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Full text of "History of Zionism : 1600-1918"



CL^i^^'^y,^ •^ •• ri 

/hiroM EhMON'D //f RoTHSCHII.!) 


.1/. AlME MORO 

ory of Zionism 









VOL 11. 








The present volume contains the continuation and documenta- 
tion of Volume I. 

After the conclusion of the historical review in its chronological 
order, it was considered desirable to supplement a portion of the 
narrative by adding further chapters, which will be found at the 
beginning of the present volume. These chapters bring the 
historical narrative up to the outbreak of the War in 1914. 

The developments in the Zionist Movement during the War 
are dealt with in a separate account, which is not claimed to be, 
in the proper sense of the word, an historical study, but an 
account of recent activities up to the Peace Conference. 

The present volume also contains an introduction, written by 
the French Ministre des Affaires Etrangeres, M. Pichon, which 
arrived too late to be included in the first volume, and a character 
sketch of the late Sir Mark Sykes, whose death occurred while 
the present volume was in the press, to whose memory a tribute 
is offered. 

The appendices contain not only the text of documents re- 
ferred to in the body of the book, many of them hitherto un- 
published, but also essays on subjects related to the main purpose 
of the work — for instance, Jewish art, and Hebrew literature — 
and notes of a bibliographical or critical character. 

It is desired to point out that the nature of the subject with 
which this work deals rendered it inevitable that it should to 
some extent assume an encyclopaedic rather than a narrative 
character. The innumerable sources from which Zionism draws 
its being, the geographical dispersion of the Jewish people, the 
many events and phenomena outside of the life of the Jewish 
people which have had and still have their bearing on the de- 
velopment of the Jewish National idea, give it inevitably the f ( rrn 
that it has assumed. The author is well aware that the History 
of Zionism as narrated in these pages does not appear as alto- 
gether a symmetrical structure. Some periods dealt with in the 
story are somewhat disjointed, and as a necessary consequence the 
record of those periods reflects the same character. A writer who 
cared more for the form than for the correctness of the narrative 
would in such a case have recourse to his imagination in order to 
fill in the blanks. The present author has not, however, done so . 
He has attempted rather to let Zionism appear as it really was 
in the different countries and epochs with which he has dealt. 
Where his narrative is fragmentary events were fragmentary. 
In the earliest periods the different elements of Zionism were 


sometimes completely detached from one another. An exact de- 
scription of these therefore takes necessarily an encyclopaedic 
character. But Zionism develops as a unity, and at the end it 
will be found to offer to the reader a united picture. 

The present book treats of the History of Zionism especially 
in England and France, but it has been found both impossible 
and also undesirable to exclude from the narrative all references 
to certain important events and personaUties of other countries. 
Zionism in England and France, however, forms the main thesis 
of these volumes. Furthermore, this book is not only a history 
of the Zionist efforts among the Jews, it also narrates the history 
of similar efforts by non- Jews, in connexion with political events 
and Uterary manifestations in the countries in which they worked. 
At the same time the author has endeavoured as Httle as possible 
to cover ground that has already been repeatedly traversed, his 
intention being rather to break new ground and especially to 
bring to light hitherto unknown sources, old and forgotten prints, 
unpublished manuscripts and archives. These he has used to 
illustrate and document his narrative. 

The plan which the author has followed falls under three 
headings : — 

(I) The special treatment of Zionism in England and France ; 
(II) A particular consideration of the pro-Zionist efforts outside 
of Jewry ; and 
(III) The pubhcation of previously unknown literary and 
archival sources. 

In accordance with this plan this history begins in the year 
1600, although the history of Zionism in reality opened much 
earlier, even perhaps at the beginning of the Jewish history of 
the countries dealt with. 

Material for a thorough treatment of the History of Zionism 
in other countries, including many monographs and historical 
notices which remain in the hands of the author, as well as further 
recent diplomatic and other documents relating to the most recent 
development of Zionism and in connexion with the Peace Con- 
ference of 1919, will be used as the basis of further volumes. 

Pubhcation of an index to the work might well have been de- 
ferred until these volumes had been completed, but the author 
thinks that he ought not to delay one any longer. At the end of 
the present volume, therefore, the reader will find a thorough 
index of persons and of subjects, for which Mr. Jac -b Mann, m.a., 
is responsible and to whom he hereby tenders his thanks. 

Finally, the author wishes to supplement the expression of 
thanks addressed to those of his friends who are mentioned in the 
Preface to the first volume of this work for the assistance they 
have rendered him in its preparation, and to mention in particular 
the good services of Mr. Albert M. Hyamson and M. Andr^ Spire. 

Paris, June^ 1919. 




FiDELE aux traditions de son histoire, la France 
vient de montrer une fois de plus, au prix du sang 
de tant de ses fils, comment elle entend les devoirs 
que lui impose son role seculaire d'emancipatrice des 
opprimes. Elle sort aujourd'hui victorieuse d'une 
lutte decisive, soutenue au nom du Droit menace 
par la brutalite d'un imperialisme sans scrupules. 
Champion des grandes idees qu'il a, plus que tout 
autre, semees a travers le monde, notre pays a puise 
dans la conscience d'etre un vivant symbole de 
justice, la force de terrasser son adversaire. II a, du 
moins aujourd'hui, le droit de se dire, non sans fierte, 
qu'il n'est plus au monde une race ou une nation qui 
ne puisse faire entendre ses legitimes aspirations, et 
qui ne sache qu'en France il y aura toujours un coeur 
pour les adopter. 

Dans la paix comme dans la guerre, la France, 
etroitement unie a ses Allies, veut demeurer fidele a 
sa parole. EUe a profnis aux nationalites naguere 
asservies de def endre leurs interets et de faire respec- 
ter leurs droits. Elle ne reniera pas une promesse 
dont la realisation, en inaugurant une ere nouvelle 
de rhistoire du monde, justifiera les sacrifices con- 
sentis a la cause commune. Elle ne laissera se 
commettre aucune injustice, d'ou qu'elle vienne, et 
qu'elle qu'en soit la victime. Elle ne saurait per- 


mettre, en particulier, sans protester hautement, 
qu'une majorite ethnique ou confessionnelle puisse 
desormais abuser impunement de sa force a I'egard 
d'autres Elements voisins, plus faibles ou plus dis- 

C'est dire Techo que ne pourra manquer d'eveiller 
chez les Frangais la voix eloquente du representant 
le plus autorise du Sionisme. Monsieur Sokolow, 
mettant au service de son ideal, un talent qui n'en 
est plus a son premier essai, s'attache a nous retracer 
riiistoire des doctrines au triomphe desquelles il n'a 
cesse de consacrer le meilleur de ses forces. Sachant 
combien il importe, aujourd'hui, de demontrer his- 
toriquement les origines et les antecedents des idees 
que Ton professe, il a voulu nous exposer les titres 
que possede le Sionisme a s'imposer a Tattention des 
Allies, au moment oti ceux-ci procedent a une 
reconstitution du monde entier. Monsieur Sokolow, 
dont la foi dans le succes final de nos armes ne 
connut jamais de def alliances, possede une foi au 
moins egale dans T esprit de justice qui preside a 
I'oeuvre de la Conference de la Paix. Les sympa- 
thies et les concours precieux qu'il a su trouver chez 
nos amis Britanniques, et dont Mr. Balfour lui 
renouvelle ici-meme T assurance la plus formelle, 
sont aux protagonistes du Sionisme un sur garant 
de I'accueil que la France reserve a leur genereuse 

Non seulement, en effet la race juive n'a cesse d'etre, 
au cours des siecles, persecutee, d^cimee, poursuivie 
sans treve par une haine incapable de desarmer ; 
plus malheureuse encore que tant d'autres peuples 
opprim^s, qui ont pu conserver au moins un symbole 
de leur grand passe, les Juifs n'ont pu sauver ce 
dernier vestige. D'autres qu'eux memes sont de- 
venus les maitres de Ja Judee. Disperses a travers 


le monde, beaucoup aspirent aujourd'hui plus que 
jamais a reprendre la chaine brisee par tant de 
conquerants successifs, de leurs traditions ethniques 
et religieuses : ils pensent aussi qu'une telle restaura- 
tion n'est possible qu'appuyee sur des realites, c'est 
a dire, en Tespece, sur un foyer moral national 
reconstitue au milieu des mines de T antique Judee. 
Qui done, sans avoir perdu les plus element aires 
sentiments d'humanite et de justice, pourrait refuser 
aux exiles de revendiquer leur place, au meme titre 
que les autres elements indigenes, dans cette Pales- 
tine oil un controle collectif des Puissances euro- 
peennes assurera desormais a chacun le respect de ses 
droits les plus sacres ? 

Entree en guerre pour assurer la victoire definitive 
du Droit sur la force, la France se felicite de Tappui 
que le Sionisme a rencontre chez elle et chez ses 
Allies. Une doctrine qui a pour elle, outre la justice, 
I'eloquence d'avocats tels que M. Sokolow est assuree 
de succes. Je suis heureux de Toccasion qui m'est 
offerte de reiterer les voeux que le Gouvernement de 
la Republique n'a cesse de faire pour le triomphe 
final d'une cause qui rallie tant de sympathies 



INTRODUCTION, by M. Stephen Pichon 








From the Second to the Fourth 


Choveve Zion and Zionists in England — Louis Loewe — 
Nathan Marcus Adler — Albert Lowy — Abraham Benisch — 
The Rev. M. J. Raphall— Dr. M. Caster— Rabbi Samuel 
Mohilewer — English representation at the Second and 
Third Congresses- — The Fourth Congress in London. 

CHAPTER XLIXb. The Death of Herzl 

England and Zionism^ — Sir B. Arnold in the Spectator — 
Cardinal Vaughan — Lord Rosebery — The death of Herzl — 
David Wolfisohn — Prof. Otto Warburg — Zionism in the 
smaller states. 

CHAPTER XLIXc. The Pogroms 

The year 1906 — Pogroms — Emigration- — Conder and his 
activities — An Emigration Conference — The Eighth Con- 
gress — The question cf the Headquarters. 

CHAPTER XLIXd. The Death of Wolffsohn 

1 9 10- 1 4 — The Tenth and Eleventh Congresses— 

CHAPTER XLIXe. On the Eve of the War 

-Death of 

Baron Edmond de Rothschild in Palestine — Sir John Gray 
Hill — Professor S. Schechter — South African Statesmen — 
A Canadian Statesman — Christian religious literature 


General Survey . 

Zionist Propaganda in Wartime 


The Jewish National Fund . 

Zionism and Jewish Relief Work 

The Russian Revolution 








ZIONISM DURING THE WAR, 1914-1918— continued- 
Political Activities in England and the Allied Countries 
Conference of English Zionist Federation in 191 7 
Zionism and Public Opinion in England 
Co-ordination of Zionists' Reports 
The British Declaration and its Reception 
London Opera House Demonstration 
Manifesto to the Je>\ish People 
Declarations of the Entente Governments 



I. The Prophets and the Idea of a National Restoration 161 

II. Rev. Paul Knell : Israel and England Paralleled . 168 

III. Matthew Arnold on Righteousness in the Old Testa- 

ment ........ 169 

IV. " Esperan9a de Israel," by Manasseh Ben-Israel 169 
V. " Spes Israelis," by Manasseh Ben-Israel . . 171 

VI. "Hope of Israel — Ten Tribes ... in America — 
7X11?* nipD — De Hoop Van Israel," by Manasseh 

Ben-Israel ....... 171 

VII. The Humble Addresses of Manasseh Ben-Israel. . 173 

VIII. " Vindiciae Judaeorum," by Manasseh Ben-Israel . 173 

IX. Ensefia A Pecadores . . . . . .173 

X. " De Termino Vitae — of the Term of Life," by Manasseh 

Ben-Israel . . . . . . -174 

XI. " D^*n riDK'J — De Immortalitate Animae," by Man- 
asseh Ben-Israel . . . . . 175 

XII. " Rights of the Kingdom," by John Sadler . .176 

XIII. " Nova Solyma," edited by the Rev. Walter Begley . 176 

XIV. " Praeadamitae — Men before Adam," by Isaac de La 

Peyrdre ........ 180 

XV. Isaac Vossius ....... 180 

XVI. " Doomes-Day "....... 181 

XVII. " Restauration of ^// Israel /lM(i Judah " . . . 182 
XVI II. " Apology for the Honorable Nation of the Jews — 
Apologia por la Noble Nacion de los Ivdios — 
Verantwoordinge voor de edele Volcken der 
Jooden," by Edward Nicholas . . . .182 

XIX. " A Word for the Annie," by Hugh Peters . . 183 

XX. Isaac da Fonseca Aboab ...... 183 

XXI. Dr. Abraham Zacutus Lusitanus . .184 

XXU. Jacob Judah Aryeh de Leon 185 

XXIU. Thesouro Dos Dinim 188 

XXIV. " Rettung der Juden," by Manasseh Ben-Israel . .189 

XXV. Newes from Rome 191 

XXVI. "The World's Great Restauration." by Sir Henry 

Finch ........ 207 

XXVII. " The World's Great Restauration " — continued 208 

XXVIII. Philip Ferdinandus 209 

XXIX. Petition of the Jewes Johanna and Ebenezer Cart (en) 

(w)right 210 

XXX. ' The Messiah Already Come," by John Harrison 210 



XXXI. " Discourse of Mr. John Dury to Mr. Thorowgood — 
Jewes in America," by Tho. Thorowgood — 
"Americans no Jews," by Hamon I'Estrange . 211 
XXXII. " Whether it be Lawful to Admit Jews into a Chris- 
tian Commonwealth," by John Dury . . .212 

XXXIII. " Life and Death of Henry Jessey " . . . .212 

XXXIV. " The Glory of Jehudah and Israel— De Heerlichkeydt 

. . . van Jehuda en Israel," by Henry Jesse . 214 

XXXV. Of the Late Proceeds at White-Hall, concerning the 

Jews (Henry Jesse) . . . . . .215 

XXXVI. Bishop Thomas Newton and the Restoration of Israel 216 
XXXVII, " A Call to the Christians and the Hebrews " . .217 

XXXVIII. The Centenary of the British and Foreign Bible 

Society ........ 218 

XXXIX. Lord Kitchener and the Palestine Exploration Fund 219 
XL. Bonaparte's Call to the Jews ..... 220 

XLI. Letter addressed by a Jew to his Co-religionists in 1798 220 
XLII. " Transactions of the Parisian Sanhedrim," by Diogene 

Tama ........ 222 

XLIII. " Signs of the Times " — " A Word in Season " — 
" Commotions since French Revolution " — " His- 
tory of Christianity " — " The German Empire " — 
" Fulfilment of Prophecy," by Rev. James Bicheno 223 
XLIV. " Restoration of the Jews " — " Friendly Address to 
the Jews," by the Rev. James Bicheno — "Letter 
to Mr. Bicheno," by David Levi .... 223 

XLV. " Attempt to Remove Prejudices Concerning the 

Jewish Nation," by Thomas Witherby . . 225 

XLVI. " Observations on Mr. Bicheno's Book," by Thomas 

Witherby ........ 225 

XLVII. " Letters to the Jews," by Joseph Priestley . . 225 

XL VIII. " An Address to the Jews on the Present State of the 

World," by Joseph Priestley .... 226 

XLIX. " Letters to Dr. Priestley," by David Levi , . 226 

L. "A Famous Passover Melody," by the Rev. F. L. 

Cohen ........ 227 

LI. " Reminiscences of Lord Byron . . . Poetry, etc., of 

Lady Caroline Lamb," by Isaac Nathan . . 228 

LII. " Selection of Hebrew Melodies," by John Braham 

and Isaac Nathan ...... 228 

LIII. Earl of Shaftesbury's Zionist Memorandum — Scheme 

for the Colonisation of Palestine . . . .229 

LIV. Restoration of the Jews . . . . . .231 

LV. Another Zionist Memorandum — Restoration of the 

Jews ........ 236 

LVI. Extracts from Autograph and other Letters between 

Sir Moses Montefiore and Dr. N. M. Adler . . 237 

LVII. The Final Exodus ....... 245 

LVIII. Disraeli and the Purchase of the Suez Canal Shares . 246 
LIX. Cyprus and Palestine ...... 247 

LX. Disraeli and Heine ....... 248 

LXI. Disraeli's Defence of the Jews ..... 249 

LXII. A Hebrew Address to Queen Victoria (1849) . . 250 

LXIII. An Appeal by Ernest Laharanne (i860) . . . 251 



LXIV. Statistics of the Holy Land 252 

LXV. An Open Letter of Rabbi Chajryim Zebi Sneersohn of 

Jerusalem (1863) ...... 253 

LXVI. The Tragedy of a Minority, as seen by an English 

Jewish Publicist (1863) ..... 255 

LXVII. London Hebrew Society for the Colonization of the 

Holy Land . . . . . . .256 

LXVIII. An Open Letter of Henri Dunant (1866) . . .259 

LXIX. An Appeal of Rabbi Elias Gutmacher and Rabbi 

Hirsch Kalischer to the Jews of England {1867) 262 

LXX. Alexandre Dumas (fils) and Zionism . . . 263 

LXXI. Appeal of Dunant 's Association for the Colonisation 

of Palestine (1867) ...... 265 

LXXII. Edward Cazalet's Zionist Views . . . .267 

LXXIII. A Collection of Opinions of English Christian Authori- 
ties on the Colonization of Palestine . . .269 

LXXIV. Petition to the Sultan 279 

LXXV. (i) Chovevd Zion and Zionist Workers . . . 281 

(2) Modem Hebrew Literature ..... 309 

LXXVL Note upon the Alliance Israelite Universelle and the 

Anglo- Jewish Association . . . . .318 

LXXVIL An Appeal of the Berlin Kadima .... 325 

LXXVIII. The Jewish Colonies in Palestine . . . 326 

LXXIX. The Manifesto of the Bilu (1882) . . . .332 

LXXX. Zionism and Jewish Art ...... 333 

LXXXI. Progress of Zionism in the West since 1897 . -347 

LXXXIL The Institutions of Zionism 358 

LXXXIII. David Wolffsohn's Autobiography . . . .388 

LXXXI V. Some English Press Comments on the London Zionist 

Congress (1900) ....... 389 

LXXXV. Colonel Conder on the Value of the Jewish National 

Movement (1903) ...... 391 

LXXX VI. Lord Gwydyr on Zionism and the Arabs . . . 392 

LXXXVII. Consular Reports 395 

LXXX VII I. " Advent of the Millennium " (Moore) . . . 399 

LXXXI X. Cremieux's Circular to the Jews in Western Europe . 400 

XC. " The Banner of the Jews " (Emma Lazarus) . . 400 

XCI. " The Advanced Guard " 401 

ADDENDA 403-425 




INDEX 461 


Baron Edmond de Rothschild 
LiEUT.-CoL. Sir Mark Sykes, Bart, M.P. 
Rt. Hon. Arthur J. Balfour, M.P. 
Gen. Sir Edmund H. H. Allenby 

M. S. J. M. PiCHON . 

M. Jules Cambon . 

H.E. Paolo Boselli 

H.E. Baron Sidney Sonnino 

M. A. F. J. Ribot . 

M. G. E. B. Clemenceau 

President Thomas Woodrow Wilson 

Rt. Hon. David Lloyd George, M.P. 

Laying Foundation Stone of the Hebrew University 

The Kattowitz Conference, 5644=1884 . 


Facimr p. Xvii 













Leopold Pilicfunuski. tqi8 

LieuLCol. Sir Mark Sykk?, Bart., M.P. 



A MOST tragic event took place on the i6th of February, 
1919, when the world lost one of the most valiant champions 
of Zionism, namely Sir Mark Sykes, Bart., M.P. He fell 
like a hero in the thick of the fight ; he was suddenly 
extinguished, as it were a torch in full blaze. He stood 
towering above the crowd of sceptics and grumblers, viewing 
the promised land as from Pisgah's height, his clear eye 
fixed on Zion. He was at once a sage and a warrior, a knight 
in the service of the sacred spirit of the national idea 
without fear or reproach, whom nothing could overcome 
but the doom of sudden and premature death. Sir Mark 
Sykes was but forty years old, physically a giant, a 
picture of perfect manhood, full of youthful vigour, a 
soldier and a poet, a fervid patriot and a kindly and self- 
sacrificing friend of humanity. He was one of the born 
representatives of that tradition which for centuries has 
inseparably united the genius of Great Britain with the 
Zionist ideal of the Jewish people. In him appeared to be 
harmoniously united the soaring imagination of Byron, the 
deep mysticism of Thomas Moore, the religious zeal of 
Cardinal Manning and the statesmanly and wide outlook 
of Disraeli. 

The germs of Sykes' Zionism lay latent in him in his 
earliest years. He was scarcely eight years old when his 
father took him for the first time to Jerusalem. He often 
related how when many years later he visited a certain spot 
in Palestine, an elderly Arab told him that years before an 
English gentleman had been there with a little boy, leaving 
behind him kindly memories. His father, a wealthy land- 
owner in Yorkshire, was one of the principal churchbuilders 
in England of his time. He was a gentleman of the 
old style, a protector of the poor, fired with religious 
enthusiasm, who devoted untiring labour to the manage- 
ment of his family estate. Every foot of this extensive 


family estate with its churches and schools, its country 
houses and old and new farms and dwellings, with its 
great collections and its old and valuable library, bears 
the impress not only of marked diligence and refined taste, 
but also of an unusual sense of continuity and tradition. 
Long before the traveller from Hull reaches the estate, a 
high and slender tower strikes his eye. It is the monument 
that has been erected in memory of the grandfather, the 
old squire, an original character about whom Sir Mark was 
wont to tell so many amusing stories. Long after the intro- 
duction of railways he used to ride his steed to London, and 
on the way often used to stop, take the hammer from the 
navvies who were breaking road-metal, and perform their 
work for them for hours at a time. Now his statue is to be 
seen in a chapel-like recess crowned with a high tower on one 
of the main roads of the estate. His son. Sir Mark's father, 
was not less of an original character. He had nothing of 
the tradition of feudal lords — the family was descended 
from an old and very rich shipbuilding family in Hull 
which flourished in the i6th century, had by the 17th 
century gained a great reputation, and later had business 
relations with Peter the Great — but he rather repre- 
sented the type of a fanciful Maecenas, whose hobby 
it was constantly to remodel buildings or to erect new 
ones. His ancestors had built ships, he built houses. 
That amounted to a passion in him, a noble passion, a 
desire to build, endow and found. And as he was 
very reUgious he built churches. He also travelled widely 
and gathered large collections in his country house. His 
religion was nominally High Church, but he must have 
had strong leanings towards Catholicism. His wife, the 
mother of Sir Mark, was an ardent Catholic. Sir Mark was 
attached to his mother, and was brought up in the Catholic 
faith. On his mother's side Sir Mark had a decided strain 
of Irish blood, but the English type was predominant in 
him. His features, however, were of extraordinary gentle- 
ness, his eyes large and clear blue in colour, and a wisp of 
hair would often fall over his brow. He was an Enghsh 
Catholic and cherished in his heart the memory of the not 
so far distant time when CathoHcs were persecuted, and 
restricted in their civil rights. He was a CathoHc in a coun- 
try where the Catholics constitute a small and weak minority, 
and often he remarked to me that it was his Catholicism 
that enabled him to understand the tragedy of the Jewish 


question, since not so long since Catholics had to suffer 
much in England. His Catholicism did not make him 
fanatical ; it made him rather cosmopolitan, that is to say, 
catholic in the pure sense of the word. He received an ex- 
ceptionally careful education and studied hard in Catholic 
schools before he took his course at Cambridge. The fact 
that in his early youth he had Jesuit priests among his 
teachers was often exploited by those who envied him, in 
a sense which suggested a leaning in him towards Jesuitism. 
If the term Jesuitism be taken to mean a zeal for Catholi- 
cism, then there can be no doubt that this assertion is correct, 
since Sir Mark was certainly very religious. But if this 
expression be taken in the customary sense, namely, as 
equivalent to clerical intrigue, hypocrisy and spiteful hate 
of other religions, nothing was more remote from the 
character, the mental outlook and all other attributes of 
Sir Mark than such a form of Jesuitism. He was incapable 
equally of dissembling or of servile conduct ; he was proud 
without being arrogant, and was severe and inflexible when 
truth was at stake. His soul was an open book ; he troubled 
himself neither of career nor of popularity. He possessed 
an ideal, and this ideal was the sole test of all his thought 
and actions. At heart he was pious, a good Christian and 
a good Catholic : he never prided himself upon his faith, 
which was a sacred thing to him : religious boast and pro- 
paganda were alike foreign to him : his relations with God 
were an intimate personal matter which concerned no 
stranger ; but his faith was the moving force of his life 
which afforded him courage to go forward and strength to 
endure and to deny himself. 

When I was with Sir Mark in Hull, where we came 
to speak at a great Zionist meeting last summer, the 
member for Hull disappeared from my sight for several 
hours on one occasion. I presumed that he had gone to 
the old Catholic cathedral to attend a service as he fre- 
quently did. On returning he told me that he had visited 
his old teachers, the Jesuit fathers, and that he had con- 
vinced them that it was the duty of Christians to atone for 
the crime that humanity has not ceased for many centuries 
to commit against the Jewish people in withholding their 
old native country from them. " This was not so difficult," 
he added, " as one of these fathers is an avowed friend of 
the Jewish people. When, some years ago, a protest meet- 
ing was held in Hull against the Beilis trial (the trumped-up 


story of ritual murder that had emanated in Kiev from the 
Russian anti-Semites), this priest had appeared on the plat- 
form to declare in the name of his religion that the perse- 
cutions of the Jews that took place in Russia under the old 
regime were a blot upon civihsation." The meeting which 
was to be held that same day was to be attended by Jews 
and Christians equally. He said with a humorous smile 
that his success with the fathers made him hope for equal 
success with the whole Christian audience at that meeting. 
'* Perhaps people find fault with me," he continued, " that 
I have neglected their local affairs. A member for Hull 
who gives all his time to Zionism may be rather a puzzle to 
the good people of Hull, but I think I shall manage them — 
will you be responsible for the Jews ? " I replied, " Very 
well, I shall be responsible for the Jews, but only with your 
help ; the Jews are more impressed by an English baronet 
who is a Christian than by a fellow Jew like me." " It is 
to be regretted," he said somewhat sadly, " that the Jews 
rather than follow leaders of their own race bow and scrape 
to Gentiles. How do you explain that ? " I answered : 
" That is the spirit of the Exile, that can be combated only 
by means of Zionism." 

The meeting was most successful. There never had been 
such a Zionist triumph in Hull. The enthusiasm was shared 
by both the Christian representatives and the Jewish popu- 
lation, the latter but recently arrived for the most part from 
Eastern Europe. There was only one discordant note in 
the speeches, and that probably escaped the notice of most 
of those present, and did not detract in the least from 
the success of the meeting ; this was an utterance that 
offended Sir Mark's religious sentiment. "It is natural," 
someone said, " for Sir Mark to be a friend of the Jews as he 
is such a good Christian, and must be conscious of the fact 
that the founder of Christianity belonged to the Jewish 
race ; moreover. Sir Mark as a Catholic venerates the Holy 
Mother who was as we know a daughter of the Jewish 
people." This utterance pained Sir Mark and hurt me very 
much. I afterwards had long talks with Sir Mark about 
this tactlessness, which could only have been committed 
by a quasi-assimilated Jew. The speaker may have meant 
it well, but a Zionist could never have made such a mistake, 
for to be a Zionist, means not only to desire immediate 
emigration to Palestine, but also to maintain the proper 
practical attitude to the non- Jewish world. This attitude 


is one neither of servility nor of arrogance, it is one of digni- 
fied yet modest and noble self-consciousness, self-respect 
and respect for others. 

In order to understand the attitude of such as Sir Mark 
and others like him in his own and other nations, towards 
the Jewish problem, it is necessary to study the problem 
more closely than is common among the unthinking crowd 
who bandy about the words anti-Semitism and philo- 
Semilism, and, upon their superficial observations, condemn 
one man as an anti-Semite and laud another as a philo- 
Semite, according as whether they hate or love certain 
individual Jews. The crowd does not understand that one 
can be a great friend of the Jewish people and a great admirer 
of the Jewish genius and yet find such things ridiculous 
and repulsive as the apeing, the servihty, the obtrusiveness, 
the hollowness and the empty display, the desire to intrude 
everywhere, the excessive zeal of the neophytes and all the 
unpleasant traits of some assimilated Jews. On the other 
hand, one may approve of all these qualities and rejoice 
that certain Jews have become rich, obtained titles or gained 
high office in so far as one desires the assimilation of the 
Jewish people and the extinction of the Jewish spirit. 

Anti-Semitism is fractricidal in that it implies hatred and 
contempt for, and the desire to persecute a whole race. It 
is organised outrage, because it employs the brutal power 
of a majority to insult a defenceless minority and to 
deprive it of human rights. It is consciously calumnious 
because it instigates malice against the Jewish people or 
religion and exploits for this purpose actual weaknesses or 
faiUngs belonging in reality to neither the race nor the 
religion. It is biassed and sophistical because it generalises 
from the faults of individuals and because it fixes itself 
upon the mote in another's eye without perceiving the beam 
in its own. 

Philo-Semitism in the true sense of the word resembles 
philhellenism. The latter does not mean simply friendly 
intercourse with parvenu Greeks, but sympathy for the 
Hellenic people as such, and with the spirit of Hellenism 
and an endeavour to aid these and to estabUsh them. Of 
such a kind was the philo-Semitism of Sir Mark Sykes. I 
will speak plainly, and do not hesitate to state that he had 
no liking for the hybrid type of the assimilating Jew. He 
had no wish to interfere with such people ; he emphatically 
condemned any attempt at suppression of rights or chi- 


caner}^ but he did not like this type just because he was fond 
of the Jewish people. What was of the Jewish essence, of 
the Jewish tradition, was sacred to his reUgious sense and 
stimulating to his artistic sense. In this lay the secret, not 
exactly of our personal success with Sykes (for our cause is 
of too great an importance in the world's history to be 
connected with personaUties) but of the wonderful concord 
of minds which was the natural outcome of his outlook 
The opposite poles attracted each other with irresistible 
force. Truly anglicised Jews could not have had the 
hundredth part of the same success with him, not because 
of their not being excellent patriots and capable men (for 
such many of them incontestably are and Sykes was fond 
of society and of making acquaintances and was amiable to 
all), but for him there were real Englishmen enough. Con- 
cerning EngUsh affairs, national questions and parliamentary 
matters he would discourse with anglicised Jews on the 
same footing as English non-Jews, but concerning the spirit 
of Jewish history, the ethos of Hebraism, the national 
sufferings and aspirations, that emerge only in national 
Hebrew literature, in the large centres of Jewish population 
in Eastern Europe and in the new settlements in Palestine 
— concerning all these matters he would and could seek 
information only from the fountain source. These are the 
things that have succeeded with Sykes and others and that 
will succeed further, not high diplomacy. There is no lack 
of this latter at the Foreign Office, which swarms with great 
diplomats, and it would be carrying coals to Newcastle 
to seek to add more trained specialists to the crowd of busy 
poUticians in Downing Street. There could be no success 
with Sykes that way. He was, as it were, born to work with 
us Hebrews for Zionism. 

The spirit of the East breathed in this Yorkshire gentle- 
man. In his earUest youth he showed a keen interest for 
Arabia, for Islam and the Turkish Empire. At Cambridge 
he studied Arabic under Professor E. G. Browne, and there 
also he met the lady who was afterwards to be his wife and 
true helpmeet, a daughter of Sir John Gorst, who was 
at the time one of the members of parliament for the 
University. In the year 1898 Sykes, then a young student, 
undertook a second journey to the liast, and stayed much 
of his time in the Hauran. He devoted himself with the 
entire freshness and sincerity of his youth (he was then but 
twenty years old) to his observations as a traveller. In the 


year 1900 appeared his first book, which recounts his im- 
pressions in an elegant style and light form.^ In this book 
he ascribes to his guide, a Christian Arab named Isa, the 
following words apropos of the Jews there, that they were 
" dirty like Rooshan and robber like Armenian." ^ Sykes 
himself had at that time no clear idea of Jews or of Ar- 
menians — of the two peoples for whom he strove and died 
nineteen years later. He cites an expression of opinion and 
repeats it in the bad English of an Arab guide. After his 
return from the East, he devoted his attention to military 
studies, in which he distinguished himself. He served in the 
South African War in 1900-2. He gave a proof of his 
technical knowledge in his work on strategy and military 
training which he had compiled in collaboration with Major 
George d'Ordel.^ In the year 1904 he was travelling again, 
and the literary product of his later and earlier journeys 
was his second considerable book on Islam and the Orient. "^ 
This book is dedicated to his fellow-soldiers in the South 
African War.^ In this work already speaks to us a young 
but mature man who had travelled much in four continents 
and had been through the South African Campaign. Here we 
already perceive the fundamentals of his later Zionism. 
As regards the future of the Orient he looks not to modern 
civilisation and capitalism, but to the latent force of national 
life. He was not deceived by the specious platitudes so 
dear to that deplorable product of modern European 
democracy ' the man in the street ' as to ' extending the 
blessing of Western civilisation ' ; he regarded rather with 
unconcealed apprehension the contingency of the Western 
Asiatics becoming ' a prey to capitalists of Europe and 
America,' "in which case a designing Imperial Boss might, 
untrammelled by the Government, reduce them to serfdom 
for the purpose of filling his pockets and gaining the name 
of Empire-maker." (Prof. Browne's Preface, Dar-ul-Islam, 
p. iv). He had a great predilection for all national individu- 
alities, and detested the desire to imitate and assimilate. 
" He hated the hybrid Levantine . . . and faithfully 

^ Through Five Turkish Provinces, by Mark Sykes. London, Bickers 
and Son. 1900, 

2 Ibid., p. 127. 

3 Tactics and Military Training. By Major George d'Ordel and Captain 
Mark Sykes. London. 1902. 

* Dar-Ul-Islam. A record of a journey through Ten of the Asiatic 
Provinces of Turkey. By Mark Sykes. London. 1904. 

* " The F Company, 3rd Batt. Princess of Wales' Own Yorkshire 
Regiment, who served in South Africa, 1900-2." 


portrayed the Gosmopaleet (Cosmopolite) " (ibid.). He 
condemned interfering tutelage. " Orientals hate to be 
worried and hate to have their welfare attended to. . . . 
Oppression they can bear with equanimity, but inter- 
ference for their own good they never brook with grace " 
(ibid.). He shows a profound historic sense : "he does not 
disguise his preference for countries with ' a past ' over 
countries with ' a future ' " (ibid.), and finds in the nature 
of the Oriental the conditions for a true equality. *' He 
recognises the fact that there is more equality because less 
snobbery and pretence in Asia than in Europe " (ibid.). The 
only feature that is wanting in this book is a knowledge 
of Jews and of Zionism. He makes but once mention of 
this matter, in a short sketch of the Jews at Nisibin. " The 
Jews at Nisibin . . . their appearance is much improved 
by Oriental costume ... in which they look noble and 
dignified." He then adds : "I trust that the Uganda 
Zionists will adopt my suggestion " (p. 141). One who 
believes in the assimilation of the Jews may snobbishly 
consider this also as anti-Semitic, but in fact it is only the 
harmless joke of an artist, for Sykes was essentially an 
artist. His drawings were excellent, he was also very musical, 
and had a great predilection for all true individuality, for 
the archaic, the original, the unadulterated, for race, 
nationality, genius loci, for everything racy and natural, 
and for everything that was not cliche, mechanical and 

This was the foundation of his latent Zionism. From 
1904 to 191 1 he pursued his mihtary studies, managed his 
estates and travelled much. In 1911 he entered Pariiament 
as member for Hull. Although nominally a Tory, Sir Mark 
was at bottom no party man, but a man of convictions. 
Full of faith, greedy for work, energetic, confident, capable, 
quick of study, charmed with a fight. Equally ready to 
defend or attack, he was unselfish. Over the Irish question 
he fell out with the Conservatives ; he was an outspoken 
champion of Home Rule, and throughout his Hfe he remained 
a loyal friend of Irish nationalism. His speeches soon made 
him popular in Parliament ; they were never long and yet 
never trite. He showed the same qualities in his letters to 
the Press. He had always something to say, some original 
thought which he expressed in his own individual style. 
He told me once, how he had learned public speaking at 
school. He had to prepare the outline of the speech and 



afterwards to state in short and simple terms the substance 
of his speech. The latter, he added, was the more difficult 
task, because a facile speaker can make long speeches, and 
yet find it impossible to repeat later the essential facts 
of his speeches. He was not a facile speaker in this sense ; 
he never spoke quite extempore, but always prepared his 
speeches carefully, often by means only of simple key words 
or of a few pictures, resembling hieroglyphics, as, for example, 
the sun with streaming rays. He never spoke to the gallery, 
never flattered, never perverted the truth under the mask of 
sincerity, and never sought to create effects. His speeches 
were full of beauty and deep idealism with a breath of re- 
ligious fervour, as he leant forward to address himself to 
the hearts of his audience. This practical man was at 
bottom a poet. He could tell most fascinating stories. 
He had not been brought up in the chilling atmosphere of 
severe Puritanism, but in the medieval glamour of Catholic 
cathedrals and under the sun of the East. Yet he had 
remained a proud and staunch Briton. He was a remark- 
able and extremely unusual combination of a blue-eyed, 
simple and modest Englishman of childlike sweetness, and 
of a medieval knight full of Oriental reminiscences, with 
ardent faith and picturesque imagination. We loved him 
and he loved us, because his nature was gentle, kind and 
sympathetic. He chatted freely: he told all about his 
enthusiasms, his " castles in the air," his stories about 
dervishes, his travelling impressions, with a lively dramatic 
touch with appropriate gesture and expression, often draw- 
ing his round, brown stylo pen from his pocket in order to 
explain the matter more pointedly by means of a rapid 
sketch. How often I regretted that no shorthand writer 
was present. His ways were dignified and courteous, his 
modesty so natural and so frank that he gave the impression 
of being himself unconscious of it. When the talk took a 
jesting turn, there was no sting in his witticisms, his jests 
were easy and never offensive. When he was angered, 
his emotion lasted but a few seconds, and afterwards he was 
as light-hearted as a child. 

Such was the Mark Sykes of 1914 when the War broke 
out. He took up his part in the War with all his 
patriotism and with his idealistic faith in the victory 
of justice. In 1915 he was with his regiment busy in 
hard training and ready for the field. He often told me 
how it had come to pass that the East had become his 


sphere of action. One day Lord Kitchener said to him : 
" Sykes, what are you doing in France, you must go to the 
East/' " What am I to do there ? " asked Sykes. " Just 
go there and then come back," was Lord Kitchener's answer. 
Sykes travelled to the East, made his way through accessible 
and inaccessible districts, and came back. His observations 
and experiences constituted the material upon which all the 
great things that afterwards happened were based. He 
then voluntarily entered the service of the Government 
as expert, as adviser, and as draughtsman of their poHcy. 
He was one of the pioneers of the new British War Policy 
in the East, one of the protagonists of the " Eastern School." 
In the year 191 6 he undertook with M. Georges Picot a 
journey to Russia. It was then the Czarist Russia with its 
eye fixed upon Constantinople ; that was the occasion upon 
which the so-called Sykes-Picot agreement was signed. 
From the standpoint of Zionist interests in Palestine this 
agreement justly met with severe criticism ; but it was 
Sykes himself who criticised it most sharply and who with 
the change of circumstances dissociated himself from it 
entirely. It was a product of the time, a time when there 
was as yet no decided plan formed of launching a definite 
campaign in the East, when the prime necessity was some 
sort of agreement, since otherwise no progress would have 
been made. This was long before Mr. Balfour's declaration, 
and since at this time the Zionist interests in Palestine had 
as yet received no attention because they were unknown 
and not debatable, and also as it was essential to come to 
terms about Constantinople with the old regime in Russia, 
this agreement was a necessary prelude to action. This 
agreement Sykes regarded later as an anachronism. 

Zionism had been at work in England for two full years 
without its coming to know anything of Sykes, who himself 
worked on his own lines for a year and a half, without know- 
ing anything of Zionist organisation or a definite programme 
of Zionism. What happened resembled the construction 
of a tunnel begun at two sides at once. As the workers on 
each side approach one another they can hear the sound 
of blows through the earth. It seems at first a strange 
enough story ; a certain Sir Mark appears, he makes some 
enquiries, and then expresses a wish to meet the Zionist 
leaders. Finally a meeting actually takes place and dis- 
cussions are entered upon. Sir Mark showed a keen interest 
and wanted to know the aims of the Zionist Organisation, 



and who were its representatives. The idea assumed a 
concrete form ; but this acquaintance, however, valuable as 
it was, had as yet no practical significance. Acquaintance- 
ships were made and discussions took place during the years 
1914-16 by the hundred with influential people and with 
some who had more voice in affairs than Sir Mark ever had. 
They constituted certainly a most important introductory 
chapter, and one without which the book itself could not 
have been written, but they were naturally fragmentary, 
preliminary, without cohesion and without sanction. The 
work itself began only after the 7th of February, 1917. 

The subsequent chapters describe this work in general 
outlines. A thousand details remain for the pen of some 
future historian, when the time comes for the archives of 
the Foreign Office, of the Ministries for Foreign Affairs of 
the other Entente Powers, and of the political offices of the 
Zionist Organisation in London and Paris to be made public. 
In the whole proceedings there are no secret treaties, no 
secret diplomacy, in fact neither diplomacy nor conspiracy ; 
but they constitute a series of negotiations, schemes, 
suggestions, explanations, measures, journeys, conferences, 
etc., to which each of those who took a part gave something 
of the best in himself. 

It is my duty both as historian and as one who took 
an active part in these negotiations and proceedings to 
record here that Sir Mark Sykes really gave of his best 
to this work. For more than two wonderful years we were 
in daily intercourse with him. Our friendship was of the 
most intimate We shared in common all the delights 
and disappointments arising from the Zionist work. We 
instructed each other ; he furnished his knowledge of the 
East, his profound understanding of the guiding political 
principles of Great Britain, his personal observations with 
reference to the possibilities of bringing our aims into 
harmony with the ideals of the Entente ; we supplied 
Zionism, inspired by Jewish sufferings and hopes. It was 
not difficult for us to convince him what an excellent cultural 
type the Hebrew represents, since already in his youth, 
before he had the shghtest idea of Jews and Zionism, he 
had intuitively perceived that the hybrid Levantine is 
hopeless in that direction. The idea was latent in him, 
and but awaited stimulus and direction into the proper 
channel. He was ready to understand what a great natural 
force the Jewish genius could be in the reawakening of 


Palestine, all the more because long before as a man of 
extraordinarily high culture — English to the last fibre of 
his thought, saturated with EngUsh tradition, EngHsh 
literature and EngUsh taste — and yet at the same time a 
broad-minded humanist, with great ideals not only for his 
own nation but for all other nations and races, he had seen 
that the ' civihsing ' of the East by assimilation was idle 
and superficial prating and a vain delusion. Deep sympathy 
of ideals had earlier formed an unconscious bond between 
us. When this sympathy ripened into consciousness through 
our meeting and soon after the commencement of our 
common work, the resulting harmony was not one of policy 
but one of outlook. The idea of a natural alliance between 
Jews, Arabs and Armenians as peoples of the Near East 
developed into something quite distinct and found in Sir 
Mark a convinced champion. He was an enthusiastic pro- 
tagonist of the Jewish national renaissance in Palestine, 
an admirer of the Hebrew genius, who could not hear enough 
from me about national Hebrew literature, who took an 
interest in every detail of Jewish culture. At the same time 
he was a sincere friend of the Arabs and Armenians and 
made strenuous efforts to secure their liberation. We all 
worked together with him in this direction, but the main 
idea was his and remained his favourite project till the close 
of his Ufe. Many superficial and petty individuals in our 
own ranks, who, not reahsing the great and difiicult task 
and themselves taking no active part, busied themselves in 
spreading distrust and discontent, complained that Sykes 
was too much taken up with the Arabs. I am sure that 
among many Arabs of the same degree of political maturity 
Sykes was accused of being too much taken up by the Jews. 
Our interchange of ideas resulted in a complete fusion of 
thought. But Sykes gave us his time and labour as well as 
ideas. It seemed as though in these two years his whole 
life's energy reached its culminating point and spent itself. 
He worked at constant high pressure. But rarely he 
allowed himself a week-end in Sledmore with Lady Sykes 
and the children, and even there he was never idle. It 
was a constant round of church-going, of devotion to the 
estate and building repairs, of musicians, old French songs, 
and of hospitality. Holidays were out of the question. 
All his excursions were connected with poUtical or ParUa- 
mentary business. Even prior to the commencement of 
his official connection with Zionism, Sir Mark was a man of 


extraordinarily wide activities. When on the 8th of 
February, 1917, one day after the first official meeting, 
our work began with the first conference with M. Georges 
Picot at Sir Mark's private house, No. 9 Buckingham 
Gate, the latter place had already become an important 
centre for matters concerning the new and at that time 
scarcely completed plan of a kingdom of the Hedjaz, con- 
cerning Armenia and Mesopotamia, and was equipped with 
all such material as files of correspondence and telegraphic 
communications, etc. It was then that Zionism took its 
place in the system and came to dominate the situation 
more and more as our labours progressed. One was liable 
to be called upon at any moment, early in the morning or 
late at night. It became a joke with us to name his sudden 
telephone calls ' brain-storms.' Sir Mark had a ' brain- 
storm * which meant : danger in sight. This may appear as 
somewhat far-fetched to outsiders, but those who were in the 
thick of the work knew well what formidable obstacles stood 
in the way, and how well founded were Sir Mark's doubts 
and fears. At every moment dangers had to be guarded 
against ; there were elements that were in favour of the status 
quo ante in the Near East ; vested economic interests that 
desired to uphold this status quo for their own ends ; clerical, 
anti-Semitic and pan-Islamitic propaganda ; certain Arab 
sections that opposed Zionism because, obsessed by fana- 
ticism or misled by agitators or influenced by narrow and 
short-sighted considerations of the needs of the moment, 
they had no proper appreciation of the great idea of a 
Hebrew-Arabic national alliance ; intrigues of certain 
Syrian concession-hunters who stormed with a ' holy 
wrath ' against the Zionist idea ; certain factions in England 
that would have nothing to do with an energetic policy in 
the East, and indeed ridiculed and belittled the impor- 
tance of British interests in that region ; a by no means 
small party that warned England against undertaking any 
new engagements ; and finally, be it mentioned with regret, 
our Jewish circles of the assimilating school. The cause of 
Zionism was in the same dire case as Laocoon in the grip 
of snakes. Every day brought a fresh indication of some 
hostile movement, a new suspicion of enemy schemes each 
of which caused Sir Mark to sound a warning. These were 
the ' brain-storms.' 

I should like to record a few impressions of different 
occasions. The first was a day in April, 1917, in Paris. I 


was due at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to give informa- 
tion about Zionism. Sir Mark also came ; he was a sincere 
friend of France and was anxious that Zionism should have 
the same appreciation in France as in England. He came in 
great haste by motor from the Front, where he had been 
making a visit, and went to the Hotel Lotti. He arrived 
early in the morning after a tiring night's journey. At that 
time Doctor Weizmann was fully occupied with most im- 
portant affairs in England. It fell to me to begin the official 
work in France, after we had together prepared all our plans. 
Sykes was impatient : in spite of his complete confidence 
in us, he could not refrain from remaining near me, always 
ready with advice and help. We worked together for some 
hours. I departed on my mission and we arranged for him 
to wait for me at the hotel. But as I was crossing the Quai 
d'Orsay on my return from the Foreign Office I came across 
Sykes. He had not had the patience to wait. We walked 
on together, and I gave him an outline of the proceedings. 
This did not satisfy him ; he studied every detail ; I had 
to give him full notes and he drew up a minute report. 
" That's a good day's work," he said with shining eyes, p" 

The second was a day in April, 1917, in Rome. Sykes had 
been there before me and could not wait my arrival. He 
had gone to the East. I put up at the hotel : Sykes had 
ordered rooms for me. I went to the British Embassy ; 
letters and instructions from Sykes were waiting for me there 
I went to the Italian Government Offices ; Sykes had been 
there too ; then to the Vatican, where Sykes had again 
prepared my way. It seemed to me as if his presence was 
wherever I went, but all the time he was far away in 
Arabia, whence I received telegraphic messages. 

The third was at the London Opera House Meeting of 
the 2nd of December, 1917. It was a truly brilliant gather- 
ing in a packed house, a festive token of the bond of 
brotherhood between Great Britain and ancient Israel. 
Sykes modestly surveyed the assembly. The majority 
of the audience scarcely knew him, and only a few were 
aware that this was a great day in his life. When he 
began to speak the audience recognised that one was 
addressing them who had made Zionism a part of his life. 
He showed no flaring enthusiasm, but rather a quiet elation, a 
devotion to the subject. On leaving, he and I shook hands — 
no words were necessary because we understood each other. 

The fourth was a mass meeting at the end of December 



in Manchester. In the morning there had been a small 
gathering with Sykes, and before the meeting a banquet in 
honour of Mr. C. P. Scott. The meeting itself was one of the 
largest that ever was held in Manchester. Sir Stuart Samuel 
was in the chair. Doctor Weizmann made one of his most 
brilliant speeches, and Mr. James de Rothschild roused the 
audience to enthusiasm. Then Sykes rose, and made a 
speech full of the dreamy poetry of an Eastern tale. The 
audience felt itself transported into another and better 
world. The poetry of the East diffused itself as a softening 
charm over the hard-cut hues of high pohtical argument. 
After the meeting we sat down, tired out, to tea. Sykes 
hurried in in his rain-coat : he had no time to stay, as he had 
to catch the night train. He was due in London next morn- 
ing to send urgent telegrams to Palestine. 

The fifth was on a glorious June day in 191 8 en route 
from Paris to London. Sykes insisted on my travelling 
with him. He was in company with a distinguished party 
containing nearly all the members of the Government. 
As there was no time to complete the passport formalities, 
he simply attached me to himself personally. I felt em- 
barrassed and accepted his proposal with reluctance. But 
when he told me that it was necessary to remind people 
constantly of the Declaration, I made up my mind to venture 
flying if he should think it necessary. The journey almost 
assumed the form of a Zionist meeting. There were twenty- 
eight persons in all, the most prominent members of the 
Government. On deck the Prime Minister was talking 
with Jellicoe. The tall and imposing figure of Mr. Balfour, 
with his noble grey-haired head and the well-known small 
hat, stood above the rest. Sykes urged me to have a word 
with the Prime Minister. I seized the opportunity and in 
the course of our conversation I had from him the treasured 
words : that such a war as this would be in vain if we did 
not aim at succouring all peoples, the Zionist Jews included. 
I afterwards told this to Sykes, who was at the other end of 
the ship, but he knew already. *' How, by an indiscretion ? " 
" No, a favourable wind whispered it to me." The * Favour- 
able Wind ' was one of the company who had overheard 
the conversation. 

Sir Mark's work during the last few years falls into eight 
successive periods, (i) February-March, 1917, the colla- 
boration in London with M. Picot, and after the latter's 
departure for France, with us ; (2) March-June, 1917, 


our journey to Paris ; his journey to Egypt ; (3) June- 
November, 1917, preliminary work leading to the Balfour 
Declaration ; (4) November, 1917-March 1918, from the 
Declaration to the despatch of the Commission to Palestine ; 
(5) March-October, 1918, the work in London during the 
stay of the Commission in Palestine ; (6) October-Decem- 
ber, 1918, the work after the return of the Commission ; 
(7) December 1918-February, 1919, the journey to Syria, 
and (8) February, 1919, the last days in Paris. 

In the first period the foundations were laid ; at that time 
Sir Mark was, so to speak, introduced into the world of 
Zionist ideas. The second was full of active negotiations 
with the Entente Governments. During the third Sykes 
was in busy relations with a number of the friends of our 
cause. In this period the work of Major Ormsby-Gore was 
of practically the same importance, as also during the fourth 
period. In the fifth period, during the time of the important 
work in Palestine of the Commission under the leadership 
of Doctor Weizmann, Major Ormsby-Gore was of great 
service there. The whole of the labours in London connected 
with the activity of the Commission and with a thousand 
other matters relating to Zionism fell upon Sykes, and neces- 
sitated daily work of an intensely difficult character. 

To this period belong a number of most important 
measures which for the first time gave Zionism both inter- 
nally and externally its proper position and its necessary 
prestige. Sir Mark had at that time his office in two rooms, 
afterwards partitioned into three, on the basement of the 
back wing of the Foreign Office, connected with the upper 
storeys by means of a lift, never used by Sir Mark, who 
mounted the stairs about twenty times daily at a lightning 
speed, which made it impossible for me to keep pace with him 
in spite of my most strenuous efforts. The first large room 
was dark because the big window was blocked with 
sandbags as a protection against possible air raids; it 
had long tables and was illuminated artificially. I had 
to be there often and for long periods at a time: 
my work, indeed, required my attendance there more 
than at the Zionist offices, and sometimes I had to 
go there three times a day and to remain there till late 
at night. On one of these occasions Sir Mark said to 
me, '* Does not this subterranean room look like a medieval 
inquisition chamber, with those long tables upon which the 
victims of the Inquisition might be stretched for torture ? 


Who knows/' added he humorously, " whether some of your 
forefathers had not to undergo treatment in chambers of 
this kind ? " I answered, " Yes, as Scripture has it : * I 
will make the desolate valley into a door of hope ' " After 
that we often used to call this room the " Door of Hope." 
This room opened into another where Sir Mark spent whole 
days at work except for the time at Westminster. The 
duties of Secretary were most ably filled by Mr. Dunlop, 
a young and energetic man ; opposite, in the building in 
Whitehall Gardens, Sir Mark's older colleague, the learned 
and highly experienced Mr. Beck, worked in conjunction 
with him. Between the two offices the faithful Serjeant 
Wilson, who accompanied Sir Mark ever5rwhere on land and 
sea, passed to and fro. It was like a hive ; there was a 
constant coming and going of Foreign Office men, M.P.'s, 
Armenian politicians, Mahommedan Mullahs, officers, 
journalists, representatives of Syrian Committees, and 
deputations from philanthropic societies. In the midst of 
this busy world~Zionism maintained its prominent position. 
Everything had to pass through Sykes' hands. In order to 
avoid confusion and divergence of effort he insisted upon 
what was readily conceded him, namely that he should 
pass an opinion on every question and every detail, and in 
this there was no hesitation, no delay. Among many others 
a couple of examples will suffice. The Oriental Jews, being 
Turkish subjects, were under the law regarded as alien 
enemies. They were certainly only technically such ; at 
heart they were thoroughly pro-British and in any case 
politically harmless. Exceptions had already been made on 
the recommendations of personal standing, but no logical 
plan was followed. I maintained that the Zionist Organisa- 
tion should be officially empowered to protect the Jews 
of Palestine and Syria, just as, for example, the Polish 
Committee protected the Poles from Galicia, who were also 
technically alien enemies. Sykes obtained this concession 
after considerable labour. This was an official recognition 
of the Zionist Organisation as competent authority. When 
at the time of the most strenuous military efforts, the later 
categories of the male population were called to the colours, 
the Zionist Organisation in England was threatened with 
losing the last of its secretaries, speakers, organisers, etc., 
and with seeing its activities restricted, if not completely 
interrupted. None were more patriotic than the Zionists, 
so many of whom were in the Army, but we had to deal 


with a number of men who could be of no value to the Army, 
and who, on the other hand, were indispensable to the 
Zionist Organisation. Previously some had been left with 
^ us, but now it was a question of large numbers. It was a 

» generally recognised principle that people whose occupation 

was of national importance were allowed to continue at it. 
I insisted upon having this principle applied to Zionism. 
This matter could not be settled by any single individual 
or by any single tribunal. The question concerned a 
matter of principle, and had nothing to do with individuals. 
Since we had received the declaration of recognition from 
the British Government and the whole Entente, and as we 
had to prepare the field for the realisation of this declara- 
tion, this ought surely to have been regarded as a matter 
of national importance from the official standpoint. Sykes 
adopted this point of view and made strenuous efforts to 
have it realised. He was thoroughly convinced that our 
loyalty to Great Britain and her Allies was boundless, and 
that in all our demands the interests of both parties had 
been considered with equal devotion. On the other hand, 
we recognised that when he denied us something as inad- 
missible, though like any other man he might sometimes 
make mistakes, he was open to change of conviction upon 
good reason being shown, and that any stand taken by him 
against our proposals was due rather to the fact that he 
regarded the matter at issue as unfavourable in certain 
circumstances to Zionism, than that he had the interests 
of Zionism less at heart than we ; thus a community of 
effort and a mutual trust was established, which led to a 
complete sohdarity of aims. In this way our work in con- 
junction with Sykes became the foundation for our relations 
with the higher Government authorities, as also with Sykes* 
colleagues and successors. 

The most important and poHtically difficult task that 
had to be accompUshed in London during the stay 
of the Commission in Palestine was to make possible 
the official laying of the foundation stone of the Hebrew 
University in Jerusalem. The recommendations and the 
instructions carried by the President of the Commission, 
Doctor Weizmann, to Palestine were most valuable, and 
will stand as a lasting token of the generous and kindly 
feehngs of the leading men in the British Government 
towards Zionism. The influence of the Commission, the 
excellence of their work, their splendid relations with the 


authorities had ensured complete success. Nevertheless it 
was found that, particularly with reference to the founda- 
tion-stone ceremony, the instructions had been of too 
general and too vague a character to overcome the formal 
and legal administrative obstacles. It is my duty to one 
who is gone, to record the great services of Sir Mark in this 
direction. It goes without saying that the final decision 
lay with a man in higher ofhce. However, before Mr. Balfour 
gave his decision and before the most detailed instructions 
had been telegraphed, we had to work strenuously day after 
day for several weeks, by correspondence and by interviews, 
with such devotion and enthusiasm as only so magnificent an 
object as the Hebrew University in Jerusalem could inspire. 

During the period that followed, namely the sixth as 
above described, the Zionist programme was being prepared. 
The end of the War was in sight, but the cessation of hos- 
tilities was not to be expected so very soon. Sykes decided, 
then, the whole of Palestine and Syria being in British hands, 
to travel thither to gather fresh information and to bring 
the results of his latter observations to the Peace Conference. 
I tried to dissuade him from this journey, because I thought 
his presence in Europe important : he, on the other hand, 
wanted me to go with him to Palestine. He finally went 
alone and wrote to me from there that I should come without 
delay. His stay in Palestine was, however, only a very short 
one : he soon passed to Syria and did strenuous work in the 
direction of restoring order in Aleppo. In the meantime the 
Peace Conference opened here. We were all of us already 
assembled — except Sykes. We thought of him every day. 

One evening there was a telephone call. On taking up 
the receiver I heard Sykes' voice telling me that he had just 
arrived in Paris, and was staying as usual at the Hotel 
Lotti opposite us. I invited him at once to dinner, and he 
came. He was the same lovable fellow, full of life and 
humour, but now frightfully thin. He had lived the whole 
time on " German sausages'' and had suffered much from 
digestive troubles. It only transpired later, that he had 
spent sixteen hours a day in Aleppo working under almost 
impossible conditions on behalf of the Arabs and Armenians. 
He was himself never in the habit of talking about his 
work. It was two hours after midnight when he left 
us, — he had so much to tell about the ordinary incapa- 
city for proper administration of the local Syrian popula- 
tion and their marked capacity in that direction under 


suitable guidance, about the prospects for Palestine, about 
the steps he had taken against anti-Zionist intrigues in 
Syria and other matters. From that time forward we 
saw each other every day. Some days later he went to 
London to see his family and returned in three days 
with Lady Sykes. Immediately upon his arrival he was 
in touch with us. He had a thousand ideas, and had 
brought reports and instructions from Syria that had to be 
elaborated. Our days were filled with appointments for 
visits, interviews, etc. Then Lady Sykes was attacked by 
influenza, which caused a little dislocation and the postpone- 
ment of an accepted invitation, but gave no cause for alarm. 
On the 13th of February, Sir Mark hastily entered my room, 
and on finding me indisposed, he shouted, " There's no 
time now for being ill." The following morning he sent 
word to me that Lady Sykes was better, but that he himself 
was taken ill. "I have got it," he said to Serjeant Wilson 
when he went to bed. On the 15th Lady Sykes sent for 
me, and told me that her husband would have to remain 
in bed for a few days, that afterwards she intended 
to go to England for a week or so to recuperate. " To 
Sledmore ? " I asked. " No," said Lady Sykes, " it is 
too cold there. I think the South will be better. And 
my chief reason for troubhng you," she added, " is because 
my husband wants to know how ZionisJ matters went 
yesterday." I gave full details to Lady Sykes. In the 
afternoon of the i6th Sir Mark died. 

He died on the threshold of the Peace Conference which 
was destined to make his dream a living thing, died in a 
hotel in the midst of us, bound up with our deepest affec- 
tions, a radiant form full of love and sincerity. His Hfe was 
as a song, almost as a Psalm. He was a man who has won a 
monument in the future Pantheon of the Jewish people 
and of whom legends will be told in Palestine, Arabia and 
Armenia. Just returned from a difficult task in the service 
of humanity in the service of the idea of nationality, and 
about to perform great things for the Jewish people, he 
fell as a hero at our side. 

There it ends ! Shakespeare himself could use no more 
than the commonplace to express what is incapable of 
expression. " The rest is silence ! " 

We say : " The rest is immortahty — in the annals of 

Paris, April, 1919. 


Choveve Zion and Zionists in England — Louis Loewe — Nathan Marcus 
Adler — Albert Lowy — Abraham Benisch — The Rev. M. J. Raphall — 
Dr. M. Gaster — Rabbi Samuel Mohilewer — English representation at 
the Second and Third Congresses — The Fourth Congress in London. 

The Choveve Zion movement in England was not very 
powerful, yet it enjoyed a certain amount of popularity. If 
we examine, for instance, the records for 1892-7 — the years 
which preceded the First Zionist Congress (Basle, 1897) — 
we find among the leading representatives not only the 
Chief Rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese Communities, 
Dr. M. Gaster, Mr. Herbert Bentwich, Rabbi Professor 
H. Gollancz, the late Colonel Albert Goldsmid, Dr. S. A. 
Hirsch, Mr. S. B. Rubenstein, Mr. E. W. Rabbinowicz and 
other English Jews of standing, who are even now more 
or less active in the Zionist Organization ; but we read 
the names of the late Chief Rabbi of Great Britain, Dr. 
H. Adler, the late Lord Swaythling, Mr. Elkan Adler, 
Albert Jessel, Mr. Joseph Prag (who was one of the most 
active members), Joseph Nathan, Louis Schloss, Haim 
Guedalla, Captain H. Lewis-Barned, Bernard Birnbaum, 
Mr. Herman Landau and other distinguished members of 
the community, as among those of the prominent enthusi- 
astic supporters of the Choveve Zion movement who did not 
join the new Zionist Organization. The same phenomenon 
strikes us in France. There the new Zionism was con- 
fronted on the part of the Choveve Zion by an opposition 
that was even stronger than in England. 

An impartial historian, desirous of reviewing the facts 
as they were revealed in Jewish life and literature, would in 
vain endeavour to discover any essential difference between 
the Choveve Zion and the Zionist fundamental principles. 
He could trace a complete and clear conception of political 
Zionism through centuries of English history or Jewish 
history in England, and on the other hand also efforts and 
undertakings in the direction of colonization pursued with 
great energy and care by forces that are generally found to 
be co-operating with political Zionism. A sober and dis- 
passionate examination of all these ideas without regard to 


mere catchwords must lead to the conclusion that Sir 
Moses Montefiore's representations to Mehemet Ali in 1838 
were substantially the same as Herzl made to Abdul Hamid 
in 1898. However, both aimed at a legally assured home 
and both insisted that Palestine should belong to the 
Jewish people. And no real student of contemporary 
Jewish history will imagine that Sir Moses was an isolated 
dreamer. He never undertook anything in Jewish affairs 
without consulting the authorities of his time. One of his 
advisers was Louis Loewe, the well-known Jewish scholar 
and his secretary for many years. 

Dr. Louis Loewe (1809-88), who was educated at the 
Yeshihot of Lissa, Nikolsburg, Presburg, and at the 
University of Berlin, came to England in 1839 and was 
appointed by the Duke of Sussex to be his Orientalist. 
He then travelled in the East, where he studied languages. 
In Cairo he was presented to Mehemet Ali, for whom he 
translated some hieroglyphic inscriptions. On his return 
from Palestine he met at Rome Sir Moses and Lady Monte- 
fiore, who invited him to travel with them to Palestine. 
When, in 1840, Sir Moses went on his Damascus expedition, 
Loewe accompanied him as his interpreter. Since that time 
Loewe was attached to Sir Moses as his personal friend and 
secretary. He accompanied Sir Moses on nine different mis- 
sions. He wrote several valuable works on oriental subjects : 
The Origin of the Egyptian Language, London, 1837 ; A 
Dictionary of the Circassian Language, 1859 ; ^ Nubian 
Grammar and several pamphlets — and translated J. B. 
Levinsohn's Efes Damim (1871) and David Nieto's Matteh 
Dan (1842). Dr. Loewe was an ardent supporter of all 
schemes in favour of Palestine and strongly assisted David 
Gordon, the editor of the Ha-Magid, who was an enthusi- 
astic and outspoken political Zionist years before Herzl. 

We have already mentioned to what an extent the Chief 
Rabbi, Dr. N. M. Adler, influenced Sir Moses' works in 
Palestine. Nathan Adler was born at Hanover in 1803. 
He received his education at the Universities of Gottingen, 
Erlangen and Wurzburg. Already as a youth his abilities 
proved him to be particularly adapted to the discharge 
of rabbinical functions. In 1829 he was appointed Chief 
Rabbi of Oldenburg ; in 1830 his jurisdiction was trans- 
ferred to Hanover and all its provinces. His fame spread 
beyond the Rhine and reached England just when the 
Jewish population there was in need of a spiritual leader. 


In 1844 the election took place for Chief Rabbi of the 
Ashkenazi Congregations of Great Britain and the choice 
fell on Dr. Adler. He was inducted into office on July 9th, 
1845. His activity and influence during his lengthy careei 
as Chief Rabbi proved a blessing and were attended with 
most invaluable results. His calling did not prevent him 
from contributing excellent literary productions, mostly in 
Hebrew, the principal of which is Nethino La-Ger's com- 
mentary on the Targum of Onkelos. There is no doubt 
that this famous Rabbi and great Jew was in close touch 
with Sir Moses in all the steps the latter took for the 
colonizing of Palestine for a political as well as philan- 
thropic purpose. 

Many of the most important Jewish scholars arriving in 
England, and becoming in course of time the pride of English 
Jewry, were much attracted by the idea that England 
was the classical soil for a fruitful work in Palestine. It is 
worth noting that Dr. Albert Lowy belonged also to this 
group. He was born on the 10 th of December, 1816, at 
Aussig in Moravia. After his harmizwah (attainment of his 
religious majority — the age of thirteen) he was sent to a 
public school at Leipzig. Later he attended the University 
and Polytechnic at Vienna. There he first met his lifelong 
friends, Moritz Steinschneider and Abraham Benisch. 
Lowy and his friends formed " Die Einheit," a society 
whose object was to promote the welfare of the Jewish 
people. In order to realize this object the c^()^ization of 
Palestine by the Austrian Jews was advoca^S. The first 
meeting of the new society was held in 1838, in Lowy's 
room. The object, however, had to be kept secret for fear 
lest it would be defeated by the Government. England was 
regarded as the country likely to welcome the new move- 
ment, and, as an emissary of the Students' Jewish National 
Society, Lowy was sent to London in 1841. Years after- 
wards he took a leading part in London in the foundation of 
a body with kindred objects, the Anglo- Jewish Association. 

To the same group of noble-minded men who raised 
themselves to the height of a national and Zionist con- 
ception of a superior kind belonged also the afore-mentioned 
Abraham Benisch, one of the creators of the Anglo- Jewish 
Press, the author of the Jewish School and Family Bible 
(1851), the translator of Petahiah ben Jacob's Travels (1856), 
and for many years editor of the Jewish Chronicle. If there 
ever was a Jewish nationalist, this important Anglo- 


Jewish writer was one beyond a doubt. He was a man of 
great abilities and learning, and rendered valuable assist- 
ance in the propaganda for and in the organization of the 
societies for the colonization of Palestine. In several 
leading articles written by him, with great tact and 
sagacity, he expounded — particularly in connection with 
the political events of 1856 and of 1861 — the root prin- 
ciples of political Zionism. 

Another remarkable Jewish scholar and pioneer of 
Zionism in his time was the Rev. M. J. Raphall, who was a 
brilliant writer and also a pioneer of the Anglo- Jewish Press. 
He edited the Hebrew Review and Magazine for Jewish 
Literature in 1837, which was resumed in 1859. Some years 
later he edited, together with the Rev. A. de Sola, the Voice 
of Jacob, which had been founded by Jacob Franklin in 
1841. He afterwards settled in America and assisted there 
in the fifties of last century, together with some distinguished 
American Jews, in establishing in New York a society for 
the colonization of Palestine. He was later engaged in 
similar work in Canada. Essentially a student and a 
scholar, he devoted many years of his life to the propa- 
ganda of the Jewish national ideas. 

It is impossible to conjure away all the facts showing, 
firstly, that the supposed differences between the Choveve 
Zion movement and the new Zionism are mere phraseology, 
and, secondly, that the best representatives of Anglo- Jews 
were nationalist and Zionist. The refusal to accept the new 
Zionism on the part of some representatives of the Choveve 
Zion movement for that reason can only be regarded as a 
temporary misunderstanding. 

The new Zionism made headway in England especially 
through the efforts of the two organizations : the English 
Zionist Federation and the Ancient Order of Maccabeans. 

The English Zionist Federation was formed in pursuance 
of a resolution passed by the Clerkenwell Conference of 
March, 1898, for the purpose of finding a common platform 
upon which Zionists of all shades of opinion could co- 
operate. A committee was appointed by the Conference to 
draw up a scheme, and that committee established the 
Federation. When the Federation was started it received 
support from eight societies, representing five towns : after 
six months, sixteen societies, representing nine towns, had 
joined: at the time of the Fourth Congress, thirty-eight 
societies, representing twenty-nine towns, were affiliated. 


This was the first stage of development prior to the London 
Congress of the Zionist Organization. 

The appearance of EngHsh Zionist Delegates at the First 
Congress has already been alluded to. After the First 
Congress Dr. Gaster published the following letter in the 
Times of the 29th of August, 1897 : — 

" The movement aims at the solution of one of the most 
complex modern social problems in Europe, and the means 
which are to be employed towards the solution are the 
realization of deep-seated religious hopes and ideals. For 
this very reason men from all the ranks of Jewish society 
and all shades of Jewish religion are here united in the 
common, noble, lofty and humanitarian purpose — the 
restoration of Israel, which is, moreover, the true fulfilment 
of the words of our Prophets. 

"It is surprising to find . . . the incorrect statement 
that the agitation is the outcome of anti-Semitism. It 
existed long before this word even was coined. It prompted 
the Jews of Russia and Roumania many years ago to found 
colonies in Palestine. But this movement is felt to be 
inadequate to cope with the whole question. The political 
situation of the Jews has since made enormous strides. The 
number of Zionists with a definite aim before their eyes 
has grown rapidly. They are recruited from among the 
young enthusiasts on the Continent. University Professors 
and students, scholars and workmen are joining hands. 
They belong most exclusively to the orthodox and embrace 
the vast majority of the Jewish people. The Bible and the 
Prayer Book are the text, and this agitation is merely the 
practical commentary. ... I, as an orthodox Rabbi, beg 
to differ radically from . . . (the anti-Zionist views). . . . 
It is not here the place to enter upon dogmatic questions 
and I therefore refrain from discussing the * miracles * that 
are to happen on that day when Israel is to return to the 
land of his fathers. God chooses human agencies to carry 
out His Will, and it is after it has been accomplished that 
we become aware of the renewing circumstances, unexpected 
and unlooked for, which have all contributed to bring about 
the result, which before would have appeared to be little 
short of a miracle. Whether the restoration will be ac- 
complished by the purchase of Palestine, or by unexpected 
political combinations or by other peculiar circumstances, it 
would be idle to dogmatize about. 

" One thing is certain. The whole orthodox and realistic 


Jewry, which does not volatilize the words of the Prophets, 
and does not look upon the Divine promises as so many 
spiritual symbols to be interpreted away according to each 
one's fancy, is now assembled in spirit at the Congress and 
watches its deliberations with sympathy and elevated hope." 

We have already mentioned that Rabbi Mohilewer had sent 
his congratulations to the Congress. The contents of Rabbi 
Mohilewer's expressions may be briefly noted as a supple- 
ment to Dr. Gaster's letter. Rabbi Mohilewer wrote that as 
the state of his health did not permit him to travel, he sent 
the Congress his blessing in writing. Harmony and concord 
should exist among all Zionists, even if their religious views 
differed. The colonization of Palestine was recommended 
as a religious duty — religion should therefore be a leading 
factor in the Zionist movement. They should also bear in 
mind that it was a duty to construct and not to demolish, 
and they should preserve the honour of the rabbis, who 
were thoroughly patriotic as regarded the land in which 
they lived. For the past two thousand years, the Jews had 
awaited the advent of the Messiah, who would take them 
back to the land of their fathers. But in our country men 
had risen who had abandoned this hope and had eliminated 
it from the Prayer Book. Several of the rabbis in Western 
Europe had declared against the Zionist movement, and one 
of them had gone so far as to assert that the movement was 
contrary to the biblical prophecies, as the Messiah was only 
to be symbolized and the Jews were to remain in exile. He 
declared this to be wholly untrue. Their faith was that 
God would send a Redeemer to bring back the People to 
their own land, and that the Jewish people would, once 
again, be honoured among the nations. Zionism does not 
interfere with this deep belief ; it is rather in harmony with 
it, and it prepares the way. 

These two letters were a sort of profession de joi on the 
part of two rabbis representing different sections of 
traditional Jewry in England and Russia respectively. 

The Second Zionist Congress at Basle, 1898, was attended 
much more numerously than the first one. There were over 
four hundred delegates, and the English Zionists had sent 
a larger contingent (the Haham, Dr. M. Gaster, had a 
Roumanian mandate ; Jacob de Haas, Leopold J. Green- 
berg, E. W. Rabbinowicz, B. Ritter, A. Snowman, S. Claff, 
J. Massel, Dr. Moses Umanski, Herbert Bentwich and others). 
The presence of Dr. Gaster, who was one of the most energetic 


spirits of the Congress, was a great gain to the Movement. 
The Enghsh delegates adopted thoroughly English methods. 
They were not seen standing about in groups and knots in 
the passages and ante-rooms delivering impassioned speeches. 
The oratorical contributions of the English delegates were 
few, and none of them, except Dr. Gaster's powerful address 
towards the close of the proceedings, took up more than a 
few minutes. But the English delegates worked hard in 
Committee and at special conferences. 

At that time the number of Zionist Associations in Great 
Britain and Ireland had reached twenty-six (Leeds three, 
Glasgow, London, Liverpool and Manchester two each ; 
Belfast, Cardiff, Cork, Dublin, Edinburgh, Exeter, Hanley, 
Hull, Limerick, Newcastle, Newport, Norwich, Plymouth, 
Portsmouth and Sunderland one each), and in France — three, 
out of the total number of the Associations all over the 
world of 913. 

The Jewish Chronicle, writing about the Second Con- 
gress, remarked : " There is the remarkable point of the 
Congress — in strong relief with the comparative paucity 
of the personnel of the English representatives is the 
undoubted English influence that has been exerted. 
Indeed, the net result of the Second Basle Congress is that 
Zionism has made a distinct move towards England. 
Indeed, it would look as if events were so shaping themselves 
that the Mountain having refused to go to Mahomed, 
Mahomed is coming to the Mountain. The Bank is to be 
located in England, so is the Colonization Commission. This 
may have been the result — probably it was — of England's 
supreme position among all the great Continental Nations, 
not only in regard to its undoubted stability politically, but 
also its unique position towards Jews." 

The Third Zionist Congress at Basle, 1899, was attended 
by a still larger number of delegates from the United 
Kingdom. There were : Dr. M. Gaster, Joseph Cowen, J. de 
Haas, Murray Rosenberg, Herbert Bentwich, L. J. Green- 
berg, S. Stungo, J. Massel, Rabbi Yoffey, Rabbi Dagutzky, 
M. L. Dight, Rabbi Wolf, and others — representing London, 
Leeds, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, Bel- 
fast, Edinburgh, Sheffield, Limerick, Grimsby Associations. 
According to a report of Mr. L. J. Greenberg, who had 
already become an energetic propagandist of the new 
Zionism in England, the work was progressing. He referred 
also to the activities of Mr. Herbert Bentwich, for if it had 


not been for him no such organization would have existed 
in England. The Congress elected as members of the 
Colonization Committee Dr. Gaster, Mr. Murray Rosenberg 
and Mr. David Wolffe, and of the Propaganda Committee, 
Mr. L. J. Greenberg and Mr. J. de Haas. 

The Fourth Zionist Congress was held in London at the 
Queen's Hall, August 13-16, 1900. London had been 
chosen \vith a view to further influence British public 
opinion, seeing that in no country had the Zionist propa- 
ganda been received more sympathetically and intelligently 
by the general public. Dr. Herzl said in his inaugural 
address at the Fourth Congress in London, 1900 : — 

" I feel there is no necessity for me to justify the holding 
of the Congress in London. England is one of the last 
remaining places on earth where there is freedom from 
Jewish hatred. Throughout the wide world there is but one 
spot left in which God's ancient people are not detested and 
persecuted. But, from the fact that the Jews in this 
glorious land enjoy full freedom and complete human rights, 
we must not allow ourselves to draw future conclusions. He 
would be a poor friend of the Jews in England, as well as of 
the Jews who reside in other countries, who would advise the 
persecuted to flee hither. Our brethren here would tremble 
in their shoes if their position meant the attraction to these 
shores of our desperate brethren in other lands. Such an 
immigration would mean disaster equally for the Jews here, 
as for those who would come here. For the latter, with 
their miserable bundles, would bring with them that from 
which they flee — I mean anti-Semitism." 

In the course of his address he uttered the following 
prophetic words : — 

'* The land of Palestine is not only the home of the 
highest ideas and most unhappy nation, but it is also by 
reason of its geographical position, of immense importance 
to the whole of Europe. The road of civilization and com- 
merce leads again to Asia." 

According to the report read at this Fourth Congress by 
M. Oscar Marmorek *' they had thirty-eight societies in 
England as against sixteen last year, and all these Societies 
had increased their membership. Thanks to the activity of 
the English Zionist Federation, Zionism had greatly 
prospered in England and had won the esteem of Christians. 
In Canada there was scarcely a town with a Hebrew 
congregation where a Zionist society did not exist." 


England and Zionism — Sir B. Arnold in the Spectator — Cardinal Vaughan 
—Lord Rosebery— The Death of Herzl— David Wolffsohn— Prof . Otto 
Warburg — Zionism in the smaller states. 

The Uganda scheme, which was due to the initiative of 
Joseph Chamberlain, led to an intimate acquaintance 
between the Zionist leader and this great English states- 
man. This project, as well as the El Arish expedition, 
which failed in consequence of technical difficulties, made 
Zionism not only a living factor in Judaism from an inter- 
national standpoint, but also a political factor that was 
given consideration by one great Government, namely, that 
of England. 

Subsequent events, instead of diminishing, have only 
more firmly increased Zionist confidence in the sympathy of 
English public opinion for Palestinian Zionism. There is 
hardly an appeal so eloquently written as Sir B. Arnold's 
address, published in the Spectator, October, 1903 : '* You 
have a country, the inheritance of your fathers, finer, more 
fruitful, better situated for commerce, than many of the 
most celebrated places of the globe. Environed by the 
lovely shores of the Mediterranean, the lofty steppes of 
Arabia and of rocky Sinai, your country extends along the 
shores of the Mediterranean, crowned by the towering 
cedars of the Lebanon, the source of rivulets and brooks, 
which spread fruitfulness over shady dales. A glorious 
land ! situated at the furthest extremity of the sea which 
connects three-quarters of the globe, over which the 
Phoenicians sent their numerous fleets to the shores of 
Britain, near to both the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf : 
the central country of the commerce between the East and 
the West. Every country has its peculiarity : every people 
their own genius. No people of the earth have lived so true 
to their calling from the first as you have done. The Arab 
has maintained his language and his original country : on 
the Nile, in the deserts, as far as Sinai, and beyond the 
Jordan, he feeds his flocks. In the elevated plains of Asia 
Minor the Turkoman has conquered for himself a second 



country, the birthplace of the Osman : but Palestine has a 
thin population. For centuries the battlefield between the 
sons of Altai and the Arabian wilderness, the inhabitants 
of the West and the half-nomadic Persians, none have been 
able to establish themselves and maintain their nationality : 
no nation can claim the name of Palestine. A chaotic 
mixture of tribes and tongues ; remnants of migrations 
from north and south, they disturb one another in the 
possession of the glorious land where your fathers for so 
many centuries emptied the cup of joy, and so where every 
inch is drenched with the blood of your heroes when their 
bodies were buried under the ruins of Jerusalem." 

It is obvious that these and other similar appeals and 
encouraging statements made a deep impression upon 
Zionists. This gave rise to the assumption that Zionism 
was merely concerned with English interest. It is needless 
to say that such a statement is as unfounded as the one 
ascribing to Zionism the pursuance of any other political 
interest. Zionism is a cause of humanity and justice, 
altogether remote from any political speculation : it can 
help the Jews, it can be useful to any country interested in 
the development of the East, it can be beneficial to all the 
neighbouring nations. It was only the spirit of the Bible 
which enabled the English people to appreciate the justice 
and the moral equity of the endeavour to raise up in the 
old land a free, united, prosperous and energetic Jewish 
nation, attached by the closest ties of friendship to European 
civilization, carrying not only into the East the civilization 
of the West, just as in the Middle Ages their forefathers 
brought the torch of culture to the West — that torch of 
enlightenment which they have borne aloft in their journey 
from the East, and which has enabled them to accomplish 
cultural work of their own. 

Cardinal Vaughan referred in 1902 most sympathetically 
to Zionism in the following words : "I have always taken 
a great interest in the Jews, they were once the chosen 
people. I marvel at the strength they retain amid most 
unfavourable conditions. I admire their industry, their 
domestic virtues and their mental force, and I can only 
wish success to a plan which promises them such great 

Lord Rosebery pointed out, in one of his speeches, that 
the silent campaigns of commerce are at least as decisive of 
the fate of nations as the noisy operations of the battlefield. 


Even as the spasms and convulsions of nature, though she 
works through them, are less important than the slow, 
silent, everyday forces, so history is made less by the fire 
and sword of the fighters than by the humble, prosaic 
working-classes. The Jews were aware of the fact that not 
by soldiers has the great British Empire been built up, but 
by Trading Companies : India by the East India Company, 
Canada by the Hudson Bay Fur Company, South Africa by 
Mining Companies. The East India Company was in- 
corporated in 1600 ; a few years later (1607) the earliest 
permanent settlement of Virginia was founded. The 
Pilgrim Fathers — a movement somewhat similar to Zionism 
— began their noble work in 1620 ; and West Indian coloniza- 
tion was inaugurated with the occupation of the Barbadoes 
in 1625. Half to three-quarters of a century the work went 
apace in North America, colony after colony was added to 
the British Crown. Then other regions began to attract the 
British, and a new era dawned with the occupation of 
Gibraltar in 1704. 

All the great achievements of British peaceful conquests 
encouraged the Zionist Movement with its trusts and funds. 
Cecil Rhodes, with only a million pounds to start with, 
created Rhodesia with its 750,000 square miles. The 
British North Borneo Company has a capital of £800,000 
and dominates over 31,000 square miles. The British East 
African Company, which administered 200,000 square miles, 
began with the same amount as the Jewish Colonial Trust, 
namely, £250,000. 

It is true that the Zionist Palestinian scheme presented 
other difficulties, but where was any great work undertaken 
which did not present difficulties ? Is not the whole history 
of the Jews a struggle for existence amid the greatest of 
difficulties ? The Jews in their normal condition were an 
agricultural people. During the centuries of depression and 
persecution they had to abandon their old vocation. 
Dispersed throughout all countries, yet fugitives from every 
land, the Jews, who could call no place their home, had to 
turn to commerce or to handicraft for a means of livelihood, 
and were thus able to carry about with them everywhere 
that kind of labour power that they knew to be realizable 
everywhere. Yet, inexorable necessity as it was, it was a 
breaking with the nation's own self. And is the present 
situation without its difficulties ? Let those answer who 
know something of the hardships, the privations, the 


squalor, the wretchedness amid which three-quarters of the 
Jewish people live throughout their lives. And, as to 
financial means, even under present circumstances it is 
necessary for the continuance of the present misery, to 
collect millions and millions, whereby indescribable energies 
are wasted — without any real help being given. 

Inspired by these ideas, and with this object in view, the 
propaganda was continued when suddenly, in 1904, the 
Zionist Organization sustained the greatest loss ever 
experienced by any Organization. Herzl had worked too 
hard ; his exertions, his experiences and his emotions had 
been such as to exhaust the strength of this strongest of 
physical and intellectual giants. It was too much for one 
himian being to bear; nature was unduly taxed and he 
broke down. On the 3rd of July, 1904, Herzl breathed his 
last in the villa " Home, Sweet Home " at Reichenau, on 
the Semmering Mountain, south of Vienna. His memory 
will be cherished for ever by the Jewish people. 

David Wolffsohn (1856 — 1914), the Zionist representa- 
tive and worker, who had distinguished himself since the 
very beginning of the movement, succeeded Herzl. David 
Wolffsohn's career was eminently that of a self-made man 
of the kind that old Dr. Smiles would have delighted to 
portray. A man of attractive and imposing appearance, 
of a loving disposition and mild grace, and with a real 
sense of Jewish humour, rare gifts of adaptability and 
extraordinary capacity for managing and leading forward 
in active work, he was a splendid type of a self-made man. 
But, from a Zionist point of view, lie was more than that : 
he was Herzl's great friend and confidant. His autobi- 
ography is given in Appendix LXXXIII. 

David Wolffsohn, practically chosen by the Actions Com- 
mittee and all Zionist authorities, took over the leadership 
of the Zionist Organization, during the interim between 
Herzl's death and the Seventh Congress in 1906. He had 
first intended to transfer the headquarters to Berlin, but 
afterwards decided to give Cologne, the city of his home, 
the preference. He was assisted in this important and 
responsible work by two distinguished Zionists : Professor 
O. Warburg of Berlin and M. Jacobus Kann of the Hague. 
The activities of Professor Warburg have been described 
elsewhere in this volume : they tended in the direction of 
colonization, and were almost wholly concentrated upon 
this domain. M. Jacobus Kann, a member of an old and 



highly respected banking firm in Holland, was more in- 
terested in the financial institutions of the organization. 
He joined the Zionist Organization at the very beginning 
and has served the Zionist cause whole-heartedly and 
devotedly, particularly in the founding of the Jewish 
Colonial Trust, the Anglo-Palestine Company and all the 
other financial institutions. He travelled in Palestine, 
wrote a book [Erez Israel) dealing with his impressions, 
and is also active in the Zionist work in his own country. 

Holland has a well-organized and active Zionist Organiza- 
tion, to which great impetus was given by the Eighth 
Congress at The Hague, 1909. M. de Liema, Professor Oren- 
stein. Dr. Edersheim, M. Cohen, M. Pool and many others 
are among the prominent leaders. They take a very active 
part in the general organization work and in that of the 
Jewish National Fund, the headquarters of which at 
present are at The Hague. The Dutch Zionist Federation 
has an excellent weekly paper, Het Judischer Wachter, which 
has appeared regularly for several years, and contains much 
information concerning Zionist and Jewish matters as well 
as other excellent articles and contributions. It is worthy 
of note that Zionism in Holland has had for several years 
now a Zionist University Movement — ^with some good 
publications — ^which was started by Orenstein, Edersheim 
and others. Mention of Holland reminds one that a 
place of honour in Zionist history belongs to Belgium, and 
particularly to Antwerp, which has been for several years a 
first-class Zionist centre. Messieurs Jean Fischer, Oscar 
Fischer, S. Tolkowsky, Dr. Wulf, Ruben Cohn, the late 
Mehrlender, Grunzweig and many others, occupying impor- 
tant positions in the general Zionist Organization, made 
Zionism a living force in Belgian Jewry. M. Jean Fischer 
is a member of the Actions Committee and of the great 
financial institutions of Zionism : he and his friends have 
taken an important part in colonization undertakings in 
Palestine of which the devoted pioneer M. S. Tolkowsky is 
the representative at Rechoboth. M. Fischer visited Pales- 
tine and wrote a book containing his observations. Belgian 
Zionists had also a paper of their own, L'Esperance (Ha- 
Tikvah), which brought very valuable contributions and 

In connection with Zionism the smaller countries of 
Central and Southern Europe, Switzerland and the Scandi- 
navian countries also deserve special mention. Switzerland, 


the land ofjthe Zionist Congresses, has a good organization, 
of which Dr. Camille Levy, Dr. Felix Pinkus, M. Levy are 
the most notable. They were always very active in propa- 
ganda, had their delegates at the Congresses and always 
made Jtheir regular contributions. Denmark and Sweden 
have|now had for some years a good Zionist Organization, 
and, of late, are developing great activity, owing to the 
Zionist Office which has been established at Copenhagen. 
Roumania and Bulgaria are still more important as great 
centres of Zionist activity. Roumania was almost equal to 
Russia in the Choveve Zion movement. Now, M. Pineles, 
M. Schein, M. Schwarzfeld, the learned and well-known 
Dr. Nacht and Dr. Nemirower, with many other leaders are 
at work in that country. 


The Year igo6 — The Pogroms — Emigration — Conder and his Activities — 
An Emigration Conference — The Eighth Congress — The Question of 
the Headquarters, 

The year 1906 was one of the ans ierribles in the annals of 
Jewish history. It was a year of bloodshed and terror. 
Not even the dark ages extracted so heavy a toll of Jewish 
blood : something like 1400 pogroms took place all over 
the Ghetto. In many districts the Jewish population were 
completely exterminated. The number of persons directly 
affected, that is to say of those whose houses, shops, or 
factories were the objects of attack and pillage, reached a 
total of some 200,000 to 250,000. To this number must be 
added that of the clerks, workmen, etc., indirectly affected 
by the destruction of factories and shops, which could not 
be ascertained. The casualty list was estimated at approxi- 
mately 20,000 murdered and 100,000 injured. PubHc 
opinion was stirred up. Why had those Jews suffered ; 
what sins had they committed ? Their loyalty and stead- 
fastness to Judaism, instead of winning respect and admira- 
tion for their faithfulness, had called down upon them a 
treatment so immeasurably atrocious that it outdistanced 
the conventional words of sorrow and suffering and tempted 
many thinking men to ask whether the vaunted tolerance of 
the twentieth century was anything but an extravagant 
dream. If other nations suffer, they afterwards get freedom 
and indemnity. If in i860 the Christians in Syria had suffered, 
their suffering afterwards brought them an autonomy. But 
what of the Jews ? Every day it becomes clearer that it is 
impossible to allow the Jews to remain a prey to revolution 
and counter-revolution, between which they are crushed 
just as the corn is ground between the upper and nether 
millstones. " Emigration, then." But whither ? The mass 
of Jewish emigrants, in spite of all Emigration Committees 
(which were established in America), resists dispersion ; it 
holds together like a swarm of bees. In New York and 
elsewhere gigantic Jewish cities have sprung up that have 
become a menace to the safety of the present inhabitants and 



therefore to the possibiHty of further Jewish immigration. 
Attempts made to substitute agricultural colonies at an 
enormous expense by philanthropists have met with failure 
everywhere except in Palestine, where it seems that at last 
an effective form of organization has been discovered. There 
alone the immigrant Jew finds himself at ease in language and 
customs, and to that land he brings the indescribable im- 
perishable feeling of home that elsewhere comes to him but 
slowly and gradually. 

Palestine is not far from Russia and Roumania, and is 
unquestionably so adapted for cultivation that as soon as 
the soil has been prepared the main stream of present 
emigration can be directed thither. And, further, it is the 
connecting link between the three great human divisions of 
the earth, while its commercial future promises to be of the 
brightest. It is therefore natural that the Jews, longing to 
possess the land of their fathers, should be encouraged 
to immigrate both on political and industrial grounds. 

This great and powerful problem has roused English public 
opinion, but the Zionist propaganda has made considerable 
progress since 1900. One of the foremost English authorities 
who supported a Zionist solution of the Jewish problem was 
Colonel Claude Reignier Corder, to whom we have referred 
several times in this book. Some space must be devoted to 
a brief reference to the activities of this wonderful man in 
connection with Palestine. 

Colonel Conder's name will always be associated with the 
exploration of Palestine and with the history of Christian 
sympathy in this country for the colonization of Palestine by 
the Jewish people. No other person has ever done as much as 
he for the correct interpretation of the Bible with reference 
to Palestine. He was born on December 29, 1848, and was 
trained for the Royal Engineers. He was associated, almost 
from its creation, with the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
which was founded in 1865. He was only twenty-six when, as 
a Lieutenant, he went out to join in the survey of Western 
Palestine. He returned to England in September, 1875, 
having surveyed 4700 square miles. He brought with him 
a mass of notes, special surveys, observations and drawings, 
which formed the bulk of the material for a work which may 
be said to have become historical : Tent Work in Palestine. 
It is a book which even now well repays perusal, if only for 
the light it throws upon the geography and topography of 
Palestine, and the many incidents and experiences it 


records. The remaining 1300 square miles of the survey 
were finished by Lieutenant (later Lord) Kitchener in 1877. 
The scientific results of the work occupied some twenty-six 
memoirs, one to every sheet of the mapj The whole of 
Western Palestine was mapped out on a scale which showed 
every ruin and waterway, every road, forest and hillock. 
More than a hundred and fifty biblical sites were ascertained 
and from these the boundaries of the tribes were worked out 
and the routes taken by the invading armies traced. The 
other books and memoirs on Palestine which Conder pub- 
lished form a library in themselves. In addition to the one 
already mentioned, there are Heth and Moah and Memoirs of 
the Survey of Western Palestine in 1883. This was followed 
in 1890 by Memoirs of the Survey of Eastern Palestine, The 
Bible in the East in 1896, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 
in 1897, The Hittites and their Language in 1898. Besides 
these must be mentioned his Handbook to the Bible (1879), 
Primer of Bible Geography (1884), and Palestine (1891), 
which contained in one small volume a handy summary of 
all that was known of the geography of the country up 
to date. His last work, published only a year before he 
died, was on the City of Jerusalem. Special notice is also 
due to his Judas Maccabeus and The Jewish Tragedy, in 
which he deals with Jewish history from a national point of 

Conder pointed out that Zionists are the natural leaders 
to whom the destitute and oppressed Jews turn for counsel 
and guidance, that "emigration has not settled the 
eternal question," and that "a nation without a country 
must be content with toleration as all that it can expect." 
He, too, sees the only solution in Palestine, and declares 
that Englishmen should be " only too glad to see Palestine 
increasing in civilization and prosperity as an outpost in the 
neighbourhood of Egypt." {See Appendix LXXXV.) 

The Zionist Organization called, in 1906, mainly under 
the pressure of the pogroms, a conference of represen- 
tatives of Jewish organizations at Brussels, to discuss the 
question of emigration, particularly to the East. A number 
of organizations — including the Anglo- Jewish Association 
— sent their delegates ; others, probably in consequence of 
their anti-Zionist tendencies, declined. Resolutions in favour 
of investigating the condition of the emigration to the East 
were accepted, and a committee was elected ; but nothing 
practical resulted from these efforts, except a little " rap- 


prochement " between Zionism and the " Hilfsverein " 
which, however, in consequence of deep differences of prin- 
ciple, was only superficial and of a short duration. 

The work of the Zionist Organization, without losing 
sight of the politiccil aspect, devoted itself more and more 
to the work in Palestine. The Eighth Zionist Congress at 
the Hague, August, 1907, with Wolff sohn and Nordau as 
Presidents, was attended by a considerably increased 
number of delegates, and among them a number of English 
Zionist leaders. The report says about Zionism in England : 
" In England the devoted zeal of the Zionists has removed 
the difficulties which formerly existed. The Federation 
worked systematically and well, and the Movement has 
received a considerable impetus. The old and trusted 
workers co-operate with the younger spirits." 

The Ninth Zionist Congress at Hamburg, December, 1909, 
with Wolffsohn and Nordau again as Presidents, was well 
attended (about four hundred members — and for the first 
time in the history of the movement, delegates were in 
attendance from Turkey). The impression driven home 
with irresistible force was the sustained and unflagging 
interest of all present in the movement. Among the English 
delegates were : Dr. Caster, Dr. Samuel Daiches, Mr. Joseph 
Cowen, Dr. Chaim Weizmann, Mr. L. J. Greenberg, Mr. 
Herbert Bentwich, Mr. Norman Bentwich, Dr. Fuchs, the 
Rev. J. K. Goldbloom, and Mr. Leon Simon. 

The Congress found itself confronted with the problem of 
organization. Several delegates were of the opinion that 
the task of leadership was too difficult for a Small Actions 
Committee, consisting of three persons, and that the head- 
quarters should be removed to a larger centre. This view 
was not influenced by any personal sympathies or anti- 
pathies : it was dictated by considerations of an important 
character. Others were opposed to any cha'nge. This was 
an internal fight which had to be fought out, as in any 
other democratic movement, with the weapons of reason 
and conviction, and it was fought out. This Congress could 
not radically solve the question and it was left to the next 
one to bring the solution. 

Zionism, however, remained as strong as ever. The dis- 
putes, far from being symptoms of weakness, were sjmiptoms 
of growing interest, devotion and enthusiasm for the common 


Turkey, 19 10-14 — ^The New Turkish Cabinet of 1912 — ^The Balkan War — 
The Tenth and Eleventh GDUgresses — Death of Wolffsohn. 

We may as well now cast a glance at the aspect of; the 
general political situation at the period this narrative' has 
reached. Public opinion in England was greatly disap- 
pointed when the hist enthusiasm for Turkish liberties had 
passed away. The ship of state in Turkey began to enter 
very troubled waters, and no one saw safety ahead. The 
defeat of the Committee of Union and Progress, the dis- 
placing of the Said Pasha Cabinet and the downfall of 
the other leaders of the Young Turkey party of 1908, 
followed by the amnesty of a number of officials of the 
Hamidian regime, had naturally led many in Europe to 
believe that reaction had set in, and that the Young Turks 
had once more been overthrown and were in danger of 
being stamped out by the Old Turks or reactionaries. On 
the other hand, some careful observers asserted that the 
new Cabinet of 1912 was the best Turkey had had during 
the past forty years, and that it was in no true sense 
reactionary, but really constructive and progressive. They 
maintained also that the Committee of Union and Progress 
had begun to use old methods and were now hated by a 
large proportion of their former supporters. But all these 
allegations were contradicted by rapidly developing events. 
Hardly at any time within this generation had the political 
situation in Turkey presented elements of greater un- 
certainty and danger than in the period 1910-14. 

The greatest misfortune was the impossibility of any 
improvement. Turkey undoubtedly had the desire for 
progress along those lines which Europe professedly was so 
anxious to see her follow ; but she needed advice, guidance, 
credit and patience. She required men— advisers, counsel- 
lors — to give her practical help in carrying out the necessary 
reforms. But, unfortunately, such a development was 
made impossible by the disturbing political events. 

The Balkan War broke out. The Balkan peoples took 



their fate in their own hands. They did not look for 
liberators from elsewhere, and asked no help in the settle- 
ment of their differences. Whenever the Balkans had 
flared up and gone into war before it had generally been due 
to the fact that other nations had drawn them into the 
struggle. The vital difference of this conflict was that, for 
the first time for centuries, all the peoples concerned 
thought themselves strong enough to decide their own 
future by the sword. A fierce struggle began. The out- 
look for the Turks was most gloomy from the very outset. 
The Turks w^ere beaten. They were discarded by all those 
who in Europe had seemed to have supported them, aban- 
doned by the Powers which once valued their friendship. 
Speculation as to what would happen was on everybody's 
lips. One thing was certain : that the East was getting 
thoroughly aroused, and that the developments led inevit- 
ably to a crisis unparalleled in history. Meanwhile, the 
Zionist Organization continued its work with great energy. 

The Tenth Zionist Congress at Basle, August, 191 1, with 
Wolffsohn and Nordau again as Presidents, had an attend- 
ance of about four hundred delegates, including a consider- 
able number of English : Dr. Gaster, Mr. H. Bentwich, Mr. 
Jacob Moser, Dr. Samuel Daiches, Dr. Weizmann, Mr. J. 
Cowen, Dr. Hochman, Mr. H. Sacher, Dr. Salis Daiches, 
Mr. S. B. Rubenstein and others. The question left over 
from the previous Congress was settled at this one. A new 
Small Actions' Committee was elected, and David Wdlffsohn 
retained his influential post as President of the Council, and 
from that time again devoted his energies mainly to Zionist 

The Eleventh Zionist Congress at Vienna, in September, 
1913 (preceded by an International Congress of the Hebrew 
^Language Revival Societies), with its attendance of five to 
six hundred delegates, its enormous mass meetings, 
exhibitions, lectures, entertainments and demonstrations, 
such as the visit to Herzl's grave, the Gymnastic Display 
with 2500 national Jewish gymnasts and 25,000 Jewish 
spectators, was the greatest Jewish display of forces that 
had ever taken place. The importance of practical work in 
Palestine, the thorough, serious and systematic treatment 
of all colonization questions, the powerful influence of the 
Hebrew language, the great number of intellectuals present, 
the great power of the Students' movement, were new 
elements which wer6 apt to give the calmer and older 


Congress members the impression of something chaotic. In 
reality, however, that was only the way in which the 
growth of the movement, its development, and many- 
sidedness found expression. 

Superficial observers, who have but vague ideas of 
Zionism, in its narrow political and financial aspect, might 
have been surprised at the sight of this Congress, but those 
who know how Zionism has grown up out of the Choveve 
Zion and literature and education, with the University 
movement, which we have described elsewhere, will under- 
stand why the first " idyll " was bound to give way to a 
movement as reflected by the Vienna Congress. Dr. Gaster, 
Mr. J. Moser, Mr. H. Bentwich, Dr. Ch. Weizmann, Mr. J. 
Cowen, Mr. L. Simon, Mr. H. Sacher, and many other active 
and well-known members of the English Zionist Federation 
and of the Order of Ancient Maccabeans attended the 
Congress as English Delegates. 

There was also a large delegation (fourteen members) from 
Canada. For the first time in the history of the Canadian 
Zionist Federation no proxies had been given, as all the 
delegates to whom the Canadian Federation was entitled 
attended in person. 

The general Organization has since then been active in 
propaganda work, in development work in Palestine 
through the '* Zionist Office," and also in educational work 
in that country. 

The Organization sustained a great loss by the death of 
David Wolffsohn. He had been ailing for the past few years 
and died on the 15th of September, 1914. He served the 
Zionist Organization with unequalled fidelity, with intense 
devotion and a singleness of purpose that nothing could 
divert. His passionate affection for the Zionist idea never 
wavered. He was proud of the Zionist institutions and 
watched over them with never-ceasing vigilance. All 
Zionists fully realize the great devotion to the cause that 
actuated this remarkable man. Unbounded industry, a 
passionate love of the work he had to perform, these were 
the characteristics of Wolffsohn, and won for him wide and 
deep sympathy and admiration during his life and ha\'e 
secured for him a lasting and cherished memory in the 
hearts of Zionists throughout the world. 


Baron Edmond de Rothschild in Palestine — Sir John Gray Hill — Pro- 
fessor S. Schechter — South African Statesmen — A Canadian States- 
man — Christian religious literature again. 

The events in Turkey did not change Zionist convictions 
in the least degree, nor lessen the faith in the ultimate 
triumph of the cause. The colonization of Palestine by 
Jews is useful and desirable from every point of view. It 
was as much a necessity when Europe upheld the principle 
that Turkey was to form an indissoluble and indivisible 
Empire as in different circumstances. Among Jews them- 
selves it was impossible to fail to notice the complete 
change of tone and spirit with regard to Zionism. If there 
was still any feeling of rivalry between Choveve Zion and 
Zionists, it has vanished completely in recent years. 
In this respect Baron de Rothschild's visit to Palestine in 
1913 was significant. The Baron, or " Our Baron " as the 
great philanthropist is affectionately called by the Pales- 
tinian Jews, for whom he has done so much, was received 
with royal honours : there were triumphal arches, and 
crowds of people and school children lined the streets 
singing songs of welcome. He expressed his keen satis- 
faction with Zionist work, and particularly with the re- 
markable development of the Hebrew schools and the 
spread of the Hebrew language in Palestine. 

The attitude of English opinion, that is of real opinion 
based upon knowledge of facts and circumstances, remained 
unchangeably sympathetic. 

For instance. Sir John Gray Hill of Liverpool, who had 
an intimate and direct knowledge of Palestine, where he 
used to spend his holidays for many years, and whose 
reflections and observations were of great value, gave in his 
address, delivered to the Liverpool Jewish Literary Society, 
on the 30th of November, 1913, a detailed analysis of the 
work to be done in Palestine. While admitting that ex- 
aggerated hopes were liable to strong objections and indi- 
cating the existing limitations, he said : " What you can 



do is to afford a refuge in Palestine to large numbers of 
persecuted Jews, and you can teach them to cultivate the 
soil, and to practise various arts and crafts so as to main- 
tain themselves in the home of their fathers. Now I think 
it is very important that the English Jews should take a 
lead in this endeavour, because the English Jews are the 
leaders in thought, in position and in common sense, and 
have a calm way of looking at things." He opposed the 
most erroneous and absurd idea of a contradiction between 
Jewish racial self -consciousness and English patriotism. 
" I am told that there is some feeling amongst the English 
Jews of there being a want of patriotism in interesting 
themselves in the Holy Land. That I do not understand. 
A Scotchman is a Scotchman, full of love for his own land 
and his own customs, poetry and song, but he is a Briton ; 
so of a Welshman ; so of an Irishman ; so of a Devonshire 
man ; so of a Lancashire man ; we cherish these special local 
feelings, these feelings of local pride, and yet we remain true 
to the Great Empire to which we belong." He offered a 
suggestion about travelling to Palestine. 

" Now the leading Jews in England cannot, of course, go 
to live in Palestine altogether, but they might visit the 
country ; and those who can afford the time might pass 
a portion of the year there, and, I think, if they did 
so they would find an immense interest in the country, 
and would be able to help their poorer brethren far 
better than they can by remaining at a distance from it. 
Travel, open, open your mind, travel to the Holy Land 
and see the great vision of what the past did for us, that 
amazingly interesting country, without seeing which I 
think it is extremely difficult to understand in a full and 
proper way the meaning of the Bible ; at any rate, the 
sights of that land throw an immense deal of light upon it. 
Then there is another reason. Englishmen are very much 
respected in Palestine ; they are thought more highly of 
than people of any other nation. One reason is, that it is 
known that England is not seeking to exploit the country ; 
England does not seek for greedy concessions, and English- 
men, so far as they have to do with the natives, always treat 
them considerately and kindly, and, I think, the natives 
believe that whether the Englishmen are going the right 
way about it or not, they are trying to help the native to 
help himself." 

Here he struck a note which might have seemed new to 


him as a spectator appealing to English Jews. In the Zionist 
literature and Press this idea has frequently been expressed. 
Indeed, Palestine is still the land of poetry and enthusiasm, 
but it has ceased to be that of mystery ; and though only 
the fame of its natural beauty has hitherto reached Western 
Europe, travellers who have recently visited Palestine have 
learned to appreciate the progress of this country in 
colonization. If anybody has hailed with enthusiasm the 
rising of this new star in the East on account of its brilliancy, 
beauty and poetical supremacy, he could discover on a 
visit to the country those pioneers of vigorous frame, with 
eagle eyes and well-formed, combining the sternness of the 
present with the subtlety of the intellectual and the 
simplicity of the child. The best means of becoming a 
Zionist is — a visit to Palestine. Sir Moses Montefiore was 
the first European Jew who visited Palestine as a tourist 
and philanthropist, and he was an English Jew. That was 
a great traditional example for English Jewry. 

Sir John Gray Hill emphasized the importance of the 
Zionist Jerusalem University scheme : ** Now I have to 
speak of the proposal to have a University in Jerusalem. 
That is a proposal, I think, in which all Jews might join. 
Any objection or feeling of apathy that there is on the part 
of Jews for any reason against Zionism generally, cannot 
apply to a Jewish University. You want a centre of Jewish 
culture and instruction in Jerusalem. The Vienna Congress 
recently started the scheme thoroughly by a good subscrip- 
tion. You would, of course, teach Hebrew, thus preserving 
the purity of your language, and you would also, I hope, 
teach medicine, arts and crafts, agriculture and horticulture. 
Cannot you attract the attention of some very wealthy 
Jews to this great project ? Whatever objections they have 
to Zionist projects generally cannot possibly apply to this. 
What a noble monument it would be to a millionaire, or 
group of millionaires — those mighty kings of finance who 
are so powerful in Europe — to erect and endow a splendid 
University for the Hebrew race. If they were appealed to 
they would, I think, listen. Surely they would not take 
for tkeir motto the injunction addressed by the followers of 
Solomon to the Bride from Tyre : * Forget also thine own 
people and thy father's house.' No, that cannot be ; I 
think if the matter is properly represented to them a 
response will come. I believe, also, that a true and wise 
view of Zionism is growing in force. The cause is moving at 


last. The long period of slack water has ended. The tide 
has turned, although we may not yet see that it has done so. 

* For while the tired waves vainly breaking. 
Seem here no painful inch to gain ; 
Far back through creeks and inlets making. 
Comes silent Hooding in the main.' " 

On the other hand, an appreciation of the moral and 
religious value of the Zionist movement may be quoted. 
Speaking at a Zionist meeting in 19 14, in Cincinnati, the 
late Professor Solomon Schechter said : " Zionism is now 
a living fact. We must have Zionism, if we want Judaism, 
orthodox or reform, to continue to exist. Judaism is at the 
present time in a very weak condition, not only in America, 
but also in Europe. The Jew cannot live in his own 
atmosphere, he is compelled to breathe the spirit of other 
religions. ... The question then arises : What is it that can 
preserve the Jewish people ? Now can Judaism be saved 
from complete annihilation ? Jewish history tells us that 
the Hellenist Jews who settled in Alexandria and other places 
remained loyal to Judaism, although they had been excellent 
Greek citizens. . . . But after the destruction of the 
Temple, these Hellenist Jews became completely submerged 
by the Greeks, and nothing remained of their Judaism. 
That," said Professor Schechter in conclusion, " was why 
Jews must have at the present time the Zionist move- 
ment. Zionism could effect for the Jew a change in his 
material life, and it could also create for him a Jewish 
atmosphere, in which he could breathe freely his religion." 
It is worthy of note that the late Professor Schechter did 
not join the Zionist movement during the first years of its 
existence, but was then opposed to it. Being, however, 
unlike the Bourbons, who are said to have learned nothing, 
and having realized the wonderful effects of this movement 
as far as the revival of Judaism was concerned, he became 
in the last years of his life a faithful Zionist. This was the 
logic of a progressive mind. 

The Right Hon. J. X. Merriman said in an address 
delivered on the 9th of July, 1914, in opening the Zionist 
Bazaar at Capetown, that " Zionism is a ramshackle 
movement, because it began in a very small way, and it 
had gradually spread. This had been achieved by the 
general effort of the people themselves, who had laudable 
desires. They had settled a good many people on the land 


and had brought to bear their remarkable faculty of energy, 
enterprize and skill in restoring Palestine to its former 
fertility/' On the following day the Bazaar was opened by 
Sir Thomas Smartt, m.l.a. : " There could be few," said 
Sir Thomas in his eloquent address, *' but what admired 
their great leader. Dr. Herzl, in his lofty ideal for re- 
establishment as in the days of old, after many years of 
wanderings, the ancient glories of their race — of establish- 
ing a nation which had done more than any other nation 
for the spread of religious thought throughout the world. 
Notwithstanding the long and dark ages of suffering and 
tribulation through which the race had passed, the love and 
devotion to its traditions were just as strong as ever. Their 
young men still continued to dream dreams and their old 
men to see visions of that sun of righteousness which was to 
rise with healing in its wings. In seconding, Senator Powel 
said that it was a great satisfaction to know that the 
Palestine movement had got beyond the stage of dreams 
and visions, and was becoming an accomplished fact. He 
hoped that they would never slacken their efforts in what 
is one of the greatest movements in the world to-day. 

