost, Sanford. 
1865-67.— Marshall Peirce, Saco. 
1870-71.— Uranus 0. Brackett, Berwick. 
1874-77.— Jeremiah M. Mason, Limerick. 
1879.— Edward C. Moody, York. 

Rufus Mclntire, land-agent, Parsonsfield, 1839. 



Ether Shepley, Saco, Oct. 23, 1848, to Oct. 22, 1855. 


Ether Shepley, Sept. 23, 1836; Daniel Goodenow, Alfred, Oct. 10, 
1855, to Oct. 10, 1862; Rufus P. Tapley, Saco, Dec. 21, 1865, to 
Deo. 21, 1872. 


John Fairfield, Saco, vols. 10 to 12, June 27, 1832. 
John Shepley, Saco, vols. 13 to 18, Feb. 12, 1836. 
John Shepley, Saco, vols. 21 to 30, Jan. 22, 1842. 
Edwin B. Smith, Saco, vols. 61 to 64, March 25, 1873. 

Luther S. Morris, Limerick, Trustee of State College of Agriculture 
and the Mechanic Arts, Orono. Established by act of Congress, 
July 2, 1862. Accepted by the State Legislature, March 25, 

Nathan Dane, Jr., Kennebunk, member of the State Board of Agri- 


Francis Champernoon, Kittery, 1686. 

Job Alcock, York, ■) 

Samuel Hayman, Berwick, I Charter 

Samuel Donnell, York, ] ( 1692, 

Samuel Wheelwright, Wells, 1694-99. 

Joseph Hammond, Eliot, 1698-1705. 

Ichabod Plaisted, Berwick, 1706-16, 1759-61. 

John Wheelwright, Wells, 1708-36, 1745, 1752-54. 

Joseph Hammond, Eliot, 1718-29. 

Charles Frost, Eliot, 1721-24. 

William Pepperell, Jr.,« Kittery, 1727-59. 

Timothy Gerrish, Kittery, 1733-34. 

Samuel Came, York, 1733-41. 

Jeremiah Moulton, York, 1735-51. 

Richard Cutts, Kittery, 1755-62. 

John Bradbury, York, 176.3-72. 

Nathaniel Sparhawk, Kittery, 1760-72. 

James Gowen, Kittery, 1773-80. 

Benjamin Chadbourne, Berwick, 1775-76, 1780-85. 

Charles Chauncey, Kittery, 1775-77, 1780. 

David Sewall, York, 1776-78, 1780. 

Edward Cutts, Kittery, 1779-80. 

Joseph Simpson, York, 1780-81. 

Nathaniel Wells, Wells, 1782-92. 


Edward Cutts, Kittery, 1780-82. 
Tristram Jordan, Saco, 1787. 
Richard F. Cutts, Kittery, 1800-2. 
Joseph Bartlett, Saco, 1804. 
Joseph Leland, Saco, 1805, 1808. 
Thomas Cutts, Saco, 1810. 
John Holmes, Alfred, 1813. 
William Moody, Saco, 1812-19' 

Knighted, 1745; died July 


Kittery.— John Wincoln, 1653, six years ; Thomas Withers, 1 656, one 
year; Humphrey Chadbourne, 1657, three years; Charles Frost, 
1658, five years; Roger Plaisted, 1663, three years ; James Em- 
ery, 1676, one year. 

York.— Edward Rishworth, 1653, thirteen years; Peter Weare, 1665, 
two years ; Samuel Wheelwright, 1677, one year, and for Wells 
and York one year. 

■\Vells.— Edward Rishworth, 1653, one year with York; Hugh Gun- 
nison, 1554, one year with York; Francis Littlefield, 1665, one 
year; William Simonds, 1676, one year. 

Saco. — Robert Booth, 1673, one year; Richard Hitchcock, 1660, one 
year; Richard CoUicot, 1672, one year. 


John Greenleaf, in all causes relating to land-titles in York, April 6, 

Joseph Sawyer and Nathaniel Sparhawk, at York, in causes where a 

quorum of the standing justices is not present, June 19, 1749. 


Francis Ilookc, Charles Frost, Samuel Wheelwright, Thomas Newton, 
justices to inquire of, hear, and determine all murders, etc., per- 
petrated within the county of York, appointed Oct. 22, 1692. 

Joseph Hammond, Ichabod Plaisted, William Pepperell, John Wheel- 
. wright, Capt. John Hill, and Capt. Lewis Bane, or any four of 
them, appointed for the trial of Joseph Gunnison for killing 
Grace Wentworth, Nov. 8, 1707. 


Dec. 7, 1692, Job Alcock, Francis Hooke, Charles Frost, and Samuel 
Wheelwright were appointed judges. 

March 6, 1694-95, William Pepperell was appointed in place of Francis 
Hooke, who died Jan. 10, 1694-95. 

Oct. 10, 1699, Samuel Wheelwright, Charles Frost, William Pepperell, 
and Samuel Donnell were appointed judges. Donnell took the 
place of Job Alcock. 

Sept. 7, 1699, Abraham Preble was appointed to take the place of 
Charles Frost, killed by the Indians, July 4, 1697. 

June 7, 1700, Joseph Hammond was appointed to succeed Samuel 
Wheelwright, who died May 13, 1700. 

June 30, 1702, Joseph Hammond, John Wheelwright, Ichabod Plai- 
sted, and Abraham Preble were appointed judges. 

June 15, 1798, Pepperell was appointed in place of Abraham 

Preble, " disabled in his hearing," and who died Oct. 4, 1714, aged 

June 8, 1710, Capt. John Hill was appointed to take the place of 
Joseph Hammond, who died Feb. 24, 1709-10. 

Dec. 13, 1715, John Wheelwright, William Pepperell, Charles Frost, 
and Abraham Preblej were appointed judges. Abraham Preble 
and Charles Frost were appointed in the place of Ichabod Plai- 
sted, who died Nov. 16, 1715, and Judge Hill. 



I of Willii 

Dec. 19, 1720, Joseph Hami 
Pepperell, resigned. 

June 23, 1724, Samuel Moody was appointed to succeed Abraham 
Preble, Jr., who died March 14, 1723-24, aged forty-nine. 

Feb. 18, 1 724-25, William Pepperell, Jr., was appointed in the room of 
Charles Frost, who died Dec. 17, 1724, aged forty-six. 

April 11, 1729, John Wheelwright, Joseph Hammond, William Pep- 
perell, Jr., and Samuel Came were appointed judges. Judge 
Came succeeded Judge Moody, who lived till 1758. 

July 9, 1731, William Pepperell, Jr., Timothy Gerrish, Samuel Came, 
and Joseph Moody were appointed judges. Gerrish and Moody 
succeeded Wheelwright and Hammond. The former died in 
1745, the latter in 1751. 

Deo. 15, 1732, Jeremiah Moulton was appointed in the place of Joseph 
Moody, resigned. 

Oct. 5, 1739, Elisha Gunnison was appointed to succeed Timothy Ger- 
rish, resigned. 

f Under this charter there were no representatives from Maine in 
1666-68, and none after 1679. 

* Nephew of the former Judge Preble. 


Aug. 12, 1749, Simon Frost was appointed in the place of Samuel 
Came, resigned. 

Jan. 2, 1753, John Hill was appointed to succeed Judge Gunnison. 

May 23, 1760, Jeremiah Moulton, Simon Frost, John Hill, and Na- 
thaniel Sparhawk were appointed judges. Judge Sparhawk 
filled the Taeaney caused by the death of Judge Pepperell, July 
6, 1759. The same four judges were confirmed Nov. 20, 1761. 

Sept. 11, 1765, Joseph Sayer was appointed to succeed Judge Moul- 
ton, who died July 20, 1765. 

March 12, 1766, Daniel Moulton was appointed in place of Simon 
Frost, who died 1766. 

March IS, 1772, Nathaniel Sparhawk, Joseph Sayer, Daniel Moulton, 
and James Gowen were appointed judges. Gowen succeeded 
John Hill, who died March 2, 1772. 

April 7, 1774, Jonathan Sayward was appointed to take the place of 
Daniel Moulton. 


Samuel Moody and Joseph Hill, March 9, 1721-22. 

John Penhallow and Samuel Came, Sept. 30, 1725. 

Joseph Hill and Samuel Came, April 2 and June IS, 1726. 

John Gray and Samuel Came. 

Joseph Hill and Samuel Came, Feb. 23, 1726-27, June 17 and 

Dec. 22, 1727. 
Samuel Came and Nathaniel Gerrish, Dec. 26, 1727, and June 13, 

Joseph Hill and Timothy Gerrish, April 11, 1729, and Dee. 24, 

John Gray and Joshua Moody, March 21, 1731-32. 
John Hill and Elisha Gunnison, Oct. 26, 1733. 
John Hill, Elisha Gunnison, and Joseph Hill, Feb. 14, 1733-34. 
Joshua Moody, Thomas Smith, Joseph Sawyer, Dec. 27, 1734. 
Peter Nowell, Jan. 12, 173S-39. 

John Hill, Joseph Sawyer, John Storer, April 8, 1743. 
John Hill and Joshua Moody, March 21, 1744-45. 
John Hill and Richard Cutts, Jr., June 27, 1747. 
John Storer, April 18, 1749, and June 21, 1751. 
Joseph Sayer and Charles Frost, June 26, 1755. 
Joseph Sayer, Richard Cutts, John Storer, and Daniel Moulton, 

Nov. 20, 1761. 
Jonathan Sayward, March 18, 1772. 

From Oct. 7, 1774, to July 19, 1775. 
Members from York County : York, Daniel Bragdon ; Kittery, Ed- 
ward Cutts, Charles Chauncey ; Berwick, Ichabod Goodwin, 
William Gerrish ; Wells, Ebenezer Sayer ; Arundel, John Hovey ; 
Biddeford, James Sullivan. 

Roger Garde, 1640-45; William AValdron, 1645-49; Basil Parker, 
1649-52; Edward Rishworth, 1652-68; Peter Weare,« 1668-69; 
Edward Rishworth, 1669-87; Joseph Hammond, 1687-1725; 
Charles Frost, 1725-31; John Frost, 1731-68; Timothy Frost, 
1768-83; J. H. Bartlett, 1783-93; Daniel Sewall,t 1793-94; 
Daniel Sewall, 1794-1812; Jeremiah Bradbury, 1812-38; Hiram 
H. Hobbs, 1838-39 ; Jeremiah Bradbury, 1839-41 ; Hiram H. 
Hobbs, 1841-42 ; William Trafton, 1842^9 ; James 0. Molntire, 
1849-59; Caleb B. Lord, 1859-68; Hampden Fairfield, 1868-71 ; 
Amos L. Allen, 1871-80. 


Henry Smith, 1812-31; Samuel Burbank, 1831-39; Edmund Cur- 
rier, 1839-42; Simeon Strout, 1842-45; Isaac Merrill, 1845-49; 
Alpheus A. Hanscom, 1849-52; Oilman L. Bennett, 1852-54; 
Isaac P. Yeaton, 1854-55 ; Benjamin F. Parks, 1855-56 ; John 
Brackett, 1856-59 ; Samuel K. Roberts, 1859-63 ; Moses Good- 

^ Peter Weare (Wyer), appointed by Massachusetts in place of Ed- 
ward Rishworth, who sided with the " King's Commissioners." (1 
Williamson, p. 434.) Rishworth was restored and re-appointed. 

t Assistant clerk in 1793. 

win, 1863-64; Albion K. Gile, 1864-66; Sylvester Littlefield, 
1866-68 ; Benjamin Leavitt, 1868-69 ; John Hall, 1869-73; Zo- 
phar R. Folsom, 1873-75 ; Esrefi' H. Banks, 1875-77 ; Richard 
H. Coding, 1877-79; Albion K. P. Meserve, 1879-80. 

Henry Norton, York, 1653; Nathaniel Masterson, Kittery, 1668; Jos. 
Hammond (declined), Kittery, 1692 ; Jonathan Hammond, Kit- 
tery, 1692 ; Joseph Curtis, Kittery, 1702 ; Charles Frost, Kittery, 
1706 ; Abraham Preble, Jr., York, 1713 ; John Leighton, Kittery, 
1715; Jeremiah Moulton, York, 1724; Jeremiah Moulton, Jr., 
York, 1752; Jotham Moulton, York, 1771; Johnson Moulton, 
York, 1784; Ichabod Goodwin, Berwick, 1793 ; Isaac Lane, Hol- 
lis, 1811; Ichabod Goodwin, Berwick, 1812; William Moody, 
Saco, 1820; Josiah W. Leaver, South Berwick, 1824; John 
Spring, Saco, 1830; Benjamin J. Herrick, Alfred, 1831; Israel 
Chadbourne, Alfred, 1837; John A. Morrill, Limerick, 1838; 
Israel Chadbourne, Alfred, 1839; John A. Morrill, Limerick, 
1841; Israel Chadbourne, Alfred, 1842: Nathaniel G. Marshall, 
York, 1854; Samuel B. Emery, Sanford, 1856; Nathaniel G. 
Marshall, York, 1857; James M. Burbank, Saco, 1859; George 
Goodwin, Wells, 1861 ; James M. Burbank, Saco, 1863; Richard 
G. Coding, Acton, 1865; Edmund Warren, Kennebunk, 1871; 
Thomas Tarbox, Buxton, 1875; Robert M. Stevens, Biddeford, 


bbard, 1807-9; William Pitt Preble, 1811-14; Dudley 


Hubbard, 1814-16; Isaac Lyman, 1816-20; Rufus Molntire, 
1820-27; Joseph Howard, 1827-37: Joseph W. Leland, 1837; 
Edward E. Bourne, 1838 : Joseph W. Leland, 1838-41 ; Edward 
E. Bourne, 1841; John T. Paine, 1841-46; Joseph W. Leland, 
1846-49; Ira T. Drew, 1849-56; Edwin R. Wiggin, 1856-59; 
Rufus P. Tapley, 1859-65; Increase S. Kimball, 1865-68; Caleb 
R. Ayer, 1868-71; George C. Yeaton, 1871-74; Wilbur F. Lunt, 
1874-78; Horace H. Burbank, 1878 : William Emery, 1879-82. 

Joshua Scottow, 1687-95; Samuel Wheelwright,; 1695-1700; Joseph 
Hammond,! 1700-9; Ichabod Plaisted,]] 1709-15; John Wheel- 
wright, If 1715-45; Jeremiah Moulton, 1745-65; John Hill, 1765- 
72; Jonathan Sayward, 1772-75; John Bradbury, 1775-78; 
Joseph Simpson, 1778-95; Edward Cutts, 1795-1807; Stephen 
Thacher, 1807-18; Jonas Clark, 1818-28; William A. Hayes, 
1828-47; William C.Allen, 1847-54; Joseph T. Nye, 1854-56 
Edward E. Bourne, 1856-73; Nathaniel Hobbs, 1873-80. 


Thomas Scottow, 1687-94; Joseph Hammond, 1694-1700; Charles 
Frost, 1700-33; Robert Eliot Gerrish, 173-3-44; Simon Frost, 
1744-65; David Sewall, 1765-82; John Sewall, Jr., 1782; Daniel 
Sewall, 1782-1820; George Thacher, Jr., 1820-27; William C. 
Allen, 1827-40; John Skeele, 1841-42 ; William Hammond, 1842 
-49; Joshua Herrick, 1849-56; Francis Bacon, 1856-61; George 
H. Knowlton, 1861-69 ; Horace H. Burbank, 1869-77 ; Moses A. 
Safford, 1877-80. 


Roger Garde, 1642-47; Edward Rishworth, 1647-86; Joseph Ham- 
mond, 1686-1721; Abraham Preble, 1721-24; Joseph Moody, 
1724-34; Jeremiah Moulton, 1734-41; Daniel Moulton, 1741-86; 
WiUiam Frost, 1786-1816; Jeremiah Goodwin, 1816-36; Benja- 
min J. Herrick, 1836-47; Francis Bacon, 1847-52; Timothy 
Shaw, Jr., 1852-58; Samuel C. Adams, 1858-63; Samuel Tripp, 
1863-73 ; Asa L. Bicker, 1873-80. 

1831. — James Ayer,5"S David Boyd. 
1832. — Charles Bradbury, David Boyd, James Ayer. 
1833. — Charles Bradbury, James Ayer, David Boyd. 
1834.— Charles Bradbury, David Boyd, Simon Fogg. 

J Died in office, May 13, 1700. ^ Died in office, Feb. 20, 1709. 

II Died in office, Nov. 16, 1715. % Died in office, August, 1745. 
*« The first mentioned in each year is the chairman of the board. 


1835. — Stephen Woodman, Enoch Wood, Simeon Strout. 

1836.— Stephen Woodman, Simeon Strout, Enoch Wood. 

1837.— Simeon Strout, Jr., Enoch Wood, William Hammond. 

1838.— Moses Hubbard, Thomas Wentworth, Jonathan Piper. 

1839.— Simeon Strout, William Hammond, Enoch Wood. 

1840.— Simeon Strout, Enoch AVood, William Hammond. 

1841.— John Powers, Thomas Carll, Benjamin C. Libby. 

1842.— Joshua Herrick, Daniel Pierce, John Bailey. 

1843.- Joshua Herrick, John Bailey, Daniel Pierce. 

1S44.— John Bailey, Daniel Pierce, Moses Sweat. 

1845-46.— John Bailey, Moses Sweat, Timothy Shaw, Jr. 

1847.- Moses Sweat, Timothy Shaw, Jr., Abner Burbank. 

1848.— Timothy Shaw, Jr., Moses Sweat, Abner Burbank. 

1849.— Moses Sweat, Timothy Shaw, Jr., Abner Burbank. 

1850. — Abner Burbank, Timothy Shaw, Jr., James Goodwin. 

1851.— Timothy Shaw, Jr., James Goodwin, George Carll. 

1852.— Timothy Shaw, Jr., George Carll, James Goodwin. 

1853.— James Goodwin, George Carll, Elisha Bodwell. 

1854.— James Goodwin, Elisha Bodwell, George Carll. 

1855.— George Carll, James Goodwin, Elisha Bodwell. 

1856.— George Carll, Cotton Bean, Samuel Mildram. 

1857.— Cotton Bean, Samuel Mildram, James M. Deering. 

1858. — Samuel Mildram, Cotton Bean, James M. Deering. 

1859.— James M. Deering, Cotton Bean, Asa Gowen. 

I860.— Cotton Bean, Asa Gowen, James M. Deering. 

1861. — Asa Gowen, James M. Deering, John Hemmingway. 

1862.— James M. Deering, Asa Gowen, Alfred Hull. 

1863.— Isaac W. Eaton, Samuel Hasty, Asa Gowen. 

1864.— Asa Gowen, Isaac W. Eaton, Alfred Hull. 

1865.— Isaac W. Eaton, Alfred Hull, Clement L. Mildram. 

1866-67.- Alfred Hull, Clement L. Mildram, Thomas Quimby. 

1868.— Alfred Hull, Thomas Quimby, Horace Parker. 

1869.— Thomas Quimby, Alfred Hull, Horace Parker. 

1870.— Alfred Hull, Horace Parker, Cornelius Sweetser. 

1871.— Alfred Hull, Cornelius Sweetser, Albert G. Hussey. 

1872.— Alfred Hull, Albert G. Hussey, Dimon Roberts. 

1873.— Albert G. Hussey, Dimon Roberts, James F. Brackett. 

1874-75.— James F. Brackett, Dimon Roberts, Joseph Bragdon, Jr. 

1876-77. — Joseph Bragdon, Jr., Dimon Roberts, James F. Brackett. 

1878. — James F. Brackett, Joseph Bragdon, Wm. H. Deering. 

1879. — Joseph Bragdon, James F. Brackett, Wm. H. Deering. 



York County in the Senate and House of Representatives, from 
to 1880. 

SENATE, 1820-2]. 

William Moody, Saeo. 
Alexander Rice, Kittery. 

John McDonald, Limerick. 
Josiah W. Seaver, South Berwick. 


Alfred, Andrew Conant. 
Arundel, Simon Nowell. 
Biddeford, Samuel Merrill. 
Berwick, Nahum Heard. 
Buxton, Nathan Elder. 
Cornish, Benjamin Dunn, 

Thomas A. Johnson. 
Eliot, John Hammond. 
Hollis, John Dennett. 
Kittery, Mark Dennett. 
Lebanon, David Le Grow. 
Lyman, John Low. 
Limerick, John Bumham. 

Limington, Nathaniel Clark. 
Newfield, James Ayer. 
Parsonsfield, David Marston 

1821 ; Rufus Mclntyre. 
Saco, John F. Scamman. 
Shapleigh, John Bodwell. 
Sanford, Elisha Allen. 
South Berwick, Joshua Chase. 
Waterborough, Henry Hobbs. 
Wells, Joseph Moody, Nahun 

York, Elihu Bragdon, Alexande 


SENATE,' 1822. 
John McDonald, Limerick. Josiah W. Seaver, £ 

Mark Dennett, Kittery. 


Alfred, Andrew Conant. 
Buxton, Nathan Elder. 
Berwick, William Hobbs. 
Biddeford, Isaac Emery. 
Eliot, John Hammond. 
Hollis, Abijah Usher. 
Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 
Kennebunk, Joseph Moody. 

Kennebunkport, Simon Nowell. Wells, Nahu 

Limington, Nathaniel Clark. 
Lyman, Thomas Sands. 
Limerick, Edmund Hayes. 
Parsonsfield, Samuel Fox. 
South Berwick, Wm. A. Hayes. 
Saco, George Scamman. 
Sanford, John Frost (2d). 
Shapleigh, Enoch Wood. 


John McDonald 
Mark Dennett, Kittery 

SENATE, 1823. 
rick. Ellis B. Usher, Hollis. 


Alfred, John Sayward. 
Buxton, Nathan Elder. 
Berwick, Joseph Prime. 
Biddeford, Isaac Emery. 
Cornish, Benjamin Thompson. 
Eliot, John Hammond. 
Hollis, Stephen Hopkinson. 
Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 
Kennebunk, George W. Walling- 

Kennebunkport, Simon Nowell. 
Limington, Nathaniel Clark. 
Lyman, Thomas Sands. 
Newfield, Simeon Moulton. 
Parsonsfield, Samuel Fox. 
Saeo, George Scamman. 
Shapleigh, John Bodwell. 
Waterborough, Phinehas Picker. 
York, Alexander Mclntire. 

SENATE, 1824. 

John McDonald, Limeric 
Mark Dennett, Kittery. 

Ellis B. Usher, Hollii 


Alfred, John Sayward. 
Buxton, Nathaniel Elden. 
Berwick, William Hobbs. 
Biddeford, Seth Spring. 
Cornish, Jonah Dunn. 
Hollis, Stephen Hopkinson. 
Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 
Kennebunk, Joseph Dane. 
Kennebunkport, Simon Nowell. 
Limington, Nathaniel Clark. 

Lyman, Thomas Sands. 
Limerick, Edmund Hayes. 
Newfield, Gamaliel E. Smith. 
Parsonsfield, Moses Sweat. 
South Berwick, Benj. Greene. 
Saco, John Spring. 
Shapleigh, Enoch Wood. 
Watei borough, Phinehas Bicker. 
Wells, Nahum Morrill. 
York, Alexander Mclntire. 

George Scamman, Saco. 
John W. Parsons. 

SENATE, 1825. 

Joseph Prime, South Berwick. 


Alfred, Daniel Goodenow. 
Buxton, Joseph Hobson, Jr. 
Berwick, William Weymouth. 
Biddeford, Seth Spring. 
Cornish, Simeon Pease. 
Eliot, John Hammond. 
Hollis, John Smith. 
Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 
Kennebunk, Joseph Dane. 
Kennebunkport, Robert Towne. 
Limington, Simeon Strout, Jr. 

Lyman, Nathaniel HilL 
Limerick, Simeon Fogg. 
Lebanon, Samuel Pray. 
Newfield, James Ayer. 
Parsonsfield, Moses Sweat. 
South Berwick, Nathaniel Low. 
Saco, John Spring. 
Waterborough, Phinehas Ricker 
Wells, Nahum Morrill. 
York, EUhu Bragdon. 

SENATE, 1826. 
George Scamman, Saco. Nathan Elden, Buxton. 

Joseph Prime, South Berwick. 


Alfred, John Sayward, Jr. 
Buxton, Samuel Hill. 
Berwick, William Weymouth. 
Biddeford, Seth Spring. 
Cornish, Simeon Pease. 
Eliot. William Fogg. 

Hollis, John Smith. 
Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 
Kennebunk, Edward E. Bourne. 
Kennebunkport, Danl. W. Lord. 
Limington, Simeon Strout, Jr. 
Lyman, Nathaniel Hill. 


Limerick, Jonathan Hayes. 

Sanford, John Powers. 

Lyman. Nathaniel Hill. 

South Berwick, Thomas Goodwin 

Lebanon, Samuel Pray. 

Shapleigh, John Trafton. 

Newfield, Gamaliel E. Smith. 


Newfield, Gamaliel E. Smith. 

Waterborough, Phinehas Ricker. 

Parsonsfield, Abner Kezar. 

Wells, Nicholas Gilman. 

Parsonsfield, Noah Weeks. 

Wells, Nicholas Gilman. 

Saco, George Scammon. 

York, Cotton Chase. 

South Berwick, Joshua Roberts. 

York, Elihu Bragdon. 

Sanford, John Powers. 

Saoo, George Parcher. 

SENATE, 1831. 


, 1827. 

Moses Sweat, Parsonsfield. 
Benjamin Pike, Cornish. 

James Goodwin, Eliot. 

Mark Dennett, Kittery. 

Isaac Emery, Biddeford. 

Moses Sweat, Parsonsfield. 



Alfred, Benjamin J. Herrick. 
Buxton, Joseph Hobson. 

Limerick, John Sanborn. 
Lebanon, Nathan Lord, Jr. 

Alfred, Daniel Goodenow. 

Limerick, Simon Fogg. 

Berwick, Richard Shapleigh. 

Newfield, Nathan CliS'ord. 

Buxton, Samuel Hill. 

Lebanon, Samuel Pray. 

Biddeford, Samuel Emery. 

Parsonsfield, John Bailey. 

Berwick, William Weymouth. 

Newfield, Gamaliel E. Smith. 

Cornish, Edmund Trafton. 

Saco, David Fernald. 

Biddeford, Samuel Pierson. 

Parsonsfield, Noah Weeks. 

Eliot, Timothy Spinney. 

Sanford, John Powers. 

Cornish, Simeon Pease. 

South Berwick, Joshua Roberts. 

Hollis, Jabez Bradbury. 

South Berwick, Thomas Goodwin 

Eliot, William Fogg. 

Saco, George Parcher. 

Kittery, John Wentworth. 


Hollis, John Dennett. 

Sanford, Timothy Shaw. 

Kennebunk, Edward E. Bourne. 

Shapleigh, Elisha Bodwell. 

Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 

Shapleigh, John Trafton. 

Kennebunkport, J. G. Perkins. 

Waterborough, Henry Hobbs. 

Kennebunk, Edward E. Bourne. 

Waterborough, Henry Hobbs. 

Limington, Nathaniel Clark. 

Wells, Nicholas Gilman. 

Kennebunkport, Danl. W. Lord. 

Wells, Nicholas Gilman. 

Lyman, Nathaniel Hill. 

York, Alexander Mclntire. 

Limington, Aaron Haggins. 

York, Charles 0. Emerson. 

Lyman, Nathaniel Hill. 

SE.VATE, 1832. 


, 1828. 

Moses Sweat, Parsonsfield. 

James Goodwin, Eliot. 

Mark Dennett, Kittery. 

Isaac Emery, Biddeford. 

Benjamin Pike,® Cornish. 

Horace Porter, Kennebunk. 

Moses Sweat, Parsonsfield. 



Acton, John Bodwell. 
Alfred, John Sayward, Jr. 

Limerick, Daniel Perry. 
Limington, Simeon Strout, Jr. 

Alfred, John Sayward, Jr. 

Limerick. Simeon Fogg. 

Berwick, Richard Shapleigh. 

Lyman, James W. Roberts. 

Buxton, William Waterman. 

Lebanon, T. M. Wentworth, Jr. 

Biddeford, Samuel Emery. 

Newfield, Nathan Clifi-ord. 

Berwick, William Weymouth. 

Newfield, Gamaliel E. Smith. 

Buxton, Joseph Hobson. 

Parsonsfield, John Bailey. 

Biddeford, Seth Spring. 

Parsonsfield, Abner Kezar. 

Cornish, Edmund Trafton. 

Saco, David Fernald. 

Cornish, Philip Hubbard. 

South Berwick, T. Goodwin (3d). 

Eliot, Stephen Jenkins. 

Sanford, Timothy Shaw. 

Eliot, James Goodwin. 

Saco, George Parcher. 

Hollis, Moses Sweat. 

Sh.apleigh, Elisha Bodwell. 

Hollis, Abijah Usher, Jr. 

Sanford, Timothy Shaw. 

Kennebunk. Joseph Dane. 

South Berwick, John P. Lord. 

Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 

Shapleigh, Aaron Hubbard. 

Kennebunkport, Eph. Perkins. 

Waterborough, Orlando Bagley. 

Kennebunk, Edward S. Bourne. 

Waterborough, Andrew Roberts. 

Kittery, John Wentworth. 

Wells, Seth Hatch. 

Kennebunkport, Danl. W. Lord. 

Wells, Nicholas Gilman. 

Lebanon, Moses Pray. 

York, Nathaniel Webber. 

Limington, Nathaniel Clark. 

York, Charles 0. Emerson. 

Lyman, Nathaniel Hill. 




, 1829. 

Charles N. Cogswell, South Ber- 

Jabez Bradbury, Buxton. 

Joseph Dane, Kennebunk. 

Abijah Usher, Jr., Hollis. 


Simeon Pease, Cornish. 

John Bodwell, Acton. 



Alfred, John Holmes (resigned) ; 
Nathan D. Appleton (chosen 

Limington, Nathaniel Clark. 
Limerick, John Sanborn. 

Acton, John Brackett. 
Alfred, George W. Came. 
Biddeford, Samuel Emery. 

Limington, Ezekiel Small. 
Lyman, James W. Roberts. 
Newfield, Niithan Clifford. 

in his place). 
Berwick, Richard Shapleigh. 
Biddeford, Daniel Deshon. 
Buxton, Samuel Sands. 
Cornish, Philip Hubbard. 
Eliot, James Goodwin. 
Hollis, Jabez Bradbury. 
Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 
Kennebunk, Edward E. Bourne. 
Kennebunkport, Danl. W. Lord. 
Lebanon, T. M. Wentworth, Jr., Nathaniel Hill. 
Newfield, Gamaliel E. Smith. 
Parsonsfield, Abner Kezar. 
S.1C0, Gideon Tucker. 
Sanford, John Powers. 
Shapleigh, Aaron Hubb.ard. 
South Berwick, Theo. F. Jewett. 
Wells, Nicholas Gilman. 
Waterborough, Andrew Roberts. 
York, Charles 0. Emerson. 

Buxton, Stephen Woodman, Jr. 
Cornish, William Johnson. 
Eliot, Seth Jenkins. 
Hollis, Moses Sweat. 
Kennebunk, Joseph Dane. 
Kennebunkport, Ephraim Per- 
Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 
Lebanon, Moses Pray. 
Limerick, John A. Morrill. 

North Berwick, William Wey- 
Parsonsfield, James W. Weeks. 
Saco, David Fernald. 
Sanford, Timothy Shaw. 
Shapleigh, Simon Ross. 
South Berwick, John P. Lord. 
Waterborough, Henry Hobbs. 
Wells, Theodore Clark. 
York. Nathaniel Webber. 


, 1830. 



John BodweU, Acton. 
Abijah Usher, Jr., Hollis. 

Nathan D. Appleton, Alfred. 

Charles N. Cogswell, South Ber- 

Simeon Pease, Cornish. 
Jabez Bradbury, Buxton. 



Alfred, Daniel Goodenow. 
Berwick, Richard Shapleigh. 
Biddeford, Daniel Deshon. 
Cornish, John S. Wedgwood. 
Eliot, Timothy Spinney. 

Kittery, John Wentworth. 
Kennebunk, Edward E. Bourne, 
kennebunkport, Jon. Stone, Jr. 
Limington, Nathaniel Clark. 
Limerick, John Sanborn. 
Lebanon, Nathan Lord, Jr. 

Acton, John Brackett. 
Alfred, John Plummer. 
Biddeford, Samuel Emery. 
Buxton, Stephen Woodman, Jr. 
Cornish, William Johnson. 

Eliot, William Hammond. 
Hollis, William Hobson. 
Kennebunk, Jeremiah Lord. 
Kennebunkport, Eph. Perkins. 
Kittery, Joshua T. Chase. 

Hollis, Jabez Bradbury. 

* Died in January. Horace Porter elected to fill his place. 



Limerick, Daniel Perry. 
Limington, Ezekiel Small. 
Lyman, EJmund Currier. 
Newfield, Nathan Clifford 

North Berwick, Moses Hubbard. 
Parsonsfield, James W. Weeks. 

Saoo, Cotton Bradbury. 
Sanford, Timothy Shaw. 
Shapleigh, Simon Ross. 
South Berwick, Josiah W. Seav 
Waterborough, John Hill. 
Wells, Samuel Mildram. 
York, Alexander Mclntire. 

Alexander Mclntire, York. 
Nathaniel Clark, Limington 

SENATE, 1835. 


Acton, Aaron Hubbard. 
Alfred, John Holmes. 
Biddeford, Ezra Dean. 
Buxton, Stephen Woodman. 
Cornish, Augustus Johnson. 
Eliot, William Hammond. 
Hollis, William Hobson. 
Kennebunk, James Lord. 
Kcnnebunkport, John G. Per- 
Kittery, Roger Deering, Jr. 
Limerick, John A. Morrill. 
Limington, Henry Small. 

Lebanon, Aaron Ricker. 
Lyman, Robert Cousins. 
Newfield, Joseph Dane. 
North Berwick, James Stuart. 
Parsonsfield, James W. Weeks. 
Saco, Cotton Bradbury. 
Sanford, John Powers. 
Shapleigh, John Gowen. 
South Berwick, Charles J. Good- 
Waterborough, Henry Hobbs. 
Wells, Samuel Mildram. 
York, Solomon Brooks. 

SENATE, 1836. 
Alexander Mclntire, York. Frederic Greene, Saco. 

Nathaniel Clark, Limington. 


Acton, John Brackelt. 
Alfred, John Holmes. 
Berwick, Frederick Cogswell. 
Biddeford, Ezra Dean. 
Buxton, Tobias Lord. 
Cornish, Thomas W. O'Brien. 
Eliot, Andrew Leighton. 
Hollis, Thomas C. Lane. 
Kennebunk, James Lord. 
Kcnnebunkport, John G. I 

Kittery, Roger Deering, Jr. 

Lebanon, Aaron Ricker. 
Limerick, Philip Chadbourne. 
Limington, Henry Small. 
Lyman, Robert Cousins. 
Newfield, Joseph Dane. 
Parsonsfield, Rufus Mclntire. 
Saco, Moses Emery. 
Sanford, Timothy Shaw. 
Shapleigh, Elisha Bodwell. 
Waterborough, William Cook. 
Wells, Samuel Mildram. 
York, Josiah Chase. 

SENATE, 1837. 
Samuel Mildram, Wells. Levi J. Ham, Newfield. 

Stephen Woodman, Buxton. 


Acton, Aaron Hubbard. 
Alfred, John Holmes. 
Biddeford, Elisha Perkins. 
Buxton, Abraham L. Came. 
Cornish, Augustus Johnson. 
Eliot, Levi J. Shapleigh. 
Hollis, Tomas Carll.« 
Kennebunk, Tobias Walker. 
Kcnnebunkport, William Patten. 
Kittery, Roger Deering. 
Limerick, Simeon Barker. 
Limington, Cephas Meeds. 

Lyman, Jacob Waterhouse. 
Newfield, Moses Ayer. 
North Berwick, Daniel Clark. 
Parsonsfield, Harvey M. Towle 
Saco, Moses Emery. 
Sanford, John T. Paine. 
Shapleigh, John Gowen. 
South Berwick, Josiah W. Seave 
Waterborough, William Cook. 
Wells, Theodore Wells. 
York, Solomon Brooks. 

SENATE, 1838. 
Samuel Mildram, Wells. Levi J. Ham, Limington. 

Stephen Woodman, Buxton. 

Acton, Asa Brackett. Buxton, Abraham L. Came. 

Alfred, George W. Came. Cornish, Thomas W. O'Brien. 

Biddeford, Ichabod Jordan. Eliot, Levi J. Shapleigh. 

«- Should be Carle. 

Hollis, Thomas Carle. 
Kennebunk, James Lord. 
Kcnnebunkport, William Patten. 
Kittery, Daniel Frisbee. 
Lebanon, Increase S. Kimball. 
Limerick, Simeon Barker. 
Limington, George S. Lord. 
Lyman, Benjamin Dudley. 
Newfield, Moses Ayer. 

North Berwick, Wilson Hobbs. 
Parsonsfield, Harvey M. Towle. 
Saco, Abel Hersey. 
Sanford, John T. Paine. 
Shapleigh, Elisha Bodwell. 
South Berwick, William Hight. 
Waterborough, William Cook. 
Wells, Charles A. Mildram. 
York, Solomon Brooks. 

SENATE, 1839. 

Timothy Shaw, Sanford. 
Simeon Barker, Limerick. 

John 6. Perkins, Kennebunk- 


Acton, Asa Brackett. 
Alfred, William C. Allen. 
Berwick, Charles E. Bartlett. 
Biddeford, Harrison Lowell. 
Buxton, William Foss. 
Cornish, Samuel Trafton. 
Eliot, Nath'l Hanscomh (.Sd). 
Hollis, Nathaniel J. Miller. 
Kennebunk, Joseph Dane. 
Kcnnebunkport, James Perkins. 
Kittery, Daniel Frisbee. 
Lebanon. Increase S. Kimball. 

Limerick, Abner Burbank. 
Limington, George S. Lord. 
Lyman, Benjamin Dudley. 
Newfield, Daniel Tyler. 
Parsonsfield, Gilman L. Bennett. 
Saco, Abel Hersey. 
Sanford, John T. Paine. 
Shapleigh, Stephen Webber. 
South Berwick, William Hight. 
Waterborough, Isaac Deering. 
Wells, Samuel Mildram. 
York, William Mclntire. 

SENATE, 1840. 
y Shaw, Sanford. John G. Perkin 

Barker, Limerick. port. 


Acton, Samuel Thompson. 
Alfred, Lyman Littlefield. 
Biddeford, Tristram Goldthwai 
Buxton, William Foss. 
Cornish, Samuel Trafton. 
Eliot, Nathaniel Hanscom. 
Hollis, Nathaniel J. Miller. 
Kennebunk, Joseph Dane. 
Kcnnebunkport, James Perkin 
Kittery, Daniel Jones. 
Lebanon, Thomas Wentworth. 
Limerick, Abner Burbank. 

Lyman, .Jesse Kimball. 
Newfield, Samuel Dane. 
North Berwick, Levi Hanscoi 

Parsonsfield, Gilman L. Bennet 
Saco, Jonathan Tucker. 
Sanford, John T. Paine. 
Shapleigh, Stephen Webber. 
South Berwick, John P. Lord. 
Waterborough, Isaac Deering. 
Wells, Joseph M. Littlefield. 
York, William Mclntyre. 


SENATE, 1841. 

Gilman L. Bennett, Parsonsfield. Thos. Goodwin (2d), South Ber- 
Thomas C. Lane, Hollis. wick. 


Acton, Rufus W. Brackett. 
Alfred, Lyman Littlefield. 
Berwick, Charles E. Bartlett. 
Biddeford, Tristram Goldthwaite. 
Buxton, Oliver Dow. 
Cornish, John Bradeen. 
Eliot, John P. Rogers. 
Hollis, Nathaniel J. Miller. 
Kennebunk, William M. Bryant. 
Kcnnebunkport, Wm. Huff, Jr. 
Kittery, Daniel Jones. 
Lebanon, Thomas Wentworth. 

Limerick, Moses McDonald. 
Limington, James Frost. 
Lyman, Jesse Kimball. 
Newfield, Samuel Dam. 
Parsonsfield, Jonathan Tuck. 
Saco, Jonathan Tucker. 
Sanford, John T. Paine. 
South Berwick, Joseph Prime. 
Shapleigh, Levi Bragdon. 
AVaterborough, Isaac Deering. 
Wells, Joseph M. Littlefield. 
York, Solomon Brooks. 

Thomas C. Lane, Hollis. 

Thos. Goodwin, South Berwick. 

SENATE, 1842. 

Elisha Bodwell, Shapleigh. 


Biddeford, Edmund Perkii 

, Samuel Thompson, 
ck, Charles E. Bartlett, 


Eliot, John P. Rogers. 
Hollis, Isaac Merrill.* 
Kennebunk, Abel M. Bryant. 
Kennebunkport, Wm. Huff, Jr. 
Kittery, Charles G. Bellamy. 
Lebanon, Nathan"! Chamberlain 
Limerick, Moses McDonald. 
Limington, James Frost. 
Lyman, James Nason. 

Newfield, Levi Bragdou. 
Parsonsficld, Jonathan Tuck. 
Saco, Frederic Greene. 
Sanford, Nehemiah Butler. 
South Berwick, C. N. Cogswell. 
Waterborough, John Hill. 
Wells, Amos Sargent. 
York, Theodore Wilson. 

SENATE, 1843. 
Elisha Bodwell, Shapleigh. Harrison Lowell, Biddeford. 

Soloman Brooks, York. 


Biddeford, Samuel Merrill. Parsonsficld, John Mudgett. 

Buxton, Charles Watts. Saco, Arthur Milliken. 

Kennebunk, Abel M. Bryant. Shapleigh, Ivory Bragdon. 

Kennebunkport, C. Bradbury. South Berwick, Jed. Goodwin. 

Kittery, Charles G. Bellamy. Waterborough, Nathaniel Emery. 

Lebanon, Frederick A. Wood. Wells, Samuel Mildram. 

Newfield, James McLellan, Jr. York, Theodore Wilson. 
North Berwick, Humphrey Fall. 

SENATE, 1844. 
Harrison Lowell, Biddeford. Solomon Brooks, York. 

Isaac Deering, Waterborough. 


Acton, Horace Bodwell. Kittery, Jeremiah S. Remick. 

Alfred, William C. Allen. Kennebunkport, C. Bradbury. 

Berwick, Samuel W. Fox. Lyman, Isaac C. Emmons. 
Biddeford, Tristram Goldthwaite. Parsonsficld, John Mudget. 

Buxton, Charles Watts. Saco, Gideon Tucker. 

Cornish, Hiram Remick. Sanford, Stephen Dorman. 

