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HISTORY OF OHIO 



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History of Ohio 

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THOMAS EWING 
Born in West Liberty, Ohio county, Virginia (now West 
Virginia), December 28, 1789; graduated from Ohio Univer- 
sity at Athens, Ohio, 181 5, and was admitted to the bar in 
Lancaster, Ohio, 181 6; Prosecuting Attorney of Fairfield 
county several years; achieved great distinction at the 
bar; United States Senator, 1831-37; appointed Secretary 
of the Treasury by President William Henry Harrison, 
and continued for some time undor President Tyler, 
when he resigned: Secretary of tlw Interior nnder Fresi- 
dent Taylor from March, 1849^ until thr latter's death in 
August, 1850 J afterward was again Uniteil States Senator 
until March, 1851 ; rt^pjci^nted Ohio at the peace con- 
ference held to avert sect;ssi<m; nominated by President 
Johnson t 1868, for the office of Secretary of War^ but not 
confirmed; died in Lancaster, Ohio, October 36, 1871. 





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History of Ohio 



The Rise and Progress of an 
American State 



By 
Emilius O. gANDALL and Daniel J. Ryan 



Volume Five 
CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES— INDEX 



c 

■ THE CENTURY HISTORY COMPANY 

NEW YORK 
I913 



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Printed by 

John C. Ranldn Company, New York 

for 

The Century History Company 

( DEC 27 1913 



C- t PERKINS MEMORIAL 



Copyright 1913 

By Thb Cbntury History Company 

all rights rbservbd 



Publication Office 

54 Dey Street, New York. N. Y. 

U. S.A, 



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PREFACE 

TIE first four volumes of this work are devoted 
to the consecutive history of Ohio, with but 
passing attention to several important and 
special subjects in the progress of the nar- 
rative. 
The present volume consists of five articles on topics 
by selected writers personally qualified by capacity 
and knowledge to present in an authoritative manner 
their respective subjects. In the choice of the litera- 
ture for this volume it has been the object of the Edi- 
tors to preserve these contributions as a valuable part 
of the history of Ohio. To these contributors the 
Editors make special acknowledgment for their sub- 
stantial additions to this work. 

Emilius O. Randall. 
Daniel J. Ryan. 



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CONTENTS 

OHIO LITERARY MEN AND WOMEN 
By William Henry Vbnable 

Biographical Notice i 

General Aspects of the Subject 3 

Pioneer Books and Pens in Ohio 6 

Early Periodical Literature 8 

Some Ohio Journalists 10 

Personal Narrative, Military Reminiscence, etc 16 

History, Local and General 19 

Education 26 

Science 27 

Law and Medicine 31 

Theology and Denominationalism 32 

Religious, Social, and Civic Duties and Ideals 39 

Essay, Literary Criticism, etc 41 

Books for Young People 46 

Fiction 47 

Htmiorous Writers 67 

Poetry 68 

THE JUDICIARY OP OHIO 

By David K. Watson and Moses M. Granger 

Biographical Notices 85 

The Northwest Territory 87 

The First Judges 88 

The First Law •. . 90 

The First Court Session 92 

Admission and Practice of Attorneys 99 

Organization of the State Government loi 

Early Supreme Judges of the State 105 

Distinguished Members of the Bar 105 

Organic History of the State Courts , 109 

John McLean 1 16 

Conflict with the Legislature, 1808-09 118 

Calvin Pease — Geoige Tod 123 

Samuel Huntington 124 

The Old "Associate" Judges 125 

The Question of National Supremacy 127 

The Fugitive Slave Law 133 

Joseph Rockwell Swan 137 



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viii THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Josiah Scott 140 

William Virgil Peck 141 

Charles Robert Sherman 142 

Peter Hitchcock 144 

Reuben Wood 146 

Rufus Putnam Ranney 147 

William White 151 

\^^lliam Hugh Prazier 154 



MEDICAL OHIO 

By D. Tod Gilliam, M. D. 

Biographical Notice 159 

The Pioneer Doctor 161 

Primitive Practice 163 

The Dawn of Progress 167 

Circumstances and Limitations in the Early Times 174 

The Demon Jealousy 176 

The Medical Colleges 177 

Ohio Medical College 181 

Starling Medical CoU^^e 191 

Ohio Medical University 201 

Qeveland Medical College 202 

A Disruption and a New College 206 

Medical Societies 209 

Ohio State Board of Health 213 

Ohio State Board of Registration 216 

Hospitals 219 

Modem Advancement 222 



OHIO AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
TRANSPORTATION ON THE GREAT LAKES 
By Harvby D. Goulder 

Biographical Notice 229 

The Voyage of the Grifl&n 231 

Pessimism of Henry Qay 233 

Elements of Ohio's Advantage 234 

History of Improvements in Navigation 235 

General O. M. Poe. • 240 

Interchange of Lake Superior Ore and Ohio Coal 241 

Unloading Improvements 243 

The Wondrous Change, and Some of Its Promoters 246 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE ix 



OfflO AS A MANUFACTURING STATE 
By Opha Mookb 

Biographical Notice 351 

Ohio's Rank in the Union 353 

Agricultoral and Manufactttring Development Compared 355 

Statistics of Leading Industries, 1910 358 

Statistics for Thirty-seven Qties, 1910 363 

General Historical Summary 363 

B^;innings c^ Industry 366 

Cincinnati, to 1830 368 

Cleveland, to 1910 375 

Cincinnati, to 1910 390 

Colunibus, to 1910 305 

Toledo, to 1910 310 

Dayton, to 1910 313 

Youngstown, to 1910 317 

Akron, to 1910 333 

Canton, to 1910 334 

Springfield, to 1910 337 

Hamilton, to 1910 339 

INDEX 331 



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ILLUSTRATIONS 

'' Thomas Ewing Pronti^eoe 

^ Murat Halstead Facmg page lo 

-'Donn Piatt « « 30 

'Alice Gary — ^Phoebe Gary " • 50 

- Samuel Sullivan Cox « « 6a 

V David Ross Locke * • 68 

"William Haines Lytle « « 74 

* "Daniel Decatur Emmett • • to 

'Peter Hitchcock • • 93 

'Henry Stanbery • • 100 

'Edmond Stafford Young • * * no 

•'John McLean • • 116 

'Rufus King • " 120 

' Calvin Pease * « 126 

V Joseph Rockwell Swan • • 132 

^Richard Almgill Harrison • • 140 

•'Rufus Putnam Raimey " ^ 146 

'William White « « 150 

'Noah Hasmes Swayne " " 154 

"William Starling Sullivant * * 170 

'Daniel Drake « « 180 

''Roberts Bartholow— George Curtis Blackman « « 188 

«• Starling Loving * • 196 

i Gustav C. E. Weber « « 306 

'Jedediah Cobb— Jared Potter Kirtland " • 318 

^ James Gamble * • 256 

'Eliam E. Barney * " 270 

'John H. Thomas " " 280 

•^Robert Johnson • * 288 

•^Oliver S. Kelly « " 296 

"'Benjamin Head Warder * • 304 

'Charles E. Pease " " 314 

^William N. Whiteley « "326 



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OHIO LITERARY MEN AND WOMEN 
By William Henry Venable 



V^lliam Henry Venable, eminent among the leading poets of our State 
and author of numerous important works in history, biography, fiction, and 
criticism, was bom near Waynesville, Warren Cotmty, Ohio, April 39, 1836. 
Bis manifold writings have secured for him an illustrious place among con- 
temporary men of letters and have established his reputation as an authority 
in all that pertains to the literary history and progress of the Ohio Valley. 
Dr. Venable has ^)ent his entire life, excepting for a sin^^e year, in Ohio, where 
with tongue and pen he has devoted himself to the higher interests of his 
time, working especially to promote the cause ci liberal education and lit^ary 
culture. The wide-ranging list of his published volumes comprises the fol- 
lowing titles: A School History of the United States (1872); June on the 
Miami, and Other Poems (1872); The School Stage (1873); The Amateur 
Actor (1874); Dramas and Dramatic Scenes (1874); The Teacher's Dream, 
illustrated by Famy (1881); Melodies of the Heart, Songs of Freedom and 
Faith, and Other Poems (1885); Footprints of the Pioneers (1888); The 
Teacher's Dream, and Other Songs of School-Days (1889); B^:inning8 of 
literary Culture in the Ohio VaUey (1891); John Hancock, Bducator (1892); 
Let Him First be a Man, and Other Bssays (1894); Poems of ^T^^lliam Haines 
Lytle, edited, with Memoir (1894); The Last Flight (1894); Tales from Ohio 
History (1896); Selections from the Poems of Wordsworth (1898); Setections 
from the Poems of Byron (1898); Selections from the Poems of Bums (1898); 
Santa Qaus and the Black Cat, or Who is Your Master? (1898) ; A Dream of 
Empire, or The House of Blennerhassett, an Historical Romance (1901); 
TomTad,aNovel of Boy-Life (1902); Saga of the Oak, and Other Poems (1904); 
Cincinnati: A Civic Ode (1907); Floridian Sonnets (1909); A Buckeye 
Boyhood (1911).— The Editors. 



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THE "American Review of Reviews'* for April, 
1903, contains an article written by Murat 
Halstead and entitled, "A Century of the 
State of Ohio,** in which eloquent contribution 
to Buckeye literature occurs this forceful paragraph: 
"In addition to the heroic quality of the immigrants 
who possessed Ohio, there seemed to be influences of 
soil and climate, of airs and waters, of the fruitful 
woods and living streams; and there was, by the 
mighty magic of creation, in the brains and blood, 
the tissue and sinew of men and the grace and faith 
of women, that yielded a growth of manhood and 
womanhood in a race equal to the founding of a mighty 
nation, with the inheritance of all the empires gone 
before — ^the conquest of the beneficent continent, that 
in a few generations has given weight to America, in 
the scales of destiny, equal to that of Europe. " 

The influences, the fruitfulness, the brains and blood 
in which Mr. Halstead discovered the creative cause 
of the political and military prowess of the Ohio people, 
are also the source from which flow the literary energy 
and enterprise manifested in the State. 

By virtue of its location and history, Ohio is a typical 
commonwealth, an exponent of the spirit and of the 
general culture prevailing in the Ohio Valley and in 
the region bordered by Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan 
and Superior. The five sister states who now divide 
among them the ownership of what was the Old North- 
west are daughters of the Ordinance of 1787, and Ohio, 
the first bom of the five, once held potential sway 
over the destiny of the whole domain. She transmitted 
to the younger members of the geographical family, 



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THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 



as one by one they took up the functions of maturity, 
the virtues and aspirations inherited from her stalwart 
and ambitious progenitors. A persistent likeness of 
features common to them all denotes the consanguinity 
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. 
These statds are in commercial and political sympathy, 
their interests are alike, their organic laws are similar, 
their systems of education agree, their conceptions of 
life and art and literature are in essential harmony. 

There was an era when the states now called Central, 
including Kentucky, called themselves distinctively 
The West, and considered their literature an indigenous 
species for the honor and glory of which they contended 
with passionate provincialism. They were jealous of 
competition and would protect their infant industry 
of prose and poetry, by a wall of prejudice. But in 
the process of nationalization more liberal ideas were 
evolved and educated people gradually gave up the 
crude notion that there ought to be or could be an 
independent, local literature, fostered mainly for home 
consumption. They realized that art is art the world 
over. A novel or a poem which is worthless in Ohio 
cannot be good in Massachusetts or in Alaska, though 
it may be marketable; a book which is intrinsically 
excellent is excellent everywhere, whether accepted or 
rejected by the reading public. 

The State of Ohio has become a vital member of 
the National Republic of letters. Her authors are 
not merely Ohio men and women, they are American 
men and women. 

An element of state pride necessarily and properly 
enters into one^s feelings and judgments in literature. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 6 

as in politics, trade or any other sphere of human effort 
and purpose. But local considerations must merge 
and lose themselves in larger views. Literature, like 
patriotism has regard to the whole nation. Not that 
we love Ohio less, but the United States of America 
more. 

In the realm of books — in the spacious common- 
wealth of the fine arts in general — no state lines are 
drawn, no bigotry can exist, but universal magnanimity 
is the law and the motive there. Even national 
boundaries are freely crossed by the devotee of liberal 
culture — genius ranges the globe and is modem through 
all time. The few great and permanent classics are 
the world's common treasure no matter in what con- 
tinent or country they happen to come to birth. 

The literary men and women from one or another 
of the eighty-eight shires of Ohio have done and are 
doing their full part in aiding to establish the supremacy 
of things true, honest, just, pure and of good report. 
They have done the State efficacious service and their 
vital influence has pervaded the nation and helped to 
create public opinion. In every field of intellectual 
labor their energy has been exerted. Their power has 
wrought in the upbuilding of institutions political, 
social and educational, no less than in raising the House 
Beautiful of letters and art. Their aggregate contri- 
bution to the knowledge and culture of the last hundred 
years is copious and of an average excellence sufiiciently 
high to command the respectful attention of the 
reviewer and the historian. 



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6 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 



PIONEER BOOKS AND PENS IN OHIO 

The founders of Ohio were not illiterate men. On 
the contrary many of them had formed the reading 
habit in the East and they did not neglect to bring 
books along when they moved to Marietta, Cincinnati, 
Chillicothe and Cleveland, to establish a new State. 
There was a public library in Belpre as early as the 
year 1796. The first Cincinnati library was opened in 
March, 1802, and the far-famed "Coonskin Library,** 
in Athens County, began to circulate its precious 
volumes in the backwoods in 1803. 

The first book printed in Ohio was "Maxwell's 
Code,'* a small octavo containing the laws of the 
Northwestern Territory. This appeared in 1796. Dr. 
Daniel Drake's potent little handbook, "A Picture 
of Cincinnati,'' came out in 1815. In it the author 
says: "Ten years ago there had not been printed 
in this place a single volume; but since the year 18 11, 
twelve different booksy besides many pamphlets, have 
been executed." 

In 1820, John P. Foote started a type foundry 
and a book store, in the Queen City, and there, ten 
years later, the publishing house of Morgan, Lodge 
and Fisher had business enough to require five presses, 
each of which threw off 5,000 printed sheets daily. At 
about the same date was organized the firm of Truman 
and Smith, which in time grew to be the most extensive 
schoolbook house in the world. The veteran U. P. 
James began to publish in 1832, and his establishment 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



became so flourishing that it was popularly distin- 
guished as the "Harper^s of the West.'* 

There existed in Cincinnati, in 1813, an organization 
called "The School of Literature and the Arts/* the 
first president of which was the Honorable Josiah 
Meigs. Twenty years later, sprung up the "Western 
Literary Institute and College of Professional Teach- 
ers,** of which an eminent alumnus of Princeton 
wrote: "It is doubtful whether in one association, 
in an equal time, there was ever concentrated, in this 
country, a larger measure of talent, information and 
zeal. ** The proceedings of this renowned college may 
be found in six published volumes of "Transactions,** 
a set of books now rare, and not without value to the 
student of pedagogics and of early western culture. 
The energies of the association were eventually trans- 
mitted to the Society for the Promotion of Useful 
Knowledge, the Mechanics* Institute, the Historical 
and Philosophical Society of Ohio, the Academy of 
Fine Arts, and other educative bodies. That such 
agencies for intellectual advancement were fostered 
so early in the history of the Buckeye Commonwealth, 
goes to show that letters and arts had made consider- 
able progress in some parts of the State long before 
"Johnny Appleseed** distributed bibles and tracts 
among the frontier settlers, or Francis Glass, the 
nomadic schoolmaster of the wildwood, wrote in the 
Latin language his "Life** of George Washington. 

At a comparatively early period in the development 
of Ohio, the kingdom of the quill and the type-case 
was largely controlled, in the then "West,** by five 
able and energetic enthusiasts, Dr. Daniel Drake, 



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8 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

Rev. Timothy Flint, Judge James Hall, Hon. E. D. 
Mansfield, and the poet Wm. D. Gallagher. Three 
of the number were bom near the close of the eighteenth 
century, and two at the very beginning of the nine- 
teenth. Their lives and services I have endeavored 
to chronicle in a published volume,* and there is no 
need for more than a mere allusion to them in this 
condensed summary. Suffice it here to say that every 
one. of the five mentioned deserves to be remembered 
gratefully for his devotion to the things of the mind, 
and that honor is especially due to the memory of 
Mr. Gallagher, who labored indefatigably in the cause 
of literature for its own sake. 

EARLY PERIODICAL LITERATURE 

The newspaper, especially the Sunday newspaper 
of the present day, has become the vast circulating 
library of the people. Most of the magazines which 
are so widely distributed and read throughout the 
country, come from the East. The curious investi- 
gator who examines the dusty files of old Western 
newspapers and periodicals, will be astonished to 
discover how great was the quantity and variety of 
this kind of literature, issued from Ohio presses, before 
the State had reached even her semi-centennial. Of 
a list of 1 20 periodicals, monthly and weekly, published 
in the Ohio Valley anterior to i860, more than 90 were 
printed in Ohio. The Ohio State Library contains, 
in bound volumes, fifty-two different literary periodicals 
published in Ohio. Neither newspapers nor professional 

* Beginmngs of Literary Culture in the Ohio Valley. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 9 

journals are included in the catalogue: the periodicals 
referred to were devoted chiefly to literature, and 
furnished their readers with much that was original 
and remarkably well written, in prose and verse — 
story, poem, comment, criticism, and essay. A bare 
transcription of the names of a few of the most meri- 
torious and influential of these early ventures, is all 
the notice they can here receive. From the ninety 
I select the following eleven: "The Literary Cadet," 
Cincinnati, 1819, editor, Dn J. R. Buchanan; "The 
Literary Gazette," Cincinnati, 1824-25, John P. Foote; 
"The Western Review," Cincinnati, 1827-30, Timothy 
Flint; "The Cincinnati Mirror," 1830-36, W. D. 
Gallagher; "The Western Monthly Magazine," 1832- 
37, James Hall; "The Western Messenger," 1835-41, 
James Freeman Clarke; "The Hesperian," Columbus 
and Cincinnati, 1838-41, W. D. Gallagher; *The 
Ladies' Repository," 1841-76; "The Herald of Truth," 
1847-48, L. A. Hine; "The Genius of the West," 
1853-56, W. T. Coggeshall; "The Dial," i860, M. D. 
Conway. 

Since the Civil War, the business of publishing 
literary magazines has not flourished in Ohio, or, to 
any great extent, in the West generally, the demand 
for such periodicals being supplied mainly by New 
York, Boston and Philadelphia. But the newspapers 
during the war period, as before and after, were main- 
tained as indispensable vehicles, not only to purvey 
news and politics, but to carry popular literature to 
almost every house and home. The excitements of 
the years 1861-65 intensified men's thoughts and feel- 
ings, and gave force and color to what was written for 



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10 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

print. Those times of storm and stress brought out 
the best powers of many editors, field correspondents, 
and purposeful contributors to the press. The State 
of Ohio enjoys a full share of distinction on account 
of her newspaper men and newspaper literature. Some 
of her journals made it an object to encourage and 
reward praiseworthy effort in the higher forms of 
composition, that is, in literature proper, as dis- 
tinguished from ordinary reportorial work and editorial 
routine. Many men and women, in Ohio, learned to 
write skillfully, by taking pains to meet the most 
exacting requirements of critical editors, and they 
were thus trained in the school of practical journalism 
to become ready with the pen, and, in some cases, 
fitted for the authorship of successful books. 

SOME OHIO JOURNALISTS 

Charles Hammond (1779-1840), bom in Baltimore 
and educated in the University of Virginia, came to 
Ohio in his early manhood; started the "Ohio Federal- 
ist," in Belmont County; was a member of the state 
legislature (18 16-21), and reporter for the Supreme 
Court of Ohio (1823); and from 1825 to 1840, editor 
in chief of the Cincinnati Gazette. He was a man 
of Hamiltonian power and versatility, admired by 
Clay, and eulogized by Webster as the "greatest genius 
who ever wielded the political pen." His formidable 
rival on the Jackson side was Moses Dawson, editor 
of the Cincinnati "Advertiser." 

Edward Deering Mansfield (1801-80), a graduate 
of West Point and of Princeton, migrated to Cincin- 



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MURAT HALSTEAD 
Bom in Ross township, Butler county, Ohio, September 
2, 1829; graduated from Farmers' College, near Cincinnati; 
successively editor of the Cincinnati Commercial, Cin- 
cinnati Commercial Gazette, and Brooklyn Standard Union; 
a voluminous and able writer on the events and men of 
his times; nominated to the Senate, 1889, by President 
Benjamin Harrison for the office of Minister to Germany 
but not confirmed; died Jime 2, 1908. 




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lo necn bny. kin-r/'j tiiiJ no T^inw ;>I(ifi Imi: ^;orumi;fov r 
80QI ,£ 'jnul h-nb ih'Mmi^aoo Jq(i Jud . 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 11 

nati in 1825, formed a law partnership with O. M. 
Mitchel, the astronomer, and became a political writer 
of great influence. He was for a time a professor in 
Cincinnati College, and afterwards editor of the Gazette 
and correspondent of the New York Times, under the 
pseudonym of "Veteran Observer." Besides his work 
as publicist and newspaper man, Mansfield engaged 
in authorship, producing a popular "Political Gram- 
mar,'' a "Life of Daniel Drake,'' "Life of Scott," 
"History of the Mexican War," a book on "American 
Education," "Personal Memoirs," etc. 

Orville James Victor (1827-1910) was bom in 
Sandusky and brought up to the newspaper business 
in Ohio. After achieving reputation as a writer, he 
removed to New York, where, until the close of his 
life, he was engaged in active literary pursuits. In 
addition to his labors in miscellaneous journalism, he 
found time and energy to write an elaborate "History 
of the Southern Rebellion," "A History of American 
Conspiracies," and several biographies. 

Murat Halstead (1829-1908), bom in Butler County, 
Ohio, educated in the common school and in Farmer's 
College, was one of the foremost of American journal- 
ists. His trenchant pen, like unto a sword, helped 
to fight many political battles. Aside from his pro- 
digious labors in the field of party controversy, he 
accomplished a great deal in lines distinctively cul- 
tural and literary, being a brilliant and successful 
magazine writer and general author. While proprietor 
of the Cincinnati Commercial, Mr. Halstead did much 
to raise the standard of newspaper literature and to 
encourage merit in writers. His influence on the litera- 



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12 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

ture of the Ohio Valley has been great. Among his 
published works are the following: "The Convention 
of i860,'' "The White Dollar/' "The Story of Cuba," 
"The Life of William McKinley," "The Story of the 
Philippines," "The History of American Expansion," 
"Our Country in War," "Official History of the War 
with Spain," "Life of Admiral Dewey," ^The Great 
Century," "The Boer and the British War," ^The 
Galveston Tragedy," and "A Life of Roosevelt," 

Henry Van Ness Boynton (1835-1905), another 
distinguished journalist from Ohio, and not less famed 
as a military hero in two wars, for many years chair- 
man of the Chattanooga National Military Park Com- 
mission, is the author of two notable books: "Sher- 
man's Historical Raid, a Response to and Criticism of 
Gen. Sherman's Memoirs," and "The Chickamauga 
National Military Park." 

Colonel Donn Piatt (1819-91), "Donn Piatt of 
Mack-o-chee, " one of Ohio's most original, daring 
and picturesque political characters, was conspicuous 
during a long and varied career, in which he acted a 
brilliant though often eccentric part. His bold and 
aggressive course, as lawyer, diplomat, and partisan 
editor, has been detailed in Charles Miller's "Donn Piatt: 
His Work and his Ways." Mn Piatt is the author of 
*The Life of General George H. Thomas," a narrative 
which was described in the Westminster Review as **The 
record of a great genius told by a genius." Besides 
his historical writings and his varied newspaper work, 
Donn Piatt produced several books in imaginative 
literature, viz: "Poems and Plays," "Sunday Medita- 
tions," and "The Lone Grave of the Shenandoah." 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 13 

Whitelaw Reid (1837 — )y proprietor of the New York 
Tribune, late U. S. Minister to France, now ambassa- 
dor to England, was bom in Xenia and educated in 
Oxford, Ohio, and though he has long been a resident 
of New York, and later of London, he remains faithful 
to his native state and makes occasional pilgrimages 
to the scenes of his boyhood experiences on the banks 
of the Little Miami. Mr. Reid has won many honors 
as journalist, diplomat and author of vital books. 
His great work, **Ohio in the War," ranks among the 
standard authorities in the history not only of Ohio 
but of the Republic. It is a book which grows in 
value as the years pass. Other books by the same 
author are: "After the War," "Schools of Journal- 
ism," "Newspaper Tendencies," "Two Speeches at 
the Queen^s Jubilee," "A Continental Union," "Prob- 
lems of Expansion," "Our New Interests," "Town 
Hall Suggestions," "Our New Duties," "Monroe 
Doctrine," "Greatest Fact in Modern History," and 
"How America Faced Its Educational Problem." 

As in politics and military affairs, so also has the 
genius of Ohio shown itself bold and aggressive in 
journalism, employing the press as a powerful agency 
for the enlightenment of public opinion. Never has 
the "small drop of ink," been put to more direct, 
practical and potent use, than by some of the resolute 
and fearless young journalists of the State. The 
modem world has developed many famous newspaper 
correspondents, knights errant of the notebook, ad- 
venturous souls who forged to the front of danger to 
report the climaxes of history and of battle. These 
men have shown indeed that often Captain Pen is 



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14 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

mightier than Captain Sword. They have wielded 
words to conquer armies, — and to lift up states. Two 
conspicuous examples may here be given of soldiers of 
fortune who won fame at the point of the pencil. 

On Ohio's beadroU of heroes is the name of Januarius 
Aloysius MacGahan (1844-78), the American journal- 
ist who may be said to have used the sword of Russia 
to strike off the Turkish shackles from an oppressed 
state and on whom history bestowed the name "Libera- 
tor of Bulgaria.'* In the words of Henry Howe: 
"His experiences, in variety, during the few years 
of his foreign life, probably were never equalled by 
any journalist, and never did one accomplish so much, 
excepting Stanley." Of MacGahan's work, regarded 
as to its literary merit, the great English war corre- 
spondent Forbes says: * There is nothing which excels 
it in vividness, in pathos, in a burning earnestness 
of purpose, in a glow of conviction that fires from heart 
to heart." The name and fame of MacGahan have 
been lauded with just enthusiasm by several distin- 
guished pens. The man was bom and is buried in 
Perry County, a shire which took its name from the 
victor in the Battle of Lake Erie, and in which Sheridan 
was reared to manhood. 

George Kennan (1845 — )y bom in Norwalk, Ohio, 
started self-supporting life by practicing the telegraphic 
art in Cincinnati. He traversed fifteen hundred miles 
of Siberia, saw the prisoned exiles of the Czar, learned 
the facts concerning Russian depotism, and gave to 
the civilized nations such knowledge as must eventually 
result in reform. The American periodical in which 
his graphic accounts were published was suppressed 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 15 

in Russia by the authorities at St. Petersburg. Never- 
theless Kennan's searchlight shone and still shines^ 
illuminating darkest Russia. His books, "Tent Life 
in Siberia," "Siberia and the Exile System," may 
fairly be assumed to have hastened those changes of 
national and international sentiment, which compelled 
alterations in the policy of the Czar, and induced him 
to issue a decree enlarging Russia's liberties and abating 
despotic ills. 

Since the publication of his important books on 
Russia, Mr. Kennan has given the public: "Cam- 
paigning in Cuba," "Folk Tales of Napoleon," and 
"The Tragedy of Pelee." 

In the catalogue of men of Ohio birth who have 
attained distinction in journalism and have written 
important books, belongs the name of William Eleroy 
Curtis (1850 — ), author of "The United States and 
Foreign Powers," "Life of Zachariah Chandler," 
"Japan Sketches," "Venezuela," "The True Thomas 
Jefferson," *The True Abraham Lincoln," "Modem 
India," "One Irish Summer," etc. 

Albert Shaw (1857 — )^ now an influential journalist 
of New York City, was bom in Butler County, Ohio. 
So well known to the public are his good works in 
behalf of economic and social improvement that his 
name has become a synonym for civic benefactor. He 
is the proprietor of the "Review of Reviews," and the 
author of "Icaria: a Chapter in the History of Com- 
munism," "Cooperation in a Western City," "History 
of Cooperation in the United States," "Municipal 
Government in Great Britain," "Municipal Govem- 



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16 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

ment in Continental Europe/' "The Business Career 
in Its Public Relations," and "Political Problems of 
American Development. '* 

Isaac Kaufman Funk (1839-1912), head of the pub- 
lishing house of Funk and Wagnalls, was bom at 
Clifton, Ohio, and educated at Wittenberg Theological 
Seminary. He founded "The Missionary Review," 
"The Literary Digest," and other periodicals, edited 
and published the great "Standard Dictionary," and was 
the author of "The Next Step in Evolution," "The 
Widow's Mite," and "The Psychic Riddle," the last 
two being discussions of psychic or so-called occult 
questions and phenomena. 

The long list of Ohio journalists who gained promi- 
nence in their profession would include the names: 
John M. Gallagher, Samuel Medary, William H. P. 
Denny, Greeley Curtis, M. D. Potter, J. A. Cockerill, 
Richard Smith, D. R. Locke, Alexander Starbuck, 
E. V. Smalley, L. E. Holden, N. C. Wright, C. L. 
Brownell, and John R. McLean. 

PERSONAL NARRATIVE, MILITARY REMINISCENCE, ETC. 

Closely allied to the literature of journalism, and 
connecting it with history proper, is the class of books 
giving individual views of events military or civil, in 
the experience of Ohio citizens. To this department 
belong the writings of Joshua R. Giddings (1795- 
1864), a volume of whose strong, clear, radical speeches 
was published in 1853, and whose incisive book, "The 
Rebellion; Its Authors and Causes,** came out in 
the year of its author's death. Giddings's "Exiles 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 17 

of Florida/' published in Columbus in 1858, recounts 
with power and pathos the history of the negroes 
in Florida. 

The "Memoirs'* of U. S. Grant (1822-85), "dedi- 
cated to the American soldier and sailor," a model 
of simple, sincere and unassuming narrative, is always 
charming and often impressive with the eloquence of 
plain truth. The volumes were composed in the 
shadow of death, with the brave purpose of paying bor- 
rowed money and of providing for the author's family; 
and the published work eventually brought to Mrs. 
Grant nearly half a million dollars, the greatest suc- 
cess, it is said, that "a single work has ever had." 

Following the example of their great chief, two other 
scarcely less honored Ohio generals, William Tecumseh 
Sherman (1820-91), and Philip Henry Sheridan 
(1831-88), prepared volumes of "Memoirs," which 
were published posthumously, and which furnish 
the student and the future historian with much authen- 
tic information, in vivid and picturesque language. 

Gen. Roeliff Brinkerhoff (1828-1911), sociologist 
and prison reformer of international repute — chairman 
of the executive committee of the Ohio Centennial — 
published an exceedingly valuable and entertaining 
volume bearing the title: "Recollections of a Life- 
time. " General Brinkerhoff, whose home was in Mans- 
field, Ohio, was vice-president of the International 
Prison Congress, which met at Paris in 1895. He 
succeeded General Hayes as president of the Ohio 
Archaeological and Historical Society. 

Manning F. Force (1824-99), of Cincinnati, gallant 
soldier and incorruptible judge, was a life-long student. 



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18 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

an accurate scholar, and precise writer of high merit. 
He is the author of the war histories: "From Fort 
Henry to Q>rinth," "Marching Across Carolina," 
"Recollections of the Vicksburg Campaign," and of 
several pamphlets on archaeological questions. 

Jacob Dolson Cox (1828-1900), Governor of Ohio, 
general in the Civil War, and member of the U. S. 
Cabinet, an accomplished orator and writer, one of 
America's progressive men of science and culture, was 
a master of style and his work belongs to standard 
literature. His principal books are: "Atlanta: the 
March to the Sea," "Second Battle of Bull Run," 
and "Military Recollections of the Civil War," the 
last having been published since its author's death. 

Henry Martyn Cist (i 839-1903), lawyer, soldier, 
originator of the Chickamauga Park project, another 
highly esteemed son of Ohio, is the author of two his- 
torical books: "The Army of the Cumberland" and 
"The Life of Gen. George H. Thomas." 

Gen. Joseph Warren Keifer (1836 — ^), ex-speaker 
of the U. S. House of Representatives, a brave officer 
in the Civil War and distinguished also in the war with 
Spain, chairman of the Ohio Centennial Commission 
of 1903, has contributed to our national literature a 
comprehensive and judicious work entitled "Slavery 
and Four Years of War." 

In the list of autobiographical writers in Ohio stands 
the name of Levi Coffin (i 798-1 877), reputed president 
of the "Underground Railroad," a sturdy abolitionist, 
whose intensely interesting book, "Personal Reminis- 
cences," is one of the unique and permanently useful 
products of Buckeye history. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 19 

Another absorbing narrative of varied personal 
observation and experience is William Cooper Howells's 
(1807-94) "Recollections of Life in Ohio, from 1813 
to 1840," a book of rare charm, intelligence and sug- 
gestiveness. Not one page of this most delightful 
and authentic record of things as they were could be 
spared. 

CoL William E. Gilmore (1824-1905), Chillicothe, 
soldier, lawyer, man of genial culture and magnani- 
mous sympathies, was rightly described by Henry 
Howe as "an adept both with tongue and pen." He 
it was who made the last speech delivered in the old 
State Capitol at Chillicothe. Colonel Gilmore was a 
wit, a poet and orator. His principal published work 
is "The Life of Edward Tiffin, First Governor of 
Ohio," a succinct and authentic biography. 

To a period somewhat prior to that of the writers 
just mentioned belongs Rev. James B. Finley (1781- 
1857), whose "Autobiography," first published in 
"The Ladies* Repository," and afterwards in book 
form, abounds with anecdote and incident illustrative 
of early life in Ohio. 



HISTORY, LOCAL AND GENERAL 

Perhaps the energy of the Ohio intellect has nowhere 
been more effectively exerted than in the sphere of 
history and archaeology. The State itself and the 
several counties of it, afford numberless attractive 
themes for the annalist, the politician, the student of 
civilization. Some idea of the amount that has been 
written concerning the state may be obtained by a 



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20 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

glance at Thomson's "Bibliography of the State of 
Ohio/' 1880, which briefly describes over fourteen 
hundred different books and pamphlets relating almost 
wholly to the history of Ohio. This number of titles 
is far greater than is to be found in any printed list 
of publications bearing upon any other state. The 
exceptional distinction in which Ohio is held as a center 
of historical interests and collections was strikingly 
emphasized by the late John Fiske, who, in his "History 
of the United States,'* advised his readers to apply 
to the "Robert Clarke Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
who keep by far the largest collection of books on 
America that can be found on sale in this country." 
Ohio writers have shown as much energy and enterprise 
in historical research and statement as have booksellers 
in collecting and cataloguing. Probably the richest 
and fullest department of the literature produced in 
the State is the department of history. 

The first attempt to collate the annals of Ohio was 
made by Nahum Ward, whose "Brief Sketch" was 
printed in 1822. Eleven years later was issued Salmon 
P. Chase's "Preliminary Sketch," prefixed to an edition 
of the "State Laws." After these publications came: 
Caleb Atwater's "History of Ohio," 1838; James W. 
Perkins's "Annals of the West," 1846; Jacob Burnet's 
"Notes on the Northwestern Territory," 1847; Henry 
Howe's "Historical Collections," 1847; S. P. Hil- 
dreth's "Pioneer History," 1848, and "Early Pioneers," 
1852; and James W. Taylor's "History of Ohio," 1854. 

"Historical Collections of Ohio," by Henry Howe 
(1816-93), has been described as a "treasure-house 
of local and general information, of history, of legend 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 21 

and story, of geography and antiquities, of everything 
indeed pertaining to Ohio and Ohio history/' The 
author traveled over the State in the years 1846-47, 
gathering his material; and again in 1886-87 ^^ made 
a tour over the same ground collecting fresh matter 
for a revised Centennial Edition of his book, which 
was published in three large volumes. The work has 
run through several editions, the plates having been 
purchased by the State soon after the author's death. 

Emilius Oviatt Randall (1850 — ), of Columbus, 
official Reporter of the Supreme Court of Ohio, educated 
at Phillips Academy, Cornell University, and the 
Ohio State University, an "all around" scholar, a 
professor of law, and a member of many learned socie- 
ties, is a clear and accurate writer, mainly on topics of 
western history. He is the author of **A History of 
Blennerhassett,'' "A History of the Separatist Society 
of Zoar," and "The Mound Builders of Ohio," and 
the editor of the "Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Quarterly." Mr. Randall has edited twenty volumes 
of the publications of the Ohio Historical Society and 
thirty volumes of Reports of the decisions of the 
Supreme Court of Ohio, and he also assisted in editing 
the "Bench and Bar of Ohio," a substantial work in 
two volumes. 

Daniel Joseph Ryan (1855 — ), of Columbus, lawyer, 
legislator, formerly Secretary of State for Ohio, Chief 
Commissioner of Ohio at the World's Fair in Chicago, 
has devoted much of his time and energy to literary 
work. Mr. Ryan is the author of "Arbitration 
between Capital and Labor," "A History of Ohio," 
the article "Ohio" in the Encyclopaedia Americana, 



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22 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

and of a very comprehensive and valuable work of 
reference entitled *The Civil War Literature of Ohio, 
a Bibliography, with Explanatory and Historical 
Notes/' 

Eugene Frederick Bliss (1836 — )y of Cincinnati, 
ex-president of the Ohio Historical and Philosophical 
Society, member of the American Historical Association 
and of the American Antiquarian Society, translated 
and edited "The Diary of David Zeisberger, *' an 
important contribution to the history of the Moravians 
in Ohio. He is also editor of a volume, "In Memory 
of Elizabeth Haven Appleton,** and of a collection 
of short stories entitled "Tales for a Stormy Night/* 

William Alexander Taylor (1837-1911), of Colum- 
bus, attorney at law, journalist, and late Commissioner 
of Soldiers* Claims for Ohio, a diligent student of poli- 
tics and history, and a poet of considerable reputation, 
is the author of numerous publications, including: 
"Ohio Statesmen,*' "Ohio in Congress," "Evolution 
of the Statesman," "Ohio aftd Its People," "The 
Peril of the Republic,** and "Eighteen Presidents and 
Contemporaneous Rulers.** 

Burke A. Hinsdale (1837-1900), one of Ohio*s 
most eminent educators, enriched our literature with 
several volumes, including: "President Garfield and 
Education,** "The Old Northwest,** "How to Study 
and Teach History,** and "The American Govern- 
ment.** Professor Hinsdale also edited the works of 
his friend. President Garfield, which were published 
in two volumes. 

Charles Elihu Slocum (1841 — )y a prominent physi- 
cian and surgeon of Toledo, has contributed to the 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 23 

literature of Ohio "The History of the Maumee 
River Basin" and "The History of the Ohio Country 
between the Years 1783-1815." 

Michael Myers Shoemaker (1853 — ^), of Cincinnati, 
founder of the Ohio Society of Colonial Wars, is the 
author of several volumes historical and descriptive, 
embracing: "Sealed Provinces of the Tsar," "Quaint 
Comers of Ancient Empire," "Heart of the Orient," 
and "Wanderings in Ireland." 

Professor George Wells Knight (1858 — )j of the 
Ohio State University, is the author of a very valuable 
"History of Land Grants for Education in the North- 
west Territory" and (in collaboration with Professor 
Commons) a "History of Higher Education in Ohio." 

John Rogers Commons (1862 — ^), born in Darke 
County, Ohio, now a resident of Milwaukee, a graduate 
of Oberlin, professor of political economy in the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, is the author of "The Distribution 
of Wealth," "Trades Union and Labor Problems," 
"Races and Immigrants in America," and other vol- 
umes. 

Henry William Elson (1857 — )j of Athens, Ohio, 
professor of history in the Ohio University, is the 
author of " Side Lights on American History, " 2 vols., 
"How to Teach History," "Elson's History," 5 vols., 
"Historical Biographies for Children," etc. 

Isaac Joslin Cox (1873 — )y assistant professor of 
history in the University of Cincinnati, is the author 
of "La Salle and His Companions," 2 vols., and "The 
Early Exploration of Louisiana." He now has in 
preparation a life of William Henry Harrison. 



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24 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Special distinction should be given to the name of 
Philip Van Ness Myers (1840 — )y formerly dean of 
the University of Cincinnati, author of "Life and 
Nature under the Tropics," "Remains of Lost Em- 
pires," "Ancient History," "Mediaeval and Modern 
History," "General History," "Eastern Nations and 
Greece," "History of Rome," "History of Greece," 
"Rome, Its Rise and Fall," "The Middle Ages," 
and "The Modem Age." Dr. Myers has long been 
recognized in the educational world as an authority 
among American historians, and his admirable works 
are studied wherever the English language is spoken. 

Elroy McKendree Avery (1844 — ^), of Cleveland, 
widely known as the author of numerous standard 
text-books in physics and in chemistry, has within recent 
years attained eminent distinction as a historian. In 
1886 he was induced by his publisher "to devote the 
rest of his life to the great labor of preparing his ^History 
of the United States and Its People,' " a comprehensive 
work to be completed in sixteen volumes, eight of 
which have already been issued. 

There are several historians of distinguished note, 
who, though not now resident in Ohio, were bom in 
the State and may properly be included in this outline. 
Among these are: Hubert Howe Bancroft (1832 — ), 
who, with the aid of collaborators, prepared for the 
press five volumes on the "Native Races of the Pacific 
States," and thirty-nine volumes of "The West Ameri- 
can Historical Series"; James Ford Rhodes (1848 — )y 
now of Boston, formerly of Cleveland, author of "A 
History of the United States from the Compromise of 
1850," a masterly work now in course of publication 



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OF 'AN AMERICAN STATE 26 

and to be completed in eight volumes; and William 
Milligan Sloane (1850 — )^ sl native of New Richmond, 
Ohio, now professor in Columbia University, author of 
**The Life of James McCosh," "The French War and 
the Revolution,*' and a four volume "History of the 
Life of Napoleon." 

To the foregoing far from exhaustive account of the 
historical literature of Ohio may be added the following 
miscellaneous list of the titles of some important books, 
with the names of their authors: "The Blennerhassett 
Papers,'' William H. Safford; "The St. Clair Papers," 
William Henry Smith (1833-96) ; 'The Public Domain," 
Thomas C Donaldson (1843-98); "Ohio," Rufus King 
(1817-91); "History of the Declination of the Great 
Republic," Hirum H. Munn (1838 — ); "Life of 
Lincoln," "Life of Hayes," and "History of the 
Louisiana Purchase," James Quay Howard; "Oliver 
Cromwell," Samuel Harden Church (1858 — ); "His- 
tory of American Coinage," and "Constitution of 
the United States," 3 vols., David Kemper Watson 
(1849 — ); "The Mother of an Emperor" and "The 
Life of William Allen Trimble," Mary McArthur 
Tuttle (1849 — ); "Che-le-co-the; or Glimpses of 
Yesterday," L. W. Renick and others of Chillicothe; 
^*Life of Lincoln" and "Abraham Lincoln and His 
Presidency," Joseph H. Barrett (1824-1910); "The 
Life of Thomas Corwin" and "The Life of Governor 
Morrow," Josiah Morrow, Lebanon, Ohio; "History 
of the First Congregational Church, Marietta, Ohio," 
Rev. C. E. Dickinson; "Anti-Slavery Opinions before 
1800," William F. Poole (1821-94); "Four Great 
Powers" and "The Navy during the Rebellion," C B. 



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26 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Boynton; "Life of Stephen A. Douglas'* and "Life 
of Salmon P. Chase," R. B. Walden; "Rosecrans' 
Campaign with the 14th Army Corps," W. D. Bick- 
ham; "The Hayes-Tilden Disputed Presidential Elec- 
tion, " Paul Leland Haworth (1876 — ) ; "The Teaching 
of History and Civics," Henry E. Bourne (1859 — ); 
"Ohio Historical Sketches," F. B. Pearson and J. D. 
Harlor; "The Story of a Regiment," E. Hannaford; 
"The Second Regiment of United States Volunteer 
Engineers," Captain William Mayo Venable (1871 — ); 
"The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom** 
and "The Government of Ohio," Professor Wilbur 
Henry Siebert (1866 — ); "History of Political Par- 
ties," J. P. Gordy (1851-1908); "The Educational 
History of Ohio," Dr. J. J. Bums (1838-1911); "Cen- 
tennial History of Cincinnati," 2 vols., Charles Theo- 
dore Greve (1865 — ); "Concerning the Forefathers," 
Charlotte Reeve Conover ; " Source-Book of the Renais- 
sance," "Select Colloquies of Erasmus," and "History 
of Modem Europe," Professor Merrick Whitcomb 

(1859 -). 

Passing allusion should not be omitted to the very 
numerous Ohio county and local histories, which are of 
varying literary merit but generally authoritative and 
valuable. 

EDUCATION 

Statistics show that in the school-book business 
Ohio has long held a leading rank among the producing 
centers of the world. Millions upon millions of copies 
of school and college text-books have been published 
in the State within the last three-quarters of a century. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 27 

Few other states have developed so large a quota of 
pedagogical authors as has Ohio. A single publishing- 
house advertises in its trade catalogue, among numerous 
other issues, about two hundred books by Ohio authors 
alone. The mere record of the titles of volumes, in 
endless variety, contributed by Ohio men and. women 
to the vast literature of education and culture, would 
fill many pages. 

SCIENCE 

As would be expected in a state so practical as Ohio, 
and so renowned for successful achievement in many 
lines of discovery and invention — a State which counts 
such men as Thomas A. Edison and the Wright brothers 
among her natural products, — the spirit of scientific 
inquiry and experiment, as well as the genius of 
speculative knowledge, finds a congenial home in the 
Buckeye Commonwealth. 

Almost from the time when white settlers began to 
occupy the lands between Lake Erie and the Ohio 
River, much attention has been given in that region 
to geology, archaeology, and the study of what used 
to be called comprehensively the Natural Sciences. 
Bright on the record of original investigators whose 
writings are known in Europe as well as in America, 
are the names of Dr. Jared Potter Kirtland (1793- 
1877), of Cuyahoga County, a naturalist whom 
Agassiz delighted to honor; Dr. Charles Whittlesey 
(1808-66), also of Cuyahoga, an archaeologist of high 
standing; Wm. S. Sullivant (1803-73), of Columbus, 
a botanist and bryologist of international fame; and 
John Strong Newberry (1822-92), professor in the 



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28 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Columbia Schcx>l of Mines, one of the foremost 
masters of geology and paleontology. These four belong 
geographically to the northern part of the State, To 
find their intellectual peers among the earlier scientific 
men of Ohio, we may look to the vicinity of Cincinnati, 
which, like Cleveland, Columbus, and other leading 
cities of the State, produced her quota of savants. 
Three may be remembered as nobly representative of 
their class. First of these, in the order of time, was 
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel (1809-62), the astronomer, 
whose once popular books, "The Planetary System 
and Stellar Worlds," "The Orbs of Heaven," "Popular 
Astronomy," and "Astronomy of the Bible," gave to 
the written page the glow of eloquence characteristic 
of the living speech which won for the author the 
reputation of an orator. When the war broke out, 
Mitchel put aside the telescope for the sword. 

Daniel Vaughan (1818-79), a native of Ireland, 
came to America in his youth and was attracted to 
Cincinnati by its literary privileges. There he made 
more use of the public library than perhaps any other 
man has ever made. His biographer, Mr. Youmans, 
founder and editor of the "Popular Science Monthly," 
describes him as a master of German, French, Italian 
and Spanish and of Ancient and Modem Greek, and 
adds that "He pursued a wide course of scientific 
inquiry with great vigor and enthusiasm, devoting 
himself mainly to astronomy and to the larger aspects 
of natural phenomena, which he treated with the 
freedom and independence of a strong original thinker. " 
His writings are marked by a daring boldness and a 
splendor of diction which reveal the workings of a 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 29 

poetic imagination coupled with a logical reason. An 
idea of his eloquent style may be obtained by reading 
a chapter of his "Popular Physical Astronomy,** 
published in Cincinnati in 1858. The last act of the 
philosopher's life was Socratic in its calm pathos — 
on his death-bed he sat up to correct the proofs of an 
article he had recently written on "The Origin of 
Worlds." 

The name of Johann Bemhard Stallo (i 823-1900), 
a man of whom his biographer, H. A. Rattermann, says 
that "all the Germans in the United States should be 
especially proud,*' may be enrolled alike upon the 
roster of scientists and philosophers, as upon the list 
of great lawyers and diplomats. Stallo was a man of 
extraordinary range of intellectual ability. His home 
in Cincinnati was a kind of university, his library a 
rich collection of vital books in different languages. 
As long ago as the year 1848, this speculative thinker, 
in a young western state, occupied himself in the erudite 
task of writing a book entitled, "The General Principles 
of the Philosophy of Nature." More than thirty 
years later, when his powers were at their best, he 
produced his masterpiece, a bold and aggressive work 
entitled, "The Concepts and Theories of Modern 
Physics." 

One has only to glance over the proceedings of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
to convince himself that Ohio ranks with the most 
progressive states of the Union, in respect to scientific 
discovery, investigation, and discussion. Of late years 
the universities and leading colleges of the State have 
caught the inquiring spirit of the age, and many special- 



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30 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

ists in various lines of research have issued articles as 
contributions to scientific journals or in book form. 
Besides numerous publications in mathematics and 
in purely physical science, not a few books on psychol- 
ogy, sociology and allied subjects have gone forth 
from the desks of professors who are imbued with 
modem ideas. 

, The mention of Judge Stallo's thesis on the "Philos- 
ophy of Nature" recalls the somewhat surprising 
fact that the Scotch teacher, Alexander Kinmont, who 
came to Cincinnati in 1827 and there died in 1838, 
was the author of a volume of "Lectures on the Natural 
History of Man," which was published in 1839, 
anticipating Stallo by ten years. Kinmont's work is 
still extant, having been reprinted by a leading eastern 
publisher. It was highly esteemed by Henry James, 
Sr., who considered Kinmont a remarkable genius 
born before his time. 

The Science of Man seems to have been a favorite 
study with speculative thinkers in Ohio during the 
decade just preceding the Civil War. Dr. J. R. 
Buchanan started his "Journal of Man" in 1849, and 
published his "System of Anthropology" in Cincinnati 
in 1854. "The Natural History of Human Tempera- 
ments, " by J. B. Powell, and "The Races of Mankind, " 
by A. W. Gazlay, both appeared in 1856, from a western 
press. In the same line of investigation were David 
Christy's several books, "Lectures on African Coloniza- 
tion,'' "Ethiopia," and "Cotton is King," which last 
created a controversial furore. Christy was a resident 
of Cincinnati, and a noted authority on chemistry and 
geology. 



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DONN PIATT 
Bom in Cincinnati, June 29, 18 19; was admitted to the 
bar and in 1851 was appointed Judg;e of the Court of 
Common Pleas of Hamilton coimty; served under Presi- 
dents Pierce and Buchanan as Secretary of Legation and 
charge d'affaires iQ Pads: Colonelin the Civil War; after- 
ward newspaper correspondent, editor and author; died 
in Cleveland, Ohio, November 12, 189 1. 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 31 

Under the liberal generalization of things scientific, 
may be mentioned a book issued in Cincinnati, in 1826, 
expounding the hypothesis that the "Earth is hollow, 
is Habitable within, and widely open at the Poles." 
The book is entitled "Symmes's Theory of Concentric 
Spheres," and was written by J. McBride. It is one 
of the curiosities of Ohio literature. 

Another famous work by a famous Ohio man may 
here be mentioned, namely; "The Modem Art of 
Taming Wild Horses," published in 1858. Of this 
book 15,000 copies were sold, in France alone, in 
a single year. John S. Rarey, the author (1828-66), 
was the most successful "tamer of horses" the world 
has known. 

LAW AND MEDICINE 

The law literature of Ohio is abundant, having 
steadily accumulated from the comparatively early 
period in which Judge Timothy Walker wrote his 
learned work on "The American Law," down to the 
present. Every legal practitioner is familiar with the 
names of Scribner, Swan, Bates, Kinkead, Loveland, 
Rockel, Yaple, Wilson, Page, Whittaker, Giauque, Wat- 
son, Brannan, Ellis and a score of other Ohio men whose 
treatises on various phases of the great profession 
are to be found in all the law libraries and are text- 
books in the law schools. 

And what is said of Ohio law-books — ^that they are 
numerous and important of their kind — may be said 
of the books in medicine. Even in the pioneer period 
of the science, original books and journals testified to 
the learning and industry of great physicians in different 



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32 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

sections of the commonwealth. Dr. Drake's monu- 
mental treatise, "The Diseases of the Interior Valley 
of North America, '* to the making of which its author 
devoted thirty years, was pronounced by Allibone 
"probably the most important and valuable work 
ever written in the United States/' Since Drake's 
day the progress of pharmacy, surgery and general 
medicine, has been much advanced by the writings of 
such men as Blackman, Gross, Mendenhall, Wright, 
Williams, King, Howe, Scudder, Pulte, Conner, Bartho- 
low, Wormley, Whittaker, and many other doctors, 
eminent in the healing science and in the art of surgery. 
The State is well supplied with professional journals 
and libraries. It is doubtful whether there exists 
anywhere in the world another collection of books 
in botany, pharmacy, chemistry, and allied sciences, 
that will compare in extent and value with the famous 
Lloyd Library of Cincinnati. This unique collection, 
gathered at great expense of time and money, "is 
incorporated, is free to the public, and is pledged to 
be donated intact to science." 

For a rich fund of most interesting and accurate 
information concerning the medical profession in Ohio, 
the reader is referred to a comprehensive volume 
entitled, "Daniel Drake and His Followers, Historical 
and Biographical Sketches," by Otto Juettner, A. M., 
M. D., Cincinnati, 1909, 

THEOLOGY AND DENOMINATIONALISM 

The theological and sectarian literature of Ohio is 
extensive and diversified. All shades of belief are 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 33 

represented, Jewish and Christian, Catholic and Prot- 
estant — orthodox and agnostic. There are in the 
State some famous theological seminaries, including 
Lane Seminary, the Oberiin Theological School, the 
Hebrew Union College, and the old Jesuit stronghold, 
St. Xavier's, and from these several seats of biblical 
learning, as well as from the more secluded studies of 
representative clergymen of different creeds, have 
gone forth numerous volumes of doctrine, controversy, 
exposition, and church history. In the library of the 
"Ohio Church History Society," of Oberiin, the num- 
ber of publications does not fall short of four hundred, 
nearly all pertaining to a single denomination, the 
Congregational. 

Lane Seminary, a Presbyterian institution, of which 
Dr. Lyman Beecher became president in 1830, and 
in which Henry Ward Beecher studied theology, is 
a celebrated seat of special learning, many of its pro- 
fessors and graduates having produced memorable 
books. Dr. Beecher, himself a noted controversialist, 
was the author of a trenchant volume entitled "Views 
in Theology." Every one who is interested in the 
so-called "higher criticism" of the Scriptures, has 
heard of the trial for heresy of the Rev. Henry Preserved 
Smith, a professor in Lane Seminary, who left that 
famous school to accept a chair at Princeton; and 
thousands have read Dr. Smith's well-known books, 
"Inspiration and Inerrancy" and "The Bible and 
Islam." 

Oberiin College, a Congregational institution estab- 
lished about three years later than Lane Seminary, 
has ever been a vital center of theological and religious 



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34 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

training, and many members of its faculty and of its 
alumni have achieved distinction on account of their 
writings in theology, philosophy, science, or education. 

John Henry Burrows (i 847-1902), president of 
Oberlin College from 1899 until the year of his death, 
was the organizer and president of the World's Parlia- 
ment of Religions, held in Chicago at the time of the 
Columbian exposition, in 1893. He is the author of 
a number of books, including: "A History of the 
Parliament of Religions,'' "Christianity the World 
Religion," "The Gospels are True Histories," and 
"The Life of Henry Ward Beecher." 

Henry Churchill King (1858 — )y president of Oberlin 
College since 1902, is a voluminous writer, having to 
his credit the books entitled: "Outline of Erdmann's 
History of Philosophy," "Outline of the Microcosmus 
of Hermann Lotze," "The Appeal of the Child," 
"Reconstruction in Theology," "Theology and the 
Social Consciousness," "Personal and Ideal Element 
in Education," "Rational Living," "Letters to Sun- 
day-School Teachers," "The Seeming Unreality of 
the Spiritual Life," "The Laws of Friendship, Human 
and Divine," and "The Ethics of Jesus." 

George Frederick Wright (1838 — ^), of Oberlin, 
president of the Ohio Historical and Archaeological 
Society, an educator whose name and learning are 
honored in the world of science and literature, exercises 
a strong influence as a writer on theological problems. 
He is the author of many substantial works, including: 
"Logic of Christian Evidences," "Studies in Science 
and Religion," "The Divine Authority of the Bible," 
"Scientific Aspects of Christian Evidences," "Man 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 35 

and the Glacial Period/' and "Asiatic Russia," 2 vols.; 
and he is the editor of "The Bibliotheca Sacra" and 
of "Records of the Past." 

Hiram Collins Haydn (183 1 — )y theologian and 
college professor, of Cleveland, is the author of "Lay- 
Effort," "Death and Beyond," "The Bible and Cur- 
rent Thought," "Brightening the World," and other 
books. 

Jacob Cooper (1830-1904), bom in Butler County, 
Ohio, an eminent scholar and Presbyterian divine, 
professor of philosophy, metaphysics, ethics, and 
of the Greek language, is the author of "Eleusinian 
Mysteries," "Creation a Transference of Power," 
"The Passage from Mind to Matter," and several 
biographical works. 

Isaac Crook (1833 — )y a native of Perry County, 
Ohio, distinguished as a Methodist clergyman and 
writer, is the author of "The Life of Jonathan Edwards, 
"John Knox, the Scotch and Scotch-Irish," and other 
works. 

James Whitfield Bashford (1844 — ^), bishop in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, formerly president of 
the Ohio Wesleyan University, is the author of numer- 
ous volumes, including: "Outline of the Science of 
ReUgion," "The Awakening of China," and "God's 
Missionary Plan for the World." 

Levi Gilbert (1852 — )y of Cincinnati, editor of the 
"Western Christian Advocate," is the author of 
" Side Lights on Immortality, " "Visions of the Christ, " 
"The Hereafter and Heaven," and a volume of poems 
entitled "Incense." 



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36 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

John R. H. Latchaw (185 1 — )y a prominent Baptist 
clergyman, theologian, and college president, who 
spent years of active service in Ohio, is known to many 
readers through his several books: "The Problem of 
Philosophy,'* "The American College — ^Its Essential 
Features," "Theory and Art of Teaching," "Citizen- 
ship in the Northwest Territory" and "Inductive 
Psychology." 

Ernest DeWitt Burton (1856 — )^ bom at Granville, 
Ohio, and a graduate of Denison University, editor 
of the "American Journal of Theology," is the author 
of many scholarly works in biblical elucidation and 
commentary, including: "Harmony of the Gospels for 
Historical Study," "Records and Letters of the 
Apostolic Age," "Biblical Ideas of Atonement," and 
"Principles of Literary Criticism and Their Application 
to the Synoptic Problem. " 

Thomas Sebastian Byrne (1841 — ), bom at Hamil- 
ton, Ohio — ^Roman Catholic bishop, who read before 
the Parliament of Religions at Chicago, in 1903, a 
paper entitled "Man from a Catholic Point of View" — 
is a noted writer on theological and religious themes, 
and the translator, from the Italian, of "Jesus Living 
in the Priest," and, from the German, of "Alzog's 
Church History," in three volumes. 

Isaac M. Wise (1819-1900), distinguished rabbi and 
leader of the Jewish Reform Movement in America — 
founder of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 
founder and editor of the "American Israelite" — did 
much as a public speaker and writer to promote the 
general cause of liberal education and independent 
thought. He is the author of "The Cosmic God," 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 37 

"The Origin of Christianity and a Commentary on the 
Acts of the Apostles/' "The Martyrdom of Jesus of 
Nazareth/* "Judaism and Christianity," "A Defense 
of Judaism Against Proselytising Christianity/' "Es- 
sence of Judaism/' "History of the Hebrews' Second 
Commonwealth/' "Pronaos/' etc. 

Kaufmann Kohler (1843 — ^), eminent Jewish scholar 
and theologian, president of the Hebrew Union College 
since 1903, is a voluminous writer on religious and 
philosophical subjects. He is one of the editors of 
the "Jewish Encyclopaedia/' to which important 
work, and to other leading Jewish publications, he has 
contributed many articles. Dr. Kohler is the author 
of several volumes, including: "A Guide to Instruction 
in Judaism," "Ethical Basis of Judaism," "Church 
and Synagogue in Their Mutual Relations" and 
"Backwards or Forwards — ^Lectures on Reform Juda- 
ism. " 

Moses Mielziner (1828 — 1903), professor of Talmudi- 
cal literature in the Hebrew Union College, author of 
"An Introduction to the Talmud," is recognized as 
an authority among the best Semitic scholars of the 
world. 

Louis Grossmann (1863 — )y rabbi and man of 
letters, is the author of "The Biography of Isaac M. 
Wise," "Judaism and the Science of Religion," 
"Mamonides," and "The Jewish Pulpit." 

David Philipson (1862 — )y rabbi of B'ne Israel 
Congregation, Cincinnati, consulting editor of the 
"Jewish Encyclopaedia," is the author of: "The Jew 



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38 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

in English Fiction," "Old European Jewries," "The 
Oldest Jewish Congregation in the West," and "The 
Reform Movement in Judaism. " 

Upon the roster of Ohio theologians and philosophers 
may be inscribed the name of Professor G. T. Ladd 
and that of Doctor J. H. Hyslop, both of these dis- 
tinguished men having been bom and bred in the 
Buckeye State. 

George Trumbull Ladd (1842 — )j bom in Paines- 
ville, Ohio, and educated in the Western Reserve 
University, began his career as a preacher in Edin- 
burg, Ohio, and later achieved eminence as a professor 
of mental and moral philosophy at Yale University, 
Professor Ladd holds a distinguished rank among schol- 
ars and thinkers, on account of his numerous valuable 
contributions to the literature of psychology, church 
polity, and religious doctrine. 

James Hervey Hyslop (1854 — )^ who was bom at 
Xenia, Ohio, and who received his first collegiate train- 
ing and the degree of A. B. at the University of Wooster, 
is popularly known as editor of the proceedings of the 
American Society for Psychical Research, and for his 
association with the late Professor William James. 
Dr. Hyslop has published several books, including 
"Science and a Future Life,'* "Enigmas of Psychical 
Research, '* " Borderland of Psychical Research, '* " Psy- 
chical Research and the Resurrection," etc. 

Jirah Dewey Buck (1838 — ^), of Cincinnati, physi- 
cian, formerly president of the Theosophical Society 
in America, is the author of "The Nature and Aims of 
Theosophy," "A Study of Man and the Way of 
Health," "Mystic Masonry," "Browning's Paracelsus 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 39 

and Other Essays,'' "Why I Am a Theosophist, '' 
"The Genius of Freemasonry,*' "Constructive Psy- 
chology," "The Lost Word Found," and "The New 
Avatar and the Destiny of the Soul." 



RELIGIOUS, SOCIAL, AND CIVIC DUTIES AND IDEALS 

Washington Gladden (1836 — )y a citizen of Colum- 
bus since the year 1882, an influential clergyman highly 
esteemed throughout the State and the nation as a 
commanding, intellectual, and moral force, is a clear 
and convincing writer upon social, political, and 
economic problems, as well as upon the moral and 
religious conduct of life. The following is a partial 
list of his published books: "Applied Christianity," 
"Burning Questions," "Tools and the Man," "The 
Cosmopolist City Club," "Social Facts and Forces," 
"Art and Morality," "How Much is Left of the Old 
Doctrines?" "Straight Shots at Young Men," "Social 
Salvation," "Christianity and Socialism," "The New 
Idolatry," "The Church and Modern Life" and 
"Recollections." 

Charles Franklin Thwing (1853 — )y of Cleveland, 
president of the Western Reserve University, is the 
author of many illuminating volumes chiefly apper- 
taining to college and university life and administration. 
We give the titles of scjveral of his principal works: 
"The Working Churchy" "Within College Walls," 
"The College Woman," "The American College in 
American Life," "The Best Life," "College Training 
and the Business Man," "A Liberal Education and a 



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40 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Liberal Faith," "A History of Higher Education in 
America," "Education in the Far East" and "Uni- 
versities of the World." 

David Swing (1830-94), the "poet-preacher," bom 
in Cincinnati, passed his boyhood on a farm in Cler- 
mont County, Ohio, was educated in Miami University, 
graduating in 1852, and became professor of classics 
in that institution. He studied theology, was ordained 
a preacher, and, removing to Chicago in 1866, there 
gained phenomenal popularity as the pastor of an 
independent congregation. Professor Swing exercised a 
potent and salutary influence over thousands of minds. 
He is the author of "Truths for To-Day," "Motives 
of Life," and "Club Essays." The "Life of David 
Swing," by Joseph Forte Newton, was published in 
1909. 

Frank Wakeley Gunsaulus (1856 — )y preacher and 
professional lecturer, bom, bred and educated in Ohio, 
whose career bears some resemblance to that of Pro- 
fessor Swing, has resided since 1887 in Chicago, where 
he is pastor of the Central Christian Church and 
president of Armour Institute of Technology. Dr. 
Gunsaulus is an eloquent orator and a poet. The 
list of his published books includes the following titles: 
"Metamorphosis of a Creed," "Transfiguration of 
Christ," "The Life of William Ewart Gladstone," 
"Paths to Power," "Paths to the City of God," 
"Higher Ministries of Recent English Poetry," and, 
in verse, "Phidias, and Other Poems," "Loose Leaves 
of Song" and "Songs of Night and Day." 

Charles William Super (1842 — ), of Athens, Ohio, 
formerly president of Ohio University, an educator 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 41 

and pedagogical writer of distinction, is the author 
of "A History of the German Language/' "Between 
Heathenism and Christianity," "Wisdom and Will 
in Education," "A Liberal Education," and "Plutarch 
on Education." 

John Merrill Davis (1846 — )y of Rio Grande, Ohio, 
president of Rio Grande College, has recently published 
a volume of lucid and inspiring baccalaureate sermons 
under the title, "Striving for the Masteries." 

David Austin Randall (1813-84), one of Ohio's 
noted preachers, the father of Emilius O. Randall, 
the historian, is the author of two important books, 
"The Wonderful Tent of the Mosaic Tabernacle" 
and "God's Handwriting in Egypt, Syria and the 
Holy Land, " which last named volume had the remark- 
able sale of a hundred thousand copies. 

William Burnet Wright (1838 — ^), an Ohio man, 
bom in Cincinnati, a distinguished clergyman and 
lecturer on literary subjects, is well known as the 
author of "Ancient Cities from the Dawn to the 
Daylight," "The Worid to Come," "Master and Men, 
or the Sermon on the Mount Practised on the Plain," 
and " Cities of St. Paul, Beacons of the Past Rekindled 
for the Present." 



ESSAY, LITERARY CRITICISM, ETC. 

Addison Peale Russell (1826-1912) was bom in Clin- 
ton County and his career and ideals were shaped 
almost wholly by Ohio influences and associations. 
Mr. Howells alludes to him as the author "whose 
charming books of literary comment have so widely 



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42 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

endeared him to book-lovers; but whose public services 
to his State are scarcely known outside of it among the 
readers of * Library Notes' or of * A Club of One.'*' 
Mr. Russell was in public life from 1855 to 1868, as 
legislator, Secretary of State, and Financial Agent for 
Ohio. During the term of the last named office, he 
resided in New York City, where in 1867 he published 
his first book, "Half Tints." For the last forty years 
or more, he devoted himself entirely to literature, in 
undisturbed retirement in the quiet town of Wilming- 
ton. He led the contented life of a philosopher 
whose books were his world and whose mind was his 
kingdom. In powers of assimilation he has been 
likened to Bayle, who had "the art of writing down his 
curious quotations with his own subtle ideas. " Every 
library in Ohio should contain his books: "Library 
Notes," "A Club of One," "In a Club Comer," 
"Characteristics," "Sub Coelum" and "Thomas Cor- 
win." 

In the literature of expository and critical essay, 
Mr. Howells has contributed many important volumes, 
including: "Modem Italian Poets," "Criticism and 
Fiction," "My Literary Passions," "Literary Friends 
and Acquaintances" and "Literature and Life." In 
this connection mention should be made of other Ohio 
authors who have added notable contributions to 
purely bellettristic literature. The following list of 
books and writers is fairly representative of the scholar- 
ship, taste and literary tendency fostered by the 
Buckeye State: "References for Literary Workers" 
and "Knowledge and Culture," by Reverend Henry 
Matson (1820-1901), late of Oberlin, Ohio; "The 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 43 

Development of the English Literature and Language" 
and "English Literature of the Eighteenth Century," 
by Alfred Hix Welsh (1850-89); "Tennyson's Debt to 
Environment," "The Poetry of Robert Browning," 
and "Studies in Literature," by Professor William G. 
Ward (1848 — )j bom in Sandusky, Ohio, now a resi- 
dent of Boston; "Old Colony Days," "Life of Dante," 
"Life of Petrarch" and "Prophets of the Nineteenth 
Century," the last being essays on Carlyle, Ruskin, 
and Tolstoy, by Mrs. May Alden Ward, bom in Cin- 
cinnati in 1853. 

Harold North Fowler (1859 — )^ professor since 1893 
in the Western Reserve University, is the author of 
"The History of the Ancient Greek Literature" and 
"The History of Roman Literature." James Eugene 
Farmer (1867 — )y bom in Cleveland, now a teacher 
in Concord, N. H., is the author of "Essays in French 
History." Charles Burleigh Galbreath (1858 — ), of 
Columbus, for many years the able and accomplished 
librarian of the Ohio State Library, a frequent con- 
tributor to the "Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Quarterly," is the author of a series of appreciative 
articles on the "Song Writers of Ohio," and of an 
entertaining biography of Daniel Decatur Emmett. 
Joseph Salathiel Tunison (1849 — )y of Dayton, Ohio, 
a versatile literateur, formerly on the staff of the New 
York Tribune, is the author of "Master Vergil," 
"The Sapphic Stanza," "The Graal Problem," and 
"Dramatic Traditions of the Dark Ages." William 
Norman Guthrie (1869 — )> who has been described 
as "a brilliant and incisive lecturer on various aspects 
of literature, especially on poetry, fiction and the 



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44 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

drama," is the author of "Modem Poet-Prophets: 
Essays, Critical and Interpretative.*' 

That most stimulating of all provocatives to literary 
commentary and controversy, the Shakespearean drama, 
has furnished a theme for more than one Ohio publica- 
tion. Whatever may be thought of the merits of the 
Shakespeare-Bacon discussion, the bibliographer notes 
with some suprise that the first gun in that strange 
battle was fired by a young woman of Tallmadge, 
Ohio, in the County of Summit, Miss Delia Salter 
Bacon (1811-59), whose famous book, "Philosophy 
of the Plays of Shakespeare Unfolded,'* with preface 
by Nathaniel Hawthorne, was published in London, 
1857, it being the author's zealous purpose "to solve 
the enigma of those mighty dramas," which the auda- 
cious critic devoutly admired though she endeavored 
to prove they could not have been written by "that 
booby," William Shakespeare. Carlyle, to whom she 
came with a letter of introduction from Emerson, 
laughed at her theory, which, nevertheless, has found 
many advocates. 

More important than Miss Bacon's theory or the 
"Cryptogram" literature to which it gave rise, are the 
scholarly speculative works of Denton Jaques Snider 
(184 1 — )y an author who was born and raised in 
Mt. Gilead, Ohio, and who now lives in St. Louis. 
His critical writings on Shakespeare are regarded by 
so competent a judge as Dr. William T. Harris, and by 
many European scholars, as of especial value in reveal- 
ing the ethical significance of the immortal dramas. 
Dr. Snider, a graduate of Oberlin College' and one of 
the lecturers of the Concord School of Philosophy, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 45 

devotes himself exclusively to authorship and to the 
elucidation of his somewhat transcendental doctrines 
from the platform. He is a man of profound erudition 
and of very bold speculative views. Besides his nine 
volumes of "Commentary on the Literary Bibles/* 
viz., Shakespeare, Goethe, Homer and Dante, he has 
published five volumes 6f poems, three volumes on 
psychology, three on Froebel and the Kindergarten, 
and several miscellaneous books, including one novel. 
Among his later publications are: "The Father of 
History,'* "Ancient European Philosophy,*' and a 
political treatise entitled "The State.'* Under the 
general caption, "Psychology: The New Science Uni- 
versal," his principal works have recently been pub- 
lished in a series of sixteen volumes. In 1894 Oberlin 
College conferred the degree, Litt. D., upon Professof 
Snider, "her greatest scholar." 

James E. Murdoch, the celebrated actor, whose home 
was in Warren County, Ohio, wrote "A Short Study 
of Hamlet," "A Short Study of Macbeth," and other 
critical studies, and his volume entitled "The Stage," 
published in 1884, is replete with suggestive comments 
on the dramatic art. One chapter discusses the topic, 
"Shakespeare and His Critics." 

Henry Hooper, of Hamilton County, Ohio, who has 
written luminously on the philosophy of Schopenhauer, 
is also the author of various scholarly articles in dra- 
matic criticism published in " Shakespeariana. " 

Emerson Venable (1875 — ^)> ^^ Cincinnati, head of 
the department of English Language and Literature, 
Walnut Hills High School, editor of "Poets of Ohio," 



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46 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

is the author of "A Speculation Regarding Shakespeare" 
(1904), and of a recent critical study entitled "The 
Hamlet Problem and Its Solution.'* 



BOOKS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE 

Among the many Ohio writers who have attained 
conspicuous success in the province of juvenile litera- 
ture, a few of the most popular are here named: 

Julia P. Ballard (1828-49), is gratefully remembered 
on account of the pure, sweet stories she wrote for 
children under the titles, "Gathered Lilies," "The Hole 
in the Bag," "Little Gold Keys," etc. 

Martha Finley (i 828-1909), of Chillicothe, Ohio, 
known to innumerable children under her pseudonym, 
"Martha Farquharson," as the author of the "Elsie 
Books" and the "Mildred Books," more than forty 
volumes, wrote also many Sunday-school books and 
the popular juveniles, "Casella," "Old-Fashioned 
Boy," "Twiddledewitt," etc. 

Sarah Chauncey Woolsey, "Susan Coolidge" (1845- 
1905), of Cleveland, whose reputation rests chiefly 
upon her contributions to the literature intended for 
the young, is the author of "What Katy Did," "Eye 
Bright," "A Guernsey Lily," "Cross Patch," "A 
Round Dozen," "In the High Valley," "Just Sixteen," 
and many other books. 

Lydia Hoyt Farmer ( — 1903), of Cleveland, is the 
author of "Boys' Book of Famous Rulers," "Girls' 
Book of Famous Queens," "A Story Book of Science," 
"Belindy's Point of View," and other books for young 
folks, and of many volumes addressed to the mature 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 47 

reader, including: "What America Owes to Women'* 
and "A Short History of the French Revolution." 

Sarah Knowles Bolton (1841 — ), of Cleveland, 
formerly editor of "The Congregationalist, " though 
most of her writings appeal to the general reader, as 
is especially the case with her poems and her studies 
in art and biography, is the author of many instructive 
juveniles, including: "How Success is Won,'* "Poor 
Boys Who became Famous,*' "Girls Who became 
Famous," and "Famous American Authors." 



FICTION 

In the days long ago, when James G. Percival was 
considered the chief of American poets, and when the 
old "Knickerbocker Magazine" and the "Port Folio" 
were arbiters of literary destiny, there dwelt within 
the borders of Ohio at least two men of national 
reputation, who essayed to write novels. These 
pioneers of the imaginative pen were Timothy Flint 
(1780-1840), and James Hall (1793-1868). 

Of Flint's masterpiece, "Francis Berrian, or the 
Mexican Patriot," 1826, Mrs. TroUope, who was a 
neighbor to the author, in Cincinnati, says in her 
^* American Manners": "It is excellent; a little wild 
and romantic, but containing scenes of first rate interest 
and pathos." Others of Flint's novels are "Arthur 
Clenning" and "George Mason, the Backwoodsman." 
One who had read Flint's "Recollections" would 
expect to find charm in his works of fiction. A reviewer 
of his "Geography and History of the Mississippi 
Valley" declared that book "too interesting to be 



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48 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

useful** ! Many readers found as good fiction in Flint's 
delightful pseudo-biography, "The First White Man 
of the West, or the Life and Exploits of Colonel Daniel 
Boone." Though somewhat prolix and too much 
given to moralizing, Timothy Flint is characteristically 
delightful, and two or three of his books are of such 
permanent interest and charm of style that they should 
be reprinted. 

Judge James Hall (1793-1868), the author of an 
elaborate "History of the Indian Tribes,** and other 
noted books in biography and history, wrote several 
historical romances, modeled somewhat after the style 
of Cooper, and valuable on account of their fidelity 
to life and scenery in the early West, particularly in 
Kentucky. His best works are "Legends of the 
West," "Harpers Head," and "Tales of the Border." 

"The Western Souvenir," first of the so-called 
"Annuals" issued west of Philadelphia, was published 
in Cincinnati in 1829. It was "embellished" with 
six steel engravings, and was made up of stories, sketches 
and poems, by James Hall, Timothy Flint, Otway 
Curry and others. Perhaps the most interesting con- 
tribution in it is a character sketch of "Mike Fink, 
the Last of the Boatmen, " by Morgan Neville. 

A volume of original pieces collectively called "Tales 
of the Queen City," by Benjamin Drake, brother of 
Dr. Daniel Drake, was published in Cincinnati in 1839. 
The merit of this book is that it attempts to delineate 
local scenes and characters with simplicity. But the 
"Tales" is not nearly so readable as the author's 
other ventures, *The Life of Tecumseh" and the "Life 
of Black Hawk, " which are romantic in their essence. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 49 

The first woman to gain literary reputation in Ohio 
was Mrs. Julia L. Dumont (1794-1841), preceptress 
of Edward Eggleston, the author of "The Hoosier 
Schoolmaster/* Mrs. Dumont wrote pleasing verse 
and excellent prose. Her stories had vogue in the 
Ohio Valley and some of them found a publisher in 
the East. She wrote "The Brothers," "Gertrude 
Beverly," "Ashton Gray" and "Sketches from Com- 
mon Paths." Of livelier imagination and brighter 
touch than Mrs. Dumont, was Mrs. Caroline Lee 
Hentz (1800-54), a popular writer who, for several 
years, was a resident of Ohio. Some of her numerous 
novels are of a mildly sensational character, which 
perhaps accounts for the fact that nearly 100,000 copies 
of them were sold within three years. She is the author 
of several tragedies, one of which, "Lamorah, or the 
Western Wild," was written and acted in Cincinnati. 
Mrs. Francis D. Gage (1808-84), bom and bred in 
Ohio, was a practical writer, of strong common sense 
and much energy, who, like Mrs. Dumont, Mrs. Hentz, 
Mrs. Stowe, Alice Cary and other talented women of 
her day, helped to create a love for literature in the 
West. Her best story is one entitled " Elsie Magoon. " 
Early in the sixties she published a volume of poems. 
Mrs. Gage was a descendant of Anne Bradstreet, 
'The Tenth Muse," who wrote the first book of verse 
published in New England. 

The relations of the Beecher Family to the educa- 
tional and literary development of Ohio were intimate 
and vital. From 1832 to 1850, Dr. Lyman Beecher, 
as president of Lane Seminary and pastor of a promi- 
nent church, was a commanding character. He and 



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50 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

his energetic sons and daughters received much from 
the rapidly developing society by which they were 
surrounded, to which they gave much in return. 
Henry Ward Beecher studied theology and learned to 
preach in Cincinnati; there Catharine Beecher organ- 
ized and conducted a decidedly radical and progressive 
school for girls, and wrote some "up-to-date" text- 
books. The writing tendency was strong in several 
members of the brilliant family. The famous novel, 
"Uncle Tom's Cabin," though not actually written 
in Cincinnati, was conceived there. The author tells 
us in her Autobiography that many of the characters, 
scenes and incidents, in the story, were suggested by 
what she had observed in her own house, on Walnut 
Hills, or witnessed on occasional trips to Kentucky. 
Mrs. Stowe lived in Cincinnati for eighteen years, 
the most vigorous and formative portion of her life. 
She wrote for a Western magazine. She was an active 
member of the "Semi-Colon Club," of the Queen City, 
and to that society she dedicated her first book, "The 
May Flower," 1849. It is reasonable to claim that 
Ohio was the literary Alma Mater of the author of 
one of the world's most potent works of fiction. 

Alice Cary (1820-71) published her first book of 
stories, "Clovemook," in 1851, and her first regular 
novel, "Hagar: A Story of To-day," in 1852, the year 
in which "Uncle Tom's Cabin" appeared. Others of 
Alice Cary's novels were "Married, not Mated," 
"Holywood, " and "The Bishop's Son. " Of this Ohio 
writer the Westminster Review declared, "No other 
American woman has evinced in prose or poetry any- 
thing like the genius of Alice Cary. " 



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ALICE GARY 
Bora near Cincinnati, April 20, 1810; from an early 
age wrote poems and other productions j tierno^^ed to New 
York City in iSsa, and dtiring the remainder of her life 
was successfully engaged in Kterary work; died in New 
York, February 12, 1871. 



F^roaiy 



PHCEBE CARY 
Sister of Alice; born near Cincinnati, September 24, 
1824; writer of poetry- removed with licr sis tor to New 
York, and spent tha rest of her career there; died in 
Newport, Rli^e Island, July 31, 1871, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 51 

Belonging to the same period as the woman authors 
just mentioned, are several literary men who wrote 
or published novels, in Ohio. Thomas H. Shreve 
(1808-53), a friend and associate of Mr. Gallagher, 
produced many short stories and one ambitious 
romance, " Drayton : an American Tale, " 1 85 1 . Fred- 
erick W. Thomas (181 1 — )y of Cincinnati, wrote "Clin- 
ton Bradshaw,'' "East and West," and "Howard 
Pinkney," successful novels in their time and of 
decidedly artistic quality. The same may be said 
of the two novels which Edmund Flagg (181 5 — )y com- 
posed while a resident of Marietta in 1842-43, viz.: 
"Carrero; or the Prime Minister," and "Francis of 
Valois." Wm. W. Fosdick (1825 — ^), a poet of no 
mean ability, attempted fiction with some success, 
producing a romantic novel, "Malmiztic, the Toltec 
and the Cavaliers of the Cross," a study of Mexican 
traditions, and said to have furnished the prototype 
of Wallace's "The Fair God." 

The period from about 1846 to 1856 was prolific 
of sensational stories such as have been denominated, 
in slang phrase, "yellow-backs," "dime novels," 
%lood-and-thunder" tales, etc. Two of the most con- 
spicuous and most entertaining spinners of this class 
of yam made their appearance in Ohio, in the forties. 
These were E. C. Judson, "Ned Buntline," (1823-86) 
and Emerson Bennett. 

Judson came to Cincinnati in 1844 and embarked, 
with L. A. Hine, in the conduct of "The Western 
Literary Journal and Monthly Magazine," to which 
he contributed letters and editorials. He was greatly 
admired by the patrons of flashy literature. Of his 



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62 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

lurid masterpiece, "The Mysteries and Miseries of 
New York,'* 100,000 copies sold. "Ned Buntline's*' 
income was said to be $120,000 a year. 

Emerson Bennett (1822-1905), came to Cincinnati 
when he was only twenty-two years old, and in that 
city, between the years 1846 and 1850, wrote and 
published an incredible number of lively romances, 
which were eagerly sought and greedily read by the 
multitude. A sketch of Bennett, printed in a biograph- 
ical handbook, says, "He began writing poetry and 
prose at 18; has since followed literature and written 
more than fifty novels and serials, and some hundreds 
of short stories. *' At the very beginning of his career 
he caught the knack of constructing the "best sellers," 
and made money for himself and his publishers. His 
most popular books were "The Prairie Flower*' and 
"Leni-Leoti,** each of which had a sale of 100,000. 

Hundreds of elderly men and women in the Ohio 
Valley will confess, with a smile and a sigh, that in 
their school days they concealed in pocket or desk 
"The Bandits of the Osage,** or "Mike Fink,** or 
"Kate Clarendon,'* or "The League of the Miami,** 
or "The Forest Rose.** After all is said, these exciting 
romances were innocent enough, the hero always tri- 
umphant, the heroine an angel. The sharp crack of 
a rifle rang out and the villain fell with a thud. 

In a way, "Ned Buntline'* and Emerson Bennett 
were masters of their craft. They had a host of 
imitators. George Lippard*s "New York: Its Upper 
Ten and Lower Million,'* though not written in the 
West, was published in Cincinnati in 1854. So also 
was "The Trapper's Bride,** by the English author. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 63 

C. M. Murray. In the same city, in 1855, was issued 
a novel entitled "The Mock Marriage, or the Liber- 
tine's Victim; being a Faithful Delineation of the 
Mysteries and Miseries of the Queen City, '* by H. M. 
Rulison. 

Other novels of the period were "Mrs. Ben Darby: 
or the Weal and Woe of Social Life,'* 1853, by Maria 
Collins; "Life's Lesson, a Novel," 1855, by Martha 
Thomas; "The Old Comer Cupboard," 1856, Susan 
B. Jewett; "Emma Bartlett; or Prejudice and Fanat- 
icism," 1856; "Zoe; or the Quadroon's Triumph," 
1856, Mrs. A. D. Livermore; "Mabel; or Heart His- 
tories," 1859, Rosetta Rice — all which are Ohio books. 

During the period of the Civil War comparatively 
few novels were written in the United States, though 
the events of that stirring time educated authors and 
supplied material for whole libraries of history, fiction 
and poetry. In fact the war did much to elevate and 
nationalize American literature. The old distinctions 
between eastern literature and western were no longer 
much regarded. Even the southern writers ceased to 
be sectional. Secession ended in concession. Pro- 
vincialism in all sections of the country began to give 
way to a higher and broader and more tolerant culture, 
and books of high literary merit came from the South 
and from the West, to compete with the best from 
Massachusetts or New York. Tennessee was repre- 
sented by Miss Murfree, Kentucky by James Lane 
Allen, Indiana by Riley, and Ohio by Mrs. Cather- 
wood; writers who were in their early teens when the 
war began and who were among the first of a rapidly 
increasing number of painstaking writers developed 



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54 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

by the influences of a modem regime. The same influ- 
ences, of course, modified the ideas and methods of 
the earlier generation of writers, to which belong Wal- 
lace and Howells and Tourgee and many more. A 
few names may here be chronicled of Ohio authors 
bom before 1850. 

Albert Gallatin Riddle (1816-1902), whose career as 
lawyer and legislator fumishes a brilliant page in Ohio's 
history, found time, after he had reached middle life, 
to record, in a series of clever novels, much that he 
observed of men and events in northern Ohio, in the 
days of his youth. He tells the reader in the preface 
to one of his books that in his stories "an effort is made 
to preserve something of the freshness, gather up a few 
of the names, some of the incidents, catch the spirit 
and flavor of the life which has passed, leaving only its 
memory in the cherishing hearts of the contemporaries 
of the author." In the author of "Bart Ridgely,'' 
"The Portrait," "House of Ross," and "Anselm's Cave," 
Cuyahoga County and the Western Reserve in general 
have a faithful delineator of scenes and characters. His 
style is simple, vigorous and picturesque; his story is tme 
to fact and is free from sensationalism. Mr. Riddle was 
a man of solid attainments and sound judgment. His 
historical romances supplement his more serious works : 
"Life and Character of Garfield,'* "Life of Benjamin 
F. Wade" and "Recollections of War Times.'' 

William Dean Howells (1837 — )y novelist, poet and 
critic, was born at Martin's Ferry, Belmont County, 
Ohio, where his early childhood was passed. Along 
with his father's family he removed to Hamilton, and 
there spent his boyhood in the manner he has so delight- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 55 

fully recounted in the familiar pages of "A Boy^s Town/^ 
We are told that he "had not a great deal to do with 
schools after his docile childhood**; but that having 
been taken into his father's printing-office he "com- 
pleted his education there. '* While yet in his minority 
he began his career as a writer at Columbus, Ohio. 
In one of his reminiscential volumes, with character- 
istic genial frankness and exquisite satiric humor he 
tells the reader: "If there was any one in the world 
who had his being more wholly in literature than I had 
in i860, I am sure I should not have known where to 
find him, and I doubt if he could have been found nearer 
the centers of literary activity than I then was, or 
among those more purely devoted to literature than 
myself. I had been three years a writer of news para- 
graphs, book notices, and political leaders on a daily 
paper in an inland city, and I do not know that my life 
diflFered outwardly from that of any other young 
journalist, who had begun as I had in a country 
printing-office, and might be supposed to be looking 
forward to advancement in his profession or in public 
affairs. But inwardly it was altogether different with 
me. Inwardly I was a poet, with no wish to be any- 
thing else, unless in a moment of careless affluence I 
might so far forget myself as to be a novelist." An 
appreciative world of grateful readers has long since 
bestowed its enduring laurel upon the master whose 
literary apprenticeship is so felicitously described in 
the passage just quoted. The name of W. D. Howells 
appears on the title page of some seventy different 
volumes, embracing biography, history, travel, descrip- 
tion, sociology, fiction, drama, poetry and criticism; 



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56 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

and with such clear intelligence, acute discrimination, 
liberality of view, judicial fairness, and with such con- 
summate power and grace of style, has this well-beloved 
author acquitted himself in every literary field which 
he has entered, that by common consent he has been 
accorded the primacy among living American writers. 
As a novelist he holds the foremost rank, being unques- 
tionably, as Edmund Clarence Stedman has said in 
his "American Anthology,*' "the founder of the latter- 
day natural school of American fiction, in which truth 
to every-day life is given precedence, while rhetoric, 
forced situations and the arts of the melodramatist 
are sedulously avoided." Not less rare and admirable 
than the creative imagination which invents the charac- 
ters and scenes that live and move on the realistic 
pages of such a novel as "The Rise of Silas Lapham'' 
or "The Quality of Mercy,'' is the kindred and correl- 
ative faculty of insight and subtle penetration which 
furnishes the just and generous critic with criterions by 
which unerring analyses are made of literature and of 
life, and this faculty, this profound insight, Mr. Howells 
assuredly possesses, together with the beauty and sin- 
cerity of expression which give to all his work a charm 
of inimitable art. Mr. Howells is the author of: 
"Poems of Two Friends" (with Mr. Piatt), "Life of 
Abraham Lincoln," "Venetian Life," "Italian Jour- 
neys, " " Suburban Sketches, " " No Love Lost, " "Their 
Wedding Journey," "A Chance Acquaintance," "A 
Foregone Conclusion, " "Out of the Question, " "Life 
of Rutherford B. Hayes," "A Counterfeit Present- 
ment," "The Lady of Aroostook, " "The Undiscovered 
Country, " "A Fearful Responsibility and Other Tales, " 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 67 

"Dr. Breen's Practice," "A Modem Instance," "A 
Woman's Reason," "Three Villages," "The Rise of 
Silas Lapham," "Tuscan Cities," "A Little Girl 
Among the Old Masters," "The Minister's Charge," 
"Indian Summer," "Modem Italian Poets," "April 
Hopes," "Annie Kilbum," "A Hazard of New 
Fortunes," "The Sleeping Car and Other Farces," 
"The Mouse Trap and Other Farces," "The Shadow of 
a Dream," "An Imperative Duty," "A Boy's Town," 
"The Albany Depot," "Criticism and Fiction," "The 
Quality of Mercy," "The Letter of Introduction," 
**A Little Swiss Sojourn," "Christmas Every 
Day," "The Unexpected Guests," "The Worid of 
Chance," "The Coast of Bohemia," "A Traveler from 
Altraria," "My Literary Passions," "The Day of 
Their Wedding," "A Parting and a Meeting," "Im- 
pressions and Experiences," "Stops of Various Quills," 
"The Landlord of the Lion's Head," "An Open-Eyed 
Conspiracy, " " Stories of Ohio, " "The Story of a Play," 
"Ragged Lady," "Their Silver Wedding Joumey," 
*' Literary Friends and Acquaintance," "A Pair of 
Patient Lovers," "Heroines of Fiction," "The Ken- 
tons," "The Son of Royal Lambrith," "Literature and 
Life," "The Flight of Tony Baker," "Questionable 
Shapes," "Miss Bellard's Inspiration," "London 
Films," "Certain Delightful English Towns," "Be- 
tween the Dark and the Daylight," "Through the 
Eye of the Needle," "Fennel and Rue," "The Mother 
and the Father," "Some English Cities," "My Mark 
Twain," and "Imaginary Interviews." 

Albion Winegar Tourgee (1838-1905), bom at Wil- 
liamsfield, Ohio, United States Consul at Bordeaux, 



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68 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

France, 1 897-1903, and to Halifax, N. S., 1903-05, 
published numerous novels relating to political affairs 
in the South and other works of a more general scope. 
He is the author of "Figs and Thistles," "A Fool's 
Errand, '' " Bricks Without Straw, '' " Hot Plowshares, '* 
"An Appeal to Caesar,'' "Button's Inn," "Letters to 
a King," "Black Ice," "Pactolus Prime," "Out of the 
Sunset Sea," "An Outing with the Queen of Hearts," 
and "The Man Who Outlived Himself." 

Ambrose Bierce (1842 — )y critic and journalist, one 
of the many men of Ohio birth who have achieved dis- 
tinction abroad, has spent much of his life in California, 
and some years in London. A writer in "Vanity Fair" 
expresses the following opinion: "Mr. Ambrose Bierce 
is in the front rank of American critics, if indeed he does 
not head them all. English critics have something 
to learn from him. * * * Satirist, poet, soldier, literary 
artist — in a dozen phases Bierce appeals to the dis- 
criminating reader." Among the best known books 
by this versatile author are those entitled: "Cobwebs 
from an Empty Skull," "The Monk and the Hang- 
man's Daughter," "Black Beetles in Amber," "Can 
Such Things Be?" "In the Midst of Life," and "The 
Shadow on the Dial and Other Essays." The col- 
lected works of Ambrose Bierce, in ten volumes, have 
recently been published. 

Mary Hartwell Catherwood (1847-1902), who was 
bom at Luray, Licking County, Ohio, and whose literary 
work is of a high order, entitling her to a permanent 
place among American novelists, was an indefatigable 
student of the history of the French settlements in 
Canada and the United States, an admirable delineator 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 59 

of character and a literary artist of delicate taste and 
lively fancy. Her writings include: " Craque-o*-Doom," 
"Old Caravan Days," "The Secret of Roseladies," 
"The Days of Jeanne d' Arc/' "The Romance of 
DoUard," "The Bells of Ste. Anne/' "The Story of 
Tonty," "The Lady of Fort St. John," "Old Kas- 
kaskia," "The White Islander," "The Chase of St. 
Castin and Other Tales," "Spanish Peggy,'' and "La- 
zarre. " 

John Uri Lloyd (1849 — ), of Cincinnati, whose name 
has long been familiar to the scientific world, which is 
indebted to his pen for important works in chemistry 
and pharmacy, including ** Drugs and Medicines of 
North America," "Elixirs," etc., is also known to a 
wide circle of readers of fiction. He possesses a bold 
and fertile fancy, and a very accurate eye for nature 
and for types of character, as may be discerned by the 
perusal of his unique realistic novels of northern 
Kentucky, "Stringtown on the Pike," "Warwick of 
the Knobs," "Red Head," "Scroggins," and of his 
fascinating pseudo-scientific romance of the subterra- 
nean world, entitled "Etidorhpa; or. The End of the 
Earth." 

Charles Frederick Goss (1852 — )y of Cincinnati, 
Presbyterian clergyman, eloquent champion of civic 
reforms and practical exponent of the ideal religious 
conduct of life, author of "The Optimist, " "The Philop- 
olist," "Hits and Misses," "Just a Minute" and 
"Husband, Wife and Home," is perhaps most widely 
known as the writer of several novels and stories with 
an ethical purpose, including "The Redemption of 
David Corson," "The Loom of Life," "Little Saint 



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60 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

Sunshine," and "That Other Hand upon the Helm/* 
Mr. Goss is the author of a recently published History 
of Cincinnati. 

John Bennett (1865 — ^), bom and educated in Chilli- 
cothe, an accomplished and a graceful poet as well as 
a writer of fiction, won an immediate reputation on 
the merit of his first book, "Master Skylark,'* which 
met with a cordial welcome at home and abroad, and 
which has been translated into both Dutch and German. 
Since the publication of "Master Skylark,*' in 1897, 
Mr. Bennett has produced two other delightful stories, 
"Bamaby Lee** and "The Treasure of Peyre Gaillard,** 
the latter a romance of the Santee Swamps. 

Nathaniel Stephenson (1867 — )y bom in Cincinnati, 
formerly literary editor of the Cincinnati Commercial 
Tribune, has been, since 1902, professor of history in 
the College of Charleston (S. C). A skilled and ver- 
satile writer on historical and literary themes, Mr. 
Stephenson is an occasional contributor to critical 
magazines and is the author of three entertaining 
novels: "They That Took the Sword,** "The Beauti- 
ful Mrs. Moulton" and "Eleanor Dayton.** 

Mary Stanbery Watts (1868 — ^), of Cincinnati, 
bom in Delaware County, Ohio, began her literary 
career by writing short stories which appeared mostly 
in "McClure's Magazine*' from 1906 to 1909, within 
which period she wrote a number of criticisms and 
critical essays for the New York Times. Her first 
book, "The Tenants, ** was issued in 1908 and since that 
date two other novels from her pen have been pub- 
lished, "Nathan Burke** and "The Legacy,** both of 
which have received a cordial welcome from the reading 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 61 

public and from the press. In a review of "Nathan 
Burke,'* a discriminating critic writes: "It is life itself 
that the author gives us, rather thaii the artificial arrange- 
ments of life found in most novels: her people are real 
people rather the studies of virtue and villainy that we 
usually get and that are so much easier to make. " 

Burton Egbert Stevenson (1872 — ), of Chillicothe, 
formerly city editor of the Chillicothe Daily News and 
later of the Daily Advertiser, librarian of the Public 
Library of Chillicothe, one of the most accomplished 
and successful of the literary men of Ohio, editor of 
"Days and Deeds,** "Poems of American History,** 
"An Anthology of English Poetry,** etc., is the author 
of many entertaining novels, including: "At Odds with 
the Regent: A Story of the Cellamare Conspiracy,** 
"A Soldier of Virginia: A Story of Colonel Washington 
and Braddock*s Defeat,** "The Heritage,** "Tommy 
Remington*8 Battle,** "The HoUaday Case,** "Cadets 
of Gascony, Two Stories of Old France,** "The Mara- 
thon Mystery,** "The Young Section Hand,** "The 
Giri with the Blue Sailor,** "Affairs of State,** "The 
Young Train-Dispatcher, ** "That Affair at Elizabeth,** 
"The Quest for the Rose of Sharon,** "The Young 
Train-Master,** and "Tavemay.** 

James Ball Naylor (i860 — ^), of Pennsville, Ohio, 
physician, is the author of "Ralph Marlowe,** a lively 
and interesting character study, the scene of which is 
laid in an oil village on the Muskingum, and also of 
the novels entitled, respectively, "The Sign of the 
Prophet,** "In the Days of St. Clair,** and "Under Mad 
Anthony*s Banner,** all dealing with stirring events in 
early Ohio history. Dr. Naylor has published also 



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62 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

"The Cabin in the Big Woods/' "The Kentuckians, " 
"Old Home Week/' "The Witch-Crow and Barney 
Bylow/' "The Scalawag," "Little Green Goblin, "and, 
in verse, "Current Coins," "Goldenrod and Thistle- 
down" and "Songs from the Heart of Things." 

Thomas Chalmers Harbaugh (1849 — )y of Casstown, 
Ohio, is the author of "The White Squadron," "Janet 
Sinclair," "Stories of Ohio," "The Divining-Rod, " 
"Member from Miami, " "Alice of Maryland, " " Deuce 
of Diamonds," "The Third Woman," "Tory Plot," 
" In Buff and Blue, " etc., and, in verse, " Maple Leaves " 
and "Lyrics of the Gray." 

Nathan Gallizier (1866 — ), of Cincinnati, whose first 
publication, "Ignis Fatuus — A Dream of the Rococo" 
(in German), appeared in 1900, is the author of a trilogy 
of romances which deal in a brilliant and dramatic 
style with characters and episodes of Italian history, 
under the titles: "Castel del Monte," "The Sorceress 
of Rome," and "The Court of Lucifer." 

Thomas Emmet Moore (1861 — )y of Wellston, 
Ohio, bom at Piketon, Pike County, editor and poet, 
is the author of two very entertaining historical 
romances, "My Lord Farquhar," treating of the 
Turko-Armenian strife of 1894-95, and "The Haunted 
King," a story of David and Saul, in which the author 
contrasts "the moral darkness of the ever-decadent 
Paganism with the Light which was and is and ever 
shall be the unfailing hope and guide of humanity." 

Howard Anderson Millet Henderson (1836 — )y of 
Cincinnati, an eloquent Methodist preacher. Assistant 
Adjutant-General, C. S. A., 1864, State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, Kentucky, 1871-79, chaplain First 



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SAMUEL SULLIVAN COX 
Bora in Zanesville, Ohio, September 30, 1824; graduated 
from Brown University, 1846; admitted to the bar and 
kxrated in Columbus, where he edited the Ohio Statesman; 
Secretary of Legation in Peru, 1855-56; member of Con- 
gress from the Columbus district. 1857-65- removed to 
"New York, where in i86g he was elected to Congress; 
continued in that body until his death, except for one year 
(i88S'36), when he was Minister to Turkey; an able 
and useful ptthlic servant and an author of various works 
of interest and charm: died in New York City. Septem- 
ber to, id%. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 63 

Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the Spanish- 
American War, and member of the American Institute 
of Christian Philosophy, is the author of a religious 
novel, "Diomede the Centurion,'* the design of which 
is "to give the average reader a panoramic view of 
the planting period of the Christian Era/' Among 
other books by Dr. Henderson we may name "Wealth 
and Workmen, '* "Ethics of the Pulpit, *' "Pew and 
Parish,'* "Autumn Leaves," and "My Black Mammy.** 

It is logical that the State which put forward the 
first Abolitionist candidate for the presidency of the 
Republic, established the first university for negroes, 
harbored the chief managers of the "Underground 
Railroad,** and inspired Mrs. Stowe to write "Uncle 
Tom*s Cabin,** should be one of the states readiest 
to encourage literary endeavor on the part of men of 
African descent. 

Charles Waddell Chesnutt (1858 — ), of Cleveland, 
ranks well among American writers of fiction. His 
novels are published by one of the foremost houses 
of Boston, and have won merited commendation from 
exacting critics. They deal largely with the negro 
question, and are characterized by sincerity, pathos 
and genuine dramatic power. Mr. Chesnutt is the 
author of "The Conjure Woman,** "The Wife of His 
Youth and Other Stories,** "Life of Frederick Doug- 
las,** "The House behind the Cedars,** "The Mar- 
row of Tradition,** and "The Colonel's Dream.** 

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) was bom in 
Dayton, Ohio, where he received a common school 
education. He early manifested decided literary talent 
and soon became a writer for journals in Dayton and 



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64 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

in New York City. Through the influence of Robert 
G. IngersoU he was appointed to a clerkship in the 
Congressional Library, Washington, D. C, where 
he spent a few years. His first novel, entitled "The 
Uncalled,'* is reminiscent of his own experiences. 
It was followed by "Folks from Dixie '* (a volume of 
short stories), "The Love of Landry,'* "The Strength 
of Gideon," "The Fanatics," and "The Sport of the 
Gods." Of these creations of realistic fiction, the last 
three are remarkable for strength and fidelity in 
their delineation of human life and its struggles. 

General Hugh Boyle Ewing (1826-1905), of Lan- 
caster, Ohio, late U. S. Minister to the Hague, is the 
author of two entertaining novels, "A Castle in the 
Air" and "The Black List." 

General John Beattj'- (1828 — ^), of Columbus, is 
well known as the author of those patriotic volumes, 
"The Citizen Soldier" and "Belle O'Becket's Lane," 
and of the prehistorical novel entitled "The Acol- 
huans." 

