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Organization of the County — Topography — Geol- Pennsylvania Line, Pulaski's Legion and Armand's 

ogy — The Indians i Legion at York — Quartermaster's Posts in 

York County 214 

Indian Conferences of 1721 and 1722— Keith's CHAPTER XVI. 

Newberry Tract 17 British and Hessian Prisoners — Baron and Bar- 
oness Riedesel at York 225 


Springettsbury Manor— Blunston's Licenses 35 CHAPTER XVII. 

Associators — Muster Rolls and Pensioners 242 


Border Troubles— The Chester County Plot— CHAPTER XVIII. 

Colonel Thomas Cresap 68 Continental Congress at York— First National 

Thanksgiving — A r t i c 1 e s of Confederation 

CHAPTER V. Adopted— Proceedings in 1778 288 

The Boundary Line — Digges' Choice — Manor of f^uATDTrD vtv 

Maske — The Temporary Line — Mason and 

Dixon's Line 68 Alliance with France — Death of Philip Living- 
ston — Baron Steuben at York — The Conway 
CHAPTER VI. Cabal— Gates-Wilkinson Duel— Members of 
Pioneers and Pioneer Life 98 Congress 313 

Early Highways— Roads, Ferries and Bridges 106 Whiskey Insurrection 340 


Friends or Quakers 106 War of 1812— Rendezvous at York 341 


Mexican War — York County Soldiers 349 


The Scotch-Irish 128 

' ' The Civil War— Camp Scott — Regimental Muster 

The Germans-Mennonites-German Baptists- Rolls-Confederate Invasions of 1862 and 1863 353 

Dutch and Huguenot Colony — Early Marriages 

and Baptisms 128 CHAPTER XXIV. 


Emergency Troops — Confederates at York and 

Wrightsville — United States Hospital at York.. 402 

The French and Indian War 147 


CHAPTER XII. Battle of Hanover— The Monument 425 

The Revolution — First York County Troops — Bat- „„ _„„ v^-irr 

^1 J. T Tit CrlAr i r.K AA.V1. 

tie 01 Long Island 157 

The Spanish- American War 451 


The Flying Camp — Battles of Fort Washington, m ^ j at r a7 1 ^ 

„ ■ . i, . '^ ' Noted Men of York County 454 

I renton and Prmceton 177 


CHAPTER XIV. „, „ , , ,, T, 

The Bench and the Bar 477 

Battles of Brandywine, Paoli, Germantown and 

Monmouth— Major John Clark— G e n e r a 1 CHAPTER XXIX. 

Henry Miller — Colonel Thomas Hartley 191 The Medical Profession 515 



Page _ Page 

Educational 538 City of York— ^Military and Fire Department 780 

The Printing Press 549 City of York— ^larkets, Inns Hotels 794 


Political — Post Offices — Census Reports S59 u 1 r xj o 

^ ■'•'^ Borough of Hanover 807 


Slavery in York County — The Underground Rail- 

"1 Cross Roads — Dallastown — D e It a — Dillsburg — 

Dover — East Prospect — Fawn Grove — Felton — 

CHAPTER XXXIV. Franklintown— Glen .Rock— Goldsboro— Jefifer- 

Turnpikes— Canals— Railroads— Telegraph — Tele- son— Lewisberry— Loganville 855 

phone 599 


CHAPTER XXXV. :Manchester— New Freedom— Railroad— Red Lion 

Storms and Floods — Weather Observations 621 — Seven Valley — Shrewsbury — Spring Grove — 

nTj wTTu Y\-\-\'T — Stewartstown — Wellsville — Windsorville — 

Winterstown — Wrightsville — Yoe — York Ha- 
Distilling and Tobacco Culture 628 ven— York New Salem 896 

City of Y'ork — Early History 633 

Township History — Carroll — Chanceford — Codorus 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. —Conewago— Dover 939 

City of York — Before and After iSoo 646 CHAPTER T 

CHAPTER XXXIX. Fairview— Fawn— Franklin— Heidelberg— Hellam— 
City of York— Religious History 676 Hopewell— Jackson— Lower Chanceford 966 


City of York— Schools, Societies, Libraries 724 Lower Windsor— Manchester and East ^lanchester 

CHAPTER NTT — !Manheim — Monaghan — Newberry — North 

Codorus — Paradise — Peach Bottom 1008 

City of York — Visits of Famous Men 738 


City of York— Banks and Manufacuring 749 Penn— Shrewsbury— Springfield — Springgettsbury 

— Spring Garden — Warrington — Washington — 

CHAPTER XLIII. West Manchester— West Manheim— Windsor 
City of York — Public Enterprises 770 York 1058 


List of Portraits in Volume I. 


Atlee, William Augustus 486 

Bailey, Daniel D 868 

Barnitz, Charles A 566 

Barnitz, George Augustus 806 

Black, Chauncey F 458 

Black, Jeremiah S 454 

Custer, General George A 430 

Cochran, Thomas E 506 

Durkee, Daniel 486 

Eichelberger, Captain A. W 850 

Farnsworth, General Elon J 430 

Fisher, Robert J 488 

Franklin. Walter 486 

Franklin, General William B 388 

Gibson, John 4qo 

Glatfelter, Philip H 912 

Grumbine, William 854 

Hampton, General Wade 438 

Hancock, John 290 

Hartley, Colonel Thomas 212 

Helb, Frederick poo 

Henry, John Joseph 486 

Kilpatrick, General Hugh Judson 430 

King, George 762 

Krall, John 1092 

Kurtz, William H 768 

Lafean, Charles 766 

Landes, John 1078 

Latimer, James W 492 

Laurens, Henry 296 

Lee, General Fitzhugh . . •. 438 

Lichtenberger, Samuel 1020 

Livingston, Philip 322 

Mayer, John L 504 

Mayer, Rev. Lewis 466 

McLean, James 804 

Miller, General Henry 204 

Niles, Rev. Henry E 704 

Quay, Matthew S 470 

Rebman, Dr. George A , 930 

Ross, James 472 

Small, George 664 

Small, Philip A 654 

Small, Samuel 674 

Small, Samuel, Sr 660 

Small. W. Latimer 670 

Smith, James 338 

Smith, S. Morgan 758 

Stuart, General J. E. B 438 

Weiser, Erastus H 508 

Wells, Abraham 920 

Wiest, Peter 802 

Wilhelm, Artemas 1064 

Young. Hiram 556 

Young, John S 834 

List of Views in Volume I. 


Action at Wrightsville. June, 1863 416 

Adjournment of Continental Congress at York 302 

Almshouse cS^ 

Battle I\Ionument at Hanover 448 

Bird's-eye view of York 7^0 

Centre Church, Fawn Township 974 

Centre Square in 1820 630 

Christ Lutheran Church in 1800 686 

Continental note printed at York 308 

Cookes house 216 

Court House =76 

Court of Honor in Centre Square in 1899 790 

Eichelberger High School 826 

Eighty-seventh Regiment at the Battle of Win- 
chester 364 

Emmanuel Reformed Church, Hanover 826 

Figure of Justice in Colonial Court House 648 

First Presbyterian Church in 1790 700 

First Stone House in York County 1072 

Fi/rst York County Jail 644 

Flax Brake 92 

Geological Map 4 

George Street north and south from Centre Square, 778 

Globe Inn 648 

Hartley, Colonel Thomas and wife 740 

Headquarters of General Wayne 216 

House built in 1745 at Hanover by Colonel Richard 

McAllister 812 

i\Lap of York County 2 

JNIarket Street east and west from Centre Square. . . 774 

Monuments, Smith, Livingston and Soldiers 330 

Moravian parsonage 740 

Newberry Friends' Meeting House 110 

Residence and law office of James Smith 312 

Residence of Baltzer Spangler 1072 

Residence of INIajor Clark 308 

Seal of the Borough of York 644 

South from rear of St. John's Episcopal Church... 652 

Spinning wheels 92 

Springettsbury Manor 26 

St. John's Episcopal Church 700 

Tearing up the Weldon Railroad 382 

U. S. Treasury Building 312 

Warrington Friends' Meeting House no 

West Market Street from Centre Square in 1820... 638 

Western entrance to York in 1844 652 

View of York in 1850 714 

York Collegiate Institute 730 

York County Academy 728 

York Friends' Meeting House 1 14 

York High School 7-^6 

Zion Reformed Church 686 

M^ip of 

York Coumty 





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Organization of York County — Adams 
County Formed — Topography — Geology 
— The Indians — Aboriginal Occupation — 
Indian Traders. 

Chester, Bucks and Philadelphia were 
the three original counties established at 
the first settlement of the Province of 
Pennsylvania, under the direction of its 
founder, William Penn. These counties 
were organized within two months after 
the arrival of Penn in America, under the 
charter granted him by Charles II, King of 
England, March 4, 1681. 

By the treaty of 1718 with the Indians, 
the western boundary of Chester County 
was not definitely established until the erec- 
tion of Lancaster County from Chester, by 
act of May 10, 1729. There were then no 
authorized settlements west of the Susque- 
hanna, within the present limits of York 
County. As far as the treaties with the 
Indians were instrumental in establishing 
county boundary lines, the Susquehanna 
was the western limit of Chester County 
before 1729. 

At the conclusion of the Indian treaty in 
1736, the limits of Lancaster County were 
extended indefinitely westward. It in- 
cluded all of the present counties of York, 
Cumberland, Franklin, Adams, and Dauphin 
and a large portion of Berks and North- 
umberland. The Indians, then being peace- 
ful, the fertile lands west of the Susque- 
hanna were soon occupied by immigrants 
and in a short time hundreds of industrious 
farmers were clearing the lands and plant- 

ing their crops. In a few yeav^ a number 
of petitions were presented to the Pro- 
vincial Council, signed by influential citizens 
of " Lancaster County, west of the Susque- 
hanna," asking for the erection of a new 
county. The causes of these early petitions 
for the formation of a new county were ow- 
ing to the rapid increase of the population 
west of the river, troubles and difficulties 
that arose among settlers, and the long dis- 
tance to the Lancaster court, where a re- 
dress of grievances might be obtained. 

The first petition was presented 

York in 1747, but it was unheard. In 

County 1748, a strong and urgent request 

Formed, was made, whereupon favorable 

action was taken and on August 
19, 1749, the act obtained the official sanc- 
tion of James Hamilton, deputy governor 
of the Province, and York County, the first 
west of the Susquehanna River, and in 
order of date the fifth in the Province of 
Pennsylvania, was formed. The county 
from which it was detached had the historic 
name of Lancaster, after a shire on the west 
coast of North England. East of Lanca- 
shire is the grand old district of Yorkshire, 
rendered memorable by the War of the 
Roses, its magnificent cathedrals and castles 
of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 
and for its ancient manufacturing city of 
York, where the first English Parliament 
assembled in 1160. It has been for a long 
time and is today the largest county of 
England. By the unanimous consent of the 
petitioners for a division of Lancaster 
County in Pennsylvania, and the commis- 
sioners who formed the division, making 
low water mark on the west side of the Sus- 


quehanna the boundary line, York County 
was named after Yorkshire, in England. 
The town of York was laid out and named 
eight years before this event. 

The commissioners named in the act to 
carry out its provisions and lay off the new 
county were Thomas Cox, of Warrington 
Township; Nathan Hussey, of Newberry; 
John Wright, Jr., of Wright's Ferry; George 
Swope, of York, and Michael Tanner of the 
vicinity of Hanover. The first three were 
English Quakers. The others were Ger- 
mans. They all became court justices. 
Tanner was the first leader of the German 
Baptists in York County. 

The boundaries of York County, as then 
formed, which included the present county 
of Adams, according to the Act of Assembly, 
embraced " all and singular the lands lying 
within the Province of Pennsylvania, to the 
westward of the river Susquehanna, and 
southward and eastward of the South 
Mountain to the Maryland line, and from 
thence eastward to the Susquehanna." The 
northern boundary line was not definitely 
established until after the erection of Cum- 
berland County, which was also formed 
from Lancaster, by act of March 27, 1750, 
and named after a maritime county of 
northern England. 

York County, when first formed included 
Adams County and contained 1,469 square 
miles, or about 950,000 acres. In 1749, the 
year of its formation, it had 1,466 taxable 
inhabitants, with an entire population of 
about 6,000. In 1750, there were 1,798 tax- 
ables, and in 175 1 there were 2,043 taxables 
and an entire population of over 8,000. This 
will illustrate how rapidly immigration into 
the county took place, as the increase of 
population in two years was 33 1-3 per 
cent. Immediately after the close of the 
Revolution, in 1783, by an action of the 
county court, the township assessors were 
required to take an enumeration of the peo- 
ple in their respective districts. According 
to their reports, the county in that year 
contained a population of 27,007; of this 
number 17,007 lived within the present 
limits of York County. There were in ad- 
dition to this, 657 colored slaves. 

By an act of Legislature passed 
Adams January 22, 1800, Adams County 
County was formed out of York, with an 
Formed, area of 548 square miles. It 

was named in honor of John Adams, who 
was' then President of the United States. 
This reduced York County to its pres- 
ent area of 921 square miles. York 
County is in the shape of an irregular 
quadrangle, with Mason and Dixon's line 
for the base, a distance of forty miles, and 
is the fourth in line westward of the south- 
ern tier of counties, with Lancaster and 
Dauphin on the east and southeast, the state 
of Maryland on the south, Adams County 
on the west, and Cumberland- and Dauphin 
on the north. The Susquehanna River 
washes the eastern boundary from the 
mouth of the Yellow Breeches to the Mary- 
land line, a distance of fifty-five miles. The 
western boundary line from the southern 
line north eight and a half miles is an exact 
meridian; from thence Beaver Creek and a 
public road form a winding line northwest- 
ward -to a point on the South Mountains, 
where York, Cumberland and Adams meet. 
From here the boundary is a due northeast 
line along a ridge of the South Mountains 
to the Yellow Breeches Creek, continuing in 
nearly the same direction along the many 
bends of this stream to its mouth at the 
Susquehanna, two miles below the city of 


The topographical features of York 
County consist principally of easy-rolling 
hill and valley surface. The county be- 
longs to the open country of the great At- 
lantic plain, with an average elevation of 
about 500 feet above high tide at Philadel- 
phia. A ridge of the South Mountains en- 
ters the northwestern corner of the county 
and terminates above Dillsburg. A spur of 
these mountains extends across Fairview 
Township and down along the Susque- 
hanna. Enclosed within the different 
smaller ridges are the fertile Redland and 
Fishing Creek Valleys, composed of the new 
red sandstone and red shale formations. 
Round Top 1,110 feet above sea level, and 
its quiet neighbor. Knell's Hill, are isolated 
peaks of basalt or trap formation, in War- 
rington Township. The Conewago Hills, 
isolated ridges of South Mountain, termi- 
nates at York Haven. Above Wrights- 
ville, to the mouth of the Codorus Creek, 
extending westward to near the Harrisburg 
Pike, is a woodland ridge of white sand- 


stone, known as Hellam Hills. Between from altitudes measured by practical geolo- 

this elevation and Conewago Hills there is gists of the two different state surveys, and 

a wide extent of red sandstone. still others from the profiles of railroads. 

Pidgeon Hills in the western part of the The following is a table of elevations of 

county, are of elliptical formation. The various points in the county above mean 

southeastern portion of the county contains tide at Philadelphia: 

slate ridges and hills, and extensive quar- p^^t 

ries are worked in Peach Bottom Township, Round Top i,i lo 

yielding roofing slate of the very best qual- ^^^,<; o| Round Top '605 

ity. The Martic Ridge crosses Lancaster Mount Roya.\ ..... .. .....'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. 547 

County. Its western extension passes Conewago Hills, highest point 800 

from the Susquehanna to the vicinity of Wei^J^.jiiy '^^ 

Jefferson. The southern and southwest- FrankUntown .......'...'.'..'.. .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 580 

ern sections of York County are undulat- Emig's Mills 550 

ing, containing here and there woodland Lewisbefrv 60? 

hills. York (Centre' Square) ......'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.['. 385 

Conewago Creek and its branches. Little Webb's Hill 880 

Conewago, Bermudian Creek and Stony imie^sviu" ..!!!.!!'. './! 680 

Run, drain the northern and western por- Loganville ....]..... 734 

tions of the county. Codorus Creek with Jefferson 600 

•. , , , i, ^, , ^, ^ , Hanover (Centre Square) 601 

Its two branches, flows through the central Mar.vland line south of Hanover 820 

part, past York. Muddy Creek with its Dallastown 656 

two large branches drain the southeastern S'"*"""^^ Soo 

=" r awn Grove 810 

section. Castle Fin 190 

York Countv has the shape of an irregu- ^'e^ Park 812 

lar quadrangle. It borders on Maryland ^■■>a"^^''"e 210 

and lies on the parallel of latitude, 39 de- XORTHERX CENTRAL R.\ILROAD 

grees, 43 mmutes, 26.3 seconds (Mason and Baltimore 000 

Dixon's line), and extends northward nearly Parkton ^20 

to Harrisburg, or about 15 minutes above New Freedom 827 

the fortieth parallel, which passes through G\en Rock ...... ..'.'.'.'..'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'. --i 

Emigsville, three miles north of York. The Hanover Junction 422 

county is crossed by the meridian of Wash- Qi"t|eitej.'s ^^ 

ington, and with reference to that line, its Tunnel^'i^.. ....................'...'.....'..'. .....'. 299 

extreme eastern and western points are in York. Junction with FredericK Division of P. R. R. 366 

longitude 45 minutes east and 10 minutes MoTru Wolf'.':::.;.'.':.'.'.'.'.':;;: :;:';:'.';;.': ' ■'::' lit 

west. York County extends along the Summit No. 2.. ........ .......................... 466 

Maryland line about forty miles, bordering Conewago Bridge 289 

on the counties of Harford, Baltimore and y^dsb^r".[[[[\y.\\\\\\V.[\y.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 30I 

Carroll. It adjoins on the north and west Aliddletown Ferry 307 

the counties of Cumberland and Adams, the ^.^''^''^'i, R"" v ' ■ ' ^09 

1 , . r 1 • 1 r 1 , r iV 1 New Cumberland •!I2 

latter of which was formerly a part of York 

County. It contains an area of 921 square PENNSYLVANL\ RAILROAD, FREDERICK 

miles. The Susquehanna Jliver flows for DIVISION. 

nearly fiftj^-five miles along the eastern Wrightsville 257 

boundary, and the extreme eastern point of ^p'''^" • 348 

^,- , , . , ^r -1 Hiestands 427 

Its southern boundary is about fifteen miles York (depot) 366 

north of Havre de Grace, at the head of Codorus Creek 357 

Chesapeake Bay. Ws'"'' '' 1^^ 

The accompanying tables and Spring Forge ::;::;;;;;: JS5 

Elevations, specifications of ahitudes above Menges' I\Iill 455 

, , 111- • . Iron Ridge 406 

the ocean level Ot many points Railroad Crossing, Hanover Junction and Gettys- 

in \ ork County were gathered from dif- burg R. R. crosses at grade 607 

ferent sources, many from observations with Hanover 599 

. -^ , - , , Littlestown 619 

transit or barometer, some were gathered State Line 540 


The levels on the line of the Frederick The geology of York County is extremely 

Division Pennsylvania Railroad were copied complex. It contains some of the earliest 

from a profile in the office at Philadelphia, formations and some of the latest, so faulted 

The datum is mean tide at Baltimore. and folded, so much eroded and fractured, as 

to obscure the geological succession. The 

HANOVER AND BALTIMORE RAILROAD. problem is not yet fully solved. However, 

^!.""^ since the publication of the State Geologi- 

VaUevTunction 74i ^^^ Reports, closer study of local and related 

Black Rock 79° deposits and the discovery of fossils in the 

Glenville /oi limestone formation have resulted in exten- 

Porte?" ...................■.■..■■■■..■■■■■■■■ 510 sive changes in the geological map of York 

Hanover (depot) 600 County. Strata that were erroneously, or 

Abbottstown 4d7 provisionally, placed have been definitely 

located, mamly m the Cambrian. 

YORK AND PEACH BOTTOM RAILROAD. Some reference, however brief, should be 

Susquehanna River 85 made to the dominant mineral constituents 

Peach Bottom grade -. 118 ^j^^^^ ^^ j^^^j^^ ^^^ various Strata be- 

Bangor summit S'l , °, . . ^ , , , ,. 

Delta 435 fore the formations themselves are dis- 

Bryansville 241 cussed. Now whilst there are a number 

woodbuie :; •;:;::■;;;:;:::;:::::::::;::::: : 304 of different minerals found in York county, 

Bruce •• 33i the great geological formations are essen- 

Muddy Creek Forks 366 tially composed of Only five elemental sub- 
Laurel °'^' 411 stances. These have furnished the ma- 

Fenmore 434 terials, in one form or other, from which 

Brogueville 47° ^}^g varied rock beds and the soil have been 

Felton 530 , . , 

Windsor 598 derived. 

Springyale 734 Silica is the most abundant mineral. 

Red Lion 900 gjiica. It results from a union of oxygen 

Dallastown 0^7 , •,• , , 

Ore Valley 570 and Silicon, two elements that go 

Enterprise .^31 to make Up about seventy-five per cent, of 

iSig'Garden'::::;:::::::'.::::'.'.'.'.'.::'.:;;: :'.;:: 43? the entire earth's crust, (ciarke, science, 

York" 372 Jan. 5, 1906, p. 16. ) Sandstone, sand, flint, 

„^,„_. ,_„,,.,. . ^,xTAT quartz and quartzite are but some of the 

SLbQLEHA.NAA CAISJAL. ^ ^ , ,.,.,. 

, , common names under which it is every- 

The elevations here given are estimated above mean , , t jj-*.- ^ -^ 

jjjg gj " where known, in addition to its preva- 

Havre de Grace ooo lence under these simple forms, it is often a 

State Line 68 q}^[q[ constituent in a variety of very impor- 

Peach Bottom (on canal) 'o^ ^ ^ i ^ " 

Muddy Creek 121 tant compounds. 

Slate Tavern 130 Silica combined with aluminum 

iVicCalls Ferry 117 Alumina, forms alumina, or clay. Alu- 

York rurnace 141 . , -i- • ' , 

Shenk's Ferry 152 mmum, after Silicon, is the next 

Lockport 163 most important element. It contributes 

SS^Scanai):::::: :::::::::::::;::;::; S ^^out eight per cent, to the buik of the 

earth s crust. Slate, argillite and shale are 
By a comparison of all the above tables some of the common and widely dissemi- 
it will be observed that the elevation of nated rocks of which it is an essential con- 
nearly all points in the southern part of the stituent. 
county is higher than in the northern part. Though less abundant than either 

_ ., Iron, silica or alumina, iron in some of its 

GEOLOGY OF YORK COUNTY. compounds is universally repre- 

Prof. A. Wanner, superintendent of sented. It is nature's pigment. In some 

schools of the City of York, has made a form or other it is widely disseminated 

diligent and careful study of the geology of throughout this section. The characteristic 

York County. The following article was red color of the upper end of York County 

prepared by him specially for this work: is due to the presence of iron; so is the less 



prevalent green of the chlorites, shales and 
schists of the lower half. 

Carbon, oxygen and calcium 
Limestone, unite to form limestone. The 

determining constituent is cal- 
cium. Magnesia is another mineral often 
combined with it. The presence of car- 
bonate of magnesia, in varying quantities, 
gives to the local formation the name of 
dolomitic limestone. About three and 
one-half per cent, of the earth's bulk is cal- 

It is unnecessary to add to the previous 
list of minerals because the geological for- 
mations under discussion are almost wholly 
composed of silica, alumina, calcium and 

The geological formations of the earth, 
for convenience and study, are given appro- 
priate names. These placed in the order 
of succession, reading from below upward, 
follow : 

Quaternary Period, or 
Cenozoic Era. . -{ Pleistocene Epoch. 
Tertiary Period. 

Mesozoic Era. 

Paleozoic Era. . -: 

Cretaceous Period. 
Jurassic Period. 
Triassic Period. 

Permian Period. 
Carboniferous Period. 
Devonian Period. 
Upper Silurian Period. 
Lower Silurian Period. 
Cambrian Period. 

Archean and Algonkian Eras. 

The oldest rocks, those from 
Algonkian. which, of course, have been de- 
rived all later formations, are 
called Archean. They are essentially com-' 
plex, highly crystalline, and of more or less 
uncertain and varying structure. Whilst 
none of these come to the surface in this 
region, yet to the transition beds of clas- 
tic rocks, the Algonkian, lying immediately 
above, have been referred the oldest rocks 
of York County. These compose the un- 
derlying floor upon which all subsequent 
formations have been laid. The lowest beds 
of the series are exposed along the Susque- 
hanna river, just above McCall's ferry, in 
the form of a broad anticlinal arch, extend- 

ing across the county in a southwesterly 
direction. Upon both sloping sides of this 
roof-like floor, have been deposited the 
gneissoids, slates and schists characteristic 
of Upper and Lower Chanceford, Hopewell, 
Fawn and Shrewsbury townships. 

Where the Susquehanna river crosses 
these beds of crystalline rocks, above and 
below McCall's ferry, they have remarkably 
withstood the eroding action of the water. 
Great irregular masses and huge bosses ob- 
struct the channel and make this part of the 
river exceedingly picturesque. 

To the Algonkian formation also belongs 
a small area at the foot of the South Moun- 
tain in Franklin Township. 

The next oldest rocks laid down 
Cambrian, on the Algonkian are the Cam- 
brian. They comprise a broad 
belt extending across the central part of the 
county on both sides of the included lime- 
stone ribbon passing through AVrightsville, 
York and Hanover. The northern limit of 
this belt is very conspicuous because of the 
red soil that marks the beginning of the 
Trias. On the south the Cambrian and the 
Algonkian so merge into each other and 
are represented by rock structurally so com- 
plicated as to make it difficult to draw the 
line of contact. It has not yet been sat- 
isfactorily determined. 

The Cambrian belt, without attempting 
to give its insufficiently defined base, and 
naming from below upward as it spreads 
out over the county, is composed of chlorite 
schists, the Hellam quartzite, slates, sandy 
and calcareous layers, capped by the York 
limestone. (Walcott Bulletin U. S. Geol- 
ogy Survey, No. 134 — The Cambrian Rocks 
of Pennsylvania.) 

To it is also referred the greater part of 
Peach Bottom Township, with its roofing 
slate and related deposits. In fact all that 
remains of the county, with the exception 
of the Triassic area to be next located and 
the possible marl bed north of Dillsburg, 
probabl}^ belongs to the Cambrian. 

The Hellam quartzite, so called 
Quartzite. because it predominates in the 
township of that name, is the 
most durable member of the series. Owing 
to its great hardness and composition it is 
but little altered and decomposed either 
through mechanical or chemical action. 
Above it, on elevated ridges, the less en- 


during shales, slates and limestones were 
long ago disintegrated and carried away, 
leaving the quartzite boldly projecting, as in 
the Hellam hills. The same property is ex- 
hibited in the rapids at Chickies, where the 
Susquehanna River forces its way through 
and over the obstructing ledges of quartz- 

The limestones are exceed- 
Limestone. ingly variable in composition. 
Some sandy layers, on expos- 
ure, soon decompose, disintegrate and min- 
gle with the soil. Other layers are suffi- 
ciently durable to furnish good material for 
building purposes. 

A peculiar and persistent member, ex- 
posed just east of the old fair grounds in 
York, at Stoner"s quarry, Hellam township, 
in Wrightsville, between the pike and 
school house, and elsewhere as it extends 
across the county, is a brecciated limestone 
conglomerate. Irregular blocks of lime- 
stone, more or less angular, and varying in 
size from a few inches to several feet in 
diameter, are cemented together in a lime- 
stone matrix. Charles D. \\'alcott. Chief 
of the United States Geological Survey, 
thinks the included fragments of the intra- 
formational conglomerate, as he names it, 
were largely transported and dropped by 
shore ice. 

After the Cambrian, in York 
Trias. County, there is a great break in the 
geological succession of formations. 
Chronologicall}' speaking, between the 
Cambrian and the Trias, or New Red Sand- 
stone, should come great deposits of the 
Silurian, the Devonian and the Carbonifer- 
ous periods. They do occur elsewhere in 
our State, and yield all the oil, the gas and 
the coal of Pennsylvania. Here the Trias 
lies immediately above the Cambrian, in un- 
conformable contact, and covers nearly the 
whole of the upper part of the county. The 
Northern Central Railroad cut at Emigs- 
ville exposes the oppositely inclined strata 
of the two formations as they come to- 
gether, strikingly presenting their uncon- 
formability. It is also shown, but less con- 
spicuously, at other localities. 

To put it differently. York County, with 
its well baked lower and upper crusts, but 
with nothing between them, may be called 
appropriately a deceptive geological pie. 

The Trias is essentially made up of l^eds 

of red shale, red sandstone and quartz con- 
glomerate, characteristics of the formation 
elsewhere, with extensive areas of trap. 

Igneous rocks of imknown age, 
Igneous but certainly of a later period than 
Rocks. the rocks in which they occur, 
played an important part in the 
formation of York County. They occur 
sparingly in a few dikes in the older forma- 
tions. One of these, less than one hundred 
feet wide, is exposed just west of Stony 
Brook, in the railroad cut. The contact 
lines between the plutonic rock and the in- 
cluding limestone are well defined. A 
slightly raised ridge, covered with detached 
fragments, rounded and weathered " iron 
stones," marks the trend of the same dike 
southward. It can be traced to within a 
short distance of Glen Rock. 

Extensive dikes and sheets of plutonic 
rocks characterize the Triassic beds. Ele- 
vated ridges and hills denote the presence 
of trap because of its great resistance to dis- 
integrating forces. This is well illustrated 
in the steepness and prominence of the 
northern end of Hill Island, in the Susque- 
hanna River, just above Goldsboro: also in 
the picturesque and turbulent falls of York 
Haven, where the river cuts through a broad 

Various estimates of the length 

Scale of of time required to produce the 

Geological diiterent geological formations 

Time. have been made by eminent 

geologists and physicists. Con- 
clusions are drawn from many sources and 
of course results widely differ. A recent 
and very conservative estimate, fully as re- 
liable as any other, is given in the follow- 
ing table (Walcott Am. Assn. Adv. Science, 
VSI. 42. 1893) : 

, Period. Time Duration. 

Cenozoic, including Pleistocene 2,900,000 

IMesozoic 7,240,000 

Paleozoic 17,500,000 

Algonkian 17,500,000 

Archean 10,000,000 

According to the above estimates about 
17,500,000 years elapsed after the Cambrian 
was elevated above the ancient sea before 
the Triassic deposits were made. The 
lower half of York County is older than the 
upper by just that many years. Then came 
the Triassic uplift, and, the red soil area. 


the remaining part of the county, appeared. 
During the entire period the Cambrian area 
was exposed to erosion and the changes 
due to the action of natural forces. The 
later formation, in like manner, though for 
a relatively shorter period, has been eroded 
and greatly modified. Strata that now ter- 
minate in the surface, in some cases ex- 
tended originally to an altitude of several 
miles. The formations least liable to de- 
composition and disintegration, were less 
rapidly eroded. They crown the eleva- 

The soil and its fragmental stones, gener- 
ally covering the stratified rocks beneath, 
represent a very little of the detritus of the 
ancient surface. The rest was carried 
away : it went to add to the thickness of 
some other part of the earth's crust. 

The characteristic Cambrian 
Paleontology, fauna is well represented by 
numerous specimens from 
the limestones, shales and quartzites. (Wal- 
cott, U. S. Geological Bulletin, No. 134; 
Wanner, Proceedings AVash. Acad. Sciences, 
Vol. 3, pp. 267-272.) Trilobites, as proven 
by the abundance of fossil remains from nu- 
merous localities, were the most widely dis- 
tributed and well represent the predomi- 
nating type of life that animated the Cam- 
brian sea of York County. In addition to 
trilobites there were echinoderms, brachio- 
pods, gasteropods and pteropods. Their 
remains, or rather, the impressions made 
by their remains, in the rocks show that 
some parts, at least, of the ancient Cambrian 
sea during favorable periods, abounded in 
life. The macerated and fragmentary char- 
acter of the fossils often makes identifica- 
tion difficult and leads to the conclusion 
that the fauna will be further enriched with 
the discovery of better specimens. 

The Triassic beds contain the 
Reptile tracks of reptiles, together with 
Tracks, fragmentary remains of their 

bones and teeth. The tracks 
(Wanner, Penna. Ann. Geolog. Report, 
1887, pp. 21-35) on ^ sandstone slab found 
west of Goldsboro have been referred by 
Hitchcock to birds, dinosaurs, reptiles and 
amphibians. (Proceedings Boston Socy. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. 25, 188, p. 123.) Occa- 
sional fish scales and a few fossil mollusks 
testify to the presence of other forms of 

In the shales are found the im- 
Flora. pressions of plants and trees repre- 
senting equiseta, ferns, cyads and 
conifers. (Wanner and Fontaine, Triassic 
Flora of York Co., Pa., 20th Annual Report 
U. S. Geological Survey, pp. 233-255.) Both 
brackish and fresh water marshes extending 
over considerable areas of the upper part 
of what is now York County, supported the 
strange and often gigantic forms of life that 
gave to this period the appropriate name of 
the Age of Reptiles. 

In the older formations of the 
Economic county, are occasional veins of 
Features, white quartz. Some years ago, 
when the demand existed, a few 
of these deposits were worked and the stone 
taken to flint mills and crushed. A larger 
supply of flint came from the fields and hills, 
from which the largest stones scattered 
about were collected. 

The Peach Bottom slate, from the 
Slate, lower part of York County, is un- 
excelled. It is known everywhere. 
The rock, owing to its composition, is what 
is called a mica slate. The beds originally 
marine deposits, cemented together, have 
been exposed to enormous pressure and 
have been so metamorphosed as to include 
in their texture overlapping scales. These 
make the slates not only strong but elastic. 
Slate, in order to be of commercial value, 
must not only be a fine grained rock of 
even texture, but must possess more or less 
perfect cleavage. These are structural 
requisites that exclude rocks possessing all 
the other properties of slate, such as compo- 
sition, color and hardness. Some of the 
schists in other sections of York County 
are essentially of the same composition as 
the Peach Bottom slate, but they lack the 
physical properties and are therefore value- 

Around the borders of the 
Iron Ores, limestone areas years ago nu- 
merous iron ore deposits, prin- 
cipally limonites, were extensively and prof- 
itably worked. Since then the discovery of 
equally good and better ores; easy of access, 
often in close proximity to coal, has so much 
cheapened the cost of the raw material as 
to render mining in this region unprofitable. 
The upper part of the county, around 
Dillsburg, yields better ores than the south- 
ern belt in the form of red hematites and 


magnetites, but the same influences that 
have closed the ore banks elsewhere in the 
county, have operated against the mines 
in this section. 

However the unprecedented increase in 
the demand for iron will eventually exhaust 
present sources of cheap supply. Even 
should new localities yielding good ore easy 
of access, be discovered, the day of scarcity 
will be put ofif only a little longer. 

The limestone, as previously 
Limestone, stated, on account of the pres- 
ence of magnesia, belongs to 
the dolomitic variety. Such limestone, 
when sufficiently rich in magnesia, is used 
as a flux in the reduction of iron ores. 
Changed into lime and used for building 
and other purposes, it sets slower than pure 
lime. Many prefer it for that reason. It 
furnishes the foundation walls of nearly all 
structures erected within the limestone belt, 
and is occasionally used for entire buildings. 
New quarries are being opened, old ones 
more extensively worked ; and the erection 
of modern kilns and stone-crushers testifies 
to an ever increasing demand for the York 
County limestone. Elsewhere there seems 
to be the same increase. The out-put of 
limestone for 1904, in the United States, 
was valued at $22,178,964, and in 1905 at 
$26,025,210. The increase for the year was 
greater than that in the value of any other 

Good sand for building purposes, is ob- 
tained from different localities. 

Clay and shales furnish an abundance of 
good material for the brick kilns. 

Trap, notably at York Haven, has been 
extensively quarried and used under the 
name of " granite." Many abutments and 
bridge piers in the county are constructed of 
this stone. The rounded surface fragments 
of trap, known as " iron stones." reveal the 
trend and width of the underlying dike. 

The brown stone of the Trias is 
Brown quite generally and effectively used 
Stone, in houses and barns throughout 
the red sandstone region, but it is 
not to any great extent sent elsewhere. 
Numerous quarries, some on an extensive 
scale, have been opened to uncover and de- 
velop a deposit of good color and uniform 
structure that could be relied on to furnish 
stone of different sizes in paying quantities. 
There is no known reason whv this forma- 

tion which contains the celebrated brown 
stone of Hummelstown, across the Susque- 
hanna River, should not carry similar or 
equally valuable layers in York County. 
(U. S. Geological Report.) 

Deceptive and illusive stains on Triassic 
rocks, of both the green and blue carbon- 
ates of copper, serve to stimulate the search 
of the prospector for a paying deposit of the 
ores of that metal. 

Likewise occasional traces of coal 
Coal, in the red shales and sandstones en- 
courage the belief that paying veins 
of that mineral may exist somewhere be- 
neath the surface. In some localities ex- 
ploitation pits have been dug always with 
disappointing results. A close observation 
of the numerous exposures, along roads and 
streams, particularly along the Susquehanna 
River, shows the folly oi such expenditures. 
For there is no need to dig to ascertain the, 
character of the difterent strata. In the 
sections so exposed can be seen the succes- 
sive layers of the whole formation rising up 
to the surface, often at an angle of as much 
as thirty degrees, presenting fairly well the 
composition and peculiarities of the difter- 
ent strata. 

A typical deposit exists, or did exist re- 
cently, just south of York Haven, between 
layers of standstone. It is in the section 
exposed to view from York Haven up the 
Conewago Creek to the railroad bridge and 
occurs not far from the latter. 

The vertical bank to the west of the track, 
cut to make way for the road bed, shows 
the geological succession for some thou- 
sands of feet. In it are several very insig- 
nificant coal deposits. The largest is a sec- 
tion of an elongated lens, visible for about 20 
feet. Its greatest thickness is three inches. 
But the occasional exhibits of such traces 
of coal, nowhere encourages the belief that 
larger veins exist. The reverse is the case. 

In addition to references already given, 
other sources frequently consulted were 
United States Geological publications, the 
State Reports containing the geological 
work done in this section and the Geology 
of York County by Dr. Persifor Frazer, as 
published in The History of York County, 
John Gibson, Historical Editor, 1886. Dr. 
Frazer worked out the geolog}' of this sec- 
tion and in the report just cited has pre- 
sented, with more or less detail, in a very 


complete manner, the results of his field 
work. Analyses of minerals, ores, etc., to- 
gether with a geological map of the County, 
accompany the report and are invaluable for 
reference purposes. 


Indian implements, relics so-called, sug- 
gest at once the inquiry what tribe made 
them and how were the}^ used.-" A knowl- 
edge of certain tribes which resided or had 
their villages in a locality answers in a gen- 
eral way the first question ; the second is 
more difficult and may never be solved. 

The Indians dwelling on the islands and 
east shore of the Susquehanna River adja- 
cent to York County, first known to the 
white men, were called by the Tucwaghs of 
Maryland, themselves being Nanticokes, 
Susquehannocks. The word Susquehan- 
nock was first heard by Captain John Smith. 
Philologists accept the meaning, applied to 
a people, as " Dwellers at the Falls." The 
habitations of this tribe stretched along the 
lower part of the river from Harrisburg to 
the Octoraro Creek. About 1650-1665 they 
seem, to have been driven from their sites of 
ancient occupancy. None of the Indians 
ever spoke of such expulsion, but historians 
refer to a battle or series of contests be- 
tween the Susquehannocks and an invading 
body of Massawomeks or Senecas and Cay- 
ugas. Their principal villages were at 
Conewago, Columbia, Little W^ashington, 
Pequa and Hill Island. There were also 
several villages used during the fishing sea- 
son only, as the Indian Steps village. 

At the time Penn came to the Delaware, 
1682, there were apparently no Susquehan- 
nock Indians residing on our part of the 
river. The Conestogas alone were men- 
tioned. The mystery of the Conestogas is 
that they were of uncertain ancestry as well 
as tribal name and described in early rec- 
ords as " Seneca-Susquehannock-Cayuga- 
Iroquois-Conestoga Indians." They dwelt 
back from the river, north of Conestoga 
Creek. They called their town the " New 
Town." This possibly was the remnant of 
the Susquehannocks which escaped the Sen- 
ecas when they invaded the shores of the 
lower Susquehanna at what is now Washing- 
ton in Manor Township, Lancaster County. 

In the year 1697 or 1698 the Conestoga 
Indians appeared in Philadelphia accom- 

panied by a delegation of strange Indians 
who 'called themselves Shawanohs. These 
besought the Penns to allow them to come 
into the Province and reside there. It was 
agreed that if the Conestogas would guar- 
antee their good behaviour and at all times 
have a watch over them, they would be per- 
mitted to occupy the "deserted posts along 
the Susquehanna River." The Shawanohs 
came and settled at the mouth of the Pequa 
Creek, and Decanoagah (Columbia) in then 
Chester County. They dwelt permanently 
at these points and also occupied the neigh- 
boring islands. In 1701 the Conestogas 
and Shawanohs again appeared in Philadel- 
phia accompanied by representatives of a 
strange tribe from the head streams of the 
Potomac, called in their language Kana- 
whas or Piscataway Indians. In ours, they 
were called Ganawese, the same word, and 
by contraction in the latter days of their 
residence, after they had made abode at 
Conewago, was Conois or Conoys. The 
Ganawese were first permitted to settle in 
the Tulpehocken Valley, Berks County, the 
Conestogas and Shawanese jointly guaran- 
teeing their good behavior. 

From the earliest times there seems to 
have been a close relationship existing be- 
tween the Susquehanna River Indians and 
those dwelling on the Potomac. In fact 
the country comprising York and Adams 
counties seems to have been if not a mutual 
at least a contiguous hunting ground. No 
large towns were seated in it. It -was the 
wild range they roamed over during their 
hunting seasons. The route to these hunt- 
ing grounds, as stated by the Conestogas, 
Shawanese and Kanawha Indians in their 
complaints to Philadelphia lay along the 
York Valley from Wrightsville to the South 
Mountains. Obstruction of this route was 
the chief cause of Indian objection to Ger- 
man settlements in Hellam Township, and 
Maryland occupation at Conojehela (Five 
Mile Level). By reason of these extended 
hunting trips is accounted doubtless, the 
eventual incoming to Pennsylvania of the 
Shawanese and Ganawese. While York 
County had no large villages distant from 
the river there are, nevertheless, evidences 
that our larger streams and springs 
were all dw^elt by. Three causes explain 
this. Indian polity frequently produced 
outcast families. These separated from the 


main tribe and secreted themselves remote 
inland. Others from choice, there being 
striking examples of varying moods among 
the Indians, withdrew from tribal fellow- 
ship and built their teepees in hidden places, 
apart from the beaten trails. Every tribe 
had a number of out dwellers. Furthermore 
the evidences of crude stone tools found 
around all springs along a water shed are 
the remains of night camps at halting spots 
on journeys to or from the hunt or warpath. 

The makers of York County stone imple- 
ments, such as arrows, spears, knives, celts, 
totems, hoes, axes, skinners, mortars, pes- 
tles, plummets, besons. beads, etc., were 
Susquehannocks, Conestogas, Shawnee and 
Conoy Indians. These relics are not dis- 
tinguishable from thousands of other speci- 
mens that exist in the Susquehanna Valley 
and deposited on its islands and bottoms by 
New York and Virginia aborigines, during 
that uncertain period of intercommunica- 
tion up and down the river before the white 
men came. It must not be lost sight of, 
that the Susquehanna was the high water 
way between the north and south. It must 
also be understood that the word Susque- 
hanna in one of its interpretations means 
" the stream which falls toward the south." 
Being a composite Iroquois and Lenape 
word, it is significant that the rivers of the 
Iroquois — the St. Lawrence, Mohawk and 
other streams of that countrv — t^ow north 
and east. 

The southern Indians also made many of 
the specimens found along the water 
courses of York County, particularly in the 
south and west parts. The names of our 
streams are nearly all Seneca, Mohawk, or 
Iroquois words, as Conewago, Conowingo, 
Conestoga and Codorus, which the writer 
believes to be a corruption of Kydaross, a 
Mohawk stream, flowing into Lake Saratoga. 

The solitudes of York County, during the 
Indian period, are set forth in the map ac- 
companying " Early developments west of 
the Susquehanna," facing page 26. The 
map mentioned was designed by Robert C. 
Bair, who has also written the introduction 
to this article. 


Prof. Atreus Wanner of York in a lecture 
before the Historical Societv of York 

County, February 26. 1903, treated local 
stone implements found by him under the 
title " Aboriginal Occupation of York 
County," as follows : 

To what extent York County was inhab- 
ited prior to its occupation "by the first 
white settlers, must always remain an 
open question. There is nothing under 
the head of tradition that will bear even the 
most superficial investigation. Historians 
for want of data can do little more than give 
us a glimpse of conditions prevailing at the 
time of first contact between the red and the 
Avhite races — a situation, probably, very 
well summarized in the following from a 
History of York County : " It was, as it 
appears from the Indian complaints, pre- 
ceding its settlement, a hunting ground, or 
in the way to hunting grounds, nearly all 
woods, and claimed by the Indians to have 
been expressly reserved for them by Wil- 
liam Penn. The original settlers here 
found immense tracts of land entirely de- 
nuded of timber by the annual fires kindled 
by the Indians, for the purpose of improv- 
ing their hunting grounds." 

In order to arrive at some conclusion 
based upon indisputable evidence, I col- 
lected from the fields themselves, in a se- 
lected locality, whatever remains of pre- 
historic occupation could yet be found. 
The search was systematic and covered an 
area extending about three miles, in all di- 
rections, from York as a centre. The yield 
has been a surprise both in the number 
and variety of specimens. All were col- 
lected on the surface since 1882, no 
burial places having been discovered. The 
absence of unique and large specimens, as 
well as the fragmentary condition of 
much that was found, is fully accounted 
for by the fact that many of the fields have 
been cultivated for more than a hundred 

In describing the collection, since the 
aborigines were of necessity early in life 
and always hunters and w^arriors, it is ap- 
propriate to place first those specimens used 
in war and the chase. 

Enough whole and broken spec- 
Projectile imens of lanceheads, spearheads 
Points. and arrowheads were found to 
represent the ordinary sizes and 
shapes. They range from five inches to 


less than one inch in length, and, generally 
speaking, are not very symmetrically flaked. 
This, however, is partially if not wholly ac- 
counted for by the properties of the miner- 
als out of which they were fashioned. 
These are, in the order of occurrence, rhyo- 
lite, white quartz, calcareous argillite and a 
local fine grained quartzite. Flint, jasper 
and chert, so generally selected wherever 
available because of excellent flaking prop- 
erties, are together represented by only a 
fraction of one per cent of the entire collec- 
tion. Quartzite is sparingly in evidence, 
being a dif^cult mineral to flake ; argillite 
constitutes about eight and white quartz 
thirty per cent. These three minerals are 
local. Rhyolite. a volcanic product, was 
the preferred rock out of which was made 
sixty per cent of the collection numbering 
over seven hundred projectile points. 
These minerals will be referred to again un- 
der the head of rejectage. 

It is difficult to identify stones 

Cutting fashioned for cutting pur- 

and poses since they conformed 

Perforating to no special shape. Most of 
Implements, the projectile points and 
some of the larger flakes hav- 
ing good cutting edges, mounted at the end 
of short handles, as was the practice, would 
have made typical knives. A few large 
specimens bearing cutting edges, the result 
of flaking, easily grasped in the hand, were 
probably unhafted knives improvised for 
the occasion and then discarded. Whilst, 
inferentially, a number of the specimens 
were cutting implements, proof of such use 
is difficult to furnish. 

Another class of artifacts, at first sight 
taken to be finished arrowheads, or rejects, 
of various shapes, both roughly worked out 
and fineh' finished, have points that were 
worn smooth by rotation in some hard sub- 
stance. Of these six specimens were 
found. All are abraded but a short distance 
above the extreme point and were evidently 
applied to drilling holes in stone. These 
and other stone drill heads that I have col- 
lected elsewhere in York and adjoining 
counties, were it not for their worn points, 
would be classified as arrowheads. There 
seems to have been no specialized form for 
drill heads. Possibly an arrow taken from 
the quiver, twirled in the hand, or rotated 
bv a cord, occasionallv furnished a conveni- 

ent drill. The primitive form described by 
Dr. \V. H. Holmes, in " Anthropological 
Studies in California," doubtless illustrates 
the drill used here. 

In all drills having stone ends, the ex- 
treme point, rather than the sides, did the 
cutting. Enlargement followed the use of 
a larger drill point. The six specimens in 
the collection, with the exception of one of 
agate, are made out of rhyolite. 

Stone axes are conspicuous and 
Axes, easily recognized objects. For that 
reason it is an unusual piece of good 
luck now, in this thickly settled and long 
cultivated section, to find one. It is the 
common practice in this part of the country, 
about once a year, to gather from the fields 
the larger stones and fill up waste places, or 
more frequently to haul them out and throw 
them into the " chuck " holes of the public 
road. I have found more than one axe in 
a stone pile, and in one instance recov- 
ered a beautiful specimen from a roadside 
mud-hole into which it had been thrown 
with other stones from a neighboring 

Often axes found along the Susquehanna 
river, particularly the larger ones, have 
grooves extending around only three sides 
of the stone ; one of the two narrower sides 
presenting an unchannelled surface. More- 
over these grooves frequently extend 
obliquely across the specimen, so that when 
hafted one side of the axe formed an obtuse 
angle with the handle. 

In the limited area under discussion, five 
axes were found; six others from the same 
territory were located. One specimen, 
weighing but one and one-half pounds, is 
encircled by two grooves one inch apart. 
All are comparatively small and wholly en- 
circled by straight grooves. They are, with 
one exception, made out of trap and its 
associated baked and indurated shales, ma- 
terials found in situ in the immediate vicin- 

]\lullers are more in evidence than 
Mill pestles. They are somewdiat ir- 
Stones. regular water worn stones, gener- 
allv quartzites, from one to three 
pounds in weight. Held in the hand they 
were rubbed over the larger flat stone be- 
neath, on which Avas spread the substance 
to be reduced to meal. Some of these mull- 
ers have their edges battered and one side 


slightly indented by a pit mark, results of 
use as hammers or nut crackers. The side 
worn smooth by rubbing over the under mill 
stone — mealing stone — is usually convex. 
No under mill stones were found. The rea- 
son is apparent. Because of their large 
size and flat shape they were long ago 
broken up, or carried awa}' to be laid in 
foundation walls. Mullers were found in 
eight different places. 

A number of fields yielded ham- 
Hammers, merstones, mostly quartzites, 
with unmistakably battered 
edges. Occasionally one bears a single 
shallow pit-mark, and very rarely two in- 
dentations, opposite each other, as though 
intended for thumb and forefinger. Some 
of them containing shallow pit-marks were 
probably used in cracking nuts. The nut 
was placed in the cavity and then cracked. 
Such use of these stones at the present time 
amongst the Indians is described by Dr. AV, 
H. Holmes. 

Eight localities have yielded 
Pots and fragments of steatite pots. These 
Pottery, specimens bear the usual tool 
marks and are identical in com- 
position with the steatite vein exposed just 
below the state line in Harford County, 

Six dift'erent localities have produced pot- 
sherds made of clay, sand and pounded 
quartz. The original vessels represented 
by these pieces were evidently shaped in 
containing grass or other basket work as 
proven by the closely placed symmetrical 
indentations on the fragments. 

A few celts, of the normal triangu- 
Celts. lar shape, with sharpened edges, 

were found. Whilst there is some 
doubt as to the exact use' to which they 
were put, as stated by Morgan, their world- 
wide range and remarkable similarity es- 
tablish their utility. They were often 
hafted in a sheath of bark, or skin, and em- 
ployed for a variety of purposes for which 
now axes, hatchets, chisels, knives and 
scrapers are better tools. 

Certain specimens of like shapes. 
Gorgets usually bearing similarly placed 
and perforations, are supposed to 

Totems, have been decorative stones, in- 
signia of office in some secret or- 
der. When found in graves they are often 
in such a position as to prove that they 

were worn over the breast, or at least were 
so placed at the time of interment. Their 
exact significance is conjectural, but be- 
cause of the resemblance between speci- 
mens from widely separated localities they 
are interesting. Three very fragmentary 
specimens made out of slate are all that this 
locality produced. 

A triangular prism of slate, four inches 
long, containing two conjoined perforations 
at each end, is probably a bird totem; a 
very rare find for any part of Pennsylva- 

Winged stones containing a perforated 
body, found throughout the entire region of 
the United States and called " banner 
stones " by the late S. S. Haldeman, are 
now better classified as ceremonial imple- 
ments. The type form, very little deviated 
from in numerous specimens, rarely made 
of any mineral but slate, beautifully 
wrought, by its very persistence proves that 
it was one of the most significant and val- 
ued possessions. Its unknown use is sup- 
posed to have been closely identified with 
some important ceremony. 

Five localities have yielded fragmentary 
specimens of these ceremonial stones. 

Without further description, it may be 
stated, in a general way, that the collection 
presents an almost unbroken series of ar- 
tifacts. A few of the specimens are unique 
and very interesting, notably the double 
grooved axe and the bird totem, but, as a 
whole, their chief value centers in their tes- 
timony to the prehistoric occupation of this 
immediate section. 

The materials of which the specimens are 
fashioned, with the exception of rhyolite, 
jasper, fiint and steatite are found within 
the limited area methodically searched. 
White quartz outcrops in projecting veins 
in the country rocks and also occurs in loose 
pieces that have weathered out. It is com- 
mon throughout the southern half of the 
county. Trap is found in dikes and in de- 
tached and rounded fragments. It forms a 
large part of the upper half of York County. 
Rhyolite is obtained not far distant. Dr. 
W. H. Holmes discovered and has described 
extensive aboriginal quarries of rhyolite in 
the South mountain, some forty miles west- 
ward. Jasper, identical in composition and 
structure, outcrops near Reading where 
prehistoric quarries have been located. 



Flint nodules are sparingly mixed with 
other water worn pebbles in the bed of the 
Susquehanna river, having been brought 
down from the glacial drift mantle covering 
the northern half of the state. A belt of 
steatite crosses the Susquehanna just below 
the state line and extends across the south- 
eastern corner of Pennsylvania. 

But all this does not prove that any of 
the specimens described, or others made out 
of local minerals, were fashioned here. 
Mere presence of, or nearness of, material 
will not establish the fact of manufacture of 
implements at the place where found. But 
I have other evidence to submit, convincing 
proof, upon which to locate places of manu- 
facture and settlement. Associated with 
the finished specimens in many localities, 
are flakes and rejectage, waste materials, 
resulting from the manufacture of articles. 
As might have been expected the per cents 
representing minerals composing this waste 
agree with those given under projectile 
points. The rejectage is almost wholly rhy- 
olite and white quartz; about seventy per 
cent of the fdrmer and twenty-nine of the 
latter, the remaining one. per cent represent- 
ing all other materials. Argillite is not in- 
cluded because flakes of that mineral are not 
found owing to decomposition under at- 
mospheric conditions ; even the larger forms 
of argillite, as projectile points, usually have 
all flake marks obliterated through weather- 

The preponderance of rhyolite is easily 
accounted for. It can be better flaked than 
any other local mineral. White quartz, be- 
sides being much less easily worked, is often 
weakened by cross fractures. Failures of 
white quartz, partially wrought into projec- 
tile points, but thrown aside because of ap- 
parent defects, are more numerous than 
those of rhyolite. 

Occasionally, over a small space, flakes of 
white quartz, or of some other mineral, will 
be found exclusively, as though the ancient 
stone-worker, for a time at least, confined 
himself to one material. 

The limited area selected was used as a 
base, a starting point, for investigations car- 
ried on throughout the county and other 
parts of southeastern Pennsylvania. Other 
valleys in our county show that very much 
the same conditions prevailed there. Re- 
jectage, in varying quantities, is found al- 

most everywhere along the principal water 
courses, proving more or less permanent oc- 
cupancy at some time. The fields about the 
mouths of runs tributary to larger streams 
are most productive. The more elevated 
land and hills are practically barren. Of 
course the valley of the Susquehanna and 
the river islands are richer in remains than 
other places in this region. But the differ- 
ence is one only of quantity and not of kind ; 
artifacts and rejects are identical. 

In reaching conclusions as to character 
and duration of occupation, based upon col- 
lections such as made here, allowance must 
be made for agencies that have exposed or 
buried aboriginal remains. Streams have 
been greatly changed by the erection of 
numerous dams. The entire absence of 
specimens along such a changed water 
course is misleading. They may have been 
deeply buried under accumulating sediment. 

Sometimes an overflow, washing the sur- 
face of a newly ploughed area, may carry 
away the soil to the depth of cultivation. 
Over the hard sub-soil will be scattered the 
stones, artifacts and rejectage that other- 
wise would have been imbedded in a foot or 
more of soil. In that event such a place is 
popularly assumed to have been an ancient 
battle ground and the presence of so many 
projectile points thus accounted for. The 
conclusion is unwarranted. In my investi- 
gations. I have specially studied a number 
of supposed battle fields in this locality and 
invariably find the presence of other arti- 
facts than projectile points in proportionate 
abundance, particularh^ stoneworkers' chips, 
thus establishing the existence there, in the 
remote past, of a settlement. 

One is not able from a study of prehis- 
toric remains collected in York and adjoin- 
ing counties to separate occupancy into pe- 
riods or to recognize different tribes. In fact 
the remarkable similarity in implements, 
weapons and rejectage from the middle part 
of the Atlantic coastal plain strikingly sug- 
gests close contact. And yet very interest- 
ing evidence to the contrary seems to be 
found in the composition of the pottery 
from the Conoy village-sites. Within the 
historic period the " Ganewese " Indians, 
later known as the Conoy Indians, were per- 
mitted to occupy several places on the left 
bank of the Susquehanna river, within the 
adjoining county of Lancaster. From 1705 



to 1708 their village-site was located about 
four miles below Columbia on or near the 
land now occupied by Little Washington. 
Subsequently from 1708 to 1743 they settled 
on the Conoy creek near its mouth just be- 
low Bainbridge. 

Fragments of Conoy pottery, from both 
sites, contain pounded unio shells. That 
characteristic alone enables one to locate 
the sites of their villages for the other and 
older pottery from this section is made of 
clay, sand and broken stone, usually quartz, 
but contains no shell fragments. 

The addition of pounded shells very much 
improved the pottery and if there was close 
contact, as there seems to have been, along 
the coastal plain, it is difficult to account for 
the absence of shell pottery throughout this 
part of the Susquehanna river region. 

Communication with tribes west of the 
Appalachians seems to have been very 
slight. The almost exclusive use of local 
materials and the absence of chert and flint, 
favored flaking minerals, far superior to 
anything found here, and so widely distrib- 
uted throughout the Alississippi valley, are 
significant. It shows almost complete sep- 

Taking all the evidence into consideration, 
the unmistakable conclusion is reached 
that the valleys of York County were per- 
manently occupied by the aborigines. Suc- 
cessively, doubtless, different places were 
selected as the abundance or scarcity of 
game and fish made a change of location de- 
sirable. There may not have been any very 
large settlements except along the Susque- 
hanna, in which contingency the period of 
occupation of this section must have ex- 
tended over a very long time. 

The Susquehanna river was evidently the 
great highway from which came those who 
ascended its tributary streams to find suit- 
able village-sites along the lesser water 
ways. Rudely fashioned shelters, covered 
for the most part with matted grasses and 
bark, were erected. A small part of the 
forest was burnt over, trees were barked 
with stone axes and killed and in this par- 
tially open space their primitive crop of 
maize was grown. A journey of a few daj^s 
brought them to the soapstone quarries 
where they made their soapstone pots. An 
equally short trip to the South mountain 
took them to the outcrops of rhyolite. 

Here they quarried the stone, rudely 
chipped it into blanks, so-called leaf shaped 
implements, suitable for the flaker's art. 
When a sutficient quantity had been fash- 
ioned, they returned to the village-site, 
bringing back the blocked out material to 
be specialized into the future supply of 
knives and projectile points. 

From the quantity of rejectage found 
along our streams, throughout the county, 
the conclusion is inevitable that this part of 
America was longer inhabited by the abo- 
rigines than is generally supposed. 


The eastern bank of the Susquehanna 
from the site of Harrisburg to the head of 
Chesapeake Bay contained many Indian 
trading stations, established there early in 
the history of Pennsylvania. These sta- 
tions formed a picket line along the frontier 
of the province. They were moved west- 
ward with the tide of civilization. During 
the colonial period of our history, Indian 
traders exerted a strong influence in mould- 
ing public sentiment. In the main they 
acted fairly with the Indians, and carried 
on a prosperous business with the Red men 
occupying the present area of York County, 
and the region farther to the westward. 
The provincial assembly enacted numerous 
laws regulating trade with the Indians. 

The pioneer Indian traders along the 
lower Susquehanna were French Canadians. 
They first located on the banks of the 
Schujdkill and the Brandywine, and later 
took position along the Susquehanna. The 
first of these interesting personages in the 
colonial history of Pennsylvania was Mar- 
tin Chartier, who moved from the eastern 
part of Chester County, and built a trading 
post at the site of Washington Borough, a 
few miles below Columbia. He married an 
Indian squaw, and thus gained friendship 
with tribes who lived along the Susque- 
hanna River, and as far west as the Poto- 
mac. At this time the fur bearing animals 
were quite numerous along the streams. 
Chartier bought furs from the Indians and 
sent them to Philadelphia where he got high 
prices for them. He died at his Susque- 
hanna trading station in 1708, and left his 
property to his son, Peter Chartier, who 
married a Shawanese squaw, of a tribe that 
had recently settled nearb}'. Peter Char- 



tier sold his trading station and the land 
that he had acquired to Stephen Atkinson in 
1727, and moved to the mouth of the Yel- 
low Breeches Creek, at the northwestern 
end of York County. Later he moved to 
Cumberland County, and during the French 
and Indian War went over to the Frencii 
with the Shawanese Indians. 

Peter Bazaillon, another French Cana- 
dian, first settled as a trader on the Schuyl- 
kill. He then moved to East Cain Town- 
ship in Chester County and resided near St. 
John's Episcopal Church, which was built 
by his wife, Martha. Although his resi- 
dence was in Chester County, he maintained 
a trading post at Paxtang, below the site 
of Harrisburg. In 1719, a patent was 
granted to his wife for seven hundred acres 
of land in Donegal Township, a short dis- 
tance below the Conoy Creek, and adjoin- 
ing the Conoy Indian town. Peter Bazail- 
lon died at a great age in 1740, and was 
buried at St. John's Church, as was also 
his wife, who survived him several years. 

James LeTort, another early French Can- 
adian, settled at the mouth of the Conoy 
Creek, opposite York Haven. He moved 
to the spring near Carlisle which bears his 
name, and he is said to have been the first 
settler within the Cumberland Valley. From 
there he moved up the Susquehanna to 
Northumberland, where the north and west 
branches unite, and there established a 

Edmund Cartlidge, a Quaker, opened a 
trading station with the Indians at the 
mouth of the Conestoga Creek about 1710. 
Several Indian conferences were held at his 

But the Indian trade was far too profit- 
able to be left in the control of a few French- 
men. The Scotch-Irish now began to work 
their way to the frontier, and they also be- 
came Indian traders. 

James Patterson, an enterprising 
James Scotch-Irishman took up lands 

Patterson, and opened a trading station in 
1 717, along the northern l^ound- 
ary of Conestoga Manor, a short distance 
east of Washington Borough, in Lancaster 
County. Soon after he established his trad- 
ing station, Patterson obtained a license to 
take up several hundred acres of land on 
the west side of the river, on and around 
the site of East Prospect Borough in Lower 

Windsor Township. This fertile region 
was then called the Conojohela Valley, a 
beautiful name which should be restored. 
Patterson carried on an extensive trading 
business with the Indians as far west as 
the Potomac River. He kept his pack 
horses on a large tract of cleared land in the 
present area of Lower Windsor Township. 
During the border troubles with Maryland 
settlers, he was among the first to be af- 
fected. Colonel Thomas Cresap and his 
followers came up the river in 1730, and 
built a log fort on the west side of the 
river, four miles south of W^rightsville, and 
killed some of Patterson's horses. Patter- 
son obtained a warrant from Justice John 
Wright and secured the arrest of a man by 
the name of Lowe, a leader of the Cresap 
party. Lowe was arrested and taken to the 
Lancaster jail, where he was afterward res- 
cued by a party of Marylanders. These 
troubles between the Marylanders and 
Pennsylvanians increased and entirely broke 
up Patterson's Indian trade on the west 
side of the river, and caused great loss to 
him. His son James was taken a prisoner 
and confined in Cresap's block house for a 
short time. 

In 1735, before the termination of these 
troubles, James Patterson, died at his 
home, on the east side of the Susquehanna. 
To his son, James, he gave three hundred 
acres of land along the Conecocheague in 
Cumberland Valley. He was the father 
of Colonel William Patterson, who settled 
on the Juniata at Lewistown, and became a 
prominent officer in the French and Indian 
W'ar and the Revolution. William's son, 
Robert, married Sarah Shippen, daughter of 
Robert Shippen. James Patterson left an- 
other son, Thomas, and three daughters, 
one of whom married Captain Benjamin 
Chambers, of the Revolution, who founded 

Peter Allen, an Indian trader, settled at 
the site of Marietta in 1718. He continued 
to trade with the Indians for several years, 
and then sold his land to Rev. James Ander- 
son, who about 1740, started what is known 
as Anderson's Ferry, across the Susque- 
hanna at Marietta. Anderson sold his prop- 
erty to W^illiam W^ilkins, who with his 
brother, Robert Wilkins, became prominent 
Indian traders. \\'illiam W'ilkins moved to 
Cumberland County, where he died, leaving 



three sons, James, Robert and William. 
The descendants of William and Robert 
Wilkins, after the Revolution, moved to 
Pittsburg, where one of them, William 
Wilkins, became a president judge of the 
courts. The tow^n of Wilkinsburg vv^as 
named in his honor. 

Lazarus Lowry was a prominent 
Lazarus Indian trader. He came from 
Lowry. the north of Ireland and settled 
at Donegal near Marietta, in 1729. 
He opened his trading post in 1730, and ob- 
tained a license to trade and sell liquor by 
retail. Owing to the fact that intoxicating 
drinks had a fascination for the Indians, a 
law was passed by the province a few years 
later, prohibiting their sale to these people. 
Lazarus Lowry made trips as far west as 
the Ohio River and traded with the Indians 
on an extensive scale, exchanging goods 
from his store for valuable skins and furs, 
which he sent to Philadelphia. He accumu- 
lated considerable property at Donegal and 
died in Philadelphia in 1755. His four sons, 
James, John, Daniel and Alexander Lowry, 
succeeded him as Indian traders. 

Colonel Alexander Lowry en- 
Alexander gaged in the trading business 
Lowry. in 1744; at first with the In- 
dians west of the Susquehanna, 
embraced in the region of Cumberland and 
York counties. He learned several Indian 
tongues, and often engaged in sports and 
games with the red men, in order to gain 
their friendship. He was probably better 
acquainted with the local tribes in York 
County than any other person among the 
early settlers. Colonel Lowry who after- 
ward commanded a battalion of soldiers in 
the Revolution, established a trading post 
at Carlisle when the town was founded in 
1751. Later he had an Indian trading post 
at the site of Pittsburg and several times 
traveled as far west as the Mississippi River. 
He continued to trade with the Indians for 
a period of forty years. Meantime he 
served as a member of the Pennsylvania 
Legislature, and late in life was a state sen- 
ator, and also a member of the State Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1790. He died at 
Donegal in 1805. at the age of eighty-two 
years. Colonel Robert Lowry, a descend- 
ant, late of Pierre, South Dakota, was for 
many years superintendent of the United 
States land office at Pierre. 

John Harris, an Englishman, who 

John settled at the site of Harrisburg in 

Harris. 1705, was one of the most noted 

Indian traders of the Susquehanna 
region. He opened a trading station and 
built a block house soon after he obtained 
his first permit to locate in this vicinity. 
Harris purchased skins and furs in large 
quantities from the Indians on both sides of 
the Susquehanna, up and down the stream. 
He opened a ferry across the river in 1730, 
and it was chartered by the Province of 
Pennsylvania in 1753. John Harris was on 
friendly terms with the Shawanese Indians, 
who lived on both sides of the river. On 
one occasion, a band of drunken Indians 
came along and demanded rum of him. 
When he refused to give them the rum, they 
captured him and tied him to a tree and 
would have tortured him, had he not been 
rescued by some friendly Indians who came 
to his assistance from the region above and 
below the mouth of the Yellow Breeches 
Creek. His son, John Plarris succeeded him 
in conducting the store, and afterward be- 
came the founder of the city of Harrisburg. 

In 1763, a party of twenty-three Indian 
traders from eastern Pennsylvania, under 
the leadership of Colonel Alexander Lowry, 
made an expedition into the western coun- 
try with a long train of pack horses, carry- 
ing goods and merchandise. The object of 
this expedition was to reopen trade with the 
Indians of the Ohio Valley. This trade had 
been ruined during the French and Indian 
War. They started at Wright's Ferry, and 
extended their trip westward over the road 
that Braddock had taken on his expedition 
against Fort Duquesne. When Colonel 
Lowry and his party of traders reached the 
region now embraced in Washington 
County, in the extreme southwestern part 
of Pennsylvania, they discovered that Pon- 
tiac, the great Indian chief of the Ohio Val- 
ley, was on the war path with many war- 
riors. A band of hostile red men attacked 
the traders, captured their valuable goods 
and merchandise and appropriated them to 
their own use. The entire valuation of the 
goods taken and destroyed is estimated in 
the Provincial records of Pennsylvania at 
£80,000, or about $215,000. It was a finan- 
cial calamity to most of these enterprising 
men, only a few of whom ever afterward re- 
covered their fortunes. 




Conestoga Conference of 1721 — Keith's 
Newberry Tract — Conestoga Conference 
of 1722. 


The rights to lands west of the Susque- 
hanna had not l:)een purchased from the In- 
dians until 1736 when a conference was held 
at Philadelphia with the chiefs representing" 
the Six Nations. Lancaster County was or- 
ganized out of Chester in 1729, when its 
boundaries extended indefinitely westward, 
including the present area of York, Lan- 
caster, Adams and Cumberland Counties. 
In fact, according to the Indian purchase as 
recorded in the minutes of this conference, 
the boundary of Lancaster County extended 
west to the "setting" sun." As early as 1721, 
the settlers east of the Susquehanna cast 
longing glances across the river, desiring to 
have the first opportunity to take up the 
lands in the rich valleys west of the river, 
then covered by a primeval forest and occu- 
pied by roaming bands of Indians. Accord- 
ing to early records, the territory now em- 
braceci in York County, was the favorite 
hunting grounds for the Susquehannock, 
Conestoga, Conoy and Shawanese- Indians, 
who lived in small towns at different places 
along the Susquehanna from the site of 
Harrisburg to the mouth of the river. 

Sir William Keith, a Scotch no- 
Sir bleman of rank and station, as- 
William sumed the duties of lieutenant 
Keith. governor of Pennsylvania in 1717, 

one year before the death of Wil- 
liam Penn, who then resided in England. 
He had previously served as surveyor- 
general of customs under Queen Anne, for 
the southern colonies, and then resided in 
Virginia. Keith was popular with the col- 
onists and, while on a visit to Philadelphia, 
was entrusted by the Pennsylvania Assem- 
bly to carry an address of greeting to 
George I, expressing joy upon his accession 
to the throne of England. It was the suc- 
cess of Keith's career in America that 
caused William Penn to select him as his 
lieutenant-governor, who, when he came to 
America in May, 1717, was clothed with all 
the powers of a governor of the Province, 

although he was expected to receive in- 
structions at stated times from Penn him- 
self, who was then growing old. Governor 
Iveith served from 1717 to 1726. The early 
part of his administration was crowned with 
success and he grew very popular with the 
majority of the settlers. He established a 
court of chancery which continued until 
1735. It is claimed that he was the only 
governor before the Revolution who es- 
poused the cause of the common people. 
He ordered the first paper money to be is- 
sued in the Province. His success in treat- 
ing" with the Indians was almost equal to 
that of William Penn. 

In 1721 and before, a trouble had arisen 
between the Indians of Pennsylvania and 
those of Virginia. This trouble threatened 
to disturb the peace of the Province and 
eventually to cause a collision between the 
settlers and the aborigines. In order to 
avoid this. Sir William Iveith paid a visit 
in April, 1721, to the Governor of Virginia, 
with whom he formed an agreement, which 
would confine the Indians on the north and 
the south of the Potomac to their respective 
sides of the river. Keith's visit to Virginia 
was made with great ceremony, in order to 
cause an impression on the Governor of a 
neighboring province, and to increase the 
influence of Pennsylvania with the Indians. 
He was attended by a company of seventy 
horsemen, well armed. Upon his return to 
Philadelphia, he was welcomed at the upper 
ferry on the Schuylkill by the mayor and 
aldermen of that city, accompanied by two 
hundred of the most prominent citizens. 

The confederation of the Five 
Meets the Nations of Indians at this 
Indians at time, had their headquarters 
Conestoga. in central New York. The 

chiefs of the tribes composing 
this confederation were notified by Iveith 
that an agreement had been made with the 
Go\'ernor of Virginia. He invited these 
chiefs to Philadelphia to ratify these agree- 
ments and to settle difficulties which the In- 
dians had with white settlers along the Sus- 
quehanna. The Indian chiefs refused to go 
to Philadelphia, but they agreed to meet 
Governor Keith and his associates near the 
mouth of the Conestoga Creek, a few miles 
south of the site of Columbia. At this place 
a small band of Conestoga Indians had set- 
tled for a considerable time. Here Gover- 



nor Keith met the Indians July 6, 1721. He 
was accompanied by James Logan, who 
came to this country with Wilham Penn, 
and was now secretary of the Province; Col. 
John French, the sur\-eyor: Richard Hill, 
Caleb Pusey and Jonathan Dickinson. 
James LeTort and John Cartlidge, who had 
a knowledge of the Indian language, were 
also present as interpreters. Six Indian 
chiefs had wended their way down the Sus- 
quehanna to attend this council. Three of 
the five nations were represented. Ghesa- 
ont and Awennool were sent by the Seneca 
tribe ; Tannawree and Skeetowas by the 
Onondagoe tribe ; and Scahoode and 
Tchehuhque by the Cayuga tribe. 

AVhen Governor Keith arrived at Cone- 
stoga„he proceeded to the cabin of Captain 
Civility, a noted Indian interpreter, where 
four chiefs of the Five Nations called upon 
him. Keith said he had come a great way 
from home to bid them welcome, and that 
he hoped to be better acquainted and hold 
a further conference with them. Through 
their interpreter the Indians said that they 
also had come a great wa}' to see the Gover- 
nor and speak with him, and that they 
would have come here before, but that the 
faults or mistakes of some of their young 
men had made them ashamed to show their 

The council between Governor 
Makes a Keith and the Indians took place 
Speech. the following day, July 6, under- 
neath a large tree at the Cone- 
stoga village near the Susquehanna. After 
they were seated in a semi-circle, in imita- 
tion of former councils with the Indians 
held by William Penn, Governor Keith 
arose and spoke to the Conestoga Indians 
in part, as follows : 

'T have recently returned from Virginia, 
where I wearied myself in a long journey 
both by land and water, only to make peace 
for you, my children, that you may safely 
hunt in the woods without danger from Vir- 
ginia and the many Indian nations that are 
at peace with the government. But the 
Governor of Virginia expects that you will 
not hunt in the Great Mountains on the 
other side of the Potomac River, since it is 
a small tract of land which he keeps for the 
Virginia Indians to hunt in, and he prom- 
ised that his Indians shall not any more 
come on this side of the Potomac, or behind 

the Great Mountain this wa}- to disturb 
your hunting. And this is the condition I 
have made for you, which I expect you will 
firmly keep, and not break it on any con- 
sideration whatever." 

On the next day, July 7, 
Ghesaont's Ghesaont, in behalf of the Five 
Speech. Nations, replied to the Gover- 
nor in a long speech. The 
substance of this speech as reported by the 
Secretarj' of the council, states that they 
were glad to see the Governor and his 
council at this' place. They had not forgot- 
ten William Penn's treaties with them, and 
that his advice to them was still fresh in 
their memories. He complained that white 
traders up the Susquehanna ill-treated some 
of their young men and called them dogs. 
They resented this treatment and said that 
their brothers, the white people, should not 
compare them with such creatures. 

Then laying a belt of wampum down 
upon the table, he said that all their disor- 
ders arose from the use of strong spirits 
and rum which had been furnished to them 
by white traders, and desired that no more 
rum be sent amongst them. Then present- 
ing a bundle of dressed skins he said that 
the Five Nations faithfully remember all 
their ancient treaties and now desire that 
the chain of friendship between them and 
William- Penn's subjects may be made so 
strong that none of the links can ever be 

He then presented another bundle of 
dressed skins and observed that "a chain 
may contract rust with lying and become 
weaker, wherefore I desire that it may now 
be so well cleaned as to remain brighter 
and stronger than ever it was before." He 
presented another parcel of skins and said: 
"In the firmament all clouds and darkness 
are removed from the face of the Sun, so 
we desire that all misunderstandings may 
be fully done away; so that when we who 
are here now shall be dead and gone, our 
whole people, with our children and pos- 
terity, may enjoy, the clear sunshine of 
friendship with you forever, without any- 
thing to interpose or obscure it." He pre- 
sented another bundle of skins and said : 
"We look upon the Governor as if William 
Penn were present. We desire that in case 
any disorders should hereafter happen be- 
tween our young people and yours, your 



people should not be too hast\- in resenting 
any such acciilcnt, until our council and 
yours can have some opportunity to treat 
amicably upon it, and so to adjust all mat- 
ters so that the friendship l^etween us may 
be in\iolably preserved." He presented a 
small parcel of skins and continued: "We 
desire that we may now be together as one 
people, treating one another's children 
kindly and affectionately on all occasions. 
We consider ourselves in this treaty as the 
full plenipotentiaries and representatives of 
the Fi\-e Nations, and we look upon the 
GoN'crnor of Pennsylvania as the great King 
of England's representative, and therefore 
we expect that everything now stipulated 
will be made absolutely firm and good on 
both sides." He now presented a bundle of 
bear skins and said, that "Having now made 
a firm league with Governor Keith such as 
becomes brothers, we complain that we get 
too little for our skins and furs so that we 
cannot live by our hunting. We desire you 
therefore to take compassion on us and 
contri\e some wa}- to help us." 

On the 8th of July, the Gover- 

The nor and his council, at the 

Governor's house of John Cartlidge, near 

Reply. Conestoga, having advised 

upon and prepared a proper 
present, in return for that of the Indians, 
which consisted of a quantity of stroud 
match coats, gunpowder, lead, biscuit, pipes 
and tobacco, the Governor made his speech 
in reply to that of the Five Nations, from 
which the following extract is made : 

"As to what you ha\'e said of trade, I 
suppose that the great distance which vou 
live from us prevented all commerce be- 
tween us and your people ; we believe those 
who go into the woods and spend all their 
time upon it, endeavor to make the best 
bargains they can for themselves: so on 
your part you must take care to make the 
best bargain you can with them, but we 
hope our traders do not exact too much, for 
we think that a stroud coat or a pound of 
powder is now sold for more buckskins 
than formerly. 

"Beaver is not of late much used in Eu- 
rope, and therefore does not give so good 
a price, and we deal but very little in that 
commodity. But deer skins sell very well 
amongst us, and I shall always take care 
that the Indians be not wronged, but except 

other measures be taken to regulate the In- 
dian trade everywhere, tlie common meth- 
ods used in trade will still be followed, and 
every man must take care of himself; when 
I l)uy anything from our own people, if I 
do not give them their price, they will keep 
it, for ^ve are a free people. I am sensible 
that rum is very hurtful to the Indians; we 
have made laws that none should be carried 
amongst them, or if any were, that it should 
be staved and thrown upon the ground, and 
the Indians have been ordered to destroy 
all the rum that comes in their way. But 
they will not do it: they will have rum, and 
when we refuse it they will travel- to the 
neighboring provinces and fetch it. Their 
own women go to purchase it, and then sell 
it amongst their own people, at excessive 
rates. I would gladly make any laws to 
prevent this that could be efTectual, but the 
country is so wide, the woods are so dark 
and private, and so far out of my sight, that 
if the Indians themselves do not prohibit it, 
their own people, there is no other wav to 
prevent it. For my part, I shall readily join 
in an_v measure that can be proposed for so 
good a purpose." 

Sir William Keith having accomplished 
the purpose of his visit to the Conestoga 
Indians, returned home, July 9. At this 
time, he was at the height of his power and 
influence and lived in baronial st3de in a 
large mansion at Horsham, situated in 
Montgomery County, a short distance 
northwest of Philadelphia. William Penn, 
having died in England in 1718, Keith's 
powers as lieutenant governor were some- 
what curtailed by restrictions interposed by 
the widow of William Penn, and later by 
her three sons, John, Thomas and Richard, 
who succeeded as the proprietors of Penn- 
sylvania. AA'hile AA'illiam Penn lived, under 
proprietary right, there were several man- 
ors laid off in the eastern part of the Prov- 
ince as well as in Lancaster County, east 
of the Susquehanna. 


.\ great deal of interest has always been 
attached to the first authorized surveys 
west of the Susquehanna. Robert C. Bair, 
of York, having made a diligent study of 
Keith's Newberry Tract, his investigations 
on this subject are herewith given in full: 


To John Grist belongs the distinction of 
being the first white settler in the unbroken 
forest west of the Susquehanna in this prov- 
ince. The first survey by authority was 
made on the lOth and nth days of April, 
1722. It was made by Jacob Taylor and 
James Steel, deputy surveyors of the pro- 
prietary of Pennsylvania. Sir William 
Keith being Governor, and in a peculiar 
way interested in this survey, it was origi- 
nally called "Keith's Mine Tract" and sub- 
sequently "Newberry." 

The facts pertaining to and 
The Draft the causes for this survey 
Discovered, weve all matters of record, but 

no draft of survey was known 
to exist of it. indeed, the location of the 
tract or tracts had long been forgotten and 
become involved in doubt and uncertainty. 
Ah old draft was accidentally identified by 
the writer in 1898, while classifying the gar- 
ret records of the York Coimty Court 
House. An unmarked and unexplained 
draft in the old court files attracted atten- 
tion ; it contained lines of the Susquehanna 
as making a grand bend in its course from 
the northwest to the southwest, an unusual 
curvature for this river, and only existing 
at one point on the lower river shores, op- 
posite Chiques, at the new town of Mari- 
etta, Lancaster county. Comparison with 
the original survevor's notes of Newberry 
Tract clearly identified the draft as being 
that of the long lost Newberry. Later dili- 
gent search discovered a similar but mani- 
festly older unidentified fragmentary draft 
of this tract in the Department of Interior 
at Harrisburg. 

The facts surrounding this stirvey are in- 
teresting and herewith as fully as possible 
set forth. The border warfare which dis- 
turbed for a number of years Maryland and 
Pennsylvania prior to the survey of Mason 
and Dixon Line was carried on within the 
bounds of this survey. 

Land west of the Susque- 
Searching hanna early in 1722, so far as 
for Minerals, the proprietary surveyors 
were concerned, was terra 
incognito. Information had come to the 
land office at Philadelphia, and particularly 
to Governor Keith, that copper was to be 
found west of the Susquehanna. The Gov- 
ernor, a shrewd and enterprising Scotch- 
man, who had been made Governor largelv 

for his abilities to develop the natural re- 
sources of Pennsylvania, soon began to take 
active steps toward the utilization of these 
resources. Several things done by him 
never met the approval of the proprietary, 
as examples, this Keith copper mine survey 
and his having secretly placed the New 
York Germans from Schoharie in the Tul- 
pehocken Valley (1723) of his own motion 
and without permission of or having first 
purchased the land from the Delaware In- 
dians. These acts of themselves caused 
much irritation and afterwards received 
open condemnation before the council from 
the secretary of the province, James Logan. 

Sir AVilliam Keith, of enterprising mind, 
was among the first to erect iron works in 
what is now Chester or Delaware counties 
during his administration, 1717-1726. Noti- 
fication that copper was supposed to exist 
in Chester county and elsewhere in the 
province, and his alert interest, occasioned 
suspicion in the Council against Governor 
Keith as it had against his predecessors, for 
they had all been active in locating and 
prompting mineral lands. This was early 
and so generally manifest that theproprietor 
himself, then in England, wrote to his trusty 
friend and secretary, James Logan, in 1708, 
"Remember the mines which the Governor 
(Evans) yet makes a secret, even to thee 
and all the world but himself and Michelle, 
pray penetrate the matter and let us see the 
ore in as large a quantity as thou canst." 
It was this Michelle who first drew atten- 
tion to mineral lands west of the Susque- 

Lewis Mitchel or Michelle was a roving- 
prospector. By his own account he was a 
native of Switzerland sent by the canton of 
Berne to the colonies to locate a site for a 
Swiss settlement. Newbern, North Caro- 
lina, was selected by him. In connection 
with this work he was a mineral prospector, 
having tramped through North Carolina, 
Virginia, and into Pennsylvania by way of 
the forks of the Potomac, through the Sus- 
quehanna Valley to Philadelphia. His sev- 
eral visits to the Conestoga Indians upon 
the Susquehanna and his mischievous per- 
suasions, led numbers of the younger In- 
dians to join him in his ro\'ing researches. 
This being contrary to the provincial policy, 
he was afterwards called before the com- 
missioners of property and peremptorily 


ordered to desist as to l)oth liis Indian en- 
gagements and his general movements, or 
vacate the province. This was the same 
Mitchell, W illiam Penn referred to in his 
Logan letter and taken in connection with 
subsequent events, which we are about to 
relate, it makes plain that the note on the 
Minute Book of Property in the Interior 
Department respecting the purposes of the 
Newberry Survey west of the Susquehanna 
was founded on selfish personal interests in 
acquiring mineral rights in that section. 

--\t a council held at Philadelphia, .Vpril 
i6, 1/22, Sir William Keith, the Governor, 
spoke as follows : 

"Upon some information I lately received, 
that the Indians were like to be disturbed 
by the secret and underhand practices of 
persons, both from INIaryland and this place, 
who under pretence of finding a copper 
mine, were about to survey and take up 
lands on the other side of the river Susque- 
hanna, contrary to a former order of this 
government : I not only sent up a special 
messenger with a writ under the lesser seal 
to prex'ent them, but took this occasion to 
go toward the upper parts of Chester county 
myself, in order to locate a small quantity 
of land unto which I had purchased an orig- 
inal proprietary right. And understanding- 
further upon the road, that some persons 
were actually come with a Maryland right 
to survey lands upon the Susquehanna, fif- 
teen miles above Conestoga, I pursued my 
course directly thither, and happily arrived 
but a very few hours in time to prevent the 
execution of their design. 

"Having the surveyor general of this 
province with me in company, after a little 
consideration, I ordered him to locate and 
survey some part of the right I possessed, 
viz: only fi\'e hundred acres upon that spot 
on the other side of the Susquehanna, which 
was like to prove a bone of contention and 
breed so much mischief, and he did so ac- 
cordingly upon the 4th and 5th days of this 
instant April, after which I returned to 
Conestoga in order to discourse with the 
Indians upon what had happened. But in 
my way thither, I was very much surprised 
with a certain account that the young men 
of Conestoga had made a famous war dance 
the night before and that they were all go- 
ing out to war immediately. Thereupon, I 
appointed a council to be held with the In- 

dians next morning in Civilit_\-'s Cabin, the 
minutes of wliich I carefully took myself." 

At a meeting of the Commission- 

The ers of Property held in Philadel- 

Survey. phia on the i6th day of April, 1722, 

the following minute is recorded: 
"i6th day of the second month. Anno 
Domini, 1722, Present, President Richard 
Hill, Isaac Norris and James Logan. The 
Commissioners having some days ago been 
informed that the Governor, (Sir William 
Keith) was gone toward Susquehanna and 
had taken Jacob Taylor with him, which 
gave them some apprehension of a design 
he might have on a parcel of land on the 
other (west) side of Susquehanna, where 
was supposed to be a copper mine, where- 
upon they thought it expedient to send 
James Steel with a warrant under their 
hands and seals, dated the 5th inst., directed 
to himself and Jacob Taylor, authorizing 
them to survey and lay out for the use of 
the trustees (till the mortgage money and 
interest due thereon should be paid and the 
property then revert to the heirs and de- 
visees of the late proprietary) the quantity 
of two thousand acres of land, enclosing 
within the lines of survey the land whereon 
is supposed to be the copper mine. 

"James Steel accordingly set out with the 
warrant and met with Jacob Taylor at Cone- 
stoga, who readily accompanied him over 
the Susquehanna, wdiere, after some oppo- 
sition made by one, John McNeal, by the 
Governor's express order, as he said, they 
proceeded on the survev on the loth inst. 
and finished the same on the iith. A re- 
turn whereof dated April 5th. 1722. is pro- 

By virtue and in pursuance of 
Return of a warrant from Richard Hill, 
Survey. Isaac Norris and James Logan, 
proprietar}' agents for the pro- 
vince of Pennsylvania, dated the fifth of 
April. 1722. to us directed, we do hereby 
certifv that we did actually survey and lay 
out on the loth and nth days of the same 
month for the use in the said warrant men- 
tioned a certain tract of land, situate on the 
southwest side of Susquehanna river, be- 
ginning at the mouth of a branch opposite 
to the Sawaiina Indian town and a little 
below the settlement made by John Grist 
and running up the same on the several 
courses thereof one thousand and fifty 


perches to a marked wlaite oak standing on 
a bank of a small meadow near the said 
branch, from thence running b}- a line of 
marked trees northwest nine hundred 
perches to a corner white oak standing in 
the woods near the head of a branch which 
runs into Susquehanna river opposite to the 
lower part of James LeTort's plantation; 
thence down the said branch by the courses 
thereof, three hundred and twenty perches 
to the river : thence down the same, fifteen 
hundred perches to the place of beginning, 
containing two thousand acres. 

It will be observed that the Minute of the 
Board of Property above cited states that 
"James Steele met with Jacob Taylor at 
Conestoga." Steele did not overtake him. 
In the light of after discovery this state- 
ment confirms the fact that Jacob Taylor 
was coming or had come from some point 
beyond Conestoga. The fact is, he had al- 
ready been on the west side of Susquehanna 
and surveyed five hundred acres for the 
Governor. Of this sur^'ey there is no date 
when made, warrant, return or draft, yet 
found. Doubtless there is no record in ex- 
istence. Keith stated at one time that the 
survey was made on April 4th and 5th. 
Keith's five hundred acres were included 
Avithin the two thousand acre survey of 
Newberry Tract. That this was a fact ap- 
pears in a rude, imperfect, preliminary draft 
in Department of Internal Affairs, made 
two months later, June, 1722, for the Gov- 
ernor when he was planning Springettsbury 
Manor surve}'. The Governor at that time 
knew the lines of his own five hundred 
acres, having been with the surveyor, but it 
seems he either did not know the metes and 
bounds of Steele and Taylor's survey of 
April II and 12, 1722, or, if he did, ignored 
them and boldly named the northwest coi^- 
ner tree of his own five hundred acre tract 
as a known corner and directed that it be 
made one of the Springettsbury corners in 
order that it might be distinctly designated 
and associated thereafter with the first 
trans-Susquehanna warrant and survey 
made on behalf of the Proprietors and 
Springett Penn. It seems that by so doing 
he intended to show thereby that he had 
carefullv excluded his own personal five 
hundred acre preemption from the Manor. 

\\'hate\-er the cause may have been for pro- 
tracting this last mentioned imperfect draft, 
made either by John French, Francis Wor- 
ley or James Mitchell, it never had any im- 
portance in the Land Ofifice other than it has 
preserved for us in the absence of all other 
written information the exact location of 
Governor Keith's secret survey. 

The Philadelphia Court House 
Early erected 1707, where the Pro- 
Highways, vincial Council met in all its 

deliberations, stood in the mid- 
dle of High (Market) street west of and 
fronting on Second street. (The State 
House, Independence Hall, was not com- 
pleted or occupied until 1734.) From the 
old Court House on Market street James 
Steele on horseback took his departure for 
Conestoga. The route lay by the Chester 
Valley, through the Gap, (where Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad now crosses the Pequa and 
Octoraro divide) thence into Pequa Valley 
to Strasburg, crossing the Big Conestoga 
Creek near mouth of the Little Conestoga 
at James Hendricks and John Hendricks 
places. The distance was about seventy- 
five miles due west from Philadelphia, 
through woods, over a rough and stumpy 
bridle path. This interesting old road was 
marked as early as 17 10 on the Palatinate 
German draft. A public road was ordered 
bv council to be laid out and opened on the 
Conestoga trail in 1718. This road was 
called the King's Highway or Conestoga 
road. From the earliest use of it to the 
present day it has been known in Lancaster 
county as the Long Lane. It is the Long- 
Lane that had no turn. The country 
through which the highway ran in 1722 was 
thinly settled by Swiss German Mennon- 
ites. The elevation of the ground over 
which it ran adapted it naturally as a trail 
between the Susquehanna and Delaware. 
It was over this route the Indians passed to 
and fro long before the coming of the set- 
tlers of Pennsylvania. 

According to the draft 
Boundaries of and return of survey, 
Newberry Tract. Taylor and, Steele began 
at the mouth of AVhite 
Oak branch. This creek is now called 
Kreutz Creek, in Hellam township, a Ger- 
man form of the word "Grist," after John 
Grist, the first squatter or settler on its 
banks. Grist to the German ear sounded as 



"Christ." "Kreutz" is tlie name also of one 
of the oldest German churches in the 
Kreutz Creek Valley. Kreutz in the Ger- 
man language is "the cross." The stream 
was undoubtedly named for John Grist. 

The 1050 perches line by the courses of 
the creek is generally that along which now 
runs the York and Wrightsville Railroad. 
The post marking this distance fixed the 
first corner at or near what is now "Stoner's 
Station" in Hellam township, York county. 
The northwest line, 900 perches, runs to a 
corner at the head of a small stream near 
ore lands, in Hellam township, one mile 
from the river. The line continues by this 
small stream, 320 perches, and comes to the 
river at a point opposite and above the 
mouth of Chickasalunga Creek. The course 
then follows the bank of the river 1,500 
perches to the point of beginning. 

The old draft at York does not indicate 
John Grist's settlement. The draft in the 
Department of Internal affairs identities the 
habitation of John Grist and Captain Bea- 
ver, an Indian. The draft in the York Court 
fixes Captain Beaver's place about where 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Station now 
stands at AVrightsville, and a number of 
wigwams, called Indian huts, are located on 
the same draft further up the river at the 
site of the present iron furnace and extend- 
ing toward the high hill opposite Chickies 


Governor Keith's visit to the Indians at 
Conestoga in June, 1721, produced a strong 
impression upon the minds of the aborigines 
whom he met. The chiefs of the Five Na- 
tions who had been present at this confer- 
ence, told of its success to their people. 
The Conestogas and other local tribes along 
the Susquehanna River seemed to look upon 
the lieutenant-governor with almost the 
same favor and regard which they had en- 
tertained for William Penn. It has often 
been stated that the Indians never forgot 
a treaty or an agreement, if white settlers 
treated them with proper regard. Knowing 
of this excellent characteristic of the red 
men, and already learning of the encroach- 
ment of Maryland settlers on lands west of 
the Susquehanna, Keith determined to se- 
cure a right and title to a part of these 
lands. He laid this plan for the purpose of 
securing this title before he went to the 

conference at Alban\'. New York, to meet 
Cayuga chiefs, who had ofl'cred some ob- 
jection to the conclusion of the conference 
he had held with the Indians at Conestoga 
in 1721. 

It must be clearly understood that Wil- 
liam Penn and his heirs always purchased 
the rights from the Indians before they set- 
tled on lands on the frontier of Pennsyl- 
vania. The area of country west of the 
Susquehanna was still in the possession of 
the Indians and remained so until the treaty 
of 1736, when at the conference with the 
Indians at Philadelphia, a clear title was 
procured by the heirs of William Penn, the 
region west of the Susquehanna "west to 
the setting sun." 

The trouble concerning the border line 
between Maryland and Pennsylvania had 
begun in Chester County, soon after the 
earliest settlements. The boundary line 
was a bone of contention from that time 
until the Temporary Line was run between 
Maryland and Pennsylvania in 1739. Even 
the completion of this line did not settle the 
difSculty, for it continued until Mason and 
Dixon's line was run from the Delaware 
River west to the Allegheny Mountains, in 
1767-8. Governor Keith had frequent con- 
troversies with Governor Ogle, of Mary- 
land, with reference to the encroachments 
of the Marylanders on lands situated in the 
southern part of Lancaster County. These 
Marylanders were already attempting to 
make settlements west of the Susquehanna, 
in the present area of York County. Feel- 
ing assured that he could obtain the con- 
sent of the small tribes of Indians along the 
Susquehanna to lay off a large manor, as 
the proprietary's one-tenth, he proceeded 
to Conestoga, earlj? in June, 1722. Here he 
called together the Conestogas, the Shaw- 
anese, who lived farther up the river, and 
the Ganawese, afterwards known as the 
Conoys, who lived above the site of Colum- 
bia. He had authority from the heirs of 
William Penn to lay off a manor west of the 
river for the benefit of Springett Penn, the 
favorite grandson of the founder of Penn- 
sylvania and son of Richard Penn. 

The conference w-ith the 

Keith Addresses local tribes of Indians 

the Indians. first met on June 15. It 

was near the banks of the 
Susquehanna on this occasion, that Sir W'il- 
liam Keith, with persuasive eloquence, 



commended the Indians for their \-irtues. 
praised them for what they had ah-eadj' 
done for \^"illiam Penn and his heirs, and 
obtained their consent again to cross the 
river and make a survey of 70,000 acres. 
The entire speech of Governor Keith and 
the response made by the Indian chief, are 
productions of so much interest, that they 
are given in full, and read as follows; 

Friends and Brothers — You say you love 
me because I come from your father, Wil- 
liam Penn, to follow his peaceable ways, 
and to fulfill all his kind promises to the In- 
dians. You call me William Penn, and I 
am very proud of the name you give me ; 
But if we have a true love for the memory 
of William Penn, we must show it to his 
family and to his children that are grown 
up to be men in England, and will soon 
come over to represent him here. The last 
time I was with you at Conestoga, you 
showed me a parchment which you had re- 
ceived from William Penn, containing many 
articles of friendship between him and you, 
and between his children and your chil- 
dren. You then told me he desired you to 
remember it well for three generations, but 
I hope you and your children will never 
forget it. That parchment fully declared 
your consent to William Penn's purchase 
and right to the lands on both sides of the 
Susquehanna. But I find both you and we 
are likely to be disturbed by idle people 
from Maryland, and also by others who 
have presumed to survey land on the banks 
of the Susquehanna, without any powers 
from \\"illiam Penn or his children to whom 
they belong, and without so much as ask- 
ing your consent. 

I am therefore now come to hold a Coun- 
cil and consult with you how to prevent 
such unjust practices for the future, and 
hereby we will show our love and respect 
for the great AA'illiam Penn's children who 
inherit their father's estate in this country, 
and have a just right to the hearty love 
and friendship of all the Indians promised 
to them in many treaties. I have fully con- 
sidered this thing, and if you approve my 
thoughts, I will immediately cause to take 
up a large tract of land on the other side of 
the Susquehanna for Springett Penn, the 
grandson of AA'illiam Penn, who is now a 
man as tall as I am ; for ^^'hen the land is 

marked with his name upon the trees it 
will keep ofi the Marylanders and every 
other person whatsoever from coming to 
settle near you to disturb you. And he 
bearing the same kind heart to the Indians, 
which his grandfather did, will be glad to 
give you any part of his land for your own 
use and convenience ; but if other people 
take it up they will make settlements upon 
it and then it will not be in his power to give 
to you as you want it. 

Those who have any wisdom amongst 
you must see and be convinced that what I 
now say is entirely for your good, for this 
will effectually hinder and prevent any per- 
son from settling lands on the other side 
of the Susquehanna, according to your own 
desire, and consequently vou will be secure 
from being disturbed by ill neighbors and 
have all lands at the same time in your 
own power to make use of. This will also 
beget a true hearty love and friendship 
between you, your children, and the great 
AA'illiam Penn's grandson, who is now lord 
of all this country in the room of his grand- 
father. It is therefore fit and necessary for 
you to begin as soon as you can to express 
your respect and love to him ; he expects 
it from you according to your promises in 
many treaties, and he will take it verj' 
kindly. Consider then, ni}' brothers, that 
I am now giving you an opportunity to 
speak your thoughts lovingly and freely 
unto this brave young man, AA'illiam Penn's 
grandson: and I, whom you know to be 
yoiu- true friend will take care to write 
down your words, and to send them to 
England to this gentleman, who will return 
you a kind answer, and so your hearts will 
be made glad to see that the great AA^illiam 
Penn still lives in his children to love and 
serve the Indians. 

The council was continued on the next 
day, the following being the minutes of that 
meeting: — 

At a council with the Indians held at 
Conestoga, June i6th, 1722. 
Present : 

Sir AVILLIAM KEITH, Bart., Governor. 

Col. John French «& Francis AA'orley, 

The Chiefs of the Conestoga, Shawanese 
and Ganaway Indians : Smith and James Le 
Tort, Interpreters. 


Francis Worley' 
Whereas ttre^^ 
settled on the 

'J'lie Indians spoke in answer 1)y 
Tawena's Tawena, according to tlie in- 

Reply. terpreters, as follows : — 

They have considered of what 
the Governor proposed to them yesterday; 
and think it a matter of very great import- 
ance to them to hinder the Marylanders 
from settling or taking np lands so near 
them npon the Susquehanna. They very 
much approve what the Governor spoke, 
and like his Council to them very well, but 
they are not willing to discourse particu- 
larlv on the business of lands lest the Five 
Nations may reproach or blame them. 

They declare again their satisfaction with 
all that the Governor said yesterday to 
them in council ; and although they know 
that the Five Nations have not yet any 
right to these lands, and that four of the 
tribes do not pretend to any, yet the fifth 
tribe, viz. : the Cayugas, are always claim- with the Indians that a sufficient quantity 

To Colonel John French 
& James Mitchell, Esqs 
three Nations of Indians 
North side of the Ri\er Susquehannah, in 
his ^Majesty's Peace & under the protec- 
tion of this Government, viz. : The Cone- 
stogas. The Shawanese, and The Ganawese, 
are very much disturbed, and the Peace of 
this Colony is hourly in danger of being 
broken by persons who pursuing their own 
private gain without any regard to justice, 
have attempted and others do still threaten 
to survey and take up lands on the South 
West Branch of the said river, right against 
the towns and settlements of the said In- 
dians, without any right or pretense of 
authorit)^ so to do, from the proprietor of 
this province unto whom the lands un- 
questionably belong. And whereas, it is 
reasonable and agreeable to former treaties 

ing some right to lands on the Susque- 
hanna, even where they themselves now 
live ; wherefore, the)' think it will be a very 
proper time when the Governor goes to Al- 
bany to settle that matter, with the Ca- 
yugas, and then all parties will be satisfied. 

They ask the Governor whereabouts and 
what quantity of land does he propose to 
survey for Springett Penn. It is answered, 
from over against the mouth of Conestoga 
Creek up to the Governor's new settlement, 
and so far back from the river as no per- 
son can come to annoy or disturb them in 
their towns on this side. 

They proceed and say. That they are at 
this time very apprehensive that people will 
come when the Governor is gone to Albany 
and survey this land, wherefore they earn- 
estly desire that the Governor will immedi- 
ately cause the Surveyor to come lay out 
the land for AA'illiam Penn's grandson to se- 
cure them, and they doubt not but the Gov- 
ernor's appearance and conduct afterwards 
at Albany will make things easy there. 

The First Survey — The Re-survey — Bio- 
graphical — Blunston's Licenses. 
Copy of warrant for Survey of Springetts- 
bury Manor, Sir \\m. Keith, Bart, Governor 
of the province Pennsylvania, &c. 

of land upon the south west side of the 
river Susquehanna be reserved in the pro- 
prietor's hands for accommodating the said 
Indian Nations when it may hereafter be 
thought proper and convenient for them to 
remove their settlements further from the 
Christian inhabitants. 

And lastly, AVhereas, at a treaty held 
between the Indians and me at Conestoga, 
the 15th and the i6th days of this instant. 
They did earnestly desire and request me 
forthwith to cause a large tract of land 
right against their towns upon Susque- 
hanna, to be surveyed and located for the 
proprietor's use only; because, from his 
bounty of goodness, they would always be 
sure to obtain whatever was necessary and 
convenient for them from time to time. 

These are therefore, by virtue of the 
powers wherewith I am entrusted for the 
preservation of his Majesty's peace in this 
province and wnth a due and perfect regard 
to the proprietor's absolute title and un- 
questionable rights to authorize, impower 
and command you, the said Colonel John 
French, Francis Worley and James Mitch-' 
ell, with such of the neighboring inhabi- 
tants as you shall thilik fit to call to your as- 
sistance immediately to cross the River 
Susquehanna, and to survey or cause to be 
surveyed, marked and located the quantity 
of 70,000 acres or thereabouts, in the name 
and for the use of Springett Penn, Esq.. 



which shall bear the name and be called The 
Manor of Springettsbury, Beginning A'our 
survey as near as you can upon the south 
west bank of the river Susquehanna, over 
against the mouth of Conestoga Creek ; 
from thence by line ^^'. S. W. distance 
ten miles more or less ; thence by line N. 
W. by N. twelve more or less ; thence by 
line E. N. E. until you meet with the upper- 
most corner tree of my settlement called 
Newberry; from thence S. E. b S. along my 
head line until you come at my southern 
corner tree in the woods ; from thence 
down the side line of mj- land E. X. E. 
until you come at. the river Susquehanna, 
and from thence by the said river's side 
unto the place where you first begin, which 
line will be fourth side of the said survey, 
and wdien it ,is done, and finished, you are 
to make a return thereof upon the back of 
this warrant unto the Governor and Coun- 
cil of Pennsylvania: For which this shall be 
unto you, the said Colonel John French. 
Francis AVorley and every of you, a suf- 
ficient warrant, power and authority. 
Given under my hand and seal at Cone- 
stoga, the i8th day of June, in the 8th year 
of our Sovereign Lord George I, Annoq. 
Dom. 1/22. 

Signed, W. KEITH. 

To his Excellency the Gover- 
Report of nor and the Honorable Coun- 
the Survey, cil of Pennsylvania. 

]\Iay it please 3'our Excel- 
lency : 

In obedience to the within AA'arrant to us 
directed, AVe did, upon the nineteenth and 
twentieth days of this instant, June, begin 
and complete the survey of the Manor of 
Springettsbury upon the river Susquehanna 
in manner following, viz.: from -a red oak 
upon th'e said river (by a run's side called 
Penn's Run) mark'd S. P.; west south-west 
ten miles to a chestnut (by run's side 
called French's Run) mark'd S. P.; from 
thence north west and by north to a black 
oak mark'd S. P. twelve miles: from thence 
east north east to Sir A\'illiam Keith's 
western corner tree in the woods eight 
miles; from thence along the south east 
and north east lines of the said Sir AVil- 
liam Keith's tract called Newberry into 
the river Susquehanna again, and from 
thence along the river side to the place of 
beginning. The whole containing seventy- 

fi\-e Thousand five Hundred and twenty 
acres, according to a Plan thereof hereunto 
annexed, all which is humbly submitted by 
Y'r Excellency's 
Most humble and obedient Servants, 
John French, ' 

Fran. AVorle, '^'' 
Ja. Mitchell. 
At Newberry, June 21, 1722. 

The exact positions and 
Boundaries of boundary lines of the orig- 
Springettsbury inal Springettsbury Manor, 
Manor. were never thoroughly un- 

derstood or marked on any 
maps of York County until the year 1898. 
Robert C. Bair, a member of the York 
County Bar, upon examining some official 
papers and records in the county Court 
House, and at Harrisburg, was enabled to 
describe and identify the exact position of 
the manor as first laid out by Sir AA'illiam 
Keith in 1722. These boundary lines are 
designated by the following description 
gi\en b}' Mr. Bair: "Beginning opposite 
the mouth of Conestoga Creek at a run 
called Penn's Run (Lockport Run, in 
Chanceford Township) and running thence 
southwest by west ten miles by French's 
Creek (a stream flowing into Muddy Creek 
near Felton). Thence northwest bj^ north 
twelve miles to a point in Manchester 
Township north of York. Thence north- 
east by east eight miles to uppermost cor- 
ner tree of Governor Keith's Mine or New- 
berry Tract. Thence along the southeast 
and northeast lines of said Mine or New- 
berry Tract into the Susquehanna again, 
and from thence along the river side to the 
place of beginning, containing 75,500 acres 
according to a plan thereof hereto annexed. 
Signed at Newberry, June 21, 1722." 

Hon. John Gibson, Presi- 
Controversy dent Judge of the York 
About County Courts, prepared the 

the Survey, following exhaustive state- 
ment, relating to Springetts- 
bury ]\Ianor : 

The proceedings of the treaty of Cone- 
stoga were communicated to the Provincial 
Council on the 2nd of July, 1722. But that 
body declared that so far as they concerned 
or touched with the proprietary afifairs they 
were not judged to lie before the Board, 
which acted as a council of state, and not as 
commissioners of property. 


MitfiyL/)No Suft'fys 


yo/iy</ae ' 



'Po£/anora/n " 



So^ ^if^rtes' fia/-*f ' 



tVi/a^r^C3l • 



deo^ /s/t^^c/ " 



'T^Jomos /^fS lo^' 



"/s/es of ^/rom/se~ 



'/^/eoso/7^ O^rt^er?' 



"Co^otya ' 



Picre <S A//^ey^AofAa/r7 



Oi99S- Cv'ce' 


Map Illustrating text of Early Surireys iVe^i 

Ottiffi, 7fot*rf c. aa/r 

of rhe Susquehannc Rit/er 

On^f smart, >♦'/■ 


Colonel French, one of the sur\e\oi"s, 
who executed the warrant, then vmdertook 
to vindicate the conduct of Sir A\'illiam 
Keith to the Council, stating that "the war- 
rant specified his true reasons; and that it 
was. imder all the circumstances, the only 
effectual measure for quieting the minds of 
the Indians and preserving the public 
peace." The warrant and survey could not 
be returned into the land office at that time; 
for it was said, that the land office continued 
to be closed from the death of A\'illiam Penn 
in 1718 until the arrival of Thomas Penn in 
1732. Nor does it appear that they were 
ever filed in the land office at any subse- 
cjuent period. (Penn vs. Kline. 4 Dallas, 
405.) But it is elsewhere said: "It has gen- 
erally been supposed that the land office 
was closed from the year 17 18. when Wil- 
liam Penn died, until the arrival of Thomas 
Penn in the year 1732. It may be suggested 
that there were other reasons wh}' the sur- 
vey was not returned into the land office at 
that or any other time. The warrant itself 
was not issued from the land office, but un- 
der the private seal of Gov. Keith, at Cone- 
stoga. The land had not been purchased 
from the Indians, the office was not open 
for the sale of them, and it was out of the 
usual course to grant warrants for unpur- 
chased lands. The Council on the report of 
the proceedings seemed cautious about it. 
and refused to interfere further than to per- 
mit the warrant, and return of survey to be 
entered on their minutes." Although Colo- 
nel French defended the proceedings, be- 
cause the facts and circumstances recited in 
the warrant were truly stated, "and in his 
opinion of Springett Penn. in whose name 
the warrant was issued, was the late pro- 
prietor's heir-at-law, and whatever turn the 
affairs of that family might take to resettle 
the property and dominion of the province, 
he did not conceive this measure would be 
interpreted or deemed to the prejudice of a 
family for whose service it was so plainly 
meant and intended. But although the land 
was out of the purchases, as the Indians 
consented to the survey, the measure itself 
cannot but be considered as having been 
founded on the soundest and wisest policy, 
and Sir AVilliam Keith conducted himself 
with great zeal for the proprietary interest." 
(II Smith's Laws, note.) 

The grant to ^\'illiam Penn 
Origin of the of March 4. 1681, contained 
Penn Manors. se\cral powers to erect 
manors. On tlie iith of 
July, in the same year, he agreed with "the 
adventurers and purchasers" in England, 
who were interested in his grant and the 
settlement of the province on certain "con- 
ditions and concessions." The ninth of 
these was, that "in every one hundred thou- 
sand acres, the Governor and Proprietary, 
by lot, reserveth ten to himself which shall 
lie but in one place." The name of "manor" 
was given to these portions of reser\-ed land 
in its genuine legal sense. The nineteenth 
section of the charter empowered hiin. "his 
heirs and alienees, to erect manors, with a 
court baron and view of frank pledge (or 
court leet), to be held by themselves, or 
lords of other manors, and e\-ery person 
erectinsr such manor, shall grant lands to 
any person in fee simple, to be held of the 
said manor so as no further tenures shall be 
created, but further alienations shall be held 
of the same lord and his heirs of whom the 
alien did then before hold." 