At the General Conference of the Canadian Jews held 
in Montreal on the 14th of November, 1915, which was 
unique in the annals of the Jews of Canada (for this was the 
first time in their history that the representatives of every 
section and every element of the Canadian Jewish Com- 
munity came together from all parts of Canada to take part 
in a conference), a representative of the Canadian Govern- 
ment, Mr. Maighen, brought the Assembly the good wishes 
of the Government for the success of the Conference and 
its high appreciation of that spirit of brotherhood which 
had caused tliem to come together. He spoke of the 
history and traditions of the Jewish race and of the 
debt that mankind owed to it. He referred to Jewish 
civilization as being the most ancient that influenced the 
world of to-day and of the wonderful way in which it had 
endured in spite of the ages of oppression its zealots had 
suffered. Speaking of the wish cherished so long by the 
Jews to regain possession of Palestine, Mr. Maighen gave 
utterance to the following : *' I think I can speak for those 
of the Christian faith when I express the wish that God 
speed the day when the land of your forefathers shall be 
yours again. That task will, I hope, be performed by that 
champion of liberty the world over — the British Empire." 


This speech shows how, in the minds of EngHsh statesmen, 
the question of rights for the Jews all over the world, and 
that of a Jewish homeland for the nation are bound up in 
one great principle of justice and freedom. 

To conclude the way we began mention must be made of 
Christian religious literature, which continues to support 
Zionism in its own way. The Rev. Earle Langston pub- 
lished recently his ideas on the subject. The Christadel- 
phians have published ample literature to which the learned 
Mr. Walker has contributed extensively. Mr. Frank Janna- 
way, an ardent Christadelphian whose interest in Jews and 
their homeland dates back some forty years, and who has 
paid several vi^ts to Palestine at intervals of a few years, 
and has thus enjoyed some splendid opportunities of watch- 
ing the gradual development of the Holy Land, has pub- 
lished a book, Palestine and the Jews (1914), of which two 
new editions, one of them entitled Palestine and the Powers, 
have since appeared. His knowledge is wide and thorough. 
He sees Palestine as the land of the future, and every 
new development is to him the fulfilment of a prophecy. 
He offers biblical chapter and verse for the happen- 
ings that have been convulsing the world, and in a 
way which reminds one of the oldest English pro-Zionist 
literature of the seventeenth century, which links up the 
position of the present and future aspects with sacred pre- 
diction. His views favour the Jewish cause and show 
considerable and correct acquaintance with the Zionist 

k movement. It must finally be observed that during the 
last two years a great number of excellent articles have 
appeared in English newspapers and magazines, and some 
also in the French Press, in which great sympathy is 
expressed with the Zionist cause from a political, as well as 
from a humanitarian point of view. 




The year 1914 will stand out as the Great Divide in con- 
temporary history. It was a year of endings and beginnings. 
Humanity left an age behind it, and entered upon an age in 
which old things have passed away and all things had to 
become new. 

Long feared and long foretold, yet never seriously ex- 
pected, the European War came at last. Nations, great 
and small, arose in their strength, and gathered, in an 
avalanche of excitement, all their manhood to battle, all 
their old age to guard, and all their womanhood, not only as 
in bygone days, to tend and heal the wounded and sick, but 
also to do preparatory work for the fighting armies. Gener- 
ations, young and old, rushed eagerly to defend their 
countries, leaving home, property, calling ; knowing no fear 
save that here and there one of their fellow-citizens might 
prove less patriotic than themselves. The world was 
thrown back to the moral level and the ethical con- 
ceptions of thousands of years ago : man became again a 
wolf to man, as in the Pleistocene Age. On the one hand, the 
vast and bloody epic produced a sort of ecclesiastical mora- 
torium which, for the duration of the war, annulled all moral 
obligations and abrogated the Ten Commandments, while 
on the other hand, it developed, to the highest degree, all the 
great and noble feelings — sense of honour, unselfishness, 
magnanimity, courage. Nationality, patriotism, the sense 
of duty, the spirit of sacrifice, enthusiastic heroism and 
patriotic martyrdom filled the hearts and created a new 
atmosphere, in which every kind of human activity 
was intensified : industry, art, science, and literature. 
This great storm, the greatest storm that had ever 
stirred mankind, produced the greatest spiritual tragedy 
the world has ever known. The most terrible aspect 
of the war was not the fact that Europe was being 
bled white, that all the amenities of civilization were 

II.— B 


breaking down with the strain of the military operations, 
and that each day some new and more brutal engine of 
destruction was prepared and brought into use, but — the 
ethical conflict carried on with minds and nerves on the rack 
of tense emotion which not only upset mental balance and 
changed the outlook of peoples, hitherto industrious and 
peaceful, but developed moral and social fears and passions 
which will not pass away in a day. This universal catas- 
trophe would indeed have degraded the world into 
" a sort of malign middle term between a lunatic asylum 
and a butcher's stall," if it had not finally become — 
as it has become — " a war against war.'* The peoples 
turned their ploughshares into swords, they ceased to make 
useful, beneficial rails and plates and angles and girders of 
their iron ore and their coal, and they manufactured harm- 
ful, destructive shells and guns to project them to the 
slaughter of the enemy, hoping that when the time came 
they would again turn their swords into ploughshares. They 
realized that the enemy of society is militarist despotism, 
and that miHtarist despotism therefore must be ended, or it 
will end society. A great moral idea arose out of this war : 
the liberation of oppressed small nations. Another great 
moral idea arising from it is the de-militarization of human- 
ity. The whole world is now involved in a life or death 
struggle for righteousness. This is the justification for all the 
sufferings and all the sacrifices. If this war were not a war of 
principles and for ideals it would be nothing, and could result 
in nothing except the further enthronement of the doctrine 
and worship of force, and the perpetuation of the untold 
misery and degradation which that form of rehgion carries 
with it. It should never be forgotten that this was a war 
for liberty of the peoples, and in particular of the small 

This great war has aggravated and made terribly clear 
the position of Jewry and the tragic problem of its exist- 
ence as a small and oppressed nationality. The war has 
turned numerous Ghetti of Galicia, Bukovina, Russian 
Poland, Lithuania, Courland and Roumania into heaps of 
ashes, and hell would be pleasant compared with the situa- 
tion of great masses of the Jewish people. In this war, 
particularly in Eastern Europe, hundreds of thousands of 
Jews were fighting against one another in the hostile camps 
of the belligerent countries ; and the significant factor is 
that they were not fighting because they were forced 


to, but from a sense of supreme duty. Even among those 
that were fighting in the Russian Army before the 
Revolution, there were many who were not acting under 
compulsion : they were giving of their best and from their 
heart. They wanted to take their places in the virile, the 
over- virile world — ^which is also their world, they wanted to 
hve and die taking their place in the great living society 
which called to them. The spirit of Europe — rather the 
spirit of present-day Europe, which was the spirit of obstinate 
conflicts and of extreme courage of devotion — has seized 
the Jews also : they also have entered into this tremendous 
catastrophe, into this pilgrimage through chaos towards a 
new world. 

But for the Jews this war meant infinitely worse evil and 
greater danger ; the nations were divided one from another, 
Jewry was divided against itself ; each nation opposed its 
fixed shape and character, untouched even by defeat, to the 
overflooding chaos, but the Jewish nationality seemed to 
be its victim, in its own wavering and chaotic form of the 
Diaspora. It almost seemed as though there existed Jews, 
and divided Jews, but no Jewry. 

And yet it was not really so. It was a dark time, and the 
storm was ghastly enough, but the lightning has revealed 
things that might otherwise have remained hidden. Rather 
should we believe that the time of the greatest trial for Jewry 
denoted a high self-recollection, and with it the commence- 
ment of a true gathering and union. In times of great stress 
men discover their own deeper selves. Great trouble some- 
how digs into the very foundation of a man's existence, and 
he cannot explore there without finding what is most 
essential in him. When some tremendous trouble sends its 
plough through his heart of hearts, then he becomes aware 
of wonderful things he has never suspected before. 

Now it is well worth our while to weigh all this and to 
make it part of our outlook and equipment as we face the 
great present events. Because, for one thing, it should go a 
long way towards dehvering us from the worst of all fears — 
the fear of to-morrow and the next day, and all the days that 
the future hides. Nine out of ten of us are perpetually spoil- 
ing what is happening by dread of what may happen, so that 
we can all join Disraeh in saying that we have had many 
troubles, but the worst have been those that never happened. 
If only we could let the morrow be anxious for itself ! But, 
to a large extent, we can, if we will, school ourselves to it; 


" : TN3T T'a'*3'» ... * 
(') Md 'aV Dnm 

is a promise perpetually justified by the best psychological 
findings and historic experience in the Hfe of nations. It is 
really the fact, that our " day " stirs and heightens our 
strength. Only when challenged, do we know what we are 
capable of. Modern psychology tells us that " the human 
individual lives usually far within his limits ; he possesses 
powers of various sorts which he habitually fails to use. He 
energizes below the maximum, and he behaves below his 
optimum. ' ' And to rise to our maximum and optimum we need 
some unusual stimulus or some unusual idea of necessity. 

Jewish history has revealed this truth several times. One 
individual or another, one small group or another — separated 
from the masses of the people — may fall away from Jewry ; 
whoever can do that to-day has never belonged to it. The 
majority, however, remain loyal, and are never more loyal 
than in times of stress. The illusion is destroyed that 
a man can live a truly moral life in a time of trial while 
he is only a spectator of the life of society. In the Jews, 
convulsed by the events of the war, the new unity of Jewry 
showed itself. The situation was so serious, so full of menace 
for all that we hold dear, that every thinking Jew saw that 
he must in these days help to create and maintain the moral 
energies which alone can carry him through the crisis. At 
this time the Jew had a duty to his country and a duty to 
Judaism. To his country he owed, as a citizen, duties which 
could not be shirked. Every support was to be given to all 
patriotic efforts for the prosperity, the victory, and the 
glory of the country. To Judaism he owed the obligation of 
securing and defending not only the existence, but also the 
development and the realization of its traditional ideals, and 
of strengthening its unity. The first expression of this unity 
was an increase of self -consciousness. Jewry was affected by 
the war, but the essential problems of the Jews in the 
modern world were not altered by the war. 

When we speak of Jewry, we speak of a living historic, 
ethnic and cultural — although not poUtical — nationhood, 
existing potentially in its unity, independently of the Jewries 
of the countries in the various forms of their divided destinies, 
and their dissensions at the present moment. We strive to 
fix and to assure it — as far as external conditions allow it — 

* " . . . And as thy days, so shall thy strength be." — Deut. xxxiii. 25. 


in the Diaspora. And when we wish to prepare for it a sort 
of central MetropoHs, an organic chef-lieu in Palestine — we 
are not engaged in adding one more nationality to the 
existing nationalities which fight against and watch one 
another suspiciously. It is not the question of introducing 
Jewry into the divisions of the nations, to be absorbed by 
them, and thus to contribute to their conflicts, but it is 
rather a question of aiming at the union of all that is noble 
and just in the nations and in ourselves. We want our own 
centre of simple active life, because the spiritual and in- 
tellectual element without the simple active hfe degenerates 
into subtlety and trickiness. We want — at least, for a 
section of our nationahty — normal life, with its variety and 
interpretation of different influences of Nature. This is a 
question in which every Jew should be interested, because 
not only does the nobility of a nation depend on the presence 
of the national consciousness, but also the nobility of each 
individual. Our dignity and our rectitude are proportioned 
to our sense of relationship to something great, admirable, 
pregnant with possibilities, worthy of sacrifice, a continual 
inspiration by the presentation of aims larger than everyday 
life and personal ease. 

^\^lat was the attitude of the Zionist Organization with 
regard to these great events ? Why was the Zionist Organ- 
ization more interested in the war than any other section of 
Jewry ? And why is Zionism at present more up to date 
than it ever was ? In order to answer properly these ques- 
tions we have to cast a retrospective glance on the history 
of the last twenty years, and to recall to the minds of the 
readers a few important facts which, although dealt with in 
this work in previous chapters, must be again reviewed in 
their connection with the present political situation. 

Twenty years ago several hundred Jews from all parts of 
the world met in the Swiss town of Basle and held a congress 
— the first Jewish congress in history. 

A strange community of Jews, a representative assembly 
of the great Jewish Diaspora — from the most modern Euro- 
pean writers to teachers in Talmud colleges in small Lithu- 
anian towns, quiet respectable citizens and fiery students, 
bankers and Hebrew writers — representing all kinds of 
civilization and all languages — and, nevertheless, some bond 
unified the whole. 

At the head sat a man of the kind which appears Hke 
meteors but once in the course of generations — Theodor 


Herzl. A sage, a hero, a leader of men, an artist ? Every- 
thing — even more than everything — the embodiment of an 
idea. In the body of this man there existed a soul, and that 
soul was Zionism. 

At his side there stood (besides other worthies whose 
titles to honour w^e may not here Unger to mention) a tribune 
of the people, in the person of Max Nordau — another famous 
man only just awakened suddenly and with great power to 
his Jewish nationahty. 

There the veil was torn away from the tragedy of the Jews. 
There it was stated that the Jewish problem was a disease, 
and that against a disease one should not protest and struggle 
wildly, but one ought to cure it. Moreover, it was said that 
at times one cannot heal a wound except by cauterizing it. 
And all were agreed that it was not a good plan to postpone 
difficulties, but on the contrary that they should be antici- 

Speakers there indicated the " Galuth " — the serpent with 
a thousand coils. And they pointed to the Land of Israel, to 
freedom, to redemption. 

In the Land of Israel, it was there affirmed, Zionism could 
become a hving reahty. 

Nothing new indeed was there discovered. It was simply 
stated that two and two make four. 

Out of the vocabulary of modern poHtical nomenclature 
the word " national " was adopted. Is Zionism national ? 
Certainly. It can also be called '* human " ; perhaps still 
more simply, " natural." Let us learn, however, from 
Nature, in its simpHcity and honesty, which knows of no 
sophistries nor manoeuvring. 

We Jews have become again children of Nature. There 
exist species in Nature. The eagle does not toil for 
the pike nor the lion for the cat ; neither can the light 
of the stars replace that of the sun. Each fulfils its own 
purpose, and thence results the sum total. Behold the 
trees and the standing corn — ^would they be so splendidly 
developed, so rich and so fresh in their growth, if they 
were forcibly mixed and mingled together so that one 
drew its sap from the other ? They are flourishing and rich 
and beautiful, because each keeps its own natural form and 
each draws its nourishment from the breast of mother earth. 
" Give us our country," said the Zionists. " Give it to us 
for our exiled and wandering ones, who unwilUngly find 
themselves mingled in the great seething pot of assimilation. 


who drag themselves from place to place. Give it to us for 
those who long and thirst for another kind of hfe ; our 
garments, our bread, and our freedom we do not wish to have 
as alms. We wish to work and to obtain the fruits of our 
honest labour. We love that little country ; waters cannot 
quench and streams cannot drown our love for it. Our love 
has the power to move mountains, it is stronger than all 
material obstacles. We demand a peaceful spot for our 
future and for our children who are becoming lost to us. 
Beholding this misery, we are wilhng to sacrifice ourselves. 
Even a she-wolf throws herself against danger to protect her 
young ones. Shall our love be weaker then than that of a 
wolf ? And shall those whom we love be worse off than the 
offspring of animals ? We want to rend asunder our chains, 
to blot out the mark of serfdom upon us, and win for our- 
selves true human rights, and the privilege of hving equal 
to others, by honest toil." 

This was the Jewish claim — the demand put by Zionists 
to the world. And then the world turned against us, 
especially the little Jewish world. 

We shall not talk about the levity, the insolence, the 
egotism, nor about those satiated folk who philosophize 
with their stomachs, nor about those others who do not 
know their own minds, whose shallow little heads float hke 
foam in any current. We do not talk about those idle jesters 
who have found another opportunity of showing the sad wit 
of the Ghetto which takes pleasure in ridicuhng and despising 
one's own self. Indeed even respectable, serious and honest, 
though unfortunately shortsighted and obstinate men, who 
imagined themselves enthusiastic concerning Judaism, kind- 
hearted but automatic leaders of Jewish communal life who, 
though philosophizing about mankind, are inwardly divided 
from their own people, came to us with ** fatherly " advice, 
with moral lectures, with sonorous phrases about humanity. 
They wanted to destroy most quickly, annihilate and ex- 
tinguish the " dangerous chimaera," the " reaction," the 
" chauvinism," the " Sabbatai-Zvi'ism," the ** decay of 
religion," " religious fanaticism," " tribalism," and all the 
other things they ascribed to Zionism in their political 
delusion and contradictory nomenclature. 

" You must scatter yourselves all over the world," they 
said, " just as a handful of seeds, scattered by the wind, 
germinate, grow and ripen, all in different spots, replenishing 
the earth with their fruits ! What do you want with a 


country of your own ? You are made for something better I 
To be priests, teachers of ethics, missionaries of God — that 
is a higher ambition ! Your contribution to mankind is 
social justice and the brotherhood of men. Why be a nation 
and for what purpose ? You will be great in the memory of 
peoples. You have earned a golden throne in history's 
temple of fame. You have been, to-day you are no more ! " 

The Zionists replied : *' We want to live. We know 
better than you do what we are able to do, and how we ought 
to influence mankind ; but we do not wish to abdicate, we 
do not wish to be destroyed like a broken vessel, whose 
contents have run out and have drained into the soil without 
leaving a trace. We do not want to be lost like a falHng star, 
which for a time had shone brightly in space, only to sink 
into nothingness. Our star is not yet dead. Our ambitions 
are not very high, but they are based on reality. We do not 
want to be an exception, and we want to be excused from 
such a * priesthood.' We want to create a sound settlement, 
a strong centre where we can develop our own nature and 
our character to the highest and purest perfection. Should 
the world wish to learn from us and accept our influence, we 
shall place no obstacles ; on the contrary, we shall be glad 
of it. But to drag ourselves from place to place, to be the 
scapegoat of every ' Azazel,' and the sacrificial lamb for 
every calamity, to mix everywhere with others, to lose more 
and more that which is our own personality, and to imagine 
that we are a sort of schoolmaster for everyone — for such 
imposture we are too honest, for such megalomania we are 
of too normal a mentaUty, and, morally, too modest. We 
do not want to be driven ad majorem Dei gloriam (for God's 
greater glory) or to be intermingled with others. We do not 
want to be like the goose that was offered the choice of being 
either roasted, stewed, or boiled. Neither do we wish to 
have lavished upon us the pity given to old people, 
because it is certain that they will not for long con- 
tinue to disturb the peace of the living. We are old, 
it is true, but on that account we are experienced. 
From Pharaoh and Balaam to the foreign Antiochus 
[Epiphanes] {oh. 164 h.c.e.) and our own Jason, ^ from the 
Hellenists to the modern Assimilationists, we have been 
constantly invited, as the spider invited the fly into her 

» rein* or Jesus, High Priest from 174-171 b.c.e., brother of the High 
Priest. N»3in = N^Jin:, Onias iii. 


parlour, just to get it entangled in her web and afterwards 
to suck it dry. No ! a thousand times no ! And if you say 
the Land of Israel is of no value to any one, then you are not 
speaking in our name ! Speak for yourselves alone ! For 
you the Land of Israel means perchance only a cemetery, a 
legend, an amulet, an archseological relic ; for us its every 
pebble and grain of sand is beloved, not only in a spirit of 
worship and of inactive enthusiasm, but also as a necessity 
to our life labour. And if you believe that the Jewish people 
are of a similar species to the Mammoth and the Mega- 
therium, which have been devoted to extinction, then please 
speak only for yourselves ! Perhaps the sense of Jewish 
nationahty in you has gone to sleep or has even died 
entirely. That is your own affair, a personal question which 
you have to fight out with your own selves. In us it is alive, 
suffering, fighting, clamouring ! Zionism is the movement 
of the Jewish people to reconstitute itself and to collect 
again its scattered members, to provide Judaism, the Jewish 
spirit, the Jewish soul, with a home once again after two 
thousand years of exile and of wandering. Zionism is the 
struggle of the Jewish people to preserve its existence. 
Zionism feels that the raison d'etre of Judaism is not ended, 
that the Jewish race can still contribute its share towards 
the raising of humanity, but to enable it to do so more 
efficiently, in an organized form, and in accordance with its 
own natural affinities and historic traditions, a Jewish 
milieu is necessary. To create such a Jewish milieu is the 
purpose of the Zionist movement. Such a Jewish milieu 
can take root in one land and one land only, for there is one 
land only that has a real glorious Jewish history and Jewish 
past. That land is the Land of Israel ! " 

Both parties had exhausted the discussion — and, as is 
usual in such cases, did not succeed in convincing each other. 
Then they each went their own way. 

The Zionists began to build straightway. No other 
colonial settlement in the world is of nobler birth than ours 
in Palestine. Tradition relates that young Rome was fed by 
a she- wolf . Some day it will be told in legends that our new 
settlement on old foundations was fed by a turtle-dove, by 
love, faithfulness, kindhness, and brotherhness. Not wild 
animals, but angels, stood round its cradle. Muses and Graces 
illuminated and crowned the morning star of its noble child- 
hood. Jewish thinkers Hke Leo Pinsker, Perez Smolenskin, 
David Gordon; enthusiastic leaders and many others — 


a kind of Jewish Puritan pioneers, the " Bilu " — had started 
to build up the settlement even before our first and greatest, 
our immortal founder and leader of modern Zionism, 
Theodor Herzl, had drawn up our programme, created our 
organization, founded our institutions, and had given us the 
impetus, method and form of the Zionist movement. 

The success of a wonderful, personal, magnetic power, the 
method of large-scale propaganda, the labour through 
relations with Governments had for a certain time given 
Zionism a political bias. More considered and every- 
day experience, on the contrary, pointed to a slow method 
of practical labour. Different parties amongst the Zionists 
opposed one another, and we need not be ashamed of that. 
Jews are inclined to freedom in all their spiritual tendencies, 
they do not easily submit to formulae, they criticize, analyse, 
and search for the truth. Finally, the whole struggle was 
reduced to a question of tactics. Whether one attempts to 
reach the goal by means of the plough, plantations, schools, 
literature, or propaganda, it is a question of time and circum- 
stances. And the essential truth was, that all means must 
be employed. 

What was the result ? The net balance was not great ; 
forty settlements, some farms, co-operative societies, Tel 
Aviv, the new Achuzoth, the Carmel, the Pardes, the 
Aggudath N'iaim, modern machines ; new methods of work 
introduced not only among Jews, but also among Arabs ; 
malaria centres disinfected ; the best conditions for planting 
studied in experimental institutions ; our banks, the Bezalel, 
public health centres, the music school, two well-filled 
secondary schools, the girls' school in Jaffa, the Tach'kmoni 
school in the same place, the Petach-Tikwah school of 
agriculture, the settlement schools, the committee organiza- 
tion of the settlements, the workers' associations, the 
teachers' union, the Hebrew newspapers and Uterature, the 
" Houses of the People " — these represent what Choveve 
Zion, Baron Edmond de Rothschild and the Zionists have 
created, and what we call the new colonization of Palestine. 
The earher rivalries have vanished. The ChovevS Zion and 
the Zionists are at one as to the policy of Zionism. The 
Zionist Palestine office in Jaffa is the head-quarters of the 
work of colonisation. The struggle for Hebrew has shown 
how Palestine is becoming more and more an intellectual 
centre. The visit of Baron Edmond de Rothschild to 
Palestine in 1913 had set the seal upon this unanim- 


ity. Even the blind could perceive that a true Jewish 
Home was in process of estabhshment. No further argu- 
ments were needed. The Jewish population in the 
land, although a minority, is the only one that is 
growing and has grown during the past generation. It 
is the only progressive population in the land, the others 
are stationary in regard to numbers. Let any one go to 
Palestine, not on one of Cook's lightning tours, but as a Jew 
to the land of Israel ; let him remain in the settlements but 
a few weeks — that will be a certain cure for anti-Zionism. 
If it should happen that any one could not be cured even in 
this way, then he must unfortunately be regarded as incur- 
able. We, however, know of a great many that have been 

Thus the organization grew. It is sufficient to compare 
the beautiful first Basle Congress of 1897 with the enormous 
Vienna Congress of 19 13 ; it is sufficient to compare the 
phantom Jewish National Fund of 1899 with the existing 
Jewish National Fund, which can show an annual income of 
over two miUion francs ; it is sufficient to compare the two 
or three Zionist pamphlets of eighteen years ago with the 
Zionist press and literature in existence to-day. 

Thus Zionism has grown to what it is to-day for the 
Jewish people : a spring of Hfe, a signpost, the foundation 
of a mighty edifice. 

In a few words the author can give the essence of the 
personal impressions which he received during the course of 
his three months' stay in Palestine, in 1913, before the war : 
a model factory of modern Jewish national Hfe ; a nursery 
for rearing the fruitful parent-stems for the blossoming tree 
of a living Hebraism ; a laboratory for sociological experi- 
ments in self-help and self-government in Jewish economic 
life ; a compendium of elements and corner-stones for the 
erection of the Home ; a systematic, laborious, slow pre- 
paration of the preliminary conditions for a great, healthy, 
original Jewish province ; the genesis of a new world, natur- 
ally with many defects, with many premature and unripe 
attempts, but that was just most beautiful and most 
natural in people who search and strive and venture. And 
all this was enhghtened by a clear understanding, and glowed 
with a youthful national enthusiasm. That is what Jewish 
colonization in Palestine is. 

Do not try and count it over ! The wisdom of the multi- 
plication table is too dull to be able to estimate it. Do not 


try and weigh it ! On the great scales of history a single unit 
sometimes weighs down a hundred thousand ! Enjoy it, as 
one enjoys art, or as the free soul becomes intoxicated with 
and rejoices in freedom. As musical natures become en- 
raptured with music, so national natures become enraptured 
with national life. 

And if you will have net results, then do not forget one 
thing, namely, that all this has been done, not by the entire 
Jewish people, but by a small handful of Jews. When this 
small handful has become the entire people, then this edifice 
will grow even grander. Palestine is a land that stretches 
forth its hands to the future. For two thousand years it has 
been ravaged by war and by misgovernment, until a country 
that was once famous throughout the world for its fertility, 
has become a desert land, degenerate from lack of culti- 
vation. According to the statistics of the Ottoman Board 
of Trade less than 9 per cent of the area of European Turkey 
has been brought under cultivation, and still less of Turkey 
in Asia. There are in Palestine twenty-seven inhabitants 
to the square kilometre, and in the valley of the Jordan four ; 
while in the irrigated districts of neighbouring Egypt ten 
thousand are concentrated within the same area. Why 
should not Palestine be resettled hke Egypt ? Why 
should it not be made a happy home for an unfortunate 
people ? 

Now the Zionists, after twenty years of work, plead their 
case again. They have not succeeded in putting an end to 
the " Galuth." Their opponents maintain that they had 
overestimated their strength. Perhaps so, but this does 
not prove that their labours have been to no purpose. They 
have laid a few foundation stones, they have shown the 

They defend their cause in the midst of a hell-fire. Our 
ancient people that has lived so long, has now experienced 
the greatest of wars, such as has never been in the world 
before. We hve to-day in the most critical period of the 
world's history. It has been our lot to share in the greatest 
drama which humanity has as yet lived through, not only as 
spectators, but also as actors. The history of this world war 
is written in letters of blood on the ancient and holy parch- 
ment, on the brow of the Jew. No seismograph has indi- 
cated beforehand the coming of this earthquake, of this out- 
burst of the volcano of the nations. But one thing the Zionists 
have foreseen : the force of national consciousness ; the flood 



of hate, our pitiful situation, which cause every storm to 
tear away the ground from under our feet. 

Herzl had written his first pamphlet under the influence 
of the Dreyfus affair. That cry of twenty years ago thunders 
now in unison with the cries of mothers, wives, orphans, 
from underneath the pyres and ruins which in their brutal 
reaUty leave the worst imaginings of a Jeremiah far behind. 
The dead arise from their graves, covered with blood, 
trampled in the dust, with the fiery name of God, the 
*' Shaddai," on their pale foreheads, and they demand to be 
heard. They lament, and say : 

"Vainly we strove to secure a little life — we could not 
grasp it. Withered with sufferings, with pain and injury, 
shivering and frozen with cold, we used to hug the earth 
closely, but it would not give us warmth. We were teachers 
of the most ancient peoples, but death and insult were the 
recompense paid us by our pupils. We shone like the stars, 
but we were treated like silkworms, which have to die, so 
soon as they have spun the fine web of their threads, so soon 
as they have drawn forth and sacrificed their life-blood — 
they have fulfilled their duty, and farewell ! 

" On our shoulders we bore the burdens of our masters' 
interests, just as the sea bears the Httle fishing-boats on its 
waves. We were more faithful in guarding their property than 
dogs are. For the labour which we performed, for our hard 
and humble services, for the sacrifice of all our strength on 
their altars, for the resigned and patient suffering of all the 
tortures of exile, we did not receive even the reward of 
protection extended to the beast of burden, to the cow, or 
to the sheep for its wool. Deprived of all human rights, even 
stripped of the scantiest rags of toleration, we wandered and 
fell under the iron yoke of serfdom, like a weary and im- 
potent herd of cattle driven over rocks and brambles. They 
felled us as a forest is felled, and we went down without the 
slightest possibility of suitable self-protection, with the dull 
thud of an old oak prostrated by a storm, yet with the pain 
of bereaved, insulted and humbled human beings. We are 
the victims not of the war, but of the ' Galuth/ Let no 
one talk to us about Belgium, Serbia. Theirs is the well- 
known scourge of mankind taking the shape of tyranny, 
militarism, war. Had we suffered only from these things, 
then we should have suffered but in common with others! 
Our misery, however, is of a peculiar kind. It is a double 
misery : we suffer with the rest, and in addition we suffer 


specially as a people without a country. Belgium and 
Serbia and Montenegro are nations with countries of their 
own ; they cannot be annihilated, they must be restored. 
We envy Belgium in her misfortune, and sorely assailed 
Serbia ; we behold the strength and health of the Polish 
peasant. Truly, he has been ruined for the time being, but 
he has his country, and though he has been driven away ten 
times by the fury of war he will return, and once again plant 
himself on his native soil, where his golden corn will grow 
again. Not only could he not be uprooted, but he will re- 
gain more than he had lost : a new, free, independent 
Poland ! 

" Ever)^where the rights of nations are triumphant. Let it 
not be said that only countries that had been stolen fifty or 
a hundred years ago shall be returned to their former lawful 
owners. Whoever says so, falsifies history, either intention- 
ally or unintentionally. The right of the Greeks to Greece is 
also a right which has remained through thousands of years. 
The right of the Armenians to Armenia has also been sup- 
pressed by force throughout the centuries. And yet these 
rights will be granted. Let it not be said either, that a 
nation robbed of the country must have remained on its 
native soil, or otherwise it will have lost its rights. That is 
not true. More Greeks live outside Greece than in Greece, 
and there are still other nations, the majority of whose 
citizens dwell outside the frontiers of their old home. Nor 
let it be said that it is sufficient to grant equal rights to man- 
kind. Were not equal rights given to the Greeks — and 
yet the problem was not solved till Greece redeemed herself ! 

"We, the orphans, the disinherited, the playthings in 
history's sports, the step-children of a world founded on 
nationaUties — we summon the world before the high court 
of history. 

" For two thousand years past they put us off with excuses 
and false promises. Civilization has been progressing for 
thousands of years : mankind now flies loftier than the eagle^ 
and dives deeper than the Leviathan. Has it become better 
for us ? Have we not remained the same scapegoats from 
the time of Rome to the Crusades, from these to the ' Haida- 
maks,' and from them to the Pogroms of the present 
day ? 

" We, the wandering souls, demand our rest. Enough of 
wanderings and being bandied about ! Give us back our 
body, our country ! We want to be equal with the 



rest, suffer with the rest, fight with the rest, hve with 
the rest." 

Thus lament the dead, teaching the Hving. Will the world 
not Hsten to them ? 

" What do you wish ? " the Zionists are asked. They 
reply : We want a home in the land of Israel. On the day 
of Judgment, when every historical right — from the smallest 
to the greatest — is announced, elevated, proclaimed, and 
demanded ; when even the weakest, the most doubtful 
claims of half-forgotten and but recently-awakened httle 
peoples, based on old, torn, ambiguous and now scarcely 
legible documents and traditions, assert themselves and de- 
mand rights of ownership ; when history takes its place as 
judge on the throne of justice, and the national territorial 
idea is accepted as the world's code, in order to resolve every 
doubt and to arbitrate every dispute ; when the great in power 
penitently declare that every injustice, especially towards 
suffering peoples, must be righted ; when these things come 
to pass, then (we Zionists say) the Jewish people is in 
duty bound to proclaim its old, holy, historical right to the 
heritage of its heroes, its prophets, its civilization, its 
religion, its language, and its labours ! 

It is an ancient right, but it has not lapsed. It is the 
ancient oath, the ancient covenant. No right has been 
earned more honourably. None has been paid for with more 
and nobler blood. None is so highly estabhshed and deeply 

In order not to lay itself open to a verdict of letting its 
claim go by default, the Jewish people will have to proclaim 
its immortal right to the land of Israel. It is the sacred duty- 
right of loyal children towards their parents. Not to demand 
the land of Israel means that we tacitly waive our rights to 

^it, and this means a waiving of our rights to everything : 
tradition, honour, justice, the law of Moses, and the general 
historical idea. 
We don't trust a man who denies his mother, however 
much of a patriot he may be in his country. He is an 
opportunist, but no patriot, because patriotism is ideahsm. 
Nothing will daunt us in our resolve to proclaim solemnly 
our historical right and to demand it with all our energy. 
Do not trouble us with intimidations, on the score of a pos- 
sible growth of anti-Semitism, and so on ! These fears are 
senseless. Anti-Semitism is a consequence not of Zionism, but 
of the " Galuth." Those who have the courage of their con- 


victions and a sense of honour, are not to be influenced by 
craven fears. Our duty it is to proclaim our right, and we 
shall fulfil this duty. Will this bring us sufferings ? Good : 
we are prepared for that. Martyrs from of old as we are, we 
have been through fire and water during thousands of years, 
we have been the target of every attack, the victims of every 
persecution, and we fear no chicanery when it is a question 
of fulfiUing a holy duty of our conscience. 

Whoever understands Zionism, knows it is not our inten- 
tion to raise conflicts. We stand for a peaceful movement. 
We began in a time of peace and we desire to renew our work 
and substantially to enlarge it, in the coming time of peace. 
We did not wish to harm anyone, to wrong anyone, and we 
wish to do so still less, if possible, now than before. We wish 
to make our country a model of social justice and human 
brotherhood ; the spirit of our prophets shall fill our land, 
and the ancient Hebrew genius shall there have its dwelling- 

We certainly, not less than all the other Jews and all just 
men, are strongly interested and are anxious that we, wher- 
ever we live, wherever we are, and wish to be citizens, 
should have our rights secured. Where the Jews are not yet 
emancipated, they shall be emancipated ; where they are 
but half emancipated, their emancipation shall be completed 
and perfected ; and where they are already emancipated, 
their emancipation shall be in no way checked or diminished. 
This question of rights we had better formulate in the follow- 
ing manner : Not that rights should be given us, but that 
our rights shall no longer be filched away, restricted 
and encroached upon wherever we have our domicile, 
wherever we fulfil our duties, and bear all burdens 
in order to defend the soil of the country to the death ; 
wherever we work, live, and die together with its other in- 
habitants. Not that we should be emancipated, but that 
people should emancipate themselves from the instinct of 
persecution, from mahce, from envy, which find expres- 
sion in various forms : in pogroms, in boycott, in social 
ostracism, in open or masked disabihties ; that we should 
not be shut up in cages like wild animals, whether it be in 
the brutal form of SiGheUo, a " pale of settlement," or in the 
more subtle form of social exclusion and coldly poHte hypo- 
critical repulse : whether it be finally, in that cunning form 
not of Anti-Semitism, but of Asemitism which declares 
that, as in the case of poisons, the country can at best 


absorb only a limited quantity of Jews, while any excess is 

If the civilized world really intends to make an end of war, 
then, also, this war against the Jews must not be over- 
looked. It is a war in time of peace, a war that has not the 
heroic character of a struggle between two opponents equal 
in arms, but the character of a systematic and brutal 
oppression of the weak by the strong. 

That is the problem of the rights of the Jews in the 
countries of the Diaspora 1 

Some sophists have, in their speculative, casuistical way, 
evolved a strange doctrine. They assert, that when the 
' Jews surrender their claims to the land of Israel, when they 
deny their own nationality, then they will " receive rights." 
Pedants and arm-chair theorists as they are, they paint in 
their luxurious imagination a picture that recalls the classical 
example of Paris with the apple : in one hand, Palestine ; 
in the other, rights in the Diaspora. And as they point to 
this picture, they cry out to the Jews : Choose ! One or the 
other ! 

Such pictures may please children, but not grown-up 
men — since children are innocent and do not understand the 
laws of logic. There are no two kinds of truth, nor of justice, 
only one. If justice is done to us, then our right to Palestine 
will be recognized, and we shall also be left in peace in the 

Be assured the Land of Israel will not injure our situa- 
tion in the Diaspora. Only Zionism, not self -betrayal, is 
calculated to lend us authority and prestige in the world. 
Avoid the old error, avoid renunciation, stand true to your 
flag, to righteousness, like men ! 

We are asked. What are your politics ? Others say that 
pohtics should be indeed excluded. Zionism must be only 
either colonization or a spiritual movement. We must be 
Zionists in colonization, in the spirit, and in religion. In 
what each says, there is some truth. The error Hes only in 
the fact that in each of these assertions, a partial truth 
claims to represent the whole truth. Zionism is not a part ; 
it is the totality, the sum, the synthesis of these efforts. 

However little Zionists wish to enter into politics they 
cannot close their eyes to the fact that Zionism is — at least, 
in part — a pohtical problem. However spiritual its argu- 
ments, its origins and its motives may be, however meta- 
physical its aims may be, and however much its methods 


may accordingly strive to remain pure, neverthless, it is 
concerned with the problem of people desiring to settle in a 
particular country, under a particular form of social life. 
They, consequently, have to strive for a certain degree of 
political self-government, whether it be high or low, and 
thus they must come into relations with other groups and 
states already in existence, already formed, already in 
possession and having rights. The boundaries of rights will 
have to be drawn up, and these will soon become frontiers of 
existing spheres of influences, and these again, later on, will 
need to grow to new forms. Even if Zionism should devote 
itself entirely and with absolute exclusiveness to spiritual 
matters, its centre of colonization will have a political aspect, 
which must be developed as such. It is a good thing that 
the war has thrust political temptations upon Zionism. 
Nothing can become of greater advantage to it, than that 
it should always grow more clearly conscious of being some- 
thing practical, the creator of hfe, of being conditioned and 
Hmited by frontiers, and not that it should simply fill the role 
of redressing grievances from a single point. 

The Zionist policy must always be controlled by the 
national idea. Great changes will arise in the poHtical 
situation in the world, the extent of which cannot as yet be 
surveyed in detail. But one thing is already certain ; the 
national, the historical idea will be victorious. The people 
that suffer most, the small and weak people, must weigh on 
the scales of the coming changes in proportion not only to 
their physical strength, but also to their moral strength, and 
in proportion to the intensity of their will-power and self- 
determination — and this will-power and this self-determin- 
ation, although at all times needing and capable of de- 
velopment, develops most rapidly under the influence 
of such moments as the present. The first preliminary 
condition for poHtical success, therefore, is self-determina- 
tion and will-power. The first and most important poHtical 
task is the awakening of will-power. Only then commences 
the poHcy of finding support in the outer world. And under 
this head we know of one policy only, namely, truth — 
absolute and unconditional truth. Out of love for it 
Zionists desire to be just to aU men, even to their opponents. 
This may be disagreeable to short-sighted people, but it 
does not trouble Zionists. Should truth beckon in one direc- 
tion and the greatest successes in the other, Zionists should 
without a moment's hesitation choose rather the former 



and exclaim, " Away with falsehood/' Only truth can be 
of service to us ; wherever any shadow whatsoever falls upon 
that, there can be no place for us. 

No cause that is unjust, even if at the first glance it 
appears to bring immediate help, and is advanced by people 
who wish us well, is worthy of Zionist support, and, likewise, 
every righteous cause, even though it appears to be against 
us, and is put forward by people who are indifferent and 
even opposed to us, is deserving of our support. For high 
above the plans dictated by benevolence or malice, stands 
the loftiest cause which so rules it that injustice cannot help 
Zionism, and that justice, on the contrary, must help it. 

It is sometimes pointed out that certain among those who 
profess sympathy for Zionism do not exactly belong to the 
most trusty friends of the Jews, while, on the contrary, many 
so-called Liberals seem to be opposed to Zionism. Truly, 
we say to you : this is of no concern to us. Personal motives 
have no interest for us ; we do not sit in judgment upon 
individuals. We are neither flattered by friends nor deterred 
by the envious. The Zionist's only concern is the righteous 

The Zionist policy is one of principles, and not an oppor- 
tunist pohcy. A poHcy founded on principles can only base 
itself on truth. The assistance of strangers can be of service 
to us only when it sees in us the truth, sees us as we really 
are, as we are in the continuity of our history, in our numbers, 
in our distress and in our hopes. Not the plans of any in- 
dividual, whether personal or general, only fideHty to the 
axioms of international morality can help us. And if it be 
possible to obtain such assistance, then it can be attained 
only through a leading policy of true equaUty, but never 
through assimilation, which is opposed to the truth. 

Truly, to be on an equaUty with others means the solving 
of our problem on national fines. That in the highest sense 
is equaHty of opportunity. If the principle of self-determin- 
ation is appHed to all, then it must be applied to us too. If 
historical rights are recognized, then ours must also be recog- 
nized. It is right and fair that Armenia should become 
Armenian ; it is just as right and fair that the Land of Israel 
should become Israelitish. Grant equal rights and com- 
pensatory justice ; all else is hatred, cowardice, hypocrisy, 

The error of Jewish policy since the beginning of the last 
century lay in the fact that it was an opportunist policy. 


We tried to please different parties, to utilize political 
situations. Perhaps this was formerly an opportunity — ^we 
have now outgrown this standpoint. Human progress, Hke 
every development, advances ever further and further. 
Every new advance leads to a new stage that could be 
reached only through the earlier stages, and every new stage 
when reached has been reached only to be left behind in its 
turn. As soon as a stage has been reached, the time has 
once more arrived for leaving it. That is the essential 
reason why the Jewish problem has now become a national 
problem. Hence it is the purest childishness to wish to solve 
the problem by the means adopted by the Sanhedrin in Paris, 
in 1806. 

It is not, however, to be supposed that because Zionists 
hold to a policy of principles they are on this account in- 
capable of profiting from favourable opportunities, of utilizing 
a fortunate moment, that may come and bring more with it 
than many years of hard toil. " Whoever wants to sail to 
the new-discovered isles must use the winds as they blow." 
The centre of gravity Hes in the Jews alone, in their will- 
power, in the independence of their spirit. 

The Jewish people have seen the dominion of Eg5^t, 
Assyria, Babylon and Rome, and still survive. Under the 
standards of Zion the Jewish people will rise to new Hfe. 

What ought Jews to do ? To this question we answer : 
In these serious times all Jews should be united, all Jewish 
organizations, parties and communities should set to work, 
by all lawful means, through the press, hterature, propa- 
ganda and personal connections, to attain the recognition 
of a national home for our people in the Land of Israel; 
and at the same time to carry through the abolition 
of all injustice against the Jews in the countries of the 

And in view of the enormous importance of the already 
existing Jewish colonization in Palestine for our future, and, 
also, of the salvation of the Jewish people from want and 
misery accentuated by the war, the greatest possible assist- 
ance must be given to Palestine and to the suffering masses 
of Jews in the Diaspora. For the sake of these causes, and 
especially for the first, the Zionist Organization all over the 
world should not only be maintained, but also placed in a 
position to develop and enlarge its activities. 



In the above the Zionist policy has been sketched. 
Experience has by this time shown that in spite of the in- 
credible difficulties of all kinds, Zionism has not only not 
lost its power, but has also actively developed its work. 

The present war has not affected the unity of the Zionist 
idea nor has it affected the unity of the Zionist Organization. 
As the Organization was established on the federative 
principle, it was found possible to continue the essential 
work of the movement by utiHsing the separate organiza- 
tions of the different countries. The work of propaganda 
and the collection of funds, so far from diminishing, 
actually made great progress. The societies already in 
existence continued their work very effectively, and a 
considerable number of new societies came into being. Die 
Welt, the central organ of the movement, had, however, to 
be suspended ; but a series of new Zionist pubUcations made 
their appearance. The Zionist press — ^in Russia particularly 
— ^made great headway. The Zionist weekly, Razswiet, 
which is published in the Russian language, increased 
its circulation threefold. Three new daiUes, Ha'am in 
Hebrew, Das Togblatt and Der Telegraf in Yiddish, were 
established, and rapidly attained a circulation comparable 
to the great European daily papers. A crowd of new 
journalists and publicists accepting the Zionist platform, 
joined the old guard of writers and workers in the cause. 
The Yiddish Press in Poland, which numbers its readers by 
the hundred thousand, put themselves at the disposal of the 
Zionist movement. One in particular, which had hitherto 
been territorialist, and only lukewarm towards Zionism, 
declared openly its acceptance of the Zionist programme. 
In England Zionist activity in press and literature 
made remarkable progress, such as had scarcely been 
imagined possible in this country. It is worthy of note that, 
quite apart from the Zionist Press proper, the Jewish non- 
Zionist Press evinced a much keener interest in the move- 
ment. The world's general Press, in all languages, devoted 
to Zionism an amount of space second only to the events of 
the war. The mere fact that at a time such as the present, 
when the world is in the throes of a universal struggle, 
and every nation is concerned^ for its own safety, and 
even existence, so much interest was directed to our 


movement throws a dazzling light upon the naive absurdity 
of the anti-Zionist assertion, that the whole movement is 
nothing more than an Utopia. 

The Zionists have long realized the need of public 
meetings and discussions. The Zionist movement is 
the only Jewish national and democratic movement 
to attach great importance to the free exchange of 
opinions and to break down the somewhat autocratic 
method of conducting Jewish affairs in favour with the 
Kehillah leaders. It was the first movement to replace the 
dry bones of bureaucracy by the introduction of universal 
Jewish suffrage as a means of dealing with Jewish pubhc 
affairs. As the Zionist movement in pre-war times found 
full expression in conferences and public meetings, it was to 
be feared that the War, by reducing greatly the facilities of 
communication and intercourse, would seriously affect this 
form of activity. But this was not the case. The long record 
of the meetings and conferences held since the outbreak of 
the war, and which by no means exhausts the total number, 
gives some notion of the vast scope of this form of propa- 

We will make a short survey of the most important 
dates in Zionist activity during the course of the war, in 
chronological order. 

September, 1915. 

Zionist Conference — Dordrecht — Holland. 

Roumania. Annual Meeting of the Roumanian 
Zionist Federation, November 7th and 8th, held in 
Galatz. Country divided into four districts for 
Zionist work : Galatz, Bucharest, Jassy, Foscani. 

Canada. General Jewish Conference held in 
Montreal, November 14th and 15th, together with the 
Annual Meeting of the Canadian Zionist Federation, 
presided over by Clarence de Sola. 

December ^th, 1915. 

West Austrian — Galician — and Bukowina Zionist 
Conferences (Adolf Stand in the chair) . Resolutions : — 
" The Assembly expects to see the Jewish 
problem discussed at the peace conference, and 
trusts that the Actions Committee will find suit- 
able means and ways to create a united manifesta- 
tion of the Jews of all countries for the demand of 



securing for the Jews their civil and political 
equality of rights all over the world, and in the 
nationality states also recognition of their national 

" The Actions Committee is asked to prepare 
everything in a suitable manner, in order that 
the interests of poUtical Zionism may be secured 
before the Forum of the future Peace Congress." 
December 26th and 2yth, 1915. 

Holland. At Nymegen one hundred and twenty 
delegates attended. 
December, 1915. 

Manchester. Conference of EngUsh " Poalei Zion." 
Delegates from all parts of the country attended. 
January 1st, 1916. 

England. Conference convened by E.Z.F. attended 
by Rabbis, delegates of Synagogues, Friendly Societies 
and Trade Unions. 
January ^th, 1916, 

America. Annual Conference of the Federation of 
" Knights of Zion," at Chicago. The Federation has 
fifty-three active branches and three thousand 
January, 1916. 

Australia. Annual Conference of the Sydney 
Zionist Society. 
February 6th, 19 16. 

America. Annual Convention of the Zionist 
Council of Greater New York. 
February i^th, 1916. 

England. Annual Conference of the English 
Zionist Federation at Manchester. 


Mizrachi. The Annual Conference of the ** Miz- 
rachi" was held at Chicago, May 26th-30th. The 
*' Mizrachi " of America comprises one hundred and 
three associate-societies and twenty-four synagogues. 
The membership is six thousand. 

Some of the principal American Rabbis attended 
the Conference. 

A special Palestine Bureau was created. A new 
union, called " Achi Samach," was formed, for the 
encouragement of the sale of Palestinian products. 



Bombay. A Meeting of the Magen David Congrega- 
tion was held at Bombay. The proceedings were all in 
Hebrew. Sir Jacob EHas Sassoon, Bart. (1844-1916), 
was re-elected president. 

May zSth and 2gth, 19 16. 

Scandinavia. The Twelfth Annual Conference of 
Scandinavian Zionists was held at Copenhagen. 
Thirty-one delegates from all parts of the country 
were present. Various resolutions were passed, ex- 
pressing confidence in the work of the Central 



Switzerland. A Conference of the Swiss Zionist 
Federation was held at Berne on June ist. 

South Africa. The Annual Conference of the 
South African Zionist Federation was held at 
Johannesburg on April 30th. Over one hundred 
delegates were present. 

Canada. " Poalei Zion " of Montreal had a series 
of Conferences on June 2nd-4th. 

America. Conference of American Zionist Federa- 
tion held at Philadelphia on July 2nd. Over five 
hundred delegates present. 

July Sth, 1916. 

Conference at New York of the " Young Judea.'* 
The membership is three thousand five hundred. 

September i^th-i^th, 1916. 

Poland. A Zionist Conference was held in Warsaw, 
attended by one hundred and twenty-five delegates 
from Warsaw and the PoUsh provincial cities. 
The following resolution was passed : — 

" I. That the Central Committee estabUsh a 
special Palestine Office, to gather information 
and material with respect to the present situation 
in Palestine and with respect to the possibiUties 
for work after the war. 

"2. That it elaborate this material and spread 
it within wide circles. Further, it has to organize 
pioneer groups, who are willing to go to Palestine, 



as well as to work out a scheme tor the preparation 
of these pioneers." 

September, 1916. 

Russia. " Poalei Zion " Conference — the first 
since the outbreak of the war. Resolution passed : — 
" That we agitate among the Jewish masses in- 
structing them the only solution for the Jewish 
problem is the creation of a Jewish Home in 

September 18th, 1916. 

Conference of Zionist speakers, held at New York. 

Bohemia. The Annual Conference of Bohemian 
Zionists was held at Prague on November ist. 

America. Zionist Students' Organization of America 
held its Second Annual Conference, November, 

November i4thr-igth. 

America '' Poalei Zion " Conference at Boston. 
Attended by one hundred and nine delegates from the 
United States and Canada. 

(During the year two thousand new members 
had been enrolled. Juvenile Societies, with eighteen 
branches and over one thousand members, had been 



England. On December 24th and 25th the Order of 
Ancient Maccabeans held their Annual Grand Beacon 
Meeting in Manchester. Resolution : — 

" That this Grand Beacon Meeting reiterates its 
loyalty to the Zionist programme, as endorsed from 
Congress to Congress, and expresses the hope that 
the time may not be far distant when our brethren 
will be accorded full civil and poHtical rights all 
over the world, and that the order co-operate with 
bodies that strive for the above objects." 

Holland. The Seventeenth Annual Conference of 
the Dutch Zionist Federation was held at the Hague 
on December 24th and 25th, 1916. 

About one hundred and twenty delegates were 
present, including representatives of the *' Poalei 
Zion'' and the Belgian Zionist Federation. 


The Dutch Federation comprises twenty-six 
societies, with a total membership of one thousand 
six hundred and sixty. 

Collections : Palestine Fund, 11,453 j^. ; Central 
Fund, 913/. ; National Fund, 10,709/. 






Poland. The Annual Meeting of the Warsaw 
Zionists, held on January nth, attended by a 
thousand shekel payers. 

America. In March, a Conference of Jewish 
Socialist Workers was held in New York, and attended 
by four hundred delegates. The Basle programme 
was adopted. 

Mizrachi. Over two hundred delegates attended 
the ''Mizrachi" Convention at Pittsburg, where the 
dehberations extended for over five days. Fifty of 
the most prominent orthodox Rabbis of the country 
attended. The " Mizrachi " has a hundred and nine- 
teen branches in ninety-five cities spread over twenty- 
eight States. 

America. " Knights of Zion " held their Twen- 
tieth Annual Convention at MinneapoUs and St. 
Paul. The '* Knights of Zion " had seventy-six 
societies with a membership of four thousand two 

America. Hebraists Convention took place in 
New York on February loth, nth and 12th. Many 
Hebrew scholars from all parts of the country were 

America. The Eleventh Annual Meeting of the 
Zionist Council of New York was held on February 
i6th, attended by eighty-eight delegates, represent- 
ing thirty societies. 

England. The Annual Conference of the E.Z.F. 
was held in February in London. About sixty 
delegates were present. 









Switzerland. The Swiss Zionist Federation held a 
Conference at Berne on February i8th. Thirty-five 
delegates attended. 

Russia. On March 28th-30th there was held a 
Conference of the Central Institutions of the Zionist 
Organization. About fifty delegates attended. 

Conference of all Russian Zionist Organizations, 
held in Moscow, April 3rd. Dr. E. W. Tschlenow 

Greece. On April 9th a Mass Meeting, attended 
by over three thousand persons, was held at 
Salonica. After addresses delivered by several 
speakers, a resolution was passed urging the restora- 
tion of the oldest nation and its regeneration in 

Belgian Zionists. On April 29th the Belgian 
Zionist Federation held a Conference at Scheveningen, 

March i8th. 

May 20th. 

Annual Meeting held at Sydney, 

Special Conference E.Z.F. in London, 

Russia-Turkestan. Early in May a Conference of 
Turkestan Zionists was held at Samarcand. The 
delegates were both Ashkenazi and Sephardi. Thirty 
delegates attended, besides delegates for the Bokhara 
Jews, and two hundred guests. 

A Zionist Central Committee was formed for 

Poland. June 3rd-5th. Conference of Zionist 
Central Committee for Poland, held in Warsaw. 

Russia. On May 24th (O.S.) the Seventh Con- 
ference of Russian Zionists was held at Petrograd, 
and was attended by five hundred and fifty-two dele- 


gates, representing one hundred and forty thousand 
shekel payers, from six hundred and forty towns 
and villages. Eleven delegates came from Siberia. 
Bokhara and Mountain Jews were represented. 
Twenty-four delegates were soldiers coming by special 
permission of the Commander-in-Chief, who got free 
passes. Five hundred guests came from the country 
and one thousand guests from Petrograd were 
present. Ninety representatives of Russian papers 
were present. The Foreign Secretary, Tere- 
tschenko, sent greetings and best wishes for complete 

Dr. E. W. Tschlenow's speech was reprinted in 
half a million copies for the soldiers. 

A meeting of Zionist Women was held in the hall 
of Kiew University in May. More than one thousand 
five hundred Jewish women attended. 



In 1913 there were only twenty-six thousand 
shekel payers in Russia — nov/ one hundred and 
forty thousand. Resolution passed : — 

" The Seventh Zionist Russian Conference pro- 
claims its firm conviction that the nations, in sett- 
ling the bases of the new national and political life, 
shall be conscious of the clearly manifested will of 
the Jewish people to colonize Palestine again as 
their national centre, and that they shall create 
conditions enabling the unhindered evolutions and 
concentration of all Jewish forces, for the purpose 
of bringing about a regeneration of Palestine." 

A representative body of the Jewish people should 
be admitted to the approaching Peace Conference, 
which shall obtain attention for the historic and 
national rights of the Jewish people. 

America. Independent Order " Brith Shalom " 
held their Thirteenth Annual Conference in Atlantic 
City on June 13th. Over six hundred delegates 
were present. The resolution passed commenced 
thus: — 






" Whereas the Independent Order has adopted 
the Zionist platform in spirit and in fact, and has 
pledged itself to the furtherance of all principles 
it stands for, etc., etc." 

America. The Twentieth Conference of American 
Zionists opened at Baltimore on June 24th. Over a 
thousand delegates were present. 


America. Twentieth Annual Convention of Pro- 
gressive Order of the West was held at Detroit, 
Michigan. The Order has a membership of twenty 
thousand, and declared its allegiance to the Zionist 



America. Conference of " Young Judeans." One 
hundred and twenty-five delegates present, repre- 
senting five thousand members. The " Young 
Judeans" collected 3500 dollars for the Jewish 
National Fund. 

England. Union of Jewish Friendly Societies, 
comprising fifty thousand members, adopt the Basle 

Conference of the Order of Ancient Maccabeans, 
held at Manchester, July 17th. Membership of the 
Order 2200. 

Canada. The Fifteenth Annual Conference of 
Canadian Zionists took place at Winnipeg in July. 
Delegates from seventy-seven towns, of three hundred 
and fourteen Jewish organizations, attended. 

The Governor of Manitoba came to the Conference, 
and expressed his sympathy with Zionism. 

Russia. Poalei Zion. Conference in Kiew — Sep- 
tember 8th. More than one hundred and sixty 
delegates attended. 

Greece. Salonica. Great Meeting, attended by 
three thousand persons at Salonica, on 9th of Ab. 



America. The " Mizrachi " in America celebrated 
in August the Six-hundred-and-fiftieth Anniversary 
of the First Settlement in Palestine by R' Moses ben 
Nachman (Ramban). The ** Mizrachi " started a 
Fund of 100,000 dollars, to aid Colonization and 
Industrial Development in Palestine. 






Poland. The Third Delegates' Conference of the 
Zionist Organization in Poland was opened in Warsaw 
on October 28th, 1917. More than three hundred and 
sixty delegates attended, representing forty thousand 
shekel payers. 

Poland. Fifth Conference of the " Poalei Zion" 
of Poland, was held in Warsaw. Over forty-four 
delegates, representing twenty-six towns, partici- 
pated in the Conference. The Organization had 
forty-six district groups, with a membership of eight 

America. September 5th. Conference of Rabbis 
resolved to appeal to various powers, particularly 
President Wilson, asking them to give their consider- 
ation to the question of the Restoration of Palestine 
to the Jewish people. 

England. In October, Zionist Demonstrations 
took place all over the country. In seventy-one 
synagogues, one hundred and twenty-three lodges 
and associations, and in fifty-four Zionist societies, 
resolutions were passed requesting the British Govern- 
ment to use its best endeavours to bring about a 
Restoration of Palestine as a National Home for the 
Jewish people. 

Holland. Congress of Jews resident in the Nether- 
lands, held in Amsterdam on November i8th, for 
considering emancipation of Jews, recognition of 
national rights in national States, and national 
concentration of the Jewish people in Palestine. 


One of the most popular of Zionist funds is the Jewish 
National Fund. This Fund is outside the realm of dis- 
cussion, and deals exclusively with hard facts, i.e., 
financial contributions from all parts of the world. The 
Jewish National Fund is in a very real sense an index of 
the people's will. It would seem that the terrible misery 
of the Jewish masses occasioned by so many expulsions, 
evacuations, and loss of Ufe and property would have had 
the effect of, if not entirely cutting off this source of revenue, 
at least, seriously reducing it. In point of fact, the reverse 
is shown by the figures. 

The income of the Fund during the last few months of the 
year 1914 and during the year 1915, was about two-thirds of 
the previous years. But in the year 1916 the National Fund 
received about 1,000,000 francs, which equals the amount in 
1913. During the first half of 1917 the average monthly con- 
tributions were doubled. The latest date up to which exact 
figures for the various countries are available is September 
1st, 1917. During the eight months from January to 
September, 1917, more than 1,300,000 francs had been re- 
corded. During the last four months of the year approxi- 
mately the same amount was received, that is, the contribu- 
tions were doubled once more in relation to the immediately 
preceding rate. At the present moment the contributions 
to the National Fund amount to about 150,000 francs per 

The results attained by the National Fund must be at- 
tributed to the general growth of the Zionist movement as 
well as to the effective organization of its propaganda, to the 
popularity of its fundamental idea — the acquisition of land 
as National property — and the importance attached by 
Jewry at large to the role that the National Fund will have 
to discharge in the forthcoming colonization of Palestine. 

Contributions to the Jewish National Fund from the 
different countries in the year 1917 were as follows : 
Russia, Rbl. 475,312 ; United States, $73,502 ; Holland, 
Fl. 28,767 ; England, £1396 is. lod. ; Argentina, Pesos 
13.378 ; Canada, $4056 ; South Africa, £639 8s. 4d. ; 
Switzerland, Frs. 11,572 ; Belgium, Frs. 8,329 ; France 
(including Tunis), Frs. 6,978 ; Egypt, £255 lis. 4d. ; Greece, 
Frs. 6,425 ; Sweden, Kr. 2,542 ; Denmark, Kr. 2,447. 
Various countries, about Frs. 600,000. The total amounts 
to Frs. 1,747,278. At the rate of exchange before the war 
it would be Frs. 2,730,011. 




Statistical Table of Annual Income in Francs 





United States . . . 








Holland . 








England . 








South Africa 








Canada . 












Belgium . 




Egypt. . 








Far East . 




Australia and 

New Zealand 




Italy . . . 




Portugal . 




Brazil . . 




New Zealand 



Other countries 







With regard to the Zionist Organization, it must be stated 
that some of its functions, particularly those which were 
centralized in the headquarters, such as the periodical meet- 
ings of the Greater Actions Committee and the permanent 
contact and co-operation between the members of the 
Inner Actions Committee, had to be suspended. The Zionist 
Congress, the chief organ of the movement, which elects the 
executive of all the officers of the movement, to decide all 
questions of poUcy, could not be held owing to the war, and as 
a result the position had to remain as settled by the Congress 
of 1913. As, however, the events of the war threw upon the 
Organization not less but very much more responsibility 
than previously, and confronted the existing executive with 
problems of the greatest urgency and importance, new 


instruments had necessarily to be created to meet the new 
situation and to carry on the work of the movement. 

In America, where the movement began to spread with 
great rapidity, the American Provisional Committee for 
General Zionist Affairs was formed in 1914, very soon after 
the outbreak of the war, and conducted the affairs of the 
movement with great skill. Their efforts in connection with 
Palestine rehef were beyond all praise, and constitute one 
of the brightest pages in the history of the movement. 

In Copenhagen, also, a Bureau was opened, which 
rendered invaluable services to the cause. 


The greater part of the practical work of the Zionist 
Organization consisted of Relief Work for Jewish sufferers 
from the war. The terrible catastrophe which fell upon 
Russian Poland, GaUcia, Bukovina, Lithuania, Zamut and 
Courland, affected the Jews in a unique way. Hundreds of 
towns and villages, in which Jewish inhabitants had dwelt 
and woven into their lives the threads of their own charac- 
teristic customs for many generations, in which they had 
faithfully preserved their ancient spiritual treasures in spite 
of misery and poverty, which had been a perennial source 
of inspiration and a rich storehouse for the Judaism of the 
whole world, which had nourished and sustained almost the 
whole House of Israel in the Diaspora, suddenly became a 
field of slaughter and the arena of the grimmest struggle in 
the world's history. Troops in numbers never seen before, 
with weapons of destruction, threatening to reduce the 
world to ashes, passed Hke angels of destruction to and fro 
over the battlefields, leaving not a stone intact, not a blade 
of grass, or a hving man or beast. Thus far the wounds and 
misfortunes which befell the Jews were no different from 
the wounds and misfortunes of the other inhabitants. But 
there must be added the special Jewish affliction in these 
countries, the persecution and the fierce anti- Jewish feehng 
which were the special characteristics of the ancient regime 
in Russia, which was wont to take advantage of every op- 
portunity of avenging itself on the Jews, attacking them and 
holding them up to scorn on every kind of pretext and false 
accusation. This made the war a specially terrible pheno- 
menon for the Jews : it produced a war within a war. 

The war called upon the Jews to make sacrifices in equal 
measure with all the other inhabitants of these countries ; 

II.— D 


their youth and their strength were laid on the altar of the 
land of their birth ; they also bore the burden of all the 
taxes and payments which the other inhabitants had to bear ; 
they put forward tremendous efforts as tradesmen and 
workers, as doctors and nurses ; they were active workers 
in all departments directly and indirectly connected with 
the war. Yet side by side with this they had to face an in- 
sufferable hatred, they had to wage a separate war with the 
powerful, who strove to reduce to nothingness the Httle 
remnant which the war itself could not utterly destroy. 

That this impression became current among the Jews was 
inevitable, in consequence of an old phenomenon which 
appeared before them in a new guise. We refer to the 
curious mixture of expulsion and evacuation, of pogroms 
and slaughters, of which they were the victims. They were 
accustomed, from long and bitter experience, to expulsions 
from without the pale of settlement into the regions of the 
pale, from villages to towns, and to the suffering occasioned 
by the Russo-Turkish and Russo-Japanese wars ; but these 
expulsions occurred when conditions in Russia itself were 
almost normal, and when the Jews who were left untouched 
by the decree of expulsion were able to render assistance to 
their unfortunate brethren. The combination of the two 
forms of trials, of war and of persecution by their fellow- 
citizens, was more than even a nation inured to suffering 
could bear. It was as though this nation, which had been 
a wanderer from time immemorial, had only just begun 
its wanderings. They were no ordinary wanderers — not 
merely expelled and outlawed ; but they were taken and 
hurled as out of the middle of a sling from province to pro- 
vince and from district to district. Railway carriages were 
not enough to hold them, so they were transported in cattle- 
trucks, the doors of which were locked to prevent escape on 
the way. The cattle-trucks were not sufficient to cope with 
the numbers and horse-vans were impressed, and as the 
horse-vans were not sufficient, even though the Jews paid 
their last kopecks for places in them, they were sent on foot. 
Bands of wanderers — consisting of women, children, aged, 
weak, sick and infirm — were accordingly dragged, driven, 
knouted along every kind of road and over every kind of 
obstacle, not like cattle beneath the watchful eye of the 
herdsman, not even Uke animals led to the slaughter, on 
whom some mercy is taken because they can be used, but 
simply like wild beasts pursued by huntsmen ; whoever fell 


by the way fell without attention, whoever fell sick was 
ruthlessly left behind. Families were split up, and that iron 
bond which unites parents and children was snapped ; infants 
died of starvation pressed against their mothers' shrivelled 
breasts ; weary old greybeards grew faint and stumbled on 
the way and died without the last consolation of old age, 
without seeing around them their offspring whose souls were 
bound up with their own ; tender infants were deserted 
without anyone to take pity on them, and the clamour went 
forth from one end of the earth to the other, " Where is my 
father ? " " Where is my child ? '' 

This tragedy was not included among the necessary 
tragedies of the war : it was a Jewish tragedy. When Belgium 
was ruined, her Jews too were ruined. Had the catastrophe 
to the Jews in Poland and Lithuania been of such a kind it 
would have found a place in the general history and not in 
the separate history of the Jews. When, however, bands of 
thousands of Jewish fugitives came to Warsaw from the 
inland towns, in rags and tatters, footsore, hungry and 
despairing, it was impossible to regard them simply as 
victims of the war, because it was only the Jews who came. 
They were not victims of the war, they were victims of the 
Galuth, these thousands and tens of thousands of Jews who 
were suddenly transplanted from the midst of their old homes 
in Lithuania. When whole congregations, including inmates 
of their Homes for the Aged, of their hospitals, and even of the 
asylums were evacuated, it was impossible to believe that this 
was mihtary tactics or a measure of precaution, for it was 
only the Jewish congregations who were forcibly and sud- 
denly removed in this extraordinarily cruel manner. In 
many places it happened that the expelled Jews before they 
left were able to see with their own eyes other people enter- 
ing and taking possession of the shops which they had left 
behind them. There was no connection between these suffer- 
ings and the events of the universal war. These were inci- 
dents in the special campaign which had been waged against 
the Jews before the war. For centuries the Jews had been 
Hving in these places. Brest-Litovsk and Grodno were not 
only cities in which there were fortresses for the Czar's army 
and his Tchinovniks. They were also centres of Jewish Hfe, 
wherein the Tor ah dwelt, cities of the Jewish " Council of the 
Four Provinces," cities which emanated intellectual light 
over all the Diaspora, cities with institutions of Jewish 
congregations, with Yeshihoth, with schools, with syna- 


gogues and houses of learning, with old cemeteries, whose 
tombstones recorded the happenings to Jews for many 
generations. All that was destroyed and all the Jews who 
lived and thrived in them have been uprooted and scattered, 
and that which they left behind them wiped out, and no one 
knows if these towns will ever be rebuilt, and even if they 
are rebuilt will the Jews and their communities, with their 
learning and their traditions, ever be restored ? 

Accordingly there was but one cry, one intense and bitter 
cry, which was heard from one end of the world of Jews to 
the other, a cry for help. " Save all who can yet be saved." 

The Jewish people had realized that it was unwise to 
depend upon governments or to rely on philanthropic effort 
in general. The needs of the Jews were great and peculiar, 
so that only Jews themselves could help their brethren. 
This help appeared to be necessary in two directions : im- 
mediate pressing help and permanent prevention. Im- 
mediate pressing assistance consisted in sending money, 
provisions and clothes to save Jewish Hves from hunger, 
disease and want, to help them to find work and means of 
UveHhood in the places to which they have been driven, as 
well as in the places in which they have remained. But at 
the same time, people began to realize more and more that 
the real help for the Jews would be to rescue them from the 
unnatural conditions which cause them to be the scapegoat 
for whatever punishment comes upon the world. A people 
which dwells in its own land is also wont to be smitten by 
the sword and the fortunes of war, but it is not accustomed 
to complete destruction. When a nation has its own land 
and its own soil beneath its feet, to which it is attached, all 
the winds of Heaven cannot move it from its place, no 
weapon can permanently destroy it. A whole nation cannot 
be driven by oppressors from its country, and even though 
for generations the hand of the oppressor He heavy upon it, 
the day is sure to come in which its fetters fall away, and 
once again it can breathe freely. Not so with a nation which 
floats in the air : it cannot rise in time of trouble, for every 
passing wind carries it away like chaff and makes it turn 
like the wheel of a windmill. Every page of Jewish history 
teaches this lesson, and the present war has served but to 
emphasize it. Therefore if we wish to prevent this evil and 
to obviate such convulsions in the future, we must estabUsh 
for the remnant of this people a firm foundation and a safe 
shelter in the land of their fathers. Thus once again the 


flame of war and the terrible sufferings of our brethren have 
revealed the truth of the Zionist idea in all its strength and 
clarity as being the only true solution of the Jewish problem, 
that problem whose consequences are written in the blood 
of myriads of our brethren. 

History will relate that the present generation of Jews 
rose to the height of its responsibility in comprehending 
both these duties equally. Once again there was revealed 
the strength of the Jewish quahty of mercy. The Jews of 
Russia and Poland did their duty. With their young ones 
and their elders they threw themselves into the work of 
relief : in many places it was the Zionists who were the most 
ardent in this work. The Zionist Organization had during 
the last generation become a school of discipline and com- 
munal work, from which came forth initiators and leaders. 
It is not our wish, however, to make in this respect any 
distinction between Zionists and non-Zionists. Many who 
stood far removed from the camp returned to their brethren : 
all sections of Jews united : the icy cloak of indifferentism 
was melted, the divisions between the observant and the 
Liberals were obliterated. The shadow of sectarian faction 
disappeared, and on the scene appeared one people. History 
will relate that American Jewry, that vigorous young branch 
of the Jewish tree, made a mighty superhuman effort and 
performed wonders surpassing the imagination. It was not 
charity, but greatness. Voluntary effort went as far as self- 
imposed taxation. The history of Jewish unity has never 
had a chapter more beautiful, more sublime, more uplifting. 
America was not alone — a similar spirit rested upon the 
Jews of every country, and not only with regard to relief 
work, but also in the more permanent work of prevention, 
which was Jewry's second duty. The second duty was to 
watch over and safeguard the Jewish colonies in Palestine, 
the colonies from which will spring the National Home. It 
was necessary to provide the Palestinian Jews with food, 
and to support the colonization — this small heritage of ours, 
this child of our sorrow, conceived in anguish and in holiness. 
The difficulties were enormous. Palestine was cut off from 
the whole world, by the sea on the West and the desert on 
the East, without a government able or wiUing to help ; 
the New colonization is a young plant needing tender care — 
the Old communities are poor and helpless. If in such cir- 
cumstances Palestinian Jewry was not entirely wiped out, 
we must thank the Jewish nationahst heart, which was 


awakened in our brethren in every country, and especially 
in America. 


The downfall of the Czardom in Russia was undoubtedly 
one of the greatest events in the world's history. Russia 
entered into a period of revolution which seemed to bring 
with it all the blessings of right and liberty. The restrictions 
affecting nationalities and creeds were removed. But far 
from destroying Zionism, the new liberty gave it an immense 

In Moscow a Zionist District Committee was formed, 
comprising many Provinces : Astrakhan, Vladimir, Vologda, 
Voronesh, Kazan, Kaluga, Kostrooma, Kursk, Moscow, 
Nijni-Novgorod, Simbirsk, Smolensk, Tambov, Tula, Ufa, 
Jaroslav, and the Don District. 

At Odessa, a Zionist demonstration took place. Entire 
battalions of Zionist soldiers bore through the town blue 
and white banners, with the motto : — 

" Liberty in Russia, Land and Liberty in Palestine." 

A hundred and fifty thousand men followed these banners, 
to which the Military Governor of Odessa insisted on showing 
honour publicly. 

Zionist meetings were also held at Minsk, Saratov, Juriev, 
Kharkov, Nijni-Novgorod, Ekaterinburg, Homel, Pros- 
kurov, Baku Dubrovno, Riazan, Ekaterinoslav, Moscow, 

At Kieff, when the procession approached the Town 
Hall, the Zionist flag was hoisted on the balcony, 
where the " Hatikvah " was played by the municipal 

At Berdicheff fifteen thousand Jews marched through the 
principal streets carrying Zionist banners. The Municipahty, 
the Administration Executive of the town, and the chiefs 
of Ukraine National Organizations, greeted the Zionist 

In Turkestan and Bokhara the Zionist movement made 
remarkable progress. The entire Sephardi element has 
adhered to the movement. The Ashkenazim and Sephardim 
worked together peacefully at the great Zionist Conference 
held at Samarcand. A meeting of five thousand Jews was 
held there, and a resolution adopted in favour of a Jewish 

In Moscow, in the Great Hall, a Jewish Mass Meeting 


took place. Dr. E. W. Tschlenow was elected president. 
The following resolution was adopted : — 

" The Jewish Mass Meeting in Moscow salutes freedom 
with great joy. We are firmly convinced that the Con- 
stituent Assembly, which is to be elected by universal 
suffrage, will establish in Russia a thoroughly democratic 
administration, and that not only civil rights, but also 
national rights, national autonomy, and a free national 
evolution, will be secured to the Jewish as well as to all 
other peoples of Russia. The Meeting resolves to convoke 
a general Jewish Congress in Russia." 
The Conference at Petrograd on May 24th, 1917, received 
official recognition. The Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
M. Teretschenko, wished the Conference success in its 

Dr. Tschlenow delivered an Address, in the course of 
which he said, among other things : — 

** We beg the Provisional Government to believe that it 
may fully depend upon our forces and our support in its 
heroic efforts directed toward the strengthening of the 
freedom and greatness of Russia. 

*• What is necessary, and what we strive for, is to create 
a national territorial centre for our scattered people. The 
construction of that centre is already begun, and it will 
continue. The centre will gradually be filled by the forces 
and means of the Diaspora. 

"Who of you has not keenly followed for the last year 
and a half the life of the youngest branch of the Jewish 
people : the American ? Hundreds of thousands of working 
men are unified in their demand for national rights in the 
Diaspora and an autonomous centre in Palestine. The 
New York Kehillah, representing a million and a quarter 
Jews, comes forward with the same slogan. Finally, the 
powerful Congress movement, embracing the entire three 
million Jewry, is to close the coming autumn with most 
important decisions. Weigh all the facts, and you will 
agree that the harmony of which we dream is already 
coming to pass. With hope and with love we follow the 
work of our Trans-oceanic champions, and send to them our 
brotherly greetings. 

" But what could not have been prophesied and what fills 
our hearts with untold joy and pride, is the attitude towards 
our ideal on the part of the broad stratas of Jewry, which 
has revealed itself since the time of the Great Revolution. 


"From all corners of our great Russia come to us, to- 
gether with cheers of joy over the emancipation, assurances 
of unshattered faith in the eternal ideal — the renaissance of 
our native Palestine. Old and young, rich and poor, from 
the front and from the rear, orthodox and free-thinkers, 
declare in one voice : * Now, even now, freed from the 
chains of slavery, shall we be able zealously and gladly to 
give ourselves to the service of our ideals ? ' 

'' I cannot refrain here from underscoring, with the feeling 
of deepest recognition, the invaluable services which the 
Government of the United States has so nobly and warmly 
shown to our pioneers. The noble President of the United 
States has acted from motives of humanity and brotherly 
relation of peoples, but at the same time, also, from deep 
sympathy in our regeneration. The noble impulses of America 
have found a worthy instrument in the person of the former 
Ambassador Morgenthau, that faithful son of the Jewish 
people, whose services in these hard years Jewry will not forget. 

" But all this time, while working and building, we have 
not lost sight of the basic point inscribed upon our banner — 
the public, legal character of the hearth which we are creat- 
ing. We are convinced that the moment has come for 
reiterating our programme. 

" We deem it necessary that the nations called upon to 
establish the standard of the future national political life 
should reckon with the definitely expressed will of the Jewish 
people, to populate and regenerate Palestine as its national 
hearth. We deem it further necessary that all obstacles 
should be removed from our path, and that guarantees and 
conditions should be created which will ensure the un- 
obstructed and speedy development of our work in the land." 

The Conference was attended by five hundred and fifty- 
two delegates from six hundred and forty towns. There 
were delegates from Turkestan, Bokhara, and the Crimea. 
In addition, there were present five hundred visitors from 
provincial towns and over one thousand one hundred visitors 
from Petrograd. 

A unique historic document was placed before the Con- 
vention when the Chairman read the full text of the Military 
Order of the Day, issued and signed by General Alexeieff, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Western Front, permitting the 
Jewish soldiers to elect from their number delegates to the 
Convention, and furnishing passes and transportation to the 
delegates to facilitate their presence at the gathering. 


The spokesman of the soldier-delegates read the following 
resolution, which had been adopted by his colleagues : — 

" We — Jewish soldier-delegates from the Army — who 
participate in this Convention, avow to the Convention, 
and to the Jewish people : 

" Hundreds and thousands of Jews are in battle in the 
Russian Army. In a time of outlawry and terrible perse- 
cution, under the burden of false accusations, the Jewish 
soldiers fulfilled their full military duty. In the ocean of 
blood poured out by the heroic Russian Army, there is no 
little of Jewish blood. 

" Now, having become free citizens of Russia, and 
fully privileged members of the Army, the Jewish soldiers 
will continue their efforts in a new spirit of enthusiasm. 
Believing that the strengthening of the revolution, and 
the strengthening of the peoples in Russia can be accom- 
plished only through the union of all the peoples and by 
a strong discipline in the free army, the Jewish soldiers 
declare triumphantly that they are prepared to follow the 
call of the revolutionary democracy to defend Russia 
against her enemies. 

*' We beheve that the Russian democracy, which has 
assumed the task of freeing all the peoples of the world, 
will understand the strivings of our people, and will 
support Jewry in its efforts to create a national centre for 
the Jewish people, on its historic soil, Palestine." 

The Conference carried the following resolutions : — 

Considering first that the Jewish people, in view of 
its disposition and dispersion all over the world, can re- 
create for itself conditions for the normal development of 
its national, cultural, and economic life, only through the 
restoration of a national autonomous centre in its historic 
home, Palestine, 

" Secondly, that the Jewish nation has never severed 
its ties with its ancient home, and has always longed for 
it, and that its moral and historic right to Palestine is in- 
contestable and irremovable, 

" Thirdly, that the aspirations of the Jewish nation, 
so manifested, fully coincide with the great principle of 
self-definition, of freedom and independence for the 
development of all nations proclaimed by the democracies 
and governments of all countries : 


"The Zionist Conference in Russia unanimously ex- 
presses its firm belief that when estabHshing the basis of 
the future national and political life, the nations will 
recognize and count with the clearly-stated will of the 
Jewish nation for the resettlement and rebirth of Palestine 
as its national centre, and will consequently create condi- 
tions guaranteeing the free and successful development 
of the concentrated Jewish forces and of the restoration 
of Palestine. 

" To ensure the concrete and full manifestation of the 
will of the Jewish nation, the Conference considers it 
necessary first to organize among the Jews a referendum 
on the question ; secondly, to lay before the All- Russian 
Jewish Congress the question of Jewish claims in Palestine ; 
and thirdly, to claim the admission of a representative of 
the Jewish nation at the future peace conference, to be 
held upon the closing of hostilities, for the expression of 
the wishes of the Jewish nation, and for the defence of its 
historic and national rights and interests." 

The same spirit was revealed also by the Jews of Poland. 
In May, 1917, a Zionist Conference was held in Warsaw, 
attended by nearly four hundred delegates representing a 
large number of committees, synagogues, societies and 
groups consisting of all classes of the Jewish population. 
A sort of plebiscite was arranged among the Jews of Poland, 
with a view to ascertaining their attitude towards Zionism. 
The plebiscite resulted in the acceptance of a resolution in 
favour of Zionism. 

All these and many other facts prove that the Zionist 
idea has made great progress among the Jewish masses. 
But under the new circumstances Zionism required more 
than the usual propaganda : it required work, pohtical work. 


The introduction into this book of a comprehensive 
account of the various demarches on behalf of the Zionist 
cause recently undertaken in English political circles, and 
also in allied countries, is rendered difficult by the following 
considerations. In the first place, the publication of pour- 
parlers which have taken place, and of schemes which have 
been, or are to be, submitted, is impossible, because they are 
still in progress, and their final issue is dependent on further 


developments. In the second place, the author feels great 
embarrassment, being compelled to break the rule hitherto 
observed of avoiding any reference to his own share in the 
work of the movement. In this section, however, he has 
participated so directly in the demarches referred to that it 
was quite impossible to speak of them at all without refer- 
ring occasionally to his share in the political activities. 

A glance, however, at recent political efforts appeared in- 
dispensable, in order to bring the history of Zionism up to 
date. But there is no claim that the following account is 
more than an outline of the most important events. With 
these provisos we pass to the facts themselves. 

It was at once clear that England was destined to play a 
most important part in Zionist pohtics. London from the 
beginning was the financial centre of the Zionist Organiza- 
tion and the Mecca of poUtical Zionism. Even at the time 
of the Choveve Zion Movement England was regarded, as 
it were, as the country that stands between the " Galuth " 
and ' ' Salvation. ' ' When the idea of Palestine had begun to be 
popularized among the Jews of Russia and Poland — long 
before the name " Zionism " had become current — Disraeli's 
Tancred and George Eliot's Daniel Deronda were translated 
into Hebrew. The name of Sir Moses Montefiore was in the 
mouth of all Jews in Eastern Europe, and his journeys to 
Palestine, in connection with his great plans, had long since 
grown legendary. English Jews were valued because of 
this famous individual ; they were considered simply as 
national Jews, whether they really were so or not. From 
a distance the observer did not recognize the mediocrity, the 
parochialism and dissensions ; he saw the summits only, 
and they appeared splendid. A man Uke Albert Goldsmid, 
who was an English colonel and also a national Jew, 
appeared to be a type such as could hardly be found in any 
other country. That was rich material for the Jewish 
imagination, which fed upon it and made it much greater 
than the truth. It was, however, not imagination, pure and 
simple ; a sound political instinct was also at work here. 
The Jewish Ghetto had for long prophesied that it is Eng- 
land's destiny to decide the fate of Palestine, and however 
much one may smile at the speculations of Ghetto poUticians, 
these had, nevertheless, in their quick-wittedness understood 
much that is sometimes hidden from professional politicians. 
Moreover, this was not the politics of the Ghetto only. Herzl 
did not know the Ghetto, and received no information from 



it ; notwithstanding this, all roads led him to London. It 
was in London that he for the first time in his Hfe publicly 
took part in Jewish Hfe. At a later period again, the offer of 
Uganda was made by the EngHsh Government ; the El- 
Arish Expedition was organized by England. Zionist 
finance was EngUsh, and EngHsh was the Zionist pohtical 

In the pre-war period the Zionist Organization had every- 
where sought connections. True to its programme, desiring 
a charter from the Ottoman Government, with the approval 
of the great Powers, it worked without intrigue and adventure, 
honestly anxious to get this charter with the approval of all 
nations. In this matter, England always took the first place. 
Herzl and his followers had worked zealously in England. This 
work was continued after Herzl's death. The author also, 
in his capacity as member of the Zionist Executive, visited 
this country several times. The impressions gained here 
were always stimulating and interesting, but the Zionist 
question was not prominent. 

The question became prominent with the outbreak of the 
war. The thought lay uppermost, that the work must be 
carried on here in England, that, if possible, it must be con- 
centrated here. If this thought was evident to the Zion- 
ists of other countries, was it any wonder that it deeply 
stirred the EngHsh Zionists ? Thus it happened that this 
thought found an excellent champion and representative in 
the person of Dr. Chaim Weizmann. He took counsel with 
his colleagues in England, and together with them began to 
consider the question of what was to be done in England, 
in order to make the political problem of Zionism a problem 
of the day. The idea that England was the most important 
centre, and offered the most promising prospect of success, 
was neither new nor the opinion of a single party ; it had 
become rather the property of the whole Zionist Organiza- 
tion. But it was now something entirely different from what 
it used to be formerly. Formerly Zionism was an abstract 
idea ; in spite of all Herzl's great achievements, the problem 
remained merely a project. It is the poHtical problem we 
are talking about, because the inteUectual and practical 
labour of Zionists for Palestine had been a reaHty during the 
whole time of the Choveve Zion and the Zionist movements. 
Now, however, political Zionism has also become a reality. 
If the war has taught us anything at all it surely is this, 
that nothing is more fatal than an attitude of indifference 


towards problems of international politics. The practical 
and intellectual members of the Zionist Organization, too, 
who used to look down upon politics, have chajiged their 
attitude towards them. Formerly, they may have been 
entirely or partially right — the intellectual were undoubtedly 
right in proclaiming that the spiritual in Zionism must be 
the soul of the whole movement, and the practical ones also 
were right in establishing the early colonies, and it is only 
a pity that more considerable progress was not made — but 
now all were agreed that, in consideration of the new possi- 
bilities, the movement must come into relation with the 
political forces, and the establishment of actual relations 
constituted a great many-sided and responsible work, which 
had to be carried out, at first in England, but also partly in 
other countries of the Entente. 

One of the most distinguished representatives of the 
Zionist idea in this country is the Very Rev. Dr. Moses 
Gaster, the late Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' 
congregations in England, who from early youth occupied 
a respected and influential position, in the time of Choveve 
Zion as well as in Zionism, and devoted himself also with 
great zeal to the poHtical question of Zionism. He also 
represented the view that a wide field for political efforts 
lay open here, and he freely gave his time and his eloquence 
in the service of the cause. In this direction he was 
very active, especially in the earlier stages. 

The Very Rev. Dr. Joseph Herman Hertz, Chief Rabhi of 
the United Congregations of the British Empire, has evinced 
a sympathy with the Zionist Movement which at certain 
pregnant moments was equivalent to declaring himself at 
one with Zionism. His affiliation with the Zionist idea goes 
back to Choveve-Zion days, and subsequently he became one 
of the founders of the ** South African Zionist Federation." 
The Spiritual Leader of British Jewry has ever been 
a sincere friend of the movement, and on various decisive 
occasions has championed the idea, defending it, explaining 
it, and encouraging it. In the new development, especially 
in the months preceding the " Declaration," his help in con- 
nection therewith has been of far-reaching and lasting 

The inspiring spirit and the driving force, he who most 
successfully had made many distinguished non- Jewish 
personahties famihar with Zionism and who championed 
with all his energy and enthusiasm a Zionist political pro- 


gramme in England, was Dr. Chaim Weizmann. In the very 
earliest months of the war he began to collect the threads 
for the poHtical work, to rouse the Zionist circles with 
which he was in touch, to revive old connections in non- 
Jewish circles and to form new ones, to prepare for negotia- 
tions — in a word, to open up the work that was destined 
later on to become a properly-organized programme. Herein 
he had the support of a group of enthusiastic and deeply 
S5mipathetic Zionists, and was strengthened and stimulated 
in his initiative by them. The first attempts to confer with 
the Government representatives about Zionism were made : 
the impressions were satisfactory. One foresaw that this 
contained the germs of promising possibiHties. These im- 
pressions led to the conclusion that mere discussions alone 
were not sufficient, but rather that it was necessary to 
formulate plans. In order to formulate plans and in order 
to obtain authority from the Zionist Organization to submit 
these plans (for such appeared to be the next step) it would 
be necessary to establish a centre in London, and to obtain 
the necessary representative powers. It would also be 
necessary to write more about Zionism : to publish books, 
to undertake propagandist work — in another and more direct 
manner. The means were also considered to win over 
the non-Zionist, perhaps even the anti-Zionist, Jewish 
elements. All these aims were discussed, weighed, and 
elaborated by a small circle. It was not the whole of 
English Jewry, it was not even the then existing English 
Zionist Federation ; it was really a circle of a few Zionists, 
mostly intellectuals who corresponded with Dr. Weizmann, 
and met and took counsel with him. 

From that time forward the Zionist idea began to occupy 
the attention of the English Press. The question became 
topical, the old EngHsh traditions found new expression. 
Most people had no conception that they were speaking in 
the spirit of old traditions — for few knew of this remote 
chapter in Engish history — but they did it unconsciously, 
which makes their action perhaps even more valuable. 
Many a journalist among the elite of the intellectuals not 
only gave assistance to the cause of Zionism in the Press, 
but went a step further, and helped vigorously in the political 
work. In connection with this matter the name of the 
doyen of English journalism, Mr. C. P. Scott, Editor of the 
Manchester Guardian, may be especially mentioned. Since 
the very beginning Mr. C. P. Scott has given the whole 


problem a very careful and sympathetic attention, and was 
an influential mediator between Zionists and leaders of 
British politics. He and Dr. Weizmann had conversations 
with some personalities, who strengthened them in their 
hopes that the ground was favourable for Zionism. Other 
Zionist workers in England also shared their view, and 
Dr. Gaster, too, in conjunction with Dr. Weizmann, had 
some important conversations with English leaders. The 
impressions which both had formed confirmed the hope 
that Zionism has a great future in England. 

We can by this time, without committing any indiscretion, 
take this opportunity of mentioning one of the influential 
personahties who had given great and never-to-be forgotten 
services in the cause of the Zionist idea, that is the Rt. Hon. 
Herbert Samuel, late Home Secretary, who unites in him- 
self the brilUant qualities of an EngHsh statesman with an 
enthusiastic attachment to Judaism, but had never yet taken 
an active part in essentially Jewish affairs. His wonder- 
ful energy, his distinguished talents and his patriotic zeal 
had for long been devoted to the services of the country, 
and both in the Asquith ministry and in Parliament he formed 
one of the most distinctive figures. Although he directed 
his activities exclusively to questions of Home administra- 
tion, he turned his mind also from the commencement of 
the war to the great poHtical problems of foreign politics, 
and when the opportunity was offered to become more 
acquainted with the Zionist idea, this idea won his sympathy, 
and he championed it with the full force of his convictions. 
It is sufficient to mention the words contained in his speech 
at the Demonstration of December 2nd at the London Opera 
House : " that he has stood for Zionism not only in the 
Cabinet, but also outside it." These were modest words. 
As a matter of fact, he has not only stood for Zionism, but 
he has also done much to elucidate Zionist questions. He 
merits truly a page of honour in the history of Zionism. 

For the sake of historical accuracy, other distinguished 
persons must be mentioned as well. We refer to some 
members of the famous House of Rothschild. Volumes 
could be written concerning what Baron Edmond de Roths- 
child has done for colonization in Palestine. Far removed 
from political activity and unwilling to play any official part 
in the Zionist Organization, devoted with love and attach- 
ment to his country, France, and at the same time inspired 
with the loftiest sentiments for Judaism, this Nestor of true 


philanthropy cherishes a love for the idea of regenerating 
Palestine that cannot be too highly valued. That he has made 
this ideal one of the most beautiful traditions of his family 
is shown by the fact that his son, James, has followed 
the example of his father. This stimulating and instruc- 
tive example could not fail to influence the other branches 
of this great family also. The late Lord Rothschild of 
London, who stood at the head of organized EngUsh Jewry, 
was long regarded as an opponent of Zionism. But this 
opposition was not a matter of principle, it was simply 
determined by circumstances : the obstacles appeared to 
him insurmountable, and that was the only reason for his 
opposition. In view of the different circumstances caused 
by the war, he revised his former opinions, and shortly before 
his death he began to take an interest in Zionism. Following 
this lead, other members of this family also have taken up a 
favourable view towards Zionism, and this view grew to a 
complete aUiance with the Zionist Organization on the part 
of the present Lord Rothschild. 

In connection with this development, the very great 
services of Dr. Weizmann in this same direction must be 
mentioned. Shortly before the outbreak of war Dr. Weiz- 
mann had given much attention to the project of founding a 
University in Jerusalem. This project, which met with great 
approval, not only in Zionist circles but also elsewhere, 
brought him into closer relations with the House of Roths- 
child, and this did much to make the members of this family 
more closely acquainted with Zionism. 

This was the position at the beginning of the war. The 
outlook was promising, and a sound start had been made. 
But all this was waiting for development, for deepening, for 
actualization. The English Zionist Federation, being a 
local organization, could neither speak in the name of the 
great masses of Zionists of the Entente countries nor could 
it undertake the great political labour of propaganda organ- 
ization. Thus it happened that on the part of Dr. Weizmann, 
Dr. Gaster, and others, the invitation was sent forth to the 
main organization to delegate two of its representatives to 

There was, however, still another matter which caused 
the coming of the delegates of the general Zionist Organiza- 
tion in London to appear necessary. Although the Organ- 
ization remained uniform in its principles and aims, an actual 
collaboration of Zionists throughout the world in the pre- 


existing form had to be set aside for the time being. The 
greatest numbers of Zionists Hve in Russia : there exist the 
persons who are especially called to make Palestine their 
home, and there also the majority of the most distinguished 
Jewish nationaUsts and the leading spirits of a Hebrew 
culture are most strongly represented. The great Jewish 
community in America, which unites the intensity of 
national consciousness of Russian Jews with the fresh spirit 
of liberty of the New World, constitutes even more and more 
a reservoir, not only of powerful material resources, but also 
of great organizing motive-power, of influential initiative 
and endeavour, which are doubtless destined to play a 
decisive part in the solution of the Zionist problem. When, 
in addition to these facts, it is realized that the great re- 
sources for the colonization of Palestine have been contri- 
buted from Paris, by Baron Edmond de Rothschild, where 
also the headquarters of the Jewish Colonization Association 
are situated, which has the disposal of the millions of the 
late Baron de Hirsch, and which, if the issues in Palestine are 
favourable, is destined to develop its colonizing activities 
in this direction : when finally the fact is remembered that 
London is the centre of all financial institutions, then it will 
be easily understood that the whole situation has brought 
England to a place of first importance in the matter of 
Zionist activities, that it seemed a logical necessity that 
certain representatives of the Organization had to move 
their residence and their work hither, so as not only to 
maintain what already existed, but also to prepare system- 
atically the conditions for the new and rich possibilities, 
together with the distinguished personal factors already at 
work here. 

In conclusion, one more circumstance must be mentioned, 
the importance of which is also not to be under-rated. 
Though for a long time the Zionist Organization had en- 
deavoured to make Zionism the cause of the entire Jewish 
people, the consciousness of the need for unity grew as the 
war progressed. It was very desirable that those Jews 
who did not consider themselves organized Zionists, should 
co-operate in the realization of many practical plans. All 
the peoples involved in the war had managed to create 
among their parties a so-called " Union Sacree," and 
to form a united front. Why should this be impossible to 
the Jews ? 

Soon after the outbreak of the war, the Zionist leaders 



in England had attempted to come to an understanding with 
those indifferent to their cause and with the so-called anti- 
Zionists, in order to render possible, without renouncing the 
principles of Zionism, collaboration in working out a practical 
scheme in Palestine. 

All these motives led the leaders of English Zionism 
to request the general organization to delegate here two of 
their representatives — namely, Dr. Tschlenow of Moscow 
and the author, for the purpose of assisting in the important 
work to be done in this country. They arrived in London 
shortly before the end of the year 1914. 

Space does not allow us to describe the work of these 
three years in detail ; we must therefore confine our atten- 
tion to the chief features. In the course of the first few 
months the work consisted in a searching test of the attempts 
in hand : this test yielded a perfect agreement and a verifi- 
cation of all reports made. In the early months of 1915 
there were new conferences with many leading personalities, 
with favourable results. In March, 1915, Dr. Tschlenow, 
Dr. Weizmann, and the author went to Paris, after Dr. 
Weizmann had previously visited Paris again and again on 
Zionist business. Attention was then confined to Jewish 
circles, and so far as non- Jewish circles were concerned a 
certain general enquiry appeared to be necessary. At 
the same time, attempts were made through conferences 
with a group of leading Jewish personalities in London who 
stood aloof from Zionism, to bring about an understanding. 
The Zionist delegation which was in charge of these nego- 
tiations and this correspondence was composed of Dr. 
E. W. Tschlenow, Dr. Moses Gaster, Mr. Joseph Cowen, Mr. 
Herbert Bentwich, and the author. As an understanding 
just then appeared impossible, the negotiations were post- 
poned until further notice. Dr. Tschlenow shortly after- 
wards left England, after a stay of five to six months, and 
returned to Russia. At the meeting of the Zionist Com- 
mittee in Copenhagen and at the Zionist meetings that took 
place in Russia, Dr. Tschlenow was able to report that the 
poUtical efforts in England had filled him with the best 
hopes. The Author remained in England and devoted him- 
self, in addition to propaganda, to the political task in which 
Weizmann's unwearied efforts became more and more im- 
portant. The period 1915-1916 was more one of prepara- 
tion than one of execution : Zionism had to be strengthened 
from within, the societies in London and the Provinces had 


to be maintained, new societies had to be created, pamphlets 
and books had to be written and pubHshed ; externally, 
the work consisted in finding new sympathisers, and in an 
enhghtening propaganda wherever a proper opportunity 
offered itself. The correspondence with the Zionist leaders 
and organizations in Russia and America became more 
active and the relations ever closer. In London a number of 
talented young Zionist writers and workers had grouped 
themselves round the leaders ; many books and many 
pamphlets which were pubhshed during this period had won 
great popularity for the Zionist writers and publicists who 
had already proved their worthiness, such as Major 
Norman Bentwich, who subsequently became the first 
Procureur-General of Palestine under the British occupa- 
tion, and Messrs. Paul Goodman, Albert M. Hyamson, 
Samuel Landman, Harry Sacher, Leon Simon ; new 
personalities joined them, as, for instance, Semmi Tol- 
kowsky and others. The temporary stay in London of 
many prominent Zionists of Russia and Palestine, such as 
Boris Goldberg of Wilna, and recently the agriculturist, 
Jacob Ettinger, and the manager of the Anglo-Palestine 
Company, David Levontin, who both came over from 
Palestine, and the great intellectual influence exercised by 
Achad Haam, who freely gave his invaluable advice in 
every important question — all these have done very much 
to make London the real centre of Zionist work. 

Towards the end of the year 19 16 several months were 
spent in drafting outlines and projects for the purpose of 
drawing up a Zionist programme which should be as clear as 
possible and correspond with the present conditions, in 
which efforts Dr. Weizmann and the author were supported 
by a number of notable colleagues. Already in 1915 the 
work had commenced on the projects and memoranda, the 
drafting of which received many contributions from several 
members ; and the work was continued from that time 
onwards. A committee, consisting of Dr. Gaster, Dr. Weiz- 
mann, Mr. Herbert Bentwich, Mr. Joseph Cowen, and the 
author, had towards the end of 1916 outUned a preliminary 
sketch of a programme which was afterwards discussed in a 
further committee. This programme was intended to serve 
as a foundation for the official representations which were 
then in view. At the same time. Dr. Weizmann was con- 
stantly occupied independently in preparing the ground for 
the coming official proposals, by conferences and propaganda ; 


this he was able to do, thanks mostly to his personal con- 
nections, though he always acted in conjunction with the 

The 7th of February, 1917, constitutes a turning-point in 
the history. Shortly before this date Lieut. -Colonel Sir Mark 
Sykes, Bart., M.P., had communicated with Dr. Weizmann 
and the author on the question of the treatment of the 
Zionist problem. Sir Mark Sykes, who is a distinguished 
authority on oriental matters and who had earlier given 
attention to the Arab question, was entrusted with the study 
of the Zionist problem. In conjunction with a representa- 
tive of the French Government, M. Georges Picot, he had 
devoted great attention to the question, and both had had 
first conversations with Dr. Moses Gaster. At the commence- 
ment of the year 1917 Sir Mark Sykes entered into closer 
relations with Dr. Weizmann and the author, and the discus- 
sions held with the latter led to the meeting of February 7th, 
1917, which marks the commencement of official negotia- 
tions. Besides Sir Mark Sykes, the following took part in 
this meeting : Lord Rothschild, Mr. Herbert Bentwich, 
Mr. Joseph Cowen, Dr. M. Gaster (at whose house the 
meeting took place), Mr. James de Rothschild, Mr. Harry 
Sacher, Right Hon. Herbert Samuel, m.p.. Dr. Chaim Weiz- 
mann, and the author. The deliberations yielded a favour- 
able result, and it was resolved to continue the work. 
For further regular consultations with Sir Mark Sykes 
and M. Georges Picot, the author was chosen. Discussions 
on questions connected with the Zionist programme 
took place. In consequence of these negotiations and 
of the great importance of the Zionist question to all the 
Governments of the Entente Powers, the author was called 
to Paris in March, 1917, by the French Government. On 
the 22nd of March he was received at the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs in Paris, where he outUned the principles of the 
Zionist programme. He received the assurance that the 
French Government regarded the programme very favour- 
ably, and was authorized to inform the Zionist Organiza- 
tions of Russia and America of this result by telegraph. 

After a stay of one month in Paris, during which the 
author got into touch with the leading Jewish circles, he 
went to Rome, where he devoted himself to the same task. 
The conferences which he had with the leading Italian Jews 
led to the happy result that the programme laid before 
them by the author was accepted. With regard to the 


question of the Holy Places, it was considered advisable to 
enter into negotiations with the Vatican. The Author had 
conferences with the Cardinals (especially with Cardinal 
Gasparri), and on the loth of May he was received in 
an audience by the Pope. These conferences led to 
a most satisfactory attitude on the part of the Vatican to- 
wards Zionism. Between the 12th and the i8th of May, the 
author, together with the President of the Jewish Com- 
munity in Rome, Commendatore Sereni, was received 
several times at the Italian Consulta, and by the then 
Prime Minister Boselli, and he was assured that the ItaUan 
Government, in conjunction with the Allied Powers, would 
support the Zionist programme. He was authorized, just 
as in Paris, to telegraph this result to the Russian and 
American Zionist organizations. 

Having returned to Paris, the author was received on 
May 28th by the then Prime Minister Ribot, and after that 
remained another month, during which various negotiations 
were conducted. He then received a document addressed 
to him, a statement from the French Government, the text 
of which, translated from the French original, runs as 
follows : — 

,< 3jj^ " Paris, June 4, 1917. 

''You were good enough to present the project to 
which you are devoting your efforts, which has for its 
object the development of Jewish colonization in Palestine. 
You consider that, circumstances permitting, and the inde- 
pendence of the Holy Places being safeguarded on the other 
hand, it would be a deed of justice and of reparation to 
assist, by the protection of the Allied Powers, in the renais- 
sance of the Jewish nationahty in that Land from which the 
people of Israel were exiled so many centuries ago. 

"The French Government, which entered this present war 
to defend a people wrongfully attacked, and which continues 
the struggle to assure the victory of right over might, can 
but feel sympathy for your cause, the triumph of which is 
bound up with that of the Allies. 

" I am happy to give you herewith such assurance. 

" Please accept, Sir, the assurance of my most distinguished 

consideration. ,^. ,, ^ ^ 

(Signed) Jules Cambon. 


Hotel Meurice, Paris." 


From this statement it is clearly seen : — 

(i) that hereby the question of Zionism is recognized as one 
of those concerning small and persecuted nations ; 

(2) that the principle of the recognition of Jewish 

nationahty and its historical right to Palestine is 
here accepted ; and 

(3) that the French Government is prepared to support 

this movement. 

In the meantime, the Zionists in England — and especially 
their political leader, Dr. Weizmann — had continued the 
work with great zeal in this country. After his return, the 
author again took a share in this work. The great develop- 
ment which the political and propagandist work had in the 
interval made in England, led to the estabHshment of a larger 
consultative committee and to the opening of new offices,^ 
and a year earlier Dr. Weizmann had been elected Presi- 
dent of the English Zionist Federation, and this did much 
to bring new life into the Federation. Two periodicals were 
founded, the monthly Zionist Review, in London, and the 
weekly Palestine, published by the British Palestine Com- 
mittee, Manchester, and Zionism reached a popularity such 
as it never previously had in this country. 


A Special Conference of Delegates from the Constituent 
Societies was held in London on the 20th of May, 1917, with 
the President, Dr. Chaim Weizmann, in the chair. The 
Conference was called partly in consequence of the disturbing 
news that had been received from Palestine and partly in 
order that a communication on the poUtical situation, as 
it affected the Jewish National Movement, might be made to 
the societies through their delegates. The Conference occu- 
pied the whole of the day and was very largely attended. It 
was opened by the Chairman with an address, in which he 
reviewed the situation. He said : — 

" Grave and great events have taken place since we met 
last — events which will affect deeply the fate of Jewry all 
over the world. The first event of colossal magnitude was 
the Russian Revolution. By a miracle, in one night the 
chains and fetters which have enslaved a great nation of 
150 to 160 milUons for centuries have been broken, and a free 
Russia has emerged. It has become almost a current phrase 

* Ziottiit Organization, London Bureau, Empire House, 175 Piccadilly, W. 


in the Press that it was a ' bloodless ' revolution, but those 
who know Russia, those who have lived in Russia, know 
very well that although the last act of the drama was com- 
paratively bloodless, much blood has been poured out during 
many years, and it was this outpouring of blood which has 
prepared the dramatic developments which we witnessed 
two months ago. And we Jews know that in this stream of 
blood there was a considerable fraction — a very considerable 
fraction — of Jewish blood. It was common knowledge in 
the years 1905 and 1906 that there was not a single Jewish 
family in Russia which had not paid the toll in the form of 
a son or a daughter or a relative to the Moloch of Russian 
Tsardom. All those Jews who have bought so dearly free- 
dom for themselves and for the rest of Jewry, will go down 
in history as heroes, as saints, and our hearty congratulations 
and wishes go out to all those who have fought for the 
Russian Revolution, and to those who are going to carry on 
the work under the new regime. It is clear that an event 
like this cannot pass without convulsions. It is marvellous 
that things should go in Russia as they do now, but it is 
equally clear that the fate of Jewry, the fate of the Zionist 
Movement, largely depends upon stable conditions in that 
part of the world, and it will be, I am sure, an honourable 
task for the Zionist Organization all over the world, and 
especially for our friends in Russia, to contribute as much 
as it is in their power to the stabilization of conditions in 
Russia. Some of us— some of our friends even, and especi- 
ally some of our opponents — are very quick in drawing con- 
clusions as to what will happen to the Zionist Movement 
after the Russian Revolution. Now, they say, the greatest 
stimulus for the Zionist Movement has been removed. Russian 
Jewry is free. They do not need any places of refuge some- 
where outside Russia — somewhere in Palestine. Nothing 
can be more superficial, and nothing can be more wrong, than 
that. We have never built our Zionist Movement on the 
sufferings of our people in Russia or elsewhere. Those suffer- 
ings were never the cause of Zionism. The fundamental 
cause of Zionism was, and is, the ineradicable national 
striving of Jewry to have a home of its own — a national 
centre, a national home with a national Jewish life. And 
this remains now stronger than ever. A strong and free 
Russian Jewry will appreciate more than ever the strivings 
of the Zionist Organization. And truly we see it even now. 
Russian Jewry is formulating its national demands in a 


proud, open, free way, which may well serve as an example 
and an encouragement to the free Western communities of 
Jewry. You have all read of meetings which have taken 
place all over Russia — of a meeting which took place only 
recently in Moscow, and was attended by seven thousand 
Jews. Many Western Jews could learn from these meetings 
how a free and proud Jew ought to speak. We therefore look 
forward with confidence to the future of Zionism in Russia. 

" Now what are our hopes ? How do we think they will 
be realized ? Of course, I do not propose to prophesy in this 
assembly, but I shall try to outline, as much as it is possible 
to do so, what are our plans, and how we think we shall be 
able to carry them out. And before I do so let me do away 
with one or two what I may perhaps call misunderstandings, 
or what may be called wrong phrases. One reads con- 
stantly in the Press and one hears from our friends, both 
Jewish and non- Jewish, that it is the endeavour of the 
Zionist Movement immediately to create a Jewish State in 
Palestine. Our American friends went further than that, 
and they have even determined the form of this State, by 
advocating a Jewish Repubhc. While heartily welcoming 
all these demonstrations as a genuine manifestation of the 
Jewish national will, we cannot consider them as safe states- 
manship. Strong as the Zionist Movement may be, full of 
enthusiasm as the Zionists may be, at the present time, it 
must be obvious to everybody who stands in the midst of 
the work of the Zionist Organization, and it must be ad- 
mitted honestly and truly, that the conditions are not yet 
ripe for the setting up of a State ad hoc. States must be 
built up slowly, gradually, systematically and patiently. 
We, therefore, say that while a creation of a Jewish Common- 
wealth in Palestine is our final ideal — an ideal for which the 
whole of the Zionist Organization is working — the way to 
achieve it lies through a series of intermediary stages. And 
one of those intermediary stages which I hope is going to 
come about as a result of this war, is that the fair country of 
Palestine will be protected by such a mighty and a just 
Power as Great Britain. Under the wing of this Power 
Jews will be able to develop, and to set up the administrative 
machinery which, while not interfering with the legitimate 
interests of the non- Jewish population, would enable us to 
carry out the Zionist scheme. I am entitled to state in this 
assembly that His Majesty's Government is ready to support 
our plans. 