Charles Humphrey Roberts (1847 — )y born near 
Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, has published an interesting 
historical study, "Down the 0-h-i-o, a Novel of Quaker 
Life," in which the operation of the "Underground 
Railroad" is vividly pictured. 

Mary Aplin Sprague (1849 — ), of Newark, Ohio, 
demonstrated her ability to create a bright, piquant, 
epigrammatic, and witty book when she produced 
the lively novel entitled "An Earnest Trifler." 

John Brown Jewett, of Newtown, Ohio, a poet and 
recluse, is the author of "Tales of the Miami Country. " 
Mr. Jewett is one of Ohio's most charming writers, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 65 

albeit his work is but little known. In his exquisite 
sketch, "Fiddler^s Green/' and in other simple and 
beautiful compositions, he reveals himself a man of 
true literary instincts, who possesses the seeing eye 
and understanding heart. 

Margaret Holmes Bates (1844 — )j a native of 
Fremont, Ohio, has contributed to our imaginative 
literature those pleasing novels: "Jasper Fairfax," 
"The Prince of the Ring,'' "Shylock's Daughter," 
and "The Chamber over the Gate." 

George Henry Picard (1850 — ^), born at Berea, 
Ohio, has won distinction as the author of the popular 
novels: "A Matter of Taste," "A Mission Flower," 
"Old Boniface," "Madam Noel," and "The Bishop's 
Niece." 

John Randolph Spears (1850 — ^), an Ohioan whose 
superior work has been commended in England and 
France as well as at home, and whose naval histories 
are among the best of their class, is the author of 
"The Port of Missing Ships, and Other Tales of the 
Sea." 

Claude Hazelton Wetmore (1862 — ^), born at Cuya- 
hoga Falls, Ohio, traveler, journalist, and author of 
"Beyond a Hand-Clasp," "The Battle against Brib- 
ery," etc., won reputation from the signal success of 
his first novel, "The Sweepers of the Sea." 

Julius Chambers (1859 — ^), bom at Bellefontaine, 
Ohio, a distinguished journalist, lecturer and writer, 
is the well-known author of "A Mad World," "On a 
Margin," "Lovers Four and Maidens Five," "The 
Rascal Club," etc., and of numerous short stories and 
acting plays. 



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66 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Paul Kester (1869 — )y bom at Delaware, Ohio, who 
has attained celebrity as a dramatist, several of his 
highly successful plays having been produced by such 
distinguished actors as Sothem, Marlowe, Fiske, 
Modjeska, and Salvini, is the author of "Tales of the 
Real Gipsy/' 

Frederick Burr Opper (1857 — )j bom in Madison, 
Lake County, Ohio, the popular artist and comic 
illustrator, who, though not a writer of literary fiction, 
tells many a graphic story with his pencil, has published 
for the amusement of everybody " Folks in Funnyville,*' 
"Happy Hooligan, *' " Alphonse and Gaston '* and other 
pictorial books of extravagant humor. 

We may add to the catalogue of Ohio fiction the 
following miscellaneous list: "Wall Street and the 
Woods," by William J. Flagg; "The Lost Model" 
and "Wash Bolter," by Henry Hooper; "The Shoe- 
maker's Family" and "The Convert," by Isaac M. 
Wise; "The Log of Commodore RoUingpin" and 
"Thomas Rutherton," by John H. Carter; "Mrs. 
Armitage's Ward," by Judge D. Thew Wright; "The 
Secret of the Andes," by Frederick Hassaurek; "Her 
Ladyship," by Dr. Thomas C. Minor; "A Buddhist 
Lover," by Mrs. Robert Hosea; "Silas Jackson's 
Wrongs" and "The Marquis and the Moon," by 
Nicholas Longworth; "Vawder's Understudy" and 
"The Three Richard Whalens," by James Knapp 
Reeve; "The Freeburgers, " by Denton J. Snider; 
"Charles Kill-Buck, an Indian Story of the Border 
Wars of the American Revolution," by Francis C. 
Huebner; "Iturbide, a Soldier of Mexico," by Dr. 
John Lewin McLeish; "Ezra Caine," "The Romance 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 67 

of a Rogue/' "The Hills of Freedom, " and "The Black 
Sheep," by Joseph William Sharts; "A Buckeye 
Baron,*' by William Alpha Paxon; "The Quaker 
Scout," by Nicholas Patterson Runyan; "The Young 
Idea," by Parker Fillmore; "The Coward of Ther- 
mopylae," by Mrs. Catherine (Parks) Sneadeker, and 
*The Rose Croix," by Dr. D. Tod Gilliam. 



HUMOROUS WRITERS 

William Tappan Thompson (1812-82), a native of 
Ohio, who went to Georgia and became a journalist, 
was renowned in his day and generation for the rough 
and extravagant portraitures and caricatures which he 
made of southern types, and which were published 
under the titles "Major Jones's Courtship,*' "Major 
Jones's Sketches of Travel," "Characters of Pineville," 
etc. He also wrote a droll farce, "The Live Indian," 
which furnished John E. Owens, the comedian, with 
one of his laughable roles. 

Samuel Sullivan Cox, "Sunset Cox" (1824-89), of 
Zanesville, journalist, orator, statesman, diplomatist, 
one of the most brilliant and accomplished of Ohio's 
honored sons, added to his distinction as a political and 
descriptive writer the reputation of a man of rare wit 
and humor. All his writings and speeches abound in 
keen passages, and in one elaborate volume entitled, 
"Why We Laugh," he discusses the philosophy of 
humor. Like "Tom" Corwin, Mr. Cox had a genius 
for the wisdom of the ludicrous. 

David Ross Locke (1833-88), author of "Divers 
Views, Opinions, and Prophesies of Yours Trooly, 



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68 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

Petroleum V. Nasby," whose keen, satirical letters 
purporting to be written by a secessionist of "Con- 
federate Cross Roads, Kentucky," delighted President 
Lincoln and were accounted by Secretary Chase as 
of powerful effect in helping to save the Union, was 
certainly a humorist of extraordinary endowment — 
a genius in his particular sphere. He laughed his 
enemies to scorn and "drew out Leviathan with an 
hook" of sharpest wit. Mr. Locke was a native of 
the State of New York, but the greater portion of his 
life was spent in Ohio, chiefly in Toledo. He pub- 
lished one novel, "A Paper City." 

The inimitable Artemus Ward (1834-67) came 
to Ohio about the year 1850, and though his sojourn 
in the State was not long, he wrote, while living on 
the Western Reserve, a number of his brightest and 
drollest papers. 

POETRY 

In the year 1824 the editor of the Cincinnati "Literary 
Gazette'' printed in his Notes to Contributors the 
following apologetic excuse for declining a poetical 
"effusion" from a Kentucky correspondent: "Poetry 
is in so flourishing a state on our side of the river that 
the limits allotted to this department are preoccupied. *' 
Timothy Flint, in the "Western Magazine and Review" 
for May, 1827, wrote, "We are a scribbling and forth 
putting people. Little as they have dreamed of the 
fact in the Atlantic country, we have our thousand 
orators and poets. ♦ ♦ ♦ We believe that amid the 
freshness of our unspoiled nature, beneath the shade 
of the huge sycamores of the Miami, or cooling the 



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DAVID ROSS LOCKE 
Born in Vestal, Broome county, New York, September 
20, 1833; early engaged in newspaper work, and edited 
various journals in Ohio; in 1861 began the publication 
of the "Petroleum V. Nasby" papers in the Findlay 
J<fffersonian, which he continued in the Toledo Blade; 
author of other works; was for some time established in 
professional work in New York, where he edited the Even- 
irtg Mail; died in Toltdo, Ohio* February 15, 1888. 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 69 

forehead in the breeze of the beautiful Ohio, and 
under the canopy of our Italian sky, other circum- 
stances being equal, a man might write as well as in the 
dens of a dark city." A volume of "Selections from 
the Poetical Literature of the West, " compiled by W. 
D. Gallagher, was published in Cincinnati in 1841. 
It contains 210 pieces, and represents 38 writers, most 
of whom resided in Ohio. Coggeshall's well-known 
"Poets and Poetry of the Ohio Valley," a volume of 
680 pp., issued in i860, gives sketches of 152 writers, 
with selections from their best verse. Twenty-nine 
of the authors represented in this book belong to Ohio. 
The admirable volume, "American Poetry and Art," 
edited by J. J. Piatt and published in Cincinnati in 
1882, presents, with discriminating judgment, many 
of the choicest poems written in the Buckeye State. 

In the volume, "Poets of Ohio" (1909), a critical 
anthology with biographical sketches and notes, 
Mr. Emerson Venable distinguishes the poetical work 
of thirty-four representative writers. 

There is no need to record here the long list of books 
of Ohio verse which now exist only in old catalogues 
or in rare collections. Enough to say that not a few 
of these possess considerable merit, and they were 
sought after, scrap-booked and admired in their little 
day. It has been the good fortune of a number of 
the early writers to hold a more secure place in the public 
memory by virtue of the anthologies in which their 
poems are kept alive, perhaps under the title of "old 
favorites. " 

By far the most eminent of the early poets of the 
Ohio Valley was the bard who sang of the "Days when 



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70 THE RISE AND PRCXJRESS 

We were Pioneers/' and of the "Green Forest Land," 
the "Golden Wedding on Rolling Fork," the soli- 
tude of "Miami Woods," and the song of the "Brown 
Thrush" and "The Cardinal Bird." We refer to the 
good poet, William D. Gallagher, a truly inspired singer, 
gifted with the "love of love, the scorn of scorn," 
and with a Wordsworthian discernment of the beauty 
and significance of nature. As an artist he deserves 
a fuller appreciation than he has yet received, for he 
possesses unusual skill in melody, and a command of 
blank verse seldom attained in American literature. 
There are passages in his carefully wrought pastoral 
which, for dignity, noble simplicity and genuine 
reverence for spiritual beauty, compare with the 
masterful work of the so-called Lake School of poets. 
It is to be regretted that some of his most characteristic 
poems are out of print, but fortunately a few copies of 
his "Miami Woods and Other Poems" are preserved 
in libraries. 

The now almost forgotten name of Otway Curry 
(1804-55) was familiar to the eye and ear of all who, 
in the West of fifty years ago, cared about poetry. 
The school-readers gave wide circulation to Curry's 
poems: "The Going Forth of God," "The Eternal 
River," "Kingdom Come," and "The Lost Pleiad." 
James H, Perkins was likewise esteemed and quoted. 
There are scores of persons living in Ohio who can 
recite lines from that once hackneyed "declamation," 
"O Were You Ne'er a School-boy?" or "The Young 
Soldier." Charles A. Jones (1815-51) is remembered 
by his oft reprinted "Tecumseh," 

''Stop, Stranger I there Tecumseh lies"; 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 71 

and by his faithfully descriptive pieces, "The Pioneers,'' 
"The Old Mound" and "Lines to the Ohio River." 
F. W. Thomas still holds a place in our books of 
"Selections," by virtue of his fidelity to truth and 
nature in some meritorious stanzas of his descriptive 
poem, "The Emigrant," and because of the sentiment 
and melody of the song, " 'Tis Said that Absence 
Conquers Love." W. W. Fosdick, on whom his 
contemporaries and patrons, M. D. Conway, W. H. 
Lytle and others, bestowed the title, "Laureate of 
the Queen City," wrote an ambitious volume, "Ariel, 
and Other Poems," the more labored contents of which 
have passed into oblivion, while a few of its simple, 
unpretentious, but genuine poems, faithfully reporting 
visible and vital fact, continue to exert a charm and 
win a due meed of praise. Of these cherished few 
none are better than the lyrics, "The Maize" and 
"The Pawpaw." Daniel Decatur Emmett (1815- 
1904), author of "Dixie," and Benjamin Russell 
Hanby (1833-67), author of "Darling Nelly Gray," 
were both Ohio men who won distinction as writers 
of popular music and song. William James Sperry 
(1828-56), is remembered as the author of the 
melodious lyric "A Lament for the Ancient People." 
Byron Foresythe Willson (1837-67), whose poetical 
work Mr. J. J. Piatt reviews at great length in the 
"Hesperian Tree" for 1903, was undoubtedly a poet of 
rare gifts. One of his poems," The Old Sergeant," 
had great popularity soon after its publication in the 
time of the Civil War. Willson is characterized by 
Mr. Stedman as "A strongly imaginative balladist, 
whose death was a loss to poetry." 



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72 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

The departed singers whose work has scarcely 
more than been glanced at in the above paragraph, 
though not stars of first magnitude, have at least 
"fixed their glimmers." In their constellation belong 
three other lights, which whether from accident or 
because of their intrinsic superiority, have attracted 
more attention than their contemporaries. These are 
Thomas Buchanan Read (1822-72), William Haines 
Lytle (1826-63), and Alice Gary (1820-70). 

Thomas Buchanan Read used to say he had four 
principal homes, Philadelphia, Boston, Florence and 
Gincinnati. He had many friends in Ohio, to whom 
he acknowledged his indebtedness for patronage in 
art and letters. During his sojourn in the Queen Gity, 
he was constantly busy at the easel or the desk, and 
in that city he painted some of his finest pictures and 
composed some of his best poems. The house in 
which he lived, on Seventh Street, and in which he 
wrote the poem "Sheridan's Ride," is marked with 
a bronze tablet, commemorating that fact. 

Gen. W. H. Lytle, though not a "one poem poet," 
gained his secure place in literature through the merit 
of his masterpiece, the lyric "Antony and Gleopatra," 
a stroke of genuis and true inspiration, a passionate 
glorification of love and war, of the "Great Triumvir" 
and the "Star-eyed Egyptian" — ^and the author 
rose to renown. Like Kinney's "Rain on the Roof," 
and O'Hara's "The Bivouac of the Dead," the 
"Antony and Gleopatra" appears to be "booked for 
immortality. " In the small volume of Lytle's Poems 
collected by the writer of this sketch and published 
in 1894, readers will find a number of pieces well 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 73 

worthy to be preserved with the "Antony and Cleo- 
patra." Specially excellent are the lyrics: "Popo- 
catepetl, " " Macdonald's Drummer, " " Jaqueline, " 
"The Volunteers," "Farewell" and "Sweet May 
Moon." 

More than forty years have elapsed since Alice 
Cary died; more than seventy since she gathered her 
first laurels as a poet. At the very beginning of her 
literary career she was received with applause, and 
from year to year her reputation steadily advanced. 
It is to be doubted if any other American woman has 
ever, through the accomplishment of verse, attained 
so much celebrity as did this country girl of Clover- 
nook. Even to-day, she has numerous readers and 
admirers, not only in Ohio, but in all parts of the 
United States. She was one of the poets "sown by 
nature;" she was sensitive to all beauty and truth; 
she had broad sympathies; she had the "vision and 
the faculty divine." Readers loved her personality 
and felt instinctively that she understood their feelings, 
and that she wrote of what she really knew, from 
direct observation and experience. 

Phoebe Cary (1824-71) was also a genuine poet. 
"Her reputation," as a recent critic justly remarks, 
"has been somewhat obscured by the greater lustre 
of her sister's fame. Though the amount of her 
work is relatively small, Phoebe was possessed of 
natural gifts scarcely inferior to those of Alice, nor 
was her artistic instinct less refined than that of her 
sister." The two women exerted and still exert 
a sweet, pure and stimulating influence, especially 
upon the young in the public schools and upon senti- 



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74 THE RISE AND PRCXJRESS 

mental readers who care more for melodious common 
sense than for the subtleties and refinement of poetic 
art, however masterfully employed. 

William Penn Brannan (1825-66), of Cincinnati, 
poet and artist, a man of unusual talent, wit, and 
refinement, published a volume of meritorious verse 
entitled "Vagaries of Vandyke Brown," His auto- 
biographic poem, "Saint Mary's Hospital,'* contains 
passages of lofty meditation and genuine lyric charm. 

Helen Louisa Bostwick Bird (i 826-1907), a writer of 
marked power and originality, whose literary work 
was nearly all done in Ohio, deserves to occupy a place 
of distinction among the women poets of America. 
The rare qualities of her poetic genius are fully rec- 
ognized by the editor of "Poets of Ohio,'' who devotes 
ten pages to a sketch of her life and selections from 
her verse. Some of the most felicitous of Mrs. Bird's 
exceptionally delicate and beautiful lyrics are found 
in a volume entitled "Four O'Clocks," published in 
1888. 

Floras Beardsley Plimpton (1830-86), journalist 
and poet, was born at Elmyra, Portage County, Ohio. 
For more than a quarter of a century he was a citizen 
of Cincinnati, engaged in newspaper editorship in 
association with Murat Halstead. The form and 
quality of his carefully finished work are such as to 
insure him a long lease of more than local fame. Appre- 
ciated and applauded while living, by Holmes, Whittier, 
Howells, and others prominent in letters, his memory 
is cherished with admiration and praise by many 
readers who are familiar with his verse. One of the 
pieces which made his name popular is the vigorous 



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WILLIAM HAINES LYTLE 
Bom in Cincinnati, November 2, 1826; graduated from 
Cincinnati College, began the practice of law, and was 
Captain of a company in the Mexican War; afterward 
resumed his profession and became active in politics; 
served with distinction in the Civil War, being promoted 
to Brigadier General of volunteers; killed while leading 
a charge at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863; author 
of the magnificent poem* "Antony and Cleopatra/' 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 76 

ballad, "Lewis Wetzel.'* Others of Plimpton's poems 
which, on account of their substantial contents and 
their charm of diction, have become favorites, are 
those entitled, "The Reformer," "The Poor Man's 
Thanksgiving," "In Remembrance," and especially 
"Sunmier Days," the last beginning with the stanza: 

** In summer when the days were long. 

We walked together in the wood; 
Our heart was light, our step was strong; 

Sweet flutterings were in our blood; 
In sunmier when the days were long. " 

Coates Kinney (i 826-1 904), journalist, statesman, 

orator, was, above all, a poet of that noble order the 

dignity and grandeur of whose mission is eulogized 

in the lofty quatrain: 

''His work it is that lifts the human life: 
While others lead by law's and battle's might 

He rises into cahn above the strife 
And sets new guiding-stars along the night. " 

Nature endowed his large brain richly with the power 
of thought and the faculty of song. Though he de- 
voted many years of his life to practical affairs — as 
lawyer, editor, military officer, state senator — ^he 
never neglected the higher "business of his dreams." 
In his youth he gave to the world the spontaneous 
music of "Rain on the Roof," a poem which has main- 
tained its popularity for more than sixty years, and 
which, in its revised form, will no doubt continue a 
favorite with all who have the gift of nice appreciation. 
Representative of his later work, and of special interest 
to the student of Ohio literature, is the "Ohio Cen- 
tennial Ode" (1888), a forceful production giving 
eloquent expression to what i3 best and noblest in 
Ohio history, tradition, and ideals, and worthy to 



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76 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

be classed with Lowell's "Commemoration Ode.'' Of 
the author's poetry in general, Julian Hawthorne 
wrote: "It expands the brain and touches the heart. 
* * * What he has done will last"; while William Dean 
Howells, recognizing in Coates Kinney "a truly great 
poet, subtle and profound," accords him a place among 
"the few who think in the electrical flushes known 
only to the passions of most men," a poet whose 
verse "brings to the reader the thrill imparted by 
mastery in an art which has of late seemed declining 
into clever artistry." It is impossible, in a brief 
sketch, to give an adequate idea of the scope and 
quality of Kinney's genius. The strength of his 
imagination, his profound insight into the heart of 
man and of nature, his vigorous intellectual grasp 
and subtle analytic acumen, his daring fancy, and 
his facile command of rhythm and rhyme, are revealed 
in the two volumes, "Lyrics of the Ideal and Real," 
1887, and "Mists of Fire, a Trilogy; and Some Eclogs," 
1899, which contain a great variety of poems dealing 
with themes philosophical, religious, patriotic, social, 
and purely aesthetic. When at his best Kinney wrote 
with a vividness, originality and beauty which give 
a surprise and delight such as none but poets of first 
rate genius can awaken. Concerning the author's 
masterpiece, an elaborate production in three parts 
entitled, respectively, "Kapnisma, "Pessim and Op- 
tim," and "A Keen Swift Spirit," the editor of "Poets 
of Ohio" writes: " * Mists of Fire' has for its theme 
the immortal soul of man, its origin, vicissitudes, 
exaltations, despairs, and conjectured destiny. In 
this great work, the ripe fruition of the poet's genius, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 77 

the whole gamut and diapason of intellectual life is 
sounded. Thought surcharges every sentence. The 
thought is usually calm, logical, guided by scientific 
safeguards; but now and again imagination kindles 
the philosophic facts, and the glowing pile mounts 
to the sky, a daring chariot of fire. The prevailing 
mood of the poem is solemn, devout, religious, rising 
at times to the high seriousness of oracular utterance. 
Unique in design and in poetic method, * Mists of Fire' 
is, in fact, the autobiography of a poetic nature, the 
thought and feeling of a profound and speculative 
soul, who, like Wordsworth, Tennyson, and Browning, 
seeks to embody in adventurous song a new gospel 
of freedom and of faith, which shall reconcile the 
postulates of science with the intuitions of religion." 
John James Piatt (1835 — )> ^^^ long occupied a 
secure and deservedly conspicuous position as one 
of Ohio's indefatigable promoters of belles lettres. 
He is one of those "planters of celestial plants," 
who have never lost faith in high ideals nor in 
the divinity of the Muses. He has devoted much 
of his energy to elevating the literary profession in 
the Ohio Valley, both by his discriminating work as 
an editorial writer and by his many publications in 
choice prose and genuine poetry. The country owes 
him a debt of gratitude for editing that notably 
elegant and compendious volume, "The Union of 
American Poetry and Art," and for issuing the more 
recent sumptuous volumes of "The Hesperian Tree," 
a Western Annual containing some of the best literature 
of the period. Mr. Piatt's reputation as a poet is 
established; he needs no new encomium. Proud and 



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78 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

jealous of the region in which he was bom and educated, 
he has chosen to write much on local themes, "The 
Pioneer's Chimney," "The Lost Farm,'' "The Mower 
in Ohio," and he has given subtle and delicate poetic 
expression to thoughts and emotions evoked by the 
idyllic, the home-bred and the pensive. Since 1893 
he has resided at North Bend, Ohio, devoting his 
time to literature. In i860, he published, in collab- 
oration with W. D. Howells, a first book, "Poems 
of Two Friends." Other of his poetical writings 
are: "The Nests at Washington," "Poems in Sun- 
shine and Fire-light," "Western Windows," "Land- 
marks," "Poems of House and Home," "Lyrics of 
the Ohio Valley," and "The Ghost's Entry and Other 
Poems." His prose style is shown at its best in a 
volume of delightfully artisric essays, entitled, " Penciled 
Fly Leaves." 

Sarah Morgan Bryan Piatt (1836 — )y wife of John 
James Piatt, is a woman of original and exceptional 
genius — a, poet whose name shines in American liter- 
ature. 

''Like some great jewel full of fire. " 

She is unrivalled in her province of song by any living 
author, whether native to this continent or of foreign 
birth. Whatever she writes has meaning, and the 
significance is often deep — sometimes strange and 
elusive — never commonplace. "Mrs. Piatt's poems 
are introspective and personal to the last degree," 
remarks a recent biographer. "They depict the essen- 
tial life of woman, in its various phases, voicing her 
ambitions, longings, joys, disappointments, doubts, an- 
guish, prayer. The tone of the verse is often sorrow- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 79 

ful, sometimes deeply tragic/* "In the rush of these 
hopeless tears," writes Mr. Howells, "this heart- 
broken scorn of comfort, this unreconcilable patience 
of grief, is the drama of the race's affliction; in the 
utter desolation of one woman's sorrow, the universal 
anguish of mortality is expressed. It is not pessi- 
mism; it does not assume to be any sort of philosophy 
or system. It is simply the bitter truth, to a phrase, 
of human experience through which all men must 
pass, and the reader need not be told that such poems 
were lived before they were written." Mrs. Piatt 
is inimitable in her own vivid, bold and suggestive 
invention and manner, and her masterful art has been 
admired by many who appreciate the technical diffi- 
culties of the poetic craft. She is the author of: "A 
Woman's Poems," "A Voyage to the Fortunate 
Isles," "That New World," "Poems in Company 
with Children," "Dramatic Persons and Moods," 
"An Irish Garland," "Selected Poems," "In Primrose 
Time," "Child's Worid Ballads," "The Witch in 
the Glass," "An Irish Wild Flower," "An Enchanted 
Castle." Her "Complete Poems," in two volumes, 
appeared in 1894, from the press of Longmans, Green 
& Co., New York and London. 

William Dean Howells, to whose prose work 
reference is made on a previous page, won his first 
laurels as a poet while a young man engaged in literary 
duties on the staff of the "Ohio State Journal" at Colum- 
bus. Of his conspicuous achievement as "an artist 
of rare skill and surprising invention" in the domain 
of verse, a recent critic writes as follows: "To few 
American authors whose reputation rests mainly upon 



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80 ^ THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

the excellence of their work in prose, has it been given 
to contribute so much that is of enduring merit to 
the poetical literature of the Nation. His early poems 
are distinguished for melodious cadence and exquisite 
touches of descriptive beauty, while his more recent 
achievement in verse, fairly represented in the volume, 
"Stops of Various Quills," shows the ripe thought and 
imagination of a philosophic poet who, in the spirit 
of noble altruism, has sympathetically studied human 
nature and human society, and who has pondered 
deeply the ultimate problems of life.'' 

Katherine Margaret Brownlee Sherwood (1841 — )y 
of Toledo, organizer of the National Woman's Relief 
Corps, G. A. R., and president of the Ohio Newspaper 
Women's Association, the woman whose patriotic pen 
gave to the State and to the Republic those inspiring 
books, "Camp Fire and Memorial Day Poems" 
and "Dream of the Ages, a Poem of Columbia," 
holds a warm place in the hearts of many admiring 
readers. Her poem entitled "The Logan Elm," 
written for the "Ohio State Journal," in 1872, is of 
marked value, literary and historical. 

Alice Williams Brotherton, of Cincinnati, accom- 
plished scholar, former president of the Cincinnati 
Woman's Press Club, and lecturer on the Shakes- 
pearean drama and on other literary topics, a poet of 
distinction well known on account of her contributions 
to the"Century," "Scribner's," the "Atlantic Monthly," 
"St. Nicholas," and other periodicals, is the author of 
three published volumes: "Beyond the Veil," "The 
Sailing of King Olaf, and Other Poems," and "What 
the Wind Told the Tree-Tops." 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE • 81 

Edith Matilda Thomas (1854 — ), a brilliant ex- 
ponent of the culture of the Western Reserve modified 
by the influence of New England training, was bom 
in Medina County and educated in a normal school 
at Geneva, Ohio, in which village her literary ten- 
dencies were encouraged and largely developed. In 
her early womanhood she came under the influence 
of Mrs, Helen Hunt Jackson, who, recognizing her 
exceptional talent, "introduced her to the editors of 
the "Atlantic Monthly^' and the "Century,'' and thus to a 
larger circle of readers than she had yet addressed.*' 
In 1888 Miss Thomas removed to New York City, 
where she still resides, and where, as did Alice Cary, 
she devotes herself to authorship, being an accomplished 
writer in prose and in verse. Her publications in 
verse comprise: "A New Year's Masque, and Other 
Poems," "Lyrics and Sonnets," "The Inverted Torch," 
"Fair Shadow Land," "In Sunshine Land," "In the 
Young World, " "A Winter Swallow, with Other Verse," 
"The Dancers," "Cassia, and Other Verse," "The 
Children of Christmas," and "The Guest at the 
Gate." A keen and logical intellect, a daring imagi- 
nation and versatile fancy, a passionate love of nature, 
an Emersonian fondness for the occult, a fine taste 
for classicism and for the suggestive beauty of myth, 
are among the elements of her poetical and artistic 
equipment. That she is a genuine poet, "called and 
chosen," — one who has "slept on the Mountain of 
Song" and brought home pure Parnassian dews, — 
her inspired lyrics attest. Edmund Clarence Stedman, 
in his "American Anthology," declares that "her place 
is secure among the truest living poets of our English 



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82 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

tongue"; and the editor of "Poets of Ohio," in his 
estimate of the author's genius, asserts with confidence 
that "in her peculiar domain of lyric art Miss Thomias 
is unrivaled"; and that "for originality and breadth 
of conception, depth of feeling, classic dignity and 
finish, haunting melody, and ease of execution, her 
poems have rarely been equalled by any writer of 
her sex on either side ot the Atlantic." 

Henry Holcomb Bennett (1863 — )y of Chillicothe, 
book-illustrator and landscape-painter, a versatile 
writer and a contributor to periodicals, won general 
appreciation and applause bestowed in recognition 
of the force, beauty, and pathos of his thrilling patri- 
otic lyric, "The Flag Goes By," 

John Bennett (the brother of H. H, Bennett), whose 
prose writings are mentioned on a preceding page, 
also knows "himself to sing" and "turn his merry 
note," as the lyrics in "Master Skylark" and such 
lilting melodies as "The Robin that Sings at My 
Window" attest. 

William Norman Guthrie (1868 — )^ bom in Dundee, 
Scotland, educated in the University of the South, 
was for several years a resident of Cincinnati, in which 
city many of his writings were published. He is a 
minister in the Protestant Episcopal Church, a pro- 
fessorial lecturer in general literature, a brilliant 
writer of prose and verse, and was editor of the "Foren- 
sic Quarterly" (1909-10) and of "The Drama" 
(191 1). Dr. Guthrie is a poet of vivid imagination 
and daring flight, who sings a modem Orphic strain 
with passionate fervor and genuine inspiration. His 
published books in verse bear the following interesting 



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DANIEL DECATUR EMMETT 
Bom in Mt. Vernon, Ohio, October 29, 181 5; organized 
the first colored ministrel troupe in the forties, and became 
one of the best known men of the country in minstrelsy; 
author of ' Dixie, " Uld U*±n Tn*:kvT. " an J uthur popular 
melodies; tlied in Mt. Vernon, Ohiu, June 28 ^ 1904, 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 83 

titles: "To Kindle the Yule Log," "Songs of Ameri- 
can Destiny, " "The Old Hemlock, " "The Christ of the 
Ages in Words of Holy Writ," "The Dewdrops and 
Other Pieces Written for Music," "Orpheus To-day, 
St. Francis of the Trees, and Other Verse," "On the 
Heights" (translated from Henrik Ibsen), and "Niag- 
ara, and Other Poems. " 

Alice Archer Sewall James (1870 — ), of Urbana, 
Ohio, poet and painter, author of "An Ode to Girl- 
hood" and "The Ballad of the Prince," and of various 
poems and illustrations published in leading magazines, 
is recognized alike by the general reader and the 
exacting critic for the excellence of her verse. We 
endorse the words of an appreciative reviewer who 
writes: "Mrs. James has produced many exquisite 
lyrics, which are invariably characterized by originality, 
vigor, and freshness of conception, purity and elevation 
of sentiment, delicacy of fancy, and grace of expression, 
as well as by rhythmic and melodious charm." 

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906), of Dayton, 
perhaps the most remarkably endowed literary genius 
that the African race has produced, holds an honorable 
place among the lyric poets of our nation. His extraor- 
dinary gifts were immediately discerned by ap- 
preciative readers and reviewers, including Mr. William 
Dean Howells, who was prompt to proclaim the advent 
of the new singer, "the first instance of an American 
negro who has evinced innate distinction in literature. " 
"So far as I could remember," writes Mr. Howells 
in his introduction to one of the poet's early volumes 
of verse, "Lyrics of the Lowly," "Paul Dunbar was 
the only man of pure African blood and of American 



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84 Rise and Progress of an American State 

civilization to feel the negro life aesthetically and 
express it lyrically. It seemed to me that this had 
come to its most modem consciousness in him, and 
that his brilliant and unique achievement was to have 
studied the American negro objectively, and to have 
represented him as he found him to be, with humor, 
with sympathy, and yet with what the reader must 
instinctively feel to be entire truthfulness." The 
following is a list of Dunbar's principal books of verse: 
"Oak and Ivy," "Majors and Minors," "Lyrics of 
Lowly Life," "Lyrics of the Hearthside," "Poems 
of Cabin and Field," "Candle-Lightin' Time," "Lyrics 
of Love and Laughter," "Heart of Happy Hollow," 
"Li'r Gal," "Lyrics of Sunshine and Shadow," and 
"Howdy, Honey, Howdy." 

Frederick Ridgely Torrence (1875 — )> ^^ Xenia, is 
a writer whose achievement in Ijrric and dramatic 
poetry, and whose growing reputation, give assur- 
ance of an ascending light of pure ray "unbor- 
rowed of the sun." Mr. Torrence received his 
academic training at Miami University and at 
Princeton. He was librarian of the Astor Library, 
and later of the Lenox Library; was assistant editor 
of "The Critic" and of the "Cosmospolitan"; and 
he is a member of the American Institute of Arts 
and Letters. The following is a list of his published 
volumes: "The House of a Hundred Lights," "El 
DoradO; a Tragedy," "Abelard and Heloise, a Poetic 
Drama," "Rituals for the Events of Life," and 
"Three Plays for Women." 



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THE JUDICIARY OF OHIO 
By David K. Watson and Moses M. Granger 



Several notable contributions on this subject have appeared in recent 
years in connection with the Ohio Centennial celebrations. Two of these 
are of such distinctive and pennanent historical interest that it is eminently 
fitting to preserve them in the present pages. 

The first is by the Hon. David K. Watson (b. 1849), a graduate of Dickinson 
CoUege and the Boston University. He has had a distinguished official career 
in his profession, having served as Assistant United States District Attorney 
for the Southern District of Ohio; member of the 54th Congress; Attorney- 
General for the State of Ohio from 1887 to 1891; and for several years a member 
of the commission appointed by Congress to codify the civil and penal laws of 
the United States. Heistheauthor of ''The History of American Coinage" 
and "A History of the Constitution of the United States," the latter a most 
scholarly work in two volumes. 

The second artide is by the Hon. Moses M. Granger, bom in Zanesville, 
Ohio, in 1831, a graduate of Kenyon College, a lawyer and judge of high 
standing in his profession. He served in the Civil War with cons(»cuou8 
ability and gallantry, for which he was promoted through the successive ranks 
to CdoneL He was Chief Justice ci the Supreme Court Commission from 
1883 to 1885, and is author of "Washington vs. Jefferson," 1898, and several 
other publications of a legal and historical character.— Thb Bditors. 



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By David K. Watson 

A PROPER study of the early judicial system and 
early laws of our State carries us to a period 
when, as a part of the great Northwest Ter- 
ritory, we were under control of the Federal 
Government. 

On the 13th day of July, 1787, the Congress of the 
United States passed the Ordinance for "The Govern- 
ment of the Territory of the United States, Northwest 
of the River Ohio/* Relative to the judiciary, the 
Ordinance provided: "There shall be appointed a 
Court to consist of three Judges, any two of whom to 
form a Court, who shall have a common law jurisdic- 
tion, and reside in the district, and have each therein 
a freehold estate in five hundred acres of land, while 
in the exercise of their offices, and their commissions 
shall continue in force during good behavior. The 
Governor and Judges, or a majority of them, shall 
adopt and publish in the district such laws of the 
original States, criminal and civil, as may be necessary, 
and best suited to the circumstances of the district, 
and report them to Congress, from time to time, which 
laws shall be in force in the district until the organiza- 
tion of the General Assembly therein unless disapproved 
of by Congress; but afterward the Legislature shall 
have authority to alter them as they shall see fit. " 

The Ordinance conferred no authority on the Gover- 
nor and judges to make laws, but only to adopt and 
publish such of those in force in the original states as 
might be necessary and suitable to the circumstances 
of the district. Acting under the provisions of the 



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88 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Ordinance, Congress on the i6th day of October, 1787, 
appointed Samuel H. Parsons, John Armstrong, and 
James M. Vamum judges for the new Territory. 

Judge Parsons was a native of Connecticut, and a 
graduate of Harvard University. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1759, and afterward served many years as 
member of the Connecticut Legislature. His bi- 
ography credits him with the distinction of having 
"originated the plan of forming the first Congress,'* 
which was the forerunner of the Continental Congress. 
He was a conspicuous figure in the Revolutionary War, 
attaining the rank of Major General. He was also 
one of the military court which tried Major Andre 
on the charge of being a spy. At the close of the war 
he resumed the practice of his profession. In 1785 he 
was appointed by Congress a Commissioner to treat 
with the Miami Indians, and two years later was 
appointed one of the judges of the new Territory. 

Judge Armstrong resigned after a few months* service 
on the bench. He was bom in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 
and at the beginning of the Revolutionary War was a 
student at Princeton College, which he left to join the 
American Army. It is charged that while he was in 
the army he wrote the celebrated Newburgh letters for 
the purpose of increasing the discontent already exist- 
ing among the officers, and which had grown to such 
proportions that it required the personal efforts of 
General Washington to quell it. After resigning his 
judicial position, he retired to his farm, and for many 
years devoted himself to the pursuit of agriculture. 
He was subsequently United States Senator and Minis- 
ter to France, and the author of several standard works. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 89 

Perhaps the most able and brilliant of the three 
judges, who first presided over the courts of the North- 
west Territory, was Judge Vamum. He was a native 
of Massachusetts and a graduate of Brown University, 
and, like his associates on the bench, was a soldier of 
the Revolution. At the close of the war he resumed the 
practice of his profession and became the leading 
lawyer of his State. He was a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress, and was recognized by that body as 
**a man of uncommon talents and most brilliant elo- 
quence." There is a published oration which he 
delivered at Marietta on the 4th day July, 1788, while 
a member of the Territorial Court, which fully sustains 
his reputation as an orator, and shows him to have 
been of scholarly and historical attainments. No fact 
concerning the judicial history of the Northwest Terri- 
tory is more clearly established than that the judges 
who constituted its first court were men of classical 
education and recognized ability as lawyers, and 
thoroughly equipped for the discharge of their judicial 
duties. 

Upon the resignation of Judge Armstrong, Congress 
appointed John Cleves Syinmes his successor. He 
was a native of New York, served as a delegate in the 
Continental Congress, and was a distinguished judge 
in New Jersey at the time of his appointment on the 
Territorial bench. As the appointments whith had 
been made by Congress, under the Articles of Con- 
federation, expired upon the election of a President, 
Washington, after his election to that position, reap- 
pointed those persons who had previously been ap- 
pointed by Congress. Consequently Judges Parsons and 



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90 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Symmes were reappointed Territorial judges. At the 
same time William Barton was appointed to the posi- 
tion made vacant by the death of Judge Varaum. 
Judge Barton declined the position and George Turner 
was appointed to take his place. Shortly thereafter 
Judge Parsons died, and Rufus Putnam, so well known 
in American history as General Rufus Putnam, was 
appointed his successor. He held the position for 
several years, and then resigned to accept the office 
of Surveyor General. He was succeeded on the bench 
by Joseph Gillman. In 1798 Judge Turner resigned 
and Return Jonathan Meigs was appointed his succes- 
sor. He was a native of Connecticut, and a graduate 
of Yale College. His career was the most brilliant 
and eventful in the cluster of names which adorn the 
history of the Northwest Territory. He afterward 
became a Supreme Judge of Ohio, Governor of the State, 
United States Judge in Michigan, a General in the War 
of 1 81 2, a United States Senator, and a member of 
the Cabinets of Presidents Madison and Monroe. 

The Territorial Court, as organized under the pro- 
visions of the Ordinance of 1787, lasted till 1799. While 
some of the acts adopted during this period were 
designed to meet the peculiar demands of those early 
times, many of them embodied the principles of a 
permanent and enduring judicial system. 

The first law was passed by Governor St. Clair and 
Judges Parsons and Vamum, and was entitled, "A 
law for regulating and establishing the militia in the 
Territory of the United States, Northwest of the River 
Ohio, published at the City of Marietta on the 2Sth of 
July, in the Thirteenth year of the Independence of 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 91 

the United States, and of our Lord, 1788, by His Excel- 
lency, Arthur St. Clair, Esquire, Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief, and by the Honorable Samuel Holden 
Parsons and James Mitchel Vamum, Esquire, as 
Judges." 

A difference of opinion arose between the Governor 
and judges concerning the extent of their powers in 
adopting laws, the Governor maintaining that they 
could only adopt such laws as were in force in some 
State; but the judges out-voted the Governor and 
the matter was subsequently referred to Congress, 
which sustained the Governor's opinion. The second 
law which was passed provided for establishing county 
courts of Common Pleas, and the power of single 
judges to hear and determine upon small debts and 
contracts, and for establishing the office of sheriff; and 
that there should be created in each county a court 
styled the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace, which 
was to be held four times a year in each county. The 
act also provided that a number of suitable persons, 
not exceeding five nor less than three, should be 
appointed in each county and commissioned by the 
Governor under the seal of the Territory, to hold and 
keep a court of record, to be styled the County Court of 
Common Pleas, and that said court should be held at 
two fixed periods in each county in every year and at the 
same places where the general courts of Quarter Ses- 
sions were held. This law was promulgated on the 23 d 
of August, 1788, and the first court in the Northwest 
Territory was the Court of Common Pleas, which com- 
menced on the first Tuesday of September of the same 



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92 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

year. The following interesting account of the opening 
of this court purports to have been given by one who 
witnessed the ceremony: 

"On that memorable first Tuesday of September, 
the citizens, Governor St. Clair and other Territorial 
OflSicers and Military from Fort Harmar being assembled 
at the Point, a procession was formed, and, as became 
the occasion, with Colonel Ebenezer Sproat, Sheriff, 
with drawn sword and wand of office at the head, 
marched up a path which had been cut through the 
forest, to the hall in the Northwest Block House of 
Campus Martins, where the whole counter-marched, 
and the Judges, Putnam and Tupper, took their seats 
on the high bench. Prayer was fittingly offered by 
our friend, the Rev. Manasseh Cutler, who was on a 
visit to the new colony, after which the commissions 
of the judges, clerk, and sheriff were read, and the 
opening proclaimed in deep tones by Colonel Sproat, 
in these words: *0, yes! a court is opened for the 
administration of even-handed justice to the poor and 
the rich, to the guilty and the innocent, without respect 
of persons; none to be punished without trial by their 
peers, and then in pursuance of the laws and evidence 
in the case.* This was the opening of the Court of 
Common Pleas. The Indian chiefs who had been 
invited by Governor St. Clair to attend the convention, 
were curious witnesses of this impressive scene. " 

On the second Tuesday of the same month was held 
the first session of the Court of Quarter Sessions, of 
which Hildreth says: "Court was held in the South- 
east Block House, occupied by Colonel E. Battelle. It 
was opened with the usual proclamation of the sheriff. 



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PETER HITCHCOCK 
Bom in Cheshire, Connecticut, October 19, 1781; 
admitted to the bar, 1804; removed to Burton, Geauga 
county, Ohio, 1806; elected to the Ohio House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1810, and to the Ohio Senate, 1812 and 1814; 
member of Congress, 181 7-19; Judge of the Ohio Supreme 
Court, 1619-33; again State Senator, 1833-351 *ind again 
Supreme Judge o( Ohio, 1835-42 an4 1845-52; died in 
Painesville, I^ke county^ Ohio, March 4, 1854. 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 93 

but not until the commission of the judges had been 
read by the clerk. General Rufus Putnam and General 
B. Tucker were appointed justices of the quorum, and 
Isaac Pearce, Thomas Lord, and R. J. Meigs, assist- 
ant-justices. Meigs was clerk. Paul Fearing was 
admitted as an attorney to plead in all the courts in 
Washington county, being the first lawyer ever admit- 
ted to practice in the Northwest Territory. He was 
also appointed by the Court attorney for the United 
States in Washington county. The Grand Jury con- 
sisted of the following persons: William Stacy, Nath- 
aniel Cushing, Nathaniel Goodale, Charles Knowles, 
Anselm Tupper, Jonathan Stone, Oliver Rice, Ezra 
Lunt, John Matthews, George Ingersol, Jonathan 
Devol, Samuel Stebbins, Jethro Putnam, and Jabez 
True. William Stacy was made foreman. The charge 
to the jury was given * with much dignity and propriety 
by Judge Putnam.* At one o'clock the Grand Jury 
retired and the Court adjourned for thirty minutes. 
At half past one the Court again opened, when the 
jurors entered and presented a written address to the 
Court, which, after being read, was ordered to be kept 
on file. Judge Putnam made a reply to the address. 
There being no suits before the Court, it was adjourned 
without day. This closed the first Court of Quarter 
Sessions in the new territory. " 

One week after the publication of the law creating 
the Court of Quarter Sessions, the act establishing a 
Probate Court was promulgated. On the 6th of Sep- 
tember, 1788, there was published "a law respecting 
crimes and punishments." It defined and provided 
the punishment for treason, murder, manslaughter. 



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94 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

arson, burglary with theft, burglary with personal 
violence, burglary with homicide, robbery, riots and 
unlawful assemblies, perjury, subornation of perjury, 
punishment for obstructing authority, receiving stolen 
goods, larceny, forgery, usurpation, assault and battery, 
and drunkenness, the penalty for the last offense being 
a fine in the sum of five dimes for the first oflFense, 
and for every succeeding oflFense the sum of one dollar, 
and "in either case upon the oflFender's neglecting or 
refusing to pay the fine, he was set in the stocks for 
the space of one hour. ** 

The act also contained the following provisions con- 
cerning the use of improper and profane language: 

"Whereas, Idle, vain and obscene conversation, 
profane cursing and swearing, and more especially the 
irreverently mentioning, calling upon or invoking the 
sacred and Supreme Being, by any of the divine charac- 
ters in which He hath graciously consented to reveal 
His infinitely beneficent purposes to mankind, are 
repugnant to every moral sentiment, subversive of 
every civil obligation, inconsistent with the ornaments 
of polished life, and abhorrent to the principles of the 
most benevolent religion. It is expected, therefore, 
if crimes of this kind should exist, they will find no 
encouragement, countenance or approbation in this terri- 
tory. It is strictly enjoined upon all oflficers and minis- 
ters of justice, upon parents and other heads of families, 
and upon others of every description, that they abstain 
from practices so vile and irrational; and that by 
example and precept, to the utmost of their power, 
they prevent the necessity of adopting and publishing 
laws, with penalties, upon this head. And it is hereby 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 95 

declared that government will consider as unworthy 
its confidence all those who may obstinately violate 
these injunctions. " 

And the following relative to the religious observance 
of the Sabbath: 

"Whereas, Mankind in every stage of informed 
society, have consecrated certain portions of time 
to the particular cultivation of the social virtues, and 
the public adoration and worship of the common 
parent of the universe; and whereas, a practice so 
rational in itself, and conformable to the divine pre- 
cepts, is greatly conducive to civilization and piety; 
and whereas, for the advancement of such important 
and interesting purposes most of the Christian world 
have set apart the first day of the week as a day of rest 
from common labor and pursuits, it is, therefore, 
enjoined that all servile labor, works of necessity and 
charity only excepted, be wholly abstained from on 
that day/* 

Among other important acts which were adopted 
was one directing the building and establishing of a 
courthouse, county jail, pillory, whipping-post, and 
stocks in every county. 

Another subjected real estate to execution for debt. 
In Chase's Statutes appears this footnote: "These 
laws from Chapter 37 to Chapter 74, inclusive, have 
been commonly known to the profession as the * Max- 
well Code.* They were adopted and published in 
Cincinnati in 1795 by Governor St. Clair and Judges 
Synmies and Turner. " 

Another was a law to prevent unnecessary delays 
in causes after issue joined. Still another, limiting 



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96 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

the time of commencing civil actions and instituting 
criminal prosecutions, was passed December 28, 1788. 
"This law," says Chase, "was disapproved by Congress 
May 8, 1792/* Another law on .the same subject 
was adopted in 1795, which was repealed by the Terri- 
torial Legislature as unconstitutional. No law on this 
subject was afterward enacted until 1803, when the 
State Legislature passed an act of limitation. 

An act of special interest to the legal profession of 
the present day regulated the fees of the ofl&cers of 
the court, including attorneys. It allowed a judge in 
the general court, for allowing a writ of error, sixty-two 
and one-half cents; for every supersedeas, thirty-seven 
and one-half cents; the same for taking bail; for taking 
an affidavit, twelve and one-half cents; admitting a 
counsellor-at-law, or attorney, one dollar and twenty- 
five cents; licensing a counsellor-at-law, or attorney, 
three dollars and seventy-five cents. 

The following were some of the fees allowed the 
Attorney-General: Entering every cessal processus or 
nolle prosequi^ for each defendant, sixty-two and one- 
half cents; every indictment, per sheet, eighteen cents; 
fee on trial, three dollars; for trial of every capital 
cause where life was concerned, eight dollars. 

To attorneys in a general court, it allowed for a 
retainer fee, three dollars and fifty cents, but where 
several suits were brought upon one note or bond, no 
more than one retainer fee was allowed; drawing war- 
rant of attorney, twenty-eight cents; drawing of proces- 
sus and returns, twelve and one-half cents; for argument 
on special motion, one dollar and twenty-five cents; while 
to attorneys in the Court of Common Pleas it allowed 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 97 

the following: Drawing warrant of attorney, twelve 
and one-half cents; every motion, twenty-five cents; 
drawing a declaration and other pleadings, per sheet 
containing seventy-two words, twelve and one-half 
cents, and every copy thereof, six cents per sheet. 

This act distinguished between counsellors-at-law 
and attomeys-at-law, and between the practitioner at 
the General Court and the Common Pleas Court. By 
the year 1790, the business of the courts had grown to 
such an extent that an act was passed increasing the 
number of terms of the Common Pleas Court in each 
year from two to four, and the number of Common 
Pleas judges to not less than three or more than seven. 

Other important acts were adopted, such as the act 
regulating marriage, a law for the partition of lands, a 
law respecting divorce, a law authorizing the judges 
to subdivide the counties into townships; and here 
we find for the first time in our judicial history a recog- 
nition of those small political subdivisions. 

The Ordinance of 1787 provided that as soon as it 
was proven that there were five thousand free male 
inhabitants of lawful age in the district, they should be 
authorized to elect representatives to the General Assem- 
bly. How the proof was to be made does not appear, 
but in 1798, Governor St. Clair issued his proclamation 
that the Territory contained the requisite number of 
free male inhabitants, and called upon the people to 
elect representatives, the proportion of representatives 
being one to every five hundred voters; but no one 
could be a Representative unless he had been a citizen 
of the United States for three years and a resident of 



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98 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

the district, or unless he had resided in the district for 
three years, and in either case he must own in fee simple 
two hundred acres of land within his district. 

The General Assembly consisted of the Governor, a 
legislative Council, and a House of Representatives. 
The Council consisted of five members, who held their 
ofiice for five years, unless sooner removed. They 
were selected in the following manner : The representa- 
tives who were elected by the people met at the time 
and place designated by the Governor, and nominated 
ten persons, each of whom was required to be a resident 
of the district and possess a freehold estate in five 
hundred acres of land, and the names of these ten per- 
sons were sent by the representatives to Congress, 
and Congress selected five out of the ten and appointed 
them to serve as members of the Council. The members 
of the Council and House of Representatives met at 
Cincinnati on the i6th of September, 1799, and organ- 
ized the first General Assembly of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, at which time the authority of the Governor and 
judges to adopt and promulgate laws ceased, and the 
Territory was thereafter governed by laws passed by 
the Territorial General Assembly. Edwin Tiffin was 
elected Speaker of the House of Representatives and 
Henry Vanderberg was elected President of the Council. 

In commenting upon the character, ability, and 
general worth of the men who constituted this General 
Assembly, Judge Burnet, in his notes on the Northwest 
Territory, says: "In choosing members to the first 
territorial legislature, the people in almost every 
instance selected the strongest and best men in their 
respective counties. Party influence was scarcely felt, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 99 

and it may be said with confidence that no legislature 
has been chosen under the State government which 
contained a larger proportion of aged, intelligent men 
than were found in that body. Many of them, it is 
true, were unacquainted with the forms and practical 
duties of legislation, but they were strong-minded, 
sensible men, acquainted with the condition and wants 
of the country, and could form correct opinions of the 
operation of any measure proposed for their considera- 
tion/' 

One of the most important duties which devolved 
upon the Assembly was to elect a Representative of the 
Territory to the national Congress. William Henry 
Harrison and Arthur St. Clair, junior, were the candi- 
dates. The former received twelve votes, while the 
latter received ten. Mr. Harrison was accordingly 
declared elected. 

The first act passed at this session of the General 
Assembly was one approving and declaring to be in 
force certain acts which had previously been adopted 
by the judges and the Governor. 

The second act passed — ^which was on the 29th of 
October, 1799 — ^was one regulating the admission and 
practice of attorneys and counsellors-at-law, the first 
section of which provided for the applicant obtaining 
a license to practice, from the Governor of the Territory, 
which admitted him to practice as an attomey-at-law 
according to the laws and customs of said Territory, 
during his good behavior, and authorized him to receive 
such fees as might be established; and required all 
judges, justices, and others concerned to respect him 
accordingly; but he could not receive such license from 



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100 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

the Governor until he had obtained a certificate signed 
by two or more of the judges of the General Court, 
setting forth that he had been regularly examined; 
but before he could be examined, he was required to 
produce a certificate that he had regularly and atten- 
tively studied law under the direction of a practicing 
attorney, residing within the territory for the period 
of four years. This act, like the one adopted by the 
Governor and judges, retained the distinction between 
counsellor and attomey-at-law, and their admission to 
practice at the general term and Court of Common 
Pleas. It gave the judges of the General Court, and 
of the several Common Pleas courts, power to punish 
in a summary way, according to the rules of law and 
the usages of the courts, any and every attorney or 
counsellor-at-law who should be guilty of any contempt 
in the execution of his office, and every attorney or 
counsellor-at-law who received money for the use of 
his client and refused to pay the same when demanded, 
could be proceeded against in a summary way, on 
motion. 

On November 3, 1800, the second session of the first 
General Assembly met at Chillicothe and adjourned on 
the 9th of December following. 

The second General Assembly held its first session 
at Chillicothe, commencing on the 23 d of November, 
1 801, and ending on the 23 d of January, 1802. Edward 
Tiffin was again elected Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and Robert Oliver was elected President of 
the Council. Notwithstanding the Assembly adjourned 
to meet in November following, a second session was 
never held, for the reason that soon after the adjoum- 



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HENRY STANBERY 
Born in New York City, February 20, 1803, and removed 
with his parents to Zanesville, Ohio, in 18 14; graduated 
from Washington College, Pennsylvania; admitted to the 
bar in 1824, and in his early practice was associated with 
the elder Thomas Ewing in Lancaster; became Attorney- 
General of Ohio in 1846; removed to Columbus; 
member of the Constitutional Convention of 1850; re- 
moved to Cincinnati, 1852; Attorney-General of the 
United States under Johnson, 1866-67; resigned that 
office to serve as counsel for the President in the impeach- 
ment trial; afterward iiomiDated for Justice oi the United 
StatCi^ Supreme Court, but not confirmed; died in New 
York City. June 26, 1881. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 101 

ment of the first session a census was taken of the 
population of the Eastern Division of the Territory, 
and it was found that it exceeded forty-five thousand 
persons. Thereupon an appeal was made to Congress 
that the inhabitants of the Eastern Division be author- 
ized to call a Convention and form a Constitution with 
the view of establishing a State Government. Congress 
passed an act authorizing the Convention to be held, 
and as the result, a Constitution was adopted and a 
State formed and admitted into the Federal Union. 

The Convention which framed the first Constitution 
of our State met at Chillicothe on the first Monday of 
November, 1802. It was expeditious in its work, for 
on the 29th of the same month it adjourned, having 
adopted a Constitution without submitting it to the 
people for ratification. Concerning the judiciary it 
contained the following clause: "The judicial power 
of the State, both as to matters of law and equity, 
shall be vested in a Supreme Court, Court of Common 
Pleas for each county, in Justices of the Peace, and in 
such other courts as the Legislature may, from time to 
time, establish." 

It further provided that the Supreme Court should 
consist of three judges, any two of whom should be a 
quorum; that they should be appointed by a joint 
ballot of both houses of the General Assembly, and 
should hold their office for the term of seven years, 
if so long they behaved well. 

The first General Assembly of the State of Ohio 
convened at Chillicothe on Tuesday, March i, 1803. 
On the isth of April following, it passed a general act 
providing for the organization of "Judicial Courts,'* 



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102 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

and abolished all courts which had been established 
during the existence of the Territorial Government. 
During the session, the Convention elected the follow- 
ing State officers: William Creighton, Jr., Secretary 
of State; Thomas Gibson, Auditor; William McFar- 
land, Treasurer — ^while Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., 
Samuel Huntington and William Sprigg were elected 
judges of the Supreme Court, and Francis Dunlevy, 
Wyllys Sillman and Calvin Pease, judges of the Dis- 
trict courts. 

The second General Assembly met on December 
5, 1803. On February 18, 1804, it amended the act 
of the first General Assembly providing for the organi- 
ization of the courts. On the same day it passed an 
act " regulating the duties of Justices of the Peace and 
Constables, in criminal and civil cases,'' making their 
jurisdiction coextensive with their counties in criminal 
matters, and with their townships in civil causes, which 
is still the provision of our statutes. It also prescribed 
the forms which should be used by the justices in their 
practice, and with little, if any change, they are still 
used. 

The business of the courts kept pace with the rapid 
commercial development of the new State and the 
increase in its population. The members of the 
Supreme Court were required to travel the circuit, and 
as there were no carriages or railroads they were com- 
pelled to go on horseback, and in the absence of the 
modem turnpike or even the old corduroy road, the 
journey was undesirable and frequently hazardous. 

For many years the annual salary of a Supreme Judge 
was only eight hundred dollars, but neither the cor- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 103 

duroy roads nor the small salary were permitted to 
stifle the social side of the court, and there is abundant 
evidence that the good nature of the dignified judges 
sometimes manifested itself in ways that were calcu- 
lated to develop social amenities at the expense of judi- 
cial gravity. 

In the preface to Wright's Reports is the following 
statement made by that excellent judge, relative to 
the labors of the Supreme Court at that time: "The 
Supreme Court of Ohio is now composed of four judges, 
the largest number the Constitution permits. The 
Constitution requires a court to be holden once a year in 
each county, and makes any two of the judges a quorum. 
A legislative act imposes upon the judges the duty of 
holding every year a court in banc at the seat of govern- 
ment. ♦ ♦ ♦ The principal result of this organization 
of the court is, that the Supreme Court is generally 
held in the several counties by two judges only. The 
judges relieve one another to suit their own convenience, 
so dividing their labor that each may perform one-half 
of the circuit duty. The duties imposed on this Court 
are so great as to make this relief necessary, for it would 
be difficult to find men of sufficient physical ability to 
participate in all of them. These judges now hold 
court in seventy-two counties each year, requiring 2,250 
miles' travel. The number of cases on their trial 
dockets in 1834 was 1,459. The judges are occupied 
in banc from three to four weeks annually. If that time 
and Sundays are deducted from the year and the 
usual allowance is made for travel, the Court, to clear 
its docket, would be under the necessity of deciding. 



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104 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

on an average, about seven cases a day for each 
remaining day of the year." 

To relieve the pressure upon the courts it became 
necessary to increase the number of Supreme judges 
and to create new Courts of Conmion Pleas. There 
were thirty judges of the Supreme Court under the old 
Constitution, which covered a period of forty-nine years. 
The decisions of the court were not published by legis- 
lative authority and in permanent form until 1823, 
when the first volume of the Ohio Reports was issued. 

The earlier judges who graced our Supreme bench 
were Samuel Huntington, Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., 
William Sprigg, George Tod, Daniel Symmes, Thomas 
Scott, William W. Irwin, Ethan Allen Brown, and 
Calvin Pease, two of whom, Huntington and Meigs, 
were afterward Governor of the State. Following 
these were John McLean, afterward a Cabinet officer 
and a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States; 
Jessup N. Couch and Jacob Burnet, who was 
afterward a United States Senator; and Peter Hitch- 
cock, who occupied the position for twenty-eight 
years — longer than any man before or since his time. 
Then came Charles R. Sherman, the father of the 
General and Senator, who died while on the bench 
at the early age of forty-one. Then Gustavus Swan, 
the uncle of Joseph R. Swan, who was on the same 
bench under the new Constitution; then Elijah Hay- 
ward, John Milton Goodenow, Henry Brush, Reuben 
Wood, and John C. Wright. They were followed by 
Joshua CoUett, Ebenezer Lane, Frederick Grimke, Mat- 
thew Birchard, Nathaniel C. Read, Edward Avery, 
Rufus P. Spaulding, William B. Caldwell, and Rufus P. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 106 

Ranney. These were all able judges, but some of them 
were especially eminent, and their opinions made the 
court distinguished throughout the entire country. But 
the reputation of the bar was equal to that of the bench, 
and many of the greatest lawyers of our State practiced 
under the old Constitution. Among the earlier names 
which became illustrious was that of William Creighton, 
of Chillicothe. He was educated at Dickinson College, 
where he was a fellow-student of the great Taney, 
afterward Chief Justice of the United States. He was 
especially distinguished as a jury lawyer. He served 
many years in Congress, and was an intimate friend 
of Daniel Webster. It has been said that if Mr. 
Webster had reached the Presidency, Mr. Creighton 
would have been a member of his Cabinet. 

Another great member of the Chillicothe bar was 
Benjamin F. Leonard. He was a man of profound 
learning in the law and all kindred subjects. Then 
came a cluster of names which will forever remain 
unsurpassed for their learning, eloquence and wit, 
every element, in fact, that enters into consideration 
in the make-up of a great lawyer. Among them was 
Samuel F. Vinton. Like others who helped to make 
our State illustrious, he was bom in New England. 
He graduated at Williams College and settled in Galli- 
polis in 1816. He was elected a Representative in 
Congress in 1823 and served for fourteen years. He 
was again elected in 1843 and served eight years, in 
all a period of twenty-two years. His greatest legal 
eflfort was his argument in the case of the common- 
wealth against Gamer and others, before the Supreme 
Court of Virginia, in 1845. Peter M. Gamer, Mordecai 



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106 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Thomas and Graydon J. Loraine were citizens of the 
State of Ohio, while John H. Harwood resided in Wood 
county, Virginia, and was the owner of slaves. On 
the 9th of July, 1845, some slaves, intending to escape 
from Harwood, crossed over the Ohio River in a canoe 
to the Ohio shore, where said Gamer, Thomas and 
Loraine met them and were in the act of assisting them 
from the canoe, and up the river bank, when they were 
all arrested, taken to Virginia, imprisoned, and subse- 
quently indicted. As the arrest was made on the Ohio 
side of the river, the only question in the case was, what 
was the extent of Virginia's jurisdiction over the river. 
The case attracted national attention. Mr. Vinton, 
in his argument, claimed that the jurisdiction of Vir- 
ginia did not extend on the north side of the river 
beyond low water mark. He asserted that Virginia 
never had an ownership in the Northwest Territory, 
first, because the charter which King James granted 
in 1609, and which was claimed as the source of Virginia's 
title, did not include land which lay beyond the Ohio, 
or west of the Allegheny Mountains; and, second, if 
the grant was originally broad enough to embrace the 
land lying within the Northwest Territory, the charter 
which the king granted to Virginia had been revoked 
by the Court of King's Bench in 1624, "when a judg- 
ment was rendered against the corporation, canceling 
the patent and ordering the franchises of the charter 
resumed by the crown." 

The argument of Mr. Vinton in this case will always 
be classed among the greatest arguments of the greatest 
American lawyers. As a historical production it was 
overwhelming and absolutely unanswerable. It was 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 107 

delivered to twelve judges, and by a majority of one 
the decision was in his favor. Simeon Nash of Galli- 
polis was also a distinguished lawyer and judge, but his 
reputation chiefly rests upon being the author of Nash's 
Pleadings. William Allen of Chillicothe was another 
man who won his way to distinction at the bar. He after- 
ward was United States Senator and Governor of Ohio, 

Greatest, perhaps, of all, were Thomas Ewing, 
Henry Stanbery, and Thomas Corwin. Whether their 
fame rests wholly upon their distinction at the bar 
or not, it is certain they fill the largest horizon and occu- 
py the greatest places in history of any lawyers that 
our State has produced. Each rose from humble birth 
to a place in the Nation's Cabinet; and, great as they 
all were, each was without a peer in his especial field. 

Ewing's intellect was strong and rugged. He would 
have been a great natural lawyer had he never seen a 
law book, a great logician had he never seen a work on 
logic. Nature made him to be an expounder of the 
law. If his arguments were somewhat devoid of orna- 
ment, it was because they needed no ornament; they 
were too great to be ornate. 

Mr. Stanbery was a broader scholar than Mr. Ewing. 
Mr. Ewing was master of the rough logic of nature, 
while Mr. Stanbery was always equipped in the armor 
of the books. He was a thorough student of the law, 
and always knew the decisions of the courts. Strong 
as he was in this particular, another element of his 
strength was his unrivaled eloquence and the purity 
of his diction. 

Mr. Corwin was not the equal of either Mr. Ewing 
or Mr. Stanbery as a lawyer in the strict sense of that 



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108 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

word. Neither was either of them his equal in his 
special adaptation. It is questionable if he ever had 
a superior as an advocate before a jury. The burning 
eloquence and impassioned oratory with which he 
swayed a popular audience, at one time making his 
hearers weep, in the next convulsing them with laughter, 
and then in an instant filling them with awe at the 
grandeur and sublimity of his rhetoric, were always at 
his command in the trial of a jury cause. 

Among the many members of the legal profession 
who came in an early day to our young State and made 
it their future home and afterward became famous 
lawyers, Salmon P. Chase was the most conspicuous. 
His edition of the Revised Statutes of Ohio was an 
invaluable compilation, and could not have been pre- 
pared by any but the most careful and thorough 
lawyer. It contains a preliminary history of Ohio 
which is the best ever written. The career of this great 
man fully sustained the promise of his early life. He 
was a member of President Lincoln's Cabinet, for 
many years was a conspicuous figure in the Republic, 
and died as the Chief Justice of its Supreme Court, 
the peer of his illustrious predecessors. 

The list of preeminent lawyers who, while their 
services have been given to the public with alacrity 
and frequently in distinguished capacities, have been 
essentially lawyers, preferring the practice of their 
profession to political elevation and even to high judi- 
cial station, would include many who were the peers 
of the ablest statesmen and the most notable and 
sagacious judges. Conspicuous among these for a 
very unusual circumstance was Hocking H. Hunter, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 109 

of Lancaster. Persuaded by the appeals of party- 
friends at a critical time in the Civil War, he accepted 
a nomination for the Supreme bench to lend strength 
to the ticket, was elected, was duly qualified — and then 
promptly resigned his office and returned to practice 
at the bar. George Hoadly, in his early career judge 
of the Superior Court in Cincinnati, afterward twice 
declined appointments as Supreme Judge. Rufus 
King, also of Cincinnati, who stood in the very fore- 
most rank of the profession, served as president of 
the third Constitutional Convention, and would have 
honored any public office, when tendered a place on 
the Supreme bench refused it. Edmond Stafford 
Young, of Dayton, a lawyer and citizen of the finest 
and best type, was proposed for appointment to a 
vacancy in the same court but upon learning of the 
movement in his behalf gave it to be understood that 
he would not accept the place. The late Richard A. 
Harrison, of Columbus, several times declined a like 
oflFer. 

By Moses M. Granger 

The Constitution of 1802 provided for a Supreme 
Court with three judges to be elected by the Legislature 
for terms of seven years, "if they so long behave well*'; 
directed a division of the State into three Common Pleas 
circuits; the election by the Legislature of a president 
judge for each circuit, and of not more than three nor 
less than two associate-judges for each county, for 
terms of seven years "if so long they behave well"; 
and that a competent number of justices of the peace 
should be elected by the qualified voters in each town- 



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no THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

ship in the several counties, to continue in office three 
years. After five years the Legislature was authorized 
to add a fourth judge to the Supreme Court, and to 
increase the number of circuits of the Common Pleas. 
When four Supreme judges should be in oflice, they 
might divide the State into two circuits, within which 
any two judges might hold a court. The Constitution 
directed the Supreme Court to hold a term once a year 
in each county. The Common Pleas terms were fixed 
by the Legislature; three terms each year in each 
county. The associate-judges could hold special terms 
at any time for probate business. 

In 1804 the Legislature added a fourth judge to the 
Supreme Court; in 18 10 it reduced the number to three; 
in 1816 again added a fourth judge. The court con- 
tinued to have that number of judges until on February 
9, 1852, a new court, under the Constitution of 1851, 
began work. The number of Common Pleas circuits 
was from time to time added to as population increased 
and new counties were created. There were twenty 
circuits in 1851. 

In December, 1809, the Governor's message urged the 
Legislature to repeal the act of 1808. He argued that 
under that act only two judges would sit in each county, 
and, if they disagreed, the judgment complained of 
would necessarily be afiirmed by the voice of only one 
judge. In practice this evil seldom, if ever, occurred. 
When the two judges on a circuit disagreed, on motion 
of either counsel they reserved the case for hearing 
and decision by the whole court sitting at the capital 
"in banc," as it was called, pursuant to a statute 
enacted by the General Assembly. 



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: EDMUND STAFFORD YOUNG 
Born in Lyme, Gmftcm county; New Hampshire, 
February 27, 1827; at the age of eight came with his 
parents to Newark, Ohio: was graduated from Farmers' 
(now Belmont) College, College Hill. Ohio, in 1S47, and 
from the Cindnnati Law School in 1853; engaged in 
practke in Dayton, where he resided and was an eminent 
member of the bar and public-spirited citizen rnitil his 
death; chairman of the military committee, appointed 
by the Governor of Ohio in i86i, which had charge of 
recruiting and militaty organization in Montgomery 
county; prominent in connection with the educational 
and dvie interests of Dayton: died in that city. Februarv 
14. 1888. - ^ 




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': r '. ' c;:-;rnu'd by the voice of only v • 

I « • ' r ;*i'<: c\ il s< Ulon:, if ever, occuri 
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! • ." as i: •' . . I, rur^-iar.t to a sta 

:!ieG. * . .\ ■ !v. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 111 

The Constitution of 185 1 provided for a Supreme 
Court of five judges, elected by the people, for terms 
of five years; divided the State into nine Common 
Pleas districts, later increased to ten; each district, 
having more than three counties, contained three sub- 
divisions; each sub-division, by popular vote, chose 
one Judge of Common Pleas for a term of five years. 
Under later legislation in each sub-division additional 
Common Pleas judges were chosen; so that now there 
are eighty judges of said court. 

In each county, each year, one Judge of the Supreme 
Court with the Common Pleas judges of the district 
held one term of a "District Court," which took the 
place of the old " Supreme Court on the Circuit. '* The 
entire Supreme Court were required to hold a term 
beginning each year in January at the capital. A 
probate judge, elected by the people in each county for 
a term of three years, took the place of the associate 
judges. 

In 1873 an amendment of the Constitution authorized 
the Legislature to provide, once in ten years, a Supreme 
Court Commission of five judges, to be nominated by 
the Governor and confirmed by the Senate. Governor 
Hayes appointed the first commission, Josiah Scott, 
William W. Johnson, D. Thew Wright, Thomas 
Q. Ashbum, Henry C. Whitman and Luther Day. 
This commission sat for three years, 1876 to 1879. 
Governor Foster appointed a second commission of 
five judges, who sat from April, 1883, to April, 1885. 
This commission consisted of Moses M. Granger, 
George K. Nash, Franklin J. Dickman, Charles D. Mar- 
tin, and John McCauley. 



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112 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

In 1884 the State was divided into seven circuits, 
in each of which the people elected three circuit judges 
for terms of six years. On February 9, 1885, this court 
took the place of the former District Court. An eighth 
circuit was added in 1887. In 1892 a sixth judge was 
added to the Supreme Court; his term, and the term 
of each judge thereafter chosen for a full term, to con- 
tinue six years. 

Besides the courts named, from 1838 to February, 

1853, one judge elected for seven years by the Legisla- 
ture held the Superior and Commercial Court of Cin- 
cinnati; from 1848 to February, 1853, a like judge 
held the Superior Court of Cleveland; from April, 

1854, a Superior Court of the city of Cincinnati has 
been held by three judges chosen by the city voters 
for terms of five years; from July I, 1856, to July i, 
1886, one judge — chosen by the voters of Montgomery 
county for a five year term — held the Superior Court 
of Montgomery county; from March, 1857, to April, 
1865, a like judge, chosen by the voters of Franklin 
county, held the Superior Court of Franklin county; 
and from March, 1852, to May, 1854, a like judge, 
chosen by the voters of Hamilton county, held the 
Criminal Court of Hamilton county. 

Besides ordinary probate jurisdiction, the Probate 
Court in each county had been clothed with power 
in many cases and proceedings not requiring a jury, with 
jurisdiction of jury cases for appropriation of property 
for public use, and with considerable minor criminal 
jurisdiction. 

The act of April 15, 1803, directed the Governor to 
commission one of the three judges elected by the 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 113 

General Assembly "chief judge/' and provided that 
the other two, and all future judges, should have pre- 
cedence according to the respective dates of their com- 
missions: when more than one commission was of 
the same date, the judges to rank according to their 
respective ages. 

The act of February 7, 183 1, Vol. 29, p. 56, gave 
precedence according to date of commission, but 
provided that any judge reelected for two or more 
terms in succession, should rank as of the date of his 
first commission; where two or more held commis- 
sions of the same date, they took rank according to 
their respective ages. The judge entitled to precedence 
over all others to be styled chief judge of said court. 

The act of February 19, 1852, Vol. 50, p. 67, provided 
that the Judge of the Supreme Court having the shortest 
time to serve (he not holding by appointment or elec- 
tion to fill a vacancy) should be the presiding or chief 
judge of said court. 

The act of 1892, Vol. 89, p. 318, authorized the Court 
to divide itself into two divisions, each composed of 
three judges. The two judges having the shortest time 
to serve (not holding by appointment or election to 
fill a vacancy) shall preside in their respective divisions 
at all terms thereof. In case of the absence of either, 
the judge holding the next shortest term shall preside. 
The elder in service of the two chief justices shall pre- 
side at a sitting of the whole court. 

The commissions chose their own chief judges. 
Judge Josiah Scott, so chosen in February, 1876, de- 
clined to act. Judge Luther Day served during that 
year, and Judge William W. Johnson during term from 



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114 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

February, 1877, to February, 1879. Judge Moses M. 
Granger, twice chosen by the unanimous vote of his 
four associates, served from April 17, 1883, to April 
17, 1885. As his business required his presence in 
Zanesville a part of every week, by agreement the 
second commission took a recess from noon of every 
Friday until noon of Monday, each judge doing a 
full week's work. 

The statutes now require the Supreme Court to hold 
an annual term beginning on the Tuesday after the 
first Monday in January, at Columbus, Ohio. It may 
hold special or adjourned terms at such times and 
places as the judges or a majority of them shall, from 
time to time, determine; but if held elsewhere than 
in Columbus thirty days* notice of time and place must 
be published in Columbus newspapers. 

It is not now easy to picture for ourselves in thought 
the Ohio judiciary as they administered justice during 
the first decades of Ohio life. Many of them had been 
bom and educated in the "Old Thirteen States"; some 
had graduated at Yale College and studied law at the 
noted law school of Judge Reeve in Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut; while others were almost self-made as students 
of the law. Within all Ohio, in those early years, the 
aggregate of law books did not number so many as may 
now be found in each leading law office in our county 
towns. Every lawyer judge traveled many hundreds 
of miles each year upon a circuit in which the best roads 
were very poor, and the most of them often impassable 
on wheels. The president judge of the Third (then the 
Eastern) Circuit, began at Warren, Trumbull county, 
on the second Tuesday in March, and ended at Zanes- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 116 

ville, Muskingum county, as soon after the fourth 
Tuesday in December as the docket there would per- 
mit; but next, before going to Zanes ville, he had to 
sit at Marietta. If you look at the map you can trace 
him from Warren in Trumbull via New Lisbon in 
Columbiana, Steubenville in Jefferson, St. Clairsville 
in Belmont, and Marietta in Washington, to Zanesville 
in Muskingum. Although the Ohio River bounded 
four of his counties, and a passage by boat was some- 
times had, the navigation was too irregular to be 
relied upon. The president judges in the First and 
Second circuits rode about equal distances. While 
the Supreme judges numbered only three, their travel 
carried them once a year to every county in each of 
the three circuits. Members of the county bar traveled 
with, or met, the judges and lodged with, or near, them 
during term. The saddle bags carried Ohio Statutes, 
then small in bulk, Blackstone's Commentaries; some- 
times Coke or Littleton; sometimes a volume or two 
of an English law or equity report; and a small "vade 
mecum" legal treatise, the name of which is now known 
to few of our profession. 

Such a life made these judges thinkers. If riding 
alone, each had ample time and temptation to beguile 
the tedium of slow travel by putting to himself legal 
cases, questions and problems, and solving them upon 
principle. If in company of other judges, or lawyers, 
each would try to test or puzzle his companions, or 
to find entertainment, or profit, in discussing legal diffi- 
culties in which he, or his clients, were interested. 

Out of this life those who were blessed with legal 
ability and judicial minds grew to be great judges, 



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116 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

during many years upon the bench caused right and 
justice to prevail within their jurisdictions, and left be- 
hind them, among lawyers and people, high reputations 
for ability and integrity. 

Space permits only mention of one of these. On 
February lo, 1810, when thirty-five legislative votes 
reelected Francis Dunlevy, president judge of the First, 
or Cincinnati Circuit, of the Common Pleas, John 
McLean had thirty-three votes. On February 17, 
1 8 16, McLean was chosen, by the Legislature, one of 
four Supreme judges, and sat upon our Ohio State 
Bench until 1822. Then President Monroe asked him 
to be the commissioner of the general land office. In 
1823 the same President made him Postmaster-General, 
in which oflSce President John Quincy Adams continued 
him until 1829. Then President Jackson nominated 
him a justice of the United States Supreme Court. 
His great service there for thirty-two years was ended 
by his death in 1861. He was one of those to whom I 
have referred as almost self-made lawyers and judges. 

He was born in Morris county. New Jersey, on the 
nth day of March, 1785. In 1789 his father, a poor 
man with a large family, removed to the West, stopping 
first in Morgantown, Virginia, thence going to Nicholas- 
ville, Kentucky, and finally, in 1799, settled on a farm 
in Warren county, Ohio. John worked on the farm 
until sixteen years old, then received private instruc- 
tion in the classics for two years, and, at eighteen, went 
to Cincinnati to study law. Meanwhile he supported 
himself by writing in the county clerk's office. In 1807 
he was admitted to the bar and began practice at Leb- 
anon, Warren county. From 1813 to 1816 he repre- 



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JOHN McLEAN 
Bom in Morris county, New Jersey, March ii, 1785; 
at the age of ten removed with his parents to Warren 
county, Ohio; admitted to the bar, 1807, and began prac- 
tice in Lebanon; member of Congress from the Cincinnati 
-d aat riet, !Si3-i6j Judge of the Ohio bnprtme Cotirt, 1816- 
22; Commissioner of the General Land Office of the United 
States, 1822; Postmaster-General imder Presi^knts Mon- 
roe and John Quincy Adams, 1S2J-29 ; Justice of the United 
States Supreme Courts 1829-61; died in Cincinnati, 
April 4, 1861, 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 117 

sented the Cincinnati district in Congress. In the 
latter year, at the age of thirty-one, he took his seat 
on the Supreme Bench of Ohio. 

My study of the courts of those days was embar- 
rassed by the fact that Ohio made no provision for 
publishing reports of cases decided in her courts until 
about 1824. The first official volume — First Ham- 
mond (Ohio) Reports, — published in 1824, begins with 
a case decided on the circuit in August, 1821, and con- 
tains only six cases decided prior to December term, 
1823. Benjamin Tappan, who was then president 
judge of the then Fifth Circuit from 1816 to 1823, after- 
ward published a small volume now known and referred 
to in our Ohio Digests as "Tappan's Report." 

However, public records and a few references by one 
or two Ohio writers of history, show how, in its earliest 
years, the judiciary of Ohio maintained its constitu- 
tional position as a department of the State Government 
and thereby preserved the Constitution itself from being 
converted into a cipher. 

At the session begun in December, 1805, the Legisla- 
ture passed an act relating to justices of the peace. 
Its fifth section so far extended their jurisdiction that 
no party to a suit in which more than twenty and not 
more than fifty dollars was in dispute could obtain 
a trial by jury. The twenty-ninth section provided 
that if any plaintiff suing on original writ in the Com- 
mon Pleas did not recover more than fifty dollars, he 
must pay his own costs. In 1807, Calvin Pease, sitting 
as president judge in the Common Pleas in Belmont 
and also in Jefferson, held said provisions of said 
sections unconstitutional and declared them null and 



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118 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

void, because Section 8, Article 8, Ohio Constitution 
read, **The right of trial by jury shall be inviolate/' 
In the Supreme Court, to which one or more of said 
cases had been duly carried, the voices of Samuel 
Huntington and George Tod, judges, affirmed the rul- 
ings made by Judge Pease. When the General Assem- 
bly met at Chillicothe in December, 1807, the then 
acting Governor (Thomas Kirker, the Speaker of the 
Senate) in his message related said decisions and recom- 
mended that the Legislature make suitable provision 
for the trial of actions in which the issues concerned 
values between twenty and more than fifty dollars. 
The House at once referred the matter to a special com- 
mittee. On January 4, 1808, it passed a resolution re- 
ported by said committee, reading thus: 

^^Resolvedj That the judges of the State are not 
authorized by the Constitution to set aside an act of the 
Legislature by declaring the same unconstitutional and 
void.'^ 

The vote was ayes 18, noes 12. Although the com- 
mittee continued to consult, no further action was had 
at that session. On December 23, 1808, the House 
adopted resolutions impeaching Judge Pease by a vote 
of 35 to 11; and on the next day similar ones impeach- 
ing Judge Tod by 34 to 9. Judge Huntington, in 
October, 1808, had been elected Governor, and had 
resigned his judgeship in order to enter upon his new 
office; so no resolution against him was presented. 

The House directed Thomas Morris, Joseph Sharpe, 
James Pritchard, Samuel Marrett and Othniel Looker 
to act as managers of the prosecution during the trial 
before the Senate. Judge Pease at once filed answer 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 119 

admitting his decisions, averring that they were fully 
supported by constitutional law, and that it was his 
official duty to decide and adjudge as he had done, 
and pleading "not guilty." Judge Tod did the like. 
The Senate sat as a court of impeachment from within 
the last week in December until the end of the first 
week in February, 1809, but not continuously, nor for 
a whole day at a time, and then acquitted both judges. 
The question involved was new to lawyers and people. 
Before 1630, in England, Lord Chief Justice Coke had 
said: "When an act of Pariiament is against com- 
mon reason, or repugnant, or impossible to be per- 
formed, the common law controls it and adjudges 
said act to be void"; and about 1690 Lord Chief 
Justice Holt, quoting this, added, "Lord Coke said not 
an extravagant but a reasonable saying." These 
utterances had remained buried in old, seldom examined 
books. Few men living and acting in English America 
between 1775 and 1808 had any knowledge of them. 
Happily Judge Pease was among those few. The 
general impression was that an act of Pariiament or 
of a Legislature overrode the courts and could only be 
neutralized by amendment, repeal or revolution. The 
Supreme Court of the United States, prior to 1807, 
had decided cases in each of which the constitutionality 
of a statute of the United States or of the State of Con- 
necticut had been questioned, but had adjudged said 
statutes constitutional. At February term, 1808, in 
the case of the United States vs. Judge Peters, 5 Cranch's 
Reports, pages 115 to 141, Chief Justice Marshall, the 
entire court concurring, adjudged an act passed by 
the Legislature of Pennsylvania in April, 1803, uncon- 



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120 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

stitutional and void. The case is of interest in consider- 
ing the Ohio impeachment cases of 1808-9. In 
January, 1803, Richard Peters, United States district 
judge for Pennsylvania, in a suit fully within the juris- 
diction of his court, had made a decree distributing the 
proceeds of a judicial sale of the cargo of the ship 
"Active." In 1803 the Legislature of Pennsylvania 
passed an act declaring the decree so made by the 
United States Court invalid, and directing the Attorney- 
General of the State to require payment of said sale 
moneys into the State Treasury, and in case of refusal 
to sue for them in a State Court. Said act also " author- 
ized and required the Governor of Pennsylvania to pro- 
tect the just rights of the State, in respect of the premises 
by any further means and measures that he may deem 
necessary for the purpose, and also to protect the 
persons and properties of the defendants, Elizabeth 
Sargeant and Esther Waters, for any process whatever 
issued out of any Federal Court in consequence of 
their obedience to the requisition, so as aforesaid 
directed to be made to them by the Attorney-General 
of this commonwealth." The moneys ordered dis- 
tributed by Judge Peters's decree were in custody of 
said two ladies as executrixes of their father, David 
Rittenhouse. The persons entitled, under the decree, 
to the moneys, applied to Judge Peters to issue the 
proper process to enforce payment according to his 
decree. This he declined to do. Then they applied 
to and obtained from the Supreme Court of the 
United States a mandamus to compel the judge to issue 
the process. Judge Peters, in his answer to the writ, 
said: "From prudential more than other motives, I 



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RUPUS KING 
Bom in Chillicothe, Ohio, May 30, 1 8i 7 ; graduated from 
Harvard University and in 1841 admitted to the bar; 
practiced in Cincinnati, where he was a prefoiinent citizen, 
actively identified with the interests of education and cul- 
ture; declined appointment by Governor Brough, 1864, 
as Judge of the Ohio Supreme Court; succeeded Morrison 
R. Waite as president of the third Constitutional Conven- 
ti<Hi, 1874; died in Cincinnati, March 23, 1891. I 




i 




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JiiK lUSK AM) PRor.: 



^dSt ,d%tsaitL iom«M(>a.Yi*;tf»»toi<Ki4eiHnMf*h4l¥nii. ; 
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■ • . .' iiivzlij, a'. J ,1'r'". lirg the Attorn' ■. 
rr t.' T" yjirr r\:yn;.'i.t of. said :=. 
. •-. ^ ■ '1 ■' -■ r; , and in ca.^c. of retu 
- -^' :' V . .-:*. Said act also "auth'; 
"•.fC.f. '•• r CMM\-nnsyh a'nia to pit- 
' '■ ' ' . ip. rc^^pcct of thcprcnll^c 
• t^Mr(*s tliat h^ may decrr: 
, vtud al ' » t'") protect th^* 
' the dcf.ndauts, Eli/.abe:h 
• Ts, for an}' yrcn ess whatever 
. . A C/oiirt in consequence ( ' 

. . ' r^ .: :isiti(..n, so as aforesau! 

dire *" 'ium by the Attorney-Genera: 

of {^ ':/' The nione\s ordered dio- 

■,:"•• . 1 . ,,\ (h:cree were in custody of 

i-.ti] . V* ,.uirixes of their father, David 

11/;. . : persons entith^i, under the decree, 

U'i t- *. , ai'plied to Judt'c P(?ters to issue the 

p-:-\- • : ' ::> to cn^oH c pavmcnt according to his 
' .: ' I...S he d'\'irii«.d to do. Then they applied 
" •• . ' obtain', ti f: •. *'ie Supreme Court of the 
Mates a ma:.i. . -.in -mpel tlie jutlge to issue 

'\ss. Jud^e !''':• '. ,.1 his answer to the writ, 
"!'>•. m prudcn ..I n.ore than other motives, I 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 121 

deemed it best to avoid embroiling the government of 
the United States and that of Pennsylvania (if the 
latter government should choose to do so), on a ques- 
tion which has rested on my single opinion, so far as 
it is touched by my decree; and under the influence 
of this sentiment I have withheld the process required. 
I entertained a hope that a Legislature succeeding that 
by which the act before mentioned was passed, would, 
under a more temperate view of the subject, have 
repealed it, and enabled and directed the executive of 
the state, or some other authority, to put this case 
in legal train of investigation; so that the final judg- 
ment and decree of the superior tribunal of the United 
States might have been in a proper course obtained." 
The timidity of Judge Peters had delayed for five 
years the enforcement of a valid judicial decree. As 
the opinion of the Supreme Court of the nation was 
not delivered until after January, 1808, the Ohio judges 
acted in 1806 and 1807 without its aid. In August, 
1806, in an infant State, amid the yet thinly settled 
woodlands of eastern Ohio, Calvin Pease, holding 
Common Pleas Court at St. Clairsville and at Steuben- 
ville, far from libraries, thought out the question. In 
1 807 Huntington and Tod affirmed his judgment. Not- 
withstanding excitement, the House consulted for 
almost one year before reporting articles of impeach- 
ment, although three-fourths of the body thought the 
judges guilty. The Senate gave more than one month 
to hearing and consideration. Itself a member of the 
legislative body, it in effect decided that the judicial 
power could annul a statute because it contravened the 
Constitution. 



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122 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

The leaders in the attempt to impeach Judges Tod 
and Pease were among the ablest of the Ohioans of 
that time. One of the managers, Thomas Morris, was 
subsequently elected a Supreme Judge, later a United 
States Senator. Thomas Worthington, an earnest 
supporter of the charges, served for years as United 
States Senator, and later as Governor of the State. Dur- 
ing 1 807-8-9-10, the excitement in political quarters 
was intense. The impeaching resolutions were voted 
for by more than three-fourths of the House. The 
acquittal did not for more than a year destroy this 
intense feeling. Although the supporters of impeach- 
ment did not elect as large a majority in the House of 
1809-10 as they held in that of 1808-9, ^^7 were able 
in January, 18 10, to pass what was known as "The 
Sweeping Resolution. *' This vacated the offices of 
all the then judges of the Supreme Court, all president 
judges of the Common Pleas circuits, and all the 
associate-judges of Common Pleas in every county. 
It also vacated the offices of Secretary of State, 
Auditor of State, and Treasurer of State. Another 
act provided for the election of new justices of the 
peace in every township. 

This exercise of legislative power evidently " relieved 
the pressure." How did the people treat the accused 
judges? In October, 1808, the people elected Judge 
Huntington Governor of the State; in October, 18 10, 
Trumbull county sent Judge Tod to the State Senate; 
in February, 18 10, the Legislature gave twenty-eight 
votes for Judge Tod for president judge of Common 
Pleas, and in 18 16 and 1823 elected and reelected him 
to that office, in which he served for fourteen years; 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 123 

in 1812 Trumbull county sent Judge Pease to the 
State Senate; and the State Legislature in 18 15 and 
1822 elected and reelected him a judge of the Supreme 
Court, where he served for fourteen years. 

Ohio should always be proud of the conduct of her 
sons in this controversy. But she should award the 
laurel for that battle to her judiciary. They preserved 
the State Constitution. Unless the courts can make 
null a legislative act not authorized by the Constitution, 
that Constitution would be valueless, because its pro- 
visions could not be enforced against the will of a 
bare majority in each house of the Legislature. Brief 
sketches of the three judges who so served the State, 
will be of interest. 

Calvin Pease was bom in Suffield, Connecticut, 
September 9, 1776; studied law with Gideon Granger 
(who was Postmaster-General from 1801 to 1814), and 
married his preceptor's sister; was admitted to the 
Connecticut bar in 1798, and to our Territorial bar 
at Marietta in October, 1800, where and when George 
Tod and Samuel Huntington were also admitted. On 
April 10, 1803, the Legislature elected him president 
judge of Common Pleas for the Third Circuit. He 
served until March 4, 18 10, when he resigned. As 
already stated, he sat as a Supreme Judge of Ohio 
from 1 8 16 to 1830, maintaining and deserving high 
reputation for ability, integrity and knowledge of legal 
principles. In person he was tall and well-made; in 
temperament, cheerful and agreeable. Tradition tells 
that he was noted also for his wit. 

George Tod was born in SuflSeld, Connecticut, Decem- 
ber II, 1773; graduated at Yale in 1795; studied law 



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124 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

at Judge Reeve's famous school in Litchfield, Connecti- 
cut, and became a member of the bar of that State. 
He came to Ohio, and was, as already stated, admitted 
to the bar at Marietta in October, 1800, and at once 
became prosecuting attorney of Trumbull county. He 
served as State Senator from Trumbull county in 
1804-5 ; ^^d ^8 Supreme Judge from 1806 to 18 10; 
again as State Senator in 1810-11. Was major and 
later colonel of the 19th Ohio Militia regiment in 18 12- 
13-14, and served with credit at Fort Meigs and at 
Sackett's Harbor; sat as president judge of Common 
Pleas in the Third Circuit from 1815 to 1829. He died 
October 11, 1841. He was the father of David Tod, 
the war Governor of Ohio, who was elected by 55,223 
majority in October, 1861, and effectively supported 
President Lincoln during his entire term. 

Samuel Huntington was bom in Norwich, Connecti- 
cut, in 1765; graduated at Yale in 1795; practiced law 
at Norwich; was sent by owners of Western Reserve 
lands to examine their property; decided to live in Ohio; 
was admitted to the bar at Marietta in 1800; repre- 
sented Trumbull county in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1802; represented the same county in the State 
Senate, 1803-4; was elected Supreme Judge April 2, 
1803, and served until the fall of 1808, when he resigned 
in order to qualify as Governor of the State, in which 
high position he served two years. He died in February, 
1 817, at Painesville, Ohio. His family was old and of 
high repute in eastern Connecticut. He was worthy 
of his parentage, and deserved and faithfully discharged 
the trusts awarded him by clients, by his fellow-legisla- 
tors, and by the people. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 126 

For almost half a century, from April, 1803, to 
February, 1852, beside each lawyer president judge of 
Common Pleas in each county, sat two or three ** asso- 
ciate-judges" — ^laymen, — elected by the Legislature for 
terms of seven years. This office had been adopted 
from Pennsylvania. These associate-judges formed a 
necessary part of the court at all times, and alone — 
as a general thing — transacted all business pertaining 
to an Orphans' or Probate Court. Each of them had 
a right to vote upon every decision — each of their votes, 
being equal to that of the lawyer president judge. 

In 1847 the president judge of the Muskingum Cir* 
cuit was disabled by sickness for a full year. He wished 
to resign, but the bar insisted that he should continue 
in office. So for that year the associate-judges held 
all the terms. As there was only one lawyer judge in 
each circuit, no substitute for Judge Richard Stillwell 
could be obtained. The associates also sat alone in 
cases in which the president judge had been of counsel 
or was otherwise interested. 

At the last term in Muskingum, under the old Con- 
stitution, in January, 1852, a question arose that 
resulted in an overruling of the opinion of the president 
judge by his associates. Numerous indictments under 
the liquor law of 1851 had been presented by the Grand 
Jury. The prosecuting attorney, who for many sub- 
sequent years was a distinguished lawyer, and served a 
full term as judge, had omitted a certain negative 
averment. Judge Corrington W. Searle, deciding a 
motion to quash one of the indictments, and following 
what had become a custom when such a question had 
been submitted, announced an opinion sustaining the 



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126 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

motion as the judgment of the court without consulting 
either of his associates; and, the noon hour having 
arrived, ordered a recess. The question involved had 
been much discussed, not only in court but among the 
people, and temperance men were anxious that the 
prosecutions should be sustained. When court opened, 
in the afternoon. Judge Horatio J. Cox gave an opinion 
against the motion to quash. Judge Wilkin Reed then 
did the like. Judge Searle then said, "The Court 
being divided in opinion, the motion is overruled.'* 
Hearing this. Judge Jacob P. Springer added, " I agree 
with the associate-judges.'' Judge Searle docketed 
the decision, and soon after declared the court adjourned 
sine die; and the old court, with the old Constitution, 
was dead. The question involved survived. Judge 
Richard Stillwell, during his first term under the new 
Constitution, decided as the associates had done, but 
the Supreme Court, three judges concurring, agreed 
with Judge Searle and reversed Judge Stillwell. 

The list of associate-judges contains the names of 
many men well known for their experience, good sense, 
good judgment and integrity. For forty-nine years 
they administered the laws regulating the administra- 
tion of estates, partition of lands, etc., sensibly and 
justly. 

The decisions of Judges Pease, Tod and Huntington, 
as already stated, made our State Constitution safe from 
injury at the will of bare legislative majorities. The 
unfortunate blunder made by the refusal of the Consti- 
tutional Convention to vest in the Governor a qualified 
veto power, compelled the courts to determine countless 
questionings about legislative action. The number 



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CALVIN PEASE 
Born in Suffield, Connecticut, September 9, 1776; 
admitted to the Connecticut bar in 1798 and to the 
Ohio Territorial bar at Marietta in 1800; president Judge 
of Common Pleas for the third circuit, 1803-10; Supreme 
Judge, 1816-30; died in Warren, Ohio, September 17, 1839. 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 127 

of statutes and parts of statutes, denied validity by 
Ohio courts within the century, may be computed by 
the hundred. As no court could interfere to protect 
the citizen until action duly brought and submitted, 
the people of Ohio have been wronged by so-called 
statutes. It became a well known and recognized 
usage for judiciary committees in each House to 
report "without recommendation" bills whose uncon- 
stitutionality was evident, and for the House to pass 
them, leaving the courts when duly invoked to prevent 
further injury to the people. 

Another question of vast importance was presented 
to the Ohio judiciary. "By what tribunal, if any, 
could final decisions be made between state and 
national authority?" 

In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, a Virginia 
member offered a resolution reading: 

"A national judiciary ought to be established with 
jurisdiction to hear and determine cases in which 
foreigners and citizens, a citizen of one State and a 
citizen of another State, may be interested; cases which 
respect the collection of the national revenue, impeach- 
ments of national officers, and questions which involve 
the national peace and harmony." 

The Convention adopted it by a unanimous vote, 
and so worded Article III. of the National Constitution 
as to vest "the judicial power of the United States in 
one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as 
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish"; 
and to provide that "The judicial power shall extend 
to all cases, in law and equity arising under the Consti- 
tution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, 



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128 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

or which shall be made under their authority; to all 
cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to con- 
troversies to which the United States shall be a party; 
to controversies between two or more states; between a 
State and citizens of another State; between citizens 
of different states; between citizens of the same State, 
claiming lands under grant of different states, and be- 
tween a State, or the citizens thereof and foreign states, 
citizens, or subjects; in all cases affecting ambassadors, 
other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a 
State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before 
mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate 
jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such excep- 
tions and under such regulations as the Congress shall 
make.'' 

The Eleventh amendment to the National Constitu- 
tion provided: 

"The judiciary power of the United States shall not 
be construed to extend to any suit, in law or equity, 
commenced or prosecuted, against one of the United 
States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or 
subjects of any foreign State." 

By express provision the National Constitution 
extended the jurisdiction of the national courts to 
all cases and controversies above enumerated, except 
suits brought against any State by citizens of another 
State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State; 
and also by express provision authorized Congress to 
regulate the "Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme 
Court.'* 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 129 

Unless an act of Congress should provide for bring- 
ing the final judgment of a State Court, rendered in 
any of said enumerated cases, or controversies, into the 
national Supreme Court for review, much of Article 
III. would be made of no effect. 

Therefore, Congress made what is now Section 709, 
Revised Statutes of the United States, a law "of the 
land." 

A final judgment, or decree, in any suit in the highest 
court of a State, in which a decision in the suit could 
be had, where is drawn in question the validity of a 
treaty, or statute of, or an authority exercised under, 
the United States, and the decision is against their 
validity; or where is drawn in question the validity of 
a statute of, or an authority exercised under any State, 
on the ground of their being repugnant to the Constitu- 
tion, treaties, or laws of the United States, and the 
decision is in favor of their validity; or where any title, 
right, privilege, or immunity is claimed under the 
Constitution, or any treaty, or statute of, or commis- 
sion held or authority exercised under, the United States 
and the decision is against the title, right, privilege, 
or immunity specially set up or claimed, by either party, 
under such Constitution, treaty, statute, commis- 
sion or authority, may be reexamined, and reversed 
or afiirmed in the Supreme Court upon a writ of error. 
The writ shall have the same effect as if the judgment 
or decree complained of had been rendered or passed, 
in a court of the United States; and the proceeding 
upon the reversal shall be the same, except that the 
Supreme Court may, at their discretion, proceed to a 
final decision of the case and award execution, or remand 



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130 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

the same to the court from which it was removed. The 
Supreme Court may reaffirm, reverse, modify or affirm 
the judgment or decree of such State court, and may, 
at their discretion, award execution or remand the same 
to the court from which it was removed by the writ. 
In Woodward vs. Dartmouth College, 4 Wheaton 
R. 518, the Supreme Court of the nation held that 
"the charter of a private corporation is in nature of 
a contract between the State and the corporation, and 
no material change can be made in such act of incor- 
poration, unless with the assent of the corporation, 
unless said power of change was reserved.'' In Ohio 
vs. Commercial Bank of Cincinnati, 7 Ohio (Hammond) 
Part I, page 125, Ohio Supreme Court, by the voices 
of Chief Justice Peter Hitchcock and Justices Ebenezer 
Lane and John C. Wright (Judge Joshua CoUett dis- 
senting), followed the ruling of the United States 
Supreme Court, and adjudged that the State could 
not collect from the bank a larger tax than its charter 
reserved. This was "Ohio Doctrine" until Bank v. 
Knoup, Treasurer, i Ohio State Rep. 603, decided in 
1853 by Judge John A. Corwin, Chief Justice William 
B. Caldwell, and Judges Thomas W. Bartley, Allen 
G. Thurman, and Rufus P. Ranney concurring, over- 
ruled the old court. The last case was taken to the 
Supreme Court of the United States, which, in 1856, 
by the voices of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney and Jus- 
tices John McLean, James M. Wayne, Samuel Nelson, 
Robert C. Grier, and Benjamin R. Curtis (Justices 
John Catron, Peter V. Daniel, and John A. Campbell 
dissenting), reversed the Ohio Court of 1853 ^^d 
approved the old case in 7 Ohio Rep. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 131 

Pursuant to the act of Congress the national 
Supreme Court issued to the Ohio Supreme Court a 
mandate reversing the judgment of 1853 and ordering 
that court to enter and enforce said decree of reversal. 

A motion to enter said mandate was submitted at 
December term, 1856. Judge Joseph R. Swan, having 
been of counsel for the bank in the case prior to his 
election as judge, did not sit. Judge Josiah Scott, 
with whom concurred Judges Jacob BrinkerhoflF and 
Ozias Bowen, held: 

"The questions arising in this case, and the opinion 
of this court upon them, were such as to bring it within 
the cognizance and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, unless we assume that that tri- 
bunal has no jurisdiction to review any decisions what- 
ever of the State Courts, or questions relating to the 
conflict of a State law with the Constitution of the 
United States. 

*TTie theory upon which such a position must rest 
a majority of this court is not prepared to adopt. We 
do not mean to say that in case of clear usurpation by 
the Supreme Court of the United States, of an authority 
and jurisdiction wholly unwarranted by the Federal 
Constitution, it would not be competent for this court, 
as a court of last resort in a sovereign state, to decline 
obedience to a mandate issued in the exercise of such 
usurped jurisdiction. But no such case is before us. 
On the contrary, the jurisdiction here claimed has been 
constantly exercised by the Supreme Court of the United 
States ever since the organization of the general govern- 
ment, with the general acquiescence of the State courts. 



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132 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

In conformity, then, with what has heretofore been the 
uniform practice in this State, we direct the mandate 
to be entered. " 

Judge Thomas W. Bartley, on pages 343 and 344 of 
6th Ohio State Reports, worded the syllabi of his dis- 
senting opinion thus: 

"The provision of the Constitution of the United 
States expressly conferring appellate jurisdiction on 
the Supreme Court does not authorize the exercise of 
appellate power to that tribunal over the State Courts, 
but extends simply to appeal from the subordinate 
Federal courts. 

"There is no provision in the Constitution from which 
a supervising power in the Supreme Court of the 
United States over the State courts can be derived by 
way of incident or implication. 

"The Supreme Court of the United States has not 
been constituted the exclusive tribunal of last resort, 
to determine all controversies in relation to conflicts 
of authority between the Federal Government and the 
several states of the Union. 

"The State courts and the Federal courts are coordi- 
nate tribunals, having concurrent jurisdiction in numer- 
ous cases, but neither having a supervising power over 
the other; and where the jurisdiction is concurrent, the 
decision of that court, or rather of the courts of that 
judicial system, in which jurisdiction first attaches, is 
final and conclusive as to the parties. " 

Judge Bartley filled Volume 6 of Ohio State Reports 
from page 343 to page 448 in an attempt to support 
his said syllabi. 