Eliot, James Goodwi 
Hollis, Miles W. Stu 

, Samuel Mildr 
Josiah Chase. 

SENATE, 1845. 

Isaac Deering, Waterborough. 
Frederic A. Wood, Lebanon. 

James Osborn,t Kennebunk. 
Benj. F. Mason, Kennebunkport. 


Alfred, William C. Allen. North Berwick, Humphrey Fall. 

Biddeford, Amaziah Emery. Parsonsficld, Alvah Doe. 

Buxton, Ansel Merrill. Saco, Ebenezer Scamman. 

Kittery, Richard Rogers. Shapleigh, George Ileald. 

Kennebunkport, Jos. Burnham. South Berwick, Rufus Thurrill. 

Limerick, Moses McDonald Waterborough, Jas. M. Burbank. 

(speaker). Wells, Samuel Mildram. 

Limington, Peter Chick. York, Nathaniel Webber. 

SENATE, 1846. 

William C. Allen, Alfred. 
Charles G. Bellamy, Kittery. 


Acton, John Leary, Jr. 
Berwick, Samuel W. Fox. 
Biddeford, William Berry. 
Buxton, John Milliken. 
Hollis, Miles W. Stuart. 
Kittery, Richard Rogers. 
Kennebunk, Tobias Walker. 
Kennebunkport, Jos. Burnha 

Charles G. Bellamy, Kittery. 
William P. Haines,^ Saco. 

Lyman, Edmund Currier. 
Newfield, John Moore. 
Parsonsficld, Alvah Doe. 
Saco, Gideon Tucker. 
Sanford, Samuel Tripp. 
South Berwick, John Hubbar 
Wells, John Perkins. 
York, Samuel Webber. 

Andrew Leighton, '. 

* In place of Samuel Bradley, resigned. 

t Resigned in April; Benjamin F. Mason elected to fill 

J Vice Levi J. Ham, of Limington, declined. 

b Vice Moses McDonald, elected State treasurer. 


Alfred, Nathaniel D. Appleton. Limington, John M. Foss. 

Biddeford, William Berry. North Berwick, Abra'm Junkinf 

Buxton, Abram L. Came. Parsonsficld, John P. Bennett. 

Cornish, Enoch Weseott. Saco, Daniel Smith, Jr. 

Eliot, William Fogg. Shapleigh, Moses Goodwin, Jr. 

Kittery, Benning Wilson. Waterborough, Ira T. Drew. 

Kennebunkport. Jno. L. Perkins. AVells, Joseph Perkins. 

Lebanon, Nahum Goodwin. Y'ork, Samuel Webber. 

SENATE, 1848. 

Samuel W. Fox, Berwick. 

1 Dyer (3d), Saco. 
)rew, Waterborough 


Acton, Hezekiah Trafton. Kittery, Benning Wilson. 

Alfred, Nathan D. Appleton. Limerick, Robert Cole. 

Berwick, Alexander Junkins. Lyman, Magness J. Smith. 

Biddeford, Moses Bradbury. Parsonsficld, John P. Benm 

Buxton, John Milliken. Saco, Daniel Smith, Jr. 

Eliot, Oliver Clark. Sanford, Nathaniel Hohhs. 

Hollis, Jacob McDonald, Jr. Wells, Nathaniel Hilton. 

Kennebunkport, Jno. L. Perkins. Y'ork, George W. Freeman. 

SENATE, 1849. 

Daniel Dam, Newfield. 
Samuel W. Fox, Berwic 


Biddeford, Moses Bradbury. North Berwick, Isaac M. Hobbs. 

Buxton, Robert Wentworth. Parsonsficld, Jacob Marston. 

Kennebunk, Tobias Walker. Saco, Alonzo Hamilton. 
Kennebunkport, Nath. Mitchell. Shapleigh, Elias Ham. 

Kittery, John R. Haley. South Berwick, Wm. L. Foote. 

Lebanon, Oliver Hanscom. Waterborough, Sam'l Webber, Jr. 

Limington, Cephas Meeds. York, George M. Freeman. 

Newfield, Nathan M. Loud. Wells, Nathaniel Hilton. 

Daniel Dam, Newfield. 
Joseph Titcomb, Keunebi 

SENATE, 1850. 

Shelden Hobbs, 


Acton, George W. Lord. Kittery, John R. Haley. 

Alfred, Archibald Smith. Lyman, Wm. Waterhouse, Jr. 

Berwick, Alexander Junkins. Parsonsficld, Jacob Marston. 

Biddeford, Richard M. Chapman. Saco, Gideon Tucker. 

Buxton, Stephen Lane. Sanford, Ichabod Frost. 

Cornish, Thurston P. McKusiok. South Berwick, M. F. Goodwin. 

Hollis, John M. Goodwin. Wells, Christopher Littlefield. 

Kennebunkport, Nath. Mitchell. York, Alexander Dennett. 

SENATE, 1851-52.11 

Shelden Hobbs, North Berwick. Samuel C. Adams, Newfield. 
Joseph Titcomb, Kennebunk. 


Biddeford, Richard M. Chapman. North Berwick, Isaac M. Hobbs. 

Buxton, Stephen Lane. Parsonsficld, John Kezar. 

Kennebunk, Samuel Mitchell. Saco, John Boothby. 

Kennebunkport, Ed. Currier, Jr. Shapleigh, Thomas Garvin. 

Kittery, Edward D. Safford. South Berwick, Isaac Yeaton. 

Lebanon, Oren B. Cheney. Waterborough, Samuel Roberts. 

Limerick, James M. Buzzell. Wells, Christopher Littlefield. 

Limington, James W. Joy. York, Alexander Dennett. 

II The same Legislature held over to 1852 without a new election, in 
order to change the session from May to January. 


Luther S. Moore, Liu 
William Mclntire, Yt 

SENATE, 1853. 
ick. Nathaniel M. Towle, Saeo. 

Samuel C. Adams,* NewflelJ. 

SENATE, 1858. 
Seth Scamman, Saoo. Samuel W. Jones, Lebanon. 

Nathan Dane, Alfred. 

Aeton, Joshua Kanisdell. 

Berwick, Samuel Stillings. 
Biddeford, Joseph Staples (2d). 
Buxton, James Morton. 
Eliot, George A. Hammond. 
HoUis, James Warren. 
Limington. James W. Joj. 
Kennebunk, Joseph Titcomb. 

Kennebunkport, Ed. Currier, Jr 
Kittery, Edward D. S.lfford. 
Parsonsfield, John Kezar. 
Saco, Abraham Cutter. 
Sanford, Charles 0. Lord. 
Waterborough, Porter Hamilton 
Wells, Nason M. Hatch. 
York, George Bowden, 

Luther S. Moore, Limerick, 
William Mclntire, York. 

SENATE, 1854. 

Thomas M. Hayes, Sa 


Alfred, Benj. P. Chadbourne. 
Biddeford, James Welch. 
Buxton, James Morton. 
Kennebunkport, James M. Stu 
Kittery, Daniel Pierce. 
Lebanon, William Emery. 
Limerick, Sylvanus Bangs. 
Limington, John Seavey. 

Lyman, Wm. Waterhouse, Jr. 
Newfield, Joseph B. Davis. 
North Berwick, William Hall, 
.''aco, Abraham Cutter. 
Shapleigh, John M. Ham. 
South Berwick, John Hanscou 
Wells, Nason M. Hatch. 
Y'ork, George Bowden. 

SENATE, 1855. 
• Dennett, York. John N. 

cammon, Saco. wick. 

Goodwin, South Ber- 


Acton, Ebenezer Ricker. 
Alfred, Ivory Hall. 
Berwick, Samuel Stillings. 
Biddeford, Leonard Andrews 
Buxton, Ansel Merrill. 
Cornish, Alpheus Trafton. 
Eliot, Andrew Leighton. 
Hollis, George Gilman. 

Kennebunkport, James M. Stone. 
Kittery, Levi Remick. 
Parsonsfield, John B. Sweat. 
Saco, Seth Scammon. 
Sanford, Nehemiah Butler. 
Waterborough, Joseph Chase. 
Wells, Enoch Goodale. 
York, Josiah Chase. 

John M. Goodwin, Biddeford. 
John Kezer, Parsonsfield. 

SENATE, 1856. 

Alexander Junkins, Eliot. 

Biddeford, George Clark. 
Buxton, Ansel Merrill. 
Cornish, Edwin W. Wedgwood. 
Kennebunk, George P. Titcomb. 
Kennebunkport, Warren Brown. 
Kittery, Mark Dennett. 
Lebanon, James Pray. 
Limerick, Simeon S. Ha.'ty. 


Lyman, .James Nason. 
North Berwick, Nathan Neal. 
Parsonsfield, John B. Sweat. 
Saco, Seth Scamman. 
Shapleigh, Daniel Shackley. 
South Berwick, John Hanscom. 
Wells, Enoch Goodale. 
York, Charles Came. 

SENATE, 1857. 
Seth Scamman, Saco. Samuel W. Jones, Lebanon. 

Nathan Dane, Alfred. 


Acton, Nathan Brackett. 
Alfred, Sylvester Littlefield. 
Berwick, Samuel Guptill. 
Biddeford, Esreff H. Banks. 
Buxton, Joseph Davis. 
Dayton, John L. Murch. 
Eliot, Asa Gowen. 
Kennebunkport, Warren Broi 

Limington, Freeman McKenney. 
Newfield, Samuel C. Adams. 
Sanford, Lyman Butler. 
Saco, Joseph Hobson, Jr. 
Kittery, Mark Dennett. 
AVaterborough, Abram CofEn. 
Wells, Eben Clark. 
York, Charles Came. 

Chosen in April to fill place of Nathaniel M. Towle, resigned. 
. Adams attended the extra session in September, 1853. 


Lyman, Hiram Waterhouse. 
North Berwick, John Hall (2d). 
Parsonsfield, Luther Sanborn. 
Saco, R. P. Tapley. 
Shapleigh, James Coffin. 
South Berwick, Benj. F. Parks. 
Wells, Edwin Clark. 
Y'ork, William H. Sweat. 

Biddeford, Ezreff H. Banks. 
Buxton, Joseph Davis. 
Kennebunk, Henry Kingsbui7. 
Kennebunkport, Albert Perkins 
Kittery, Daniel Pierce. 
Lebanon, Levi Cowell. 
Limerick, Luther S. Moore. 
Limington, Moses E. Sweat. 

SENATE, 1859. 
Cornish. James Jlorton, B 

1, Jr., Wells. 


Autou, Moses Garvin. 
Alfred, John U. Goodenow. 
Berwick, Kendall Gibbs. 
Biddeford, Samuel Lowell. 
Buxton, Levi F. Boothby. 
Eliot, Moses Goodwin. 
Hollis, Jacob McDaniel. 
Kennebunkport, Albert Perkins 
Kittery, Daniel Pierce. 

Limington, Isaac L. Mitchell. 
Parsonsfield, Luther Sanborn. 
Saco, Charles Hill. 
Sanford, Ebenezer L. Hobbs. 
Waterborough, Nathaniel Sin 

Wells, William Storer, Jr. 
York, William H. Swett. 

Morton, Buxton. 

Theodore Wells, Jr., Wells. 


Biddeford, Samuel C. Hamilton 
Buxton, Moses Hopkinson. 
Kennebunk, James M. Stone. 
Kennebunkport, Chas. C. Perkin 
Kittery, Ephraim C. Spinney. 
Lebanon, Seaver Jones. 
Limington, Lewis Clark. 
Limerick, Cyrus Fogg. 
Lyman, Thomas Tibbetts. 

Newfield, George W. Willson. 

North Berwick, Sumner I. Kim- 

Saco, Charles Hill. 

Shapleigh, Alfred Hull. 

South Berwick, Wm. A. Crom- 

Wells, Joshua Goodwin. 

York, Samuel E. Payne. 

Nathaniel G. Marshall, York. 
John H. Goodenow, Alfred. 

SENATE, 1861. 

Leonard Andrews, Biddeford. 


Acton, Luther Goding. 
Alfred, J. H. Sayward. 
Berwick, William F. Lord. 
Biddeford, S. C. Hamilton. 
Buxton, Moses Hopkinson. 
Dayton, Wm. R. Buzzell. 
Eliot, Timothy Dame. 
Kennebunkport, Chas. C. Perki 

John H. Goodenow, Alfred. 
Nathaniel G. Marshall, York. 

Kittery, John Wentworth. 
Limington, Lewis Clark. 
Newfield, Z. Dunnells. 
Saco, Cornelius Sweetser. 
Sanford, I. S. Kimball. 
Wells, Joshua Goodwin. 
Waterborough, Oliver Han 
York, Samuel E. Payne. 


Alfred, Sylvester Littlefield. 
Biddeford, Thomas H. Cole, Ja 

Buxton, Simeon B. Davis. 
Hollis, Isaac N. Felch. 
Kittery, John Wentworth. 
Lyman, Joseph Emmons. 
Limerick, Ira S. Libby. 

Lebanon, J. Y. Wentworth. 
North Berwick, William Hobbs. 
Parsonsfield, John M. Ames. 
South Berwick, John H. Bur- 

Shapleigh, Paul Garvin. 

Saco, Cornelius Sweetser. 
Wells, Barak Maxwell. 


Nehemiah Colby, South Bern 
Edwin R. Wiggin, Saco. 

Alvah Doe. Parsonsfield. 


Alfred, Timothy B. Ross. 
Berwick, Moses B. Page. 
Biddeford, John M. Goodwi 

Abel H. Jellison. 
Buxton, Simon B. Davis. 
Eliot, Andrew P. Fernald. 
Kittery, John Rogers. 
Kennebunkport, C. C. Perkins 

Limington, John Chace. 
Xewfield, Joseph Moore. 
Parsonsfield, Chase Boothby. 
Saco, Moses Lowell. 
Sanford, Benjamin F. Hamso 
Waterborough, Benj. Leavitt. 
York, Asa Melntire. 

Luther Sanborn, Parsonsfield. 
Esreff H. Banks, Biddeford. 

SENATE, 18G4. 



Acton, A. D. Mei 
Biddeford, John 

Abel H. Jellison. 
Cornish, Edmond Trafton, Jr 
Dayton, Horatio Dunn. 
Kennebunk, James M. Stone. 
Kittery, John Rogers. 
Lebanon, James TV. Grant. 

Limerick, Joshua C. Lane. 
Lyman, Samuel Waterhouse. 
Xorth Berwick, Haven A. Butler, 
Saco, Moses Lowell. 
South Berwick, John H. Bur- 
Wells, Jedediah Perkins. 
York, Henry K. Bradbury. 

SENATE, 1865. 

Esreff H. Banks, Biddeford. 
Elisha n. Jewett, South Berv 

Luther Sanborn, Pars< 

Alfred, John H. Sayward. 
Buxton, Charles E. Weld. 
Berwick, William F. Lord. 
Biddeford, William Hill, Charles 

A. Shaw. 
Cornish, Ammi Boynton. 
Eliot, George C. Bartlett. 
Kittery, Joshua H. Sanborn. 


Jesse Gould. 
Limington, Samnel JI. Bradbury. 
Saco, Rufus P. Tapley. 
Sanford, Charles H. Frost. 
Shapleigh, Sewall Lord. 
Waterborough, Oliver G. Ham- 
York, Josiah D. Bragdon. 

Charles E. Weld, Buxton, 
Nath. Hobbs, North Ben 

SENATE, 1866. 

Jeremiah M. Mas 


Biddeford, William Hill, James 

B. Clark. 
Buxton, Samuel Hanson. 
Hollis, Henry K. Bradbury. 
Kennebunk, James M. Stone 

Kennebunkport, Enoch Cousins. 
Kittery, Joshua H. Sanborn. 
Lebanon, William A. Ricker. 

Limerick, Horace H. Burbank. 
Newfield, Darling Ham. 
North Berwick, John H. Han 

Parsonsfield, Ivory Fenderson. 
Saco. Charles C. Sawyer. 
South Berwick, John H. Bui 

Wells, George Goodwin. 

SENATE, 1867. 

North Ber- Charles E. Weld, Buxton. 

Jeremiah M. Mason, Limerick. 


Alfred, William Jewett. 


D. Me 

Berwick, Uranus 0. Brackett. 
Biddeford, William H. Hanson 

James R. Clark. 
Buxton, Samuel Hanson. 
Eliot, Timothy Dame. 
Kennebunkport, Albert Perkins. 

Kittery, Joseph D. Parker. 
Limington, Wm. M. McArthu 
Parsonsfield, Ivory Fendersor 
Saco, Charles C. Sawyer. 
Sanford, Samuel Nowell. 
Waterborough, Jere Roberts. 
York, Charles C. Barrell. 

M. Burbank, Saco. 
tus D. Merrow, Newfield 

SENATE, 1868. 

George Goodw 


Alfred, Jeremiah R. Gile. 
Biddeford, Edwin W. Wedg- 
wood, Charles G. Haines. 
Cornish, Ammi Boynton. 
Dayton, James Maddox. 
Hollis, Henry K. Bradbury. 
Kittery, Joseph D. Parker. 
Lebanon, Edmund F. Cowell. 
Limerick, Joseph H. Gilpatrick. 

Lyman, Bradford Raymond. 

North Berwick, Timothy H. Hub- 

Saco, George Pareher. 

Shapleigh, Edward Hargraves. 

South Berwick, Shipley W. 

Wells, Benjamin B. Eaton. 

SEN.4TE, 1869. 

George Goodwin, "Wells. 

Wm. M. McArthur, Limington. 


Berwick, I'ranus 0. Brackett. 
Biddeford, Edwin W. Wedg- 
wood, Charles G. Haines. 
Cornish, Reuben Small. 
Dayton, James R. Haley. 
Eliot, George A. Hammond. 
Kennebunk, James M. Stone. 
Kittery, Edwin A. Duncan. 

Limington, Edward Bragdon, Jr. 
Lyman, Eastman Tripp. 
Newfield, David T. Giveen. 
Saco, George Pareher. 
Sanford, Edward H. Bennett. 
Waterborough, Joseph W. Hol- 

Y'ork, Charles Junkins. 

SENATE, 1870. 
Samuel Hanson. Buxton. John B. 

Joseph C.Roberts, Waterborough. 

Nealley, South Berwick. 


Acton, Caleb Burbank. 
Biddeford, John H. Burnham, 

John Q. Adams. 
Buxton, Thomas H. Berry. 
Hollis, John W. Lane. 
Kennebunk, James M. Stone. 
Kennebunkport, Enoch Cousins. 
Kittery, Edward A. Duncan. 
Lebanon, Benjamin H. Lord. 

Limerick. Albert 0. Libbey. 
North Berwick, Geo. H. Went- 

Parsonsfield, Harrison G. 0. 

Saco, Edwin B. Smith. 
South Berwick, John A. Dennett. 
Wells, Frank B. Mildram. 

SEN.iTE, 1871. 
John B. Nealley, South Berwick. Jos. C. Roberts, Waterborough. 
Joseph Hobson, Saco. 

Acton, Samuel A. Stackpole. 
Alfred, Caleb B. Lord. 
Berwick, George S. Goodwin. 
Biddeford, John Quincy Adams 

John H. Burnham. 
Buxton, Thomas H. Berry. 
Eliot, James G. Jenkins. 
Kennebunkport, Enoch Cousins. 


Kittery, Joshua H. Sanborn. 
Limington, Samuel M. Bradbury. 
Parsonsfield, Harrison G. 0. 

Saco, Edwin B. Smith. 
Sanford, Simon Tibbetts. 
Waterborough, David Deering. 
Y'ork, Joseph Bragdon. 

SENATE, 1872. 
Cyrus H. Hobbs, Wells. Albert G. O'Bri 

Ichabod Cole, Eliot. 

Alfred, R. H. Goding. 
Biddeford, Ferguson Haines, 

Samuel R. Hamilton. 
Buxton, James 0. A. Harmon. 
Kennebunkport, Geo. B. Carll. 
Kittery, Warrington Paul. 
Lebanon, Elihu Hayes. 
Limerick. B. A. Sawtelle. 


Limington, J. F. Brackett. 
North Berwick, George H. Lane. 
Parsonsfield, John Bennett. 
Saco, Edwin B. Smith. 
Shapleigh, Henry R. Thing. 
South Berwick, J. H. Burleigh. 
Wells, A. B. Wells. 



SENATE, 1873. 
Cyrus H. Hobbs, Wells. Albert G. O'Brien, Cornish. 

John E. Butler, Biddeford. 


Berwick, Samuel Hubbard. Limerick, Eben F. Severence. 

Biddeford, Luther T. Mason, Lyman, Nathaniel Littlefleld. 

Dominicus Ricker. Newfield, Usher B. Thompson. 

Bu.xton, James 0. A. Harmon. Parsonsfield, John Bennett. 

Eliot, Samuel A. Remick. Saco, Ivory Lord. 

Kennebunk, Addison E. Haley. Sanford, William P. True. 

Kennebunkport, George Carl!. York, George W. S. Putman. 
Kittery, Warrington Paul. 

SENATE, 187-1. 
John E. Butler, Biddeford. Benjamin F. Hanson, Sanford. 

John Hall, North Berwick. 


Acton, Caleb W. Burbank. Lebanon, John S. Parker. 

Biddeford, B. F. Hamilton, Enoch Limington, Joab Black. 

F. Pillsbury. North Berwick, Francis Hurd. 

Cornish, Calvin E. Woodbury. Saco, Ivory Lord. 

Hollis, Charles W. McKenney. South Berwick, Thomas J. Good- 
Kennebunk, Albion K. Gile. win. 

Kennebunkport, Geo. E. Carll. Waterborough, Wm. H. Johnson. 

Kittery, Mark F. Wentworth. Wells, Trafton Hatch. 

SENATE, 1875. 
John Hall, North Berwick. Ivory Lord, Saco. 


F. Ha 

n, Sanford. 


Alfred, Albion K. Gile. Kittery, Mark F. Wentworth. 

Berwick, Samuel Hubbard. Lyman, Zopher R. Folson. 

Biddeford, Ferguson Haines, Lu- Saco, Rufus P. Tapley. 

ther T. Mason. Sanford, William F. Hanson. 

Cornish, Timothy Brackett. Shapleigh, John F. Ferguson. 

Dayton, James R. Haley. Waterborough, Wm. H. Johns( 

Eliot, Samuel C. Shapleigh. York, George M. Payne. 
Hollis, Charles W. McKenney. 

SENATE, 1876. 

Uranus 0. Brackett, North Ber- 

Ivory Lord, Saco. 

Usher B. Thompson, Newfield. 


Alfred, Timothy Garey. Limerick, Ira S. Libby. 

Biddeford, Edwin Stone, Daniel Limington, Jas. M. Hopkinson. 

Goldthwaite. Newfield, Benjamin Carleton. 

Buxton, Reuben W. Murch. North Berwick, Tim. B. Hussey. 

Kennebunkport, Seth H. Pink- Parsonsfield, Jos. F. Dearborn. 

ham. Saco, Edward Eastman. 

Kittery, Joseph H. Seaward. South Berwick, T. J. Goodwin. 

Lebanon, Hiram Lord. Wells, Howard W. Littlefleld. 

SENATE, 1877. 

Uranus 0. Brackett, North Ber- Usher B. Thompson, Newfield. 

wick. Joseph Hobson, Saco. 


Acton, James Garvin. Kittery, Joseph H. Seaward. 

Berwick, Lorenzo R. Hersom. Lyman, James B. Roberts. 

Biddeford, Daniel Goldthwaite, Parsonsfield, Chas. F. Sanborn. 

Edwin Stone. Saco, Roscoe L. Bowers. 

Buxton, Stephen Towle. Sanford, Hosea Willard. 

Eliot, Samuel C. Shapleigh. Waterborough, Benj. F. Chad- 
Kennebunk, Robert W. Lord. bourne. 

Kennebunkport, Sim. L. Cleaves. York, Josiah D. Bragdon. 

Joseph Hobson, Saco. 

W. F. Moody, Kennebunkport 


SENATE, 1878. 

.John F. Ferguson, Shapleigh 


Biddeford, Joshua Moore, Har- Limington, Stephen L. Purinton. 

den Taylor. North Berwick, Frank A. Knight. 

Cornish, Timothy Brackett. Saco, Roscoe L. Bowers. 

Dayton, Clark R. Cole. Shapleigh, Charles W. Coffin. 

Hollis, James Mcscrve. South Berwick, Wm. H. Flynn. 

Kennebunk, Robert Vf. Lord. Waterborough, Charles W. Smith. 

Kittery, Dennis M. Shapleigh. Wells, Trafton Hatch. 
Lebanon, James M. Gerrish. 

SENATE, 1879. 

William T. Moody, Kennebunk- John F. Ferguson, Shapleigh. 

port. James M. Andrews, Biddeford. 


Alfred, John T. Hall. Kittery, Dennis M. Shapleigh. 

Berwick, Charles H. Home. Lyman, Richard S. Stanley. 

Biddeford, Charles P. Emery, Newfield, Charles E. Pinkham. 

Harden Taylor. Saco, George Parcher. 

Cornish, Albert G. Andrews. Sanford, Jeremiah Moulton (2d). 

Dayton, George H. Moore. Waterborough, W. W. Libby. 

Eliot, Howard Staples. York, James A. Bragdon. 
Hollis, James Meserve. 



Newspapers, Past and Present, arranged under the Heads of the 
Towns in which they have been Published. 


The first newspaper in this county and one of the earli- 
est in Maine was the Echo, or North Star, established by 
Elijah Russell at Fryeburg in February, 1798. The estab- 
lishment of the Echo by Mr. Russell two years after the 
first paper at Wiscasset, led Mr. Griffin (" Press of Maine") 
to the supposition that this publisher, with the Russell of 
that paper, was a brother of Benjamin Russell of the Bos- 
ton Sentinel. The type, he says, was probably the same as 
had been used on the Sentinel. Mr. Russell had formerly 
printed a paper at Concord, N. H. The Echo was pub- 
lished weekly less than a year. The late Arthur Shirley, 
of Portland, is said to have set the first type in the office. 
In size it was about twenty-four by eighteen ; terms, one 
dollar and a half per annum. 

In 1872, Hon. George B. Barrows, of Fryeburg, wrote 
Mr. Griffin that he had a single copy of the Echo in his 
possession, and that every spring, in digging his garden, he 
found stones which were part of the foundation of the old 

A few copies of this paper have been preserved in the 
collection at Worcester, Mass., and at Dartmouth College. 
On application to the Antiquarian rooms in Worcester, Mr. 
Griffin obtained a copy, which proved to be No. 7, Vol. I., 
dated Fryeburg, Me., Aug. 19, 1798. 

"The type," he says, "is eery much worn. The paper contains 
a sensible communication calculated to calm the war-spirit of the day, 
caused by the depredations of French war-vessels upon our commerce. 
There is also a double column, giving a list of revenue-stamp duties. 
An advertisement of land for sale at Farmington, Maine, appears 
over the signature of our former neighbor, Jacob Abbot, Sr., then 

of Concord, New Hampshire. The terms of the Ectio are given, 

Pay in niii/thiug or cash,'" 




In 1803, Stephen Sewall commenced the publication of 
the Annals of the Times. It seems to have been started 
under very favorable auspices, so far as regarded the patron- 
age of advertisers. Many persons in Portsmouth adver- 
tised their lands in its columns, and also a respectable num- 
ber in Wells and other towns in the county. But the sub- 
scription patronage was insuiEcient to sustain it, and the 
paper was continued but one year. Occasionally the paper 
contained respectable communications on political questions 
and things of local interest. Mr. Sewall wrote the ode for 
the 4th of July, 1803, which was sung with effect on that 
occasion. His position as publisher of this paper not meet- 
ing his aspirations, he abandoned it in 1804, moved to 
Scarborough, and there established himself as a Thompson- 
ian physician. 


In the beginning of 1805 another attempt was made to 
establish a newspaper in Kennebunk by William Weeks. 
This enterprise was not as successful as the former. The 
paper was denominated the Kennehuuk Gazette. A single 
copy of it has been preserved by Judge Bourne, — No. 19, 
dated July 24, 1805. Besides the postmaster's list of let- 
ters remaining in the office, it contains but a single adver- 
tisement, a fact going to show that the business commu- 
nity took little interest in sustaining it, or did not under- 
stand in those days the value of an advertising medium. 
The paper is made up entirely of selections, containing 
nothing editorial and no original matter. It was continued 
but a little while, when the publisher moved to Saco, thence 
to Portland, and thence to Portsmouth, where in 1809 he 
became the publisher of the New Hampshire Gazette. 

Another paper, called the Eagle of Maine, was started 
soon after, but no relic of it — not even the publisher's name 
— remains. 

The fourth paper was the Weeldy Visitor, afterwards 
changed to the Kennebunk Gazette, which remained for 
nearly quarter of a century under the latter name. The 
Visitor was started in 1809 by James K. Remich. The 
publisher seems to have had more sympathy from the public 
than had his predecessors. The advertising support of a 
newspaper we suppose to be very essential to its success. 
This was very liberally given to the Visitor. A great deal 
of original matter was also furnished for its columns. Pre- 
vious failures probably moved the people to a more active 
interest in its success, and the paper soon acquired a satis- 
factory footing. It maintained its position under the two 
names between thirty and forty years. July 7, 1821, the 
name of the paper was changed to the Kennebunk Gazette. 
By a wise and prudent management of the financial con- 
cerns of the establishment the publisher acquired a very 
comfortable independence, which he transmitted to his son 
Daniel at his death. He died Sept. 3, 1863, aged eighty 
years. Daniel Remich conducted the paper for a few years. 
Piles of the Kennehunle Gazette are preserved in the York 
Institute at Saco. 

* History by Hon. E. E. Bourne. 


The Eastern Star is the only newspaper now published 
in Kennebunk. This paper was started in Biddeford by 
W. Lester Watson, in September, 1877, and removed to 
Kennebunk the following January. It is a weekly, inde- 
pendent in politics, and devoted to local interests, — W. 
Lester Watson, proprietor ; Marcus Watson, editor. The 
paper has a good circulation and a liberal advertising pat- 

freeman's FRIEND. 

A paper by the name of the Freeman s Friend was pub- 
lished in Saco in 1805 by William Weeks, the same pub- 
lisher who started the first Kennebunk Gazette in the latter 
town at the beginning of the same year. He seems to 
have been encouraged, if not induced, to engage in this en- 
terprise by the eccentric lawyer, Joseph Bartlett, who, it is 
supposed, wrote most of the editorials for the paper. Bart- 
lett had become quite popular and ambitious, and the es- 
tablishment of this paper was one of his schemes for ob- 
taining the control which he sought over the Democratic 
party. But it failed, as did all his other plans. We do 
not know how long the paper was continued. Mr. Griffin 
says, " There appears in the first number an advertisement 
of a wool-carding machine in operation, by John Mayall, at 
Jefford's mills, in Kennebunk. Timothy Keazer adver- 
tises for sale an oration delivered at Saco, July 4, 1806, by 
Joseph Bartlett." 


The Maine PaUadimn was published at Saco as early as 
the autumn of 1820, by Putnam & Blake, and as late as 
July 21, 1830. We find in Folsom's "Saco and Bidde- 
ford," about the last-mentioned date, the name of Alexan- 
der C. Putnam, but we do not know whether or not he 
was the publisher associated with Mr. Blake. 

The Maine Democrat was commenced in Saco, Jan. 6, 
1828, by William and John Condon, who continued to 
publish it for several years, and sold to T. Maxwell and 
Michael Beck, E.sqs., of Portsmouth. During the first two 
or three years it was managed by Joshua M. Young. Mr. 
Beck in a short time purchased Mr. Maxwell's interest, 
and continued the publication of the paper till the time of 
his death, in 1843. It was then purchased by Alpheus A. 
Hanscom, who continued as its editor and publisher until 
May, 1864. The Democrat was then purchased by William 
Noyes, with his son, Isaac B. Noyes, who officiated as edi- 
tor until he died, a few months afterwards.f A second 

t Isaac Badger Noyes at the breaking out of the Rebellion, in 1861, 
immediately gave up the practice of law and recruited the first com- 
pany of soldiers that joined the army from Saco, of which he was 
chosen captain as soon as his company joined the 5th Maine Regi- 
ment. He at once proceeded to the front in Virginia, but his health 
being poor, having a disease of the heart, which afterwards termi- 
nated his life, he resigned his commission in the fall of ISCI. With 
the hope of regaining his health, he spent the two following years in 
South America. Returning early in IS64, he immediately assumed 
the editorial management of the Maine Bemocntt, which he continued 
to conduct till the time of his death, in December, 1866. — Griffin's 
Press of Maine, p. 125. 



son was received into the partnership, and the paper con- 
tinued under the firm of William Noyes & Co. for about 
three years. In October, 1867, it was sold to Charles A. 
Shaw, Esq., of Biddeford, but the Messrs. Noyes continued 
its publication till near the first of January following. Mr. 
Shaw then removed it to Biddeford, where he erected a 
new building for the reception of the office, and there im- 
mediately commenced, in connection with the Democrat, a 
daily called the Daily l^imes. He expended several thou- 
sand dollars on the establishment, but finding that a daily 
could not be sustained, he lost his interest in the under- 
taking, discontinued the daily, and in October, 1868, sold 
his apparatus, with the Democrat, to E. K. Smart, of 
Camden. Mr. Smart continued the publication of the 
paper until May, 1869, when it was purchased by the 
Watson Brothers, who were the proprietors (George K. 
Shaw, editor) till June, 1876, when W. S. Noyes, Esq., 
came into possession of the paper, and continued it till he 
sold to F. W. Roberts, Esq., in February, 1878. Mr. 
Roberts finding the pecuniary responsibility greater than 
he had anticipated, relinquished the paper after getting out 
one issue, and the mortgagors at once arranged with Mr. 
Noyes to continue the publication till another sale could be 
efl"ected. Mr. Noyes continued its publication till the 7th 
of the following June, when it was published under the 
management of E. W. Wedgwood, Esq., till the 25th of 
July, and then closed finally. Mr. Noyes finding that the 
subscribers who had paid in advance for the paper looked 
to him for a fulfillment of their contract, immediately com- 
menced the publication of the Stale Democrat in Saco, 
which is of the same size and price with the Maine Demo- 
crat, and is now the only Democratic paper in York County. 
It is published weekly in Saco by Noyes & Co., and is an 
enterprising and remunerative sheet. 

Mr. William Noyes, the senior partner, was born in 
Brunswick in March, 1809, and at an early age entered 
the printing office of the late Joseph Griffin, at Brunswick, 
where he served an apprenticeship of seven years, gradu- 
ating in 1830. He then immediately commenced the pub- 
lication of the Brunswick Journal, which he continued 
about one year. In 1831-32 he worked in the Boston 
Type- and Stereotype-Foundry, and also at Nashua, N. H., 
for John F. Trow, who is now one of the largest publishers 
in New York. In 1833 he established the Maine Farmer, 
one of the most successful papers ever printed in the State, 
which he published eleven years, and in 1845, in company 
with the late Louis 0. Cowan, he established the Union at 
Saco, now the Union and Journal, of Biddeford. (See 
history of that paper, Maine Democrat, Knox and Lincoln 
Patriot, and Independent, of Saco.) 


The Union commenced in January, 1845, with William 
Noyes as proprietor, and Louis 0. Cowan as editor. It 
immediately took rank as the leading organ of the Whig 
party in York County, and was continued by Messrs. Noyes 
& Cowan until February, 1848, when Mr. Cowan purchased 
the interest of Mr. Noyes, and continued its publication in 
Saco till the office was destroyed by fire in 1856, when he 
removed to Biddeford, and purchased the Eastern Herald 

and Mercantile Advertiser, and consolidated the two papers 
under the name of the Union and Journal. Mr. Cowan 
continued to publish the paper till the time of his death in 
1863. His widow sold the establishment in April, 1863, 
to John E. Butler, who, in January, 1872, took in his 
father. Rev. 0. Butler, as partner, the firm being J. E. 
Butler & Co. till Aug. 7, 1877, at which date they sold to 
the present proprietor, Mr. George A. Ilobbs. 

Mr. Hobbs was born in Somerset Co., Me., May 25, 1824. 
He was brought up in Wells from the age of ten to twenty, 
and received his education at the old Kennebunk Academy. 
He returned to Somerset County in 1845, where he read 
law and was admitted to the bar ; was clerk of the courts 
of Somerset County from Jan. 1, 1854, to Jan. 1, 1857 ; 
moved to Illinois in 1857, and was twenty years engaged 
in newspaper business in that State, — until he came here 
and purchased the Union and Journal. His son, Thomas 
A. Hobbs, has been associated with him in the management 
of the paper from the first. 

The Union and Journal is the leading Republican paper 
of the county, is well managed, and has a good circulation. 


The Biddeford Herald was commenced in 1848, by 
Messrs. Reed & Cole. It was a paper devoted to local 
news, and was continued under the conduct of its originators 
some eight months, then to its close, about nine months, by 
W. F. Scamman. Mr. Scamman then commenced the pub- 
lication of the Biddeford Townsman, which lived only 
about three months. 

In April, 1849, Marcus Watson, now of the Kennebunk 
Eastern Star, issued the Mercantile Advertiser at Saco. 
It was moved to Biddeford in 1850, and sold to Daniel E. 
Stone, who published it under the name of the Eastern 
Journal about a year and a half It was then sold to Mr. 
Cowan, and merged in the present Union and Journal. 


The Gazette made its appearance at Biddeford, Jan. 5, 
1857, — Marcus Watson, proprietor; Charles H. Granger, 
editor, — and continued till ISUl. Marcus Watson & Co. 
then commenced the publication of the Eastern Herald, 
which was published one year. 


The first number of the York Count// Independent ap- 
peared May 18, 1869, published by Noyes & Co., — William 
Noyes and William S. Noyes, — and is now published by the 
same parties. It is a weekly, independent in politics, and 
is published every Tuesday, at Saco. On retiring from the 
3Iaine Democrat, Jan. 1, 1868, the Messrs. Noyes removed 
to Rockland, Me., and there commenced the publication of 
the Knox and Lincoln Patriot, which they continued to 
publish, as per contract, just one year; on the expiration of 
which time they removed their office back to Saco, which, 
during the interval, had been without a paper or printing- 
press of any kind. 




The first daily paper in Biddeford was started by Hon. 
Charles A. Shaw, ex-mayor of the city, in January, 1868, 
in which year Mr. Shaw ran for Congress. It was pub- 
lished in connection with the Maine Democrat^ of which 
Mr. Shaw was then proprietor. Mr. Shaw procured tele- 
graphic news and other costly appliances of a daily news- 
paper, but the field being insuflScient to support his enter- 
prise, the venture was discontinued after an experiment of 
two weeks. Mr. E. S. Morris, present State superintendent 
of common schools, was assistant editor. 

The Watson Brothers, — Marcus and Oscar F., — while 
proprietors of the Maine Democrat, started anotlier daily 
May 13, 1872, called the Daily Times. Oscar F. Watson 
died in October, 1872, and Marcus continued the daily till 
the latter part of February, 1876, when it was discontinued. 
March 6, 1876, Frank W. Roberts started a small three- 
column paper, called the Daily Chronicle. This paper was 
purchased, July 17, 1876, by Andrew J. Small, and its 
name changed to the Daily Times, which is still published 
by Mr. Small, who has enlarged it and made it a and 
enterprising local sheet. It is independent in politics, 
makes local matters a specialty, is well patronized by ad- 
vertisers, and has a good circulation in both cities. 

Mr. Small is a native of Saco, where he still resides, 
though publishing his paper in Biddeford. He began life 
as a newsboy, then went to setting typo, and has got to be 
editor and proprietor of a very useful daily paper. Since 
he began to publish the Times two other daily papers have 
been started, but have been discontinued. The Evening 
Star was started by Marcus Watson, in August, 1876, and 
continued about thirteen months. In January, 1878, the 
Evening Post was issued from the Maine Democrat oiEce, 
and continued about six weeks. This paper was under the 
editorial management of George B. Goodwin, Esq., now of 
the Bangor Commercial, and it immediately took the lead 
as the daily evening paper of Biddeford and Saco. It was 
at the height of its prosperity and was being well received 
by all parties (although strongly Democratic) when it was 
suddenly transferred to Mr. Roberts, in connection with the 
Maine Democrat, when Mr. Goodwin immediately severed 
his connection with the paper, and after two issues its pub- 
lication ceased. 

The only daily now in Saco and Biddeford is the Daily 
Evening Times, by Andrew J. Small, editor and proprietor. 
No. 184 Main Street, Biddeford. 


This paper was established in April, 1879, by Rev. 0. 
Butler, the present editor and proprietor. It is independent 
in politics, and is gaining a fair circulation by the industry 
and earnest labor of its editor. Mr. Butler is a native of 
Berwick, and is connected with the Free- Will Baptist 



The Morning Star, now the widely-circulated organ of 
the Free- Will Baptist denomination at Dover, N. H., was 
established at Limerick, in this county, in May, 1826. 

Elders Buzzell and Burbank were the first editors ; Wil- 
liam Burr, a native of Hingham, who served an apprentice- 
ship in Boston, was printer. " Mr. Burr, when he came to 
Limerick, though less than twenty years of age, was an ac- 
complished gentleman of pleasing manners and most ami- 
able disposition." In May, 1832, Hobbs, Woodman & 
Co. disposed of its property to a new firm, known as Hobbs, 
Burr & Co. In October following the paper was sold to 
the Free-Will Baptist denomination. Mr. Burr subsequently 
became principal editor and a very eflScient business manager, 
which station he retained nearly forty years and until his 
death by apoplexy, which occurred on the morning of Nov. 
5, 1866. An interesting memoir of his life has been pub- 
lished in a volume of 208 pages 18mo. 

The Star was removed to Dover, N. H., in November, 

The Village Register and Farmers^ Miscellany was pub- 
lished (four numbers) in 1840, by Samuel B. Eastman. 
It was discontinued for the want of patronage. 

The Free- Will Baptist Repository was published from 
1845 to 1852. Except a small portion of the time, it was 
published in Saco. John and James M. Buzzell, editors. 
It was moved to Portland in 1852. 

A paper by the name of the Columbian Star was pub- 
lished at Alfred in 1824 by James Dickman, of Augusta, 
in support of W. H. Crawford for the Presidency. Mr. 
Dickman was in the printing-office of Joseph Griffin, at 
Brunswick, from 1820 to 1823, as an apprentice. He died 
in Boston in 1870. 

The Springvale Reporter, an enterprising weekly sheet, 
is published at Springvale, York Co., by Cheever & Noyes. 
It is now in its fifth volume, and has attained a good 
circulation. " Devoted to local news, interests, and busi- 
ness." One dollar a year, in advance. 