" I would further like to add that the support of the 
British Government, when given, will be in conjunction and 
agreement with the Allied Powers. Our friend, chief, and 
leader, Mr. Sokolow, who, owing to important Zionist duties, 
is prevented from attending this meeting, has been both in 
France and in Italy, and from both these Governments he 
has received assurances of full sympathy and full support. 
One of the important problems to be considered in connec- 
tion with the future settlement of Palestine is the dehcate 
question of the Holy Places. I need hardly say, in this 
Jewish assembly, that we Jews will be meticulously and 
scrupulously careful to respect the sentiments of any 
rehgious group or sect in Palestine. It is not for us to discuss 
how this complicated question, which forms an important 
point in international relations, is going to be settled. We 
trust to the fairness and justice of the nations which are 
going to build up a better world after this catastrophe, that 
they will see to it that the arrangements made are fair and 
satisfactory to everyone. We have assurances from the 
highest Catholic circles that they will view with favour the 
estabhshment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, and 
from their religious point of view they see no objection to it, 
and no reason why we should not be good neighbours. And 
good neighbours I hope we shall be. 

" Let us now turn our attention for a few minutes to the 
internal situation. Confident as we are of our final success, 
we cannot help feeling some disappointment at the fact that 
the whole of Jewry does not stand united at this present 
critical moment. Ladies and Gentlemen, it is not only a 
matter of regret, but it is a matter of deep humiUation to 
every Jew that we cannot stand united in this great hour. 
But it is not the fault of the Zionist Organization. It is, 
perhaps, not the fault of our opponents. It must be attri- 
buted to the conditions of our life in the Dispersion, which 
has caused in Jewry a cleavage difficult to bridge over even 
at a time Hke this. It is unfortunate that there still exists 
a small minority which disputes the very existence of the 
Jews as a nation. But there need be no misgivings on that 
account ; for I have no hesitation in saying that if it comes 
to a plebiscite and a test, there can be no doubt on which 
side the majority of Jews will be found. And, ladies and 
gentlemen, I warn you that this test is bound to come — and 
come sooner, perhaps, than we think. You will have to 
show, and in this solemn hour I call upon you to prepare for 


it, that with all your heart and mind you stand united behind 
those leaders whom you have chosen to carry out, at this 
critical hour of the world's history, this work. We do not 
want to give the world the spectacle of a war of brothers. 
We are surrounded by too many enemies to give ourselves 
this luxury. But we warn those who will force an open 
breach that they will find us prepared to stand up united in 
the defence of the cause which is sacred to us. We shall not 
allow anybody to interfere with the hard work that we are 
doing, and we say to all our opponents, ' Hands off the 
Zionist Movement \' " 

The statement was received with repeated applause, and 
aroused great enthusiasm among the delegates, both im- 
mediately after its delivery and also in the course of the 
discussion which ensued. 


All these signs of Zionist activity naturally could not 
avoid creating a certain opposition. The attempts to bring 
about agreement, made at the beginning of 1915, had led to 
nothing, and the Zionists, from their point of view, could not 
have thought ill of their opponents, if they had Hmited 
themselves to a discussion within Jewish circles. But the 
opposition went so far as to pubHsh a document which reads 
as follows : — ^ 

" In view of the statements and discussions lately pub- 
lished in the newspapers relative to a projected Jewish 
resettlement in Palestine on a national basis, the Conjoint 
Foreign Committee of the Board of Deputies of British Jews 
and the Anglo- Jewish Association deem it necessary to 
place on record the views they hold on this important 

" The Holy Land has necessarily a profound and undying 
interest for all Jews, as the cradle of their religion, the main 
theatre of Bible history, and the site of its sacred memorials. 
It is not, however, as a mere shrine or place of pilgrimage 
that they regard the country. Since the dawn of their 
political emancipation in Europe, the Jews have made the 
rehabilitation of the Jewish community in the Holy Land 
one of their chief cares, and they have always cherished the 
hope that the result of their labours would be the regenera- 
tion on Palestinian soil of a Jewish community, worthy of 
the great memories of their environment, and a source of 

1 The Times, May 24, 191 7. 


spiritual inspiration to the whole of Jewry. Accordingly, 
the Conjoint Committee have welcomed with deep satisfac- 
tion the prospect of a rich fruition of this work, opened to 
them by the victorious progress of the British Army in 

*' Anxious that on this question all sections and parties in 
Jewry should be united in a common effort, the committee 
intimated to the Zionist organizations as far back as the 
winter of 1914 their readiness to co-operate with them on 
the basis of the so-called ' cultural ' poHcy which had been 
adopted at the last two Zionist Congresses in 191 1 and 1913. 
This policy aimed primarily at making Palestine a Jewish 
spiritual centre by securing for the local Jews, and the 
colonists who might join them, such conditions of life as 
would best enable them to develop the Jewish genius on 
lines of its own. Larger poUtical questions, not directly 
affecting the main purpose, were left to be solved as need 
and opportunity might render possible. Unfortunately, an 
agreement on these lines has not proved practicable, and the 
conjoint committee are consequently compelled to pursue 
their work alone. They are doing so on the basis of a formula 
adopted by them in March, 1916, in which they proposed to 
recommend to his Majesty's Government the formal recogni- 
tion of the high historic interest Palestine possesses for the 
Jewish community, and a pubUc declaration that at the 
close of the war * the Jewish population will be secured in 
the enjoyment of civil and religious liberty, equal political 
rights with the rest of the population, reasonable facilities 
for immigration and colonization, and such municipal 
privileges in the towns and colonies inhabited by them as 
may be shown to be necessary.' 

** That is still the policy of the conjoint committee. 

" Meanwhile, the committee have learnt from the published 
statements of the Zionist leaders in this country that they 
now favour a much larger scheme of an essentially political 
character. Two points in this scheme appear to the 
committee to be open to grave objections on public 

"The first is a claim that the Jewish settlements in 
Palestine shall be recognized as possessing a national 
character in a political sense. Were this claim of purely 
local import, it might well be left to settle itself in accordance 
with the general political exigencies of the reorganization of 
the country under a new sovereign power. The conjoint 


committee, indeed, would have no objections to urge against 
a local Jev.ish nationality establishing itself under such 
conditions. But the present claim is not of this limited 
scope. It is part and parcel of a wider Zionist theory, 
which regards all the Jewish communities of the world as 
constituting one homeless nationaUty, incapable of complete 
social and political identification with the nations among 
whom they dwell, and it is argued that for this homeless 
nationahty a political centre and an always available home- 
land in Palestine are necessary. Against this theory the 
conjoint committee strongly and earnestly protest. Eman- 
cipated Jews in this country regard themselves primarily 
as a religious community, and they have always based their 
claims to poUtical equality with their fellow-citizens of other 
creeds on this assumption and on its corollary — that they 
have no separate national aspirations in a political sense. 
They hold Judaism to be a religious system, with which their 
poHtical status has no concern, and they maintain that, as 
citizens of the countries in which they live, they are fully 
and sincerely identified with the national spirit and interests 
of those countries. It follows that the establishment of a 
Jewish nationaUty in Palestine, founded on this theory of 
Jewish homelessness, must have the effect throughout the 
world of stamping the Jews as strangers in their native lands, 
and of undermining their hard-won position as citizens and 
nationals of those lands. Moreover, a Jewish poHtical 
nationaUty, carried to its logical conclusion, must, in the 
present circumstances of the world, be an anachronism. 
The Jewish reUgion being the only certain test of a Jew, a 
Jewish nationality must be founded on, and limited by, the 
reUgion. It cannot be supposed for a moment that any 
section of Jews would aim at a commonwealth governed by 
reUgious tests, and limited in the matter of freedom of con- 
science ; but can a religious nationaUty express itself 
politicaUy in any other way ? The only alternative would 
be a secular Jewish nationality, recruited on some loose and 
obscure principle of race and ethnographic peculiarity ; but 
this would not be Jewish in any spiritual sense, and its 
establishment in Palestine would be a denial of all the ideals 
and hopes by which the revival of Jewish life in that country 
commends itself to the Jewish consciousness and Jewish 
sympathy. On these grounds the conjoint committee 
deprecate most earnestly the national proposals of the 


" The second point in the Zionist programme which has 
aroused the misgivings of the conjoint committee is the pro- 
posal to invest the Jewish settlers in Palestine with certain 
special rights in excess of those enjoyed by the rest of the 
population, these rights to be embodied in a Charter and 
administered by a Jewish Chartered Company. Whether it 
is desirable or not to confide any portion of the administra- 
tion of Palestine to a Chartered Company need not be dis- 
cussed, but it is certainly very undesirable that Jews should 
soHcit or accept such a concession, on a basis of political 
privileges and economic preferences. Any such action would 
prove a veritable calamity for the whole Jewish people. 
In all the countries in which they Uve the principle of equal 
rights for all religious denominations is vital for them. 
Were they to set an example in Palestine of disregarding 
this principle they would convict themselves of having 
appealed to it for purely selfish motives. In the countries 
in which they are still struggling for equal rights they would 
find themselves hopelessly compromised, while in other 
countries, where those rights have been secured, they would 
have great difficulty in defending them. The proposal is the 
more inadmissible because the Jews are, and will probably 
long remain, a minority of the population of Palestine, and 
because it might involve them in the bitterest feuds with 
their neighbours of other races and religions, which would 
seriously retard their progress, and would find deplorable 
echoes throughout the Orient. Nor is the scheme necessary 
for the Zionists themselves. If the Jews prevail in a com- 
petition based on perfect equality of rights and opportunity 
they will establish their eventual preponderance in the land 
on a far sounder foundation than any that can be secured 
by privileges and monopolies. 

" If the conjoint committee can be satisfied with regard to 
these points they will be prepared to co-operate in securing 
for the Zionist organization the united support of Jewry. 
" (Signed) David L. Alexander, 

President, Board of Deputies of British Jews. 
" (Signed) Claude G. Montefiore, 

President, Anglo- Jewish Association. 

" London, May 17, 1917." 

On the day after the appearance of this Manifesto, The 
Times received more letters than it could make room to 
print from Jewish correspondents, " taking strong excep- 


tion " to the statement of the Presidents. Mr. Elkan N. Adler 
at once resigned from the Conjoint Committee, and described 
the publication of the Manifesto as *' inopportune, if not 
harmful." Mr. B. A. Fersht and Mr. S. Gilbert also resigned. 

The Chief Rabbi, Dr. J. H. Hertz, wrote to The Times, 
expressing the following opinion : — 

** I do not propose to advance any arguments contesting 
the extraordinary statement on Zionism and Palestine which 
you published on Thursday last, signed by Mr. D. L. Alex- 
ander, K.C., and Mr. Claude G. Montefiore. But, as Chief 
Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British 
Empire, I cannot allow your readers to remain under the 
misconception that the said statement represents in the 
least the views held either by Anglo- Jewry as a whole or by 
the Jewries of the Oversea Dominions. Moreover, neither 
the Board of Deputies nor the Anglo- Jewish Association — 
on whose behalf their presidents signed the document in 
question — authorized its publication or had an opportunity 
of considering its contents. 

" It is, indeed, grievously painful to me to write this in your 
influential columns. But I am impelled to do so in the 
interests of truth, and in justice to the communities of which 
I have the honour and privilege of being the spiritual head." 

Dr. M. Gaster, the late Haham of the Spanish and Portu- 
guese Jews' congregations in England, declared : — 

" A settlement of the Jewish problem will, no doubt, form 
part of the general settlement which is to secure to the world 
a permanent peace resting on * national liberty and inter- 
national amity,' as Lord Robert Cecil only yesterday 
declared in the House of Commons. The Jew also wants a 
permanent peace resting on the same foundations, and he 
can only find it by the realization of the Zionist programme, 
a national autonomous life in the Holy Land, pubHcly 
recognized and legally secured. It embraces, of course, the 
religious as well as political and economic life, indissolubly 
united in the Jewish national consciousness." 

Lord Rothschild repHed to several of the objections to 
Zionism advanced by the two Presidents in a letter which 
stated : — 

" In your issue of the 24th inst. appears a long letter 
signed on behalf of the Conjoint Committee by Messrs. 
Alexander and Montefiore and entitled * The Future of the 
Jews.' As a sincere believer both in the justice and benefits 
likely to accrue from the Zionist cause and aspirations, I 


trust you will allow me to reply to this letter. I consider it 
most unfortunate that this controversy should be raised at 
the present time, and the members of the Zionist organiza- 
tion are the last people desirous of raising it. Our opponents, 
although a mere fraction of the Jewish opinion of the world, 
seek to interfere in the wishes and aspirations of by far the 
larger mass of the Jewish people. We Zionists cannot see 
how the estabhshment of an autonomous Jewish State under 
the aegis and protection of one of the Allied Powers can be 
considered for a moment to be in any way subversive to the 
position or loyalty of the very large part of the Jewish 
people who have identified themselves thoroughly with the 
citizenship of the countries in which they live. Our idea 
from the beginning has been to establish an autonomous 
centre, both spiritual and ethical, for all those members of 
the Jewish faith who felt drawn irresistibly to the ancient 
home of their faith and nationality in Palestine. 

" In the letter you have published, the question also is 
raised of a chartered company. We Zionists have always 
felt that if Palestine is to be colonized by the Jews some 
machinery must be set up to receive the immigrants, settle 
them on the land, and to develop the land, and to be 
generally a directing agency. I can only again emphasize 
that we Zionists have no wish for privileges at the expense 
of other nationahties, but only desire to be allowed to work 
out our destinies side by side with other nationalities in 
an autonomous State under the suzerainty of one of the 
Allied Powers." 

Dr. Weizmann replied to two statements made by the 
anti-Zionists in a further letter which appeared in The 
Times : — 

" I have no desire to ask for space in your columns to 
examine with what justification these two gentlemen and 
the school they speak for claim that they have always hoped 
and worked for a Jewish regeneration in Palestine. But I 
am anxious to correct two statements which might possibly 
generate serious misconception in the minds of those not well 
informed as to Zionism and Zionist projects. 

" I. It may possibly be inconvenient to certain individual 
Jews that the Jews constitute a nationality. Whether the 
Jews do constitute a nationality is, however, not a matter 
to be decided by the convenience of this or that individual. 
It is strictly a question of fact. The fact that the Jews are 
a nationaUty is attested by the conviction of the over- 


whelming majority of Jews throughout all ages right to the 
present time, a conviction which has always been shared by 
non-Jews in all countries. 

" 2 . The Zionists are not demanding in Palestine monopolies 
or exclusive privileges, nor are they asking that any part of 
Palestine should be administered by a chartered company 
to the detriment of others. It always was and remains a 
cardinal principle of Zionism as a democratic movement that 
all races and sects in Palestine should enjoy full justice and 
liberty, and Zionists are confident that the new suzerain 
whom they hope Palestine will acquire as a result of the war 
will, in its administration of the country, be guided by the 
same principle. 

" In conclusion I should Hke to express my regret that there 
should be even two Jews who think it their duty to exert 
such influence as they may command against the realization 
of a hope which has sustained the Jewish nation through 
2000 years of exile, persecution, and temptation.** 

These letters of protest led to the pubhcation of a leading 
article entitled "The Future of the Jews'* in The Times of 
29th May, which showed that this paper is firmly convinced 
of the justice of the Zionist cause. The article was of so 
much importance that it is quoted in full : — 

" The important controversy which has sprung up in our 
columns upon the future of the Jews deserves careful and 
sympathetic attention. The war has given prominence to 
many questions that seemed formerly to Ue outside the 
range of practical poHtics. None of them is more interesting 
than that of the bearing of Zionism — that is to say, of the 
resettlement of a Jewish nationahty in Palestine — upon the 
future of the Jewish people. In the statement which we 
published last Thursday from the Conjoint Committee of the 
Board of Deputies of British Jews and the Anglo-Jewish 
Association exception was taken to Zionist plans for the 
creation of a national Jewish community ' in a poHtical 
sense,' and pointed arguments were directed against them. 
In the opinion of the Committee, such plans are ' part and 
parcel of a wider Zionist theory which regards all the Jewish 
communities of the world as constituting one homeless 
nationahty, incapable of complete social and pohtical identi- 
fication with the nations among whom they dwell.' Against 
this theory the Committee ' strongly and earnestly protest,' 
on grounds which, in so far as they are set forth in the state- 
ment, are sufficiently clear. The Committee claim that they 


are fully alive to the special meaning of Palestine for the 
Jewish race. They are anxious that in Palestine the civil 
and religious liberties of Jews should be secured. But they 
affirm that ' emancipated Jews ' in this country have no 

* separate national aspirations in a political sense.' Such 
Jews regard themselves * primarily as a religious com- 
munity/ and have always * based their claims to political 
equality with their fellow-citizens of other creeds on this 
assumption.' They fear lest the establishment of a Jewish 
nationality in Palestine stamp the Jews as strangers in their 
native lands and undermine * their hard-won position as 
citizens and nationals of those lands.' The Committee pro- 
ceed to argue that since * the Jewish religion ' is ' the only 
certain test of a Jew, the Jewish nationality must be founded 
on, and limited by religion.' It follows, they believe, that a 
Jewish nationality would be obliged to ' express itself 
politically ' by religious intolerance, and would thus under- 
mine the very principle which Jews have invoked to secure 
their emancipation. The Committee further insist that the 
bestowal by Charter of * certain special rights in excess of 
those enjoyed by the rest of the population ' would be a 
questionable boon to a Jewish community in Palestine, 
because in all the countries in which Jews live * the principle 
of equal rights for all religious denominations ' is vital to 

" It seems to us that in attempting to define Jewish 
nationality in terms of religion the Committee come danger- 
ously near to begging the question which they raise ; and 
no question can be solved by begging it. As Dr. Weizmann, 
the President of the English Zionist Federation, observes in 
the letter which we published yesterday, it may possibly be 
inconvenient to ceitain individual Jews that the Jews do 
constitute a nationality. The question is one of fact, not of 
argument, and the fact that the Jews are a nationality ' is 
attested by the conviction of the overwhelming majority of 
Jews throughout all ages.' This conviction, he rightly says, 

* has always been shared by non-Jews in all countries.' But 
more immediately important than this discussion of a point 
which cannot seriously be disputed is the denial by eminent 
and influential Jewish leaders like Lord Rothschild and the 
Chief Rahhi of the title of the Conjoint Committee to speak 
for British Jewry, or, indeed, for * the larger mass of the 
Jewish people.' Lord Rothschild writes : ' We Zionists 
cannot see how the establishment of an autonomous Jewish 

11.— F 


State, under the aegis and protection of one of the Allied 
Powers, can be considered for a moment to be in any way 
subversive of the position or loyalty of the very large part 
of the Jewish people who have identified themselves 
thoroughly with the citizenship of the countries in which 
they live/ The Chief Rahhi insists that the statement of 
the Conjoint Committee does not represent in the least the 
views held * either by Anglo-Jewry as a whole or by the 
Jewries of the Oversea Dominions/ 

*' Authoritative declarations such as these dispose of the 
contention that Zionism is not representative of Jewish 
aspirations. We beheve it in fact to embody the feelings of 
the great bulk of Jewry everywhere. The interest of the 
world outside Jewry is that these aspirations, in so far as 
they may be susceptible of realization, should be fairly faced 
on their merits. It is too often imagined that the Jewish 
question can be solved by the mere removal of all artificial 
restrictions upon Jewish activities. Even a superficial 
acquaintance with the conditions of life in the congested 
Jewish communities of Galicia and Russia suggests the in- 
adequacy of that solution. The truth is that the Jewish 
question cannot be exhaustively defined either in terms of 
religion or of race. It has important social, economic, 
financial, and poUtical sides. The importance of the Zionist 
movement — apart from its territorial aspect — is that it has 
fired with a new ideal millions of poverty-stricken Jews 
cooped up in the ghettoes of the Old World and the New. 
It has tended to make Jews proud of their race and to claim 
recognition, as Jews, in virtue of the eminent services 
rendered by Jewry to the reUgious development and civiliza- 
tion of mankind. Only an imaginative nervousness suggests 
that the realization of territorial Zionism, in some form, 
would cause Christendom to round on the Jews and say, 
* Now you have a land of your own, go to it ! ' The Jews 
who feel themselves to be British, French, or American 
would, doubtless, tend to identify themselves more than 
ever with the lands of their political allegiance and to 
become more and more a solely rehgious community. The 
rapid changes of nationality that have been so noticeable 
among Jews in the past would become increasingly dis- 
credited. The international solidarity of Jews would 
undoubtedly persist — though, with a lessening of the danger 
of rehgious persecution, the leading Jews of all countries 
might feel freer to make a pubhc stand against tendencies 


which sometimes bring the Jewish name into disrepute. We 
note with satisfaction the assurance of the Conjoint Com- 
mittee that, if their specific misgivings can be removed, 
' they will be prepared to co-operate in securing for Zionist 
organizations the united support of Jewry.' It is in this 
direction, we believe, that progress hes." 

On the ist of June The Times contained a letter adding 
the names of the Anglo- Jews who supported the view taken 
by the Conjoint Presidents. The letter read as follows : — 

" Sir, — As the representative character of the Jewish 
Conjoint Committee has been publicly challenged, we, being 
Jews of British birth and nationahty, actively engaged in 
public work in the Anglo-Jewish community, desire to state 
that we approve of, and associate ourselves with, the state- 
ment on the Palestine question recently issued by the com- 
mittee, and published in The Times of the 24th inst. 

Your obedient servants, 

SwaythLing Israel Gollancz 

Chas. S. Henry Michael A. Green 

Matthew Nathan H. S. Q. Henriques 

Lionel Abrahams* Joshua M. Levy 

Isidore Spielmann Laurie Magnus 

Edward D. Stern Edmund Sebag-Montefiore 

Israel Abrahams Arthur Reginald Moro 

Leonard L. Cohen Philip S. Waley 

Ernest L. Franklin Albert M. Woolf. 
'* May 2gthr 

There were soon widespread signs that the congregations 
supposed to be represented by the Board of Deputies did not 
agree with the views expressed in the manifesto. Thus the 
seatholders of the New Synagogue, Stamford Hill, carried a 
motion calling upon their representatives at the Board of 
Deputies and the Conjoint Committee to resign. This was 
passed with only two dissentients. Synagogues in Man- 
chester and Liverpool and the Committee of Deputies in 
Manchester, Yorkshire and Cheshire expressed regret at 
the action of tne President of the Board of Deputies in 
" committing the Board to a policy for which the Board 
has given him no kind of authority." The Belfast Con- 

• "Sir Lionel Abrahams signs . abject to the opinion that, in view of 
the statement made by the President of the EngUsh Zionist Federation on 
May 20, a further attempt at co-operation between the Conjoint Com- 
mittee and the Zionist organisations in the United Kingdom is now 


gregation passed a similar resolution and also expressed 
confidence in Dr. Weizmann and the Zionist movement. 
Congregations in Birkenhead, Cardiff, Dublin, Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Limerick, Merthyr Tydvil, Middlesbrough, New- 
castle, Newport (Mon.), Swansea and Wallasey took similar 
action. In Leeds a meeting was held representative of all 
the Jewish congregations and organizations ; in Manchester 
the Jewish representative Council condemned the action of 
the Conjoint Committee. Indeed, throughout the United 
Kingdom Synagogues, Friendly Societies, Jewish Charitable 
Organizations and nearly every kind of Jewish institution 
made a public protest against the Manifesto, and declared 
in favour of Zionism. 

These widespread signs of dissatisfaction with the existing 
leadership of the body which had hitherto claimed to be the 
official spokesman for Jewish opinion in England, was 
destined to lead to a complete change of government in that 

It is true that at the meeting of the Anglo-Jewish Associa- 
tion on June 3rd Dr. Caster's resolution of censure was not 
put to the vote. But on Sunday, 17th June, at a meeting 
of the Board of Deputies a resolution of censure on the 
Conjoint Committee, calHng upon the representatives of 
the Board to resign from the Conjoint Committee, was 
carried by fifty-six votes to fifty-one. Mr. H. S. Q. 
Henriques, the Vice-President of the Board, spoke 
in defence of the Manifesto. In his speech he said the 
Conjoint Committee had on the 17th May granted per- 
mission to the Presidents to publish the statement when 
they thought it advisable to do so, but he nad himself been 
surprised that they had published it so soon. Mr. Gilbert 
said that in October he had asked if any Manifesto then 
existed or was contemplated and had been told that the 
suggestion was ' ' mahcious and wicked. ' ' Sir Philip Magnus, 
Bart., said he had heard of the Manifesto a week or so before 
Mr. Henriques. From these statements it becomes clear that 
the document was compiled by a few of those thoroughly 
Anglicized Jews who, themselves very comfortably off 
in England, and about equally ignorant of the main 
currents of life in that country and of the main currents of 
Jewish hfe anywhere, were in their complacent self-satisfac- 
tion of opinion that they expressed the views of English 
Jews, when in reality they did not in the slightest degree 
represent the views of the overwhelming majority. 


In consequence of the vote of censure, the Honorary 
Officers, Mr. David L. Alexander, k.c, the President ; Mr. 
H. S. Q. Henriques, m.a., b.c.l., the Vice-President; and 
Mr. Joshua M. Levy, the Treasurer, resigned. 

The Board of Deputies later attempted to restore the irre- 
sponsible power of a non-elective and unrepresentative com- 
mittee having power to speak for the Jews of England. This 
new Conjoint Committee was to consist of the Foreign Com- 
mittees of the two bodies, the Board of Deputies and Anglo- 
Jewish Association, meeting together to deal with Foreign 
affairs affecting the Jews. " Except in matters of routine 
or urgency," the parent bodies have to be consulted before 
any action is taken. The question of Zionism was declared 
outside the province of the Joint Committee unless specially 
delegated to such Committee by both parent bodies. This 
scheme was adopted at a meeting of the Board of Deputies 
held on January 20th, 1918. 

Meantime the question of a general manifesto in favour 
of Zionist aims, not only by organized adherents of the 
movement but by the Anglo- Jewish Community generally, 
having become of urgent importance, the Council of the 
English Zionist Federation issued an appeal to Jewish 
organizations throughout the country to convene meetings 
in order to pass resolutions in the following terms : — 

" (i) That this meeting being unanimously in favour 
of the reconstruction of Palestine as the National Home 
of the Jewish People, trusts that His Majesty's Govern- 
ment will use its best endeavours for the achievement of 
this object. 

" (2) That this Mass Meeting pledges itself to support 
the Zionist leaders in their efforts towards the realization 
of the Zionist aims." 

These resolutions were adopted at large meetings in 
London, at the Queen's Hall, Monnickendam Rooms, at 
the Marcus Samuel Hall, New Synagogue, and in Bethnal 
Green, and at important meetings in Birmingham, Cardiff, 
Leeds, Hull, Manchester, Swansea, Merthyr Tydvil and 

The following is the list, so far as we have been able to 
ascertain, of Synagogues and Institutions, which are known 
to have adopted these or similar resolutions. 

Manchester. The Communal Council (representing 15,000 
Jews, members of Synagogues, Trade Unions and Friendly 


Societies), the Lancashire and Yorkshire and Cheshire 
members of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, a special 
meeting of representatives of Synagogues at the opening of 
the Kovna Synagogue ; the following Synagogues : Rydal 
Mount Hebrew Congregation, Kahal Chassidim, Beth 
Jacob, United Synagogue and Beth Hamedrash and New 
Synagogue ; the following Friendly Societies : Grand 
Council of the Order of Ancient Maccabeans, Achei Brith 
and Shield of Abraham (Frances Annie Frankenburg, King 
Edward the Seventh, Nathan Laski, and Dr. Herzl Lodges), 
Independent Order of Achei Brith, Order of Ancient Macca- 
beans (Modin No. 24, Don Isaac Abarbanel No. 11, Rechobot 
No. 29, Mount Horeb No. 9, Mount Lebanon No. 3, and 
Mattathias No. 14 Beacons), the Maccabean Club, the Order 
Shield of David (Broughton Lodge), and the Manchester 
and Salford Jewish Grocers' Association ; and the following 
Zionist Societies : Manchester Zionist Association, Poale 
Zion, and Manchester Daughters of Zion. 

Leeds. The Leeds Jewish Representative Council (repre- 
senting all Synagogues, Trade Unions, Friendly Societies, 
and other Jewish organizations) ; the following Friendly 
Societies : Grand Order of Israel (Grosenburg Lodge No. 90 
and Dr. Dembo Lodge No. 47), the Pride of Israel Indepen- 
dent Friendly Society, the Order of Ancient Maccabeans 
(Massodah'QediCon and Mount Sinai No. 13 Beacon), and the 
Independent Order of B'nei Brith (Abraham Frais Lodge 
No. 35) ; the Leeds Jewish National Fund Commission, the 
Leeds Jewish Workmen's Burial Society, the Leeds Banner 
of Zion, and the Leeds Young Shomerim ; and the following 
Zionist Societies : Agudas Hazionim, Ladies' Zionist League, 
Ladies' Association, and a Mass Meeting convened by the 
Joint Zionist Committee. 

Liverpool. The following Synagogues : Central Syna- 
gogue (IsHngton), Shaw Street, Nusach Ari, (Great Russell 
Street), Devon Street, Acheinu B'nei Yisroel, Old Hebrew 
Congregation (Princess Road), Beth Hamedrash Ay en 
Jacov, Wallasey Hebrew Congregation, and Fountain Road 
Hebrew Congregation ; the following Friendly Societies and 
Trade Unions : Order of Ancient Maccabeans (Mount Nebo 
Erez Yisrael No. 28 and Mount Hermon Beacons), the 
Amalgamated Orders of Achei Brith and Shield of Abraham 
(Deborah Lodge No. 70, Dr. Max Nordau Lodge No. 13, 
and The Very Rev. Dr. Joseph H. Hertz Lodge No. 76), the 
Grand Order of Israel (Rev. S. Friedeberg Lodge No. 80), the 


Order of the Shield of David (Max Clapper Lodge No. 44), the 
Herzl Hebrew Friendly Tontine Society, the London Hebrew 
Tontine Society, the Montefiore Hebrew Tontine Friendly 
Society, the Order Shield of David Tontine Society (Joseph 
Morris Lodge No. 28), the Hebrew Brotherhood Tontine 
Society, the Brothers of Israel Tontine Society, the Hebrew 
Somech Noflim Society, the Liverpool TraveUers' Friendly 
Society, the Jewish Students of Liverpool University, the 
International Society of Philology, Science and Fine Arts 
(Liverpool Branch), the Hebrew Higher Grade National 
League, the Talmudical College, the Jewish Literary Society, 
the Tailors' Employees' Association, the National Amalga- 
mated Furnishing Trades Association, the United Garment 
Workers' Trade Union, the Anglo- Jewish Association (Liver- 
pool Branch), the Wholesale Furniture Manufacturers' 
Association, the Ladies' Bikur Cholim Society, the Com- 
mittee of the Association of Old Boys of the Liverpool 
Hebrew Schools ; and the following Zionist Societies : 
Liverpool Young Men's Zionist Association, Liverpool 
Zionist Central Council, Agudas Zion Society, Liverpool 
Junior Zionist Association, and Liverpool Ladies' Zionist 

Glasgow. The Jewish Representative Council (repre- 
senting all Glasgow Jewish Institutions, Synagogues, etc.) ; 
the following Synagogues : Chevra Kadisha, Garnet Hill, Beth 
Hamedrash, Langside Road, Machzikei Hadath, Beth Jacob, 
Queen's Park Hebrew Congregation, and South Portland 
Street ; the following Friendly Societies and Trade Unions : 
Baron Giinzburg Lodge, Lord Rothschild Lodge, Montefiore 
Lodge, Michael Simon Lodge, Dr. Hermann Adler Lodge, 
King David Lodge, Rev. E. P. Philhps Lodge, Odessa Lodge, 
Lady Rothschild Lodge No. 67, Order of Ancient Maccabeans 
(Leo Pinsker Beacon No. 12, and Judas Maccabeus Beacon 
No. 15), Grand Order of Israel (Dr. Herzl Lodge No. 12), 
and the Independent Friendly Society ; and the following 
Societies : Jewish Young Men's Institute, Master Tailors' 
Federation, Jewish National Institute (Elgin Street), 
Hebrew Burial Society, B'nei Zion, Young Girls' Zionist 
League, Daughters of Zion, and Queen's Park Zionist and 
Literary Society. 

Birmingham. The following Friendly Societies : Order 
of Ancient Maccabeans (Theodor Herzl Beacon), Order of 
Achei Brith and Shield of Abraham (Isaac Joseph Lodge), 
Lodge, Lord Swaythling Lodge, Rachel Mendlesohn 


(Rev. J. Fink Lodge and Rev. G. J. Emanuel Lodge). 
Grand Order of Israel (Loyal Independent Lodge, Rev. A. 
Cohen Lodge, and David Davis Lodge). 

Bristol. Mass Meeting of Bristol Jews, Oct. 2ist 

Cardiff. Mass Meeting of Jewish Community Jet. 2ist, 
1917 ; Order of Ancient Maccabeans (Cardiff Branch). 

Swansea. Mass Meeting, Oct. 15th (representing Syna- 
gogues, Friendly Societies and Zionist Societies), Swansea 
Hebrew Congregation, Swansea Junior Zionist and Literary 

Pontypridd. Mass Meeting of Jewish Community, 21st Oct. 

Newport. Mass Meeting of Jewish Community, 21st 
Oct., 1917. 

Merthyr Tydvil. Mass Meeting. 

Durham. Zionist Society. 

Maidenhead. Hebrew Congregation. 

Birkenhead. Hebrew Congregation. 

Bolton. Jewish Community, meeting 19th Oct., 1917. 

Blackpool. Hebrew Congregation and Belisha Lodge. 

Stockport. Jewish Tailors' Union. 

Sunderland. Mass Meeting of Sunderland Community, 
2ist Oct., 1917. 

Grimsby. Hebrew Congregation, and Order of Ancient 
Maccabeans (Mount Zeisim Beacon No. 7). 

Hull. Mass Meeting of Jews of Hull, Oct. 14th, 1917. 

Bradford. Zionist Society, Order of Ancient Maccabeans 
(Jehuda Halevi Beacon No. 30). 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. Mass Meeting of all Jewish organiza- 
tions, Oct. 2ist, Ancient Order of Maccabeans (Mount Gilead 
Beacon), Grand Order of Israel (Duke of Northumberland 
Lodge No. 14). 

Edinburgh. Mass Meeting of Edinburgh Jev/s, 21st Oct., 
Order of Ancient Maccabeans (Mount Moriah Beacon). 

Sheffield. Mass Meeting of Sheffield Jews, i8th Oct., 
representing Sheffield Hebrew Congregation, Central Syna- 
gogue, Talmud Torah, Board of Guardians, PoUsh Refugees 
Fund, Chevra Kadisha, Master Tailors' Union, B'nei Brith, 
Grand Order of Israel, Order of Ancient Maccabeans (Levi- 
son Lodge) , Sheffield Junior Zionist Association, and Work- 
sop Jewish Community. 

Nottingham. Mass Meeting, 21st Oct., representing 
Nottingham Hebrew Congregation, Palestine Association, 
Order of Ancient Maccabeans (Mount Ephraim Beacon), 
Independent Order B'nei Brith (Jacob Lasker Lodge), 


Grand Order of Israel (David Snapper Lodge), United 
Garment Workers of Great Britain (Nottingham Branch). 

Belfast. Belfast Synagogue, 

Dublin. Mass Meeting of Dublin Jewry, 21st Oct. ; 
Independent Order of B'nei Brith (King Solomon Lodge 
No. 17) ; Order of Ancient Maccabeans (Mount Carmel 
Beacon No. 10) ; Agudas Hazionim ; and Dublin Daughters 
of Zion. 

The Times, on Oct. 23rd, noticed these demonstrations of 
sympathy with Zionism under the heading, " Palestine for 
the Jews : British support of the proposal " * and on 
Oct. 26th, in an editorial strongly urged on the Government 
the necessity of making an announcement of its policy in 
favour of Zionism. 

The anti-Zionist views of the representatives of a small 
section of English Jewry were not only in opposition to 
Jewish public opinion, but even more in striking contrast 
with non- Jewish opinion, as revealed by the press of the 
United Kingdom. 

The Westminster Gazette, in its issue of August 26th, 1916, 
published an article on ** Zionism," in the course of which 
the writer emphasized that : — 

" All they ask for is for a home for the Jewish people — not 
for all the Jews of the world, but only for the nucleus of the 
Jewish people, and above all, for their special type of 
civilization, for Judaism. They have no desire to dispossess 
any other people. They point to a land, to the land which 
is historically theirs, which to-day is lying vacant for want 
of a people to rejuvenate it. There, they say, Judaism will 
find that freedom which is unattainable elsewhere : at their 
hands the land which has languished for centuries can again 
be restored to the circle of bountiful regions, and become as 
of old, a granary for other nations." 

Lord Cromer, writing in the Spectator on August 12th, 
1916, said : — 

" What is it that Zionists want ? The idea that they wish 
the Jews of all races to be congregated together in Palestine 
may at once be dismissed as absurd. Nothing of the sort 
is proposed. Neither do they want to establish a mere 
colony in the sense in which that term is usually employed. 
Zionism stands for a national revival." 

The New Statesman, on July 8th, 1916, dealt editorially 
with " The Meaning of Zionism " \ — 


*' The creation of an autonomous Jewish State in Palestine, 
or elsewhere — though only in Palestine is there any prospect 
of such a State — and its successful progress and develop- 
ment would raise the status of the entire Jewish people and 
restore self-respect to Jewry as a nation. It would thus be 
a large part of the solution of the Jewish question." 

The Nation, in the course of a leading article, on June 2nd, 
1917, on " What is a Jew ? ", considered Zionism as the new 
force, and said : — 

" An assimilated Judaism has little to give to the world, 
save the individual talents of its adherents. Zionism, on the 
contrary, is a vivid, positive, picturesque element in the 
world, a distinctive tradition which adds something to the 
common stock. We hope to see it recognized, preferably 
under international institutions in Palestine, but we look 
askance at proposals to make it subservient to British ends 
of Empire and strategy. 

" But the problem is far wider than Palestine. Zionism 
is really a challenge to the tolerance of Europe for the 
modem idea of nationahty as culture. If that idea has 
vitality, the Zionism of the future will be recognized and 
accepted not merely in Jerusalem but in Warsaw and Vienna, 
in Paris and in London. If the West expects Austria and 
Russia to make terms with their many nationalities, it must 
in its turn hold out a welcome to Jewish nationalism.'' 

In New Europe, on April 12th, 1917, a writer dealt with 
the problem of the Jews : — 

" Whatever claim the Jews may make, it is clear that 
autonomous Jewry in Palestine must have an adequate 
guarantee of existence, whether by international pledge or 
by the protectorate of a Great Power." 

The same periodical, in its issue of April 19th, had a long 
article on " Great Britain, Palestine, and the Jews." The 
writer gives his reasons for stating that a British Palestine 
must be a Jewish Palestine, the home of a restored Jewish 
people, the spiritual centre of the whole Jewish race. He 
shows what the Jew has already done in Palestine, and 
concludes : — 

" Under a beneficent rule a Jewish Palestine would attract 
wealth and talent and labour from every Jewish community 
of the globe, and the progress of Palestine would be much 
more rapid still. Compared with its past Palestine is an 


empty land, to which only the Jews can restore its ancient 
property and glory.'* 

The New Europe devoted the first pages of its issue of 
September 27th, 1917, to an article on " Jewry's Stake in 
the War." The writer in speaking of Zionism, said : — 

" The value of Zionism is, that it tends to bring the 
intense pride of the Jew in his own race, and in its all but 
unrivalled contribution to civihzation, into harmony with 
its public bearing. 

"... The existence of a Jewish State would 'certainly 
react and react healthily upon the position of Jews who 
might elect to remain in the Dispersion. The Zionists would 
fain make of the Jewish name a clear title of honour." 

The Weekly Dispatch of April ist, 1917, in a leading article 
on " The New Crusade," said : — 

" If any more romantic prospect than the spectacle of the 
British Standard flying above the temples and mosques of 
Jerusalem can be visualized, it is the restoration by Britain, 
which has always befriended the Jew, of the Jewish polity 
which fell to pieces in the reign of Hadrian. 

" But sentiment must be based on practical considerations. 
To develop Palestine needs a skilled agricultural race. The 
dreamers of the Ghetto, yearning for the return of Zion, point 
to the Jewish farmers of Canada, America, and the Argentine 
in proof that the instinct of a pastoral people of Biblical time 
still survives in its sons." 

According to The Sunday Chronicle, in an article, April 
15th, 1917, on " British PoHcy in Palestine — A British 
Hebrew Necessity " : — 

*' There is no other race in the whole world who can do 
these services for us in Palestine but the Jews themselves. 
In the Zionist Movement, which has caught up within itself 
some of the best brains and the warmest hearts among the 
younger generation of Jews, we have the motive force which 
will make the extension of the British Empire into Palestine, 
otherwise a disagreeable necessity, a source of pride and a 
pillar of strength. A source of pride ; for after all, if we are 
fighting for oppressed and homeless nationalities in this war, 
there is none which has been so horribly oppressed in the 
past or for so many hundred years without a home of its own 
as the Jews. 

" A pillar of strength ; for the fact that the Jews are not 
only of one nation but of all, will give to the power which is 


sovereign of its capital Jerusalem a tremendous pull in the 
councils of the world." 

The Times Literary Supplement of August i6th, 1917, had 
an article, " After Many Years," which sketched the history 
of the Jews in Palestine, and went on to say that : — 

" The Palestinian Jew during the past decade has shown 
a certain capacity for self-government, and has successfully 
assumed many of the functions of administration which the 
neglect of Ottoman Mutessarifs had left unperformed. 
Under the influence of a renovated system of education, im- 
parted in Hebrew, he was rapidly forgetting his German 
leanings or his Russian or Rumanian traditions, and was 
becoming a farmer of his own soil. If this process can be 
resumed and its scope widened after the war, Palestine may 
slowly grow from a State with the status say of the Anglo- 
Egyptian Sudan — and develop into an autonomous pro- 
tected State, with its own native sovereign and administra- 
tion and forming part of the Empire in just the same way 
as do many States which are in full control of their internal 

Common Sense, March loth, 1917, dealt with the Jewish 
claim to Palestine, and declared that : — 

" If, when we make peace, we are to make a just and 
lasting peace, the terms of the compact must run along the 
lines of nationality. In such a settlement the Jewish claim 
cannot be avoided, and we may hope that, as a consequence 
of the gentle pressure now being applied, the British Govern- 
ment will regard it as a duty to obtain a Hebraic Palestine 
as one of the terms of peace." 

The Manchester Guardian, in an article on June 25th, 1915, 
on *' Jews and the War," described the suffering of the Jews 
scattered amongst the nations, and defines Zionism as 
follows : — 

'* Zionism is, from one point of view, the effort of the 
Jewish spirit to estabhsh a firm ground for its own con- 
tinuance and development in a changed world, which 
threatens by degrees to overwhelm it. Such a movement 
was bound to come so soon as danger threatened a race-Ufe 
so tough and enduring, and a spirit so distinctive and power- 
ful, and it is, like other spiritual things, essentially inde- 
pendent of material means. But for the early realization 
of its immediate purpose material means are necessary, and 


the future of Palestine thus becomes for the Zionist a matter 
of pressing and capital importance/' 

The Manchester Guardian, in a leading article on " The 
Future of Palestine," in its issue of October ist, 1917, asks : — 

** How can we as champions of the cause of nationality, 
refuse our sympathy to the attempt to end age-long exile of 
the Jewish people from their political home in Palestine ? " 

The Liverpool Courier of April 24th, 1917, in a leading 
article, " Rebuilding Zion," said : — 

*' A British Palestine must be a Jewish Palestine. . . . 
Given the protection of the British flag, and the self-govern- 
ing system of the British Empire, Palestine might soon 
become a new and living Zion. Such a consummation would 
be a triumph of the British spirit. It would be a worthy 
object to strive for in the great war, for it would fulfil a deep 
national aspiration among a disinherited people of extra- 
ordinary genius, and to that extent would add to the number 
and the weight of the blows we should deliver against anti- 
national Prussianism." 

The Liverpool Courier of June 15th, 1917, on '* The Future 
of Palestine " :— 

*' The Jews could make Palestine once more a land flow- 
ing with milk and honey. The country has enormous 
economic possibilities. 

"... It must be the business of the Allies, in pursuance of 
their policy of liberation, to restore to Palestine its liberties, 
and to provide a centre of nationhood for the Jewish race." 

In a leading article on " The Land of Promise," The 
Liverpool Courier — October 19th, 1917 — again dealt with 
the Jewish claims to Palestine, and says : — 

" We may be as certain of a loyal Anglo- Jewry with a 
Jewish Homeland reconstituted, as we are to-day. Britain 
has always taken kindly to the idea of the Jewish Re- 
settlement, and the moment seems now at hand when an 
ideal — cherished both by Britain and by Jewry — is not un- 
likely to find realization." 

The Glasgow Herald, May 29th, 1917, in an article on 
*' Zion Re-edified," dealt fully with the anti-Zionist mani- 
festo, and said of the Zionists : — 

*' They are looking forward now not to a re-edified Zion 
which the breath of a Turkish Sultan could tumble into ruin. 


but to the establishment of a Jewish State, under the 
suzerainty of some strong Christian power. 

" Jews in every land have felt that w^hat has been the 
dream of long ages of exile and persecution may at last 
become a reaHty on which their eyes shall gaze." 

The Yorkshire Post, April 12th, 1917, gave the history of 
" Jewish Colonization in Palestine,'* and concluded that : — 

" Thus there is some foundation for the claim that in the 
settlement after the war provision should be made for the 
unhampered continuance and extension of the colonization 
of Palestine by the Jews ; and should that develop in process 
of time into the estabhshment of a Jewish nation there, it 
will be a result by no means inconsistent with the ideals for 
which Great Britain and her AUies are fighting." 

The Contemporary Review of Jirne, 1917, had a short note 
on the " Jewish Claim to Palestine " : — 

" Evidently the principle of nationahty is itself considered 
sacred ; it is an asset to the world, and it carries its rights, 
moral rights, which are none the less rights, if they cannot 
be enforced by the sword. 

" The cynic might, perhaps, find more justification had 
Israel ever forgotten or waived his claim to the Holy Land ; 
but a continuous chain of aspiration and prayer, and even 
of political activity, binds him to the soil from which he was 
driven early in the Christian Era." 

The Review of Reviews, September, 1916, thus defined 
Zionism : — 

" Zionism means a complete Jewish, spiritual and national, 
rebirth in the ancient land — a re-settling of Jews in their 
own ancient home. To the ideahst it is much more even, it 
is love for the Land of the Shekinah and the Holy Spirit, a 
mystic rapture of the whole Jewish soul in the quest of re- 
discovering the * Fountain of Living Waters.* 

" To this end it is necessary for the Jewish people to have 
a home in Palestine secured by pubUc laws." 

The mihtary correspondent of The Daily Chronicle on 
March 30th, 1917, discussed the question of what should be 
done with Palestine when Hberated, and came to the con- 
clusion that : — 

"There can be Httle doubt that we should revive the 
Jewish Palestine of old, and allow the Jews to realize their 


dream of Zion in their homeland. All the Jews will not 
return to Palestine, but many will do so. The new Je"\^ish 
State, under British or French aegis, would become the 
spiritual and cultural centre of Je\^T>' throughout the worid. 
The Jews would at least have a homeland and a nationahty 
of their own. The national dream that has sustained them 
for a score of centuries and more will have been fulfilled/' 

In a leading article in the same issue on '* The Victory in 
Palestine " we read : — 

" The project for constituting a Zionist State there under 
British protection has a great deal to commend it. The 
restoration to Judaism of what must always be the ideal focus 
of its persistent national and spiritual life would be a noble 
addition to the programme for emancipating small nations." 

The Daily Neivs, in a leading article, on October 17th, on 
the " ^^'ar and the Jew^s," dealt with the claim of Zionists 
in all lands to be a nation, and the desire to see the land of 
their fathers restored to them. The article concluded : — 

" In a w^ord, we are not sure that Zionism would not prove 

the solution of the obstinate problem of this wandering race 
that has perplexed the world for so many centuries. Wliat- 
ever the decision of the AlHes in regard to Palestine, it can 
hardly fail to improve the conditions and enlarge the hberty 
of hfe in Palestine, and if the Jews in large numbers choose 
to take advantage of the fact, the object of Zionism will in 
due time be accompHshed, and the Jewish nation will hve 
again imder its owti vine and fig-tree. WTien that happens, 
the Jewish problem that afflicts the rest of the world will 
tend to disappear." 


The months August-November, 1917, were an exceedingly 
busy time for Zionists in England. They had to defend 
themselves against the attacks made against them not only 
in manifestoes, but also behind the scenes. They had to 
continue the pourparlers and to endeavour to obtain some 
acceptance of their principle. Dr. Weizmann and the author 
were actively and energetically assisted in their endeavours 
not only by a group of representative Zionists of England, 
but also by a considerable nmnber of Zionists abroad. They 
were helped, above all, by American Zionists. Betw^een 
London, New^ York, and \\'ashington there was constant com- 
munication, either by telegraph, or by personal visit, and 


as a result there was perfect unity among the Zionists of both 
hemispheres. The strength of conviction, the enthusiasm, 
the spirit of sacrifice, the enterprise, and the industry and 
energy of American Zionists, displayed by them in the last 
few years deserve more than a page of honour in the history 
of Zionism ; they deserve a volume to themselves. The 
statesmanship, the genius for organization, and the benefi- 
cent personal influence of the Honourable Louis D. Brandeis, 
Judge of the Supreme Court, has raised, strengthened, and 
secured in every direction the position of American Zionism 
not only in America, but also has increased its prestige and 
dignity abroad. His well-weighed counsel, his great experi- 
ence, his calm judgment, which unites deep democratic 
principles with the sense of responsibihty of a national 
leader, were an important factor in the conduct of Zionist 
politics. In this matter he was supported by a number 
of zealous, expert and devoted fellow-thinkers. The 
older American Zionists, who had maintained for many 
years a Zionist Organization with great trouble and ex- 
emplary steadfastness, were now, since the outbreak of the 
war, considerably strengthened by a number of Zionist 
leaders from Europe. At the head of the latter — who, in the 
meantime, have become thoroughly Americanised — stood 
Dr. Shmaria Levin, a member of the '* Inner Action Com- 
mittee " ; who, in addition to his distinguished services as 
a publicist and propagandist, in which directions he dis- 
played a vigour scarcely ever equalled and certainly excelled 
by no one, also freely gave his knowledge and advice in the 
discussion of political questions. To this group, enlarged 
by the leaders newly arrived from Europe, was added 
another most valuable group, of strongly Zionist feeling, 
coming from Palestine. After the enforced exile of a 
number of distinguished pioneers of colonization and of 
nationals Hebrew culture from Palestine, many of them 
went to America to dedicate themselves there to the 
work of propaganda. Dr. Ben-zion Mossinsohn, Mr. 
Israel Belkind and Mr. Menachem Mendel Scheinkin 
— to mention only the best known — ^have worked 
zealously in America for the popularizing of the Pales- 
tine idea. The oratorical skill of Mossinsohn was most 
valuable. A number of distinguished workers belonging 
to the Poale-Zionist Federation also made their head- 
quarters in America, where at the same time the orthodox 
Zionists of the Mizrachi Federation had made note- 


worthy progress in the organizing of their forces and in the 
winning of new members, especially through the efforts of 
Mr. Belkind. The Jewish Press in America, a popular actor 
of most widespread dimensions, devoted its main attention 
to Zionism. With very few exceptions the organs of different 
opinions vied in the pubHcation of Zionist views and in the 
promoting of the national Jewish idea, in which matter the 
non- Jewish Press from time to time gave energetic assistance. 
The publication of Hebrew literature and press-matter, which 
previously was too little in evidence in America, was stimu- 
lated by the Hebrew authors and journalists recently arrived 
from Russia and Palestine, who founded new Hebrew weeklies 
(Hatoren, Haibri) and established houses for the publica- 
tion of Hebrew books. The pioneer and veteran leader of 
the idea of the renaissance of the Hebrew language as the 
everyday speech in Palestine, namely, Elieser Ben Jehuda 
of Jerusalem, found supporters and friends in America, who 
made it possible for him to establish his residence during 
the war in New York, and there to continue his life- 
work, the compilation of a great Hebrew dictionary. The 
rise of the national idea found striking expression in the 
agitation for the holding of a Jewish-American Congress, 
an idea which was violently opposed by the anti-Zionists, 
but was carried by an overwhelming majority. Nationality 
and democracy — these were the battle-cries of the supporters 
of the Congress, which carried away the Jewish-American 
masses with irresistible force. 

The separate Zionist federations " Mizrachi " (containing 
Orthodox Jews) and " Poale Zion'* (containing Socialists) 
have naturally been sorely affected by the war, which greatly 
impeded their work. They, too, however, have been able to 
keep up the contact between the various sections of their 
federations and continue their activities. The " Mizrachi " 
has been particularly active in America. The central office 
of the "Poale Zion" has been transferred to the Hague, 
though its main activities have been carried on in America. 
In close co-operation with the office of the Federation, the 
"Jewish Labour Correspondence Bureau " has issued bulletins 
giving information about Palestine, and the conditions of 
Jews in various countries, with special reference to labour 
questions and the needs of the Jewish wage-earner. 

This was the milieu in which the political work of the 
London Zionist centre found great sympathy and ready 
assistance. The circle grew constantly, new elements joined 

II.— G 


the older experienced ones : the worthy EHsha Levin- 
Epstein, who gave himself entirely to relief work and who 
for this purpose undertook the most difficult journeys during 
the course of the war, never lost sight of his leading idea, 
namely, Zionism. Mr. Nathan Straus, who but a few years 
ago took up the Palestine scheme, placed himself in the front 
rank of the promoters of Zionism ; Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, 
one of the most popular of American orators, who many 
years previously had attended the Zionist Congress as 
delegate and afterwards left the Movement, returned with 
renewed strength to labour in the work of propaganda and 
in the development of the organization with those well-tried 
fighters, Dr. Harry Friedenwald, Professor Israel Friedlaender, 
Miss Henrietta Szold, Professor Richard Gottheil, Mr. Jacob 
de Haas, Mr. Louis Lipsky, and many others. It was a great 
pleasure to welcome into the Zionist camp a galaxy of new 
forces of great influence, such for example as Judge Julian W. 
Mack and Professor Felix Frankfurter. In synagogues and 
workshops, in the universities and in the clubs of the 
Associations for Mutual Assistance — everywhere Jewish 
national life began to throb more strongly than ever. The 
sphere of Zionism seemed to grow day by day : the great 
expansion which the Zionist university movement of young 
men, the " Menorah," had shown, pointed to a great future 
national development. 

Every idea born in London was tested by the Zionist 
Organization in America, and every suggestion from 
America received the most careful attention in London. 
Many Zionist representatives came from America to London, 
and others visited America. The negotiations in political 
circles in England and France were known in America, 
every success was welcomed there with enthusiasm, and 
often, also, received further support. Every opportunity 
was there taken advantage of to hold discussions, not only 
with the representatives of the Government and the poHtical 
parties, but also with distinguished statesmen who were 
staying in America as visitors. The visit of Mr. Balfour, 
British Foreign Secretary, gave an opportunity to the pro- 
minent Canadian Zionist leader, Mr. Clarence de Sola, for a 
most encouraging conversation, in the course of which the 
noble intentions of the British Government were expressed. 
Similar interviews took place on various other occasions. 
The real work, of course, could only be carried on in London ; 
but it must be observed that the interest, the goodwill, 

Rt. Hon, Arthur J. Balfour, M.P. 

Olive Edis, F.R.P.S. 


and the helpful efforts on the part of the Zionist organiza- 
tions in the United States, Russia, Canada, and other 
countries, have been of considerable value. - 

In September, 1917, Dr. Tschlenow again came to 
London, attracted by the importance of the Zionist affairs 
which were in negotiation. After more than two years of 
absence, although in uninterrupted contact with London, 
the work was too advanced, and his health too poor to allow 
him to be so active as he was at the beginning. But he par- 
ticipated with his advice and influence, and he Hved to 
experience some great moments. 


November 2nd, 1917, marks the end of a chapter in 
Zionist history : it is Declaration Day. 

The following are the terms of the letter to Lord Roths- 
child in which Mr. A. J. Balfour, Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, declared the sympathy of the British 
Government with Zionist aspirations and its favourable 
attitude towards the establishment in Palestine of a national 
home for the Jewish people : — 

" Foreign Office, 

''November 2, 1917. 
" Dear Lord Rothschild, — I have much pleasure in con- 
veying to you on behalf of His Majesty's Government the 
following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist 
aspirations, which has been submitted to and approved by 
the Cabinet : 

" ' His Majesty's Government view with favour the estab- 
lishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish 
people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the 
achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that 
nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and 
religious rights of existing non- Jewish communities in 
Palestine or the rights and poUtical status enjoyed by Jews 
in any other country.' 

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to 
the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. 

" Yours sincerely, 
" [Signed) Arthur James Balfour." 

It was at once clear that a great moment in the history of 
the Jewish people had arrived through this Declaration. Our 


ancient home has agam arisen for civilization. For nineteen 
centuries it has been made a desert, for nineteen centuries 
the Jewish people deprived of their own land sought every- 
where a place where they could have freedom of the spirit 
and room for their work, and generation after generation 
prayed and dreamt of the return to Zion. Generation after 
generation drew from this source strength to live and to 
struggle. Now the dreams of our ancestors are becoming 
reality. The testament of Herzl was approaching fulfilment. 
The British Government has spoken in solemn terms to the 
Jews of the world. The time has arrived to create anew a 
Jewish homeland on the ashes of the past, to rebuild a 
national centre and to proceed to work in freedom in a free 
Jewish land. 

Mid storm and fire the people and the land seemed to be 
born again. The great events of the time of Zerubbabel (fl. 536 
b.c.e.) Ezra and Nehemiah repeated themselves. The Third 
Temple of Jewish freedom is rising before us. The first stones 
were laid long ago by our heroic pioneers in hard struggle 
against obstacles without number. They created the first 
nests of culture in Palestine. With their blood and work they 
have shown the world that the Jewish people has not only 
historical claims on the land of its ancestors, but also priority 
in actual fact in the work of its rebirth. These leader heroes, 
the fathers of political Zionism, bravely proclaimed to the 
whole world the right of the nation to a free life in the home- 
land, and organized productive work in Palestine. 

Great new horizons of free national constructive work are 
revealed before our eyes. The fate of the Jewish land 
depends not only on the powerful protection of Governments, 
but first and foremost on the steadfastness and capacity for 
sacrifice of the Jewish people itself. Zerubbabel' s call to the 
Jews of the Diaspora was heard once more — to return to the 
ancient land, to grasp the ploughshare and the hammer, 
and to forge their own destiny. 

The Press was without exception most sympathetic. 

" Epoch-making is perhaps not too strong a term to apply 
to Mr. Balfour's letter to Lord Rothschild. At any time a 
formal endorsement of Zionism by a Great Power would 
command attention if couched in such terms. But at the 
present moment, when Gaza and Beersheba have fallen to 
British armies and the distant thunder of our guns is heard 
in Jerusalem itself, the declaration has a significance that 
cannot be mistaken. 

//. irn//,f linrnctt and Co., Ld. 

Gen. Sir Edmund H. H. Allenby 


'* From the Jewish point of view such a restoration opens 
the door of wonderful possibihties ; the hopes that have 
never been lost during eighteen centuries of the dispersion 
will return within the region of fact and accompHshment. 
Scarcely less important should be the consequences for 
Europe. . . . The family of nations would be enriched by the 
return of one of its oldest and most gifted members to a 
regular and normal place within the circle." {Daily Chronicle, 
Nov. 9th.) 

" . . . In deciding to give the Zionists their chance, the 
British Government have done a bold thing and a wise 
thing ; and as an honestly inspired and intelUgent dis- 
interestedness is sounder policy than the most crafty selfish- 
ness, they have incidentally struck in this dark hour a very 
heavy blow for the cause for which the free peoples of the 
world are fighting. Considered merely as a gesture, what is 
there in the war to compare in effectiveness to this decision ? 
. . . The promise of the restoration of Palestine will count 
for more in the judgment of the world than all the desolation 
wrought by the German legions among the nations whom 
they have trodden under foot." [Daily News, Nov. loth.) 

** The restoration of Palestine to the Jews will fulfil the 
centuries old desire of that ancient people. Moreover, it 
will give them a home for the development of an individual 
culture, and will not affect other than beneficially the rights 
which they have won as citizens of the countries in which 
they have made their homes. Moreover, it will provide 
refuge for the persecuted, and a centre of Jewish life to 
which all the race will naturally turn. Then it will be well 
for the Allies' interests in the Mediterranean that so im- 
portant a place should become permanently neutrahzed and 
stand no risk of f alUng into the hands of the Powers which 
might make a mischievous use of it." [Pall Mall Gazette.) 

** Mr. Balfour's announcement on the subject cl Zionism, 
which forms an extraordinarily appropriate pendant to 
General Allenby's brilliant operations in Southern Palestine, 
marks the conclusion of a strenuous struggle behind the 
scenes between the International Jews, to whom this country 
is much more useful than they are to us, and the National 
Jews, who are among our most valuable compatriots. For 
once the right side has gained the day, and the Zionist 
aspirations of the Chosen People receive for the first time 
the formal endorsement of a British Government." [The 


" No more appropriate moment could have been seized 
by the British Government to declare itself in favour of the 
establishment in Palestine of a national home for the 
Jewish people than the present time, when our Twentieth 
Century Crusaders have just carried Gaza, the ancient 
PhiUstine stronghold, and are pressing on to the capture of 
the Holy City from the hands of the infidel. British interests 
have for long made it plain that some buffer state must 
arise between Egypt and a possibly hostile Turkish Govern- 
ment, and Zionism appears to provide the solution." (The 
Evening Standard.) 

" Nearly two thousand years after the Dispersion, Zionism 
has become a practical and integral part of aU schemes for 
a new world-order after the war. . . . There could not have 
been at this juncture a stroke of statesmanship more just 
or more wise. No one need to be told that it will send a 
mystical thrill through the hearts of the vast majority of 
Jews throughout the world. ... It is no idle dream which 
anticipates that by the close of another generation the new 
Zion may become a State, including, no doubt, only a pro- 
nounced minority of the entire Jewish race, yet numbering 
from a million to two milhon souls, forming a true national 
people, with its own distinctive, rural, and urban civiliza- 
tion, its own centres of learning and art, making a unique 
link between East and West. Jews who dwell elsewhere 
will none the less be animated by a new interest, sympathy, 
pride, and will be able to contribute powerful help. So 
much for that aspect. We need hardly point out that for 
all the higher purposes of the AUies the importance of 
Mr. Balfour's declaration is immediate and great. From the 
United States to Russia, new enthusiasm for the general 
cause of hberty, restoration, and lasting peace secured by 
many new international links, moral and practical, will be 
kindled amongst the extraordinary race, whose influence 
everywhere is out of all proportion to its numbers." (The 

" . . .A large and thriving Jewish settlement in the Holy 
Land, under the supervision of Great Britain, our Allies, 
and America, would make for peace and progress in the 
Near East, and would thus accord with British policy. It 
is not to be supposed that Palestine could ever support more 
than a small proportion of the Jewish race. There are 
probably more than twelve milHon Jews in the world, of 
whom far more than half live in Russia and Austria. Genera- 


tions may pass before Palestine is capable of maintaining 
with comfort a million Jewish inhabitants, though it is, as 
Mr. Albert Hyamson says in his very able new book,^ a * land 
laid waste ' and not by any means a rallying point for Jews 
all over the world, and it would confer a benefit also on 
the Christian and the Moslem worlds, which are equally 
interested in the Holy Land and its undying religious 
memories/' {The Spectator.) 

" Mr. Balfour's declaration translates into a binding 
statement of policy the general wish of British opinion. It 
emphatically favours * the establishment in Palestine of a 
national home for the Jewish people.' If we were to analyse 
this sentiment we should find at its core the simple and 
humane instinct of reparation. Our own record towards 
the Jewish race is, from Cromwell's day downwards, one of 
relative enlightenment ; but it is on the conscience of all 
Christendom that the burden falls of secular persecution 
which this enduring race has suffered. One of our soHdest 
reasons for welcoming the Russian Revolution was that it 
had freed the whole Alliance from complicity in the sins of 
one of its chief partners towards the Jews. To end this 
record by restoring the dispersed and downtrodden race to 
its own cradle is a war aim which lifts the struggle in this 
region above the sordid level of Imperial competition." [The 

" The British Government's declaration in favour of 
Zionism is one of the best pieces of statesmanship that we 
can show in these latter days. Early in the war The New 
Statesman pubUshed an article giving the main reasons why 
such a step should be taken, and nothing has occurred to 
change them. The special interest of the British Empire 
in Palestine is due to the proximity of the Suez Canal. The 
present has killed the idea that this vital artery ought to be 
used as a line of defence for Egypt, and there is a general 
return to the view of Napoleon (and indeed history long 
before his time) that Egypt must be defended in Palestine. 
To make Palestine once more prosperous and populous, with 
a population attached to the British Empire, there is only 
one hopeful way, and that is to effect a Zionist restoration 
under British auspices. On the other side of the account it 
is hard to conceive how anybody with the true instinct for 
nationality and the desire to see small nations emancipated 

' "Palestine: The Rebirth of an Ancient People." By Albert M. 
Hyamson. London, 191 7. 


can fail to be wanned by the prospect of emancipating this 
most ancient of oppressed nationalities." (The New Statesman.) 

" The forty-six Jewish colonies, with their co-operative 
societies, their agricultural schools, and their experimental 
station for agriculture, seem to have prospered before the 
war. Their wine and oranges were one-fourth of the total 
export trade of Jaffa, and while the war has set back their 
development the Turks are likely to have been less destruc- 
tive than the Germans in France. Their labour — one of the 
chief difficulties foreseen by critics of Zionism — is partly 
Arab, but largely supplied by Jews from Russia, Roumania, 
and the Yemen. With sufficient capital — aheady furnished 
in part by Zionist organizations — the removal of the blight 
of Turkish rule, and the coming shortage of all food products, 
the economic future of a Jewish Palestine should be bright." 
(The Economist.) 

" The movement towards Palestine will be slow, and none 
of those who have sanctioned the great experiment may 
hope to live to judge it by the fruits ; but it is satisfactory 
to remember that the British Government's decision meets 
with th*" approbation of many Great Powers. President 
Wilson views the Zionist programme with the keenest 
sympathy, and has appointed a Jewish Commission to study 
in Palestine the question of a Jewish State. The Russian 
Revolutionary Government has declared its wilHngness to 
support the Jewish claim to Palestine, and even permitted 
a Zionist Conference to be held in Petrograd. Those who 
should be well informed say that the Pope is not opposing 
the Zionist ideal, and that the French Government favours 
it ; one and all seem to be agreed that when this war is over 
the horrors of the Jewish situation as it affects the vast 
majority of the race must come to an end. The persecution 
and repression practised in Russia and Roumania down to 
little more than a year ago cannot go on in a world made fit 
for all to Hve in. . . . What will be the spiritual effect of this 
return to Palestine upon the pious Jew, who for two thousand 
years has said, // / forget thee, Jerusalem, may my right 
hand forget its cunning ; upon the other class of Jew who 
will recover his Judaism when it has a centre, a point of 
focus ; and upon the non- Jew i o whom the return to Pales- 
tine is the fulfilment of prophecy and the foreshadowing of 
the Millennium ? " (The Graphic.) 

*' We speak of Palestine as a country, but it is not a 
country. . . . But it will be a country ; it will be the country 


of the jews. That is the meaning of the letter which we 
publish to-day written by Mr. Balfour to Lord Rothschild 
for communication to the Zionist Federation. It is at once 
the fulfilment of an aspiration, the signpost of a destiny. 
Never since the days of the Dispersion has the extraordinary 
people scattered over the earth in every country of modern 
European and of the old Arabic civilization surrendered 
the hope of an ultimate return to the historic seat of its 
national existence. This has formed part of its ideal life, 
and is the ever-recurring note of its religious ritual. . . . 
For fifty years the Jews have been slowly and painfully re- 
turning to their ancestral home, and even under the Ottoman 
yoke and amid the disorder of that effete and crumbling 
dominion they have succeeded in establishing the beginnings 
of a real civilization. Scattered and few, they have still 
brought with them schools and industry and scientific know- 
ledge, and here and there have in truth made the waste 
places blossom as the rose. . . . The British victories in 
Palestine and in the more distant eastern bounds of the 
ancient Arab Empire are the presage of the downfall of 
Turkish power ; the declaration of policy by the British 
Government to-day is the security for a new, perhaps a very 
wonderful, future for Zionism and for the Jewish race. . . . 
In declaring that ' the British Government view with favour 
the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the 
Jewish people, and will use its best endeavours to facilitate 
the achievement of this object,' the Government have indeed 
laid down a policy of great and far-reaching importance, 
but it is one which can bear its full fruit only by the united 
efforts of Jews all over the world. What it means is that, 
assuming our military successes to be continued and the 
whole of Palestine to be brought securely under our control, 
then on the conclusion of peace our deliberate policy will be 
to encourage in every way in our power Jewish immigration, 
to give full security, and no doubt a large measure of local 
autonomy, to the Jewish immigrants, with a view to the 
ultimate establishment of a Jewish State. *' (Manchester 

The Manchester Daily Dispatch published a sympathetic 
interview with Sir Stuart Samuel, Bart., on the subject of 
the pronouncement of the Government. 

Both The Liverpool Courier and The Liverpool Daily Post 
and Mercury devoted leading articles to the subject on the 
9th of November. The former said : — 


" Mr. Balfour's letter stating the attitude of the British 
Government towards the establishment of a National Home 
for the Jews in Palestine may well be regarded as one of the 
most historic documents in the 5678 years of Jewish history. 
Its terms are eminently well considered, and the re-estabhsh- 
ment of the Jewish National Home is to be accomplished on 
lines which are reasonable and just. Indeed, we note with 
satisfaction that the points to which we have already made 
reference in our consistent advocacy of the claims of Zionism 
(which has been thrust to the fore by world-shaking events 
of the past year or two) have been covered by the terms of 
the Government declaration. . . . Zionism has made a great 
step forward, and the world has now reason to look forward 
to the rise of an old-new nation in its natural home, where 
some of its ancient greatness may be revived in a national 

The views of The Post took the following form : — 

" The important official letter from Mr. Balfour, as 
Foreign Secretary, to Lord Rothschild, as representing the 
Jews, more than justifies the suggestion we lately made in a 
leading article that our Government might be expected to 
encourage the Jewish national aspiration for a home in 
Palestine. We further said at that time that a * Palestine 
re-peopled by a Jewry bound to the Allies, and not least to 
Britain, by ties of affection for righting the oldest national 
wrong, would be a friendly neighbour to Egypt and to the 
newly enfranchised territories abutting upon the Holy 
Land.' " 

The Edinburgh Evening Dispatch expressed the following 
views : — 

" The aspirations of the Jewish race to return to the Holy 
Land seem not unlikely of fulfilment. Scattered over the 
face of the earth, they daily turn their eyes towards Jeru- 
salem and pray for the day when they will be restored to the 
land of their origin. We are fighting to-day not for aggran- 
dizement, not for the acquisition of territory, but for the liber- 
ation of peoples crushed by the tyrant, and there is no just 
and reasonable demand which would not be sympathetically 
considered by the British Government. Our progress in 
Palestine has awakened in the breasts of the ' chosen people ' 
fresh hopes of re-establishment in their Fatherland." 

The Glasgow Herald, writing in a similar vein, said : — 

*' From their aeroplanes British aviators may have ob- 


tained a glimpse of the white domes and towers of the Holy 
City, high upon the crest of the Palestinian ridge. That 
possibility is symbolic of the effect upon the Jewish world 
of the British Cabinet's declaration in favour of Zionism. 
What has long been the dream of virtually the whole Jewish 
race — even of those whose inward despair expressed itself 
outwardly by a cynical dismissal of Zionism as the mirage of 
over-heated fancy — ^has now taken definite shape on the 
horizon of practical poUtics." 

In the further article in the same issue the Government 
adoption of the Zionist policy was further commented 
upon : — 

" With singular timehness, for it coincides with the 
victories of Gaza and Tekrit, Mr. Balfour has written a letter 
to Lord Rothschild announcing the adhesion of the British 
Government to Zionism. With the reservation of the civil 
and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in 
Palestine, and without prejudice to the rights and political 
status enjoyed by Jews in any other country, Palestine, 
when it has been conquered, is to become a national home 
for the Jewish people. With numerically small exceptions 
this decision — on which we comment more fully elsewhere — 
will be accepted with joy by all the Jews of the Dispersion 
throughout the world. It will have an immediate political 
efl[ect in America and in Russia, no less than in Poland and 
Hungary. It will tell to the advantage of the Allies even in 
Bagdad. In the Levant generally it should unite the Jews 
with the Arabs, Greeks, and ItaHans in revolt against the 
Turks. But its great ultimate influence, as all will pray, will 
be to affect for the b^cter in many subtle ways the relations 
of Christian and Jew throughout the world. If that should 
happen one of the most insidious diseases from which 
civilization has suffered will have been cured." 

According to The Aberdeen Free Press : — 

" This is the first time that any Government has definitely 
put itself in touch with Zionist ideals, and the new departure 
is as important as it is timely." 

**. . . In many ways the moment appears to be a pe- 
culiarly favourable one for preparing to launch the scheme 
for providing * a national home for the Jewish people in 
Palestine ' in the sphere of the practical. The Zionist idea 
has passed through many changes, and may pass through 
many more. . . . Never until now have time and place and 


opportunity been in accord with the dream of returning and 
building up Zion. Mr. Balfour's letter, read in the hght of 
General AUenby's march upon Hebron, may well sound hke 
the long-postponed answer to the prayer of the exiled and 
persecuted race, ' Next year, Lord, in Jerusalem I ' " 

The Dundee Advertiser also put itself in Hne with its con- 
temporaries which commented on the Government's pro- 
nouncement : — 

** Palestine wiU, therefore, be a suitable field for im- 
migration, and by tradition and inclination the Jews are the 
people to occupy it. Already before the war a number of 
colony settlements had been estabHshed, chiefly by Jewish 
immigrants from Eastern Europe, and without exception 
these settlements were thriving. One and all they were 
agricultural, and contradicted the prevaihng belief that the 
Jew is bound to become a trader or an artisan, and will never 
undertake the tillage of the soil. The Jewish colonies were 
models of up-to-date agricultural enterprise, in which the 
best scientific knowledge of irrigation and dry-farming was 
appHed. A very pleasing prospect is therefore opening up. 
.... In the fulness of time a new page in the history of the 
Holy Land is being opened by AUenby's army." 

The Irish Times expressed its views in the following 
passage : — 

" These fortunate circumstances invest with especial 
significance the important declaration of British policy in 
Palestine which we printed yesterday. ... In this endorse- 
ment of Zionist aspirations at a moment when Jerusalem 
can hear the distant thunder of British guns the Government 
has declared a policy of great and far-reaching importance. 
It is at last an attainable pohcy, and it is from every Doint 
of view a desirable policy. From the British point of view 
the defence of the Suez Canal can best be secured by the 
estabhshment in Palestine of a people attached to us, and 
the restoration of the Jews under British auspices can alone 
secure it in this way. From the European point of view it 
would be a great gain that the Jews should become, in the 
words of The Jewish Chronicle, * a nation, and not a hyphen- 
ation.' " 

A leading article in The Western Daily Press ran in part 
as follows : — 


". . . There is no other solution so much demanded by 
historical association and living sentiment as that, if it be 
possible, the Jewish people should retake possession of the 
small but intensely interesting country over which they 
ruled, with some interruptions, for nearly two thousand 
years. Mr. Balfour's declaration has dehghted many in- 
fluential British Jews. It can hardly fail to delight equally 
the Jews of Poland and Russia, who have suffered so much 
from the ' religious ' bigotry of ignorant people, and the 
Jews of Germany and Austria, often very wealthy and in- 
fluential, will be forced to ask themselves why they are at 
present helping to preserve Turkish rule over a country 
which the British are anxious to restore to the Jewish 

The Hull Daily Mail said : — 

"It is a wise and sagacious offer, and has given great 
satisfaction in Jewish communities. It will be a great thing 
if Palestine is delivered from the blighting, blasting influence 
of the Turk, and he must never again be given possession if 
it is finally won from his grasp. The Jews were a pastoral 
people, and, once they were in possession, this land, under 
the blessing of Providence, would again flow * with milk 
and honey,' and blossom as the rose under the protecting 
hand of Britain and other guaranteeing Powers." 

And The Newcastle Daily Journal : — 

*' The Zionist project has, at last, the prospect of achieving 
its purpose, under the very highest auspices, humanly speak- 
ing. It looks like a first step towards the restoration repre- 
sentatively of the long-persecuted and widely-scattered 
Jewish race." 

Other provincial newspapers that commented on the 
Government's announcement were The Dublin Express, 
The Northern Whig, The Belfast Newsletter, The Bulletin, 
The South Wales Daily News, and The Northern Daily 

The African World also welcomed the proposals whole- 
heartedly : — 

" The announcement yesterday that the British Govern- 
ment * view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a 
national home for the Jewish people ' and the Cabinet's 
intention to further the scheme cherished by Zionists is an 
event of world-wide importance. A home for Jews on the 


soil traditionally sacred to them, and under British auspices 
and protection, is the happiest outcome of the dream of 

The Shipping World said : — 

" For a number of decades there has been a movement, 
partly idealistic, partly practical, for restoring the Jewish 
race to their ancient territorial home. That movement is 
known as Zionism, and is strongly supported in the Jewish 
communities both in Europe and in America. Assisted by 
funds subscribed by the wealthier members of the race, 
some settlers had already formed under Turkish rule Zionist 
settlements in the Holy Land. But colonization under 
Turkish tolerance is a precarious thing. Now appears the 
dawn of promise, and Mr. Balfour has just addressed a letter 
to Lord Rothschild expressing the sympathy of the Cabinet 
with Jewish Zionist aspirations. The Government favour 
the estabhshment in Palestine of a national home for the 
Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facih- 
tate the achievement of that object. What form the en- 
deavour is to take is, at this point, left obscure, purposely, 
no doubt. But we may in this hint perhaps see the nucleus 
of a free State where the children of Israel, gathered once 
more from the ends of the earth, shall again possess the land 
of their ancestors and live free from alien oppression." 

The Near East devoted its leading article to " The Land of 
Promise " : — 

" On the other hand, Palestine is for all true Jews a 
spiritual centre, and deep down in their being they associate 
with it, if not their own individual place of residence, at 
least the home of a sufficient number of Jewish people to 
make it the focus of Jewish hfe and Jewish civilization. 
Such a Jewish commonwealth can only grow up to fulfil its 
destiny under the protection of a strong and ordered State, 
which will guarantee it immunity from outside interference, 
security of life and property, and the impartial administra- 
tion of justice. For its own material development it must 
look to itself, and in this connection it will be recalled that 
Jewish agricultural and urban settlements already exist in 
Palestine, and are a nucleus ready to hand for the new 
commonwealth. They point to the probable lines on which 
the development of the country will take place, expedited 
or retarded, according to the degree of assistance on which 
Zionism can count. The valley is full of bones, and, lo ! 


they are very dry ; many stages have to be passed through 
before these dry bones stand upon their feet, an exceeding 
great army. Of Palestine it will then be true that ' This 
land that was desolate is become like the Garden of Eden, 
and the waste and desolate and ruined cities are become 
fenced and are inhabited.' Towards that consummation it 
would seem that Great Britain in the dispensation of Provi- 
dence will have played no small part." 

Palestine, the organ of the British Palestine Committee, 
was, not surprisingly, filled with enthusiasm and eloquence, 
for the Government pronouncement is the culmination of 
all its efforts : — 

" The decision of the British Government marks a turning- 
point in the history of the Jewish people, and will, we be- 
' lieve, be for ever memorable in the history of the British 
Empire. . . . The declaration is complete in form and 
substance. It can provoke no opposition from any quarter, 
and it will bind the Jews of the world in sympathy to the 
country which has thus taken the lead in their national 
redemption. . . . And when the Declaration becomes an 
act, when a Jewish Palestine from being an aim becomes a 
fact, then all the complex of strategic, political, and com- 
mercial interests which are concentrated for the British 
Empire in the Suez Canal and Palestine will have found their 
solution. This declaration is a memorable event in the 
history of the British Empire as it is in the history of 
the Jewish people and of humanity. We may be of good 
hope that it will at no very distant date become a fact, 
for the army of England has even now battered in the 
gates of Palestine. The statesmanship of this declaration of 
the Jewish nation's right to Palestine is a statesmanship of 
deed, not of words." 

The Church, Catholic, and Nonconformist papers have 
devoted much space to the Government decision. In the 
opinion of The Challenge : — 

" If there is a considerable part of the Jewish people eager 
to make Palestine again their home, then we are glad that 
the Allied Governments should have made it possible for 
them to do so, supposing that the course of the war leaves 
that possibiUty still open. It must be for the Jewish people 
themselves to decide how much or how httle advantage 
they will take of the offer which is made to them. Mean- 
while no one can avoid feeling a thrill at a prospect so closely 


affecting the destiny of the chosen race. That wonderful 
people pursues its way through all the history of the world, 
and whatever concerns them is of universal interest." 

According to The Christian : — 

" By this dramatic declaration an age-long dream comes 
within the view of actual fulfilment. It ought to be apparent 
to everybody that the persistence of a people like the Jews 
during two thousand years — a fact unparalleled in history — 
despite every attempt to crush them, holds a meaning far 
deeper than that which the secular historian offers. The 
purposes of God are being worked out, and we can begin to 
see light." 

In The Church Family Newspaper the Rev. E. L. Langston, 
under the heading " Jews and Palestine : Epoch-making 
Announcement," said : — 

" The declaration of His Majesty's Government as to 
the future of Palestine must have far-reaching and vital 
effects. ..." 

In the words of The Catholic Times : — 

" The settling down of Jews from Great Britain, America, 
and the Continent of Europe in the Holy Land is something 
like a romance of a war in the main features of which scarcely 
any romantic element has, so far, appeared." 

The Christian Commonwealth said : — 

" The historical interest and the rehgious importance of 
this promise will appeal nearly as much to non-Jewish people 
as to the Jews themselves. . . . We may yet Uve to see 
Palestine become the centre of trade and travel for the three 
continents of the Old World. The early colonization move- 
ment has crystalHzed into something more dramatic — the 
re-establishment of a whole people on the soil of the land 
where their national history began. Their long exile is draw- 
ing to an end. From this redeemed and rejuvenated people 
what new message may we not expect, seeing that their faith 
has so manifestly been justified and the vision of their 
prophets realized ! " 

" We are quite unable to find words," said The Life of 
Faith, '' wherewith to express the wonderful importance of 
the above declaration made by His Majesty's Government. 
... It is not too much to say that this great declaration 
contains the making of history, even as it forms a new epoch 


for the Jewish race. . . . We welcome the declaration all 
the more because we, too, have an inborn love for the Holy 
Land, and because we can so deeply sympathize with the 
Jewish people, whose passionate affection for the land of 
their fathers has never been torn from their hearts, in spite 
of centuries of persecution and wanderings. There is, after 
ail, some little excuse for the sentimental yearnings of 
the Rabbis who expressed their heartfelt passion in such 
sayings as : 

" ' The very air of Palestine makes one wise.'^ 
'"To live in Palestine is equal to the observance of all the 
commandments. ' ^ 

" * He that hath his permanent abode in Palestine is sure 
of the Hfe to come.' "^ 

The Methodist Times said : — 

" Naturally this declaration, which will be celebrated in 
history, has given the liveliest satisfaction to Jewry through- 
out the world. The pledge is as sagacious as it is opportune." 
And prints in addition a long article by Mr. C. W. Andrews, 
entitled : " Palestine for the Jews : the Triumph of Zionism." 

And in the words of The Sunday School Chronicle : — 
" For two thousand years the Jews have been wandering 
among the nations. It looks as though a new day were dawn- 
ing for them and for the world. . . . Apart from the moral 
significance of such a return, an independent Jewish State 
would make the Holy Land a centre of commercial and 
political influence of far-reaching importance to the British 
Empire and to the Far East." 

The British Weekly, The Church Times, The Christian 
World, The Inquirer, and The Guardian also commented 
editorially on the Government's pronouncement. 
The Jewish Chronicle, in a leading article, said : — 
". . . It is the perceptible lifting of the cloud of centuries, 
the palpable sign that the Jew — condemned for two thousand 
years to unparalleled wrong — is at last coming to his right. 

\i'V n:p'T «-inn t^nn 
: miratz? ny^i^n b^ liiiD Th^^w bbnt»'^ \n« nn>tt7'> ...(*) 

]3tt7 ntaniD «n'» . . . bs-i2;'> \nsa ^^'zpw ^d b^ . . . " (^ 

'' : sin «nn Dbi3?n 

II. — H 


The prospect has at last definitely opened of a rectification 
of the Jew's anomalous position among the nations of the 
earth. He is to be given the opportunity and the means 
whereby, in place of being a hyphenation, he can become a 
nation. Instead of, as Jew, filling a place at best equivocal 
and doubtful, even to himself, and always with an apologetic 
cringing inseparable from his position, he can — as Jew — 
stand proud and erect, endowed with national being. In 
place of being a wanderer in every clime, there is to be a 
home for him in his ancient land. The day of his exile is to 
be ended. In this joyous hour we Enghsh Jews turn with 
feeUngs of deepest pride and reverence to great and glorious 
Britain, mother of free nations and protectress of the 
oppressed, who has thus taken the lead in the Jewish restor- 
ation. The friend of our people for generations, who has 
raised her voice times out of number for our suffering 
mart3n:s, never was she truer to her noble traditions than to- 
day — never more England than now ! In the time to come, 
when Jewry, free and prosperous, lives a contented and, as 
we aU hope, a lofty life in Palestine, it will look with never- 
f aiUng gratitude to the Power which crowned its centuries 
of humanitarrianism by a grand act that Hnked Jewish 
destinies with those of the freest democracy in the world.'' 

The Jewish people all over the world was deeply impressed 
by the Declaration. As the correspondent of the London 
Jewish Chronicle puts it, '' The Jewish masses were literally 
dazzled." A great demonstration, unparalleled for en- 
thusiasm, occurred at Petrograd, and was addressed by 
M. Boris Goldberg and M. Aleinikoff, who styled England the 
" advanced guard of humanity." He spoke in the highest 
praise of the English Labour Party for its sympathetic 
attitude toward the movement, and of the American 
Zionists for their defence of the Jewish colonies in Palestine 
since the outbreak of the war. Tributes were paid to the 
memory of Dr. Theodor Herzl and other leaders of the 
Movement who have passed away, of the British soldiers 
killed in the Campaign in Palestine, and to the Hashomerim 
who have died in defence of the Jewish colonies. Two 
soldiers, Levitzky and Kotlarevsky, greeted the Declaration 
on behalf of the Jewish Soldiers' Union. 

Tremendous enthusiasm prevailed throughout Russian 
Jewry because of the British Declaration ; and reports 
received from Moscow, Minsk, Ekaterinoslav, Kieff, Khar- 
koff, Odessa and Kherson are to the effect that tens of 


thousands of Jews who had hitherto been either neutral or 
inimical, joined the Zionist Movement. Special ser- 
vices of thanksgiving were held in many synagogues 
and many mass meetings, vieing with one another in en- 
thusiasm, v>ere held almost everywhere. Many organ- 
izations of Jewish youth signified their intention to make 
whatever sacrifices might be demanded of them for the 
Zionist ideal. The Russian Press, with practical unanimity, 
spoke of the great importance of the Declaration, and 
described it as a momentous event for the Jews, offering the 
longed-for opportunity to build a national Jewish homeland 
in Palestine. 

The enthusiasm in America found expression in thousands 
of telegramxS, public meetings, resolutions, thanksgiving 
services. At the Baltimore Zionist Conference on December 
15th a resolution was passed thanking the British Govern- 
ment for the Declaration, which stated, " Deeply we rejoice 
in the triumph of the British arms in Palestine, and the tak- 
ing over of Palestine as another step in the march of the 
Allied Forces which is to establish throughout the world the 
principle of the liberty of smaller nationalities." In all 
other countries the Declaration was discussed by public 
opinion in a most favourable sense. 

On November 18, 1917, a reception was held by the 
English Zionist Federation at which Lord Rothschild officially 
communicated to the Federation the Declaration of the 
English government. Hundreds of congratulatory tele- 
grams received from all parts of the world aroused 
enthusiasm. Lord Rothschild, Dr. Tschlenow, Dr. Weiz- 
mann, Mr. James de Rothschild, and the author delivered 
addresses in commemoration of this historic event in the 
life of the Jewish people. 


Some account must be given of the Demonstration 
at the London Opera House of the 2nd December held in 
order to express gratitude to the British Government. This 
great demonstration was attended by thousands of persons. 
The resolution read by Lord Rothschild, who presided over 
the meeting, expressed gratitude from all sections of Anglo- 
Jewry for the Government declaration in favour of estab- 
lishing in Palestine a national home for the Jewish people. 
Every member of the audience seemed to feel the greatness 
of the occasion. 


Lord Rothschild said they were met on the most 
momentous occasion in the history of Judaism for the last 
eighteen hundred years. They were there to return thanks 
to His Majesty's Government for a declaration which marked 
an epoch in Jewish history of outstanding importance. For 
the first time since the Dispersion the Jewish people had 
received its proper status by the Declaration of one of the 
great Powers. That Declaration, while acknowledging and 
approving of the aspirations of the Jewish people for a 
National Home, at the same time placed Jews on their 
honour to respect the rights and privileges not only of their 
prospective non- Jewish neighbours in Palestine, but also of 
those of their own people who did not see eye to eye with the 
Zionist cause. FeeUng as he did that the aims of Zionism 
were in no way incompatible with the highest patriotism 
and loyal citizenship of the Jews in the various countries in 
which they were dwelling, he would like the meeting in pass- 
ing the resolution which would be submitted to them to 
assure the Government that they would, one and all, 
faithfully observe both the spirit and the letter of their 
gracious declaration. He felt sure that the principal aim 
of the Zionists was to provide a National Home for those 
portions of the Jewish people who wished to escape the 
possibilities in the future of such oppression and ill-treatment 
as they had endured in the past, and he therefore held that 
all and every section of opinion in the Jewish people could 
work together for the estabhshment in Palestine of such a 
home, so as to make it a triumphant success. 

It had often been said that the repeopling of Palestine 
by the Jews was bound to fail in so far as they were not an 
agricultural people, but they might dismiss that fear from 
their minds in view of the success of the great Jewish 
agricultural colonies which were estabhshed in Palestine 
before the war. The only thing necessary to achieve 
success in the movement was a thoroughly up-to-date 
organization for the development of the land, and for the 
guidance and selection of the settlers, who must act as 
pioneers. The aims of what now appeared to be antagonistic 
bodies of opinion, seemed to him to be so similar that he felt 
sure that when those objects had been properly examined 
in the light of experience they would find, sooner or later, 
that a common ground would present itself for all of those 
professing these apparently divergent opinions to work to- 
gether in a common effort to make the re-settlement of 


Palestine a great and lasting success. Lord Rothschild 
then moved the following resolution : — 

"That this mass meeting, representing all sections of 
the Jewish Community in the United Kingdom, conveys 
to His Majesty's Government an expression of heartfelt 
gratitude for their Declaration in favour of the estabHsh- 
ment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. 
It assures His Majesty's Government that their historic 
action in support of the national aspirations of the Jewish 
people has evoked among Jews the most profound senti- 
ments of joy. This meeting further pledges its utmost 
endeavours to give its whole-hearted support to the 
Zionist cause." 

The Right Hon. Lord Robert Cecil, p.c, k.c, m.p., who was 
received with loud cheering, said : "I have come here with the 
greatest possible pleasure at the request of those who repre- 
sent, or who have led the representation of the Zionist move- 
ment of this country, to offer to you, and to all Zionism, my 
hearty congratulation on the event which you are celebrat- 
ing to-day. And perhaps you will allow me to mention 
in connection with these congratulations, not only your 
Chairman, but also Mr. Nahum Sokolow and Dr. C. Weiz- 
mann, who have done so much for the cause that we all have 
at heart this afternoon. Surely all of us must feel what a 
very striking gathering the present one is. The key- 
note of our meeting this afternoon is liberation. We 
welcome among us not only the many thousands of Jews 
that I see, but also representatives of the Arabian and 
Armenian races who are also in this great struggle strugghng 
to be free. Our wish is that Arabian countries shall 
be for the Arabs, Armenia for the Armenians, and 
Judea for the Jews. Yes, and let us add, if it can 
be so, let Turkey, real Turkey, be for the Turks. I 
should Hke to be allowed to say that the part that this 
country is taking in this movement is not a new thing. 
I venture to claim for this country that in supporting 
Zionism it has been merely carrying out its traditional 
pohcy. To me, at any rate, it seems that there are 
two great foundations upon which the pohcy of this country 
has always been based. I believe that they are often 
described by the two words * Liberty and Justice.' Perhaps, 
more accurately they may be called the supremacy of the 
Law and Liberty, for, be well assured, if we are ever to 



obtain that security which we have been recently told is so 
important for us, if we are ever to lift European civilization 
and national relations in Europe out of the anarchy in which 
they at present are, it must be by the same means by which 
we have secured liberty and happiness in each country, 
namely, by the supremacy of Law. And it was because the 
invasion of Belgium, the lawless invasion of Belgium, was 
felt by the true instincts of the British people to be an 
attack upon the principle of Law, because they recognized 
that that was a real blow at the heart of civilization, that 
they felt then, and they feel now, that until that outrage 
has been expiated it is impossible even to think of talk- 
ing of the terms of peace. As for the second foundation 
of which I have spoken, and which has more practical 
bearing on our proceedings this afternoon, may I say this, 
we hear a great deal of a new word : ' self-determination.' 
Well, I don't know that it is a new thing. It certainly is not 
new in the British Empire. The Empire has always striven 
to give to all the peoples that make it up the fullest 
measure of self-government of which they are capable. 
We have always striven to give to all peoples within 
our bounds complete Hberty and equality before the 
Law. We are adjured to respect the principle of 
self-determination, but I say that the British Empire was 
the first organization to teach that principle to the world, 
and one of the great causes for which we are in this war is to 
secure to all peoples the right to govern themselves and to 
work out their own destiny, irrespective of the threats 
and menaces of their greater neighbour. One of the 
great steps — in my judgment, in some ways the greatest 
step — we have taken in carrying out this principle is the 
recognition of Zionism. This is the first constructive effort 
that we have made in what I hope will be the new settle- 
ment of the world after the war. I do not say that that 
is the only thing involved. It is not only the recognition of 
a nationality, it is much more than that. It has great under- 
lying ideals of which you will hear this afternoon, and of 
which it would be impertinent of me to speak. It is, indeed, 
not the birth of a nation, for the Jewish nation through 
centuries of oppression and captivity have preserved their 
sentiment of nationality as few peoples could ; but if 
it is not the birth of agnation, I believe we may say it 
is the re-birth of a nation. I don't like to prophesy 
what ultimate results that great event may have, but for 


myself I believe it will have a far-reaching influence on the 
history of the world and consequences which none can fore- 
see on the future history of the human race." 

The Right Hon. Herbert Samuel, M.P., who received an en- 
thusiastic welcome, said : "I rejoice whole-heartedly in the 
pronouncement that has been made by the British Govern- 
ment with respect to Palestine. It is a policy which for nearly 
three years I have urged in the Cabinet and out of the Cabinet 
at every opportunity that arose. The fears and the 
doubts which this policy has evoked are, I firmly believe, 
unfounded. Three conditions must indeed be observed in 
any new development that may take place in Palestine. In 
the first place, there must be full, just recognition of the 
rights of the Arabs, who now constitute the majority of the 
population of that country. Secondly, there must be a 
reverent respect for the Christian and Mohammedan holy 
places, which in all eventuahties should always remain in 
the control and charge of representatives of those faiths. 
In the third place, there must be no attempt now or in 
the future to estabhsh anything in the nature of pohtical 
authority from Palestine over the Jews scattered in other 
countries of the world, who must probably always remain 
the great majority of the Jewish race. There should be no 
disturbance, large or small, direct or indirect, in their 
national status or in their national rights and duties in the 
countries of which they are, or should be, full and equal 
citizens. On all these matters there is no divergence of 
opinion in any quarter, and the controversies that have 
taken place, I venture to think, are disputes over differences 
that do not exist. The reason why, for my own part, I sup- 
port the poHcy which we are here to-day to approve and 
celebrate, are chiefly these. First, it may be that the genius 
of the Jewish race will again be able to give the world a 
brilliant and distinctive civilization. The richness of man- 
kind hes in its diversity. We do not want the world 
to be Hke some great library, consisting of nothing but in- 
numerable copies of one and the same book. The Jewish 
mind is a distinctive thing. It combines in remarkable 
degree the imaginative and the practical, the ideal and the 
positive. This combination of qualities enabled it for one 
thousand five hundred years in Palestine to produce an 
almost unbroken series of statesmen and soldiers, judges and 
poets, prophets and seers — thinkers and leaders who have 
left for all time their impress upon the world. The Jewish 


mind is tenacious and persists, and now, when all the power- 
ful Empires that over-ran that land have been overthrown 
and almost forgotten, the Jewish people exists and is more 
numerous to-day than it ever has been at any period of its 
history. Who knows, I say, but that if it again finds a 
spiritual centre of its own, soundly based on an industrious 
population, untrammelled, self-contained, inspired by the 
memories of a splendid past, it may again produce goMen 
fruits in the fields of intellect for the enrichment of the 
whole world. And my other reason is this : If this 
comes to be, what a helpful effect it would have upon 
the Jewish proletariat that will still remain scattered in 
other countries of the world. I see in my mind's eye those 
millions in Eastern Europe all through the centuries, 
crowded, cramped, proscribed, bent with oppression, suffer- 
ing all the miseries of active minds denied scope, of talent 
not allowed to speak, of genius that cannot act. I see them 
enduring, suffering everything, sacrificing everything in 
order to keep alight the flame of which they knew them- 
selves to be the lamp, to keep alive the idea of which they 
knew themselves to be the vessel, to preserve the soul 
of which they knew themselves to be the body ; their eyes 
always set upon one distant point, always believing that 
somehow, some day, the ancient greatness would be restored ; 
always sajdng when they met in their famihes on Passover 
Night, " Next year in Jerusalem." Year after year, genera- 
tion following generation, century succeeding century, till 
the time that has elapsed is counted in thousands of years, 
still they said, " Next year in Jerusalem." If that cherished 
vision is at last to be reaUzed, if on the Hills of Zion a Jewish 
civilization is restored with something of its old intellectual 
and moral force, then among those left in the other countries 
of the world, I can see growing a new confidence and a new 
greatness. There will be a fresh light in those eyes, those 
bent backs will at last stand erect, there will be a 
greater dignity in the Jew throughout the world. That 
is why we meet to-day to thank the British Government 
— our own Government — that has made all this pos- 
sible, that we shall be able to say, not as a pious and 
distant wish, but as a near and confident hope : 
" thmi'^i nxnn n^^h-" " Next year in Jerusalem ! " 
The Chief Rabbi said it was indeed a rare privilege to 
take part in that wonderful meeting called together to 
express the heartfelt thanks of British Jewry for the striking 


sympathy of His Majesty's Government with Jewish aspira- 
tions. The epoch-making Declaration on Palestine was an 
assurance given by the mightiest of empires that the new 
order which the Allies are now creating at such sacrifice of 
life and treasure shall be rooted in righteousness, and broad- 
based on the liberty of, and reverence for, every oppressed 
nationahty. It was a solemn pledge that the oldest of 
national tragedies shall be ended in the coming readjustment 
of the nations which shall console mankind for the slaughter 
and waste and torment of this terrible world-war. 

In the face of an event of such infinite importance to the 
Jewish people, ordinary words of appreciation or the usual 
phrases of gratitude were hopelessly weak and inadequate. 
For the interpretation of their true feelings to-day they must 
turn to Scripture. Twenty-five hundred years ago Cyrus 
issued his edict of liberation to the Jewish exiles in Babylon ; 
and an eye-witness of that glorious day had left them in the 
126th Psalm a record of how their fathers received the 
announcement of their dehverance : — 

" When the Lord brought back those that returned to Zion, 
We were like unto them that dream. 
Then was our mouth filled with laughter, 
And our tongue with singing ; 
Then said they among the nations : 
'The Lord hath done great things with these.' 
The Lord hath done great things with us ; 
We are rejoiced." 

Theirs was a similar feeling of joy and wonder. With them 
likewise it was the astonishment of the nations, the re- 
assuring approbation of statesmen and rulers that caused 
them to exclaim : " We will see it done, and done consum- 
m.ately, the thing so many have thought could never be 
done ! " 

The spirit of the Declaration was that of absolute justice, 
whether to Jews out of Palestine, or to non-Jews in Palestine. 
They especially welcomed in it the reference to the civil and 
rehgious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in 
Palestine. That was but a translation of the basic prin- 
ciples of the Mosaic legislation. But it was the substance 
of the Declaration — the promise of a National Home for the 
Jewish people — that filled their souls with gladness. For 
only on its own soil could the Jewish people live its own life, 
and make, as in the past it had made, its characteristic and 
specific contributions to the spiritual treasure of humanity. 


After the proclamation issued by Cyrus, the mass of the 
Jewish people still remained in Babylon. All told, only 
forty-two thousand men, women and children took ad- 
vantage of the king's proclamation and followed Ezra back 
to Zion, the land of their fathers. But that handful of 
Zionists and their descendants, because living on their own 
soil, changed the entire future of mankind. They edited 
and collected the Prophets, wrote some of the fairest por- 
tions of the Scriptures, formed the canon of the Bible, 
and gave the world its monotheistic rehgions. Now, as 
then, 2)^'^ "in:^^ " A remnant shall return." But now, as then, 
it was the national rejuvenation of that remnant that is to 
open a new chapter in the annals of the human spirit. 

Difficulties ? Of course there were difficulties. The 
task of laying the foundations of a new Israel must be one 
of long toil and severe trial. But a people that for twenty- 
five centuries had stood victoriously against the storm of 
time, possessed vitality enough, patience enough, ideahsm 
enough, with the help of God, to rise to the level of this 
unique, world-historic opportunity. 

Lieut. -Colonel Sir Mark Sykes, Bart., m.p., said : " My lords, 
ladies and gentlemen, I should like to say, before I say one 
other word, that the reason I am interested in this movement 
is that I met one some two years ago who is now upon this 
platform, and who opened my eyes as to what this move- 
ment meant. He is on the list of speakers ; you will hear 
him presently ; his name is known to most in the records of 
Zionism : I mean Dr. Gaster. I speak as one from without, 
as a watcher, but I feel, as everyone present must feel, that 
this meeting here to-day marks not a turning-point in the 
history of your own race, but I think certainly a turning- 
point in the history of the whole world. When one thinks 
of the. years that have passed, of the immense spaces of 
history which stand between what was — and now is — 
promised, one is truly dazzled by the possibilities and 
prospects which open before us. I see, speaking to you as a 
watcher — now you, in a sense, are perhaps watchers also — 
perhaps you see something, perhaps you see three nations 
stricken with plague, cumbered with ruin, and Europe a 
welter of blood. Perhaps you see these three nations, and 
you realize that it may be your destiny to be a bridge between 
Asia and Europe, to bring the spirituaHty of Asia to Europe, 
and the vitality of Europe to Asia. That I firmly believe is 
the mission of Zionism. I see here something which is 


greater than a dream or a League of Nations. It is a league 
of continents, a league of races, and finally a league of ideals. 
That is a great vision. That is what I believe lies before you, 
but no one present realizes more than I do — I know the 
ground, some of it — and boldly I dare to say that there lie 
before you dangers, difficulties, possibly obstructions, but, 
ladies and gentlemen, your time of probation has been long, 
you are schooled in adversity, you can look to difficulties 
with calm, and you will overcome them. I do not look 
for a sudden magic transformation, but I beHeve you 
are beginning a great beneficial and irresistible transition. 
That is what you are beginning. Now, I believe, I hope you 
are going to set up a power that is not the domination of 
blood, not the domination of gold, but the domination of a 
great intellectual force. I believe you will see Palestine the 
great centre of ideals, radiating out to every country in 
the world where your people are, and if there is one 
thing that gives me pleasure to be here to-day, it is to feel 
that at this turning-point of your history, when the Govern- 
ment made its Declaration, you not only thought of your- 
selves but you thought also of others, and you will always 
look back with joy to the fact that when the promise, when 
the hope was held out to you of redemption, you thought 
not only of yourselves, but thought of your fellows in 
adversity, the Armenians and the Syrian Arabs. It is said 
that the Jewish people have a long memory. I believe that 
you remember Cordova, where your influence on modern 
civilization was at its zenith, and I think you remember what 
you owed to the Arabs in Cordova. You remember in the 
days when the Jews were so oppressed in Russia what you 
owed to the Armenians, who were your companions in 
oppression. These tragedies are very different in their 
nature, and three tragedies destined to unite in one triumph. 
If all three hold together, the realization of your ideal is 
certain. There are evil people who will desire that you 
should fail. If these three forces should be dismissed, there 
will be the danger of any one of them becoming the prey of 
a political adventurer, militarist, or the financier. For 
Palestine to be a success you must have a satisfied and 
tranquil Syria. For Hberty to be certain in Palestine, you 
must have guarantees that no savage races shall return there. 
You want to see Armenia free because you want to know 
that all people are free. You want to know the Arab is free, 
because he is, and always will be, your neighbour. Lastly, 


I would also say this : I look forward through difficulty and 
through pain to see Armenia free, and to prove the inevitable 
triumph of right over the greatest might there may be. I 
look to see the Arab civihzation restored once more in 
Bagdad and in Damascus, and I look to see the return of 
Israel, with his majesty and tolerance, hushing mockery and 
dispelling doubt ; and all three nations giving out to the 
world the good that God has infused into them." 

Dr. M. Gaster said he stood before them not as a new 
Zionist, but as an old friend. He stood before them, the old 
Zionist, deeply imbued with the spirit of faith, beheving in 
the truth of the word of God and the glorious promise in 
store for our people, a dreamer of visions, if they would. 
People had mocked at their visions and ideals, at their 
aspirations and their hopes, and yet they continued their 
work, unswerving in their enthusiasm. What appeared 
to so many as a dream had now become a reality — 
and they were gathered there to begin to reap in 
joy what they had sown in tears and sorrow. He had 
originally acclaimed Herzl as the leader of the movement, 
and he had had to bear the burden of the difficulties, but he 
had been true to the trust and had kept the flag of Zion 
flying, and it was now for him, and for all of them, a day of 
joy to see the fruits which they had so long wished for. 
They had come together to thank the British Government 
for le heau geste, in the inimitable French, for their declara- 
tion of sympathy with their national aspirations. But 
Zionism was neither a local question nor did it affect 
EngHsh Jewry, except in a very small proportion. It was a 
movement which affected the whole of the race. Every Jew, 
therefore, wherever he might be, was united in that senti- 
ment of gratitude. They were there, representing the feeling 
which animated the Jews of all the world. Therein lay the 
greatness of the British Government — that it had lifted the 
problem from its local geographical character and given to it 
that universally valued importance which they attached to 
it. But what Zionism stands for must be clearly appre- 
hended, and ,also what the Declaration of the British 
Government was expected to embody. The term " National 
Home " was a circumlocution of the original word which 
formed part of the Basle programme, the foundation-stone 
of Zionism, and that word had been chosen when no definite 
political meaning could be assigned to it. Circumstances 
had changed. It was for them to give to the word its 


true original meaning. What they wished to obtain in 
Palestine was not merely a right to estabhsh colonies, or 
educational, cultural, or industrial institutions . They wanted 
to establish in Palestine an autonomous Jewish Common- 
wealth in the fullest sense of the word. They wanted 
Palestine to be Palestine of the Jews and not merely a 
Palestine for Jews. They wished the land to be again what 
it was in olden times and what it had been for Jews in their 
prayers and in their Bible — a land of Israel. The ground 
must be theirs. They stood, indeed, as a people for the 
same programme as British statesmen were standing 
to-day in a larger sphere. Jews stood for reparation, 
restitution, and guarantees, and it was in the very 
application of those principles that the greatness and im- 
portance of the Declaration of the British Government stood 
out so luminously. England owed to Jews no reparation. 
Here they had liberty, full freedom, equaUty of right and 
equaUty of duty, and they had risen to the responsibihty 
which had thus been placed upon them. For many of them 
there had their children now fighting the battles of England. 
But the British Government had now made itself the 
champion of reparation to the Jewish people for the wrongs 
done to them by the world. It had made itself a champion, 
too, of the restitution of the land to our nation for whom it 
is the old inheritance, and it had given them a guarantee 
— security of tenure, independence, right and freedom of 
action as a people, in their ancient land. The estabUshment 
of a Jewish Commonwealth in the land of their fathers 
would also consoHdate and clarify the position of the rest 
of the Jews throughout the world. He believed that a 
new world was to arise in which the Jew as Jew would 
find himself a free man. In conclusion, he reminded them 
of an old legend which told that when the Temple was 
destroyed the stones were spUt into splinters and each one 
entered the heart of a Jew. It was this memorial of our 
fallen nation which the Jew carried in his bosom, and which 
bent his back. But they were coming together once again 
as a nation in Palestine, and they would take the sphnters 
of the stones from out of their hearts — " and," exclaimed Dr. 
Gaster, " I feel the stone in my heart already loosening." 

Sheikh Ismail- Abdul-al-Akki then addressed the meeting. 
He spoke in Arabic, which was translated by Mr. Israel Sieff, 
who mentioned that the speaker was under sentence of death 
by the Turkish Government for having joined the Arab 


national movement. Sheikh Ismail said he desired to tender 
deep gratitude to the British nation and the British Govern- 
ment for affording his countrymen and himself help and 
asylum in their hour of persecution. His country was held 
in chains by the Turks, who were supplied with German gold, 
and he looked with confidence to England and France to 
dehver them from bondage, as he believed in the ultimate 
good over evil, and was confident in the victory of the Allies. 
He not only spoke as an Arab, but as a "Moslem " Arab, 
having studied five years in theological schools and being 
granted a degree, and it was the duty of every Moslem to 
participate in the movement for the liberation of their 
countrymen. The meeting was to celebrate the great act 
of the British Government in recognizing the aspirations of 
the Jewish people, and he appealed to them not to forget in 
the days of their happiness that the sons of Ishmael suffered 
also. They had been scattered and confounded as the Jews 
had been, and now began to arise, fortified with the sense of 
martyrs. He hoped that Palestine would again flow with 
milk and honey. 

M. Wadia Kesrawani, another Arabian representative, 
spoke in French, also to the effect that his countrymen 
appealed to England and France for their liberation, and 
applauded the Declaration of the Government. 

Mr. Israel Zangwill, in supporting the resolution, said : ** In 
my capacity of President of the Jewish Territorial Organiza- 
tion, I have been honoured with an invitation to appear on 
your platform on this momentous occasion. In that capacity 
I have often criticized your leaders. But to-day I am here 
not for criticism, but for congratulation and co-operation. 
I congratulate them, and especially Dr. Weizmann and 
Mr. Sokolow, upon their historic achievement in the region 
of diplomacy. To see that this is followed by a similar 
achievement in the more difficult region of practice is the 
duty of all Israel. Particularly is it the duty of the Ito, 
founded as it was to procure a territory upon an autonomous 
basis. For the Ito to oppose any really practicable plan for 
a Jewish territory would be not only treason to the Jewish 
people, but to its own programme. And as a first-fruit of 
the friendly negotiations with Zionism, which began in July, 
I am happy to be able to join with you this afternoon in 
welcoming the sympathy of the Government with Jewish 

Mr. Zangwill, of whose speech the above were the 



opening words, spoke at great length, and with even more 
than his usual brilliancy. It is with great regret that we are 
unable, owing to lack of space, to include the rest of his 
oration, with the exception of the concluding paragraph, 
which ran as follows : — 

"And though our goal be yet far, yet already when I re- 
call how our small nation sustained the mailed might of all 
the great Empires of antiquity, how we saw our Temple in 
flames and were scattered like its ashes, how we endured the 
long night of the Middle Ages, illumined by the glare of our 
martyrs' fires, how but yesterday we wandered in our 
millions, torn between the ruthless Prussian and the pitiless 
Russian, yet have lived to see to-day the bloody Empire of 
the Czars dissolve, and the mountains of Zion glimmer on 
the horizon. Already I feel we may say to the nations : 
Comfort ye, comfort ye, too, poor suffering peoples. Learn 
from the long patience of Israel that the spirit is mightier 
than the sword, and that the seer who foretold his people's 
resurrection was not less prophetic when he proclaimed also 
for all peoples the peace of Jerusalem." 