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JOSEPH ROCKWELL SWAN 
Bom in Oneida county, New York, December 28, 1802; 
admitted to the bar in Columbus, Ohio; Prosecuting Attor- 
ney of Franklin county, 1830-34; president Judge of the 
twelfth circuit, 1834-45; member of the second Ohio 
Constitutional Convention; Judge of the State Supreme 
Court, i855-(xj; Qi>i;il>lc legal author; dlixl in Columbus, 
December 18, 18S4. 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 133 

But he does not attempt to explain how the judicial 
power of the United States can be made to extend to 
and include all cases enumerated in Article III. of the 
national Constitution, unless its cqurts can draw to 
them and reexamine judgments and decrees of State 
courts that deny to citizens of the United States some 
right given or secured by that Constitution; or attempt 
to enforce some State enactment that is in violation 
of the Constitution. 

Happily, the majority of the court maintained the 
true doctrine and held Ohio firmly within constitutional 
moorings. If the dissenting judge could have had his 
way, five years before South Carolina led the way 
into insane civil war, our State would have forbidden 
the enforcement within her limits of all United States 
laws and judgments not approved by a majority of 
our State Supreme Court. 

Three years later — at Columbus in May, 1859 — ^^e 
Ohio Supreme Court, amid intense popular excitement, 
once more saved our State. 

Paragraph 3 of Section 2 of Article IV. of the National 
Constitution reads: 

"No person held to service or labor in one State, 
under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, 
in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be 
discharged from such service or labor, but shall be 
delivered up on claim of the party to whom such serv- 
ice or labor may be due.'' 

To enforce this constitutional provision Congress 
passed the act of February 12, 1793, approved by Presi- 
dent Washington, and the act of September 18, 1850, 
approved by President Fillmore. The Supreme Court 



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134 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

of the United States, in Prigg. v. Pennsylvania, i6 
Peters 539, in 1842, unanimously decided that the law 
of 1793 was constitutional; and in 1858, in Ableman v. 
Booth, 21 Howard, U. S. Reports 506, held the act of 
1850 constitutional in all of its provisions, the whole 
court concurring. On April 15, 1859, Simon Bushnell 
was found guilty under an indictment framed under 
the act of 1850, and was sentenced by the United States 
District Court at Cleveland, Ohio, to sixty days' im- 
prisonment in the jail of Cuyahoga county from and 
after May 11, 1859, and to pay a fine of $600 and the 
costs of prosecution. 

Counsel for Bushnell applied to the Ohio Supreme 
Court at Columbus, and a writ of habeas corpus brought 
the case and the accused before that tribunal, "to 
inquire into the cause of such imprisonment. " 

A long line of decisions had defined the limits within 
which the inquiring court could act, and an Ohio statute 
read: 

" If it appear that the person, alleged to be restrained 
of his liberty, is in custody of an officer under process 
issued by a court or magistrate, or by virtue of the 
judgment or order of a court of record, and that the 
court or magistrate has jurisdiction to issue the process, 
render the judgment, or make the order, the person 
shall not be discharged by reason of any informality 
or defect in the process, judgment, or order." 

If the so-called "Fugitive Slave Act," passed Sep- 
tember 18, 1850, was constitutional, all admitted that 
the prisoner was legally held under the sentence, judg- 
ment, and writ of the United States District Court 
at Cleveland. No one disputed the fact that the 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 135 

Supreme Court of the United States had unanimously, 
within the year, decided that said law was constitutional 
in all of its provisions. Chief Justice Joseph R. Swan, 
and Judges Josiah Scott and William V. Peck held that, 
on such a question, the decision of the national Supreme 
Court was binding upon the State Court, and they 
remanded the prisoner to the Cleveland jail. Judge 
Jacob Brinkerhoff thought that the indictment was 
defective, and for that and for some other reasons 
favored a discharge of the prisoner. Judge Milton 
Sutliff refused to be bound by the repeated and unani- 
ous decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States 
as to the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Law, 
decided for himself that said act was unconstitutional 
and invalid, and voted to discharge the prisoner. 

If a majority of the Ohio Court had concurred with 
him, if either Peck, Scott, or Swan had voted with 
Brinkerhoff and Sutliff, Governor Salmon P. Chase 
held himself ready to use the Ohio militia in resistance 
to the United States authority, and to prevent the 
enforcement of the decree of the United States Court. 
This would have placed Ohio in June, 1859, where South 
Carolina and her allies were in 1861, so far as concerned 
constitutional principles. 

Judge Joseph R. Swan had been elected in 1854 by 
more than 77,000 majority. On May i, 1859, he was 
expecting renomination and reelection. The intense 
anti-slavery feeling prevalent in Ohio later in that 
month assured him that, unless he would join in defying 
the Supreme Court of the United States, and in pre- 
venting the enforcement within Ohio of the Fugitive 
Slave Law, he could neither be renominated nor 



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136 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

elected. The same feeling assured Judges Scott and 
Peck that their concurrence with Chief Justice Swan 
would make improbable their own renomination in 
succeeding years. Grandly did they maintain judicial 
independence and integrity. Bravely did they do 
their whole duty. They firmly held Ohio to her place 
in the Union. 

On September 15, 1858, in his debate with Stephen A. 
Douglas, at Jonesboro, Illinois, Abraham Lincoln said: 

"Let me ask you why many of us, who are opposed 
to slavery upon principle, give our acquiescence to a 
fugitive slave law? Why do we hold ourselves under 
obligations to pass such a law, and abide by it when 
it is passed? Because the Constitution makes provi- 
sion that the owners of slaves shall have the right to 
reclaim them. Now, on what ground would a member 
of Congress, who is opposed to slavery in the abstract, 
vote for a fugitive slave law, as I would deem it my 
duty to do? Because there is a constitutional right 
which needs legislation to enforce it. And, although 
it is distasteful to me, I have sworn to support the 
Constitution; and having so sworn, I cannot conceive 
that I do support it if I withhold from that right any 
legislation to make it practical. " 

Amid the excited feeling of 1859, Chief Justice Swan 
was retired to private life because he so bravely did his 
duty. But Abraham Lincoln's teaching so far cor- 
rected party sentiment that he was chosen President 
in i860, and Judge Josiah Scott reelected in 1861. 

Each of the three judges, who so bravely, nobly and 
eflFectively served their country, should ever be held 
in most honorable memory by our people. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 137 

Joseph Rockwell Swan was bom December 28, 1802, 
in Oneida county, New York. He received a classical 
education at Aurora in that State, and there began to 
study law. He came to Columbus, Ohio, in 1824, 
and continuing study in the office of his uncle. Judge 
Gustavus Swan, was soon admitted to the bar. He was 
prosecuting attorney of Franklin county from 1830 
until in 1834 ^^^ Legislature elected him president judge 
of the Twelfth Circuit, then consisting of Champaign, 
Clark, Delaware, Franklin, Logan, Madison and Union 
counties. He was reelected in 1841, but resigned in 
1845; formed the noted law firm of Swan and Andrews 
(John W. Andrews being the junior member) and 
practiced with energy and success until 1854. The 
repeal of the Missouri Compromise, passed in May of 
that year, aroused the country. Although Ohio, in 
October, 1853, had chosen William Medill, Democrat, 
Governor by a plurality exceeding 61,000 votes, in 
October, 1854, J^dg^ Swan — ^Republican or "anti- 
Nebraska candidate** — ^,was elected Supreme Judge by 
a majority of more than 77,000 votes. 

"On the bench of the Supreme Court*' (I quote from 
John W. Andrews, Allen G. Thurman and R. A. Harri- 
son) "he fully sustained his earlier reputation as a judge 
and probably held as high a place in the estimation of 
the bench, the bar and the public, as has ever been 
reached by any one of the many distinguished men 
who have adorned our judicial history. Wise, patient, 
firm, impartial, courteous, he never lost sight of the 
dignity of his high ofiice, to which he brought unusual 
native vigor of mind, large stores of learning, untiring 



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138 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

industry, and the most conscientious regard for the 
rights of litigants, and abhorrence of all injustice and 
wrong. '* 

We have seen how and why unusual political excite- 
ment prevented his renomination and election. Its 
injustice did not disturb him. Not long afterward an 
appointment to fill a vacancy on the Supreme bench, 
and also a Republican nomination as a candidate there- 
for, were tendered him. But after leaving the bench 
in February, i860, he never renewed the active practice 
of his profession, nor accepted a judicial position. In 
1836 he published the treatise entitled, "A Treatise on 
the Law Relating to the Powers and Duties of Justices 
of the Peace, etc.," of which eleven editions were 
issued during his lifetime and a twelfth prepared by 
him. That was published after his death. Ohio 
editors have since prepared and published other edi- 
tions. Quoting again from Andrews, Thurman and 
Harrison: "This has probably proved to be the most 
useful book ever published in Ohio. Its circulation 
has been immense among the successive generations 
of justices of the peace in every township in the state, 
lawyers, county officers, judges and business men, in 
other states as well as our own; and it has been a model 
for similar works elsewhere. The influence of such a 
book, circulating in every neighborhood and among all 
classes, in shaping the characters of the people and incul- 
cating a reverence for law, can hardly be overestimated." 

In 1850-51 Judge Swan represented Franklin county 
in the second Constitutional Convention of Ohio, and 
rendered valuable service as a member of the committee 
on the judicial department, and of the committee on 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 139 

public debts and works. An act relating to the settle- 
ment of estates of deceased persons, and another relat- 
ing to wills, passed by the General Assembly of Ohio 
in 1840, were drafted by Judge Swan. But few amend- 
ments of these statutes have been found necessary. 

Four general revisions of Ohio Statutes were made 
by Judge Swan. Of these the code commissioners of 
1880 wrote : " Perhaps no other man, with the material 
before him, and in the absence of all power to change 
it, would have been able to prqduce a collation of our 
statutes so admirable in all that pertains to the work of 
an editor as Swan's statutes of 1841. In 1854-55, 
i860, and 1868 he performed the same task of collating 
and arranging the statutes in force." 

In 1843 he published his "Guide to Executors and 
Administrators; Swan's Pleading and Precedents*' — 
one volimie in 1845, a second in 1850. In i860 appeared 
"Swan's Pleadings and Precedents under the Code." 
Of this Andrews, Thurman, and Harrison wrote : "The 
bench and bar of Ohio were largely influenced by it, 
and led to construe the code in the spirit of the code 
itself; and as a consequence questions of pleading and 
practice brought before the Supreme Court of Ohio 
under the code, which in the State of New York fill 
many volumes, would not altogether make one volume 
of the size of the Ohio State Reports. * * * His private 
life was in all respects in keeping with and worthy of 
the place which he held in the estimation of the public. 
In every station, and always, he was the same quiet, 
upright, conscientious, patriotic, Christian man, loving 
home, friends, neighbors, and country, and finding 
in them and the duties claimed by them a means of 



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140 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

preparation for and foretaste of that life to come which 
Christianity reveals. His name will live in our history; 
and as long as the Common Law of England shall 
constitute the basis of our jurisprudence Joseph Rock- 
well Swan will be held in grateful remembrance by 
the bar and people of Ohio. ** 

He died at his home in Columbus on December i8, 
1884. 

Josiah Scott was bom in Washington county, Penn- 
sylvania, on December i, 1803, on his father's farm, 
about three miles from Cannonsburg — the seat of Jeffer- 
son College, where he was educated under the celebrated 
Dr. McMillen. He lived at home, walking to and from 
college. In 1821 he graduated with the highest honors 
of his class. For a time he taught a classical school 
in Richmond, Virginia. Later he returned to Cannons- 
burg and acted as a tutor in the college while he studied 
law. In 1830 he moved to Bucyrus, Ohio, and there 
began to practice law. In 1840-41 he represented 
Crawford, Delaware and Marion counties in the Ohio 
House of Representatives, In 185 1 he made his home 
at Hamilton, Butler county, and practiced there until 
in October, 1856, he was elected a Judge of the Supreme 
Court for the term that began on February 9, 1857. 
His predecessor. Judge Ranney, having resigned after 
October 11, 1856, Governor Chase named Judge Scott 
for the vacant place. He was reelected in 1861 and 
1866, but declined to be again a candidate in 1871. 
In 1872 he resumed practice at Bucyrus, but accepted 
from Governor Hayes a seat on the first Supreme Court 
Commission, where he served until February, 1879. 
In February, 1876, his associates elected him chief judge, 



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RICHARD ALMGILL HARRISON 
Bom in Thirsk, Yorkshire, England, April 8, 1824; 
came to Ohio with his parents in 1832; admitted to the 
bar, 1846, at London, Ohio, where he resided till 1873, 
afterward living in Coltimbus; member of the Ohio House 
of Representatives, 1858-59, and Ohio Senate, 1860-61; 
member of Congress, 1861-63; unsuccessful candidate for 
Judge of the Ohio Supreme Court, 1870; dL^cliued appoint- 
ments to the State Supreme Court commission, iSjt, and 
the State Supreme Court, 1887; one of the preeminent 
lawyers in the history of the State; died in Columbus, 
July 30. 1904. 




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•■rt'--' * '.' '. In i':^5i he made his hon 
• * ";, i ' ' "-^^^y, and [^ra^.ticed there uni' 

^/'etob'-r^ 1^ ; , .i> elected a Ju .l,.'e of the Supren- 
■ ourt f{/T •*■ ' ',x ihc:i bc^.tu on February 9, 1^57 
liis pir ' . - .', J i.'-e Kanney, havir.p resigned aftc 
t)Lt''bt. r I 1, . \ '',(*. \ ^ -r.or C base named Judge Scot* 
for \ .: : [\. ' lb* 'A,.s reelected in iS'ol an. 
i'^''^^, • .. (.In in.cd • o 'ri a Ciudldate in 1871 

In 1"* : i (• r-'^'i*'- :^q at Bi.:c\:us, but accente-i 

: ' \ernorli ..* *: ihc first Supreme Cour- 

~-Uv;n, wh^'" I' i un*:l I'-.i-ruary, 1S70 

■ r;ry, 1S76, his • 'cj> elect '-J him chief jud>;-.% 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 141 

but he declined to accept it. Being in feeble health 
when his term on the Commission ended, he did not 
resume practice; and died on June 15, 1879. He was 
twice married, and was survived by his widow and by 
a son and two daughters, all children of his first wife. 
The life of Judge Scott was active and useful, and was 
distinguishied for its purity. He possessed remarkable 
traits of character; was a profound thinker and an 
able jurist. He was noted for his mathematical attain- 
ments, and his hours of recreation were frequently spent 
in solving abstruse problems in the higher mathematics. 
His judicial opinions are in Volumes 5 to 21, inclusive, 
and in Volumes 27, 28, 30, 32 and 33, Ohio State 
Reports. I have quoted freely from a sketch prepared 
by his brother judges. 

William Virgil Peck was bom at Cajruga, New York, 
on April 16, 1804. His father died in the following 
September, and in October his mother returned to their 
former home in Litchfield, Connecticut, He there 
attended the common schools; then Pierce Academy, 
and later South Farms Academy, until, at twelve years 
of age, he was employed as a clerk in a store. In 1824 
he entered the famous law school at Litchfield, then con- 
ducted by Judge Gould, and graduated in 1826. He 
then went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and entered the office 
of Judge Bellamy Storer, In 1827 he opened his own 
office in Portsmouth, where, on June 8, 1830, he married 
Miss Mary Ann Cook. He soon acquired high reputa- 
tion and a profitable practice. In February, 1847, the 
Ohio Legislature elected him president judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas for the Seventeenth Circuit. 
In October, 185 1, at the first election under the second 



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142 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Constitution, the voters of the second subdivision of 
the Seventh Judicial District, composed of Jackson, 
Lawrence, Pike, Scioto, and Vinton counties, made 
him its sole judge. They reelected him in 1856 for a 
five-year term, but he resigned and took his seat on 
the Supreme bench in February, 1859, having, in Octo- 
ber, 1858, defeated Judge Thomas W. Bartley. In 
1863 he declined to be a candidate for another term. 
In 1864 he returned to Portsmouth, but did not resume 
practice. He died there on December 30, 1877, his 
wife — ^the mother of his many children — having pre- 
ceded him on the eleventh day of the same month. 
"The History of Scioto County," by Captain N. W. 
Evans, tells us that "of his contemporaries at the bar 
none ever spoke of him as a lawyer and a judge except in 
terms of highest commendation. As a common pleas 
judge he was considered the superior of all who came 
before; and since his time there has not been his equal." 
His opinions as a Supreme Judge are in Volumes 8 to 14, 
both included, of Ohio State Reports. 

It would be of interest to include sketches of many 
other Supreme judges. A few selections must sufiice. 

Charles Robert Sherman, father of William Tecumseh 
and John Sherman, was bom in Norwalk, Connecticut, 
September 26, 1788. He received the best educational 
advantages of his day, studied law under his father, 
Taylor Sherman, and Judge Chapman, and was admit- 
ted to the Connecticut bar in 18 10. He married Mary 
Hoyt in May of that year; traveled via Pittsburg, 
Wheeling, and Zanesville to Lancaster, Ohio; decided to 
settle there; and in 181 1, with wife and infant child, 
rode on horseback through the wilderness to their new 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 143 

home. The war with England began in 1812, and he, 
as major of the Fairfield regiment, was active in filling 
the county quota for the army at Detroit. An old 
lawyer, who knew him well, wrote: "Established 
permanently at Lancaster, he rapidly rose to eminence 
as a polished and eloquent advocate, and as a judicious, 
reliable counsellor at law; few men were his equal, 
and fewer still his superiors, in Ohio or out of it. " The 
same lawyer wrote of early Ohio practice thus : "Dur- 
ing the pioneer years of Ohio its lawyers were obliged 
to make extensive circuits; they were accustomed to 
accompany the courts from county to county. They 
rode together in primitive style; their saddle-bags 
stuffed with papers, documents, briefs, law books, 
clothing, and peradventure some creature delectation 
also. They were exposed to the same inclemencies 
and impediments in travel; they lodged together at 
the same inns, or taverns, messed at the same table, 
slept in the same rooms, and were not infrequently 
coerced by twos into the same bed. Free, jovial, 
genial, manly and happy times they were, when after a 
hard-fought field-day of professional antagonisms in 
court, the evening hours were crowded with social 
amenities, and winged with wit and merriment, with 
pathos, sentiment and song." * * * "At these sym- 
posiums of recreation — and they were held wherever 
the courts used to meet — Charles R. Sherman was 
always the most welcome of companions. Thus en- 
dowed and so associated, he became known as a leading 
and popular people's lawyer from the Ohio to Lake 
Erie." 



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144 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

In 1823 the Legislature elected him a Supreme Judge 
and placed him on the same bench with Calvin Pease, 
Jacob Burnet, and Peter Hitchcock. His opinions, in 
the early volumes of Hammond's Ohio Reports, are 
clear, compact, comprehensive, intuitive, logical, com- 
plete and conclusive. I quote from the same lawyer, 
who adds: "He won upon the bench, as he did at 
the bar, the affection and confidence of his associates. 
They esteemed him for his gentle and genial nature, 
for the brilliant flashes of his mind and the solid strength 
of his judgment; above all for the stainless integrity 
of his character as a judge and as a man." In June, 
1829, when about to open court at Lebanon, Warren 
county, a virulent disease attacked him suddenly and 
caused almost immediate death on the twenty-fourth 
day of the month. No man in our State was more 
generally and sincerely mourned. 

I cannot tell of Chief Justice Hitchcock in better 
words than those written by Judge William Lawrence 
when officially noting the termination of the court 
under the Constitution of 1802, on February 9, 1852. 

Peter Hitchcock was born October 19, 1781, at 
Cheshire, Connecticut; graduated at Yale College in 
September, 1801 ; was admitted to the bar of his native 
State in March, 1803; removed to Burton, Geauga 
county, Ohio, in June, 1806, where he continued to 
reside, engaged in the practice of his profession, except 
when officially employed; was elected to the House 
of Representatives in 18 10, and served one term, was 
elected to the Senate of Ohio in 18 12, where he served 
two years; again elected in 181 5, and during the session 
of 1 81 5-16 presided over that body as speaker; was 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 145 

elected in 1816 a Representative to Congress, in which 
capacity he served two years; again elected a member 
of the Ohio Senate in 1833, and during the session of 
1834-35 a second time presided over that body as 
speaker; and finally was elected a member of the Con- 
vention which framed the new Constitution of Ohio> 
while he was yet Chief Judge of the Supreme Court of 
the State. 

In all these various offices he acted a prominent and 
distinguished part, alike honorable to himself and to 
his country, with the history of which he is so identified 
that his services will be appreciated and his fame 
remembered as long as that history shall endure. As 
a jurist his services were still more preeminent. For 
twenty-eight years he was a Judge of the Supreme 
Court — ^the longest period of service rendered by any 
judge on that bench. His terms of service were as 
follows: He was commissioned as a Judge of the 
Supreme Court, February 5, 18 19, in place of Hon. 
Ethan Allen Brown, resigned, and served seven years. 
He was again commissioned February i, 1826, to take 
effect February 5, 1826, the date of the expiration of 
his first term, and served seven years. He was again 
commissioned March 7, 1835, in place of Hon. John C. 
Wright, resigned, and served seven years. He was 
again commissioned February 16, 1845, and served 
until February 9, 1852, when his term ceased by the 
operation of the new Constitution, about one week 
before the expiration of the full term for which the 
General Assembly had elected him. 

He was chief judge six years; during 1831-32-33 
and in 1849, 1850-51-52 until February 9. Two Ohio 



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146 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

colleges — ^Marietta and Western Reserve — honored him 
with the degree of LL.D. 

Distinguished for his profound learning, his vast 
and variecf attainments, his unsullied integrity, his long, 
laborious and useful services to the public, and for his 
extensive experience as a judge, in which capacity he 
was master of the law; with the confidence of the bar 
and the people, he retired from the high office of chief 
justice at the age of seventy years, enjoying in an emi- 
nent degree ^^Mens sana in corpore sano.^^ 

He died on the fourth day of March, 1854, ^^ Paines- 
ville, Ohio. Throughout his career he was a generous 
benefactor of benevolent enterprises. 

Reuben Wood was bom in Rutland county, Vermont, 
in 1792. He served in the War of 1812-15 as captain 
of Vermont volunteers. He later studied law, came 
to Cleveland, Ohio, and began practice thereabout 1820. 
From 1825 to 1828 he was a member of the Ohio 
Senate. In 1830 the Legislature elected him presi- 
dent judge of the Third Common Pleas Circuit; and 
on February 17, 1833, the same body made him a 
Supreme Court Judge; to which oflSce he was reelected 
in 1839, and served until 1846. In October, 1850, he 
was elected Governor of Ohio. The second Constitu- 
tion terminating his term before its two years had 
passed, he was again elected in October, 1851, and was 
the first Governor under that Constitution. The Demo- 
cratic national convention sitting at Baltimore in 1852 
discussed the nomination of Governor Wood for the 
Presidency, but selected Franklin Pierce. If Reuben 
Wood had been President in 1853-54, ^i® sound sense 
would have prevented the silly and disastrous repeal 



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RUFUS PUTNAM RANNEY 
Bom in Blandford, Hampden county, Massachusetts, 
October 30, 18 13, and came with his parents to Portage 
county, Ohio, in 1824; admitted to the bar, 4836, and in 
his early professional career was partner of Benjamin F. 
Wade; member of the Constitutional Convention, 1856; 
Jmige ot the Supreme Court of Ohio, 1851-56, when he 
resigned; unsuccessful ciindidate for Governor, 1859; from 
1856 lived in Cleveland 1 where he died December 6, 1891. 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 147 

of the Missouri Compromise, and perhaps have thereby- 
saved our country from the Civil War of i86i-65. In 
1853 Judge Wood resigned the governorship and 
accepted a consulship at Valparaiso, Chile, where the 
climate favored his restoration to health. In 1855 he 
resigned, returned to Ohio, retired from public life, and 
on October 2, 1864, died at Rockport, Cuyahoga county. 
His judicial opinions are in volumes six to fifteen — 
both included — Ohio Reports. 

Rufus Putnam Ranney was born at Blandford, 
Hampden county, Massachusetts, on the 30th day of 
October, 181 3. His father was a farmer of Scotch 
descent. The family removed to Portage county, Ohio, 
in 1824. There, then a western frontier settlement, 
the means of public instruction were limited. They 
had brought some standard books from Massachusetts. 
His active, penetrating intellect aroused within him a 
desire to get an education. By manual labor, and 
teaching in backwoods schools, he earned enough to 
enter an academy, where in a short time he prepared 
himself for college. By chopping cordwood he earned 
the money to enter Western Reserve College, then at 
Hudson, but for want of means he could not complete 
the college course. At the age of twenty-two, in the 
law office of Joshua R. Giddings and Benjamin F. Wade, 
he began to study law, and was admitted to the Ohio 
bar in 1836. Mr. Giddings began his long career in 
Congress, and upon Mr. Wade's suggestion the law firm 
of Wade and Ranney was formed, and soon became the 
leading one in northeastern Ohio. In 1845 Wade 
became president judge of the Common Pleas, and in 
1851 entered the United States Senate. In 1846 



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148 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Ranney removed to Warren in Trumbull county. 
His party — ^the Democratic — ^nominated him for Con- 
gress in 1846 and 1848 in a district in which it was 
hopelessly in the minority; but in 1850 Trumbull and 
Geauga counties — though heavily Whig — chose Ranney 
a delegate to the second Constitutional Convention, 
where he served with distinction on the committees 
on the judiciary, on revision, on amendments and some 
others. His associates on the judiciary committee 
were Henry Stanbery, Joseph R. Swan, William S. 
Groesbeck, and William Kennon. In 1892 a committee 
of the Ohio bar, composed of Allen G. Thurman, Rich- 
ard A. Harrison Jacob D. Cox, F. E. Hutchins and 
Samuel E. Williamson thus wrote of his work and 
standing in that Convention: 

"Although he was then a young man he was soon 
recognized as one of the leading members of the con- 
vention. In this body of distinguished lawyers, jurists 
and statesmen, there were few members who had as 
thorough knowledge of political science, constitutional 
law, political and judicial history and the principles of 
jurisprudence as Judge Ranney displayed in the 
debates of the convention. There was no more pro- 
found, acute and convincing reasoner on the floor of 
the convention, and in the committee rooms his sug- 
gestions and enlightened mind were invaluable. The 
amended constitution conforms very nearly to the 
principles and provisions advocated by him." 

In March, 1851, the General Assembly elected him 
a Supreme Judge to succeed Judge Avery; and in Octo- 
ber of the same year the people elected him a member 
of the new Supreme Court. The terms were distrib- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 149 

uted by lot and the full five years fell to him. In 
October, 1856, Judge Josiah Scott, Republican, was 
chosen, and later in the year Judge Ranney resigned 
and began law practice at Cleveland in the firm of 
Ranney, Backus and Noble. In 1859 he was Demo- 
cratic candidate for Governor, but the Republican 
candidate, William Dennison, was elected. In 1862 
both parties went to Ranney, Backus and Noble for 
their candidates for Supreme Court Judge, and that 
year Franklin T. Backus, Republican, was defeated 
by his Democratic partner. But the attractions and 
demands of a large northern Ohio practice soon induced 
Judge Ranney to finally leave the bench. He resigned 
on February 23, 1865, and renewed the practice of law 
at Cleveland. The demands upon his professional 
services were more than he could comply with; but 
the needs of a man or woman in diflftculty or distress 
were more likely to secure his devoted services than the 
offer of a large fee. Toward the close of his life he 
gradually withdrew from the practice of his profession; 
but the urgent solicitation of some old friend, or an 
attack upon some important constitutional or legal 
principle, drew him occasionally from his library to 
the court room, where his participation in a case never 
failed to bring together an audience of lawyers eager 
to learn from him the art of forensic reasoning, of which 
he was a consummate master, and to be entertained 
and instructed by his sympathy and familiarity with 
the more recent advances in the science of jurispru- 
dence. 

When the Ohio Bar Association was organized in 
1 88 1 he was made its first president. He devoted much 



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160 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

of his time for several years to placing "The Case School 
of Applied Science" at Cleveland upon a firm founda- 
tion, and providing for it adequate buildings and equip- 
ment. I quote again from the committee of lawyers : 

"Judge Ranney was a man of great simplicity of 
character; wholly free from affectation and assumption. 
He could have attained the highest standing in any 
pursuit or station requiring the exercise of the best 
intellectual and moral qualities; but his ambition was 
chastened and moderate, and he seemed to have no 
aspirations for official place or popular applause. While 
always dignified he was a genial and companionable 
man, of fine wit and rare humor. While on the bench 
his most distinguished trait was his grasp of general 
principles, in preference to decided cases. He never 
ran to book shelves for a case which had some resem- 
blance to that in hand, perceiving, as he did, that the 
resemblance is frequently misleading. 

"Judge Ranney had those qualities of simplicity, 
directness, candor, solidity, strength and sovereign 
good sense which the independent and reflective life 
of the early settlers of the western country fostered. 
He was a personal force whose power was profoundly 
felt in the administration of justice throughout the 
state. He made a deep and permanent impression on 
the jurisprudence of Ohio." 

He died at his home in Cleveland on the 6th day of 
December, 1891. As a man, as a lawyer, as a judge, 
and as a statesman he left a record without a blemish, 
a character above reproach, and a reputation as a 
jurist and statesman which but few members of the 
bar have attained. 



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WILLIAM WHITE 
Bom in Eng^d, January 28, 1822; came to Spring- 
field, Ohio, in 1831; admitted to the bar, 1846; elected 
Prosecuting Attorney of Clark county, 1847, and three 
times reelected; Common Pleas Judge, 1857-64; Supreme 
Judge of Ohio, 1864 until his death; nominated by Presi- 
dent ~ fuxntir, a&(x cotififinccl, as 'United istates L/istnct 
Judge for the southern district of Ohio (1883), but on 
account of illness did not qualify; died March 12, 1883. 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 161 

William White was bom in England on the twenty- 
eighth day of January, 1822. His parents died in his 
early childhood, and he came to Springfield, Ohio, in 
183 1 with an uncle. When twelve years old he was 
apprenticed for nine years to a cabinet maker. After 
six years' service he bought his remaining time, his 
master accepting the boy's notes for the purchase 
money. Having paid these out of his later earnings, 
he diligently attended Springfield schools, principally 
the high school, working at his trade during vacations 
and other spare time. He studied law under William 
A. Rodgers, an eminent lawyer of Clark county, teach- 
ing school at intervals for his necessary expenses. In 
1846 he was admitted to the bar, and was his precep- 
tor's partner until Mr. Rodgers became judge of Com- 
mon Pleas in February, 1852. In 1847 he was elected 
prosecuting attorney of Clark county, and was thrice 
reelected. In 1856 the bar nominated him for Common 
Pleas judge and he was chosen, over the two party 
candidates, by a large majority. The vote of Clark 
county was cast almost unanimously for him. In 1861 
he was reelected. Judge Hocking H. Hunter having 
on February 9, 1864, resigned as Supreme Judge, Gov- 
ernor John Brough the next day appointed William 
White to fill the vacancy. In 1864, 1868, 1873, and 
1878 the people elected and reelected him to the same 
ofiice. Early in 1883 he was nominated by President 
Arthur, and confirmed by the Senate, judge of the 
United States District Court for the Southern District 
of Ohio, but his illness prevented acceptance by him. 
He died on March 12, 1883. 



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162 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

On the 14th of that month the Ohio State Bar Asso- 
ciation, and other members of the bar, met in the 
Supreme Court room at Columbus. Judge Rufus P. 
Ranney, president of the association, appointed Richard 
A. Harrison, Allen G. Thurman, William H. West, 
W. W. Boynton, William J. Gilmore, Henry C. Noble, 
Durbin Ward, Michael A. Daugherty, and John W. 
Herron a committee **to draft a memorial and resolu- 
tions concerning the character and public services of 
Chief- Justice William White," They made a report, 
by Richard A. Harrison, which the meeting unanimously 
approved and adopted; the Supreme Court made it a 
part of their record, and by their order it was printed 
in full on pages 7 to 12, both included, in Volume 38, 
Ohio State Reports. I quote a few paragraphs: 

"Judge Whitens simple and modest manners, his 
kindness of nature, his warm social impulses, his un- 
varying courtesy, his almost unexampled regard for 
the feelings and rights of others, his charity for human 
frailties, and his never failing patience toward all m,en, 
endeared him to everyone who knew him. These 
characteristics, as well as the manner in which he 
discharged the duties of his great office, made him a 
favorite with the bar, as well as with all ranks and 
conditions of men. Both the bar and the public mani- 
fested their admiration, esteem, confidence and grati- 
tude toward him, by renominating without opposition, 
and reelecting him, as often as his term of office expired. 

"He was a wise and honest citizen. His neighbors, 
without exception, regarded him as a loving friend. He 
took pleasure in aiding them with his wise counsels, 
and his charities were bestowed with a free hand. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 163 

Those who have known him from boyhood affirm that 
he never had a personal enemy. His personal charac- 
ter was of the highest order. Exemplary rectitude and 
wise sobriety adorned his whole life. He was the very 
soul of honor in all the relations of life. He was unpre- 
tentious in all his acts and was another illustration of 
the truism . that unpretending characters are rarely 
deficient. 

"To say that he was patient, diligent and thorough 
in the investigation of causes, is simply to state what 
is attested by his opinions recorded in twenty volumes 
of Ohio State Reports. These will constitute for all 
time an enduring monument of his sound, discriminat- 
ing judgment, and his fidelity and eminence as a jurist. 
He aided in solving many constitutional questions of 
the highest moment. His reported decisions touch 
almost every branch of the law. They have always 
been, and will ever be regarded with the highest respect, 
because they bear internal evidence that they are the 
results and products of exhaustive legal research by 
a strong, logical, penetrating mind, and of a man of 
the sternest integrity and strictest impartiality. 

"Judge White has left, for all time, an enduring and 
elevating impression upon the jurisprudence and judicial 
history of the State, and he has added much to the 
distinction of her Supreme Judicial Court. 

"Judge White has left to the profession of the bar, 
from which he was promoted to the highest honor 
which a lawyer can receive from the State, a lesson and 
an example worthy of following; and although he left 
but a small estate to his widow and children, he left 



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164 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

them the rich heritage of an unsullied name, and the 
record of a life devoted to the service of his fellow men. '' 

He was married in 1847 to Rachel Stout, whose 
parents were among the early settlers of Springfield. 
She, with one son and two daughters, survived him. 
The son, Charles R. White, served as judge of Common 
Pleas, in the Clark county subdivision, from May, 
1885, until his death in 1890. 

The Ohio judge who sat upon an Ohio bench longer 
than any other man is entitled to remembrance in 
this record. 

William Hugh Frazier was born in Hubbard, Trum- 
bull county, Ohio, on March 11, 1826. His father, 
George Frazier, a native of Kent county, Maryland, 
was a farmer and magistrate in Trumbull county, Ohio, 
where he had married Bethiah Randall, a native of 
Washington county, Pennsylvania. William was reared 
on the farm and attended school in Hubbard until 
in 1838 his parents removed to Guernsey county, Ohio. 
There, until he became of age, he attended common 
schools in winter and worked on the farm in summer. 
He then entered Madison college, at Antrim, Guernsey 
county, spending vacations at home in farm work. 
After two years at the college he studied law under his 
elder brother, Henry, until on May 17, 1852, he was 
admitted to the bar at Coshocton, Ohio. He at once 
began to practice at Sarahsville, Noble county, Ohio, 
in partnership with his brother, who died within a 
year thereafter. In 1858 William removed to Cald- 
well, the new county seat. In 1865 — for about one 
year — ^James S. Foreman was his partner there. There- 
after he practiced alone. In 1855 he was elected prose- 



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NOAH HAYNES SWAYNE 
Born in Cvilpeper county, Virginia, December 7, 1804; 
admitted to the bar at the age of nineteen, and in 1815 
removed to Ohio and began the practice of law in Coshoc- 
ton; Prosecuting Attorney of the county, and elected to 
the Legislature; appointed by President Jackson, 1851, 
United States District Attorney for Ohio* removed to 
Columbus, and held tJiat office ten years; subsequently 
occupied other appointive officeii and pfacliced his pro- 
fession with high reputation; appointed by President 
Lincoln Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 
in 1862; resigned in iSSi ; died in New York City, June S, 
1884. 





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■ . '■ l';a/*.vr was burn in Hubbard, Tn::- 
t' •, •" Man^h II, 1826. His fatht 
; :. ,ix\c c-f Kent county, Marylaii. 
• i.\'i:::strate in Trumbull ccmnty, (.)::' 
^ '.-ci Brthi.'ih Randall, a native •, 

; . l*("::is;v!va!da. William was rear 
. .i:*'- ]rd school in Hubbard un: 
/ ' T' r7.o\t d to (juernsey count)', 01.' 
• iiC I '■■ .L t.f aer, he attended tonm.' 
' ■' .11 \\:r.--: .'. • v.'.rked on the farm in summ- 
. 1^ . ••!. ( T.n •■ ; .^1 lolKpe, at Antrim, Guen.5 

county, r- . , .- *i"ns at home in farm W(^- 

Af". r '-. i _' a! -;•••.' • ollege he studied law under ^ 
elder brother, ll- ' , until c)n May 17, 1^52, he v 
admiited to :"' . .- «'t Coshocton, ()hit>. He at O! 
b'-'-ui to J. ".I • at Sarahsville, Xoble county, O' 
in rart^v ■ ' ^- vv/h h:.- brother, A\ho died withi: 
;, rar :^ • <'cw'"ter. In 1 -- " "' William removed to d 
' .e new cf^^y .-.i. In iS()5— for about * 
James S. V< . ^.^ was his partner there. Th^ 
;.e practiced u.'^iic. In 1^55 he was elected pre 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 166 

cuting attorney of Noble county, and was reelected for 
five successive terms. In 1866 Noble county in con- 
vention unanimously supported him for nomination 
as Common Pleas judge, but Moses M. Granger was 
nominated and elected. Although assured of renomina- 
tion and reelection early in 1871, Judge Granger 
announced his intention to resign after the then coming 
September. He did so, and Governor Hayes appointed 
William Hugh Frazier to fill the vacancy on October 
9, 1 87 1. The people elected and reelected him in 1871, 
1876, and 1 88 1. In November, 1884, they elected 
him one of the three circuit judges for the Seventh or 
Eastern Ohio Circuit, which extended from Lake Erie 
to Washington county. Judge Frazier drew the four 
year term, but was reelected for the full six year term 
in 1888 and 1896. He retired from the bench February 
9, 1901, having served as judge almost thirty years. He 
was married, November 30, 1855, to Minerva E. Staats. 
The bar and people of eastern Ohio hold Judge 
William H. Frazier in high honor and regard; due to 
him because of the purity and rectitude of his life as 
a man, and the ability, industry and impartiality with 
which he served them as a judge for so many years. 
Only four Ohio judges have exceeded twenty-five 
years: John McLean, thirty-two years (twenty-six of 
them on a United States bench); Peter Hitchcock, 
twenty-eight years, not altogether consecutive; William 
T. Spear, present Judge of the Supreme Court, nearly 
twenty-seven consecutive years up to this writing 
(July, 191 2), being the longest period of uninterrupted 
service in the history of the supreme bench of the 
State; and William Hugh Frazier, twenty-nine years 



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166 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

and eight months. The death of Judge Frazier oc- 
curred in Los Angeles, California, July 29, 1906. He 
is buried in the Olive Cemetery at Caldwell, Ohio. 

Historic references to "The Twelve Judges*' of 
England, as well as the English Common Law number- 
ing of its jury, has made us familiar with the number 
"twelve" in connection with the judiciary. I have 
briefly outlined the lives and services of twelve of the 
Ohio judges of 1 803-1903, and submit them as illustra- 
tions of that judiciary. 

After one-third of the century had passed, Joseph 
Vance, Governor of Ohio, in his inaugural address on 
December 13, 1836, said: 

"I have again and again, whilst on business in 
eastern cities, heard our judiciary spoken of in terms 
that made me proud that I was a citizen of Ohio. *No 
collusion or fraud, sir,' said an eminent merchant of 
one of our eastern cities, *can stand before your 
judiciary.' This is the character, gentlemen, that 
causes capital, to seek employment here; that gives 
security to our rights and value to our property." 

When the first half century was near its close, in 
April, 1852, Judge William Lawrence, noted for long 
service in the national House of Representatives, and 
in other public positions and trusts, and high in rank 
at the bar, wrote of the Supreme Court that had ad- 
journed sine die on January 16, 1852: 

"This court has from its commencement been com- 
posed of judges distinguished for learning, talents and 
integrity. Its decisions, on the circuit and in banc, 
now (1852) comprise twenty volumes of Reports — ^ 
fund of judicial learning, characterized by profound 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 167 

research and luminous exposition, not only invaluable 
to the profession in Ohio, but which will leave its im- 
press upon the science of law wherever that science is 
known and understood/* 

Ohio may rightfully be proud of her judiciary and 
of its record. So long as the people of Ohio will insure 
the independence of her courts by wise laws, and main- 
tain their character by always refusing nominations 
and votes to unfit candidates for judicial office, they 
will make secure their own lives, liberties and property. 



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MEDICAL OHIO 
By D. Tod Gilliam, M. D. 



David Tod Gilliam, the author of the following article, was bom at Hebron, 
Ohio, April 3 , 1 844, and graduated at the Medical College of Ohio (Cincinnati) 
in 1871. Previously to his medical education he served in the Union Army 
during the Ovil War from the summer of 1861 to the spring of 1863. He 
was a non-commissioned officer in the 3d Virginia Cavalry, participating in 
several of the leading battles, in one of widch he was made prisoner and in 
another wounded. He has been a practitioner of his prof ession in Columbus, 
Ohio, since his graduation, and occupied a chair in the faculty of Staiiing 
Medical College. He has originated several important operations, which have 
been adopted by his profession, has been the inventor of various medical instru- 
ments, and is the author of standard works in medical literature. Bjm 
literary attainments are evidenced by his historical novd, entitled "The 
Rose Croix, " and magasine articles. — ^Thb Bditors. 



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THE pioneer doctor of Ohio, in common with 
other pioneers, came with axe and gun, a 
sturdy frame, a brave heart, lots of good, 
hard sense and little learning. His arma- 
mentarium consisted of a few crude drugs, roots and 
herbs, a bountiful supply of calomel, a lancet, a few 
cupping glasses, or in lieu of which he could use a 
tumbler or teacup, and, if specially well equipped, he 
possessed a few crude surgical instruments and pos- 
sibly a jar of leeches. All these things, or as many of 
them as possible, he carried in his saddle-bags, which, 
if he was fortunate enough to own a horse, he laid 
across the saddle, or, in the absence of such a luxury, 
he carried across his arm. As a rule the pioneer 
doctor was loud and gruff, sometimes boorish, but 
more frequently with an assumption of dignity that 
among the people passed current for erudition. Under 
this armor of dignity he carried a kind, sympathetic 
heart, which his patients soon learned to know and 
thought nothing of his rough and sometimes profane 
language while ministering to their needs with almost 
womanly tenderness. 

The pioneer doctor's life was not an easy one, but 
on the contrary fraught with danger, hardship and 
exposure such as we to-day can scarcely realize. His 
patients were few and oftentimes widely separated. 
Roads were mere trails, cut or blazed through the 
woods and in bad weather almost bottomless. There 
were vast areas of swamp land, miry, treacherous and 
of uncertain depth, which had to be braved or circum- 
vented by a long detour. There were practically no 
bridges or boats, and swollen streams and swift moving 



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162 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

currents made fording or swimming extra hazardous. 
Then there was the skulking Indian, the bands of 
yelping red-mouthed wolves, the catamount and the 
stealthy panther. The driving sleet, the blinding 
snow, and the chances of being lost in the trackless 
forest, with a cold so intense as to freeze the blood in 
the veins, was by no means a far-fetched fear. This, 
though a highly colored picture, is not an unlikely one, 
and does not represent a tithe of the dangers and dis- 
comforts of the pioneer doctor, and the wonder is 
that the disasters from such exposures were not more 
frequent. The answer is to be found in the hardiness, 
resourcefulness, excellent judgment and indomitable 
will power of these men. And what did the doctor 
do after arriving at the bedside of the patient? It 
should be remembered that the pioneer doctor was 
largely his own purveyor and dispenser. Pharmacol- 
ogists and drug stores were as yet unknown. The 
doctor stocked himself with native herbs, roots, leaves 
and balsams which he gathered from the woods or 
wayside. He compounded his own pills, powders and 
potions. The drugs used in those days were crude 
and for the most part unsparingly repugnant to the 
taste, and were exhibited in doses proportionate to 
their nastiness. Powders were given by the teaspoon 
or tablespoonful, or even in larger quantities; infusions 
or decoctions by the mugful, or even by the pint or 
quart. Little or no attempt was made to disguise 
the taste of these unspeakable crudities, or, if so, it 
was usually ineffectual. Impounding the medicament 
in scraped apple, or enclosing it in dough which had 
been rolled and pressed, were the methods most in 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 163 

vogue. As said before, they were ineffectual, for some- 
how the medicine, which, so far as gustatory qualities 
were concerned, had the scraped apple beat to a frazzle, 
always managed to get nearest the palate and the 
bolus so clumsily constructed defied all attempts at 
deglutition until the contents had been nicely and 
evenly distributed through the oral cavity. A much 
more effectual method of concealing the taste of ob- 
noxious bitters was to suspend them in a strong decoc- 
tion of black coffee. But who had the coffee? When 
it is remembered that the people of those days were as 
alive to gustatory impressions as they are to-day, it 
will be understood that it was a serious matter to be 
sick, in more senses than one. But this was not all. 

At or about the time we are speaking of, it was the 
custom to treat fevers and inflammatory affections by 
confinement in a close room, the body sandwiched 
between feather-beds, or loaded down with bedclothes 
and all cooling drinks withheld. Add to this the 
frequently repeated and heroic doses of nauseating 
medicines and the intemperate use of the lancet, and 
the wonder is not so much that so many died as that 
any survived. 

In those days, and for a long period thereafter, 
calomel and jalap were the sheet anchors for a wide 
range of ailments. Indeed, among the more ignorant 
practicians, who constituted the majority, these 
drugs were given almost indiscriminately. Not only 
so, but the calomel especially was given with such 
reckless disregard of consequences as to lead to fre- 
quently unpleasant if not disastrous results. Intense 
salivation, with loss of gums and teeth, and unsightly 



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164 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

disfigurement, were by no means rare. Blood-letting 
was then much in vogue, and among the class of doctors 
of whom we are now speaking was practiced as reck- 
lessly as was the use of calomel. 

Patients were bled for every conceivable state and 
condition, and it was even asserted that they were 
bled for hemorrhages of the nose, stomach and bowels, 
or as a prophylactic against such hemorrhages. The 
extent to which this abuse was carried in some sections 
and by some practicians is almost unbelievable. As a 
rule people submitted without question, for the reason 
that as a rule the doctor was not called in until the 
case had become supposedly desperate. Yet we find 
in the literature of that period, which, by the way, 
was mostly foreign, complaints by writers that patients 
too often denied themselves the benefits of blood-letting 
under the mistaken belief that the first blood-letting 
was so much more efificacious than subsequent ones. 
They wanted to reserve this first blood-letting for 
some crisis which they knew would come sooner or 
later. We hold in our hand a small volume, published 
early in the last century, in which specific directions 
are given for blood-letting and other barbarous prac- 
tices then in vogue, which carries with it a sort of lurid 
suggestiveness well fitted to the subject. 

Leeching was another form of blood-letting very 
much in use at the time. The leeches are applied by 
rolling them in a cloth and covering with a tumbler. 
The cloth is now withdrawn under the edge of the 
tumbler. "If they be well chosen and disposed to 
bite they can only do so on the skin." In case of 
troublesome hemorrhage following the falling of 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 165 

the leeches, the author proposes the following method, 
"which never fails." It consists in covering the 
bleeding surface with a piece of linen folded several 
times on itself, and applying to it a red-hot iron. 
He then goes on to describe the process of cupping, 
which consists in making a number of incisions in the 
skin and drawing the blood therefrom by applying 
to the scarified surface glasses from which the air 
has been expelled by burning alcohol. Next he pro- 
ceeds to consider some of the various methods and 
instruments of torture in daily use by the physician 
and surgeon of the time, and with which we of to-day 
are less conversant. After speaking of the blister, 
which is not so old as to be new to us, but which was 
at that time used universally and unstintedly, he passes 
on to the seton. The seton is a thread or skein of 
threads introduced through a fold of the skin to create 
and maintain an issue. These were sometimes per- 
mitted to remain through a long period, and various 
supplementary devices resorted to to increase the irri- 
tation and discharge. "It often happens," says the 
writer, "that patients object to having the seton 
through the skin of the neck on account of the unsightly 
scar, but, as we have no other means of conquering a 
violent ophthalmia, it becomes important that the 
above objection should be overcome." Permanent 
issues were usually made on the thigh, leg or arm. An 
incision was made and "a small tent of lint kept in 
the wound a few days to irritate it. We then place a 
pea in the wound to prevent the healing and keep up 
a continual irritation." "The actual cautery (hot 
iron) may take precedence of all others, and is one of 



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166 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

the most powerful assistants to surgery. ♦ ♦ ♦ The less 
the cautery is heated, the more pain it causes and the 
less it destroys the parts to which it is applied; thus 
the cautery heated to a gray heat is very irritating 
and causes acute suffering, while the cautery at a 
white heat is more active and much less felt/' The 
gray cautery is that recommended. The Moxa was 
an appliance of slow torture, the object of which was 
to produce powerful and sustained counter-irritation. 
This consists in carded cotton made into a sort of a 
rope and bound tightly in linen. This is coiled on 
the surface of the body and one end ignited. Slow 
combustion, and incidentally protracted torture, is 
maintained by the more or less constant use of the 
bellows. " We should blow so that the Moxa may bum 
as slowly as possible without allowing it to be extin- 
guished." We are tempted to give the writer's de- 
scription and use of the old-fashioned pullikins for 
the extraction of teeth and descant on the barbarous 
manner in which it was done, but, on reflection, and 
calling to mind a little personal experience, we are will- 
ing to concede that while it might have been worse it 
could not have been much worse than we have it 
to-day. 

The early settlers for obvious reasons located along 
the streams, made clearings and broke the sod. In 
the course of a few months, ague, bilious fever and 
dysentery made their appearance. This was ascribed 
to the miasm rising from the bottoms and broken soil. 
The doctor spoke of ^^ paludal influence" and thereby 
boosted himself several rungs in the eyes of his admir- 
ing constituency. But nobody thought of the ubiqui- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 167 

tou8 mosquito except as a pesky little tormemtor, 
never once dreaming that it had any connection, even 
in the remotest degree, with the prevailing sickness. 
Every farm house, every settlement and every village 
had its contingent of sallow, anemic and icteroid men, 
women and children who dragged themselves about 
one day and shivered and chattered and raved in fever 
the next, until the immunity that comes from repeated 
inoculation, aided to some extent by the drugs of the 
doctor, eradicated the plasmoidium which the mos- 
quito had set adrift in their veins. So common, so 
virulent, so persistent were these attacks that many 
of the settlers, despairing of relief and unable to battle 
with their maladies and support themselves at the same 
time, returned to the densely populated districts whence 
they had come and where the afore-mentioned mos- 
quito, with its siren song and poison tongue, did not 
so abound. 

It must not be supposed that the doctor stood hands 
down during all this time. The opportunity was too 
good to be lost. He plied his patients with calomel 
and jalap, bulky doses of cinchona bark, or, in the ab- 
sence of that, something else equally as nasty if not 
quite so efficacious. 

"When a thing is bad," once said a great editor, 
"it is mighty hard to right, when it is mighty bad it 
rights itself.'* 

It would seem that things had arrived at that stage 
where the automatic reversal should come in. Sud- 
denly, nobody knew how, a change came. It was not 
at the behest of any one great personage or by any 
conclave of authority. It meant not so much anything 



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168 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

new as to get away from the old. "Get away from 
the old!" That was the cry of human hearts, and it 
rose to the very gates of heaven. But where ? How ? 
Before them were darkness, mystery, uncertainty; 
behind were bondage and bricks of straw. The 
sublime moment was at hand, it is one of those 
human climaxes in which inspiration comes in thun- 
der tones. "Speak to the sons of iEsculapius 
that they go forward!" Into the darkness, into the 
mystery, into the uncertainty they go, and lo, there are 
the cloud by day and the fire by night to lead them. 
Like all reforms, it swung to the other extreme. Blood- 
letting was tabooed, mercury was execrated, the starva- 
tion treatment of diseases gave way to liberal feeding, 
the introduction of cooling drinks in fever led up to 
the unrestricted use of the same, suffocative rooms 
and sweltering beds gave way to open doors and win- 
dows, cooling drafts, cold packs and sponging of the 
surface. Where practicable, the open air treatment 
was adopted with nothing but a canopy overhead to 
protect from rain and sun. This was a phenomenal 
stride in the right direction, though it soon became 
apparent to all except the purblind that the prohibition 
of mercurials was not altogether wise — ^that in some 
diseased conditions it was indispensable, in others 
distinctly advantageous. It took longer to re-discover 
any virtue in blood-letting, but in time it became 
evident that in certain rare conditions, and as an 
emergency measure, it was not only advisable but at 
times necessary. It was a great victory for rational 
medicine. The progressives were in the camps of 
the enemy. The antiquarians no longer existed as an 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 169 

organization. That they were not utterly destroyed, 
a peep into the saddle-bags of some of the more staid 
gave ample evidence. Here the lancet, the scarificator, 
the coil of Moxa and a generous bottle of calomel 
spoke of fealty to a lost cause. While these things were 
transpiring in the new world in the quiet unostentatious 
way which we have depicted, more marked and violent 
changes had taken place in the old world, championed 
by leaders of character. 

Thus we find that the Brunonian System, which had 
its origin in thefertilebrainof John Brown, of Scotland, 
(1735-88), found a foothold in Scotland, Italy and Ger- 
many. This system, favoring mild medication and 
supporting treatment for the majority of diseases, came 
nearer approaching the border line of rationalism than 
anything hitherto propounded. Strange as it may seem, 
it was opposed tooth and toe-nail by many of the most 
influential members of the profession^ and was only 
installed after a hard fought battle, including public 
riots. Its career was short and it died the death. 
Scarcely had the acclaim which greated Brunonianism 
died away than Broussais (1772-183 8) came forward 
with a system, more sanguinary, if anything, than any 
that preceeded it. Broussais is said to have used 
100,000 leeches in his individual practice in a twelve- 
month ! Such was the heritage of American medicine. 

Meanwhile the fame of Ohio, "the Garden Spot of 
America," had gone forth. An empire had risen where 
shortly before the crack of the white man's rifle had 
wakened the echoes of the primeval forests — forests 
whose green boughs had fanned azure skies throughout 
the ages. Villages, towns and cities had taken the 



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170 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

place of the wigwam, the beaver dam had given way 
to the structure of man, and the rushing waters and 
whir of the gristmill transformed a scene of placid 
and restful beauty into one of sordid commercialism. 
Forges and factories sent up black columns of smoke 
to mingle with the clouds, and the sound of the anvil 
and the clank and clatter of machinery drowned the 
voices of nature. The wolf and the deer, the panther 
and the bear disappeared with the forest, and Hia- 
wathas took their Minnehahas by the hand and turned 
their faces sorrowfully to the setting sun. 

Meanwhile, also, the spirit of progress was in the 
air and the medical profession began to awaken to a 
realization of its attitude toward the public. A college 
here and there, organizations and societies for improve- 
ment, grew apace with the advancement along other 
lines. In the early days the laws governing the prac- 
tice of medicine in Ohio were few, very incomplete, and 
so laxly administered as to render them practically 
of no effect. As a result, the profession was crowded 
with ignoramuses and pretenders whose self-assertive- 
ness and clamorous pretensions worked upon a credu- 
lous populace and gave to them a place alongside the 
most favored of the legitimate sons of ^sculapius. 
Good men there were, and plenty of them. Men of 
culture, refinement and high professional attainment; 
men who were college bred, and that too in the best 
schools of this or other lands, but they were hampered 
and mortified by the self-imposed company of char- 
latans and mountebanks. This latter class was not 
all imported, for with the inborn assertiveness of the 
native Ohioan many of them sprang direct from the 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 171 

soil, full armed and audacious. With a few crude 
drugs, of which they knew little, a few instruments, 
of which they knew less, a pretentious vocabulary, 
and an assumption of great wisdom, what they did 
not know was made up for by the various subterfuges 
ignorance brings to its aid. In those days decorous 
entrance into the medical profession was attained 
through apprenticeship to a preceptor. The duties 
of the apprentice were to read, to recite to the precep- 
tor, make up powders and pills, compound medicines, 
look after the instruments and appliances, and in some 
cases curry the horse, sweep out the shop and make 
himself useful generally. As he advanced in pro- 
ficiency he assisted the preceptor and — married his 
daughter. With this, he instantly acquired a prodi- 
gious asset, for with it came a full partnership and all 
the accumulated patronage, knowledge and experience 
of pater familias. Others more ambitious and prob- 
ably better equipped with funds completed their 
education by attending one or two courses of lectures. 
The awakening of the medical profession of Ohio, 
at or about the middle of the 19th century, is reflected 
in the president's address to the Ohio Medical Society 
for the year i860. He felicitates them on the large 
and constantly increasing attendance, the quantity 
and high character of work accomplished; deprecates 
the avaricious tendency of the times, which lures the 
doctor into other callings in association with medicine, 
and, speaking of those who essay to practice medicine 
and preach the Gospel, he says: "I should be loth 
to trust either my body or my soul in their keeping. " 
In that strange combination of doctor, carpenter and 



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172 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

preacher, the carpenter being also the coffin-maker, 
one can imagine the doctor "curing" the patient till 
he dies, the carpenter boxing and labeling the remains 
and the preacher launching him into the Great Beyond 
with appropriate word and ceremony. Then, speaking 
of the necessity of an elevation of the standard of 
medical education, he says: **The community judges 
* * * the qualification of the physician for his knowl- 
edge of general subjects. If they find him ignorant 
of everything outside, they naturally conclude that he 
is ignorant of everything inside the profession. The 
time has passed when by mere display a man can palm 
himself oflF as an intelligent physician. The time has 
passed when a mere knowledge of calomel and jalap 
will serve as a passport to public confidence.'^ He 
goes on to discuss certain needed reforms in our medical 
colleges, the registration of physicians and the regula- 
tion of the sale of patent medicines, and recommends 
that a law be passed by the legislature requiring every 
manufacturer of such to print on the label the recipe 
of the compound. While the above is interesting as 
indicating the strides of the profession and its aspira- 
tion for higher things, yet the tone of discouragement 
pervading it all, and the little that is accomplished 
compared with that which is talked about^ suggest 
Mark Twain's discovery that "people are always 
talking about the weather, but nobody does any- 
thing. *' This at first blush seems particularly apropos 
to the situation, but when we stop to look around and 
observe that most of the things discussed at that meet- 
ing are to-day accomplished facts, it reminds us for 
the hundredth time that agitation must always pre- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 173 

cede action and that the agitation of a good cause 
is one of the most hopeful signs of its realization. 
At this same meeting the reports of the various commit- 
tees on subjects assigned them are full and free and 
exhibit a comprehensiveness and acumen that would 
do credit to any like body anywhere. The committee 
on Medical Literature speaks of the unusual activity 
of the American press, the products of which, for scien- 
tific value, scholarship and polite learning, take rank 
among the best works of the old world. "Who reads 
an American book?'' is obsolete sarcasm and only hurts 
because it once applied. After mentioning a half- 
dozen or more books in a fairly critical way, and some 
in lavish praise, the reviewer stops to pay his respects 
in a not altogether complimentary way to the recent 
great work of Prof. S. D. Gross, whose "System of 
Surgery" not only created a big stir at the time, but 
maintained a leading position in this and other coun- 
tries for more than a quarter of a century, and is even 
now consulted more frequently than any other work on 
the subject not strictly up to date. Further on the 
reviewer makes partial amends by adding: "Neverthe- 
less the disposition is to accord it a friendly reception; 
at home and abroad hearty and even extravagant 
encomiums have been bestowed on the ^System' of 
of this prominent American surgeon and teacher. 
Simpson, of Edinburgh, speaks of it as the most complete 
work on Systematic Surgery in the English language. " 
It is worthy of note that the medical books of the 
early part of the 19th century were, for the most part, 
examples of more than ordinary literary merit. They 
were flowery and fascinating and as delightfully fra- 



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174 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

grant as the zephyrs that come over the Gardens of 
Spices. Their perusal, so far from being a task, was a 
pastime and a pleasure. As science advanced and facts 
accumulated, it became necessary to sacrifice imagery 
and elegance of diction to brevity and directness. As 
an example of epigrammatic terseness and perspicuity, 
coupled with scientific accuracy, Prof. Austin Flint's 
"Practice of Medicine" stands preeminent. It has been 
asserted that not a single line of this work could be 
expunged without materially affecting the sense. 

The foregoing gives a pretty fair idea of the status 
of the medical profession of Ohio in the mid-period 
between pioneer days and the present. It must be 
considered, however, that it applies to the more in- 
telligent and progressive contingent, and that many 
were still plodding along in the rut of their prede- 
cessors, and many were beyond the pale of the up- 
lifting influence by which the profession was being 
elevated to the plane of respectability. Of this latter 
contingent a word may not be amiss. We are too 
prone to look upon the illiterate and those removed 
from the centers of public activities with undisguised 
contempt. It was always thus, not only as concerns 
the medical profession but in all the other callings 
of life. When Ben Franklin went to England and 
applied for a job at a printing establishment, the 
proprietor, on learning that he was from the Colonies, 
seemed to regard it as something of a joke. How 
could this green provincial know anything about 
type-setting? 

**Take this," said he, handing him a compositor's 
stick, "and set up something." Before the proprietor 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 176 

could turn around twice, Franklin was back and 
placed in his hands as neat and perfect a piece of work 
as ever was done. 

"Can any good come out of Nazareth? Come and 
see. " This is what the proprietor read and wondered. 

"Why/* said he to himself, "the boy is not only 
an adept in the art, but he has brains and wit. '' 

In speaking of the settlement or backwoods doctor 
we do not wish to be understood as including that 
despicable class of harlequins whose mere assumption 
is a stigma on the noblest of professions, but of that 
infinitely higher and better class of honest, homely, 
brainy men who are doing the best possible for them- 
selves under the hampering influences besetting them. 
The backwoods doctor had no library to speak of, 
and such books as he had were old, thumbed and 
dogeared from long use. He knew little of medical 
lore. He knew little of what was going on in the 
great teeming world beyond the horizon of his own 
little world, but for this reason he was compelled 
all the more to exercise his faculties, to meet the 
various exigencies that presented themselves in his 
path. He could not turn to his library, for that was 
archaic and woefully incomplete. He could not summon 
to his assistance the masters of the art, for they were 
too remote and beyond the means of his clientele. 
He just had to sit down and think it out. He had to 
devise methods, instruments and appliances to meet 
the case, and he had to do it right. There could 
be no false step — no error of judgment, for the end 
results were the telltale which gave him an approving 
conscience or otherwise. Nature gave him brains. 



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176 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

just as it did the city-bred boy. It would seem often- 
times that nature, in consideration of the absence of 
opportunity, had been prodigal in bestowing natural 
gifts, for we find among these men a larger proportion 
endowed with strong native intellectuality than among 
the more favored in the centers of learning. Who 
has not seen men of the stamp we are describing, 
great, honest, whole-souled fellows, with massive 
brains and bodies and homely, simple ways that some- 
how got into your affections as no other men could? 
These men lead their lives and die, wept and honored 
by their little community — but often carry down 
into oblivion a mental and moral equipment that 
under favoring circumstances would have moved 
the world. Should we not take off our hats to such? 
We are now compelled to turn to another phase 
of medical life, and one which, considered in its nature 
and effects, is calculated to bring the blush of shame to 
the cheek of every properly constituted physician. 
We refer to that most detestable trait of animal 
nature — ^jealousy. We shall not assert, as some have, 
that jealousy is inherent in the calling, that the most 
evenly tempered and unselfish man, when he dons 
the cloak and staff, emblazoned with the serpent, 
becomes instinct with the malignity of that reptile, 
but it is a fact nevertheless that jealousy has always 
been rife among physicians to an extent seldom seen 
among other professions. Not only so, but these 
jealous strifes and bickerings between doctors often 
assume such magnitude as to involve whole communi- 
ties. This, of course, was subversive of concerted 
effort and exercised such a retarding force on all 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 177 

attempts at betterment of the profession as to con- 
stitute an almost insuperable obstacle. They would 
not get together, or, if they did, would not pull together, 
for what one suggested the other was sure to oppose, 
and so between them they managed eflPectually to 
block the wheels of progress. It is one of the functions 
of polite society to discountenance such sentiments, 
or at least the manifestation of them, and as a result 
men get together now and work together and accom- 
plish things. We shall have occasion more than once 
in the succeeding pages to note the baneful eflPect of 
this ugly distemper on the life and action of otherwise 
most worthy men, and to witness its blighting effects 
on enterprises originally launched with high purpose. 

MEDICAL COLLEGES 

The medical colleges of Ohio, at the present 
writing (1912), are six in number and are located 
in Cleveland (2), Cincinnati (2), Columbus and Toledo. 
The present population of the State, according to the 
census of 1910, is 4,767,121. Of the cities in which 
these colleges are located, Cleveland has a population 
of 560,663, Cincinnati 363,591, Columbus 181,511 
and Toledo 168,497. These colleges, with the excep- 
tion of the Eclectic Medical College, Cincinnati 
(Eclectic) and the Cleveland-Pulte Medical College, 
Cleveland (Homeopathic), belong to the regular school. 
The Ohio-Miami Medical College, Cincinnati, created 
by the mergement of the Ohio Medical College, founded 
in 1 8 19, with the Miami Medical College, founded in 
1852, constitutes the medical department of the 



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178 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

University of Cincinnati; the Ohio Medical College 
being admitted to such relation in 1896 and the Miami 
Medical College by virtue of its mcrgement with the 
Ohio in 1909. The faculty consists of 19 professors, 
with a teaching force all told of 117. The course 
consists of four terms of eight months each, extending 
over a period of four years. The tuition fee is $125 
a year, with a matriculation fee of $5, payable but 
once. The graduation fee is $25. The Dean is Dr. 
Paul G. Wooley. The registration for 1910-11 was 
149, of whom 38 graduated. 

The Eclectic Medical College, Cincinnati, was 
founded in 1832 at Worthington, under the name of the 
Worthington Medical College. In 1843 it was re- 
moved to Cincinnati, and after various vicissitudes 
and change of name it assumed its present title in 
1910. It has a teaching force of 26, including all 
grades. There are four terms of 30 weeks each, 
extending over four years. The enrollment for 1910-1 1 
was 95, of whom 27 graduated. Dr. RoUa L. Thomas 
is the Dean. 

The Starling-Ohio Medical College, Columbus, was 
organized in 1907 by the fusion of the Starling Medical 
College, founded in 1834, with the Ohio Medical 
University, founded in 1 890. The college has a teaching 
force of 64, of whom 27 are professors. The course 
covers four terms of eight months each, and extends 
over a period of four years. The tuition is $135 
yearly, including hospital fees and incidentals. The 
examination (graduation) fee is included in the last 
year's tuition. The matriculation fee of $5 is payable 
but once. The enrollment for 1910-11 was 252, of 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 179 

whom SI graduated, the largest in the State. The 
Dean of the medical department is W. J. Means. 

Cleveland Medical College, Cleveland, founded 1843. 
First class graduated in 1845. It assumed present 
title in 1881. In 1910 it absorbed the Cleveland 
College of Physicians and Surgeons. Under the terms 
of the merger the Ohio Wesleyan University will 
grant degrees to students enrolled in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons prior to the merger. The 
faculty includes 44 professors and 34 subordinate 
teachers, a total of 78. The course embraces four years 
of eight and a half months each. Three years of college 
work are required for admission to the first year 
of medical course. The fees for the first year are 
$142, and $135 for each of the other three years. 
Dr. B. L. Millikin is the Dean. The total regis- 
tration for 1910-11 was 171, including 64 students 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. The 
graduating class numbered 36, of whom 22 were from 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

The Cleveland-Pulte Medical College, Cleveland, was 
founded in 1849 as the Western College of Homeo- 
pathic Medicine, Cleveland, and after many ups 
and downs and as many changes in name, it assumed 
its present title after mergement with the Pulte 
Medical College of Cincinnati in 19 10. The teaching 
force numbers 59. The fees are $125 for each year and 
the terms approximately eight months in duration. 
The enrollment for 1910-11 was 81, of whom 13 gradu- 
ated. Dr. George H. Quay is the Dean. 

The Toledo Medical College was founded in 1883. 
It has a teaching force of 48 all told. The course 



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180 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

consists of four terms of eight months each, extending 
over a period of four years. The tuition fee is $120 
for each year and a matriculation fee of $5, payable 
but once. The enrollment for 1910-11 was 40, with 
8 graduates. 

A systematic attempt to name and follow up all 
the medical colleges with which this State has been 
blessed or cursed would be a bootless task. There 
is, however, one school whose origin and history are 
so intimately interwoven with that of the State as 
to demand special mention. The system upon which 
this school was founded, originated with Samuel 
Thompson (1769-1843), a native of New Hampshire. 
Care of the stomach, good food, and elimination, by 
sweating, purging, emetics, etc., were the keynotes 
of his system. He laid great stress on the use of 
vapor baths and extolled the virtues of certain botanic 
drugs, such as lobelia, yellow root and marigold. He 
investigated the medical properties of various native 
roots and herbs and protected himself in their use 
by letters patent. Thompsonianism took deep and 
firm hold on the minds of the people and drew to its 
support many men of intelligence and ability. To 
the long suffering public it was as the voice of one 
crying in the wilderness. It would be difficult to 
estimate the influence of this new cult in bringing 
about the changes in medical practice which followed 
in this country some years later. Undoubtedly it 
was very great. Intrinsically it was not new and was 
only valuable in its limitations and restrictions of 
the drastic measures then in vogue, and, like Homoeop- 
athy and Hydropathy, demonstrated the possibility 



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WILLIAM STARLING SULLIVANT 
Born in Franklinton, Franklin county, Ohio, January 
I5f 1803; graduated from Yale, 1823; an eminent Ameri- 
can scientist, especially in the department of botany; 
died near Columbus, April 30, 1873. 




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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 181 

of conquering disease without them. The first Thomp- 
sonian college, known at different times and in different 
places under various aliases, but longer known as 
the Physio-Medical College of Ohio, was organized 
by Dr. Alvin Curtis in 1838 and located in Worthington. 
Dr. Alvin Curtis (1799-1880) was a native of New 
Hampshire, a man of education, broad intelligence, 
tremendous energy, and untiring devotion to the 
cause of Thompsonianism. He was a cogent and 
convincing talker and revelled in debate. In this 
capacity he entered the arena with some of the strong- 
est men of the country, and never had occasion to 
acknowledge defeat. He was the brains and body 
of the cult, and when he died the death rattle came 
in the throat of Physio-Medicalism. Of the dozen 
medical colleges of this school organized in various 
parts of the United States, none survive to-day 
(191 1), the last having just terminated its existence 
by mergement into the Chicago College of Medicine 
and Surgery. 

OHIO MEDICAL COLLEGE 

This venerable institution, the first of its kind 
in Ohio and the second west of the Allegheny 
Mountains, was founded by Dr. Daniel Drake in 18 19. 
The first faculty consisted of Dr. Daniel Drake (1785- 
1852) and three colleagues. Dr. Jesse Smith, Dr. B. S. 
Bohrer and Elijah Slack. The fees were $20 to 
each professor and an additional $5 for hospital and 
incidentals. The requirements for graduation were 
two terms of lectures of five months each and the 
presentation and public defense of a thesis on some 



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182 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

medical subject. There were seven graduates at the 
end of the course. At the second commencement 
in 1822 there were also seven graduates, among whom 
was John L. Richmond, of Newtown, O. Dr. Richmond 
enjoys the distinction of being the first man in the 
United States to perform the Caesarean Section. This 
occured in 1827, only five years after his graduation, 
which, when we consider the dearth of opportunity 
to acquire surgical experience and the limited ar- 
mamentarium at his disposal, cannot but excite wonder 
and admiration for the daring operator. In April, 
1912, a memorial tablet was erected in Newtown 
in commemoration of the man and his achievement. 
About this time it became manifest, and soon con- 
spicuously so, that all was not serene with the Ohio 
Medical. Questions of policy and personal interest 
had obtruded to create dissatisfaction and distrust. 
Drake, as it would seem, was the disturbing element. 
He was a man of intense nature, bold, aggressive, 
and unrelenting; a man of great mental dynamics. 
Even to-day he is regarded by many as the most 
conspicuous figure on the medical horizon of the 
State. Notwithstanding this, and the fact that he 
has been eulogized as few men are, the conviction 
is forced upon one that he was not a leader in the 
sense that he attached men to him. He had not 
a magnetic personality. He had not those traits 
which bring voluntary subordination. Rather he 
repelled men and awakened their antagonism by his 
assertiveness and want of tact. Though usually 
at the front of every enterprise which he championed, 
it was not by reason of the good will of his colleagues. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 183 

but because of indomitable energy and will power 
which placed him there, and others followed because 
they could not lead. Two other members having been 
added to the faculty, it now consisted of Drake, 
Smith, Goodman, Bohrer and Slack. Goodman and 
Bohrer, finding conditions intolerable, had at the end 
of the second course already severed their connection 
with the school, and the faculty was now reduced to 
three. Smith and Slack, were proteges of Drake, 
having received their appointments through him. 
Immediately, succeeding the second commencement, 
Drake being in the chair. Dr. Smith moved that 
Drake be dismissed as a member of the faculty. The 
motion was seconded by Slack and it devolved on 
Drake as Dean to put the motion. This Drake did 
unhesitatingly, and the motion carried unanimously. 
Drake vacated his seat and was escorted to the door. 
From now on it was war to the knife and the knife 
to the hilt. Under pressure of public opinion. Smith 
and Slack were driven to rescind their action and 
Drake was reinstated. He resigned immediately and 
sought new fields. Gradually the faculty was re- 
cruited to full strength, a board of trustees created 
and in 1826 a handsome and commodious building 
erected on Sixth Street, near Vine. Things were mov- 
ing smoothly, and prosperity had apparently come to 
stay. Among the new professors were two deserving 
of special mention. One was Dr. Jedediah Cobb and 
the other John Moorhead. Cobb (1800-61) was 
from Maine and a graduate of Bowdoin College, a 
genius in his line of work, great as an anatomist, 
greater as a wielder of the scalpel, but greatest of all 



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184 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

and perhaps unsurpassed as an eloquent and fascinating 
lecturer on anatomy Quettner). "He was the very 
personification of a neat, gentlemanly and finished 
lecturer," says S. D. Gross. "His students worshipped 
him, his colleagues in the faculty loved and respected 
him." Cobb was the one man who could affiliate 
the incongruous elements of an ill-mated faculty, and 
in this he found exercise for one of the highest attributes. 
John Moorhead (i 784-1 873) was the son of an 
Irish baronet, was bom in Ireland on his father's 
estate, graduated in Edinburgh, and came to Cin- 
cinnati in 1820. Moorhead was a large, deliberate, 
impressive man, of liberal education, dignified manners 
and a courtly air which won for him respect and esteem. 
He had square features, distinctly Hibernian, and spoke 
with a brogue not easily understood. He was method- 
ical and precise, and did all things by rote and by rule. 
He and Drake hated each other cordially. It was a 
case of hatred at first sight. He had more influence 
over men than Drake had, and in this way managed 
to make himself a thorn in Drake's side for years in 
succession. When Drake resigned after being re- 
instated he went his way. Vengeful and implacable, 
he had no thought of abandoning the field to his 
detested enemy, Moorhead, nor to those who had 
attempted to humiliate him by expulsion from the 
college. He must vindicate himself openly and in 
the most public manner. He must humiliate and 
utterly confound his enemies. The time was not 
ripe. He could wait. In the spring of 183 1, Drake, 
who had been lecturing in the Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, turned up suddenly in Cincinnati with 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 185 

a complete teaching staff of strong men, gleaned from 
the colleges of the East. His avowed purpose was to 
establish a medical department of the Miami Univer- 
sity. Consternation was in the camp of the enemy. 
The trustees of the Ohio Medical hastened to make 
overtures. Drake, with one important exception, 
made his own terms, which were to the effect that 
desirable positions be given the men with him and that 
Smith and Slack be dismissed. This was nectar to 
Drake, but there were bitter dregs at the bottom, 
for despite of all Moorhead was retained and further- 
more held the position originally occupied by Drake. 
The war went merrily on. Not content with lampoon- 
ing each other through the public press and traducing 
each other at all times and on all occasions, these 
arch enemies must needs stoop to the methods of the 
common ruffian by engaging publicly and in the 
presence of witnesses in fistic encounter. A casual 
meeting on the river front, whither Moorhead had 
gone to await an incoming boat, was the occasion. 
Moorhead, in undertone, but intended for Drake's 
ears, congratulated the Medical College of Ohio on 
having at its helm so distinguished a personage as 
Daniel Drake. It is hardly necessary to state that with 
a man of Drake's temperament resentment followed 
this insult, and that with the dogged nature of Moor- 
head there would be no retraction or abatement in 
the import of the sarcasm. The expected happened. 
They were soon at it, hammer and tongs, and these 
two distinguished gentlemen were making an exhibition 
of street pugilism for the entertainment of the vulgar 
crowd. But this logy son of a titled sire was no 



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186 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

match for the agile and wiry Drake, and was taken 
away and into seclusion with battered features and 
an ugly scalp wound. From his retreat he issued a 
challenge to mortal combat, which challenge was 
delivered to Drake in due form. Drake, however, 
being quite satisfied with the weapons with which 
nature had provided him, and not being inclined to 
trust to others of which he knew less, declined. Where- 
upon Moorhead branded Drake no gentleman and 
proceeded to ignore him. 

The coup de maitre which again placed the reins 
in Drake's hands proved as in other instances a short- 
lived triumph. Drake's imperiousness, coupled with 
the heavy diplomacy of his arch enemy, soon began 
to draw and to drive Drake's adherents to Moorhead. 
The result was that Drake soon found himself tied 
hand and foot. Again Drake left, only to return in 
1833, bringing with him one of the strongest faculties 
ever assembled in the west. He now organized and 
set in motion the medical department of the Cin- 
cinnati College, whose brief but phenomenal career 
of four years finds few equals in the annals of medical 
history. 

In 1839 John Moorhead succeeded to the title 
and estates of his deceased father, and thereafter 
became known as Sir John Moorhead, Gentleman. 

Again and again Drake wandered away only to 
be called back, for despite his truculent disposition 
he was a tower. of strength, and finally, in 1852, full 
of hope and enthusiasm, at the opening of the session 
of the Medical College of Ohio, that first and dearest 
child of his enterprise, this man of genius and vagaries 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 187 

yielded to the inevitable and slept with his fathers. 
As the founder of medical colleges, as a prolific writer, 
as the author of that stupendous original work, "Dis- 
eases of the Interior Valley of North America," as 
a lecturer and public speaker, as a promoter of chari- 
table enterprises, and in a thousand and one other 
ways his phienomenal versatility and prodigious capac- 
ity for work proclaimed him a genius. 

The Miami Medical College, which was destined to 
play a conspicuous part in the history of the Ohio 
Medical in the double role of rival and ally, was organ- 
ized in 1852. In 1857 it suspended operations, and part 
of the faculty went over to the Medical College of 
Ohio. Others of the Miami faculty joined later. 
The coalition was not a happy one, as George C. 
Blackman, the professor of surgery and acknowledged 
leader of the old Ohio Medical, set himself to the task 
of subordinating the Miami contingent and incidaitally 
every other member of the faculty as it then existed. 

George C. Blackman (1819-71) was one of the 
famous surgeons of the time. As an operator he 
was unexcelled. His knowledge of the literature of 
surgery was encyclopedic and he possessed the rare fac- 
ulty of communicating this knowledge in clear, forceful 
language, which, coupled with his masterful presence 
and pleasing address, made him immensely popular 
with his classes. The students listened with rapt 
attention to his talks, which were always interesting, 
often thrilling, though so loosely connected and 
discursive as to scarcely be considered as lectures. 
These talks were not systematized and followed no 
regular plan. He was capricious and whimsical, 



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188 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

often failing to appear before the class for days at 
a time. Toward his colleagues he could be gracious 
on occasion, but on the other hand he was intolerant 
of opposition and usually found himself pitted against 
one or several of them, or, gladiator-like, standing oflF 
the whole set. In these contests more frequently 
than otherwise he carried his point, either by sheer 
domination or by the aid of the trustees, over whom 
he held a strangely powerful influence. Blackman 
probably had in him more of the elements of greatness 
than any other man ever connected with the faculty, 
but was woefully wanting in the crowning essentials 
of systematization. Had he applied himself syste- 
matically to his work, had he left in categorical and 
permanent form the results of that work, embodying 
his vast knowledge and experience, there would have 
been none to contest his title to being one of America's 
greatest surgeons. In i860, Blackman, who had been 
battling single-handed, gave utterance to some very 
uncomplimentary remarks about the faculty. This 
was all the more inexcusable in that the remarks 
were addressed to the class. A thoroughly aroused 
and infuriated faculty demanded of him a retraction 
and open apology. His reply was a repetition of 
the aspersions with, if anything, more point and venom 
than before. The faculty called for the expulsion of 
Blackman. The trustees declined to accede to the 
demand, whereupon the faculty resigned as a body. 
Blackman had torn down the temple about his ears. 
As he stood there in the midst of the ruins he had 
created, a lonely, imposing figure, men were moved 
to admiration, for they felt that if he could tear down 



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ROBERTS BARTHOLOW 
Born in New WindsoFp Maryland, Noveml>er i8, 1831; 
received his diplgnia as a physician from the medical 
department of the University of Maryland; from 1857 
to 1864 was in the service of the Government as a surgeon; 
later was a leftdirig practitioner and teacher in Cincinnati, 
finally removing to Philadelphia; eminent aa a medical 
writer; died in Philadelphia > May 10, if>04. 

GEORGE CURTIS BLACK MAN 
Bom in Ne^nown, Conn^cticutt April ai, 1819; grad- 
uated from the Col lege of Physicians and Surgeons, New 
York Qty, 184OJ located in CineinnAti in J 855 : an instruc- 
tor in the Medical College of Ohio and prominent physician; 
writer on medicine; died July 17, iBjh 




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^M'^ KI<i: AND PRDGR 



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.^o^ ,01 vaMUiA|bb«tw!»i(»el^* 'ff?^ frequent '; 

■ -'nrricvl 1.' 'iljii-t, either bv sheer 

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-bB-ra ;Qi8i ,ii IhqA ,;rijpUDamicO ,n^oi^sA rti imb«^ ' 

oirbtmofi iw8iw^kwm^AV^o<^!Jf^^J]?^?f^^T^ great ne;'^ 
;aabi2xriq^a9iiimoiqbn£oiri01o?89lIoOUoibsM5^^^ {.,^,,1-. 

/. : J in the erowiiing essentia!. 
' .ti. Il.:.i he a; t^Hed himself syste- 
. :.-: worh., h.v! he Kft in categorical arvi 
' ^ The results of that work, embodyin.- 
1 ■" ai'J experience, there would ha\ 
• ■ ! 1 *- title to being one of America' 
• n {^(k>, Blackman, who had be 
'. -h ri\'e utterance to some Vf 
'■ ..-. s about the faculty. T": 
•.* •' 'n.-..ble in that the rcma: 

« vlass. A thoroughly arou 
tien^.ti^ded of h.im a retract: 
an! r> • ■ ". His '* , ly was a repetition 

the a : A.iii, if -r ' ''..tr, nioie point and ve- 

than i • re. Tl^e \i • * called for the expulsif-' 
BiaJcn^an. T\ r .• - • .''.lined to accede to 
demarsvi, whcrch; .- . * u!ty resigned as a I 

I>:..'k:!ian had t. ■• :''- temple about his ■ 

As he stood th'^r; Mst of the ruins h 

t(d, a lone y. . i:/ure, m^-n were • 

■ ' • ':• 'ration, f'^r t: . that if he ».'^uld tear 



a 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 189 

in the face of such opposition he could build up again. 
Undismayed by the wreck and ruin about him, the 
sudden and complete collapse of one of the oldest 
and most renowned institutions of medical learning 
in the land, this indomitable man gathered about 
him another coterie of active energetic men, which, 
after some weeding out, gave to the Medical College 
of Ohio the strongest faculty in its existence. This 
faculty was at the acme of usefulness in the decade 
between the years of 1865 and 1875. Between Black- 
man and Bartholow, the two strong men of the faculty, 
there soon arose differences, and as neither would 
give in and both had adherents to sustain them, it 
came to the point of coffee and pistols for two, but 
this denouement was happily averted by intervening 
friends. 

To record in detail the fortunes of the Medical 
College of Ohio would be to disclose a moving picture 
of internal strife and dissension scarcely paralleled 
in any like institution and extending over a period 
of ninety years. The changes in the personnel of the 
faculty were no less remarkable than the wrangling 
which led to them. It is recorded that in one short 
year no less than twenty-five changes were effected 
in the faculty, and these things became so notorious 
the country over as to make it difficult to fill the 
depleted ranks with talented and self-respecting men. 
But notwithstanding and despite it all, the old Ohio 
lived to see its rivals disappear one by one, until, in 
the losing game against the great modem universities, 
it made a virtue of necessity and itself took refuge 
under the wing of the University of Cincinnati. In 



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190 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

1865, at the close of the Civil War, the Miami Medical 
College was resuscitated, and with an enrollment of 
156 entered upon its second career auspiciously. 
In 1866 it occupied its new building on the comer of 
Plum and Sixth streets. In 1909, after a fairly success- 
ful career marked by congenialty and cordial 
cooperation of the faculty, it surrendered its autonomy, 
and, linked to its old rival, became the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Cincinnati under the title 
of the Ohio Miami Medical College. 

In Juettner's "Daniel Drake and His Followers," the 
reader will find elaborate treatment of the subjects 
touched upon in the above sketch. 

PERSONNEL OF THE FACULTY OF THE MEDICAL COLLEGE 
OF OHIO, FROM BEGINNING TO END 

Anatomy — Jesse Smith, Jedediah Cobb, John T. 
Shotwell, G. W. Bayless, H. W. Baxley, Thomas 
Wood, J. P. Judkins, W. W. Dawson, Wm. H. Go- 
brecht, P. S. Conner, L. R. Longworth, Joseph Ran- 
sohoff, J. L. Cilley, A. V. Phelps. 

Physiology — ^Daniel Drake, Jesse Smith, Jedediah 
Cobb, John T. Shotwell, L. M. Lawson, S. G. Armor. 
J. H. Tate, C. G. Comegys, J. F. Hibberd, W. W. 
Dawson, E. Rives, J. T. Whittaker, F. Forchheimer, 
B. K. Rachford, A. C. Poole, Wm. Muehlberg, E. 
M. Baehr. 

Chemistry — ^Elijah Slack, Thomas D. Mitchell, John 
Locke, Charles W. Wright, John A. Warder, H. E. 
Foote, Charles O'Leary, Nelson Saylor, Roberts Bartho- 
low, P. S. Conner, Samuel Nickles, H. A. Clark, 
F. Forchheimer, Jas. G. Hindman, A. C. Poole, Wm. 
H. Crane, A. B. Reemelin. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 191 

Materia Medica — ^B. S. Bohrer, E. Slack, Josiah 
Whitman, C. E. Pierson, John Eberle, J. C. Cross, 
M. B. Wright, Daniel Oliver, J. P. Harrison, L. M. 
Lawson, Thos. O. Edwards, James Graham, J. C. 
Reeve, Theo. Parvin, Roberts Bartholow, Samuel 
Nickles, B. K. Rachford, A. C. Poole. 

Practice — ^Daniel Drake, Jedediah Cobb, John Moor- 
head, John Eberle, J. P. Kirtland, J. P. Harrison, 
John Bell, L. M. Lawson, C. G. Comegys, Jas. Graham, 
Roberts Bartholow, Jas. T. Whittaker, F. Forchheimer. 

Surgery — ^Jesse Smith, John D. Goodman, Jedediah 
Cobb, Jas. M. Strangleton, Alban Goldsmith, R. D. 
Mussey, H. W. Baxley, Asbury Evans, G. C. Blackman, 
W. W. Dawson, P. S. Conner, Jos. Ransohoff* 

Obstetrics — ^Daniel Drake, John Moorhead, Josiah 
Whitman, John F. Henry, M. B. Wright, L. C. Rives, 
N. T. Marshall, Geo. Mendenhall, Theo. Parvin, 
C. D. Palmer, T. A. Reamy, E. G. Zinke. 

Gynecology — ^Daniel Drake, John Moorhead, Josiah 
Whitman, John F. Henry, M. B. Wright, L. C. Rives, 
N. T. Marshall, Geo. Mendenhall, B. F. Richardson, 
Theo. Parvin, C. D. Palmer, C. L. Bonifield. 

STARLING MEDICAL COLLEGE 

In the year 1846 the medical department of the 
Willoughby University, located at Willoughby, . O., 
moved to Columbus and was incorporated under the 
name of Willoughby Medical College of Columbus. 
In the autumn of the same year, it opened its doors 
to one hundred and fifty students. A college building 
was extemporized from an old frame shell known as 
the Clay Club Room, which had been erected and 
used by the followers of Henry Clay during the presi- 
dential campaign preceding. The Willoughby school 



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192 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

being handicapped for means, Lyne Starling, a wealthy 
resident of Columbus, was prevailed upon to come 
forward with a munificent donation for the erection 
of a suitable building for college and hospital purposes. 
To save embarrassment, the faculty of the old school re- 
signed and received appointments in the new. The 
newly created school was duly organized and chartered 
under the name of Starling Medical College, much 
to the pleasure of the generous donor. A lot was 
purchased on the comer of State and Sixth streets 
and plans for building advertised for. The plans 
adopted were those of Mr. Sheldon, of New York. 
The work was commenced in March, 1849, and prose- 
cuted with great vigor, but before the walls were ready 
for the roof the entire bequest, amounting to ^35,000, 
had been consumed. The Starling heirs came forward 
with additional donations, and, by dint of great effort 
on the part of Drs. Francis Carter and Samuel M. 
Smith, funds were raised from time to time to carry 
on the work. The building was occupied in 1851, 
though still unfinished. In 1852 Drs. Howard, Carter 
and Smith, the building committee, furnished and 
equipped the hospital. It now carried a debt of 
$40,000. Much, however, remained unfinished until 
the last decade of the last century. An era of prosper- 
ity enabled the trustees to gradually retire its obli- 
gations, and in 1875 the college was practically out 
of debt. As it stands, the college building is one of 
the finest specimens of mediaeval architecture in the 
country, and is much admired. 

The original board of trustees of Starling Medical 
College was made up of the very best talent that could 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 193 

be secured in and about Columbus. William S. 
SuUivant (1803-73), first president of the board, 
was a botanist of international fame. In company 
with Dr. Asa Gray, of Harvard University, he system- 
atized the flora of Ohio and the Southwest. He 
wrote a number of botanical works, one of which, 
on mosses, written in Latin, gave him world-wide 
celebrity. The "Annual of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences" refers to him as "the most ac- 
complished biologist which this country has ever 
produced." Dr. Francis Carter (1814-81), the sec- 
ond son of Major General Carter, of the British 
Army, was bom in Ireland and graduated at Kings 
College, Dublin. He came to America in 1831. He 
was a quiet, scholarly man, of excellent judgment 
and esthetic temperament, and the very soul of honor. 
Dr. Samuel M. Smith (1816-74), ^^r many years 
the leading practician of Columbus, was a man of 
high professional and business attainment and great 
activities. His monument stands at the comer of 
High and Broad streets. 

The early faculties of the school were gathered 
mostly from the East and were made up of men of 
wide reputation. Among them were Dr. H. H. 
Childs, Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, and 
others of equal standing. Between the periods of 
1850 and 1857 the school, as the result of the resig- 
nation of so many tried and good men, and the sub- 
stitution of new and untried men, experienced a great 
setback. The classes dropped from 155 in 1850 to 
47 in 1857. Confidence had been shaken in the efli- 
ciency and stability of the school, and the outlook was 



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194 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

glcx)my. This was one of the crises which most schools 
experience at some time in their career, and from which 
only the strong emerge. From this ebb tide a gradual 
improvement in the condition of the school is notice- 
able. In 1874, by reason of a vacancy in the chair 
of Materia Medica, a crisis developed most unex- 
pectedly. The two strong men of the faculty now 
were Dr. John W. Hamilton, Professor of Surgery, 
and Dr. Starling Loving, Professor of Practice of 
Medicine. Each of these had selected a man for the 
vacancy, and each insisted on his man or none. The 
faculty took sides according to their own predilections, 
and a deadlock ensued. Not that the faculty was 
equally divided on the question, but because of a 
provision in the bylaws that a candidate to be eligible 
for appointment by the trustees must have the unan- 
imous vote of the faculty. After long and fruitless 
eflFort to reconcile the difference, the Hamilton faction 
held a meeting and elected their man, and, as it would 
seem, without consulting the trustees issued announce- 
ments with the same man booked for Materia Medica. 
The trustees, not relishing this, declined to acquiesce 
in the arrangement, and, taking the reins in their own 
hands, reversed the order of things and appointed 
the Loving man. Inasmuch as Drs. Loving and 
Carter, two of the members of the faculty, were pulling 
together and both were members of the board of 
trustees, it would seem that the moral advantage was 
on their side. This action on the part of the board 
of trustees was followed immediately by the resig- 
nation of Drs. Hamilton, Kinsman, Pierce and Haider- 
man. Dr. Wormley did not resign, but became 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 195 

practically dead timber by holding himself alcK>f from 
faculty meetings and neglecting his duties as a lecturer. 
Dr. John W. Hamilton (1823-91) was bom in 
Muskingum County, O., educated at Granville, studied 
under Willard Parker, New York, received his degree 
from Willoughby Medical College and occupied the 
chair of Surgery in Starling 1853-74. He was a man 
of ponderous proportions, commanding figure and 
natural dignity, which dignity, with a corresponding 
decorum, never deserted him under any circumstances. 
Usually courteous, and in a manner suave, he could 
be sharp and critical on occasion without in any degree 
abating his dignity or decorum. He never allowed 
himself to be familiar with others, and it was tacitly 
understood that he expected like consideration in 
return. He was a man of positive convictions, which 
he never surrendered. He was, however, politic, 
and could, if need be, hold his opinions in abeyance 
until the psychological moment, when, as a fitting 
climax to well-laid schemes, his views would be ac- 
cepted without protest, or enforced in spite of protest. 
He was a ready and cogent speaker, had a deliberate 
and impressive delivery, and, as a lecturer, was very pop- 
ular with his classes. His knowledge of the literature 
of surgery was extensive, but his broad experience 
and conmion sense deductions stood him better in 
hand and he was wont to place more store on the latter 
than the former. He was in much demand for expert 
testimony before the courts, and it is doubtful if he 
was ever cornered, though at times opposed by the 
shrewdest lawyers and most learned physicians attain- 
able. It is said of him that on one occasion he gave 



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196 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

testimony at variance with some of the best authorities. 
"The books do not say so," said the opposing lawyer. 
"Then so much the worse for the books,'* was the 
unhesitating reply. John W. Hamilton was among 
the master surgeons of his time and enjoyed a reputa- 
tion that extended beyond the borders of his State. 
He was honored and respected, but, like all men of 
active, aggressive spirit, he had envious rivals and 
enemies. He amassed a large fortune, and at his 
death had made such excellent disposition of his 
accumulations as to ensure much larger returns in 
the future. 

Dr. Starling Loving (1827-1911) was born in Russel- 
ville, Ky., educated in French's Academy, graduated 
at Starling Medical College (1849), took a post-graduate 
course at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
New York City, and was house physician to Bellevue, 
Ward's Island and Charity Hospitals (1849-53). He 
became associated with the faculty of Starling Medical 
College as early as 1855 and continued in that relation 
to the time of his death. He was surgeon of the 
6th Ohio Infantry in the Civil War, was president 
of the Ohio Medical Society (1881), and also vice- 
president of the American Medical Association (1894). 

Dr. Starling Loving was tall, well built, square- 
shouldered, but without an ounce of superfluous 
flesh. He had a lofty dignity and knightly, bearing 
that made him a conspicuous figure anywhere. When 
in the humor he was the most affable of men and had 
the rare faculty of making the recipient feel that he 
or she was the special object of his most intimate 
regard and solicitude. He was a man of moods and 



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STARLING LOVING 
Bom in Russellville, Kentucky, November 13, 1827; 
graduated as doctor of medicine from Starling Medical 
College (Columbus, Ohio), 1849; surgeon in the Civil 

War; notable practiticniiiJ of Crklumbus, and long connected 
with the StarEng Medical Colkgo; Jied in Columbus, 




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,2ijdmufoO ni b6tb jagoflbO bsiib^l/* gniliii^ 'JriJ rfJiw ' 

! :>. •' . ' .1 ut, i'Lt' all n.- * 
: iiir, lit- :■ : cm i'^u^^ rival-; 
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: 4'y;, t''^f k a p- - t erad- 
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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 197 

could change his attitude toward one in the twinkling 
of an eye. From superlative affability he could become 
fiercely denunciatory, cynical or even combative. 
Like most aggressive men he was intolerant of op- 
position, and in men of like nature with whom he was 
brought in contact he found his acme of odium and 
toward them cherished an uncompromising antipathy. 
He was a man of learning and ability; very compre- 
hensive, precise and circumstantial in his lectures, 
and occasionally indulged himself so much in the 
little details and niceties of his subject as to obscure 
the leading features. He was a splendid therapeutist, 
probably one of the best in the country, a safe and 
successful practician, controlled an immense practice 
and was a man of such indefatigable energy and 
endurance as to be a standing wonder to all that knew 
him. 

Theodore G. Wormley (1827-97) was bom in 
Wormleysburg, Pa., attended Dickinson College at 
Carlisle, received the degree of M. D. from the 
Philadelphia College of Medicine (1849), located 
in Columbus 1850, became teacher of Chemistry in 
Starling Medical College in 1854 and so continued 
until 1877, when he accepted a tender of the chair 
of Chemistry for the Medical Department of the 
University of Pennsylvania. He held positions in 
other schools and scientific bodies, published many 
pamphlets on chemistry and allied subjects, and in 
1867 published his great work on the "Micro-Chemistry 
of Poisons,*' which brought him world-wide and 
enduring fame. 



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198 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

At or about the time of the reorganization of the 
faculty of Starling Medical College, Dr. Alexander 
Dunlap, of Springfield, received appointment to the 
chair of Abdominal Surgery. Dr. Dunlap, being 
the pioneer ovariotomist of the great West and a man 
of international fame, deserves more than passing 
notice. 

Alexander Dunlap (1815-94), was bom in Brown 
County, Ohio, graduated at the Miami University 1836, 
read medicine with his brother at Greenfield, received 
his M. D. at Cincinnati Medical College in 1839, and 
took up practice in Ripley in 1 846. In 1 843 he performed 
his first ovariotomy and probably the first in the West, 
barring the cases operated and reported by Ephraim 
McDowell. This heroic work on the part of Dunlap 
was met with a storm of protest by the profession 
and public, and he was denounced as a conscienceless 
butcher. Despite threats and persecutions he con- 
tinued his work along this line until, with an average 
of seventy-five recoveries to the hundred cases, he 
compelled recognition and was hailed as a benefactor. 
As a pioneer in abdominal surgery he stands among 
the world's best. Alexander Dunlap was a quiet, 
easy-going, good-natured man, and one who would 
never be suspected of standing off a mob or setting 
the world on fire. He could roll a quid of tobacco 
around in his mouth while talking with so much 
unction as to convey the impression that he was 
sucking a good-sized chunk of taffy. As the professor 
of Abdominal Surgery in Starling Medical College, it 
was the writer's fortune to follow him in his work, 
though not in title. His naive rehearsal of his first 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 199 

case, as related to the writer, is worthy of preservation 
as indicating the simple operation of a strong mind: 
"I had hung out my shingle and waited long for a 
patient, when one day a man came riding into town 
on a foaming horse and rode up to a doctor's office. 
Finding no one there he rode over to another office 
with like result. He then came to me. A tree had 
fallen on a man and he wanted me to go with him. 
I got on my horse and we started. I tried to think 
of what to do for a man that a tree had fallen on. 
I could not think of anything Pd heard in my lectures 
about a tree falling on a man. I couldn't recall 
anything Vd read about a tree falling on a man, and 
so I was in great perplexity. Arrived at the house, 
I found another doctor there, and after examination 
and consultation I told him I had a catheter in my 
saddle-bags, and, as that was the only instrument, 
we had between us, we concluded to use it. The 
man got well, and from that time on I had patients 
with the rest of them.'' 

The desertion of so large a body of men from 
Starling Medical College, among whom were some 
of the ablest and best teachers whose names had 
long been associated with the college, was staggering. 
The disaffected members at once organized and pre- 
pared to put into operation the Columbus Medical 
College, which received hearty support from the 
outset and which threatened the very existence of 
the mother school. Large numbers of old-time friends 
and alumni of Starling Medical College now turned 
their backs on her, and even affiliated with the rival 
school or sought ad eundem degrees elsewhere. 



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200 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

This was the darkest era in the history of old Starling 
and called for the highest order of courage and un- 
wavering fealty on the part of its supporters. But 
such men were there, and under the leadership of that 
indomitable knight, Starling Loving, the reorgani- 
zation went on. The faculty being recruited and the 
reorganization completed, the belated announcements 
for 1875-76 were sent out and a class of thirty 
responded. After three years of strenuous battling 
and faithful work on the part of the faculty, the tide 
of opinion again turned toward the mother institution 
and the classes began to grow accordingly. From 
now on, with one or two exceptions, each year noted 
a steady growth in the size of the classes. With 
returning prosperity yearly dividends were distrib- 
uted pro rata among the members of the faculty, 
improvements and additions made to the college 
building, new apparatus and appliances purchased, 
modem methods of teaching introduced, additions 
made to the teaching corps, and more thorough 
work exacted of all connected with the school. Star- 
ling Medical College was now enjoying an era of 
prosperity beyond all precedent. 

In 1896-97 and 1897-98 the enrollment numbered 
two hundred and eighty-seven on each occasion, 
enough to fill every seat in the amphitheater. After 
the death of Dr. John Hamilton negotiations were 
set on foot whereby the Columbus Medical College 
became merged into Starling. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 201 



THE OHIO MEDICAL UNIVERSITY 

This institution received its charter December 
31st, 1890, but did not complete its organization 
until 1892, so that its first class graduated in 1893. 
Its principal organizers were: Drs. J. F. Baldwin, R. 
Harvey Reed (deceased), J. W. Wright, J. M. Dunham, 
Geo. M. Waters, D. P. Adams, and W. J. Means. It 
consisted of the three departments of Medicine, 
Dentistry and Pharmacy, and its peculiar character- 
istic was its adoption of the recitation plan of teaching 
instead of the didactic. Soon after its organization 
it erected an attractive college building on Park 
Street, and became affiliated with the Prostestant 
Hospital for clinical material. After various vicissi- 
tudes it finally consolidated in 1907 with Starling 
Medical College to form the Starling-Ohio Medical 
College. 

TRUSTEES AND FACULTY, STARLING MEDICAL COLLEGE 

Trustees — William S. SuUivant, Joseph R. Swan, 
John W. Andrews, John Butterfield, Robert W. 
McCoy, Francis Carter, Samuel M. Smith, Lincoln 
Goodale, Joseph SuUivant, James A. Wilcox, A. Denny 
Rodgers, Starling Loving, John M. Wheaton, Erskine 
B. FuUerton, E. L. Hinman, P. W. Huntington, James 
Kilboume, Josiah Smith, Curtis C. Howard, D. Tod 
Gilliam, Thomas C. Hoover. 

Anatomy — Jesse P. Judkins, John Dawson, John 
M. Wheaton, Otto Frankenburg. 

Physiology — ^Henry C. Pierce, J. W. Conklin, D. 
Tod Gilliam, A. M. Bleile, C. B. Morrey. 



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202 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

Chemistry — Theodore G. Wormley, Sidney A. Nor- 
ton, Curtis C. Howard. 