And such seems to have been in William 
Penn's own mind when on his last visit he 
gave a paper agreeing to give land on a quit 
rent, "holding of the said manor, and under 
the regulations of the court thereof when 
erected." (Sergeant's Land LaAvs. 196.) 
He empowered the commissioners of prop- 
erty to erect manors, with jurisdiction 
thereto annexed. But the Commissioners 
declined exercising the power, which would 
have been repugnant to the freemen of the 
province. Afterwards in judicial opinions, 
the manors were construed to mean such in 
legal sense with its court and train of feudal 
appendages. It was held to mean a portion 
of the country, separated from the rest, so 
as to be open to purchasers on "common 
terms" or to settlers. Whatever was 
granted was by special agreement in the 
several manors. It was originally intended 
that title should be given by warrant and 
survey, but titles afterward grew by settle- 
ment and improvement. This practice be- 
came prevalent from 1718 to 1732. They 
were to be consummated by payment of the 
purchase money and issuing" of a patent. 
The warrant fixed a price and time of pay- 
ment, and when there was no warrant, the 


price at the time was to be paid, which was 
called "on common terms." The most of 
the country ^ was opened through the land 
office, but this did not include proprietary 
tenths or manors. 


After the controversy with Mar3'land was 
settled, by the final agreement between the 
proprietaries, James Hamilton, Governor of 
Pennsylvania, on the 21st of May, 1762, is- 
sued his warrant for the re-survey of the 
Manor of Springettsbury, which was duly 
returned into the land office of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1768, where it has since remained, 
and is now on record at Harrisburg. By 
this surve}' the manor was found to con- 
tain 64,250 acres. It e.xtended westward 
from the Susquehanna nearly fifteen miles. 
bounded by a north and south line west of 
the dwelling plantation of Christian Eyster. 
and east and west lines -about four miles 
distant north and south of York. The 
town had been laid out for the proprietor's 
use in 1741, as within the limits of a manor, 
and licenses to settle had been issued as 
early as 1734, and grants confirming titles 
within it had been given by the Proprietary. 
Thomas Penn, in 1736. It had been recog- 
nized as a manor, but there was no record 
of the same. It acquired the name in 1768, 
if not before. The lines to be surveyed bv 
the warrant then issued were specially di- 

Two principles \vere early settled, name- 
ly, that no sales were to be made, no settle- 
ments permitted, until the Indian title 
should be extinguished, and that no title 
could originate but by grant from William 
Penn. He and his descendants were trus- 
tees by virtue of the concessions and agree- 
ments for such individuals as should acquire 
equitable rights to particular portions of 
land. They erected an office, reserving the 
right to appropriate one-tenth of the whole 
to themselves, for their private and indi\'id- 
ual uses. No right could be acquired except 
by agreement with the proprietaries. In 
grants of lands to purchasers, the only dis- 
tinction was, that the lands not reserved 
were sold at stated prices, and those re- 
served, that is within the manors, were sold 
by special contract. Although settlements 
had become notorious within it, and licenses 
were issued and titles conferred by grant, 
the appropriation of the Springettsbury 

Manor was not sufficiently notorious, prior 
to the warrant of survey of 1762, to effect 
with constructive notice subsequent pur- 
chasers and settlers. The warrant of 1762 
affected all persons with notice of the ex- 
istence of the manor. The judicial difficul- 
ties arose from the fact, as alleged, that the 
survey of Sir William Keith, in 1722, was 
without authority, and that sur\'ey was 
never returned to the land office. 

The questions involved did 
Webster and not arise until after the Rev- 
Clay as olution, and Pennsylvania 
Attorneys. had become a sovereign 

state. The cases in which 
these titles are investigated, both arising 
in the County of York, are Penn's Lessee 
vs. Ivline, reported in the fourth volume of 
Dallas Reports (page 404), and in Kirk and 
Another vs. Smith, ex-demise of Penn, re- 
ported in the ninth volume of ^^'heaton's 
LTnited States Supreme Court Reports 
(page 241). In this last case the counsel 
for the plaintifT were Daniel Webster and 
Henry Clay, and the counsel for the defend- 
ant were the Attorney-General, William 
A\'irt, and John Sergeant, and the opinion 
was delivered by the Chief Justice, John 
Marshall. The following is the warrant in 
that case : 
Pennsylvania, ss. : — By the Proprietaries. 

Whereas, Bartholomew Sesrang, of the 
County of Lancaster, hath requested that 
we would grant him to take up 200 acres of 
land, situated between Codorus Creek and 
Little Conewago Creek, adjoining the lands 
of Killian Smith and Philip Heintz, on the 
west side of the Susquehanna River in the 
said county of Lancaster, for which he 
agrees to pay the sum of 15 ll^s. 10 s. cur- 
rent money of this province, for e\-ery acre 
thereof. These are therefore, to authorize 
and require to survey, or cause to be sur- 
A-eyed unto the said Bartholomew Sesrang, 
at the place aforesaid, according to the 
method of townships appointed, the said 
quantity of 200 acres if not already surveyed 
or appropriated ; and make return thereof 
into the secretary's office, in order for fur- 
ther confirmation; for which this shall be 
your sufficient warrant ; which survey, in 
case the said Bartholomew Sesrang fulfil 
the above agreement within six months 
from the date hereof, shall be valid ; other- 
wise void. 


Gi\eii umler mv hand and seal of tlie land 
office, b\- virtue of certain powers from the 
said proprietaries, at Philadelphia, this 
eighth day of January, Anno Domino, one 
thousantl seven hundred and fortv-tvvo. 

To William Parsons, 


The warrant of re-survey of 

Warrant Governor Hamilton set forth : 

for "That in pursuance of the 

Re-survey. primiti\'e regulations for laying 

out lands in the province, Wil- 
liam Penn had issued a warrant, dated the 
I St of September, 1700, to Edward Pen- 
nington, the Surveyor-General, to survey 
for the proprietor, 500 acres of evexy town- 
ship of 5,000 acres ; and generally the pro- 
prietary one-tenth of all the land laid out, 
and to be laid out : that like warrants had 
been issued by the successive proprietaries 
to every succeeding Surveyor-General ; that 
the tracts surveyed, however, are far short 
of the due proportions of the proprietary ; 
that therefore by order of the then Commis- 
sioners of property, and in virtue of the 
general warrant aforesaid to the Surveyor- 
General, there was surveyed for the use of 
the proprietor on the 19th and 20tli of June, 
1722, a certain tract of land situated on the 
west side of the river Susquehanna, then in 
the county of Chester, afterward in Lancas- 
ter, and now of York, containing about 70,- 
000 acres called, and now well known by the 
name of the manor of Springettsbury ; that 
sundry Germans and others, afterward 
seated themselves by leave of the proprietor 
on divers parts'of the said manor, but con- 
firmation of their titles was delayed on ac- 
count of the Indian claim; that on the nth 
of October, 1736, the Indians released their 
claims, when (on the 30th of October, 
1736), a license was given to each settler 
(the whole grant computed at 12,000 acres), 
promising patents, after surveys should be 
made; that the survey of the said tract of 
land is either lost or mislaid ; but that from 
the well-known settlements and improve- 
ments made by the said licensed settlers 
therein, and the many surveys made around 
the said manor, and other proofs and cir- 
cumstances, it appears that the said tract is 
bounded east, by the Susquehanna; west by 
a north and south line west of the late dwel- 
ling plantation of Christian Eyster, called 

Oyster, a licensed settler; north by a line 
nearly east and west, distant about three 
miles north of the present great road, lead- 
ing from Wright's Eerry through York, by 
the said Christian Eyster's plantation to 
Monockassey; south by a line nearly east 
and west, distant about three miles south 
of the great road aforesaid; that divers of 
the said tracts and settlements within the 
said manor, have been surveyed and con- 
firmed by patents, and many that have been 
surveyed, remained to be confirmed by pat- 
ents, for which the settlers have applied ; 
that the proprietor is desirous, that a com- 
plete draft or map and return of survey of 
the said manor, shall be replaced and re- 
main for their and his use, in the Surveyor- 
General's office, and also in the Secretary's 
office; that by special order and direction, a 
survey for the proprietor's use was made by 
Thomas Cookson, Deputy Surveyor (in 
1741), of a tract on both sides of the Co- 
dorus. within the said manor, for the site 
of a town, whereon York has since been 
laid out and built, but no return of that 
survey being made, the premises were re- 
surveyed by George Stevenson, Deputy 
Surveyor (in December, 1752), and found 
to contain 4363^ acres." 

After the recital, the warrant directed the 
Surveyor-General "to re-survey the said 
tract for the proprietor's use, as part of his 
one-tenth, in order that the bounds and 
lines thereof, may be certainly known as as- 
certained." James Tilghman, Secretary of 
the land office, on the 13th of May, 1768, 
wrote to John Lukens, Surveyor-General, 
to proceed with all expedition on the sur- 
ve}', and make return of -the outline of the 
manor at least. The survey was accord- 
ingly executed from 12th to the 13th of 
June, 1768, and the plan was returned into 
the land office and also into the Secretary's 
office, on the I2tli of July, 1768, containing 
64,520 acres, a part of the original tract of 
70,000 acres, having been cut of¥, under the 
agreement between Penn and Baltimore, to 
satisfy the claims of Maryland settlers. 
This is known as Hamilton's Survey. 


JACOB TAYLOR, a land surveyor and 
surveyor-general of the Land Office under 
the province of Pennsylvania at Philadel- 



phia, No\-ember 26th, 1706, to October, 


JA]\IES STEELE, a deputy surveyor, of 
Philadelphia, and receiver general of the 
Land Office under the province of Pennsyl- 
vania, lanuary ^oth, 1714, to December, 

FRANCIS WORLEY, appomted a Jus- 
tice of the Peace of Chester County and 
chosen a member of the council at Phila- 
delphia July 4th, 1718. He resided in 
Hempfield township, within the manor of 
Conestoga, near the Conestoga Tndian 
town. He afterwards removed to Man- 
chester township, now in the county of 
York, and died Tulv. 1/68 . leaving to sur- 
\-ive him eight sons^ndtwo daughters, yiz. : 
Tl^iniel^ Jacob, Nathan, Henry, Samuel, 
James, Francis, Thomas, Mary, wife of 
Peter Sh'ugart, and Lydia, wife oi George 

JAMES MITCHELL was a Justice of 
the Peace for Chester county and dwelt in 
the township of Donegal, now the county 
of Lancaster, appointed in the year 1722. 
He was also a surveyor. In 1722 he was 
appointed one of the commissioners to sur- 
vey the original Springettsbury manor on 
the west side of Susquehanna. In 1723 he 
and James LeTort held a treaty with the 
Ganawese. Nanticoke and other Indians at 
Conoy (Bainbridge, Lancaster county). 
James Mitchell owned and resided upon a 
farm which lay south of John Galbreath, 
between Marietta-Mount Joy Turnpike and 
Little Chiques Creek. He died 1747, lea\-- 
ing the following children: James, Alex- 
ander, Thomas, AA'illiam, Jean, Rachel, 
Mary. Margaret. . 

When the temporary line was run be- 
tween Pennsylvania and Maryland in 1739, 
James Mitchell, of Donegal, w-as one of the 
assistants to the commissioners of the two 
pro\-inces. He was elected a member of 
Assembly for the years 1727, 1744 and 1746. 
In the year 1741 he was elected sheriff of 
Lancaster countv. 

COL. JOHN' FRENCH, of New Cas- 
tle, was an early survej^or and enjoyed the 
confidence of the Proprietor. He was de- 
scribed as active and influential, being a 
person of integrity, reputation and ability. 
He was one of the Supreme Judges in the 
New Castle County court of Appeals. He 
was delegated June 8, 1710, to a treaty with 

the Indians at Conestoga. He was fre- 
quently sent on missions to the Conestoga 
Indians, accompanied either by the secre- 
tary of the province, James Logan, or by 
the Governor. He was a member of the 
Provincial council at Philadelphia, 1717- 
1727. He was one of four men appointed 
to administer one of the four great oaths of 
office to the Governor, Sir AVilliam Keith. 
Bart., upon his arrival from Great Britain. 
Governor Keith was inaugurated June ist, 
17 17. John French administered the fourth 
oath "Due Observation of the Acts of 
Trade." In 1717 he was commissioned 
"Chief Ranger and Keeper of the Marches 
of Pennsylvania."' A particularly import- 
ant undertaking was assigned him wdien 
sent to the Conestoga Indians to inquire 
into the facts pertaining to the first killing 
of an Indian by a white man in the province, 
namely — John and Edmund Cartilecfge, 
traders, for killing an Indian at a place 
three days' journey from Conestoga. He 
was able to appease the Indians and suc- 
cessfully secured the Cartiledges in the jail 
at Philadelphia. He was divested of all 
power and authority under the government 
and dismissed from the council board 
March 29, 1727, for "disregardful expres- 
sions of the proprietor and his charter and 
for underhand practices in detriment there- 
of," and died the following year. 

JAMES LETORT, according to Cun- 
ningham, was a French Huguenot; accord- 
ing to Evans, a French Canadian. He was 
a member of the French settlement on the 
Schuylkill, north of Philadelphia, and dwelt 
there with his wife, Ann LeTort. He is 
first mentioned in 1693 as Captain Jacques 
LeTort. The Colonial Records, Vol. 2, 
page 100, say "He lived in Pennsylvania 
from his infancy." Living among the In- 
dians he early acquired a knowdedge of 
their language and was useful to the gov- 
ernment as an Indian agent and interpreter. 
He was trading in the valley of the Susque- 
hanna prior to 1700. He dwelt from time 
to time near the mouth of Pequea creek, 
trading with the Shawnese at that place, 
and also with the Susquehannock or Cone- 
stoga Indians, whose village was a few 
miles north above the mouth of Conestoga 
creek. He lived at Conoy, 1700, near the 
village of the Kanawha or Ganawese, wdio 
were the same as the Conoise Indians. In 



the year 1701 lie left the province and went 
to Canada; returning in the spring of 1703. 
He probably made this journey by the 
waterway of Susquehanna. According to 
an old map, 1701, by Isaac Taylor, he had 
a trader's store among the Shawnese at the 
forks of the Susquehanna, opposite the In- 
dian town, Shamokin, (Sunbury). He was 
granted a large tract of land, 900 acres, on 
the banks of the Susquehanna, north of the 
Chickasalunga creek, now Marietta, Lan- 
caster county, on the draft of "Newberry," 
called "LeTort's Plantation." He migrated 
as an Indian trader to the spring in Cum- 
berland valley, afterwards called for him 
"Le Tort Spring," (Carlisle) as early as 
1731. For further information see Colonial 
Records, Vol. i, pages 299, 396, 435. Vol. 
3, pages 188, 202, 210 and 295. 

HENDRICKS, with Tobias Hendricks, 
sons of James Hendricks, Quakers, first set- 
tled in the township of Conestoga, at what 
is now Rock Hill, formerly Postlewaites, 
Lancaster county. The ford on Conestoga 
creek was at the mouth of a small run on 
the Hendricks property where the old trail 
to Philadelphia went from Conestoga In- 
dian town. James Hendricks, the elder, 
kept an ordinary at this point. John Postle- 
thwait owned it after the Hendrickses mi- 
grated west of Susquehanna. It was on 
this same tract, while owned by Postle- 
thwait that the first Court House, or rather 
place where court was held, and the first 
jail of Lancaster county, was erected. This 
was prior to the selection of a stie for the 
city of Lancaster. About 1726 John Hen- 
dricks, his wife, Rebecca, and James, his 
father, removed to the west side of the river 
and settled at a point on the river now 
known as the upper part of Wrightsville. 
John, with Joshua Minshall, was one of the 
chief participants in the Cresap border 
warfare, 1729 to 1738. James seems to have 
been a sympathizer with the Cresaps. 
John afterwards removed from the towai- 
ship of Hellam into the adjoining township 
of J^Ianchester, York county, and settled on 
a tract of land adjoining Francis Worley. 
He sold this land, 150 acres, in 1742, to 
Jacob Garber and moved into the adjoining 
township of Dover, where he died January 
21, 1749, leaving" to survive him four sons, 
James, John, Francis and William. Tobias 

Hendricks, the ancestor of Vice-President 
'IMiomas .\. Hendricks, settled on the west 
side of the river in East Pennsboro town- 
ship, now Fairview and Newberry, York 
county. Tobias afterwards dwelt in the 
Cumberland valley along the great road 
where he'kept an ordinary a few miles west 
of Harrisburg. He died in Cumberland 

The following warrant on behalf of John 
Hendricks, James Hendricks and Joshua 
Minshall is interesting as it indicated what 
was even then called primitive methods re- 
garding grants to the specially protected 
lands west of Susquehanna. Nothing like 
this warrant appears elsewhere among the 
Pennsylvania records. It is inserted here 
as an explanation for certain conditional 
grants made by Samuel Blunston in his own 
name in form of deeds under a certain 
twelve hundred acre survey made in that 
section, but as this survey is not defined, 
and there seeming to be no draft or drafts 
of it in existence, its location is only known 
as generally being at the foot of Kreutz 
Creek valley extending from the river west- 
ward : 

"WHEREAS, upon the application of John and 
James Hendricks and some others, inhabitants of Penn- 
sylvania the Commissioners of Property did in the year 
1728 order Samuel Blunston to lay out a tract of land 
of twelve hundred acres lying on the west side of Sus- 
quehanna opposite to Hempfield ; which land was then 
settled by the said parties, and is now in the possession 
of the said John Hendricks and of Joshua Minshall. 
who hold in right of the said James Hendricks ; and it 
appearing to me that the said John Hendricks and 
Joshua Minshall are settled upon the said land by reg- 
ular surveys — ordered to be made in the year 1728 of 
which I approve and will order a patent or patents to 
be drawn for that share of the land laid out to the said 
John and James Hendricks to John Hendricks and 
Joshua Minshall as soon as the Indian claim thereon 
shall be satisfied — on the same terms other lands in the 
countv of Lancaster shall be granted. 
Philadelphia. 20th March, 1730. THO. PENN." 

Witness, John Georges. 

JOHN GRIST settled in Hempfield 
township, Lancaster county. The name as 
it appears on the patent book of Pennsyl- 
vania is Greist, alias Krist or Crist. 

John Grist was the first wdiite squatter on 
lands w^est of the Susquehanna. He was 
forcibly removed therefrom about the time 
of the survey of Sir William Keith's tract 
and confined at Philadelphia for the offense 
of entering, unpurchased Indian lands. 

About 1738 John Grist settled on two 
hundred and ninety-eight acres in the west- 
ern part of York county, as described in 



waiTants of July 2t,, 1742, and October 25, 
1747, land being on Bermudian creek in 
Manchester township, in the county of Lan- 
caster adjoining lands of Samuel, William 
and Richard Cox. 

CONESTOGA, an Indian town in ^Nlanor 
township, Lancaster county. This was the 
\-illage of the last remnant of the Susque- 
hannock or Conestoga Indians. They called 
it their new town, although they were dwel- 
ling there prior to 1682, and sent from that 
place to the great treaty at Shackamaxon 
on Delaware, their King Canoodaghto and 
his wife, Ojuncho, with others. The old 
town of these Indians was on the river at 
Conejohalla (Washington and Creswell, 
Lancaster county), where they had a stock- 
aded fort. Between the A^ears 1635 to 1675, 
the exact time being in dispute, the Seneca 
and Cayuga Indians came from the lakes of 
New York and almost exterminated the 
Susquehannocks. After this defeat they re- 
moved four miles from the old town, inland, 
behind Turkey Hill, and founded the new 
village where Penn found them. There- 
after they are called Conestogas, although 
the uncertainty of their exact title is in- 
dicated in treaty papers and deeds, for 
in these thej^ are frequently named as 
Seneca-Susquehannock - Cayuga - Iroquois- 
Conestoga Indians. 

Conestoga Indian town was situated 
about eight miles southwest of a small In- 
dian village at Lancaster and the same dis- 
tance southeast of a Shawnee village at Co- 
lumbia, Decanoagha. The Conestogas 
dwelt back from the river east about two 
and a half miles and north of the mouth of 
Conestoga creek about the same distance. 
The site of their town was happily located, 
with an eastern and southern exposure in 
a grand sloping depression behind the river 
hills. Numerous springs and streams, In- 
dian Tom run being the largest, with other 
natural protective advantages, made the 
place an Indian's ideal abode. Finally, 
1762, all the inhabitants of this town were 
brutally slaughtered at Lancaster by armed 
white men from Paxtang in and around 

Columbia, Lancaster county. This village 
was located under the shelter of the high 
bluff called Chickie rock. It was an im- 
portant village, being the main point to 

which the Shawanese of the south were as- 
signed by William Penn when they made 
application to remove from North Carolina 
into this province. The place seems to have 
been called Deckanoagha. Professor S. S. 
Haldeman, the archaeologist, excavating on 
the site of this old village, discovered their 
rock retreat, as he designated it, and from 
which were taken many specimens of stone 
and bone relics. The grave or burial 
ground of this village was located at the 
foot of what is now Locust street. When 
excavations were made for the Philadelphia 
and Reading railroad depot the writer was 
able to secure a fine specimen of shell and 
skull bead from one of the graves. The 
Sawicka-Salunga creek referred to on the 
original draft of Keith's Newberry is the 
Chickasalunga. \Miether at the tiine this 
stream had two names or not it is now im- 
possible to state, but the variation is prob- 
ably to be accounted for as a misnomer, 
there being another Shawnee word — 
Suickasalunga, Sawicka-Salunga. 


In 1734 a title originated, which in con- 
troversies concerning the Manor of Spring- 
ettsbury, became the subject of judicial in- 
vestigation. The land on the west of the 
Susquehanna not having been purchased 
from the Indians, no absolute title, irregular 
or otherwise, could be given according to 
the established usage and law. But the dis- 
pute was existing with Lord Baltimore, 
concerning the boundary of William Penn's 
charter and the Marylanders were extend- 
ing their settlements up the Susquehanna. 
On the nth of January, 1733-34, a special 
commission was given to Samuel Blunston, 
a resident on the banks of the Susquehanna, 
to encourage the settlement of the country, 
and most of the titles over the Susquehanna 
originated in the licenses issued by him, to 
settle and take up lands on the west side of 
the river. Not because the land office was 
at that time closed, as has been generally 
conceived, but because the office could not 
be opened for those lands wdiich were not 
yet purchased of the Indians. He issued 
many licenses from January, 1734, to Oc- 
tober, 1737, by which he promised patents 
on the usual terms, when the purchases 
could be made from the Indians. The first 
license issued by Samuel Blunston was 



dated the 24th of January, 1734, and the 
last on the 31st of October, 1737, all of 
which, and they were numerous prior to the 
nth of October, 1737, were for lands out of 
the Indian purchase west of the Susque- 
hanna. These grants the proprietors were 
bound to confirm, being issued by their 
express consent, as soon as the)- purchased 
the land from the natives, upon the clearest 
legal principles, as expressed in the case of 
Weiser's Lessee vs. Moody. (11 Yeates, 

This title was always recognized, and 
after the purchase made in 1736 the pro- 
prietary confirmed the licenses by regular 
warrants. They were likened by some to 
locations, by others to warrants. They 
had all the essential parts of a warrant, ex- 
cept in the single circumstance of the pur- 
chase money not being previously paid. 
They contained a direction to make a sur- 
vey, equally with a warrant, and it was the 
constant usage of surveyors to make sur- 
veys under them, in the same manner as 
under warrants and such surveys were ac- 
cepted in the office. (Lessee of Dunning 
vs. Carruthers, II Yeates, 17.) 

In the case of Penn's Lessee vs. Kline 
(IV Dallas, 405) it is said, "In order to re- 
sist the Maryland intrusions, encourage- 
ments were offered by Sir William Keith, 
and accepted by a number of Germans, for 
forming settlements on the tract, which had 
been thus surveyed; and in October, 1736, 
Thomas Penn having purchased the Indian 
claim to the land, empowered Samuel 
Blunston to grant licenses for 12,000 acres 
(which were sufficient to satisfy the rights 
of those who had settled, perhaps fifty in 
number) within the tract of land, commonly 
called the "Manor of Springettsbury," 
under the invitations of the governor. But 
in addition to such settlers, not only the 
population of the tract in dispute, but of the 
neighboring county, rapidly increased." In 
1736, Thomas Penn was in Lancaster, and 
signed warrants taken under Blunston's li- 
censes. The number of Germans who had 
formed settlements on the tracts is else- 
where mentioned as fifty-two. In Cal- 
houn's Lessee vs. Dunning (IV Dallas, 
120) the inception of the plaintiff's title de- 
pended upon an extract from the record of 
licenses or grants by Blunston, dated 
March, 1735, which was merely a minute in 

these words : "John Calhoun, 200 acres on 
Dunning's Run, called the Dry Spring, be- 
tween Jacob Dunning and Ezekiel Dun- 
ning." A number of ejectments were 
brought for tracts of land, lying in York 
county, in all of which the general question 
was, whether the land was included in a 
tract called and known by the name of a 
proprietary manor duly surveyed and re- 
turned into the land office, on or before the 
4th day of July, 1776. The titles of the 
lessers of the plaintiff, to the premises in 
dispute, were regularly deduced from the 
charter of Charles the Second, to William 
Penn, provided there was a manor called 
and known by the name of Springettsbury, 
duly surveyed and returned, according to 
the terms and meaning of the act of the 27th 
of November, 1779. (I Smith's Laws, 

On the trial of the cause already men- 
tioned, evidence was given on each side to 
maintain the opposite position respecting 
the existence or non-existence of the Manor 
of Springettsbury, from public instruments, 
from the sense expressed by the proprieta- 
ries, before the Revolution, in their warrants 
and patents; from the sense expressed by 
the land warrants and patents issued since 
the Revolution ; from the practice of the 
land office, and from the current of public 
opinion. The general ground taken by the 
plaintiff's counsel was: First, That the land 
mentioned is a part of a tract called or 
known by the name of a Proprietary Manor. 
Second, That it was a Proprietary Manor 
duly surveyed; and third, that the survey 
was duly made and returned before the 4th 
of July, 1776. The defendant's counsel con- 
tended: First, That Sir William Keith's 
warrant, being issued in 1722, without au- 
thority, all proceedings on it were abso- 
lutely void, and that neither the warrant 
nor the survey had ever been returned into 
the land office. Second, That Governor 
Hamilton's warrant was issued in 1762, to 
re-survey a manor which had never been 
legally surveyed, and was in that respect to 
be regarded as a superstructure without a 
foundation. Third, that the recitals of Gov- 
ernor Hamilton's warrant are not founded 
in fact, and that considering the survey in 
pursuance of it, as an original survey, it was 
void as against compact, law and justice, 



the proprietor should assume, for a manor, 
land settled by individuals. 

The licenses granted by Thomas Penn, 
in 1736, to about fifty-two settlers, in differ- 
ent parts of the first, as well as second sur- 
vey, in which this is called the Manor of 
Springettsbury was strongly relied upon to 
show that, even at that early period, it had 
acquired this name. The tenor of the war- 
rants afterward granted for lands within 
this manor, varying from the terms of the 
common warrants, marked this manor land. 
There was testimony to show that the west 
line of this manor was always reputed to go 
considerably beyond York to Eyster's. 

As some of the persons interested in the 
ejectments brought for lands in Springetts- 
bury Manor had purchased from the Com- 
monwealth, and it would be entitled to all 
arrears of purchase money if the proprietary 
title should not be established, the Legisla- 
ture had authorized the Governor to employ 
counsel to assist the counsel of the defend- 
ants. After the decision of the case of 
Penn's Lessee vs. Kline, the Legislature 
appointed James Ross and James Hopkins, 
Esqs., to take defense in the next ejectment, 
Penn's Lessee vs. GrofT, (IV Dallas, 410), 
which was tried in the April term, 1806, and 
upon the same charge, the same verdict was 
given. The defendant's counsel, having 
tendered a bill of exceptions to the charge 
of the court, arrangements were made to 
obtain a final decision of the Supreme 
Court, upon a writ of error. It appears, 
however, from the journals, that the Legis- 
lature was not disposed to interfere any 
further, and terms of compromise were pro- 
posed and accepted by the parties. The 
resolution appointing Ross and Hopkins, 
counsel for the inhabitants of Springetts- 
bury Manor, was passed March 31, 1806. 
(P. P., 682. 8 Bioren, 474.) 

The proprietary manors were 
When reserved by the Legislature 

Proprietary to the Penns after the Revo- 
Titles lution, while their title to all 
Ended. other lands in the province 

was divested in favor of the 
Commonwealth. The royal grant of the 
Province of Pennsylvania to William Penn 
was an absolute one, and the quit rents 
reserved by him and his heirs, on the aliena- 
tion of lands therein, became their private 
property. Bv the Revolution and conse- 

quent change of government, the proprie- 
taries lost their right of preemption of un- 
purchased land, in which the Indian title 
was not extinguished. The grant to Penn 
was in free and common socage; but the 
Revolution and the act for vesting the es- 
tates of the late proprietaries in the com- 
monwealth and for the opening of the land 
office, passed in 1779 and 1781, abolished all 
feudal land tenures, and rendered them 
purely allodial in their character, even as to 
lands held by the late proprietaries in their 
private capacity. At the commencement of 
the war of the American Revolution, the 
proprietary went to Great Britain, where he 
remained, and in the year 1779, the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania passed the act "for 
vesting the estates of the late proprietaries 
of Pennsylvania in this commonwealth." 
It was held, however, in the courts, that the 
lands within the lines of the survey of the 
manor were excepted out of the general 
operation of the act, and were not vested in 
the commonwealth. The powers of govern- 
ment and rights of property were always 
kept distinct, the former being exercised by 
the General Assembly, and the latter by 
means of an agency, constituting what is 
called a land office. After the Revolution, 
the proprietaries had a land office to receive 
purchase money of lands and grant patents. 
The commonwealth did not receive the pur- 
chase money of lands included within the 
limits of manors, nor grant patents for 
them. There were, in fact, two land offices. 
The act of investiture contained the follow- 

"x^ll and every estate of those claiming 
to be proprietaries of Pennsylvania, to 
which they were entitled on the 4th day of 
July, 1776, in, or to the soil and land con- 
tained within the limits of said province, 
together with royalties, etc., mentioned or 
granted in the charter of said King Charles ; 
the Second shall be, and they are hereby 
vested in the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 

There was nothing in the act of 1779, 
which would lead to the opinion that the 
legislature was actuated by a spirit of hos- 
tility against the Penn family. The great 
object of the act was to transfer the right 
to the soil of Pennsjdvania from the pro- 
prietary to the commonwealth. This was 
the great and national object. In addition 



lo the private estates of tlie family, to 
manors aetuall)- siir\'eyecl and to the quit 
rents reserved on the lands sold within the 
manors, 120,000 pounds sterling are be- 
stowed on the family amongst other con- 
siderations, in remembrance of the enter- 
prising spirit which distinguished the 
founder of Pennsylvania. The line of par- 
tition between the commonwealth and the 
Penn family was to be drawn. It was 
proper that the commonwealth, and Penn, 
and the people of Pennsylvania, should be 
able distinctly to discern it. (^larshall C. 
J., 9 \\"heaton, 267.) 

To have suilered the Penn family to re- 
tain those rights, which they held strictly 
in their proprietar}' character, would have 
been inconsistent with the complete polit- 
ical independence of the state. The pro- 
vince was a fief held immediately from the 
Crown, and the Revolution would have 
operated \-ery inefficiently toward complete 
emancipation, if the feudal relation had 
been suffered to remain. It was therefore 
necessary to extinguish all foreign interest 
in the soil, as well as foreign jurisdiction in 
the matter of government. (Gibson, J., 7 
Sergeant and Rawle. 188.) 

\\'e are then to disregard the Revolution 
and these acts of Assembly as emancipating 
every acre of soil in Pennsylvania from the 
grand characteristic of the feudal system. 
Even as to the lands held by the proprieta- 
ries themselves, they held them as other 
citizens held under the commonwealth, and 
that by a title purely allodial. The State 
became the proprietor of all lands, but in- 
stead of giving them like a feudal lord to an 
enslaved tenantry, she has sold them for 
the best price she could get, and conferred 
on the purchaser the same absolute estate 
she held herself. ( \A'oodward, J., 8 A\'right, 

Among the proceedings of the Supreme 
Executive Council, January 25, 1787, ap- 
pears the following: "A letter from Tench 
Francis, Esq., requesting the delivery of a 
number of counterparts of patents for 
lands within the Manor of Springettsbur}-, 
granted by the late proprietaries of Penn- 
sylvania, now in the keeping of the secre- 
tary of the land office, was laid before the 
council: and on consideration, an order was 
taken that the secretary of the land office 
be authorized and instructed to deliver to 

John Penn and John Penn, Jr., or their 
attorne}', counterparts of all such patents 
for lots within the Manor of Springetts- 
bury as upon examination shall appear to 
be entered into the Roll's office, taking their 
receipt for the same." And on September 
22. 1788, the following appears: "A me- 
morial from John Penn, Jr., and John Penn, 
by their agent, Anthony Butler, containing 
a brief of their title to the i\Ianor of Spring- 
ettsbury lying north of the city of Philadel- 
phia, was read together with several inclos- 
ures ; the memorial and inclosures were put 
into the hands of the committee appointed 
upon the petition of Thomas Britain and 

All the titles of lands in the borough of 
York are derived from the Penns. The 
quit rents were reserved and paid. The 
agency for the Penns was in the hands of 
John Cadwallader, of Philadelphia, and the 
local agent was Charles A. Barnitz, and 
afterward David G. Barnitz. The last pur- 
chase of lands within the bounds of the 
Manor of Springettsbury was made by 
David Keller, of Windsor township, in 1858, 
the title to the piece of land before that 
being only one of occupancy by his father. 
This occupancy, however, inured to ail of 
his heirs as tenants in common. 



Mission of Hamilton and Georges — The 
Chester County Plot — Colonel Thomas 

The history of York County, by reason of 
the disputed proprietary claims, was in- 
augurated by disturbances which invoh-ed 
its first settlers in serious difficulties. They 
had settled themselves in one of those un- 
fortunate sections of country known to all 
history as border land. The persons who 
came west of the Susquehanna in quest of 
new homes, as citizens of the province of 
Pennsylvania, soon found that there were 
other claimants of the soil upon which they 
had planted themselves, coming here under 
the authority of the government of the 
province of Maryland. The broils and riots 
which followed in the wake of those who 
had first cleared the forests and sowed their 



crops on this side of the river, filled the 
annals of that period with protests and re- 
monstrances, criminations and recrimina- 
tions, affidavits and counter aiifidavits, un- 
paralled in the archives of any other govern- 
ment. AVhile it is our duty, as Pennsylva- 
nians. to maintain the rights of the founder 
of this commonwrealth, it is equally our duty 
to examine fairly the grounds upon which 
his rival proprietor on the south disputed 
these rights, and made claims of his own. 
The people who are embroiled in differ- 
ences of the character exhibited in the docu- 
ments and traditions of that period, are not, 
as a general rule, to blame, especially in an 
age when the sentiment of loyalty to rulers 
made them regardless of the rights of 
others, in behalf of those who were ready 
and willing to protect them in their out- 
rages. The blame must rest with those in 
authority, who could have no cause for en- 
couraging unlawful claims, much less for 
the assertion of them by violent measures. 
In all frontier settlements there are fierce 
and reckless men who are eager to carry 
out, by any means, what they conceive to be 
the will of those in power, of whom they 
are the partisans. It is a remarkable feature 
in the details of those early disturbances, in 
which the interests of the rival proprietaries 
clashed, that the Governors of each prov- 
ince for the time being apparentl)^ believed 
and relied on the ex parte statements of 
their partisans on the one side or the other. 
It is not the Cresaps, and the Higgenboth- 
ams, whom we are accustomed to consider 
as marauders and disturbers of the peace, or 
the A\'rights or Blunstons, whom, on the 
other hand, we consider the conservators of 
the peace, but those to whom was commit- 
ted the government of the respective colo- 
nies, and the welfare of his Majesty's sub- 
jects therein, who are properly to be made 
the subject of animadversion, if they failed 
to use all the means in their power to re- 
strain the evils existing, or from a spirit of 
partisanship closed their eyes to the real 
causes of those evils. The details of these 
disturbances and the mutual grounds of 
contention between the proprietaries are 
too tedious to relate. But a narrative of 
such incidents as led the respective pro- 
vincial governments into the bitter contro- 
versy, may not be without interest to our 

people, especially to those who dwell in the 
locality •where the occurrences took place. 

The first complaint as to in- 
Governor trusions on the west side of the 
Gordon's Susquehanna, after the agree- 
Letter. ment of 1724, appears in a let- 
ter from Governor Gordon to 
Governor Calvert, on the 14th of Septem- 
ber, 1 731: 

I am further creditably informed that some per- 
sons of Maryland, having obtained grants of land 
from youi" offices, have pretended to lay them out 
over the river Susquehanna, where our Commissioners 
would never allow an)' survey to be made, not only on 
account of our agreement with the Indians, but also of 
that made with INIaryland. Yet some of 3'our people 
have pretended to large tracts thereof, which some, 'tis 
affirmed, lie many miles further north than this city of 
Philadelphia, and have further had assurance even to 
offer them to sale to some of our inhabitants, without 
making, on their parts, any scruple of the situation. 
'Tis now some months since I heard the rumor of this, 
but very latelv I have had a much fuller confirmation 
of it. 

To which complaint there was the fol- 
lowing repl}' from the Governor of Mary- 
land : 

"As to what you mention of our people taking up 
lands high up the river Susquehanna, I shall endeavor 
to enquire into it as soon as possible, till when I must 
beg leave to defer any further answer on that head." 
(I Archives, 294.) 

It would appear from this that whatever 
settlers there were over the river at that 
period in the territory, now the county of 
York, were ostensibly there without the 
knowledge or consent of either government. 
The sequel will not bear this out. The com- 
plaint came first from the Indians to the 
government of Pennsylvania. A letter from 
Samuel Blunston, of the 3d of October, 
1 73 1, contains a message from Captain 
Civility to Governor Gordon, that "the 
Conestoga Indians had always lived in good 
friendship with the Christian inhabitants of 
Pennsjdvania, and have behaved themselves 
agreeable to their treaties with them. That 
AVilliam Penn had promised them they 
should not be disturbed by any settlers on 
the west side of the Susquehanna, but now, 
contrary thereto, several Marylanders are 
settled by the river on that side, at Conejo- 
hela. And one Cresap particularly, is very 
abusive to them when they pass that way. 
And had beat and wounded one of their 
women, who went to get apples from their 
own trees. And took away her apples. 
And further said, that as they shall always 
take care their people do us no hurt, so they 



also expect we shall protect them." (I 
Archives, 295.) 

This incident, trivial as it may 
Complaints seem, introduces and exposes 
Against the character of the principal 
Cresap. participant, on the side of 
Alaryland, in our border trou- 
bles. In this same Jetter it is said, in a post- 
script, "that James Logan had said he 
should be glad if Cresap could be taken," 
and Samuel Blunston writes, "we have now 
just cause to apprehend him for a breach 
of the law in entertaining and protecting a 
bound servant, belonging to one of our peo- 
ple, and threatening to shoot any person 
who shall offer to take away said servant. 
If you think it will be of any service to the 
government to have him taken, he believed 
it may be done." According to an affidavit 
of Thomas Cresap, made by him on the 
29th of January, 1732, he had lived on the 
west side of the Susquehanna river since 
the loth of March, as tenant of Lord Balti- 
more, by virtue of his lordship's grant and 
patent. He was the owner of a ferry oppo- 
site a point on the river called Blue Rock. 
The incident which occasioned his affidavit 
requires mention, because it first drew the 
governors of the rival provinces into angry 
controversy. He made oath that one day, 
about the last of October, he heard the re- 
port of three guns at the Blue Rock, the 
signal usually made by people who want to 
come over, the river. That he and Samuel 
Chance, who was a laborer with him, went 
over the river, and that he saw two men 
and a negro whom he took into his boat. 
He then details an assault upon him, that 
after a struggle they threw him into the 
river, out of his depth, and went away with 
his boat and his servant, and that he was 
rescued from an island after night by an In- 
dian. He complained to a magistrate in 
Pennsylvania, Mr. Cornish, against the 
men, and when he demanded a warrant the 
magistrate inquired where he lived. He 
said he was an inhabitant of Maryland, a 
tenant of Lord Baltimore, upon which the 
magistrate told him he knew no reason he 
had to expect anj^ justice there since he was 
a liver in Maryland. 

It appears, however, that the magistrate 
granted Cresap his warrant, and that the 
men were apprehended and bound over to 
court, and were indicted, convicted and 

fined for the assault. This deposition was 
sent to the Governor of Maryland, and a 
full account of the matter was also sent to 
Lord Baltimore. Governor Ogle sent a 
copy of the deposition to Governor Gordon, 
and complained in his letter of the saying 
b}' Cornish, that he knew no reason why 
Cresap had to expect justice there, since he 
was a liver in Maryland. And that Cresap 
was in great fear of other injuries from the 
behavior of the magistrate and other cir- 
cumstances, and tliat some Indians said 
they were offered a good reward by John 
Cartlidge, of Conestoga, to drive Cresap 
and his family off his land and burn his 
house. The affidavit of Cresap also stated 
that a great number of horses and mares, 
which were claimed by James Patterson and 
others, inhabitants of Pennsylvania, had 
been very injurious and troublesome to him 
and his neighbors, in throwing down their 
fences and destroying their corn. This 
matter of the horses becomes important, 
because of another incident arising out of 
the killing of the horses, which led to the 
arrest and incarceration of persons on both 
sides, and my Lord Baltimore became a par- 
ticipant in the scenes that were enacted on 
this border land of ours. To the letter of 
Governor Ogle, Governor Gordon replied, 
among other things, that "Cresap, believing 
himself aggrieved, applied to one of our 
magistrates, telling him that he was an in- 
habitant of Maryland. In which application 
it must be owned that he had a large share 
of assurance, for Justice Cornish lives more 
northerly than Philadelphia, and Cresap's 
dwelling, by his own description of the Blue 
Rock, cannot be less than live miles north- 
ward. That justice had been administered 
in Pennsylvania, and that as to the fray, the 
government was in no way concerned in it, 
unless justice was denied, which was not 
the case. "For 'tis plain the whole amounts 
to no more than that a quarrel happened 
between Cresap and some others in Penn- 
sylvania, which he thinks lit to call Mary- 

It appears from this and 
Maryland throughout the whole contro- 
Intruders. versy, that the Pennsylvanians 
continually resented the intru- 
sions of the Marylanders into their territory, 
above a designated line, while on the other 
hand the ^Iar\'landers, with the connivance 



of tlieir government, refused to recognize 
that line and collisions occurred necessarily 
incident to settlements under such conflict- 
ing claims. The lands about the Codorus 
and Conewago were attractive, as Gover- 
nor Gordon wrote in the course of the cor- 
respondence, "and some Maryland gentle- 
men cast their eyes on those lands made 
valuable by the neighborhood of our in- 
habitants, and it suited their purposes to 
settle such persons there as would intimi- 
date Pennsylvanians. and give some coun- 
tenance to their claims." In the year 1729, 
Charles Carroll, as appears by a petition of 
his, about the time of the commencement 
of our border troubles, located a warrant 
of 10,000 acres on the vacant lands lying on 
Pipe Creek, and Codorus and Conewago 
Creeks, and lands contiguous, according to 
the accustomed method used within his 
lordship's province. This location was in 
possession of the surveyor of Baltimore 
County and was renewed from time to time. 
Charles Carroll states in his petition that, 
apprehending some cultivation made during 
the former location, which the said warrant 
could not effect, he had obtained a special 
warrant to take up the same on express 
terms. About the 14th of June. 1732, he 
and John Ross went to view the lands, the 
better to inform themselves how to finish a 
survey of the same, and on the 21st of that 
month they came to the house of John Hen- 
dricks, on the Susquehanna River. The 
complaint of Carroll was that Avhile they 
were at Hendrick's house several persons 
came there with a warrant from Justice 
Wright to arrest John Tradane. of the prov- 
ince of Maryland, resident at Monocacy. 
and which they were told was intended to 
try whether they would interfere, by object- 
ing to the power of Pennsylvania. But they 
took no notice of the proceedings. Carroll 
complained that John Wright, Jr., a son of 
the Justice, had said "that in case the hom- 
iny gentry hindered their executing the 
warrant, they themselves should be put in 
prison, and that the best of their hominy 
gentry in Mar3dand should not get them 
out, and that if the Governor were there 
they would serve him in the same manner; 
that they would teach them to come to take 
their lands, and that neither they nor their 
Marylanders should come there to make a 
hominv countrv of their lands." He com- 

plained also, he said, of other reflecting and 
abusi\e language to that purport. The 
complaint of Carroll also set out that one 
James Patterson, who came over, said that 
all the lands thereabout belonged to the 
Penns. That James Logan advised the peo- 
ple of Pennsylvania to stand up manfully 
against the Marylanders, and that Patter- 
son said, for his own part, he would fight to 
his knees in blood before he should lose his 
plantations on either side of the river. Car- 
roll asked him if ever he had a patent under 
Penn for his plantation or the lands he 
claimed, or had a warrant for taking it up, 
to which Patterson answered that he had 
neither warrant nor patent, and Carroll 
then said that Logan's advice was danger- 
ous. This memorial of Charles Carroll was 
presented for the purpose of praying pro- 
tection from the ^Maryland government in 
executing his warrant, and settling the 
lands, as they, the petition said, would have 
to repel force b}^ force. 

James Patterson had been set- 
James tied, according to Governor 
Patterson. Gordon, on Springettsbury 
Manor, for several years, but 
because it was a manor he had no patent. 

Patterson had a plantation on this side of 
the river, but resided on the east side. He 
had, it appears, a number of horses neces- 
sary for carrying goods and skins in his 
trade with the Indians. Some of the family 
of John Lowe killed his horses, whereupon 
he came in the night time with a warrant, 
and the sheriff's posse, to arrest two of 
Lowe's sons. Daniel and William Lowe. 
But they also seized John Lowe, the father, 
and he, being brought before Justices 
Blunston and AVright. and nothing appear- 
ing against him, was discharged. Affidavits 
made by John Lowe and Thomas Cresap 
were sent to Governor Ogle, representing 
the arrest to have been made with great 
violence. In Cresap's affidavit it is repre- 
sented that Patterson had said he would 
let them know that they were prisoners of 
Pennsylvania. Cresap said that if Lord 
Baltimore would not protect them in their 
rights and land, they, the inhabitants of the 
west side of the river, must appeal to the 
King. To which Patterson answered "that 
they had no business with the King, or the 
King with them, for Penn was their King." 
Such were the representations sent for 



the grave consideration of the proprietary 
and authorities of Maryland. John Lowe, 
in his afiiidavit, represented that the party 
came in the dead of night and arrested him 
in hed, and violently dragged him on the 
ground and over the river on the ice and 
kept him in custody the remaining part of 
the night. The consequent struggle arising 
from the resistance to the arrest was made 
the ground of complaint for riot in Mary- 
land. The affair was communicated to 
Lord Baltimore, and a letter was received 
from him by Governor Gordon. As this 
letter came from a person of such dignity, 
and as it contains his own opinion of his 
rights, and his claim to obedience in this 
particular, it is given in full : 

Annapolis, Dec. 15th, 1732. 

Sir — By the enclosed precept, founded upon informa- 
tion given upon oath to a magistrate here, you will see 
that a most outrageous riot hath lately been committed 
in my province, by a great number of people calling 
themselves Pennsylvanians. It appears by the same 
information that some of your magistrates, instead of 
preventing or discouraging these violences, countenance 
and abet the authors of them ; whether with or without 
the approbation of your government, you best know. 
For my own part, I think myself in honor and justice 
obliged, and I am determined, to protect such of his 
majesty's subjects who axe my own tenants, in all their 
rights, and therefore, to the end the persons com- 
plained of may be punished, if upon a fair trial they 
shall be found guilty, I desire that they or such of them 
as can be found in your province, may be sent without 
loss of time into this, as the only and proper place, 
where the fact with which they are charged is cogniz- 
able, and where my officers will be ready to receive 
them, particularly the sheriffs and justices of my coun- 
ties of Baltimore and Cecil. I also desire that such of 
your magistrates as shall appear to have encouraged the 
commission of these or any other violences in my pro- 
vince by the people of Pennsylvania, may be punished 
for their abuse of authority, and that you'll favor me 
with a categorical answer to these my just demands by 
this bearer. Your Humble Servant, 


Addressed thus : To his Excellency Patrick Gordon, 
Esq.. at Philadelphia. (I Archives, 393.) 

The letter enclosed a precept for the ar- 
rest of the persons concerned in the alleged 
riot. Lord Baltimore was then at x\n- 
napolis, and was of course acquainted wnth 
the location of the scene of this affair. Li 
a subsequent letter, he speaks of it as 
having taken place in the province of Mary- 

At a meeting of the Pro- 

The Report vincial Council held at Phila- 

of Wright delphia on the 9th of January, 

. and I733. the Governor ac- 

Blunston. quainted the Board with the 
letter of Lord Baltimore, to- 
gether with a report of the affair from 

Wright and Blunston. The statements of 
this report are material to the consideration 
of the question regarding the claims of the 
respective provinces, to allow settlements 
within the territory west of the river Sus- 
c|uehanna, and north of Philadelphia. The 
substance of it is as follows: 

In the year 1729, when the county of 
Lancaster was formed, the southern bound- 
ary was, by the order, to be Octorara Creek 
and the province of Maryland, and includ- 
ing the inhabitants, to lie open to the west- 
ward. But as the line between the prov- 
inces was never run nor the exact bound- 
aries known, no authority was claimed over 
those few families settled to the northward 
of Octoraro, bj' or under pretense of Mary- 
land rights. They remained undisturbed, 
though many inhabitants of Pennsylvania 
lived some miles to the southward of them. 
At that time there were no English in- 
habitants on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna River, in those parts, for, about two 
years before, Edward Parnell and several 
other families who were settled on the west 
side of the river near the same, at a place 
called by the Indians Conejohela, were at 
the request of the Conestoga Indians re- 
moved by the Governor — the Indians insist- 
ing upon the same to be vacant for them. 
But about two years since, Thomas Cresap 
and some other people of loose morals and 
turbulent spirits came and disturbed the In- 
dians who were peaceably settled on those 
lands from whence Parnell and the others 
had been removed — burnt their cabins, and 
destroyed their goods and drove them 
away. The former settlers were good citi- 
zens of Pennsylvania, and before Cresap 
and his company none had settled by a 
Maryland claim, so far to the northward by 
nearly thirty miles. These men would fly 
to our laws for redress against their own 
party, and they who had fled from their 
creditors into this province when creditors 
would pursue them hither, would cry Mary- 
land. They disturbed the peace of the gov- 
ernment, carried people out of the province 
by violence, took away guns from friendly 
Indians, tied and made them prisoners 
without any offense given, and threatened 
ill who should oppose them. They killed 
the horses of such of our people whose trade 
with the Indians made it necessary to keep 
them on that side of the river for carrying 



their goods and skins, and assaulted and 
threatened to look after them. That this 
usage obliged James Patterson to apply to 
them for a warrant to apprehend and bind 
to the peace the two young men who had 
been most active, Daniel and William 
Lowe, and they were dismissed on security 
for their good behavior and appearance at 
court. They then say, that if they had sup- 
posed the issuing of their warrants would 
have given the least offense to Lord Balti- 
more, or that he would have looked upon 
those persons as his subjects and under his 
protection, they would have represented 
the case to the Governor and waited his 
direction. (Ill Col. Rec, 470.) 

AVith this report they sent affidavits 
which were read before the board. The 
affidavits showed that Patterson was in- 
formed that his horses were killed near 
Lowe's plantation and that his sons said 
they would kill all the horses that came 
upon that land, and would tie and whip all 
he should send over thither. The constable, 
Charles Jones, to whom the precept was 
directed, having formerly met with resist- 
ance from these people and fearing new in- 
sults, for Thomas Cresap and his associates 
had threatened to shoot any officer who 
should come into those parts to do his duty, 
though he only took his staff himself, yet 
he thought it necessary to have a suitable 
strength, took in all nine men with him. 
Amongst them were only three guns, and 
these not loaded, serving only as an appear- 
ance of defense. They went quietly to the 
house of Lowe, the father, and the door 
being opened apprehended Daniel and Wil- 
liam Lowe, his two sons. They made no 
disturbance but what was occasioned by 
the resistance of the prisoners, and those 
who came to their relief. That Lowe's 
house, where his sons were taken, is several 
miles more northerly than Philadelphia 
(which appears by a well known line that 
had been run about forty years since on a 
due west course from the city to the Sus- 
quehanna, in order to a more certain dis- 
covery of the country) and that there are 
about 400 people living more southerly 
than Lowe's house who pay taxes in the 
county of Lancaster, and have always 
acknowledged themselves inhabitants of 

The council having fullv considered the 

said letters and affidavits and remarking on 
the style and manner of Lord Baltimore's 
letter, which they conceived too perempt- 
ory, were inclined to think that his lord- 
ship had left room for no other answer than 
barely to acquaint him that the supposed 
riot was committed within the reputed and 
known bounds of Pennsylvania; and conse- 
quently not cognizable by him. Lord Balti- 
more, in a letter of the -isth of February, 
1733, says "that it is the first instance in 
his majesty's plantations, when rioters and 
people levying war against any of his sub- 
jects, have been denied to be delivered up to 
the government in which the offense was 
committed, on proper application, and such 
I make no doubt mine will appear to have 
been in due time." These facts appear 
upon the records of the Provincial Council, 
and are of no importance historically, 
except so far as they bear upon the conduct 
of the government in relation to them. The 
excited state of the parties immediately 
concerned in these quarrels is manifested 
by their violence of language. Conse- 
quently we find the depositions on either 
side laying stress on words used. Several 
witnesses deposed that they heard Cresap 
say, that if the sheriff of Pennsylvania or 
any other officer from thence, came to take 
any person on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna River he would shoot them, for they 
had pistols and guns and would use them in 
their own defense. And with regard to a 
higher person in authority it was deposed 
that Cresap said he had been at Annapolis, 
and in council Lord Baltimore assured him 
that as he had received money for the land 
on which Cresap lived, he would defend him 
from the proprietor of Pennsylvania, al- 
though Lord Baltimore did believe that 
when the division line between the prov- 
inces was run, Cresap's lands would fall in 
Pennsylvania. But until that line was run, 
he would protect him, and thereupon gave 
him a commission of the peace, as a magis- 
trate for the county of Baltimore, and with 
it gave him a strict charge to apprehend 
any person coming out of Pennsylvania, 
bearing arms, or committing the least 
offense whatsoever, and be sure to take no 
security of them but such as were free- 
holders in Mar3-land. (I Archives, 356.) 

On another occasion Cresap said he had 
been at Annapolis since the arrival of Lord 



Baltimore, had been very kindly received by 
his lordship, and had got his commission to 
be a Justice of the Peace, and added that 
his lordship would never execute the agree- 
ment made between him and the proprie- 
tors of Pennsylvania, because they had 
cheated his lordship by imposing a false 
map of the country upon him, and that his 
lordship would rather choose to pay the 
£5,000 forfeiture, mentioned in the agree- 
ment, than comply with the terms of it. 
And that he, Cresap, had heard this at 
Annapolis from gentlemen of note there. 
(I Archives, 375.) 

At a meeting of the Provincial 

Governor Council, held at Philadelphia on 

Ogle's the 14th of February, 1733, the 

Letter. Governor informed the board 

that he had received a letter 
from the Lieutenant-Governor of Maryland, 
enclosing one from Lord Baltimore, by 
Avhich it appeared that his lordship, not- 
withstanding what had been written to him, 
continued to insist on the demands made in 
his former letter, of delivering up those 
persons concerned in the execution of the 
warrant issued against the sons of John 
Lowe. In this communication Governor 
Ogle says : "His lordship cannot but be sur- 
prised to find your magistrates are justified 
in issuing warrants for the appreliension of 
persons in his lordship's province before the 
lines are run and bounds settled, which are 
stipulated by the articles to be done, and 
that probably such may fall within the gov- 
ernment of Maryland, when the lines are 
run. If this is the case, his Lordship thinks 
it should not be so useful and necessary to 
name commissioners or to run the line 
intended by the articles, since every magis- 
trate may, on the one hand, take upon them, 
though no lines are run, to distinguish the 
bounds and each government protect 
them." (Ill Col. Rec, 481.) 

The Council expressing their surprise 
that Lord Baltimore should, without taking 
the least notice of what the Governor had 
written to him, have thought fit to insist on 
the former demands in so peremptory a 
manner, came to the unanimous resolution 
that for the reasons contained in the said 
letter, his Lordship's demand is by no 
means to be complied with, and that the 
same should be signified to his Lordship in 
very plain terms. And they directed. 

among other things, the Governor to say, in 
his letter to Lord Baltimore, that the 
offense was only cognizable in Pennsyl- 
vania, the place where it was done, and that 
his Lordship may be assured that this gov- 
ernment shall have such a strict regard to 
do impartial justice between all its inhabi- 
tants, that John Lowe, if the case be as he 
represents it, on a proper application, may 
depend on being redressed in due course of 
law. That the demand of his Lordship was 
not a sufficient reason for delivering up a 
freeman of Pennsylvania to be tried in 
Maryland. That those persons were as 
independent of Maryland as were his of 
Pennsylvania, and though his principles and 
those of the greatest part of the inhabitants 
of Pennsylvania, allowed of no force, except 
that of the civil magistrates, yet, being pro- 
tected by his Majestj^'s wisdom and justice, 
we apprehend no danger from the different 
principles and superior strength of Mary- 

We have now come to a tragic incident, 
in these unfortunate disturbances, which 
had the effect of prolonging the unpleasant 
attitude of the rulers of the rival provinces 
toward each other, and after a continued 
voluminous and acrimonious correspond- 
ence, and further disturbances, resulted in 
the arrest of Cresap and his being held for 
trial. According to a letter from Samuel 
Blunston to Thomas Penn, proprietary, on 
the 30th of January, 1734, on information 
that Cresap and several hands were to be at 
John Hendricks' to square logs for a house 
and build a float for the ferry, John Wright, 
with Sheriff Emerson and others, went over 
the river with intent to proceed against 
Cresap and his party for forcible entry. 
The workmen were arrested and committed 
to jail. An attempt was made to arrest 
Cresap at his house, and one of the sheriff's 
men was shot in the leg, from the effects of 
which wound he died. The unfortunate 
man who was shot was Knowles Daunt, 
and it appeared from the affidavits that he 
was killed by Cresap. Blunston wrote that 
they were extremely concerned at this rash 
and indiscreet procedure, not knowing 
what use might be made of it, for they 
heard that Cresap had set out for Maryland, 
and would doubtless give a relation far 
beyond the truth, and that it was possible 
the government of Marvland might write to 



our government about it. "Pray don't fail 
to let us hear from thee at our court, for we 
seem to be much at loss how to proceed 
against them we have taken, as well as 
what to say of the madness of the other." 
(I Archives, 410.) 

A letter came from the government of 
Maryland, as was expected, and some 
extracts may not be uninteresting from the 
ensuing correspondence, bearing on the 
controversy. Governor Ogle, February 24, 
1734: "It has always been my constant aim 
and view to prevent all disturbances as 
much as possible, having always hopes that 
the quiet and peaceable behaviour of our 
people, would, at least, induce those under 
your government to follow their example, 
and for this reason, notwithstanding the 
repeated violences committed against his 
Lordship's tenants on the borders, I have 
given them frequent orders not to offer the 
least injury to any person whatsoever, but 
when defending themselves against any 
unjust attack, which may be made upon 
them. What gives me the greatest con- 
cern is that these people were headed when 
they came over the river by two persons 
acting as magistrates under your commis- 
sion, Mr. AVright and Mr. Smout. For 
now that things are come to that pass that 
magistrates, at the head of a parcel of des- 
perate fellows, come out of one province 
and attack in the night time a magistrate in 
another, where blood is shed. Nobody can 
tell what dismal consequences may follow 
it, if not prevented in time. Therefore, I 
hope you will show that discountenance to 
your magistrates which ma}^ effectually dis- 
courage others from committing the like 
offenses. I do assure you I have ordered 
Mr. Cresap, (by whose hand the death of 
the person is supposed to have happened) 
into the custody of the Sheriff of Baltimore 
County, that he may be forthcoming at the 
next assizes to be held for that county, on 
the first Tuesday of next April, in order for 
his trial, and I hope for the satisfaction of 
justice you will give official orders to com- 
pel any witnesses under your protection to 
be at the assizes for the discovery of truth. 
I am afraid we should but ill answer 
His Majesty's gracious approbation of us, 
if we neglect to take the most proper steps 
in laying before His Majesty the unsettled 
condition of our confines — making applica- 

tion to our proprietors on this head, and 
pressing them to procure His Majesty's 
directions herein." (I Archives, 414.) 

Governor Gordon, March 8, 
The Case 1734: "It is with a very deep 
of John concern that I observe com- 
Hendricks. plaints arising and multiply- 
ing, and that you stem to 
charge this pro^•ince with a prevailing 
humor to rioting. . . . John Hendricks had 
for several years past, and I think for some 
years before any settlement was attempted 
in these parts by any parties from Mary- 
land, been seated on the west side of the 
Susquehanna, about four or five miles 
higher up the river above those since made 
by Cresap and his associates, and had 
obtained a grant and survey for the land on 
which he now dwells, and where he has 
lived peaceably until Cresap took it into his 
head, with divers others, to enter upon the 
possession of Hendricks, and when they 
were desired to leave the place, and desist 
from their unlawful attempts, the owner of 
the lands was insulted and menaced by 
Cresap, and such as he thought fit from 
time to time to encourage in their proceed- 
ings. This occasioned complaint to our 
magistrates, who took care to have the best 
council and advice how to proceed. . . . 
Accordingly, the magistrates went over, 
and when they came to Hendricks' land, 
they found eight men at work, whom I am 
sorry you call his Lordship's tenants, 
felling and squaring his timber, and build- 
ing a house within 100 j^ards of Hendricks' 
door. ... I am really troubled to find you 
saying in your letter that I know that 
Cresap is one of your magistrates. I assure 
you, sir, that I did not. I know that he has 
generally been said to be. From our 
knowledge of him we have no reason to 
consider him other than an incendiary or 
public disturber of the peace of both gov- 
ernments, and the main cause and prompter 
of all late contentions that have happened 
between us, and indeed the first placing of 
him there has always appeared to us not 
easy to be accounted for. I cannot compre- 
hend in what sense their (the magistrates) 
going out of one province into another is to 
be understood, for I never yet heard it 
alleged that Susquehanna River was a 
boundary between Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania. Nothing can be more certain than 



that their boundary on the north of the one 
and soutli of the other, must be a due east 
and west line, and therefore the opposite 
parts of the shore of that river must neces- 
sarily be both in the same province. 

"To my great trouble I am to observe 
that I received a melancholy letter from 
John Hendricks and Joshua JNIinshall, dated 
from the gaol at Annapolis, with copies 
signed by your Sheril¥ of their commitment 
by yourself and some members of your 
Council, dated the second day of last month, 
that is three days before the date of your 
letter, and in this commitment I find the 
true allegations against them are for having 
disparaged his Lordship's title, that is,' in 
other terms, as may well be supposed, that 
they asserted their right to their own set- 
tlement under Pennsylvania, about ten 
miles by our computation more northerly 
than Philadelphia, where neither his Lord- 
ship nor any for him then made, unless it 
be now done, any claim whatsoever. We 
have also heard of the manner of taking 
them, viz. : that the Sheriff of Baltimore 
County, with above twenty men, armed 
with guns, pistols, swords and cutlasses, 
traveled up thither to apprehend two men, 
who were quietly following their business 
on theic plantations. 'Tis said also, that 
this is done by way of reprisal, and to intim- 
idate, that is because our magistrates, in a 
most peaceable and legal manner, removed 
a forced and most unjust entry, you must 
make a prisoner of the man upon whom that 
force was committed, and over whom you 
can claim no manner of right. . . . There 
must be some certain known limits for the 
exercise of pow-ers of government, without 
which his ^Majesty's subjects cannot pos- 
sibly be secured in their persons or estates, 
such known limits as we alwa3rs had till 
now within these two years, for the pro- 
prietors had by mutual agreement con- 
cluded an absolute determination of all dis- 
putes and differences on these heads, with- 
out any regard to which one Cresap has 
been authorized, or at least countenanced, 
with a pocket dial, as divers persons of 
credit have afifirmed, to scatter and plant 
pieces of Maryland and his Lordship's ten- 
ants, as they are called, where he and they 
please, and the removal of these abuses, in 
a legal way, is called rioting. His Majesty's 
peaceable subjects are hurried off' their 

rightful settlements into distant prisons to 
the danger of their health and lives, and 
now in the springtime, to the irreparable 
injury of their families, who depend for 
their bread on their labor and care. This 
further shows the absolute necessity of 
applying to his Majesty, without any delay. 
... In the first place calling for a repara- 
tion of this last injury to Hendricks and 
Minshall, and that Cresap may be delivered 
to receive his trial in this province, in which 
he perpetrated the murder. I must earn- 
estly beseech you that we may concert 
some certain, just and equitable measures 
for preserving peace between his Majesty's 
subjects in both governments." (I Arch- 
ives, 417.) 


Thomas Penn, proprietary, on the 14th of 
May, 1734, informed the Council that the 
business then to be considered by them 
related to some very unneighborly proceed- 
ings of the province of Maryland, in not 
only harassing some of the inhabitants of 
this province who live on the border, but 
likewise extending their claims much fur- 
ther than had heretofore been pretended to 
be ]\Iaryland, and carrying off several per- 
sons and imprisoning them. That some 
time since they carried off" John Hendricks 
and Joshua Minshall from their settlements 
on Susquehanna, and still detain them in 
the jail at Annapolis. The proprietor said 
he intended to make use of the opportunity 
of Hamilton's going to Annapolis (Andrew 
Hamilton, Esq., who was to appear for the 
prisoners), to press the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Maryland to enter into such meas- 
ures as should be most advisable for pre- 
venting such irregular proceedings for the 
future, and as he designed that his secre- 
tar}^, John Georges, should accompan}' 
Hamilton, he had drawn up instructions for 
them. Whereupon the Council desired 
that credentials be granted for the purpose 
mentioned. (III. Col. Rec. 542.) 

Hamilton and Georges made their visit 
to Maryland, and on their return made a 
full report to the proprietor. (III. Col. 
Rec. 547.) Hamilton attended the Coun- 
cil, and made a narrative verbally of the 
proceedings had in the Provincial Court of 
!\Iarvland against those who were carried 



off prisoners from this government, and the 
arguments he had advanced for obtaining 
their discharge. Hamilton and Georges re- 
ported that they arrived at Annapolis on 
the 20th of May about sunset. Soon after 
coming to their lodgings they went to speak 
Vk^ith John Hendricks and Joshua Minshall 
in prison, but were not suffered to see them 
until the next morning, when, going again, 
they were after some time admitted to the 
speech of the prisoners, who gave an ac- 
count of their uneasiness in a most un- 
wholesome prison ; as likewise the best ac- 
count they could of the several charges 
alleged against them. They waited upon 
Gov. Ogle, and delivered him a letter from 
the Lieutenant-Governor of Pennsylvania, 
and acquainted him that they were sent to 
concert proper measures for the peace and 
good neighborhood between the two gov- 
ernments, and to desire a discharge of four 
of our inhabitants who were imprisoned at 
Annapolis. To which he was pleased to 
answer that he was ready to cultivate 
any measures with the government of 
Pennsylvania which would answer that pur- 
pose; and at the same time took occasion to 
say that our inhabitants were imprisoned 
for much greater offenses than probably 
they were aware of. To which they 
answered that the}' had no other way of 
coming at the knowledge of the cause of 
their imprisonment but by their several 
commitments, and by those, as they con- 
ceived, there seemed scarce a color for such 
proceedings as had been taken against 
them. They added, further, that supposing 
the offenses were -really committed, and as 
great as his excellency was pleased to al- 
lege, yet the place where they were com- 
mitted, as well as the place where the men 
were taken, was clearly beyond all the 
former claims of Maryland, and therefore it 
was their opinion the men were very hardly 
dealt by. 

Gov. Ogle began to enumerate the many 
abuses the inhabitants of Maryland had 
suffered from those of Pennsylvania, and 
that since his accession to the government 
of Maryland, he had taken all possible care 
to be entirely on the defensive side, and was 
resolved to continue so, but at the same 
time he could not suffer Lord Baltimore's 
right to be so violently encroached upon, 
and his character so publicly aft'ronted 

within his Lordship's own government. 
"For," added he, "we claim no bounds but 
what are given to his Lordship by the ex- 
press words of his charter." However, he 
expressed his willingness to enter into any 
reasonable measures for preserving the 
peace ; and to show his readiness, proposed 
their meeting him in council, the next day, 
about ten o'clock, at his own house, to 
which they readily agreed. And then he 
was pleased to invite them to dine with him, 
which they did accordingly. They reduced 
to writing the heads of what they were to 
propose, and on the day appointed they met 
Gov. Ogle, and he said to them that he was 
glad to find our government seemed at last 
To agree to what he had long ago proposed 
in his letters to the Governor of Pennsyl- 
\ania, to lay their unhappy misunderstand- 
mgs before his Majesty, and in the mean- 
time forbear making anjr encroachments 
upon one another, which he thought was 
the most likely way for preserving peace 
among the people; yet he fixed upon 
nothing certain by which the jurisdiction of 
the respective governments could be known. 
The Governor proposed that they ought to 
join without delay in representing to the 
King the unsettled state of the two prov- 
inces, and the necessity of his Majesty's 

They finding this method of 

Hendricks treaty was not likely to pro- 

and duce any certain conclusion, 

Minshall delivered to his Excellency a 

Arrested. written representation, which 

set out the complaints on the 
part of Pennsylvania: That under the agree- 
ment of 1724 and that made in 1732, most 
careful provision was made for the ease and 
quiet of all his Majesty's subjects, whose es- 
tates or possessions should be affected by 
the same, and that the description of the 
southern boundaries of Pennsylvania might 
be very nearly discovered without new 
actual surveys, notwithstanding which two 
of his Majesty's subjects, to wit, John Hen- 
dricks and Joshua Minshall, inhabitants of 
Lancaster County, settled upon lands le- 
gally surveyed and patented to them under 
the proprietors of Pennsylvania, on the west 
side of the river Susquehanna, had been 
taken at their homes, which were at least 
eight miles to the northward of Philadel- 
phia, and about twenty-three miles to the 



northward of the line agreed upon by the 
aforesaid articles to be the northern bounds 
of Maryland, which line runs near the 
mouth of Octoraroe Creek, to the north- 
ward of which Maryland has never exer- 
cised any jurisdiction, except over thirteen 
families, that is known to Pennsylvania, till 
within two or three years, about the time 
when an absolute boundary was agreed 
upon by the proprietors, though Pennsyl- 
vania has maintained its government as far 
southward as the mouth of the said creek 
for above these thirty years. 

In the afternoon they endeavored to 
speal* privately with Hendricks and Min- 
shall and the two "Rothwells, who were in 
prison. The jail was so noisome they could 
not go near it, but taking with them gentle- 
men of Maryland, they prevailed with the 
Sheriff to speak with them at his own house. 
They inquired particularly into the manner 
and cause of their commitment. They all 
gave the greatest assurances that they had 
never spoken any time of Lord Baltimore or 
his government that they could remember; 
that they never had any conversation with 
any one about Lord Baltimore or his gov- 
ernment but upon their own plantations, 
and Hendjicks and Minshall insisted that 
no person could swear any such thing 
against them, unless Cresap should be so 
wicked, who had threatened to ruin them. 
They applied themselves how they should 
get Hendricks and Alinshall into court, who 
had been committed by the government and 
Council. They attempted to get a habeas 
corpus and consulted on the law Mr. Calder, 
who gave his opinion of the difficulties he 
apprehended they might meet with in the 
defense of the prisoners, which led them 
into thoughts of employing some other 
eminent gentleman of the law, who by his 
credit with the people and acquaintance 
with the practice of the court might be able 
to do the prisoners some service. But to 
their great disappointment they found them 
all engaged on the side of Lord Baltimore. 
At least there was none could be prevailed 
on against him. When their paper was pre- 
sented. Gov. Ogle went on to enumerate all 
the differences that had happened upon the 
borders of the two governments since his 
coming to Maryland. He alluded to the 
affair of Patterson and Lowe, and the great 
abuses he said had been committed in mani- 

fest contempt of Lord Baltimore's govern- 
ment upon Cresap. All these he aggravated 
in such manner as if he had been speaking 
to men who had never heard of them before. 
They thought it necessary to show that they 
were no strangers to these facts, and were 
not to be imposed upon by such a repre- 
sentation, and answered him as had been 
represented Isy Gov. Gordon. 

Gov. Ogle declared that Hendricks and 
Minshall were under prosecution in the Pro- 
vincial Court, which was then sitting, and 
that he would not interpose but let the law 
take its course. So they parted that day, 
after which time Gov. Ogle troubled himself 
no more about the formality of a Council. 
The Governor delivered to them an answer 
in writing to their representations, in which 
he desired them immediately to join with 
him in an application to his most gracious 
Majesty. In considering this paper they 
were not satisfied that it was proper for 
them to agree to join in such representation, 
but rather that the proprietors themselves 
or their lieutenant-governor should do so, 
and they concluded upon a paper which they 
delivered Gov. Ogle at his own house on 
the 24th of May. The Governor received 
them without any form and with civility, as 
if nothing had passed the day before, and 
promised them an answer by the next morn- 
ing. In this paper they said they were now 
.ready to agree upon any bounds that should 
be judged reasonable for limiting the pres- 
ent jurisdiction of the two governments 
without prejudice to the rights of the pro- 
prietor thereof, and that proclamation 
should be issued to forbid all persons within 
the respective governments from making 
any new settlements near the borders under 
the severest penalties. And that they were 
ready further to agree to remove any new 
settlements that had been made upon such 
bounds as should be agreed upon, lest the 
same may disturb the quiet of their govern- 
ments, until the boundaries be actually set- 
tled between the proprietors themselves or 
until his Majesty's pleasure be known there- 
in. And as they were well assured that a 
representation to his Majesty would be most 
agreeable to their government, they did not 
in the least doubt that their proprietors, or 
their Lieutenant-Governor, would readily 
join with the Right Honorable, the Lord 
Proprietor of Maryland, or himself, in such 



a one as may best conduce to put an end to 
the misunderstandings which have arisen 
between the governments by reason of the 
present uncertainty of the respective bouna- 
aries. To this Gov. Ogle answered that he 
had beheved that they were invested with a 
suiificient power to agree to any reasonable 
proposals for accommodating the pres- 
ent disputes, and preventing any of a like 
kind for the future, and upon that hope had 
offered the particular methods mentioned in 
his letter of the 23d inst. as very reasonable 
and the most proper for those desirable 
ends. But since he perceived by their paper 
that they thought themselves not sufficient- 
ly authorized to join with him in his just 
and reasonable propositions, he hoped that 
on their return they would receive more 
ample powers for their agreement with him. 
Hamilton and Georges then said, in their 
report, that they saw from their first waiting 
on Gov. Ogle, they had no reason to expect 
any success in the business they were sent 
to prosecute, and that they saw plainly by 
his last paper that Gov. Ogle was resolved 
to avoid doing everything that might pre- 
vent any further differences upon the bound- 
aries, and observing the ill use that he made 
of their saying that their proprietors or 
lieutenant-governor would readily join in a 
representation to his Majesty, and that he 
had construed those words into their think- 
ing themselves not sufficiently qualified to" 
join with him in what he calls his just and 
reasonable propositions ; in order to remo\e 
that objection, they drew up a paper and 
delivered the same to him on the 27th of 
May, which would have been delivered 
sooner but they were obliged to give their 
attendance at court when the case of the 
prisoners was under consideration. That 
paper said they were ready on the part of 
Pennsylvania, at the same time that they 
agree upon some reasonable boundaries for 
limiting the jurisdiction of the two govern- 
metits, to join with his Excellency in a just 
representation to his Majesty of the uncer- 
tainty of the present boundaries between the 
two governments, occasioned by not execut- 
ing the articles of agreement solemnly en- 
tered into and concluded between the Right 
Honorable, the Lord Proprietor of Mary- 
land and the Honorable the Proprietor of 
Pennsylvania, in May, 1732, and to pray his 
Majesty that he would be graciously pleased 

to interpose and enjoin the execution of the 
said agreement according to the true intent 
and meaning thereof, in such manner as his 
Majesty should please to direct. After this 
they heard no more from Gov. Ogle, though 
they stayed till the 30th of the month. 

In the meantime they made the most 
pressing instances to the Provincial Court 
to have our people discharged. But that 
could not be granted lest it should be under- 
stood as giving up his Lordship's right to 
the lands in cjuestion, as appears by the min- 
utes of these men's case taken at the hear- 
ing. Though being denied any relief for the 
prisoners by the Provincial Court, and Gov. 
Ogle having taken no notice of. what they 
said or proposed in their paper of the 27th, 
they thought a longer stay could be of no 
purpose and thereupon they resolved to rep- 
resent Gov. Ogle a just reason our gov- 
ernment had to complain of the unreason- 
able proceedings of Maryland, and the abso- 
lute necessity they were under to take 
proper measurers for the protection of his 
Majesty's subjects under the government of 
Pennsylvania, and accordingly on the 30th 
of the month they drew up a memorial. But 
the Governor, Ogle, being said to be indis- 
posed that day, they waited on him the next 
morning and delivered it to him, which he 
received, and, without reading it, desired his 
compliments might be made to Mr. Gordon 
and to those that he knew at Philadelphia, 
and wished them a safe return. In this 
memorial they enumerated the refusal of the 
court to discharge the prisoners and that 
they had used all means in their power to be 
in some measure relieved from those in- 
juries and violences done to the inhabitants 
of Pennsylvania, and to procure the concur- 
rence of the government of Maryland in 
measures to preserve the peace. It was 
therefore hoped that none who entertain 
any just notions of the rights of mankind 
will blame the government of Pennsylvania, 
if they take proper measures for protecting 
his j\lajesty's subjects under their jurisdic- 
tion, from the outrages frequently commit- 
ted upon them by the people of Maryland, 
and by dutiful representation of their great 
patience under those public abuses implor- 
ing his iNIajesty's most gracious interposi- 
tion, and for the meantime should the gov- 
ernment of Pennsylvania, whose principles 
are well known to be against all force, and 



who next to liis -Majesty's protection have 
no means to defend themselves but the au- 
thority of the several magistrates, to be laid 
under a necessity for their own safety to 
avoid what may be deemed unneighborly or 
to give trouble or uneasiness to his Ma- 
jesty's subjects, pretending themselves to be 
under the government of Maryland. " We 
do declare that it will be entirely to your 
Excellency's not joining" with us in some 
reasonable and equitable measures for pre- 
serving the peace amongst his Majesty's 
subjects inhabiting near the boundaries of 
the two governments, and the unreasonable 
confinement and prosecution of our inhabi- 
tants who were without all question taken 
by your officers within our government of 
Pennsylvania, and for that reason had they 
really been guilty of any offense ought to 
have been discharged." 

Gov. Ogle, May 30, 1734: "It is to be 
wished there had never been a distinction 
made in your provinces between the power 
you have as Governor in other respects, and 
that in affairs relating to your land office. 
For the managers of that office not being- 
restrained by the Governor, they themselves 
had liberty to make what encroachments 
they pleased, from which alone, I will ven- 
ture' to say, all the riots and disturbances 
have arisen amongst the borderers of the 
two provinces. I had the most sensible 
pleasure when I received your letter of the 
14th of this month, wherein you require me 
to receive Mr. Hamilton and Mr. Georges, as 
duly authorized on behalf of your govern- 
ment to concert with us such measures as 
might effectually secure peace till such time 
as the division lines shall be run, and our 
boundaries indisputably fixed, the ultimate 
and only certain means of putting an end to 
all these most disagreeable contentions, or 
at least till such a time as his Majesty's 
pleasure is known therein, but to my great 
surprise I found these two gentlemen so far 
from agreeing to any settlement whatever 
for preserving peace upon the border till 
such time as the division lines be run and 
his Majesty's pleasure known therein, noth- 
ing would content them but the actual run- 
ning of them directly contrary to the very 
purport of your letter, and to our duty as 
Governors, which obliges us to join heartily 
and sincerely in preserving peace in the 
meantime that the dispute as to our lines is 

laid before his Majesty, from whose known 
wisdom and justice we have all the reason 
in the world to expect a just and equitable 
determination. As to that humble and 
dutiful application, I proposed to be made 
jointly to His Majesty to bring all our dis- 
putes to a speedy hearing, their behavior 
was so extraordinar)^ that I shall not take 
it upon me to set it forth in any words of 
my own but refer you to their own papers 
for information." (Archives 434.) 

On the 17th of August, 1734, the House 
of Representatives made a representation 
to Gov. Gordon that they had been cruelly 
disappointed in reasonable hopes that all 
disputes about the bounds of the provinces 
of Pennsylvania and Maryland were at an 
end. They hoped that people who had set- 
tled and improved lands under the grants 
of the proprietor of Penns3dvania and with- 
in the constant reputed bounds of this prov- 
ince, and who have never owned any other 
authority but the government of Pennsyl- 
vania, ought to be protected in the posses- 
sion of their freeholds until it shall appear 
by some legal decision or determination by 
some other authority, and as this province 
knows no other force but the lawful power 
of the civil magistrate, they requested that 
the Governor would be pleased to give di- 
rections to the Magistrates and other offi- 
cers of the government that will exert them- 
selves in the protection of the people of this 
province by a diligent execution of the laws 
against riots and tumults and for the pre- 
servation of the peace within their respect- 
ive jurisdictions. This was accordingly 
done by the Governor. (I Archives, 566.) 

During the year 1735 there were many 
outrages perpetrated under the lead of 
Cresap, who had been commissioned a Jus- 
tice of the Peace for Baltimore County, and 
made a captain of the Maryland militia. 
On the 1st of July, 1735, he, with men, wo- 
men and boys, advanced, and with drums 
beating, invaded the premises of John 
Wright, one of his Majesty's Justices of the 
Peace, and although Cresap declared his 
intention to be to fight Pennsylvanians who 
had come over the river, Wright as a Jus- 
tice commanded them to keep the peace at 
their peril, and that he would proceed upon 
his lawful business unless prevented by 
force, and by his firmness deterred them 
from proceeding to hostilities. The deposi- 



tioii of John Wright to the foregoing facts 
was taken in the Supreme Court of Penn- 
sylvania, on the 24th of September, 1735, 
Daniel Dulaney, Esq., Attorney-General of 
Maryland, being present. Dulaney asked 
whether Thomas Cresap and his people did 
not assist Wright in carrying ofT his grain, 
to which he answered that Crseap, with 
those who were armed, being gone out of 
the field, the persons to whom the wagons 
belonged offered readily to assist in carry- 
ing it to the side of the river, since they 
said they were disappointed in carrying it 
where it was first intended. (I Archives, 
465-70.) On the same occasion there was 
taken before the Supreme Court, a deposi- 
tion to the following facts : That on the 23d 
of September, a party of Marylanders had 
set upon Robert Buchanan, Sheriff of Lan- 
caster County, and rescued some debtors 
under arrest, beat him and took him pris- 
oner. This was brought before the council 
who expressed their resentment, and a de- 
mand was made on the Governor of Mary- 
land to set him at liberty, a reward was 
offered and a warrant issued for the arrest 
of the rioters. (Ill Col. Rec, 612-14.) 

Another aggression was an attempt to 
survey lands, by one Franklin, along the 
river side, on the 6th of May, 1736. He 
took a course up the river with an instru- 
ment, and there were men carrying a chain. 
Cresap accompanied them with twenty men 
armed. Robert Barber, a Quaker, who was 
at the house of John Wright, demanded by 
what authority the land was surveyed, and 
was answered by that of Lord Baltimore. 
Barber said that the land had long ago been 
surveyed and returned to the land office at 
Philadelphia. Cresap said he had orders 
from Gov. Ogle in person to raise the 
militia and guard the surveyor from Penn- 
sylvanians. Franklin said, "My business is 
to follow the orders of the Governor of 
Maryland, to survey all the lands from the 
Susquehanna to the Codorus." (I Arch- 
ives, 489.) 

The affidavits of several Germans show 
the wrongs to which they were subjected 
b}^ reason of these surveys. Baltzer Spang- 
ler, in the beginning of the year 1733, by 
virtue of a grant from the proprietaries of 
Pennsylvania, built a house on a tract of 
land lying on Codorus Creek about twelve 
miles westward from John Hendricks. He 

refused to have his land surveyed by Cresap, 
who pretended to have an order from the 
Governor of Maryland. But Cresap sur- 
veyed it to one John Keller, who came and 
settled thereon. Afterward the Governor 
of Maryland and the surveyor of Baltimore 
County told Spangler, in the hearing of 
many people, that Cresap had no authority 
to survey lands, yet he was deprived of his 
land and improvements. Frederick Ebert 
removed from the east side of the river, and 
took up a tract of land near Codorus Creek, 
cleared and improved it and sowed a field 
of wheat with intent to build a house and 
settle thereon. In May, 1736, the surveyor 
Franklin, with Cresap and others, came and 
surveyed the land to one Ffelty Shultz, and 
threw down the fence and destroyed the 
corn, and deprived Ebert of his settlement. 
Michael Tanner, by virtue of a proprietary 
grant, dated September 17, 1734, settled on 
a tract of 200 acres of land, six miles south- 
westerly from John Hendricks, and built 
and improved upon the same. Thomas Cre- 
sap, pretending to have an order from the 
Governor of Maryland, came into the neigh- 
borhood and surveyed upward of forty 
tracts of land for Germans living in those 
parts. Tanner refused to have his land sur- 
veyed by Cresap, who thereupon conveyed 
the land, with buildings and improvements, 
to Daniel Lowe, who, with his family, came 
and dwelt in the house, although about the 
month of September, 1735, the Governor 
of Maryland and the^ Surveyor-General told 
Tanner that Cresap had no authority to sur- 
vey lands. (Archives, 522-5.) Many Ger- 
mans, however, were induced to accept of 
the Maryland warrants and surveys, but not 
finding things as agreeable as they antici- 
pated under the new proprietary, they re- 
volted and acknowledged allegiance to 

At a meeting of the Pro- 
The Revolt vincial Council held at Phila- 
of.the delphia, August 24, 1736, the 

Germans. President, James Logan, ac- 
quainted the Board that he 
had been informed by Samuel Blunston that 
the German people who, with others had 
gone over from this side of the Susque- 
hanna River to the west of it, had been pre- 
vailed on by some agents from Maryland 
to acknowledge the authority of that prov- 
ince, and had through a consciousness of 



their mistake, voluntarily and unanimously 
signified to him and other magistrates of 
that county, their fixed resolution of re- 
turning to their obedience to this govern- 
ment, and acknowledging its just jurisdic- 
tion in those parts where they are settled, 
for that they were become truly sensible 
they of right belonged to Pennsylvania. 
Blunston related that immediately after the 
County Court at Lancaster, which was held 
the first week of the month, some of the 
most principal note amongst those Ger- 
mans came over to him and told him that 
the whole body of the people, except Cre- 
sap, and his relations, who were but three 
or four men, were come to an unanimous 
resolution of acknowledging their obedi- 
ence to this government, and returning to 
their true proprietors. He advised them to 
act openly and above board, and that if 
they were thus resolved, they should di- 
rectly and in plain terms make it known to 
the government of Maryland with their 
reasons for their proceedings ; that there- 
upon a letter was prepared for that pur- 
pose, which was signed by about sixty 
hands and dispatched to an officer in Balti- 
more County to be forwarded to the Gov- 
ernor of MarylandT At the desire of those 
Germans, the magistrates of Lancaster had 
two constables amongst them for the bet- 
ter preservation of the peace. The four 
men who adhered to Cresap seized Charles 
Jones, one of the constables, and were 
hurrying him away with an intention to 
carry him off", but, being warmly pursued, 
they Ifed and left him. It was given out 
that the Sheriff of Baltimore County was 
to be up with a number of men on Monday 
(the 23d), and that the Sheriff of Lancaster 
had apprised him of some other motions on 
the west of the Susquehanna, and was 
taking horse to meet him to concert proper 
measures on the occasion. The Council 
were of the opinion that those people be- 
coming sensible of their past mistake, in 
being induced to own the authority of 
Maryland over those parts which lie so 
■very far, viz.: about twenty miles to the 
northward of the limits of this province, 
ought to be taken notice of, and on their 
making proper submissions should be again 
received. On September 7, 1736, a letter 
was laid before the Board from the Lievi- 

tenant-Governor of Maryland in regard to 
this revolt. (IV Col. Rec, 58. ) 

Gov. Ogle: "This trouble is occasioned 
by the inclosed, the original whereof came 
to my hands a few daj's ago, subscribed 
with the names of fifty or sixty persons, 
who some years since importuned me for 
the grant of lands under the authority and 
government of the lord proprietary of 
Maryland. They were so successful in 
their applications that I directed and em- 
powered them to settle and improve the 
lands under the government of this prov- 
ince, and which the}^ have from that time 
held and enjoyed subject to his Lordship's 
dominion and authority. But now they 
seem to think fit and resolve, by a most ex- 
traordinary kind of illegal combination or 
association, to disown their obedience to 
the government from Avhom they received 
their possessions, and to transfer it to the 
government of Pennsylvania. Whatever 
reasons I may have to be assured of this 
proceeding taking its rise and accomplish- 
ment from the encouragement and preva- 
lency of some magistrates of your govern- 
ment, and others pretending to act under 
the countenance and authority thereof, yet 
I must own my unwillingness to believe 
those who have the honor of the adminis- 
tration of the government of Pennsylvania, 
would permit or support a behaviour so 
contrary to all good order and rule of the 
English Constitution, as must necessarily 
involve the subjects of his Majesty in strug- 
gles and contentions, inconsistent with- that 
peace and happiness his ^Majesty so glori- 
ously endeavors to maintain and preserve 
amongst others, as well as his subjects." 
(IV Col. Rec, 60.) 

The paper transmitted with this letter is 
as follows: "Sir: The oppression and ill 
usage we have met with from the govern- 
ment of Maryland, or at least from such 
persons who have been impowered thereby 
and their proceedings connived at, has been 
a treatment (as we are well informed) very 
different from that which the tenants of 
your government have generally met with, 
which, with many other cogent reasons, 
give us good cause to conclude the Gover- 
nor and magistrates of that province do not 
themselves believe us to be settled within 
the real bounds of his Lordship's dominions. 



but we have been seduced and made use of, 
first b}^ fair promises and afterward by 
threats and punishments, to answer pur- 
poses which are-'at present unjustifiable and 
will, if pursued, tend to our utter ruin. We, 
therefore, the subscribers, with many 
others, our neighbors, being become at last 
truly sensible of the wrong we have done 
the proprietors of Pennsylvania in settling 
on their lands without paying obedience to 
their government, do resolve to return to 
our duty, and live under the laws and gov- 
ernment of Pennsylvania, in which province 
we believe ourselves seated. To this we 
unanimously resolve to adhere, till the con- 
trary shall be determined by a legal deci- 
sion of the disputed bounds, and our honest 
and just intentions we desire may be com- 
municated to the- Governor of Maryland, or 
whom else it may concern. Signed with 
our hands this eleventh day of August, 
Anno Domini, 1736." 

There was read at the 

The Invasion meeting of the Council on 

of the the 7th of September, the 

Three Hundred, examination of Francis 

Kipps, of Mar3dand, mas- 
ter of a sloop then lying in Susque- 
hanna River, taken September 4, 1736. 
That on Thursday last, the 2d in- 
stant, in the evening, being in Bal- 
timore County, he saw Col. Hall, a 
gentleman of that county ; at the head of a 
considerable number of men on horseback 
armed with guns, marching toward the up- 
per -part of the said county, that passing 
near to Col. Hall, he asked him familiarly if 
he was going to fight, to which Hall an- 
swered he was going on peaceable terms. 
That crossing Susquehanna, near the 
Northeast Iron AA'orks, he came the same 
evening into Cecil County, where he under- 
stood by common report that the march of 
these men, under Col. Hall, was to give 
possession to one Cresap of a plantation of 
one Wright ; that if the same could not be 
done peaceably they were to use force. 
That he heard the militia of Cecil County 
were summoned to meet together. On the 
8th of September, the Governor laid before 
the Board a letter, written by the direction 
of Samuel Blunston, giving the following 
account : 

That after the Sheriff of Lancaster, and 
some people with him, who were gathered 

together on the report that an armed force 
from Maryland was coming up into those 
parts, had waited some time and were dis- 
persed, the Sheriff of Baltimore County, 
with upward of 200 men, under the com- 
mand of several military officers, arrived on 
Saturday night last, the 4th of this month, 
at Thomas Cresap's, and on Sunday, about 
noon, came in arms on horseback, with 
beat of drum and sound of trumpet, to the 
plantation of John Hendricks. The Sheriff 
of Baltimore, and several of those officers 
went that afternoon to the house of John 
AA'right, Jr., now the site of AA'rightsville, 
where about thirty inhabitants of Lancaster 
were assembled, and demanded the Ger- 
mans, of whom some were then in that 
house. The Sheriff of Lancaster had sent 
a written message desiring to know the 
reason of their coming in that hostile man- 
ner to threaten the peace of the province, 
to which they had returned answer that 
they were not come to disturb the peace of 
the province of Pennsylvania but to sup- 
press riots, and keep the peace of Baltimore 
County. Justice Guest, one of the number 
from Maryland, appointed 10 o'clock next 
da}' to speak with some of our people, but 
about 5 o'clock on Sunday evening, the 
multitude from Maryland left Hendricks 
with great precipitation, and returned to 
Cresap's. On Monday the Sheriff of Lan- 
caster sent another message in writing, re- 
quiring them to peaceably depart, and offer- 
ing, if any of them would meet the magis- 
trates of the- county with some other per- 
sons, who were on this occasion assembled 
with him, and endeavor amicably to settle 
the unhappy differences at present subsist- 
ing, that they should be received civilly. 
To this message the Sheriff of Lancaster 
had returned to him a threatening and inso- 
lent answer. Soon after this one John 
Wilkins, an inhabitant of Lancaster County, 
who had gone down toward Cresap's, was 
taken prisoner on pretense of his having 
been in a former riot, and sent under a 
guard to Maryland. The magistrates of 
Lancaster sent a letter to reclaim him, but 
they refused to receive the letter. It was 
reported that the Governor of Maryland 
was waiting in Baltimore County, and was 
expected up in those parts, on Susquehanna, 
with considerable more force. The Sheriff' 
of Lancaster had got about 150 people to- 



gether at Joliii \\'i-ight's, Jr., where they 
liad ct)iuinued since Sunday evening". No 
hostilities had been yet committed, e.xcept 
in taking Wilkins ; but the Marylanders had 
sent word to our people to take care of their 
bntTs. The inhabitants, though unprovided 
witli arms and ammunition, yet endeavored 
to defend themselves and such of his Ma- 
jesty's peaceable subjects as fled from tlieir 
houses to them for refuge. (IV Col. Rec, 


Benjamin Chambers deposed that some 
time in the month of September, 1736. prep- 
arations were making by training" and 
mustering" the militia of Baltimore County, 
Md., in order for their marching" into Lan- 
caster County to dispossess of their settle- 
nients sundry families. Benjamin Cham- 
bers was the founder of Chambersburg, 
then being twenty-three years of age. 
These depositions were taken under the 
authority of the Provincial Council, and 
were transmitted to the agent of the prov- 
ince in London, in support to the petition 
to his Majesty. He was employed by the 
magistrates to go into Baltimore County to 
discover what was intended by the extra- 
ordinary motion of their troops. When he 
came to the borders of Maryland, he was 
informed that the place of their muster was 
near the plantation of Col. Nathaniel Rigby. 
at the upper part of Baltimore County, and 
repaired thither. He was taken into cus- 
tody and kept during the time of the mus- 
ter, and held twelve hours, in which he 
observed a general discontent among the 
common soldiers. Col. Rigby called for the 
muster roll, and upbraided the men with 
want of duty to the Governor's orders, and 
thereupon picked off a number of them out 
of his company, and commanded them, on 
the penalty of £50, to meet at the same 
place next Friday with arms and twenty 
charges of powder and* balls each man, to 
march up Susquehanna River to a place 
called Conejohela, where East Prospect 
borough now stands. Col. Rigby said it 
was very strange that a Quaker govern- 
ment should offer to resist or oppose Lord 
Baltimore, for that his Lordship's province 
of Maryland extended six miles higher or 
more northward than the plantation of 
John Hendricks, which lies on the west side 
of the said river, where on the Sunday fol- 
lowing he saw the several troops or com- 

panies which came up from Maryland, with 
drums beating and trumpets sounding, were 
mustering or exercising in the field of the 
same plantation, from whence, upon the 
appearance of some men in flats coming 
o\er the river from the other side, the 
troops returned to Thomas Cresap's. (I 
Archives, 519.) 

Robert Barber, one of the people called 
Quakers, affirmed on the nth of Septem- 
ber, that on Sunday last several of the in- 
habitants of the province of Marjdand, to 
the number of about 300, all armed in a 
hostile manner, under the command of sev- 
eral officers of the militia of Maryland, with 
beat of drum and sound of trumpet, 
marched up to the house of John Hen- 
dricks. (This house was a short distance 
west of the site of Wrightsville.) Some of 
the magistrates of the county of Lancaster, 
being at the house of John Wright, Jr., a 
small distance from the said Hendrick's 
house, demanded of Col. Edward Hall, who 
was said to be the commanding officer, the 
reason of his and the said company's com- 
ing up there in so hostile a manner. Col. 
Hall told the magistrates that they had no 
orders to treat with any of the magistrates 
of Lancaster County; that it was by the 
Governor of Maryland's order they came up 
there, and that thirteen companies of 
militia of Maryland were mustered, and that 
twenty men with officers were tak'en out of 
each company, and he refused to give any 
further account. That several of the inhab- 
itants came to the magistrates very much 
terrified and complained that some of the 
aforesaid company of armed men had 
forcibly broken into their houses and 
threatened to burn them, and took from 
them several pieces of linen. 

John Ross deposed that he was dis- 
patched with a written message to the 
Sheriff of Baltimore County, who was said 
to have come up with the militia, to know 
the meaning of this extraordinary proced- 
ure of the people of Maryland, and setting 
forward, with James Patterson for his 
guide, he met, within a mile and a half of 
\\'right's house, a body of men on horse- 
back to the number of about 300, armed 
with guns, cutlasses, and some with pistols, 
marching with beat of drum and sound of 
trumpet. He saw several persons, who 
were called officers of this militia, or com- 


manders, whose names he afterward learued 
were Edward Hall and Nathaniel Rigb)', 
called Colonels, and Peca and Guest, called 
Captains. William Hammond, Sheriff of 
Baltimore County, was with them. He de- 
livered his message to Col. Rigby, who ap- 
peared to be the principal person ; Rigby 
told him they were marching" forward to the 
house of John Wright. Thomas Cresap, 
who was with the militia, seized Patterson, 
telling the Sheriff of Baltimore that he was 
a £50 chap, and bid the sherifif look in the 
proclamation and he would find Patterson's 
name there. The militia, marching on with 
beat of drum and sound of trumpet in a 
war-like manner, came to the plantation of 
John Hendricks, and sent a message in 
writing to the Sheriff of Lancaster. Some 
of the militia officers came to Wright's 
house and desired to speak with some Ger- 
mans, Michael Tanner and Peter Gardner. 
But these people, declaring their appre- 
hensions that the Marylanders were come 
to carry them away, because they would 
not acknowledge the jurisdiction of Mary- 
land in those parts where they were settled, 
the officers were told they could not see 
them. But the Germans sent a message to 
them in writing. Ross went to the house 
of Hendricks after the militia was come 
there, and saw several of them with their 
swords drawn at the door of the house. 

Toward evening a considerable number 
of people, of Lancaster County, came over 
the river in three flats, whereupon the mili- 
tia of Maryland beat their drum, and, as he 
believed, intended to stand to their arms, 
for they marched toward the river in a body, 
but after firing a blunderbuss, they thought 
fit to retreat to the house of Thomas Cresap. 
The Sheriff and Col. Rigby refused to meet 
the magistrates of Lancaster in conference. 
Ross saw several of the militia cutting bars 
of lead and making bullets, and, enquiring 
what use they intended for them, he was 
told they were to shoot Pennsylvanians. 
The militia of Maryland marched about 
noon to the houses of Joshua Minshall, 
Mark Evans, and Bernard Weymont. One 
of the militia found means to decoy one 
John Wilkins, an inhabitant of Lancaster 
County, who was seized and carried to 
Cresap's, from whence they sent him, 
bound, under a guard, to Maryland. It was 
pretended AA'ilkins was one of those for 

whom a reward was offered by proclama- 
tion. The people of Lancaster County, 
who were met at Wright's house, being 
grown numerous, and resolving to stand 
upon their defense, the militia of Maryland 
did not think fit to attack them, but sep- 
arated in two bodies, one of which went 
with the sheriff to the houses of some Ger- 
mans, where they took some linen and pew- 
ter on pretense of public dues owing to the 
government of Maryland. The other body 
went toward Maryland. (I Archives, 525.) 

Daniel Southerland deposed that he was 
at the house of Thomas Cresap, when the 
300 men who came up from Maryland were 
there. That the men who were called the 
soldiers blamed Cresap very much for the 
disturbances that had happened in those 
parts, and they did not think they were 
obliged to go fight with the people of Penn- 
sylvania in Cresap's behalf. To which 
Cresap swore, and said that they were only 
afraid of their mothers' calf skins, and that 
it was Lord Baltimore's right he was main- 
taining, and he disregarded all of them, for 
he had the Governor of Maryland's orders 
for what he did. Cresap called Col. Hall, 
who commanded the 300 militia from Mary- 
land, a coward for not suffering him to fire 
with a blunderbuss upon the people of 
Pennsylvania, who were coming over the 
river in a flat toward the Marylanders, who 
were in arms. He affirmed that Lord Bal- 
timore would soon be over in Maryland, 
and then he would drive all the Pennsyl- 
vanians to the devil, and the court in Phila- 
delphia would be called in Lord Baltimore's 

The invasion of the 300 of the Marvland 
militia is a remarkable incident of the bor- 
der troubles. It was made after consider- 
able preparation. William Hammond, the 
sheriff of Baltimore County, de^clareti- "that 
the people of Baltimore 'County are not 
come to disturb the peace of the inhabitants 
of Pennsylvania, but to assist and support 
me in preserving his Lordship's peace, and 
our fellow tenants, his Majesty's subjects, 
in their possessions." Yet, before leaving, 
they despoiled the houses of the Germans 
on pretense of public dues. They also 
threatened to burn them. Michael Tanner 
talked with them, and they promised, if the 
Germans would return, a remission of their 
taxes till they were grown better able to 



paw and tliat they should be better used for 
the future. Tanner was to give an answer 
for his countrymen in two weeks, "but, at 
the end thereof, it was threatened, if they 
(hd not comply, the Governor would come 
up with a greater number of armed men, 
turn them out of doors, and bring up others 
with them, such as would be true to him, 
whom he would put into their possessions." 
(IV Col. Rec, 69.) 

In the course of the proceedings there 
was an answer of the Germans to the Gov- 
ernor of INIaryland, in which, among other 
things, it is said : "that being greatly op- 
pressed in their native country, principally 
on account of their religion, the}- resolved, 
as many others had done before, to fly from 
it. That, hearing mttch of the justice and 
mildness of the government of Pennsylva- 
nia, they embarked in Holland for Phila- 
delphia, where, on their arrival, they swore 
allegiance to King George, and fidelity to 
the proprietors of Pennsylvania, and their 
government. That, repairing to the great 
body of their countrymen settled in the 
county of Lancaster, on the east side of the 
Susquehanna, they found the lands^ there 
■generally taken up and possessed, and 
therefore some of them, by licenses from 
the proprietors of Pennsjdvania, went over 
that river, and settled there under their 
authority, and others, according to a com- 
mon practice then obtaining, sat down with 
a resolution to comply as others should 
with the terms of the government when 
called on, but they had not been long there 
till some pretending authority from the 
government of IMarvland, insisted on it, 
that that country was in that province, and 
partly by threats of actual force, and partly 
by very large promises, they had been led 
to submit to the commands of that govern- 
ment. That first one ]\Iorris Roberts, pre- 
tending to be a deputy surveyor under 
Maryland, came and run out lands for them, 
after which Cresap told them those surveys 
were not valid, but that he had authority to 
lay them, out; then one Franklin (who 
took pay of them, but it proved all a sham. 
for he understood nothing of the surveyor's 
art.) Yet, notwithstanding all these im- 
positions, they had neither grant nor war- 
rant, nor would any of those surveyors, real 
or pretended, give them one line of a cer- 
tificate, plot or draught, nor had they any- 

thing whatexer to claim by, and as any of 
those who came to survey were obliged or 
otherwise they, at their own will and pleas- 
ure, turned the possessors off and put others 
'in their place. . . . Now, this being 
our case, that on the one hand we are per- 
suaded in our consciences we are clearly 
within the Province of Pennsylvania, and 
therefore cannot but expect to lose our 
possessions and improvements, if we now 
pretend to hold them under the Lord Bal- 
timore, and, on the other hand, from the 
military force lately sent against us from 
IMarvland, we are threatened to be treated 
by that government like rebels and enemies 
to our Gracious Sovereign, King George, 
to whom we have sworn allegiance, if we 
do not, against those manifest convictions 
of our consciences disown the right of the 
proprietors of Penns3'lvania to what we 
truly believe belongs to them, and resist the 
authority of that government, which, were 
we resolved to do, yet we should not be 
able. We offer it to the Governor's consid- 
eration whether the treating of a parcel of 
conscientious, industrious, and peaceable 
people, like rebels, for no other reason thau 
liecause we cannot own a jurisdiction 
within the limits of which we very well 
know we cannot, where we now are. possi- 
bly be seated, and because we are convinced 
of the mistakes we had been fully led into 
bv the false assertions of persons of no 
credit." (I Archives, 492.) 

A petition, signed by forty- 
Petition of eight Germans, was trans- 
the Germans, mitted to the President and 

Council at Philadelphia, ask- 
ing that their errors in settling under the 
government of JNIaryland be imputed to 
want of better information, and praying to 
be received under the protection of our laws 
and government, whereupon the Board 
unanimously declared that those German 
people be received under the protection of 
this government, and encouraged in their 
fidelity to it by all proper and prudent 
measures. And on the 17th of September, 
1736, they issued a proclamation setting 
forth the late invasion from Maryland, in 
violation of his Majesty's peace, and just 
rights of the proprietors and people of this 
province, to the great terror of the inhab- 
itants, and directing the sheriffs of the re- 
spective counties of the province, and par- 



ticulaiiy of Lancaster, where these late 
commotions had happened, to hold them- 
selves in readiness with the posse of their 
'respective counties for the preservation of 
his Majesty's peace and the defense of the* 
just rights and possessions of his subjects 
within the same. (I Archives, 71.) 

The following paper was also presented : 

Whereas, we, the subscfibers, are informed it hai 
been asserted that the late resolutions of the Dutch in- 
habitants on the west side of Susquehanna River, to put 
themselves under the protection of the government of 
Pennsj'lvania and submit to the laws thereof, was oc- 
casioned by the prevalenc}' and influence of the magis- 
trates of Lancaster Count}', Do voluntarily and solemnly 
declare that we were chosen and appointed by the afore- 
said Dutch inhabitants on the west side of Susquehanna 
River, opposite to Hempfield, to apply in our own and 
their behalf to the magistrates of the said county, that 
we might be received as subjects of this government, as 
we believed in our consciences it was our duty ; and we 
do further solemnly declare and affirm that this associa- 
tion and return was made of theirs and our own mere 
motion and free will, without any previous persuasion, 
threatening or compulsion from the magistrates of the 
said county, or any other person in their behalf, so far 
as we know ; and that the letter signed by the in- 
habitants aforesaid to be communicated to the Governor 
of jNIaryland. was written at their own request and ac- 
cording to the instructions given. 

Subscribed the 13th day of Sept., 1736. 

Henry Hendricks, 
Michael Tanner. 

In the letter from President Logan, of 
Pennsylvania, written by direction of the 
Council, September 18, 1736, to Governor 
Ogle, it is said : "And first we must observe 
you are pleased to say, these people impor- 
tuned you for the grant of lands, under the 
authority and government of the Lord Pro- 
prietor of Maryland, but the success you 
mention they were favored with consisted, 
not, it seems, from your words, in any grant 
of lands, but in your directions only that 
they should settle and improve the lands 
under the government of that province, so 
that all they obtained by this was that they 
should acknowledge the jurisdiction of 
Maryland over lands on which we find 
divers of them had entered by authority of 
the Land Office of Pennsylvania, and as 
subject to its government, paid their levies 
to the county of Lancaster, wherein they 
had been seated, and to which it is impos- 
sible Lord Baltimore either can or ever 
could justly pretend any manner of right. 
The real merit, therefore, of this it seems, 
consists in putting them on transferring 
their obedience from their rightful landlord 
to another, to whom they stood in no rela- 
tion. That we might be the better a1)le to 

answer your letter we have waited not only 
till we could hear of the event of the military 
expedition of your forces of about 300 men 
in arms, sent up, 'tis said, against those 
people, and for some_ other unjustifiable pur- 
poses, but also that we might with more 
certainty be informed from whence these 
settlers were, and how and when their set- 
tlements had been made. On the last of 
these we find that they are generally of 
those Palatines, who a very few j^ears since 
transported themselves from Holland to 
Philadelphia, and made themselves subjects 
to his Majest}', King George II, under this 
go-\'ernment ; and 'tis affirmed, they were so 
far from importuning you for any grant of 
lands that they were, by very indirect prac- 
tices of some emissaries or agents, pretend- 
ing authority from Maryland, seduced from 
their duty, and imposed on to believe they 
were situated within the limits of the Lord 
Baltimore's jurisdiction, but what applica- 
tions such persons might make in their 
names we know not. . . . Your pro- 
ceeding, in sending up such an armed force 
on this occasion and their invading the pos- 
sessioy of others, where you never had the 
least pretense of claim, either in law or 
equit}', must indeed prove astonishing to 
every man who hears of it, and has any just 
notion of the English laws, and the privi- 
leges of an English subject: but as we shall 
not here enter into any expostulation on 
that head (tho' we might properly ask 
where five or six men going without any 
manner of arms, or so much as a stick, in 
their hands, into Maryland, to try their 
challengers' prowess at boxing, was tAvice in 
a certain letter called levying war, what 
terms you would think fit to bestow on this 
march of such numbers so accoutered?) 
W& think it incumbent on us to acquaint 
you, that as we are assured the government 
of Pennsylvania is vested with equal or like 
powers with that of Maryland, though it 
has hitherto with great patience waited for 
the decision of the grand dispute in Britain, 
which it is manifest your Lord Proprietor 
endea\-ors to delay, yet now, on so flagrant 
an insult as this last step of yours, we can- 
not but think ourselves obliged to put his 
Majesty's subjects under our care, on meas- 
ures to prevent the like invasions for the 
future. For this province, especially those 
parts, are filled with people of more spirit 


than to brook such treatment, and if any 
mischief ensues on their opposition to your 
attacks, you cannot but well know who 
must be accountable for it. But further, 
while all these contentions are owing solely 
to your own projections to carry your Lord 
Proprietor's pretensions into lands that not 
only never had been in possession, but can- 
not possibly fall within jSIaryland, and for 
which, for ending all disputes, he had in the 
most solemn manner renounced all claim 
to, and to set these pretensions first on foot 
at a time when the execution of the agree- 
ment was in agitation, and to continue them 
while the whole afi'air is under the cogni- 
zance of that high court, the Chancery of 
Great Britain, these we say, carry with them 
such accumulated aggravations and are so 
far from admitting the possibility of a justi- 
fication by color or varnish of words what- 
ever, that none but your enemies can be 
pleased with such conduct." (IV Col. Rec. 


The difficulties concerning the boundary 
lines between Maryland and Pennsjdvania 
began when the first settlements were 
made. They originated in Chester and 
Lancaster counties and the bordering coun- 
ties of Maryland, as early as 1720. AVhat 
was known as the "Chester Count}- Plot" 
originated with adherents of the Governor 
of Maryland in Chester county. It was 
their purpose to drive the early settlers on 
Springettsbury Manor away from their 
habitations which they had built on the val- 
uable lands of Kreutz creek and Conodochly 
valleys, then known as Grist valley and 
Conodochly valley. 

At a meeting of the Provincial Council, 
held at Philadelphia, on the 23rd of Novem- 
ber. 1736, "the president acquainted the 
board, that a discovery had lately been 
made of an association or engagement en- 
tered into by several persons living in or 
about Xe'w Garden, in the county of Chester. 
who. having received some encouragement 
from the Governor of Maryland and others 
in authority there, had undertaken to oust 
by force of arms those German families set- 
tled on the west side of the Susquehanna 
within this Province, against whom the late 
hostile preparations of iNIaryland were in- 
tended, and to possess themselves of their 

plantations, which they proposed to draw 
lots for, and. acknowledging to hold them 
in right of the proprietary of Maryland, 
they were to defend those possessions 
against this government. For this end 
arms and ammunition were provided and 
lodged at the house of one Rigby, in Balti- 
more County, and everything was in readi- 
ness for carrying their design into execu- 
tion. On making this discovery, a warrant 
was issued, by one of the provincial judges, 
for apprehending several persons concerned 
in this unlawful association, particularly 
Henry Munday, who from the information 
given, appeared to be one of the principal 
persons in conducting it, and such care and 
diligence had been used in executing said 
warrant, that Munday was taken at his 
house that very day, when he expected a 
rendezvous of the party, and had sundry 
papers relating to the conspiracy lying be- 
fore him. and several letters to persons in 
]Maryland on this subject, just finished and 
ready to be forwarded, all of which were, 
with himself, secured." Edward Leet, an- 
other of the persons embarked with him in 
this design, was likewise apprehended, but 
Charles Higginbotham, a principal person 
in it, had escaped. 