Capt. the Hon. W. Ormsby-Gore, m.p., said he was parti- 
cularly glad the Zionist Declaration had been made by the 
British Government at a moment when British arms were 
saving that land, because it showed that the British Govern- 
ment was not out for gain. The Jewish claim to Palestine 
was, to his mind, overwhelming, and he rejoiced to see what 
an over^vhelming mass of British representative opinions in 
the House of Commons was now supporting the move- 
ment. He supported it as a member of the Church of 
England, as Sir Mark Sykes had supported it as a Roman 
CathoHc. In the return of Palestine to be the Jewish home, 
he held out the hand of friendship to the Zionists, who 
sought to bring it into effect. He felt that behind it 
all was the finger of Almighty God. From the moment he 
met their Zionist leaders, whether in Egypt or in this 
country, he felt there was in them something so sincere, so 
British, so straightforward, that at once his heart went out 
to them. They had in their leader in this country a man of 
great quahties, a statesman who had shown a skill, a deter- 
mination, and a patience which had endeared him to every- 
one. He (the speaker) had done what httle he could to 
help forward the movement, and in the future, if they were 
looking out for a friend, they could count him as one of 


Mr. H. N. Mostditchian, a member of the Armenian 
delegation, said he availed himself of the opportunity of 
giving their Jewish brethren the heartiest greetings of the 
Armenians and sincerest congratulations for the dawn 
about to break upon the glad valleys of their ancestral 
land. He made a comparison of the two nations, who had 
gone through the same persecutions, but who notwith- 
standing wefe not willing to die, and had not died, and 
who stood to-day hand-in-hand on the eve of a new era, 
when both of them would be able to live once more their 
national Hves, of which they had given good evidence in the 
past. They all knew that Armenia was one of the first 
countries mentioned in the History of the Jews, and there 
had reigned one thousand two hundred years ago a Dynasty 
of Armenian Kings who had in their veins a good deal of 
Jewish blood. After the loss of their independence the Jews 
had continued to hve a life of captivity and exile, and the 
Armenians, after the loss of their independence, had suffered 
the same exile. It was not the time to say what the Ar- 
menians had suffered during the last three years, a state of 
things to which the worst pogrom was a heaven, but they, 
as well as the Jews, looked towards ' to-morrow * with great 
fervour as a result of the Declaration. They had waited long 
enough with their Jewish brethren, for centuries and cen- 
turies, and these two nations, as well as the Arabs, would 
make Palestine another promised land and a garden of Eden 
— a centre to which humanity might look up. 

The author then proceeded to read a statement in behalf 
of the Executive of the Zionist Organization. The text of 
that statement is given later. 

Mr. James de Rothschild said he stood there as 
the son of one who had spent his hfe in endeavouring 
to bring about what they were celebrating that day. 
Jewish ideals up to that time had been met at the 
gate, but they could not get through. With one stroke 
of the pen the EngHsh Government had flung open these 
gates. Therefore in every Jewish heart gratitude was 
overflowing, and they must not forget that all their aims 
of the future had been strengthened by the country whose 
Government had framed the generous and just Declara- 

Dr. Ch. Weizmann, President of the EngUsh Zionist Federa- 
tion, referred to the many good and brilHant words which had 
been said about the Jews, and he hoped that the Jews of to-day 



and the Jews of to-morrow would rise to the occasion in the 
needed power and dignity, and give their answer to the great 
resolution, not only in words, but in deeds. It was a fact, 
and no metaphor, that twenty centuries looked to see if their 
actions were worthy of the opportunity which the British 
Government had given them. The present generation had 
upon its shoulders the greatest responsibihty of the last two 
thousand years, and he prayed that they might be worthy 
of that responsibility. 

He then called upon the meeting to rise, and with hands 
upUfted to take the old historic oath — each man and woman 
of them — 

The meeting rose en masse, repeating the words of the 
psalm amid great enthusiasm, which culminated in the 
singing of " Hatikvah " (the Jewish national song) and 
" God Save the King " by the Precentors' Association. 

Lord Rothschild, in rising to put the resolution, said it 
was a great honour for all of them to feel that they as Jews 
had met with a sincere welcome that day from representa- 
tives of no fewer than five different religions. He then read 
the resolution, which was carried with acclamation, the 
whole audience rising. 

Among those who sent messages to the meeting were the 
following : — 

From the Right Hon. Viscount Grey of Falloden, k.g.^ 

I am in entire sympathy with the Declaration made by 
Mr. Balfour, and am very glad that this has been announced 
pubhcly as the view of the British Government. 

From the Right Hon. Walter Long, m.p.^ 

Mr. Long desires me to thank you for your letter of the 
14th ult., and to say that he wishes all success to the Zionist 

From the Right Hon. Arthur Henderson, m.p.* 

Labour recognizes the claims generally of Jews in all 
countries to the elementary rights of tolerance, freedom of 
residence and trade, and equal citizenship, that ought to be 
extended to all the inhabitants of every nation's territory. 
Further, it trusts that an understanding may be reached at 

^ "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, 

Let my right hand forget her cunning." (Psalm cxxxvii. 5.) 
' Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1905-19 16. 
^ Secretary of State for the Colonies. * Member of the War Cabinet, 
n. — I 


the close of the war, whereby Palestine may be set free 
and form a State under an International Agreement, to 
which Jewish people may return and work out their own 
salvation without interference by those of ahen race or 

From the Right Hon. the Marquess of Crewe, k.g.^ 

I have long hoped that it would be possible to make such 
a Declaration ; and it is now pronounced in terms that 
should be equally welcome to those Jews who have found 
happy homes on friendly shores, and to those who have 
longed for the re-estabhshment of their race in the ancient 
land. Within its borders even now triumphs are being won, 
and noble Hves laid down, for the common cause of which 
this hope forms part. 

From the Right Hon. Viscount Bryce.^ 

For years past, and especially since my visit to Palestine 
in 1914, 1 have been in cordial sympathy with the movement 
for re-estabUshing the Jewish population in its ancient home, 
and rejoice to see that His Majesty's Government have 
recently expressed their approval of the idea, which will, I 
hope, take practical shape in measures to be put through 
after the war is over. It will be a great benefit to the Jewish 
race everywhere to have this ancient home to look to as the 
centre of its national Ufe, even though a comparatively small 
part of the race can actually find room to dwell in Palestine. 
The country seems to have been recently terribly devastated, 
but when its resources have been developed, it can support 
a much larger population than it has under the blighting 
rule of the Turk. Syrians, Arabs and Armenians are also 
interested in being delivered for ever from the ahen domi- 
nation of the Turkish invaders. 

From the Right Hon. the Earl of Selborne, k.g., g.c.m.g.^ 
I warmly and altogether adhere to the poUcy of His 
Majesty's Government, in sympathy with Jewish Zionist 
aspirations as announced by Mr. Arthur Balfour. 

From the late John Edward Redmond, m.p.* 

I am in complete sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspira- 
tions as I understand them. 

* Secretary of State for India, IQ10-1915. 

* H.M. Ambassador at Washington, 1907-1913. 

» High Commissioner for South Africa, 1 905-1 910. 

* Chairman of the Irish Parliamentary Party. 


From the Right Hon. Lord Balfour of Burleigh, k.t., 
G.C.M.G., G.c.v.0.1 
I am in favour of the estabhshment in Palestine of a 
National Home for the Jewish people, and sincerely trust 
the policy will be successfully carried out. 

From the Right Hon. John Hodge, m.p.^ 

I fully sympathize with the view expressed in Mr. Balfour's 
letter to Lord Rothschild, and further, may I express the 
hope that the end of the war may speedily see the realization 
of the Zionist dream. 

From Lord Hugh Cecil, m.p. 

... I very cordially sympathize with the purpose of it, 
and heartily rejoice that there is good prospect of securing 
to the Jewish people a National Home in their own country. 

From Lord Sydenham of Combe, g.c.m.g., g.c.i.e., g.c.s.i.^ 
... I am in fullest sympathy with the object, and I am 
glad to know that Palestine may again become the National 
Home of the Jewish people. This would be one of the many 
happy results which, we may hope, will arise from the appal- 
hng sacrifices and the abiding sorrow which the war has 
brought upon the world. 

From the Right Hon. Lord Emmott, g.c.m.g.* 

. . . The movement for the estabhshment in Palestine of 
a National Home for the Jewish people is one which has my 
most cordial sympathy, and I sincerely hope that your 
demonstration may be a success. 

From the Right Hon. Lord Tennyson, g.c.m.g.^ 

... It seems to me that the establishment in Palestine 
of a National Home for the Jewish people would make for 
the peace of the world. This Jewish State should be, as 
George Ehot finely says, " a repubUc where the Jewish spirit 
manifests itself in a new order founded on the old." 

From the Rt. Rev. James Cooper, d.d.. Moderator of the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. 
The Church of Scotland cordially endorses the Declaration 
fthe Cabinet in favour alike of the estabhshment in Pales- 

^ Secretary for Scotland, 1895- 1903. 

^ Minister of Pensions. 

^ Governor of Bombay, 1907-19 13. 

* Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1911-1914. 

' Governor-General of Australia, 1 902-1 904. 


tine of a National Home for the Jewish people, and of the 
maintenance of the civil and religious rights of non- Jewish 
communities in a land so dear to Christians and Jews, re- 
joices in the prospect of this double honour being given to 
Great Britain, and prays that it may usher in a day of the 
richest blessings to the whole Israel of God. 

From His Excellency Boghos Nubar Pasha, President 
of the Armenian National Delegation. 

On the occasion of the Zionist meeting, organized by 
your Committee, I am happy, as President of the Armenian 
National Delegation, to renew the sincere congratulations 
of the Armenians for the Declaration which His Britannic 
Majesty's Government has made to you. We participate in 
a great measure in the joy which the powerful support gives 
you which permits us to hope that in the day of victory of 
those who are fighting for the Hberation of oppressed peoples, 
the Armenian aspirations will be reahzed at the same time 
as the Jewish people will attain the reconstruction of its 
nationality and the reahzation of its historic claim to the 
soil of its ancestors, 

The Jewish Chronicle gave a list of several hundred Jewish 
institutions in England which sent congratulatory messages 
to the meeting, as well as of an immense number of such 
institutions which were represented at the meeting in person. 

An overflow meeting, over which Mr. P. Horowitz 
presided, was held in the Kings way Theatre, which was 
crowded in every part. Among those who addressed the 
audience were the Chief Rabbi: Lord Lamington, g.c.m.g., 
G.C.I.E., Mr. Israel Zangwill, Mr. Joseph Cowen, Dr. 
Selig Brodetsky, Dr. David Jochelmann, and Mr. Israel 

In the course of his observations. Lord Lamington, who 
was very cordially received, expressed his pleasure at the 
opportunity afforded him to express his sympathy with and 
support of the Zionist movement. He cordially agreed with 
the statement made by Lord Robert Cecil at the Opera 
House, that the Declaration represented the first act of 
constructive statesmanship which the alHed nations had so 
far carried out on the basis of the great principles of freedom 
and justice for the smaller nationaUties, for which they stood. 
The Declaration was as much in the British interest as in the 
Jewish interest. Both races, as well as the East in general, 


stood to gain, and gain substantially, from an active British 
and Jewish co-operation in the Near East. 

A resolution in identical terms with that carried at the 
London Opera House was passed with much enthusiasm. 

The Author's statement ran as follows : — 

The Zionist Organization in the Entente countries which 
I have the honour of representing is filled with feelings of the 
deepest and keenest satisfaction caused by the Declaration 
of His Majesty's Government of November 2nd. The 
Zionist masses are grateful to His Majesty's Government for 
their official and formal statement of their intentions in 
clear and unmistakable terms. Posterity will praise the 
quahties which are revealed by this historic document ; the 
strength of will, the sentiment of uprightness, the unshak- 
able fidelity to the spirit of Justice, and the beneficent and 
generous sympathy for the oppressed. 

But the feeling of joy evoked by the Declaration is much 
more than the legitimate satisfaction aroused by the success- 
ful result of our representations to the British Government. 
Quite apart from and above all written conventions, we 
reahze that the Declaration symbolizes that harmonious 
union of spiritual ideals and political considerations which 
have made and will make of the Zionist Movement a precious 
instrument working for civilization and for the brotherhood 
and emancipation of all oppressed peoples and for their final 
deliverance from the sad heritage of age-long hatreds and 
misunderstandings, which have dismembered them and 
subjected them to the forces of oppression. 

Three problems confront the world at this hour : the 
problem of nationality, the problem of territory, and the 
problem of liberty. Nationalities are being reconstituted ; 
peoples are seeking one another, joining together, or separ- 
ating from one another ; territories are being redistributed ; 
the spirit of freedom is spreading, seeking incarnation in 
new forms, and giving a new lease of life to ancient peoples. 
Everywhere is instabihty, ferment, movement ; from all 
sides are heard complaints, demands, claims ; all things are 
being recast in new moulds ; everywhere new groupings are 
forming round new interests. The world is fighting for the 
untrammelled self-expression of nations and races, for an 
unaggressive international order ; the hundreds or thousands 
of years' old aspirations, purposes, and aims of nations have 
become the demands of the moment and the programmes 
for the future. He only would be certain of harvesting 


nothing who had not sown during the present world storm. 
In this noise, in this welter, in this struggle, ancient Judea 
awakes, claiming her right to live again. This right is in- 
alienable and unalterable. All the force of the indestructible 
Jewish race is in it. All the sadness of the two thousand 
years of Jewish martyrdom is in it. Is this right to be denied 
because of its being so old ? Humanity, real humanity, will 
not extinguish old rights. It has not extinguished it in the 
case of Greece ; neither will it extinguish it in the case of 

History has demonstrated that a nation deprived of its 
heritage and Hberty, which is determined to hve and regain 
her lost country, no matter how long she suffers, cannot be 
exterminated by any conceivable means employed by her 
persecutors. And the Jewish people is determined to live 
and to work for all that is good and ennobling, believing 
firmly that justice would be but a word of mockery if the 
sun of hberty could not shine over it again. 

In the midst of universal war, amid grief and desolation 
which go beyond the most tragic imaginings. Great Britain 
has proclaimed the idea of creating a centre of the arts of 
peace, and a model of justice. The idea is not only ex- 
tremely practical, it is profoundly poetical. We are living 
in the most critical time in history. It is our fate to be 
spectators of and actors in the greatest drama ever known to 
humanity. The present war will take its place in history as 
one erf the events which irrevocably divide two epochs. The 
Jewish people is fortunate in being able to consider itself 
one of the models which have inspired the noble initiative 
of Great Britain and her Allies. It is still more fortunate in 
having been found worthy of the generous protection of 
His Majesty's Government, manifested in so striking a 
manner by the recent Declaration. And what glory awaits, 
on the other hand. Great Britain and her Allies, if they will 
be instrumental in the creation of a Jewish National Home 
m Palestine ! 

What is it that we wish to preserve in our National Home ? 
Our own precious heritage. You all know it. The sacred 
Jewish home-Hfe, the intimately personal sentiment of our 
quahties and of our inner freedom. That is our heritage 
which we have been able to preserve intact during the_ 
eighteen centuries of our Dispersion, untouched by thi 
ambition and hatred which sought to undermine them. Wl 
wish to live and to live by our labour and untiring efforts 


We want to be invigorated by that force which the children 
of the soil absorb from contact with it. We want to give 
form and visibiHty to our mental conceptions. We desire to 
perform Israel's allotted part in the purpose of the eternal 
progress of humanity in all branches of life, in all human 
activities. The Jewish National Home will stand out in the 
world as an inspiring symbol of the triumph of justice over 
tyranny, as a proof of the right of nationality to be itself. It 
will be a priceless monument to the future at a time when 
ruins of the past are everywhere, and the whole world stands 
in need of rebuilding. 

Our object in establishing the Jewish National Home 
on the sacred soil of our fathers is to carry on the noblest 
traditions of our race in all their beauty and plenitude. 
Judea it was which revealed to humanity the path of pro- 
gress, it was Judea which taught the greatest and noblest 
lessons in the life of nations — the lessons of Freedom and 
Right — and it is Judea which will become a centre of hberty 
and a blessing for the nations. Palestine is not to be weighed 
down by mihtary powers. She is a home for a small and 
free nation, and not for a troop of subjects. The glory of 
invaders is to be conquered by humanity. The glory of 
tyrants is to yield to civiUzation. The glory of the land of 
shadows is to receive the lamp of Hght. The cloud passed 
and the star reappeared. And this star is not one of wrath. 
Nor is it one of hatred, or fanaticism. Christendom has its 
great sanctuaries in Palestine. Islam has there some of 
its important sanctuaries. All our glorious holy places are 
there. They will be respected and safeguarded with rever- 
ence and devotion, in peace and mutual love. But around 
the places of worship Ufe will spring — honest, simple, pure 
Hfe. We are a peaceful people. We are going to cultivate 
the soil ; we are going to cultivate our ideas. Our future is 
the ploughshare, and not the sword ; the book, and not the 
bullet. The beneficent spiritual influence of a regenerated 
Palestine is undoubted ; its future, which is boundless, 
belongs to you ; each of you already possesses a portion 
within himself. Let us but work together so that our people 
may preserve and improve its title to be considered the 
conscience of the human race. 

We reaUze, however, that our position needs to be 
clearly defined. We must be fully conversant with every 
side of the problem. Vague complaints or expressions of 
yearning are not enough. There is, first of all, the problem 


of Emancipation. We have been accused of endangering 
by our aspirations towards a National Home the position of 
the Jews in the various countries of the world. We have 
racked our brains in trying to discover how the establish- 
ment of a National Home in Palestine could possibly harm 
the emancipation of Jews in the world. We have failed to 
solve this mystery. The British Government in their 
Declaration have put to flight this fear, which is a pure fig- 
ment of the imagination without foundation in theory or 
fact. It would undoubtedly be a great elevation of the 
Jewish character in the eyes of the world at large, could the 
Jews prove themselves capable of conducting a Common- 
wealth harmoniously and successfully ; and we are sure they 
will be able to do so. This is our behef, our ambition, our 
Jewish optimism. It is because we believe in Israel's genius 
that we are Zionists. This will help emancipation. The 
Jews of the various countries who do not wish to participate 
actively in the work, who do not desire to take advantage of 
the right to settle in Palestine, can remain where they are at 
the present time. We are not emigration agents. We are 
apostles of a historic ideal, and we want the Jewish people 
to help in its realization. 

It would be a crime at a stage of Jewish history Hke the 
present to paralyse by internal dissension a movement 
which may be productive of so much good. This should not 
be. Unity of Judaism before all, above all ! The majority 
will support the efforts of their fellow- Jews with great en- 
thusiasm for Judaism, and those who refuse to take any 
part (a type which is doomed to disappear, Hke the mam- 
moth, from the face of the earth) must keep the peace. The 
least we can demand of them is not to disturb us or hinder 
us in our efforts. Where is the Jew who could neglect this 
duty which is inspired no less by reason and well-understood 
interest than by conscience and honour ? Where is the Jew 
who would fail to offer the tribute of his humble share of 
effort, of help, and of faith to the old land of Israel, now so 
downtrodden, but all the greater and more beautiful, as its 
sufferings and trials — so heroically endured — are approach- 
ing their end and leading to its renascence which, far from 
being a mere satisfaction of national egoism, is an exaltation 
of the noblest Jewish and human ideal ? 

The attempt has also been made to put forward the 
non-Jewish population of Palestine and the neighbouring 
countries as an obstacle in our way. The breath of intriguers 


tends to poison every noble aspiration ; they seek to create 
among us also a spirit of dissension, a spirit of destruction. 
We are firmly resolved to refuse them this satisfaction. In 
vain do they raise this kind of bogey. The deep sense of the 
realities before us guards us from any error of this kind. 
We have work to do which will prevent our interests 
from clashing with those of the Arabs. Are we, then, 
anti-Semitic ? 

The relations between the Jews and the Arabs have 
hitherto been scanty and spasmodic, largely owing to 
mutual ignorance and indifference. There were no rela- 
tions whatever between the two nations as such because 
the oppressive bureaucracy did not recognize either of 
them, and whenever points of connection began to develop 
they were destroyed by intrigue to the detriment of both 

We believe that the present hour of crisis and the open- 
ing of a large perspective for epoch-making develop- 
ments offers a fruitful opportunity for a broad basis of 
permanent, cordial relations between the peoples who are 
inspired by a common purpose. We mean a real entente 
cordiale between the Jews, the Arabs, and the Armenians. 
Such entente cordiale has already been accepted in prin- 
ciple by leading representatives of these three nations. 
From such a beginning we look forward with confidence 
to a future of intellectual, social, and economic co-opera- 
tion. We are one with the Arabs and Armenians to-day 
in the determination to secure for each of us the free 
choice of their own destinies. We look with fraternal love 
at the creation of an Arab kingdom re-estabhshing the 
ancient Semitic nationality in its glory and freedom, and 
our heartfelt wishes go out to the noble, hardly-tried 
Armenian nationahty for the realization of their national 
hopes in their old Armenia. 

Our roots were united in the past, our destinies will be 
bound together in the future. 

This is our declaration to our future neighbours. And 
now, one more word to our brethren. We Jews, we who 
hoped for a better future, an era in which moral rights would 
count, what were we before the present situation ? Dream- 
ers and madmen. Material power believed itself unconquer- 
able. It produced an atmosphere of indifference in which 
all hope seemed Utopian. We slept in the general decadence. 
Now we arise, endowed with an unconquerable moral force 


by the Declaration of His Majesty's Government. Our first 
and immortal leader, Theodor Herzl, insisted, many years 
ago, in having the institutions of Zionism established in this 
great, blessed country, for which every Jew has a warm 
corner in his heart. Was he a statesman or a prophet ? I 
think he was both a statesman and a prophet. There is an 
old Talmudical saying : — 

Q) : ID D^noQ 

Twenty years ago 220 Jews from aU the countries of the 
world met at the First Zionist Congress at Basle. They 
possessed, though everything else was wanting, that wonder- 
ful power of improvising things. And such was the power 
of right these 220 men, having nothing to support them 
but the goodness of their cause, made headway against 
millions of opponents among their people. During the long 
duration of the struggle, a struggle without truce, where all 
the strength and rage was on one side and all the right on 
the other, not a single section of those 220 men failed to 
respond to the call of duty, and, although divided in their 
views, not one section drew back from the fundamental 
national idea, not one gave way. They increased in numbers 
and they increased in activity. Let me, at this solemn hour, 
render honour to those men, to that insulted, calumniated 
and misunderstood Zionist Organization which always 
stepped gallantly into the breach, which never took rest for 
a single day, and which defended Zionism even when aban- 
doned and momentarily hopeless, and that not only with 
tongue and brains, but also with heavy sacrifices. Thanks 
t* them we exist, and thanks to the progress we made here 
new life and new energy will enter not only into our Zionist 
Organization, but into the whole Jewish people. Mr. Balfour 
has sent the Declaration to Lord Rothschild for the Zionist 
Organization. We received and accepted it joyfully ; but, 
I am afraid — or I am rather glad — that we shall have 
to re-address it to the Jewish people, and I hope they 
will receive and accept it as joyfully as ourselves, the 
Zionists. This is perhaps the greatest achievement of 
the British Government that before having given us 
Palestine they already gave us something which is very 
precious and very necessary — Jewish unity. History will 

^ " Leave Israel alone ! — If they are not Prophets, they are the sons of 
Prophets." — Pesachim, 66a. 


record that Mr. Balfour was the greatest peace-maker 
among the Jewish people, greater than many Rabbis and 
Conjoint Committees. 

We were divided, distracted ; and now we are indis- 
solubly united, all one band of brothers in arms for Liberty ! 
I welcome the representatives of the Jewish Territorial 
Organization, with their famous leader, Israel Zangwill. I 
welcome the oldest Jewish organization of this country, the 
Board of Deputies, and all other organizations which are 
represented at this meeting. The opponents of yesterday 
are our allies of to-day, and the opponents of to-day will be 
our alHes of to-morrow, if they will read the signs of the time. 
Much is still to be done in this direction, but much has 
already been done. Yes ; this is the miracle which has 
brought about our spiritual rebirth. 

What does this mean if not that wrong has always feet 
of clay : that right, truth and liberty are from this time 
forward the true paths of the earth, the only ways which no 
physical force will ever dishonour ? 

Friends, brothers, our new society makes of you new 
men. This is a day of alUance and of reconciHation. Old 
words — Virtue, Love, Liberty — which had lost their bright- 
ness by long disuse have regained their lustre as on the day 
when they were first engraved on the heart of man. Awake 
from the long night. It is a new dawn which arises. The 
Jewish people which has endured, and will still endure, with 
great firmness of heart the heaviest sacrifices, rising to the 
heights of the great arguments of this War of Nationahties, 
affirms that it is ready and determined to work with all its 
power and full loyalty for Governments and peoples until 
the reaUzation of its destiny. May this destiny be one in 
which Liberty will triumph — one from which man and 
humanity, the individual and the Nation, will derive benefit, 
one bringing to the Jewish people as to every oppressed 
people the possibihty of living and of realizing its ideal. It 
is in this spirit that the Zionist Organimtion recommends to 
you the resolution. 

On the 14th of December the Zionist representatives, Lord 
Rothschild, Mr. James de Rothschild, Dr. E. W. Tschlenow, 
Dr. Chaim Weizmann, and the Author, were received by the 
War Cabinet. They offered to the British Government the 
gratitude of the Jewish people for the Declaration of the 
2nd November and at the same time expressed their con- 
gratulations on the occasion of the capture of Jerusalem. 


Mr. Bonar Law, who replied to the deputation on behalf 
of His Majesty's Government, thanked them for the kind 
sentiments they had expressed. 

The following Manifesto was issued shortly after the 
British Declaration : — 

To THE Jewish People. 

The 17th of Marcheshvan, 5678 (2nd November, 1917), is 
an important milestone on the road to our national future ; 
it marks the end of an epoch, and it opens out the beginning 
of a new era. The Jewish people has but one other such day 
in its annals : the 28th August, 1897, the birthday of the 
New Zionist Organization at the first Basle Congress. But 
the analogy is incomplete, because the period which then 
began was Expectation, whereas the period which now 
begins is Fulfilment. 

From then till now, for over twenty years, the Jewish 
people has been trying to find itself, to achieve a national 
resurrection. The advance-guard was the organized Zionist 
party, which in 1897 by its programme demanded a home 
for the Jewish people in Palestine secured by pubUc law. A 
great deal was written, spoken, and done to get this demand 
recognized. The work was carried out by the Zionist Organ- 
ization on a much greater scale and in a more systematic 
manner than had been possible for the Choveve Zion, 
the first heralds of the national ideal, who had tried to give 
practical shape to the yearning which had burnt like a light 
in the Jewish spirit during two thousand years of exile and 
had flamed out at various periods in various forms. The 
Choveve Zion had the greatest share in the practical colon- 
ization. The Zionist movement wrestled with its opponents 
and with itself. It collected means outside Palestine, and 
laboured with all its strength in Palestine. It founded 
institutions of all kinds for colonization in Palestine. That 
was a preface, full of hope and faith, full of experiments and 
illusions, inspired by a sacred and elevating ideal, and pro- 
ductive of many valuable and enduring results. 

The time has come to cast the balance of the account. 
That chapter of propaganda and experiments is complete, 
and the glory of immortahty rests upon it. But we must go 
further. To look back is the function of the historian ; 
life looks forwards. 

The turning-point is the Declaration of the British 


Government that they '* view with favour the estabHshment 
in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish people, 
and will use their best endeavours to facihtate the achieve- 
ment of this object." 

The progress which our idea has made is so colossal and 
so obvious that it is scarcely necessary to describe it in words. 
None the less, a few words must be addressed to the Jewish 
people, not so much by way of explanation, as to demand 
the new and greater efforts which are imperative. 

The outstanding feature of the Declaration is, that what 
has been a beautiful ideal — and according to our opponents 
an empty dream — ^has now been given the possibihty of 
becoming a reahty. The aspirations of 1897 now find solid 
ground in the British Government's official Declaration of 
the 2nd November, 1917. That in itself is a gigantic step 
forward. The world's history, and particularly Jewish 
history, will not fail to inscribe in golden letters upon its 
bronze tablets that Great Britain, the shield of civilization, 
the country which is pre-eminent in colonization, the school 
of constitutionalism and freedom, has given us an official 
promise of support and help in the realization of our ideal of 
liberty in Palestine. And Great Britain will certainly carry 
with her the whole poHtical world. 

The Declaration of His Majesty's Government coincides 
with the triumphant march of the British Army in Palestine. 
The flag of Great Britain waves over Jerusalem and all 
Judea. It is at such a moment, while the army of Great 
Brijtain is taking possession of Palestine, that Mr. Balfour 
assures us that Great Britain will help us in the establish- 
ment of a National Home in Palestine. This is the begin- 
ning of the fulfilment. 

To appreciate and to understand accurately is the first 
essential, but it is not all. It is necessary to go further, to 
determine what is the next step. This must be set forth in 
plain words. 

The Declaration puts in the hands of the Jewish people 
the key to a new freedom and happiness. All depends on 
you, the Jewish people, and on you only. The Declaration 
is the threshold, from which you can place your foot upon 
holy ground. After eighteen hundred years of suffering 
your recompense is offered to you. You can come to your 
haven and your heritage, you can show that the noble blood 
of our race is still fresh in your veins. But to do that you 
must begin work anew, with new power and with new means 


— the ideas and the phrases and the methods ^f the first 
period no longer suffice. That would be an anachronism. 
We need new conceptions, new words, new acts. The 
methods of the period of reaUzation cannot be the methods 
of the time of expectation. 

In the first place, the whole Jewish people must now 
unite. Now that fulfilment is displacing expectation, that 
which was potential in the will of the Jewish people must 
become actual and reveal itself in strenuous labour. The 
whole Jewish people must come into the Zionist Organ- 

Secondly, a word to our brothers in Palestine. The 
moment has come to lay the foundations of a national home. 
You are now under the protection of the British mihtary 
authorities, who will guard your lives, your property, your 
freedom. Be worthy of that protection, and begin immedi- 
ately to build the Jewish National Home upon sound 
foundations, thoroughly Hebrew, thoroughly national, 
thoroughly free and democratic. The beginning may decide 
all that follows. 

Thirdly, our loyal acknowledgment of the support of 
Great Britain must be spontaneous and unmeasured. But 
it must be the acknowledgment of free men to a country 
which breeds and loves free men. We must show that what 
Great Britain has given us through her generosity, is ours 
by virtue of our intelligence, skill, and courage. 

Fourthly, we must have ample means. The means of 
yesterday are ridiculously small compared with the needs 
of to-day. Propaganda, the study of practical problems, 
expeditions, the founding of new offices and commissions, 
negotiations, preparations for settlement, relief and re- 
construction in Palestine — for all these, and other indis- 
pensable tasks, colossal material means are necessary, and 
necessary forthwith. Small and great, poor and rich, must 
rise to answer the call of this hour with the necessary 
personal sacrifice. 

Fifthly, we need discipHne and unity. This is no time for 
hair-splitting /controversy. It is a time for action. We ask 
for confidence. Be united and tenacious, be quick but not 
impatient, be free men, but well-discipUned, firm as steel. 
From now onwards every gathering of Jews must have a 
practical aim, every speech must deal with a project, every 
thought must be a brick with which to build the National 


These are the directions for your work to-day. 

Worn and weary through your two thousand years of 
wandering over desert and ocean, driven by every storm 
and carried on every wave, outcasts and refugees, you may 
now pass from the misery of exile to a secure home ; a home 
where the Jewish spirit and the old Hebrew genius, which so 
long have hovered broken-winged over strange nests, can 
also find heahng and be quickened into new life. 



Ch. Weizmann. 

declarations of the entente governments 

After this most important achievement which is considered 
as the foundation-stone of future policy in and regarding 
Palestine, it was found necessary to come into closer 
pohtical relations with the other Entente countries, in the 
light of the new situation created by the British Declar- 

Negotiations were carried on with the proper authorities 
in the French and Italian Governments : the negotia- 
tions were crowned with success, and the official endorse- 
ments by France and Italy of the British Declaration were 
communicated to the world in the following official docu- 
ments : — 

The follo\ving is the text of the French Government's 
Declaration communicated in a letter to the author : — 

RepubUque fran^aise. 
Ministere des Affaires £trangeres : 
Direction des Affaires PoHtiques et Commercials. 

Paris, le i^mefevrier, 1918. 


Comme il a ete convenu au cours de notre entretien 
le Samedi 9 de ce mois, le Gouvernement de la Repubhque, 
en vue de preciser son attitude vis-a-vis des aspirations 
sionistes, tendant a creer pour les juifs en Palestine un foyer 
national, a public un communique dans la presse. 

En vous communiquant ce texte, je saisis avec empresse- 
ment Toccasion de vous feliciter du genereux devouement 
avec lequel vous poursuiviez la reahsation des voeux de vos 
co-religionnaires, et de vous remercier du zele que vous 
apportez k leur faire connaitre les sentiments de sympathie 


que leurs efforts eveillent dans les pays de rentente et 
notamment en France. 

Veuillez agreer, Monsieur, I'assurance de ma considera- 

(Signed) Pichon. 


Hotel Meurice, Paris. 

Le Communique. 
Monsieur Sokolow, representant des Organisations Sion- 
istes, a ete re9u ce matin au Ministere des Affaires 
Etrangeres par Monsieur Stephen Pichon, qui a ete heureux 
de lui confirmer que I'Entente est complete entre les 
Gouvernements frangais et britannique en ce qui conceme 
la question d'un etablissement juif en Palestine." 


Republique frangaise. 
Ministere des Affaires fitrangeres : 
Direction des Affaires Politiques et Commerciales. 

^ Paris, i^th February, 1918. 

As arranged at our meeting on Saturday, the 9th of 
this month, the Government of the Republic, so as to make 
definite its views on the subject of Zionist aspirations with 
regard to the creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine, 
has sent a communication to the Press. 

In sending you this text, I wish to take the opportunity 
of congratulating you on the splendid devotion with which 
you are furthering the aspirations of your co-religionists, 
and of thanking you for the way in which you have made 
known to them the sympathy with which all the countries of 
the Entente, and especially France, are watching their efforts. 

Please accept assurances of my most cordial sympathy. 

{Signed) Pichon. 

M. Sokolow, 

Hotel Meurice, Paris. 

Mr. Sokolow, representing the Zionist Organizations, was 
this morning received by Mons. Pichon, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, who was happy to inform him that there is complete 
agreement between the French and British Governments 
in all matters which concern the estabhshment of a Jewish 
national home in Palestine. 

A. F. J. RiBOT 

Jules M. Cambon 

Henri Manuel, Paris 

Baron Sidney Sonnino 

S. J. M. PiCHON 

Henri Manuel, Paris 

G. E. B. Clemenceau 

Henii Manuel, Paris 



The following is the Declaration which was made by the 
Italian Government to myself as representative of the 
Zionist Organization, through the ItaUan Ambassador in 
^^^^on:- LONDRA, 

li 9 Maggio, 1918. 

Pregiatissimo Signore, 

D'ordine di Sua Eccellenza il Barone Sonnino, 
Ministro per gh Affari Estri del Re, ho Tonore d'informarla 
che, in relazione alle domande che gli sono state rivolti, il 
Governo di Sua Maest^ e lieto di confermare le precedenti 
dichiarazioni gia fatte a mezzo dei suoi rappresentanti a 
Washington, I'Aja e Salonicco, di essere cioe disposto ad 
adoperarsi con piacere per facilitare lo stabihrsi in Palestina 
di un centro nazionale ebraico, nell' intesa pero che non ne 
venga nessun pregiudizio alio stato giuridico e politico delle 
gja esistenti comunita* religiose ed ai diritti civili e pohtici 
che gl' IsraeUti gia godono in ogni altro paese. 

Gradisca, Pregiatissimo Signore, gli atti della mia Distin- 

tissima considerazione. ,^. ,. -r- 

(Signed) Imperiali. 

I Signor Nahum Sokolow, 

^B 35-3S Empire House, 

^B^ 175 Piccadilly, W. i. 

^H^^ [Translation.] 

mff Italian Embassy, London, 

Imv DEAR Sir, 9th May. xgiS. 

On the instructions of His Excellency, Baron Sonnino, 

, His Majesty's Minister of Foreign Affairs, I have the honour 

to inform you that v^ith reference to your representations 

I His Majesty's Government are pleased to confirm the 

j Declaration already made through their representatives in 

j Washington, The Hague, and Salonica, to the effect that 

' they will use their best endeavours to facihtate the estabUsh- 

ment in Palestme of a Jewish National Centre, it being 

i understood that this shall not prejudice the civil and religious 

I rights of existing non- Jewish communities in Palestine or 

the legal or poUtical status enjoyed by Jews in any other 


Pray accept, my dear sir, the assurance of my distinguished 

consideration. -^. ,, ^ 

(Signed) Imperiali. 

M. Nahum Sokolow, 

i75Piccadilly, \V. I. 


In President's Wilson's address to Congress of January 8th, 
1918, a speech commonly regarded as a complete statement 
of the objects for which the Allied Powers were fighting, the 
twelfth of the articles in the programme of the world's peace 
was stated thus : — 

" The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire 
should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nation- 
alities which are now under Turkish rule should he assured an 
undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested 
opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles 
should be permanently opened as a free passage to ships 
and commerce of all nations under international guarantees." 

This statement was regarded by Zionists as signifying 
the sympathetic attitude of the American Government, and 
especially of its President, to the Zionist movement. Presi- 
dent Wilson is regarded as the spokesman of the Entente 
principles, and it is well known to Zionists that his attitude 
is favourable to the realization of Zionist aims, because the 
latter are in complete harmony with the principle of justice 
to small nationalities, of which President Wilson is the 
clearest and most outspoken exponent. His address makes 
no specific reference to the Jewish question or to Palestine, 
but his intention is perfectly clear. 

In August, 1918, President Wilson wrote the following 
letter :— 

" I have watched with deep and sincere interest the re- 
constructive work which the Weizmann Commission has 
done in Palestine at the instance of the British Government, 
and I welcome an opportunity to express the satisfaction I 
have felt in the progress of the Zionist Movement in the 
United States and in the Allied countries since the Declara- 
tion by Mr. Balfour on behalf of the British Government of 
Great Britain's approval of the establishment in. Palestine 
of a National Home for the Jewish people, and his promise 
that the British Government would use its best endeavours 
to facilitate the achievement of that object, with the under- 
standing that nothing would be done to prejudice the civil 
and religious rights of non- Jewish people in Palestine or the 
rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in other countries. 
I think that all Americans will be deeply moved by the 
report that even in this time of stress the Weizmann Com- 
mission has been able to lay the foundation of the Hebrew 

Ih>:-er S licet Studios 

Thomas Wooduow Wilson 


University at Jerusalem with the promise that that bears of 
spiritual rebirth." 

Public opinion in America regarded this letter as a 
precious document embodying full American support of 
the Zionist aims, in harmony with the British Declaration. 

Many opportunities have been taken by British statesmen 
to refer to the British Declaration in terms which show that 
they attach the very greatest value to it. Thus, the Rt 
Hon. George N. Barnes said, in a speech delivered on the 
14th of July, a full extract of which appears below : — 

" The British Government proclaimed its policy of 
Zionism because it believed that Zionism was identified 
with the policy and aims for which good men and women 
are struggling everywhere. That policy is the policy of the 
Allies in the war. It is the policy to which we are pledged ; 
it is the policy which we believe accords with the wishes of 
vast numbers of the Jewish people, many of whom have 
cast wistful eyes to Palestine as again destined to be their 
national home." 

Lord Robert Cecil, in regretting his inability to be present 
at the meeting held on July 14th to welcome the American 
Zionist Medical Unit, wrote : — 

** The Zionist movement represents a great ideal which 
may have incalculable consequences for the future welfare 
of the world." 

The Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, in his address to a 
deputation of the Medical Unit (given in full further on), 
said : — 

'* The destruction of Judea that occurred nineteen cen- 
turies ago is one of the great wrongs which the Allied 
Powers are trying to redress." 

Mr. Lloyd George wrote to the Author, on the 29th of June, 
in connection with the Government declaration safeguarding 
the rights of the Roumanian Jews : — 

Dear Sir, 

I am desired by the Prime Minister to acknowledge 
the receipt of your letter of the 21st inst., and the enclosure. 
Mr. Lloyd George wishes me to thank you for what you 
say in regard to the friendship which exists between this 
country and the Jewish people, of which there has lately 
been such abundant evidence, and to reiterate the hope 


that the triumph of the AlHes' cause will make possible 
the realization of your people's aim to establish for them- 
selves once again a national home in Palestine. 

Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) F. L. Stevenson. 
N. SoKOLOw, Esq. 

On Wednesday, September nth, the Prime Minister, 
Mr. Lloyd George, visited Manchester for the purpose of 
receiving the freedom of that city and of other towns. The 
Zionists took the opportunity of presenting to him the 
following address :-- 

" The undersigned representatives of the Jewish Com- 
munity of Manchester, headed by our distinguished Zionist 
leader, Mr. Nahum Sokolow, gladly avail ourselves of the 
opportunity of your visit to Manchester to place on record 
the gratitude which the Jewish people feels for the interest 
shown by the Government, of which you are the head, in the 
fulfilment of Jewish national aspirations. 

" We are confident that the Government's historic 
declaration of 2nd November, 1917, expresses not only its 
own considered policy at the present time, but the permanent 
attitude of the British nation to our people. We look forward 
to the early fruition of the hopes which we build on that 
declaration, and we know that in the brighter days of peace 
the restored and revived Hebrew nation will show in practical 
form its regard for Great Britain and for the British tradi- 
tion of help and justice to small nations. For the sake of the 
Jewish nation and of the cause of the free peoples throughout 
the world, struggling to escape from the pitiless desire for 
conquest of the German people, who have been intoxicated 
with the belief that their army can override all obstacles and 
all rights, we trust that Great Britain and her Allies will, 
at an early date, see the downfall of the German power as an 
indispensable preliminary to the commencement of the new 
era of peace and justice, foretold by our national prophets 
and seers in that great Jewish Bible which has become part 
of the patrimony of the peoples of this great Empire. 

" We venture to think that among the many triumphs 
which it will be your privilege to recall in after days you will 
remember, with, perhaps, a unique pride and pleasure, that 
it was under the guidance of your statesmanship that Great 
Britain extended its right hand in friendship to the Jewish 

Vandyke^ plioto.\ 

R*' Hon, David Lloyd George 


people to help it to regain its ancient national home and to 
realize its age-long aspirations/' 

The Zionists' address was signed by Mr. E. H. Langdon, 
the Rahhi Dr. Berendt Salomon, Mr. Nathan Laski, j.p., 
Mr. S. J. Cohen, Councillor S. Finburgh, Mr. L. Friedson, 
Captain Dulberg, and Mr. Simon Marks. 

Mr. Lloyd George gave the following reply : — 

"It is with feelings of the greatest satisfaction that 
I accept the address which you have done me the privilege 
of presenting to me. The aspirations which you share with 
multitudes of your race scattered throughout the world 
found a natural response in the minds of those responsible 
for the government of this country, because they are in 
permanent accord with the sentiments of the people of 
Great Britain. I have to-day had the honour of receiving 
addresses from the representatives of three elements most 
intimately concerned in the establishment of a rule of order 
and justice in an area which has hitherto been the prey of 
tyranny and outrage. The fulfilment of the historic hopes 
and aspirations to which you refer in your address is, I 
beheve, an essential corollary to the necessary enfranchise- 
ment of the oppressed peoples of the Near East." 

Considerable interest was taken everywhere in the 
evidences of the effect produced in America by the 
political success of the Zionist movement. The Zionists 
of America, unable to participate in many of the Zionist 
activities of the day, owing to the fact that America was 
not at war with Turkey, conceived the idea of helping 
in the reconstruction and extension of the Jewish colonies 
after they were reheved from disasters due to the war, by 
sending a Medical Unit to the Holy Land. 

The Unit was organized by and at the expense of American 
Zionists, the principal promoters being a group of women 
Zionists who are banded together under the name of the 
Hadassah, It consisted of about forty-five persons — doctors, 
nurses, mechanics, chemists, specialists, secretaries, dentists, 
a social expert, an administrator, and a representative of 
the Hadassah. The Provisional Executive Committee for 
General Zionist Affairs in America voted a sum of fifty 
thousand pounds from their Palestine Restoration Fund 
for its equipment. The plans in Palestine will necessarily 
depend upon the conditions prevailing in that country at 


the time of the arrival of the Unit, but the present inten- 
tion is to set up a central hospital of one hundred beds 
in Jerusalem, a branch hospital in Jaffa, as well as dis- 
pensaries and a nursing school, and several travelling hos- 
pitals, which will be equipped for service in the colonies 
and wherever needed and will be supplied from permanent 
dispensaries in the large cities. A hospital in Jerusalem, 
originally owned by a German society, the L'maan Zion, 
was handed over to this Unit, as well as the Shaare Zedek 
Hospital. In connexion with the equipment of these " Red 
Cross '* ambulances for the reUef of civilians, the Hadassah 
collected quantities of clothes, bed-linen and towels, as well 
as medical stores for the use of the destitute of Palestine. 
Eighty-six cases, containing twenty-four thousand garments, 
one thousand pairs of boots, thirteen thousand men's socks, 
and two tons of soap, have been sent out. Mrs. Mary Fels 
contributed largely to this stock. 

The Unit is under the general control of Mr. Levin 
Epstein, Treasurer of the American Zionist Organization. 

On its way to Palestine the Unit passed through 
London, where it was welcomed by a great meeting at the 
London Opera House, on July 14th. The Right Hon. 
George N. Barnes, a member of the War Cabinet, in a speech 
then delivered, said : — 

'* Palestine has for three hundred years been under the 
tyranny of Ottoman oppression, and I take it that it is now 
ready for the word of the teacher, and the knowledge of the 
scientist, to make the desert places again into smiling 
villages. Our visitors will take part in that transformation. 
They will Hnk together the knowledge, the science, and 
material resources of the present and the future. It is a 
great thought and a happy augury that the first definite act 
of Zionism is to go East and to take part in the reahzation 
of a great ideal for the uplifting of all the people, irrespective 
of class or creed, or condition of any kind whatsoever. That 
is indeed a great ideal, and I congratulate our visitors in 
being pioneers in its achievement. They are going to help 
to lay in Palestine that basis of sanitation and conditions of 
healthy Ufe which are the chief foundations of civiUzation. 
It is a work not only of interest to the Jewish race ; it is a 
work which is of interest and value to the whole world, 
because the prosperity of Palestine is the concern of us all. 
Irrespective of race or religion, we look to Palestine as the 
Holy Land. From it there came those great moral inspira- 


tions which still guide the life and conduct of half the world. 
From it there issued forth those wondrous influences of 
which the mind of man can scarcely yet conceive the full 
meaning. It has been the inestimable privilege of the Allies 
in this war to have rescued this land, consecrated by religion 
and history, from the sacrilegious hands of the German and 
the Turk, who have slain and enslaved the people. It will 
be their greater privilege to rebuild the holy places, to 
create conditions under which opportunities will be given 
to all peoples to live together in tolerance and mutual help. 
It will be the aim of Zionism once more to make Palestine a 
fountain of knowledge and idealism, and by the creating of 
places of knowledge and education, open to all, again to 
clothe ancient truths in modern garb. The British Govern- 
ment proclaimed its policy of Zionism because it believed 
that Zionism was identified with the policy and aims for 
which good men and women are struggling everywhere. 
That policy is the policy of the Allies in this war. 
It is the policy to which we are pledged ; it is the policy 
which we believe accords with the wishes of vast numbers of 
the Jewish people, many of whom have cast wistful eyes to 
Palestine as again destined to be their national home. Using 
the word in its largest and best sense, they are going on an 
errand of mercy, being the harbingers of health and happi- 
ness to a people who have been long oppressed and heavy 
laden. They have, I doubt not, many difficulties in front of 
them — perhaps a long road to travel, but I feel sure they will 
be borne up by the consciousness of what they are doing, and 
that they have the good wishes of all good men and women." 

In addressing the Unit in Paris, M. Tardieu, High Com- 
missioner of the Government of the French Republic in the 
United States, said : — 

*' Vous savez avec quel interet sympathique le gouverne- 
ment fran^ais a suivi le progres de Tideal sioniste. De cet 
interet, le gouvernement frangais a donne des preuves des 
le printemps de 1916, aussitot que Tamelioration de la 
situation en Palestine nous a permis de regarder du cote de 
I'avenir. J'ai a peine besoin, ensuite, de vous rappeler la 
declaration publique et officielle que le Ministre des Affaires 
Etrangeres, M. Pichon, publiait si heureusement I'annee 
derniere. S'il existe une nation naturellement faite pour 
comprendre la cause des Juifs et I'ideal juif, cela a et^ 
assurement toujours la nation frangaise." 


Shortly before they left England the American Zionist 
Medical Unit were received by Mr. Balfour, who said he 
was very happy to be able to address the deputation of the 
Unit on their way to Palestine, where they were going to 
contribute their share to the beginnings of a great National 
undertaking. The far-reaching importance of the idea 
represented by Zionism was not sufficiently understood ; 
the influence of that great National revival would be 
felt not only by those Jews who would settle in 
Palestine, but also by Jewry in every country of the 
world, and even by the other nations of humanity, for 
though Palestine was but a small country, the good 
which it had done for mankind was immeasurable. The 
destruction of Judea nineteen centuries ago was one of the 
great wrongs which the Allied Powers were trying to redress. 
This destruction was a national tragedy. It deprived the 
Jews of the opportunities enjoyed by other nations, 
to develop their national genius and their own spirit to the 
full extent of which it was capable. The Jews occupied a 
unique position among nations of the present day, because 
they lacked that element of nationahty which appeared to 
be indispensable to a complete National Hfe — ^to the 
possession of a National Home. The present moment 
witnessed the entrance on the world's stage of great 
and important National factors, and he felt sure that 
among these the Zionist idea, which had already accom- 
pUshed so much in Palestine, would play a noble and 
beneficial part. He congratulated the members of the Unit 
on their great humanitarian mission. He knew they were 
moved by a high idea and not by any self-seeking. 
Nothing, he said, could be accompHshed in this world except 
under the inspiration of a great ideal. He wished them God- 
speed and complete success. 

Direct evidence of the spread of Zionism in America was 
furnished by a resolution of the American Jewish Com- 
mittee, a body which has hitherto been held to represent 
the assimilated American Jews and to be hostile to Jewish 
nationalism, at a special meeting held on Sunday, April 
28th, which was attended by, among others, Mr. Jacob 
Schiff, Mr. Louis Marshall, Dr. Cyrus Adler, ex- Judge 
Mack, and ex- Judge Sulzberger. 

The Committee declared by the resolution that it could 
not be unmindful of the fact that there are Jews everywhere 
throughout the world who, moved by traditional Jewish 


sentiment, yearn for a Home in the Holy Land for the Jewish 
people. This hope, which has been nurtured for centuries, 
had the Committee's whole-hearted sympathy. When 
therefore, the British Government made the Declaration 
which is now supported by the French Government, that it 
views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a 
National Home for the Jewish People, and will use its best 
endeavours to facihtate the achievement of this object, the 
announcement was received by the members of the Com- 
mittee with profound appreciation. 

The Committee regards as of essential importance the 
conditions annexed to the Declaration, " that nothing 
shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious 
rights of existing non- Jewish communities in Palestine 
or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any 
other country." The latter of these conditions corresponded 
entirely with the general principles on the basis of which the 
Committee had ever striven to attain civil and political 
rights for Jews the world over, and with the ideals of all 
American Jewry. 

The opportunity foreshadowed by Mr. Balfour's letter was 
welcomed by the Committee, which would help to the best 
of its power to realise in Palestine, placed under such pro- 
tectorate or suzerainty as the Peace Congress may determine, 
the objects set forth in the Declaration ; and the Committee 
resolved to co-operate with all those who, attracted by 
religious or historic associations, shall seek to establish in 
Palestine a centre for Judaism for the stimulating of our 
faith, the pursuit and development of hterature, science, 
and art in a Jewish environment, and the rehabilitation of 
the Land. 

The British and Italian Governments indicated to the 
Zionist Organization their interest in the welfare of the 
Jewish people by the opinion they expressed with regard to 
the clause in the Rumanian-German Treaty referring to 
Jewish rights. Ever since the Treaty of Berlin, the position 
of the Rumanian Jews had been one of the scandals of 
Europe. That Treaty forbade all legal discriminations on 
account of religious faith. This clause was made a useless 
" scrap of paper " by Rumania considering its Jews " aliens 
not subject to alien protection." The Jew has been pre- 
vented from living in country districts or owning land out- 
side towns. This does not prevent it from being a standing 
accusation against the Jews of Rumania that they do not 


work as agricultural labourers. They have been excluded 
from the civil service and the Uberal professions ; they have 
been disfranchised ; factories and mills were forbidden to 
employ more Jewish workers than one quarter of their 
entire staff. Yet the Jews in Rumania by no means gave 
rise to this state of affairs by obvious separatism ; the 
younger generation all spoke Rumanian, both at home and 
in intercourse with the outer world, and they wore no 
distinctive dress. 

It should be stated that the Rumanians are a peasant 
people ; the landowners, all Christians, are largely an 
absentee class, spending their money in Western Europe. 
Anti-Semitism has been a convenient safety-valve for 
diverting the discontent of the peasants from the real 
authors of their misery. 

These anti- Jewish laws have caused an immense exodus 
of Jews from Rumania. 

Rumania continued its anti- Jewish policy during the war. 
Rumanian Jews were registered and supervised as aliens, 
because, owing to defective registration, they could not 
prove that they were born in Rumania. Many elderly 
persons were born in places where no registers were kept. 
There were no registers before 1866, and it was only in 1880 
that the whole country began to keep such registers. This 
brings us directly to the Jewish clause of the treaty with 
Germany. The German Government had led the Jews in 
Germany to beheve that it would protect the rights of Jews 
in the treaty. But the treaty merely stated that those Jews 
hitherto considered aliens were to be naturahzed by law if 
they could prove that they and their parents were born in 
Rumania, or that they had taken part in the war, either in 
active service or in army service (Hilfsdienst) . Such a 
clause could only open the way to further equivocations. 
By the addition of this clause to the general statement that 
differences of reUgious faith shall have no influence on the 
legal rights of inhabitants, and in particular on their political 
and civil rights, the treaty of 19 18 actually went back from 
the position taken by the treaty of 1878. It is not even 
found possible to make the officers of a regiment in Rumania 
give a Jewish soldier the paper necessary to prove that he 
has served in the army. 

The letters to the Author, in which the two Entente 
Powers (England and Italy) expressed their desire to rectify 
this unjust state of affairs, are as follows : — 


Foreign Office, 
Sir, /^^^^ 15^^. 1918. 

In reply to your letter of the 3rd instant, relative to 
the question of Jewish rights in Rumania, I am directed 
by Mr. Secretary Balfour to state that His Majesty's Govern- 
ment fully realize that the enfranchisement promised to the 
Jews in Rumania under the recent treaty is less liberal than 
that by which the former Rumanian Government had 
publicly pledged themselves. They take this opportunity 
of assuring your Organization that they are most anxious 
to do everything in their power to secure a just and per- 
manent settlement of the Jewish question in that country. 

I am. Sir, 
Your most obedient, humble Servant, 
N. SOKOLOW, Esq., ^^'Sned) W. Langley. 

35 Empire House, 
175 Piccadilly, W. i. 

The Italian Ambassador, the Marquis ImperiaH, honoured 
me with a communication to a like effect, of which the 
following is a translation : — 


Dear Sir, August 2nd, 1918. 

On the instructions of His Excellency, Baron 
Sonnino, I have pleasure in communicating to you the 
following : 

" The Italian Government recognizing that the provision 
contained in the Treaty of Bucharest of May 7th, 1918, 
between Rumania and the Central Empires, relating to 
religious equahty in Rumania, are, so far as the Jews are 
concerned, less liberal than those which the Rumanian 
Government itself had spontaneously promised to grant, 
now declares that at the final settlement of the Rumanian 
question, it will use its best endeavours to secure for the 
Jews in Rumania a settlement which will definitely assure 
them of a permanent position of equality.'* 

Accept, dear Sir, the expression of my most distinguished 

consideration. ,^. ^ ^ 

(Signed) Imperial!. 

N. SoKOLOw, Esq. 

One of the first practical results of the British Govern- 
ment's declaration was the appointment in March, 1918, of a 
Zionist Commission for Palestine. 


The objects and status of the Commission were laid down 
as follows : — 

The Commission should represent the Zionist Organiza- 

It should act as an advisory body to the British 
authorities in Palestine in all matters relating to Jews, 
or which may affect the establishment of a national 
home for the Jewish people in accordance with the Declara- 
tion of His Majesty's Government. 

The objects of the Commission were : — 

1. To form a link between the British authorities and the 
Jewish population of Palestine. 

2. To co-ordinate the relief work in Palestine and to assist 
in the repatriation of exiled and evacuated persons and refugees. 

3. To assist in restoring and developing the Colonies and 
in organizing the Jewish population in general. 

4. To assist the Jewish organization and institutions in 
Palestine in the resumption of their activities. 

5. To help in establishing friendly relations with the Arabs 
and other non- Jewish communities. 

6. To collect information, and report upon the possibilities 
of the further development of the Jewish settlement and of the 
country in general. 

7. To inquire into the feasibility of the scheme of establishing 
a Jewish University. 

In order to be able to achieve the foregoing objects the 
Commission obtained permission, subject to military neces- 
sities, to travel, investigate, and make reports upon the 
above-mentioned matters. 

The Commission left London on March 8th. It con- 
sisted of : — 

Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the Chairman of the Commission ; 
Mr. Joseph Co wen, Director of the Anglo-Palestine Com- 
pany ; Dr. Eder, Medical Adviser, Representative of the 
Jewish Territorial Association ; Mr. Leon Simon, selected 
to be Chairman of the Relief Committee of the Commission ; 
and Professor Sylvain L6vi, College de France. Mr. Israel M. 
Sieff, of Manchester, acted as Secretary to the Commission. 

Two representatives of Italian Jewry joined the Com- 
mission after an interval of some time — Commendatore 
Bianchini and Dr. Artom. 

The Commission was accompanied by the following 


gentlemen : Mr. Aaron Aaronsohn, Agricultural Expert, 
formerly of the Jewish Colony of Zichron Jacob ; Mr. David 
Levontin, Manager of the Jaffa branch of the Anglo-Pales- 
tine Bank ; Mr. Rosenack, Agent of the Jewish Coloniza- 
tion Association, and Mr. Walter Meyer of New York. 

Major the Hon. W. Ormsby-Gore acted as Political 
Officer and communicated the Commission's views and 
requirements to the Government and the military authori- 

It had been intended that representatives of the Jews of 
Russia should join the Commission, but the disorganization 
of communications in Russia caused by the revolution pre- 
vented them from doing so until about October, 1918, when 
Mr. Isaac Goldberg and Mr. Israel Rosoff started for Pales- 

A few isolated incidents alone can be referred to here out 
of a large amount of work which was done by the Com- 
missioners. They succeeded in obliterating the ill effects of 
warfare, they restored refugees to their homes, restarted 
the normal course of peaceful activities, reorganized the 
hitherto unsatisfactory and disunited Jerusalem com- 
munities belonging to the old settlements of pre-Zionist 
times and pre-Zionist feelings, and extended the Hebrew 
system of schools. 

The Commission started part of its work in Egypt before 
it reached Palestine. The Arabs had been given wrong 
ideas concerning the meaning of the British declaration and 
the intention of the Zionists : pro -German agents had 
spread rumours intended to be both anti-English and anti- 
Jewish. They declared that rich Jews would exploit the 
land of Palestine and would destroy Moslem holy places. 
Dr. Weizmann met certain Arab leaders in Egypt and 
succeeded in removing their fears and anxieties. It was 
found that the Felaheen cultivators in Palestine do not fear 
the Jews. They realize that the Jewish colonies increase 
the prosperity of the country by introducing improved 
agricultural methods. But the Effendi Arabs, who are 
landlords, fear the establishment of a just rule over the 
land. These Effendi are largely cosmopolitans and absentee 
landlords, living in Syria and Egypt. The Zionists are 
anxious to prevent, if they can, any speculation in land, 
whether by natives of Palestine or by foreigners. The 
prosperity of the colonies is bound up with a just land 
policy, which will prevent the fruits of a man's labour 


enriching others and will place at the disposal of the Jewish 
colonies unused and State lands as well as badly cultivated 
large estates. 

The Zionists have been fortunate in gaining the confi- 
dence of the King of the Hedjaz and of Prince Feisal. 

Although by the Hague Convention the military authori- 
ties could not make any alteration in the laws of the land, 
they did in two matters of administration increase the power 
of self-government possessed by the Jews. They allowed 
certain colonies to appoint their own police and their own 
Jewish tax-collectors. So corrupt had the Turkish tax- 
collectors been, that the Jewish tax-collectors, while taking 
less from the colonists, were able to hand a larger sum to 
the Government. 

Much consideration was given by the Commission to the 
work of strengthening and supporting the organizations for 
relieving distress — orphanages, hospitals, and so on : a work 
much needed owing to war conditions. Special reports on 
the utilities of the various hospitals, schools, and orphanages 
were drawn up. In Jerusalem great distress was found. 
The Halukah Jews, settled in Jerusalem to study and pray 
and entirely dependent on the support of the Jews of other 
countries, had been by the war cut off from their means of 
hvelihood. Widows and orphans were many, the adult men 
having suffered excessively from epidemics. The Com- 
mission opened laundries and a kind of shirt factory to 
provide employment for women and did its best to find 
employment for the men, although the importation of raw 
materials was very difficult. 

On 17th June there was opened at Jaffa the first con- 
ference of Jews of the liberated area of Palestine. Major 
Ormsby-Gore, the PoHtical Officer in charge of the Zionist 
Commission, delivered the following speech : — 

'* You have asked me, as Political Officer in charge of the 
Zionist Commission which has been sent out to Palestine by 
H.M. Government, to attend this historic gathering and to 
say a few words of good wishes to you, the representatives 
of all Jewry in the occupied part of Palestine, on behalf of 
my Government. I do so with a full heart. My Govern- 
ment — the British Government — has said one or two im- 
portant things during this war concerning Palestine. 

" My Government has said that, if England and her Allies 
win this war, the future Government of Palestine shall not 
be Turkish, because in this war England and her Allies are 


fighting, not for the extension of any Empire, nor for the 
acquisition of further power or further territory, but they 
are fighting for an ideal, shared by all our Allies, namely, 
that countries shall be governed in the interests and accord- 
ing to the wishes and the aspirations of the inhabitants of 
those countries. We are satisfied when we look at the results 
of Turkish rule upon the land and the people of Palestine, 
that such rule ought to disappear in the interests of Palestine 
and of civihzation. The Turkish rule in Palestine was 
an aUen rule, and was not in the best interests of any 
of the inhabitants of Palestine, and, moreover, such a rule 
crippled the free development, economic and political, of 
this country. 

" My Government has said that it wishes to see the people 
of Palestine among others freed from the rule of the Turks, 
but it has as yet said nothing as to what Government should 
take its place — that is a matter for the Peace Conference. 
But Mr. Balfour has made an historic declaration with 
regard to the Zionists, that he wishes to see created and 
built up in Palestine a National Home for the Jewish 

" What do we understand by this ? We mean that those 
Jews who voluntarily come to live in Palestine should live in 
Palestine as Jewish nationalists, i.e. that they should be 
regarded as Jews and nothing else, and that they should be 
absolutely free to develop Hebrew education, to develop the 
country, and Hve their own life in their own way in Palestine 
freely, but only submitting equally with all others to the 
laws of the land. 

" I shall tell the British Government, when I go back, 
what the Jews of Palestine have done already to realize 
their ideals, and what they feel with regard to this National 
Home. I can say when I go back that I can see in this 
gathering to-day the pioneer work of the National Home, 
i.e. a National Home built up on a Hebrew foundation with 
a definite consciousness and ideal of its own. I can say that 
whether you come from Russia, from Salonica, from Bok- 
hara, from Poland, from America, from England, or from 
Yemen, you are bound together in Palestine by the ideal of 
building up a Jewish nation in all its various aspects in 
Palestine, a national centre for Jewry all over the world to 
look to. This is the ideal of the future, an ideal which I am 
convinced will be reaHzed without doing any injustice or 
injury to any of your neighbours here. But while I look 


forward to the realization of this ideal, I must remind you of 
the grim realities of the present. 

** We can still hear the guns, and we are in the midst of a 
desperate struggle — not merely between nations, but 
between ideals. Be patient with the British Government, 
who wish you well. Do not expect a great deal from them, 
but expect a great deal from yourselves. At present we are 
bound to carry on the Turkish system of law, taxation, and 
Government. We are bound to do this by international 
law, and England has always tried to respect this inter- 
national law. England set its seal to the Hague Convention, 
which said that when an advance was made into enemy 
country, the administration should be military and not 
political, and that such military administration should 
make no attempt to alter or change the institutions of the 
occupied country ; it is not our wish that this is so, but it is 
so by the rule of law, and we shall do our best to respect 
this law no matter who else breaks it. 

"It is difficult for a military administration to make 
radical changes or to do much to help you and others in the 
country. Nevertheless, some great things have been done 
already ; the British Government has given opportunity to 
the young men to join the battalion of Jews from other 
countries to liberate this country. This splendid response 
of your young men will have a great moral value when 
history comes to be written. Every one of these fine and 
splendid recruits now enrolled and who are going to the 
battalions which have come from England and America, 
will go as missionaries of Jewish nationalism in Palestine, 
so that these men will stay in Palestine and help to develop 
it on just and right lines. The British Government has done 
something more of great service to you. The Government 
has sent out to Palestine the Zionist Commission. It has 
sent out Dr. Weizmann, i.e. the British Government has sent 
out a man in whom it has confidence to help the Jews in 
Palestine in their greatest hour of need What this help has 
meant to you I need not go into in detail. The Zionist Com- 
mission speaks for itself. Dr. Weizmann came here as a 
stranger to the British authorities, but in a few weeks he has 
won for himself, and for the people whom he represents, a 
position among the British authorities and amongst all with 
whom he has come into contact in Egypt, Arabia, and 
Palestine ; a position which is not merely a help, but a 
comer stone of the work which lies before you. The Zionist 



Commission is in a position to do much to acquaint not only 
Jewry throughout the world, but also the Governments of 
the AlHed countries, with the needs, ideals, and aspirations 
of Palestine Jewry. It is, therefore, only right that you 
should be guided in patience by him, your leader, and accept 
his advice and direction. Dr. Weizmann is a leader who will 
see you through. He is a man worthy of your confidence, 
as well as of the confidence of all of the AlHed Govern- 

" The work of the conference which I am addressing is 
very important. You have a great deal to prepare for. You 
have to prepare for peace, for the day when war is no more, 
and when there will be, please God, a free Palestine. Gentle- 
men, make sure that your foundation-stones are truly laid 
in your agricultural, cultural, and educational work. So 
much depends for civilization on the work for which you are 
now preparing and which you will perform during the next 
few months. You will be faced with all the difficult trivial- 
ities of life, but in the Zionist movement there is a spirit, 
and just as good transcends evil, so does the spiritual 
transcend the material. You can build up a centre of 
civilization here. We English owe all that is best in our 
civilization to the Bible, and that is why we feel a deep 
interest and a bond of sympathy in the work which you are 
doing. The Zionist movement is not merely a political move, 
but it is a spiritual force, and if it succeeds I feel it will 
bring something great and noble to the world, a message 
which will not only do so much for the sad but beautiful land, 
but for the scattered hosts of Israel and for humanity." 

On 24th July, 191 8, the foundation-stones of the Hebrew 
University in Jerusalem were laid. This was an event 
which Zionists had conceived long before, an event likely 
to be of great importance in enabling Jerusalem to become 
a spiritual centre for the still dispersed communities of Israel, 
and destined, let us hope, to influence and elevate the mental 
life, social aspirations and religious conceptions of the Jews 
of the world. 

The site of the University is a beautiful one. It is on 
Mount Scopus, on an estate purchased from the late Sir John 
Gray Hill of Liverpool, who was personally in deep sym- 
pathy with the scheme. It faces Jerusalem on the one side 
and the valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea on the other. 

At the ceremony of laying the foundation-stones those 
present included, besides the members of the Zionist Com- 


mission, the Commander-in-Chief and senior members of 
his staff, the Military Governor of Jerusalem, staff repre- 
sentatives of the French and Italian military detachments 
in Palestine and other officers, the Mufti of Jerusalem, 
Bishop Maclnnes, Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the repre- 
sentatives of the Armenian and Greek Churches, the Mayor 
and Vice-Mayor of Jerusalem, Baron and Baroness Felix 
Menasce of Alexandria, Maurice Cattaui Pacha, President 
of the Cairo Jewish Community, Mr. Victor Mosseri, the 
Chief Rabbis of Cairo and Alexandria, the Sephardi and 
Ashkenazi Chief Rabbis, and representatives of all Jewish 
organizations and committees in Jerusalem, Jaffa, and the 
colonies. The day was declared a public Jewish hoHday in 
Jerusalem, and a crowd numbering about six thousand 
people witnessed the ceremony. 

After the ceremony had been opened by a chant of praise, 
Dr. Weizmann laid the first foundation-stone of the Uni- 
versity on behalf of the Zionist Organization. He was 
followed by the two Chief Rabbis of Jerusalem and the 
heads of the United Council, who laid a stone on behalf of 
the Jerusalem Community. The Mupi then laid a stone, 
and was followed by the Anglican Bishop. Stones were also 
laid on behalf of the following : The Zionist Organization, 
the Jewish Regiment, Baron Edmond de Rothschild, the 
town of Jaffa, the Colonies, Hebrew Literature, Hebrew 
Teachers, Hebrew Science, Jewish Artisans and Labourers, 
Isaac Goldberg (whose generosity it was that provided so 
largely for the purchase of the site), and the Future Genera- 

Dr. Weizmann then added his signature to a parchment 
scroll inscribed with the blessing : ^ 

: ntn p]b win) ^:D'>p) irnnty nb)v^ hVd iiM^« ^» nn« nna 

Wednesday, the fifteenth day of the fifth month, 
the month of Menachem-Ab, being in the year Five 
Thousand six hundred and seventy-eight from the 
creation of the World, One thousand eight hundred 
and forty-nine from the destruction of our second 
Temple, and the twenty-first year after the first Zionist 
Congress called by Dr. Benjamin Zeeb ben Jacob Herzl, the 
first year of the Declaration of the British Government 

* "Blessed art Thou 1 Lord our God, King of the Universe who hast 
preserved us alive, and sustained us and brought us to {tnjoy) this season." 


issued through the Rt. Hon. Arthur James Balfour prom- 
ising to grant a National Home to the Jewish People in 
the land of Israel, — the day on which was laid the first stone 
of the building which shall become the first Hebrew Uni- 
versity in Jerusalem. In testimony of which we add our 
signatures." The signatures included that of the Sephardi 
Chief Rabbi Nissim Elyashar, the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi 
Zerach Epstein, the Mufti of Jerusalem, Bishop Maclnnes, 
Chief Rabbi Uziel of Jaffa in the name of Baron Edmond de 
Rothschild, M. Libowitz, one of the last of the heroic band 
of Bilu, Dr. Thon, Mr. D. Levontin, and some boys and 
girls in the name of the future generation. 
The signed scroll was buried under the first stone. 
Dr. Weizmann then delivered an address. He said : — 
" We have to-day laid the foundation-stone of the first 
Jewish University, which is to be erected on this hill, over- 
looking the city of Jerusalem. Many of us will have had 
their thoughts cast back to the great historic scenes associ- 
ated with Jerusalem, scenes that have become part of the 
heritage of mankind. It is not too fanciful to picture the 
souls of those who have made our history here with us to-day 
inspiring us, urging us onwards, to greater and ever greater 
tasks. Many again will have had their attention riveted on 
the apparent contrast between to-day's ceremony and the 
scenes of warfare within a few miles of us. For only a brief 
moment we are allowing ourselves to indulge in a mental 
armistice, and in laying aside all thoughts of strife we try to 
pierce the veil of war and glance into the future. A week 
ago we were keeping the Fast of Ab, reminding us that the 
Temple had been utterly destroyed and the Jewish national 
political existence extinguished apparently for ever. But 
throughout the long centuries we, the stiff-necked people, 
have refused to acknowledge defeat, and ' Judcea Capta ' is 
once more on the eve of triumph. Here, out of the misery 
and the desolation of war, is being created the first germ of 
a new life. Hitherto we have been content to speak of Re- 
construction and Restoration. We know that ravished 
Belgium, devastated France, Poland and Russia must and 
will be restored. In this University, however, we have gone 
beyond Restoration and Reconstruction, we are creating 
during the period of war something which is to serve as a 
symbol of a better future. It is fitting that Great Britain, 
aided by her great Allies, in the midst of tribulation and 
sorrow, should stand sponsor to this University. Great 


Britain has understood that it is just because these are times 
of stress, just because men tend to become lost in the events 
of the day, that there is a need to overlay these details by 
this bold appeal to the world's imagination. Here what 
seemed but a dream a few years ago is now becoming a 

*' What is the significance of a Hebrew University — ^what 
are going to be its functions, whence will it draw its students, 
and what languages will it speak ? It seems at first sight 
paradoxical that in a land with so sparse a population, in a 
land where everything still remains to be done, in a land 
crying out for such simple things as ploughs, roads, and 
harbours, we should begin by creating a centre of spiritual 
and intellectual development. But it is no paradox for 
those who know the soul of the Jew. It is true that great 
social and poHtical problems still face us and will demand 
their solution from us. We Jews know that when the mind 
is given fullest play, when we have a centre for the develop- 
ment of Jewish consciousness, then coincidently we shall 
attain the fulfilment of our material needs. In the darkest 
ages of our existence we found protection and shelter within 
the walls of our schools and colleges, and in devoted study 
of Jewish science the tormented Jew found rehef and con- 
solation. Amid all the sordid squalor of the Ghetto there 
stood schools of learning where numbers of young Jews sat 
at the feet of our Rabbis and teachers. Those schools and 
colleges served as large reservoirs where there was stored up 
during the long ages of persecution an intellectual and 
spiritual energy which on the one hand helped to maintain 
our national existence, and on the other hand blossomed 
forth for the benefit of mankind when once the walls of the 
Ghetto fell. The sages of Babylon and Jerusalem, Maimon- 
ides and the Gaon of Wilna, the lens polisher of Amsterdam 
and Karl Marx, Heinrich Heine and Paul Ehrlich are some 
of the links in the long, unbroken chain of intellectual 

" The University, as its name impHes, is to teach every- 
thing the mind of man embraces. No teaching can be fruitful 
nowadays unless it is strengthened by a spirit of enquiry 
and research ; and a modern University must not only 
produce highly trained professional men, but give ample 
opportunity to those capable and ready to devote them- 
selves to scientific research to do so unhindered and un- 
disturbed. Our University will thus become the home of 


those hundreds of talented young Jews in whom the thirst 
for learning and critical enquiry has been engrained by 
heredity throughout ages, and who in the great multitude 
of cases are at present compelled to satisfy this their burning 
need amid un- Jewish, very often unfriendly surroundings. 

'' A Hebrew University ! 1 do not suppose that there is 
anyone here who can conceive of a University in Jerusalem 
being other than a Hebrew one. The claim that the Uni- 
versity should be a Hebrew one rests upon the values the Jews 
have transmitted to the world from this land. Here in the 
presence of adherents of the three great religions of the world, 
which amid many diversities build their faith upon the Lord 
who made Himself known unto Moses, before this world 
which has founded itself on Jewish law, has paid reverence 
to Hebrew seers, has acknowledged the great mental and 
spiritual values the Jewish people have given to it, the 
question is answered. The University is to stimulate the 
Jewish people to reach further truth. Am I too bold if here 
to-day in this place among the hills of Ephraim and Judah, 
I state my conviction that the seers of Israel have not utterly 
perished, that under the aegis of this University there will 
be a renaissance of the Divine power of prophetic wisdom 
that once was ours ? The University will be the focus of the 
rehabilitation of our Jewish consciousness now so tenuous, 
because it has become so world-diffused. Under the atmo- 
spheric pressure of this Mount, our Jewish consciousness can 
become diffused without becoming feeble, our consciousness 
will be rekindled and our Jewish youth will be reinvigorated 
from Jewish sources. 

" Since it is to be 3. Hebrew University, the question hardly 
arises as to its language. By a strange error, people have 
regarded Hebrew as one of the dead languages, whilst in fact 
it has never died off the lips of mankind. True, to many of 
us Jews it has become a second language, but for thousands 
of my people Hebrew is and always has been the sacred 
tongue, and in the streets of Tel Aviv, in the orchards of 
Rischon and Rechoboth, on the farms of Hulda and Ben 
Shemen, it has already become the mother tongue. Here in 
Palestine, amid the Babel of languages, Hebrew stands out 
as the one language in which every Jew can communicate 
with every other Jew. Upon the technical difficulties con- 
nected with Hebrew instruction it is unnecessary for me to 
dwell at the moment. We are alive to them ; but the 
experience of our Palestinian schools has already shown to 


us that these difficulties are surmountable. These are all 
matters of detail which have been carefully examined and 
will be dealt with at the appropriate time. I have spoken 
of the Jewish Universit}^ where the language will be Hebrew, 
just as French is used at the Sorbonne, or English at Oxford. 
Naturally, other languages, ancient and modern, will be 
taught in the respective faculties ; among these languages 
we may expect that prominent attention will be given to 
Arabic and other Semitic languages. 

" The Hebrew University, though intended primarily for 
Jews, will, of course, give an affectionate welcome to the 
members of every race and creed. ' For my house will be 
called a house of prayer for all the nations. ' Besides the usual 
schools and institutions which go to form a modern Uni- 
versity, there will be certain branches of science which it will 
be peculiarly appropriate to associate with our University. 
Archaeological Research, which has revealed so much of the 
mysterious past of Egypt and of Greece, has a harvest still 
to be reaped in Palestine, and our University is destined to 
play an important part in this field of knowledge. 

" The question as to the faculties with which our University 
may begin its career is limited to some extent by practical 
considerations. The beginnings of our University are not 
entirely lacking. We have in Jerusalem the elements of a 
Pasteur Institute and a Jewish Health Bureau, whence 
valuable contributions to bacteriology and sanitation have 
already been issued. There is the school of Technology at 
Haifa, and the beginning of an agricultural experimental 
station at Athlit. It is to scientific research and its applica- 
tion that we can confidently look for the banishment of those 
twin plagues of Palestine, malaria and trachoma ; for the 
eradication of other indigenous diseases ; it is to true 
scientific method that we may look for the full cultivation 
of this fair and fertile land, now so unproductive. Here, 
chemistry and bacteriology, geology and cUmatology, will 
be required to join forces, so that the great value of the 
University in the building up of our National Home is 
apparent. All that again reminds us of the fact which one 
is likely to forget after four years of a terrible war, with its 
misapplication of scientific methods, that we must look to 
science as to the healer of many wounds and the redeemer of 
many evils. Side by side with scientific research the human- 
ities will occupy a distinguished place. Ancient Jewish 
learning, the accumulated, half-liidden treasures of our 


ancient philosophical, rehgious and juridic literature, are to 
be brought to Hght again and freed from the dust of ages. 
They will be incorporated in the new Hfe now about to 
develop in this country, and so our past will be linked up 
with the present. 

" May I be allowed, before concluding, to point to one very 
important aspect of our University ? The University, while 
trying to maintain the highest scientific level, must, at the 
same time, be rendered accessible to all classes of the people. 
The Jewish workman and farm labourer must be enabled to 
find there a possibihty of continuing and completing their 
education in their free hours. The doors of our hbraries, 
lecture rooms, and laboratories, must be opened widely to 
them all. Thus the University will exercise its beneficial 
influence on the nation as a whole. The bare nucleus of the 
Hbrary is already in existence here, and very valuable addi- 
tions to it are at present stored up in Russia and elsewhere. 
The setting-up of a University hbrary and of a University 
press are contemplated soon after the war. Manifold are 
the preparations yet to be made. Some of them are already 
in progress ; some, hke the actual building, must necessarily 
be postponed until the happy day of peace arrives. But 
from this day the Hebrew University is a reality. Our 
University, formed by Jewish learning and Jewish energy, 
will mould itself into an integral part of our national structure 
which is in process of erection. It will have a centripetal 
force, attracting all that is noblest in Jewry throughout the 
world ; a unif3dng centre for our scattered elements. There 
will go forth, too, inspiration and strength, that shall revivify 
the powers now latent in our scattered communities. Here 
the wandering soul of Israel shall reach its haven ; its 
strength no longer consumed in restless and vain wanderings. 
Israel shall at last remain at peace within itself and with the 
world. There is a Talmudic legend that tells of the Jewish 
soul deprived of its body, hovering between heaven and 
earth. Such is our soul to-day ; to-morrow it shall come to 
rest, in this our sanctuary. That is our faith." 

Dr. Weizmann then read the following message from 
Mr. Balfour : — 

" Please accept my cordial good wishes for the future of 
the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus. May it carry out 
its noble purpose with ever-increasing success as the years 
go on. I offer my warm congratulations to all who have 
laboured so assiduously to found this school of learning, 


which should be an addition to the forces of progress 
throughout the world." 

Captain Coulandre, on behalf of the French Government, 
presented the following message : — 

" Le Gouvernement de la Republique est heureux d'ex- 
primer les sentiments de sympathie avec lesquels il accueille 
la fondation de TUniversite Juive. II forme des vceux 
sinceres pour que de la rayonnent les grandes pensees de 
fraternite et d'ideal auxquels le Judaisme s'est si fermement 
attache a travers les siecles au cours desquels il a resiste a 
toutes les persecutions, et pour que dans un monde debarasse 
des violences engendrees par les ambitions forcenees du 
regime Prussien les Juifs qui le desireront puissent trouver 
en Palestine en parfaite entente avec les autres groupements 
ethniques un foyer a la fois intellectuel et social." 

The whole ceremony was a deeply moving one, and 
produced an effect which will long remain with those who 
witnessed it. 

The work of the Commission was made possible by the 
work of the British Army and its scope was greatly increased 
by General Allenby's complete conquest of the country. In 
September, 1918, General AUenby secured a victory which 
resounded throughout the world by its completeness as 
well as by its brilUance. By most skilful procedure the 
Turkish hne was broken in several places and Nablus and 
Beisan were captured. The bridge of the Daughters of Jacob 
over the Jordan was seized and British troops wheeling 
round by quick marches along the coastal plain, passed 
through the defile of Megiddo and cut off the greater portion 
of the Turkish army. The strong Turkish positions in the 
hills about Nahlns were surrounded and positions which if 
directly attacked would have cost thousands of lives were 
taken with comparatively few losses. 

Eighty thousand prisoners were captured and a vast 
amount of guns, munitions, and stores. The cavalry swept 
northward and captured Damascus within a few days, and 
even moved on to Beirout and Sidon on the coast, while 
the Arabs under the King of the Hedjaz defeated the Turks 
in the south-east of Palestine and Jewish troops were sent 
forward to the capture of Amman and Essalt. In a period 
of a fortnight, three armies were defeated and ceased to 
exist. Turkey's mihtary power was destroyed instant ane- 


ously. The only defences left to the Turkish Empire were 
bad communications, immense distances, and the sub- 
marines in the Eastern Mediterranean. The victories in 
Palestine stirred the world and gave new vigour to Zionist 
efforts. To the outside world, these victories marked the 
first decisive step in the final defeat of the German federa- 
tion. To the Zionists, they brought great joy because they 
definitely ended the corrupt rule of Turkey. Supported by 
the most powerful nations in the world, the Jews are asked 
to create in Palestine a typically Hebrew society. A great 
responsibility and a great opportunity are thus offered to 
us. We have to consider many new and difficult problems. 
But for the solution of these practical problems, we con- 
fidently expect to receive much help from Jews all over 
the world. The Declaration of the Allies has been like a 
trumpet-call. Our wonderful successes in the world of 
diplomacy fascinate all to whom the fate of Israel is of 
importance. The history of the past few years, which has 
transformed, at the cost of terrible injuries to humanity, 
what seemed dreams into plain facts, and made what were 
facts into dream-like memories, will surely bring us active 
help from all who sympathize with our ideal, the ideal for 
which Jews have unceasingly prayed and hoped for twenty 

This mighty war has now come to an end and the world 
breathes freely once more. The cruelties and horrors of 
more than four years seem now like a nightmare. That 
nightmare has vanished — let us hope for ever. Day has 
dawned again, a day of victory, whose power for good out- 
weighs the evil powers let loose by the world-war. The 
great armies of the Western Allies and of the United States 
of America have been victorious. In consequence of this 
victory an old world order has been destroyed and a new 
and a better one brought into being. State organizations 
which had forced diverse nations into their artificial 
and incongruous structures only by power are collapsing like 
houses of cards. Those who ruled by the sword perished 
by the sword. Despotism, supported by militarism, is 
shattered. The victory of the Allies ought to be more than 
a victory of one group of states over another ; this ought 
to be the victory of what is good in man over what is evil. 


This victory must benefit the conquered not less than the 
conquerors. One great idea has been victorious in this war, 
namely, the national principle : liberty, equality, and self- 
determination of all peoples, great and small, old and young. 
Every nation has the right to live, given the will to do so. 
Every nation has a right to the land in which it grew to be 
a nation. It is all one, whether this was accomplished a 
hundred years ago as in Belgium, or many hundreds of 
years ago as in Armenia, or as in Greece some thousands of 
years ago. The right of a people to its historical home can- 
not be limited by time. 

On the basis of this principle a new Europe is shaping 
itself. Every nation must have its own land, its share in 
human civilization, with its own speech and customs, its 
right to do as it wills. Alsace-Lorraine wants to be French, 
and therefore it shall be French again. The Czechs and the 
Southern Slavs wish to form independent states ; Poland, 
Belgium, Serbia, and others, too, are reasserting their inde- 
pendence. Wherever historical rights exist, these must 
now be realized. Every nation regains now its Zion for 
which it has longed and suffered. Although this is a great 
progress in itself, it would be a poor safeguard unless the 
other great principle were also adopted, the principle of 
freedom. With the regeneration of national freedom it 
follows also that the progress of human liberty, equality, 
and social justice both in the existing states and in the old 
ones now to be re-established will be assured. No despotism, 
no subjection of minorities, but liberty, equality, and 
fraternity for all citizens, equal duties and equal rights. 

For this ideal seven millions of men, the vigorous youth 
of mankind, have sacrificed their lives, and many millions 
more have been crippled. For this ideal of justice several 
countries have been laid waste and civilization itself has 
been threatened with complete destruction. This great 
ideal of justice, however, will be worthy of the terrible 
sacrifices which have been made ; it must now be attained. 

A new Europe and — a new Asia. Light is shining again 
from the East. The glorious British Army has reconquered 
ancient East for civilization. The Arabs, our Semitic 
kindred, the descendants of a chivalrous and one-time 
famous race, side by side with inspired Jewish volunteer 
forces who had flocked together to fight with love and 
enthusiasm for the Land of Promise, have, with the assist- 
ance of French and Italian reinforcements, done their duty 


in assisting the British Army. Mesopotamia, Arabia, 
Syria, and Palestine are now freed for their nations. An 
Arabian Kingdom, a free, well-ordered Syria, the remnants 
of the unfortunate, hard-tried Armenian nation established as 
an Armenian State, and a new Erez Israel, all these will have 
to be created on a basis of historical rights and of the real- 
ization of the national principle, each under the protection of, 
and receiving assistance from, some suitable Great Power, 
in accordance with their own desire, in their gradual and 
peaceful progress towards their ultimate goal. 

What, we ask, will now be the position of the' Jews at this 
juncture ? What will the great victory bring to this people 
who have been so hard hit by this war ? Hundreds of 
thousands of Jews have lost their lives, most of them in 
countries where they had no share in human rights, and 
nothing to fight for. Dying on the Carpathian moun- 
tains or in the plains of Moldavia, the last glance of their 
closing eyes was turned to the East, to the hills of Zion, 
Innumerable masses have been maimed, millions nerve- 
shattered and starved out, tens of thousands of Jewish 
homes, thousands of old Jewish communities wiped out, 
never to be reconstructed. Will all this not be taken into 
account in the general reckoning of the great victory ? 
Jews live in larger or smaller numbers in different countries, 
where they are faithful and devoted citizens. The majority 
of the Jewish people have suffered too long and too bitterly 
in many countries, and it must be the task of the nations 
and their governments, once and for all, to put an end to these 
unspeakable sufferings in the old states and in those soon 
to be founded, by solemn declarations and binding obliga- 
tions. The Jews desire to be emancipated, that is, released 
from servile tutelage ; in a free state they do not wish to be 
the only pariahs and slaves. They demand to be free ; 
that means in the first place that they want to breathe 
freely, to breathe wherever they wish without fear that 
a policeman or a neighbour should point out to them that a 
Jew may not breathe everywhere. They demand to be free ; 
that means in the second place, that they should have 
the right to use their powers of mind and body un- 
hindered in any honest calling, in any useful art, in any 
branch of science ; so that they can be active and industri- 
ous, follow skilled employments, or discharge the functions 
of office in order to maintain themselves and their families 
and not be a burden upon others. This they desire without 


having to fear that the Gentile competitor should be able 
to say to them : only Gentile hands, only Gentile craftsmen 
may be employed in skilled trades, only Gentile applicants 
are admitted to official positions, only Gentile abilities can 
assert themselves. And as there are too many of you, we 
must make laws to limit your activities — otherwise we shall 
boycott you ! They demand to be free ; that means in the 
third place that they must be free also as regards their 
conscience : if their sons possess sufficient talent and know- 
ledge to serve the country as scholars or as public officials, 
they should be able to do so as honest Jews, and not be 
compelled to parade as dishonest Christians, that is to pro- 
fane the ceremony of baptism and to use the certificate of 
baptism as a passport to office ; they do not wish to act 
as hypocrites, they do not wish to enter Christian com- 
munities by lying and knavery, or to smuggle themselves in 
that way into civic life. They wish to live as Jews, that 
means to maintain and to develop undisturbed in their true 
spirit their customs, their traditions, their system of educa- 
tion, their communities, etc. In short, they wish to be 
human beings, since he that may not be a citizen with a 
citizen's full rights in the place where he lives and works and 
bears his share in all social burdens, has been denied the 
right to be a human being ; or if rights are granted to a man 
under the condition that he should become assimilated and 
cease to be what he has been, thanks to his race and the 
traditions sacred to him, against that man's manhood the 
crime of murder has been committed. They wish to be free 
human beings. 

This question indeed concerns humanity. It was raised 
at the end of the eighteenth century by the great French 
Revolution, and in some states with small Jewish popula- 
tions it has been solved in a spirit of liberty. France, Eng- 
land, Italy were the pioneers of equal rights for all. The 
United States of America were an example in establishing 
the freedom of citizenship. Nevertheless the majority of 
the Jews presented during the course of the nineteenth 
century a pitiful spectacle of unceasing martyrdom — ^with 
many shades from semi-emancipation linked with anti- 
semitism, to boycott and massacres. 

The world is changing all its values, and should there be 
in any country a continuation of tyranny, oppression, and 
barbarous persecution with regard to the Jews, under any 
pretext — of which there has never and nowhere seemed to 


be a lack — ^then the great ideal of this world-war will remain 
an idle dream. For justice can never exist together with 
injustice. This problem of humanity must now be and will 
be solved. 

But the essential problem of modern political evolution 
lies deeper than this : it is the problem of the peoples that 
have been robbed of their lands. No matter how the posi- 
tion of the Jews may be ameliorated, and although many 
Jews may find a home here and there, nevertheless the 
genius of the Jewish people, the energy of its constructive 
power, its creative force will have no adequate means of 
expression. To have a strong impulse to live their own 
full life and not to be able to do so — ^that is the heart- 
breaking tragedy of this people. This essential dilemma is 
left untouched by the vague formula of Emancipation. 
Zionism is the only remedy for the deeper Jewish problem, 
because Zionism alone goes to the real root of the trouble. 
There can be no Emancipation worthy of the name without 
a homeland. The greatest danger to Zionism as well as to 
anti-Zionism is that the ideal of Zionism on the one hand 
and that of Emancipation on the other should be separated, 
and that people should come to regard as antagonistic objects 
which are essentially related and complementary to one 
another. Not all Jews will return to Palestine, but large 
numbers will. Zionism represents one of the highest mani- 
festations of that aspiration to free national existence which 
is the basis of the reconstruction of the world. When a 
people, uprooted for centuries from its soil, scattered like 
dust over the whole world, wants to restore its homeland 
to-day, to have a land where it can be reunited, then we have 
before us a proof of the new power that lies in the national idea. 
Millions of Jews are attached to Palestine with all their soul 
and strength, just as on the first day of the forced expulsion 
of their ancestors from their old home : their prayers, their 
lamentations, their dreams have centred for generations 
upon this magnetic pole of their love and reverence. Hun- 
dreds of times they made desperate efforts to return, but 
were prevented by powerful circumstances from doing so, 
and as soon as they had the opportunity of beginning again 
the re-settlement of Palestine, notwithstanding unspeakable 
sufferings and the greatest sacrifices, they instantly and 
energetically availed themselves of it. If the millions of 
Jewish emigrants who formed the new ghettoes of Europe 
and America from about 1880 to now had had the possi- 


bility of going to Palestine, they would have gladly seized 
it, because they wished to hve as a nation, but that was not 
possible at that time. Israel must have its own home. 
Palestine must become the spiritual and cultural centre of 
the Jews. Properly developed, it can hold miUions of home- 
less Jews who will at last have their own homeland and 
their own full nationahty. If it is a misfortune for a 
people to be robbed of its country, where it could 
live in peace and prosperity as a nation and enjoy 
in common with the rest of the family of nations 
the fruits of its labour, then this misfortune is not 
smaller but rather has become greater for having 
existed two thousand years. If it is an injustice to withhold 
from a people a land to which they have a right, then this 
injustice is not the smaller, but rather the greater, when a 
people has suffered it for two thousand years. Never has a 
nation governed its own home for a longer period ; no 
nation's history, rehgion, literature, and traditions are more 
closely bound up with its land ; and no nation has ever 
suffered a more terrible martyrdom after having been dis- 
inherited. Can anyone doubt the right of the Jewish people 
to the land of Israel ? The validity of the Jewish title to 
Palestine rests on the same basis as the title of any nation 
to any particular area of the world where it has ruled and 
existed for centuries. The Jews* historical right on the 
Land of Israel, with due consideration for the rights and 
interests of the non- Jewish population which will be safe- 
guarded and respected, must become the decisive factor 
in the question of Palestine. 

At last the time has come. The spirit of freedom is on 
the wing, the Great Creative Spirit is once more moving 
among the nations. The new territorial settlement is going 
to lay the foundations of the world's peace on a basis of 
justice and national union. The liberation of oppressed 
nationalities, the restoration of territories violently annexed 
in the past, the recognition of the desire of racial units and 
groups for autonomy are the great objects in view. The 
wrongs of the centuries are going to be righted, and the 
Jewish race to be placed on an equal footing with other races. 
The Jewish people is standing at a momentous turning 
point in its history of four thousand years, to which the 
determined labour of Zionism has paved the way. The 
very roots of Jewish nationality are set in that soil which 
after being for ages in shadow is again turning to light. 


With the victory of the national idea Zionism also has won 
a victory. Now that Palestine is freed, much is possible 
which formerly was only an aspiration. The field is immense 
and ready. The evil demon of the Pharaohs and of Antio- 
chus Epiphanes has been cast out ; the glorious genius of 
Cyrus the Great hovers with wings of love over the wonder- 
ful destiny of the Jewish people. Powerful nations and 
governments — ^the guardians of freedom and the champions 
of justice — ^have solemnly pledged themselves to further 
with all the forces at their disposal the revival of the Jewish 
nation in the land of Israel. Under this guiding symbol 
the problem of Palestine will be discussed and settled by the 
Peace Conference among all the important questions before 
it. The work is stupendous in its implications and its 
responsibilities. No one imagines that this result can be 
speedily attained. Its accomplishment will take time, and 
quite possibly a long time. To restore a scattered people to 
a land long neglected is not an easy task. The Jewish 
colonization of Palestine must be carefully built, stone upon 
stone, by the steady hands of Zionists with that spirit of 
self-sacrificing endurance which saved our nationality, with 
wisdom and self-restraint. Zionists are aware of what the 
Holy Places of Palestine, places of traditional associations 
and religious faith, consecrated by a thousand cherished 
memories, are to the great religions. These places will receive 
equal respect ; they will be, not less, but more than hitherto 
reverently exalted as places of the rarest and sweetest 
memories in the world. Zionists have the most scrupulous 
regard for all spiritual things and needs of all religions, and 
are confident that all Holy Places will be safeguarded by 
arrangements to be introduced Zionists are also alive to the 
legitimate interests and needs of the non- Jewish population, 
whose liberty and welfare, in peace and harmony and 
mutual respect, are most essential for the success of the 
Jewish national rebirth. The new Jewish centre must be 
made worthy of its glorious past. The noblest ambitions of 
Jews all over the world are concentrated on this point. 

Zionists have now an opportunity never dreamt of — 
an opportunity that may never return. The Jewish masses, 
all those who want to live their own life, the clean, 
free life of ; farmers and settlers, will be enabled to 
cultivate 'all the possibilities of their nature. Industry, 
art, and science are to join hands in this great work. 
The long-desired goal of the Jewish people, the re- 


habilitation of the old national home in the land of 
their fathers, is nearing reahzation. This is a great historical 
event which must touch and stimulate the imagination of 
all for whom history, right of nations, and justice for small 
nationalities have any meaning or any message. Ancient 
Israel, reawakened to new life, is preparing itself to enter 
the family of nations as a small but free nation in its old 

Zionism is not a mere abstract idea. It is connected by 
every bond with modern democracy and aspirations for 
liberty. All peoples for whom democracy is not a vain 
word owe it moral and material support. The Peace Con- 
ference must permit it to attain its ends. The League of 
Nations will not be complete if the oldest and most oppressed 
Jewish nationality will not have its place there. Of all the 
consequences of the Great War and the still greater Victory, 
none could be invested with so splendid a degree of romance 
as the re-establishment of Israel. Of all the small nations 
which shall spring full fledged from this world crisis, none 
will have so ancient a claim, so fascinating a history as 
the Hebrew people reinstalled among the consecrated hills 
of Judah and by the sacred waters of Galilee. This will be 
an everlasting memorial to the principle for which the free 
peoples of the earth have made the greatest sacrifice in the 
history of the human race. And the names of all those who 
have given their support and help towards this work of 
Peace, Justice, and Libert 3^ will live for ever in the annals of 
the world and of Israel. 


B. M. : British Museum Library. 
I. S, : Israel Solomons' Collection. 

The Prophets and the Idea of a National Restoration 

The first prophet who has left any definite revelation concerning 
the Dispersion of the Jews and their ultimate restoration in 
Palestine was Moses, our Law-giver. 

" And I will bring the land into desolation ; and your enemies 
that dwell therein shall be astonished at it." (Leviticus xxvi. 32.) 

" And you will I scatter among the nations, and I will draw out 
the sword after you ; and your land shall be a desolation, and your 
cities shall be a waste." {Ibid. 33.) 

" And yet for all that, when they are in the land of their enemies, 
I will not reject them, neither will I abhor them, to destroy them 
utterly, and to break My covenant with them^;^ for I am the Lord 
their God." {Ibid. 44.) 

" But I will for their sakes remember the covenant of their 
ancestors, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt in the sight 
of the nations, that I might be their God : I am the Lord." {Ibid. 45.) 

Here we have a promise not to abhor or utterly destroy the 
Jewish people, but to remember the covenant which God made 
with their ancestors. We find the purport of this covenant in an 
early chapter of the Pentateuch : — 

" And the Lord said unto Abram, . . . ' Lift up now thine eyes, 
and look from the place where thou art, northward and southward 
and eastward and westward ; " (Genesis xiii. 14.) 
" for all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy 
seed for ever : " {Ibid. 15.) 

It is impossible to understand how it can be said that this 
covenant will be remembered, if the Jewish people is to continue 
dispersed, and is to he for ever excluded from the land here spoken 
of. As to the return from Babylonian captivity, that will not 
answer the intention of the covenant at all. For to restore a 
small part of the Jewish people to its own land for a few genera- 
tions, and afterwards disperse it among all nations for many 
times as long, without any hope of return, cannot be the meaning 
of giving that land to the seed of Abram for ever. 

II.— M 161 


Again we read : — 

" And the Lord shall scatter you among the peoples, ..." 

(Deuteronomy iv. 27.) 

** But from thence ye will seek the Lord thy God ; and thou shalt 
find Him, if thou search after Him with all thy heart and with all thy 
soul." {Ibid. 29.) 

" In thy distress, when all these things are come upon thee, in the 
end of days, thou wilt return to the Lord thy God, and hearken unto 
His voice ; " {Ibid. 30.) 

" for the Lord thy God is a merciful God ; He will not fail thee, 
neither destroy thee, nor forget the covenant of thy fathers which 
He swore unto them." {Ibid. 31.) 

This prophecy refers to the thirteenth chapter of Genesis, as is 
shown by this thirty-first verse ; and confirms again the return 
to the Holy Land, and its possession for ever : — 

" And it shall come to pass, when all these things are come upon 
thee, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and 
thou shalt bethink thyself among all the nations, whither the Lord 
thy God hath driven thee," (Deuteronomy xxx. i.) 
" and shalt return unto the Lord thy God, and hearken to His voice 
according to all that I command thee this day, thou and thy children, 
with all thy heart, and with all thy soul ; " {Ibid. 2.) 

" that then the Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and have com- 
passion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the 
peoples, whither the Lord thy God hath scattered thee." {Ibid. 3.) 

" If any of thine that are dispersed be in the uttermost parts of 
heaven, from thence will the Lord thy God gather thee, and from 
thence will He fetch thee." {Ibid. 4.) 

" And the Lord thy God will bring thee into the land which thy 
fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it ; and He will do thee 
good, and multiply thee above thy fathers." {Ibid. 5.) 

Amongst the "things which should come upon them," which 
axe described at large in the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth 
chapters of Deuteronomy, it is particularly said : — 

" And the Lord shall scatter thee among all peoples, from the one 
end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth ; . . ." 

{Ibid, xxviii. 64.) 
But observe that subsequently we are told : — 

" And the Lord thy God will bring thee into the land which 
thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it ; and He will do thee 
good, and multiply thee above thy fathers." {Ibid. xxx. 5.) 

which promises do not appear to have been fulfilled during the 
time of the Babylonian captivity, or after the return from 

Here we have in plain words, simple and clear, the funda- 
mental idea of Moses : the Jewish national future and the 
possession of the land for ever. This cannot be explained away 
b y sophistry. In vain some Jews declare : We are not nationalist 


Jews, we are religious Jews ! What is the Jewish religion if the 
Bible is not accepted as an Inspired Revelation ? It is strange 
and sadly amusing that some Jews, adherents of the monotheistic 
principle, describe themselves as Germans, Magyars, and so on, 
" of the persuasion of Moses." If this is not blasphemy, it is 
irony. The real Moses, the Moses of the Pentateuch, brands 
Dispersion as a curse, and his whole religious conception, with all 
the laws, ceremonies, feasts, etc., is built up on the basis of the 
covenant with the ancestors, a covenant immovable and un- 
alterable. No matter whether Jews call themselves religious or 
nationalist : the Jewish religion cannot be separated from 
nationalism, unless another Bible is invented. 

Judaism, or the Jewish religion, is based first upon the teaching 
of Moses, and next upon that of the prophets, and it is a favourite 
claim of the modern school of Jewish reform that their Judaism 
is " Prophetic Judaism," in opposition to the Judaism of orthodox 
Jews, who lay particular stress upon the Talmud. But what do 
the prophets teach ? 

The next revelation in chronological order after the inspired 
predictions of Moses, is that of Joel the son of Pethuel, who began 
to prophesy to the Kingdom of Judah about eight hundred years 
before the civil era : — 

" Then was the Lord jealous for His land, 
And had pity on His people." (Joel ii. 18.) 

" And the Lord answered and said unto His people : 

Behold, I will send you corn, and wine, and oil, 

And ye shall be satisfied therewith ; 

And I will no more make you a reproach among the nations ; " 

[Ibid. 19.) 
" For, behold, in those days, and in that time. 

When I shall bring back the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem," 

{Ibid. iv. I.) 
" So shall ye know that I am the Lord your God, 

Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain ; 

Then shall Jerusalem be holy, ..." {Ibid. 17.) 

" But Judah shall be inhabited for ever, 
And Jerusalem from generation to generation." {Ibid. 20.) 

Amos, who was among the herdmen of Tekoa, lived in the days 
of Jeroboam, the son of Joash, King of Israel, and prophesied to 
the Kingdom of Israel from eight hundred and eight, to seven 
hundred and eighty-three years before the civil era : — 

" And I will turn the captivity of My people Israel, 

And they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them ; ..." 

(Amosix. 14.) 
" And I will plant them upon their land. 

And they shall no more be plucked up 

Out of their land which I have given them, 

Saith the Lord thy God." {Ibid. 15.) 


Hosea, the son of Beeri, prophesied to the Kingdom of Israel, 
in the days of the same Jeroboam from about seven hundred and 
eighty-five, to seven hundred and twenty-five years before the 
civil era : — 

" For the children of Israel shall sit solitary many days without 
king, and without prince, . . ." (Hosea iii. 4.) 

" afterward shall the children of Israel return, and seek the Lord 
their God, and David their king ; . . ." {Ibid. 5.) 

This prophecy, being given to the Kingdom of Israel in parti- 
cular, cannot be applied to the return of Judah from Babylon. 

Isaiah the son of Amoz (The First Isaiah) was the foremost 
of the four who are called the greater prophets. He lived in the 
time of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, Kings of Judah, 
and prophesied about seven hundred and sixty, to six hundred 
and ninety-eight years before the civil era : — 

" And it shall come to pass in that day. 
That the Lord will set His hand again the second time 
To recover the remnant of His people. 
That shall remain from Assyria, and from Egypt, 
And from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, 
And from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the 
sea." (Isaiah xi. 11.) 

" And he will set up an ensign for the nations, 
And will assemble the dispersed of Israel, 
And gather together the scattered of Judah 
From the four comers of the earth." {Ihid. 12.) 

" The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, 
And they that harass Judah shall be cut off ; 
Ephraim shall not envy Judah, 
And Judah shall not vex Ephraim." {Ibid. 13.) 

This prophecy, alone, is sufficiently definite with regard to a 
second restoration of Israel, as appears from the eleventh verse, 
even if there were no other to be found. 

As to the second Isaiah, his prophecies may be called the 
" Song of Songs " of the restoration of Israel : — 

" Lift up thine eyes round about, and see : 
They all are gathered together, and come to thee ; 
Thy sons come from far. 
And thy daughters are borne on the side." (Isaiah Ix. 4.) 

" Who are these that fly as a cloud. 
And as the doves to their cotes ? " {Ibid. 8.) 

" Surely the isles shall wait for Me, 
And the ships of Tarshish first, 
To bring thy sons from far. 
Their silver and their gold with them, 
For the name of the Lord thy God, 

And for the Holy One of Israel, because He hath glorified thee." 

{Ibid. 9.) 


" For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, 
shall remain before Me, said the Lord, so shall your seed and your 
name remain." [Ihid. Ixvi. 22.) 

Micah the Morashtite prophesied in the days of Jotham, 
Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, about 750 years before the 
civil era : — 

" I will surely assemble, O Jacob, all of thee ; 
I will surely gather the remnant of Israel ; ..." (Micah ii. 12.) 

" In that day, saith the Lord, will I assemble her that halteth. 
And I will gather her that is driven away. 
And her that I have afflicted ; " {Ihid. iv. 6.) 

" And I will make her that halted a remnant. 
And her that was cast far off a mighty nation ; 
And the Lord shall reign over them in Mount Zion from thence- 
forth even for ever," {Ihid. 7.) 

" Thou wilt show faithfulness to Jacob, mercy to Abraham, 
As Thou hast sworn unto our fathers from the days of old." 

{Ihid. vii. 20.) 

Here we again meet the covenant of Truth and Mercy sworn 
unto Abraham, that the land Abraham then stood upon should 
be given to him and to his seed for ever. 

Zephaniah, the son of Cushi, the son of Gedaliah, the son of 
Amariah, the son of Hezekiah, prophesied in the days of Josiah, 
the son of Amon, king of Judah, about six hundred and thirty 
years before the evil era : — 

" At that time will I bring you in. 
And at that time will I gather you ; 
For I will make you to be a name and a praise 
Among all the peoples of the earth. 
When I turn your captivity before your eyes, 
Saith the Lord." (Zephaniah iii. 20.) 

Jeremiah the son of Hilkiah, of the priests that were in 
Anathoth, in the land of Benjamin, also prophesied in the days 
of Josiah, about six hundred and twenty-nine to five hundred and 
eighty-eight years before the civil era : — 

" In those days the house of Judah shall walk with the house of 
Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north to 
the land that I have given for an inheritance unto your fathers." 

(Jeremiah iii. 18.) 

" In his days Judah shall be saved. 

And Israel shall dwell safely ; . . ." {Ihid. xxiii. 6.) 
" Thus saith the Lord, 

Who giveth the sun for a light by day. 

And the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by 

Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar, 

The Lord of hosts is His name : " {Ihid. xxxi. 35.) 


" If these ordinances depart from before Me, 
Saith the Lord, 

Then the seed of Israel also shall cease 
From being a nation before Me for ever." {Ibid, 36.) 

" Considerest thou not what this people have spoken, saying : 
The two families which the Lord did choose, He hath cast them ofE ? 
and they contemn My people, that they should be no more a nation 
before them." {Ibid, xxxiii. 24.) 

" Thus saith the Lord : If My covenant be not with day and 
night, if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and 
earth ; " {Ibid. 25.) 

" then will I also cast away the seed of Jacob, and of David My 
servant, ..." {Ibid. 26.) 

" But fear not thou, O Jacob My servant. 
Neither be dismayed, O Israel ; 
For, lo, I will save thee from afar. 
And thy seed from the land of their captivity ; 
And Jacob shall again be quiet and at ease, 
And none shall make him afraid." {Ibid. xlvi. 27.) 

Ezekiel the Priest, the son of Buzi, prophesied in the land of 
the Chaldeans by the river Cebar, about five hundred and ninety- 
five, to five hundred and seventy-four years before the civil era. 
In the thirty-sixth chapter he describes the restoration of Judah 
and Israel in words so plain and clear that nobody could possibly 
mistake them, and in the next chapter, by the wonderful vision 
of dry bones reviving, he shows that, however unpromising the 
state of Israel may seem, while they are dispersed through the 
world, yet will God most certainly effect the reunion of the tribes 
which is here foretold : — 

" Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them — it shall 
be an everlasting covenant with them ; and I will establish them, 
and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them 
for ever." {Ibid, xxxvii. 26.) 

Chapters thirty-eight and thirty-nine give a most circum- 
stantial description of the return, which excluded the possibility 
of an allegorical explanation. 

Obadiah prophesied about five hundred and eighty-seven years 
before the civil era : — 

" But in Mount Zion there shall be those that escape. 
And it shall be holy ; 
And the house of Jacob shall possess their possessions." 

(Obadiah i. 17.) 

" And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel, 
That are among the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath, 
And the captivity of Jerusalem, that is in Sepharad, 
Shall possess the cities of the South." {Ibid. 20.) 


Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, prophesied 
about five hundred and twenty years before the civil era, to those 
that had returned from captivity. He had the idea of a great 
future restoration. 

' "And it shall come to pass that, as ye were a curse among the 
nations, O house of Judah and house of Israel, so will I save you, and 
ye shall be a blessing ; fear not, but let your hands be strong." 

(Zechariah viii. 13.) 