Materia Medica — ^Samuel M* Smith, Charles A* 
Lee, John W. Hamilton, Homer Thrall, Starling 
Loving, William M. Chamberlin, Erskine B. FuUerton. 

Practice of Medicine — John W. Butterfield, D. 
Hansbury Smith, S. M. Smith, Starling Loving. 

Surgery — ^Richard L. Howard, Edward M. Moore, 
John W. Hamilton, James H. Pooley, Davis Haider- 
man, Thomas C. Hoover. 

Obstetrics — ^H. H. Childs, Francis Carter, Henry 
G. Landis, D. Tod Gilliam, Otto Frankenburg, E. 
J. Wilson. 

Gynecology — ^Henry G. Landis, D. Tod Gilliam, 
E. M. Gilliam. 

Note. — ^Necessarily the names of prominent and 
active members of the faculty have been omitted from 
the above list, among whom may be mentioned, Drs. 
W. D. and C. S. Hamilton, Surgeons; Dr. C. F. Clark, 
Ophthalmologist; and Judge Gilbert H. Stewart, Author 
and Professor of Medical Jurisprudence. 



CLEVELAND MEDICAL COLLEGE 

As Starling Medical College of Columbus was the 
direct descendant of the Medical Department 
of Willoughby University, so also was the Cleveland 
Medical College an offshoot of the same, having been 
organized by a faction of the faculty who had separated 
themselves from the mother institution for that purpose. 
The organizers were Drs. John Delameter, Jared P. 
Kirtland and J. Lang Cassels. The organization 
took place in 1843 and was brought about by two 
causes: the obvious impossibility of sustaining a Medi- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 203 

cal College at Willoughby and a tempting offer from 
Cleveland for its transference to that town. The 
Willoughby University of Lake Erie, of which the col- 
lege now under consideration constituted the medical 
department, never, outside of the medical department, 
had any existence except in organization and name. 
The quasi institution was located in the little town 
of Willoughby, a place of about fifteen hundred 
inhabitants, which inhabitants were distinguished 
for their culture and refinement and zeal for learning. 
"It enjoyed the unusual advantage of a circulating 
library, a lyceum and a debating' society in which 
historical, political, literary and scientific questions 
were discussed with zeal and ability.'* From this 
nucleus and a very natural desire for better facilities 
and greater things, the idea of a great institution of 
learning, a university in which all the cardinal branches 
were taught, took shape and led to the organization 
of the Willoughby University of Lake Erie. The 
medical department, the only one assuming any tan- 
gible form, consisted of Horace A. Ackley, M.D., Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy; Amasa Trowbridge, M.D., Professor 
of Surgery; Daniel L. M. Peixotto, M.D., Professor of 
Chemistry, and William M. Smith, M.D., Professor 
of Materia Medica. Like most of the medical 
colleges of that early date, the faculty was composed 
of strong men, men of a mental caliber that would 
do honor to any of the boasted institutions of to-day. 
In 1835-36 the Medical Department of Willoughby 
contained twenty-three students and conferred the 
degree of M.D. on five successful candidates. After 
a disheartening struggle of nine years, accentuated 



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204 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

by irrepressible dissensions between trustees and 
faculty, it became evident that something must be 
done. There must be a change of base. Part of 
the faculty were in favor of Cleveland and part favored 
Columbus. Opportunely at this time some enter- 
prising citizens of Cleveland came forward with an 
offer of grounds for the college and financial aid in 
erecting a suitable college building. Immediately 
thereupon the three gentlemen named above, Dela- 
meter, Kirtland and Cassels severed their connection 
with the Willoughby institution and organized the 
Cleveland Medical College. Impatient to begin opera- 
tions and not wishing to await the delays incident to 
obtaining a charter from the legislature, the new college 
was organized as the Medical Department of the 
Western Reserve University, located at Hudson. 

The Willoughby College, as an organization, soon 
thereafter removed to Columbus, and, after the munif- 
icent gift of Ljoie Starling, was rechristened Starling 
Medical College. In 1884 the college building of 
the Cleveland Medical College was completed and 
the first class graduated the same year. The building 
was located on the comer of Erie and St. Qair streets. 
The original faculty consisted of: 

Dr. John Delameter (1787-1867), 

Professor of Midwifery and Diseases of Women 
and Children. 
Dr. Jared P. Kirtland (i 793-1 877), 

Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine. 
Dr. Horace A. Ackley (1815-59), 

Professor of Surgery. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 205 

Dr. John Lang Cassels (1808-79), 
Professor of Materia Medica. 

Dr. Noah Worcester (1812-47), 

Professor of Physical Diagnoses and Diseases of 
the Skin. 

Dr. Samuel St. John (1813-76), 
Professor of Chemistry. 

Dr. Jacob J. Delameter, 
Lecturer on Physiology. 

It is said of this group ^^that it was the best balanced 
faculty west of the AUeghenies. ** 

In the absence of facilities for clinical teaching 
afforded by the larger cities and centers of dense 
population and by large and thoroughly equipped 
hospitals, recourse was had to dispensary and private 
work. To this end all the clinical material available, 
both in the practice of the faculty and of others well 
disposed toward the school, was utilized, with the 
result that some very good and instructive clinics 
were presented. As Cleveland at this time was a 
place of 6,000 or 7,000 inhabitants, this was about 
all that could be expected in the way of clinical 
facilities. In the course of a few years, hospitals 
began to spring up here and there in the city under 
various auspices and devoted to various purposes, 
and little by little their doors were opened to the 
medical colleges for clinical purposes; but it was 
not until some time after the Civil War that they 
could be made available for general clinics. 

In 1887 a new building, thorough and up-to-date 
in all its appointments, supplanted the old, this through 
the generosity of John L. Wood. Amplification and 



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206 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

improvements have from time to time been added 
to this building as the necessities demanded. It 
would be a gracious task to follow the history of this 
institution from the date of its inception down to 
the present; to take up the members of its faculties 
one by one and to give a life sketch of each; to select 
from the honorable body the men who have distin- 
guished themselves above others and to accord to 
them their appropriate niches; but the space at our 
command forbids, and we all the more willingly 
make this sacrifice of personal feeling because of the 
proud eminence and undisputed position of this 
splendid institution of medical learning among others 
of its kind. To be a member of the faculty of the 
Cleveland Medical College is in itself a voucher of 
high professional attainment. To be a graduate of 
the Cleveland Medical College is a passport to the con- 
fidence and fraternal good will of the medical profession. 

A DISRUPTION AND A NEW COLLEGE 

In 1863 Dr. Gustav C. E. Weber, a surgeon of more 
than local fame and occupying the chair of Surgery 
in the Cleveland Medical College, resigned and organ- 
ized a new college under the name of the Charity 
Hospital Medical College. The original faculty of 
this college contained the names of such men as Dr. 
Leander Firestone, Dr. Addison P. Dutcher, Dr. 
M. S. Castle, Dr. Jacob Dascomb, Dr. J. H. Salis- 
bury, Dr. Robert N. Barr, Dr. Wm. J. Scott and Dr. 
Abraham Metz, besides that of the prime mover and 
organizer. Dr. Gustav C. E. Weber. It was an all- 
round good working faculty, and several of the members 



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GUSTAV C. E. WEBER 
Bom in Bonn, Prussia, May 26, 1828; came to the 
United States in consequence of the German Revolution 
of 1848; educated at Bonn, Vienna, Amsterdam and 
Paris; Surgeon-General of Ohio, 1861, and organized a 
system for the better medical care of troops in the field; 
prominently identified with medical education in Cleve- 
land; appointed consul to Nuremberg, 1897; died in 
Willoughby. Ohio. March 21, 191 2. 




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I ' ' M PI ( 
i^nJ uJ '^mi-> ;HL<ii .dt ^^i]/ ,i$iqfwt4:,i|n(iQ:ncfrb€[( - 

j: l>*>xm)]yio bnr. ,U)Hi ,tHff() i) Iin*i««D-hixijHiiB:;l«i7 

-') /-)!'> m noiljrjul.i Uvn]>-)ni /fri// r.'>riijQoi)i\nfrjnifrioiq 

* . *" • : c^i v/h') h'ly V 

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: V'- .:;! tlu' more w'.V 
'^ •■■...I fct 'ii:^' b( causv. t * 
.* '.:. 'piitt J I .)s:iioii of 

.iicai Icarniiii? anicLg <■• 
'•niP-T of I lie fav'-ulty <*■ 
if a voiicL^ 



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'• ^-uK To be a L^r.iJua:- 

' • is a pa>-i'orL to the 
-.. .1 ^^f tlu II edict! profe.- 

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' •'■ir the L'la-'r uf Su' 
iv ' •. ", ics" 'Mt^J and o: 

i ; ;• .* i.aii:e of the CI" . 

1 1 .'lie or'"'ii:il facuh ; 

th • ' t\s of siioh ii.cn as 

I . -^ .:;-.■! l\ D;itJivr, 

^ ' V ■ • . -orr.b, Dr. I. H. S. 

.;.,:■■ ' . . Win. J. Sc'jTt and 

''•■c:., 'f tho prime mover 

:, Dr. ir. ' . VvVbtr. It was ar. 

»* .d >voi ki' .: .' ... ..nd s»*veral of the men 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 207 

acquired a certain degree of celebrity along different 
lines. Clinical teaching was made a prominent feature 
of the new college, and the wards of St. Vincent Hospital, 
completed the following year, were utilized for this 
purpose. The first class was graduated in 1865. 
From 1869 to 1896 it constituted the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Wooster. In 1881 an effort 
was made to unite the two regular schools into one 
large college under the auspices of the Western Reserve 
University, and there was a large going over of the 
faculty of the Wooster institution to that of the 
Western Reserve. The trustees of the Wooster Uni- 
versity, however, checkmated this movement by filling 
the vacated chairs and resuming business under the 
old regime. In 1896 the school drew away from 
the Wooster University and became affiliated with 
the Ohio Wesleyan University. At the same time 
it changed its name to the Cleveland College of 
Physicians and Surgeons. As a result of this change 
a commodious new college building was erected and 
occupied in 1900. In 1910, the Cleveland Medical 
College reabsorbed the Cleveland College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons as the Medical Department of 
the Western Reserve University. For niuch valuable 
information pertaining to the development of medicine 
in Cleveland we are indebted to the courtesy of Dr. 
H. E. Handerson, of Cleveland. 

The names of the members of the faculty of the 
Cleveland Medical College, occupying the eight cardinal 
chairs from the date of organization to the present 
time, are given below in the order of incumbency. 



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208 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

Anatomy — ( i ) Jacob J. Delameter, (2) Proctor Thayer, 
(3) Isaac Newton Himes, (4) Jacob Laisy, (5) B. W. 
HoUiday, (6) H. W. Kitchen, (7) Carl A. Hamann. 

Physiology — (i) David H. Scott, (2) Isaac Newton 
Himes, (3) J. C. Ferguson, (4) J. T. Woods, (5) Charles 
B. Parker, (6) John Pascal Sawyer, (7) Johannes 
Wilhelm Gas, (8) William T. Howard, (9) George Neil 
Stewart, (10) John J. R. Macleod. 

Chemistry — (i) John Lang Cassels, (2) Samuel St. 
John, (3) E. W. Morley, (4) Perry L. Hobbs. 

Materia Medic a — (i) John Lang Cassels, (2) Jacob 
J. Delameter, (3) Alleyne Maynard, (4) E. L. King, 
(5) John E. Darby, (6) John Henry Lowman, (7) Tor- 
aid SoUman. 

Practice of Medicine — (i) Jured P. Kirtland, (2) 
David H. Scott, (3) John Bennett, (4) Wills J, Scott, 
(5)John Pascal Sawyer, (6) Charles F. Hoover. 

Surgery — (i) Horace A. Ackley, (2) Proctor Thayer, 
(3) Gustav C. E. Weber, (4) Charles B. Parker, (5) 
Dudley P. Allen, (6) Frank E. Bunts, (7) William 
H. Nevison, (8) George W. Crile. 

Obstetrics — (i) John Delameter, (2) H. K. Cushing, 
(3) Charles A. Terry, (4) Frank Wells, (5) Hunter 
Holmes, (6) T. Clarke Miller. 

Gynecology — (i) H. K. Cushing, (2) Charles A. Terry, 
(3) Frank Wells, (4) Henry J. Herrick, (5) Charles 
B. Parker, (6) Franklin D. Brandenburg, (7) Hunter 
Robb, (8) William H. Humiston. 

In a . supplementary note to some valuable infor- 
mation relevant to the Medical Department of the 
Western Reserve University, kindly contributed by 
its Secretary, F. C. Waite, he says: 

"Ackley was one of the strong men of his time and 
in this part of the country stood for the leading 
surgeon. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 209 

"Kirtland, as you perhaps know, in addition to being 
very well known in his profession, was better known 
the country over for his proficiency in natural science. 
He got out the first natural history report in the State, 
and his work is ranked along with that of such men 
as Audubon and other pioneer naturalists. 

*The elder Gushing, H. K. and the younger, E. F. 
(who died March, 191 1), were members of a long series 
of doctors in the same family. E. Gushing, the father 
and grandfather of those mentioned, was the first 
medical man in Cleveland, coming here a year or two 
after the town was founded. 

"Weber you probably know about. His activities 
in the Civil War helped greatly to bring order out 
of chaos in the medical service. He died during the 
present year (191 2). 

"Morley you probably also know of, since he is 
looked upon as one of the leading American chemists. 

"I could give you biographical notes about many of 
the men, but perhaps this will suffice for you, and I 
hesitate to refer to living men.** 

MEDICAL SOCIETIES 

In 1834 Dr. William M. Awl, of Columbus, issued 
a circular letter addressed "To all scientific practi- 
tioners of Medicine and Surgery in Ohio, " calling for 
a general convention to be held in Columbus, January 
1835, for the consideration and discussion of various 
subjects pertaining to the advancement and welfare 
of the profession at large. The special subjects for 
discussion were: The regulation of professional eti- 



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210 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

quette, the construction of independent medical so- 
cieties, the support of a periodical journal of practical 
medicine, the erection of public asylums for lunatics 
and the education of the blind, the promotion of the 
temperance cause, the regulation of vaccination and 
the establishment of leech depots at convenient points 
so as to be within reach of all. The meeting was largely 
attended and took in a broader scope than the program 
called for, including such subjects as higher medical 
education, the legalizing of human dissection and other 
matters of like character and importance. These 
conventions met at various times and places, but for 
the most part at Columbus and annually. It was the 
inauguration of a new era. The previously isolated and 
estranged members of the profession were brought 
together in friendly council and community of interest. 
It was a revelation to all. To the leaders of the pro- 
fession in the great centers it sprung many surprises, 
for they found among the representatives present 
from country, village and even backwoods districts, 
men of minds and in some instances learning that 
commanded their respect and even admiration. To 
the timid and retiring it was a revelation, for in these 
great men — ^these demigods, as they had been wont to 
regard them — ^they found men of like passions with 
themselves, men who ate, drank and slept, men who 
had limitations as to knowledge, who made mistakes 
and admitted them and who in many ways resembled 
themselves. To be sure, they were highly proficient 
along some lines, and in some ways their sayings were 
as Greek to them. Nevertheless they were human, 
and with like opportunity it was not impossible that 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 211 

they themselves might acquire an approximate pro- 
ficiency; therefore, they would sit at the feet of the 
masters and learn. They had tasted of the waters 
of Mount Pierius and found them sweet. The impulse 
had been given, the profession was aroused, the results 
were in the future. As a result, medical colleges 
were founded in the larger towns and cities, social 
and district societies organized, multiplied libraries 
founded, and existing medical institutions stirred 
and imbued with higher animus and new life. It is 
only fair to say that under the authority of the State 
Legislature district societies had been established in 
various parts of the State as early as 1811, but such 
societies had no educational aims and were constituted 
solely for the purpose of regulating the practice of 
medicine within the prescribed limits of the various- 
districts. They were empowered to license practi- 
tioners of medicine of eligible type and to prosecute 
and bring to justice illegal practitioners, including 
quacks and pretenders of every description. There 
were five of these districts to start with, which eventu- 
ally swelled to twenty. After twenty-two years of 
utter failure and inefficiency the State convention 
was organized and the district societies fell into 
desuetude, or rather ceased to exist, for desuetude had 
been their normal condition from the time of creation. 
In the meantime (185 1) the Ohio Medical Society 
was organized on a somewhat broader foundation 
and succeeded the "Conventions." Even at this 
early date we observe among the papers read some of 
exceptional literary, scientific and economic worth. 
Movements were set on foot for placing the profession 



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212 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

on a higher plane, scientific and ethical, and announce- 
ments of achievements in medicine and surgery electri- 
fied the audiences and called forth encomium and in 
some instances criticism. The achievements of Dunlap 
and Buckner as ovariotomists drew fire as well as 
eulogy, and of M. B. Wright, in perfecting a technic 
of Bimanual Cephalic version, was received in much 
kindlier spirit. Not the least important of these 
movements was one looking to the creation of a 
Central Board of Medical Examiners to take the 
granting of degrees out of the hands of the teachers. 
This had the support of not only the profession at 
large, but of the medical schools as well. 

It would carry us far beyond the bounds allotted 
to the subject to even give passing notice to the scores 
and hundreds of medical societies of every kind and 
description which sprang into existence as auxiliary 
to or independent of the State Society. Suffice it to 
say that by degrees, and in large measure as the result 
of the perfect organization of the American Medical 
Association, the Ohio Medical Society became a 
delegated body, subsidiary to the supreme delegated 
body and thereby became an association by which 
title it is now known. As the American Medical 
Association is supreme in the land and all state asso- 
ciations subsidiary to it, so all district and local 
medical societies, by whatever name, in order to be 
eligible to recognition by the aforenamed associations, 
must acknowledge allegiance to them. The organi- 
zation is perfect, the scope of the work almost unlimited, 
the character of the work excellent. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 213 



OHIO STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 

The Ohio State Board of Health superseded and 
had its inception in the Ohio State Sanitary- 
Association. It was organized May i8, 1886, under 
an act of the legislature passed April 14, 1886. The 
members of this Board as originally created were, 
Drs. W. H. Cretcher, G. C. Ashmun, T. Clarke Miller, 
John D. Jones, S. P. Wise, D. H. Beckwith, Thomas 
C. Hoover and H. J. Sharp. Dr. Cretcher was chosen 
president and Dr. Ashmun became sceretary. Dr. 
Ashmun resigning, was succeeded in June by Dr. 
Guy B. Case, who in turn, the following month, gave 
way to Dr. C. O. Probst. Practically, then, Dr. 
Probst has been secretary of the State Board of Health 
ever since its organization. In the twenty-five years 
which he has served in that capacity he has kept the 
Ohio State Board of Health abreast of the leaders 
and has himself come to be recognized as one of 
the ablest and most efficient officers of the health 
department in the United States. 

The Board as first constituted had no well defined 
functions, was limited as to its powers and powerless 
to enforce its decrees. It received scant recognition 
from the profession or the laity, and in some instances 
active opposition from the local health boards as 
a menace to their powers and privileges. There were 
in all about twenty-five local health boards in the 
State, and they were the creatures of the municipal 
councils and entirely subservient to them. In Cin- 
cinnati the health board was not even allowed to 
placard a house for contagious diseases lest it might 



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214 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

drive away trade. In 1888 legislation was passed 
making it obligatory for the councils of all villages, 
towns or cities of five hundred inhabitants or more 
to establish a board of health and to appoint a health 
officer. In 1893 the boards of health were authorized 
by legislature to make their own rules and regulations 
and enforce them. In the rural districts the township 
trustees constituted the boards of health, and in 1892 
they were required to appoint a township health 
ofiicer. In 1902 the present health code was enacted. 
This permits villages to abolish a board of health 
and appoint a health ofiicer instead. This was taken 
advantage of by about fifty per cent, of the villages. 

The office of the Board at the beginning consisted 
of a desk in the Attorney GeneraPs office, occupied 
by the secretary. Some time later a stenographer 
and clerk were added, and in 1898 an engineering 
department and laboratory were established, making 
an addition to the working force of five engineers 
and two stenographers for the former and two chemists, 
two bacteriologists, one stenographer and one janitor 
for the latter. Instead of a single desk, as at the 
beginning, the offices of the board now occupy thirteen 
rooms. Instead of an appropriation of $5,000, as 
originally allowed for annual expenses, an appropriation 
of $51,000 was voted for 1907. The health service 
of the State has grown from a few local boards to 
2,108, with a personnel of some ten thousand all told. 

In 1 89 1 the Board issued a call for a permanent 
organization of all boards of health and health officers, 
and, although the response was gratifying, it was not 
as general as desired, for the reason that it was optional 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 215 

with the members whether they attended or not, and 
for the additional reason that no provision was made 
for paying the expenses of the delegates. In 1896, by 
act of the legislature, each city, village and township 
was compelled to send a delegate to the annual meeting 
of the Board and pay expenses of such delegate. This 
greatly increased the efficiency of the cause. 

The work of the Board has covered a wide scope, 
and it has inspired much wholesome legislation. 
Recognizing the number and gravity of water-bred 
diseases and the absolute necessity of pure water as 
a safeguard against the same, all the principal streams 
of the State were explored from mouth to source, 
the water tested, the environments observed and 
such measures instituted as to abate existing evils. 
In like manner and for like purpose epidemics of 
various kinds were dealt with, the object being to 
prevent invasion from without, to protect our com- 
munity from within and to stamp out the disease 
where it had gained a foothold. In this way a wide- 
spread invasion of smallpox was, after a hard fight, 
brought under control, some isolated epidemics of 
diphtheria nipped in the bud, the ravage of typhoid 
fever greatly reduced and attention given to rabies 
and other communicable diseases. The great fight 
against tuberculosis, which has taken on such pro- 
portions, not only in this State, but throughout the 
country, was, so far as this State is concerned, inau- 
gurated by the State Board of Health. Other measures 
have been projected, which, when fully matured 
and sanctioned by law, will extend the scope and 
value of the work far beyond anything yet realized. 



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216 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

In time, when the profession and the people have 
been educated to it, the State Board of Health will 
be recognized as one of the valuable assets of our 
great commonwealth. 

The Board as at present constituted consists of 
Dr. Frank Warner, President, Columbus; Dr. Oscar 
Hasencamp, Vice-President, Toledo; Josiah Hartzell, 
Ph. D, Canton; Dr. R. H. Grube, Xenia; John W. Hill, 
C. E., Cincinnati; Dr. H. T. Sutton, Zanesville, and 
Dr. William T. Milles, Cleveland. 

THE OHIO STATE BOARD OF REGISTRATION 

The first earnest effort at legislation in Ohio to 
regulate the practice of medicine was consummated 
in May, 1868, when the legislature passed an act 
entitled, "An act to protect the citizens of Ohio 
from empiricism and to elevate the standard of the 
medical profession." The provisions of this act 
were: "(i) that the practician must be a man of 
good moral character, (2) must have attended two 
full courses of lectures and graduated at some school 
of medicine, either in the United States or some foreign 
country, or (3) produce a certificate of qualification 
from some state or county medical society, or (4) 
have been continuously engaged in the practice of 
medicine for a period of ten years." The penalty 
for violation of this law consisted of a fine from $50 
to $100 for the first offense and a jail sentence of thirty 
days for the second. This law, while doubtless enacted 
with the best intentions, was practically a dead letter 
from the start. This, simply for the reason that it 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 217 

was nobody*8 business to enforce it, and, although 
it remained on the statute books for a third of a 
century, there is no record to show that it was en- 
forced in a single instance. Subsequent legislation, 
of which there were several attempts, instead of 
strengthening this law in its weak parts to give force 
to its provisions, left it more and more a pitiable 
wreck and deprived it of all force and meaning. By 
an act of the legislature. May 1896, the State Board 
of Registration was created, Dr. N. R. Coleman, of 
Columbus, being its first president and Dr. Frank 
Winders, of Findlay, its secretary. Dr. Winders*s ser- 
vice, which was very efficient, continued until March, 
1905, and after a short interim, made so by the appoint- 
ment and prompt resignation of Dr. D. N. Kinsman, 
the present incumbent, Dr. George H. Matson, became 
secretary. As the result of this registration law, which 
was instinct with virility and had in it so much of 
the true ring of what it purported to be, a great exodus 
of ineligibles and incompetents took place from the 
State. Something near nine hundred non-graduates 
left Ohio and took shelter in other states, where the 
laws were not so rigid; while the tide of incoming 
imposters who had found Ohio good picking was 
checked and diverted in other directions. Within 
the few years succeeding this act, more prosecutions 
for the illegal practice of medicine, followed by a larger 
per cent, of convictions, took place in Ohio than in 
any other ten states in the Union. After strenuous 
efforts on the part of the physicians interested, the 
legislature was induced to pass certain very important 
amendments to the act of 1896. Those amendments. 



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218 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

which became a law in April, 1900, provided for a high 
educational requirement preliminary to the collegiate 
course in medicine, and for the examination of all future 
applicants for registration, and also made radical 
changes in the section describing the offense of illegal 
practice. The provisions were all salutary and 
bore immediate fruit. The law describing the offense 
of illegal practice was a model of perspicuity and 
covered the ground so completely as to stand the 
test before the highest tribunal in the State. The 
difficulty in enforcing the law as it now stands is 
due in part to the apathy of the individual members 
of the medical profession, who are unwilling to take 
upon themselves the onus, and, in some instances, 
the public opprobrium of prosecuting witnesses; in 
part to the apathy or disinclination of the prosecuting 
attorneys of the various counties, who not infrequently 
ignore the specific and thoroughly substantiated charges 
of the Board of Registration and, in direct contra- 
vention of their sworn duty, utterly refuse to bring 
such cases before the Grand Jury, and in part to the 
apathy, or in some instances active sympathy of the 
public at large for the accused, who, without the slighest 
understanding of the great issues at stake, choose to 
regard the laudable efforts of the medical profession 
to protect them from vampires as an unwarranted 
restraint of trade. The remedy is through widespread 
organization of the profession, with committees to 
represent the different constituted bodies and a set 
purpose to oppose any officer of the law at the polls 
who fails to do his duty in this direction, as in others. 



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JEDEDIAH COBB 
Bom in Gfay^ Maine, Pebnaary 27, 1800; graduated 
in medidne from Bowdoin College, 1823; came to Cin- 
cinnatt to accept a chair in the Medical College of Ohio; 
noted as an anatomist; kte m life retired to a fann in 
Manchester, Massachusetts, where he died in 1861. 



JARED POTTER KlRTLAND 
Born in Walliagford, Connecticut^ November 10, 1 793; 
received his degree in medicine from the Y^Ue Medical 
College, and eventually established hnnself in Ohio; 
for many 3rears a prf>mincnt member of tlie profession, 
and actively identified mth medical educLition; died in 
Cleveland, December 10, 1877. 




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; oM» ; ' . : '1 K\\y is thn,'ri^'h wld' rr!^: 

atl**n '' '^ ' ■■■>n, vith c. n;ni-i./cs * 

* t\ '1 '/'itc'd belies an'i a :- 

\-) o: p":-- : M'cr of tl:c law cA the p-' 
t^» ii- • !. ^ J^t\' i!: t./s J'-t-ct]< ■:;, as in olhe. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 219 



HOSPITALS 

To the average mind, the strongest and most 
convincing evidence of the progress of medicine 
in this State during the last century is to be found in 
new institutions for the care of the afflicted. 

If all the hospitals of the State were moved together, 
allowing suitable grounds for each, there would arise 
before us a city of such splendor as the world has 
never seen, majestic and unique in its architectural 
effects, imposing structures, and the wondrous mag- 
nitude of many of the buildings. It is claimed, and 
with good reason, that the main building of the Colum- 
bus State Hospital is the largest building of the kind 
under one roof in the world. Not only so, but it 
is so artistic in design, symmetrical and equally 
balanced, as to be one of the most attractive of edifices. 
Not only are these hospital buildings impressive in 
number, size and as examples of classical architecture, 
but for the most part their appointments are of the 
best, as they are thoroughly equipped for the purpose 
for which they were intended. Compare this splendid 
aggregation of structures, as we have pictured it, 
and their marvelous up-to-date equipment, with the 
hospitals of earlier times, and note the difference. 
The first hospital erected in Cleveland was in 1812, 
and was built by Captain Sholes, of the U. S. Army. 

"I had two or three good carpenters in my company,'' 
writes Captain Sholes, "and set them to work to 
build a hospital. I very soon got up a good one, 
thirty feet by twenty, smoothly and tightly covered, 
and floored with chestnut bark, with two tiers of bunks 



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220 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

around the walls, with dcx>r8 and windows, and not 
a nail or screw or iron latch or hinge about the building. 
In a short time I had all the bunks well strawed and 
the sick and wounded good and clean, ♦ ♦ ♦ but some 
had fallen asleep. *' 

This sounds cozy, and it is doubtful if it conveys 
any but a comforting impression, but if we go back 
to some of the old brick structures of a half century 
or more ago, ill-lighted, ill-ventilated, swarming with 
bacteria, reeking in noisome odors, then we may 
understand how to the people the hospital was a 
veritable chamber of horrors, and that it represented 
misery, suffering, privation,, inefficient care and often- 
times neglect* People shunned the hospital for them- 
selves and friends, and regarded it as little short 
of calamitous when anyone except the most destitute 
and degraded was consigned to one. Now it is different. 
Owing to the splendid equipment, the devices for 
safety, convenience and comfort, the high grade of 
medical and surgical skill there attainable, the excellent 
and scientific methods of nursing, it is become generally 
recognized that the hospital is not only the safest 
but most comfortable, cheeriest and best place for the 
sick. It is no longer the exclusive resort of the poor 
and needy, but is utilized by all classes and to a larger 
extent, probably, in proportion to numbers, by the 
wealthy, because they realize that there, more than 
any other place, they can get the environments and 
skill to restore health. While it may not be practical 
in this connection to even enumerate the hospitals 
of Ohio, a word with reference to the largest of them 
may not be amiss. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 221 

Of the State Hospitals there are nine, in most 
instances named according to locality. These are, 
taken in alphabetical order: the Athens State Hospital, 
Athens, Dr. 0.0. Fordyce, Superintendent; Cleveland 
State Hospital, Cleveland, Dr. C. A. Clark, Superin- 
tendent; Columbus State Hospital, Columbus, Dr. 
Charles F. Gilliam, Superintendent; Dayton State Hos- 
pital, Dayton, Dr. Baber, Superintendent; Longview 
State Hospital, Cincinnati, Dr. F. H. Harmon, Superin- 
tendent; Massilon State Hospital, Massilon, Dr. H. C. 
Eyeman, Superintendent; Ohio State Hospital for 
Epileptics, Gallipolis; State Sanitorium for Con- 
sumptives, Mt. Vernon; and the Toledo State Hospital, 
Toledo, Dr. George Love, Superintendent. Of yet 
other large hospitals of the State, the Cincinnati 
Hospital, begun in 1866 and occupied in 1869, was in 
its day the most magnificent structure of the kind on 
the American continent. Its original cost was about 
$1,000,000. It occupies an entire square and accommo- 
dates about eight thousand patients per annum. 
Other large hospitals in Cincinnati are the Good 
Samaritan Hospital (Catholic), St. Mary's Hospital 
(Catholic), the Jewish Hospital, the Hospital of 
the German Protestant Deaconesses, Christ Hospital 
and the Presbyterian Hospital. 

In Cleveland we find that magnificent modem 
charity, with its up-to-date equipment, the Lakeside 
Hospital; St. Vincent's Hospital (Catholic), Cleveland 
Homoeopathic Hospital, the St. Alexis Hospital (Catho- 
lic), the City Hospital, St. John's Hospital (Catholic) 
and St. Luke's Hospital (Methodist). 



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222 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

In Columbus there are four large public hospitals, 
three of which are Catholic and one Protestant. They 
are: the Hawkes Hospital of Mt. Carmel, the Prot- 
estant Hospital, St. Anthony Hospital and St. Francis 
Hospital. Besides, here is located the Grant Hospital, 
claimed to be the largest private hospital in the world. 

At Dayton, the St. Elizabeth Hospital (Catholic) 
has a capacity for from 2,500 to 3,000 patients annually. 

All these hospitals are among the finest, and, for 
efficiency, will compare favorably with any in the 
country, though not so ornate or rich in setting as some 
of the endowed institutions of the great money centers 
in the East and on the Pacific Coast. 

The wonderful advancement made by medicine 
since the pioneer days of Ohio is incomprehensible, 
even to the enlightened physician. It has gone out 
along so many lines, has effected such amazing changes, 
has undergone such a degree of specialization as to 
render detailed narrative in this connection quite 
out of the question. Specialism has been carried to 
such an extent that in the larger cities it would seem 
to have almost supplanted the old-time methods. 
While the field of medicine as it exists to-day is so 
vast and intricate as to place it beyond the power of 
any single individual to compass, still it is to be re- 
gretted that more serious effort has not been made 
by specialists and general practicians alike to acquire 
an outline knowledge of the entire field. This would 
save the specialist from narrowness and bigotry, 
take him beyond the horizon of his own little bailiwick 
and open his eyes to the many modifying influences 
affecting the cases brought before him. Oftentimes 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 223 

the specialist, in his self-inflicted myopia, fails to grasp 
the import of what he sees, and blindly follows a 
routine to his own detriment and that of the patient. 
On the other hand, broader and more definite knowledge 
and observation on the part of the general practician 
would enable him to refer his patients to the right 
specialist and to give to that specialist a working 
basis for the exercise of his art. The old-time physi- 
cian combined in himself all the knowledge and all 
the skill of all the departments of medicine. At the 
same time, taken all together, the entire field of medi- 
cine at that period scarcely exceeded that of one of 
our modem specialties. The old-time physician was 
oftentimes a good diagnostician, though he had nothing 
but his unaided senses to direct him. He diagnosed 
fever by the flushed face, the bounding pulse, the 
degree of warmth communicated to the hand. In 
time came the refinements in all departments. In- 
struments of scientific precision supplemented the 
unaided senses. Among the earlier of these was the 
clinical thermometer, by which not only the presence 
but degree of fever could be determined to a nicety. 
This threw a flood of light on various morbid conditions 
and became of immense value, not only in the diagnosis 
but in the treatment of disease. In many instances 
the temperature chart furnishes the key to the situation 
and the reading of the chart will enable the physi- 
cian to diagnosticate a case even in the absence 
of the patient, as, for example, the temperature 
curve in typhoid fever, especially if it be a typi- 
cal case, will be so characteristic as to be almost 
pathognomonic. Prior to the use of the clinical 



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224 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

thermometer no one would have suspected a rise of 
temperature in the chill stage of fevers. The drop 
of the mercury to the subnormal will sometimes give 
the clue to a concealed hemorrhage, to a perforation 
of the bowel or to other hidden disaster which other- 
wise might not even be suspected. 

The microscope was brought more and more into 
play, its technical advantages became more and 
more conspicuous, and its field of usefulness enlarged, 
until to-day it plays a role in practical medicine little 
suspected by the laity or the ordinary physician. 
Not only is the microscope used to determine tissue 
changes in disease, to examine the secretions and 
excretions, to determine the presence or absence of 
albumen, casts, bile and pancreatic salts, to make 
the blood count, to differentiate the nature and trend 
of morbid growths, but it furnishes an interpretation 
of many of its findings and throws a flood of light on 
conditions that otherwise must have remained enig- 
matical. Along with chemistry, it has pushed out 
into the dark mysterious regions of an unseen and 
unsuspected domain, and brought forth bacteria and 
bacterial products, and made us acquainted with the 
nature and significance of opso-nins, antibodies and 
many other things too numerous to mention. 

Then came instruments to determine the pressure 
of the blood, the degree of arterial tension, which, 
being rightly interpreted, leads the investigator to 
the chambers of many occult processes and reveals 
to him the incipient stages of deadly disease. Then 
there is the hypodermic syringe, which gives wings to 
the anodyne and sends it forth in quest of pain. In 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 226 

the twinkling of an eye the most atrocious suffering 
is at an end and the patient falls into tranquil repose. 
Compare this with the slow, uncertain and in some 
instances dangerous action of drugs given by the 
mouth, and one may appreciate in part the value of 
the hypodermic. The crude and at times shockingly 
cruel methods of combating disease, as they existed 
in other days, have given way to humane and scientific 
methods which have for their aim the amelioration 
of human suffering, both in the agencies employed and 
as a result of their application. Now, instead of the 
impossible bolus and nauseating draught, we have 
the elegant multitudinous pharmaceutical preparations 
concentrated and minimized to the last degree, done 
up in sugar and gelatine to conceal the taste, doctored 
and disguised in pleasant tasting excipients so as to 
divest them of all objectionable qualities. Then 
come modem methods of treatment as we have them 
in organotheropy, serum therapy, vaccines, for all 
of which special potentialities are claimed for special 
diseased conditions. In the domain of surgery the 
advancements have been, if anything, more wonderful 
still. 

First in order comes general anesthesia, that great 
boon to suffering humanity, under whose potent in- 
fluence the patient goes off into rosy dreamland while 
the surgeon with knife and fingers is toying with his 
vitals. Only can we bring ourselves to a realization 
of the magnitude of this blessing when we look back 
to the days of a little more than a half a century ago, 
when the most delicate, the most timid, the most 
highly sensitive among us were strapped to the table 



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226 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

and the operation performed under the pleadings 
and heart-rending cries of the victim. It is a pleasure 
to note that among the earliest users of chloroform as 
an anesthetic in this country was Professor Richard 
Lee Howard, of Q)lumbus, Ohio. His first adminis- 
tration occurred in January, 1849, less than two months 
after its anesthetic properties were discovered by 
Dr. J. Y. Simpson, of Edinburgh, Scotland. 

While we find in anesthesia, general and local, 
an inestimable boon to rob surgery of its terrors, we 
find in asepsis the greatest life-saving agency that 
human intelligence has ever produced. It has made 
possible that which was impossible, made safe that 
which was fraught with danger, opened up new avenues 
for exploitation and enlarged the field of surgery far 
beyond the most exaggerated expectations of the most 
optimistic dreamer. In anesthesia and asepsis we find 
the golden panoply of modem surgery, a panoply that 
brings it favor in the eyes of man. 

Then in a class by itself we come to the great dis- 
covery of Roentgen, which not only illuminates the 
body but has healing potency as yet only to a slight 
degree made manifest. 

Notwithstanding all this learning and refinement, all 
these discoveries and revelations of the hidden secrets 
of life and nature, the old pioneer doctors knew some 
things that we do not know, and knew many things 
better than we now know them. The progressive 
doctor of those days used the means at his command 
with a purpose and to an extent that went far toward 
counterbalancing the improved methods of to-day. 
The patient's tongue had a meaning to him, a meaning 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 227 

that is almost wholly lost to us. It conveyed to him 
a hundred messages as to the condition of the system 
at large, special organs, the various secretions. In 
the temperature of the body, as revealed by the touch, 
he found much to enlighten him; a pungent dry heat 
meant one thing, a moist bland heat another, and soon. 
He drew many inferences from the condition of the 
skin, the eyes, the facial expression, the functions, 
the physical properties of the secretions and excretions, 
and from the pulse, of which there were more varieties 
and finer distinctions than would seem possible. 
All this he cultivated with great assiduity and profited 
by it. "A brilliant eye" as an indication of malignant 
disease, a sympton which the writer picked up from 
an old book, has done more to help him reach a correct 
diagnosis in some obscure deep-seated disorders than 
any other means of which he is aware. It behooves 
us, then, as advanced physicians, to "hold to the one 
and not despise the other. " 



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OHIO AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF 

TRANSPORTATION ON THE 

GREAT LAKES 

By Harvey Danforth Goulder 



Harvey Danforth Goulder was bom in Qeveland, Ohio, March 7, 1853, and 
received his education in that dty. Admitted to the bar in 1875, he became 
an active and prominent member of his profession, giving particular attention 
to maritime, insurance and corporation law. He is especially known for his 
identification with movements in the interest of improving t^e conditions of 
navigation 00 the Great Lakes. — Thb EDnoBS. 



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OF utmost importance in the material develop- 
ment of Ohio has been, in constantly increas- 
ing measure, the remarkable waterways 
system of the Great Lakes. It is said that 
ninety per cent of urban population in cities over 
ten thousand is along waterways. The waterways 
came first, but natural advantage furnishes the oppor- 
tunity only and credit may not be stinted to the men 
who have turned opportunity into advantage and 
advantage into enduring results. 

In 1678, Cavalier de La Salle, landing at the mouth 
of the Niagara River, secured from the chiefs of the 
Seneca Indians permission to build a vessel to exploit 
these inland waters, and built the Griffin of about 
forty-five tons, the first cargo vessel, launched in 
May, 1679. She carried two square sails on her fore- 
mast and a triangular lateen on her mainmast, and has 
been mistakenly spoken of as a schooner, although that 
rig was not in use for thirty years or more after her 
launching. 

A little hamlet at the mouth of Cayuga Creek, just 
above Niagara Falls on the American side, became, 
through the building of the Griffin^ the first shipyard 
on the Great Lakes. She sailed on August 7, 1679, 
reached Green Bay, off Lake Michigan, and there 
La Salle, before setting out on his exploration of the 
Mississippi valley, loaded the Griffin with furs and sent 
her on a return voyage to the foot of Lake Erie. She 
was never heard from again, and the disappearance 
of this first freight ship remains a mystery of the Great 
Lakes. 



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232 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Years passed before any other vessel was built of 
which there is record, although there is mention of 
two small vessels, the Gladtvyn and the Beaver , as lying 
at anchor in the Detroit River during the siege of 
Detroit by Pontiac in 1763. In fact, nearly three cen- 
turies elapsed after the discovery of Columbus before 
navigation was taken up in vessels between the Falls of 
Niagara and Sault Ste. Marie. The meager commerce 
continued confined to trade in furs, converging at 
Montreal, the head of ocean navigation on the St, 
Lawrence, and carried on in canoes or batteaux, in the 
handling of which frail craft the voyageurs attained 
almost incredible skill and power of endurance, being 
able to paddle all day seemingly without fatigue. 

It is remarkable to know that the first American 
vessel after the Griffin^ just before the year 1800, found 
business lacking on Lake Erie and was conveyed down 
around Niagara Falls to Lake Ontario for the purpose 
of getting earnestly into the business of our inland 
marine commerce. In 1805, Buffalo was made a port 
of entry, yet it was not until 18 17 that her fleet had 
grown to the number of seven vessels, with combined 
tonnage of four hundred and fifty-nine tons, and the 
total tonnage of Lake Erie had reached two thousand 
and sixty-seven tons, ranging from ten to ninety-nine 
tons, except two leviathans of one hundred and two 
and one hundred and thirty-four tons. The trend of 
Lake carriage was westward, where the farmers, millers, 
and other producers sent their products from the East, 
but there went with all this a great movement of 
settlers westward. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 233 

We may take the year 1840 as marking the turn 
when there had come such development in the states 
bordering the Lakes that the balance of business first 
started feebly eastward, thereafter to increase in great 
volume. In 1855, Chicago was shipping sixteen million 
bushels of grain eastward. In that year the Sault 
Canal opened Lake Superior to through navigation 
with the lower Lakes. The Great Lakes marine, as 
we know it, about that time entered upon its vigorous 
career, against the arguments of so great a statesman 
as Henry Clay, who thought projecting commerce up 
through Lake Superior was chimerical and it might 
be as well to project commerce to the moon. And 
years later Proctor Knott made his well-known speech 
about Duluth, the Zenith City, the future great, in 
ridicule of serious commercial consideration of that 
region. Yet in steady progression of improvement of 
channels and ships and facilities, it has come that more 
than one-half of the efficient tonnage under the Ameri- 
can flag is employed on the Great Lakes; that the 
Government has spent something over ^100,000,000 in 
improvement of channels and harbors on the Great 
Lakes; that the saving in freight over any other means 
of conveyance reaches in a single year approximately 
the whole cost of Government improvements from the 
beginning; that the ton mileage service on the Lakes 
equals more than twenty-five per cent of the total ton 
mileage service of all the railroads of the United States; 
that the cost per ton mile for transportation on the 
Lakes is about ten per cent of the average cost by 
rail all over the United States, and does not exceed 
twenty-five per cent of such cost on the most favored 



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234 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

railroad in the world — that is to say, that the Great 
Lakes system has furnished, as it does and will, the 
cheapest and most efficient transportation known in 
the world. 

Ohio has enjoyed, to a singular degree, the advan- 
tages of this waterway system. This has been due to 
geographical location; to the fact that Ohio and its 
neighbors south and east have had coal and limestone, 
and the Northwest has furnished iron ore, which in 
the economies of transportation have been required to 
meet in Ohio for their assembling, or to pass through 
Ohio and Ohio ports to other assembling and consum- 
ing points. In the early years, before the great develop- 
ment of iron ore deposits in the Northwest, we utilized 
to advantage the lean native ores in this State in the 
manufacture of pig iron, having then the iron ore, coal, 
and limestone; and this early built up in Mahoning 
valley, reaching down to the Pittsburg district, an 
industry important in its day and potential as the 
pioneer of greater business which followed; while the 
ports on the south shore of Lake Erie grew in the ship- 
ment of coal, the receipt and distribution of iron ore, 
the receipt of lumber, and the receipt and shipment 
of grain, until, in 1910, the total receipts and shipments 
of these ports aggregated 56,437,686 tons. 

Along with this flourished the business of ship- 
building. The native forests of Northern Ohio fur- 
nished the finest quality of oak timber, and supplied 
the demand until, about 1890, steel had supplanted 
wood in the construction of Lake vessels. After that 
period the connection of Ohio with the business, 
geographically, commercially, economically, and from 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 235 

established prestige, gave the supremacy to Ohio in 
the building of ships, just as these had given to Ohio 
command of the commercial business of the Great 
Lakes, all the result of a combination of habit, experi- 
ence, and ability of the men engaged, uniting with 
geographical and economical advantages — a combina- 
tion which compelled results. 

Considering the influence of the Great Lakes in 
connection with the growth of our State, we may go 
back to early conditions. When DeWitt Clinton in 
1817 revived the project of the Erie Canal, which was 
completed in 1825, the cost of transporting products 
from Buffalo to Montreal was $30 per ton, and the 
returning transportation varied from $60 to ^75 per 
ton. The expense from Buffalo to New York was 
stated as ^100 per ton, and the length of passage twenty 
days. An economist stated: "Upon the very route 
from which the heaviest and cheapest products of 
the West are now sent to market, the cost of transpor- 
tation equalled nearly three times the market value of 
wheat in New York, six times the value of com, twelve 
times the value of oats, and far exceeded the value of 
most kinds of cured provisions. " New York's struggle 
for commercial supremacy turned to her advantage 
on the building of the Erie Canal in connection with 
the Great Lakes. The lesson learned and taught by 
New York was not lost upon our State. In 1825, 
the year New York completed her Erie Canal, Ohio 
began the canal system connecting Lake Erie with 
the Ohio River and with various points throughout 
the State by branches. The main canal was completed 
in 1832, and, with tributaries, obtained a total length 



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236 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

of nearly nine hundred miles. In 1826, Pennsylvania 
followed, with an improvement, partly railroad and 
partly canal, from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, reaching 
Lake Erie with a canal having a terminus at Erie, 
Pennsylvania, with branches to connect with the Ohio 
Canal. Indiana built the Wabash and Erie Canal, 
connecting its interior with the Maumee River at 
Toledo. These canals, according to some current 
opinion, may now have served their usefulness, but 
in their day and for their purpose they were the only 
agency whereby goods could be transported cheaply, 
and their effect in building up the internal commerce 
of the country was so important as to have been easily 
the dominant force. The Wabash and Erie Canal 
made Toledo for many years the chief shipping point 
for com, as it opened up the fertile com belt of Indiana 
and gave it an egress to market through Lake Erie 
shipment. Milan was for years the chief wheat center 
of Ohio. Caravans brought wheat to be shipped by 
vessels eastward, so numerous that it was necessary 
to exercise patrol to keep them in line and control 
their turns in unloading. 

Until the close of the Civil War little had been done 
by the general Government in the development of 
Lake transportation. Less than ^3,000,000 had been 
appropriated for harbor improvements on the Great 
Lakes up to 1866. In 1829, the Canadian govemment 
had constructed the Welland Canal, with original 
limitation of seven and one-half feet draught. Pres- 
sure through Northern Ohio, and generally in the whole 
direction of east and west trade, against the limita- 
tions imposed by natural conditions, became more and 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 237 

more insistent. The increase of shipping, following the 
canaling of the States, had been rapid. Before the 
Erie Canal was opened, the tonnage above Niagara 
Falls, in custom house measurement, consisted of three 
steamers and fifty-four sailing craft, with a total ton- 
nage of 2,449 tons. In 1830 it exceeded 16,000 tons; 
in 1840, 55,000 tons; by 1862 it had reached 383,000 
tons, as contrasted with our 2,363,742 tons of 191 1. 

The history of the development, and its far-reaching 
and profound eflfect on the industries of this country, 
reads like a romance. From its infantile start, scarce 
a half century ago, this has been the mighty force to 
place the United States forward in the steel industry, 
with our own State in the forefront of the movement 
and in its direct benefits. 

It will be interesting to rapidly sketch this in some 
detail. Richness and abundance of the iron ore deposits 
of the Lake Superior region was the impelling motive 
for the construction of the Sault Canal, which had 
been agitated in a more or less desultory fashion for 
many years. Congress had in the beginning taken 
very unkindly to the suggestion of the construction of 
a canal around the rapids of St. Mary's River at Sault 
Ste. Marie, the great Henry Clay, as already stated, 
regarding it as beyond the range of the remotest settle- 
ments to be looked for in the United States and saying 
that one might as well speak of commerce extension 
to the moon. It was not until it was forcibly brought 
home to Congress that by no other means could this 
great mineral treasury be unlocked, that an act was 
passed by Congress in 1852 granting to Michigan 
seven hundred and fifty thousand acres of public land 



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238 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

to be given to any company that would build the canal. 
The St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal Company was formed 
to undertake the work. It is an interesting circum- 
stance that the company could have bought that area 
of public land for practically less money than it took 
to construct the canal, but they had the valuable priv- 
ilege of selecting whatever they chose from lands 
not yet thrown open to the market, a selection wisely 
exercised later to the great advantage of the company, 
as for example, the site of the famous Calumet and Hecla 
copper mine was located upon the lands selected by 
the company. 

The completion of this canal in 1855 rapidly over- 
turned the prophecies of Clay and those who shared 
his belief. Up to that time everything had to be por- 
taged around the Rapids, and obviously but little 
business could be done through such a broken means of 
communication. Iron ore, which had been moved with 
great difficulty from the mines at Marquette, had to 
be dumped on a little dock at the Sault, carried in tiny 
tram-cars around the Rapids, and reloaded upon little 
vessels at the foot of the Rapids. Obviously this was 
an unduly expensive process and militated against any 
considerable movement. But the facts were obvious, 
the necessity of cheap and efficient transportation was 
seen, and the increase in facilities on the Lakes sym- 
pathetically followed in increase of vessel dimensions, 
of channels, and of terminal facilities, and no single 
accomplishment in a constructive way has meant so 
much to water-borne commerce as the building of this 
canal. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 239 

Grain continued the largest item in Lake commerce, 
and it took a long time for ore to displace it from the 
leadership. The receipts of grain and flour at Buffalo 
in 1866 reached 1,500,000 tons; the receipts of lumber 
at Chicago about 1,400,000 tons; while the iron ore 
receipts at all Lake Erie ports were less than 300,000 
tons, with coal tonnage but a little greater. 

Coincident with the completion of the Sault Canal 
came a wider view of the Government of its duty toward 
waterways and their inseparable terminals. Lock dimen- 
sions at the Sault were three hundred and fifty feet long, 
seventy feet wide, and twelve feet deep, but few harbors 
could accommodate a boat drawing twelve feet, and 
there were obstacles in the connecting channels. The 
Civil War delayed internal improvements, but at its 
close attention was compelled to this development and 
its profound significance to the entire country, and proj- 
ects for harbor and channel depths of twelve feet were 
prepared and executed, and demand arose and became 
general for a sixteen-foot channel throughout the chain 
of Lakes. This was met by the construction of a new 
lock at the Sault to overcome the entire difference of 
level of some eighteen feet by one single lift, completed 
in 1 88 1 at a cost of ^2,200,000. To take full advantage 
of this lock, it was necessary to dredge and deepen 
places in St. Mary's and Detroit rivers, and through 
St. Clair Flats. Such a general improvement was 
completed in 1884, and commerce increased with giant 
strides. Iron ore shipments increased from 300,000 
tons in 1866 to 2,300,000 tons in 1884, while the coal 
movement had grown from practically nothing to 
nearly 4,000,000 tons. The effect on cost of transporta- 



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240 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

tion justified the expenditures made. In 1866 the 
freight rate on iron ore was $3 per ton; in 1884 it was 
$1*35 per ton. The rate on wheat from Chicago to 
BuflFalo was brought down from nine cents in 1866 to 
two and one-quarter cents in 1884. 

All this led to further continuous development, and 
the completion of the sixteen-foot channel through the 
Lakes had no sooner been finished than it demonstrated 
the wisdom of the Government expenditure in the great 
gain to the country of further improvements to meet 
the increasing demands of commerce. Here, fortunately 
for us all, the Government had in service on the Lakes 
a man of prophetic vision, who had served with great 
distinction throughout the Civil War, General O. M. 
Poe. He saw, perhaps earlier and more clearly than 
others, the need and the opportunities for development 
for the future, and endeavored to provide facilities 
that might care for its indefinite expansion, and, grasp- 
ing more fully and surely the situation, and doing more 
than any other man to provide in the interest of this 
commerce, he saw that he had ceased to be a prophet, 
because the dream of to-day became the sober reality 
of to-morrow in the wonderful development of Lake 
commerce. He conceived the idea of a twenty-foot 
channel throughout the whole Lake system, cul- 
minating in a new lock at the Sault, eight hundred 
feet long, one hundred feet wide, with twenty-two feet 
of water over the miter sills, and a new channel through 
St. Mary's River, saving about eleven miles in navi- 
gable distance and making it practicable for night 
navigation, theretofore held too dangerous. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 241 

The new lock, known as the Poe lock, was opened to 
Lake navigation in 1896. In the meantime the Cana- 
dian government has constructed a canal having a 
lock nine hundred feet long and sixty feet wide, opened 
to navigation in 1895. General Poe dared the great 
lock on the assumption that it would accommodate 
in one lockage four ships of the greatest size, and was 
himself astonished that when it was ready for service 
there were already ships of such size that two of the 
largest could not lock through together. In 1890 
the ore movement reached 9,000,000 tons. The facili- 
ties which General Poe so bountifully provided have 
long been taxed. Work is now under way on an addi- 
tional lock one thousand, three hundred and fifty feet 
long and seventy-five feet wide, and there is urgent need 
of it even before it can be completed. Since 1896, the 
traffic has grown by leaps and bounds, and the move- 
ment of one year is no criterion what the next is to be. 
The 20,000,000 mark was reached in 1901, to be 
exceeded by 7,000,000 tons the next year, an increase 
in itself of more ore than was moved in any one year 
on the Lakes up to 1899, and of more ore than was 
moved in all the years up to 1874. By 1907 it had 
reached the amazing total of 42,000,000 tons. How 
can one adequately provide for a commerce which 
increases with such astounding rapidity? There is 
needed for it a system of great elasticity, but fortunately 
General Poe founded a base capable of indefinite expan- 
sion. 

This wonderful stream of ore pierces Ohio along 
several lines of railways, feeding many furnaces in 
its valleys and giving employment to hundreds of 



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242 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

thousands of its citizens. No industry has such rami- 
fications as iron. Iron ore is the raw material of pig 
iron, pig iron is the raw material of steel, and steel 
ingots are the raw material of the steel rail, structural 
steel, shapes, plates, tubes, knives and forks, and such 
infinite refinements as watch springs. Consider the 
employment of labor therein. 

The Lakes also aflFord an unfailing market for the 
output of the coal mines of Ohio and neighboring 
States. Some 28,000,000 tons are annually transported 
to the industries and homes of the Northwest. 

The shipbuilding industry must not be overlooked 
in the general survey of the influence of the Lakes 
upon the commonwealth. The development of the 
channels has been coincident with the change in freight- 
carrying vessels. In the earlier days, that is to say 
before 1870, the greater part of the freight movement 
was in small vessels of from three hundred to six hundred 
tons capacity. It was the practice to tow these vessels 
through the rivers, and a considerable towing industry 
was developed. The tugs were powerful and frequently 
towed five or six vessels at a time. Out of this practice 
was evolved the consort system, whereby a propeller 
towed one or more barges. 

The iron ore trade was gradually asserting its domain 
over the other trades, and vessel-owners were turning 
their attention to the construction of vessels exclusively 
for this trade. The first vessel that might be said to 
be constructed for the ore trade was the steamer 
R. J. Hackettj built in 1869. She was the first steamer 
to have her machinery well aft, having a continuous 
hold extending from the forecastle to the boiler room. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 243 

with hatches spaced twenty-four foot centers. The 
advantage of this type in the ease of loading and unload- 
ing was at once apparent, and no change in general 
principle has been made since, though there have been 
numerous modifications in detail. By 1892, the pre- 
ponderance of iron ore over all other articles of freight 
became established, and since then the output of the 
shipyards has been largely freighters intended as ore 
carriers. It is interesting to note that in the year when 
the Poe lock was opened to commerce, 1896, more than 
half the tonnage of the freight-carrying vessels built 
during that year was in ships exceeding two thousand 
tons net register. 

Meanwhile another evolution was occurring in the 
development of the commerce of the Lakes, which was 
tending to add greatly to the industries of Ohio, and 
that was the mechanical unloading of the ore vessel. 
In the early days the ore was hoisted out of the hold of 
the vessel by means of a horse with block and tackle, 
the ore being dumped into wheelbarrows as it reached 
the deck and was wheeled ashore by laborers. This was, 
of course, a very tedious and expensive method. The 
next step in development was the substitution of a 
little dock engine for the horse, but in 1882, Alexander 
E. Brown invented a cable rig for both, hoisting the 
ore out of the vessel and conveying it to the dock. 
It was necessary, however, to fill the buckets by hand 
shoveling, which militated, of course, against rapid 
dispatch, though by nesting the buckets and working 
in several holds simultaneously a considerable improve- 
ment over the old method was obtained. 



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244 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

In 1899, the first automatic self-filling bucket was 
tried as an experiment and proved an instantaneous 
success. It has revolutionized the handling of ore on 
the Lakes and has caused the establishment of very 
considerable industries throughout the State of Ohio. 
The next year marked the advent of the so-called 
five hundred-foot ship. In 1904, another jump was 
made in building a ship five hundred and sixty feet long. 
Hundreds have since been built ranging from five hun- 
dred to six hundred feet in length, and there are two 
of six hundred and seventeen feet in length, with a 
carrying capacity of 14,000 tons. These ships have 
been built with hatches spaced at twelve-foot centers 
to accommodate themselves to the loading pockets 
of the ore docks, so that it is possible for a ship to receive 
her whole cargo without shifting. Tween deck beams 
and stanchions have been eliminated, and compensat- 
ing strength secured by heavy girders running athwart 
ships between the hatches under the spar deck, so that 
the hold offers an unobstructed area to the unloading 
bucket. 

While the first automatic bucket was designed for 
a load of about two tons, the latest buckets are designed 
to lift seventeen tons, and have unloaded ten thousand 
tons in three hours and forty-five minutes, while it is 
common practice to unload from a modem carrier 
ten thousand tons or more in a working day of ten 
hours. Accompanying the physical development, the 
cost of transportation has been so reduced that a ton 
of coal is now actually carried from Cleveland to Duluth 
for less money than one pays to have it wheeled from 
the sidewalk to his cellar, and a gross ton of two 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 245 

thousand, two hundred and forty pounds of ore is 
carried a thousand miles for forty cents. So the effi- 
ciency of the modern freighter, working in sympathy 
and in conjunction with the loading and unloading 
dock, has reduced the cost of Lake transportation to 
its least dimensions, until there is annually saved to 
the people of the United States on these reduced freight 
charges a sum greater than the total amount that the 
Government has ever expended for the improvement 
of Lake channels. Every man, woman, and child 
on the continent shares in these dividends, but the 
State of Ohio has been the chief beneficiary. 

This growth, which in its business effects aflfected 
Ohio more than any other State, was marked by the 
progress which may be graphically illustrated in simple 
statistics that do not pretend to go back and follow 
out the stages of progression. Going back a quarter 
of a century, we find that the shipment of grain east 
gave place in precedence and importance to the ship- 
ment of iron ore, while the movement of coal west, 
and of all other commodities, increased so as to demand 
the expanding of facilities. 

As everywhere in the world, so in Ohio, the agri- 
cultural has been and always will be the predominant 
interest. The growth of urban population, the allure- 
ment of the city, is more striking in appearance than 
conclusive of the social problem, and the farmer will 
always be predominant in the substance of the com- 
monwealth. We are here dealing, however, with the 
influence of Lake commerce upon the State, and this 
relates necessarily to the mining and manufacturing 
side of the multifold industries and sources of popula- 



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246 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

tion and substantial progress. Pursuing the subject 
in this view, we may urge further this interesting his- 
tory of development, and impress its importance to the 
industrial fortunes of our State. 

Before the Sault Canal was opened, as has been 
described, efforts were made to utilize in Ohio and West- 
ern Pennsylvania the Lake Superior iron ores. The 
first effort was to concentrate, by hauling the ore to 
the forge and reducing into bloom for shipment, then 
to haul this by the primitive means at hand to the Lake 
and so ship; but the cost exceeded two-fold the value 
of the product. The price then stood at about $80 
a ton for pig iron in Ohio and Western Peimsylvania. 
The opening of the canal and locks at Sault Ste. Marie 
developed the iron mines of the Lake Superior region, 
or, as put by some authority, the growing needs of 
this country for a supply of merchantable iron ore 
compelled the breaking of the barrier, so that the ore 
in such abundance about Lake Superior might come 
down at a transportation cost within commercial 
limits. In the first primitive state of business the cost 
of getting the iron to the Lake shipping point on Lake 
Superior was easily eight times the cost of shipment to 
Lake Erie ports to-day, and the cost of shipment thence 
to the eastern port was easily twenty times the cost of 
Lake transportation at present. Ohio, with her rich 
coal fields, with some adjunct of her lean native iron 
ore, and with limestone, was in preeminent position 
to profit by the opportunity opening up through the 
facilities and diminishing cost of transportation by 
the Great Lakes. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 247 

This was a problem for the business men of Ohio and 
Western Pennsylvania, who were logically interested 
from the beginning and as men of affairs saw and 
grasped the opportunity of cheap Lake transportation. 
It would possibly be invidious to attempt to name men 
prominent in this movement, but everyone will recall 
D. P. Rhodes, Hiram Garretson, Captain Alva Bradley, 
Captain Philip Minch, Valentine Fries, Henry J, Webb, 
Fayette Brown, and M. A. Hanna as pioneers in Cleve- 
land, who in turn were followed in the expansion and 
application of their efforts and results by such men as 
the Mathers, Oglebay, Norton, Corrigan, McKinney, 
Richardson, Coulby, Mitchell, Harvey Brown, Dalton, 
Pollock, Hutchinson, Becker, Ashley, Sheadle, Davock, 
and other men who have so well followed up the task 
laid upon their shoulders by those who had preceded 
them. It would be an invidious task to attempt to 
speak of all the progressive and forceful men who have 
been interested in this movement from the purely 
transportation side. The result is, that through intelli- 
gent utilization of the wonderful natural waterway, 
on which the Government has expended more than 
^100,000,000 and in connection with which hundreds of 
millions of dollars have been invested in ships and in 
terminal facilities and machinery for the handling of 
cargoes, the cost has been reduced to a minimum trans- 
portation charge compared with all the world. An 
ordinary cargo is ten thousand tons. An ordinary 
time for loading is a few hours. An ordinary time for 
discharge of ten thousand tons of cargo is less than ten 
hours. 



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248 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Ohio has, from the very beginning of this trade, 
been an exceptionally fortunate beneficiary of a move- 
ment approaching 100,000,000 tons in the season of 
navigation. 

The growth of the cities on the south shore of Lake 
Erie has predominated, and is due primarily to Ohio's 
touch with this cheapest and most efficient transpor- 
tation the world has known. The value of this kind of 
transportation to a community which may take advan- 
tage of it, is shown in the enormous expenditures made 
by Canada to enlarge and deepen and so overcome 
strictures in navigation to the sea; in the appropriation 
of some $100,000,000 in New York for the enlargement 
of the Erie Canal; in the project to establish a canal 
from Lake Erie to Pittsburg; in the growing intelli- 
gent expenditures by the Goverment to meet the 
demands of commerce along the south shore of Lake 
Erie; in the very large expenditures of every muni- 
cipality in Northern Ohio to encourage and further 
the terminals to accommodate this business. And 
this business, briefly stated, is: Laying aside all of 
the miscellaneous business and all passenger business, 
and confining ourselves to two articles of commerce 
which are primal and basic, we ship out of Ohio ports 
in a year some 28,000,000 tons of coal, and receive 
in Ohio ports in a year about the same 28,000,000 tons 
in iron ore. To estimate and understand the impor- 
tance of this, we must bear in mind that the production 
of pig iron in a year in the United States practically 
equals that of England, Germany and France combined; 
that into this product of the United States the iron ore 
coming from the Lake Superior region by the Lakes 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 249 

produces more than eighty per cent, of which approxi- 
mately two-thirds comes to the ports of Northern Ohio, 
that is to say, that of the entire product of pig iron of 
the United States, there comes to and through our ports 
two-thirds of the iron ore than enters into the whole 
production. 

So far as industrial Ohio is concerned, it depends 
much on its mining and manufacturing. The census 
of 1910 shows our rank to be fifth among all the 
states. Encouraged in every practical way as has been 
the development of our mining and our manufacturing 
business, it is not too much to say that it has been largely 
and broadly dependent on the position of Ohio, cover- 
ing, as it does, most of the south shore of Lake Erie in 
connection with the efficient and extremely cheap Lake 
transportation There is nothing strange or unaccount- 
able anywhere in this. Industrial development will 
follow in natural bent if the men are at hand to see 
and develop natural opportunity. Ohio will go for- 
ward in the march of industrial events, because she 
should, because she has the natural advantages and the 
men to improve them. 



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OHIO AS A MANUFACTURING STATE 
By Opha Moore 



Opha Moore was born in Parkersburg, West ^^iginia, in 1867. He was 
educated at Otteibein University (Westerville, Ohio), and served as a member 
ol the dvil staff at four Governors of this State — ^Poraker, McEinley, Bush- 
ndl, and Harris. Prom 1898 to 1902 he was secretary of the Ohio Building 
Commission, and since 1910 has been secretary of the Ohio Manu&cturers' 
Aasodalion.— Tbb Bditoss. 



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IN 19 lo, according to the United States census, 
Ohio was the fourth State of the Union in popu- 
lation. The total inhabitants for the six leading 
States were: — ^New York, 9,113,614; Pennsyl- 
vania, 7,665,111; Illinois, 5,638,591; Ohio, 4,767,121; 
Texas, 3,896,542; Massachusetts, 3,366,416. For the 
comparative purposes of this article, Texas is to be 
eliminated from consideration, as the volume of its 
manufacturing is small contrasted with that of any of 
the other five States named, and indeed with a number 
of other states of much less population. With this 
exception we have five states — ^New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Illinois, Ohio, and Massachusetts — ^which lead 
in population and also (and generally speaking as 
conspicuously) in industrial enterprise. Several eastern 
states — ^New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, etc. — 
show a very high manufacturing development in ratio 
to population; but in the gross of operations none of 
them equals any of the five states specified. 

The fourth State in population in 19 10, Ohio ranked 
fourth also in the amount of capital invested in manu- 
factures and in the number of establishments devoted 
to the production of manufactured articles. In the 
number of persons engaged in industries, the number 
of wage-earners, and the total wages paid, it closely 
approached the State of Illinois, though the latter had 
nearly a million more population. It may be remarked 
that both Ohio and Illinois were surpassed in these 
three respects by the smaller State of Massachusetts. 
Comparisons of totals, on the ratio basis, with the 
greater states of New York and Pennsylvania as well 
as various lesser states having the advantage of eastern 



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254 THE RISE AND PR(X5RESS 

location, would be interesting statistically and afford 
further demonstration of the relatively advanced posi- 
tion that Ohio has taken in manufactures. It is suffi- 
cient to say that the place Ohio occupies as a manufac- 
turing State is substantially the same as that which it 
has in the numerical order. This is a remarkable 
eminence for a commonwealth which has always been 
considered primarily agricultural and which fully sus- 
tains at the present day its ancient reputation in that 
particular. 

The elements of Ohio's manufacturing development 
are too diverse and complicated to admit of complete 
analytical treatment in an article intended to be on 
lines of general information. It is improbable that any 
diligence could produce a complete history of manu- 
facturing in this State or any other — even if the term 
history is used only in the very restricted sense of narra- 
tion of origin and growth. The materials are too widely 
diffused, too little recorded, and too scantily preserved. 
Scarcely would it be practicable to write a minute 
account for any special time, say a census year; mere 
figures are only the foundations of data, and the multi- 
form details of industrial operation and production 
defy satisfactory collection and arrangement, except 
on certain broad plans or for selected purposes of infor- 
mation or illustration. 

The general manufacturing situation in Ohio at the 
present time is, however, capable of quite thorough 
presentation on the basis of reliable statistics, and before 
taking up particular aspects, these general phases will 
be reviewed, without, however, too great elaboration. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 255 

The figures are from the United States census reports, 
1910, and where the present tense is used it will be 
understood that the year 19 10 is meant. 

The predominating productive interest of Ohio is 
still agriculture, and the tendency of this interest is 
still largely expansive — ^facts which require some em- 
phasis. There is a prevailing disposition to regard 
agriculture and the country life in the northern states 
east of the Mississippi River as having attained their 
maximum development, if indeed not verging on decline. 
So far as Ohio is concerned this is a strangely mistaken 
idea. 

During the decade from 1900 to 1910 the aggregate 
value of farm property in Ohio (including land, 
buildings, implements, and animals) advanced from 
^1,198,923,946 to $1,902,694,589. The ten years' in- 
crease alone exceeded by over one hundred and thirty 
million dollars the total capital invested in manufac- 
tures in this State in the century year 1900 — that is, 
in the last ten years the increment in the valuation of 
farm property has been more than a hundred and thirty 
millions greater than was the entire capitalization 
of manufacturing establishments after nearly a hundred 
years of the existence of Ohio as a State. This vast 
agricultural progress from 1900 to 1910 has coincided, 
in the first place, with an even larger manufacturing 
development during the same period (to which we 
shall presently refer), and in the second place with a 
considerable diminution in the number of farms and 
the amount of farm acreage. Despite a tremendous 
growth in manufactures in the last decade there has 
been a nearly equal growth in our agricultural assets. 



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266 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

and this notwithstanding an actual reduction in the 
number of farms and the number of acres farmed. 
The unmistakable conclusions are that the whole 
manufacturing interest of Ohio is a distinctive and 
separate creation, not derived to any degree from a 
sacrifice of agricultural activity, which on the contrary 
shows a mighty acceleration; and consequently, that 
there is not the slightest ground on which to apprehend 
a turning from farm to factory, as has so extensively 
occurred in the eastern states. A further conclusion, 
equally significant, is that agricultural operations in 
Ohio are becoming characterized by marked increase 
of economy and efficiency; otherwise an access of 
valuation would be incompatible with the reduction 
in farms and farm lands. This tendency lends especial 
weight to the optimistic predictions of Ohio's agricul- 
tural future, whatever magnitude may be attained 
by the manufacturing interest. 

The agricultural situation as it stands to-day, with 
all our remarkable urban development, will perhaps 
be best understood from these figures: — the land 
area of the State is calculated to be 26,073,600 acres, 
of which 24,105,708 acres are farm lands. With so 
slight a deduction from the total for naturally waste 
places and for the areas appropriated to cities, towns, 
railways, highways, etc., the agricultural preeminence 
of Ohio may be considered permanently assured. It 
remains for the manufacturing interest to move for- 
ward to an equivalent position as a factor of the 
State's resources and wealth. That result will not 
occur for some years, but it is inevitable. 



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JAMES GAMBLE 
Bom near EnniskiUen, County Fermanagh, Ireland, 
April, 1903; came with the family to America in 18 19 and 
settled in Cincinnati; in 1837 organized, with William 
Proctor, the manufacturing firm of Proctor and Gamble, 
which since has become known throughout the worid; 
died April 29, 1891. 



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. . ".ISb AND PROGRESS 

3a«MAa aaf/Ai . , ..} arrtrs fanned. '1 

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f il lor ruiurally 
I njiit*Q To Litics, 

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rhai rejkull will 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 257 

We have seen that in 1910 the valuation of farm 
property was $1,902,694,589, against $1,198,923,946 
in 1900 — an increase of 58.7 per cent. For the same 
years the totals of capital invested in manufacturing in 
Ohio were, 1910, $1,300,733,000; 1900, $570,909,000 — 
increase, 127.8 per cent. With similar percentage 
increases for the two interests in the current decade, 
the aggregate capital invested in manufactures will 
in 1920 closely approximate that invested in agricul- 
ture. It is idle to speculate whether these increases 
will, respectively, be sustained. Comparative census 
figures, as applied to the prediction of future economic 
growth in any department, are exceedingly unsafe. 

It is to be considered improbable, however, that the 
development of valuation of the farm property of Ohio 
will go on in so great a ratio as that of 1900-10. That 
increase was very abnormal, totally without precedent 
in the history of the State. During the decades 1880- 
90 and 1 890-1900 the farm values were practically 
stationary — then came the extraordinary increase. 
The impetus so recently imparted may be expected to 
continue to some noticeable extent, especially if due 
(as seems the case) to general improvements in farming 
methods. But it is not, in the nature of agriculture, 
where a high and scientific development has already 
been reached, to make sensational advances with any 
regularity. 

Manufacturing, on the other hand, is likely to expand 
with large and continuing magnitude so soon as its 
organization shows powerful and solid characteristics. 
This has been the uniform experience in the eastern 
states, which have specialized in manufacture from an 



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268 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

early period. The general proposition will be accepted 
without discussion. While hazarding no prophecy of 
the time necessary for the manufacturing interest to 
overtake and pass the agricultural in Ohio, it may 
safely be said that the tendency is rapidly to that end. 
The prime factor of the wealth of this State will before 
very many years be manufacturing. 

The following table shows the principal details of 
Ohio's manufacturing progress in the decade 1900-10: — 

1900 1910 

Capital invested $570,909,000 $i,3oo,733>o<» 

Value of products 748,671,000 1,437,936,000 

Primary horsepower 783>66s i,sS3»iSS 

Wages paid 136,428,000 245,450,000 

Salaries paid 28,151,000 72,147,000 

Persons engaged (including pro- 
prietors, salaried employes, and 

wage-earners) 523,004 

Wage-earners (average number) . . 308,109 446,934 

Number of establishments 13,868 r5>i3S 

We have already referred to the increase of capital. 
It will be observed that the three other items which 
represent volume of operations — value of products, 
wages and salaries paid, and horsepower — indicate 
a substantial doubling in the ten years. 

In 1910 one inhabitant out of every nine in the State 
was engaged in manufacturing industry. 

In the following table selections have been made of 
only such industries as, in either 1900 or 19 10, had 
gross products valued at over $5,000,000: — 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 269 

Value of Products 

1900 1910 

Agricultural implements $i3i975>ooo $14,440,000 

Automobiles, including bodies and parts 38,839,000 

Boots and shoes, including cut stock 

and findings 18,246,000 3i,SSi>ooo 

Brass and bronze products 2,293,000 6,572,000 

Bread and other bakery products 9,857,000 23,007,000 

Brick and tile 4,630,000 9*358,000 

Butter, cheese, and condensed milk — 3,809,000 9,690,000 

Carriages and wagons and materials. . . 22,803,000 21,949,000 
Cars and general shop construction and 

repairs by steam railroad companies. 12,975,000 28,690,000 
Cars, steam railroad, not including 

operations of railroad companies 3,942,000 6,451,000 

Chemicals 3>576,ooo 7,742,000 

Qothing, men's, including shirts 17,312,000 24,869,000 

Clothing, women's 7>773i000 i9»493>ooo 

Coffee and spice, roasting and grinding . 5,850,000 11,224,000 

Confectionery 3*825,000 7,307,000 

Copper, tin, and sheet iron products. . . 5»377»ooo 19,086,000 
Cutlery and tools, not otherwise speci- 
fied 2,441,000 5,036,000 

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and 

supplies 6,505,000 18,777,000 

Plour-noiU and gristmill products 35,078,000 48,093,000 

Foundry and machine-shop products . . 83,039,000 145,837,000 

Furniture and refrigerators 9,515,000 16,259,000 

Glass 4,547,000 14,358,000 

Hosiery and knit goods 1,585,000 6,433,000 

Iron and steel, blast furnaces 40,367,000 83,699,000 

Iron and steel, steel works and rolling 

mills 98,569,000 197,780,000 

Leather, tanned, curried and finished, 

not including leather goods 5,182,000 10,128,000 

Liquors, distilled 12,447,000 12,011,000 

Liquors, malt 18,168,000 25,332,000 

Lumber and timber products 32,812,000 34,597,ooo 



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260 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Value of Products 
1900 1910 

Paint and varnish $6,704,000 $13,617,000 

Paper and wood pulp 6,544,000 16,965,000 

Paper goods, not otherwise specified. . . 2,691,000 6,307,000 
Patent medicines and compounds and 

druggists' preparations 4,842,000 5*859,000 

Petroleum, refining 8,397,000 10,754,000 

Pottery, terra cotta, and fire-day prod- 
ucts 11,851,000 21,173,000 

Printing and publishing 23»333,ooo 41,657,000 

Rubber goods, not otherwise specified. . 7>330,ooo 53,911,000 

Safes and vaults 2,408,000 5,488,000 

Sewing-machines, cases, and attach- 
ments 2,923,000 5»972>ooo 

Shipbuilding, including boatbuilding . . . 3,61 5,000 5,676,000 

Slaughtering and meat products 20,768,000 50,804,000 

Soap (a)ii,79i,ooo 17,077,000 

Stoves and furnaces, including gas and 

oil stoves (a)io,i9i,ooo 15,358,000 

Tin plate and temeplate 6,023,000 7,889,000 

Tobacco manufactures 16,993,000 28,907,000 

Woolen, worsted and felt goods, and 

wool hats 2,826,000 7,690,000 

(a) For the year 1904. 

With the exception of carriages and wagons and 
distilled liquors, the value of products in every leading 
industry of the State shows an increase. The diminu- 
tion in the value of carriages and wagons is accounted 
for by the great development of the automobile business, 
Ohio's output in this department having a value of 
nearly $39,000,000 in 1910, against nothing reported 
in 1900 and only $6,350,000 for the year 1904. 

The table represents forty-six industries. There 
are two having a gross product in 1910 exceeding 
$100,000,000; three from $50,000,000 to $100,000,000; 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 261 

eight from $2S,cxx),cxx) to $50,000,000; eighteen from 
$10,000,000 to $25,000,000; and fifteen from $5,000,000 
to $10,000,000. 

Of the other Ohio industries for which details are 
given in the census reports for 19 10, four had products 
valued at from $4,000,000 to $5,000,000: — canning and 
preserving, fertilizers, furnishing goods (men's) and 
leather goods; eleven from $3,000,000 to $4,000,000: — 
belting and hose (woven and rubber), boxes (fancy and 
paper); coffins, burial cases, and undertakers' goods; 
cooperage and wooden goods (not otherwise specified) ; 
flags, banners, regalia, society badges, and emblems; 
gas and electric fixtures and lamps and reflectors, gas 
(illuminating and heating), marble and stone work, 
mattresses and spring beds; musical instruments, pianos 
and organs and materials; and oil (linseed); seven from 
$2,000,000 to $3,000,000: — ^bags (paper), bicycles, mo- 
torcycles and parts, cordage and twine and jute and 
linen goods, firearms and ammunition, millinery and 
lace goods, pumps (not including steam pumps), and 
signs and advertising novelties; and twenty from 
$1,000,000 to $2,000,000: — artificial stone, babbitt 
metal and solder, belting and hose (leather), brooms, 
brushes, butter (reworking), cars and general shop 
construction, and repairs by street railroad companies; 
cars, street railroad (not including operations of rail- 
road companies); cement, clocks and watches (includ- 
ing cases and materials); dairymen's, poulterers', and 
apiarists' supplies; explosives, grindstones, ink (print- 
ing), jewelry, lime, liquors (vinous), salt, shoddy, and 
umbrellas and canes. 



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262 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Ohio has eighty-two communities with a population 
exceeding S,ooo. Of these, five have over 100,000 
inhabitants; three from 50,000 to 100,000; six from 
25,000 to 50,000; twenty-three from 10,000 to 25,000, 
and forty-five from 5,000 to 10,000. The following are 
the principal statistics of manufacture, 1910, for the 
thirty-seven cities of over 10,000 population: — 



1^ 



III 



.9 . 

§P 



Capital 



Wages. 



Value 

of 

products. 



Expressed in thousands. 



1 Qeveland. 

2 Cincinnati. 

3 Columbus. 

4 Toledo 

5 Dayton — 

6 Yo'ngstw'x] 

7 Akron 

8 Canton 

9 Springfield, 

10 Hanulton.. 

11 Lima 

12 Lorain 

13 ZanesviUe.. 

14 Newark.... 

15 Portsmouth 

16 St'ub'nville 

17 Mansfield.. 

18 E.Iiv'rpool 

19 Sandusky.. 

20 Ashtabula.. 

21 Marion.. . . 

22 Norwood. . 

23 Lakewood. 



560,663 

363,591 
181,511 
168,497 
"6,577 
79,066 
69,067 

50,217 
46,921 

35,^79 
30,508 
28,883 
28,026 
25,404 
23,481 
22,391 
20,768 
20,387 
19,989 
18,266 
18,232 
16,185 
15,181 



2,148 

2,184 

586 

760 

S13 

"5 

246 

204 

195 

"5 

85 

57 

109 

72 

75 

55 

121 

82 

91 
44 
55 
49 



98,686 
72,488 
20,523 
22,900 
24,740 
11,851 
19,023 

",313 
8,634 
7,770 
3,899 
7,347 
3586 
4,282 

4,319 
4,638 
3,901 
5,254 
«,5i8 
1,601 
3,028 
4,445 



$227,397 
150,254 
48,747 
58,319 
61,316 
87,160 
58,216 
25,342 
22,845 
24,629 
5,488 

34,387 
6,025 

9,036 

6,385 

18,424 

8,539 
7,988 

6,495 
2,076 

7,864 
13,368 



$48,053 
31,101 
8,892 
9,911 
12,451 
7,835 
8,936 
5,719 
3,985 
3,798 
2,024 
4,788 

1,793 
1,958 

1,459 
3,203 
1,472 
2,764 
1,006 
814 
1,405 
2,081 



$271,961 

194,516 

49,032 

61,230 

60,378 

81,271 

73,158 

28,583 

19,246 

18,184 

7,754 

38,987 

9,145 

7,851 

7,277 

21,187 

8,173 
6,629 

5,947 
3,459 
5,667 
9,684 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



263 









.9 . 
I si 



Capital 



Wages. 



Value 

of 

products. 



£3q>ressed in thousands. 



24 Alliance. . 

25 Findlay... 

26 Elyiia 

27 ChiUicothe. 

28 Massillon. 

29 Hqua 

30 Middlet'wn 

31 Ironton — 

32 Lancaster.. 

33 Bellaire. . . . 

34 Marietta . . 

35 Tiffin 

36 Cambridge. 

37 Warren 



iS»o83 
14,858 
14,825 
14,508 

13,879 
13,388 
13,152 
13,147 

13,093 
12,946 
12,923 
11,894 

11,327 
11,081 



44 
74 
58 
57 
56 
82 

41 
63 
42 
36 
66 

75 
32 
68 



3,026 
1,623 

3,"7 
1,872 

2,193 
3,073 
2,992 

2,119 

1,657 
2,846 

1,549 
1,970 
1,406 
2,174 



$7,212 

2,955 
7,324 
2,364 
7,788 

5,444 
10,564 
4,993 
1,459 
6,427 

3,275 
3,727 
2,379 
4,5" 



$1,462 

574 

1,573 

707 

1,127 

1,292 

1,389 
888 
677 

1,412 

594 
828 
919 
911 



$6,135 
3,487 
8,065 

4,345 
4,788 

6,931 

16,517 

7,118 

4,074 
10,092 

3,215 
3,254 
4,291 
5,988 



In the United States census reports for 1900 (Vol. 
VIII, pp. 679-80) the following general summary is 
given of the history and development of Ohio manu- 
factures: 

"Of the various causes which have contributed to 
the early development and steady advance of manu- 
facturing in Ohio, the great commercial advantages of 
the State must be considered the most important. 
Water communication with the Atlantic seaboard is 
afforded by Lake Erie and the Erie Canal, and with 
the states of the northwest by the western Great Lakes 
and the Sault Ste. Marie Canal, while the Ohio River, 
which forms the southern boundary of the State for 
four hundred and thirty-six miles, and its tributary, 
the Muskingum River, navigable for several miles 



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264 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

above Zanesville, furnish cheap communication with 
Western Pennsylvania and the entire Mississippi 
valley. Two canals, connecting Lake Erie with the 
Ohio River, one from Cleveland to Portsmouth and the 
other from Toledo to Cincinnati, were constructed by 
the State between the years 1825 and 1835. Settle- 
ments, trade, and local manufacturers developed almost 
entirely along these waterways during the earlier years 
of the [nineteenth] century. Other parts of the State 
were opened up by the construction of railroads, but 
the effect of these water routes in the localization of 
manufactures is still very marked, for in 1900 the great 
manufacturing centers of the State were located at 
the lake and river termini of the two principal canals, 
along these canals and their feeders north of Cincinnati 
and south and southeast of Cleveland, and along the 
Ohio River west and northwest of Wheeling. 

"During the first half of the century, owing to the 
existence of these water routes to the east, Ohio was 
the most accessible region west of the Allegheny 
Mountains, and was the first State, therefore, to feel 
the effect of westward emigration on a large scale. 
From 1820 to 1880 the population exceeded that of 
any other State west of the Allegheny Mountains. 
Many of the settlers came from New England, New 
York, and Pennsylvania, bringing with them the 
mechanical knowledge gained in their former homes. 
Machinery and tools were also brought from these 
older manufacturing sections, and industries for the 
supplying of local needs were started. Production 
for the broader market received its first great impetus 
when steam navigation began on the Ohio River, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 266 

between the years 1810 and 1820. The rapid settle- 
ment of the Mississippi valley developed a market 
which eastern manufacturers found difficult to enter 
in competition with the more favorably located estab- 
lishments of Cincinnati. The rise of this city as a 
manufacturing center was remarkable. Coal brought 
down the Ohio River at small expense from Pennsyl- 
vania was largely used. Pennsylvania furnished also 
crude forms of iron, and forests in the vicinity supplied 
abundant hard wood. In 1803, manufactured products 
were shipped to points along the Mississippi River as 
far south as New Orleans. 

" Cleveland was essentially a commercial city during 
the first half of the century, its prominence being due 
to its location on Lake Erie and to the trade which 
passed through the Ohio Canal. By i860 railroad 
construction had begun to deflect commerce to other 
centers, but the decline threatened at that time was 
averted by the industrial development which followed 
the opening of the Sault Ste. Marie Canal in 1855. 
Water communication was thus furnished with the 
richest mines of iron ore in the United States, and the 
iron industries of Cleveland and the Mahoning valley 
began their great development. 

"Among the natural resources of Ohio are a fertile 
soil, extensive hard wood forests, and an abundance 
of coal and natural gas. This last came largely into 
commercial use in the State in 1884. ♦ ♦ ♦ Petroleum 
was also used as a fuel, though to a less extent. The 
water power of Ohio is not extensive, its use being 
confined very largely to flour and gristmilling, lumber 
milling, and the manufacture of paper and wood pulp. '* 



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266 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

The earliest settlements within this State along the 
Ohio River, at Marietta, Cincinnati, and Gallipolis, 
were established by men of energy and ability, some 
of whom were prompt to lay the foundations of com- 
mercial and industrial enterprise. 

At Marietta and in that vicinity several mills were 
built as eariy as 1790. The first tannery in the village 
was erected by Colonel Ichabod Nye in 1791. About 
1800 ship and boatbuilding became an important local 
industry. "The depth and gentle motion of the water 
in the mouth of the Muskingum, and the cheapness of 
excellent timber," wrote Major Jervis Cutler in 1809, 
"render this one of the best places for shipbuilding 
on the Ohio River. " At that time a number of large 
vessels had been constructed, one of which, from 
Captain Stephen DevoPs shipyard five miles up the 
Muskingum, was of over two hundred tons. Accord- 
ing to the same authority the early settlers on the 
Muskingum found coal in great abundance, which was 
"sold at Marietta at about three cents the bushel and 
much used for fuel." They also were aware of the 
plentiful existence of iron ore in the State, and had a 
lively appreciation of its value, though it could not 
then be generally utilized because of the scarcity of 
furnaces and forges. In 18 14, some workmen boring 
for salt on Duck Creek, Noble county, twenty-five 
miles above Marietta, struck oil at a depth of four 
hundred and seventy-five feet. Being thought worth- 
less, it was allowed to run to waste. Dr. Hildreth, writ- 
ing of this oil well in 1816, said: "It discharges vast 
quantities of petroleum, or, as it is vulgarly called, 
Seneca oil, forced out by a tremendous gas, and is 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 267 

no use for salt. Nevertheless the oil is being gathered 
for profit, is coming into demand for workshops, and 
will be used soon for lighting the streets of Ohio cities. " 
The pioneer settlers were thus familiar with the four 
leading factors in the mineral wealth and industrial 
development of the State — coal, iron, oil, and natural 
gas. 

The French town of Gallipolis, founded in 1790, was 
remarkable for its great number and variety of skilled 
craftsmen. There were wood carvers, gilders, coach 
makers, watch and clock makers, shoe and hat makers, 
tailors, milliners, wig makers, confectioners — indeed, as 
has been remarked in the second volume of this History 
(p. 495) "almost every variety of skilled vocations was 
represented except those fitted for the transforming 
of a wilderness into the abode of civilization. " H.M. 
Brackinridge, who visited Gallipolis in his boyhood 
about 179s, gives an entertaining account of the place 
and its people in a work entitled "Recollections of 
Persons and Places in the West." He mentions 
particularly a Dr. Saugrain, chemist, natural philos- 
opher, physician, and comprehensive genius. "The 
doctor," he says, "had a small apartment which con- 
tained his chemical apparatus, and I used to sit by 
him, as often as I could, watching the curious opera- 
tions of his blowpipe and crucible. * * ♦ The doctor's 
little phosphoric matches ignited spontaneously when 
the glass tube was broken." Evidently, before the 
close of the eighteenth century the little settlement of 
Gallipolis could have furnished some unique ideas and 
talents if the development of the new country had 
tended to that quarter. 



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268 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

At an early period Cincinnati was plainly indicated 
as the destined metropolis of the Ohio valley. Its 
growth was continuous and substantial, and its business 
activities were characterized by vigor and solidity. 
During the first twenty-five years of the settlement a 
considerable foundation was laid for manufacturing, but 
the operations were restricted mostly to household 
and small-shop industries. Power machinery was not 
introduced to any noticeable extent until the second 
decade of the nineteenth century. 

A tannery was established previously to February 
22, 1794, ^s evidenced by an advertisement of that 
date in the Centinel of the Northwest Territory. It is 
interesting to note that the pottery industry, which 
has become so important in Cincinnati, had representa- 
tion among the very earliest recorded manufactures 
of the town. In the same newspaper for October 3, 
I79S> George Kyler and Son, potters, begged leave to 
inform the public that they were carrying on the busi- 
ness of making potters* ware of all kinds at their shop 
opposite the printing ofiice. Advertisements of black- 
smiths, millers, saddlers, hatters, dyers, tanners, bakers, 
potters, gunsmiths, and cabinetmakers are found in 
the Western Spy and Hamilton Gazette as early as 1799. 
In 1805 eighty-one artisans were engaged in various 
trades; these included two printers, one bookbinder, 
fifteen joiners and cabinetmakers, eight blacksmiths, 
two coppersmiths, four hatters, three tanners, seven 
shoemakers, five saddlers, three silversmiths, seven 
tailors, five bakers, two brewers, three tobacconists, 
and twelve bricklayers. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 269 

John Melish visited Cincinnati in 1809, and in his 
"Travels in the United States*' the following list of 
artisans employed there at that time is given: masons, 
stonecutters, brickmakers, carpenters, cabinetmakers, 
coopers, turners, wheelwrights, smiths, nailors, copper- 
smiths, tinsmiths, silversmiths, gunsmiths, clock and 
watchmakers, tanners, saddlers, boot and shoemakers, 
glove and breechmakers, weavers, dyers, tailors, prin- 
ters, bookbinders, ropemakers, tobacconists, soap- 
boilers, candlemakers, combmakers, painters, potash 
and pearlash-makers, butchers, bakers, brewers, dis- 
tillers, and cotton-spinners. 

It is pointed out by Mr. Frank P. Goodwin, in a 
valuable article on "The Rise of Manufactures in the 
Miami Country** {American Historical Review j July 
I, 1907), that notwithstanding the marked growth and 
enterprise attained by Cincinnati before the War of 
18 1 2, it was still much surpassed in manufacturing 
development by both Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and 
Lexington, Kentucky. The industries of Pittsburg in 
181 1, represented forty diflferent occupations, and some 
of its establishments were operated by steam power. 
Lexington, at an even earlier period, had forty-two 
shops and factories, employing two hundred and eighty- 
five workmen and producing annually sixty tons of 
nails, ten thousand dollars' worth of copper and tin- 
ware, thirty thousand dollars' worth of hats, thirty-six 
thousand yards of baling cloth, fifteen hundred gallons 
of linseed oil, seven thousand gallons of whiskey, and 
three hundred tons of cordage. 

Steam navigation began on the Ohio River in 181 1, 
the first steamboat being the New Orleans^ built in 



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270 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Pittsburg. Ten years before, a company had been 
organized in Cincinnati by Samuel Heighway and John 
Pool, claiming to own an invention "capable of pro- 
pelling a boat against stream with considerable velocity, 
by the power of steam, or elastic vapor," and in 1803 
the proprietary rights of this concern were acquired 
by the celebrated Miami Exporting Company with a 
view to the construction of a steam vessel. The proj- 
ect fell through. With the inauguration of the steam- 
boat business the trade of Cincinnati expanded rapidly, 
and there was a coincident awakening of the manufac- 
turing spirit on lines of large operation for those days. 
Mr. Goodwin analyzes the causes for this latter 
development, and shows that it was a stem economic 
necessity. He says: "The rising tide of immigration, 
the difficulty of obtaining manufactured goods in the 
East, the great cost of the long haul, and the necessity 
of creating a home market to save the cost of exporting 
the increasing surplus of agricultural products, caused 
western people to think seriously of encouraging manu- 
facturers in their own region; and thus was ushered in 
the second industrial period of Cincinnati." In con- 
sequence of the "long haul" and the heavy charge for 
transporting manufactured goods from the East — 
sometimes as high as eleven dollars per hundred weight 
to Pittsburg, the western distributing point — Cincin- 
nati people had to pay nearly twice the Philadelphia 
prices for manufactured articles. It was estimated by 
a writer in Liberty Hall that the products of the country 
tributary to Cincinnati had an annual value of $6oo,ooa 
The local consumption was one-third, another third 
was sent to New Orleans for coffee, cotton, molasses. 



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I 



ELIAM E. BARNEY 
Boro in Henderson, Jdfereon county, New York, 
Octol:>er 14, 1807; gmduated from Umon College, Schenec- 
tady, New York. 1831; came to Ohio in 1833^ and from 
that year until i85f was engaged in educational work: 
in 1850 established, with Ebenezer Thresher, the Dayton 
Car Works » which subsequently became the Barney and 
Smith Manufacturing Coinpimy; president of the latter 
concern until hfe death (December 17, 1S80J, identi- 
fied with other biisin^^s interests, and a prominent and 
useful citizen of Da v ton. 



* 





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lilR RISE AND PR(X J^ 



i • :m:-- 'YaMiW«'.i« lte^4ia(\ a co:npany 1. i-i 
'moiVbrifi ;ut\ nroikn erf dntB^J^fteit-i^i^^Wk .yfeAP^'-^*-^" *^ ' 

i', ::'■*: r . \\ :M^ the inaui:urat;.">u of the f- 

l>-'' t b , ;i ' *' * It 1)1 Cincinnati expanded r. • 

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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 271 

sugar and spices, and the remaining third went over 
the mountains in specie for manufactures. **We ask 
candid men to inform us/' said this writer, "how and 
in what manner this kind of trade will increase the 
capital of the western country? ♦ ♦ ♦ Sugar, cotton, 
and coffee we do want; but we can manufacture almost 
every article of British manufacture that we drag over 
the mountains at such enormous expense. It may be 
asked, how shall we find a remedy for this ruinous 
British trade, which embarrasses us so much, which 
drains us of our specie, which twice a year sweeps 
away every dollar which can be scraped up in Cincin- 
nati, without adding to our wealth? We answer 
promptly and without delay: Put in operation in 
Cincinnati manufactures for woolen cloth, for cotton 
cloth, for glassware of every description, for straw hats 
and every article which is imported but can be manu- 
factured in Cincinnati. Let the two hundred thousand 
dollars which we send over the mountains be paid the 
manufacturers in Cincinnati for the above articles. 
This would keep so much of our wealth at home, thereby 
increasing its productive manufacturing industry. It 
would increase the value of lands and houses, and sup- 
port a greater population than we can now otherwise 
possibly support. This two hundred thousand dollars 
would be added to our capital every year and increased 
in a proportional ratio.'' 

A notable improvement in the local industrial situa- 
tion was observable in the year 1814, when the Cincin- 
nati Steam Mill, the western wonder of its time, was 
completed, after two years spent in its erection. This 
structure was built under the direction of William Green, 



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272 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

^^an ingenious mason and stonecutter," on a plan 
furnished by George Evans, one of the proprietors, 
and stood oil the river bank between Broadway and 
Ludlow just east of the Broadway ferries. It was of 
nine stories, "including two above the eaves''; sixty- 
two by eighty-seven feet; had twenty-four doors and 
ninety windows; and in its construction consumed 
90,000 brick, 14,800 bushels of lime, and 81,200 cubic 
feet of timber, the total weight of the finished building 
being estimated at 15,655 tons. It was intended for 
the manufacture of various articles, principally flour, 
cotton and woolen goods, and flaxseed oil. The Direc- 
tory of 1 8 19, after it had been in operation five years, 
described it as containing "four pair of six-feet mill- 
stones and machinery for carding, fulling, and dressing 
cloth — all driven by a steam engine of seventy horse- 
power. It is capable of manufacturing annually 
twelve hundred barrels of flour, besides carding and 
dressing cloth to the amount of three or four thousand 
dollars. It employs in the whole about twenty hands, 
and consumes yearly about twelve thousand bushels 
of mineral coal. '* 

Other establishments of the same period were the 
Cincinnati Manufacturing Company, which had exten- 
sive buildings above the mouth of Deer Creek, and, 
like the Steam Mill, produced a variety of articles; a 
large steam sawmill, opened July 4, 181 5, "amidst the 
anxious gaze of curiosity,'' and having a capacity of 
eight hundred feet per hour; four cotton-spinning mills 
run by horsepower, which operated altogether twelve 
hundred spindles; two breweries with an annual out- 
put of 31,000 barrels of porter and 1,340 barrels of 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 273 

beer, the total value of which was ^50,000; a large 
glass works; soap and candle factories; a sugar refinery; 
and, probably the most significant of all, the Cincinnati 
Bell, Brass, and Iron Foundry, opened in 18 16 by 
William Green, who afterward took into partnership 
William Henry Harrison, Jacob Burnet, James Findley, 
and John H. Piatt. The general disposition of the 
community to encourage industrial enterprise is indi- 
cated by an advertisement in the Western Spy^ July 
10, 18 1 3, of the Miami Exporting Company, a leading 
banking concern, offering "liberal and lengthy accom- 
modation" to all persons who had engaged in or had 
arranged to engage in manufacturing. In 18 15, accord- 
ing to Dr. Daniel Drake's "Natural and Statistical 
View or Picture of Cincinnati and the Miami Country, " 
the principal articles produced for export were flour; 
pork, bacon, and lard; whiskey, peach brandy, beer, and 
porter, pot and pearlash, cheese, soap and candles, 
hemp and spun yarn; walnut, cherry, and blue ash 
boards; cabinet furniture, and chairs, "to which," 
says Greve, the Cincinnati historian, "might be added 
kiln-dried Indian meal, for the West Indies." 

It was the fond expectation of the early Cincinnatians 
that their city would become one of the most important 
centers for textile manufactures. This seemed a 
reasonable hope, because of its convenient and cheap 
access to the cotton fields of the South and the great 
success of wool-growing in Ohio. After the introduc- 
tion of steam power several of the manufacturing plants 
were built largely with a view to the production of 
fabrics, and a considerable activity in this department 
was always predicted by intelligent citizens, whose 



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274 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

views of the probable development of the community 
were generally sound. "These men who made the 
prediction/' says Mr. Goodwin, "did not appreciate 
the fact that of all classes of manufactured goods, textile 
fabrics would probably stand the highest transporta- 
tion rate, and that other sections would prove to be 
more favorably situated for their manufacture.'* 

The industrial spirit so thoroughly awakened in 
Cincinnati by the end of the second decade of the nine- 
teenth century was a prominent factor in giving that 
locality the decided advantage in population which 
it so early achieved and so long maintained. In 1820 
the city had 9,642 inhabitants, and in 1830, 24,831. 
There was no other community of Ohio which in 1830 
had advanced beyond the village rank: Cleveland 
had only 1,076 people, Columbus 2,435, Dayton 2,950, 
Springfield 1,080, Zanesville 3,094, Hamilton 1,079, 
and Newark 999. The example of Cincinnati in 
starting and developing manufactures had a stimulating 
effect throughout Southwestern Ohio, and the rise of 
such cities as Dayton, Springfield, and Hamilton is 
traceable to similar influences. 

Having briefly reviewed the early progress of indus- 
trial activity in the locality of its origin in this State, 
a consecutive treatment of the subject would next 
require notices of the beginnings of manufacture in 
other places, all in chronological sequence and progres- 
sion. We cannot, however, undertake an examination 
so ideal, precise, and minute, and such a collection 
and arrangement of facts would have little value 
except for isolated references in certain connections. 
Anything like a detailed account of the foundation 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 275 

and advance of the manufactures must derive its 
usefulness from a broader system of survey, with refer- 
ence to the two chief aspects of development — first, 
development in the cities where manufacturing is 
principally represented; and second, development in 
some of the special lines of manufacture, taken severally 
for the State at large. 

The principal cities, in their order of population, 
as arranged in the table on pages 262 and 263, must claim 
a large share of attention in a comprehensive account of 
the manufacturing interests of Ohio. But our space 
is much too limited to admit of a review in detail for 
all the thirty-seven cities exceeding ten thousand in 
population, and the remainder of this article will be 
restricted to the ten leading cities. It should be 
understood that the object of the following summary 
is to present the more important and interesting facts, 
and that, while many sources of information have been 
consulted and utilized, no pretension is made to 
exhaustiveness. 

I. Cleveland has been the first city of the State 
since 1900. Population: — 1820, 606; 1830, 1,076; 1840, 
6,071; 1850, 17,034; i860, 43,417; 1870, 92,829; 1880, 
160,146; 1890, 261,353; 1900, 381,768; 1910, 560,663. 

Though founded before the close of the eighteenth 
century, the village of Cleveland, or Cleaveland, did 
not for many years make any pretensions to industrial 
enterprise. It was not until the opening of the Ohio 
Canal, from Cleveland to Portsmouth on the Ohio 
River — a distance of three hundred and nine miles — in 
1832, that facilities were obtained for communication 
with the developed portions of the country. With 



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276 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

the railway advantages, which followed gradually but 
comprehensively, and above all the extension of deep 
water navigation throughout the whole system of the 
Great Lakes by the Sault Ste. Marie Canal (completed 
in 1855), the city advanced to a prominent commercial 
position. The traffic thus established had the inci- 
dental consequence of making the materials of manu- 
facture abundant and cheap in Cleveland, and the 
foundations of industry which were established as the 
natural sequence of this condition were developed with 
steady success and finally on a very great scale. 