Among the papers found with IMunday, 
was an application signed by thirty-one per- 
sons, stating that "being informed that 
there is some vacant land and plantations 
near Susquehanna River, that were settled 
by some German families, and that the said 
lands were by them located by warrants 
issuing from the land office in the Province 
of JNIaryland, as of the right and property of 
Lord Baltimore ; and that since the German 
families have disclaimed the right and prop- 
erty of Lord Baltimore and hath taken um- 
brage under the heirs of Penn; that we are 
informed that the absolute fee and right to 
said land is within the limits and bounds of 
Lord Baltimore's patent or charter; that the 
Lord's chief agent hath and doth give en- 
couragement for the resettling the said va- 
cant plantations and land. We therefore, 
pray and request, that you will in our behalf 
and stead intercede with the Governor and 
agent to settle us in such vacant land or 
plantations, and we shall all be willing to 
pay such fee or rent charge as his Lordship 
usuallv demands, and we shall with our 
lives and fortunes defend the same, and be 



subject to the laws of his province, and 
defend his right, for which service. Sir, we 
shall be all your very much obliged." 

There was a list of names of several per- 
sons ranged in three columns, with the fol- 
lowing certificate signed by Governor Ogle, 
of Maryland : " AVhereas application hath 
been made to me by Henry Munday, Ed- 
ward Leet and Charles Higginbotham, and 
forty-nine persons by them mentioned, I 
have given instructions to Thomas AVhite, 
deputy surveyor, to lay out, and in the 
names of the said persons, two hundred 
acres for each person." 

There was a paper signed by Munday 
addressed to Messrs. Betties in these -words : 
" November the 14th, 1736. If instructions 
can be sent to Captain Cresap to return 
some of the names of the vacant plantations 
reserving eleven of the best, which is the 
number of the third column, then every per- 
son that appears to draw hath his equal 

"Captain Cresap sent for the parties to 
come to draw the lots by next Saturday." 

Henry Munday, when he was arrested, 
voluntarily offered to a member of the 
Council, to make a full declaration under his 
hand of all that he knew of the affair. His 
statement, was, that in September, 1736,, 
Rev. Jacob Henderson and Squire Tasker, 
of Maryland, lodged at the house of William 
Miller, where he met with Thomas Thomp- 
son, brother-in-law of Henderson. Thomp- 
son applied to Henderson for advice in set- 
tling a plantation. Parson Henderson re- 
ferred to Tasker, who wrote to someone in 
Maryland to show some plantations near 
the Susquehanna, and John Starr and Wil- 
liam Downard joined with Thompson and 
received the land. John Starr went back 
to Annapolis and procured from the Gov- 
ernor of Maryland an order to settle him- 
self, and the others concerned. That he 
was informed the plantations of the Ger- 
mans on the Susquehanna had become va- 
cant by their disowning the government of 
Maryland, John Starr had made a visit there 
and to the Governor of Maryland, and was 
shown by Cresap a very large tract of good 
land, wdiich was enough to supply several 
families, and that the Governor would 
order 200 acres to be surveyed for each per- 
son at four shillings quit rent, and costs of 
surve}' and patent. That he would main- 

tain them in possession and give them a 
lawful right, and assured them that the land 
was within the limits of Lord Baltimore's 
charter. Munday went to Annapolis to see 
Governor Ogle, wdiere he met Edward 
Leet and Charles Higginbotham, and joined 
in procuring an order to the surveyor of 
Baltimore county to survey 200 acres for 
them and forty-nine other persons named. 
Munday said he never proposed to settle 
upon any tract of land settled by the Ger- 
mans, but to seat some uncultivated land. 

The council was not satisfied 
Leet's with the statement of Henry 
Testimony. Munday, and examined Ed- 
ward Leet, who related that 
^lunday came to him with a petition signed 
by several persons for land wdiich Leet de- 
clined to sign ; that a few days after Charles 
Higginbotham came to him and acquaint- 
ing him that there were to be some lands 
laid out in Maryland, asked him to go with 
him to Annapolis, to which he agreed, want-- 
ing to take up some land for himself and 
others. They with others set out for Mary- 
land. They went up the east side of the 
Susquehanna to the ferry, late John Emer- 
son's, over against Thomas Cresap's house 
on the west, and crossing the river, went to 
his house. In the morning they took a 
view of the lands in the neighborhood of 
Cresap's, and five of them, with one Lowe, 
w^ent to view the lands where the German 
people were settled who were said to have 
revolted from Maryland. They came to 
Annapolis on Saturday, the 30th of October, 
and went to Governor Ogle with Cresap. 
The Governor said he intended to dispos- 
sess the Germans who were settled there, 
and for that end he was sending up arms, 
and would very soon give the necessary 
orders to the sherifif. He would give 200 
acres to each and defend them therein. He 
gave the names of Samuel Blunston and 
John Wright, for the apprehension of whom 
the Governor offered a reward of one hun- 
dred pounds for one and fifty pounds for 
the other. Higginbotham said he knew 
one of them, and had no doubt he could ap- 
prehend him. Cresap received on board a 
sloop a considerable quantity of fire-arms, 
powder and ball, which were to be carried 
to Baltimore county to be used in dispos- 
sessing the Germans, who had revolted 
from ]\Iar^dand. Three drums and two 



trumpets were sent by land by certain Ger- 
man men who were with them. When 
Munday came, he appeared to be dissatisfied 
with Higginbotham for being there before- 
iiand. The Governor said, in a month's 
time, he would cause possession to be given. 
Leet, apprehending difficulty, laid aside, he 
said, all thoughts about the matter. 

In this matter, John Coats de- 
Coats' posed that Henry Munday in- 
Deposition. vited him to go over the Sus- 
quehanna about seven miles to 
settle on Soo acres of land, taken up by 
Maryland, on which eight German families 
were settled, whom the Marylanders would 
dispossess if they did not sell their interest 
and be gone. And that iNIaryland would 
give arms to all such members of the 
Church of England as would settle the said 
land to defend themselves against the in- 
habitants of Pennsylvania. That the land 
would cost the survey only, and Munday 
was to have a gratuity. Jeremiah Starr 
deposed that Thomas Thompson told him 
that Jacob Henderson, Commissary of 
Maryland, had by letter recommended him 
to Thomas Cresap, to be shown land on the 
west side of the Susquehanna, and Thomas 
Thompson, John Starr and A\'illiam Down- 
ard went and were shown the land which 
was settled by German people, and Thomp- 
son chose for himself a certain piece 
whereon was a settlement and a corn-mill, 
and that John Starr told him that he went 
with Cresap to the Governor of Maryland, 
who granted him and his friends the land, 
and if they would be true subjects to Lord 
Baltimore, he would defend them, and pat- 
ent the land at four shillings an acre, they 
paying only survey fees. Henry Munday 
proposed a way of gaining the lands, and it 
was resolved that the militia of the govern- 
ment should be ready about the end of the 
month to take and give the possession to 
Munday and his friends. William Miller 
deposed that Jacob Henderson and Benja- 
min Tasker were at his house and advised 
him where persons should settle on land 
west of the Susquehanna which was settled 
by the Germans, and invited persons in 
Chester county to come and live in Mary- 

On the 29th of November, 1736, a letter 
was addressed to the magistrates of Chester 
countv, in Ijehalf of the council: 

"The seasonable discovery of the late 
wicked design, which from the encourage- 
ment of four unkind neighbors of Maryland 
was set on foot and upon the point of being 
carried into execution, for ousting by force 
of arms those German families settled on 
the west side of the Susquehanna within 
the unquestionable bounds of this province, 
and the apprehending of some of the per- 
sons who were principally concerned in pro- 
moting within yoiu' county the association 
for this purpose, having for the present, we 
hope, defeated the evil intentions of those 
who by such practices would have intro- 
duced the utmost confusion and disorder 
among his Majesty's subjects of this gov- 
ernment, we have had it under consideration 
in what manner those disturbers of the pub- 
lic peace ought to be proceeded against." 

Thereupon the magistrates of Chester 
county were directed b)^ the Council to call 
before them as many of the associators as 
they could, and to take their examinations 
apart, and such as were disposed to live for 
the future in due obedience to this govern- 
ment, might, on submission, and on being 
bound on recognizance, be discharged with- 
out persecution. 

The following document concerning the 
"Chester County Plot" was obtained from 
the court records at West Chester and con- 
tains the names of many of the German 
settlers west of the river in 1736: 
County of Chester, ss : 

The grand inquest for our Sovereign 
Lord the King, upon their oath and affirma- 
tion respectively do present that Henry 
Munday, late of the county of Chester, sad- 
ler, and Charles Higginbotham, late of the 
same county, laborer, contriving and with 
all their might purposing and intending the 
peace of our Sovereign Lord the King 
within the province of Pennsylvania, said 
Majesty's just and lawful authority which 
of right his said Majesty's liege subjects 
ought to bear and exercise as much as in 
them lay to impugn, due and legal, said ad- 
ministration of justice within the same prov- 
ince to hinder, and his said Majesty's faith- 
ful subjects with great fear and terror to 
have associated to themselves divers other 
persons of evil name, fame and conversation 
to the number of forty and upwards, the 
twenty-fifth day of October in the tenth 
year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord 


George the Second by the grace of God of 
Great Britain, France and Ireland, King 
defender of the faith, etc., and divers other 
days and times as well before as after at the 
township of London-Grove in the county of 
Chester within the jurisdiction of this court 
in pursuance of their wicked and unjust in- 
tentions aforesaid and being united and con- 
federated together between themselves 
wickedly and unlawfully did conspire and 
combine with armed force and with a mul- 
titude of people in hostile manner arrayed 
into the lands and tenements of the Honor- 
able John Penn, Thomas Penn and Richard 
Penn true and absolute proprietaries and 
governors in chief of the province of Penn- 
sylvania, countv of Lancaster on west side 
of the Susquehanna within the province of 
Pennsylvania then in the quiet and peaceful 
possession of Christian Crawl, Henry 
Libert, Jacob Huntsecker, Alethusalem 
Griffith, Michael Tanner. Henr}- Stands, 
Martin Shultz, Jacob AA'elshover, Paul 
Springier, Andreas Felixer, Ulrick Whist- 
ler, Nicholas Booker, Hans Steinman, Con- 
rad Strickler, Caspar Springier, Michael 
AValt, Peter Kersher, Reynard Kummer, 
George Hans Pancker, Frederick Leader, 
Michael JMiller, ]\Iartin Weigle, Hans Henry 
Place, Tobias Fry, Martin Fry, Peter Stein- 
man, Henry Pann, Henry Smith, Jacob 
Landis, Henry Kendrick, Tobias Rudisill, 
Jacob Krebell, Michael Springle, Jacob 
Singler, Philip Ziegler, Caspar Crever, Der- 
ick Pleager, George Swope, Michael Krenel, 
Thomas May, Nicholas Brin, Kilian Smith, 
Martin Bower, George Lauman, Martin 
Brunt, Michael Allen, Christian Enfers, and 
Nicholas Cone, tenants occupying and hold- 
ing the same lands and tenements under the 
honorable proprietaries of the province of 
Pennsylvania aforesaid, unlawfully and un- 
justly with force and arms, etc., to enter and 
them the said Christian Crawl, Henry 
Libert, etc., =i= * * ^nd Nicholas Cone 
from their quiet and peaceable possession 
aforesaid with an armed force in hostile 
manner to expel, eject and remove and the 
same Christian Crawl, Henry Libert * * 
* and Nicholas Cone so being expelled 
and ejected from the possession of the lands 
and tenements of aforesaid against them the 
said Christian Crawl, Henry Libert =^ * * 
and Nicholas Cone and against all persons 
whatsoever claiming or to claim the said 

lands and tenements by, from or tnider the 
said proprietaries of the province of Penn- 
sylvania aforesaid, violently and with an 
armed force to keep, hold and maintain and 
the persons of them the said Christian 
Crawl, Henry Libert * * * and Nich- 
olas Cone with force and arms, etc., to 
arrest and imprison in high violation and 
contempt of the laws in disinherison of the 
said honorable proprietaries to the great 
terror and disturbance of 'his Majesty's sub- 
jects, inhabitants of the said county of Lan- 
caster to the evil and pernicious example of 
others in the like case delinquents and 
against the peace of our Sovereign Lord the 
King who is now in his crown and dignity, 
etc. J. Growdon 

Endorsed "Billa Vera." per 

a Dno. Rege. 

"Henry Munday." 
Test. Edward Leet sworn. 


Colonel Thomas Cresap, one of the brav- 
est and most audacious of the Maryland 
settlers, figured prominently in the conten- 
tions about rights to lands in Springetts- 
bury Manor and southward. He became 
the leader among the Maryland invaders 
until the temporary line was run between 
the provinces of Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land in 1739. 

Colonel Cresap was born at Skipton, 
Yorkshire, England, in 1702, and came to 
Maryland when fifteen years of age. In 
1732 he gave his occupation as that of a car- 
penter. He settled at the mouth of the 
Susquehanna, where he engaged in boat 
building. In 1725 he married Hannah 
Johnson, whose father, Thomas Johnson, 
March 24, 1725, had surveyed to himself 
Mount Johnson Island, at Peach Bottom 
Ferry. Cresap soon after went to Virginia, 
but he was not long there before an attempt 
was made by a dozen or more persons to 
drive him away while he was engaged in 
hewing timber for his dwelling. He de- 
fended himself and cleft one of his assail- 
ants with a broad-ax. He then returned to 
Maryland, and took out a patent for a ferry 
over the Susquehanna river at the head of 
tide-water, at or near what is now Bell's 
Ferry, which must have been near the ter- 
minus of the voyage of Captain John Smith, 
of Virginia, up the river in 1608. A\^hile 



there his restless and ro\-ing spirit led him 
to visit the rich valleys thirty miles farther 
up the right bank of the river, now in Hel- 
lam and Lower Windsor townships, and re- 
ported the state of affairs there to Lord 
Baltimore, who contemplated as early as 
1721 to extend the northern boundary of 
his province on the west side of the Sus- 
quehanna to the northern limits of the 
fortieth degree of latitude. Gradually a 
few settlers from Maryland moved up to 
Conojehela (incorrectly Conodochly) val- 
ley. They were aggressive to Pennsylva- 
nia settlers near them. It was not the 
policy of Baltimore or his followers to pur- 
chase lands from the Indians; they drove 
them away by force of arms, and hence we 
find that the Maryland settlers treated the 
Indians on the west side of the river with 
cruelty. They had no person capable of 
holding the ground they had taken against 
the Indians or the followers of Penn, who 
were on the alert to prevent Baltimore from 
getting a foothold upon this disputed land. 
Cresap came up to Conojehela valley in 
]\Iarch, 1730, and built a blockhouse upon 
the banks of the river, at the mouth of the 
Cabin creek, four miles below AVrightsville, 
near the site of Leber's mill. In the same 
year he took out a Maryland patent for 
several hundred acres of land near the Sus- 
quehanna river and for "Blue Rock Ferry" 
at the same place. In 1731 Cresap was 
commissioned a justice of the peace for 
Baltimore county. In 1735 he took out a 
Mar3'land patent for a group of islands' at 
the Blue Rock Ferry, called the "Isles of 
Promise." General Jacob Dritt afterwards 
became the owner of these islands, which 
were later sold to John B. Haldeman. 

At this time Cresap had at least two and 
perhaps three of his children with him, the 
eldest being about nine years old. Mean- 
time, his wife and children resided with his 
cousin, Daniel Lowe, who drove one of the 
German settlers from his place in Kreutz 
Creek valley, near the Codorus. Colonel 
Cresap's education was limited, but he be- 
came a land surveyor, and v/as of great 
servic," to Lord Baltimore in .extending the 
western boundary of Marjdand from the 
source of the south branch of the Potomac 
due north, which added at least one-third 
more territory to Maryland. 

On the 25th of September, 1736, the jus- 

tices of thei Supreme Court issued their 
warrant to the sheriff" of the county of Lan- 
caster for the apprehension of Thomas 
Cresap, for the murder of Knowles Daunt, 
and other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

At a meeting of the Council, 

Arrest of held on the 27th of November, 

Cresap. 1736, the president laid before 

the board a letter from Lan- 
caster county, brought by messengers, who 
gave an account, that in pursuance of the 
•warrant issued by the provincial judges for 
apprehending Thomas Cresap, he had been 
taken with four others, who abetted him in 
resisting the sheriff. One of them was 
committed to the jail of Lancaster county 
for a crime charged against him there, and 
Cresap and the three others were brought 
to Philadelphia. The. letter stated that the 
magistrates, upon considering the danger 
wherewith those parties of that county ly- 
ing on the west of the Susquehanna near 
Thomas Cresap's settlement, were threat- 
ened, if he should be joined by those who 
had lately entered into a combination for 
dispossessing the Germans settled there, 
and likewise having understood that he had 
applied to Colonel Rigby, ajustice of Mary- 
land, for more arms and ammunition, they 
judged it absolutely necessary to apprehend 
Cresap. Sheriff Samuel Smith of Lancas- 
ter, had called to his assitance twenty-four 
persons, and had gone over the ri\'er on 
Tuesday night, November 23rd, in order to 
have Cresap taken by surprise early the next 
morning. But Cresap with six men, se- 
cured himself in his house, and stood on his 
defense. He fired on the sheriff" and his 
company. The sheriff" set fire to his house, 
and Cresap, still refusing to surrender, at 
length rushed out, and after some firing, in 
which one of his men was killed, he was ap- 
prehended. The magistrates reported "that 
nothing but absolute necessity and the pres- 
ervation . of so many innocent families, 
whose ruin seemed to be determined upon, 
could ha\e obliged the people to proceed 
to such extremities in taking this man; that 
his behavior has since showed that he will 
stop at nothing to gratify his resentments, 
and therefore, unless strict care is taken, it 
may justly be apprehended that he will at- 
tempt either firing the prison or an}' other 
desperate action, that he can find means to 



George Aston, of the county of Chester, 
in the province of Pennsylvania, saddler, 
aged about fifty 3'ears, being one of the 
people called Quakers, upon his solemn af- 
firmation, according to law, did declare and 
affirm that, upon some conversation hap- 
pening between Thomas Cresap, Robert 
Buchanan, and this affirmant on the road, 
in sight of the city of Philadelphia, that 
Cresap said, "Damn it, Aston, this is one of 
the prettiest towns in Maryland. I have 
been a troublesome fellow, but by this last 
job I have made a present of the two prov- 
inces to the King, and that if the}^ found 
themselves in a better condition by the 
change, they might thank Cresap for it,"" or 
words to that effect. 

Philadelphia, December 3, 1736, taken be- 
fore me, Clement Plumsted, Mayor. 

On the representations of the magistrates, 
the Council ordered that Cresap should be 
put in irons and closely confined in the most 
secure place, but supplied with what was 
necessary. It was left to the judges to 
proceed against, him and the others taken 
with him, agreeably to law. On the 8th of 
December, 1736, a message was brought 
from the Assembly, and finding that the 
government of Maryland had not shown 
any real disposition on their part to enter 
into amicable measures for preventing fur- 
ther diiTerences between the two govern- 
ments, the House had come to a resolution, 
that an humble address should be prepared 
and transmitted to the King, praying his 
royal interposition for putting a stop to 
these disorders. The petition of the Presi- 
dent and Council, and of the General As- 
sembly of the province of Pennsylvania, to- 
gether with sundry affidavits about the ap- 
proaching of Cresap and the association for 
dispossessing the Germans on the Susque- 
hanna, were transmitted to the Iving, after 
the meeting of the Council on the nth of 
December, 1736. 

About 1739 Cresap again moved 
Removal beyond the frontier and took up 
to about 2000 acres of land in 

Maryland. ^laryland along Antietam creek 
where he established a store 
and Indian trading post. He accumulated 
a large quantity of furs and peltries and 
shipped them to England, and the vessel 
was captured by the French and he lost 
everything. He moved farther west within 

two miles of Cumberland, where he again 
embarked in the Indian trade until the 
French and Indian war, when he raised a 
company of rangers. He had a number of 
skirmishes with the Indians and stood his 
ground, manfully assisted by his sons. He 
was elected a representative for a number 
of years from ^^■ashington County to the 
Maryland legislature. When the French 
and their savage allies attempted to wrest 
the entire territory west of the Allegheny 
Mountains from the English, he and his 
sons at their own expense raised two com- 
panies of volunteer soldiers. Col. Cresap 
became a very large land owner. He be- 
came totally blind a few years before his 
death. He died at his home in Allegheny 
County, Md., in 1790, aged eighty-eight. 

His first wife, Hannah Johnson, during 
"Cresap War" in York County, frequently 
mounted a horse and rode with the mounted 
militia in battle array, with a sword by her 
side. And when Cresap's stronghold was 
surrounded by militia from Donegal, she 
knew how to handle a musket: she never 
manifested any fear, but superintended the 
construction of a house, and the building of 
some flats, in the absence of her husband at 
John Hendricks", now the upper end of 
A^'rightsville, where forcible possession had 
been taken of Hendricks' plantation by 
Cresap. And while there she saw a flat 
filled with armed men crossing the river. 
She mounted a horse and sounded a bugle, 
and rode rapidly -to Cresap's block house, 
three miles and a half further down the 
river, and returned at the head of the 

Thomas and Hannah Cresap 

Cresap's had five children — three sons 
Descendants, and two daughters — as fol- 
lows : Daniel remained in 
Washington Count}', Maryland, became a 
large land owner and a celebrated hunter as 
well as farmer. He was about fourteen 
years of age when the family left York 
County. By his first wife he had one son, 
Michael, who commanded a company in 
Dunmore's war in 1774, and was afterward 
colonel of militia. The late Capt. James 
Cresap of the United States Navy, was a 
lineal descendant of Daniel Cresap. Gen- 
eral Ord, who was placed in command of 
Richmond after the capitulation in 1865, 



was a lineal descendant of Col. Thomas 

Thomas, second son of Col. Cresap, was 
killed by an Indian — whom he killed at the 
same instant. He left a widow and one 

Michael Cresap, the yonngest son of Col. 
Cresap, succeeded his father as an Indian 
trader in Western Maryland, near the 
present site of Cumberland. In 1774, he 
commanded a company of militia and 
marched against the Indians in West Vir- 
ginia who were reported by Dr. Connolly, 
commandant at Fort Pitt, to be in hostile 
array against the whites. The report that 
these Indians were on the war path, seems 
to have been untrue, and during Cresap's 
absence from his troops, they attacked the 
Indian settlement near Wheeling and killed 
the family of the celebrated Indian chief, 
Logan, and others. In 1775, Michael Cre- 
sap raised a company of volunteer riflemen 
and marched through York to Boston. 
Soon after he entered the American army, 
he took sick, and died in New York. 

At a meeting of the Council 
Mission of held at Philadelphia on the 6th 
Jennings of December, 1736, Mr. Bord- 
and ley, a gentleman of Maryland, 
Dulaney. attending without, with a mes- 
sage for the President and 
Council, was called on and acquainted the 
President that he was sent by Jennings and 
Dulaney, who were just come to town from 
Annapolis with their compliments to the 
President and Council, and to acquaint 
them, that, having received some com- 
mands from the Governor of Maryland, 
they desired to know when they might 
have an opportunity of waiting on the 
President and Council. (IV Col. Rec, 115.) 
Jennings and Dulaney on the next day, at- 
tending, delivered an open letter from the 
Governor of Maryland. Their mission was 
occasioned by the burning of Cresap's 
house, and his arrest wnth other parties, on 
the 24th of November, as the letter of Gov- 
ernor Ogle alleged, in Baltimore County. 
Jennings was the secretary and Dulaney 
the commissary and Attorney-General of 
^laryland. The letter represented the 
transaction as cruel and barbarous, and re- 
c|uested the assistance of the government 
of Pennsylvania to bring the actors to pun- 
ishment. A paper was drawn up by them 

and delivered to the Council to the same 
effect, and demanding that Cresap should 
be released. The answer to Jennings and 
Dulaney stated that the government of 
Pennsylvania never acknowledged the place 
of Cresap's settlement to be in Maryland, 
and recited the attempts to oust the Ger- 
mans; that Cresap was arrested on a charge 
of murder, and that unless the go\-ernment 
of Maryland thought fit to enter into some 
eft'ectual specific measures with them, it be 
represented to his Majesty to interpose his 
royal authority. To this Jennings and Du- 
laney replied that the right and title of Cre- 
sap was founded on a grant from Lord Bal- 
timore many years before the agreement; 
that the agreement was never carried into 
execution and the validity of it was under 
the consideration of the High Court of 
Chancery. They discussed the act of the 
Germans in disowning the jurisdiction of 
Lord Baltimore, and alleged that Cresap 
acted in self-defense, and that to two gentle- 
men sent from hence offers were made 
which were rejected. 

In consideration of the paper of Jennings 
and Dulaney, which referred to former pa- 
cific overtures on the part of Maryland, the 
Council recurred to the' transactions at An- 
napolis with Hamilton and Georges in May, 
1734, by which it appeared that, though the 
Governor of Maryland often used the ex- 
pression of pacific measures, what was pro- 
posed was dilatory and impracticable, and 
the proposal of this government of agree- 
ing on some limits to which, for the preser- 
vation of peace, jurisdiction would extend 
with a salvo to the right of either proprie- 
tor, till the dispute between them should be 
fully ended, was evaded and declined. The 
answer to the deputies was based on this 
view, December 14, 1736: 'Tf your Gover- 
nor will agree upon some certain bounda- 
ries to limit the jurisdiction to the respec- 
tive provinces, without prejudice to the 
right of either proprietor, until the whole 
dispute shall be ended, or upon any other 
reasonable measures by which his Majesty's 
subjects may enjoy peace and no longer be 
harassed in their persons and possessions, 
we shall cheerfully come into any methods 
that can be proposed, consistent with the 
laws and common justice." It was also 
said "that the Germans who yearly arrive 
here in great numbers, whollv ignorant of 



the English langxiage and the constitution, 
were obliged, on account of our too near 
northern neighbors, the French, whose lan- 
guage many of them understood, not only 
to swear allegiance to our sovereign but, as 
a further tie upon them, promised fidelity 
to our proprietors and this government, a 
practice only used with them and no 

There resulted a very voluminous cor- 
respondence, but there is in it merely a re- 
capitulation of mutual claims and com- 
plaints. Jennings and Dulaney informed 
the President, on the i6th of December, 
that they were just setting out on their re- 
turn and delivered a paper to him, in which, 
in reference to the preceding claims, they 
say: "You are pleased to mention that this 
government obliged the Germans only to 
enter into an engagement of fidelity to your 
proprietors; we apprehend the allegiance 
they swear to our sovereign cannot need 
the force of an engagement to yoiu" proprie- 
tors to prevent their desertion to the 
French, and therefore we are at a loss to 
comprehend why the Germans are dis- 
tinguished from all other nations by the re- 
markable distrust your government has of 
their fidelity." 

The Maryland commissioners 
Malicious had also charged President Lo- 
Charges. gan with having promised that 
Cresap's accomplices should be 
bailed, and then not performing it. The 
Council, in considering the last paper deliv- 
ered to the President by Jennings and Du- 
laney, were some of them, of the opinion 
that the unmannerly and malicious reflec- 
tions in it should receive a proper answer, 
but the next day, December 21, they con- 
cluded that what ought to be said should be 
represented to the Governor of Maryland. 
In regard to the question of bail, it appeared 
that it had been referred to the judges, who 
held them not bailable. (IV Col. Rec, 

The reply of the Council to the letter of 
Governor Ogle, crediting the mission of 
Jennings and Dulaney, after referring to the 
papers, proposed a joinder in effectual 
measures to preserve the peace until the 
royal pleasure could be known. In the 
meantime, on December 11, 1736, by the 
concurring action of the Assembly, a peti- 
tion was drawn in the name of the Presi- 

dent and Council and the General Assem- 
bly to the King. 

On the 1st of March, 1737, there came a 
letter from the Governor of Maryland, dated 
24th of December, 1736, requesting the 
Governor of Pennsylvania to state precisely 
what were the concessions they were willing 
to come into. This letter was not received 
for ten weeks after its date. The postmas- 
ter, on being examined said "that the letter 
had been received last night, and that three 
mails had come from Annapolis since 
Christmas." The Council were of the opin- 
ion that whatever reason the governor had 
for antedating his letter or keeping it back, 
as he declined making any proposals, it was 
proper on this call from Maryland to make 
proposals of peace. (IV Col. Rec, 158.) A 
letter was therefore written to Governor 
Ogle on the 5th of March, 1737, in which 
reference is made to the committing of hos- 
tilities since the date of his letter, and since 
continued by his new captain, Higgin- 
botham, and his crew, reciting" the injuries, 
and proposing that all those in arms should 
immediately retire as a preliminary. The 
fixing of certain limits was proposed for 
the purpose of jurisdiction, and no new set- 
tlements were to be suffered, save by the 
same families that were then in possession 
of the lands they held or claimed before, 
and no person whatever in or near those 
parts should on either side be molested on 
any cause or pretense arising from their 
disputes or the proprietary claims. On the 
nth of March, 1737, Gov. Ogle wrote that 
"the point is, which of the two governments 
is in the wrong by refusing to come into 
reasonable measures, to prevent disorders 
on the border. The proposal to Ham- 
ilton and Georges was, that the application 
be made to the King to fix the boundaries 
and new settlements be prevented. You 
seem willing not to oppose; but that all 
those who first took up their lands under 
this province may be allowed to acknowl- 
edge this government, only those coming 
into your province to inhabit it, and going 
over Susquehanna to seek for settlements, 
were either forced or decoyed by Thomas 
Cresap, or others, to submit to this govern- 
ment, ought certainly to be left to those to 
which they first belonged. ... I am 
persuaded you did not intend to include 
within that exception the Germans, who 



settled under this government on Susque- 
hanna, and who, by a most extraordinary 
method, pretended to become Pennsylva- 
nians." He proposed to meet Mr. Logan 
anywhere, half way between Annapolis and 

In reply to this a letter was writ- 
Logan's ten to Governor Ogle, March 22, 
Reply. 1737, by James Logan under the 
advice of the Council, showing 
the impracticability of his proposal. Those 
inhabitants who at first entered on their 
possessions under Maryland, should, till the 
boundaries were settled, be allowed to 
acknowledge that government. And all 
such as entered on their possessions under 
this government, should, in the same man- 
ner, be allowed to acknowledge it. And all 
the inhabitants subject to the late dispute, 
should be exempt from taxes. Taxes to be 
assessed and account kept of them, and no 
further settlements be made in those parts. 
To this letter. Gov. Ogle responded on the 
29th of March, 1737: "You say you will 
now, in full terms, express your meaning, 
which is, that those inhabitants who at first 
entered on their possessions under the gov- 
ernment of Maryland, should, till such time 
as the boundaries should be settled, or till 
we shall receive orders and directions from 
a superior authority for establishing peace, 
be allowed to acknowledge this govern- 
ment ; and all such others as entered on 
their possessions under your government 
should in the same manner, be allowed to 
acknowledge it. In answer to which I can 
truly say, that I always thought this just 
and reasonable, that all my endeavors and 
proposals tended to come into this very 
agreement, which, if you have done, I am 
convinced it would effectually have pre- 
vented all the mischief that has happened 
since that ineffectual conference we had 
with Hamilton and Georges. . . . But, 
besides that, such an agreement as this for 
the public good can never be too plainly 
and clearly avoided; let us consider the per- 
sons you propose to be excepted, and the 
reason for so doing. 

"The persons are those who have been 
the subject of the late contentions and dis- 
putes begun some time in August last, and 
the only reason that I can conceive for it 
must be that these same persons, not liking 
our forty per cent poll and other taxes, took 

it into their heads to renounce all obedience 
to this government in a formal manner by a 
paper under their hands. If they had not 
made this revolt, as they themselves call it, 
I presume their being excepted more than 
others would not have been mentioned; so 
that this being the only reason, the best way 
for you to judge of the goodness of it will 
be to turn the tables, and suppose the same 
case should happen to yourselves. Sup- 
pose a number of your inhabitants, touched 
with a tender regard for the Church of Eng- 
land and the support of its ministers, should 
all of a sudden renounce your government 
in the same formal manner that these peo- 
ple did ours for contrary reasons, pray what 
would your government do in such a case? 
Would you think such a renunciation of any 
validity, or would you proceed against them 
according to the laws of your province ? 
Whatever you would think reasonable for 
yourselves to do in that case, we only desire 
you to grant us the same indulgence. To 
do as one would be done by is a maxim so 
very just and reasonable that it is to be pre- 
sumed that nobody can dispute it. And this 
is all we desire of you in the case before 

Reference was made in the letter of 
President Logan to the committing of hos- 
tilities by Higginbotham and his crew, 
pending the negotiations and correspond- 
ence between the provinces, but to these 
Gov. Ogle made no response. The letters 
of Samuel Blunston to the Provincial Coun- 
cil contain a full statement of these trans- 
actions, and, therefore, must be cited in 
order to obtain a full understanding of the 
trials of the German settlers here. 

Charles Higginbotham, one 
Outrages of the ringleaders in the eject- 
Committed, ment plot above related, hav- 
ing escaped, became more 
formidable than his predecessor, Cresap, in 
acts of violence. He was appointed by Gov. 
Ogle, a Justice of the Peace and a Captain 
of Militia. At the head of about twenty 
men he came up to the settlements of the 
Germans, and it appears by the letters of 
Samuel Blunston in December and January, 
1737, "being daily strengthened by runaway 
sei^vants and others of desperate circum- 
stances, they threatened to attack some of 
the Dutch people seated there," and many 
outrasres were committed and forcible arr 



rests made, and they plainly intended to 
oust every person who refused to acknowl- 
edge the authority of Maryland. They 
broke open the Germans' doors with axes 
and carried persons off. On account of 
these outrages the wives and children of the 
Germans taken and several other families, 
went over the Susquehanna for refuge, and 
according to Blunston, all the settlements 
on the west side would be speedily deserted 
unless a sufiicient force would be set on foot 
to protect them and to apprehend Higgin- 
botham and his party. So grievous were 
the complaints of injury that he asked the 
advice of the Council on the 9th of Janu- 
ary, 1737, whether it would be more eligible 
to order the removal of all those wdio were 
seated under Pennsylvania on the west side 
of the Susquehanna, than to use further en- 
deavors for their defense, since it was ap- 
parent that blows, and bloodshed in all 
probability would ensue. 

The Council, considering the distress and 
hardships to which the Germans were at 
that severe season exposed, were of opinion 
that it was not consistent either with the 
honor or safety of this province to remove 
those of its inhabitants who were seated 
within its unquestionable bounds, since 
such an act might be construed a cession 
of those parts of Maryland, who would not 
fail thereupon to take possession of them; 
and in all probability, from such an encour- 
agement, would endeavor at further en- 
croachments in pursuance to their late ex- 
orbitant claims. On the contrary, it became 
the government, in support of its authority 
and in the just defense of his Majesty's 
peaceable subjects in it, to raise and support 
a force sufficient to oppose those violators 
of the peace and of his people's rights, and 
to seize and secure them that they may be 
brought to justice, the conducting of which 
force ought to be in the sheriff of the county 
and officers. And on the 20th of January it 
was ordered that the sheriff of Lancaster be 
called upon to raise a sufficient number of 
men of his county to be disposed in such 
places on the west side of the Susquehanna, 
under proper officers to be by him deputed, 
as may prevent further disorders, and that 
the sheriff with his officers and assistants 
exert their utmost endeavors for preserving 
the peace, protecting the inhabitants, and 
use all legal means in their power for ap- 

prehending Pligginbotham and his associ- 
ates, and all others who have been or here- 
after shall be guilty of committing any acts 
of violence within the said county." It was 
repeatedly pressed in advices from Lan- 
caster "that some gentlemen of credit and 
authority should be sent up into that county 
by whose encouragement and countenance 
a greater furtherance might be given to 
such measures as should be found necessary 
to be concerted for the preservation of his 
Majesty's peace and the protection of the 
inhabitants from those outrages to which 
they have of late been exposed." On the 
25th of January, 1737, two members of the 
Council, Laurence and Assheton, were pre- 
vailed upon to take that trouble. It was 
recommended to them, "to use their best 
endeavors and give such orders as they 
should judge not conducive for carrying 
those measures into execution." 

Thomas Laurence and Ralph 

Report of Assheton, on their return from 

Laurence Lancaster, on the 8th of Febru- 

and ary, reported that they met the 

Assheton. Justices and Sheriff of that 

county, and that fifteen men 
had been gotten together to observe the 
motions of Higginbotham and his party, 
and to prevent their further attempts on the 
inhabitants. That he had gone toward An- 
napolis with his prisoners, and the others 
kept themselves shut up in their guard 
house or fortress. That their wdiole force 
consisted of about twenty-five men. The 
number of men to assist the Sheriff had 
been increased to twenty-eight, and Solo- 
mon Jennings was made deputy, and he and 
his men were so stationed as to be able to 
prevent any further violences. They said 
the country had conceived such a resent- 
ment that many had offered their services 
to march directly to their fortress and take 
them. (IV Col. Rec, 153.) 

At a meeting of the Council on the ist of 
March, 1737, a letter from Samuel Blunston 
set forth that Higginbotham's garrison was 
then about the number of thirty. That 
Higginbotham had offered to purchase 
some of the Dutch people's improvements, 
b)^ order, as he gave out, of the Government 
of Maryland, and that he had also told some 
of them if they would stand neutral and not 
hold by either government, they should re- 
main unmolested. That many having been 


obliged to lea\e their houses, it was not 
without the utmost difficulty their families 
had been able to subsist themselves that 
winter, and if on the approaching season, 
they should be prevented by a continuance 
of such violences from putting in a spring 
crop, they must either perish, remove, or 
submit to jNlaryland. That provisions were 
extremely scarce, and the keeping of the 
Sheriff's assistants together on the west 
side of the Susquehanna very expensive. 
They had few or no opportunities of falling 
in with Higginbotham's gang, who for the 
most part kept within their guard house, 
where the Sheriff would not consent that 
they should be attacked. By a letter a few- 
days before to Thomas Penn, it appeared 
Higginbotham's party broke into the house 
of Joshua Minshall in Kreutz Creek Valley 
early in the morning of the 12th of Febru- 
ary, surprised him in bed, and carried him 
off prisoner. They were pursued by some 
of the Sheriff of Lancaster's people, who 
had no notice of this action till some hours 
after it had happened, but the gang had got 
to their guard house before they could be 
overtaken, and there it was not thought 
proper to attack them. On the 17th of 
March, 1737, some of the people from the 
garrison went to the house of Martin 
Shultz, between AVrightsville and York, and 
took by force a cask of eight gallons of rum 
and two of his horses and conveyed them to 
their place. A letter written about this 
time by Blunston gives a graphic picture of 
the unfortunate state of affairs in this por- 
tion of the province. He says : "\Ye had 
given repeated orders to the Dutch to keep 
together and stand on their defense." He 
then relates the incident of six men getting 
a grave ready for a child. Higginbotham 
and his company came upon them and 
seized and carried them through the woods 
and it w^as said that they were to be con- 
veyed to Annapolis. The persons taken 
were JMichael Tanner, Conrad Strickler and 
Joseph Evans. He says : "This unhappy 
incident has so terrified the rest that they 
have all left their homes and are come over 
the river so that there was none left on that 
side but women and children, except 
Joshua Minshall and John AYright, Jr., at 
the site of Y'rightsville they keep garrison, 
expecting every day and night to be at- 
tacked. This is the present state of affairs 

o\er the ri\-er, to which, if we add that the 
ice is in continual danger of breaking, so as 
to render the river impassable for some 
weeks, make things look with but an in- 
diff'erent prospect. Before this happened, 
if the sheriff" had gone over he might have 
had thirty or forty Dutch to assist him, but 
now he has none but wdiat he takes with 
him if he can go over." 

At a meeting of the Council on 

Distress the 4th of April, 1737, the Presi- 

of the dent acquainted the Board that 

Germans, several of the Germans who had 

suft'ered outrages from the 
Maryland gang from the west of Susque- 
hanna had come hither to represent their 
great distress. Higginbotham and those 
under his command had continued to carry 
on their violences and would neither suft'er 
the people themselves, their children, nor 
those hired to plow the grounds, to raise 
corn for the sustenance of their families. 
They took away the horses employed in 
this necessary work and said the Governor 
of Maryland ordered it. They carried off 
several young lads from plowing, and de- 
tained them in their garrison to give secur- 
ity to work no more or be sent to jail. Some 
of the people carried to Annapolis let out on 
bail were told if they did not work for 
others they forfeited their recognizance. 
Notice was given to the women that three 
days would be allowed them to carr}- their 
goods out of their houses, otherwise they 
w-ould be turned out. The number of the 
rioters had increased, and infested the 
neighborhood in small detachments. Their 
insolence and cruelties were so great that 
the inhabitants were reduced to deplorable 
circumstances, it being evident that not- 
withstanding the negotiations of peace now 
on foot, between the two provinces, Hig- 
ginbotham and those with him were re- 
solved to distress the poor people to such a 
degree as to oblige them to quit their places 
that others may enter upon them according 
to the promise and expectations given them 
bv the Governor of Maryland. The num- 
ber of those whom the sheriff of Lancaster 
had kept on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna for a restraint on Higginbotham's 
gang had lessened and had not been of the 
service that was expected. The Council 
observed that as both governments were 
then treating on measures for establishing 



peace, and the Governor of Maryland con- 
tinuing in his several late letters, to make 
ample professions of 'his sincere inclination 
to that end, it could scarcely be supposed 
without highly reflecting on that gentle- 
man's honor and candor, that those late 
violences were carried on by his authority 
or with his knowledge. His letter was 
again read, and the essential parts of it, 
particularly that where he seems to insist 
that the Germans, without any proviso or 
stipulation for them, should be left to his 
government to be taxed or dealt with as 
they should think proper being largely 
spoken to, the President was desired to pre- 
pare a draft of an answer to Mr. Ogle. This 
answer of Mr. Logan recapitulated the cor- 
respondence on the subject, and made the 
proposal that a preliminary, namely, the ap- 
pointment of persons to adjust the matter 
be at once put in execution, and that com- 
missioners meet on the spot and determine 
by the strictest and most just inquiry, who 
of those inhabitants entered on their pos- 
sessions under the one or under the other 
government. It is noted the fact that he 
had made no answer to the complaints 
about Higginbotham, and that since the 
receipt of his last letter accounts had been 
received of shocking barbarities committed 
upon that unhappy people. 

Upon considering what was represented 
by Blunston, the Council were of the opin- 
ion that the people ought by all means to 
maintain possession of their houses and 
plantations; that a proper number of people 
should be lodged in the house late of John 
Hendricks to defend it against any attack 
and the sheriff be called upon to give all 
legal assistance. On the 8th of April, 1737, 
as to those Germans who had come there 
to pray advice in their present distress, the 
Council were of the opinion that as they 
came first into this province to settle, they 
were highly to blame in going over to the 
other side of the Susquehanna, and there, in 
contempt of this government, taking up 
land under Maryland and acknowledging 
themselves subjects or tenants under it; 
that some of them had not only enlisted 
under Cresap, but had assisted him on all 
occasions when called on, and particularly 
that the party who took Mr. Buchanan, the 
late sheriff of Lancaster, was mostly made 
of their people ; that when they thought of 

returning to their obedience under this gov- 
ernment, if Gov. Ogle's word is to be taken 
for it, who expressly charges them with it, 
and as for encouraging them in it, their 
only inducement was their hopes of living 
more easily under us, in being freed from 
the forty per cent, poll and other Maryland 
taxes. That instead of defending them- 
selves against the force which had been sent 
to apprehend them, they had thrown that 
charge wholly upon this government, who 
had been put to great expense on that ac- 
count. That if the Marylanders should 
proceed to turn them off their plantations, 
as there is now no possibility of opposing 
but by open war and bloodshed, their fami- 
lies must be sure no otherwise to give way 
to it than as they are forced, and if that 
should prove the case, as it is hoped it will 
not, care will be taken to order other places 
for their settlement, on their paying a rea- 
sonable consideration for the same, and that 
we must wait for a suitable redress from 
the wisdom and justice of our Gracious Sov- 
ereign, whose orders for putting an end to 
all these disturbances have been long since 
humbly applied for, and may now- in a 
short time be expected. (IVCol. Rec, 195.) 

On the 15th of April, 1737, a letter from 
Gov. Ogle retaliated as to violences, by 
charges of cruelty to Cresap and others : "I 
shall put into immediate execution every- 
thing that lies in my power to prevent' the 
renewing of your hostilities. I shall leave 
wholly to yourselves, such as first settled 
under your government, and shall not look 
upon such to be Marylanders at present, as 
settled and held under this government." 

Throughout this curious and voluminous 
discussion, there was, on either side, a plain 
determination to maintain the German ele- 
ment of the contention as peculiarly subject 
to their own control. Pennsylvania was 
willing to have an investigation into the 
settlements of each individual, believing 
that the exceptions were as to an original 
settlement under any other title. 

Maryland, on the other hand, would per- 
sist on claiming the whole body of the re- 
volted Germans as their tenants and sub- 
ject to taxation as such. Consequently the 
reply to the letter of Gov. Ogle, of the 15th 
of April, proposed the appointment of a 
commissioner by each province to ascertain 
who of the settlers "first entered on their 



lands uiulei" the one, and under the other 
go\-ernment,"' when the commotions began, 
before August, 1736. 

On the 29th of April, 1737, the 
Mission of Council considered it advisable 

Preston to send to Annapolis two per- 
and sons, who should, in a personal 

Kinsey. conference with the Governor, 
press him to an explicit and de- 
termined answer to the proposals that ac- 
companied the concession made on the part 
of this province and accepted by him. Two 
members, Samuel Preston and John Kin- 
sey, were appointed for the occasion. An- 
other letter was prepared and sent to Gov. 
Ogle. It was proposed that the levying of 
taxes be deferred and that the forces on 
either side be withdrawn and that commis- 
sioners be appointed. The House of Repre- 
sentatives was called together and a mes- 
sage delivered to them from the President 
and Council, that notwithstanding all legal 
means in their power, and those at a very 
considerable expense, had been used to put 
a stop to the violences on the west side of 
the Susquehanna, yet there was a continued 
series of those abuses. The House hoped 
that it would be known, and that they 
should always be ready to do what is ne- 
cessary for supporting the government, 
while the measures taken are consistent 
with the peaceable principles of the people 
they represented. 

A letter of instructions was prepared for 
Samuel Preston and John Kinsey, the com- 
missioners. According to the report made 
by Preston on their return, they were re- 
ceived civilly and dined with the Governor, 
and had a personal conference with him. 
They were called before the Council and 
had reduced their offer to writing. After 
correspondence between them, articles were 
acceded to by both governments. 

Objection was made to the appointment 
of commissioners. It was contended on the 
part of Pennsylvania, that this was neces- 
sary to determine who settled under each 
government, but on the part of Maryland 
that it might be determined by them and 
Preston and Kinsey, as by commissioners. 
The former alsd contended that it was ne- 
cessary to examine those who were settled 
and others. In the personal conference 
touching the manner of determining who 
settled on the lands in dispute under each 

government, Gov. Ogle told them that he 
thought it would be easy to distinguish 
them by name in the articles. He said an 
answer to two or three plain questions 
would determine it, as to whose they took 
the land to be at the time of first entry. To 
whom they had paid their taxes ? He fur- 
ther said that the Germans entered on the 
land on which they are under them, but 
were prevailed upon by threats and persua- 
sions of some of the magistrates of Lan- 
caster to renounce their government. He 
was answered, "that matter was very dif- 
ferently represented to us; that one of us 
had an opportunity since our coming there 
of inquiring of one of those Germans, who 
declared that on their first entry on the 
lands in question, they looked upon them as 
belonging" to the proprietors of Pennsyl- 
A'ania, but that Cresap, pretending an au- 
thority from the government unless they 
would suffer their plantations to be sur- 
veyed by him as belonging to Maryland. 
That being strangers, who had the right to 
avoid being dispossessed, they permitted 
him to make surveys, expecting a confirma- 
tion of their possessions from the govern- 
ment of Maryland. And we understood 
that they, having been disappointed in this 
respect by the government of Maryland, 
and their having afterward been fully as- 
sured the lands belonged to our proprietors, 
occasioned their voluntaiy application to 
our magistrates for protection from our 
government, and that they were not induced 
thereto by any threats or persuasions 
whatsoever." Preston and Kinsey pro- 
posed that if there was difficulty as to the 
appointment of commissioners they might 
agree upon other articles. This Gov. Ogle 
declined, urging that it was necessary first 
to distinguish the persons who settled 
under each government. They were called 
no more to confer with the Maryland Coun-^ 
cil. They dined with Benjamin Tasker, one 
of the Council and Lord Baltimore's agent, 
and on their return to their lodging, found 
a paper for them, and being informed the 
Governor was gone out of town the Council 
separated, and they left Annapolis. (IV 
Col. Rec, 210, 223.) 

x\s in the former treaties, so in this, the 
Governor of Maryland insisted that the fail- 
ure of the negotiations was owing to the 
want of power of information in the com- 


missioners, and that when his just offers 
would be communicated to the government 
of Pennsylvania, it would give proper pow- 
ers and instructions for perfecting the same. 



The Royal Order of George II — Digges' 
Choice — The Manor of Maske— The 
Temporary Line — The Line at Peach 
Bottom — Agreement of 1760 — Mason 
and Dixon's Line. 


The controversy which had arisen be- 
tween the governors of Pennsylvania and 
Maryland, and their subjects, was owing to 
a misunderstanding in reference to the 
boundary line. This trouble had begun 
about 1725. It culminated in the attempts 
of the Marylanders to drive the Germans 
from Springettsburg Manor and other parts 
of York County, which was claimed by the 
subjects of Lord Baltimore as disputed 
ground. The Maryland authorities had 
encouraged their people to occupy this ter- 
ritory. According to his charter, Penn's 
province was to be bounded on the south 
by the circumference of a circle whose 
centre was New Castle and whose radius 
was twelve miles in length, to be drawn 
from north to west till it reached "the be- 
ginning of the fortieth degree." From this 
point of contact, the boundary line was to 
extend directly westward five degrees of 
longitude. Lord Baltimore's charter made 
the northern boundary of Maryland extend 
west from that part of Delaware Bay 
which "lieth under the fortieth degree of 
latitude." The Baltimoreans contended 
that the words "lieth under" were to be 
taken literallj^ as if a huge figure 40 lay 
over sixty geographical miles ; that their 
grant extended over the land between the 
39th and 40th parallels. The Penns held 
that the words "beginning of the fortieth 
degree," in their charter, likewise had refer- 
ence to the entire space between the 39th 
and 40th parallels ; that the 40th degree 
began at the 39th, just as the first degree 
may be said to begin at the equator. The 
width of a degree, therefore, was in dispute. 

on account of the unfortunate expressions 
in the two charters. Lord Baltimore, by 
virtue of his charter, also laid claim to the 
whole peninsula between the Chesapeake 
bay and the Atlantic ocean north of a line 
drawn across from W'atkins' Point. 

The dispute dragged its weary length 
through more than eighty years. Three 
English sovereigns had to do with the vex- 
atious question. The proprietors had a 
few interviews in America, but parted as 
secret enemies, especially after they had 
discovered that the fortieth parallel did not 
pass through New Castle, as had been sup- 
posed, but much farther north. With Lord 
Baltimore it was territory; with AVill;am 
Penn it was water frontage on Chesapeake 
bay. The latter once offered to buy suffi- 
cient territory of Baltimore to get a port on 
the bay, but met with a refusal. 

The controversy west of the Susque- 
hanna had become so bitter that it threat- 
ened to cause riot and bloodshed. It was 
of so much importance, that it received the 
attention of the King of England. For the 
purpose of settling this dispute and prevent- 
ing further collision, he took up the matter 
in council, and then issued, what is known 
in colonial history, as the Royal Order of 
King George II. 

The boundary line between the provinces 
which was provided for in the agreement 
of 1732, was not run on account of the 
objections of Lord Baltimore, and the con- 
sequent suit in equity. The active and 
acrimonious correspondence between the 
governors of the two provinces went on, 
and overtures for fixing a boundary were 
made by Pennsylvania, without effect. Gov. 
Gordon and President Logan, by advice of 
the Council, proposed to have a provisional 
line run, but it was rejected by the Mary- 
land authorities. They made mutual ap- 
peals to the king. The matter was referred 
to the Lords of Committee of Council on 
Plantation Affairs, and before them the 
proprietors and their counsel came to an 
agreement that the peace and tranquility 
of the province might be preserved until 
such time as the boundaries could be finally 
settled. This agreement was approved by 
the King, and His Majesty was pleased to 
order that the respective proprietors do 
cause the said agreement to be carried into 



At tlic court at Kensington, on the 25tli day of May, 

The King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

Archbishop of Canterbury, Karl. of Selkirk, 

Lord President, Earl of Islay, 

Lord Steward, Earl Fitz Walter, 

Lord Chamberlain, Viscount Lonsdale, 

Duke of Bolton, Viscount Torrington, 

Duke of Devonshire, Lord Harrington, 

Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Chancellor of the Ex- 

Earl of Scarborough, Sir Charles Wills, 

Earl of Grantham, Henry Pelham, Esq., 

Earl of Cholmondeley, Sir Charles Wager. 

Upon reading at the Board a report from the Right 
Honorable the Lords of the Committee of Council for 
Plantation Affairs, dated the 4th of this instant in the 
words following, viz. : 

Your Majesty having been pleased by your orders in 
Council of the 17th of March, 1736, 1737, and the 21st 
of July, 1737, to refer unto this committee several peti- 
tions from the President, Council and General Assem- 
bly of the Province of Pennsylvania, and likewise from 
the Governor and Council, and the commissary and 
clerg)' of the Province of Marj-land, which petitions 
represent (among other things) that great disorders 
and outrages have been committed upon the borders of 
the said respective provinces, and humbly praying j-our 
Majesty's most gracious interposition and commands, 
for the preservation of the peace, on the said borders 
until the boundaries of the said province shall be finally 
settled and adjusted. The lords of the Committee of 
Council did, on the 29th of the said month of July, take 
the matter of the said complaints into their considera- 
tion, and, therefore, reported to your Majest\' what they 
thought most advisable for your Majesty {o do, in order 
to prevent the further continuance of the said disorders 
and to preserve peace and tranquility on the said bor- 
ders, until the boundaries should be finally settled. And 
your Majesty having approved of what was proposed 
by the said report was pleased, by your order in council 
of the 8th of August, 1737, to direct as follows, viz. : 
" That the governors of the respective provinces of 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, for the time being, do not, 
upon pain of incurring his jMajesty's highest displeas- 
ure, permit or suffer any tumults, riots, or other out- 
rageous disorders to be committed on the borders of 
their respective provinces. But that they do immedi- 
ately put a stop thereto, and use their utmost endeav- 
ors to preserve peace and good order amongst all his 
Majesty's subjects under their government inhabiting 
the said borders. And as a means to preserve peace and 
tranquility on the said borders, his Majesty doth hereby 
enjoin the said Governors that they do not make grants 
of any part of the lands in contest between the pro- 
prietors respectively, nor any part of the three lower 
counties commonK- called Newcastle, Kent and Sussex, 
nor permit any person to settle there, or even to at- 
tempt to make a settlement thereon, till his Majesty's 
pleasure shall be further signified. And his majesty is 
further pleased to direct that this order, together with 
duplicates thereof, be delivered to the proprietors of the 
said provinces, who are hereby required to transmit the 
same forthwith to the governors of the said respective 
provinces accordingly. That since the issuing of the 
said order your Majesty hath been pleased to refer unto 
this committee an address of the deputy governor, and 
of the upper and lower Houses of Assembly of the 
Province of Maryland, relating to a continuance of the 
said disorders, and also two petitions, the one in the 
name of John, Thomas and Richard Penn, Esqs., pro- 
prietors of the Province of Pennsylvania, praying your 
Majesty's further pleasure may be signified relating to 
your Majesty's afore recited order in council of the l8th 

of August, 1737, and the other in the name of the agent 
of the said Province of Pennsylvania, complaining of 
fresh disorders committed by the inhabitants of Mary- 
land against those of Pennsylvania, wherefore the lords 
of the committee did, on the 23d of February last, pro- 
ceed to take all the papers relating to the complaints 
made by each of the said provinces into their con- 
sideration and were attended by counsel on both sides, 
and likewise by the proprietors of the said provinces, 
and the counsel desiring that some reasonable time 
might be allowed the proprietors to confer together, in 
order to come to some agreement amongst themselves, 
so that the peace and tranquility of both provinces may 
be preserved until such time as the boundaries can be 
finally settled. The lords of the committee thought 
proper to comply with such, their request. And being 
again this day attended by all parties, the counsel ac- 
quainted the committee that the proprietors of each 
province had accordingly met and agreed to the fol- 
lowing propositions, viz. : " ist. That so much of his 
Majesty's order in council of the i8th of August, 1737, 
as orders the governors of the respective provinces of 
Maryland and Pennsylvania for the time being, do not, 
upon pain of incurring his Majesty's highest displeas- 
ure, permit or suffer any tumult, riots or any other 
outrageous disorders to be committed on the borders 
of their respective provinces, but that they do immedi- 
ately put a stop thereto, and use their utmost endeavors 
to preserve peace and good order among all his 
Majesty's subjects under their government, inhabiting 
the said borders, do stand in force and be observed. 
2d, That there being no riots that appear to have been 
committed within the three lower counties of New- 
castle, Kent and Sussex, on Delaware, it is therefore not 
thought necessary to continue the latter part of the said 
order in council, as to the said three lower counties, 
but that the same former order in council, so far as 
relates to the said three lower counties, be discharged 
without prejudice to either of the proprietors, as if the 
same had never been made. 

3d, That all other lands in contest between the said 
proprietors now possessed by or under either of them 
shall remain in the possession as they now are (al- 
though beyond the temporary limits hereafter men- 
tioned) ; and also the jurisdiction of the respective pro- 
prietors shall continue over such lands until the bound- 
aries shall be finally settled ; and that the tenants of 
either side shall not atone to the other, nor shall either 
of the proprietors or their officers receive or accept of 
atonements from the tenants of the other proprietors. 

4th, That, as to all vacant lands in contest between 
the proprietors, not lying within the three lower coun- 
ties and not now possessed by or under either of them, 
on the east side of the River Susquehanna, down so far 
as fifteen miles and one quarter of a mile south of the 
latitude of the most southern part of the city of Phila- 
delphia, and on the west side of the said River Susque- 
hanna, down so far south as fourteen miles and three- 
quarters south of the latitude of the most southern part 
of the city of Philadelphia, the temporary jurisdiction 
over the same is agreed to be exercised by the proprie- 
tors of Pennsylvania, and their governor, courts and 
officers, and as to all such vacant lands in contest be- 
tween the proprietors and not now possessed by or 
under either of them on both sides of the said River 
Susquehanna, south of the respective southern limits 
in this paragraph before mentioned, the temporary 
jurisdiction over the same is agreed to be exercised by 
the proprietor of Maryland, his governor, courts and 
officers, without prejudice to either proprietor, and until 
the boundaries shall be finally settled. 

5th, That the respective proprietors shall be at free 
liberty to grant out, on the common and usual terms all 
or any vacant lands within the said Provinces of Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland in contest between the said pro- 
prietors (that is to say within their own respective sides 



of the said several limits mentioned in the last forego- 
ing paragraph). For the which lands and the profits of 
the same also each proprietor shall account to the other, 
who may be adjudged to be the proprietor thereof, upon 
the final determination of the boundaries between the 
two provinces. 

6th, That all prisoners on both sides on account of 
being concerned in any riots or disturbances relating 
to the bounds, or for any act or thing done thereat, or 
for any other act touching the rights of either said 
provinces in relation to their bounds, be forthwith re- 
leased and discharged on entering into their own re- 
spective recognizance in a reasonable sum to appear and 
submit to trial when called upon by further order from 
his Majesty. 

7th, That this be declared to be a provisional and 
temporary order to continue until the boundaries shall 
be finally settled, and be declared to be without preju- 
dice to either party. 

8th, That his Majesty be most humbly moved to dis- 
charge so much of the order of the iStli of August, 1737, 
as varies from the agreement, and that the several other 
petitions of complaint now depending before his 
Majesty in council, relating to any disturbances, may 
be withdrawn by the respective petitioners. 

To which propositions the proprietors of each prov- 
ince signified their consent before the committee and 
declared their readiness to carry the same into 
execution, if your Majesty shall be pleased to approve 
thereof; and" the committee, considering that the agree- 
ment may be a proper expedient for restoring peace and 
tranquility between the said provinces, and for prevent- 
ing any of the like disturbances for the future, do there- 
fore agree humbly to lay the same before your Alajesty 
for your royal approbation. 

His Majesty this day took the said report into con- 
sideration, and in order to preserve peace and trancjuil- 
it}' between the said provinces, and to prevent any like 
disturbances for the future, is pleased, with the advice 
ofi his privy council, to approve of the said agreement 
entered into between the proprietors of the said respect- 
ive provinces; and his Majesty is hereby pleased to 
order that the proprietors of the said respective prov- 
inces of Maryland and Pennsylvania do cause the said 
agreement to be carried into execution ; whereof the 
said proprietors, and all others whom it may concern, 
are to take notice and govern themselves accordingly. 

J. A. Vernon. 

This Royal Order, as will be seen, pro- 
vided that as to all vacant lands in contest 
between the proprietors . . . "not now 
possessed by, or under, either of them, on 
the east side of the River Susquehanna, 
down so far south as fifteen miles, and one 
cjuarter of a mile south of the latitude of 
the most southern part of the city of Phila- 
delphia, and on the west side of the said 
River Susquehanna, down so far south as 
fourteen miles and three quarters of a mile 
south of the latitude of the most southern 
part of the city of Philadelphia, the tem- 
porary jurisdiction of the same is agreed to 
be exercised by the proprietors of Pennsyl- 
vania, and their Governor, Courts and offi- 
cers, until the boundaries shall be finally 
settled." The agreement of 1732 fixed the 
iDOundarv on the line of latitude iifteen 

miles south of the southern part of Phila- 
delphia, and provided that titles to lands 
granted by either, and which were "cleared, 
occupied and possessed" before the fifteenth 
of Ma3^ 1724, should be protected. The 
date, of these settlements appears to have 
been fixed by the date of the agreement 
made in London between the proprietors 
on the 17th of May, 1724, "that no surveys 
should be made on either side in the dis- 
puted places till the boundaries should be 
fixed, for which a time was limited." The 
agreement of 1724, protected only occupiers 
of land at that time, and since it prohibited 
all new grants and settlements it was rea- 
sonable to expect that the agreement of 
1732 would not protect grants and intru- 
sions in violation of it. And so it was writ- 
ten in the agreement of 1732. So the mat- 
ter was viewed by Gov. Gordon in his let- 
ter to Gov. Ogle, June 15, 1732, "we have 
always understood here and so did your 
immediate predecessor, his Lordsliip's 
brother, on our treating on that subject, 
that the same convention should subsist till 
the matter was further accommodated, all 
which, notwithstanding the numerous set- 
tlements rnade by those who forced them- 
selves upon us from Ireland and Germany, 
has been so punctually observed by our 
office, that there has not been one survey 
made, as is affirmed to me, by order of that 
office, within the limits which it is con- 
ceived Maryland either could or would 
claim." This view was ratified by the royal 
order. In pursuance of this order of his 
Majesty in council "provisional and tem- 
porary limits" were run between the 


On January 14, 1727, John Digges, an 
Irish nobleman of Prince George's County, 
Maryland, obtained from Charle's Calvert, 
the fourth Lord Baltimore, a grant for 
10,000 acres of land upon part of which the 
Borough of Hanover is situated. When 
Lord Baltimore gave this grant, the land 
was thought to be in his own province. 
This original title to the land was given 
twelve years before the temporary line was 
run between Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
and nine years before the heirs of William 
Penn had purchased from the Indians the 
rights to lands west of the Susquehanna 


River. Under Lord Baltimore's grant John 
Digges was empowered to " locate said 
grant on whatsoever unimproved lands he 
pleased within the jurisdiction of his lord- 
ship." By the advice and under the direc- 
tion of Tom, a noted Lidian chief, after 
whom Tom's Creek, in Frederick County, 
Maryland, is named, John Digges took up_ 
by virtue of the grant, 6,822 acres, embrac- 
ing the whole of Penn Township and part 
of Heidelberg, in York County, and parts 
of Conewago, Germany and Union Town- 
ships, in Adams Count}^. The warrant 
granted to Digges was renewed by Lord 
Baltimore in 1732. 

A few of the first settlers on Digges' 
Choice were Catholics, who started, in 1730, 
what became known as the Conewago Set- 
tlement in the vicinity of Hanover. Among 
the earliest of these settlers was Robert 
Owings, who took up a large tract of land 
a short distance northwest of the present 
site of McSherrystown. 

There were a few adventurers 
Digges' who crossed the Susquehanna as 
Titles. early as 1727. Some Scotch- 
Irish settlers had taken up land 
in the southern part of York County under 
Maryland grants as early as 1733. At a 
meeting of representatives from the prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania, held with the Indians 
from the Five Nations, at Philadelphia, in 
1736, the heirs of W^illiam Penn purchased 
the title to a vast extent of country west 
of the Susquehanna. The first authorized 
settlements west of the river had been made 
by authority of Samuel Blunston, the agent 
of the Penns, who resided at Wright's 
Ferry, now Columbia. Blunston issued his 
first license in 1734, but as the Indians west 
of the Susquehanna were peaceable, a few 
settlers crossed the river before 1730. The 
charter granted to Lord Baltimore gave 
him the privilege of authorizing settlements 
in parts of western Maryland before the 
Indian title west of the Susquehanna was 
obtained by the Penns. 

In 1730 Andrew Schriver emigrated from 
Philadelphia County and took up a valuable 
tract of land a short distance east of Littles- 
town, near the site of Christ Church. In 
1 73 1 Adam Forney and 'other German set- 
tlers procured from John Digges a bond of 
agreement for lands on Digges' Choice. 

Some of these, including a colony of thir- 
teen families from Eastern Pennsylvania, 
])assed across the present area of York 
County into the Shenandoah valley in Vir- 
ginia, where they took up land among the 
earliest settlers of that fertile region. 

The following is a copy of the bond of 
agreement given by John Digges to Adam 
Forney in 173 1 : 

Know all men by those presents that I. John Digges, 
of Prince George's County, in the Province of Mary- 
land, Gent., am held and firmly bound unto Adam For- 
ney, of Philadelphia County, in the Province of Penn- 
sylvania, farmer and tailor, in full and just sum of 
sixty pounds current money of Maryland, to which 
payment well and truly to be made and done, I bind 
myself, my heirs, executors and administrators, firmly 
by these presents. Sealed with my seal and dated this 
fifth day of October, Anno Domino, 1731. 

The condition of the above obligation is such that 
if the above bound John Digges, his heirs, e.xecutors or 
administrators, shall and will at the reasonable request 
of the above Adam Forney, make and order by suffi- 
cient conveyance according to the custom and common 
usage of the Province of Maryland, a certain parcel of 
land containing one hundred and fifty acres, already 
marked out by the above named Adam Forney, near a 
place known by the name of Robert Owing's Spring, 
and on the same tract of land where the said Robert 
Owings now dwells in the Province of Maryland, then 
this obligation to be void, otherwise to remain in full 
force and virtue in law. 


Sealed and delivered in the presence of us, 
George Douglass. 
Johann Peter Zarich. 

Among the early settlers on 

Early Digges' Choice were, Robert 

Settlers. Owings, Adam Forney and his 

son Nicholas, Peter Zarich, Da- 
vid Young, Andrew Schriever, Adam Mil- 
ler, Adam Messier, John Leman, Valentine 
and Conrad Eyler, Henry Sell, Martin Kitz- 
miller, Jacob and Derrick Youngblood, 
Peter Raysher, Charles Jones, Peter Young- 
blood, George Evanaar, Matthias Marker, 
Peter and William Oler. Jacob Banker, 
Peter Welby, Herman Updegraf, (shoe- 
maker), Peter Schultz (blacksmith), Leon- 
ard Barnes, Peter Ensminger, Matthias 
Ullery, William Loyston, John Martin 
Inyfoss, Martin Brin, Abraham Sell, Adam 
Buedinger (Bittenger) and son Nicholas, 
Thomas Lilly, Martin Buyers, Martin 
Ungefare, John Counts, John Morningstar, 
Ludwick Schreiver, Michael Will, Peter 
Middlecauf and Dr. Henry Null. 

According to the statement of the late 
Hon. Abraham Schriver, president judge of 
the Frederick County Court, his paternal 


ancestor, Andrew Schriver, one of the 
earliest settlers between Hanover and Lit- 
tlestown, was a native of Alstenborn in the 
Electorate Palatine, Germany, and immi- 
grated with his family to this country in 
the year 1721. landing at Philadelphia, 
after which they moved to the neighbor- 
hood of Goshenhoppen, near the Trappe on 
the Schuylkill, where they made their home 
for some years. 

Before leaving German}-, he obtained a 
certificate of character, such as was given 
to most of the early immigrants, belonging 
to the better class of people. The certifi- 
cate reads as follows: "That the bearer of 
(or person showing) this, Andrew Schriver, 
citizen and inhabitant of this place, and his 
wife, Ann Margaretha, whom he has with 
him, profess themselves to be conformable 
to the pure word of God of the Reformed 
Church, and until now assiduously observed 
the outward duties of Christianity, in at- 
tending our public worship, receiving the 
holy sacrament, and otherwise, as far as is 
known, have been irreproachable in their 
conduct, I attest. And whereas, the said 
man and wife, with their children, after 
having borne many adversities, are about 
to turn their backs on their country, and to 
go (God knows where) into a strange coun- 
try. I would therefore recommend them to 
a willing reception, by the preachers and 
elders of said Reformed Church, whereas 
they may show these presents. 

Alstenborn, Oberants Lantern in the 
Electorate Palatine. 


May 13th, 1721."' 

In the spring of 1733, being then 21 
years of age, Andrew Schriver married Ann 
jMaria Keiser, and the following spring 
moved to the Conewago settlement, taking 
up lands on " Digges' Choice," four miles 
west of the site of Hanover, near Christ 

In moving to Conewago, Andrew Schriv- 
er's step-brother, David Yung (Young), 
came with him and helped him clear three 
acres of land which they planted in corn, 
and Young then returned home. During 
this clearing (about three weeks) they 
lived under Young's wagon cover, after 
which Andrew Schriver pealed elm bark, 
and made a temporary hut, and by fall built 
a cabin. The wag-on that brought him to 

this place, passed through what is called 
Will's Bottom. 

There was no opportunity of obtaining 
flour nearer than a grist mill close to Lan- 
caster. One hundred acres' where he lived, 
later known as the Basehore Mill property, 
were the first he bought and they were paid 
for with one hundred pairs of negroes' 
shoes, that being the price agreed upon 
with John Digges, the owner, of whom he 
soon after bought more land, which was 
paid for in money. At the time of his set- 
tlement in Conewago, the nearest neighbors 
Andrew Schriver had were the family of 
Adam Forney, living where the town of 
Hanover now stands. For a long time the 
public road from Wright's Ferry to the 
south came by Andrew Schriver's house, 
and when he settled here there were a few 
Indians in the vicinity. They were friendly 
and smoked the pipe of peace with the 
white settlers. His brother, Ludwig 
Schriver, David Young, Middlekaufs, the 
AVills and others followed in a few years 
and settled near him. 

jManjr of the citizens of this region who 
now enjoy the comforts of peaceful homes, 
can trace their ancestry in the names of 
these pioneers. 

Admiral AVinfield Scott Schley, who was 
born at Frederick, Md., in 1839, ^s a lineal 
descendant of Andrew Schriver. With the 
rank of Commodore he was placed in com- 
mand of the Flying Squadron on duty in 
Cuban waters during the war with Spain, 
and was in immediate command at the 
destruction of Cervera's Spanish fleet off 
Santiago. July 3, 1898. He won fame and 
distinction as a naval officer in this great 
battle and soon after was raised to the rank 
of admiral. 

An interesting document now 
A Penn in the possession of the York 
Warrant. County Historical Society, is a 
land warrant granted to George 
Evanaar and signed by Thomas Penn, Oc- 
tober 5, 1738, one year before the temporary 
line was run between Marjdand and Penn- 
sylvania. This document reads as follows: 

Whereas George Evanaar, of the County of Lan- 
caster, hath requested that we would grant him to take 
up one hundred acres of land situated at Conewago, 
adjoining Adam Forney and Nicholas Forney, in the 
said County of Lancaster, for which he agrees to pay 
to our use the sum of fifteen pounds, ten shillings cur- 
rent money of this province for the said one hundred 



acres, and the yearly quit rent of one half penny ster- 
ling for every acre thereof. This is therefore to author- 
ize and require you to survey or cause to be surveyed 
unto the said George Evanaar at the place aforesaid, 
according to the methods of townships appointed, the 
said quantity of one hundred acres, if not already sur- 
veyed or appropriated, and make return thereof into 
the secretary's office, in order for further confirmation ; 
for which this shall be your sufficient warrant; which 
survey in case the said George Evanaar fulfil the above 
agreement within six months from the date hereof 
shall be valid, otherwise void. Given under my hand 
and seal of the land office, by virtue of certain powers 
from the said proprietaries, at Philadelphia, this fifth 
day of October, Anno Domino, One Thousand Seven 
Hundred and Thirty-eight. 

To Benjamin Eastburn, Surveyor-General. 

Sa3's Judge Gibson, in the His- 
A tory of York County, published 

Maryland in 1886: On the i8th of April, 
Patent. 173-2, there was surveyed in 
virtue of the said warrant by 
Philip Jones, Deputy Surveyor,- under 
Charles Calvert, Esq., Surveyor General of 
the western shore of the Province of Mary- 
land, a parcel of land said to lie in Prince 
George's County, called Digges' Choice, in 
the backwoods, the quantity of 6,822 acres, 
and the same was returned into the land 
office, by sundry courses, from one place of 
beginning, viz. : At three bounded hickories, 
and one bounded white oak, and one 
bounded wild cherry tree, standing at the 
mouth of a branch, which is commonl}^ 
known by the name of Gresses' branch, 
where it intersects with Conewago, and 
running thence north. The remaining 
courses and distances are not given. Jones' 
certificate and return were accepted and re- 
corded, and thereupon a patent issued to 
John Digges, bearing date the nth day of 
October, 1735, at the annual rent of 13 
pounds, I2s, I id, sterling, payable at Lady 
Day and Michaelmas. 

The southern boundar}- of the tract fell 
four miles to the northward of the tem- 
porary line as run and returned in 1739, 
agreeably to the royal order. Digges re- 
mained in quiet and undisturbed possession 
thereof. But numbers of foreigners coming 
into these parts, and lands thereby rising in 
value, he, by petition, on the 15th of July, 
1745, applied to the office at Annapolis, 
under color of some error in the survey, for 
a warrant to correct those errors, and take 
up the contiguous vacancy, and he obtained 
a warrant requiring the surveyor of Prince 
George's Countv to add anv vacant land he 

could find contiguous to the patented tract. 
In pursuance of this warrant, there was sur- 
veyed on the 1st day of August, 1745, a 
parcel of vacant land contiguous to the 
patented tract, containing 3,679 acres, for 
which he paid a new consideration, and on 
the iSth of October, 1745, a patent issued 
for the same. 

It appears, howe\'er, that John Digges 
had applied for a warrant to the land office 
of Pennsylvania. On the i8th day of July, 
1743, Secretary Peters wrote to Thomas 
Cookson, Surveyor for Lancaster County, 
in which county this land was then situated, 
that Digges had an irregular piece of land 
at Conewago, by a Maryland survey, and 
had applied for such a quantity, all around 
it, as might bring it within straight lines, 
but upon such terms as the secretary was 
not willing to grant a warrant. However, 
Cookson might, at Digges' request, survey 
for the use of the proprietaries so much as 
he required, the price to be left to them. On 
the 20th of April, 1744, Digges wrote to the 
secretary from Little Conewago, that he 
had waited at that place to have his lands 
run round that the vacancy might be re- 
served for the proprietor's use. Cookson 
proposed it now in a different manner, but 
assured him he should ha\-e the preference 
of an}' vacancy adjoining, with a request not 
to grant to any other person until he 
marked and made known his lines. The 
further correspondence, in relation to this 
matter, shows that the Germans settled 
about Conewago Creek, on the lands 
claimed by Digges, had contracted with him 
for the purchase of their plantations and re- 
ceived bonds for the consideration money. 
They had ascertained b}^ computation, that 
the extent of his claim was more than his 
patent contained, and the}^ requested him to 
have his lines marked, which he refused to 
do. They procured an attested copy of the 
courses of his tract from the land office at 
Annapolis, and. though opposed by him, a 
surveyor ran the lines sufficiently to show- 
that several plantations he had sold were 
without the bounds of his Maryland patent. 

John Digges' application to 

Pennsylvania Pennsylvania office was in 

Survey. I743. which seems not to 

have succeeded. He then, 
in 1745, obtained a warrant of resurvey 
from the ]\Iarvland office and took in bv it 



the plantations left out in the original sur- 
vey, including several tracts for which war- 
rants had been granted by the proprietaries 
of Pennsylvania, some of which had been 
patented. Digges, however, contended that 
he had only marked the true courses of the 
land that had been granted to him, and he 
proposed the sale of the lands included in 
his resurvey. The people complained, and 
wanted a Pennsylvania surve3ror to ascer- 
tain and mark the lines. Cookson wrote 
that it would pa}^ the proprietors to have 
this done. There was no doubt about the 
resurvey taking in lands not included in his 
first survey, but Digges contended that his 
original warrant was for 10,000 acres of 
land and he had located it, and that the 
mistakes of the surveyor, in not including 
all his settlements, and giving him his full 
quantit}^, should not deprive him of his 
original right of claim and possession by 
virtue of his Maryland warrant. 

The facts were these (as appeared after- 
ward in a judicial determination of the 
question in the case of the lessee of Thomas 
Lilly against George Kitzmiller, before Jus- 
tices Shippen and Yeates, of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania, tried at York in 
May, 1791) : The instructions of Lord Balti- 
more to Charles Carroll, his agent, dated 
September 12, 1712, showed the mode of 
assigning warrants, wherein he directed 
that in each surve}^ the boundary alone 
should be marked, and the courses and 
distances specified in the return of the sur- 
vey, as the fairest mode and the best calcu- 
lated to prevent civil suits. It appears that 
Edward Stevenson, Deputy Surveyor of 
Maryland, did not return the survey actu- 
ally made by him on the ground. The 
10,000 acres were really contained within 
the lines of the lands run by Stevenson, in- 
cluding the lands in question, and upon 
making his plate and finding the figure to 
be very irregular, he got displeased and 
declared he would not cast up the contents, 
or return it in that form, and then he re- 
duced a number of lines into one, struck off 
five or six angles in different places, and 
made a new plate of the whole tracts differ- 
ing from the courses and distances run on 
the land. Of 270 courses contained in the 
field notes, which were for several years in 
his possession, he left out about 150 of 
them, and these notes were afterward de- 

livered to John Digges, the patentee. The 
irregularity of the tract, it will be remem- 
bered, is mentioned in the Pennsylvania ap- 
plication and Digges' claims were not with- 
out foundation, and all his land would have 
been secured to him under the Pennsylvania 
system of making proprietary surveys. 
That is, trees were marked, and where there 
were no trees or natural boundaries, arti- 
ficial marks were set up to distinguish the 
survey. " The Maryland surveys," as the 
court said, " were merely ideal, precisely 
fixed on paper alone. No trees ■ were 
marked except the beginning boundary." 

Lord Baltimore's instructions of 1712 
showed his intentions, and that he was in- 
fluenced only by the courses and distances 
returned. The survey was ambulatory, not 
confined to a certain spot of land, but was 
governed by the variation of the compass 
and was continually shifting. The courses 
and distances returned formed the survey, 
and determined on an exact measurement, 
the particular lands granted as often as they 
were run. The courses and distances were 
alone binding on the proprietor and conse- 
quently on the patentee. Any circum- 
stances shown could not establish a title to 
lands without the limits of the original sur- 
vey as returned. Settlers could have 
bought lands from Digges even within the 
resurvey and acquired title by possession 
and improvements, but all this had now 
been judicially determined. Unfortunately 
for Digges, his resurvey had been made 
after the Royal Order, and was ineffectual 
as against the Pennsylvania settlers. There 
were other facts that gave color to his claim 
at the time. 

John Leman, Sr., first settled on 
Disputed the lands in controversy under 
Titles. John Digges. He declared to 
Digges, in 1752, that he had set- 
tled on the same under a Pennsjdvania 
right. But in the year 1736 he had agreed 
with Digges for 100 acres of land and had 
received orders from him to his agent to 
survey the same. John Leman, Sr., con- 
tinued there for some time, and had a son 
born on the land, and afterward sold his im- 
provements to Martin Kitzmiller, who, in 
1738, came to live on the land. In 1733 
Robert Owings was directed by John 
Digges to lay out and dispose of sundry 
parcels of land, which he did. The lines 


run did not extend beyond the limits of the 
first survey, and the lands laid out for John 
Leman and others were really in the origi- 
nal sur\-ey of Digges' Choice, except a few 
corners, and Edward Stevenson actually 
omitted part of the lines run by him. 
Thomas Prather executed the warrant of 
resurvey, and the orders from Digges were 
to run the old lines as nearly as possible, 
and to survey the 10,000 acres which were 
actually included in the lines run by Steven- 
son. In fact, then, the land had been lo- 
cated under the warrant by a proper sur- 
vey, and, therefore, John Digges addressed 
to the governor of Maryland a remon- 
strance on complaint of disturbances made 
by him on the border, contending that the 
surveyor omitted lines actually run by him 
and settlements made by him within his 
tract. In this remonstrance he complained 
that Nicholas Forney _and Martin Ullery 
had trespassed on part of his land and de- 
stroyed the growing timber, for which he 
had sued them. These men, at Digges" suit, 
were arrested by the sheriff of Baltimore 
County, and were rescued by Adam Forney, 
father of Nicholas. 

It appears by a letter of Adam Forney's 
on the 25th of April, 1746, that the sheriff 
took his two prisoners to the house of 
Adam Forney, who asked him by what 
authority he arrested these men, and 
offered to be bound for their appearance at 
court if they owed any money. The reply 
was that they should give their bond to 
Digges for the land or depart from it. 
Adam said that the men had taken up the 
land five years before from the proprietaries 
at Philadelphia and it had been surveyed for 
them. He ordered the two men to return 
to their habitation. The sheriff drew his 
sword and Forney's part}' drew theirs, 
whereupon the sheriff and Digges fled. 
(Pennsylvania Archives, Series i. Vol. 2, p. 
686.) » Consequently in the month of Feb- 
ruary. 1747, Adam Forney was arrested at 
his house by an under sheriff", and posse, 
from Maryland, armed with clubs, and was 
carried off to the Baltimore jail, for resist- 
ing offfcers of the law. This raised a ques- 
tion of jurisdiction. Secretary Peters 
wrote to Thomas Cookson to go to Adam 
Forney, with papers directed to Mr. Calder. 
who was to defend him " at the Supreme 
Court in a writ served on him manifestlv 

within this province, and as the affair may 
greatly aft'ect our proprietor, the whole will 
turn on this single point — whether the place 
where .\dam Forney was arrested be 'or be 
not within our province." He then says 
that Forney must take along with him two 
witnesses, at least, to Annapolis, who could 
swear that the place where he was arrested 
was within our province, and at some 
distance from Digges' Choice. The ex- 
penses were to be paid by the government, 
which also undertook to pay the lawyers. 
He further wrote that the attorney-general 
could not go to Annapolis, but he had given 
all necessary directions to Mr. Calder. The 
letter to Calder stated that as John Digges 
had thought proper to execute a writ of the 
Supreme Court of Maryland against Adam 
Forney, within the jurisdiction of this prov- 
ince, Richard Peters desired to retain Cal- 
der for Adam Forney, and would send by 
the first good hand two pistols. Mr. Tilgh- 
man was also to be retained. These law- 
3'ers were to defend Adam Forney in such 
a manner so that there might be an appeal 
to the King in council. It turned out, how- 
ever, by the witnesses who were to be se- 
cured for Forney, and who were reported to 
be intelligent men who spoke English well, 
that the spot which Adam Forney and his 
son occupied was actually within Digges' 
old survey and patented land. The engage- 
ment of Calder, therefore, on behalf of the 
proprietaries of Pennsylvania, was re- 
scinded, and Forney, after a rebuke, was left 
to defend his own case. 

Another incident in this case may be no- 
ticed. At a meeting of the Provincial 
Council, held at Philadelphia, on the 17th of 
March, 1748, it was reported by an express 
from Thomas Cookson that Adam Forney 
was shot dead by a drunken Indian, as he 
stood at his own door. The Indian was 
seized and taken before Justice George 
Swope, at York, and there detained until 
the governor should give orders as to what 
should be done wdth him. The trouble 
arose from the fact occurring within the 
lines of Digges' patent, and the attorney- 
general had to be consulted on the question 
of jurisdiction. In the meantime the report 
was contradicted. Forney had been shot 
but recovered, so nothing further was done. 

In 1749 a petition was presented to Gov- 
ernor Hamilton, signed by Henrv Sell and 



thirteen others, praying for relief. They 
were inhabitants of the Conewago Settle- 
ment and Digges had threatened to sue 
them, unless they would pay him lOO 
pounds, Mar3dand currency. He had mort- 
gaged his land to Charles Carroll and Squire 
Dulaney, and they represented themselves 
in danger of being carried to Marjdand, and 
there confined and be obliged to quit their 
plantations. (Pennsylvania Archives, ist 
series. Vol. 2, page 28.) 

These troubles continued to 

Shooting disturb the settlers on Digges' 

of Dudley Choice and claim the attention 

Digges. of the Governor and Council, 

without any result, until the 
killing of Dudley Digges, which occurred 
on the 26th of February, 1752. In conse- 
quence of this disaster John Digges pre- 
sented a petition to Benjamin Tasker, 
President of Maryland, representing that 
his son had been murdered within the limits 
of that province b_v Martin Kitzmiller, his 
son Jacob and others of his family, and that 
the 27th day of April had been appointed 
for the trial at York. This was communi- 
cated to Governor Hamilton, of Pennsyl- 
vania, who answered that he had " carefully 
examined into the unhappy affair and had 
found that Jacob Kitzmiller had killed the 
deceased, Dudley Digges, to the northward 
of the Temporary Line," and " that he is 
now imprisoned at York to receive his trial 
for an offense committed in Pennsylvania. 
There was a mistake as to the time of the 
trial, and on the claim of jurisdiction. It 
was requested that the trial should be de- 
layed a reasonable time." The reply of 
President Tasker contains an elaborate 
argument in behalf of the Maryland claim 
to jurisdiction, and enclosed affidavits as to 
the facts already mentioned about the set- 
tlement of John Leman and the surveyor, 
Robert Owings. The Council on the 27th 
of September, 1752, after hearing, debating 
and considering the premises, were of the 
opinion that the possession of Digges or his 
tenants, at the time of the Royal Order, of 
the land where the crime was committed, 
was not held by any warrant or patent, and 
notice was given President Tasker that the 
court for the trial of the case would be held 
at York, on the 30th day of October, where 
persons authorized by the Maryland gov- 
ernment mav lav before the Grand and Petit 

juries all legal proof of jurisdiction. On 
the 30th day of October, 1752, the attorney- 
general of Maryland, H. Darnall, appeared 
and made a petition to the Judges of Oyer 
and Terminer and Jail Delivery, then sitting 
at York, stating that by the authority of the 
President of Maryland in council, he at- 
tended the court and was expressly charged 
to insist that the trial of Jacob Kitzmiller 
be held in Maryland, where the act was 
committed and not in Pennsylvania. With 
this argument — that the aforesaid Dudley 
Digges was killed at a place surveyed under 
a Maryland warrant before the date of the 
said Royal Order of 1738, and possessed 
under a Maryland right, and that no atone- 
ment or other pretext of Martin Kitzmiller, 
or any other person or persons after the 
date of said order, will prevent or take away 
the right of the said Proprietor of Mary- 
land, or can in the Jeast hinder the force, 
effect and operation of his Majesty's most 
gracious intentions. (Penna. Archives, 
Series i, Vol. 2, p. 93.) 

Gov. Hamilton had been furnished by 
President Tasker with exemplified copies of 
the warrants, surveys and patents which 
had been granted to John Digges, and it ap- 
peared that the place where Jacob Kitz- 
miller killed Dudley Digges was in a tract 
of vacant land that lay to the northward of 
the Temporary Line and which had been 
granted to Digges in the year 1745, in ex- 
press violation of the Royal Order. These 
exemplified copies were by order of the 
governor produced at the court of Oyer and 
Terminer, held by the Supi'cme judges, at 
York, at the trial of Jacob Kitzmiller and 
his father, who were thereupon acquitted. 
It appeared from the evidence that the 
killing of Dudle}^ Digges was an accident. 
At least the doubt as to willful homicide 
was sufficient to acquit. It was occasioned 
by an attempt to arrest Martin Kitzmiller 
at the suit of John Digges in a Mafyland 
affair. This was resisted and in struggle 
for a gun, held by Jacob Kitzmiller, it was 
discharged and fatally wounded Dudley 
Digges. (Penna. Archives, ist Series, Vol. 
2, pages 76-83.) By the admitted construc- 
tion of the Royal Order the territory within 
the limits of Digges' patent, although four 
miles north of the Temporary Line, was 
under the jurisdiction of Maryland. Hence, 
in this case, the act committed being in ter- 



ritory outside of his patent A\as under the 
jurisdiction of Pennsylvania. 

The shooting of Dudley Digges 

Results in 1752 was one of the lament- 

of the able incidents of the settlement 

Homicide, of this region, and it served not 

only to excite animosity among 
the settlers under Penn and Lord Balti- 
more, but also between the two govern- 
ments which then represented those two in- 
terests. (Those who desire to learn the pre- 
cise use which was made of it, can find much 
on the subject in Vol. 2 of the Pennsylvania 
Archives, and Vol. 5 of the Colonial Rec- 
ords.) The Digges were from Prince 
George's County, Maryland; the Kitzmil- 
lers were Germans, and were naturalized 
citizens of the Province of Pennsylvania. 
Jacob Kitzmiller, the emigrant, arrived in 
this province not later than the spring of 
1736. Martin Kitzmiller built a log mill on 
the Little Conewago in 1739. It soon be- 
came one of the best known mills west of 
the Susquehanna, as it was on the line of 
the old provincial road from Philadelphia 
through Lancaster and York to Virginia. 
He enlarged it with a brick addition in 1755. 
Between these two dates occurred the 
tragic event which so seriously disturbed 
the relations of the two provinces. Exist- 
ing documents show that Kitzmiller got a 
warrant for this land from the Penns in 
1747 and a patent from them in 1759; and 
that with the exception of one year, it re- 
mained in the occupancy of the family for 
106 years, or down to 1844. There was no 
doubt of the fact of the killing. There was 
the usual difference about the circum- 
stances. Maryland authorities denounced it 
as ' cruel murder," as a ' wicked act,' as due 
to ' old Kitzmiller's artifices ' to get pos- 
session of land known at the time to be 
taken up and held under Maryland, and to 
his ' practices,' which gave Digges an ex- 
cuse for using force, and they resolutely de- 
manded possession of the bodies of the 
prisoners that they might be tried in Mary- 
land. The Pennsylvania authorities refused 
to consider the act ' cruel murder ' in ad- 
vance of a 'legal trial;' held that the act 
was committed to the northward of the 
Temporary Line and within the jurisdiction 
of Pennsylvania; and said that if done 
within the limits of Digges' right to lands, 
that fact being capable of proof by actual 

survey, the Court at York would consider 
all " legal proofs to show that the jurisdic- 
tion belongs to the Lord Proprietor of 
Maryland," and would either hold or sur- 
render them, according to such proof. This 
court was so held, in the fall of 1752, in a 
private house in York. The attorney- 
general of the respective provinces attended 
— Tench Francis for Pennsylvania, Henry 
Darnall for Maryland. The Chief Justice of 
the Province of Pennsylvania presided, the 
two associates assisted. The secretary of 
the province, Richard Peters, also attended 
and was a witness. Immediately on his re- 
turn to Philadelphia, Mr. Peters wrote to 
the Penns in England a full account of this 
noted trial. 

John Digges was a lineal de- 

Digges' scendant of Sir Dudley 

Descendants. Digges, who lost his life in 

the service of King Charles 
I, of England. Edward Digges, son of Sir 
Dudley, was one of the early governors in 
the Province of Maryland. William, the 
son of Edward, settled in Maryland. Ig- 
natius Digges, one of the sons of William, 
was the father of John Digges, who ob- 
tained the M^aryland grant for 10,000 acres, 
afterward decided to be in Pennsylvania. 
When he obtained the grant he paid 184 
pounds and 19 shillings as pre-emption 
money, a yearly rental of 13 pounds, 12 shil- 
lings, II pence, in silver or gold. Ignatius 
Digges was a brother-in-law of Charles 
Carroll, of Maryland. Charles Carroll was 
an uncle of Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, 
signer of the Declaration. The latter was 
therefore a cousin of John Digges. 

John Digges soon after he obtained his 
grant, settled upon his land and built a 
house along the present line of the Hanover 
and Littlestown turnpike, known at present 
as the Stoner farm, where the Conewago 
Creek crosses the turnpike. Soon after his 
son Dudley was killed in 1752, John Digges 
seems to have returned to Maryland, where 
he died intestate about 1760. He left to 
survi\'e him, three sons, Edward, William 
and Henry. Edward, his oldest son, was 
his heir-at-law. When Edward died in 
1769, in accordance with the wishes of his 
father, he bequeathed to his two brothers 
each one-third of all his property in Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania. The other third of 
his estate descended to his son, John 



Digges, his daughter EHzabeth, who mar- 
ried AA'ilfred Neale, and Eleanor, who died 
unmarried. (Edward Digges' will is re- 
corded in St. Mary's County, Maryland.) 

In 1775 William Digges, Henry Digges, 
brothers of Edward deceased, and Wilfred 
Neale and Elizabeth, his wife, and Eleanor 
Digges, transferred by a deed in trust to 
Henry Neale " with divers other tracts of 
land in Maryland, all that tract of land 
called Digges' Choice, situated in York 
County, Pa." On April 15, 1776, Henry 
Neale sold the entire right of the heirs of 
John Digges, the elder, to Jesse AVharton, 
his heirs and assigns forever. (This trans- 
action is recorded in Book D. A'V., folio 521, 
St. Mary's County, Md.) October 25, 
1778, Jesse AVharton sold to Thomas Lilly 
all rights and titles of the heirs of John 
Digges in the tract known as Digges' 


Between 1736 and 1740 settlements were 
made on a large tract of land in the western 
portion of the county of York, laid out for 
the proprietaries' use, and named the 
Manor of Maske. AVhen the provincial 
surveyors arrived for the purpose of run- 
ning its lines, the settlers upon it, not un- 
derstanding, or not approving the purpose, 
drove them off by force. Some of the set- 
tlers had taken out regular warrants, 
others had licenses, and some were there 
probably without either. As a result, the 
lines were not run until January, 1766, and 
the return of them was made on the 7th of 
April, 1768, to the land office. 

The manor as then svu^veyed was nearly 
a perfect oblong. The southern boundary 
line was 1,887 perches; the northern 1,900 
perches; the western line, 3,842 perches; 
the eastern, 3,954. The manor was nearly 
six miles wide, and about twelve miles long. 
The southern boundary was Mason and 
Dixon's line, and the northern was about 
midway between Mummasburg and 
Arendtsville, skirting a point marked on 
the county as Texas, on the road from Get- 
tysburg to Middletown. It did not quite 
reach the Conewago Creek. The manor 
included the sites of Gettysburg and Mum- 
masburg, the hamlet of Seven Stars, and 
probably McKnightstowm, all of the town- 
ship of Cumberland, except a small strip of 

half a mile along the Marjdand line, nearly 
the whole of Freedom, about one-third of 
Highland, the southeast corner of Franklin, 
the southern section of Butler, the western 
fringe of Straban, and a smaller fringe on 
the west side of Mount Joy. Gettysburg is 
situated north of the centre, and on the 
eastern edge of the manor, and is thus 
about five and a half miles from the north- 
ern, and seven and a half from the southern 
boundary. The manor was separated by a 
narrow strip on the west from Carroll's 
Tract, or " Carroll's Delight," as it was 
originally called, and which was surveyed 
under Marjdand authority on the third of 
April, 1732. It was patented August 8, 
1735, to Charles, Mary and Eleanor Car- 
roll, whose agents made sales of warrants 
for many 3rears, supposing that the land lay 
within the grant of Lord Baltimore, and in 
the Count}' of Frederick. As originally 
surveyed Carroll's Delight contained 5,000 

A special act of Assembly was passed on 
the 23d of March, 1797, relating to the 
Manor of Maske. It recited that " certain 
citizens had settled themselves and made 
improvements on the lands comprehended 
within its limits previously to the warrant 
issued for the survey of the same, and with- 
out notice that any such measure was in 
contemplation," and as doubts had arisen 
whether the said survey was regular, " and 
the said settlers and inhabitants in whose 
favor the said exceptions might have been 
urged, waived the same, and had agreed or 
are in treaty with, and ready to conclude a 
purchase for John Penn and Richard Penn, 
Esqs. Therefore, to remove any uneasi- 
ness in the minds of the said inhabitants 
that the committee may claim the land to 
encourage agriculture and improvement, 
by sending titles free from dispute and re- 
move any prejudice against the rights de- 
rived from the late proprietaries, the lands 
marked by the survey of the manor in the 
month of January, 1766, shall be free and 
clear of any claim of the Commonwealth." 
In 1800 all this territory was included in 
the new County of Adams. 

The Manor of the Maske was originally 
settled by an intelligent class of English 
speaking people who came to this region 
direct from the north of Ireland. The 
names of these earlv settlers can be found 



in the article on the " Scotch-Irish " in this 


The surveys of Keith's Newberry Tract 
of 1,400 acres and of the original Springetts- 
bin-y JNIanor of 70,000 acres in 1722 were 
made by authority of the Province of 
Pennsylvania before the boundary line be- 
tween Pennsylvania and Maryland had 
been decided upon. In 1727 John Digges 
obtained a patent to survey a tract of 10,- 
000 acres around the site of Hanover. He 
gave bonds of agreement to early settlers 
until he was empowered to grant deeds to 
lands upon his tract known as " Digges' 
Choice." The settlement on this Maryland 
grant and the encroachment of Marylanders 
on lands in the southeastern section of the 
county gave rise to contentions. 

December 5, 1738, Governor Thomas, of 
Pennsylvania, reported to the council of 
his province that he had received a letter 
from Governor Ogle, of Maryland, on the 
26th of November, informing him that he 
had appointed Col. Levin Gale and Samuel 
Chamberlain to run the line agreed upon, 
and confirmed by His Majesty's order, as 
provisional and temporary limits between 
the two provinces, and that he had ap- 
pointed Lawrence Growden, Esq., and 
Richard Peters, as commissioners, and 
Benjamin Eastburn, as surveyor, on the 
part of Pennsylvania, to join them in run- 
ning the said line. 

From the report it appears that the Com- 
missioners met on the 5th of December, 
attended by the Mayor, several Aldermen 
and some of the principal citizens of Phila- 
delphia, when the southern part of the city 
was ascertained, to the satisfaction of the 
Commissioners on both sides, by the 
declaration of the Mayor and Aldermen, by 
the original draft of the city, by the situa- 
tion of the dock, and other natural marks, 
and by the testimonies of several aged in- 
habitants, all concurring that a certain post, 
then showed the Commissioners, stood in 
the most southern part of the city. 

It was agreed to settle the varia- 

The tion of the compass by fixing a 

'Work meridian line by an observation to 

Begun, be made when the pole star above 

the pole and the first star in the 

tail of the Great Bear under the pole should 

be in the same vertical circle, or in a per- 
pendicular line, one above the other, and a 
meridian line was carefully fixed according 
to that rule and being tried by a theodolite 
in the possession of Benjamin Eastburn, 
the variation was found to be 5 degrees 25 
minutes. They commenced to run the line 
with a westerly variation of 5 degrees 25 
minutes and the line was run to a fence be- 
longing to Israel Pemberton, about two 
miles from the place of beginning. 

They met again on the 12th of April, and 
the surveyors and chain carriers were quali- 
fied by oath or affirmation. They tested 
instruments at the post where they had 
begun before, and found the theodolite of 
Eastburn to have the same direction and its 
variation unchanged, and on the ne.xt dav, 
the 13th of April, met at Israel Pember- 
ton's fence, and all parties being satisfied, 
by the marks that were left on that fence 
and on the trees near it, that that was the 
place where they left off on the nth of De- 
cember, the surveyors proceeded on the 
line. On the 22d of April, at a distance of 
thirty-one miles due west from the place of 
beginning, it was agreed that the line was 
now run enough to the west for avoiding 
the large waters of Brandywine and Chris- 
tiana Creeks, and that the surveyors should 
begin to set off the south line of fifteen 
miles and a quarter. Then a dispute arose 
concerning the manner of measuring the 
fifteen miles and a quarter. The Commis- 
sioners of Maryland insisted that the line 
should be run on the surface of the earth, 
without any allowance for the unevenness 
thereof, and the Commissioners for Penn- 
sylvania insisting that the said line should 
be an horizontal line, that is to say, that 
the altitude of the hills should be taken and 
a full and just allowance made for them. 
Both parties refused to run the line in any 
other manner than wdiat they had proposed. 
The Commissioners of iNIaryland declared 
their resolution to proceed ex parte. On 
the next day being of the opinion that a 
separation of the Commissioners and the 
running of two dift'erent lines would be at- 
tended with all the evil consequences for 
the prevention whereof his Majesty granted 
his order, it was at last agreed that the line 
should be run on the surface, and that an 
allowance of twenty-five perches should be 
made for the altitude of the hills. 



On the 4th of May, 1739, 

Reach the the surveyors proceeded on 

Susquehanna, the west line to a field in 

the possession of Robert 
Patterson, at the distance of about a mile 
and a half from the River Susquehanna, and 
on information that there was no place on 
the western side of that river, but what 
would give great difftculty to the surveyors 
in measuring the half mile north, it was 
judged proper to set it off, and measure it 
at this place, that there might be no delay 
to the work on that account, and accord- 
ingly the surveyors ^et off and measured 
160 perches due north, and then returned a 
due west line and proceeded thereon to a 
distance of about a quarter of a mile from 
the river. On the next day, the surveyors 
proceeded on the west line and ran the 
same to the western bank of the Susque- 
hanna, to a hickory tree which was ordered 
to be marked with four notches on each 
side, and it was agreed that the west line 
down so far south as fourteen miles and 
three-quarters of a mile south of the lati- 
tude of the most southern part of the city 
of Philadelphia, should begin at that hick- 
ory tree. On the 6th of May, Levin Gale 
informed the Commissioners that he had, 
since he came to Philadelphia, on this line, 
received an account of the death of a son, 
and that by a special messenger, he had 
just now received a further account that 
one of his daughters was dangerously ill, 
and his wife and family in very great dis- 
tress on that occasion, and proposed an ad- 
journment to a further day, for that he was 
rendered incapable to give such attention 
to the proceedings on the temporary line 
as his duties required, and therefore de- 
clared he would proceed thereon no fur- 
ther, and Chamberlain declared that he ap- 
prehended he had no authority to proceed 
otherwise than in conjunction with Gale, 
and likewise declined going further with 
the line. AVhereupon the Commissioners of 
Pennsylvania said that, as Colonel Gale had 
on Friday, the 27th of April, received the 
account of his son's death, and as they were 
then apprehensive it would affect him so 
much as to render him incapable of pro- 
ceeding on the line, and might occasion 
separation of the Commissioners, they had 
at that time written an account of it to their 
Governor, requesting his further orders in 

case it should prove as they feared, and had 
received an answer from his honor, that he 
had sent them a new commission (in case 
of a separation of the Commissioners) to 
proceed ex parte to finish the temporary 
line, for that the peace of the government 
depended thereon. They, the Commission- 
ers, therefore declared that they could not 
adjourn, but as they judged it absolutely 
necessary for the peace of both govern- 
ments, that the line should be forthwith 
completed without any delay, and as they 
had a commission for that purpose, they 
would proceed ex parte and continue the 
west line, so run as aforesaid to the marked 
hickory tree, on the western bank of the 
Susquehanna, and extend it from that tree 
as far as the peace of the government shall 
make it necessary. 

The minutes of the proceedings of the 
Commission of both provinces while in con- 
junction, show that on the daj^ before the 
separation of Gale and Chamberlain it was 
unanimously agreed that the west line 
down so far south as fourteen miles and 
three-quarters of a mile south of the lati- 
tude of the most southern part of the city 
of Philadelphia, as mentioned in the King's 
order in council to be the temporary limits 
between the two provinces on the other 
side of the Susquehanna should begin at a 
certain hickory tree on the western side of 
the said river, marked for that purpose by 
order of the said Commissioners, with four 
notches on each side. 

The Pennsylvania Commis- 

The sioners and the surveyors, 

Survey making that hickory tree the 

Completed, place of beginning, did, on 

Tuesday, the 8th day of May, 
run a due west line toward the River Poto- 
mac, with the very same instrument and 
variation of 5 degrees 25 minutes with 
which the line on the east side of the Sus- 
quehanna, in conjunction with the Mary- 
land Commissioners, was run, and causing 
trees that fell in or near the line to be 
marked and blazed in the very same man- 
ner as Avas observed in that line. The sur- 
veyors proceeded day by day, and extended 
the line to the top of the most western hill 
of a range called the Kittochtinny Hills, 
distant from the place of beginning about 
eighty-eight statute miles. And as this hill 
was one of the boundaries of the lands pur- 



chased by the honorable proprietaries from 
the Indians in 1736, and no persons were 
permitted to settle beyond that range of 
hills, they judged the line to be run far 
enough to settle the jurisdiction of the two 
provinces, and to answer all the purposes 
of their commission, and therefore ordered 
the surveyors to end there, and several trees 
to be marked with the initial letters of the 
names of the honorable proprietaries, as is 
usual at the close of boundary lines. 

The Commissioners wrote, the 6th of 
May, 1739, to Governor Thomas, that the 
Maryland Commissioners, joining with 
them, ascertained the lines to all intents 
and purposes, and made it impossible for 
Lord Baltimore ever to controvert it so far 
as it is run, or to propose any other method 
of running the remaining part than that 
which is taken by them. They gained no 
perches at the end of the west line, so that 
the line at the distance of fourteen miles 
and three-quarters from Philadelphia, on 
the other side of the Susquehanna, was but 
fifty perches more north than the end of the 
Jersey line. Colonel Gale, as Chief Justice, 
had given them a warrant directed to the 
sheriff and constables of Baltimore County 
and Prince George's County, to take up any 
persons that should offer to disturb them, 
and had promised to send the Governor's 
special protection to a place at the distance 
of thirt}'' miles off by a special messenger. 
(I Archives, 556-575.) 


The point or corner on the west bank of 
the Susquehanna, to which the surveyors 
ran on the 5th of May, 1739, described as a 
hickory tree, and marked with four notches 
on each side, and from which it was unani- 
mously agreed that the west line down so 
far south as fourteen miles and three-quar- 
ters of a mile south of the latitude of the 
most southerly part of the city of Philadel- 
phia should begin, is now in the State of 
Maryland, the temporary line at that 
point having been fixed seventy-two 
perches more southerly than the present 
boundary line. This is ascertained from 
several deeds and surveys (furnished by the 
late Levi Cooper, of Peach Bottom Town- 
ship), from which it appears that a tract of 
land, called the Paw Paw Bottom, extend- 
ing along the Susquehanna River — 449 

perches — was sur\'eyed on the 25th of De- 
cember, 1753, to* Alexander McCandless, 
and for which a patent was granted to him 
on the 31st of May, 1760, recorded in Phila- 
delphia. This tract of land, after the death 
of McCandless, was conveyed by his execu- 
tor, James McCandless, to Thomas Cooper 
and John Boyd, by deed of the 7th of Feb- 
ruary, 1767, containing in acres of land 
situated in Peach Bottom Township. Ac- 
cording to the patent, the tract began at a 
marked hickory in the Temporary Line on 
the Susquehanna River, and running from 
thence by the said line, north eighty-five de- 
grees west, thirty-one perches to a marked 
hickory corner of land, patented under 
Maryland, called Cooper's Addition, thence 
by several courses and distances north to a 
marked black oak, a corner of land patented 
under Maryland, called Elisha's Lot, thence 
by several courses and distances north to a 
marked walnut tree, and by a tract of land 
patented under Maryland to John Cooper, 
called the Deserts of Arabia; thence to two 
poplars on the Susquehanna River, and 
down the river by the several courses 
thereof 499 perches to the place of begin- 
iTing — the hickorjr tree on the temporary 

Adjoining this land of McCandless, there 
was surveyed to Robert Gordon, on the 22d 
of July, 1 77 1, a tract of land of which Wal- 
ter Robinson was entitled to part. The 
draft of this land thus describes the lines : 
Beginning at a point corner of land of Alex- 
ander McCandless along the Province Line, 
north eighty-eight degrees, west 133 
perches, and on the south along the Tem- 
porary Line, north eighty-six degrees, west 
ninety-three perches, and between the 
Province and Temporary Lines south 
ten and a half degrees, east seventy- 
two perches adjoining the property of 
Alexander McCandless. By the sur- 
vey of George Stevenson, made the 20th 
of December, 1753. from the Temporary 
Line, which is fixed by the hickory tree 
corner, there is a course north twenty de- 
grees, east fifty-eight perches to the sup- 
posed Maryland Line. And in a draft made 
bv Thomas G. Cross, on the 3d and 4th days 
of April, 1874, of the land patented to Mc- 
Candless, the course and distance from the 
Temporary Line to Mason and Dixon's 
Line are north twentv-one degrees, east 


fifty-eight perches. The discrepanc}' here 
may be owing to the uncertainty of the 
position of the temporary line. Tlie older 
draft is to be preferred because the hickory 
for the beginning of the Temporary Line 
was then a fixed point, and since then the 
Pennsylvania Canal has been constructed 
along the river, erasing that corner. 

The Temporary Line, from the course of 
it, as compared with the fixed boundary 
line, would cross the latter before it went 
beyond the limits of York County. The re- 
port of the Commissioners as above given, 
says, " that they gained no perches, so that 
the line on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna was but fifty rods more north than 
the end of the Jersey line." 

The Maryland surveys were very early 
made and lands patented. The Deserts of 
Arabia and Elisha's Lot were situated re- 
spectively one and two miles above the true 
boundary line. 

From the fancy of the early settlers in 
that section, or by Maryland custom, per- 
haps, names were given to the respective 
tracts of land taken up, such as those men- 
tioned, and Morgan's Delight, Noble's 
Craft, Jones' Chance, AValter's Disappoinf- 
ment, Cooper's Pleasant Hills, Eager's De- 
sign, Mary Lot, Buck's Lodge Right, Stall- 
worth Right, Croomay's Intrusion, and 
other names, assigned possibly by public 
opinion of the venture. 

The completion of the Temporary Line 
in 1739 to the top of the mountain which 
formed the western limits of Cumberland 
County, did not end the controversy be- 
tween the provinces of Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania. John Digges, who had been given 
a grant of 10,000 acres around the site of 
Hanover, in 1729, had given bonds of agree- 
ment to numerous settlers upon his tract. 
Maryland titles had also been given before 
1739 to lands now situated in the southern 
part of York County. These titles were the 
cause of constant trouble which continued 
until Mason and Dixon's line was run in 
1768. Even within the region of Spring- 
ettsbury Manor, disputes arose in reference 
to land titles. 

Nicholas Perie was one of the 

The Germans who had been con- 

Case of firmed in the possession of his 
Nicholas land by a grant from Thomas 
Perie. Penn, in the year 1736. This 

grant recited that sundry Germans had 
seated themselves b}' lea\-e of the pro- 
prietor on lands west of the Susque- 
hanna River, within the bounds of the 
]Manor of Springettsbury, and that a con- 
firmation of the persons seated on the same 
for their several tracts had been delayed by 
reason of the Five Nations, which had been 
released by deed of the i ith of October, 
1736, and Nicholas Perie had applied for a 
confirmation of 200 acres ; Thomas Penn 
certified under hand, that he would cause a 
patent to be dra\vn for the land, on the 
common terms, so soon as the quantity 
should be surveyed and returned. Perie 
had been arrested by a writ issued out of 
the Supreme Court of Maryland, for refus- 
ing to hold this land under Lord Baltimore, 
and on the arrival of the Royal Order, was 
discharged on his recognizance, at the same 
time that Cresap was set at liberty at Phila- 
delphia, by virtue of the said order. 