" I will bring them back also out of the land of Egypt, 
I ff And gather them out of Assyria ; 

1". And I will bring them into the land of Gilead and Lebanon, 
And place shall not sufl&ce them." {Ibid. x. 10.) 

Malachi prophesied about four hundred and twenty years 
before the civil era : — 

" And all nations shall call you happy ; 
For ye shall be a delightsome land, 
Saith the Lord of hosts." (Malachi iii. 12.) 

" Behold, I will send you 
EUjah the prophet 
Before the coming 
: Of the great and terrible day of the Lord." {Ibid. 23.) 

Daniel's (Belteshazzar) prophecies from about five hundred 
and thirty-four, to five hundred and seven years before the civil 
era relate not only to the affairs of Judah and Israel, but also to the 
various monarchies and kingdoms that are to arise successively 
in the world. In the following verses he foretells the national 
future of his own people : — 

" And in the days of those kings shall the God of heaven set up a 
kingdom, which shall never be destroyed ; nor shall the kingdom be 
left to another people ; . . ., but it shall stand for ever." (Daniel ii. 44.) 

" And the kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the 
kingdoms under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of 
the saints of the Most High ; their kingdom is an everlasting king- 
dom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them." {Ibid. vii. 27.) 

"... and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was seen 
since there was a nation even to that same time ; and at that time 
thy people shall be deUvered, . . ." {Ibid. xii. i.) 

These predictions undoubtedly signify that the Children of 
Israel shall enjoy a kingdom and dominion under the whole heaven, 
i.e. upon the earth, which shall never be destroyed, nor shall the 
kingdom be left to another people.^ 

1 The most notable Talmudic and Rabbinical passages referring to the 
future of the Jewish nation are : Talm. Bab. Betachoth 28b, 34b ; Shahb. 
Ii8a ; Menahoth 45a ; Baha Mezia 3a ; Eduyoth VIII, 7 ; Kiddushin 71a ; 
Gen. Rabba LXXXV. 2 ; Hagigah 14a ; Sanhedtin 38b ; 98a. 99a, nob, 
ma; Ertibin 43b; Cant. Rabba VII. 10; Sifri on Deut. 1:1; Baba 



Rev. Paul Knell (1615-64), Israel and England Paralleled 

Israel | And | England | Paralelled, | In a Sermon preached before 
I the honourable society of Grayes-\Inne, upon Sunday in the 
I afternoon, Aprill 16. 1648. | 

By Paul Knell, Master in Arts of Clare-Hall \ in Cambridge. 
I Sometimes Chaplaine to a Regiment of Curiasiers | in his 
Majesties Army. 

London, | Printed in the Yeare 1648.^ 

(4/0. 2 II. + 20 pp.) [b. M.] 

pp. 16-17. " . . • • first, we may compare with Israel for a 
fruitfull scituation, being neither under the torrid nor the frozen 
Zone, neither burned away with parching heat, nor benummed 
away with pinching cold, but seated in a temperate climate & 
fertile soile ; our folds are full of sheep, our vallies stand so thick 
with corne that we may laugh & sing. God hath also fenced us 
about, like the Israelites in the red sea, with a wall of water, the 
waters are as a wall unto us, on our right hand, & on our left, . . . 
And now, England, what doth thy Lord thy God require of thee, 
hut to fear the Lord thy God, to walk in all his waies, and to love him, 
and to serve the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy 
soule ? But here God may as iustlv complaine of us as he did of 
Israel, . , ." 

Bathra 76a. For the views of the Gaon Saadia ben Joseph (892-942) see 
Guttman, Religionsphilosophie des Saadia, Gottingen, 1882, p. 236 ; for 
Hai ben Sherira Gaon (939-1038) see Taam Zekenim, Frankfort on the Main, 
1854, pp. 58-61 ; for Abraham ben Chiya Albargeloni Ha' nasi (called 
Abraham Judaeus and Savasorda) (1065-1136) see Hegion Ha'nefesh, 
Leipzig, i860, p. 40 ff. ; for Judah Halevi, see his Poems and Kuzari in 
Cassel's edition, Leipzig, 1869, ii. 36-44, pp. 143-7, p. iv. 23 ; pt. i. 115 ; 
for Maimonides, see Hilchoth Melachim in his Yad Ha'chazakah, Chs. XI. 
XII. and Hilchoth Teshubah, Ch. IX. 2 ; for Nachmanides, see his Comment, 
to Gen. 2 : 3, and to Exodus 17:9; for Abarbanel, his books Yeshuat 
Meshicho, Mashmia Yeshuah, Maeyenai Ha'yeshua, and Klausner : Die 
Messianischen Vorstellungen . . . Berlin, 1904, and also Greenstone : 
The Messiah Idea in Jewish History, Philadelphia, 1906. 

^ It was re-issued thirty-three years later : — 
. . . London, Printed in the year 1648. And now Reprinted for a Caution 
to all those that are given to Change. 

Sold by Randal Tayler and Robert Stephens, by Stationers-Hall, near 
Ludgate. 1681. 
4to. 2 II. -{-16 pp. [i. s.] 



Matthew Arnold on Righteousness in the Old Testament 

Matthew Arnold, in his Literature and Dogma, insists that 
righteousness is in a special manner the object of Bible religion. 
The word " righteousness " is a master word in the Old Testa- 
ment. What would England have been were it not for the im- 
portance which Jeshurun, the upright, attached to the thought 
and practice of righteousness ? She might have been eminent 
in law, in arts and sciences borrowed from the Romans and the 
Greeks, but she would have been addicted to idolatry and the 
gratification of the senses, and would have borne the doom of 
destruction within herself. He draws a vivid imaginary picture 
of the authorities of one of the English great Universities, the 
vice-Chancellor, beadles, masters, scholars, and all, nay, their 
very professor of moral philosophy, going in procession to 
worship at the shrine of Aphrodite. 

" If it had not been for Israel," he continues, " and the stern 
check which Israel put upon the glorification and divinization of 
this natural bend of mankind. . . . And as long as the world 
lasts, all who want to make progress in righteousness will come to 
Israel for inspiration, as to the people who have had the sense 
for righteousness most glowing and strongest ; and in hearing 
and reading the words Israel has uttered for us, carers for conduct 
will find a glow and a force they would find nowhere else. As 
well imagine a man with a sense for sculpture not cultivating it 
by the help of the remains of Greek art, or a man with a sense for 
poetry not cultivating it by the help of Homer and Shakespeare, 
as a man with a sense for conduct not cultivating it by the help 
of the Bible."! 


"ESPERAN9A DE Israel," by Manasseh Ben- Israel 

:?KnfiJ^> n^pD I Esto es, I Esperangaj De Israel. | 

Obra con suma curiosidad conpuesta | por \ Menasseh Ben Israel | 

Theologo, y Philosopho Hebreo. | 

Trata del admirable esparzimiento de los diez | Tribus, y su 

infalible reduccion con los de | mas, a la patria : con muchos 

puntos, I y Historias curiosas, y declara-|cion de varias Prophe- 

cias, I por el Author rectamen- 1 te interpretadas. | 

^ Literature and Dogma ... By Matthew Arnold . . . London . . . 1873 . . . 
pp. 26, 36-37 and 56. 


Dirigido a los senores Parnassim delK.K.\de Talmvd Tora.| 
En Amsterdam. | En la Imprension de | Semvel Ben Israel Soeiro.| ^ 
Ano. 5410. 1 
(sw. 8°. yU. + 126 pp.)* [I. s.] 

^ The surname " Ben Israel Soeiro " used by the printer, a son of the 
author, is a combination of those of his paternal grandparents Joseph Ben- 
Israel and Rachel Soeiro, who had been marranos. Joseph, a victim of the 
Inquisition, on returning to the Jewish fold, it may be surmised, discarded 
his gothic patronymic and appropriately assumed that of Ben-Israel. 
Their son, the author, married Rachel, a great-granddaughter of the 
famous Bible exegete and statesman Don Isaac Abrabanel, who claimed 
Davidic descent. In an age when .Din> was highly prized, we consequently 
find that in the following year, when Samuel printed his father's Nishmath 
Chayyim, his surname has become " Abrabanel Soeiro," and in the Latin 
addition, " Ben Israel Abrabanel Sueiro." He was born in Amsterdam in 
1625. He accompanied his maternal uncle, David Abrabanel [Manuel 
Martinez Dormido], to England, on behalf of his father, arriving here oa 
ist Sep., 1654, to open up negotiations with CromweU concerning the 
admission of their co-religionists to this country. It was decided that the 
presence of Manasseh was incumbent, and a pass to Holland, dated 
16 May, 1655, was granted to Samuel, to fetch his father. They arrived in 
the following October, and resided here close on two years. On Sunday, 
the second day of Rosh Hashanah, 5418 [8 Sep., 1657, n.s. : 29 Aug. o.s.], 
at the early age of thirty-two, Samuel went to his Eternal rest. He 
had conjured his father that he would take his body to Amsterdam, where 
he was bom, for burial. Manasseh was then in a precarious state of health, 
and on arriving at Middleburg in Zealand, where Ephraim Abrabanel, the 
maternal uncle of the deceased, resided, he was unable to continue the 
journey. The interment took place at the local Beth Haim, and the Rev. 
Isidore Harris, m.a., a few years ago discovered the tombstone* in the third 
carera, which has the following inscription : — 

Sa I Do Doctor Semvel | F° Do Haham Menasseh | Ben IsraCel | Faleceo 
em 2 Tisri | 5418.] 

Manasseh's illness was mortal. His son Joseph had died at the age of 
twenty about eight or nine years before, and the premature death of his 
last surviving son hastened his end. A few weeks later, on the 11 Kislev 
(20 Nov.), he passed away in the house of his brother-in-law, but fifty- 
three years old. He was interred at the Sephardi Beth Haim at Oudekerk, 

* Another issue, with a similar collation, but apparently from other type, 
was printed in the same year. [i. s.] 

It appeared again during the last quarter of the nineteenth century 
under the following title : — , 

Origen De Los Americanos. »7N1t5'* T\)p1^ Esto Es Esperanza De 
Israel . . . Reimpresion . . . Del Libro De Menasseh Ben Israel . . . Publicado 
En Amsterdam 5410 (1650) ... y la biografia del autor. For Santiago Perez 

Madrid.— 1881. . . . 
8**. xxxvi pp.-\-S W.-f 126 pp.-\-3 II. in printed wrapper as issued. [i. s.] 

* Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, vol. viL, 191 1- 
1914 . . . Edinburgh and London, 1915. . . .p. 127 : "A Dutch Burial- 
Ground and its English Connections." By the Rev. Isidore Harris, m.a. 



"Spes Israelis," by Manasseh Ben-Israel 

'PXX** nipD I Hoc est, I Spes | Israelis. | 

Author e | Menasseh Ben Israel | Theologo & Philosopho Hebrseo. 

Amstelodami. | Anno 1650. | 

(sw. 8°. 6//.+ iii^^.) [I. s.] 

sig. [A2] Svpremo Anglise Consessvs Parlamento, ejusdemque 
ReipuUiccB Status Consilio Honorando, Salutem, ac felici- 
tatem omnem, a Deo apprecatur Menasseh Ben Israel.* 


" Hope of Israel— Ten Tribes ... in America— S«ik>* nipD 
De Hoop Van Israel," by Manasseh Ben- Israel 

The I Hope of Israel : | 

Written | By Menasseh Ben Israel, | an Hebrew Divine, and 

Philosopher. | 

Newly extant, and Printed in | Amsterdam, and Dedicated by 

the I Author to the High Court, the | Parhament of England, 

and I to the | Councell of State. | 

Translated into English, and ( published by Authority. | 

In this Treatise is shewed the place where the ten \ Tribes at this 

present are, proved, partly by \ the strange relation of one Antony 

Monte-| zinus, a Jew, of what befell him as he tra-\ veiled over the 

Mountaines Cordillaere, with \ divers other particulars about the 

restoration of \ the Jewes, and the time when. \ 

Printed at London by R. I. for Hannah Allen, \ at the Crown in 

Popes-head | Alley, 1650. | 

(sm. 8°. 7 II. + go pp.) [i. s.] 

sig. As . " To the Parhament, the Supream Court of England, 

and to the right Honourable the Councell of State, Menasseh Ben 

Israeli, prayes God to give health, and all Happinesse." But the 

original edition in Spanish is dedicated "A los Muy Nobles, 

Prudentes, y Magnificos Senores, Deputados y Parnassim deste 

K.K. de Talmud Tora." . . . Amsterdd. a 13 de Sebat. An. 5410. 

In this first English version the name of the translator does not 
appear on the title page, nor does " The Translator to the Reader " 
bear any signature ; but " Moses Wall " does appear on the title 
pages of two issues of a second edition which appeared in 1651 and 
1652. (4^0. 5 //. -f-62 pp.) [B. M.l 

^ This translation was probably the work of the author. Bound up with 
this copy is a folded engraving of the author by Salom Italia. 


It was published again under the following title : — 
" Accounts Of The Ten Tribes of Israel Being In America ; 
Originally Published By R. Manasseh Ben Israel. 
With Observations Thereon, And Extracts From Sacred And 
Profane, Ancient And Modern History, Confirming The Same ; 
And Their Return From Thence About The Time Of The Return 
Of The Jews. 

By Robert Ingram, a.m. Vicar of Wormingford and Boxted, 

Colchester : Printed And Sold By W. Keymer ; Sold Also By 
G. G. J. And J. Robinson, Pater-Noster-Row, London, 1792. 
[Price One ShilUng.] 
(8°. 5^PP) [I.S.] 

There are several Hebrew versions, the first translation appearing 
in 1698. 

\\\ihi y^T ^KitJ'* in r\m'o . . i xh^n Dsnn . . . mn h^y^r* nip» 
Yinn D*p*^^5 "n . . . ^"v ^'^'\\>r\ \wbh pnj;^ nnyi ^ : nN"nj^in ^la 
n:tj>i . . . Dn")i3K'»N2 oaii . . . : dtid^^idn ^''pi |tn V'vt f^ npy* 

,yyov |»K^Np DiQin . . . p^B^ [mn] 
(i6wo. ID (66) II Y [I. s.] 

De I Hoop I Van Israel. | 

Een Werck met groote naiikeurigheyt \ beschreven : | 

Door 1 Menasseh Ben Israel | Hebreeuws Godtgeleerde en | 


Waer in hy handelt van de wonderlijcke \ verstroyinge der 10 

Stammen, en hare ge-\wisse herstellinge met de twee Stammen 

Juda I en Benjamin in't Vaderlandt. Met veele aen-\wijsingen, 

naukeurige vertellingen, en verkla-\ringen van verscheyde Pro- 

phetien. | 

Met meer als 90 Beschrijvers bevestight : | 

Met een verantwoordingh voor de | Eedele Volcken der Jooden. | 

Den 2. Druck^ van veel Letter -mis stellingen gesuyvert.\ 

t 'Amsterdam, | Voor Jozua Rex, Boeck-binder, | op de Cingel, 

recht over de Appelen-marrickt, | in't Jaer 1666. | 

(l2mo. 6 //. + 124 pp. [De Hoop Van Israel.])^ [l. s.] 

1 It was composed in Spanish in 1650 and did not appear in Dutch 
until 1666. 

* A third edition was published in the same year, with the following 
addition : — 

De Reysen van R. Benjamin Jonasz Tudelens, In de drie Deelen der Werelt, 
als Europa, Asia, en Afrika : . . . In't Nederduyt overgeschreven door Jan 
Bara. . . . iiy pp. [b, m.] 

' Bound up with this copy is a folded engraving of the Author by 
Salom Italia. 

It has also been translated into Yiddish. 



|The Humble Addresses of Manasseh Ben-Israel 

To I His Highnesse | The | Lord Protector | Of The | Common- 
Wealth Of I England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
The Humble Addresses | Of | Menasseh Ben Israel, a Divine, 
and I Doctor of Physick, in behalf e \ of the Jewish Nation. \ 
(4to. 4 II. + 26 pp. )^ [I. s.] 



Vindiciae | Judaeorum, | Or A | Letter | In Answer to certain 
Questions propounded by | a Noble and Learned Gentleman, 
touching I the reproaches cast on the Nation of the | Jevves ; 
wherein all objections are | candidly, and yet fully cleared. ( 
By Rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel a Divine \ and a Physician.] 
Printed by i^. Z>. in the year 1656. | 
(4/0. I I. + 41 pp. y [I. s.] 


Ensena a Pecadores 

Libro I Yntitulado | Enseiia | A | Pecadores | 

Que contiene diferentes | obras, mediante las qua- 1 lespide el 

hombre | piedad a su | Criador. | 

En casa y acosta | de David de castro Tartaz. \ 

En Amsterdam \ Anno 5426.] 

(I2W0. 88+n (8) />/).) [B.M.] 

^ This was probably printed in Amsterdam, in anticipation of his visit 
to England. 

A second issue from another press, and in which the collation varies 
(4 //. + 23 pp. [I. S.]) may have been printed in London, as at the end it 
has the following addition : — 

" Which is the close of Rabbi Menesse Ben-Israel, a Divine, and Doctor 
in Physick, in the Strand over against the New-Exchange in London." 

The British Museum copy of the 23 pp. edition has the following date in 
manuscript on the title page : " November 5, 1655." 

2 In 1743 it was reprinted in octavo form (2 II. -\-67 pp. [I. S.]). It was 
translated into German either by Dr. Marcus Herz (i 747-1 803) or by his 
wife, the celebrated Henrietta Herz (i 764-1 847), and published in 1782, 
with an introduction by Moses Mendelssohn (i 729-1 786) {sm. 8°. LI1 + 
64 pp. [I. S.]). It has also appeared in Hebrew [I. S.], Polish [I. S.], 
French and Italian. 


Page 2. '* Prologo. . . . Aviendo pues el Senor hecho merced al 
mundo en truer a luz las ohras divinas del H. Rihi Esayah, 
su memoria sea para benedicion, las quales son llenas de 
doctrinas y modos de encaminar al hombre a la salvacion. . . ." 

pp. 61-79. " Conficion Muy Copiosa Maravillosay llena de divinos 
conceptos y misterios, hecha por el divino Theologo y excellentis- 
simo Sabio, Ribi Yshac Askenazi de Loria, Traduzida de 
Hebrico, en lengua castellana, por el doctissimo Haham 
Menasseh ben Ysrael ; el Anno 5383. la qual se puede dezir 
estando el hombre enfermo de ajuno en qual quiera tiempo." 

pp. 80-88. Vidvy Penitencial . . . Auctor Selomoh De Oliuera. 

,]w^i nn« n"n aiy in^nnn fx» ni^v^ix n hdVk^ . . . msjD nn^ 

pp. n-fc< : :h ntj>^ y^t^lit: d^h'pn ^n »:ud nx5^a 

"De Terming ViXiE— of the Term of Life," by Manasseh 

D^mn nn!i | Menasseh | Ben Israel, | De | Termino | Vitae : | 

Libri Tres. | 

Quibus veterum Rabbi-\ norum, ac recentium do-\ ctorum, de 

hac con-\troversia sententia \ explicatur.\ 

Amstelodami . Typis & sumpti-|bus authoris An. 1639. | 

(I2W0. 8 U. +237 pp. +25 11.)^ [I. S.] 

1 Sixty years later it was translated into English : — 
Of The I Term \ Of | Life. | viz. | Whether it is fix'd or alterable ; | 
With the Sense of the Jewish Doctors, | both Ancient and Modem, touching 
I Predestination and Free-Will. | 

Also an Explication of several obscure j Passages and Prophecies in the 
Old Testa-J ment ; together with some remarkable Cu-| stoms observ'd by 
the Jews. \ 

Written in Latin by the Famous Menasseh | Ben-Israel the Jew and now 
Translated j into English, By Tho, Pocock, m.a. | 

To which are added, the Author's Life, never be-| fore Publish'd ; and a 
Catalogue of his Works, j 

London Printed, and Sold by J. Nutt, near | Stationers-Hall, and by the 
Booksellers of Lon-\ don and Westminster, 1699. I 

(stw. S°. 6 ll. + xvi-^ 116 pp.) [I. s.] 

sig. A2. " To Colthorp Parker, Esq. ; " 

De Termino VitfS : \ Or The | Term | Of | Life, j Viz. | Whether it is fix'd or 
alterable ; | 

With the Sense of the Jewish Doctors, | both Ancient and Modern, touch- 
ing')! Predestination and Free-Will, j 





: p"sh [2^r\] n:\i^2 •n-'xiD i^NmnN* ^nide^ -inncn p Disnn d^i: 
(4/0. 8 + ni;p (174) +2 //.) [I. s.] 

Some editions, which are excessively rare, have this Latin addi- 
tion : — 

D^^n niDK'J I Menasseh Ben Israel | Libri Quatuor | De | 

Immortalitate Animse. | 

In quibus multse insignes & ju-|cundae quaestiones ventilantur, | 

uti videre est, ex argu-|mento operis. | 

Amstelodami, | Apud Autoris filium | Samuel Ben Israel 

Ahrabanel Sueiro.\ 

Anno cb. olc. Li.| 

(8//.) [I.S.] 

sig. A2. (Epistola Dedicatoria) Ferdinando iii. Augustiss°. 
Romanorum Imperatori. . . . 

Also an Explication of several obscure Passages and | Prophecies in the 

Old Testament ; together with | some remarkable Customs observed by 

the Jews. J 

Written in Latin by the Famous Menasseh | Ben- Israel the Jew, and now 

Translated into EngUsh. j 

To which are added, the Author's Life, never be- | fore Publish'd ; and a 

Catalogue of his Works. | 

London, Printed for W. Whitwood at the Rose \ and Crown in Little- 

Britiain. 1700. | (sm. 8°. 6 II. -\-xvi+ii6 pp. +1. [catalogue]). [i. s.] 

sig. A2. " To Colthrop Parker, Esq. ; " 

Of The I Term | Of | Life, | Viz. : | Whether it is fix'd or alterable ; | With 
the Sense of the Jewish Doctors, | both Ancient and Modern, touching 
Pre- 1 destination and Free-Will. | 

Also an Explication of several obscure [ Passages and Prophecies in the 
Old Testa- 1 ment ; together with some remarkable J Customs observed 
by the Jews. \ 

Written in Latin by the Famous Menasseh | Ben-Israel the Jew, and now 

Transla- | ted into English, By Tho. Pocock, a.m. | Rector of Danbury in 

Essex, and Chaplain to his j Grace the Duke of Bedford. | 

To which are added, the Author's Life, by the Translator ; and a Catalogue 

of his Works. | 

London, Printed for Tho. Baker at the | Bible and Rose in Ludgate-street. 

1709. I {sm. S**. 8//.4-xxiv4-ii7 pp.-\-i I.) [i. s.] 

sig. A2. " To Christopher Tilson, Esq. ; Of The Treasury." 


Sig. A42. Augustissimi Imperatoris Servus humilltmus 

Menasseh Ben Israel. 

Amstelodami Calendis Decembris Anno cb. be. li. 


" Rights of the Kingdom," by John Sadler 

Rights of the Kingdom ; | Or, | Customs of our Ancestours : . . . 

With an Ocasionall Discourse of Great Changes yet I expected 

in the World. I 

London, | Printed by Richard Bishop. 1649. | ^ 

(4to. 4 II. + Aa — Mm +F-Z +A-C in fours.) [i. s.] 

sig. G4. " How they are Now, I need not say, although I might 
also beare them witnesse, that They are yet Zealous in Their 
Way. nor doe they wholly want, ingenuous able men. of 
whom I cannot but with Honour, mention Him, that hath 
so much obHged the world, by his learned Writings ; Rab 
Menasseh Ben Israel : a very learned, Civill Man, and a 
Lover of our Nation. 

" The more I think upon the Great Change, now comming 
on Them, and All the World ; the more I would be Just and 
Mercifull to Them, to All." 


"Nova Solyma," edited by Rev. Walter Begley 

Nova Solyma The Ideal City ; Or Jerusalem Regained 
An Anonymous Romance Written In The Time Of Charles I. 
Now first Drawn From Obscurity, And Attributed To The Illus- 
trious John Milton.* 

With Introduction, Translation, Literary Essays And A BibUo- 

By The Rev. Walter Begley 
vol. i., ii. 

London John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1902. 
(p. 4). " The book was first presented to the public in small 
octavo form with this title page : 

^ It was republished thirty-three years later anonymously, as was the 
first issue. 

London: "Printed, iox J. Kidgell. 1683, 4^0. /^ II. -{-^ig pp. [b. m.] 

2 The author was Samuel Gott (1613-1671), see "The Authorship of 
Nova Solyma," by Stephen K. Jones (1910), and B.M. Catalogue. 


Novae | Solymae | Libri Sex. | Londixu Typis Joannis Legati.| 


*' The book contained three hundred and ninety-two pages, of 
which the last contained the errata and the printer's short notice 
to the reader. There was no preface or introduction of any kind, 
and no notes. The only printed extra was this Latin motto in 
the middle of the blank page facing the title : 

* Cujus opus, studio cur tantum quaeris inani ? ' 
' Qui legis, etfrueris,feceris esse tuum.* 

which I turn thus : 

(/>. 5). " * Whose is the book ? ' do you ask. ' Why start such a 
bootless enquiry ? 
If you but read and enjoy, you will have made it your own.' " 
(pp. 5-6). "... The next year the same book was published 
again — an evident attempt to utilise the unsold remainder, as 
there was no difference whatever, except a new title page with 
the old fly-leaf motto included in it and a page at the end contain- 
ing the autocriticon. In the only copy I have seen, [St. John's 
College, Cambridge], the title page runs as follows : 

Novee Solymae Libri Sex ; sive Institutio Christiani. 

1. De Pueritia. 

2. De Creatione Mundi. 

3. De Juventute. 

4. De Peccato. 

5. De ViriH Aetate. 

6. De Redemptione Hominis. 

Cujus opus, studio cur tantum quaeris inani ? 
Qui legis, et frueris, feceris esse tuum. 

Londini : Typis Johannis Legati, et venundantur 
per Thomam Underbill sub signo Biblii in vice 
Anghce dicto Woodstreet. mdcxlix." 

Here we have the very useful addition that it was published 
by Thomas Underbill, of Wood Street. 

(preface pp. vii-viii). ". . . That such a wide-reaching, learned, 
and varied work should have been allowed to remain unappre- 
ciated and utterly ignored for more than two hundred and fifty 
years is certainly a very surprising literary fact. . . . 

" The critics seem to have been both blind and deaf. They 
gave no encouraging praise, and no disheartening condemnation. 
They simply took no notice. And so this great work of seven- 
teenth-century art vanished from the sight of men. A few 
copies were put away in college libraries, where they rested for 
years undisturbed and dust-covered in their original positions, 
and have so continued to rest for two centuries and a half, lost 
to the world." 

II.— N 


(p. i8). " There is a spirit of pure, lofty, and unselfish morality 
evident throughout all the various scenes of this interesting and 
unaffected book. It shows us the brightest, strongest elements 
of God-fearing Puritanism; . . .** "Here are the lyric songs from 
* the law and prophets/ Abraham's meditation on the Mount 
Moriah, Cain's lamentations for Abel, David's lament for Saul 
and Jonathan, and many a noble ode from the Psalms and short 
epics from Job. . . ," " Here Truth and Justice and the Fear 
of God are all placed on the high pedestals they so well deserve ; 
and there is withal a kindly insistence everywhere on those great 
teachings which tend to make life more abounding in hope, more 
perfect in self-restraint and more lifted-up in spirit." 

All these ideas are Hebrew, and characteristically Biblical 
But the most curious fact, from our point of view, is that this 
work contains a description of the Ideal State on Mount Zion. 
Of course, the tendency is thoroughly Christian, but it is that kind 
of Christianity which is inspired by the Old Testament and by a 
sentiment of love for the old Jewish nation and the Holy Land. 
This book is the poetical expression of the Restoration ideas of 
the seventeenth century. It begins with a description of the 
springtime in New Jerusalem, " the city with twelve gates " 
(Ezekiel xlviii. 31), and " a virgin who held in her right hand a 
golden rod, and in her left the two tables of the Law." The 
tourist-visitors, ** two Englishmen and the third a Sicilian," 
are told that "it is the anniversary of the founding of the city 
and the virgin you saw represented Zion, or, as they say, the 
Daughter of Zion." " They " evidently refers to the Jews. 

Strangers are received with remarkable hospitality (as in 
Herzl's AUneuland), 

(^.86). " But Jacob, for that was the old man's name, urged 
him all the more, * Come, come,* said he, *it is a national 
duty with us to treat strangers with kindness, not unmindful 
that we too, long ago, were strangers in Egypt, and since then 
for a long time strangers and wanderers among all the nations of 
the earth. But now we call none aliens from Israel. ..." 

(p. 88). " We are now very close on the fiftieth year since our 
long and widely-scattered nation was restored to its present 
wonderful prosperity." The old Jew then explains the system of 
education adopted in the new country, a system of physical 
development and moral integrity. 

Joseph, who is one of the tourists and the hero of the romance, 
indulges in songs of Zion. 

{pp. 175-6). " O sacred top of Solyma, 
How lovely is thy place 
Where stands the city of our King 
Where faithful saints rejoice and sing 
O mercy, love and grace I 


'* For there our greater Temple stands 
With greater glory blest 
And there redeemed from alien lands, 
Brought back at last by God's own hands, 
His Israel finds her rest." 

Here the translator remarks : 

{p. 177) note i : " How many sighs and prayers have gone up 
from the dispersed children of Zion in Russian Poland, in Galicia, 
in Roumania and by the old broken wall of Jerusalem in these 
latter days ! What longing for this * antepast of Heaven ' that 
Joseph here speaks of ! What passionate desire for that time, 
when the children of Zion should no longer have to sing * the 
Lord's song in a strange land ' ! Is this century to see the 
Zionists in possession again of their Holy City — their longed-for 
Salem, the * Vision,' the ' Foundation,' the * Inheritance ' of 
Peace, as expositors have variously entitled it ? Who can say ? 
From a practical point of view the prospect somehow fails to 
charm ; but when I view it in theory, it seems as if the justice of 
the world as well as the justice of the Eternal One would be nobly 
consummated by such a termination to an earthly pilgrimage of 
nigh two thousand years." 

The anonymous author proceeds to describe the old-new home, 
and the people, new-born in benevolence, piety and purity, 
with their national distinctiveness, and the two tables of the 
Law. Thus, with all his honest and deep Christian convictions 
and belief in the final triumph of his religious ideas, he recognizes 
the right of the Jewish nation to have their country and to remain 
faithful to their traditions. This strange romance, after all sorts 
of philosophical reflections and sketches of various adventures in 
Sicily and elsewhere, comes back to Zion to sing the songs of the 
Old Testament in Latin verse in a way which shows that the 
author had the rhythm and atmosphere of Biblical poetry to 
perfection, and also that his views were much more in harmony 
with the notions of that time than with modern conceptions. 
The whole work is inspired by great enthusiasm for Israel's glory, 
and abounds with sympathy and admiration for the Jewish 

Begley, who was a man of profound knowledge and an authority 
on matters of composition and style, ascribes this work to Milton. 
If this view be accepted, then to this poet's glory must 1 e added 
a further claim to immortality, because he was the first poet who 
expounded — from a Christian point of view — the idea of Israel's 
Restoration in the form of a poetical romance. But from our 
point of view it^does not matter whether Milton was the author, 
or another poet ; the fact remains that this remarkable work is 
English and appeared in England in 1648. 



" PRiEADAMiTiE— Men Before Adam," by Isaac de La Peyr^re * 

Another of his famous works, also published anonymously, 
was : — 

Praeadamitae. | Sive j Exercitatio | super Versibus duodecimo, 

decimotertio, & | decimoquarto, capitis quinti Epistolse I D. Pauli 

ad Romanes. | Qvibvs Indvcvntvr|Primi Homines ante Adamum| 

conditi. | 

Anno Salvtis, | m.dc.lv. | 

(4/0. 22 lL-^2gy-\-Spp. [Synagogis Ivdseorvm Vniversis.]) [i. s.] 

In the following year it was translated into English : — 

Men before Adam, | Or | A Discourse upon the twelfth, | thir- 
teenth, and fourteenth Verses | of the Fifth Chapter of the 
Epistle I of the Apostle Paul to the | Romans. | 
By which are provd, \ That the first Men were erea- | ted before 
Adam. | 

London, | Printed in the Year, 1656. | 

(8°. 8 //.+61 pp.+(^ Pp.-\-35 l^ [I. s.] 

The End of the first Part {No more published) 
sig. A.4. " To all the Synagogues to the Jews, dispersed over the 

face of the Earth." 
sig. M.S. " Terrae Sanctae Delineatio " (A map of the Holy Land).* 


Isaac Vossius 

Isaac Vossius was born at Leyden in Holland, one of the 
sons of the renowned scholar Gerard John Vossius by his 
second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Francis du Jon (Junius) 
(1545-1602), French theologian and philologist. All the sons 
were precocious scholars, but Isaac was undoubtedly the most 
eminent. ... He was invited by Queen Christina of Sweden, 
one of the most erudite women of her time, to come and 
shed the lustre of his learning upon Stockholm. He arrived 
towards the end of 1649, was appointed a Court Chamberlain, 

* Account of Peyreyra, Author of " Praeadamitae," " Rappel des Juifs," 
&c. Translated from " Lettres Choisies de M, [Richard] Simon, (i 638-1 721) 
ou Ton trouve un grand nombre de Faits et Anecdotes de Literature. 
Rotterdam 1702." 

(Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixxxii., November, 1812, pp. 432-434 ; and 
vol. Ixxxiii., June, 1813, pp. 614-616.) 

* In another issue in the same year the eight preliminary leaves are from 
another press. [i. s.] 


and taught the Queen Greek. In 1650 he sold her his father's 

library for twenty thousand florins, with the stipulation that he 

received five thousand florins yearly with board and residence 

for its superintendence. In 1652 owing to certain differences he 

left Sweden. In 1655 Manasseh Ben Israel dedicated to him : — 

nip"* pi< I Piedra Gloriosa | O | De La | Estatua | De | Nebuchad- 

nesar. | 

Con muchas y diver sas authoridades \ de la S.S. y antiguos sabios. \ 

Compuesto por el Hacham | Menasseh Ben Israel. | Amsterdam 

An. 5415. I 

(i2wo. 6//. +259;^^. +3//. +4 etchings at ^^.5, 87, 160, 180.) [l.s.] 

"All muy noble y doctissimo Senor Isaco Vossio, Gentil hombre de 

la camara de su Magestad, La Reyna de Svedia. 

Muy noble y doctissimo Senor, . . . Intimo amigo y afficionado 

servidor de V. M., 

Menasseh ben Ysrael. 
Amsterdam 25. de Abril, An. 5415." 

In a list of Manasseh's works at the end of the volume, it is 
catalogued " Piedra preciosa ; o de la Estatua de Nebuchadnesar, 
donde se sexpone lo mas essencial del libro de Daniel." It was for 
this small volume that Rembrandt designed and etched four 
illustrations. ' 

Vossius was created D.c.L. at Oxford in 1670, and installed to a 
prebend in the royal chapel at Windsor in 1673, which was pre- 
sented to him by Charles II (1630-1685), and died at Windsor 
21 Feb., 1688. He had accumulated the finest private library in 
the world, including 762 manuscripts. It was sold at Leyden in 
1710 for thirty-six thousand florins. A large number of original 
letters of Vossius are preserved at the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 


" Doomes-Day 

Doomes-Day : | Or, | The great Day of the Lord's ludgement, | 
proved by Scripture ; and two other Prophecies, | the one point- 
ing at the yeare 1640. the other at this | present yeare 1647. to 
be even now neer at hand. | 

With I The gathering together of the Jews in great Bodies | under 
Josias Catzius (in Illyria, Bithinia, and Cappadocia) \ for the 
conquering of the Holy Land. | . . . 
London, | Printed for W. Ley. 1647 
(^o.xl+6pp.) [I. s.] 

* Rembrandt's etchings for the Piedra Gloriosa, by [Dr.] I[srael] 
A[brahams] [m.a.], with facsimiles, Jewish Chronicle, 13 July, 1906, 
PP- 39-40 : The second series of illustrations for the Piedra Gloriosa of 
Manasseh Ben Israel, by Israel Solomons, itnd., July 27, p. 31. 


{p. 2) ". . . even those people the Jewes, according to certaine 
and credible information, are at this time [* Under Josias Catzius, 
and according to Letters from beyond the Seas, they are 
numerous, and shew themselves in great bodies in Illyria, 
Bethinia and Cappadocia.] assembling themselves together into 
one body from out of all countreys, whereinto they have been 
driven with a resolution to regaine the holy land once more out 
of the hand of the Ottaman : "^ 


" Restauration of all Israel and Judah " 

A Paper, shewing that the great Conversion and Restauration of 
all Israel and Judah will he fulfilled at Christs second comming ; 
and that the New Jerusalem, called Jehovah Shamma, described by 
Ezekiel, chap. 40. to the end of the Book, is most probably then to 
be set up, and is referred to the same time, Sec, May 1. 1674. 
(4to. 8 II.) [I. s.] 


"Apology for the Honorable Nation of the Jews— Apologia 


An I Apology | For The | Honorable Nation | Of The j Jews, | 

And all the Sons of | Israel. 

Written by Edward Nicholas, Gent. I • • . 

London, Printed by John Field, 1648.] 

{4to.i5pp.y [I.S.] 

A Spanish translation was also published here : — 

Apologia I Por \ La noble nacion de los | Ivdios | y hijos de \ 

Israel. | 

Escrita en Ingles | Por \ Eduardo Nicholas. | 

E impresa en casa de Juan Field, en |Londres,| 

Aiio do clc XLix.| 

(sm. 8°. 8 //.) [I. S.] 

1 Notes and Queries, 10. s. iv., pp. 10 & 77, josias catzius. 

2 This tract is alluded to in the concluding paragraph of Manasseh Ben 
Israel's " Humble Addresses," but the author has not yet been identified. 
He was at one time thought to be Sir Edward Nicholas (i 593-1 669), 
Secretary of State to Charles I and II, and it|has even been stated that 
" Edward Nicholas " was a pseudonym of Manasseh himself. (See Jewish 
Chronicle, 9 Feb., 1906. " Edward Nicholas," by Israel Solomons.) 


Some years later a Dutch version was issued (Published together 
with " De Hoop Van Israel " of Manasseh Ben Israel). 

Verantwoordinge, | Voor 1 De Edele Volcken der \ Jooden,| 

En kinderen van \ Israel. | 

In het Engels beschreven | Door | Eduardo Nicolas. | 

InH Nederduyts overgeschreven \ en gedruckt. | 

t'Amsterdam, | Voor Jozua Rex, Boeck-binder, I op de Cingel, 

recht over de Appelen-marreckt | in't Jaer 1666. | 

(I2W0. I /. +26 pp. -f I /.) [i. s.] 


"A Word for the Armie," by Hugh Peters 

" A word for the | Armie. | And two words to the | Kingdome. | 

To I Cleare the One, | And cure the Other. | 

Forced in much plainesse and bre-|vity from their faithfull 

Servant, J Hugh Peters. | . . . . 

London, | Printed by M. Simmons for Giles Calvert at the black | 

Spread-Eagle at the West end of Pauls, 1647. | 

(4/0. 14 pp.) [I. s.] 

sig. B2. " iQLv. That Merchants may have all the manner of 
encouragement, the law of Merchants set up, and strangers, 
even Jewes admitted to trade, and live with us, that it may 
not be said we pray for their conversion, with whom we will 
not converse, wee being all but strangers on the Earth." 


Isaac da Fonseca Aboab 

IHe was the son of David Aboab and Isabel da Fonseca. To 
distinguish him from his contemporary Isaac de Matatiah Aboab, 
he is generally alluded to as " Fonseca Aboab." He was born at 
Castrodagre, Portugal, and brought to Amsterdam as a child, 
where he became a pupil of Haham Isaac {ob. 1622) de Abraham 
Uziel. In 1623 he was the Haham of the Neve Shalom, the second 
synagogue established in Amsterdam. In 1642 he emigrated to 
Pernambuco (Recife) in Brazil, where he was Haham until he 
returned to Amsterdam in 1654. {^^ ^^4^ Manasseh himself had 
intended going out to Brazil to join his brother Ephraim Soeiro^ 

1 Ephraim had evidently discarded his surname of " Ben-Israel" for 
" Soeiro," that of his maternal grandfather, who probably left no male 
issue. In such cases, it was customary among Sephardi Jews for the 
second son of the eldest daughter to use his mother's maiden surname 
exclusively, or add it to his own patronymic. 


in business.) During Aboab's Rabbinate there was war between 
the Dutch and Portuguese for possession of the colony, which he 
describes in Hebrew verse, still in manuscript. He was the first 
Rabbi and the first Hebrew Author in the New World. It has 
been alleged, that in his declining years he was a secret votary of 
Sabbat ai Zebi. He was a great-grandson of the last Gaon of 
Castile, the Isaac Aboab (1433-1493) who wrote a super-com- 
mentary to Nachmanides' commentary on the Pentateuch, 
printed in Constantinople in 1525. Rabbi Abraham de Samuel 
Zacuto, the author of the Juchasin, was one of his pupils, and on 
his death delivered the funeral oration. 


Dr. Abraham Zacutus Lusitanus 

He was one of the most eminent physicians of his time and the 
author of many valuable works in connection with his profession. 
He was a native of Lisbon and of marrano origin. In the year 
1625, when Philip (1605-1665) IV of Spain (1621-1665) and 
Portugal (1621-1640) banished the Jews from the latter kingdom, 
Zacutus escaped to Amsterdam from the clutches of the Holy 
Office. Here he was initiated into the Abrahamic covenant and 
lived as an exemplary Jew. He was one of the " Aprovaciones " 
of the first volume of the Conciliador " Sapientissimo Viro, 
Domino Menasseh Ben Israel, sacrorum librorum eruditissimo 
interpreti, Salvtem. . . . Amstelodami die ultim. Mensis 
August. Anno. 1632. 

Te summ^ colit, & observat. 

Doctor Zacutus Lusitanus." 

Among his clientele he numbered the Elector Palatine Frederick V 
(1596-1632), King of Bohemia (1619-1620), and his consort 
Elizabeth Stuart (1596-1662), eldest daughter of James (1566- 
1625) I, King of England (1603-1625). They were the parents of 
Sophia (1630-1714), Electress of Hanover, the mother of George 
(1660-1727) I (1714-1727). 

His great-grandfather was Abraham [Diogo Rodriguez] (1450 ?- 
post 15 10) de Samuel de Abraham Zacut, the astronomer, 
mathematician and historian. 

In 1473, while a professor in the University of his native 
town, Salamanca, he wrote his world-famous : nimi> niN^n [B. M.] 
(Astronomical Tables), and here he became acquainted with 
Christopher Columbus (1446 ?-i5o6). 

His pupil Joseph Vecinho (Vizino) [Diego Mendes], physician 
to Joao II, the Great (1455-1495), King of Portugal (1481-1495), 
translated the work into Latin. It was printed by a Jew, Samuel 


D'Ortas, at Leiria in 1496, and entitled " Almanach Perpetuum." 
Dr. Vecinho presented a copy to Columbus, which he always 
carried with him and consulted on his voyages, deriving in- 
valuable help from it. 

It was this very book that he used to predict the eclipse of the 
moon, which so terrified the Indians in Jamaica that they became 
obedient to him, and furnished his party food. After his death 
it was found in his library. On the margins are calculations in 
his penmanship, which were doubtless made to verify those of 

On the exile from Spain, 2 August, 1492, the author went to 
Lisbon, where he was appointed astronomer and historiographer 
to Joao II. He was of material assistance to the great navigator 
Vasco da Gama (1460 ?-i524), in preparation of his voyage to 
India. The ships were provided with Zacuto's newly perfected 
iron astrolabes, which hitherto had been of wood. He was highly 
esteemed by da Gama, who took leave of him on the 8 July, 1497, 
in the presence of his entire crew. 

Portugal also expelled the Jews, so he fled with his son Samuel 
to Tunis, and here in 1504 he wrote his famous ponv "iSD which 
is a chronological history of the Jews from the Creation up to 

It was first printed in Constantinople in 1566 [b. m.], and an 
issue edited by Herschell Filipowski (1817-1872) was published 
in London in 1857, some copies of which were printed on vellum 
[b. m.]. Tunis being invaded by Spain he emigrated to Turkey, 
where he died some time after 15 10. 


Jacob Judah Aryeh ve Leon 

Haham Jacob Judah Aryeh de Leon [Templo] of marrano origin, 
was born in Hamburgh in 1603. Here for some years he was 
teacher in Hebrew and Rabhinics to the Kahal Kadosh de Talmud 
Tor ah. Subsequently he was appointed Haham of Middelburgh 
in Holland, where in 1642 he published tracts in Spanish* and 

^ The Authentic Letters of Columbus. By William Eleroy Curtis, . . . 
Chicago, . . . 1895, pp. 115-116. 

^ Retrato Del Templo De Selomo. . . . Compuesto, pot laacob levda Leon 

Hebreo, vezino de Middelbuygo, en la Provincia de Zelanda. 

En el Ano de 5402 ala creacion del Mundo. 

En Middelbvrgo, En Casa de la Biuda y Heredeos de Symon Moulert 

Imprimidor de los Estados de Zelanda. m.dc.xlii. 

(4<o. 4 W.+48 pp. [Bodleian.]) 


Dutch, ^ describing a model he had constructed of Solomon's 
Temple. Shortly after he settled in Amsterdam and resumed 
his tutorial profession, and it was here that a French version ^ of 
the tract was published, and seven years later a Hebrew edition 
appeared,^ translated by the Author from his original Spanish. 
Versions in German,* Latin, ^ and Ladino^ have also been issued 
at various times. In anticipation of his visit to London to exhibit 
his model before Charles II (1630-1685) and his Court, he prepared 
an essay in English, which was printed and published in Amster- 

^ Afbeeldinghe Vanden Tempel Salomonis, . . . Door laacob lehvda 

Leon Ebreo. 

Tot Middelburgh, By de Weduwe ende Erf sgenamen van Symon Moulert, 

Ordinaris Drucker vande Ed: Mog: Heeren Staten van Zeelandt. 

Anno 1642. 

(4/0. 4//. + 49 /7^.+ folded etching "El Tempio de Selomoh," etc. etc. 

[B. M.]) 

Reissued at Amsterdam in 1644. [I. S.] 

A fourth edition published at Amsterdam in 1669 [Bodleian]. 

* Portraict dv Temple de Salomon, . . . Compose par lacob luda Leon 
Hebreu, habitant de Middelbourg en la Province de Zelande. 

L'an de la creation du Monde 5403. 

A Amsterdam, Imprim6 chez Jean Frederick Stam, t I'Esperance, 

ob. b. c. xliii. (4/0. 6//. +88 pp. [I. S.]) 

ts^ipn \\^hh ipmyn uy\ ly^ pe'b nnn . . . VD>n n^^nn -ibd^ 
Dn-iDK^DN ns DQii . . . nx mm* ipv» -iinDrj . . . ddhh 
(4*0 2 + rh II. [i.s.]) . . , p"B^ 1KD5 D^DB^n 'n ib'Vp bmi 'n rm 

Two hundred and ten years later, it was reissued at Warsaw with an 
" approbation " of Samuel Mohilewer, the great Zionist, who at the time 
was Chief Rahhi of Suwalk. 

* Traktat des Jak. Jeh. Leonis von dem Tempel Salomonis. Aus dem 
Hollandischen ausgefertigt : Hannover, 1665, 8°. 

(Bibhotheca Judaica. . . . JuUus Furst . . . Leipzig . . . 1849, p. 232.) 

* Jacobi Jehvdae Leonis De Tempio Hierosolymitano, ... ex EbraBo 
Latin^ recensiti h. Johanne Savberto. . . Helmaestadt Impressit Jacobvs 
Mvllervs cb. b. c. ixv. 

(4/0. Eng. Frontis. [Augustus . . . Dux Brunovicensis et Lunaeburgensis 
. . . Conr. Buno /ec.]4-Eng. Title-page +a-d in jouv^ [c* : Jacobi 
Yehudae Leonis Hebraei. Conr. Buno /ec.]+) : (in fours -\- 211 pp. [in- 
correctly numbered 203 pp.]-{-a,t p. 35 folio folded sheet with Latin text 
-{-folio folded sheet of Temple plans + engraving of model of Solomon's 
Temple, Palace and Fort Antonio, with explanatory details in Dutch -|- 
at /). 94, engraving of the " Priestly garments "+at p. 168, engraving of 
Holy Vessels, Candelabrum, etc. + at p. 179, engraving of " Ark of 
Testimony." [I. S.]) 
It was reissued at Altdorph in 1674. [I. S.] ' 

\th)^ nten ir:n« D'nn ^'pivt nnx m^N> ^pv inn . . . ^3*n 
yy r\t)p n n^nKsoKriD^K 5636 "i r« )p'>:)^m n"i» jkd r'tv h)i2V 

(8°. 120 pp. [B. M.]) 


dam,^ describing the model of Solomon's Temple, and also that 
of the Tabernacle of Moses, of which he had also constructed a 
model. It was again on view here in the years 1759 and 1760.* 
In 1778 it was in the possession of a Mr. M. P. Decastro, who 
claimed to be a near relation of Haham de Leon. He exhibited 
the model here, and translated and published the essay describing 
it,^ which he tells us was " First printed in Hebrew and 

Leon Templo,^ as our Haham is at times referred to, is 
supposed to have invented " The Arms of y^ most Ancient & 
Honorable Fraternity, of Free and Accepted Masons." The 
original drawing was seen by Laurence Dermott (1720-1791) 
when he saw the model of the Temple in 1759-1760.® He also 
wrote on the " Cherubim " and on the " Ark of the Testimony." 
In 1671 he issued the Psalms in Hebrew, with a Spanish para- 
phrase and notes . This was his last published work, in the preface 
of which he teUs us that although he was then sixty-seven years 
of age, he completed the work in seven months, at times that he 
could spare from his tutorial duties. Four works in manuscript 
are still unpublished. After his death, among his sketches were 

^ A Relation | Of the most memorable thinges | In The Tabernacle j of 

Moses, I And The | Temple of Salomon, | 

A ccording to Text of Scripture. \ 

By Jacob Jehudah Leon, Hebr. | 

Author of the Model of Salomon's Temple. \ 

At Amsterdam, | Printed by Peter Messchaert, in the Stoof-steech, 1675. | 

(4^0. ^11.-^27 pp.) [I.S.] 

2 Ahiman Rezon, Or a help to all that are or would be Free and Accepted 
Masons, . . . the Second Edition. By Lau Dermott. Secretary. . . . London, 
1764. (8°. Eng. Frontis. 4- xxxvi. + 224 pp. [Quatuor Coronati Lodge 
library]) p. xxxiv. 

^ An Accurate Description Of the Grand and Glorious Temple of 
Solomon. In which are briefly Explain'd, 
i I. The Form of that Fabric. 
II. The Vessels and Instruments belonging'thereto. 
III. The King's Palace. 

IV.^ Fort Antonio, built for the Defence of the Temple. 
First printed in Hebrew and Spanish at Middleburgh, By that celebrated 
Architect, Jacob Juda Lyon, In The Year mdcxlii. 

Translated by M. P. Decastro, (Proprietor of the said Model, and a near 
Relation to the Author.) 

London : Printed for the above Proprietor, by W. Bailey, Wellclose- 
Square, m.dcc.lxxviii. 

(8°. Eng. Frontis. [Jacobi Yehudae Leonis Hebraei . . . Salom Italia 
Sculpsit] + 2 II. -\- iii pp. + i I. [etchings of " Temple," " Cherubim "] 
+ 4^PP-) [I.S.] 

See " Jacob Jehudah Leon (Templo), by Israel Solomons," Jewish 
Chronicle, 30 Oct., 1903. 

* The tract was first printed in Spanish and Dutch in 1642, and not 
until 1650 did it appear in Hebrew. 

' Templo was assumed as a surname by his descendants. 

• Ahiman Rezon, ibid. 


found over two hundred designs to illustrate and elucidate Biblical 
and Rabbinical passages. These his son Haham Solomon Raphael 
{ob. 1733 circa) de Leon Templo presented to Willem Surenhuis, 
who had them engraved for his edition of the Mishna^ 

Biographers do not seem to know when and where he died. 
David Franco Mendes (1713-1792) tells us that after his London 
visit he returned to Amsterdam, and although he gives a tran- 
scription of his epitaph, consisting of eight lines of Hebrew 
laudatory verse, no date is mentioned. ^ Dr. M. Kayserling 
suggests that he died after 1675, that is after his London visit. ^ 
There is, however, good authority to surmise that he died in 
London during his visit. 


Thesouro Dos Dinim 

Thesovro Dos Dinim. . . . Composto por. Menasseh Ben Israel. 

Estampado em casa de Eliahu Aboab. An. 5405. 

(8°. 16 II. (one blank) +62^ pp. [in four sections]) 

*2 Muy Nobres, Magnificos, e Prudentes Senhores, Parnassim deste 

Kaal Kados de Talmud Tor ah o S^ David Abarbanel Dormido, 

Parnas da Sedaka, e Talmud Tora. . . . Menasseh ben Israel. 
Amsterdam 15 de Hiyar, An. 5405. [b. m.] 

Thesovro Dos Dinim ultima parte . . . Economica . . . Por 

Menasseh Ben Israel. 

Amsterda, na of&cina de Joseph ben Israel seufilho.^ 5407- 

S^ 8 //. (one blank) -\-210 pp. +4 IL 

A2. . . . Dedicatoria. Aos muy nobres, Magnificos e Prudites 

Senhores, os Senhores Abrahd e Ishak Israel Pereyra. . . . 

1 Mischna sive Totius Hebraeorum Juris, Rituum, Antiquitatum, ac 
Legum Oralium Systema, . . . Guilielmus Surenhusius. . . . Amstelaedami, 
. . . [1698-1703] (vi vols. /o/.) 

(Franco) ♦JJ^DH by Vst ^1W>b HTin^ npr** 'infi DSTTH JllibVI- 

* Jewish Encyclopedia, 1904, vol. viii. p. i. 

* The author, in his Nishmath Chayyim, 165 1, folio 103, bewails the 
premature death of his son Joseph, the printer of this book. He was, he 
tells us, a keen Talmudist, and had a perfect knowledge of four languages. 
He had sent him on a voyage for the first time, and on returning to Amster- 
dam from Dantzig was shipwrecked. On his second journey the following 
year to Poland, on nearing Lublin, he died, being at the time about twenty 
years of age. 


A3. Este sen intimo, e affei^oado amigo, 
Hahd, Menasseh ben Israel 
Amsterdam 12 de Tamuz, An. 5407. [b. m.] 

The two parts of Thesouro dos Dinim were subsequently re- 
issued in one volume : — 
Amsterdam Anno 5470 (8°. 4+201+2//.)^ [i- s.] 


"Rettung der Juden," by Manasseh Ben-Israel 

Manasseh Ben Israel Rettung der Juden Aus dem Englischen 


Nebst einer Vorrede von Moses Mendelssohn. 

Als ein Anhang zu des Hrn. Kriegsraths Dohm Abhandlung : 

Ueber die biirgerliche Verbesserung der Juden. . . . 

Berlin und Stettin bey Friedrich Nicolai. 1782. 

(8°. lii +64 pp.) [I. s.] 

* This second issue is rarer than the first : 5470 is a misprint for 5407. 

ApUnaix XXV 


U^eia^es from ^B^e. 

Oftwomigkic Armies, afwell fox)tenicn as horfmentThe 

firfl of the great Sophy, the other of an Hebrew people, till this time not difco* 

nercd.commingfrom the Mountaincs of Cafpij, who pretend cheir warre is to 

rccoocrthe Land of Promifc, Sc expcll the Turks out of Chrinendome. With 

cheir multitude of Souldicrs^ & new invention of weapons. 

Alfoccrlaino prophecies of a Tew fcruingco that Armie, called ^Ari Shiieske^ 
prognofucating many Orange accidents, which fhall happen 
the following yeer e, 1607. 

Tranflated out of Italian into Englifh, by W, W. 

Pnmedbyl.R.forHcnrv Goffbn, and arc to be fold in Pater 

From a rare tract lent by Mr. Israe* Socom0Hs.\ 



Lord, Don Mathias de Rensie, 
of Venice. 

Fter the particular thinges alleaged 
in my former writings vnto your 
Lordshippe, I thought it good and 
conuenient by this my Letter, to 
aduertise your Lordship, of certaine 
great, horrible, and fearefull things that hapned 
in this quarter. 

Purposing to certifie your Lordship of the pompe 
and great triumph at the presenting of the Captaines 
of the Sea, vnto the great Turke : the miserie and 
vnhappines of the poore prisoners : the discorde & 
contention that came by the sonne of the Vice Roy 
of Naples, being prisoner : the threatnings made to 
the Christians : the receiuing of the Ambassadors of 
the Soffy : the pompes, tryumphes, and entertainments 
made vnto them, and yet dissembled enough, with 
mocking one the other at their departing : the presents 
giuen : the going of the great Turke a hunting 



and all other thinges written at large, as your Lord- 
ship shall vnderstand. 

But now your Lordship shall vnderstand at thys 
time, the greatest, the most wonderfull, and most 
strange thing that euer was heard of. The which 
partly hath so troubled the great Turke, and all 
the rest, that they haue left of all other affayres, to 
prouide for the perrill and danger that at this time 
hangeth ouer theyr heads. 

Your Lordships to vse, 

Signior Valesco. 

Newes from Rome. 

The newes are come that the king of Hungarie maketh 
a great Army, which shall haue for his ayde the gallies 
of Buda, and of many other Princes of Christendome. 
And they say moreouer, that the king of Bohemia will 
helpe therein, and that the most part of Christian Princes 
will come and ayde him in this enterprise against the 
Turke, except the Signorie of Venice, which medleth 
nothing at all in it. These reporters of newes affirme, 
that there shal come aboue a hundred gallies, besides 
other Barks, ships, & Hulkes without number, which 
is occasion that they hasten the warre the more. Not- 
withstanding, men esteeme not so much hereof, as of 
the war that is made beyond the Mountaines, as you shall 
understand not without wondering at it. The Tartars 
make friendes upon the greater Sea, & haue made a 
league & friendship with the great Turke, requiring 
ayde, for they are molested with war by the great 
Emperour of Muscouia, & prince of Sagodie, of Pogore, 
of Smeiengie, of Drossy, of Gazam, of Virgoiosam, of Tartarie, 
of Gil am, and of diuers other people and regions lying 
toward the South : they say that this Emperor or Duke 
hath two Armies, and is called iohn Dwatilio, a young 
man, of the age of xxiiii. yeeres, noble and valiant, and 
a Christian, after the institution of the Greekes, and 
presumeth that by reason of his blood, the Empire of 
Constantinople doth belong to him. And these two Armies 
are about two hundred thousand horse. 


Newes from Rome. 

They were not wont in time past to be so strong, nor 
so feared of the Turks, for they had not the use of 
artillarie in the warre : but nowe they haue meruailous 
great preparation in theyr warre. Hee hath in wages 
certaine Dutch Captaines, and about tenne thousand 
Maister gunners, and is meruailously well furnished 
with harquebushes, and artillery, and because men 
understand that hee hath so vanquisht the Tartarians, 
and brought the to such a state, that they cannot much 
more resist him, and that if the saide Muscouite should 
be maisters ouer the Tartars, they should consequently 
be Rulers of the great sea, & the way should bee open 
and easie for them to come, not onely to Constantinople, 
but also to driue the Turke out of Europe : and because 
that the saide great Turke is assured of this enterprise 
and commotion of the Greekes : he hath cocluded and 
determined, to send to the said Tartars a good assistance 
of fifteene thousand fighting men, and also for this 
purpose, hee hath sent to the sea ten Gallies to passe 
them ouer. 

Men make mention and doubt of Mondaccio which is 
a great Prince and Ruler, and able to make foure score, 
or a hundred thousand horse : and yet men are uncertaine 
whose part he will take, because hee is tributarie unto the 
great Turke. 

There is newes also from Africa, that the king of 
Bugierjy the king Tramecej the king of TuniSy the children 
of Serif. The Lord of Muroctio^ and of Gran, with the 
Arabians and other, haue taken in hand to driue and 
expulse the turke wholy out of Affrioa^ & to endomage 
him as much as they may. Men know not yet in what 
place they will war, but we shall know it shortly. The 
newes also is, that the Soffie is in Campe with a great 


Newes from Rome. 

Armie, and hath the Medes to helpe him, which border 
upon the Caspian Sea, and of one side neighbour to the 
Hi roans, called at this day Correxans and Zecatans, with 
whom he hath made a league and peace. There are on 
his side also the Ibelans and Albians, and also the people 
of Melibar, which harbor upo the Indians, and likewise 
with the king of Bosphorus, all beeing people meruailous 
swift and nimble. In this so mightie an host and armie, 
is also Basoet the sonne of the great Turke, by meanes 
whereof, all in those parts is in great trouble, as well as 
heere. It seemeth that the lenissaries bring him the lot 
of Turkie, as Baduget, Zermonia, Alepo, and all the Regions 
lying neere to the Soffl is reuolted, all the which particu- 
larities shall be understoode more at large. 

This newes is great, and hath made the great turke to 
muse enough upon it, but aboue all these meruelous and 
dreadfull newes which are hapned, there is yet chaunced 
another, which hath greatly feared & abashed all men, 
which although it seemeth to be incredible, yet upon my 
credit it is most true, and that is, that a people heretofore 
unknowne, mighty, swift, and meruelous nimble, hath 
taken weapon in hand, to the disaduantage and losse of 
the house of Ottoman. They say that Alexander the 
great did in time past driue beyond the mountaine 
Gaspe nine tribes and a halfe of the Hebrewes which 
worshipped the Calfe & Serpent of gold, and draue 
them away, that neuer since there was no newes of 
them, neither knewe any man if they were in the worlde 
or not : because the Sea of sand, or the sandie sea, by 
a certaine inconuenience of sand Grauel or Beche, 
swelled & rose so high, that it utterly tooke from 
them the way into this our Region. But now by 


Neives from Rome. 

the meane of the newe Nauigation that y« Hollanders 
haue made, they are arriued in their country, and haue 
espied out all their dooings : and after y^ the said 
Hollanders had instructed and taught them in the science 
and knowledge of artillery, and gun = pouder for Harque- 
bushes and dags, whereunto they are meruelous apt and 
ready, they are become in all thinges perfit. After this 
they egged them forward to take weapon in hand, and 
passe the saide mountaine by Land. And because the 
sandy sea did hinder their passage, it appeareth y* some 
Duchman or Italian, which yet men knowe not, but 
notwithstanding some great Astrologian or Cosmographer 
taught them the way, making some hill plaine with fire, 
whereby they might easilie passe, which is a thing of 
great wonder. 

These people haue two mighty great armies, and 
infinite store of victualls, by reason of the fruitfulnesse 
of theyr country, they are also well prouided of all 
manner of preparation for war, & cunning in the 
practise of theyr weapons. They say they will come & 
recouer the land of Promise, towards the which the first 
army is already very neere, to the great terror and dread 
of euery man which hath either seene or heard of them. 
The spyes which haue been sent out by the great turke 
to discry them, doe affirme, that beside a hundred and 
two armies, there foUowe an infinite number of people, 
as well footmen as horsemen, and theyr first armie is 
already arriued upon the limmits of Turkie, putting 
all to fire and sword. Theyr language is bastard 
Hebrew : & because men speake much of it heere, 
I will not forget to speake also something thereof 
woorthy to be noted, and well understoode : The 
Hebrewes of Constantinople say, that they haue certaine 


Newes from Rome. 

prophesies, among the which one maketh mention, 
that from the foure parts of the world, shall rise a 
people, and come into Gog and Magog, and then shall 
appeare (as they perswade themselues) their Messias in 
might and power, and then they shall haue dominion 
and rule in the world, whereof they secretly reioyce, & 
are wonderous glad. They say moreouer, that there is 
a prophecie grauen in a piller set at Podromo which saith 
thus : A mightie Prince shall rise, whose beginning shall 
be of small reputation, who by his Issue shal war of 
such force and strength (with the helpe of God) that he 
shall bring to nothing, the empire and rule of Ottoman, 
and shal be the right possessour and inheritor of the 
Empire of Constantinople, & they beleeue all that it shall 
be this Emperor and duke of Muscouia, which is alreadie 
in great estimation among the Greeks. 

The Turks haue a prophecie, which they sing often, 
and weepe bitterlie the while, for it betokeneth and 
denounceth unto them, their utter ruine and destruction. 
And although it seeme strange, to say that the Turkes 
haue prophecies, it is no meruaile : for Balam was a false 
Prophet : the Sybilles also prophecied and were Pagans. 
For all these causes the great Turke hath forbidden wine 
& will that all men goe fiue times in a day to the Moscheay 
and pray to God for theyr health and saftie. And so hee 
prepareth three great armies, one against the Muscouites, 
another against the Soffie, and the third for to goe against 
the Hebrewes of the Mountaines of Caspij, Within these 
fewe dayes you shall haue other newes, wherefore thus 
making an end, I commend me unto your good Lordship : 
from Rome, the first day of June, 1606. Your faithfull 
and trustie seruant, Signlor Valesco. 


Newes from Rome. 

The description of the first Armie, condufited 

by Zoroam a lew, Captaine generall 

of the Armies. 

First of all a Jew, of verie great stature, of a fleshlie 
colour, more red then otherwise, with broad eyes, called 
Zoroam t is Captaine generall of all the Armies, hee leadeth 
under his Ensigne twelue thousand horse, and twenty 
thousand footmen. The horsemen are armed after a 
light sort, but very good Harnes, almost after our 
fashion : they carrie Launces of long Reedes, very hard 
and light, yet so sharpe pointed, that they passe thorowe 
a thing with incredible lightnesse : they carrie also 
shields or targets of bone, and in steede of swords, they 
use certaine Courtilaxes. 

They are apparrelled with the colour of their Ensigne, 
and all clothed with silke : the foote-men carrie Pikes of 
the same sort, with Helmet and Habergin : their Ensigne 
is of iblacke silke and blew, with a dog following a Hart, 
or Bucke, and a saying written in it, which is in our 
language thus : Either quick or dead. 

2. Of the Armie of Don Phares. 

There is one called Phares, which is an Earle, yong 
and valiant, not regarding this present life : this man 
hath under his commaund fifteene hundred horsemen 
armed lightly, onely on the fore-part and head-peece: 
yet this Armour is so well tempered and wrought, that 
it keepeth out a Launce and Harquebush shot. 


Newes from Rome. 

This manner of arming themselues, is to the intent 
they may neuer turne their backe to runne awaie : they 
have also fierce and light horses : there are eighteene 
thousand footemen, apparrelled with a kinde of sodden 
leather, made of the skinne of a certaine beast, so that 
no pike nor harquebush can pearse it. These men are 
beastlie people, & will neuer flie for any thing, they are 
very obedient and subiect unto their Prince, and their 
ordinarie apparell is silke. The Ensigne that they beare, 
is a falcon pecking or billing with another bird, with a 
sentence that saith, Either thine or mine shall breake. 

3. Of the Marquesse of Galair. 

There is a Marquesse of Galair called Goes, this man 
leadeth fifteen hudred men of armes, which be all ex- 
ceeding well armed & stout, strong, and rebust men : 
their horses are moriskes, the greatest, the strongest, 
the fairest, and the best that bee in the world : there are 
also seuenteene thousand souldiers, very wel appointed 
with Launce and harquebush : theyr Ensigne or armes 
is a redde field, with a maid clothed in greene, holding 
a Lion in her hand, with these words / hope to subdue a 
greater thing. 

4. Of the Duke of Falach. 

There is a Duke of Falach, called Obeth^ who hath under 

his conduct xx. thousand footemen, armed with a certaine 

mettall like yron, but it is light and hard, they have many 

good swords, launces, and other force, harquebushes, 

and wiflers : their Ensigne or armes, is a mermaid in a 

blacke field, and the deuise thus, My singing shall not 

cease until I the end. 



Newes from Rome. 

The description of tiie Armie conducted by 
Oaptaine Nauison. 

There is a captaine called Nauison, which hath under him 
XX. thousand men, appointed and armed with the skin 
of a serpent, most hard & stiffe, they haue Axes, pollaxes, 
pikes, harquebushes, and other kind of weapons : their 
Ensigne or armes, is a white snaile in a blacke fielde, 
with a deuise about it, By tittle and little, men goe very fane. 
Of the tribe of Simeon there is a Prince of Arsay, whose 
name is not yet knowne, but they say he is a deuill, great, 
grosse, & thicke beyond measure, with a flat nose, and 
both he and his men are of the stature of Giants : he 
leadeth with him xx. thousand footemen, almost all 
Alfiers, which are also so swift & nimble that they will 
take horses running : they make a meruailous noise, 
such as no people use: their Ensigne is an Lute in a 
blacke field, and haue for their posy, Suctt is my gouern- 

6. Of the Duhe of Barsalda. 
There is a duke of Barsalda, and he is the conducter 
of xiii, thousand footmen, which are all Harquebushers, 
& carry no fire matches, but strike it with a stone : 
they are apparrelled & armed with such a hard kind of 
leather, and so enchaunted, that no yron weapon in the 
world is able to perse it thorow. They bee also very swift 
and light : their Ensigne or armes, is a dry tree in a blew 
field, and their deuise thus, / hope to spread, and be greene 

7. Of the Armie of the Duke Passill. 

There is a duke of Passill called Abia, he hath under 
his conduct a thousand footmen, very cruell, hauing 
all kind of weapons to push or pricke far off, 


Newes from Rome. 

and to strike nigh, but farre different from ours, they 
are very expert in artificial! fire, and make the greatest 
and most dreadfull thinges withall y^ a man can imagin : 
they do it either by arte or enchauntment, so that it 
seemeth that it raigneth fire upon their enemies, and 
yet notwithstanding Jiurteth not themselves at all, by 
reason they are apparalled with a certaine Serpents 
skin which preserueth them. Their Ensigne is a Cat 
holding a Rat in her paw in a blacke fielde, and theyr 
posie thus, Euen so hapneth it to him t/iat is not gouerned. 

8. Of the Army conducted by the Earle 
of Albary, 

There is an Erie of Aibary called Orut, which hath under 
his gouernaunce a thousand horse-men with Crosse- 
bowes, some of them weare certaine light armour of a 
kind of hard mettall, with Rapyers and daggers after 
theyr manner, they fight alwayes running and their horses 
are so swift that it is wonderfull. This man also hath 
XX. thousand horses barbed with very fine leather. 
Some carry pikes & Partisans, & such like weapons. 
Their Ensigne or armes is a man in chaines, in a field 
parted halfe with greene and purple, and this deuise 
withall, % chaines shall bind another man, 

9. Of the l^arquesse of l/orio. 

There is a Marques of l/orio called Manasses, who 

hath under his conduct xvii thousand footemen, 

armed with a very hard & strong leather, which men 

beleeue to be enchaunted, because that no weapon nor 

harquebush is able to perse it thorowe, yet it is as 


Neives from Rome. 

light as Linnen cloth, and a thing very fayre to see to. 
These now haue all sorts of weapons that an Armie 
may haue : and they are deuided and set in a very faire, 
comely, and decent order: their Ensigne is an old man 
in a chariot, in a blacke field, saying thus, After a long 
iourney, I shall be happy, 

Caleb Shilock his prophesie, for the 
yeere, 1607, 

Be it knowne unto all men, that in the yeere 1607, when 
as the Moone is in the watrie signe, the world is like to 
bee in great danger : for a learned Jew, named Caleb 
Shilock, doth write, that in the foresaid yeere, the Sun 
shall be couered with the Dragon in the morning, from 
fiue of the clocke untill ^nine, and will appeare like 
fire : therefore it is not good that any man doe 
behold the same, for by beholding thereof he may lose 
his sight. 

Secondly, there shall come in the same yeere a mer- 
uailous great flood of water, to the great terror and 
amasement of many people. 

Thirdly, there shall arise a meruailous great wind, and 
for feare thereof many people shall be consumed, or 
distraughted of their wits. 

Fourthlie the same yeere, about the month of May, 
will arise another wonderfull great flood, and so great as 
no man hath seene since Noyea flood, which wil continue 
three dales and three nights, whereby many Citties and 
Townes which standeth uppon sandie ground will be in 
great danger. 


Newes from Rome. 

Fiftly, Infidels and Hereticks, through great feare and 
dread, will flie, and gather together, and asmuch as in 
them lies, make war against Christian princes. 

Sixtlie, in the same yeere after the great waters be 
past, about the end of the yeere will be very great and 
fearefull Sicknesses : so that many people are like to die 
by the infection of strange diseases. 

Seauenthly, there will be throughout the Worlde great 
trouble and contention about matters of Religion, and 
wonderfull strange newes unto all people, as concerning 
the same. 

Eightly, the Turke with his God Mahomet shall be in 
danger to lose his Septer, through the great change and 
alteration in his Regiment, by reason of famine and warres, 
so that the most part of his people will rather seeke 
reliefe from the Christian, then from him. 

Ninthlie, there will also arise great Earth = quakes, 
whereby diuers goodly buildings & high houses, are like 
to be ouerthrowne and ruinated. 

Lastlie, there will be great remoouings of the earth 
in diuers places, so that for feare thereof, many people 
will be in a strange amazement and terror. 

These punishments are prognosticated by this learned 
Jew, to fall uppon the whole world by reason of sinne, 
wherefore it behooueth all Christian to amend their euill 
Hues, and to pray earnestly unto God to with = hold these 
calamities from us, and to conuart our harts wholy to 
him, whereby we may find fauour in our time of neede, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 



A-B in fours ; Black letter, with the exception of title-page and 
introductory leaf; Lowndes, p. 2749 notes "Valesco, S. Jewes 
Prophecy, &c. Halliwell, May, 1856, imprint cut into ;^ 10-5-0: 
No other copy known." This is now in the British Museum, the 
fore edge of which is badly cropped, the name " Shilocke " on the 
title-page being cut down to " Shilo^ As in this copy, the imprint 
is cut off after " Pater," but there is just visible the top edge of 
the next line, which may be "noster rowe at the signe of the 
Sunne," but no indication of a date. These are the only two copies 
known of this remarkable tract. To students of Shakespeare, it 
is of considerable interest. James Orchard Halliwell-Phillips, 
formerly Halliwell (i 820-1 889), the great Shakespearean scholar, 
in his introduction to the Merchant of Venice (Halliwell's Shake- 
speare, vol. v., p. 277 : London, 1853) maintains that the name of 
the predominant character of the play suggested itself to the author, 
from this tract. [Notes and Queries, los. ix. 269. April 4, 1908.] 




"The World's Great Restauration," by Sir Henry Finch 

The I Worlds | Great ReStavration. | Or | The Calling Of | The 

levves, and (with them) | of all the Nations and King- \ domes of 

the earth, to the faith | of Christ. | 

Published by William Gouge, B. of D. and | Preacher of Gods Word 

in Black-fryers, London. \ 

London | Printed by Edward Griffin for | William Bladen, and are 

to be sold at his Shop | neare the great North dore of Pauls, at the 

signe I of the Bible. 1621. | 

(4to. 7 //.+234 Z'^. + i 1-) [I. s.] 

This work has a second title page : — 
'* The Calling of the levves. | A | Present | To Ivdah And | The 
Children Of | Israel that ioyned with him, | and to loseph (the 
valiant tribe | of Ephraim) and all the \ house of Israel that | 
ioyned with him. | 

The Lord giue them grace, that they | may returne and seeke 
lehovah | their God, and David their \ King, in these latter dayes.| 
There is prefixed an Epistle vnto them, | written for their sake in 
the Hebrue tongue, ^ | and translated into English. | 
Published by William Gouge, B. of D. and | Preacher of Gods word 
in Blackefryers. London. \ 

London I Printed by Edward Griffin for | William Bladen, and are 
to be sold at his Shop | neare the great North dore of Pauls, 
at the signe | of the Bible. 162 1." | 

1 The Hebrew epistle referred to is a translation by the author of a 
section of this title page. It is printed by itself on one of the preliminary 
leaves in somewhat archaic characters, and reads as follows : — 

nDV'?i innn Snt^* onSi min^S 
riNi Dn^ni>x nin'* n^< wpi\ 

Min> ^J^^? -rn DiDr 
Nn^'' ^ ^» inn 

a Jeremiah xxxi. 10. h Genesis xxxii. 19. c Ezekiel xxxvii. 16. 
d Proverbs iii. 4. e Hosea iii. 5. / Amos iii. 8. 

The British Museum, and the Mocatta Library, in University College, 
have copies, without the first title page (The Worlds Great Restauration) 
and Gouge's preliminary leaf " To the Reader." Probably issued in this 
state after the incarceration of Finch and Gouge. 



" The World's Great Restauration " {continued). 

Contemporary reference to the book is to be found in letters 
from the Rev. Joseph Mead (Mede) (1586-1638), the eminent 
bibHcal scholar, to Sir Martin Stuteville. 
(B. M. Add. 4176 : 121, 123-6.) 

Christ's College Cambr. March 31. 
Sr. 1621. 

". . . S^ Henry Finch was last week examined before the High 
Commission about the book I wrote of, but wonderful privately. 
He gave up his answer in writing, ^ was sent to the King, & 
expected from him what should be his censure. ..." 

Christ's College, Apr. 7 [1621] 

... 7 have seen S'' Henry Finch's The World's Great restaura- 
tion, or Calling of the Jews, & with them of all the Nations of the 
Earth, to the Faith of X^- I cannot see but for the main of the 
discourse I might assent unto him. God forgive me, if it be a sin ; 
but I have thought so many a day. But the thing, which troubles 
His Majesty, is this point, which I will write out for you verbatim ; 
" The Jews & all Israel shall return to their land & antient Seats, 
conquer their foes, have their Soil more fruitfull than ever. They 
shall erect a glorious Church in the Land of Judah it self & bear 
rule far and near." . . . We need not be afraid to aver and maintain, 
that one day they shall come to Jerusalem again ; be Kings & 
chief Monarchs of the Earth ; sway & govern all, for ihe glory of 
X* ; that shall shine amongst them. And that is it Lactantius 
saith Lib. 7. Cap. 15. The Romans name I will speak it, because 
i t must one day be shall be taken from the Earth, & the Empire 
shall return to Asia. And again shall the East bear dominion 
& the West be in subjection." In another place Ashur & Egypt, 
all these large & vast Countries, the whole tract of the East & 
South, shall be converted to Christ ; the chief Sway & sovreignty 
remaining with the Jews. All nations shall honour them. 

Some say, the King says, he shall be a pure King, & he is so 
auld that he cannot tell how to do his homage at Jerusalem. 
This with my best respect. 

Yours ever, 

Joseph Mead.^ 

^ This letter has been transcribed, somewhat inaccurately in " The 
Court and Times of James the First ; . . . [Robert Folkestone Williams.] 
. . . London : . . . 1848. Vol. ii., pp. 250-251. It is also to be found in 
(Notes & Queries, 2nd S. xi. 127., Feb. 16, 1861) " Modern Apocr5^hal 
Apocalypse," by Moses Margoliouth, ll.p., ph.d. 


Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, James 1. 1619-1623. 

. , . Edited by Mary Anne Everett Green. . . . London . . . 


p. 247 April 18 ? (1621) 

96. Petition of Sir Hen. Finch to the King. Disclaims the 
opinion which His Majesty thinks is asserted in his book ; 
is sorry for having written so unadvisedly; begs liberty 
and restoration to favour. 

p. 248 April 18, 162 1 London : 

Chamberlain [to Carleton.] 

97. ... Serjeant Finch is committed for his book on the con- 
version of the Jews. 


Philip Ferdinandus 

The Jew referred to was Philip Ferdinandus (1555 ?-i598), a 
native of Poland. He was converted to Roman Catholicism, but 
afterwards became a Protestant. He taught Hebrew at Oxford, 
and subsequently at Cambridge (d.n.b.). 

His only publication is entitled : — 
Hcec sunt verba Dei, etc. \ 

Praecepta In Monte Sinai | data ludaeis sunt 613, quorum 365 
negativa, & 248 af- 1 firmativa, collecta per Pharisaeum Magistrum 
Abraha- | mum filium Kattani, & impressa in Bibliis Bomber- 1 
giensibus, anno a mundo creato 5288 Vene- 1 tiis, ab Authore vox 
DEI appellata : | 

translata in linguam Latinam per Phi- \ lippum Ferdinandum 
Polonum. I 

His accesserunt nonnulla qucB sequens pa- \ gina indicahit. \ 
Lex Dei integra est, Psal. 19. | 
Aperi oculos meos, vt videam mirabilia legis iuce.\ 
Vocem audivistis, et similtudinem non vidistis, \ prcefer vocem, 
Deut. 4. 12. 1 

Vox Dei semel data est per Mosem in monte Sinai. | 
Sed similitudinem videre. i. arcana, singulis diebus da- 1 tur. Ex 
Hazoar. \ 

Cum licentia omnium primariorum virorum in in- 1 clyta & 
celeberrima Cantabrigiensi Academia. 
Cantabrigiae, | Ex ofhcina lohannis Legat. 1597.I 
(4/0. 3 //. + A-H. in fours.) [b. m.] 

II.— p 



Petition of the Jewes 
Johanna & Ebenezer Cart [en] [w] right 

The I Petition | Of The | Jewes | For the Repeahng of the Act of | 
ParUament for their banishment | out of England.] 
Presented to his Excellency and the | general! Councell of Officers 
on I Fry day Jan. 5. 1648. | With their favourable acceptance 
thereof. \ 

Also a Petition of divers Comman- 1 manders, (sic) prisoners in 
the Kings I Bench, for the releasing of all pri- | soners for Debt, 
according to | the Custome of other | Countries. | 
London, Printed for George Roberts, 1649. | 

{4to.1L +6 pp.) [I.S.] 

sig. A. 2. " To the Right Honourable, Thomas Lord Fairfax, 
(His Excellency) Englanes (sic) Generall, And The Honour- 
able Councel of Warre, Conveaned for Gods Glory, Izraells 
Freedom, Peace, and Safety, The humble Petition of Johanna 
Cartenright, Widdow, and Ebenezer Cartwright her Son, 
freeborn of England, and now Inhabitants of the City of 
sig. A. 3. " This Petition was presented to the generall Councell of 
the Officers of the Army, under the Command of his Excellency, 
Thomas Lord Fairfax, at Whitehall on Ian. 5. And favour- 
ably received with a promise to take it into speedy consideration, 
when the present more publike affaires are dispatched.*''^ 


"The Messiah Already Come," by John Harrison 

The I Messiah | Already Come. | . . . 

Written in Barbaric, in the yeare 1610, and for that cause 
directed | to the dispersed lewes of that Countrie, and in them 
to all others now groaning under the heauy | yoake of this their 
long and intoUerable captivitie, which yet one day shall have an 
end : . . . 

Amsterdam, | Imprinted by Giles Thorp. Anno M.DC,xix. | 
(4^.5//. +68 /)/>.) [B. M.] 

sig. A3. — To The High And Mighty Prince Frederick King of 
Bohemia, &c. . . . This Treatise was published seven yeares 

^ American Elements in the Re-settlement. By Lucien Wolf. (Trans- 
actions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, vol. iii. i8g6-8. . . . 
London, . . . 1899. . . . p. 87.) 


agoe and Printed in the Low Countries. . . . Your Ma**®^ 
most humble devoted seruant lohn Harrison.^ 


" Discourse of Mr. John Dury to Mr. Thorowgood— Jewes in 
America," by Tho. Thorowgood— "Americans no Jews," by 
Hamon l'Estrange 

An Epistolicall Discourse Of Mr. lohn Dury, To Mr. Thorowgood. 
Concerning his conjecture that the Americans are descended from 
the IsraeHtes. With the History of a Portugall lew, Antonie 
Monterinos, {sic) attested by Manasseh Ben Israel, to the same 
effect. . . . Your faithfull friend and fellow-labourer in the Gospel 
of Christ. J. Dury, St. lames, this 27 Ian. 1649. 

(sig. D-E, in fours.) 50. 

This will be found in the preliminary leaves of : — 
levves in America, | Or, | Probabilities | That the Americans are 
of I that Race. 1 2 

" The Epistle to the Reader " is dated Mar. 30. 1651. 
With the removall of some | contrary reasonings, and earnest 
de- 1 sires for effectuall endeavours to | make them Christian. | 
Proposed by Tho : Thorowgood, B.D. one of the | Assembly of 
Divines. | . . . 

London, Printed by W. H. for Tho. Slater, and are to be sold | at 
his shop at the signe of the Angel in Duck lane, 1650. | 
{4to. 22 II. +139 PP-) [I. s.] 

The Imprimatur signed lohn Downame is dated Septem. 4. 1649. 
pp. i29-(i39) contain " The Relation of Master Antonie Mon- 
terinos, {sic) translated out of the French Copie sent by 
Manasseh Ben Israel. ... J. Dvry Received this at London, 
27 of Novem. 1649." 

This was the affidavit of Montezinos, superscribed by Manasseh 
Ben Israel, sent to John Dury at his particular request. 

1 It appeared again under the following title : — 
A Vindication Of The Holy Scriptures. . . . 

By that Learned, and late Eminent Divine John Harrison. 

London . . . 1656. 

(i2mo. 11 II. -\- 1 50 pp. -{- 1 I.) [i. s.] 

2 A reply was made to this tract : — 

Americans no lewes, ] Or | Improbabilities that the | Americans are of 

that race | • . . 

By Hamon l'Estrange, K*. | 

London, | Printed by W. W. for Henry Seile over against | St. Dunstans 

Church in Fleetstreet. 1652. | 

(4/0. 2ll.^%opp.) [I. s.] 



"Whether it be Lawful to Admit Jews into a Christian 
Commonwealth," by John Dury 

A I Case | Of | Conscience, | Whether it be lawful to admit Jews \ 
into a Christian Common-wealth ? | 

Resolved By | M' John Dury : | Written To | Samuel Hartlih, 
Esquire. | 

London, | Printed for Richard Wodenothe, in Leaden-Hall street, | 
next to the Golden Heart, 1656. | 

(4to. il.+gpp.) [I. s.] 

p. 9 : ". . . Sir ! Your most affectionate and faithful servant 

. . . John Dury. Cassell, in haste, Januarie 8 1656."^ 


"Life and Death of Henry Jessey" 

The I Life and Death | of | Mr. Henry Jessey, | Late Preacher of 
the Gospel of | Christ in London ; | Who, having finished his 
Testimony, was | Translated the ^th day of September, 1663. | 
Written for the benefit of all, especially such as | were acquainted 
with his godly conversation, | and Pertakers of his unwearied 
Labours in | the Lord.| 

With an Elegy upon the Death of Mr. | William Bridg. | . . . 
Anno Domini 1671. | 

(8°. ^ll.-\-'LoSpp.) [b. M.] 

The author is unknown, but page 97 bears the initials ** E. W." 

p. ^7 : " Towards the Jews his Charity was famous beyond 

President and many ways exprest, . . ." 
p. 69 : ** 3. His Charity was most eminently shewn to them in the 
great Collections, which through his importunity was made 
for the poor Jews at Jerusalem, who were reduced to extream 
poverty and misery ; having lost, by reason of the Swedish 
Navies Wars, 15000000 of Rix Dollers ; which their 
brethren of Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, and Prussia, were 
wont to send them yearly, for the maintenance of learned 
Rabbies and Students, and for the relief of antient Widows 
and decripid men, and other necessitous people, with which 
the Holy-Land doth abound ; who (as we said) by cutting 
off their subsist ance were brought (in 1657) into great 

* John Dury and the English Jewry. By the Rev. S. Levy, m.a. 
(Transactions of the Jewish liistorical Society of England, vol. iv. 1899- 
190X. . . . London. . . . 1903. . . . pp. 76-82.) 


extremity, not only of Famine and nakednesse (that of 
700 Widows, 400 were famished out-right) but also by the 
imprisonment and scourgings of their Elders and Rabbyes, 
by their cruell Creditors, being the principal men of the Land 
to whom the Jews were indebted 20000 Rialls of Eight, 
which if the Ryall be 4 s. 8^. a piece, it is 4666/. 13s. 4^. for 
the liberty of dwelling there, etc. which they extorted with 
great rigor and exaction, resolving to sell them all for slaves, 
in case payment was not speedily made." 

p. 70: "This befel the onely then Germane Jews at 
Jerusalem, for the Congregation of Portugal Jews were 
relieved by the Alms of their Rich Brethren in Portugal." 

p. 70: "4. The only Anchor the miserable Wretched and 
distressed Persons had, was to Implore succour from their 
Brethren in other parts, to which end they sent Letters to 
Venice, Amsterdam, and by Rahbie Nathan Levita, an Elder, 
and Cabalist : But all they got from them served only for 
payment of Interest of Debts : so that they had still perished, 
if the bowels of Christians in Holland, had not compassion- 
ated their State, who sent them 500. Rix Dollars, and by 
Letters did earnestly press Mr. H. J. to further a Collection 
in England. 

" To which he made some demurs till he obtained full 
satisfaction of the truth of the Relation, and certainty of 
safe conveyance of the money that Charity might not be 
abused ; for the first, the Messengers from Jerusalem brought 
Commissions signed by their Elders, which Commissions 
were sent to the Synagogues in Germany, and in the Nether- 
lands to be examined ; who assured that they knew the 
hands, and that those men would not subscribe to an un- 
truth, and that they themselves had contributed upon the 
same Information. 

" And as for Conveyance, two Noted Merchants of 
Francford, would return the mony, and give Bond for so 
much ; till they procure a Receipt from the Elders of 
Jerusalem, as they had done for the above named summe of 
500. Rix Dollars ; and had a Letter returned from Jerusalem 
to the Charitable Christians of Amsterdam, both in way of 
Receipt and Gratitude with Original Hebrew Letter with the 
Messengers, Commissioners, and other necessar}?' Instructions 
being sent to Mr. Jessey, removed all scruples, so that im- 
mediatly informed divers London Ministers, by whose 
assistance, together with his own private Friends and 
Interest, the some of 300/. Sterling was in short time 
gathered and sent, and a Bill of Receipt, with thankfulness 
returned : some of it being also sent to distressed lews at 
Vilna and other places in Po/awt^. " 


p, 6y : " When their hberty of returning and trading in 
England (as they did in Germany, Poland, Russia, Portugal, 
Netherlands etc.) was moved, disputed and debated for and 
against ; He laboured that it might be granted, with such 
Umitations, (as our Merchants yielded unto, viz) that they 
should be seated in some decayed Port Towns, and pay 
Custome for Goods, thence transported into other parts of 
the Nation, besides what they should pay there for exporting 
English, and importing forreign Commodities : such a toller- 
ating of their trade might not onely be beneficial several ways 
to our selves, but be some satisfaction for the unhandsome 
dealings of our Nation against that people in the days of 
King Rich. I. King John and Edward the first, for the space 
of 100 years till their final Banishment, An. Dom. 1290. with 
those circumstances of cruelty, that our own Histories do 
not seem to approve of ; . . ." 


"The Glory of Jehudah and Israel— De Heerlichkeydt . . 


The Glory of Jehudah and Israel is referred to in the concluding 
paragraph of " The Humble Addresses/' 

Manasseh Ben Israel writes : — 

"... Now, having prooved the two former Points, I could 
adde a third, viz. of the Nobility of the lewes : but because that 
Point is enough known amongst all Christians, as lately yet it 
hath bene most worthily and excellently shewed and described 
in a certain Booke, called. The Glory of lehudah and Israel, 
dedicated to our Nation by that worthy Christian Minister Mr. 
Henry lessey, (1653. in Dutch) where this matter is set out at 
large : . . ." 

"The Life and Death Of M"" Henry Jessey," page 79: 
"... Mr. H. J. seconded his Almes with divers Consolatory 
Letters to the dispersed seed of Jacob, having before in 1650. 
wrote a compleat Treatise yet extant, and called (the glory & 
Salvation of Jehudah, and Israel) tending towards the reconcilia- 
tion of Jews and Christians, . . ." 

J. C. Wolf, in his Bihliothecce Hehrceae, 1733, vol. iv., p. 901, 
in his biography of Manasseh Ben Israel, incidentally refers to 
" De HeerUckheid en heyl van Jehuda en Israel " written in 
Flemish (Belgice) by Henr. Jesse. 

It is apparently very rare, the only copy that has been traced 
is mentioned in " Catalogue De La BibUotheque de literature 


hebraique et orient ale et d'Auteurs hebreux De Feu M^ Leon V. 
Saraval Trieste . . . 1853. "^ [i. s.] 

N°. 619 " Jesse Henry de Heerlichkeydt en Heyl van Jehuda 

en Israel (en langue flamande, traduit de Tanglais.) Amst. 

1653 in 8° . . . tres-rare. ..." 


Of the Late Proceeds at White-Hall, concerning 
THE Jews [Henry Jesse] 

A I Narrative | Of the late Proceeds at | White-Hall, | Concerning 
The I Jews : | Who had desired by R. Manasses \ an agent for them, 
that they might return to | England, and Worship the God of 
their Fa- 1 thers here in their Synagogues, etc. | 
Published for satisfaction to many in several parts of Eng- \ land, 
that are desirous, and inquisitive to hear the | Truth thereof. 
London : | Printed for L: Chapman, at the Crown in Popes- 
head- Alley. 1656. 1 
(4to. I I +14 pp.)^ [I. s.] 

p, II : "Here followeth part of a Letter written at Ligorn, 1652. 

and sent by the Preacher in the Phoenix Frigot, to a friend in 

Ligorn, aboard the Phoenix, 19 of the 1, 1652. 
Dear Brethren : . . ." 
p. 12'. k Postscript, To fill up the following Pages, that else 

had been vacant : Containing, 

1 The Proposals of R. Manasses ben Israel, more fully. 

2 Part of his Letter written Anno 1647. 

3 The late progress of the Gospel amongst the Indians in 

A translation appeared in : — 
Neue Schwarmgeister=Brut Oder Historische Erzehlung . . . 
IV. Die Wieder^^Einnehmung der Juden in Engeland 
v Die Bekehrung der Indianer in New= Engeland . . . 
Gedrukkt im Jahr 1661. pp. 189-223. 
(8°. 24II. +223 pp. +1 1.) [I. s.] 

^ In 1853 the Saraval library was purchased for the Breslau seminary. 

2 A translation appeared in : — 
Neue Schwarmgeister =Brut Oder Historische Erzehlung. . . . 

IV. Die Wicder =Einnehmung der Juden in Engeland 

V. Die Bekehrung der Indianer in New = Engeland . . . 
Gedrukkt im Jahr 1661. pp. 189-223. 

(8°. 2^ll.+223Pp.-\-il.) [I. s.] 



Bishop Thomas Newton and the Restoration of Israel 

" The preservation of the Jews is really one of the most signal 
and illustrious acts of divine Providence. They are dispersed 
among all nations, and yet they are not confounded with any. 
The drops of rain which fall, nay the great rivers which flow into 
the ocean, are soon mingled and lost in that immense body of 
waters : and the same in all human probability would have been 
the fate of the Jews, they would have been mingled and lost in 
the common mass of mankind ; but, on the contrary they flow 
into all parts of the world, mix with all nations, and yet keep 
separate from all. They still live as a distinct people, and yet 
they no where live according to their own laws, no where elect 
their own magistrates, no where enjoy the full exercise of their 
religion. ... No people have continued unmixed so long as they 
have done, not only of those who have sent forth colonies into 
foreign countries, but even of those who have abided in their own 
country. The northern nations have come in swarms into the 
more southern parts of Europe ; but where are they now to be 
discerned and distinguished ? The Gauls went forth in great 
bodies to seek their fortune in foreign parts ; but what traces or 
footsteps of them are now remaining any where ? In France 
who can separate the race of the ancient Gauls from the various 
other people, who from time to time have settled there ? In 
Spain who can distinguish exactly between the first possessors 
the Spaniards, and the Goths, and the Moors, who conquered and 
kept possession of the country for some ages ? In England who 
can pretend to say with certainty which families are derived from 
the ancient Britons, and which from the Romans, or Saxons, or 
Danes, or Normans ? The most ancient and honorable pedigrees 
can be traced up only to a certain period, and beyond that there 
is nothing but conjecture and uncertainty, obscurity and ignor- 
ance : but the Jews can go up higher than any other nation, 
they can even deduce their pedigree from the beginning of the 
world. They may not know from what particular tribe or family 
they are descended, but they know certainly that they all sprung 
from the stock of Abraham. And yet the contempt with which 
they have been treated, and the hardships which they have under- 
gone in almost all countries, should one would think, have made 
them desirous to forget or renounce their original ; but they 
profess it, Ihey glory in it : and after so many wars, massacres, 
and persecutions, they still subsist, they still are very numerous : 
and what but a sujxjrnatural power could have preserved them 
in such a manner as none other nation upon earth hath been 
preserved ? 

" Nor is the providence of God less remarkable in the destruc- 


tion of their enemies, than in their preservation. For from the 
beginning who have been the great enemies and oppressors of the 
Jewish Nation, removed them from their own land, and com- 
pelled them into captivity and slavery ? The Egyptians afflicted 
them much, and detained them in bondage several years. The 
Assyrians carried away captive the ten tribes of Israel, and the 
Babylonians afterwards the two remaining tribes of Judah and 
Benjamin. The Syro-Macedonians, especially Antiochus Epi- 
phanes, cruelly persecuted them : and the Romans utterly dis- 
solved the Jewish state, and dispersed the people so as they have 
never been able to recover their city and country again. And 
where are now these great and famous monarchies, which in their 
turns subdued and oppressed the people of God ? Are they not 
vanished as a dream, and not only their power, but their very 
names, lost in the earth ? The Egyptians, Assyrians, and 
Babylonians, were overthrown, and entirety subjugated by the 
Persians ; and the Persians (it is remarkable) were the restorers 
of the Jews, as well as the destroyers of their enemies. The Syro- 
Macedonians were swallowed up by the Romans : and the 
Roman empire, great and powerful as it was, was broken in 
pieces by the incursions of the northern nations ; while the Jews 
are subsisting as a distinct people to this day."^ 


"A Call to the Christians and the Hebrews" 

" You are at length to be restored to the land of your fore- 
fathers, where, after ages of dispersion and suffering, you will find 
rest and enjoyment ; and will restore, surpass and enjoy, for ever, 
aU that you have ever known, or conceived of happiness and 
glory. ... Ye have sown in tears, ye shall reap in joy." (Psalm 
cxxvi, 5.) 

" They who deny that you will be restored and re-established 
in your ancient inheritance, may better deny that you are dis- 
persed ; for as certainly as the prophecies of your dispersion and 
preservation have been verified, so shall the numerous prophecies 
of your restoration be realized and fulfilled." 

" Will the British who preside over the Atlantic, Mediterranean 
and Indian Seas assume the glorious enterprise, and conduct 
the Hebrews from Tarshish and the various coasts of their 
dispersion ? 

" This island has given birth to the Bible Society, through 
whose labours the glorious work has been undertaken and 
sustained of circulating the sacred scriptures, among the various 
nations of the earth in the respective languages. 

^ Dissertations on the Prophecies . . . By Thomas Newton, D.D., . . . vol. i., 
London . . . mdccliv. pp. 216-219. 


" From this isle of ancient fame, the Hindoos and the lone 
isles of the Pacific and Atlantic Seas, again receive their Vedas 
and sacred scrolls. 

" The uplifted shell sounded from this Arctic isle, will gain the 
ear of the wakeful Spirits of peace within it, and upon either 
Continent ; of those watchers of the world, who listen to gather 
and transmit to all kindred and nations, the grateful sounds 
fraught with good tidings, which ascend ever and anon, as the 
all-presiding God calls them forth from some one of his train on 


The Centenary of the British and Foreign Bible Society 

Those who wish to read the full record of the Society's work 
can do so in the two delightful volumes of Mr. WilHam 
Canton. In his History of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society (London, Murray, 1904) he tells, in fine style, the 
story of the first half-century of the Society's career. When 
the Society began its work, that is to say at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century, " all the Bibles in the world 
in all languages and in every land, printed or in MSS., did 
not greatly exceed 4,000,000 copies, and of the forty or fifty 
languages into which the Scriptures have been translated, 
several, like the Anglo-Saxon of Bede and the Mseso-Gothic of 
Ulfilas, were extinct tongues." But now how stands the matter ? 
" Under its auspices and mainly at its charges, scholars have 
been employed in translating the Scriptures into over 300 
languages, including all the great vernaculars of the world. 
Neither expense nor labour has been spared in making these 
versions as perfect as possible ; and when completed they have 
been printed, and thus placed within the reach of the poorest 
of those for whom they were intended. In 100 years over 
180,000,000 copies of the scriptures, complete or in part, have 
been issued by the Society ; and at the present time more than 
6,000,000 copies per annum are being put into circulation." 

The well-known scholar, Dr. Israel Abrahams, after quoting 
this passage in the Jewish Chronicle, March 4th, 1904, rightly 
remarks : ". . . the Society is doing a noble work, with much of 
which Jews must completely sympathise. With some of its 
work we do not sympathise ; but this reservation does not 
prevent us from offering cordial congratulations to the Society 
on its centenary, ..." This is our point of view with regard to 
non- Jewish activities on behalf of Zionism, as well as on behalf of 
the Bible. 

* A Call to the Christians and the Hebrews. By Theaetetus. . . . London 
MDCCcxix. 8°. 1 1. + 35 pp. [B. M.] pp. 16-17, 33-34- 



Lord Kitchener and the Palestine Exploration Fund 

Dr. Samuel Daiches read a paper on the 7th February, 1915, 
to the Jews' College Union Society about Lord Kitchener's 
work in Palestine. Sir Edward Pears, who is a member of the 
Council of the Palestine Exploration Fund, presided. Dr. 
Daiches pointed out that there was an early period in Lord 
Kitchener's life which provided him with work in which he 
developed his great capacities — the period of his work in 
Palestine — nearly forty years ago, when he was engaged for four 
years (from 1874 to 1878) in exploration work in the Holy Land. 
He first took up the work (at the age of twenty-four) as second- 
in-command under Lieutenant Conder, and later, owing to the 
ill-health of Conder, took command of the survey party of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund. The lecturer made it clear that the 
real underljdng motive which induced Lord Kitchener to take up 
this work was a love for the Bible and the land of the Bible. 
Kitchener left for Palestine in command of the Survey in January, 
1877. By "the beginning of July the survey of Galilee was com- 
pleted, 1000 square miles having been added to the map. Four 
weeks later he went with a reduced party to the south country 
and surveyed 340 square miles in the desert around Beer Sheba. 
The survey of the whole of Western Palestine was thus completed. 
Then the revision work was done. In January, 1878, Kitchener 
was back in England, and after a short leave he joined Conder at 
the South Kensington Museum, and arranged and wrote the 
Memoirs for the sheets of the map executed by himself. In 
September he formally handed over to the Committee the whole 
of the Maps and Memoirs complete. As a result of the work of 
Conder and Kitchener we now have the large map of Western 
Palestine in twenty-six sheets, three volumes of Memoirs on the 
topography, orthography, hydrography and archaeology, and the 
volume of Arabic and English name lists. A volume of Special 
Papers (vol. v. of the series) contains contributions from Conder 
and Kitchener. Kitchener's contributions concerning the 
ancient Synagogues in Galilee are very valuable, and his reports 
show a sympathetic understanding of Jewish traditions in 
Palestine. 1 

^ Lord Kitchener and his work in Palestine. By Dr. Samuel Daiches. 
London . , . 1915. (8°. 88 p^.) 



Bonaparte's Call to the Jews (1799) 

Gazette Nationale ou Le Moniteur Universel. 

No. 243. Tridi, 3 prairial an 7 de la repuhlique frangaise une et 

[Page] 987. Politique. Turquie. Constantinople, le 28 germinal. 

" Bonaparte a fait publier une proclamation, dans laquelle 
il invite tons les juifs de I'Asie et de TAfrique a venir se ranger 
sous ses drapeaux pour retablir I'ancienne Jerusalem. II en a 
deja arme un grand nombre, et leurs bataillons menacent Alep." 
No. 279. Nonidi, 9 messidor etc. 

[Pages] 1136-1137. De la conquete probable de-V empire ottoman 
par Bonaparte. 

"... Attendons la confirmation de ces heureuses nouvelles. Si 
elles sont prematurees, nous aimons a croire qu'elles se realiser- 
ont un jour. Ce n'est pas seulement pour rendre aux juifs leur 
Jerusalem que Bonaparte a conquis la Syrie ; . . ." (David.) 


[A Zionist] Letter, addressed by a [French] Jew to his 


" Brothers, 

" You who have groaned for so many ages under the 
weight of the cruelest persecutions, do you not wish to burst 
from the state of degrading humiliation in which intolerant and 
barbarous religions have placed you ? Contempt accompanies 
us everywhere. Our sufferings are unpitied and despised. The 
unshaken constancy with which we have preserved the faith of 
our ancestors, far from procuring for us the admiration due to 
such a conduct, has only increased the unjust hatred which all 
nations bear towards us. It is only by affecting the exterior of 
baseness and misery, that we are enabled to secure our property 
and preserve our unhappy existence. It is at least time to 
shake off this insupportable yoke — it is time to resume our rank 
among the other nations of the universe. Vile robbers possess 
that sacred land which our ancestors were compelled to yield to 
the Romans. They profane the holy City which we defended 
with so much courage. Posterity has preserved a dreadful 
remembrance of the struggle — we, surely, have not forgotten it. 
That courage has only slumbered: the hour to awaken it is 


arrived. O my brethren ! let us rebuild the temple of 
Jerusalem ! 

" An invincible nation, which now fills the world with her 
glory, has shewn us what the love of country can perform. Let 
us implore her generosity — request her assistance ; and we may 
be assured that the philosophy which guides the chiefs of that 
nation, will induce them to give our demand a favourable 

" We are more than six millions of people scattered over the 
face of the earth ; we possess immense riches : let us employ the 
means that are in our power to restore us to our country. The 
moment is propitious, and to profit by it, is our duty. The follow- 
ing are the means best suited for carrying this holy enterprize 
into execution : — There shall be estabhshed a Council, the 
members of which shall be elected by the Jews, who are spread 
over Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

[Here the writer divides the Jews into the 15 following 
tribes, viz. The Italian, Helvetic, Hungarian, PoUsh, Russian, 
Northern, British, Spanish, Gallic, Dutch, Prussian, German, 
Turkish, Asiatic, and African. These the author proposes shall 
each form a body of electors in the capitals of the respective 
districts ; and then he proceeds.] 

" The fifteen deputies of these tribes shall form the Council, 
which shall hold its sittings at Paris. When they shall have 
assembled to the number of nine, they may begin to deliberate 
on the object of their mission. Their decisions will have with 
all the Jews the force of laws ; they shall be obliged to submit 
to them. The Council shall appoint an agent, to communicate 
to the Executive Directory of France the propositions which it 
may think proper to make to the French government." 

" The country we propose to occupy shall include (liable to 
such arrangements as shall be agreeable to France) Lower Egypt, 
with the addition of a district of country, which shall have for its 
limits a line running from Ptomelais or Saint John D'Acre, to the 
Asphaltic Lake, or Dead Sea, and from the South point of that 
Lake to the Red Sea. This position, which is the most advan- 
tageous in the world, will render us, by the navigation of the Red 
Sea, masters of the commerce of India, Arabia and the South 
and East of Africa ; Abyssinia, and Ethiopia, those rich countries 
which furnished Solomon with so much gold and ivory and so 
many precious stones, will trade the more willingly with us, that 
the greater part of their inhabitants still practise the law of 
Moses. The neighbourhood of Aleppo and Damascus will facili- 
tate our commerce with Persia ; and by the Mediterranean we 
may communicate with Spain, France, Italy, and the rest of 
Europe. Placed in the centre of the world, our country will 
become the entrepot of all the rich and precious productions of the 


" The Council shall offer to the French government, if it will 
give us the assistance necessary to enable us to return to our 
country, and to maintain ourselves in the possession of it, 

" I. Every pecuniary indemnification. 
2. To share the commerce of India, &c. with the'merchants 
of France only. 

** The other arrangements, and the propositions to be made to 
the Ottoman Porte, cannot yet be rendered public : we must, in 
these matters, repose on the wisdom of the Council, and the good 
faith of the French nation. Let us choose upright and enlight- 
ened deputies, and we may have confidence in the success of this 

"01 my brethren I what sacrifices ought we not to make to 
obtain this object ? We shall return to our country — we shall 
live under our own laws — ^we shall behold those sacred places 
which our ancestors illustrated with their courage and their 
virtues. I already see you all animated with a holy zeal. 
Israelites ! the term of your misfortunes is at hand. The oppor- 
tunity is favourable — take care you do not allow it to escape."^ 

This appeal — a prototype of Pinsker's Autoemancipation and 
of Herzl's Judenstaat — produced a deep impression, but since the 
whole expedition proved a failure, Jewish opinion — not on the 
principle, but on the opportunity and the means — was divided. 


" Transactions of the Parisian Sanhedrim," 

Transactions Of The Parisian Sanhedrim, 

Or Acts Of The Assembly Of Israelitish Deputies of France and 

Italy, Convoked At Paris By An Imperial And Royal Decree, 

Dated May 30, 1806. 

Translated From The Original Published By M. Diogene Tama, 

With A Preface And Illustrative Notes By F. D. Kirwan, Esq. 

London; . . . Published by Charles Taylor, Hatton Street. 1807. 

(8°. xvi+334^^) [i-s.] 

1 The Restoration of the Jews the Crisis of all Nations ; . . . Second Edition. 
By J. Bicheno, m.a. 

London : . . . 1807 (8°. 2 //.-}- 235 PP- [I- S.]) pp. 60-62. 

See Appendices XLIII-XLVI. 



Signs of the Times"— "A Word in Season" — "Commotions 
Since French Revolution"— "History of Christianity"— 
"The German Empire" — "Fulfilment of Prophecy," by 
Rev. James Bicheno 

The Signs of the Times : . . . By J. Bicheno . . . 

London : Printed For The Author ; And Sold by Parsons, Pater- 

noster-Row ; Wayland, Holborn, London ; and James and Cottle, 


Price IS. 6d. [1793] 

Of whom may be had the Author's P>iendly Address to the Jews, 

and a Letter to Mr. D. Levi. Price is. 6d. 

(8°. 4lL^6ypp.) [B. M.] 

A Word in Season : ... To Stand Prepared For The Con- 
sequences Of The Present War . . . 
By J. Bicheno, . . . London . . . 1795. 
(8°. 2 It. +53 pp.) [B.M.] 

The Probable Progress And Issue Of The Commotions Which 
Have Agitated Europe Since The French Revolution, . . . 
By J. Bicheno . . . London . . . mdccxcvii. 
{S°. 2 11. +g4 pp.) [B.M.] 

A Glance At The History of Christianity, . . . 

By James Bicheno, m.a., Newbury . . . mdccxcviii. . . . 

(8°. 28 pp.) [B. M.] 

The Destiny Of The German Empire ; . . . 

By J. Bicheno, M.A. . . . London : . . . 1801 .... 

{S°. 2 II. +g6 pp.) [B. M.] 

The Fulfilment of Prophecy Farther Illustrated By The Signs Of 

The Times ; . . . 

By J. Bicheno, m.a. London . . . 1817. 

(8°. xvii-f 254 pp.) [B. M.] 


" Restoration of the Jews " — " Friendly Address to the Jews," 
by Rev. James Bicheno—" Letter to Mr. Bicheno," by David 

The Restoration of the Jews, The Crisis Of All Nations ; 

Or, An Arrangement Of The Scripture Prophecies, Which Relate 

To The Restoration Of The Jews, And To Some Of The Most 


Interesting Circumstances Which Are To Accompany And Dis- 
tinguish That Important Event ; 

With Illustrations And Remarks Drawn From The Present 
Situation And Apparent Tendencies Of Things, Both In Christian 
And Mahomedan Countries. 

By J. Bicheno, m.a. . . . London . . . 1800. [Price Two ShiUings 
And Sixpence.] 
(S°.2ll.+iispp.) [B. M.] 

The Restoration Of The Jews The Crisis Of All Nations ; 
To Which Is Now Prefixed, A Brief History Of The Jews, From 
Their First Dispersion, To The CaUing Of Their Grand San- 
hedrim At Paris, October 6th, 1806. 