The first manufacturing plant in Cleveland is said 
to have been a distillery, built in 1800 by David Bryant 
and his son Oilman, at the foot of Superior Lane. 
Aside from the usual milling, carpentering, blacksmith- 
ing, and household trades necessary to the existence 
of a pioneer community, there is no record of a manu- 
facturing venture until about 18 17, when Abel R. 
Garlick began to make ** French burr millstones" 
at an establishment on Bank Street, obtaining his 
material from a quarry at Mill Creek, in Newburgh. 
He afterward cut his stone into "flagging," and his 
products were among the earliest of Cleveland manu- 
facture which supplied a demand outside the home 
market. 

On the 3d of March, 1834, Charles Hoyt, Luke 
Risley, Richard Lord, and Josiah Barber incorporated 
the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company under the first 
State charter issued to a Cleveland manufacturing 
concern. It had an authorized capital of one hundred 
thousand dollars, was the first iron industry in Cleve- 
land or vicinity to use steam instead of horsepower 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 277 

for "blowing'* the furnace, and had a prosperous career 
from the start. The plant was at the comer of Detroit 
and Center streets, Samuel P. Orth, in his "History 
of Cleveland," says (Vol. I, p. 629): "It not only 
did a general foundry business, but early manufactured a 
patent horsepower device. In 1841 it made cannon 
for the Government. In 1842 Ethan Rogers entered 
its employ and developed the manufacture of construc- 
tion machinery to be used in building railroads, and 
later the manufacture of locomotives. At this plant 
was built the first locomotive west of the Alleghenies. 
It was used on the Detroit and Pontiac Railway. 
Here were made the first locomotives used by the Cleve- 
land, Columbus and Cincinnati, and the Cleveland 
and Painesville railways. The first successful lake 
screw propeller was the * Emigrant,' and its machinery 
was made in this establishment." 

According to the Directory of 1837 there were at 
that time "four very extensive iron foundries and steam 
engine manufactories, three soap and candle manu- 
factories, two breweries, one sash factory, two rope 
walks, one stoneware pottery, two carriage manufac- 
tories, and two French burr millstone manufactories. '' 
At that period and for the next ten or fifteen years the 
principal conmiodities of Cleveland manufactured for 
export were those converted from the raw materials of 
the farm, such as soap, potash and pearlash, candles, 
lard oil, saleratus, leather, whiskey, and flour. Mean- 
time iron manufacture, which had made such a respect- 
able beginning in 1834, was gradually expanding, and 
by i860 it took the leading place in the industrial busi- 
ness of the city. Coal, the essential foundation for 



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278 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

successful iron production, was regarded with consider- 
able prejudice by Cleveland citizens in the early times. 
It was first offered for sale in 1828 by Henry Newberry. 
James Harrison Kennedy, the Cleveland historian, 
says that Newberry, with a wagon-load of the new fuel, 
went from door to door, explaining its merits, but during 
the first day found only one purchaser. Many years 
elapsed before it came into general use. The name of 
Daniel P. Rhodes is prominently identified with the 
early coal trade. He was largely interested in mines 
and in the shipment of their product to Cleveland and 
other places. 

Soon after 1850 the thoughtful and enterprising 
citizens came to a quite definite realization of the 
special advantages of Cleveland for the iron industry. 
A public meeting was held in 1856 with a view to making 
Cleveland an important iron center, at which a com- 
mittee reported that this result was inevitable because 
of the abundance and cheapness of ore and coal; a site 
for a blast furnace was donated and {{60,000 subscribed. 

We are indebted to Mr. Orth's history for the follow- 
ing details of early iron and kindred establishments in 
the city, following the original undertaking already 
noticed : 

"In 1839, Whittaker and Wells built a furnace near 
the pier. In 1850, Sizer's Foundry was established 
and continued under that name until 1866, when S. 
Merchant succeeded in the proprietorship. The Lake 
Shore Foundry was incorporated about this time, with 
buildings at the foot of Alabama Street. The Company 
made a specialty of car and bridge castings and water 
and gas pipe. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 279 

"In 1849, Michigan granted a charter to the Cleve- 
land Iron Company. But little business was done 
until in 1853, when it was reorganized under the laws 
of Ohio as the Cleveland Iron Mining Company, with 
a capital of ^500,000. The officers were J. W. Gordon, 
president; Samuel Mather, vice-president; and H. B. 
Tuttle, secretary. The ore was largely shipped to 
Pittsburg. In 1854, four thousand tons were mined. 

"In 1852, Henry Chisholm founded the firm of 
Chisholm, Jones and Company, for the manufacture 
of railway and bar iron. Later the firm was merged 
into a corporation, the Cleveland Rolling Mill Com- 
pany, which expanded into one of the largest steel 
manufactories in the United States. It is of interest to 
know that Bessemer steel was first blown in the New- 
burgh plant, October 15, 1868, which was some years 
prior to the making of Bessemer steel in Pittsburg. 

"In 1852, William A. Otis with J. M. Ford formed a 
partnership for the manufacture of iron castings, with 
a foundry on Whiskey Island. From this developed 
the firm of Otis and Company, and subsequently the 
Lake Erie Iron Company and the Otis Iron and Steel 
Company. In 1859, Mr. Otis built the first rolling 
mill in the city. 

"In 1858, the following firms were manufacturing 
iron in Cleveland: — Ford and Otis, furnaces; Cleveland 
Boiler Plate Company, Cleveland and Erie Railway 
Works, the Railroad Iron Mill Company, Morrill 
and Bowers Car Factory, Sizer Car Wheel Manufac- 
turing Company, Cleveland Agricultural Works, 
Chapman's Foundry, the Boat Machine Shop, and the 
Cuyahoga Steam Furnaces. 



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280 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

"In i860, Thomas A. Reeve began the Novelty- 
Iron Works, for the manufacture of iron bridges, frogs 
and crossings, and general machine work. 

**In 1861, the Lake Superior Iron Company was 
incorporated. S. P. Ely and H. B. Tuttle were active 
in its organization. The Jackson Iron Company was 
organized the same year. It was composed largely of 
New York capitalists. The Cleveland agent was 
Samuel H. Kimball. 

"In 1863, the list of new corporations increased to 
sixteen, and from that year forward they have multi- 
plied rapidly. Among the largest developed within 
the succeeding decade were the following: — the Cleve- 
land Foundry, established in 1864 by Bowler and 
Maher, joined later by C. A. Brayton. In 1864, 
Sherman, Damon and Company began the manufac- 
ture of both hot and cold pressed nuts, washers, chain 
links, and rivets. At this time the Union Steel Screw 
Company was incorporated by Amasa Stone, Jr., 
William Chisholm, Henry Chisholm, A. B. Stone and 
H. B. Payne, with a capital of ^1,000,000. In 1866, 
Hovey Taylor and Son began a foundry business on 
Central Place. This developed later into the success- 
ful Taylor and Boggis Foundry. In 1868, the Cleve- 
land Spring Company was organized, with ^200,000 
capital, for the manufacture of steel springs for loco- 
motives, cars, wagons, and carriages. Among its 
early directors were: E. H. Bourne, William Corlett, 
John Corlett, H. M. Knowles and S. Bourne. The 
King Iron Bridge and Manufacturing Company was 
organized in 1871 by Zenas King, Thomas A. Reeve, 
A. B. Stone, Charles E. Bamard, Charles A. Crumb, 



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JOHN H. THOMAS 

Piooeer Springfield manufacturer; one of the first to 
establish and develop the making of grain drills; public- 
spirited citizen; died January 2$, 1901. 




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'rill-: RISE AND PROGRE S 

/'... L.il.e Suj-fTior Iron Company \\c.^ 

'^. I*. I'.ly and 11. B. luttle were act:\r 

' .. V 't;. 'Ibe Jackson Iron Company wa^ 

■' • •..r.-:c year. It was coinpc^scd larr.'ly of 

^ .. ' ;■•! ita!i<ts. The Cleveland at^enT vv^^ 



\ :' !' * ' f Lt'W corporations increased t'> 
*• * }-' :.r forward they have inul*'- 
• J I he h'lr'/ost developed wi*l ii' 
uere the folKAvinc:: — the Cle\ _- 
;. ;:.hed in ^S^>4 by Bowler an.: 

" V\ C. A. r>rayton. In Ih6.;. 
■ .•' i <. -nipany ht-pan the manufa 
* • - . i • M prrs.sed nuts, washers, cha;- 

'■ • . \ *M> time the I'ni )n Steel Sen '■ 

Ct . >. ' \Mt<*d by Ania'^a Stone, Ji 

W'ili-... V li.t.iv Chishohn, A. B. Stone a* 

11. i> ;• . . .t Mai of ^KCV'.COOO. In lS'> 

lh)\'. 1 : i"( ean a fi)undiy business * 

Cent: i! ! . veloped later into the su»:c' 

ful'E '- ■ . . ^ Fomub-y. In i:^6S, the Cle^ 

land S; ■■• ' » , . v. :l^ * : '^'lnized, w^lth ^^200.- 

capital, for :! -.iri^ *'.^" i>f i^H^cA sprinj^s for k 

motives, ca^s, ua.:)ns, ■*. i i\irriages. Among 
early directors \ver(^: b !! T- .irne, William Cor'- 
John Corlett, 11. M. b ^ atul S. Bourne. 

Ivine Iron Bridtre ai ■ \ -''.»< turimr Company 
' '.nized in 1S71 by / -/"iir, Thomas A. R\ 

■' i5. Stone, Charles 1 • ird, Charles A. Cn 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 281 

Dan P. Eells and Henry Chisholm. The business had 
been founded by Zenas King in 1858, when he manu- 
factured the first iron arch and swing bridges made in 
this part of Ohio." 

Andrew Carnegie, certainly an authority on any 
question related to iron and steel, and not prejudiced 
by personal interest in favor of Cleveland, has remarked 
that for these products it is the ideal city on the Ameri- 
can continent. 

The coming eminence of Cleveland in this industry 
was indicated as early as i860, when the United States 
census returns for Cuyahoga county showed that the 
largest item of manufactured production was bar and 
sheet iron, having a value of $1,209,500, against 
$1,008,126 for flour, the second item. It was just 
about this time that Cleveland was beginning to experi- 
ence the advantages of the opening of the Sault Ste. 
Marie Canal, though the general utilization of the 
Lake Superior ores did not set in, in full tide, until 
later. Concerning the vast economic changes wrought 
by the initial and ever continuing improvements in 
the conditions of navigation on the Great Lakes — 
changes which have contributed to the advance of 
Cleveland in a most conspicuous manner^ — the reader 
is referred to the article by Harvey P. Goulder in this 
volume. 

In the census returns for i860 we find the first 
suggestion of the petroleum industry, novel at that 
time, of which Cleveland was the cradle and with 
whose astonishing history the name of the city is 
inseparably associated. Under the item "coal oil," 
the following modest figures are given for Cuyahoga 



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282 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

county : One establishment : — capital invested, ^2,ocx> ; 
cost of raw material, $5,000; number employed, 3; 
cost of labor, $1,800; value of products, $8,000. The 
location of oil refineries in Cleveland dates from this 
time. "In 1861," says Mr. Orth, "John D. Rocke- 
feller and Henry M. Flagler formed a partnership, 
amalgamated many of the refineries, and in .^7w 
expanded into the Standard Oil Company, with C* . 
land as its headquarters. The first directors v . -. 
John D. Rockefeller, Henry M. Flagler, Samuel An- 
drews, Stephen D. Harkness, and William Rockefeller. 
The capital stock was $1,000,000 and the refineries 
were established in Kingsbury Run." The "coal oil" 
statistics of the county in 1870, according to the census, 
were: — ^number of establishments, 16; hands employed, 
209; capital, $520,000; wages paid, $120,759; value 
of material, $3,611,046; value of products, $4,283,065. 
In the same decade the iron industry also showed a 
remarkable increase, but, counting all its branches, 
its output scarcely equalled in value that of the petro- 
leum business, which had been wholly developed in ten 
years. This industry directly or indirectly led to the 
establishing of other new lines of manufacture, some of 
which have since greatly flourished. As an instance, 
E. Grasselli, who in 1839 began to produce chemicals 
in Cincinnati, removed to Cleveland in 1866 and started 
a plant for the manufacture of acids to be used in oil 
refinery. "These works have expanded into enormous 
plants located on Broadway and Independence Road, 
with many factories in other cities and other lands." 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 283 

During the vogue of the bicycle, Cleveland was its 
leading manufacturing center, the Lozier Company 
being especially prominent in this interest. 

At the present day it is estimated that Cleveland 
produces considerably more than two thousand kinds 
of manufactured articles. In 1910, there were 2,148 
establishments, engaging the services of 98,686 persons 
(of whom 84,728 were wageworkers), utilizing 199,898 
primary horsepower, capitalized at ^227,397,000, pay- 
ing ^48,053,000 in wages and ^15,593,000 in salaries, 
and having products valued at ^271,961,000. In the 
ten years from 1900 to 1910 the capital showed an 
increase, in round numbers, of ^71,000,000 and the 
value of products ^100,000,000. 

Without too minutely analyzing the census figures 
of 1910 for specific Cleveland industries, we will give 
some of their principal features. It should first be 
observed that of the nearly $272,000,000 value of prod- 
ucts, more than $67,000,000 value is not reduced to 
classification, but is given under the head of "all other 
industries.'' Doubtless a large portion of this amount 
belongs to industries accessory to the leading "specified'* 
ones, particularly iron and steel. 

The preponderating interest was by far iron and 
steel, which, counting the primary products and the 
allied ones of the foundry and machine shops, had a 
total value of nearly $76,000,000. Under the head of 
"iron and steel, steel works and rolling mills," there 
were fourteen establishments, 8,278 persons being 
engaged (including 7,538 wageworkers), with a capital 
of $25,087,000, a wage total of $5,150,000, and products 
valued at $38,463,000. The foundries and machine- 



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284 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

shops were 231 in number, employed 20,348 persons 
(of whom 17,915 were wageworkers), were capitalized 
at $41,610,000, paid $10,485,000 in wages, and had an 
output worth $37,443,000. Other allied industries 
were "cars and general shop construction and repairs 
by steam railroad companies,*' producing $2,056,000 
gross value; and cutlery and tools, "not elsewhere 
specified," valued at $2,395,000. Aside from iron and 
steel, were these metallic products and values: — copper, 
tin and sheet-iron, $2,966,000; brass and bronze, 
$1,362,000. 

Professor W. M. Gregory, of the Cleveland Normal 
School, in an article on Cleveland's manufactures 
in the Geographical Journal^ says of the varied products 
of the metal industries: "The vast output of nails, 
spikes, screws, tacks, drills, and bolts has given the 
title of the Sheffield of America to Cleveland. ♦ ♦ ♦ 
Metal working machinery is one of the various special- 
ties. A great many kinds of steam hanmiers, lathes, 
slotters, punches, benders, rolls, drills, chisels, shears, 
and forges are built for home use, and many of these 
machines are exported to France, Germany, and 
England. The finer mechanics of the city have con- 
structed the delicate mountings on the great Lick and 
Yerkes telescopes, as well as those of many of the 
smaller observatories in this country and abroad. 
In direct contrast to the delicate instruments of pre- 
cision of the observatories are the hoisting, dredging, 
conveying, and ship-unloading machines. The latter 
of these are built only in Cleveland, and are distributed 
to all parts of the world. The two most successful 
types of the unloaders are the Brown Hoist and the 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 285 

Heulett. One of the machines will take six hundred 
and twenty-eight tons of ore out of the hold of a boat 
in one hour and place it in the stock piles, and several 
of them working on the same boat at once take a cargo 
of twelve thousand tons out of a freighter in four or 
five hours. *^ 

Next in rank to iron and steel is the automobile 
business, which, against nothing reported in 1900 and 
^4,624,000 value in 1905, showed a value of products 
in 1910 of $21,404,000. This industry was represented 
in 1910 by thirty-two establishments; employed 7,115 
persons, of whom 6,408 were wageworkers; had a 
capital of $16,600,000, and paid $4,023,000 in wages. 
Of the development of automobile manufacture in 
Cleveland, Mr. Orth says: "On March 24, 1898, 
Alexander Winton sold the first gasoline automobile 
made in Cleveland, and one of the first ever manufac- 
tured in the United States. This was the beginning 
of an industry that in 1909 made 5,800 cars. In 1896 
Frank Steams manufactured his first machine from a 
patent he had carefully wrought out. About the same 
time the Gaeth machine was manufactured on West 
Twenty-fifth street. In 1898 the Steams Company 
was organized and cars put on the market. The Baker 
Company was organized at this time, for the making 
of electric machines, by R. C. White, F. R. White, 
and Walter C. Baker. Their first factory was a small 
building on Jessie Street. In the fall of 1898 the first 
White Steamer was made at the factory of the White 
Sewing Machine Company on Champlain Street. 
The. machine was designed by RoUin White. In 1901 
the Peerless Company began the manufacture of their 



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286 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

car in the old Peerless bicycle plant, where they had 
previously manufactured motors for the DeBion- 
Bouton Motorette Company, which failed in 1900, the 
Peerless Company taking their business. In 1903 the 
Royal car was first made, when E. D. Sherman, presi- 
dent of the Royal Company, purchased the old Hoff- 
man Automobile Company. In 1904 the Rauch and 
Lang Company was started. " 

The slaughtering and meat packing industry stands 
third, with products of the value of $17,192,000 in 
1910, against $7,514,000 in 1900. Number of estab- 
lishments, 1910, 35; persons engaged, 1,336; wagework- 
ers, 1,076; capital, $3,555,000; wages, $599,000. This 
department of enterprise has had steady development 
in Cleveland, with the growth of population. Its 
early promotion was largely due to W. G. Rose, a 
citizen of wide usefulness, who organized the Cleve- 
land Provision Company. 

Fourth in order is the industry of women's clothing, 
having an output in 1910 of $12,789,000 value, made in 
ninety-six establishments, which employed 6,226 per- 
sons (5,418 being wageworkers), had a capital of 
$4,941 ,000, and paid wages of $2,903,000. The kindred 
industries of "millinery and lace goods*' and "hosiery 
and knit goods'' produced, respectively, $1,206,000 
and $2,957,000 values. "Men's clothing, including 
shirts," had a product valued at $5,9S3,ooo. If the 
clothing manufactures of all kinds were considered 
together, instead of in their subdivisions, this branch 
of enterprise would stand next to the foundry and 
machine shop interests for the value produced. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 287 

Following women's clothing are the printing and 
publishing products, valued at $9,635,000. Number 
of establishments, 245; persons engaged, 4,671; wage- 
workers, 3,104; capital, $6,944,000; wages, $2,009,000. 

The paint and varnish business has reached large 
dimensions in Cleveland. Pioneers in these lines were 
Henry A. Sherwin and Edwin P. Williams, who about 
1870 formed a partnership and started a small paint 
factory on the canal near Seneca Street, and Francis 
H. Glidden, who began the manufacture of varnish in 
1875. There were twenty-four paint and varnish 
establishments in 1910, with products valued at 
$6,138,000. 

Malt liquors produced in Cleveland were of the 
value of $5,124,000 in 1910. Whiskey distillation, 
formerly of relative importance, has now sunk to 
insignificance, only $14,000 value having been recorded 
in 1910. 

Industries having products of from $4,000,000 to 
$5,000,000 value are: — stoves and furnaces, including 
gas and oil stoves, $4,977,000; bread and other bakery 
products, $4,731,000; electrical machinery, apparatus, 
and supplies, $4,036,000; and lumber and timber prod- 
ucts, $4,021,000. The electrical interests are of much 
variety and importance. It will be recalled that the 
arc light was invented by a Cleveland man, Charles F. 
Brush. Concerning the lumber industry, Professor 
Gregory says : "The Cuyahoga River is of value in the 
lumber trade because of the facilities with which lumber 
boats can discharge cargoes. The lumber yard interests 
control and operate more of the available river front 
than any other industry on the flats. There are more 



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288 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

than forty-two lumber yards in the city; two-thirds 
of these are along the river. One Cleveland concern 
is the largest importer of foreign wood in the middle 
west. The lumber is consumed by hundreds of indus- 
tries and is the backbone of the building trade. Furni- 
ture, window sashes, automobile bodies, boxes, and 
sewing machine cabinets are among the important 
consumers, one factory having a capacity of ten thou- 
sand boxes daily." 

No detailed Cleveland statistics are given in the 
census for sewing machines or shipbuilding, both of 
which are important local industries. In the manu- 
facture of sewing machines, Cleveland has long been 
preeminent. The business was established in 1870 
by the White Manufacturing Company, of which the 
incorporators were Thomas H. White, RoUin C. White, 
George W. Baker, Henry W. White, and D^Arcy Porter. 
In 1900 the sewing machines made in the city had a 
value of $2,S75,ooo. As a shipbuilding center Cleve- 
land is noted for its large lake vessels, the shipyards 
being located in the old bed of the Cuyahoga River. 

Other industries specified in the census which in 1910 
produced exceeding ^1,000,000 value were: — ^boxes, 
fancy and paper, $1,141,000; chemicals, $1,866,000; 
confectionery, $2,852,000; furniture and refrigerators, 
$1,069,000; patent medicines and compounds and drug- 
gists' preparations, $1,010,000; and tobacco manufac- 
tures, $2,769,000. 

The remaining manufactures of Cleveland valued at 
exceeding $250,000 are, so far as given in the census of 
1910: — blacking and cleansing and polishing prepara- 
tions, $355)000; boots and shoes, including cut stock 



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ROBERT JOHNSON 
Manufacturer, of Springfield; identified more than forty 
years with important concerns in the agricultural imple- 
ment industry; died February 15. 1911- 





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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 289 

and findings, $95i,oc»; brick and tile, $769,000; car- 
riages and wagons and materials, $462,000; cooperage 
and wooden goods, not elsewhere specified, $708,000; 
gas and electric fixtures and lamps and reflectors, 
$654,000; ice, manufactured, $368,000; leather goods, 
$271,000; leather, tanned, curried, and finished, $636,- 
000; marble arid stone work, $468,000; mattresses and 
spring beds, $365,000; models and patterns, not includ- 
ing paper patterns, $251,000, and umbrellas and canes, 
$253,000. 

"Among the smaller industries," says Professor 
Gregory, "are several which supply the builder with 
the indispensable materials of stone and lumber. The 
building stone is obtained from the largest sandstone 
quarries in the world, which are located near Cleveland 
in Cuyahoga and Lorain counties. They were first 
operated nearly seventy-five years ago, and since then 
enough stone has been quarried to build several Ameri- 
can cities. The stone has been used to build thousands 
of blocks, bridges, churches, and buildings in all parts 
of the United States, and is exported to Canada. 
The Berea, Amherst and 'Gray Canyon' are some of 
the various grades of building stone obtained from the 
quarries, which cover thousands of acres and are from 
thirty to two hundred feet in depth. These various 
quarries about Cleveland have a daily capacity of 
over three hundred cars of stone, and Cleveland is 
the center of the sandstone industry of the United 
States. 

"For the housewife, Cleveland makes more vapor 
stoves and gas ranges than any other city of the coun- 
try. It stands first in sewing machines and chewing 



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290 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

gum. It is the great distributing point for millinery 
furbelows and face massage preparations. The oil 
refineries of the city supply kereosene, gasoline, paraf- 
fine, dies, disinfectants, flavoring extracts, floor oils 
and soap. For the home beautiful paints and varnishes 
are made daily by the ton and carload in many estab- 
lishments, one of which is the largest paint factory in 
the world." 

2. Cincinnati, second city of Ohio. Population: — 
18^0, 9,642; 1830, 24,831; 1840, 46,338; 1850, 115,43s; 
i860, 161,044; 1870, 216,239; 1880, 255,139; 1890, 
296,908; 1900, 325,902; 1910, 363,591- 

The early development of manufacturing in Cin- 
cinnati has already been noticed in detail (pages 268-274) . 
A very extensive history of its consecutive progress to 
the Civil War could be deduced from several excellent 
authorities, especially the three invaluable books of 
Charles Cist: "Cincinnati in 1841," "Cincinnati in 
1 85 1,** and "Cincinnati in 1859." For our purposes 
it will be sufiicient to make a brief digest of the statis- 
tics and information so abundantly given by Mr. 
Cist. This writer is entitled to the greatest credit 
for his comprehensive and exhaustive publications on 
the city, which, moreover, are distinguished in the 
descriptive text by a superior literary style. He states 
that the particulars for the manufacturing industries 
were derived from his personal investigations. 

Comparing Cincinnati with Pittsburg in 1841, Mr. 
Cist says that, notwithstanding the more impressive 
outward appearances of industrial activity in the latter 
city, the advantage was really very much in favor of 
Cincinnati, alike for value and variety of products 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 291 

and the number of persons engaged in manufacturing. 
The industries of Pittsburg, he says, were conducted 
with a very great utilization of steam power and con- 
sumption of soft coal, and the resulting clang and dense 
smoke gave to the casual observer the impression of a 
productive energy with which the more quiet way of 
doing things in Cincinnati contrasted sharply. "Our 
manufacturing establishments," he says, "with the 
exception of a few requiring in their nature to be carried 
on conveniently to the river, and which, therefore, 
must be driven by steam, are either set in motion by the 
water of the canal or are, in the literal sense, manu- 
factures — ^works of the hand. These last embrace the 
principal share of the productive industry of our 
mechanics, and are carried on in the upper stories, or 
in the rear shops of the warerooms in which they are 
exposed for sale, in a variety and to an extent which 
can only be realized from a visit to the interior of these 
establishments. All these are, therefore, to a great 
extent out of sight." From a comparison of reliable 
data he asserted that the number of persons engaged 
in mechanical and manufacturing employment in 
Cincinnati was, in proportion to those of corresponding 
pursuits in Pittsburg, fully as two to one. 

At that time the Miami Canal (destined, in conjunc- 
tion with the Wabash Canal, to connect Cincinnati with 
Lake Erie) had been completed to Piqua, a distance of 
eighty-three miles. One of the great advantages 
derived from it was an abundance of water power, 
which was promptly availed of by the local manufac- 
turers. This factor was of much importance in the 
increasing development of the city. 



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292 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



The manufacturing statistics of Cincinnati for 1841, 
as presented by Mr. Cist, show the following totals: — 
persons engaged, 10,647; value of products, ^17,432,670. 
In 1840, according to the census, the capital invested 
in manufactures was ^14,541,842. 

We reproduce his recapitulation of the industries 
(1841):- 

Hands Value 

Wood, principally or wholly i>SS7 $2,222,857 

Iron, entirely or principally i>2So 1,728,549 

Other metals , 461 658,040 

Leather, entirely or principally 888 1,068,700 

Hair, bristles, etc 198 366,400 

Cotton, wool, linen, and hemp 359 411,190 

Drugs, paints, chemicals, etc 114 458,250 

The earth 301 238,300 

Paper 512 669,600 

Food 1,567 5,269,627 

Science and the fine arts 139 179,100 

Buildings 1,568 9S3i267 

Miscellaneous 1,733 3*208,790 

10,647 $17,432,670 

The foremost productive interest was pork packing, 
represented by forty-eight establishments, which em- 
ployed 1,220 persons and had an output valued at 
^3,074,5 12. This interest was exclusive of the ordinary 
butchering concerns (beef and pork), sixty-two in 
number and producing a value of ^1,098,915. 

The iron industry had already risen to respectable 
proportions. Under this head were thirteen foundries 
and engine shops, with products of ^668,657 value and 
two rolling mills producing ^394,000 value. The 
metal industries other than iron included thirty-two 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 293 

copper, brass, sheet-iron, and tin-plate concerns, with 
products of ^311,300 value. Mr. Cist refers at some 
length to the marked excellence of the productions of 
the Cincinnati bell founders, which at this period com- 
manded a market throughout the west and south, and 
even to the east of Pittsburg. 

In wood manufactures, ranking next to food, it is 
of much interest to note that steamboats had the lead- 
ing place, thirty-three boats, of five thousand, three 
hundred and sixty-one tons, being produced at a cost 
of ^592,500. Cabinet ware, which from an early date 
was a leading Cincinnati commodity, was manufactured 
to the value of ^538,000. 

The leather goods of Cincinnati had also long been 
of superior reputation and extensive distribution. The 
principal items in 1841 were boots and shoes, ^448,000, 
and saddlery, trunks, collars, and harness, ^231,000. 

The textile industries were of considerable variety, 
but none of them showed a development to justify 
the early predictions. The largest item of production 
was cotton yarn, $95,000. On the other hand, the 
clothing industry (classified by Mr. Cist among the 
miscellaneous manufactures) produced the large value 
of $1,223,800. Mattress makers and upholsterers 
(classed with the hair manufacturers) made goods to 
the value of $284,800. 

Earthen ware manufactures had not as yet advanced 
to any special prominence, the principal item being 
brick, $87,500. But the product of the quarries had 
the important value of $253,450. 



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294 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Among the miscellaneous articles were: — soap and 
candles, ^332,940; tobacco, ^325,000; hats, ^312,000; 
beer, ^126,000; and distillery products, ^145,000. 

The very substantial development of the publishing 
interests reflected the high culture for which Cincinnati 
was noted from its beginning. There were twenty-five 
book, newspaper, and other publishers, employing 
362 persons and producing a value of ^518,500. Mr. 
Cist alludes with pride to the industry engaged in 
making "philosophical and mathematical instruments,'* 
and enumerates their delicate and valuable produc- 
tions. 

In 185 1 the population had much more than doubled 
and a corresponding progress was shown in manufac- 
turing. The total value of products for this year was 
^55,017,000. Analyzing his statistics, Mr. Cist thus 
deduces the net advantages of manufactures to the 
city: "The raw material consumed in our manufac- 
turing operations does not on an average exceed 
fifty-four per cent, or thirty out of fifty-five million 
dollars, the entire value of our industrial products, 
leaving forty-six per cent, or more than twenty-five 
million dollars, as a revenue derived for Cincinnati 
from this department of business." He quotes the 
following quite remarkable tribute to Cincinnati, as 
a natural manufacturing center, by Horace Greeley, 
after a visit paid to the city in 1850: 

"It requires no keenness of observation to perceive 
that Cincinnati is destined to become the focus and 
mart for the grandest circle of manufacturing thrift 
on this continent. Her delightful climate, her un- 
equalled and ever increasing facilities for cheap and 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 296 

rapid commercial intercourse with all parts of the 
country and the world, her enterprising and energetic 
population, her own elastic and exulting youth, are 
all elements which predict and insure her electric prog- 
ress to giant greatness. I doubt if there is another 
spot on the earth where food, fuel, cotton, timber and 
iron can all be concentrated — ^that is, at so moderate 
a cost of human labor in producing and bringing them 
together — as here. Such fatness of soil, such a wealth 
of mineral treasure — coal, iron, salt, and the finest 
clays for all purposes of use, — and all cropping out from 
the steep, facile banks of placid, though not sluggish 
navigable rivers. How many Califomias could equal, 
in permanent worth, this valley of the Ohio?" 

The statistical tables for the year 1851 include one 
hundred and eighty-five branches of manufacture. 
Pork packing was still the leading industry. There 
were thirty-three pork, beef, and ham-curing estab- 
lishments in the city, with products of ^5,760,000 
value, and in addition thirty-four concerns were 
engaged in making lard oil and stearine valued at 
^3,015,900. Soap and candles, products also largely 
subsidiary to the pork packing interests, had a value 
of ^i,47S,ooo. The dominant productive interest of 
Cincinnati, in its different departments, therefore had 
an output at the middle of the century of over 
$10,000,000 annual value. Mr. Cist gives an extended 
account of the rise of this business and of the opera- 
tions in its various branches. He says that it first 
attained large proportions in the thirties, and rapidly 
expanded until eighty per cent of the hogs killed in 



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296 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Ohio were put up in Cincinnati. In 1848, the number 
packed in the city was nearly a half million. 

The industry of next magnitude was that repre- 
sented by the foundry and engine shops, of which there 
were forty-four, employing 4,695 hands and producing 
a value of ^3,676,500. Of these, fully a third were 
in the stove trade, and as many as a thousand stoves 
had been made in the city in a single day. Aside 
from the stove business, the usual operations of foun- 
ders and engine-builders were carried on in infinite 
variety. Cincinnati at this period enjoyed a practical 
monopoly in the construction of sugar mills and steam 
engines for Louisiana, Texas, and Cuba, one firm 
(Niles & Company) having in 1851 transacted a business 
of ^280,000 in those lines. Another firm, J. H. Bur- 
rows and Company, made a specialty of portable 
mills for sections of the South and Southwest where 
waterpower was scarce. The familiar name of Miles 
Greenwood occurs prominently in Mr. Cist's pages. 
His establishment, on Walnut Street from Canal to 
Twelfth, was founded in 1832, and in 1851 employed 
three hundred and fifty men and manufactured 
machinery and castings valued at ^360,000. 

Five iron rolling mills employed five hundred and 
fifty men, and produced a value of ^1,050,000. A new 
industry in the iron interest was that of safes, in which 
three factories were engaged, with manufactures to 
the value of $96,000. Mr. Cist mentions Charles 
Urban, Pearl Street west of Vine, making the Salaman- 
der safe, "a thoroughly tested and approved article." 

Whiskey production showed an enormous increase, 
the value being $2,857,920, and Mr. Cist remarks that 



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OLIVER S. KBLLY 
Springfield rDanufaclurer, of the finn of Whitdey, 
Passler, and Kelly (Champion mowers and reapers)^ 
died April 9, 1904. 




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M.' '^-^l '. AM,) PROGRESS 
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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 297 

"This is the greatest whiskey mart of the world." 
The business of the breweries also had a striking 
development; value, ^556,000. 

Other principal manufactures of 1851 were: — alcohol 
and spirits of wine, ^608,260; boots and shoes, ^1,182,- 
650; clothing, ^1,947,500; domestic liquors, ^726,000; 
feed and flour, ^1,690,000; furniture, ^1,660,000; mil- 
linery, ^820,000; patent medicines, ^660,000; publish- 
ing, ^1,246,540; sheeting, yarn, and candle wicks, 
$636,000; tanning and currying, $965,000; tobacco, 
$931,000; trunks, etc., $506,000. In this list we have 
not included any industry producing less than $500,000. 

Cincinnati in 1859, according to Mr. Cist, had 
manufactured products of $112,254,400 value, engaging 
the labor of forty-five thousand persons. This was 
two years before the beginning of the Civil War, which 
was to work so great a change in economic and indus- 
trial conditions throughout the country and which so 
peculiarly affected Cincinnati. 

The clothing industry stood first in importance, 
with a product valued at $15,000,000, and, according 
to Mr. Cist, Cincinnati was "the largest market for 
ready-made clothing in the country, east or west." 
The great progress of clothing manufacture was largely 
due to the introduction of the sewing machine, of 
which no city showed a more prompt and general ap- 
preciation than Cincinnati. 

The combined distillery, brewery, and vineyard 
products were second in order. These included whis- 
key, $5,318,730; domestic liquors, $3,600,000; alcohol 
and spirits of wine, $2,260,000; ale and beer, $1,500,- 
000; and wine, $150,000. The resulting demand for 



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298 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

casks gave great prosperity to the cooperage establish- 
ments, which had an output valued at ^1,510,000. 

Pork and beef packing ($6,300,000) and the allied 
manufactures of candles, lard oil, soap, etc. ($6,1 14,500), 
together had a value of nearly twelve and one-half 
millions. 

The foundry products had risen in value to $6,353,- 
400; bar, boiler, sheet iron, etc., and nails, to $4,334,000; 
and wrought iron and tubular bridges to $1,000,000. 
The safe industry had a product of $408,000. Among 
other manufactures wholly or principally of iron or 
steel were steam engine boilers, $463,000; surgical 
and dental cutlery, etc., $80,000; edge tools, $158,000; 
and lightning rods, $175,000. The various industries 
using copper and tin showed a flourishing condition. 
Bells and brass work had a value of $425,000; bri- 
tannia ware, $100,000; and copper, iron and sheet 
iron ware, $610,000. 

The products of the wood utilizing interests were, 
in part: — ^furniture, $3,656,000; sash, blinds, and doors, 
$1,380,000; sawmill products, $820,000; carriages and 
omnibuses, $460,000; steamboats, $400,000; billiard 
tables (a new industry), $342,000; and railway chairs 
(also new), $360,000. 

Book and newspaper publishers issued products 
worth $2,610,000, and there were also music publi- 
cations valued at $200,000. The manufacture of type 
and printing materials had been established in Cin- 
cinnati in early days, and this business in 1859 produced 
a value of $310,000. 

Such old established lines as leather, tobacco, patent 
medicines, boots and shoes, millinery, cotton yams and 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 299 

sheetings, quarry products and brick, paint, and 
chemicals, continued to prosper. 

A new industry, started in Cincinnati about this 
time, was the extracting of "coal oil" from cannel 
coal. The value produced in 1859 was $660,000. 
"There are,'' says Mr. Cist, "four coal oil establish- 
ments in Cincinnati and adjacencies, all of which, 
aided by supplies from the interior of the State, Ken- 
tucky, and Western Virginia, fall short of meeting the 
demand which has sprung up for the article. '' As an 
illuminant, he said, this coal oil was superior to the 
popular lard oil of the time, and far cheaper; it could 
be sold at the remarkably low price of sixty cents a 
gallon, whereas almost any other burning oil cost 
ninety cents a gallon, wholesale. He indulges in 
lively anticipations of the future of the industry. 
One of the men most prominently concerned in the 
Cincinnati coal oil interests was E. Grasselli, who, 
as we have seen, removed a few years later to Cleve- 
land to take advantage of the newly established 
petroleum business. 

Passing over the Civil War and the ten years follow- 
ing, we take 1876 as the next year for a detailed 
view. The interests of the manufacturers of Cincin- 
nati, as well as the community generally, were much 
promoted by the Industrial Expositions, which began 
in 1870 and continued annually. All Cincinnatians 
whose recollections go back to the early expositions, 
especially those who were then of youthful age and 
corresponding impressionability, remember them with 
enthusiasm and affection. They were eminently cred- 
itable and useful affairs. 



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300 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

The industrial situation in 1876-77 was the subject 
of an elaborate address delivered in 1878 by Colonel 
Sidney D. Maxwell, superintendent of the Chamber 
of Commerce. ("The Manufactures of Cincinnati and 
Their Relation to the Future of the Capital City.*' 
Robert Clark and Company, 1878.) Most of Colonel 
Maxweirs statistics are for the year 1876. 

The aggregate value of manufactured articles was 
^140,583,960. These were embraced in one hundred 
and eighty-two general classes, employed the labor 
of 62,218 persons, and represented an invested capital 
(exclusive of real estate) of ^51,550,936. In the 
respect of value of products, Cincinnati was about on 
an equality with Boston and St. Louis, according to 
reliable statistics for those cities in 1875. 

First in imporJ:ance were the food products: — value, 
$27,841,537; employes, 4,631. The leading industry 
in this department was pork packing, Mr. Maxwell's 
figures being for the year ending March i, 1878, in 
which about 800,000 hogs were packed, of a value of 
$9,500,000. The bakery products came next, followed 
by starch, flour, spices, canned goods, baking powder, 
vinegar, confectionery, etc. 

Liquors had a gross valuation of $23,615,588. 
Separate values are not given for malt and distilled 
beverages, but from calculations made it appears that 
these stood in about the ratio of one to two. 

The iron manufactures of all kinds were valued at 
$13,143,191, and gave employment to 7,341 persons. 
Of the machine-shop products, all made in large quan- 
tities and extensively in demand throughout the coun- 
try and in many instances all over the world, Mr. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 301 

Maxwell mentions stationary and portable engines, 
wood-working machinery, sugar mills, steam fire 
engines, steam gauges, hydraulic and steam elevators, 
and various articles of equipment. In the production 
of safes Cincinnati was "second to no city in the 
worid," twelve thousand having been made in 1877, 
and the total value of safes, safe vaults, burglar-proof 
locks, etc., for 1876 having been ^1,730,000. "These 
not only went to all parts of the United States, but to 
some extent have found sale in China, Japan, Germany, 
Belgium, Russia, Central and South America, Canada, 
the Sandwich Islands, and Australia.'' The value of 
stoves (1877) was ^1,358,500, and seven thousand 
tons of pig metal were consumed in their production. 
Railway supplies had a value of ^1,000,000; hardware 
proper, ^419,000; steam boilers, ^225,000; plows, 
^300,000; cutlery and edge tools, ^107,300; gas meters 
and machinery, ^111,000; bolts and nuts, ^175,000; 
castings (not embraced under stoves, machinery, etc.), 
^1,011,300. There were six rolling mills, which in 
1877 produced 25,800 tons of manufactured iron and 
steel. 

In the production of articles from wood 7,788 persons 
were employed and the value was ^12,990,716, more 
than half of which was under the item of furniture. 
Other leading wood manufactures were doors, sash, 
etc., picture frames and mouldings, cooperage wares, 
cigar boxes, boats, and billiard tables. The boat- 
building industry, formerly so important in Cincinnati, 
had very much declined during the war, and, though 
revived later, its products in 1877 were of only ^226,000 
value. 



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302 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

Clothing of all kinds was valued at $12,331,610, the 
number engaged being 15,128. 

Candles, soaps, and oils had the large value of 
$7,895,030. "The production of soap in 1877 was, 
approximately, 425,000 boxes, equivalent to 25,500,000 
pounds. Cincinnati could thus furnish a half-pound 
bar of soap each year to every inhabitant, young and 
old, of the United States, and have enough left to do 
her own washing for a year. ^* 

The leather goods were worth $7,729,818, of which 
$4,317,000 was in boots and shoes. 

Book and newspaper publishing and job printing 
produced a value of $5,418,149. Mr. Maxwell alludes 
to the conspicuous position of Cincinnati in the publi- 
cation of school books, of which 4,000,000 copies were 
issued annually. The city was also one of the leading 
centers for law books and for the music publishing 
business. In the latter department an important item 
was hymn books, a million in number in 1877. 

Chemicals, medicines, paints, varnishes, etc., amount- 
ed to $4,278,048; tobacco manufactures, $5,214,614; 
metals other than iron, $4,351,413. An old and 
interesting industry was the making of gold pens, 
Cincinnati sharing "the honors with New York in 
having given the production its first business impetus.'* 
The manufactures in this department comprised, with 
cases, holders, pencils, etc., about twelve hundred 
different articles. 

Products of stone and earth were valued at $2,805,835 
and employed 2,075 workers. A marked advance had 
been made in pottery, classed in those times as "earthen 
and queensware,'* of which the value was $297,800. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 303 

Carriages and other vehicles were worth $1,943,757; 
productions from cotton, wool, hemp, etc., $1,532,165; 
miscellaneous manufactures of all sorts not included 
under any of the foregoing heads, $4,489,618. A 
leading business classed as miscellaneous was the pro- 
duction of burial cases, caskets, coffins, and hearses, 
in which Cincinnati stood at the head of American 
cities, the output in 1876 being of $725,000 value. 
Another unique industry was the preparation of hog 
bristles for brushes and other purposes; value, $300,000. 

The census of 1910, which makes the latest detailed 
showing for Cincinnati manufactures, will be analyzed 
without classification in special groups. Such a classi- 
fication would doubtless involve important omissions, 
for the census figures available when this is written 
(July, 1912), give only fifty selected lines of manu- 
facture, and the large amount of $26,637,000 value 
for "all other industries'* is not reduced to analysis. 

Totals for the city, all industries: — ^value of products, 
$194,516,000; establishments, 2,184; persons engaged, 
72,488; wageworkers, 60,192; primary horsepower, 
88,597; capital, $150,254,000; wages, $31,101,000. 

Over $15,000,000 value: — slaughtering and meat 
packing, $19,320,000; foundry and machine-shop prod- 
ucts, $18,380,000; men's clothing, including shirts, 
$16,975,000. 

From $10,000,000 to $15,000,000 value: — ^boots and 
shoes, including cut stock and findings, $14,999,000; 
printing and publishing, $11,519,000. 

From $5,000,000 to $10,000,000 value: — malt liquors, 
$8,874,000; distilled liquors, $8,745,000; carriages and 
wagons and materials, $6,825,000; bread and other 



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304 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

bakery products, $5,i03,ocx:); leather, tanned, curried, 
and finished, $5,059,000; lumber and timber products, 
$5,021,000. 

From $1,000,000 to $5,000,000 value: — ^tobacco 
manufactures, $4,153,000; furniture and refrigerators, 
$4,062,000; paint and varnish, $3,880,000; women's 
clothing, $2,913,000; copper, tin, and sheet iron prod- 
ucts, $2,775,000; stoves and furnaces, including gas and 
oil stoves, $2,325,000; coffee and spice, roasting and 
grinding, $2,110,000; confectionery, $2,029,000; music- 
al instruments, pianos and organs and materials, 
$1,753,000; leather goods, $1,449,000; cooperage and 
wooden goods, not elsewhere specified, $1,232,000; 
patent medicines and compounds and druggists' prep- 
arations, $1,230,000; paper bags, $1,088,000; flour 
mill and gristmill products, $1,083,000. 

From $500,000 to $1,000,000 value: — ^brass and 
bronze products $996,000; jewelry, $936,000; chem- 
icals, $899,000; flags, banners, regalia, society badges, 
and emblems, $888,000; electrical machinery, appara- 
tus, and supplies, $836,000; canning and preserving, 
$825,000; fancy and paper boxes, $679,000; marble 
and stone work, $632,000; millinery and lace goods, 
$547,000; hats and caps, other than felt, straw and 
wool, $532,000. 

From $250,000 to $500,000 value: — hosiery and 
knit goods, $442,000; mattresses and spring beds, 
$394,000; manufactured ice, $385,000; pottery, terra 
cotta, and fire-clay products, $370,000; cigar boxes, 
$347,000; paper goods, not elsewhere specified, $346,. 
000; cars and general shop construction and repairs 



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BENJAMir^ HEAD WARDER 
Pbneer manufacturer, of Springfield: his firm (then 
Warder and Brokaw) began making reaping machines in 
1 850; this firm became Warder, Bushnell and Glessfter; 
died January £3, 1894. 







.; / / 






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THK RIM<: AND PR(XiR 

n^QB^^.tOfi^XuAkV^^BT, tanned, ci: 

n&di) raid airf '; ;tJi^i^/rtC|6 ; ^0 OTTll^MiiiPflid t«il4ftrr } T • 
ni ii'mid'jnm gniqBoi snutem nBgad (wfi:ioi9 ba& lobxBW 
Wjn^c-AD Imp. Itenrfsufl .i^bifiW smBo^d imB aiili ;og8i 

.- -: 'w ^;,i^rt?o,Q<iK^BiJtoftlfittafJ- -t' 

■ ,^1.1 ^ ^/X-""; fiiiuilurc and rcfrigt*- 

t.. * Jiid vin! h, i^3,8So,ooo; vvo' ■- .- 

.' ;/Kir,; ( .:-. ^ r, tin, and sheet iron - *• d- 

.;.;; sT(,'. t s :.:• i fviinaccs, ineludinjr \xu^ r'.Ji 

.". ;:c,7-v,: ^.*t,'t^ and s;.'ice, roastinL* a: i 

."-.I I''j,:kvj; ^^ r.lVc'U.'nery, ^52,020,000; mu'-'i> 

••*', ':.:':.- :r»d crirans and materiaib, 

' iT u' • i'-., /i,449,ooc; coop^erage and 

, M -^ i-^ewhen^ specified, $1,232,000; 

\' "- . : ! itHiijMnintih and drugpists' prep- 

. ; paper bi'es, $l,oS8,ooo; rlonr 

; .acts, i?i,oS3,ooo. 

t ■) ,<i,vx'o,otX) value:— brass a:u: 

•' '/ . ':o; jewelry, $930,000; cheni- 

. i'a!:i'ers, r(;ralia, society badges, 

','-..; electrii^al machinery, appara- 

t , y ^*\Oco; canninp and preservine* 

;* '•' 1 1 a per bf'\rs, $679,000; marbK 

ai .. ^ '-'r.. ^ >2,:vx3; rriiU'nery and lace goods, 

$' f"' . ' •*^- •' ' ' -;'^» oiher than felt, straw and 



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'..•^■;,ooo value: — hosiery and 

.a*^rcs,-es and sprine beds, 

i '\ $3X5,000; potter}', terra 

■ ills, $370,000; cigar boxes 

-O; paper i:*'cd«, r >t elsewhere specified, $3.*' 

ars and prncral tln-p construction and repu*-- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 306 

by steam railroad companies, $328,000; blacking and 
cleansing and polishing preparations, $255,000. 

3. Columbus, third city. Population: — 1830, 2,435; 
1840, 6,048; 1850, 17,882; i860, 18,554; 1870, 31,274; 
1880, 51,647; 1890, 88,150; 1900, 125,560; 1910, 181,- 

Sii. 

The growth of manufacturing enterprise, and cor- 
respondingly of population, in Columbus, is essentially 
due to its favorable situation with reference to the 
sources of supply of the principal raw materials. 
Iron, timber, and the stone of the quarries are delivered 
in Columbus at but slight cost, and the great coal 
and natural gas fields, affording cheap fuel, are imme- 
diately accessible. Another important factor of devel- 
lopment is its central location, which gives it a com- 
manding position as a distributing point. Though 
lacking the advantage of natural water communica- 
tion, the city participated from an early period in the 
benefits conferred by the canal system, a branch being 
constructed which entered the Ohio Canal at Lock- 
bourne. Columbus was one of the localities most 
favored in the original laying out of railway lines and 
their subsequent comprehensive development, and its 
national importance as a railway center has been long 
established. 

Alfred E. Lee, the Columbus historian, mentions 
several mills built at various places before and shortly 
after the founding of Columbus proper. Associated 
with these primitive enterprises were the names of 
Robert Ballentine, John D. Rush, James Kilboume, 
Lucas SuUivant, Richard Courtney, John Shields, 
Moses Jewett, Caleb Houston, John E. Baker, and 



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306 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

others. The most noteworthy establishment was that 
of the Worthington Manufacturing Company, which 
was incorporated in 1811, with James Kilboume as 
president and general manager. "It was the pioneer 
manufacturing enterprise of central Ohio, but was by 
no means limited to manufacturing. Besides under- 
taking to produce various articles in wool, leather, 
and other material, it circulated its notes as currency 
and engaged extensively in mercantile business and 
banking. Its factories were established at Worthing- 
ton and Steubenville and its stores opened at Worth- 
ington and Franklin ton. When the War of 181 2 broke 
out the company engaged extensively in the production 
of woolen fabrics for army and navy clothing. This 
part of the industrial department ceased, of course, 
with the conclusion of peace in 18 15, after which the 
company lost heavily in its multiplied enterprises until 
it failed, in 1820, sweeping away the investments of 
its shareholders and the entire fortune of its president. ** 
Joseph Ridgway, in 1822, started an iron foundry on 
Scioto Street, obtaining his pig metal from the Gran- 
ville furnace, to which three trips were made every 
week with a two-horse wagon. The principal article 
manufactured was Jethro Wood's patent plow, then 
considered the best in use. The business prospered 
under both Ridgway and his nephew, Joseph Ridgway, 
Jr. Steam power was introduced about 1830, where- 
upon the operations were much enlarged and machinery, 
steam engines, stoves, etc., were made. The concern 
was sold to Peter Hayden in 1854, and by him continued 
on a still larger scale. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 307 

George W, Peters and his son, George M., were 
other men conspicuously identified with early Colum- 
bus industry. The father started the first trunk fac- 
tory in the city and one of the first in the State, and the 
son was the principal figure in the creation of a carriage 
manufacturing business, which he developed in con- 
junction with C. D. Firestone and which has since 
attained large proportions. 

Iron in all its departments, furniture, carriages, rail- 
way cars, trunks and other leather goods, wooden 
ware, glass, products of earth and stone, and regalia 
were among the leading commodities which were suc- 
cessfully produced in Columbus by 1870. The rise 
of local manufacturing on a considerable scale and to 
a degree of marked variety dates from about that 
time. Some of the large industrial enterprises of the 
present day go back to an earlier period, but the great 
majority have sprung up in the last forty years. 

The United States census returns for 1910, in the 
form available at the time of the compilation of this 
article, give detailed information for twenty-four 
Columbus industries, but make no analysis for the 
large total of $16,848,000 value of the city^s manufac- 
tures. 

The principal details for all industries were: — ^value 
of products, $49,032,000; number of establishments, 
586; persons engaged, 20,523; wageworkers, 16,428; 
primary horsepower, 35,780; capital, $48,747,000; wages 
paid, $8,892,000. We take the chief items of reported 
production. 

First of Columbus industries is that engaged in mak- 
ing foundry and machine-shop products. The total 



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308 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

output in 1910 was valued at $7,744,000, and there 
were fifty-eight establishments with a capital of 
159,956,000. An enumeration of the articles of manu- 
facture would require very extensive space. Heavy 
mining machinery, adapted to mining operations of 
every variety, is produced and shipped throughout 
the world. One concern makes a specialty of cranes, 
from those of ordinary carrying capacity to the largest 
in practical use. Another has a universal reputation 
and market for its wheelbarrows. The castings busi- 
ness is represented by a company which occupies a 
foremost position in the production of car couplers. 
This is one of the leading cities of the United States 
in the manufacture of chains. Elevating apparatus, 
dynamos, motors, steel ceilings, doors, shutters, cur- 
tains, and partitions, bolts and nuts, drills, and various 
mechanical appliances are turned out in large quantities. 

In the iron and steel business proper there are exten- 
sive plants, for which, however, the details are not 
supplied by the census reports which we have received. 

Columbus has a large output of steel cars, and it is 
estimated that its car shops of all kinds, including 
those which do repair work, transact a business of 
j54,ooo,ooo value annually. "The railway car shops 
I" of Columbus," says a recent writer, "were among the 

earliest in the West. In them were built the first 
cars for the transportation of a circus, and here also 
the first refrigerator cars ever used in the world were 
constructed. They were built for a Cincinnati brewer 
and used in the southern trade. No patents were taken 
out on them, and when they had proved their value 
in the transportation of perishable products it was not 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 309 

long before they were being turned out by hundreds in 
other shops." (W. B. Jackson, in the "Ohio Maga- 
zine," Vol. Ill, p. 462.) 

In the manufacture of boots and shoes the city 
has in a very short time advanced to the front rank. 
This Columbus industry is practically the growth of 
the past fifteen years. In 1910 there were eight estab- 
lishments, employing 2,794^. persons (of whom 2,479 
were wage-earners), capitalized at $3,181,000, paying 
wages of j5i, 076,000, and having a production worth 
^S>436,ooo. Two of these are among the largest con- 
cerns in the country. 

The beer business, as in the other leading Ohio cities, 
is extensive. The production of malt liquors in 1910 
had a value of ^^2,728,000, made by four establishments. 

The printing and publishing concerns were ninety- 
one in number and their products were valued at j52,- 
660,000. 

Slaughtering and meat packiag amounted in value 
to $2,354,000, six establishments being engaged. 

The bread and other bakery products showed a 
value of $1,765,000. In the manufacture of flour, 
Columbus has a leading place among the cities of Ohio; 
value in 1910, $384,000. 

Carriages and wagons were produced to the value 
of $1,078,000 by fourteen establishments. The stand- 
ard of Columbus production in this industry continues 
as high as ever, but the aggregate valuation has been 
reduced more than one-half since 1900. One of the 
prominent carriage manufactories of the city has in 
recent years directed its energies in part to the making 
of automobiles. As yet, however, the automobile 



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310 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

business has not assumed important dimensions in 
Columbus. On the other hand^ there is a large out- 
put of carriage and automobile electric lamps and auto- 
mobile accessories. 

Another department of manufacture in which there 
has been a marked decline is that of patent medicines. 
Nevertheless, the value produced is still large. The 
total for 1910 (including druggists* preparations) was 
{$946,000, the returns being from thirteen establishments. 

Lumber and timber products, as made by twenty- 
seven concerns, were worth $1,240,000; gas and elec- 
tric fixtures and lamps and reflectors (nine concerns), 
$770,000; furniture and refrigerators (eight concerns), 
$747,000; stoves and furnaces, including gas and oil 
stoves (ten concerns), $722,000; copper, tin, and sheet 
iron products (six concerns), $700,000; coffee and spice, 
roasted and ground (three concerns), $604,000; paint 
and varnish (five concerns), $602,000; leather goods 
(eleven concerns), $560,000; tobacco manufactures 
(thirty-five concerns), $436,000; manufactured ice (five 
concerns), $253,000; marble and stone work (six con- 
cerns), $169,000; brass and bronze products (five con- 
cerns), $124,000. The glass industry has in recent 
years grown to importance in Columbus, and is now 
represented by several considerable establishments. 
A department of manufacture for which the city has 
long been noted is that of regalia, military, and secret 
society goods. In this line it has the largest concern 
in the country. 

4. Toledo, fourth city. Population: — 1840, 1,222; 
1850, 3,829; i860, 13,768; 1870, 31,584; 1880, 50,137; 
1890, 81,434; 1900, 131,822; 1910, 168,497. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 311 

The early progress of Toledo was mainly on com- 
mercial and shipping lines. As a Lake Erie port of 
primary importance it acquired steadily increasing 
development in the transfer of commodities between 
the East and West, and in the grain trade especially 
it took prominent rank. With its advantage as a 
terminal point of the canal system of the State, its 
early and always improving railway facilities, and its 
naturally large share in the commerce of the Lake, 
its future prosperity depended only on the adequate 
enterprise of its citizens. Toledo, as the exhibit of 
its more recent industrial activities shows, has profited 
fully from its strategic situation. It intercepts a 
considerable portion of the eastward-bound cargoes 
of Lake Superior ore for utilization in its own manu- 
factures. At no period, however, has there been 
noticeable any marked specialization of industrial 
energy; rather has there been evidenced a general 
distribution of enterprise to comprehend the whole 
scope of useful production within the availabilities of 
the natural materials at its command. In this respect it 
is a thoroughly representative American city of its size. 

In 1850 Toledo produced manufactures of ^^304,525 
value, on an invested capital of $98,000, thirty-eight 
establishments being represented and 263 employes 
engaged. 

In i860 the totals were: — ^value, $1,568,390; estab- 
lishments, 100; employes, 885. The principal products 
at that time were, in their order of value, flour, clothing, 
planing mill manufactures, tobacco and cigars, beer, 
tin and sheet iron ware, sawmill products, cars, boots 
and shoes, and foundry and machine-shop products. 



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312 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

The era of large enterprise cannot be said to have 
begun until after 1880, when the situation stood thus: — 
value, j5io,6oo,074; capital, $5,534,285; establishments, 
440; emplpyes, 6,738. No department of manufacture 
had as high as a million dollars' value. The leading 
items were: — exceeding ^^500,000 — tobacco, beer, lum- 
ber, sash, etc., and flour and gristmill products; from 
$250,000 to $500,000 — ^foundry and machine-shop 
products, men's clothing, printing and publishing, 
carpentering, slaughtering and packing, and bakery 
products; from $100,000 to $250,000 — coffee and spice, 
women's clothing, boots and shoes; tin, copper, and 
sheet iron; furniture, cooperage, drugs and chemicals, 
and shipbuilding. 

The census of 1910 shows totals for all Toledo indus- 
tries as follows: — ^value, $61,230,000; capital, $58,- 
319,000; establishments, 760; persons engaged, 22,900; 
wageworkers, 18,878; primary horsepower, 43,946; 
wages, $9,911,000. Twenty-six branches of manu- 
facture are given in detail, but the sum of $24,391,000 
is not analyzed, being set down for "all other indus- 
tries." 

Exceeding $5,000,000 value: — ^foundry and machine- 
shop products (seventy-five concerns), $7,024,000; flour 
and gristmill products (seven concerns), $5,662,000. 

From $1,000,000 to $5,000,000: — ^petroleum, refining 
(three concerns), $2,431,000; women's clothing (thir- 
teen concerns), $2,3 23,000; tobacco manufactures (forty- 
eight concerns), $2,129,000; printing and publishing 
(seventy-two concerns), $2,004,000; malt liquors (four 
concerns), $1,887,000; lumber and timber products 
(twenty-eight concerns), $1,793,000; bread and other 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 313 

bakery products (eighty-eight concerns), ^1,598,000; 
cars and shop construction and repairs by steam rail- 
road companies (four concerns), $1,427,000; carriages 
and wagons and materials* (eight concerns), $1,317,000; 
copper, tin, and sheet iron (thirty-seven concerns), 
$1,303,000; furniture and refrigerators (twenty-three 
concerns), $1,1 28,000, 

From $500,000 to $1,000,000: — electrical machinery, 
apparatus, and supplies (seven concerns), $932,000; 
patent medicines and compounds and druggists' prep- 
arations (fifty-one concerns), $540,000. 

From $250,000 to $500,000: — confectionery (twelve 
concerns), $411,000; slaughtering and meat packing 
(eleven concerns), $376,000; paint and varnish (five 
concerns), $252,000. 

5. Dayton, fifth city. Population: — 1820, 1,000; 
1830, 2,950; 1840, 6,067; 1850, 10,977; i860, 20,081; 
1870, 30,473; 1880, 38,678; 1890, 61,200; 1900, 85,333; 
1910, 116,577. 

The first industrial establishment in this city is 
said to have been the "tub mill" of William Hamer 
for grinding corn, the water being brought by a small 
race from the mouth of Mad River. It is supposed to 
have been erected before August, 1799, at which time 
D. C. Cooper started a distillery on his farm on Rubicon 
Creek. Mr. Cooper built a sawmill and tub mill in 
the same locality, and afterward began other milling 
enterprises in what became the town of Dayton. 
One of the mills of his construction, two miles from 
town, was purchased by the noted Colonel Robert 
Patterson and changed to a fulling mill. Colonel 
Patterson successfully operated the fulling mill, with 



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314 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

a gristmill and two carding machines, until October, 
1815, when the whole property was destroyed by fire. 
This was considered a great calamity, because of the 
severe loss to the proprietor and the destruction of 
a large quantity of cloth and wool belonging to his cus- 
tomers. The Patterson mills were promptly rebuilt, 
however. 

Other early citizens manifested a commendable 
activity in starting manufacturing ventures. Emory, 
Houghton, and Company erected in 1821 a nail factory 
which produced nails of the best quality. The manu- 
facture of hats was begun in 1823 by Samuel Shoup, 
and in the same year William H. Brown engaged in 
the business of gunsmithing, manufacturing his own 
gun-barrels. Thomas Clegg was a man of varied 
energies and affairs. He built the Washington Cotton 
Factory in 1824 — ^the first of its kind in Dayton, — 
and, in conjunction with Mr. McElwee, started the 
first iron foundry in 1828. At this establishment 
"castings of nearly all kinds" were made, and from it 
was developed one of the largest iron works of after 
years. Mr. Clegg also set in operation the first brass 
foundry. 

In 1837 some of the manufacturing concerns were 
four cotton factories, a carpet factory, the Clegg iron 
foundry (which was then turning out two hundred tons 
of castings a year and employed ten hands), two gun- 
barrel factories, and several machine-shops. One of 
the shops made steam engines and cotton and wool 
carding machinery, some of which was shipped "as 
far away as Mexico." There was a clock factory, 
said to be the largest in the West, having a product of 



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: cl' *,i :ir d Wi-^I I -Jt'' :: ^' t<'/ ;::s t.u.^- 
■ •''/:>-. !i iMi' \ ^rc : ..'inrtlv rebuilt. 

'•,. iK::n;:\i ^.:r" .r vc iit .vs. I'linr-ry, 

. 'v ' •iija- \ c't ^ J ':■ i>':i a nail factor, 

.*' - ( J : i '. — I J-: ilit^ . The inanu- 

1. --.'1 !^ I"-:; L> S.:^ 'lel ShiJU]\ 

•r \\'" . If. r*»An M.^''ict.*ci ill 

■rii/ , Ku,:: ;!ai * irii.L' his owii 

.. :> V - \\.-> a ij.ju L't vari'.'J 

'-'^. I' t t'.'J V\/liir. 't(^n Cotton 

\ t'-e - .t i;s I iw ! i:i Dayton,—- 

' * w'*" M.. M I^lv. oc, ^lartcd the 

in 1 >. At th-s establishment 

• . \y all - .-" v 'c i:..i:ic, and from it 

. • •'• <^t' ^ ' , .,. ; .rori W'^rks of aftcT 

'• ■ . ^ .. . • -i in (. . iat:'>n the tirst brass 



l:i i'*;? ^ ■; :t.e nia:;' MLturirp v^oncerns were 

ii \ir •:' 'tun t - , a ci*;-'. t factory, the Clcp^^ iron 

f{nin/;rj (\\M .■ ^ t}w-;i * iiilm^.t (»iiL two hundred tons 
(W^ i.a>''n.T< a ; . ar ;■ -vl t :. [MMVcd ttu ^land^), two gun- 
barrel fjL-tnri.-s, a' J s.\t:ral niachine-^hops. One of 
iKe ^!i<>;^s made stt\ir:i tiij^-^'/s and «. uton and woo! 
..^'i*.i:ir niarliinery, s<>:m-.- of which \\ as shipped *'a. 
*. • -wiv as Mexico/' '11 ^''-j was a clock factor; 
* ■ be the Ia^::cst in the W est, having a product •. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 316 

twenty-five hundred clocks annually. A chair factory 
had a yearly output of two thousand chairs, and a 
soap and candle factory made yearly a hundred thou- 
sand pounds of soap and thirty thousand candles. 

The iron business flourished, other foundries being 
opened, and many branches of industry were gradually 
developed. The production of agricultural machinery 
received considerable attention in Dayton from an 
early period. The building of railroad cars, for which 
the city has since become so noted, was begun in 1849 by 
E. Thresher and E. E. Barney, with a capital of twelve 
thousand dollars, under the firm style of Thresher and 
Barney — changed eighteen years later to the Barney 
and Smith Manufacturing Company, with a capital 
of half a million. 

In 1849 "there were two excellent hydraulic powers 
in Dayton, termed the upper and lower hydraulics, and 
for a distance of some seventy-five rods along the canal 
the ground was covered with buildings from three to 
four stories high, filled with machinery and giving 
employment to from three to four hundred mechanics 
and laborers." Five iron foundries were producing 
annually nine hundred tons of pig iron; four flouring 
mills ground from a hundred and fifty thousand to a 
hundred and seventy-five thousand bushels of wheat; 
there were three paper mills which manufactured five 
hundred tons of paper; and five oil mills consumed a 
hundred and sixty thousand bushels of flaxseed and 
had an output of three hundred and forty thousand 
barrels of oil and four hundred thousand pounds of 
oil cake. 



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316 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

By the middle of the nineteenth century, Dayton, 
though having a population not much exceeding ten 
thousand, had developed a quite comprehensive manu- 
facturing situation. A striking feature of the great 
subsequent progress is the expansion of the early estab- 
lishments. The city has thus been peculiarly noted 
at all times for the solidity of its enterprises, and this 
reputation has attracted new industries, capital, and 
the best classes of artisans from afar. For the relative 
thrift and prosperity of its workers Dayton enjoys a 
high rank. The most noticeable single interest which 
has acquired development in the last thirty years is 
the manufacture of cash registers. This business, 
like the car industry, was begun on a very modest 
investment, only fifteen thousand dollars of paid-up 
capital having been at the command of the present 
company when it began operations in 1884. Its 
growth is one of the amazing facts in the history of 
American industry, and the energy displayed in dis- 
tributing its products, not only to practically every 
community of the United States, but throughout the 
civilized world, is fairly comparable to that which has 
so distinguished the Standard Oil Company. Mention 
must not be omitted of the most recent line of Dayton 
manufacture, aviation machines — also of world-wide 
celebrity and request, and originated, like the cash 
register business, by Daytonians. 

The census for 1910 gives these figures for all Dayton 
industries: — ^value of products, $60,378,000; capital, 
^1,316,000; number of establishments, 513; persons 
engaged, 24,790; wage-earners, 21,549; primary horse- 
power, 31,501; wages, $12,451,000. The detailed sta- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 317 

tistics at hand for specific industries are very imperfect, 
a value of ^34,006,000 not being analyzed. The follow- 
ing are some of the items, which, it will be observed, do 
not include cash registers, cars, or agricultural imple- 
ments: — 

Foundry and machine-shop products (sixty-nine 
concerns), $6,778,000; slaughtering and meat packing 
(ten concerns), $3,171,000; coflFee and spice, roasting 
and grinding (five concerns), $2,245,000; tobacco (fifty- 
six concerns), $1,893,000; printing and publishing 
(forty-five concerns), $1,552,000; bread and other 
bakery products (sixty-five concerns), $1,531,000; lum- 
ber and timber products (eleven concerns), $1,417,000; 
soap (six concerns), $1,306,000; malt liquors (three 
concerns), $1,218,000; fancy and paper boxes (five 
hundred and ninety-four concerns), $932,000; carriages 
and wagons and materials (seventeen concerns), $802,- 
000; furniture and refrigerators (ten concerns), $744,- 
000; flour mill and gristmill products (six concerns), 
$669,000; brass and bronze products (seven concerns), 
$481,000; men's clothing, including shirts (four con- 
cerns), $354,000; confectionery (eleven concerns), $339,- 
000; electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies 
(seven concerns), $235,000. 

6. Youngstown, sixth city. Population : — 1 860, 2,759 ; 
1870, 8,075; 1880, 15,435; 1890, 33,220; 1900, 44,885; 
1910, 79,066. 

Though but sixth in population, Youngstown is 
third of Ohio cities for manufacturing enterprise. 
With less than half the population of Columbus, the 
value of its manufactured products is more than one 
and one-half times that of the capital city; and it 



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318 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

far outranks both Cincinnati and Cleveland for the 
value produced in ratio to inhabitants. In 1910, 
Youngstown had the extraordinary record — ^for a large 
city — of more than a thousand dollars' worth of 
manufactures to every man, woman, and child within 
its limits. 

Of overshadowing importance in Youngstown, at 
all periods, has been the iron industry. Many accounts 
have been published of its origin and early aspects. 
The following is taken from the "History of Trumbull 
and Mahoning counties,*' published by H. Z. Williams 
and Brother (Cleveland, 1882), pages 370-71: "Iron 
ore and limestone were known to be among the mineral 
deposits of the Mahoning valley even before the settle- 
ment of the Reserve. In 1803, Daniel Eaton made 
arrangements, by obtaining right to dig ore and make 
charcoal on and near the banks of Yellow Creek, a 
small stream which flows into the Mahoning River from 
the south, to build a furnace on that creek, availing 
himself of its waterpower to drive his machinery. In 
that and the following year (1804) he built the Hope- 
well furnace, which was the first furnace in Ohio or 
north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania. 
This pioneer furnace was erected in the then township 
of Youngstown, although the site on which it stood, 
and where its ruins may be seen, is in the now township 
of Poland. * * * In 1805, Robert Montgomery, who 
had explored the mineral resources of the Mahoning 
valley before its survey into townships, and John 
Struthers commenced building a second furnace on 
Yellow Creek, a short distance below the Hopewell 
on the land of Mr. Struthers. Robert Alexander, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 319 

James Mackey, and David Clendenin became interested 
in it as partners while it was building, or soon after. 
In 1807, Montgomery and Company bought from 
Eaton the Hopewell furnace, and ail the ore, wood, 
and charcoal rights. It was run but a short time 
after they bought it. The second furnace was run 
until about 181 2, when it went out of blast, and was 
never opened afterwards. They were both charcoal 
furnaces. ♦ ♦ ♦ Thomas Struthers, son of John Stru- 
thers above named, in 1875, then seventy-two years 
of age, in a communication to the Mahoning Valley 
Historical Society, says: * These furnaces were of 
about equal capacity and would yield about two and 
a half or three tons each per day. The metal was 
principally run into moulds for kettles, bake-ovens, 
stoves, flatirons, handirons, and such other articles as 
the needs of a new settlement required, and any surplus 
into pigs and sent to the Pittsburg market.' ♦ ♦ ♦ 
These two old furnaces — the Hopewell, erected in the 
early days of Youngstown, and the Montgomery 
erected in Poland shortly after it was detached from 
Youngstown — were the forerunners of the great and 
constantly growing iron industry of the Mahoning 
valley, of which the Youngstown of to-day is the center, 
and to Dan Eaton, Robert Montgomery, John Stru- 
thers, James Mackey, Robert Alexander, and David 
Clendenin should be accorded the high honor of being 
the pioneers of that industry." 

About 1826 Daniel Eaton built the first furnace in 
Youngstown as now organized, and in this also charcoal 
was used. He was joined in partnership by John 
Kirk and Edward Rockwell, merchants of Youngs- 



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320 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

town. The property was sold to Pittsburg parties, 
who about 1846 or 1847 reconstructed it to use bitumi- 
nous coal, but the expense of transporting the materials 
to the furnace and the product from it left no profit, 
and it was abandoned. 

In 1845-46 there was built in Lowellville, five miles 
southeast of Youngstown, by Wilkenson, Wilkes, and 
Company, the first "stone coal" furnace in Ohio, and 
this was followed in 1846 by the Eagle furnace, estab- 
lished in Youngstown by William Philpot, Jonathan 
Warner, David Morris, and Harvey Sawyer, which 
also utilized the native coal of the Mahoning valley 
for smelting the ore. The Eagle furnace was the first 
permanently successful iron manufacturing concern of 
the city. Another furnace, called the Brier Hill, was 
started in Youngstown, in 1847, by James Wood and 
Company, of Pittsburg, and was later purchased by 
David Tod. 

"In 1846 the Youngstown Iron Company erected 
the first rolling mill in Youngstown or on the Reserve, 
and perhaps the first in Ohio, in which bituminous coal 
was used as the fuel. It was located on the north side 
of what is termed the *Flat,* on the north side of the 
Mahoning River in the southwest part of the city, 
on the north side of and adjoining the canal. The 
stockholders of the company were Henry Manning, 
William Rice, Henry Heasley, Hugh B. Wick, Henry 
Wick, Jr., Caleb B. Wick, Paul Wick, James Danger- 
field, Harvey Fuller, Robert W. Taylor, Isaac Powers, 
and James McEwen, only one of whom had been 
engaged in the iron business previously, or was practi- 
cally acquainted with it. * * * The second rolling-mill 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 321 

was built in 1863 in the northwest part of the city, and ad- 
joining and on the east of the canal, by Shedd, Clark, and 
Company, a firm composed of Samuel K. Shedd, William 
Clark, Edward Clark, James Cartwright, and Richard 
Lundy, who named it the Enterprise rolling mill/' 

From these pioneer institutions have been developed 
the great industries which have built up a city now 
approaching a hundred thousand in population. The 
iron and steel business at the present day produces 
five-eighths of the manufactures of Youngstown. The 
city is also a principal seat of the rubber industry, 
ranking next to Akron in that department. 

Census of 1910, all Youngstown industries: — ^value of 
products, ^81,271,000; capital, $87,160,000; number of 
establishments, 115; persons engaged, 11,851; wage- 
workers, 10,498; primary horsepower, 140,907; wages, 
$7>83S>ooo. 

Under the head of "iron and steel, steel works and 
rolling mills," the census gives total products valued 
at $50,175,000, seven concerns being represented, 
engaging 7,128 persons (of whom 6,650 were wage- 
workers), having a capital of $50,516,000, and paying 
wages of $5,204,000. 

There were fifteen foundry and machine-shops, with 
products of $4,865,000 values. 

Among other Youngstown industries specified are: — 
lumber and timber products (eight concerns), $953,000; 
printing and publishing (thirteen concerns), $454,000; 
bread and other bakery products (twenty-two concerns), 
$249,000; carriages and wagons and materials (three 
concerns), $146,000. No figures are given for the 
rubber business. 



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322 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

7. Akron, seventh city. Population: — 1850, 3,266; 
i860, 3,477; 1870, 10,006; 1880, 16,512; 1890, 27,601; 
1900, 42,728; 1910, 69,067. 

Akron owes its existence to the Ohio Canal, the town 
having been laid out by General Simon Perkins in 
1825 soon after the location of the route for that water- 
way. Before that event, however, the iron industry 
had been started in the vicinity. In 1817 Asaph 
Whittlesey, of Tallmadge, and Aaron Norton and 
William Laird, of Middlebury, established a mill for 
the manufacture of wrought iron in the locality known 
as the "Old Forge*' district, now a part of Akron 
city. In 1843, when Horace Greeley visited the town, 
it had five woolen factories, an extensive blast furnace, 
a machine-shop, a card manufactory, and four large 
flouring mills. Abundant waterpower was derived 
from the canal. The early industries showed the 
diversity to be expected in a small but enterprising com- 
munity developing on general lines. In 1859, Ferdi- 
nand Schumacher began the production of oatmeal 
on a small scale in his "German Mill." This was the 
foundation of the cereal business, which is to-day one 
of the foremost interests of the city. Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin Goodrich, Harvey W. Tew, and others, com- 
menced making fire hose and various rubber goods in 
1869. 

Akron is now the largest rubber manufacturing center 
in the world. There are sixteen concerns engaged in 
this business, employing about twenty thousand per- 
sons and having products which embrace every line 
of rubber goods. Their total capitalization, according 
to information furnished us by Vincent S. Stevens, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 323 

secretary of the Akron Chamber of Commerce, is now 
(July 1912), $113,940,000. The pioneer company of 
1869 gradually enlarged its operations, and in April, 
1912, consolidated with another company, their joint 
capital then established being $90,000,000; this is the 
largest rubber manufacturing enterprise of the world. 

The city also boasts of the largest sewer pipe plants 
and cereal mills in the United States. Rolled oats 
were first manufactured in Akron, the process being 
started in the seventies in a mill operated by water- 
power. The burning of sewer pipe and other clay 
products was the earliest industry developed in the 
place. Akron has two of the largest publishing houses 
in the country. 

Among other principal articles of manufacture are 
automobiles, furnaces, stoves, rubber working machin- 
ery, electrical apparatus, agricultural implements, 
fishing tackle, salt, and printing ink. 

The adjacent city of Barberton (population in 1910, 
9,410) is the seat of the vast match industry, with 
ramifications throughout the United States, and also 
has other extensive manufacturing plants. 

A recent writer says of the manufacturing activities 
of Akron and vicinity: "Barberton is one of the most 
thriving manufacturing towns of Summit county, 
although the territory between its corporate limits 
and those of Akron is so thickly interspersed with manu- 
factories that to all outward appearance the two places 
comprise one great busy and prosperous community. 
In the opposite direction, toward the north, one passes 
from Akron into the village of Cuyahoga Falls, and it 
is equally difficult to determine when one leaves the 



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L'' 



324 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

corporate territory of the one for the other. For 
miles around Akron the country is but one vast hive 
of industry, and recalls the observation made by an 
enthusiastic pioneer of the city, who had returned to 
his home place after journeying through all the noted 
industrial sections of the world. ^I came back to 
Akron,' he said, with great satisfaction, *firm in the 
belief that nowhere on the face of the earth is there so 
remarkable a manifestation of industrialism as in the 
territory surrounding this city for a dozen miles; for 
here you find not only every form of modem industry 
fully developed, but also populous and profitable 
markets right at the door of the manufactories.'" 
("History of the Western Reserve," by Harriet Taylor 
Upton, Vol. I., p. 357.) 

8. Canton, eighth city. Population: — 1850, 2,603; 
i860, 4,041; 1870, 8,660; 1880, 12,258; 1890, 26,189; 
1900, 30,667; 1910, 50,217. 

The completion of the Ohio Canal, which brought 
prosperity and progress to so many towns, had just 
the reverse effects on Canton, then a rising community 
and the hopeful center of a rich but undeveloped coun- 
try. The canal ignored Canton, ran eight miles away, 
and, to intensify the local discouragement, a new town, 
Massillon, sprang up on its banks and proceeded to 
absorb the business of that section. An attempt was 
made to offset the disadvantage by a canal to connect 
Canton with the Sandy and Beaver, but capital failed 
and the depression deepened. 

In 185 1, the line of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and 
Chicago Railroad was located to pass through Canton, 
and this was the beginning of a remarkable change for 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 325 

the place. It happened that there was in operation 
in Greentown, a rural village some nine miles north of 
Canton, an infant agricultural implement industry 
under the firm style of Ball, Aultman, and Company^ 
In 1848, Cornelius Aultman, a young machinist of 
Greentown, made the patterns for, and constructed 
on his own account, five of the old Hussey reapers — 
the first machines of the kind built in Ohio, except a 
few made the year before at Martin's Ferry. Mr. 
Aultman, with an associate, removed in 1849 to Illinois^ 
but soon returned to Greentown and entered into part- 
nership with Ephraim Ball and others. During the sea* 
son of 1 85 1 twelve Hussey reapers and six threshing 
machines were manufactured in Greentown by the new 
concern and sold to farmers of the vicinity. Desiring 
expansion for the business, which of course could never 
be gained without shipping facilities, the plant was 
transferred to Canton soon after the coming of the rail- 
road was a certainty. At that time (December, 185 1) 
the firm consisted of Ephraim Ball, Cornelius Aultman, 
George Cook, Lewis Miller, and Jacob Miller, and its 
total capital was four thousand, five hundred dollars. 
For the harvest of 1852 it turned out twenty-five 
Hussey machines, which were intended to be used as 
combined reapers and mowers, but the mowing adjust- 
ment did not work satisfactorily. Up to that time, 
indeed, no practical mowing machine had been put 
on the market, and the firm decided to produce one of 
entire originality. After several years of effort the 
Buckeye mower was perfected and offered to the public. 
Its superiority was approved in various tests through- 
out the country, notably at the famous field trial held 



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326 THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 

at Syracuse, New York, in July, 1857, under the 
auspices of the United States Agricultural Society. 
These successes led to very active manufacturing opera- 
tions by the Canton company, which in 1859 changed 
its name to C. Aultman and Company. Its develop- 
ment proceeded rapidly, attended by large augmenta- 
tions of capital. 

The progress of Canton from a town of little enter- 
prise to an important manufacturing center is intimately 
associated with the activities of the Aultman concern. 
Other works in the department of agricultural machin- 
ery were established at an early period, and there 
came a steady enlargement of industrial operations 
generally. Among the industries which had attained 
very substantial proportions by the year 1880 were 
(in addition to farm machinery) those producing 
engines, safes, iron and steel, vehicle springs, carriages, 
and soap. The decade 1880 to 1890 marks the begin- 
ning of the later period of expansion. Through the 
efforts of public spirited citizens, special inducements 
were offered to companies engaged in the manufacture 
of watches and watch cases to bring their plants to 
Canton, lands and money being donated and exemption 
from taxation for a certain time guaranteed, altogether 
to the value of ^175,000. The resulting accessions 
proved of immense advantage to the city. Since 1890 
Canton has doubled in population. 

Manufacturing operations for all Canton industries, 
1910. — value of products, ^28,583,000; capital, ^25,342,- 
000; establishments, 204; persons engaged, 11,313; 
wage-eamers,9,964; primary horsepower, 27,016; wages, 
^5,719,000. 



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WILLIAM N. WHITELEY 
Notable inventor, of Springfield, and long a prominent 
manufacturer, his firm being Whiteley, Fassler and Kelly; 
died February 7, 191 1. 




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. '^ -^ .•laiiaciuiint: cf!*tc! ;>:nilr.iar«* 
• r :iv* '.'■!' s <t*^ the .\;;!t::;;^n co:.;cr. 
r v!t . • ' ' . t uf ;'f' ri ul'Ur i! n*aohI: 
'.Ovl it ail cai:/ j't.-::-M!, and ".he 
• .' .'.it '/i" iiuiiis- :-'...! opt rati' 
: - 'v.lr^'-'r which had i.ttairr 
vii^'ii^ I ; 'he >. :;r l^^'^o w- 
.win I.... • .•](!'} ) thL'^c pioduci: 
. .*wt: :: . :, \ci.i' I- i-'princ:^, carriac- 
. ' « ^'* r ' > to 1^ fC: maiks the hep: 
'^ * it}' r>.; ar.s'wn. Through t 
: * : ci:':.- i;n, s^ri^al inducemcr 
* ' rT':.rj' A in the manufact:. 
.MS to h irg their plants 
i '-ii ^' dtJii rcvl and exempt* 
.. . ti..'' :'*a; afit'-ed, altoireTi 
. '1 h'- resiillli'i: at ccssi 
! ■ :- :■» the citv. Since n 



.> {k'-t all Canton industri 
; •'. : \-, •'. : ; c apilal, ^25,:.; 

. -Mi'^: e:ii:* -L'ed, 1 1, ; 

''•^ -p^.v/er, 27,016; \v:. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 327 

9. Springfield, ninth city. Population: — 1830,1,080; 
1840, 2,062; 1850, 5,108; i860, 7,002; 1870, 12,652; 
1880, 20,730; 1890, 31,895; 1900, 38,253; 1910, 46,921. 

As eariy as 1820 Springfield had flour, lumber, 
woolen, cotton, and powder mills, and in 1827 a large 
paper mill was built. The Bretney tannery was started 
in 1830. With the decade beginning 1890 the agricul- 
tural implement business had its origin. The pioneer 
in this distinctive Springfield industry was William 
Whiteley, who in 1840 engaged in the manufacture of 
plows in a small shop on the west side of Limestone 
Street near the railroad. It was there that William 
N. Whiteley, the inventor of the Champion reaper 
and mower, learned the trade of machinist. He was 
born on a farm near Springfield, and at an early age 
manifested remarkable mechanical ability. "In the 
year 1852 an exhibition of reaping and mowing ma- 
chines was held, under the auspices of the State, on 
the farm of J. T. Warder, near Springfield, and all 
of the reaping and mowing machines then manufac- 
tured were represented. It may safely be said that no 
one present at that exhibition, not even the inventors 
or manufacturers of the respective machines, took 
more interest in the exhibition than did Mr. Whiteley. 
Immediately thereafter he began a series of experi- 
ments, which were continued through the years 1852, 
1853, and 1854, during which time the different factors 
of the machine were conceived, machines made, placed 
in the field, and tried, improvements made and further 
tested; and in the year 1855 the first successful cham- 
pion machine was produced." ("History of Clark 
County," published by W. H. Beers and Company, 



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328 THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

i88i; p. 553.) Mr. Whiteley organized the manu- 
facturing firm of Whiteley, Kelley, and Fassler, in 
which his associates were O. S. Kelley and Jerome 
Fassler. An even earlier company engaged in making 
reapers in Springfield was Warder and Brokaw. The 
construction of grain drills was begun in 1856 by 
Thomas and Mast (John H. Thomas and Phineas P. 
Mast). A notable man in the Springfield agricultural 
implement interest of later years was Asa S. Bushnell 
(afterward Governor), whose firm was Warder, Bush- 
nell, and Glessner. 

The present concerns in this interest are large and 
widely known. There are some four thousand, five 
hundred persons employed in the various establish- 
ments which manufacture agricultural implements in 
Springfield, and the total output has a value approxi- 
mating one-half that of the combined industries of 
the city. 

Other principal lines of manufacture, as enumerated 
in a recent article by Mr. W. S.Thomas {Ohio Magazine^ 
Vol. Ill, pp. 363H65), are machinery and machinery 
supplies, gas and steam engines, iron and steel, pub- 
lishing, floral products, beer, medicines, and coflBns. 
Summing up the facts of principal importance in rela- 
tion to the local industries, Mr. Thomas says : " Spring- 
field makes more agricultural implements than any 
other city in the world, excepting only Chicago; has 
twenty acres under roof in green-houses, and one of 
these is the largest rose-grower in the world; manu- 
factures seventy-five per cent of all the piano plates 
used in the United States and Canada; and is one of 
the largest producers of gas and gasoline engines." 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 329 

The United States census for 1910 gives these figures 
for "all Springfield industries'': — ^value of products, 
^19,246,000; capital, ^22,845,000; establishments, 195; 
persons engaged, 8,634; wage-earners, 7,405; primary- 
horsepower, 10,179; wages, ^3,985,000. 

10. Hamilton, tenth city. Population: — 1820, 660; 
1830, 1,079; 1840, 1,409; 1850, 3,210; i860, 7,223; 
1870, n,o8i; 1880, 12,122; 1890, 17,565; 1900, 23,914; 

1910, 35.^79- 

Manufacturing in Hamilton received its first stimu- 
lus from the construction of a hydraulic canal, which 
brought to the town the water from the Miami River 
at a point about four miles above. An act of the 
Legislature was passed March 25, 1841, incorporating 
the Hamilton and Rossville Hydraulic Company, and 
the first water was passed through on the 27th of 
January, 1845. Another race was built on the west 
side of the river. The first waterpower leased was to 
Erwin, Hunter, and Erwin, for their flouring mill. 
The hydraulic canal system of Hamilton afforded 
waterpower ** superior to any other artificial power in 
the Middle West, and has been of inestimable benefit 
to the city. " (" Centennial History of Butler County,'^ 
p. 252.) In 1852, there were the following thriving 
establishments on the hydraulic: — ^Miller, Campbell, 
and Company's sawmill; the Owens, Lane, and Dyer 
Machine Company; the cotton factory built by Wil- 
liam Bebb and L. D. Campbell; the Miami Paper Mill, 
established by William Beckett and F. D. Rigdon in 
1849; the Hamilton Paper Mill of Maguire, Klein, 
and Erwin; Bemett's sawmill; Shuler and Benning- 
hofen's woolen mill; the Hydraulic Sash Factory; the 



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330 Rise and Progress of an American State 

Hamilton Hydrualic Mills of John W. Erwin and Wil- 
liam Hunter; Aaron Potter's marble works; the Hamil- 
ton Plane Factory of Charles F. Eisel; Peter Black's 
power plant; the Long and Allstatter Company; 
Deinger, Stephan, and Company, and the Hamilton 
River Mills. 

A very important accession to the local industries 
was that of the Niles Tool Works, which in 1871 was 
induced to remove to the city from Cincinnati as the 
result of special inducements given by Hamilton. 
Castings, engines and varied machinery, agricultural 
implements, safes, tools, paper, flour, and beer are 
among the leading present manufactures. 

Totals for Hamilton manufactures in 1910: — ^value of 
products, ^18,184,000; capital, ^24,620,000; establish- 
ments, 125; persons engaged, 7,770; wage-earners, 
6,895; primary horsepower, 22,563; wages, ^3,798,000. 



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INDEX 
By Walter W. Spooner 



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ylBBOTT, DAVID, member of firtt 

/\^ G>nttitutioiiAl Conyentioii» in, 
107, 114. 

Abenaki Indians, i, 173, 220, 224; aatiit 
in Braddock't defeat, 294. 

Abercrombie, James, British com- 
mander, I, 336, 412. 

Ableman vs. Booth, v, 134. 

Abraham the Mohican, killed in Mora- 
yian massacre, u, 335. 

Abrams, Henry, member of first Con- 
stitutional G>nvention, m, 107. 

Academy of Fine Arts, Cincinnati, v, 7. 

Ackley, Horace A., medical instructor, 
y, 203, 204, 208. 

Ackowanothio, Indian, speech, i, 313- 

317. 

Ada, O., joint debate at, iv, 401; exhibit 
of Normal School at World's Fair, 
480. 

Adair, John (of Ky.), Capuin, n, 538; 
General, and Aaron Burr, ni, 214, 
216, 224. 

Adair Liquor Law, The, iv, 528. 

Adams, D. P., physidan, v, 201. 

Adams, Henry, on Burr, in, 201. 

Adams, John, President, approves 
''Easement Act," 11, 590; appoints 
Council, Northwest Territory, in, 
'36* 38; 59; address to, 64; renom- 
inates St. Clair, 88. 

Adams, John Quincy, Senator, and 
charges against Senator John Smith, 
m, 251, 252; President, 331; Senator, 
and "Toledo War," 446; President, 
IV, 22; ez-President, entertains the 
"Buckeye Blacksmith," 37; Presi- 
dent, V, 116. 

Adams, R. N., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 256. 

Adams County, prehistoric remains, the 
Serpent Mound, i, 73-76; traversed 
by Gist, 244; Northwest Territory, 



in, 37. 44, 45. 4^, 73. 9i; "05; popu- 
lation, 1800, 106; 107, III, 164, i66t 
441, 450; share of the surplus 
revenue, nr, 11; early iron furnace, 
80; traversed by the Morgan raiders, 
246. 

Adariaghu, Huron Indian, i, 367. 

Addison, O., scene of hostile prepara- 
tk>ns by Comsulk, n, 92. 

Adelphia, name first proposed for settle- 
ment on the Muskingum, n, 455. 

"Adelphia," The, flatboat used by the 
Ohio Company expedition, n, 457. 

" Adena, " residence of Govenor Thomas 
Worthington, n, 53; in, 217; iv, 486. 

Adena Mound, The, i, 53-55. 

Adigo, name for the Ohk> River, i, 223. 

Adirondack Indians, i, 114. 

Adlers vs. Whitbeck, nr, 533. 

Administratbn, The Sute Board of, 
IV, 464. 

Admissbn of Ohb to the Union, in, 
150-154; centennial celebratbns, iv, 

451-453. 
"Adventure Galley," The, boat used by 
the Ohk> Company expedition, n, 

457- 
Advertifif, The (Cincinnati), in, 176, 

179. 
AgasUrax (or GausUrax), Seneca chief, 

I, 43-45. 
Agnes, wife of Christian Frederick Post, 

n, 15. 

Agnew, Margaret, wife of Harman 
Blennerhassett, in, 209. 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of 
Ohio, The (now the Ohb Sute 
University), v, 309. 

Agricultural Implement Industry, The, 
sutistics (1910), V, 129; in Canton, 
325; in Springfield, 327-328. 

Agriculture, products used by the pre- 
historic inhabiunts, i, 60,^64, 71; 
development at beginning of nine- 



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334 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



teenth century, m, 168-170; in the 
decade 1840-50, iv, 78, 79; decline 
during the Civil War, 361; rural and 
urban population, 1910, 463-464; 
position of the Sute in 1876, 475- 
476; exhibits at the World's Fair, 
Chicago, 479, 481, 482; situatbn in 
1910, V, 255-a57. 

Agriculture, The Sute Board of, iv, 386. 

Aguinaldo, captured by General Funs- 
ton, nr, 428. 

Aiken, D. D., county derk, certifies 
marriage of Brigham Young, m, 
406-407. 

Aiken Liquor Law, The, nr, 458, 534. 

Ainoton (or Aniauton), Indian village 
on site of Fort Sandusky, i, 397-398. 

Aiz La Chapelle, Treaty o( i, 218-219, 
222. 

Akron, opening of the caiul, m, 362; 
adoption of the "Akron Law," 394; 
IV, 283; population (1910), 443; 
speech of Secretary Taft, 456; census 
sudstics (1910), V, 262; progress of 
population and industry, 322-324. 

Alamoneetheepeece, Indian name for 
Paint Creek, n, 26. 

Albach, James R., quoted or cited, n, 
126, 322, 329, 341, 369, 537. 

Albany, N. Y., colonial councils and 
treaties at, i, 183, 185, 186, 187, 
289-290; Democratic protest con- 
cerning Vallandigham, iv, 221-222. 

Alberson, W. J., secretary Ohio Board of 
Managers, World's Fair at Chicago, 
IV, 478. 

Alexander, Robert, early iron manu- 
facturer, Mahoning Valley, v, 318- 

319. 
Alger, Russell A., iv, 388; SecreUry of 

War, 429. 
Algonquin Indians, i, 96, 97, 138; tribes 

comprised in this family, 161-167; 

friendship for the French, 179, 384. 



Alighin-Sapore, a name for the Ohio 
River, i, 145. 

Aliquippa (or Alliquippa), (Jueen, Dda- 
ware Indian, i, 213, 273, 284. 

Allegheny River, The, La Salle's route 
(?), I, 125, 127; Weiser descends, 
213; location of lands on by the 
Ohio Land Company (1748), 217; 
eariy confusion of with the Ohio, 
223; 258; Washington's misadvoH 
ture, 273; 278, 311, 338; proposed 
as the western boundary, 461; 
Moravian mission, n, 21. 

Allen, Daniel M., arrest, iv, 187. 

Allen, Dudley P., medical instructor, v, 
208. 

AUen, Hugh, Va. officer, killed at battle 
of Point Pleasant, n, 98. 

Allen, James, Captain in Mexican War, 

Allen, John, Commissioner to bring 
body of (general Hamer, iv, 64. 

Allen, John (Cok>nel), in War of i8i2» 
111,274. 

Allen, WilHam, Commissioner concern- 
ing boundary dispute, m, 444; iv, 
43> 94> 302» nomination, election, 
and administration as Governor, 
328-330, 331-332; renomination and 
defeat, 333-335; v, 107. 

Allen County, share of surplus revenue, 
nr, II. 

Alliance, census sutistics (1910), v, 263. 

Allibone, Samuel A., on Dr. Drake's 
book, V, 32. 

Alligator Mound, The, i, 39. 

Allstatter, manufacturer, v, 33a 

Almanacs, early, in Ohio, m, 180^ 373. 

Alston, Joseph (of S. C), husband of 
Theodosia Burr, m, 204, 205, a 16. 

American Jntiquarian^ The, i, 36, 69. 

"American Archives," The, quoted or 
referred to, u, preface, 83, 84, 114, 
118, 129, 154. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



335 



American Ethnology, Bureau of, ii, 13, 

S6o. 
American FrUnd, The, in, 178. 
Anufican Historical Rniiw, The, v, 269. 
American Israelite, The, v, 36. 
American Journal of Theology, The, v, 

36. 
American Knights, The Order of, 

secret organization in Civil War, 

IV, 262-263. 
American Pioneer, The, n, 85, 372, 541, 

546. 
American Review 0/ Reviews, The, v, 3, 

15. 
American State Papers, The, quoted or 

referred to, n, preface, 518, 520, 532, 

533, 548, SSS; ni, S*. 
Amherst, O., Mormon Church at, m, 

407. 
Amherst, Jeffrey (Sir), British military 

commander, i, 336, 353, 356, 366, 

395,398,406,411,41*. 

Amikoue Indians, i, 115. 

Ammen, Jacob, Brigadier General in 
Civil War, nr, 259, 284. 

Anawaske, Indian chief, sent on mis- 
sion by Sir William Johnson, n, 
4^45. 

Andaste Indians, i, 114, 120-121, 160, 
17a. 

Anderson, Charles, Governor, nr, 299. 

Anderson, Charles M. (General), Com- 
missioner, Chillicothe Centennial, 
iv,4Si. 

Anderson, Isaac (Lieutenant), with 
Lochry's expedition, u, 309-310. 

Anderson, James (Judge), on the death 
of William Crawford, n, 371. 

Anderson, Richard C. (Colonel), sur- 
veyor, n, 592, S94. 

Anderson, R. H., Captain in Spanish 
War, IV, 420. 

Anderson, Robert (Major), hero of Fort 
Sumter, rv, 299. 



Anderson, Thomas McArthur, Major 
General in Spanish and Philippine 
wars, IV, 426, 427; delivers address 
at Chillicothe Centennial, 452. 

Anderson vs, Brewster, iv, 533. 

Andrews, E. B., Colonel in Civil War, 

IV, 2S9. 

Andrews, I. W., on the date of Ohio's 
admission to Unbn, ni, 151. 

Andrews, J. J., leader of Georgia Rail- 
road Raid, IV, 193-201. 

Andrews, John W., lawyer, advice to 
Alfred Kelley, ni, 354; report as 
member of a committee of the bar, 

V, 137-140; trustee of Starling Medi- 
cal College, 201. 

Andrews, Loren, Colonel in Civil War, 
IV, 259. 

Andrews, Martin R., delivers address at 
Chillicothe Centennial, nr, 452. 

Andrews, Samuel, of Standard Oil 
Company, v, 282. 

Angel, Mary Aim, wife of Brigham 
Young, in, 406, 407. 

Aniauton, see Ainoton. 

Animals used for food by prehistoric 
inhabitants, i, 63. 

Anioton, Huron chief, i, 203. 

Anna Benigna, wife of Glikkikan, 11, 
336. 

Anthony, Charles, Colonel in Spanish 
War, IV, 422. 

Anthony, Joseph (Lieutenant), in de- 
fense of Fort Stephenson, ni, 293. 

Anti-Federalists, The ("Democratic- 
Republicans" or "Jeffersonians"), 
ni, 46, 58; oppose address to Presi- 
dent John Adams, 64; St. Qair's 
characterization, 69; Edward Hffin 
and other prominent leaders, 76, 
80-81; support the statehood poliqr, 
99-100; III, 119; complete ascend- 
ancy in Ohk), 145-14^; 163, 183, 199. 
See Democratic Party. 



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336 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Anti-Saloon League, The, and the 

Newark riot, iv, 462-463. 
Anti-Slavery, tee Slavery. 
Antbch College, iv, 259. 
Antrim, O., v, 154. 
Antrim Township, Wyandot county, 

site of Captives' Town, n, 305. 
Aqua Fria, Mez., Ohioans in battle at, 

IV, 55- 

Arbuckle, Matthew (Captain), ocnnman- 
der at Fort Randolph, and the death 
of ComsUlk, II, 156-158; letter con- 
cerning Alexander McKee, 183-184. 

Archaeobgical and Historical Society, 
see Ohio State Archseok>gical and 
Historical Society. 

Archieology of Ohio, see Prehistoric. 

"Ariel, " The, American ship in battle of 
Lake Erie, m, 301. 

Arkansas Indians, i, 144. 

Arks used in eariy navigation of Ohio 
River, ni, 10. 

Armor, S. G., medical instructor, v, 190. 

Armstrong, A. W., adjutant in Mexican 
War, IV, 53. 

Armstrong, John (Colonel), colonial 
officer, destroys KitUnning, 1, 311; 
in expeditk>n against Fort Duquesne, 

34S. 

Armstrong, John, Judge of Northwest 
Territory, n, 463; v, 88, 89. 

Armstrong, John, officer under General 
Harmar, n,5i4. 

Armstrong, John B., Captain in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 52. 

Armstrong, William Jackson, literary 
work, II, 565. 

Army of the Cumberiand; the James; 
the Ohio; the Potomac; the Ten- 
nessee — Ohio troops in, rv, 456. 

Amett, B. W. (Bishop), delivers address 
at Chillicothe Centennial, iv, 453. 

Articles of Confederatbn, The, n, 407- 
410. 



Ashbum, Thomas Q., member of Su- 
preme Court Commission, v, ill. 

Ashby, Benjamin, officer in Dunmore^s 
expedition, n, 131. 

Ashe, Thomas, visit to Blennerhassetf s 
home, in, 213. 

Ashland County, n, 352. 

Ashley, John S., identified with develop- 
ment of Lake transportation, v, 247. 

Ashmun, G. C, member of C^iio State 
Board of Health, v, 213. 

Assassination of President Garfield, nr, 
345; of President McKinley, 445- 
446. 

Ashtabula, iv, 282, 483; census statis- 
tics (1910), V, 262. 

Ashtabula County, ni, 184, 348; share 
of the surplus revenue, iv, 11; 187, 

534. 
J/ktabula Sentinel, The, iv, 173, 204. 
Assarrigoa, Indian chief, i, 429. 
Assenisipia, State proposed by JefiFerton, 

11,426. 
''Associate Judges," v, 125-126. 
Associates, The Ohk> Company o^ see 

Ohk> Company of Associates. 
Atchatchakangouen Indians, i, 162. 
Athanese, Indian chief, leader in defeat 

of Braddock, i, 294. 
Athens, O., i, 85; in, 62, 173; nr, 54; 

Camp Wool established, 170; v, 23, 

40, 221. 
Athens County, m, 164; share of the 

surplus revenue, iv, 11 ; salt industry, 

82; 245; miners' strike, 1884, 364; 

"Coonskin Libraiy," v, 6. 
Athens Sute Hospital, The, v, 221. 
Atlanta, Ga., execution of J. J. Andrews, 

IV, 201; Ohio generals in Sherman's 

campaign, 256. 
Atlixco, Mex., Ohb troops in battle at, 

IV, 56. 
Attawang, Ottawa chief, i, 424. 
Attiga, name for Ohk) River, i, 223. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



337 



Atwater, Caleb, description of Seip 
Group, I, 69; on origin of the name 
Scioto, 225; on date of admission of 
Ohio to the Union, iii, 151; services 
in behalf of education, 343, 346, 
374-376, 3B1, 395; on slavery, iv, 
1 19-120; V, 20. 

Atwell, Charies T., Major in Spanish 
War, IV, 426. 

Atwood, Edward B., Brigadier General 
in Spanish and Philippine Wars, iv, 
428. 