The Maine Recorder, a four-column weekly paper, was 
published by Arthur M. Baker in 1832. The first num- 
ber made its appearance May 11th. It was published at 
one dollar a year. The paper had a high moral tone, and 
was too literary in its character to receive popular patronage, 
and therefore ceased to exist. We do not know how long 
it continued. 



Medical Society of Maine — Maine Medical Association — List of 
Members for York County. 

The first Legislature of Maine, convened May 31, 1820, 
and the winter succeeding, members of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society residing in Maine commenced the forma- 
tion of a medical society, and for this purpose met at the 
seat of government, Portland, and chose Nathaniel Coffin, 

Dr. Chaeles Traftox was born in Georgetown, 
Me., Oct. 2, 1787. He received his preliminary ed- 
ucation in his native town, and in 1808 he com- 
menced the study of medicine with Dr. J. Gihiian, a 
resident of York, Me., and graduated in Boston in 
1811. In April of the same year he entered upon 
the duties of his profession in North Berwick, at 
which place he continued in practice until Aug. 5, 
1817, when he removed to South Berwick, where he 
soon had a very lucrative and successful practice, 
which was continued until he was prostrated by sick- 
ness, in the autumn of 1854. He bore his protracted 
illness with Christian patience, and died July 4, 



who V 


married, Oct. 27, 1814, Elizabeth Nowell, 
IS born in October, 1793, and died Nov. 22, 
They had six children, namely : Alva, born 
Sept. 30, 1815; died in infancy. Ann, born Aug. 
14,1816. WilliaraH.,born July 12, 1818. Charles 
T., born March 9, 1822 ; for the past twenty-four 
years a successful physician of South Berwick. Au- 
gusta Elizabeth, born in December, 1824; died in 
infancy. Augustus E., born Oct. 24, 1827 ; died 

July 20, 1852. He married again, Feb. 19,1845, 
Abigail D. Guppey, who was born April 19, 1817. 
In politics, Dr. Trafton was a Jacksonian Democrat, 
and was one of the Presidential electors that elected 
Gen. Harrison President. 

As a physician he was widely and extensively 
known, and his medical skill was almost without a 
parallel in the community in which he lived. 

During the winter of 1807 he made profession 
of religion, and through the remainder of his life 
honored that profession both by precept and ex- 
ample. In the February following he united with 
the Baptist Church, and until the close of his life 
was an honorable, exemplary, and influential mem- 
ber of that organization. He was not only one 
of the earliest members, but was for twenty years 
previous to his death an officer (deacon) in the 
church. Few men lived to a better purpose in the 
church, or died with more friends, than did Dr. 
Trafton. His hand and heart were ever open to 
the calls of benevolence, and the church shared 
largely in his liberality. As a liusband and father 
few had his equal. 

^^^ eX^^^^^^-t^-^ 

John A. Berry, ]\LD., second son of John, Jr., 
and Sarah (Downing) Berry, was born hi Saco, Me., 
Sept. 24, 1808. He spent his early life on the farm 
at home, and received the advantages of a good 
English and classical education. He studied medi- 
cine with the late Dr. Green, of Boston, formerly a 
resident and practicing physician in Saco, and gradu- 
ated from the medical department of Bowdoin Col- 
lege Sept. 4, 1833. 

He began practice in Saco ; after a short time re- 
moved to Lyman, where he remained until 1836, and 
returned to Saco, where he continued in the successful 
practice of his profession until his decease, April 20, 

The same montli lie graduated lie received the ap- 
pointment from Governor Smith of surgeon's mate 
of the 1st Regiment, 2d Brigade, 1st Division, Maine 

Dr. Beriy was connected with various local insti- 
tutions. He was a director of the Saco National 
Bank, president of the Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany at the time of his death, and was for a time 
president of the Saco & Biddeford Gaslight Com- 
pany. He was interested in cliurch and school mat- 
ters, was a member of the Unitarian Church, and 

for several years served on tiie scliool board. As a 
physician Dr. Berry was a man of acknowledged 
ability, and ever had in mind the best interests and 
welfare of his patients. He was cautious in adminis- 
tering to the wants of those needing his services, and 
bestowed his medical skill alike upon the poor and 
the rich. 

He possessed business ability, prudence and 
sound judgment in financial matters that gave him 
rank among the business men of Saco, and added 
strength to all local institutions with wliich he was 

Dr. Berry was sociable, genial ; and favorite 
among his pleasure-seeking was fishing, in which, 
and hunting, he spent many leisure hours; and on 
one occasion, while hunting upon the water, his gun 
accidentally discharged, the ball nearly severing the 
main artery of his arm, so injuring its use that he 
ever afterwards used his left hand to write with. 

He married, April 28, 1835, Olivia, daughter of 
Captain James and Abigail J. (Vaughan) Donnell, 
of Biddeford. She survives her husband, and also 
two daughters, — Mrs. Roscoe L. Bowers, of Saco, 
and Annie O., wife of Dr. Roscoe G. Dennett, who 
died July 3, 1877. 



M.D., of Portland, President; Jonathan Page, M.D., of 
Brunswick, Vice-President; B. D. Bartlett, M.D., of Bath, 
Corresponding Secretary; and Jonathan Pago, M.D., of 
Brunswick, Recording Secretary. 

The first annual meeting of the society was held in Mas- 
sachusetts Hall, in Brunswick, on the 4th of September, 
1821. At this meeting Luther Carey, M.D., of Turner, 
was elected President (on the resignation of Dr. Coffin) ; 
Ariel Mann, M.D., of Hallowell, Vice-President; B. D. 
Bartlett, M.D., of Bath, Secretary; and Jonathan Page, 
M.D., of Brunswick, Treasurer. 

At this meeting a proposition was received from the 
medical faculty of Bowdoin College for the society to unite 
with them, by the appointment of a committee to act jointly 
with the faculty and have an equal voice in the recommend- 
ing candidates to the college board for the degree of M.D. 
This liberal proposition on the part of the faculty was ac- 
cepted by the society, and for many years the latter was 
represented by its committee at the examination of candi- 
dates for their medical degree. 

An act incorporating the Medical Society of Maine was 
passed March 8, 1821. and included the names of most of 
the members of the Massachusetts Medical Society then 
resident in Maine, with such other members of the profes- 
sion as were designated by the Legislature at the time of 
the enactment. 

The constitution admitted none as members except those 
who had received a diploma from some authorized medical 
school or university. 

We regret that documents are not accessible for a com- 
plete list of the members of the first Medical Society of 
Maine, so fivr as they have been residents of York County ; 
but we have not been able to find more than one journal of 
the proceedings, — the number for 1834, and that in the 
library of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Philadel- 

George Packard, M.D., of Saco, and James Ayer, M.D., 
of Newfield, were members of the old society. 

Moses Sweat, M.D., Burleigh Smart, M.D., and J. Gil- 
man, M.D., were councilors of the society for York County 
in 1834. 

The officers of the society for 1834 were the following: 
B. D. Bartlett, M.D., Portland, President ; Burleigh Smart, 
M.D., Kennebunk, 1st Vice-President ; Moses Sweat, M.D., 
Parsonsfield, 2d Vice-President; James McKean, M.D., 
Topsham, Corresponding Secretary ; Moses Shaw, M.D., 
Wiscasset, Recording Secretary ; Jonathan Page, M.D., 
Brunswick, Treasurer ; Censors, B. D. Bartlett, Portland ; 
John Hubbard, Hallowell ; Moses Sweat, Parsonsfield ; J. 
Gilman, York ; J. W. Nighles, Minot. 

The first Medical Society of Maine seems to have been 
discontinued for a time, and a new association formed, of 
which the following is a copy taken from the records : 


Agreeably to a call addressed to a portion of the medical 
profession of Maine, a meeting to secure a permanent or- 
ganization of its members throughout the State was held 
at the Tontine Hotel in Brunswick, April 28, 1853. Dr. 
James McKeen, of Topsham, was chosen chairman, and 

Dr. John D. Lincoln, of Brunswick, secretary. The fol- 
lowing-named gentlemen were appointed a committee to 
prepare articles of organization, viz.: Drs. Hill, Briggs, G. 
S. Palmer, Libby, Fuller, Garcelon, and Benson, who re- 
ported a constitution and by-laws which were adopted by 
the association and remained in force till they were super- 
seded by the present revised constitution and by-laws. The 
members named in the original organization were Isaac 
Lincoln, James McKeen, Amos Nourse, Cyrus Briggs, T. 
G. Stockbridge, H. H. Hill, Israel Putnam, Andrew J. 
Fuller, John Benson, Nathaniel T. Palmer, C. W. Whit- 
more, G. S. Palmer, Ashur Ellis, John Mathews, Joseph 
W. Ellis, Cyrus Kendrick, Jr., George E. Brickett, John 
D. Lincoln, Alonzo Garcelon, J. W. Toward, R. W. Law- 
son, Abial Libby, J. F. Stanley, N. R. Boutelle, John 
Hartwell, Stephen Whitmore, and Richard P. Jenness, 
with such other gentlemen as may hereafter be admitted by 
the majority of members present at an annual meeting. 

The association was incorporated by the following act of 
the Legislature (Chap. 492), approved March 13, 1855 : 

"An Act to Incorporate the Maine Medical Association. 

" Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in 
Legislature assembled, as follows: 

"Section 1. H. H. Hill, John Benson, John D. Lincoln, Gilman 
Daveis, Joseph W. Ellis, John Hubbard, James McKeen, Alonzo 
Garcelon, H. L. K. Wiggin, John Cook, Sylvester Oakes, N. C. Har- 
ris, Alcander Burbank, William Kilbourne, J. P. Fessenden, P. Dyer, 
Edmond R. Russell, Isaac Lincoln, John T. Gilman, and others, who 
m.iy be elected agreeably to the rules and by-laws hereafter to be es- 
tablished, are hereby created a body politic by the name of the Maine 
Medical Association, with power to sue and be sued, to have a common 
seal and to change the same, to make any by-laws not repugnant to 
the laws of this State, and to take and to hold any real or personal 
estate to the value of fifty thousand dollars ; and to give, grant, bar- 
gain, sell, and convey the same. The use and income of said estates 
to be expended and appropriated to uses consistent with the objects 
of said Association, and as the members thereof shall direct. 

"Sec. 2. The members of said Association may elect a President, 
Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, and such other officers as they 
may j udgc necessary and convenient, determine their respective duties, 
and limit the term of their oflices, and fill any vacancies therein; 
and the President and such other ofiicers as they may direct, is hereby 
authorized to administer to the ofiicers oaths, binding them to the 
faithful and impartial discharge of the duties of their several ofiices. 

"Sec. 3. At any annual meeting, and at no other, the members 
of the Association may duly elect any suitable person a member of 
said Association ; provided, that no person shall be so elected who has 
not received the degree of doctor in medicine from some medical in- 
stitution duly authorized to confer the same, nor unless he shall have 
passed a successful examination, and be approved by the censors of 
this Association as a suitable person and properly qualified to become 
a member thereof. 

" Sec. 4. At the first meeting of said Association, and at every 
annual meeting thereafter, it shall be the duty of the Association to 
choose such number of censors or examiners as they shall deem proper 
and necessary for the examination of candidates for election, and 
every candidate examined, approved, and elected, shall be entitled to 
receive letters testimonial, which the Association is hereby authorized 
and empowered to confer, in accordance with its by-laws and consti- 

"Sec. 5. Prior to the adjournment of the first meeting, and of 
each succeeding meeting, the time and place of holding the next suc- 
ceeding meeting shall be designated, and when the Association does 
adjourn, it shall adjourn accordingly. 

"Sec. 6. The first meeting of said Association shall be held in 
Belfast, in the County of Waldo, on the first Wednesday of June, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, at 
ten of the clock in the forenoon. 

" Sec. 7. This Association shall have power to institute local 



County Societies in any part of this State, when they may be satisfieii 
the science and practice of Medicine and Surgery will be benefited 
and elevated thereby, and to annul the same when a majority of the 
members present at any annual meeting shall deem its beneficial in- 
fluence to have ceased." 


Allen, J. L., Saco. 
Bacon, Alvan, Biddeford. 
Bird, Arthur S., Springval( 
Bradford, A. K. P., Mollis. 


Edmund, Jr 


Clark, S. 0., Limerick. 

Day, J. F., Alfred. 

Dennett, R. G., Saco. 

Emery, C. J., Biddeford. 

Faunce, N. D., West Buxton. 

Grant, J. P., Saco. 

Gross, Charles W., Acton. 

Hawkes, Wilson L., York. 

Hayes, J. A., Biddeford. 

Hill, Luke, Biddeford. 

Hill, Hampton E., Biddeford. 

Kurd, E. E., Lyman. 

Jaques, Edwin D., South Ber- 

Jewett, T. H., South Berwick. 
Kimball, J. E. S., Saco. 
Libby, Alvan, Wells. 

Lord, John, Limington. 
Merrow, A. D., Acton. 
Meserve, A. K. P., Buxton. 
Mulvey, B. C, Saco. 
Moulton, John F., Limington. 
Nash, Samuel A., South Berwick. 
Quinby, Fred., Biddeford. 
Sawyer, James, Biddeford. 
Smith, Dryden, Biddeford. 
Staples, G. D., North Berwick. 
Spear, David D., Kennebunk. 
Stevens, E. G., Biddeford. 
Stockwell, Emmons F., Alfred. 
Swasey, William, Limerick. 
Swasey, AVilliam B., Cornish. 
Sweat, William, HoUis. 
Sweat, M. E., North Parsonsfield. 
Trafton, C. C, Kennebunkport. 
Warren, Francis G., Biddeford. 
Wedgwood, J. T., Cornish. 
Wentworth, Jacob B., Wells. 
Wescott, Wm., Kennebunkport. 
Willis, J. L. M., Eliot. 

Dr. William B. Swasey was oorrespondiug secretary in 
1872, first vice-president in 1874, and delegate to the 
American Medical Association in 1877. 

Dr. A. Libby was delegate to the Vermont Medical As- 
sociation in 1873. 

Dr. J. L. Allen was delegate to the Vermont Medical 
Association in 187-1. 

Dr. A. K. P. Meserve was delegate to the Connecticut 
Medical Society in 1875. 

Dr. T. A. Jewett was delegate to the Massachusetts 
Medical Society in 1876. 


The present physicians of Saco are Joseph P. Grant, J. 
E. L. Kimball, J. L. Allen, A. W. Larrabee, M. W. Hall, 
allopathic ; S. P. Graves, homoeopathic ; S. C. Libby, 

Dr. Joseph P. Grant was born in Saco, March 11, 1813 ; 
studied in Buxton and Hollis, and graduated at the Maine 
Medical College in 1837. He began practice in Alfred 
in 1837, and afterwards practiced four years in Falmouth, 
Me., when he removed to Saco, where he has been in the 
practice of his profession ever since. 

Among the earlier physicians were Drs. John A. Berry, 
James R. Goodwin, now of Portland, and George Packard, 
who changed profession for the ministry of the Episcopal 

Roscoe G. Dennett, M.D., was a physician at Saco from 
1862 to 1877, the time of his death. He was an excellent 
physician, a member of the Maine Medical Association, and 
graduate of the Maine Medical College about 1862. 

In 1866, Drs. J. 0. Moore and L. F. Morse practiced in 
Saco ; how much earlier and later we are not informed. 
Also at this time Dr. N. Brooks was practicing in Saco. 

J. E. L. Kimball, M.D., was born in Pembroke, N. H., 

July 30, 1819 ; studied with Dr. Palmer, and graduated at 
the Vermont Medical College in 1347. Previous to com- 
mencing in Saco, in 1849, he practiced one year in Bald- 
win, Me. Dr. Kimball was in the army as the surgeon of 
the 27th Maine Regiment, and made a good record for him- 
self. He lias a large practice in Saco, and is a member of 
the Maine Medical Association. 

Among physicians in 1849, in Saco, were Dr. B. C. Mu- 
lony. Dr. H. C. Fessenden, and Dr. Cushman, who after- 
wards became a Methodist minister. Henry P. C. Green, 
M.D., came here afterwards and remained in practice till 
his death. 

Dr. A. W. Larrabee graduated at Westbrook Seminary 
in 1870, and studied medicine with Dr. Weeks, of Port- 
land. After attending lectures at the Maine Medical Col- 
lege, he graduated at Dartmouth Medical School in 1873. 
Dr. Larrabee was born in Scarborough, Aug. 20, 1852. 


The following is a list of the present physicians in Bid- 
deford : Alvan Bacon, Horace Bacon, Addison Brown, C. 
J. Emery, H. E. Hill, J. A. Lapointe, R. G. Milliken, J. 
Parker, James Sawyer, Elbridge Stevens, Francis G. War- 
ren, F. S. Warren, W. B. Whiting, Frank Quinby. 


Horace Bacon, M.D. (Alvan*, Alvan-'', DanieF, John'), 
born in the town of Scarborough, Cumberland Co., Me., 
March 29, 1804, is fifth in descent from John Bacon, born 
in 1710, and who died 1806. His father, Alvan Bacon, born 
Sept. 27, 1771, in Charlton, Worcester Co., Mass., came to 
Scarborough during the latter part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, where he practiced medicine for a period of forty-five 
years, and where he died Aug. 15, 1848. He was a very 
successful practitioner, a great favorite with the people, and 
a man generally esteemed for his intelligence, sociability, 
and sterling integrity. He married, in October, 1800, 
Sally, daughter of Capt. John Mulbury Milliken, of Scar- 
borough, who was a descendant from Hugh Milliken, the 
emigrant settler from Scotland, in Boston, about 1650. 
His sou, John Milliken, married Elizabeth, granddaughter 
of Andrew Alger, in 1690, and settled in Scarborough in 
1719. He purchased the interest of the other heirs in the 
Alger estate, and held the property under an Indian title 
in court in 1730. 

Their children are Horace, subject of this notice ; Alvan 
Bacon, M.D., of Biddeford, Me. ; Sarah (deceased), wife 
of the late Dr. Seth Larrabee, of Portland; and Mary 
(deceased), wife of the late Rodley D. Hill, of Detroit, 

Dr. Horace Bacon received his preliminary education 
at the Saco Academy, studied medicine with his father, 
and with Prof John D. Wells, of Boston, and graduated 
from the medical department of Bowdoin College in 1825. 
In March, 1826, he began practice in Biddeford, and for 
ten years made his visits to patients in the surrounding 
towns on horseback, and on many occasions his record 
shows that as far back as in 1837 he made thirty visits per 
day. He has remained in continuous practice of his pro- 
fession where he first settled for a period of fifty-three 


'(^-^e<^ G^^^ 


Plioto. by E. H. McKenney. 

t$^Z-<^-^to^ rf. /Z/ 0/71^^1^ 

His great-grandfather, Benjamin Warren, came 
to Somersworth, N. H., from England; thenee to 
Biddeford, and iu 1770 settled in Hollis, Me. His 
grandfather was Benjamin, and his father, Stepiien, 
born in Hollis, in 1800, married Lavina Yonng, of 
Waterborough, who was born in 1803. He was a 
farmer through life, and died in 1873. Of his two 
children, Eunice is deceased. 

Dr. Warren was born in Hollis, March 4, 1828; 
received a good education in boyhood, and at the 
early age of fourteen became a teaciier. He con- 
tinued teaching and attending school until he was 
twenty years old, and in the mean time, at the age of 
seventeen, began the study of medicine with Dr. 
William Swasey, of Limerick. He graduated from 
the medical department of Bowdoin College at 
the age of twenty, and the same year, 1848, set- 
tled in Pownal, Cumberland Co., j\Ie., in practice. 
He remained tliere for seven years, and in 1855 
settled iu Biddeford in the practice of his profession. 
In 1860 he attended Jefferson Medical College, at 
Philadelphia, from which he graduated in 1861. 
Returning to Biddeford, he was appointed assistant 
surgeon of the 5th Maine Regiment, 6tii Corps, 
Col. Mark Dunnell commanding, and in June of 
the same year accompanied the regiment to the front. 
To give an outline sketch of Dr. Warren's experi- 
ence in the army would be to narrate in detail the 
suffering in every way of thousands of wounded, of 
the marches, privations, and battles, in the thickest 
of the fight, from the battle of Bull Run to Peters- 


e took his [ilace in the field, refusing permanent 

hospital service, and kept it as long as he was in the 
service. He performed surgical operations during 
the engagements of Bull Run, Peninsula campaign, 
and Antietam, after which latter engagement he was 
promoted to surgeon of the regiment. Dr. Warren 
was with his regiment afterwards in the battles of 
Fredericksburg, the bloody engagement in storming 
Mary's Heights, Rappahannock Station, Gettys- 
burg, Wilderness, and Petersburg, and of the eigh- 
teen hundred soldiers and recruits in the regiment, 
only some two hundred were left alive to return to 
their homes. 

During his term of service Dr. Warren made 
upwards of four hundred amputations. He was 
mustered out of the service July, 1864 ; returned to 
his practice in Biddeford, where he has since re- 
mained, giving most of his attention to surgery. He 
is known as a skillful and safe operator in surgery, 
and his large and varied experience in the army 
gives him a place among the first in the county and 
State. Dr. Warren is interested in all local enter- 
prises tending to the prosperity of the city. He 
was alderman in 1871, and mavor in 1872-74, and 

He is a member of the jSIaine Medical Association, 
of Dunlap Masonic Lodge, and Bradford Com- 
mandery. He married, Nov. 16, 1848, Harriet N., 
daughter of Thomas and Marilla (Welch) Roberts, 
of Brunswick, Me. He has one son, Frank, who 
studied medicine with his father, and at the age of 
twenty-one graduated at Bowdoin, in 1872, and 
is now practicing medicine and surgery in Bidde- 



years, and is (in 1879) the senior member of the medical 
fraternity in actual practice in York County. I)r. Bacon 
is familiarly known throughout this section of the State as 
a skillful physician and surgeon, and well read in medical 
literature. In his surgical operations he has shown great 
ingenuity in inventing and constructing his own instru- 
ments to operate with, and especially for operations of the 
eye and hare-lip. His acknowledged professional ability, 
his great experience in the treatment of difficult cases, his 
care in administering to the wants of the sick, and his great 
sympathy for, and assistance to, those from whom no remu- 
neration could possibly be expected, have given him the 
confidence and esteem of all classes of the community where 
he resides. Dr. Bacon has been successful in his practice 
from the first, and has always retained friendly relations 
with his medical brethren. Many young men and prac- 
ticing physicians of thirty years' experience remember the 
kindness of Dr. Bacon towards them when they first 
started out in the practice of medicine. His assistance, his 
kind and encouraging words, were examples to them, be- 
speaking a generous and sympathizing nature, as they met 

He married, April 22, 1828, Mary E., daughter of Ed- 
mond and Mary (Hill) Coffin, of Biddeford. She was born 
July 25, 1807, and is a woman of great moral worth and 
Christian excellence. Her father was a prominent citizen 
of Biddeford ; was a deputy sheriff of the county, and clerk 
of Biddeford from 180-1 to 1838. 

His children are Henry, a graduate of Dartmouth Col- 
lege, in the class of 1854, and a lawyer by profession ; 
Charles, a jeweler in Dover, N. H. ; Mary ; and Horace, a 
manufacturing jeweler in Lowell, Mass. 


Orren Ross, M.D., eldest son of Simon and l\Iary (Perkins) 
Ross, was born in Kennebunk, Sept. 14, 1812. His parents 
were also natives of the same place. He received his edu- 
cation in the common schools and in the Kennebunk and 
North Bridgton Academies. At the age of fourteen he 
was apprenticed to Dixey Stone, a grocer of Bridgton Cen- 
tre, Me., with whom he remained until he was twenty years 
old, when he began trade for himself at Sweden, Oxford Co., 
Me. After about two years in business, he disposed of 

insurmountable obstacles in their early experience. At the 
age of seventy-five his energy is unremitting, his love. for 
the faithful discharge of his professional duties constant, 
and his desire to do good to the suffering remains un- 
changed. Dr. Bacon has been interested in all local enter- 
prises tending to benefit society, and for the growth and 
prosperity of the city of his adoption, and little connected 
with business outside of his professional labors. 

He was for several years a director of the Old York 
Bank, and for a few years carried on a drug-store in Saco. 

his stock of goods and was engaged as a teacher of penman- 
ship in the town schools until 1836. During that year he 
began the study of medicine with Dr. Nathaniel Pease, of 
Bridgton, and after three years graduated in the medi- 
cal department of Bowdoin College, in the class of 1839. 
Previous to his graduation he had taken a three-months' 
term in hospital practice at JIcLean Hospital, Boston. 

In 1839 he began the practice of medicine at Kenne- 
bunkport. After one year he went to Lyman, where he 
remained for three years, and after three years more prac- 



tice in the northern part of the town of Kennebunk, he 
removed to the village of Kennebunk in 1846, where he 
resides in 1879, having spent the whole of this time in the 
practice of his profession. In 1877, by over-exertion and 
exposure, he became prostrated by a bilious fever, which lefl 
his nervous system considerably impaired and unfitted him 
for the duties of his profession. He is a man of strong 
temperance proclivities ; never used tobacco or liquor. He 
has taken such strong ground on the temperance question 
that his influence in his own family has resulted in strictly 
temperate habits in his children. Dr. Ross was formerly 
identified with the Whig party, and joined the Republican 
party upon its organization. Dr. Ross has been known in 
his profession as a judicious and skillful physician, and as a 
man of strict integrity in all business relations. 

He married, Oct. 14, 1840, Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel 
and Sarah (Walker) Holden, of Sweden, Me. She was 
born in Otisfield, Cumberland Co., Me., May 14, 1817. 
They had seven children, two of whom died in infancy. 
Those living are Annette, wife of S. T. Fuller, a civil engi- 
neer of Philadelphia, Pa. ; Isabel, wife of H. B. Thompson, 
of Kennebunk; Orren S., a civil engineer in Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; Frank M., a graduate of Jefierson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, Pa., in the class of 1873, and practicing 
medicine in Kennebunk ; and Florence H., wife of James 
K. Cross, a bank oificial in Philadelphia, Pa. 



York County Soldiers in Different Regiments — Twenty-seventh 
Kegiment — Record of Officers — Bounties — Military Record of Torli 
County by Towns. 

The military records hereunto appended show that York 
County was represented in a large number of regiments 
during the late war of the Rebellion. The place of general 
rendezvous, and largely of enlistments for volunteers from 
this county, was the city of Portland, where nearly all regi- 
ments into which York County men entered, as well as 
those from the western part of the State generally, were 
made up and sent forward to the seat of war. The fires of 
patriotism burned as ardently here as in any other portion 
of the great North at the outbreak of the war and during 
its continuance ; the people of this county felt as keenly 
the insult offered to the flag of our common country, when 
it was traitorously shot away by rebel guns from the ram- 
parts of Fort Sumter ; the great crime of attempting to 
break up the Union was as indignantly execrated by the 
loyal people of this portion of Maine as by those of any 
other section of New England ; and when the call came for 
volunteers to maintain the integrity of the government and 
preserve the priceless treasures of our free institutions, the 
response from the people was equal to the demands of the 
occasion. The citizens rallied at the call of the President, 
and, with an alacrity and dispatch never equaled in the 
raising of an army, enlisted, equipped, and sent forward their 
respective quotas. This county had her soldiers in the fol- 
lowing regiments: the 5th, 8th, 9th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 

15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 25th, 27th, .30th, 31st, and 
32d Regiments Maine Infantry, extending from the begin- 
ning to near the close of the war ; in the 7th Battery of 
Mounted Artillery, the 1st and 2d Cavalry, the 1st Regi- 
ment of Veteran Infantry, the 29th unassigned, and largely 
in the United States Army and Navy, besides many who 
enlisted in New Hampshire and other States. We have 
aimed to give as complete a list as possible, including the 
foreign enlistments, so far as it has been practicable to 
obtain the names from the Adjutant-General's reports and 
other sources. 


is that which may be specially denominated the York 
County Regiment, as it was made up, with but very few 
exceptions, of enlistments from the different towns of the 
county. This regiment was organized at Portland, Sept. 30, 

1862, with the following field-, staff-, and line-ofiicers : 
Rufus P. Tapley, Colonel, Saco. 

Mark F. Wentworth, Lieutenant-Colonel, Kittery. 

James M. Stone, Major, Kennebunk. 

Edward M. Rand, Adjutant, Portland. 

Lewis O'Brien, Quartermaster, Saco. 

John E. L. Kimball, Surgeon, Saco. 

Freeman Hall, Assistant Surgeon, North Berwick. 

Calvin L. Hayes, Sergeant-Major, Kittery. 

John Hall, Quartermaster Sergeant, North Berwick. 

William H. Tapley, Commissary Sergeant, Saco. 

Ivory M. Hodsdon, Hospital Steward, Saco. 

Charles E. York, Drum-Major, Biddeford. 

The 27th Regiment was organized to serve for nine 
months. It left Portland, Oct. 20, 18C2, for Washington, 
and arrived in that city on the 22d, where it remained till 
the 26th, and then marched to Camp Chase, on Arlington 
Heights, Va. On the 28th the regiment removed to Camp 
Seward, where they were engaged in picket duty until the 
12th of December, when they marched to Camp Vermont, 
south of Hunting Creek, Va., and there guarded a picket 
line eight miles in length, extending from the Potomac 
near Mount Vernon to the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. 
They continued in that duty until the 24th of March, 

1863, on which day they moved to Chantilly, Va., and 
commenced picket duty on the outermost line of infantry 
in the defenses of Washington. On the 25th of June 
they returned to Arlington Heights. 

The term of service of the regiment having expired, 
they were at liberty to return home ; but a large portion, at 
the request of the President and Secretary of War, volun- 
teered to serve a short time longer, to aid, if necessary, in 
defending the capital against the incursion of Gen. Lee, 
who had at that time commenced the invasion of Pennsyl- 
vania. On the 4th of July they left for Maine, and arrived 
in Portland on the 6th, where, on the 17th, they were 
mustered out of the United States service. 

Company A. — George H. Ward, Saco, Captain ; Samuel 
H. Libby, Limerick, First Lieutenant ; Frank L. Harmon, 
Saco, Second Lieutenant. 

Company B. — Isaac P. Fall, South Berwick, Captain ; 

RoscoE G. Denxett, M.D., was bom in Bux- 
ton, Me., Feb. 10, 1836. His grandfather, Clement 
Dennett, born in Scarborough Jan. 10, 1763, settled 
as a farmer in Buxton December, 1786 ; died 1841, 
Aug. 10; married, Jan. 3, 1793, Mary, daughter of 
Samuel Leavitt, of Buxton. She died July 28, 
1863, aged ninety-four years and fourteen days. His 
great-grandfather, David Dennett, a farmer, born in 
Portsmouth, N. H., March 15, 1727, moved to 
Scarborough Oct. 3, 1768, married Dolly Downing, of 
Newington, N. H. He enlisted in the Provincial 
service Jan. 18, 1776 ; left on foot with his gun for 
Boston, and never returned. Died in 1778. 

His father, Daniel Dennett, of Buxton, was born 
May 31, 1807, and married Abigail Giipatric, of 
Biddeford. He had six sons, viz. : Liberty B., now 
living in Deering, Me., witii law-office in Portland; 
Roscoe G., second, now clerk of the courts in Cum- 
berland County; James C, died in 1865, aged 
eighteen years; Lora D., studied in Portland Medi- 
cal School ; Samuel C, a farmer on the homestead 
in Buxton ; and Roscoe G., the subject of this sketch. 
The latter received his preparatory education in 
Limerick and Standish Academies; studied medicine 
with Dr. J. A. Berry, and graduated at Bowdoin 
Medical College in 1862. He beg-an practice im- 

mediately in Saco, where he continued an ornament 
to the profession till his decease, which occurred 
Dec. 14, 1878. 

Dr. Dennett was city physician, 1868, alderman, 
1873, member of the Board of Health, 1874, 1875, 
1876, 1877 ; was a member of the Masonic Lodge, 
and Royal Arch Chapter, and president of the York 

Dr. Dennett married, Sept. 1, 1863, Annie O., 
youngest daughter of Dr. Berry. She was born 
Feb. 19, 1839. By this marriage there were three 
children : James Vaughan, born Sept. 26, 1867 ; 
William Hartley, born Sept. 15, 1870; Bessie 
Greeley, born June 13, 1875; died Dec. 14, 1878. 
Dr. Dennett died July 3, 1877, after a long ill- 

We take the following extract from a notice of 
his death in the Saco paper: 

" He was a man universally respected and es- 
teemed by all who had the honor and pleasure of 
his acquaintance. He was a gentleman in every 
sense, a thorough scholar, and in his profession 
eminently successful. He leaves a wife and three 
children, and a host of friends to mourn his death. 
Of him it can truly be said, ' none knew him but 
to love him.' " 


Moses S. Hurd, South Berwick, First Lieutenant; Lysan- 
der B. Younjr, South Berwicic, Second Lieutenant. 

Company C. — John D. Hill, Buxton, Captain ; John H. 
Came, Buxton, First Lieutenant ; Joseph F. Warren, Hol- 
lis. Second Lieutenant. 

Company D. — David B. Fullerton, Berwick, Captain ; 
Thomas Sherman, Jr., Lebanon, First Lieutenant; Fred- 
erick S. Bryant, Kennebunkport, Second Lieutenant. 

Company £■.— John M. Getchell, Wells, Captain; Wil- 
liam H. Miller, Sanford, First Lieutenant ; Joseph E. Chad- 
bourn, Wells, Second Lieutenant. 

Company F. — Jeremiah Plummer, Biddeford, Capt^iin ; 
Amos W. Page, Biddeford, Firet Lieutenant; John W. 
Perkins, Biddeford, Second Lieutenant. 

Company G. — Edmund A. Dixon, Eliot, Captain ; Jo- 
.seph D. Parker, Kittery, First Lieutenant; Dennis M. 
Shapleigh, Kittery, Second Lieutenant. 

Company H. — Henry F. Snow, Cornish, Captain ; Al- 
mond 0. Smart, Parson.sfield, First Lieutenant ; Ralph K. 
Hussey, Acton, Second Lieutenant. 

Company I. — Seth E. Bryant, Kennebunk, Captain ; 
Noah Gould, Lyman, First Lieutenant ; Henry B. Osgood, 
Alfred, Second Lieutenant. 

Company K. — William H. Johnson, Waterborough, 
Captain ; Frank A. Hutchins, Kennebunkport, First Lieu- 
tenant ; John McJellison, Shapleigh, Second Lieutenant. 

The record of each man in this regiment will be found 
in alphabetical order, under the head of the town to which 
he belonged. 

Col. Rufus Tapley, remained in service till Jan. 23, lSfi3. 
Lieut.-Col. Mark F. Wentworth, promoted to colonel. 
Maj. James M. Stone, promoted to lieutenant-colonel. 
Q.M. Sergt. John Hall, promoted to second lieutenant Company E, 

Dec. 31, 1S62. 
Hosp. Steward Ivory M. Hodson, Jan. 27, 1863. 
Second Lieut. Lysander B. Young, resigned Feb. to, 1S63. 
Sergt. Joseph F. Chase, promoted to second lieutenant, March 1, 1S63. 
Uiipt. John D. Hill, promoted to major, Jan. 30, 1863. 
First Lieut. John H. Came, died Jan. 16, 1863. 
Second Lieut. Joseph F. Warren, promoted to first lieutenant and to 

Sergt. William Milliken, Jr., promoted to second lieutenant. 
First Lieut. Thomas Sherman, resigned Feb. 4, 1S63. 
Second Lieut. Frederick S. Bryant, promoted to first lieutenant, March 

1, 1863. 
Sergt. Frederick Hayes, promoted to second lieutenant, March I, 1863. 
First Lieut. William H. Miller, resigned Dec. 16, 1862. 
Second Lieut. Joseph E. Chadbourne, promoted to first lieutenant. 
Capt. Henry F. Snow, honorably discharged, Nov. 19, 1 862. 
First Lieut. Almond 0. Smart, promoted captain, Nov. 20, 1862. 
Sergt. Edmund Bragdon, Jr., promoted to second lieutenant, Jan. 15, 

Corp. Otis F. Russell, promoted to chaplain, Jan. 30, 1S63. 
Capt. Seth E. Bryant, resigned Nov. 24, 1862. 
Second Lieut. Henry B. Osgood, promoted to first lieutenant. 
Sergt. Henry Littlefield, promoted to second lieutenant. 
Capt. William H. Jordan, honorably discharged, Jan. 28. 1863. 
First Lieut. Frank H. Hutchins, promoted to captain. 
Second Lieut. John McJellison, honorably discharged, Feb. 15, 1863. 
Sergt. Horace L. Piper, promoted to second lieutenant. 
Sergt. Henry J. Goodwin, promoted to first lieutenant. 

To trace out at this late day the York County men who 
did gallant and honorable service in other regiments would 
be impossible. 


Gen. William M. McArthur, of Limi 

n, at the 

outbreak of the Rebellion, in April, 1861, raised 
at his own expense, which was disbanded in May. In Sep- 
ber, 1861, he raised another company, and was mustered 
into the United States service as captain of Company I, 
8th Maine Volunteers, in the same month, and with his 
regiment formed part of the Port Royal expedition under 
General Sherman and Admiral Dupont. In the spring of 
1862, at the reduction and capture of Fort Pulaski, Georgia, 
Capt. McArthur had command of the entire detail from his 
regiment, and when a boat was sent by the general com- 
manding to accept the surrender of the fort, another boat 
was sent over with the regimental colors of the 8th Maine, 
under charge of Capt. McArthur, in recognition of his ser- 
vices and those of his men in Battery Sigel. The general 
commanding, in his report to the Secretary of War, says, — ■ 

■' Capt. McArthur, of the Sth Maine Vols., being highly praised by 
different officers who witnessed his successful management of his men 
at the batteries, deserves my commendation." 

In the summer and fall of 1863, Capt. McArthur was 
made provost-marshal of the important military post of 
Hilton Head, S. C, the base of operations against Charles- 
ton. In March, 1864, the regiment was ordered to Vir- 
ginia, and Capt. McArthur was commissioned major. Maj. 
McArthur commanded the regiment during the latter part 
of the battle of Drury's BluflF ( Col. Boynton having been 
wounded), also at Gill's Farm, and specially distinguished 
himself at Cold Harbor and before Petersburg, June 13, 
16, 17, and 18, 1864. On the 18th of June, Maj. Mc- 
Arthur was severely wounded, but rejoined his regiment in 
August, before his wound was healed. He soon after was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. At the battle near the 
old Fair Oaks battle-ground, Lieut.-Col. McArthur was 
most conspicuous for his intrepid bravery. He had the 
charge of the skirmish line when nearly half of the line 
were killed or wounded. At Spring Hill, in December, 
1864, he commanded the fort, and conducted its defense 
when it was surrendered by Longstreet's corps ; was com- 
missioned colonel in March, 1865, and atler the taking of 
Richmond commanded the military post at Manchester, 
Va., until November, 1865 ; was then placed in command 
of the sub-district, Camp Hamilton and Hampton, Va., 
until his muster out of the United States service. On 
leaving the service Col. McArthur was brevetted brigadier- 
general upon the recommendation of Gen. Terry. 

Gen. McArthur was slightly wounded in several actions 
with the enemy, but declined to report himself He was 
also specially named in the official reports of many of the 
actions in which he was engaged, for his coolness and 


Capt. George A. Deering, of Saco, received a recruiting 
commission from Governor Washburn in June, 1862, and 
at once proceeded to recruit men for the new regiments 
then being raised. In August of that year he was mus- 
tered into the service at Augusta, by Maj. Gardiner, as 
second lieutenant of Co. F, 16th Maine Volunteers. He 
participated in the first battle of Fredericksburg, under 


Gen. Burnside, on the 13th of December of that year, and 
for meritorious conduct on that occasion was promoted to 
firet lieutenant. He also shared in all the battles of the 
Army of the Potomac up to the battle of Gettysburg. In 
that battle he had command of Companies F, D, and A, 
and late in the afternoon of the 1st of July, after the fall 
of his corps commander. Gen. Reynolds, he, together with 
hi.s entire command, was captured by the enemy and 
marched through the Shenandoah Valley to Richmond, 
where he was confined in Libby prison for ten months. 
He was afterwards sent to Macon, Ga., thence to Savannah, 
and finally to Charleston, S. C, where, during the months 
of August and September, he, with other Union ofiicers, 
was confined in the jail-yard, under the fire of the guns 
from Gen. Gillmore's batteries on Morris Island. He was 
then removed to Columbia, S. C, where he remained until 
Dec. 10, 1864, when, after having been subjected to relel 
cruelty, imprisonment, and privation, he was so fortunate as 
to effect his escape by assuming the name of a commis- 
sary sergeant of an Ohio regiment who had died or was 
not present to answer to his name at roll-call. During his 
imprisonment he was promoted to the captaincy of his old 
company (F), but his health had become so much impaired 
by his confinement in Southern prisons that he did not re- 
join his regiment till May 1, 1865, and was mustered out 
of service at Washington in June following. 

From the Bowdoin College roll of honor in the late war 
we take the following : 


Born in Hollis, 1832 ; graduate of Bowdoin, 1856 ; 
studied law and commenced practice in Portland ; was ap- 
pointed aid-de-camp to Governor Washburn, January, 

1861 ; commanded for a time the 7th Maine, at Baltimore ; 
was assistant adjutant-general, with rank of captain, Au- 
gust, 1862, and under Gen. Shepley was assistant adjutant- 
general and acting Secretary of State of Louisiana ; was 
appointed acting mayor of New Orleans, February, 1863 ; 
April, 1864, accompanied Gen. Shepley to the Department 
of Virginia and North Carolina ; resigned from ill health, 
July, 1864. 


Born in Limerick, October, 1838 ; graduated at Bowdoin, 
1860 ; began the study of law ; served as a private in 27th 
Maine ; was appointed quartermaster sergeant, December, 

1862 ; was among those who volunteered to serve after 
their time had expired for the defense of Washington, 
during the invasion of Pennsylvania by Gen. Lee, in June 
and July, 1863 ; commissioned captain of the 32d Maine ; 
taken prisoner at the esplosioli of the mine in front of 
Petersburg, May, 1864, and confined at Danville, Va., and 
Columbia, S. C, seven months ; escaped and joined Sher- 
man's army; the 31st and 32d Regiments being consoli- 
dated, became captain of the 31st Maine, April 27, 1864, 
and was discharged with the regiment. May 15, 1865. 

In this same regiment were Capt. Isaac P. Fall, of South 
Berwick ; First Lieut. John G. Whitten, of Alfred ; Second 
Lieuts. William B. Pierce and Albion L. Durgin, of Bid- 

Others who entered the service from Bowdoin CoUea-e, 

natives of this county, were John Deering, born at Saco, 
December, 1842 ; enlisted in the 13th Maine, January, 
1862, and was discharged for disability in August, 1862. 
Calvin L. Hayes, born in Kittery, March, 1842 ; enlisted as 
a private in 1st Maine; sergeant-major 27th Maine, Sep- 
tember, 1862; adjutant 32d Maine. James A. Bedell, 
born in South Berwick, April, 1839; entered the army, 
and died in the service. 