Charles Higginbotham, in the year 1748, 
made claim to the land in the possession of 
Nicholas Perie ; that on the 2d of May, 1737, 
there had been surveyed to him, by order 
from the land office of Maryland, a tract of 
land on the north side of the Codorus 
Creek, by metes and bounds containing 172 
acres. On the 5th of May, Lord Baltimore 
confirmed by patent the land to Higgin- 
botham. At the hearing before the Prov- 
incial Council, it appeared that Higgin- 
botham had never been in possession, nor 
any under him, and that he had never seen 
the land, but that Perie was arrested on the 
tract and carried to Annapolis jail for refus- 
ing to hold under Lord I5aItimore, though 
his land was surveyed by a Mar3dand war- 
rant. Colonel AVhite . testified to having 
made surveys at the instance of some Ger- 
mans who had obtained warrants from the 
land office at Annapolis, but did not re- 
member ever to have seen Perie. The Ger- 
mans, he said, after the survey of their 
lands refused to pay for them, being as they 
pretended within the Province of Pennsjd- 
vania, and Lord Baltimore gave him direc- 
tions to return the surveys of those lands to 
any person who would apply for them. 
Captain Higginbotham applied and Colonel 
\Miite returned the survey of this land to 
his use, and the patent issued. The council 
on the nth of April, 1748, were unani- 
mously of the opinion that the Royal Order 



absolutely, under the facts of the case, re- 
strained them from dispossessing Peine, and 
so Go\-ernor Ogle was informed by letter. 


The provisional arrangement under the 
order in 1738, \vas simply for the preserva- 
tion of the peace between the provinces. 
The pending proceedings in chancery re- 
sulted, May 17, 1750, in the decree of the 
Lord Chancellor, that the agreement of 
1732 shall be carried into specific execution. 
The Commissioners appointed by each 
party under this decree met on the 13th of 
November, 1750, and agreed on a centre in 
Newcastle. Delaware, from whence the 
twelve miles radius were to proceed. But 
a dispute arose concerning the mensuration 
of these twelve miles. The Commissioners 
of Lord Baltimore alleged that the miles 
ought to be measured superficially. The 
Penn's Commissioners alleged that consid- 
ering the various inequalities of the ground, 
such radius could not extend equally, con- 
sequently from them, no true arc of a circle 
could be found, and insisted upon geomet- 
rical and astronomical mensuration. Thus 
the proceedings of the Commissioners 
stopped and they wrote to their respective 
principals for further instructions relating 
to that point. 

In the meantime, Charles Calvert, the 
fourth Lord Baltimore, died, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Frederick, and there 
were further proceecVings in chancery, 
bill of review and supplemented bill. At 
length, on the 4th of July, 1760, the final 
agreement between the proprietaries of 
Pennsylvania and Maryland was executed. 
It recites the original charters to Lord 
Baltimore and William Penn, and refers to 
the very long litigation and contest which 
had subsisted from 1683, and the many 
orders in council pronounced relative 
thereto. The agreement of the loth of 
May, 1732, is given at length, and the de- 
cree of the Lord Chancellor and other pro- 
ceedings. And after its long recital says : 

" A\'hereas, the parties to these presents, 
Frederick, Lord Baltimore, and Thomas 
and Richard Penn, have come to an ami- 
cable agreement in manner as hereinafter 
mentioned," and then proceeds to describe 
and make provisions for fixing the circle 
and running the line, and provides for the 

attornment of the tenants and occupiers of 
the lands under the respective proprietors. 
This agreement of 1760 was enrolled in 
chancery in England. The original is now 
deposited with the secretary of the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania. 


The Commissioners appointed under this 
last agreement met at Newcastle, Delaware, 
the 19th of November, 1760, and entered 
upon their duties. From November, 1760, 
to the latter part of October, 1763, the 
Commissioners and surveyors were labor- 
ing in attempts to trace out the radius of 
twelve miles, and the tangent line from the 
middle point of the west line across the 
peninsula. As late as the 21st of October, 
1763, no practical solution of this problem 
had been eflected, though there was a close 
approximation to the true tangent. On the 
22d of October, 1763, the Pennsylvania 
Commissioners informed the ^^laryland 
Commissioners that they had lately re- 
ceived a letter from the proprietors of Penn- 
sylvania, dated the loth of August last, ac- , 
quainting them that they and Lord Balti- 
more had agreed wath two mathematicians 
or surveyors to come over and assist in 
running the lines agreed on in the original 
articles, who were to embark for Philadel- 
phia the latter part of August, and that 
their arrival might soon be expected. On 
the 1st of December, 1763, the articles of 
agreement were read between Lord Balti- 
more and Thomas and Richard Penn. and 
Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, ^\ilo 
superceded the former sur\-eyors in the 
marking out of the boundary lines. They 
immediately entered upon their duties, and 
were employed in tracing and marking the 
lines until the 26th of December, 1767, 
when they were honorably discharged. 

To ascertain the most southern point of 
the city of Philadelphia, the Mayor and Re- 
corder, and two of the city regulators, on 
the 3d of December, 1763, went with the 
Commissioners and iMason and Dixon to 
the street called Cedar or South Street, the 
south side of wdiich street the Mayor, Re- 
corder and regulators informed the Com- 
missioners to be the southern boundary of 
the limit of the city. By which information 
and a view of some old deeds of lots bound- 
ing on Cedar Street, and of a plate of the 


city, the Commissioners were satisfied that 
the north wall of a house, then occupied by 
Thomas Plumstead and Joseph Huddle, 
was the most southern part of the city of 
Philadelphia. The latitude of the north 
wall of this house was determined by Mason 
and Dixon from astronomical observations, 
in 1764, with a zenith sector, to be 39 de- 
grees, 56 minutes, 29.1 seconds. The point, 
fifteen English statute miles due south of 
that parallel, was computed to be in latitude 
39 degrees, 43 minutes, 18 seconds. This 
was computed b_y Colonel Graham, in 1850, 
from knowledge of the dimensions and fig- 
ure of the earth to be in latitude 39 degrees, 
'43 minutes, 26.3 seconds. From the north- 
ern extremity of the said due north line, a 
line was to be run due west, continuing 
upon a parallel of latitude until the western 
limits of Maryland and Pennsylvania should 
respectively be reached, which, in the case 
of Pennsylvania, was defined to be five de- 
grees of longitude west of the .Delaware 
River. On the 24th of November, 1764, the 
Commissioners agreed that the post set up 
by Mason and Dixon, and by them marked 
west, shall be deemed and accounted fifteen 
miles south of the parallel of the most 
southern bounds of the city of Philadelphia, 
and that Mason and Dixon shall be in- 
structed immediately to proceed in running 
the west line directed by the articles from 
the said post until it reaches the River Sus- 
quehanna, where an observation shall be 
made b}' them, and stones shall be set up 
and marked with the arms of Lord Balti- 
more on the one side and the arms of the 
proprietors of Pennsylvania on the other, 
as the articles require and direct. 

On the 17th of June, 1765, 

The Line the Commissioners gave 

West of the Mason and Dixon instruc- 

Susquehanna. tions to proceed with the 

running of the west line 
westward of the Susquehanna as far as the 
provinces of Maryland and Pennsylvania 
were settled and inhabited. The consent of 
the Indians had to be obtained to the line 
being continued. On the i6th of June, 1767, 
Sir William Johnson, his Majesty's agent 
for Indian affairs, had obtained the consent 
of the Indians to the tracing of the west 
line to its western extremity, that is to say, 
till it should reach to a distance of five de- 
grees of longitude west from the River 

Delaware. On the i8th of June 1767, the 
Commissioners, in giving the surveyors in- 
structions for continuing the west line, 
cautioned them in regard to a conciliatory 
and proper conduct toward the Indians. On 
December 25, 1767, the surveyors had ex- 
tended the parallel of latitude to the 
distance of 230 miles, 18 chains, 21 links 
from the beginning of said line, and 244 
miles, 38 chains, 36 links from the River 
Delaware near to a path called the Indian 
war-path, on the borders of a stream called 
Dunham's Creek, but that they were pre- 
vented by the Indians deputed to attend 
them by Sir William Johnson from continu- 
ing the said line to the end of five degrees of 
longitude (the western limits of the Prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania), which in the latitude 
of the said line they found to be 267 miles, 
58 chains, 90 links — the said Indians alleg- 
ing that they were instructed by their chiefs 
in council not to suft'er the said line to be 
run to the westward of the said war-path. 
Colonel Graham notes that, from better 
knowledge of the dimensions and figures of 
the earth, the five degrees of longitude 
should be computed to be equal to 266.31 
miles, or 266 miles, 24 chains, and 80 links. 
On the 26th, the Commissioners approved 
the conduct of the surveyors in desisting 
from running the parallel upon the opposi- 
tion made by the Indians ; and they agreed 
to discharge Mason and Dixon from their 
ser\-ice, they having finished the lines they 
had been sent over by the proprietors to 

The final report of the Commissioners 
was made to the proprietaries of the two 
provinces on the 9th of November, 1768, in 
which, among other things, in reference to 
the due east and west line fifteen miles due 
south of Philadelphia, they reported that 
they had extended the same 230 miles, 18 
chains, and 21 links due west from the place 
of beginning, and 244 miles, 38 chains, and 
36 links due west from the River Delaware, 
and should have continued the same to the 
western bounds of the province of Pennsyl- 
vania, but the Indians would not permit it. 
They marked, described and perpetuated 
the said west line, by setting up and erecting 
thereon posts of cut stone about four feet 
long and ten or twelve inches square, at the 
end of every mile, from the place of begin- 
ning to the distance of 132 miles, near the 



foot of a hill called and known by the name 
of Sideling Hill, every five miles stone 
having on the side facing" the north the arms 
of the said Thomas Penn and Richard Penn 
graved thereon, and on the side facing the 
south, the arms of Frederick, Lord Balti- 
more, graved thereon; and the other inter- 
mediate stones are graved with the letter 
P on the north side and the letter M on the 
south side. These stones were prepared in 
England, and sent over as the line pro- 
gressed. Thirty-nine of them were placed 
along the southern boundary of York 
County, and are mostly well preserved. 
They were of that species of limestone 
known as eolite. 

The country to the westward of Sideling 
Hill being so very mountainous as to render 
it in most places extremely difficult and ex- 
pensive, and in some impracticable, to con- 
vey stones or boundaries, they had marked 
and described the line to the top of the Alle- 
gheny ridge, which divides the waters run- 
ning into the Rivers Potomac and Ohio; 
they raised and erected thereon, on the tops 
and ridges of the mountains, heaps or piles 
of stones or earth from about three feet and 
a half to four yards in diameter at the bot- 
tom, and from six to seven feet in height; 
and that from the top of the said Alleghen}^ 
ridge westw-ard, as far as they continued the 
line, they set up posts at the end of every 
line, and raised around each post heaps or 
piles of stones or earth. 

During the administration 
Commissioners of \\'illiam F. Johnson, 
Appointed. elected Governor of Penn- 
sylvania in 1849, commis- 
sioners were appointed by the Gov- 
ernors of the States of Pennsyh'ania, 
Delaware and IMaryland to ascertain and 
refix the boundaries where those states 
join each other. Joshua P. Eyre w'as ap- 
pointed on the part of Pennsylvania ; 
George Read Riddle, on the part of Dela- 
ware ; Henry G. S. Key, on the part of 
Maryland, and Lieut. Col. James D. Gra- 
ham, of the United States Topographical 
Engineers, was detailed by the ^^'ar Depart- 
ment at the request of those states for that 
particular service. In their report they say 
that they saw that much science and many 
intricate mathematical problems were in- 
volved, that not only required the talents 
of men as Commissioners distinguished in 

the annals of our country, and surveyors to 
carry out the agreement of the proprietary 
governments of 1760, but finally enlisted 
the services of those distinguished mathe- 
maticians, Mason and Dixon. The report 
of Col. Graham, from which the preceding 
account is gathered, presented a general 
view of the scientific operations of Mason 
and Dixon, and of their predecessors, in 
tracing the various lines which constitute 
important portions of the boundaries of the 
states. He investigated the notes of Mason 
and Dixon, which were in the archives of 
the State of Maryland. 

The boundary Commissioners and Col. 
Graham proceeded to the northeast corner 
of Maryland, or point of intersection of the 
due north line w^ith the parallel of latitude 
fifteen miles south of the parallel of the 
most southern limit of Philadelphia. This 
point is in a deep ravine, on the margin of a 
small brook and near its source. The stone 
monument, with the arms of Lord Balti- 
more and Thomas and Richard Penn graven 
thereon, which had been placed by Commis- 
sioner Ewing, by order of the Board of 
Commissioners in 1768 to designate this 
point, was missing. From the tradition of 
the neighborhood, it appeared that some 
years ago after it had fallen nearly prostrate 
from its place, owing to the encroachment 
of the stream, upon whose margin it stood, 
some individual had taken it awa}' for a 
chimney piece. A stake was found firmly 
planted in the ground, which they were in- 
formed by the neighbors near by occupied 
its place. In examining" the tangent and 
curve the report sa}'s : "With a radius of 
twelve miles, such a curve is so flat that it is 
difficult in walking over ground intersected 
with forest timber, fences and other ob- 
structions to distinguish without the aid of 
instruments the deflections of the lines con- 
necting monuments on its circumference 
nearly a third of a mile apart." An impres- 
sion prevailed in the neighborhood that the 
stone originally planted at the point of in- 
tersection of the due north line w'ith the arc 
of the circle of twelve miles radius, cor- 
responding" with the true point of junction 
of the three states of Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land and Delaware. Avas also missing. The 
true position of the lost monument was 
found, and they marked and perpetuated it 
bv planting a new monument. In making 


the exca\-ation at the depth of about three 
feet below the surface a cut stone unmarked 
was found of precisely the same form, di- 
mensions and quality as the unmarked stone 
on the arc of the circle, and at the intersec- 
tion of the circle with the due north line. 
In turning to the proceedings of the Com- 
missioners under the dates of the 17th and 
1 8th of June, 1765. it was found that such a 
stone was placed by them to mark that 
point. It was not until the year 1768, that 
a second stone, marked with the arms of the 
proprietaries, was also placed at that point. 
It was within the memory of the neighbor- 
ing inhabitants that the stone which stood 
at this point in a tottering posture, to within 
a few years of 1849, bore the arms, so often 
described, upon it. The unmarked stone of 
1765 had, says the report, probably been 
buried at the base of the one bearing the 
arms, when the latter was placed at the 
same point by Commissioner Ewing, in 
1768. The evidence afforded by the disin- 
terment of the old stone showed that the 
point fixed upon was the northeast corner 
of Maryland, corresponding with that origi- 
nally established by Mason and Dixon. The 
new stone remarking this important point 
was planted with its base resting on each, 
about five feet below the surface of the 
ground, and its top rising about two feet 
above the ground. It is of cut granite and 
of the following dimensions, viz. : about 7 
feet long, and squares 16 by 18 inches. It 
is marked with the letter M on the south 
and west sides, and the letter P on the north 
and east sides. Under this letter, on the 
north side the date 1849 is engraved in deep 
cut figures. 

There were striking dis- 
Discrepancies crepancies between some of 
Observed. the measured distances in 
1849 and those of Mason 
and Dixon. In regard to Delaware, 
an impression prevailed among her citi- 
zens that a considerable portion of 
her territory had been abstracted by 
the curtailment of her rightful radius of 
twelve miles around Newcastle. It was de- 
termined that the actual length of the radius 
or distance from the spire of the court house 
at Newcastle (the centre of the town) to 
the same point on the curve as marked by 
the old monuments, should be accurately 
ascertained by triangulation. The records 

of the U. S. Survey Office afforded dis- 
tances, and the accuracy of the Mason and 
Dixon Survey was closely tested. The ra- 
dius of twelve miles had been determined 
by the simple method of measuring over the 
surface of the ground with a surveyor's 
chain, for which purpose a vista was opened 
through the forest as the work progressed. 
(The line is stated to have been measured 
horizontally — the hills and mountains with 
a sixteen and a half foot level; and the vista 
cut through the forest eight yards wide, 
was " seen about two miles, beautifully ter- 
minating to the eye in a point.") 

It was a surprise that the length of the 
radius should have been so correctly ob- 
tained by such a method. The report says : 
" There must have been, by mere chance, a 
compensation of the errors incident to such 
a measurement over so great a distance." 
For it appears that the angle formed by the 
north line and the radius from Newcastle 
was so near a right angle, that the mark or 
post was declared the true tangent point, 
but the angle was never actually measured. 
The report further says : " the tangent stone 
stands on low ground, very near the margin 
of a mo'rass, known by the name of Cat 
Swamp. Looking from thence to the east, 
the ground is pretty flat for half a mile, and 
then it rises by a rapid ascent to the ridge 
running northward from the summit of 
Chestnut Hill, distant one mile. This ridge 
entirely shuts out the view of the whole 
country to the east of it from the tangent 
stone and must, at least, have limited the 
view of the radius when the angles it 
formed with the tangent and north lines 
were measured by Mason and Dixon. 
Those angles were then probably affected 
by whatever errors in direction may have 
arisen in running ele\'en miles from New- 

It was then ascertained that the tangent 
line did not form a right angle with the 
radius of twelve miles drawn from the spire 
of Newcastle Court House to the point oc- 
cupied by the tangent stone. The angle, at 
the tangent stone formed by these two 
lines, differs 8 minutes 32.9 seconds from a 
right angle. It was found by computation 
that the small deviation of 46.5 seconds in 
direction, or thirteen feet, one and one-half 
inclies, from a straight line at the end of 
eleven miles in running this radius from 



Newcastle Court House, would be sufficient 
to produce the difference in the measure- 
ment of the angle at the tangent post, sup- 
posing the view to the east to have been 
limited to the distance of one mile, as it evi- 
dently must have been from the nature of 
the ground. " Even this is indicative of a 
very small error in direction in tracing this 
radius, when we reflect that it was pro- 
longed through the forest by ranging staves 
or poles in line one beyond another, as the 
sur-\-eyors ad\-anced with their work ; a 
method, so inaccurate for tracing a straight 
line that we are surprised it should have 
been resorted to in so important an under- 
taking. This was not, however, the work of 
Mason and Dixon, but of their predecessors, 
who were less versed in science and the use 
of the higher order of geologic instruments 
than were Mason and Dixon." 

The arc of the circle west of 
The Arc the due north line and the 
of the radius terminating in the tan- 
Circle, gent stone, were traced and de- 
termined correspondent with one 
and the same centre, by the surveyors 
under the agreement of 1760 and those 
of 1849, that is to say, the spire of 
the ' court house at Newcastle. The 
decree of Lord Hardwicke, of 1750, touches 
these two points, and the position of Cape 
Henlopen. The discrepancies in regard to 
the arc of the circle west of the due north 
line and the angle formed between the 
radius and the peninsular or tangent line, at 
the tangent stone, cannot be attributed to 
any difference respecting the centre of the 
circle. The radius run out by the surveyors, 
in 1761, indicated by a line drawn from the 
spire of the court house in Newcastle, to the 
position to the tangent stone, should be re- 
volved about the centre of its circle (the 
spire aforesaid), through an arc of 8 min- 
utes and 34 degrees and one-tenth of a sec- 
ond to the south, and then produced two 
feet, four inches westward, and the line 
called the tangent line, should be revolved 
westward about its southern extremity, at 
the " middle point " of the Cape of Henlo- 
pen line through the inappreciable angle of 
one minute 2 seconds, and then these two 
lines would meet at right angles, at the 
distance of 157.6 feet southward from the 
present position of the tangent stone. The 
slight variation thus required in the azimuth 

of the tangent line [jroxes the surprising ac- 
curacy of its direction as determined by Ma- 
son and Dixon, and how truly it divided the 
provinces, in accordance with the articles of 
the ancient agreement, as far as it extended, 
which is given by Mason and Dixon in 
their notes of survey to be 81 miles, 78 
chains and 31 links, or 17.2 yards less than 
82 miles. The cord of the arc of the circle 
west of the north line should have begun at 
a point 157.6 feet southward of the present 
position of the tangent stone, and have 
ended at a point 43.7 feet north of the 
present position of the stone set by Mason 
and Dixon, and the Commissioners of their 
day, to mark its termination, and constitut- 
ing now the point of junction in the three 

The report says : " It is our opinion that 
the stones on the arc, west of the north line, 
stand as originally placed." The tangent 
stone could never have been moved from its 
original position, and that stone and the in- 
tersection stone remain in the positions 
given to them by the surveyors in 1765. 
They both stand upon their proper lines of 
direction, which would have been scarcely 
preserved had they been removed by mis- 
chievous interference. The tangent stone 
stands precisely upon the same right line, 
wnth the three monuments to the southward 
of it on the tangent line, and the intersec- 
tion stone stands as truly on the north line. 
Those who believed that the tangent stone 
had been disturbed in its position because 
of the fragments of stone of a similar char- 
acter which for some time lay strewed at its 
base, were not carried so far back by tradi- 
tion as the period when this point was 
marked by two similar stones engraved 
alike by the arms of the proprietaries, 
and placed side by side, " the better to 
distinguish and ascertain the tangent 

" The fragments, w4iich we were told of 
while engaged in the reconnoissance were 
the remains, no doubt, of the missing com- 
panion of the one we found a little inclined 
in posture, but firmly planted in the ground, 
it was when taken up, unbroken and perfect 
in form." In 1764-65, from the tangent 
point. Mason and Dixon ran a meridian line 
northward until it intersected the said 
parallel of latitude at the distance of five 
miles, I chain and 50 links, thus and there 



determining and fixing the nortlieast corner 
of Maryland. 

In 1765 Mason and Dixon described such 
portion of the semi-circle around Newcastle, 
as fell westward of the said meridian or clue 
north line from the tangent point. " This 
little bow or arc," reaching into Maryland, 
" is about a mile and a half long, and its 
middle width about 116 feet; from its upper 
end, where the three states join, to the fif- 
teen mile point, where the great Mason and 
Dixon's line begins, is a little over three and 
a half miles ; and from the fifteen mile cor- 
ner due east to the circle is a little over 
three-quarters of a mile — room enough for 
three or four good farms." This was the 
only part of the circle Mason and Dixon 
ran. The report of Col. Graham says the 
error in the curve of Mason and Dixon is 
not one of moment as regards extent of 
territory, as it abstracts from Delaware and 
gives to Maryland only about 18.78 of an 
acre. Their long west line or parallel of 
latitude we have had no occasion to test, 
except for a short distance, but the great 
care with which their astronomical observa- 
tions, contained in the old manuscript, were 
made, leaves no doubt of the accuracy of 
that part of their work. " The want of a 
proper demarkation of the boundaries be- 
tween states is always a source of great in- 
convenience and often of trouble to the bor- 
der inhabitants; andit is worthy of remark, 
that as our survey progressed and wdiile 
making the necessary oft'sets to houses on 
the east of the north line, we discovered 
that there was an impression among many, 
that the boundary of Delaware extended up 
to the north line, from the junction to the 
northeast corner of Maryland. AV. Smith, a 
gentleman who had once served as a mem- 
ber of the Legislature of Delaware, resided 
(1850) a full half mile within the state of 
Pennsylvania, measured in the shortest di- 
rection from his dwelling house to the circu- 
lar boundary. \Ye find also, by careful 
measurement, that Christiana Church is in 
Pennsylvania, full one hundred yards west 
of the circular boundary. The dwelling 
houses of J. Jones, Thomas Gibson, Thomas 
Steel and J. McCowan were all within the 
bounds of Pennsylvania, according to our 
trace of the circle from computed elements." 

Under the auspices of the Royal Society 
of London, in the vear 1768, the length of a 

degree of latitude was determined by the 
measurements of Mason and Dixon, and as- 
tronomical observations made from them. 
The degree measured 363,763 feet — about 
68.9 miles. The dift'erence of latitude of the 
stone planted in the forks of the Brandy- 
wine and the middle post in the west penin- 
sular line, or the amplitude of the celestial 
arc answering to that distance, has been 
found to be i degree, 28 minutes, 45 seconds. 

Mason and Dixon were allowed 21 shil- 
lings each per day for one month, from 
June 21, of the last year, and the residue of 
the time, 10 shillings and 6 pence each per 
da}^, for the expenses, and no more until 
they embarked for England, and then the 
allowance of 10 shillings and 6 pence ster- 
ling per day was again to take place, and 
continue until their arrival in England. 
The amount paid by the Penns under these 
proceedings from 1760 to 1768 was 34,200 
pounds, Pennsylvania currency. The com- 
pass used by these distinguished surveyors 
is in the land office at Harrisburg. 

The proceedings had for fixing the 
boundary line were approved and ratified by 
the King, by his order in council on the i ith 
day of January, 1769. A proclamation to 
quiet the settlers on the part of Pennsyl- 
vania bears date the 15th day of September, 
1774. The Provincial Council had for some 
time represented to the Governor the abso- 
lute necessity of establishing by an ex parte 
proclamation, the lines of jurisdiction be- 
tween the province of Alaryland, and the 
province of Pennsylvania, according to lines 
and boundaries agreed upon, run and 
marked by the Commissioners. But this 
proclamation was met with opposition, on 
the ground of the minority of the then Lord 
Baltimore, and by order of the King, the 
proclamation was withdrawn. Governor 
Penn represented in a letter to the British 
Secretary of State, that the people living 
between the ancient temporary line of juris- 
diction, and that lately settled and marked 
by the Commissioners were in a lawless 
state, and that his partial extension of juris- 
diction had quieted disturbances and given 
satisfaction to the people. 

On the 7th of January, 1775, a letter was 
received from the Earl of Dartmouth, Secre- 
tary of State, which says that " the letter of 
Governor Penn stated the case respecting 
the boundarv line between Pennsvlvania 



and Maryland, in a very different light from 
that in which it was represented to me and 
the King; confiding in your assertion, that 
the extension of the jurisdiction of Pennsyl- 
vania up to line settled and marked by the 
Commissioners, had been so far from 
having the effect to disturb the peace of his 
subjects and occasioning violence and 
bloodshed, that it had quite a contrary ten- 
dency, and given universal satisfaction, is 
graciously pleased to approve the arrange- 
ment made by your proclamation of the 15th 
of September, and to permit you to recall 
that issued on the 2d of November." 

Proclamation was accordingly 

The issued on the 8th of April, 1775, 

Boundary extending jurisdiction to these 

Line boundaries. In 1781, Commis- 
Completed. sioners and surveyors were 
appointed to run the boundary 
line between Pennsylvania and Virginia. 
They were directed to continue the line 
from the extremity of Mason and Dix- 
on's line twenty-three miles west, that 
is due west five degrees of longitude from 
the Delaware River, and then run a merid- 
ian line till it strikes the Ohio. This line 
was extended in 1782. 

Archibald McLean, deputy surveyor for 
York County, who, during the Revolution, 
resided at the northeast corner of Centre 
Square, assisted in running the boundary 
line between Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
In 1760 John Lukens, of Philadelphia, sur- 
veyor-general of Pennsylvania, and Archi- 
bald IMcLean were chosen to serve on the 
commission appointed under the agreement 
between Lord Baltimore and AA'illiam Penn. 
They were engaged in this work in 1760 and 
1761, and probably up to the time that 
Mason and Dixon were employed to under- 
take surveying in 1763. Archibald McLean, 
who was a skilled surveyor and possessed 
an extended knowledge of mathematical 
science, was employed by the Commission- 
ers to aid in running the line from the Sus- 
quehanna to Dunkard's Creek. In this 
work, Moses McLean was the commissary 
for the surveying party. Two of the chain 
carriers and assistant-surveyors of this 
part}^ w^ere brothers of Archibald McLean. 

In 1781, when Pennsylvania and Virginia 
decided to continue the boundary line, its 
full limit westward to the Ohio, both Archi- 
bald McLean and John Lukens were ap- 

pointed surveyors. Before the work was 
begun, Lukens resigned the appointment 
and the actual running of the line was per- 
formed by Archibald McLean, until the sur- 
veying party met armed resistance at Dunk- 
ard's Creek, which now passes through the 
eastern part of Green County. The opposi- 
tion had come about on account of a differ- 
ence of opinions entertained by the people 
of the two states. In order to adjust these 
difficulties, the State of Virginia appointed 
Colonel Joseph Neville, in August, 1782, 
who, together with y\rchibald McLean, 
completed the provisional line to the south- 
west corner of Pennsylvania. It w^as not 
until 1783 that a permanent boundary line, 
as now marked, was astronomically de- 
termined by a new set of commissioners, 
who made elaborate -simultaneous observa- 
tions of the occultations of Jupiter satellites, 
in order to determine the longitude of the 
western extremity of the line. James Madi- 
son, of Virginia, served on this commission, 
under whose direction this line was com- 
pleted in 1783. David Rittenhouse, the 
famous astronomer of Philadelphia, repre- 
sented Pennsylvania on this commission. 
At this time Thomas Jefferson was gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

In 1887 the Commissioners of 
The York County, authorized by_ the 
Report Legislature of Pennsylvania, com- 
of 1887. pleted an examination of the stones 
marking the boundary between 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, to the western 
boundary of the county. They started at 
Peach Bottom, where stone 24 is located. 
They went along on foot 41 miles. No. 24 
is a short distance from the line bridge. No. 
23 is in the Susquehanna River, having on 
it an iron plug, marked with a ring. No. 25, 
a five mile stone, has two coats-of-arms. 
They are oolite, a variety of limestone 
formed of round grains, like small fish eggs. 

The following is the report presented of 
the condition of these stones in 1887: 

Number 24, good; 26 filled up one foot 
above ground ; 27, good ; 28, good ; 29, neecfs 
straightening: 30, 31, good; 32, split and 
broken off': 33 to 40, good; 40, not found; 
41, 42, good; 43, broken to pieces; 44, good; 
45, lower end broken off, lying down; 46, 
47, good; 48, used' as a door-step; 49, 
broken and mutilated; 50, shipped to Balti- 
more; 51, broken: 52, 53, 54, good; 55. 56, 



broken and in a grist mill; 57, good; 58, 
good; 59, lying flat; 60 to 64, good. 

For nearly a hundred years, from 1681 
to 1768, a constant rivalry existed between 
the colonies of Maryland and Pennsjdvania, 
between the partisans of Lord Baltimore 
and William Penn. The neighborhood of 
this line was a theatre of riot, invasion and 
bloodshed. The grant of land given to 
Lord Baltimore was to extend to the 40th 
parallel of latitude ; that of Penn to extend 
northward three degrees, and westward 
from the Delaware River. 

It was a constant matter of dispute be- 
tween the heirs of these two men as to the 
exact position of the dividing line. Penn- 
sylvania claimed the line was south of the 
parallel of Philadelphia. Marylanders 
claimed that the line was between fifty and 
sixty miles farther north. On this claim 
they sold tracts of land to settlers, who 
came in, as far north as the position of 
^^'rightsville. On Penn's claim settlers 
bought lands much farther south. 

Mason and Dixon's line lies in latitude 39 
degrees, 43 minutes, 23.6 seconds, about 
eleven miles due north of the village of 
Churchville, thirteen miles north of Belair, 
Maryland. The line runs due west. If pro- 
longed westward, Mason and Dixon's line 
would divide nearly equally the states of 
Ohio,. Indiana and Illinois; cut the northern 
portion of Missouri oft"; very nearly be the 
dividing line between Kansas and X^e- 
braska ; run through the northern part of 
Colorado and Utah; divide Xevada; cut off 
the northern portion of California and strike 
the Pacific Ocean below San Francisco. 

Although this line extends only between 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, previous to the Civil AVar, it is known 
to political history as the boundary line be- 
tween the slave states of the south and the 
free states of the north. All states south of 
this line were known during the Civil war 
as " Dixie." 


The Primeval Forests — Clearing Lands — 
. The Pioneer Home — Frontier Farming 
— Domestic Animals — The Old Time 

The inhabitants who first gazed upon the 
primeval forests west of the Susquehanna 

hunted the \\ild animals that roamed and 
sported in their dense shade, and caught the 
fish which were abundant in the winding 
streams, and whose squaws raised small 
patches of corn and beans, were Indians, a 
dark, copper-colored race, whose origin and 
history previous to the settlement of the 
whites in this section will be found else- 
where in this work. 

From the time of the earliest settlements 
made west of the Susquehanna, York 
County contained three distinct classes of 
people. Among the first to enter the 
county with permits to locate land were the 
English Quakers, nearly all of whom set- 
tled north of the Conewago Creek; some of 
them settled in the Redland and Fishing 
Creek Valleys as early as 1734, and a large 
number of them the following year. They 
migrated thence from Chester and Lan- 
caster Counties. A )'ear later Warrington 
Township, which then included Washing- 
ton, was settled by people of the same re- 
ligious society. A few located in Man- 
chester. The Quakers obtained free grants 
for land from the Penns upon which to build 
their nTeeting houses. One of these is 
standing in the village of XTewberrytown, 
one midway between the last named town 
and Lewisberr}', and a third in Warrington, 
one-half mile from Wellsville. Monaghan, 
which included the balance of the terri- 
tory in York County north of the Cone- 
wago, was at first populated by the 
Scotch-Irish, the same class of people 
who settled Cumberland County, and that 
portion of York now embraced in Adams 

A large number of the early settlers were 
Germans, who populated the fertile valleys 
of the central, western, and southwestern 
parts of the county, beginning their settle- 
ments as early as 1734. There were a few 
English located in and around York. They 
were either Friends or members of the 
Church of England. 

In the southeastern portion of the 
countv, in the Chancefords, Fawn, Peach- 
bottom and Hopewell, a colony of sturdy 
Scotch-Irish located, commencing their set- 
tlements contemporaneously with the Ger- 
mans and the English above them. Some 
of them had settled there and obtained 
lands under Maryland titles a few years 


Dense forests of valuable oak, 
The chestnut, walnut, hickory, pop- 
Primeval lar and ash timber covered the 
Forests. hills and valleys of York County 

when the whites first came. 
Alany of these the ax of the industrious set- 
tler soon felled, in order to clear the land to 
sow his crops, while the red man of the 
forest was his neighbor. Some were hewn 
into logs to construct cabins ; the chestnut 
and the oak to build fences ; the walnut for 
making articles of household furniture. A 
large forest of primitive trees is now almost 
a curiosity to the prosperous York County 
farmer. If there be one, some avaricious 
individual is on the alert to purchase it, and 
fell the grand old trees for gain. An occa- 
sional large white oak, a tree which lives the 
longest in this section, is seen here and 
there on the farms of judicious husband- 
men, who will not permit any one to " touch 
a single bough." There are still a few 
chestnut trees standing along the fences 
and roadsides, under whose boughs our an- 
cestors rested their weary limbs during 
the harvest noon, and later in the sea- 
son their children, dressed in homespun 
and linsey-woolsey, gathered the precious 
nuts, while on the alert for the wolf and 
the de^r. 

The introduction of the charcoal forges 
and bloomaries, and tanneries were the 
cause of cutting down hundreds of acres of 
timber land, which one hundred years of 
undisturbed growth could not now re- 

In York County, agriculture be- 

Clearing gan with the Indians — with the 

Lands. squaAv, who tilled the soil in a 

primitive manner. The Indians 
cleared patches of land along the streams 
and fiats b}^ girdling and burning down the 
trees, scratched the ground with sticks, 
and used sharp stones to hoe the corn and 
beans which they planted, and in the fall, 
the cornstalks were burned with the weeds. 
Long, hard stones, used as pestles, and con- 
cave ones used as mortars, have been found 
along the Susquehanna, upon the islands in 
that stream and in various parts of the 
county. These were used in grinding the 
corn into a coarse, meal, from which the 
corn cake was made. The corn patches 
were thus kept clear of obstruction by burn- 
ing, except in some places the scrub oak. 

which the ordinary fire would not kill. 
These the white settlers dug out when they 
commenced to till the soil. 

^^'hen the first white settlers crossed the 
Susquehanna, they found here and there 
along the streams a few patches of 
land that had been cultivated by the In- 
dians. The great York Valley extended 
from the river southeastward to the Mary- 
land line. In this valley were some marshy 
spots called by the German immigrants 
" Holzschwamm " and " Grubenland." Tra- 
dition points out one of the Indian fields in 
Fairview Township, near the Yellow 
Breeches Creek, where the Indians of the 
Shawanese tribe for a long time had a vil- 
lage. The Redland Valley around Lewis- 
berry had one. They were found in the 
central part of the count}^ along the Co- 
dorus and other streams. The earliest set- 
tlers pointed them out to their descendants 
in the Chancefords, the Hopewells, the 
A\^indsors, Peach Bottom and Fawn Town- 

Some of the streams during the wet sea- 
son broadened and produced marshes. A 
large portion of Paradise and Jackson 
Townships were composed of swamps, in 
which grew tall hickory trees. The region 
they covered is now fertile and productive. 
Smaller swamps of a similar character ex- 
isted around the present towns of York, and 
Hanover, also in AVest Manchester, Hel- 
1am, Heidelberg, Spring Garden and other 
townships. There were natural meadows 
where tall grasses matted themselves into 
a thick, compact sod. These were the 
deer pastures which the Indians loved to 

In the limestone region through the cen- 
tral part of York County heavy timber 
covered most of the land with occasional 
meadows and swamps. Lighter woods 
covered the southern belt of the country 
and the sandstone regions in the north. 
There were, however, many places in all 
sections of the country where the native 
ash tree, elm, shellbark and black walnut 
contended with the sturdy oak and the 
spreading chestnut for size and pre- 
eminence. The progress of the mechanical 
arts soon demanded the trunks of these 
monarchs of the forest, until now they are 
rarely seen, and but few are growing to take 
their places. 



Most of the first settlers in 
The America belonged to the mid- 

Immigrant die class. They were artisans, 
Farmer. traders, farmers and mechan- 
ics. Those who came to York 
County were largely farmers of three 
different nationalities, — English, German 
and Scotch-Irish, each of whom coming 
from a different country, had their own pe- 
culiar modes of tilling the soil. Some of 
these people had remained for a time in 
Chester and Lancaster Counties ; especially 
was this the case with the English Friends 
and the Scotch. Many Germans and Swiss 
came direct from their native lands to York 
County. Religious persecution and interne- 
cine wars were largely the cause of their 
emigration. Hence they came to America 
with noble aims and, generall}^, were of high 
moral character. There may have been ex- 
ceptions, but the immediate prosperity that 
attended them faithfully illustrates that 
they were thrifty and industrious. Great 
wealth in European countries, then, was 
rare, except among the nobility. The gen- 
try and the warrior did not emigrate, but 
the working and business classes did. Some 
of them were not farmers when they came 
here, but the necessity of the case made 
them farmers. They were a class of men 
who were to work out a great problem in 
the new world. Neither a feudal system 
nor a nobility interfered ; exevy man was 
lord of his own domain in Pennsylvania, and 
this is what gave character to the agricul- 
tural classes so early in our history. 

The Germans brought with them large 
" iron bound chests." Nearly every family, 
if they could be afforded, had one of them. 
A few of these old chests can be seen yet in 
this county among their descendants. They 
were filled with homespuns and some of the 
most important household utensils. One, 
two, or more covered wagons, sometimes 
belonging to the immigrants, but more fre- 
quently the property of settlers in eastern 
counties of a kindred nationality, brought 
their fellow-countrymen to their place of 
destination, west of the Susquehanna. In 
these wagons, including household articles, 
were stored some of the most essential im- 
plements of agriculture, such as the wooden 
plow, the scythe, the hoe and the sickle. 
The settlement of a few German colonies 
can still be located in York Countv. The 

Scotch-Irish brought the ox-team, the 
horse and the most essential implements. 
J\Iany of the first Quakers rode from Ches- 
ter County on pack-horses ; the grown and 
half grown came on foot. Some of the most 
active went ahead, when passing into an 
entirely new section, with axes to clear 
away obstructions. There were in places 
fallen trees and hanging vines, streams to 
cross and deep morasses and savannas 'to 

Where, to whom, or to what peo- 

First pie among the white settlers be- 

Farms. longs the 'honor of breaking 

ground for the first farms in York 
County, the truthful historian cannot now 
chronicle. Immigrants located nearly at the 
same time in all sections of the county, and 
took possession of chosen tracts of land so 
rapidly from the period between 1734 and 
1736, that many farms were laid off between 
those dates. The Scotch-Irish selected 
their homes in the lower end of the county, 
and in the Marsh Creek country (now 
around Gettysburg) on land with similar 
characteristics to that of the places of their 

The Friends and the Germans, upon emi- 
grating, frequently sent their representa- 
tives> ahead to locate land. The Germans 
natural!}' selected such land as was similar 
to that from which the more prominent of 
them came, and hence they fell heir to most 
of the limestone region, although, as the 
land warrants show, there were many Eng- 
lish who took up land in the valley of the 
Codorus. They did not long remain in pos- 
session of them. Much of the land was 
taken up by English speculators, who, soon 
after the first settlements were made, dis- 
posed of their rights at a profit, to the Ger- 
man immigrants, who came flocking into 
this county from 1740 to 1752, in large 
numbers. There were as many as 2,000 
Friends located in the upper end of the 
county, in Fairview, Newberry, Warring- 
ton and adjoining townships before 1760; 
and they were nearly all farmers, largely 
from Chester County and Newcastle 
County, Delaware. 

Most of the settlers had some money, 
with which, after getting the proper war- 
rants, they located lands of their own selec- 
tion, or purchased them from surveyors, at 
a very small cost per acre. Much land of 




EARLY AS 1780 








the lower townships was taken up in 400 
acre tracts. Some of the settlers of the 
limestone regions took up large tracts, but 
as a general rule, nearly all land purchased 
by settlers was taken up in 100, 200 and 
sometimes 300 acre tracts. The tradition 
that the ancestors of people now living. 
took up 1,000 or more acres, is nearly al- 
ways at fault, and cannot be verified by the 
records in the land office. The early sur- 
veyors and speculators owned many tracts 
in York County. Among them were 
Thomas Cookson, survej'or, of Lancaster; 
Edward Shippen, of Philadelphia, and Jo- 
seph Pidgeon, a surveyor of Philadelphia 
County, after whom the " Pigeon Hills " 
were doubtless named. George Stevenson, 
the intelligent Englishman who for sixteen 
years was clerk of the courts, prothonotary, 
register and recorder, all in one office, 
owned at one time as much as 10,000 acres 
in York County, much of which he fell heir 
to when he married the widow of Thomas 
Cookson, of Lancaster. But the Fates were 
not propitious with him, for he lost it all by 
some mishaps, and died poor, in Carlisle, 
just after the Revolution. Michael Tanner, 
an intelligent German Baptist, one of the 
commissioners who laid off York County 
and afterward located at Hanover as the 
first justice of the peace, was a very large 
land owner. 

The land in the lower end, then contained 
many spots of scrub oak, which were left 
unburned by the Indians, who annually set 
fire to patches, on some of which they had 
cultivated corn and beans; and some pos- 
sibly used as hunting grounds were burned, 
yet this tradition is of doubtful authenticity. 
It is far more natural that the Indians 
burned patches of land for farming pur- 
poses, and such is the opinion of the earliest 
writers of intelligence. 

The " York Barrens," which covered a 
large extent of territory in the lower end, 
became noted in the annals of York County, 
long after the period of experimental farm- 
ing. Much land in the Chancefords, Hope- 
wells, Fawn, Peach Bottom, and parts of 
Codorus and Manheim, after being cleared 
of timber, for two or three years produced 
fair crops of wheat, barley, spelt or corn. 
It then became poor and would not readily 
grow these valuable cereals. Rye could be 
cultivated longer on these lands; finallv it 

ceased to yield profitably, and tlien nothing 
but buckwheat could be made to grow with 
satisfaction. It was long known as a great 
buckwheat country. When certain culti- 
vated tracts became sterile, they were de- 
serted, and new tracts cleared and culti- 
vated. This is what gave rise largely to the 
name "barrens." In the southwestern 
townships the Germans learned to call them 
" barns." 

The first settlers always located 

The near some spring or gentle running 

Pioneer stream of crystal water. Springs 

Home, were plenty and nature's drink was 

pure and wholesome. For a few 
days the covered wagon served as a home, 
often for more than one family, especially 
for the women and children. The spread- 
ing branches of a large tree afforded shelter 
until the log cabin, occasionally a stone 
house, could be built. A few red men 
visited them and exchanged furs and other 
articles. Until 1756, during the French and 
Indian war, their ravages were never 
feared and the few that remained were on 
friendly terms with the whites. 

Hard and patiently did the settlers go to 
w^ork, Avith coats ofif, arms bare, and sweated 
brows, to fell the trees and hew the logs for 
their future homes. Logs were split, 
notched and appropriately arranged, and 
then each settler assisted his nearest neigh- 
bor to do the heaviest work. The women 
who endured this new life were not idle. In 
homespun clothing and plain white caps, 
with the open air for a kitchen, and a few 
collected stones for a hearth, after the cus- 
tom of the gypsy of the present day, they 
swung, with chain and hooks, the pots and 
kettles brought from their native land, and 
prepared the heartily relished food. A 
large log, a huge rock, or the " end gate " to 
the emigrant wagon served as a table. 
Sometimes a huge white oak or chestnut 
was cut at a proper height, around the 
stump of which these humble sons of toil 
gathered to partake of their frugal meals, 
until better accommodations were provided. 
The men ate first; the women and children 
came last. Thanks were silently offered 
and there was but little profanity. The 
children wandered into the near woods to 
observe the new attractions, but not too far 
from the cabin, lest the voracious wolf or 
some imfriendlv Indian might cause alarm. 



The timid deer and the sporti^'e squirrel 
were frequently added to the larder, and 
delicious fishes which the aborigines so 
much loved to catch, were abundant in the 
Susquehanna, the Codorus, the Conewago 
and in all the streams. The table of the 
early settler was frequently supplied with 
fish, easily caught. The iron fish hook was 
a necessary article for the emigrant, as was 
his flint lock gun. The spade and the hoe, 
necessary tools for the settler, were first 
brought into requisition, and soon a small 
patch was cleared and dug and planted with 
seeds and bulbs, some of which had been 
brought from across the ocean. 

Much timber was split into rails for 
fenrey to enclose the newly cleared tracts. 
The underwood was " grubbed," dragged 
on heaps and burned, and a large flame from 
them was a common sight. There were no 
matches to light them as now. " Punk " 
and the flint stone were commonly used to 
ignite wood, or else live coals were brought 
from the open fires of a neighbor's cabin. 
The age of stoves had not arrived in York 
County. The era of forges and furnaces 
came later. Then, as the season progressed, 
the old fashioned wooden plow, drawn by 
the heav}^ draught horses or a pair of oxen, 
slowly turned up the soil, most of which for 
ages unknown, had been undisturbed. It is 
strange to think that the world existed so 
many thousand years without her inhabi- 
tants even knowing of the richness of the 
treasures in the western hemisphere. Limbs 
of trees tied together first served as har- 
rows to level and pulverize the soil. For a 
few years the same plow was used by two 
or more farmers. The crops were planted 
or sown by hand, and covered by a hoe or 
brushwood. The soil being naturally fer- 
tile, crops grew abundantly without fertiliz- 
ers, and to the frontiersman the first har- 
vest was a great delight. 

Many of the Quakers came to York 
County on pack horses and some of the 
first wagons they used were made here en- 
tirely of wood. The wheels were sawed 
from the thick trunks of the " gum tree " or 
the tough " buttonwood." A few of these 
settlers brought their wagons with them. 
Spelt, wheat, barley and rye were first culti- 
vated. They were cut with a sickle, 
threshed with a flail, and among the earliest 
settlers the chafi^ was separated from the 

grain by both being placed on a linen sheet, 
of which two persons took hold, and tossing 
the contents up in a current of air, a gentle 
breeze would blow the chaff away andleave 
the precious grain. Corn was shelled with 
the hand or by flail. Wheat or corn was 
ground the first year or two in a " pioneer 
mill " — a mortar hollowed in the end of a 
log, or a stump, in which it was ground, In- 
dian fashion, with a pestle. Soon after the 
small grist mill, run by water power, was 
constructed. The log house when com- 
pleted was about 10x15 ^^^^ and seven feet 
to the roof, at first covered with heavy bark, 
and, after the first year's crop, was carefully 
thatched with straw. There was no cellar. 
On the garret or " loft," as it was called, 
was stored the grain of the first year's crop. 
The next winter was spent by the husband 
in clearing more land, and taking care of his 
horse, cow, pigs, and sheep, which were ex- 
pected to huddle together, and live har- 
moniously in one common stable. The wife 
would " ply her evening care " in front of 
the blazing hearth, on which the glowing 
" back logs "' furnished both light and 

Before the first settlement of 
Frontier York County agriculture had a 
Farming, fair foothold in this province, the 

domestic animals had been put 
into use, and all the cultivated plants grown 
in the mother countries had been tried on 
American soil. Corn, to the early York 
County settler, was a new plant, native to 
America, and cultivated in a small way b)' 
the aborigines. Hemp, cotton, rice, spelt, 
oats, millet, lucerne, flax, rape, rye, oats, 
barley and buckwheat were all cultivated 
for a time in York County. The raising of 
some of these cereals was soon discon- 
tinued. Hemp was cultivated a long time, 
and the old-fashioned " hemp mill " is still 
remembered. It was cultivated in York 
County as late as 1830. Flax and its valu- 
able product were known much later. The 
linsev-woolsey made from linen and woolen 
thread was used by our ancestors as an ar- 
ticle of clothing". 

This experimental farming of our ances- 
tors was so successfully tried before the 
Revolutionary period, that, since then, 
the introduction of few plants, except 
sorghum during the Ci\'il ^^'ar, can now be 



Tlie following advertisement, 

Grasses which appeared in the Penn- 

Introduced. syhania Herald, published 

then in York, dates the suc- 
cessful i;itroduction of clo\'er seed into 
York County : 

Those farmers who would wish to improve 
their land and stock, and put money in their 
purses bv cultivating that valuable new article, 
CLOVER, would be supplied with SEED by 
applying to the subscriber, or to Samuel C. 
Updegraff, in said town. 
February 14, 1792. CALEB KIRK. 

The first seed sold at a rate of what now 
is equivalent to $20 a bushel. Owing to the 
dry season of 1838, the following year it 
sold for $20 a bushel in York County and 
for $17 during the Civil war. 

Red clover and timothy, native grasses of 
Europe, were not grown much in Pennsyl- 
vania before 1800, except by experiment. 
About this date their introduction became 
general. In some sections of York County 
they were never successfully grown until 
after the era of commercial fertilizers. The 
German scythe could not cut them well, 
which caused the introduction of the Eng- 
lish scythe. These new grasses grew well 
on upland regions. They were found to be 
,better food for domestic animals than the 
native meadow grasses. Timothy grass 
seems to have been introduced into this 
country by Timothy Hanson, an intelligent 
Quaker. He sowed a few quarts of this 
imported seed on his farm near Dover, Del. 
His Quaker neighbors were pleased with 
the success of his experiment. The next fall 
these neighbors purchased some of Timo- 
thy's seed. It grew well on all the farms 
and the Quakers continued to call it Timo- 
thy's seed, which in after years became 
known as timothy grass. 

Spelt and barley held sway in York 
County for nearly a century, when they 
gave way in the decade between 1820 and 
1830, to red-wheat and the blue stem wheat. 
The ears were smooth. Many varieties of 
wheat have since been cultivated with suc- 

The cows brought here first were 
Domestic long-horned, hooked backward, 
Animals, many of them of brindle color. 
They were a large sized, clean 
limbed animal. Short horned cows were 
not introduced until 1830, Devons much 

later, and Jerseys since the Civil war. Long 
wooled sheep were raised at an early date. 
Many farmers during the Revolutionary 
period owned from ten to twenty of these 
animals. Merino sheep were introduced 
from Spain soon after 1800. Previous to 
the settlement of America, the domestic 
animals of Europe fed on natural pastures. 
The grasses were not cultivated as they are 
now. The artificial seeding to grass only 
became common in Europe and America to- 
ward the close of the eighteenth century. 
There were many kinds of grasses indi- 
genous to this section, but they were not 
well suited for pasturing purposes ; hence 
domestic animals deteriorated. The faith- 
ful horse and the ox, both of which were 
used for farming, as well as the milk cow, 
deteriorated in form and size, and became 
smaller than their progenitors. The native 
Indian corn was found to be wholesome and 
nutritious food for them, and greatly coun- 
terbalanced the eflfect of the grass food. 

During the colonial period, the products 
of agriculture and of the forests constituted 
the principal articles "taken to market;" 
first conveyed from our county to Philadel- 
phia and Baltimore on pack horses and af- 
terward on rudely constructed wagons. 
Since 1870 the fattening of cattle for market 
has become a very important business. 
Thousands of them are sold annually in the 
town of Hanover and shipped to Baltimore 
and Philadelphia. In the fertile lands 
around York, and in many sections of the 
county, farmers find the fattening of cattle 
a profitable business. 

The fields were ploughed in 

The Old " lands " by several furrows be- 

Time ing thrown together. In harvest 

Harvests, time two or foiu" reapers would 

take a " land." The harvest sea- 
son was a time of great enjoyment. Neigh- 
boring farmers assisted one another. Ten, 
fiftee'n, and sometimes as many as a hundred 
reapers, both men and women, with the 
sickle, worked in one field as a gay, livel}'' 
company. Before the introduction of the 
cradle, tradesmen and townspeople all tem- 
poraril}^ dropped their vocations and went 
to assist in harvesting. On the farm of 
George Hoke, in ^^'est Manchester, in 1828, 
there were 102 men and women, reaping in 
one field with the sickle. They soon cut the 
strain of that field and went to another. 


About the same time near by, Peter Wolf 
had fifty-four reapers at work. They 
passed along like a moving battle line. It 
was an interesting sight. A good reaper 
could cut forty-two dozens of sheaves a day. 
The German scythe, made of malleable iron, 
sharpened by hammering the edge on a 
small anvil, called the " dengeln stock," was 
used for mowing. The whetstone was car- 
ried by the mower with a horn containing 
water mixed with vinegar. For cutting 
spelt, rve and wheat the sickle was almost 
universally used until about the beginning 
of the war of 1812, or possibly five years 
earlier, when the grain cradle came into use 
in York County, and in the country in gen- 
eral. The sickle was extensively used for 
cutting rye at a much later period. 

As soon as a tract of land was 
Fruit cleared and the young fruit trees 
Trees, could be obtained, an abundance of 
apple, peach, pear and cherry trees 
were planted by the pioneer settlers. In no 
country did they grow more luxuriantly 
than in the native soil of Southern Pennsyl- 
vania. Winter apples, " cherry bounce," 
" apple jack," and " peach brandy " soon be- 
came plentiful. The " snitzings " and " ap- 
plebutter boilings " were parties where 
mirth and hilarity reigned. 

There were no large barns be- 
Big Barn fore the Revolution such as are 
and Second seen now by the hundreds, in 

House. York County. The first ones 
were either log or stone. After 
a few years, as saw-mills became established 
along the streams, the huge trunks of the 
oak and the walnut were sawed into scant- 
lings and boards, and settlers then began to 
construct large buildings. Rye, the only 
winter grain that produced well at first, was 
A^ery useful. Its straw was used for 
thatching roofs, for making bee-hives and 
bread baskets. A well-made straw roof 
lasted many years. 

The second house built was two stories 
high, of stones or logs, with weather- 
boarding. Many of them had a large chim- 
ney in the centre, after the German custom. 
The English and Scotch custom was to 
build chimneys on the outside of the house, 
one at each gable end. They were made of 
stone or brick. Among the wealthier classes 
large buildings were erected about the year 
181 2, and even earlier. In York at a very 

early day, there were a few large dwelling 
houses with massive doors, wide halls and 
easy stairways. Some of the wood-carving 
was beautifully done, showing artistic work- 

The amount paid for land by the 
The Value first settlers in York County 
of Real varied in accordance with its 
Estate. natural fertility and the timber 
that was found upon it. The 
immigrant obtained a warrant from the 
heirs of William Penn, giving him the privi- 
lege of taking up land that had not already 
been purchased. Some of these warrants 
specify that a tract of 200 acres or more was 
often granted to a settler for the amount of 
five shillings, more or less, per acre. Some 
of the most fertile lands were originally sold 
by the proprietaries at prices ranging from 
five to ten dollars per acre. When the 
Revolution opened in 1775, the best farming 
land lying near towns sold at the rate of 
thirty to fifty dollars per acre. In 1781, ow- 
ing to the depreciation of Continental cur- 
rency and the paper money issued by the 
State of Pennsylvania, as a result of the 
war, good farming land was sold as high as 
$200 per acre. This estimate is based upon 
the value of paper money, which soon after- 
ward became totally worthless and most of 
it was never redeemed either by the state or 
the government. There were several in- 
stances in which farms were sold in York 
County about this time and paid for in con- 
tinental money. The holder of this money 
in 1783 had neither farm nor credit, for his 
monev then was worth no more than the 
weight of the paper upon which it was 
printed. In many cases bankruptcy fol- 

All farming lands and real estate in this 
county and throughout Pennsylvania 
reached a high valuation in 1814. This was 
the result of the enactment of a law estab- 
lishing forty state banks. This caused an 
enormous circulation of paper money, 
eventually worth in coin onh' about one- 
fourth of its face value. Governor Snyder 
had vetoed this bill, creating the banks, but 
the bill was passed over his veto and became 
a law without his signature. Money circu- 
lated freely everywhere throughout the 
state and its abundance caused enterprising 
citizens to formulate plans for laying out 
new towns. Some of these became perma- 



nenl \illages or boroughs in tliis county, 
wliile otliers were only " paper cities." 
Among those laid out at this period familiar 
to the reader were Jefferson, Franklintown, 
New Market, Siddonsburg and Liverpool, 
now Manchester borough. Some of the 
towns laid out during the fluctuations of the 
Pennsylvania currency from 1814 to 1816 
were Sowego, Georgetown, Millerstown 
and Jacobstown, and the old town of Man- 
chester. It would not be easy for the reader 
at present to locate the sites of any of these 
" paper cities." When the collapse came in 
monetary matters in this state, their pros- 
pects of future greatness ended. 

Land reached its highest valuation in this 
county during the Civil war and down to 
the year 1880. Farms situated near the 
centres of population then sold as high as 
$300 per acre. Land remote from towns 
brought $100 or more per acre. The war 
and the extravagant modes of living after 
it had ended, caused a depreciation of all 
the paper money, even the " greenbacks," 
as the national currency was called. During 
the year 1864 a gold dollar was worth $2.65 
in national currency and a bushel of wheat 
sold for $2.50. Money was abundant every- 
where and in general all industries pros- 
pered. The financial crisis beginning in 
1873 spread all over the United States and 
reached its climax in York in 1877. For a 
period of several months during that year 
only one large manufacturing establishment 
in York was in operation. After the re- 
sumption of specie payment, which went 
into effect by an act of Congress in 1877, 
there was a gradual rise in the price of farm 
lands. But at no time since then have the 
fertile lands of York County been sold at so 
high a figure as during the ten years suc- 
ceeding the Civil war. 

Most of the virgin soil after it 
Fertilizers. Was cleared of timber by the 

early settlers was fertile and 
productive. The farming land did not need 
a fertilizer to grow good crops. Manure, 
the best of all fertilizers, was the first to be 
used by the York County farmers. A com- 
position known as " plaster," containing 
ammonia and other ingredients, was intro- 
duced soon after the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century. It came into general use in 
Pennsyh-ania a few years later. Lime was 
used for plastering houses and for mason 

work, many years before its virtues were 
known to generate the necessary sustenance 
in the soil, and furnish it to the roots of the 
growing crops. In 18 17 it was experi- 
mented with in Hellani and Spring Garden 
Townships, but it was not much used in the 
county on the land until about 1828; by 1830 
it was put into general use. The conserva- 
tive opinion of many farmers prevented 
them from applying it for many years after, 
and those who did use it were at first ridi- 
culed -as foolish and visionary. 

Societies and associations for the diffu- 
sion of knowledge and the growth of the 
physical sciences, especially chemistry and 
geology, about this period, led to great de- 
velopments in agriculture. From that time 
forth agriculture began to be studied as a 
science, and lime became very extensively 
used. Bonedust, guano, phosphates, and 
other artificial fertilizers have been used in 
great abundance in York County, and seem 
to produce especially good results in slate 
and shale lands. The rotation of crops 
began with the introduction of lime. 

The threshing machine, succeed- 

Threshing ing the laborious methods of 

Machines tramping with horses and 

and pounding wdth the flail, was a 

Reapers, great curiosity. At first only 

the wealthy farmers bought 
them. Laboring men and many farmers 
opposed their introduction, which they con- 
sidered an innovation injurious to the in- 
terests of the poor man. It was not many 
years, however, before all enterprising 
farmers used them, and the laboring man 
found his task much easier. The same dis- 
■ cussions arose when other labor-saving 
machines were invented. " Taking bread 
out of the poor man's mouth " was the cry. 
It is quite probable that the ancient Egyp- 
tian could thresh and clean his grain, three 
or four thousand years ago, as well as the 
York County farmer could before the intro- 
duction of the threshing machine, when 
from ten to sixteen bushels per day were 
what one man could thresh out with the 
flail. By treading with horses, he could 
possibly treble this amount. Then came the 
horse power, threshing first one hundred, 
then three hundred or more bushels of 
wheat per day; finally the steam thresher, 
travelling from farm to farm, and thresh- 
ing 600, 800, and sometimes over i,ooo 


bushels in a day, or 50,000 bushels in a CHAPTER VII 


The double toothed, turning grain rake EARLY HIGHWAYS 

and hay rake succeeded the common hand 

rake about 18^8, and continued in use until _ , _, , „ , ^^ . _ . , 

1870. The modern sulky rake, a still ^arly Roads-Early Femes-Bridges 

greater improvement, has since been 
used. The old Colter plow gave place to 
the much easier running plow of recent 

All the small cereals were, for an entire 
century of the history of agriculture in York 
County, sowed by hand and " harrowed or 
plowed in." The grain drill came into use 
in 1843 or thereabouts, and has, like many 
other implements, undergone changes since. 
Perhaps the greatest triumph and the one 
which created the most curiosity among the 
farmers, was the invention and successful 
use of the mower and reaper. If a farmer 
purchased one of these all his neighbors for 
miles around went to see it operate. The 
McCormick and the Hussey reaper and 
mower were the first to be used in this 
county, introduced in 1853. Various other 
kinds soon were purchased in Hanover, 
York and Dover. Reaping machines, like 
threshing machines, had been devised cen- 
turies before in a crude form, but it was not 
until the time of the great World's Fair at 
London, in 1852, where the American 
machinery attracted so much attention, that 
they came into prominent use. From 1852 
to 1855 their distribution was immense, and 
their manufacture very profitable. In 1853 
Conrad Moul, of Hanover, began manu- 
facturing the " Hussey " mower and reaper, 
but he sold his first reapers of the Hussey 
patent in Hanover in 185 1. From 1853 to 
1870 he made a large number of them in his 
shops at Hanover. Ilgenfritz and White, of 
York, the next year made the " Atkins." 
The following year Flickinger Brothers, of 
Hanover, began making the " Dorsey " and 
Reuben Hoffheins, of Dover, his own in- 
vention in 1857. A few years later he 
moved his shops to York. The McCormick 
was invented and tried in 183 1 and the 
Hussey reaper in 1833. These were the 
first American machines. A noticeable fact 
is that Obed Hussey, the inventor, was a 
descendant of Nathan Hussey, who was one 
of the commissioners to lay off York 
County in 1749, and one of the first Quaker 
settlers in the county. 

Indian trails extended across York 
County from east to west and from north to 
south when this territory was occupied by 
the aborigines. Many years before white 
settlers had crossed the Susquehanna, there 
were routes for pack horse travel across this 
region to Maryland and Virginia, both of 
which provinces were partially settled 
before 1736, when the heirs of William 
Penn purchased the lands of his province 
west of the Susquehanna. Although the 
Quakers began their settlements in the 
northern part of York County as early as 
1734, and the Scotch-Irish first occupied the 
southeastern section about the same time, 
and the Germans began their authorized 
settlements around York as early as 1733, 
there is no record of an};- public highway 
being laid out west of the Susquehanna 
until 1739. The first settlers of this region, 
some of whom came in wagons, but most 
of them on horseback, cut their own roads 
through the dense forests to the places 
where they made a selection of land for 
permanent settlement. 

It was during the year 1739 that 

Monocacy under the authority of the Lan- 

Road. caster Court this route, long 

known as the Monocacy Road, 
was opened upon the petition of numerous 
settlers west of the Susquehanna in the 
present limits of York County. The view- 
ers to locate this important road were 
Joshua Minshall, Francis Worley, Henry 
Hendricks, Christian Crawl, Michaef Tan- 
ner and Woolrich Whisler. The road 
began on the line between the lands of John 
^^'right, Jr., and Samuel Taylor (now 
Wrightsville) ; thence west 500 perches, 
south 72 degrees, west 562 perches to 
Crawl's run, south 70 degrees, west 430 
perches to a marked white oak, west 76 
perches to Canoe run, south 68 degrees, 
west 454 perches, west 994 perches to west 
branch of Grist (Kreutz) Creek, west 544 
perches to Little Codorus (Stony Run), 
west 684 perches to Big Codorus (York not 
3'et laid out), continuing westward across 



Perrin's run one and a ([uarter miles soutli- 
west of York, three-cjuarters of a mile far- 
ther to Springer's field, one and a half niiles 
farther to the " point of a steep hill," thence 
west to Loreman's run, to Christian Eys- 
ter's land (near Wolf's church), to Nicholas 
Croucher's run, to west branch of Codorus 
Creek, to John Link's Run by the " Bar- 
rens " to Conrad Low's plantation, west 
four and a half miles to Adam Forney's 
land (now the site of Hanover) ; thence 
nearly due southwest by Kitzmiller's mill, 
on Conewago Creek, to the provincial line 
between Pennsylvania and Maryland. The 
entire length of the road was 34 miles, 290 
perches. It soon became a prominent high- 
way of travel to the south and southwest. 
This route was taken by General Wayne on 
his trip with his brigade of American sol- 
diers on their way to Yorktown, Virginia, 
during the Revolution, and the route taken 
for transporting Hessian and British prison- 
ers to Maryland and Virginia during the 
same war; also the course of St. Clair and 
^^'ayne in 1792, on their way to Ohio to 
quell the Indian troubles there. During the 
war of 1812, when the British army occu- 
pied W^ashington and was threatening 
Baltimore, immense trains of wagons, con- 
veying cotton from Alabama, Georgia, Ten- 
nessee, and other points in the south, used 
this route on the way to Philadelphia and 
New York. It was the first road laid out 
within the present limits of York County 
under the authority of Pennsylvania. 

A petition of citizens of Manheim and 
Heidelberg, 1766, sets forth that "the road 
from Conewago settlement (now Hanover) 
to Baltimore town was laid out thirty years 
before, or in 1736, by order of Baltimore 
County Court, before the temporary line 
between the two provinces had been run, 
and this was then thought to belong to 
Maryland; since the running of which line 
there is about ten miles on north side of 
line of as useful a road as perhaps any in 
the province of Pennsylvania, and not on 
record in this province." Henry Slagle, 
Esq., Michael Tanner, Richard McAllister, 
Casper Reineka, Christian Millheimer and 
Marks Forney were appointed by the court 
to view the road that it might be recorded. 
It began at the dwelling house of Michael 
Carl, north of Hanover, and extended 
nearlv due south over the line of the 

present Hano\er and Baltimore turnpike. 
Being laid out in 1736, it was the first road 
in the county. 

At the November session of court at Lan- 
caster, in 1741, a number of inhabitants 
near Codorus Creek petitioned for a road 
the nearest way from " the new town on 
the Great Codorus (York) to William 
Smith's patented land under Maryland." 
Smith's land was ten miles and thirty-nine 
perches south of York. The wishes of the 
petitioners were granted, and the court ap- 
pointed Woolrich Whisler, Michael Krei- 
ger, Michael Tanner, Michael Rolke, Adam 
Miller and George Copel to view and lay 
out the road. Their report was confirmed 
in February, 1742. The road began at the 
Spanish oak on Smith's land, extended 
nearly due north by way of Woolrich Whis- 
ler's mill, which was about two and one- 
fourth miles south of York, and must have 
been one of the first mills in the county. 
From thence it extended to the " end of the 
street, leading to the place intended for a 
court house in the town of York,' and join- 
ing the road to John Wright's ferry." This 
road was laid out the year after the found- 
ing^ of the town of York and corresponds 
to the present Baltimore and Maryland 
Line turnpike. 

On the 4th day of 'Sla.y. 1742, in answer 
to a petition, Robert McClure, Benjamin 
Chambers, Hance Hamilton, Patrick Car- 
son and A\'illiam Bayley were appointed and 
soon afterward laid out a road (the report 
of which was confirmed), extending from 
AValnut Bottom, now in Cumberland 
County, across Yellow Breeches Creek at 
the present site of Lisburn, through Fish- 
ing Creek Valley, to Nathan Hussey's 
ferry, near the site of Goldsboro. Its entire 
length, according to draft, was thirty miles. 
During August of the following year the 
report of John Noblet, Joseph Bennet, 
Joseph Green and James Crawford was con- 
firmed, laying out a road " seven and thret- 
fourth miles in length, from Nathan Hus- 
sey's ferry to Thomas AVilkin's ferrj^, over 
the Susquehanna below the mouth of Cone- 
wago Creek." 

Upon receiving two petitions signed by 
many citizens from the I^Iarsh Creek settle- 
ment (Gettysburg) and vicinity, William 
Ruddock. Richard Proctor, John Sharp, 
Benjamin Chambers and James Ruddock 


were appointed to view and lay out a road 
to York and Lancaster. It was soon after 
opened and corresponded very nearly to the 
route of the present York and Gettysburg 

The following- petition is for the 

Newberry first public highway southward 

Road. to the town of York. It was long 

known as the "Newberry road" : 

The humble petition of the inhabitants of Newberry 
and Manchester, and others of the west side of the Sus- 
quehanna river to the honorable bench, the justices now 
sitting at Lancaster, most humbly showeth. 

Whereas, We, your humble petitioners, having great 
need of a wagon road to Yorktown, therefore we humbly 
pray the honorable court that we may have a road laid 
out the nearest and best way from John Day's mill to 
the said Yorktown, and we, your petitioners, as in duty 
bound, shall pray. 

10 mo., 12 da., 1745- 
Nathan Hussey Robert Hodgin 

John Day John Hussey 

John Garretson Charles Jonas 

Joseph Bennet John Snell 

Peter Stout Bartholomew Alaul 

James Frazer Adam ^Miller 

"Thomas Rogers George AUbright 

Patrick Carson George Swope 

Andrew Rodgers. 

This road started thirteen miles north 
from York, at John Day's mill, crossed the 
townships of Newberry and Manchester to 
York. It passed William Ewing's *mill 
eight miles from York. John Day became 
the first president court justice of York 
County. He was a Quaker; Nathan Hus- 
sey, also of the same religious faith, became 
one of the commissioners to lay ofif York 
County in 1749. 

Upon the petition of sundry inhabitants 
of Warrington, Monaghan, Dover and 
Manchester Townships for a road from 
Isaac Rutledge's mill to the town of York, 
the Lancaster Court appointed Francis 
Worley, Matthew Lambert, Peter Cook, 
Baltzer Knetzer and Henry Clark to view 
and lay out the road. They made their re- 
port to the court, which was confirmed at 
the October Quarter session, 1747. The 
r^ad began at Rutledge's mill on the Yellow 
Breeches (the first mill in that section). 
From that point to Street (Straight) Hill, 
in Warrington Township with devious 
courses was ten miles. It continued from 
thence across Conewago Creek and the 
high ridge above Dover to York, and cor- 
responded nearly to the present road 
through Dover, Wellsville and Dillsburg 
and ^^'hat is since known as the State road. 

In 1748 a joint petition, with many sign- 
ers of the " townships of Hellam and Done- 
gal, was presented to the court at Lancaster 
for a road from Anderson's ferry (Marietta) 
to join the road from John AA'right's ferry 
to York." On the petition all the names of 
the signers from Donegal are Scotch-Irish, 
except two of Hellam. German. The 
viewers appointed to open the road were 
George Swope, John Kelly, Lazarus Lowry, 
Martin Schultz and James Patterson. The 
road was surveyed and opened by order of 
the Lancaster Court, April, 1749. 

In 1748 there was an effort made to 
secure connections by road by settlers in 
the vicinity of Dillsburg and York Springs 
to Harris' Ferry, the site of Harrisburg; 
and a petition was sent to Lancaster, bear- 
ing date February 17, 1748. of which this is 
an e.xact copy : 

The West Side of Susquehanna. 

To the Honorable Court of Quarter Sessions held at 
Lancaster the first Tuesday of February, 1747-8. 

The humble petition of part of the inhabitants of the 
west side of Susquehanna humbly showeth that as we 
have been obliged to work at and repair roads which we 
have had no beneiit of, and as we have never had any 
roads laid out for our benefit we humbly desire the favor 
of the honorable bench to allow us a road to be laid 
and by order of court from John Harrise's ferry to 
William Wireman's mill, nearest and best way that can 
be found, and we, your petitioners, shall ever pray. 

jNIatthew Dill James Dill 

Thomas Kenton Thos. Dill 

John Rood I\Iatthew Dill, junior 

James Hamelton Andrew Miller, junior 

Tho. Cambell Matthew Rutledge 

Robert Johnston Henerey Willson 

James Betty Wm. Rutledge 

George Brandon John Harris 

James Carruthers Isaac Rutledge. 

Andrew Miller. A\'illiam Trindle, Henry 
W^ilson, Thos. Dill, Jas. Robinet, John 
Beals, were appointed viewers with power 
to any four to act. 

This " AVilliam Wierman " mill of 1747-8 
is, no doubt, the present John W. Wierman 
mill, which has been uninterruptedly in the 
family for at least one hundred and sixty 
years. It is on the Bermudian, about one 
and a quarter miles east of Gettysburg and 
Harrisburg State road. 

The following is a petition for what after- 
ward became the first road from the south- 
east toward York. It was the last of the 
roads laid out by authority of the Lancaster 
Court : 


To the Worshipful Justices of the County of Lan- 
caster now sitting in the Borough of Lancaster : 

The petitioners having frequent occasion to go to the 
town of Xew York (meaning the new town of York) 
and no roads being made amongst us, it is very difficult 
for your petitioners to travel, especially in the winter, 
for reason of the swamps and savannahs, that is be- 
twixt us and said town of York. Therefore, we, your 
petitioners, humbly crave that your worships would be 
pleased to grant an order for laying and making of a 
road from John Xelson's ferry to the aforesaid town of 
New York. 

Therefore, your petitioners pray that your worship 
would be pleased to take the petition into consideration, 
and order your petitioners what you shall think proper, 
and your petitioners, as in duty bound, shall pray. 

j\lay Sessions, 1749. 
Daniel Laverty John Nelson 

Paul Martin Alex. Nelson 

John Campbell ^Morton ^IcHafFey 

Edward ^lahon Finley Gray 

Manasa Lamb James AlcCartley 

Thomas Carson Benjamin Saylor 

John Carson Daniel Johnston 

William Buchannan ' Thomas Johnston 

Charles Caldwell James Anderson 

Hugh Ross William Anderson 

Matthew Long George Baughman. 

The names of these petitioners are all of 
English or Scotch-Irish origin, except the 
last, which is, doubtless, German. They 
were some of the earliest settlers, having 
only been living there a few years. The 
petition asks for a road from Nelson's, later 
McCall's, ferry to York. Action was taken 
by the court during the May sessions of 
1749. and Charles Caldwell, John Campbell, 
Robert Smart. \\'illiam Buchannan. Robert 
Morton, and Xathaniel ]\Iorgan appointed 
to view and lay out the road. Their report 
was made and confirmed at the next session 
of the Lancaster Court. Its courses and 
distances nearly correspond to the present 
Peachbottom public road. 

The honorable petition of the people, the inhabitants 
on the branches of the Bermudian, in Monaghan Town- 

To the Honorable, the Court at Lancaster, now sit- 
ting, we, your humble petitioners, take leave to inform 
you of our great disadvantage we labor under, for want 
of a road being made or opened from our settlement 
to Yorktown, it being our nighest and best w'ay to Lan- 
caster and Philadelphia, our places of market, and like- 
wise our court. We humbly petition your court, that 
you would grant us an order from your court to open 
said road sufficient for wagons to travel between Archi- 
bald jMc.\llister'5 mill to York, and that you would ap- 
point such men as you see best as prospectors and over- 
seers of said road. We, remembering the favors 
granted to us by your honors already, comfort ourselves 
in the hope of your granting in this favor, and we, as in 
duty bound, shall ever pray. 

April 7. Anno Domino, 1749. 
John Griest :\Iatthew Dill 

Andrew Miller Tho. Dill 

Henry Wilson Wm. Underwood 

Charles Coulson John Hendricks 

Thomas Petit 
Caleb Hendricks 
John Jcsper 
James Hendricks 
John Powell 
James Petit 
Edward How 
Joseph Dennis 
John Douglass 

John Lease 
.ALatthew Mellon 
Edward Robbards 
Richard Co.x 
.Alexander Underwood 
Jacob Beals 
William Beals 
Samuel Cox 
.Abraham Nesbitt. 
John Brandon. 

This petition being made the same 

Under year that York County was formed, 

York the Lancaster Court deferred the 

County matter, whereupon a similar peti- 

Courts. tion. which was the first presented 

to the York Court upon its organi- 
zation after the erection of the county, 
was granted, and the road ordered to be 
opened from " McAllister's mill on the Ber- 
mudian Creek to the town of York." The 
viewers were John Beales, William Cox, 
John Griest, Abraham Lerew, John Lease 
and James Petit. This route is the one at 
present known as the " Shippensburg road." 
McAllister's mill w'as in the present area of 
Adams County. The names were all 
signed in well written English. 

The next road in order of time 
From the across the South Mountains 
Mountains through the present area of 
to York. Adams County to York is that 
from the headwaters of the 
Opossum Creek southward and then east- 
wardly through (then) Tyrone and Read- 
ing Townships to York. It was petitioned 
for in Januar}', 1749, b}^ " inhabitants of 
Tyrone, Straban and places adjacent, who 
asked for a road from Victor King's mill, on 
Conewago, to the road leading from Pa- 
tapsco to Adam Forney's " (Hanover). 
The viewers appointed were Robert Owins, 
James McA^'illiams, Victor King, William 
Proctor and John Koontz. Almost every 
trace of Victor King's mill has disappeared. 
In Howell's map of 1792 it is marked as on 
the south bank of the Conewago a short 
distance east of the mouth of the Opossum 
Creek, within the present limits of Straban, 
and east of the road from Tyrone to Hunt- 
erstown. AMien the movement became 
known it excited opposition, especially from 
;\Ienallen Township, whose inhabitants 
made, in November, a formal remonstrance. 
They set forth that they had heard that " an 
order for a Grate road had been obtained 
which does not begin at any public or 
proper place or any \\-ays convenient to the 


inhabitants." They further set forth that, 
having had a " town's meeting " concerning 
it, they can find nothing to the advantage 
of the township in having the road where 
it now is. They earnestly " crave a re- 
view." The sio-ners were: 

Robert AlcConaghy 
Robert Moor 
Walter Carson 
Francis Beatty 
Charles McBride 
James Parker 
James Smith 
David Watson 
John Lorans 
William Simpson 
John Blackburn 
Thomas Baldwin 

John Gilliland 
Samuel McFeran 
Samuel McConaghye 
Henery Thompson 
James JMoor 
John Wright 
L. McCowm 
John Mickle 
Wm. Moor 
John Furgison 
Robert Moor, jr. 
William Dunwoody. 

A review proposed a change of starting 
place. Instead of beginning at Charles Pid- 
geon's, in the mountain near Opossum 
Creek, it was to begin near the " Quaker 
meeting house in Menallen," which was 
then southeast of the present site of Centre 
Mills, where a Dunkard meeting house now 
stands. This change was resisted, and at 
the April Court, in 1750, remonstrants set 
forth that the road laid out from the head 
drafts of " Grate Conowago and Possum 
Creeks by William Proctor and associates 
to the Susquehanna was a good road, 
neither hilh' nor swampy." They further 
stated that on a review " the new road laid 
out, vacating part of the former and start- 
ing near the Quaker meeting house in Men- 
allen Township, is carried through swamps 
and is stony ; and that it is not in the power 
of the petitioners to support it." The 
signers of this were : 

John Morton 
James Wilson 
Richard Proctor 
John Gilkey 
Michael Wilson 
Alexander Maghon 
Thomas Mo row- 
John Sadler 

Thomas Bracken 
Will. Young 
Joseph Jolly 
John Simons 
John Wilson 
Jesper Wilson 
Isaac Sadler 
Richard Sadler. 

In response to this, James Murphy, Sam- 
uel Deeson. Richard McAllister, John 
Douglass and John Griest were appointed 
viewers, and the road reported by them was 
ordered cut and cleared. The " courses and 
distances " of the line finally adopted have 
not been found, but there is every indication 
that the road began in the mountain, and 
struck the jNIonocacy road within a mile and 
a quarter of York. It ran through the 

present townships of Menallen, Butler, Ty- 
rone, Reading, and Hamilton, by Centre 
]\Iills, Heidlersburg and East Berlin. It 
ran considerably north of the site of Victor 
King's mill, from which it is to be inferred 
that the " Menallen " remonstrants were 
substantially successful in their struggle. 
As this road touched the Cumberland Val- 
ley several miles farther west from Carlisle 
than the preceding, there was not much 
promptness in connecting with it. And a 
connecting road was not ordered till 1755 
and not opened until 1762. It thus appears 
that all the roads opened up to 175 1 ran 
towards York; that the Potapsco road was 
the only one which led to Baltimore south- 
ward ; and that the only way through this 
territory from Carlisle to Baltimore was by 
York. This continued for several years 
longer to be the situation in this county. 

Upon the petition of Joshua Lowe and 
others, a road was laid out in April, 1750, 
from his ferry, at what is now York Haven, 
from Lancaster to Shippensburg. It passed 
through the site of the present villages of 
Newberry, Lewisberry and Lisburn. In 
early history it was a prominent route of 
travel. In 1794 some of the soldiers, going 
to quell the Whiskey Insurrection in West- 
ern Pennsylvania, passed over it. 

In 1 75 1, the year after Cumberland 
Carlisle County was formed out of Lan- 
Road. caster, the inhabitants in the 

vicinity of Carlisle presented a peti- 
tion to the courts of York and Cumberland 
Counties. The petition reads as follows : 

1751, April 25. Inhabitants of Middleton Township 
represent in favor of a road leading from the land laid 
out for Carlisle town on Letort's Spring in Middleton 
Township, to Wakely's (or Moore's) Gap, in the South 
Mountain, and thence through the said gap as far as the 
County of Cumberland extends. 

The' inhabitants of York County have in pursuance of 
an order of court opened a road from McAllister's mill 
to York and propose to have it extended through the 
gap aforesaid till it meet the road above mentioned and 
petitioned for. 

That it will be absolutely necessary to have a road 
from the County of Cumberland to York. Your peti- 
tioners conceive that the above mentioned will be the 
nighest and most convenient that can be had for the 
benefit of the inhabitants in general. 

Thomas Pottan 
James Smith 
George Ross 
Joseph Clark 
G. E. Cowin 
James Biggs 
Robt. Miller 
John }\Iitchell 

James Young 
Samuel Mifflin 
William Edgelly 
James Kirkpatrick 
Robert Campbell 
John Denniston 
James M'Leer 
Ezekiel Dunning. 



John Calhoon. Jno. Smith, Thos. Wilson, James 
Wakely, James Moore, and John McKnight appointed 
viewers — with power to any four to act. 

In January, 1752, Nathan Morgan, 
Peach John Griffith, Alexander Wallace, 
Bottom Hugh W'hiteford and Archibald 
Road, ^\'hite were appointed to " view 
and lay out a road from Peach Bot- 
tom ferry, so called, to York." They re- 
ported at the June session of court that, 
after viewing said road, are of the opinion 
that there is necessity for such road; but 
the season of the year being so unfit for 
taking courses and distances, and being a 
very busy time for the farmers, they asked 
to have the return of the report made at 
next session of court. The same year the 
order was granted to open a road to York 
to join a road from Chanceford to same 
point already laid out. A temporary private 
road was laid out from Peach Bottom ferry 
to join the Ashmore ferry road, in 1749, to 
York under the authorities of the Lancaster 
Court before the formation of York County. 

The road above mentioned, extending 
south from York to Smith's patented land, 
was declared " to be crooked and hill}^ and 
a good Avagon road was needed over more 
level ground." A petition was presented to 
court in 1765 to extend it to " the tempo- 
rary line toward Joppa and Potapsco." 
Joppa, now a small village on the Gunpow- 
der river, a few miles east of Baltimore, 
was then the most important town in Balti- 
more County, and the county seat. 

The same year, 1752, a road was laid out 
from George Crogan's place, near the 
mouth of the Yellow Breeches Creek to 
Cesna's fording place by Frazer's mill, on 
same creek ; length three and one-third 
miles. A road was petitioned for in 1752 to 
pass through Newberry and Warrington 
from Frazer's mill through the gap in the 
mountain to intersect the road leading from 
Rosebury's mill to York between the creeks 
of Beaver and Conewago. Henr}- Willis, 
Allen Robinet, John Farmer, Thomas 
Heald, and Joseph Bennett viewed and 
opened it. 

Jacob Miller and sundry inhabitants in 
and around York petitioned for a road from 
his mill to York. The mill was situated 
about one mile northeast of York. 

In 1753, the inhabitants of A\'arrington 
and Paradise secured the opening of a road 

from " Christoplier Flussey"s mill, in \\ ar- 
rington, to John Lane's mill, and from 
thence through the Pidgeon Hills, so as to 
fall in the road that leads to Potapsco." 
Pidgeon Hills were named after Joseph 
Pidgeon, an English surveyor from Phila- 
delphia County, 'who assisted in laying ofif 
the first townships in York County. Po- 
tapsco is now Baltimore. 

Alexander McCandless, Nathaniel Mor- 
gan and Hugh Whiteford, in 1753, laid out 
a road from Robert Morton's plantation, in 
Chanceford, toward Rock Run and the tem- 
porary line. Upon the petition of Peter 
Wolf and sundry persons, the Monocacy 
road was changed from its course in 1754, 
to avoid hills, at a distance five miles west 
from York, where it forks with the Marsh 
Creek road. 

In September, 1754, Conrad Holzbaum, 
Baltzer Spangler, Henry Hendricks and 
Hugh Low presented to the court at York, 
Patrick Watson, president justice, a report 
of a road review from York, through the 
townships of York and Shrewsbury to the 
temporary line between the provinces of 
Pennsylvania and Maryland. The length 
of this road, according to their survey, was 
eighteen and three-quarter miles. Begin- 
ning " at the court house door " it extended 
nearly in a due south direction. The report 
was confirmed. 

Abraham Burkholder established a ferry 
across the Susquehanna in the year 1762. 
In 1766 he petitioned for a road from his 
ferry " to AVilliam Nicholson's mill, at the 
forks of Muddy Creek, and thence to the 
road leading to Potapsco." The viewers 
were Thomas Scott, David Kirkpatrick, 
John McCall, William Edgar and \\'illiam 
Gemmill. A road had been laid from Ste- 
venson's ferr}^ (now McCall's) to Read's 
mill, thence to Leeper's mill, about ten 
years before. 

In October, 1765, " a bridge road was 
opened from Nicholas AVierman's mill to 
the great road leading through Warrington 
from Carlisle to Baltimore, and along said 
road to the old Friends' meeting house road 
and along said meeting house road unto 
Rev. Samuel Thompson's meeting house." 

In 1767 a road was opened in Chanceford 
from " John Finley's tavern house to Jacob 
Grove's mill, lately erected." 

The same year a road was opened from 



the " Brogue tavern to Nicholson's mill at 
the forks of Muddy Creek, thence to tem- 
porary line." by David Kirkpatrick, Thomas 
Scott, John McCally, AVilliam Gemmill, 
Benjamin Johnston and James White. 

A petition in 1768, of divers inhabitants 
of Shrewsbury and Codorus stated that " a 
road, formerly made by ourselves, which 
led from Maryland road to the mill of 
. Christian Meckley, was stopped up by 
Peter Seis and others." A¥illiam Ehrhart, 
Frederick Fishel, Michael Geiselman, Peter 
Runk, Killian Divinger and Moses Lawson 
were appointed b}' the court to open the 

The inhabitants of Fawn and Chance- 
ford, in 1768, stated in petition, that " they 
needed a road from Samuel Leeper's mill, 
which is now fitted for merchant work, and 
has on hand a quantity of flour;" the road 
to begin " at the great road leading from 
York to Peach Bottom ferr}'; to pass be- 
tween Roland Huss and James Hill to said 
mill, and from thence to provincial line, 
where James Webb lives." 

On motion of James Smith, Esq., on 
Canal behalf of Caleb Lowe and others, 
Road, viewers were appointed April, 1768, 
to open a road from Lowe's ferry 
(now York Haven) to intersect the road 
leading from York to Carlisle." This after- 
ward was known as the " Canal road." 

The petition of sundry inhabitants of 
Newberry and Dover, July, 1768, appre- 
hended that " a road from James Rankin's 
house to Great Conewago, at or near a place 
called the wolf pit, and from thence to a 
ferry on the Susquehanna would be useful." 
AA'hereupon the court appointed James 
Welsh, Esq., John Garretson, Sr., Henr}^ 
\ Entzminger, Joseph Hutton, Peter Sneider, 
and Ellis Lewis to open the road. It was 
laid out in October. Its length was sixteen 
miles." It began at Lewisberry and ended 
at New Holland, on the Susquehanna. 

Petitions in 1769 from a number of 
" Quakers of the' townships of Newberr^^ 
A'Varrington, Huntingdon, Tyrone and 
Menallen, were presented for a road leading 
westward through the different townships 
mentioned, for them to pass and repass to 
and from their different places of worship ; 
to begin at McGraw's mill, thence along by 
the meeting houses at Huntingdon (York 
Springs), and AA'arrington, and to intersect 

the road leading from Lowe's ferry to Car- 
lisle, at or near the Newberry meeting 
house." This road was' opened by John 
Blackburn, Ellis Lewis, Charles Coleson, 
Robert Nelson, and James Rankin. It 
terminated near the present village of New- 
berry. A petition of sundry inhabitants of 
York County was presented to court, Janu- 
ary, 1769, for a road " for the passage of 
large wagons from Tate's ferry and Wil- 
liam Willis' mill into the great road from 
Carlisle to York near Widow Noblet's 
house, which would be some miles nearer 
for the Baltimore trade." 

The same year a petition was presented 
for division of Chanceford and Windsor 
Townships, and from parts of both to form 
a new township, to be called Rossel Town- 
ship ; not granted. 

In April, 1769, the inhabitants of Hel- 
1am, Windsor and Chanceford requested 
that a road be made from Hellam Forge, at 
the mouth of the Codorus, across said town- 
ships toward Rock Run and Baltimore and 
join the road already laid out to John Fin- 
lej'^'s tavern. Viewers were appointed and 
the road opened. It is still known as the 
" old Baltimore road." 

In 1769 citizens of York and surrounding 
townships asked for the opening of a road 
in behalf of Thomas Usher and Joseph 
Donaldson, who, " at great expense, had 
erected a merchant mill on the land form- 
erly owned by Zachariah Shugart. near 
lands of David Jameson, Esq., Henry 
Spangler and Michael Hanks. This road 
would be of great advantage to the town of 
York. The road was opened. 

In 1769, in answer to many petitions in 
behalf of James Cooper, who had built a 
merchant mill near Peach Bottom, a road 
was opened from the ferry to said mill. 

James Dickson, at April session, 1769, 
stated that " he had contracted with com- 
missioners and built a bridge across the 
Little Conewago, at Henry Sturgeon's 
house, for 100 pounds, and to uphold the 
same for seven years ; at the same time had 
the verbal promise of the commissioners 
that they would not see him at a loss, for 
they said that it would be wrong to let one 
man suffer by the county. Accordingly 
they told him to lay his bill of expenses 
before the grand jury; that nevertheless he 
had not vet obtained redress." The court 



appointed six men to view the bridge, 
wliose report was favorable to tlie con- 
tractor, and the court ordered the county 
to relieve him. It is doubtful if a con- 
tractor would be so favored now. 

In July, 1770, a road was opened from 
Yonerstown (Dover) to George Ilgenfritz's 
mill, in Dover Township, b}^ Michael 
Quickel and others. 

The same year a road was opened from 
Hellam iron works, at the mouth of the 
Codorus, to York. 


Although the title to lands west of the 
Susquehanna was not purchased from the 
Indians until the year 1736, ferries were es- 
tablished across the river before that date. 
John Harris, an Indian trader, who w'as 
stationed at the site of Harrisburg, opened 
a ferry across the Susquehanna at that place 
in 1733. It was a very important crossing 
for the early immigrants who took up lands 
in the Cumberland Valley and extended 
their settlements down into the Shenan- 

In the year 1730 John AVright, an influ- 
ential settler at the site of Columbia, ob- 
tained a charter for a ferry between that 
point and the York County side. This, too. 
was an important ferry in colonial days and 
until the completion of the first bridge 
across the river, between Columbia and 
AA'rightsville, in 1814. The members of 
Continental Congress crossed at this ferry 
in September, 1777, when the seat of gov- 
ernment was changed from Philadelphia to 
York, owing to the defeat of the American 
army at the battle of Brandywine. During 
the whole period of the Re^'olution it was 
a regular crossing place for troops from 
Maryland, Virginia and the south in their 
movement to join the American army under 
Washington in the Jersey campaigns. In 
the latter part of December, 1778, about 
4,200 British and Hessian prisoners of war, 
who had been captured with Burgoyne at 
Saratoga, were brought across the river at 
this ferry, when they were transferred from 
Boston to Charlottesville, Va., to prison 
pens at the latter place. Large flat boats 
were used, which conveyed a hundred or 
more persons at one time. These boats 
were propelled across the Susquehanna 
with their heavv loads bv means of long 

poles, which reached to the bottom of the 
stream while a pilot at the rear guided the 
boat. General Lafayette and Baron Steu- 
ben, on their way to York, during the Revo- 
lution, crossed here, and Washington also 
crossed in a large ferry boat in 1791, when 
on his way from Mt. Vernon to Philadel- 
phia, and also in 1794, on his return from 
the Whiskey Insurrection in Western Penn- 
sylvania. For a century or more this 
crossing place was known as Wright's 
Ferry, in honor of the Quaker, John 
AA'right, who first opened it. 

Anderson's Ferry, extending from 
Marietta to the York County side, was 
opened about 1730, and was extensively 
used in colonial days and later by travelers 
going from Southern Penns3dvania to 
Reading, Easton and New York. It was 
later known as the Glatz Ferry, and termi- 
nated on the western side at the pictur- 
esque point now known as Accomac. An- 
other early crossing place nearby w^as 
known as Vinegar Ferry. Farther up the 
stream and above the falls at York Haven, 
Joshua Lowe obtained a patent for a ferry 
in 1737. Many of the early Quaker settlers 
crossed here. During the Revolution it 
was known as Rankin's Ferry, and in 1794, 
a regiment of Pennsylvania troops crossed 
here on their way to the Whiskey Insurrec- 
tion. Near the site of Goldsboro, extending 
across the river to the Dauphin County 
side, Nathan Hussey opened a ferry as early 
as 1738. He was a leader among the first 
Quaker settlers, and one of the commis- 
sioners to lay off York County in 1749. The 
first band of Quaker settlers west of the 
Susquehanna crossed the river at this point, 
in 1734, and took up lands in Newberry 
Township. This ferry was later moved 
farther up the stream and has since been 
known as Middletown Ferry. 

Robert Chambers established a ferry 
across the Susquehanna terminating on the 
York County side below New Cumberland, 
in 1735. Many of the Scotch-Irish settlers 
in the Cumberland Valley crossed the river 
here. For the through travel from the 
south this ferry was used extensively 
before the Revolution. AVilliam Chesney, 
a patriot of the Revolution, for many years 
owned a ferry which crossed the river below 
New Market^ and died there in 1782, leaving 
a large estate in York County. The ferry 



was then purchased by ^Michael Simpson, 
who had served as a Heutenant and later as 
a captain in the Revokition. After the war 
he was a brigadier-general of militia and 
died at his ferry house below New Market 
in 1813. When the Susquehanna bridge 
was built at Harrisburg in 1816 this ferry 
was discontinued. 

Col. Thomas Cresap, an influential settler 
in Maryland, owned a ferrj- at the mouth 
of the Susquehanna as early as 1724, and 
shortly after married the daughter of 
Thomas Johnson, ^^•ho had established a 
temporary ferry at Peach Bottom. AVhen 
Cresap laid his plans to dri\e the Germans 
from their settlements in the valleys east of 
York, he obtained a Alaryland patent for 
the Blue Rock Ferry, which was about four 
miles south of Wrightsville. This ferry 
was continued after the border troubles had 
ended, and was later known as the Myers 
and the Dritt Ferry, being owned after the 
Re\-olution by Capt. Jacob Dritt, who was 
drowned in the Susquehanna, while at- 
tempting to cross when the wind was high 
and the water turbulent. A ferry extended 
across the river at York Furnace for many 
years. The river is narrow at this point. 
Ashmore's, afterwards Nelson's, and still 
later McCall's Ferry, was the most impor- 
tant crossing place over the Lower Susque- 
hanna for a century and a half. It was 
opened about 1740. Peach Bottom Ferry 
was opened under a Pennsylvania patent in 
1738, and during the days when the lumber 
interests along the upper Susquehanna were 
most extensive, this was a very important 
crossing place. 


The first bridge in York Count}' extended 
across the Codorus Creek at Market Street, 
York, and was built in 1743. A legal record 
entered in January, 1768, petitioning for a 
new stone bridge, says, " The old bridge of 
wood at High (Market) Street is much de- 
ca3'ed; the sills are rotten, so that it is 
dangerous to cross with heavy wagons." 
In the same year a stone bridge was built 
at this place. A wooden bridge across the 
Conewago, be3'ond Dover, was built in 1768 
and a stone bridge at the same place in 181 1. 

Under an act of the Legislature approved 
April 2, 181 1, a state appropriation was 
made to assist chartered companies in the 

erection of bridges across the Susquehanna 
at Harrisburg, at Northumberland and at 
McCall's Ferry. They were all built by 
the noted engineer, Theodore Burr, the in- 
ventor of the " Burr Bridge Plan." The 
Harrisburg bridge was commenced in 1812 
and completed October, 1816, at a cost of 
$192,138. The part of the bridge nearest 
the city was taken away b}' the flood of 
1S46, and a second bridge at a subsequent 
flood. Mr. Burr and his son, after com- 
pleting the Harrisburg bridge, commenced 
the construction of the one at McCall's 
Ferry, which cost $150,000. During its 
short existence, it was considered a re- 
markable structure, but was taken away by 
the ice flood of 1817. Theodore Burr, who 
was born at Torringford, Conn., in 1762. 
and 1789 married the granddaughter of 
Captain Cook, the great English navigator, 
died at Middletown, Dauphin County, No- 
vember 21. 1822, while superintending the 
erection of a bridge across the Swatara at 
that town. 

A bridge was built across the Susque- 
hanna at York Furnace in 1855, and taken 
away by the flood the next year. 

Tlie first bridge across the Susquehanna 
between AA'rightsville and Columbia was 
completed in 1814. It was 5,690 feet long, 
a little more than a mile in length. It was 
removed by an ice flood in 1832. The 
second bridge was a covered wooden struc- 
ture placed on twenty-three stone piers. It 
was destroyed by fire by a regiment of 
Pennsylvania troops at Columbia on the 
evening of June 28, 1863, to prevent Gor- 
don's brigade of Confederate soldiers from 
crossing the stream at Wrightsville to the 
Lancaster County side. This bridge had 
been used from the year 1838 to the time of 
its destruction by wagons and carriages and 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 
for several years passengers were trans- 
ported across the river in flat boats. In 
1869 the Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
built a third bridge across the river at this 
place. This structure was blown down and 
removed from its piers by a wind storm on 
September 30, 1896. This also had a drive- 
wa}' for carriages and wagons and a track 
used by the railroad company for passenger 
and freight trains. The fourth bridge is 
5,375 feet, or a little more than a mile, in 
length and was built by the Pennsylvania 



Railroad Company in 1S97, at a cost of half 
a million dollars. It rests upon two abut- 
ments and twenty-five piers, each 200 feet 



Origin of the Society — Immigration to 
America — Early Settlement of York 
County — Newberry Meeting — Warring- 
ton Meeting — Fawn Meeting — Menallen 
Meeting — York Meeting. 

'I'he Society of Friends arose in England 
about the middle of the seventeenth 
century, at a time of considerable religious 
commotion in that country. They were 
first called Quakers in derision, by Justice 
Bennet, because George Fox, the founder 
of the society, bade him and his associates 
to tremble at his word. They accepted the 
name so far as to style themselves " The 
people called Quakers," in all their early 
books of record. Faith without formula 
was their cardinal principle, for they 
adopted no creed and believed in the con- 
trolling influence of the " inner light," 
which is given to every man. 

Among the early members of this Society 
was William Penn, a man of trained intel- 
lect, gifted in speech and a courtier in man- 
ner. He was a son of a distinguished 
admiral in the English navy, and both he 
and his father were always on terms of 
intimacy and friendship with the royal 
family. Penn became interested in the 
emigration to New Jersey and then decided 
to found a Quaker colony according to his 
own ideas. He inherited a claim of sixteen 
thousand pounds, due by the crown to his 
father, and King Charles II, who never had 
much ready money to pay his debts, was 
glad to settle this account by granting him 
forty thousand square miles of land west of 
the Delaware River. In commemoration of 
Penn's father, the King gave to this princely 
domain the name of Pennsylvania. In 1682 
the proprietor himself with one hundred of 
his chosen followers, crossed the Atlantic 

and on the banks of tlie Delaware founded 
the city of Philadelphia. The same year, 
under spreading branches of a large elm he 
met the chiefs of various native tribes of 
Indians and made a treaty of peace and 
friendship with them that was never sworn 
to and never broken. 

In his first relations with untutored red 
men of the forest he impressed himself so 
deeply upon them that the name of Penn 
for many years was so great among the 
Indians that to be one of his followers was 
at all times a passport to protection and 
hospitality among them. In the language 
of the historian, Bancroft, " while every 
other colony was visited, in turn, by the 
terrors of Indian warfare, no drop of 
Quaker blood was ever shed by a red man 
in Pennsylvania." Soon after the landing 
at Philadelphia, Penn laid off the three 
original counties of Chester, Philadelphia 
and Bucks. Then he sent an emissary to 
treat with the Five Nations of New York, 
who by right of conquest some years before, 
claimed the title to lands now part of Cen- 
tral Pennsylvania. But a little band of 
Indians called the Conestogas, who stayed 
along the Susquehanna a few miles south 
of the present site of Columbia, claimed 
that the other Indians had no right to make 
a treaty conveying lands west of the Sus- 
quehanna. Then AVilliam Penn visited the 
Conestogas and in the presence of their 
chiefs, unfolded the deed of parchment, laid 
it on the ground before them and with the 
gentle words of a loving parent, said : " The 
lands along the Susquehanna shall be in 
common between my people and your 
people, and we will dwell in peace together." 
In 1722, four years after the death of Penn, 
Sir AA'illiam Keith, governor of the prov- 
ince, came west of the Susquehanna and 
had surveyed two thousand acres of land 
at and above the present site of Wrights- 
ville, which he called his " Newberry tract." 

The same year, after getting permission 
from the Conestoga Indians, he surveyed a 
tract of seventy thousand acres for the use 
of Springett Penn, the grandson of the 
founder, and he named it the " JNIanor of 
Springettsbury." Soon afterwards the fol- 
lowers of Penn, in large numbers, located on 
lands north of the Conewago Creek and ex- 
tended their settlement into Adams County. 
Thev at once organized religious meetings. 


built houses of worship, and estabhshed 
schools. When York was founded in 1741, 
some of them located here. Three of the 
five commissioners who laid ofif York 
County, in 1749, were English Quakers, 
and a majority of the early court justices 
and members of the Assembly from York 
County were of the same people. 

The Quakers played a great part in the 
earl}^ history of Pennsylvania, and for 
nearly a hundred years — up to the time of 
the Revolution — they had a controlling in- 
fluence in the Provincial Assembly. The 
political changes resulting from the war re- 
moved them from power and they never 
afterwards regained their former position. 
They held their own in Philadelphia for 
half a century after the Revolution, and 
through their enterprise and thrift made 
that city the greatest business center on 
the continent, and the metropolis of the 
Union, a proud position which she held until 
1850. It is only within the last decade that 
the city has begun to recover from the 
effects of the retirement of the people who 
created her early reputation. 

In the increase of membership the 
Friends as a religious Society have not kept 
pace with other denominations with which 
they were so closely allied two hundred 
years ago. In some of the western states 
the liberal Quakers, who have instituted 
modes of religious worship more like other 
churches, are growing in numbers and in- 
fluence. A recent report of the Society 
places the entire membership in this 
country at one hundred and fifty thousand, 
a greater number than there were in 
America at the close of the Revolution. 

Persecutions were continued 
Immigration with more or less severity 
to America. until the accession of AYil- 

liam and Mary to the throne 
of England, when an act of toleration was 
passed in 1689. Prior to this, however, 
many Friends had sought a home for re- 
ligious liberty in America, and when Wil- 
liam Penn established his colony in 1682, it 
was but natural that a large number should 
have been attracted here. The settlement 
at first near the Delaware River, largely 
by Friends, gradually extended backward, 
and though the Scotch-Irish and Germans, 
after thirty years, began ^to pour into the 
country, the Friends wielded the political 

power of the Province of Pennsylvania for 
more than seventy years. At length, when 
others by unjust treatment had aroused the 
savage nature of the aborigines, and the 
mother country had become involved in a 
war with France, the pressure brought to 
bear upon the province by England and the 
neighboring colonies was too great for a 
continuance of a peaceful policy; warlike 
measures must be enacted, and yielding to 
the inevitable, several Friends withdrew 
from the halls of legislation in the Penn- 
sylvania Assembly, leaving their places to 
be filled by those not opposed to war. 

Friends were among the first 
Migration settlers in York County, and 
to York they came from New Castle 
County. County, Delaware, then a part 
of the " Territories " of Penn- 
S3d\'ania, and the southern part of Chester 
and the eastern part of Lancaster Counties. 
We naturally think of them as coming up 
to York County by the rich valleys of the 
Pequa and the Conestoga to their new set- 
tlements on the " west side of the Susque- 
hanna," and in tlie northern part of York 
County, extending their settlements west 
into what is now Adams County. ' AA'hen 
Friends ;migrated from one place to 
another in which they wished to locate, 
permission was granted by the meetings to 
which they belonged, and the record of it 
was placed on the minute books. Among 
the first emigrants who came to this county 
are recorded the names of Garretson, Day, 
Cox, Bennet, ■ Lewis, Hussey, Frazer, 
Hodgin, Carson, Davison, Elliot, Mills, 
Key, Smith and Underwood. John Day 
built the first mill in the northern part of 
the County before 1740. It was twelve and 
one-half miles north of York. He became 
the first president justice of the York court. 
Nathan Hussey opened a ferry in 1736, near 
the present village of Goldsboro. At that 
point some of the early Quaker emigrants 
crossed the Susquehanna. John Wright, 
who obtained authority from the Lancaster 
County courts to establish a ferry, at the 
present site of Columbia, and who named 
Lancaster County, and afterward for six- 
teen years was president justice of the 
county court, was a Quaker, and many of 
his Society, as well as Germans and Scotch- 
Irish, crossed the Susquehanna at this ferry. 
Another prominent Quaker was Samuel 



Blunston, tlie agent of the Penns, who 
granted permits for lands west of the Sns- 
Huelianna for several years, and had a con- 
trolling influence in the settlement of York 
County, from 1733 to 1737. He lived at 
John Wright's ferry. John \\'right, Jr., 
located at the present site of Wrightsville. 
Nathan Hussey, Thomas Cox and John 
Wright, all Friends, became three of the 
five commissioners who laid oi¥ York 
County in 1749. Few people now living- 
have a correct idea of the number of Friends 
who migrated to and resided in York 
County a century and a half ago. About 
1810 the western migration fever began to 
draw them awa}-, and hundreds of them 
helped to establish new meetings in Ohio, 
Illinois, Iowa and other points. Much 
earlier than that many of them moved to 
North Carolina, Virginia and western Penn- 

The organization and sub- 
Plan of ordination of the meetings 
Organization, of the Friends are as fol- 
lows : One or more meet- 
ings for worship constitute one preparative 
meeting; one or more preparative meetings, 
one monthly meeting; several monthly 
meetings, one quarterly meeting; several 
quarterly meetings, one yearly meeting, 
which is an independent body; yet the 
different yearly meetings maintain more 
or less of correspondence with each 

The preparative meetings are held 
monthly, and generally in the week prior 
to the regular monthly meeting, for the 
preparation of reports and other business, 
to be presented thereat. 

The monthly meetings are the principal 
executive branch of the Society for the 
exercise of the discipline over the members, 
and keep regular voluminous minutes of 
their proceedings as also records of births, 
deaths and marriages. " Indulged " meet- 
ings for stated periods are held by sanction 
of monthly meetings, but all meetings 
subordinate to, are established permanently 
by authority of the quarterly meetings, and 
these in turn by the yearly meetings. 


The first members of the Society of 
Friends settled in York County in 1734, lo- 

cating in the Eastern parts of ^Manchester 
and Newberry Townships and in the Red- 
land Valley around the site of Lewisberry. 
They obtained authority from the Sadsbury 
meetings in Lancaster County to organize a 
preparative meeting in 1738. Religious ser- 
vices were held first in the houses of mem- 
bers. A log meeting house was built at the 
site of Newberrytown in 1745. 

The original Newberry meeting land, 
which is in the present village of Newberry- 
town, consisted of a hexagonal tract of 42 
acres and 61 perches, surveyed April loth, 
1767, to John Garretson and Joseph Hutton, 
in trust for the Society of Friends. Infor- 
mation about the earl}' meeting houses is 
ver}' meagre, but the first building, which is 
said to have been of logs, was probably 
erected on this tract. The old burial ground 
in the eastern part of Newberrytown is all 
of the plot that is now owned by the So- 
ciety. The remainder of the land and the 
meeting house, which, according to the in- 
scribed stone in the west gable, was erected 
in 1792, was sold about 181 1 by authority of 
a special act of State Legislature, and the 
meeting Avas removed to another location 
about two miles west of the town, midway 
between New'berrytown and Lewisberry. 
Here a stone meeting house was built on a 
five acre lot sold to Jesse W^ickersham and 
George Garretson, in trust for the Society, 
by Samuel Garretson and Alice, his wife, by 
deed of loth mo. 4 da., 181 1. In 1898 the 
meeting house was re-covered with a slate 
roof and thoroughly repaired. The grave- 
yard presents a well kept appearance 
and is enclosed by an iron fence. Oc- 
casional services are held in this meeting 

" The Newberrj' community," says Al- 
bert Cook Myers, in his excellent work en- 
titled " Immigration of the Irish Quakers 
into Pennsylvania," " received a consider- 
able body of the Irish Friends, but not so 
large as did Warrington and Menallen. 
Some of these who settled at Newberry 
were: Timothy Kirk and his sons, Jacob, 
Timothy, Caleb, Ezekiel, and Jonathan 
Kirk ; Robert ^^'hinery, originally from 
Grange, probably near Charlemont ; Robert 
]\Iiller and his son. Samuel: George Boyd, 
Joshua Low, Joseph and John Hutton, \\'il- 
liam \\'ilson, and several members of the 
Hobson family." 


At Sadsbury 'Monthly meeting. 
»y , jNIarch 7, 1739 : " There being divers 

IViewDerry families of Friends of late settled on 

Meeting the west side of the Susquehanna, 

Pprorrjt; 5°™*^ °f '1^*="^ '''^^'^ produced certifi- 

JXCLU1U&. ^gjg^ pj jj^j^ meeting from Kenett 

meeting, where they formerly dwelt, 
there being four mentioned in one certificate bearing the 
date February 10, 1738, viz. : Xathan Hussey, Ann, his 
wife ; John Garretson and Content, his wife ; John Day 
and Ann. his wife ; Christopher Hussey and Ann, his 
wife, and another certificate from the same place bearing 
the date May 4, 1738, recommends Joseph Bennett and 
Rebecca, his'wife, all of whom this meeting receives in 
membership with us. 

•• The friends of that settlement being desirous of a 
toleration from this meeting to keep meetings of wor- 
ship every first day and fourth day of the week for six- 
months time, which request is granted." 

9-5-1739: "The new meeting settled on the west side 
of the Susquehanna, having had some time past a tolera- 
tion from this meeting to hold meetings of worship 
every first day and fourth day of the week, and the 
time being expired, at the request of several of them, 
being in this meeting, friends allow them twelve months 
longer to be held as before." 

6-5-1745: "Andrew Moore. Calvin Cooper, Jonas 
Chamberlain and Thomas Bulla are^ appointed to visit 
the meetings on the west side of the Susquehanna, to see 
how they fare in the truth, and report to next meeting." 

8-7-1745: "Friends expressed their satisfaction in re- 
spect of a visit made to friends on the west side of the 

At Concord Quarterly Meeting. 9-ii-i745'- " Leacock 
(Sadsbury) Monthly Meeting concurring with the 
friends oil the west side of the Susquehanna who con- 
tinue their request of having a meeting for worship and 
a preparative meeting settled among them, in regard 
■ thereto this meeting appoints our friends, John Smith, 
John Baldwin, Jacob Way, John Way, Joseph Gibbons, 
William Levis and Robert Lewis, to give those friends a 
visit and consider how far they may be able to keep up 
a meeting with reputation; as also to view and judge of 
a suitable place to build a meeting house on, and make 
report thereof at our next meeting." 