Auglaize County, lii, 360; iv, 1 15. 

Auglaize (formerly Ottawa) River, The, 
1, 175; reputed birthplace of Pontiac, 
380; II, 541, 545, 546; IV, 83. 

Augusta County, Va., troops in Dun- 
more's expedition, II, 86, 87, 126; 157. 

Aultman, Cornelius, manufacturer, v, 
3*5, 3*6. 



Australian ballot. The, iv, 394, 404. 

Automobile Industry, The, sUtistics, 
V, 259; in Cleveland, 285-286. 

Avery, Edward, Judge of Supreme 
Court, V, 104, 148. 

Avery, Elroy McKendree, historical 
writer, I, 280; on the peace confer- 
ence at Easton, 339; 341; on the Va. 
boundary, 11, 409-410; 4*5; v, 24. 

Aviation Machines, v, 316. 

Avondale, O., iv, 358. 

Awl, William M., physician, call for a 
medical convention, v, 209. 

Axline, Henry A., Adjutant General, rv, 
421; Colonel in Spanish War, 425. 

Aylett Family of Virginia, i, 264-265. 

Aztecs, The, resemblance of works to 
Mound Builders', i, 20, 23, 43, 47, 
49- 



BABBITT, Henry S., Commission- 
er of Morgan Raid Qaims, iv, 
243. 

Baber, Dr., hospital superintendent, v, 
221. 

Backus, Elijah, early newspaper pub- 
lisher, III, 177. 

Backus, Franklin T., delegate to Peace 
Conference, i86x, iv, 155; candidate 
for Supreme Judge, v, 149. 

Bacon, Delia Salter, Shakesperian 
theory, v, 44. 

Bacon, Leonard (Rev.), on the Hard 
Cider campaign, iv, 30. 

Badger, Joseph (Rev.), Presbyterian 
missionary, iv, 85. 

Baehr, E. M., medical instructor, v, 190. 

Bainbridge, O., prehistoric remains 
near, i, 48, 69. 

Baker, George W., manufacturer, v, 288. 

Baker, J. H., organizer of Republican 
party, iv, 140. 

Baker, John E., manufacturer, v, 305. 



Baker, Joshua, trader on Ohio River, 
II, 58, 59. 

Baker, Walter C, manufacturer, v, 285. 

Baker's Bottom, Baker's Cabin, Baker's 
Tavern, Va., massacre of Indians at, 
11,58-64,117. 

Bald Eagle, Delaware chief, murder of, 
II, 67. 

Baldwin, C. C, authority on early maps, 
I, 239-240. 

Baldwin, J. F., physician, v, 201. 

Baldwin, Michael, connection with 
Chillicothe mob, iii, 91-92; member 
of Legislature, 107; Speaker, 147. 

Ball, Ephraim, manufacturer, v, 325. 

Ball, Flamen, District Attorney, Cin- 
cinnati, IV, 220. 

Ball, Mary, mother of George Washing- 
ton, I, 264. 

Ballard, Julia P., author, v, 46. 

Ballentine, Robert, manufacturer, v, 
305. 



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338 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



"Ballot-box Forgery," The, iv, 391- 

394- 

Baltimore Americany The, "Log Cabin 
and Hard Cider" editorial, iv, 24. 

Bancroft, George, on the Quakers, i, 
168; on the Albany Treaty, 187; 
280, 348; on the westward bounds of 
Virginia, 471; on the battle of Point 
Pleasant, 11, 103; on Lord Dunmore, 
134; on the battle of Lake Erie, in, 
30a. 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe, historical 
writer, v, 24. 

Bandlow, Robert, candidate for Gov- 
ernor, IV, 442. 

Bank of the U. S., The, oppositbn of 
Ohio to. III, 311-328; IV, 493-494. 

Banking Department, The Sute, rv, 

459, 503. 
Banks and Banking in Ohio, Alfred Kel- 

Icy and the Law of 1845, "'1 355-35^; 

comprehensive review, iv, 489-503. 
Banks, Nathaniel P., Major General in 

Civil War, Ohio troops under, rv, 

256. 
Banning, Henry B., Brigadier General 

in Civil War, iv, 282. 
Bannon, James W., member of third 

Constitutional Convention, iv, 320. 
Baptists, The, opposition to slavery, 

IV, 128. 

Barber, Josiah, Commissioner on educa- 
tion, III, 375; manufacturer, v, 276. 
Barberton, O., manufacturing activity, 

V, 323- 

Barbie (or Barbee), Joshua (Brigadier 
General), at battle of Fallen Tim- 
bers, II, 548, 550. 

Barclay, Robert H. (Commodore), 
British commander in battle of Lake 
Erie, in, 302. 

Barker, George W., Commissioner of 
Morgan Raid Claims, iv, 243. 

Barlow, Joel, connectbn with Scioto 
Land Company, n, 484-494. 



Barnard, Charles E., manufacturer, v, 

280. 
Bamett, James, Colonel in Civil War, 
services in W. Va., iv, 159; General, 
member of Chillicothe Centennial 
Commission, 451. 
Bamett's Ohb Battery, Civil War, iv, 

169. 
isamey, Eliam E., manufacture:, v, 

315. 
Barond, Qaude Odille Joseph (France), 
connection with Compagnie du 
Scioto, n, 486. 
Barr, Robert N., medical instructor, v, 

206. 
Barrett, Elisha, manufacturer, author- 
ized to conduct a lottery, in, 62-63. 
Barrett, Jay A., literary work, 11, 43a 
Barrett, Joseph H., author, v, 25. 
Barrio de las Palmas (Porto Rico), 

Ohk) troops at, rv, 420. 
Barth, Count de and Francois M. J. de, 
French Scbto promoters, n, 494. 
Bartholow, Roberts, physician and- 

medical writer, v, 32, 190, 191. 
Bartley, Mordecai, Governor, official 
acts during Mexican War, rv, 50, 51; 
letter of General Hamer to, 53; 
career, 96; 176. 
Bartley, Hiomas W. (son of preceding). 
Governor, in, 360; career, iv, 96; 
Judge of Supreme Court, v, 130; 
judicial opinion by, 132; 142. 
Barton, William, declines appointment 
as Judge of Northwest Territory, 
V, 90. 
Bartram, John, member of Committee 

on Military Arrests, iv, 186. 
Bashford, James Whitfield (Bishop), 

author, v, 35. 
Bass Islands, The (Lake Erie), 11, 578; 

IV, 274. 
Bastrop Purchase (La.) of Aaron Burr, 

in, 206, 215. 
BaUvia, 0., iv, 57. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



339 



Bates, Clement, legal writer, v, 31. 
Bates, James L., "Life of Alfred KeUey," 

in, 35*, 354, 355- 

Bates, John, messenger in Burr affair, 
ni, 235. 

Bates, Joshua H., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 167. 

Bates, Margaret Holmes, author, v, 65. 

Battelle, Ebenezer (Colonel), settler at 
Marietta, iii, 369; v, 92. 

Battelle, John G. (Colonel), manufac- 
turer, connection with tin plate 
episode in the McKinley campaign 
(1891), IV, 403-404. 

Battle Island, Crawford's fight with 
the Indians, 11, 357, 365. 

Battle of Lake Erie, in, 300-307. 

Battle of the Thames, 11, 568-569; iii, 
291, 306. 

Battles of Blue Licks, Bushy Run, 
Fallen Timbers, Monongahela, Point 
Pleasant, Sandusky, Tippecanoe, 
etc., see under their place names. 

Baude, Louis de, see Frontenac, Count 
du. 

Baum, Martin, merchant, iv, 490. 

Baum Village, 0, prehistoric remains, 
I, 61-64. 

Bayard, James A., member of Congress, 
and the Ohio Enabling Act, in, 103; 
and the contested Presidential elec- 
tion of 1800, 199-200. 

Bayard, Phoebe, wife of Arthur St. 
Clair, II, 464. 

Bayard, Stephen (Lieutenant Colonel), 
commander at Fort Pitt, 11, 389. 

Bayless, G. W., medical instructor, v, 
190. 

Baylor, Cyrus A. (Lieutenant), in 
defense of Fort Stephenson, in, 293. 

Bazley, H. W., medical instructor, v, 
190, 191. 

Bcal Law, The, iv, 535, 539, 540. 

Beall, John Yates (CapUin), Con- 
federate officer, participation in 



Lake Erie ptet, iv, 271, 274-276; ex- 
ecution, 277. 

Beall, Reasin (General), presides at 
Columbus demonstratbn in cam- 
paign of 1840, rv, 26. 

Beall, Robert (Captain), leads relief 
party to Fort Laurens, 11, 260-261. 

Bear, John W., the "Buckeye Black- 
smith," IV, 34-37. 

Bearskin, Wyandot chief, iv, 88. 

Beatty, John, Brigadier (general in 
Civil War, rv, 282; author, v, 64. 

Beatty, Samuel, Lieutenant in Mexican 
War, IV, 61; Brigadier General in 
Civil War, 256, 284. 

Beautiful River, The, name for the 
Ohio, I, 128, 223. 

Beaver, Delaware chief, i, 236, 439. 

"Beaver," The, vessel in Detroit River 
during Pontiac's siege, i, 388; v, 232. 

Beaver Creek and River, Big Beaver 
Creek and River, i, 236, 330, 438; 
II, 17, 22, 35, 216, 224, 577; V, 324. 

Beaver Town, Indian village on the 
Muskingum, i, 363, 438. 

Bebb, William, Governor, recommends 
repeal of "Black Laws," iv, 94; 96; 
career, 97; 176; manufacturing enter- 
prise, V, 329. 

Becker, William H., identified with 
development of Lake transporUtion, 
V, 247. 

Beckett, William, manufacturer, v, 329. 

Beckwith, D. H., member State Board 
of Health, V, 213. 

Bedford County, Va., troops in Dun- 
morc's expedition, 11, 87. 

Bedinger, George Michael (Major), in 
Bowman's Ohio invasion, 11, 269^ 
271, 272, 273. 

Beecher, Catherine, intellectual activi- 
ties, V, 50. 

Beecher, Henry Ward, student in 
Cincinnati, v, 33, 50. 



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340 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Beecher, Lyman, president of Lane 
Seminary, v, 33, 49, 

Been, W. H., publisher, v, 327. 

Belastre, M. de, French colonial officer, 
1,308. 

Beleter, Frendi commandantVt Detroit, 
I, 361. 

Bell, James M., Commissioner on edu- 
cation, III, 375, 377. 

Bell, John (General), in "Toledo War," 

III, 44a. 

Bell, John, medical instructor, v, 191. 
Bell, Robert, with Washington in his 

Ohio journey, i, 490. 
Bellaire, Camp Je£Ferson esublished, 

IV, 170; flood of 1884, 354; census 
statistics (19x0), v, 263. 

Belle Riviere, La, name for Ohb River, 

I, 222. 

Bellefonume, iv, 87, 340; v, 65. 
Bellerive, St. Ange de, Frendi military 

officer, 1, 449; death of Pontiac, 455, 

456. 
Bellin's Map, i, 225. 
Bells, manufacture of in Cincinnati, v, 

^93. 
Belmont County, in, 105, 107, 11 1, 164, 

331, 450, 4SS; share of the surplus 

revenue, iv, 11; 26; v, 10, 54, 115, 

117. 
Belote, Theodore T., quoted or dted, 

II, 48s, 486, 492, 494, 499, SOI. 
Belpre, settlement, 11, 472; iii, 37, 210, 

211, 214; first school in Ohio, 369, 
370; public library, 1796, v, 6. 

Benham, Robert (Captain), remarkable 
experience, 11, 275-277. 

Benham, Robert, member of Terri- 
torial Legislature, in, 37, 43. 

Bennett, Emerson, writer, v, 52. 

Bennett, Henry Holcomb, literary 
work, V, 82. 

Bennett, John, literary work, v, 60, 82. 

Bennett, John, medical instructor, v, 
208. 



Benninghofen, manufacturer, v, 329. 
Bensinger, William, Andrews raider, iv, 

194,202. 
Benson, Egbert, member of Congress, 

connection with Ordinance of 1787, 

11,4*9. 

Benton, Thomas H., on authorship of 
Ordinance of 1787, n, 433-434; in, 
446; on the surplus revenue, iv, 4-5. 

Berea, v, 65. 

Berlin, O., n, 395; fight with the Mor- 
gan raiders, rv, 246. 

Bemer, William, murderer, iv, 358, 36a 

Bemett, manufacturer, v, 329. 

Bessemer steel, first blown in New- 
burg, O., V, 279. 

Bethlehem, Pa., headquarters of the 
Moravians, 11, 12, 15, 19, 20, 23, 
573. 576. 

Bickham, W. D., writer, v, 26. 

Biennial Electk>ns, iv, 321, 458. 

Bierce, Ambrose, literary work, v, 58. 

Big Apple Tree, Mohawk chief, u, 84. 

Big Bale of a Kettle, Indian chief, n, 

Big Beaver (or Tamaque), Delaware 

chief, II, 17. 
Big Beaver Creek and River, see Beaver 

Creek and River. 
Big Bottom, O., settlement, 11, 472; 

massacre, 519. 
Big Cat, Delaware chief, 11, 85, 223, 224, 

337, 417, 546-547. 

Big Darby River (formerly called 
Olenungy), The, i, 227; n, 36, 37. 

Big Door (or Big Gate), Piankeshaw 
chief, n, 198, 21a 

Big Grove Creek, i, 491. 

Big Hocking River, The, see Hock- 
hocking River. 

Big Kanawha River, The, see Kanawha 
River. 

Big Miami River, The, see Great Miami 
River. 

Big River, Wyandot Indian, nr, 88. 



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Big Sandy River, The, i, 236, 327, 328; 

II, 16. 

Big Shanty, Ga., the Andrews raiders at, 
IV, 196-197- 

Big Town, Wyandot Indian, iv, 88. 

Big Tree (or Carondawana), Oneida 
chief, I, 2x4. 

Big Tree, Wyandot Indian, 11, 507; iv, 
88. 

Big Wabut (or Gahanna) Creek, i, 225. 

Bigelow, Herbert S., president of fourth 
Constitutbnal Convention, iv, 465. 

Bigger, John, director of Miami Export- 
ing Company, rv, 490. 

Bigot, William, French priest, 11, 395. 

Bill of Rights, The, Ohb Constitution, 

III, 118. 

Bingham, John A., Republican leader, 

IV, 174. 

Birchard, Matthew, Judge of Supreme 

Court, V, 104. 
Bird, Helen Louisa Bostwick, literary 

work, V, 74. 
Bird, Henry (Capuin), British officer, 

opera tbns in Ohio and Ky., n, 255, 

259, 273-274, 279-281, 285, 290. 
Bimey, James G., abolitionist, iv, 126- 

127. 
Bishop, servant of Washington, i, 297. 
Bishop, Richard M., member of third 

Constitutional Convention, iv, 320; 

Governor, 341-342. 
Black, Peter, manufacturer, v, 330. 
Black Beard, Shawnee chief, Ji, 270, 

475. 

Black Fish, Shawnee chief, captures 
Boone, 11, 179, 180; atUcks Boones- 
borough, x8x; colloquy with Kenton, 
236; last battle and death, 270-271. 

Black Hoof, Shawnee chief, 11, 91, 270. 

"Black Laws," The, provisions of, iv, 
93; political "deal" resulting in 
their repeal, 94-95; Judge Burnet's 
attitude, X23. 



Black River, The (Canesadooharie 
Creek), 1, 330. 

Black Sheep, Wyandot Indian, iv, 88. 

Black Snake, Indian name for General 
Wayne, 11, 541. 

Blackman, George C, physician and 
medical writer, v, 32, 187-188, 191. 

Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, Eng- 
land, Ohk> ardiaeological specimens 
in, I, 65. 

Blaine, James G., on the Electoral Com* 
missbn Bill, iv, 336; 388, 435. 

Blair, Rudolph, member of first Con- 
stitutional Conventk>n, iii, 107. 

Blair, Theodoric, member of Congress, 
proposes ordinance concerning west- 
em lands, II, 426, 436. 

Blane, Archibald (Lieutenant), com- 
mander at Fort Ligonier, i, 403. 

Blast, The, Indian chief, 11, 507. 

Bleile, A. M., medical instructor, v, 201. 

Blennerhassett, Harman, antecedents, 
residence, and wife, iii, 209-214; 
relations with Aaron Burr, 216-219, 
224, 229, 233-235, 238, 242, 243, 
246-248. 

Blennerhassett*s Island, preceding refer- 
ences; also IV, 355. 

Bliss, Eugene Frederick, writer on Zeis- 
berger, 11, 9; other literary work, v, 
22. 

Bloody Bridge, Mich., Battle of, i, 395. 

Blue Jacket, Shawnee chief, 11, 91, 139, 
418, SIC, 521, 527, 547-548, 55i» 
5 54» 55 5 ; «igner of GreenvilleTreaty, 
556; 566. 

Blue Jacket, Wyandot chief, iv, 88. 

Blue Licks, Ky., Battle of, 11, 379, 382- 
384, 478. 

Boat-building, see Shipbuilding. 

Boggis, manufacturer, v, 280. 

Boggs, Captain, at Fort Henry, 11, 387. 

Bohrer, B. S., medical instructor, v, 181, 
183, 19X. 



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Boisnautier, Abbe (France), appointed 

Bifthop of GallipolU, n, 496. 
Boke's Creek, i, 225. 
Bolin, Stuart R., Jamestown Exposition, 

IV, 486. 

Bolivar, O., i, 236; n, 16, 225; ni, 361. 
Bolton, Sarah Knowles, literary work, 

V, 47. 

Bond, John R., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 256. 

Bond, Shadrack, member of Legisla- 
ture, Northwest Territory, iii, 37, 

64. 
Bond>rake, Lewis D., delivers address 

at Chillicothe Centennial, rv, 452. 
Bonham, L. N., treasurer State Board 

of Managers, World's Fair at Chica- 
go, IV, 478. 
Bonifield, C. L., medical instructor, v, 

191. 
Bonnechamps, Pierre John de, with 

Celoron, i, 221, 222, 225. 
Book of Mormon, The, iii, 399-400. 
Bookwalter, John W., candidate for 

Governor, iv, 345. 
Boone, Daniel, career, i, 472-474; Lord 

Byron on, 475-476; settlement in 

"Transylvania," Ky., 11, 146-150; 

155; taken captive to Ohio, 179-180; 

escape and return to Kentucky, 

181; 232, 236, 285, 382, 384, 418, 

476, 477 59a. 
Boone, Israel (son of Daniel), killed at 

battle of Blue Licks, 11, 384. 
Boone, Squire (brother of Daniel), n, 

149- 
Boone's Wilderness Road, n, 148, 155. 
Boonesborough, Ky., 11, 148-149, 155, 

156, 169, 179, 180, 181, 232. 
Booth, Ezra (Rev.), and the Mormons. 

Ill, 408. 
Boston, Mass., organization of Ohio 

Company of Associates, 11, 444-446; 

454- 



Boston Gaxetu, The, letter from Israd 
Putnam on Bradstreet's expedition. 
h 430. 

Botetourt County, Va., troops raised 
in for western expeditions, 11, 87, 

157. 
Bottle River, The, name for Hockhock- 

mg River, i, 448. 
Boudinot, Elias, member of company 

organized by John C. S}rmmes, 11, 

473. 

Boundary between Ohk> and Michigan, 
in, 438-446- 

Bounties in the Civil War, iv, 184. 

Bounty Lands to Revolutionary officers, 
11,241. 

Bouquet, Henry (Colonel), British 
officer, I, 241 ; second in command m 
expedition against Fort Duquesne, 
342-343 ; commander at Fort Presque 
Isle, 355, 368; 398, 403; marches 
to relief of Fort Pitt, 406; battle of 
Bushy Run, 407; arrives in Fort 
Pitt, 408; 411, 419, 429; successful 
expedition against Ohio Indians, 
435-446; entertains Moravian mis- 
sionaries at Fort Pitt, 11, 17; 23, 39, 
61, 88, 201, 225, 420, 464. 

Bourne, E. H., manufacturer, v, 280. 

Bourne, Henry £., literary work, v, 26. 

Bourne, S., manufacturer, v, 280. 

Boumeville, O., prdiistoric remains 
near, i, 48. 

Bowen, Ozias, Judge of Supreme Court, 
v, 131. 

Bowers, manufacturer, v, 279. 

Bowler, manufacturer, v, 28a 

Bowling Green, O., iv, 368. 

Bowman, Elizabeth, wife of Captain 
Isaac Ruddell, 11, 280. 

Bowman, John (of Ky.), Major, second 
in command in Gark's expedition 
against Vincennes, 11, 207-210; 
Colonel, sends Kenton on a missbn 



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to Ohio, 233; unsuccessful expedi- 
tion against Ohb Indians, 269-274; 
27s, 280, 286, 477. 
Bowman, Joseph (of Ky.), Capuin 
under George Rogers Clark, 11, 192; 
takes Cahokia, 196-197; 28a 
Bownocker, John Adams (Professor), 

on Findlay gas, iv, 366-367. 
Bowyer, Lewis, in the campaign of 

1840, IV, 25. 
Boxer Uprising, The (China), General 

Chaffee's services, iv, 427. 
Boyer, Lieutenant, in Wayne's expedi- 
tion, II, 545, 546. 
Boynton, C. B., literary work, v, 25-26. 
Boynton, Henry Van Ness, literary 

work, V, 12. 
Boynton, John F., Mormon, iii, 416. 
Boynton, W. W., lawyer, v, 152. 
Brace, Jonathan, and the Connecticut 

Land Company, 11, 580. 
Bracket's Tavern, Boston, Mass., meet- 
ings of Ohb Company of Associates, 
n, 445, 454, 455- 
Brackenridge, H. M., on early Galli- 

polis, v, 267. 
Braddock, Edward, British mOiUiy 
commander, disastrous expedition, 
I, 291-298; Indian view of defeat, 
315; 328, 329; Pontiac a combatant, 
414; 473, 485; n, 14, 17, 83, 88, 350. 
Braddock Road, The, i, 490. 
Bradley, Alva (Captain), identified with 
development of Lake transporutbn, 
V, 247. 
Bradley, Edward B., Captain in Mexi- 
can War, rv, 52. 
Bradstrect, John (Colonel), western 
expedition, i, 411-432, 435. 43^, 44©. 
Bradt, Andrew (CapUin), siege of Fort 

Henry, 11, 385-391. 
Brady, James (brother of Samuel), 11, 

262. 
Brady, John (father of Samuel), u, 262. 



Brady, Samuel (of Pa.), Captain, ex- 

ploiu, II, 262-265. 
Brady's Island, 11, 263. 
Bragg, Braxton, Confederate General, 

reception of Vallandigham, iv, 220- 

221; 244. 
Brandenburg, Franklin D., medical 

instructor, v, 208. 
Brannan, Joseph Doddridge, legal 

writer, V, 31. 
Brannan, William Penn, literary work, 

V, 74. 
Brannock Law, The, iv, 455, 457, 536, 

537. 

Brant, Joseph (or Thayendanegea), 
Mohawk chief, i, 288, 423; 11, 75, 
119, 136; quarrel with Simon Girty, 
311-312; 313, 400, 414; visit to Eng. 
land, 415; 419, 506-507, 520; assists 
in St. Clair's defeat, 527; 531, 532, 
553-554, 570; transactions with 
Moses Cleaveland, 581. 

Brant, Mary, wife of Sir William John- 
son, I, 288; II, 75. 

Brayton, C A., manufacturer, v, 280. 

Breckenridge, W. C. P. (of Ky.), name 
used in Ballot-box Forjery, iv, 393. 

Brehme, D. (CapUin), British officer, 
I, 361; letter on attitude of the 
Indians, 11, 274. 

Breslin, John G., Speaker of Ohb 
House, IV, 92. 

Bretncy, manufacturer, v, 327. 

Breton, OtUwa chief, i, 389. 

Brice, B. W., Brigadier General in Civil 
War, IV, 284. 

Brice, Calvin S., U. S. Senator, iv, 395, 
409,480,481. 

Brice, William A., on the forces engaged 
in battle of Fallen Timbers, 11, 550- 

551. 
Brickell, John, account of the death of 

a spy, II, 546-547. 
Brier Hill Furnace, The, v, 320. 



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Brinkerhoff, Jacob, Judge of Ohio Su- 
preme Court, V, 131, 135. 

Brinkerhoff, Roeliff, delivers addrett at 
Chillicothe Centennial, iv, 452; 
literary work, v, 17. 

Brinton, Major, m Sandusky expedition, 
M, 350. 

Brock, Isaac, British General, War of 
1812, n, 567-568; III, 264-366. 

Brodhead, Daniel (Cobnel), American 
officer, II, 220; on death of White 
Eyes, 222-223; commandant at Fort 
Mcintosh, 224; at Fort Pitt, 254; 
appointed to command of western 
military department, 258; 259, 260, 
261, 262, 278; Goschochgung expedi- 
tion, 294-301; 302, 327. 

Brokaw, manufacturer, v, 328. 

Broken Creek, n, 305. 

Broken Twig, Indian chief, 11, 507. 

Brooks, John (of Mass.), member of 
Ohio Company of Associates, 11, 445. 

Brooks, William T. H., Brigadier Gen- 
eral in Civil War, iv, 282. 

Brotherton, Alice Williams, literary 
work, V, 80. 

Brough, Charles H., Colonel in Mexican 
War, IV, 56. 

Brough, John, nomination and election 
as Governor, iv, 232-238; 243; ad- 
ministration, 253-254, 278-279; 289- 
290; death, 298; 319, 462; v, 151. 

Brown, Alexander E., unloading ma- 
chine, V, 243, 284. 

Brown, Ethan Allen, Governor, iii, 325; 
zealous advocate of canals, 339-442; 
appointed Commissioner, 345; 363, 
450; career, 451-45^; Judge of Su- 
preme Court, V, 104, 145. 

Brown, Fayette, identified with develop- 
ment of Lake transportation, v, 247. 

Brown, Harvey H., identified with 
development of Lake transportation, 
V, 247. 



Brown, James W. (of Mich.), General 
in "Toledo War," ni, 441. 

Brown, John, Harper's Ferry raid, iv, 
144. 

Brown, Mary P., subscriber to sword 
for Major Croghan, iii, 299. 

Brown, Noah, shipwright, engaged in 
building Perry's fleet, in, 301. 

Brown, Samuel (Dr.), letter from George 
Rogers Qark to, 11, 115. 

Brown, William H., manufacturer, v, 
314. 

Brown, Wilson W., Andrews raider, nr, 
I93» 197, 198, 202. 

Brown County, in, 70; share of the sur- 
plus revenue, iv, 11; 64, 187, 245, 
246; White Cap disturbances, 387. 

"Brown's Folly," the canals, in, 340, 
363. 

Brown's Town, 11, 283. 

Browne, John, member of first Consti- 
tutional Convention, m, 107, 126- 
127. 

Browne, John W. (Rev.), early pub- 
lisher, III, 178, 180. 

Brownell, C. L., journalist, v, 16. 

Brownstown, on Detroit River, 11, 343, 
567. 

Bruce, H. Addington, literary work, 
II, 148. 

Brule, Etienne, cow^r de bois^ i, 103; 
supposed first white man in Ohk>, 
III. 

Bruner, Daniel, Capuin in Mexican 
War, IV, 54. 

Brush, Charles F., inventor of arc light, 
V, 287. 

Brush, Frances, subscriber to sword for 

Major Croghan, m, 299. 
Brush, Henry, Judge of Ohk> Supreme 

Court, V, 104. 
Brush Creek, prehistoric remains, i, 45, 
73-76; last Indian fight, n, 593-594- 
Brush Creek Furnace, The, iv, 80. 



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Bryan, William JenningSy iv, 438, 444, 
460. 

Bryant, David and Gilman, v, 276. 

Bryant's Sution, Ky., n, 281; Indian 
atuck, 381-382; 39S, 478. 

Buchanan, Eleanor, subscriber to sword 
for Major Croghan, iii, 299. 

Buchanan, J. R. (Dr.), editor, v, 9, 30. 

Buck, Jirah Dewey, literary work, v, 38. 

"Buckeye Blacksmith," The, John W. 
Bear, iv, 34-37. 

Buckeye Cabin Song, The, iv, 31-32. 

Buckeye Mower, The, v, 325-326. 

Buckingham, C. P., Adjutant General, 
IV, 158; Brigadier General in Civil 
War, 282. 

Buckingham, Ebenezer, Jr., Canal Com- 
missioner, in, 345. 

Buckland, Ralph P., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 284; member 
Board of Ohio Managers, Phila- 
delphia Centennial, 473. 

Buckongehelas, Delaware chief, i, 243; 
II, 521; in St. Clair's defeat, 527; 
signer of Greenville treaty, 556. 

Bucyrus, 11, 342, 344; iv, 59, 453; v, 140. 

Buell, Augustus C, literary work, i, 214. 

Buell (General), in Burr affair, iii, 234, 
237, 238-240. 

Buell, Don Carlos, officer in Mexican 
War, IV, 61; Major General in Civil 
War, 281. 

Buell, Rowena, literary work, 11, 440. 

Buena VisU, Mex., Ohk> troops in battle 
at, IV, 54, 55. 

Buffalo, N. Y., assassination of Presi- 
dent McKinley, iv, 445; Pan- 
American Exposition, 483. 

Buffalo Creek, i, 217, 480; Cleaveland's 
treaty, 11, 580-582. 

Buffalo Historical Society, The, i, 113, 
223. 

Buffington's Island (Ohio River), iv, 
244, 246-249. 



Buffum, Robert, Andrews raider, iv, 

194,202. 
Buford, Thomas (CapUin), in Dun- 

more's expedition, 11, 87. 
Bulger, John, Ky. officer, killed at battle 

of Blue Licks, 11, 383. 
Bull Head, Wyandot Indian, iv, 88. 
Bullard, Asa and Eleazer, escapes, 11, 

S19. 
Bullet's Town, Indian village, i, 441. 
Bump, Joseph, builder of Kirtland 

Temple, in, 412. 
Bunch of Grapes Tavern, Boston, Mass., 

meetings of Ohio Company of Asso- 
ciates, n, 444, 448, 452. 
Buntin, Robert (Captain), letter, n, 527. 
"Buntline, Ned," pseudonym of E. C. 

Judson, V, 51, 52. 
Bunts, Frank E., medical instructor, v, 

208. 
Burckholter 9/. McConnellsville, iv, 531. 
Burdell, William F., president Ohio 

Commission, Jamestown Exposition, 

IV, 484, 485. 
Burdsall's Ohb Dragoons, Civil War, 

IV, 169. 
Burke, P. E., Brigadier General in Civil 

War, IV, 256. 
Burnet, Jacob, member of Council, 

Northwest Territory, n, 596; in, 38, 

43 > 47-4^> ^2; Judge of Ohio Supreme 

Court and U. S. Senator, v, 104, 144. 

(Quoted or referred to, in, 40-41, 42, 

78-79, 81, loo-ioi, 118, 120, 145, 

222, 223, 429, 433; IV, 123, 126; V, 

20, 98, 273. 
Burnett, Isaac G., early newspaper 

publisher, in, 179. 
Bumey, Thomas, trader, i, 255. 
Bumham, John (Major), employed by 

Scioto Company, 11, 493. 
Bums, Barnabas, member of third 

Constitutional Conventbn, iv, 320; 

member Ohb Board of Managers, 

Philadelphia Centennial, 473. 



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Burnt, J. J. (Dr.), literary work, v, 26. 

Burnt, William W., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 282. 

Bumside, Ambrose £. (General), Gen- 
eral Orders, No. 38, iv, 214-215, 216, 
218, 220, 225; defense of Cincinnati, 
245, 246. 

Burr, Aaron, operations in Ohio, ni, 
193-254. 

Burr, Aaron (Sr.), Andrew (Colonel), 
John, Peter, Samuel, in, 194. 

Burr, Theodosia, wife of Joseph Alston, 
in, 204, 207, 217, 218. 

Burrows, Charles W., historical re- 
searches, I, 205. 

Burrows, J. H., manufacturer, v, 296. 

Burrows, John Henry, literary work, v, 

34. 

Burt, Andrew S., Brigadier General in 
Spanish War, iv, 428. 

Burton, O., iv, 98; v, 144. 

Burton, Ernest De Witt, literary work, 
V, 36. 

Bushnell, Asa S., iv, 374; nominated and 
elected Governor, 408-409; renom- 
inated and reelected, 411; Urbana 
lynching, 411-412; Spanish War, 
418-419, 420-421; and Mr. Hahna, 
433-434; 442, 443; manufacturer, v, 
328. 

Bushnell, Mrs. Asa S., iv, 478. 

Bushnell, Simeon, Fugitive Slave case, 
IV, 134-135. 

Bushy Run, Battle of, i, 407, 435. 

Butler, Benjamin F. (General), Ohio 
troops under. Civil War, iv, 255. 

Butler, John, British partisan, u, 532. 



Butler, Richard, connection with Stan- 
wix Treaty, 11, 413, 415; Fort Finney 
Treaty, 417; Major General under 
St, Qair, 518, 523; death, 525, 526. 

Butler, Simon, assumed name of Simon 
Kenton, 11, 231, 241. 

Butler, William, trader, n, 50. 

Butler County, prehistoric remains, i, 
21-23; erection, in, 150; share of 
surplus revenue, iv, 11; 245, 283, 
3". 390,458; V, II, 15, 35, 14a 

Butler's Rangers, British force, opera- 
tions of, n, 353, 356, 358, 380, 381- 
382, 384-385. 

Butterfield, Consul Wilshire, quoted or 
cited, 1, 486; II, 49, 116, 117, 160, 
163, 170, 171, 192, 200, 202 (mis- 
printed Butterworth), 216, 223, 285, 
311, 313, 327, 342-343, 348-349, 351. 
352, 358, 366, 372. 399, 525, 54*- 

Butterfield, John, trustee Starling Medi- 
cal College, v, 201. 

Butterworth, Benjamin, member of 
Congress, iv, 389, 393. 

Butzman vs, Whitbeck, nr, 532. 

Byrd, Charies Willing, SccreUry, North- 
west Territory, in, 85-86; member 
of first Constitutional Convention, 
107, 116; Acting Governor, 130, 132, 
152. 

Byrd, William (Colonel), Va. cotenial 
officer, I, 343. 

Byrne, Thomas Sebastian (Bishop), 
literary work, v, 36. 

Byron, George Gordon (Lord), on 
Daniel Boone, i, 475. 



CABOT, John and Sebastian, 
navigators, i, 89, 90. 
Cadillac, La Motte, founder 
of Detroit, i, 195. 
Caesar, negro, n, 237. 
Caesar's Creek, 11, 514. 



Cahokia, 111., French post, i, 364, 370, 
455; surrendered to English, n, 189; 
captured by Americans, 196-197; 
George Rogers Clark's councO 
with the Indians, 199; 201, 205; m, 
51. 



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Cahokia Indians, i, 139; extermination, 

456. 
Cahoon, Reynolds, Mormon, iii, 414, 

419. 

Cajadis, Indian, 11, 63. 

Calavaras Skull, The, i, 3. 

Caldwell, 0., v, 154, 156. 

Caldwell, Aaron, member of Legisla- 
ture, Northwest Territory, iii, 37, 

43- 

Caldwell, James, member of first Con- 
stitutional Convention, iii, 107. 

Caldwell, John, connection with Con- 
necticut Land Company, 11, 580. 

Caldwell, John, officer in Mexican War, 

IV, 59. 

Caldwell, William (Captain), command- 
er of Butler's Rangers, 11, 353, 354, 
357, 358, 374, 380, 381-382, 384-385, 
393, 417; Major, 55i-55a- 

Caldwell, William B., Judge of Ohio 
Supreme Court, v, 104, 130. 

"Caledonia," The, ship in Perry's fleet, 

III, 301. 

Calhoun, John C, on Bank of United 

Sutes, III, 311; IV, 4, 20. 
Calhoun, Thomas, trader, u, 17, 19. 
"Calico Charlie," name for Charles 

Foster, iv, 342. 
Camargo, Mex., Ohio troops at, rv, 54. 
Cambridge, 0., census statistics (1910), 

V, 263. 

Camp Alger, Va., Spanish War, iv, 418, 

424, 425. 
Camp Anderson, Lancaster, Civil War, 

IV, 170. 

Camp Bushnell, Columbus, Spanish 

War, IV, 418, 424, 426. 
Camp Charlotte, on Sdppo's Creek, 

Dunmore's War, 11, 105, 106, 123, 

128, 129, 139, 141, 142, H5, 163, 183. 
Camp Chase, Columbus, Civil War, iv, 

170, 245, 248, 255, 271, 272- 
Camp Cuba Libre, Fla., Spanish War, 

IV, 417. 



Camp Dennison, Cincinnati, Civil War, 

IV, 167, 170, 183, 245, 246, 255. 
Camp Douglas, Chicago, 111., Civil War, 

projected release of Confederate 

prisoners, iv, 264-265, 268-271. 
Camp Goddard, Zanesville, Civil War, 

rv, 170. 
Camp Hamilton, Ky., Spanish War, rv, 

418. 
Camp Harrison, Cincinnati, Civil War, 

IV, 170. 
Camp Jackson, Columbus, Civil War, 

IV, 170. 
Camp Jefferson, Bellaire, Civil War, iv, 

170. 
Camp Mackenzie, Ga., Spanish War, 

IV, 425. 
Camp Marion, S. C, Spanish War, iv, 

425. 
Camp Meade, Pa., Spanish War, nr, 

418, 424, 425. 
Camp Poland, Tenn., Spanish War, rv, 

418. 

Camp Putnam, Marietta, Civil War, 

IV, 170. 
Camp Scott, Portland, Civil War, iv, 170. 
Camp Taylor, Qeveland, Civil War, 

IV, 170. 
Camp Thomas, Ga., Spanish War, iv, 

417, 418. 
Camp Union, Va., rendezvous of Lewis's 

division, Dunmore's War, 11, 86. 
Camp Washington, Cincinnati, Mexi- 
can War, iv, 51, 52, 54, 55. 
Camp Wheeler, Ala., Spanish War, rv, 

418. 
Camp Wool, Athens, Civil War, iv, 170. 
Campaign Creek, 11, 92. 
Campbell (Lieutenant), officer under 

General William H.Harrison, ui, 279. 
Campbell, Alexander, religious leader, 

III, 403. 

Campbell, Braxton W., president of 
Jamestown Exposition Commission, 

IV, 486. 



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THE RISE AND PR(X5RESS 



Campbell, Donald (Captain), British 
officer at Detroit, i, 362, 366; mur- 
der, 389; 398. 

Campbell, James £., nomination and 
election as Governor, iv, 390-394; 
administration, 394-398; 399; re- 
nomination, 400; joint debate, 401; 
defeat, 404-405; again nominated, 

409; 45*- 

Campbell, John A., Justice U. S. Su- 
preme Court, V, 130. 

Campbell, Lewis D., member of Con- 
gress, IV, 162; member of third Con- 
stitutional Convention, 320; on the 
proposed Constitution, 324-325; v, 
329. 

Campbell, Mis (Captain), officer under 
Wayne, 11, 549. 

Campbell, Richard (Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel), relieves Fort Laurens, 11, 261. 

Campbell, Thomas, "Gertrude of Wy- 
oming," n, 119. 

Campbell, William (Capuin), with 
Lochry, 11, 306. 

Campbell, William (Major), British 
officer in command at Fort Miami, 

n, 543, 55i-55a. 

Campbell, William, Andrews raider, iv, 
194,202. 

Campus Martins, Marietu, u, 460. 

Canada, the name, i, 91; and the 
negro, rv, 122, 130; and the Confed- 
eracy, 231, 265; and Lake naviga- 
tion, V, 236-237, 248. See England 
and France. 

Canals, The, Washington's project, i, 
484; construction and operation in 
Ohb, III, 335-363; employment of 
the surplus revenue, iv, 9, 13, 14, 15; 
influence in stimulating develop- 
ment, v, 235-236; effects upon manu- 
facturing progress, 263-265, 275, 

291, 305, 3", 315, 3U- 
Canassatego, Onondaga chief, i, 192; 
advocates colonial union, 194. 



Canastauga (or Conestoga) Indians, i, 

3*9. 

Canawagy Creek, 11, 21. 

Candy, Charies, Brigadier General in 
Civfl War, iv, 256. 

Canesadooharie Creek (Black River), i, 
330. 

Cankake, Indian village, i, 227. 

Canning, Joseph D., quoted, 11, 284. 

Canontout, Indian village, i, 398. 

Canton, iii, 389; rv, 400, 443; v, ai6; 
census statistics (1910), 262; manu- 
facturing progress, 324r326. 

Capital of the Sute of Ohk), first esub- 
lished in Chillicothe, m, 147; re- 
moved to Zanesville, 182; fixed at 
Columbus, 427-428; defeat of a pio- 
posed change, 44M49* 

Capitol, The Sute, original building in 
Columbus, in, 428; comer-stone of 
the present structure laid, 447-448; 
completion of the "annex," iv, 443- 



Capitolium, The, Marietu, n, 461. 
Captewa (or Fox Grape Vine) Creek, i, 

491. 
Captina Creek, i, 491; Cresap's atudc 

on the Indians, 11, 56-57, 63, 65; 165; 

atuck by the Indians, 277-278. 
Captives* Town, 11, 305, 319, 320-322, 

3H, 334, 573- 
Carcy, James, interpreter, 11, 533* 
Carleton, Guy (Sir), British Governor 

of Canada, 11, 151-152, 189, 201, 202, 

204; commander-in-chief, 398; Lord 

Dorchester, 519-520, 533. 
Carlisle, Eliza, subscriber to sword for 

Major Croghan, in, 299. 
Carnegie, Andrew, v, 281. 
Carney, David E., early pubUsher, m, 

180. 
Carondawana (or Big Tree), Oneida 

chief, I, 214. 
Carpenter, Cherokee diief, n» 147. 



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Carpenter, Emanuel, member first Con- 

stitutbnal Convention, in, 107. 
Carpenter, Gilbert S., Brigadier Goieral 

in Spanish War, iv, 128. 
Carpenter, James, newspaper publisher 

III, 39. 
Carpenter Joseph, newspaper publisher, 

III, 176. 
Carrington, Edward, member of Con- 
gress, and Ordinance of 1787, 11, 

429. 
Carrington, Henry B., organizer of 

Republican party, nr, 140; Brigadier 

General in Civil War, 284. 
Carroll County, shareof surplus revenue, 

nr, 11; 283. 
Carter, A. J. W. (Judge), iv, 359. 
Carter, Francis, physician, v, 192, 193, 

194, 201, 202. 
Carter, Jared, Mormon, in, 414, 416, 

419. 

Carter, John H., literary work, v, 66. 

Carter, John S., Mormon, in, 416. 

Cartier, Jacques, first to navigate the 
St. Lawrence, i, 91. 

Cartwright, James, manufacturer, v, 
321. 

Cary, Alice, literary work, v, 49, 50, 73, 
81. 

Cary, Phoebe, literary work, v, 73-74. 

Caryhoe, Indian, iv, 88. 

Case, Guy B., secretary State Board of 
Health, v, 2x3. 

Casement, John S., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 256. 

Cash Register Industry, The, v, 316. 

Cass, Lewis (General), on Indians, i, 
I77» 427-428; HI, 184; Cobnel, com- 
mands Ohio regiment. War of 1812, 
261, 262, 265; on Hull's surrender, 
266; 267; General, 294, 445-44^. 

Cassels, J. Lang, medical instructor, v, 
202, 204-205, 208. 

Casstown, O., v, 62. 

Castle, M. S., medical instructor, v, 206. 



Castleman, John B., concerned in Sons 

of Liberty conspiracy, iv, 267, 270, 

271. 
Cat Nation of Indians, see Erie Indians. 
CaUwba Indians, i, 284, 343, 381, 491; 

n, 43» 45- 
Catfish Camp, 11, 60, 61. 
Catherwood, Mary Hartwell, literary 

work, v, S3-S4, 58. 
Catholic Church, The, first missions 

under the French, i, 103-104. See 

Jesuits, RecoUets, Sulpitians. 
Catron, John, Judge of Ohb Supreme 

Court, V, 130. 
Caughnawaga Indians, in Braddock's 

defeat, i, 294; 305, 329, 330, 413, 

415, 419, 429, 442. 
Cayey, Porto Rico, Ohio troops at, iv, 

420. 
Cayuga Creek, building of the ''Griffin," 

1, 137; V, 231. 
Cayuga Indians, an Iroquois nation, i, 

100, 166, 186, 191, 215, 223, 302, 

334; II, 14, 21, 35, 63, 64, 91, 137, 

413. 
Cedar Banks, prehistoric works, i, 47. 
Cedar Point, i, 423. 
Celoron, Bionville de, French explorer, 

I, 21, 205; Ohio expedition, 220-231; 

commander at Detroit, 251-252; 301, 

397. 
Cemeteries, prehistoric, i, 27, 51, 53-54, 

59-60, 62, 65-67, 69, 70, 71, 72. 
Census, see Population. 
Centennial Celebrations, United States, 

IV, 338, 472-477; Marietu, 385. 

386; Cincinnati, 386; Gallipolis, 399; 

Chillioothe (admission of Ohb to 

the Unbn), in, 153; iv, 451-453- 
CetUinel 0} the Nortk-WesUm Territory, 

The, III, 175-176; V, 268. 
Centioteaux, name for Scioto River, 

I, 225. 
Ceralvo, Mex., Ohb troops in battle at, 

IV, 54, 58. 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Chabert, Sieur de, with Celoion, i, 220. 
Chaffee, Adna R. (Major General), 

•ervices, iv, 426, 427. 
Chagrin River, The, 11, 583. 
Chamberlin, William M., medical in- 
structor, V, 202. 
Chambers (Major), British officer, in, 

295. 
Chambers, Julius, literary work, v, 65. 
Champaign County, traversed by Gist, 

I, 244; m, 164, 450, 454; share of 

the surplus revenue, iv, 11; 187, 

412; V, 137. 
Champaign Creek, 11, 123. 
Champion, Esther, wife of Moses 

Cleaveland, u, 585. 
Champbn, Henry, and the Connecticut 

Land Company, 11, 580; 585. 
Champion Reaping Machine, The, v, 

327-328. 
Champlain, Samuel de, founds Quebec, 

I, 92; discovers Lake Champlain, 

96; northwestern explorations, 102- 

104. 
Chance, Jesse C, Brigadier General, 

IV, 428. 
Chandler, Z. M., Lieutenant-Colonel in 

Civil War, iv, 259. 
Chanongon (Conewango Creek), i, 222. 
Chaouanon Indians, name for Shawnees, 

I, 14s, 167. 
Chapman, manufacturer, v, 279. 
Chapman, Judge, v, 142. 
Chapman, Horace L., candidate for 

Governor, iv, 411. 
Chapman, James F., Capuin in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 55. 
Chapman, T. J., quoted, 11, 317. 
Chapultepec, Mex., Ohio troops in 

battle at, IV, 60, 61. 
Chardon, O., in, 418. 
Charities, Board of Sute, iv, 299, 309. 
Charity Hospital Medical College, 

Cleveland, v, 206. 



Charlat Kaske, Shawnee Indian, speech, 
1,446. 

Charieville, Frauds, Captain under 
George Rogers Qark, 11, 207. 

Charlevouc, Pierre F. X. de, quoted, i, 
178. 

Chartier, Peter, trader, i, 213. 

Chartres, see Fort Chartres. 

Chase, David, Captain in Mexican War, 
IV, 60. 

Chase, Saknon P., 11, 436, 466; m, 48, 
151* 153; '^^ ^^ National Bank 
Act, 355; 358, 432; on the death of 
Corwin, iv, 70; and slavery, 93, 94; 
elected U. S. Senator, 95-96; 127; 
opposes Fugitive Slave Bill, 133; 
Governor, 141-142, I43» ^44; ^&^ 
Senator, 151; member of Peace Con- 
ference, 155; 156, 227; Secreury of 
the Treasury, 284-285; Chief Justice 
of U. S. Supreme Court, candidate 
for Presidential nomination, 327; 
347, 478; on eariy banking, 492- 
493; V, 20, 68, 96, 108, 135, 140. 

Chavoinon, Ottawa chief, i, 389. 

Cheeskan, brother of Tecumseh, n, 91, 

564. 565. 

Chenunda (Fort Junundat), i, 363. 

Chenussio (Geneseo, N. Y.)> n, 43, 44. 

Cherokee Indians, alphabet, i, 159; 161, 
169, 173, a84. 343, 46a, 463, 471; «• 
43, 47, 50, 86, 137, 146, 147, 151, 

155, 379, 533, 557. 

Cherokee River, The, name for Ten- 
nessee River, i, 464. 

Cherronesus, State proposed by Jeffer^ 
son, II, 426. 

"Chesapeake," The, attack on, m, 257. 

Chesnutt, Charles Waddell, Uteraiy 
work, V, 63. 

Chester, O., iv, 246. 

Chianotho, name for Scioto River, i, 
225. 

Chianouske, name for Scioto River, 
I, 225. 



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Chicago, 111., I, 185; Confederate 
machinations, iv, 264-271; World's 
Fair, 477-483. 

Chickacha Indians, i, 145. 

Chickamauga Creek, 11, 493. 

Chickasaw Indians, i, 161, 284, 343; n, 
43,279,285,541- 

Childs, H. H., medical instructor, v, 193, 
202. 

Chillicothe (present), prehistoric re- 
mains in and near, i, 11, 45-46, 53, 
59-61, 64; captivity of Mrs. Draper, 
319; II, 38, 170, 232; Zane's Trace, 
563; 565, 566; founding of, 593-594; 
596; capital of Ohio, 597; iii, 16, 38, 
39, 44, 61, 62, 71-86; description of 
State House, 89-90; Governor St. 
Clair mobbed, 91-92; 102; first 
Constitutional Convention, 111-141; 
first State Legislature, 147; 168; 
newspapers, 176-178; 180; removal of 
the capital, 182; 215; Aaron Burr's 
visit, 217-218; 224, 225, 231, 244, 
246; gift of the ladies to Major 
Croghan, 298-299; branch of U. S. 
Bank, 312, 315-316; 427; temporary 
capital, 427-428, 429; 431, 453, 454; 
IV, 36, 41, 54, 57, 78, 140, 164, 283, 
302, 320, 328, 405, 424; centennial 
celebrations, 451-453; 461, 486; 
early banks, 491-493; literary charac- 
ters, v, 6, 19, 25, 46, 60, 61, 82; 100, 
loi, 105, 106, 118; census statistics 
(1910), 263. 

Chillicothe, Chillicaathe, Old Chilli- 
cothe, New Chillicothe, Little Chilli- 
cothe, etc. (various Indian towns), 
II, 27, 36, 124, 169-170, 180, 233, 
235, 239, 269, 286, 472, 514, 515. 

Chillicothe Academy, The, iii, 175. 

Chiningu, name for Shenango, i, 213, 
214. 

Chinondaista, name for Great Kanawha 
River, i, 224. 



"Chippewa," The, British ship in 
battle of Lake Erie, iii, 302. 

Chippewa Indians, i, 159, 173, 201; 253; 
same as Ojibways, 311, 365; Pon- 
tiac's conspiracy and war, 383, 393, 
400; 424, 436; II. 170, 199, 202, 379» 
400, 415, 506, 508; at Greenville 
Treaty, 554, 555; 573- 

Chisholm, Henry, manufacturer, v, 280, 
281. 

Chisholm, William, manufacturer, v, 
280. 

Chisholm Race-track Bill, The, iv, 455, 
456. 

Chiywee, Wyandot chief, 11, 91. 

ChocUw Indians, i, 159, 161; 11, 279, 
285, 541. 

Chogage River, name for Cuyahoga 
River, i, 356. 

Chop the Logs, Indian, iv, 88. 

Christian, William (Colonel), Va. offi- 
cer in Dunmore's expedition, 11, 87, 
89, 97; letter, 125-126. 

Christie, Ensign, commander at Fort 
Presque Isle, i, 402-403. 

Christy, David, literary work, v, 30. 

Christy, Edward (Rev)., on the Mora- 
vian massacre, 11, 337. 

Chukagone, name for Ohio River, i, 

145. 

Church, Samuel Harden, literary work, 
v,25. 

Church of the Disciples, The, iii, 403. 

Churchill, Frederick A., officer in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 58. 

Cilley, J. L., medical instructor, v, 190. 

Cincinnati, first buildings on site of, 11, 
285; 394; founding of, 475-48i; 505, 
522, 537, 593; first meetmg of 
general assembly. Northwest Terri- 
tory, 596; III, 3, 16, 31; session of 
General Assembly, 1798, and de- 
scription of the town, 38-41; 61, 71, 
91; seat of territorial government, 
92; 96; speech by St. Clair, 104; 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



145; the town in 1805, 168; news- 
papers and early publicatkms, 175- 
181; 187; first steamboat, 189, 190; 
Burr affair, 314, 215, 218, 219, 223, 
232-237, 239-247; 261, 269, 282, 284; 
branch of U. S. Bank, 312; 330,331, 
337, 339» 34». 344; the canal, 346, 
361; 367; early schools, 369, 370, 
373, 374. 387-388, 39*, 393, 39^; 4*7; 
Lafayette's visit, 433; flood of 1832, 
435H37; the city in 1840, 449; 45i; 
IV, 22, 36; Camp Washington and 
Mexican War, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 58, 
59; 69; in 1850, 78; first railroad, 82; 
88, III; second Constitutional Con- 
vention, 116; the slavery question, 
122-124, 126-127, 131; 166, 167; 
Camps Dennison and Harrison, 170; 
relief of the wounded after battle of 
Shiloh, 182-183; Rirby Smith's 
threatened atUck, 187-191; other 
Civil War references, 213, 214-215, 
217, 220, 234, 245, 246, 247, 250, 
280; 282, 283, 291, 296, 302, 320; 
Liberal Republican National Con- 
vention, 1872, 327; 329; Republican 
National Convention, 1876, 335; 
337, 338. 340, 341, 346; floods of 
1883 and 1884, 353-354, 355; riots of 
»884, 357-3^; 374; election frauds, 
378; 384; centennial celebration, 
386; 391-393, 395-396; 408; Spanish 
War, 421, 422, 425, 428, the Enquirer 
and other papers, 438-440; 443; 
proposed prizefight, 448; 451, 456, 
457, 459, 461; <^t National Exposi- 
tions, 473, 474, 480, 483;early banks, 

489-493, 498, 499; 509, 510, 519, 
523; literary characters, etc., v, i, 
6^, 11-12, 14, 23, 28-32, 36, 38, 41, 
43, 45, 47-52, 59, 60, 62, 68, 69, 72, 
74, 80, 82; judiciary and related 
references, 95, 98, 109, 112, 116, 
117, 141; medical profession, medi- 
cal colleges, etc., 159, 177-178, 181- 



191, 213, 216, 221; census sUdatics 
(191 o), 262; manufacturing develop- 
ment, 264-265, 268-274, 290-30$. 

Cincinnati, Society of the, n, 480. 

Cincinnati Advertiser, The, v, 10. 

Cincinnati American, The, ni, 435. 

Cincinnati Commercial, Commercial Co- 
lette, and Commercial Tribune, tv, 
392, 394, 439; V, II, 6a 

Cincinnati Enquirer, The, iv, 234, 438- 
440. 

Cincinnati Gaxetu, The, ni, 330, 331; 

IV, I24,i27,439;v, 10, II. 
Cincinnati Mirror, The, v, 9. 
Cincinnati Phoenix, The, nr, 234. 
Cincinnati Republican and Commercial 

Register, The, m, 177. 
Cincinnati Steam Mill, The, v, 271-272. 
"Cincinnati Tablet," The, so-claimed 

hieroglyph, i, 73. 
Cincinnati University, The (University 

of Cincinnati), in, 175; iv, 303; v, 

23, 24, 178, 189. 
Cincinnati and Whitewater Canal, The, 

III, 361. 
Qrcleville, prehistoric remains, i, 48; 

227, 243; II, 36, 37, 38; IV, 54, 57; 

early savings bank, 501. 
Cist, Charles, Cmdnnati statistics, v, 

290-299. 
Cist, Henry Martyn, literary work, v, 

18. 
Cities, legally defined as places of 5,000 

populatbn, iv, 450; comparison of 

urban and rural population (1910), 

464; other census statistics (1910), 

V, 262-263; survey of manufacturing 
for Cleveland, Oncinnati, Colum- 
bus, Toledo, Dayton, Youngstown, 
Akron, Canton, Springfield, and 
Hamilton, 275-330. 

Civil War, The, iv, 149-285. 

Claiborne, William C. C, Governor of 
La., and Aaron Burr, ni, 215; on 
the Fugitive Slave Law, nr, 129. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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CUrk» C. A., hoepiul superintendent, 
V, aai. 

CUrk» C F., physician, v, aoa. 

Clark, Edward, manufacturer, v, 321. 

Qark, George, sent on mission with 
Kenton, 11, 233; in Bowman's Ohio 
expedition, 269. 

Clark, George Rogers (Colonel and 
General), surveyor, 11, 55; on the 
murder of Logan's relatives, 57-58; 
in expedition under Major Angus 
McDonald, 70; in Dunmore's ex- 
pedition, 84; on Logan's speech, 
115-116; a founder of Ky., 155, 156; 
Kaskaskia and Vincennes expedi- 
tkms, 179-21 1, 215, 232, 254; 
founder of Louisville, 278-279; Ohio 
expedition, 285-290; proposed De- 
troit expedition, 306-309; iu aban- 
donment, 312-313; 317, 380; second 
Ohio expeditwn, 394-397i 398; 4"> 
415, 417; unsuccessful Wabash ex- 
pedition, 418; 427, 477, 478, 564; 
in, 53, 90, 29a» 398. 

Qark, H. A., medical instructor, v, 190. 

Clark, James Freeman, editor, v, 9. 

Qark, John (Capuin), expeditkm to 
Fort Laurens, u, 254. 

Qark, Milton L., member of third Con- 
stitutional Convention, rv, 320. 

Qark, William, manufacturer, v, 321. 

Clark County, traversed by Gist, i, 
244; share of the surplus revenue, 
IV, 11; 26, 245, 283; local optk>n 
election, 461; v, 151, 154. 

Clarke, John H., candidate for U. S. 
Senator, iv, 453. 

Qarke, Robert, publisher, v, 20. 

Qaus, Daniel, part in Sunwiz Treaty, 

1,463. 
Clay, Green (General), operatbns under 

General William H. Harrison, War 

of 1812, IU, 278, 291, 292. 
Clay, Henry, on Jeremiah Morrow, 

III, 148; and Aaron Burr, 215, 216, 



219; on British aggressbns, 258; 

311, 324; IV, 4, 19, 20, 21, 22, 68; 

V, 10, 191; views of Lake commerce, 

a33, *37, *38. 
Qay Furnace, The (Pa.), iv, 80. 
Qaypool, Horatio C, delivers address 

at Chillicothe Centennial, iv, 452. 
Qeaveland, Moses, expedition to West- 
em Reserve and founding of city 

of Cleveland, 11, 580-586. 
Qegg, Thomas, manufacturer, v, 314. 
Qendenin, David, manufacturer, v, 3 19. 
Qermont County, paleolith found in, 

I, 3; part of Va. MiliUry District, 

II, 460; III, 105, 107, III; share of 
surplus revenue, iv, 11; 64, 245; 
Morgan raiders, 246; 456, 457; 
Night Riders, 459; v, 40. 

Qeveland, supposed to have been 
included in Indian deed of 1726, i, 
191; founding of, 11, 580-586, 594; 

III, 16; in 1810, 168; 183, 350; the 
canal, 360; early schools, 388, 392, 
394, 396; in 1840, 449; IV, 60; in 
1850, 78; 134, 140, I43» 166; Camp 
Taylor, 170; work of the women 
during Civil War, 280; 298, 320, 
340, 345, 347, 384, 408; Spanish War, 
423, 425; street railway strike, 433; 
434, 435, 43^; outstrips Qndnnati, 
443; 451, 453, 454, 459, 473, 47^, 482; 
first bank, 492; Society for Savings, 
501; literary characters, etc., v, 6, 
H, 28, 35, 39, 43, 46, 47, 63; judi- 
ciary, and related references, 112, 
134, 135, 146, 149; medical profes- 
sion, medical edcuation, etc, 177, 
179, 202-209, 216, 219; 229; Lake 
transportation and its promotion, 
23 1-249; census 8Utistic8( 1910), 262; 
manufacturing development, 264- 
265, 275-290. 

Cleveland, Grover (President), iv, 415. 
CUveland Advertiser, The, 11, 585. 



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RISE AND PRCGRESS 



'79, 



^4^ The, 

. le, V, 221. 

, :n«mber of 
- ^^ves, IV, 129. 
. -loor of N. Y., 
^ . , .:> Indians, i, 172- 
- >*iiT, 202-203; and 
, ,>:^30o;v.23S. 
. .:.ii« of the turplut 
;; 09, 24s; Morgan 
.. 4^. 
. Xjvcr, The, n, 574. 

.L^iuctioQ in Ohio, iii, 168; 

. u Lxoo manufacture, iv, 

oward D. Mansfield on 

.Mjurces, 476; specimens ez- 

„ at Worid's Fair, Chicago, 

jkc shipments, v, 234, 239, 

•+S;266, 277, 320. 

>. ^ u," V, 281-282, 299. 

V . . ' ^vicdiah, physician and medical 

..iuctor, V, 153, 184, 190, 191. 
V uaiwville, O., IV, 356. 
^.v.iiU, John A., journalist, v, 16. 
^ .s:^ Joseph, Mormon, in, 416. 
s ;>4nu, Levi, president of Underground 
Rdilroad, iv, 131-132; ''Reminis- 
cences," V, 18. 
V 'i>^eshall, W. T., literary work, v, 9, 69. 
voit, Ak>nzo B. (Colonel), and distur- 
bances in Washington C. H., iv, 406- 
407; services in Spanish War, 420, 
423. 



Colbert, Jean Baptisbe, Ft 

i» 144. 147. 
Colbert River, The, La Salir 1 3 

the Mississippi, i, 144-I4£>- 
Colden, Cadwallader, tuvsl \ 

N. Y., I, 172; woik an ^te '. 

174. 193- 
Cole, Charles H. (Captain ', CafdedExatc 

officer, connectioii wiik Lake Erie 

plot, IV, 271-277. 
Coleman, N. R., prcsidcst Stair Booid 

of Registration, v, 217. 
College of Teachers, TVe Wcsozi •jCm- 

cinnati), iii, 385. 
Colleges, early, m, 173-174; dsiiMr the 

Civil War, nr, 259; medical, v. 177- 

209. 
CoUett, Joshua, Judge of Ohio SapRse 

Court, V, 104, 13a 
Collins, John, Commissioocr am edaca- 

tion, in, 375. 
Collins, Lewis, "History of Ky," n, 

276. 
Collins, Maria, literary work, v, 53. 
CoUinwood, O., burning of Lake View 

School, rv, 459. 
Colonial Dames of Ohio, n, 440. 
Colonial Wars, Ohb Society of, n, 48a 
Columbia (now part of Cincinnati), 0^ 

settlement, n, 475; m, 236; firrt 

schoolhouse, 370. 
Columbian Inn, Cincinnati, m, 261. 
Columbiana County, location of lands 

in by the Ohio Company (1748), i, 

217, 481; erection, in, 150; share of 

surplus revenue, iv, 11; 81, 187; 

capture of General Morgan, 248; 

282; V, 115. 
Columbus, II, 37; destnicticm of Mingo 

towns on the site of, 128, 350; 563; 

founding of Franklmton, 594-596; 

General Harrison's council with the 

Indians at Franklinton, in, 287-291; 

337, 354, 358, 376, 389, 394, 40i; 
becomes seat of government, 427- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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439; failure of attempt to remove 
capital, 448-449; comer-stone of 
Capitol, 449-450; great meeting in 
campaign of 1840, iv, 25-27; 41, 47; 
Mexican War, 54, 56, 57, 60; 78; 
farewell of the Wyandots, 88-90; 
94, 98; second Constitutional Con- 
vention, 103; I ID; organization of 
Republican party, 139-140; visit of 
Ky. and Tenn. officials, 152; 161; 
assembling of troops after the 
firing on Sumter, 165; 166; Camp 
Chase, 170; 173, 174, 205, 217, 228, 
231; mobbing of the Crisis, 237; 
escape of Morgan from Peniten- 
tiary, 249-250; 264, 271, 272, 273, 
282, 283, 290, 291, 292, 301, 303, 
310, 312; third Constitutional Con- 
vention, 319; 328, 333, 335, 336, 
361, 363, 364; Exposition, 1888, 386; 
389, 407, 408, 409; Camp Bushnell, 
418; 422, 423, 424, 415, 426, 438, 
441, 442; completbn of Judiciary 
Building, 443-444; 449, 45h 453, 
456; fourth Constitutional Conven- 
tion, 465; 466, 482; first bank, 492; 
literary characters, etc., v, 9, 17, 21, 
22, 27, 28, 39, 55, 64, 79; 109, 133, 
137, 140, 152; medical profession 
and education, 159, 177, 191-202, 
204, 209, 216, 217, 221, 222, 226; 
census statistics (19 10), 262; 274; 
manufacturing development, 305- 
310. 

Columbus, Christopher, discoverer of 
America, i, 84, 87. 

Columbus Crisis, The, iv, 237. 

Columbus Medical College, The, v, 199. 

Columbus State Hospital, The, v, 219, 
221. 

Columbus State Journal, The, see Ohio 
State Journal, 

Comegys, C. G., medical instructor, v, 
190, 191. 

Commentator, The (Marietta), in, 179. 



Committee of Thirty-three, The, nr, 
149-151, 156. 

Common Schools, see Education. 

Commons, John Rogers, literary work, 
V, 23. 

Compagnie du Scioto, 11, 486. 

Conception, Riviere de, Marquette's 
name for the Mississippi, i, 133. 

Conestoga, 11, &;, 

Conestoga Indians, i, 1 14; 11, 63. 

Conewango Creek, i, 222. 

Congo Creek, 11, 38, 123. 

Congress, creates Northern, Southern, 
and Middle Indian Departments, 
II, 137-138; Indian policy, 152, 154- 
155; 186, 216, 219; rival territorial 
claims of the States, 407-412; 413; 
provides for survey of Northwest 
Territory, 419-421; the Ordinance of 
1787, 4*5-436, 44^455; application 
of Symmes, 473-474; the French 
Grant, 500-501; grant to the Mora- 
vians, 574-575; the Western Reserve, 
589-591; division of Northwest 
Territory, 596-597; passage of the 
Enabling Act, in, 101-103; St. 
Clair's criticism, 121-122; address 
adopted by the first Ohio Constitu- 
tional Convention, 140-141; the 
question of the date of admission, 
151-152. 

Conklin, J. W., medical instructor, v, 
201. 

Conkling, Rosooe, on Senator Thurman, 
IV, 344; 345. 

Conneaut, the Cleaveland party (1796)9 
n, 582, 583; IV, 400. 

Connecticut, participates in Council of 
the Colonies (1754), i, 289; troops in 
Bradstreet's expedition, 419; west- 
ward territorial claims, 11, 408, 409, 
411-412; the Western Reserve, 576- 
591; Ohio settlers from, in, 8; iv, 
77; participation in Columbus Ex- 
position (1888), 386. 



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Connecticut Land Company, The, n, 
580, 587. 

Connelly, W. £., literary work, n, 9. 

Conner, Phineas S., medical writer, v, 
32; medical instructor, 190, 191. 

Connolly, John (of Va.), ezerdse of 
authority and iu results, n, 47-50, 
55» 5^ 71 9 Major in Dunmore's 
expedition, 84, 106; ambitious proj- 
ect and arrest, 151; 164, 464. 

Conover, Charlotte Reeve, literary 
work, II, 477, 481; V, 26. 

CoDoy Indians, i, 334. 

Constantine, C. W., chairman of com- 
mission to relieve flood sufferers, iv, 

357. 

Constitution of Ohk>, first Convention, 
m, 107, 111-141; conflict of Legis- 
lature and Supreme Court, 156-163; 
educational provisions, 1 71-174, 368; 
second Convention, iv, 9&-100, 103- 
116; word "white," 301, 303, 
304, 308; third Convention, 317-326; 
proposed amendments on liquor 
question, 1883, 347; amendments 
abolishing October elections, etc., 
376-377; amendments conferring 
veto power, etc., 450; fourth Con- 
vention, 465-466; defeat of liquor 
license and prohibiten proposals 
at various times, 518-521; the Con- 
stitution and the judidaiy, v, loi, 
109-110, III, 1 17-123, 125-126. 

Constitutbn of the U. S., Ohk>'s atti- 
tude on the early amendments, iii, 
154-155; Marbury vs. Madison, and 
the principle of judicial interpreta- 
tk>n, 160-163; Ohio's hostility to 
the U. S. Bank, and the decision of 
the U. S. Supreme Court, 316-328; 
the Oberlm-Wellington Rescue case, 
IV, 134-139; Corwin's advocacy 
and Ohio's ratification of abortive 
amendment for renditk>n of fugitive 
slaves, 150-15 1 ; Thirteenth Amend- 



ment, 289; Fourteenth Amendment, 
299-301; the "Rescinding Resolu- 
tbn," 305-306; Fifteenth Amend- 
ment, 307-308; Income Tax Amend- 
ment, 464; V, 119-121; 127-136. 

Contreooeur, de, with Celoion, i, 220; 
Captain, seizure of English fort at 
Ohio forks, 278-279; commander at 
Fort Duquesne on occasion of Brad- 
dock's d^eat, 294. 

Conway, Moncure D., joumaHst, v, 9, 

71. 
Cook, Edward (Lieutenant Colonel, of 

Pa.), letter, u, 328-329. 
Cook, George, manufacturer, v, 325. 
Cooley, Thomas M., quoted, i, 391. 
''Coolidge, Susan," pseudonym of 

Sarah Chauncqr Woolsey, v, 46. 
Coon, Abraham, white leader of Wyan- 

dots, n, 302. 
Coonskin Library, The, v, 6. 
Cooper, General, on the mobbing of 

the Crisis, iv, 238. 
Cooper, D. C, manufacturer, v, 313. 
Cooper, Jacob, literary work, v, 35. 
Copper, prehistoric use, i, 29, 66, 71. 
Coquelin, Chevalier de, connection with 

Compagnie du Scioto^ 11, 486. 
Coquet, Marc Anthony, French Scioto 

promoter, n, 494. 
Corbin, Henry C. (General), services in 

Spanish War, nr, 429. 
Coriett, John and William, manu^ictur- 

ers, V, 280. 
Com, prehistoric use, i, 60, 71. 
Com Island (Ohio River), 11, 193. 
Coming, O., iv, 408. 
Complanter, Seneca chief, at Stanwiz 

conference, 1784, 11, 413; 468; signer 

of Fort Harmar treaty, 507; 532. 
Cornstalk, Shawnee chief, 11, 39, 45, 48, 

69, 84; battle of Point Pleasant, 

91-106; submission to Dunmore, 

109; no, 114, 117, 123, 124, 128, 

I35> 138; at Fort Dunmore (Pitts- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



357 



borg) conference (i775)> I39; HSi 
death, 15^159; 183, 216, 560. 

Cornstalk's Town, n, 39. 

Corawallis, Lord, surrender, n, 317, 385. 

Corporations, regulation and taxation 
of, IV, 113-114, 318, 3»3-3a4, 409» 
446-448, 449-450, 459, 4^4. 

Corrigan, James, identified with develop- 
ment of Lake transportation, v, 247. 

Corrupt practices at electk>ns, rv, 410, 
459. 

Cony, William M., on William McMil- 
lan, III, 42; condemns mob, iv, 127. 

Corwin, John A., Judge of Ohio Supreme 
Court, V, 130. 

Corwin, Thomas, iii, 455; nominated 
for Governor, 1840, iv, 27, 34; 
elected, 42-43; administration, 47- 
48; U. S. Senator, 48-49; 62; and the 
Mexican War, 65-69; Secretary of 
the Treasury and subsequent career, 
69-71; 96; member of Congress, 
chairman of Committee of Thirty- 
three, 149-150; 151, 156, 376; as 
lawyer, v, 107-108. 

Coshocton, I, 156; Indian town on site 
of, 230; Bouquet's camp, 442; 
Goschochgung, Indian town, 11, 164, 
170, 184, 225, 226, 254, 295, 296; 
destruction by Brodhead, 298-300; 
IV, 55, 282; V, 154. 

Coshocton County, traversed by Gist, 
I, 243; share of surplus revenue, iv, 
II. 

Couch, Jesse M., Judge of Ohk> Supreme 
Court, V, 104. 

Coulby, Harry, identified with develop- 
ment of Lake transportation, v, 247. 

Coulter, J. B., organizer of Republican 
party, nr, 140. 

Council, The, of Northwest Territory, 
in, 36, 38, 89, 90; V, 98. 

County Local Option, nr, 459, 461, 538- 
539. 



Courcelle, French Governor of Canada, 

and La Salle, i, 119; 133. 
Courturs de Ms, i, 103. 
Courtenay, Austin Matlack, deliven 

address at Chillicothe Centennial, 

IV, 453. 
Courtney, Richard, manufacturer, v, 

305. 
"Cove of Peace," The (Presquc Isle), 

1, 419. 

Covington, Ky., n, 269; iv, 187, 188, 
190-191, 356. 

Cowdery, Oliver, Mormon, iii, 403, 416^ 
418, 419. 

Cowen, Benjamin R., on settlement of 
Ohio, II, 599-600; Adjutant General 
under Brough, nr, 254, 255; 303; 
Cbmmissioner for Chillicothe Cen- 
tennial, 451; address, 453. 

Cowen, Warren, custodian of Fort 
Ancient, i, 28. 

Cowen Creek, prehistoric remains, i, 24. 

Cowles, Ralph, iii, 406. 

Cox, George, at Baker's Cabin massa- 
cre, n, 59. 

Cox, Horatk) J., Judge, v, 126. 

Cox, Isaac Joslin, literary work, v, 23. 

Cox, Jacob D., State Senator, on news 
of Fort Sumter bombardment, nr, 
157; 160; Brigadier General and 
Major General in Civil War, 167, 
256, 258, 282; nomination, campaign, 
and administration as Governor, 291, 
294-298, 299-301; subsequent career, 
302-303; literary work, v, 18; 148. 

Cox, Samuel S. ("Sunset"), member of 
Congress, nr, 229, 236; name used 
in BaUot-box Forgery, 393; literary 
work, V, 67. 

Coxe's Fort (Ohio River), 11, 467. 

Craig, James (Sir), Governor of Canada, 
III, 258. 

Craig, Neville, letter, 11, 113. 

Craigie, Andrew, connection with Sck>to 
Company, II, 493, 494. 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Craik, Dr. (of Va.), with Braddock, i, 
297; with Washington on Ohio 
jouraey, 490. 

Crane, The, tee Tarhe. 

Crane, William H., medical instructor, 
V, 190. 

Crane's Town, Indian village, n, 344. 

Cranetown, O., 11, 563. 

Crary, Isaac £. (of Mich.)> Corwin's 
reply to, iv, 42. 

Crawford, John (son of Colonel Will- 
iam), II, 351-352; unknown fate, 
365, 368. 

Crawford, Valentine, letter, 11, 60; 352. 

Crawford, William (son of Valentine), 

n,35*. 

Crawford, William, friend of Washing- 
ton, I, 467, 485, 48^489. 490-49i» 
494; II, 49, 57, 60; Colonel, command- 
er at Fort Fincastle, 70; in Dunmore's 
ezpeditbn, 84, 126-128; 220, 232; 
in Brodhead's ezpeditk>n, 297; ex- 
pedition against Sandusky, 348-361; 
death, 365-374; 37^. 

Crawford, William H., in, 331; iv, 19. 

Crawford County, 11, 342; route of 
Crawford's expeditbn, 352, 354; 
share of surplus revenue, iv, 11; 187; 
V, 140. 

Crawford Township, Wyandot County, 
II, 368. 

Crawfordsville, 11, 345, 368. 

Cray croft (or Creacraft), Lieutenant, 
under George Rogers Qark, 11, 309. 

Creek Indians i, 159, 161, 173; 11, 11, 
43, 530, 533. 

Creighton, Ann and Eliza, subscribers 
to sword for Major Croghan, in, 
298. 

Creighton, William, Jr., and charges 
against St. Clair, in, 94; first Secre- 
tary of Sute, 147; V, 102; lawyer, 
105. 

Cresap, Mary, wife of Luther Martin, 
n. 113. 



Cresap, Michael (Capuin), connectk)fi 
with western events — "Cresap's 
War," II, 55-76; in Dunmore's 
expedition, 84, 100; controversy 
concemmg massacre of Logan's 
relatives, 110-118. 

Cresap, Michael, Jr., n, 70. 

Cresap, Thomas (Colonel), member of 
Ohk> Land Company (1748), i, 216, 
236; lays out road, 251; 480; n, 55. 

Crestline, n, 353, 354. 

Crctcher, W.H., member Sute Board of 
Health, v, 213. 

Crile, George W., medical instructor, 
V, 208. 

Crisis, The (Columbus), iv, 237. 

Crittenden, John J. (of Ky.), U. S. 
Senator, iv, 65-66; member of Con- 
gress, 175. 

Croghan, George, trader, i, 206, 211; 
connection with Weiser's misskm, 
212, 215-216; sent on other mis sio ni 
by Pa. governor, 229, 230-231, 236, 
a37> 238, 244; treaty with Twight- 
wees and Weas, 247; negotiations at 
Logstown, 248-249; 252, 254, 255, 
278; advice to Braddock, 292; 301; 
with expedition of Major Robert 
Rogers, 356, 359-3^, 3^2, 363; 3^8, 
397; deputy Indian agent to Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson, 445 ; mission to Indians 
of the Illinois and Wabash, 44^453; 
receives land grant, 461; at Stanwix 
conference (1768), 463; member of 
Walpole Company, 468; 490, 491, 
493; deputy Indian agent at Fort 
Pitt, II, 47-50. 

Croghan, George (Major), defense of 
Fort Stephenson in, 292-300. 

Croghan, William, in, 292. 

Cron, Lucius C, alternate Commis- 
sbner to Chicago World's Fair, iv, 
478. 

Crook, George, Major General in Civil 
War, IV, 281. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



359 



Crook, Isaac, literary work, v, 35. 
Crooked Creek, W. Va., 11, 93, 94, 97. 
Cross, J. C, medical instructor, v, 191. 
Cross Creek, i, 491; 11, 261, 330. 
Cruger, Lydia, 11, 391. 
Crumb, Charles A., manufacturer, v, 

280. 
Crusade, The Women's Temperance, 

IV, 330-331- 

Cuba, Ohioans in the Spanish War, iv, 
420, 424* 426- 

Cully, George (Captain), sent by Con- 
gress on mission to Indians, 11, 399- 
400. 

Culpepper (Va.) Minute Men, 11, 87. 

Cumberland, Md., i, 218; 11, 55; iii, 337. 

Cumberland Gap, 11, 148. 

Cumminsville (Cincinnati), iv, 355. 

Cundiff, Jonathan (Lieutenant), killed 
at battle of Point Pleasant, 11, 98. 

Curly Head, Indian, iv, 88. 

Currin, Barney, with Washington in 
mission of I753-S4» h 269. 

Curry, Otway, poet, iv, 31, 112; v, 48, 
70. 

Curtis, Alvin, organizer of medical col- 
lege, V, 181. 

Curtis, Benjamin R., Justice U. S. 
Supreme Court, v, 130. 

Curtis, Greeley, journalist, v, 16. 

Curtis, Mary, subscriber to sword for 
Major Croghan, iii, 299. 

Curtis, Samuel R., Adjuunt General, 

IV, 51, 55. 

Curtis, William Eleroy, literary work, 

V, IS. 

Curtis vs. State, iv, 517. 

Gushing, Caleb (General), iv, 58. 

Gushing, E., E. F., and H. K., physi- 
cians, V, 208, 209. 

Gushing, Nathaniel, member of first 
grand jury, v, 93. 

Gushing, Thomas, connection with 
Ohio Company of Associates, n, 
445. 



Custaloga, Delaware chief, i, 439; n, 84, 

139. 

Custaloga's Town, i, 440. 

Custer, George A., Major General in 
Civil War, nr, 281. 

Custis, Martha, wife of George Wash- 
ington, I, 483. 

Cutler, Ephraim, MarietU colonist, 11, 
486; III, 81; member of first Consti- 
tutional Convention, 107, 113, ii6y 
118, 123-124, 126, 127, 373; Com- 
missbner on education, 375; 377, 

383, 39S. 
Cutler, James, ancestor of Cutler family, 

II, 446. 
Cutler, Jervis, Marietta settler, 11, 456; 

V, 266. 
Cutler, Julia Perkins, literary work, 11, 

436; III, 113. 
Cutler, Manasseh, connection with Ohio 
Company of Associates and Ordi- 
nance of 1787, II, 429, 433-436. 445, 
446-449, 4SS, 456, 461; journey to 
Marietta, 467-468; 473; relations to 
Scioto Company, 484, 485, 487, 488; 
member of Congress, in, 93, 103; 
113; V, 92. 
Cutler, Temple, Marietta settler, 11, 

4S6. 
Cutler, William Parker, literary work, 

II, 436; III, 127. 
Cuyahoga County, iii, 184, 348, 439; 
share of surplus revenue, iv, 11; 25, 
281, 442, 534; v, 27, S4. I34» H7f 
281-282, 289. 
Cuyahoga Falls, O., v, 65, 3^3. 
Cuyahoga River, The, prehistoric re- 
mains, I, 45; 156, 198, 212, 227, 3305 
meeting of Rogers and Pontiac, 356- 
360; 419-420; II, 36, 216, 218; Brady's 
leap, 264-265; fixed as Indian bound- 
ary by Treaty of Fort Mcintosh 
(1785), 41S-416; 467, 508; again 



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360 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



detigxiated at boundary in Green- 
viUe Treaty, 557; 574, 577; Moset 
Qeaveland and hU tettkrs, 581, 
583-585; 588; m, 6a; v, 287, »88. 



Cuyahoga Steam Funiace Comptaxy, 

The, V, 176-277. 
Cuyler, Lieutenant, eicpedition for rdief 

of Detroit, i, 391-591. 



D'ABBADIE, French commander 
at New Orleans, i, 364, 38a, 
446. 
Dahganondo (or Capuin Decker), 

Seneca Indian, account of death of 

Logan, u, 283. 
Dakotah Indians, i, 159. 
Dalton, H. G., identified with develop- 
ment of Lake tran8portatk>n, v, 247. 
Daly, Major, in Bradatreet't expedi- 
tion, I, 431. 
Dalzell (or Dalyell), Jamet (Capuin), 

fights battle of Bloody Bridge, i, 

394; <ie*th, 395. 
Damon, manufacturer, v, 280. 
Danbury, O., 11, 578. 
Dancing Feather, Indian, n, 507. 
Dandridge, Danske, literary work, n, 

272. 
Dane, Nathan, and the Ordinance of 

1787, n, 4*9. 433H36. 
Dangerfield, James, manufacturer, v, 

320. 
Daniel, John W., address, iv, 386. 
Daniel, Peter V., Justice U. S. Supreme 

Court, V, 130. 
Danvers, Mass., sUrting point of Mari- 
etta settlers, 11, 455-45^- 
Darby, John E., medical instructor, v, 

208. 
Darby Creek, prehistoric remains, i, 

45; 2*6. 
Darby Plains, The, n, 36. 
Darke County, watershed line, i, 155; 

share of surplus revenue, iv, 11; v, 

*3. 
Darlington, William M., literary work, 

I, 237, 244. 



Darlinton, Joseph, member of Legisla- 
ture, Northwest Territory, m, 37, 
44, 91; member of first Constitu^ 
tional Convention, 107. 

D'Arsy, Gouy (Marquis), member of 
Compagnie d% Scioio, n, 486. 

Dartmouth, Earl of, n, 40, 46, 75, 136. 

Dascomb, Jacob, medical instructor, v, 
206. 

Dauble, John G., officer in Mencaa 
War, IV, 58. 

Daugherty, Michael A., lawyer, v, 152. 

Davenport, James, Coikn. Commis- 
sioner on Western Reserve, n, 577. 

Davids, Tice, fugitive slave, rv, 13a 

Davidson, John, with Washington in 
mission of 1753-54, h ^^ 

Davis, David, Justice U. S. Supreme 
Court, rv, 226. 

Davis, Jefferson, and conspiracies of 
Sons of Liberty, iv, 264, 265. 

Davis, John Merrill, literary work, v, 

41- 
Davock, W. B., identified with devek)p- 

ment of Lake transportation, v, 247. 
Dawson, John, medical instructor, v, 

201. 
Dawson, Moses, literary work, iv, 24; 

V, 10. 
Dawson, W. W., medical instructor, v, 

190, 191. 
Day, Luther, member of Supreme Court 

Commission, v, iii, 113. 
Day, Matthias W., Lieutenant Cok»el 

in Spanish War, rv, 425. 
Day, William R., Secreury of Sute of 

U. S., IV, 428-429. 
Dayton, n, 287; settlement, 481-482, 

594; meeting in opposition to Ena- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



361 



bling Act (i8oa), m, IG4; inoorpora- 
tion, 168; early newspaper, 179; 
aatembling of troops, War of 181a, 
261-262; 269; the canal, 346, 359; 
394; railroad, 449; meetings in cam- 
paign of 1840, IV, 36^ 39-41 ; Mexican 
War, 52, 59, 60; population in 1840 
and 1850, 78; 82; Civil War, 165, 
166, 216-217, 285; 310, 361, 362, 
384, 443, 462; V, 43, 63, 82, 109, 
221, 222; census sutisdcs (1910), 
262; 274; manufacturing develop- 
ment, 3I3-3I7' 

Dayton, Jonathan (General), connec- 
tion with Symmes, 11, 473, 592; 
friend of Aaron Burr, in, 202, 216. 

Dayton Journal, The, iv, 217. 

Dayton Sute Hospital, The, v, 221. 

De Beaujeau, French officer, defeat of 
Braddock, i, 294, 295, 382. 

De Casson, DoUier de, Sulpitian priest, 
I, 119-123. 

De Hass, Wills, literary work, i, 297; n, 

»53. 39a-393- 

De Laet, on the Shawnees, i, 167. 

De Lancey, James, Governor of N. Y., 
1,289. 

De Lery, Chaussegros (Chevalier), 
journals of, i, 205-206, 397-398. 

De Peyster, Arent Schuyler, British 
commander at Michilimackinac, n, 
135-136, 201; at Detroit, 275, 282, 
289, 296; and the Moravians, 305, 
317-319, 3*i-3H; 341, 353. 380^ 384, 
385, 400, 573. 

De Schweinitz, Edmund, 11, 9; quoted 
or cited, 222, 253, 259, 302, 303, 305, 

318, 333, 334. 335, 337-338- 
De Soto, discoverer of the Mississippi, 

I, 87-88. 
De Villiers, French officer, i, 279; Wash- 
ington's surrender of Fort Neces- 
sity, 285-286; 308. 
De Wolf, D. F., Major in Civil War, nr, 
259. 



Decker, Capuin (or Dahganonda), 
Seneca Indian, on death of Logan, 
n, 283. 

Declaration of Independence, The, 
specifies (Quebec Act as a grievance, 
II, 99, 403. 

Deer Creek, prehistoric remains, i, 45; 
226; V, 272. 

Defiance, supposed birthplace of Pon- 
tiac, I, 380; rv, 60. 

Deinger, manufacturer, v, 330. 

Delameter, Jacob J., medical instructor, 
V, 205, 208. 

Delameter, John, medical instructor, v, 
202,204,208. 

Delano, Judith, subscriber to sword for 
Major Croghan, ni, 299. 

Delaware, O., Indian village on site of, 
n, 282; IV, 283, 320, 337; V, 66. 

Ddaware County, iii, 427; share of 
surplus revenue, nr, 11 ; 282, 406^ 
534; V, 60, 137, 140. 

Delaware George, Indian chief, i, 338. 

Delaware Indians, i, 159; their con- 
federacy, 164-165; subdued by the 
Iroquois, 165-166, 171-177, 19*; 
213, 215; take part in treaty at 
Lancaster, Pa. (1748), 219; 236, 242, 
243, 247, 248, 249, 251, 256, 270; 
hostility to Pennsylvania, 290; in 
French and Indian War, 302-317, 
3^8, 3*9, 337-340, 347, 348; 356, 
363, 365, 367, 406, 4", 41^19, 
425, 427, 429; Bouquet's expedition, 
436-445; 448, 451; take part in Stan- 
wix Treaty (1768), 463, 465; George 
Washington on their attitude, 495; 
II, 13; the Moravian missions, 15-31; 
35, 36, 45, 56, 67-69, 84, 85, 91, 139. 
141, 156, 162, 164, 165, 170, 181, 
184-185, 202; Hand's "Squaw Cam- 
paign," 216-217; 221-226, 254-255, 
258, 259, 274, 275, 277, 27B; Brod- 
head's expedition, 295-301; 302- 
304, 318, 322, 335, 336, 337, 34i, 



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345» 346, 3S3» 354. 355. 359; buramg 
of William Crawford, 366-373; 379, 
385, 398, 400; take part in Fort 
Mcintosh and Fort Finney treaties, 
415-417; welcome the MarietU 
settlers, 459; 506; Fort Harmar 
Treaty, 508; 509; Big Bottom massa- 
cre, 519; 521, 546; Greenville Treaty, 
555; 565* 595; Franklinton Council, 
ni, 287-288; IV, 84- 

Delaware River, The, Moravian settle- 
ment, II, 12, 16. 

Democratic Party, The, early ascend- 
ancy in Ohio, in, 450; iv, 19; rise 
and decline of Whig opposition, 20; 
campaign of 1840, 21-43; controls 
second Constitutional Convention, 
103; effect of Fugitive Slave Act, 
133; attitude at beginning of Civil 
War, 154; during the war, 161-165, 
172, 177, 185, 205, 217-218, 221, 
227, 228-230, 231, 235-238, 266, 268; 
subsequent references, 289, 291-294, 
297-298, 301-302, 306-311, 313, 328- 
330, 33^-336, 341-347. 373-382, 384, 
390, 398, 401, 405, 409, 436, 438-442, 
444, 449, 453, 454, 456, 458, 460-461, 
462, 466. See Anti-Federalists. 

Demouelle, La (Old Britain), Pianke- 
shaw chief, i, 226, 227, 245, 253, 254, 
256. 

Denison University, v, 36. 

Denman, Matthias, a founder of Cin- 
cinnati, II, 474-479- 

Dennison, William, iv, 109; Governor, 
144-145, 151, 152, 155, 165, 166, 
232; 312, 375; V, 149. 

Denny, Ebenezer (Major), diary, ii, 
507, 512-515, 526, 528. 

Denny, William, Governor of Pa., i, 

313, 337, 346. 
Denny, William H. P., journalist, v, 16. 
Deshler, William G., address, iv, 443. 
Desmond, John J., killed in Cincinnati 

rbts, IV, 362. 



Desnoyelles, Sieur, i, 200. 

Detroit, Mich., i, 163, 185; founder, 195; 
Jesuit mission, 197; under the 
French, 200, 202, 203, 205, 227, 228, 
231, 245-246, 253, 294, 308, 340, 353; 
expedition of Major Robert Rogers 
to take possession for English, 356- 
363; visit of Sir William Johnson, 
366; 383; Pontiac's siege, 385-396; 
397-400, 402, 411, 415; Bradstreet's 
expedition, 420^425; 43 1; n, 46; 
British capital of territory north- 
west of Ohio River (1774), 135; Sir 
Henry Hamilton in command, 142, 
151, 152, 165, 169, 170, 178; Boone 
brought captive, 179-180; 183, 184, 
185, 189, 191,201-203,206,211,215, 
217-218, 219, 221, 224, 225, 227, 
247, 248, 253, 254, 255, 259, 260. 
274; Arent Schuyler de Peyster m 
command, 275, 277, 278, 281-283, 
286, 296, 301-303, 305; George 
Rogers Clark's projected expedition, 
306-307, 313; 317; de Peyster and 
the Moravians, 318-319, 321-322, 
323; 341, 353, 379, 380, 385. 399, 
405, 506, 510, 511, 512, 532, 542, 
543, 553, 560, 568, 573; capiul <rf 
Wayne County, Northwest Terri- 
tory (1796), 589; III, 106; Hull's 
surrender, 264-266, 283; 291; effects 
of battle of Lake Erie, 306. 

"Detroit," The, British ship in battle 
of Lake Erie, in, 302, 303, 305. 

Detroit River, The, i, 385, 388, 392; 
11, 343, 419, 575; in, 264; V, 232, 239. 

Detroit and Pontiac Railway, loco- 
motive built for, V, 277. 

D'Hebecourt, Francis (Marquis), Galli- 
polis settler, 11, 496, 499. 

Devol, Jonathan, member of first grand 
jury, V, 93- 

Devol, Stephen, shipbuilder at Marietta, 
V, 266. 



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363 



Dewey, Joel A., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 282. 

DuUy The, V, 9. 

Dickinson, C. E., literary work, v, 25. 

Dickinson, John, president of Pa. coun- 
cil, letter, 11, 399. 

Dickman, Franklin J., member of 
Supreme Court Commbsion, v, 1 1 1. 

Dickson, William M., leuer to General 
Cox, IV, 296. 

Dieskau, Baron, French commander, i, 
291. 

Dinwiddle, Robert, Governor of Va., 
h 255f 258-259; sends Washington 
on missbn, 268-269; 277, 301, 302, 
303, 305, 3*7; recall, 336; 483, 484; 
II, 48. 

Disciples, Church of, ni, 403-404. 

Disney, David T., Commissioner on 
Michigan boundary, iii, 444. 

Dizon, Hepworth, ui, 407. 

Documentary History of the American 
Revolution, 11, preface. 

Doddridge, Joseph, literary work, u, 

63-64, 333, 37*- 
Dodge, Jacob R., literary work, i, 381; 

II, 7*. 
Dog, The, prehistoric remains, i, 63. 
DoUier de Casson, Sulpitian priest, i, 

119-123, 198. 
Donaldson, Thomas C, literary work, 

V, 25. 
Donation Tract, The, 11, 454. 
Donelson, John, of Va., surveyor, i, 472. 
Dongan, William, royal Governor of 

N.Y.,i, 183, 199. 
Donnell, H. O., officer in Mexican War, 

IV, 59. 
Dooley w. U. S., iv, 430. 
Doolittle, Margaret, subscriber to sword 

for Major Croghan, iii, 299. 
Dorchester, Lord, see Carleton(Guy). 
Dorsey, Daniel A., Andrews raider, iv, 

194,202. 
Doughty, John (Major), builds Fort 



Harmar, ii, 421; commander there, 
459, 480; in Mannar's expedition, 

513. 
Douglas, Ephraim (Major), sent on 

mission by Congress, 11, 399-400. 
Douglas, Richard, in campaign of 1840, 

IV, 26. 

Douglas, Stephen A., rv, 175; v, 136. 
Douvalette, Louis Philippe, French 

Scioto promoter, 11, 494. 
Douville, French colonial officer, i, 308. 
Dow Law, The, iv, 383-384, 410, 450, 

533. 
Drafts in the Civil War, iv, 184. 
Dragging Canoe, Indian chief, 11, 147. 
Drake, Benjamin, literary work, 11, 564; 

V, 48. 

Drake, Daniel, physician and author, 
III, 180-181; IV, 115; V, 6, 7, 32, 48, 
181-187, 190, 191, 273. 

Drake, Daniel S., on Pontiac, i, 381. 

Drake, Samuel Adams, on date of admis- 
sbn of Ohio, III, 151. 

Draper, Bettie (Mrs. John), adventures, 

I, 318-319, 313. 

Draper, Lyman C, and Draper MSS., 

II, preface, 39, 57, 60, 62, 63, 64, 104, 
195, 163, 264, 269-272, 282, 283, 311, 
312, 564. 

Draper, Mary (Mrs. William Ingles), 

adventures, i, 317-324. 
Draper's Meadows, i, 317, 318. 
Dresden, O., i, 243. 
Druillard, Pierre (or Peter Druyer), 

saves Kenton, 11, 247-249. 
Du Lhut, rescuer of Hennepin, i, 140. 
Du Quesne, Captain, attack on Boones- 

borough, II, 561. 
Duchesneau, intendant of Canada, i, 

133, 136, 147. 
Duck Creek, first petroleum well, v, 

266. 
Dudley, Colonel under (jeneral William 

H. Harrison, defeat and death, m, 

278-279, 282, 291. 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Doer, William, and Manaatdi Coder, 

n, 449; and the Scioto Company, 

484^87, 49M94» 499. 
Duke, Basil W. (General), in the Moi^ 

gan raid, nr, 24^244, 247. 
Duke, Francis, killed in atuck on Fort 

Henry, n, 388. 
Dumas, Capuin, French officer, i, 508. 
Dumont, Julia L., literary woric, v, 49. 
Dunbar, Paul Laurence, literary work, 

V, 63, 83-84. 
Dunbar, Thomas (Colonel), officer 

under Braddock, i, 291, 295. 
Duncan, companion of Rev. David 

Jones, II, 27. 
Duncan, Ensign, in defense of Fort 

Stephenson, ni, 293. 
Duncan, John R., officer in Mexican 

War, IV, 58. 
Dunham, newspaper publisher, ni, 179. 
Dunham, J. M., organizer of medical 

college, V, 201. 
Dunkin, John (Captain), conversation 

with Logan, 11, 284. 
Dunlap, Alexander, physician, v, 198- 

199, a". 

Dunlap Works, The, prehistoric, i, 47. 

Dunlavy, Francis, member of Legisla- 
ture, Northwest Territory, in, 91; 
member of first Constitutional Con- 
vention, 107; Judge, V, 102, 116. 



Dunlevy, Anthony, in Crawford's ex- 
pedition, u, 359. 

Dunmore, Lord, Governor of Va., i, 
484; n, 48-50, 69; ''Dunmore^s 
War," 79-106; speedi of Logan, 
109-1 19; results of the war, 123-142; 
147-148, 151, 159, 163, 169, 182, 
*32, 273» 350, 477. 

Dunmore C^ounty (Va.) Volunteers, in 
Dunmore's expedition, n, 87. 

Dunn, Ann M., subscriber to sword for 
Major Croghan, ni, 299. 

Dunquat, Wyandot half king, n, 353, 
354, 356, 400. 

Duponceau, law3rer, connection with 
French Gnnt^ n, 50a 

Duquesne, Marquis, Governor of Can- 
ada, I, 128, 252, 254, 257, 277; f>ft 
named for, 279; 291. 

Durr, George, officer in Mexican War, 

IV, 59. 
Durrett, Richard T., literary work, n, 

476-477. 

Dutcher, Addison P., medical instruct- 
or, V, 206. 

Dutchman's Point, British post at, n, 
405. 

Duvall, Gabriel, Justice U. S. Supreme 
Court, III, 326. 

Dyer, manufacturer, v, 329. 

Dyer, Albion M., researches, n, 586. 



EAGLE CREEK, n, 233; m, 7a 
Eagle Feather, Indian chief, i, 
238; death, 241-242. 
Eagle Furnace, The, v, 320. 
Eaglesport, O., Morgan raiders, iv, 247. 
Easement Act, The, 11, 59a 
East Haven, O., n, 578. 
East Liverpool, census statistics (1910), 

v, 262. 
Easton, Pa., conference of 1757, i, 312, 

337, 339-340. 
Eberle, John, medical instructor, v, 191. 



Eclectic Medical College, Cincinnati, v, 

177, 178. 
Eoorces River, The, i, 385. 
Ecuyer, Simeon (Captain), defense of 

Fort Pitt, 1, 405-406. 
Edgar, John, member of Legislature, 

Northwest Territory, in, 37; signer 

of petition to Congress, 52. 
Edinburg, O., v, 38. 
Edison, Thomas A., v, 27. 
Education, provisbn of Ordinance of 

1787, n, 432; allotment by Conn, of 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



366 



Western Reserve lands for schools, 
577; the primitive schoolhouse, lu, 
27; provisbn of Enabling Act, xoa; 
Constitutional provisbns and early 
foundations of school system, 171- 
175; 335» 343. 346; creation and 
development of common schools, 
367-396; emplo]rment of the surplus 
revenue, nr, 8, 10, 13-16; 339; ex- 
tension of rights to women in con* 
nection with school affairs, 408; 
educational development in 1876, 
47^477; 480, 482; V, %(^1. 

Edwards, Jonathan, m, 193-194. 

Edwards, Thomas O., medical instruct- 
or, v, 191. 

Edwards, Timothy, iii, 194. 

Edwards, William (Rev.)» Moravian 
minister, u, 301. 

Eel River, The, u, 517, 521. 

Eel River Indians, u, 555. 

Eells, Daniel P., manufacturer, v, 281. 

Effigy Mounds, i, 39, 73-76. 

Eggleston, Edward, literary work, v, 49. 

Eisel, Charles F., manufacturer, v, 330. 

Electoral Commission, The, iv, 336. 

Electrocution, iv, 410. 

Elenipsco, see EUinipsco. 

Eliot, John, Indian apostle, i, 159. 

Elk River, The, II, 88. 

Elk's Eye Creek, name for Muskingum 
River, i, 236. 

EUinipsco, Shawnee chief, 11, 91, 157- 

159. 
Elliott, Colonel, British officer in War 

of 1812, III, 271-272, 280, 295. 
Ellk>tt, Matthew, renegade and British 

partisan, u, 105, 182-183, 184, 217, 

227, 258, 275, 303. 319. 345,354. 35^; 

present at burning of Crawford, 369; 

379; in atuck on Bryant's Sutk>n, 

381; 418, 521, 532, 551. 
Ellis, Seth H., iv, 442. 
Ellis, Wade H., legal writer, v, 31. 
Elmyra, O., v, 74. 



Elson, Henry W., literary woric, v, 22. 

Ely, S. P., manufacturer, v, 280. 

Elyria, census sutistics (1910), v, 263. 

Emancipatk>n Proclamation, The, nr, 
205. 

Embarrass River, The, 11, 208-209. 

"Emigrant," The, Lake vessel, v, 277. 

Emmett, Daniel Decatur, literary work, 
V, 43. 71. 

Emory, manufacturer, v, 3x4. 

Employes' Insurance Fund, nr, 464. 

Enabling Act, The, 101-106. 

England, part in early discoveries, i, 
89-90, 92-95; territorial pretensbns 
westward, and b^inning of rivalry 
with the French, 183-207; policy 
indicated in approval of Ohb Land 
Company, 217-218, 250; Washing- 
ton's mission to protest against 
French encroachments, 268-269; oon- 
stmcticm of fort at the Ohb forks, 
and its seizure by the French, 277- 
278; expedition of Washington, 279- 
287; Braddock and his defeat, 291- 
298; French and Indian War, 301- 
349; eztensbn of English authority 
throughout the west and Canada, 
353-375; resolutions of Virginia 
officers in Dunmore's army while 
camped in Ohb, n, 129-13 1; pre- 
liminaries of the Revolutbn, 133- 
165; the Revolution in the West, 
169-400; War of 1812, III, 257-308. 

England, Richard (Cobnel), British 
officer, builds Fort Miami, 11, 542- 
543. 

English, William H., literary work, n, 
57, 192, 204, 289. 

Enlightener, The (or Shikellamy), Del- 
aware chief, II, 13. 

Enterprise Rolling Mill, The, Youngs- 
town, V, 321. 

Erie, Pa., i, 112; Fort Presque Isle, 205, 
257. 355; taken by the Indians, 402- 



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366 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



403; Bradstreet at,4i8-4i9; 405,560; 

building of Peny*8 fleet, in, 301; v, 

236. 
Erie, Lake, see Lake Erie. 
Erie Canal, The, m, 339, 343; v, 235- 

237, 263. 
Erie County, 11, 578; share of the sur- 
plus revenue, nr, 11; 130. 
Erie Indians (Erigas or Cat Nation), 

extermination by the Iroquois, i, 

110-114; 162, 164, 172, 573. 
Erie Literary Society, The, in, 175. 
Ernst, Oswald A., General in Spanish 

War, IV, 426, 427-428. 
Erwin, John W., manufacturer, v, 329, 

330. 
Este, George P., Brigadier General in 

Civil War, iv, 256, 284. 
Esther, Queen (Esther Montour), i, 

215. 
Etherington, Carl, killed in Newark 

riot, IV, 463. 
Etherington, George, British com- 
mander at Fort Michilimackinac, i, 

400-401. 
Evans, Asbury, medical instructor, v, 

191. 
Evans, George, manufacturer, v, 272. 
Evans, Jane M., subscriber to sword for 

Major Croghan, in, 299. 
Evans, Lewis, map, i, 186, 214, 226, 

234, 238, 239-240, 257. 