Returns of bounties paid by towns of York County, from 
the beginning of the war to Feb. 1, 1864: 

Acton $11,780.00 Limerick S12,154.00 

Alfred 12,900.00 Limington 15,500.1)11 

Berwick 17,908.00 Lyman 12,440.00 

liid.lelord 62,925.00 Newfield U.OoO.iMi 

Buxton _. 28,810.00 North Berwick 21,2iMi.ii(i 

Cornish 7,800.00 Parsonsfield 17.2uii.i)ii 

Dayton 4,400.00 Saco 4t.4ilii.i>ii 

Eliot 24,005.00 Shaplcigh IS.yilU.UO 

Hollis..„ 18,288.00 S.inford 21,840.00 

Kennebunk 22,825.00 South Berwick 30,600.00 

Kcnnebunkport 28,768.35 Waterborough 19,909.00 

Kittery 38,964.00 Wells 44,950.00 

Lebanon 29,564.00 York 41,029.00 

. as sub. March 23, 1865. 
must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. ' 

ith company, 

it. Sept. 30,1862; disch. with company. 
Sept. 2, 1861 ; pro. to corp. ; disch. June 


Avery, Charles H., Co. H, 12th Inf.; must. Nov. 15, 1S61 ; disch. March 12, 

Avery, Lorenzo, Co. H, 12th Inf. ; must. Nov. 15, 1861 ; disch. July 9, 1864. 
Applebee, Thomas W., Co. B, 6th Inf.; mast. June 24, 1861 ; detached to q.m 

dept., 1863; disch. withregt., July 27, 1864. 
Avery, Thomas H., Co. H, 13th Inf.; must. November, 1861. 
Arey, Lorenzo, Co. F, 12th Inf.; must. 1861. 
Bekker, John, Co. C, 15th Inf ; mu 
Brown, Lorenzo F., Co. H, 27th Inf. 

July 17, 1863. 
Buzzell, Jacob L., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; 
Chapman, Rufus, Co. F, 8th Inf.; n 

11, 1865. 
Chute, Albion, Co. H, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Clarke, John E., Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Drew, Theodore H., musician, Co. F, 8th Inf; must Sept. 7, 1861 ; re-enl. ; died 

June 7, 1865. 
Dryer, Henri, Co. C, 1st Vet. Inf.; substitute ; must. Jan. 2, 1865; disch. with 

Fox, Alfred W., Co. F, 8th Inf; must. Sept. 7, 1861; disch. on expiration of 

term with old members of company. 
Finn, John, Co. G, 15th Inf ; must. Feb. 9, 1865. 
Gerrish, Noah W., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. witb-com- 

Gowell, Benjamin, Co. H, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Grant, George W., Co. H, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Goodwin, Charles W., Co. D, 8th Inf ; must. Sept. 2, 1862 ; pro. to Corp. ; disch. 

June 12, 1865. 
Goodwin, Hiram L., Co. D, 8th Inf; must. Aug. 16, 1863; wounded May 20, 

1864; disch. June 12, 1866. 
Garvin, Samuel H., sergt., Co. H, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Goodwin, Calvin, Co. D, 8tb Inf; must. Sept. 13, 1862, June 25; missing Sept. 

17. 1864. 

Healey, Terrance, Co. A, 15th Inf 

Hussey, Kalph II., Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to 2d lieut., Nov. 

20, 1862. 
Horn, Kufus A., Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. June 20, 1864. 
Hord, Edwin, Co. H, 27th Inf: must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Hurd, George, Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with compauy. 
Hurd, Sylvester, Co. H, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30. 1862. 
Jones, Frederick, Co. I, 1st Vet. Inf; must. April 13, 1864; wounded Sept. 19 , 

Lanuon, John, Co. A, Ist Cav.; must. Feb. 19, 1864; missing. 
Lord, Charles E., Co. H, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1S62; disch. with company ■ 
Loud, Elbridge, Co. H., 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Maloney, Walter, Co. G, loth Inf; must. Feb. 9, I860. 
Meikle, Alexander, Co. — , unassigned Inf ; must. April 25, 1865 ; disch. May 

19. 1865. 

Marsh, Brackett D., Co. D, 27th Inf; must. Oct. 15; missing Oct. 19, 1S62. 
Nason, John, Co. F, 8th Inf ; must. Sept. 2, 1862 ; trans, to Navy, 1863. 
Penny, Winthrop N., Co. D, 8th Inf ; must. Aug, 16,1862. 

Pray, Joseph, Co. F, 8th Inf; must. Aug. 6, 1862: died at Hilton Head, June 
24, 1863. 


Perkins, George, Co. H, 27lh Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; liisch. with 

Pray, Robert 0., Co. F, 8tli Inf.; must. Aug. 23, 1862; died at Hilton Head, 
July 23, 186.3. 

Prescott, Geo. L., unHSsigned Inf.; must. April 25,1865; disch. May 19, 1865. 

Eines, George W., Corp., Co. H, 27tli Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Reynolds, Jacob P., Corp., Co. F, 8tli Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861; pro. to sergt.; 
disch. with old company. 

Ricker, George E., Co. H, 2d Cav. ; must. Dec. 16, 1864; disch. Dec. 6, 1865. 

Sanborn, Charles E., Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 13, 1861. 

Sanborn, Charles P., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Stevens, Joliu H., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861; pro. to l«t licut., Co. D, 

Tuttle, Edwin, Co. 11, 13th Inf.; must. Not. 15, 1861. 

Wentworth, Orange, Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 29, 1862; disch. June 11,1865. 

Wiley, Samuel S., Co. D, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 23, 1862. 

Wentworth, Lewis H., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Wentworth, William, Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Wiggin, Mark N., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Witham, Josiah W., Jr., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. with corn- 

Young, John W., Co. 


March 31, 1862; pro. to Corp., Ju 

7, 1864. 

1863 ; died at Andersouville prison, Sept. S, 1864. 

Applebee, William H., 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Avery, Lorenzo, 4th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Brackett, Cyrus H , 2d New Hampshire Infantry. 
Butler, Wentworth, 6th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Downes, Paul H., 6th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Farnbam, Caleb M., 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Farnham, Hezekiah, 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Huntress, Loienzo D., 4th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Lord, Moses H., Illinois Regt. 
Merrow, Thomas R., 12th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Miller, Charles E., 4th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Farnham, Paul, U. S. Navy 

Bean, Rnfns, Co. K. 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 31, 1861 ; disc 
Bracey, Charles W., Co. F, 8th Inf.; must. Feb. 23, 1864; pro. to Corp. 
Bracey, John, Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company, July 

17, 1863. 
Brown, James H., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; trans, to Navy, Aug. 1, 

Blanchard, Stephen, Corp., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Bracy, Benjamin F., Co. F, 32d Inf.; must. April 5, 1864; trans. Dec. 1, 1864. 
Bardsley, Wright, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 16, 1S62. 
Cluff, Eben, Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; disch. March 10, 1862 ; re-enl. 

Co. I, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. Dec. 23, 1862. 
Cluff, George W., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Downs, Lyman C, Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. September, 1861 ; nurse in hosp., 1863 ; 

re-enl. Feb. 29, 1864 ; pro. bugler. 
Doieg, Thomas, Co. I. 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Doxey, John, Co. I, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861; disch. Nov. 25, 1864. 
Friend, Tyler B., Co. F, 1st Cav.; must. Aug. 13, 1862; disch. May 28, 1865. 
Fergusou, Charles H., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; prisoner May 2, 1863 ; 

exchanged ; pro. Corp. ; disch. Nov. 25, 1864. 
Goodrich, John H., Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 25, 1864. 
Harmon, Frederick M., Corp., Co. I, 27th Inf.; mnst. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Johnson, George A., 7th Bat. M. Art.; must. Dec. 30, 1863; discharged. 
Moulton, Erastus, sergt., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Moulton, Chas. H., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Oct. 17, 1862; disch. with company. 
Morgan, Michael, Co. — ; recruit unassigned ; most. Sept. 12, 1862. 
McLellan, George A., sergt., 7th Bat. M. Art ; must. Dec. 30, 1863; disch. with 

Nason, William H., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Osgood, Henry B., 2d lieut., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; pro. to Ist 

lieut.; disch. with company. 
Rowe, George W., Co. F, 8th Cav.; must. Fob. 23, 1863; died in Milton, Ga., 

prison, December, 1864. 
Rowell, Wm. W., Co. H, Slst Inf. ; must. April 21, 1864 ; trans, to C.j. H ; disch. 

with company. 
Rowell, William 0., 14th Inf., 1861 ; re-enl. Co. F, 31st Inf. ; must. Apr. 4, 1864 ; 

pro. musician; disch. with company. 
Rowe, Charles C, Co. F, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; wounded June 3, 1864; 

disch. June 1, 1865. 
Rowe, William, Co. F, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 26, 1862; re-onl. Feb. 29, 1S64 ; 

wounded June 3, 1864; disch. June 11, 1865. 
Rowe, William, Co. I, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861. 

Ridley, Joseph H., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Roberts, Alva, Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Roberts, Luke H., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept, 30, 1862 ; pro. to Corp. ; disch. 

Roberts, Byron, 1st sergt., Co. M, 2d Cav. ; Sept. 2, 1864. 

Roberts, John H., lieut., Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861. 

SWnley, John R., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; mnst. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Shackford, Gilmali, Co. B, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 22, 1862; died from wounds, 
Aug. 18, 1864. 

Smith, Samuel C, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; pro. to Ist sergt., Sep- 
tember. 1862. 

Stevens, William, Co. — , 9th Inf.; must. Oct. 11, 1862. 

Steward, Joseph, 9th Inf.; must. Oct. 11, 1862. 

Tripp, Nahum G., Co. I, Ist Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861. 

Trafton, William L., must. April 6, 1864; prisoner Sept. 30; trans, to Co. B. 

Trafton, Osborne, Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1860; re-enl. as veteran ; died 
of wounds. May 29, 1864 

Tripp, Pelatiah R., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Taylor, Wash'n C, Ci.. B, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 25, 1862 ; disch. June 12, 1865. 

Trafton. Hiram W., Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; died at Hilton Head, 
Nov. 17, 1861. 

Whilten, John G., 1st lieut., Co. F, 31st Inf. : must. April 5, 1864 ; released pris- 
oner ; trans, to Co. A. 

Whilten, Samuel, wagoner, Co. F, 3l6t Inf. ; must. April 5, 1864 ; disch. 1865. 

Wright, Charles L., Co. G, 17th Inf., Aug. IS, 1862; trans, to Vet. Rei. 
Corps, 1864. 

Wormwood, Daniel, Jr., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. Jan. 7, 

Wormwood, John P., Co. 1, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Wright, George C, Co. I, 37th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Whitten, Cbaries D., Co. F, 8lh Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; re-enl. Feb. 29, 1864; 
pro. Corp., 1865 ; disch. Jan. 18, 1866. 

Witham, Albert F., Co. F, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; re-enl. Feb. 29, 1864 ; 
disch. March 14, 1866. 

Whitten, John G., Corp., Co. I, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; re-enl. ; killed 
in battle, July 30, 1864. 

White, Josepii H., musician, Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Aug. 25, 1862 ; 

20, 1864; 

Welch, Ira M., Co. B, 8th I 

disch. Aug. 25, 1866. 
Yeaton, Lewis D, Co. F, 8th Inf. : must. Feb. 23, 1864. 
Teaton, Oliver R., Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. March 9, 1864 ; disch. Sept. 26, 1864. 

Allen, Timothy F., U. S. Navy. 
Johnson, Augustus, Blassachusetts Vols. 
Liltlefleld, John B., Massachusetts Vols. 
Roberts, Bion, MassachUr^etts Vols. 
Sayward, George H., U. S. Navy. 

2; disch. June 


Allen, Samuel L., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1S62; disch. with 
July 17,1863. 

.Abbott, Charles C, musician, Co. I, 8th Inf.; must. Aug, 
II, 1S65. 

Butler, William N., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Bragdon, Benjamin H. 

Bean, Lewis L., Co. D, 27tli Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Berry, John, Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. Dec. 25, 1862. 

Butler, Stephen F., Co. K, 14th Inf. 

Clements, Henry, Co. D, 27tli Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Clements, James H., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Colony, Elbridge, Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded at Gettys- 
burg ; taken prisouer June 23, 1864 ; died Aug. 18, 1864. 

Clements, John H., Corp., Co. K, 14th Inf. 

Clement, John H., Co. L, 2d Cav.; must. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Dillingham, Seth, sergt., Co. F, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861. 

Day, John W., musician, Co. K, 14th Inf. 

Deland, Ephraim J., Co. 6, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; pro. to Corp. ; disch. 
Nov. 25, 1862. 

Doe, John F., Co. G, 1st Vet Inf ; must. Dec. 14, 1863; wounded June 3, 1863. 

Eastman, George A., Co. G, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded at Gettys- 
burg; discharged. 

Frost, George C, Co. K, 14th Inf. 

Ford, Alvin A., Co. D, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Fullerton, David B., capt., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept 30, 1862 ; resigned Feb. 

Aug. 18, 1862 ; disch. with 

Goodwin, James F., Co. G, 17th Inf. ; 

Guptill, George A., Corp. 

Goodwin, Charles H., Co. D, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; veteran; re-en- 

Goodwin, Joseph B., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must Sept 30, 1862 ; veteran; re-enlisted. 

Gordon, Charles S.. Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept 30, 1862; veteran; re-enlisted. 

Gibbs, Cbaries H., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Dec. 31, 186:i; disch. June 3, 1865. 

Guptill, John A., Co. U, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. .30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 


Hayes, Fred, Jr., Co. — , 6th Inf.; must. 1861. 

Hiird, Robert F., Co. I, 1st Oiiv.; must. Oct. 31, 1861. 

Hill, John F., Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Aug. 27, 1862; disch. JIh.v 28, 1865. 

Ham, Charles H., Co. G, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; wounded May 5, 1 864 ; 

disch. with company. 
Home, John B., Co. G, 17th Inf ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, 

Hurd, Francis E., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; killed at Gettysburg, 

July 2. 
Hurd, Nathaniel N., Ist sergt., Co. D, 2Tth Inf.; must. (M. l.i, 1862; disch. 

with company, July 17, 1863. 
Hayes, Frederick, sergt., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Oct. 15, 1862; pro. to lieut., 

March 1, 1863. 
Hurd, Thomas H., corp., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. with 

Hurd, John H., -wagoner, Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. .30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Hanson, Lewis B., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Hanscom, William L., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 
Hardison, Ezra H., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Hersom, John H., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with compauy. 
Hanscom, George, Co. K, 1st Vet. Inf. ; must. Aug. 24, 1864. 
Holmes, Thomas, Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. July 27, 1863 ; disch. with company. 
Hayes, Frederick, sergt., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Oct. 5, 1862; pro. to 2d lieut., 

March 1, 1863. 
Knox, William K., Co. D, 11th Inf ; must. April 5, 1866; disch April 5, 1866. 
Knox, Daniel E., Co. D, 1st Bat. Inf. ; must. April S, I860 ; pro. to corp. ; disch. 

April 5, 1866. 
Lord, Ezekiel S., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Lamos, Lord W., Co. G, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; pro. to corp. and sergt., 

1863 ; pro. to 1st sergt. and 2d lieut., Co. K, 1864. 
Laird, William H., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; trans, to artillery, 

Lord, Charles P., sergt., Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861. 
Lord, Timothy H., corp., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to sergt. ; 

disch. with company. 
Marshall, Casper E., wagoner, Co. F, Sth Inf ; must. Sept. 7, 1861. 
Mathews, Charles W., Co. K, 14th Inf 
Manson, William G., Co. K, 14th Inf. 

Manning, George F., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 
Miller, Mark, Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; died May 4, 1864. 
Nute, Ivory H., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to Corp. ; disch. 

with company. 
Pinkham, Isaiah, Jr., sergt., Co. K, 14tli Inf.; pro. to 1st sergt. ; disch. 1863. 
Pinkham, Francis, Go. G, 17th Inf ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; pro. to corp. and sergt., 

Pray, James E. S., Co. G, 17th Inf ; must. Aug. IS, 1862; pro. to hospital stew- 
ard, 1864. 
Pierce, Charles A., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

with company. 
Pray, William A., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Oct. 15, 1862; disch. with company. 
I'arshley, Frank B., Co. I, 20th Inf.; traus. from 16th Maine; must. Oct. 6, 

1864; disch. with company. 
Roberts, Stephen H., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. IS, 1862; pro. to sergt., 1863; 

wounded and taken prisoner, May 5, 1864. 
Roberts, James A., Co. G, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; pro. to corp. 
Roberts, Ebenezer, Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; detached to Provost 

Guard, 1863; disch. with company. 
Robinson, James B., Co. G, 17th Inf ; must. Aug. 18, 1S62; trans, to Vet. Res. 

Corps, 1864. 
Rowe, Seth W., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. Oct. 1, 1863. 
Roberts, Joseph. 
Randall, Samuel P., veteran, Co. F, 32d Inf.; must. April 5, 1864; IraTis. from 

Co. A, 31st Maine ; pro. to corp. ; disch. with company. 
Roberts, Joseph H., sergt., Co. D, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; died May 9, 

Sweet, Dyer W., band, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1801 ; di.sch. by general order, 

in 1862. 
Stevens, Jacob, Corp., Co. K, 14th Inf 

Stillings, Eli N., Co, E, 14th Inf.; must. Jan. 8; disch. June 1.5, 1862. 
Spencer, .\lvin B., Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Aug. 21, 1862. 
Simpson, Sylvanus R., Co. D, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded May 3, 

1863 ; pro. to Corp. ; pro. to sergt. ; re-enlisted ; detached. 
Shaw, J. Lyman, Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; trans, to Co. B, 30th 

Stillings, Calvin, Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Oct. 16, 1862; disch. with company. 
Tibbetts, George H. W., Co. K, 14th Inf. 

Tweedie, James, Co. B, 1st Cav.; must. Feb. 26, 1864; trans. from D. C. Cav. 
Vaughan, John, Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. Nov. 6, 1863. 
Whitehouse, Charles F., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1S62; pro. to sergt.; 

taken prisoner; exchanged; disch. May 26, 1865. 
Wentworth, Henry R., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. May 18, 


" - " ~ - , 1862; disch. Feb. 6,' 1863. 

Wentworth, William H., Co. K, 14th Inf. 

Wyman, Joseph, Co. — , 7th Inf.; must. Aug. 21, 1861; disch. June 7. 1862. 

Wentworth, Jacob, Co. F, 4th N. H. Inf ; enl. 1801 ; pro. to Corp.; re-enlisted ; 
disch. at end of war. 

Wentworth, William H., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Dec. 24, 1863; trans, to Navy, 

W^entworth, Horace, 5th Mass. Inf.; under first call for troops; was iu the Bal- 
timore mob; re-enl. in 30th Mass. I[if.; disch. for disability in 1863. 

Wallingford, George, Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded; disch. 
Nov. 29, 1864. 

. A, 31st Inf.; miist. May 3, 1864. 

Bean, David F., 6th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Coffin, Charles E., 13th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Connor, Thomas, U. S. Navy. 
Devine, Patrick, 10th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Drewy, John, U. S. Navy. 

Doherty, Richard, loth New Hampshire Infantry. 
Dore, John, lOth New Hampshire Infantry. 
Dure, Orriu Q., 4th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Flannigan, Edward, 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Gordon, Ezra B., 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 

Guptill, , Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Goodwin, Da\1d L., U. S. Navy. 
Hamblin, Patrick, U. S. Army. 
Hamblin, John, 12th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Hayes, Hiiam, 6lh New Hampshire Infantry. 
Hayes, John A., 11th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Holmes, John. 7th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Huid, George, 2d New Hampshire Volunteer?. 
Hurd, Hiram, 4th New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Kenniston, Horace B., New Hampshire Volunteers 

Kenniston, John, New Hampsliire Volunteers. 

Knox, Samuel, 6th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Knox, William H., 5th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Mahoney, John, Jr., 4th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
JIcGroty, Hugh, 3d New Hampshire Volunteers. 
JIcGr.ity, James, 3d New Hampshire Volunteers. 
McGroty, John, 12th Ohio Infantry. 
McLaughlin, John. 7th New Hampshire Infantry. 
McLaughlin, Michael, 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Merrow, Hiram, 6th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Mansise, Cornelius L., U. S. Navy. 
Murphy, James, 7th New Hampshire Infantry. 
McUube, Franklin, U. S. Army. 
Noble, Samuel, 4th New Hampshire lufantiy. 

Porter, Festus, New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Pierce, George, 4th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Pierce, John, 4th New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Kundlett, Charles S., 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Randall, Reuben, 11th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Randall, Charles E., 6th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Ricker, Reuben H., 6th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Stillings, Ivory R., 35th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Stillings, Samuel W., U. S. Navy. 
Sanders, Charles B., 11th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Spencer, John, 13th Massachusetts Infantry. 

Trafton, Henry 0., New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Tibbetts, Isaac, New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Thompson, James, 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Wallingford, Amos, 3d New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Wallingford, James G., 3d New Hampshire Volnnteer-s. 

Wingate, Orrin P., New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Wentworth, Charles H., 4th New Hampshire Volunteer! 
Wentworth, Jacob, 4th New Hampshire Volunteei-s. 
Wentworth, Joseph H., 7th New Hampshire Volunteers 


Adams, Israel, Corp., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; killed at Gaines' 

Mills, June 27, 1862. 
Adams, Oliver B., Co. B, 6th Inf ; must. June 24, 1861 , wounded May 3, 1863 ; 

disch. with company, July 27, 1864. 
Ayer, Charies H., Co. B, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861. 

Adams, William J., Co. G, 5th Inf. ; must. June 23, 1861 ; missing July 27, 1861. 
Andrews, Ingalls, Co. I, Sth Inf; must. Aug. 19, 1862; disch. Oct. 7, 1863. 
Abbott, David, Co. B, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; pro. to Corp.; disch. Sept. 

27, 1864. 
Abbott, William, Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1861; killed July 20, 1864. 
Ayer, George S., Corp., Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861; wounded Aug. 9; 

disch. Nov. 2, 1862. 



Annie, Charles H,,t8t sergt., Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; pro. t.i ciip(.. 

Corps d'Afrique. 
Andrews, Simon S., sergt, Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 13, ISGI ; pro. to 1st 

sergt.; re-enlisted; pro. to lient., April 18, 1864. 
Andrews, Stephen, Corp., Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; disch May 12, 

Andrews, George B., Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; pro. to sergt., 1864 ; 

Andrews, Stephen E., Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Doc. 13, 1861 ; trans, to 30th Vet. 

Regt., 1864; disch. Aug. 20, I860. 
Avorill, Geoige W., Co. K,13tli Inf. ; must. Jan. 2, 1862; disch. Ma.v 6, 1862. 
Andrews, Chase, Corp., Co. F, 27tli Inf. ; mnst. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 
Adams, Lucien, Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. with company, 

July 17, 1863. 
Ames, Noah S., Co. K, 30th Inf. ; must. Jan. 14, 1864; trans, to Vet. Reserve 

Corps, 1865. 
Andrews, Simon S., capt., Co. K, 30th Inf.; veteran; must. April 18, 1864; 

disch. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Aycre, Charles W., Co. F, 31st Inf.; must. April 5, 1864; disch. with company. 
Adams, William, Co. F, 3l8t Inf.; must. April 5, 1864 ; disch. with company. 
Allen, Arthur, Co. D, 1st Bat. Inf. ; must. April 5, 1865 ; disch. Oct. 3, 1865. 
Andrews, Atwood A., Co. D, 2d Car.; must. Oct. 12, 1864; disch. Oct. 6, 1866. 
Andrews, Ira. capt., Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; mnst. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 

13, 1862. 
Armour, Samuel G., Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 

13, 1862. 
Andrews, Ira, 1st lieut.. Coast Guards; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. Sept. l:), 1862. 
Andrews, John B., 1st lieut., Co. H, 1st CaT. ; must. 1861 ; disch. Dec. 5, 1864. 
Boardman, Wm. H., 5th Inf. Band ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. August, 1862. 
Bnickett, Samuel B., sergt., Co. B, 6th Inf; must. June 24, 1861; pro. to 1st 

sergt.; disch. with company. 
Bacon, George W., Co. B, .5th Inf.; must. Juno 24, 1861 ; killed May 10, 1864. 
Bean, Aaron H., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Berry, Cyrus P., Co. B, 5tli Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to coi-p. ; re-enl. Jan- 
uary, 1864, in 1st Maine Vet. Regt. 
Brackett, Peter, Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; re-enl. Feb. 16, 1864. 
Brown, Charles H., Co. B, 6th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Butler, Wentworth, Co: B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Berry, Robert, Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. Sept. 8, 1862 ; trans, to 1st Maine Vets. 
Baker, Albert, Co. C, 5th Inf; must. June 24, 1861; taken prisoner, Nov. 27, 


I Q., Co. G, :■ 

>23, 1861 : 


Burns, John, Co. G, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 28, 1862; disch. June U, 1865. 

Baker, Francis, Co. G, 8th Inf.; nmst. Aug. 21, 1862; wounded June 18, 1864; 
disch. March 17, 1865. 

Burns, Patrick, Co. G, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 28, 1862; missing in action, Oct. 27, 

Brogan, ThouiM, Co. G, Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 28, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Kes. Corps, 
May 21, 1861. 

Br.)wn, John, Co. G, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 27, 1862; taken prisoner, June 18, 
1864; died at Andereonville, Ga., Aug. 26, 1664. 

Bardsley, Wm., Co. G, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 28, 1862 ; pro. to coip. ami sei^t. ; 
detached in Maine; disch. June 19, 1865. 

Bardsley, Wright, Co. G, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 16, 1R62. 

Bragdon, Edward P. M., Corp., Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; trans, with 
company to 29th Inf., May 31, 1864. 

Benson, Henry, Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4,1861; taken prisoner. May 25, 

Brady, Joseph, Co. A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; trans, with company. 

Brady, Michael, Co. A, lOlh Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; missing May 31, 1863. 

Bond, Robert D., Co. B, 10th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded atAntietam; 
disch. Dec. 22, 1862. 

Brackett, John H., Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Dec.2S, 1861 ; taken prisoner, April 

Blake, Oliver D., sergt., Co. 1, 17th Inf. ; nmst. Aug. 18, 1862 ; disch. with com- 
pany, June 4, I860. 

Bradbury, Thomas C, Co. I, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; pro. to cor]., and 
sergt. ; wounded June 17, 1864 ; disch. with company. 

Blan.hard,, Co. K, 17 th Inf; must. Sept. 9, 1863; trans, to Navy, April 
12, 1864. 

Uoothby, Putnam S., Co. K, ITth Inf. ; must. Feb. 17, 1863 ; wounded at Chan- 
cellorsville ; pro. to 1st lieut. and acting at^utant, February, 1863. 

Bridges, Thomas C, Co. I, 20th Inf. ; mnst. Aug. 29, 1862 ; disch. Dec. 14, 1862. 

Buck, Thomas H., Co. I, 20th Inf.; must. Aug. 29, 1862; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

Brackett, Lorenzo D., Corp., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to sergt. ; 
disch. with company. 

Bisl-ee, Charles 1),, I '... F, 27tli Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Blood, Charles H., Co. K, ■J7th Inf. ; mnst. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Biirnbiim, Eben, Co. F, 27th Inf.; mnst. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company, 
July 17, 1863. 

Burnham, Elbridge, Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 

Burnham, Francis M., Co. F,27th Inf.; mnst. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 

Burns, James, Co. F, 27th 1 

t. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. July 

Berry, Charles B., Co. E,29th Inf. ; must. Nov. 13, 1863, vet. organization. 
Bowden, Charles, Co. A, 31st Inf.; must. March 3, 1864 ; taken prisoner, Sept. 

30, 1864; trans, to Co. A, 32d Inf., in 1865. 
Brown, Charles H., Co. K, 3l8t Inf.; must. May 6, 1864; disch. July 6, 1865. 
Buzzell, William B., Co. K, 31st Inf. ; mnst. May 6, 1864 ; disch. Aug. 14, 186,5. 
Benson, Thomas, Co. A, 32d Inf. ; must. May 3, 1864 ; wounded May 12 ; disch. 

Brown, Charles H., musician, Co. K, 32d Inf. ; mnst. May 6, 
Bickford, John H., Ist District Columbia Cav. ; must. Feb. 9 
Bnisos, Peter, Co. E, 1st Cav.; must. Feb. 10, 1864; disch. vr 


iipan.v, Aug. 

. in Ist 

Blanchard, David D., Co. E, Ist Cav.; must. Dec. 3, 1864. 

Boothby, George W., C^. E, 1st Cav. ; must. Nov. 16, 1864 ; disch. June 20, 1866. 
Bryant, Jolin, Co. E, Ist Cav.; must. Dec. 2, 1863; trans, to Navy, March, 1804. 
Burnham, Thomas S., 6th Bat. Mounted Art.; must. Sept. 26, 1864; disch. with 

Brackett, Peter, Co. B, 1st Vet. Inf. ; must. Feb. 15, 1864 ; disch. June 28, 1866. 
Berry, Robert, Co. B, Ist Vet. Inf.; must. Feb. 8, 1862; disch. June 28, 1865. 
Berry, Cyrus P., Co. B, 1st Vet. Inf. ; mnst. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. June 28, 186.'i. 
Brackett, Edwin C, Co. B, 1st Vet. Inf. ; must. Jan. 28, 1864 ; disch. June 28, 

Bullock, William B. T., Co. B, 2d Cav. ; must. Sept. 29, 1864 ; disch. Sept. 15, 

Bullock, Daniel S., Co. B, 2d Cav. : must. Sept. 29. 1864; disch. Sept. 29, 1865. 
Be;m, George, Corp., Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. with 

company, Sept. 13, 1862. 
Bryant, Mark, Corp., Co. A, Guards .\rt. ; must. Oct. 28, 1S61 ; disch with 

company, Sept. 13, 1862. 
Billings, George E., Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. with 

company, Sept. 13, 1862. 
Boothby, Sylvester, lieut., Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. March 22, 1861 : re- 
signed March 22, 1862. 
Boothby, Putnam S., 1st lieut., Co. I, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18; disch. Dec. 2, 

Cleaves, Charles F., 5th Inf. Band ; must. June 24, 1S61 ; disch. August, 1862. 
Chadbourne, Horace R., Co. B, Sth Inf.; must. . 

Maine Vet. Regt. 
Couscns, Prentice M., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; mnst. Jnn^ 

Crouch, Daniel, Co. D, 6th Inf; must. June 24, 1861 ; missing Sept. 1, 1863. 
Connelly, John T,, Co. G, 7lh Inf. ; must. June 29, 1863 ; trans, to 1st Vet. Inf. 
Carnley, Patrick, Co. G, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 19, 1862 ; disch. June 11, 186.6. 
Cleaves, James T., Co. H, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 9, 1862; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

June 11, 186.5. 
Chapman, Isaac, Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861; disch. Sept. 27, 1864. 
Callaghan, Patrick, Co. 1, 13th Inf. ; must. Jan. 9, 1862 : re-enl. 1864 ; transferred. 
Ciessy, Edward P., Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; disch. Jan. 16, 1864. 
Cfiburn, Edward, Co. K, 13th Inf.; mnst. Feb. 17, 1862 ; rc-enl. 1864; trans, to 

30th Vet. Inf.; disch. Aug. 20, 1865. 
aeaves, Daniel, Co. I, 20th Inf. ; must. Aug. 29, 1862; disch. Sept. 15, 1863. 
Cary, Michai-1, Co. F, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Chadwick, Nathan A., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Chapman, Charles, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Clough, Charles H., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Clough, George W., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Cole, John W., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Cole, Robert, Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Cram, Patrick, Co. F, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Cribby, George, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Came, Lawrence, veteran , Co. E, 29th Inf.; must. Nov. 13, 1863; disch. Aug. 

22, 1865. 
Centre, John W., veteran, Co. G, 29th Inf.; must. Jan. 18, 1865; disch. Jan. 

19, 1S66. 
Clough, George W., Co. F, 31st Inf ; must. April 5, 1864; trans, to 32d Inf. 
Carter, George W., Co. D, 1st Bat. Inf.; must. April 6, 1866; disch. with com- 
pany, April 5, 1866. 
Clough, Charles H. (2d), Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Chapman, Edwin F., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 28, 1863 ; disch. with company. 
Coombs, Thomas N., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; di£ch. June 16, 1864. 
Cummings, John G., Co. I, Ist Cav. ; must. Sept. 6, 1862 ; disch. M.ay 28, 1865. 
Carey, John, 1st Bat. M. Art.; must. Sept. 16, 1864; disch. 1865. 
Clark, Samuel, Ist Bat. M. Art.; must. Sept. 29, 1864; disch. 1865. 
Cutbr, Israel, 2d Bat. M. Art. ; must. Oct. 6, 1864 ; disch. with company. 
Cadoretle, Euzebe, Co. A, 1st Vet. luf.; must. Sept. 26, 1862; disch. June 20, 

Clark, Alonzo C, Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct. 28,1861; disch. with 

Crediford, Oliver, Co. F, 5th Inf ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. March 5, 1862. 
Cowan, Lewis 0., capt., Co. I, Ist Cav. ; mnst. Oct. 31, 1861 ; disch. Dec. 2, 1862. 
Chadbourne, Paul, 1st lieut., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; pro. to capt. 
Dickinson, James, band, Sth Inf.; must. June 24, 1861; disch. by Congressional 

legislation, August, 1862. 
Dexter, Charles B., 1st sergt., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to lieut. 

Co. A. 


Davis, Henry F., Co. B, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861. 

Davis, Thomas, Co. B, 5th Inf. ; mast. June 24, 18G1 

Dearborn, George E., Co. B, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861. 

Dearborn, Henry A., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861. 

Downs, Joseph, Co. G, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 28, 1862 ; taken prisoner, June 18 ; 

died at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 24, 1864. 
Dolan, Thomas, Co. G, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 19, 1862 ; riisch. May 9, 1862. 
Davis, William S., sergt., Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861; taken prisoner, 

Aug. 9, 1862; trans, to 29th Inf. 
Donovan, Jeremiah, Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; trans, to 29th Inf. 
Dunn, John, Co. A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 16, 1861 ; trans, to 29th Inf. 
Dyer, Steplien H., Co. A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; pro. to corp. ; trans, with 

comi)any, 1864. 
Drake, Lulher H., Co. B, 10th Inf.; must. Aug. 4, 1861. 
Dearborn, Thomas, Co. C, 10th Inf.; must. March 23,1862; taken prisoner at 

Culpepper Court-House, Va. ; disch. Dec. 6, 1862. 
Dunn, James, Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Jan. 21, 1862; re-enl. 1864; transferred. 
Dyer, George F., Co. H, 16th Inf.; must. Aug. 14, 1862; trans. 1864. 
Davis, Charles A., Co. E, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1862; disch. with company. 
Durgin, Albion L., .sergt., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; re-enl. April 


) 3l5t ] 

Durgin, Almou C, Corp., Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; re-enl. April 5, 

1864; trans, to 31st Inf. 
Drew, John, Co.F,27th iTif.; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; re-enl. April 6, 1864; trans. 

to 3l8t Inf. 
Doyle, John, Co. E, 29th Vet. Inf.; must. Nov. 13, 1863; disch. Aug. 22, 1865. 
Dolau, Michael, Co. H, 30lh Inf.; must. Jan. 6, 1864; missing Jan. 12, 1864. 
Duun, James, Co. K, 30th Vet. Inf. ; must. Feb. 29, 1864 ; disch. Aug. 20, 1866. 
Davis, Nath. C, Co. F, Slst Inf. ; must. April 5, 1S64 ; pro. to corp. ; transferred. 
Dermont, Worth E., Co. K. 31st Inf. ; must. May 6, 1864 ; missing June 2, 1864. 
Davis, Abram E., Co. K, 31st Inf.; must. May 6, 1864; died in rebel prison. 
Downes, George M., Vet. Res. ; must. March 25, 1865. 
Donovan, Jeremiah, Vet. Res. ; must. April 7, 1865. 
Durgin, Almou C, Co. L, 2d Cav.; must. Dec. 30, 1863. 
Duchaen, E. L. T., Co. D, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 12, 1864; appointed saddler. 
Drew, Fre.lerick C, Corp., Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Aug. 27, 1862; pro. to sergt.; 

disch. May 28, 1865. 
Davis, Charles A., Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. with 

Dexter, Chas. B., capt., Co. A, 6th Inf.; must. Nov.l, 18G2; discli. July 27, 1864. 
Edson, John, Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861. 
Elliot, Joseph, Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861. 
Elliot, Timothy, Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to corp ; wounded; 

disch. with company. 
Emereon, Clias. A., Co. B, 5th Inf; must. June 24, 1861 ; died, 1863, on gunboat. 
Emery, Jotham, Co. K, 8th Inf.; must. Oct. 3, 1862 ; disch. Oct. 3, 1865. 
Emerson, StiUman H., Co. B, 10th Inf.; must. Aug. 26, 1862 ; trans. 1864. 
Ellis, Thomas, Jr., Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 28, 1861 ; re-enl. 1864; trans. 

to 30th Vet. ; missing Feb. 2, 1865. 
EdtoD, William F., corp., Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; pro. to sergt.; 

re-enl. 1864; trans, to 30th Vet. Inf. ; disch. Aug. 20, 1805. 
Emery, John F., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to musician ; disch. 

with company. 
Emery, John H., musician, Co. E, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Edgerly, Samuel H., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1863 ; disch. with compan.v. 
Elliot, William L.,Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Emmons, Joseph R.,Co.K,27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Emery, Joseph E., Co. A, 3l8t Inf.; must. March 3, 1804 ; disch. July 15, 1865. 
Edgcomb, John, Co. A, 32d Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; wounded May 12, 1864; 

trans, to Slst Maine Kegt. 
Ellis, Cutts D., Co. M, 2d Cav.; must. Sept. 26, 1804 ; disch. Sept. 29, 186.i. 
Edwards, Joseph, lieut., Co. A, Coast Guards .^rt. ; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; resigned 

March 22, 1862. 
Fenderson, B., q.m. sergt. 5th Inf. ; niu^t. June, 1S61 ; pro. to q.m. 
Foster, Charies P., sergt., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. with 

FosB, Walter, sergt., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to 1st sergt.; 

re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Friend, Dennis W., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. Aug. 27, 1S62; detached; taken 

prisoner, Nov. 27, 1863. 
Fenderson, John P., Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 27, 1864. 
Fletcher, Sidney W., Co. A, loth Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; re-enl. February, 1864 ; 

trans, to Veteran Regiment; disch. June 21, 1868. 
Fellows, Julien F.,Co. K,13tli Inf.; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; re-enl. 1864; missing. 
Foss, Edward, Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Foote.John D., Co. K,13th Inf.; must. Jan. 2, 1862; re-enl. 1864; transferred. 
Flinn, George, Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Feb. 11, 1862; disch. Sept. 29, 1863. 
Frost, Thomas, Co. K, 13th Inf.: must. Jan. 2, 1862; disch. April 9, 1862. 
Foss, William A., corp., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 
Foss, Edward L., Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

^Edwin, Corp., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
,Co. E, 29th Vet. Inf.; must. Nov. 13, 1863; disch. Aug. 22, 

Foas, Chariei 

Foote, John D., Co. K, 30th Vet. Inf. ; nuist. Feb. 29, 1864 ; disch. July 11, 1865. 
Fellows, Samuel, C^^. E, 1st Cav.; must. Aug. 19, 1862; disch. May 29, 1865. 

Foss, Augustas W., 6th Bat. M. Art. ; must. Sept. 27, 1864 ; disch. May 13, 1865. 

French, George W., Co. A, 1st Vet. Inf.; must. Jan. 19, 1864; disch. June 28, 

Fletcher, Israel L., Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct. 22, 1861 ; disch. with 

Garvin, Edwin, Co. B, 5lh Inf.i must. June 24, 1861. 

Getchell, James, Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861. 

Oilman, Joseph M., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. 1862. 

Goodwin, John W., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; wounded at Crampton 

Goodwin, Sumner L., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24,1861; disch. with com- 

Gillman, Stephen, Co. A, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 12, 1861 ; died Aug. 9, 1862. 

Goodwin, John B., Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 13, 1861; disch. with company. 

Gordon, Ebenezer H., Jr., Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; disch. June 30, 

Gallagher, Edward H., Co. F, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Goodwin, Atonzo, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Goodwin, Frank, Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Gowen, Walter A., Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1802; disch. with company. 

Gray, William S., Co. F, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. Feb. 10, 1863. 

Guptill, Daniel, Co. F, 27lh Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Goodrich, Albion G., Co. 0, 30th Inf. ; must. Dec. 19, 1863 ; died in hospital, Jan. 
20, 1864. 

Griint, Alexander, corp., Co. K, 32d Inf ; must. May 6, 1864 ; disch. Dec. 12, 1864. 

Goodrich, William, Co. K, 32d Inf.; must. May 6, 1864 ; died Sept. 1, 1864. 

Grimes, John, 1st sergt., 1st Bat. M. Art.; must. Jan. 27, 1863. 

Guruey, Isaac P., sergt., Co. I, 1st Cav.; must. Sept. 1, 1862; died in prison, 
Sept. 28, 1864. 

Gearey, Charles B., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Feb. 5, 1864 ; disch. with company. 

Grimes, John, sergt., 1st Bat. M. Art.; must. Jan. 1, 1864; pro. to 1st lieut.; 
disch. with company, 1865. 

Goodale, Elbridge, Co. D, 2d Cav.; must. Sept. 27, 1 864 ; disch. Aug. 29,1865. 

Cookings, William H., Co. H, 2d Cav. ; must. Sept. 26, 1864; disch. Aug. 29, 1865. 