12-10-1745: "The Friends appointed at the last quar- 
terly meeting to visit Friends on the west side of the 
Susquehanna report they gave those friends a visit, 
and after some time spent and consideration had on the 
affair, do judge as it appeared to them that the Friends 
of Newberry and those of Warrington may keep up a 
meeting for worship, as also a preparative meeting with 
reputation, and Leacock monthly meeting continuing 
their approbation of the affair, this meeting agrees that 
the Friends of Warrington build a new meeting house 
for worship on the land agreed on when Friends were 
there, and to keep their meetings of worship on every 
first and fourth day of the week, and that Warrington 
and Newberry have liberty to keep one preparative 
meeting until further order." 

At Sadsbury monthly meeting, 1-3-1745-6: "The re- 
quest that went to last quarterly meeting was granted, 
i. e., that Newberry meeting has liberty to hold meetings 
of worship every first day and fourth day of the week, 
as Warrington has on every first day and fifth day of 
the week, and those two meetings to make up one pre- 
parative meeting, to be held at each place turn about." 

2-7-1746: "Newberry preparative meeting recom- 
mends John Day and William Garretson for overseers 
in that meeting, which is approved in this meeting until 
further order." 

At Warrington monthh' meeting, 2-9-1771 : "This 
meeting received written answers from each of our pre- 
parative meetings except Newberry; and it appears that 
the care of this meeting towards that meeting is neces- 

sary, which is left under consideration until next meet- 

4-13-1771 : " William Garretson, William Underwood, 
William iMatthews, William Willis, William Penrose, 
John Griest and Peter Cleaver are appointed to attend 
Newberry preparative meeting and give such assistance 
as they may be enabled to do." 

5-11-1771: "Four of the committee appointed to at- 
tend Newberr}' preparative meeting report they did and 
that the cause is not yet removed ; this leaves the case 
of that meeting under consideration until next meeting." 

7-13-1771 : " Newberry meeting continued under care 
of a committee." 

12-14-1771 : "The former committee is continued to 
visit Newberry preparative meeting and William 
ivjiatthews. William Penrose, William Nevitt, William 
Willis and Herman LTpdegraff are added to their assist- 
ance ; and this meeting also appoints them to visit Men- 
alien and Huntingdon preparative meetings and make 
report to next meeting." 

5-9-1772 : " Part of the committee appointed to visit 
Newberry preparative reports that they have performed 
that service, and also reports that the}' decline to answer 
the queries, as they apprehend it will cause a breach of 
unity amongst them, which is to be hinted in the report 
to the quarterly meeting for their advice and assistance." 

6-13-177-: "Agreeable to the request of last meeting, 
part of the committee from the quarterly meeting at- 
tended this meeting, and after some time in deliberation 
on the affair, advised the meeting to appoint a com- 
mittee to sit with Newberry and Huntingdon Friends at 
their preparative meetings, preceding the quarterly 
meeting, which is left under consideration until ne.xt 

10-10-1772: "Three of the committee appointed to 
visit Newberry preparative meeting, reports that they 
have performed that service and also report that they 
are of the mind that a visit of solid Friends would be 
of benefit to that meeting, therefore this meeting ap- 
points William Willis and Benjamin Underwood, Ann 
Steer and ^liriam Hussey to sit with them at their next 
meeting and make report to next meeting." 

1-9-1773 : The case of Newberry meeting left under 
solid consideration. 

7-8-1775 : "Some Friends living a considerable dis- 
tance from Newberrj' meeting, near Yellow Breeches, re- 
quest to be indulged with holding a week-day meeting 
at the house of William Maulsby." 

This place was in what is now Fairview 
Townsliip. At the last session of the 
monthly meeting, Isaac Everett, Peter 
Cleaver, John Garretson, Sr., Joseph Elgar, 
John Underwood, Record Hussej' and Wil- 
liam Underwood were appointed to sit with 
them at the place proposed to hold said 
meetings and report. Of the female mem- 
bers of the committee were Mary Chandlee, 
Jane Taylor, Joanna Heald, Ann Penrose, 
Hannah Cadwalader and Martha Everett. 

A favorable report was granted to allow 
them to hold a meeting on the fifth day of 
each week, except the day of Newberry pre- 
parative meeting, which they were urged 
to attend. William ^Matthews. Ellis Lewis, 
Herman Updegrafl", Timothy Kirk, A\"illiam 
Garretson, AA'illiam Penrose were asked to 
attend their meeting at William ?^Iaulsbv's 



' i 



liouse whenever conx'enient. Of the female 
members Hannah Matthews, Sarah Kirk, 
Lydia Updegraff, Ann Penrose, Mary 
Chandlee, Rebecca Machlon and Miriam 
Hussey were appointed to meet with them 
and join the male Friends appointed to that 

A discussion arose about building" a meet- 
ing house near the residence of Widow 
Maulsby in what is now Fairview Town- 
ship, the religious services having before 
been held in her house. In 1780 the meet- 
ing was changed to the house of Samuel 
John, near the same place. This meeting- 
was held at this place because the Newberry 
meeting house was not central enough for 
all members. It continued at the house of 
Samuel John until 6- 12- 1784, when a com- 
mittee consisting of Joseph Updegraff, Wil- 
liam A\'illis, Elisha Kirk, Joseph Elgar, 
Peter Cleaver, AVilliam Kersey, James 
Thomas, William Underwood, Daniel 
Ragan, Benjamin Walker, Hannah Willis, 
Ruth Kirk, Deborah Thomas and Hannah 
Matthews reported that in their judgment 
.this "indulged" meeting "would best be 
discontinued and Friends in that locality 
meet in the old Newberry meeting house. 
It would thus tend to the preservation of 
unity but recommend the building of a 
meeting house at a more central place for 
the body of Friends." 

9-13-1794: Newberry meeting stated that 
there was but one surviving trustee, Samuel 
Garretson. James Wickersham and Ezekiel 
Kirk were then appointed. 

12-19-1810: Newberry preparative meet- 
ing desired to sell land where old meeting 
house is bviilt, and purchase other in a more 
central place, whereupon Jesse Wickersham 
and George Wickersham were appointed 
trustees, who were also reqviested to secure 
the passage of an act of Legislature to sell 
the land connected with the old meeting 

4-23-1823: Joel Garretson and Jesse 
Wickersham were appointed trustees of 
Newberry burying ground. 

In 1830 Job Hoopes and Benjamin Gar- 
retson became trustees of meeting house 

5-21-1840: "Newberry Friends informed 
the monthly meeting that they have en- 
closed a graveyard at the new meeting 

house, and propose closing the former one, 
it being full." 

In 1848 Thomas Garretson was appointed 
trustee. A proposition to discontinue this 
meeting in 1855 was Avithdrawn. 


The Warrington meeting, in \\'arrington 
Township, about nine miles southwest of 
Newberry and midway between the present 
villages of \A^eIlsville and Rossville, was 
regularly established in 1745, and a log 
meeting house erected the same year on a 
tract of 29 acres and 156 perches, " near the 
land of Stephen Eyles (Ailes) on a branch 
of Conewago " Creek. A warrant, dated 
July 5, 1745, was issued for the land to be 
held in trust for the Society of Friends, but 
owing to an irregularity, the land was later 
b}' proclamation, declared vacant and after- 
ward granted by patent, dated i mo. 22 da., 
1767, from John Penn, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, to AA'illiam Garretson, William Un- 
derwood, William Penrose and Peter 
Cleaver, in trust for the Society, the con- 
sideration being 9 pounds, 12 shillings and 
9 pence. The following list contains the 
names of some of the original members, 
who contributed toward paying for the land 
warrant and survey :• 

We, the subscribers, knowing the necessity of public 
worship, and being destitute of a piece of land to set a 
meeting house, do, each of us, unite to pay the respective 
suras under written, in order to get a warrant for 
twenty -five acres of land adjoining Stephen Ailes' land, 
as witness our hands. 

John Earl ss. 

Alexander Underwood ... 3s. 

Thomas Cox 5s. 

Joseph Garretson Ss. 

William Garretson 5s. 

Christopher Hussey 5s. 

James Frazer 4s. 

Hall Cox 3S. 

Samuel Underwood 3s. 

Thomas Cook 3s. 

Richard Wickersham 3s. 

William Underwood 3s. 

Peter Cook is. 6d. 

Received of Thomas Cox. two pounds, eight shillings 
and six pence in order to take out a warrant for twenty- 
five acres of land on a branch of Conewago, near 
Stephen Ailes'. 
6-20-1745. THOMAS COOKSON. 

In 1769 a new stone meeting house was 
built near the old one. In 1782 it was found 
necessary to enlarge the building to almost 
double its original size in order to ac- 
commodate the quarterl)'- meeting, and a 
stone addition was made to the north end. 


The following year the old end was thor- 
oughly repaired and given a new floor and 
a new roof. With the exception of a slate 
roof and other repairs, effected in 1888, the 
old structure remains substantially as it was 
in 1782, and is still surrounded by a strip of 
the primitive forest. On account of the 
emigration the regular meeting was dis- 
continued about the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, and now meetings are held 
on only one first-day each year. 

" A large number of Irish 
Irish Friends," says Albert Cook My- 
Friends. ers, " made their way to the War- 
rington settlement. Among them 
were Thomas Wilson, from Grange, near 
Charlemont, in 1748, a little later removing 
to Fairfax meeting, Virginia; Thomas 
Blackburn, from Ball3'hagen, County Ar- 
magh, in 1749; the brothers George, John 
and AVilliam McMillan, from Nantmeal, 
Chester County, 1750; John Marsh and sons 
John, Joshua, Jonathan and William, also 
from Nantmeal, 1750; Peter Marsh, brother 
of John, from the same place and same date ; 
AA'illiam Nevitt, a minister of the Society, 
from Moate, County \A"est Meath, 1751; 
William Hutton, from New Garden, Chester 
County, 1751; Samuel Hutton, from Exeter, 
Berks County, 1753; Nicholas Steer, from 
Sadsbury, 1759; John Boyd and son W^il- 
liam, from Sadsburj', the former in 1765, 
and the latter in 1754; James Love, from 
Sadsbury, 1761 ; Francis and Thomas 
Wilkinson, with their mother, Elizabeth, 
widow of Joseph Wilkinson, from Chester 
County, in 1 760; Francis Hobson, from 
Ballyhagen, County Armagh, 1764; Aaron 
Coates, from Bradford, Chester County, 
1767; William Pillar, from Grange, near 
Charlemont, 1767, returning to Ireland 
1769: AVilliam Chandlee, from Deer Creek 
meeting, Maryland, 1773; Peter Milhous, 
from Chester County." 

AVarrington monthly meet- 
Warrington ing, composed of Newberry 
Monthly and AVarrington preparative 
Meeting. meetings, was established by 
authority of the quarterly 
meeting. In 1747 Sadsbury meeting ap- 
pointed a committee to visit Friends west 
of the Susquehanna. A favorable report 
was made by this committee, 9-9-1747, and 
liberty granted to organize the meeting 
" for discipline and the affairs of truth." 

The first monthly meeting was held 10-9- 
1747. AA'illiam Underwood was chosen 
clerk. The AA'arrington meeting house was 
nearly a central point of the settlement of 
Friends in the northern part of this county 
at that time, hence it was decided to hold 
the monthly meeting there, although it was 
sometimes held at Huntingdon (York 
Springs), and frequently at Newberry. The 
AA'arrington monthly meeting, 4-12-1783, 
agreed to pay 100 pounds toward building 
an addition to AA'arrington meeting house, 
which was ordered to be brought to the next 
monthly meeting. 

In 1793 Newberry meeting recjuests that 
the monthly meeting be held in their meet- 
ing house. Jesse AA^ickersham, Edward 
Jones, James Thomas, Benjamin Under- 
wood, Peter Cleaver, Samuel Garretson, 
Jonathan Marsh, Joseph Garretson, Thomas 
Leech, James Bean, John Cleaver, Cornelius 
Garretson, Thomas McMillan, AVilliam 
Nevitt, Benjamin AA^alker, Ann Marsh, Ann 
McMillan and Margaret Underwood were 
appointed to report whether this request be 
granted. It caused great discussion. Eze- 
kiel Kirk, James Hancock, Miriam Hussey, 
Deborah Thomas, Ruth Bane, Jane Hus.sgy, 
Abigail AA'hinnery, Sarah AA^illiams, Anna 
AA'ickersham and Sarah Thomas were added 
to the committee. In 1794 they report that 
they " could not unite in sentiment with said 
request." In 179S- once every three 
months, the AA^arrington monthly meeting 
was ordered to be held at Newberry meet- 
ing house. In 1805 it was ordered by the 
quarterly meeting that the monthly meeting 
be held alternatel}- at Newberry and AA^ar- 


, Records. 

At Warrington monthly meeting, 
2-16-1748: Friends of Warrington 
meeting request to have a preparative 
meeting settled among them, and 
Friends of Menailen request to have 
their meeting settled ; the requests 
are gone in the reports to the quar- 
terly meeting. 

At quarterly meeting, 3-9-1748 : The Friends of War- 
rington meeting with the approbation of their quarterly 
meeting, request that they may have the liberty of keep- 
ing a preparative meeting among them, which this meet- 
ing allows until further order. 

At Warrington monthly meeting, 4-13-1782: A com- 
mittee is appointed to make additions and repairs to 
Warrington meeting house to accommodate the quar- 
terly meeting. 

11-13-1784: The committee appointed to repair this 
house and build the addition, requested that some 
Friends might be appointed to settle with them. There- 
fore, James Hancock, Harmon Updegraff, Jacob Wor- 



ley, Joseph Updegraflf and Samuel Miller arc appointed 
to that service, to report to next meeting. 

8-13-1785: Report:- — We, of the committee appointed 
to settle the accounts with the trustees who were ap- 
pointed to have the care of building the addition and re- 
pairing of Warrington meeting house, met, and after 
examining the accounts find that all the meetings have 
paid in their quotas except Warrington, which is yet 
behind the sum of 8 pounds, i shilling and 8 pence, 
which is due to Benjamin Underwood; and it appears 
that there yet remains the further sum of 9 pounds, 12 
shillings and 8 pence, due from the monthly meeting to 
him, the whole amounting to 17 pounds, 14 shillings and 
4 pence. Signed by James Hancock, Joseph Updegraff, 
John Marsh, Harmon Updegraff, Samuel Miller. 

6-8-1793: Warrington preparative meeting informs 
that they apprehend it may be needful to appoint an 
additional number of suitable Friends as trustees for 
the land belonging to their meeting, as three of the 
former are deceased ; this meeting therefore, after con- 
sidering that case appoints Benjamin Walker, Thomas 
McMillan, Joshua Vale and John Cleaver to that trust. 

9-7-1805: As there has often appeared a dilificulty with 
Warrington preparative meeting in raising money neces- 
sary for the purposes of the societj-, under consideration 
of which this meeting appoints Samuel Garretson, Sam- 
uel ^Miller, Thomas McMillan, Robert Vale, John 
Cleaver, William Edmundson, Elisha Cook, James Bane 
and Isaac Kirk to apportion the members of that meet- 
ing as justly and nearly agreeable their circumstances 
as may be, and make report to next meeting of their 
care therein. 

2-20-1822: Warrington preparative meeting submits 
the following proposition to this meeting : propose that 
the families of Friends in the western end of that par- 
ticular meeting be indulged with a meeting for worship, 
which being considered this meeting appoints Jesse 
Wickersham, Thomas Leech, Zephaniah Underwood, 
Aaron Frazer, Samuel Garretson, John L. Garretson, 
Thomas McMillan, Willing Griest and Amos Griffith to 
unite with a like committee of women" Friends, Hannah 
Leech, Phoebe Wickersham, Ann Garretson. Sarah 
Cook, Ruth ^McMillan, in considering the subject and 
report their prospects thereon to ne.xt or a future meet- 

5-23-1822 : The committee on the subject of an in- 
dulged meeting requests assistance ; this meeting there- 
fore adds Xathan Thomas. Thomas Garretson, Daniel 
Cookson, John S. Garretson, Jacob McMillan, Joseph 
Taylor, John Cleaver, and Joseph Garretson, Sarah 
Cookson, Anne Griest, Susannah Cleaver, Deborah Grif- 
fith, Martha Vale, Sarah Walker and Anne Wickersham 
to that meeting. 

6-19-1822: The committee on the indulged meeting 
report they cannot unite in believing the time is j'et come 
for a division of Warrington meeting, 

3-18-1830: John Cookson and Cyrus Griest are ap- 
pointed trustees for Warrington meeting house and land 
in the room of Benjamin Walker and John Cleaver, de- 

4-22-1835: Warrington preparative meeting proposes 
Jacob Mclilillan and Asabel Walker, trustees for War- 
rington meeting house and land in the room of Thomas 
McMillan and Joshua Vale, deceased, which is concurred 
with and they appointed to the trust. 

3-21-1839: Daniel Garretson, Solomon Griest and 
Joshua Griest are appointed trustees for Warrington 
meeting house property in the room of Cjrus Griest, 
Jacob McMillan and John Cookson. 

5-18-1843: John Cook, Sr., and William Armitage are 
appointed to have care of Warrington graveyard and 
funerals, those formerly appointed having removed. 

5-18-1854: William Cadwalader, Asabel Walker and 
George W. Cook are appointed, on request of Warring- 
ton meeting, to have care of the graveyard and over- 
sight of funerals. 

4-23-1856: William Cadwalader is appointed trustee 
for Warrington meeting house property in room of 
Daniel Garretson. 


At a western quarterly meeting, held at London 
Grove, Chester County, 8-15-1763, Deer Creek, Md., 
monthly meeting mentions that a few families of Friends 
settled in Fawn Township, York County, were desirous 
of having the privilege of holding a meeting, having 
selected a spot of ground on which they designed to 
build a meeting house. Thomas Jackson, Thomas Bar- 
ret, Joshua Brown, Thomas Carlton, William Sanborn, 
William Swayne, and Isaac Whitelock were appointed to 
visit them and make a report. 

11-21-1763: The committee reported: That, having 
met and viewed the place purposed by them to build a 
meeting house on which place being not yet secured 
and the winter season approaching, they are of a mind 
that it is best for this meeting to defer granting their 
request until the spring; yet that Deer Creek monthly 
meeting may allow them the same liberty as formerly, 
and have a watchful eye over them to see whether they 
maintain the privilege granted them with reputation, 
whith report was signed by all the committee, and being 
twice read and considered, it is particularly recom- 
mended to Deer Creek monthly meeting to make a close 
inspection how the Friends of Fawn Township keep up 
their meeting the ensuing winter, and make report 
thereof hereafter to this meeting, 

2-20-1764: The case of the Friends in and near Fawn 
Township in York County is still continued under the 
care of T)eer Creek monthly meeting. 

There is no further mention of this 
monthly meeting in the minutes of western 
quarterly meeting up to 5th mo., 1779. 

In Levi K. Brown's brief account of the 
meetings, belonging to Baltimore yearly 
meeting, 1875, it is stated that : 

"This meeting, a branch of Deer Creek monthly meet- 
ing, was probably held as early as 1780, then a branch 
of the Gun Powder monthly meeting. In 1790 the first 
meeting house was built, and in the fifth month, 1792, 
the preparative meeting was started. In 1S70 there were 
thirty-four families and parts of families. Total, 100 
members. ^Midweek meetings fourth days, at 10 o'clock 
summer, 11 winter. It probably never belonged to Gun 
Powder meeting. 

At Warrington monthly meeting, 1-8-1785, Our 
Friend, Ruth Kirk, in a solid manner, expressed a con- 
cern that hath for some time attended her mind to at- 
tend a little meeting of Friends in Fawn Township, and 
to visit the families belonging to it. And our Friend, 
Hannah Willis, having expressed a freedom to go with 
her, which, being considered in this meeting, there ap- 
peared a uniting therewith, and Josepn Updegraff ap- 
pointed to accompany them therein." 

The Fawn meeting house is located in the 
village of Fawn Grove, in Fawn Township. 
First day and fourth day meetings are 
regularly held and a regular organization 
kept up. 


About nine miles southwest of \\'arring- 
ton, in Latimer, now Huntingdon Town- 



ship, Adams County, originally York 
County, is Huntingdon meeting house, 
situated on a wooded ridge overlooking 
Bermudian Creek, some two miles southeast 
of the borough of York Springs, formerly 
Petersbvu"g. Unauthorized meetings were 
held in the neighborhood as early as 1745, 
for at Sadsbury monthl}' meeting, 9 mo., 4 
da., 1745, William Garretson was directed 
to read three papers of acknowledgment 
" at Huntingdon meeting." These meet- 
ings evidently con\'ened at the house of 
John Cox, where nearly all the early mar- 
riages are known to have occurred. The 
meeting was not regularly established until 
1750. The meeting land, consisting of a 
rectangular tract of five acres, called 
" Zion," was conveyed to trustees of the 
meeting by William Beals, by deed of' 12 
mo., 9 da., 1766, and was part of fifty acres 
granted to Beals by the proprietors' war- 
rant of June 24, 1763. The present edifice, 
erected in 1790, has recently been covered 
with a slate roof and otherwise placed in a 
good state of preservation, but regular 
meetings have long ceased to be held. 


The first location of Menallen meeting 
was about seven miles west of Huntingdon, 
on the east side of Opossum Creek, in Men- 
allen, now Butler Township, Adams County, 
originally York County. 6 mo., 4 da., 1746, 
Sadsbury monthly meeting " tolerates the 
Friends of Menallen to have meetings of 
worship to be kept on First Day and Fifth 
Day until further orders." 2 mo., 16 da., 
1748,. " Friends of Menallen request to 
have their meeting settled," and later in the 
year the meeting was regularly established. 
The meeting land, consisting of 20 acres and 
153 perches, was not granted until May 26, 
1788. It is not known when the first edifice 
was built, but Nicholas Scull's map of the 
state shows that one had been erected as 
early as 1758. In 1838 the original site was 
abandoned: the old log meeting house was 
taken down, removed about three miles to 
the northwest and rebuilt in a more con- 
venient place, near Flora Dale, about one 
mile south of what is now Bendersville. In 
1884 the old log house gave way to the 
present brick building, erected to the rear of 
the former one on a plot of 84 perches, pur- 
chased in 1871. The meeting is still well 

attended, and with the exception of Fawn 
meeting, in the southeast corner of York 
County, is the only surviving meeting of the 
original York County. 

In its early years Menallen meeting was 
distinctively an Irish meeting, the majority 
of its members being from Ireland. Among 
them were John Blackburn, judge of the 
York County court in 1764, county treas- 
urer in 1759 and 1766, and member of As- 
sembly; Daniel Winter, William Delap, 
Joseph Hewitt and son George, from Bally- 
hagen meeting. County Armagh; John 
Wright, from Castleshane, County Mona- 
ghan; John Morton, from New Garden, 
Chester County; Thomas Nevitt, from 
Sadsbury; William Newlin and Moses Har- 
lan, son of George, from Chester County; 
George Wilson, Solomon Shepperd and 
Jacob Hinshaw, from Grange, near Charle- 
mont ; Robert Mickle, from Dublin ; and 
Francis Hobson, Jr. 


'Vhe Quakers were among the earliest set- 
tlers in York County. Most of them located 
north of the Conewago Creek, extending 
their settlements westward into the present 
area of Adams County. After the erection 
of York County, in 1749, a number of in- 
fluential Quakers moved to the vicinity of 
York, when it became the seat of justice. 
Among them were Nathan Hussey, Wil- 
liam Willis and John Day, who became the 
first president justice of the county courts. 
In 1754 they obtained permission of the 
Warrington monthly meeting to hold an 
" indulged " meeting in York. 

The original meeting house, which is yet 
standing, is located on West Philadelphia 
Street, between Beaver and Water Streets. 
Meetings are still kept up, though the 
Society is very small at present. The east- 
ern part of the lot on which the meeting 
house stands was purchased in the year 
1765, from Nathan Hussey and his wife, 
Edith, for the use of the Society of Friends. 
During the following year the eastern part 
of the present building was erected. The 
records give the following named persons 
as contributors : 

Nathan Hussey 15 pounds. 

William Willis 15 

Joseph Updegraff 15 '" 

Joseph Garretson 12 

William Matthews 12 " 







Herman UpdegrafF 12 pounds. 

Jesse Flakner. 
James Love. 
John Collins. 
Joseph Collins. 

In 1773 the western portion of the lot on 
which the meeting house is built was do- 
nated to the Society of Friends forever. 
Ten years later the western division of the 
present meeting house was added. By this 
time the membership had greatly increased. 
Warrington monthly meeting included the 
preparative meetings of York, Newberry, 
Warrington, Huntingdon and Menallen. 

.\niong the leading preachers who con- 
ducted services in York meeting house 
during the days of the past were Peter Far- 
nell, Margaret Elgar, William Matthews, 
deputy state surveyor; Elisha Kirk, Ann 
Jessop, Jesse Kersey, and Thomas W'ether- 
ald. Characteristic of all Friends' meeting 
houses, records of births, marriages and 
deaths of this one were carefully kept, as 
well as minutes of regular meetings. They 
are still in existence, except those taken 
away with the flood of the Codorus in 1817. 

Job Scott, one of the most celebrated 
preachers of the Quaker faith, made a tour 
of America, visiting the different meetings 
of his Society. In 1790 he came to York 
County. The following is from a journal 
published by him the same year: 

'■ Coming north from Virginia, I had very 
good meetings in the meeting houses at 
Menallen, Huntingdon (Adams County), 
Newberry, Warrington, and York; at each 
of these places to my great satisfaction. At 
York I had three meetings and remained 
some days. I formed a good opinion of the 
town. On the 6tli day of the first month, 
1790. I went to a place called Wright's ferry,- 
on the Susquehanna River, where I had 
good meetings at the house of the Widow 

The York meeting house was built on 
lots Nos. 175 and 176 of the town of York. 
They were patented by Thomas and 
Richard Penn to Nathan Hussey, 1763, and 
by him deeded to W'illiam W^illis, Joseph 
Garretson, Herman Updegraff, as trustees, 
" for the use of the Society of the Friends 
forever." In 1764 the York " indulged " 
meeting became a meeting for worship, but 
ordered " to remain members of the New- 
berry preparative meeting as before." The 
meeting house was completed in 1766, and 

in 1767 the York preparative meeting 
established. In 1783 York meeting re- 
quested to have afternoon meetings on 
First days to begin at the third hour, which 
was granted, desiring " that Friends of that 
meeting may take their children and families 
with them to meeting." In 1784 they re- 
quested that a monthly meeting for dis- 
cipline be settled among them, which was 


Robert Hodgin, of Manchester, in the 
County of Lancaster, carpenter, and Theo- 
date Seal, widow of Joseph Seal, were mar- 
ried 5-29-1740, at a meeting at John Day's 
house in Manchester, with the following 
witnesses : 

Rebecca Bennett, Anne Hussey, 

Hannah Fincher, Nathan Hussey, 

Mary Cox, John Hussey, 

Rebecca Cox Christopher Husse}', 

Esther Davis, Content Garretson, 

Anna Garratson, Ann Day, 

Martha Garratson, John Day, 

Sarah McAnabley, Thomas Fioland, 

Elizabeth Price, Peter Worrall, 

Margaret Carson, Thomas Cox, 

James Clenison, John Noblet, 

Francis Fincher, Ann Noblet, 

Joseph Bennett, Ann Hussey, 

William Garretson, Margaret Hussey, 

Joseph Garretson, John Garretson, 

William Griffith, William Cocks, 

James Moore, Samuel Cocks, 

Thomas Riley, John Bailey, 

Jacob Youngblood, James Ashton, 

William Baley, Charles McAhele, 

James Baley, Patrick Carson. 

James Frazer, of Manchester Township, 
in Lancaster County, and Rebecca Cox, 
daughter of Thomas Cox, of Manchester, 
were married 8-22-1740, " in a public and 
solemn assembly of the aforesaid people, 
and others met together at the house of \\\\- 
liam Garretson, in Manchester, in the 
Countv of Lancaster." W' itnesses : 

Eleazer JNIires, 
Joseph Garretson, 
Joshua Kenworthy, 
Francis Fincher, 
Edward Mullenaex, 
William Griffith, 
Andrew Rogers. 
Christopher Hussey, 
John Garretson, 
Joseph Bennett, 
John Earl, 
Samuel Underwood, 
John Noblet, 
Charles Phillips, 
William Garretson, 
Daniel Early, 
George Alford, 
Ann Cox, 

Thomas Cox, 
Alexander Frazer, 
Mary Cocks, 
Alexander Fraizer, 
Isaac Cox. 
John Cox. 
Rebecca Bennett, 
John Fincher, 
Nathan Hussey, 
Mary Cox, 
Ann Noblet, 
Content Garretson, 
Theodate Hodgin, 
Alary Craig, 
.\nne Wakelin, 
Esther Garretson, 
Rebecca Rogers, 
Jane Fincher. " 



Thomas Davison, of AA'arrington, in the 
County of Lancaster, blacksmith, and Sarah 
Eliot, daughter of Sarah Farmer, of Man- 
chester, spinster, were married 9-9-1743, at 
a public meeting house in ^Manchester. 
Witnesses : 

Joseph Bennett, 
John Noblet, 
Patrick Carson, 
Thomas Leech, 
Peter Stout, 
Anne Hussey, 
Content Garretson, 
Theodate Hodgin, 
Rebecca Bennett, 

Jane Carson, 
Anne Day, 
Mary Carson, 
John Davison, 
Sarah Farmer, 
Benjamin EHot, 
Jacob EHot, 
Jolin Farmer, 
John Day. 

Alexander Fraizer, of Pennsburj' (now in 
Fairview Township), in Lancaster County, 
yeoman, and Phoebe Eliot, of Manchester, 
were married 10-10-1743, at a public meet- 
insr house in Manchester. AA'itnesses : 

Joseph Bennett, 
Nathan Husse}', 
John Da}'. 
William Garretson, 
Thomas Leech, 
Edward AluUenaex, 
Patrick Carson, 
James Bennett, 
Edmond Fitzizaurice. 
John Noblet, 
John Garretson, 
Mary Garretson, 
Sarah Davison, 


Rebecca Fraizer, 
James Fraizer, 
Isaac Eliot. 
Benjamin Eliot. 
Jacob Eliot, 
Abraham Eliot. 
Rebecca Bennett. 
Content Garretson, 
Naomi Garretson. 
JNIartha Garretson, 
Susannah Mills. 
Catherine Eliot, 
Jane Carson, 

Moses Key, of Newberry, in the County 
of Lancaster, laborer, and Susannah Mills, 
of the same township, spinster, were mar- 
ried 3-23-1744, at a public meeting house in 
Newberrv. AA'itnesses: 

Rebecca Bennett, 
Ann Hussey, 
Content Garretson, 
Jane Carson, 
Susannah Hussey, 
Nathan Hussey, 
John Day, 
John Garretson, 

Joseph Bennett. 
Patrick Carson. 
William Bennett, 
Isaac Bennett, 
Nathan Hussey, jr., 
John Day, jr., 
Robert Mills, jr., 
Robert Mills, 

Mary ]\Iills. 

Joseph Garretson, of AA'arrington Town- 
ship, yoeman, and Mary Mills, of Newberry, 
were married 7-25-1745, at Newberry meet- 
ing-house. AA'itnesses : 

Jonas Chamberlain, 
John Earl, 
Thomas Cook. 
Robert Hodgin, 
Calvin Cooper, 
Thomas Prowell, 
-Andrew !Moore, 
John Noblet. 
Francis Fincher, 

Hannah Fincher, 
Joseph Heald, 
i\Iartha Garretson, 
Naomi Garretson, 
Anne Husse}', 
Content Garretson, 
Mary Garretson, 
Rebecca Bennett, 
Robert Alills, 

Nathan Hussey, 
John Garretson, 
William Garretson, 
Christopher Hussey, 
John Day, 
Nathan Hussey, jr., 
Samuel Cox, 
Susannah Hussey, 
Mary Co.x, 
Thomas Bulor, 
Benjamin Eliot, 
Patrick Carson, 
Joseph Key, 
John Dav, 
Sarah M'ills, 
William Bennett, 
Abraham Noblet, 
Isaac Cox, 


Thomas Cox, 
Elizabeth Willy, 
Mary Hussey, 
Sarah Bennett, 
Isaac Bennett, 
Ann Day, 
Sarah Cook. 
Susannah Ke}-, 
Jane Carson, 
Moses Key, 
William Cox, 
Olive LTnderwood, 
Jane Underwood, 
Joseph Bennett, 
Mary Carson, 
Mary Davison, 
Phoebe Frazer, 
Sarah Farmer, 
faret Stout. 

Isaac Cox, son of Thomas Cox, of AA^ar- 
rington, and Olive Underwood, daughter of 
Alexander Underwood, of AA^arrington, 
were married at AA'^arrington meeting 9-27- 
1746. (Names of witnesses not copied.) 

AVilliam Smith, son of John Smith, de- 
ceased, of AA'arrington, and Jane Under- 
wood, daughter of Alexander, of the same 
place, were married 8-9-1747 at AA'arrington 
meeting. AA'itnesses: 

Rebecca Bennett, 
Mary Garretson, 
Joseph Garretson, 
Samuel Cox, 
Thomas Cox, 
Isaac Cox, 
William Griffith, 
Joseph Bennett, 
John Wright, 
John Co.x. sr., 
John Cox, jr.. 
Benjamin L'nderwood, 
Solomon Shepherd, 
William Ferrall, 
Peter Cook, 

Alexander Underwood, 
Joseph Smith, 
William Underwood, 
Rebecca Bennett, 
Mary Garretson,. 
Olive Cox, 
Anne Hussey, 
Mary Garretson, 
Margaret Carson, 
Sarah Mills, 
Hannah Co.x, 
John Pope, 
John Beals, 
Richard Co.x, 
Thomas Cook. 

Samuel Cox, son of John, of Huntingdon, 
and Hannah AA'ierman, daughter of AA'il- 
Jiam, of Huntingdon, were married at Hunt- 
ingdon meeting 8-22-1747. (AA^itnesses' 
names not copied.) 

Robert Vale and Sarah Butler were mar- 
ried in AA^arrington 8- 10- 1748. He was 
born in London, was an excellent classical 
scholar. They became acquainted on board 
the ship while immigrating". In a note 
Robert A^ale says, " when he came to York 
County, it was a wilderness of woods, and 
Indians came to see them after their mar- 

AA'illiam Beals to ]\Iary Mullineux, lo-i- 

Nathan Hussey, Jr., to Susannah Heald, 



John Garretson to Jane Carson, 6-22-1749. 
William Osborne to Rebecca Cox, 10-5- 


Benjamin Underwood to Susanna Gnest, 
daughter of John Griest, 7-1-1750. 

There are recorded in one of these books 
296 marriages, extending from 1747 to 1849. 
In this list the name Garretson occurs 45 
times; Griest, 25 times; Grii^th, 18 times; 
Hussey, 17 times; Updegraff, 20 times; 
^^'illis, 10 times; Vale, 21 times; Wright, 10 
times; Wickersham, 18 times; Mills, 10 
times; Morthland, 7 times; Cook, 25 times; 
Blackburn, 25 times; Hammond, 6 times; 
Kirk, 13 times; Penrose, 7 times; Cadwal- 
ader, 17 times; Atkinson, 15 times; Cleaver, 
10 times; Marsh, 6 times; Jones, 7 times; 
McMullin, 19 times; Underwood, 20 times; 
Thomas, 10 times; etc. 

The following is a list of the 
Marriages marriages at York meeting, as 
at York. far as recorded : 

John Cope, of the borough of 
Lancaster, in the County of Lancaster, son 
of Caleb Cope and Mary, his wife, and Mary 
Updegraff, daughter of Harmon Updegraff 
and Lydia, his wife, 9-13-1786. 

Daniel Ragan, of York Town, in the 
County of York, and Ruth Worley, widow 
of Francis Worley, late of the same place ; 

Joe Willis, of the borough of York, son 
of AVilliam Willis and Betty, his wife, the 
latter deceased, and Hannah Jessop, of the 
same place, daughter of Thomas, deceased, 
and Ann: 12-12-1787. 

John Bentley, of AA'arrington, son of John 
and Tamer, deceased, and Susanna Jones, 
of the borough of York, daughter of John 
and Elizabeth; 10-22-1788. 

Josiah Jordan, of Manchester, son of 
Janies, deceased, and Charity, and Lydia 
Miller, of Manchester, daughter of Solomon 
and Sarah, deceased; 6-17-1789. 

Ellis Cleaver, of Gwynedd, son of Ezekiel 
and Mary, deceased, and Elizabeth Miller, 
daughter of Solomon, of the borough of 
York, and Sarah, deceased; 4-7-1791. 

Caleb Bracken, of the borough of York, 
son of James, deceased, and Mar)', and Re- 
becca Miller, of the borough of York, 
daughter of Solomon and Sarah, deceased; 


Jonathan Jessop, of the borough of York, 
son of Thomas, deceased, and Ann, and 

Susanna Updegraff, of the same place, 
daughter of Joseph and Mary; 4-6-1794. 

Thomas Walmsley, of Byberry, Philadel- 
phia County, and Ruth Kirk, of the borough 
of York, daughter of Solomon and Sarah 
Miller, and widow of Elisha K. ; 6-5-1794. 
She died 6-18-1798, in her forty-seventh 
year; a minister about twenty-three years. 

Alexander Underwood, of Warrington, 
son of John, deceased, and Mary, and 
Rhoda Updegraff, of York, daughter of 
Harmon and Lydia, deceased; 10-22-1794. 

William Farquhar, of Pipe Creek, Fred- 
erick County, Md., son of William and Ann, 
deceased, and Lydia Willis, daughter of 
William, of York County, and Betty, de- 
ceased; 12-8-1796. 

Harmon Updegraff, of the borough of 
York, and Susanna Mills, of the same place, 
widow of AN'illiam ]\Iills, late of Lancaster 
County; 1-14-1801. 

Thomas Conard, of the Northern Lib- 
erties, of Philadelphia, son of Matthew and 
Mary, deceased, of Philadelphia city, and 
Sarah Welch, daughter of William and 
Hannah, of the borough of York; 9-9-1801. 

W^illiam Farquhar, of Frederick County, 
Md., son of Allen and Phoebe, deceased, and 
Sarah Updegraff, daughter of Joseph and 
Mary, of the borough of York; 10-7-1801. 

Thomas Leech, of Warrington Township, 
son of Thomas and Phoebe, and Hannah 
Garretson, of East Manchester, daughter of 
Cornelius and Margaret, deceased; 2-10- 

John Worle}', of York County, son of 
Jacob and Ann, and Elizabeth Coats, of the 
borough of York, daughter of Aaron, de- 
ceased, and Mary; 7-6-1803. 

Daniel Hains, of Frederick County, Md., 
son of Nathan and Sofia, deceased, and 
Rachel LTpdegraff, daughter of Ambrose 
and Elizabeth, deceased, of York County; 

Timothy Kirk, of York Town, son of 
Timothy and Mary, of Harford County, 
Md., and Edith Kirk, widow of Eli, and 
daughter of Joseph and Susanna Updegraff', 
deceased; 3-16-1808. 

Samuel Jeff'eris, son of William, deceased, 
of Pennsj'ivania, and Priscilla, and Lydia 
Cope, daughter of John, deceased, of York 
borough, and Mary; 9-13-1809. 

Amos Griest, of York, son of Joseph, of 
Latimore, Adams County, and Rebecca, and 



Phoebe Swayne of York, daughter of 
James and Hannah, deceased; 10-18-1809. 

Mordecai Williams, of Warrington, and 
Mary Holland, of York Town; 3-14-1810. 

Samuel Cook, of Warrington, son of 
Samuel and Ruth, deceased, and Sarah Gar- 
retson, daughter of Cornelius, of Anne 
Arundel County. Md., and Margaret, de- 
ceased ; 4-17-181 1. 

Amos James, of Baltimore city, son of 
Thomas, deceased, of Harford County, Md., 
and Ann. deceased, and Mary Cope, widow 
of John, and daughter of Harmon' Upde- 
graff, deceased, of York, and Lydia, de- 
ceased; 6-12-1811. 

John Gillingham, of Baltimore city, son 
of James and Elizabeth, of same, and Mar}- 
Updegraft, daughter of Joseph and Mary, of 
York, the former deceased; 9-21-1814. 

Benjamin Garretson, of Newberry, son of 
Samuel and Alice, deceased, and Orpah 
Smith, daughter of Samuel, of Spring Gar- 
den Township, and Ruth; 8-13-1823. 

Obadiah Dingee, of Lampeter, son of 
Jacob and Elizabeth, deceased, of East 
Marlborough, and Hannah Welch, daughter 
of William, deceased, and Hannah, of York ; 

Phineas Davis, of York, son of Nathan 
and Mary, deceased, of Grafton, N. H., and 
Hannah Taylor, of York County, daughter 
of Libni and Sarah, of Clearfield County, 
Penna. ; 11-15-1836. 

This meeting was established in 
York 1786 and ordered to be held " on 
Monthly the fourth day of the week pre- 
Meeting. ceding the second first day of 
each month, and known as the 
York monthly meeting." The first meet- 
ing was held on the fifth day of the seventh 
month, 1786. Persons appointed to the 
meeting were Edward Jones, James Han- 
cock, John Garretson, Benjamin Under- 
wood, John Marsh, AVilliam Nevitt, Samuel 
Cookson. The women appointed were 
Miriam Hussey, Elizabeth Cook, Sarah 
Williams, Ruth Cook, Lydia Garretson. and 
Hannah Kirk. William Kersey was ap- 
pointed clerk of the meeting in 1786, and 
John Lone, overseer. Elisha Kirk succeeded 
as clerk, and Joseph Updegraff overseer. 
AVilliam AA'elch was appointed in 1786 to re- 
cord births and deaths. Harmon Updegraff 
was appointed elder in 1787. Thomas Owen 
in 1814. and Amos Farfjuhar clerk in 1814. 

In 1793 this meeting was informed that a 
number of Friends had settled at AA'right's 
Ferry, and permission was granted them to 
hold " a meeting for worship;" Jacob AA'or- 
ley, Caleb Kirk, Jonathan Jessop and John 
Love were appointed to visit the Friends at 
AA'right's Ferry and assist them in 1797; 
Jonathan Jessop was appointed clerk of the 
York meeting in 1797, "in room of Elisha 
Kirk, who died." 

The meeting at AA'right's Ferry, in the 
house of Andrew Moore, was continued 
until 5-8-1798. 

The following death records were re- 
ported at dates named ; " Our esteemed 
friend. Hannah AA'illis, an elder, departed 
this life 5-10-1798. AA^illiam AA^illis, an 
elder, died 9-25-1801, in the seventy-fourth 
year of his age. Hai-.mon Updegrafif, an 
elder, died 5-20-1811, aged seventy-three 
years. Joseph Elgar, a minister, died 7-13- 
181 1, aged eighty-one years. Ann Love, an 
elder, died 8-14-1821. Margaret Elgar, a 
minister, died 3-29-1821, in the eighty- 
second year of her age." 


Johanna Heald died 1781, in what is now 
Fairview Town'ship. She was a noted 
Quakeress preacher. 

In 1779, sixteen acres of land were pur- 
chased on Avhich to build a school house. 
The trustees appointed were Ellis Lewis, 
John Garretson, AA'illiam Lewis and James 
Kingsley. This school house was built at 
Lewisberry, which was then a hamlet in 
Red Land Valley. 

James Thomas was a highly esteemed 
preacher in 1795. 

Edward Jones was an estimable gentle- 
man and highly respected preacher. After 
the removal of the Newberry monthly 
meeting farther west he lived in the old 
Newberry meeting house. He was thrown 
out of a carriage and his leg was broken, 
7-29-1823. and died soon after, aged eighty- 
three years. 

Peter Cleaver, who came from Upper 
Dublin. Philadelphia County, was for thirty 
years a clerk of AA arrington and Newberry 
monthly meeting. AA'illiam Underwood 
was clerk from 1747 to 1775. Susannah El- 
gar. Isaac Everett and Abel Thomas were 
noted preachers in 1780 and before. During 
the latter part of the Revolutionary period 

a,-<J — 



Abel Thomas visited Friends in North 
Carolina, and afterward acted as a guide to 
Gen. Greene in his retreat northward across 
that state when pursued by Cornwallis. He 
afterward passed through the British lines 
to remain with Friends, and protect them 
during the war. Many friends had emi- 
grated from York County to that state 
years before. 

John Day was appointed elder of New- 
berry meeting in 174S, and Peter Stout was 
made overseer the same year. 

Thomas Wilson, John Blackburn, Wil- 
liam Delap, Daniel Winter, Patrick Carson 
and others, located in York County, 1736, 
coming from Calahagan, Ireland. 

Henry Clark built a sawmill in Warring- 
ton, 1748. He came from Chester County. 
He sawed the timber for the new court 
house at York in 1753. Aaron Frazer pro- 
duced a certificate from Newark meeting 
and located in York County, 1748. 

The following is a form of marriage 
certificate used in 1780: 

Whereas, William Squibb, of the Township of War- 
rington, and County of York, in Pennsylvania, son of 
William Squibb and Sarah, his wife, and Jane Morth- 
land, of the township and countj' aforesaid, daughter of 
William Alorthland and Ruth, his wife, having appeared 
before several monthly meetings of the people called 
Quakers, at Warrington, and declared their intention of 
marriage with each other, according to the good order 
used amongst them ; and having consent of their parents 
and parties concerned, their proposal of marriage was 
allowed by the said meetings. Now these are to certify 
whom it maj' concern, that for the full accomplishment 
of their said intention, they, the said William Squibb 
and Jane Morthland, appeared at the public meeting at 
Warrington, in the County of York, on the twenty- 
fourth day of the second month, in the year of Our Lord 
One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty. And then 
and there, in the said assembl}', the said William Squibb 
taking the said Jane Alorthland by the hand did in a 
solemn manner, openly promising with the Lord's assist- 
ance, to be unto her a loving and faithful husband, until 
death should separate them. And then and there, in the 
same assembly, the said Jane Morthland did in like man- 
ner declare, that she took him, the said William Squibb, 
to be her husband, promising with the Lord's assistance, 
to be to him a loving and faithful wife until death 
should separate them. 

And moreover, they, the said William Squibb and Jane 
Morthland, she, according to the custom of marriage, 
assuming the name of her husband, did then and there 
.to these presents set their hands. 


And for a further confirmation, we, whose names are 
also here imderscribed, who were present at the 
solemnization of the said marriage and subscription, 
have, as witnesses, thereunto set our hands the day and 
year above written. 

William Squibb William Underwood 

William IMorthland .\lexander L''nderwood 

Ruth Morthland Rebecca Morthland 

Robert Morthland 
Robert Squibb 
John Marsh 
Joseph Bradley 
Mary Squibb 
Jane Yarnell 
Mary Godfrey 
Sarah Thomas 
Martha iNIorris 
John Marsh 
Robert Vale 
George Newcomer 
Jacob Underwood 
Benjamin Walker 

Ruth Walker 
Rebecca Co.x 
Rutli Underwood 
Benjamin Underwood 
David Cadwalader 
Sarah Cadwalader 
Joshua Vale 
Jonathan Mash 
Margaret Lerew 
Miriam Hussey 
Sarah Williams 
William Garretson 
John Vale 
John Godfrey. 

Most of the early Friends who set- 
tled in York County were an excellent 
class of people, and carried out the mode of 
discipline of the society in respect to war, 
intemperance, marriage, etc. 

The following notes will illustrate a few 
points and will doubtless l)e read with in- 
terest : 

Patrick Carson, a Scotch-Irish- 
Random man, though a member of the 
Notes. Society of Friends, in 1748, 
" passed the lie "" on Thomas 
Cox, a fellow-member. This caused a dif- 
ficulty. John Day and Richard Wickersham 
were appointed to bring them to "terms of 
peace." They were obliged to go to 
Chester County, where the trouble origi- 
nated. Upon their return, Patrick was 
made to subscribe his name to an apology, 
which he did in order to remain in " friendly 
unity with the society," but afterwards " he 
regretted to believe that his allegations 
were true." 

Joseph Bennet, 7-10-1748, signed a docu- 
ment as follows : " I acknowledge with 
great sorrow that I was overtaken with the 
effects of spirituous liquors in the harvest 
field, reaping for John Rankin in Red Land 
Valley (Lewisberry) last harvest. It was 
a hot day. I drank more than I should have 
to drive out the sweat to make me in better 
capacity to follow my work, but it pro- 
duced the contrary effect, so that I was for 
a time light in the head and talked foolish. 
AA'ishing to remain in unit}' with the 
Friends, I hereby acknowledge my error." 

Thomas Cook was reproved in 1747 by 
Newberry meeting for drinking spirituous 
liquors, and John Day was appointed to 
oversee him. 

Richard Carson, in 1765, was required to 
acknowledge in public at meeting " his 
great error for having a fiddling and danc- 
ing party at his house." 


A certain member was disowned by the 
Society for failing to pay a debt to Joseph 
Hutton, in 1758. 

Joseph John, a member, was made to 
apologize for his error " for running off 
with and marrying a woman that some one 
else intended to marry." 

John Blackburn and John Pope, in 1755. 
joined the forces from York County to quell 
the Indian troubles along the northern and 
western frontier. They were the first to 
A'iolate the laws of the Societj' of Friends. 
According to the principles of the great 
founder of Pennsylvania, the Indians were 
to be treated with, and not quelled by force 
of arms. A committee was appointed to 
persuade them " in love and amity that they 
might see the error of their way." These 
two men, however, would not yield. John 
Blackburn afterward became one of the 
president court justices of York County, and 
during the Revolution was one of the first of 
the Friends to join the American army. 

Thomas Noblet appeared before New- 
berry meeting, 8-21-1756, and said: "I ask 
pardon for not keeping the principles of 
truth, and giving way so far to the enemy, 
to enlist as a soldier, contrary to the good 
order kept among the Friends, for which I 
am very sorry." 

Abraham Noblet entered the military 
service during the French and Indian war. 
A committee was appointed by the monthly 
meeting to treat with him and endeavor to 
bring him to a sight of his error. He 
acknowledged his error after retiring from 

Armael Fincher, 6-8-1758, signed the fol- 
lowing document : 

Dear Friends : — Whereas I have been educated in the 
way of truth among the Society of Friends, but for 
want of keeping to the principles thereof, in my own 
heart, have gone far astray, being much surprised as to 
the reports of the Indians being in the neighborhood, I 
took my gun in order to defend myself, for which I am 
sorry, and give this for the clearance of truth. I hope 
to be more careful of my conduct in the future. 

Henrv Underwood enlisted as a soldier 
in 1756. He afterward at meeting acknowl- 
edged it to be " a great wrong to bear arms 
against his countrymen, and kill them." 

Plenry Clark, on 2-18-1758, acknowledged 
his great wrong in being overtaken with 
strong drink, and got his gun to defend 
himself against the Indians, " whereof I am 
sorrv and ask to be foro-iven." 

Abraham Noblet acknowledged his error 
in being married " by a priest to a woman 
not a member of the Society of Friends." 
He appeared at A'Varrington monthly meet- 
ing and made an apology, which by order of 
meeting was to be read publicly at the New- 
berry preparative meeting by Joseph Ben- 
net, and Noblet re-instated in meeting, 
which was done. 

Francis Fincher and AA'illiam Bennet had 
to submit to a public censure in meeting 
" for drinking too freely and using bad 
words." Samuel Underwood and William 
Griffith were appointed to treat with them. 

James McGrew, in 1757, acknowledged 
his error " for taking too much drink while 
with others and singing improper songs." 

John Powell asked permission of War- 
rington meeting to go to New Garden, 
Chester County, " to take a young woman 
for a wife," in 1749. Granted. 

John Griest produced a certificate from 
Concord, Chester County, 1759, and located 
in AA'arrington. 

John Willis became a member of New- 
berry meeting in 1756. 

John Rankin, 10-7-1771, bought a slave, 
which was contrary to the rules of Friends. 
Timothy Kirk, William Lewis, William 
Penrose and John Hancock were appointed 
to treat with him, but their report was un- 
favorable and he would not concede his 
error. John Rankin afterward became a 
colonel in the Third Battalion of York 
County Associators, during the Revolution, 
but in 177S became a tory. An attempt was 
made to capture him, but by aid of his slave, 
Ralph, he escaped and went to Long Island. 
He afterward sent an order manumitting 
his sIa^'e. Col. Rankin and his brother, Col. 
AA'illiam Rankin, were quite influential 
during the earh^ part of the Revolutionary 

Jedadiah Hussey, who lived in Warring- 
ton about 1800, could lift a barrel full of 
cider to his mouth and drink out of it. 

JESSE KERSEY, an eminent minister of 
the Society of Friends, was born in York, 
eighth month, fifth day, 1768. His father, 
A\'illiam Kersey, who was clerk of the York 
and \\'arrington meetings, was married to 
Hannah Bennett, daughter of Joseph Ben- 
nett, one of the first settlers in the vicinity 
of Lewisberry, this county. Jesse Kersey 
went to Philadelphia in 1784 to learn the 


trade of potter, and while following that 
occupation was a constant and devoted 
student of sacred literature. In 1789 he be- 
came a teacher in Chester County; in 1790 
was united in marriage with Elizabeth 
Coates, moved to York, and pursued his 
trade until 1794. The following year he 
traveled a distance of 1,700 miles in three 
months, through Maryland, Virginia, and 
North Carolina, and until 1804 spent most 
of his time traveling in America, visiting 
Friends' meetings and preaching. In the 
latter year he visited England and Ireland, 
returned home in 1805 and became a prom- 
inent preacher of the Philadelphia yearly 
meeting. In 1814 he visited the south 
under a concern in especial relation to 
American slavery and the mode of deliv- 
erance from its evil consequences. Upon 
his return he visited President Madison, to 
whom he presented his views on this sub- 
ject, and was received by the president with 
great cordiality. He then continued his 
travels through Virginia, holding" meetings 
and discussing the question of human bond- 
age. On account of his kind and persuasive 
manner he was treated courteously even by 
his strongest opponents. He continued to 
preach until his death in Chester County, in 
the fall of 1845. Jesse Kersey was a man 
of remarkable purity and simplicity of char- 
acter, and is declared " to have gone to his 
grave with the benedictions of many 
thousands who knew him, and without the 
enmity of one living being." He was a man 
of extraordinary endowments, and one of 
the ablest and most eloquent speakers 
among the Society of Friends. Immense 
congregations always greeted him on his 
travels, for his fame had gone before him. 
There was a dignity and nobleness about 
him that always commanded respect and 
gave evidence of an exalted aim. 

Says an able writer, " no more gratified 
and impressive powers of sacred eloqvience 
have been heard in America or England 
than those which proceeded from the lips 
of Jesse Kersev." 



Immigration to America — Customs and 
Habits — Scotch-Irish in Lower End — 
Migration Westward — Marsh Creek Set- 

The Scotch-Irish were Scotch and 
English people who had gone to Ireland to 
take up the estates of Irish rebels confis- 
cated under Queen Elizabeth and James I. 
This same James, who was King of Scot- 
land as James VI., encouraged his Presby- 
terian subjects to emigrate to Ireland and 
occupy the confiscated lands. The migra- 
tion was numerous, and began in the early 
part of the seventeenth century, about 
seventy-five years before the founding of 
Pennsylvania. Towards the middle of the 
same century the confiscation of Irish lands 
by Cromwell increased the emigration to 
still greater proportions, and after this 
many Englishmen joined the movement. 

These people, English and Scotch, who 
occupied Ireland in this way have usually 
been known in England as Ulstermen, and 
in America as Scotch-Irish, and are, of 
course, totally different in character as well 
as in religion from the native Irish. Even 
those who came to Ireland from Scotland 
were not Celtic Scotch, but people of 
English stock who had been living for many 
generations in Scotland, so that neither the 
name Ulstermen nor the name Scotch-Irish 
is at all descriptive of them. 

They became famous in history for their 
heroic defence of Londonderry against 
James II. They were more thrifty and in- 
telligent than the native Irish. They took 
the land on long leases, and began to make 
it blossom like a garden. They were, how- 
ever, soon put to a severe test by the perse- 
cutions of Charles I., who, after coming to 
the English throne in 1625, attempted to 
force the Scotch people in Scotland and Ire- 
land to conform to the Church of England. 
At the same time the native Irish rose to 
expel the Scotch, and succeeded in killing 
a few thousand. So between their two per- 
secutors these settlers,. already sturdy from 
their race and religion, were not without 
the additional discipline of suffering and 


Many of them immigrated to 
Immigration America, especially when the 
to America. long leases on which they 
held the Irish land began to 
expire. The movement began about the 
year 1700 and continued for forty or fifty 
years. Some of them went to Maryland 
and a great many went to Virginia, where 
they still constitute a distinct element in the 
population. In Virginia, as elsewhere, most 
of them sought the frontier. In fact, in 
colonial times, they could be found on the 
whole American frontier from New Hamp- 
shire to Georgia. They did not, however, 
all settle along the frontier of Pennsylvania. 
Many of them remained in the southeastern 
portion of the province, settling in Phila- 
delphia and the southern parts of Chester 
and Lancaster Counties, where they soon 
took position among the leading citizens of 
that region. A colony of Scotch-Irish took 
up the valuable lands at Donegal, north of 
Columbia, in Lancaster County. Another 
body of bold frontiersmen settled at Paxton, 
below the site of Harrisburg. 

AVhen the land west of the Susquehanna 
was purchased from the Indians by a treaty 
made with the Five Nations in 1736, the 
Scotch-Irish migrated across the river in 
vast numbers. As early as 1742 many of 
them located in the western part of York 
County, now included in the County of 
Adams. This was known as the "Marsh 
Creek settlement," and its people were 
among the most enterprising west of the 
river. Meantime, as will be mentioned in 
the succeeding pages of this chapter, many 
Scotch-Irish crossed the Susquehanna at 
the Peach Bottom ferry and took up lands 
in the southeastern section of York 
County, beginning as early as 1733. The 
Scotch-Irish also flocked across the Susque- 
hanna at Harris's Ferrv and took up the 
fertile lands then known in the Colonial 
Records as " The Valley of the Kittatin- 
ney," and later as the Cumberland Valley. 
Within a few years this productive region 
Avas populated almost exclusively by intelli- 
gent Presbyterians, who had come to Penn- 
sylvania from the north of Ireland. Some 
of these extended their settlements into the 
northwestern part of York County, where 
they formed the Monaghan settlement 
around the site of Dillsburg. 

Being asked by the proprietaries of Penn- 

sylvania to occupy the frontier, the Scotch- 
Irish eagerly accepted the invitation. They 
were not quick to follow the precepts of 
William Penn or practice his method of 
treating with the Indians. They preferred 
the musket to the pipe of peace, and as a 
result of their bold antagonism to the red 
men, they helped to bring on the border 
warfare, which caused considerable blood- 
shed among the settlers in central Pennsyl- 
vania, even before the French and Indian 
war, which spread consternation through 
all the interior parts of the province. Even 
James Logan, a Scotch-Irishman himself, 
while serving as secretary of the province, 
made the declaration that " there are too 
many Scotch-Irish on the frontier already, 
who incite the Indians to warfare, and cause 
abundant troubles to the authorities of the 
province."' The stream of migration passed 
through Cumberland County and the west- 
ern part of York County into Virginia, 
where many Germans and Scotch-Irish 
early in its settlement occupied that long 
and fertile region known as the Shenandoah 

A\'hen the French and Indian 

Their war opened, the people of this 

Patriotism, race in Pennsylvania were 

quick to respond to the call 
for troops. These American soldiers 
having had experience with Indian warfare, 
even taught the British regulars how to 
fight the aborigines. There were two com- 
panies of York County troops in the battle 
near Fort Duquesne, where Braddock was 
defeated, in 1756, and another company of 
si-xty men from York County were among 
the bravest of the soldiers who, under Gen- 
eral Armstrong, defeated the French and 
Indians at Kittanning, a short distance 
northeast of Pittsburg, on the Allegheny 

When the Revolution opened in 1775. the 
Scotch-Irish from the Marsh Creek settle- 
ment, southeastern and other sections of 
York County, were among the first to offer 
their services to establish a new country, 
" conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the 
proposition that all men are created equal." 
They came to York, organized themselves 
into military companies and marched to 
Boston immediately after hearing of the 
Battle of Bunker Hill. In the picturesque 
costume of their hunting dress, these 



courageous frontiersmen attracted the at- 
tention of all the American soldiers around 
Boston, and they were the first to olifer their 
services to Washington in order to find out 
the position of the British redoubts on 
Breed's Hill, near where the battle had just 
been fought. Two companies of Scotch- 
Irish from York County, in 1775, joined the 
expedition to Canada, and during the whole 
period of the Revolution their patriotism 
and their valor were shown in all the cam- 
paigns that won triumph to the American 
cause and gained the freedom of the United 

It is not easy to describe in detail the 
home life of the early Scotch-Irish in Penn- 
sylvania or in any part of the new world. 
They did not leave behind them church 
records so exact and carefully prepared as 
did the Quakers or Germans, but their suc- 
cess and their achievements in the broad 
field of American enterprise and develop- 
ment shine brightly on the pages of Ameri- 
can history. So far as their home life can 
be portrayed from traditions which have 
come down from several generations, and 
from such eminent authorities as Dr. 
Joseph Doddridge, who spent most of his 
life in central and western Pennsylvania, 
many of the settlers of this race were a 
rollicking, roystering class of people. 

Sydney George Fisher, of Phila- 
Customs delphia, who has written much 

and of interest relating to the history 

Habits. of Pennsylvania, has the follow- 
ing" to say in reference to some 
of the customs and habits of the Scotch- 
Irish in colonial days : 

" The settlers dressed in what was called 
a hunting shirt, a garment something like 
a frock coat, reaching half down the thighs 
and belted around the waist. The bosom 
was made large, and lapped over a foot or 
more, so as to be used as a sort of knapsack 
for carrying provisions. There was a cape 
on the shoulders, which was usually 
fringed. The belt carried a hatchet, scalp- 
ing knife and bullet-pouch. Moccasins 
were worn instead of shoes. Some of the 
men dressed their legs, like the Indians, in 
a breech clout, which left the thighs and 
hips bare, and in this costume they often 
went to church. 

" Their wedding ceremonies were char- 
acteristic, and show the state of their 

civilization. These frolics were the delight 
of young and old, and were the only gather- 
ings at which there was not the labor of 
reaping, log-rolling, building a cabin, or 
planning some scout or campaign. The 
wedding company assembled at the house 
of the groom's father prepared to march, so 
as to reach the house of the bride by noon. 
They were dressed without the aid of a 
store or tailor within many miles, and their 
horses were also unaided by either black- 
smiths or saddlers. As they marched in 
double file along the narrow trail they were 
apt to be ambuscaded by surprise parties, 
who sprang out and fired to alarm the 
horses. As the cavalcade neared the bride's 
house, two of the young men usually 
started on a race to bring back the whiskey 
bottle, which was standing ready for them. 
The victor seized it and returned to pass it 
around among the company. 

" The wedding dinner was beef, pork, 
venison, and bear's meat, and if table knives 
were scarce, the scalping knives were 
drawn from the belt and used. Immedi- 
ately after the dinner, the dancing com- 
menced, and was kept up until the next 
morning. As soon as one became tired an- 
other stepped in to take his place. Who- 
ever stole of¥ to get some sleep was hunted 
up, dragged out on the floor, and the fiddler 
ordered to play ' hang on till to-morrow 

" Among such people a word was quickly 
followed by a blow, and quarrels and fight- 
ings were frequent. But in these en- 
counters no weapons were used. They set- 
tled all their difificulties with their fists ; and 
a man who was clearly no match for his an- 
tagonist was allowed to employ a friend to 
fight for him. There was no assassination, 
none of that murderous shooting at sight, 
which has become so common on the 
frontiers of modern times. 

" The laws passed by the colonial Legis- 
lature, sitting in Philadelphia, of course ap- 
plied to the frontier. But the distance made 
it difficult to administer them, and in most 
cases impossible. The people became a law 
unto themselves, had their own customs, 
and administered their own punishments, 
which usually consisted of a flogging, ad- 
ministered with a hickory stick by the per- 
son aggrieved or by the neighbors who 
knew about the of¥ense. AVhipping was 



also resorted to as a torture to force con- 
fessions of guilt. 

" Besides that relic of the Middle Ages, 
the people showed their nearness to the old 
civilization of Europe by their songs and 
tales. Lore-telling was popular, and Jack 
the Giant-Killer and romances of knight 
errantry were favorite stories. Their songs 
were mostly ballads of Robin Hood. They 
enjoyed themselves through their hospi- 
tality, which was boundless, and their 
friendships, which were ardent. They were 
fond of sports, running, wrestling", and 
jumping, and when they had enough am- 
munition they shot at mark. 

" After the year 1755, all these people, 
men, women and children, lived in a con- 
tinual state of war with the Indians. There 
were few boys so young that they could not 
fire a rifle throvigh a port hole, and few 
women who could not cut bullet patches 
and carry water. It was a wild life and a 
rough one, but it had its compensations. 
The people were hardy, vigorous and full of 
strong animal enjoyment. They were mas- 
ters of their own destinies. Every one was 
a Jack-of-all-trades, his own blacksmith, 
his own carpenter, his own cooper, his own 
gunsmith. He himself, as well as his wife, 
wove the linsey cloth which they wore. 
Nor was it altogether a monotonous life. 
The continual excitement of fort}' years of 
war, and the rapid development of the 
frontier, the growth of new settlements, the 
varied exertion required, left little room for 
sameness. Men grew old early from the 
privations and hardships, but they never 
complained that life seemed dull." 

It has been too much the 
Distinguished custom of the orators of 
Men. the Scotch-Irish Congress 

of the United States to laud 
the ^'irtues and achievements of their an- 
cestors. This fault might also be attributed 
to the members of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man Society in relation to their ancestry. 
The conservative writer of history there- 
fore is more reserved in his words of com- 
mendation, but the marks of the progress 
of this race and of her representatives in 
York Countv are evident, to any one who 
studies in detail the annals of the past. 
There were three United States Senators 
born in York Count3^ all of Scotch-Irish 
ancestr}'. Down by the l^orough of Delta, 

James Ross was born in 1762. After his re- 
moval to western Pennsylvania he became 
an eminent lawyer and distinguished states- 
man, serving nearly eight years in the 
United States Senate. James Monroe, 
President of the United States, delivered a 
speech in Pittsburg, at a meeting presided 
over by Senator James Ross, in 1817. 
Turning toward the presiding officer, while 
facing a large audience, the president gave 
credit to James Ross for having made an 
eloquent speech before the United States 
Senate, in 1802, which caused President 
Jefferson to favor the purchase of Louis- 

Somewhere in Hopewell or Fawn, Sena- 
tor John Rowan, who became otie of the 
early settlers of Kentucky, first saw the 
light of day, in the year 1773. He won fame 
and distinction in his adopted state, which 
he twice represented in the United States 
Senate. In a small home in the village of 
Dillsburg, Matthew Stanley Quay was born 
in 1833, the son of a Presbyterian clergy- 
man. He was a man of brilliant intellect 
and remarkable mental vigor. Few men in 
American history ever equalled him as a 
political leader. The achievement which 
won him most success as a statesman was 
his strong advocacy of a protective tariff, 
which is claimed by most writers of eco- 
nomics, aided in building up the industrial 
interests of the Keystone state. 

In the sphere of the law, few men in 
Pennsylvania equalled James Ross and 
Hugh Henry Brackenridge. The last 
named was born in the lower end of York 
County, and became a distinguished jurist, 
and one of the Supreme Court judges of 
Pennsylvania. Ellis Lewis, born at Lewis- 
berry, York County, who became chief jus- 
tice of this state, was descended from a ma-, 
ternal ancestor of Scotch-Irish birth. 

A brief reference to three great Pennsyl- 
vanians of Scotch-Irish birth may seem en- 
tirely appropriate. Their work and their 
achievements have given lustre to the pages 
of history. These men were Thomas Mc- 
Kean, John Bannister Gibson and Jeremiah 
S. Black, each of whom became a chief 
justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 
vania. For a quarter of a century, Judge 
Black was a citizen of York Count}-. He 
died near York in 1884 at the age of J}^. 
John Bannister Gibson, one of the greatest 



of .\nierican jurists, was born in Perry 
County and was a lifelong friend and associ- 
ate of Jeremiah S. Black. They served to- 
gether on the Supreme bench of Pennsyl- 
vania. Their decisions rank high in the 
legal literature of this country. 

In September, 1899, the people of York 
County celebrated the Sesqui-Centennial. 
At a meeting held in the York Opera House 
on this occasion, Robert C. Bair, of York, 
delivered an address on the " Scotch-Irish," 
of which the following is a part : 

Scotch-Irish are said to have been in the 
southern part of York County as early as 
1732, but there is no record to show just 
where they were or who they were. Sam- 
uel Blunston, Penn's agent at ^^'rig•ht's 
Ferry, wrote in 1732, " there are about 400 
inhabitants in the Barrens," a name then 
given to the southeastern section of York 
County. Some of these were Marylanders. 
A singular fact is noticeable in the oldest 
drafts and surveys in the Chancefords, 
Peach Bottom and Fawn. They indicate a 
prior right in some other man, but the land 
warrants under Penn are silent on that 
point. So that it would seem the former 
occupant had acknowledged Lord Balti- 
more. The oldest warrant under the Penns 
yet found bears the date " October 16, 1741, 
to Daniel McConnell, on Indian Rock Run, 
by \Vidow McMurray's, near Muddy Creek, 
over the Susquehanna." On part of this 
tract, the John Scott part. Rev. Eleazer 
Whittlesey, in 1750, erected the first Pres- 
byterian church west of the river and from 
it almost immediately sprang Chanceford 
and the Slate Ridge churches. Chanceford 
church was founded by Eleazer Whittlesey, 
March i, 1752, but never had a title to its 
lands until May 25, 1767, when James 
Leeper, John Findley, Rowland Hughes. 
Ephraim Farr, and William Morrison, as 
trustees, secured a grant for four acres from 
John Penn. 

" Guinston Scotch Presbyterian church, 
founded in 1754. has the same record. In 
the year 1750 Patrick McGee settled on a 
tract which he called ' Gwin's Town.' On 
March i, 1755, James Cooper took up an 
adjoining tract, which he called ' Hopewell,' 
and on which tract a new log church had 
been erected. The church had no title to 
the land on which it stood, nor had Cooper 
until twelve years thereafter. May 20, 1767, 

when a warrant was issued to him at Phila- 
delphia. Guinston ne\-er took title from 
Pennsylvania, and in order to put the mat- 
ter forever at rest " James Cooper, by a cer- 
tain deed-poll, bearing date April 23, 1773, 
did grant and convey to the trustees, 
Thomas Curry, James Wallace, Guin Alli- 
son, Andrew Fulton, Alexander Moore, 
John McClurg, John McNeary, George 
Campbell, John McCay, and John Stewart, 
two acres on which the old Scotch meeting 
house stood." 

It is not possible to name all 

Scotch-Irish the Scotch-Irish who came 

in the into the lower end of York 

Lower End. County, but many can be 

enumerated, and the approx- 
imate time indicated at which they crossed 
over from Lancaster County. 

Among the families settled in Chanceford prior to 
I759- were Hugh Ross. John McCall, William Mc- 
Carthy. John Campbell, William. George and John 
Buchanan, Robert Morton, Robert Smith, John Howard, 
William Smart. James Anderson. William Douglass, 
William Wilson. William Thompson. Thomas Carson, 
Edward McMachon, Joseph Wasson, Finley Gray, Na- 
thaniel and David Alorgan. Patrick AIcGee, William 
McComb, Guin Allison. John McNeary. David !McKin- 
ley, ancestor of the president, and John and Stephen 
!McKinley. John Finley. William Morrison, John 
Mitchell, Elias Alexander. David Jones. William Fuller- 
ton, Henry Robinson. John Matthews. James Evans, 
Francis Houlton, Rowland Hughes, Robert Whitley, 
John Nelson, Alexander Fulton, Lawrence McNamara 
and Charles Coulston. 

Those arriving before 1770, as follows: John Andrew, 
William Adams. Charles Bradshaw, Robert Blaine, 
Ezekiel Barnett. George Crist. Elias Cowan, William 
Dougherty. John Dougherty. Alexander Downing. James 
Duncan, James Elder. John Fullerton. James Forsythe, 
William Gabby, James Hamilton, John Hilt. Charles 
Humes, John Hooper, Robert Hooper. George Henry, 
Thomas Johnston. I\Iatthew Kilgore. Thomas Kelley, 
Walter Little. Dr. Isaac Lidley, John ^McJNIullin. Alex- 
ander ^IcAllister, John McDowell. Richard McNuIty, 
William Alarlin. John !Marlin. John Morrow. James 
JNIartin, John McCullough. Henry McWhorer. John Mc- 
NuIty. John McCIurg. Robert Marlin. Robert ^Maughlin. 
William Nichol. Samuel Nelson. Samuel Parker. Samuel 
Poak. James Proter. James Patterson. Nicholas Quig- 
ley. Thomas Ramsay. John Reed. Joseph Reed, William 
Reed, James Spear, Daniel Sinclair. Charles Stewart, 
John Stewart. Gavin Scott, James Sprout. Robert Shaw, 
Allen Scott. William Steel, Moses Wallace, Thomas 

The Scotch-Irish in Fawn Township prior to 1770 
were : William Adams. Thomas .-Mien. James 
Buchanan. James Blair. William Blaine. Henry Cowgel. 
William Clark. Benjamin Cunnyngham. Archibald 
Cooper, John Carson. Richard Cord. Patrick Caldwell, 
John Day. Robert Duncan. Robert Donnal. George 
Elder. Samuel Eakins. Alexander Ewing. Robert Gib- 
son. James Gordon. Jacob Gibson. Robert Hazlet. 
Samuel Leeper. John McComb. Thomas Matson. Wil- 
liam jNIcKinley. James AIcKinley. Matthew McCall, 
Alexander McCandless. James McMullin, Edward Mani- 
fold, John McComb, William McConnell, Thomas Neel, 



George Nichol, John Payne, George Payne, James 
Parker, Robert Rowland, Joseph Ross, Patrick Scott, 
William Reed, Cunningham Sample, Thomas Steel, 
John Taylor, John Wilson, William Wallace, Archibald 
Wright, Robert Modral. 

The Scotch-Irish in Hopewell Township prior to 1770: 
Guin Allison, John Anderson, James Anderson, Robert 
Aikens, Andrew Boyd, Alexander Creighton, Henry 
Craig", James Criswell, John Duncan, Samuel Dixon, 
Samuel Ellit, William Edie, William Edgar, Andrew 
Findley, Archibald Gillen, William GemmiU, John Gem- 
mill, John Gibson, William Giffen, Samuel Harper, 
Robert Jamison, William Ligget, James Mitchell, Joseph 
Manifold, James McKissock, James McElroy, John Mc- 
Cleary, John Maxwell, James Maffet, Richard McDon- 
ald, Thomas McKee, John McAllister, Hugh Nelson, 
Archibald Purdy, Alexander Ramsay, Thomas Ray, 
David Stone, Andrew Thompson, Elconer Torbert, 
William Vance, James Wallace, John Wilson, James 
Wilson. William Wilson. 

The list has been expanded, 
Migration though all are not included, of 
Westward, the early people in the sections 
named, because they have left 
land marks in the place of their settlement 
that will never perish as long as the in- 
fluences of their early churches and their 
multiplying children uphold on the old 
homesteads the principles and faith of their 
ancestors. From these settlements project 
footpaths to the wider world into the 
boundless wilderness. The main direction 
is plain by which they came, as if it were 
this migration that put the Scotch-Irish 
stamp on at least five states. The first 
movement was toward the southwest, 
which halted at Marsh Creek in Adams 
County. The other routes diverged, one 
leading into North Carolina and Tennessee ; 
another into the Genesee valley. New York ; 
the third into western Pennsylvania, and 
from all these a converging set of lines 
touching in central Ohio. Wherever the 
Scotch-Irish went they laid long founda- 
tions for state government. 

There seems to have been a close bond 
between the Scotch-Irish of Harford 
County, Maryland, clans in New York state 
and those of York County. The Rev. John 
Cuthbertson, one of the most noted Presby- 
terian preachers the early history of the 
church had in Lancaster and York Counties, 
would make from Octoraro, and the log- 
church in Chanceford, trips to Walkill, Ul- 
ster County, New York, where he would 
preach for three or four weeks at a time. 
His journeys led him to visit and preach 
among those who had left the east and 
gone as far west as Pittsburg. The diarv 

of this early preacher is preserved in the 
Allegheny city library. 

In the year 1755, when King George 
transported the French Canadians from 
Nova Scotia, the provincial Assembly of 
Pennsylvania yoted sixty thousand pounds 
for the purpose of distributing the poor 
Canadians among the people of the several 
counties. When debarked at Philadelphia, 
they were assigned, according to the popu- 
lation, to the diilerent townships. The 
Germans received their quota, but it seems 
the Scotch-Irish eitlter did not receive, or 
else would not accept any of the Nova 
Scotians. What was the cause of this is not 
clear. It is probable the spirit of liberty 
among the Scotch-Irish, which abhorred 
white bondage, had much to do with it. 
The Scotch-Irishman never submitted to 
servitude himself or held the seven year 
claim on any man's labor. With all this, 
however, he believed in negro slavery. The 
wealthy among them had slaves. They 
tenaciously held on to them. After Penn- 
sylvania had abolished slavery, the Scotch- 
Irish of the lower end and those in Adams 
County held on to their property. The 
archives of York court contain many writs 
of habeas corpus, together with interesting 
depositions, by which it appears the slave 
holders among the Scotch-Irish held on 
until the law released the slave. They had 
from two to three black servants, and it is 
a striking fact that the masters invariably 
fixed their own given names upon their 

Grier Hersh, of York, at the Scotch-Irish 
Congress, held at Harrisburg, read a paper 
on " The Manor of the Maske." The fol- 
lowing is an extract from that paper : 

The most important Scotch- 
The Irish migration to York 

Marsh County was the " Marsh 

Creek Creek Settlement," of which 

Settlement, the present town of Gettys- 
burg is the centre. As it was 
the policy of the Penns to push the Scotch- 
Irish to the frontier, and as the land at the 
foot of South Mountain resembled to some 
extent that of the north of Ireland, it was 
but natural that many of the early settlers 
should take up lands in this locality. These 
early settlers seemed to have crossed the 
Susquehanna at Harris's Ferry and came 
throup-h the South Mountains to what was 



tlien the western part of Lancaster County 
and from 1749 to 1800 embraced in York 
County. The name of this settlement is 
taken from Marsh Creek, a small stream. 
This district gave to the county of York 
many of its prominent men in civil and mili- 
tary matters, in early days. Called upon in 
their early history to do active service 
against the Indians, they became inured to 
all sorts of hardships and were a thoroughly 
self-dependent and aggressive people. As 
early as 1736, a goodly number of Scotch- 
Irish had settled here, upon the invitation 
of the Penns, to take up lands upon "com- 
mon terms." During that year the pro- 
prietaries had determined on surveying for 
themselves a manor in this territory. They 
did not look with favor, for some reason, 
upon the first Scotch-Irish settlers. Finally, 
in 1741, an order was issued for the survey 
of a manor to be called " Manor of Maske," 
of \\'liich order the following is a copy: 

Pennsylvania, ss. : 
(Seal) By the Proprietaries: 

These are to authorize and require thee to survey or 
cause to be surveyed a tract of land on the branches of 
iMarsh Creek, on the west side of the River Susque- 
hanna, in the County of Lancaster, containing about 
thirty thousand acres, for our own proper use and be- 
hoof, and the same to return under the name and style 
of our Manor of Maske, in the County of Lancaster 
aforesaid, into our Secretary's ol^ce, and for so doing 
this shall be thy sufficient warrant. Given under my 
hand and the seal of our Land Office at Philadelphia 
this eighteenth day of June, in the year of our Lord, 
one thousand seven hundred and fortv-one. 

To Benj. A. Eastburn, Surveyor-General. 

The matter must have been determined 
upon at an. earlier date than the issuing of 
the order, as Zachariah Butcher writes 
about that date as follows ; 

" I was designed about two weeks ago to 
have laid out the manor at Marsh Creek, 
but the inhabitants ha\-e got into such 
spirit that it is as much as a man's life is 
worth to go among them ; for they gather 
together in conference, and go about armed 
every time that I am anywheres near about. 
They fairly resolved to kill or cripple me, 
or any other persons who shall attempt to 
lay out a manor there. Yet, if the honor- 
able proprietary shall think it fit to order 
such assistance as shall withstand such un- 
reasonable creatures, I shall be ready and 
willing to undertake the same with my ut- 
most endeavors. As soon as I come back 

from X'irginia I am going there on an ur- 
gent occasion." 

The name " Manor of Maske " takes its 
origin from an estate in Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, of Anthony Lowther, who married 
Margaret, sister of William P^nn. 

The term " Marsh Creek Settlement " 
has been applied to all of the settlers within 
the Manor of Maske. There was, however, 
another Scotch-Irish settlement, known as 
the "Great Conewago Settlement," which 
was some miles to the east of Gettysburg, 
and near the town originated by Captain 
David Hunter, which bears his name 
(Hunterstown). So closely and intimately 
were the people of these two settlements 
connected in all matters of historical in- 
terest that in speaking of the Marsh Creek 
the Great Conewago settlement is included. 

The first church in the Marsh Creek dis- 
trict was in the vicinity of " Black's Grave- 
yard," a short distance west of Gettysburg, 
near McPherson's Spring, and is known in 
history as the Upper Marsh Creek Church. 
It was built in 1747 of logs. It had low, 
long, double-sash windows. The: date of 
the erection of this church is fixed from the 
fact that Hance Hamilton, Robert McPher- 
son, Samuel Edie and John Buchanan, 
trustees, applied for a warrant for one 
hundred acres of land in Cumberland Town- 
ship, May 25, 1765. They stated that a 
meeting house was erected by said congre- 
gation on the tract of land of one hundred 
acres in the Manor of !Maske " about 
eighteen )'ears ago," which fixes the date 
of the erection of the building at 1747. 

The early pastors of this church in order 
were, Revs. Joseph Tate, Robert McMordie, 
James Lang, Joseph Rhea, Samuel Ken- 
nedy, Robert Huey and John Black. 

The Lower Marsh Creek Church was 
built about 1761, and in all probabilit}^ grew 
out of the " Old Side and New Side con- 
troversy," the Lower Marsh Creek Church 
containing the " New Side " men, and the 
Upper Marsh Creek Church the " Old 
Side " men.. The first pastor of this church 
was Rev. Andrew Bay, afterw-ard a chaplain 
in the French and Indian war. 

The following is a list of names 

Names of of such persons as settled and 

Early made improvements in the 

Settlers. Manor of jMaske between the 

years 1736 and 1741 : 


William JNIcClellan, ]\Iay, 1740; John Fletcher, June, 
1739; John McDowell, April, 1741 ; John McFerran, 
May, 1741 ; Robert Fletcher, May, 1741 ; William Mc- 
Ferran, ^lay, 1741 ; Samuel Gettys, near Rock Creek, 
May, 1740; John Steel, September, 1740; Hugh Scott, 
September, 1740; Daniel AIcKeenan, September, 1740; 
George Kerr, October, 1740; Samuel McColock, JMay, 
1741 ; Alexandei- Stuart, April, 1741 ; Robert Smith, 
April, 1741 ; Robert Johnston, April, 1741; Samuel 
Pedian, JNIay, 1741 ; Samuel Agnew, j\Iay, 1741 ; Alex- 
ander JNIcNair, April, 1741 ; John Millar, April, 1741 ; 
Henry Pearson, April, 1741 ; Thomas McCleary, May, 
1740;' James Thompson, May, 1741 ; William Stevenson, 
Mav, 1741 ; Henry Rowan, June, 1739; Quintin Mc- 
Adams, April, 1741 ; Robert McNiel, April, 1740; Joseph 
Clugston, April, 1741; John McGaughy, April, 1741 ; 
Henry Cotton, April, 1741 ; Duncan McDonnel, April, 
1740; Wm. McCreary, April, 1740; Rev. Robert Anan, 
May, 1741 ; Jean Gibson, May, 1741 ; George Sypes, 
April, 1741 ; James Ferguson, September, 1741 ; Hugh 
Ferguson, September, 1741 ; William Gibson, October, 
1736; Robert Gibson, October, 1736; John Hossack, 
March, 1740; Benjamin McCormick, October, 1736; 
Duncan Evans, October, 1736; Samuel Gibson, October, 
1736; Joseph Moore, March, 1740; David Moore, March, 
1741 ; Hugh Woods, March, 1741 ; Robert Long, Sep-~ 
tember, 1739: William Scott, April, 1741 ; Thomas 
^Martin, May, 1741 ; John Stuart, April, 1741 ; John 
Kerr, April, 1741 ; John Cishinger, April, 1741 ; James 
Orr, May, 1739; Wm. Boyd B. Smith, March, 1740; 
John Boyd, March, 1740; Thomas Hossack, March, 
1740; Edward Hall, March, 1741; John Linn, April, 
1740; John Scott, May, 1740: James Walker, May, 1740; 
Thomas Latta, May, 1740; John Buchanan, May, 1740; 
Walter Buchanan, September, 1739; Matthew Dean, 
May, 1740; William Erwin, September, 1739; James 
Erwin, September, 1739. 

Thomas Tedford, ALay, 1740 : Widow Margaret 
Buchanan. May, 1740; Robert Brumfield, September, 
1739; James Agnew, May, 1741 : Mary McMullen, May, 
1741 ; John Little, May, 1741 ; Robert Creighton, June, 
1739; James Innis, May, 1740; John Carson, April, 1741 ; 
Hugh Dunwoody, April, 1741 ; Thomas Douglass, May, 
1740; James Reed, August, 1738; Alexander Poe, April, 
1739; Hugh Davis, April, 1739; Jacob McClellan, May, 
1740; Thomas Shanon, September, 1740; Thomas Mc- 
Cracken, September, 1740; the heirs of John Craige, 
deceased, or Col. Hance Hamilton in trust for said 
children, April, 1739; John Brown, May, 1741 ; Samuel 
Brown, May, 1741 ; Samuel Edie, Esq., March, 1741 ; 
David Parke, JNIarch, 1741 ; John Parke, March, 1741 ; 
James Craige, May, 1741 ; David Dunwoody, April, 
1741; Robert Linn, April, 1740; William Smith, April, 
1739; John Stuart, Alarsh Creek, March. 1741 ; the heirs 
of Henry McDonogh, deceased, April, 1739; Samuel 
Gettys for land on Middle Creek, May, 1740 ; William 
Ramsey, May, 1740; James Wilson, May, 1741 ; James 
Russel, May, 1740; John Russel, May, 1741 ; James Mc- 
Naught, May, 1740; Archibald Morrison, May, 1740; 
Closes Jenkins, May, 1740; James Biddle, May, 1740; 
the heirs of Robert I51ack, deceased, March, 1738; 
Alexander McKeen, March, 1738; Hugh McKeen, 
March, 1738; Myles Sweeney, March, 1741 ; the heirs 
of Thomas Boyd, deceased, !\Iarch, 1741 ; Thomas 
Nealson, March, 1741 ; Samuel Stevenson, May, 1741 ; 
James Hall, April, 1741 ; Adam Linn, May, 1741 ; Robert 

McKinney, May, 1740; William , April, 

1741 ; Andrew Levenston, May, 1740; Charles McMul- 
len, Ma}', 1740; Alexander McKeen, Hugh McKeen and 
Samuel Edie, Esq.. guardians in trust for the minor 
children of John iMcKeen, deceased, March, 1738; John 
Simple, May, 1740; James McDowell and Charles Mc- 
Mulling, guardians in trust for the minor children of 
John Darby, deceased, March, 1740; Joseph Wilson. 
March, 1738; William Quiet, Sr., April, 1741 ; William 

Quiet, Jr.. April, 1741 ; Samuel Paxton, Sr., March, 
1741 ; Thomas Paxton, March, 1741 ; John Paxton, 
March, 1741; Samuel Paxton, Jr., JNIarch, 1741; John 
Reed, November, 1740; David Frazier, March, 1738; 
Quintin Armstrong, April, 1741 ; John Murphy, April, 
1741 ; John McNeit, March, 1740 ; Mary Reed, Sep- 
tember, 1740; the heirs of John Beard, deceased, Sep- 
tember, 1740; John Armstrong, April, 1740; Andrew 
Thompson, May, 1741 ; John Leard. September, 1739; 
William jNIcKinley, April, 1741 ; ALargaret Young, April, 
1741 ; Hannah Lesley, April, 1741 ; Robert Black, May, 
1740; Gabriel McAllister, April, 1741 ; Alexander 
Walker, April, 1740; James McGaughy, April, 1740; 
Andrew Herron, April, 1740; James Orr, April, 1739; 
Moses McCarley, April, 1739; John McNea, April, 1741 ; 
Elizabeth Thompson, April, 1741 ; Col. Hance Hamilton, 
April, 1741 ; Col. Hance Hamilton for a tract of land 
adjoining land of John Leard and Thomas Hosack, on 
Conewago, April, 1741. 



The Palatines — Mennonites — German Bap- 
tists — Dutch and Huguenot Colony — 
Early Baptisms and Marriages. 

The Germans were among the first to 
take up lands west of the Susquehanna. 
Palatines, German Baptists and Mennon- 
ites all arrived about the same time. The 
Palatines were largely representatives of 
the Lutheran and Reformed faith. In the 
succeeding pages, a separate story is given 
of the immigration and settlement of each 
of these three classes of German people, to- 
gether with a small colony of Huguenots. 


The Palatines were thrifty and indvts- 
trious people who lived in the lower regions 
of the Rhine. Situated on both sides of that 
noble river, between Bavaria and Alsace, 
and extending from above the city of 
Speyer northward to near Cologne, the 
Palatinate was as fair a land as all Europe 
can show. The burghers of its cities were 
wealthy merchants. Its fertile fields and 
vine-clad hills brought competence and com- 
fort to its people, and sent abundance of 
grain and wine to other countries of 
Europe. Religion and education were so 
well diffused that there was no other people 
of their day to whom in these respects the 
Palatines stood second. The situation of 
their native country, the highway from 
France into the heart of Germany, together 
with its beauty and fertility, made it a 
Nal)oth"s vineyard to Louis XIV. whose 
aml:)ition was colossal, whose absolutism 



could ill brook denial, and whose rapacity 
recoiled from no extreme of cruelt}'. His 
schemes and plots made life a burden to the 
Electors Palatine. Charles and his son 
Charles Louis. The death of the latter in 
1685 without issue ended the Zimmern line 
of the Electorate, and the succession passed 
to Frederick, of the house of Newburg. The 
moment of transition seemed to Louis 
auspicious to his plans. He at once laid 
claim to the Palatinate in the name of his 
brother, who married the sister of Charles 
Louis. The claim was opposed by Holland, 
Austria, Ba\-aria, Prussia and other smaller 
German states, which, under the leadership 
of the great \A'illiam, organized the Grand 
Alliance and prepared for war. 

King Louis, with the double purpose of 
wreaking vengeance on the Palatinate — a 
vengeance made more bitter by the asylum 
■ there given to the Huguenots, whom the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes had 
driven into exile, — and also of making the 
country untenable for his foes, sent an army 
of 50,000 men, with orders to its commander 
to ravage the province with fire and sword 
and to make the land a desert. The invasion 
took place in winter. The French went 
through the length and breadth of the 
country, destroying cities, burning villages, 
stripping the people of their possessions, 
compelling them to pull down their walls, to 
stand by and see their wealth perish in the 
flames, killing such as endeavored to save 
anything from the ruins, and then driving 
them to the fields, there to perish with 
hunger or cold. 

In the following spring the peasants were 
forced to plow under their crops. The 
whole land was filled with mourning. Many 
were killed. Others were starved or frozen 
to death. Li one day the Elector, standing 
on the wall of Manheim, counted twenty- 
three villages in flames. The ferocity of the 
war and the sufferings of the people cannot 
be adequately described. To this day their 
monuments remain in the ivy-covered ruins, 
which give so much beauty and charm to 
the hills among which flows the Rhine. It 
is needless to follow the course of the war. 
For a few years the people had rest, and 
then in 1693 another invasion brought on 
another wave of widespread misery. Then 
it was that the beautiful castle of Heidel- 
berg was reduced to that condition which 

makes it the most picturesque ruin in 

But a few years had elapsed, far too few 
for the Palatines to retrieve their losses, 
when the outbreak of the war of the 
Spanish Succession dragged them once 
more between the upper and nether mill 
stones. This war. lirought on by Louis, in 
prosecution of a claim to the Spanish crown 
for his grandson Philip, — a claim opposed 
by the same Alliance with the addition of 
England — was begun in 1701 and drew out 
its miseries and cruelties for thirteen long 
years. Most of the fighting was done in 
Spain and Germany, but the Palatinate 
came in for a full share of tlie tribulation. It 
furnished both armies a pathway. ]\Iany 
times they went back and forth, leaving 
wretchedness in their trail. At length, in 
1707, Louis despatched an army to repeat, 
so far as possible, the rapine of twenty years 
before. \\'ith this the cup of misery was 
full, and at once began that remarkable 
exodus, which in the next four decades 
brought so many thousands of the Palatines 
to America. 

It needs to be noted also that to these 
afflictions by war was added as an expelling 
power, a religious trouble, which amounted 
to a little less thain persecution. Early in 
the Reformation period the Elector Palatine 
gave his allegiance to the doctrine of Ge- 
neva. His country became a stronghold of 
the Reformed faith, and under his patronage 
was published that oracle of the Reforma- 
tion, the Heidelberg Catechism. There was, 
however, a strange variation in the Elec- 
toral faith. For one hundred and thirty 
years no two successive Electors were of the 
same faith. Lutheran and Reformed princes 
succeeded each other in regular alternation; 
and, according to the spirit of the age, each 
prince desired to bring his people into that 
communion which had secured his own ad- 

The court religion was constantly chang- 
ing from Geneva to Wirtemberg, and back 
again, while many annoyances and dis- 
tresses to the people were the consequence. 
Finally John William, the second prince of 
the house of Newburg, the Elector at the 
time of the Spanish war. deserted both Re- 
formed and Lutheran, and adopted the 
ancient faith of the Church of Rome. He 
was a man of piety, but narrowness of mind, 



and endeavored to constrain his people 
towards the Roman communion. Then the 
Palatines began to look for a land of peace 
and freedom. 

In 1708, the year after the last French in- 
vasion, they began to come to the British 
colonies in America. The minutes of the 
Board of Trade in London addressed to 
Queen Anne, set forth • that certain "dis- 
tressed Palatines, who had been dri\-en out 
of the Palatinate by the cruelties of the 
French," forty in number, with one Joshua 
Kocherthal. a Lutheran minister, for their 
leader, had made an application to the 
Board for transportation to America. 
Shortly afterward fourteen others were 
added to this number ; and it would appear 
that the entire fifty-four constituted a 
pioneer band, on whose fortune and report 
depended the action of thousands of their 

The Queen received the pe- 
First tition. An order was given 

Immigration, to send them to New York 
in the same ship that carried 
Lord Lo\'elace to the government of that 
province ; the new governor being charged 
by the Queen to do all in his power for the 
comfort of the Palatines. Arriving in New 
York late in the summer of 1708, these Ger- 
man immigrants were planted sixty miles up 
the Hudson, at the site of the present city 
of Newburg. A tract of 2,000 acres of land 
was given to them, and the community by 
patent from Governor Hunter was erected 
into the Parish of Newburg. 

Kocherthal, having settled this pioneer 
band at Newburg, returned to his native 
land, that he might organize a larger emi- 
gration of the people of the Rhine. The 
success of his efforts was made evident to 
the English government. The roads lead- 
ing northward from the Palatinate swarmed 
with the moving multitudes. Thousands of 
them arrested their journey in Holland, and 
there settled to add their numbers and vir- 
tues to those of that sturdy little republic. 
Soon afterward about five thousand flocked 
to London for the purpose of gaining per- 
mission to come to America, and by October 
there were 15,000. There were not inns 
enough to lodge them, and had these been 
found, the people had not the money to pay 
the reckoning. The government pitched 
one thousand tents along the Thames for 

them. They were very poor, because they 
lost all by the ravages of the French. The 
Queen allowed from the public purse six 
pence a day to each Palatine and issued 
briefs to the churches in many parts of the 
kingdom, calling for offerings to the support 
of this benevolence. It is estimated that 
this support cost the English government 

There were no provisions yet made for 
their shipment to America. Some of these 
Germans enlisted in the English army and 
about 2,800 migrated to Holland. Late in 
the year 1709 about 700 of these Germans 
crossed the Atlantic to the mouth of the 
Neuse River and formed a settlement at 
New Berne, North Carolina, where some of 
their descendants now live. 

About the same number, in the autumn of 
1709, came with Governor Spotswood to 
Virginia and settled in the upper regions of 
the Rappahannock River, giving to the set- 
tlement the name of Germanna, near which 
was fought, in the Civil ^^'ar. the famous 
battles of the Wilderness. Governor Spots- 
wood opened iron mines for the employ- 
ment of these people, some of whom after- 
wards migrated to the Blue Ridge moun- 
tains and even across them to the Shenan- 
doah Valley. 

Robert Hunter, who was appointed to 
succeed Lovelace as royal governor of New 
York, determined to lay plans for the 
transportation of about 3.000 Palatines, 
then in the city of London. The depressing 
conditions of the time demanded that the 
poor of London should receive the benefi- 
cence bestowed upon these German emi- 
grants. Governor Hunter's proposition to 
transfer them to the central part of New 
York was received with enthusiasm by the 
city of London. About the same time. 
Peter Schuyler, Mayor of Albany, and 
Colonel Nicholson, of the provincial army, 
appeared in England for the purpose of 
securing aid and protection for the people 
of New York from the incursions of the 
French and hostile Indians from Canada. In 
order to produce a good .effect upon the 
English cro\vn. they took with them five 
Indian chiefs. A well-founded story has 
come down by tradition through gener- 
ations of descendants that when these In- 
dian chiefs observed the condition of the 
unfortunate Germans, on account of in- 



ternecine wars in their nati\-e land, took 
pity upon llieni and ottered the Oueen 20,- 
000 acres of valuable land in the \alley of 
Schoharie, central New York. 

h'arly in January, 1710, the expe- 

The dition of 3,000 immigrants left 

New London for the Xew World. It 

York was transported in ten ships, two 

Colony, of which were war vessels. One 

of the war vessels carried Robert 

Hunter and his train of attendants. After 

a long" and tedious \-oyage, during which the 

Germans experienced many hardships, nine 

of the vessels landed safely at Governor's 

Island, in the harbor of New York, during 

the month of June. One of the vessels of 

this fleet, the frigate Herbert, was wrecked 

on Block Island, which accident was woven 

into a sad but beautiful story entitled "The 

Palatine," by the great American poet, 


\\'hile the expedition was crossing the At- 
lantic, a distressing fever caused the death 
of about 600 of the German immigrants, and 
about 2,400 encamped on Governor's Island, 
in New York harbor, where they remained 
about four months waiting to be transferred 
to their place of destination. For the ad- 
ministration of local government in this 
colony, seven magistrates were appointed 
among themselves. John Conrad Weiser 
for ten years was the leader of this colony. 
About the same time a commission was dis- 
patched to the Schoharie Valley to inspect 
that region and report its adaptability for 
settlement. When this commission re- 
turned the different members reported ad- 
versely to the migration, whereupon Gov- 
ernor Hunter accepted a proposition of 
Robert Livingston for the German colonists 
to settle upon 6,000 acres of the Li\'ingston 
Manor, on the east bank of the Hudson, 
about one hundred miles from New York. 

About 200 of the German colonists re- 
mained in New York, 1,200 on the Living- 
ston Manor, and the balance on the west side 
of the Hudson at Saugerties, where many 
of the descendants now live. The plan of 
Governor Hunter to settle the Germans in 
this region for the purpose of making tar for 
his own province from the pine trees along 
the Hudson was not successful. He had re- 
ceived only 8,000 pounds from the English 
government to further his plans and had 
advanced about 25.000 pounds of his own 

money for the same purpose. After two 
years the experiment proved to be a failure, 
for they had only produced sixty l^arrels of 
tar during that time. 

The Germans now grew to be 
The dissatisfied and clamored to be 

Schoharie sent to the promised land 
Settlement, along the Schoharie, desig- 
nated as their future home by 
the Queen of England. They sent a dele- 
gation of their own members, of whom Con- 
rad \A'eiser was the leader, to the Schoharie. 
Soon after their return about two-thirds of 
their number traveled through deep snow, 
and in March, 1713, the two companies into 
which they had been divided, were united 
again in the valley of their hope, and became 
the first white settlers in that region. Ob- 
taining a deed from the only owners, the In- 
dians, they set themselves to building- 
houses and breaking the soil. Although 
they lived in harmony with the natives, the 
troubles of these settlers came from another 
source. About six months after their oc- 
cupancy of this region, Governor Hunter 
granted patents to seven men of his own 
province, covering the lands on which the 
Palatines were now living. The oppressive 
methods of the new land owners, known in 
the history of New York as "patroons," 
proved to be disastrous to the interests of 
Conrad Weiser and his followers. This op- 
pression was continued until 1720, when 
Robert Hunter returned to England and 
was succeeded by Governor Burnet. 

The Rev. Sanford H. Cobb, of Alljany, 
who has carefully studied the history of 
these Germans while in New York, gives an 
exceedingly interesting account of their 
transfer from that region down the Susque- 
hanna to their settlement in Pennsylvania. 
He says : 

"The new governor set himself to appease 
the difficulties, but found that the legal 
rights of the patentees and the stubborn 
sense of wrong in the Palatine breast ad- 
mitted, for the most of them, of removal to 
a new location as the only remedy. For this 
purpose he issued a grant, buttressed by an 
Indian deed to lands upon the Mohawk, 
stretching for twenty miles westward from 
Canajoharie and reaching north and south 
of the ri\-er as far as the settlers wished. 
About the same time as the issuance of this 
grant there occurred in Alban\' a great 



council with the chiefs of the Six Nations 
and the governors of New York and Penn- 
sylvania. Governor Keith, of Pennsylvania, 
while attending this council, learned of the 
troubles of the Palatines and otTered them 
an asylum in his province, assuring them 
of secure houses and kindly treatment, 
telling them of the happy fortunes of a small 
band of Germans who had recently come to 
Pennsylvania and had settled about sixty 
miles west of Philadelphia. Thus two 
avenues were opened. But each involved a 
third removal and the surrender of all the 
labor of ten years. 

"About one-third of the people, conclud- 
ing that to compound with their oppressors 
was better than such removal, made terms 
either by lease or purchase of the lands 
which already were their own. The re- 
mainder were about equally divided, one 
part for the Mohawk and the rest for Penn- 
sylvania. The former settled themselves 
along that river and for years constituted a 
strong frontier against Indian and French 
attack, and founded i^ourishing commu- 

"Of those who made choice of 
Conrad Pennsylvania, Conrad W'eiser was 
Weiser. easily the leader. During the 

Schoharie struggle his father, 
John Conrad, had gone to England to make 
a fruitless appeal to the crown. He re- 
turned after live years, broken in health and 
spirit, and the son, Conrad, succeeded to the 
leadership. Young Conrad was twelve 
years old when the Palatines left their 
native land, was educated by his father, who 
had been a magistrate in the Palatinate, and 
early showed the possession of qualities of 
a high order, quick intelligence, a deep re- 
ligious sense, a logical mind, a strong will, 
sound judgment and great executive ability. 
In his youth at Schoharie he spent much 
lime with the Indians, learned their lan- 
guage and secured their friendship. This 
familiarity proved afterwards of immense 
benefit in Pennsylvania, where he became 
intimately associated with provincial affairs, 
and in all dealings with the Indians was the 
counselor and agent of the Governor. He 
was also associated with Franklin in educa- 
tional and other colonial interests, and took 
a leading part in the founding and extension 
of the Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania. 
There are indeed few names in the colonial 

history of that province more worthy of 
honor than that of Conrad \\'eiser. 

"The Pennsylvania contingent left Scho- 
harie in two parties, one in 1722, and the 
other the next year. Following the stream 
southward for a few miles, they struck an 
Indian trail over the mountains to the upper 
waters of the Susquehanna. There they 
constructed canoes and batteaux for the car- 
riage of most of the company and their 
goods, while some of the men keeping near 
the river drove before their horses and cat- 
tle. A Schoharie legend recites that, in the 
following year, twelve of these horses found 
their own way back to the Schoharie, their 
souls lusting after the rich clover of its 
meadows. Having made their boats, the 
greater portion of the company embarked 
upon the peaceful river and quietly floated 
down its course through the wilderness of 
lower New York, unpeopled, save by wan- 
dering" Mohawks and Delawares, through 
the beautiful Wyoming Valley, forty years 
before Connecticut made its first token of 
occupation and settlement." 

They came down the North 

Come Down Branch to Fort Augusta, 

the near the site of Sunbury, 

Susquehanna, where this stream enters the 

Susquehanna. At this point 
tradition says, bands of peaceful Indians 
welcomed them. Tribes of Shawanese oc- 
cupied the alluvial lands on both sides of the 
stream, at Paxtang on the east side, and at 
the mouth of the Yellow Breeches on the 
west side. Here floating down the stream 
in their fiatboats and canoes,- the Germans 
observed the Susquehanna spread out more 
than a mile in width like an open bay. 
When they arrived at the site of Middle- 
town, on the east bank of the river, they 
turned their canoes up the placid waters of 
the Swatara, along whose banks could then 
be seen small settlements of Conoy and 
Conewago Indians. The signs and symbols 
of these worthy Germans, in all 33 families, 
were recognized and received with favor by 
the red men of the forest. So these pious 
Germans passed onward to their place of 
destination. They moved on up the 
Swatara to its upper waters and then 
crossed over to the fertile region of the Tul- 
pehocken, now embraced in Berks and 
I^ebanon counties. This land had been se- 
cured from the Indian chief, Sassouan. A 



few years after the arrival of these Germans 
at Tulpeliocken a number of them migrated 
to ^'ork County. 

'I'he liberal system of g'o\-ern- 
Penn's ment in the provinee of Wil- 
Invitation. liam Penn was the cause of en- 
couraging" Germans from the 
Palatinate, most of whom belonged to the 
Lutheran and Reformed Churches, as well 
as the Mennonites from Germany and 
Switzerland and the German Baptists from 
the upper Rhine, to cross the Atlantic and 
seek refuge in Pennsylvania. They first 
settled in Philadelphia in 1683, and the 
stream of immigration from Germany con- 
tinued from that date until 1760. Between 
1705 and 1727, a large number of Germans 
settled in New Jersey. The interest which 
\\"illiam Penn had in West Jerse}^ led him 
to purchase the territory now embraced in 
Penns}'lvania. Having three times visited 
the Palatines and other Germans in the 
Fatherland, Penn invited them to come to 
America, and this invitation helped to cause 
the immigration -which continued for more 
than half a century. The Mennonites, who 
settled at Germantown in 1683, were the 
first to arrive. A colony of the German 
Baptists, or Dunkers, settled at the same 
place in 1719. Meantime, the Mennonites 
pressed forward and took up the rich lands 
of the Pequea Valley of Lancaster Count)^ 
as early as 1709. 

After 1716 there was a rapid immigration 
of Palatines, representing the Lutheran and 
Reformed Churches, landed at Philadelphia. 
Most of them were of the peasant class and 
moved within the present limits of Mont- 
gomery, Berks, Northampton and Lancas- 
ter Counties. A Reformed Church was 
founded at Goshenhoppen, in Berks County, 
in 171 7, and Lutheran Churches were 
founded at Trappe and other parts of Mont- 
gomery County about the same time. At 
this period in our colonial history, the In- 
dians were li^-ing on peaceful terms with the 
whites, and these German settlers moved 
forward toward the Susquehanna. The 
largest immigration took place between 
1730 and 1750. In 1747 Governor Thomas 
estimated that there were 120,000 of these 
people within the Pro\-ince of Pennsyl- 
vania. After the year 1727 the masters of 
vessels arriving at the port of Philadelphia 
were required to have all the German im- 

migrants sign their names before landing. 
'IMiese original documents are now in the 
recoril ilepartment among the archives at 
Harrisburg. In 1856, I. D. Rupp published 
in book form the names of 30,000 Germans 
who landed at Philadelphia between the 
years 1727 and 1776, when Penn's province 
became a state. 

The charter granted to 
West of the Lord Baltimore permitted 
Susquehanna, settlements in the valley of 
Monocacy, where Freder- 
ick now stands, as early as 17 12, and a num- 
ber of Palatines located there during that 
year, while still others crossed the Potomac 
into the Shenandoah Valley as early as 1731. 
Germans were among tlie earliest to cross 
the Susquehanna, beginning their settle- 
ments in the valley of the Kreutz Creek and 
Conojohela, in 1730. They could secure no 
rights for settlements until 1733, when 
Samuel Blunston, an English Quaker and an 
agent for the Penns, issued licenses for 
white settlers to cross the Susquehanna and 
take up lands within the present area of 
York County. During the succeeding 
three years, at least one thousand Palatines 
settled in the Codorus Valley. They 
founded the first Lutheran Church on the 
site of York in 1733. About the same time 
a Reformed congregation was organized at 
Kreutz Creek. The Germans began to set- 
tle on what is known as Digges' Choice, 
around the site of Hanover, as early as 1731, 
taking up lands under Maryland titles. 

The land west of the Susquehanna, ex- 
tending to the eastern slopes of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, was purchased by the 
Penns from the Indians in 1736. From that 
time until 1749, when York County was 
organized, there was a continuous stream of 
migration into York County. Many of 
these people came directly from the Father- 
land, while others migrated from the eastern 
counties of Pennsylvania. A few of them 
w^ere Mennonites and others Dunkers, but 
a large majority were Lutherans and Re- 
formed. They brought with them the cus- 
toms of their native land, as well as the 
church and parochial schools. 

Hon. John W. Bittenger, in an address 
delivered at the time of the Sesqui-Centen- 
nial of York County, in 1899, paid the fol- 
lowing tribute to the worthy Germans who 
settled this region : 



"As William Penn, the great apostle of 
peace and toleration, sought a home in the 
new world and founded Pennsylvania, 
where he might worship God according to 
the dictates of his own conscience, so the 
Germans of the Palatinate and other parts 
of Germany, at the invitation of Penn, came 
to seek a new home in his province, many 
of them in York County, for the same laud- 
able purposes and in hopes and expectations 
of finding a retreat, a peaceable settlement 
therein. How they grew in numbers; how 
by acts of charity and good will, they lived 
in peace with their Indian neighbors ; how 
they established and maintained their plain 
but comfortable homes; built churches and 
school houses ; defended their possessions 
against Maryland intruders and compelled 
recognition of their rights ; defended their 
country's flag, its honor and liberties on 
every Ijattlefield ; improved their lands and 
developed their resources ; how they were 
largely instrumental in the establishment 
and maintenance of good goxernment. are 
all matters of history. 

"As early as December i6, 1774. at a 
meeting called at the Court House, a Com- 
mittee of Safety for the county was elected, 
having among its members men of familiar 
German names: Henry Slagle, George Eich- 
elberger, George Koontz, Simon Copen- 
hafer, Michael Hahn, Baltzer S pajagjer,..^ 
David Messerly, Nicholas Bittinger, Jacob 
Doudel, Frederick Fischel, Michael Doudel, 
Casper Reinecke and Henry Liebhart. 
These and other Germans of York County 
stood by the great cause until our indepen- 
dence was obtained and then devoted them- 
selves to the civil achie\'ements that fol- 

"It is our duty to recount their virtues, 
laud their distinguished services to their 
country, their great achievements in peace 
or war, to honor their names and cherish 
their memories, for an honored ancestry is 
to worthy descendants their richest in- 


The ^lennonites were among the early 
settlers in the territorj' of York County. 
Under the leadership of Michael Tanner, 
Mdio, in 1749, was appointed one of the com- 
missioners to lay ofT York Countjr, this class 
of religionists began to settle in the south- 

western section of the county as early as 
1738. They took up the rich farming lands 
to the east and southeast of Hanover, first 
securing land titles from the authorities of 
Marjdand. A few of them settled between 
York and the Susquehanna River. 

The religious body known as Men- 
Their nonites has a disputed origin. 
Origin. They took their name from Menno 
Simon, who had been a Roman 
Catholic priest and first organized them in 
Germany during the year 1540. Some au- 
thorities state that they were descendants 
of the Waldenses, a class of people who 
suffered persecution in France and parts of 
Germany. Another authority reports them 
as Anabaptists. 

In their religious beliefs the Mennonites 
opposed war, would take no oaths, no part 
in government, were opposed to a paid min- 
istry, premeditated sermons, high education 
and infant baptism, the doctrines and be- 
liefs to which they still adhere. These peo- 
ple, who were similar in their religious faith 
to the Quakers, had been invited to come to 
America by Gust^vus Adolphus, of Sweden, 
and settle with his own subjects on the 
banks of the Delaware. A few of them 
came as early as 1662. 

A\^illiam Penn, whose mother was of Hol- 
land-Dutch ancestry, paid a visit to Holland 
and the lower parts of Germany in the year 
1761, preaching the doctrine of the "inner 
light," or the motives and influences that 
guide the hearts and consciences of men, a 
faith in harmon}' with that of the followers 
of Menno Simon. In 1677 Penn made a 
second visit to Holland and Germany, 
where he encouraged the forming of 
colonization societies. The Mennonites 
had been driven up and down the Rhine by 
persecution for a century and a half, and 
they were now willing to brave the dangers 
of the sea to find a haven of rest beyond it. 