Evans, Nelson W., literary work, v, 142. 

Evarts, William M., address, iv, 386. 

Evening and Morning Star, The, m, 
408, 42a 

Ewing, Hugh Boyle, Brigadier General 
in Civil War, nr, 282; literary work, 
v,64. 

Ewing, Thomas ("the Elder"), on 
Charles Hammond, ni, 330; U. S. 
Senator, 446; iv, 4; in campaign of 
1840, 26, 34, 39, 94; delegate to 
Peace Conference, 155; presides at 
Union State Convention, 174; 328; 
as lawyer, v, 107. 

Ewing, Thomas (son of preceding). 
Brigadier General in Civil War, nr, 
282; member of third Constitutional 
Convention, 320; on proposed Coa- 
stitution, 3*3-3*5; 33*» 3345 candi- 
date for Governor, 342-343; address 
at Marietta Centennial, 386. 

Ewing, Thomas, Jr. (son of preceding, 
address, rv, 453. 

Expositions — Centennial of U. S. (1876), 

IV, 338-339, 472-477; Cincinnati and 
Columbus (1888), 386; Chicago 
(1893), 477-483; Buffab (1901), 
483; St. Louis (1904), 483-485; 
Jamestown (1907), 485-486; Indus- 
trial, in Cincinnati, v, 299. 

Eyeman, H. C, hospital superintendent, 

V, 221. 



FAIR GROUND CIRCLE, pre- 
historic, I, 39. 

Fairchild, James H., recovers 
Spaulding MS., in, 401-402. 
Fairfax, George, member of Ohb Land 

Company (1748), i, 216, 480, 481. 
Fairfax, Thomas (Lord), and George 
Washington, i, 266-267, 481, 483, 
485; II, 83. 
Fairfax, William, i, 264, 265, 481. 
Fairfield, Can., the Moravians at, n, 575. 



Fairfield, O., 11, 578. 

Fairfield County, i, 214, 243; m, 105, 

107, III, 360; share of the surplus 

revenue, iv, ii; 26, 107, 186, 233, 

243, 245; V, 142. 
Fallen Tunbers, Battle of, n, 548-552, 

562, 563. 
Falling Mountain, Indian chief, n, 

507. 
Farmer, James Eugene, literary work, 

v,43. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



367 



Farmer, Lydia Hoyt, literary work, v, 

46-47. 
"Farquharson, Martha," pseudonym 

of Martha Finlcy, v, 46. 
Farrar, William M., quoted, 11, 326-330, 

336-337. 
Fassler, Jerome, manufacturer, v, 328. 
Fauquier, Francis, Governor of Va., i, 

336, 347, 462. 
Fausett, Joseph and Thomas, supposed 

to have been concerned in Braddock't 

death, i, 297-298. 
Fayette, N. Y., Mormon church founded 

at. III, 399, 403. 
Fayette County, traversed by Gist, i, 

244; share of surplus revenue, iv, ii; 

69, 24s; Morgan raiders, 246; 406. 
Fearing, Paul, member of Legislature, 

Northwest Territory, iii, 37, 41; 

delegate to Congress, 93, 103; first 

lawyer admitted to practice, v, 93. 
Federalist, The, iii, 162. 
Federalists, The, in, 46, 58; actively 

support St. Clair, 81; 85, 87, 93, 99; 

oppose Enabling Act, 104-105; 11 1, 

119-120; weakness of the party, 145- 

146; 199-aoo, 258, 450; IV, 19. 
Ferguson, J. C, medical instructor, v, 

208. 
Ferguson, William (Captain), in Har- 

mar's expedition, 11, 513. 
Ferguson, William T., Captain in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 57. 
Ferree, Deborah, subscriber to sword 

for Major Croghan, in, 299. 
Field, John (Colonel), in Dunmore's 

expedition, n, 87; killed in battle 

of Point Pleasant, 98. 
Fifteenth Amendment to U. S. Consti- 
tution, rv, 307-308. 
Filler, Joseph, Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 57. 
FiUmore, Millard (President), iv, 69; 

V, 133. 
Fillmore, Parker, literary work, v, 6j, 



Filson, John, a founder of Cincinnati, 
u, 476-478. 

Filson Club, The (Louisville), 11, 381, 
476. 

Finecastle County, Va., troops in Dun- 
morels expedition, 11, 87, 126; Ky. 
a part of, 150. 

Findlay, natural gas, iv, 366-369; v, 
217; census statistics (1910), 263. 

Findlay, James, member of Council, 
Northwest Territory, 11, 596; in, 38; 
career, 43; General, in Burr affair, 
233, 234, 238-239, 244-245; Colonel 
in War of 1812; manufacturing 
enterprise, v, 273. 

Findlay, Samuel, member of Legisla- 
ture, Northwest Territory, in, 37, 

43»44. 
Finley, E. B., Adjutant General, on 

Cincinnati riots, iv, 359, 362. 
Finley, James B. (Rev.), pioneer preach- 
er and author, n, 540; in, 24-26; iv, 

87; V, 19. 
Finley, John, trader, influence on Daniel 

Boone, i, 473-474- 
Finley, Martha, literary work, v, 46. 
Finley, Mary, subscriber to sword for 

Major Croghan, in, 298. 
Finney, William (Captain), builds Fort 

Finney, n, 416-417. 
Firelands, The, n, 578, 591; ni, 337. 
Firelands Historical Society, The, iv, 

130. 
Firelands Pioneer , The, iv, 130, 473. 
Firestone, C. D., manufacturer, v, 307. 
Firestone, Leander, medical instructor, 

V, 206. 
Fish, The, Indian, n, 161. 
Fish and Game, prehistoric use for food, 

I, 60, 64. 
Fish Creek, n, 70. 
Fisher, early publisher, v, 6. 
Fishing Creek, i, 491; n, 161. 
Fiske, John, quoted or referred to, i, 

95; n, 203; V, 20. 



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368 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Five Natioiu, The, tee Iroquoit Indians. 

Flag, The Ohio Sute, iv, 450. 

•Flagg, Edmund, literary woric, v, 51. 

Flagg, William J., literary woric, v, 66. 

Flagler, Henry M., director of Standard 
Oil Company, v, 282. 

Fleischmann, Julius, Mayor of Cincin- 
nati, IV, 448. 

Fleming, William (Colonel), in Dun- 
more's expedition, u, 87, 89; battle 
of Point Pleasant, 93-94; 123, 124- 
125. 

Fletcher w. Peck, m, 319. 

Flint, prehistoric use, i, 3-4, 29, 40^42, 
60,64,71. 

Flint, Royal, and Sdoto Company, u, 

484.493*494- 

Flint, Timothy (Rev.), literaiy work, 
V, 8, 9, 47-48, 68.69. 

Flint Ridge, 1, 29, 40-41. 

Floods, Ohk> River, 1832, ui, 434*43^; 
1883 and 1884, IV, 353-357. 

Florida, I, 368, 371-37*; n. 403. 

Flowers, Samuel, arrest, iv, 187. 

Floyd, John, Ky. pioneer, 11, 285; Col- 
onel in Qaric's Ohio expedition, 395. 

Flying Crow, Iroquois chief, 11, 139. 

Follctt, John F., lawyer, iv, 311. 

Fontaine, James (Major), in Harmar's 
expeditbn, 11, $13; killed, 516. 

Fontainebleau (France) Treaty, The, 
1,368. 

Foos, Joseph, State Senator, and loca- 
tion of capital at Columbus, in, 
428. 

Foote, H. E., medical instructor, v, 190. 

Foote, John P., bookseller, v, 6; editor, 

9. 

Foraker, Joseph B., address at dedi- 
cation of memorial to Andrews raid- 
ers, IV, 203-204; candidate for 
Governor, 346-347; first election and 
administraticm as Governor, 373- 
377, 38^-384; reftlectwn, 384, 385, 
387-389; again nominated, 390; 



campaign and defeat, 391-394; 401, 
405; elected U. S. Senator, 409; 410, 
411 ; support of McKinky policies in 
Senate, 429^30; 434, 435, 43^; on 
Marcus A. Hanna, 437; 438, 452. 

Foran, M. A., member of third Consti- 
tutional Convention, iv, 320. 

Forbes, John (General), expedition 
against Fort Duquesne, i, 336.547; 
death, 348; 486; 11, 60, 83, 86, 350. 

Forbes, Archibald, on MacGahan, v, 14. 

Force, Manning F., literary work, i, 20; 
General in Civil War, iv, 256, 284; 
literary work, v, 17-18. 

Forcheimer, F., medical instructor, v» 
190, 191. 

Ford, J. M., manufacturer, v, 279. 

Ford, Seabury, Governor, iv, 96, 97-98. 

Ford, Thomas, H., nr, 55. 

Fordyoe, O. O., hospital superintendent, 
V, 221. 

Foreman, James S., lawyer, v, 154. 

Foreman, William (Captain), killed 
in atuck on Fort Henry, n, 176-177. 

Forrest, N. B. (General), Confederate^ 
IV, 271. 

Forsyth, James W., Brigadier General 
inCivilWar, IV, 283. 

Fort Adams, St. Mary's River, 11, 545. 

Fort Andent, prehistoric, i, 20, 23-31, 
68. 

Fort Assumption, Mississippi River, i» 

195. 
Fort Bedford, Pa., i, 407. 
Fort Broken Heart, see Fort Creve- 

Cceur. 
Fort Chartres, Mississippi River, i, 195, 

364,370,391,449,451,453. 
Fort Creve-Coeur (or Broken Heart), 

lU., 1, 139, 140, 142, 146. 
Fort Cumberiand, Md., i, 296, 343. 
Fort de Tret, see Detroit. 
Fort Defiance, confluence of Au^aize 

and Maumee Rivers, u, 545, 546^. 

55a. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



369 



Fort Deposit, Maumee River, n, 546, 
548. 

Fort Dunmore, Pa., name given new 
fort constructed after demolition of 
Fort Pitt, 11, so, 138-142; renamed 
Fort Pitt, 164. 

Fort Duquetne, Pa., original French 
structure on site of Fort Pitt, i, 279, 
286, 293. a94, 303, 304, 307, 308, 
3 1 1-3 12, 329, 333; expedition of 
Forbes and destruction, 336-349, 
486; II, 88, 350. 

Fort Erie, Buffalo, i, 415. 

Fort Fincastle, Wheeling, n, 70, 157, 
169; afterward Fort Henry. 

Fort Finney, Great Miami River, 11, 
416-417, 418, 471, 562. 

Fort Frontenac, Lake Onurio, i, 135- 
136, 140, 19s, 412. 

Fort Gatanois, name for old FortMiami, 

I, 362. 

Fort Gower, now Hockingport, 11, 85, 
90; resolutions of officers of Dun- 
more's army, 129-132. 

Fort Granville, Pa., 11, 161. 

Fort Greenville, now Greenville, 11, 539, 
553; Wayne's treaty, 554-558. 

Fort Hamilton, on the Great Miami, 

II, 522, 523, 538. 

Fort Harmar, on the Ohio at mouth 
of Muskingum, 11, 417, 421, 462, 465, 
471, 475, 480, 507-509, 5", 516, 592. 

Fort Henry (formerly Fincastle), Wheel- 
ing, 11, 157, 169; first siege, 170-177; 
308, 336, 380; second siege, 385-393; 
397, 561. 

Fort Hill, Hamilton County, prehistoric 
works, see Miami Fort. 

Fort Hill, Highland County, prehis- 
toric, I, 12-15. 

Fort Industry, mouth of the Maumee, 
II, 560. 

Fort Jefferson, on Mississippi River, 11, 
285. 



Fort Jefferson, built by St. Clair, n, 

5*3, 5*6, 538, 539. 
Fort Johnson, N. Y., i, 366. 
Fort Junundat, Sandusky Bay, i, 206, 

227, 304, 363, 397, 398. 
Fort Knox, Vincennes, 11, 511, 532. 
Fort La Salle, Mississippi River, i, 195. 
Fort Laurens, Tuscarawas River, 11, 

225-226; siege, 253-261; site, 261; 

273, 350, 416, 467, 557, 587. 
Fort Le Boeuf, Pa., i, 257-258, 271, 277, 

304, 356, 396, 403. ' 
Fort Lemoult, name for Detroit, 11, 543. 
Fort Liberty, RuddelFs Station, Ky., 

u, 280. 
Fort Ligonier, Pa., i, 403, 407. 
Fort Loudoun, Va., i, 333, 407. 
Fort McArthur, Scioto River, iii, 270. 
Fort Mcintosh, Beaver Creek, 11, 224, 

225, 226, 261, 336, 346, 350, 374; 

treaty, 415-416; 417, 4^9, 5o8, 53^ 
Fort Mackinac (French), i, 195. 
Fort Maiden, Can., iii, 306. 
Fort Massac, Ohk> River, 11, 194. 
Fort Meigs, at Maumee Rapids, u, 568; 

III, 269; siege, 275-282, 287; siege 

renewed, 291-292; 300, 454; iv, 25, 

27, 37-39- 
Fort Miami, 111., built by La Salle, i, 

138, 140, 143, 144. 
Fort Miami, site of Fort Wayne, Ind.^ 

built by the French, i, 201, 204, 228, 

253, 362, 396, 402, 425, 451. 
Fort Miami, on Maumee River — built 

by the English, 11, 543, 550-553; 

surrendered to Americans, 559-560; 

III, 279-280, 292. 
Fort Necessity, Pa., i, 283-284, 292, 489; 

II, 86, 88. 
Fort Niagara, mouth of Niagara River, 

h 137, 195, 220, 291, 366, 391, 392, 

394, 395, 396, 404-405, 415, 430-431, 

452; u, 385, 400, 405, 531. 
Fort Pitt, 1, 346, 356, 363, 368, 383, 396, 

403; Indian siege, 405-408; 419, 429, 



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436, 437. 444, 445, 446, 448, 490, 

494; II, 16. 17, zZf 23. 26, 39» 47, 4«; 
dettiojred, rebuilt and named Fort 
Dunmore, 49-50; 157, 162; renamed 
Fort Pitt, 164; 169, 171, 17a, 182- 
184, 202, 216-220, 224, 227, 231, 
253. *54, *57. 261-263. 278, 29s, 
296, 298. 302, 307, 308, 317, 319, 
320, 323, 327, 332, 333, 337, 341, 
350, 351, 355, 358, 388, 393, 398, 
399, 458, 471. 

Fort Pontchartrain, Detroit, i, 385. 

Fort Pretque Isle, tee Presque Isle. 

Fort Prudhomme, Mississippi River, 

1,144- 
Fort Randolph, Point Pleasant, W. Va., 

murder of Comsulk, u, 156-158; 

169, 183, 186, 216, 219. 
Fort Recovery, St. Clair's defeat, n, 

541.542, 557, 587, 597; in, 72. 
Fort Rosalie, Mississippi River, i, 195. 
Fort Sackville, see Vincennes. 
Fort St. Qair, 11, 538. 
Fort St. Joseph, i, 385, 396, 399M«>. 
Fort St. Louis, i, 146, 195. 
Fort Sandusky, i, 201-206, 227, 391; 

old and new foru, 396-398; capture 

by Indians, 398-399; 11, 16, 416. 
Fort Schlosser, Niagara Falls, i, 415, 

417-418. 
Fort Seneca, Sandusky River, iii, 293, 

300. 
Fort Slaughter, Louisville, u, 279. 
Fort Stanwiz, N. Y., i, 366; treaty 

(1768), 463-4^ 469, 471, 484, 489; 

n, 47, 74, 86, 145; conference and 

treaty of 1784, 11, 413-415; 4i9, 532, 

581. 
Fort Stephenson, Fremont, 11, 568; iii, 

269; defense of, 292-298, 300. 
Fort Sumter, S. C, news of the bom- 
bardment, IV, 157. 
Fort Venango, see Venango. 
Fort Warren, iv, 185. 
Fort Washington, Cincinnati, 11, 480^ 



509,512-515,517-5x8,521,522, 528; 

ni, 39, 40, 58. 268. 
Fort Wayne, Ind., i, 201, 380, 402, 425; 

II, 20s, 550, 552, 553. 
Fofdick, William W., literary work, v, 

SI, 71. 

Foster, Abby Kelly, iv, 157. 

Fotter, Charles, member of Congress, 

IV, 336; Governor, 342-343; reflec- 
tion, 345-346; 442, 453; V, III. 

Foster, J. W. (Prof.), quoted or referred 

to, 1, 48, 56, 171. 
Fottoria, iv, 342, 368. 
Four Mile Creek, 11, 537. 
Fourteenth Amendment to Contthn- 

tion of U. S., IV, 299, 305-306, 
Fowke, Gerard, literary work, i, 4, 52- 
Fowler, Harold North, literary work, 

V, 43- 

Fox Grape Vine (or Captewa) Creek, 

I, 491. 

Fox Indians, i, 139, 202, 387, 393, 4iS» 
456; 11, 199. 

Fox River, The, i, 105, 133. 

France, part in early discoveries, i, 90- 
91; settlement of Canada, 92, 95; 
beginning of western discovery and 
ezploratbn, 102-106, 11 5-1 16; La 
Salle and the Ohk> River, 117-129; 
other explorations, 135-148; Cek>- 
ron's Ohio River expedition, 220- 
229; seizure of fort at Ohk> forks, 
277-278; unsuccessful expeditions of 
Washington and Braddock, 279-287, 
291-298; French and Indian War, 
301-375, 379; Scioto Company and 
founding of Gallipolis, n, 483-500. 

Franchise, see Suffrage. 

Francis, David R., iv, 484, 485. 

Franciscans, The, i, 137. 

Frankenburg, Otto, medical instructor, 
V, 201, 202. 

Frankfort, Ky., in, 179. 

Frankfort, O., i, 170. 



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Franklin, Jesse (of N. C), U. S. Sena- 
tor, in, 57. 

Franklin, Benjamin, i, 172, 194, 239, 
^90, 3"» 335» 467-470; pamphlet 
advocating Ohk> settlement, 470; 
471; Commissioner for Middle De- 
partment, n, 138; 403, 428, 461; 
Franklinton named for, 595; ui, 177. 

Franklin, William, Governor of N. J., 
I, 463, 468. 

Franklin County, erectbn, ni, 150; 
349; location of capital, 427-428; 
share of surplus revenue, iv, 11; 27, 
109, 243, 245, 44*, S34; V, 112, 137, 
138. 

Franklinton, O., 11, 563; settlement, 
594*596; in, 282-283, 284; General 
Harrison's council with the Indians, 
287-291; 427, 4»8;v, 306. 

Fraser, Alexander (Lieutenant), west- 
em missbn, i, 447, 449. 

Frazier, John, trader, i, 270, 273; Lieu- 
tenant, takes part in erecting fort 
at Ohk) forks, 278. 

Frazier, William Hugh, Judge, v, 154. 

Fudonian, The (Chillicothe), in, 177, 
178. 

Free Soil Party, The, iv, 94-95, 103. 

Freeman, purchaser of Patterson's 
interest in site of Cmcinnati, n, 481. 

Freeman, Edmund, newspaper publish- 
er, UI, 39, 176. 

Freeman, George D. (Colonel), in Cin- 
cinnati riots, IV, 361, 363. 

Freeman, Henry B., Brigadier General, 
IV, 428. 

Freeman, S., in, 176. 

FteematCs ChronicU, The (Franklinton), 
m, 288. 

Freeman's Journal, The (Cincinnati), 
ni, 39» 176, 177- 

Fremont, old Indian fortifications on 
site of, I, 427-428; formerly Lower 
Sandusky, II, 262; 342; Fort Stephen- 



son, III, 292-298, 300; IV, 338, 473; 
v,65. 

Fremont, John C. (General), iv, 205. 

French and Indian War, The, 1, 286, 
301-324, 327-349; oondusbn and 
results, 353-375, 379- 

French Creek, i, 224, 257-258, 356, 491. 

French Grant, The, 11, 500-501. 

French Margaret, i, 214-215. 

French Margaret's Town, i, 214, 227» 
243. 

Frenchtown, 11, 274. 

Friedenshutten, Pa., Moravian settle- 
ment, II, 21. 

Friedenstadt, Pa., Moravian settle- 
ment, n, 22, 25. 

Friedman, David, St. Loub £zpositk)n 
Commissbner, iv, 484. 

Fries, Valentine, identified with devetep- 
ment of Lake transporution, v, 247. 

Frontenac, Count du. Governor of 
Canada, i, 128, 129, 133-136, I43» 
147; »I4- 

Frothingham, Lieutenant, killed in 
Harmar's defeat, n, 516. 

"Fruit Hill," Chillicothe, residence of 
Governor McArthur, in, 454; of 
Governor Allen, iv, 328. 

Fry, Joshua (Colonel), Va. officer, i, 
277, *79» ^84. 

Fugitive Slaves, provision of Ordinance 
of 1787, n, 43*» 435; iv, 109; law of 
1850 and decisbn of Ohio Supreme 
Court in Oberlin-Wellington case 
(1858), 132-139; 143; condliatoiy 
resolutions of Ohk> Legislature in 
1861, 153-155; 175; V, 133-136. 

Full Moon, Indian chief, 11, 507. 

Fuller, Harvey, manufacturer, v, 32a 

Fuller, John W., General in Civil War, 
IV, 256, 284. 

Fuller, W. A., iv, 198. 

FuUerton, Catherine, subscriber to 
sword for Major Croghan, in, 299. 



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FuUerton, Erskine B., medical inttruct- 

or, V, 20I, 202. 
Fulton, Lavina, eubtcriber to tword for 

Major Croghan, iix, 299. 
Fulton, Robert, incorporator of Ohio 



Steamboat Navigation Company, 

III, 185, 186, 188. 
Funk, Isaac Kaufman, publisher and 

author, v, 16. 
Funston, Frederick, General, nr, 428. 



GACHADOW, Iroquois chief, 1, 
192. 

Gaddis, Thomas (Major), in 
Crawford's Sandusky ezpeditbn, ix, 
350. 
Gaeth, manufacturer, v, 285. 
Gage, Mrs. Francis D., literary work, 

V, 49. 
Gage, Thomas (General), British com- 
mander, I, 297, 382, 411, 412, 429, 

430» 43S, 447, 453; n, 49, iSi- 
Gahannah Creek, i, 225. 
Galbreath, Charles B., secreury fourth 

Constitutbnal Convention, iv, 465; 

literary work, v, 43. 
Galinee, Brehan de, Sulpitian priest, i, 

1 19-124, 198. 
Gallagher, John M., journalist, v, 16. 
Gallagher, William D., literary work, 

rv, 112; V, 8, 9, 51,69,70. 
Gallatin, Albert, connection with law 

regulating sale of public lands, iii, 

60; Secretary of the Treasury, 336; 

on Thomas Worthington, 430. 
Gallia Academy, The, in, 175. 
Gallia County, n, 92, 123; erection, 

III, 150; 270; share of surplus 
revenue, iv, 11; 80, 81, 92, no; 
Morgan raiders, 246. 

Gallipolis, founding, 11, 485-501; 593; in, 
17s; visit of Lafayette, 433; 437; 

IV, 255; flood of 1884, 355, 357; 
centennial celebration, 399; failure 
of bank, 496; v, 105, 221, 267. 

Gallipolis Papers, The, 11, 485. 
Gallissioniere, Marquis de. Governor of 
Canada, i, 207, 220, 222, 251. 



Gallizier, Nathan, literary woric, v, 62. 

Galloway, Samuel, iv, 303. 

Gamelin, Antoine, trader, u, 509-510. 

Ganges, O., nr, 56. 

Gano, John S., survey of Symmes pur- 
chase, n, 474; 481; Major, buildt 
Fort St. Qair, 538; General, in Burr 
affair, in, 233-236, 238, 244-245. 

Ganousserarcheri, Indian name for 
Zebberger, 11, 13. 

Gantz, M. K., Ohio Commissbner to St. 
Louis Exposition, iv, 484. 

Gardiner, James, editor, rqx>rt of 
Franklinton Council, in, 28S-29a 

Gardner, newspaper publisher, m, 179. 

Gardner, Mills, member of third Con- 
stitutbnal Conventbn, nr, 320. 

Garfield, James A., quoted, i, 156-157; 
on the common schools, m, 395-396; 
404; IV, III, 152; Sute Senator, 
reports Treason Bill, 160-161, 164; 
General in Civil War, 259, 281; 
advocates negro suffrage, 296-297; 
336; President of U. S. and death, 
345; 435, 460, 478. 

Garganwahgah, name for Complanter, 
II, 413- 

Garlick, Abel R., early enterprise in 
Qevdand, v, 276. 

Gamer, Peter M., party in celebrated 
case, V, 105-106. 

Garnet, James (of Va.), member of 
Congress, in, 57. 

Garrard, Kenner, Brigadier General in 
Civil War, nr, 283. 

Garretson, George A., General in Span- 
uh War, IV, 426, 427. 



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Garretaon, Hiram, identified with de- 
velopment of Lake transportation, 
V, 247. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, iv, 125. 

Gas, Johannes Wilhelm, medical in- 
structor, V, 208. 

Gas, Natural, see Natural Gas. 

Gatch, Philip, member of first G)nsti- 
tutbnal Convention, lu, 107. 

Gates, Horatio (General), i, 297; in, 
197,203. 

Gausteraz, see Agasterax. 

Gazlay, A. W., literary work, v, 30. 

Geary, John M., ni, 455. 

Geauga County, m, 164, 348, 406^407, 
439, 441; share of surplus revenue, 

IV, 11; 97, 534; V, 144. 
Gekelemukpechunk, Indian village, site 

of New Comerstown, 11, 22, 23, 300. 
Gelelemund (or Killbuck), Delaware 

chief, 11, 223, 574. 
Genera] Assembly, The, see Legislature. 
Genesee River, i, no, 120, 125; 11, 397. 
Geneseo, N. Y., 11, 43. 
Genius of the West, The, v, 9. 
Genius of Universal Emancipation, The, 

IV, 125. 
Genn, James, surveyor, i, 266, 267, 481. 
Geographer's Line, The, 11, 420-421, 

586-587. 
Geographical Journal, The, v, 284. 
Geological Survey, i, 12; iv, 309, 367- 

368, 369. 
George, James, Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 52. 
Georgetown, O., iv, 64-65, 320, 376. 
Georgia, the Moravians in, 11, 10, 11; 

Andrews raid, iv, 191-202. 
Georgian Bay, i, 102, 122, 141, 163, 164. 
Germain, George (Lord), 11, 169, 178, 

189, 203-205. 
German Flats, N. Y., councils at, i, 

461-462, 464; II, 42. 
Gervais, Jean G., and the French Grant, 

II, 500-501. 



Giauque, Florien, legal writer, v, 31. 

Gibault, Pierre (Father), gives aid to 
George Rogers Qark, u, 196-198, 
207. 

Gibson, Alexander (Captain), officer 
under Wayne, 11, 541. 

Gibson, George (Colonel), n, 60. 

Gibson, John, brother-in-law of Logan, 
the Indian chief, u, 60, 63; Capuin, 
interpreter with Lord Dunmore, 
105, 106; circumstances of Logan's 
speech, xio-118; 124, 126; Colonel 
at Fort Pitt, 220; at Fort Laurens, 
226, 253-257, 259; 307; 320, 323; 
General, successor to General Brod- 
head in Western Military Depart- 
ment, 327, 329. 

Gibson, Thomas, first Auditor of State, 
m, 147; V, 102. 

Gibson, William H., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 256. 

Giddings, Joshua R., iv, 67, 94, 95, 109; 
on Fugitive Slave Law, 133; pre- 
sides at first State Convention of 
Republican party, 140, 141; 172, 
204; literary work, v, 16-17; H7' 

Giddings, Luther R., Capuin in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 52. 

Gilbert, Charles C, Brigadier General 
in Mexican War, iv, 61. 

Gilbert, Levi, literary work, v, 35. 

GUes, WillUm B. (of Va.), U. S. Sena- 
tor, and charges against Senator 
John Smith, iii, 253. 

Gilliam, C. F., hospital superintendent, 
V, 221. 

Gilliam, David Tod, v, 67; personal 
notice, 159; contribution by, 161- 
227; trustee and medical instruct- 
or, 201-202. 

Gilliam, £. M., medical instructor, v» 
202. 

Gilhnan, Joseph, Supreme Judge, North- 
west Territory, v, 9a 



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Gflnun, Benjamin Ivet, member of 
fint Constitutional Convention, m, 
107; incorporator of bank, iv, 491. 

Gilmore, soldier, killed hy Indians, 11, 

157-158. 

Gilmore, J. A., lawyer, iv, 313. 

Gilmore, Quinqr A., Major General in 
Civil War, nr, 281. 

Gilmore, William £. (Cok>nel), literary 
work, V, 19. 

Gilmore, William J., lawyer, v, 152. 

Girty, George, renegade and British 
partisan, n, 160, 161, 162, 171, 179, 
27s, 278, 279, 3". 313, 354, 358* 
375, 381, 385, 386, 546. 

Girty, James, renegade and British 
partisan, 11, 27, 160, 161, 162, 171, 
179, M7, HO, 275, 278, 279, 288, 
358, 386. 

Girty, Simon, Sr., n, 160-161. 

Girty, Simon, messenger and guide 
to Lord Dunmore, n, 90^3; drcum- 
•tances of Logan's speech, X15, 
116, 117; renegade and British 
partisan, 160, 161, 162, 171, 182, 
184, 185, 216, 217, 226-227, 231; 
rescues Kenton, 240-245; attack on 
Fort Laurens, 253-257; 258-259, 
262, 263, 270, 275, 276, 278-280, 
288, 296; quarrel with Brant, 31X- 
312, 321, 322; Crawford's campaign 
and death, 353-354, 357-358, 3^9- 
370; 373, 379; battle of Blue Licks, 
381.382; 385, 386. 399, 417, 418, 514. 
520, 521, 525. 527. 542, 551. 

Girty, Thomas, 11,^160-162. 

Gist, Christopher, i, 231; journey 
through Ohb, 235-248; 249, 250^ 
254, 255; with Washington in mis- 
sbn of 1753-54, 269, 270, 272, 273; 
280; sent on mission by Dinwiddie, 
284; advice to Braddock, 292; 301, 

397, 481. 
Gist, Richard, i, 235. 



Given, John P., Jamestown Ezpodtioii 

Commissioner, iv, 486. 
Gladden, Washington (Rev.), addxest, 

nr, 399; literary woA, v, 39. 
Glade Creek, n, 5x4. 
Gladstone, William £., n, 406. 
•*Gladwyn," The, early Lake vestd, 

I, 388, 395; V, 232. 
Gladwyn, Henry, in Braddock's defeat, 

I, 297; Major, British commander at 

Detroit, 386-396; 421. 
Glass, Frauds, school-teacher, m, 370; 

V, 7. 
Glaze Creek, u, 514. 
Glendale, O., iv, 245. 
Glenford Stone Fort, The, prehistoric, 

I, 15-17. 

Glessner, manufacturer, v, 328. 
Glidden, Francis H., manufacturer, v, 

287. 
Glikkikan, Delaware chief, a convert 

to the Moravians, n, 21-23, 139, 259; 

death, 335-33^- 
Glover, Elias, and Senator John Smith, 

ni, 251. 
Gnadenhutten, Moravian settlement, 

II, 26, 68, 221, 300, 301, 303, 324; 
massacre, 326-338; 341, 346, 372, 
420; replanted, 575. 

Gnadenhutten, New (Mich.), n, 573. 

Gobrecht, William H., medical instract- 
or, V, 190. 

Godefroi, interpreter, i, 424, 425. 

Goforth, William, connection with pur- 
chase of site of Dayton, n, 481; 
member of Legislature, Northwest 
Territory, iii, 37, 43, 49, 64; member 
of first Constitutional Convention, 
107, 140. 

"(jolden Rule" Jones (Samuel M. 
Jones), IV, 438, 440-442. 

Goldsmith, Alban, medical instructor, 
V, 191. 

Goodale, Lincoln, v, 201. 



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Goodale, Nathaniel, member of firtt 

grand jury, v, 93. 
Goodenow, John Milton, Judge of Ohio 

Supreme Court, v, 104. 
Goodman, Alfred T., literaiy work, i, 

Goodman, John D., medical instructor, 

V, 183, 191. 
Goodrich, Benjamin Franklin (Dr.)» 

manufacturer, v, 322. 
Goodwin, Frank P., quoted, v, 269, 270, 

a74. 
Gordon, Lieutenant, commander at 

Fort Le Boeuf, death, i, 403. 
Gordon, George (Rev.), Fugitive Slave 

caae,iv, 138-139. 
Gordon, John, Ky. officer, killed at 

battle of Blue Licks, n, 383. 
Gordon, J. W., manufacturer, v, 279. 
Gordon, Thomas F., quoted, i, 196. 
Gordon vs, the State, nr, 535. 
Gordy, J. P., literary work, v, 26. 
Gorrell (or Gorell), J. (Lieutenant), 

British officer, i, 401. 
Goechochgung, O., Indian village on 

site of Coshocton, n, 140, 164, 170, 

184, 185, 226, 295; destruction by 

Brodhead, 298-301; 304. 
Goschochgung, Pa., Moravian missk>n, 

n, 21, 22. 
Goshen, O., n, 575- 
Goshom, Alfred T., Director General 

Philadelphia Centennial, iv, 472. 
Goss, Charles Frederick, literary work, 

v, S9-6o. 
Goulder, Harvey Danforth, personal 

notice, v, 229; contribution, 231-249. 
Gower, Earl, Fort Gower named for, 

n,85. 
Grafton, W. Va., iv, 168. 
Graham, James, medical instructor, v, 

191. 
Graham, John, and the Burr affair, m, 

224, 225. 
Grand River, The, Can., i, 121, 122; n. 



406, 414; La Grand Riviere, name 
for the Cuyahoga, i, 419-420. 

Granger, Moses M., address, rv, 452; 
personal notice, v, 85; contributioii» 
109-157; member of Supreme Court 
Commission, iii, 114; Judge, 155. 

Granger, Robert S., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 283. 

Grant, James (Major), Brirish officer 
under Forbes, defeat, i, 344-345* 

Grant, Ulysses S., xv, 34; Lieutenant 
and Captain in Mexican War, 61, 63; 
appointment to West Point Mili- 
tary Academy, 63-64; General in 
CivU War, 183, 192, 193, 209, 255, 
281; President of U. S., 302, 327, 
332, 460; birthplace flooded, 355; 
478; literary work, v, 17. 

Grant's Hill, Pa., x, 344. 

Granville, O., prehistoric remains near, 
h 39; IV, 283; v, 36, 195, 306. 

Granville Alexandrian Society, Th^ 
in, 175- 

Grass Point, O., iv, 87. 

Grasselli, £., manufacturer, v, 282, 299. 

Gray, Asa (Dr.), v, 193. 

Gray, David S., member Chillicothe 
Centennial Commission, rv, 451. 

Gray Eyes, Wyandot Indian, iv, 85-86, 
88. 

Gray Friars, The, missbnaries, i, 104. 

Great Buffalo Swamp, i, 243. 

Great Hockhocking River, The, see 
Hockhocking River. 

Great Kanawha River, i, 224, 317, 327, 

464, 469, 471, 493, 49S; II, 83; 

battle of Point Pleasant, 89-99; 

157, 165, 219, 309, 484, 488, 493, 

493; III, 435* S^ *^ Kanawha 

River. 
Great Meadows, Pa., Washington's 

battle, I, 280-283, 289, 297, 489. 
Great Miami River, The, prehistoric 

remains, i, 17-20, 21, 45; 156, 162, 

226, 227; Gist's visit, 245-246; 



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dettniction of Pickawillany, 254; 
257, 449; II, 3^37. 169, 182. 228, 
279, 281, a85, 287, 310, 35S» 39S» 
416, 417, 443. 467, 47a, 473, 481. 
508, 522, 530, S37, SS7, 562; Sutc 
boundary line, m, lOi; 346, 435; 
V, 329. 

Great Warrior, Cherokee chief, i, 462. 

Greathouse, Daniel, maMacre of Indians 
at Baker's Cabin, i, 58-61, 65, 116. 

Greeley, Horace, iv, 29, 67, 163, 327; 
on Cincinnati, v, 294-295; Akron 
visit, 322. 

Green, William, v, 271, 273. 

Green Bay, i, 105, 123, 134, I37. l^ 
202, 362, 401; V, 231. 

Green Township, Scioto County, French 
Grant, u, 50a 

Greenbackism, iv, 33a-335» 343- 

Greenbrier County, Va., 11, 87, 157, 219. 

Greene, Nathaniel (General), Green- 
ville named for, 11, 539. 

Greene, Governor of R. I., on Charles 
Hammond, iii, 329-330. 

Greene County, erection, iii, 150; 164; 
share of surplus revenue, iv, 11; 26, 

69. HS; V, 198. 
Greentown, O., v, 325. 
Greenville, Wayne's treaty with Indians, 

1, 176; II, 481; 523; building of fort, 

539; 544» 553; Wayne summons the 

tribes and concludes treaty, 554-558; 

563, 587. 593. 594. 595; ni, 3, 288, 

290; IV, 83, 88, 451. 
Greenville Creek, 11, 565. 
Greenwich, O., 11, 578. 
Greenwood, Miles, manufacturer, v, 296. 
Gregory, W. M. (Prof.), on Cleveland 

manufactures, v, 284-285, 287-288, 

289. 
Grenadier Squaw's Town, 11, 38. 
Greve, Charles Theodore, quoted or 

referred to, 11, 476; ^,358,363; v, 26. 
Grey Eyes, Wyandot Indian, iv, 85-86, 

88. 



Grier, Robert C, Justice of U. S. Su- 
preme Court, V, 130. 

"Griffin," The, first vessel on Great 
Lakes, i, 137-138, 140; v, 231, 232. 

Griffin, Charles, Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 283. 

Griffith, Wilson W., Alternate Com- 
missioner to Philadelphia Centen- 
nial, IV, 472. 

Grimke, Frederick, Judge of Ohio Su- 
preme Court, V, 104. 

Griswold, Hiram, in campaign of 1840^ 
IV, 27. 

Griswold, Roger, member of Congress, 
and the Enabling Act, iii, 103. 

Groesbeck, William S., member of 
second Constitutional Convention, 
IV, no; member of Peace Con- 
ference, 155; V, 148. 

Gross, Samuel D., medical writer, v, 
32, 173, 184. 

Grossmann, Louis, literary work, v, 37. 

Grosvenor, Charles H., member of 
Congress, iv, 389; address, 452. 

Grosvenor, William M. (of Mo.),iv,334. 

Groton, O., 11, 578. 

Grubb, James, member of first Consti- 
tutional Convention, in, 107. 

Grube, R. H., member of State Board of 
Health, v, 216. 

Grummon's Tavern, Cincinnati, iv, 49a 

Guadelupe Hidalgo, Treaty of, iv, 5a 

Guard, S. Z., lawyer, iv, 311. 

Guayama, Porto Rico, Ohio troops at, 

IV, 420, 423. 

Guernsey County, share of surplus 
revenue, iv, 11; 26; v, 154. 

Guilford, Nathan, promoter of educa- 
tion, in, 373-374; Commissioner, 
375, 377-378; report, 379-383; 395- 

Gunsaulus, Frank W., literary work, 
v,40. 

Guthrie, William Norman, literary work, 

V, 43, 82-83. 
Guyasutha, see KiashuU. 



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H 



rACKETT. R. J.," The. Lake 
vessel, V, 242. 

Hagenbach, Edwin, St. Louis 
Exposition Commissioner, iv, 484. 

Hairy River, The, name for the Scioto, 
II, 26. 

Halderman, Davis, medical instructor, 
V, 194, 202. 

Haldimand, Frederick (Sir), Governor 
of Canada, 11, 201, 202, 274, 275, 
379; declines to surrender posts, 
405; 406, 412. 

Hale, Edward Everett, address, iv, 385. 

Hale, John P., on experiences of Mary 
Draper,!, 317-324. 

Half King, The, title given several 
Indian chiefs, i, 214, 258, 270, 278, 
280-282, 284, 286, 292, 303, 306; 
II, 139, 176, 186, 302, 320-321, 323, 
343, 353, 354, 35^, 366-367, 385, 400. 
See Dunquat, Pomoacan, Scarou- 
ady, Scniniyatha, and Tanacharison. 

Halket, Peter (Sir), Colonel under 
Braddock, i, 291. 

Hall, James, literary work, rv, 24; v, 
8, 9, 47, 48. 

Hall, L. W. (Judge), arrest, iv, 186-187. 

Halstead, Murat, editor and author, iv, 
360, 39i-394, 439, 452; v, 3, 11-12, 
74. 

Hamann, Carl A., medical instructor, 
V, 208. 

Hamer, Thomas L., member of Con- 
gress, and Mich, boundary, iii, 446; 
in campaign of 1840, xv, 34, 43; 
Brigadier General, services in Mexi- 
can War, 52, 53; death, 62-63; ap- 
pointment of U. S. Grant as cadet 
at West Point, 63-64; 376. 

Hamer, William, early mill, v, 313. 

Hamilton, prehistoric remains near, i, 
21-33; incorporation, iii, 168; rv, 
97, 166, 24s, 266, 320, 390; in 1900, 
443; V, 36, 54, 140; census statis- 



tics (1910), 262; 274; manufactur- 
ing development, 329-330. 

Hamilton, Alexander, 11, 426; on the 
Constitution and the courts, iii, 162; 
and Burr, 198-204; 322-323, 451. 

Hamilton, Arthur L., Colonel in Span- 
ish War, IV, 424. 

Hamilton, C. S., medical instructor, v, 
202. 

Hamilton, Edward, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 52. 

Hamilton, Henry (Sir), British com- 
mander at Detroit, n, 142, 1 51-152, 
165, 169, 170, 173; called "The 
hair-buyer," 178; 179, 180, 183, 
189, 201 ; his policy of extermination, 
202-204; Vincennes expedition, 205- 
207, 209; made prisoner, 210-21 1; 
215, 217, 218, 221, 224, 227, 253, 
254, 296, 319. 

Hamilton, James, Governor of Pa., i, 
224, 230, 247, 248, 249, 255. 

Hamilton, John W., medical instructor, 
V, 194, 195-196, 200, 202. 

Hamilton, W. D., medical instructor, 
V, 202. 

Hamilton, soldier, killed by Indians, 11, 
157-158. 

Hamilton County, prehistoric remains, 
I, 3, 17-20, 70-72; Va. Military Dis- 
trict, II, 460; organization by St. 
Clair, 481; 596; ni, 37, 38, 41-43, 
85, 91, 9a, 105; population, 1800, 
106; 107, 115, 116, 126, 148, 342, 
379, 450, 45 n share of surplus 
revenue, iv, 11; 22, 23, 27,91,92, 
94, 97, no; Morgan raiders, 244- 
H5; 338, 357, 361, 378-381, 397, 
456, 461; V, 45, 112. 

Hammell, George M., iv, 442. 

Hammond, Charles, lawyer and editor; 
U. S. Bank case, iii, 324-329; 
character and career, 329-331; anti- 
slavery advocate, iv, 124, 127; v, 
10. 



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Htmtramck, John Frandt (Major), 
commander at Vincennes, ii, 509- 
Sii; Colonel, builda Fort Wayne, 

Hanbury, Thomas, member of Ohio 
Land Company (1748), i, 216. 

Hanby, Benjamin R^ literary work, 
v,7i. 

Hancock, John, iii, 79. 

Hancock County, share of surplus 
revenue, xv, 11; natural gas, 368. 

Hand, Edward (General), commander 
at Fort Pitt, 11, 157, 171, 183; 
''Squaw campaign," 216-217; 219- 
220, 350. 

Handerson, H. E., acknowledgment 
to, V, 207. 

Handy, Clive C, Jamestown Exposi- 
tion Commissioner, nr, 486. 

Hanging Rock region, The, iv, 8a 

Hanna, Charles A., literary work, i, 
128-129, 225, 226, 227. 

Hanna, Marcus A., Republican leader 
and U. S. Senator, iv, 433-437, 438, 
441, 451, 452, 453; identified with 
development of Lake transportation, 
V, 247. 

Hannaford, E., literary work, v, 26. 

Harbaugh, Thomas Chalmers, literary 
work, V, 62. 

Hard, Curtis V., Colonel in Spanish 
War, IV, 420, 424. 

Hard Cider Campaign, The, iv, 19-43. 

Hardin, John (Captain), spy, killed by 
Indians, 11, 531. 

Hardin, John (Colonel), in Harmar's 
expedition, 11, 513, 514, 516. 

Hardin, Martin D. (Major), officer in 
Warof 1812, in, 273. 

Hardin County, in, 270; share of sur- 
plus revenue, iv, ii; 87, 401. 

Harding, Warren G., candidate for 
Governor, nr, 462, 

Hardy, Charles (Sir), Governor of N.Y^ 
1,311. 



Harker, C. G., Brigadier General m 

Civil War, iv, 256. 
Haikness, Stephen D., manufactnrer, y, 

282. 
Harlan, John M., Justice U. S. Supreme 

Court, decision, iv, 6. 
Harlan, Silas, Captain, u, 269; Major, 

killed at battle of Blue Licks, 382- 

384. 
Harle, James E., Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 57. 
Harlor, J. D., literary work, v, 26. 
Harmar, Josiah (General), reception of 

C^vemor St. Clair at Marietta, n, 

465; names Fort Washington, 480; 

511; expedition and defeat, 513- 

518, 519, 522, 523, 539, 552; in, 43. 
Harmon, F. H., hospital superintendent, 

V, 221. 
Harmon, Judson, nr, 452; Governor, 

461-464, 466; 486. 
Harness Group, The, prehistoric works, 

1,46. 
Harness Mound, The, prehistoric, i, 

64-69. 

Harper, John L., and U. S. Bank, m, 3 1 5. 
Harrican Tom's (or Hurricane Town), 

h 143- 
Harris, Andrew L., Governor, iv, 458- 

460, 486. 
Harris, Martin, Mormon, ni, 416. 
Harris, Mary, first white woman in 

Ohio, I, 238, 241-243, 320. 
Harris, William, surveyor, in, 440. 
Harris, William T., v, 44. 
Harris Line, The, in, 440-445. 
Harrison, 0., iv, 244. 
Harrison, Benjamin (President), nr, 

388, 460. 
Harrison, J. P., medical instructor, v, 

191. 
Harrison, Richard A., State Senator, 

reports conciliatory resolutions, nr, 

153-154; lawyer, v, 109, 137-139. 

148, 152. 



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Harriaon, William, with Washington 
on Ohio journey, i, 490; in Craw- 
ford*t expedition, n, 351, 365; un- 
known fate, 367. 

Harrison, William Henrjr, on works of 
Mound Builders, 1, 17, 20; views of 
Iroquois conquests, 174-177; 11, 475; 
early military services, 538; Lieu- 
tenant under Wayne, 548; signer of 
Greenville Treaty, 556; 563, 567; 
delegate to Congress and Governor 
of Indiana Territory, $9^5975 ni, 
40, 42, 56, 58-61, 70-72; General, 
services in War of 1812, 268-284, 
a87-a94» 301, 30^307; 331. 367, 433» 
45 1 > 454; campaign of 1840 and 
election as President, iv, 19-41; 
death, 42; 97, 337, 460; v, 99, 273. 

Harrison County, 11, 352; share of sur- 
plus revenue, rv, 12; no, 281. 

Harrod, James, Ky. pioneer, ix, 149, 155, 
285. 

Harrod, Thomas (Captain), in Dun- 
more's expedition, 11, 87. 

Harrod, William (Capuin), in Bow- 
man's expedition, 11, 269, 271; under 
George Rogers Clark (misprint), 192. 

Harrodsburgh (or Harrodstown), Ky., 
«» 149, I55» 156, 169, 232, 233, 249, 
269, 285. 

Hart, David, Nathaniel, and Thomas, 
associated with Boone, n, 146. 

Hart, Mary A. (Mrs.), Chicago World's 
Fair, IV, 478. 

Hart, Thomas L., Capuin in Mexican 
War, IV, 56. 

Hartford, Conn., connection with Ohio 
setUement, ii, 455» 45^, S^, 589- 

Hartpence, Mrs. Walter, Chicago 
World's Fair, iv, 478. 

Hartzell, Josiah, member Sute Board 
ofHealth, V, 216. 

Harvard University, archaeological ex- 
plorations, 1, 65, 72. 

Harwood, John H., slave case, v, 106. 



Hasencamp, Oscar, member Sute 

Board of Health, v, 216. 
Hassaurek, Frederick, literary work, 

V, 66. 
Hassler, Edgar W., literary work, n, 

262, 398. 
Hatch, George, Mayor of Cincinnati, 

IV, 183. 
Hawkins, Joseph L., officer in Mexican 

War, IV, 59. 
Hawkins, Martin J., Andrews raider, 

IV, 194, 196, 202. 

Hawkins, Mortimer L., Sheriff, and 

Qncinnati riots, rv, 361. 
Haworth, Paul Leland, literary work, 

V, 26. 
Hawthorne, Julian, v, 76. 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, v, 44. 

Hay, Major, British officer in capture 

of Vincennes, 11, 206. 
Hay, John, SccrcUiy of Sute of U. S., 

IV, 429, 445. 
Hayden, Peter, manufacturer, v, 306. 
Haydn, Hiram Collins, literary work, 

v,3S. 
Hayes, Rutherford B., n, 119; iv, 156; 

General in Civil War, 283; 292; 

first election and adminbtration as 

Governor, 303-308; second term, 

308-309; 329; third election, 334- 

335; President of U. S., 335-338, 

340; 38s, 460, 473» 478; V, 17, III, 

140, 155- 
Hayes, Webb C. (Colonel), researches, 

i,ao5. 
Hayward, Elijah C, Judge of Ohio 

Supreme Court, v, 104. 
Hazen, William B., General in Civil 

War, IV, 256, 282. 
Health, The State Board of, iv, 384, 

459; V, 213-216. 
Heart, Jonathan (Capuin), in Harmar's 

expedition, 11, 516. 
Heaslcy, Henry, manufacturer, v, 320. 



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380 



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Heath, Henry, Confederate General, 
IV, 187. 

Hebrew Unbn Cdlege, The, v, 36, 37. 

Hebron, O., v, 159. 

Heckewelder, David, 11, 15. 

Heckewelder, John, Moravian mission- 
ary, n, 9. 15-31. 140-141, 184-185, 
"3. a54» ^59, »95> »97-298, 301, 303. 
305-306, 322, 331, 372, 532, 573-576. 

Heighway, Samuel, proposed steamboat, 

IV, 490; V, 270. 

Helm, Leonard (Captain), officer under 
George Rogers Clark, 11, 192; com- 
mander at Vincennes, 198; surren- 
der, 206. 

Henderson, Howard A. M., literary 
work, V, 62-63. 

Henderson, Richard, associate of Boone 
and president of Transylvania gov- 
ernment, II, 146-150; 155, 460. 

Hendrick, Mohawk chief, i, 289, 290, 
423. 

Hennepin, Louis, priest and explorer, 
I, 127-140. 

Henry, Alexander, trader, i, 365. 

Henry, John, Governor of Md., Jeffer- 
son's letter on Logan, 11, 113-114. 

Henry, John, British agent, iii, 258. 

Henry, John F., medical instructor, v, 
191. 

Henry, Patrick, 11, 81, 106; Commis- 
sioner for Middle Department, 138; 
Governor of Va., 155, 159, 169, 191. 

Henry County, iii, 441; share of sur- 
plus revenue, iv, 12. 

Hentz, Caroline Lee, literary work, v, 

49. 
Herald of Tnah, The, v, 9. 
Herrick, Henry J., medical instructor, 

V, 209. 

Herrick, Myron T., Governor iv, 453- 

457, 462, 485. 
Herron, John W., member of third 

Constitutional Convention, iv, 320; 

v, 152. 



Herron Ps. Smith, nr, 380. 
Hesperian^ The, iv, 31, 112; v, 9. 
Hesperian Tree, The, v, 71, 77. 
Heulett Machine, The, v, 285. 
Heylin, Jane, subscriber to sword for 

Major Croghan, lu, 299. 
Hiawatha, Indian, i, 98. 
Hibberd, J. F., medical instructor, v, 

190. 
Hickenlooper, Andrew J. (General), 

speech, nr, 359. 
Hickey, on date of admission, m, 151. 
Hieroglyphs, pretended, i, 72-73. 
High Bank, prehistoric works, i, 46. 
Highland County, prehistoric remains, 

I, 12-15; traversed by Gist, 244; 
early punishments, iii, 30; 164, 450^ 
452; share of surplus revenue, rv, 12, 
14; 64; Morgan raiders, 245, 246; 
Women's Temperance Crusade, 330; 
387. 

Hildreth, Richard, on date of admis- 
sion, iii, 151; IV, 24. 
Hildreth, S. P., quoted or referred to, 

II, 153, 219, 457, 460, 462, 519; lU, 
210; V, 20, 92, 266. 

Hill, Charles W., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 284. 

Hill, John W., member State Board of 
Health, v, 216. 

Hillhouse, James (of Conn.), U. S. 
Senator, and charges against Sena- 
tor John Smith, in, 253. 

Haisboro, III, 452; IV, 54, 320, 330. 

Hilltop Forts, prehistoric, i, 2-31. 

Himes, Isaac N., medical instructor, 
V, 208. 

Hindman, James G., medical instruct- 
or, V, 190. 

Hine, L. A., editor, v, 9, 51. 

Hines, Thomas Henry (Captain), Con- 
federate officer, escape frc»n Peni- 
tentiary, nr, 249; connection with 
conspiracies, 265, 266-267, 270. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



381 



Hinkson's (Ruddell's Station, Ry.)* u, 

149. 
Hinman, E. L., v, 201. 
Hinsdale, Burke E., quoted or referred 

to, I, 373-374; n, loi, 579, 588, 

590> 591; IM> "8, 409; literary work, 

V, 22. 
Hipp vs. the State, iv, 532. 
Hiram, O., iii, 404, 408, 409. 
Historical and Philosophical Society of 

Ohio, The, 1, 18, 174; n, 481; in, 3; 

IV, 90; V, 7, 22. 
Historical Society of Michigan, The, i, 

177, 178. 
Hitchcock, Peter, member of second 

Constitutional Convention, iv, 108; 

Judge of Ohio Supreme Court, v, 

104, 130, 144, 155. 
Hitchcock, Reuben, delegate to Peace 

Conference, iv, 155. 
Hoadly, George, member of third Con- 
stitutional Convention, rv, 320; 

Governor, 346-349, 3^0, 364-365; 

defeated, 373-377; 461; v, 109. 
Hoagland, Moses, Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 60. 
Hoar, George F., on the Marietta set- 
tlers, II, 458; IV, 385. 
Hobson, Edward H. (General), pursuit 

of Morgan raiders, iv, 241, 246, 247. 
"Hobson's Choice," 11, 537. 
Hock-Hockin, Indian town, i, 243. 
Hockhocking or Hocking River (Great 

Hockhocking, Big Hockhocking, 

etc.), I, 156, 214, 227, 448, 492; n, 

36, 84-85, 127, 132. 
Hocking County, share of surplus 

revenue, iv, 12; 80, 233, 245; strike, 

364-365. 
Hocking Valley, The, mining troubles, 

IV, 364-365, 407- 
Hocking Valley Savings Institute, The, 

IV, 501. 
Hockingport, site of Fort Gower, 11, 

87, 13a. 



Hoffman, manufacturer, v, 286. 

Hoge, James, Commissioner on educa- 
tion, III, 375. 

Holoomb, Anselm T., member of Legis- 
lature, IV, 92. 

Holden, L. E-, St. Louis Exposition 
Commissbner, iv, 484; journalist, 
V, 16. 

Holder, John (Captain), in Bowman's 
expedition, 11, 269. 

HoUiday, B. W., medical instructor, 
V, 208. 

Holmes, Ensign, commander at old 
Fort Miami, death, i, 402. 

Holmes, Hunter, medical instructor, v, 
208. 

Holmes County, 11, 352; share of surplus 
revenue, iv, 12; Civil War disturb- 
ances, 225, 227-228. 

Holt, Joseph, on preserving the Union, 
rv, 176; Judge Advocate General, 
on the Andrews raiders, iv, 191, 200. 

"Holy Stone," The, pretended hiero- 
glyph, I, 73. 

Hood, Charles C, Brigadier General, 

IV, 428. 

Hooper, Henry, literary work, v, 45, 66. 
Hoover, Charles F., medical instructor, 

V, 208. 

Hoover, Thomas C, v, 201; member 
State Board of Health, 213. 

Hopetown, O., 11, 170. 

Hopetown Group, The, prehistoric 
works, I, 46. 

Hopecan, name for Captain Pipe, Del- 
aware chief, n, 140. 

Hopewell Furnace, The, v, 318-319. 

Hopewell Group, The, prehistoric 
works, I, 47, 69. 

Hopley, Mrs. James M., address, iv, 

453. 

Homell, Lewis, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 52. 

Horton, V. B., delegate to Peace Con- 
ference, IV, 155. 



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382 



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Hotea, Mrt. Robert, literary work, v, 
66. 

Hospitals, V, 219-222. 

Hough, Catharine, subscriber to sword 
for Major Croghan, lu, 299. 

Houghton, manufacturer, v, 314. 

House Rabings, ui, 11. 

Houston, Caleb, manufacturer, v, 305. 

Howard, Benjamin C, Commissioner 
in "Toledo War," in, 442. 

Howard, Curtis C, medical instruct- 
or, V, 201, 202. 

Howard, James Q., literary work, v, 25. 

Howard, John, voyage down the Ohio, 
1, 189-190. 

Howard, Joshua, Lieutenant-Cokmel in 
Mexican War, iv, 6a 

Howard, Lord, Governor of Va., i, 183. 

Howard, Richard L., medical instruct- 
or, V, 192, 202; administratk>n of 
chloroform, 226. 

Howard, shot in Newark riot, iv, 462. 

Howe, Andrew Jackson, medical writer, 

V,32. 

Howe, Eber D., writer on Mormonism, 
V, 409-410. 

Howe, Henry, literary work, v, 14, 19, 
20. 

Howe, Thomas, member of committee 
on canals, in, 342. 

Howells, William Cooper, anti-slavery 
advocate, iv, 125; v, 19. 

Howells, William Dean; iv, 125; on 
Addison P. Russell, v, 41-42; literary 
work, 42-43, 54-57; 76, 78, 79-8a 

Hoyt, Charles, manufacturer, v, 276. 

Hoyt, Mary, wife of Charles R. Sher- 
man, V, 142. 

Huebner, Francis C, literary work, v, 66. 

Hueston, Matthew, director of Miami 
Exporting Company, tv, 49a 

Huffman, B. F., iv, 251. 

Hughes, John C, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 57. 

Hughey, Joseph, soldier, i, 93. 



Hulbert, Archer B., literary work, i, 
227, 281, 490, 494. 

Hull, Abraham F., in, 261. 

Hull, William (General), 11, 568; cam- 
paign and surrender, in, 26i-268;454. 

Hume, A. F., lawyer, iv, 312. 

Humiston, William H., medical in- 
structor, V, 208. 

Humphrey, David, literary work, i, 413. 

Humphrey, George, member of first 
Constitutional Convention, m, 107. 

Hunt, C. B. (Colonel), in Cincinnati 
riots, IV, 360-362; in Spanish War, 
422. 

Hunt, Samuel F., member of third 
Constitutional Convention, rv, 32a 

"Hunter," The, British ship in battle 
of Lake Erie, in, 302. 

Hunter, James, Capuin, in defense of 
Fort Stephenson, in, 293. 

Hunter, Hocking H., Judge of Ohio 
Supreme Court, v, 108, 151. 

Hunter, William, manufacturer, v, 329- 

330. 
Huntington, General, and early State 

proposal, II, 425. 
Huntington, Peletiah W., v, 201. 
Huntington, Samuel, member of first 

Constitutional Convention, m, 107; 

Judge of Supreme Court, 147, 156; 

Governor, 157, 166, 183-184, 450; 

V, 102, 104, 118, 121-124, 126. 
Huron County, part of the FireUnds, 

11, 578. 

Huron Indians, i, 96, 97; eztinctk>n of 
natbnality by the Iroquois, 109-1 10; 
160. 163, 164, 17a, i97» aoo-ao3, 
214; assbt in Braddodi's defeat, 
294; 361, 367, 387, 4I5» 4^1; ", 8. 
202, 506. 

Huron River, The, i, 156; n, 573, 574. 

Hurricane Town, i, 243. 

Husking Bees, in, x6-i8. 

Hussey Reaper, The, v, 325. 

Hutchins, F. E., lawyer, v, 148. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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Hutchins, Thomas, surveyor and geog- Hutchinson, Charles L.» identified with 



raphcr, i, 240.24'» 437, 495; nin- 
ning of Geographer's Line, ii, 419- 
421; 443; advises settlement on 
Muskingum, 455; connection with 
Scioto Company, 490. 



development of Lake transporU- 

tion, V, 247. 
Hyde, Orson, Mormon, lu, 416, 417. 
Hyslop, James Hervey, literary work, 

v,38. 



IBERIA, O., IV, 138. 
Ice Age, supposed remains, i, 3^ 
Illinoia, Sute proposed by Je£Fer- 
son, II, 426. 

Illinob, early ezpbration by the French, 
h 133-143; Clark's conquest for the 
Americans, 11, 189-200; organized by 
Va. Legislature as County of Illinob, 
211; part of Northwest Territory, 
pro-slavery petitions, ni, 51-55; 
removal of Mormons to, 421. 

Illinois Indians, i, 138-139; sanguinary 
conquest by the Iroquois, 141-143; 
145; successful stand against the 
Iroquois, 146-147; »7i. 173, I9^ 
308, 385, 451; ",43,45, 53a- 

Illinois River, The, i, 138, 139, 141, 143, 
146, 195, 353; ", 38, 46. 

Impartial Expositor, The (St. Clairs- 
ville). III, 178. 

Impeachment Proceedings against 
Judges Tod and Pease, in, 157-163; 
V, I 18-123. 

Income Tax Amendment to U. S. Con- 
stitution, IV, 464. 

Indaochaiaie, Indian village, 11, 299, 
300. 

Independent Republican, The (Chilli- 
cothe). III, 178. 

Indian Spring, 11, 391. 

Indiana, organized as Territory, 11, 
596-597; »nd slavery, m, 55-57; 7*, 
102; transfer of canal land by State 
to Ohio, 359. 

Indians, The, theory of descent from 
Mound Builders, i, 77-79; bribes in 
Ohb, 155-179. References to vari- 



ous tribes, Ohio and elsewhere, see 
under following names: Abenaki, 
Adirondack, Algonquin, Amikoue, 
Andaste, Arkansas, Atchatchan- 
gouen, Cahokia, Cat, Cauwba, 
Caughnawaga, Cayuga, Chaouanon, 
Cherokee, Chickasaw, Chippewa, 
Chocuw, Conestoga, Creek, Dako- 
tah, Delaware, Eel River, Erie, Five 
Nations, Fox, Huron, Illinois, Iro- 
quois, Ra8kaskia,Kickapoo,Rilatika, 
Rinisteneaux, Riou, Roroa, Ruskho- 
gean, Leni-Lenape, Loup, Mascoutin, 
Maumee, Mengakonkie, Menom- 
inee, Mesigamea, Mesquatamie, Mi- 
ami, Michigamie, Mingo, Minsi, 
Missasauga, Misseogie, Mohawk, 
Mohegan, Monsey, Monsoni, Mo- 
untee, Nadouessiou, Nanticoke, 
Natchez, Neuter, New England, 
Nipissing, Notuwa, Ojibway, Onei- 
da, Onondaga, Ontastois, Osage, 
Ossauti, Ottawa, Ouamos, Peoria, 
Pepicokia, Petun, Piankeshaw, Pi- 
qua, Pottawattamie, Puan, Sac, 
Sauteaux, Sayges, Seminole, Seneca, 
Shamokin, Shawnee, Shoshone, 
Sioux, Six Natbns, Stockbridge, 
Taensa, Tamaroa, Tawa, Tobacco, 
Tuscarawas, Tuscarora, Twightwce, 
Wampanoag, Wea, Wiaton, Winne- 
bago, Wyandot. 

Industrial Expositions, Cincinnati, v, 
299. 

"Infairs," ni, 19. 

Inflation Bill, The, iv, 332-333- 



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Ingenol, George, member of first grand 

jury, V, 93. 
Ingles, George, captivity, i, 318-319, 

3*3. 
Ingles, Mary (Mrs.)> adventures, i, 317- 

324. 
Ingles, Thomas, captivity, i, 318-319, 

3a3-3a4- 
Ingles, William, escape, i, 318. 
Initiative and Referendum, The, iv, 

465. 
Innes, Harry, on Baker's Cabin a£Pair, 

II, 65. 
IfOiUigencer, The (Marietta), ui, 178. 
Ipswich, Mass., starting place of Mari- 

etu settlers, 11, 456. 
Irick, David, Captain in Mexican War, 

IV, 54. 

Iron, first blast furnace, iii, 168; manu- 
factures in 1840 and 1850, iv, 79-81; 
Lake Superior ores, v, 234, 237-249; 
census statistics of manufacture, 
259; manufactures in leading cities, 
273, 276-281, 283-284, 292-293, 296, 
298, 300-301, 306-308, 3ii-3ii, 314- 
315. 317-3*1. 

Irondequoit, i, 185. 

Ironton, census statistics (1910), v, 263. 

Iroquois Indians (the Five Nations, 
comprising Cayuga, Mohawk, Onei- 
da, Onondaga, and Seneca Indians — 
becoming the Six Nations on acces- 
sion of the Tuscarawas), early 
enmity to the French, i, 91, 96; their 
confederacy, 97-102; conquest of 
Huron, Erie, and other tribes, 109- 



114; 120, 121, 138; conquest of 
Illinois Indians, 141-143; subse- 
quent repulse, 146-147; 160, 162- 
164; conquest of Delawares, 165; 
accession of Tuscarawas to con- 
federacy, 166; 167; controversy 
regarding conquests of Ohio tribes, 
171-179; Iroquois claims of suprem- 
acy and the English, 183-194; 213, 
214, 219, 220, 224, 248, 249, 256, 
289, 302, 303, 306, 308-309, 311, 317, 
334, 338-340, 347, 356, 379, 384, 
398; not generally engaged in Pon- 
tiac's conspiracy, 405; 417, 427-428, 
451, 462-4^4, 471, 490, 491, 492, 
495; II, 7, 8, 13, 14, 16, 35, 36, 40-46, 
47, 73-76, 84, 136-137, 139-141, 145- 
146, 152, 155, 397, 400, 406, 413, 
414-415, 506, 507, 520, 531, 573; 
Moses Qeaveland's treaty, 581- 
582. 

Irvin, William, officer in Mexican War, 
IV, 54, 57. 

Irvine, William (General), n, 311, 317; 
commander of Western Military 
Department, 3^7-3^; 346-347, 35i, 
358, 361, 379, 397-398. 

Irving, Washington, quoted or referred 
to, I, 250, 273, 280, 343, 347; II, 81, 
523, 529. 

Irwin, Richamah, subscriber to sword 
for Major Croghan, ui, 299. 

Irwin, William W., Judge of Ohio 
Supreme Court, v, 104. 

"Island Queen," The, Lake vessel 
seized by Confederates, iv, 275. 



fACKSON, O., Ill, 37. 
Jackson, Andrew, in Burr affair, 
in, 215, 216, 218; 331; President, 
action in "Toledo War," 442-443, 
446; 451; IV, 5, 19, 20, 21, 23; sup- 
ported by Ohio in war on U. S. 
Bank, 494. 



Jackson, Helen Hunt (Mrs.), v, 81. 

Jackson, W. B., quoted, v, 309. 

Jackson County, iii, 270; share of the 
surplus revenue, iv, 12; 26, 80; salt 
industry, 81-82; Morgan raiders, 
246; V, 142. 

Jacksonville, O., iv, 408. 



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Jacob, Indian boy, ii, 336. 

Jacob, John J., literary work, 11, 56, ii8. 

Jacobs, Delaware chief, i, 311. 

Jacques, Wyandot chief, iv, 86, 88. 

James, Alice A. S., literary work, v, 83. 

James, Charlotte, subscriber to sword 
for Major Croghan, iii, 299. 

James, U. P., publisher, y, 6-7. 

Jamestown, Va., settlement, i, 95; ex- 
position, IV, 485-486. 

Jamlet, Lieutenant, killed at Michi- 
limackinac, i, 401. 

Jay, John, 11, 403; treaty, 405; on the 
building of Fort Miami, 543-544; 
558-559. 

Jefferson, Thomas, "Virginia Notes" 
and Baker's Cabin massacre, u, 61, 
64, 66; 81, 82; Logan's speech, iii- 
114, 116-119; 191; Governor of Va., 
278, 306-306; proposes Sute names, 
426-427; Ordinance of 1784, 434, 
436, 543; MI, 40, 65, 66; President, 
77; Ohio statehood and Constitu- 
tion, St. Clair's attitude and re- 
moval, 77, 89, 90, 96-i04» 120-123, 
125-132; 199-202; Burr affair, 222- 
225, 229, 244, 247-248, 253; 260, 
318-319, 323, 324, 331, 336, 430; 
IV, 104. 

Jefferson County, location of lands in 
by Ohio Company of 1748, i, 217, 
481; II, 352, 596; III, 37, 38, 44, 105, 
106, 107, III; share of surplus 
revenue, rv, 12; 26, 311; v, 115, 117. 

Jenkins, William, with Washington in 
mission of 1753-54, i, 270. 

Jenkins, Lieutenant, commander at 
Ouiatanon, made prisoner, i, 401. 

Jeskakake, Indian chief, i, 270. 

Jesuits, The, and Jesuit "Relations," 
I, 104, 106, 110-112, 115-116, 118, 
122, 123, 133-136, 139, 142, 161, 



162, 167, 196-198, 202, 221, 287; 
u, 3-8, 13, 14, 21, 573, 576. 

Jewett, Hugh J., candidate for Gover- 
nor, IV, 177; 228, 229, 236. 

Jewett, John Brown, literary work, v, 

64. 

Jewett, Moses, manufacturer, v, 305. 

Jewett, Susan B., literary work, v, 53. 

Johnny, Capuin, Delaware Indian, i, 
336. 

Johnson, Andrew (President), iv, no, 
302. 

Johnson, Benjamin (Lieutenant), in 
defense of Fort Stephenson, iii, 293. 

Johnson, Guy, i, 366, 463; succeeds Sir 
William, 11, 75-76, 136-137. 

Johnson, James G. (Judge), on Ordi- 
nance of 1787, II, 597. 

Johnson, John (son of Sir William), i, 
336, 417; II, 76, 136-137. 

Johnson, John, Mormon, iii, 416. 

Johnson, Luke, Mormon, in, 416. 

Johnson, Lyman E., Mormon, ui, 416. 

Johnson, Richard M., iv, 43. 

Johnson, Sanders W., Captain in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 52. 

Johnson, Tom L., Mayor of Cleveland, 
IV, 45 1 ; candidate for Governor, 453. 

Johnson, William, Justice of U. S. 
Supreme Court, in, 336. 

Johnson, William (Sir), British super- 
intendent of Indian Affairs, i, 172, 
191, 288-289, 290, 306, 309, 312, 
354; visit to Detroit, 365-368; on 
situation at cbse of French and 
Indian War, 379; 392, 411, 412; 
Niagara conference with Indians, 
415-417; 444, 445, 447, 448, 452; 
reception of Pontiac, 453-454, 457; 
German Flats and Fort Stanwix 
conferences, 461-464; 468, 469; 11, 
30, 40-42; conference at Johnson 
HaU, 44-45; 46, 73-74; death, 75-76; 
183. 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Johnaon, William W., member of Su- 
preme Court Commission, r, iii, 
113. 

Johnson, Mrs., cure of by Joseph Smith, 
Jr., ui, 408-409. 

Johnson vs. Mcintosh, i, 149. 

Johnson Hall, residence of Sir William 
Johnson, 1, 462, 463; 11, 44, 74, 137. 

Johnson's Island (Lake Erie), Con- 
federate plot, IV, 255, 264, 271-277. 

Johnston, James, connection with loca- 
tion of State capital, in, 427. 

Jdinston, John (Colonel), Indian Com- 
missioner, and removal of Wyandot 
Indians, iv, 83-91. 

Joliet, Louis, French explorer, i, 115; 
first known navigator of Lake Erie, 
121-122; 128-129, 133-134. 

Jolly, Henry, 11, 60, 65-66. 

Jonathan Creek, prehistoric remains, 
I, 16-17. 

Joncaire, Charles F. Chabert de, mem- 
ber of Legislature, Northwest Terri- 
tory, III, 37. 

Joncaire, Philippe Thomas, with Celo- 
ron, I, 220, 223, 224; mission to 
Logstown, 230, 248-249; enteruiiu 
Washington at Venango, 270-271; 
287. 

Jones, manufacturer, v, 279. 

Jones, Charles A., literary work, v, 7a 

Jones, David (Rev.), visit to Moravian 
settlements, 11, 26-31. 

Jones, Gabriel, Ky. pioneer, u, 155. 

Jones, James A., Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 60. 

Jones, John D., member of State Board 
of Health, V, 213. 

Jones, Robert Ralston, literary work, 
n, 480, 516. 

Jones, Samuel M., candidate for Gov- 
ernor, IV, 438^4*. 



Jones, Theodore, Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 256. 

Jones, Wells S., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 256. 

Jones, William, Sccreury of the Navy, 
Perry's report to, m, 306. 

Jones Law, The, iv, 537, 539. 

Jonquiere, Marquis de la, Governor of 
Canada, i, 203, 204, 251-252. 

Joseph, Guillaume Louis, member of 
Campagnie du Scioio, 11, 486. 

Joshua, Moravian Indian, 11, 25. 

Journal of Man^ The, v, 30. 

Judah, Henry M. (General), pursuit of 
Morgan raiders, iv, 246, 247. 

Judiciary, The, in the Northwest Terri- 
tory, ni, 28-32, 35; provisions of 
first Constitution, 116-117, 138-139; 
first Supreme Judges, 147; conflict 
with Legislature on constitutionality 
of laws, 155-163; legislative bargain 
of 1848-49, IV, 94-96; change of 
system by second Constitution, 
104-105, 1 1 3-1 14; proposed changes 
by third Constitutional Convention, 
318-319, 322, 323, 324; historical 
contribution by David K. Watson, 
V, 87-109; historical attribution by 
Hon. Moses M. Granger, 109-157. 

Judiciary Building, The, rv, 443. 

Judkins, J. P., medical instructor, v, 
190, 201. 

Judson, E. C, literary work, v, 51-52. 

Juettner, Otto, literary work, v, 32, 
184, 190. 

Julian, Evan, Captain in Mexican War, 

IV, 54. 
Jumonville, Coulon de, French officer, 

I, 279, 282, 285. 
Jumper, The (or Puckschaw), Shawnee 

chief, II, 558. 
Jung, Michael, Moravian minister, n, 

301. 
Jungmann, John, Moravian minister, 

u, 301. 



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387 



KANAGHRAGOrr, Mingo chief, 
I, 367. 

Ranaoougon (Conewango 
Creek), i, 222. 

Ranauga, O., n, 123. 

Ranawha Point, W. Va., 11, 126. 

Ranawha River, The, i, 217, 224, 48 1 ; 11, 
50, 67, 88. See Great Ranawha 
River. 

Rankakee River, The, i, 138, 141, 146. 

Rarg Well, The, natural gas, iv, 367. 

Raskaskia, 111., French pott, i, 364, 451; 
strengthened by English, n, 189- 
190; capture by George Rogers 
Clark, 191-196, 198; 207, 232, 411, 
511; m, 37; petitions against anti- 
slavery article, 51, 52. 

Raskaskia Indians, i, 139, 445-446, 555- 

Raskaskia River, The, i, 364. 

Raskaskunk, Indian town, 11, 2X. 

Rautz, August V., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, nr, 284. 

Rayahoge, site of Cleveland, i, 191. 

Rean, of S. C, member of Congress, 
connection with Ordinance of 1787, 
11, 429. 

Reeler, Lucy Elliot, literary work, i, 
204,205. 

Reenhongsheconsepung ( Whetstone 
River), 11, 37, 3^0. 

Recs, John W., arrest, nr, 187, 214. 

Reifer, J. Warren, Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 283; Major General 
in Spanish War, 426; Chillioothe 
Centennial Commissioner, 451, 452; 
literary work, v, 18. 

Reightughqua, name for Cornstalk, 11, 

39. 
Reissinautchtha, Shawnee chief, i, 439. 
Rell, John Jr., Captain in Mexican War, 

IV, 55. 
Relley, Alfred, public services, m, 345- 

358, 387; 431; in campaign of 1840, 

IV, 27; State banking law of 1845, 

489,499- 



Relley's Island (Lake Erie), 11, 578; 
IV, 275. 

Relly, O. S., manufacturer, v, 328. 

Remper, Dr., speech, iv, 359. 

Remper Barracks, Cincinnati, iv, 217. 

Renapacomaqua (Eel River), n, 521. 

Rennan, Courtland L., Cobnel in Span- 
ish War, rv, 423. 

Rennan, George, literary work, v, 14. 

Renneally, William, officer in Mexican 
War, IV, 59, 61. 

Rennedy, in expedition to Vincennes, 
n, 209. 

Rennedy, James C, Commissioner to 
bring body of General Hamer, iv, 64. 

Rennedy, James H., quoted or referred 
to, II, 583; ni, 407; V, 278. 

Rennedy, Mary (Mrs.), prisoner, n, 
24a 

Rennedy, Robert P., acknowledgment 
to, 11, 561-562. 

Rennedy, Thomas (Colonel), officer 
with Colonel Benjamin Logan, n, 
418. 

Rennon, Newell R., St. Louis Exposi- 
tion Commissioner, iv, 484. 

Rennon, William, lawyer, v, 148. 

Rent, O., II, 265. 

Renton, Simon, scout in Dunmore's 
expedition, 11, 84, 90; Ry. pioneer, 
181; in Claric's Raskaskia expedi- 
tion, 193, 197, 198; captivity, 231- 
249; 269; in Qark's Miami expedi- 
tion, 285:418, 562. 

Renton, Simon B., Capuin in Mexican 
War, IV, 54. 

Rentucky, territory ceded to the Eng- 
lish, I, 465; a portion included in 
Walpole Grant, 470; Daniel Boone's 
migration, 473-475; Draper MSS., 
u, preface; beginnings of settlement 
—"Transylvania," 145-150, ^55; 
"County of Rentucky," 156; In- 
dians capture Boone, 179; Bowman's 
expedition to Ohk>, 269-274; 1 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



cre of the Rogers party, 275; Cap- 
tain Henry Bird's raid, 279-281; 
Bryant's Sution and battle of Blue 
Licks, 3S1-3S5; retaliations on Ohio 
Indians, by Qark, 393-397; Colonel 
Benjamin Logan's Ohio erpeditkn^ 
418; Colonel Robert Patterson, 477- 
478; 511, 512; Ky. troops in Wayne's 
expedition, 544, 553; Massie's set- 
tlers, 593; nx, 50, III, 118, I54-I55» 
278, 297; IV, 77, 121, 129; State 
officials in Columbus, 1860, 151- 
153; 167, 263, 459. 

Kentucky Resolutions, The, iii, 321. 

Kentucky River, The, i, 472; 11, 147, 
148, 521, 557; ni, 71. 

Kenyon College, nr, 259; v, 85. 

Kercheval, Samud, quoted or referred 
to, I, 317, 327; II, 98, 163. 

Kerr, John, connection with kxation 
of Sute capital, iii, 427. 

Kerr, Nancy, subscriber to sword for 
Major Croghan, ni, 299. 

Kessler, Herman, officer in Mexican 
War, IV, 59. 

Kester, Paul, literary woric, v, 66. 

Key, Francis Scott, iii, 251. 

Keys, Margaret, subscriber to sword 
lor Major Croghan, m, 299. 

Kiashuu (Kiasutha, Kyashuta, or 
Guyasutha), Indian chief, i, 296, 
439, 468, 49^494; M» 139, 164-165. 

Kibby, Ephraim (Capub), in Wayne's 
expedition, 11, 529. 

Kidcapoo IndUns, i, 139, 4a5» 449, 45©; 
II, 43, 400, 506, 509, 510, 521, 555, 
566. 

Kilboume, James, early manufacturer, 
▼» 305-306. 

Kilboume, James, candidate for Gov- 
ernor, IV, 449; trustee, v, 201. 

Kilitika Indians, i, 162. 

Killbuck (or Geleiemend), Delaware 
chief, I, 338, 429; at Stanwix con- 
ference (1768), 463; interview of 



Rev. David Jones with, n, 29-30; 

217, 223, 224, 253, 301, 337, 574. 
Killbuck, John, Jr. (son of preceding, 

II, 221. 
Killbuck Creek (or River), i, 238; n, 

354. 
Kimball, Heber C, on building of the 
Kirtland Temple, in, 412-414; con- 
nection with Mormon Church, 416, 

417, 418. 
Kimball, Samuel H., v, 28a 
King, Edward, connection with Baker's 

Cabin massacre, n, 59. 
KJng, Edward A., Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 60. 
King, E. L., medical instructor, v, 208. 
King, Henry Churdiill, literary work, 

V, 34. 

King, John, medical writer, v, 32. 

King, Leicester, candidate for Gov- 
ernor, IV, 48. 

King, Rufus (of Mass., afterward of 
N. Y.), member of Congress, and 
Ordinances of 1784 and 1787, n, 

429» 434-435- 
King, Rufus, "History of Ohio»" i, 

172; II, 435, 537; m, 151; V, 25. 
King, Rufus, president of third Consti- 
tutional Convention, iv, 319; v, 109. 
King, Thomas (Captain), Oneida diic( 

I, 429, 430; n, 42-43; death, 45. 
King, Zenas, manufacturer, v, 280, 281. 
King Beaver, Delaware chief, i, 236, 

338. 
King Beaver's Town, i, 338. 
King George's War, i, 219. 
King's Creek, n, 325. 
Kingsford, William, quoted or referred 

to, I, 278, 285-286, 348. 
Kingsley, Herbert B., Adjutant General, 

IV, 425. 
Kinisteneaux Indians, i, 173. 
Kinkead, Edgar B., l^al writer, v, 31. 
Kinmont, Alexander, literary work, v, 

30. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



389 



Kinney, Coatet, literary work, v, 73, 
75-76. 

Kinnickinnick Creek, 11, 123. 

Kinsman, D. N., medical instructor, v, 
194; president State Board of Regis- 
tration, 217. 

Kiou Indians, i, 145. 

Kirby, Isaac M., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 256. 

Kirk, John, manufacturer, v, 319. 

Kirk, William, murder of, nr, 358. 

Kirker, Thomas, member of first Con- 
stitutional Convention, iii, 107; 
Governor, 166, 183, 253, 450; v, 118. 

Kirkwood, Samuel J., member of 
second Constitutional Convention, 

IV, III. 

Kirtland, O., The Mormons in, ui, 399^ 
403-424. 

Kirtland, Jared P., naturaUst and 
medical instructor, v, 27, 191, 202, 
204, 208, 209. 

Kiscapocoke Clan of Shawnee Indians, 
n,564. 

Kiskakon, Indian village, i, 226, 228. 

Kitchel, John, member of first Consti- 
tutional Convention, iii, 107. 

Kitchell, Aaron (of N. J.), U. S. Sena- 
tor, and slavery in the Northwest 
Territory, ni, 57. 

Kitchen, H. W., medical instructor, v, 
208. 

Kituning, Pa., Indian village, i, 311, 
464; 11, 161. 



Klein, manufacturer, v, 329. 

Knight, George W., secreury James- 
town Exposition Commission, ly, 
486; literary work, v, 23. 

Knight, John (Dr.), in Crawford's ex- 
pedition, II, 35 1 ; capture and escape, 
365, 366.371, 374. 

Knight, Joseph, Mormon, in, 403. 

Knight, William, Andrews raider, iv, 
193. 197, 198, ^02, 

Knights of the Golden Cirde, The, iv, 
225, 263. 

Knott, Proctor, speech, v, 233. 

Knowles, Charies, member of first 
grand jury, v, 93. 

Knowles, H. M., manufacturer, v, 28a 

Know Nothing Party, The, iv, 139, 142. 

Knox, Henry, General, Secretary of 
War, II, 480, 521, 5*8, 542. 

Knox, John Jay, on Bank Law of 1845, 
IV, 489. 

Knox County, n, 596; in, 37, 38; share 
of surplus revenue, iv, 12; 282. 

Kohler, Kaufman, literary work, v, 37. 

Koroa Indians, i, I44»i45* 

Kuert, Julius A., Colonel in Spanish 
War, rv, 422. 

Kumler, P. H., lawyer, iv, 312. 

Kumskaukau, brother of Tecumseh, n, 

564. 

Kuskhoghean Indians, i, 161. 

Kyashuta, see Kiashuta. 

Kyler, George, manufacturer, v, 268. 



1A CHINE, Canadian grant to La 
Salle,!, 118, 119,221. 
La Demoiselle, see Demoiselle. 
La Durante, Chevalier, 11, 561. 
La Force, French officer, i, 271, 279; 
battle with Washington, 280-284; 
speech to Indians, 302. 
La Grand Ri^ere, name for the Cuya- 
hoga, I, 419^*^0. 



La Jonquiere, Marquis de, Governor of 
Canada, i, 203, 204, 251-252. 

La Roche de But, i, 421. 

La Salle, Jean Cavelier (Abbe), Sulpi* 
tian priest, 1, 118. 

La Salle, Rene Robert de, discovery of 
the Ohio River, i, 117-129; other 
explorations and death, 135-148; 
162; V, 231. 



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390 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Ladd, George Trumbull, literary woric, 
▼,38. 

Udus* ReposiUtry^ The, v, 9, 19. 

"Lady Prevoit," The, British ship in 
battle of Lake Erie, iii, 302, 305. 

Lafayette, Ind., i, 401, 449. See Ouia- 
tanon. 

Lafayette, Marquis, on Red Jacket, u, 
414; on the Marietu settlers, 458; 
visit in 1825, ui, 432-434- 

Laird, William, manufacturer, v, 322. 

Laisy, Jacob, medical instructor, v, 208. 

Lake Champlain, i, 96, 100, 371. 

Lake Chauuuqua, i, 127. 

Lake County, the Mormons in, iii, 399, 
403-424; 439; share of surplus 
revenue, iv, 11; 94, 534; v, €6. 

Lake Erie, subyersion of native tribes 
by the Iroquois, i, 109-114; first 
known navigator, 121-122; first 
vessel, the "Griffin," 137-138; Ohio 
watershed of, 155-156; 185; George 
Croghan, early trader, 2 1 1-21 2; Cek>- 
ron, 22X, 228-229; expedition of Ma- 
jor Robert Rogers, 335-361; Cuyler's 
expedition during siege of Detroit, 
391-392; Bradstreet's expedition, 
417-420; Indian tribes on Ohio 
shore, 11, 36; boundary proclaimed 
by St. Qair, 466467; Western Re- 
serve and settlement of Cleveland, 
576-591 ; Perry's victory, xii, 300-307; 
canal connection of Lake Erie and 
Ohio River, 335-363; the boundary 
dispute, or "Toledo War," 438- 
446; Confederate plot, iv, 271-278; 
development of transportation (con- 
tribution by Harvey D. Goulder), 
V, 231-249; 263-265. 

Lake George, i, 100, 354, 413. 

Lake Huron, i, 102, 105, 121, 122, 141, 
178, 185, 192, 362, 400; V, 231-249. 

Lake Maurepas, i, 368. 

Lake Michigan, i, 105, 133, 135, 137- 
138, 163, 191, 399; southern extremi- 



ty fixes Ohk> boundary, m, loi, 438; 
V, 231-249. 

Lake Nipissing, i, 102, 122, 371. 

LakeOnurio, i, 102, 120, 121, 122, 185, 
232. 

Lake Pontchartrain, i, 368. 

Lake St. Qair, i, 121, 122, 386. 

Lake Sandusky, i, 360, 363. 

Lake Simcoe, i, 141, 178. 

Lake Superior, i, 178; n, 136; v, 231-249. 

Lake View School, Collinwood, burning 
of, nr, 459. 

Lake Winnebago, i, 133. 

Lakes, The Great, development of 
transportation on, contribution by 
Harvey D. Goulder, v, 231-249. 

Lakewood, population, v, 262. 

Lamb, Eleanor, subscriber to sword lor 
Major Croghan, in, 299. 

Lancaster, O., Indian town on site ol, 
1, 214, 243; n, 85; Tarhestown, 562- 
563; Zane's Trace, 563; m, 63; 
incorporatkm, 168; iv, 36, 41, 54, 
57, 94, 108, 165; Camp AnderscMi, 
170; 185, 233, a8i, 282, 320, 342; 
natural gas, 368, 369; early bank, 
492; V, 64, 109, 142; census statis- 
tics (1910), 263. 

Lancaster, Pa., councils, etc, i, 192-194, 
219, 249, 302; n, x8; m, x66. 

Landis, Henry G., medical instructor, 
V, 202. 

Lands, Public, services of William H. 
Harrison regarding regulations for 
sales, in, 59-60; grants for canals, 
359-360; for schools, 367, 368. 

Lane, manufacturer, v, 329. 

Lane, Ebenezer, Judge of Ohb Supreme 
Court, V, 104, 130. 

Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, v, 33, 49- 
50. 

Lang, manufacturer, v, 286. 

Langan, Lieutenant, British officer, n, 
506. 

Langham, Elias, member of Legisla- 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



391 



ture. Northwest Territory, ni, 37, 
43, 44, 64, 91. 

Langlade, Charles, French officer, de- 
struction ofPickawillany, i, 252-254; 
takes part in defeat of Braddock, 
294. 

Langston, Charles, Fugitive Slave case, 

IV, 135. 

Large Cat, see Big Cat. 

Larkin, Frederick, literary work, i, 30. 

Latchaw, John R. H., literary work, 

V, 36. 

Latham, William A., Captain in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 54, 57. 

Lathrop, O., iv, 408. 

Latter Day Saints, see Mormons. 

Laughery, Archibald, see Lochry (Archi- 
bald). 

Laulewasikau, see Prophet CThe). 

Laurel Hill, Pa., Washington's battle, 

I, 280, 282, 310; 344. 

Laurens, Henry, Fort Laurens named 

for, II, 226. 
Laval University, Quebec, archives, i, 

205. 
Lavallie, guide, 11, 322. 
Lawaughqua, Shawnee chief, i, 446. 
"Lawrence," The, Perry's flagship, iii, 

301, 303. 304-305- 
Lawrence, William (Judge), v, 144, 156- 

157- 

Lawrence County, ni, 270; iv, 80; v, 
142. 

Lawson, L. M., medical instructor, v, 
190, 191. 

Lawton, Henry W. (General), services 
and death, iv, 426-427. 

"Lawyers' Convention," The, rv, 320. 

Le Boeuf Creek, i, 403. 

Le Chef Grue, name for Tarfie, 11, 560. 

Le Gris, Miami chief, 11, 510. 

Lead Plates, Celoron's, i, 222, 224, 226. 

Lear, Tobias, on Washington's recep- 
tion of news of St. Clair's defeat, 

II, 5a8-5a9- 



Leavitt, H. H. (Judge), and Vallandtg- 
ham case, iv, 219-220. 

Lebanon, incorporation, ni, 168; 179, 
181, 269; the canal, 361; nr, 47, 
311, 480; early bank, 492; v, 25, 116, 

144. 

Lee, Alfred E., quoted or referred to, 
n, 119, 128; IV, 337; v, 305. 

Lee, Arthur, 11, 413. 4iS. 45^- 

Lee, Charles A., medical instructor, v, 
202. 

Lee, Francis Lightfoot, i, 466. 

Lee, Richard Henry, i, 467; n, 106; 
connection with Ordinance of 1787, 
429. 

Lee, Thomas, member of Ohio Land 
Company (1748), i, 216, 218, 467. 

Lee, William, i, 467. 

Leesville, O., 11, 346, 354» 3^6. 

Leet, Daniel, officer in Crawford's 
expedition, II, 351. 

Leggett, Mortimer D., General in Civil 
War, IV, 256, 259, 282. 

Legionville, Pa., n, 537. 

Legislative Council, The, see Council. 

Legislature, The, of Northwest Terri- 
tory, II, 430-431. 596; ni, 35-66, 
81-86, 89-91; powers conferred by 
first Sute Constitution, 11 6-1 17, 
125-126, 136-137; meeting of first 
State Legislature, 147, 150; impeach- 
ment of the Judges, 155-163; v, 98, 
117-122. 

Leiter, Benjamin F., Speaker, iv, 91. 

Leni-Lenape Indians, i, 165. 

Leonard, Benjamin F., lawyer, v, 105. 

"Leopard," The, in, 257. 

Lepper, William D., newspaper pub- 
lisher, III, 179. 

Lernoult, Captain, British commander 
at Detroit, 11, 254, 255, 259, 275. 

Leiy, Chaussegros de, journals, i, 205- 
ao6, 397-398. 

Leslie, Matthew (Lieutenant), in Brad- 
dock's defeat, i, 294. 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Leslie, Lieutenant, British officer at 
Michilimackinac, i, 400. 

Leuit Township, Meigs County, Wash- 
ington's visit, I, 494. 

Lewis, Shawnee chief, in, 288. 

Lewis, Andrew (Colonel), Va. officer, 
"Sandy Creek Voyage," i, 327-328; 
in Grant's defeat, 345; leads division 
in Dunmore's expedition, n, 83, 86- 
91; battle of Point Pleasant, 92-104; 
105. 123-126, 138, 145, 151, 221. 

Lewis, Asahel H., conversation with 
Governor Morrow, ui, 127-128. 

Lewis, Charies (Colonel), in Dunmore's 
expedition, n, 87; in battle of Point 
Pleasant, 93; death, 98. 

Lewis, John (Captain), in Dunmore's 
expedition, 11, 87. 

Lewis, John (Colonel), American officer 
in War of 18 12, in, 274. 

Lewis, Samuel, superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools, ni, 387-393, 395. 

Lewis, Thomas (of Va.), n, 87, 221. 

Lewis, Virgil A., literary work, 11, 83, 
87-90, 102-103, 106, 133, 142, 159, 
171. 

Lewiston Reservoir, The, ui, 36a 

Lexington, Ky., u, 281, 478, 481; in, 
179, »IS, ai8, 219, 224, 355; IV, 
187, 418; V, 269. 

Liberal Republican Movement, The, 
IV, 327. 

Liberty Hall (CindnnatO, lu, 178, 180, 
244; V, 27a 

Liberty Party, The, iv, 48. 

Library, The Sute, in, 431; v, 8-9. 

License for the Sale of Liquors, pro- 
hibited by Constitution of 1851, 
IV, 114, 116; an issue in summoning 
third Constitutional Convention, 
317; proposed amendment and its 
defeat, 323, 325, 326, 330-331; license 
laws before 1851, 507-518. 

Lichtenau, Moravian settlement, n, 
26, 259, 299. 



Licking County, flint quarries, 1, 29; 
prehistoric remains, 36-42; m, 360, 
441; share of surplus revenue, rv, la; 
26, 283; V, 58. 

Licking County Law and Order League, 
The, IV, 462. 

Liddng Creek, prdiistoric remains, i, 
36; 243. 

Licking Reservoir, The, i, 243; m, 36a 

Licking River, The, n, 149, 179, 269, 
276, 280, 285, 289, 381; battle of 
Blue Licks, 382-384; 395, 474, 47»- 
479, 537. 

Licking Summit, The, ni, 259. 

Ligneris, de, French commander, aban- 
donment of Fort Duquesne, i, 346. 

Ligonier, Pa., i, 344; in, 133, 134. . 

Lilly, Michael C, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 56. 

Lima, iv, 443; census statutics (1910), 
V, 262. 

Limestone (now Maysville), Ky., n, 

47a» 475, 479, 5^3, 593- 

Lincoln, Abraham (President), action 
in a Fugitive Slave case, iv, 138- 
139; 155; caU* ^ troops, 159-160^ 
165-166, 184; 205, 209, 210, 216; 
modifies Vallandigham's sentence, 
219, 221; reply to Albany Commit- 
tee, 222-225; reply to commit- 
tee of Ohio Democrats, 229-230; 
254, 279; Ohioans in cabinet and in 
support of administration, 284-185; 
appreciation of "Nasby," v, 68; on 
Fugitive Slave Law and Constitu- 
tion, 136. 

Lincoln, Benjamin (General), n, 398, 

532. 
Link, Francis, Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 59. 
Lippard, George, literary work, v, 52. 
Liquor Legislation, History of, nr, 507- 

541. 
Liquor Manufacture, statistics, v, 259, 
287, 296-298, 300, 303, 309, 312, 317. 



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LiUrary Cadit, The (Cincinnati), lu, 
177; V, 9. 

Liurary Gautu^ The (Cincinnati), v, 9, 
68. 

Literary Sodetiet, early, ni, 175. 

Literature of Ohio, early publications, 
etc., uiy 175-181; contribution, 
"Ohio Literary Men and Women,'* 
by William Henry Venable, v, 3-84. 

Little Beaver, Indian chief, 11, 555. 

Little Beaver Creek, i, 438, 448. 

"Little Belt," The, Britiah ship in 
battle of Lake Erie, iii, 30a, 305. 

Little Carpenter, Cherokee chief, i, 462. 

Little Chillicothe, see Chillicothe, etc. 

Little Grove Creek, i, 491. 

Little Hockhocking River, The, i, 492. 

Little Kanawha River, The, 11, 55. 

Little Miami River, The, prehistoric 
remains, i, 20, 23-31, 35, 45; 156, 163, 
168, 449; II, 228, 233, 269, 27s, 285, 
411; the Symmes tract, 473-475; 
514, 530, 598; 111,8,452. 

Little River, The, 11, 342. 

Little Sandusky River, The, 11, 342, 
355, 360. 

Little Scioto River, The, i, 225, 344. 

Little Turtle, Miami chief, i, 163, 380; 
II, 418; commands in the defeat 
of Harmar, 517; St. Claires defeat, 
521, 522, 527; 538; Wayne's cam- 
paign and battle of Fallen Timbers, 
539-540, 54a, 547-548, 551; atGreen- 
viUe Treaty, 555-55^, 562; 570. 

Little Tymochtee Creek, 11, 368. 

Little Wakut Creek, i, 225. 

Livermore, Mrs. A. D., literary work, 
V.53. 

Livermore, Mary A., address, iv, 386. 

Livingston, Edward Ferrand, literary 
work, I, 413. 

Livingston, Robert R. (Chancellor), 
connection with Ohio Steam Navi- 
gation Company, ni, 184, 185, 188. 



Livingston, William, Govemorof N. J., 
n, 473. 

Lloyd, John Uri, literary work, v, 59. 

Local Option, Governor Herrick and 
the Brannock Bill, iv, 455, 456; 
Governor Pattison's attitude, 457; 
the Rose Law and its operation, 459, 
460, 461; historical review of legis- 
lation, 534-539. 

Lochry, Archibald (Colonel), ezpedi- 
dition, surprise, and death, n, 308- 

3", 325. 
Lochry Creek, Ind., 11, 310. 
Lochry Island (Ohio River), 11, 310. 
Lockboume, O., v, 305. 
Locke, David R., literary work, v, 66, 

67. 
Locke, John (Professor), archaeological 

work, I, 12, 14; medical instructor, 

V, 190. 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, literary work, n, 

19s, 529. 

Lodge, publisher, v, 6. 

Log Cabin Campaign, The, iv, 19-43. 

Logan, O., 11, 85; iv, 54, 501. 

Logan, Mingo chief, 11, 14; placet of 
residence, 35-36; massacre of rela- 
tives at Baker's Cabin, 57-67; 100; 
speech, 109-119; kindness to Ken- 
ton, 245-247; last years and death, 
282^84; 562; ni, 274. 

Logan, Benjamin, 11, 149; Captain, 
in Bowman's Ohio expedition, 269, 
270-271, 273; 288; Colonel, 383, 396- 
397; Mad River expedition, 418; 
562; III, 273. 

Logan, James, secretary to William 
Penn, 11, 62. 

Logan, James (or Sa)rughtowa), brother 
of Mingo chief, 11, 62. 

Logan, James (Captain), Shawnee chief, 
heroic services and death, iii, 271- 

274, 187. 
Logan, John, full name of Logan, the 
Mingo chief, 11, 62. 



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Logan County, Gut's route, i, 244; n, 
37, 239, 379, 56a; in, 341, 360; 
•hare of surplus revenue, iv, 12, 
320; V, 137. 

Logan's Fort, Ky^ 11, X49, 169. 

Logstown, Pa., i, 112; mission of Weiser, 
213-216; Celoron's visit, 224; 227, 
229-230; Gist's visit, 236; 237, 243; 
distribution of gifts by Montour and 
Croghan, 248-249; 250, 254, 255, 
258, 269; Washington's visit, 270; 
302, 338, 438, 491; 11,537. 

London Company, The, i, 94, 95. 

Long, Alexander, candidate for Gov- 
ernor, IV, 291. 

Long, manufacturer, v, 330. 

Long Beach, on Ohb River, 11, 55. 

Long Bottom, O., iii, 435. 

Long House, The, name for the Iroquois, 
1,99-100. 

Long Knives, Indian name for Virgin- 
ians, II, 65. 

Long Run, Ky., 11, 313- 

Long Tree, Indian chief, 11, 507. 

Longfellow, Henry W., u, 5, 6. 

Longstreth, O., iv, 364. 

Longview Sute Hospiul, The, v, 221. 

Longworth, L. R., medical instructor, 
v, 190. 

Longworth, Nicholas, literary work, v, 
66. 

Looker, Othniel, Governor, in, 450; v, 
118. 

Lorain, iv, 443; census statistics (1910), 
v, 262. 

Lorain County, lu, 407; share of sur^ 
plus revenue, iv, 12; 281, 454; 
v, 289. 

Loraine, Graydon J., connection with 
law case, v, 106. 

Loramie (now Berlin), O., 11, 345. 

Loramie, Pierre, n, 396. 

Loramie Reservoir, The, lu, 360. 

Loramie's Creek, i, 226; n, 279, 395. 

Loramie's Store, 11, 396, 557. 



Lord, Ridiard, manufacturer, v, 276. 

Lord, Thomas, assistant-justioe, v, 93. 

Lords of Trade and Planution, The, u 
2X7» 379, 445, 44^, 461, 4^4, 468, 
470^71. 

Losantiville, original name of Cincin- 
nati, II, 478-48a 

Loskiel, George Henry, quoted or re- 
ferred to, II, 14, 20, 23, 25, 69, 33S, 

345, 574. 
Lotteries, m, 61-62. 
Loud Voice, name for the Prophet, n, 

465-466. 
Louisa River, name for Kentudcy 

River, i, 472. 
Louisiana, La Salle's proclamation, i, 

145; 353, 364, 3^; Burr's lands, lu. 

215-216. 
Louisiana Purchase, The, beneficial 

results to Ohio, ni, 169; commem- 
orative exposition at St. Louis, iv, 

483-484. 
Louisburg, the fall of (1745), i, ai9- 
Louisville, Ky., La Salle at, i, 125; n, 

193, 277; founded by George Rogers 

Clark, 278; Fort Slaughter, 279; 

285, 306, 312, 380, 394, 395, 496; 

first steamboat, ni, 189. 
Loup Indians, i, 224. 
Love, George, hospital superintendent, 

v, 211. 
Love, John L., Major in Mexican War, 

IV, 55. 

Loveland, Frank O., legal writer, v, 31. 
Loving, Starling, medical instructor, 

V, 194, 196-197, 200, 201, 202. 
Lowdermilk, Will H., literary work, 

I, 292. 
Lowe, John W., Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 57. 
Lowell, O., IV, 281. 
Lowellville, O., iv, 81; v, 32a 
Lower Blue Lick, Ky., 11, I79* 
Lower Piqua, O., 11, 395. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



395 



Lower Simdusky (now Fremont), i, 418; 
II, 249, a62, 302, 321, 322, 353, 356, 
373» 380; m, 282, 283, 291; defense 
of Fort Stephenson, 292-298; iv, 
52, 56, 60, 85. 