Gray, William S., Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct. 22,1861; disch. with 

Goodbehere, Joseph S., Ist District Columbia Cav. ; must. Feb. 19, 1864. 
Goodwin, Amos G., let lieut., Co. K, I3th Inf.; must. Deo. 13, 1861; trans, to 

Co. G, 1862. 
Grimes, John, Ist lieut., 1st M. Art. ; must. Jan. 18, 1865 ; disch. July 15, 1865. 
Goodwin, Lewis B., Ist lieut., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. May 20, 1861 ; pro. to capt. 
Goodwin, Amos G., capt., Co. G, 1.3th Inf.; must. Sept. 19, 1862; pro. to maj. of 

Holman, Daniel H., 5th Inf. Baud; must. June 24, 1861; disch. August, 1862. 
Hanson, Moses M., Co. B.,5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861. 
Heimey, Thomas, Co. B, 6th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

with company. 
Hodsdon, Billings, Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to coi-p. and sergt. ; 

re-enl. in 1st Maine Vet. Regt. 
Hutchings, Robert C, Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861. 
Hunter, John, Co. B, 7th Inf.; must. Dec. 4, 1862. 
Hurley, Dennis, Co. G, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 20, 1862; prisoner at Drury's 

Bluff, May 16; died at Andersonville, Aug. 4, 1864. 
Heton, Adam, Co. G, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 19, 1862 ; prisoner at Petersburg, 

June 18; died at Andersonville, Nov. 18, 1864. 
Hopping, George, Co. H, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 19, 1862 ; disch. May 12, 1865. 
Hill, Israel, Co. I, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 29, 1862 ; disch. May 15, 1866. 
Hanson, Samuel, sergt.-maj., 10th Inf ; must. October, 1861 ; wounded Sept. 19, 

1864 ; trans, with company. 
Hanson, James B., Co A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. June 31, 1862. 
Higginsou, John. Co. A, 10th Inf; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; trans, with company. 
Hopping, William, Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861. 
Hickey, Patrick, drummer, Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct, 4, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E, 

29th Inf, 1864. 
Harmon, George H., Co. G, 11th Inf ; must. Oct. 3, 1863; substitute. 
Henry, Michael, Co. H, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 12, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Hill, John B., Co. K, 13th Inf. : must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; pro. to corp. ; disch. June 

30, 1862. 
Hooper, Caleb S., Co. K, 13th Inf.; 

June 19. 1862. 
Hooper, Francis E , Co. K, 13th Inf. 
Hooper, Lewis B., Co. K, 13th Inf. ; 
Hooper, Oriando, Co. K, 13th Inf. ; 

July 2, 1862. 
Hooper, William 0., Co. K, 13th Inf 
Hooper, Samuel C, Co. K, 13th Inf 

Hill, Daniel C, Co. I, 17th Inf; mu 
Hodge, Alvin, Co. I, 17th Inf; nn: 

Dec. 13, • 

died at Ship Island, 

; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; disch. with company, 
must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; disch. with company, 
must. Dec. 13, 1861; died at Ship Island, 


Holmes, Hiram G., Co. I, 17th 

Corps, 1864, 
Hussey, Wright W., Co. I, 20th 

Corps, May 16, 1863. 
Hurd, Charles, Co. D, 2nth Inf.; 

Jan. 3, 186:3. 

must. Aug. 18, 1862; trans, to Vet. Res. 
must. Aug. 29, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. 
It. Aug. 29, 1862; missing from hospital, 



Hadlock, Chas. H., Co. F, 27th luf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1S62 ; (iisoh. with company. 
Haley, Albert, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 3u, 1862 ; diach. with company. 
Haley, Thomas, Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; discU. with company. 
Hampson, Charles, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Harriman, Aaron, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; discli. with company. 
Hussey, Luther G., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Hickey, Patrick, Co. E, 29th Vet. Inf. ; must. Nov. 13, 1862 ; disch. Feb. 22, 1865. 
Huff, Edwin R., Co. E, 29tU Vet. Inf. ; umst. Nov. 13, 1862 ; diach. Aug. 22, 1866. 
Hanson, James H., Co. C, 30th Inf. ; must. Dec. 19, 1863 ; died Aug. 28, 1864. 
Hiinson, Charles F., Co. I, 30th Vet. Inf.; prisoner; exchanged ; trans, to Co. C; 

disch. with company. 
Hill, Benjamin F., Co. G, 30th Vet. Inf.; must. Dec. 28, 1863 ; missiuB Feb. 7, 

Harriman, Andrew J., Corp., Co. A, 32d Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; pro. to Ist 

sergt. ; taken prisoner Sept. 3li ; disch. Dec. 12, 1864. 
Herrin, Stephen B., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Jan. 7, 1864. 
Hunt, John, 1st District of Columbia Cav.; must. Feb. 2, 1864 ; pro. to sergt.; 

disch. June 20, 1865. 
Hutchinson, Joseph, Co. I, Ist Cav.; must. Feb. 1, 1864 ; disch. 
Hanson, William H., Jr., 6th Bat. Mounted 

with battery, 
llodsdou, Billings, sergt., (Jo. li, let Vet. Iiif 

20, 1864. 
Hadlock, Benjamin F., Co. B, lat Ve 

disch. with company. 
Hunter, John J., Co. C, Ist Vet. Inf.; must. Dec. 4, 1862 ; disch. July 3, 1865. 
Uanscomb, Charles 0., Co. I, 2d Cav. ; must. Sept. 29, 1864 ; disch. Sept. 28, 1865. 
Hoyt, Daniel, Co. M, 2d Cav.; must. Sept. 26, 1864 ; disch. Aug. 28, 1866. 
Harriman, Alvin, Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct, 22,1861; disch. with 

Holt, Samuel P., Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. April 26, 1862. 
Harriman, Moses, Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct. 9, 1861; diach. with 

Jeflards, Jacob, Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. with com- 

Jellison, Joseph W., Co. B, 2d Cav. ; must. Oct. 19, 1864; disch. Oct. 13, 1866. 
Johnson, Richard M., 6th Bat. M. Art.; must. Oct. 14, 1804; diach. with com- 
Jeffers, Nicholas, Co. A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; pro. to Corp. ; trans, witli 

1S64; discli. Dec, 

Jennings, James, Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 16,1 

with company, 1864. 
Johnson, John W., Co. K. 13th Inf.; must. DBC.a3, 1861; disch. Aug. 26, 1862. 
Jordan, Ralph, Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 13, 1861; died April 7, 1862. 
Jordan, Robert E., Co. K, 13th Inf.; must, Jan. 23, 1862; lelt sick at Brazos, 

Texas, 1863. 
Joy, Thomas W., Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Jan. 2,1861; re-eul, 1864; trans, to 

30th Veterans ; disch. Aug. 20, 1865.] 
Jenness, Samuel E,, corp,, Co, 1, 17tUInf,; must, Aug, 18, 1862; trans, to Vet, 

Rea, Corps, 1864. 
Judge, Patrick, Co, F, 27th Inf,; must. Sept, 30, 1862; disch, with company, 
Jeffrey, Frederick, Co. A, 31st Inf.; must. April 6, 1864; pro. to Corp.; trans. 

Jordan, Ralph T., Co. K, 31st Inf. ; must. May 0, 1864; disch. Aug. 7, 1865. 
Jackmau, Charles G., Co. G, 1st Cav.; must. Feb. 10,1864; disch. July 31, 1865. 
Johnson, Elbridge G., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Feb. 1, 1864; disch. for disability, 

Jose, James H., Co. D, lat H. Art.; must. Sept, 21, 1863; disch. 1865. 
Jaques, Napoleon, 1st Bat. M. Art. ; must. Jan. 1 ; missing Sept. 1, 1864. 
Knox, Darius C, Co. B, 5tli Inf.; must. Aug. 26, 1862; trans, to 1st Maine 

Veterans, 1863. 
Knox, Thomas F., Co. B, 6th Inf. ; must. Aug. 25, 1862 ; trana. to lat Maine Vet- 

erana; died of wounds, Dec. 10, 1864. ^ 
Knights, Henry, 37th Inf.; must. Dec. 4, 1862; wounded May 4, 1863. 
Kimball, Alvin F., Co. H, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 25, 1862 ; pro. to corp., to sergt., 

and to 2d lieut. in U. S. Col. Troops. 
Keighlev, William, Co. A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; trans. 1864, 
Kenney, Dennis, Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; trans. 1864. 
Knight, Josiah, Co. A, loth Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; diach. 1863. 
Kerwin, James, Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Knight, George J., Co. G, 29th Inf. ; must. Jan. 18, 1865 ; disch. Jan. 19, 1866. 
King, Henry B,, Co. K,30th Vet. Inf.; must. Aug. 25, 1864; disch. June 1,1866. 
Kelly, William, Co. C, lat Vet. Inf.; must. Oct. 19,1864; disch. with company. 
Killea, Patrick J., Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct. 28, 1861; diach. with 

Kimball, Alvin F., Co. A, Coast Guarda Art. ; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; diach. with 

I 18, 

Kimball, Alonzo E,, 1st lieut., Co. E, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861; 

Ladd, John D., sergt., Co. B, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to 1st lieut., (Jo, 

C, 1863. 
Longee, Nicholas R., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; diach. July 1, 1862, 
Larrabee, Charles F., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; wounded May 1(1, 

Libby, John F., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; wounded May 10, 1863 ; 

disch. with company. 
Libby, Charles 0., Co. B, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; died in 1863. 

Linacott, John, Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861; pro, to sergt,; wounded 

at Crampton Gap; wounded May 7, 1864 ; disch, with company. 
Littlelield, Jesse L., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; missing June, 1862. 
Larrabee, William, Co. C, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; wounded at Gaines' 

Milla, 1862 ; pro. to corp. ; taken prisoner May 4, 1863 ; disch. 1863. 
Leighton, Ivan, Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; trans. 1864, 
Lowell, Philip L,, Co, K, 13th Inf,; muat. Jan. 23, 1862 : disch, Feb. 6, 1863, 
Libby, John C, sergt., Co. I, 17th Inf. ; muat. Aug. 18, 1862 ; wounded Dec. 13 ; 

Libby, George W., Co. I, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; disch. Nov. 18, 1862. 

Littlelield, George, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Littlefteld, John T., Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Lodte, Thomas D., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept, 30, 1862 ; disch, with company. 

Lombard, Osbright A,, Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; diach. with com- 

Libby, Charles 0., Co.'G, 2»th Vet. Inf.; must. Jan. 18, 1865; pro. to Corp.; 
disch. Jan. 19, 1866. 

Levitt, Thoniaa E., Co. E, 30th Inf. ; must. Feb. 6, 1804 ; veteran ; disch. June 
13, 1805. 

Locke, Jesse, Co. K, 31st Inf.; must. May 6, 1804; disch. 1805. 

Libby, Josiah, Co. K, 3lBt Inf.; must. May 0, 1864; disch. 1866. 

Leach, Nathaniel, Co. K, 32d Inf. ; muat. May 6, 1864 ; died Oct. 18, 1864. 

Libby, Josiah, Co. K, 32d Inf. ; muat. May 6, 1864 ; trans. 1865. 

Libby, Joshua, Co. D, 1st Bat. Inf. ; must. April 5, 1865 ; diach, Oct, 16, 1865, 

Loud, Isaac, Vet. Res. Corps; must, March 21, 1805. 

Lord, John F , Vet. Res. Corps; must. April 5, 186,j, 

Labelle, Lewis, Co, E, Ist Cav, ; must. Feb. 10, 1804. 

Lunt, Wilbur F., Co. G, Ist Cav.; must. Feb. 18,1864; pro. to sergt. and 1st 
sergt.; disch. Aug. 1,1865. 

Lowery, James, Co. A, 1st Vet. Inf. ; must. Oct. 17, 1864; disch. with company. 

Littl.-fleld, Daniel S., Co. B, 2d Cav. ; must. Sept. 20, 1864 ; diach. Sept. 26, 1865, 

Lunt, Frederick D.^Co. L, 2d Cav. ; muat. Sept. 26, 1864 ; disch. Sept. 25, 1866. 

Lynch, James, Co. M, 2d Cav. ; must. Oct. 15, 1864 ; disch. Oct. 10, 1866. 

Morrison, George W., Corp., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861; died from 
wounds, July 9, 1862. 

Murphy, William D,, corp,, Co, B, 5th Inf, ; nnist. June 24, 1861 ; disch. March 
31, 1863. 

Maxim,Wm. D., corp,,Co, B, 5th Inf.; must, June 24, 1861; died Sept. 13, 1802. 

McCabe, John, Corp., Co. B, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; detached to gunboat ; 
disch, 1863, 

Mclntire, Jolin H,, Co. B, 6th Inf.; must, June 24, 1801 ; wounded at Compton 
Gap ; diach. 1863. 

Meserve, Edwin, (Jo. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, ISOl ; pro. to Corp.; wounded 
Sept. 14, 1862 ; taken prisoner. 

Moran, John E., Co. B, 6th Inf.; must. Juno 24, 1861. 

Murphy, Alvin, Co. B, 6th Inf. ; must. Jime 24, 1861 ; disch. 1862. 

Murphy ,'Dennia, Co. H, 5th Inf. ; must June 24, 1861 ; wounded at Rappahan- 
nock Station, 1863; trans, to Ist Maine Veterans. 

Moran, Patrick, Co. G, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 25, 1862; killed at Cold Harbor, 
June 7, 1804. 

Mason, David W,, Co. H, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; wounded at Cold Har- 
bor, June 3, 1864; disch. June 11, 1865. 

McKenney, Levi F., sergt., Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1861; pro. to lieut. 

Mayo, Lorenzo, Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; diach. May 10, 1863. 

Mahoney, Timothy, Co. K, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 21,1861; re-enl. ; taken pris- 
oner, Aug. 18, 1864; disch. June 14, 1865. 

Moore, Moses T., Co. A, loth Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1801 ; trana. 1804. 

Mayberry, Thomas L., Co. B, lUth Inf.; nmst. Aug. 18, 1802; trans. 1862. 

Mahan, Patrick, Co. I, 13th Inf. ; must. Jan. 2, 1862 ; diach. Oct. 27, 1862. 

McBride, Cyrus, Corp., Co. K, 13th Inf. ; muat, Dec. 13, 1861 ; pro. to sergt. and 
1st sergt. ; disch. with company. 

Miuion, William, Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Jan. 2, 1862 ; disch. April 9, 1862. 

McGinley, John, Co. H, 16th Inf. ; muat. Aug. 14, 1862 ; trans, to 5th Battery, 

McQuire, James, Co. K, 17th Inf.; must. Sept. 16, 1863; trana. to Navy, 1864. 

McGrath, Michael, Co. 1, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. IS, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

McKinney, Jerry, Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch.June 4, 1863. 

Martin, Peter, Co. I, nth Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; pro. to Corp. and to sergt.; 
disch. 1863. 

Mason, Joseph T., Co. 1, 17 th Inf. ; must. Aug, 18, 1802; disch. with company. 

Marston, Charles N., Co. 1, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1802 ; disch. with company. 

McGrath, George, Co. 1, 17th Inf.; muat. Aug. 18, 1862; discli. with company. 

Meeds, Charles, Co. I, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; disch. Dec. 23, 1862. 

Milliken, Moses S., Co. 1, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Jlilliken, Nathaniel M., Co. I, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Miller, Caleb B., Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; diach. with company. 

Mitchell, Deodat, Co. I, 17th Inf. ; muat. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. with company. 

Mitchell, Joseph S., Jr., Co. 1, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. IS, 1S62 ; disch. with com- 

Murphy, John B., Co. I, 17th Inf.; muat. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. with company. 

Mason, Wm. P., Co. E, 29th Vet. Inf.; must. Nov. 13,1863; disch. Aug. 22, 1865. 

Mclntire, Phineas, Co. C, 30th Inf , ; must. Dec. 19, 1863 ; pro. to Corp. ; missing 
Jan. 2, 1863. 

McDonough, John, Co. C, 30th Inf. ; must. Dec. 19, 1863 ; disch. with company. 

McGregor, George, Co. C, 1st Bat. Inf. ; must. April 1, 1865 ; missing Nov. 1865, 

Moor, James, Ist District of Columbia Cav. ; muat. Feb. 4, 1864. 


Moore, Moses D., Co. D, Ist Cav.; must. Aug, 2.i, 1S02; disi-h. Sept. 11, ISfin. 

Maynard, Joseph B., Co. E, 1st Cnv.; must. Nov. 3, 1S63 ; ilisch. June 20, 1865. 

Montgomery, Josepli, Co.E, 1st Cav.; must. Feb. 10, 1864; disch. April 28, 1866. 

Morrill, William, Co. E, 1st Cav. ; must. Aug. 20, 1862; disch. May 29, 1865. 

Meeds, Daniel J., Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Aug, 28, 1862; disch. May 28, 1865. 

Minnehan, Patrick, 1st Bat. M. Art.; must. Sept. 26, 1864; disch. 1865. 

McCarthy, Ist Bat. M. Art. ; must. Sept. 26, 1864; disch. 1865. 

Murphy, Dennis, Co. A, 1st Vet. Inf. ; must. Nov. 30, 1861 ; disch. Dec. 6, 1864. 

McDonald, Edward, Co. F, 8tli Inf. ; must. Sept. 20, 1864 ; disch. with company. 

Moore, Perry C, Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. with com- 

Nason, Geo. N., Corp., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. July 29, 1862. 

Nesbitt, Frederick B., Co, B, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to corp. ; taken 
prisoner. May 3, 1863. 

Nesbitt, John F., Co. B, 5th Inf ; must. June 24, 1861 ; rc-enl. as veteran, De- 
cember, 1863. 

Noble, William T., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Nutter, Alonzo, Co. C, 10th Inf.; must. Aug. 5, 1862; trans. 1863. 

Nesbitt, John, Co. K, 13th Inf ; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; taken prisoner ; exchanged ; 
died Aug. 4, 1864. 

Nason, Heury, Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Feb. 17 ; disch. Oct. 10, 1862. 

Nason, Andrew J., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Newcomb, Oliver, Co. I, 30th Inf.; must. Jan. 14, 1864; pro. to Corp.; disch. 
with company, Aug. 20, 1865. 

Nolan, Michl., Co. F, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 18, 1864 : killed in battle, March 31, '65. 

Nutter, Samuel A., Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Feb. 22, 1864; disch. June, 1866. 

Noyes, Wm. S., assist, surg., 5th Inf.; must. Feb. 5, 1863; disch. March 31,1863. 

O'Neil, John, 1st District of Columbia Cav. ; must. Feb. 2, 1864. 

O'Neil, John, Co. M, 1st District Columbia Cav. ; must. Feb. 20, 1864 ; died 1864. 

Plummer, Jeremiah, capt., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. July 17, 

Page, Amos W., 1st lieut., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. July 

17, 1863. 
Perkins, John W., 2d lieut., Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. July 

Parsons, William, wagoner, Co. B, 5th Inf ; must. June 24, 1861 ; missing July 

23, 1861. 
Paine, Theodore H., Co. B, 5th Inf; must. June 24, 1861; disch. 1862. 
Page, Edward,_Co. C, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; on gunboat, 1862. 
Page, George W., Co. C, 6th Inf ; must. June 24, 1861 ; missing February, 1863. 
Potts, Heury, Co. G, 8th Inf ; must. Aug. 28, 1862 ; died June 28, 1864. 
Place, Joseph, Co. G, 8th Inf; must. Aug. 28, 1862 ; trans, to Invalid Corps. 
Parker, Greenleaf W., Jr., Co. E, 9th Inf ; nuist. Sept. 22, 1861 ; pro, to Corp. ; 

rc-enlisted ; killed Sept. 29, 1864. 
Perkins, George J., Co. K, 13th Inf ; must, Dec. 13, 1861 ; pro. to Corp. ; pro. to 

lieut., Corps d'Afrique. 
Perkins, Thaddeus, Co. K, 13th Inf ; must. Dec. 28, 1861 ; pro. to Corp.; re-en- 

Pike, John R., Co. K. 13th Inf; must. Dec. 13, IS 

trans, 1864. 
Potts, Thomas, Co. H, 16th Inf ; must. Aug. 14, 1862; pro. to corp. 
Parcher, Charles H., corp., Co. I, 17th Inf; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; pro. to sergt.. 

to 2d lieut., and to 1st lieut., Co. K. 
Paine, Joseph M., Corp., Co. 1, 17th Inf ; must. Aug. IS, 1862 ; disch. 1862. 
Perkins, Thomas F., Co. 1, 17th Inf ; must. Ang. 18, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Plunmier, Jeremiah, capt., Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

PUlsbury, Samuel H., capt., Co. A, 6th Inf. ; must, Feb. 7, 1862. 
Page, Amos, Ist lieut., Co. A, 5th Inf. ; must. Feb. 7, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Perkins, John W., 2d lieut,, Co, A, 6th Inf; must. Feb. 7, 1862; disch. with 

Pierce, William B., sergt., Co. A, 6th Inf ; must. Feb. 7, 1862; disch. with com- 
Perkins, Albert, sergt., Co. A, 6th Inf; must. Feb. 7, 1802 ; disch. Feb. 2, 1803. 
Perkins, Samuel, Co. A, 5th Inf ; must. Feb. 7, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Parody, John, Co. A, 5th Inf: must. Feb. 7, 1802; disch. with company. 
Poole, James A., Co. A, 5th Inf ; must. Feb. 7, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Piper, Horace L,, corp., Co. K, 6tli Inf ; must. Feb. 7, 1802 ; pri,. to sergt., to 1st 

sergt., and to 2d lieut.; disch. with company. 
Philbrook, John M., Co. A, 31st luf ; must, April 5, 1864; disch. May 22, 1865. 
Pierce, William W., sergt., Co. A, 32d Inf; must. May 3,1804; pro. to 2d lieut.: 

prisoner July 30; trans, to Co. A, 31st Inf; discharged. 
Pike, John R., Vet. Res. Corps ; must. April 14, 1865. 
Partridge, Frank A., Ist District of Columbia Cav. ; must. Jan. 27, 1864. 
Partridge, Frank A., Co. I, Ist Cav. ; must. Feb. 16, 1864; died Dec. 24, 1864. 
Perkins, Daniel, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Sept. 1, 1862 ; died in prison, May 30, 1864. 
Prescott, Alpheus, Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must, Oct. 31, 1861; missing Jan. 30, 1862. 
Pike, Jeremiah K., Co. C, 1st Vet. luf; must. Oct. 17, 1864; disch. with com- 

, 14tli 


Picket, TIkujii-, ' ■■ I, - 1 I n ; must. Oct. 18, 1864; disch. October, 1865. 
Riche, !..■« 1- I niu^t. Oct. 18, 1864; disch. Oct. 17, 1805. 

Ricker, .\;llii: , , ' b, tli Inf.; must. June 23,1801; pro. to 8( 

wouii.i' I Jiiii' _:, !-■ _, ilischarged. 
Roberts, Milton S., Co. U, jth Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; wounded and pris 

May 3, 1803; disch. 1S64. 
Richardson, Thomas, 8th Inf ; must. Aug. 26, 1862. 


Reardiin, John, Co. A, 10th Inf ; must. Oct. 16 

Antietam; pro. to sergt.; trans, with co 
Roberts, Charles F., 0<. A, 10th Ii.f ; must. 0< 
Ross, George H,, Co. A, lOlh Inf ; must. Oct. 4 
Robbins, Fred. E., musician, Co. A, 13th Inl'.; 

Rennick, William, Co. K, liitli Inf ; must. J 

April 8, 1864. 
Roberts, Thomas L., Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. March 25, 1S04 ; transferred. 
Robbins, James II., Co. K, 13th Inf ; must. Sejit. 20, 1804 ; transferred. 
Boss, Benjamin P., Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; detached in (J. 51. 

Dept. ; disch. with company. 
Richaids, Orin E., Co. F, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Ricker, Arthur, Co. I, 3llth Inf ; must. Jan. 14, 1864; pro. to Corp., 1865. 
Badclifle, James H., Co. K, 30th Inf. ; must. Jan. 9, 1864; trans. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Reed, George W., Vet. Res. Corps; must. April 14, 1866. 
Robbins, Charles H.. Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Feb. 1, 1864 ; disch. June 20, 1805. 
Rogers, Thomas H., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Dec. 29, 1803 ; disch. June 20, 1865. 
Ri'dman, Justus F., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Sept. 26, 1864 ; disch. Sept. 26, 1865. 
Ricker, Thomas C, Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. with 

(61; pro. to Corp.; woundi 


I, 1861 ; trans, 1864. 

SOI; disch. Dec. 19, 1861. 

Ui>t. Dec. 28, 1861 ; disch. 

. 23, 1862; r 

. August, 1802. 

,. June 24, 1861 ; disch 
June 24, 1801; disch. 
June 24, 1861 ; disch. with company.- 

Shannon, James H., baud, 5th 

Scribner, Saml. E., Co. B, dth ] 

Smith, Horace P., Co. B, 5th Inf; must. Jui 

Smith, Lewis K., Co. B, 6th Inf; must. Jun 

Small, Charles S., Co. B, 5th Inf; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 27, 1862. 

Spencer, George G., Co, B, 5th Inf ; must. June 24, 1861 ; died at Torktow 

Junel, 1862. 
Stevens, James, Co. B, .5th Inl 

Stevens, William, Co. B. 5th Ii 

Sullivan, Jerry, Co. B, 5th In 

24, 1861 

OH). ; ' 

f ; must. June 24,1861; pro. Corp.; disch, with 

,; must, June 24, 1801; pro. Corp.; disch. with 

Senate, James, Co. C, 5th luf; must. June 24, 1801; wounded Nov. 7, 1803; 

disch. with company. 
Somera, Israel E., Co. D, 5th Inf ; must. Juue 24, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Smith, Alonzo, Co. E, 9th Inf ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; killed in battle, Sept. 12, 

Shiiw, Henry N., Corp., Co. A, 10th Inf; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; wounded May 25, 

1862; disch. July IS, 1862. 
Skillings, Almon L., Co. G, 10th Inf; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. July 31, 1862. 
Smith, John, Co. A, luth Inf; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; taken prisoner at Winchester, 

Va., May 25, 1802 ; disch. Feb. 23, 1863. 
Staples, James, Jr., Co. A, 10th luf ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; trans, with company. 
Sutherland, Charles, Co. A, 10th Inf ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. Oct. 29, 1802. 
Smith, Alonzo R., Co. B, loth Inf; must. Oct. 4, 1801 ; taken prisoner at Win- 

Shehan, Edward P., Co. K, 13th Inf ; must. Dec. 13, 1801 ; disch. April 9, 1862. 
Shaw, Joseph H., Co. K, 13th Inf ; must. Jan. 2, 1862 ; pro, to Corp. ; pro. to 1st 

lieut.. Corps d'Afrique, 1863. 
Swan, Isaac F., Co. B, 15th luf; must. Feb. 28, 1864; pro. to cor]).; disch. July 

5, 1S60. 
Sweetser, Edward, wagoner, Co. 1, 17th Inf; must. Aug. IS, 1802 ; died 1862. 
Smith, Jere F., Co. I, 17th Inf ; must. Aug. IS, 1802 ; died Jan. 7, 1803. 
Sweetsir, James F., Co. I, nth Inf ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; killed May 6, 1864. 
Stevens, Colver, Co. I, 20lh Inf; must. Aug. 29, 1802; disch. 1863. 
Sampson, Moses T., 1st sergt., Co. F, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Scanmion, Nicholas, Corp., Co. F, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch, with 

Smith, Charles F., Corp., Co. F, 27th Inf ; nmst. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with com- 

Smith, Atwood I 

1 Inf ; 


Shehan, George R., Co. F, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Skillings, Lorenzo D., Co. F, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Skinner, John B., Co. F, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. .30, 1802; disch. with company. 

Small, Roland E., Co. F, 27Jh Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. with companj-. 

Smith, Charles B., Co. F, 27tli Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Smith, Charies T., Co. F, 27 th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Smith, Francis W., Co. F, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. Feb. 16, 1863. 

Smith, William M., Co. F, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1802; pro. to corp.; disch. 
with company. 

Spaulding, Wallis, Cu. F, JTtli luf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Stevens, O.-ig I « i . I . jTiii Inf; must.Sept.3i ,1862; disch. with company. 

Skinner, Jul. 11 I ! .tli Inf ; mtlst. Nov. 13,1863 ; vet. organization. 

Slomau, Chill!. - \ ' i . , I nf. ; must. Nov. 13, 186.3. 

Sawyer, Oba.liii I. 1 l.jih Inf.; must. Nov. 13, 1803; disch. May 29, 1805. 

Small, Alonzo R., Cu. C, 30tli Inf ; must. Dec. 19, 1803; veteran. 

Smith, Darius H., cook, Co. C, 30th Inf; must. Dec. 19, 180.3; veteran; miss- 
ing June 2, 1866. 

Smith, James, Co. I, 3IJth Inf ; must. Jan. 6, 1864; missing Aug. 11, 1805. 

Scott, Frederick D., Co. K, 31st Inf.; must. March 0, 1804; missing. 

Scott, Frederick G., Co. K, 32d Inf ; must. May 0, 1804 ; trans, to Co. K, 1864. 

Stevens, Gilbert G., Co. D, 1st Bat. Inf ; must. Apr. 5, 1805 ; disch. June 16, 1865. 


Sampson, Mjses T., sergt., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Dec. 24, W,:i. 

Swazey, William E., Co. L, 2d Cav.; must. Jan. 7, 1864. 

Sweetser, George W., 1st lieut., Co. E, 1st Sharpshooters; must. Nov. 29, 1864. 

Sanborn, Silas M., Co. Q, Ist Cav.; must. Feb. 19, 1864; disch. June 20, 1865. 

Sutherland, Nathaniel, Co. G, 1st Cav.; must. Feb. 19, 1804; died in prison, 

November, 1864. 
Shehan, James R., Co. I, lat Cav. ; must. Aug. 29, 1862 ; disch. May 28, 1865. 
Smith, Edward E., Co. M, 1st Cav. ; must. Jan. 26, 1864; disch. June 20, 1865. 
Small, George D. B., Co. A, Ist Vet. Inf. ; must. March 16, 1864 ; pro. to sergt. ; 

disch. with company. 
Speed, Horace G., Co. H, 2d Cay. ; must. Sept. 29, 1864 ; disch. at end of war. 
Seavey, Enoch, Co. H, 2d Cav.; must. Oct. 19, 1864; disch. Oct. 13, 1865. 
Sutherland, George, Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. April 

23, 1862. 
Smart, Augustus, Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. April 

10, 1S62. 
Stevens, Robt. M., 1st lieut., Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to capt. ; 

disch. 1862. 
Sweetser, George W., 1st lieut., Co. E, Ist Sharpshooters; must, Nov. 25, 1804. 
Smith, Dryden, a.sst. surg., 8th Inf.; must. Dec. 10, 1862; disch. 1862. 
Tibbetts, Levi B., band, 5tb Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. August, 1862. 
Trainer, John, Co. G, 8th luf. ; must. Aug. 25, 1862 ; disch. Oct. 5, 1864. 
Tarr, James F., sergt., Co, A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; pro. to 1st sergt. ; 

disch. with company. 
Tarbox, Alphonso, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Tibbetts, Chas. H., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Tarbox, Thos. B., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Tarbox, William S., Co. F, 32d Inf. ; must. April 5, 1864 ; died in hospital, 1864. 
Tibbetts, Luther, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. September, 1864 ; d isch. May 28, 1865. 
Traynor, John, Corp., Ist Bat. M. Art. ; must. March 29, 1864; disch. with com- 
pany, July 15, 1865. 
Towle, Jesse, Co. H, 2d Cav. ; must. Oct. 19, 1864 ; disch. Oct. 13, 1865. 
Townsend, Benjamin, Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. Oct. 2S, 1861 ; disch. with 

Tarbox, Warren E., Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. Sept. 1, 1862. 
Underwood, William C, Co. I, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 25, 1862 ; disch. June 17, 1865. 
Ulmer, Alonzo M., Vet. Ees. Corps; must. April 5, 1865. 
Verrill, Edward A., Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Oct. 28, 1861 ; disch. Aug. 

31, 1862. 
Ware, Warren, Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. July 22, 1862. 
WaU, Thomas, Co. A, Coast Guards Art. ; must. Oct. 21, 1861. 
Welch, Samuel T., Co. A, Coast Guards Art.; must. Nov. 4, 1861. 
Williams, Harry, bugler, Co. H, 2d Cav.; must. Oct. 19, 1864; disch, with 

Willis, Albert B., capt., Co: F, 8th Vet. Inf.; must. Aug. 

1, 1865. 
Whaland, Clark, Co. A, 1st Vet. Inf. ; must, Sept. 1, 1862 ; 

Weston, George F., Co. H, 1st H. Art.; must. Sept. 8, 1863. 
Whitney, Charles E., Co. F, 31st Inf. ; must. April 5, 1864 ; trans. 1865. 
Whitney, Moses M., Co. K , 29th Inf. ; must. Nov. 13, 1863 ; disch. June 21, 1866. 
Whitney, Lewis G., Co. 1, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; taken prisoner. May 

3, 1863; exchanged; wounded and missing. May 6, 1864. 
Wescott, James B., Co. I, 2Dth Inf. ; must. Aug. 29, 1862 ; pro. to hosp. steward, 

September, 1864 ; disch. June 4, 1865. 
Watson, George W., sergt., Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

. to 3Ist Inf., 

Watson, Charles M., Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. June 7, 1863. 
Watson, Seth, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Webber, Alfred C, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Webber, Orrin B,, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Wilkinson, William, Co. C, 30th Inf. ; must. Jan. 19, 1863 ; lost at sea, Dec. 

22, 1863. 
Witham, Lewis H., Co. A, 32d Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; 

Whittaker, Charles, Co. K, 32d Inf.; must. May 6, 1864; died at City Point, 

July 18, 1S64. 
Warren, John, Vet. Ees. Corps ; must. April 7, 1863. 
Wiley, James, Vet. Res. Corps ; must. March 22, 1865. 
Wilson, Edward, Co. F, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 7, 1865 ; disch. May 18, 1865. 
Webber, Leonard, Corp., Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Jan. 1,1864; pro. to sergt.; disch. 

Esau, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; 

Watorhouse, Eli S,, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; 
• 20, 1865. 

, 1864; appointed 1 
Sept. 2, 1862 ; pt 

ir ; disch. with 
I Corp. ; disch. 

Wood, Earnest, Co. H, 2d Cav.; must. Oct. 10, 1864; disch. Oct. 9, 1865. 
Warren, Francis G., assist, surg., 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to surgeon. 
Wallace, Charles H., Corp., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to sergt. ; 

■wounded June 27, 1862 ; "dropped." 
Walker, Otis. 
Webber, Albert, Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; died from wounds, June 

27, 1862. 
Willey, Jacob 0,, Co. B, 5tli Inf. ; must. June 24, 1801 ; pro. to Corp.; missing 

May 10, 1864. 
Whitten, Seth P., Co. B, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861. 
Wamn, Jjhn, Cj, C, ith Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 11, 1863. 


Warren, Jerre, Co. D, 5th Inf.; must. June 24,1861 ; disch. with company. 

Welch, Morris, Co. D, 6th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. with company. 

Willis, John, Co. D, 6th Inf.; must. June 24, 1801 ; pro. to Corp.; wounded May 
10, 1804 ; disch. with company. 

Wild, John, Co. G, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 19, 1862 ; disch. June 11, 1805. 

Welch, James, Co. D, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; wounded at Cedar Moun- 
tain; disch. with company. 

Wnterhouse, Gai-dner P., Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 13, 1861; re-enl. 1864; 

Walch, Robert, Co. K, 13th luf. ; must. Feb. 11, 1862; trans, to 1st Maine Art. 

York, Ezekiel, band, 5th Inf. ; must. Juno 24, 1861 ; disch. August, 1862. 

York, Rishworth J., Co. B, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861; died from wounds. 
May 31, 1863. 

York, John A., Co. K, 13tU Inf.; must. Fob. 11, 1802; trans. 1804. 

York, Charles E,, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Young, Joseph, Co. C, 30th Inf.; must. Dec. 19, 1863; missing Feb. 4, 1805. 

York, .lohn E., musician, Co. L, 2d Cav.; must. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Abbott, William W., U. S. Navy. 
Armour, Samuel, 15th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Additon, Eleazer, New Hampshire. 
Bowlen, Edward, Massachusetts. 
Bean, John H., New Hampshire. 
Beatty, James, Massachusetts. 
Benson, James 0., U. S. Sappers' and Miners' Corps. 
Brady, Michael, U. S. Navy. 
Brady, Thomas, U. S. Navy. 
Berry, Lewis L., U. S. Navy. 
Boiney, Andrew, U. S. Navy. 
Boothby, Siimuel, U. S. Army. 
Byrne, James, U. S. Navy. 
Blake, Eben W., D. S. Navy. 
Conley, John, 22d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Casey, James, U. S. Navy. 
Cobb, George, U. S. Sappers' and Miners' Corps. 
Cole, James, U. S. Navy. 
Cook, William, U. S. Navy. 
Chase, George H., Massachusetts. 
Chase, Henry G., 29th Massachusetts Infantry. 
County, J., 3d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Crowell, Theodore, 6th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Craigan, James, U. S. Navy. 
Dunn, William, U. S. Army. 
Dunn, James, U. S. Navy. 
Dunn, Peter, 7th Massachusetts Infeutry. 
Dunn, James, Jr., U. S. Navy. 
Deering, Stanley A., U. S. Army. 
Dudley, Benjamin F., V. S. Navy. 
Day, Jeremiah E,, U. S. Navy. 
Dow, Joseph W., V. S. Army. 
Emmons, Elijah, U. S. Navy. 
Eaton, Eugene M., 22d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Ellis, Peter F., 40th New York Infantry. 
Foye, Thomas, U. S. Navy. 
Frost, Jacob, 13th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Falvey, James, Ne\v York Volunteers. 
Gordon, John, U. S. Navy. 

Goodwin, Charles N., 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Holt, Samuel P., New Hampshire Infantry (16th or 17th). 
Hill, Charles, U. S. Navy. 

Harriman, Alvan, loth New Hampshire lufantry. 
Hanson, Orland, 2d New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Hammond, Albert F., U. S. Navy. 
Hanson, Thomas, New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Hooker, John F., Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Hazleton, Charles, D. S. Navy. 
Hunt, John, U. S. Navy. 

Hooker, Edward H. C, paymaster, U. S. Army. 
Jenniugs, Felix, 6th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Johnson, John, D. S. Navy. 
Kelly, Henry, 22d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Killday, J. P., 15th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Knowlton, William H. H., U. S. Navy. 
Kenny, John, U. S. Navy. 
Libby, Frank H., U. S. Navy. 
Lowell, John B., U. S. Navy. 
Laffam, Daniel, U. S. Army. 
Mayall, Daniel, U. S. Navy. 
Muruane, Thomas, U. S. Navy. 
Moore, Perry E., 15th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Morgan, Edgar, 6th Massachusetts Battery. 
Morau, James, U. S. Navy. 
Marcel, Peter, 14th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Miles, William, 2d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Mulligan, James, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. 
Mosse, Elisha D., U. S. Navy. 



Mulvery, Frauk, U. S. Navy. 

Moore, Andrew, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Moore, Augustus H., Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Munroe, Ephraim, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Means, Lawrence, 22d Massachusetts Infantry. 

McDonald, John, U. S. Navy. 

Mclntire, Edward, U. S. Navy. 

Nitcher, William W., New York Volunteers. 

Norton, John, U. S. Navy. 

Newcomb, Harding, New York Volunteers 

Nowell, Albert, U. S. Navy. 

O'Connor. Patrick, U. S. Navy. 

Oats, Barney, U. S. Navy. 

Obum, James, yth Massachusetts Infantry. 

Rennick, James, 9tb Massachusetts Infantry. 

Kadigal, Barney, New York Volunteers. 

Rand, James, 22d Massachusetts Infantry. 

Roberts, Charles, 2d New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Rand, Thomas, U. S. Sappers' and Miners' Corps. 

Rowell, Reuben, 22d Massachusetts Infantry. 

Stacy, Ezekiel H., 17th Massachusetts Infantry. 

Stackpole, James D., IJ. S. Navy. 

Sbar, James, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Sullivan, John, 0th Massachusetts Infantry. 

Sullivan, John, D. S. Navy. 

Sally, Robert, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Sutherland, Walter P., U. S. Sappei-s' and Miners' Corps. 

Sullivan, Dennis, U. S. Navy. 

Sullivan, Daniel, D. S. Navy. 

Townsend, James S., 15th New Hampshire Infantry. 

Vaughan, John, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Wood, Earnest, 9th Massachusetts Infantry. 

Ward, George N., D. S. Sappere' and Miners' Corps. 

Wells, Esau, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Winship, Enoch, U. S. Navy. 

York, Horace, Massachusetts Volunteers. 


Anderson, Frank E., Co. H, 12th Inf.; must. Nov. !.■;, 1801; missing Oct. 10, 

Atkinson, Charles H., Co. C, 30th Vet. Inf. ; must. Dec. 19, 1863; disch. 1864. 

Akers, Frank W., Co. F., 30th Inf.; must. Feb. 13, 1865. 

Abbott, Abijah W., Co. E, 18th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. with company. 

May 8, 1863. 
Bean, Charles M., sergt., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. Jan. 1, 

Brooks, Charles A., 2d lieut., Co. K, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 21, 1861 ; pro. to 1st 

lieut. and to capt., Co. A. 
Bradbury, Lewis H., Corp., Co. H, 12th Inf.; must. Nov. 15, 1861; disch. 1864. 
Berrj-, William B., Co. H, 12th Inf. ; must. Nov. 15, 1861 ; killed Sept. 19, 1864. 
Bangs, Willard, Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Berry, Edward M., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Beri-y, John, Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Berry, William, Co. 0, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Betts, Georgett, 1st District Columbia Cav. ; must. Feb. 24, 1864. 
Babb, Samuel B., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Jan. 7, 1804. 
Cole, James I., Co. K, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 21, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 27, 1864. 
Came, John H., 1st lieut., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1S02; died Jan. 16, 

Cressey, Horace, Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Cressey, Charles H., Co. 1, 12th Inf. ; must. May 17, 1865. 
Chadbourne, Henry A., Corp., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

company, July 17, 1863. 
Carle, William F., Corp., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 
Cahoon, Laurence, Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Dean, Charles H., Corp., Co. G, 6th Inf.; must. June 23, 1861 ; re-enl. Dec. 23, 

1864; trans, to 1st Me. Vets. 
Davis, Charles, Co. H, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 21, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Dunnell, Alvah L., Co. G, 17th Inf ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; killed May 5, 1864. 
Dunnell, Samuel, Jr., sergt., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to 2d 

lieut. ; disch. with company. 
Bennett, Alvin A., Corp., Co. C, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Dunn, William S., Corp., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Davis, Nathan W., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. Nov. 29, 1862. 
Dunn, John K., Co. C, 2"th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Duran, William, Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Dyer, Williami Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Dunnell, Samuel L., Co. C,27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Dean, Charles H., Co. B, 1st Vet. Inf. ; nmst. Dec. 23, 1863 ; died July 13, 1864. 
Eaton, Humphrey G., Co. H, 12th Inf.; must. Nov. 15, 1861 ; re-enl. 1804 ; trans- 

Emer>-, George L., corp., Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861. 
Elwell, George, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 21, 1802. 