In 1683 Jacob Telner, of Crefeld, a town 
on the Rhine just outside of Holland, or- 
ganized a company of Mennonites for the 
purpose of transporting them to America. 
He had come to Pennsylvania a few years 
before and selected a site as a future home 
for his people on the banks of the Delaware, 
a short distance north of Philadelphia. 

Francis Daniel Pastorius, a 

Founded noted scholar, arrived in 

Germantown. Philadelphia August 20, 



1683, and soon afterward founded Ger- 
mantown with thirteen families of Cre- 
felders. in all thirty-three persons. Wil- 
liam Penn was present when the frame 
work of the first two-story house was built 
in Germantown, and partook of a Mennon- 
ite dinner at the "raising." Other immi- 
grants began to arrive and the village of 
Germantown, then six miles from Philadel- 
phia and now part of the city, became a 
prosperous settlement. 

In 1719 another class of religionists 
whom Penn had invited to his province 
first landed in America and took up their 
abode with the Mennonites around German- 
town. These people were the German Bap- 
tists, or Dunkers, who, in the main, held the 
same religious beliefs as the Mennonites 
and Quakers. They came to Germantown 
under the leadership of Christopher Sauer, a 
man of fine education, and who became the 
original publisher of German books in 

A colony of eight families of Swiss 
In the Mennonites arrived at Holland, 
Pequea set sail for America, and in 1709 
Valley, took up lands in the beautiful 
Pequea Valle}', in Lancaster 
County, being the first white settlers to 
clear the lands and cultivate the soil of that 
region. They were the pioneers of a large 
immigration of these worthy people, who 
soon afterward occupied the fertile valleys 
immediately east of the Susquehanna. 
Having come to this province at the invita- 
tion of \Mlliam Penn, these Swiss Mennon- 
ites lived peaceably with the Indians, who 
still had their villages along the Susque- 
hanna and its tributary streams. They 
came under the leadership of John Herr, 
who has numerous descendants in the 
counties of Lancaster and York. 

These people being pleased with their 
new surroundings in the primeval forests of 
Pennsylvania, decided to send the good 
tidings to their unfortunate friends in their 
native land. Martin Kendig was chosen to 
return to Europe, and the next year he came 
back to Pequea. the leader of a new band of 
Mennonites. In 1717 another band of 
Swiss Mennonites came to the Pequea Val- 
ley and settled themselves on lands sur- 
rounding those owned by their brethren 
who came before them. In 1726 a much 
larger immigration, to avoid religious perse- 

cution in their native country, crossed the 
ocean and at last found a safe harbor in the 
land of Penn. 

By the year 1732 there were sev- 
In York eral hundred of these people 
County, living in the fertile valleys of Lan- 
caster County. In 1733, when 
the Blunston grants were given, permitting 
settlers to cross the Susquehanna, some of 
these Swiss Mennonites w-ere among the 
earliest to locate in the limestone region 
east of York, and the fertile country of 
Heidelberg, Penn and the adjoining town- 
ships east and southeast of Hanover. They 
brought wnth them the Bible and other re- 
ligious works from the Fatherland, and 
soon after their arrival founded a church in 
the vicinity of Menges' Mills, and one along 
the York Road, known as Bear's Meeting 
House, three miles southeast of Hanover. 
These settlements were made before the 
red men of the forests had given up these 
hunting grounds and moved westward 
ahead of the white emigration. The de- 
scendants of these early Mennonites still 
occupy the fertile lands taken up by their 
ancestors nearly two centuries ago. 


The followers of Alexander Mack, 
founder of the German Baptist Church, be- 
gan to settle in York County as early as 
1738. One colony of these people took up 
the fertile lands in the southwestern portion 
of this county, settling there about the same 
time that the people of the Mennonite faith 
began to locate in that region. The Bermu- 
dian settlement, in the extreme western 
part of York County and the eastern part 
of Adams County, was composed almost 
entirely of German Baptists. 

In colonial times there seems 
Christopher to have been three leaders 

Sauer. among the German people in 

Pennsylvania. These per- 
sons were Christopher Sauer (Sower), the 
leader of the German Baptists, Michael 
Schlatter, a remarkable missionary among 
the German Reformed settlers, and Henry 
Melchoir Muhlenberg, one of the founders 
of the Lutheran Church in America. In 
many respects Christopher Sauer was the 
most progressive German in .\merica in his 
day. He first settled on a farm in Lancaster 
County in 1724. He went to Germantown 



in 173 1, and in 1738 began to publish an 
almanac, which was widely circulated and 
exerted a powerful influence over the Ger- 
man people of Pennsylvania for more than 
half a century. It appeared every year from 
1738 to 1798, the last numbers being pub- 
lished by his descendants. Sauer also 
began the publication of a religious and 
secular journal in 1739 and in 1743 he 
printed the first Bible which appeared from 
the press in America, except a portion of 
the Scriptures printed by Eliot at an earlier 
date, made for the Indians of Massachusetts. 
This edition of the Sauer Bible was limited 
to 1,200 copies. Two other editions were 
issued at a later date. Copies of the first 
edition are very rare. During his life time, 
Sauer published many books, and his print- 
ing house was continued by his descendants. 

The Ephrata community, in Lancaster 
County, a body of Seventh Day Baptists, 
also followers of Alexander Mack, estab- 
lished a printing press in 1745 and pub- 
lished a large number of books in the Ger- 
man language. One of these, known as the 
"Martyr's Mirror," was the largest book 
printed in America before the Revolution. 

It may be interesting here to give 

Origin the origin and early history of the 

of the German Baptist Church, their 

Church, emigration to Pennsylvania and 

their settlement west of the 


The German Baptists, as a church, body, 
originated in Germany in the year 1708. 
They usually call themselves "Brethren" 
and their church the "Brethren Church." 
They are sometimes called "Dunkers," from 
the German word "tunken," meaning to 
baptize or dip. This name originated in 
Pennsylvania during their early history 
here. They do not recognize the name 
Dunker, or Dunkard, as appropriate to 
designate their church body. The origi- 
nators of this denomination in Germany met 
and held meetings among themselves for 
social worship, but the regular Protestant 
clergy soon caused the secular authorities 
to interfere. At this time, in 1695, ^ mild 
and lenient Count ruled over the province 
of Wigenstein, in North Prussia, where 
liberty of conscience was granted. To this 
place, although a poor, rough country, went 
many, who were aroused by a religious 
awakening and who desired to consult 

among themselves as to church discipline 
and ecclesiastical polity. This province was 
soon known as "the rendezvous of the 
Lord's people." Those who collected there 
were first called Pietists, and all worshipped 
together. They then commenced to call 
themselves Brethren. One of the guiding 
points of their discipline was found in the 
book of Matthew, which says : "If thy 
brother trespass against thee, go and tell 
him his faults between thee and him alone." 
But to fulfill this injunction they needed 
some church order and they began to seek 
for the footsteps of the primitive Christians. 
The mystery of water baptism appeared to 
them a door of entrance into the true 
church, which they so earnestly sought, but 
they could not at once agree as to form. 
Finally, in 1708, eight of the most truth- 
loving of them agreed to enter into "a cove- 
nant of good conscience with God by taking 
up all the commandments of Jesus Christ 
as an easy yoke, and thus follow him as their 
faithful shepherd." 

Those eight persons were George Graby 
and Lucas Vetter, from Hesse-Cassel; 
Alexander Mack, from Schriesheim, and his 
wife, Anna Margaretta; Andrew Bonny, 
from Basle, Switzerland, and his wife, Jo- 
hanna, and John Kipping, from Wurtera- 
burg, and his wife, Johanna. These eight 
persons "covenanted and united as brethren 
and sisters of Jesus Christ," and thus 
formed the nucleus of a church of Christian 
believers. They claimed, after careful in- 
vestigation, that according to the commands 
of Christ the primitive Christians "were 
planted into his death by a three-fold im- 
mersion in the water bath of holy baptism, 
being in exact harmony with the New 
Testament." Trine immersion was con- 
sidered by them the only correct form of 
baptism. Being prepared for the ceremony 
of baptism, they went along the little stream 
called Aeder, in Germany, and he upon 
whom the labor had fallen baptized the 
leading brother and he in turn baptized the 
rest. In a few years there were large con- 
gregations gathered in ^wartznau, in the 
Palatinate and in Marienborn. Persecution 
soon followed them. These unfortunate 
ones found refuge under the king of Prus- 
sia. Among the prominent workers in the 
church in Germany about 1715, some of 
wliose descendants now live in York 



County, were John Henry Kalclesser, of 
Frankenthal; Christian Liebe (Leib), of 
Ebstein; Johanna Nass (Noss), of Norten; 
Peter Becker, of Dillsheim; John Henry 
Trout and several brothers; Heinrich Hol- 
sapple and Stephen Koch, of the Palatinate. 

This religious body suffered 
Come to great persecutions in parts of the 
America. Fatherland. Some fled to Cre- 

feld, Prussia, from thence to 
Holland, thence to the province of Fries- 
land, in the hope of finding an asylum of 
peace and safety, but were everywhere dis- 
appointed until they "turned their faces to- 
ward the land of Penn," where this entire 
religious body soon emigrated. Twenty 
families first emigrated, with Elder Peter 
Becker at their head, in 1719, and settled in 
the vicinity of Germantown, Pennsylvania. 
In 1729 thirty more families came over 
under the leadership of the celebrated Alex- 
ander Mack, who- himself was a noted 
evangelist and a descendant of the Wal- 
denses so well known to history. Settle- 
ments of them were soon formed at Skip- 
pack, Montgomery County, Oley, in Berk^. 
and Conestoga, in Lancaster; all under the 
care of preachers Mack and Becker. In 
1723 the church held a first election in 
America and chose Conrad Beissel, a minis- 
ter, and John Hildebrand, a deacon, both 
to serve in Lancaster County. In the lan- 
guage of an old record, "Conrad Beissel got 
wise in his own conceit, had an idea that 
Saturday was the Lord's day, secured a 
number of followers, and in 1729' organized, 
at Ephrata, the German Seventh-day Bap- 
tists," who were afterward known as a dis- 
tinct church body. In 1732 Beissel or- 
ganized a monastic society at Ephrata. The 
churches at Ephrata, at Conestoga, and one 
in Chester County attracted so man\^ set- 
tlers that land became high. So numerous 
members of the Brethren Church, as early 
as 1736, began to migrate to what is now 
York County. Some went down into 

The first church in York 
Conewago County by the Brethren was 
Church. organized in 1738, "twenty 
miles west from the town of 
York, on the Little Conewago." This was 
in the vicinity of Hanover. The district 
embraced by the church included a large ex- 
tent of territorv east, north and northwest 

of the site of the present town of Hanover. 
It will thus be seen that the German Bap- 
tists were among the earliest people to form 
church organizations in York County. 

Among the early members who organized 
this church, in 1738, were Eldrick, Dier- 
dorff, Bigler, Gripe, Studsman and others. 
Among the prominent members of this con- 
gregation in 1770 were Jacob Moyer and 
James Henrick, preachers ; Hans Adam 
Snyder, George Wine, Daniel Woods, 
Henr}' Geing, Joseph Moyer, Nicholas 
Hostetter, Christian Hostetter, Rudy 
Brown. Dobis Brother, Jacob Miller, 
Michael Koutz, Stephen Peter, Henry Tan- 
ner, IMichael Tanner, John Moyer, Jacob 
Souder, Henry Hoff, John Swartz. The 
wives of all these persons named w^ere also 
members of this church. The unmarried 
members were Barbara Snyder, John Geing, 
2\Iaud Bowser, George Peter, Hester Wise, 
Christian Etter, John Peter Weaver, Bar- 
bara Bear, Elizabeth Boering, Grace Hymen. 

Their first preacher was Daniel Leather- 
man, Senior. He was followed by Nicholas 
Martin, Jacob Moyer (Meyers), James 
Hendrich (Henry), etc. 

In 1 741 there was another church or- 
ganized in the limits of what was then York 
County, "on the Great Conewago, about 
fourteen miles west from the new town of 
York." This was the same year York was 
founded. jMany of the members of the 
church lived in the present territory of 
Adams County, in the vicinity of the vil- 
lages of Abbottstown and East Berlin. 
Among the first members of this organiza- 
tion were John Neagley, Adam Sower, 
Jacob Sweigard, Peter Neiper and Joseph 
Latshaw. Their first elder was George 
Adam Martin, who was followed by Daniel 
Leatherman, Jr., and Nicholas Martin. The 
following were the members in 1770: 
George Brown, preacher; John Heiner, 
Peter Fox, Anthony Dierdorft', Nicholas 
;Mo3'er, ManassehBrough, Michael Bosser- 
man, David Ehrhard, Daniel Baker, Abra- 
ham Stauffer, Henry Dierdorft", John Burk- 
holder, Andrew Trimmer, Eustace Rensel, 
Peter Dierdorft', Barnett Augenbaugh, 
John Neagley, Michael Brissel, ^^'elty Bris- 
sel, JMatthias Bouser, Laurence Baker, 
Philip Snell, Nicholas Baker, Jr., Adam 
Sower, Adam Dick, Henry Brissel, David 
Brissel. Henry Radibush, George Wagner, 



George Reeson, and their wives. The un- 
married members were Peter VVertz, Ann 
Mummert, Christian Fray, Samuel Arnold, 
Mary Latshaw, Catherine Studabaker, 
Nicholas Baker, Marillas Baker, Sarah Bris- 
sel, Jacob Miller, Rudolph Brown. The two 
organizations alread}' described were known 
as the Conewago Churches. 

There was another congrega- 

Bermudian tion organized within the 

Church. present area of Washington 

Township, "fifteen miles from 
the town of York," called the Bermudian 
Church. The first constituents of this 
organization separated from the Cloister 
Church, at Ephrata, Lancaster County, in 
1735, and organized in 1738 in York County. 
Many of them were Seventh-day Baptist,-.. 
The church was considered an ofifspring of 
Ephrata, but for a while they worshipped 
witli the Brethren. Some of the founders c^f 
it were : Philip Gebel, Peter Beissel, Henry 
Lowman, Peter Miller and George Adam 

Some of the prominent persons who com- 
posed its membership in 1770 were: Fred- 
erick Reuter and wife, Daniel Fahnestock 
and wife, Peter Henry and wife, Paul Troub 
and wife, Dietrich Fahnestock and wife, 
John Cook and wife, Peter Bender and wife, 
Melchoir AVebber and wife, John Lehr and 
wife, John Messerbach and wife, George 
Reiss (Rice) and wife, George Neiss (Nace) 
and wife, Benjamin Gebel (Gable) and 
wife, Philip Beissel and wife, Baltzer Smith 
and wife, AA'idows Dorothy and StaulTer, 
several families by the name of Frick, from 
whom descended Henry C. Frick, of Pitts- 
burg; John Bentz, wife, daughter, and four 
sons ; John Miller, wife, and two sons ; Peter 
Beissel, wife, son, and two daughters. This 
list includes both Seventh-day Baptists and 
Brethren. Later in the history of the 
church the Seventh-day Baptists, or "Sieben 
Tager," as they were called, maintained a 
separate organization, but as a church 
ceased to exist in this county about 1820. 
Some of the members about that time were 
Frederick Reider, Jacob Kimmel, Michael 
Kimmel, John Meily, Samuel, Daniel, and 
Boreas Fahnestock, and others. 

The "Codorus Church was or- 

The ganized in the Township of Co- 

Codorus dorus, eleven miles southeast of 

Church. York, in 1758," and soon after 

numbered in its membership about forty 
families. The first elder of this church 
was Jacob Danner, a son of Michael 
Danner, a prominent man in the early 
history of the county and one of the five 
commissioners appointed to view and lay ofif 
York County in 1749. Jacob Danner, 
Heinrich Danner and their father were 
among the most intelligent of the first Ger- 
man emigrants west of the Susquehanna, 
and figured very prominently in their day. 
Jacob Danner was a poet of no mean repu- 
tation. About the year 1750 he and Rev. 
Jacob Lischy, of York Reformed Church, 
engaged in a vigorous religious controversy. 
The manuscripts containing Danner's argu- 
ments were written in verse in his native 
German language. Jacob Danner moved to 
Frederick Count^^ Md. The controversy 
showed considerable ability on the part of 
l)oth clergymen. 

Prominent among the first members of 
the Codorus congregation, in 1758, were 
Rudy Yunt, Peter Brillharth, John Brill- 
harth, Henr}' NefT and wife. After Jacob 
Danner went to Maryland, Henry Neff was 
called to the ministry and remained pastor 
until after 1775. He was highly appreci- 
ated by his people, and kept careful official 
records. Some of the other members of this 
church, in 1770, were Jacob Tillman, wife 
and daughter; Jacob Spitler, wife and two 
daughters ; Jacob Neiswanger and wife, 
Anna Neiswanger, and Elizabeth Seip, 
George Beary and wife, John Harold and 
wife, AA'illiam Spitler and wife. Christian 
Eby, Wendell Baker and wife, Michael 
Berkey and wife, George Etter and son, 
Matthias Sitler and wife, Susanne AVeltner, 
Catherine Beightley. 

The celebrated Baptist preacher, Morgan 
Edwards, of Philadelphia, visited his Dun- 
ker Brethren in York County in 1770 and 
afterward wrote an interesting report of 
their prosperity here. 

Being non-resistants in principle and in 
church discipline, the first who emigrated to 
York Count)^ had no difficulties with the In- 
dians. During the Revolution most of them 
took the oath of allegiance. 

"The annual conference was held first in 
York County in 1789 on the Great Cone- 
wago." The following named elders or 
bishops were present: Daniel Leatherman, 
Martin Urner, Jacob Danner, Heinrich 



Danner, Jolm Funk, Jacob Stall, Heinrich 
Xeff, Conrad Brombach, Daniel Utz, An- 
dreas Eby, Samuel Gerber, Herman Blasser, 
Jacob Basehor, Abraham Oberholtzer. 
Some of these may have been visitors from 
Lancaster County or Maryland. 

The Bunkers, or Brethren, were so 
numerous in York and Adams Counties that 
a second meeting of the conference was 
held on the premises of Isaac Latchaws in 
1819, when the following named elders or 
bishops were present: Benjamin Bauman, 
Samuel Arnold, Daniel Stober (Stover), 
Daniel Gerber, Christian Lang (Long), 
Jacob Mohler. John Gerber, John Stauffer, 
Benjamin Eby, John Trimmer, Jacob 
Preisz (Price), Daniel Reichardt, Fred- 
erick Kline, Daniel Saylor, the ancestor of 
D. P. Saylor, a prominent minister of the 
church who recently died. Nearly all these 
elders then lived in York and Adams 

The services in general down to about 
1810 were held in private houses, barns and 
schoolhouses. They now have plainly con- 
structed but comfortable meeting houses. 

Nearly all the congregations of this de- 
nomination have meeting houses. The 
County of York is now divided into three 
districts. The upper Codorus district has 
within its limits four meeting houses, 
namely — Black Rock, in Manheim Town- 
ship ; Jefferson, near Jefiferson Borough ; 
^^"ildasins, four miles southeast of Hanover, 
and Beaver Creek, near Abbottstown. The 
bishop or elder of this district is Henry 
Hoft, of Black Rock. The preachers are D. 
N. Bucher, of Abbottstown; Joseph Price, of 
Black Rock; Aaron Baugher, Jefferson; 
David B. Hoff, Edwin Miller, of Black 
Rock; Moses ^Murray and David Hoff. 


The following article relating to the 
Dutch and Huguenot colony on the Cone- 
wago was read before the Historical So- 
ciety of York County, in the year 1905, by 
Re\-. A. Stapleton : 

The history of this colony is perhaps the 
most remarkable in the annals of Pennsyl- 
vania. In fact, we know of no other set- 
tlement in the United States having such 
unicjue characteristics. 

The people composing this colony were 
descendants of the Dutch (Hollanders) and 

French Huguenot settlers of New Jersey. 
The locality from whence they came was 
Hackensack and Schwallenberg, in Bergen 
County. In the early records of the Dutch 
Reformed Churches of these places, the 
reader who wishes to carry his investiga- 
tions further will find the family records of 
most of the colonists. The colonists, who 
numbered probably over one hundred 
families, did not come to York County in a 
body, but gradually, during a period of 
twenty years prior to the war of the Revo- 
lution. They located mostly in ^It. Pleas- 
ant and Straban Townships, now in Adams 

A remarkable feature of the colony was 
its mobility. Its people were restless, and 
for over half a century continued to break 
up into smaller bodies, founding new set- 
tlements on the distant frontiers. This dis- 
integration continued until about 1800, by 
which time but a comparatively small num- 
ber of the "Jersey" families remained on the 

A large number of these colonists, as 
well as their descendants, attained distinc- 
tion as soldiers, statesmen and promoters in 
almost every line of human activity. 
Prominent examples of these are Alexander 
J. Cassatt, President of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company ; Thomas A. Hendrix, 
Vice-President of the United States during 
President Cleveland's first term ; Daniel H. 
Voorhees, late United States Senator from 
Indiana, and Senator Banta. 

As already noted, the planting of the 
Dutch and Huguenot colony in York 
County embraced a period of many years. 
It would be interesting to know who its pro- 
moters were and what special inducements 
were held out to the Jersey people, to trans- 
plant themselves to this region. That it 
was the outcome of a well-defined scheme, 
and under the direction of promoters is 
quite probable. In the absence of complete 
records on this interesting subject we are 
obliged to prepare its history from various 

An examination of the official 
Where records of York County shows that 
They from 1760 to 1770 there was a 
Came considerable influx of colonists 
From. from New Jersey. Manj^ of them 
were well advanced in years at the 
time of their settlement here, as mav be 



noted in their wills and other mortuary 
papers on file in the York County Court 
House. From the recently published rec- 
ords of the Schwallenberg Reformed 
Church we gain a knowledge of their family 
history, and also that they intermarried. 

Among the first of the Jersey colonists to 
locate in York County was James Petit, 
whose ancestor was one of the early Hugue- 
not refugees to New Jersey. As early as 
1740 James Pettit possessed a considerable 
estate on the Conewago. He died in 1771 
at an advanced age. Abram La Rue, who 
died in 1757, and Adam de Gomois, Hugue- 
not pioneers from New Jersey, were among 
the earliest settlers, and no doubt had much 
to do with the subsecjuent influx. 

Some of the leading families of the colony 
were ; 

David Demorest (Demore) was born in 
173 1, and died in 1808. He was a descend- 
ant of a Huguenot refugee of the same 
name, born in Beauchamp, France, in 1620, 
and who came to New York in 1663 because 
of religious persecution. 

Frederick Banta was the grandson of 
Prof. Epke Banta, a Dutch colonist who 
died at Schrallenberg in 1719. 

John Bodine, who died at Conewago in 
1776, at a very advanced age, was the 
grandson of the Huguenot refugee, Jean 
Bodine, who died on Long Island, New 
York, in 1695. In 1794 George Brocaw 
died, whose ancestor, Pierre Brocaw, a 
French refugee, located in New York prior 
to 1680. Audri Ridett died in 1776; 
Michael Le Boob, in 1781 ; Adam de Goma 
in 1772; Cornelius Corsine, in 1786; Peter 
Corsine, in 1779; Peter Montford, the pro- 
genitor of a noble family, died quite aged 
in 1769. George BrinkerhofT, who was born 
in 1719, died in 1810. A marble shaft marks 
the resting place of this patriarch in the 
cemetery of the colonists on the Conewago, 
near Hunterstown. 

Francis Cazart (Cassatt), ancestor of 
Alexander J. Cassatt, President of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, was born at Mill- 
stone, Somerset County, in New Jersey, in 
1713. He was a grandson of Jacques Cazart 
and his wife, Lydia, French refugees, who 
came to America in 1657. He was married 
prior to 1740 and had children as follows: 
Peter, one of the early colonists of Ken- 

tucky, where he was killed by the Indians 
during the Revolution; Magdalena, born 
1741; David, born 1743; Jacob, born 1751; 
Stynte, born 1755; Elizabeth, born 1757, and 
Francis, Jr., who went to Kentucky. Fran- 
cis Cazart was very prominent in the affairs 
of Pennsylvania during the Revolutionary 
period. His sons likewise shared in the 
struggle for Independence. In 1776 he was 
elected a member of the Provincial As- 
sembly, and was a member of the committee 
that framed the first constitution of the 
state in 1776. He died sometime after 1787, 
at which time he divided his estate among 
his children. 

It is worthy of note that a considerable 
number of the descendants of Francis Ca- 
zart attained distinction in various walks of 
life. Among others were David, born 1768, 
died in 1824, and Jacob, born 1778, died 
1839; both were sons of David, the eldest 
son of Francis. David Cassatt, Jr., was a 
lawyer of ability. At an early day he lo- 
cated at York, where his daughter, Isa- 
bella, married Samuel Small, Sr., member of 
the firm of P. A. & S. Small. For many 
years he was one of the leaders of the York 
County Bar and held various offices of 
responsibility. His remains repose in the 
graveyard of the First Presbyterian Church 
of York. Jacob Cassatt, the brother of 
David, Jr., was also a lawyer and citizen of 
Gettysburg. For many years he was quite 
prominent in the politics of the common- 
wealth and was a recognized leader in the 
legislature at the time of his death. 

Dennis Cassatt, who was a brother of 
Jacob and David, died sometime prior to 
1824, leaving an only son, Robert, of Pitts- 
burg, who was the father of Alexander J. 
Cassatt. Many of the descendants of Peter 
Cassatt (son of trancis, the Pennsylvania 
pioneer, and who was killed by the Indians 
in Kentucky in 1780) are widely distributed 
in the west. 

From a valuable article on the 
Names of history of the Dutch and 

Early Huguenot colony of York 
Church County by Rev. J. K. Demorest, 
Members, of Gettysburg, we are able to 
reproduce the membership list 
of the Dutch Reformed Church of Cone- 
wago, prior to 1775. The names given are 
males, and supposedly heads of families : 



Aelsdorf, John, 
Aaten, J. 
Ackcrman, Ilciiry, 



Banta, Samuel, 
Banta, Albert, 
Banta, Henry, 
Banta, Abraham, 
Banta, David, 
Banta, Peter, 
Bise, Daniel, 


Burnet, George, 
Brocaw, Peter, 
Brocaw, John, 
Brocaw, Ferdinand, 
Brocaw, George, 


Brunner, Abraham, 
Bayard, George, 
Breen. Phil, 
Breen, Jeremiah, 




Brower, Abraham, 
Brower, John, 
Bodine, John, 
Bodine. Abraham, 
Brinkerhoff, George, 
Brinkerhoff, Jacob, 
Brinkerhoff. Ralph, 
Brinkerhoff, Luke, 
Brinkerhoff, William, 
Brinkerhoff, Henry, 
Brinkerhoff, John, 


Carmine, Peter, 


Cazart, Francis, 
Cazart. Peter, 
Cazart. David, 
Cozine, Peter. 
Cozine, Cornelius, 
Cozine. Gerritt, 
Cozine, John, _ 
Crownover, John, 
Crownover, Cornelius, 


Cover, Isaac, 
Cover, John, 
Cover, Daniel, 


Dates, ■ 


Dennis, John, 


Dunn, Samuel, 

Demorest, David, 
Demorest, Samuel. 
Demorest, Cornelius, 
Demorest. Albert, 
Demorest. Garrett, 
deBaum, Joseph, 

de Mott. 

de Baum, Abraham, 
de Baum, Isaac, 
de Graff, Michael, 
de Graff. William, 
de Graff. Abraham, 
Dorland, Garrett. 

Ditch. William. 
Hichim. Richard. 
Fontein, Charles, 
Fontein, Thomas, 
Freer, James. 
Griggs, William, 




Hulick, Isaac. 
Hulick. Ferdinand. 
Hols. John. 
Hoff. Abraham. 
Houghtaling. Hczckiah, 
Herris, Daniel, 
Manners, Baldwin, 


Houts, John, 

Houts, Christoffel, 

Jewel. William. 

Jewel, Cornelius, 

Jansen (Johnson) Thomas 

Jansen. Abraham. 

Jansen. Andrew, 

Karmigal. Peter, 

Kline. Henry. 

Klopper. Cornelius, 

Ketcheon. Richard, 

Kipp. John. 

Kipp. Bernard. 

Kneff. John. 


Leaschells, George, 


Lea Grange. 

Van Neues, 
Vanderbilt, - 
Van Orden, 

Leittel, Henry, 
Leott, Cornelius, 
Midday, Ephraim, 


Mark, Michael, 
Masden, Peter, 
Montford, Francis, 
Montford, Peter, 
Montford, Jacob, 
Montford, Laurens, 
Nevins, Martin, 
Owens, William, 
Oblenius, John, 
Parsell, Isaac, 
Parsell, Richard, 
Peter, Peter, 
Peter, Garrett, 
Ringland, Joseph. 
Ringland, Phares, 
Ringland, John, 


Sloot, Benjamin, 
Stag, James, 
Schamp, Joseph, 
Striker, Henry, 


Sebring, George, 
Smock, Jacob, 
Smock, John, 
Smock, Bernard, 
Snedicker, Christian, 




Te Moth, Isaac, 
Titsworth, Mark, 
Titsworth, Isaac, 
Van Dyke, John, 
Van Dyke, Peter, 
Van Cleef, Isaac, 

Van Aarsdale, Abraham, 
Van Aarsdale, Simon, 
Van Aarsdale, Garrett, 
Van Aarsdale, Luke, 
Van Aarsdale, John, 
Van Aarsdale, Isaac, 
Van Dine, Dennis, 
Van Sant, Peter, 
Van Hues, Cornelius, 

Van Harlinger, 

Van Shaak, 

Van Horn, Michael, 
Van Riper, 

Van Voost, 

Van der Veer, Henry, 
Vantine, Thomas, 
Vantine, Charles, 
Vorhees, Ralph, 
Vorhees, Cornelius, 
Vorhees, Aaron, 
Vorhees, Garrett, 


Wcstervelt, Jacob, 
Westervelt, John, 
Westervelt, Abraham, 
Williamson, David, 
Williamson, William, 
Williamson, George, 
Williamson, Frederick, 
Yeurv, Benedict. 

The members of the Conewago 
A colony early established a congre- 

Pioneer gation of their own faith, the 
Church. Dutch Reformed, which has the 
distinction of being the only 
church of that denomination west of the 
Susquehanna River before 1800. A house 
for religious worship was erected near the 
present site of Hunterstown. soon after the 
establishment of this colony. The church 
records begin in 1769. The congregation 
was under the care of the New Brunswick 
classes of the Dutch Reformed Church. 
The first regular pastor was Rev. John M. 
Van Haling, from Millstone, New Jersey, 
who was a relative of the Cassatts. The 
second pastor was Rev. John Leydt, of New 
Brunswick. New Jersey, who was succeeded ' 
b}' Rev. Cornelius Corsine, who died in 
1788. Rev. Corsine was followed by Rev. 
George S. Brinkerhoff, who began his 
labors in 1789, and was the last regular 

A\'hen Brinkerhoft assumed charge of the 
congregation, the colony was already 
greatly weakened by removals and no 
longer able to support a minister. He ac- 
cordingly accepted a call, in 1793, to Sem- 
pronius, in New York, where a great many 
of his parishioners had located, and where 
he died in 1813. 

In 1817 a few of the surviving colonists 
petitioned the Pennsylvania Legislature for 
permission to sell the church and land con- 
nected with it. The proceeds of the sale 
were expended in the erectioii of a massive 
stone wall surrounding the cemetery of the 
colony. In this historic burial ground, now 
much neglected, sleep the patriarchs of this 
colon}-; their children became common- 
wealth builders, and bore a conspicuous 
part in the history of this great nation. 



The reader will be interested in the dis- 
persion of the Conewago colonists and their 
re-location elsewhere. Before taking up 
this subject, however, the question natur- 
ally arises, why they did not remain here? 
To this query no satisfactory answer can be 
given. They were restless, adventurous and 
intensely patriotic. During the Revolution 
they furnished a number of men who fought 
for independence. A considerable number 
became prominent, among them Francis 
Cazart, Abraham Banta and John Chamber- 
lain. Three of the colonists were captains 
in active service, namely Simon Van Ars- 
dale, William Houghtaling and George 

From various sources it is learned that 
these people planned to form a new county 
with the town of Berwick (now Abbotts- 
town) as the county seat. It is possible 
that the adverse treatment they met with 
in this venture created a dissatisfaction 
which eventually led many of them to sell 
their lands, most of which was fertile and 
well situated, and remove to virgin soil. As 
early as 1774 they had sent agents to Ken- 
tucky, \\'ho located a tract of ten thousand 
acres near the present town of Pleasantville, 
in Henry County. During the Revolution a 
considerable number of these people re- 
■ moved to their new possessions in Ken- 
tucky. Among the first families to migrate 
thither were Henry Banta and his numerous 
sons, some of whom were heads of families ; 
several sons of the pioneer Cassatt, Voor- 
hees, Durye, Dorian, Hendricks and Mont- 
ford. The colonists became associated with 
the Kentuck}' pioneer, Daniel Boone, and 
did valiant service for the new common- 

In 1780 the Kentucky colonists petitioned 
the Congress for permission to organize 
their settlement for the proper administra- 
tion of law and the better security of their 
lives and property. In 1795, the colonists 
having organized themselves into a congre- 
gation, petitioned the classes of New Bruns- 
wick, New Jersey, for a minister of their 
own faith with the result that Rev. Peter 
Lebach was sent to minister to their spirit- 
ual wants. Rev. Lebach was a native of 
Hackensack, New Jersey. He remained 
their pastor for upwards of half a century, 
dying in 1858 at the age of 85 years. Several 
decades after the establishment of the 

original colony in Kentucky they located 
another colony on the Salt River, in Mercer 
County, and still another in Shelby County, 

At a later period the Kentucky colonies 
formed settlements in Darke County, Ohio, 
and Johnson County, Indiana. These 
colonists early foresaw the opening of 
western New York for settlement in conse- 
cjuence of the ceding by the Six Nations of 
their lands to the government. In 1793 
they sent a prospecting" party to that region, 
who located a fine tract of land at the outlet 
of Owasco Lake. Upon securing the land, 
the shareholders lost no time in occupying 
it, so that by the following year a consider- 
able number had already disposed of their 
properties on the Conewago and removed 
thither. Among the emigrants to this new 
point of location were Jacob, Ralph and 
George Brinkerhofif, sons of the Conewago 
pioneer, already mentioned ; Thomas and 
Andrew Johnson, Abraham Bodine, Charles 
Vandine, James Dates, Isaac Purcell, Jacob 
Leyster and George Brocaw. (In 1797 they 
erected their first church, wdiich was re- 
placed by a more substantial structure in 

In conclusion I may be per- 
Their mitted to add a few notes 

Descendants, regarding a few eminent de- 
scendants of the Conewago 
colony. Hendrick Banta had twenty chil- 
dren, nearly all of them sons, some of whom 
were soldiers in the Revolution, while Hen- 
drick was a member of the committee of 
observation for York County. The whole 
Banta family went to Kentucky at the close 
of the Revolution. Among the celebrities 
of this family was Albert Banta, -who re- 
moved from Kentucky to Indiana. He was 
identified with many of the early interests 
and movements of that commonwealth. A 
descendant is David Banta, of Franklin, In- 
diana, for many years a judge but later dean 
of the law department of the State Uni- 
versit}^ He is the author of a number of 
books of permanent value. A. B. Banta, of 
Harrodsburg, Ky., is one of the best known 
men of that state. 

Several of the Voorhees family 
Noted have attained distinction. Daniel 
Men. AA\ Voorhees, nick-named "The tall 

sycamore of the Sangammon," was 
born in Indiana in 1828; member of 



Congress from 1861 to 1865, and from 1869 
to 1871; United States Senator in 1877 and 
thereafter many years. He figured prom- 
inently in national affairs. 

Probably the most noted descendant was 
Thomas A. Hendricks. He was born in 
Ohio in 1819, but early in life moved to In- 
diana among his kindred. Notwithstanding 
his conservatism, his integrity and probity 
were recognized by all, regardless of party 
lines. In 1863 Ire entered the Senate of the 
United States and thereafter was the 
political leader of his state until his death. 
He made an unsuccessful run for vice- 
president in 1876 with Samuel J. Tilden at 
the head of the ticket. His second run for 
the olifice in 1884, with Grover Cleveland, 
brought him the second highest honor 
within the gift of the American people. 

The River Brethren, sometimes 
The River known among themselves as 
Brethren. "Brethren in Christ," is a sect 
that originated along the Sus- 
quehanna River, in Conoy Township, Lan- 
caster County, in 1786, and soon after a con- 
gregation was formed in York County. The 
authentic history of this sect is rarely given. 
There have been published accounts which 
claimed to trace the origin to Germany in 
the year 1705. This statement has been 
published time and again in encyclopedias, 
but it is nevertheless, inaccurate. 

The name is sometimes confused with the 
United Brethren (jNIoravians) and the 
United Brethren in Christ. 

The first services which afterward led to 
the organization of the River Brethren, 
were held in the house of Jacob Engel, a 
Alennonite, who lived near Bainbridge, 
Lancaster County, and who afterward be- 
came the first bishop of the new church 
body. A temporary organization was ef- 
fected in 1776. It was not then fully deter- 
mined to form a new denomination. In 
1784 the celebrated e\-angelist, Martin 
Boehm, conducted a noted revival in Done- 
gal Township. Among the many who lis- 
tened to the great preacher were six men : 
Jacob Engel, above mentioned ; Hans 
(John) Engel, John Stern, Samuel Meigs 
and C. R. Rupp. The other cannot be given. 
These men met frequently for prayer and to 
search the Scriptures. After many meet- 
ings they concluded that trine immersion 
was the only legal mode enjoined by the 

Scriptures. They went to George Aliller, a 
minister of the German Baptist (Dunker) 
faith, and asked him to baptize them, but 
told him they did not wish to join his 
church. Upon that condition the right of 
baptism was refused them by the Dunker 
minister. They then, in imitation of the 
Brethren, cast lots along the shore of the 
Susquehanna and one of them drew the 
proper ticket; whereupon he baptized the 
others and one of them in turn baptized 
him. From documents written at the time 
and still in existence the facts herein given 
were obtained. This interesting ceremony 
took place in 1786. Jacob and John Engel 
and C. R. Rupp became the first ministers of 
the denomination. This sect has, ever since 
its origin, been entirely distinct from the 
Dunker Brethren. The sect, in 1880, had 
about eighty ministers, 100 congregations 
and 9,000 members in the United States, 
mostly in southern Pennsylvania, Ohio, In- 
diana and Kansas. Their religious services 
were conducted originally in the German 
language. At present English is much used. 
As a class these people are strictly non- 
resistant, but upright and honorable in the 
highest degree. There are about three hun- 
dred families of the sect in Lancaster 
County and in York County. 

This religious sect worships in private 
houses and barns, for the members are op- 
posed to the erection of meeting houses and 
churches. Their love feasts, annually held, 
usually across the river, are eventful oc- 

Rev. John Casper Stoever was the pioneer 
clergyman of the Lutheran Church west of 
the Susquehanna. He traveled over a large 
extent of country, performing his mission- 
ary duties and kept an accurate record of 
baptisms and marriages. His earliest 
records begin in 1735, six years before the 
town of York was founded. Pastor Stoever 
was the founder of the first Lutheran 
churches west of the Susquehanna, and the 
congregation formed at the site of York in 
1733 was known as the "Evangelical Luth- 
eran Church on the Codorus," and the one 
at Hanover as the "Evangelical Lutheran 
Church on the Conewago." The word 
Conojohela was the Indian name for the 
valley, incorrectly called the "Conodochly." 
The Kreutz Creek region was a short 
distance east of York. 




Robert Hueston. 
Pnrlnmo Huestoii, Sarah, born April, 173s; bap- 

\^OUorub. jjggj October 21, 1736. Evidences 

Jacob Rudisill and wife, Elizabeth. 
Hueston, Andrew, born September 18, 1739; baptised 
Ma3' 20, 1740. Evidences Andrew AIcGill and wife, 
Daniel McLoughh-. 

McLoughly, John, born February, 1735; baptised 
October 21, 1736. Evidences John Heorkin and 
wife, Bregille. 

Joseph Ogle. 

Ogle, Mary, born April 15, 1735; baptised June 20, 
1735- Witnesses Andrew McGill and wife, Mary. 

John George Hanspacher. 

Hanspacher, i\Iarie Eva, born July 26, 1740; bap- 
tised September 18, 1740. Sponsors Valentine 
Shultz and wife, Marie Eva. 

Daniel Early. 

Early, Catarina, born April 18, 1740; baptised Sep- 
tember iS, 1740. Sponsors Baltbasar Knertzer and 

John Hearken. 

Hearken, Eleonora, born March, 1740; baptised 
September 18, 1740. Sponsors, Tobias Hanspacher 
and daughter, Rebecca. 

John Philip Ziegler. 

Ziegler, Anna Christina, born September 7, 1740 ; 
baptised September 18, 1740. Sponsors, Jacob Zieg- 
ler and Agnes Schmidt. 

Gottfried Manck. 

Manck, Eva Marie, born September 22,, 1740; bap- 
tised October 29, 1740. Sponsors, John Heinrich 
and Eva Catarina Israel. 

Heinrich Schultz. 

Schultz, Fredericka, born November 13, 1740; bap- 
tised November 24, 1740. Sponsors, Michael Walck 
and wife. 

Paul Burckhart. 

Burckhart, Marie Magdalena, born October 13, 
1740; baptised November 25, 1740. Sponsors, 
George Schwab, Jr., and wife. 

Mathias Schmeisser. 

Schmeisser, John Michael, born November 21, 1740; 
baptised November 25, 1740, Sponsors, John George 
Schmeisser and wife, Barbara. 

Jacob Baerling. 

Baerling, Jacob Conrad, born November 16, 1740; 

baptised November 25, 1740. Sponsors, Lau and 

wife, Anna Kunigunda. 

John Frederick, born April 3, 1742; baptised April 

6, 1742. Sponsor, John George Hesset and wife, 


Dieterich Mayer. 

Mayer, Anna Margaretha, born November 2, 1740; 
baptised November 26, 1740. Sponsors, Philip Zieg- 
ler, Jr., and Anna Margaretha. 

William Welsh. 

Welsh, John Peter, born October, 1740; baptised 
April 5, 1741. Sponsors, Jacob Welsh and wife. 

John Dietrich Ulrich. 

Ulrich, Rosina, born December 28, 1740; baptised 
April 5, 1741. Sponsors, John Adam Rupert and 
wife, Anna Barbara. 

John Funck. 

Funck, Catarina, born March 5, 1741; baptised April 
5, 1741. Sponsor, Catarina Loewenstein. 

John Wolf. 

Wolf, Elizabeth, born December 9, 1740; baptised 
April S, 1741. Sponsors, Carl Eisen and wife. 

George Loewenstein. 

Loewenstein, Maria Elizabeth, born November 27, 
1740; baptised April 5, 1741. Sponsors, Daniel 
Diehl and wife. 

Tobias Heinrich. 

Heinrich, John, born March 9, 1741 ; baptised March 
29, 1747- Sponsors, Jacob Wolf and wife. 

Erasmus Holtzappel. 

Holtzappel, B., born August 25, 1740; baptised May 
17, 1 741. Sponsors, John Adam Rupert and wife. 

Weirich Rudisiel. 

Rudisiel, Anna Johanna, born December 28, 1740; 
baptised May 17, 1741. Sponsors, Jacob Ottinger 
and Anna Johanna Igsin. 

Jacob Welsh. 

Welsh, John Jacob, born May 20, 1741 ; baptised 
June 26, 1741. Sponsors, John Jacob Ottinger and 
Hannah Jost. 

Martin Bauer. 

Bauer, a son (name wanting), born May 2, 1741 ; 
baptised June 26, 1741. Sponsors, John Peter Wolf, 
Jacob Welsh and Veronica baseler. 

Leonard Knedy. 

Knedy, Isaac, born July 2, 1741 ; baptised August 
20, 1741. Sponsors, Isaac Laudenbusch and wife. 

Jost Mohr. 

Mohr, Eva Catarina, born July 3, 1741 ; baptised 
August 20, 1741. Sponsors, Marx Heus and Eva 
Catarina Iserlin. 

Joseph Beren. 

Beren, Frederick, born July 20, 1741 ; baptised 
August 20, 1741. Sponsors, John Frederick Baseler 
and wife, Veronica. 

Michael Ivrueger. 

Krueger, Elias. Sponsor, Alichael Rausch. 

William Morgan. 

Morgan, Elizabeth, born January, 1741 ; baptised 
August 20, 1741. Sponsors, Christian Croll and 
wife, Elizabeth. 

Ulrich Buehler. 

Buehler, Susanna, born February 17, 1741 ; baptised 
August 21, 1741. Sponsors, George Backer and 

Jacob Ganneiher. 

Gannemer, Anna Maria, born February 17, 1741 ; 
baptised August i, 1741. Sponsors, Ulrich Buehler 
and wife. 

Albinus Beyer. 

Beyer, Maria Sophia Margaretha, born August 7, 
1741 ; baptised September 27, 1741. Sponsors, John 
Nicholas Kau and wife. 

Nicholas Koger. 

Koger, John Jacob, born September 4, 1741 ; bap- 
tised September 27, 1741. Sponsors, John Jacob 
Weller and wife, Barbara. 

Christoph Kauffeld. 

Kauffeld, John Christoph, born July 15, 1741 ; bap- 
tised October i, 1741. 

Maria Elizabetha, born July 15, 1741 ; baptised Oc- 
tober I, 1741. Sponsors, I\Iichael Rausch and Eliz- 
abeth Rausch. 

Adam Simon. 

Simon, Andreas, born November 16, 1751 ; baptised 
November 25, 1751. Sponsors, Andreas Kuertzel 
and wife, Dorthea. 

John Adam Lucas. . 

Lucas, Maria Elizabetha, born November g, 1751 ; 
baptised November 25, 1751. Sponsors, Daniel Dieb 
and wife. 

John George Frosh. 

p Frosch, Johannes, born December 16, 

\^OnewagO. j„22; baptised February 4, 1733- 

Sponsors, John Morgenstern and wife. 
Frosch, Catarina, born July, 1735 ; baptised Novem- 
ber 5, 1735. Sponsors, John George Kuntz and wife, 

Frosch. Marie Elizabetha, born September 2r, 1738; 
baptised November 25, 1738. Sponsors, Jacob Kuntz 
and wife. 



Theobaldt Young. 

Young, JMarie Barbara, born September i, 1734; 

baptised May 22, 1735. Sponsors, Anna Barbara 


Young, Catarina, born 1736; baptised June 18, 1737. 

Sponsors, John George Kuntz and wife, Catarina. 

Young, Anna Marie, born February 2, 1739; baptised 

June 6, 1739. Sponsors, Andreas Schreiber and 

wife, Marie. 
Andreas Schreiber. 

Schreiber, John Theobaldt, born .-\pril 28, 1735; 

baptised May 22, 1735. Sponsors, John Theobalt 

Andreas Herger. 

Herger, Andreas, born August 22, 1734; baptised 

May 22, 1735. Sponsor, Andreas Schreiber. 

Herger, Catarina, born January 24, 1739; baptised 

April 19, 1739. Sponsors, George Kuntz and wife, 


Herger, Anna Margaretha, born November 21, 1740; 

baptised April 5, 1741. Sponsors, George Spengel 

and wife. 

Herger, Johannes, born October 24, 1742; baptised 

November 23, 1742. Sponsors, John Morgenstern 

and wife. 
Peter Ohler. 

Ohler, Andreas, born September 22, 1734; baptised 

May 22, 1735. Sponsor, Andreas Schreiber. 
Johannes Lehman. 

Lehman, Johannes, born April 22, 1734; baptised 

INIay 22, 1735. Sponsor, John Theobaldt Young. 
Conrad Eckert. 

Eckert, Johannes, born April 22, 1734; baptised May 

22, 1735. Sponsor, Peter Mittelkauff.' 

Eckert, Anna Dorthothea, born November 11, 1738; 
baptised June 16, 1739. Sponsor, Ursuls Ohlerin. 

Peter Mittelkauff. • 

Mittelkauff, Catharina, bom February 6, 1735 ; bap- 
tised May 22, 1735. Sponsors, John Theobaldt 
Young and wife, Catharina. 

Mittelkauff, Leonhardt, born January 23, 1739; bap- 
tised April 19, 1739. Sponsor, John Leonhardt 

Casper Bergheimer. 

Bergheimer, Anna Eva, born September 30. 1734; 
baptised May 22. 1735. Sponsor, Anna Eva Kuntz. 
Bergheimer, John Ludwig, born December 8, 1735; 
baptised April 27, 1736. Sponsors, John Ludwig 
Schreiber and wife. 

Bergheimer, Johann Leonhardt, born November 13, 
1737; baptised May 2^, 1738. Sponsors, John Leon- 
hardt Bernitz, John Morgenstern and wife. 
Bergheimer. Marie Elizabetha. born May 23, 1721 ; 
baptised June 25, 1741. Sponsor, Marie Elizabetha 

Christoph Schlaegel. 

Schlaegel, Heinrich, born July, 1735 ; baptised No- 
vember 5, 1735. Sponsors, Henry Schmidt, John 
George Kuntz and wife. 

Jacob Kuntz. 

Kuntz, John George, born October, 1735; baptised 
April 27, 1736. Sponsors, John George Frosch and 

Ludwig Schreiber. 

Schreiber, Catarina, born JNIarch, 1738; baptised May 

23. 1738. Sponsors, John George Kuntz and wife. 
Schreiber, Anna ^largaretha, born November i6, 
1740; baptised April 5, 1741. Sponsors, Andreas 
Schreiber and Anna Margaretha Diehlin. 

John George Schreyer. 

Schreyer, John George, born February 24, 1739 ; 

baptised April I, 1739. Sponsors, John George 

Soldner and Anna Marie Immler. 
Johannes Wildensinn. 

Wildensinn, George Carl, born January' 6, 1740; 

baptised May 29, 1740. Sponsor, George Carl Bar- 

Ludwig Suess. 

Suess, John Leonhardt, born March 10, 1740; bap- 
tised May 20, 1740. Sponsor, John Leonhardt Ber- 

Suess, Marie Salome, born ; baptised May 

20, 1740. Sponsor, Marie Salome Mittelkauff. 

Edward Davies. 

Davies, Martha, born February 2, 1740; baptised 
]\Iay 20, 1740. Witnesses, George Kuntz and wife. 

John Adlan. 

Adlan, Mary, born March 19, 1740; baptised May 20, 
1740. Witnesses, Edward Davies and Juliana Mor- 

Frantz Klebssaddel. 

Klebssaddel, Marie, born February 17, 1740; bap- 
tised May 20, 1740. Sponsors, Christian Schlegel 
and wife, Marie. 

Johannes Joho. 

Joho, Marie Christina, born March 14, 1740; bap- 
tised May 22, 1740. Sponsors, Janeslaus Wechtel 
and Marie Christina Baumann. 

Joho, Eva Catarina, born May 26, 1741 ; baptised 
June 25, 1741. Sponsors, Wentzel Buchtrueckle and 

Henry Hendricks. 

Hendricks, Jone, born October 6, 1739; baptised 
May 22, 1740. Sponsors, Adam Mueler and wife, 

Martin Schaub, an Immersionist. 

Schaub, Anna, born 1724; baptised May 21, 1740. 
Sponsors. Philip Kintz and wife. 

Philip Morgenstern. 

Morgenstern, Johannes, born June 16. 1740; bap- 
tised June 30, 1740. Sponsors, John ;\Iorgenstern, 
Johann Ebert and Catharina Kuntz. 

Jacob Stambach. 

Stambach, Marie Catharina, born September 22, 
1740; baptised September 22, 1740. Sponsors, John 
George Kuntz and daughter, Marie Catharina, and 
Marie Elizabetha IMorgenstern. 

Simon Mueler. 

Mueler. Anna Marie, born August 21, 1733; baptised 
September 30, 1733. Sponsors, Bernhardt Haessel 
and his wife. 

Mueler, Christian, born September 8, 1734; baptised 
March 30, 1735. Sponsor, Christian Kampi 

Simon Mueller. 

Mueller, Christina, born AL\v i, 1740; baptised Sep- 
tember 19, 1740. Sponsor, Christina Nosseler. 

Johannes Heim. 

Heim, John Casper, born September 9, 1740 ; bap- 
tised September 19, 1740. Sponsor, Casper Kuehner. 

John Geembel. 

Geembel, William, born December, 173S ; baptised 
September 19, 1740. Sponsors, Michael Carl, Ed- 
ward Davis and Eve Morgenstern. 

Nicholas Kee. 

Kee, Anna Margaretha, born March 9, 1741 ; bap- 
tised April 5. 1741. Sponsors, Jacob Beerling and 
wife, Anna Margaretha Euler. 

Martin Ernst. 

Ernst, Eva, born December 26, 1740; baptised April 
5, 1741. Sponsors, Andreas Herger and wife, Eva. 

William Wilson. 

Wilson, John, born November 6, 1740; baptised 
April 5, 1741. Sponsor, Philip Morgenstern. 

John Owen. 

Owen, William, born March 28, 1741 ; baptised April 
S, 1741. Sponsors, Daniel Schlaegel and sister, Cat- 

William Morphew. 

Morphew, Henry, born May 25, 1740: baptised April 
5. 1741. Sponsors, Christoph Schlaegel and wife. 


Jacob Jungblut. 

Jungblut, John Jacob, born March 13, 1739; baptised 
November 13, 1739. Sponsors, Leonhardt Bernitz, 
Casper Kuehner, Anna Catharina Kuntz and Hanna 
Heinrich Devis. 

Devis, Catarina. born January 6, 1741 ; baptised May 
18, 1741. Sponsors, Peter Shultz and wife, Cata- 
John Jacob Khind. 

Kkmd, John Adam, born February 11, 1741 ; bap- 
tised j\lay 8, 1741. Sponsors, John Adam Soil and 
Catarina Elizabeth Speugel. 
John Birdman. 

Birdman, Catarina. born April 20, 1741 ; baptised 
May 18, 1741. Sponsors, Elias Daniel Bernitz and 
his wife, also Catarina Berghoester. 
Antonius Heuteler. 

Heuteler, John Mathias, born September 19, 1738; 
baptised October 16, 1738. Sponsors, John Mathias 
Maercker and wife. 

Heuteler, Antonius, born April S, 1741 ; baptised 
May 18, 1741. Sponsors, Speugel and Magdalena 
Sebastian Winterbauer. 

Winterbauer, Marie Susannah, born 173S; baptised 
1738. Sponsors, Heinrich Vadis and Susannah 

Winterbauer, Sybilla, born August 30, 1740; bap- 
tised May 18, 1741. Sponsors , Michael Schaeufle 
and JNIarie Sybilla Weiss. 
Frederick Tranberg. 

Tranberg, Christina Barbara, born September 29, 
1740; baptised Jime 25, 1741. Sponsors, Christian 
Loefel and Anna Christina Baumann. 
Nicholas Layenberger. 

Layenberger, John George, born June 13, 1741 ;_bap- 
tised June 25, 1741. Sponsors, John George Kuntz 
and Catarina Baulinger. 
Frederick Kreuter. 

Kreuter, Anna Margaretha, born May 15, 1741; bap- 
tised June 25. 1741. Sponsors, Conrad Euler and 
his wife. 
Casper Schnridt. 

Schmidt, George Jacob, born June 10, 1741 ; baptised 
August 21, 1741. Sponsor, Jacob Baerliner. 
Marx Biegeler. 

Biegeler. Anna ]\Iarie, born March 30, 1741 ; bap- 
tised August 21, 1741. Sponsors, Andreas Hill and 
Catarina Kuntz. 
Frederick Shultz. 

Shultz, Julia Catarina, born September 6, 1741 ; 
baptised September 29, 1741. Sponsor, Juliana Cat- 
arina Morgenstern. 
Abraham Hauswirth. 

Hauswirth, John, born September 25, 1741 ; baptised 
October 28, 1741. Sponsors, Johannes Morgenstern 
and wife. 
John Martin Kitzmueller, 

Kitzmueller, John Jacob, born February 28, 1731 ; 
baptised April 19, 1731. Sponsor, John Jacob Kitz- 

Kitzinueller, Johannes, born October 15, 1734; bap- 
tised December 2-j, 1734. Sponsors, John Jacob 
Kitzmueller, Sr., and his wife. 

Kitzmueller, John George, born October 29, 1738; 
baptised November 30, 1738. Sponsors, John Kuntz 
and wife. 
John Heinrich Cassel. 

Cassel, John Jacob, born October 7, 1743; baptised 
March 9, 1735. Sponsor, John Jacob Beuskert. 
Cassel, Catarina, born October, 1738; baptised Jlay 
3, 1740. Sponser, Catarina Weymueller. 
John Michael Carl. 

Carl, Anna Marie, born February 2, 1738; baptised 


February 7, 1738. Sponsors, Andreas Carl and wife, 
Anna Marie. 

Carl, Marie Catarina, born September 24, 1739; 
baptised November 13, 1739. Sponsors, Marx Birg- 
ler and wife. 
Casper Schmidt. 

Schmidt, Marie Elizabetha, born November 8, 1742; 
baptised November 23, 1742. Sponsors, Daniel 
Schlaegel and Marie Elizabetha Morgenstern. 
Frederick Heinrich Gelwicks. 

Gelwicks, Catarina, born December 21, 1735; bap- 
tised February I, 1736. Sponsors, Jacob Verdreiss 
and Catarina Euler. 

Gelwicks, Catarina, born December 11, 1737; bap- 
tised May 23, 1738. Sponsors, Elias Daniel and 
Anna Eva Kuntz. 

Gelwicks, George Carl, born September 16, 1739; 
baptised November 13, 1739. Sponsor, Geoi-ge Carl 

Thomas Crysop. 

Crysop, Daniel, born February 28, 
1728; baptised July 21, 1735. Evi- 
dences, John Killis, Thomas Parry 
and Francis Foy. 
Crysop, JMichael, born August 16, 1729; baptised July 
21, 1735. Evidences, Philip Ernest Gruber, Andrew 
^IcGill and Elizabetha Low. 

Crysop, Thomas, born February 28, 1733; baptised 
July 21, 1735. Evidences, Joseph Ogle, William 
Kanely and Mary McGill. 

Crysop, Robert, born January 17, I73S; baptised July 
21. 1735. Evidences, Robert Paul, John Low and 
Charlotta Fredericka Gruber. 

Crysop, Elizabeth, born January 19, 1737; baptised 
August I, 1737. Evidence, Veronica Baseler. 
James Moor. 

Moor, Theodota, born ABgust 28, 1734; baptised 
June 21, 1735. Evidences, John Killis and Mary 
William Canaan. 

Canaan, Charity, born December 24, 1728 ; baptised 
June 21, 1735. Witnesses, Nicholas Josee and Mary 

Canaan, Lasenbury, born September 19, 1732 ; bap- 
tised June 21, 1735. Witnesses, Thomas Crysop and 
Francis Fo\'. 

Canaan, John, born January 19, 173S ; baptised June 
21. 1735. Witnesses, Parry, William and Elizabeth 
Robert Canaan. 

Canaan, Benjamin, born March 22, 1732; baptised 
June 21, 1735. Witnesses, Wil Nolten, William 
Canaan and Francis Foy. 

Canaan, Francis, born September 23, 1733; baptised 
June 21, 1735. Witnesses, William Low and Francis 

Canaan, Robert, born November 9, 1734; baptised 
June 21, 1735. Evidences, Robert Paul, Thomas 
Parry and Francis Canaan. 
John Low. 

Low, Elizabeth, born June 16, 1726; baptised June 
21, 1735. Sponsors, George Warren, Sara Ogle and 
Hannah Crysop. 
Edward Evans. 

Evans, Edward, born August, 1731 ; baptised August, 
1735. Evidences, Thomas Queer, John Low and 
Elizabeth Low. 

Evans, Daniel, born November, 1732; baptised Au- 
gust, 1735. Evidences, Philip Ernest Gruber and 
wife and Daniel Low. 

Evans, Samuel, "born October, 1734; baptised Au- 
gust, 1735. Evidences, William Low, William Mor- 
gan and Francis Canaan. 
Evans, Rachel, born February, 1730; baptised Au- 




gust, 17^=;. Evidences, Thomas Crvsop and Eliza- 
beth Grufl. 

Jacob Harrington. 

Harrington, Sarah, born May, 173S; baptised Au- 
gust, 1735. Evidences, Christian GroU and Char- 
lotta Fredericka Grubcr. 
John Morris. 

TTT-f-iit^ Morris, , born 1732; baptised 

^reui/: Xovcmber 27, 1740. 

Creek. Morris, Jane, born 1734; baptised Xo- 

vember 27, 1740. 
.Morris, Wilham, born 1736; baptised November 27, 
1740. Witnesses, Christian Groll and wife, Eliza- 

Morris, Mary, born in 1738; baptised November 27, 

Morris, John, born in 1740; baptised November 27, 
1740. Witnesses, Peter Gaertner and wife. 

Philip Bentz. 

Bentz, Christian, born March 30. 1741 : baptised May 
19. 1741. Sponsors, John Christian CroU, John 
Jost Sultzbach and Barbara Weller. 

Ulrich Buetzer. 

Buetzer, John Christian, born December 18, 1740; 
baptised June 26, 1741. Sponsors, John Christian 
CroU and wife. 


April I, 1735, ^lartin Frey and JMaria 
IMagdalena Willheut. 

August 15, 1735, Nicholas Koger and 
Maria Elizabetha Willheut. 

November 21, 1737, Philip Ziegler and iMargaretha 

November 21, 1737. George I\Iever and Christina Zieg- 

January 17, 173S, John George Ziegler and ]\Iargaretha 

April 22, 1738, John Hannthorn and Frances Low. 

i\Iay 22, 1738, John Jacob Scherer and Philippia Hauck. 

JNIay 22, 1738, John George Wolf and Anna ]Maria 

February 15, 1739, Jacob Welsch and Elizabetha W'olf. 

May 25, 1739, Alichael Mueller and Gertrude Gruen. 

June :5, 1739, Johann Michael Koerber and Elizabetha 

June 18, 1739, Moritz Mueller and Dorothea Beyer- 

April 17, 1740, Isaac Rautenbusch and Magdalena Frey. 

May 22, 1740, John George Schmeiser and Barbara 

September 22,. 1740, Albinus Beyer and Anna Maria 

October 29, 1740, Carl Eisen and Rebecca Hamspacher. 

April 5, 1741, John Martin Nannsperger and Marga- 
retha Nuesch. 

August 20, 1741. Jacob Otlinger and Anna Johanna 

August 20, 1741, George Adam Zimmerman and Anna 
Maria Motz. 

.•\pril 7, 1742, Michael Mueller and Barbara Stucker. 

July 31, 1742, Philip Linn and Catarina Buschfeld. 

July 31, 1742. Godfrey Frey and Margaretha Linn. 

November 24. 1742. John Causseler and ^laria Cata- 
rina Pfleuger. 

November 24, 1742. John Bichszler and Magdalena 

November 24, 1742, Carl Thiel and jMaria Elizabetha 

March 13, 1743, John David Schaeffer and Anna Cat- 
arina Simon. 

October 27, 1755, Michael Lentz and Catarina Kauff- 
man. York. 

Februarv 15, 1755. Johannes Hav and Julianna Maul. 


June 18, 1739, Philip Morgenstern 
and Maria Eva Kuntz. 

i\Iay 22, 1740, Johannes Dierdorff 
and Margaretha Ehrhardt. 
September 19. 1740, Johannes lucngling and Marga- 
retha Elenora Beuckert. 

September 19, Friederich Kreuter and Anna Barbara 

November 25, 1740, John Waters and Sarah Hopkins. 
April 5, 1741, James Hinds and Margaretha Skarl, 
Great Conewago. 

December 14. 1741, John Michael Biegler and Susan- 
nah Reuscher. 

December 14, 1741, John George Ulrich and Catarina 

October 24. 1742, Thomas McCarthv and Margaretha 

February 11, 1772. Amos Jones and Anna Jordan. 

August 20. 1740, Balthazar Schoen- 
r"^^,^i^Uialo berger and .\nna Margaretha Zwickel. 
L^onojoneia. .^p^.^ ^^ j„^_ Anthony Hinds and 

.\nna Canaan. 



Braddock's Expedition — Benjamin Franklin 
at York — Attack on McCord's Fort — 
Forbes' Expedition — Colonel Hance 

The earliest inhabitants of York County 
lived on peaceable terms with the Indians 
and without fear of invasion by the western 
tribes for a period of twenty years after 
they took up the fertile lands of this 
region. So long as the Indians remained 
quiet along the eastern slopes of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, this life of our fore- 
fathers was almost ideal. The forests were 
abundant with game, the streams were well 
supplied with the choicest lish, the native 
soil yielded large crops, while the hickory 
and chestnut trees produced great quanti- 
ties of nuts, and wild fruits were found 

In 1752 trouble was brewing along the 
western frontier. The people of Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland and Virginia were looking 
wistfully across the Alleghany Mountains, 
and in 1750 the Ohio Company, formed in 
England for the purpose of colonizing the 
country along that river, surveyed its banks 
as far as the site of Louisville, Kentucky. 
In 1753 the French crossed Lake Erie and 
built forts at Presque Isle, now the site of 
Erie, at Le Boeufif, a few miles below, and 
at Venango, still farther south on the Alle- 
gheny River. The Governor of Virginia. 
Robert Din\\-iddie, was much annoved at 



the French invasion and sent a young land 
sur\-eyor, twenty-one years of age, already 
familiar with the Indians and with wood 
craft and noted for courage and judgment, 
to warn the French not to advance any far- 
ther. The name of this young man was 
George AA^ashington. His difficult task was 
splendidly performed, but the French did 
not heed the warnings of AVashington. The 
most important point on all that long- 
frontier was the place where Pittsburg now 
stands. It was the main entrance to the 
A^alley of the Ohio and for a long time was 
called the " Gateway to the AA'^est." It was 
the object of the French to keep the Eng- 
lish colonists from getting through this 
gateway. They wished to keep all the in- 
terior of the continent for themselves. So 
in the spring of 1754, while a party of 
English were building a fort on the site of 
Pittsburg, a stronger party of French came 
and drove them ofi and erected a defence of 
their own, which they called Fort Du- 

A battalion of 300 Virginia 
AA/^ashington troops was already on its 
at Fort way to Fort Duc|uesne under 

Necessity. George AA^ashington as lieu- 
tenant-colonel. A detach- 
ment of 1,600 French and Indians was sent 
to attack AA'ashington. On hearing of the 
approach he retreated to Great Meadows, 
in Fayette County, where they erected Fort 
Necessity. The enemy approaching, a 
dropping desultory fire was kept up on both 
sides during an entire dav. At nightfall the 
Virginians accepted terms of surrender be- 
cause their ammunition w^as nearly ex- 
hausted, their provisions consisting of a 
little bacon and two barrels of flour. The 
next day, July 4, 1754, they were permitted 
to pass out of the fort with the honors of 
war to AA'^ill's Creek, near Cumberland, 
Maryland, and from thence marched to 
Alexandria, Virginia. The French and In- 
dians returned in three days to Fort Du- 

On hearing" of the disaster at Fort Neces- 
sity, Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, 
planned another expedition to rendezvous 
at AA'ill's Creek and proceed from thence to 
attempt the recapture of Fort Duquesne. 
He wrote to Governor Hamilton, of Penn- 
sylvania, asking for three companies of 
troops from his province. The Pennsyl- 

\'ania Assembly then seeing the necessity 
of an aggressive warfare in the western 
frontier, voted the sum of 15,000 pounds for 
that purpose. At this juncture a band of 
friendly Indians crossed the Allegheny 
Mountains to Augwick, afterward Fort 
Shirley, near the present site of Hunting- 
don, wdiere Col. George Croghan, the 
famous trader, was in command of other 
Indians favorable to the English cause. 
They requested that the Assembly would 
take care of their women and children while 
the warriors went out to meet the enemy. 
Conrad AA'eiser, the noted Indian inter- 
preter residing at Tulpehocken, near Read- 
ing, was sent to Fort Shirley, where he re- 
ceived assurances of friendship from the 
Delawares, Shawanees and their allies in 
that region. He reported that many of the 
settlers had been selling liquors to the In- 
dians, and demanded that this practice be 

In the fall of this year, Robert 
Plans to Hunter Morris succeeded 
Drive Out Hamilton as Governor of 
the French. Pennsylvania. Governor Mor- 
ris was induced by royal 
authority and by the proprietors of the 
pro\'ince earnestly to recommend to the As- 
sembly the defence of the province from 
the designs of the French and their Indian 
allies, not alone by the grant of money, but 
by the organization of a militia, the 
purchase of arms, wagons and military 
stores and the establishment of magazines. 
The Pennsylvania Assembly, in answer to 
the royal requests, appropriated 25,000 
pounds for the purpose of carrying on the 
war. Of this amount 5,000 pounds was 
subject to the immediate need of the pro- 
posed expedition to Fort Duquesne. 

Early in the year 1755 Colonel George 
Croghan, Colonel James Burd and Adam 
Hoopes were appointed commissioners by 
the Pennsylvania Assembly to plan a road 
through the Cumberland Valley and across 
the Alleghany Mountains for the transpor- 
tation of supplies and the movement of the 
troops. They made a preliminary survey as 
far west as AA'ill's Creek. 

Sir John St. Clair, a Scotch baronet, a 
soldier of experience in the army, w-as sent 
by the British government to acquaint him- 
self with the condition of affairs on the 
\\'estern frontier of Pennsvh'ania. As his 



position was to lie the (juartermaster of the 
proposed expedition to Fort Duquesne, he 
proceeded with Governor Sharpe, of Mary- 
land, to Will's Creek, near the site of Cum- 
berland, antl then returned to .\nnapolis. 


Sir \\'illiam Pitt, then the Premier of 
England, persuaded the King to send Gen- 
eral Edward Braddock, an of^cer of distinc- 
tion in the English army, to this country to 
aid in driving the French from our western 
frontier. On February 20, 1755, Braddock 
landed at Alexandria. V^irginia, with two 
regiments of British troops, commanded re- 
spectively by Colonels Dunbar and Halkett. 
George \\'ashington volunteered to join the 
expedition as an aid on the general's stalT. 
Several thousand provincial troops were 
ordered to be raised from Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and Virginia. Meantime Sir John 
St. Clair visited York, Lancaster and 
Carlisle to ascertain the condition of affairs 
in this section of the country and find out 
the attitude of the people toward the expe- 
dition against Fort Duquesne. He met the 
commissioners, Croghan. Burd and Hoopes, 
in the Cumberland Valley and complained 
that the delaj^ in the opening of the road 
across the mountains had proved of great 
disadvantage. He found fault with the 
Pennsylvania Assembly because the road 
had not already been opened. He did this 
when he discovered that the Quaker mem- 
bers of the Assembly w-ere opposed to war 
and this opposition he believed had been 
disseminated among the Dunkards, Men- 
nonites and other German settlers both east 
and west of the Susquehanna. Feeling the 
responsibility of the duty to which he was 
entrusted by the English government he 
stormed like a lion and even declared to the 
commissioners that instead of marching 
against the French he " would in nine days 
march his army into Cumberland County, 
Pa., to cut the roads and press into use 
horses and w^agons." This attitude of St. 
Clair toward the Pennsjdvania settlements 
did not, however, meet the approval of Gen- 
eral Braddock. who had moved his troops to 
a place of rendezvous at Frederick, Mary- 
land. He reprimanded St. Clair for his 
audacious conduct and put himself in direct 
communication with the Assemblv. 

Benjamin Franklin, who was 
Benjamin then the leading spirit in that 
Franklin body, and wdio had urged the 
at York. .\ssembly to furnish money to 

carry on the war, held a confer- 
ence with Braddock and assured him that 
Pennsylvania had appropriated 5,000 
pounds to support the army. There was a 
feeling in the Assembly that the English 
troops under Braddock should have landed 
at Philadelphia and moved westward 
through Pennsylvania. This was, in part, 
the cause of a lack of interest in the cam- 
paign by the Assembly. This was also a 
cause wdiy Pennsylvania had not already 
matured plans to provide wagons and 
munitions of war for Braddock. Virginia 
and Maryland were expected to furnish the 
wagons, but these colonies had thus far ap- 
propriated very little money for the cam- 
paign against the French. Franklin now 
learned that Braddock had only twenty-five 
wagons to transport his stores and baggage 
across the Alleghany Mountains. He 
needed 150 wagons and Franklin came to 
York and Lancaster, and sent his son Wil- 
liam to Carlisle, for the purpose of procur- 
ing wagons and pack horses. He widely 
circulated copies of the following proclama- 
tion through York and the adjoining 
counties : 

To the Inhabitants of the Counties of Lancaster, York 

and Cumberland. 
Friends and Countrymen : 

Having been at the camp at Frederick a few days 
since, I found the General and officers of the army ex- 
tremely exasperated on account of their not being sup- 
plied with horses and wagons, which had been expected 
from this province as most able to furnish them; but 
through the dissensions between our Governor and 
Assembly, money had not been providec! nor any steps 
taken for that purpose. 

It was proposed to send an armed force immediately 
into these counties, to seize as many of the best wagons 
and horses as should be wanted, and compel as many 
persons into the service as should be necessary to drive 
and take care of them. 

I apprehended that the progress of a body of soldiers 
through these counties on such an occasion, especially 
considering the temper they are in. and their resentment 
against us, would be attended with many and great in- 
conveniences to the inhabitants ; and therefore more wil- 
lingly imdertook the trouble of trying first what might 
be done by fair and equitable means. 

The people of these back counties have lately com- 
plained to the Assembly that a sufficient currency was 
wanting: you have now an opportunity of receiving and 
dividing among you a very considerable sum; for if the 
service of this expedition should continue (as it's more 
than probable it will) for 120 days, the hire of these 
wagons and horses will amount to upwards of thirty 
thousand pounds, which will be paid you in silver and 
gold of the king's money. 


The service will be light and easy, for the army will 
scarcely march above 12 miles per day, and the wagons 
and baggage horses, as they carry those things that are 
absolutely necessary to the welfare of the army, must 
march with the army and no faster, and are, for the 
army's sake, alwaj'S placed where they can be most 
secure, whether on march or in camp. 

If you really are, as I believe you are, good and loyal 
subjects of His JNIajesty, you may now do a most ac- 
ceptable service, and make it easy to yourselves ; for 
three or four such as cannot separately spare from the 
business of their plantations a wagon and four horses 
and a driver, may do it together, one furnishing the 
wagon, another one or two horses, and another the 
driver, and divide the pay proportionately between you. 
But if you do not this service to your king and country 
voluntarily, when such good pay and reasonable terms 
are offered you, your loyalty will be strongly suspected. 
The king's business must be done ; so many brave troops 
come so far for your defence, must not stand idle 
through your backwardness to do what may reasonably 
be expected from you; wagons and horses must be had; 
violent measures will probably be used ; and you will 
be compelled to seek for a recompense where you can 
find it, and your case perhaps be little pitied or regarded. 

I have no particular interest in this affair; as (except 
the satisfaction of endeavoring to do good and prevent 
mischief) I shall have only my labor for my pains. If 
this method of obtaining the wagons and horses is not 
likely to succeed, I am obliged to send word to the 
General in fourteen days, and I suppose Sir John St. 
Clair, the Hussar, with a body of soldiers, will immedi- 
ately enter the province, of which I shall be sorry to 
hear, because 

I am, very sincerel}' and truly. 
Your friend and well-wisher, 


About the same time Franklin wrote and 
circulated the following letter : 

Lancaster, April 26, 1755. 

Whereas 150 wagons with four horses to each wagon 
and 1,500 saddle or pack horses are wanted for the ser- 
vice of His Majesty's forces about to rendezvous at 
Will's Creek ; and his Excellency, General Braddock, has 
been pleased to empower me to contract for the hire 
of the same; I hereby give notice that I shall attend 
for that purpose at Lancaster from this time till next 
Wednesday evening ; and at York from next Thursday 
morning till Friday evening, where I shall be ready to 
agree for wagons and teams or single horses on the 
following terms, viz. : 

1st. That there shall be paid for each wagon with 
four good horses and a driver, fifteen shillings per diem ; 
and for each able horse with a packsaddle or other sad- 
dle and furniture, two shillings per diem; for each 
able horse without a saddle, eighteen pence per diem. 

2dly. That the pay commence from the time of their 
joining the forces at Will's Creek, (which must be on 
or before the twentieth of May ensuing) and that a 
reasonable allowance be made over and above for the 
time necessary for their traveling to Will's Creek and 
home again after their discharge. 

3dh'. Each wagon and team, and every saddle and 
pack horse is to be valued by indifferent persons, chosen 
Ijetween me and the owner, and in case of the loss of any 
wagon, team or other horse in the service, the price 
according to such valuation, is to be allowed and paid. 

4thly. Seven days' pay is to be advanced and paid in 
hand by me to the owner of each wagon and team, or 
horse, at the time of contracting, if required; and the 
remainder to be paid by General Braddock, or by the 
paymaster of the army, at the time of their discharge, 
or from time to time as it shall be demanded. 

5thly. No drivers of wagons, or persons taking care 
of the hired horses, are on any account to be called 
upon to do the duty of soldiers, or be otherwise em- 
ployed than in conducting or taking care of their car- 
riaees and horses. 

6thly. All oats, Indian corn or other forage, that 
wagons or horses bring to the camp more than is neces- 
sary- for the subsistence of the horses is to be taken for 
the use of the army and a reasonable price paid for it. 

Note. My son, William Franklin, is empowered to 
enter into like contracts with any person in Cumberland 


Nothing could have better answered the 
purpose intended than these documents. 
St. Clair had served in a Hussar regiment 
and wore a Hussar uniform on duty in 
America. AVithin two weeks 150 wagons 
and teams, and 259 pack horses were on 
their way to Braddock's headquarters. The 
owners said that they did not know Brad- 
dock, but would take Franklin's bond for 
payment, for the money would come from 
the amount lately appropriated by the 
Pennsylvania Assembly. Sir John St. Clair, 
the quartermaster, came to York and Car- 
lisle and procured 1,200 barrels of flour 
from the Cumberland and York County 
grist mills and had them conveyed to the 
headquarters of the army. 

Late in the month of May, 

Braddock's Braddock completed the or- 

March ganization of his army at the 

and present site of Cumberland, 

Defeat. Maryland, and from that 

point started on his expedition 
to Fort Duquesne in three divisions, num- 
bering in all 3,000 troops. St. Clair started 
from Cumberland with 600 men to cut the 
road and the armj^ followed. Braddock ar- 
rived at Great Meadows, near Fort Ne- 
cessity, where he made a fortified camp and 
left Colonel Dunbar there with 800 men. 
The main army crossed the Monongahela 
River and was within ten miles of the fort 
when heavy firing was heard in the 
front. The attack was so sudden and the 
fire so galling that the advance guard fell 
back upon the main army, throwing it into 
confusion. The ranks were seized with 
terror and disorder prevailed. The officers, 
conspicuous by their uniforms and being 
mounted, were picked off by the accurate 
aim of the savages, so that there were soon 
very few of them to give commands. The 
regulars, unfamiliar with the Indian custom 
of fighting, huddled together like frightened 


sheep, while the orders of such officers as 
had not fallen fell unheeded on their ears. 
Braddock fumed with rage and flew from 
rank to rank. Every endeavor to force his 
men into position proved abortive. Four 
horses were shot under him, and mounting 
a fifth he strained every nerve to retrieve 
his ebbing fortune. His subordinates gal- 
lantly supported his eftorts, but the regulars 
could not be brought to charge. The better 
skilled provincials wanted to fight like the 
Indians did, from behind rocks and trees. 
"Washington and Halkett appealed to Brad- 
dock for permission to do so, but he re- 
fused and with the flat of his sword drove 
the provincials into the open road. The 
army was soon completely routed, but 
Braddock would not yield. Strong in the 
point of discipline, his soldiers fell palsied 
with fear but without thought of craven 
flight. At last when every aide but Wash- 
ington was killed or wounded and most of 
the officers sacrificed, Braddock abandoned 
hope of victory and ordered a retreat. Jtist 
as he was about to give an order, a fatal bul- 
let felled him from his horse. His troops 
flying precipitately from the field aban- 
doned him. Not even the offer of gold de- 
terred them. Braddock, in disgust, re- 
signed himself to his fate. At last one of 
his aides, himself wounded, and two pro- 
vincial officers, managed to carry him from 
the field. Four days later he died and^ was 
buried in the centre of the road which his 
army had cut and soldiers, horses and 
w^agons passed over the grave to save the 
body from savage dishonor. 

Colonel Dunbar, commanding the sur- 
vivors, after destroying his ammunition and 
most of his provisions, moved back to Cum- 
berland and later to Philadelphia, where he 
spent the winter. 

The French and Indian war in America 
now took different form, and expeditions 
were sent for the reduction of French forts 
in Nova Scotia and later Forts Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, in New York. During 
the following two years expeditions were 
carried on against Quebec and other points 
in Canada. 

The retreat of Colonel Dunbar to Phila- 
delphia with the remnant of Braddock's 
army left the whole western frontier of 
Pennsylvania unprotected. The inhabitants 
w'est of the Susquehanna then began pre- 

cipitate flight through Cumberland and 
York Counties to the eastern side of the 
river. Many of them crossedat the present 
site of \\'rightsville. 

A large body of hostile Indians 
Hostile congregated on the Susque- 
Indians hanna, thirt)' miles above Har- 
Come ris' Ferry, now Harrisburg. 
Eastward. John Harris, on October 20, 
1/55' wrote to the Governor 
that hostile Indians lurked in the vicinity of 
Shamokin, now the site of Sunbury. He 
further stated that a messenger had arrived 
at his ferry and reported that two white set- 
tlers had been killed by hostile Indians of 
the Conewago tribe, who carried away four 
women, the wives of settlers. This new'S 
brought consternation to the inhabitants of 
the upper end of what is now Dauphin 
County and the lower part of Cumberland. 
These inhabitants, he said, were fleeing 
across the Susquehanna into Lancaster 
County and the peaceable Indians around 
his ferry were excited by the movements of 
the white inhabitants, who were deserting 
their houses and crops in the field. The 
news of the threatened invasion from the 
upper Susquehanna region and also that 
hostile bands were moving through Cum- 
berland County, spread dismay throughout 
every section of A'ork County. 

Meantime bands of hostile Indians who 
had formerly been friends of the settlers 
pressed into the Cumberland Valley from 
whence the white inhabitants fled in dismay 
east of the Susquehanna. The settlements 
at the Great Cove, in the extreme south- 
western part of the valley, now in Fulton 
County, were destroyed and the inhabitants 
killed or taken captive. After this startling 
event almost the entire Cumberland Vallej^ 
with its abundant crops, was deserted and 
the Scotch-Irish settlements at Marsh 
Creek, near the site of Gettysburg, became 
the frontier. The Indians, encouraged by 
their success, at the same time pushed their 
incursions into the northern part of 
Dauphin and Berks counties and even to 
the Delaware river in Northampton county. 
During this crisis of affairs in 
Excitement the province, the cold indiffer- 
in York ence of the Legislative As- 
County. sembly aroused the deepest 
indignation of the patriotic 
inhabitants of Pennsvlvania. Public meet- 



ings had been held in York, Lancaster and 
Berks Counties for the purpose of petition- 
ing the Governor and the Assembly to aid 
them in preparing for an armed resistance. 
George Stevenson, who had been sent here 
in 1749 to take charge of the court records 
when York became a county seat, wrote to 
Richard Peters, at Philadelphia, the follow- 
ing letter, describing the condition of affairs 
in this region : 

By the expresses which, I suppose, more than daily 
come to your hand from tlie frontier parts of this prov- 
ince, you can conceive the horror, confusion and dis- 
tress with which every breast is filled ; all possible 
attempts have been made here to stockade the town, but 
in vain. On receipt of the Governor's summons, I dis- 
patched the sub-sheriff to David McConaughy's, know- 
ing that Captain Hance Hamilton was over the hills. I 
doubt he will not go down, his family and neighbors 
being in such consternation. 

I am informed John and James Wright did not go. 
We have sent down a petition by the bearer signed in 
about a quarter of an hour. Whilst we were }'et signing 
it, we received the express from John Harris, a copy of 
which we have sent to the Governor, together with a 
letter, five of us have made bold to write to him on this 
important subject. I beg you will use your influence 
with the Governor and INIr. Allen, to whom I made free 
to write two da}S ago. 

On November i, 1755, the following peti- 
tion was sent from York to Robert Hunter 
Morris, Governor of Pennsylvania: 

We received sundry accounts lately, all concurring in 
this, that a numerous body of Indians and some French 
are in this province, wdiich has put the inhabitants here 
in the greatest confusion, the principal of whom have 
met sundry times, and on examination find that many 
of us have neither arms nor ammunition. 

Herewith we send a copy of an express just arrived 
from John Harris's Ferry, by way of James Anderson, 
with intelligence that the Indians are encamped up the 
Susquehanna within a two days' march of that place 
and it is probable, before this comes to hand, part of 
these back counties maj' be destroyed. 

We believe there are men enough willing to bear arms 
and go out against the enemy, were they supplied with 
arms, ammunition and a reasonable allowance for their 
time, but without this, at least arms and ammunition, 
we fear little of purpose can be done. 

If some measures are not speedily fallen upon, we 
must either sit at home till we are butchered without 
mercy or resistance, run away, or go out a confused 
multitude destitute of arms and ammunition and without 
discitjline or proper officers, or an)' way fi.xed on to be 
supphed with provisions. 

In short, we know not what to do, and have not much 
time to deliberate. 

As the Company which goes from this town and parts 
adjacent, tomorrow, to the assistance of the inhabitants 
on our frontiers will take almost all our arms and 
ammunition with them, we humbly pray your honor to 
order us some arms and ammunition, otherwise we must 
desert our habitations. 

We have sent the bearer express with this letter, and 
also a petition to the Assembly, which our people were 
signing when the express came to hand. 

We humbly hope your honor will e.xcuse this freedom, 

which our distress has obliged us to use, and beg leave 
to subscribe ourselves. 
Honored Sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


On November 5, George Stevenson wrote 
to Richard Peters : 

We have sent fifty-three men, well equipped, from this 
town last Monday, 2 o'clock P. M., and a doctor, some 
medicines and what ammunition we could spare to 
Tobias Hendricks' to join the main body of English 
Tories on the most needful part of the frontiers. Mr. 
Adlum is with them. Captain Hance Hamilton is gone 
toward Conigogeeg last Sunday with a company. Rev. 
Andrew Bay with and at the head of another company. 
We are all aloft and such as have arms hold themselves 
ready, but also they are few in numbers. Forty men 
came here yesterday willing to defend, and had but three 
guns and no ammunition, and could get none here, 
therefore went home again ; we are all here yet, how 
long God knows ; six families fled from their homes, 
distance about fifteen miles, via Conewago, last night. 
The last came into town about daybreak this morning. 
A few of us have pledged our credit for public services ; 
if we are encouraged we will stand until we are cut off; 
if not, some of us are bound to the lower parts of 
Maryland immediately, if not scalped by the way. 
Herewith you have another of our petitions to the 
Assemblj', all I shall say about it is that the biggest 
part of its signers are Mennonites, who live about 
fifteen miles westward of York. 

At this period of the war, the Catholic in- 
habitants of York, Cumberland and Lan- 
caster Counties were accused of entertain- 
ing sjanpathies with the French because 
both were of the same religious faith. 
There were then 189 German and Irish 
Catholics in York county under the pastoral 
care of Rev. Matthias Manners. Governor 
Morris, of Pennsylvania, hearing of the al- 
leged defection among the Catholics of York 
County and Frederick County, Maryland, 
sent emissaries to investigate the report. 
There is no evidence that any of these 
Catholics aided the French in this war. 

It was now decided by the au- 
York thorities of the province to 

County erect a chain of twenty-five 
Military forts along the eastern slopes 
Companies, of the mountains from the 
Dela\\-are River at Easton ex- 
tending in a southwestern direction to the 
Pennsylvania line at Cumberland, Mary- 
land, for all parts of the northwestern and 
western frontiers were now threatened by 
incursions from the hostile Indians and a 
few of the French. The organization of 



militia companies was encouraged. Rich- 
ard Peters, secretary of the Province of 
Pennsylvania, in 1756 reports the following 
organized military companies in York 
County : Captain Isaac Saddler, Lieutenant 
Archibald McGrew, Ensign William Duf- 
field, and sixty private men; Captain Plugli 
Dunwoodie, Lieutenant Charles Mc^Mullen, 
Ensign James Smith and sixty private men; 
Captain James Agnew, Lieutenant John 
Miller, Ensign Samuel Withrow and sixty 
private men; Captain David Hunter, Lieu- 
tenant John Correy, Ensign John Barnes 
and 100 private men ; Captain Samuel Gor- 
don, Lieutenant ^^'illiam Smiley, Ensign 
John Little and 100 private men ; Captain 
Andrew Findley, Lieutenant \\'illiam Gem- 
mill, of Hopewell Township, Ensign Moses 
LaAvson and 106 private men ; Captain A\'il- 
liam Gibson, Lieutenant \\'illiam Thomp- 
son, Ensign Casper Little and fifty private 
men; Captain Francis Holton, Lieutenant 
Joseph Ross, Ensign John McCall and 100 
private men. 

Fort Granville, which had been erected 
near the site of Lewistown, in the Juniata 
Valley, was guarded by Lieutenant Edward 
Armstrong and a small band of Pennsyl- 
vania soldiers. This fort was attacked July 
22, 1756, when the commander and several 
of the soldiers w^ere killed and a part of the 
garrison, including some women and 
children, were taken across the Alleghany 
Mountains to Fort Kittanning, then the 
headquarters of the Delaware Indians. 

Fort Kittanning was situated on the Alle- 
gheny River, about forty miles northwest 
of Pittsburg, where the town of Kittanning 
now stands. Immediately after Braddock's 
defeat, in. 1755, Hance Hamilton, the first 
sheriff of York County and one of • the 
original settlers of ]Marsh Creek, organized 
a company and marched with it to the west- 
ern frontier of Cumberland County. After 
the completion of Fort Lyttleton, in the 
present limits of Bedford County, Captain 
Hamilton commanded the garrison at that 
place of defence. Other companies were 
then organized for active service by Rev. 
Thomas Barton, the rector of the Episcopal 
Church at York, Carlisle and York Springs ; 
Rev. Andrew Bay, pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church at Alarsh Creek; Dr. David 
Jameson, physician at York, and Thomas 
Armour, one of the court justices. 

On April 2, 1756, a band of 
Indians hostile Indians attacked Mc- 
Attack Cord's, Fort, situated on the 
McCord's banks of the Conococheague, 
Fort. along the Xorth ^Mountain, 

within the present area of 
Franklin County. This was a private fort 
where the settlers of the vicinity assembled 
for protection and safety. The Indians set 
fire to the fort and killed or carried into 
captivity all the occupants, twenty-seven in 
number. Captain Alexander Culbertson, of 
Cumberland County, Captain Benjamin 
Chamliers, from the present area of Frank- 
lin County, and Captain Hance Hamilton, 
with a company from York County, de- 
termined to avenge this horrible deed by 
marching in pursuit of the Indians. Hamil- 
ton was then at Fort Granville. He sent 
nineteen of his men, under Ensign David 
Jameson, to join Culbertson's command, 
which now numbered about fifty men. Cul- 
bertson met the Indians at Sideling Hill, 
and a fierce conflict took place which lasted 
two hours, during which time Culbertson's 
men fired twenty-four rounds at the enemy. 
From the report given by an Indian who 
was captured, the savages lost seventeen 
killed and twenty-one captured. The loss 
among the provincial troops was nineteen 
killed and thirteen wounded. The names of 
the killed from Hamilton's company were 
Daniel McCoy, James Robinson, James 
Peace, John Blair, Henry Jones, John ^Ic- 
Carty, John Kelly, and the wounded were 
Ensign Jameson, James Robinson, William 
Hunter, Matthias Ganshorn, \\'illiam 
Swailes, James Louder, who afterward 
died of his wounds. 

On April 4, two days after the disaster 
at McCord's Fort, Captain Hance Hamilton 
wrote to Captain Potter. In this letter he 
stated that the report had come to him that 
Dr. Jameson was killed. He requested that 
word be sent at once to Fort Shirley for Dr. 
Hugh Mercer, afterwards a general in the 
Revolution, and Dr. Prentice, of Carlisle, to 
proceed at once to the scene of the disaster 
to take care of the wounded. 

Immediately after the defeat of 

A Petition the provincial forces at Mc- 

to the Cord's Fort the frontier coun- 

Governor. ties of York and Cumberland 

were in danger of incursions 

from hostile Indians. ]\Ianv settlers crossed 



the Susquehanna to places of safety. Others 
assembled at York, which was fortified for 
defensive purposes, and companies of home 
guards were organized for protection. 
About this time a large number of repre- 
sentative citizens of York County, which 
then included Adams, signed a petition ap- 
pealing to the Governor of Pennsylvania 
for aid and assistance. Most of the signers 
were Scotch-Irish or English Quakers. 
The following is a copy : 

To the Honorable Robert Hunter Morris, Lieutenant- 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Province 
of Penns)"lvania and Counties of New Castle, Kent 
and Sussex upon Delaware : 

The petition of the inhabitants of the town arid countj' 
of York : — 

Most Humbly Showeth, 

1. That your petitioners are sensible that your honor 
has left no measure (in j'our power) untried for the 
protection of our lives and liberties from the outrages 
of barbarous and savage enemy. 

2. That your petitioners hoped their sufferings were 
at an end when a chain of forts were erected along the 
frontier for their defence. 

3. That notwithstanding this, skirmishes are made, 
murders and captivities daily committed upon the re- 
maining inhabitants, who held their possessions in the 
most imminent danger; in hopes of seeing more happy 

4. That all our prospects of safety and protection are 
now vanished, by finding one of our best forts upon the 
frontier burned and destroyed ; and the men who bravely 
defended it carried into barbarous captivity — and the 
rest of the forts liable to the same fate which may un- 
happily be the case before this can reach your honor's 

5. That as the County of Cumberland is mostly 
evacuated and part of this become the frontier, the 
enemy may easily enter, and take possession of provi- 
sions sufficient to supply many thousand men and be 
thereby enabled to carry their hostilities even to the 
metropolis. Whereas the security of tliese provisions 
for the service of his ^lajesty's forces which may be 
sent against Fort Duquesne may save an expense of 
many hundred pounds for the carriage 'of provisions 
from more distant parts. 

Your petitioners therefore most humbly pray, that as 
your honor has cheerfully embraced every opportunity 
of delivering us from our miseries, your honor will also 
recommend our complicated distresses to the Right 
Honorable the Earl of Loudon, who, upon knowing our 
truly deplorable condition may be graciously pleased to 
take some measure to ease our calamities ; perhaps to 
command the recruits now raised in this province for 
the Royal American Regiment, to be forthwith sent to 
our relief, whilst the provincials now in pay may go 
against the enemy to avenge our bleeding cause ! x\nd 
your petitioners as in duty bound shall ever pray, etc. 

James !Murph}' 
John Carrell 
Nathaniel McCoy 
Richard Saddler 
Isaac Sadler 
John Sadler 
William Young 
John Danil 
John Wilson 
Jesper Wilson 
Edward Hatton 

Leonard Hatton 
Thomas Collens 
John Duffield 
John !McKinley 
Thomas Holmes 
John Holmes 
David Brown 
William King 
Victor King 
James King 
Samuel Steel 

Samuel McCall 
Abraham ^NlcCarter 
Isack i\IcKinle 
Robert Dickson 
John Scott 
Michael Anderson 
James iMcKroson 
Allend Endsly 
James Dixson 
William Boll 
William McCreary 
Hanes Cealear 
William Ross 
William Walker 
Francis Betey 
Hendrey Donely 
John Crooks 
Samuel iNIaclay 
William Caldwell 
John Brown 
James Hamilton 
Robert Miller 
Robert Hamilton 
John Smith 
John Bo}-d 
John Gray 
Adam Smith 
Samuel Smith 
Arthur Miller 
Thomas Bracken 
William McGrew 
Archibald iNIcGrew 
William Duffield 
Alexander Brown 
John iNIcGrew 
John Dunbar 
John Healy 
Robert Walker 
John Hunt 
Isac JMeans 
Thomas JNIurray 
William Miles 
IMichael Willison 
James Wilson 
Joseph Dodds 
Robert Thompson 
John Dickson 
Samuel Dickson 
John Gilleland 
James Dickson 
Samuel Dickson 
William Carney 
Matthew Knox 
John Boll 
David Watson 
Francis Battey 
William Biggor 
George Latimor 
David iNIaxwell 
William Finey 
William Guffock 
John Peterson 
Matthew Elder 
Andrew Shanen 
John Mitchell 
William Parkison 
John Carnahan 
John Townsly 
Jonathan Lesley 
John Galbreath 
"Patrick Cochren 
James Moore 
Neil McNeighton 
Jackson Nelle 
John Jamison 

William Smith 
John iNIaxwell 
John Foods 
William Foods 
David Ritchie 
John Jones 
Efran Hodge 
Robert Hutton 
John Hutton 
Richard Saddler, Jr. 
Robert Boner 
William Saddler 
Richard Chesney 
John Scogdon 
Hugh Robson 
Nicholas Bishop 
William Irwin 
Wilham Hamilton 
George Leviston 
Samuel Houlsworth 
William Dickson 
Samuel Dickson 
John Carrol 
James Carrol 
David Wattson 
Gill Watson 
William Campbell 
John Wilson 
Henry Black 
William McCreary 
John Reade 
William Boyl 
John Hodge 
Patrick Hanna 
William Love 
Mickel Drumgold 
John Burns 
John Murphy 
Arthur i\IcConeme 
John Con 
John Brown 
William Cupper 
John Larance 
Rev. Thomas Barton 
Samuel Thomson 
Robert McMurdie 
Patt. Watson 
Allexander Love 
AUexander McCarter 
Richard Brown 
Robert Farrier 
Andrew Thomson 
John Colbreath 
George Love 
George Black 
Andrew Thompson 
William Simpson 
James McWilliams 
Samuel Miller 
Samuel Cooper 
William Cooper 
William Bards 
George Leekey 
Thomas Kneeley 
John Ewens 
Henry Stevenson 
Anon Torens 
William Wattson 
James Hornor 
John Killbrath 
Robert Black 
William Bar 
James Geerey 
James Hall 
Henry Montieth 



John Montietli 
William Mauglilin 
William Boyd 
Benjamin Bcley 
Joseph Beley 
Robert Moore 
John Abbot 
Thomas Kcinton 
Alexander Wliite 

William Lindsay 
William Hill 
Robert Hill 
William Wilson 
Samuel Wilson 
Thomas Neeley 
John David 
William Davison 
John Grist 

William ^loore. 

In the fall of 1756 it was de- 
Indians terniined by Governor Morris 
Defeated to send an expedition against 
at Fort Kittanning, the headquarters 

Kittanning. of the Delaware Indians. It 

was at this place that the 
prisoners from Fort Granville had been 
taken. Colonel John Armstrong, of Car- 
lisle, a brother of Lieutenant Armstrong, 
\vho was killed at Fort Granville, was en- 
trusted with this command, which included 
the companies of Captains Hance Hamilton, 
Hugh Mercer, Edward Ward and James 
Potter. Armstrong started from Fort Shir- 
ley, near Huntingdon, on the last of Au- 
gust and arrived before Kittanning on the 
night of September 7, without being dis- 
covered by the enemy. On the following 
morning he destroyed the Indian village 
and fort, aird rescued the prisoners. About 
forty Indians were killed and a number 
wounded. This was considered a great 
victory for the provincial forces and con- 
vinced the Governor and the Assembly that 
the American troops understood warfare 
against the Indians better than the regulars 
sent by the British crown. In the attack on 
Fort Kittanning, Colonel Armstrong re- 
ceived a wound in the shoulder, which was 
dressed by Dr. David Jameson, of York, 
who had accompanied the expedition as a 
surgeon. Captain Hugh Mercer, who after- 
ward became the bosom friend of Washing- 
ton, and was killed at the head of his 
brigade at the battle of Princeton in the 
Revolution, was also among the wounded. 
Captain Hance Hamilton's company of 
Scotch-Irish from York County did most 
\aluable service in the battle of Kittanning. 


Sir \\'illiam Pitt, the premier of the 
English government, now determined to 
wrest Fort Duquesne from the French. 
Brigadier-General John Forbes, an English 
officer of high reputation as a soldier, was 

appointed to command the expedition. 
Seven thousand fi\-e hundred British and 
American troops were raised for this pur- 
pose ; of these 2,000 were recruited from 
Pennsylvania. Forbes arrived at Philadel- 
phia in April with his British regulars. He 
proceeded to Carlisle and arranged for a 
place of rendezvous at Bedford. These 
Penns3dvania forces were composed of three 
battalions. The first battalion was com- 
manded by Col. John Armstrong, of Car- 
lisle, the hero of Kittanning; the second 
battalion by Col. James Burd, of the Brad- 
dock expedition, who resided below Harris- 
burg; the third battalion by Col. Hugh 
Mercer, the distinguished soldier who had 
been wounded at Kittanning. Manj^ of the 
York County troops served in the first bat- 
talion, of which Hance Hamilton was lieu- 
tenant-colonel. Dr. David Jameson, of York, 
who displayed ability both as a soldier and a 
surgeon, was major of the second battalion. 
Rev. Andrew Bay, of Marsh Creek, was 
chaplain of the third battalion, of which 
James Ewing, residing near Wrightsville, 
and who became a brigadier-general in the 
Revolution, was adjutant. The following 
named persons from York County com- 
manded companies in Forbes' expedition : 
Captains Robert McPherson, Archibald 
McGrew, David Hunter and Thomas Ar- 

The Pennsylvania troops raised for the 
Forbes expedition east of the Susquehanna 
crossed the river, passing through York and 
Cumberland Counties to Carlisle and from 
thence moved to Raystown, now Bedford, 
where they were joined by the Virginia 
troops under Washington. 

When Forbes arrived at Raystown with 
his army, in September, 1758, he was car- 
ried in a litter, as he was already prostrated 
by the illness that shortly afterward caused 
his death, but his head was clear and his 
will firm, and he retained command of the 
expedition. After Bouquet's disastrous 
reconnoissance the army reached Loyal- 
hannJl on November 5, and it was decided to 
pass the winter there, when news of the 
weakness of the fort induced Forbes to push 
forward. Passing the field where the bones 
of Braddock's men lay unburied, the expedi- 
tion finally reached Fort Duquesne on No- 
vember 25. The fort had been blown up 
and abandoned bv the French on the 



previous day, and A\'ashington's men 
marched in and took possession. Forbes 
renamed the place Fort Pitt (now Pitts- 
burg), in honor of A\'illiam Pitt, who had 
planned the campaign, and, after concluding- 
treaties with the Indian tribes on the Ohio, 
returned to Philadelphia, where he died 
shorth'- afterward. He was noted in the 
army for his obstinac)', and was nicknamed 
" The Head of Iron." His expedition to 
Fort Duquesn'e ended the French and In- 
dian war so far as Pennsylvania was con- 
cerned. The Indians gave no further 
trouble to our northern and western 
frontiers until the 3'ear 1778, during the 

noted soldier of the Provincial army in the 
French and Indian ^^■ar, was an early 
Scotch-Irish settler west of the Susque- 
hanna river. He was a bold and audacious 
frontiersman and soon l^ecame one of the 
most influential citizens of York county. He 
landed at New Castle, Delaware, with other 
Scotch-Irish immigrants and about 1732 
took up lands near the site of Wrightsville. 
About this time a thrifty Scotch-Irish settle- 
ment was being made at Marsh Creek, near 
the site of Gettysburg. Here Hance Ham- 
ilton located about 1739 and became a 
leader of tjie Scotch-Irish. In 1750 he was 
a candidate for the office of sherif¥ of York 
county. This was the first election for that 
office. He represented the English and 
Scotch-Irish settlers, while Richard McAl- 
lister, who afterward founded Hanover, al- 
though of Scotch-Irish birth, was a candi- 
date of the Germans. At that earl_y date all 
the voters of York county, which then in- 
cluded Adams, cast their ballots in the court 
house at York. It was a bitter contest be- 
tween the opposing factions and required 
the decision of the Provincial authorities to 
decide that Hance Hamilton should be com- 
missioned as the first sheriff of York county. 
He was re-elected to the same office and 
after his retirement engaged in agricultural 
pursuits and owned a grist-mill in INIenallen 
township, now Adams county. His place 
of residence, together with his Scotch-Irish 
neighbors, was near the western frontier 
when the Indian depredations began in 
1753. Having inherited a military spirit, 
Hance Hamilton organized a compan}' to 
defend the homes and firesides of these 

pioneers. After the defeat of Braddock in 

1755, he continually trained his company for 
military service and in 1756, after a line of 
forts had been constructed. Captain Hamil- 
ton marched with his companj- to Fort Lit- 
tleton in Bedford county. He was a com- 
mander of this fort in 1756 and upon hearing 
of the disaster at McCord's Fort went to the 
rescue of the Provincial troops there and 
wrote a description of the disaster. In 

1756, Hance Hamilton commanded his com- 
pany of York county troops in the expedi- 
tion under Colonel Armstrong and aided 
that officer in defeating the French and 
Indians at Fort Kittaning. In 1758 he was 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel 
of the First Battalion of the Pennsylvania 
foot soldiers in the Provincial army which 
participated in Forbes' expedition against 
Fort Duquesne. After the close of the 
French and Indian war Colonel Hamilton 
continued his occupation as a farmer and 
miller retaining his interest in the public 
afifairs of York count}? until the time of his 
death, February 2, 1772. His will was ex- 
ecuted four days before his death and his 
estate is valued at 3000 pounds Pennsyl- 
vania currency, or about $8,000 in coin. 
He owned six negro slaves, which were sold 
at public auction in 1773. He left ten chil- 
dren, none of whose descendants reside in 
York or Adams counties. His children 
were Thomas, Edward, Harriet, Sarah, 
iNIary, Hance, Gawin, George, John and 
AA'illiam. One of his sons studied medicine 
under Dr. John Boyd, of Lancaster, and in 
1768 was one of the earliest graduates from 
the University of Pennsylvania. In his will 
he left to his son, Thomas, a pair of silver 
mounted pistols valued at 30 dollars, to his 
son Hance, he gave a pair of brass barrelled 
pistols and holster valued at 5 pounds ; one 
silver-mounted sword valued at 10 pounds; 
one silver medal valued at 5s. ; to his son 
Gawin, a silver snuff box, valued at 2 
pounds ; and to his son George, a long gun 
valued at 2 pounds, los. George also re- 
ceived a pair of silver buckles appraised at 
I2S., and John a silver watch appraised at 
5 pounds, los. Hance Hamilton was a man 
of enterprise, great force of character and 
activity in public affairs. Hance Hamil- 
ton's remains lie buried in Evergreen Cem- 
etery, at Gettysburg, and are marked b}? a 
head-stone of slate. 





First York County Troops — Thompson's 
Battalion — Expedition to Canada — Sixth 
Pennsylvania Battalion — Battle of Three 
Rivers — McClean's Company — Grier's 
Company — Miles' Regiment — Albright's 
Company — First Pennsylvania Regiment 
— Battle of Long Island. 

In 1774 the difficulties between the King 
of England and the thirteen colonies were 
not adjusted by the appeals made to the 
King and Parliament. As the result of this 
condition the first Continental Congress 
with representatives from the different 
colonies, met in Philadelphia in September 
of that year. This Congress sent a decla- 
ration of Rights to the King, but it was un- 
answered. Soon afterward Massachusetts 
assembled a Provincial Congress and began 
to form troops and collect military stores to 
oppose by armed resistance what was 
termed the tyranny of the English govern- 
ment. Gen. Thomas Gage, who had 
fought under Braddock in the French and 
Indian war, was in charge of the British 
troops at Boston. 

On the evening of April 18, 

Concord 1775, Gage dispatched 800 

and regulars to Concord, a few 

Lexington, miles northwest of Boston, to 

capture the army stores there. 
On their way they found a party of armed 
yeomanrj' on Lexington Common. A 
British officer ordered them to disperse and 
as they remained motionless his soldiers 
fired, killing seven men, and then proceeded 
to Concord. By the time they reached 
Concord most of the stores had been re- 
mo\ed. In a sharp skirmish, the British 
regulars were defeated, and as they marched 
back toward Boston, hundreds of farmers 
advanced upon them, firing from Ijehind 
walls and trees after the Indian fashion. 

The British lost nearly 300 men, and though 
reinforced, narrowly escaped capture. This 
was the beginning of the Revolutionary 

On the loth of May, 1775, the second 
Continental Congress assembled in Phila- 
delphia and on the same day Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, on Lake Champlain, were 
captured by patriots from the Green 
Mountains and Connecticut Valley, under 
Ethan Allen and Seth Warner. 

The tocsin of war had now been sounded 
and American troops began to assemble in 
the vicinity of Boston. These men had 
come from farms and workshops and, al- 
though untrained as soldiers, were eager 
for armed conflict with the British foe. 
Meantime reinforcements had arrived from 
England. General Gage was succeeded by 
Sir William Howe, who now commanded 
10,000 men, and on June 17 the famous bat- 
tle of Bunker Hill was fought. z-\lthough 
the Americans were defeated, the moral 
effect of the battle was in their favor. 

At this time the American forces around 
Boston were composed of undisciplined 
troops. The news of the conflict at Lexing- 
ton and Concord soon spread from Massa- 
chusetts to Georgia. It aroused a spirit of 
patriotism that prevailed throughout the 
country during the entire period of the war. 
Continental Congress had taken charge of 
the assembling of troops in Massachusetts 
to oppose the British forces of Sir William 
Howe, and now supported active measures 
for a war against the mother country. On 
June 14 this body of patriots adopted a 
resolution that eight companies of trained 
riflemen from Pennsylvania, two from 
Maryland and two from Virginia be raised, 
and as soon as organized should be marched 
to the army under AA'ashington at Cam- 

A military spirit had existed in Pennsyl- 
vania and the adjoining colonies since the 
French and Indian war. Companies had 
been organized in nearh' all the centres of 



population. The men who composed these 
companies were trained hunters and skilled 
marksmen so that when their patriotism 
was aroused, these sturdy pioneers were 
quick to respond to the resolution of 
Congress and the appeals of their fellow- 
countrymen in New England. 

When the news of Lexington and Con- 
cord reached the county seat at York it was 
soon transmitted to every section of York 
County. A similar spirit pervaded the 
neighboring counties of Pennsylvania. One 
of the eight Pennsylvania companies was to 
be recruited in York County. Each com- 
pany was officered with a captain, three lieu- 
tenants, four sergeants, four corporals, a 
drummer and sixty-eight' privates. The 
captain was to receive twenty dollars per 
month: a lieutenant, thirteen and one-third 
dollars ; a sergeant, eight dollars ; a cor- 
poral, seven and one-third; a drummer the 
same ; pri\'ates, six and two-thirds. All 
were to find their own arms and clothes. 


The sturd)'' yeomanry of this section of 
Pennsylvania were ready for the emergency. 
Local militia companies had been organized. 
At this period there were three armed 
companies in the town of York. From the 
militia of the county it was decided to select 
the requisite number of officers and sixty- 
eight riflemen to form a company. Recruit- 
ing began at Marsh Creek, at Gettys" tavern, 
now the site of Gettysburg. Some men 
came from the Monaghan settlement, where 
Dillsburg now stands, and still another 
sc^uad was recruited in the southern part of 
the county. These men, ready to enlist in 
the cause of American Independence, came 
to York, where the company was organized 
jwith Michael Doudel as captain ; Henrv 
Miller, first lieutenant; John Dill, second 
lieutenant; James Matson, third lieutenant. 

On receipt of the instructions of Con- 
gress the York County committee, which 
was made up of such sturdy patriots as 
James Smith, Thomas Hartley, George 
Irwin, John Kean, Joseph Donaldson and 
Michael Hahn, immediately assembled and 
took steps to prepare the company for the 
front. Everything was done with, the 
greatest expedition. So many men wanted 
to enlist that there were more than the 
officers were authorized to accept. 

" I'll take only the men that can hit that 
nose at one hundred and fiity yards," said 
young Lieutenant Miller, as he chalked a 
small nose on a barn door. 

Horatio Gates, recently appointed adju- 
tant-general of the army and who had 
chanced to arrive in York from his home in 
Virginia on his way to headquarters, de- 
cided it would be unwise to refuse the en- 
listment of such courageous men. " They 
will make soldiers," he said. 

The committee appointed to provide the 
necessaries for the company did their work 
so well that in a few days a company of lOO 
men was completely armed and equipped 
for the field without a farthing being ad- 
vanced from. the Continental treasury. 

" The spirit of the people on this oc- 
casion," wrote the local committee of cor- 
respondence to Congress, " gave the com- 
mittee encouragement. The men seemed 
actuated with the greatest zeal and thought 
themselves honored in having their names 
enrolled among the sons of libert}' who are 
to fight for their country and in defense of 
their dearest rights and privileges. The 
only uneasiness they feel is that they are not 
this moment at the scene of action. From 
the spirit of the soldiers we entertain the 
most flattering hopes that they will prove 
servicable to the cause of liberty and reflect 
honor on this county. The principal people 
here have caught the spirit of the honorable 
Congress and in their small circle have done 
ever3'thing- in their power to animate their 
neighbors to stand forth in this day of 
despotism and resist the arbitrary and un- 
just measures of Parliament with all the 
power which heaven has given them. And 
we have the pleasure to inform you that 
their labors have not been in vain and that 
the county is ready to strain every nerve to 
put into execution any measures which the 
Congress may judge necessary to our com- 
mon defense. The officers are men of 
whose courage we have the highest opinion. 
The captain has behaved very well on this 
occasion and has done all in his power by 
advancing money, etc., to forward the com- 
mon cause." 