And An Address On The Present State Of Affairs, In Europe In 
General, And In This Country In Particular. 
Second Edition. 
By J. Bicheno, m.a. 
London : . . . 1807. (Price 5s. — Entered at Stationer* s-H all.) 

(S\ 2 II. +235 PP-) [i-s.] 

He also wrote : — 
A Friendly Address To The Jews. . . . 

To Which Is Added, A Letter To Mr. D. Levi ; Containing 
Remarks On His Answer To Dr. Priestley's Letter To The Jews ; 
Shewing, That however his Arguments may affect the Opinions 
of Dr. Priestley, they form no Objection against the Christian 

By J. Bicheno, Newbury. London : . . . 
(8°. vi. pp. + 1I. +88 pp.) [I. s.] 

Which occasioned the following reply : — 
A Letter To Mr. Bicheno, Occasioned By His Friendly Address 
to the Jews, And A Letter To Mr. David Levi, Containing Re- 
marks On Mr. Levi's Answer To Dr. Priestley's First Letters To 
The Jews. 

By David Levi, Author Of Lingua Sacra, The Ceremonies Of 
The Jews, etc. . . . 

See pp. 127-134 in " Letters To Dr. Priestley, In Answer To His 
Letters To The Jews, Part II. Occasioned By Mr. David Levi's 
Reply to the Former Part. Also Letters i. To Dr. Cooper, . . . 
2. To Mr. Bicheno, 3. To Dr. Krauter, 4. To Mr. Swain, And 
5. To Anti-Socinus, alias Anselm Bayly. Occasioned By Their 
Remarks On Mr. David Levi's Answer To Dr. Priestley's First 
Letters To The Jews. By David Levi, . . . London : ... 


(8^ 2 II. + 159 pp.) [I.S.] 



"Attempt to Remove Prejudices Concerning the 
Jewish Nation," by Thomas Witherby 

An Attempt To Remove Prejudices Concerning The Jewish 

Nation. By Way Of Dialogue. 

By Thomas Witherby. ' 

Part I.i 

London : Printed For The Author, . . . 1804. {Entered at 


(8\ XX +511 pp.) [I. s.] 


"Observations on Mr. Bicheno's Book," by Thomas Witherby 

Dedicated to the Jews. 

Observations on Mr. Bicheno's Book, Entitled The Restoration 
Of The Jews The Crisis Of All Nations : 

Wherein the revolutionary Tendency of that Publication is 
shewn to be most inimical to the real Interest of the Jews, who 
are not to expect the Restoration to their own Land until they 
are, by the free Grace of the God of their Fathers, enabled to 
acknowledge his Justice, Righteousness, and Mercy, in their long- 
continued Dispersion, and in the Preservation of their Nation 
amidst those awful Sufferings which they have endured under 
his righteous Judgments. 

Together With An Inquiry Concerning Things To Come ; . . . 
London : Printed For The Author . . . 

(8°. XX -1-323 ^^) [I.S.] 

Page iii : (Dedicated) " To The Jews. Distinguished Nation. 
. . . Thomas Witherby. Enfield, Middlesex, Aug. 22, 1800."' 


"Letters to the Jews," by Joseph Priestley 

Letters To The Jews ; Inviting Them To An Amicable Discussion 

Of The Evidences Of Christianity. 

By Joseph Priestley, ll.d., f.r.s. . . . 

Birmingham, . . . mdcclxxxvii. [Price One Shilling.] 

(8°. 2 II. +Si pp. -f-i /. (Catalogue.) "' [i. s.] 

^ The pagination is consecutive, but Part II is dated 1803. 
* Gentleman's Magazine, 1801, vol. Ixxi., pp. 830-836. 


Letters To The Jews. Part II. Occasioned By Mr. David Levi's 
Reply To The Former Letters. 

By Joseph Priestley, ll.d. f.r.s. . . . Birmingham, . . . 
MDCCLXXXvii. [Price One Shilling.] 

(8°.iv+56^/>.) [I.S.] 

Page 56 : " Your brother in the sole worship Of the one only true 
God, Joseph Priestley. Birmingham, July i, 1787." 


"An Address to the Jews on the Present State of the 
World," by Joseph Priestley 

A Comparison Of The Institutions of Moses With Those Of The 

Hindoos And Other Ancient Nations ; 

With Remarks on Mr. Dupuis's Origin of all Religions, 

The Laws and Institutions of Moses Methodized, 

And An Address to the Jews on the present state of the World 

and the Prophecies relating to it. 

By Joseph Priestley, l.l.d. f.r.s. &c. . . . 

Northumberland :i. . . mdccxcix. 

(8°. xxvii +428 pp. +2 //. (catalogue).) [b. m.] 

pp. 393-428 : "An Address To The Jews/' 


"Letters to Dr. Priestley," by David Levi 

Letters To Dr. Priestly, In Answer To Those He Addressed To 

The Jews ; Inviting Them To An Amicable Discussion Of The 

Evidences Of Christianity. 

By David Levi, . . . London, . . . mdcclxxxvii. 

(8°. 2 II. +99 pp.) [I.S.] 

Second Edition mdcclxxxvii. (103 pp.) [i. s.] 

Third Edition, m,dcc,xciii. (2 //. +99 pp.) [i. s.] 

* Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 


"A Famous Passover Melody," by the Rev. F. L. Cohen 

"... Isaac Nathan, a fashionable singing master of London 
. . . conceived the idea of imitating the ' Irish Melodies ' 
of Thomas Moore (batches of which had been published since 
1807, with the greatest success). . . . Less fortunate than 
Moore, Byron's verses were not wedded to melodies of the 
national type they professed, because even before Nathan had 
thus exhausted his choice, he had made a most superficial search 
through the repertory of the Anglo- Jewish synagogues of his 
day, which, by the way, had not yet experienced the inspiringly 
melodious influence of ' Polish ' Chazanuth. . . . The opening 
poem, ' She walks in beauty,' for example, he set to a tawdry 
Lecha Dodi . . . But among the six actually * Hebrew ' melodies, 
there were one or two exceptions to the general inferiority of the 
music ; and prominent among these was the tender and expres- 
sive air to which, by a happy inspiration, Nathan set the 
verses : — 

' O weep for tl ose that wept by Babel's stream.' 

Here, at least, 

' Music and sweet poetry agreed. 
As well they should, the sister and the brother * ; 

and the result became world famous as a type of what Hebrew 
melody might be. It has often been republished; and has also 
appeared in other settings, as by the Rev. M. Hast to Ibn 
Gabirol's hymn : — 

* At morn I beseech Thee,' 

or by Ernst Pauer in his Traditional Hebrew Melodies. But what 
is more especially known to and prized by musicians, it forms the 
only pianoforte composition of Robert Franz, the great song- 
writer, under the title 

* Beweinet, die geweint an Babel's Strand,' 

and as such, it has become famous. . . . The origin of the melody 
is . . . simply the old chant of the Cohanim on the Festivals, as it 
used to be sung in London synagogues on the Passover a hundred 
years ago, with a joyous touch of Pesach tune. . . ." ^ 

^ Jewish Chronicle, ist April, 1904, page 21. 



"Reminiscences of Lord Byron . . . Poetry, etc., of Lady 
Caroline Lamb," by Isaac Nathan 

Fugitive Pieces And Reminiscences Of Lord Byron : 
Containing An Entire New Edition Of The Hebrew Melodies, 
With The Addition Of Several Never Before Pubhshed ; 
The Whole Illustrated With Critical, Historical, Theatrical, 
Political, And Theological Remarks, Notes, Anecdotes, Interest- 
ing Conversations, And Observations, Made By That Illustrious 
Poet : Together With His Lordship's Autograph. 
Also Some Original Poetry, Letters And Recollections Of Lady 
Caroline Lamb. 

By I. Nathan, Author Of An Essay On The History And Theory 
Of Music, The Hebrew Melodies, &c. &c. . . . 
London : . . . 1829. 
(8°. xxxvi+igG+ii:^^.) [i. s.] 


"Selection of Hebrew Melodies," by John Braham and 
Isaac Nathan 

A Selection of Hebrew Melodies Ancient and Modern with ap- 
propriate Symphonies & accompaniments. 
By 1. Braham & I. Nathan. 

The Poetry written expressly for the work By the Right hon Lord 
Byron . . . 

Published & Sold by I: Nathan N° 7 Poland Street Oxford Str*. 
and to be had at the principal Music and Booksellers. [Price One 
Guinea. (1815.)] 

(4/0. ^ll+liZZPP-) [I. s.] 

A second edition was published in 1861. 
(4^0. 2 II. +21^ pp.) [b. M.] 



Earl of Shaftesbury's Zionist Memorandum 
Scheme for the Colonisation of Palestine 

Lord Ashley'^ to Viscount Palmer ston. 

" St. Giles House, 

" September z^th, 1840. 

" My Lord, 

"The Powers of Europe having determined that they 
will take into their own hands the adjustment of the Syrian 
Question, I venture to suggest a measure, which being adopted 
will promote the development of the immense fertility of all 
those countries that lie between the Euphrates and the Mediter- 
ranean Sea. 

"The consideration of the person or the authority to whom 
these territories may be assigned by the award of the con- 
tracting Powers is of no importance. The plan presupposes 
simply the existence of a recognised and competent Dominion ; 
the establishment and execution of Laws; and a Government 
both willing and able to maintain internal peace. 

"These vast regions are now nearly desolate; every year the 
produce of them becomes less, because the hands that should till 
them become fewer. As a source of revenue they are almost 
worthless, compared, at least, with the riches that industry 
might force from them. They require both labour and capital. 

" Capital, however, is of too sensitive a nature to flow with 
readiness into any country where neither property nor life can 
be regarded as secure ; but if this indispensable assurance be 
first given, the avarice of man will be a sufficient motive, and it 
will betake itself with alacrity to any spot where a speedy or an 
ample return may be promised to the speculator. 

" An inducement such as this is sufficient to stimulate the 
mercantile zeal of every money-maker under Heaven, and it 
would be advisable that the Power, whoever he may be, to whom 
these provinces may fall, should issue and perform a solemn 
engagement to establish, in his laws affecting property, the 
principles and practices of European civilisation : but, in 
respect of these regions now under dispute, there are, so far as a 
numerous, though scattered, people is concerned, other induce- 
ments and other hopes, over and above those which influence the 
general mass of mankind. 

" Without entering into the grounds of the desire and expecta- 
tions entertained by the Hebrew Race of their return ultimately 
to the land of their fathers, it may be safely asserted that they 

* Succeeded his father in 1851 as the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury. 


contemplate a restoration to the soil of Palestine. They believe, 
moreover, that the time is near at hand. Every recollection of the 
past, and every prospect of the future, animates their hope ; and 
fear alone for their persons and their estates represses their 
exertions. If the Governing Power of the Syrian provinces 
would promulgate equal laws and equal protection to Jew and 
Gentile, and confirm his decrees by accepting the four Powers as 
guarantees of his engagement, to be set forth and ratified in an 
article of the Treaty, the way would at once be opened, con- 
fidence would be revived, and, prevailing throughout these 
regions, would bring with it some of the wealth and enterprise of 
the world at large, and, by allaying their suspicions, call forth 
to the full the hidden wealth and industry of the Jewish people. 

" There are many reasons why more is to be anticipated from 
them than from any others who might settle there. They have 
ancient reminiscences and deep affection for the land ; — it is 
connected in their hearts with all that is bright in times past, and 
with all that is bright in those which are to come ; their industry 
and perseverance are prodigious ; they subsist, and cheerfully, 
on the smallest pittance ; they are, almost everywhere, ac- 
customed to arbitrary rule, and being totally indifferent to 
political objects, confine their hopes to the enjoyment of what 
they can accumulate. Long ages of suffering have trained their 
people to habits of endurance and self-denial ; they would 
joyfully exhibit them in the settlement and service of their 
ancient country. 

" If we consider their return in the light of a new establish- 
ment or colonisation of Palestine, we shall find it to be the 
cheapest and safest mode of supplying the wants of those 
depopulated regions. They will return at their own expense, and 
with no hazard but to themselves ; they will submit to the 
existing form of Government, having no preconceived theories to 
gratify, and having been almost eveiywhere trained in implicit 
obedience to autocratic rule ; they will acknowledge the present 
appropriation of the soil in the hands of its actual possessors, 
being content to obtain an interest in its produce by the legiti- 
mate methods of rent or purchase. Disconnected, as they are, 
from all the peoples of the earth, they would appeal to no 
national or political sympathies for assistance in the path of 
wrong ; and the guarantee which I propose, for insertion in the 
Treaty to be carried out by the personal protection of the 
respective Consuls and Vice-Consuls of the several nations, 
would be sufficient to protect them in the exercise of their 

" The plan here proposed may be recommended by the con- 
sideration that large results are promised to the application of 
very small means ; that no pecuniary outlay is demanded of the 
engaging parties ; that while disappointment would bring no 


ill-effects except to those who declined the offer, the benefit to 
be derived from it would belong impartially to the whole 
civilised world. . . . 

" I have the honour to be, my Lord, 
" Your Lordship's most obedient, humble servant, 


"The Viscount Palmerston, m.p. 

Her Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs." ^ 


Restoration of the Jews 

[The annexed documents have just appeared in a periodical 
entitled Memorials concerning God's Ancient People of Israel, and 
are probably as yet but little known to the world at large : — ] 


To the Protestant Powers of the North of Europe and 
America — Victoria, by the grace of God, Queen of Great Britain 
and Ireland ; Frederick (WilHam) III. King of Prussia ; WilHam 
(Frederick), King of Netherlands ; Charles (John) XIV., King 
of Sweden and Norway ; Frederick VI., King of Denmark ; 
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover ; William, King of Wurtem- 
berg ; The Sovereign Princes and Electors of Germany ; The 
Cantons of the Swiss Confederation professing the Reformed 
Religion ; and the States of North America, zealous for the Glory 
of God ; grace, mercy and peace from God the Father, and the 
Lord Jesus Christ ! 

" High and Mighty Ones, 

** The Most High God, who ruleth in the kingdoms of men 
(Dan. iv. 32), by whom kings reign and princes decree justice 
(Prov. viii. 15), having in these days granted a season of repose 
to his witnessing church (Acts ix. 31 ; Rev. xii. 16), planted in 
the lands whereof ye are kings and governors (Isaiah xHx. 23) ; 
the vine of His planting among the Gentiles (Acts xxviii. 28) 
hath extended her boughs unto the seas and her branches unto 
the rivers (Isa. xlix. 6), that now in nearly all the world the 
gospel of the kingdom is being lifted as a witness unto all nations 
(Matt. xxiv. 14), and in the isles afar off. The days are drawing 
near (Rev. xxii. 20) when the dominion, and the glory, and the 
kingdom, with all people, nations and languages, shall serve Him, 

* The Life and Work of the Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury, k.g., by 
Edwin Hodder, 1866, vol. i., pp. 313-315. 


who Cometh in the clouds of heaven (Dan. vii. 14, Rev. i. 7), 
whose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom 
that shall not be destroyed (Psalm xlv. 6). Blessed be He ! He 
hath given his waiting people to hear the sound of His approach- 
ing footsteps, and to mark the signs of His drawing near (i Thess. 
v. 4) . The fig-tree putteth forth her leaves again (Matt . xxiv. 32) . 
Israel's sons are asking the way to Zion, by which we know that 
summer is at hand. Blessed are all they that wait (2 Thess. iii. 5), 
and hold fast (Rev. iii. 11), for quickly He cometh. Amen. 

" In the prospect of the Cliristian Church, of the speedy 
appearing of her glorified head, the zeal of the Lord's servants 
hath been stirred up (Rev. iii. 2) to a multiplied diligence in 
those labours of faith and love which were devolved upon her 
(Matt, xxviii. 19), when the Son of God, as a man taking a 
journey into a far country, bade his servants occupy, until he 
returned again (Luke xix. 13). With other responsibilities, the 
circumstances of one peculiar people, whom the Most High hath 
separated (Gen. xii. i) and taken into covenant with him 
(Gen. xvii. 7 ; Exod. xxxiv. 7), and which covenant no act of 
theirs, however iniquitous or rebellious, can repeal or destroy 
(Mai. iii. 6), whom he hath scattered in all lands as witnesses 
of his unity and power (Isa. xliii. 9), connected with whom the 
welfare of mankind is bound up, and in the lifting up of whose 
head the most stupendous consequences are made to depend 
(Rom. xi. 15), are presented at this eleventh hour for the repent- 
ance and faith of Christendom, that the blood of our brethren of 
circumcision which has been unjustly shed may be atoned for in 
the blood of the Lamb (Isa. i. 18), and the fruits of forgiveness be 
manifested (Matt. iii. 8) in presenting the children of this people 
continually at the throne of grace (i Pet. ii. 5 ; Ps. cxxii. 6) for 
the atoning sacrifice of Christ to cover them (Joel ii. 17) ; and 
as the Almighty, in his providential appointments, shall make 
the way plain to present the children of Israel who may be willing 
to go up (Ps. ex. 3) as an offering to the Lord of Hosts in Mount 
Zion (Isa. xxviii. 7). 

" For 300 years the testimony of the churches, planted 
in the lands over which Almighty God hath made you rulers, 
hath been lifted up against that apostacy which hath usurped 
the authority of the Lord Jesus Christ in the earth (Rev. xxii. 5, 
and xxiii. 5) daring presumptuously to assert power over 
nations (Rev. xviii. 7), and over kingdoms, to root up and to pull 
down, to build, to plant, and to destroy (Dan. vii. 20, Rev. xiii. 
2, 7). The millstone which shall sink the Great Babylon in the 
abyss of an unfathomable perdition (Rev. xviii. 21) when her 
hour arrives (and it is very near !) with the judgment under which 
she hath long lain, for bemg drunken with the blood of the saints 
and of the martyrs of Jesus (Rev. xvii. 6), shall include the 
avenging of the wrongs of God's ancient people (Isa. Ii. 22, 23), 


and a terrible account it is ; and the issue shall be joy and glad- 
ness to the whole earth, for it is written, ' Rejoice, O ye nations, 
with His people ; for He avengeth the blood of His servants, and 
shall render vengeance unto his adversaries, and will be merciful 
to His land and to His people ' (Deut. xxxii. 43). ' Happy art 
thou, O Israel ; who is like unto thee, O people saved by the 
Lord, the shield of thy help and the sword of thy excellency ? 
and thine enemies shall be found Hars unto thee, and thou shalt 
tread on their high places ' (Deut. xxxiii. 29). 

"In the events, on which the eyes of nations are fixed, 
taking place around, whilst the continuance and stability of 
your thrones and sway, O kings, is the earnest prayer of the 
Christian church (i Tim. ii. 2), she cannot but uphold the 
witness that the days draw nigh, when, under the hallowed 
sway of Messiah the Prince, the now despised nation of the 
Jews shall possess the kingdom (Dan. vii. 27), and she directs, 
with reverential awe, your eye to that mighty empire in 
the east which is crumbling to dust, and drying in all her 
streams (Rev. xvi. 12) to make way for the event. Palestine hath 
been a burdensome stone (Zech. xii. 2) unto the followers of the 
false Prophet (Rev. xvi. 13), as it was to the ancestors of many 
of you, O Princes, when, under the banner of the Popish Antichrist, 
their mistaken zeal sought to recover the Holy City from 
the Saracen's grasp. But the fulness of the Gentiles is at hand 
(Romans xi. 21) and unto Israel the dominion shall return 
(Micah. iv. 8). 

** The apostate Julian sought to plant the children of this 
people in the seats of their fathers, in despite of the holy faith, 
one of the external evidences of whose trust was, that their 
house was left unto them desolate, until they should say 
* Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord ' (Matt, xxiii. 
38, 9). But is it anywhere declared in the word of our God, 
that the children of Israel, scattered and peeled, humbled 
and dispirited, impoverished and broken down, should not be 
presented as an offering in faith to Jehovah of Hosts in Mount 
Zion ? that there they may be pleaded with face to face by the 
God of their fathers (Ezekiel xx. 13), that there the veil may be 
rent (Isaiah xxv. 7) which is over their hearts (2 Cor. iii. 15), that 
there they may look on him whom they have pierced (Zech. 
xii. 10). Your attention, high and mighty ones, is directed to 
the recorded fact that such an offering is expected. And before 
that full and final gathering which follows the judgments poured 
out on all the earth (Isaiah Ixiii. 15, 16, 20), a power, and that 
power a northern one (Jer. iii. 12, xxxi. 6, 9, xxxiii. 7, 8 — Isaiah 
xliii. 6, xlix. 12), shall be employed to lead a people wonderful 
from their beginning hitherto — a nation expecting and trampled 
underfoot — ^whose land rivers have spoiled, unto the name of the 
Lord of Hosts in Mount Zion (Isaiah xviii.). These designs and 


purposes of the Lord God of Israel, King of Kings and Lord of 
Lords, are declared unto you, high and mighty ones, his servants 
(Dan. V. 23), that you may ponder them, and know His will, 
from the voice, with which He is about to speak unto nations and 
unto men (Haggai ii. 6 — Isaiah i. 10), for the time is at hand 
(Rev. i. 3). 

" Your wisdom hath been exercised to mark the boundaries of 
kingdoms, and to define the limits of empires ; and has not the 
aggressor overleaped all barriers, and the strength of treaties 
snapped asunder as tow ? And why ? Because when the 
Almighty awarded to the nations their inheritance, when he 
separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people 
according to the number of the children of Israel (Deuteron. xxxii. 
7, 8). By an unrepealed covenant, the Lord God declared unto 
Abram, concerning the land of Palestine, ' Unto thy seed have I 
given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the 
river Euphrates ' (Genesis xv. 18) . This gift was ratified unto him 
for an everlasting possession, and to his seed after him, when 
the Almighty gave him the covenant, and changed his name to 
Abraham (Genesis xvii. 4, 8). For the purposes of infinite wisdom 
fast hastening to maturity, the Lord God hath scattered his 
inheritance to the four winds of heaven. But hear the word of 
the Lord, O ye nations, and declare it in the isles afar off. 
He that scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him as a 
shepherd doth his flock. 

" As the spirit of Cyrus, King of Persia was stirred up to 
build the Lord's Temple, which was in Jerusalem (ii Chron. 
xxxvi. 22, 23), who is there among you, high and mighty ones of 
all the nations, to fulfil the good pleasure of the holy will of 
the Lord of Heaven, saying to Jerusalem, ' Thou shalt be 
built ' and to the Temple, ' Thy foundation shall be laid ' ? 
(Isaiah xliv. 28). The Lord God of Israel will be with such. 
Great grace, mercy, and peace shall descend upon the people who 
offer themselves willingly ; and the fire offerings of their hearts 
and hands shall be those of a sweet-smelling savour unto Him 
who hath said, ' I will bless them that bless thee (Genesis xii. 3), 
and contend with him who contendeth with thee ' (Isaiah 
xlix. 25). 

" The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, 
and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen. 
Signed and sealed in London, 8th of January, in the year of our 
Lord, 1839, in the name of the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of 
Jacob, on behalf of many who wait for the redemption of 


(Copy I.) 

" London, January 22nd, 1839. 

" May it please your Majesty, — I have the high honour of 
laying at your Majesty's feet the accompanying memorandum 
relating to the present condition and future prospects of God's 
ancient people, the Jews. Your Majesty's pious feelings, I 
doubt not, will be excited to give the Scriptural hopes and 
expectations therein set forth your earnest attention, consider- 
ing the high station it hath pleased Almighty God to call this 
Protestant land to, as the great seat of the church. 

" According to the petitions of this peculiar people at a throne 
of grace, that in your Majesty's reign ' Judah may be saved 
and Israel dwell safely,' is the prayer of your Majesty's dutiful 
subject and servant. 

" Her most Gracious Majesty Victoria, Queen of 
Great Britain and Ireland." 

(Copy 2.) 

" January 19th, 1839. 

" My Lord, — I have tL honour of transmitting through your 
Lordship a document which it is the desire of some of her 
Majesty's subjects should be laid at her Majesty's feet, relating 
to the Scriptural expectations of the church, connected with the 
restoration of the Jews to Palestine, the land of their fathers. 

" I am induced to solicit your Lordship's good offices in being 
the medium of communicating this document to her Majesty, 
as the substance of it relates to the present rights of an ally of 
this country — namely, the Sublime Porte. 

" But I would respectfully press upon your Lordship's atten- 
tion, that, in holding forth the Scriptural hopes of God's ancient 
people, those who emanate the accompanying document never 
for one moment dream of political force to accomplish the end 
desired. When the hour comes of Israel's planting in, doubtless 
Almighty God will not fail to raise up chosen instruments, who, 
with willing hands and hearts, shall accomplish the good pleasure 
of His will. 

"If we are wrong in the course we have taken to bring the 
memorandum before Her Majesty, we will be happy to be set 
right. Should your Lordship undertake the duty, desiring the 
glory of God in this matter to be furthered, the Lord God of Israel 
will not be slack to reward the labour of faith and love proceeding 
from a desire to honour His name. 

" I have the honour to be, &c., 

"The Right Hon. Lord Viscount Palmerston/' 


Lord Palmerston's Answer. 

(Copy 3.) 

" Foreign Office, March 14, 1839. 

"I have to acknowledge your letter of the 19th January, 
enclosing a letter and a memorandum from some of Her 
Majesty's subjects, who feel deeply interested in the welfare and 
future prospects of the Jews ; and I have to acquaint you that 
I have laid those documents before the Queen, and that Her 
Majesty has been pleased graciously to receive the same. 

" I am, &c., 



Another Zionist Memorandum— Restoration of the Jews 

*' To the Editor of The Times. 

" Sir,— The extraordinary crisis of Oriental politics has 
stimulated an almost universal interest and investigation, and 
the fate of the Jews seems to be deeply involved with the settle- 
ment of the Syrian dilemma now agitating several Courts of 

"... The peace of Europe and the just balance of its powers 
being therefore assumed as the grand desideratum, as the con- 
summation devoutly to be wished, I peruse with particular 
interest a brief article in your journal of this day relative to the 
restoration of the Jews to Jerusalem, because I imagine that this 
event has become practicable through an unprecedented con- 
catenation of circumstances, and that moreover it has become 
especially desirable, as the exact expedient to which it is to the 
interest of all belligerent parties to consent . 

" The actual feasibility of the return of the Jews is no longer a 
paradox ; the time gives it proof. That theory of the restoration 
of a Jewish Kingdom, which a few years ago was laughed at as 
the fantasy of insane enthusiasm, is now calculated on as a most 
practical achievement of diplomacy. 

" It is granted that the Jews were the ancient proprietors of 
Syria ; that Syria was the proper heart and centre of their 
kingdom. It is granted that they have a strong conviction that 
Providence will restore them to this Syrian supremacy. It is 
granted that they have entertained for ages a hearty desire to 
return thither, and are willing to make great sacrifices of a 
pecuniary kind to the different parties interested, provided they 
can be put in peaceful and secure possession. 

^ The Times, Wednesday, August 26, 1840, pp. 5-6. 


" It is likewise notorious, that since the Jews have been thrust 
out of Syria that land has been a mere arena of strife to neighbour- 
ing Powers, all conscious that they had no legitimate right there, 
and all jealous of each other's intrusion. 

" Such having been the case, why, it may be asked, have not 
the Jews long ago endeavoured to regain possession of Syria by 
commercial arrangements ? In reply it may be said, that though 
they have evidently wished to do so, and have made overtures of 
the kind, hitherto circumstances have opposed their desires. . . . 

" Now, however, these obstacles and hindrances are in a great 
measure removed ; all the strongest Powers in Europe have 
come forward as arbitrators and umpires to arrange the settle- 
ment of Syria. 

" Under such potent arbitrators, pledged to the performance of 
any conditions finally agreed on, I have reason to believe that 
the Jews would readily enter into such financial arrangements as 
would secure them the absolute possession of Jerusalem and 

" I know no reason, under such powerful empires, why the 
Hebrews should not restore an independent monarchy in Syria, 
as well as the Egyptians in Egypt, or the Grecians in Greece. 

" As a practical expedient of politics, I believe that it will be 
easier to secure the peace of Europe and Asia by this effort to 
restore the Jews, than by any allotment of Syrian territories to 
the Turks or Egyptians, which will be sure to occasion fresh 
jealousies and discords. . . . 

" I believe that the cause of the restoration of the Jews is one 
essentially generous and noble, and that all individuals and 
nations that assist this world-renounced people to recover the 
empire of their ancestors will be rewarded by Heaven's blessing. 
Everything that is patriotic and philanthropic should urge 
Great Britain forward as the agent of prophetic revelations so 
full of auspicious consequence. . . . 

" Your very obedient servant, 

"Aug. 17." "F. B.i 


Extracts from Autograph and other Letters between 
Sir Moses Montefiore and Dr. N. M. Adler 

My hearty thanks are due to my friend Mr. Elkan N. 
Adler for giving me access to his father's letters. It may be 
mentioned that, although Dr. N. M. Adler was never able to visit 
Palestine, all his three sons went there. Palestinian activity has 
practically been a tradition of the Adler family. Mr. Envan Adler 
originally visited Palestine in 1888, 1895, 1898 and 1901, in 

^ Th$ Times t 26 Aug., 1840, p. 6. 


connection with the Montefiore work. His first visit was a 
professional one, undertaken on the instructions of the Council 
of the Holy Land Relief Fund. Its object was to clear up certain 
legal difficulties which had arisen on the land at Jerusalem and 
Jaffa purchased in 1855 by his father and Sir Moses Montefiore 
out of the funds of the Holy Land Appeal Fund and the Judah 
Touro Bequest. At that time their only buildings in Jerusalem 
were the Judah Touro Alms-houses and the Windmill. The 
vacant land adjoining had been jumped after the death of 
Sir Moses Montefiore by about three hundred poor and desperate 
Jews, who claimed that it had been originally intended for the 
poor, and they were poor. 

The journey was successful. The squatters were removed, 
and their place was taken by industrious settlers, who, through 
the agency of the building societies, financed by the Sir Moses 
Montefiore Testimonial Committee, erected hundreds of pleasant 
little dwellings in the place of the rude, uninhabited shanties 
which stood there in 1888. 

In 1894 Mr. Elkan Adler became a member of the " Water for 
Jerusalem Committee," of which Sir Charles W. Wilson, k.c.m.g., 
was Chairman and Sir Edmund A. H. L. Lechmere, Bart., m.p., 
and Sir (then Mr.) Isidore Spielmann, c.m.g.. Honorary Secre- 
taries. The Turkish Government and the Jerusalem Munici- 
pality had sanctioned the scheme, but bureaucratic dilatoriness 
prevented its ever maturing. Its object was to secure, under a 
concession, for purely philanthropic purposes, a modern water 
supply for Jerusalem from King Solomon's Pools. 

Mr. Adler was also one of the founders of the London Choveve 
Zion, and as Honorary Solicitor drafted its Constitution, which 
was settled by the Right Hon. Arthur Cohen, K.c. 

" Grosvenor Gate, Park Lane, 

'* London, 28th Hesvan, 5602. 

" 12 November, 
** My dear and much esteemed Sir, 

" . . .7 am most highly gratified, my dear Sir, by the very 
kind manner in which you have been pleased to notice my feeble 
exertions in favour of our unfortunate and persecuted Brethren 
in the East. . . . 

" Believe me to be, 

" With sincere Respect and Esteem, 
" My dear Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
" Moses Montefiore. 
" The Reverend 

Doctor N. Adler, Chief Rabbi, &c. &c. &c." 


" Alliance Office, 

" Bartholomew Lane, 

" 31 May, 5614. 
*' My dear and respected Sir, 

" . . . / hope to find the amount of Contributions much 
increased from your admirable Letter having at last found its way 
in the hands of the several Seat-holders of each Synagogue, and I 
am sure if they respond to it with the same liberality as our Christian 
fellow-subjects have evinced for our suffering Brethren in the Holy 
Land I am confident you will rejoice at the success which has 
attended your benevolent exertions. . . . 

" / am with great respect and esteem, 

" Your faithful Servant, 

" Moses Montefiore. 
" The Revd. Dr. Adler, 
Chief Rabbi, &c. &c." 

— / 

** East Cliff Lodge, 

" Ramsgate, 

" lyth August, 5614. 


*' My dear and respected Sir, 

"... 7 am obliged to you for the information which Mr. 
Albert Cohn's letter has afforded me and believe me I am most truly 
thankful to the God of Israel that my days should have been pro- 
longed to see the welfare of our unfortunate Brethren in Jerusalem 
cared for by so wealthy and powerful a family as the Barons de 
Rothschild. May the institutions which they propose diffuse all 
the advantages we hope for. I will endeavour to write this evening 
to Lord Clarendon and will take the earliest opportunity to com- 
municate the result after I shall have had an interview with his 
Lordship. I have requested Mr. Green to forward all the letters to 
you that have arrived from the Holy Land. I shall take no step 
regarding the Hospital but with your concurrence. You may rely 
that there will be no opposition in any way on my part, and I am 
only too happy to see that Jerusalem is not forsaken. . . . 
" Believe me, 
" With the greatest esteem and respect, 

" Your faithful Servant, 

" Moses Montefiore. 
" To the Reverend 

Doctor Adler, 

Chief Rabbi.'' 


" Alliance Office, 

" Bartholomew Lane, 
" Wednesday Morn, 

" 23 Augt., '614. 
" My dear and respected Sir, 

"... 7 now beg to trouble you with the enclosed letters which 
Dr. Lowe has written to the Holy Land with a remittance of £1200 
divided in the following manner. ... 7 have not thought it proper to 
send anything to the Portuguese at Jerusalem as they have not yet 
complied with your request in the mode of distribution or forwarded 
any particulars whatever. I therefore hope you will be satisfied 
with the arrangement that this will bring the Portuguese to a sense 
of the necessity they are under to conform to your instructions, 
or they will receive no more money from England. . . . 

** To the Revd. 

Dr. Adler, 

Chief Rabbi." 

" Buxton, i^th Septr., 5614. 

" My dear and respected Sir, 

"... 7 have felt much vexed at M. Albert Cohn's having 
taken the liberty of using your name as well as mine as having 
deputed him to carry out his schemes in the East. . . . 
" Believe me to be, 

" With great regard and respect, 

" Your faithful Servant, 

" Moses Montefiore. 
" The Revd. Dr. Adler, 

Chief Rabbi, &c. &c." 

'* Alliance Assurance Office, 

*' Bartholomew Lane, 

" Monday Evening, 

" 26 Jany,, 5617. 
" My dear and respected Sir, 

" Having this moment heard from Lady Montefiore that you 
expressed a desire to Visit the Holy Land, and well knowing the 
lively interest you have ever evinced in promoting the prosperity of 
Jerusalem, I beg to assure you that nothing could be more gratifying 
to my feelings, than to be honored with your Company during our 
intended Tour. We had fixed in our minds the 10th day of February 


for our departure, hut to enjoy the honor of your Society, we would 
postpone it to meet your Convenience to any day that would enahU 
us to reach Jerusalem for Passover. 

" Hoping to have the gratification of a favorable reply from you, 
** Believe me to he, 

" Your faithful Servant, 

" Moses Montefiore. 
" To the Reverend 
Dr. Adler, 

Chief Rabbi." 

" East Cliff Lodge, 

" Ramsgate, 

*' i^th September, 5619. 
" My dear and respected Sir, 

"... With respect to the Jaffa farm I hope in a few days to 
have an opportunity of speaking with you. I think it was your wish 
that our co-religionists should be employed on it. ..." 
" Believe me with great esteem, 

" Your faithful Servant, 

" Moses Montefiore. 
" To the Reverend Dr. Adler, 
Chief Rabbi." 

" To the Rev. Dr. Adler, Chief Rabbi, etc. etc. 

" East Cliff Lodge, Ramsgate, May 15/A, 5614-1854. 

" Reverend and Respected Sir, 

" For the sake of Zion I cannot remain silent, and for 
the sake of Jerusalem I cannot rest, until the whole house of 
Israel have been made acquainted with the lamentable condition 
of those of our brethren who devotedly cling to the soil, sacred 
to the memory of our patriarchs, prophets and kings. 

" Thrice having visited the Holy Land, it was my earnest 
desire to fully inform myself as to the condition of our brethren 
there. . . , 

" Aware, however, reverend Sir, of your great anxiety for 
the physical amehoration of our suffering brethren, and how 
watchfully you note their spiritual welfare, I am induced to put 
you in possession of the documents and appeals which I have 
received from the Holy Land, with the assurance that your 
powerful co-operation, in the shape of a pastoral letter addressed 
to the Jews of Great Britain and America — or the exercise of the 
same in any other mode your wisdom may dictate — will, with 

II.— R 


God's blessing, not only tend to remove the present appalling 
misery of our starving brethren in Zion, but spare us the humili 
ation of its recurrence. 

" I have the honour to be, reverend and respected Sir, 
" Your faithful servant, 

'' Moses Montefiore." 

" To Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart., etc. etc. 

" Office of the Chief Rabbi, London, i8th May, 5614. 
" My dear and esteemed Sir, 

'*.... Although I should have much preferred that the 
duty of addressing our co-religionists on behalf of the afflicted 
had been assumed by yourself, as you would have made a far 
deeper impression than I can hope to do, from the well-known 
fact that you have devoted a great portion of your life to the 
amelioration of the condition of our brethren in Palestine, and 
this, too, at the risk of much personal suffering and danger, yet, 
to avoid all delay in the present emergency, I have to-day written 
a letter to the congregations under my charge, a copy of which 
I beg to enclose ; and I fervently pray that the Lord may 
strengthen my feeble words, and incline the hearts of our brethren 
to this good work of charity. 

** I am, my dear Sir Moses, 

*' Yours very faithfully, 

" N. Adler, Dr." 


"To the Wardens, Members, and Seat -holders of the United 
Congregations of Great Britain. 

" Office of the Chief Rabbi, London, May 18th, 5614. 

" Beloved Brethren, 

"... the present condition of our poor brethren 
scattered through the four cities of Jerusalem, Zaphed, Hebron 
and Tiberias, is absolutely heart-rending. This is no exaggera- 
tion but a stern and dreadful reality. The almost total failure 
of the last harvest, which raised the price of all the necessaries 
of life to an unparalleled height ; the present war and general 
political disturbances ; the diminution of the usual resources for 
the poor, especially those derived from Russia, which has 
hitherto contributed the most, have brought about an awful 
famine. . . . While all surrounding nations make that spot 
the object of their deepest concern, expending vast sums 
thereon, should we be unmindful of that land with which 
our past glory and future hope are inseparably connected ? 
... It may be thought by some that the unfortunate state 
of the Jewish residents of Palestine might have been brought 


about ... by their reliance on fixed pensions and casual alms 
without the exercise of industry, either in agriculture, com- 
merce or other employments ; . . . Why, therefore, continue a 
life of pauperism, which will endure until the springs of poverty 
are stopped — and what will be the use of a collection, which 
can but mitigate the evil for a moment ? 

" My dear brethren, — Before you accuse the sufferers of indo- 
lence, and their leaders of neglect, let us assure you that the 
people are most anxious to free themselves from the thraldom 
of dependence ; that the Rabbis and the heads of the Congrega- 
tions have proved to Sir Moses Montefiore, who has been at all 
times the strenuous advocate of industrial pursuits, the willing- 
ness of the people to till the soil, if only it could be done with 
security. But hitherto the great impediment to agriculture has 
been not alone the want of pecuniary means, but the want of 
protection on the part of the Government, it being absolutely 
impracticable to labour outside the walls of the cities, owing to 
the depredations of the roving and lawless Bedouins, for what- 
ever the inhabitants sow is speedily seized by others. 

" Without, however, alluding to the happy restitution that 
we anxiously look for, which lies in the hand of the Lord who 
commandeth us * not to stir, neither to awake His love, until 
He please ' — the present war may, by the Divine blessing, bring 
about a great and beneficial change in the Holy Land. It is 
more than probable that the Government of the Porte will 
concede to our brethren in Palestine the right of holding land ; 
and that this right will be placed under secure protection. It 
will then become the duty of our leading men to organise a 
proper plan of operations, put themselves into communication 
with the different Committees abroad, to raise the necessary 
means, to send men of ability, properly authorised, to Jerusalem, 
to bring about a unity of action among the different congrega- 
tions there, to purchase land, to establish farms and factories, 
and to devote a portion of the money annually collected, as 
wages to those who will labour therein under the charge of the 
persons superintending those undertakings. The time for the 
realisation of such a scheme may not be remote, as the munificent 
legacy of the philanthropist Judah Touro, New Orleans, was 
bequeathed for this very purpose, which bequest will have an 
important bearing on the improvement of the Holy Land. 

". . . I remain, yours very faithfully, 

"N. Abler, Dr., Chief Rabbi.''^ 

* An Appeal on behalf of the famishing Jews in the Holy Land. Dona- 
tions will he thankjully received by The Rev. The Chief Rabbi, 4, Crosby 
Square, and Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart., Alliance Assurance Office, 
Bartholomew Lane. Rev. Aaron Levy Green, Hon. Sec. 
London : Printed by Wertheimer and Co., Circus Place, Finsbury Circus. 
1854 (8°. 16 pp. in printed wrapper), pp. 3-7. 


In February, 1855, Dr. Adler and Sir Moses published their 
first Report enumerating the appropriations of money they had 
made and the sums set apart for the estabhshment of institutions 
designed to reheve distress, and to encourage and promote 

In May, 1856, Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore set out on a 
mission to the Holy Land to organize means for the appropria- 
tion of the funds " with a view to the utmost benefit of the 

The Trustees resolved to attempt the organization of some 
industrial scheme, and, says their Second Report, dated 1856 : 
" In a land naturally so fertile as Palestine, offering so prolific 
a return for industry, but altogether wanting in commercial 
resources, agriculture must of necessity be the first object of 
attention, as likely to prove the most powerful auxiliary in 
bringing about a healthful reaction, by alleviating distress, by 
promoting industry, and by exciting a feeling of self-reliance." 
The Trustees were confirmed in their views by the opinion of 
experienced agriculturists in the Holy Land, and by the valuable 
suggestions of munificent donors. 

" On the 17th June Sir Moses had an audience with the Sultan, 
and on the 27th July the first meeting was held with the repre- 
sentatives of Zapphed. 

" The desirabihty of cultivating land was discussed at this sit- 
ting, and the great probabilities of success in the undertaking 
were shown by the mention of numerous well-authenticated 
facts. The views entertained by the Trustees having been con- 
firmed by the best evidence, a Committee of practical agri- 
culturists — men distinguished by their probity, and of acknow- 
ledged skill — was, without further delay, appointed to aid in the 
selection of land, and to advise as to the fitness of the parties to 
be employed in its cultivation. Assisted by this Committee, Sir 
Moses selected thirty-five families from the Holy City of Zapphed, 
provided them with means to commence agricultural pursuits, 
and also secured for them local governors. Some orphan lads 
were also provided for, by being placed under the care of the 
Committee, to be trained as agriculturists. A district in the 
vicinity of Zapphed, called the Bokea, having been pointed out 
as a most desirable spot for agricultural purposes, sufiicient 
means were granted to give employment to fifteen families, to be 
engaged in the cultivation of that fruitful district ; the whole 
being placed under the supervision of the Agricultural Committee 
at Zapphed. The claims of Taharia were next considered . . . 
and means afforded to thirty families to enable them to engage in 
agricultural pursuits. At Jaffa some land, with a house, and well 
affording an abundant supply of excellent water, was purchased, 
and a number of our poor co-religionists are already engaged upon 
such land." An establishment for weaving was instituted. 


** Sir Moses eventually succeeded in purchasing a tract of land 
to the west of the Holy City, in a most beautiful and salubrious 
locality, within a few minutes' walk from the Jaffa and Zion 
Gates. Here a considerable number of our co-religionists and 
others at once found employment on the land and in the building 
of the boundary wall." A windmill was erected on this site to 
supersede the expensive method used at Jerusalem for grinding 

The Final Exodus 

*' And what now is the aspect of Palestine ? Still, truly, it is a 
land rich in the grandeur and beauties of nature's handiwork — 
still, in some parts, ' . . . hills, plains, and valleys, fields of wheat 
and barley, vineyards and olive-yards, are spread out before you 
as on a map ' — still does the benign influence of the sun's warmth 
engender in the bosom of the earth the germs of fruits and flowers, 
that languish for want of culture, and never arrive at perfection — 
still do the hills uplift their heads amid the clouds, which drop 
down, as though with tears of sorrow, upon their barren and 
exposed sides, once covered with artificial soil and by the hands 
of a favoured race rendered fruitful as the vale beneath. The 
mountains remain unshaken, but where are the countless flocks ? 
the stones of the water-course are there, but where is the limpid 
stream ? Alas ! the promised blessing has been withdrawn from 
the land ; the flocks no longer multiply as heretofore, neither as 
in former days do springs and fountains burst forth everywhere 
out of the valleys and the hills ; and her cities are desolate and 
forsaken, and of many even the site is not accurately known ; 
literal, indeed, has been the fulfilment of the prophetic declara- 
tion ' the land shall be desolate.' Solitude now reigns where 
once the busy hum of voices enlivened many a glad city, ay, even 
in the wilderness — ruins now mark the spot where once rose the 
sound of harp and tabret, and where heart joined with hand in 
mocking with merriment the threatened desolation ..." 

"... But more than this — Britain ! rejoice ! it is for you to 
lead back to their beautiful land the long-dispersed members of 
Judah's neglected race, and by planting in their native country 
a colony of whose attachment to its protectors there could be no 
doubt, . . ." 

"... Jerusalem shall, indeed, become again the glorious city 
among the nations : no longer shall her name be Jerusalem, but 
* the City of the Lord, the Zion of the Holy One of Israel,' for 
there shall be hoUness,' and in the midst of her 'the King of 
Israel, even the Lord ; ' . . . Her walls shall be called * Salvation.' 


and her gates * Praise * ; and her children shall enjoy the 
former and the latter rain ; ' the floors shall be full of wheat, 
and the vats shall overflow with wine and oil ; and they shall 
plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof ; they shall also 
make gardens, and eat the fruit of them. . . / 

** Among these there are many whose wealth — . . . has caused 
the name of the Jew too often to be coupled with the idea of 
sordid gain . . . : but it will be well for the few, who by . . . 
prosperity, . . . occupy now an elevated postion, . . . prepare to 
head with energy every warrantable occasion for furthering the 
restoration of their unhappy people to Palestine. Providential 
is it for them, that among them are men possessing influence and 
wealth sufiicient to become their leaders. . . ." 

" Once again — Britain, beware ! and hasten to exert the 
means which, lying at your disposal, may be made use of as a 
defence for your valuable possessions in the East, and for the 
advancement of God's glory, by the return of His people to the 
land whither He has said He would bring them again * that they 
might be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, 
that He might be glorified.' "^ 


Disraeli and the Purchase of the Suez Canal Shares 

The story of the purchase of the Suez Canal shares by Lord 
Beaconsfield has been told many times, but Mr. [afterwards Sir] 
Henry Lucy, in " Sixty Years in the Wilderness," throws fresh 
light on the subject. 

** On a certain Sunday night in the spring of 1875 he 2 chanced 
to be dining in Bruton Street with Henry Oppenheim, one of the 
original proprietors of the Daily News. During a residence in 
Paris and Egypt that gentleman, just settling down in London, 
was brought into close connection with Egyptian financial affairs. 
On the previous day he heard of the intention of the impecunious 
Khedive to sell en bloc his holding in the capital of the Suez Canal. 
Greenwood instantly saw the opportunity for a great stroke of 
State. On leaving Bruton Street he went direct to the private 
residence of the Foreign Secretary (Lord Derby) and told him of 
the rare chance. Lord Derby informed the Prime Minister, 
whose Oriental mind glowed at the prospect of so stupendous a 

* The Final Exodus ; or, the Restoration to Palestine of the lost Tribes, 
the result of the present crisis ; with a description of the battle of Arma- 
geddon, and the downfall of Russia, as deduced wholly from prophecy. 
London . . . 1854. 

[8°. 30 pp.] pp. 4-5, 13-14. 27. 30. 

* Frederick Greenwood, one of the ablest journalists of his day. 


deal. Inquiry secretly made at Cairo disclosed the fact that the 
Khedive would ' part ' for a sum of four millions sterling. But it 
must be money down. 

" It was, Greenwood told me, on Lord Beaconsfield's personal 
suggestion that the difficulty, at the moment apparently insuper- 
able, was overcome. The consent of Parliament was necessary 
to confirmation of the deal. That involved both delay and 
publicity, either fatal to success. Late on the Thursday night 
following the Bruton Street dinner, the Premier sent his private 
secretary, Monty Corry,^ to call upon Baron Rothschild, the 
Sidonia of ' Coningsby,' at the time head of the great financial 
house. Even a Rothschild did not happen to have about him at 
the moment a trifle of four million sterling. Nor was it possible, 
in accordance with the traditions of the house, that such a trans- 
action should be entered upon without having been considered 
in family council. Corry accordingly returned to the Premier 
without definite reply. It came promptly on the following 
morning, the terms being that the money would be advanced on 
a commission of 2 J per cent. 

"These terms were pretty stiff, involving a payment of £100,000. 
The City heard of them with envy, and they were discussed with 
much severity when the matter came before the House of 
Commons. The Rothschilds and their friends defended them on 
the ground that the colossal transaction involved a certain 
measure of risk. There was absolutely no security beyond the 
influence of the Premier, still master of a majority in the House 
of Commons, and pledged to invoke its aid in order to obtain 
Parliamentary sanction. The whole thing happened between 
two Sundays. On the first Greenwood dined at Bruton Street ; 
on the second, calling on Lord Derby, he learned that the trans- 
action had been successfully carried through, and was invited to 
say what form his personal recompense should take. He declined 
to specify a request, protesting he had done nothing but his duty, 
and was content that its accomplishment should be his 
reward. . . ."^ 


Cyprus and Palestine 

The Anglo-Turkish Convention had given a new and unexpected 
addition to the already extensive list of British territorial 
responsibilities. It is true that a " conditional " element . . . 
enters into the connexion formed with the Turkish Government ; 
and the claims to interpose between the Sultan and his subjects, 

^ Afterwards Lord Rowton. 

* Cornhill, January, 191 2, pp. 64-65. 


as well as the circumstances which would render interference 
necessary, are not very clearly defined. But the British Govern- 
ment, not only by entering into the Convention, but by the 
prominence with which important events invested that treaty, 
as also by its positive acquisition of the island of Cyprus, stand 
pledged before Europe and the world to secure to the populations 
of Asiatic Turkey a deliverance from the corrupt rule which has 
hitherto burdened them. . . /' 

" In the minds of all thoughtful men there is a strong belief 
that this country is the instrument by which freedom, peace and 
true religion will be carried to the uttermost ends of the world. 
If that be so, there is assuredly no portion of the earth's surface 
which more needs the possession of these blessings, or from which 
can come in keener despair the cry ' Come and help us.' The 
countries of Asia still remaining . . . include those whereon the 
earliest progenitors of the human race appeared, and those which 
are familiar to us in Biblical records, or interesting as the plat- 
form upon which mighty nations strove, and empires fell in the 
strife which was raging then as now between the powers of Good 
and Evil."^ 


Disraeli and Heine 

" Deux noms, dont le rapprochement pent sembler d'abord 
inattendu, me viennent sans cesse k I'esprit lorsque j'embrasse 
d'un coup d'oeil cette physionomie singulis'. e d'homme d'etat et 
d'ecrivain, et ils aident, si je ne me tr mpe, k en demeler la 
signification. M. Disraeli me fait sou vent penser a Henri Heine. 
Chez tous les deux, en effet, meme vivacite d'intelligence, meme 
penetration, meme promptitude a saisir toutes les idees et a 
s'approprier pour un instant toutes les doctrines, meme vaga- 
bondage d 'imagination, meme indiscipHne de genie, meme 
melange bizarre de fantaisie et de pensee, de frivolite et de pro- 
f ondeur. . . . M. Disraeli a eu la chance, qui n'echut pas a H. Heine, 
de vivre dans un milieu oii certains exces n'eussent jamais ete 
toleres. . . . II n 'a pas connu non plus les souffrances morales, 
les apres soucis, les angoisses, les serieuses epreuves, qui repandent 
I'amertume dans Tironie du poete allemand, et lui arrachent, 
parmi ses eclats de rire, des cris si poignans : mais comme il 
tranche neanmoins sur la societe anglaise, . . . Quelle perturba- 
tion il jette dans son parti, quelle inquietude il y seme par les 
saillies de sa verve goguenarde, . . . De quel doigt irrespectueux 
il leve tous les voiles et touche aux institutions qu'il pretend 
defendre ! Ici, comme chez H. Heine, on ne saurait meconnaitre 
1 'influence persistante de la race. L'un a fini par embrasser 

* Cyprus and the Asiatic Turkey, by J. M. London, 1878, pp. v-vii. 


le catholicisme, I'autre est ne dans I'eglise anglicane ; mais ils 
restent Juifs, et pour sa part M. Disraeli, courageux avocat des 
Juifs a la chambre des communes et dans ces livres, n'a jamais 
desavoue sa parente avec eux. L'etit-il essaye d'ailleurs, que le 
sceau de la race, vivement empreinte dans son genie et dans son 
caractere, Taurait trahi. Malgre son torysme d'emprunt, on sent, 
il faut le dire k son honneur, dans le langage de M. Disraeli una 
sympathie de coeur pour les desherites qui n'est guere une dis- 
position anglaise et aristocratique : c'est bien plutot un souvenir 
de I'egalite juive et un sentiment puise dans la legislation re- 
publicaine de Moise ; mais ce qui est plus juif encore, c'est ce 
fonde de cynisme, derniere defense d'une race trempee de longue 
date par la persecution et le mepris, bronzee par Thabitude de 
I'outrage. M. Disraeli n'est pas plus exempt que H. Heine de 
cette audace qui defie le ridicule et qui meme sait en tire 
parti. . 



Disraeli's Defence of the Jews 

Disraeli supported the emancipation of the Jews in England 
on religious grounds : — 

" . . . The very reason for admitting the Jews is because they 
show so near an affinity to you. Where is your Christianity if 
you do not believe in their Judaism ? . . . The Jew was necessarily a 
religious being, but not a proselytising one, and so would support 
and not undermine the Christian Church. . . . What possible 
object can the Jew have to oppose the Christian Church ? Is it 
not the first business of the Christian Church to make the 
population whose minds she attempts to form, and whose morals 
she seeks to guide, acquainted with the history of the Jews ? 
Has not the Church of Christ — ^the Christian Church, whether 
Roman Catholic or Protestant — made the history of the Jews 
the most celebrated history of the world ? On every sacred day 
you read to the people the exploits of Jewish heroes, the proofs 
of Jewish devotion, the briUiant annals of past Jewish magni- 
ficence. . . . Every Sunday — every Lord's day — if you wish to 
express feelings of praise and thanksgiving to the most High, or 
if you wish to find expressions of solace in grief, you find both in 
the works of Jewish poets. ... In exact proportion to your faith 
ought to be your wish to do this great act of national justice. If 
you have not forgotten what you owe to this people, if you were 
grateful for that literature which, for thousands of years, has 
brought so much instruction and so much consolation to the sons 

1 Le Roman Politique en Angleterre : Lothaire de M. Disraeli, par 
M. P. Challemel-Lacour, pp. 445-447. Revue des Deux Mondes . . . 
15 Juillet . . . Paris . . . 1870. 


of men, you as Christians, would be only too ready to seize the 
first opportunity of meeting the claims of those who profess this 


A Hebrew Address to Queen Victoria (1849) 

Translated Extract from an Address of Russian Jews in Safed 
on their coming under England's protection, 1849. 

(After compliments to the Consul in Jerusalem.) 

" We acknowledge to the Lord and praise Him that He has 
put it into the heart of the Glory the Pity of the mighty Crowned 
Queen, the pious, the precious, the upright who reigns over the 
provinces of England and its dependencies, to do good to the 
people of Israel and to succour them with every kind of aid, 
for great and small, and to defend them from those that rise up 
against them. 

" With a perfect heart 
Of mercy and loving kindness ; 
And with the tips of the wings of Mercy 
And the grace of her Righteousness 
She has extended and caused to shine upon us, 
Who dwell in our own land, 
The holy (be it established in our days,) 
Us, who are burdened with troubles — 
Sinking into distress. 
Poverty and calamity. 
But loving the land of our Fathers, 
The place of our honour. 
We here are those 

Who are the sons of the provinces of Russia, 
And this is the day we have looked for : 
We have found it, we have seen it — 
For she has bent down her pity to receive us 
Under the shade of her wings of compassion, 
And to comfort us with shade of her mighty rule. 
For a name, for a praise, and for glory ! 
Yea, our souls within us are bound 
To implore Him, who is fearful in mighty acts, 
With praises and prayers, 
That He may prolong her days 
In rest and satisfaction ; 
That the Lord may hedge her in. 
And all that are hers : 
The princes around her. 
With her nobles, 

* The Life of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, by William 
Flavelle Monypenny and George Earie Buckle. Volume iii. . . . London 
. . . I9I4» PP- 68-69. 


And all those comforted in her shadow 

May they rise on wings of elevation, of prosperity, 

In fulness of joy ; 

And may her kingdom be established 

Like the Moon, for ever and ever, 

Until the coming of Messiah ! 

May the Lord bless their lives and their substance, 

And increase their honour, 

And crown their praise ! 

Amen, so be Thy will ! " 1 


An Appeal by Ernest Laharanne (i860) 

" Oh ! que de proscriptions, que de larmes, que de sang dans 
cette periode de 18 si^cles, et vous etes encore, fils de Juda ! 

" Contre la haine, le mepris, le dedain, le degout vous avez 
franchi ces obstacles, sans nombre, que les bourreaux des siecles 
d'aveugle foi tendaient k votre passage, et Tetemelle main vous 
conduisait sans cesse ! 

" Mais la France vous a faits libres ! . . . 

" Vous avez et6 citoyens et vous etes nos frSres ! 

*' L'an 1789 a 6te pour vous la premiere 6tape de la rehabilita- 
tion, si la rehabilitation est 1^ oil il n'y a pas la honte et 
inf amie, mais 1^ ou il y a eu un malheur ! 

" Marchez alors sous I'^gide sacr^e de cette France 6manci- 
patrice ! Dans sa mission lib^rale, son etoile de salut distingua 
^chelonnes, sur la route des peuples, toutes les races proscrites 
et tous les parias du monde. Et vous 6tiez sur ce grand chemin, 
et I'opprobre et les malheurs ombrageaient seuls I'^pineuse et 
brulante voie ! " 

** Elle vous appella dans ses assemblees, dans ses triomphes, 
dans ses joies, dans ses malheurs ; et au jour des deliberations, 
vous avez parle, et au jour des marches triomphales vous avez 
applaudi, et au jour de nos malheurs, vous avez pleur^ ! . . ." 

" Nous nous inclinons devant vous, hommes forts ! Car vous 
f utes forts durant votre histoire antique ; vous f utes forts, depuis 
le drame de Jerusalem ; vous futes forts au temps du moyen- 
age, alors qu'il n'y avait que deux noires puissances : I'inqui- 
sition avec la croix, les pirates avec le croissant ! 

" Mais vous ne nous etes pas arrives tous jusqu'k nous. Com- 
bien n'en a-t-il pas fallu pour payer I'immense tribu de 18 siecles ! 

** Mais, ceux qui restent, vous pouvez grandir encore et 
rebatir la porte de Jerusalem. 

** C'est votre tache. Dieu ne vous aurait pas conduits jusqu'k 

^ Stirring Times ... of 1853 to 1856, by the late James Finn . . . vol.L 
London . . . 1878, pp. 130-132. 


nos temps s'il n'avait pas voulu vous r^server la plus sainte des 
missions. . . !* 

" Une haute mission vous est reservee. Places comme un 
vivant trait d'union entre trois mondes, vous devez amener la 
civilisation chez les peuples inexperimentes encore, vous devez 
leur porter les lumieres d'Europe que vous avezrecueillies aflots." 

" Vous servirez d'intermediaires entre TEurope et I'extreme 
Asie, et vous ouvxirez les grandes voies quimdnent aux Indes et a 
la Chine et aux archipels encore inconnus, mais qu'il faudra 

" Vous arriverez aux champs de Juda, avec la couronne du 
martyre et les cicatrices des longues douleurs, et le monde 
s'inclinera et les fronts se d^couvriront, comme devant un ain6 
des peuples ! . . ." 

" Vous avez assez aide a civiliser les peuples, en Europe, 
k faire avancer le progres, a faire et a favoriser les revolutions ; 
vous devez maintenant songer au vallees du Liban et aux grandes 
plaines de Genezareth. 

" Mar chez ! Dans votre oeuvre renovatrice, nos coeurs vous 
suivront et nos bras vous serviront d'aide ! 

" Nous le ferons ! Vous avez en vous-memes de ces hommes 
si rares en nos temps, qui ont fait appel k vos sympathies, et k 
vos secours, pour venir soulager nos fr^es dans le malheur V- 

" Cette voix que nous entendons encore a retenti d'un bout k 
I'autre du monde. Et qui ne serait pas reconnaissant aujourd'hui 
du genereux elan qu'a provoque le grand homme ? 

" Mar chez, Juifs de tous les pays ! . . . L'antique patrie vous 
appelle, et nous serons fiers de venir rouvrir vos foyers ! ** 

" Marchez, fils de martyrs ! . . ."^ 


Statistics of the Holy Land 

A FOLDED page with which the Addenda (Extracts from some of 
the reports, letters, and addresses on agriculture in the Holy Land 
received by Sir Moses Montefiore, f.r.s., etc. etc.,|during his 
sojourn there. Translated from the originals, by Dr. L. Loewe) 
to Lady Montefiore 's Notes from a Private Journal, 1844, 
concludes, is entitled : — 

** A form of the lists giving a statistical account of the Children 
of Israel dwelling in the Holy Land. In the Year 5599-1839." 

1 " L'illustre M. Cr6mieux, dont le nom, en ces circonstances, ne saurait 
fetre jamais assez, non pas glorifi.6, mais b6m. ..." 

2 La Nouvelle Question d'Orient. Empires d'Egypte et d'Arabie. 
Reconstitution de la Nationality Juive, Paris . . . i860. (8°. 47 pp.) 
pp. 39-41. 


These are the names of the worthy persons fearing God, who resided 
in the Holy City, in the year 5599-1839. 

The form is divided into seventeen columnar sections, headed 
with the following queries : — 

Number in Faritily — Names — -Where born — Age — Date of arrival 
in the Holy Land — How Situated — Occupation — Married — Single 
— -Names and number of children — Age above 13 — Age under 13 
— Names of Widows — -Age — ]^ames of Orphans — Age — Remarks. 

Sir Moses, accompanied by his wife, first visited the Holy Land 
in 1827, and the urgent necessity and vast importance of statistics 
must have deeply impressed him, for we find that on his second 
pilgrimage, eleven years later, he caused forms similar to the 
above, which were also in Hebrew, to be distributed in the Holy 
Cities of Jerusalem, Safed, Tiberias, Hebron, and in other towns 
and villages. The information furnished was signed, counter- 
signed and sealed by the Heads of each Kahal. 

Forms applicable to synagogues, colleges, schools, and various 
other institutions were also circulated, requesting particulars 
as to situation, the names of the ecclesiastical and lay heads, 
and other officials. The purpose of each organization, its income 
and expenditure, and a number of other minor details. 

This information — collected for thirty-six years 5599-5635= 
1839-1875 — was compiled and arranged by Dr. Louis Loewe 
(the life-long friend of Sir Moses, whom he accompanied on 
thirteen of his missions abroad) and transcribed in fifteen 
imperial folio volumes, a model of Hebrew calligraphy. 

In addition to these particulars of a personal nature, this in- 
valuable thesaurus contains information dealing with land, 
agriculture, buildings, industries, cotton, oil, fruit-trees, and the 
condition of the country in general. The volumes are now de- 
posited at the Jews' College, Queen Square House, London, but 
form part of the Library of the Judith, Lady Montefiore Theo- 
logical College of Ramsgate. 

A wealth of material lies at the disposal of future historians 
and statisticians, and it is devoutly to be hoped, that this 
great work will find its proper resting-place in the Archives of 


An Open Letter or Rabbi Chayyim Zebi Sneersohn 
OF Jerusalem (1863) 

There were hundreds of Jews, preferring labour to starvation, 
to be seen working for their daily bread at one shilling per day in 
the fields of the so-called ' Industrial Plantations for Jews/ 
then under the auspices of Mr. Finn, late Enghsh Consul for 
Palestine, and up to the present time there are many Jews 
engaged in performing even the most menial offices and doing 


their best to provide food for their famiHes. The other day a 
meeting was held by the Chief Rabbi, Haim David Hassan, and 
many other notabiUties of the different congregations, at which I 
also attended. The subject proposed was an enquiry to ascer- 
tain the number of those who are likely to devote themselves 
to agricultural pursuits and to draw up a plan in which way they 
could be helped in order to attain the object desired. The result 
was that up to the present about one hundred heads 
of families declared their readiness to go and till the ground of 
their fathers. The result of the preliminary discussion on the 
plan to be adopted was to get a hodjet, or secure possession from 
the Government or possession of cultivated ground, consisting of 
gardens, olive trees, vineyards and fields." 

Palestinian Rabbis were quick to recognize the activity of the 
British Consul. James Finn was indeed an English pioneer of 
the idea of colonization of Palestine and of Britain's protection 
of Palestinian Jews. He was appointed Consul before the death 
of Bishop Alexander (who was a converted Jew and the first 
Bishop appointed by the British Government in Jerusalem), in 
1848, and the chief reason for his appointment was his known 
love of the Jewish cause. He was at the time a member of the 
London Society's Committee, had published an interesting and 
learned work on the History of the Spanish Jews, as well as a 
tract upon the Chinese Jews, had devoted himself with great zeal 
and rare success to the study of Hebrew, which he spoke and 
wrote with fluency, and was considered on this account to be 
particularly well qualified for the post of Consul at Jerusalem 
(another proof of the great appreciation of the national Jewish 
character of Palestine on the part of the British Government at 
that time) . Finn went out as a devoted friend to the Jewish cause, 
and such he proved himself throughout. Though an ardent Chris- 
tian, he won the sympathy of the most orthodox Jerusalem 
Rabbis, and their moral support for the colonization of Palestine. 

Palestinian Jews themselves advocated the establishment of 
Jewish agricultural colonies in 1863 • — 

** Behold, we are now awaking to a sense of the profound 
degradation which systematic dependence on charity must 
produce and to the awful demoralization which must be the 
necessary consequence of its precariousness. The increasing 
prosperity of those around us makes us the more deeply feel our 
own unutterable misery : while European ideas, gradually 
penetrating to us, are rousing us from our apathy and inspiring 
us more and more with the wish to wipe away from us the 
disgrace of sloth, with which we are but too often stigmatized. 
We want to work, and to work hard, in order to support our- 
selves by the sweat of our brows. But there is in Palestine no 
other source of employment capable of giving bread to a com- 
munity consisting of thousands of individuals, save agriculture. 


You dole out to us annually thousands of pounds, just enough 
to keep us, year after year, on the brink of starvation. This has 
now been going on for centuries, with the result which we have 
seen. Now try whether a change for the better could not be 
brought about. Lay out, by way of experiment, and on a small 
scale, just to begin with, a portion of the funds destined for the 
Holy Land in productive labour. Some of us, at least, will, 
instead of being maintained in involuntary idleness, see what our 
handiv/ork can produce, whereby you give the mere consumer 
of to-day a chance of becoming the producer of to-morrow, and 
in time you may have the satisfaction of seeing the country dotted 
with self-supporting agricultural colonies of happy Jews — the very 
same who are now a burden to you, and whose cry of distress every 
now and then resounds through the countries of the West." 

Rabbi Sneersohn was on a visit to Melbourne in 1861, and 
addressed (in Hebrew) a " Meeting of the members of the Jewish 
Faith (to which persons of other denominations were also invited) 
for the purpose of adopting measures to assist in building houses 
of refuge on Mount Zion " {The Salvation of Israel, an address, 
etc., by Rabbi Hayim Zwi Sneersohn, Melbourne, 1862). 


The Tragedy of a Minority, as seen by an English 
Jewish Publicist (1863) 

" The whole Tragedy of our People is to be found in the fact 
that we must everywhere he in the minority : and no matter how 
just our cause may be, we shall always have to complain of 
slights and insults, of being overlooked by accident or design, 
of being scorned by many, and denounced by zealots or infidels, 
all for the sake of being a minority. . . . But once again 
blessed with a Government of our own, though only a small 
portion of Israelites should be found in their own land, while the 
many would prefer to remain in the countries where they now 
sojourn, and the advantages of which they might not wish to 
give up, the feelings of the world would necessarily undergo a 
great change, and the treatment meted out to us would not be 
what it is now. If we have our agriculturists, our statesmen, 
our mechanics, our public teachers, equal to the best found 
anywhere, who would dare to insult us by stating that he knows 
us only as pedlars, bankers and merchants : and class us as a 
whole among petty traders and men of low pursuits ? No effort 
which we can make, situated as we are all over the world, will 
readily change the long habit which was forced on us to depend 
on commerce, large and small, in all its branches, in which the 
meaner necessarily predominated, owing to the exclusive laws 
to which we were subjected : and therefore it will be centuries 


before the unjust prejudices against us die out, if ever they can, 
in case we ever succeed in divesting ourselves of that habit. 
If our land be restored to us, and we to it, how nobly will our 
character, which is now concealed and obscure, burst forth in all 
ancient vigour and beauty, and we shall naturally present to the 
world again examples worthy of imitation, and the harp of 
Judah, which has so long hung mute on the willows of many a 
Babylon, will again resound to the master-touch of the inspired 
poet. He will again sing aloud the praises of the Most High. 
Our judges will sit on the judgment-seat of our ancient counsel- 
lors, and decide for the lofty and the lowly according to the 
demands of the Mosaic legislation : and the wisdom which had 
its chief residence on the hills of Jerusalem will evermore be 
diffused to enlighten a suffering world, and will prove its strength 
in contrast with the failures of antagonistic systems. . . . Will 
this dream be speedily realized ? We cannot tell indeed : events 
occasionally creep slowly over the face of the world, but at 
other times they rush rapidly forward, and one great develop- 
ment follows closely on the heels of the other. The same may 
be the case with the now apparently distant restoration of 
Israelites to Palestine. The world is becoming rapidly peopled : 
the boundaries of nations in the meanwhile are frequently 
changed : jealousies of one people against another are con- 
stantly developed : the balance of power, a vain desire to 
preserve peace among men, is constantly vibrating to and fro. 
Is it then so unlikely that an effort will be made to place in 
Palestine and the neighbourhood an enterprising race which 
shall restore it ? " 


: nn'^sn ]«nab6n p'ts rw^'ll^ b^iw^^ ^n^ nia;'* man 

London Hebrew Society for the Colonization 
OF THE Holy Land 

'* The London Society for the Colonization of the Holy Land 
intends : — 

" I. To collect funds for the purchase of deserted and desolate 
towns, and fields and vineyards in the Holy Land, and to prepare 
Hebrew Persons able and wiUing to work, so as to fit them for 
agricultural labour in the Holy Land. 

"2. All Israelites, expert in sacred scripture and the Hebrew 
language, who are members of this society for six years, and 
prove their ability in agriculture, honest, and of respectable 
behaviour, able and willing to work, will be sent out to the Holy 
Land by this Society. 


"3. On those sent out by the Society the sacred duty devolves 
to fulfil faithfully the commandments of the min not to work 
— or cause to work — on Sabbath, Festivals, Schemita, and 
Jobal, as well as to observe nxai nriDB^ IDpi and all other com- 
mandments relating to the cultivation of the soil in the Holy 

"4. All Israelites having lived uninterruptedly for three 
years in the Holy Land will be considered as free members, and, 
after passing proper examination, can enjoy the same rights as 
those who have contributed. 

** 5. A house, with adjoining land, and cattle, implements and 
all other requirements for agriculture, and all necessaries for 
himself and his family shall be provided by the Society until 
the soil is fertilised and productive. 

" 6. In each colony the Society shall establish a Synagogue 
with all its requirements as n'D, etc., schools for children and 
adults, appoint and pay Rabbis, readers and the other officials, 
provide books, &c. 

"7. The Rabbi must not only have thorough knowledge of 
the Hebrew language and Theology, but must also be expert in 
other sciences and languages, especially the language of the 

'* 8. Every colonist has the preference, after the stipulated 
time, to farm the land fertilised by his labour, which land 
remains the property of the society. 

"9. The colonists will be placed under the protection of the 
great European powers. 

"10. Co-religionists trained to the use of arms will be ap- 
pointed by the society, to protect the colony from the attacks 
of the Bedouins ; also police to enforce the laws and to main- 
tain order. 

"11. Israelitish co-religionists of all countries and of either 
sex will be accepted as members of the society. 

"12. Those of other religions can only be accepted as honorary 

"13. Boys and girls from 13 to 20 years of age, and persons 
more than 50 years of age can be members of the second class 

" 14. Children under 13 years of age are members of the 
third class. 

"15. Communities forming societies among themselves will 
be accepted as branches of this society. 

" 16. Members, who bequeath money or property, according 
to their means, for the benefit of the society will be constituted 
perpetual members. 

" 17. Any member desiring to perpetuate the memory of 

II.— s 


deceased relations or friends, can do so by paying a certain sum, 
according to his means, to have them inscribed as perpetual 

" i8. Each member to pay an entrance fee of not less than 
IS. 6d., one- third of which fee must be paid at the time of 

'* 19. This third part will be used to meet the expenses of 
stationery, printing, advertising, rent of lecture hall, manage- 
ment, &c., and for the assistance of those persons preparing 
themselves for agriculture. 

" 20. Each member agrees to pay a certain voluntary contri- 
bution towards the funds of the society, which sum has to be 
paid to the committee every isnn U^fc^l for which he will receive 
a receipt. 

"21. A public meeting will be held every n*l when the names 
of the members and the amount of their contributions will be 

"22. General meetings will be held three times during the 
year, at such time and place as the monthly meetings shall 

"23. Admission of non-members to the monthly meetings by 
ticket, to be had gratis. 

" 24. None but members will be allowed to address the 
meeting. Non-members can submit any question in writing, 
which will be communicated, and if necessary discussed at the 

" 25. To explain and to illustrate the principles of the society, 
lectures will be delivered every Sabbath in the hall of the 
society, to which members have free admission, non-members by 
ticket, sold for the benefit of the society. 

** The land will be divided by ballot, for which members of the 
first class only are qualified. For assistance and for instruction 
every member of six months standing, in the first and second 
class, has a claim. 

" Members who shall have obtained a plot of land and should 
not desire to emigrate, can convey the same to another person, 
provided he be qualified as described in Rule 2."^ 

^ ^^'i^\ rip35 The Hebrew National. A weekly Journal [Edited by 
Herschel Filipowski] . . . London., vol. i., No. 2, Feb. 22nd, 1867, pp. 

An appeal from this Society " By order of the Committee, E. I. Polak, 
Secretary {pro tern.)," appeared in a specimen of a unique newspaper lent to 
me by Mr. James H. Lowe, entitled J 1310^^^ VK^^H K'^** London Jews' 
Weeldy Times, No. 4, 31st May =26 lyar, but the year is omitted. The 
advertisements were printed, but the news was lithographed. The ofl&ces 
were situated at 4 Sun street, and the paper was pubUshed by Harris 
Leyserowich of No. 3 Sweedland Court, Bishopsgate Street, City. 



An Open Letter of Henri Dunant (1866) 

** The disquieting circumstances in which Europe finds itself 
should not let us forget that the Eastern question, which has 
already troubled the Governments and peoples, may speedily 
reappear and complicate a position grave enough in itself. 
Instinctively every one feels that the day when this question 
will call for a definite solution, all Europe will perhaps be in 
inextricable difficulties. 

" Diplomatic difficulties can only end in barren expedients, 
but the present, which is averse to a system of forcible conquest 
by fire and sword, has a much more powerful weapon at its 
disposal — that of pacific conquest by civilization. 

" What is therefore to be done in order to prevent grave 
complications, and regenerate the East by rousing its vital 
forces and infusing into it the spirit of Western civilization ? 

" One of the most powerful means would be the formation of 
a large society, having an eminently international character, 
and which would have thereby the merit of reconciling the 
particular interests of the several European Powers with those of 
civilization. This Society would open for the West new and 
abundant sources of wealth : it would become for the East an 
efiicient means of moral regeneration : and lastly would be for 
all nations co-operating in the matter a great honour and a great 

" The following is the manner in which such an association 
may be presented to the European public : — 

" Objects of the Eastern International Society : — 
" To promote the development of agriculture, industry, com- 
merce, and public works in the East, and especially in Palestine. 
To obtain from the Turkish Government privileges and 
monopolies, whether in Constantinople or the rest of the Empire : 
notably the concession and the gradual abandonment of the soil 
of Palestine. To distribute for pecuniary considerations such 
portions of the land, the concession whereof might have been 
acquired or received by the Company, and to colonize the more 
fertile valleys of the Holy Land. 

" The Turkish Empire contains virtues of all kinds, which, if 
they were utilized by a powerful company, would yield con- 
siderable results ; but the Porte neither possesses the resources 
nor the necessary forces in order to create and lead to a favourable 
issue the works of public utility, which the internal development 
of the Ottoman Empire so urgently demands : left to her own 
resources she can neither augment her revenues nor form new 


ones, she is unable to give energetic support to either agri- 
culture or industry, which are the only means of increasing 
public wealth and prosperity. 

"It is therefore for the West, which possesses the capital 
and where the creative forces are superabundant, to turn to an 
account the real advantages presented by Turkey, and to take 
in hand a work capable of yielding excellent results. Skilfully 
conducted, operations in this new country bring in a very high 
interest : but new combinations must be devised, which should 
enjoy both the approval of the European Powers, and the 
support of the Sultan's Porte. Therefore, in order not to weaken 
its forces, the Society must utilize certain special circumstances in 
which Turkey is now placed, and Palestine offers itself at first 
sight to the mind as the earliest field of activity. 

" Palestine, as known, only wants human labour in order to 
produce abundantly : it is one of the most remarkable and 
fruitful countries on the globe : products of all latitudes are to 
be met with there, and emigrants from Europe find there the 
climate of their country. Commerce and private industry 
completing the work of agriculture, will draw hither in numbers 
merchants, colonists and capitalists. This resurrection of the 
East, uniting with the new rise of religious sentiment, will be 
aided by the co-operation of Israelites, whose valuable qualities 
and remarkable aptitudes cannot but prove very advantageous 
to Palestine. 

" Having established commercial undertakings at Constanti- 
nople and other cities of the Turkish Empire, the Society will 
construct at Jaffa a port and a good road, a railway from this 
city to Jerusalem. The territory through which the railway 
runs should be granted by Turkey to the Society, which might 
sell it to Israelitish families. These in their turn would create 
colonies and make them prosperous, with the help and the 
labour of those of their Eastern brethren whose love for their 
ancient country has maintained itself as ardently as formerly. 
Special committees might at their cost send Israelitish emigrants 
from Morocco, Poland, Moldavia, Wallachia, the East, Africa, etc. 

" The result pursued and obtained by the Society by means 
of a sincere international understanding, the co-operation of 
those interested in Turkey, and the establishment of Western 
populations in Palestine, will infallibly be in a less distant future 
than might be imagined. 

" The reconstruction of Holy Places at Jerusalem, which 
might be carried out internationally, and in a manner worthy of 
Christendom : the end of conflicts which are being incessantly 
renewed between the Great Powers on account of the Holy 
Places : the transformation of ancient Jerusalem into a new city 
which shall rival in importance the finest cities in the West : the 
creation of European colonies which in time will become centres 


when Western civilization will spread into Turkey and penetrate 
the extreme East. 

" Under the nominal suzerainty of the Sultan the Society will 
administer with intelligence and equity the territories that might 
develop upon it. Thus India has long been administered and 
governed by an English company. The Sultan, grateful for the 
financial support which will be given to him, might, perhaps, 
grant to the Holy Land a special administration, which, under 
the high direction of the Porte, would offer real security to the 
populations that might repair thither, and guarantees for the 
funds that might be employed there. Thanks to this combina- 
tion, which would procure for her valuable resources, Turkey 
would not be obliged to contract new loans in order to pay the 
interest on previous ones. 

" The rising colonies might diplomatically be neutralized, like 
Switzerland, and by a treaty which would have some analogy to 
the Convention signed at Geneva in favour of the amboulance, 
sanitary bodies, and wounded soldiers. It would not, moreover, 
be so difficult to neutralize Palestine by an agreement among the 
Powers, since there exists a remarkable precedent, which is the 
neutralization of the Lower Danube officially obtained from the 
Seven Powers, who signed the treaty at Paris. Now the Com- 
mission of the Lower Danube has created its flag and a small 
fleet, it possesses a numerous staff and revenues : it actually 
seeks to contract a loan, the same as an independent state. 

'* In order to prepare the organization of an International 
Eastern Society, it is necessary that the minds should be induced 
to occupy themselves with these great and interesting questions. 
It is indispensable for this purpose to form a committee com- 
posed of influential and honourable men of different nations and 
different opinions, having at heart the success of these views in the 
general interest. For the rest the elements of such a committee 
are quite clear. 

" Its programme, at the same time economic, humanitarian, 
scientific, etc., is also international: it cannot hurt the sus- 
ceptibilities of any nation. Influential men in France, England, 
and elsewhere are favourably disposed to the scheme."^ 

^ Societe Nationale Universelle pour la Renouvellement de 1' Orient 
[Henri Dunant] Paris . . . 1866. 



An Appeal of Rabbi Eijas Gutmacher and Rabbi Hirsch 
Kalischer to the Jews of England (1867) 

Appeal to Our Brethren 

Thou shall yet plant vines upon the mountains of Samaria ; 
the planters shall plant and shall eat them as common things. 
Jeremiah, chap. xxxi. 

And I will raise up for them a plant of renown and they shall 
be no more consumed with hunger in the land. Ezekiel xxxi v. 

Hear ye generous people, learn ye who take an interest in holy 
matters, show your tender feelings towards our brethren in the 
holy land ! Think of the abandoned, devastated, sacred soil. 
Thus voices and signs urgently warn you, pointing out to you 
that the time long ago vouchsafed has arrived to render them 
effectual help. 

Destructive epidemic diseases and famine ravage in that land 
in the same awful way this year as they did in the past one and 
your ever so abundantly flowing gifts and donations are not 
efficient to alleviate the misery, to satiate the hunger ; upon us 
the needy cast their looks and crave for relief. But there is only 
one way, one remedy to prevent a recurrence of such distress, 
and that is : colonization, cultivation and improvements of the 
Palestine soil. 

This proposal, suggested already many years ago, urges now 
more than ever upon final realization, the soil must be redeemed. 
The society, " AlUance Israelite," in Paris, so great in its activity, 
at the head of which M. Adolphe Cremieux stands as president, 
has declared itself in favor of this idea and promised its own 
assistance and interference (sic) elsewhere, to accomplish the 
object, as we have seen from that society's recently published 
half-yearly report. 

A letter Sir Moses Montefiore addressed to us after his safe 
return from Palestine states that the idea has been approved of 
there also. Sir Moses in the same letter says that from Zephat 
alone sixty Jewish families addressed to him personally the 
fervent prayer for a grant of land for agricultural purposes. 
That the hard tried Israelitish inhabitants of Schabatz in Servia 
have declared themselves ready to emigrate for the purpose of 
cultivating the Palestine soil, is known to us already, through the 
medium of Hebrew periodicals. — ^To reaUze the idea in question, 
money must be raised before anything can be done : the funds 
in hand are not sufficient, the number of Subscribers must 
increase, and the subscriptions be permanent. The leaders of 
congregations should take the matter in hand and every member 
of a congregation in good circumstances ought to join the society, 
with a yearly contribution of two Thalers (six shillings), by which 


they would be instrumental in the performance of the religious 
commands attached to the sacred soil just as if they themselves 
had been performing it. To enable members in more humble 
circumstances to contribute, quarterly payments might be 
received. But he whom the Almighty has blessed with earthly 
fortunes and who has the heart for the sufferings of his co- 
religionists anywhere in the Universe — he should not fail to join 
the " Alliance Israelite " of Paris, as a member with a yearly 
contribution of i Thaler 10 Sgr. (4 Shillings), and thus further the 
great aim. Two treasurers have been appointed by us to receive 
contributions. The well-known Banker, Mr. Seegall, in Posen, 
is Chief Treasurer, and Mr. S. Fuerst, in Schmiegel, Special 
Treasurer for amounts up to 100 Thalers (£15). The latter 
Gentleman has offered to pay all postages out of his own private 
pocket, and is resolved to go at his own expense to Palestine and 
to make a beginning with the colonization ; i)erhaps the under- 
signed Mr. Hirsch Kalischer may take upon himself the expense 
and hardships of such a voyage, to see there after the strict 
observance of the religious commands connected with agriculture 
in Palestine. Were there one at least in every congregation that 
would zealously take the matter in hand ; we would willingly 
confer upon him the diploma of a Governor of the society and 
give him the necessary instructions. We are also ready to 
purchase a priceworthy piece of land in Palestine on account and 
in the name of any of our wealthier brethren in faith that would 
remit to us a sum for the purpose, and to have it administered 
according to their instructions. We hope that with the proper 
assistance from the congregations of Israel and by the aid of the 
Omnipotent we shall in a very short time be able to give effect 
to the idea of Colonization. 

Thorn in the month of Marcheshvan 5627. "Be of good 
courage, and let us play the men for our people and for the cities 
of our God " (2 Samuel x. 12). 

Eli AS GuTMACHER, Rabbi in Graetz. 

Hirsch Kalischer, Rabbi in Thorn. ^ 


Alexandre Dumas (//j) and Zionism 

In La Femme de Claude, pp. 50-51, Daniel says : 

" Nous sommes dans une epoque ou chaque race a resolu de 
revendiquer et d 'avoir bien ^ elle son sol, son foyer, sa langue et 
son temple. II y a assez longtemps que nous autres Israelites, 
nous sommes depossedes de tout cela. Nous avons ete forces de 
nous glisser dans les interstices des nations, d'ou nous avons 

' Siflifr nD» The Hebrew National, vol. i.. No. i., Feb. 15th, 1867, 
p. 6. 


penetre dans les inter ets des gouvernements, des societes, des 
individus. C'est beaucoup, ce n'est pas assez. On croit encore 
que la persecution nous a disperses, elle nous a repandus ; et 
nous tenant par la main, nous formons aujourd'hui un filet dans 
lequel le monde pourrait bien se trouver pris le jour oii il lui 
viendrait kVidee de nous redevenir hostile ou de se declarer ingrat . 
En attendant nous ne voulons plus etre un groupe, nous voulons 
etre un peuple, plus qu un peuple, une nation. La patrie ideale 
ne nous suffit plus, la patrie fixe et territorial nous est redevenue 
necessaire, et je pars pour chercher et lever notre acte de naissance 

Isidore Cahen writes, Le Daniel de la Femme du Claude 
"... prevoit et predit une rest aurat ion materielle de la grandeur 
de Juda, la reconstitution dun Etat politique juif ! M. Dumas 
va jusqu'a citer le voeu celebre de la Hagadah : * L'ann^e 
prochaine a Jerusalem. . . .' 

" Dans ces voeux qui contiennent nos livres traditionelles 
il n'y a qu'une esperance allegorique un vceu mystique : c'est 
une Jerusalem ideale, . . . et non pas une Jerusalem politique "^ 

... II faut que je sois bien maladroit et que je dise bien mal ce 
que je veux dire pour qu'il y ait erreur sur mon appreciation des 
Israelites. Le jour ou j'ai ecrit la Femme de Claude, j'ai cru les 
glorifier. Je ne vols pas que Daniel et Rebecca ne representent 
pas un ideal superieur et si Daniel menace un moment ceux qui 
pourraient se montrer hostiles ou ingrats de la puissance que ses 
coreligionnaires ont acquise, il a parfaitement raison. Ce n'est 
pas quand depuis pres de deux mille ans une race subit Tin justice 
et la persecution comme Fa fait votre race, qu'elle va, apres de 
grands services rendus, supporter I'ingratitude et I'hostilite de 
ceux qu'elle a tires d'affaire. II n'en est pas moins vrai que lors 
de I'apparition de la Femme de Claude, beaucoup de vos co- 
religionnaires se sont trompes sur mes intentions et que quelques- 
uns ont organise une cabale contre la piece. Je ne leur en veux 
pas. Je ne ferai jamais entrer une question personnelle dans ce 
jugement que je puis avoir a porter historiquement et philoso- 
phiquement sur toute une Nation. 

. . . Comme j'assiste pendant le temps que je passe sur la terre 
aux evolutions de Thumanite a laquelle j'appartiens, je m'amuse 
quelquefois k essayer de prevoir et meme de predire la direction 
qu'elles peuvent prendre. Comme j'ai bien etudie celles de votre 
race, que je I'ai vue asservie et persecutee de tous temps et en 
ces memes temps tou jours patiente et laborieuse, je me suis, 
dans mon interieur, pris de sympathie pour elle, et si j 'avals 
ete capable de pratiquer une religion c'est k celle de ces per- 
secutes et de ces laborieux que je serais alle. Quand un peuple 
a etabli toute la morale humaine sur dix petits versets, il pent 
vraiment se dire le peuple de Dieu, etant donne la conception 
que les hommes les plus eclaires peuvent se faire, derriere Moise 
^ Archives Israelites, i*' Fevrier, 1873, p. 86. 


d'un Dieu personnel. Seulement j'ai le tort d'appliquer a ceux 
que j'etudie et qui m'interessent les ideas que j'aurais si j'etais 
a leur place . . ., quand j'ai vu les evenements politiques nous 
apporter en 1870, en etablissant la Republique et en nous re- 
tirant de Rome, vous apporter la revanche de tant d'injustices 
et d'humiliations patiemment supportees, je me suis demande 
quelle mission je me donnerais, si dans les idees ou je suis, 
j 'etais membre de ce peuple particulier. Je me suis dit alors que 
je n'aurais qu'une idee, ce serait de reprendre possession de mon 
sol d'origine et de tradition et de rebatir le temple de Jerusalem, 
sinon sur la place du tombeau du Christ, du moins en face. C'est 
cette idee que j'ai incamee dans Daniel. On m'a dit souvent 
depuis, que je me trompais sur les ambitions des IsraeUtes, qu'ils 
ne pensaient plus a ces represailles-la, que leur ideal etait de 
vivre en paix avec les differentes nations qui leur ont donne 
droit de cite et qu'ils ont renonce a finir leurs jours dans un foyer 
a eux. Tant pis pour eux, si c'est vrai. II est bon d'avoir un 
ideal, meme quand il est irrealisable. Voilk mon cher ami, aussi 
brievement que possible, mes idees sur vos coreligionnaires. 
lis m'ont tou jours inspire les sentiments que leur courage, leur 
perseverance, leurs malheurs, leurs efforts de toutes sortes 
doivent inspirer a des esprits de bonne foi et k des consciences 
desinteressees. . . .^ 


Appeal of Dunant's Association for the Colonisation 
OF Palestine (1867) 

Palestine Colonisation 

To the Editor of the Jewish Chronicle. 

". . . International undertaking for the Rejuvenescence of 
Palestine. — Palestine is a rich and fertile country, although now 
little populated, and therefore uncultivated. A soil greatly 
subject to a variety of circumstances is the cause of a great 
variety of meteorological conditions. Hence a great variety of 
productions peculiar nearly to every latitude ; hence also a great 
facility for every colonist to find in his new country a climate 
approaching that of his native land. 

" It is not to be feared that the colonisation of the Holy Land, 
judiciously carried on, can lack warm sympathies or labour under 
a want of colonists. Numerous adhesions from emigrants by the 
thousand, easy in circumstances and willing to work, have 
already addressed themselves to the founders of the undertaking 
for the rejuvenescence of Palestine." 

^ The foregoing are extracts from a hitherto unpublished letter sent by 
Alexandre Dumas (fils) to a prominent French Jew. It is dated 1873. 


" The new reforms introduced by the Ottoman Government, 
the law which authorised strangers to purchase and hold real 
estate in the Turkish empire, the road now being constructed 
from Jaffa to Jerusalem, the works projected in the port of 
Jaffa, the improvements effected in the great lines of communica- 
tion — all these undertakings and circumstances united seem to 
indicate that the moment could not be better chosen for com- 
mencing the colonisation of Palestine. . . ." 

" The capital required for such an undertaking would not long 
remain unproductive ; indeed, the financial operation of the 
company that should be formed for this purpose would be one of 
the simplest. 

" The uncultivated land in Palestine purchased of the Ottoman 
Government at a comparatively small price, and with facilities 
for payment, resold at a higher figure, would bring in an 
important profit. The increase in the value of this land — a 
direct result of the colonisation — would be an additional 
guarantee for the realisation of this expectation. 

*' The supply to the colony of agricultural and industrial tools, 
a trade of importation organized on a scale strictly proportionate 
to the acknowledged wants of the new settlement, would offer to 
the company a field for a second operation, which, presenting 
neither risk nor peril, would nevertheless insure from the very 
beginning undoubted profits. 

" The life which begins to stir in the port of Jaffa will take a 
fresh rise with the development of agriculture and manufacture 
in colonised Palestine. The rejuvenescence of Central Asia, 
which England on the one hand and Russia on the other pursue 
with so much vigour — ^the former in the way of peace and the 
latter in that of war — will not fail favourably to react on the 
trade of the coast of Syria, once so flourishing, and the decline of 
which only dates from the fall of the great empire of Persia. 

" Ancient Phoenicia, the cities of Tyre and Sidon, the richest 
of antiquity, owed their prosperity only to the intermediate 
trade carried on between the east and the west. The fall 
of the empire founded by Cyrus produced in Central Asia 
so great a moral and material decay that the trade and 
industrial pursuits of these immense regions perished from 
inanity. Tyre and Sidon had no longer any basis for 
existence ; their grandeur accordingly gradually declined. 
Alexander, after these splendid and proud cities, succeeded in 
forming direct relations with India, which the founder of this 
empire had brought nigh to Europe. But Alexandria in its 
turn had to experience fortune's inconstancy. Since the dis- 
covery of the route to India to the day when steamers and the 
railway to Suez restored to it some life, desertion and oblivion 
were its lot. The piercing of the isthmus of Suez will end by 
restoring to Alexandria its pristine importance. The trade of 
India will once more completely come back to it, but the cities 


on the coast of Syria and Jaffa in particular will not the less 
remain mistresses of every commercial market of Central Asia, 
upon which a new destiny is dawning. 

" A great economical revulsion in the old world is preparing, 
and the coast of Palestine will again become as in days of old, in 
common with that of Lower Egypt, the centre of all exchange 
between the old continents. 

" The Palestine Company has therefore an immense future, 
which it is easy to foresee even now, but we must allow events 
to proceed in the development of its activity beyond the modest 
limits which we at present mark out for it. 
"Paris and Jerusalem, March, 1866 and September, 1867.*' 

The address of the secretary-general of this undertaking is 
Paris, 24, Rue de la Paix.^ 


Edward Cazalet's Zionist Views 

" It was through the armed intervention of England, that, in the 
year 1841, Syria was transferred from Egyptian to Turkish rule. 
At that time Lord Palmerston was in ofi&ce ; and his policy, as he 
explained to the French Ambassador, M. de Bourgoing, was to 
turn Syria into a desert under Turkish rule, and interpose this 
desert between the Sultan and his Egyptian vassal. In confirma- 
tion of this, which may seem to some an astounding statement, 

I can only refer you to ' Guizot s Memoirs,' vol. 2, p. 525 to 

Syria assuredly reparation is due on the part of England. ... To 
attempt to improve the Turkish Government of Syria is, for 
obvious reasons, a hopeless task. ... No other country has any- 
thing like the same interest in Syria, that we have ; besides which, 
it is to the EngHsh nation alone that the population of Syria look 
for protection and support. . . . 

" It was England who handed this country over to the Turks 
in 1841. Turkey has ever since abused her charge, and it is only 
just that she should be now called upon to transfer it into more 
capable hands." 

" The Arabs, who form two-thirds of the whole of the popula- 
tion of Syria, and are for most part lords of the soil, are with very 
few exceptions completely illiterate, regardless of truth, dis- 
honest in their dealings, and immoral in their conduct. In large 
towns the greater proportion of the upper classes are both physic- 
ally and mentally feeble, owing to the effects of polygamy, early 
marriages, and degrading vices. Out of such elements there is 
no possibility of creating a ruUng class. The other sects are too 
few in number, and too bigoted and superstitious, to be of any 

^ Jewish Chronicle and Hebrew Observer, December 13, 1867, p. 6. 


assistance in the government of the country. If, then, the 
regeneration of Syria is to be attempted, it must of necessity 
come from without, and can only be brought about by an influx 
of an industrious and more enlightened people. Fortunately 
this last resource is not denied to us. The restoration of the 
Jews to their own land, seems to me the only practicable means 
by which the regeneration of Syria can be effected. You must 
not imagine that this event, important though it unquestionably 
must be, need cause any great perturbation in Europe, or prove 
in any way a strain upon the resources of England. All that is 
required is that England should create the conditions under 
which a large number of Jews would gradually migrate on their 
own account to Syria and Palestine. The first condition of such 
a movement is that law and order should be introduced under our 
Protectorate. . . . 

** But there is another influence which would greatly assist 
the colonization of the country. It has long been a cherished 
project with the Jews to establish a college in the Holy Land, 
which would serve as a centre of Jewish philosophy and science. 
Such an institution would readily meet with support, and 
incalculably quicken the pulses of their national life. With an 
extensive literature in their own language, in which every branch 
of philosophy and science is represented, the Jews would be able 
to make such an institution a genuine centre of intellectual 
activity. The leading learned men of the Jewish race would be 
naturally attracted to such a national centre, and would form 
a nucleus round which all the intellect of the nation would gather, 
by means of which the necessary elements of the future govern- 
ment of the country might be formed. I understand that the 
most suitable site for this college has already been generally 
agreed upon. 

*' I have still to show you that these attractions would be suffi- 
cient to induce numbers of Jewish families to migrate to Syria. 
The total number of the Jews throughout the world is variously 
estimated from eight to ten millions. Of those the greater 
number — ^probably six millions — ^inhabit Russia and the old 
Polish provinces which now belong to Austria, Germany and 
Roumania. The condition of the Jews in Russia is deplorable 
in the extreme. They are denied civil rights. They are forbidden 
to hold landed property. They are treated as aliens, and are 
restricted to limited areas in which they suffer from the evils of 
over-population. These conditions have induced no fewer than 
250,000 Jews to emigrate to America within the last thirty or 
forty years, and it may be confidently predicted that Syria under 
our protectorate would offer still greater attractions. The land of 
Palestine alone, is capable of supporting ten times its present 
population. It may seem strange to say of the Jews who are 
scattered throughout the world, that they still consider this to be 
their fatherland. But, if they are denied the actual possession of 


it, they still bear it in their hearts. Three times a day every Jew 
offers up a prayer for the restoration of his race to the land and 
the temple, from which he has been exiled for eighteen centuries. 
It is a remarkable fact that this scattered and downtrodden 
people possess within themselves all the elements which go to 
form a united nation. They have a code of laws for their own 
government ; they have a literature, a history, a language and a 
religion, which are peculiar to them. Their education is, with 
some exceptions, on a par with that of the most civilized nations. 
Numbers of them excel in all the different branches of mechanics 
and art ; and in trade and finance they are, as we all know, 
unrivalled. Though last, not least they are a people who would 
fight bravely in the defence of their country. 

" During the last twenty years of the reign of the Emperor 
Nicholas, the military conscription fell heavily upon the Jews. 
In proportion to their numbers, for every Russian that was en- 
listed, five Jews were compelled to enter the service ; and during 
the late Turkish war they bore themselves bravely in the face of 
the enemy. No one who has any knowledge of the Jewish character 
can for a moment doubt that if the Jews were restored to their 
country under an English protectorate they would prove true to our 
naHon, and that Syria would become as firmly united to England 
as if it were peopled by our own countrymen."'^ 


A Collection of Opinions of English Christian Authorities 
ON the Colonization of Palestine 

I. General Sir Charles Warren's Views 

" My proposal is simply an arrangement by which, . . . Palestine, 
this unfortunate land may yet be placed in ... a position which 
may enable her again to take a place socially among the kingdoms 
of the earth. ..." 

" It will probably at once occur, ' And what of the Arabs of 
Palestine ? ' I ask in reply, * Who are the Arabs ? ' They are 
certainly not Turks in any degree ; they are for the most part 
not Arabs of Arabia, of the Desert. Then who are they ? It has 
long been known, and no person has thrown more light upon the 
subject than M. Ganneau, that the people of Palestine are of a 
very mixed race : some of Canaanitish descent, some Jewish, 
some of Arabia. It is evident that many of them being Moslems 
are so for convenience, . . . We cannot, therefore, look upon the 
natives of Palestine as rigid Moslems of one race ; but we must 

^ England's Policy in the East: our Relations with Russia and the 
Future of Syria. By Edward Cazalet. Second Edition. London : . . . iSyg. 
[8°. iv+32 pp. in printed wrapper.] pp. 22-26. 


recognize them as descendants of Canaanites, Israelites, Greeks, 
Romans, Arabs, and Crusaders, now professing the Moslem or 
the Christian faith, according to circumstances, but retaining 
above ever5rthing the ancient traditions — yes, and in some 
instances, I have little doubt, their veritable old religion." 

'* Palestine is about the size and shape of Wales, and has now 
a population of about one and a half millions. Give her good 
government, and quicken the commercial life of the people, and 
they may increase tenfold, and yet there be room. The soil is so 
rich, the climate so varied, that within ordinary limits it may be 
said that the more i)eople it contains, the more it may. Its 
productiveness will increase in proportion to the labour bestowed 
on the soil, until a population of fifteen millions might be 
accommodated there. 

" Let us observe how the country may be improved. It 
consists of the hill country, or mountain districts ; the Shephalah 
or swelling hills, or wolds ; the maritime and Jordan plains, and 
the tablelands of Arabia. 

" All these are most productive naturally ; but are, for the 
most part, at present enjoying a long Sabbath. 

" In the hill country, even now the white skeletons of the old 
sj^tem of terracing are visible in parts ; but the rich loamy soil 
is washed down into the wadies, leaving the hillsides bare and 
desolate, and glaring in their nakedness. A cultivated strip may 
be seen at the bottom of the wady, subject to being swept away 
by any storm of rain forming a torrent down the bare hillsides, 
or withered before its time by the reflection of the sun from the 
bare rocks. 

" Place the valley in proper hands, and note the results. The 
earth from the bottom will be carefully carried up the hillsides, 
and laid out in terraces, on which are planted young trees — ^those 
of a more delicate nature being placed on the northern declivity, 
in order that they may suffer less from the sun's rays. The trees 
thrive rapidly, as they will do in Palestine ; the rain falls, but 
not as heretofore, rushing fiercely down the bare rocks, and 
forming a torrent in the valley. No ; now it falls on the trees and 
terraces, percolates quietly into the soil and into the rocky hill- 
side, and is thus absorbed, scarcely injuring the crops at the 
bottom of the valley. The rain that sinks into the rocks will 
shortly reissue in perennial springs, so refreshing in a thirsty land. 
The trees, having moisture in the soil at their roots, spread out 
their leaves in rich groves over the land. The sun's rays now do 
not fall on the ground, but on the green leaves and fruit, by which 
they are intercepted and absorbed, giving no glare or reflection. 
Tl^e heat of the sun causes a moisture to rise from the trees and 
soil beneath them, which, on reaching the higher and cooler winds, 
is condensed into visible vapour, constantly forming as the breeze 
passes over the grove, so that each grove, so to speak, supplies 
its own umbrella. The climate is thus changed. \Vliere were hot , 


glaring sun, dry wind, dry earth, stony land, absence of vegetable 
products, are now to be found fleecy clouds floating through the 
balmy air, the heat of the sun tempered by visible and invisible 
vapours, groves mth moist soil, trickling streamlets issuing from 
the rocks, villages springing up apace, Palestine regenerated. 

" This is no dream. I have seen this change take place in 
Palestine in three years, on a small scale. Why is the Lebanon 
so different to the hill country of Palestine ? In a great measure, 
because, by reason of its position and conformation, its woods 
have not been cut down. . . . 

" Again, on the east of Jordan, in Gilead, I have seen the same. 
After riding for miles through the ruins in the glaring summer 
atmosphere, through a country denuded of trees, nearly choking 
with the scorching wind, I came upon a district where the 
ancient woods had not been cut down. Immediately a change 
was felt : clouds were seen hanging over the woods, the air 
became soft and pleasant, the sun's rays beat less fiercely, flowers 
were seen under the trees, blackberries on the brambles, water 
gushing out from the hillsides, birds chirping in the shade. This 
was not due to any change in the atmosphere generally, but was 
entirely local, and due to the presence of trees. In fact, there are 
spots where you can, on the same level, change the climate in an 
hour by passing from the bare land to that which is well wooded. 

" This matter I have frequently examined into in Palestine. 
I mention one particular instance. During the prevalence of hot 
winds at Jerusalem, I noticed two clouds constantly stationary 
a few miles off, in an otherwise cloudless sky. On riding over 
towards them, I found them to be hanging over two large olive 
groves about seven miles off, recently planted by the Greek 
convents. Although the wind was blowing briskly, the moisture 
ascending was condensed as quickly as it rose, and formed an 
umbrella over these groves. 

" In the wolds of Palestine the same process may be continued. 
Not so much terracing is wanted, but much planting of wood, 
particularly on the south side — ^trees of a hardy growth ; so that, 
with a green southern slope opposite, the delicate fruit trees 
planted on the northern slopes may bring their fruit to perfection. 

" The water, which will now be found gushing from the rock, 
from springs which have long been silent, will be carried in ducts 
along the hillsides, and used for irrigation purposes, passing 
thence into the plain, where it can still be used for irrigation, 
or else assist in filling up the wells near to the surface of the 
ground — wells which have hitherto been between thirty to 
ninety feet deep. 

" Now again we shall find a difference in the crops in the plain. 
Hitherto there has been but one season, and then a long interval 
of desolation, from July to November, when the heaven is of 
brass and the earth iron. During this long period, scarcely a 
green blade can be seen over the vast plains — nothing but sticks, 


and stones, and dust ; the monotony relieved only by the noise 
of the gulgul careering on the wings of the whirlwind. . . . 

" The presence of water brought down on the surface from the 
hills, together with the vast groves of trees to be planted, causes 
a change. The latter rains of June will be found to fall, giving a 
second season — a never-ending succession of crops. The fulfil- 
ment of the Prophecies will commence taking place — ^when the 
ploughman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes 
him that soweth seed. . . . 

" The advance of the rolling sand-hills, which is now over- 
whelming the fairest of the maritime plains, may now be arrested. 
The rich ground between Gaza and Ascalon, which the sand has 
swallowed up, must again be recovered. This can easily be 
effected, by the planting of conifer cb along the sea coast, as has 
been done already at Beyrout. ... If we examine the Jordan 
valley, we find even greater changes can be effected : it can be 
made far more fertile than it ever was. . . . 

" The whole valley, however, may be made one vast garden, 
not merely by rebuilding the great aqueducts, remains of which 
still exist, and by means of which the great cities were watered, 
but by means of the Jordan river itself. The Jordan, out of 
Tiberias, falls ten feet to the mile, or 600 feet in sixty miles. . . . 
The waters of the Jordan might be brought out of Tiberias in 
aqueducts falling one foot to the mile, and thus be brought over 
the great plain of Basan and of Jericho, and be made to irrigate 
all the lands which the streams have not touched. At the same 
time, the streams themselves will have increased exceedingly 
from the development of the country in the high lands. 

" The country can thus be transformed."^ 

2. The Rev. James Neil on the Colonization Movement 

*' At a moment when all eyes are turned to the East, it cannot 
be unimportant to learn that, after the slumber of ages, Palestine 
is awakening to new life, and Israel are actually returning to its 
shores in such numbers, and at the same time in such a way as 
they have never been known to do, or could have done, since 
their formal banishment by the Emperor Hadrian, in the year 
A.D. 135. Many Jews, it is true, driven ruthlessly out of Spain 
in 1492, found a home in the Holy Land. To go still further 
back, the celebrated Hebrew traveller, Benjamin of Tudela, 
tells us in the twelfth century that he found considerable 
numbers residing in the various towns of Palestine which he 
visited — descendants, perhaps, amongst others, of some of the 
30,000 who joined the arms of Chosroes the Persian in his 
capture of Jerusalem, A.D. 616, or even of the Jews whom 

* The Land of Promise ; or, Turkey's Guarantee. By Charles Warren. 
London: George Bell and Sons, York Street, Covent Garden. 1875. 
(8°. 24 pp. in printed wrapper) pp. 5-6, 8, 14-20. 


Julian the Apostate restored, a.d. 363, wheft he vainly 
endeavoured to discredit Christianity by rebuilding the Temple. 
But there is this all-important difference between what happened 
in the case of those who then returned, and those who are now 
flocking back to the land of their forefathers. While in the 
former instances, whether under Pagan, Christian, or Moslem 
masters, they were, as all history shows, equally the subjects of 
extortion, oppression and contumely : now they are beginning 
to hold a position of comfort, independence, and power. This 
remarkable change is in itself significant, and the whole move- 
ment should surely be watched by the student of prophecy with 
eager and expectant attitude. . . . 

"... The feeling everywhere seems abroad that the time has 
at last arrived to restore the desolations of Zion, and to rebuild 
the waste places of the land of Israel. The very existence of 
* The Syrian and Palestine Colonisation Society,' which is about 
a year old, constitutes a striking expression of such a sentiment. 
This society, according to its prospectus, has ' been formed to 
promote the Colonisation of Syria and Palestine and the neigh- 
bouring countries by persons of good character, whether Chris- 
tians or Jews.' This it proposes to effect by obtaining informa- 
tion for intending settlers, and making arrangements for their 
transport and reception ; by assisting approved applicants with 
advances ; and by making arrangements for the purchase of 
land by the emigrants, or securing suitable tracts of Government 
waste lands, under certain guarantees ; and by exerting them- 
selves to improve the communications. Having mentioned this 
association, let me plainly say, from an intimate experience of 
this matter, that there are at present a variety of reasons why 
emigration to Palestine by English people cannot possibly be 
undertaken with any hope of success, in the same way as 
emigrants to the United States or to a British Colony. In the 
first place, the heat of the plains is too great to admit of their 
labouring during summer with their own hands. The German 
colonists in attempting this have suffered a fearful mortality. 
Again, to employ Arab labour to advantage, and to hold any 
dealings with the people, the peculiar manners and customs of 
the East must be known, and colloquial Arabic to some extent be 
mastered. But, above all, the want of thorough protection to 
life and property so long as Palestine remains in Ottoman hands 
is greatly against any emigration scheme that does not include 
European government for the whole colony. Hence the evident 
wisdom in such a case of the plan put forth by Captain Charles 
Warren, R.E., in a pamphlet, published last year, entitled ' The 
Land of Promise, or Turkey's Guarantee.' This officer, who has 
an intimate acquaintance with Syria, derived from his able work 
there on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund, proposes that, 
if only as a solution of the pecuniary embarrassments of the Porte, 

II.— T 


Palestine should be handed over to a company similar to the old 
East India Company, to be farmed and governed by such an 
association for a period of twenty years. He suggests that such a 
Company should pay to Turkey its present revenues, and to the 
creditors of Turkey a proportion of the interest due to them, 
taking for itself six per cent, on its capital and expending the 
remaining revenue in improving the country. What he considers 
the ultimate future of the land we learn from his own words. 
' Let this ' (the above arrangement), he says, ' be done with the 
avowed intention of gradually introducing the Jew, pure and 
simple, who is eventually to occupy and govern this country. . . . 
Concerning what that settlement is in part to be, I can profess no 
doubt, because I feel none. It is written over and over again in 
the Word of God. . . . Israel are to return to their own land. This 
event, in its incipient stage, I have shown to be now actually 
taking place. That which is yet to be looked for is the pubUc 
recognition of the fact, together with the restoration, in whole or 
part, of Jewish national life, under the protection of some one or 
more of the Great Powers. . . / "^ 

3. Colonel C. R. Conder on Palestinian Colonization 
The greatest authority on Palestine in our generation, Claude 
Reignier Conder, wrote : — 

" It has always seemed to me that the future element of 
prosperous colonisation is to be found among the Jews of 
Eastern Europe. The thrift and energy of the race are not their 
only qualifications. Those who mean to thrive in Palestine must 
not only be prepared to work on the land, but they must be 
accustomed to the harder conditions of existence which are 
common in uncivilised countries, and almost unknown in the 
west. It is true that they will have to encounter the evils due to 
bad government and corruption, which are mitigated by civilisa- 
tion ; but if the accounts received from America are credible it 
is doubtful if these evils are less apparent in South America than 
they are in Turkish dominions. A people which has not only been 
able to live, but which has prospered more than the native born 
population, under Russian tyranny, will not find it difficult to 
prosper as subjects of the Sultan. A people which has lived under 
one form of Oriental despotism will be less discouraged by 
another similar condition than Europeans would be. It is from 
the Oriental, Jewish, agricultural class, expelled from Russia for 
their religion, that the colonists most naturally fitted for agri- 
culture in Syria may evidently be drawn. 