Edgerly, George W., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. wit 

Elbow, Thomas, Co. D, 14th Inf.; must. Feb. 23, 1865. 
Fogg, Charles B., Co. G, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. IS, 1862 ; wounded May : 

1863 ; 


. Sept. 

, 1862 ; disch. with com 

Flanders, Daniel C, Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. 

Flood, Nathan K., Co. 1, 12th Inf.; must. March 17, 1865. 

Gotr, George, Co. H, 12th Inf.; must. Nov. 16, 1861 ; disch. with company. 

Gatchell, George A., Corp., Co. F, 16th Inf.; must. Aug. 14, 1862; disch. 1865. 

Gowen, George R., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862. 

Garland, John, Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Gould, James H., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Hackett, Asa, Corp., Co. K, 9th Inf ; must. Sept. 21, 1861 ; disch. with company. 

Harnden (Hermon), James H., Co. K, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 21, 1861 ; pro. to 

corp ; re-enl. Dec. 31, 1863 ; wounded May 18, 1864 ; died. 
Hill, Ivory L., Co. E, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861; wounded Aug. 9; disch. 

Sept. 17, 1862. 
Huff, William A., Co. E, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Higgins, Charles E., Co. E, 10th Inf, ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. 1862. 
Iligj-Tiis, Sumner C, Co. E, 10th Inf. ; must Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Hannah. John, 5th Bat. M. Art.; must. Dec. 4, 1861 ; disch. at Fort Preble, 1862. 
Harmon, Benjamin, Co. F, loth Inf.; must. Aug. 14,1862; disch. April 14,1863. 
Hanscomli, Eben B., Co. G, 17th Inf; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded June 18, 

1864; discharged. 
Huff, Benjamin F., Co. G, 17th Inf; must. Aug. 18, 1862; pro. to Corp. ; disch. 

with company. 
Hill, John D., capt., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; pro. to maj., Jan.30, 

Hill, Daniel, sergt., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 186 
Harmon, Leonard C, corp., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sep 

Harmon, Charles H., Co. C, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 

Harmon, Charles L., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch 

Hopkinson, James M., Co. C, 27th Inf 

Harmon, William L., Co. K, 11th Inf.; 
disch. Feb, 2, 1866. 

Kelley, William W., Co. D, 1st Bat. Inf.; must. April 6, 1865. 

Lane, Nathaniel J., Co. K, 9th Inf,; must. Sept, 21, 1861; 
1804 ; disch. with company. 

Leavitt, Frank G., Co, F, 16th Inf, ; must, Aug, 14, 1802 ; pro, to Corp. 
taken prisoner, Aug. 19, 1864. 

Locke, James F., Co. F, 16th Inf ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disch, March 20, 1804, 

Locke, William P,, Co. F, 16th Inf. ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; killed at Fredericks- 
burg, Dec. 13, 1862. 

Leavitt, Henry, corp., Co. C, 27th Inf, ; must. Sept, 30, 1862 ; pro. to sergt. ; disch . 
with company. 

Lane, George, Co, C, 27th Inf, ; must. Sept, 30, 1862; disch, with company, 

Libb.v, George H., Co. C, 27th Inf ; must. Sept, 30, 1862 ; disch, with company. 

Lane, Ivory, Co. E, 29th Vet. Inf. ; must. Nov. 13, 1863 ; missing Jan. 16, 1864. 

Larkin, Peter, Co. 1, 19th Inf. ; must. April 20, 1804 ; died in prison, Oct. 20, '64. 

Moore, Elliot, Corp., Co. B, 6lh Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; wounded at Rappa- 
hannock Station ; died 1863. 

Manson, Charles H., Co. E, loth Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. June 13, 1862. 

Morton, James H., Corp., Co. E, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. with com- 

Murphy, Samuel H., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must Oct. 31, 1861. 

Manson, John S., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded May 5, 1864 ; 
pro. to Corp. ; disch. with company. 

Milliken, William, Jr., 1st sergt., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; pro. to 
2d and Ist lieut. ; disch. with company. 

Murch, Reuben W., Corp., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. May 26, 

Mariner, James S., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept, 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 

Martin, John, Co. C, 27th Inf, ; must. Sept, 30, 1862 ; pro. to corp, ; disch. with 

. April 8, 1864 ; 

nded Ju 

unded July I 

> sergt. ; 

Merrill, Fred. A,, Co. C, 27th Inf,; mi 
Jlerrill, Samuel, Co, C, 27th Inf,; mu 
Nason, Samuel E., Co, C, 27th Inf ; n 
Nichols, Franklin, Co. C, 27th Inf, ; n 
Norton, Eben A,, Co. C, 27th Inf ; nra 

It. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
St. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
St. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Norton, Leonard, Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Nason, Samuel E., District of Columbia Cav. ; must Feb. 1, 1864. 

Owen, Mark L. H., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Owen, Melville C, Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Peterson, John, Co. E, 1st H. Art ; must. March 18, 1864. 

Pennon, Frederick, Co. 1, 19th Inf.; must. April 20; died July 10, 1864. 

Runnels, Henry B., Co. K, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 21, 1861 ; re-enl.; wounded Oct. 
27, 1804 ; died. 

Redlon, Lorenzo E,, Co. H, 12th Inf. ; re-enl. Jan. 5, 1864; transferred. 

Rogers, James, Co, F, 10th Int. ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disch. Oct. 7, 1862. 

Redlon, Isaac, Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Bounds, Joseph T., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Rounds, Melville K., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. with com- 


Silvie, Antoine, Co. E, 16th Inf.; must. Feb. IG, 1865. 
Smitb, Henry F., sergt., Co. E, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 18 

and 2d lieut. ; disch. with company. 
Smith, Major, Co. K, 12th Inf. ; must. March 21, 1865. 
Spear, Eben A., Co. K,12th Inf.; must. March 16, 1861. 
Stewart, Orville J., Co. B, 14th Inf. ; must. March 2, 1865, 
Skinner, Edward A., sergt., Co. K, 14th Inf.; pro. to Ist 

capt. ; disch. with company. 
Smith, Francis L., Co. F, 16th Inf.; must. Aug. 14, 1862; 

I liospital, Feb. 

. March 17, 1865 ; died Oct. 4, 1865. 
;. Aug. 18, 1862 ; Itilled at Gettysburg, 

Aug. 18, 1862 ; 

irp., 1864; 

Smith, James H., Co. 1, 12th Inf. ; mm 
Sawyer, Isaac D., Co. G, 17th Inf.; mil 

July 2. 
Strout, Oliver A., Co. Q, 17th Inf. ; ni 

disch. with company. 
Strout, Micajah H., Co. — , 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 27, 1802. 
Severance, Jefferson, Co. A, 16th Inf. ; must. Aug. 13 ; disch. Dec. 19, 1863. 
Scott, Peter G., Co. G, 12th Inf. ; must. May 1, 1865 ; disch. Aug. 2, 1865. 
Tyler, Henry, Co. H, 12th Inf. ; must. Nov. 15, 1865 ; disch. 1865. 
T.vler, Abrain, Co. F, 10th Inf.; must. Aug. 14, 1862; detached to Art., 1803. 
Tyler, George, Co. F, 16th Inf. . must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; died Oct. 20, 1863. 
Tyler, John A., Co. F, 16th Inf. ; musi;. Aug. 14, 1862; disch. Nov. 10, 1862. 
Thompson, Henry, Corp., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to sergt. ; 

disch. with company. 
Tarhox, George, Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Treadwell, Edwin C, Co. F, 8th Inf.; must. Feb. 11, 1865. 
Wood, Warren H., Co. A, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1801 ; disch. March 9, 1802. 
Whitten, Benjamin F., Co. C, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1801 ; wounded May 10, 

1864; disch. with company. 
Woodman, William F,, Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; missing Fob. 12, '02. 
Wateimaii, John H., Jr., Co. G, 17th Inf.; must. Ang. 18, 1802; disch. Sept. 7, 

Wiggin, John W., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Williams, Barney, Co. E, 17th Inf.; must. Sept. 5, 1863; trans, to 1st Maine H. 

Art., 1864. 

Ayer, Benjamin F., 12th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Cole, Frank J., Illinois Volunteers. 
Chick, Andrew C, U. S. Navy. 
Clark, Seth F., 0th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Emery, Joseph, Ohio Voluuteez-s. 
Emery, Samuel, 40th Illinois Infantry. 
Foss, James, 45th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Garland, Stephen R., Masiacbusetts Volunteers. 
Harmon, William, U. S. Army. 
Hanson, Zenas P., Illinois Volunteers. 
Harmon, Maj. T., 33d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Harmon, Eleazer C, 11th U. S. Infantry. 
Higgins, Mark J., 11th U. S. Infantry. 
Murch, Charles, 11th U. S. Infantry. 
Murch, William, 11th U. S. Infantry. 
Merrill, John H., Lincoln Guards. 
McCarthy, John, U. S. Navy. 
S.awyer, Samuel, 23d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Treadwell, Horace, Lincoln Guards. 

2, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 27, 1864. 
.Sept. 30,1862; disch. with l 

. Aug. 

Ayer, Simon P., Co. E, 9th Inf.; nu 
Ayer, W'illiam II. H., Co. H, 27th 1 

pany, July 17, 1863. 
Allen, Charles, Co. B, 10th Inf. ; m 

disch. Feb. 8, 1864. 
Boynton, Sylvester, Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1861. 
Brown, Joshua, Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 27, 1864. 
Bradley, John, Corp., Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1861; disch. Sept. 27, 1864. 
Burnell, Nathaniel .\ ., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 20, 1862 ; pro. to Corp. ; 

disch. with company. 
Bracket!, Charles W., col., 1st Vet. Inf. ; must. Jan. 25, 1804. 
Cotton, Hiram, 9th Inf., recruit; must. Aug. 22, 1802. 
Chick, Edwin, Co. K, 23d Inf.; must. Oct. 10, 1862; disch. with company. 
Cole, Joseph B., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; re-enl. as wagoner, Jan. 

1, 1864. 
Chadbourne, William (2d), Co. C, 5th 



iig, July : 

Clark, Alfred, Co. F, 31st Inf. ; must. April 5, 1864. 

Clark, Wheatley P., Co. F, 31st Inf. ; must. April 5, 1864. 

Cole, Ira, Jr., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Feb. 29 ; died Aug. 24, 1864. 

Day, Lorenzo, Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. Jan. 20, 1863. 

Day, Thurston P. M., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Day, Silas, Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with company. 

Day, Calvin, Co. H, 16th Inf.; must. Aug. 14, 1802; wounded July 1, 1803; 
disch. 1865. 

Day, Darius, Co. H, 16th Inf ; must. Aug. 14, 1802 ; died March 3, 1803. 

Eastman, Albion L., Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1801; disch. March 21, 

Eastman, George E., Co. E, 9th Inf ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; dropped from rolls of 

Eastman, Hoskctt, Co. E,9th Inf; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; rc-enl. Jan. 1, 1804. 
Eastman, Oilman L., Co. D, 30th Inf.; must. Jan. 19, 1864. 
Gurney, E.lward A., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Aug. 22, 1862 ; detached. 
Goodwin, Benjamin F., wagoner, Co. K, 9lh Inf.; must. Sept. 21, 1801; disch. 

Sept. 27, 1865. 
Oilman, Edward G., Co. A, Ist H. Art. ; must. Oct. 8, 1864 ; died Dec. 16, 1864. 
Ham, George A., musician, Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; disch. with 

Ham, Lewis A., Co. I, 30lh Vet. Inf. ; must. Jan. 6, 1804 ; disch. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Hooper, William F., 4lh Bat. Mounted Art.; must. Jan. 29, 1864. 
Jewell, John, 4th But. Mounted Art. ; must. Feb. 2, 1863; disch. June 5, 1805. 
Jewell, Roscoe, 4th Bat. Mounted Art.; mnst. Jan. 20, 1864. 
Johnson, Joseph T., 4th Bat. Mounted Art.; must. Jan. 20, 1862; disch. with 

Knight, Marshall R., Co. H., 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 3n, 1862 ; disch. Jan. 1, 

Knight, Frederick, Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. September 22 ; missing Oct. 19, 1861. 
Linscott, Isaac N., Co. A, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; wounded May 3, 1863. 
Linscott, David, Co. A, 5th Inf.; must. June 24,1801; re-enl. Jan. 12, 1864; 

wounded July 30. 
Linscott, Stephen, Co. A, 5th Inf; must. June 24, 1861 ; taken prisoner July 11, 

1863 ; died at Richmond, Va. 
Linscott, John, Co. A, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, ISOl ; disch. May 1, 1802. 
Marstoji, Ansel G., 1st lieut., Co. E, 9th Inf ; must. Sept. 22, 1801 ; pro. to capt. ; 

disch. Sept. 29, 1864. 
Marr, Cynis G., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; pro. to com sergt., April 

1, 1863 ; disch. with regiment. 
Miller, John, Co. C, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 12, 1864 ; disch. Aug. 28, 1865. 
Mudge, Parker, Co. H, 10th Inf. ; mnst. Aug. 14, 1802; wounded ; disch. April 

21, 1863. 
Morton, Edwin H., Co. E, 30th Inf. ; must. Dec. 29,1863. 
Newbury, George 0., Co. E, 9th Inf ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; re-enlisted ; died of 

wounds received May 20, 1864. 
Narcisse, Dubois, Co. D, 15th Inf. ; must. March 1, 1865. 
O'Brien, James, Co. C, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 12, 1864 ; missing Feb. 10, 1865. 
Pendexter, Gilnian B., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; re-enlisted ; 

wounded Sept. 29, 1864. 
Parker, Albion H., sergt., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; mnst. Sept. 22, 1861. 
Pngsley, Calvin, Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1801. 

Ramsell, Ira, Jr., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 27, 1864. 
Richardson, Darius, Co. H, 5th Inf.; must. Dec. 28, 1803; trans, to 1st Vet. 

Inf., 1864. 
Rand, John, Co. F, 31st Inf.; mnst. April 5, 1864; disch. June 12, 1865. 
Stone, Levi, Co. K,lstlnf.; must. May 3, 1801, for three months. 
Stone, Levi, Jr., sergt., Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1801; wounded June 30, 

1804; disch. 1805. 
Stone, John F., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1801 ; disch. Sept. 27, 1864. 
Snow, Henry F., capt., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. Nov. 19, 

Starr, John, Co. C, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 12, 1864 ; disch. June 5, 1865. 
SUrr, John (2d), Co. C, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 12, 1804; disch. April 28, 1865. 
Small, John C, Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. with company. 
Stover, Benjamin W., Co. E, 29th Vet. Inf.; must. Jan. 7, 1804; died Oct. 2,3, 

Small, John C, 4th Bat. Mounted Art. ; must. June 20, 1864; disch. with com- 
pany, 1865. 
Smith, William, Co. C, 1st Cav. ; must. Jan. 4, 1865 ; disch. June 5, 1865. 
Thompson, Nelson, Co. E, 9th Inf.; mnst Sept. 22, 1861 ; pro. to corp. ; died 

Nov. 20, 1863. 
Thompson, James, Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; died Jan. 7, 1863. 
Tufts, Alvin v., musician, Co. A, oth Inf.; must. June 24, 1801 ; disch. with 

Thompson, Oscar H., Co. F, 31st Inf ; mnst. April 5, 1804. 
Wedgwood, Edwin W., capt., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; resigned 

Dec. 25, 1802. 
Winship, Enoch, wagoner, Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1801 ; taken pris- 
oner at Raleigh, N. C, 1862. 
West, Silas, Corp., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company.' 
Weeks, Noah, Jr., Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. ■ 


, Brackett, Co. H, 27th : 


02 ; disch. Dec. 3, 1862. 

Ham, Oscar L., Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Hammons, Winfleld S., New York Volunteers. 
Hammons, Moses, U. S. Navy. 
Ramsell, Charles, Massachusetts Volunteers. 


Allen, John W., Co. F, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. Jan. 5, 1863. 
Buzzell, Geo., Co. K, 31st Inf.; must. May 0, 1864; disch. 1805, with company. 
Bridges, Stephen, 8th Inf., recruit; must. Sept. 13, 1862. 
Bates, Stephen T., Co. A, 31st Inf ; must. May 1, 1864 ; wounded June 17 ; died 

July 2, 1864. 
Cleaves, Horatio M., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. March 6, 1802 ; disch. March 2, 1865. 


Cleaves, Frank, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Feb. 29, 18G4; disch. Aug. 1, 1865. 
Downs, Benjamin M., Co. F, 11th Inf. ; must. Oct. 19, 1865 ; disch. Itfay 19, 1865. 
Huntress, Erastus, Co. G, 17th Inf. ; must. Sept. 2, 1863 ; died of wounds, June 

20, 1864. 
Locke, Jacob T., Co. F, 16th Inf.; must. Aug. 14, 1862; pro. to corp.; disch. 

June 12, 1863. 
Newell, Aaron, Co. K, 31st Inf ; must. May 6, 1864; discli. Aug. 15, 1865. 
Newell, Charles E., Co. 1, 1st Oav. ; must. Nov. 2, 1861. 
Newell, Charles W., Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 30, 1861 ; disch. July 5, 1862. 
Ehodes, James, Co. 1, 11th Inf. ; must. Oct. 18, 1864; substitute. 
Ehoades, Frank, Co. F, 10th luf ; must. Aug. 14, 1862; detached as wagoner; 

disch. 1865. 
Eumery, George, Co. I, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 13, 1862 ; disch. Jan. 22, 1863. 
Smith, Fairfield, 5th Inf. 

Shapleigh, George W., Slh Inf. ; must. Sept. 3, 1862. 
Smith, Charles, Co. A, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 25, 1864. 
Stevens, Philip C, Co. A, 1st Cav. ; must. Nov. 17, 1864. 
Wentworth, George F., Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 16, 1861. 
■Whitehead, John, Co. F, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company, 

July 17, 1863. 
Wood, Josiah L., Co. A, 1st Cav.; must.. Oct. 25, 1804; pro. to corp. 

Cleaves, Cyrus, Jr., Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Cleaves, Frank, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Cole, Clark, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Dyer, Charles, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Dyer, Nathan, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Dyer, 'William, Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
Hill, Daniel, Massachusetts Volunteei-s. 
Smith, George W., 2d Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Eight, Albert, U. S. Navy. 

Adlington, Thomas F., Co. G, 27th Inf.; i 

. Sept. ; 

Allen, Jedediah, Co. B, 29th Inf; must. Jan. 14, 1864. 

Berry, Moses G., musician, Co. G, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1S62; disch. with 

Berry, 'William, Co. G, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Blanchard, Jacob S., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Cole, Ai S., wagoner, Co. G, 27th Inf ; roust. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Carr, '^'illiam T., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Corcoran, John, Co. E, loth Inf; must. Feb. 28, 1865. 

Daymon, George W., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must.Sept.30, 1862;discb. with company. 

Dixon, Edmund A., capt , Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 

Dixon, Joseph H., Co. G, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. with company, 

Decoff, Charles, Co.G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company, July 

17, 1863. 
Frost, Harrison T., Co. G, 27th luf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Hanscom, John F., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Hill, John R., Co. G, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Holt, Otis, Cto. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with company. 
Hayes, Calvin L., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to sergt. ; to major ; 
disch. with regiment. 

;t. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company, 
mst. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 
it. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
St. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. vrith company, 
ran; must. April 16,1864; taken prisoner 

Mealey, John, Co. G, 27th Inf ; m 

Mason, .lohn, Co. G, 27th Inf ; mu 

Paul, Elbridge B., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; i 

Paul, Henry M., Co. G, 27th Inf ; mi 

Koberts, John, Co. G, 27th Inf ; mus 

Eoberta, Joshua, Co. G, 27th Inf ; mi 

Eemick, Henry, Co. F, 32d Inf ; veti 
Sept. 30 ; trans, to 31st Inf 

Eoss, Barton H., Co. B, 29th Inf; must. Jan. 14, 1864; pro. to Corp. and to sergt. 

Shapleigh, John, Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Shapleigh, Morris G., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 3(1, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Shapleigh, Roscoe G., Co. G, 27tli Inf ; must. Sept. 30. 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Shapleigh, William H., Co. G, 27fh Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Staples, 'William H., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Stevens, Milton U., Co. F, 32d Inf ; veteran ; must. April 16, 1864 ; trans, to 31st 
Vet. Inf 

Sullivan, Matthew, 1st Vet. Eeserve; must. March 2n, 1865. 

Tobey, Samuel A., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sji " .. l=r: ,; „ i, with company. 

Tucker, WilHam H., Co. G, 27th Inf; must. > : i ii with company. 

Tuttle, Joseph G., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. .-. 1 t I ,18,1862. 

Varney, Elijah, Co.G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. ::i. i-i J Ii- h « itli company. 

■Wells, John, Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, ISCJ ; disch. witli company. 

Watson, Willard, Co. G, lotll Inf ; must. .Tan. 14 ; missing, July 30, 1865. 

Butler, Joseph G., 6th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Davis, Enoch G., 32d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Dixon, Hiram L., D. S. Navy. 
Estes, James T., 33J Massachusetts Infantrj-. 

Fernald, Charles G., 33d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Frost, Caleb S., 6th New Hampshire Infantrj-. 
Hanscom, Ai, 37th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Hanscom, George, iBt Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Hanmiond, 'William, New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Harrington, Michael, U. S. Army. 
Jordan, Francis, U. S. Army. 
Leslie, George T., 17th United States Infantry. 
Libby, Alfred H., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Murphy, Hiram P., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Paul, Moses N., 9th Sew Hampshire Infantry. 
Rogers, John S., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Spinney, Horace, 16th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Spinney, James A., 17th New H,ampshire Infantry. 
Spinney, Nathaniel, 17th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Spinney, Azariab, U. S. Navy. 
Spinney, Lyman, U. S. Navy. 

Simpson, Henry H., 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Tobey, 'WiUiam, 45th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Welch, James, 7th New Hampshire Infantry. 
\\Tiidden, -indrew, New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Akers, John M., 4th Bat. M. Art.; must. Feb. 21, 1865. 
Akers, Joseph W., 4th Bat. M. Art ; must. Feb. 21, 1865. 
Armbruster, Hubert, Co. E, 2d Cav.; must. Oct. 12, 186 

Atkinson, Samuel D., sergt., Co. — , 12th Inf; nmst. Nov 

16, 1864. 
Buckley, John, Co. K, 15th Inf ; must. March 16, 1865. 
Brown, Ephraim, 2d M. Art. ; must. Oct. 11, 1864. 
Bradbury, James, Co. F, 30th Int ; must. Dec. 29, 1863 ; taken 

1864; exchanged; discharged. 
Burnham, Freeman, Co. C, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; died June 26, 1863. 
Bradeen, Gardner B., Co. G, 6th Inf ; must. July 15, 1861 ; disch. Feb. 5, 1863. 
Brown, John, Co. G, 12th Inf; must. July 15, 1861 ; died Nov. 12, 1863. 
Burnham, Eobert, Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; died at Alexandria, 

Va., August, 1862. 
Burnham, George R., Co. F, 16th Inf ; must. Aug. 14, 1862; wounded at Get- 
tysburg, July 1; disch. May 13, 1865. 
Bail, William, Co.C, 27tli Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Boody, Sylvester 0., Co. C, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30,1862 ; disch. with company. 
Brown, Philip A., Co. C, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Brooks, Francis, Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Dec. 31,1863; disch. June 10, 1865. 
Cole, Samuel W., Co. G, 12th Inf ; must. July 15, 1861 ; disch. with company, 

Clough, Le%i L., wagoner, Co. C, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

company, July 17, 1863. 
Cherry, James, Co. A, 14th Inf ; must. Feb. 24 ; drowned May 13, 1865. 
Dearborn, Paul C, Co. C, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Dow, Simon B., Co. C, 27th Int ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to corp. ; disch. with 

U. S. Col . 

1861 ; disch. Nov. 

Dyer, William A., Co. C, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with company. 

Dyer, Charles H., Co. F, 30th Inf : must. Dec 29, 1863 ; veteran. 

Elbridge, Philander, Co. C, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; discharged with 

Fass, Enos L,, musician, Co. C, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Foster, John B., Co. C, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Ferguson, John A., Co. C, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30. 1862; died May 5, 1863. 

Guilford, Woodman P., Co. H, 12th Inf; must. Nov. 16, 1S61. 

Guilford, George, Co. H, 14th Inf; must. Jan. 27, 1862; died Sept. 23, 1863. 

Graffam, Joseph, Co. C, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Guilford, Charles, Co. C, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Guilford, Ira, Co. K, 15th Inf ; must. March 15 ; died Sept. 25, 1865. 

Gammon, La Fayette, Co. K, 15tb Inf; must. March 24, 1865. 

Guilford, Charles, Co. G, 9th luf ; must. Sept.'29, 1864 ; substitute. 

Gushee, Frederick A., Co. G, 9th Inf; must. Sept. 29, 1864; substitute. 

Hodsdon, Moses M., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; 
July 18, 1863. 

Hackett, Asa., 1st luf; must.; mil 
9th Inf. 

lUst. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disch. Sept. 21, 1863. 
. Jan. 9, 1864; pro. to sergt.; disch. with 

Oct. 31, 1861 ; wounded July 16 ; died 
re-mustered, Dec. 12, 1863, in Co. E, 

Hodgdon,Abraln B.,Co. F, 16th Inf 
Haley, John C, Co. A, 30th Inf ; m 

Hodgdon, Giles W., Co. r,9th Inf; must. Sept. 27, 1864; substitute. 
Johnson, John, Jr., Co. C, 27th Inf: must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. witl 
Kennison, William G., Co. A, Sth Inf ; must. Sept. 21, 1864; disch. Ju 
Kimball, Caleb, sergt., Co. H, 12th Inf ; must. Nov. 15, 1861 ; pro. to 

Sept. 6, 1863; wounded at 

Kimball, Hiram, Co. 1, 1st Cav.; i 
Kinrich, Eben S., Co. C, 27th Inf ; 
Kimball, Lewis, Co. C, 27th Inf. ; i 


t lieut. 

■, Sept. 19, 1864; disch. with com- 

. Oct. 31, 1861 ; died Jan. 8, 1862. 

St. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Knights, John H., Co. C, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Kelley, Thomas (2d), 2d Bat. M. Art, ; must. Oct. 10, 1864 ; disch. 1805. 
Libby, Stephen, Co. A, 8th Inf ; must. Sept. 21, 1864; disch. June 12, 1865. 


Munson, George W., Corp., Co. A, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861. 

Munson, Charles H., 10th luf. 

Merrill, Meroil S., 12th Inf. 

Manson, Charles H., sergt., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. ;!0, 1SG2; ilisih. witli 

Mansfield, William, Co. A,Sth Inf.;nuist. Sept. 21, 1804; nnssing at Fair Oaka. 

Nason, Nathan P.,sergt , Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1SC2 ; llisch. with com- 

Nason, Freeman, Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; discli. with company. 

Perkins, Francis A., Co. F, 14th Inf.; must. Feh. 27, 1865; pro. to corp. 

Palmer, James W., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Palmer, Nathan, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; missing Jnly 24, 1862. 

Pliillips, Sewall, Co. A, 10 Inf. ; must. Aug. 4, 1861 ; killed at Cedar Mountain, 
Va., Aug. 8, 1862. 

Pike, Benjamin F., Co. F, 16th Cav.; must. Aug. 14, 1862; trans, to Invalid 
Corps, 1863. 

Palmer, James W., Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

liennell, Horace, Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Ridlon, Gideon W. T., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. m, 1862 ; discli. with com- 

Eoss, Alhert, Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. witli loriipaiiy. 

Eeed, Thomas L., Co. F, 30th Inf. ; must. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Ryan, Richard, Co. C, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 26, 1864 ; substitntc. 

Bunnells, Henry B., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Jan. 1, 1864 ; wounded Oct. 27, 1864. 

Sargent, William 0., sergt., Co. A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 10, 1861. 

Smith, Melville B., Co. F, loth Inf ; must. Aug. 14,1862; wounded Aug. 18, 
1864; disch. Feb. 27, 1865. 

Smith, Milbury S., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862 ; disch. with company. 

Smitli, Rufus A., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Fell. 29, 1864 ; wounded Oct. 27, 1864. 

Strout, Miles W., Co. E, 3d Inf.; must. Sept. 29, 1863 ; trans, fo 17lh Inf., 1804. 

Sargent, William C, veteran, Co. F, 30th Inf. ; must. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Sullivan, Charles, Co. E, lUh Inf.; must. Oct. 12, 1864. 

Smith, Arthur W., Co. E, 29th Inf.; must. Fob. 27 ; disch. May 14, 1805. 

Sweeney, Owen, Co. I, 3d Inf.; must. Oct. 2, 1803; conscript. 

Smith, William L., Co. K, 7th Inf. ; must. Aug. 21, 1801 ; re-eul. in U. S. Regu- 
lars, Jan. 27, 1863. 

Tarbox, Chandler H., Co. F,12th Inf.; must Nov. 1.5, 1861; died at NewOrleans, 
Julys, 1862. 

Tarbox, Frank L., Co. F, 16th Inf. ; must. Aug. 14, 1802 ; pro. to corp. and sergt. ; 
disch. with company, 1864. 

Tarbox, John H., Co. K, 30th Inf.; must. Jan. 9, 1804; trans, to Co. E; disch. 
June 10,1865. 

Tarbox, James B., Co. A, 32d Inf. ; must. March 3, 1864 ; trans, to 3l8t Maine 
Veterans, December, 1804. 

Wing, Gorham A., District of Columbia Cav. ; must. Feb. 19, 1864. 

Wormwood, Chas. P., 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; detached to gunboat, 1862. 

Warren, Joseph F., 2d lieut., Co. C, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; pro. to 1st 
lieut. and capt. ; disch. July 17, 1863. 

Wormwood, Charles P., substitute, Co. C, 9th Inf.; must. Oct. 1, 1804. 

Wheelan, Patrick, Co. K, 15th Inf. ; mu3t. March 23, 1805. 


ling, Aug. 4, 

Bean, Burnice R., 5th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Bean, Edward, 2d New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Foss, John, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Hutchinson, Cyrus W., 6th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Kimball, Josiah P., Rhode Island Volunteers. 
Manson, Charles H., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Manson, James H., 4th Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Penuell, Arthur, 35th Massachusetts Infantry. 

Bernhold, Harvey M., Co. K, 11th Inf.; must. Dec. 17, 1864; 

Brown, James, Co. K, 11th Inf.; must. Dec. 17, 1664; missing, 1805. 
Bennett, Charles, Co. K, 8lh Inf. ; must. Aug. 11, 1862 ; disch. June 12, 1865. 
Boston, Calvin, Co. K, 8th Inf. ; must. Ang. 15, 1862 ; disch. June 12, 1865. 
Brown, Charles, Co. K, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 15, 1862 ; disch. April 27, 1865. 
Brown, Joseph T., Co. K, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Bryant, Seth E., capt., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; res. Nov. 24, 1862. 
Bumham, Chas. L., Co. I, 2Tth Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Butland, Nathaniel, Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Buttiick, Benj., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with Company. 
Cole, Samuel, sergt., Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Clark, William, Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; re-enlisted ; pro. to corp ; 

died Oct. 20, 1864. 
Collins, William H., Co. F, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 15, 1862 ; missing after battle, 

Oct. 27, 1804; disch. June 11, 1865. 
Cousens, Oliver M., Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 180 1 ; discli. June 24, 1 882. 
Clark, Eleazer, Co. — , Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 15, 1802 ; pro. to corp. of regiment 

of pioneers, 1804. 
Cole, John G., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802 , disch. with company. 
Cousens, Win. B., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with company. 
Clark, Eleazer, Co. C, Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 15, 1862. 
Dutch, George S., Co. F, Sth Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861; re-enl. Aug. 29, 1864 ; 

wounded June 3, 1S64; disch. June 1, ISO."). 

;. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. wilh company. 
. Dec. 17, 1804 ; disch. June 12, 1865. 
St. Aug. 21, 1801 ; trans, to Co. G ; disci 


Drown, Orlando, Co. I, 27th Inf. ; 

Dolan, Thomas, Co. K, 11th Inf.; ; 

Emerson, George, Co. F, 7th Inf. ; must. Aug. 21, 1801 ; tra) 
March S, 1802. 

Emerson, George W., Co. F, 7th Inf. ; must. Aug. 21, 1881. 

Emons, George, Co. F, 7th Inf. , must. Sept. 30, 1861 ; disch. 

Emerson, Washington, Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; 
N. C, Dec. 27, 1863. 

Emery, Lorenzo S., Co. C, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; missing Sept. 7, 1862. 

Emery, Isaac M., 1st sergt., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1802; detached to 
band ; disch. 1S0:1. 

Emerson, Geo. W, i. I 'Tih [ui , hiii^t. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Emory, John F.. ( 1,1; i Sept. 26, 1864; disch. June 11, 1865. 

Emory, John II , I I'll ,1 Oct. 10, 1864; disch. Oct. 10, 1865. 

Grant, Nicholas, ^^;.^ n, i, i . I, jTili Inf., must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Garland, Cliarles E., Co. I, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Garland, Albra, Co. I, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862'; disch. with company. 

Gooch, Charles W., Co. I, 27tli Inf. : must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Goocli, Jolin B., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. with company. 

Gomh, William II , Co. I, 27tli Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with company. 

Goodiviii, Tiistiani, band, 1st Cav. ; must. Nov. 2, 1801 ; disch. Aug. 26, 1862. 

Goff, Cyrus B., Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Ang. 15, 1862 ; missing in battle, Oct. 27, 
1864; disch. June 30, 1865. 

Giant, Charles F., Co. F, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 15, 1802; disch. June .5, 1865. 

Green, Lewis A , Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 15, 1861 ; missing June 1, 1862. 

Griffin, Alvin E., Co. -, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 15, 1802. 

Hubbard, Benjiimin, Co. C, Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 15, 1862 ; trans, to regimental 
pioneers, 1864. 

Hill, Charles H., Corp., Co. I, 81h Inf. ; must. Aug. 26, 1862; disch. June 11,1805. 

Harris, Daniel F., Co. B, 14th Inf.; must. March 2, 1805. 

Hawkes, Benjamin F., Co. B, 14th Inf.; must. Aug. 25, 1862. 

Hatch, George W., Co. A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1861; disch. with company. 

Hanscom, .lohn W., Co. K, 14th Inf. ; must. Dec. 17, 1861 ; disch. June 25, 1862. 

Hill, Jos. C, 2d lieut., Co. A, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 19, 1861 ; resigned Oct. 24, 1862. 

Hubbard, Benjamin, Co — , Sth luf.; must. Aug. 15, 1802. 

Haley, James C, Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Hanscom, Chas. H., Co. I, '27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Hill, Samuel L., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. with company. - 

Hubbard, Chas. .S., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Junkins, Albert, Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1801 ; missing at Drury's Bluff, 
May 16, 1864 ; disch. June 11, 1865. 

Junkins, Horace, Corp., Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 15, 1862; wounded at Dru- 
ry's Bluff, May 16, 1864; died at Andersonville, Ga., prison. 

Junkins, William, Co. F, Sth Inf.; must. Ang. 15, 1862; wounded at Dniry's 
Bluff, May 16, 1801. 

Junkins, Robert P., band, 1st Cav. ; must. Nov. 2, 1861 ; disch. Aug. 26, 1862. 

Jackson, Anthony, Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. with company. 

Jose, Thomas L., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept.-30, 1802: disch. wilh company. 

Knight, David B., Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1801, and March 29, 1864 ; died 
April 18, 1865. 

Kimball, Alphens T., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; 

Kimball, Charles, Co. I, 27th Inf.; m 

littlefleld, Naum, Co. A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. April 24, 1863. 

Littlefield, Joseph, Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 16, 1861; pro. to Corp., 1863; 
trans, to Co. F, 29th Inf. 

Littlefleld, Orin R., Co. — , Sth Inf.; mu st. Aug. 10, 1802. 

Lowell, Marshall, Co. — , Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 13, 1862. 

Littlefleld, Henry L., sergt., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. 2d lieut. ; 
disch. with ompany. 

Larrabee, Edward N., Corp., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; declined serv- 
ing as Corp. ; disch. with company. 

Littlefleld, Daniel M., Co. D, Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 16, 1862 ; died at Beaufort, 
N. C, March 21, 1864. 

Moody, John, Co. A, 10th Inf.; must. Oct. 4, 1861; died at Relay House, Md., 
Jan. 3, 1862. 

Maxwell, Lyman, Co. — , Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Manson, John S., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

McCulloch, Adam, Jr., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Merrill, Jonas F., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with company. 

Moody, James E., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Murray, John (1st), Co. K, 11th Inf.; must. Dec. 7, 1864. 

Murray, John (2d), Co. K, 11th Inf.; mnst. Dec. 7, 1864. 

Nason, Charles, Co. — , Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 16, 1862. 

Nason, Charles H., Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 15, 1802. 

Oakes, Benj. F., (3o. B, 1st Inf.; must. May 3, 1861, for three months; disch. 

Oakes, Benjamin F., Corp., Co. E, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; pro. to sergt. ; 
disch. on account of wounds, Dec. 23, 1862. 

O.ikes, George W., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. wilh company. 

O'Brien, Owen, Co. G, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 25, 1S62; disch. Jan. 18, 1863. 

Plummer, Adjutant A., Co. F, Sth Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; re-enl. 1864. 

Perkins, OUs, Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Robinson. Emery S., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Robinson, Geo. E., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Robinson, Horace V., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to corp. ; disch. 
with company. 


Robinson, Orrin W.,Co. I, 27th Inf. 
Bemick, Benjamin, Co. H, 8th Inf. 
Hideout, AlTah J., Co. —,8th Inf.; n 
Sargent, Han-lson, Co. C, 5th Inf. ; mi 
Stone, Jawes M., niaj., 27th Inf.; m 

30, 1803; disch. with regiment 
Simpson, Henry D., Co. — , 8rh Inf. ; 
Smith, Emerson, Co. A, lotli Inf. ; mi 
Stevens, Frederick, Co. A, loth Inf.; 
Stevens, Tranklin, Co. K, 14th Inf. ; 

Me., in 1862. 
Stevens, Owen B., unassigined Inf.; n 

with comiiany. May 29, 1865. 
Smitli, .loseph K., Co. A, 14th Inf. ; n 
Treadwell, Jolin W., Co. C, 8th Inf. ; 
Taylor, Horace, Co. K, 14th Inf. ; mu 
Treadwell, John W., Co. — , 8th Inf.; 
Taylor, George, Co. I, 27th Inf.; mus 
Taylor, Horace, Co. I, 27th Inf ; mns 
Tripp, Charles D., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; 

with company. 
Vaughan, Edward D., Co. F, 8th Inf. 

Oct. 27,1864; died at Anderson 
Veazie, James, Co. K, 8th Inf. ; must 

July 29, 1SG4. 
Webster, Jesse H., Co. F, 8th Inf: mil 

must. Sept. 30, 1862 : disch. with company, 
must. Feb. 11, 1862; re-enl. Feb. 29, 1864. 
nust. Aug. 15, 1862. 

ust September 19 ; missing June 30, 1862. 
ust. Sept. 19, 1862 ; pro. to lieut.-col., Jan. 
, July 17, 1863. 
must. Aug. 18, 1862. 
uat. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. April 24, 1863. 
must. Oct. 4, 1861; disch. Feb. 4, 1863. 
must. Dec. 21, 1861; missing at Augusta, 

nust. with company, April 25, 1865; disch. 

mist. March 3, 1865. 

must. Aug. 15, 1862; disch. June 11, 18G5. 
ist. Dec. 21, 1801. 
must. Aug. 16, 1862. 
t. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
t. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company, 
must. Sept. 30, 1862; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

; must. Aug. 15, 1862; missing in battle, 

ville prison. 

. Aug. 15, 1862; died at Portsmouth, Va., 

1st. Aug. 11, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Ees. Corps, 

Webster, Charles J., Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 11, 1802; died at Hilton Head, 

Jnne 10, 1863. 
Wentworth, George A., Co.—, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 15, 1802. 
Wakefield, Geo. W., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Wills, II(,itlej L., Co. I, 27lh Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
WilU, iMavius E., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1803 ; disch. with company. 
Worth, Charles S., sergt., Co. I, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 26, 1862; disch. June 

iernard, Co. K, Ist H. Art. ; mus 
uuded 1865 ; disch. with compai 

. Sept. S, 1SC3 ; 

. froa 


Batland, Edward D., 2d Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Bryant, Orville D., 38th Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Brown, Charles, U. S. Navy. 
Brown, Joseph, U. S. Navy. 
Brown, Samuel, U. S. Navy. 
Emerson, Amos C, 1st Slassacliusetts Artillery. 
11, If, ',, I; '1 t', ,: I \lv>sachU36tts Volunteers. 
Ilil: I I Mi-vachusetts Volunteers. 

II <i ,! I iU Ma3.«achusetts Infantry. 

Kinii,i;i,< i;l,., rh .^lassacliusetts Volunteers. 
Kimball, Isi :if 1, Cth New Hampshire Infantry. 
Kimball, Edward W., 11th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Knight, Joseph G., 31st Massachusetts Infantry. 
Kimliall Frai.l;, 1', S Navy. 
I.iiii. >■, ' I I ■, I •' <, II., U.S. Navy. 
I,ii;' ,■ I'i , U.S. Navy. 

31 1 1, 1;, ; . I 111 ■ 1,1 H,i-s;tchusett9 Voluntcc^-s. 
(iiiki-s, (iiiirgi.. ii., Massachusetts Infantry. 
Ross, William, 42d New York Infantry. 
Sti^veiis, Jesse, 2d Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Thompson, Benjamin F., Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Taylor, John, 2d Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Thompson, Charles, U. S. Navy. 
Wormwood, Jeremiah P., U. S. Navy. 
Wakefield, Gilbert, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. 

Adams, Jesse W., Co. B, 5th Inf; must. June 21, 1861; disch. with 

July 27, 1864. 