It' would be interesting to record the en- 
tire muster roll of this band of patriots. 
The official records being defective, all 
that can be here given are the fol- 



Armor, Robert 
Armstrong, George 
Beverly, John 
Bettinger, Christian 
Brown, John 
Qimpbell, Thomas 
Chirk, John 
CHne, William 
Cooper, William 
Dougherty. George 
Douther, John 
Evans, Abel 
Ferguson, John 
Graft, Robert 
Griffith, John 
Halbut, Joseph 
Kennedy, Richard 
Kennedy, Thomas 



First Lieutenant. 


Seeond Lieutenant, 


Third Lieutenant. 





Lelap, Daniel 
Lewis, Abram 
JIcAlister, John 
jNIcCrary, John 
McCurt, John 
Minshall, Joshua 
Mill, James 
JMoore, Edward 
Ramsey, David 
Russell, William 
Shields, Alatthew 
Staley, Jacob 
Start, Andrew- 
Sullivan, Patrick 
Sweeney, Isaac 
Tanner, Tobias 
Taylor, John 
Turner, Cornelius 

The form of enlistment to which e\-ery 
one of these volunteer soldiers appended his 
signature before leaving York reads : " I 
have this day voluntarily enlisted myself as 
a soldier in the American Continental army 
for one year, unless sooner discharged, and 
do bind myself to conform in all instances 
to such rules and regulations as are, or shall 
be, established for the government of said 

According to the diary of Rev. 
Leave John Roth, pastor of the ]Mora- 

for vian Church at York, Captain 

Boston. Doudel and his companj^ attended 
religious services at Zion Re- 
formed Church on the morning of July ist. 
They listened to a patriotic sermon de- 
livered by ReA'. Daniel A\'agner, the pastor, 
who enjoined them " to keep God before 
their eyes continually and then they would 
be assured of his guidance and protection." 
At I o'clock in the afternoon, this band of 
one hundred American patriots started out 
East iNIarket Street on the long march to 
join the army under AA'ashington at Cam- 

In answer to the resolution of Congress 
for eight companies from Pennsylvania, the 
recruiting of men took place in the other 
counties of the Province. One company 
was raised in Northampton County, com- 
manded by Captain Abraham ^Miller; one in 

Berks County, Captain George Nagel; one 
in Bedford County, Captain Robert Clug- 
gage ; one in Northumberland, Captain 
John Lowdon ; two in Cumberland, which 
then included Franklin, commanded by 
Captain James Ross and Captain Matthew 
Smith. In all, there were nine companies 
from Pennsylvania, one more than re- 
quested b}^ Congress. By order of Conti- 
nental Congress and the Pennsylvania As- 
sembly, they were organized into what was 
termed by General AA'ashington in organi- 
zing the army, " Colonel Thompson's Bat- 
talion of Riflemen from Pennsylvania." 


Col. AA'illiam Thompson, who was as- 
signed to the command of this battalion, 
was a native of Ireland, born in 1725. He 
settled in Cumberland County early in life 
and during the French and Indian war had 
commanded a company of mounted 
frontiersmen. A\'hen the Revolution opened 
he was a surveyor residing at Carlisle. The 
following is the field and staff of this bat- 
talion when organized on its arrival at 
AA'ashington's headquarters : 

Colonel — AVilliam Thompson. 

Lieutenant-Colonel — Edward Hand. 

Major — Robert McGaw. 

Chaplain — Rev. Samuel Blair. 

Adjutant — David Ziegler. 

Quartermaster — Frederick Hubley. 

Surgeon — AMlliam AIcGaw. 

Surgeon's Mate — Christian Reinecke. 

Pay ^Master — David Harris. 

Commissary — John Biddle. 

AA'agon blaster — Adam Egle. 

The officers of this famous battalion of 
riflemen were the first after General Wash- 
ington to receive commissions from Con- 
gress, and these patriots from Pennsylvania 
were the first troops west of the Hudson 
and south of Long Island to join the 
American army under the commander-in- 
chief at Cambridge, Massachusetts. The 
York riflemen, after crossing the Susque- 
hanna, passed through Reading and Bethle- 
hem, reaching New York before any other 
Pennsylvania company, and proceeded to 
Boston, arriving there July 25. At this time 
there were 10,000 British regulars in Boston 
under Sir AA'illiam Howe, and others were 
on the wav from England. 



Continental Congress was 

Washington now in session behind closed 

Takes . doors in Carpenter's Hall, 

Command. Philadelphia. On June 15 

Thomas Johnson, a delegate 
from Frederick, Maryland, and afterward 
the first governor of Maryland, nominated 
George Washington for commander-in- 
chief of the American army. John Adams, 
in an eloquent speech, seconded the motion, 
and \^''ashington, who was then a member 
of Congress from Virginia, was unani- 
mously chosen. He started for Boston on 
horseback June 21, and, while passing 
through New York city, June 25, received 
the news of the battle of Bunker Hill. He 
arrived at Cambridge July 2. The next day 
he took formal command, drawing his 
sword under an elm tree which a few years 
ago was appropriately marked. At this 
time there were 14,500 New England troops 
equipped for duty around Boston, but ac- 
cording to an official statement they had 
only nine rounds of ammunition to a man. 
Washington at once organized these raw 
troops into divisions for drill and discipline, 
and began to lay siege to the city of Boston. 
The arrival of the troops from Pennsyl- 
vania was enthusiastically received by the 
patriots of New England. The evidences of 
the courage and fortitude of the riflemen 
from York and their willingness to join in 
the struggle for American liberty is shown 
by the following" extracts from Moore's 
Diarv of the Revolution: 



July 25, 1775. — Capt. Doudel, with his 
company of riflemen from York, Penn- 
sylvania, arrived at Cambridge about one 
o'clock today, and since has made pro- 
posals to General Washington to attack 
the transport stationed on Charles river. 
He will engage to take the transport with thirty men. 
The General thinks it best to decline at present ; but at 
the same time commends the spirit of Captain Doudel 
and his brave men who. though just arrived after a very 
long march, offer to execute the plan immediately. 

July 30, 1775. — Last Friday the regulars cut several 
trees and were busy all night in throwing up a line of 
abatis in Charlestown Neck. In the evening orders 
were given to the York county riflemen to march down 
to our advanced post in Charlestown Neck, to endeavor 
to surround the advanced guard and bring off some 
prisoners, from whom we expected to learn their design 
in throwing up their abatis in the Neck. The rifle com- 
pany divided and executed their plan in the following 
manner: Captain Doudel with thirty-nine men filed off 
to the right of Bunker Hill, and, creeping on their 
hands and knees, got into the rear without being dis- 
covered. The other band of forty men, under Lieu- 
tenant Miller, were successful in getting behind the 
sentinels on the left, and were within a few yards of 

joining the division on the right, when a party of reg- 
ulars came down the hill to relieve their guard, and 
crossed our riflemen under Captain Doudel as they were 
lying on the ground in Lidian file. The regulars were 
within twenty yards of our men before they saw them 
and immediately fired. The riflemen returned the salute, 
killed several and brought off two prisoners and their 
arms, with the loss of Corporal Cruise, who is supposed 
to have been killed as he has not been heard of since 
the affair. 

August 9, 1775. — The riflemen from York county have 
annoyed the regulars very much. By a gentleman who 
left Boston yesterday, we hear that Captains Percival 
and Sabine of the Marines, Captain Johnston of the 
Royal Irish, and Captain LeMoine of the train, were 
killed Monday. Captain Chetwyn, son of Lord Chet- 
wyn, is mortally wounded. The number of privates 
killed this week we have not heard. The' regulars have 
thrown up a breastwork across the neck at the foot of 
Bunker Hill to protect their sentries and advance 

Frothingham, in describing Thompson's 
battalion and other riflemen from the south 
in his " Siege of Boston," says : 

" The riflemen from Pennsylvania at- 
tracted much attention. They had enlisted 
with great promptness and had marched 
from four to seven hundred miles. In a 
short time large bodies of them arrived in 
camp. They were remarkably stout, hardy 
men, dressed in white frocks, or rifle shirts, 
and round hats, and were skillful marksmen. 
At a review, a company of them, while on 
a quick advance, fired balls into circular 
targets seven inches in diameter at a' 
distance of 250 yards. They were stationed 
on the lines and became terrible to the 
British. The account of their prowess was 
circulated over England." 

Corporal Walter Cruise, mentioned 
A in the above extract from Moore's 
Local Diary, was a member of Captain 
Hero. Doudel's company from York. He 
was taken a prisoner to the British 
camp. So many of the officers and privates 
of the royal arm}? had fallen under the un- 
erring aim of the Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and Virginia riflemen that Cruise, being 
one of the first of them to be captured, be- 
came the object of their resentment. The 
British finally sent him to England to be 
tried on certain charges, where a curiosity 
had been aroused to see, in his frontier 
costume, one of the riflemen of whom they 
had heard such wonderful stories. After a 
term of imprisonment he was taken before 
the mayor of London, but that magistrate, 
finding no crime charged against him, of 
which he could take cognizance, released 



him from custody. Artliur Lee, of Virginia, 
the secret agent in London for the Ameri- 
can colonies, upon hearing of Cruise's re- 
lease, sent for him and after congratulating 
him upon regaining his freedom, deli\ered 
Cruise a package of papers. 

" These papers are of the greatest mo- 
ment to the liberty of our country. Can I 
trust you to deliver them safely into the 
hands ■ of General Washington and the 
Continental Congress?" 

" You can trust me," was the reply. 

" Then I will secure a passage for you to 
Halifax, the nearest and safest route to 
America. For the cause of American 
liberty yoti will guard these papers well, 
and when you arrive in America, deliver 
them as soon as possible to General AVash- 
ington and the Continental Congress. I 
can promise you that your country will not 
forget your services." 

Wishing him success on his mission, 
Arthur Lee bade him farewell, and Cruise 
was soon aboard a vessel bound for 
America. On his arrival at Halifax, the 
heroic corporal hastened with his valuable 
despatches to New York, the headquarters 
of the American army, where he delivered 
them safely into, the hands of General 
Washington, who immediately transmitted 
copies to Continental Congress at Philadel- 
phia, where the news was eagerly received. 
An impression had been prevalent among 
the American people that peace commis- 
sioners would be sent to adjust the differ- 
ences between England and the colonies, 
but instead, the despatches brought by 
Corporal Cruise informed them that the 
King intended to send more English troops 
and to hire German soldiers for the war in 

Nothing enraged the Ameri- 
Declaration cans more than the arrival 
of of this news nor urged them 

Independence, more to declare indepen- 
dence, than this hiring of 
foreign mercenaries by the British govern- 
ment. At length, in June, a motion was 
made in Congress' by Richard Henry Lee, 
a delegate from Virginia, " that these 
LTnited Colonies are, and of right ought to 
be, free and independent states." This 
motion was carried on July 2 and the 
Declaration of Independence draughted by 
Thomas Jefferson and revised by a com- 

mittee, of which he was a memljer, was 
adopted July 4 at Independence Hall, Phila- 

Thompson's battalion of Pennsylvania 
riflemen remained with the army under 
Washington during the summer of 1775, 
participating in the siege of Boston. Cap- 
tain jMichael Doudel, who commanded the 
company from York County, resigned his 
commission on account of ill health and re- 
turned to his family at York. Lieutenant 
Henry Miller was promoted to captain. 
This battalion was placed in the division of 
General Charles Lee upon the organization 
of the American arm}^ around Boston. It 
remained in his command until August 20, 
when it was transferred to General Israel 
Putnam, encamped four miles from Cam- 
bridge. On August 29, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Edward Hand writes : " Our battalion 
formed the picket guard of the two 
thousand provincial troops who on the 
evening of the 26th of August took posses- 
sion of Ploughed Hill and threw up en- 
trenchments, and on the morning of the 
27th met with its first loss. Private Simpson, 
of Captain Matthew Smith's company, who 
was wounded in the leg and died there- 

Captain James AVilkinson, who, after the 
Revolution, became commander-in-chief of 
the army, joined Thompson's battalion at 
Boston as a volunteer. In recording the 
death of Private Simpson, he says : " The 
young man was visited and consoled during 
his illness by General Washington in per- 
son and by most of the officers of rank be- 
longing to the army. Every exertion b\' 
surgeons was made to save him, and his 
death became a theme of common sorrow 
in an army of twelve or fourteen thousand 

An incident now occurred 
Proposed which interested all the Penn- 

Canada sylvania soldiers under Colo- 
Expedition, nel Thompson. An expedi- 
tion had been planned to in- 
vade Canada. The story goes that this ex- 
pedition was suggested by Benedict Arnold, 
then considered a skillful soldier, who held 
the commission of colonel in the army 
around Boston. One thousand men were to 
be detached and sent under Arnold through 
the wilderness of Maine to Quebec. On 
September 5 the company under Captain 


Smith, of Dauphin County, and the com- 
pany under Captain Hendricks, of Cumber- 
land County, were ordered to parade upon 
the Boston Common, preparatory to join- 
ing Arnold, and they united with his expe- 
dition the following week. The story of 
their experience in this campaign is given 
in the history of the first expedition to 
Canada, described elsewhere in this work. 

The York riflemen under Henry Miller 
were disappointed in not having the oppor- 
tunity of joining Arnold on this expedition, 
for they already had attained a high reputa- 
tion as trained marksmen. A trouble had 
arisen, however, in Thompson's command, 
for some of his troops, including the York 
Riflemen, had been lax in discipline, even 
going" so far as to have released some of 
their companions from the guard house, for 
which offense they themselves were 
punished. In order that idleness might not 
be a bane to them, the commanding general 
ordered that they should thereafter do all 
camp duty the same as other regiments. 
Obedient to the order, a strict discipline 
was now enforced b}^ the company officers, 
and a contemporar}^ letter states, "that 
upon every alarm it was impossible for 
men to behave .with more readiness or 
■ attend better to their duty." On the 9th 
of November, these men, who had already 
been the first Pennsylvania troops to en- 
gage the British in armed conflict, took 
part in the skirmish at Lechmere's Point, 
in sight of Boston. In describing this affair 
the Philadelphia Evening Post of 1775 
says : 

" The British had landed 

Valor of under cover of a fire from 

Pennsylvania their batteries on Bunker, 
Troops. Breed's and Copp's hills, as 

well as from a frigate which 
lay three hundred yards off the point. In a 
high tide it is an island. Colonel Thomp- 
son marched instantly with his men, and 
though it was a very stormy day, they re- 
garded not the tide nor waited for boats, 
but took to the water up to their armpits, 
for a quarter of a mile, and notwithstand- 
ing the regulars' fire, reached the island, 
and although the enemy were lodged behind 
the walls and under cover, drove them to 
their boats. Loss, one killed (Alexander 
Creighton, of Ross' company) and three 

wounded; British loss, seventeen killed and 
one wounded." 

The next day, accordiirg to official re- 
ports, Colonel Thompson and his battalion 
were publicly thanked by Washington in 
general orders. General Washington's 
army around Boston was increased in 
numbers by the arrival of new troops 
during the winter of 1775-6. Early in 
March there were indications that General 
Howe, the commander of the British forces, 
was making arrangements to evacuate the 
city, and on the 17th of March the siege of 
Boston ended, when General Howe set sail 
with his army for Halifax, in Nova Scotia. 
It was this incident in American history that 
gave rise to the humorous expression 
" Gone to Halifax," After his arrival at 
Halifax, Howe made arrangements for an 
expedition against New York City. 

Immediately after the departure of the 
British, AVashington took possession of 
Boston. Believing that the final destination 
of Howe was New York, he began to move 
part of his army toward that city, leaving 
Boston in possession of New England 
troops. He accompanied his army on the 
march toward New York. 

Colonel Thompson was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general on March i, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hand was placed in 
command of the battalion, receiving his 
commission as colonel from Continental 
Congress, March 7. During the siege of 
Boston, Walter Cruise, John Brown and 
Cornelius Turner, of York County, were 
taken prisoners. At this time Colonel Ed- 
ward Hand reported that his battalion was 
composed of six companies. 

Hand's battalion, which now in 

An official papers was called a reg- 

Historic iment, had a standard of " deep 
Banner. green ground, the device a tiger 
partly enclosed by toils attempt- 
ing the pass, defended by a hunter armed 
with a spear (in white) on crimson field, 
the motto ' Domari Nolo.' " Their uni- 
forms were made of brown holland and 
Osnaburgs, something like a shirt, double 
caped over the shoulders in imitation of the 
Indians; and on the breast in capital letters 
was their motto, " Liberty or Death." 

AVhen Washington discovered that Howe 
was preparing to leave Boston, he sent 



General Sullivan with Thompson's, now 
Hand's, riflemen with Ave other regiments 
to New York. They left Boston on March 
14 and arrived at New York March 28. Ar- 
rangements had been made for Sullivan to 
reinforce the expedition against ^Montreal 
in Canada, taking the place of Thomas, who 
succeeded Montgomery after the latter had 
been killed. 

Hand's regiment, in which the 
March York riflemen, under Captain Mil- 

to ler, were now serving, was placed 

Long under General Israel Putnam, who 
Island, had been sent to New York by 
^^'ashington to take command of 
all the forces in and around that city and 
await the expected arrival of the British 
army from Halifax. April 5, Hand's reg- 
iment was moved by order of General Put- 
nam to Long Island, where it remained at a 
station near New Utrecht during the re- 
mainder of April and the months of ]May 
and June, doing some good service. 

On the 22d of April, 1776, General Wash- 
ington said in a letter to the President of 
Congress, " The time for which the rifle- 
men enlisted will expire on the first of July 
next, and as the loss of such a valuable and 
brave body of men will be of great injury to 
the service I would submit it to the con- 
sideration of Congress whether it would not 
be best to adopt some method to induce 
them to continue. They are, indeed, a very 
useful corps, but I need not mention this, 
as their importance is already known to 

Congress had (withoitt the knowledge of 
the commander-in-chief) passed a resolu- 
tion, dated April 15, to recruit and re-enlist 
the battalion and the independent rifle com- 
panies attached to it, for a term of two years 
unless sooner discharged. On the 30th of 
June, the day when the time of those who 
did not re-enlist expired. Colonel Hand said 
in a letter, " Almost all the men discharged 
today declare that they will stay to know 
what the fleet will do," meaning the British 
fleet bringing Howe's army from Halifax to 
the harbor of New Y'ork. On the first of 
July, 1776, the rifle battalion, recruited and 
re-enlisted, entered on another term of 
service as the First Regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania in the Continental Line. Pennsyl- 
vania troops thus formed the first regiment 
of the regular army of the United States. 


Soon after the opening of the war at 
Lexington and Concord, the conquest of 
Canada was contemplated by the New 
England leaders, but Congress was un- 
willing to adopt measures except such as 
were purely defensive in character. It was 
only with reluctance that Congress had 
sanctioned the garrisoning of Ticonderoga 
in northeastern New York by Connecticut 
troops. During the summer of 1775 it was 
ascertained that Sir Guy Carleton, the 
Governor of Canada, was about to take 
steps to recover Ticonderoga, which had 
been captured by Ethan Allen in May. 
Congress also learned that the English had 
intrigued with the Iroquois Indians of cen- 
tral New York to harass the New England 
frontier and the region along the Hudson 
River. A\"ith this condition of affairs 
Congress resolved upon the invasion of 
Canada as a measure of self-defence. 

An expedition led by General 

March Richard ^Montgomery passed 

to down Lake Champlain against 

Quebec. Montreal. On September 12, 

^Montgomery, with a force of two 
thousand men, laid siege to the fortress of 
St. John's, which commanded the approach 
to ^Montreal. After a siege of fifty days St. 
John's surrendered and Montgomery en- 
tered Montreal nine days later. Meanwhile 
A\'ashington. in command of the army at 
Cambridge, detached one thousand infantry, 
IMorgan's Virginia sharpshooters, and two 
companies of riflemen from Pennsylvania to 
advance through the forests of Maine to 
Quebec. This expedition was in command 
of Colonel Benedict Arnold, who is sup- 
posed to have suggested it. Aaron Burr 
served on the staff of Arnold in this expedi- 
tion and at one time acted as a spy in the 
garb of a Catholic priest. One of the Penn- 
sylvania companies that went with this ex- 
pedition was recruited in Cumberland 
County and was commanded b}' Captain 
A\'illiam Hendricks: the other commanded 
by Captain Matthew Smith, had been raised 
in the present area of Dauphin County. 
Both of these companies had served in 
Thompson's Battalion at the siege of Boston 
and both contained some York County sol- 
diers. Lieutenant ^Michael Simpson, who 
afterward wrote the introduction to Hon. 



John Joseph Henry's account of this expe- 
dition, was a lieutenant in Captain Smith's 
company. He resided on the Simpson 
Ferry property at X^ew Market in Fairview 

Arnold's march, which was as difficiilt as 
Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, was con- 
ducted with great ability, but it was nearly 
ruined by the misconduct of a subordinate 
officer, who deserted with two hundred men 
and the greater part of the provisions. 
After frightful hardships to which two hun- 
dred more men succumbed, on the 13th of 
November the little army climbed the 
Heights of Abraham, fronting Quebec. As 
Arnold's force was insuiificient to storm the 
city and the garrison would not come out to 
fight, he was obliged to await the arrival of 
Montgomery, who had just taken Montreal. 
On the morning of December 31, Mont- 
gomery and Arnold made a combined attack 
on Quebec and each came near carrying" his 
point, but in the assault Montgomery was 
slain and Arnold wounded in the leg. The 
enthusiasm of the troops was chilled and 
thejr were repelled. Captain Morgan suc- 
ceeded Montgomery in the temporary com- 
mand but in a violent attack on the British, 
he and his company were made prisoners. 
With the failure of this desperate attack 
passed away the golden opportunity for tak- 
ing the citadel of Canada. Arnold remained 
throughout the winter in the neighborhood 
of Quebec and in the spring the enterprise 
was taken up by Wooster and Sullivan with 
fresh forces. 

During the fall of 1775 Con- 
Reinforce- gress asked that five battalions 
ments for be raised in Pennsylvania to re- 
Canada, inforce the expedition for the 
conquest of Canada. When 
these battalions were organized the first 
was commanded by John Philip De Hass, of 
Lebanon; the second by Colonel Arthur St. 
Clair, of Westmoreland county, who had 
seen service in the British army under Am- 
herst; the third by Colonel John Shea, an 
Irish merchant of Philadelphia; the fourth 
by Colonel Anthony Wayne, a surveyor and 
member of the assembly from Chester 
county, and the fifth by Colonel Robert 
McGaw, of Carlisle. January 4, 1776, Con- 
gress passed a resolution that 'a sixth bat- 
talion be raised in Pennsylvania, which was 
recrtiited west of the Susquehanna. As 

York county had no troops yet organized in 
response to these various calls for the ex- 
pedition to Canada, James Smith, a practic- 
ing lawyer and chairman of the Committee 
of Safety for York county, wrote the fol- 
lowing letter : 

James Smith to Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris, 
Esquires, and the Committee of Safety of Penn- 

York, Pa., December 2:i„ 1775. 

Gentlemen : — By the last night's post we received the 
public papers, acquainting us of the resolve of congress 
touching the raising of four battalions in this province 
and desiring the committee of safety to appoint the com- 
pany officers and recommend the field officers of those 
battalions to the honorable continental congress. 

The time limited for the appointment and recom- 
mendation being fixed to the second of January it will 
be impracticable for the meinbers of your committee in 
this county to attend; in this situation of affairs the 
Committee of Correspondence for York County hope 
your board will not think it improper to trouble you on 
that subject, well knowing that the great cause of 
American liberty is our primary object and that every- 
thing that may tend to forward that glorious cause 
through whatever channel will not be unacceptable. I 
am directed by the Committee of Correspondence for 
this county to write to the Committee of Safety and in 
the strongest terms to request that the board may 
please to recommend Thomas Hartley, Esq., to be lieu- 
tenant colonel of one of the battalions to be raised in 
this province and in case that recommendation should 
take place that the board will please to appoint David 
Grier, Esq., to be captain ; John McDowell, lieutenant ; 
William Nichols, ensign, of one company; Moses Mc- 
Clean, captain ; Lewis Bush, lieutenant, and Robert 
Hoopes, ensign, of another company in the same bat- 
talion; and if a third company should be raised in York 
county to please to appoint Bernard Eichelberger, cap- 
tain or lieutenant as you may think best. 

If the board should think this application not im- 
proper in this situation and it should be agreeable to 
them, the Committee of Correspondence here will exert 
every nerve in assisting the officers to get their com- 
panies filled in the most expeditious manner with the 
best men and at the least possible expense to the public. 
I am 
with great respect 
Your most humble Servant, 
To Benjamin Franklin & James Smith, Chair' 

Robert ^Morris, Esq., and of the Com'e York Co. 

the Committee of Safety of the 
Province of Pennsylvania 
at Philadelphia. 

By the Lancaster post to be delivered as soon as 


AVilliam Irvine, a graduate of medicine 
from the Universit}^ of Dublin, who settled 
at Carlisle in 1764, where he practiced his 
profession until the opening of the Revolu- 
tion, was appointed to command the Sixth 
Battalion. Colonel Irvine had served as an 
officer in the British army in the war be- 
tween England and France before he came 
to this country. Thomas Hartley, then a 



practicing lawyer at York, was made lieu- 
tenant colonel; James Dunlap, niajpr; Rev. 
William Linn, chaplain; John Brooks, ad- 
jutant, and Robert Johnston, surgeon. 

Immediately after the receipt of the news 
from Congress asking for troops from west 
of the Susquehanna, recruiting began at 
York, in the lower end of York county, in 
the Monaghan settlement around the pres- 
ent- site of Dillsburg, at Hanover, and in 
the Marsh Creek country around the site 
of Gettysburg. In a short time two com- 
panies were organized. One of these com- 
panies was commanded by Captain David 
Grier, a member of the bar, who had been 
admitted to the practice of law at York in 
1771. The other was commanded by Cap- 
tain Moses McClean, son of Archibald Mc- 
Clean, a noted surveyor of York who had 
assisted in running ]Mason and Dixon's line. 

Colonel Irvine's command, known in his- 
tory as the Sixth Pennsylvania battalion, 
was organized at Carlisle in ]\Iarch, 1776. 
On the 226. of that month Colonel Irvine 
wrote to John Hancock, President of Con- 
gress : 

"I am honored with your orders to march 
my battalion to New York, which shall be 
complied with, with all possible expedition. 
Many of the arms are old, and want bay- 
onets and repairs. However, I shall not 
wait for bayonets, as I hope to be supplied 
at Philadelphia or Xew York. I have been 
obliged to purchase man}' rifles, but I pre- 
sume they may be changed for muskets, 
should the service require it; knapsacks, 
haversacks, canteens, and many other ne- 
cessaries which the commissioners promised 
to forward for ni}' battalion, have not yet 
come to hand. Though I do not mean to 
wait for them, yet I think it proper to ac- 
quaint you, as perhaps your further orders 
may be necessary." 

A few clays later Colonel Irvine left Car- 
lisle with his battalion for the Canada cam- 
paign. His command numbered 780 men. 
The captains of the eight different com- 
panies comprising this battalion were: 
David Grier, Moses AlcClean, Samuel Hay. 
Robert Adams, Abraham Smith, \\'illiam 
Rippev, Tames A. A\'ilson and ' Jeremiah 
Talbott. " 

In accordance with a resolution of Con- 
gress each company was to be composed of 
sixty-eight men. one captain, one lieutenant. 

one ensign, four sergeants and four cor- 
porals ; privates to be enlisted for one year 
at five dollars per month ; each private to be 
allowed instead of bounty, one felt hat, a 
pair of yarn stockings and a pair of shoes ; 
the men to find their own arms ; the en- 
listed men to be furnished with a hunting 
shirt, not exceeding in value one and one- 
third of a dollar, and a blanket, provided 
these can be procured but not to be made 
part of the terms of enlistment. 

The Sixth Battalion under Colo- 
Join nel Irvine arrived at Albany 
Sullivan's ^lay 10, where it joined a part 
Command, of A\'ayne's battalion from 

Chester count}^ These troops 
proceeded to Fort Ticonderoga on Lake 
Champlain, where they embarked with Gen- 
eral John Sullivan for St. John's. Here 
they joined the Pennsylvania and other 
troops, all of which were placed under com- 
mand of General John Sullivan, a native of 
Maine, who had held a command under 
A\'ashington at the siege of Boston. He 
was one of the eight brigadier generals first 
commissioned by Congress at Philadelphia. 
On June 2 he took command of the northern 
army on the borders of Canada, succeeding 
General Thomas, of Massachusetts, who 
had died of smallpox near Montreal. W'il- 
liam Thompson, who had been promoted 
from the command of his battalion of Penn- 
sylvania riflemen to the rank of brigadier 
general, had been ordered from Boston in 
April, 1776, to reinforce General Thomas 
with four regiments which were afterward 
increased to ten. He met the northern 
army on its retreat from Quebec and as- 
sumed the chief command when General 
Thomas was sick, yielding it up on June 4, 
to General Sullivan, by whose orders two 
days later he made a disastrous attack on 
the enemy at Three Rivers. 


The storj' of the battle of Three Rivers 
is best told in a letter written by Lieutenant 
Colonel Hartley, of York, to his personal 
friend, Jasper Yeates, of Lancaster. This 
letter dated at the camp at Sorel, three days 
after the battle, June 12, 1776, reads as fol- 
lows : 

"Before the arrival of Colonel AA'ayne's 
and Irvine's regiments under the command 
of General Sullivan, Colonel St. Clair, with 

1 66 


a detachment of seven hundred men, was 
sent down the river St. Lawrence about 
nine leagues, to watch the motions of the 
enemy and act occasionally. General Sul- 
livan's arrival here was at a critical time. 
Canada was lost, unless some notable exer- 
tion was made; the credit of our arms gone 
and no large number of our American 
troops to sustain our posts. It was said 
that the taking of Three Rivers, with such 
troops as were on it would be of service. A 
detachment under General Thompson was 
sent down the river. The corps under Colo- 
nel St. Clair was to join it, and if the Gen- 
eral thought it expedient, he was ordered 
by Sullivan to attack the enemy at Three 

"We left this on the evening of the 5th 
instant in several batteaux and joined St. 
Clair about twelve o'clock at night. It be- 
ing too late to proceed on to Three Rivers 
the enterprise was postponed until the next 

"In the dusk of the evening of the 7th we 
set off from the Nicolette with about fifteen 
hundred rank and file besides officers. It 
was intended to attack Three Rivers about 
daj'break in four places. Thompson landed 
his forces about nine miles above the town 
on the north side of the St. Lawrence, and 
divided his army into five divisions, Max- 
well, St. Clair, Wayne and Irvine each com- 
manding a division, and I had the honor of 
commanding the reserve. Leaving two 
hundred and fifty men to guard the bat- 
teaux, the army proceeded swiftly towards 
the town. I was to be ready to sustain the 
party which might need assistance. 

"The guards proved faithless and the 
General was misinformed as to the number 
of the enemy as well as to the situation of 
the town. Our men had lost their sleep for 
two nights, }'et were in pretty good spirits. 
Daylight appeared and showed us to the 
enemy. Our guides (perhaps traitors) had 
led us through windings, and were rather 
carrying us off from the post. The General 
was enraged at their conduct. 

"There were mutual firings. Our people 
killed some in a barge. Our scheme was 
no longer an enterprise. It might have 
been prudent perhaps to retreat but no one 
would propose it. AVe endeavored to pene- 
trate through a swamp to the town and 
avoid the shipping. A\'e had no idea of the 

difficulties we were to surmount in the mire, 
otherwise the way by the shipping would 
have been preferred. 

"We waded three hours in the mud about 
mid-deep in general, the men fasting. We 
ever}' moment expected to get through and 
find some good ground to form on, but were 
deceived. The second division under Colo- 
nel Anthony AVayne, saw a part of the 
enemy and attacked them. Captain Sanluel 
Hay of ou'r regiment (Sixth battalion), with 
his company of riflemen, assisted and be- 
haved nobly. Colonel AA^ayne advanced, 
the enemy's light infantry were driven from 
their ground and the Indians in their fianks 
were silenced. 

"The great body of the eneni}', 
A Furious which we knew nothing of. 

Fire. consisting of two or three thou- 

sand men, covered with en- 
trenchments, and assisted with the cannon 
of the shipping and several field pieces, be- 
gan a furious lire and continued it upon our 
troops in the front. It was so heavy that 
the division gave way, and from the badness 
of the ground could not form suddenly 
again. St. Clair's division advanced but the 
fire was too heavy. Part of Irvine's divi- 
sion, especially the riflemen, went up to- 
wards the enemy. I understood the army 
was in confusion. I consulted some friends 
and led up the reserve within a short dis- 
tance of the enemy. McClean's and Grier's 
companies from York county advanced with 
spirit; McClean's men took the best situa- 
tion, and within eighty yards of the enemy 
exposed to the fire of the shipping as hot as 
hell. I experienced some of it. 

"Not a man of McClean's company be- 
haved badly; Grier's company behaved well. 
Several of the enemy were killed in the at- 
tack of the reserve. Under the disadvan- 
tages, our men would fight; but we had no 
covering, no artillery, and no prospect of 
succeeding, as the number of the enemy was 
so much superior to ours. AA'ayne and 
Allen rallied part of our men, and kept up a 
fire against the English from the swamp. 
The enemy, in the meantime, dispatched a 
strong body to cut off our retreat to the 
boats, when it was thought expedient to 
retreat. Our General and Colonel Irvine 
were not to be found ; they had both gone up 
to the front in a very heavy fire. This gave 
us great uneasiness but a retreat was neces- 



sary. This could not be done regularly, as 
we could not regain the road on account of 
the enemy's shipping and artillery, and went 
off in small parties through the swamp. 
^\'ayne and Allen gathered some hundreds 
together and I got as many in my division 
as I could, with several others amounting 
to upwards of two hundred. 

"Wayne with his party, and I with mine, 
tried several wa3's to get to our batteaux. 
^^'ayne was obliged, not far from the river, 
to march by seven hundred of the enemy. 
He intended to attack them, but his men 
were so much fatigued that it was deemed 
unsafe. The enemy fired their small arms 
and artillery on our men as loud as thunder. 
They returned a retreating fire. Several of 
the enemy were killed and wounded. We 
came within a mile of where our boats were, 
but our guard had carried them off. The 
English had possession of the ground where 
we landed. Their shipping proceeded up 
the river, covering parties being sent to take 
possession of the ferries we were to pass. 

"Wayne with his party lay near the 
enemy. I passed through a big swamp and 
at night took possession of a hill near the 
enemy. We were without food and the 
water very bad. I mounted a small quarter 
guard, fixed my alarm post, and made every 
man lie down on the ground, on which he 
was to rise for action in case of an attack. 
I slept a little by resting my head on a cold 
bough of spruce. 

"Morning dawned (Sunday, June 9), and 
I consulted our officers and men. They 
said the}' were refreshed with sleep. It was 
agreed to stand together, that they would 
support me and effect a passage through 
the enemy or die in the attempt. A little 
spring water refreshed us more. The 
necessary dispositions were made but we 
had no guides. W^e heard the enemy within 
a half mile of us, but no one seemed alarmed 
so we proceeded and luckily fell in with 
Wayne's track. We pursued it and over- 
took him near the river Du Lac. This 
made us upwards of seven hundred strong 
and we agreed to attack the enemy if they 
fell in our way to Bokie (Berthier), opposite 
Sorel. We were sure they would attempt 
the fort at Sorel before we could arrive, but 
as we came up the English left the ferries 
and drew all their forces back to Three 
Rivers. Bv forced marches and surmount- 

ing every difficulty, we got up, crossed the 
river and arrived at Sorel, Monday after- 
noon, June 10. We brought nearly twelve 
hundred inen back with our party. Many 
are yet missing, one hundred and fifty or 
two hundred. Some scattered ones are 
continually coming in so that our loss will 
not be so great as was first imagined. 

"Colonel A\'ayne behaved exceedingly 
well and showed himself a man of courage 
and a true soldier. Colonel Allen exerted 
himself and is a fine fellow. Colonel Max- 
well was often in the midst of danger. His 
own division was not present to support 
liim. He was also very useful in the re- 
treat after he joined Wayne. Lieutenant 
Edie, of the York troops, I fear is killed. 
He was a fine young fellow and behaved 
bravely. He approached the enemy's works 
without dismay several times and remained 
in the swamp to the last. He was in the 
second engagement where it is supposed he 
was killed. Ensign Hoopes of the same 
company was wounded near the breast- 
works when I led up the reserve. I cannot 
say too much of his bravery. He showed 
the greatest courage after he had received 
several wounds in the arm. He stood his 
ground and animated his men. He nobly 
made good his retreat with me through a 
swamp nearh' eighteen miles long. Sev- 
eral of our regiment were killed. I appre- 
hend between thirt}' and fifty. 

"June 13. Last night a sort of flag of 
truce came from the enemy. General 
Thompson, Colonel AVilliam Irvine, Dr. 
McKenzie, Lieutenants Edie and Currie and 
Parson McCalla (of the First) are prison- 
ers. They were taken up by some of the 
rascally Canadians in the most treacherous 

At the time of the battle of Three Rivers, 
the British forces in Canada numbering 
13,000 men, were under command of Sir 
Guy Carleton, a noted soldier in the English 
army, who had been appointed governor of 
the Province of Quebec in 1772. He had 
recaptured Montreal before the contest at 
Three Rivers, where the British troops were 
commanded by Sir John Burgoyne, the ill- 
fated officer who, in 1777, surrendered his 
entire army at the battle of Saratoga. The 
American forces at the battle of Three Riv- 
ers were composed entirely of Pennsylvania 
troops, with the exception of a small de- 


tachment from New Jersey. They fought 
gallantly against great odds with all the ad- 
vantages in favor of the enemy. It was the 
first engagement of the Revolution on 
American soil fought by Pennsylvania 
troops. Although they did not succeed, the 
battle proved again to the ministry and the 
King of England that the American volun- 
teers, fighting for liberty and independence, 
were destined to rank in ability and achieve- 
ment with the trained soldiers of Europe. 

After the engagement at Three 
Sullivan Rivers and the defeat of Arnold 
Retreats, at ^Montreal, Sullivan began his 
masterly retreat. He joined 
Arnold at St. Johns, on the Sorel river, 
which flows from the mouth of Lake Cham- 
plain into the St. Lawrence. 

"The rear of the army," says Wilkinson 
in his "Memoirs," "with baggage stores, 
reached St. Johns on June i8th, was em- 
barked and moved up the Sorel the same 
afternoon. After the last boat except Ar- 
nold's had put off, at Arnold's suggestion, 
he and Wilkinson went down the direct 
road to Chambly for two miles, where they 
met the advance of the British division, 
under Burgoyne. They reconnoitered it a 
few minutes, then galloped back to St. 
Johns and stripping their horses, shot them. 
Arnold then ordered all on board, pushed 
olif the boat with his own hands, and thus 
indulged the vanity of being the last man 
who embarked from the shores of the 
enemy. They followed the army twelve 
miles to the Isle Aux Noix, where they ar- 
rived after dark." 

The head of Burgoyne's column entered 
St. Johns on the evening of the i8th, and 
Philip's advance guard on the morning of 
the 19th. On the 19th general orders at 
Isle Aux Noix directed the commands of 
de Hass, Wayne, St. Clair and Irvine to 
encamp on the east side of the island. 

On the 2 1 St, Irvine's battalion met with 
another heavy loss, as is detailed by a letter 
from one of the regiment : 

"Captains McClean, Adams and Rippey, 
Lieutenants McFerran, McAllister and 
Hoge, and Ensigns Lusk and Culbertson, 
with four privates, went over from the Isle 
Aux Noix to the western shore of the lake, 
about a mile from camp, but within sight, 
to fish and divert themselves. McClean 
prudently proposed to take arms with them 

but was overruled. Some Indians observed 
their motions, and while they were at a 
house drinking some spruce beer, the sav- 
ages surrouiided them, killed Captain 
Adams, Ensign Culbertson and two privates, 
whom they scalped in a most inhuman and 
barbarous manner, and carried ofif prisoners 
McClean, McFerran, McAllister and Hoge 
and two other privates. But a party coming 
to their relief from camp aided Captain Rip- 
pey and Ensign Lusk to make their escape." 

The bodies of those killed were brought 
to the Isle Aux Noix and decently buried 
by W^ayne, who with a party followed the 
Indians and recovered the batteaux with 
the bodies. 

Isle Aux Noix proved very unhealthy; 
Wayne had sixty men out of one hundred 
and thirty-eight taken down with sickness, 
after their arrival there; and on the 24th of 
June, de Haas and all his field officers with 
a number of his men were sick. On the 
25th, General Sullivan commenced moving 
the army to Isle la Motte. Colonel Hartley, 
with two hundred and fifty men of Irvine's 
battalion, went by land, scouring the coun- 
try, traversing disagreeable swamps, de- 
stroying on the way the houses, mills, etc., 
of the traitor McDonald, who had deceived 
them at Three Rivers. 

On June 27th, at Isle la Motte 
Gates in all the army took vessels and 
Command, came to Crown Point, which 
they reached on July ist. 
General Gates arrived there on the evening 
of the 5th, superceding General Sullivan, 
and on the 7th at a council of war, it was 
determined to remove the army to Ticon- 
deroga. The battalions of de Haas, St. 
Clair and AA'ayne arrived there on the loth, 
the Sixth battalion under Hartley remain- 
ing posted at Crown Point, where it en- 
camped the balance of the summer and fall, 
the sentinel regiment of Gates' army. On 
the 20tli Gates brigaded his army, and the 
four Pennsylvania battalions were consti- 
tuted the Fourth Brigade, Colonel Arthur 
St. Clair commanding; Edward Scull bri- 
gade-major for the Third and Fourth bat- 
talions. August 14th, Hartley's scouts 
found the British still at St. Johns. 

On the 6th of September, Hartley desired 
General Gates to send to Crown Point, 
either General AA'ayne's battalion or the 
Second and he would defend it with them. 



Gates gave him positive orders to retreat 
if the British reached that point. The 
British did not come, however, and on the 
22d Irvine's regiment was still at Crown 
Point — one lieutenant colonel, one major, 
fot:r captains, five first lieutenants, three 
second lieutenants, five ensigns, four stafif, 
se\enteen sergeants, fifteen drums, and four 
hundred and eighty-six rank and file. On 
the nth of October, Hartley still main- 
tained his post, having found in the woods 
some cannon lost in the French war. With 
great labor he had roads cut and transported 
them to Crown Point, and had a battery of 
six guns ready for the enemy not any too 
soon, for on the same day the British at- 
tacked Arnold's fleet on Lake Champlain, 
compelling him to retire towards Crown 
Point. On the 14th Hartley set fire to all 
the houses at or near Crown Point and re- 
tired to Ticonderoga. 

The season was too far advanced for the 
British to make any further progress ; after 
threatening Ticonderoga they retired into 
winter quarters. On the i8th of November 
General Gates putting Wayne iii command 
of Ticonderoga, proceeded to join General 
Washington with the larger part of the 
army, the three Pennsylvania battalions 
whose time would expire on the 5th of Jan- 
uary, agreeing to remain until they were re- 
lieved by other troops. On the 29th of 
November, the Second, commanded by_ 
^^'ood, numbered four hundred and twenty- 
six officers and men ; Wayne's five hundred 
and sixty-five ; Irvine's five hundred and 

On the 4th of December, AA'ayne writes 
to the Committee of Safety : 

"The wretched condition the battalions 
are now in for want of almost every neces- 
sary, except flour and bad beef, is shocking 
to humanity, and beggars all description. 
We have neither beds nor bedding for our 
sick to lie on or under, other than their 
own clothing; no medicine or other things 
needed for them. The dead and dying, 
lying mingled together in our hospital, or 
rather hou^e of carnage, is no uncommon 
sight. They are objects truly worthy of 
your notice." 

On the 24th of January, 1777, the 

The Pennsylvania battalions left Ti- 

Return conderoga with General \\'ayne 

Home, for their homes. Irvine's battal- 

ion under the command of Lieutenant 
Colonel Hartley reached Carlisle on its 
return March 15, 1777, where it was re- 
enlisted for three years or the war as the 
Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment of the 
Continental Line. 

Colonel Irvine, of Carlisle, who com- 
manded the Sixth battalion in which the 
York county troops served, was captured 
at Three Rivers and carried a prisoner to 
New York, where he was paroled August 
3, 1776, but was not exchanged until May 
6, 1778, when he resumed the command 
of the Seventh Pennsylvania regiment. He 
took part in various campaigns and was 
promoted to brigadier general and after the 
war served as a member of Continental 

William Thompson, who was captured 
at Three Rivers, had commanded Thomp- 
son's Rifle Battalion in front of Boston until 
he was promoted brigadier-general and 
joined the expedition against Canada. He 
was held a prisoner in New York until 
August, 1776, when he returned to Phila- 
delphia on parole but was not exchanged 
until 1778. He died near Carlisle in 1781, 
aged 56 years. 

Captain Moses McClean, who was cap- 
tured by the Indians in this campaign, was 
held a prisoner of war until March 27, 1777, 
when he was exchanged. After the war he 
moved to Ohio and died at Chillicothe, Au- 
gust 25, 1810, aged seventy-three years. 

Captain David Grier, who won a brilliant 
record for gallantry at Three Rivers, was 
promoted to major of his regiment October 
25, 1776. He was made lieutenant colonel 
of the Seventh Pennsylvania regiment, 
which he commanded during Colonel Ir- 
vine's imprisonment. In September, 1777, 
he participated in battles under General 
Wayne and was wounded slightly at 
Chad's Ford and was also wounded in the 
side by a bayonet at Paoli. Colonel Grier 
practiced law after the war and was a prom- 
inent citizen of York. He was a presiden- 
tial elector at W^ashington's first election. 
He died in York in 1791. 

Lieutenant John Edie, who became a 
prisoner of war at Three Rivers, was not 
exchanged until April 10, 1778. From 1791 
to 1798 he was editor and one of the owners 
of the Pennsylvania Herald and General 
Ad\-ertiser published at York, the files of 



which paper are in the Historical Society of 
York count}-. After the Revolution Lieu- 
tenant Edie became brigadier general in the 
state militia. 

Lieutenant Abdiel McAllister, of Grier's 
compan}^, who was captured at Three Riv- 
ers, was the oldest son of Colonel Richard 
McAllister, founder of Hanover, who com- 
manded the Second regiment in the Flying 


The following is a complete muster roll 
of Captain Moses McClean's company re- 
cruited partly in York county and partly in 
the present area of Adams county: 

;\IcClean, Moses. 
First Lieutenants, 
Eichelberger, Barnet. 
Edie, John. 
Second Lieutenant, 
Hoge, John. 
Hoopes, Robert. 
Ralston, Robert. 
Smith, John. 
^MiHigan, James. 
King, Jolin. 
AlHson, Robert. 

Drum and Fife, 
Conner. Patrick. 
Stack, Richard. 
Adair, John Jayne, Aaron 

Alhson, Robert Johnston, George 

Atcheson, Edward Johnston, James 

Barclay, Joseph Kelly, Edward 

Blain, John Kennedy, Samuel 

Blakely, George King, Patrick 

Brown, John King, William 

Campbell, William Kincaid, Samuel 

Chesney, Thomas Limerick, Patrick 

Cochran, William Long, Joseph 

Conn, John Lynch, Patrick 

Commoly, John i\Iahon, Charles 

Crawford, Robert JNIadden, Timothy 

Cunningham, David Maxwell, James 

Cunningham, Patrick Meloy, Bartholomew 

Dill, Thomas ^McEride. John 

Dingley, William McDaniel, James 

Duffield, Felix McDonald, William 

Dunlap. John McDowell, John 

Evan, William McFarland, Jacob 

Entrican, William McGee, John 

Faith, Alexander McGonagal, Neal 

Gerard, Mathias McGuan, Patrick 

Gibbons, Henry McKeeder, Owen 

Graynor, Thomas McManery, James 

Griffith. David McWiUiams, John 

Hall, John Morgan, Christian 

Hargie, John Mullen, Daniel 

Heinerman, Michael Alurphy, Dennis 

Hughes, William ]\Iurrav, Eneas 

Xeedhani, Robert 
Xelson, Thomas 
Xolan, Luke 
O'Hara, Dennis 
Patten, John 
Patterson, John 
Robinson, John 

Sample, William 
Shugart, Eli 
Simonton, John 
Sloane, David 
Smith, Patrick 
Sullivan, Peter 
Tibbens, Henry 


Captain David Grier's compan)' came 
from York, Hanover, the vicinity of Dills- 
burg and the lower end of York county. 
Its membership was almost entirely com- 
posed of Scotch-Irish. The following is 
the complete muster roll of the company : 


Grier, David. 

First Lieutenant, 

McDowell, John. 

Second Lieutenant, 

McAllister, Abdiel. 

Nichols, William. 

Hughes, John. 

Walker, Andrew. 

Knox, John. 

Jeffries, Robert. 

Hayman, John. 

Lawson, James. 

Mcllhenny, Feli.x. 

Lethew, David. 
Tomson, Ezra. 
Drum and Fife, 

Hamilton, James. 

Wright, Mathias. 
Anguis, William Hoy, Thomas 

Barnes, Patrick Jackson, Archibald 

Baker, George Johnston, Robert 

BacheldoT, Ebenezer Johnston, William 

Barry, James Kelly, George 

Beard, Robert Kelly. Thomas 

Brian, John Leeson, James 

Campbell, .\rchibald ^lason, William 

Clemmonds, John Matthews, Jacob 

Conn, Adam JMcCall, John 

Conner, George McCoy, William 

Conway, Charles McDaniel, John 

Cooper, George McGowan, Samuel 

Corrigan, Cornelius McKissack, Henry 

Davis, David McJMeehan, i\Iichael 

Dulany, Thomas McMullan, James 

Dorce or Deis, John Mealy, Lawrence 

Dougherty, Charles Murphy, Michael 

Dougherty, John Murphy, Dennis 

Esson, A'lexander O'Loan, Patrick 

Falkner. John O'Niel, Peter 

Frick, John Pearcy, John , 

Forsyth, Robert Price, James 

Geddes, Joseph Quigley, William 

Grant, Peter Redmond, Murtough 

Guncager, Charles Robinson, James 

Gyfinger, Charles Roney, Patrick 

Harkins, James Russel. Joseph 

Hickenbottom, Edward Scullion, Patrick 

Hodge, Isaac Schregh, Peter 


Shaw. Arcliibald 
Shaw, James 
Standley. Francis 
Shivc. Phihp 
Schuhz, Michael 
Seidle, Peter 
Schneider. John 
Spencer, Edward 
Stevenson, James 
Swank, Baltzer 
Swartz. George 

Swartz, Peter 
Taylor, John 
Trees, Jacob 
Wade, Joseph 
Weaverling, Adam 
Welch, Edward 
White. Isaac 
Wilkinson, William 
Wilson, Joseph 
Worley, George 
Wright, Matthias 


The next troops to leave York to battle 
for the cause of independence were led by 
Captain Philip Albright, a prominent citizen 
of the county. This company joined Colonel 
^files' Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment, which 
was organized March 5, 1776, in response 
to a call of the State Assembly for 2,000 
troops to defend Pennsylvania. Colonel 
Samuel ]\Iiles, its first commander, was 
then a resident of Philadelphia. He had 
served with credit in the French and Indian 
War under Braddock, and when peace was 
declared, was placed in charge of a garrison 
on the site of Erie. He raised his regiment 
of 1.000 men and formed them into two bat- 
talions within a period of six weeks and 
rendezvoused at Marcus Hook, on the 
northeast coast of New Jersey. 

At this time the British army 
Marches under Howe, which had evacu- 
to Long ated Boston March 18, had not 
Island. yet arrived at Long Island. 
Colonel Miles drilled and dis- 
ciplined his regiment for active service in 
the field and on July 2 he was ordered to 
Philadelphia, where the regiment was 
thoroughly equipped. On July 5 he marched 
with his command to Trenton and from 
thence to Amboy. July 16 he joined Hugh 
Mercer, who had been raised to the rank of 
brigadier-general at the request of AVash- 
ington, and placed in command of the Fly- 
ing Camp, composed largely of Pennsyl- 
vania troops. The British army was soon 
to attack New York and on August 10 
Miles was ordered to Long Island. 

On August 12 Miles' regiment and Colo- 
nel Samuel Atlee's battalion of musketry, 
from Lancaster, were brigaded with 
Glover's and Smallwood's regiments and 
placed under the command of Lord Stirling, 
an English officer who was made a briga- 
dier-general in the American army. Stir- 
ling's brigade took an active part in the 
battle of Long Island, ser.ving under Gen- 

eral Sullivan, commanding the left wing of 
Washington's army. There are no minute 
details of the part taken by Captain Al- 
bright's company of York County troops ii> 
this famous battle. The report of Miles, in 
whose regiment Captain Albright served, 
will be found interesting. 

"On the landing of the British army on 
Long Island, I was ordered with my rifle 
regiment to watch their motions. I marched 
near to the village of Flat Bush, where the 
Highlanders then lay, but they moved the 
next day to General Howe's camp, and their 
place was supplied by the Hessians. I lay 
there within cannon shot of the Hessian 
camp for four da3's without receiving orders 
from General Sullivan. I was stationed 
directly in front of the village of Flat Bush, 
but on the left of the road leading to New 
York, where the Hessians were encamped. 
The main body of the enemy, under the im- 
mediate command of General Howe, lay 
about two miles to my left, and General 
Grant, with another body, of British troops, 
la}' about four miles to my right. There 
were several small bodies of Americans dis- 
persed to my right but not a man to my left, 
although the main body of the enemy lay to 
my left. This was our situation on the 26th 
of August. About I o'clock at night Grant 
on the right and Howe on the left, began 
their march, and by daylight Grant had got 
within a mile of our entrenchments, and 
Howe had got into the Jamaica Road, about 
two miles from our lines. The Hessians 
kept their position until 7 in the morning. 
As soon as they moved the firing began at 
our redoubt. I immediately marched to- 
wards the firing, but had not proceeded 
more than one or two hundred yards when 
I was stopped by Colonel AA'illey, who told 
me that I could not pass on; that we were 
to defend a road that led from Flat Bush 
road to the Jamaica road. 

"I made a retrograde march, a distance 
of nearly two miles through woods within 
sight of the Jamaica road, and to my great 
mortification saw the main body of the 
enemy in full march between me and our 
lines, and the baggage guard just coming 
into the road. I had then only the first bat- 
talion with me. The second was some 
distance to the rear, and I directed Alajor 
AA'illiams, who was on horseback, to return 
and order Lieutenant-Colonel Brodhead, of 



my regiment, to push on by the left of the 
enemy and endeavor to get into our lines 
that way. They succeeded, but had to wade 
^ mill dam, in which a few were drowned. 
I returned to the battalion and called a 
council of the officers and laid three propo- 
sitions before them ; first, to attack the bag- 
gage guard, endeavor to cut our way 
through them, proceed to Hell Gate and 
then cross the sound; second, to lay where 
we were until the whole had passed us and 
then proceed to Hell Gate ; or third, to en- 
deavor to force our way through the 
enemy's flank guards into our line at 

"The third proposition was 
Colonel adopted, and we immediately 
Miles a began our march, but had not 
Prisoner, proceeded more than half a mile 
imtil we fell in with a body of 
se^•en or eight hundred light infantry, which 
we attacked without hesitation. Their 
superiorit}' of numbers encouraged them to 
march up with their bayonets, which we 
could not withstand, having none ourselves. 
I therefore ordered the troops to push on 
toward our lines. I remained on the 
grounds myself until they had all passed me, 
the enemy being then within less than 
twenty yards of us. and by this means I 
came into the rear instead of the front of 
my command. AA'e had proceeded but a 
short distance before we were again en- 
gaged with a superior force of the enemy, 
and here we lost a number of men, but took 
Major Moncrieffe, their commanding of- 
ficer, prisoner. Finding that the enemy had 
possession of the ground between us and 
our lines, and that it was impossible for us 
to cut our way through as a body, I directed 
the men to make the best of their way as 
well as they could. Some few got in safe, 
but there were 159 taken prisoners. I my- 
self was entirel)'' cut off from our lines and 
therefore endeavored to conceal mj^self, 
with a few men who would not leave me. I 
hoped to remain until night, when I in- 
tended to try to get to Hell Gate and cross 
the sound; but about 3 o'clock in the after- 
noon was discovered by a party of Hessians 
and obliged to surrender — thus ended the 
career of that day." Lieutenant William 
McPherson, of Albright's company, became 
a prisoner of war and was held by the 
British for more than a vear. 

Colonel Miles' regiment, when organized, 
had 1,000 men, rank and file. Of this num- 
ber 650 entered the battle of Long Island, 
in which about 50 were killed and wounded 
and 159 taken prisoners. Captain Albright's 
company lost in this engagement in killed, 
wounded and prisoners, three sergeants and 
twenty-seven privates. The responsible 
position held bj' Miles in this battle is shown 
in the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Brod- 
head, of the regiment. On September 5, 
1776, he wrote: "No troops could have be- 
haved better than ours in this battle, for, 
though the)' seldom engaged less than five 
to one, they frequently repulsed the enemy 
with great slaughter, and I am confident 
that the number killed and wounded on 
their side is greater than ours, notwith- 
standing we had to fight them front and rear 
under every disadvantage. I understand 
that General Sullivan has taken the liberty 
to charge our brave and good Colonel Miles 
with the ill success of the day, but give me 
leave to say, that if General Sullivan and the 
rest of the generals on Long Island had 
been as vigilant and prudent as he, we 
might and in all probability would have cut 
off Clinton's brigade ; our officers and men 
in general, considering the confusion, be- 
haved as well as men could do — a few be- 
haved badly. Our men are getting very 
sickly for want of blankets and clothing, 
having thrown away those they had in the 
engagement, which I fear they cannot be 
furnished here." 

In this battle ^Miles' regiment and Xtlee's 
battalion suft'ered so severely that General 
Washington ordered the three battalions to 
be considered as a regiment under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Brodhead until 
further orders. Both these commands had 
enlisted for fifteen months to defend the 
state of Pennsylvania. As they were now 
with the American army in another state. 
Colonel Brodhead petitioned the State 
Legislature at this time to know their 
military relations, whereupon both com- 
mands were turned over to the authority of 
Congress. On September 19 the three bat- 
talions mutinied and appeared on parade 
imder arms. After this two hundred men 
deserted, about thirty of them were kept 
back by force. Those who deserted gave as 
a reason a lack of sufficient clothing, 
blankets, rations and pay, but the records 



seem to sliow tliat they liatl already been 
paid in continental money, which had 
greatly depreciated. Meantime, however, a 
supply of clothing had been sent from 

On October 5. Captain Al- 
Re-organi- bright had in his company 
zation. three sergeants, one drummer 

^ and forty-six privates. On the 

same day the Pennsylvania Council of 
Safety ordered a re-arrangement of the 
three battalions, and on the 25th of the 
same month, ten of the companies of the 
battalion ceased to exist by being consoli- 
dated with others. On the same day Cap- 
tain Albright's compan}^ and six others 
were ordered to retain their captains. 
These and the remnants of the other bat- 
talions of the state troops followed the 
fortunes of the Continental army. Part of 
the regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Brodhead was present at the battle of Fort 
Washington, November 16. The remainder 
of the regiment accompanied Washington 
in the retreat across New Jersey and took 
I'art in the battles of Trenton and Princeton. 
Late in the year 1776 a difiBculty arose 
between Major A\'illiams, of Miles' regi- 
ment, and Captain Philip Albright. The 
major had made himself obnoxious in many 
ways to the subordinate officers, with whom 
he was not popular. Both Williams and Al- 
bright explained their differences to the 
Council of Safety of Pennsylvania, but the 
luatter was 'never satisfactorily adjusted, 
and Captain Albright resigned his commis- 
sion on January 23, 1777. 

The following is the roll of Captain Philip 
Albright's company after the battle of Long 
Island, taken in camp near King's Bridge, 
N. Y., September i, 1776: 


Albright, Philip. 

First Lieutenants, 

Thomson, John. 

Sheriff, Cornelius. 

Second Lieutenant, 

McPherson, William. 

Third Lieutenant, 

Stake, Jacob. 

Wilson, Thomas. 
Tate, Robert. 
Willey, James. 
Geddes, James. 

Quartermaster Sergeant, 
Lytle, Andrew. 

Harden, John. 

.\\\\. John. Lead, Conrad. 

Barron, Robert. Leavingston, Jacob. 

Beltzhover, Ludwig. Lutes, John. 

Boned, Andrew. Malseed, Samuel. 

Boyd, Alexander. McBroom, Henry. 

Branon, William. McCay, James. 

Brown, John. McCIughan, Hugh. 

Burk, Michael. McCown, Daniel. 

Busham, Jacob. McCown, Patrick. 

Carlton, Edward. McElnay, John. 

Conrad, George. McFarlane, James. 

Croan, Henry. McGinish, Patt. 

Crookham, John. McGuire, Bartholomew. 

Cu-xel, James. McNeal, Daniel. 

Dufiield, Rachford. Morrison, James. 

Ferril, Hugh. Myer, Joseph. 

Fink, Michael. Newman, Jacob. 

Foster, Thomas. Reed, Hugh. 

Glen, Patrick. Rinehart, John. 

Gobin, Hugh. Rubart, Adam. 

Gordan, James. Ryan, Christian. 

Grearley, John. Ryan, Michael. 

Gregg, John. Shadow, Henry. 

Gregg, Robert. Smith, John. 

Helm. George. Spangler, Charles. 

Helsley, Jacob. Stockdel. Torrence. 

Hendry, John. Stuart, David. 

Hollan, William. Stump, Charles. 

Hudson, John. Sturgeon, Robert. 

Hutchinson, James. Swartz, John. 

Jacobs, Johnathan. Trine, George. 

James, William. Wampler, George. 

Kennedy, Philip. Wells, Edward. 

Kilean, Michael. Welshance, William. 

Kilpatrick, Robert. Williams, Thomas. 

Kilpatrick, William. Woods, Samuel. 
Knee (Karee), Thomas. 

descendant of George Albright, who left the 
German Palatinate and arriving in this 
country settled in Philadelphia, and engaged 
in commercial pursuits. He remained in 
that city until 1740, when he moved to York, 
then a part of Lancaster County, in which 
county he had a number of valuable planta- 

Captain Albright was the youngest of 
three sons of George Albright, and received 
his education at York in the school main- 
tained by the German Lutheran Church. 
Endowed with the usual German thrift, he 
was able to save enough in succeeding years 
to purchase the estate of the Rankin family. 
This property was situated on the Codorus 
about two miles below York, and consisted 
of a large flouring mill and plantation. 
Philip Albright made his home upon his 
newly purchased plantation, having some 
years previous married Anna Maria Ursula, 



daughter of Johann Daniel Duenckle, a 
German refugee and aristocrat. 

When the tension with Great Britain be- 
came keen, there was no more enthusiastic 
partisan of colonial independence than 
Philip i\lbright, and when the preliminary 
steps were taken looking to the achievement 
of that end, he was chosen a member of the 
Committee of Observation, formed at York, 
December i6, 1774. On March 19, 1776, he 
was appointed captain of the First Battalion 
of the Pennsylvania regiment under the 
command of Colonel Samuel Miles. He fol- 
lowed the fortunes of this regiment under 
AVashington at the battle of Dong Island 
and other engagements around New York 
and in the Jersey campaign, during the 
winter of 1776-7. As a result of difficulties 
with Major Ennion Williams, Captain Al- 
bright resigned his command on January 
23, 1777. His retirement to private life, 
however, was of short duration, for on April 
5, 1778, while Continental Congress was in 
session at York, he was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel of the Third Battalion of 
York County ^Militia, David Jameson, colo- 
nel. Five days after the date of his com- 
mission, the battalion was ordered out to 
guard the frontier against hostile Indians, 
who had committed depredations in the 
AVyoming Valley, and in central and west- 
ern Pennsylvania. 

At the close of the war, Philip Albright 
returned to his family, with whom he lived 
in considerable state and was highly es- 
teemed by his fellows. In 1797, he lost his 
wife. The same year, in recognition of his 
services to his country, he was elected to 
the State Legislature from York County, 
and served tAVO years. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Albright died April 2, 1800, "a warm friend 
of his country," leaving a large estate, and 
survived by two sons and four daughters. 
One of his daughters married George Small, 
father of Philip x\. and Samuel, founders of 
the firm of P. A. & S. Small. 

SON, who was captured in the battle 
of Long Island, was a son of Robert 
McPherson, who served as a captain in 
the French and Indian war, and com- 
manded a battalion of York County 
militia in the Revolution. He was born 
near the site of Gettysburg, December 2, 
1757, and at the age of 19 aided in recruit- 

ing Albright's company, of which he became 
second lieutenant. During the hottest of 
the fighting in the battle of Long Island, 
Lieutenant McPherson fell into the hands 
of the enemy and was held a prisoner of war 
near New York cit}' for one year. After the 
war he became a prominent and influential 
citizen of the Alarsh Creek country. He 
represented York County in the ^tate 
Legislature from 1790 to 1799, except in 
1793. During the last year he served in the 
Legislature, he secured the passage of a bill 
to divide York County, and organize the 
new county of Ad^ms, which was accom- 
plished in 1800. He died at Gettysburg, 
August 2, 1832, at the age of seventy-five 
vears. Lieutenant McPherson was twice 
married, first in 1780, to Mary Garick, of 
Frederick County, Maryland, and second in 
1793, to Sara Reynolds, of Shippensburg. 
He was the father of fourteen children. 
John B. McPherson, one of his sons, was 
"forty-five years cashier of the Gettysburg 
bank, the oldest financial institution in the 
county. Hon. Edward McPherson, son of 
John B. McPherson, was born in 183 1 and 
"died in 1895. He was a representative in 
the Thirty-sixth and Thirty-seventh Con- 
gresses, and sixteen years clerk of the 
national House of Representatives. 


The First Pennsylvania Regiment was 
organized in the field at the. headquarters 
of the army at Long Island, July 11, 1776. 
]Most of the membership was composed of 
re-enlisted men who had previously served 
one year in Thompson's battalion. The 
new regiment was placed in the command 
of Col. Edward Hand, of Lancaster, with 
Benjamin Chambers, of Franklin County, as 
lieutenant-colonel, and Rev. Samuel Blair, 
chaplain. Owing to a controversy James 
Ross was not appointed major until three 
months afterward. AVhen the regiment was 
organized, the nine companies were com- 
manded respectively by Henry Miller, Mat- 
thew Smith, Robert Cluggage, James Ross, 
Charles Craig, James Grier. David Harris, 
James Parr and James Hamilton. The two 
companies which had accompanied Arnold's 
expedition to Canada had returned in time 
to join the regiment when it was organ- 



This regiment now entered upon 
Under a career of drill and discipline 
Sullivan preparing" for a contest with the 
at Long British, whi(;h was expected to 
Island. come soon after their arrival at 
Long Island. General Sulli\'an, 
under whom Thompson's battalion had 
served in front of Boston, had now returned 
from the expedition to Canada and Captain 
Miller's company from York, with the First 
Pennsylvania Regiment, was again placed in 
Sullivan's command on Long Island. Gen- 
eral Howe arrived with 25,000 troops at the 
entrance of New York harbor early in 
August, and was accompanied by his 
brother, Admiral Lord Howe, with a resist- 
less fleet. The American army under 
Washington numb'ered less than 10,000. 
General Israel Putnam commanded 5,000 
troops at Brooklyn Heights and Sullivan, 
under whom the York soldiers were serving, 
had 4.000 men guarding the roads on Long 
Island. August 27, Howe, with 20,000 
troops, attacked Sullivan. With his great 
superiority of force he was able to surround 
the Americans and take more than 1,000 
prisoners, including General Sullivan. Had 
Howe attacked the works on Brooklyn 
Heights he would probablj' have met with a 
bloody defeat; but Bunker Hill had taught 
him a lesson and he determined to besiege 
the place instead of assaulting it. When 
Washington perceived this intention he 
withdrew the army, taking it across the 
East River one dark, foggy night in such 
boats and scows as he could collect. This 
skillful retreat under the very nose of the 
enemy was a wonderful achievement. 

In the battle of Long Island Hand's regi- 
ment took a conspicuous part. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Chambers, of this regiment, in de- 
scribing the engagement wrote as follows : 
"On the morning of August 22 there were 
nine thousand troops approaching us on 
New Utrecht plains. The guard alarmed 
our small camp and we assembled at the flag 
staiif. We found our forces too small to 
attack the enemy on the plain. A detach- 
ment of the regiment under the command of 
Captain Miller, of York, followed the enemy 
with the design to decoy a portion of them 
to follow him. The remainder of our regi- 
ment was stationed along the woods near 
Captain ^lille-'s detachment, which had 
moved to a point 200 yards from the 

British. But they decided not to attack 
him. Captain JMiller then returned to the 
regiment, which moved along the enemy's 
flank. Our men now fired and killed several 
Hessians. Strong guards were maintained 
all day on the flanks of the enemy and our 
regiment and the Hessians kept up a severe 
firing with a loss of but two wounded on our 
side. We laid a few Hessians low and made 
them retreat out of Flat Bush. Our men 
went into the town and brought the goods 
out of the burning houses. 

"The enemy nearly lost their field pieces. 
A\^e could certainl}' have taken the cannon 
had it not been for some foolish person 
calling retreat. The main body of the foe 
returned to the town and when our men 
came back to camp they told of their ex- 
ploits. Their stories were doubted by some, 
which enraged our men so that a few of 
them ran and brought away several Hes- 
sians on their backs. This kind of firing by 
our riflemen and theirs continued until 2 
o'clock in the morning of the 26th, when our 
regiment was relieved by a portion of the 
Flying Camp, and we started for Fort 
Greene to get refreshment, not having lain 
down the whole of this time and almost 
dead, with fatigue. AA'e just reached the fort 
when the alarm guns were fired. A\'e were 
compelled to return to the lines, and, as 
soon as it was light, saw our men and theirs 
engaged with field pieces. 

"At last the enemy surrounded 
A our advance guard, and then a 

Spirited heavy firing continued for several 
Contest, hours. The main body that sur- 
rounded our men marched within 
thirt)^ yards of Forts Brown and Greene ; 
but when we fired they retreated with loss. 
Our men behaved as bravely as ever men 
did, but it is surprising that with the superi- 
ority of the enemy our men were not cut to 
pieces. They behaved gallantly, and there 
are but five Or six hundred missing of the 
2,500 comprising our brigade. 

"General Lord Stirling fought like a wolf 
and was taken prisoner. Colonels Miles and 
Atlee, Major Burd, Captain Peebles, Lieu- 
tenant Watt, and a great number of other 
officers are also prisoners. Colonel Piper is 
missing. From deserters we learn that the 
enemy lost Major General Grant and two 
brigadiers and many others, and five hun- 
dred killed. Our loss is chiefly in prisoners." 



Colonel Hand, in his report of the retreat 
after the battle of Long Island, said: "When 
it was determined to evacuate Long Island, 
General Mififlin, of Pennsylvania, told me 
that Washington had honored him with the 
command of the covering party and that our 
regiment ^^'as to be employed in that ser- 
vice. He then assigned us our several sta- 
tions which we were to occupy as soon as it 
was dark and pointed out Brooklyn Church 
as an alarm post to which the whole force 
was to repair and unitedly oppose the 
enemy in case they discovered our jnove- 
ments and made an attack in consequence. 
My regiment was posted in a redoubt on 
the left and in the lines on the right of the 
great road below Brooklyn Church. Cap- 
tain Henry Miller commanded in the re- 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chambers wrote: 
"The Pennsylvania troops received great 
honor by being chosen corps de reserve to 
cover the retreat. The regiments of 
Colonels Hand, Morgan, Shea and Hazlett 
were detailed for that purpose. We kept up 
camp fires with the outposts stationed until 
all the rest were over. We left the lines 
after it was fair day and then came ofY. 
Never was a greater feat of generalship 
shown than in this retreat — to bring off an 
army of twelve thousand men within sight 
of a strong enemy, supported by as strong a 
fleet as ever floated our seas. We saved all 
our baggage. General AYashington saw the 
last troop cross over." 

Writing to his wife, Captain 
Captain Miller states: "Today, August 4, 
Henry my company was reviewed by 
Miller's General Washington, but owing 
Account, to the heavy cannonading up the 
river his stay was very short." 
Again, on the 31st of the same month: "As 
our regiments were sent only as an advance 
guard to watch the movements of the 
enemy and not for the purpose of making a 
stand where they did, and as they were 
brought into action by the great spirit 
which prevailed among the Pennsylvania, 
Marjdand and lower country troops, the 
result of the battle could not be properly 
called a defeat. We forced the enemy to 
retreat three different times from their ad- 
vanced posts, and their loss was greater 
than our own. The retreat was conducted 
in such a manner as would do honor to the 

most experienced generals and army in the 
world ; for it entirely disconcerted the de- 
signs of the enemy to surround us. I had 
the honor to be in the rear guard ; the sun 
was up before I left the island. Governor's 
Island was given up yesterday. We shall 
leave New York in a few days, for this 
place is too advantageously situated for the 
enemy, and the possession of it will not 
afford them an easy access to the back 

A contemporary writer states this addi- 
tional fact: "Captain Miller, in this retreat, 
was the last man to enter the boat, and that, 
when they were pushed off and were sup- 
posed to be out of danger, a heavy fog hung 
over them. He stood up, hat in hand, and 
gave three hearty cheers. This brought on 
them a heavy volley of musketry." 

After Washington had crossed into New 
York city from Long Island, he placed his 
army on the east bank of the Hudson in the 
vicinity of White Plains. He abandoned 
everything on Manhattan Island except 
Fort AYashington. To defend this strategic 
point he sent a body of nearly two thousand 
troops in command of Colonel Robert Mc- 
Gaw, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania. This officer 
had been major of Thompson's riflemen, 
which had marched from southern Pennsyl- 
vania to Boston at the opening of the war. 
Colonel McGaw had won distinction for 
gallantry at Long Island and had merited 
the promotion he received upon the recom- 
mendation of the commander-in-chief. 
AVhile presenting a front parallel to that of 
Howe, frequent skirmishes occurred in 
which the Americans were entirely success- 

Hand's riflemen followed the 
Hand's fortunes of the army under 
Regiment AA'ashington on the east bank 
in New of the Hudson. On October 12 
York. Colonel Hand and his riflemen 

assisted by Colonel Prescott, of 
Bunker Hill fame, checked the advance of 
the British at Pell's Neck, immediately after 
they had landed from Long Island. Octo- 
ber 23 Colonel Hand attacked two hundred 
and forty Hessian chasseurs near East 
Chester and routed them. In both these 
skirmishes Captain Miller and his York 
Covmty men took a conspicuous part. 

At this juncture General Greene, with a 
small force, garrisoned Fort Lee, upon the 



Palisades on the west bank of the Hudson, 
nearly opposite Fort Washington. Sulli- 
van. Stirling and ^Morgan, who had been 
captured at the battle of Long Island in 
August, now rejoined the army after being 
exchanged. General Charles Lee arrived 
from South Carolina and was placed second 
in command of the American army around 
New York. A\'ashington had taken tip his 
headquarters at White Plains, where both 
armies were concentrating. The Americans 
were placed in four divisions commanded 
respectively by Lee, Heath, Sullivan and 
Lincoln. On October 28 Howe attacked 
Washington at \\hite Plains, where he lost 
two hundred and twenty-nine men. 

\\*ashington now moved up the river and 
soon after had live thousand of his men 
under Putnam cross to the west side of the 
Hudson into New Jersey at Hackensack. 
He sent Heath up to Peekskill with three 
thousand men to guard the entrance to the 
Highlands, and left Lee at North Castle 
with seven thousand men. The enemy 
greatly outnumbered A\'ashington at this 
time. His entire army was credited with 
nineteen thousand men, but the term of 
service of many of them had expired, so that 
his entire army did not exceed twelve 
thousand efficient men to oppose twenty- 
five thousand trained British and Hessian 
soldiers. At a council of war now held with 
his generals, W'ashington decided to retreat 
across New Jersey, but Congress desired 
that he should continue to hold Forts 
Washington and Lee. The officious inter- 
ference of Congress, an error of judgment 
on the part of Greene, and the insubordina- 
tion of Lee, occurring altogether at the 
critical moment brought about the greatest 
disaster of the war and came within an ace 
of overwhelming the American cause in 
total and irretrievable ruin. The story of 
the disaster of Fort AA'ashington, where 
York County lost at least six hundred 
officers and men, is told in the succeeding 
pages of this work in an article relating to 
the Flying Camp. 


REVOLUTION— Continued. 

The Flying Camp — York County Regi- 
ments — Battle of Fort Washington — 
Washington's Retreat and Victory at 
Trenton — Battle of Princeton. 

In June, 1776, after the British under 
General Howe had evacuated Boston 
and were about to threaten New 
York, Continental Congress issued a 
call for troops to join Washington's 
army. These troops, 10,000 in num- 
ber, were to be enlisted for a term of 
six months from the organized militia in 
Pennsylvania, ^Maryland and Delaware. 
Colonel }^Iiles' Rifle Regiment and Colonel 
Atlee's Battalion of ^Musketry, state troops 
already in the field, in all 1500 men, were to 
be accredited as part of the quota from 
Pennsyhania, which was expected to raise 
6000 men. ]\Iaryland was to furnish 3400 
and Delaware 600. This body of troops 
after enlistment and organization became 
known as the Flying Camp. By request of 
\A'ashington, his personal friend. General 
Hugh ^Mercer, a physician by profession and 
a soldier by instinct, was selected as com- 
mander with the rank of brigadier-general. 

General Mercer was a native of 
General Scotland, and in 1747, settled in 
Mercer. Franklin County, Pennsylvania, 
at the site of Mercersburg, where 
he practiced medicine among his Scotch- 
Irish neighbors. He had served with dis- 
tinction in the French and Indian war under 
Braddock, being severely wounded in the 
shoulder at Monongahela, and received a 
medal from the city of Philadelphia for his 
bravery in this expedition. In 1758, he 
commanded a regiment under General 
Forbes against the Indians at Fort Du- 
quesne. After the close of the French and 
Indian war, he practiced his profession at 
Fredericksburg, Virginia, where he became 
a close and intimate friend of Washington. 

The enlisted men of the Flying Camp 
under the act of Congress, were required to 
furnish their own arms, blankets, haversacks 
and knapsacks. ^len, unable to furnish 
their own muskets, were to be supplied with 
arms which had been made by order of the 
Assembly for the use of the militia. The 
Pennsylvania Assembly adjourned in June, 



1776, without completing arrangements for 
the organization of troops for the Flying 
Camp. The Pennsylvania Conference, 
composed of representatives from the com- 
mittees of safety in the different counties, 
met in Philadelphia during the latter part 
of June. This conference considered itself 
the only representative body in Pennsyl- 
vania and made immediate provisions for 
the enlistment of as many as possible of the 
4500 men intended for the Flying Camp. 
The conference appointed a committee of 
twelve men representing the different coun- 
ties of Pennsylvania to devise ways and 
means for raising the 4500 men, and to in- 
quire into all matters necessary for sending 
them to the army. 

In the apportionment Philadelphia cit)^ 
and county was to furnish 956 men ; Bucks 
County, 400 men; Chester County, 652; 
Berks, 666; Northampton, 346; Cumberland, 
334; Lancaster, 746; York, 400. Colonel 
Richard McAllister, the founder of Han- 
over, then in command of a battalion of 
militia, was a representati\'e from York 
County on this committee. The Pennsyl- 
vania Conference appointed Colonel James 
Smith, Dr. Benjamin Rush and John Bayard 
to prepare a draft of an address to the As- 
sociators. James Smith was then a prac- 
ticing lawyer at York and commander of a 
battalion of militia in this county. 

The address which Smith and 
A Patriotic his associates prepared is sup- 
Appeal, posed to have been written by 

this ardent patriot, who shortiv 
after signed the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. The address reads as follows : 

To the Associators of Pennsylvania : 

Gentlemen : — The only design of our meeting to- 
gether was to put an end to our own power in the 
province, by fixing upon a plan for calling a convention, 
to form a government under the authority of the people. 
But the sudden and unexpected separation of the late 
assembly, has compelled us to undertake the execution 
of a resolve of Congress, for calling forth 4500 of the 
militia of the Province, to join the militia of the neigh- 
boring colonies, to form a camp for our immediate 
protection.. We presume only to recommend the plan 
we have formed to you, trusting that in a case of so 
much consequence, your love of virtue and zeal for 
liberty will supply the want of authority delegated to 
us expressly for that purpose. 

We need not remind you that you are now furnished 
with new motives to animate and support j'our courage. 
You are now about to contend against the power of 
Great Britain, in order to displace one set of villains to 
make room for another. Your arms will not be ener- 
vated in the day of battle with the reflection, that you 
are to risk your lives or shed your blood for a British 

tyrant; or that your posterity will have your work to 
do over again. You are about to contend for perma- 
nent freedom, to be supported by a government which 
will be derived from yourselves, and which will have 
for its object, not the emolument of one man or class 
of men only, but the safety, liberty and happiness of 
every individual in the community. We call upon you, 
therefore, by the respect and obedience which are due 
to the authority of the United Colonies to concur in this 
important measure. The present campaign will probably 
decide the fate of America. It is now in your power 
to immortalize your names, by mingling your achieve- 
ments with the events of the year 1776 — a year which 
we hope will be famed in the annals of history to the 
end of time, for establishing upon a lasting foundation 
the liberties of one quarter of the globe. 

Remember the honor of our colonies is at stake. 
Should you desert the common cause at the present 
juncture, the glory you have acquired by your former 
exertions of strength and virtue, will be tarnished; and 
our friends and brethren, who are now acquiring laurels 
in the most remote parts of America, will reproach us 
and blush to own themselves natives or inhabitants of 

But there are other motives before you. Your houses, 
your fields, the legacies of your ancestors, or the dear- 
bought fruits of your own industry, and your liberty, 
now urge you to the field. These cannot plead with 
you in vain, or we might point out to you further, your 
wives, your children, your aged fathers and mothers, 
who now look up to you for aid, and hope for salvation 
in this day of calamity, only from the instrumentality 
of your swords. 

Remember the name of Pennsylvania. Think of your 
ancestors and of your posterity. 

Signed by the unanimous order of the conference, 
Thomas McKean, President. 
June 25. 1776. 

The formation of the Flying 
Elect Camp, as directed by Con- 

Brigadiers, gress, from such of the asso- 
ciated battalions as volun- 
teered for the purpose, required full organ- 
ization, and a meeting was called at Lan- 
caster, to which the militia of the state were 
directed to send representatives. This 
meeting, composed of the delegates from 
the officers and privates of the fifty-three 
battalions of Associators, convened on the 
memorable Fourth of July, 1776, for the 
purpose of choosing two brigadier-generals. 
Colonel George Ross was chosen president 
of the meeting, and Colonel David Clymer, 
secretary. Colonel Mark Burd, Colonel 
George Ross and Captain Sharp Dulaney 
were appointed judges of the election. The 
election was held and resulted in the choice 
of Daniel Roberdeau and James Ewing, the 
former having 160 votes and the latter 85. 
Upon the announcement of this result, the 
president immediatel)' declared Daniel Rob- 
erdeau commander of the First Brigade and 
James Ewing commander of the Second 

Daniel Roberdeau was a nati\'e of the 



Island of St. Christopher, and became a 
prominent merchant of Philadelphia. In 
1776 he was the colonel of a battalion of As- 
sociators. In Alay of the same year he pre- 
sided over a public meeting at Philadelphia, 
which favored the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. In that year he owned a privateer 
which captured a prize of $22,000, which 
money he turned over to the disposal of 
Congress. In 1777 he was a leading mem- 
ber of Continental Congress at York. 

James Ewing was a citizen of York 
County, residing on his plantation in Hel- 
1am township, near W'rightsville. He was 
then forty years of age. He had served as 
a lieutenant in Forbes' expedition against 
Fort Duquesne in 1758. In 1771-5 he was 
a member of the General Assembly of Penn- 
sylvania, and at the outbreak of the Revo- 
lution became a member of the Committee 
of Safety for York County. 

On July 7, 1776, the pastor of the 

A ^Moravian Church at York, made 
Local the following entry in his diary: 
Diary. "Strict orders came that all As- 

sociators of this county should 
hold themselves in readiness to march to 
the front. In the following week they left. 

"July 17 — Yorktown seems quite de- 
serted on account of the departure for the 
army of all men under fifty years of age. 
Our young men had to leave for Jersey. 
Ernst Schlosser, the three sons of Brothers 
Rothrock, Brinkman, John Seifer's eldest 
son, John Hoenrison, and, in short, the 
most of the others who are under fift}^ years 
of age, will have to march off in the next 
few days. Several of our people, because 
the town has been so emptied, have in addi- 
tion to other persons been elected as mem- 
bers of the committee ad interim, with a 
guard given them day and night, in order to 
maintain peace and quietness, and give 
security against the plots of Tories. All 
business is prostrated, all shops are closed. 
How many prayers and tears will now be 
brought before the Lord, by parents for 
their children, by children for their parents, 
by wives for their husbands. 
■ "August — Numerous bands of soldiers 
from Maryland, Virginia, etc., passed 
through the town. 

"September 4 — Our town has not re- 
mained exempt from the prevailing unrest 
'of the land. None of our communicant 

brethren ha\-e been compelled to enter the 
war, and those who were married and had 
gone to Jersey, have again returned in the 
first part of the week to their respective 
homes. The young single men of our so- 
ciety, of whom there are about ten absent, 
have been drawn into the Flying Camp. 

"In the beginning of September, some of 
those who had gone to the front from here 
returned. On the 28th of September, 1776, 
Philip Rothrock returned from a visit to his 
sons in camp near New York." 

In obedience to the call for 
The militia from Pennsylvania 

Organization, to join the Flying Camp, 
being formed in the State 
of New Jersey, five battalions of Associ- 
ators left York County in July, 1776. These 
battalions passed through Lancaster and 
Philadelphia, and then proceeded by water 
to Trenton and from thence to the head- 
quarters of the Flying Camp at Perth Am- 
boy, arriving there late in July. At this 
time, other battalions of Associators from 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey arrived at 
Perth Amboy, where General Mercer and 
his brigadiers, Ewing and Roberdeau, 
began the organization of the Flying Camp, 
by asking volunteer enlistments. 

The Convention of the State of Penn- 
sylvania, on August 12, resolved to 
add four additional battalions to the 
Flying Camp. York County being re- 
quired to furnish 515 men toward 
making out the number of 2,984, the 
amount of the four new battalions. On 
the same day. Colonel George Ross, vice- 
president of the con\-ention ; Colonel 
Thomas Matlack, of Philadelphia, and 
Colonel Henry Slagle, of York County, 
were chosen commissioners to go to the 
headquarters in New Jersey, to aid in form- 
ing the Flying Camp. Before a complete 
organization had been effected, the British 
were threatening the city of New York. 
Colonel Miles' regiment was sent to Long 
Island, and the newly organized regiments 
under Swope and McAllister, of York 
County, were sent forward for active 
operations in the field. 

After the requisite number had been en- 
listed. General Mercer issued an order, 
August 19, authorizing the return to their 
homes of the balance of the associated 
militia. This patriotic band of soldiers was 



organized shortly after the Declaration of 
Independence, when the political affairs of 
the State of Pennsylvania were controlled 
by the Provincial- Conference. 

The British army under General Howe 
was arriving on Long Island from Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, where it had gone after 
evacuating Boston. New York was in the 
hands of the Americans and a battle 
between AVashington and Howe was soon 
expected at Long Island or in the northern 
part of New Jersey. 


York County showed her loyalty to the 
cause of independence by sending more 
troops from the militia service than were 
needed for her quota for the organization 
of the Flying Camp. Two regiments had 
been formed from the York County militia. 
These commands were designated the First 
and Second Pennsylvania Regiments of the 
Flying Camp. The officers of the First 
Regiment were: Michael Swope, colonel: 
Robert Stevenson, lieutenant-colonel ; AA'il- 
liam Bailey, major. It was composed of 
eight companies with the following officers : 

First Company — 
^^ Michael Schmeiser, captain. 

Zachariah Shugart, first lieutenant. 

Andrew Robinson, second lieutenant. 

AA^illiam AA'ayne, ensign. 
Second Company — 

Gerhart Graeff, captain. 

Daniel AlcCollom, ensign. 
Third Company — 

Jacob Dritt, captain. 

John Baymiller, first lieutenant. 

Henry Clayton, second lieutenant. 

Jacob Mayer, ensign. 

Daniel Herrington, corporal. 
Fourth Company — 

Christian Stake, captain. 

Cornelius Sheriff, first lieutenant. 

Jacob Holtzinger, second lieutenant. 

Jacob Barnitz, ensign. 
Fifth Company — 

John McDonald, captain. 

AA^illiam Scott, first lieutenant. 

Robert Patton, second lieutenant. 

Ensign Howe. 
Sixth Company — 

John Ewing, captain. 

AA'illiam Pavsley, ensign. 

Se\'enth Company — 

AA'illiam Nelson, captain. 

James Todd, first lieutenant. 

Joseph AA'elsh, second lieutenanr. 

Ensign Nesbit. 
Eighth Company — 

Joshua AA'illiams, captain. 

Jacob Brinkerhofif, ensign. 
Soon after the organization, Colonel 
Swope's regiment, with other commands of 
Ewing's brigade, was ordered to garrison 
Fort Constitution, afterward named Fort 
Lee, situated on the west side of the Hud- 
son River, above New York City. October 
8, it contained }^y commissioned officers and 
staff, 44 non-commissioned officers, and 359 
rank and file. 

The Second Pennsylvania 
McAllister's Regiment of the Flying 
Regiment. Camp, commanded by Colo- 
nel Richard McAllister, was 
composed of eight companies. Six of 
these companies were recruited out of the 
battalions of militia which had marched to 
New Jersey from the various parts of York 
County, and the territory now embraced in 
Adams County. These companies were 
commanded respectively by Captains Nich- 
olas Bittinger, AA'illiam McCarter, AV. Mc- 
Coskey, John Laird, Samuel AA'ilson and 
John Paxton. Two companies from Bucks 
County belonged to this regiment. Mc- 
Allister's regiment was at Perth Amboy 
October 8, 1776, when it contained 41 com- 
missioned officers and staff, 43 non- 
commissioned officers and 438 rank and file. 
David Kennedy was lieutenant-colonel and 
John Clark, who had previously served with 
the first troops that left York for Boston, 
was commissioned major. 

Meantime, the battle of Long Island had 
been fought and the British had taken 
possession of New York City, which then 
covered the lower part of Manhattan 
Island. AA'ashington retreated to the 
northern part of the island and then placed 
his army on both sides of the Hudson. The 
enemy held Long Island and Staten Island. 
General Mercer, commanding the Flying 
Camp, despatched McAllister's regiment to 
attack a body of the enemy on Staten 
Island, October 14. Major John Clark, in 
his autobiography, says, "In the expedition 
to Staten Island, I took a stand of British 
colors of the Twenty-third Light Dragoons. « 


I conimaiuletl tlie acKance of 500 riflemen 
and tlie lirst Hessians taken, or rather 
W'aldeckers, fell into m\- hands, about 

Soon after the Staten Island affair, Mc- 
Allister's regiment joined tho brigade at 
Fort Lee. At this time, Major Clark 
selected 200 men from the" regiment to 
guard the passes opposite White Plains. He 
fortified his position and laid plans to pre- 
vent detachments of Howe's army from 
passing up the Hudson. 

\\"ith the same detachment on November 
9, at the command of General Greene, 
Clark was sent to Dobb's Ferry on the east 
side of the Hudson to protect the landing 
of a quantity of flour for the American 
army. A\'ith his accustomed sagacity, 
Clark reconnoitered the situation and dis- 
covered that the enemy to the number of 
about 5,000 w^ere encamped nearby. He 
reported that in his opinion, the British 
were laying plans to cross the river and 
attack Fort AVashington, situated in the 
northern part of Manhattan Island. 

Swope's regiment was stationed on the 
New Jersey side of the Hudson to guard the 
passes of that stream during the battle of 
White Plains, fought on the eastern side of 
the river, below Yonkers. Colonel Robert 
McGaw, of Cumberland County, Pennsyl- 
vania, with twelve hundred men, was placed 
in charge of the defenses of Fort AVashing- 
ton. General Greene, struck with the im- 
portance of protecting McGaw, suggested 
to the commander-in-chief that a portion of 
the Flying Camp, then stationed on the 
western side of the Hudson, should cross 
over and assist Colonel McGaw in defend- 
ing Fort AA'ashington. This fort was con- 
sidered a strategic point, and General Howe 
determined to attack it with a large force. 
It was one of the most hazardous positions 
defended by Pennsylvania troops during the 
entire period of the Revolution. Ten 
thousand regulars would have been re- 
quired to successfully perform this. duty. 


In accordance with Greene's suggestion. 
Colonel Swope's and a part of McAllister's 
regiments crossed the Hitdson and joined 
the Pennsylvania troops under McGaw in 
defending the fort. November 15, the 
adjutant-general. Colonel Patterson, of the 

British army, was sent to summon the gar- 
rison in Fort AA'ashington to surrender, 
threatening at the same time, to "put it to 
tlae sword," if the demand was rejected. At 
this juiTcture, Colonel McGaw sent the fol- 
lowing communication to General Greene: 

"A flag- of truce came out just now from 
King's Bridge. The adjutant-general was 
at the head of it. I sent down Colonel 
Swope. The adjutant-general would hardly 
give him two hours for an alternative be- 
tween surrendering at discretion or every 
man being put to the sword. He waits an 
answer. I shall send him a proper one. 
You will, I dare say, do what is best. AA'e 
are determined to defend the post or 

In response to this communication. Colo- 
nel Swope, of York, deli\-ered the following 
'remarkable document to the adjutant-' 
general of the British army in accordance 
with the directions of Colonel McGaw: 

"If I rightly understand the purport of 
your message from General Howe, com- 
municated to Colonel Swope, this post is to 
be immediately surrendered or the garrison 
put to the sword. I rather think it is a 
mistake than a settled resolution in General. 
Howe to act a part so unworthy of himself 
and the British nation. 

"But give me leave to assure his E.xcel- 
lency that, actuated by the most glorious 
cause of mankind ever fought in, I am de- 
termined to defend this post to the very last 

After learning the determination of these 
gallant Pennsylvania troops, the British 
decided to make the attack, the following 
da}^ Early in the morning on the six- 
teenth, the enemy's batteries from the east- 
ern side of the Harlem River, opened fire 
upon the commands of Colonel Baxter, of 
Maryland, and Colonel Lambert Cadwalla- 
der. of Pennsylvania, who held positions 
without the fort. 

jMeantime General AA'ashington, with 
Greene, Mercer and Putnam, crossed the 
river from Fort Lee to the vicinity of Fort 
AA'ashington, and examined the position of 
the American troops and reconnoitered the 
movements of the enemy. These officers 
then returned to Fort Lee, entrusting the 
entire command to Colonel ]\IcGaw and his 
heroic band of patriots. 

About noon. General Kn}-phausen, com- 


manding the Hessian forces, began a 
furious attack upon the north. Simulta- 
neous attacks were made by Lord Percy on 
the south, and Colonel Sterling and General 
Matthews crossed the Harlem river and 
moved on the fort from the east. The 
British drove the x\mericans from their out- 
posts and soon stood victorious upon the 
hills overlooking the open fields around 
Fort Washington. Near the fort severe 
skirmishes took place and many of the Hes- 
sian pursuers were slain. The defense was 
gallant, but pike, ball and bayonet, used by 
five thousand men, overpowered the weak- 
ened patriots and they were nearly all 
gathered within the ramparts of the fort, 
but not until about men had fallen 
into the hands of the eneni}'. 

General Howe sent an order 
■ Surrender for surrender. Perceiving fur- 
of the Fort, ther resistance to be in vain, 

McGaw complied and at half 
past one the British tiag was waving where 
the Continental banner had been unfurled 
defiantly in the morning. The entire gar- 
rison, numbering" nearly three thousand 
men, surrendered. Washington, standing 
on the ramparts of Fort Lee with tears in 
his eyes, saw the garrison in Fort Washing- 
ton meet its doom, and the American ban- 
ner torn down and replaced by the flag of 

When the attack on Fort AA'ashington 
began about noon of November i6, 1776, 
Swope's regiment was defending one of the 
outposts some distance to the southeast. 
His position was assaulted by the Hessian 
troops under Knyphausen. Swope's men 
fought gallantly, but being overpowered by 
the enemy, were compelled to fall back. In 
this movement they were flanked by the 
British and Hessians and forced to sur- 
render. Almost the entire command of 400 
York County soldiers became prisoners of 
war. Jacob Barnitz, a young man of 
eighteen and a color bearer of the regiment, 
was wounded in both legs by rifle balls and 
was left on the field. The attack of the 
enemy was violent and impetuous, and as 
they approached the outposts of the fort, 
the Hessians lost heavily in killed and 
wounded from the well directed aim of the 
Pennsylvania soldiers. Colonel McGaw's 
loss in killed and wounded did not exceed 
100 men, but almost his entire command of 

3,000 men were compelled to surrender to 
the enemy. 

Colonel Thomas Hartley, in 1779, wrote a 
letter stating that nearly 400 York County 
troops, largeh^ from Swope's regiment and 
partly from McAllister's regiment, had been 
held in New York and Long Island as 
prisoners of war; that at the expiration of 
three years only fifty of the entire number 
captured had returned to their homes. He 
made this assertion to prove the loyalty of 
the people west of the Susquehanna to the 
cause of American indepeiidence, and fur- 
ther claimed that York County had fur- 
nished more troops for the army than any 
other county in the thirteen original states. 

These American soldiers were placed in 
jails, churches, sugar houses and other 
buildings, and held as prisoners of war for 
many months, some of them not having 
been released until three years after their 
capture. The stories of their treatment if 
they could be given in detail would rank 
among the most sorrowful ever recorded on 
the pages of history. They were given an 
insufficient amount of food, were obliged to 
remain in cold, damp rooms without any 
privileges of outdoor exercise. Many of 
these gallant sons of Pennsylvania died 
from the horrors of British prison pens and 
others contracted diseases from which they 
never recovered. The treatment of the 
British and Hessian prisoners by the 
Americans formed no comparison to the 
treatment of Colonel McGaw's men while 
they were held prisoners in New York and 
Long Island. 

Owing to the absence of official doc- 
uments, a complete record of the casualties 
in Swope's and McAllister's regiments can- 
not be given. From various sources of in- 
formation the following facts have been ob- 
tained. Among the prisoners captured at 
Fort AA'ashington were Colonel Michael 
Swope, jNIajor William Bailey, Surgeon 
Humphrey Fullerton, Captains Michael 
Smyser, Jacob Drift, Christian Stake, John 
^McDonald, Henry Clayton, Henry Lewis, 
Lieutenants Zachariah Shugart, Jacob 
Holtzinger, Andrew Robinson, Benjamin 
Davis, Lieutenants Clayton, Robert Patton, 
Joseph AVelsh, Ensigns Jacob Barnitz, 
Jacob Morgan and Jacob Meyer, and Adju- 
tant Howe. 

The following soldiers served in Captain 



Stake's company and were taken prisoners 
at Fort Washington: Sergeant Peter 
Haack, Sergeant John Dicks, Sergeant 
Henry Counsehnan, Corporal John Adluni, 
David Parker, James Dobbins, Hugh Dob- 
bins, Henry Miller, John Stroman, Christian 
Stroman, James Berr}-, Joseph Bay, Henry 
HofF, Joseph Updegraft", Daniel Miller, 
Jacob Hake, Jr., Henry Shultz, William 
Lukens, the mulatto cook. 

The casualties of McAllister's regiment 
as far as could be obtained were the follow- 
ing: Captain McCarter, shot through the 
breast and died five days after the battle ; 
Captain Nicholas Bittinger, the ancestor of 
the Bittinger family in York and Adams 
Counties, held as a prisoner of war in New 
York for several months ; Lieutenants W' il- 
liam Young, Joseph Alorrison, Hugh King, 
Shannon, Henry Bittinger, Ensign Thomas 
Reed, Private Charles AVilson. 

The battle of Fort Washington was 
fought largely by troops from west of the 
Susquehanna River from York and Cumber- 
land Counties. About one-half of the en- 
listed men of Swope's and McAllister's 
regiments were Pennsylvania Germans who 
fought gallantly before they would sur- 
render the fort to the enemy. 

Captains William Scott, John Jamison, 
Thomas Campbell, Lieutenants Samuel 
Lindsay, Henry Bear, Joseph Morrison, 
John Irwin, John Findlay, Godfre}^ Myers, 
Matthew Bennett, of York County, were 
prisoners of war on Long Island, in August, 

Among the soldiers belonging to Swope's 
regiment, who died in New York prisons, 
were Sergeants Peter Haack and John 
Hicks ; Privates Hugh Dobbins, Henry 
Hofif, David Parker. They were buried in 
Trinity churchyard. New York, in the same 
hallowed ground in which were interred the 
remains of Alexander Hamilton and many 
other noted Revolutionary soldiers. Cap- 
tain McCarter, of McAllister's regiment, 
who was mortally wounded at Fort W^ash- 
ington, was also buried in Trinity grave- 

Benjamin Davis, who served as lieuten- 
ant in Captain Smyser's company, was held 
as a prisoner of war during the whole period 
of the Revolution. He owned a fulling mill 
in York County and 186 acres of land. In 
]\Iarch, 1781, he applied to the State of 

Pennsylvania for a pension, stating in his 
application that his property had been sold 
to support his family during his long im- 

John McKinley, of Lower Chanceford 
Township, the great-grandfather of William 
McKinley, served in the Sixth Battalion, 
York Count}' Militia, and marched with it 
to join the Flying Camp in 1776. 

Gerhardt Graefif, a captain in the Flying- 
Camp, was taken a prisoner at Fort W'ash- 
ington, and died in captivity. Almost his 
entire company became prisoners of war at 
Fort Washington. 

manded one of the divisions of the Flying 
Camp, was born in Manor Township, Lan- 
caster County, August 3, 1736, of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry. His father emigrated from 
the north of Ireland to Pennsylvania in 
1734. The son received a good education. 
During Forbes' expedition to Fort Du- 
quesne in the French and Indian war, he 
entered the provincial service and was com- 
missioned lieutenant. May 10, 1758. He 
was a member of the General Assembly of 
Pennsylvania from 1771 to 1775. At the 
outbreak of the Revolution, he was on the 
Committee of Safety for York County, and 
on July 4, 1776, was chosen one of the two 
brigadier-generals of I he Pennsylvania As- 
sociators, out of which was formed the Fly- 
ing Camp. He commanded one of the di- 
visions of the Flying Camp in the campaign 
around New York City during the year 
1776. In December of that year, when 
General W^ashington had planned an attack 
on the British at Trenton, General Ewing, 
in command of the Pennsylvania Militia, 
was stationed at a point a few miles below 
Trenton. It was intended that his division 
of troops should cross the Delaware to New 
Jersey on Christmas night at the same time 
that Washington was crossing a short 
distance above Trenton, where the stream 
was narrow. Owing to the width of the 
river below Trenton and the floating ice, 
Ewing was unable to cross until after the 
victory had been won at Trenton. General 
Sullivan commanded a bod}^ of men near 
Bristol, and was also unable to cross the 
river on account of the obstructions. Some 
days later, both these commands took posi- 
tion in New Jersey and acted as a reserve at 
the battle of Princeton. After the war, 


General Ewing returned to his plantation in 
Hellam Township, about two miles west of 
Wrightsville, where he followed the occu- 
pation of a farmer. His character, promi- 
nence and ability won him recognition at 
the hands of his fellow-citizens and he was 
frequently called upon to serve in high posi- 
tions of honor and trust. Immediately after 
the war, he was chosen a member of the Su- 
preme Executive Council of Pennsylvania 
and was vice-president of the Council, a 
position corresponding to lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, from November 7, 1782, to Novem- 
ber 6, 1784. The following year he served 
as a member of the State Legislature, where 
he was active in securing the passage of 
laws relating to the material development 
of the state. The state constitution of 1790 
made the Legislature composed of two 
bodies. Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, and from 1795 to 1799, General Ewing 
represented York County in the State Sen- 
ate, being one of its most influential mem- 
bers. It was during this period that he be- 
came deeply interested in the navigation of 
the Susquehanna River, advocating the con- 
struction of a channel in the centre of the 
river through the Conewago rapids and ex- 
tending from Harrisburg to the Chesapeake 
Bay. When the subject of making Wright's 
Ferry the seat of the United States govern- 
ment was discussed in Congress, he was one 
of the strong supporters for the selection of 
the west bank of the Susquehanna, at 
Wrightsville, as the place for the national 
government. General Ewing was a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church and was 
prominent in the councils of that church. 
He had served as vice-president of the State 
during the same period that John Dickinson 
was president, and when Dickinson College 
was founded at Carlisle, in 1783, he was 
chosen a member of the first board of 
trustees of that institution. He died at his 
home in Hellam Township, near the Sus- 
quehanna River, March i, 1806, at the age 
of seventv years. 

the heroes of Fort AVashington, was born at 
York about 1748, son of George Swope, one 
of the commissioners who laid off York 
County in 1749. Early in life. Colonel 
Swope became one of the most influential 
citizens in the town and county of York. 
He was elected coroner in 1761 : appointed 

justice of the peace in 1764; judge of the 
Orphan's Court in 1767; member of the 
Pennsylvania Assembly from 1768 until the 
opening of the Revolution; member of the 
committee of correspondence at York in 
1775, and the same year was chosen major 
of the First Battalion of York County 
Militia, commanded by James Smith, signer 
of the Declaration of Independence. AATien 
Smith became a member of Continental 
Congress, Major Swope was elected colonel 
of the First Battalion of militia. In the 
summer of 1776, when the militia was called 
into active service, Colonel Swope took his 
battalion to Perth Amboy, New Jersey, and 
at this place recruited from the different 
battalions of York County militia, the First 
Pennsylvania Regiment in the Flying Camp, 
whose history is given in the preceding 
pages. At the battle of Fort Washington, 
November 16, 1776, Colonel Swope was 
taken prisoner, together with most of his 
regiment. He, with other officers, was con- 
fined in New York City until June 23, 1778, 
when he was released on parole. His parole 
was cancelled by special order on the 8th of 
August, 1779, and he was required to return 
to prison in New York, where he remained, 
with some fellow-prisoners, until he was 
finally exchanged for a British officer of the 
same rank, at Elizabeth, New Jersey, Janu- 
ary 26, 1781. He then returned to York on 
foot, a distance of 170 miles. Before leaving 
prison, the American agent, Lewis Pintard, 
gave him a large supply of Continental 
money to pay his expenses on his return 
home. At this time. Continental money had 
become almost ^•alueless, and Colonel 
Swope exchanged seventy-five dollars in 
currency for one in specie. 

Colonel Swope first began business at 
York as an inn-keeper. In 1783, two years 
after his return to York from his experience 
as a prisoner, he was assessed as a store- 
keeper, with merchandise and real estate 
valued at 1,119 pounds. He then had a 
family of five persons. He owned silver- 
ware to the amount of thirtj^-two pounds, a 
pleasure carriage and one slave. In 1782, 
he was commissioned one of the court 
justices for York County. 

Colonel Swope was first married to Anna 
Maria, daughter of Casper Spangler, of 
York. She died sometime before the 
Revolution, In 1777, when Continental 



Congress came to York, liis second wife, 
Eva Swope, rented their home, on the south 
side of \Vest Market Street, to John Han- 
cock, president of Congress. This building 
was then known as the President's house, 
and the rental of it for the use of the presi- 
dent of Congress, was paid by. the govern- 
ment. Hancock resigned his office two 
months after Congress came to York and 
returned to Massachusetts. In February, 
1778, when Baron Steuben came to York to 
of?^er his services as an officer in the Ameri- 
can army, he occupied the Swope residence 
for a period of three weeks, with his retinue 
of attendants. Meantime, he received the 
commission of a major-general and pro- 
ceeded to Valley Forge to drill the army in 
the tactics he had learned while serving 
under Frederick the Great of Prussia. In 
1785, Colonel Swope removed from York to 
Alexandria, Virginia. After going there, 
his business affairs at York were conducted 
by Colonel Thomas Hartley, who disposed 
of his real estate. 

who commanded the Second Pennsylvania 
Regiment of York County Troops in the 
Flying Camp, was born in 1724. He was a 
son of Archibald McAllister, who came to 
America from Scotland in 1732. About 
1745 Richard McAllister moved from Cum- 
berland County to the site of Hanover, 
where he purchased a large tract of 
land. On February 23, 1748, he married 
Mary, daughter of Colonel Matthew Dill, 
who commanded a regiment in the French 
and Indian war, and whose son, Matthew, 
founded Dillsburg. In 1750, Richard McAl- 
lister was a candidate for sheriff of York 
County against Colonel Hance Hamilton, 
who resided near the site of Gettysburg. 
The election was so close that it was con- 
tested and the Provincial authorities com- 
missioned Hance Hamilton. In 1763, Rich- 
ard McAllister founded the town of Han- 
over and soon became one of the leading 
citizens of York County. In 1775 he was 
elected a member of the Committee of Ob- 
servation and Safety for York County. In 
June of the same year he served as a repre- 
sentative in the Provincial Conference, 
which met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadel- 
phia, and in January, 1776, he was a mem- 
ber of the same body. In 1775 he was com- 
missioned colonel of the Fourth Battalion 

of York County Militia. During the fall of 
the same year, he received the commission 
as colonel of a battalion of Minute Men, 
formed out of the militia of York County. 
In July, 1776, when Congress issued a call 
for ten thousand troops. Colonel McAllister 
marched with his battalion through Lan- 
caster and Philadelphia to Perth Amboy, N. 
J. At this point, when the Flying Camp 
was organized under the command of Gen- 
eral Hugh Mercer, he was chosen colonel of 
the Second Pennsyh-ania Regiment. Colo- 
nel McAllister commanded his regiment in 
the campaign around New York City and 
led the expedition to Staten Island. 
Later in the campaign. Colonel McAl- 
lister's regiment took part in the defense 
of Fort Washington, where he lost a large 
number of troops who became prisoners of 
war, including two of his captains. In the 
campaign of 1776 he was present with his 
regiment, under General James Ewing, sta- 
tioned below Trenton on the Pennsylvania 
side of the Delaware, when A\'ashington 
captured the Hessians in Trenton on 
Christmas night. 

After the expiration of his term of service 
in the Fl3'ing Camp, in 1777, McAllister re- 
turned to his home at Hanover, and in 
March of this year he was elected by the 
General Assembly of Pennsylvania, county 
lieutenant. This office required him to see 
that the six different battalions of the 
militia in York County, which then included 
Adams, were drilled and disciplined ready 
for service in the field when they were re- 
quired to defend their state against the in- 
vasion of the British foe. He was successful 
in this position and on several occasions 
issued calls for certain classes of the militia 
to march from York County to the army 
under Washington. During the years 
1783-84-85-86, he was a member of the Su- 
pi-eme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 
which, under the state constitution of 1776 
to 1790, was the Executive Body in the state 
government. During the years that he 
served in this body, he was also a member 
of the Council of Censors, whose duty was 
to look after the interests of the confiscated 
estates of Pennsylvania Tories. Colonel 
McAllister early in lif2 took a prominent 
part in the legal aft'airs of York County. He 
was commissioned justice of the peace and 
justice for the court of common pleas in 


March, 1771. He was a member of the first 
State Constitutional Convention in the year 
1776, and on February 17, 1784, became 
presiding justice of tlie York County 
Courts. On June 30, 1791, he entertained 
President Washington for a few hours 
while passing through the town of Hanover 
on his way to Philadelphia. He died at 
Hanover at four o'clock in the evening, Oc- 
tober 7, 1795. His remains were first buried 
in the graveyard, belonging" to Emanuel's 
Reformed Church of Hanover, of which he 
was a member and one of the leading con- 
tributors during its early history. About 
1870 his remains were removed to Mount 
Olivet Cemetery in the suburbs of Hanover, 
where the}' now lie, and on every succeed- 
ing Memorial day commemorative services 
are held at this tomb by the. Grand Army 
Post of Hanover. Colonel McAllister had 
eleven children. His eldest son, Abdiel, 
commanded a company in Colonel Irvine's 
regiment in the first expedition to Canada, 
in 1775, and during the campaign around 
Philadelphia took part in the battle of 
Brandywine, when this regiment was com- 
manded by Colonel David Grier, of York. 
Archibald McAllister, another son, born 
1756, commanded a company in the battle 
of Germantown, in 1777, and also in the 
engagement at Monmouth, New Jersey, in 
1778. Matthew, a younger son, born 1758, 
became first United States district attorney 
of Georgia, judge of the Superior Court of 
the state and mayor of Savannah during the 
war of 1812. 