*' I have often thought that the words of that famous passage in 
the Law, which predicts the future of Israel, must have come 

1 Palestine Re-Peopled ; or, Scattered Israel's Gathering. A Sign of the 
Times. By the Rev, James Neil, b.a. . . . Third Edition, Revised. London. 
. . . 1877. pp. v~vi and 34-37. 


home with a sad and overwhelming force to the Jews in Russia 
during the last few years : 

'* ' And among these Goim shalt thou find no ease, neither shall 
the sole of thy foot have rest, and thy life shall hang in doubt 
before thee ; and thou shalt fear day and night ; and shalt have 
none assurance of thy life. In the morning thou shalt say. 
Would God it were even ; and at even thou shalt say, Would God 
it were morning ; for the fear of thy heart wherewith thou shalt 
fear ; and for the sight of thine eyes which thou shalt see/ 

" But what is the other picture which the Law presents of 
Israel in its own land ? ' Blessed shalt thou be in basket and in 

" The proposal so to settle agriculturists, as freeholders 
tilling their own lands, is in accord with the general tendency of 
all enlightened statesmanship of the present age. We have too 
many artisans starved by competition, and too few tillers of the 
earth. Whether is it better for a man to sell penny toys in the 
streets of a foggy metropolis, or to till the red corn lands, and 
make food for himself, for his wife and for his children, for the 
citizens beyond the seas ? Even if the whole of Palestine east of 
Jordan were covered with cornfields and vineyards, with mul- 
berry and fig gardens, with cotton and maize, and pot herbs, and 
fruit orchards, there would not be too much produce useful to 
man. There would be markets in which the growers could 
compete with ease ; and towns would grow up, where manu- 
factories of silk and cotton might arise. There would be rice and 
indigo grown in the Jordan Valley, where now there are only 
flowers, and there would be petroleum and bitumen, and other 
minerals, to be worked near the Dead Sea shores. There would 
in short be a return of the old prosperity, which once covered this 
country with great Roman cities, and a prosperity yet greater 
because of the facilities offered by modern science. 

" If then I were asked for advice on this subject I would say ; 
Buy all the land you can get at moderate prices in Bashan and 
in Northern Gilead, and buy it soon, for the price will go up. 
Promote as far as possible the making of a railway, which is 
practicable, and which will bring this region within the pale of 
civilization. Send out as many fit men as you can, to till the 
land ; and send their wives and children after them. They will 
be happy, and, if they work, they will be rich. The difficulties are 
less than those to be expected elsewhere, and the advantages are 
greater. The movement is not artificial, not merely due to 
religious sentiment, or to visionary philanthropy. It is a 
natural and healthy one, which ought to be encouraged, by 
giving power and money to the organization which seeks to aid 
it, and to control its direction in a wise course. The case has been 
laid before you fairly, and the details and precedents have been 
sufficiently studied. The experience of ten years will be of high 
value ; and the consent of the Sultan, whose country it is, has 


been gained, both to the construction of a very important line of 
railway, and to the settlement of Jews, willing to abide by the 
law of that land as they have obeyed the much more tyrannical 
laws of the Czar. 

" I confidently expect therefore, within a few more years, to 
see prosperity increasing in Palestine, and the empty lands 
filling up with an industrious population. And if this be so the 
Jewish people will have reason to remember with gratitude the 
name of Baron Rothschild as a generous benefactor, and the 
Society of the Chovevi Zion, as an organisation which undertook 
a very important work at a time when help was sorely needed." ^ 

4. Sir John William Dawson on the Future of Palestine 

Sir John William Dawson, Professor of Natural History at 
Montreal University, the worthy disciple of Lyell and Darwin, 
in a description of the Holy Land, writes : — 

** From the higher parts of Jaffa one may obtain a good idea 
of the physical characters of the maritime plain of Southern 
Palestine. Along the shore stretch banks and dunes of yellow 
sand, contrasting strongly with the deep blue of the sea, and 
shading off on the east into the verdure of the plain. Near Jaffa 
this is covered with orange orchards, laden in February with 
golden fruit of immense size, and which forms one of the most 
important exports of the place. To the south the plain spreads 
into the fertile fiats of ancient Philistia, interspersed in the 
distance with patches of sand, the advanced guards of the great 
Arabian desert. To the north it constitutes the plain of Sharon, 
celebrated in Hebrew song, and extends for fifty miles to where 
Mount Carmel projects its high rocky front into the sea. On the 
inland side, the plain is bounded first by the rolling foot-hills of 
the Judean range, the Shephelah or low country . . . and then by 
the hill country proper, which, clothed in blue and purple, forms 
a continuous range, limiting the view eastward from Jaffa. . . . 

" The maritime plain was also a granary . . . and it still produces 
much wheat and barley, though large portions of it are neglected 
and untilled, and the culture carried on is by means of implements 
as simple and primitive as they could have been in the days of 
Abraham. In February one found it gay with the beautiful 
crimson anemone (A. coronaria), which may have been the 
poetical * Rose of Sharon,' while a little yellowish-white iris 
represented the * lily of the valley ' of Solomon's Song. . . . 

** . . . Along the shores of the Dead Sea there are springs 
which produce petroleum ; and this when hardened becomes 

" Now the valley of the Dead Sea is an * oil district,' and from 

^ Eastern Palestine. A Lecture delivered for the Western Tent of the 
Chovevi Zion Association. By Claude Reignier Conder . . . Chovevi Zion 
Association. . . . 1892. (8°. 36 pp. in printed wrapper) pp. 5-6 and 35-36- 


the incidental mention of its slinaepits, or literally asphalt pits, 
in Genesis xiv., was apparently more productive in mineral pitch 
in ancient times. It is interesting in connection with this to 
notice that Conder found layers of asphalt in the mound which 
marks the site of ancient Jericho, showing that the substance 
was used in primitive times lor roolb and floors, or as a cement to 
protect brick structures from damp ; and it is well known that 
petroleum exudes from the rocks both on the sides and in the 
bottom of the Dead Sea, and, being hardened by evaporation 
and oxidation, forms the asphaltum referred to by so many 

"... Palestine, to the ordinary traveller, appears, especially in 
the drought of summer, a bare and barren country. Yet the 
climate and rainfall of Palestine, with the chemical quality of 
its rocks and soils, rich in lime, alkaUes, and phosphates, render 
it productive to a degree which cannot be measured by our more 
northern lands. Its plains, though limited in extent and often 
stony, have very fertile soil. The olive, the vine, and the fig-tree 
will grow and yield their valuable fruit in abundance on rocky 
hills which at first sight appear barren and worthless. Whenever 
culture has been undertaken ^^ith skill and vigour, it has been 
well rewarded. . , In the olden times the Tirosh (often incorrectly 
translated * wine '), as the Hebrews called the fruit of their hiU 
orchards and vineyards, was one of the main sources of wealth ; 
and the vineyards, with their vines trailing over the warm rocks 
and clothing the ground with their leaves and fruit, reaUze the 
prophetic description of hills running with the grape juice, and 
of a land flowing with milk and honey, if by the latter we under- 
stand the ' dibs ' or syrup of the grape. In Palestine a few olive- 
trees on a rocky hill, that in colder cUmates would be worthless, 
may maintain a family. There is also an abundance of nutritious 
pasturage, more especially for sheep and goats, all the year round, 
on the limestone hills. . . . 

" Palestine must originally have been a well-wooded country, 
and its forests are mentioned in the historical books of the Bible ; 
but they have for the most part perished, and this had tended to 
make the climate more arid. The wild hiU-sides are, however, 
often covered with an exuberant growth of bushes and young 
trees, which, if permitted to grow, or if replaced by cultivated 
trees, would soon clothe the land with verdure, and tend to 
produce a more abundant summer rainfaU. With just laws, well 
administered, there is nothingto prevent Palestine from becoming 
as wealthy and populous as we learn from the Bible it was in the 
days of the Jewish kings, and it seems to have been at a later time 
under the Roman government. . . . 

" In Palestine, . . , the country is gay with flowers, especially 
in early spring, and the conspicuous objects of culture are the 
vine and the ohve. Even in the plains, cultivated fields are few, 
and much is merely wild pasture. The palm-tree is rare, though 


it still grows in the plain of Jericho and the sheltered valleys 
throughout the country, yielding dates smaller than those of 
Egypt, but of very pleasant flavour. . . . 

" That the future of these old lands may be more important 
than their present, it requires little penetration to see ; and the 
old Book, whose history of these lands in the past we have been 
considering, has something to say of their future as well. What- 
ever beUef men may repose in prophecy, they cannot doubt that 
the word of God has committed itself to certain foreshadowings 
of the future ; and though some of these are shrouded in a 
symbolism to which varied interpretations have been given, 
others are sufficiently plain. . . . 

" We know, however, that physically these lands are still 
young, and capable of greater things than those of the past, and 
we may content ourselves with repeating the inspired words of 
an older Jewish prophet : — 

' For the Lord will comfort Zion : 
He will comfort all her waste places, 
And will make her wilderness like Eden, 
And her desert like the garden of the Lord : 
Joy and gladness shall be found therein, 
Thanksgiving and the voice of melody.' 

Isaiah li. 3. 

"The Holy Land is a fine tract of country well defined by 
natural boundaries, extending from the shore of the Mediter- 
ranean to the Syrian desert. It is a compact district, distinct 
and complete in itself, enclosed by mountain and sea, and con- 
sequently offering great facilities of defence against invasion. 
It has its highlands and its lowlands, its hills and its valleys, its 
streams and its lakes, its hot springs and its cold springs, a fine 
sea coast broken by bold promontories, cliffs towering above, 
beaches spreading out below, and is replete with all the capa- 
bilities essential for civilized life. The Holy Land is rich in 
vegetation, from the time-honoured " cedar of Lebanon to the 
hyssop on the wall." Groves of olive and mulberry trees, vine- 
yards of grapes of extraordinary size and richness, interspersed 
with fields of golden grain, with magnificent hedges of the cactus 
almost reaching the height of trees ; the sycamore with its 
thickness of foliage — these, and more can be enumerated in a 
brief outline, are there for the endowment and adornment of the 
Holy Land. Nevertheless, the wealth of nature is in a great 
measure of a passing character. The vSloping terraces of the hills, 
made fertile by means of artificial irrigation, and now deprived 
of the help of the tending hand of man, no longer display that 
fruitful aspect which was formerly their glory. The land mourns 
under its present masters. The tillers of the soil do not even sow 
in tears to reap in joy. With listless fatalism they cast into the 
ground the seeds of a harvest which they know, as they watch it 


come into being, shall minister mostly, not to their wants or 
wealth, but to the greed of unrighteous local administration. 
And, wherever these people are crowded together in their miser- 
able villages, all is mud, slum, penury, depression, chaos and 
picturesque misery. A goodly land, the almond tree white in 
bloom, orange and olive, everywhere lilies, the scarlet anemone ; 
but no system, no industry, no skill, no capital. No nation has 
been able to establish itself as a nation, in Palestine, up to this 
day, no national union, and qo national spirit have prevailed 
there. The motley, impoverished tribes which have occupied it, 
have held it as mere tenants at will, temporary landowners, 
evidently waiting for those entitled to the permanent possession 
of the soil.'' 1 


Petition to the Sultan 

The following is the text of a petition to His Majesty the Sultan 
of Turkey, which was presented by Mr. Samuel Montagu, m.p. 
(afterwards Lord Swaythling) , to Lord Rosebery, with the request 
to transfer the same to Constantinople. The petition was signed 
by the officers of the Executive Committee and by the Commander 
and Secretary of each Tent : — 

** To His Imperial Majesty Abdul Hamid Khan, Sultan of 
The Ottoman Empire. 

" May it please your Majesty, 

" The undersigned Association of Chovevi Zion (Lovers of 
Zion) beg humbly to submit to your Imperial Majesty that this 
Association has been founded to assist a limited number of 
worthy and industrious Jews to purchase and cultivate land, and 
to earn their living by agriculture. The Association has pur- 
chased some portions of land in your Imperial Majesty's 
Dominions on the eastern side of the Jordan, and desires to 
acquire such other portions of land in the same region as may 
be for sale, and suitable for the cultivation of corn, vines, fruits, 
and silk, or to the raising of cattle and horses. 

" And the Association desires to send to this land jQtting 
colonists, industrious and peaceable men, provided by the 
Association with sufficient means to till the land and to erect for 

^ Modern Science in Bible Lands. By Sir John William Dawson, g.m.g., 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., ctc. . . . London : . . . mdccclxxxviii. pp. 449-450, 
487. 522, 524, 527, 533, 536. 


themselves houses, and to sink wells and construct roads so that 
they may be able to reach markets. 

** The Association wishes thus to send to your Imperial 
Majesty's dominions only such men, with their famiUes, as will 
with God's help and under your Imperial Majesty's protection, 
increase the prosperity of your Imperial Majesty's dominion, 
and become faithful subjects to your Imperial Majesty. 

" The Association therefore humbly begs your Imperial 
Majesty to grant the Association of Chovevi Zion a Firman with 
the following privileges. 

" First : that such persons as may be selected by the experi- 
enced men who conduct the affairs of the Association may, when 
provided with proper certificates that they have been so selected, 
and that land has been purchased for them, be allowed to settle 
in your Imperial Majesty's dominions, and to cultivate land 
there, and that the privilege be granted to them of becoming 
naturalised as your Majesty's subjects. 

" Second : That in view of the great expenses attending the 
beginnings of cultivation, the building of houses, the sinking of 
wells, and the making of roads, the agriculturists be relieved 
from the tax of the ' Tenth ' for a period of seven years. 

" Third : that it be graciously permitted to them, under the 
direction and on the lands of the Association, to build houses and 
stables, schools for their children, and temples in which to 
worship the Most High, to construct roads, drainage and irriga- 
tion works, and to sink wells, without having to crave special 
permission in each case. 

" Fourth : that on condition that the Association send only 
men free from disease or illness and approved by experienced 
Doctors, such persons may freely travel in your Imperial Majesty's 

" And the Association, reckoning on your Imperial Majesty's 
benevolence and wisdom, believes that your Imperial Majesty 
will confer these benefits on deserving and industrious people, 
and your Imperial Majesty's most humble petitioners invoke on 
your Imperial Majesty, the blessing of the Most High. 


.Honorary Secretary." 

The following reply was received : — 

" Foreign Office, 

'^iith March, 1893. 
" Sir, — I am directed by the Earl of Rosebery to acknowledge 
the receipt of your letter of the 3rd inst., forwarding a number 
of petitions, addressed to the Sultan, by the ' Lovers of Zion ' 
in favour of the colonization of certain lands on the East oi the 
Jordan by Jewish emigrants. 


*' His Lordship will enquire of Her Majesty's Ambassador at 
Constantinople whether the fact of these petitions being sent in 
through the British Embassy would be likely to lead to a 
relaxation of the regulations affecting immigration to Syria. 
" I am, Sir, 

" Your most obedient, humble servant, 

'* (Signed) T. V. Lister.^ 
** Samuel Montagu, Esq." 


(i) Choveve Zion and Zionist Workers 

A GREAT deal of idealism, energy and capacity has gone to the 
making of the Zionist movement in its earlier and its more recent 
form. It would be outside the scope of a history of Zionism 
dealing mainly with England and France to attempt to do 
justice to the work of all those individuals — mostly Russian 
Jews — who have devoted themselves to the national revival, 
in Palestine or in the Diaspora. The purpose of this Appendix 
is to place on record the services of some of the most 
prominent workers (not mentioned in the text of this book) 
in the field of organization, of propaganda or of Palestinian 

Young men of ability and studious habits founded the Bnei 
Zion Association at Moscow. This Society had indeed con- 
centrated upon and developed most strongly the national and 
Zionist ideal. The position of the Moscow Bnei Zion was so 
conspicuous, because that organization was the headquarters of 
prominent Zionist workers who played a distinguished part in 
the national revival in Russia and in other countries. Among 
these the most active and important leaders were : E. W. 
Tschlenow, M. Ussischkin, J. Maze, A. Idelsohn, T. Brutzkus, 
B. Mintz, S. Mintz and M. Rabinovitz. 

E. W. TscHLENOw's life of strenuous work was characterized by 
calmness and steadfastness on the one hand, and gentleness and 
high virtue on the other. Since his earliest youth he combined 
within him the noble spirit of idealism and great capacity for 
precise work. As a young student, he soon won his way to the 
foremost rank among the Choveve Zion workers. The soundness 
and farsightedness of his views were remarkable. Simple but 
impressive as a writer, as well as platform orator, his generosity 
and devotion soon made him a favourite of the Bnei Zion, and 
brought him prominence as organizer, leader and orator. He 
graduated at the Moscow University in medicine, and dis- 
tinguished himself, after further study at other universities 

* Palcesfina, The Chovev6 Zion Quarterly, No. 3, 1893, p. 7. 


abroad, in a special branch of his science. He then settled in 
Moscow. His successful medical career, however, never pre- 
vented him from devoting a considerable part of his time, and 
when necessary all of it, to useful Jewish public work in general, 
and to Zionism in particular. After his important and fruitful 
work in the Choveve Zion movement he entered the Zionist 
Organization. ^He was in Palestine twice, not as a mere tourist 
but as an investigator. He wrote a great number of 
pamphlets, reports and articles, and a very good book against 
Territorialism {Zion and Africa, in Russian, 1903). His 
second journey to Palestine enabled him to increase his 
already extensive knowledge of colonization, and he laid down 
his observations and conclusions in another excellent woik, 
which he wrote in Russian, and which has been translated 
into other European languages.. The conspicuous service which 
he rendered amid formidable difficulties to the Jewish National 
Fund, of which he was the manager in Russia, his tact, his calm 
energy and his counsel were of inestimable value to the Zionist 
cause. After having been for many years a member of the 
Greater Actions Committee, he was elected at the Vienna 
Zionist Congress of 1913 a member of the Inner Actions Com- 
mittee. He then gave up his brilliant medical career in Moscow 
to undertake a work of singular complexity and extreme heavi- 
ness. In this he won the same measure of confidence as that he 
enjoyed in Russia, and provided the most important personal 
link between the East and the West. In 191 4 he was delegated, 
together with ^ the author, for Zionist political, work in this 
country ; and he came here again in 191 8 notwithstanding his 
failing health. During his brief but momentous excursus into 
the regions of politics and diplomacy he revealed the same high 
qualities which had elsewhere marked his mind and character. 
In consequence of his efforts, his health, which had some years 
ago been weakened, broke down, and his tragic death took place 
on the 31st of January, 1918, in London — the greatest loss 
Zionism has sustained since the death of Wolffsohn. 

M. Ussischkin's career as Choveve Zionist and modern Zionist 
is unique as well as remarkable. In some respects, and in some 
quarters, his influence was far greater than that of anyone else. 
A strong, perhaps the strongest organizer, possessed of deep 
nationaUstic convictions and of intense Jewish feeling, and en- 
dowed with the wonderful gift of being able to impress the masses, 
he succeeded in establishing a very high reputation when a mere 
student, and later on as one of the founders and leaders of the 
Bnei Zion, and subsequently among the Choveve Zion leaders. 
He was also a founder of the Bilu. On his long visits to Palestine, 
in propaganda work for the purpose of raising funds for coloniza- 
tion, and throughout his whole long and fruitful career of 
nationahst work, he exhibited the most indefatigable activity 
and greatest courage. Having graduated at Moscow in Tech- 


nology and Engineering, he settled in Ekaterinoslaw, where his 
strong, unbending personality, his power of leadership, and the 
general respect he commanded, soon brought him into pro- 
minence, and gained for him a high reputation in Russia, in 
Palestine, and elsewhere. The very strength of mind, energy, 
outspokenness and self-reliance, combined with inflexible deter- 
mination and ardent zeal, distinguish his untiring efforts on 
behalf of the Zionist Organization. While others faltered and 
failed, he remained firm ; while others despaired, he remained 
confident, and his zeal and perseverance gained for him the 
respect even of those who opposed some of his methods, while it 
increased the admiration in which he was held by many of his 
adherents. He greatly distinguished himself in his strenuous 
work for the Zionist financial institutions, and was also the most 
influential champion of the idea of immediate practical work in 
Palestine. His pamphlets on Palestine and the Zionist pro- 
gramme are written with admirable cleverness. He has Uved 
now for some years in Odessa, where he is the Chairman of the 
Society for the promotion of Jewish colonization work in Pales- 
tine. Being Jewish NationaUst to the backbone, he naturally 
takes a great interest in the revival of the Hebrew language. 

A. Idelsohn is the most modern and the most ingenious 
Zionist publicist in the Russian language. His influence has been 
underestimated rather than justly appreciated. While, on the 
one hand, the pathetic devotion and enthusiasm of others are 
undoubtedly most useful and indispensable conditions for the 
success of the movement, an analytical mind, as a temporizing 
element and corrective, is of no less importance. This mind was 
devoted to the cause by Idelsohn since his youth, and found 
expression in his writings in the Zionist organ, written in the 
Russian language, its name being Razswiet and levreiskam Shisn. 
A critic, and a somewhat ironical thinker, he never permits an 
emotional effort to mar his clear intellectual discrimination. In 
later years he formed, with M. A. Soloveitschik, A. Goldstein, 
J. Klebanow, A. Seidemann, M. Aleinikow, D. Pasmanik, S. J. 
Janowski, J. Brutzkus, Ch. Grinberg, J. Eljaschew, I. Gruenbaum, 
and others who comprised the editorial staff of his paper, a 
brilHant ensemble of Zionist inteUectuals which has recently 
been augmented by L. Jaffe, who sometimes acte i as editor. 
Idelsohn is an eminent Zionist and a member of the Actions 

Julius Brutzkus was an active and highly appreciated 
member of the Bnei Zion. Most gifted and learned, with a clear 
mind, and generally well informed, he adhered to the national 
idea from early youth. He graduated in medicine at the Moscow 
University, and settled for some years in Petrograd, where he 
became active in matters communal, literary and journalistic. 
He wrote several excellent articles and pamphlets. 

The two MiNTzs were also appreciated for their faithfulness, 


sincere devotion, and excellent and tactful propaganda. B. Mintz 
has since settled at Rostow, where he takes a leading part in 
Zionist work. S. Mintz graduated at Moscow in medicine and 
settled in Warsaw, where he attained a high reputation in his 
profession as well as in communal activity. A sincere Nationalist, 
of a serious and studious turn of mind, deeply attached to 
Zionism, an excellent Hebraist, most active in all movements 
making for the revival of the national language, he has remained 
true to Bnei Zion traditions. There are, further, the zealous 
Alperin, and Michael Rabinovitch, resident at Rostow, a dis- 
tinguished Zionist worker who was member of the Actions 

The great earnestness and untiring assiduity of the Bnei Zion 
did not fail to attract attention and to produce a deep impression. 
The immense zeal for this cause dispelled the apathy of those 
around them. Thus the Moscow Choveve Zion and Zionist Group 
became indeed one of the best, the most esteemed and the most 
active in the world. Of those in touch with the first pioneers was 
Kalonimos Wolf Wissotski {1824-1904), the well-known Chovev 
Zion and Zionist, a zealous supporter of the colonization of Pales- 
tine, a generous friend of Hebrew literature, a patron of learning 
and learned men. The representatives of his great firm have to 
the present day remained faithful to the traditions of the founder 
in a most liberal-minded and far-reaching manner. 

The following names are arranged in alphabetical order. 

Elieser Ben-Jehuda, born in Russia, is a prominent repre- 
sentative of the revival of the Hebrew language and of the 
national renaissance. As early as 1880 he expounded his political 
views on Zionism in Smolenskin's monthly Ha'shachar. In 188 1 
he went to Palestine, where he became a sturdy and independent 
fighter for Hebrew as a living tongue and for Jewish nationalism. 
In 1885 he founded the Hebrew weekly paper Ha'zevi, which he 
edited for several years, assisted by his wife (Hemda) and his son. 
Together they formed the first Hebrew-speaking family in the 
country. He has revolutionized Hebrew style and introduced 
many new colloquial and journalistic expressions. As a pioneer 
of modern methods, radically opposed to the old ways of thought 
and action, he defended his heterodox ideas with energy, became 
involved in controversies, and was arrested by the Ottoman 
authorities for his nationalistic propaganda. Many years ago he 
started the pubUcation of his great Hebrew dictionary {Millon). 
He was one of the first Palestine Zionists who approached Herzl 
and devoted themselves to Zionist propaganda in Palestine. 

Vassyli Bermann (1862-96) was a young man of high intel- 
lectual attainments and endowed with exceptional literary gifts, 
and would undoubtedly have risen to great eminence had he 
continued to devote himself to literature. But he gave almost 
all his time to the Choveve Zion movement. His name is closely 
connected with the history of the national Jewish movement in 


Russia. Born at Mitau, he received his elementary education at 
the school founded by his father, a capable pedagogue, in Peters- 
burg, and completed his college studies in the same town. 
Already, as student of the faculty of Law in Petersburg, Bermann 
placed himself at the service of Judaism, and strove, through the 
foundation of a suitable association, to spread the idea of the 
liberation of the Jewish people into wide circles of the com- 
munity. In the year 1884 he published the compilation Palestine. 
Even this first work drew general attention upon the highly 
gifted young writer. At the meeting of the Russian Choveve Zion 
at Drusgenik, in 1887, Bermann was considered, by the side of 
the spiritual father of the national Jewish movement in Russia, 
Leo Pinsker, as the leader of the " Zionophiles," as Bermann 
called the adherents of the national Jewish idea. When it was 
found desirable to obtain the authorization of the Russian 
Government for the " Odessa Association for Supporting Jewish 
Artisans and Agriculturists in Syria and Palestine," the shrewd 
lawyer, Vassyli Bermann, employed his utmost energy in order 
to help in overcoming all difficulties which stood in the way of 
the foundation of this association. He was one of the members 
of the first official congress of the Russian Choveve Zion which 
was held at Odessa in the year 1890. Once again in Petersburg, 
Bermann devoted all his zeal to the editing of his continued 
compilation, which he intended to transform into a year-book. 
In this way Zion, published in the year 1891, was brought out. 
It is considerably superior to its predecessor in contents and get- 
up. Zion, which is dedicated to Pinsker, affords an interesting 
insight into the phase of development of the national Jewish 
thought of that time. From Bermann, who was well aware of 
the influence of historical knowledge upon the strengthening of 
the national consciousness, came also the initiative towards the 
foundation of the " Historio-Ethnographic Commission " within 
the " Society for the Propagation of Culture among the Jews in 
Russia." When, in the year 1892, the Petersburg central com- 
mittee of the Jewish Colonization Association was formed, and 
the necessity for a scientific basis of the colonization question 
became evident, Bermann undertook, at the request of the 
J. C. A., a mission of study, the result of which he recorded in a 
comprehensive memoir, and thus afforded the central committee 
valuable material towards the work of colonization. The exer- 
tions of travelling had much affected Bermann's health. But 
he would not allow that to prevent him from further work in 
favour of his brethren with the greatest devotion. At last he 
found himself compelled to seek the mild cHmate of Egypt. 
There, on March i8th, 1896, Vassyh Bermann breathed his last. 
His tombstone bears the inscription : ** If I forget thee, O 
Jerusalem, let my right hand forget (her cunning)." The dying 
man had wished it so. 
Gregor Belkovsky, a distinguished lawyer, born in Odessa, 


was one of the first pioneers of the Choveve Zion movement. He 
was a member of the Societies Nes Ziona and Ezra. In 1895-7 
he was Professor of Law at the University of Sofia, Bulgaria. 
On his return to Russia, he entered the Zionist Organization 
and came into prominence from the First Congress onwards. 
He was one of the most notable workers for the establishment of 
the Zionist financial institutions. He also did important work 
in connection with the movement in Russia. 

Jehiel Brill (1836-86), born in Russia, and taken to Constan- 
tinople when he was quite young, was later brought to Jerusalem, 
where he received a talmudic education. In 1863, with the 
assistance of his father-in-law, Jacob Saphir, he established the 
Hebrew monthly, Ha'lebanon, which, after the appearance of 
the twelfth number, was suppressed by the Turkish Government. 
He then went to Paris, where he resumed publication of Ha'- 
lebanon. After the Franco-Prussian War he removed to 
Mayence, where he renewed the publication of his paper. When 
the Choveve Zion movement was inaugurated. Brill, who 
was well acquainted with Palestine, was chosen by Baron 
Edmond de Rothschild, on the recommendation of Rabbi 
Samuel Mobile wer, to conduct a group of experienced farmers 
from Russia to Palestine. He gave a vivid description 
of his mission in his Hebrew pamphlet Yesod Ha'maalah 
(Mayence, 1883). 

H. Brody was, when in Berlin, a studious, scholarly worker, 
and at the same time active in Zionism. Later he was appointed 
Rabbi in Nachod, Bohemia, and, being a scholar and a prolific 
writer, he became very active in scientific and literary matters. 
He has contributed to Ha'magid, Haeshkol and Ha'shiloach ; 
has edited (with A. Freimann) a Bibliographical Review, and has 
written valuable books on Jehuda Ha'levi and Moses Ibn Ezra. 
In defence of Zionism he has written, under the nom de plume 
Dr. H. Salomonsohn, an excellent pamphlet, in which he proves 
that Zionism is an essential principle of Jewish tradition. 

Martin Buber, bom in Galicia, was a member of the Vienna 
Kadima who afterwards studied in Berlin. He was closely akin 
to Berthold Feiwel in aspirations and activity. Buber was one of 
the founders of the Verlag and one of its principal contributors. 
He was really one of the authors of the Jewish Renaissance, not 
a product of it. He has no equal as an inspirer of the Jewish 
intellectuals in Western Europe. He has been a Zionist since the 
inception of the Organization, but he has devoted himself mostly 
to literary work in connection with the Jewish Renaissance. 
Sweet and pathetic legends, dehcate Chassidic sketches, tales 
of wonder, mystic and philosophical treatises and allegories, pro- 
foundly Jewish and reflected in deep Murillo-like shades, such 
are the subjects of his Story of Rabbi Nachman (1906), Legends 
of the Baal Shem (1907), Daniel (1914) and other writings. 

Rabbi I. H. Daiches, a great Talmudist, formerly Rabbi of 


Neustatt Shirvint, and now in Leeds, supported the Choveve 
Zion movement, and was afterwards a delegate to the Zionist 

Joshua Eisenstadt (Barzilai), the oldest, and, as far as en- 
thusiasm is concerned, still the youngest among the propa- 
gandists in Palestine, a man of high aspirations, who looks at 
things from the standpoint of a devotee rather than of a critic, 
exercises considerable influence through his speeches and popular 
articles. He died in Switzerland in 1918. 

Rabbi Mordecai Eliasberg {1817-89), Rabbi of Bausk in 
Russia, an eminent Talmudist, a profound theologian and a 
diligent student of history, who wrote valuable books and articles 
on talmudic subjects, was one of the most ardent advocates 
of the ideas of the Choveve Zion. By his numerous con- 
tributions to Hamelitz he helped very much in the spread of 
Zionist ic ideas, and his memory will be cherished as one of the 
representatives of orthodox Judaism who raised the banner of 

Berthold Feiwel, born in Brunn, Moravia, was a member of 
the Vienna Kadima, but did most of his work in Berlin. A young 
man of exceptional attainments, he early attracted the notice of 
Herzl, and was for some time editor of the Welt, for which work 
he was particularly well qualified. But the work of leader-writing 
did not satisfy the poetic and aesthetic side of his nature, and he 
turned to literature. The promise of his early writings, with their 
beauty and originality, is amply fulfilled in the literary activity 
which he subsequently developed in the Almanack and in other 
publications of the JUdischer Verlag, which was founded by him 
and his friends. His poems, as well as his excellent translations 
of Rosenfeld and other works, have won him a lasting reputation. 
He has also taken an active part in the work of the Zionist Organ- 
ization, and was a member of the Actions Committee. He was 
editor of the Welt for the second time in the years 1906-9, and has 
written many pam.phlets. 

The brothers Isaac and Boris Goldberg hold a specially dis- 
tinguished place both in Russian Zionism and in the movement 
at large. Isaac Goldberg has made himself indispensable to all 
Zionist institutions, and has attained the highest repute in the 
Zionist Organization, and in Palestine. Boris Goldberg is a very 
influential member of the Actions Committee, with a thorough 
knowledge of all matters concerning Zionism and Palestine, and 
an important contributor to the Zionist press. He was a member 
of the Zionist Commission of Inquiry which visited Palestine 
five years ago. 

J. Grazowski has written popular and useful books on general 
Jewish history, and has collaborated in a Hebrew dictionary. 
He is now in the service of the Anglo-Palestine Company at 

Mordecai (Marcus) ben Hillel Ha'cohen was even in his 


early youth an excellent, versatile contributor to the Hebrew and 
Russian Press. Possessed of great vivacity and a humorous and 
enthusiastic disposition, an enlivening speaker, with the national 
idea deeply at heart, he has worked for Zionism, Hebrew and 
the national idea with considerable success. His writings in 
Ha'melitz, Ha'zefirah, Razswiet, and other papers and reviews, 
as well as his own pamphlets, the description of his journey 
to Palestine, and his reminiscences, written in a brilliant style, 
have won him a well-merited popularity. After working several 
years in the Choveve Zion movement, and in the Zionist Organ- 
ization, he settled in Palestine, where he is active as one of 
the most popular leaders of the Tel-Aviv community, and is 
particularly engaged in educational, communal and literary work. 

Dr. William Herzberg (1827-97), a- highly educated writer 
and communal worker, who, though not writing in Hebrew, 
greatly influenced the movement, and his work was translated 
into Hebrew. He wrote the famous book, Judische Familien- 
papier e (1875-6). This book made a stir in the Jewish scholastic 
world. Zacharias Frankel welcomed the book as a modern 
Kusari. It was only after some time that the identity of the 
author was discovered, for it was published under the nom de 
plume of Gustav Meinhardt. Perez Smolenskin was much 
inspired by the nationalist spirit of this phenomenal literary 
production, and translated the most important parts of it in the 
Haschachar (he had made it a rule not to publish any translation, 
but in this case departed from the rule). Herzberg intended to 
obtain a professorship in a German University, but, finding that 
this was impossible for a Jew, he contented himself with a 
professorship in the Gymnasium. He passed his probationary 
year in the Gymnasium of his native town, Stettin, but, when 
his final appointment was recommended by the Head Master, 
who was much impressed by the fine scholarship of the young 
teacher, the Minister of Education confirmed it cordially, on the 
supposition, however, that the candidate had embraced Chris- 
tianity, as a Jew could not be appointed Professor in a Gym- 
nasium. In 1877 he was induced by his friend. Professor Gratz, 
to accept the post of Director of the Agricultural School, Mikveh 
Israel, near Jaffa. Dr. Herzberg remained one year in this 
position and then accepted the Headmastership at the Von 
Laemel School at Jerusalem. 

Isaac M. Hirschensohn, bom in Russia, has rendered great 
services to the progress of the Jews in Palestine as a publisher, 
bibliophile and Talmudist. He advocates rabbinical ideas, in 
harmony with the national principle. 

Dr. N. Katzenelsohn, of Libau, Russia, holds an important 
place in the history of Zionist organization. After having joined 
the Organization at one of the first Congresses, he soon became a 
prominent member, particularly in the domain of financial 
affairs and institutions. One of the devoted friends of Herzl, he 


2 fi^ 


accompanied him on his visit to Russia in 1903, and took part 
in some of his political efforts there. In 1905 he was appointed 
President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Colonial Trust, 
and regularly gave his reports of the activities of this Institution, 
as well as of those of the A.P.C. at the Zionist Congresses. He 
visited Palestine in 1907, and particularly investigated the 
financial and economic situation of the country. He also 
accompanied Wolffsohn in the same year to Constantinople on a 
political mission. Dr. Katzenelsohn was a member of the First 
Russian Duma, and was for many years very active in the work 
of the I.e. A. for the emigration of the Russian Jews, a question 
on which he also submitted reports to the Zionist Congresses. 

Dr. Jacob Kohan-Bernstein, of Kishinew, was one of the 
earliest of the Choveve Zion. His speeches and appeals when he 
was in charge of the so-called " Post-Centre " were most effective 
in kindling Zionist enthusiasm. As a member of the Actions 
Committee he has occupied a high position in the movement. 

The late Abraham Moses Luncz (1854-1918), born in Russia, 
lived since his early youth in Palestine. He rendered great 
services to the exploration of the Holy Land from the historical, 
geographical and physiographical standpoint, by means of his 
guide-books for Palestine, his Palestine annuals, and his Jeru- 
salem almanac. 

Joseph Lurie was bom in Russia, and became a prominent 
nationalist at the Berlin University. He settled later in Warsaw, 
where he was engaged in educational work, and afterwards edited 
a Zionist Yiddish weekly paper, published by the Achiasaf, 
After the suspension of this paper he lived for about two years in 
St. Petersburg, where he was assistant editor of the Fraind. Thence 
he went to Palestine, and became a teacher at the Jaffa Gym- 
nasium. Some time afterwards he was elected President of the 
Union of Teachers {Agudath Ha'morim) of Palestine. He 
has not, however, given up his journalistic work. His articles 
on Palestine are unequalled for clearness of exposition and logical 

Rabbi Samuel Mohilever (1827-1903), of Bialystok, wrote 
many appeals in favour of the Choveve Zion movement. He was 
a lifelong adherent of the national cause, helped to promote 
colonization, and gave his unqualified adherence to the new 
Zionism. Even in very advanced age he was still a fighter in the 
forefront, travelling, preaching, collecting funds and generously 
spending his own means. At the outbreak of the pogroms in 
1881, he took the Jewish refugees to Lemberg. Here he became 
acquainted with Sir Samuel Montagu (afterwards Lord Swayth- 
ling) and Laurence Oliphant, and he sought to win the former for 
the Palestinian colonization movement. On his return to Russia 
he called a conference at Warsaw and formed a Choveve Zion 
Society. In the same year he undertook a journey to Paris to 

II.— u 


obtain, through the Grand Rabbin Zadoc Kahn and M. Erlanger, 
Baron Edmond de Rothschild's support for the colonization 
movement. Returning again to Russia, he went on a propaganda 
tour, agitating in several towns in favour of Palestinian coloniza- 
tion. In 1885 he presided at the Kattowitz Conference. In 1890 
he journeyed to the Palestinian colonies and witnessed the 
founding of the colony of Rechoboth. 

Leo Motzkin was bom in Russia and educated in Berlin. His 
intellectual versatility made him a leading personality in student 
circles and Jewish societies, particularly in the Zionist Organiza- 
tion. He soon attracted attention at the Congresses, and was 
delegated to proceed to Palestine and inquire into the condition 
of the colonies, on which he prepared a report. As a member of 
the Actions Committee, he took part in 191 4 in a Commission 
consisting of Zionists appointed to inquire into the state of affairs 
in Palestine. He has also written valuable books and 
pamphlets on the Russo- Jewish problem. 

Isaac Nissenbaum, bom in Russia, lives in Warsaw, where he 
was one of the sub-editors of Ha'zefirah and a lecturer at the 
Zionist Synagogue. Though not a Rabbi, he belongs by virtue 
of his education, associations and the nature of his occupation 
to the Rabbinical world. A learned Talmudist, a powerful 
preacher and a proUfic Hebrew writer, he has a worthy record 
in all these spheres. 

Alfred Nossig, scientist, artist and journalist, was one of the 
first, perhaps the first in Galicia, to publish pamphlets in Polish 
in defence of Jewish nationalism. He has pursued a line of his 
own in Zionism, and from the point of view of the Zionist Organ- 
ization his activities have often been open to criticism. But he 
deserves recognition, both as a man of letters and as a strenuous 
advocate of Palestinian colonization. 

Daniel Pasmanik is a Russian Zionist who has done much 
propaganda work and proved himself a writer and journalist of 
extraordinary capability. His book Die Seek Israels (written in 
Russian and translated into German) is a noteworthy contribution 
to Zionist thought. 

Jehiel Michael Pines (1842-19 12), born and educated in 
Russia, a Hebrew writer and Talmudist, was elected delegate to 
a conference held in London by the Association Mazkereth 
Mosheh for the estabUshment of charitable institutions in 
Palestine in commemoration of the name of Sir Moses Montefiore ; 
in 1878 he was sent to Jemsalem to estabhsh and organize such 
institutions. Thenceforward he lived in Palestine, working for 
the welfare of the Jewish community and interesting himself in 
the organization of Jewish colonies. In his Hebrew book, Yalde 
Ruchi, and particularly in Part I, Rib Ami (Mainz, 1872), he 
expounded the Jewish national idea. He was a contributor 
to all Hebrew periodical publications, esi)ecially to those in 


Samuel Poznanski pursued his studies at Berlin, and was 
already, as a young man, a rising representative of the Hebrew 
Revival. Having graduated, he returned to Poland, where he is 
now the Rabbi and Preacher of the Great Synagogue at Warsaw. 
His achievements in the field of Jewish scholarship are great and 
universally recognized. He has written many valuable books 
and treatises, all of which are the result of careful observation 
and patient study, and are distinguished by depth of thought. 
A devoted Hebraist, he contributes to Hebrew literature and the 
Press, and as a communal worker he has succeeded in counter- 
acting destructive assimilationist tendencies by the advocacy of 
a sound traditional nationalism. 

Rabbi Samuel Jacob Rabbinowitch, of Sopotkin (now in 
Liverpool), was first a Chovev Zion and early joined the Zionist 
Organization. His calm piety and gentle nature won him the 
hearts of all Zionists. He was for several years a member of 
the Zionist Actions Committee. He contributed a number of 
articles to Ha'melitz, which later were published under the title 
Ha'dat Weha'leumit (Warsaw, igoo). He has also written 
talmudic works. 

Rabbi Isaac Jacob Reines (1839-1915) was a great talmudic 
authority, author of halachic works, in which he taught the rigid 
application of logic to the solution of talmudic problems, and 
founder and principal of a modern Yeshivah (Rabbinical College) 
in Lida. He was an ardent Chovev Zion, and joined the Zionist 
movement, in which he became one of the most prominent 
workers, orators and propagandists. He occupied a high and 
influential position in orthodox Zionism, and was the founder of 
the orthodox Zionist section, Misrachi. 

Rabbi Pinchas Rosowski, a great talmudic scholar and pro- 
minent Hebraist, was an enthusiastic Chovev Zion, and later a 
member of the Zionist Organization. He wrote articles inspired 
by the nationalist idea. 

Jacob Saphir (1822-86), a Russian Jew, who settled in 
Palestine, was not directly connected with the new colonization. 
He was commissioned by the Jewish community of Jerusalem 
to undertake a journey through the southern countries, in order 
to collect alms for the poor Palestinian Jews. In 1854 he made 
a second tour, visiting Yemen, British India, Egypt and Australia. 
The result of this journey was his Hebrew book Ehen Saphir 
(vol. i., Lyck, 1866 ; Mayence, 1874), in which work he gave the 
history and a vivid description of the Jews in the above-mentioned 
countries. There is in his book a touch of Haskalah (Enlighten- 
ment) and even of national sentiment. 

His grandson, Elie Saphir, who died a few years ago, was a 
conspicuous figure among the pioneers of the new colonization by 
virtue of his great knowledge, especially of the Arabic language 
and literature, and the laws'and customs of the country. A man 
of keen judgment, he occupied the position of assistant-manager 


of the Anglo-Palestine Company at Jaffa. The leaders of financial 
and agricultural institutions were always eager to consult and 
confide in him. But he was essentially a scholar. His Hebrew 
writings, and particularly his last work Ha'arez — a physio- 
graphic and scientific examination of the conditions of Palestine 
— are of great value. 

M. Smilanski, of Rechoboth, has one of the longest and 
best records of work in Hebrew literature. His writings on 
Palestinian colonization are as sound as his literary sketches are 

A. Tannenbaum, of St. Petersburg, was an ardent Chovev Zion 
and an excellent Hebraist. Of his Hebrew writings, his study on 
" The Architecture of the Synagogues " (in the first volume of 
Knesseth Israel) is of enduring merit. This group strongly sup- 
ported the local Choveve Zion Society, which was of considerable 
importance. At that period Rosenfeld undertook with great 
courage and determination the propaganda in the first Razsweet, 
which, however, had to be suspended after a period of brilliant 
journalistic exploits in troublesome and stormy times (in the 
eighties), in which period the two years of that organization hap- 
pened to fall. Later on, the late Salomon Gruzenberg, a medical 
man of great knowledge and an ardent Zionist, whose articles 
were characterized by soundness of argument, took up the same 
work in a new Russian weekly paper, entitled Boudoushtshnost, 
which managed to exist a little longer. 

Vladimir Temkin was one of the most important and, 
undoubtedly, the most popular champion of the Bilu. An 
idealist, an enthusiast, an attractive personality and a power- 
ful speaker, he possessed a special gift for propaganda, and 
became one of the chief organizers of colonization in Pales- 
tine. He belonged to the Zionist Organization from its incep- 
tion, was a prominent Congress representative and member of 
the Actions Committee, and is to-day one of the leading 

Davis Trietsch has not always found the appreciation he 
deserved. He has b$^n frequently drawn into controversies and 
misunderstood owing to the support he has given to schemes 
which appeared to be impracticable and fantastic, but in 
ordinary circumstances would not have given rise to opposition. 
But he is a man of varied experience and untiring activity, and 
his advice has often been very useful. He lived for a couple 
of years in Palestine, where he grappled with many forms of 
industrial work ; he has written books, pamphlets and articles, 
and is an indefatigable advocate of the idea of colonization. He 
has given a considerable impetus to the study of Palestine and 
to many practical ideas. 

Semion Weissenberg worked hard with Herman and Temkin 
in the St. Petersburg Students' Palestinophile Association, took 
part in the Odessa Choveve Zion meetings, and later entered the 


Zionist Organization, of which he is a prominent member. His 
bent lies in the direction of work in connection w'th the Jewish 
problem in Russia. 

David Yellin (1858), a son-in-law of J. M. Pines, is one of the 
most eminent Hebraists and educationists in Palestine. The 
Zionist idea captured him early in life and grew upon him during 
his many-sided literary and educational career. He has written 
the best text-books of the Hebrew language, based on the 
principle of the modern method Ihrith B'ibrith (Hebrew in 
Hebrew), and has thus helped to make Hebrew a living language. 
He has been teacher and principal of several Hebrew schools 
and of the seminary for the training of teachers. He has many 
connections in England, and is on the Montefiore foundations in 

In St. Petersburg Zionism has now gained a strong footing, 
owing to the steady efforts of the distinguished, devoted and in- 
defatigable member of the Actions Committee, Israel Rosoff, 
Michael Aleinikow, the able and gifted Abraham Idelsohn, 
A. J. Rapaport, as well as of the very able and devoted 
workers S. S. Babkow, W. Grossmann, A. Goldstein, S. J. 
Janovski, A. Seidemann, M. Sachs, and others. As far as 
Nationalism is concerned the learned and talented historian, 
Shimon Dubnow, and the group of his followers, are un- 
doubtedly most faithful adherents to this idea, and the same 
may unhesitatingly be also said of N. M. Friedmann, M. Ch. 
Bomesch and E. R. Gurevitch, the members of the Duma, 
and many other leading St. Petersburg Jews. The old Zionist 
leader, Gregor Belkovsky, a man of high standing in the 
Zionist Organization, who has already been mentioned, has 
for many years been very active, his influence being still as 
great as ever. 

The number of the Choveve Zion societies increased. They 
watched each other's activities and emulated each other in 
brotherly devotion. The University groups were influenced by 
the Hterature and the press, as well as by the old leaders ; and 
the old leaders were in their turn again stimulated by the ardour 
of the younger men. To return to the older Choveve Zion 
societies and later Zionist societies, a few of the most important 
should be mentioned, as, for instance, the Odessa Group (or the 
Oflicial Society), under the leadership of Pinsker, Achad Ha am, 
M. L. Lilienblum, A. Griinberg (who was for some years President 
of the Society), Ch. Tschernowitz, L. Lewinski, Rawnitzki, 
S. N. Barbasch, A. E. Lubarski, Frankfeld, J. Klausner, 
M. Scheinkin, Ben Ami Rabinowitsch, and at a later period, 
Ussischkin, Bialik, S. A. Benzion-Guttmann, M. Kleinmann, 
Ch. Grinberg, and others. The Bialystok Group, with Rabbi 
Samuel Mohilewer, Dr. Chasanowitsch (who deserves an honoured 
place as a zealous pioneer of NationaUsm and a great worker for 
the Hebrew revival in Palestine, and for his noble, almost life- 


long efforts for the purpose of establishing his Hebrew library, 
" Baith Neen^an," in Jerusalem) and Nissenbaum was of great 
importance duiing the lifetime of Rabbi Mohilewer and retained 
a great practical influence later, especially in consequence of the 
fact that the Bialystok Choveve Zion themselves took a pro- 
minent part in various colonization schemes. The Warsaw 
Group had a principal leader in Isidore Jasinowski, a man of 
great sincerity, enthusiasm and love for the cause. An ardent 
Chovev Zion, he afterwards joined the Zionist movement, and, 
till the TerritoriaUst split, remained devoted to the cause. The 
most energetic workers there were Schefer-Rubinoscitsch ; 
J. M. Meyersohn ; Eleasar Kaplan, who died recently and was 
an able and enterprising Nationalist, a most zealous worker, to 
whom great praise is due in connection with the Achiasaf and 
other Hebrew literary enterprises ; W. Gluskin (one of the most 
notable workers and leaders), who joined with L. Kaplan in the 
foundation of the Achiasaf and Ha-Zofe, undertook afterwards 
the Directorship of the Palestine Wine Company, " Karmel," 
and settled in Rishon L'Zion, in Palestine, where he is now one 
of the leaders of the new colonization) ; Stawski ; Mates 
Cohn ; Dr. Bychowski ; Samuel Luria ; Dr. T. Hindes (who 
lived some years in Palestine, and takes a useful part in the 
propaganda) ; M. M. Pros ; M. Feldstein (the well-known 
Chovev Zion and supporter of the literary movement, a pro- 
minent member and representative of Zionist institutions) ; J. 
Lewite ; Jacob Braude ; Rafalkes ; Ginzburg ; Friedland ; L. 
Davidsohn ; and others. 

All these important workers were afterwards active in the 
Zionist Organization. The development of Zionism gave a new 
impetus to the Palestine propaganda and to the national move- 
ment. The University movement, though most vigorous in 
other parts of the Russian Empire, had only few adherents in 
Poland. It is worthy of note that Dr. Zamenhof, the inventor of 
Esperanto, was, during a certain period of his university career, 
a Jewish NationaHst of great zest, and a contributor to Rosen- 
feld's Razsweet. Meierowitz, the old Bilu pioneer, as well as 
the pioneer Freimann, came from Warsaw ; Mekler, Elie 
Margulies, Manson (who died young) were the most prominent 
Choveve Zion among the Warsaw students in the eighties. Only 
with the new Zionist Organization a strong movement of a local 
character came into being with adherents who were natives of 
the country, and this resulted in the production of literature and 
a Press in the native tongue. In this respect, the activity of the 
late Jan Kirszrot was very helpful. A great idealist, an honestly 
and deeply convinced Zionist, who had been brought to the 
cause out of assimilated surroundings, a worker of the most 
generous impulses, and a writer par excellence in the Polish 
language (like many other young Zionists of assimilated educa- 
tion he had acquired the knowledge of Hebrew), he worked side 


by side with the gifted and devoted Isaac Gninbaum, who became 
in later years a prominent leader, a publicist of excellent abilities 
and a worker of great intellectual integrity ; also with the 
zealous Nahum Syrkin, whose significant activities extended 
over a large sphere, with the remarkable, energetic, indefatigable 
worker Leon Lewite, with the keen, persistent and conscientious 
Zelig Weizmann, the graceful and judicious S. Seidemann, the 
sound and forceful Isaac Gruenbaum, the talented and consistent 
Hartglass (for a certain period), the keen and learned Shimon 
Rundstein, the intellectual and devoted Juhan KaUski, and a 
number of other young writers and organizers — in connection 
with older Zionists and men of letters, and together with the 
general Zionist Organization, particularly with the younger and 
more progressive element. They had founded a Nationahst 
group " Safroth," issued a Zionist weekly in PoUsh (Prgyszlose) , 
and pubHshed a very interesting miscellany in that language. 
Kirszrot's life of devotion to the highest ideals and his 
brilliantly youthful career were unhappily cut short by the 
hand of death. 

But the University nationalist Jewish movement had begun. 
A change was in process, the extensive scope of which was 
scarcely noticed by the representatives of Assimilation, to whom 
it seemed that the small group of students and intellectuals 
consisted merely of visionaries and dreamers. Yet there obtained 
in this apparently insignificant group a vitality which was 
destined to become a powerful factor in the hfe of Polish Jewry. 
The evolution of this young movement was the result of the 
whole Zionist movement, the rapid growth of Jewish cultural 
life, of Jewish education, of the Jewish literature and press, of 
which all Warsaw had become a very important centre. At that 
period we see already the influential Zionist leaders busy with 
great Zionist work. Zionism, the Hebrew Revival, national 
education, the defence of Jewish interests and of the national 
principle in communal affairs, now engaged the attention and 
support of the generous, experienced, and beloved Abraham 
PodUszewski, of the acute and energetic H. Farbstein, of the 
thorough and dignified Dr. Poznanski, of the calm and pacific 
Dr. Mintz, of the strong, vigilant and inflexible Isaac Gruenbaum, 
the devoted and popular Nissenbaum, Dr. Klumel, Olschwanger, 
M. I. Freid, Dr. Hindes, Horodischtsch, Dunajewski, Dr. Gottlieb, 
Zabludowski, the educational worker and excellent Hebraist 
S. L. Gordon, and of many others. In this camp we meet again 
all the Choveve Zion of bygone days. 

The same development took place at Lodz, where the able, 
eloquent Dr. Jelski, Dr. Silberstrom and others had long been at 
work, and where afterwards a strong Zionist group, with the 
esteemed and influential Dr. M. Braude as guide and leader, was 
doing most useful work. In Minsk we find working in the 
Choveve Zion movement Joshua Syrkin, the man of faith and 


energy, whose mind is well stored with treasures of Hebrew 
literature, and here we also meet with the zealous Neifach, the 
late Rabbi Chaneles, and the eminently able Wilbuschewitsch 
family. We come again across them later in Zionism together 
with the active Zionist workers Kaplan, Churgin, Berger and 
others. In Pinsk at the Choveve Zion period, Eisenberg, Rosen- 
baum. Killer, Naiditsch, PinchasBreymar, J. Breyman, L. Berger, 
Maslanski were the leaders. The aged Reb Dowidel (Friedmann), 
the great Talmudist, pious and saintly, supported the Movement 
and took part in the Kattowitz Conference. Among them we 
can trace Naiditsch, now of the Actions Committee ; Eisenberg, 
the great authority on colonization — in Rechoboth, Palestine ; 
Maslanski, the powerful preacher at New York ; Weizmann, a 
member of the Inner Actions Committee, and S. Rosenbaum, 
the lawyer, the member of the First Duma, and Lithuanian 
statesman, who proved his worth during many years as member 
of the Actions Committee, as legal adviser, as representative of 
several Zionist institutions, as a great worker in the Organization, 
and as a defender of Zionism in Russia. In Wilna, the late 
S. J. Finn, and his son the late Dr. Finn, Joseph Gurland, Ch. L. 
Markon, Triwusch, Gordon (who settled later on in Palestine), 
Miriam Zalkind, who founded the Society of the " Daughters of 
Zion " ; Lewanda, Fischel Pines, who attended the Kattowitz 
Conference; Ben-jakob, Isaac Goldberg, Boris Goldberg, Neuschul 
and others very early took an interest in the Choveve Zion move- 
ment. In the Zionist Organization, Wilna at a certain period 
was the centre of activity, from the point of view of organization, 
propaganda and press. Ben-jakob did good work for the Jewish 
Colonial Trust, Neuschul is a thorough and devoted NationaUst. 
Among those in Wilna who succeeded in rising to the height of 
national importance, doing at the same time great national work 
of a general character, and useful, indispensable local work in 
Russia, belong the two excellent and distinguished Zionists : 
Isaac and Boris Goldberg. 

The influence of these Russian and Polish enthusiasts soon 
spread further. Mention has already been made of the Kadimah 
of the Vienna University and of Nathan Bimbaum, one of its 
leaders. Others of its prominent members were : Dr. N. T. 
Schnierer, the physician, scholar and editor, who was a highly 
respected member of the First Zionist Actions Committee ; 
the gifted brothers Marmorek, supporters of Herzl and his 
political Zionism ; Schalit, who represented the sympathetic, 
real Viennese type ; the very capable and devoted Werner, 
who became later one of the secretaries of Herzl and editor of 
the Welt ; the well-known polemical journalist, S. R. Landau ; 
the reserved and learned Berkovitsch ; the energetic and 
faithful Alkalai of Serbia, who has been a member of the 
Actions Committee since the inception of the Zionist Organiza- 



tion ; ^ the devoted worker, M. Moscowitz of Roumania, who 
was a member of the Actions Committee (he recently died 
in Palestine, where he was physician of the colony Rechoboth) ; 
the enthusiast, Caleff of Bulgaria ; Erwin Rosenberger, and 
many others from different countries. 

The similarity of their views on Jews and Judaism brought 
them more and more closely together, and they soon agreed that 
the fundamental views of the higher-educated Jews of the time 
were in need of a change, and that a vigorous attack against the 
theory of assimilation prevailing among Western European Jews 
would have to take place. They clearly realized that the lever 
ought to be applied to the academical youth, not only because 
those circles were nearest to them, but because in their midst the 
assimilation theory had found most adherents. The assumption 
seemed justified that the academical youth once converted 
would propagate the national Jewish idea with all the fire of its 
enthusiasm and authority among the largest strata of the 
population . These few young men soon obtained a small addition 
of courageous fellow-combatants, and a phalanx was at once 
formed which undertook the foundation of an academic Jewish 
national union. Their aspirations met with powerful support 
and advancement from a man whose name shines in golden letters 
in the history of Jewish literature — Perez Smolenskin. A pro- 
found judge of the human soul, an even more thorough investi- 
gator of the Jewish national psyche, he at the same time wielded 
in a masterly way the language of the prophets. He had fought 
for years in numerous writings, and particularly in his monthly 
publication Hashahar, against the dissolving tendencies and for 
the nationahzation of Judaism with all the brilliancy of his mind 
and all the sharpness of his caustic satire. How welcome to him 
must have been the small band of Jewish university students 
who undertook to carry his ideas into practical life and to make 
them the common property of the Jewish academical youth. 
Until his death Smolenskin was to them a kind and wise leader. 
Among many other obligations, the Union owes him its name. 

At the beginning of the summer term, of 1882 there appeared 
for the first time upon the notice-board of the Vienna University 
an appeal of a Jewish national society, addressed to the corpora- 
tion of Jewish students. The sensation produced by this appeal 
was extraordinary. The Christian students shook their heads 
incredulously, while most Jewish students poured out upon the 

^ It is noteworthy that Zionism is an old tradition of the Alkalai 
family. Rabbi Jehouda Alkalai (died in 1878) was a precursor of political 
Zionism which he expounded in his Goral L'Adonai (Vienna, 1857 ; Amster- 
dam, 1858; Warsaw, 1903). He was the author of MtwcAaiA Yehouda (Vienna, 
1843) in honour of the Montefiore and Cremieux mission, 1840. He 
addressed also a special appeal to the English Jews in favour of Zionism 
and wrote further series of other Zionist pamphlets in Hebrew. There were 
also other members of the Alkalai family who were closely connected with 
Palestine and devoted to the idea of its colonization by the Jewish people. 


innovators a flood of scom and ridicule. And not only the students 
but the middle-classes, the official representatives of Judaism, 
opposed the Kadimah most mercilessly. It was a contest of all 
against a few. But the few went on, calm and undismayed ; en- 
grossed by the magnitude of the idea for which they fought, they 
unswervingly pursued their aim. The Kadimaner propagated the 
Jewish national ideal by innumerable lectures, meetings and 
publications. Their number increased constantly, and by and 
by a specific Jewish national student Ufe developed at Vienna 
University, which began to throb with increased intensity when 
the Kadimah, compelled by the conditions of the Vienna Uni- 
versity, was transformed into a fighting, " duel-bound " associa- 
tion. People may hold different opinions about duelling at most 
Western European Universities, but one thing must be admitted, 
namely, that it has had a favourable influence upon the physical 
development of the Jewish young manhood, and that the duel- 
ling Jewish student corporation gained the esteem of its Christian 
colleagues. Partly through this transformation and partly 
through the growing propagation of the national ideal among 
the Jewish students, the number of Jewish national academical 
unions was graduaUy increased. One association after another 
came into existence : " Unitas," " Ivria," " Gamala,'* " Liba- 
nonia," " Hasmonaa," and others ; so that there exists at the 
present day, at nearly every university at which Jewish students 
study, a Jewish national student association. 

Old Assimilants looked upon this movement at first as a farce. 
Certainly no one at that time anticipated that the mainsprings 
of new hf e perceptible in many different places would soon become 
a powerful source of cleansing and reviving Judaism. As the 
preparatory work for creating a clearer conception of things was 
at first confined to groups of such young men, most opponents 
looked upon it as a pastime only fit for young, inexperienced 
schoolboys. Meanwhile, the movement continued to make rapid 
progress. At the end of the eighties there existed an important 
association in Berlin, which was at first somewhat theoretical in 
character, but very soon afterwards became a sister society of the 
Vienna Association, taking also the name of Kadima. In this 
organization we come across a great number of workers whose 
names are inseparably bound up with the history of the Zionist 
Organization and with Jewish national literature in all languages. 

The large number of young men who have been associated 
with the Jewish National Students' Association at BerUn would 
make a list too long for detailed enumeration. But the following 
must specially be mentioned : — 

Shemaryah Levin was bom in Russia. He is an enthusiastic 
nationalist, a good Hebrew scholar, and as an exceptionaUy 
effective speaker he attained considerable popularity already 
as a young student. He lectured on Hebrew literature and 
attracted much attention. Having graduated, he returned to 


Russia, and was Rabbi in Grodno. Later, he lived for some time 
in Warsaw, where he devoted himself to Hebrew Uterary work 
in connection with Achiasaf, and possessing great mastery over 
the Hebrew language, he wrote books and pamphlets of great 
value. Since then he has contributed to numerous Hebrew 
reviews. Some time afterwards he was Rabbi in Ekaterinoslaw 
and Wilna, and was elected a member of the first Russian Duma, 
where he distinguished himself as a most able speaker and 
worker. Then he left Russia and settled abroad. Already as a 
youth he was most active in the Choveve Zion movement ; later 
he took a prominent part in the Zionist Organization, and is now 
a member of its Small Actions Committee and one of the most 
influential leaders. An excellent orator, closely attached to 
Palestine, where he has hved for a considerable time, a plodding 
worker, he has for some years been busily engaged in propaganda 
work in Europe and America. 

Victor Jacobsohn was bom in Russia, and brought up from 
his infancy in an intensely assimilated (Russianized) environ- 
ment. His father was a judge at Simferopol, but the son became 
irresistibly drawn towards Jewish nationalism. He was much 
influenced by the Berhn Students' Group. An accomphshed 
young man, of splendid literary taste, a lover of fine art, 
thoroughly impressed with the righteousness of the national 
cause, he soon became one of the leaders among the students. 
After having graduated, he returned to Russia, where he took a 
large and active share in the Choveve Zion movement, and took 
up the Zionist Movement from the time of its inauguration. He 
was very soon elected member of the Actions Committee, but, 
apart from his work for the Organization as a whole, he was, when 
still in Russia, a steady and successful local worker. He then 
moved to the East, living in Palestine and in Constantinople, 
where he devoted himself entirely to Zionist work, both financial 
and political. Being a business man as well as a man of letters, 
a political thinker as well as an able financier, he has become one 
of the most influential Zionist leaders. He is a member of the 
Small Actions Committee. 

Chaim Wei zm ANN, who was born in Russia, was already in his 
boyhood very active in the young Choveve Zion movement. Dur- 
ing his studies at the Charlottenburg Polytechnic he took a lead- 
ing part in the Berlin Jewish National Students' Association. 
Of amiable and genial disposition, a pleasant and persuasive 
speaker, inseparably bound up with the deep national affection 
and humour of the Jewish home in Russia, young Weizmann 
soon gained great popularity among his fellow-students. Later 
he came into great and well-merited prominence at the Zionist 
Congresses and Conferences. With Feiwel, Buber and others he 
was most active in the Students' propaganda, and during his 
visits to Russia took a prominent part in the propaganda there. 
Having graduated, he went to Switzerland, and was soon ap- 


pointed Lecturer of Chemistry at the Geneva University, where 
he became the central figure of the West Zionist Group. About 
that time he, with Feiwel, Buber and others, conceived the idea 
of a Jewish University. At the Basle Congress in 1901 the 
Actions Committee had included the question of the establish- 
ment of a Palestine University in their programme, and Herzl 
took steps to obtain a concession for the University from the 
Turkish Government ; but, in consequence of the pressure of 
other problems, this project was lost sight of for some years. 
The movement in favour of this idea, however, continued to 
develop, and its inception as well as its popularity is due to 
Weizmann more than to any other Zionist. The general Zionist 
activity of Weizmann grew from one Congress to another. He 
was elected member of the Actions Committee and of several 
important Zionist institutions. He has been living in England 
for some years now, occupying a chair in the faculty of chemistry 
at the Manchester University and taking a leading part 
in the English Zionist Federation. (The new University Scheme, 
and Weizmann's activity in this direction, are described else- 

Leo Motzkin, Berthold Feiwel, Martin Buber and 
Joseph Lurie, also prominent in this circle, have already been 

In the BerUn group we also come across Isidor EHaschew, a 
refined critic of great artistic culture, an important contributor 
to Jewish literature — mostly in Yiddish. His talents and inform- 
ation are of the most varied character, for he is the author of 
charmingly written essays, studies, monographs and sketches 
extending over a wide sphere of thought. He occupied a leading 
position in the radical wing of Zionism and among the literary 
workers of the Renaissance. We also come across Soskin, a clear- 
minded, enterprising and practical Zionist, a young man of 
wonderful foresight and an agricultural engineer of renown ; 
further, Berman, whose studies were concentrated on colonizing 
work. Both of them went to Palestine later, and supervised 
colonization work there, acquiring in that way much valuable 
information and experience, which they recorded in various 
instructive books. We also find there Nachman Syrkin, the 
radical propagandist, the leader of the Zionist-Socialists ; the 
able and cautious Estermann ; Elie Davidsohn, who took a 
prominent part in discussing the open controversy between the 
various sections ; Wilenski, an active and enthusiastic worker of 
considerable influence, first abroad and later in Russia ; Mirkin, 
powerful, energetic and highly respected ; Meschorer, determined 
and broad-minded, who, though not identifying himself with the 
Organization, worked hard in Warsaw when first the propaganda 
for securing capital for the Jewish Colonial Trust was set on foot, 
and died recently ; Grigory Wilbuschewitsch, one of the family 
of energetic enthusiasts for and in Palestine ; Salkind of Minsk ; 


Kunin, a loyal and devoted worker; Pevsner, who worked 
zealously ; and — last, but not least — Ch. D. Gurevitsch, the 
excellent Hebrew writer and essayist, novelist and publicist, a 
contributor to the Hebrew and Yiddish Press, a learned econo- 
mist who was particularly interested in introducing his economic 
programme into Zionism, who expounded the idea in a lecture 
he delivered at a Conference of Russian Zionists held at Minsk 
in 1902. Then there were also Davis Trietsch and Ephraim 
LiHen, who have already been mentioned. 

In course of time the movement spread steadily and system- 
atically. Similar associations were soon founded in Heidelberg, 
Munich, Leipzig, Konigsberg, Breslau, Berne, Zurich, Geneva, 
Lauzanno, Montpellier and Galicia. 

The Jewish University students, particularly those haiUng 
from Russia, pursued their studies at different universities, often 
passing from one to another. We, therefore, find some of them 
changing their places and activities in the Movement. For this 
reason it is impossible to follow a precisely geographical or 
chronological course. 

At Heidelberg, Joseph Klausner and Saul Tschernichewski 
were already active before the First Zionist Congress took place. 
Loeb Jaffe of Grodno, who combined idealism with practical 
astuteness, wrote emotional Zionist poetry, and at the same 
time did organization work perhaps more than any other Jewish 
student who happened to be at Heidelberg. Later he became 
a great Zionist worker, organizer, editor and member of the 
Actions Committee in Russia. Gurland of Wilna, Eliasberg of 
Pinsk, Feitlowitsch, J. Melnik, Blumenfeld and others were the 
pioneers of the Zionist idea who had rallied around Professor 
Herman Schapiro, that venerable and cherished veteran, who, 
aided by his devoted wife, made his home a rendezvous of the 
local Zionist group. In Munich, the intellectual and kind-hearted 
brothers Strauss, members of an old noble Jewish family, worked 
together with G. Halpern, who during his University career 
had already distinguished himself by his great talents, and who 
was a good economist, a journalist of great skill, and a devoted 
Zionist worker. At a later period he was elected member of the 
Actions Committee. Lew, Izkovitsch, Abramowitsch and 
Nemzer may be mentioned among others. The last-named had 
greatly endeared himself to his fellow-students by his sincerity 
and warm-heartedness. He died very young, in Riga (1906), in 
a tragic way, a martyr's death. At Leipzig there was also 
Loeb Jaffe, working with the devoted Kunin, who became in the 
last few years one of the pioneer workers in Palestine, as manager 
of Medjdel ; and also Gurland, the engineering student at 
Mitwreida, as weU as others. 

It is interesting to glance back upon the various stages of 
propaganda in order to discover how the Russian Jews influenced 
their brethren abroad, how Zionism infused new life into the 


older Choveve Zion movement, and how the present important 
representatives of new Zionism gradually appeared upon the 
scene and took up so strong a position. 

A little society for the support of Palestine colonization was 
already in existence in Berlin as recently as 1871, but there 
seems to be little on record about it. At the beginning of the 
eighties there was a venerable, orthodox Rabbi, Dr. Israel 
Hildesheimer, assisted by his son Hirsch, together with some 
other members, notably the philanthropist S. Lachmann, Willy 
Bambus, a devoted Zionist, who travelled in Palestine, and has 
published many pamphlets and articles, and in connection with 
a Choveve Zion of Russia, M. Turow, took an important part in 
the Choveve Zion movement, and the late Moses of Kattowitz. 
We read already, in Dr. Riilf's appeal of 1882 : " Do not divide 
us ; take us to places where we can live together, remain together, 
and work together as a united community, arranged like any 
other human society, where we may be Jews, without being inter- 
fered with " (this circular was issued in English by Haim 
Guedalla), and that is a trumpet-call of Zionism. Riilf, the 
Rabbi of Memel, was a man of genius and thoroughness, who was 
weU known for his talent as an author of philosophical works, a 
theologian, preacher, and above all a noble character : he after- 
wards took part in the Zionist Movement and in the Congress. 
In 1884, a society for the support of a Jewish colonization in 
Palestine, called " Esra," was founded in Berlin. In Cologne a 
Choveve Zion group was established through the efforts of David 
Wolffsohn, Dr. M. Bodenheimer, Rubensohn and others. The 
Jewish National Students' Association, consisting first almost 
exclusively of foreigners, gradually attracted the best elements 
of the local Jewish youth. One of the first and foremost was 
H. Lowe, a young man of great enthusiasm and energy, of 
vigorous eloquence, who travelled in Palestine and appeared at 
the First Congress as a delegate from Jaffa. 

Arthur Friedemann, an able student, a member of an old and 
honoured family ; Gronemann, the son of a respected Rabbi, a 
brilliant student and an excellent Jew ; Klee, a keen propa- 
gandist and attractive speaker ; Jungmann, a humorous, 
attractive and talented writer ; Hantke, who distinguished him- 
self by profound honesty of purpose and love of detail, and as a 
highly gifted, indefatigable and successful organizer ; Jeremias, 
a faithful adherent to the movement (he died recently) ; Ehas 
and Israel Auerbach, who possessed, besides their noble Jewish 
national aspirations, the most excellent literary gifts ; Zlozisti, 
a fine writer and a poet full of wit and humour ; Kalmus, a quiet, 
steady and enthusiastic Zionist worker ; Sandler, an eminently 
able young scholar ; Kollenscher, a strong political Zionist ; 
Chamitzer, a faithful and zealous adherent of the Organization ; 
the late Pell, an eminent propagandist and organizer ; Leszynski, 
a quiet, persistent and conscientious member of the party ; 


Witkowsky, an intelligent and active supporter; Oscar Levy ; Emil 
Cohn, an eminently able theologian ; Goldberg, a determined 
worker in the Organization ; Edelstem ; A. Wiener, a whole- 
hearted, ardent worker ; and at a later period, Gideon Heymann, 
a young man of burning zeal and considerable attainments; 
Blumenf eld, a propagandist of great eloquence and literary talents ; 
Brunn, Hildesheimer and other medical men, steady workers, who 
devoted themselves to medical work in Palestine ; Salomon, the 
brothers Treidel, Biram, a studious and very clever pedagogical 
worker, who recently was engaged together with Tachauer in 
Haifa, Lowenberg in Jerusalem, and others in national educa- 
tional work ; Richard Lichtheim, a gifted adherent to the cause ; 
Rosenbliith, an able worker ; Weinberg ; Goitein (the latter 
died recently), who assisted in the work of the Palestinian Office, 
and many others — all of them took part in the University 

We find most of them joining in later years the Zionist Organ- 
ization, which was in course of time supported by a representa- 
tion of the older generation. Otto Warburg, botanist, author 
and professor, was an active member of the " Esra " for a long 
time. He then joined the Zionist Organization, and placed his 
great scientific knowledge at the service of the Movement, 
especially for the purpose of colonization work. Simple-minded, 
of high integrity and unassuming, he worked with a quiet deter- 
mination and an intense love of Palestine. He edited Paldstina, 
AUneuland, founded the Palestine Land Development Company, 
was elected member of the Small Actions Committee and 
succeeded David Wolffsohn in 1911. Hantke, so devout in 
national aspirations and with such great capacity for organiza- 
tion, and an exceptional record of local work for some years, 
entered the Small Actions Committee at the same time. Dr. 
Bodenheimer, one of the oldest and most prominent Zionists, 
was an excellent practical worker in the management of the 
Jewish National Fund. Dr. Oppenheimer, the famous economist, 
gave a great impetus to co-operative work in Palestine. Dr. 
Ruppin, a man of great learning, high intelligence, wonderful 
energy, and an exceptionally active administrator, had the 
larger t share in the management of practical work in Palestine, 
and a considerable record of literary work in connection with 
the problems of colonization. And in the work of organization 
Julius Simon proved an eminent worker ; likewise Dr. Moses, 
an experienced Zionist ; H. Schachtel, indefatigable in important 
work ; Hermann Struck ; Wagner, a splendid worker, the well- 
known painter and Zionist worker of high religious sentiment, 
and Dr. Frank, the leader of the " Misrachi." 

A similar development took place in all other countries. The 
revival among the Jewish students at the Swiss universities 
commenced in the eighties, and there again we come across many 
who in later years have achieved leading positions in literature, 


in the Zionist Organization, or in educational and practical work 
in Palestine. Among the names of note at the Bern University 
we may mention : Mossensohn, Bogratschow, Jacob Rabin- 
ovitscz, Metman-Cohn, Jochelmann, Aron Michael, Boruchow, 
Isaac, Loeb Boruchowitsch, J. Becker, Chissin, Glikson, Rabin, 
Salkind, Melamed, Klazkin, Bernstein, Seleger, Robinsohn, 
Marschak, Meir Pines and many others ; in Geneva : Weizmann, 
Harari, M. and Mme. Aberson, Grunblatt, Stupnitzki, and 
later Daniel Pasmanik, Ben Ami Rabinowitsch, and others ; in 
Zurich : David Farbstein, Felix Pinkus, Mile. Reines (later 
Mme. Davidsohn) ; in Basle : Ezekiel Wortsmann — and many 

Switzerland, the favourite place of students and political 
international workers, became of course a great centre of in- 
tellectual Zionist activity. The circumstance that the First 
Zionist Congress, as well as most of the following ones, took 
place in Switzerland, contributed much to the importance of this 
centre. The number of Jewish students from Eastern Europe, 
particularly owing to the great facilities with regard to university 
studies in Switzerland at that time in comparison with other 
countries, has for some time been very considerable. The 
pressure occasioned by the exceptional restrictions, which inter- 
fered with Jewish education in Russia, caused a steady increase 
in this number, while, as a natural and psychological effect, the 
baseness and injustice of the restrictions awakened in the Jewish 
young men a consciousness of their real position and of the 
necessity for a radical solution. It was there that the battles 
were fought between the young, enthusiastic champions of the 
different movements : Socialists, Bundists and various schools 
of Zionism, conservative, radical, political, practical, etc. 

All the aforementioned pioneers could be found at work at 
those different periods, and afterwards. To mention only a few 
of them, Weizmann's activities had considerably developed when 
in Geneva ; Mossensohn, a man of striking individuality and an 
orator of renown, was a most active propagandist, thoroughly 
nationalist ; he became afterwards professor and subsequently 
director of the Hebrew Gymnasium at Jaffa ; Metman-Cohn and 
Bogratschow, both widely read and fine scholars, also Marschak 
and Harari did much to cause a great revival of Hebrew in 
Palestine ; Rabin is a pedagogical worker who did good work in 
Palestine and Russia ; A. U. Boruchow, pre-eminent among 
Zionist intellectuals, took a conspicuous part in the Poale-Zion 
movement ; Chissin distinguished himself in practical work in 
Palestine ; Klazkin, Boruchowitsch, Melamed and Bernstein are 
well-known Hebrew writers, most gifted and very active, and 
regarded as important in the Zionist Movement ; Aberson was 
well known as a smart disputant and propagandist ; Stupnitzki 
is a thoughtful Yiddish publicist ; J. Becker, who really belongs 
to the Berlin group, has for many years been most actively 


engaged in the Movement, he has been editor of the Welt and has 
pubUshed many reports of the Congresses ; in the same direction, 
and of a similar character, was the activity of Pinkus ; Jochelman 
joined, after years of useful and honest Zionist work, the Terri- 
torialist movement, of which he is one of the leaders ; Wortsmann 
is an arduous Zionist writer of inexhaustible energy. David 
Farbstein of Warsaw was one of the most prominent pioneers. 
A very learned and discreet lawyer, with a mind stored with 
useful information, and a good Hebrew scholar, he was highly 
appreciated at the First Congress, and was able to give valuable 
legal advice in matters appertaining to financial questions. 
Daniel Pasmanik developed considerable activity at a later 
epoch and devoted himself with exceptional sincerity to propa- 
ganda work ; as a writer and journalist of extraordinary cap- 
abilities and of great vivacity, he became an invaluable con- 
tributor to the Zionist press, particularly in Russia. Lastly, we 
must mention the Montpellier group, with its leaders : Mohilewer, 
Kalwaryjski, Buchmil, Mile. Tmas (later Mme. Buchmil), Einhorn, 
Katzmann, Miss Ginsberg (later Mme. Krause), and others. 

Old Zionists will remember what a significant impression the 
appearance of the Montpellier delegates created at the First 
Congress. Later experiences confirmed this favourable im- 
pression. Kalwaryjski is now successfully engaged as manager 
of the Rothschild Colonies in Upper Galilee, in Palestine ; 
Mohilewer, the grandson of Rabbi Samuel Mohilewer, worthily 
upholds the traditions of his family, and occupies the post of a 
capable communal Rabbi in Bialystok ; Buchmil is engaged in 
propaganda ; Katzmann did good work in America, where he 
lives ; and Einhorn, an excellent agricultural engineer and a fine 
Hebraist, has written a very useful book on this subject. 

In Galicia, the Movement can be traced back to the early 
eighties, and it was closely connected with the Vienna Kadima. 
Some of the Galicians belonged to different groups in Germany, 
Switzerland and other countries. In later years the Universities 
of Lemberg and Cracow became great centres of the Jewish 
national movement. Ruben Bierer belonged to the founders of 
the Kadima, also Birnbaum, who is a Galician. Practically most 
of the Vienna Kadima students were Galicians, and also a certain 
number of the Berlin Kadima. To the most distinguished Zionist 
leaders belongs Mordecai Braude of Lemberg, who graduated at 
Freiburg, was Rabbi at Stanislau, and only missed by a small 
minority being elected to the Austrian Diet. He is now Rabbi 
and Preacher at the Great Synagogue in Lodz, Poland. A man 
of learning and high character, he showed immense capacity for 
Zionist work, as also in his rabbinical career. 

Stand, Korkis, Zipper, Rabbi Schmelkes, Malz, Schiller (living 

in Palestine), Thon, Wahrhaftig, Hausmann, Waschitz, Emil 

Reich, Silbermann, Kornhauser, Reis, Waldmann, Schorr, 

Zimmermann, Samuel Rapaport, Balaban and many others — 

II. — x 


now important Zionist workers — were mostly influenced by the 
University movement. Stand has a fine record as a brilliant 
Zionist and politician. He, with Mahler, Straucher and the late 
Gabel, formed a Jewish National Club, composed of members 
of the Austrian Parliament. As a political speaker he always 
strove to spread the truth concerning the Jewish situation in all 
its purity and strength. Alfred Nossig, mentioned already in 
another connection, also came from Gahcia. 

Although Zionism played an important part in Western 
Europe, Russia has yet always been the most important centre 
of Zionist propaganda. The penetration of Zionism into Uni- 
versity circles began, naturally enough, in that country, where 
Jewish life is so real, where the knowledge of the Hebrew language 
and of the national past is so widely diffused, and where the 
persecutions have always been so strongly felt. There were 
several centres of the movement ; but, while one of those centres 
was considered the foremost as far as national aspirations were 
concerned, and others in other directions, there was one that 
seemed the most prominent from the beginning, and which 
seemed destined to rank far above the others, namely, Charkow. 

A Choveve Zion group was founded at Charkow in 1882, which 
was the Bilu — mostly composed of University students. Israel 
Belkind, the most zealous, true-hearted and indefatigable worker, 
was one of the first leaders ; this group was in connection with 
another Choveve Zion Society, which was at that time already in 
existence in Krementhsug, of which David Levontin (now 
Managing Director of the Anglo-Palestine Company), one of the 
first Choveve Zion of Russia, and one of the first pioneers in 
Palestine, was the President. The latter Society was in touch 
with David Gordon in Lyck, and with some other societies 
which were already in existence in various parts of Russia. 
They were also in touch with Jehiel Brill, the editor of the Ha- 
Lebanon, and with M. Pines of Rishnoi. The banker Karassik 
in Charkow was the Treasurer of the Bilu Society. Joseph 
Feinberg, an intellectual communal worker and a good linguist, 
who had graduated in chemistry in Switzerland, was at the time 
in touch with Dr. Mandelstamm, in Kiew, who was greatly inter- 
ested in the movement. The Bilu Society sent twenty pro- 
pagandists all over Russia, with the result that 525 members 
joined. The central office was in Charkow. The Society even- 
tually came into touch with Dr. N. Adler, Sir Moses Montefiore 
and Laurence Oliphant. An office was opened in Odessa and 
another in Constantinople, where an Appeal was issued (see 
Appendix LXXIX, " The Manifesto of the Bilu (1882) "). After 
a meeting in January, 1882, Levontin and Feinberg were sent to 
Palestine for the purpose of purchasing land. The negotiations 
with Oliphant, who was at that time in Constantinople, having 
fallen through, the representatives of the Bilu addressed 
themselves directly to the Ottoman Government, and were 


received by the Grand Vezir. And Levontin and Feinberg, 
having found some suitable plots of land in the South of Palestine, 
negotiated with the Bedouins for the purchase of them. 

In June, 1882 (the 7th of Tammus), the first Bilu party, 
consisting of fourteen persons (among whom was one girl, Debora, 
the sister of Israel Belkind, now the wife of Dr. Chissin), and later 
joined by further six persons, arrived in Palestine. Grave diffi- 
culties arose, however, in connection with the formalities for the 
purchase of the land. Meanwhile, a number of new pioneers had 
arrived also from Roumania. 

In Roumania, in 1882, the Zion Society at Galatz had voted 
ten thousand francs towards the project of the colonization of 
Palestine. At Jassy a committee, comprised of the most in- 
fluential members of the Jewish community, was formed to 
collect subscriptions for the same object. The Palestine Colon- 
ization Society at Berlad sent a delegate to the Holy Land to 
confer with the Governor on the question as to the purchase of 
land. The office of the Central Committee of the Society for 
Promoting Jewish Emigration from Roumania (preferably to 
Palestine) was in Galatz, under the control of M. Samuel Pineles. 
The President was (in 1882) M. Isaac Lobel, and M. Abeles at 
Galatz, M. Neuschotz at Jassy, M. Marco Schein, L. Goldberg, 
Dr. L. Lippe, M. Mattes and M. Weinberg. Dr. Moses Gaster, at 
that time a young but influential man, strongly supported the 
movement. On the 4th May, 1882, a general meeting was held 
at Jassy concerning the Palestine Colonization Scheme. Laurence 
Oliphant was the central figure of this assembly, and power of 
attorney was given him by the Committee to negotiate on their 
behalf at Constantinople. It was also resolved to send a com- 
mission to Palestine to purchase land (E. Cohn, Helman, Denirer- 
man) . At that period there were forty-nine Palestinian societies 
in Roumania. A new Society was founded : " The Advanced 
Guard" ("Chaluzei Yessod Ha-Maala") (see Appendix XCI : 
"The Advanced Guard"), with David Levontin as President, 
F. M. Halsoferes, Treasurer, A. N. Hillel, A. Lande, S. Sogrisebas 
of Roumania, as members, and later on S. A. Schulman as 

At this period Mr. Moore was the British Consul at Jerusalem, 
and M. Hayman Amzulak, a respected Jaffa citizen, was British 
Consular Agent at Jaffa. The Choveve Zion expected great help 
from England. M. Amzulak, who was himself a Jew, took a 
keen interest in the movement and, evidently encouraged by 
Mr. Moore, went to Constantinople for the purpose of helping 
to surmount the difficulties. Unfortunately, the war in Egypt 
had just broken out, and owing to the strained diplomatic 
relations between Britain and Turkey in consequence of the 
occupation of Egypt, the moment did not prove opportune for 
the intentions of M. Amzulak and Laurence Oliphant. It looked 
as if in that way nothing could be done. At last 3300 Dunan 


were bought at Rishon, but new funds were much needed. 
M. Amzulak was elected Honorary President of the *' Advanced 
Guard/' and appeals were sent to England. Meanwhile new 
groups, which despatched their envoys to several countries, were 
formed. In April, 1882, M. Hirsch Braun and M. Isaac Temkin 
of Elizabethgrad, Russia, proceeded to Vienna, Paris and London 
on behalf of 150 families of Elizabethgrad, comprising nine 
hundred persons in all, who had raised a fund of thirty thousand 
roubles for the purpose of migrating to Palestine. But this plan 
and similar schemes were still in an undeveloped stage, while the 
Bilu business, which had already been started, was really 
pressing. The Company wanted a loan of thirty thousand francs. 
In 1883 M. Feinberg was delegated to go abroad to get this loan. 
He went first to Vienna, where the Choveve Zion Society (called 
" Ahirath Zion "), with Perez Smolenskin, Dr. Schnirer and 
Kremenezky was already in existence. M. Feinberg was intro- 
duced to various committees which promised contributions, 
provided the Paris Choveve Zion would head the list. M. Fein- 
berg went to Paris holding letters of introduction from the 
former teacher. Professor Herman Schapiro, to M. Zadoc Cahn, 
the Grand Rabbin of France, and was well received by the French 
rabbi, who got him in touch with M. Michel Erlanger. In that 
way he was introduced to the Alliance Israelite, and to Baron 
Edmond de Rothschild, and succeeded in getting the required 

This was practically the first colonization experiment of 
Jewish immigrants. The die was cast. The nucleus of coloniza- 
tion by immigrants had been formed. This pioneer group natur- 
ally could not remain very long in that place, because it was badly 
suited for that purpose. There were no means, skill, method, or 
experience. Great privation was endured. The Httle group 
soon found itself in a deplorable condition ; some of them, over- 
whelmed by hardships, anxiety, disappointment and despair, 
had to leave ; but the " survival of the fittest " prevailed. 
Some went to Mikveh Israel, where they worked as farm 
labourers, others to Katra, twenty-five miles south-west of Jaffa, 
where M. Pines had bought some three hundred Dunam of land 
for them. But the fact remains that these students and ideahsts 
were the first in the field as Palestinian colonizers. The present 
writer had the moral satisfaction to meet survivors of these 
pioneers in Palestine six years ago : the old-experienced settlers, 
M. Tschernow in Rishon L'Zion and M. Leibowitz in Katra, and 
Israel Belkind, the most enthusiastic worker — aU three veterans 
of the struggle for the survival on the land. 

But all these difiiculties only stimulated the efforts of other 
new pioneers. The Bilu stirred up the enthusiasm of all noble- 
minded Jewish students at the Russian Universities. 


(2) Modern Hebrew Literature 

The necessarily brief outline in the text may be supplemented 
by some account of the principal figures in Hebrew literature 
during the last generation, llie names are in alphabetical 

Ben-Avigdor (Schalkowitsch, 1866), born in Warsaw, was 
Secretary of the Bnei Mosheh, for some years assistant manager 
of the Publication Society, Achiasaf, and founded in 1897 the 
new Publication Company, Tushiah, which has published 
hundreds of new Hebrew books, particularly in the domain of 
education. His idea was to create a popular Hebrew literature, 
and he has greatly stimulated Hebrew writing and Hebrew 
education. He is himself a successful and prolific Hebrew 

S. Benzion (Gutman), born in Russia, has done important 
literary and pedagogical work in Odessa, and during the last few 
years in Palestine. He is one of the best Hebrew writers of our 
time ; his stories are remarkable for beauty, charm and vividness 
of language. He has contributed to many Hebrew reviews and 
newspapers, and has co-operated in the publication of Achiasaf, 
Tushiah, and Moriah, chiefly in the domain of pedagogical litera- 
ture. He was also editor of the excellent review Moledeth at 
Jaffa. A selection of his sketches and tales was published not 
long ago. 

M.J, Berditchevski is an original stylist and a prose-poet of 
great sensibility and mystic beauty, distinguished especially for 
his gift of allegory. His mode of thought is original, sometimes 
eccentric, but always spiritual. 

Simon Bernfeld, born in Galicia, and graduated in Germany. 
He is one of the most prolific and distinguished of Hebrew writers. 
During the last years of David Gordon's life he was a regular 
contributor to Hamagid, and after Gordon's death was for a 
time editor of that paper. At that time he ardently supported 
Jewish nationalism and the Choveve Zion, After a couple of 
years as Chief Rabbi at Belgrade he returned to Germany and 
devoted himself entirely to literary and journalistic work, mostly 
in Hebrew. He has been a regular contributor to the Hebrew 
press all over the world. He has written also a large number of 
books on history and the philosophy of religion, and many bio- 
graphies. His vast erudition and his popular style have won him 
a prominent place in Hebrew literature. 

Reuben Brainin, born in Russia, has lived in Vienna and in 
Berlin, and is now in the United States. He is a critic, essayist 
and publicist . His contributions to the Hebrew press, as well as 
his biographies of Mapu, Smolenskin and others, have won him 
a high place in this domain of letters. His style is fresh and 
easy, and distinguished by correctness and taste. He edited 


Mimisrach Umimaarav, and has written novels and treatises of 
great literary value. He was one of the pioneers of the national 
movement in Vienna, and was in the closest connection with 
the Kadima and Herzl. 

R. A. Broides, born in Russia, belonged to the old Wilna 
school. He had a pure and pleasant Hebrew style, and wrote 
some novels of value. He contributed to Hashachar, and was 
afterwards sub-editor of Gottlober's Ha'boker Or in Lemberg. 
He worked for the Zionist movement in Galicia and Vienna, and 
wrote several articles for the propaganda of Zionism. He died 
in Vienna in 1902. 

M. M. DoLiTZKY, born in Bialystok, Russia, lived for many 
years in America. He was a contributor to Ha'shachar and 
Ha'melitz, and wrote several novels and essays, as well as poems 
full of Zionist enthusiasm. Critics may differ as to the exact 
literary value of his poems, but there is no doubt as to their 
depth of feeUng and beautiful Biblical style. 

Drujanow, born in Russia, active in Odessa, in Palestine and 
in Wilna, belongs to the most prominent representatives of 
" cultural " Zionism. He was Secretary of the Choveve Zion in 
Odessa, lived a few years in Palestine and acquired a high and 
well-deserved literary reputation as editor of Ha'olam. A 
conscientious pubhcist, of consistent and independent judgment, 
with an admirable mastery of the Hebrew language, he is an 
intellectual worker in the best sense of the term. Besides his 
work as a publicist, he has written some excellent essays. 

MoRDECAi Ehrenpreis, bom in Gahcia, graduated in Germany, 
was Rabbi in Esseg, Austria, then Chief Rabbi in Sofia, Bulgaria, 
and is now Chief Rabbi in Stockholm. He is a Hebrew nation- 
alist of genius and experience, many-sided, with international 
associations and wide knowledge. He belonged to the Nationalist 
Students' Association in Berlin, and has been in the Zionist 
Organization since the first Congress, at which he played a promi- 
nent part. He represents the intellectual and spiritual side of 
the movement. A man of clear judgment and of strong character, 
he is very active in important work connected with the inter- 
national Jewish problem. In Hebrew Uterature he is one of the 
best critics and essayists. He writes excellent Hebrew, and has 
sound literary judgment. 

Eleasar Eisenstadt, bom in Russia, was Rabbi at Rostow, 
and is now official and communal Rabbi at St. Petersburg. As a 
student at Berlin, where he graduated, he was one of the most 
enthusiastic of the young nationalists. Endowed with a keen 
perception, and intimately acquainted with the life of the 
Russian Ghetto, he is a master of anecdote, and has turned his 
gift to account in a series of Hebrew tales. A many-sided and 
energetic communal worker, particularly interested in Jewish 
education (in which he was formerly engaged at St. Petersburg), 
he enjoys a wide popularity. 


Zalman Epstein, of Odessa, now in Warsaw, who belonged to 
the Achad Ha' am circle, and was Secretary of the Choveve Zion 
in Odessa, is an ardent nationalist and a zealous worker for 
the Jewish revival. He contributed during several years to 
Ha'melitz and other Hebrew periodicals. His productions are 
distinguished by a vivid, nervous style, and by a deep earnestness 
of conviction. An acute controversialist, with a strong predilec- 
tion for traditional ideas, he has written several articles against 
the extravagances of modernism. 

A. S. Friedberg (Har Shalom), born in Grodno, lived in 
St. Petersburg and in Warsaw. He was one of the most popular 
Hebrew writers of his time. He wrote with ease and elegance and 
was at one time considered the successor of Mapu, particularly 
for his translation of Grace Aguilar's Vale of Cedars — into Hebrew, 
Emek Ha'arazim. He possessed a wonderful Hebrew style, and 
had the closest acquaintance with current Jewish affairs. A 
convinced and enthusiastic nationalist, he was a member of the 
editorial staff of Ha'melitz, afterwards of Ha'zefirah, and of the 
first volume of the Hebrew Encyclopaedia, and became ultimately 
one of the principal writers of the Achiasaf, for which he wrote a 
series of popular books. 

S. I. FucHS, born in Russia, graduated in Switzerland, and was 
a scholar of great versatility and deep learning. As a student he 
belonged to several nationalist students' associations and was 
distinguished by his earnestness and high moral sense. His 
treatises dealing with Jewish historical and literary topics are of 
enduring value. He was one of the assistant editors of Ha'magid 
and had a considerable share in the propaganda of Zionism. 

S. J. HuRWiTz, born in Russia, a Hebrew writer of marked 
individuality. A learned Talmudist, with considerable erudition 
in ancient, mediaeval and modern literature, a keen, inquiring 
and independent thinker, he pursued " Jewish science " and 
historical studies in a way which often brought him into collision 
with established and accepted traditions. He contributed to 
several reviews, and edited his own review, He'atid. He is a 
devoted champion of the Hebrew revival. 

Wolf Javitz, born in Warsaw, scholar and writer, is a master 
of the Hebrew language, in the knowledge of which he has few 
equals. A student of extraordinary assiduity, he has amassed a 
vast fund of erudition, which is revealed in the writings of his 
later years. An enthusiastic nationalist and Chovev Zion, and 
at the same time an upholder of strict traditional principles, 
he is the most eloquent interpreter of the national idea in the 
spirit of traditional Judaism. He lived for several years in 
Palestine, and has written several books. Many years ago he 
began writing a complete History of the Jews, of which several 
volumes — works of great learning — have already appeared. 

Isaac Kaminer, born in Russia, was a physician and a prolific 
contributor to the Hebrew press. His essays, causeries and 


parodies are distinguished by skill and "temperament." His 
poems are full of fight and an honest zeal for the Jewish national 
cause. He had an original and entirely free metrical and rhyth- 
mical system. A selection of his works appeared posthumously 
in Odessa (1907), with an introduction by A chad Ha' am. 

Aaron Kaminka, born in Russia, studied abroad, mostly in 
Paris. He contributed regularly to Ha'melitz, Ha'zefirah, and 
several reviews. He also translated classical poems and 
wrote original verses. He took a considerable share in the 
Choveve Zion movement, preaching with great zeal the spiritual 
progress of the nation, and emphasizing the importance of a living 
Hebrew language. He was then appointed Rabbi in Slavonia, 
afterwards at Prague. He joined the Zionist movement, but left 
it through a difference of opinion. He has since become Secretary 
of the Israelitische Allianz at Vienna, for which he has travelled 
much. He has published records of his travels, as well as a 
selection of his Hebrew poems. 

Dr. J. C. Katzenelsohn (1848-1917) [Buki hen Yogli) 
wrote essays and short stories which are literary jewels. His 
scientific works in Hebrew are unequalled for learning and 
mastery of style. 

A. S. Kerschberg, of Bialystok, Russia, is a Hebrew scholar 
and writer of great ability. He has contributed to Ha'zefirah and 
Ha'shiloach, and has written treatises deaUng with talmudical 
matters. An ardent nationalist, he has been connected with the 
Choveve Zion movement since it began. He has lived in Palestine 
and has published his observations and experiences in an inter- 
esting pamphlet. 

Joseph Klausner, born in Odessa, a graduate of Heidelberg, 
is one of the most prominent disciples of Achad Ha' am, whom 
he succeeded in the editorship of Ha'shiloach. A devoted Chovev 
Zion and a keen Hebraist, he commenced Hebrew journalistic 
work in his earliest youth. At Heidelberg and elsewhere he 
assisted in the formation of the Nationalist Students' Association, 
in which he took a leading part. He has done valuable work in 
the field of BibUcal and historical studies. He was for many years 
lecturer at the Rabbinical College in Odessa. Palciitinian 
nationahsm and culture based upon Hebrew tradition are the 
guiding principles of his numerous publicistic writings. He is a 
pioneer of Palestinian Hebrew education. The impressions of 
his last visit to Palestine are given in his Olam Mithhaveh 
(A World in Evolution). 

L. Levinski, born in Russia, Uved during the most important 
period of his life in Odessa, where he was a prominent member of 
the Choveve Zion, of the editorial staff of Ha'shiloach, of the 
Moriah, of the Zionist Synagogue Javneh, and other institutions. 
His quaint felicity of style, continual flow of wit, and easy, 
vivacious narrative won him a great reputation as a satirist. He 


contributed to the Hebrew press f euilletons and reviews of current 
events, and also wrote some pamphlets of value. A selection 
of his works has been published since his death by the Moriah. 

MoRDECAi Zevi Mane was born in the village of Radosh- 
kevitsch, in Russia. He studied at the Academy of Arts in St. 
Petersburg, and won distinction as a gifted painter, a Hebrew poet, 
and an excellent writer in prose. He contributed to He'assif 
and Knesseth Israel. Though he may not rank among the 
Olympians, he produced in his modest way many a Zionist poem 
of enduring worth. He died young, and a collection of his works 
appeared posthumously (Warsaw, 1907). 

David Neumark, of Galicia, studied at Berlin, and was one of 
the most original and prominent figures in nationalistic students' 
circles. After having graduated, he was appointed Rabbi at 
Rakowitz, Austria, where he officiated for a few years. He 
entered the Zionist Organization and became a loyal and zealous 
worker, with a strong inclination towards " cultural " Zionism. 
He soon devoted himself to philosophy, and, besides his History 
of Jewish Philosophy, first written in German, he contributed a 
series of philosophical articles, written in an elaborate and exact 
style, to Ha'shiloach. He also wrote other essays of value. Later 
he was appointed Professor at the Cincinnati Hebrew Union 
College, where he has pursued his educational and literary 

Saul Pinchas Rabinowitsch (Schefer) (1875-1911) won a 
very prominent place among the distinguished pioneers of Zionism 
in Russia, as well as among the ablest and most popular Hebrew 
writers and publicists. He devoted many years of his life to the 
propaganda of the Choveve Zion movement, and was for many 
years Secretary of the Warsaw Choveve Zion. He was an ardent 
and active Zionist from the very beginning of the Zionist Organ- 
ization. In close connection with Rabbi Mobile ver, Leo Pinsker 
and Alexander Zederbaum, he often travelled on important 
missions, maintaining a world-wide correspondence with hundreds 
of Jewish leaders and writers, and occupied principally with 
Choveve Zion affairs, but also with Russian- Jewish affairs gener- 
ally, particularly during the period of the pogroms. He was a 
zealous and devoted Jewish national worker, was assistant editor 
of the Hazefirah, 1857-80, contributor to several Hebrew and 
other newspapers, editor of the year-book Knesseth Israel, one of 
the editors of the first volume of the Hebrew Encyclopaedia 
Ha-Eschkol, and author of many monographs and biographies. His 
greatest work was the Hebrew translation of Graetz' History of 
the Jews (with many valuable original additions of Harkavy and 
of other scholars, as well as of his own). 

J. Ch. Rawnitzki, born in Russia, author and educationist, 
whose activity has lain mostly in Odessa, has for many years been 
engaged in Hebrew literary work of a nationalist character in the 
Choveve Zion movement. He edited Ha'pardes, contributed to 


several reviews, and is one of the principal editors and authors 
working for the Moriah in Odessa. 

A. J. Slutzki, bom and living in Russia, was an able and 
shrewd Zionist publicist. He contributed to Ha'melitz under 
J. L. Gordon, and actively assisted the Choveve Zion propaganda. ^ 

O. Taviev, born in Russia, lives in Moscow. He is one of the 
most prominent Hebrew journahsts, authors and educationists. 
He is one of the originators of the modern Hebrew style. For 
several years he contributed regularly to Ha'melitz and other 
Hebrew papers and reviews. He has written causeries and critical 
essays in an easy and pleasant style, and has also translated 
some works of helles lettres. His principal services, however, 
lie in the domain of pedagogy. 

Joshua Thon, bom in Galicia, now Rabbi and preacher at the 
temple of the Jewish Congregation at Cracow, took an active part 
in the Students' national movement as a student in Berlin, where 
he graduated, and distinguished himself by great learning and 
strength of character. A convinced Zionist and an enthusiastic 
champion of Hebrew, he entered the Zionist Organization, of 
which, owing to his oratorical powers and personal influence, he 
is one of the most active leaders. Besides his numerous writings 
in PoUsh and in German, he is a Hebrew writer of value, and his 
essays, mostly published in Ha'shiloach, exhibit a considerable 
critical faculty. 

Chaim Tschernowitz, bom in Russia, had a thorough talmudic 
education, was Rabbi in Odessa, then studied at a German 
University and graduated in Switzerland. His contributions to 
Ha'shiloach, under the nom de plume, Rav Zaair (A young Rabbi), 
attracted attention by the broadminded views and compre- 
hensiveness of historical sense in dealing with religious and 
ritual matters which they disclosed. He has also written 
historical and talmudic sketches. He was for several years 
Principal of the Odessa Rabbinical College. He is in the closest 
touch with the Choveve Zion movement, and is one of the leaders 
of those nationalistic Rabbis who unite faithfulness to the 
old traditions with a modern spirit of science and critical 

HiLLEL Zeitlin, bom in Russia, active in Wilna, and more 
recently in Warsaw, was one of the editors of the Wilna Ha'zman, 
to which he contributed valuable essays and articles. A Tal- 
mudist of emdition, an authority on Chassidism, a semi-mystic 
enthusiast endowed with a poetical imagination, a master of the 
Hebrew language and of the forms and methods of modern 
literature, he achieves a degree of pathos and beauty unsurpassed 
in modern Hebrew literature. He joined the Zionist movement, 
but afterwards identified himself with TerritoriaUsm. In recent 

* He was killed, together with his wife, in a pogrom which took place 
at Novograd Sieversk in 191 8. 


years he has gone over to the Yiddish press, of which he is one 
of the most gifted and influential writers. 

Other Hebrew writers worthy of mention are Joshua Steinberg, 
from a scientific point of view one of the most important of the 
Hebraists of Russia ; Bendetsohn, who exceeded Mapu in biblical 
purity of language in the form of an ideaUstic prose ; Moses 
Reichersohn ; Mordecai Wohlmann ; T. E, Epstein ; A. B. 
Gottlober, the popular poet, superficial yet clear and graceful ; 
Eleazer Ha-Cohen Zweifel, the sweet Midrash-like moralist, 
homiletical critic and essayist ; the wonderful modem novelists 
Feuerstein, Jehuda Steinberg, Berschadski and Grassin ; Eleasar 
Atlas the sharp-witted critic, M. A. Schatzkes, who notwith- 
standing his loquacity had a rich style and some good 
ideas, and his other protagonist in the same field of Agada- 
explanation ; Jehouda Schereschewski, distinguished by his 
concentrated calm — and their followers ; Weissberg ; Dubze- 
vitch ; Edelman ("Adulami"); Maskileison ; the learned and 
thoughtful Joseph Rosenthal ; the serious scholars Jacob Bach- 
rach ; A. I. Bruck ; David Kahane ; Salomon Mandelkern, the 
industrious scholar and skilled poet who translated Byron's 
Hebrew Melodies with masterly skill ; Slominsky ; Lichtenfeld ; 
Lipkin ; Medalie ; Barasch ; Y. MarguHes ; Hirsch Rabinovitch ; 
and Sosnitz, who introduced natural science into Hebrew litera- 
ture ; J. L. Kantor ; Proser ; Silberman ; J. Kohn Zedek ; 
Werber ; Frumkin ; Fischer ; Ch. L. Markom ; Joseph Brill, 
masters of journalistic style — all these writers and many, many 
others were the precursors of the revival of Hebrew. Jn this 
connection, special mention must be made of some of the living 
writers who, though not showing any special nationalistic or 
Zionist tendency, have greatly contributed to the enrichment 
and development of the Hebrew language and hterature. 

Great attention and acknowledgment are due to David Fisch- 
mann, the charming poet, the brilliant causeur and essayist, the 
wonderful critic who deals in a witty way with the most serious 
questions, the translator of many works of science and fiction ; 
to the old Hebrew noveUst and poet, Nathan Samuely, whose 
poetry is replete with sweetness and harmony ; to the greatest 
of Jewish historians, bibliographers and critics of world-wide 
fame. Dr. Abraham Harkavy ; the learned Israelsohn ; the able 
Abraham Cahan ; the Talmudist, N. A. Getzow ; the learned 
and thoughtful Heller ; the ingenious scholar and mathe- 
matician, Ch. J. Bornstein (who translated Hamlet into Hebrew) ; 
the bibliographer, Wiener ; the orientahst, Isaac Marcon ; the 
studious T. Ratner, magid ; the old writer of lyric impulse, 
I. L. Levin (Jehabel), a poet and publicist of merit ; the critic 
and essayist, A. J. Paperna, one of the last representatives of the 
old school ; the able journaHst and talmudical critic, Benzion 
Katz ; the talented modem novelists : Brenner, Schofman, 
Berkowitsch, Kaabak ; Sneur, the young poet of vigour and 


ardour, noble spirit and bold fancy, who refreshed Hebrew poetry 
by a new stream of modern fiction ; and Isaac Katzenelsohn, 
Ben Schimon, Heftmen, Pinski and others, who gave us sunny 
thoughts and beautiful pictures, in which deUcacy of taste is 
accompanied by versatile and roaming fancy. Shalom Asch, the 
greatest in the coterie of the artists of the PoHsh Ghetto, gave us 
some of his tales in Hebrew ; the gifted Abraham Reisin, a 
master of Yiddish, and the talented Numberg, who masters the 
Hebrew language, and who besides writing essays and tales of 
value in Hebrew worked hard and successfully in Hebrew 
journalism, have contributed very much to the modernization of 
Hebrew literature. And, as regards the two greatest stars of the 
Yiddish literature, " J. L. Peretz " and S. Rabinowitsch 
(" Scholom Aleicham "), whose loss we so deeply lament, and 
whose undying names belong to the chief glories of our literature 
of the present age, it is well known that both of them were partly 
Hebrew poets and writers of considerable genius. 

Finally, there are Ben Ami Rabinowitzch (Mark Jakovlevitch), 
born in Russia, lived in Odessa, and now in Geneva, Switzerland, 
who is one of the best writers of fiction on Jewish life in Russia. 
His writings breathe a noble passion of love for the Jewish people, 
his observations are those of a high-minded man and an artist, 
and are full of national, noble emotion. He joined the Zionist 
movement from its very beginning. 

Vladimir Jabotinski, born in Odessa, studied in Russia, in 
Italy and in Austria, and graduated at Petrograd, is a brilliant 
journalist and an orator of great eloquence and power. He is a 
contributor to great Russian newspapers, and has estabUshed a 
reputation as correspondent and an essayist of admirable skill. 
He worked with great devotion and success in the Zionist pro- 
paganda. Having acquired a sound knowledge of Hebrew, he 
translated Bialik's poems into Russian, and wrote also some 
articles in Hebrew. 

It will also be interesting to mention that the famous Russian- 
Jewish writer of the last generation, Lewanda, who was one of 
the representative writers of the period of enlightenment, during 
his successful literary career adhered in the last years of his fife 
to the national idea, and supported the Choveve Zion move- 

It is impossible to enumerate all the Hterary and educational 
representatives of the National Revival in Palestine ; but a few 
names of note, in addition to those which have already been 
mentioned, cannot be omitted. 