Adams, Oliver B., 1st Bat. M. Art.; must. Nov. 7, 1S64 ; disch. 1865. 
Babb, Leonard P., Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 26, 1862. 
Bennett, Charles, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 11, 1862. 
Bryant, Frederick S., 2d lieut., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; pro. to 

1st licut,, March 1, 1863; disch. with company, July 17,1863. 
Benson, James A., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Baker, Albert, Co. K, 27th luf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
BensOn, George A., Co. A, Slst Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; disch., 1865, with 

Benson, George H., Co. A, 32d Maine; transferred ; must. March 3, 1864. 
Connors, John, Co. C, 11th Inf.; must. Nov. 26, 1864; substitute; disch. Nov. 25, 


Curtis, Benja 

I F., Co. F, 31st Inf. ; must. April 5, 1864 ; prisoner ; exchanged ; 
1st Maim- Ee-t., June, 1865. 
! -I IM, I I Mil. A, 29th Veterans; missing Oct. 27, 1861. 
I I Nov. 13, 1862. 

i 111 , must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

K, 7ih l;,l , must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Day, George, Co. D, 11th Inf.; must. Aug. 28, 1802; pro. to sergt. and to 1st 

sergt. ; disch. June 20, 1865. 
Dyer, Robert, Co. H, 11th Inf.; must. Nov. 11, 1864; substitute. 
Elliott, Samuel B., Co. K, 1st Cav.; must. Feb. 16, 1864; trans, from District 

Columbia Cav. 
Edwards, Charles M., 1st Vet. Res. Corps; must. April 14, 1865. 
Elliott, Samuel B., Co. H, 1st District Columbia Cav. ; must. Feb. 27, 1864. 
Edward, Louis E., Co. A, 11th Inf. ; must. Nov. 26, 1864 ; disch. Nov. 25, 1865. 
Gordon, Andrew B., Co. K, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 31, 1861; re-enlisted Feb. 29, 

1864; transferred. 
Gooch, Hiram T., Co. I, 27th luf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Grant, Seth, Jr., sergt., Co. K, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 
Goodwin, Henry J., sergt., Co. K, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; pro. to 1st lieut. 

Jan. 28, 1863 ; disch. with company. 
Gustin, Benjamin F., Co. A, 32d Inf. ; must. March 3, 1864; disch. Aug. 26,1864. 
Gratfam, Andrew J., Co. C, llth Inf.; must. Nov. 15, 1864; substitute. 
Hill, Charles H., 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 26, 1862. 
Hutchinson, Charles L., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to corp.; 

di^cli. with company. 
Hill, Barnabas P., Co. I, 27th Inf; m.iist. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Hutchins, Frank A., 1st lieut., Co. K,27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to 

.-:ipt., .Ian. 2S, 1863; disch. with company, July 17, 1863. 
Ilao-i III, I hi- ■ K, jTth Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. -with company. 
IIui I I 1,1 K. L^Tth luf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Hill II ] I , I , I I K, 27th Inf.; must. Sept 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
lIutLhiu-., i_.i ii„ , I 1.1. K, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Hutchins, llctavius, Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Hill, King S., Co. H, 3lBt Inf ; must. April 21, 1864 ; disch. 1865. 
Johnson, Cliarles, Co. C, llth Inf. ; must. Nov. 25, 18M; substitute. 
Jeffrey, Henry, Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Jennison, Maverick M,, corp., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; pro. to 

sergt.; disch. with company. 
Jordan, Joseph, Co. B, 5th Inf. : must. June 24, 1801 ; missing Sept. 24, 1861. 
Jeffrey, Jesse, Co. B, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861; wounded May 10,1864; 

ilisch. with company. 
Kelley, Jeremiah, Co. B, Sth Inf. ; must. June 24, 1S61 ; trans, to Invalid Corps, 

Knights, Abel A., 10th Inf. 

King, Thomas J., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1S62 ; disch. with company. 
King, Charles, Co. C, llth Inf. ; mnst.Oct. 13, 1861 ; substitute; disch. Oct. 12, 

Lydstone, Moses D., Co. A, llth Inf.; must. Oct. 28, 1864; disch. Oct. 27, 1865. 
Littlefield, Charles H., Co. K, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 
Lunt, John W., Co. K, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Lord, William H., Co. H, llth Inf. ; must. Nov. 28, 1864 ; substitute. 
Lord, Wesley, Co. K, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 13, 1861 ; pro. to sergt. ; disch. with 

Littlefield, Orin E., Co. — , 8th Inf.; mimt. Aug. 16, 1862. 
Lord, George W., Co. — , 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 16, 1862. 
Littlefield, Daniel J., Co. I, 20th Inf. ; must. Aug. 29, 1862. 
Littlefield, Moses, Co. I, 20th Inf. ; must. Aug. 29, 1862 ; died a 

Libby, Aaron R., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with c 
Monroe, David, Co. H, llth Inf.; must. Oct. 18, 1864; disch. 1865. 
MacDougald, Robert B. M., Co. — , 9th Inf. ; must. Nov. 13, 1862. 
Mclntire, Henry, Co. K, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Mitchell, Chas. H., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Mullen, John, Co. B, llth Inf.; must. Oct. 11, 1864; substitute. 
McGrath, Jeremiah, Co. E, Sth Inf. ; must. Dec. 7, 1804 ; substitute; disch. Dec. 

I, Oct. 

, 1862. 

13, 1864. 
Nason, Frank, Co. — , Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 26, 
Newell, Leander R., Co. H, llth Inf. ; must. Nov. 26, 1S64 ; sulistitute. 
O'Brien, Owen, Co. — , Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 25, 1862. 
O'Brien, William, Co. H, llth Inf.; must. Nov. 15, 1S64 ; substitute. 
Perry, Phaioah, Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Perry, William, Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 
tiiiinney, James, Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 
Stearns, William G., 3d Bat. M, Art.; must. Oct. 28, 1864; conscript. 

V. 21, 1864; disch. May 23, 1865. 
Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Sept. 30, 1862; disch. 

Smith, George, Co. H, 17th Inf.; r 

Smith, Woodbury, Co. D, 27th Inf 

Small, Arthur L., Co. K, 27th luf. 

Smith, James B., Co. K, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 

Small, Joseph L., Jr., Oo. G, 31st Inf. ; must. April 16, 1864 ; taken prisonei 

Sept. 30, 1804 ; disch. Jiiue 5, 1865. 
Taylor, Charles A., Co. H,'lst Cav. 

Tindall, Charles, Co. H, 5th Inf; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Tarbox, Charles, Co. — , Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 26, 1802. 

Thurston, Milton, Co. D,27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Taylor, Daniel D., Co. K, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1S61 ; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

with company. 
Upson, Isaiah, Co. K, 32d Inf.; must. May 6, 1864; trans, to 31st Inf. 
Wildes, Benjamin B., Co. — , 3d Inf. 



Worth, Charlea S., Co. — , 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 2G, 1862. 
Walker, Joseph, Co. I, 20th Inf.; must. Aug. 29, 1862; missing Jan. 25,1804. 
Wakefield, George, Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with comijauy 
Wildes, Erastus, Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Welch, Fred. N., Co. D, 11th Inf ; must. Aug. 26, 1862 ; disch. 186.'j. 


Atkins, Edwin W., Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Buck, Benjamin F., Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Bell, Thomas W., U. S. Navy. 

Cole, James B., U. S. Navy. 

Cleaves, Lunt, 6th Massachusetts Battery. 

Deshon, Stephen M., New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Dresser, Ephraim K., Rliode Island Battery. 

Ellis, reter S., Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Ellis, Thomas, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Fail-field, Edward, New York Excelsior Brigade. 

Ilutchins, Coruelius W., Maasacbusetts Volunteers. 

Hill, Thoinaa, 26th Massachusetts Infantry. 

Ilutchins, Lewis, 1st Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Jeniiesoii, M. M., SLissachusetts Voiuuteors. 

Neal, Franklin, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Patterson, Solomon K., U. S. Navy. 

Parker, George, New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Rounds, Theodore, U. S. Navy. 

Bussell, Joseph, U. S. Navy. 

Randall, James, U. S. Navy. 

Thompson, Charles, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Willard, Benjamin, 26th Massachusetts Infantiy. 


orp. and sergt.; 

-, Gettys 

Achorn, Casper, Co. K, 17th Ii 
disch. with company. 

Ayers, Henry T., Co. K, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. Feh. 23, 1803. 

Adams, John F., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with compaii 
July 17, 1863. 

Allen, Charles H,, Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 4862 ; disch. with coiupaii 
July 17, 1863. 

Bean, Elhridge, Co. A, 3lBt luf. ; must. March 3, 1864. 

Bickford, John N., Co. A, 3lBt Inf.; must. March 3, 1864. 

Biitland, Augustus P., sergt., Co. K, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; 
at Gettysburg ; died Sept. 5, 1863. 

Bunker, Daniel B., Co. K, 17th Inf. : must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; missing a 
burg, July 2, 1863. 

Burnham, John C, Co. K, 17th Inf; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded May 6, 
1864 ; disch. Feb. 20, 1865. 

Boiard, Robert, sergt., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 

Berry, Moses G., musician, Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 
company, July 17, 1863. 

Bowdeii, Charles A., Co. G, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 

Bracy, James F., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; e 
July 17, 1863. 

Brown, James W., Co. G, 27th Inf; 
July 17, 1863. 

Churchill, Robert J., Co. K, 17th Ii 


Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company, 

t. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with compauy, 

nust. Aug. 18, 1802; trans, to Navy, 

sergt. ; wounded 

Crosby, Harry, Co. K, 17tli Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1802; 

July 2, 1863; pro. to 1st sergt.; disch. with company. 
Chapman, William W., Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802; pro. to Corp.; 

discli. with company. 
Chase, Romanty E., Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with company. 
Chick, Sylvester, Co. G, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Clough, Charles, Co. G, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. witli company. 
Cottle, Oliver, Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Caswell, Timothy, Co. A, 31st Inf; must. March 3, 1864. 
Cole, Charles H., Co. A, 3l3t Inf; must. March 3, 1864; parole prisoner, 
Cole, Edward P., Co. A, Coast Guards H. Art. ; must. Sept. 1, 1862; disch. Sept. 




S, 1862; pro. 
lieut., Co. I 


',0. A, Coast Guards H. Art. ; must. Oct. 18, 1861. 
Eastman, Frank, unassigned Inf; must. April 25, 1865. 
Feruald, Warren, Corp., Co. 6, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. Jan. 24 

Femald, Alonzo, Corp., Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com 

Fernald, Benjamin, Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company- 
Fernald, Simon, Co. G,27tli Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with compauy. 
Foy, Isaac M., Co. G, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Frisbie, Josiah P., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Fernald, John, Co. A, 31st Inf. ; must. March 3, 1864. 
Grace, James, 29th unassigned Inf. ; must. April 25, 186.5. 
Grace, George H., 29th unassigned Inf. ; must. April 25, 1865. 

Goodwin, I Ii Ml ' ' I, 1st Inf. ; must. Aprils, 1864; pro. to Corp. 

Gram, I ■ ' l. l i Inf, ; must. April 5, 1864; disch. May 22, 1805. 

GracL-, III M ■ \, 11 Inf.; must. March 3, 1804. 

Goodwill, \,il mill. II ,1.1 K, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862. 

Grace, Andn-w J,, Jr., Co. K, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded at Get- 
tysburg; wounded May 12, 1864; disch. Jan. 2, 1865. 

Greenleaf, Edgar, sergt., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Gerry, Jotham II., corp., Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 
company. ^ 

Goodsoe, Jonathan, Co. G, 27tli Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; died April 10, 1803. 

Goodsoe, Herbert, Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. with company. 

Grace, Hiram M., Co. G, 27tli Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with coliipaliy. 

Hamilton, John, 5th Inf 

Hanulton, William A., lOtli Inf. 

Hart, Williiim P., Co. K, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1802; pro. to sergt.; disch. 

ug, 18, 1802; wounded at Gettys- 
nmst. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Hussey, Daniel H., Co. K, 17th Inf; mi 
bmg; ilied May 10, 1864. 

Hayes, John W., 1st sergt., Co. G, 27tli 

Hale, Thomas, Co. A, 3l8t Inf ; must. March 3, 1804 ; disch. with company. 

Hurst, Albert S,, Co. A, 31st Inf,; must. March 3, 1804; pro. to Corp.; disch. 
with company. 

Hurst, Joseph M., Co. A, 31st Inf; must. March 3, 1804; missing March 10, 

Hayes, Calvin S., sergt.-maj., 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 19, 1802; disch. with regt. 

Hayes, George, corp,, 27th Inf. 

Hamilton, John, Corp., 27th Inf.; disch. March 18, 1803. 

Hanscom, John F., 27th Inf. ; disch. March 18, 1803. 

Hayes, Charles E., 27th Inf; disch. March 18, 1863. 

Hurd, James C, 27th Inf. ; disch. May 2, 1863. 

Jackson, Thomas, Co. K, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18,186-'; wounded M.ay 6,1804; 
trans, to 1st H. Art. 

Jeiddn.s, Beiijiiinin F,, Co. K, 17th Inf; most. Aug. 18, 1862; missing Jan. 23, 

Jackson, Thomai, Battery H, 1st H. Art.; missing 1805. 

Jenkins, Benjamin F., Battery H, 1st H. Art.; missing Jan. 19, 1863. 

Kenuison, Horace S., Corp., Co. G, 27tli Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Keen, Hamden C, Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Keen, Josiah B., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Knox, George F., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Lewis, Brackett, Co. F, 31st Inf.; must. April 4, 1864. 

Lewis, John W., 29th Co., unassigned infantry ; must. April 25, 1865. 

Lydston, Charles J., 29tli Co., unassigned infantry ; must. April 25, 1865. 

Lunt, Horace, sergt., Co. K, 17th Inf ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Laury, Franklin E., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Lydston, Charles, Co. G, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1802; 'disch. with company. 

Lang, Alfred M., Co. A, 31st Inf ; must. March 3, 1804. 

Lambert, John H., Co. A, 31st Inf; must. March 3, 1864; wounded July 16; 
disch. Dec. 4, 1864. 

Littlefleld, Almon, Co. A, 31st Inf.; must. March 3, 1804; disch. July 27, 1865. 

Mausou, Amnii, Co. A, 31st Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; disch. June 19, 1865. 

Mathews, George, Co. A, 31st Inf.; must. March 3,1804; ttiken prLsoner; pa- 
roled ; disch. June 13, 1865. 

Manson, Albert, Co. G, 27th Inf. ; n 

Manson, Horatio, Co. G, 27th Inf ; 

Mitchell, Edwin, Co. G, 27th Inf.; i 

Mugudge, Samuel, Co. G,27lh Inf; 

Manson, Sylvester, Co. F, : 

t, Sept. 30, 1862; disch. witli company. 
1st. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. with company. 
St. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 
list. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. i 
ust. April 5, 1864. 


, Hiri 

, 29th Co., \ 

[Signed infantry; must. April 25, 

McFadden, Gorham P., sergt., Co. B, 29 

sergt., 1865. 
Neal, Wm. H., Corp., Co. K,17th Inf.; n; 
Otis, William M., Co. G, 27th Inf; mus 
Parker, Benjamin F., Co. G, 27th Inf.; 

Inf; must. Dec. 29, 1863; pro. to 1st 

it. Aug. 18, 1862; killed at Gettysburg. 
Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 
nust. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Parker, Horace B., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Parker, Isaac 0., 1st sergt., Co. K, 17lh Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; wounded at 

Gettysburg; died July 7,1863. 
Peckham, Cliarles W., Corp., Co. K, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; missing 

Jan. 19, 1863. 
Parker, Edward G., Co. K, 1711l Inf ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; pro. to Corp. ; wounded 

.May 3, 1803 ; pro. to sergt. ; killed May 12, 1864. 
Phillips, Hiram B,, Co. K, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; died Sept. 5, 1863. 
Philbrook,RobertS.,Co. E, 27th Inf. ; must Oct. 15,1862; disch. with company, 

July 17, 1863. 
Parker, Joseph D., Ist lieut., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

company, July 17, 1863. 
Pettigrew, John, Corp., Co. G, 27tU Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1803. 
Pettigrew, Colby H., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 

July 17, 1863. 
Pickernell, Richard, Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 

July 17, 1863. 


ch. wil 

,1862; disch. with 

Pierce, Daniel, Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 186: 

July 17, 1863. 
Phillips, John, Co. K, 16th Inf. ; must. Sept, 16, 1863 ; 

23, 1864. 
Pickeriiell, James H., Co. A, 31st Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; disch. with com- 

Philbrick, Waller P., 29th Co., unassigued infantry ; must. April 25, 1865. 

Rowell, Wesley D., musician, Co. K, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. IS, 1862; disch, 
with company. 

Kemick, John H.,Co. K,17tb Inf.; must. Aug. 18,1862; wounded May 6, IS64: 
discharged. * 

Rand, Reuzi, 29th Co., unassigned infantry; must, .\pril 25, 1865. 

Rollins, Charles W., 29th Co., unassigned infantry ; must. April 25, 1865. 

Richards, John M., 29th Co., unassigned infantry ; must. April 25, 1865. 

Spinney, Justin, Co. A, 31st Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; disch. with company. 

Stinson, Andrew J., capt., Co. K, 17th Inf, ; must. Aug, 18, 1862 ; disch. Oct. 5, 

Shackford, Charles E., Co. K, 17th Inf. ; must 

Shapleigh, Dennis M., 2d lieut., Co, G, 27lh 
with company. 

Spinney, Nicholas E., sergt,, Co. G, 27th Inf, 

Sewall, Joseph A., Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Scriggins, Charles H., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 3U, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Spinney, James S., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Spinney, Stephen S., Co. G, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Smith, Wiiliam, Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. witli company. 

Stevenson, William, Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. witli company. 

Shaw, Parker, Co. A, Coast Guards H. Art. ; must. April, 1862. 

Tobey, William W., sergt., Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Trefethen, Horatio W., Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 3il, 18C2 ; disch. with 

Tobey, Hiram, Co. A, 31st Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; disch. with company. 

Thompson, John H., Bat. A, Coast Guards H. Art.; must. Sept. 1, 1862. 

Wentworth, Mark L., lieut.-col., 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 19, 1802; pro. col., Jan- 
uary, 1863 ; disch. with regt. 

Wilson, Thomas H., Co. A, Slst Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; veteran. 

Wilson, Alonzo P., Co. A, 31st Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; discb. June 6, 1865. 

Withers, James, Co. C, 30th Inf. ; must. Jan. 12, 1864 ; trans. 1864. 

Williams, Joseph B., Corp., Co. G, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Willey, Frederick L., musician, Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. 
with company. 

Waldion, Manning, Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; died Dec. 3, 1862. 

Williams, Josiah (3d), Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Wilson, George, Co. G, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Wallace, Winthrop A., Co. F, 31st Inf. ; must. April 4, 1864; disch. with com- 

Willey, Frederick L., 29th Co., unassigned luf; must. April 25, 1865. 

Young, Augustus D., Co. G, 27tli Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Alberti.s, Marshall, U. S. Navy. 
Allen, John L., U. S. Navy. 
Billings, Richard, U. S. Navy. 
Blake, William H., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Billings, Thomas, U. S. Navy. 
Burt, James, U. S. Navy. 
Coe, Horace, 6th Vermont Infantry. 
Cox, Joseph E., carpenter, U. S. Navy. 
Chauncey, Henry, New York Volunteers. 
Collins, Henry, U. S. Navy. 
Duncan, Charles L,, U. S. Navy. 
Fernald, George, U. S. Navy. 
Fortine, Thomas, U. S. Navy. 
Gerry, Oliver H., carpenter, U. S. Navy. 
Goodroe, Augustus 0., U. S. Navy. 
Gorden, John, U. S. Navy. 
Graham, Richard, U. S. Navy. 
Harley, Thomas, U. S. Navy. 
Hamilton, William, U. S. Navy. 
Keen, Joseph, U. S. Navy. 
Leach, James, U. S. Navy. 
Lambert, John, U. S. Navy. 
Langton, John B. F., boatswain, U. S. Navy. 
Lowe, John, U. S. Navy. 
Magaw, Francis, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Mclntire, Sylvanus, engineer, U. S. Navy. 
Peterson, Andrew, U. S. Navy. 
Patterson, John, U. S. Navy. 
Paul, Mark W., U. S. Navy. 
Pierce, John, U. S. Navy.' 

Philbrick, George F., gunner's mate, U. S. Navy. 
Philbrick, William, carpenter, U. S. Navy. 

Philbrick, H. R„ U, S. Navy. 

Smith, Charles, U. S. Navy. 

Stimson, M. W., U. S. Navy. 

Seaward, Richard H., D. S. Navy. 

Shipherd, S. P., U. S. Navy. 

Smitii, John, U. S. Navy. 

Withers, Richard, V. S. Navy. 

Wilson, Alfred, U. S. Navy. 

Wilson, Thomas, New Hampshire Volunteei 

Wilson, George, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Wilson, Asa, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Webber, John, U. S. Navy. 


I, Slst Inf.; 

, Sept 

.\pril 21, 1864; veteran; disch. Jan, 
died of woupds at Wash- 
. Corps, 

Butler, Francis, Co. F, 8th Inf.; mu 

ington, D. C, July 5, 1864. 
Blaisdell, John E,, Co. F. 8th Inf. ; must. Oct. 2, 1862 ; trans. I 

Blaisdell, Oel, Co. F, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 17, 1862; wounded May 16, 1864; 

died at Andersonville, Aug, 11, 1864. 
Blaisdell, Thomas, Co. 1, 17th.Inf ; must. Aug. 18, 1862, 
Blaisdell, James C, Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1802. 
Blaisdell, Millett, Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. Oct. 20, 1862. 
Butler, William F., Co. G, 30th Inf. ; must. Dec, 28, 1803 ; disch. June 24, 1865. 
Clark, James W., Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1801 ; disch. 1801. 
Corson, George M., Corp., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. with 

Corson, David, Co. F, 3lBt Inf.; must. April 5, 1864; disch. May 3, 1865. 
Downs, Abram P,, Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; disch. with regiment. 
Edgcomb, Charles H,, Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; missing in battle, 

May 16, 1864. 
Eldridge, Wni. H,, Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Estes, James B,, Co, D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept, 30, 1862; died Jan. 30, 1863. 
Fishburn, George W., musician, Co. G, 30th Inf. ; must. Dec. 28, 1863 ; disch. 

with company. 
Foss, Daniel, Co. I, 17th Inf.; must. Aug, 18, 1862 ; disch, April 23, 1863. 
Fall, Henry B,, sergt,, Co, D, 17th Inf, ; must. Sept, 30, 1862; disch, with con.- 

pany, July 17, 1863, 
Fall, Howard S, Co, D, 17th Inf,; must. Sept, 30, 1862; disch. with company, 

July 17, 1863, 
Furbish, John H„ Co. D, 17th Inf.; must. Sept, 30, 1862 ; missing Oct. 25, 1862, 
Goodwin, Jas. M., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 
Geirish, Alfred J. W., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Goodwin, Marvin T., Co. F, 8th Inf.; must, Sept. 7, 1861; missing in battle, 

May 16, 1864; died at Andersonville, Aug, 13, 1864, 
Goodwin, Lemuel, Co. F, 8th Inf. ; must, Aug, 27, 1862 ; wounded July 30, 1864 ; 

disch, Jan. 24, 1865. 
Goodwin, Urban D., Co. H, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 25, 1862; musician; bugler, 

1863, and chief musician of regiment; disch. June 11,1865. 
Grunt, John, Co. 1, 17th Inf, ; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. Oct. 9, 1862. 
Grant, Isaac, Co. I, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; disch. Feb, 6, 1803. 
Guptill, Newell, Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug, 18, 1862; disch. March 6, 1863. 
Gowell, Franklin B., Co. 6, 30th Inf.; must. Dec, 28, 1803; wounded; disch. 

July 18,1864. 
Green, John, Co. B, 9th Inf.; must, as substitute, Sept. 22, 1864. 
Hersom, John S., Corp., Co. F, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; disch, 1864, 
Hayes, Samuel D,, Co, D, 27th Inf,; must. Sept, 30, 1862; pro, to coi-p.; disch. 

with company. 
Hutchins, Wm. H,, Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Hutchins, Jas. S., Co. G, 30th Inf, ; must, Dec. 28, 1863; disch. with company. 
Hanscomb, John, veteran, Co. F, 31st Inf. ; must. April 5, 1864. 
Hayes, John F., Co. F, Slst Inf. ; must. April 5, 1864, 
Hanscom, Proctor A., Corp., Co, D, 17th Inf, ; killed in Virginia. 
Jones, William H., Co. E, 8th Inf.; must. Oct, 3, 1862; died June 15, 1363. 
Jones, Reuben, Co. F, 8th Inf.; must, Sept. 3, 1862; died Aug. 21, 1864, 
Jones, George A,, Co, G, 30tb Inf,; must, Dec. 28, 1863 ; wounded April 23; 

disch. May 20, 1865, 
Knox, Orren, Co, F, 8th Inf,; must, Aug, 27, 1862; disch, June 21, 1865. 
Kenney, Ambrose, Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; missing Jan. 21, 1863. 
Knox, Willard S,, Co, F, Slst Inf.; must. April 5, 1864; trans. 1805. 
Lihby, Ivory, regimental band, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861. 
Libby, Cbaries H,. Co, F, 8th Inf, ; must. Sept. 23, 1862; disch. June 11, 1865. 
Lamberton, William, Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. June 10, '63. 
Libby, John G., Co. I, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; killed in battle. May 3, 

Lord, Lyman, Corp., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with company. 
Lord, George A., Co. D, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept, SO, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Lamberton, William, Co. G, 30th Inf.; must. Dec. 30, 1863; pro. to corp.j 

disch. Aug, 2, 1865, 
Laury, Jeremiah, Co. B, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept, 22, 1864; substitute. 
Lord, William D., Co. C, 8th Inf.; died at Lebanon, Me., Sept. 28, 1804. 
Legro, Hiram A., Co, D, Oth Mass, ; died at Suffolk, Va,, December, 1862. 
McGill, Robert, Co. D, 17th Inf. ; died December, 1862. 
Murphy, John, Co. B, Oth Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1864 ; substitute. 


Oldson, Charles, Co. B, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 18G4 ; suhstitute. 

Perkins, Frank M. B., Co. H, 31st Inf. . must. April 21, 1864 ; disch. with com- 

Pray, Sylvester, Co. A, 8th Inf.; must. Aug. 26, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Pray, Amos, Cp. F, 8lh Inf. ; must. Aug. 27, 1862 ; disch. June 11, 18C5. 

Pierce, Henry B., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. iiO, 1862; pro. to Corp.; disch. 
with company. 

Quimby, Orren, Corp., Co. G, 32d Inf. ; died at Anflereonville, Ga., February, '64. 

Quimby, Charles W., Co. F, 30th Mass ; drowned at Ship Island, April 5, 1862. 

Quimby. Hosea M., sergt., Co. D, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Randall, Charles W., Co. F, 8th luf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; disch. Oct. 21 ; died 

Oct. 26, 1863. 
Rankins, Daniel, Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 23, 1862; disch. June 11, 1865. 
Kicker, Daniel D., Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 23, 1862; killed at Fort Gregg, 

Va., April 2, 1865. 
Kicker, Winslow W., Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 23, 1862 ; disch. June 1, 1865. 
Kankins, Isaac W., Co. — , Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 21, 1862. 
Bicker, Oscar F., Co. A, 81h luf ; nuist. Sept. 17, 1862; disch. June 12, 1S65. 
Kemic, Samuel S., Co. G, 30th Inf ; must. Dec. 28, 1863 ; died at Baton Kouge, 

La., June 21, 1864. 
Shapleigh, Henry H., wagoner, Co. A, 10th Inf ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. with 

. Sept. 30, 1 

Sherman, Thomas, Jr., 1st lieut., Co. D,27tb 

Feb. 4, 1863. 
Sanborn, John W., veteran, Co. D, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 

disch. witli company. 
Smith, Thomas B., Co. C, 29th Inf ; must. Dec. 31, 1863 ; disch. with company. 
Taylor, Joseph, Co. — , Sth Inf ; must. Aug. 27, 18G2. 
Tibbetts, Elijah W., Corp., Co. 1, 17th luf ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. 

Kes. Corps, 1864. 
Wentworth, Benjamin, Co. G, 30th Inf ; must. Dec. 28, 1863 ; died June 9, 1S64. 
Wallingford, Charles A., Co. G, 301h Inf; must. Dec. 28, 1863 ; died July 31, 

Wallingford, Daniel, Co. D, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. 
must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. 
mst. Aug. 18, 1862; trans, to 

jth I 

Worcester, Charles H., Co. D, 27th In 

Warren, Thomas K., Co. 1, 17th Inf ; 

Wildes, John F., Co. I, 17tb Inf ; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; disch. June 19, 1863. 
Wentworth, John S., Co. K, 14th Inf ; must. Dec. 7, 1861 ; missing 1864. 
Wentworth, Caleb, Co. F, 31st Inf ; must. April 5, 1864 ; died at Salisbury, N. C, 

Wood, Frederick A., Jr., sergt., Co. F, Sth Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861; pro. to 

sergt.-maj., July 1, 1863; pro. to 1st lieut., Co. F; disch. Oct. 14, 1864, 

with regiment. 
Webber, James M., Co. — , Sth Inf ; must. Oct. 8, 1862. 
Webber, Hiram, Co. I, Sth Inf ; must. Sept. 1, 1862 ; killed in battle. May 20, 

Teaton, Charles, Co. F, Sth Inf ; must. Sept. 25, 1862; died May 16, 1864, at 

Bermuda Hundred. 
Tuung, Charles H., Co. F, 32d Inf; must. April 5, 1864; trans, in June, 1865. 

Conrson, John E., U. S. Army. 
Coffin, William H., 2d New Hampshire. 
Conrson, James F., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Courson, John R., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Courson, Samuel H., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Courson, William F., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Cummings, John T., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Dixon, Augustus, Kew Hampshire Volunteers. 
Estes, George, Sth New Hampshire Infantry. 
Furbush, Edward B., Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Grant, Daniel, 3d New Hampshire Infanti-y. 
Goodwin, John G., 4th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Goodwin, George F., capt., Co. D, Sth New Hampshire Infantry; killed at Cold 

Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864. 
Goodwin, George F., 4th New Hampshire Infantry. 

Hayes, John F., Corp., Co. I, Sth New Hampshire Infantry; died at Camp Pros- 
pect, Va. 
Harriman, D.-vvid S., Sth New Hampshire Infantry. 

Hartford, Alonzo, New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Hartford, George E., New Hampshire VolunleerB. 

Hartford, Woodbury, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Hayes, George W., 5th New Hampshire Infautry: killed at Fair Oaks, Va. 

Hayes, John 0., 2d New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Hutchins, Simon F., Co. I, Sth New Hampshire Infantry : died at New Orleans, 
La., Oct. 30, 1862. 

Hutchins, William H., Co. E, 29th Regt. ; died at New Orleans, La., June 6, 

Jenkins, Charles E., New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Jones, Frederick D., U. S. Navy. 

Kimball, Samuel E., New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Knox, Eustis, New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Legro, Eben, Sth New Hampshire Infantry, 

Legro, Hiram A., Co. D, 6th MassachusetU Infantry; died at Suffolk, Va., De- 
cember, 1S62. 

Lord, John W., 2d New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Madder, Ambrose, New Hampshire Volunteers. 

McCrellis, Daniel, 2d New Hampshire Volunteera. 

McMellan, George W., 5th New Hampshire Infantry. 

Nicholas, Ebenezer F., New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Pierce, James B., 5th New Hampshire Infantry. 

Pierce, John C, 3d New Hampshire Infantry. 

Quimby, Charles W., Co. F, 30th Massachusetts lufintry; drowned at Ship 
Island, April 5, 1862. 

Quimby, Orrin, Corp., Co. G,32d Massachusetts Infantry ; died in Andersonville 
prison, February, 1864. 

Ramsdell, Newton A., 3d New Hampshire Infantry. 

Rankin, Charles 0., Sth New Hampshire Infanti^. 

Ricker, Daniel L., chief clerk, Sth New Hampshire Infantry ; died at Poi-ts- 
mouth, Va., June 22, 1865. 

Rowe, George W., 3d New Hampshire Infantry. 

Rowe, Samuel C, 3d New Hampshire Infantry. 

Shapleigh, Horace S., Now Hampshire Volunteers. 

Stevens, Charles R., 3d New Hampshire Infantry. 

Smith, Lorenzo D., Sth New Hampshire Infantry. 

Smith, Thomas B., Sth New Hampshire Infantry. 

Worster, Washington, 4th New Hampshire Infantry ; taken prisoner at Morris 
Island, S. C, in 1863. 

Wallingford, Alva B., New Hampshire Volunteers. 


Allen, James M., died in service. 

Barker, William B., Corp., Co. A, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 
company; re-enl. in 32d Inf.; sergt.-maj.. May 6, 1864; pro. to 2d lieut., 
Co. C, and capt.; disch. with company. 

Boynton, Granville M., Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Bradbury, Henry M., Co. .\,27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Bowman, Jeremiah, Sth Co., unassigned Inf; must. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Brown, Cyrus E., Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Burbank, Arthur C, sergt., Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 
company, July 17, 1863. 

Bmbank, Charles M. 

Burbank, Horace IL, Co. A, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; made commissary 
clerk and q.m. sergt.; disch. with company; 2d lieut., Co. A, 32d Inf, 
March 3, 1864: taken prisoner July 30, 1864; pro. capt., Co. B, 31st Inf, 
and Co. K, 32d Inf.; disch. M.ay 15, 1S65. 

Burbank, Porter M., Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Carr, William, died in service. 

Clark, Elisha E., Co. A, 27lh Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company; 
re-enl. Co. L, 2d Cav., Dec. 24, 1863 ; 1st sergt. ; wounded and taken pris- 
oner, Sept. 27, 1864 ; disch. July 31, 1865. 

Clark, Henry E., Co. A, 31st Inf ; must. March 3, 1864; acting q.m. sergt. 

Cobb, Charles, Co. A, 27th luf; must. Sept. .30, 1862; disch. with company; 
re-enl. in Co. L, 2d Cav., Jan. 7, 1864; furloughed Oct. 1, 1864 ; did not 

Cobb, Edwin, Co. D, Sth Inf ; must. June 4, 1861 ; wounded May 10, 1S64 ; disch. 

with company, July 27, 1864. 
Cobb, Henry C. ; Cole, James H. 
Cole, Stephen R., Co. I, IStb Inf ; must. Jan. 7, 1862 ; pro. to corp. ; disch. Jan. 

19, 1865. 
Connor, John, Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company ; 

re-enl. Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Jan. 7, 1S64 ; disch. with company, Dec. 6, 

Dearborn, George J., Co. H, 16th Inf ; must. Aug. 14, 1862; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

with company. 
Dearborn, Richard G., Co. A, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Drew, Pliny F , Co. A, 271h Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; died Jan. 19, 1863. 

Durgin, Horace. 

Durgin, Orin A., Co. G, 12tb Inf; must. Nov. 15, 1361 ; trans, as hospital nurse, 

Durgin, Zacbariah, Co. A, 31st Inf ; must. 3Iarch 3, 1864 ; died in prison, Aug. 

, 18C1 ; 
signed Inf; must. Oct. 5, 1864, 

1st Maine Vets., 

22, 1864. 
Emery, Ira L., Co. C, Sib : 

Feb. 27, 1864. 
Evans, Daniel. 
Fairbrother, James, Sth O 
Evans, James A., died in service. 
Favour, Charles L., Co. H, 16th Inf ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; pro. to Corp.; wounded 

Dec. 13, 1862, and July 1, 18&i ; disch. Nov. 12, 1863. 
Favour, Horace H., Co. A, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Garey, Samuel R., musician, Co. H, 16th Inf; must Aug. 14, 1862; disch. with 

Gove, George A., Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. May 18, 1865, and 

Ist District of Columbia Cav.; must. Feb. 6, 1864. 
Guptill, Jacob. 

Gilpatrick, James, Co. C, 30th Inf ; must. Sept. 23, 1864. 
Hamilton, Isaac, died in service. 


Hasty, Eoljert, Co. — , 1st Cav. 

Hasty, Sewall S., Co. G, 6th Inf. ; must. June 23, 1861 ; disch. Feb. 10, 1862. 

Hasty, Winfipld S., Co. A, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Hayes, Charles J., corp., Co. H, 16th Inf. ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Hayes, John C, Jr., Co. A, 27th Inf.; must. Oct. 15, 1862; disch. with company. 

Hill, Cyrus K. 

Hill, Joseph H., Co. A, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Ilsley, Edwin, adj., 12th Inf., Nov. 15, 1861 ; pro. to lieut.-col., 12th Inf ; must. 
Aug. 18, 1862; disch. March 17, 1866. 

Kempt, John, 6th Co., unassigned Inf.; must. Oct. 6, 1864. 

Keay, John F., Co. A, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Knight, Charles K,, died in service. 

t. Oct. 16, 1864. 

. Sept. 22, 1861 ; died .-vt W:ishington, D. C, 

Nov. 15, 1801 ; died at Sliip Isia 


Kelly, William, Co. C, 2d Cav. ; mu 
Knight, John, Co. E, 9tll Inf. : mus 

Jan. 7, 1862. 
Libby, Alvarado, Co. G, 12th Inf.; 

June 2, 1862. 
Libby, Alvah M., musician, Co. I, 1 
Libby, Charles G., Co. A, 27th Inf.; 
Libby, Fred. W., Corp., Co. A, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 

Libby, Ira S., lieut. 

Libby, James M., Co. E, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to sergt. ; died at 

Limerick, Me., 1863. 
Libby, Samuel H., 1st lieut., Co. A, 27th Inf, ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to capt. ; 
disch. with company ; re-enl. as capt., Co. L, 2d Cav., Dec. 24, 1863. 

Maddox, John H., Co. H, 16th Inf.; must. Aug. 14, 1862; killed at Fredericks- 
burg, Va., Dec. 13, 1802. 

Maximillian, Jacob, 5tli Co., unassigned Inf.; must. Got. 5, 1864. 
Manson, Edwin K., Co. A, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company ; 
re-enlisted; Corp., Co. L, 2d Cav.; must. Dec. 24, 1803; disch. with com- 

Markey, Arthur, 2d Bat. M. Art. ; must. Oct. 10, 1864. 

Meserve, Richard H., Co. F, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 10, 1861 ; disch. July 20, 1SG2. 

Montgomery, John, 5th Co.. unassigned Inf. ; must. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Miles, Charles H. 

McGee, John, Co. H, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 1, 1864; missing 1865. 

Miles, George S., Co. A, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

McGoon, Ephraim, Co. H, Cav. ; must. Aug. 26, 1802 ; killed Mar. 31, 1865. 

Miles, Thomas P., Corp., Co. A, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with com- 

Primrose, John, Co. H, 1st H. Art. ; must. Aug 26, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Packard, Charles F., musician, Co. A, 1st H. Art. ; mast. Aug. 26, 1862. 

Punch, John, Co. D, 1st Cav. ; must. Sept. 26, 1864 ; pro. Corp., 1865. 

Pierce, James S., Co. H, 16th Inf. ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; missing in battle. May 
8,1864; died in service. 

Perkins, Daniel W., 61h Co., unassigned Inf. ; must. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Kichard, Lewis G., Corp., Co. H, IGth Inf. ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; pro. to sergt., 
1st sergt., and 2d lieut.; prisoner; exchanged; pro. to 1st lieut., Co. G; 
disch. with regiment. 

Robinson, Charles W., Co. A, Slst Inf.; must. March 3, 1864; taken prisoner, 
Sept. 30, 1864: transferred; died in service. 

Sullivan, John, sergt., Co. H, 1st H. Art.; must. Deo. 21, 1863; disch. Sept. 11, 

Sawyer, Sylvester B. 

Shattuck, George K., 
must. Aug. 14, 

Smith, George, Co. H 


.— , 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861; Co. 

2; missing, 1862. 

til Inf. ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disch. June 

, Co. L, 2d Cav.; must. Jan. 14, 1864 ; disch. July 15, 1865. 

1 company. 

list. Sept. 21, 1862 ; 
1st. Sept. 30, 1S62 ; 
. Oct. 6, 1864. 
St. Nov. 30, 1863. 

Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company; 
disch. Feb. 20, 1862. 

>l ■ : . I I;. :.. n. Co. E, 9th Inf 

M I I i .''■: A, 27th Inf. 

'I . , ' .1. C, 2d Cav.; : 

T.I.I..:. l:,.|ii,.i I ■, Co. A, 2d Cav. 

Walker. C.lvin E. 

Watson, Daniel, Co. A, 27th Inf.; 

sergt., Co. A, 32d Inf. ; disch. Doc. 12, 1864. 

Watson, Timothy B., Co. A, 5th Inf. ; must. June 

Welch, Lewis E., Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; re-enl. Jan. 1, ISO- 
killed May 19, 1864. 

Welch, Seth A., Co. E, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; re-enl. Jan. 1, 1864 ; tran. 
to Vet. Kes. Coi-ps, 1805. 

Watson, Lorenzo D., Co. L, 2d Cav.; must. Dec. 24, 1S63; disch. June 13, 1S65 

Waldron, Thomas, 1st Bat. M. Art.; must. Oct. 11, 1804. 

Allen, James M., 33d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Carr, William, 12th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Cobb, Henry C, New York Volunteers. 
Cole, James, New York Volunteei-s. 
Durgin, Horace, New York Volunteers, 
Evans, Daniel, 11th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Evans, James, 2d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Guptill, Jacob, 1st Connecticut Battery. 
Hamilton, Isaac A., 17th United States Infantry. 
Knight, Charles H., 17th United States Infantry. 
Long, George, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Miles, Charles, 17th United States Infantry. 
Sawyer, Sylvester B., 23d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Symmes, Riifus, Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Anderson, Charles H.,Co. E, 10th Inf; must. Oct. 4,1861; taken prisoner at 

Winchester, Va., 1862 ; wounded August 9; died Aug. 12, 1862. 
Anderson, Wm. A., Co. H, iTth Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Bardeen, Marquis W., Co. A, 6th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. 1862. 
Bradeen, Koscoe, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861. 
Brown, Frank E., Co. E, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; taken prisoner, 1862 ; 

Bragdon, Edmund, Jr., 1st sergt., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; mnst. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to 

2d lieut., March 17, 1863; disch, with company, July 17, 1863, 
Black, George E,, Co, H, :;7th Ilif. ; must, Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Bragdon, Sumner, Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Clark, Sargent, Co. A, 51h Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. 1862. 
Cole, Rinaldo, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861. 

Chick, Frederick A., Co. F, 11th Inf. ; must. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disch. Aug. 26, 1862. 
Chick, Frederick L., 1st Cav. 

Call, Nathan, Co. H., 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Consens, William A., 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Deshon, Mark W., Co. C, 12th Inf. ; must. Nov. 15, 1861 ; re-enlisted ; wounded 

Sept. 9, 1864. 
Danielson, William H., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. Jan. 26, 

Foss, Alonzo B., Co. A, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. 1862. 
Graffam, William, Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Hide. John L., Co. A, 6th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; missing Aug. 1, 1862. 
Higgins, Joseph W., Co, I, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 1, 1862 ; wounded June 3, 1864 ; 

disch. 1865. 
Holmes, Tristram, Co. F, 11th Inf.; must. Nov. 7, 1861; disch. Feb. 22, 1862. 
Joy, William B., corp., Co. F, 11th Inf. ; must. Nov. 4, 1861 ; pro. to sergt. ; 

disch. Nov. 5, 1862. 
Joy, Wendell F , wagoner, Co. F, llth Inf. ; must. Nov. 4, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 18, 

Johnson, David E., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. wit 

Libby, Arthur, Co. 11, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with c 

Liljby, James, 5th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861. 