Colonel Julian jMcAllister, one of his sons, 
commanded a regiment in the Union army 
during the Civil war. 

early days written Schmeiser, who served 
with distinction as a captain in the Flying 
Camp, was born in 1740, a few miles west of 
York. His father, Matthias Smyser, came 
from Germany in 1731, at the age of sixteen, 
and when he reached his manhood, became 
one of the earliest settlers of York County 
in the vicinity of Spring Grove. Michael 
Smyser was thirty-five j^ears old when the 
Revolution opened. He became one of the 
early citizens west of the Susquehanna to 
organize in opposition to the English gov- 
ernment. He was one of a committee of 
twelve from York County, who raised 
money in 1775 to send to the inhabitants of 

Boston, when the port of that city was 
closed by the British. He joined the Conti- 
nental army as a captain in Colonel Michael 
Swope's regiment of York County Volun- 
teers, and was captured by the enemy in the 
engagement at Fort AVashington, north of 
New York City, on the i6th of November, 
1776. Several months of distressing im- 
prisonment followed, during which time he 
was unremitting in his efforts to alleviate 
the sufferings of others, and bold and ani- 
mated in the advocacy of his country's 
cause. After his release and return home, 
he was elected a member of the House of 
Representatives of Pennsylvania from York 
County, and from that time to 1790 was 
seven times re-elected to the same position. 
From 1790 to 1795 he represented his 
county in the State Senate, being the first 
person from York County to fill that posi- 
tion under the State Constitution of 1790. 
Here his warm attachment to our political 
institutions enabled him to act with honor 
to himself and his constituents. After the 
war, he turned his attention to agricultural 
pursuits, and kept a tavern a short distance 
west of York. He died in the j^ear 1810, 
and his remains are interred near those of 
his father in the graveyard of the First 
Lutheran Church of York. He left three 
sons and four daughters, viz. : Peter, Eliza- 
beth, Sarah, Jacob, Mary, Michael, Susan. 

twice wounded at the battle of Fort Wash- 
ington, was born at York in the year 1758. 
He was the son of John George Carl Bar- 
nitz, who came to this country about 1745, 
first settled in Baltimore and later removed 
to York. Jacob Barnitz grew to manhood 
in his native town and was a boy seventeen 
years old when the first troops left York to 
join the American army at Boston. The 
same year, he enlisted and trained with the 
First Battalion of York County Militia 
under Colonel James Smith, in Captain 
Stake's company. He marched with the 
battalion to New Jersey, and when Colonel 
Michael Swope organized the first regiment 
of Pennsylvania troops for the Flying 
Camp, Jacob Barnitz, at the age of eighteen, 
was made ensign or flag bearer, a com- 
missioned officer with the rank of second 
lieutenant. He participated in the cam- 
paign around New York City, and carried 
the flag of his regiment when the British 



attacked Fort \\'ashington, November i6,- 
1776. Colonel Swope was commanding the 
outposts, and when he was driven back by 
the approaching Hessians in large numbers, 
the flag bearer was the target of the enemy's 
balls. \Miile falling back toward the fortifi- 
cations, Ensign Barnitz was wounded in 
both legs and left on the field. He lay 
where he fell during the night and the next 
day, as the evening" closed, a Hessian 
soldier approached and was about to bay- 
onet him, when a British ofiicer, who 
chanced to be near, took pity on him and 
thus saved his life. He was then thrown on 
a wagon and taken a prisoner of war to 
New York City, then in the hands of the 
British, where he remained fifteen months, 
suffering from his wounds. After his ex- 
change, 1778, he was removed on a wagon 
from New York City to his home in York. 
He partialh' recovered from his wounds, 
and in 1785 was appointed register and re- 
corder of York County, serving continu- 
ously until 1824, a period of thirty-five 
years. Ensign Barnitz, a name which he 
always retained, carried a British ball, re- 
ceived at the attack on Fort Washington, 
for thirty years, but the shattered bone 
lengthened, and in 1806 he was compelled 
to undergo amputation. 

Soon after the war he married Mary, 
daughter of Archibald McLean, the noted 
surveyor of York. Their eldest son was 
Charles A. Barnitz, an eminent lawyer and 
member of the Twenty-third Congress. 
Their second son w^as Lieutenant Jacob 
Barnitz, a gallant soldier of the war of 1812, 
who bore a distinguished part as an officer 
of volunteers at the battle of North Point. 
Ensign Barnitz died April 16, 1828, at the 
age of seventy years, and his remains now 
rest at a spot north of Zion Lutheran 
Church of York. Shortly after the close of 
the war, under act of Congress passed June 
7, 1785, he became a pensioner and received 
up to the time of his death, the sum of $3,- 
500, as a reward for his valor and patriotism 
during the Revolution. 

The British ball which he carried in his 
leg from 1776 to 1808 was presented to the 
Historical Society of York County in 1904 
by his granddaughter, ^Nliss Catharine 

a company in Swope"s Regiment. He was 

made prisoner at Fort ^^'ashington, and 
underwent a long captivity. A\'hen the lines 
of the American forces were attacked by the 
enemy, previous to the capture of the fort. 
Captain Dritt, with a party of men chiefly 
from his own company, was ordered in ad- 
vance to oppose the landing of the British, 
who came in boats across Harlem Creek, 
below King's Bridge. He defended his 
position with great bravery, until, having 
lost a number of his men, and being nearly 
surrounded by the Hessians on one side and 
the British troops on the other, he retreated 
into the fort with difBculty and was there 
captured with the garrison. After the war 
Captain Dritt resided on his plantation in 
Lower Windsor Township, near the site of 
East Prospect and was engaged in trans- 
porting goods and merchandise in a large 
ark down the Susquehanna River from its 
upper waters. He kept up an interest in 
military matters and about 1800 was com- 
missioned a brigadier-general in the state 
militia. He lost his life by an unfortunate 
accident. On December 19, 1817, he 
crossed the Susquehanna to the site of Lit- 
tle AA'ashington and went to the Marietta 
Bank, where he obtained five hundred dol- 
lars. When he returned to the east side of 
the ferry, where his son Colonel John Dritt 
resided, the latter advised him not to cross 
the river to his home. He was accompanied 
by a young man named Griffith. They en- 
tered a boat which was capsized in the mid- 
dle of the stream when it came in contact 
with a large cake of ice. Many fruitless 
efTorts were made to recover the dead body 
of the old soldier. Three months after the 
drowning, the body of General Dritt was 
found lying along the banks of the Chesa- 
peake Bay near the mouth of the Susque- 
hanna, by some colored slaves. The body 
was identified by some silver shoe buckles 
which he wore. His remains were interred 
near the site where they were found. 

who commanded a company in McAllister's 
regiment, and was captured by the British 
at Fort Washington, was born in Alsace, 
Germany. He came to America with his 
parents and became one of the earliest set- 
tlers in the vicinity of Hanover. In 1743, 
he was one of the cou.icil for St. Matthew's 
Church, at Hanover, the second Lutheran 
congregation west of the Susquehanna. 


During a vacancy in the pulpit, Nicholas 
Bittinger was elected to conduct religious 
services and read sermons. At the opening 
of the Revolution, he was chosen a member 
of the Committee of Safety for York 
Count3% and in 1776, upon the organization 
of the Flying Camp, took command of a 
company of sixty-eiglit men. He fell into 
the hands of the enemy at Fort Washington 
and was held a prisoner of war for nearly 
fifteen months. When Captain Bittinger 
entered the service, he had reached the age 
of fifty years. His eldest daughter was the 
wife of John Clark, major of McAllister's 
regiment. Captain Bittinger accumulated 
considerable property, and at the time of his 
death, in 1804, owned several farms a short 
distance north of Hanover. His remains 
were buried in the Lutheran graveyard at 
Abbottstown. Several of his descendants, 
including the late Rev. Joseph Bittinger and 
Rev. John Ouiney Bittinger. became promi- 
nent clergymen in the Presbyterian Church. 
Hon. John W. Bittenger, president judge of 
the York County courts, and Dr. Joseph R. 
Bittinger, of Hanover, are also descendants 
of Captain Bittinger. 


At the disaster of Fort Washington on 
Noveml^er 16, 1776, York County suffered 
its severest loss during the entire Revolu- 
tion. Nearly six hundred ofBcers and men 
had fallen into the hands of the British and 
were held as pris.oners of war in New York 
city and at different posts on Long Island. 
The First Pennsylvania Regiment, in which 
Captain Henry Miller's York County troops 
served, had lost heavily at Long Island in 
August of the same year. Captain Philip 
Albright's compau}' had its ranks depleted 
in the same battle. 

The defeats of the American army around 
New York city compelled Washington to 
retreat across New Jersey in order to defend 
the city of Philadelphia. Congress became 
terrified and removed to Baltimore. The 
term of enlistment of many of the troops 
from Pennsylvania and New Jersey had ex- 
pired, and desertions depleted the ranks of 
nearly all the regiments then in the field. 
General Charles Lee, second in command, 
became disaffected toward the commander- 
in-chief. AA"ashino-ton fell back toward 

Philadelphia through Princeton and Tren- 
ton, and on December 8 crossed the Dela- 
ware with his entire army, numbering about 
four thousand men of the eleven thousand 
or more that crossed with him to New York 
cit)' after the battle of Long Island. 

Meantime Schuyler and Gates came down 
from Central New York with seven regi- 
ments and prepared to join him at head- 
quarters at Newtown, Bucks County, a few 
miles southwest of Trenton. General Israel 
Putnam was put in charge of the defenses at 
Philadelphia. At this time in the war, 
both General Howe and Lord Cornwallis, 
who had followed Washington to Trenton, 
decided to return to New York, leaving a 
small detachment of troops near Trenton, 
believing that they could resist any attacks 
of the shattered army under W^ashington. 

During this dark period of the war 
AA'ashington began to show the military 
genius and self command that soon made 
him loom up as the dominating personality 
of the Revolution. He planned a bold at- 
tack to capture the advanced posts of the 
British at Trenton. The militia of the ad- 
joining states was called out in the dead of 
winter and in a few weeks he had a con- 
siderable army stationed at different posts 
from a point eight miles above Trenton on 
the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware and 
down that stream to Germantown, a short 
distance from Philadelphia. He placed Sul- 
livan at Bristol, a few miles above Philadel- 
phia, with two thousand troops, formerly 
commanded by General Charles Lee, who 
had been captured at Elizabeth while on the 
retreat across New Jersey. 

General James Ewing, of York 
General County, was put in command 
Ewing's of a brigade of Pennsylvania 
Command, and New Jersey militia with 
instructions from Washington 
to guard the Delaware from the ferry at 
Trenton down the river to a point opposite 
Bordentown, New Jersey. His force was 
composed of the remnants of the Flying 
Camp, which met such heavy losses at Long 
Island and Fort Washington, and recruits 
from the Pennsylvania and New Jersey 
militia. Colonel Richard McAllister, com- 
manding the second regiment of the Flying 
Camp, was present with Ewing, but having 
lost heavily in former engagements, now 
had fewer than three hundred men. 


\\'ashington took position nine miles alcove 
Trenton at a point where the river is net 
more than one hundred yards wide. The 
British army was stationed in a semi-circle 
with Trenton as the center of the arc. 

Washington's plan was, by a sudden at- 
tack, to overwhelm the British center at 
Trenton, and thus force the army to retreat 
to New York. The Delaw-are was to be 
crossed in three divisions. The right w'ing, 
2,000 men, under Gates, was to attack 
Count Donop at Burlington ; Ewing, with 
the centre, was to cross a short distance be- 
low Trenton: while \\'ashington himself, 
with the left wing, was to cross nine miles 
above, and march down upon Trenton from 
the north. On Christmas day all was ready, 
but the beginning of the enterprise was not 
auspicious. Gates, who preferred to go and 
intrigue with Congress, succeeded in beg- 
ging off, and started for Baltimore. Cad- 
walader, who took his place, tried hard to 
get his men and artillery across the river, 
but was baffled by the huge masses of float- 
ing ice, and reluctantly gave up the attempt. 
Ewing was so discouraged that he did not 
even trj- to cross, and both officers took it 
for granted that Washington must be foiled 
in like manner. 

But Washington was desper- 
Crossing ately in earnest, and although 
the at sunset, just as he had 

Delaware, reached his crossing-place, he 
was informed by a special mes- 
senger of the failure of Ewing and Cad- 
walader, he determined to go on and make 
the attack wath the 2,500 men whom he had 
with him. The great blocks of ice, borne 
swiftly along by the powerful current, 
made the passage extremely dangerous, but 
Glover, with his skilful fishermen of [Marble- 
head, succeeded in ferrying the little army 
across without the loss of a man or a gun. 
Alore than ten hours w^ere consumed in the 
passage, and then there was a march of nine 
miles to be made in a blinding storm of 
snow and sleet. They pushed rapidly on in 
two columns, led by Greene and Sullivan 
respectively, drove in the enemy's pickets 
at the point of the bayonet, and entered the 
town by dift'erent roads soon after sunrise. 
Washington's guns w-ere at once planted so 
as to sweep the streets, and after Colonel 
Rahl and seventeen of his men had been 
slain, the whole bodv of Hessians, 1,000 in 

number, surrendered. Of the Americans, 
two were frozen to death on the march and 
two were killed in action. 

Captain Henry Miller's company 

York of the First Pennsylvania Reg- 
Troops iment performed valiant services 
at in this engagement. Most of 

Trenton, the men in his command at 
Trenton were the same soldiers 
who had enlisted at York in 1775, and 
marched with him to Boston. In referring 
to the battle. Captain Miller wrote: 

"General Stephen's brigade entered Tren- 
ton and routed the Hessians. \\'ashington 
desired our regiment to lead the advance, 
which w^e did. We formed in line of battle 
and advanced within sixty yards of the 
Hessians without firing a gun. We moved 
with such rapidity and determination that 
we struck them with terror. The enemy 
grounded their arms, and 919 Hessians sur- 
rendered as prisoners of war." 

Colonel Miles' Pennsylvania Regiment 
served in Lord Stirling's brigade and took 
a leading part at the battle of Trenton in 
the capture of the Hessians. Miles him- 
self was a prisoner of war in the hands of 
the British, having been captured at the 
battle of Long Island, nearh' five months 
before. In this engagement the regiment 
was commanded by Major ^^'illiams. Cap- 
tain Albright's company of York County 
troops had lost thirty men, or about half its 
number in killed, wounded and prisoners at 
Long Island. The company entered the 
battle of Trenton with about thirty men, 
who rendered valiant services in winning 
this famous victory. 

The new's of the victory at Trenton 
spread rapidly. To convince the people of 
what had happened, the Hessian prisoners 
were marched through the streets of Phila- 
delphia, and the Hessian flag was sent to 
Baltimore to hang in the hall of Congress. 
The spirits of the people rose -with a great 
rebound, the cloud of depression which 
rested upon the country was lifted, and hope 
was again felt everywhere. Troops came in 
from Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and the 
New England men agreed to stay after the 
expiration of their term of enlistment. 

The blow struck by ^^'ashington fell 
heavily upon the British. Even with their 
powerful army they could not aft'ord to lose 
a thousand men at a stroke, nor would their 

I go 


prestige bear such sudden disaster. It was 
clear even to the mind of Howe that the 
American Revolution was not over, and that 
AVashington and his victorious army held 
the field. Trenton must be redeemed and 
thev determined to finish the business at 

After the defeat of the British 
Movement at Trenton through the mili- 

After tary genius of Washington, 

Trenton. Lord Cornwallis, who had 
gone to Xew York, returned 
in haste to attack the American army. . De- 
cember 30, A\'ashington recrossed the Dela- 
ware and took post at Trenton, where he 
was joined by Cadwalader and Mifflin, each 
with 1,800 Pennsylvania militia. On the 
morning of January 2 Cornwallis advanced 
with 8,000 men upon Trenton, but his 
march was slow. 

As soon as General Washington had pro- 
cured definite information of the strength 
and position of the enemy, he sent out, 
under Brigadier-General de Fermoy, a de- 
tachment, consisting of his own brigade. 
Colonel Edward Hand's Pennsylvania rifle- 
men, and Colonel Hausegger's German bat- 
talion, with Colonel Charles Scott's Vir- 
ginia Continental regiment, and two guns 
of Captain Forrest's battery, to harass the 
enemy in every possible way, and to dispute 
their advance as much as they were able, 
that the impending battle might be post- 
poned at least twenty-four hours. The 
Americans posted themselves a short dis- 
tance south of the village of Maidenhead, 
with pickets up to the town. The British 
outposts were about a mile north of Maiden- 
head. This was the state of affairs on the 
old Princeton road at the close of Xew 
Year's day. 

About this time the commanders of regi- 
ments on the advance lines of the American 
army, finding that General de Fermoy had 
returned to Trenton in a very questionable 
manner, determined to resist the advance of 
the king's troops without further orders. 
About 10 o'clock the first alarm gun was 
fired by the American videttes. Colonel 
Hand, with his splendid regiment of rifle- 
men, Captain Henry Miller, of his command 
being in charge of the skirmish line, con- 
ducted the retreat to Trenton. Every 
place which would even for a few moments 
give shelter from which to take a steady 

aim was taken advantage of and every part 
of the road was disputed in all possible 
ways. On one occasion so stubborn a stand 
was made by the Americans that a check 
was produced on the British advance. They 
actualljr fell back and the patriots carefully 
pressed toward them. At last, however, the 
American detachment was driven to the 
woods running along the south bank of the 
Shabbakonk Creek, and here a severe skir- 
mish commenced about one o'clock, and a 
deadly tire was made upon the British 
forces, throwing" them into considerable 

For a long time this conflict 

On to was maintained with great 
Princeton, vigor, and the battalions of 
von Linsingen and Block, a 
part of Colonel von Donop's original com- 
mand, were drawn up in order of battle, ex- 
pecting then and there to enter upon the 
general engagement which they anticipated. 
For fully three hours the gallant little 
American force, somewhat protected by the 
dense woods, harassed the red coats and 
continually thinned their ranks with 
musketry and artillery. Right well did 
they carry out the plan of General Wash- 
ington to consume the entire day, if pos- 
sible, in skirmishing and so retard the 
enemy's advance toward Trenton. Wash- 
ington was well pleased with the all-day 
running fight and begged the little party 
not to yield until compelled to. A battery 
of British artillery was soon afterward 
brought into position and made every effort 
to dislodge the American advance force. 
X'early an hour was consumed before the 
patriot band, unable any longer to sustain 
themselves, began again to yield the ground 
and retreat down the Brunswick road into 
the village, having captured some twenty- 
live or thirty men during the day. In this 
way the last determined stand beyond the , 
town was taken, and as the Americans be- 
gan to retreat, the advance party of the 
British, about 1,500 men, again commenced 
their march in column, the main army being 
still a considerable distance in the rear. 

The advance guard of Cornwallis's army 
pressed on, driving the Americans before 
them, and killing some, until they arrived 
at the narrow stone bridge which spanned, 
with but one arch, the Assunpink Creek. 
The detachment of skirmishers which all 



day long had hovered before aud around 
the enemy, hastily, although with difficult}', 
crowded through the passage at the bridge 
scarcely sixteen feet wide. Colonel Hitch- 
cock's brigade protected these weary men 
as they filed across the bridge and took their 
places with the main army. General Wash- 
ington himself was on horseback at one end 
of the bridge, overlooking the scene, and 
by his personal exposure inspired his men 
with courage and confidence. It was then 
after 5 o'clock and rapidly growing dark. 
With the light made by the firing, it could 
be seen that the advance of the king's 
troops, entirely unaware of the force now 
before them, had pressed on until they were 
within range of the American guns. They 
made three fruitless efforts to reach and 
cross the bridge, but found further pursuit 
checked, and were unable to endure the con- 
centrated fire. The effect of this fire upon 
them was extremely uncertain, and doubt- 
less will never be correctly ascertained, as 
no mention of loss is made in any British 
official reports. The loss of the American 
army was small. 


Many of the British officers urged a gen- 
eral and renewed attack, but the short win- 
ter day was drawing to a close, and Corn- 
wallis decided to wait until morning. 
\\'ashington had spent the day with stub- 
born skirmishing, for he had no intention of 
fighting a pitched battle with his poorly 
armed men, inferior in numbers to their 
well-equipped opponents, who had received 
reinforcements in the morning. He had 
checked the enemy all day, and he had now 
the night in which to act, so he set the men 
to work on entrenchments, lighted camp 
fires along the river bank, and having con- 
vinced Cornwallis that he would be there 
in the morning, he marched off with his 
whole arm}' "at midnight, leaving his fires 
burning. By daybreak he was near Prince- 
ton, and moved with the main army straight 
for the town, while Mercer was detached 
with three hundred men to destroy the 
bridge which gave the most direct connec- 
tion with Cornwallis. 

Toward sunrise, as the British detach- 
ment was coming down the road from 
Princeton to Trenton, in obedience to Corn- 
wallis' order, its van, under Colonel ^law- 

hood, met the foremost column of Ameri- 
cans approaching, under General fiercer. 
As he caught sight of the Americans, Maw- 
hood thought that the}' must be a party of 
fugitives, and hastened to intercept them; 
but he was soon undeceived. 

The Americans attacked with 

General vigor, and a sharp fight was 

Mercer sustained, with varying for- 

Wounded. tunes, until Alercer was pierced 

by a bayonet, and his men 
began to fall back in some confusion. Just 
at this critical moment AVashington came 
galloping upon the field and rallied the 
troops, and as the entire forces on both 
sides had now come up, the fight became 
general. In a few minutes the British were 
routed and their line cut in two; one half 
fleeing toward Trenton, the other half to- 
ward New Brunswick. There was little 
slaughter, as the whole fight did not occupy 
more than twenty minutes. The British 
lost about 200 in killed and wounded, with 
300 prisoners, and their cannon ; the Ameri- 
can loss was less than 100. The brave 
General ]\Iercer died ot his wound. 


REVOLUTION— Continued. 

Campaign of 1777 — Battles of Brandy wine, 
Paoli and Germantown — Washington at 
Valley Forge — York Troops at Mon- 
mouth — Major John Clark — General 
Henry Miller — Hartley's Regiment — 
Colonel Thomas Hartley. 

The American army had been defeated at 
Long Island and Fort \\'ashington, but 
through the masterly skill of the com- 
mander-in-chief, it had won decisive victo- 
ries at Trenton and Princeton. In a brief 
campaign of three weeks. AA'ashington had 
rallied the fragments of a defeated and 
broken army, taken nearly two thousand 
prisoners and recovered the state of New 
Jersey. By sheer force of military capacity, 
he had completely turned the tide of popu- 
lar feeling. His army began to grow by the 
accession of fresh recruits. Newly organ- 
ized regiments of the Pennsylvania line 
joined him in the early part of 1777. These 



included the regiments commanded b}^ 
Colonel Thomas Hartley and Colonel David 
Grier, of York. Although the term of en- 
listment of the Flying Camp had expired, 
their places were taken by regiments of 
Pennsylvania militia, including several com- 
mands from west of the Suscjuehanna River. 
Flushed with his victories at Trenton and 
Princeton, AYashington defied the British, 
and spent the winter in camp at Morris- 
town, near New York City, then held by the 
British. E\'en Frederick the Great, of 
Prussia, the most famous military chieftain 
of the day, in a public declaration, com- 
mended Washington for his successful cam- 
paign in New Jersey. 

Although at one time threat- 
Enlarging ened by the invading foe, Phila- 
the Army, delphia still remained in the 

hands of the Americans. From 
December 20, 1776, to February 2"/, 1777, 
Congress held its sessions in Baltimore. 
In consequence of the alarming state of af- 
fairs on December 2j. three days after as- 
sembling in a three-story building on the 
southwest corner of Baltimore and Sharp 
Streets, in that city. Congress invested 
Washington for six months with extraor- 
dinar}' powers. It audiorized him to raise 
and officer sixteen additional battalions of 
infantry, three thousand light horse, three 
regiments of artillery and a corps of engi- 
neers, to appoint and remove oflicers under 
the rank of brigadier-general, and take, at 
a fair compensation, any private propertj^ 
needed for the maintenance of the army. 

The British army under Howe remained 
in New York City durmg the winter, while 
Washington continued at Morristown. 
Early in June, Howe laid his plans for an- 
other campaign across New Jersey with the 
ultimate purpose of capturing Philadelphia. 
He left New York City with 18,000 men and 
plenty of boats to cross the Delaware if he 
reached that stream. AYashington, with 
8,000 men, left his winter encampment at 
Morristown and planted his arm}^ at Mid- 
dlebrook, ten miles from New Brunswick. 
A campaign of eighteen days ensued, con- 
sisting of wily marches and counter- 
marches, the result of which showed that 
AA^ashington's advantage of position could 
not be wrested from him. Howe being too 
prudent to attack AA'ashington, abandoned 
his plan and returned to New York. 

Early in the same year Gen- 
Howe eral Burgoyne, with an army 
Approaches of 10,000 British and Hes- 
Philadelphia. sians, was ordered to de- 
scend the Hudson to New 
York and thus separate New England from 
the other states and divide the country in 
twain. AA'ashington at first believed that 
Howe would go to the assistance of Bur- 
goyne, but early in July, leaving 7,000 
troops under Sir Henry Clinton in New 
York, Howe's army of 18,000 men em- 
barked in 228 vessels and put to sea. Just 
before sailing he wrote a letter to Burgoyne, 
stating that his destination was Boston and 
artfully contrived that the letter should fall 
into AYashington's hands. But the Ameri- 
can general, believing that he was going 
southward, placed Putnam in the Highlands 
with 4,000 men, and with the balance of the 
arm)^, moved toward Philadelphia, which 
he anticipated that Howe had determined to 
capture. July 3, the British army was 
sighted off the capes of Delaware. Fearing 
that the river was carefully guarded, Howe 
moved his fleet up the Chesapeake, and 
after a sail of 400 miles, arrived at the head 
of Elk River, near Elkton, Maryland, Au- 
gust 25. On hearing this news, AA^ashing- 
ton advanced to AYilmington, Delaware. 
Immediatel}^ after landing, Howe issued a 
proclamation of amnesty, but few of the 
Americans sympathized enough with the 
British to give them much assistance. 


Meantime AA^ashington's forces were in- 
creased by the arrival of 3,000 troops from 
Pennsylvania and adjoining states. He 
now determined to oft'er battle, although he 
had only 11,000 men to contend with 
Howe's 18,000 trained soldiers. Brandy- 
wine Creek was in the line of march from 
Howe's position to Philadelphia. Wash- 
ington placed his army at Chad's Ford, the 
leading crossing place of this stream. It 
was here the battle took place September 
II, 1777, resulting in a loss of 1,000 Ameri- 
can soldiers in killed, wounded and cap- 
tured. The British loss exceeded that num- 

In the battle of Brandywine, AA'ashington 
placed the center of his army just behind 
Chad's Ford and across the road. In front 
of this center, he planted Proctor's artillery, 



which was supported by a division of Penn- 
sylvania troops under General Anthony 
Wayne. Colonel Hartley, of York, had 
command of the first brigade in this 
division. Colonel Edward Hand, of Lan- 
caster, having been promoted to the rank of 
brigadier-general, the First Pennsylvania 
Line, formerly Hand's regiment, was com- 
manded by Colonel James Chambers, of 
Cumberland, later Franklin County. This 
regiment had in line at Brandywine many 
of the same York County troops who had 
fought under Captain Henry Miller at Long- 
Island, Trenton and Princeton, Miller 
having been promoted to the rank of major. 
James Matson succeeded to the command 
of the company. Michael Simpson, of York 
County, was captain of another company of 
this regiment. The Seventh Pennsylvania 
regiment, commanded by Colonel David 
Grier, served in Wayne's brigade. It con- 
tained a large number of York County 

Lewis Bush served as major of Hartley's 
regiment, and some of its captains at 
Brandywine were Benjamin Stoddard, Evan 
Edwards, George Ross, Archibald McAl- 
lister, Robert Hoopes and James Kenn)^ 
Captain McAllister was a son of Richard 
McAllister, of Hanover, who had com- 
manded the First Regiment of the Flying 
Camp. Some of the lieutenants of Hart- 
ley's regiment in this battle were Andrew 
Walker, Joseph Davis, Isaac Sweeny, Henry 
Carberry, James Dill, James Lemon, Martin 
Eichelberger and William Lemon. Of this 
list, Dill, Walker and Eichelberger were 
from York County. At daybreak of Sep- 
tember II, General Knyphausen, with 7,000 
troops, drove in the advance of Wayne's 
division, across the Brandywine at Chad's 
Ford. General Armstrong, commanding 
the Pennsylvania militia, occupied the ex- 
treme left of Washington's army, and was 
stationed on cliffs, a short distance south 
of Wayne's position. General Greene, upon 
whose stafif Major Clark, of York, was then 
serving, commanded the reserves in support 
of General AYayne's division. The right 
wing of the American army, stretching two 
miles up the Brandywine, was commanded 
by General Sullivan. Lord Cornwallis, with 
the left of the British army, crossed the 
Brandywine in the afternoon a short dis- 
tance up the stream and came in on Sulli- 

van's right flank, when a terrible conflict 
ensued. The artillery of both armies 
opened with terrible effect, and the conflict 
became general and severely contested. Sul- 
livan was slowly pushed back, being over- 
powered by the large British force, and De- 
borre's brigade, stationed below him, broke 
and fled in confusion. The brigades under 
Lord Sterling and General Conway stood 
firm. Meantime, Sullivan and Lafayette, 
unable to rally the fugitives, went to the as- 
sistance of Sterling and Conway. 

The youthful Lafayette, whom 
Lafayette Congress had just commis- 
Wounded. sioned a brigadier-general, now 
received his first baptism of 
fire. In order to act more efficiently, he dis- 
mounted, and while fighting in the line, was 
wounded in the leg. At this juncture. Gen- 
eral Washington, with the brigades of 
Greene, Weedon and Muhlenberg, hastened 
to strengthen General Sullivan, but they did 
not arrive in time to prevent the retreat. 
By a skillful movement, Greene opened his 
ranks and received the fugitives and covered 
their retreat, checking the advance and kept 
the enemy at bay until dark. 

Late in the afternoon. General Knyp- 
hausen crossed the Brandywine at Chad's 
Ford and made a violent attack upon 
Wayne's division. Wayne held his position 
gallantly and with his Pennsylvania troops 
dealt a terrible blow upon the enemy. Hear- 
ing of the defeat of the right wing, his gal- 
lant Pennsylvanians who had fought so 
bravely, were ordered by the commanding 
general to retreat. In order to protect his 
men, Wayne left the artillery in the hands 
of the enemy and fell back to Greene, who 
protected him from a rout. The militia 
under the command of General Armstrong, 
being posted about two miles below Chad's 
Ford, had no opportunity of engaging the 
enemy. During the succeeding night, the 
defeated forces of General Washington re- 
treated to Chester and on the following day 
to Germantown, where they went into 

William Russel, of York County, 

Ensign residing at Abbottstown, lost a 
William leg by a cannon ball in the battle 

Russel. of Brandywine. In this engage- 
ment he was the ensign for the 
Third Pennsylvania regiment, and in 1779 
Colonel Henry Miller and Major John Clark 



requested the State of Pennsylvania to 
grant Ensign Russel a certificate due to his 
merit, and a pension because he behaved as 
a good and dutiful soldier, and his wound 
prevented him from receiving promotion. 
Ensign Russel had served as a private in the 
first company that left York for Boston, 
July, 1775- 


The battle of Paoli, memorable in the 
annals of history, was one of the most im- 
portant engagements of the Revolution, in 
which York County troops participated. It 
ended in the defeat of the Pennsylvania 
troops under General Wayne, owing to the 
superior force of the British. In this bat- 
tle the troops from west of the Susquehanna 
suffered almost as severely as those from 
the same region who fought so bravel}^ in 
the battle of Fort Washington, which took 
place in November of the previous year. 
The Seventh Pennsylvania regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel David Grier, of York, 
took a very prominent part in this battle. 
In the Seventh Regiment were the York 
County companies of Captain John Mc- 
Dowell and Captain William Alexander. 
The former had succeeded Captain Moses 
McClean after he became a prisoner of war 
in the first Canadian campaign, and the lat- 
ter succeeded Captain David Grier, when 
he was promoted to the rank of major, in 
October, 1776. 

The First Pennsyl\'ania regiment, which, 
under Colonel William Thompson, of Car- 
lisle, had won a brilliant record in front of 
Boston, in 1775, and under Colonel Edward 
Hand, of Lancaster, at Long Island, Tren- 
ton and Princeton, was commanded by 
Colonel James Chambers, of Cumberland 
County, in the battles of Paoli and German- 
town. In this regiment were the York 
County volunteers who had marched to 
Boston under "Captain Michael Doudel in 
the summer of 1775, and later fought with 
gallantry under Captain Henry Miller at 
Long Island, AVhite Plains, Trenton and 
Princeton. The company was now in com- 
mand of Captain James Matson. Captain 
Miller had been promoted to the rank of 
major in the same regiment. 

After the battle of Brandywine on Sep- 
tember II, Washington's army fell back to 
Chester and from thence marched to Phila- 

delphia to defend that city from the ad- 
vancing British under Howe. On Septem- 
ber 16, Wayne's division of Pennsylvania 
troops met a force of the British at the 
Warren tavern, twenty-three miles south- 
west of Philadelphia. The American troops 
began the engagement with an impetuosity 
characteristic of their commander, but a 
heavy shower coming up prevented a con- 
tinuance of the engagement. 

AA'ashington now sent AVayne, 

A with 1,500 men and four pieces of 

Night cannon, to annoy the rear of the 
Attack. British forces and attempt to cut 
off their baggage train. General 
Smallwood, with eleven hundred and fifty 
Maryland militia, and Colonel Gist, from 
the same state, with seven hundred men, 
were ordered to unite their forces with 
AVayne and act under his direction. After 
a secret march Wayne, with his Pennsyl- 
vania troops, occupied a secluded spot about 
three miles southwest of the enemy's line. 
Howe, hearing of this movement for the 
purpose of cutting off his wagon train, sent 
General Grey with a considerable force to 
surprise AA^ayne and drive him from his 

"At nine P. M., September 20," says 
General A'Vayne, " a farmer living near, in- 
formed me before Colonels Hartley, Brod- 
head and Temple, that the enemy intended 
to attack me that night. I sent out videttes 
to patrol all the roads leading to the 
enemy's camp." 

One of the videttes returned and notified 
the general that the enemy was approach- 
ing. General AA'ayne rfow commanded all 
his troops to form, having previously or- 
dered them to lie on their arms, ready for 
any emergency. Then selecting the First 
Pennsylvania and the light infantry, he 
formed them on the right toward which the 
attacking party was approaching. He re- 
mained with this force, but owing to in- 
feriority of numbers, was unable to contend 
with the impetuous charge of the British, 
who were ordered to use only bayonets and 
give no quarters. 

At this point in the attack, 

A Colonel Humpton, commanding 

Bayonet one of the regiments to the left. 

Charge. failed to promptly obey AA^ayne's 

orders. This delay proved fatal 

and the brunt of the battle fell upon the 



Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment, tinder 
Colonel David drier. Htnnpton's regiment 
now fell back in confusion, the Maryland 
militia failed to appear. The British troops 
rushed on the Americans with great im- 
petuosity, and obeying the commands of 
their superior officers, forced the Pennsyl- 
vania troops back at the point of the bay- 
onet. The cry for quarters was unheeded. 
The British bayonet now did its work with 
savage ferocity. Wayne had been outnum- 
bered and defeated. The morning sun 
looked down from clear skies on a scene of 
butchery, probably unparalleled in Ameri- 
can history. 

The American loss was not less than 
three hundred in killed and wounded, many 
of whom were from west of the Susqite- 
hanna. About seventy became prisoners of 
war. Colonel David Grier, of York, com- 
manding the Seventh Pennsylvania, who 
was conspicuous for his gallantry in this 
battle, was twice pierced by a British 

The news of the disaster, known as the 
"Massacre at Paoli," brought sadness and 
sorrow to many homes in York and Cum- 
berland Counties. In a letter from Wayne 
to General Washington, written the day 
after the battle, he says, "I must in justice 
to Colonels Hartley, Humpton, Brodhead, 
Grier, Butler, Hubley and indeed every field 
and other officer, inform your excellency 
that I derived every assistance possible from 
those gentlemen on this occasion." 

Colonel David Grier, who com- 
Colonel manded the Seventh Pennsyl- 
David vania Regiment at Brandywine 
Grier. and Paoh. had a brilliant military 
career during the Revolution. He 
was the son of ^^'illiam Grier, one of the 
earliest of the Scotch-Irish settlers who 
took up lands in the Manor of Maske, near 
the site of Gettysburg, and was born there 
in 1742. He received a classical education 
and during his early manhood removed to 
York, where he entered upon the study of 
law with James Smith, who became one of 
the signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. He was admitted to the bar in 1771, 
and began the practice of his profession at 
York. During the French and Indian war 
he joined a military company which 
marched against the Indians on the frontier 
of Pennsylvania. At the opening of the 

Revolution he Ijecame an ardent patriot. In 
the fall of 1775 he recruited a company of 
sixty men from York County, which was 
assigned to the Sixth Pennsylvania bat- 
talion. This battalion, under command of 
Colonel William Irvine, took a prominent 
part in the expedition to Canada. It was 
present and suffered a considerable loss in 
the battle of Three Rivers. For his gal- 
lantry in action and his military capacity, 
Captain Grier was promoted major of the 
battalion, October, 1776. He returned with 
his command to Carlisle. Later he was as- 
signed to command the Seventh Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment, with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. When the British approached 
Philadelphia, his regiment was placed in 
Wayne's brigade, and with it Colonel Grier 
took a conspicuous part in the battle of 
Brandywine. At the battle of Paoli, as 
stated above, his regiment was engaged in 
the hardest fighting. While leading his 
regiment, endeavoring to repel the British 
assault, he was twice bayoneted, receiving 
wounds from which he never recovered. 
This disabled him for further militar}' ser- 
vice in the field. After recovering from his 
wound he was appointed to take charge of 
the post at York, where he rendered efficient 
service in the quartermaster's department. 
After the war, he practiced law at York and 
became one of the leading" citizens west of 
the Susqirehanna. He was elected to the 
General Assembly in 1783, served as a dele- 
gate to the Convention to ratify the Federal 
Constitution in 1787, and was chosen by the 
Constitutionalists one of the first presi- 
dential electors. Colonel Grier died at- 
York, June 3, 1790. 


After the battle of Brandywine, A\'ash- 
ington retreated toward Philadelphia and 
encamped near Germantown, now the 
northern part of the city. Although he 
had suffered a serious defeat at Brandywine 
on September 11, and the division of Penn- 
sylvania troops under Wayne, had been 
routed at Paoli nine days later, the com- 
mander-in-chief was undismayed. W'ash- 
ington's reserve power now asserted itself 
in a masterh' way. Before leaving Phila- 
delphia, Continental Congress had again 
clothed him with extraordinary powers 
which he used with discretionar}^ eft'ect. In 



obedience to his request, measures were 
adopted to increase the army. Continental 
troops serving on distant stations were 
summoned to his assistance and the mihtia 
from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland 
and adjoining states were called out. 

Howe, following in pursuit of the Ameri- 
can army, took possession of Philadelphia 
immediately after it was evacuated. Antic- 
ipating the approach of the enemy. Con- 
gress had adjourned on the 23rd of Septem- 
ber to meet at Lancaster on the 27th. Still 
fearing the danger of an approaching 
enemy, after holding one day's session . at 
Lancaster, Congress adjourned to York, 
where it remained nine months, holding its 
first session September 30th. Meantime 
Howe's army had taken possession of Phil- 
adelphia and part of his forces encamped at 
Germantown, ten miles north of Independ- 
ence Hall. Admiral Howe, commanding 
the enemy's fleet which had brought the 
British army to the head of the Chesapeake, 
before the battle of Brandywine, now de- 
scended that bay and moved up the Dela- 
ware to capture the force below Philadel- 

Another battle was now imminent near 
Philadelphia, and the commanding generals 
for several succeeding days were engaged 
in manouvering their armies to obtain an 
advantageous position. After holding a 
conference with his generals, A\'ashington 
determined to attack the camp at German- 
town. The morning of October, 4 was de- 
cided upon as the time for the attack. 

The main part of the American 
Plan of army was encamped fourteen 
Attack, miles northwest of the enemy. 
On the evening of October 3rd, 
AVashington took up the line of march to- 
ward Germantown, moving in person with 
the divisions under Sullivan and AVayne. 
The Continental troops of York count)^ 
were serving under Wayne. On account of 
the roads being rough, the advance of the 
American army did not reach the outposts 
of the enemy until sunrise, and the alarm 
was quickly given to the British camp. Ac- 
cording to the plan of battle, Conway's 
brigade of Sullivan's division moved on the 
right flank and General Armstrong with 
1000 Pennsylvania militia, moved on the ex- 
treme right of the American line for the 
purpose of attacking the British left, over- 

powering it and coming in on his rear. The 
York county militia served in this command. 
The divisions under Greene and Stephen 
flanked by the brigade of McDougal, formed 
the left of the American line for the purpose 
of attacking the British right. The New 
Jersey and Maryland militia moved on the 
extreme left of the Americans, with the pur- 
pose of turning the right of the British line 
and coming in on the rear. The other bri- 
gades under Stirling were held in reserve. 

The battle opened by Conway's brigade 
of Sullivan's division attacking the enemy's 
picket line. This movement having been 
already anticipated, was quickly reinforced. 
Sullivan's entire division moved forward 
and captured the enemj^'s baggage and 
camp equipment. The Continental troops 
rmder Greene and the Pennsylvania militia 
under Armstrong failed to appear at the 
time expected. AA^ayne's division was or- 
dered to move toward the British left. 

AA'ashington ordered a concentrated at- 
tack of all his forces in line of battle. 

Although the British regiments 
Drove were hnng behind entrenchments 

the and stone walls, the forces under 
British A'Vayne and Sullivan, the centre of 
Back, the American line, moved forward 
with impetuosity and drove the 
British regulars back to the main force at 
Germantown. While retreating, the Brit- 
ish took advantage of every dwelling house 
or other building as a defensive fortress to 
fire upon the advancing American troops. 
One of these buildings, used with disastrous 
eft'ect, was the large stone mansion of Ben- 
jamin Chew, then chief justice of Pennsyl- 
vania. Six companies of the 40th British 
regiment under command of Colonel Mus- 
grave, threw themselves into this building, 
barricaded the doors and lower windows 
and opened a murderous fire on the Ameri- 
can troops from the roof and upper win- 
dows. After leaving a regiment to guard 
this house. General Wayne pressed onward 
and with Sullivan continued the pursuit a 
mile further through the streets of German- 
town, while the reserve under Stirling fol- 
lowed. In this onward movement, Wayne 
used the bayonet in driving back the British, 
in retaliation for the massacre at Paoli. 
Conway on the flank, and A'Vashington, with 
Nash's and MaxAvell's brigades, bore down 
after Sullivan, and would have made the day 



fatal to the British, had not Colonel Mus- 
grave stationed himself in the Chew man- 
sion. At this place \\'ashington halted with 
his reserve and called upon ]\Iusg"rave to 
surrender, which he declined to do. The 
British opened fire upon Maxwell's brigade, 
causing considerable loss of life. The delay 
brought about by this affair gave Howe in 
Germantown an opportunity to reform his 
lines, and after a battle which lasted in all 
two hours, he defeated the American army. 
The British loss in this battle was 13 officers 
and 58 men killed, 55 officers and 395 men 
wounded. The American loss was 30 offi- 
cers and 122 men killed, 117 officers and 404 
men wounded, and about 50 officers and 350 
men taken prisoners. 

The cause of this defeat is attrib- 
Cause of uted to the use of the Chew house 
Defeat. as a fortification, and the con- 
fusion which arose between the 
divisions of Stephen and Wayne. Owing 
to a dense fog and the incapacity of Stephen, 
his brigade fired upon Wayne, mistaking his 
troops for the enemy. This blunder ruined 
the battle and gave the victory to the Brit- 
ish forces. 

The defeat of Washington at German- 
to\^•n when it was hoped he would win a 
victory, was a sad misfortune, to the cause 
of American Independence. If he had de- 
feated the enemy as he had done at Trenton 
and Princeton, the war might soon have 
been brought to a close. 

Congress at York, eagerly awaited the 
result of this battle. The gloom and de- 
spondency which pervaded this body and 
the entire thirteen states was removed after 
hearing of the surrender of Burgoyne and 
his entire army of 6000 men at Saratoga, on 
October 19. two weeks after the defeat at 


After the battle of Germanto\\'n, AA'ash- 
ington _ kept himself thoroughly informed 
concerning the movement of the enemy in 
and about Philadelphia. Colonel John 
Clark, of York, who had served with dis- 
tinction in the Flying Camp, and later as an 
aide on the staff of General Greene, now 
acted as chief of scouts for AVashington, 
frequently bringing the commander-in-chief 

important information. The weather had 
already become severe. During the latter 
part of November, Washington moved with 
his little army to the village of White 
Marsh, situated in one of the beautiful val- 
le3'S of Montgomery count)-, sixteen miles 
northwest of Philadelphia. After holding 
a council with his subordinate officers, he 
determined to go into winter quarters at 
this place, unless the danger of the situation 
required him to find a better location. 

Continental Congress was now in session 
at York, pervaded by the gloom and de- 
spondency which had spread throughout the 
country. AVhile Congress awaited with 
eager interest the success of the campaign 
of Gates against Burgoyne, who was then 
attempting to come down the Hudson, cut 
the country in twain and join the British in 
New York, this body also looked with hope 
and expectation to the important future for 
the army under Washington and the defence 
of the forts in the hands of the Americans 
below Philadelphia. 

On December 3, the British 

The army, encouraged by its success 

Affair at at Brandywine and German- 
Chestnut town, moved out from Philadel- 

Hill. phia. fifteen thousand strong, to 
again attack the American 
forces. General James Irvine's brigade of 
600 Pennsylvania militia, in which the bat- 
talion from York county served, was or- 
dered to the left of the American line in the 
vicinity of Chestnut Hill. Irvine engaged 
the enemy and a lively skirmish ensued. 
His militia bi'oke ranks at the first fire, ow- 
ing to the superiority of the enemy's num- 
ber. In this engagement which lasted but a 
short time, the British lost twelve in killed 
and wounded. Among the wounded was 
Sir James Murray, a young officer serving 
in a regiment of light infantry. AA'hile at- 
tempting to rally his troops. General Irvine 
had a horse shot under him, lost three fin- 
gers by a bullet, and received severe bruises 
in the head in falling from his horse to the 
ground. Irvine was captured with five of 
his men who were wounded. He was held 
a prisoner of war in Philadelphia and New- 
York until June i, 1781. From 1782 to 
1793 he was major general of the Pennsyl- 
vania militia, vice-president of Penns^dvania 
and one of the first trustees of Dickinson 


There was no further collision 
The between the armies until De- 

Skirmish cember 7, when Morgan's Penn- 
at White sylvania and Virginia riflemen 
Marsh. were ordered forward on the 

right. They were supported by 
^^'ebb's Continental regiment and Potter's 
brigade of Pennsylvania militia. Colonel 
James Thompson from York County, with 
a battalion of nearly 300 men formed a 
part of Potter's brigade in this engage- 
ment. Colonel David Jameson, with a 
battalion of about 150 men, was also 
present. Morgan originally opposed the 
advance of the enemy commanded by 
Lord Cornwallis. Four British" officers 
and three men fell before the unerring 
aim of the riflemen. A\'ebb's regulars 
and the Pennsylvania militia vmder Cad- 
wallader, Reed and Potter, took a posi- 
tion in a woods forming the left of the 
American line. Here they offered a stub- 
born resistance for a short time. When the 
British advanced in solid column, the militia 
opened a severe fire after which the Ameri- 
can line broke and fell back in disorder. At 
this time in the fight. General Joseph Reed, 
who afterward served as president of Penn- 
sylvania, was entreated by the militia to 
rally them for action. AVhile attempting to 
do this, his horse was shot under him, and 
he narrowly escaped capture. Meanwhile, 
Washington with his headquarters at White 
Marsh, was preparing for a general engage- 
ment. The severity of winter had now ar- 
rived and the British retraced their steps to 
Philadelphia. AVashington was surprised 
at Howe's prompt retrogade, for the British 
officers had boasted that they were going to 
"drive Mr. Washington over the Blue 

On December 10, a grand foraging party 
of 3000 men, lead by Cornwallis, came up 
the Schuylkill and attacked Potter's brigade 
of 2000 Pennsylvania militia. Three regi- 
ments of this brigade behaved gallantly in a 
sharp contest with the enemy, but were 
driven across the river by a superior force. 
In this engagement the casualties were few. 
After destroying several buildings and ob- 
taining booty, the British returned to Phil- 
adelphia, December 16. 

On September 6, 1777. five days .before 
the battle of Brandywine, Colonel James 
Thompson reported in his battalion of York 

County militia, then stationed at Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, under General James Potter, 
I major, 4 companies, 4 captains, 4 lieuten- 
ants, 4 ensigns, 4 sergeants, 2 drummers, 2 
fifers, and 121 men fit for duty out of a total 
of 127. 

On November 24, at Camp White Marsh, 
near Valley Forge, Colonel Thompson re- 
ported I major, 6 companies, 6 captains, 12 
lieutenants, 6 ensigns, i adjutant, i quarter- 
master, 24 sergeants, 4 drummers, 3 fifers, 
or 202, fit for duty out of a total of 215. 

On the same date. Colonel William 
Rankin, at White Marsh, reported i major, 
3 companies, 3 captains, 4 lieutenants, 3 
ensigns, i adjutant, i quartermaster, 9 ser- 
geants, I drummer, i fifer, or 78 fit for duty 
out of a total of 81. Colonel David Jame- 
son, at the same camp, reported 3 com- 
panies, 3 captains, 4 lieutenants, 3 ensigns, 
I adjutant, i quartermaster, 9 sergeants, or 
70 fit for duty out of a total of 75. 

On December 22, at the camp near Valley 
Forge, Colonel Andrews reported i major, 
5 captains, 6 lieutenants, 3 ensigns, i adju- 
tant, I quartermaster, 13 sergeants, or 120 
fit for duty out of a total of 165. 

These militia battalions from York 
County were a part of the force called out 
before the battle of Brandywine, but did not 
take part in that engagement. They were 
present at the battle of Germantown and 
the minor engagements at AVhite Marsh and 
Chestnut Hill, in the militia brigades of 
Armstrong and Potter. 

Some of the casualties in Colonel 
Hartley's Regiment in the battles of 
Brandywine, Paoli and Germantown, 
were : Lieutenant James Dill, Lieu- 
tenant James Lemon, Sergeant AVilliam 
Chambers, Sergeant John Rousden, Cor- 
poral Anthony AA'all, killed ; Private George 
Blakely, wounded and prisoner at Paoli, in 
Captain Robert Hoopes' company; Privates 
AA^illiam Cornwall, George Duke, John El- 
liott, Joseph Finnemore, James Flin, killed; 
Philip Graham, killed at Brandywine; Jacob 
Houts, wounded at Germantown;. Chris- 
topher Morris and John Shannon, killed; 
AA'illiam Price, died of wounds. 


No further offensive or defensive move- 
ments were made by either army in 1777, 
and December i7,A\^ashington with an army 



of less tlian 10,000 men. depleted by the re- 
cent engagements at Brandywine, Paoli and 
Germantown, broke camp at White Marsh 
and took up the march for Valley Forge, 
near the site of Norristown. 

The Pennsylvania Assembly which had 
moved from Philadelphia to Lancaster 
and held its sessions in the Court 
House in Centre Square of that town, 
was unfriendly to ^^'ashing•ton. It as- 
sumed to be a patriotic body, but failed 
to adopt measures to provide its own militia 
in Washington's army, with shoes, stock- 
ings and clothing. As the story goes, al- 
though perhaps much exaggerated, the 
blood stained marks of the Continental 
troops were observed on the line of move- 
ment from ^^'hite Marsh to Valley Forge. 
This, however, was an unnecessary condition 
of affairs, owing either to negligence or dis- 
loyalty, for, says a trustworthy authority, 
quantities of shoes, stockings, clothing and 
other apparel were lying at different places 
on the road between Lancaster and Valley 
Forge. It is claimed that neither horses 
nor wagons could have been procured to 
convey them to camp. Congress at York, 
now recommended to the state legislatures 
to enact laws gi\-ing authority to seize 
woolen cloths, blankets, linen, shoes, stock- 
ings, hats and other necessary articles of 
clothing for the army, wherever they might 
be found, and sent to the relief of the sol- 

On December 30, Congress renewed the 
authority of Washington, giving him ex- 
traordinary powers and further ordered him 
"to inform the brave officers and soldiers of 
the Continental army now in camp, that as 
the situation of the enemy has rendered it 
necessary for the army to take post in a part 
of the country not provided with houses and 
in consequence thereof to reside in huts; 
Congress approving of their soldierly pa- 
tience, fidelity and zeal in the cause of their 
country, have directed one month's ex- 
traordinary pay to be given to each ; and 
are exerting themselves to remedy the in- 
conveniences which the army has lately ex- 
perienced from the defects of the commis- 
sary and clothier's department." 

After ^^'ashington took up his 

Crooked headquarters at Valley Forge 

Billet some of the Pennsylvania militia. 

Tavern, under General Armstrong, re- 

mained in camp at White Marsh as 
a guard to watch the eneni3''s movements 
during the winter. On account of age, de- 
bility and long service in the French and 
Indian war and the Revolution, Armstrong 
asked to be relieved and returned to his 
home in Carlisle, late in December, 1777. 
The term of enlistment of some of the bat- 
talions of Pennsylvania militia had also ex- 
pired and they returned home until another 
call demanded their services in the field. 

General Potter, who had served in the 
Canada expedition and in the campaigns in 
New Jerse}' and around Philadelphia, asked 
to be relieved from the service to turn at- 
tention to his business interests in Cumber- 
land county. 

January 9, 1778, Colonel John Lacey, of 
Bucks county, was promoted to the rank of 
brigadier-general and given the command 
of a brigade of militia with headquarters at 
the Crooked Billet Tavern in Bucks county. 
The object of AVashington in sending Lacey 
there was to prevent the Tories from New 
Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania from tak- 
ing their produce and grain to Philadelphia 
and selling them in that city. In this capac- 
ity. General Lacey performed an important 
duty. W'hen Howe discovered the motive 
in sending the militia into Bucks county, on 
j\Iay I, he sent a body of troops under Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Abercrombie, commanding 
a regiment of light infantry, a squadron of 
rangers and a detachment of cavalry to sur- 
round Lacey and his men, and capture them. 
An attempt was made to attack and surprise 
the militia force, in the same manner that 
General Wayne and his brigade had been 
assaulted in September, 1777, at Paoli. The 
approach of the British was a surprise, and 
they nearly surrounded Lacey and his men 
before they were ready to meet the enemy. 
It was a night attack, and before the Amer- 
icans could offer resistance, they endured a 
formidable assault. In order to protect his 
entire force from capture, Lacey ordered a 
retreat, leaving his baggage behind. In 
this affair the American loss was twenty-six 
killed, eight or ten wounded, and fifty-eight 
missing. It is stated on good authority that 
some of the prisoners were bayoneted and 
others burned by Simcoe's, Hovenden's and 
James' Rangers, among whom were loyal- 
ists who had joined the British cause. The 
British loss was small. 


About February 7 of this year, one bat- 
talion of York county militia, under the 
command of Major Thomas Lilly, left York 
to join the force under Lacey. They were 
delayed by the bad weather and did not 
reach Crooked Billet until the 23rd of the 


The British arni}' evacuated Philadelphia 
on June 18, and began the march toward 
New York. Howe, who had commanded 
the enemy's forces at Brandywine and Ger- 
mantown and during the evacuation of 
Philadelphia, was succeeded by Sir Henry 
Clinton. On June 21, Washington left the 
encampment at Valley Forge and crossed 
tlie Delaware at Trenton, determining to 
sirike the enemy at the first opportunity. 
During the winter, the American forces had 
been trained and disciplined under the 
chrection of Baron Steuben, a soldier and 
tactician who came to this country from the 
court of Frederick the Great. Although the 
American army had suffered hardships at 
Valley Forge, the rank and file were in ex- 
cellent trim. AVashington followed closely 
in pursuit of the British and directed Gen- 
eral Charles Lee to move forward and 
attack the enemy's rear at Freehold, in 
Monmouth County. Lee at first declined 
this duty, and Lafayette, with a division of 
troops composed in part o'f Wayne's brigade 
ot the Pennsylvania Line, was ordered to 
hang on the enemy's rear. 

Lee, meantime, changed his mind and 
claimed the authority to lead the detach- 
m.ent, which he was unfortunately permitted 
to do. He marched five miles in advance of 
the main army to vigorously attack the 
enemy. AA'hen he arrived within striking 
distance, AA'ayne, with 700 Pennsylvania 
soldiers of the Continental Line, was 
despatched to attack the left rear. When 
he approached the enemy, Simcoe's rangers 
of mounted men dashed upon Colonel 
Richard Butler's Pennsylvania regiment, 
but were dri^-en back. 

At this juncture, a combined 
Battle of attack was made by the 
Monmouth. British and the battle of Mon- 
mouth was opened. The 
enemy now became the assailants. AA^ayne 
looked around in vain for a supporting 
column of Americans. It was at this time 

in the battle that General Lee had ordered 
his part of the line to fall back. Dismay 
and consternation followed, and to prevent 
defeat, AA^ashington himself rode into the 
thickest of the fight. After reprimanding 
Lee, he ordered AVa3'ne to form his regi- 
ments in line of battle, and check the assault 
of the enemy. 

Meantime, AA'ashington went to the rear 
and brought up the main army. One of 
AVayne's regiments, ordered to the front, 
was the Seventh Pennsylvania Line, for- 
merly commanded by Colonel David Grier, 
of York, who had been wounded at Paoli. 
It was now led by its original commander, 
Colonel AVilliam Irvine, of Carlisle, who 
had been captured in the Canada expedition 
and lately released. The other regiments 
were the Thirteenth Pennsylvania, com- 
manded by Colonel AA/'alter Stewart, and the 
Third, Colonel Thomas Craig. They were 
aided by a Maryland and a Virginia regi- 
ment. These gallant troops held the posi- 
tion until the reinforcements, which made 
up the second line of battle, arrived. 
AA'ayne was stationed in an orchard with a 
hill on either side. General Greene took 
position on the right and Lord Stirling on 
the left. General Knox, commanding the 
artillery force, planted his guns on the hills 
to the left, near Stirling's troops, and opened 
on the enemy. The withering fire of 
AA^ayne's command in the centre made a 
further advance of the enem}?- impossible. 
The British grenadiers, endeavoring to 
pierce AVayne's line, were repulsed. At 
length, Lieutenant-Colonel Monckton, at 
the head of the divisions in which were sons 
of many of the noblest English families who 
had given tone to fashionable dissipation 
while Philadelphia was in the hands of the 
enemy, and Continental Congress at York, 
harangued his men and led them on the 
charge. He was repulsed by AA'ayne and in 
the attack, fell mortally wounded. 

Sir Henry Clinton, commanding the 
British forces, now attacked the left under 
Stirling, but was driven back by the artil- 
lery. He then attempted to break through 
the right, but was overpowered by Greene, 
who was supported by a strong battery. 
AA^ayne advanced from the centre and com- 
pelled the British to retreat to their first 

Evening had now arrived, and the 


Americans bivouacked for the night near 
the enemy, who stole away before morning 
had dawned, and left Washington in com- 
mand of the field. Thus ended one of the 
most brilliant victories of the Revolution. 
It added laurels to the American arms and 
increased the power and influence of the 

The First Pennsylvania Regiment at 
Monmouth was in command of Colonel 
James Chambers, who had led it at 
Brandywine and Germantown. Henry Mil- 
ler, who had left York in 1775 with the first 
troops for Boston, was major of this 
regiment. The company of York County 
troops which had fought at Boston, Long 
Island, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, 
Paoli and Germantown, were still serving 
in the First Pennsylvania Regiment, but no 
muster roll of it for 1778 has been found. 
In this battle Captain John McDowell com- 
manded Moses McClean's company, and 
Captain A\'illiam Alexander, Grier's com- 
pany, serving in the Seventh Pennsylvania 
Line. These "were the two companies that 
had marched with Irvine's regiment on the 
first expedition to Canada, in the winter of 


Jacob Stake, of York, who was first lieu- 
tenant of Captain Albright's company in 
Miles' regiment, commanded a company in 
the Tenth Pennsylvania Regiment at Mon- 
mouth. James Lang, of York County, who 
had served as a lieutenant in Atlee's 
Musketry Battalion, also commanded a 
company in the Tenth Regiment. Joshua 
Williams, of York County, commanded a 
company in the Fourth Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment under Colonel AVilliam Butler. Wal- 
ter Cruise, of York, who was a corporal in 
Miller's company and had been captured at 
Boston in 1775, commanded a company in 
the Sixth Regiment. 

The following is the muster roll of Cap- 
tain John McDowell's company in 1778: 


John McDowell, 

First Lieutenant, 

William Miller. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Robert McPherson. 


James Milligan. 

Thomas Gainer, 
Roger Gough, 
Adam Linn. 

William Manley. 

Patrick Conner. 

Edward Atchison, 
George Blackley, 
William Bradshaw, 
Henry Cain, 
William Campbell, 
Thomas Chesney, 
John Connelly, 
Daniel Conner, 
John Donnel, 
Philip DuffieM, 
John Dugan, 
John Farming, 
Henry Garman, 
Samuel Gilmore, 
John Hart, 
Robert Hunter, 
James Johnston, 
Matthew Kelly, ' 
Andrew Kennedy, 
Patrick King, 
Michael Lennogan, 


John McCalloh, 
Francis McDonnel, 
Alexander ^McDonnel, 
Neal McGunnagle, 
Patrick McKeehan, 
John Milton, 
John Morrison, 
Bartholomew Mulloy, 
Dennis Murphy, 
James Quinn, 
Thomas Riley, 
Michael Shawley, 
Solomon Silas, 
Diggony Sparks, 
Richard Slack, 
George Sullivan, 
Marly Sullivan, 
John Walch, 
Edward Welch, 
James Welch, 
John Wekh, 
endrick Winkler. 

The following is the muster-roll of Cap- 
tain William Alexander's Company in 1778: 

William Alexander. 

First Lieutenant, 
Samuel Kennedy. 

Second Lieutenant, 
Alexander Russell. 

Robert McWheeling. 

William Gray, 
John Smith, 
Joseph Wade, 
Matthew Way. 

George Brown, 
James Hamilton, 
Joseph Rawlands. 
Joseph Templeton. 

William Anguish 
James Berry 
John Brannon 
John Bryans 
Patrick Butler 
John Clemonds 
Adam Conn 
Cornelius Corrigan 
William Courtney 
David Davis 
James Donovan 
John Farrell 
Henry Freet 
William Guthrie 
James Harkens 
Richard Henley 


James Hutton 
Jacob Leed 
John McCall 
Thomas McConn 
Patrick McCormick 
John McDonnel 
John McGinnis 
Patrick McGonaghy 
Isaac Moore 
Timothy Murphy 
Patrick Nowland 
James Price 
Patrick Rooney 
John Sommerville 
John Stewart 
William Wilkinson 
George Worley. 

The following is the muster-roll of Cap- 
tain James Lang's Company, which served 


in the Tenth Pennsylvania Regiment at the 
battle of ]\Ionmouth : 

James Lang. 

Daniel McLean, 
Thomas Filson, 
Barny Shields. 

John Smith, 
James Tyre. 
Drum and Fife, 
Leonard Toops, 
Andrew Cutler. 

Daniel Powers 
Samuel Green 
John Smith 
John Lockhard 
Adam Truby 
Daniel Hoy 
Simon Digby 
David Stinson 
Henry Falls » 

j..mes Sharplice 
Andrew Carvan 
John ;\IcBride 
Thomas Whelan 
Andrew McQuigan 
James Duncan 
Robert Hanna 


John Sulavan 
William Stage 
John Burnham 
Hugh Bradley 
Bartholomew Berrey 
John McCarron 
William Douglass 
John Jones 
Robert Holston 
John Sigafuss 
David Griffin 
Edward Butler 
Samuel Lessley 
Lawrence Gorman 
Abraham Hornick 
Thomas Borland 
Barnev Burnes. 

The following is the muster-roll of Cap- 
tain Jacob Stake's Company which served 
in the Tenth Pennsylvania Line in 1778 at 
the battle of Monmouth : 

Jacob Stake. 

Sergea n ts, 
John Wynne, 
Samuel Edger, 
John Ray. 

Michael Elly, 
Martin Sullivan. 


John Jeffrys. 


Martin Ashburn. 

John Pierce 
James ^McCray 
Richard Coogan 
George Montgomery 
William Short 
Jacob Stillwell 
Nathaniel Webber 
Timothy McNamara 
Charles Fulks 
John Gettiss 
William Leech 
Lawrence Sullivan 
Samuel Dickson 
James Pratt 
John Funk 
John Stammers 


Christopher Reily 
John Chappel 
William Williams 
Edward Helb 
Rudolph Crowman 
Stephen Falkentine 
Daniel Forker 
Patrick Coyle 
James McLaughlin 
William Grace 
Benjamin Toy 
Thomas Moore 
Malcolm Black 
Patrick Collins 
Richard Harding 
George Webb 
Bastion Maraquet. 


The following is a return of Captain 
Henry Miller's Company, on November 4, 
1776. It was then serving in the First 
Pennsylvania Regiment and formed part of 
the rear column of AVashington's army in 
the retreat across New Jersey to Trenton, 
after the defeat at Fort Washington. This 
company, under Captain ]\Iiller, took part 
in the battles of Princeton and Trenton, and 
when Henry Miller was promoted to major 
of the regiment, was commanded at Bran- 
dy wine and Germantown by Captain James 
Matson. It took part in the battle of Mon- 
mouth, and in 1781, still in the First Regi- 
ment, marched under Colonel Richard But- 
ler, with Wayne's Brigade of the Pennsyl- 
vania Line, and was present at the surren- 
der of Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia, in 
October, 1781. 

Henry Miller. 

First Lieutenant, 

James Matson. 

Second Lieutenant, 
John Clark. 

William Allen John Line 

Robert Armor Charles Liness 

George Armstrong John McAllister 

John Bell John McCray 

John Beverly George McCrea 

Christian Bittinger John McCurt 

Richard Block Joseph McQuiston 

George Brown James Mill 

John Burke Joshua jNIinshall 

Thomas Campbell Edward Moore 

William Carnahan James Morrison 

John Clark Patrick Murphy 

Robert Conyers John Patton 

William Cooper Patrick Preston 

Thomas Crone Michael Quin 

George Dougherty John Quint 

John Douther Andrew Sharp 

Able Evans John Shaven 

Thomas Fanning Joseph Shibbey 

John Ferguson Matthew Shields 

William Goudy James Smith 

Patrick Graft Jacob Staley 

John Griffith Andrew Start 

Thomas Griffith Alexander Stevens 

Joseph Halbut Patrick Stewlan 

Robert Harvey Matthew Stoyle 

John Humphries Tobias Tanner 

Richard Kennedy John Taylor 

Thomas Kennedy William Taylor 

John Leiper David Torrence 

Abraham Lewis Timothy Winters 

Edward White. 

MAJOR JOHN CLARK, who rendered 
valuable services at the battle of Monmouth, 
was born in Lancaster County, in 175 1, of 
English ancestry. He obtained his educa- 



tioii in tlie schools of his nati\"e count}' anil 
when about twenty years of age removed to 
York. At the opening of the Revolution, he 
was a student of law, but his professional 
studies were interrupted by enlisting in the 
army. July i, 1775, he was chosen third 
lieutenant of the first military company 
which marched from York and arrived at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it joined 
\\'ashington's army. Lieutenant Clark 
took part with his company in the skirmish 
with the British at CharlestOAvn, a few days 
after their arrival at Boston. For gallantry 
in this alTair, he was promoted to the rank 
of second lieutenant of his company, then 
commanded by Captain Henry ]Miller. He 
served as second lieutenant of IMiller's com- 
pany in the hard fought battle of Long Is- 
land, in August, 1776. This company then 
formed a part of the First Regiment of the 
Pennsylvania Line. 

Lieutenant Clark was also conspicuous 
for his gallantry at Flatbush, Long Island. 
In September, 1776, he was chosen major 
of the Second Regiment of the Flying 
Camp, upon the recommendation of General 
Hugh fiercer. This regiment, composed 
entirely of Y^ork County troops, was com- 
manded by Colonel Richard McAllister, 
founder "of Hanover. October 15, 1776, 
i\Iajor Clark participated with his regiment 
in an expedition against the British on 
Staten Island, and in this action commanded 
the advance with 500 riflemen. He suc- 
ceeded in capturing 60 AValdeckers or Hes- 

Soon after this brilliant affair, ]\Iajor 
Clark moved with his regiment up the west 
side of the Hudson River and took position 
opposite AX'hite Plains. Here he com- 
manded a detachment of 200 men. With 
these men he built fortifications to aid in 
preventing Howe's army from crossing to 
the west bank of the Hudson. 

After the battle of Fort Washington, 
when the American army retired from the 
vicinity of New York, Major Clark com- 
manded the rear of the retreating forces, 
southward over the state of New Jersey. 
He was present at the battle of Trenton 
and after A\'ashington"s victory at that 
place, which ended in the capture of Rahl 
and 1,000 Hessian troops, ]\Iajor Clark re- 
ported that he collected the trophies of 
victory and held possession of the town. 

while the other troops went in pursuit of 
the enemy. 

The following day, December 27, with 
200 men, he marched in pursuit of a body of 
British, commanded by General Stirling and 
Count Donop, to Hidetown and Cranberry, 
leaving the British in his rear at Princeton. 
This was a bold and brilliant dash in the 
cold weather of midwinter. At the villages 
of Allentown and Cranberry nearby, he cap- 
tured a large amount of British stores and 
provisions, and at Hidetown surprised and 
took prisoners thirty British officers. This 
remarkable raid and its achievement -won 
for him and his soldiers from York County 
the plaudits of his superior officers, when 
they returned to headquarters near Trenton, 
^lajor Clark and his men were commended 
for their bravery by Washington, Greene 
and Reed. Washington presented Clark 
with a British sword that had been cap- 
tured in battle. Shortly after the battle of 
Trenton the term of enlistment of McAl- 
lister's regiment of the Flying Camp ex- 
pired. The men \vere honorably dis- 
charged and returned home. Major Clark 
remained in the service, and was assigned 
to duty under General Thomas Mifflin, who 
was reorganizing the Pennsylvania militia 
then in New Jersey and eastern Pennsjd- 
vania. He was the only officer present at 
Crosswicks, near Trenton, in January, 1777, 
when General Mifflin made a strong appeal 
to the New England militia to remain one 
month longer in service. On the following 
day General Greene dispatched Major Clark 
on the important duty of discovering the 
force and movement of the enemy under 
Lord Cornw-allis, then advancing toward 
Princeton, New^ Jersey. He soon returned 
to Greene with the desired information and 
then aided in forming an advance battle 
line to meet the approaching British under 
Cornwallis, at the opening of the battle of 
Princeton. During the da}^ of the engage- 
ment, Clark, as brigade major under Alifflin, 
did valiant service in directing the artillery 
into action. 

AVhen the American arm}^ arrived at 
Morristown, New Jersey, at the request of 
\\'ashington he Avas made chief of staff to 
General Greene, with the rank of major in 
the Continental Line. His training as a 
despatch bearer, and his success in leading 
reconnoitering parties, made him a useful 



officer to General Greene, who, next to 
A'Vashington, was ranked as the ablest 
soldier of the Revolution. While making a 
reconnoissance with a small body of troops 
to ascertain the position of the advancing 
British under General Howe, at Brandy- 
wine, Major Clark received a wound from 
a rifle ball passing through his right 
shoulder. He then returned to his home in 
York, and after recuperating, joined his 
command before the battle of Germantown. 
In this engagement, while leading a small 
detachment, he took prisoner Captain 
Speak, of the 37th Light Infantry. Immedi- 
ately after the battle, with a small scouting 
party, he moved within sight of the British 
line in order to ascertain the enemy's loss 
and if possible, discover the future plan of 
operations. He accomplished his purpose 
with great personal danger, and communi- 
cated to the commander-in-chief, not only 
the losses of the British at Germantown, but 
Howe"s plan of movement against the 
American forces, after" the battle. These 
facts enabled Washington to make such a 
disposition of his troops as to gain ad- 
vantage over Howe at White Marsh, a few 
days later. He also recommended the de- 
tachment of Smallwood's brigade of Mary- 
land troops to Wilmington, Delaware, 
which was re-captured by the Americans. 
This movement resulted in seizing two of 
the enemy's ships on the Delaware heavily 
ladened with provisions and munitions of 
war. For his brilliant achievements at this 
period. Major Clark received the highest 
commendation from his superior officers. 
The wound which he had received at 
Brandywine now compelled his retirement, 
and he again returned to his home at York. 
In January, 1778, together with Captain 
Lee, of Virginia, known as "Light Horse 
Harry" of the Revolution, Clark was called 
to the encampment at Valley Forge to con- 
sult with A^'ashing■ton about a proposed at- 
tack on a detachment of Howe's forces then 
at Darby, or the main body of the army in 
and around Philadelphia. Both Lee and 
Clark advised AVashington against any win- 
ter attack of the British forces. At a coun- 
cil of war a majority of the subordinate 
commanders present were of the same opin- 
ion. In appreciation of his ability as a sol- 
dier, AA'ashington now offered to Clark 
dift'erent positions of responsibility and 

trust, but owing to the condition of his 
health, he declined these proffered honors 
and again returned to York, to recuperate 
his, health. In recognition of what Clark 
had done while in the army, AA'ashington 
wrote the following interesting letter to 
Henry Laurens, then president of Congress, 
at York :. 

"Headquarters, Valley Forge, Jan. 2, 177S. 
"Sir: — I take the liberty of introducing Major John 
Clark, the bearer of this, to your notice. He entered 
the service at the cominencen'ient of the war and has 
for some time past acted as aide-de-camp to ilajor- 
General Greene. He is active, sensible and enterprising 
and has rendered me very great assistance since the 
army has been in Pennsylvania, by procuring one con- 
stant and certain intelligence of the motions and inten- 
tions of the enemy. It is somewhat uncertain whether 
the state of the major's health will admit of his remain- 
ing in the military line ; if it should, I may perhaps have 
occasion to recommend him in a more particular manner 
to the favor of Congress at a future time. At present, I 
can assure you that if you should, while he remains in 
the neighborhood of York, have anj' occasion for his 
services, you will find him not only willing, but very 
capable of executing any of your commands. I have 
the honor to be, etc., 


After recei^-ing the letter to Henry 
Laurens, President of Continental Con- 
gress then in session at York, ]\Iajor Clark 
was appointed auditor of the accounts 
of the army under General AA'ashington. 
He accepted this position February 24, 
1778. He served for a period of two years 
and then returned to his home. AVhen he 
assumed the duties of this office the Treas- 
ury of the United States had but small 
deposits and Major Clark advanced the sum 
of eleven hundred and fifty-two pounds of 
his own money for one of the best teams in 
America to secure and haul the outfit of the 
auditors, their baggage and documents be- 
longing to the officers, to the headquarters 
of the army. During the battle of ]\Ion- 
mouth, j\Iajor John Clark, of York, was 
again called to his former position as an 
aide on the staff' of General Greene. Here 
he again succeeded in endearing himself to 
his own commander and also the head of the 
army. It was Clark who had carried the 
orders for General Lee to make the first 
attack, and his testimony was used when 
Lee was afterward court-martialed and de- 
prived of his command. 

.The battle of Monmouth was the last en- 
gagement in which Major Clark partici- 
pated during the Revolution. Having 
nearh' completed his legal studies before he 





entered the army he was admitted to the 
bar at York, April 27, 1779, and spent the 
remainder of his life as a practicing" lawyer. 

During the second war with Great Britain 
in 1812, he offered his services -for the de- 
fence of his country. When the British, 
under General Ross, approached Baltimore, 
in 1814, Major Clark proceeded to that city. 
He presented himself before the military 
authorities of Baltimore with a letter from 
James ^Monroe, Secretary-of-W'ar in Madi- 
son's Cabinet, who recommended Major 
Clark for his ability as a soldier in the Revo- 
lution. He then offered General Smith, 
commanding the forces at Baltimore, to 
lead the advance and attack the British 
when they landed at North Point, but the 
duty had already been assigned to others. 

After the defeat of the British at North 
Point, General Smith tendered his thanks to 
Major Clark for "the zeal and active ser- 
vices he voluntarily rendered during his 
stay at Baltimore and in its defence." 

He continued the practice of law at York 
during the remainder of his life. He re- 
sided in a large home at the southwest cor- 
ner of Market and Beaver Streets, which in 
1906 was used b}' Adams Express Com- 
pany. In personal appearance, he was 
large of frame, of commanding presence 
and military bearing. In 1818 he was a 
candidate of the Federalist party to repre- 
sent Lancaster and York Counties in the 
Congress of the United States, but was de- 
feated. After the Revolution, Major Clark 
was in close and intimate relations with 
General AVashington until the time of the 
latter's death in 1799. 

Major Clark was married early in life to 
a daughter of Captain Nicholas Bittinger, 
of Hanover, who commanded a company in 
the same regiment of the Flying Camp in 
which Clark served as a major. He had one 
son, George Clark, and several daughters, 
none of whom left descendants. The only 
portrait of the major in existence, except a 
drawing, was interred with the remains of 
Julia Clark, his daughter, at her request, in 
St. John's Episcopal Churchyard. Major 
Clark died December 27, 1819, at the age of 
68, and his remains were buried in St. 
John's Episcopal Churchyard. He was 
prominent in the ^lasonic Fraternity and 
was a vestryman of St. John's Church. 

who entered the army as a lieutenant, in 
1775, served continuously until the year 
1779. He was conspicuous for his gallantry 
in the siege of Boston, at the battles of 
Long Island, White Plains, Trenton, 
Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown and 
Monmouth. In all he participated in forty- 
seven battles and skirmishes with the 
British during the four years of his military ' 
service in the army. 

He was born February 13, 175 1, at the 
site of Millersville, Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, where his father was a farmer 
owning a large estate. After receiving a 
good preparatory education, he went to 
Reading, where he entered the law office of 
Collinson Reed, and studied conveyancing. 
In 1769, he removed to York, where he 
began the occupation of a conveyancer and 
continued his legal studies with Samuel 
Johnson, one of the pioneer lawyers of Y^ork 
County. AA'hen the Revolution opened he 
espoused the cause of the colonists and be- 
came second lieutenant of the York Rifle- 
men, a company of 100 trained marksmen 
from Y'ork County, who, on July i, 1775, 
began the march to Boston, and joined 
Washington's army at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, on July 25. Here they were as- 
signed to Thompson's Battalion, the first 
troops south of New Y^ork to join the 
American army during the Revolution. 
Their reputation for trained marksmanship 
with the use of the rifle was already well 
known. The troops who engaged in the 
battle of Bunker Hill had used muskets. 

Two days after the York Riflemen, under 
Captain Doudel, arrived at Washington's 
headquarters, at the request of Lieutenant 
Miller, they were sent out to reconnoiter 
the position of the enemy at Bunker Hill. 
This was done with Washington's consent 
and resulted in the capture of several 
prisoners, from whom the position and 
number of the enemy were obtained. Soon 
after this event. Lieutenant Miller was 
made captain of his company, and com- 
manded it on the march toward New York. 
He and his riflemen were conspicuous for 
their valor at the battle of Long Island and 
guarded the retreat of Washington's army, 
which, through a fog, crossed to New York 
City. Captain ]\Iiller, amid a shower of 



bullets from the enemy, was the last Ameri- 
can soldier to enter the boats. 

He participated in the battle of AA'hite 
Plains, and with a detachment from the 
First Regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, 
guarded the rear during Washington's re- 
treat across New Jersey. At the battle of 
Trenton the First Regiment, under Colonel 
Edward Hand, formed the advance battle 
line, and during that eventful Christmas 
night of 1776 was the first to attack the 
Hessians at their post. After the surrender 
of 1,000 Hessians at Trenton, Washington 
re-crossed into Pennsylvania. He then se- 
lected Hand's riflemen, with Captain Miller 
commanding his company, to lead the ad- 
vance and attack the approaching enemy. 
In the action which ensued Miller com- 
manded the left wing of the regiment. 

At the battle of Princeton, on the suc- 
ceeding day, these riflemen were conspic- 
uous for their valor and aided in winning 
a brilliant victory. For his gallantry in 
action, at the request of Washington, Cap- 
tain Miller was promoted to major of his 
regiment, and held this position at the bat- 
tle of Brandywine. In the battle of Ger- 
mantown his regiment formed a part of 
Wayne's brigade, and aided in driving the 
enemy toward Philadelphia, during the first 
part of the engagement. Six days after the 
battle, which resulted iji a British victory. 
Major Miller wrote to his family at York: 
"We hope to meet them soon again, and 
with the assistance of Providence to restore 
our suffering citizens of Philadelphia to 
their possessions and homes." 

During the winter of 1777-8, Major Mil- 
ler remained in camp with his regiment at 
Valley Forge. The arduous duties of army 
life required him to spend part of the winter 
at his home, recuperating his health. It 
was during this winter that Continental 
Congress held its sessions in York, and 
AVashington lay in winter quarters at Val- 
ley Forge. 

On the march through New Jersey in pur- 
suit of the enemy under Sir Henry Clinton, 
in June, 1778, Major Miller's regiment 
formed a part of the Pennsylvania division 
commanded by General Anthony AA-^ayne. 
In this, the last battle of the Revolution in 
which Major Miller participated, he showed 
the same coolness and bravery that he had 
displayed on former occasions when he led 

his York County Riflemen on to victory. 
AA'hile commanding a detachment under 
AA'ajme in the thickest of the fight, his horse 
was shot by a cannon ball. He quickly 
mounted another and rode forward, when 
this horse was killed by a musket ball. 
Mounting a third, he led his men onward 
until the British were driven from the field. 
For gallant and meritorious services at the 
battle of Monmouth, Major Miller was pro- 
moted to lieutenant-colonel of the Second 
Pennsylvania Regiment in the Continental 
Line, but owing to the condition of his 
alTairs at home, as the result of four years' 
service in the army, he held this position for 
a short time only and then resigned. He 
then turned his attention to his business 
affairs at York. The pay he had received 
as a soldier, in depreciated currency, did not 
furnish him means enough to support his 

In 1780, he was elected sheriff of York 
County, and served in that position for 
three years. He represented York County 
in the State Legislature in 1783-4-5. He 
was appointed prothonotary in 1785, and in 
the same year commissioned one of the 
court justices for York County. He was 
elected a delegate to the convention which 
framed the State Constitution of 1790. 
After the war, he became a brigadier- 
general of the state militia, and in 1794 was 
quartermaster-general of the United States 
army in the AAHiiskey Insurrection in west- 
ern Pennsylvania. 

General Miller was appointed supervisor 
of revenue for the State of Pennsylvania by 
President AA^ashington, and served in the 
same office under President Adams ; but on 
account of his staunch adherence to the 
Federalist part};-, was removed from the 
office by Thomas Jefferson, when he be- 
came President. Although he had reached 
the age of 63, when the second war with 
Great Britain began, he tendered his ser- 
vices to the United States government, and 
was placed in charge of the defence of Fort 
McHenry. This occurred when the city of 
Baltimore was first threatened by the 
English, in 1813. Having still retained his 
relations to his native state, when the militia 
was organized he received the appointment 
of brigadier-general. In 1814, when the 
British appeared before Baltimore, he 
served in the capacity of quartermaster- 



general and \yas present at Baltimore with 
the Pennsylvania troops, which had 
marched there for the defence of that city. 
His experience as an officer in the Revolu- 
tion was of great advantage to the com- 
manding officers at Baltimore, at the time 
of the battle of North Point and the bom- 
bardment of Fort McHenry. Before retir- 
ing from service. General Miller received the 
commendations of the military authorities 
of Baltimore and the national government. 

He retired to private life, residing on a 
farm in the Juniata Valley, and in 1821 was 
appointed prothonotary of the new county 
of Perry. At the expiration of his term of 
office, he removed his family residence to 
Carlisle, where he died April 5, 1824, and 
was buried there with military honors. 

His family consisted of two sons and four 
daughters. His son Joseph was a lieutenant 
in the army, and died in the service, while 
performing his duties as quartermaster at 
Ogdensburg, during the second war with 
England, and his son William was a lieuten- 
ant in the navy, and died on board the 
frigate "LTnsurgent," Captain Murray. 

His eldest daughter, Capandana, married 
Colonel Campbell ; his second daughter, 
Mary, married Thomas Banning, a Mary- 
land planter; and his third daughter, Julia 
Anna, married David W^atts, of Carlisle. 
His fourth daughter, Harriet, died unmar- 
ried. There are no descendants of these 
children now surviving, except those of 
David Watts and Julia Anna ]Mille4-. 


Thomas Hartley, a member of the York- 
County Bar, and a young man of rare at- 
tainments, entered the military service in 
the fall of 1775. Before hostilities had 
opened between the colonies and the 
mother country, he had commanded a com- 
pany of militia from York and vicinity. The 
fierce conflict at Bunker Hill in June, 1775, 
stimulated his military ardor. When an ex- 
pedition was planned against Canada in the 
fall of 1775, he tendered his services to the 
cause of American liberty. A regiment 
composed of eight companies was organ- 
ized, at Carlisle, from militia in the region 
now embraced in York, Cumberland, 
Franklin, Adams and Perry Counties. AVil- 
liani Irvine, of Carlisle, was commissioned 

colonel of this regiment and Thomas Hart- 
ley, lieutenant-colonel, at the age of twenty- 
seven. The part taken by the regiment in 
the Canada campaign is told in a previous 
chapter in this work. After the capture of 
Colonel Irvine, in Canada, Hartley was 
placed in command of the regiment and 
brought it back to Carlisle in March, 1777. 
Irvine remained a prisoner of war until 
April, 1778. His command, which at first 
enlisted for a term of one year for the 
Canada campaign, re-enlisted, and in June, 
1778, under the command of Lieutenant- 
colonel David Grier, of York, was stationed 
at Middlebrook, New Jersey, and in Sep- 
tember at Trappe, in Montgomery County, 
Pennsylvania. It joined Wayne's brigade 
and took part in the battles of Brandywine, 
Paoli and Germantown, as told elsewhere in 
this history. 

Thomas Hartley, while in charge of the 
regiment at Ticonderoga, was commis- 
sioned colonel, January 11, 1777. After the 
regiment reached Carlisle in March of that 
year, Hartley spent some time at York. 

In December, 1776, Congress authorized 
AA'ashington to raise sixteen battalions of 
infantry for the military service from the 
different states then forming the Union. 
This resolution was adopted two days after 
the battle of Trenton, which had been a sig- 
nal victory for the^ American cause. Two 
of these battalions were to come from 
Pennsylvania. For this purpose Thomas 
Hartley and John Patton, of Chester 
County, were each commissioned colonel to 
raise a regiment. In the absence of official 
reports, it is difficult to give a detailed ac- 
count of these regiments. 

Colonel Thomas Hartley's regiment 
joined AVashington's army, when General 
Howe landed at the head of Elk River, in 
September, 1777. All the available Ameri- 
can troops were then concentrated in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia. Hartley's regi- 
ment formed part of the First Pennsylvania 
Brigade in General Wayne's division. In 
the battle of Brandywine, Colonel Hartley 
commanded this brigade, which did valiant 
service in the engagement, and lost heavily 
in both officers and men. This brigade also 
took part in the battle of Paoli, fought near 
Philadelphia, nine days after the defeat at 
Brandywine, and still under the command 
of Hartley, participated in the battle of Ger- 



mantown, October 4. After Germantown, 
Hartley's regiment, which originally num- 
bered 600 men from the different counties 
of Pennsylvania, had in rank and file less 
than half its original enlistment. Major 
Lewis Bush was mortally wounded at 
Brandywine, and Captain Robert Hoopes 
was killed. Other casualties in this regi- 
ment, in the battles of Brandywine, Paoli 
and Germantown, were : Lieutenant James 
Dill, Lieutenant James Lemon, Sergeant 
William Chambers, Sergeant John Rousden, 
Corporal Anthony Wall, killed; Private 
George Blakely, wounded and prisoner at 
Paoli, in Captain Robert Hoopes' company; 
Privates William Cornwall, George Duke, 
John Elliott, Joseph Finnemore, James Flin, 
killed; Philip Graham, killed at Brandy- 
wine; Jacob Houts, wounded at German- 
town ; Christopher Morris and John Shan- 
non, killed; William Price, died of wounds. 

After the close of the campaign 
Hartley's of the American army around 
Regiment Philadelphia, in 1777, and when 
at York. AVashington went into winter 

quarters at Valley Forge, Colo- 
nel Hartley returned with his regiment to 
York, where it remained in barracks for two 
or three months as a guard to Continental 
Congress, then in session here. February 
II, 1778, Congress passed a resolution or- 
dering Michael Hillega.s, treasurer of the 
United States, to issue a warrant for two 
months' pay to Colonel Hartley's regiment, 
then in York. On the same day another 
resolution was adopted directing the board 
of war to aid in recruiting this regiment. 
On June 17, according to the diary of Rev. 
John Roth, of the Moravian Church, a part 
of Hartley's regiment left York for the 
American camp near Philadelphia, having 
in charge a number of English prisoners. 
On June 25, at the request of General 
Washington, Colonel Hartley reported with 
his regiment at Valley Forge, just before 
the American army had left the camp to 
take the field in New Jersey. A few days 
later Congress adjourned to Philadelphia, 
which had been evacuated by the British, 
then falling back through New Jersey to 
New York. 

In June, 1778, just before Con- 
Wyoming gress left York for Philadel- 
Massacre. phia, the settlers near Wilkes- 

barre, in the Wyoming Valley, 

in the northern part of Pennsylvania, heard 
of the approach of a large force of Tories 
and Indians under Colonel John Butler. 
An appeal for help was made to Congress 
as nearly all the able-bodied men were in 
the Continental army. These hostile bands 
approached suddenly, when Colonel Zebu- 
Ion Butler, of the Pennsylvania Line, who 
was home on a furlough, recruited three 
hundred men t6 meet a force three times as 
large. He met the enemy on July 3 at a fort 
near the Susquehanna, a short distance 
above Wilkesbarre, and here occurred what 
is known to history as the Wyoming Mas- 
sacre. Only fifty of Zebulon Butler's men 
escaped. Those who did not fall in battle, 
when captured were put to death by the 
bullets of the Tories or the tomahawks of 
the Indians. The depredations in the 
Wyoming Valley continued and became so 
heartrending that all the settlers fled. 

■ The Wyoming Massacre was not the 
only one in Pennsylvania in the war of the 
Revolution. Immediately after that of 
Wyoming, the wild precipitate flight, 
known as the "Great Runawaj^," occurred 
in the valley of the West Branch. All sum- 
mer the scalping knife and tomahawk had 
been doing their deadly work there, and 
when the news of the massacre on North 
Branch arrived, the West Branch above 
Sunbury and Northumberland was aband- 
oned by the settlers. Boats, canoes, hog- 
troughs, rafts, and every sort of floating 
things, were crowded with women and 
children. The men came down in single 
file, on each side of the river, and acted as 
guards. Sunbury became a frontier town 
and the site of Harrisburg, Paxtang, and 
Middletown, were places of resort for the 
unfortunate refugees. Bedford and West- 
moreland counties and the country about 
Pittsburg were likewise sorely afflicted at 
this time. 

The massacre of Wyoming, 

Hartley which occurred on July 3, 

Marches caused serious apprehension to 

to General Washington and Con- 

Sunbury. tinental Congress. At this time, 

Colonel Hartley's regiment was 
with AVashington's army in New Jersey, 
and the' remainder performing guard duty 
at Philadelphia. In accordance with a reso- 
lution of the Pennsylvania Council of 
Safety, Hartley's regiment was ordered, on 



Jul\' 14, to go to Sunljury, in Xortliumber- 
land Count}', fifty miles above Harrisburg. 
At the same time, the Committee of Safety 
ordered the militia to be called out from 
the counties of Northumberland, Lancaster, 
Berks, Northampton, Cumberland and 
York, in all about 1,800 men. These troops 
were intended to guard the frontier from 
the ravages of the Indians and Tories. 
Four hundred and fifty troops from Berks 
and Northampton were to repair to Easton ; 
eight hundred and fifty from Northumber- 
land, Lancaster and Berks to go to Sunbury, 
three hundred from Cumberland and two 
hundred from York County to join Colonel 
Broadhead at Standing Stone, the site of 

As the Indians continued to be very 
troublesome "on the northern and western 
frontiers of Pennsylvania, it soon became 
apparent to the military authorities that 
some offensive operations must be under- 
taken, to punish the savage foe, or the in- 
habitants of Central Pennsylvania would be 
in imminent danger. 

AA'ith this object in view, Colonel 
Goes Hartley, in September, 1778, was 

to sent from Sunbury, by the Board 
Tioga, of AVar on an expedition to Tioga 
Point, on the headwaters of the 
North Branch, to destroy some of their vil- 
lages and break up their places of rendez- 
\'ous. His expedition was one of the most 
memorable on record, and proved success- 
ful. In October, 1778, after his return to 
Sunbury, from this expedition, Colonel 
Hartley wrote to Congress an extended ac- 
count of it, which reads in part as follows : 

"With a frontier from Wyoming to Alle- 
gheny, we were sensible the few regular 
troops we had could not defend the neces- 
sary posts. We thought (if it were prac- 
ticable), it would be best to draw the prin- 
cipal part of our force together, as the in- 
habitants would be in no great danger dur- 
ing our absence. I made a stroke at some 
of the nearest Indian towns, especially as 
we learned a handsome detachment had 
been sent into the enemy's country by way 
of the Cherry Valley, New York. We were 
in hopes we should drive the savages to a 
greater distance. 

"With volunteers and others, we reck- 
oned on 400 rank and file for the expedition, 
besides 17 horses, which I mounted from 

m_\' own regiment, under the command of 
Lieutenant Henry Carbery. Our rendez- 
vous was Fort Muncy, near the site of Wil- 
liamsport, on the West Branch, intending 
to penetrate by the Sheshecunnunk path, 
to Tioga, at the junction of the Cayuga, 
with the main Northeast Branch of Susque- 
hanna, from thence to act as circumstances 
might require. 

"The troops met at Muncy the i8th of 
September, and when we came to count and 
array our force for the expedition, they 
amounted to only about 200 rank and file. 
We thought the number small, but as we 
presumed the enemy had no notice of our 
designs, we hoped at least to make a good 
diversion if no more, whilst the inhabitants 
were saving their grain on the frontier. On 
the morning of the 21st, at four o'clock, we 
marched from Muncy, with the force I have 
mentioned ; we carried two boxes of spare 
ammunition and twelve days' provisions. 

"In our route we met with 

Endures great rains and prodigious 
Hardships, swamps ; mountains, defiles 
and rocks impeded our march. 
A'Ve had to open and clear the way as we 
passed. W^e waded or swam the Lycoming 
Creek upwards of twenty times. I will not 
trouble your honorable body with the 
tedious detail, but I cannot help observing 
that, I imagine, the difficulties in crossing 
the Alps or passing up Kennebec River to 
Canada in 1775, could not have been greater 
than those our men experienced for the 
time. I have the pleasure to say they sur- 
mounted them with great resolution and 
fortitude. In lonely woods and groves we 
found the haunts and lurking places of the 
savage murderers, who had desolated our 
frontier. We saw the huts where they had 
dressed and dried the scalps of the helpless 
women and children who fell into their 

"On the morning of the 26th, our 

Drives advance party of 19, met with an 

the equal number of Indians on the 

Enemy path, approaching one another. 

Back.- Our men had the first fire. A 
very important Indian chief was 
killed and scalped and the rest fled. A few" 
miles further, we discovered where up- 
wards of seventy warriors had lay the night 
before, on their march towards our frontier. 
The panic communicated and they fled with 


their brethren. No time was lost ; we ad- 
vanced towards Sheshecunnunck, in the 
neighborhood of which place we took fif- 
teen prisoners from them. We learned that 
a man had deserted from Captain Spald- 
ing's company at AVyoming, after the troops 
had marched from thence and had given the 
enemy notice of our intended expedition 
against them. 

"We moved with the greatest dispatch 
towards Tioga, advancing our horse and 
some foot in front, who did their duty very 
well. A number of the enemy fled before 
us with precipitation. It was near dark, 
when we came to that town. Our troops 
were much fatigued and it was impossible 
to proceed further that night. AVe were 
told that young Butler, who had led the 
Tories at the Wyoming Massacre, had been 
at Tioga a few hours before we came — that 
he had 300 men with him, the most of them 
Tories, dressed in green — that they were 
returned towards Chemung, 12 miles off, 
and that they determined to give us battle 
in some of the defiles near it. It was soon 
resolved we should proceed no further, but 
if possible make our way to AVyoming. AVe 
burned Tioga, Queen Hester's Palace or 
town, and all the settlements on this side. 
Several canoes were taken and some plun- 
der, part of which was destroyed. Lieu- 
tenant Carbery, with the horse only, was 
close on Butler. He was in possession of 
the town of Shawnee, three miles up the 
Cayuga Branch, but as we did not advance, 
he returned. 

"The consternation of the enemy was 
great. AVe pushed our good fortune as far 
as we dare, na3^ it is probable the good 
countenance we put on, saved us from 
destruction, as we were ad\'anced so far 
into the enemy's country, and no return 
but what we could make with the sword. 
AA e came to Sheshecunnunck that night. 
Had we had 500 regular troops, and 150 
light troops, with one or two pieces of ar- 
tillery, we probably might have destroyed 
Chemung, which is now the receptacle for 
all villainous Indians and Tories from the 
dift'erent tribes and states. From this they 
make their excursions against the frontiers 
of New York, Pennsylvania, Jersey. AA/'yom- 
ing and commit those horrid murders and 
devastations we have heard of. Niagara 
and Chemung are the asylums of these 

Tories who cannot get to New Y^ork. On 
the morning of the 28th, we crossed the 
river and marched towards AA'yalusing, 
where we arrived that night at 11 o'clock; 
our men were much worn down and our 
whiskey and flour were gone. 

"On the morning of the 29th, we were 
obliged to stay till 11 o'clock to kill and 
cook beef. This gave the enemy leisure to 
approach. Seventy of our men from real 
or pretended lameness went into the 
canoes ; others rode on the empty pack 
horses. AA'e had not more than 120 rank 
and file to fall in the line of march. Lieu- 
tenant Sweeney, a 'valuable officer, had the 
rear guard, consisting of thirty men, besides 
five active runners, under Mr. Camplen. 
The advance guard was to consist of an 
officer and fifteen men. There were a few 
flankers, but from the difficulty of the 
ground and fatigue, they were seldom of 
use. The rest of our little army was formed 
into three divisions. Those of my regiment 
composed the first. Captain Spalding's the 
second, and Captain Morrow's the third. 
The light horse was equally divided be- 
tween front and rear. The pack horses and 
the cattle we had collected, were to follow 
the advance guard. In this order we 
marched from AVyalusing at 12 o'clock. A 
slight attack was made on our front from a 
hill. Half an hour afterwards a warmer one 
was made on the same quarter. After or- 
dering the second and third divisions to 
outflank the enemy, we soon drove them, 
but this, as I expected, was only amuse- 
ment, and we lost as little time as possible 
with them. 

"At 2 o'clock a very heavy attack 
An was made on our rear, which 
Indian obliged most of the rear guard to 
Attack, give way, while several Indians 
appeared on our left flank. By 
the weight of the firing, we were soon con- 
vinced we had to oppose a large body. 
Captain Stoddard commanded in front and 
I was in the centre. I observed some high 
ground which overlooked the enemy. 
Orders were immediately given for the first 
and third divisions to take possession of it, 
whilst Captain Spalding was despatched to 
support the rear guard. We gained the 
heights almost unnoticed by the barbarians. 
Captain Stoddart sent a small party towards 
the enemy's rear. At this critical moment, 


Captains Boone and Brady, and Lieutenant 
King, with a few brave fellows, landed from 
the canoes, joined Lieutenant Sweeney and 
renewed the action there. The war whoop 
was given by our people below and com- 
municated round. We advanced on the 
enenu' on all sides. 

With great shouting and noise. 
The the Indians, after a brave resist- 

Enemy ance of some minutes, con- 
Repulsed, ceived themselves nearly sur- 
rounded, and fled with the ut- 
most haste, by the only passes that re- 
mained, and left ten dead on the ground. 
Our troops wished to do their dut}', but 
they were much overcome with fatigue, 
otherwise (as the Indians imagined them- 
selves surrounded), we should have driven 
the enemy into the river. From every ac- 
count, these were a select body of warriors, 
sent after us, consisting of nearly 200 men. 
Their confidence and impetuosity, probably 
gave the victory to .us. After they had 
driven our rear some distance, their chief 
was heard to say in the Indian language 
that w'hich is interpreted thus : 'My brave 
warriors, w'e drive them, be bold and strong, 
the day is ours." Upon this they advanced 
very quickly without sufficiently regarding 
their rear. 

"We had no alternative, but conquest or 
death. They would have murdered us all 
had they succeeded, but the great God of 
Battles protected us in the day of danger. 
\\'e had four killed and ten Avounded. The 
enemy must have had at least treble the 
number killed and wounded. They received 
such a beating as prevented them giving us 
any further trouble during our inarch to 
Wyoming (W'ilkesbarre), which is more 
than fifty miles from the place of action. 
The officers of my regiment behaved well to 
a man. All the party will acknowledge the 
greatest merit and bravery of Captain Stod- 
dart. I cannot say enough in his favor. He 
deserves the esteem of his country. Lieu- 
tenant Carbery, with his horse, was very 
active, and rendered important services till 
his horses were fatigued. Nearly all the 
other officers acquitted themselves with 
reputation. Captain Spalding exerted him- 
self as much as possible. Captain ^Iitrrow, 
from his knowledge of Indian afTai^rs and 
their mode of fighting, was serviceable. 
His men were marksmen and were useful. 

The men of my regiment were armed with 
muskets and bayonets. They were no great 
marksmen, and were awkw-ard at wood 
fighting. The bullets and three swan shot 
in each piece made up, in some measure, for 
the want of skill. Though we were happy 
enough to succeed in this action, yet I am 
con\inced that a number of lighter troops, 
under good officers, are necessary for this 

"On the third, the savages 
Reaches and- scalped three men who 
Wyoming, had imprudently left the gar- 
rison at Wyoming to go in 
search of potatoes. From our observations, 
we imagine that the same party who had 
fought us, after taking care of their dead 
and wounded, had come on towards Wyom- 
ing, and are now in that neighborhood. I 
left half of my detachment there, with five 
of m}' own officers. Should they attempt to 
invest the place when their number is in- 
creased, I make no doubt but they will be 

"Our garrisons have plenty of beef and 
salt, though flour is scarce at Wyoming. I 
arrived here with the remainder of the de- 
tachment on the 5th. We have performed 
a circuit of nearly 300 miles in about two 
weeks. A\'e brought off nearly fifty head 
of cattle, twenty-eight canoes, besides 
many other articles. I would respectfully 
propose that the Congress would be pleased 
to send a Connecticut regiment to garrison 
A\'yoming as soon as possible. It is but 120 
miles from Fish Kills, New York. I have 
done all I can for the good of the whole. I 
have given all the support in my power to 
the post, but if troops are not immediately 
sent, these settlements wnll be destroyed in 
detail. In a week or less a regiment could 
march from Fish Kills to Wyoming. My 
little regiment with two classes of Lancaster 
and Berks County Militia, will be scarcely 
sufficient to preserve the posts from Nesco- 
pake falls to ^Nluncy, and from thence to the 
head of Penn's Valley." 

The report sent to Congress from Sun- 
bury by Colonel Hartley was received with 
favor both by Congress and the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania. For his success the execu- 
tive council of the State extended to him a 
unanimous vote of thanks. Immediately 
after sending this letter to Congress, for the 
purpose of guarding the frontier, he re- 


quested that "300 round bullets for three 
pounders, 300 cartridges of grape shot for 
the same bore, 1,000 flints, six barrels of 
powder, a quantity of twine and portfire, a 
ream of cannon cartridge paper," and some 
other small articles be sent to Sunbury. He 
said that they had eight cannon firing three 
pound balls on the frontier, at Forts ]\Iuncy 
and Antes. 

Colonel Hartley remained in the military 
service on the frontier with Sunbury as his 
headquarters from October, 1778, until De- 
cember of that year, when he was elected to 
represent York County in the Pennsylvania 
Assembly. Upon his retirement from the 
military service. Continental Congress, 
deeming the reasons for his resigning satis- 
factor}-, bore testimony of their "high sense 
of Colonel Hartlej^'s merit and services." 

The commissioned officers of Colonel 
Hartley's Regiment, in June, 1777, were the 
following: Colonel Thomas Hartley, ap- 
pointed January 10, 1777; Lieutenant- 
Colonel Morgan Conner, appointed April 9, 
1777; Major Lewis Bush, January 12, 1777; 
Quartermaster John [McAllister, April 17, 
1777; Adjutant Robert Ralston, January 16, 
1777; Paymaster Thomond Ball, January 
15, 1777; Surgeon Jacob Swope, January 15, 
1777; Surgeon Tracey, February 5, 1777: 
Captain Bernard Eichelberger, January 12, 
1777; Captain AA'illiam Nichols, January 13, 
1777; Captain Robert Hoopes, January 13, 
1777; Captain Benjamin C. Stoddart, Janu- 
ary 14, 1777; Captain AVilliam Ivelley, Janu- 
ary 16, 1777; Captain Richard AA'illson, Feb- 
ruary 15, 1777; Captain George Bush, 
March i, 1777; Captain Archibald McAllis- 
ter, x^pril 18, 1777; First Lieutenant Paul 
Parker, January 16, 1777; First Lieutenant 
James Forrester, January 23, 1777; First 
Lieutenant Horatio Ross, January 24, 1777: 
First Lieutenant James Kenny, January 25, 
1777; First Lieutenant James Dill, Febru- 
ary 5, 1777; First Lieutenant Count De 
Momfort, March 23, 1777; First Lieuten- 
ant Charles Croxall, May 25, 1777; First 
Lieutenant John Hughes, June i, 1777; 
Second Lieutenant Andrew Walker, Janu- 
ary 12, 1777; Second Lieutenant Isaac 
Sweeney, January 23, 1777; Second Lieu- 
tenant Henry Carberry, January 24, 1777; 
Second Lieutenant Alartin Eichelberger, 
January 25, 1777; Second Lieutenant Wil- 
liam McCurdy, January 26, 1777; Second 

Lieutenant AA'illiam Clemm, May 26, 1777; 
Ensign George Hillery, February i, 1777; 
Ensign John McBride, February 2, 1777; 
Ensign James McCalmon, January 24, 1777; 
Ensign John Manghan, February 25, 1777; 
Ensign Nachel Dorsey, May i, 1777; En- 
sign John Stake, May 26, 1777. 


Colonel Thomas Hartley was born in 
Colebrookdale, Pennsylvania, September 7, 
1748. His father, George Hartle}^, of Eng- 
lish birth, was one of the early settlers and 
a leading citizen of Berks County. In his 
youth, Thomas Hartley displayed strong in- 
tellectual endowments. He obtained his 
preliminary education at a classical school 
in Reading. In 1766, when eighteen years 
of age, he removed to York, where he 
entered upon the study of law with Samuel 
Johnson, a relative of his mother, and one 
of the early members of the York County 
Bar. He was admitted to the practice of 
law at York in 1769. Although still a young 
man, he was one of the earliest citizens 
west of the Susquehanna to espouse the 
cause of the American colonists when their 
rights were tread upon by the British 

As early as 1774, two years before the 
Declaration of Independence, Thomas Hart- 
ley was chosen first lieutenant of a military 
company at York, for the purpose of 
making disciplined soldiers. In the summer 
of 1775, he was elected lieutenant-colonel 
of the First Battalion of York County As- 
sociators. He now became an active and 
zealous patriot and was chosen lieutenant- 
colonel of a battalion of "Minute Men," se- 
lected from the other five battalions of as- 
sociators in York County. This battalion 
was ready at a moment's notice for any 
emergenc}^ that might occur between the 
colonies and the mother country. In the 
fall of 1775, he joined the expedition to 
Canada and was chosen lieutenant-colonel 
of Irvine's regiment, whose history is given 
in the preceding pages. Upon his return 
from the Canada campaign, he became lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the Seventh Pennsylvania 
Regiment. The remaining part of his mili- 
tary career is given above. 

After his retirement from the army, he 
served as a member of the Pennsylvania 
Legislature in 1779, meantime devoting his 




attentions to his law practice at York. He 
was chosen a member of the Council of 
Censors, in 17S3, to adjust the Revolution- 
ary claims for Pennsylvania. In 178S, he 
was elected a member of the first Congress. 
The success of his career in the House of 
Representatives for a period of twelve 
years, is gi\en in the chapter relating to the 
Representatives in Congress from York 

Although the last twelve years of his life 
were devoted entirely to his professional 
labors and to his brilliant career as a repre- 
sentative in Congress, of which he was one 
of the ablest debaters, he kept up his in- 
terest in military affairs, in which he had 
won distinction during the Revolution, and 
in 1800, the last year of his life, was chosen 
by Governor IMcKean. major-general of the 
militia w-ithin the present area of York and 
Adams Counties. 

Colonel Hartley took part in more than 
twent}' skirmishes and battles during the 
Revolution. He was noted for military skill 
and strategy, and always showed great 
courage in battle. On account of his 
achievements and his amiable personality. 
General ^^'ashington entertained for him 
the highest regard and aft'ection. The 
authorities of Pennsylvania and Continental 
Congress paid high tribute to his worth as 
a soldier and to his sterling patriotism, 
while serving in the army. He was highly 
esteemed by his fellow-officers with whom 
he was associated during the war for inde- 
pendence. He died at York, December 21, 
1800, at the early age of fifty-two, after 
having nearly completed his sixth term in 

Xew Eleventh Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Line, and a gallant soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, was born in York County in 1753. 
James Prowell, his grandfather, came to 
America in 1705 w^ith the early A\'elsh immi- 
gration, and settled on the Welsh tract in 
the northern part of Chester County. The 
children of James Prowell were Charles, 
Mary and Thomas. Charles joined a 
Chester County regiment at the advanced 
age of sixty years, and was lost, either 
killed or captured, in the first Jersey cam- 
paign, during the Revolution. ]Mary was 
married to Richard Buck, in the First 
Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia. 

Thomas Prowell. the }-oungest son and 
father of Major Prowell, was a prominent 
farmer and iron manufacturer of Chester 
County. In 1752, he was married in Gloria 
Dei, known as Old Swede's Church, in the 
southern part of Philadelphia, to Rachel 
Grififith, a Quakeress from Chester County. 
This ceremony took place shortly after this 
church w;as transferred from the Lutherans 
to the Episcopalians. Many of the relatives 
of Rachel Griffith migrated wdth the early 
Quakers, who settled in Warrington and 
Newberry Townships. Soon after their 
marriage, Thomas and Rachel Prowell 
moved to AAarrington, where he purchased 
a tract of land near the Conewago. They 
remained in York County about three 
years, and then returned to Chester County, 
where the youngest son. Captain AA'illiam 
Prowell, was born in I755- Thomas 
Prowell died in 1765, leaving an estate of 
412 pounds, in Chester County, of which 
David Thomas and Joseph Coates were 
executors ; and an estate of 336 pounds in 
York County, of which Robert Nelson and 
Peter Gardner were executors. His wnll be- 
queathed ecjual shares to his wadow^ and two 
sons, and named Rev. Owen Thomas as 
guardian of his son Joseph, and Joseph 
Coates guardian of his son AA'illiam. 

Joseph Prowell Avas educated at the Uni- 
\-ersity of Pennsylvania, and early in life 
engaged in the iron business w'ith his 
brother AA'illiam. At the opening of the 
war for independence, he was a member of 
the Philadelphia Light Plorse, afterward 
known as the City Troop. This famous 
cavalry company w^as present at the battles 
of Trenton and Princeton in 1776. 

On January 11, 1777, Joseph Prowell was 
detached from the City Troop and com- 
missioned a captain in Colonel John Pat- 
ton's additional regiment of the Pennsyl- 
vania Line, composed of men from Chester 
and Philadelphia Counties. AA'ith this regi- 
ment he took part, during that year, in the 
battles of Brandywine and Germantown. 
For his military skill and gallantry in action 
Captain Prowell was promoted major of 
his regiment January i, 1778. On January 
13, 1779, Major Prowell was transferred to 
the New Eleventh Pennsylvania Regiment, 
whose command was assigned to Colonel 
Thomas Hartley, of York. AA'hen it was 
decided to send an expedition, under Gen- 



eral Sullivan, against the Indians in the 
Wyoming Valle}', in Pennsylvania, and 
Cherry Valley, in New York, Major 
Prowell commanded a detachment of the 
New Eleventh Regiment, in all 200 men, to 
lead the advance. He marched from Easton 
and reached Bear Creek, about ten miles 
south-west of ^^'ilkes-Barre, on the night of 
April 19. It was now thought they were 
out of danger from the Indians. Major 
Prowell ordered that officers and men 
should dress in their best apparel, their 
arms be newly burnished, ancl everything 
be put in order to present a fine appearance 
upon entering the beautiful A\'yoming Val- 

AVhen they reached Laurel Run, four 
miles southwest of AVilkesbarre, they were 
attacked by a band of Indians lying in am- 
bush, when Captain Davis, Lieutenant 
Jones, Corporal Butler and three privates 
were killed. Owing to this surprise the 
troops were thrown into confusion. Thej^ 
retreated a short distance and formed in 
line of battle and succeeded in dispersing 
the Indians, who fled after a few scattering- 
discharges, and the troops entered the val- 
ley to garrison the fort at AVyoming, where 
the massacre had occurred some time