Israel Belkind has given proof of considerable Hterary abiUty 
in a series of pamphlets dealing with Palestine. J. Menuchas, 
who was bom and is still hving in Jerusalem, is a prominent 
contributor to the Hebrew press, as well as an excellent teacher. 
Ahroni, the zoologian, a scholar of renown, is pursuing his ideal- 
istic, scientific work at Rechoboth. Isaac Epstein now lives in 


Switzerland, but he is in spirit and style decidedly a Palestinian. 
He lived for years in seclusion, in a rustic tent among the hills of 
Upper GaUlee, and wrote his work by the light of heaven. He 
remained faithful, as few priests have ever remained to their 
calling, a priest of the Hebrew language, which was revealed to 
him in all its beauty. M. Scheinkin, the devoted and popular 
worker, is a prolific publicist. Freimann, the old settler of Rishon, 
writes excellent books. Aronovitz, with his contributors, made 
the Ha-Poel Ha-Zaiv one of the best Hebrew weeklies which 
have ever existed ; the Ha-Omer and the Moledet, splendid 
magazines, had a real Palestinian charm. (Of the last-mentioned 
the excellent essayist, pedagogical writer and poet, Fischmann, 
was recently the editor.) The numerous and various writings of 
Ben-Zion Guttman have been added to in Palestine ; the 
" Waad Ha-Lashon " (Committee for the Language) at Jerusalem, 
with YeUin, Ben Yehouda, Zouts, Dr. Mazie and others, has 
done good work. Nearly all the specialists in agriculture and in 
medicine write in Hebrew ; and Brenner, the most modern 
belles-lettres writer in Jerusalem. 

On the other hand, the new Hebrew schools brought into the 
country a host of intellectual workers : Metman-Cohn, Bograt- 
schow, Turow, Mossinsohn, Alexander Rabinowitsch, Lurie, 
Zutta, Segal, Schiller, Ladyshewski, Marschak, Biram, Tachower, 
Rosenstein, Ziphroni, Feldmann, Mowschensohn, Ozerkowsky, 
JehieU, Papper. Others added merely their young modern 
efforts to the briUiant abilities of a Yellin or of that admirable 
type of a national educator represented by Vilkomitsch at 
Yessod Ha-Maaleh. All these pioneers are inspired Zionists, 
and they are paving the way for a great Revival. 

In addition to these writers, the following prominent Hebrew 
journalists may be mentioned : — 

Abraham Loudvipol, a writer of great ability and strength of 
conviction, who became editor of the Ha'zofeh; Moses Klein- 
mann, a shrewd journalist, and a publicist of sound judgment ; 
Samuel Tschernowitz (the brother of Chaim Tschernowitz), a 
journalist of a high order, who worked with great success for 
Ha'zefirah and Ha'zman ; Nahum Syrkin, a wholehearted Zionist, 
an orator and a publicist of keen observation, and an eloquent 
exponent of the national idea, author of hundreds of articles, 
sketches, causeries and speeches^; N. J. Frenk, a moderate and 
consistent publicist of wide experience, who takes a leading part 
in the work of Ha'zefirah ; and S. Jatzkan, at present editor of 
the Haint, formerly a contributor to Hamelitz and Ha'zefirah, a 
zealous journalist and fighter : and among those of the older 
generation, M. Braunstein of Roumania (" Mibaschan "), master 
of a flowery and elaborate biblical style, author of many peda- 
gogical books, but best known by his innumerable contributions 

^ He died in 191 8 at Kiew. 


to the Hebrew press ; Lazar, the able editor of Hamitzpeh in 
Cracow ; M. M. Pross of Warsaw, a judicious writer of causeries 
and criticisms in the old style ; Ch. Z. Zagorodzki of Warsaw, 
a pohshed Hebrew stylist, author of several fine sketches, for 
many years one of the principal collaborators of Ha'zefirah ; 
Shimon Volkov, a talmudical parodist with a peculiar style of his 
own ; Dr. Berkowitz, of Vienna, a Jewish scholar and an excellent 
Hebrew writer, who was at one time Hebrew Secretary of the 
Vienna Zionist Organization and a regular contributor to 
Ha'zefirah ; M. Rabinsohn, author of several sketches and 
translator for Ha'zman and Ha'zefirah ; Z. Prilutzki, an old 
Choveve Zion writer and worker. These and many others have 
perhaps done more to make Zionism popular by their everyday 
work as journalists than many authors of books. 

Other contributors to modern Hebrew journalism are : Leon 
Rabinowitsch, who was editor of Ha-Melitz in Petrograd after 
Zederbaum ; S. Rosenfeld, who afterwards came into prominence 
as a Yiddish publicist ; J, E. Triwusch of Wilna ; Samuel Leib 
Zitron of Wilna ; the late Hirsch Neimanowitsch and M. Weber 
of Warsaw ; E. Goldin of Lodz ; J. D. Berkowitsch, now in New 
York ; P. Lachover of Warsaw ; Hermoni of Palestine ; and 
E. D. Finkel of Warsaw. To the new Hebrew pedagogical 
literature : Ch. D. Tawiow of Riga, Salomon Berman, P. 
Kantorowitz, A. Libuschitzki of Warsaw, P. Berkman of Lodz, 
and the two great Yiddish poets Simon Frug of Odessa and 
Jehoasch of New York have played important parts in the 
awakening of the national feeUng. 


Note upon the Alliance Israelite Universelle and the 
Anglo- Jewish Association 

In considering the relationship of the Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle and the Anglo- Jewish Association to the Jewish National 
Movement, regard should be had to the foundation period of 
these institutions, when not only were those associated with their 
establishment men of Jewish Nationalist sympathies, but their 
activities were met by similar criticism to that which has con- 
fronted the Zionist leaders of recent years. Time has brought 
about a change in the personnel of the leadership of the Alliance 
and the Anglo- Jewish Association, but it is useful to bear in 
mind that this change is simply personal and that there is 
nothing changed in principle in the organizations which should 
prevent them being expressive of that nationaUst spirit, charac- 


teristic of their earlier days. M. Charles Netter, Dr. Abraham 
Benisch, Dr. Albert Lowy and Mr. Baron Louis Benas, j.p. 
(M. Netter, one of the founders of the Alliance, Dr. Benisch, 
Dr. Lowy and Mr. Benas, associated with the establishment of 
the Anglo- Jewish Association) were all men of Jewish Nationahst 
sympathies. M. Netter is permanently identified with the foun- 
dation of the Mikveh Israel Agricultural School near Jaffa, the 
foster-mother of the Jewish Colonies of Palestine. Dr. Benisch, 
to whom the suggestion of an Anglo- Jewish Association on the 
lines of the Alliance Israelite was made by Mr. Benas, who had 
estabhshed in Liverpool the first branch of the Alliance in 
England in 1867, enthusiastically took up the idea and became 
the organizer of the English institution founded three years 
later. The formation of the first English branch of the Alliance 
at Liverpool called forth in 1868 at the end of its first year's 
work the highest appreciation of M. Cremieux. Dr. Benisch had 
in his student days inaugurated with Dr. Lowy and Professor 
Steinschneider a Zionistic movement, and in the foundation of 
the Anglo- Jewish Association the two former saw the possibilities 
of the realization of many of the hopes and aspirations of their 
youth. Mr. Benas, Dr. Benisch and Dr. Lowy were active propa- 
gandists on behalf of the Association. Mr. Benas and Dr. Lowy 
were members of the International Palestine Committee which 
was formed in 1878 on the recommendation of the Palestine 
Section of the International Jewish Conference held that year in 
Paris, and of which section Mr. Benas was one of the two English 
representatives, the other being the Rev. S. Jacobs. The Pales- 
tine Section undertook to institute an examination of the general 
condition of the Jews in the East and especially of the Jews in 
Palestine with a view of effecting such improvements as might 
be needful, that country being known to several members who 
had visited it at various times. This section had the advantage 
of being attended by delegates from both Europe and America. 
This section of the Conference resolved ** That the Alliance be 
requested to bring about the formation of a special commission 
on Palestine. This Committee is to be composed of persons of 
every country who take an interest in the welfare of brother 
Israelites and in the prosperity of the Holy Land." On its 
formation, the Committee was entrusted with the establishment 
of new schools and particularly the control of the Institution 
Mikveh Israel. The report significantly added, " in entrusting 
the control of this Agricultural School to the Committee, with the 
view of further aiding in the development of that Institution, 
the Alliance would obtain a solid basis for its civilizing action " 
(Anglo- Jewish Association, 8th Annual Report, pp. 30, 36). In 
1885 Mr. Benas and the late Chief Rabbi, Dr. Hermann Adler, 
visited Palestine together. En route they had an interview with 
Baron Edmond de Rothschild in Paris, at whose request materials 
were collected for a report of the condition of Jewry in the 


Ancient Jewish Homeland. The late Chief Rabbi gave an oral 
account of the educational institutions in Palestine to the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Association. Mr. Benas' " Report of his 
Travels in the East " wsls published as an Appendix to the 
Fourteenth Annual Report of the Association. The Report, 
which drew from the historian Graetz a most appreciative letter 
to the author, disclosing Graetz' strong Zionistic sympathies, 
is not only valuable as one of the few historical documents in 
EngUsh giving a contemporary account of the early renascence 
of Jewish life in Palestine by a Jewish writer, but because of its 
accurate forecasting of the conditions of future development, 
the revival of Hebrew as a living language being particularly 
noted. The following are extracts from the report : — 

"Jaffa. Jaffa was reached on April 26th, and I at once, in 
company with Dr. Adler, visited the Mikveh Israel or Agricul- 
tural School. The director, Monsieur Hirsch, happened to be 
absent at Aleppo, but we were received by the sub-director, 
M. Haim, 

The whole neighbourhood of Jaffa is most charming, full of 
the choicest exotics, whilst palms, citrons, and oranges luxuriate 
everywhere. The vines are in splendid condition. Everything 
seems to flower there in profusion, even wild roses and poppies 
in the cornfields, whilst the fig takes the place of our bushes and 
thickets. There are some charming properties about Jaffa. 

As far as a model farm and beautifully cultivated garden is 
concerned, the Mikveh Israel holds its own with any institution 
of its kind, I would almost say, in Europe, and is a perpetual 
monument of the efforts of the late Mons. Netter. 

There are 240 hectares, mostly under cultivation. They pro- 
duced excellent wine, which, I am informed, is sold at a good 
profit. They have oranges, lemons, and various other fruit trees, 
besides cereals. The technical instructor, M. Klotz, an Alsatian, 
told me that there is considerable promise for the estate. There 
are now thirty-five pupils in the school, one of whom is a Moslem. 
They have a carpenter's shop, where three boys are at constant 
work. They have thirty cows — ten giving a full supply of milk ; 
they have eight calves, two horses and ten mules to assist the 
agricultural operations, and a good supply of water and a com- 
plete system of irrigation. 

Everything in the establishment is thoroughly well kept. We 
were shown through the dormitories, and found twelve slept in 
each room, but the chambers were tolerably large. 

Jerusalem. I arrived at Jerusalem on the night of the 27th 
April. The first thing that strikes the visitor is the fact that 
Jerusalem is a Jewish city. The Jewish population has so 
steadily increased as to tower head and shoulders above all 
others ; this can best be noticed on a Sabbath, when almost all 
the streets and bazaars are silent. The native born Jewish 
population are in physique superior to their European co- 


religionists ; they are taller, more dignified, and are decidedly 
of a handsome type. I am indebted for my statistics to M, 
Nissim Behar and the banker, M. H. Valero, both of these 
estimable gentlemen being natives of Jerusalem. The total 
population of Jerusalem is about 35,000. There are conflicting 
accounts as to the Jewish population ; some put it at 20,000, 
others at 18,000. 

There are two Jerusalems, the one within the walls of the 
city, the other outside the Jaffa Gate, which has sprung into 
existence during the last five or six years, and inhabited almost 
exclusively by Jews. I am undervaluing rather than exag- 
gerating when I state that the villas and residences outside the 
city are quite equal in neatness and in their inviting aspect to 
some of the best parts of the Cheshire side of the Mersey, which 
they much resemble. 

The Asiatic Jews are wealthy, and have mostly emigrated 
from the neighbourhood of Batoum, Poti and Tiflis. Their 
residences might almost be described as attaining a degree of 
positive comfort. They are a large community, and are quite 
independent in their means ; they have their own rabbi, and 
give considerable assistance, when required, to their more in- 
digent co-religionists. These Jews are scrupulously clean in 
their habits, are above the average height, and their flowing 
robes of spotless white cashmere betoken at once their manners. 
Credit must also be given to the Montefiore Testimonial Fund 
Buildings, which, if small, are decidedly clean and well kept, 
especially those tenanted by the Sephardi Jews — a great number 
of tenements having been built through the aid afforded by this 
fund. There are also the buildings of the Meah Shearim, a kind 
of building society, who have erected a large square block of 
tenements, which compare favourably with artisans' dwellings 
in Lancashire cities. 

The Judah Touro houses outside the city walls are fairly well 
kept, but, of course, the more modern houses have the advan- 
tage of superior construction. The defects in earlier construc- 
tions have here been carefully avoided. 

The Yemen Jews are very poor ; they present a most pecu- 
liar ethnological type. They have a very dark complexion, 
almost of a deeper shade than that of the Arabs ; they have 
beautifully chiselled features, lustrous eyes, are most simple in 
their piety and devotion to the Holy City. They still retain 
their manuscript prayer books, which Dr. Adler states are most 
interesting. I saw a Yemen woman with her child working in 
the heat of the sun at what, in Lancashire, would be termed 
navvy's work, and at the close of the day saw the clerk of the 
works give her sixty centimes as her daily wages. They were in 
terrible distress at first and slept in caverns, but, thanks to the 
exertions of Mr. Marcus Adler, who raised a fund in England, 



they are building cottages on the hillside upon which they work 
themselves, and owing to their thrifty habits and aptitude for 
labour, it is to be hoped that their worst difficulties are passed, 
and that they will attain some degree of independence. There 
are two sets of tenements being built for them, the one by the 
London Committee and the other by the help of the Society 
called Ezrath Nedachim. I may add, the Yemen Jews, both 
male and female, dress exactly like the native Arabs, from whom 
they are hardly distinguishable. 

When I write upon the Jewish tenements in the interior of 
the city my report, of course, must be less favourable. I took 
the means of going alone with M. Valero, when unexpected, into 
some of the back streets and slums of Jerusalem ; I dropped 
into various houses here and there, and saw matters from a 
practical point of view. It is most unfair for any one coming 
from Princes Park, Liverpool, or Kensington, London, or the 
Champs £lys6es, in Paris, instituting a comparison between 
those neighbourhoods and the lanes of Jerusalem. But I main- 
tain that the old streets of Marseilles and Florence, the Ghetto 
in Rome, the labyrinths in Naples, and the slums of Venice, are 
infinitely worse than the worst slums of Jerusalem. Nay, more, 
I maintain that the old Judengasse in Frankfort, the Judengasse 
in Worms, and some of the by-lanes in Vienna are decidedly no 
better than those of Jerusalem. They are more ancient and 
grimy than dirty ; the absence of timber, and the constant 
employment of stone for building purposes in Old Jerusalem, 
gives a rough and jagged appearance to the walls, but there is 
nothing except the absence of drainage (and that is the same in 
every continental city, whether it be in France, Italy, or Austria) 
that calls for especial condemnation, nay, the dingy tenements 
inside Jerusalem, inhabited by the Sephardi Jews, are made 
presentable by a considerable use of clean white calico hung 
over the walls and covered over their simple furniture and 

The future prospects of Jerusalem rest entirely with the 
rising youth, and I shall speak later on of the enormous value 
and high hopes I entertain of the Lionel de Rothschild School, 
conducted by the admirable and excellent director, M. Nissim 
Behar, of whose devotion, ability, and conscientiousness nothing 
too much can be said. 

The Lionel de Rothschild School, or " Institution Israelite 
pour Instruction et Travail," contains 140 pupils, all boys. The 
institution is singularly fortunate in possessing M. Behar as its 
chief. To be able to effect good work in Jerusalem it is almost 
imperative to be a native of the city. A teacher from England, 
France, or Germany who has longings for Europe or his native 
land, however able he may be, or however zealous, is incapable 
of infusing enthusiasm in his pupils, and when one is found like 
M. Nissim Behar, who is a man of great culture, and combines 


Parisian refinement with an ardent love and patriotism for the 
city in which he was born, and feels that he has a mission to 
perform and is perfectly oblivious to pecuniary advantages, it is 
to have already gained half the victory. Everything is neat, 
clean, and methodical. 

The hours of instruction are from 8 o'clock until 12, and from 
I to 5. 

I shall devote my report principally to the course of technical 
education, with which I believe the future prosperity of the 
Jews of Jerusalem is bound up. 

The Technical School contains a forge, a carpenter's shop, a 
cabinet-maker's bench, a tailor's department, a shoemaker's 
shop, a turner's lathe, a school of art for modelling, drawing, 
and sculpture, and a gymnasium for physical development. 

Of these schools, the forge, the carpenter's shop, and the school 
of art have produced capital results ; we saw Jewish lads, who 
have only been a few weeks at the classes, making some excel- 
lent sketches, and in order to test their genuineness gave them 
several impromptu subjects to execute in our presence, which 
they did admirably. 

The Forge is another successful institution. 

Although the French language is the medium of tuition and 
the general language adopted, Hebrew is used side by side, not 
only as a language of prayer, but also as a means of conversa- 
tion. French, as a medium of intercommunication amongst 
Europeans and officials, is very much required in the East. 

The Girls' School — Evelina de Rothschild Institute — contains 
184 girls. 

Hebron. I regret to have to report very adversely upon the 
condition of our co-religionists in Hebron. The pleasure and 
hopefulness I experienced in Jerusalem present a marked con- 
trast to the disappointment I felt at the abject position of the 
Jews in the City of Abraham. 

I met several Jews on the road who were trading with the 
neighbouring villages in butter and cheese ; of course their 
profits would be exceedingly smaU. The soil around Hebron is 
most fertile, and the natural resources of the immediate neigh- 
bourhood decidedly good. 

I venture to think that it is not eleemosynary aid that will 
do any real good for them. Food of all kinds and wine of a good 
quality is abundant and very cheap. I believe the Jews would 
work hard if taught what to do. Technical and general educa- 
tion would very soon transform an abject congregation into a 
happy and prosperous community." 

Mr. Benas delivered a large number of lectures upon the 
subject of his visit to Palestine and granted many interviews, 
all of which helped to arouse interest on behalf of the budding 
Jewish Hfe in the Ancient Homeland. In its earUest days the 
Anglo- Jewish Association received from members of the Board 


of Deputies criticism not unakin to that which in later days 
members of the Board levelled at the Anglo- Jewish Association. 
In those days the Board was oligarchic, assimilative, and insular 
in outlook, while the Anglo- Jewish was popular, national and 
world- Jewish — true to the motto Dnnn ^ir\^'> >>D. If to-day, 
while the Association cannot be called insular there are those 
who would ascribe to it the characteristic of the Board of 
Deputies of earlier days, signs are not wanting of a change 
towards the original outlook, particularly among the branches. 
It is in fairness due to the Anglo- Jewish Association to bear in 
mind that the Public Demonstration, the Conference, the Inter- 
national gatherings for Jewish purposes now a phenomenon of 
everyday life in Jewry owe to the Association and the Alliance 
their origin. To both no inconsiderable share of the foundation 
and the interest in the Western world in ,the foundation of the 
Jewish colonies in Palestine may justly be credited. Thus the 
organizations and those who established them merit the recog- 
nition and the gratitude of all who hold to the Jewish national 
ideal and strive for its fulfilment. 

[The Reports of the Alliance Israelite Universelle and the 
Anglo- Jewish Association contain much valuable material for the 
History of the Resettlement in Palestine.] 



An Appeal of the Berlin K a dim a 

In 1891 the Russian Jewish Students' Colony in BerHn submitted 
to the International Committee for the assistance of the Russian 
Jews a memorandum, in which they urged the Committee to use 
its endeavours to divert the stree.m of Jewish emigration, and, 
above all, of well-to-do emigrants, from America to the Holy 
Land. The document is of very great interest. What is called 
the wave of emigration, say the writers, is not so much emigration 
as flight. Only well-organized colonization can prove a remedy 
in the present calamity. A Jewish peasantry must be founded, 
consisting not only of the poor, but to a great extent also of the 
middle and intelligent classes. Palestine is the only country 
which affords the possibility of attaining that aim, because 
(i) Palestine itself, and especially Galilee and the land on the 
other side of the Jordan, and also Syria and Mesopotamia, 
contain an amount of land ready for sale and scarcely populated. 
The settlement of Jews there cannot meet with any objection. 
The Turkish Government will not only tolerate, but favour the 
immigration, if properly organized. An additional advantage is 
that in the near future no competition need be feared, because 
other emigrants, as a rule poor people, are not attracted by an 
uninhabited, uncultivated country. (2) The soil is fertile 
everywhere. Where no corn can be grown, wine can be produced. 
The Jewish wine-growers in Palestine will shortly be able to 
compete in the markets of Europe, and will greatly shake the 
monopoly of other wines. The climate of Palestine is as healthy 
as that of Italy, so that invalids will go there on the recommenda- 
tion of their physician instead of to Italy. In the colony Rishon 
Le'Zion, which was founded about nine years ago, there has 
been up till now only one death, although there are between 
three hundred and four hundred people living there. (3) It is the 
only country able to create a peasantry, because there is no trade 
there. It is true that in other countries also the Jews will at first 
turn to agriculture ; they will watch for anything offering them 
the means of subsistence. But a great portion will always be 
anxious to settle in the towns and again apply themselves to 
trade, whereas in Palestine the colonists will be compelled to 
persist in agricultural pursuits. Thus, in America, the colonists 
have gradually returned to the cities after millions have been 
wasted. But in Palestine the colonies founded by Baron Edmond 
de Rothschild and by the efforts of the colonists themselves are 
in a most thriving condition. Of course, the fact that the 
Jews are animated by love for Palestine and inspired by the 
many associations connected with the country must not be over- 
looked. Only in a country where every stone bears biblical 



reminiscences the labour is sweet to them. This idealistic motive 
will assist in turning traders into agriculturists. It is to this idea 
that some twenty larger and smaller colonies owe their existence. 
It is owing to this motive that the great Palestine Committee in 
Odessa, under the presidency of Dr. Pinsker, is able annually to 
give land and tools to Jewish peasants to the value of 200,000 
frcs., that there is in Jaffa an Executive Committee, presided 
over by the engineer VI. Temkin, that in London enormous 
meetings are being held in favour of the Palestine idea, that 
Umited companies have arisen, like the Dorsche Zion in Minsk, 
in Kovno, in Bialystok, in Wilna, as well as in Warsaw, Riga, 
etc., which intend to buy land in Palestine for their members, 
to be repaid to them by instalments. (4) The more civilized and 
intelligent class of Russian Jews will also be induced to go to 
Palestine for the purpose of following agricultural pursuits. 

The students concluded by saying that they were willing to 
seek for happiness and safety by readily submitting to the 
harvest labour in the fields of Palestine. " Then we shall be 
enabled to pass a happy life, for enthusiasm will make our paths 
straight, and provide us with a healthy courage.*' The document 
bore sixty-four signatures. 


The Jewish Colonies in Palestine 

(The figures are taken mostly from the Report of the Jewish Colonisation 
Association for 1910.) 







Mikveh-TsraeP . . . 





Mozah ..... 










Katra . . . . . 








1 190 







Jehudie ..... 





Ekron (Mazkeret Mathya) 





Kastinieh .... 





Rehobot .... 









Ben Shemen .... 





Bir Jakob .... 





Ain Ganim .... 










1 nni Hjr'i i_ T 1 /^_1 i_ - 

•i J 1 

__j 'J- _ir 

T_,<T_ ^_ 

j^i J t 

* The Mikveh Israel Colony is situated outside of Jaffa, to the south. 
The Alliance Israilite Universelle has here a fine and large agricultural 
school for Jews. At the time of our visit — in 191 4 — about 150 pupils were 











IT. Samaria. 

Zichron Jacob 









Schweja .... 




Hedera . 





Kefar Saba . 
















III. Galilee. 

Rosh-Pinah .... 





Yessod Ha-Maaleh . 





Mishmar Ha-Yarden 





Ain-Seitun .... 




Metula . 





Sedjera . 













Mescha . 















Delaika . 



Mizpah . 









Migdal . 










Poriah . 





IV. Trans-jordania. 

Bene Yehuda .... 





enrolled. Some of them we found in the well-kept garden, weeding and 
hoeing. Others were engaged in planting through a newly planted vine- 
yard. Still another group were piling brush and rubbish ; while a con- 
siderable number were in classrooms undergoing just then an examination 
in the theoretical branches of study. They were a fine and manly-looking 
lot of young men and boys, mostly Russian- Jews. The glow of health was 
on their cheeks. They had none of the hunted and depressed look which 
has been imprinted upon millions of Jews by persecution and oppression. 
It seemed to us that, in a minor sense, these young Jews were already 
lifting up their heads because of the drawing nigh of the redemption of 
their land and their nation. They looked as though it afforded them great 
satisfaction to till the soil of the land, which some day must be the happy 
home of their people. There was a quiet modesty, coupled with justifiable 
pride, in their bearing. 



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The Manifesto of the Bilu (1882) 

In 1882, in a little lodging-house in Galata, Constantinople, a 
meeting of young Jews was held. Most of those present were 
students, artisans or scholars. The assembly resulted in the 
formation of a Society called Bilu, from the initials of the words : 
Beth lakoh Lechu Venelcha (House of Jacob, come, let us go!). 
The Society had many branches, each bearing some name well 
known in Jewish history, as Kreti U'phleti, There was an 
artisans' branch, called He'charash Ve'hamasger (carpenters and 
locksmiths). From headquarters was issued the following 
manifesto (in Hebrew) : — 

" To our Brethren and Sisters in the Exile, Peace be with you 1 
*' * If I help not myself, who will help me ? ' (Hillel). 

" Nearly two thousand years have elapsed since, in an evil hour, 
after an heroic struggle, the glory of our Temple vanished in fire 
and our Kings and chieftains changed their crowns and diadems 
for the chains of exile. We lost our country, where dwelt our 
beloved sires. Into the Exile we took with us, of all our glories, 
only a spark of the fire, by which our Temple, the abode of our 
Great One, was engirdled, and this little spark kept us alive 
while the towers of our enemies crumbled to dust, and this spark 
leapt into celestial flame and shed light upon the faces of the 
heroes of our race and inspired them to endure the horrors of the 
Dance of Death and the tortures of the autos-da-f6. And this 
spark is now again kindling and will shine for us, a true pillar of 
fire going before us on the road to Zion, while behind us is a 
pillar of cloud, the pillar of oppression threatening to destroy us. 
Sleepest thou, O our nation ? What hast thou been doing 
till 1882 ? Sleeping and dreaming the false dream of Assimilation. 
Now, thank God, thou art awakened from thy slothful slumber. 
The Pogroms have awakened thee from thy charmed sleep. 
Thine eyes are open to recognize the cloudy structure of delusive 
hopes. Canst thou listen silently to the flaunts and the mockery 
of thine enemies ? Wilt thou yield before the might of ... ? 
Where is thine ancient pride, thine olden spirit ? Remember 
that thou wast a nation possessing a wise religion, a law, a 
constitution, a celestial Temple, whose wall is still a silent 
witness to the glories of the Past, that thy sons dwelt in Palaces 
and towers, and thy cities flourished in the splendour of civiliza- 
tion, while these enemies of thine dwelt like beasts in the muddy 
marshes of their dark woods. While thy children were clad in 
purple and fine linen they wore the rough skins of the wolf and 
the bear. Art thou not ashamed to submit to them ? 


" Hopeless is your state in the West ; the star of your future is 
gleaming in the East. Deeply conscious of all this, and inspired 
by the true teaching of our great master Hillel : * If I help not 
myself, who will help me ? ' we propose to build the following 
society for national ends : — 

** I. The Society will be named Bilu, according to the motto : 
* House of Jacob, come, let us go ! ' It will be divided into local 
branches according to the number of members. 

'* 2. The seat of the Committee shall be Jerusalem. 

"3. Donations and contributions shall be unfixed and un- 

" What we want : — 

" I. A Home in our country. It was given to us by the mercy 
of God, it is ours as registered in the archives of history. 

"2. To beg it of the Sultan himself, and if it be impossible to 
obtain this, to beg that at least we may be allowed to possess 
it as a state within a larger state ; the internal administration 
to be ours, to have our civil and political rights, and to act with 
the Turkish Empire only in foreign affairs, so as to help our 
brother Ishmael in his time of need. 

" We hope that the interests of our glorious nation will rouse 
the national spirit in rich and powerful men, and that everyone, 
rich or poor, will give his best labours to the holy cause. 

" Greeting, dear brethren and sisters. 

" Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one, and our 
Land, Zion, is our own hope. 

'* God be with us ! " The Pioneers of Bilu. 

The last survivors of the Bilu still in Palestine are : Israel 
Belkind, S. Belkind, Mrs. Feinberg {nee Belkind), Dr. Chissin, 
Drubin, Swerdloff, Leibowitz, Hurwitz and Zaladichin. — Of the 
veterans of the ChovevS Zion Colonization we met in 1914 — to 
mention only a few — Gissin in Petach Tikvah, the Stamper 
family (Stamper was one of the first, and the most energetic 
settlers, he came from Roumania) ; Shalit, Meerowitz, Tubman, 
Freimann in Rishon ; Idelowitz, now in Alexandria, managing 
the " Carmel " Wine business ; Eisenberg, Goldin, Hirschen- 
sohn, Mme. Basia Makow in Rechoboth, and of the old " Menu- 
cha Ve-Nachla " (the Warsaw Colony) settlers : Bucharski, 
Padua, Weinstein, Bresner, Rafalkes, Appel. 


Zionism and Jewish Art 

It is somewhat difficult to distinguish between Jewish art, that 
is to say between art expressing the Jewish national spirit, and 
ordinary art cultivated by the Jews. 


Is Jewish art possible to-day ? National art requires a soil out 
of which to issue, and a sky towards which to unfold. We — 
present-day Jews — have neither. We are inhabitants of many 
countries, and our thoughts ascend to different skies. Within 
our innermost soul we know of no earth and no sky. We have 
no country to bear our hopes in its lap and lend firmness to the 
tread of our feet, and we have no national sun to bless our sow- 
ings and irradiate our day. National art requires a homogeneous 
community out of which it arises and for which it exists. We 
have merely fragments of a community, and as yet there is 
hardly any stirring of the part to assemble into a whole. But 
without these premisses national art cannot come into existence ; 
it cannot be made. It is no hothouse growth, but healthy, sapful 
plant life in a free native atmosphere. No artificial conditions 
may be created for it, it must come and develop with the pro- 
gressing renascence. ^ 

Another question presents itself. Are, at present, Jewish 
artists possible, i.e. artists who respond inwardly and in their 
works to Jewish individuality ? If we may answer this question 
in the affirmative, the inner possibility of Jewish art is affirmed 
too. Because, as a rule, two elements have to co-operate so that 
a national artist may be evolved : a strain of national heredity, 
and a national environment ; the former consecutive, not 
acquired by experience, but brought in unconsciously, the latter 
rather atmospheric, and up to a certain point consciously ex- 
perienced. Since, in the most favourable conditions, present- 
day Judaism contains only the material and the elements of trans- 
formation of national environment, a Jewish artist would have 
to derive his national individuality chiefly from qualities received 
through heredity. But this would tend to prove that the artistic 
aptitude of the Jewish race is still aglow like live coal under ashes, 
and that it only needs personalities gifted with creative energy, 
and in whom this aptitude concentrates, condenses and trans- 
mutes into works, to bring forth Jewish artists. Are Jewish 
artists possible nowadays ? By way of reply it may suffice to 
show that there are Jewish artists, or rather that with many 
Jewish artists we have the impression that their art has a national 

It is very doubtful indeed whether any clear definition can be 
given of Jewish national art equally acceptable from the stand- 
point of the nationalist and that of the artist. We shall, there- 
fore, confine ourselves to a brief outline of the evolution of Jewish 
artistic activity in painting and sculpture in modem times, with- 
out entering into the old and much-discussed question of ancient 
Palestinian Jewish painting, sculpture, architecture, etc., 
medieval Jewish miniature-painting of a religious or semi- 
religious character and more or less Jewish origin, and the 

* Martin Buber, JM. KUnst., Lesser Ury. 


arts of poetry and music cultivated by Jews since remotest 
antiquity and bearing undoubtedly in some cases the national 

The sphere of art, particularly painting and sculpture, 
became accessible to the Jews at the same time as the realm of 
modern science and European culture and education, at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. The fugitives 
from the Ghetto began to devote themselves to the study of 
art with more or less zeal, according to the opportunities 
afforded and conditions prevailing in the countries in which they 
lived — in Western Europe at an earlier period and in Eastern 
Europe somewhat later. Having received their training in 
different countries, they were naturally influenced by various 
schools of art. Some attained great distinction and merit, 
deserving to be placed in the foremost rank of European art, 
but these repudiated their Judaism, e.g. Munkacsy ; others gained 
locally a high reputation ; the majority of them, however, did 
not rise above mere mediocrity. 

Benjamin Ulmann, an Alsatian, born in Strasburg, 1829, was 
a historical and portrait painter of some merit ; Jean Jules 
Worms, born in Paris, 1832, painted genre-pictures with a good 
deal of animation; Leopold Pollack, born in Lodenitz, 
Bohemia, 1809, was a genre-painter of much refinement. He 
was an artist possessed of various accomplishments, who gained 
distinction in artistic circles as a " Slav " ; Felix Schlesinger, 
born in Frankfurt o/m,, 1814, and educated at Paris, became 
a famous French painter and was much appreciated as a genre- 
painter ; Emil L^vy, born in Paris, 1826, deserves mention as 
a painter of idyllic scenery that showed considerable skill 
combined with simplicity ; Louis Neustaeter, born in Munich, 
1829 {d. 1899), achieved a reputation as a portrait painter ; 
Felix Possart, born in Munich, 1837, was a most versatile 
popular painter ; Nathanael Sichel, born in Mainz, 1843, was a 
historical painter of great talent ; Eugene Benjamin Fischel, 
born in Paris, 1821 {d. 1895), was a historical painter (" The 
Arrival at the Inn " at the Luxembourg Museum since 1863), 
and devoted himself later on to painting of miniatures ; Eduard 
Bendemann, born in Berlin, 181 1 {d. 1889) was a painter of 
good taste and highly artistic accomplishments : he painted for 
the most part historical pictures, some of which are hung in 
German museums ; Carl Jacoby, born in Berlin, 1853, dis- 
tinguished himself among German painters of his time for his 
remarkable correctness in drawing ; Friedrich Friedlaender, 
bom in Vienna, 1825 {d. 1895), displayed the peculiar style of 
" Viennois " painting of his time ; Toby Rosenthal, bom in 
New Haven, U.S.A., 1848, was a disciple of Pilloty, and en- 
deavoured to emulate his master ; Herman Junker, Frankfurt 
(b. 1838) ; Karl Blosz, Munich ; Edmund Edel, Charlottenburg ; 
Julius Ester, Munich ; August Gross, Vienna ; TuUo Massarini, 


Rome ; Albert Raudnitz, Munich ; Ernest Raudnitz, Paris ; 
Emanuel Spitzer, Munich ; Ernst Nelson, Berlin, and others 
are known more or less as painters of various subjects. 

The most notable of Jewish sculptors of the earliest period 
were : Antoine Samuel Adam Salomon, born in La Grete, 
France, 1818 ; Max Klein, born in Hungary, 1847 ; Josef 
Rona of Budapest ; Adolf Huszar of Budapest, among whose 
important works should be mentioned the famous monument 
of the Hungarian national poet, Petofi ; Johann Silbernagel of 
Vienna, famous for his charming little statuettes ; Charles 
Samuel, born in Brussels, 1862, who executed the monument of 
the great Belgian statesman, Frere d'Orban ; Moses Jacob 
Ezekiel, born in Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 1844, who estab- 
lished a great reputation in America and in Italy, and others. 

It cannot definitely be said that this imposing host of artists 
belonging to the Jewish people who have enriched Art, during 
a comparatively short period — proving in that way the Jewish 
capacity for art — have in their works revealed a pronounced 
Jewish spirit. Jewish artists and their works are scattered all 
over the world, and there is no possibility even of bringing copies 
of their works together in one collection, so as to ascertain ad 
oculos whether there is, in spite of all the differences of schools 
and influences of environment, any trace of a special character to 
distinguish them from other collections of this kind, as the 
special character can only be distinguished when a number of 
pictures can be reviewed together. Seeing that the racial element 
is no doubt a potent factor in art, the work of the Huszars of 
Budapest, the Massarinis of Rome and the Possarts of Munich 
must have something in common because, after all, in the 
depths of their being, they are neither Magyars, nor Italians, nor 
Germans, but Jews. On the other hand, one may say that these 
Jews, having become an assimilated unit of the peoples among 
whom they had lived, been educated and worked, have no longer 
anything in common with and do not represent any specific school 
of Jewish art. 

Another question is, whether the aforementioned Jewish 
artists have been engaged in presenting Jewish subjects (which 
is a question altogether removed from the previous, more 
fundamental question) . This question can be easily answered : 
Jewish subjects were dealt with by Eduard Bendemann (" Boaz 
and Ruth," " The Mourning Jews," " Jeremias ") ; Emile Levy 
(" The Feast of Tabernacles " and other pictures) ; Moses Jacob 
Ezekiel (various statues of great artistic value). 

Apart from these artists who proved that Jews were capable 
of becoming more or less important artists, there were even at 
an earlier period some who not only displayed generally great 
artistic skill, but also gave evidence of understanding something 
about Jewish art. 

First and foremost among these pioneers was Henry Leopold 


Levy, born in Paris, 1840, who painted " Joash saved from the 
Massacre of the Grandsons of Athaliah " (1867), " Hebrew 
Captives weeping over the Ruins of Jerusalem " (1869), and other 
pictures. Being, so to speak, a divinely inspired artist, his works 
give proof of profound emotions and transcendental beauty and 
force. His mastery of dramatic effect, his extent and depth of 
passion remind one of an old Hebrew prophet. 

Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, who was known as " Professor 
Oppenheim " of Frankfurt (1801-82), is not of much importance 
from an artistic standpoint. In his time he was one of the 
most prominent illustrators of Jewish patriarchy. His " Pictures 
of Jewish Life " give the impression of great devotion and 
have gained considerable popularity through thousands of 

A tragic figure in the annals of art was Simeon Solomon, born 
in Bristol, 1834 (d. in London, 1905). At an early age he showed 
signs of artistic ability and — as his biographers say — " came 
under the influence of D. G. Rossetti." His drawings and 
paintings developed the mystical and sensuous tendencies of the 
pre-Raphaelite school to the extreme. He published a number 
of designs for the "Song of Songs" and reproductions of the 
drawings illustrating Jewish ceremonies. Keen critics of art 
ascribe to his genius a stimulating originality which influenced 
the whole pre-Raphaelite artistic school. 

The pinnacle of Art, speaking generally, was reached by three 
prominent masters : Joseph Israels (1824-1911), Max Lieber- 
mann, and Solomon J. Solomon, r.a. 

It was Joseph Israels who succeeded in representing the twi- 
lights of the Dutch atmosphere in all their individuality and 
tender charm. To understand how to portray Nature and 
Humanity, and more especially suffering Humanity, with equal 
care and art, and to bring into relief their organic interaction ; 
to represent rural scenes, not as a stage setting but as an atmos 
phere, not forcible but imbued with poetic feeling ; to invest 
human nature with a breath of such delicate lyricism that the 

^ The Jews of the Continent offered a splendid album, bound in marone 
velvet, inlaid with gilt bronze, in 1842 to Sir Moses Montefiore after his 
return from the East, in commemoration of his efforts on behalf of the 
persecuted Jews of Damascus. On each cover is a painting by Jewish 
artists. About these paintings the authors of the address — which was 
signed by 1 490 subscribers — say : — 

" The consecration of Joshua by the legislator Moses, as the leader of the 
armies of Israel, was the first step towards creating Israel a separate state. 
The pencil of Professor Oppenheim's genius has here worthily represented 
this event. Israel's mourning at the streams of Babel, painted by the 
masterly hand of Bendemann, brings in the background before our spirit, 
Jerusalem in flames, and the house of God in ruins. Thus both repre- 
sentations combine whatever constitutes Israel's pride and grief ; what- 
ever in the pages of history is capable of inspiring the champion of Israel 
with courage and zeal " {Allg. Zeit. d. Judenthums, 10 September, 1842). 



impression created is one of love rather than of mere beauty ; 
that is the chief characteristic of Israels' art, which to us seems 
so entirely Jewish. It is the enchanting melancholy, the gentle, 
delicate longing, the half-uttered tones, the soft harmonies which 
are divined rather than seen or heard that make Israels appear so 
extraordinarily modern. It is not merely because Israels was a 
Jew, not merely because his greatest works represent Jewish sub- 
jects, but because his art was characterized by a rich poetic fancy, 
by kindliness and melancholy, and at the same time by a priestly 
solemnity and a great simplicity which harmonize so wonderfully 
with the deepest emotions of the Jewish Psyche, that we are 
justified in regarding Israels as a national- Jewish painter. We 
are acquainted with the Jewish Rabbi, the calm, discerning, 
introspective thinker, seeking for the great ethos of existence in 
all the passing phenomena of life. Joseph Israels was a painter- 
rabbi. He painted with the same fervour as a midrash scholar 
would teach, with which a Jehuda-ha-Levi would sing. A 
" Gaon " in the domain of Art, a " Baal-Shem " who works 
spells, causing angels to appear not by means of prayers and 
texts ; not by means of cabbalistic incantations, but by means of 
colours, hght and shade effects. Where so visible as in Israels, 
creations are the groups of Divine sparkle flying about the world, 
the creative embodiment of the " naked souls " thirsting for 
existence, peace and incarnation of which the Cabbala speaks 
with so much enthusiasm and of which Chassidism dreams. 

In all his paintings Israels succeeded in effecting a concentra- 
tion in composition which focussed all interest upon the soul, 
upon sensation. Israels has not been content to fix by the 
masterly stroke of the brush a moment of dramatic intensity 
surprised in his model [as for instance, in the Writer of the Law 
(The Thora-Writer)], or the influences of the moment upon the 
emotions and expressions of the subject, but the soul itself and 
the whole soul-state. This directness was attained by Israels 
through the double study of man and his destiny in direct rela- 
tion to nature. 

Encyclopaedias give the names of his masters and types in 
Amsterdam and Paris. But had Israels been a mere follower of 
his masters, then his name would not be found in encyclopaedias. 
For decades, for many decades, he, the versatile painter, devoted 
himself to historical painting. No catalogue has rescued the 
titles from oblivion. When questioned concerning his early 
works, he answered the present writer with one of his charac- 
teristic subtle smiles : " How should I know where they are ? " 
It was not until he had attained full maturity, or according to 
general ideas, after he had well passed maturity, that Israels 
became what he now is : he found himself after the sun of his 
life had passed the meridian. 

Max Liebermann regards himself as a disciple of Israels, 
but is considered by others to be superior in the brilliancy and 


versatility of his genius. He was practically the father of the 
German " Secession/' and is the greatest living painter in 
Germany and one of the greatest in the world. Solomon J. 
Solomon is one of the most celebrated English painters. 
Dignified and serene, he has a wonderfully extensive and many- 
sided grasp of his art. As to Jewish art, it is a disputable point 
whether Liebermann's pictures bear indications of a pronounced 
Jewish character — some writers having maintained that such 
is the case. Israels* " Thora- Writer/' and particularly his 
** Son of an Old People " — which is justly supposed to have been 
inspired by the new national movement — appeal undoubtedly 
to the Jewish consciousness by their exceptional impressiveness. 
The picture which established Solomon J. Solomon's reputation 
was his "Samson and Delilah/' while his "Allegory" of 1904 
is said to depict the triumph of Judaism as the last and only 
religion of the world. 

In closing the review of this epoch, mention must be made of 
Lesser Ury of Berlin, an artist of great severity and sadness, 
whose " Jeremias" and other pictures display some originality 
singularly independent of influences from without — in which 
fact some critics thought they could trace some visions of 
Jewish awakening. 

A similar change was noticeable in Eastern Europe during 
the period of transition which began there some decades later 
than in the West. Here, too, some young Jews entered the 
academies of art just as others went to the universities for 
scientific study, but, of course, with that difference in the 
prospects of success which distinguish art from science, that art 
depends more on natural gifts than on capacity to study. Some 
Polish, Galician and Russian Jews pursued their studies in 
Cracow or Petrograd, some others studied at Munich and Paris. 
Some deliberately emphasizing their national origin and country, 
others showing, through their new environment, a leaning 
towards a diversity of practical and theoretical motives. 

Joseph Redlich (1821-81) was an engraver of world-wide fame 
during the first half of the centur}^ Alexander Lesser of Warsaw 
(1819-91), the son of a Jewish merchant, was described as " the 
father of Polish historical painting/' Of no importance as a 
painter, the curious fact remains that this typical Polish Jew 
was in his time appreciated as a painter of Polish national 
history (the first and most important publishers of illustrated 
books and periodicals in Warsaw were Merzbach, Gliksberg. 
Lewenthal, the son of a Hebrew teacher, and Wolf, who was of 
Jewish origin). 

Leopold Horowitz, born in Hungary in 1831, who lived 
many years in Warsaw, and since the expulsion of foreign 
Jews from Russia in Vienna, has the twofold distinction of 
being an eminent portrait painter of European fame, and a 
well-known and noble-minded Jew His Jewish picture " The 


Ninth of Ab " (the anniversary of the Destruction of the Temple) 
is a work of grand style, exquisitely finished ; his portraits, too, 
gained highest praise. He is much interested in Jewish matters, 
and was prominently associated with the foundation of the 
" Jewish Museum " at Vienna. 

One of the greatest painters of the last generation in Russia 
was Isaac Levitan, born in i860 (d. 1900), the master of Russian 
landscape. This Jew of the Russian Ghetto taught Russian 
artists to abandon mere topography for a poetical treatment of 
landscape scenery. He did not only paint admirably the rich 
purple of the northern sunset, the thin clouds, dawn and dark- 
ness, but also the very soul of the landscape. A writer in the 
(anti- Jewish) Novoye Vremia had to admit that " this full- 
blooded Jew knew as no other man, how to make us realize and 
love our plain and homely country-scene." Levitan's pictures 
adorn the Tretjakov Museum at Moscow, and have the right of 
undisturbed shelter in that city that was not unconditionally 
granted to their originator. Leonid Pasternak, born in 1862, is 
an important Russian painter, particularly known for his 
connections with Tolstoi. 

The most wonderful romance of Jewish vitality and force of 
self-regeneration is the story of Mark Antokolski (1842-1900). 
Whatever modern critics may think of the special value of his 
master-works — classical or pseudo-classical — from an up-to- 
date point of view, the fact remains that this Lithuanian 
Jew, who was a son of poor parents at Vilna, brought up 
in the atmosphere of the Cheder (religious school) and the 
Vilna Schulhof, which is the most typical and best known 
centre of what is distinctly Jewish, is recognized, as far 
as sculpture is concerned, in Paris the metropolis of art. 
He introduced Russian sculpture into European art and his 
works have been highly appreciated, seeing with what in- 
tense delight and admiration they have been regarded by 
the highest in his native land, where he was entrusted with 
the task of executing the greatest national monuments, but 
his works have also received the highest praise throughout the 
world. Bernstamm Aronson and Guenzburg, distinguished 
by exceptional maturity in study and powers of concentration, 
the former an eminent master where powers of imagination and 
fascination were concerned, the latter of an observant, subtle 
intelligence, which proved so useful to him in the careful re- 
production of details deaUng with nature. They are devoted 
to the art of sculpture in Paris and in Russia. 

All these artists proved that Jews can be artists. Jewish art 
in Jewish subjects was here and there to be observed. Isidore 
Kaufmann, a Hungarian Jew, born in 1853, executed some 
apprecial^le work in genre-painting of Polish-Jewish life. He 
displayed in his " Visit of the Rabbi,*' " Talmud Students " and 
other little pictures, a great simplicity and freshness, and a 


delightful sense of humour, but these pictures, humorous as 
they are, have merely anecdotes for the outlines of their scheme. 
A real awakening of Jewish art in a higher sense was left 
to the present period of the Jewish National Revival and 

This new period was inaugurated by two Polish-Galician 
Jewish artists, who, while their respective artistic achievements 
were of different value, were instrumental in opening new 
perspectives for Jewish art; these were Moritz Gottlieb and 
Ephraim Moses Ha'Cohen Lilien. 

Moritz Gottlieb, born in a small village in Galicia, about i860, 
was a disciple of the great Polish national painter Jan Matejko. 
Of great imaginative power and intense feeling, a real artist, he 
succeeded in mastering the intricacies of modern painting. 
He soon became a favourite of his tutor, and was much admired 
in artistic circles at Cracow, where his works were immensely 
appreciated on account of the suave and well-balanced style of 
his pictures. His prospects of a great future increased with his 
popularity. It is said — se non e vero e ben trovato — that when he 
expressed his intention of devoting himself to Polish historical 
painting, Matejko remarked : " My son, you are a Jew ; you 
cannot weep on the graves of Polish kings ; leave it to others." 
So Gottlieb devoted himself to Jewish subjects, the most impor- 
tant of which was his admirable " Jew Praying in the Syna- 
gogue." This masterpiece so full of inspiration was more than 
a picture ; it was a message to Jewish artists, one of the most 
simple and impressive : You shall go back to your own people ; 
you shall find and see your own greatness and glory ; you shall be 
your own selves again ! " 

The hand of death removed him in early manhood — at the 
end of the eighties of the last century — Moritz Gottlieb's 
name was cherished by the new generation of Jewish artists 
as that of a noble pioneer who had ushered in the era of 
Jewish art. 

About ten years later, Lilien, having terminated his studies 
at Munich, settled in Berlin, and got in touch with the 
young Zionist intellectual movement. By means of his 
illustrations in black and white, which combined modernism 
with archaic forms, permeated by the Hebrew spirit, he soon 
succeeded in introducing a new element in artistic skill, and 
played a prominent part in shaping the modem tendencies of a 
somewhat independent young Jewish art. As to the artistic 
value and originaUty of his remarkable and exceedingly fruitful 
art, opinions may differ considerably, yet there is no doubt, as a 
master of an unique style of drawing, touch, finish and execution, 
and as a pioneer and advocate of methods expressing Jewish 
aspirations, types and ideas, he is unrivalled, and his works have 
had a far-reaching effect in encouraging Jewish artists to devote 
themselves to the extension of Jewish art on a self-dependent 


and self-inspiring basis. The message of Gottlieb and the 
impulses of LiUen can be easily traced, even among the important 
Jewish artists who have been their contemporaries or have lived 
at a later period and have occupied honoured positions in general 
as well as in Jewish art. 

Samuel Hirschenberg, Leopold Pilichowski and Henry 
Glitzenstein form, with all the distinction of their individualistic 
and high artistic qualifications, a sort of triumvirate in the 
realm of art. All these came from the same country — Poland — 
and from the same district of that country ; they were con- 
temporaries in age as well as in their outlook on life, seeing that 
all these represent the new, emancipated intellectual type of the 
Polish Jew with a touch of Jewish nationalism of the eighties, 
who differ so distinctly from the old type of the " assimilation " 
Jews of a previous period. 

Samuel Hirschenberg excelled in the painting of a variety 
of subjects. His distinctness and fine blending of colours, his 
skill in creating broad and accurate outlines of figures are indeed 
remarkable. He was a modest, earnest and most industrious 
worker of really artistic aspirations. He had a strong pre- 
disposition for big canvases and was averse from anecdotal 
subjects. He was unable to paint anything of a small type. The 
Jewish people, its suffering, and his persecuted brethren formed 
the subjects of his brush. "Golus" (copies of which are well 
known) is a specimen of his art and outlook. Of keen per- 
ception, the life-blood of Jewry pulsing through his veins, 
he painted his " Wandering Jew," presenting with tragic 
force the synthesis and the resentment caused by Jewish 

He was one of those who had penetrated most deeply and 
powerfully the tragedy of the Golus, with all its great and 
desperate dreadfulness and all its abysmal horror, who felt it 
within their innermost marrow and blood, who went through life 
with its sad brand on their brows. The brush with which he 
painted was the master's heart, and the colour — his blood, the 
warm life-blood. The blood which has been flowing for thousands 
of years from the ever-open wound of the creative genius and of 
the nation. He dreamt to base the future upon sacred ruins. He 
deemed as nothing the laurels of the Golus as compared with the 
feeble light which began to glow more and more vividly far away 
in the old country and in his bosom, which overflowed with sad- 
ness and longing. He was a priest of art and a priest of the 
Jewish renaissance. During the last years of his life he went to 
Jerusalem to take part in the art work of Bezalel, and died there — 
as he had lived — upright and resigned to his fate, hiding from the 
world the sufferings of a noble soul. 

Leopold Piiichowski is quite different in artistic temperament. 
Cheerful, thorough and pleasant, guided by a truly artistic 
instinct, he possesses the natural gifts of an eminent artist, being 


a keen observer of life, of charming personality, and an enthusi- 
astic worker. He achieved a high reputation by reason of his 
admirable blending of colours, his excellent and attractive style, 
the life-like expression of his portraits and the careful attention 
bestowed upon details. In France he attained high distinction, 
and recently also in this country where his works have found con- 
siderable appreciation. But the favourite subject of his art is 
Polish Jews. His picture entitled "Wearied," the two figures 
of old wearied Polish Jewish pilgrims — is in conception and 
execution a masterpiece ; this picture has been so frequently 
reproduced that it is now one of the most popular and most 
impressive Jewish pictures of the time. He expresses more 
forcibly than any other contemporary painter the intense 
fervour of Jewish prayer. He endeavours to penetrate the 
secrets of Polish- Jewish pathos in his charming picture " The 
Feast of our Rejoicing" and in another, entitled "Sorrow" 
which, probably, no other painter would have been able to 
understand. He describes and creates an historical record for 
the type of the Polish Jew as he knew him — in the fervour of his 
prayers, in the glory of his devotion, in the attractiveness of his 

Henry Glitzenstein, who now lives in Rome, is the son of a 
Melamed (religious teacher) in the little village of Turek, 
Poland. In Italy and throughout Europe, where his works 
have at several exhibitions gained highest distinction, he is 
recognized as being one of the greatest sculptors of the age. 
In ability, taste, gracefulness, originality and invention, he is a 
sculptor-poet, who excels all Jewish sculptors that ever lived, 
and even many non- Jewish artists of standing. It is not pre- 
sumptuous to assert that Glitzenstein is one of the most modern 
sculptors, whose modernism does not merely amount to the 
acceptance of a certain " fad " but means original and con- 
structive ability. He, too, is a dreamer of the Ghetto, but at the 
same time a master of a living art. His " Messiah," the incarna- 
tion of the mighty, asleep yet about to awaken to any movement 
towards the Jewish future, is a work of an enormous conception. 

Hirschenberg's "Wandering Jew," Pilichowski's "Wearied" 
and Glitzenstein's " Messiah," though undoubtedly independent 
individual works, have yet to a certain extent been influenced 
by the new national spirit set aglow by Gottlieb and Lilien, and 
by the literature of the Jewish Revival. 

To this category of Jewish artists belongs Hermann Struck, 
who combines artistic refinement with orthodox Jewish devotion 
and Zionist aspirations, a master of the first water, who has 
executed etchings of Israels' works and those of other great 
artists, and has a fine record for original portrait painting, 
Palestinian landscapes, and other drawings of exceptional skill ; 
Moses Maimon, a distinguished Russian - Jewish painter, the 
author of the very popular " Marranos in Spain," and of other 


pictures of value ; Jehuda Epstein, who has given proof of 
possessing great power of imagination by his great sketch 
" Maccabean," a picture made for Herzl, who had it in his studio ; 
Minkowski (Warsaw), whose Pogrom pictures are of really 
artistic value ; Pffeffermann (Pan), a man of considerable artistic 
achievement, who has been engaged on the teaching staff of the 
Bezalel ; Weinles and Altmann (Poland), who are responsible 
for various pictures and studies of Jewish subjects ; Wachtel 
(Galicia), who emulated Lilien ; and Hochmann (Cracow), who 
was guided by Glitzenstein's works. In Russia there are the 
painters : A. A. Maneritsch, M. L. Schafrom, A. B. Lachowski, 
and the sculptors : F. Bloch, M. L. Dillon, J. A. Troupianski, of 
the younger generation, and — of the older generation — Gabo- 
witsch, J. J. Brodski, who represent modern Jewish art. In the 
important colony of artists and art students in Paris, including 
Leo Minsenberg, Leopold Gottlieb, Cylkow, Markus, Kramstiick, 
Ehe Nadelman and others of Warsaw, a real Jewish awakening 
has been observed, particularly among the younger members of 
the colony. 

Special mention should be made of the well-known landscape 
painter Abraham Neumann of Sierpce, Poland, who has a fine 
long record of artistic work. He participated most actively in 
stimulating Jewish artistic activity in Poland and Galicia. 

With regard to sculpture, Alfred Nossig has also to be men- 
tioned. Nossig can boast, among his various accomplishments, 
also that of an able sculptor con amore. In some of his works 
he has dealt impressively with national Jewish subjects. 

Another Jewish sculptor of note should be mentioned, viz. 
F. Beer of Paris (died in 1910). He was an ardent Zionist and a 
great personal friend of Herzl, and contributed his share to 
Zionist artistic work (the badges of the Congress). 

In this country, Will Rothenstein has become very popular 
through several of his pictures devoted to scenes of Jewish life ; 
Isaac Snowman and his brother Louis [Conrad] are artists of 
recognized accomplishments, and have painted valuable pictures 
of this kind. Wolmark is well known as an artist of exquisite 
taste and idealistic aspirations. His inclination has led him 
to the rendering of subjects dealing with Jewish life, so admir- 
ably dealt with in some of the pictures. He is a strong in- 
dividualist and truth -seeker, and has in recent times manifested 
a decided inclination for futurism, of which he is one of the 
champions. Jacob Epstein is the most representative of sculptors 
and combines genius with technical skiU. 

The foregoing survey of Jewish activity forces us to the 
following conclusions : — 

I. The numerous Jewish works of art, especially in painting 
and sculpture of such marked ability, with no previous history, 
patronage or encouragement, and produced under most un- 
favourable circumstances in a comparatively short time, showed 



that Jewish genius was as much capable of development in the 
sphere of art as in music, poetry or the drama, and has made 
its influence felt at every opportunity. 

II. The great artistic value — with few exceptions — of the works 
of these masters who either were acquainted with the older 
Jewish traditions, like Israels, H. P. Levy, Ezekiel, or who had 
come direct from the Ghetto, like Antokolski, compared with the 
Assimilationist Jews who were either satellites or plagiarists, 
proves that, even during the period previous to the present 
national Revival, Jewish consciousness (like any other deep 
racial consciousness) has stimulated the vigour and originality of 
artistic activity. 

III. The beneficial effects of the National movement in 
Jewish artistic craftsmanship can be observed in two direc- 
tions : — 

(a) in the artistic value of the productions, especially with 
regard to Jewish subjects, and 

(b) in the degree of influence of the artistic activity on the 
Jewish people. 

With regard to the first point, the progress made can be easily 
gauged by comparing, for instance, Bendemann and Emil Levy 
with Gottlieb, or Oppenheim with Lilien, and so on. Jewish life 
at the period of Assimilation, like the literature of that period 
was presented essentially in apologetic terms and addressed 
itself always, consciously or unconsciously, to Gentiles, as if to 
say : " Think of us, we are really not as detestable as you believe 
us to be, we are rather attractive " ; but, on the other hand, 
national artists say : " We are what we are," and more than that, 
seeing that to deal with Jewish subjects from a national stand- 
point is self-centred, and therefore more of a psychological 
question. We are what we are, neither better nor worse than 
others : we endeavour to know ourselves, and we want to see our 
images reflected in our own art. Oppenheim's Jews are so ideal- 
istically exaggerated that one would not recognize them if one 
were to meet them in their shops on the " Zeil " in Frankfurt, 
while Gottlieb's Jews are so orientally peculiar, that meeting them 
in the market-place dealing with tapestry one would have the 
impression that these dealers are descendants of oriental princes, 
although the artist had no intention of producing this im- 

The second point is still more important. The art of the 
period of Assimilation, like the active character of Assimilation, 
is essentially individualistic and aristocratic, while the art of the 
period is decidedly of a collective and democratic character. 
Logically and psychologically, there can be no movement of 
Assimilation in masses, because Assimilation must be opposed to 
cohesion or a movement for the cohesion of Jews, except for 


ritual purposes. A Jew becomes a doctor, a lawyer or a painter — 
the more he succeeds in his career among Gentiles, the less he is 
brought in contact with the Jewish masses : nobility of character 
or generosity may make him a philanthropist to the masses 
whom he may endeavour to patronize ; on the other hand, the 
absence of these qualities will make him wholly indifferent, but 
anyhow the chain of natural and simple intercourse is broken. 
This was necessarily the course of Assimilation in every direction, 
and also showed us the relationship of Jewish artists to the Jewish 
masses. All those Huszars, Ronas, Schlesingers and Pollacks 
had no inclination and no possibility whatever of acquiring the 
artistic education of the people from whom they sprang. In 
this respect the situation has considerably improved owing to 
the national movement, Choveve Zion and Zionism. Now, 
many Jewish artists live among the people, and are influenced by 
them. Not only in Russia, where there is now a strong move- 
ment for propaganda amd mutual help among Jewish artists 
(under the tutorship of Ilja Ginzburg) — a movement which was 
unthinkable in the time of the Assimilation tendencies — but even 
in Paris a tendency has made itself felt in this direction in the 
Jewish colony of artists in recent times. Among the masses in 
the East of London, too, there is an Organization called Ben Uri, 
for the propaganda of art. Lectures are arranged, instruction is 
given, and popular articles are published on various subjects of art. 
That popularity is due to the activity of the publishing firms 
Phcenix, Lihanon, the monthly Os/ und West, and other publications. 

Summing up the elfects of relationship between Jewish art 
and Zionism, we see that Zionism has played its part in the 
revival of Jewish art. On the other hand, Jewish art has 
contributed much to the propaganda of Zionism. It cannot be 
too often repeated that the creative and active forces of Zionism 
have always been literature, education and art: they have 
stimulated the people's hearts and minds, they have opened the 
people's eyes and enlisted their generosity. One of the greatest 
agencies of Zionist propaganda has been the Bezalel, the 
work of the enthusiastical Jewish artist Boris Schatz, who is in 
his own art a disciple of Antokolski, but who stands himself, 
unrivalled, as a pioneer in the propaganda of Jewish artistic 
activity in Palestine. 

It is not hazarding too much to assert, that with an im- 
portant development of colonization and education in Palestine 
we are going to see a really original Jewish art. But even in the 
Diaspora, the awakening of Jewish consciousness will en- 
noble, popularize and strengthen Jewish art. Jewish artists 
should not pursue any particular tendency in addition to their 
own art ; they should be only artists, and true to themselves. 
Art must be free, and being free it will — as a necessary and 
natural consequence — eventually offer ample scope for the 
national genius. 



Progress of Zionism in the West since 1897 

I. England 

In England Zionist propaganda was very much hampered for 
want of an influential and well-supported Hebrew press and 
literature — which, after all, form the most powerful factor in the 
national propaganda, and an intellectual weapon in the struggle, 
the more so because through them can be maintained a direct 
closer touch and personal relations with Palestine. These two 
factors have made Zionism in Eastern Europe something more 
than a formal organization governed by certain statutes ; it 
has now become a living force. Zionist propaganda there has 
also suffered from want of extensive university groups that have 
brought a great educational force into the Movement in conti- 
nental countries. In England, where class divisions are so pro- 
nounced, in ideas, language and customs, and where the pressure 
of the Jewish problem from outside is not felt, the difficulties in 
the way of Zionist propaganda were naturally much greater. 
Besides these difficulties, there was another fact that did not fail 
to influence the position. The centraHzation of the financial 
institutions and the greater facility for political organization 
were no doubt of considerable advantage, as they afforded Eng- 
lish Zionism in this respect means' of propaganda not accessible 
to the Movement in other countries. But there was also an 
important drawback, namely, the Movement has been concen- 
trated on these two appeals. The consequences of such a de- 
velopment manifested themselves in two directions : in the 
influence upon the Organization, and in the effect on non-mem- 
bers of the Organization. As for the internal influences, although 
the general Zionist work might have appeared here as elsewhere 
to be of the greatest importance, nevertheless it must be ad- 
mitted that the financial institutions necessarily absorbed more 
energy, and carried more weight, while observers from outside 
were faced more directly than in any other country with this 
particular aspect of the Zionist Organization. In Eastern 
Europe, the public outside of Zionism was also made aware of the 
existence of a political scheme and financial matters ; but what 
th€y reaUzed most immediately and forcibly was above all an 
intellectual activity, a new system of education, a new attitude 
towards all questions of the day and a new and close relationship 
with Palestine. In England, outsiders saw little or nothing of 
what others saw elsewhere. All they realized was a political 
scheme which they naturally endeavoured to magnify and to 
exaggerate for the sake of controversy, clinging obstinately to 
their own opposition to " Utopia," and looking at the compara- 


lively meagre financial means as something that was unable to 
impress them to any great extent. 

Yet they were greatly mistaken. Zionism in England was in 
its essentials not in the least different from what it is in Russia 
or anywhere else. It must be admitted that it has not yet 
sufficiently developed all the various branches of its activity, 
but this is not due to a difference in its principle, but to the 
divergence in local conditions for which the idea is not respon- 
sible. If all its potentialities have not yet been developed, there 
is no reason why they should not be so very soon. Notwith- 
standing all kinds of difficulties and domestic controversies, 
Zionism in England was propagated and furthered by a great 
number of able workers. Among those who took a leading part 
in the work in England since the earliest period may be found : 
the Haham Dr. Moses Gaster, Joseph Cowen, Herbert Bentwich, 
the late S. B. Rubenstein, L. J. Greenberg, Jacob de Haas, 
Jacob Moser, Charles Dreyfus, the late Rabbi A. Werner, the 
late A. Vecht, the late A. Lozinsky, the late A. Ginzberg, L. 
Kessler, Percy Baker, the late J. Massel, E. Ish-Kishor, M. 
Shire, J. Cohen-Lask, Rev. J. K. Goldbloom, the late Rev. David 
Wasserzug, Dr. S. Fox, E. W. Rabbinowicz, Miss H. Weisberg, 
Dr. Moses Umanski, H. M. Raskin, H. Comor, the late H. M. 
Benoliel, Solomon Cohen, E. Guilaroff, and others. 

Somewhat later — not exactly in the literal sense — the older 
leaders were joined by new workers of influence and eminent 
ability. The most notable are : Dr. Ch. Weizmann, Dr. Samuel 
Daiches, Rev. Isaiah Raffalovich, Leon Simon, Harry Sacher, 
Norman Bentwich, Albert M. Hyamson, Dr. S. Brodetsky, 
S. Landman, Leonard Stein, Rev. M. H. Segal, Bertram 
Benas, Joseph Jacobs, Paul Goodman, Israel Cohen, Dr. 
Joseph Hochman, Samuel Cohen, Israel Sieff, Simon Marks, 
Dr. Salis Daiches, F. S. Spiers, and others. In University 
and intellectual circles also important progress in Zionist 
thought could be perceived. One of the most prominent of 
the intellectual Zionists is the Haham Dr. Gaster. He was 
born at Bucharest in 1857. Having matriculated there, he pro- 
ceeded to the Jewish Seminary, Breslau, where in due course he 
received his rabbinical diploma. He is also a Doctor of Phil- 
osophy of the University of Leipsic. He pubhshed numerous 
important works on the Roumanian language and literature, and 
on the subject of folklore, on which he is one of the first authori- 
ties. He has written text-books for general and Jewish schools 
in Roumania. His compendium of Scripture history has been 
adopted as a standard work throughout the country. He pro- 
duced the first excellent translation of the Hebrew Prayer Book 
into Roumanian. In 1885 he left Roumania and came to Eng- 
land, where he was appointed Haham of the Spanish and Portu- 
guese Congregations in succession to the late Haham Dr. Artom 
(1887). This office he resigned in 1918. He brought new life into 



those congregations and largely aided by his valuable literary 
work in the promotion of oriental studies in England. Gaster 
was an ardent Zionist long before the First Congress. Pro- 
foundly touched by the unfortunate position of the Jews in 
Roumania, he assisted in estabhshing the first Jewish colony in 
Palestine, Samarin (Zichron Jacob) — and organized meetings in 
Roumania which were addressed by Laurence Oliphant and 
others. Indeed it was the part he took in these matters that, in 
some measure, led to his expulsion from Roumania. In England 
he joined the Zionist Organization from its very beginning. His 
learned speeches and writings gave a great impetus to the 

Herbert Bentwich, a zealous and devoted supporter of the 
Jewish colonization in Palestine, was as well known in the 
Choveve Zion movement as he is in the Zionist Organization. 
He was the organizer and leader of the Maccabean Pilgrimage 
to Palestine of 1897. In several articles in the English press he 
answered the attacks made upon Zionism. Being a lawyer by 
profession his services were invaluable in the foundation 
of the Zionist financial institutions. A well-known figure 
at the Zionist Congresses, he is a most active worker in local 
affairs, especially in the Order of Ancient Maccabeans, in con- 
nection with which organization he recently helped to found a 
land company for the purchase of land in Palestine. He is in- 
defatigable in the propaganda of Zionism, and one of the few 
English Zionists who succeeded in making Zionism a tradition 
of his family by means of the closest personal contact with 

Israel ZangwiU may be described as one of the most distin- 
guished propagandists of the Zionist idea during the period 
1899 until 1906, when he founded the Territorialist Organization. 
To this brilliant writer and orator belongs the credit of having 
contributed greatly towards making Zionism popular in England. 
An English writer of enchanting dexterity, possessed of a keen 
sense of humour and capacity to appeal to the crowd, he dis- 
credited the old idea of Assimilation. Though his views on the 
future of Palestine have undergone considerable modification, 
his pamphlets and early speeches are still useful and appreciated 
in Zionism. 

Mr. Joseph Cowen, who takes a most active and responsible 
part in Zionist work, particularly with regard to the financial 
institutions, plays an important part in central as well as in 
local organization. He was for some years a member of the 
Actions Committee and one of the most prominent representa- 
tives at Zionist Congresses and Conferences. Mr. L. J. Green- 
berg's name is found in the Zionist records of the first few years 
in connection with the movement in England, as well as inter- 
nationally, and in his work he has always associated himself with 
Mr. Cowen. He was always deemed resourceful and an energetic 


propagandist in England, and was for a certain period a member 
of the central management of the Organization. He was Hono- 
rary Secretary of the English Zionist Federation, and a member 
of the Actions Committee, and in these capacities did admirable 
work. Both Mr. Cowen and Mr. Greenberg were deeply attached 
to Herzl, and assisted him in his work in England. 

The late S. B. Rubenstein was one of the veterans of the 
old Choveve Zion, and as a representative Zionist was very active 
in the movement since the First Congress. Mr. Jacob de Haas, 
a joumaUst of great versatiHty, combined with great devotion 
and inexhaustible enthusiasm for the cause, worked hard in 
England, and now continues his useful work zealously in the 
United States. Mr. Leopold Kessler, a faithful adherent to 
Zionism since its inception, has been active, partly in South 
Africa and partly in England, more especially in connection 
with the financial institutions and the Actions Committee. The 
Rev. Isaiah Raffalovich, Rabbi of the New Hebrew Congrega- 
tion, Liverpool, a native of Jerusalem, an inspired Chovev Zion 
and Zionist, is doing excellent propaganda work. The late 
Joseph Massel, of Manchester, a man of great Jewish learning, 
a Hebrew writer and translator, was a well-known and popular 
figure at the Zionist Conferences in England, as well as at the 
Zionist Congresses. He was one of the few Hebraists who 
introduced an element of Hebrew literature into the Zionist 
propaganda in England. The late Aron Vecht (1856-1908), 
a man of striking individuality, was an ardent Jewish nationalist. 
He founded the weekly paper. The Jewish Standard, and was one 
of the founders of the Choveve Zion Association in London, and 
later, when Herzl launched the Zionist movement, became one of 
his most devoted followers. 

Mr. Jacob Moser, j.p. (Lord-Mayor of Bradford, igio-ii), 
deserves an honourable place among the Zionist leaders. A 
prominent philanthropist in his city, and a devoted Zionist, he 
has been for a number of years a leading representative of the 
Movement and was elected a member of the Actions Committee, 
and attended most Zionist Congresses, where he gained great 
popularity. He visited Palestine and became a generous and 
zealous patron of Hebrew education there. The Hebrew Gym- 
nasium at Jaffa, which is the first and foremost Hebrew educa- 
tional institution in the Holy Land, was practically founded by 
him, and owes its existence and maintenance to his exertions 
and generosity. Dr. Charles Dreyfus, j.p., of Manchester, has 
associated himself with the Zionist movement now for some 
years. He has been a member of the Actions Committee and 
President of the EngHsh Zionist Federation. 

Some Zionists have worked, and are now working, with great 
enthusiasm in the sphere of Hebrew education. The method of 
Hebrew teachinf^ known as " Ibrith B'lbrith " (Hebrew in 
Hebrew), which was first introduced by Zionists into Palestine 


and Russia, was first recommended in England by Mr. David 
Yellin, of Jerusalem, at public meetings addressed by him on his 
visits to this country, and was strongly supported by Mr. Israel 
Abrahams. In the work of encouraging the diffusion of the 
Hebrew language in England those most active were : in 
London- — Rev. J. K. Goldbloom — and before his removal to the 
United States Mr. E. Ish-Kishor, and — in Liverpool — Dr. Samuel 
Fox, an able Hebraist and educator, formerly editor of the Ha- 
Magid, assisted by a number of efficient Hebrew teachers, Mr. 
Maximovski (now in America), Mr. Rumianck, Mr. Wassilewsky, 
Mr. Port, Mr. A. Doniach, the young Hebrew poet Pinski, 
Mr. Beilin, Mr. Hodes, and others. There are in London, as well 
as in the provinces, some Hebrew-speaking societies and groups 
that work for the maintenance of Hebrew as a living tongue. 
The late J. Suwalski, an able Talmudist and Hebrew writer, 
edited and published in London for some years a Hebrew 
weekly, Ha-Yehoudi, under most difficult conditions. After his 
death the publication of. this paper was suspended, but in 
Hebraist circles a propaganda is again on foot for the purpose of 
securing the reappearance of a Hebrew weekly. 

In tracing the more recent development of Zionism in Eng- 
land, a number of representatives and workers of a prominently 
intellectual and literary character cannot escape our attention : 
Dr. Samuel Daiches, Lecturer in Biblical Exegesis and Tal- 
mudics at Jews' College, and author of numerous works on 
Assyriologian, Biblical Babylonian and Talmudical Babylonian 
subjects, a scholar of recognized merits, has an excellent Zionist 
record as a delegate to the Congresses, a Zionist writer, and as a 
most faithful propagandist of the national idea and the Hebrew 
language. His brother. Dr. Salis Daiches, Minister of the Edin- 
burgh Hebrew Congregation and author of studies on philosophy, 
is an active member of the Organization. Both are faithful to 
the traditions of their old rabbinical family and particularly to 
that of their father, the venerable Rabbi Israel Hayim Daiches 
of the Great Bet Ha-Midrash Congregation, Leeds, who many 
years ago, when Rabbi at Neustadt-Shirvint, Russia, was one of 
the first of the orthodox Rabbis to identify themselves with the 
Zionist idea. j 

The beginning of a University movement and the literary 
activity in connection with Zionism are, undoubtedly, remark- 
able features of Zionist development in England in recent years 
and deserve due consideration. Most prominent in this useful 
and promising movement are : Leon Simon, Norman Bentwich, 
Harry Sacher, Albert M. Hyamson, Dr. Selig Brodetsky, Samuel 
Landman, Dr. Joseph Hochman, Leonard Stein, the Rev. M. H. 
Segal and others, who, as Hebrew scholars and EngHsh writers 
of a highly cultivated Hterary taste, have founded University 
Zionist Societies, and are frequently lecturing on Zionist and 
general Jewish literary subjects. During the four years of the 


European War, despite the pressure on their time and energies 
which their non-Zionist duties, in most instances in the service 
of the State, involved, they produced a Zionist hterature remark- 
able not only in all the circumstances for its quantity, but also 
for its quality. They established and produced two periodicals. 
The Zionist Review, the monthly organ of the English Zionist 
Federation (editors, Mr. A. M. Hyamson and Mr. Leon Simon), 
in a sense the successor to The Zionist, which ceased publication 
on the outbreak of war, and Palestine, the weekly organ of the 
British Palestine Committee (editor, Mr. Harry Sacher). Of 
books all of a high quality and a permanent character, Zionism 
and the Jewish Future (editor, Mr. H. Sacher), which immediately 
became the standard work in England on Zionism, and passed 
into a second edition which soon became exhausted, Zionism — 
Problems and Views (editors, Mr. Paul Goodman and Mr. Arthur 
D. Lewis), Palestine — The Rebirth of an Ancient People (Mr. 
Albert M. Hyamson), Palestine of the Jews (Mr. Norman Bent- 
wich), and England and Palestine (Mr. H. Sidebotham), published 
by the British Palestine Committee, have all appeared since 1914. 
At the same time the same small band of writers have been 
active in the periodical press, and by means of a number of 
pamphlets, which deal with different aspects of Zionism and the 
Palestine question, have had considerable influence on public 
opinion, Jewish and non- Jewish, throughout the English- 
speaking world. Some members of this small band have also 
written on Zionism and Palestine in some of the leading American 
periodicals. Without being by any means exhaustive, one may 
mention among recent pamphlets : The Case of the Anti-Zionists 
(Leon Simon), Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews — (i) Jewry's 
Celebration of its National Charter, (2) A Survey of Christian 
Opinion, What is Zionism? (Dr. Chaim Weizmann and Dr. 
Richard Gottheil), The Jewish Colonization in Palestine : Its 
History and its Prospects (S. Tolkowsky), A Jewish Palestine : 
The Jewish Case for a British Trusteeship (H. Sacher), Zionism 
and the Jewish Religion (F. S. Spiers), Zionism and the Jewish 
Problem (Leon Simon), A Hebrew University for Jerusalem 
(H. Sacher), Zionism and Socialism (Lewis Rifkind), Jewish 
Emancipation : The Contract Myth (H, Sacher), History and 
Development of Jewish Colonization in Palestine (L. Kessler), 
Zionism, its Organization and Institutions (S. Landman), Jewish 
Colonization and Enterprise in Palestine (I. M. Sieff), Zionism 
and Jewish Culture (Norman Bentwich), Zionism and the State 
(H. Sacher), Zionism and the Hebrew Revival (E. Miller), Hebrew 
Education in Palestine (S. Philipps), British Projects for the 
Restoration of the Jews (A. M. Hyamson), Cosmopolitanism 
and Zionism (Arthur D. Lewis), The Jewish National Fund 
(Joseph D. Jacobs), Zionism in the Bible (N. Sokolow), 
Achievements and Prospects in Palestine (S. Tolkowsky), Hebrew 
Education in Palestine (Leon Simon), and a number of the essays 


of " Achad Ha'am/' translated into English by Mr. Leon 

Of important articles in the principal English weeklies and 
reviews may be mentioned " Palestine and Jewish Nationalism," 
by Mr, Leon Simon, in The Round Table, **The Development of 
Political Zionism," by Mr. Israel Cohen in The Fortnightly Review, 
by Mr. Albert M. Hyamson in the Quarterly Review, and a'so several 
other articles by the same writer in Th^ New Statesman and The 
New Europe. The Times and The Manchester Guardian, not to 
mention other daily periodicals, have given valuable and frequent 
support, in their editorial columns and elsewhere, to the Zionist 

It is chiefly due to the exertions of Mr. Leon Simon, who 
stands at the head of the University Zionist Organization, that 
the revival of interest in living Hebrew has spread among the 
young intellectuals. It is worthy of notice that this young 
scholar, who was born and educated in this country, was so 
strongly inspired by the Zionist idea that he acquired so thorough 
a knowledge of the Hebrew language that he is now a good He- 
brew speaker, as well as a highly appreciated contributor to the 
Hebrew monthly Ha-Shiloach. The Rev. M. H. Segal, formerly 
Minister of the Newcastle-on-Tyne Congregation, author of 
Mishnaic Hebrew and its Relation to Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, 
who belongs to the same group, is an excellent Hebrew writer. 
This movement has been greatly influenced by Asher Ginzberg — 
Achad Ha' am — who lives in London, and whose writings are very 
highly appreciated in intellectual quarters. Mr. Simon has 
translated some of his books into English. A great supporter of 
this movement is Dr. Ch. Weizmann, who is an old worker in 
University circles. 

Evidently Zionism is attracting more and more attention and 
consideration, and has the moral support and sympathy of dis- 
tinguished scholars and spiritual leaders, among whom we may 
mention the Goldsmid Professor of Hebrew at the University of 
London and Rabbi of the Bayswater Synagogue, Hermann 
GoUancz, and Dr. S. A. Hirsch, a well-known Talmudist and 
Emeritus Lecturer at Jews' College. Dr. Hirsch was one of the 
distinguished Choveve Zion, and took great interest in the 
Zionist movement. He was for a time Chairman of the Joint 
Committee of the English Zionist Federation and the Macca- 

The foregoing sketch, incomplete as it is, gives some idea of 
the amount of energy and labour expended on the work of 
Zionist organization and propaganda in England. If it is not as 
large and vigorous as it might be, and as it is undoubtedly going 
to be owing to the new development, it cannot be denied that 
there is in England a strong Zionist movement supported by 
an ever-increasing number of able, determined and devoted 

11.— 2 A 


2. South Africa 

In South Africa Zionism is powerful and important. Among 
the first representatives of the movement there must be men- 
tioned as the most notable : Dr. J, H. Hertz, Johannesburg 
(he was Delegate to the Fourth Zionist Congress, 1900), who is 
now Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the 
British Empire. Other staunch supporters were the Rev. Dr. J.L. 
Landau, Mr. S. Goldreich, the late Rev. D. Wasserzug, Mr. S. L. 
Heymann, Mr. S. Lennox-Loewe, Mr. R. Alexander, Mr. J. 
Heymann, Dr. Abelheim, Mr. J. L. Cohen, Mr. H. Lyons, Mr. R. 
Feigenbaum, Mr. H. B. Ellenbogen, Mr. S. S. Grossberg (Bula- 
wayo), Mr. B. Aaron, Mr. J. Blum, Mr. A. Beyer, Mr. N. 
Richardson, Mr. J. Kark, Mr. B. J. Chaimowitz, Mr. A. Dere- 
meik, Mr. A. M. Abrahams, Mr. J. Kaplan, Mr. J. Schwartz, Mr. 
Groimann, Mr. Hersh, Mr. S. Bebor and others. They have a 
well-organized Zionist Federation, of which the advocate, Mr. 
Maurice Alexander, is the Chairman. They also have their own 
Zionist Press, always send delegates to the Zionist Congresses 
and maintain a strong and successful propaganda in their country. 
The enthusiasm manifested by the masses is as great as the 
wonderful generosity with which they support all Zionist institu- 
tions in and outside of Palestine. One is simply struck with 
admiration at the wonderful results they have achieved in the 
way of contributions. 

3. Canada 

In Canada the Zionist movement began in 1898 and immedi- 
ately met with great success. Zionists propagated their principles 
at mass meetings and soon attracted enthusiastic workers for 
their cause, and by their help they were enabled to form organiza- 
tions in Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, Hamilton, London, King- 
ston (Ontario), Ottawa, and on the Pacific Coast. (The first 
Zionist Society in Canada was the Agudath Zion in Montreal.) 
First and foremost among the leaders is Mr. Clarence I. de Sola, 
a brother of the late Rev. Meldola de Sola, the minister of the 
Sephardi Community of Montreal. Both were the sons of Dr. 
Abraham de Sola, ll.d., who was Professor of Semitic Litera- 
ture at the McGill University of Montreal, and the leading 
Jewish Rabbi and writer in Canada. Mr. Clarence de Sola is 
President of the Federation of the Zionist Societies of Canada. 
The Rev. A. M. Ashinski (now at Pittsburg), Dr. David M. Hart, 
the Rev. B. M. KapHn, Mr. J. S. Leo, Mr. A. Levin, the Rev. D. H. 
Wittenberg, Mr. H. G. Levetus, Mr. Leon Goldman, Mr. B. Levi, 
the late Mr. Fahk and many others were the principal, untiring 
workers from the first ; and the distinguished Hebraist Rabbi 
Menkin (Hamilton), the eminent preacher Rabbi Abramowitz 
(Montreal),Mr.L.Lewinsky (Toronto), Mr. J. Friedmann (Ottawa), 
Mr. S. Jacobs (Montreal), Mr. Leon Cohn, Dr. Shayne, Mr. David 
Levy, Mr. Louis Fitch, Mr. A. A. Harris, Mr. S. Frankel, Mr. E. 


Geffen, Mr. Joseph Finsberg, Mr. H. Nathansohn, Mr. Bernard 
Lasker and many other enthusiastic speakers, workers and 
writers contributed to the efforts that made the Federation of 
the Canadian Zionists a hving force in the great movement, and 
the most active and most respected section of Jewry in that 
important part of the British Empire. 

4. Other Parts of the British Empire, 

There are also some Zionist groups as well as individual sup- 
porters in New Zealand, in Australia and in all other parts of the 
British Empire. In Egypt Zionism has recently made con- 
siderable progress. 

5. The United States 

The United States of America, with its three million Jews, 
of whom by far the greater number have migrated there from 
Russia during the past two generations, has a2ili£ally become an 
important centre of Zionism. It is impossible to give, in a brief 
outline, a proper conception of the greatness and importance of 
Zionist activities in America. 

America is a world in itself, and this can equally be said of 
American Zionism. The majority of Zionists may already per- 
haps, or will very soon, reside in the English-speaking countries. 
The extent of Zionism in the United States cannot be gauged by 
the payment of the " Shekel " (the annual obligatory Zionist 
contribution), which is not by any means a criterion as far as 
Zionist allegiance in America is concerned. It is sufficient to 
mention such well-known names as : Justice Louis D. Brandeis, 
Nathan Straus, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Dr. Harry Frieden- 
wald, Professor Richard Gottheil, Miss Henrietta Szold, 
Dr. Solomon Solis Cohen, Professor Israel Friedlaender, 
Rev. Dr. Pereira Mendes, E. Lewin-Epstein, Zolotkow, Louis 
Lipsky, J. de Haas, Professor Felix Frankfurter, Leon Sanders, 
Dr. C. S. Rubensohn, Nathan D. Kaplan, Judge Aaron J. Levy, 
Judge Julian W. Mack, Dr. H. M. Kallen, Rabbi H. H. Rubeno- 
witz, Louis Robison, Dr. Benjamin L. Gordon, Julius Meyer, 
S. Abel, A. E. Lubarski, Maurice L. Avner, Rabbi S. Margolis, 
Rev. Max Heller, Joseph Barondess, Rev. H. Masliansky, 
Abraham Goldberg, Bernard Richards, B. Rosenblatt and many 
others, representing all classes, sections and shades of American 
Jewry — these names enable one to form a slight idea of the 
greatness of the movement. 

Mr. Louis D. Brandeis, Justice of the Supreme Court, stands 
at the head of the Oreranization, and his influence in America 
equals almost that of Herzl in this hemisphere. Dr. Shemaryah 
Levin, representing the Inner Actions Committee, has done 
much to stimulate propaganda in America, and is strongly 
supported by a number of distinguished Zionists who have 
recently arrived there. 


The movement has, however, a long and honourable record in 
America (where, as in other countries, the Zionist movement was 
preceded by a Chovcve Zion movement). There have been not 
only the Shove Zion in New York and the Choveve Zion in Phila- 
delphia in 1 891 ; the beginning was much earlier. Mention has 
already been made of the Rev. M. J. Raphall's activities ; but he 
did not stand alone in his efforts. An attempt to form a Choveve 
Zion organization was made at Cincinnati in 1855. In the Occi- 
dent of Philadelphia, of March 8th, i860, Mr. Simon Berman, the 
author of the Hebrew book Massot Shimon (published in 1874), 
published the details of a Choveve Zion plan he had then formu- 
lated. Still later, Adam Rosenberg worked most energetically 
in connection with Choveve Zion in other countries, and with the 
first colonists in Palestine. Rosenberg attended also the First 
Zionist Congress. 

The Federation of American Zionists was organized on July 
4th, 1897, with Professor Richard Gottheil as President, Dr. B. 
Felsenthal of Chicago, Dr. M. Jastrow of Philadelphia, Dr. S. 
Schaffer of Baltimore, Dr. J. L. Bluestone, Rev. H. MasUansky, 
as members ; Mr. C. D. Birkhahn acted as Hon. Treasurer, and 
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise as Honorary Secretary. 

The old and highly esteemed Dr. Gustav Gottheil, father of 
Professor Richard Gottheil, who had formerly been Rabbi at 
Manchester (and a friend of Professor Theodores), and had just 
then become Rabbi at New York (where he died in 1903), identi- 
fied himself with the Zionist movement. Professor Richard 
Gottheil joined the movement from the beginning. He was a 
friend of Herzl, a member of the Actions Committee and a 
prominent figure at the Zionist Congresses. In order to spread 
a knowledge of the Zionist movement, the first Committee 
of the Federation resolved to issue a series of publications, 
and Professor Gottheil wrote his first pamphlet. The Aims of 
Zionism, in 1897. Five years ago he published an important 
work on Zionism. For a long time Dr. J. L. Magnes was 
most actively engaged in Zionist work, and he is still most 
active in the work of organizing Hebrew education in tlie 
United States. 

The late Dr. Marcus Jastrow, who served on the first Com- 
mittee, was an orientalist and a rabbi, pre-eminently known as 
a man of genius and thoroughness, and as an author of a great 
dictionary of the Aramaic-Talmudic language, and of other 
works of great value. It is not generally known, and there- 
fore worthy of notice here, that when he was preacher at the 
Great Synagogue in Warsaw at the beginning of the sixties 
at the time of the Polish Insurrection, he was an enthusiastic 
friend of the Poles in their struggle for national liberty. Poles 
and Polish-Jewish patriots still cherish his memory with deep 

The present Zionist movement in America, as compared with 


the earlier one, is of course much stronger and healthier, but it is 
interesting to observe that the movement in America is not one 
that sprang up only recently. 

During the present war American Zionism has come provi- 
dentially to the succour of Palestine with an enthusiasm and a 
generosity unequalled in history, and it is undoubtedly qualified 
and destined to play a prominent part in the Zionist solution of 
the Palestinian problem. 

6. Germany 

The geographical position of Germany — its proximity to 
Russia and Austria — the numerical strength of its Jewish popula- 
tion, and their long tradition of Jewish learning and Jewish 
activity, have combined to make that country favourable soil for 
the growth of Zionism. Nor must the prevalent anti-Semitism 
be left out of account as a factor making in the same direction. 
Whereas, for instance, the Jewish University student in England 
is welcomed in the various students' associations and clubs, the 
Jewish students at a German University are practically com- 
pelled to form an organization of their own. This is one of the 
causes of the remarkable growth of the Zionist Students' move- 
ment in Germany — a movement which, while it is not free from 
the besetting sin of over-organization, has undoubtedly done a 
great deal to transform the spirit of German Jewry. But from 
the earliest years, even before the growth of the Students' move- 
ment, Zionism has always been in Germany a serious intellectual 
movement, contending for supremacy with the " Reform " theory 
of Judaism, and never failing to hold its own. The first official 
paper of the movement was LHe Welt, and the Judischer Verlag 
in Berlin was for long the most important Zionist publishing 
concern ; while in the extent of its Zionist literary and artistic 
output Germany is probably second to no other country. Yet 
it is characteristic that a Zionist Congress has only once (Ham- 
burg, 191 1) been held in Germany, though the headquarters of 
the movement were for a time at Cologne and afterwards at 
Berlin, and though Germany has been the home of such dis- 
tinguished Zionists as Dr. Max Bodenheimer, for many years at 
the head of the Jewish National Fund, Dr. Franz Oppenheimer, 
the expert in co-operative colonization, and Julius Simon, to say 
nothing of members of the Inner Actions Committee like Wolff- 
sohn, Hantke and Warburg. 

7. Smaller European Countries 

Holland gave to the movement one of its earliest leaders, 
Heer Jacobus Kann, who was associated with Wolff sohn in the 
administration after Herzl's death. It has now a well-organized 
and active Zionist Organization, to which a great impetus was 
given by the Eighth Congress at the Hague, 1909. Dutch Zionists 


take a very active part in the general organization work and in 
that of the Jewish National Fund, the headquarters of which are 
at present at the Hague. The Dutch Zionist Federation has an 
excellent weekly paper, De Joodsche Wachter, which has appeared 
regularly for several years. Zionism in Holland has had for 
several years a University Movement. In connection with 
Holland, a place of honour in Zionist history belongs to Belgium, 
and particularly to Antwerp, which has been for several years an 
important Zionist centre. M. Jean Fischer, most noteworthy of 
the Antwerp group from the point of view of the organization, 
is a member of the Actions Committee and of the great financial 
institutions of Zionism. He and his friends have taken an 
important part in colonization undertakings in Palestine. 
Switzerland, the land of Zionist Congresses, has a good organiza- 
tion with many zealous and able workers. In Denmark and 
Sweden the Zionist organization has lately developed great 
activity, owing to the Zionist Office which has been established 
at Copenhagen. Rumania (which was almost equal to Russia in 
the Choveve Zion movement) and Bulgaria are still more im- 
portant as centres of Zionist activity. 


The Institutions of Zionism 

The Zionist institutions — A. General: i. The Congress — 2. The Actions 
Committee — 3. The Annual Conference — 4. The Federations in 
various countries — 5. The English Zionist Federation — 6. The Order 
of Ancient Maccabeans — 7. The Palestine Society. — 8. The Poale 
Zion — 9. The Mizrachi — 10. Women Zionist Societies — B. Financial : 
I. The Jewish Colonial Trust — 2. The Anglo-Palestine Company — 
3. The Anglo-Levantine Company — 4. The Jewish National Fund — 
5. The Palestine Land Development Company — 6. The Kedem Com- 
pany — 7. The First London Achuzah Company — 8. The Maccabean 
Land Company — C. Institutions in Palestine — D. Miscellaneous In- 

I. The Congress 

The Zionist Congress is the supreme authority in the Movement. 
Until the fifth Congress, Congresses were held annually, but 
since the sixth Congress they have been held biennially. The 
first Congress was held on the 29th of August, 1897, at Basle, 
Switzerland. Most of the subsequent Congresses were held at 
the same place : the second in August, 1898 ; the third in August, 
1899 ; the fifth in December, 1901 ; the sixth in August, 1903 ; 
the seventh in August, 1905, and the tenth in September, 1911. 
The fourth Congress was held in London in August, 1900 ; the 
eighth took place at the Hague in August, 1907 ; the ninth at 
Hamburg in December, 1909, and the eleventh at Vienna in 
August, 1913. 


The Congress consists of delegates representing the shekel 
payers throughout the world, who assemble for the purpose of 
international discussion of the Jewish question and decisions 
concerning the world-wide Zionist Organization. The Congress, 
as the controlUng body of the movement, interprets the pro- 
gramme of Zionism, settles the details of organization, elects the 
executive and examines the financial affairs of the movement. 
The officials and committee of the movement are responsible to 
the Congress. The Zionist banking institution, the Jewish 
Colonial Trust in London, is also controlled by the Congress, as 
only members of the Actions Committee can become members of 
the Council of the Trust. A deciding voice in the control of the 
Jewish National Fund is secured to the Congress, as only members 
of the Council of the Jewish Colonial Trust can become members 
of the Jewish National Fund. (See below as to the Jewish 
Colonial Trust and Jewish National Fund.) 

Only shekel payers (paying a sum of one shilling or a corre- 
sponding sum in foreign coinage) have the right to elect delegates 
to a Congress. The payment of that sum by a person who accepts 
the principles of Zionism as adopted by the first Congress entitles 
him or her to membership of the International Zionist Organiza- 

The last Zionist Congress, which was the eleventh, was at- 
tended by 538 delegates, who represented the Zionists in the 
following countries : Russia, France, Austria, Switzerland, 
Germany, United States of America, Canada, Turkey, Belgium, 
Holland, Roumania, China, Bulgaria, Italy, Hungary, Serbia, 
Australia, South Africa, Greece and England. 

2. The Actions Committee 

The Executive power of the movement is vested in the Greater 
Actions Committee, consisting of twenty-five members, and in a 
Smaller Actions Committee, consisting of six members. The 
members of the present Greater Actions Committee are : 

Dr. Max Bodenheimer, Jean Fischer, Dr. Frank, Dr. Friede- 
mann, B. A. Goldberg, Dr. H. G. Heymann,^ A. Idelsohn, 
Jakobus Kann, L. Kessler, Dr. Klee, J. Kremenezky, Dr. 
Alexander Marmorek, Leo Motzkin, J. A. Naiditsch, A. 
Podlischewski, Dr. Leon Reich, I. A. Rosoff, S. Rosenbaum, 
Heinrich Schein, Julius Simon, Adolf Stand, Robert Strieker, 
M. Ussischkin, Dr. Chaim Weizmann, ^ and David Wolffsohn.^ 
The members of the present Smaller Actions Committee are : 

Professor Dr. Otto Warburg, Dr. Arthur Hantke, Dr. Victor 
Jacobson, Dr. Shemaryah Levin, Nahum Sokolow, and the late 
Dr. E. W. Tschlenow. * 

^ Died in 1918. 

2 Dr. Chaim Weizmann was recently elected a member of the Smaller 
Actions Committee. 

» Wolfisohn died in 1 914. * Dr. Tschlenow died in London in 191 8 


The Greater Actions Committee is the executive body of the 
Congress according to its constitution, but it is only convened to 
decide on important questions. It meets several times in the 
year, and must meet not less than once a year. Only the Greater 
Actions Committee is competent to consider and decide questions 
relating to the Zionist organizations in the various countries. 
The Committee has also the right to inquire into and examine the 
work of the Smaller Actions Committee. 

The Smaller Actions Committee is the superior Executive of 
the whole Zionist Organization, and is entrusted with the 
management of all branches of the Zionist movement and 
activities all over the world. 

3. The Annual Conference 

The name of this institution is somewhat misleading, as the 
conference called Annual Conference is really a biennial confer- 
ence held in those years in which a Zionist Congress does not take 
place. The holding of such conferences was decided upon by the 
fifth Congress. This conference is in reality an extended meeting 
of the Greater Actions Committee, and is attended not only by 
all members of that Committee, but also by the president and 
vice-presidents of the last Congress, the presidents of the per- 
manent commissions, the presidents of the federations and 
amalgamated organizations of the various countries, the directors 
of the banking institutions, the members of the Congress tribunal, 
the legal adviser of the Congress and the auditors. The con- 
ference is somewhat limited in the scope of its activities, as it 
may only examine the accounts of the organization, accept 
resolutions, and draw up a programme of activity for the next 
period of administration. The conference has no right to carry 
out elections of committees or officials or to alter or modify the 
Zionist programme. 

4. The Federations in Various Countries 

The name " Federation," as far as the Zionist movement is 
concerned, is frequently synonymous with the amalgamated 
organizations in any particular country. But, on the other hand, 
it sometimes designates an organization consisting of a number 
of societies and groups which have federated, for the purpose of 
propagating Zionism on certain defined lines. The Smaller 
Actions Committee is authorized to grant recognition to a federa- 
tion in any country, providing such a body comprises not less 
than 3000 shekel payers and satisfies them as to such other 
requirements as the Smaller Actions Committee may impose 
upon it. 

5. The English Zionist Federation 
The English Zionist Federation was established in 1898, and 


according to its constitution, amended and revised in 1907, its 

object and constitution are : 

" The English Zionist Federation as * Landes Comite ' of 
United Kingdom shall carry on its operations in accordance 
with the constitution adopted by and in sympathy with the 
decisions arrived at from time to time by the Zionist Congress. 
" The Federation shall consist of such Jewish Associations 
and Bodies in the United Kingdom as desire, subject to the 
general sanction and direction of the Executive Committee, 
to promote the acquisition of a publicly recognized legally 
secured home in Palestine for the Jewish people, or in addition 
thereto, any of the following objects : 

(a) The fostering of the National idea in Israel. 

(b) The support of the regular International Congress of 

duly accredited representatives of the Jewish people, 
for the consideration of the position of Jews in the 
different countries of their dispersion, and for taking 
such measures as may be deemed conducive to their 
general welfare. 

(c) The support of existing colonies, and the founding of 

new colonies by placing as many Jews as possible 
living in Palestine as settlers on the land, and en- 
couragement, guidance and assistance of new settlers 
anxious to establish colonies, or any handicrafts, 
industries or arts in Palestine and neighbouring lands. 

(d) The study of Hebrew literature and the use of Hebrew 

as a living language." 

The functions of the Federation are : to be the medium of 
communication between affiliated societies and the Executive 
Council (Actions Committee) and with Zionist Associations in 
other countries ; to advise on the steps necessary for the further- 
ance of the general movement, and adopt such means as may be 
approved for carrying into effect the resolutions adopted by 
Congress held from time to time ; and to initiate, in connection 
with the various objects of the Federation, propaganda, which 
shall partake of one common character throughout all the feder- 
ated bodies. 

The Constituent Societies affiliated to the Federation now 
number sixteen in London, twenty-seven in the Provinces, and 
four in the Dominions and Colonies. Of these forty-seven ten 
are Women's and Girls' Societies and six Junior Societies. 

The general government of the Federation is vested in a 
Central Committee, consisting of delegates from all the federated 
societies. The Executive Power of the organization is vested in 
a Council consisting of a President, two Vice-Presidents, Honorary 
Secretary and twenty other members of the Council. 

For the purpose of carrying out the work of the Federation a 


number of sub-committees deal with various special matters 
(Propaganda, Literature, Palestine, Finance, etc.). 

6. The Order of Ancient Maccabeans 

This is a Friendly Society, established in 1894, and registered 
on the 8th of May, 1901, under the Friendly Societies' Act, 1896. 
When Herzl came to England before the first Zionist Congress 
the members of the Society, who then belonged to the " Lovers 
of Zion " movement, pledged their adherence to the Zionist 
cause. The Society is an avowedly Zionist Order, and every 
member on admission has to declare his willingness to be a 
Zionist, to pay the shekel and to assist generally through the 
Order in the work of resettling the Jews in Palestine. 

Since the Zionist Congress of 1909 the Society has been 
recognized as a separate Federation, having a membership of 
over three thousand, as required by the regulations of the 
Zionist Organization. 

The Executive Power of the organization is vested in a Grand 

7. The Palestine Society 

The Palestine Society is an association of Jews who desire the 
establishment in Palestine of a centre of Jewish life, which shall 
offer a full opportunity for the free development of the Jewish 
rehgion, Jewish ideals and Jewish culture. It is not formally 
associated with the Zionist Organization. 

The activities of the Society include the following : 

(a) Propaganda for the purpose of creating among Jews and 
Jewish Institutions in England a public opinion favourable to 
the furtherance of Jewish activities in Palestine. 

(b) The collection and dissemination of information concern- 
ing the work that is being carried on by existing Palestinian 

(c) The support of Palestinian Institutions and activities. 
{d) The organization of visits to Palestine. 

In the spring of 1912 a Palestine Exhibition and Bazaar was 
held in London, in aid of two Jerusalem institutions — the 
Bezalel and the Evelina de Rothschild School. The Exhibition 
had the effect of exciting interest in Palestine among all sections 
of English Jews. It was then felt that a systematic effort should 
be made to press the claims of Palestine upon the Anglo- Jewish 
middle-class. Accordingly a body known as the Palestine 
Committee was founded for this purpose. This Committee held 
a series of drawing-room meetings, which met with a fair measure 
of success. 

In order to undertake activities of a more extensive and more 
varied kind, a properly constituted society — the Palestine 
Society — was formed in the autumn of 191 3. During its brief 


existence it performed useful work, as, for instance, the arrange- 
ment of a series of drawing-room meetings, at which lectures 
were delivered by eminent speakers. The speakers and chairmen 
included : the Chief Rabbi, the Rev. M. Adler, the Rev. A. A. 
Green, the Rev. Dr. J. Hochman, the Rev. Morris Joseph, 
Dayan H. M. Lazarus, the Rev. W. Levin, the Rev. E. Levine, 
the Rev. D. Wasserzug, Lady Swaythling, Dr. A. Eichholz, 
Mr. H. R. Lewis, Mr. J. Prag, and Mr. Israel Zangwill. 

Fifteen of the London Jewish ministers are members of the 
Society, and have preached a number of sermons with sympa- 
thetic references to the Society and its aims. 

In the course of the year 1914 the Liverpool Bezalel Association 
became affihated to the Palestine Society. A branch of the 
Society was also formed at Glasgow, and when the War broke 
out branches were in course of formation at Leeds, Brighton 
and in several of the suburbs of London. 

At the outbreak of the War the membership of the Society 
numbered approximately 250, though no widespread propaganda 
was ever attempted either for the enrolment of members or for 
the collection of funds, as it was intended from the outset that 
the work of the Society should be limited to those circles which 
other agencies had not succeeded in reaching. 

Among other activities of this Society were : 

(i) An effort to induce literary and kindred societies to include 
a discussion of the Palestine question in their programmes for the 
1914 to 1915 session, the Society providing the speakers, of whom 
it had compiled a list. 

(2) An attempt was made to organize a tour to Palestine in 
the spring of 1914. Owing to difficulties that arose in respect of 
the choice of date and the time available, an organized tour on a 
large scale had to be abandoned ; three members of the Com- 
mittee, however, visited Palestine during that year. A tour was 
projected for the spring of 1915 ; that had, of course, to be 
abandoned owing to the War. 

(3) The first two pamphlets of an intended series were pre- 
pared, dealing with the agricultural colonies in Palestine and the 
work of their educational institutions respectively. A summary 
account of general Jewish activities in Palestine in 1913-14, and 
of the measure of support it had received from English Jews, 
was also in preparation when the War broke out. It had been 
intended to publish all this matter in a Palestine Annual, and to 
reprint most of it separately in due course. 

There is reason to believe that in the brief period of its active 
life (it suspended activity on the outbreak of the War) the Society 
succeeded in arousing an interest in Palestine as a centre of 
Jewish aspiration among a large circle of Jews whom other 
agencies have left untouched, and in creating in certain quarters 
an atmosphere more favourable than had existed heretofore. It 


must be added that the Society has merely suspended its activi- 
ties and not abandoned them. This was explained in a letter 
from its President, Dr. Eichholz, which appeared in the Jewish 
Chronicle of December 3rd, 1915. 

The Officers and Committee for 1913-14 were : President : 
Dr. A. Eichholz ; Vice-Presidents : the Very Rev. the Chief 
Rabbi, the Very Rev. the Haham, the Rev. Morris Joseph, 
Sir Isidore Spielmann, c.m.g., f.s.a. ; Treasurer : Albert M. 
Hyamson ; Committee : Mrs. A. Eichholz, Miss H. M. Bent- 
wich, the Rev. Dr. J. Hochman, Dr. M. Epstein, Harry R. 
Lewis, Leon Simon, Robert B. Solomon, F. S. Spiers ; Hon. 
Secretaries : Miss A. Stein and Leonard Stein ; Hon. Corres- 
ponding Secretary in Palestine : Michael E. Lange. 

8. Poale Zion 

The national idea forms the premiss of Zionism. To bring this 
idea to life, to provide a durable foundation for the national 
unification of the Jews upon their very own, old historical 
ground, that is the aim of Zionism. In its tendency, therefore, 
it comprises the whole Jewish people ; its immediate object, how- 
ever, apart from the self-evident conservation of the ideal of 
national unity, bears upon fragments, so to say, of the people ; 
upon more or less considerable parts of population, individuals, 
groups, and classes. Their specific attitude towards Zionism 
hinges on two main points, of which one is more of spiritual, and 
the other more of material nature. Both must be equally con- 
sidered, for both are effective, although in varying degree. 
However, when a particular class is considered in its relation 
towards Zionism, it behoves to examine first of all the point of 
view to which this class itself attaches most importance. It may 
of course be open to discussion whether when forming an estimate 
of national and social questions the economic aspect ought 
always to be considered foremost, but there is no doubt that it is 
so regarded by the working-class. Let us also admit it for the 
Jewish workmen. If we take class interest into account the 
workman may speak first, then the Jew within him. It will 
appear that it is precisely from a closer examination of the class 
interest of the Jewish workmen and the interrelations between 
them and the general working-class, that their position towards 
Zionism results most simply, as we already see this clearly indi- 
cated, and as it will be evolved in the near future, given certain 

Jewish workmen may be divided into two categories, apart 
from several intermediate divisions. The one is nationally in- 
different, class interest alone carries weight with it. By entering 
into the general working-class the workmen of this category are, 
so to say, engulfed by it ; they retain no trace of national needs 
and wishes. The numerically by far larger category comprises 
the actual masses of Jewish workmen in Russia, GaUcia, and 



America. These Jewish workmen also join the general working- 
class, but they occupy within it a very distinctly noticeable 
separate position. Where the amelioration of the economic 
condition of the working-class is concerned, the obtaining of 
higher salaries, the reduction of working time, in short, in all 
questions falling within the sphere of class interest they hold 
together with the other workmen. Just as they suffer from un- 
employment like these, so they make common cause with them 
on special occasions, for instance, strikes. But beyond the 
material questions of existence there is much which separates 
them. They are sociable enough to come together for a short 
time with the other workmen where need and interest demand 
it, but they are not sufficiently homogenous to unite socially 
with them. They cannot shake off a certain feeling of alienage 
in the camp of the general working-class. Critical points soon 
arise on the boundaries of economical questions, deep contrasts 
become manifest which are not brought about by ill-will, but are 
rather caused by historical forces which even to-day are still at 
work. What will it profit if, in order to proceed summarily, one 
ascribes this segregation of the Jewish workmen to a thousand 
years of atavism ? The disclosure of the cause, whether accept- 
able or not, does not do away with the fact. And it is a fact that 
these Jewish workmen wield a strong national and religious in- 
fluence, that religion is no " private concern " for them, as it is 
designated by the workmen's programme, or only private con- 
cern inasmuch as religion is prudently left undiscussed by the 
labour party. 

Probably from such differences and sentimental contrasts it is 
to be explained that voices became loud which demanded the 
independent organization of the Jewish workmen. Such a 
demand might be considered by the leading party as an anomaly, 
since the Jewish workmen are not at all taken into account 
nationally but pass as appendages of the various nations. And 
if it was not merely euphemism when the Jews were accorded 
the same right to exist, when the name or the nation in whose 
country they became settled was conferred upon them, where- 
fore an independent organization ? Now, the course of evolu- 
tion of the Jews up to the present, especially its last phase, has 
revealed that not only the masses of Judaism which are not yet 
on a high plane of cultural development feel nationally. It is 
just in the Zionism of the educated Jews that the full justifica- 
tion of the national movement shows itself. We may point out 
without fear the difference between the conscious Zionistic 
action and that part of Judaism which is unconsciously national 
through the power of historic conditions. 

The Jewish workmen are the natural allies of Zionism, but 
they will become the actual and co-operating allies only through 
independent workmen organizations. The Jewish workmen, 
independently organized, would go hand in hand with the labour 


party in all single claims dictated by class interest, but otherwise 
they would be independent. National as the Jewish workmen 
are distinctly enough in life, national in consequence of their 
education, their peculiarities — why should they not be so as a 
working-class ? Do then the workmen of other nations lay aside 
their nationality when they take their stand to the social ques- 
tion ? And do they give up their nationality when they have 
done for the moment with debate and action ? And the Jewish 
workmen alone should renounce their nationality, they who are 
not even yet capable of sharing properly in the culture of another 
nation ? Although it is not out of love for Zionism that the 
Jewish workmen, for the greater part, feel nationally, they may 
yet in time become national even in a Zionist sense. And that 
through the natural community of interests, passing from the 
unconscious to the conscious, which will establish a more and 
more intimate relation between them and Zionism. The whole 
political development of recent times has made it clear to the 
Jewish workmen how powerful the national thought is among 
workmen. Even in the event of the victory of the coUectivistic 
idea it could hardly become different in regard to race con- 
trasts. And when Eduard Bernstein in the epilogue of the trans- 
lation of Mr. Webb's History of the Trade Unions observes : 
" Class struggles manifest themselves only se