Larrabee, Charles A., Co. I, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 2, 1862 ; pro. to corp. ; wounded 
June 3, 1864; disch. June 11, 1865. 

Larrabee, Daniel, Co. I, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 2,1862; missing at Drury's Bluff, 
M.-iy 18, 1864. 

Libby, Henry, Co. E, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; pro. to corp. ; trans. 1863. 

Libliy, John, Co. E, lutli Inf.; must. Nov. 27, 1861 ; trans. 1863. 

Lord, John T., 1st Cav. ; must. 1861. 

Libby, Benjamin F., Co. A, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 

Manson, G. M., assist, surg., 5th Maine ; must. April, 1863 ; disch. July 27, 1864. 

Mahoney, John, 6th Inf.; must. 1861. 

McClinlock, Albert B., 6th Inf.; must. 1861 ; detached to gunboat, 1862. 

Mc Arthur, William M., capt., Co. I, 8th Inf.: must. Sept. V, 1861; provost- 
marshal of Hilton Head, S. C, 1863; pro. to maj., 1864; to lieut.-col., 
Sept. 3, 1864; col. and brig.-gen. of vols. 

Merrill, William R., Co. I, 8th Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; died at Hilton Head, 
July 6, 1862. 

Meserve, John F., Co. F, llth Inf ; must. Nov. 7, 1861 ; wounded and missing 
at Fair Oaks, 1862. 

McPerkins, John,Bergt.,Co.I,lst Cav. ; must. Oct. 31,1861; disch. Nov. 21,1862. 

McKenney, Charles F., wagoner, Co. H, 27t.h Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; discli. 
with company. 

McKenney, Abner, Co. H,27thlnf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; disch. with company. 

McKenney, Enoch, Co. H,27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Newcomb, Oliver, Co. A, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861 ; disch. July 9, 1862. 

Norris, William H., Co, I, 8th Inf,; Sept, 7, 1861; pro, to sergt,; missing in 
battle. May 16, 1864. 

Norton, Clark H., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Plaisted, Byron G., Co. A,6th Inf.; must. Jnne 24, 1861; missing July 24, 1861. 

Robinson, Edwin A., Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Small, Alfred, Corp., Co. H, 27tb Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Sawyer, Isaac, Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Sanborn, Nelson, Co. C, 12th Inf. ; must. Nov. 15, 1861 ; missing Nov. 18, 1861. 

Sands, Aaron, Co. F, llth Inf.; must. Nov. 7,1861; died at Savage Station, Va., 
Aug. 6, 1862. 

Small, Joseph, sergt., Co. I, 6th Inf.; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; pro. to 2d lieut., 1st 
lieut., and capt.; wounded May 20, 1864 ; disch. Nov. 5, 1864. 

Smith, Hanson C, sergt., 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 22, 1861. 

Terffs, James B., 6th Inf.; must. 1861. 

Tyler, John M., 8th Inf.; must. 1861. 

Thorn, David, Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 1863. 

Walker, George M., corp., Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to sergt. ; 
disch. with company. 

Wright, William H., Co. F, llth Inf; must. Oct. 11, 1864; substitute. 

Warren, George W., 9th Inf.; mnst. Sept. 22, 1861. 


Babb, Stepben E., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Boody, Robert M., Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Bates, William H., 7lh MassHchusetta Infantrj'. 
Libby, Robert, 1st New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Libby, Elbridge, U. S. Navy. 
McArthur, John, 26th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Kichariison, William, New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Small, John F., New Hampshire Volunteers. 
McLinlon, Albert, U. S. Navy. 

Avorill, Joseph, Co. K, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 20, 18C4; disch. May 24, 1865. 
Butterfleld, Lewis, Co. H, 121h Inf. ; must. Nov. 16, 1861 ; died June 9, 1862. 
Buzzell, George, Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company, 

July 17, 1863. 
Buzzell, Edmund C, Co. K, 32d Inf.; must. May 6, 1861; trans, to 31st Inf. 
Brown, Horatio N., Co. K, 32d Inf.; must. May 6, 1864; died June 30, 1864. 
Clark, Ezra, Co. 1, 8th Inf. ; must. Aug. 25, 1862 ; wounded Oct. 13, 1864. 
Downs, Reuben, Corp., Co. K, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 20, 1864 ; killed Oct. 27, 1861. 
Davis, Elden, Co. K, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 20, 1864; disch. June 30, 1865. 
Davis, Benjamin F., Co. F, Ist Cav.; nuist. Aug. 6, 1862; detached, 1863. 
Downs, David, Jr., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Downs, Archibald S., Co .1, 27lh Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Drown, Alonzo J., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Emmons, Taylor, Co. I, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with compauy. 
Emmons, George, Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Emona, George W., Co. I, 27tb Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; taken prisoner July 

30,1864; transferred. 
Emmons, John, Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Emmons, John G., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Evans, Edwin, Co. I, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; died Dec. 27, 1862. 
Emmons, George, Co. K, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 20, 1864; disch. June 30, 1865. 
Emmons, Elisha, Co. K, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 20, 1864 ; disch. June 12, 1865. 
Emmons, Alonzo, Co. K, 32d Inf. ; must. May 6, 1864 ; died July 18, 1864. 
Gordon, George, Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to Corp., Co. K, 32d 

Inf.; disch. Dec. 12, 1864. 
Gordon, Henry, Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Gould, James, Corp., Co. F, 7tll Inf.; must. Aug. 21, 1861; trans. 1863. 
Garey, Charles, Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 25, 1862 ; died Oct. 14, 1864. 
Goodwin, Joseph, Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 25, 1862. 
Griffiths, Samuel G., SIh Inf.; must. Aug. 28,1862; missing in battle of Drury'a 

Bluff, May 16, 1864. 
Guptill, William S., Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 28, 1862. 

Gould, Noah, Ist lieut., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30 ; resigned Nov. 24, 1862. 
Grant, Lorenzo T., Co. K, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 20, 1864; disch. June 30, 1865. 
Goodwin, Foss G., Co. K, 9th Inf ; must. Sept. 20, 1864; died April 30, 1865. 
Hansou, Edwin, Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; re-enl. Feb. 29, 1864 ; de- 
tached to Sharpshooters. 
Hanson, Harrison, Corp., Co. F, Sth Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861; died at Beaufort, 

July 14, 1862. 
Hansou, Israel, Co. I, lat Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; disch. at Augusta, 1863. 
Hanson, Israel, Co. I, 27th luf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; missing, Oct. 7, 1S62. 
Hubbard, George, Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with compauy. 
Jones, Daniel, Co. K, 32d Inf.; must. May 6, 1864; missing. 
Kimball, John, Co. K, 32d Inf. ; must. May 6, 1864; trans, to Co. K, Slst Inf. 
Lord, Alvah, Co. K, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1864; disch. June 30, 1865. 
Larry, Dennis, Co. D, 1st Bat. Inf. ; must .\pril 5, 1865. 
Moore, John H., Co. G, 7th Inf ; must. Aug. 21, 1S61. 
Marston, Harris, Sth Inf. 

Meachan, Leonard, Co. F, Sth Inf.; must. Aug. 29, 1862; disch. June 5, 1865. 
Mason, Harris S., Co. I, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. March 9, 1S63. 
Moody, Charles H., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; re-enl. in Co. K, 9th 

Inf. ; must. Sept. 20, 1864 ; disch. June 30, 1865. 
Peavy, Chandler, Co. I, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1S62 ; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

with company. 
Peavy, George T., Co. K, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 20, 1864; disch. Aug. 8, 1865. 
Koberts, Joseph B., Sth Inf. ; must. Aug. 19, 1862, and 1st lieut., Co. K, 9th Inf. 
Eoberts, George H., sergt., Co. I, 27th luf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

company, Sept. 20, 1864. 
Boberts, Dimou, Jr., Corp., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Eoberts, William F., Corp., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Oct. 17, 1S62. 
Staples, William 31., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802; pro. to sergt. ; disch. 

with company. 
Smith, James, Co. B, 30th Inf.; must. Slarch 6,1865. 

Thornton, Franklin, Co. H, 12th Inf. ; must. Nov. 15, 1861 ; disch. Aug. 3, 1863. 
Townsend, Alvah J., Co. I, Sth Inf.; must. Sept. 17, 1862 ; died of wounds. May 

20, 1864. 
Townsend, John L., Co. I, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 17, 1862 ; wounded June 8, 

1864 ; trans, to Vet. Kes. Corps, 1865. 
Wakefield, Alonzo H., Co. K, 32d Inf. ; must. Sept. 6, 1864; transferred. 
Wakefield, Israel, Co. K, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 20, 1S64 ; di.«ch. June 30, 1865. 
Wakefield, Wm. H., Co. K, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 20, 1864; disch. June 30, 1865. 
Whilehouse, Joseph A., Co. I, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Turk, George, Jr., 1st Cav. 

Burke.John, U.S. Navy. 

Drown, George C, 33d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Evans, JohnT., 35th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Evans, King S., Sth Massachusetts Infantry. 
Evans, Oran R., 5th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Goodwin, John T,, 10th Massachusetts Battery. 
Roberts, John S., 32d Massachusetts Infantry. 

Adams, Clement J., Corp., Co. K, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to sergt. ; 

disch. with company, July 17, 1863. 
Burbank, Samuel M., luth Inf. 

Beal, George P., Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1801 ; pro. to corp: ; taken pris- 
oner May 2, 1S63; wounded July 28, 1864; di.sch. June 13, 1SC5. 
Bond, Wm., wagoner, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Sept. 5, 1862 ; disch. May 28, 1865. 
Burbank, Monroe A., Co. K, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; pro. to Corp.; 

disch. with company. 
Chillis, Aaron, Co. K, 14th Inf.; must. Dec. 17, 1861 ; disch. June 26, 1S62. 
Chillis, Frank, Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Chillis, Frank, Co. C, 17th Inf. ; must. Dec. 2, 1S64 ; pro. to chief musician ; 

disch. with company, June 4, 1865. 
Durgin, William E., Co. K, 14th Inf. ; must. Dec. 28, 1S61 ; trans, to D. S. Art., 

Nov. 15, 1862. 
Dorinan, George H., Corp., Co. K, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Davis, Albert H., Co.K, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Dunnells, Mark W., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Fitzgerald, Edw., Co. C, 15th Inf.; must. Feb. 6, 1S65 ; missing March 19, 1805. 
Fernald. Stephen, Co. K, 27th Inf; must. Oct. 15, 1862; disch. with company. 
Fost, Alvin A., Co. C, 17th Inf. ; must. Jan. 26, 1864 ; trans, to Vet. Kes. Corps. 
Greaner, George G., Co. K, 27lh Inf ; must. Oct. 15, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Griffin, Barney, Co. D, 14tli Inf.; must. Feb. 27, 18G5; disch. Aug. 28,1805. 
Goodwin, Waldron, Co. U, 12th Inf. ; must. Nov. 15, 1861 ; disch. March 12, 1864. 
Goodwin, George W., Co. C, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 2S, 1862; disch. 1865. 
Goodwin, A. B., Co. C, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 28, 1862; disch. 1865. 
Goodwin, Adam, Co. I, 3d Inf. ; must. Aug. 28, 1862. 
Goodwin, George W., Co. I, .3d Inf.; must. Aug. 28, 1862; taken prisoner. May 

2, 1862. 
Giles, John H., Co. B, 3d Inf.; must. July 26, 1862; missing Sept. 6, 1862. 
Giles, William D., Co. B, 3d Inf; must. July 26, 1862; mifsiug Sept. 6, 1S62. 
Hauniford, George 0., Co. I, let Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 18D1; wounded Aug. 15, 

1S64; pro. to Corp.; disch. June 13, 1865. 
Home, Joseph F., Co. K, 14th Inf. ; must. Dec. 17, 1861 ; trans, to U. S. Art., Nov. 

15, 1862. 
Hayes, John M., 1st sergt., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1SG2 ; disch. with 

Langley, Henry L., 12th Inf 
Libby, Benjamin F., musician, Co. I, Ist Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 

25, 1864. 
Loud, Edward H., Co. K, 14th Inf; must. Dec. 17, 1861; pro. to sergt.; died 

Oct. 17, 1862. 
Leighton, Ephraim, Co. K, 14th Inf. ; must. Dec. 17, 1861 ; disch. June 25, 1862. 
Linscott, Joseph L., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1862 ; disch. April 24, 1803. 
Longee, Lorenzo J., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1862; disch. with company. 
Mitchell, Nahum W., Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1S61 ; pro. to Corp.; taken 

prisoner. May 2, 1863; exchanged; re-enl. Jan. 1, 1864; pro. to sergt.; 

killed March 31, 1805. 
Murry, Eussell, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 25, 1864. 
Maddox, James, Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 22, 1862. 
Morgan, WilUam F., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1862; disch. with company. 
MuiTJhy, Joseph W., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Newhegin, Daniel C, blacksmith, Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; dropped 

from rolls, 1S65. 
Newbegin, Luke, Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Palmer, William V., Co. I, 3d Inf. ; must. July 26, 1862 ; missing July 2, 1863. 
Patch, Henry, Co. C, 29th Inf. ; must. Jan. 1,1804; died at Natchez, Miss., July 

8, 1864. 
Patch, Woodbury J., Co. K, 14th luf. ; must. Dec. 17, 1862 ; missing at battle of 

Baton Rouge. 
Quimby, Joseph B., Co. I, 3d Inf.; must. July 26, 1862 ; taken prisoner Slay 2, 

Roberts, John C, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; taken prisoner July 16, 

1863 ; pro. to sergt. ; disch. Nov. 25, 1864. 
Rogei-3, Aaron, 15th Inf. 

Reed, Henry A., Co. H, 12th Inf. ; must. Nov. 15, 1861; disch. with company. 
Reed, William A., Co. H, 12th Inf.; muat. Nov. 15, 1S61 ; disch. Aug. 7, 1862. 
Rogers, Benjamin M., wagoner, Co. K, 14th Inf.; must. Dec. 17, 1861; disch. 

June 15, 1802. 
Reed, George C, Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1S62 ; disch. with company. 
Eoberts, Moses S., Co. B, 29th Inf. ; muat. Jan. 0, 1864; disch. 1865. 
Shephard, Hiram W., Co. H, 12th Inf. ; must. Nov. 15, 1861 ; re-enl. January, 

1804; transferred. 
Stone, John W., Co. K, 14th Inf. ; must. Dec. 30, 1861; died at New Orleans, 

June 7, 1862. 
Straw, Leroy 0., Co. K, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. Jan. 8, 1863. 


stone, Simon, Jr., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1862 ; disch. with ( 
Smith, Bennett P., Co. E, 1st H. Art.; must. June 29, 1864; disch. Sept. 1, I860. 
Wood, James V., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Aug. 6, 1S62 ; disch. May 20, 1864. 
Wood, John P., Co. I, Ist Car.; must. Oct. 31, 1861; orderly at brigade head- 

qu.irters ; pro. to sergt.; disch. June 20, 1865. 
Woodman, Charles A., Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; missing Xor. 10, 

1861; discli. June 25, 18G2; died at New Orleans, La. 
Waterhousc, George, Co. K, 14th Inf.; must. Dec. 30, 1861; disch. with com- 

Wilson, Jolin E., Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, 1.S61 ; pro. to Corp. ; disch. 

with company. 
Young, John, Co. K, 27th Inf. ; must. Oct. 15, ISOl ; disch. with company. 

Cole, Thomas, 50th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Davis, James M., 2d New Hampshire Infantrj'. 
Droers, Samuel D., 1st Massachusetts Cavalry. 
Goodwin, William H., 1st New Hampshire Battery. 
Howe, John, 25th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Langley, Alonzo, 1st Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Leighton, Edwin 6., 4th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Leighton, Lewis, 50th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Morris, William A., 6th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Quimby, John, 20th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Roberts, William M., 42d Massachusetts Infantry. 
Sanborn, Drew A., 9th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Shepherd, James, 3d Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Stevens, Horace P., 44th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Wliitehouse, Benjamin F., 2d Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Willard, John, 6th U. S. Infantry. 

T, 1SG2 ; ex- 

Abbott, John P., Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; taken prisi 

changed ; discharged Nov. 25, 1864. 
Allen, Seth G., Co- B, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Arey, Albert D., Co. D, 1st Bat. Inf; must. April 5, 1865. 
Bekell, Moses, Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 25, 1864. 
Blaborn, John, Co. B, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; missing Oct. 18, 1862. 
Boston, Elijah, Co. B, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; missing Oct. 3, 1862. 
Bi-ackett, David H., Co. B, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to coip. ; disch. 

with company, July 17, 1863. 
Birchsted, James F., Co. H, 31st Inf ; must. April 21, 1864. 
Church, Joseph W., Co. G, 3(ith Inf; must. Jan. 6, 1864; died Jan. 17, 1804. 
Dillingham, Seth, sergt., Co. F, Sth Inf ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; pro. to 1st sergt. ; 

pro. to 2d lieut. ; wounded July 4, 1S64; disch. I8i)5. 
Dillingham, John L., Corp., Co. B, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

Edgerly, Austin, Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861; disch. July, 1862. 
Elbridge, Edwin W., Co. B, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Ford, Orrin P., Co. A, Sth Inf.; must. Sept. 2, 1862; wonnded at Drury's Bluff, 

May 16, 1864 ; disch. June 12, 1865. 
Goodwin, Thomas E., Co. K, 14th Inf. ; mi 
Gray, Gemj' w .. - • )■■, -Tt h Ii.t ; n. :-i 
Gray, .Syh. • ■ 1: : I : , - ~ 
Guptill, I> , ' I : 

Hubbard, Ti:.. ii;y II ^ l-t !: ,1:^ 1 . K, 1 1 

,1861; disch. June 15, 1862. 
■G2 ; disch. Oct. 20, 1862. 
J ; disch. with company. 
; died Aug. 14, 1864. 
list. Dec. 17, 1861 ; resigned 

Hanson, John B., sergt., Co. K, 14th Inf ; 

Hauscom, Levi P., musician, Co. I, 1st Ca 

Harvey, George D., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; pro. to corp., 1863 ; disch. 
Jan. 10, 1865. 

Hall, John, q.ra. sergt., 27lh Inf ; must. Sept. 19, 1862; pro. to 2J lieut., Co. E, 
Dec. 31, 1862. 

Hurd, Moses, 1st lieut., Co. B, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 39, 1862; disch. with com- 

Hanson, Lorenzo S., Corp., Co. B, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Hanson, John S., Co. B, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 18G2; disch. with company. 

Hobbs, Waldron, Co. G, 30 Inf; mnst. Dec. 28, 1863; died July 23, 1804. 

Hartley, John, Co. B, 9th Inf ; substitute ; mnst. Sept. 14, 1804. 

Heron, William, Co. K, 2;th Inf ; must. March 14, 1865 ; disch. 1865. 

Hall, Freeman, assist, surg., 29th Inf ; must. Sept. 19, 1862 ; disch. with regt. 

Littlefleld, Jonathan, sergt., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1801 ; disch. March 

3, 1803. 
Littlefleld, Dependence S., Co. I, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; disch. Dec. 27, 

Littlefleld, Charles F., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; nmst. Aug. 22, 1862 ; taken prisoner. May 

11, 1804; died in prison, Oct. 14, 1804. 
Lord, Charles P., 1st sergt., Co. F, 8th Inf ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; pro. to 2d and 

1st lieuts. ; acting q.m. of Sth Inf; returned to company in 1863; disch. 

Dec. 5, 1803. 
Linscott, Jeddiah, recruit, Sth Inf; must. Aug. 28, 1S62; trans, to Inv,ilid 

Corps, 1863. 
Libby, Philander H., Corp., Co. B, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1802; disch. with 


. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with 

Lampkin, Gilman H., Co. B, 27th ) 

Littlefleld, Thaddeus, Co. B, 27th Inf ; must. Oct. 16, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Lane, Henry S., Co. B, 9th Inf; must. Sept. 20, 1864; substitute. 

Moore, Delmont, Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861; disch. Nov. 26, 1864. 

Moore, George A., Co. B, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Murray, Kendall G., Co. G, 30th Inf ; must. Dec. 28, 1863 ; disch. with company. 

McCarthy, Patrick, Co. A, 31st Inf ; must. Nov. 3, 1864 ; disch. April 7, 1865. 

Neal, John F., Co. B, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Pierce, Benjamin, Co. G, 30th Inf. ; must. Dec. 28, 1863; disch. Feb. 13, 1865. 

Koberts, William J., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 15, 1861 ; missing March 21, 1862. 

Perkins, John, Co. B, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Pike, William C, Co. B, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Pray, William H., Co. B, 27lh Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Tufts, James W., Co. B, 27th Inf; must. March 3, 1864; disch. June 14, 1865. 

Tibbetts, Richard, Co. C, 9th Inf ; must. Sept. 15, 1864; substitute; disch. with 
company, 1865. 

Tufts, John W., Co. B, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Tufts, Wilson C, Co. B, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Twombly, Henry W,,Co. B, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. witli company. 

Taylor, Lewis B., Co. A, loth Inf; i 

Taylor, Burleigh, Co. G, 30th Inf ; 1 
Aug. 13, 1864. 

Walker, Samuel, Co. G, 30th Inf; must. Dec. 28, 1863; disch. with company. 

Willey, Andrew, Co. B, 27th Il'f ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 

Wilson, Joseph B., Co. B, 27th Inf ; must Sept. SO, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Wormwood, Joseph, Co. K, 6th Inf; must. March 19, 1862 ; wonnded at Fred- 
ericksburg, May 3, 1863; pro. to 1st lieut. 

Wyman, Joseph, recniit, Sth Inf ; must. Aug. 28, 1862. 

Bedell, Irving A., 6th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Billings, John F., 5th Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Came, Virgil M., 5th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Cutts, Charles A., 6th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Goodwin, Joseph W.,U. S. Navy. 
Gilpatrick, Reuben, 5th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Hauscom, James A., U. S. Navy. 
Joy, Samuel, Sth New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Meader, Henry, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Rowell, Charles H., 5th New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Reed, Freeman A., 5th Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Staples, Frank, New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Tibbetts, Harrison, 5th Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Tomy, Thomas, 5th Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Willis, John, Sth New Hampshire Volunteers. 

Ames, John, Co. K, 14th Inf; must. Dec. 17, 1861 ; missing at Augusta, Me., 

Feb. 2, 1802. 
Andrews, Jiimes E., Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Bickford, Merrill W., Co. K, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1S61 ; disch. with company. 

May 7, 1S63. 
Bodge, Erastus, Co. — , 10th Inf ; must. October, 1801. 
Bickford, Cyrus L., Co. A, 11th Inf; must. Nov. 7, 1861; disch. 1862. 
Bickford, Asael, Co. H, 14th Inf ; must. Jan. 27, 1S62 ; died July 23, 1863. 
Burbank, John P., Co. H, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Burbank, Luther S., Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, '62 ; disch. with company. 
Burnham, Thatcher W., Co. H, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, 1S62; disch. with 

Coombs, Artemas, Co. K, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. with company. 
Coombs, Artemas, Co. I, 1st Cav.; must. Dec. 16, 1863 ; disch. 1865. 
Clough, John B., Co. A, 11th Inf. ; must. Nov. 7, 1861 : dropped from rolls, 1862. 
Carter, James, Co. A, 11th Inf. ; must. Sept. 13, 1862 ; in q.m. dept., 1864 ; disch. 

June 12, 1865. 
Clough, Charles H., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Dec. 24, 1863 ; died June 21, 1865. 
Clough, William A., Co. L, 2d Cav.; must. Dec. 24, 1863; disch. with company. 
Colcord, Henry W., 29th unassigned Inf ; must. April 26, 1865. 
Day, Silas, Co. E, 2d Cav.; must. Oct. 6, 1864; disch. Oct. 5, 1865. 
Deers, John E., Co. A, 11th Inf ; must. Nov. 7, 1861 ; dropped from rolls, 1863. 
Dodge, John M., Co. 1, 1st Cav.; must, Oct. 31, 1861 ; pro. to acting q.m. sergt.; 

re-enl. ; wounded, Oct. 27, 1S64 ; pro. to 1st sergt. ; disch. August, 1865. 
Doe, Bradbury P., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Sept. 16, 1862 ; disch. May 28, 1865. 
Dow, Howard H., Co. H, 14th Inf ; must. Jan. 28, 1862 ; wounded Oct. 19, 1864 ; 

disch. with company. 
Davis, Charles, Corp., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 
Dearborn, Moses S., Co. H, 27th Inf; mnst. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. Jan. 26, '63. 
Dearborn, Moses S., Co. I, 2d Cav. ; must. Oct. 13, 1864 ; disch. Oct. 13, 1805. 
Duunells, Loring, Co. H, 27th Inf ; mnst. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Edgerly, George W., Co. K, 1st Inf; must. May 3, 1861, for three months. 
Eastman, Haskett, Co. — , 9th Inf ; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; re-enl. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Eastman, Marshall S., band, 11th Inf; must. Oct. 29, 1861; disch. with band, 

September, 1862. 
Eastman, Charles, Co. F, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 19, 1861 ; wounded June 21, 1863 ; 

taken prisoner, Oct. 12, 1863. 


Edgcomb, Edwin P. E., Co. F, Ist Car. 

Emerson, Henry B., 29th Co., unas-signed Inf. ; must. April 25, I860. 

Edwards, Nathaniel S., Co. F, Ut Car.; must. Oct. 19, 1801; takeu prisoner 

March 1, 1863. 
Eastman, Frank, Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 3n, 1S62; disch. with compan.v. 
Eastman, (Jreenleaf, Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. Jan. 26, 1863; 

re-enl. iu 29th Co., unassigned Inf. ; April 25, 1S64. 
Foster, Charles H., Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Goodwin, John M., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30; missing Nov. 27, 1862; 

disch. with company. 
Gustavus, Charles, Co. F, 11th Inf.; must. Oct. 13, 1864; substitute. 
Hilton, George W., Co. B, 8th Inf. ; must. Sept. 7, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 16, 18G4. 
Hill, Albra, Co. G, 13th Inf.; must. Dec. 31, 1861 ; disch. Feb. 7, 1862. 
Hodsdon, William, Jr., Co. D, 20th Inf.; must. Aug. 29, 1862; trans, to In- 
valid Corps, April 30, 1863. 
Hodsdon, David, Co. C, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company, 

July 17, 1863. 
Hilton, Charles A., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

with company. 
Hill, Albert G., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Hurd, John A., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Jackson, Abel, Co. D, 20th Inf. ; must. Aug. 29, 1862 ; died Jan 9, 1863. 
Johnson, John 0., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Kidder, George E., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862 ; disch. with company. 
Keene, Harrison M., sergt., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; pro. to 1st 

sergt. ; disch. with company. 
Kimball, Daniel, 29th Co., unassigned Inf.; must, April 25, 1865. 
Longee, Enoch G., Co. F, IstCav.; must. Oct. 19,1861; pro. to Corp.; re-enl. 

December, 1863 ; disch. Aug. 1, 1865. 
Longee, John E., Corp., Co. F, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 19, 1861 ; pro. to q.ra. sergt. ; 

re-enl. Dec. 31, 1863 ; pro. to 1st sergt. and 1st lieut. ; disch. Aug. 1, 1865. 
Longee, William H., Co. F, 1st Cav. ; must. Oct. 20, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 25, 1864. 
Libby, Edwin A., Co. 6, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 31, 1861 ; re-enl. 1864 ; pro. to 

chief musician of regiment. 
Lord, Edward, Co. H, 27lh Inf. ; must. Sept. 30. 1862 ; disch. with company, July 

Lord, Edward, Co. L, 2d Cav.j must. Dec. 24, 1863 ; disch. ' 

6, 1805. 
Mnckie, Thomas, Co. G, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 29, 1864; disch. 1805. 
Murphy, Michael, Co. F, 9th Inf ; must. Sept. 27,1804; substitute; missing; 

returned; disch. 1865. 
Marston, Joseph L., Co. H, 14th Inf.; must. Jan. 27, 1862; disch. June 18,1864. 
Moore, Charles M., sergt., Co. A, 11th Inf.; must. Nov. 7, 1861 ; sick, 1862 ; disch. 

September, 1802. 
Moore, Calvin D., Co. A, 11th Inf. ; must. Nov. 7, 1861 ; wounded at Fair Oaks, 

1862; disch.Sept. 19, 1862. 
Murphy, Daniel, Co. G, 13th Inf. ; must. Dec. 12, 1861; died Nov. 15, 1863. 
Maddox, Lnther, Co. B, 3d Inf. ; must. July 29, 1862 ; died Dec. 3, 1862. 
Moore, John, Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Morrison, Ivory, Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Moulton, Alonzo P., Co. H, 27th Inf ; must. Sept.30, 1862; disch. with compauy. 
Moulton, Alonzo P., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Oct. 5, 1864 ; disch. Oct. 4, I860. 
Moody, James P., Co. B, 9th Inf. ; must. Sept. 20, 1864; drafted ; disch. June 30, 

Moore, Reuben, Co. B, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 23, 1864; disch. with company. 
Newbegin, Engene A., Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; must. Feb. 10,1864; disch. June 24,1805. 
Pray, William 0., Co. E, 2d Cav. ; must. Oct. 5, 1864 ; disch. Oct. 5, 1805. 
Kamsell, J. Lewis, Co. E, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 22, 1801 ; re-enl. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Palmer, Charles E., Co. A, 11th Inf. ; must. Nov. 7,1861 ; wounded at Fair Oaks ; 

disch. 1863. 
Perkins, George E., Co. I, Ist Cav.; must. Oct. 31, 1861 ; re-enl. Jan. 1, 1864 ; 

pro. to Corp. ; disch. Juno 20, 1865. 
Pendextcr, Paul, Jr., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Philbrick, Ira A., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Piper, James, Co. B, 9th Inf.; must. Sept. 20, 1864; disch. 1865. 
Pierce, William S., Co. F, 11th Inf. ; must. Oct 13, 1864 ; disch. Oct. 12, 1865. 
Kidlon, William, Co. H, 271h Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with compauy. 
Koss, Hugh, Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1802; disch. with company. 
Suter, John F., Co. H, 14th Inf.; must. Jan. 27, 1862 ; disch. Sept. 16, 1862. 
Simpson, Daniel F., Co. D, 20th Inf.; must. Aug. 29, 1862; died Nov. 11, 1862. 
Smart, Almond 0., 1st lieut., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30,1862; pro. tocapt., 

Nov. 20, 1862 ; disch. with company. 
Sullivan, John, Co. G, 9th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1864. 
Sanborn, Newton, 29lh Co., unassigned Inf.; must. April 25, 1865. 
Sanborn, Clinton F., 29th Co., unassigned Inf.; must. April 25, 1865. 
Smith, Stillmau C, sergt., 29th Co., unassigned Inf. ; must. April 25,1865; disch. 

witli company. 
Sadler, Edwin A., 29th Co., unassigned Inf ; must. April 25, 1865 ; disch. with 


. .\pril 25,1865; c 

. with 

April 25, 1865; disch. 

Scates, David W.C.,2 

Smith, James M., 29th Co., unassigned ] 

Stone, Lewis G., 29th Co., unassigned Inf. ; must. April 25,1865; disch. with 

company, July 27, 1863. 
Stone, Lewis G., Co. L, 2d Cav. ; must. Dec. 24, 1863 ; disch. with company, Dec. 

6, 1865. 

Turk, Cass, Co. A, 11th Inf. ; must. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 23, 1863. 

Tuck, Samuel U.,Co. F, 7th Inf.; must. Aug. 21,1861 ; trans, to Co. D, 1862; 

died April 12, 1863. 
Varney, Aaron, Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept.30, 1862; disch. with company, 

July 17, 1863. 
Varney, Aaron. Co. D, 2d Cav. ; must. Oct. 5, 1864 ; disch. Oct. 4, 1865. 
Welch, Charles H., Co. H, 27th Inf. ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. Oct. 4, 1865. 
Wilson, George W., Co. H, 16th Inf.; must. Aug. 14, 1862; taken prisoner; 

died in Ander.-onville, July 20, 1804. 
Wood, Charles I., Co. A, lllh Inf. ; must. Nov. 7, 1861. 
Wood, Ira D., Co. A, 11th Inf.; must. Nov. 7, 1861 : disch. Sept. 19, 1862. 
Wood, Charles H., Co. H, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; died Nov. 14, 1862, at 

Camp Seward. 
Williams, William H.. Co. C, 9th Inf.; must. Oct. 1, 1864: disch. June 30, 1865. 

Bailey, Edwin, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Bailey, Edwin, 50th Massachusetts Infantry. 
Bickford, George M., lolst Illinois Infantry. 
Chick, John E., 3d New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Clough, Ira, 3d New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Davis, James, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Eastman, Clark, 3d New Hampshire Volunteers. 
French, Lorenzo, New Hampshire Volnnteers. 
Hayes, Ivory, New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Hayes, William, New Hampshire Volunteers. 
Longee, John E.. Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Moore, Charles M., Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Morrill, George W., SOth Massachusetts Infantiy. 
Ramsell, Franklin, Massachusetts VoluntcerB. 


•ntal baud, 2d Inf.; must. June 14,1861; discb. Aug. 

I Inf. ; must. June 24, l.?61 ; disch. with company, July 

Atkinson, William H., Co. C, 5th Inf. : must. June 24, 1861 ; wounded May In, 

1864 ; disch. with company, July 27, 1864. 
Andrews, George H., Co. C, 6th Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; wounded May 10, 

1864; disch. with company, July 27, 1864. 
Adams, Benj. W., Co. C, 5th Inf.; must. Aug. 26, 1862 ; disch. Feb. 16, 1863. 
Allen, Isaac A., Co. C, 5th Inf.: must. Oct. 10, 1802; trans, to 1st Vet. Inf., July, 

Abbott, Aaron M., Co. E, 9th Inf.; n 
Adams, John Q., capt., Co. A, loth : 

pany, Oct. 26, 1864 « 
Adams, Benjamin W., Co. C, 5th Inf. ; must. Aug. 26, 1862 ; disch. Feb. 10, 1863. 
Andrews, George H., Vet. Res. Corps; must. March 21, 1865. 
Allen, John H., Co. D, 2d Cav. ; must. Sept. 30, 1864; disch. Oct. 4, 1865. 
Atkins, Charles P., Co. A, 27th Inf.; mtist. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with company. 
Andrews, Watson, wagoner, 6tli Bat. SI. Art.; must. May 10, 1862; re-enl. 1864. 
Adams, Franklin C, sergt., Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; pro. to 1st 

sergt. and 2d lieut.; discharged from wounds, 1864. 
Abbott, Allen H., Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. with company, 

June 4, 1865. 
Atchinson, Charles, Co. G, 30th Inf.; must. June 6, 1864. 

Bagley, William H., Co. I, 31st Inf.; must. April 0, 1864; disch. June 24, 1866. 
Barnal.y, Ephraim B., Co. K, 1st Cav.; must. Feb. 16, 1864. 
Babb, Lothrop, wagoner, Co. K, 1st Cav. ; must. Feb. 16, 1864 ; pro. to corp. ; 

disch. June 8, 1865. 
Bean, Burns K., Co K, 1st Cav.; must. Feb. 16, 1864: disch. Aug. 14, 1865. 
Beach, Addison H., Co. K, 13th Regt.; must. Jan. 2, 1862; died July 21, 1864. 
Barrows, David S., 1st sergt., Co. A, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with 

compauy, July 17, 1863. 
Bradbury, Edward, Co. A, 27th Inf.; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 
pany, July 17, 1863. 

, Sept. 30, 1802 ; disch. with i 
Sept. 30, 1S62; disch. with 
. Sept. 30, 1S62; disch. with 
,t. Sept. 

0, 1862; disch. ' 

Bradbury, Ehen H. C, Co. A, 27th Inf.; 

pany, July 17, 1803. 
Bradbuiy, Joseph F., Co. A, 27th Inf.; 

pany, July 17, 1863. 
Bradbury, Charles W., Co. A, 27th Inf. ; 

pany, July 17, 1863. 
Bailey, Albert, wagoner, Co. F, 27th Inf 

pany, July 17, 1S03. 
Bell, George W., Co. D, 16th Inf; must. July 30, 1803; taken prisoner. May 5, 

1804; trans, to 20tli Inf., June 5, 1865. 
Benson, Robert, Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1802; wonnded May 27, 1864; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Cori)s. 
Bradbury, Augustus F., Co. 1, 17th Inf. ; must. Aug. IS, 1862; disch. with corn- 
Brand, Thomas, Co. I, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1802; pro. corp. and sergt., 

1864 ; disch. with company. 

* Companies A and D, which were the only three years' companies of the 
loth Regiment, were known .is Company A and Battalion 10th Maine, from 
Nov. 1, 1803, to May 31, 1804, when they became a part of the 29th Infantry. 


Bryaut, Stephen, Co. 1, 17th Inf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862 ; wounded May 6, 1864 ; 

disch. with company. 
Baker, Cyrus, Co. 1, 17th luf.; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. April 7, 186.). 
Bell, Joseph, Co. M, 2d Cav. ; must. Oct. 4, 1864 ; disch. Oct. 10, 18S5. 
Bootliby, Andrew, Co. M, 2d Cav. ; must. Oct. 4, 1864; disch. Oct. 10, 1865. 
Bryant, Eron J., Co. M, 2d Cav. ; must. Sept. 1 6, 1802 ; taken prisoner at rreder- 

icksburg. May 3, 1803; trans, to Ist Vet. Inf., 1804. 
Barrows, David S., 2d lieut., Co. C, oth Inf.; must. June 24, 1861 ; pro. to capt., 

Aug. 15, 1861 ; resigned Jan. 20, 18G2. 
Basseck, Josiah T., Co. C, 5th Inf. ; must. June 24, 1861. 
Bell, Joseph, Co. C, .5th Inf.; must. June 24, 18C1; wounded May W, 1864; 

disch. with company. 
Bryant, Eron J., Co. C, 5th Inf ; must. Sept. 16, 1862 ; taken prisoner at Freder- 
icksburg, May 3, 1863. 
Berry, David, Co. C, 5th Inf.; must. July 25, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 6, 1SG2. 
Barrows, Daniel D., Co. E, 9th Inf; must. Sept. 22, 1861 ; tr.ins. to Signal Corps, 

Boothby, Francis A., Jr., Co. E, 9th Inf.; 

1864; pro. to sergt. 
Bracket!, George H., Co. A, Intli Inf; mi 

with company. 
Cole, Edwin, Co. A, 10th Inf ; must. Nov. : 

. Sept. 22, 1801 ; 

. Jan. 12, 

1801; re-enl. Feb. 8, 1864; trans- 

Cbappell, Joseph H., Co. A, luth Inf. ; must. Oct. 16, 1861 ; 

25,1802; exchanged; disch. with company. 
Cross, Thaddeus, Co. A, 10th Inf. ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; pro. • 

CoUum, John, Jr., Co. A, 10th Inf ; t 

. Oct. 4, 1861 ; pro. to corp. ; disch. with 

ChaJbourne, Edward C, Corp., Co. C, 5th Inf ; must. June 24, 1S6I ; pro. to 1st 

sergt. ; killed at South Mountain, 1862. 
Cillea, John, Co. C, 5th Inf; must. June 24, 1861; wounded May :), 1803; 

wounded May 10, 1804; disch. with company. 
Cole, Alonzo, Co. C, olh luf ; must. June 24, 18G1 ; missing, Sept. 7, 1862. 
Collins, Daniel, Co. C, oth Inf ; must. June 24, 1861; killed at Gaines' Mills, 

Caderette, Euzeb, Co. C, 5lh Inf ; must. Sept. 20, 1802 ; wounded May 12, 1864 ; 
trans, to 1st Vet. Inf 

Chandler, Moses S., Co. A, 9th Inf ; must. Oct. 4, 1861 ; missing June 9, 1862. 

Cross, Tliaddeus, Co. A, 9th Inf ; must. Oct. 4, 1801 ; disch. Aug. 11, 1802. 

Carter, Otis, Co. K, 13th Inf; must. Dec. 13, 1861; debiched as nurse, 1863. 

Casson, Joseph, Co. A, 27th luf; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Cheilis, Albion K. P., Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862; disch. with com- 

Cluff, Samuel, Co. A, 27th luf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. with company. 

Corsens, Francis J., Co. A, 27th luf ; must. Sept. 30, 1862 ; disch. witli company. 

Clark, Thomas, Co. 1, 17th Inf; must. Aug. 18, 1862; disch. with company. 

Cole, Edward, Co. F, 29th Inf; must. Jan. 1, 1864; missing May .31, 1865. 

Consens, Jiison, Co. F, 30lh Inf ; must. Jan. 6, 1864 ; pro. to corp. ; disch. with 
company, August, 1865. 

Cole, Alonzo, 1st Vet. Reserve; must. March IS, 1865. 

Dunn, Alanson, Corp., Co. A, 27th Inf; must. Sept. 30, ISCl ; discb. with 

Davis, William G., Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1861 ; disch. with company. 

Dunn, Daniel, Co. A, 27th Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1861 ; disch. with company. 

Dyer, Thomas, Jr., Co. A, 27tli Inf ; must. Sept. 30, 1861. 

Deering, George A., 2d lieut., Co. F, 16th Inf. ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; pro. to 1st 
lieut.; taken prisoner July 1, 1863; pro. to capt., 1804; disch. with com- 
pany, June 5, 1865. 

Davis, Josiah B., Co. F, 16th Inf ; must. Aug. 14, 1862 ; died in Richmond, June, 

Dennett, Eli, wagoner, Co. C, 5th Inf; must. June 24,1861; pro. to brigade 
wagonmaster, 1863. 

Davis, "Walter H., Co. C, otli Inf.; must. June 24, 1S61 ; died Nov. 30, 1861. 

Deering, James, Co. C, 5th Inf ; must. June 24, 1861 ; missing July 24, 1861. 

Dennett, Joseph C , Co. C, 5th Inf; must. June 24, 1861; re-enl. Jan. 13, 1864, 
in 1st Vet. Inf. 

. June 24, 1861 ; disch. 1S63. 

ist. Feb. 24; disch. Aug. 1, 1862. 

ist. June 24,1861; pro. to drummer, 1861 ; 

Drew, Abram, Co. C, 5th Inf ; nw 
Day, Woodbury, Co. C, 6th lof ; ) 

Deas, James D., Co. C, 5th : 
disch. witli company.