Lower Shawnee Town (now Ports- 
mouth), I, 227, 244, 247, 255-256. 

Lowland Enclosures, prehistoric, i, 
33-56. 

Lowman, John Henry, medical instruct- 
or, V, 208. 

Lowry, Lieutenant, defeat and death, 

n, 537-538. 
Lowry, newspaper publisher, m, 179. 
Loyalhannan (Ligonier), Pa., i, 344, 345. 
Loyola, Ignatius, founder of the Jesuits, 

11,3. 

Lozier, manufacturer, v, 283. 

Lucas, Frederick A. (Prof.), on the 
Ohio prehbtoric dog, i, 63. 

Lucas, Robert, Governor, lu, 43; the 
boundary trouble, 440-447; 450; the 
surplus revenue, iv, 7-8; 302. 

Lucas County, iii, 444; iv, 427, 442. 

Ludlow, Isaac, settler in Symmes Pur- 
chase, n, 592. 

Ludlow, Israel, surveys Symmes Pur- 



chase, II, 474; a founder of Cincin- 
nati, 479; director of Miami Export- 
ing Company, 490. 

Ludlow, John, member of L^islature, 
Northwest Territory, ui, 37, 43, 64. 

Ludlow Springs, O., n, 538. 

Lump on the Head, Indian, iv, 88. 

Lundy, Benjamin, abolitionist, iv, 124- 
126. 

Lundy, Richard, manufacturer, v, 231. 

Lunt, Ezra, member of first grand jury, 

v,93. 

Luray, O., v, 58. 

Luzerne, Captain, 11, 301. 

Lycoming Creek, i, 214. 

Lynch, Charies (Colonel), sale of lands 
to Burr, iii, 215-216, 22a 

Lynx, The (Jean Bapriste Richard ville), 
1,380. 

Lythe, John (Rev.), pioneer Ky. clergy- 
man, II, 15a 

Lytle, William (General), receptbn to 
Lafayette, ni, 433; director of 
Miami E^rting Company, nr, 49a 

Lytle, William H., Captain in Mexican 
War; Brigadier General in Qvil 
War, IV, 283; literary work, v, 71-7*- 



MACHACHEEK (Maguck or 
Mecacheek), Indian village, 
I, 227; II, 239, 243, 255. 
Machingwe, see Big Cat. 
Machiwihilusing, Pa., Indian town, n, 

20. 
Mackatepelicite, Ottawa chief, i, 387, 

389. 
Mackey, Capuin, at Fort Necessity, i, 

284. 
Mackey, James, manufacturer, v, 319. 
Mackinac, i, 163, 164, 205; 11, 405. See 

Michilimackinac. 
Madeod, John J. R., medical]instructor, 

V, 208. 



Macon, Nathaniel (of N. C), letter, 
III, 125-126. 

McAdoo, William, name used in Ballot- 
box Forgery, nr, 393. 

McArthur, Duncan, 111, 6; Colonel and 
General in War of 1812, 261, 265, 
267, 292, 294; Governor, 450; 453- 

454. 
McArthur, Nancy, subscriber to sword 

for Major Croghan, in, I99. 
McBride, Ky. pioneer, kUled at battle 

ofBlueLicks, II, 383. 
McBride, James, literary work, 11, 540; 

v,3i. 
McBryer, Andrew, trader, i, 255. 



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THE RISE AND PRCX5RESS 



McBumey, Andrew G., Uwyer, nr, 312. 
McCabe, C. C. (BUhop), address, nr, 

353. 

M cCarty, Richard (Capuin), in Qark't 
Vincennes expedition, 11, 307, 209. 

McCauley, John, member of Supreme 
Court Committion, v, iii. 

McQannahan, Robert (Capuin), killed 
in battle of Point Pleasant, 11, 98. 

McQellan, George B. (General), as 
commander of Ohio troops, and the 
situation in W. Va., iv, 166-168; 
184, 192, 193; declines nomination 
for Governor, 228; 271, 282. 

McClellan, Robert, scout, 11, 540. 

McQelland, John (Major), in Craw- 
ford's expedition, u, 350; death, 
359; 360. 

McQenehan, John M., officer in Civil 
War, IV, 259. 

McClintick, William T., address, iv, 

McQung, John Alexander, quoted or 
referred to, n, 231, 240-249, 381. 

McCoUoch, Samuel (Cobnel), and 
daughter, in siege of Fort Henry, 
n, 386.387. 

McCbnnellsville, iv, 59, 320. 

McCook, Alexander McD., Major 
General in Civil War, rv, 282. 

McCook, Daniel, Brigadier^General in 
Civil War, iv, 257. 

McCook, George W., Lieutexuuit Col- 
onel in Mexican War and Brigadier 
General in Civil War, iv, 55, 61; 
candidate for Governor, 311; mem- 
ber of Ohio Board of Managers, 
Philadelphia Centennial, 473. 

McCook, Robert L., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 283. 

McCormick, Alexander (Ensign), Brit- 

1^ ish officer, 11, 303. 

McCoy, Jane, subscriber to sword for 
Major Croghan, in, 299. 

McCoy, Robert W., v, 201. 



McCullottgh (or McCuUoch), Samuel 
(Major), at siege of Fort Henry, 
II, 174-176. 

McCullough 9/. Sute of Md., m, 316^ 
320, 324, 326, 328. 

McDonald, Angus (Major), ezpeditkn, 
ih 69-73, 79. 83, 88, 91. 

McDonald, John, quoted or r e fer re d to, 
n, 231, 234-240, 540, S9h 594. 

McDowell, Ephraim, physidan, v, 198. 

McDowell, Irvin, Major General in 
Civil War, iv, 282. 

McElwee, manufacturer, v, 314. 

McEwen, James, manufacturer, v, 320. 

McFarland, Margaret, subscriber to 
sword for Major Croghan, m, 299. 

McFarland, R, W. (Prof.), literary 
work, II, 169. 

McFariand, William, first Treasurer 
of Sute, m, 147; publisher, 180; v, 
102. 

McGahan, Januarius Aloysius, journal- 
ist, v, 14. 

McGary, renegade, 11, 418. 

McGarry, Hugh, Ky. pioneer, at battk 
of Blue Licks, n, 382, 383, 384. 

McGehan, Tom, murder trial, iv, 311. 

McGinnis, George F., Captain in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 57. 

McC^offin, Governor of Ry. (misprint), 
see Magoffin. 

McGregor, Archibald, arrest, iv, 186. 

McGuire, John, with Washington in 
mission of 1753-54, i, 27a 

Mclntire, John, member of first Consti- 
tutional Convention, m, 107. 

Mcintosh, Lachlin (General), American 
commander at Fort Pitt, n, 220; 
223; builds Forts Mcintosh and 
Laurens, 224-226; 254, 255, 257- 
258. 

McKee, Alexander (Captain), n, 19; 
renegade and Brituh partisan, 182, 
183.184, 202, 217, 227, 258, 274, 
^75. *79, 280, 289, 311, 312, 313, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



397 



358, 375, 379. 380, 381, 385, 396, 
418, 521, 53a, 543, 551, ssh 553. 

McKeestown, u, 418. 

McKennqr, Leslie H., Major in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 60. 

McKinley, John, prisoner, killed by 
Indians, 11, 368. 

McKinley, William, at National Repub- 
lican Convention of 1888, iv, 388; 
389; name used in Ballot-boz Forgery, 
392-393; author of McKinley Bill 
as member of Congress, 397-398; 
nomination, election, reflection, and 
administrations as Governor, 400- 
408, 409-410; elected President, 
411; Spanish War, 415-417, 428- 
430; 433, 435, 437; on death of 
John Sherman, 444; reflection as 
President, assassination, and death, 
444-446; 460, 471, 480, 481-483. 

McRinney, Price, identified with devel- 
opment of Lake transportation, v, 

247. 

McKinnon, W. S., Pan-American Ex- 
position Commissioner, iv, 483. 

McKisson, Robert E., Mayor of Qeve- 
land, IV, 436. 

McKnight, Charles, quoted or referred 
to, II, 171, 175, 337. 

McLanberg, Margaret, subscriber to 
sword for Major Croghan, iii, 299. 

McLaughlin, A., connection with loca- 
tion of capital at Columbus, ni, 427. 

McLaughlin, William, Captain in Mexi- 
can War, nr, 55. 

McLean, John, editor and publisher, iii, 
179, 181; Judge of Ohio Supreme 
Court and U. S. Supreme Court, 
V, 104, 116, 130, 156. 

McLean, John R., candidate for Gov- 
ernor, IV, 438-442; V, 16. 

McLean, Nathaniel C, Brigadier Gen- 
eral in Civil War, rv, 257, 283. 

McLean, Robert G., Captain in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 54. 



McLean, Sally, subscriber to sword for 
Major Croghan, in, 299. 

McLean, Washington, newspaper pro- 
prietor, IV, 439. 

McLeish, John L., literary work, v, 66. 

McLellin, William E., Mormon, in, 416. 

McLeod, Norman, letter, i, 457. 

McMahon, William (Major), command- 
er at Fort Recovery, n, 542. 

McMaken, William V., Colond in 
Spanish War, iv, 420, 424. 

McMaster, John Bach, quoted or 
referred to, 11, 471, 479; in, I99- 

McMillan, William, member of Legisla- 
ture, Northwest Territory, in, 37, 
42, 85; candidate for Governor, 146. 

McNemar, Richard, literary work, m, 
181. 

McPherson, James B., Major General 
in Civil War, iv, 256, 282. 

McPherson, John R., name used in 
Ballot-box Forgery, iv, 393. 

McVeigh, Alfred, member of Morgan 
Raid Qaims Commission, iv, 243. 

Mad River, The, Gist's journey, i, 244; 
n, 227, 228, 282, 285, 287, 302, 355; 
Colonel Benjamin Logan's expedi- 
tion, 418; settlement of Dayton, 481- 
482; 562, 564; ni, 346; V, 313. 

Mad River Trappers, campaign of 
1840, IV, 26. 

Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, 
ni, 449; IV, 82. 

Madison, O., v, 66. 

Madison, James, member of Congress, 
connection with Ordinance of 1787, 
II, 429; President, in, 78; Secretary 
of State, correspondence with Gov- 
ernor St. Gair, 129-132; 225; Presi- 
dent, 258, 267, 307, 31^ 324, 450. 

Madison County, traversed by Gist, 
I, 244; share of surplus revenue, 
nr, 12; 26, 69, 245; V, 137. 

Madisonville, O., prehistoric remains, 
I, 70-72. 



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Maginnit, M. N^ Uwyer, vr, 312. 
Magoffin, Beriah, Governor of Kj,, 

•pcech, IV, I51-I53- 
Maguck (Machacheek or Mecacheek), 

1, 227, 239, 243, 255. 
Maguire, manufacturer, v, 329. 
Maheas, Jean Francois Noel, member 

of CoMpagnif du Scioto, u, 486. 
Maher, manufacturer, v, 280. 
Mahigama, Ottawa Indian, i, 388. 
Mahoning County, first blast furnace, 

in, 168; IV, 80, 176, 461, 534. 
Mahoning Furnace, The, first to use 

coal, IV, 81. 
Mahoning River, The, n, 216, 217; v, 

318, 320. 
Mahoning Valley, The, the Salt Springs 

Tract, n, 577; v, 234, 265, 318-319. 
Mahoning Valley Historical Society, 

The, V, 319. 
"Maine," The, iv, 416. 
Maiden, Can., m, 264, 270, 274, 303, 

306; IV, 274. 
Malott, Catherine, wife of Simon Girty, 

n, 278. 
Malott, Peter, n, 277. 
Mamate, wife of Tecumseh, n, 565. 
Manchester, O., originally Massie's 

Station, 11, 593; ni, 44, 45, 46, 73, 

166. 
Manhattan, O., iv, 427. 
Manila, P. I., iv, 427. 
Manitou, Ottawa chief, i, 429; Great 

Spirit of the Indians, n, 5. 
Manly, Robert W., ChiUioothe Cen- 
tennial, IV, 451, 452. 
Manning, Henry, manufacturer, v, 320. 
Mannuoothe, Indian name of John 

Slover, II, 354- 
Mansfield, 11, 354; iv, 55, 97, 166, 283, 

320, 473; V, 17; census sutistics 

(1910), 262. 
Mansfield, Edward D., on date of ad- 

missbn, ui, 151; on Charles Ham- 
mond, 330; IV, 127; Civil War su- 



tutics, 259-260; address at FhiL»» 
delphia Centennial, 474-477; Iheraiy 
work, V, 8, lo-ix. 
Manufactures, primitive, m, 15; ia 
1810, 182; in 1840, 449; in 1850, nr, 
78-81; 368-369, 479-480, 481-483; 
contribution by Opha Moore, "Ohio 
as a Manufacturing State,'' v, 253- 

330. 

"Manuscript Found," The, m, 40a 

Marbury t/. Madison, m, 160-162, 319- 
32a 

March to the Sea, The, Ohioans in, iv, 
256-257. 

Margaret, French, see French Margaret. 

Margaret's Creek, i, 227. 

Margry, Pierre, literary work, i, 123- 
129. 

Marie Antoinette, Marietta named for, 
IV, 461. 

Marietta, Ga., the Andrews raiders, iv, 
194.196. 

Marietta, O., prehistoric remains, i, 
42-43; 126; foundation, n, 454-468; 
472, 501, 518-519. S77. 593; in, 3. 8, 
16, 28, 37, 38, 61, 71, 87, 93, "3, 
164, 165, 168; early newspapers, 
178, 179; Burr af air, 208, 210, 214, 
217, 224, 229, 233-243; 259, 260, 
33Si 369, 370, 373; flood of 183a, 
434; 437; Camp Putnam, iv, 170; 
232, 233; flood of 1884, 354-355; 
Centennial celebration, 385; early 
bank, 491, 498; v, 6, 25, 51, 89; 
organization of court of Northwest 
Territory, 90^; 115, 123, 124; 
census sutistics (19 10), 263; early 
industries, 266-267. 

Marietu College, m, 151; iv, 259; v, 
146. 

MariitU RtgisUr^ The, m, 178. 

Marin, French commander, i, 257, 259^ 
27a 

Marion, iv, 320, 462; census statistict 
(1910), V, 262. 



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Marion County, share of snrplns reve- 
nue, IV, la; 534; v, 14a 
Marlatie, Count, connection with Scioto 

Company, 11, 496. 
Mamesia, Marquis, connection with 

Scioto Company, 11, 496. 
Marquette, Jacques (Father), i, 115, 

133-135. 139, 167. 
Marrett, Samuel, connection with im- 
peachment trial of the judges, v, 

118. 
Marsh (misprinted March), Thomas B., 

Mormon, iii, 416. 
Marshal, James (Colonel), connection 

with Moravian massacre, 11, 527- 

328. 
Marshall, John, Chief Justice of U. S., 

on the rights of discovery, i, 149; 

member of Congress, report leading 

to adjustment of Western Reserve 

question, 11, 590-591; Chief Justice, 

decisions, ui, 160-162, 252, 316-318, 

319, 322, 326-328; V, 119. 
Marshall, N. T., medical instructor, v, 

191. 
Marshall, Orsanius H., on Celoron, i, 

223. 
Marthe, Louis, member of Compagnu 

du Scioto, II, 486. 
Martin, Alexander, Governor of N. C, 

proclamation against Ky. purchase, 

n, 147-148. 
Martin, Charles D., member of Supreme 

Court Commission, v, 11 1. 
Martin, Elizabeth, subscriber to sword 

for Major Croghan, in, 299. 
Martin, Isaac, member of Legislature, 

Northwest Territory, in, 37, 43. 
Martin, Luther, and Logan's speech, 

n, 112-113. 
Martin, Thomas (Major), and Burr 

affair, i, 244-245. 
Martin's Ferry, O., v, 54, 325. 
Martin's Station, Ky., u, 281. 
Martinsburg, W. Va., iv, 255. 



Maryland, i, 183, 192, 284, 289, 336^ 
404, 462; attitude regarding western 
lands, n, 407-408, 410; part in Ohio 
settlement, 598; taxation of U. S. 
Bank, in, 316-318; iv, 77, 119. 

Maryland GautUy The, i, 341-342. 

Marysville, O., iv, 31. 

Mascoutin Indians, i, 425. 

Mason, £. H., Andrews raider, it, 
194, 202. 

Mason, George (Colonel), 11, 164, 191. 

Mason, John S., Lieutenant in Mexican 
War, IV, 61; Brigadier General in 
Civil War, 245, 251, 283. 

Mason, Samuel (Captain), in siege of 
Fort Henry, n, 172, 173. 

Mason, Stevens Thomson, U. S. Sena- 
tor, letter, ui, 88-89; Governor of 
Mich., and boundary question, 441- 

445. 
Masonville, Francois, interpreter, i, 

451- 

Massachusetts, attitude concerning 
western lands, n, 408, 411, 412; 
part in Ohio settlement, 598; in, 
3 ; IV, 77, 386. See Ohio Company of 
Associates. 

Massie, David Meade, literary work, 
II, 593; ni, 50; address, iv, 452. 

Massie, Nathaniel, settlements at Man- 
chester and Chillicothe, 11, 591-594; 
member of Legislature, Northwest 
Territory, m, 37, 44» 45, 4^, 50; 73- 
74; leading promoter of statehood, 
80, 85, 88, 90, 91, 93; charges against 
St. Clair, 94-96; 104; member of 
first Constitutbnal Convention, 107; 
speaker of State Senate, 147; can- 
didate for Governor, 163-164; 250, 

419. 453- 
Massie's Sution (Manchester), O., u, 

593» 594. 
Massillon, iv, 55; v, 221; census sutis- 

tics (1910), 263; 324. 
Massillon Sute Hospital, The, ▼, ssi. 



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Mast, PhincM P^ manufacturer, v, 328. 

Matagorda Bay, Gulf of Meadoo, death 
of La Salle, i, 148. 

Matamorat, Mex^ Ohio troops at, iv, 
56. 

Match Industry, The, v, 323. 

Mather, Samuel, member of Conn. 
Land Company, n, 58a 

Mather, Samuel, manufacturer, v, 279. 

Mather, Samuel H., iv, 50X. 

Mathews, Captain, at battle of Point 
Pleasant, n, 97. 

Mathews, Alfred, literaiy woric, n, 412, 
578. 

Mathews, John, surveyor, u, 452. 

Matson, George H., president of State 
Board of Registration, v, 217. 

MatsoQ, Henry (Rev.)> literary work, 
V, 42. 

Matthew, Lieutenant, killed in Mexican 
War, IV, 53. 

Matthews, John, member of first grand 
jury, V, 93. 

Matthews, Samuel R., Judge, nr, 359. 

Matthews, Stanley, xv, 327; U. S. Sena- 
tor, 337; 340, 34a. 

Maumee Bay, 11, 543. 

Maumee City, 11, 517. 

Maumee Indians, see Miami Indians. 

Maumee River, The i, no, 126, 156; 
"Miami of the Lakes," 163; 164; 
French trading post, 1680-86, 198; 
199-200; French Fort Miami, 201; 
202, 228, 253, 257, 330, 3^^, 380, 
396; Indian capture of old fort, 
402; 4*1, 4*3, 4*4, 451; ", 36-37, 
165, 205, 227, 279, *8i, 405, 416, 
510, 514, 515, 5*2, 540, 541; Britwh 
Fort Miami, 543; Wayne's opera- 
tbns and victory, 545-55*; 557; 
Fort Industry, 560; evacuation of 
British posts, 594; iii, 264, 270, 271; 
Fort Meigs, 275-281, 292; 337; the 
canal, 346, 359; iv, 83; v, 236. 

May, scout, death, 11, 546-547- 



May, William, n, 527. 

Mayer, Brantz, quoted or referred^to, 

n, 100, iio-iii, 118, 282. 
"Mayflower," The, boat of the^Mari- 

etu settlers, n, 456-457. 
Majmard, Alleyne, medical instr u ctor, 

V, 208. 
MajTo, Archibald, address, iv, 452. 
Mayo, Daniel, director of Miami 

Exporting Company, iv, 49a 
Maysville (formerly Limestone), Ky^ 

n, 47*, 593- 

Maxwell, Sidney D., Cindnnati statis- 
tics, V, 300-303. 

Maxwell, William, publisher, ni, 175, 
176, 180; V, 6, 95. 

Means, W. J., medical instructor, v, 
179,201. 

Mechanics' Institute, Hie, Gndnnati, 
v,7. 

Medary, Samuel, editor, iv, 35-36, 98- 
99, 172, 236, 237; V, 16. 

Medicine, writers on, v, 31-32; contri- 
bution, "Medical Ohio," by Dr. 
David Tod Gilliam, 161-227. 

Medill, William, president of second 
Constituticxud Convention, and Gov- 
ernor, nr, 107-108, I4i-i4*» 3*9; 
V, 137. 

Medina County, share of surplus 
revenue, iv, 12; 442; v, 81. 

Meek, Basil, literary work, n, 562. 

Meeks, John (Lieutenant), in defense 
of Fort Stephenson, m, 293. 

Meigs, Josiah, v, 7. 

Meigs, Return Jonathan, Sr., Marietta 
settler, n, 454, 457; m, 87, 259. 

Meigs, Return Jonathan, Jr., member 
of Legislature, Northwest Territoiy, 
m, 37, 41, 64, 80; Judge of (Mno 
Supreme Court, 147; disqualified as 
Governor, 163-165; Burr affair, 234, 
*37, *38; U. S. Senator, 253; Gov- 
ernor, 259-261; Fort Meigs named 



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for, 275; 281, 292, 300, 307, 430, 
450; V, 90, 93, 102, 104. 

Meigs County, Washington's visit, i, 
494; III, 435; share of surplus rev- 
enue, IV, 12; 82; Morgan raiders, 
245, 246. 

Melish, John, visit to Cindnnati, v, 269. 

Mendenhall, George, medical writer 
and instructor, v, 32, 191. 

Mengakonkia Indians, i, 162. 

Mengwe Indians, see Mingo Indians. 

Menominee Indians, i, 115, 164. 

Mentor, O., iii, 403. 

Mer Douce, name for Lake St. Oair, 
I, 122. 

Mercer, George (Colonel), i, 297, 469. 

Mercer County, watershed line, i, 155; 

III, 360; share of surplus revenue, 

IV, 12. 

Meredith, Jesse, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 55. 

Merion, N., warden of Penitentiary, 
IV, 249-250. 

Merry, Anthony, British minister, nego- 
tiations with Burr, iii, 206-207. 

Merry, Earl W., member of Andrews 
Raiders Memorial Commission, nr, 
203. 

Mesigamea Indians, i, 145. 

Mesquatamie (or Musquattime) Indians, 
I, 449, 450. 

Methodists, The, 11, 11, 12; in, 22-27; 
IV, 85, 128. 

Metropotamia, State proposed by Jef- 
ferson, II, 426-427. 

Metz, Abraham, medical instructor, v, 
206. 

Meyer, Lieutenant, i, 398. 

Mexican War, The, iv, 49-68. 

Miami and Erie Canal, The, in, 359- 
36i;v, 264,291, 315. 

Miami Country, The, settlement, 11, 
472-482, 505. 

Miami County, share of surplus rev- 
enue, IV, 12; 25, 91, 166. 



Miami Exporting Company, The, ni, 
169-170; iv,489-49i, 492; V, 270, 273. 

Miami Fort, prehistoric, i, 17-20. 

Miami Indians, i, 115, 142, 143, 146; 
a branch of the Algonquins, 162- 
163; 170; controversy concerning the 
Iroquob conquest, 172-177; 199-204, 
214, 219, 226; visited by Gist, Cro- 
ghan, and Montour, 245-247; 248; 
French destruction of Pickawillany, 
252-254; 255, 301, 308,380; Pontiac's 
conspiracy, 384, 393, 396; 417, 420, 
421; migration to the Maumee, 11, 
36-37; 45, 91, 199» 202, 313, 354, 
400, 506, 508, 509, 510, 517, 522, 
539, 540; battle of Fallen Timbers 
and Greenville Treaty, 551, 554- 
555; III, 280; V, 88. See Piankeshaw 
and Twightwee Indians. 

Miami Medical College, The, v, 177, 
178, 187, 190. 

Miami River, name formerly applied 
to Maumee River; see also Great 
Miami and Little Miami Rivers. 

''Miami Slaughter House,'' The, 11, 
472. 

Miami University, iii, 174; iv, 259; 
V, 40, 83, 185, 198. 

Miami Valley, The, see Miami Country 
and Great and Little Miami Rivers. 

Miamisburg, O., prehistoric remains, 

1,49. 

Miamitown, 11, 510. 

Michigamie Indians, i, 139. 

Michigan, removal of Moravians to, 11, 
573-574; comprised in Northwest 
Territory, 596; in, 102, 105-106, 
107; the boundary question, 438- 

447. 

"Michigan," The, U. S. gunboat. Con- 
federate plot, IV, 271, 274. 

Michigan Historical Society, The, i, 

391, 4^7- 
Michigan Pioneer Collection, The, i, 
387. 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Michigania, State proposed by Je£Fer^ 

son, n, 426. 
Michilimackinac, i, 141, 144, 163, 192, 

252, 308, 353, 362, 363, 365, 385, 

392, 396, 400-401, 417; n, 135, 189, 

201, 405. See Mackinac. 
Mickum, John F., Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 54. 
Middle Baas Island, iv, 275. 
Middle Department of Indians, The, 

n, 137, 153- 

Middlebury, O., v, 322. 

Middleport, O., iv, 356, 403. 

Middletown, ni, 361; census statis- 
tics (1910), V, 263. 

Mielziner, Moses, literary work, v, 37. 

Milan, O., u, 574; iv, 130; v, 230. 

MOes, Nathan H., Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 57. 

Milford, O., nr, 456. 

MQl Creek, tribuury of the Ohio, rv, 

355. 
Mill Creek, tributary of the Scioto, 

I, 225. 
Miller, manufacturer, v, 329. 
Miller, publisher, ni, 179. 
Miller, Christopher, scout, 11, 54a 
Miller, Francis W., writer, 11, 479. 
Miller, Jacob and Lewis, manufacturers, 

v, 325. 
Miller, John (Lieutenant Colonel), iii, 

263; in siege of Fort Meigs, 278, 

280-281. 
Miller, Margaret, subscriber to sword 

for Major Croghan, iii, 299. 
Miller, T. Clarke, medical instructor, 

v, 208; member of Sute Board of 

Health, 213. 
Miller, William, scout, 11, 540. 
Millersburg, O., 11, 354; iv, 56, 6a 
Milles, William T., member Sute 

Board of Health, v, 216. 
Milligan, John, member of first Consti- 
tutional Conventioii, in, 107. 



Millikin, B. L., medical instructor, ▼, 

179. 
Millikin, Lambden P., treason caae, 

IV, 226-227. 
Millikin, Thomas, lawyer, iv, 312. 
Mills, Frederick D. (Major), killed in 

Mexican War, rv, 60. 
Mills, John, member of Ohio Company 

of Associates, n, 445. 
Mills, WOliam C. (Prof.), archcological 

work, I, 52-55, 59-63, 66-69; IV, 485. 
Minavavana, Chippewa chief, i, 365. 
Minch, Philip (Capuin), identified with 

development of Lake transportation, 

v,247. 
Miner, Charies W., Brigadier General, 

IV, 428. 
Mingo, Indian town, 11, 337. 
Mingo Bottom, i, 494; 11, 330, 337, 348, 

351, 352. 361. 

Mingo Cabins, i, 363. 

Mingo Indians, i, 166, 230; take part 
in Braddock's defeat, 294; 337, 338, 
340, 367, 436; at Stanwix confer- 
ence (1768), 463-465; Washington 
on their attitude, 495; n, 14, 28, 
35-37> 57; the Baker's Cabin mas- 
sacre, 58-64; 69, 91; Crawford's de- 
struction of their towns, 126-128; 
129, 139, 164, 165, 170, 181, 186, 
202, 227, 232, 253-255, 259, 261, 
273, 275, 282, 302, 318, 322, 342, 

353.379,538,595. 
Mingo Junction, i, 448. 
Mingo River, The, n, 329. 
Mingo Town, village of the chief Lc^an, 

1, 166, 448, 491; n, 35, 66, 562. 
Mining, beginnings of industry, m, 

167, 449; progress in 1840-50, nr, 

79-82; 476, 479, 481, 484-485. 
Minor, Isaac, Canal Commissioner, m, 

345. 
Minshall, Hiaddeus, Commissioner for 
memorial to Andrews raiders, nr, 
203. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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Minti Indians^ ii, 20. 

Minwha, Shawnee chief, 11, 139. 

Missasauga Indians, i, 178, 415; n, 

199. 

Mississippi Company, The, i, 466-467, 
484. 

Mississippi River, The, De Soto's dis- 
covery, I, 88; Marquette and Joliet, 
133-134; Hennepin, 139; La Salle, 
143-148; confirmed to France by 
Peace of Ryswyck, 184; Howard's 
voyage, 189; Treaty of Utrecht, 190; 
early French forts, 195; 353, 364; 
French and English boundary, 368; 
II, 79; American boundary, 403; 
acquisition by the U. S., ni, 169. 

Missowaquet, King, Seneca chief, i, 253. 

Mitchel, Ormsby M. (General), plans 
Andrews raid, nr, 191, 193, 194-195; 
258, 282; V, It; astronomical 
writings, 28. 

Nfitchell, Alexander M., Colonel in 
Mexican War, iv, 52, 53. 

Mitchell, Charles, lynching of, nr, 411- 
412. 

Mitchell, John, map, i, 205, 230, 238, 
24a 

Mitchell, John, identified with develop- 
ment of Lake transportation, v, 

Mitchell, John G., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 257, 283. 

Mitchell, Robert B., Colonel in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 61. 

Mitchell, Thomas D., medical instruct- 
or, v, 190. 

Mohawk Indians, conflict with Cham- 
plain, I, 96; 100, 187; visit of the 
chiefs to England, 188; 211, 215, 
223, 225, 288, 289, 315, 329, 330; 
in French and Indian War, 334; 
366, 423, 424; II, 21, 84, 128, 137. 
406, 413, 414, 415, 507, 527, 553. 

Mohican, Abraham the, Moravian In- 
dian, murder of, 11, 335. 



Mohican (or (Mohegan) Indians, The, 

I, 160, 175, 213, 215, 329, 340, 436; 

II, 21, 25, 517. 

Mohican River, The, i, 156, 230; n, 354. 
Molino del Rey, Mex., Ohioans at, rv, 

61. 
Molunthe, Shawnee chief, 11, 418. 
Monakatoocha, Oneida chief, i, 270, 

281, 308. See Scarouady. 
Monckton, Robert (General), i, 356. 
Monnett, F. S., Attorney General, 

address, iv, 443. 
Monongahela, Battle of, Braddock's 

defeat, i, 293-298, 310; 11, 17, 88. 
Monongehela River, The, tract of Ohio 

Land Company (1748), i, 217, 218; 

251, 270, 273, 278, 280, 282, 292, 

481, 484, 489; u, 16, 48, 49, 70, 84, 

193. 269, 348, 458. 472. 
Monroe, James, iii, 204; President, nr, 

19. 

Monroe, James, State Senator, nr, 

160. 
Monroe County, share of surplus 

revenue, iv, 12; 245, 356. 
Monsey (Munsey or Munde) Indians, 

a tribe of the Delawares, i, 166, 445; 

n, 21, 22, 140, 141, 164, 217, 277, 

278, 295, 303, 379. See also Wolf 

Clan. 
Monsoni Indians, i, 115. 
Montauk Point, N. Y., Ohio troops at, 

IV, 420, 424. 
Montcalm, Marquis de, i, 347, 455. 
Monterey, Mex., Ohio troops at, rv, 52, 

54, 61, 62, 63, 64. 
Montgomery, Alexander, with Kenton, 

n, 233. 
Montgomery, John (Captain), in Clark's 

Kaskaskia campaign, 11, 193. 
Montgomery, Robert, manufacturer, v, 

318-319. 
Montgomery County, erection, in, 150; 
share of surplus revenue, iv, 12; 26, 
245, 281; v, 112. 



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Montour, Andrew, i, 214; accompanies 
Weiser, Croghan and Gist, 215-216, 
230-231, 236-249; 250, 254, 301; 
accompanies Major Robert Rogers, 
356, 362; 366, 417, 463. 

Montour, Catherine, i, 214-215. 

Montour, Esther, i, 215. 

Montour, John, 11, 127, 297. 

Montour, Louis, i, 215. 

Montreal, Can., i, 91; surrendered by- 
French, 353. 

Montresor, James (Colonel), in Brad- 
street's expedition, i, 414, 416-423, 
426-427, 4*9-431- 

Mooney, James, soldier, 11, 93. 

Moor, August, officer in Mexican War, 

IV, 56, 59, 61. 

Moore, member of Congress, on fugi- 
tive slaves, IV, 129. 

Moore, Charles, quoted, n, 412, 463- 
464. 

Moore, David, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 55. 

Moore, D. H., St. Louis Exposition 
Commissioner, rv, 484. 

Moore, Edward M., medical instructor, 

V, 202. 

Moore, Opha, personal notice, v, 251; 
contribution, '*Ohio as a Manufac- 
turing Sute," 253-330. 

Moore, Robert N., Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 52. 

Moore, Thomas E., literary work, v, 62. 

Moore, William, president Executive 
Council of Pa., 11, 327-328. 

Moore, William H., member of legis- 
lative committee, in, 342. 

Moorhead, John, medical instructor, 
v, 183-186, 191. 

Moorhead, Warren K., literary and 
archaeological work, i, 4, 27-29, 52, 
65-66. 

Moravians, The, i, 337; brief history, 
II, 9-16; establish missions on the 
Tuscarawas in Ohio, 16-31 ; 61,67,68- 



69, 139, 164, 171, 184-185, 221-223, 
225, 278, 295-297; abandonment of 
Licfatenau, 299; Brodhead and the 
Moravians, 300-302; settlements 
broken up by British and Indian 
force and the missionaries and their 
converts uken to northwestern 
Ohb, 302-305; Captives* Town, and 
summons to Detroit, 305-306; before 
de Pcyster at Detroit, and return 
to Captives* Town, 317-319; sub- 
sequent events there, and massacre 
by American militiamen of the 
remaining converts on the Tusca- 
rawas. 319-338; 341, 345, 346, 353» 
371-373; albtment of lands to Mora- 
vian Indians by Congress, 420; so- 
journ in Michigan and Canada, and 
return to the Tuscarawas, 573-577. 

Morgan, Charies, with Washington on 
Ohio journey, i, 490. 

Morgan, Daniel (General), i, 297. 

Morgan, George (Colonel), U. S. 
Indian agent at Fort Pitt, n, 153, 
156, 159, 165, 172, 218, 224. 

Morgan, George W., Colonel in Mexican 
War, IV, 54, 60, 61; Brigadier Gen- 
eral in Civil War, 192, 284; candidate 
for Governor, 292-293. 

Morgan, John, member of Conn. Land 
Company, 11, 580. 

Morgan, John H., Confederate General, 
threatens Cincinnati, rv, 187; raid 
through southern Ind. and Ohk>, 
241-247; capture, 248; escape from 
Penitentiary, 249-251; 255. 

Morgan, publishers, in, 180; v, 6. 

Morgan County, share of surplus rev- 
enue, rv, 12; 82, 245. 

Mormonism in Ohio, m, 399-424. 

Morrey, C. B., medical instructor, y, 
201. 

Morrill, manufacturer, v, 279. 

Morris, David, manufacturer, v, 320. 

Morris, Governor of Pa., i, 306, 311,312. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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Morm, Lewis, Commiasioner of Middle 

Department, ii, 138,139. 
MorriS) Thomas (Capuin), sent on 

mission by Bradstreet, i, 423-436. 
Morris, Thomas, U. S. Senator, iv, 64; 

connection with impeachment of 

Judges, V, 118, 123. 
Morrison, William, slavery petition, 

III, 52. 

Morrow, Jeremiah, supporter of state- 
hood, III, 80, 91; member of first 
Constitutional Convention, 107, 115, 
127-128; member of Congress, 146- 
148; Canal Commissioner, 345; 
Governor, 359, 368, 379, 43a-434» 
447» 450, 4Si» 45^-453; iv, 104. 

Morrow, Josiah, literary work, v, 25. 

Morse, John F., member of Legislature, 
bill for repeal of Black Laws, nr, 94-96. 

Morton, Oliver P., Governor of Ind., 

IV, 237. 

Motantee Indians, i, 145. 

Mott, Frank B. (Colonel), in Cincin- 
nati riots, rv, 361, 362. 

Mound Builders, The, see Prehistoric 

Mound City, prehistoric worics, x» 46. 

Mt. Gilead, O., v, 44. 

Mt. Pleasant, O., iv, 124, 125, 492>'V, 64. 

Mt. Vernon, O., rv, 54, 57, 60; Vallan- 
digham's speech, 2 16, 229; 292; v, 221 . 

Mt. Vernon, Va., Washington's home, 
I, 264-266. 

Mud Creek, 11, 565. 

Mud Eater, The, Indian, iv, 88. 

Muehlberg, William, medical instruct- 
or, V, 190. 

Muller, Philip, Capum in Mexican 
War, rv, 52. 

Munger, Sarah (Mrs.), daughter of 
Shnon Girty, 11, 312. 

Municipal Code, The, nr, 450, 531. 

Munn, Hiram H., literary work, v, 25. 

Murdering Town, i, 272, 

Murdoch, James £., actor and writer, 
v,45. 



Murphy, William S. (General), in cam* 
paign of 1840, IV, 27. 

Murray, C. M., literary work, v, 53. 

Murray, John, see Dunmore (Lord). 

Murray, John (Capuin), killed at battle 
of Point Pleasant, u, 98. 

Murray, Major, British commander at 
Detroit, 11, 512. 

Mushequanockque (or The Turtle), 
Indian chid, i, 257. 

Muskingum, Indian town, i, 236, 241, 
^55, 397; n, 374- 

Muskingum County, in, 342; share of 
surplus revenue, iv, 12; 26, 81; v, 
115, 125, 195. 

Muskingum Express^ The (Zancsvitte), 
ui, 179. 

Muskingum Messenger, The (Zanesville), 
III, 179. 

Muskingum River, The, prdiistoric 
remains, i, 35, 42; 156; trading post 
of George Croghan, 212; Celoron's 
lead plate, 224; 227; visit of Cro^an, 
Montour, and Gist, 230, 236-238; 
330, 338, 3^3» 393; Bouquet's en- 
campments, 437-444; 463; Washing- 
ton at mouth, 492; Post and the 
Moravians, 11, 15, 17, 23, 26, 27, 

i8; 35, 37, ^, 70, 71, 73, 183, 184, 
222, 239, 278, 295, 296, 324, 341, 
345, 346, 352, 354, 415; Fort Har- 
mar, 421; settlement of Marietta, 
454-468; 471-472, 481; Big Bottom 
massacre, 5i8-5i9,' 530, 557; m, 62; 
Burr affair, 217, 224, 229-242; 346; 
Morgan's raid, nr, 247; v, 263; 
early shipbuilding, 266. 

Mussey, R. D., medical instructor, v, 
191. 

Myeerah (or The White Crane), wife 
of Isaac Zane, 11, 561-562. 

Myers, Philip Van Ness, literary work, 

V,24. 

Myers, Tom, murder case, rv, 311. 



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NADOUESSIOU Indians, i, 145. 
Nantiooke Indians, i, 219, 290, 
334; II, 21. 

Napoleon, early aspirations, as related 
by the Marquis D'Hebeoourt, of 
Marietta, n, 496. 

Nasby Papers, The, of David R. Locke, 
V, 68. 

Nash, George K., iv, 409; nomination, 
election, reflection, and administra- 
tions as Governor, 438, 442, 446- 
450; 45a, 456; V, III. 

Nash, Simeon, member of second Con- 
stitutional Convention, iv, iio-iii; 
V, 107. 

Natchez Indians, i, 144, 145. 

Nathaniel, Moravian Indian, n, 139. 

National Bank System, The, similitude 
to the Ohb Sute Bank system, m, 
355-356; IV, 501-502. 

National Republican and Ohio Political 
RigisUr, The, etc (Cincinnati), m, 

177. 
National Road, The, ni, 337; iv, 26. 
Natural Gas, iv, 366-370; v, 265, 266- 

267. 
Nauvoo, 111., The Mormons at, m, 421- 

4*3. 

Navigatbn, early, on the Ohio River, 
m, 183-190; IV, 476; development 
of on the Great Lakes, v, 229-249. 

Naylor, James Ball, literaiy work, v, 
61-62. 

Neal, Henry S., member of third Con- 
stitutional Convention, iv, 32a 

Neal, James £., lawyer, iv, 312. 

Neal, Lawrence T., candidate for 
Governor, iv, 405. 

Neetotwhealemon, Indian chief, 11, 27. 

NeflF, George W., Colond in Civil War, 
IV, 245. 

Negroes, The, i, 243; n, 12; proposal 
for suffrage in first Constitutional 
Convention, ni, 118; the Black 
Laws and their repeal, iv, 93-96; 



second Constitutiooal Convention, 
114-115; the word "white" in the 
Constitution, 304, 308. See Slavery 
and Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and 
Fifteenth Amendments. 
Nehaseemo, brother of Tecumseh, n, 

564. 
Nelson, Samuel, Justice U. S. Supreme 

Court, V, 13a 
Nelsonville, O., rv, 407. 
Nemacolin, Delaware Indian, i, 251; 

n,55. 

Nemacolin*s Path, i, 251, 279; n, 55. 

Netawatwees, Delaware chief, i, 242, 
442; II, 22-24, 69. 

Netherland, Benjamin, at battle of 
Blue Licks, n, 384. 

Neuter Indians, conquest by the Iro- 
quois, I, 109-110; 160; Neutral Na- 
tion preserves independence, 427* 
428. 

Neville, John (Captain), rebuilds Fort 
Pitt, II, 164. 

Neville, Morgan, in Burr affair, m, 
236, 246; V, 48. 

Nevison, William H., medical instruct- 
or, V, 208. 

New Chillioothe, see ChiUioothe, etc. 

New Connecticut, name for the Western 
Reserve, 11, 580, 582, 588. 

Niw Constitution^ The, iv, 98. 

New Com, Indian chief, u, 555. 

"New Departure," The, of the Ohio 
Democracy, iv, 31 1-3 12. 

New England Indian Tribes, i, 114, 143, 
146, 159, 160. 

New Englanders in Ohio, settiement 
and influence, n, 471, 598; m, 3, 8, 
III, 372; IV, 77, 119. See Massa- 
chusetu, Connecticut, Marietta, 
Western Reserve, etc 

New France, i, 91. 

New Gnadenhutten, Mich., n, 573. 

New Haven, O., n, 578. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



407 



New Jersey, settlement luid influence 
of emigranu in Ohio, ii, 598; ui, 
8, III; IV, 77, 119. 

New Lisbon, O., i, 236; m, 179; nr, 
162; capture of General John H. 
Morgan, 248; 282, 283; early bank, 
49a; V, 115. 

New Lisbon Academy, The, iii, 175. 

New London, O., n, 578. 

New Orleans, i, 195, 364, 368; Ohio 
commerce with, ni, 169-170^ 344; 
IV, 490; V, 269^71. 

"New Orleans," The, first Ohio River 
steamboat, ni, 1 84-190; v, 269. 

New Richmond, O., v, 25. 

New River, The, i, 317; 11, 88. 

New Salem, O., the Moravians at, 11, 
574- 

New Schoenbrunn, O., Moravian settle- 
ment, II, 352. 

New York (Colony and Sute), connec- 
tion with events, etc., affecting Ohio 
and the West, i, 183, 189, 284, 289, 
371, 419; n, 408-410; immigrants 
from, ni, 8, 11 1; iv, 77, 119. 

New York Colonial Documents, i, 1289 
382, 448, 464; II, 40, 57. 

New York Historical Society, The, i, 

172, 414- 
Newark, prehistoric remains in and 

near, i, 36^, 73; the canal, iii, 

359; IV, 54, 57; natural gas, 368; 

443; riot, 462-463; V, 64; census 

sutbtics (1910), 262; 274. 
Newberry, Henry, v, 278. 
Newberry, John Strong, scientist, v, 

27-28. 
Newberry, Roger, member of Conn. 

Land Company, u, 580. 
Newburgh (N. Y.) Addresses, The, 

written by John Armstrong, 11, 463. 
Newburgh, O., v. 227. 



*New Comerstown, O., i, 227, 242; n, 

22, 27, 28-29, 300. 
Newport, Ky., in, 244-245, 284, 437; 

IV, 190-19 1. 
Newspapers, early, m, 175-179; and 

journalists, v, 8-16. 
Newton, Mary, wife of Simon Girty, Sr., 

II, 160-161. 
Newtown, O., v, 64, 182. 
Neyon, French officer, and Pontiac, i, 

39i» 395- 
Niagara, see Fort Niagara. 
''Niagara," The, American ship in 

battle of Lake Erie, ni, 301, ^05, 306. 
Niagara Falls, i, 415; nr, 231; v, 231, 

232, 237. See Fort Schlosser. 
Niagara River, The, i, 109, 127, 137, 

I95» 415; V, 231- 
Nicholson, Joseph, with Washington 

on Ohio journey, i, 490, 491. 
Nicholson, Thomas, interpreter, u, 106. 
Nickaroondase, Indian, u, 42, 45. 
Nickles, Samuel, medical instructor, v, 

190, 191. 
Nicolas (or Orontony), Huron chief, 

conspiracy, i, 200-204, 211; 397. 
Nicolet, Jean, French explorer, i, 105- 

106. 
Night Riders, The, nr, 459. 
Niles, manufacturers, v, 296, 33a 
Niley National Register^ iv, 4a 
Nimmo, Matthew, and Burr affair, m, 

232, 234-235. 
Ninivois, Fox chief, i, 387. 
Nipissing Indians, i, 115, 224. 
Nitachinon, name for Philippe Thomas 

Joncaire, i, 221. 
Nitschmann, David, Moravian Bishop, 

II, 10, II. 
Noble, Henry C, lawyer, v, 149, 152. 
Noble, John W., address, iv, 485. 



* Hiis is the U. S. official form. In the text the name is variously printed. 



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408 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Noble Couaty, Civil War diaturbances, 
IV, 213, 225, 227; 245; petroleum and 
gas first found, 366; v, 154, 155, 266. 

Noles, Asbury F,, Capuin in Mexican 
War, IV, 55. 

North Baltimore, O., iv, 368. 

North Bend, O., i, 17; settlement, u, 
47S; IV, 22, 23, 37, 39, 97; v, 78. 

North Carolina, i, 336; u, 407; lu, 154- 
155; IV, 124. 

Northern Department of Indians, The, 

n, 137. 
Northwest Territory, The, becomes 
English, I, 370; provisions of Quebec 
Act, u, 79-80; efiFects of battle of 
Point Pleasant, 103; acquisition by 
U. S. and subsequent transactions, 
403-421; Ordinance of 1787, 425- 
436; Ohio Company of Associates, 
439-468; Symmes Purchase and 
the French Colony, 471-500; post- 
Revolution campaigns, 505-534; 
battle of Fallen Timbers and 
Greenville Treaty, 537-570; Western 



Reserve, 576-592; other settknients 
and summary, 592-600; piooeer life, 
social conditions, and history to 
adoption of Ohio Constitution, m, 
3-141; Centennial celebrations, iv, 
385-386; liquor reguIaticMis and legis- 
lation, 507-512, 521-523; judidaiy, 
etc, v, 87-101. 

Norton, Aaron, manufacturer, v, 322. 

Norton, D. Z., identified widi develop- 
ment of Lake transportatiosi, v, 
247. 

Norton, Sidney A., medical inttmctor, 
V, 202, 

Norwalk, u, 578; rv, 60, 320; v, 14. 

Norwood, census statistics (1910), v, 
262. 

Notuwa Indians, i, 312. 

Noyes, Edward F., Governor, iv, 312, 
326-327, 328; defeated for rejection, 
329; 330, 473. 

Nye, Ichabod (Colonel), Marietu 
settler, v, 266. 



O'BAIL (or O'Bed), John, trader, 

Oberlin and Oberlin College, the 
Spaulding MS., m, 401; Oberlin- 
Wellington Rescue case, iv, 134-138; 
160, 259, 291; "Oberlin Letter" to 
General Cox, 294-297; 454, 480; v, 

^3, 33, 34, 4a, 44, 45- 

Oconostota, Cherokee chief, 11, 147. 

October Elections, The, ly, 349; abol- 
ished, 376-377- 

Odlin, P., member of legislative com- 
mittee on military arrests, iv, 186. 

Oesterfin, Charles, and Findlay gas, iv, 
367. 

Ogden, Lieutenant, with Sir William 
Johnson, 1, 366. 

Ogg, Frederic Austin, literary work, i, 
134- 



Ogle, Charles, speech in Congress, rv, 
28. 

Ogle (or Ogal), Joseph (Capuin), in 
siege of Fort Henry, n, 172-173. 

Oglebay, E. W., identified with develop- 
ment of Lake transporUtxon, v, 247. 

Oglethorpe, James, n, 10. 

Ogontz, Ottawa chief, n, 7. 

Ohio (Historical Abstract), archaeology, 
h 3-79; the Frendi in Canada, and 
their early discoveries and explora- 
tions, 91-117; La Salle and dis- 
covery of Ohio River, 117-129; 
continuation of westward explora- 
tions by the French, 135-135; fest 
navigation of Lake Erie, 137-138; 
La Salle's later career and tragic 
death, 138-148; Indian tribes, 155- 
179; En^sh colonial governments, 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



409 



Indians, and beginnings of English- 
French rivalry for the west, 185-207; 
missions of Weiser, Croghan, and 
Montour for the English, organiza- 
tion of Ohio Land Company (of 
Va.), and Celoron's Ohio River 
expedition for the French (1748^^9), 
2 1 1-23 1 ; Qiristopher Gist's Ohio 
journey, 235-250; French activity, 
and the chain of forts, 251-259; 
Washington's mission on behalf of 
Va. (i753-54)» *^3-a74; the fort at 
the Ohio Forks, Washington's battle 
at Laurel Hill and capitulation 
of Fort Necessity, and Braddock's 
expedition and defeat, 277-298; 
French and Indian War, and end 
of Frendi dominion, 301-349; expe- 
dition of Major Robert Rogers to 
take possession of the poets, 353- 
364; the British and the Indians — 
Pontiac's War — events to 1764, 
364-408; Bradstreet's expedition to 
Detroit, via Lake Erie, 411-432; 
Bouquet's expedition to C^io, and 
submission of the tribes, 43 5*445 » 
various Indian transactions, Ohio 
settlement schemes, and advent of 
Boone in Ky., 446-476; Washington's 
Ohio journey (1770), 479-496; mis- 
sionary settlements of Moravians, 
Sounded in Ohio in 1772, 11, 3-31; 
Ohio Indian confederacy — Corn- 
stalk, 35-51; Cresap's and Dunmore's 
Wars, the Chief Logan, and events 
to 1775, 55-142; American Revolu- 
tion in and as affecting Ohio (refer 
especially to following: Kentucky, 
Fort Pitt, Fort Henry, Fort Mcin- 
tosh^ Fort Laurens, DetrcHt, George 
Rogers Qark, John Bowman, Dan- 
id Brodhead, Moravians, and Wil- 
liam Crawiord), 145-400; North- 
west Territory and Ordinance of 
I787> 403-436; Ohio Company of 



Associates and settlement of Mari- 
etu (1788), 439^68; settlements of 
Cincinnati and Gallipolis, 471-501; 
Indian disturbances, expeditions of 
Harmar, St. Clair, and Wayne, and 
Treaty of Greenville (1795), 505- 
570; Western Reserve and other 
settlements, and summary of b^n- 
nings of the Sute, 573-600; pioneer 
life, social conditions, etc., and 
political history to adoption of Con- 
stitution (1802), ui, 3-141; organiza- 
tion of State government (March 
I, 1803), first State administrations, 
etc., 145-190; Burr affair, i93-a54; 
War of 181 2 — si^e of Fort Meigs, 
Dudley's defeat, Franklinton Coun- 
cil, defense of Fort Stephenson, and 
battle of Lake Erie, 257-308; the 
U. S. Bank, 311-331; canals and 
common schoc^, 335-396; the Mor- 
mons, 399-424; Columbus the per- 
manent capital, visit of Lafayette, 
flood of 1832, Toledo War, and 
sketches of Governors, to 1837, 
427-455; surplus revenue, rv, 3-16; 
campaign of 1840, 19-43; Mexican 
War, 47-71; men and events to 185 1, 
75-116; anti-slavery, etc, 1 19-145; 
Civil War, 149-285; men and events 
to 1871, 289-313; men and events 
to 1884, 317-349; events of 1884, 
353-370; men and events to 1898, 
373-412; Spanish War, 415-430; men 
and evenu to 191 2, 433-467; Ohio 
in national expositions, 471-486; 
banks and banking, 489-503; liquor 
legislation, 507-541; literature, v, 
3-84; judiciary, 87-157; medicine, 
161-227; transportation on Great 
Lakes, 231-249; manufacturing, 253- 
330. 
Ohio and Erie Canal, The, m, 360-361; 
v, 264-265, 275, 305, 322, 324. 



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410 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Ohio Jrchaological and Historical Quot' 
Urly, The, v, ai, 43. 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Society, The, see Ohio Sute Archae- 
ological and Historical Society. 

Ohio Centinely The (Dayton), ni, 179. 

Ohio Church History Society, The, v, 

33. 

Ohio Company of Associates, The, i, 240; 
connection with Ordinance of 1787, 
principal members, etc., ni, 428- 
454; settlement of Marietta, 458- 
468; 472, 473; relations to Scioto 
Company, 487, 493, 495, 499, 501; 
587, 598; in, 8, 59, 369-370. 

Ohio EagU, The (Lancaster), iv, 233. 

Ohio Federalist, The (St. Qairsville), 
IV, 124; V, ID. 

Ohio Forks, The, Indians grant pennis- 
sion for fort— Christopher Gist's 
fortified post near, i, 250; building 
of En^ish fort and seizure and com- 
pletion by French, 277-279. See 
Fort Duquesne, Fort Pitt, and Fort 
Dunmore. 

Ohio Gazette and Virginia Herald^ The 
(Marietu), in, 178. 

Ohio Geological Reports, i, 12; iv, 367. 

Ohio Historical and Philosophical So- 
ciety, The, see Historical and Philo- 
sophical Society of Ohio. 

Ohio Land Company (of Va., 1748), 
I, 216-218, 220, 231; sends Gist, 
235; 250, 259, 268, 269, 277-278, 
314, 343, 365, 465-470, 480-481, 483, 
484, 488; n, 55. 

Ohio Life and Trust Company, The, 

IV, 499, 501. 

Ohio Magazine, The, v, 309, 328. 

Ohio Medical College, The (Cincinnati), 

V, 159, 177, 178, 181-191. 

Ohio Medical Society, The, v, 196, 211- 

212. 
Ohio Medical University, The, v, 201. 
Ohio Patriot^ The (New Lisbon), in, 179. 



Ohio River, The, prehistoric remains, 
I, 19, 44; discovery, 1 17-129; Mar- 
quette and Joliet at mouth, 133- 
134; reference by La Salle in LouisH 
ana proclamation of possession, 145; 
confinned to France by Peace of 
Ryswick (1697), 185; Howard's 
voyage, 189; Iroquois daims, 191- 
192; Logstown, 213; Ohio Land 
Company's tract, 217; CBoron't 
navigation, 220-231; various names, 
145, 223; Gut's mission, 236; Gist 
at present Portsmouth, 244, 247; 
Gist's trading post, 250; the fort at 
the Forks, 250, 277-279; Hutchins's 
map,437-438; 480-481; Washington's 
lands and his journey of 1770, 488- 
496; Moravians, 11, 22; 35; Captina 
Creek and Baker's Cabin affairs, 
56-59; expedition of Major Angus 
McDonald, 70-72; Dunmore's expe- 
dition and Fort Gower, 84-^5; battle 
of Point Pleasant, 89; Fort Fin- 
castle, afterward Fort Henry, 169; 
Clark's Raskaskia expedition, 193- 
194; Clark's gunboat, the "Willing,'* 
207; 261 ; slaughter of party of David 
Rogers, 275; 278, 279-280; first 
buildings on site of Cincinnati, 285; 
Gark's projected Detroit expedi- 
tion, and slaughter of Lochry's 
deuchment, 308-311; Qark's "man 
of war," 394; Va. Military District, 
411; Fort Harmar, 421; lands of 
Ohio Company of Associates and 
settlement of Marietta, 452-468; 
Symmes Purchase and settlement 
of Cincinnati, 472-480; Scioto Com- 
pany, settlement of Gallipolis, and 
French Grant, 482-501; Massie's 
Sution (Manchester), 593; in, 77^ 
170; first steamboat, 184-190; Bloi- 
nerhassett's Island, and Burr affair, 
208-213, 229-247; canal connections 
with Lake Erie, 336-363; Lafajrette's 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



411 



visit, 433; flood of 1832, 434-438; 
fugitive slaves, and public send* 
ment along the river, iv, 121-123, 
128, 130; War times, 167, 188-191, 
241-248; floods of 1883 and 1884, 
353*357; influence upon material 
development, v, 263-265; early ship- 
building, 269, 293^ 

Ohio Society of Colonial wars. The, n, 
480. 

Ohio Stat^fe Archaeological and Historical 
Society, The, i, 23, 53, 61, (^, 126, 
127, 204, 227, 490; II, 9, 169, 3*6, 
461, 486; III, 153, 232; IV, 451, 
453, 474, 480, 485, 486; V, 17, 21, 34. 

Ohio Sute Bar Association, The, v, 

149, 15*. 
Ohio State Hospital for Epileptics, The, 

V, 221. 
Ohio Suae Journal, The (Columbus), rv, 

71, 88, 139, 237; V, 79, 80. 
Ohio State Library, The, founded by 

Governor Worthington, in, 431; 

V, 8-9, 43. 
Ohio State Sanitary Association, The, 

V, 213. 
Ohio State University (Columbus), iv, 

309, 338, 479; V, 23. 
Ohio Statesman, The (Columbus), iv, 

35.36, 98, 172. 
Ohio Steamboat Navigation Company, 

The, III, 184-188. 
Ohio Territory, 11, 597. 
Ohio University (Athens), iii, 62, 173, 

174; IV, 259; V, 23, 40. 
Ohio Wesleyan University, nr, 259, 457; 

V, 35, 207. 
(Ml, see Petroleum. 
Ojibway (or Chippewa) Indians, i, 294, 

330, 332, 340; in Pontiac's conspira- 
cy, 383, 385, 389, 39a, 393, 394, ¥^ 

406; 415, 417, 421. 
Olcott, Oliver, U. S. representative at 

Stanwix conference (1784), 11, 413. 
Old Britain (or La Demoiselle), Miami 



chief, Celoron's visit, i, 226-227; 
visit of Gist and the French embas- 
sadors, 245-247; death, 253-254; 256. 

Old ChiUicothe, see Chillicothe, etc. 

Old Forge (Akron), v, 322. 

Old Northwest, The, i, 373; n, loi, 579. 

"Old Roman, " The, Allen G. Thurman, 
iv, 344- 

Old Shawnee Town, u, 92. 

Old Tobacco, Indian chief, n, 198. 

Old Town, various Indian villages, i, 
438; n, 170, 233, 269, 286, 472, 514, 
515. See Chillicothe and Xenia. 

Old Wyandot Town, i, 440. 

Olden Time, The, i, 274; n, 113. 

Olds, Edson B. (Dr.), arrest, nr, 185, 
186; causes arrest of Governor Tod, 
214. 

O'Leary, Charles, medical instructor, 
V, 190. 

Olentangy, Battle of, 11, 360-361, 366. 

Olenungy River, The, prehistoric re- 
mains, I, 45, 48; 225, 330; confusion 
of names — the Big Darby and the 
Whetstone, 11, 36-37; 227, 282, 342, 
355, 360-361, 595. 

Olighiny-Sipou, name for the Allegheny, 
I, 125. 

Oliver, Daniel, medical instructor, v, 
191. 

Oliver, Robert, member of Legislative 
Council, II, 596; III, 38, 89; V, 100. 

Omee, name for Maumee River, u, 514. 

Oneida, O., i, 236. 

Oneida Indians, i, 100, 187, 214, 215, 
223, 270, 304, 306, 334, 366, 429, 
430; II, 13, 137. 

O'Neill, Kelley, lawyer, nr, 311. 

Ongwaterohiathe, see Shikellamy. 

Onondaga, seat of Iroquois confederacy, 
I, ICO, 124, 290, 303; II, 13, 14, 15, 

64. 
Onondaga Indians, i, 100, 185, 191, 194, 
215, 223, 225, 288, 334, 338; n, 13, 
21, 137, 154, 413. 



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412 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Ontattois Indians, i, iio. 

Opdycke, Emenon, Brigadier General 
in Civil War, nr, 257, 283. 

"Open Door," The, see Prophet. 

Opper, Frederick Burr, cartoonist, v, 66. 

Opossum Mound, The, i, 39. 

Ordinance of 1784, The, 11, 416-428. 

Ordinance of 1787, The, introduction, 
provisions, and circumstances attend- 
ing passage, n, 4^8-436, 449. 505- 
506; 597; IK, a8, 30, 35-36, 44-45; 
petitions for modification of anti- 
slavery article, 50-58; 367, 368, 438; 
IV, 119; V, 87-88. 

Oregon Plan of electing U. S. Senators, 
IV, 465. 

Orme, Robert (Capuin), oa Braddock's 
defeat, i, 295. 

Orontio, Indian name for the Canadian 
Governor, i, 143. 

Orontony, Huron chief, i, 200, 203. 

Orr, Rebecca M., subscriber to sword 
for Nfajor Croghan, in, 299. 

Orr, Robert (Capuin), in Lochry party, 
n, 308. 

Orr, Thomas, m, 315. 

Orth, Samuel P., quoted, v, 277, 278- 
281, 282, 285-286. 

Osage Indians, i, 415. 

Osbom, Charles, abolitionist, rv, 124, 
125. 

Osbom, Ralph, Auditor of State, ni, 
315. 318; U. S. Bank case, 323-328. 

Osgood, Samuel, contract on behalf of 
U. S. concerning Ohio lands, 11, 452. 

Ossauti Indians, 1, 140. 

Otiniwata, Indian village, i, 1 21-124. 

Otis, William A., manufacturer, v, 279. 



Otsandoske, name for Sandusky, i, 200, 

397. 

Otuwa County, share of surphia rev- 
enue, IV, 12. 

Ottawa Indians, i, 164, 172, 175, 201, 
224, 228, 236; embassy to Pidu- 
wiUany on behalf of French, 245- 
246; 252-253; take part in Brad- 
dock's defeat, 294; 330» 33*. 3¥^ 
356, 360, 362, 366; attitude de- 
scribed by Sir William Johnsoa, 379; 
Pontiac and his conspiracy, 380, 
381, 383, 386^395, 406; 415-416, 
420, 421, 424, 427, 429, 436, 442; 
n, 7, 3^, 45, 9h I39, 164, 170, 181, 
199, 379*400; Fort Mcintosh Treaty, 
415-416; 506; Fort Harmar Treaty, 
507-508; Greenville Treaty, 554-555; 
III, 272-273. 

Otuwa River, The, i, 115, 1 18, 121, 164; 
various streams so called, 380. 

OtUwawa, name for LakeHuion, i, 185. 

Otter Creek, 11, 148. 

Otterbein University, v, 251. 

Ovabache, name for Wabash River, i, 
126, 401; II, 205. 

Ouabos-Kiau, name for Ohio River, i, 
126, 134. 

Ouamos Indians, i, 144. 

Ouiatenon (Lafayette, Ind.), i, 396^ 401, 
449-501; n, 205; destructioB, 521. 

Ouitenon Indians, 11, 509. 

Owandot's Town, name for Coshocton, 
I, 23a 

Owens, manufacturer, v, 329. 

Owl Creek, 11, 355. 

Oxford, O., in, 174. 

Oyo, name for Ohio River, i, 119. 



F 



CKISHENOAH, father of Te- 
cumseh, n, 91; death, 98. 
Page, William Herbert, legal 
writer, V, 31. 



Painesville, O, ni, 183, 184, 419; nr, 109; 

V, 38, 124, 14^ 
PainesvUle TeUgrapk^ The, ni, 401, 410, 
Paint Creek, prehistoric remams, i. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



413 



10, 45-47, 48, 61, 69; 226; II, 26, 27, 

232, 511, 593. 
Pakanke, Delaware chief, 11, 21. 
Paleoliths, i, 4-5. 

Palmer, CD., medical instructor, v, 191. 
Palmer, Joseph, murderer, iv, 358, 360. 
Palmer Springs, O., watershed line, i, 

156; II, 342. 
Palmyra, N. Y., publication of Book of 

Mormon, ni, 400. 
Palo Alto, Mez., Ohio troops at, iv, 61. 
Pan-American Exposition^ The, iv, 445, 

471, 483. 
Panic of 1837, The, nr, 21, 496; of 1873, 

3*7- 
Panther, Indian chief, 11, 566. 
Papunhank, Moravian convert, 11, 

20-21. 
Paqua, Indian chief, 11, 583. 
Parcels, Peter, newspaper publisher, 

III, 178. 
Parent's Creek (Bloody Run), Mich., 

I, 390, 394- 

Paris (France), Treaty of, 1763, i, 368; 
1783, II, 403-406. 

Parker, Charles B., medical instructor, 
V, 208. 

Parkersburg, W. Va., iv, 168. 

Parkman, Francis, quoted or referred 
to, I, 115, 124-125, 126, 127, 129, 
137, 146, 253, 280, 287, 310, 334, 
342, 345, 359, 363, 387, 412, 414, 
422, 439; II, 569. 

Parrott, Jacob, Andrews raider, rv, 194, 
201, 202. 

"Parsons, Philo," The, Lake vessel, in 
Confederate Plot, iv, 274-277. 

Parsons, Samuel H. (General), repre- 
sentative of U. S. at Fort Finney 
council, II, 417, 443; connection 
with Ohio Company of Associates, 
428, 446; 451; Judge of Northwest 
Territory, 463; connection with Sci- 
oto Company, 484; death, 577; v, 
88-91. 



Parvin, Theodore, medical instructor, 

V, 191. 
Pascal, G. W., on date of admission, 

III, 151. 

Patten (misprinted Patton), David W., 
Mormon, iii, 416. 

Patterson, I. F., quoted, iv, 321. 

Patterson, John, member of Ohio Com- 
pany of Associates, 11, 445. 

Patterson, John, Commissioner, iii, 441. 

Patterson, John, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 55. 

Patterson, Robert, Ky. pioneer, at 
battle of Blue Licks, 11, 384; Colonel, 
in Benjamin Logan's Mad River 
expedition, 418; a founder of Cin- 
cinnati, 476; career, 477*478; 479; 
removes to Dayton, 481; early 
enterprises in Dayton, v, 313-314. 

Patterson, Samuel L., Pan-American 
Exposition Commissioner, iv, 483. 

Pattison, John M., Governor, iv, 456- 
4S8. 

Paul, Major, in Harmar's expedition, 

n, 513. 

Paul, John, member of first Constitu- 
tional Convention, ni, 107. 

Paulding County, share of surplus 
revenue, rv, 12. 

Pauli (or Paully), J. C. (Ensign), com- 
mander at Fort Sandusky, i, 398- 

399- 

Paw-paw, The, early reference to, i, 
178. 

Paxon, William A., literary work, v, 67. 

Payne, Henry B., candidate for Gov- 
ernor, IV, 143; 229, 236, 345; U. S. 
Senator, 347; v, 280. 

Peabody, W. W., president Ohio Board 
of Managers, Chicago World's Fair, 

IV, 478, 481. 

Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 

archaeological specimens, i, 65. 
Peace Conference of 1 861, The, iv, 155. 
Peacock, Indian, iv, 88. 



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414 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Pean, French officer, i, 257. 

Peappi, Joseph, Moravian Indian, 11, 
17,39. 

Pearce, Isaac, associate-jostice, v, 93. 

Pearson, F. B., literary work, v, 36. 

Pease, Calvin, Jodge of Ohio Supreme 
Court, in, 156-159; V, 103, 104, 117- 
123, 133, 126, 144. 

Peck, WiHiam V., Judge of Ohk> Su- 
preme Court, V, 135, 141-143. 

Peet, Stephen D., quoted, i, 36. 

Peizotto, L. M., medical instructor, v, 
303. 

Pekillon, Delaware chief, 11, 397, 398. 

Pelisipia, State proposed by Je£Ferson, 
n, 436, 437. 

Pendleton, George H., Democratic 
leader, iv, 336, 301, 306; candidate 
for Governor, 303; 333, 334; U. S. 
Senator, 343; 347. 

Penitentiary, The, General Morgan's 
escape, nr, 349-351. 

Penn, John, Governor of Pa., at Stan- 
wiz Conference (1768), i, 463; n, 134. 

Penn, William, treaty with Indians, 
I, 167, 184; II, 561. 

Pennsylvania, connection with events, 
etc., affecting Ohio, i, 193-193, 311- 
212, 219-220, 229-230, 236, 248, 249- 
250, 251, 284, 289-290, 306-307, 309, 
312-313, 336-337, 371. 404, 437. 443, 
445, 462, 463, 465, 489; II, 12-17; 
dispute with Va. for the Ohb Forks, 
47-50; ukes no part in Dunmore's 
War, 79-80; 319-320; massacre of 
Ohio Moravians by Washington 
County militia, 326-338; assembling 
of Crawford's Sandusky expedition, 

348-351; 397-398, 513, 599; CODr 

tribution to settlement of Ohio, m, 
8, III; IV, 77, 119; v, 236. 

Pennsylvania Archives, The, 11, 49, 64. 

Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal, The, 
in, 362; V, 236. 

Peoria Indians, i, 456. 



Pepicokia Indians, i, 162. 

Perkins, James H., quoted, n, 537; ▼, 

20 (misprinted James W.), 7a 
Perkins, Simon (General), lay^ out 

Akron, v, 322. 
Perrot, Nicolas, interpreter, i, 115. 
Perry, Aaron F., lawyer, iv, 220. 
Perry, Christopher R., m, 300. 
Perry, John L., Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 60. 
Perry, Oliver H. (Commodore), battle 

of Lake Erie, in, 300-307; iv, 39. 
Perry County, prehistoric remains, i, 

15-17; in, 360; share of surphu 

revenue, iv, 12; 245, 364, 479; ▼, 

14, 35. 

Perrysburg, O., in, 337, 442. 

Peshewah (Jean Baptiste Richardville), 
on birthplace of Pontiac, i, 38a 

Peters, George W. and George M^ 
manufacturers, v, 307. 

Peters, Richard (Judge), decision, v, 
120-121. 

Peterson, Ziba, Mormon, m, 403. 

Petroleum, first found in Ohio, 1814, 
IV, 366; development and statistics, 
370; 479; V, 260, 265, 266-267; organ- 
ization of Standard Oil Company, 
282. 

Petty, John, brother of the Chief Logan, 

n, 59. 
Phelps, A. v., medical instructor, v,i90. 
Phelps, Oliver, member of Conn. Land 

Company, n, 580. 
Phelps, Colonel (of Va.), in Burr affair, 

ni, 239. 
Philadelphia, Indian coundlt, i, 305, 

307; Continenul Congress, n, 129; 

Centennial Exposition, iv, 338-339, 

47^-477. 
Pkiiantkropist, The, iv, 124, 125, 127. 
Philippine War, The, iv, 426-43a 
Philipson, David, literary work, ▼, 37- 

38. 
Phillimore, Robert (Sir), quoted, i, 15a 



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"Phib Parsons," The, Lake vessel, in 
Confederate plot, iv, 274-277. 

Philpot, William, manufacturer, v, 320. 

Physio-Medical College of Ohio, The 
(Worthington), v, 181. 

Piankeshaw Indians, i, 162, 226, 227, 
H5, 254, 301, 450; II, 198, 210, 420, 
509, 510, 555. See Miami and 
Twightwee Indians. 

Piatt, A. Sanders, Brigadier Genera! 
in Civil War, iv, 283. 

Piatt, Donn, literary work, v, 12. 

Piatt, John H., v, 273. 

Piatt, John J., literary work, v, 56, 69, 
71, 77-78. 

Piatt, Sarah M. B., literary work, v, 
78-79. 

Picard, George H., literary work, v, 65. 

Pickaway, Indian town, Kenton runs 
gauntlet, 11, 239. 

Pickaway County, i, 169; Dunmore's 
Camp Charlotte, n, 105; iii, 343, 
344, 427; share of surplus revenue, 
IV, 12; 166, 187, 245. 283. 

Pickaway County Savings Institute, 
The, IV, 501. 

Pickaway Pbneer Society, The, 11, 135. 

Pickaway Plains, The, formation of 
Ohio Indian confederacy, 11, 38, 40, 
41-42,45; Lord Dunmore's campaign 
and treaty, 69, 85, 90, 104, 105, 126, 
129, 145, 163. 

Hckawillany, Indian town, i, 219; 
Celoron's visit, 226-228; visit of 
Gist, Croghan, and Montour, 244- 
247; destruction by the French, 252- 

254; i55-a57. 
Pickawillany Creek, i, 226. 
Pickerel Creek, i, 206. 
Pickering, Timothy, on New State 

project, II, 425; 439 (misprint), 

532; in, 70. 
Picktown, name for Pickawillany, i, 

255, 256. 
Picquet, missbnary, i, 287. 



Pied Froid, Otuwa chief, i, 228. 
Pierce, Henry C, medical instructor, 

V, 194, 201. 
Pierson, C. E., medical instructor, v, 191. 
Pikaweeke, Indian town, n, 26. 
Pike County, prehistoric remains, i, 45; 

in, 450; share of surplus revenue, 

IV, 12; 26; Morgan raiders, 246; v, 

62. 
Piketon, O., iv, 243; v, 62. 
I^gemih, O., Moravian settlement, 11, 

574. 

Pipe, Captain (or Hopecan), Delaware 
chief, I, 242; II, 84, 129, 140, 141, 
165, 184-185, 221, 223, 224; removes 
with his tribe to the Sandusky, 295; 
part in Moravian migration, 303, 
305, 317-319; Crawford's defeat and 
death, 345-34^, 354, 35^-357, 3^ 
372; 374, 400, 417; at landing of 
Marietta settlers, 459; signs Fort 
Harmar treaty, 508. 

Pipe Creek, 1, 491; II, 57. 

Pipe's Town, 11, 345, 353, 355, 357- 

Piqua, I, 20; Pickawillany, and other 
Indian names, 226, 344-347; abandon- 
ment by Miami Indians, 11, 37; 169; 
in, 269; IV, 91, 283; tin plate episode 
in political campaign of 1891, 403- 
404; census sutistics (1910), v, 263. 

Piqua, Shawnee town near Springfield, 
destroyed by George Rogers Clark, 
II, 270, 286-287, 289, 380, 564. 

Piqua Indians, i, 169-170. 

Piselatuple, Indian name for Hecke- 
welder, n, 18. 

Pisquetumen, Indian chief, i, 338. 

Fitt, William (Earl of Chatham), i, 
3^-336; Fort Pitt named for, 346; 
on Quebec act, 11, 79. 

Kttinger, William (Capuin), Andrews 
raider, iv, 194, 202. 

Pittman, Benn, iv, 264. 

Pittsburg, I, 2x8, 488, 490; 11, 19, 4^5<^ 
57, 68, 84, 115, 129, 132, 139, 142, 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



153, 163, 164, 183, 185, 193, 217, 
219-224, 227, 301, 317, 320, 322, 332, 

337, 365. 380, 443, 537; ni, 10, 184, 

186.189, ao7, *33, h6, 401; nr, 354; 

V, 236, 269, 279, 290-291. See 

Ohio Forks, Fort Duquesne, and 

Fort Dunmore. 
Pituburgh Landing, Battle of, iv, 192. 
Piatt, Harvey P., Chicago World's Fair, 

IV, 477-478. 
Piatt, Richard (Cobnel), member of 

Ohio Company of Associates, n, 

446, 453; connection with Scioto 

Company, 484. 
Piatt, Thomas C. (of N. Y.), iv, 435. 
Playfair, William, connection with 

Scioto Company, 11, 486-487, 491- 

492,494. 
Plimpton, Florus B., literary work, v, 

74-75. 

Pluemer, Addph, Chicago World's Fair, 
IV, 478. 

Pluggy, Captain, Mohawk chief, i, 329- 
330; II, 84, 218. 

^^ggy** Town (now Delaware), 11, 164, 
165, 282. 

Plymouth Company, The, i, 94. 

Poe, Adam and Andrew, 11, 367. 

Poe, O. M. (General), connection with 
development of Lake navigation, v, 
240-241. 

Poffenberger, Livia Nye Simpson, liter- 
ary work, II, 83. 

Point au Fcr, 11, 405. 

Point Pelee, i, 198. 

Point Pleasant, O., birthplace of Gen- 
eral Grant, rv, 281, 355. 

Point Pleasant, W. Va., battle of, n, 
83, 89-104; 109, 123, 125, 145, 156; 
murder of Cornstalk, 157-159; 184, 
186, 552, 560, 564. 

Poland, O., v, 318, 319. 

Polk, John K. (President), iv, 49, 50, 
63, 107, 234. 

Polke, Charles, u, 64. 



Pollock, W. G., identified with devdop- 
ment of Lake transportaticm, v, 247. 

Pdypotamia, State propo8.ed by 
Jefferson, 11, 426. 

Pomeroy, O., iv, 82; flood of 1884, 355. 

Pomoacan, Wyandot half-king, 11, 186; 
and the Moravians, 302-305, 320- 
321, 324; 343, 345; and death of 
Crawford, 366-367. 

Pond, F. B., member of second Consti- 
tutbnal Convention, iv, 320. 

Pond Law, The, iv, 346, 373, 53«-532. 

Pondac, Otuwa chief, at Braddock's 
defeat, i, 294; meeting with Major 
Robert Rogers, 357-360; conspiracy, 
379-408; 417, 421; vuitcd by Cap- 
tain Thomas Morris, 424; 430, 447, 
451-452; visit to Sir William John- 
son, 453-454; death and character, 
455.458; II, 18, 20, 35, 39, 165, 569. 

Pool, John, proposed steamboat, nr, 
490; V, 270. 

Poole, A. C, medical instructor, v, 190, 
191. 

Poole, William F., quoted, u, 429, 436; 
literary work, v, 25. 

Pooley, James H., medical instructor, 
V, 202. 

P<^>e, John, U. S. Senator, and charges 
against Senator John Smith, in, 253. 

Population, Indians of Ohio, i, 170-171; 
English colonies and Canada, 342; 
basis of admission of Ohio as State, 
m, 86; census of 1800, 106; census 
of 1 8 10, 167-168, 182; census of 
1820, 335; census of 1840, third 
State of Union, 449; census of 1850, 
IV, 75-79; cen«u« of 1900, 443; 
census of 1910, urban and rural, 
463-464; remarks by Edward D. 
Mansfield at Philadelphia Centen- 
nial, 475; rank of Ohio in 1910, v, 
253; thirty-seven leading cities, 
19 10, 262-263. 

Porcupine, Indian, iv, 88. 



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"Porcupine," The, American ship in 
battle of Lake Erie, in, 301. 

Porcupine Qan of Wyandot Indians, 
n, 560. 

Pork-packing in Cincinnati, v, 292, 295, 
298,30a 

Port Clinton, O., i, 201, 206. 

Port Folio, The, i, 23. 

Poruge County, 111, 127; share of sur- 
plus revenue, iv, 12; 109; v, 74, 147. 

Poruge Reservoir, The, iii, 360. 

PorUge River, The, i, 201; iii, 275. 

Porter, Augustus, surveyor, 11, 581. 

Porter, D'Arcy, manufacturer, v, 288. 

Porter, John R., Andrews raider, iv, 
193, 196, 202. 

Portland, O., Camp Scott, iv, 170; 
Morgan raiders, 246. 

Porto Rico, Spanish War, iv, 420, 423, 
427, 428; tariff policy, 429-430. 

Portsmouth, prehistoric remains, i, 43; 
Lower Shawnee Town of the Indians, 
227, 244; the canal, iii, 360; iv, 36, 
52, 166, 246, 320; flood of 1884, 355; 
V, 141, 142; census statistics (1910), 
262; 264, 275. 

Posey, Thomas, slavery petitbn, in, 49. 

Post, Christian Frederick (Rev.), sent 
by Governor of Pa. on mission to 
Ohio Indians, i, 337-340; Moravian 
activities, 11, 13-20, 22. 

Post, Sidney, Brigadier General in Gvil 
War, IV, 257. 

Post Vincent, see Vincennes. 

Potier, Pierre, missionary, i, 197-198. 

Pottawattomie Indians, i, 115, 164, 201, 
202, 294, 330, 332, 340, 362; in Pon- 
tiac*8 conspiracy, 386, 389, 392, 
394, 400; 421; II, 43, 170, 199, 400, 
506, 508, 509; at Greenville Treaty, 
SS4'SSS; 566; III, 280. 

Potter, Aaron, manufacturer, v, 330. 

Potter, M. D., v, 16. 

Pottery, prehistoric, i, 29, 60, 62, 64, 
^» 70, 71; manufactures, v, 260. 



Potts, Benjamin F., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 257, 283. 

Powell, General, British commander at 
Fort Niagara, n, 385. 

Powell, J. B., literary work, v, 30. 

Powell, Thomas £., candidate for 
Governor, iv, 384. 

Powell, Thomas W., member of third 
Constitutional Convention, rv, 320. 

Powell, William H., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 284. 

Powers, Isaac, manufacturer, v, 320. 

Powhatan, W. Va., iv, 356. 

Pownall, John, literary work, etc., i, 
240-241. 

Pownall, Thomas, colonial Governor, i, 
172, 192, 239, 240, 486. 

Prairie du Rocher, French post, i, 364; 
II, 197. 

Pratt, Orson, Mormon, in, 416. 

Pratt, Parley P., Mormon, in, 403. 

Preble County, share of surplus revenue, 
IV, 12; 26, 458, 524. 

Prehistoric Remains in Ohio, hilltop 
forts, I, 3-31; lowland enclosures, 35- 
55; village sites, 59-70; Croghan 
party and the elephant's bones, 449; 
Rev. David Jones, 11, 27; 38; names 
given Marietta works by the settlers, 
461-462; Burr's bewilderment, in, 
208; exhibits at national expositions, 
IV, 474, 480, 485, 486; V, 27. 

Prentiss, George D., iv, 36. 

Presbyterians, The, 11, 29; iii, 62; iv, 
85, 128. 

Presque Isle (Erie, Pa.), i, 205; French 
fort, 257; in possession of British, 
355; 356, 359, 368, 396; captured by 
Indians, 402-403; 418, 419. 

Price, Major, at battle of Fallen Tim- 
bers, II, 548. 

Prigg w. Pa., V, 134. 

Pritchard, James, member of Legislature, 
Northwest Territory, 111,37,44; man- 
ager of impeachment of Judges, v, 11 8. 



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Prizefight, suppressed by Governor 

Nash, IV, 448, 456. 
Probst, C. O. (Dr.), secreUry of Sute 

Board of Health, v, 213. 
Proctor, Henry A. (General), British 

commander in War of 181 2, 11, 568; 

in, 274, 276, 278-282, 289, 290, 292, 

293, 295-297, 300. 
Progressives, The, in control of fourth 

Constitutional Convention, iv, 466. 
Prohibition, proposed amendment to 

Constitution, iv, 347, 521; policy 

of the State from 1 851 to 1883, 507, 

525-530. 
Prohibitbn Party, The, 1^,374,440,442. 
Prophet, The, Laulewasikau or Teneka- 

wautawa, also known as the "Loud 

Voice" or "Open Door," 11, 564- 

567; III, 268, 273, 281. 
Prophet's Town, u, 566. 
Providence, Indian, iv, 88. 
Providence, R. I., meeting of Ohio 

Company of Associates, n, 454. 
Proud, Robert, literary work, i, 338. 
Puan Indians, 11, 199. 
Public Service Commission, The, iv, 464. 
Pucksehaw (The Jumper), Shawnee 

chief, 11, 558, 593. 
Puebla, Mex., Ohio troops at, iv, 56, 

58,60. 
Pugeshashewa, son of Tecumseh, n, 565. 
Pugh, George £., Capuin in Mexican 

War, IV, 56; member of Legblature, 

91, 92; U. S. Senator, 151; Demo- 
cratic leader, 172; defends Vallan- 

digham, 219; 229, 236. 

OUADAGE Oocality of Chicago), 
mentioned in Albany Treaty of 
1701, I, 185. 
(}uadranaou. The, at Marietta, 11, 461. 
Quakers, The, i, 184, 216; 11, 599; lu, 

8; IV, 124, 128. 
(Juay, George H., medical instructor, 
V, 179. 



Pukeesheno (or Packinshenoah), father 
of Tecumseh, 11, 98, 564. 

Pulte, Joseph H., medical writer, v, 32. 

Pulte Medical College, The, v, 179. 

Puschis, see Big Cat. 

Put-in-Bay, in, 301. 

Putnam, Douglas, iv, 354. 

Putnam, Frederick W., archaeological 
work, I, 52, 63, 65, 75, 76. 

Putnam, Israel, i, 354, 394; in Brad- 
street's expedition, 412, 414, 419, 
421, 422, 429-431; ". 440; m, 197. 

Putnam, Jethro, member of first grand 
jury, V, 93. 

Putnam, J. H., newspaper publisher, 
m, 179. 

Putnam, John, 11, 439. 

Putnam, Rufus, appointed surveyor 
under Thomas Hutchins, n, 420; 
interest in new sute project, 425; 
early career, 439-442; connection in 
Ohio Company of Associates, 443- 
446, 448, 454; Marietu colonist, 
456-460, 465, 468; connection with 
Scioto Company, 484, 493, 494; 
Brigadier General, 531, 532; surveys 
lands for Moravians, 575; extends 
survey of Seven Ranges, 587; sup- 
porter of St. Qair, in, 81; member 
of first Constitutional Cbnvention, 
107, 113; 429; IV, 491; V, 90, 92, 93- 

Putnam, William R., Colonel in Civil 
War, IV, 245. 

Putnam County, share of surplus rev- 
enue, IV, 12. 

(}uebec, Can., i, 91, 92; surrendered to 

English, I, 349. 
Quebec, Act of 1763, i, 371-375, 461. 

466, 467, 483-484, 487; Act of 1774. 

n, 79, 99, 103, 134, 135, 403. 
"(Jueen Chartette," The, British sh^) 

in battle of Lake Erie, in, 302, 303, 

305. 



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RACCOON Creek, prehistoric re- 
mains, I, 36. 

Rachford, B. K., medical in- 
structor, V, 190, 191. 

Race Track Bill, The, iv, 455. 

Rachel, wife of Christian Frederick 
Post, n, 15. 

Railroads, early, in Ohio, m, 449; nr, 
82^3. 

Raimond, French officer, i, 402. 

Raisin River, The, i, 420; m, 265, 274. 

Raleigh, Walter (Sir), i, 93-94. 

Ramsey, William H., Captain in Mex- 
ican War, IV, 52. 

Randall, David Austin, literary work, 
V, 41. 

Randall, Emilius O., address, rv, 452; 
literary work, v, 21; 41. 

Randall, George M., Brigadier General, 

IV, 428. 

Randall, Henry S., literary work, n, 
114,426. 

Randall Run, prehistoric remains, i, 24. 

Randolph, Beverly, 11, 532. 

Randolph, John, of Roanoke, opposes 
slavery in Ohio, in, 56. 

Randolph County, Northwest Terri- 
tory, in, 37, 52, 55. 

Rankin, John (Rev.), abolitionist, iv, 

131-13*' 

Rankin, Stacey B., St. Louis Exposi- 
tion Commissioner, rv, 484. 

Ranney, Rufus P., member of second 
Constitutional Convention, iv, 109; 
candidate for Governor, 144; 236, 
375> 473; Judge of Ohio Supreme 
Court, V, 104-105, 130, 140, 147-150; 
152. 

Ransohoff, Joseph, medical instructor, 

V, 190, 191. 

Ransom, George M., U. S. Navy, in 

Mexican War, iv, 61-62. 
Rarey, John S., horse umer, v, 31. 
Ratterman, H. A., v, 29. 
Ranch, manufacturer, v, 286. 



Raven, Cherokee chief, i, 462; 11, 147. 
Rawahwah, name for Rev. James B. 

Finley, in, 24. 
Raymond, de, French officer, i, 228. 
Raystown (Bedford), Pa., i, 342, 343, 

344. 
Read, M. C. (Prof.), archaeological 

exhibit, rv, 474. 
Read, Nathaniel C, Judge of Ohk) 

Supreme Court, v, 104. 
Read, Thomas Buchanan, poet, v, 72. 
Reamy, Thaddeus A., member of legis- 
lative committee on military arrests, 

IV, 186; medical instructor, v, 191. 
Reardon, Daniel, with Washington, i, 

490.491. 
RecoUet Order, The, i, 103, 197. 
Red Eagle, Shawnee chief, n, 91. 
Red Hawk, Delaware chief, n, 91; killed 

with Cornstalk at Fort Randolph, 

156, 157, 159. 
Red Jacket, Iroquois chief, n, 413, 414, 

532, 563, 570; opinion of Christian 

religion, 581-582. 
Red Pole, Indian, n, 244, 555. 
Red River Expedition, The, Ohio 

troops in, iv, 256. 
Reddick, William, Andrews raider, iv, 

194,202. 
Redstone (on Monongahela River), 11, 

48, 55, 58» 60, 65, 72, 84, 193, 269, 

472. 
Redstone Creek, i, 277, 279, 280, 348. 
Reed, Joseph, Continental Congress, 

II, 293, 294. 
Reed, R. Harvey, physician, v, 201. 
Reed, Wilkin Qudge), v, 126. 
Reemelin, A. B., medical instructor, v, 

19a 
Reemelin, Charles, member of second 

Constitutional Convention, iv, iii. 
Reeve, J. C, medical instructor, v, 191. 
Reeve, James K., literary work, v, 66. 
Reeve, Tappan, law school at Litch- 
field, Conn., Ill, 195; V, 114, 124. 



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Reeve, Thomas A., manafacturer, v, 

280. 
Referendum, The, iv, 465. 
Reform School for GirU, The, iv, 299, 

309. 

Registration, The State Board of, v, 
216. 

Reid, Whitelaw, on Governor Brough, 
IV, 298-299; Peace Commissioner, 
429; literary work, v, 13. 

Reily, John, member of first Constitu- 
tional Convention, iii, 107. 

ReiUy, J. W., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, nr, 257, 283. 

Reilly, John, schoolteacher, ni, 37a 

Reitzel, Peter N., arrest, iv, 186. 

"Relations," Jesuit, see Jesuits. 

Religion, early activities, see Jesuits, 
RecoUet Order, Sulpitians, Mora- 
vians, Methodists; first Protestant 
service, i, 237; provisions of Ordi- 
nance of 1787, II, 431, 432; lands 
allotted in Western Reserve for sup- 
port of gospel, 577; earnestness of 
pioneers, in, 21-26; 149, 373; Mor- 
mons, 399-424; sutistics in 1870, 
nr, 477; religious and similar writings 
by Ohioans, v, 32-41; early laws, 

94-95- 
Renaudot, Abbe, literary work, i, 124. 
Rendville, O., rv, 408. 
Renick, L. W., literary work, v, 25. 
Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of 

Latter Day Saints, The, iii, 422- 

4H. 
Republican Party, The, early organi- 
zation sometimes so called, see 
Anti-Federalists; present, organiza- 
tion in Ohio, iv, 139-142; Sute Con- 
vention of 1859, and Judge Swan, 
137; 154-155; merged in Union 
Party, 172-173, 174, I77, 2<H; ^3- 
294; restoration of name at State 
Convention of 1867, 303-304; sub- 
sequent references, 305, 307, 308- 



309, 312-313, 327-328, 331-336, 
340, 342-347, 373-380, 382, 384, 
388-394, 398, 400-405, 408.411, 415, 

433-43^ 438, 441-442, 444-^45, 449, 
451,453-454.456-462,466. 

Rescinding Resolutbn, The, iv, 305-306. 

Reservoirs, Canal, ni, 36a 

Residential Local Option, see Brannock 
Law. 

Resolutions of 1798, m, 320-323. 

Resumption of Specie Pa3rments, rv, 

333, 343. 

Revolution, The, n, preface; important 
bearings of battle of Point Pleasant, 
99-103; resolutions of Dunmore's 
officers at Fort Gower in support 
of Congress, 129-132; events in and 
affecting Ohio, i45-4oa 

Reynolds, John, quoted, 11, 194. 

Re3molds, Hobby, Captain in Mexican 
War, nr, 54. 

Rhodes, Daniel P., identified with 
development of Lake transporta- 
tion, V, 247; Qeveland enterprises, 
278. 

Rhodes, James Ford, literary work, v, 
24-25. 

Rice, Americus V. (General), candidate 
for Lieutenant Governor, nr, 342. 

Rice, Harvey, quoted, n, 583. 

Rice, Lewis L., and the Spaulding MS., 
lu, 401. 

Rice, Oliver, member of first grand 
jury, v, 93. 

Rice, Rosetta, literary work, v, 53. 

Rice, W. H. (Rev.), 11, 9. 

Rice, William, manufacturer, v, 320. 

Rice's Tavern (Providence, R. L), n, 

454- 

Richardie, de la, Armand, Jesuit mis- 
sionary, I, 196-198. 

Richardson, B. F., medical instructor, 
V, 191. 

Richardson, R. D., newspaper publisher, 
III, 178. 



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Richardson, W. C, identified with 
development of Lake transportation, 
V, 247. 

Richardville, Jean Baptiste, on birth- 
place of Pontiac, i, 380. 

Richland County, watershed line, i, 
156; II, 342, 352; share of surplus 
revenue, iv, 12; iii. 

Richmond, George A., Captain in Mex- 
ican War, IV, 56. 

Richmond, John L., physician, v, 182. 

Richmond, Lewis, assistant Adjutant 
General, iv, 215. 

Riddle, Albert G., literary work, v, 54. 

Riddle, Robert R., officer in Mexican 
War, IV, 59. 

Ridgefield, O., 11, 578. 

Ridgway, Joseph and Joseph, Jr., manu- 
facturers, V, 306. 

Ridpath, John Gark, n, 109-110. 

Rigdon, F. D., manufacturer, v, 329. 

Rigdon, Sidney, Mormon, iii, 403-404, 
408, 413, 416, 418, 419, 420. 

Rio Grande College, v, 41. 

Ripley, O., iv, 130, 131, 132; v, 198. 

Rique, Indian town, i, 112. 

Riquhronnon Indians, see Erie Indians. 

Risley, Luke, manufacturer, v, 276. 

Ritchie, William, Chicago World's Fair 
Commissioner, iv, 477. 

Rittenhouse, David, v, 120. 

Rives, E., medical instructor, v, 190. 

Rives, L. C, medical instructor, v, 191. 

Riviere aux Boeufs, name for French 
Creek, i, 224, 257. 

Riviere de Conception, Marquette's 
name for the Mississippi, i, 133. 

Riviere de la Roche, Celoron's name for 
the Great Miami, i, 21, 226. 

Riviere du Poisson doree. Pickerel 
Creek, i, 206. 

Riviere, La Belle, The Ohio, i, 223. 

Roads, early, iii, 337-338. 

Robb, Hunter, medical instructor, v, 
208. 



Roberts, Bethuel, arrest, iv, 187. 
Roberts, Charles H., literary work, v, 64. 
Robertson, Samuel, Andrews raider, 

IV, 194, 202. 
Roberval, de, French viceroy, i, 91. 
Robinson, James, soldier, 11, 93. 
Robinson, James S., Brigadier General 

in Civil War, iv, 257, 283. 
Robinson, Josiah M., Captain in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 56. 
Robinson, William, captive, 11, 66, 
Robinson, Professor, Findlay gas, iv, 

367. 
Rocheblave, Philip, British commander 

at Kaskaskia, 11, 195. 
Rockefeller, John D. and William, 

Standard Oil Company, v, 282. 
Rockel, William M., legal writer, v, 31. 
Rockport, O., v, 147. 
Rockwell, Edward, manufacturer, v, 

319. 
Rocky Fork of Mohican River, 11, 354. 
Rodgers, A. Denny, v, 201. 
Rodgers, William A., lawyer, v, 121. 
Rodney, Caesar, member of Congress, 

and slavery question, in, 57. 
Rogers, Abraham, in siege of Fort 

Henry, 11, 171. 
Rogers, David, and party, slaughter, 

II, 275. 
Rogers, Ethan, mechanic, v, 277. 
Rogers, John (Lieutenant), commander 

of the"WiUing,"n, 207. 
Rogers, Joseph, killed at Piqua, 11, 288* 

289. 
Rogers, Robert (Major), expedition to 

take possession of French posts, i, 

353-364; 381, 394, 398, 413. 
Rogers, Major, at battle of Bloody 

Bridge, I, 395. 
Romanette's Creek, i, 217, 480. 
Rome, N. Y., see Fort Sunwix. 
Roosevelt, Nicholas J., and introduction 

of steam navigation on Ohio River, 

in, 185-190. 



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Roosevelt, Theodore, quoted or referred 
to, n, 88, loo-ioi, 116-117, 119, 145, 
147, 192, 199-200, 203-204, 208, 
228, 289-290, 325, 329, 381, 418, 461, 
462, 464-465, 524, 525. 5*9; ni, 216; 
ex-President, nr, 462, 466. 

Root, Ernest R., Jamestown Exposition 
Commissioner, iv, 486. 

Rote, John (Lieutenant), Baron Gus- 
tave Henry de Rosenthal, in Craw- 
ford's expedition, 11, 351, 358, 359, 
361. 

Rote, W. G., manufacturer, v, 286. 

Rose Law, The, iv, 459, 538-539- 

Rotecrans, William S. (General), in 
Civil War, iv, 209, 219, 220, 282; 
declines nomination for Governor, 
308. 

Rosenthal, Baron, see Rose (John). 

Rots, Alexander C, author of "Tippe- 
canoe and Tyler, Too," iv, 33. 

Rots, James (of Pa.), lu, 69. 

Ross, Marion A., Andrews raider, iv, 
192, 202. 

Rots County, prehistoric remains, i, 
10-12, 45; n, 123; m, 37, 43, 44, 91, 
104, 106, 107, III, 164, 342, 431, 
450, 454; share of surplus revenue, 
IV, 12; 26, 27; Morgan raiders, 245, 
246; 452, 461. 

Rossville, O., v, 329. 

Round Bottom, W. Va., land owned 
by Washington, i, 492. 

Roundhead, Indian chief, 11, 566. 



Route, Bathsheba, tcfaooiteacfaer, m, 

369. 
Rowan, L.^C., U. S. Navy, in Mexican 

War, IV, 61. 
Rubber Industry, The, v, 260, 322-323. 
Rubicon Creek, v, 313. 
Ruddell (or Ruddle), Isaac (Captain), 

Ry. pioneer, n, 280. 
RuddelPs Sution (formerly Hinkson't), 

Ky., n, 149, 280-281. 
Rue, George W. (Major), captor of 

General John H. Morgan, rv, 248. 
Ruffin, William (Major), iv, 490. 
Ruliton, H. M., writer, v, 53. 
Runkle, Ben. P. (Colonel), services 

during Morgan raid, rv, 246, 247; 

Brigadier General, 283. 
Runyan, George W., iv, 91, 92. 
Runyan, Michael P., literary work, v, 67. 
Rush, Benjamin, 11, 529. 
Rush, John D., v, 305. 
Rush, Richard, and Michigan boundary, 

III, 442. 
Rush Creek, i, 225. 
Russell, Addison P., literary work, nr, 

47; V, 41.42. 
Rutland, Mass., home of Ruf us Putnam, 

II, 439, 441, 443. 
Ryan, Daniel J., addresses, iv, 399, 452; 

Chicago World's Fair, 478, 481; 

literary work, v, 21-22. 
Ryan, Michael (General), iv, 361. 
Ryder, Symonds, iii, 408. 
Ryswick, Peace of, i, 172, 184, 192, 222. 



SAC Indians, i, 115, 139, 385, 393, 
400, 415, 421, 456; 11, 199, 508; 
at Greenville Treaty, 554. 
Sackville, fort at Vincennes, Ind., n, 

197, 206, 209-210, 253, 254. 
Sacra Via, The, at Marietta, 11, 462. 
Sadler, John (Captain), 11, 439-440. 
Safe Industry, The, v, 260, 296, 301, 
326. 



Safford, William H., literary work, v. 

Sage, George R. (Judge), iv, 311. 
Sagenquaraghta, Seneca chief, n, 44. 
Sagogeghyata, see Petty (John). 
Sagoyewatha, see Red Jacket. 
St* Ange de Bellerive, French com- 
mander, I, 364, 450, 453, 455-456. 
St. Asaph, Ky., Logan's Fort, n, 149. 



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St. Qair, Arthur, arrests Connolly, ii, 
4^9 49> 50; General, appointed 
Governor of Northwest Territory, 
451, 463-464; arrival at Marietta 
and early acts, 465-467, 480, 481, 
499> 507-5 1 i; supersedes General 
Harmar, 518; campaign against 
Indians and defeat, 521-530; 538, 

539, 541, 54^, 565, 588, 591, 59»; 

administration as Governor, iii, 35, 

36, 44-47, 51-52, 59, 64-66, 69-72, 

74, 79^4; charges against, 94, 96; 

97-105, 115, 116, 119; address to 

Constitutional Convention, removal, 

and subsequent life, 120-123, 129- 

135; 145-146, 367, 430; IV, 509; V, 

90, 91, 92, 95, 97. 
St. Qair, Arthur, Jr., iii, 58, 99. 
St. Qair, William, in, 52. 
St. Qair County, in, 37, 52, 55. 
St. Qair Papers, The, iv, 309; v, 25. 
St. Qairsville, O., incorporation, ni, 

168; 178, 455; IV, 43, 55, 124, 125, 

492; V, 115, 121. 
St. Didier, Antoine, member of Com^ 

pagnif du Scioto, n, 486. 
St. John, Samuel, medical instructor, 

V, 205. 
St. Joseph Post, see Fort St. Joseph, 111. 
St. Joseph River, The, tributary of 

Lake Michigan, i, 138, 141, 162, 201. 
St. Joseph River, The, a head water of 

the Maumee, i, 156, 204, 228, 402; 

11, 514, 516, 552. 
St. Lawrence River, The, discovery, i, 

91- 
St. Louis, Post of, death of Pontiac, i, 

453-455. 
St. Louis Exposition, The, Ohio at, iv, 

483-484. 
St. Louis River, The, La SaUe*s name 

for the Ohio, i, 145. 
St. Lusson, French officer, proclaims 

possession at Sault Ste. Marie, i, 

115-116, 133. 



St. Mary's, O., ni, 269; iv, 368. 
St. Mary's Reservoir, in, 360. 
St. Mary's River, a head water of the 

Maumee, i, 156, 201, 204, 228, 380, 

402; II, 514, 545, 552, 557. 
St. Mary's River, Sault Ste. Marie, i, 

105; v, 237, 239, 240. 
St. Orr, French officer, in destruction 

of Pickawillany, i, 253. 
St. Philip, post on Mississippi River, 

I. 364; II, 197. 

St. Pierre, Legardeur de, French com- 
mander at Fort Le Boeuf, i, 258; 
Washington's visit, 271-272, 277. 

St. Sulpice, Order of, see Sulpidans. 

St. Vincent Post, see Vincennes. 

St. Yotoc, Indian village, i, 225; name 
for Scioto River, 225. 

Salem, Moravian settlement in Ohio, 

II, 26, 297, 299-304, 324; massacre of 
the converts, 322; 420, 575. 

Salem, New, 11, 574. 

Saline, M., 11, 487. 

Salineville, O., iv, 194, 248. 

Salisbury, J. H., physician, v, 206. 

Salley, John Peter, Ohio voyage with 
Howard, i, 189. 

Salt Industry, The, iv, 81-82, 366. 

Salt Creek, i, 225; n, 38. 

Salt Lick Town, n, 128. 

Salt River, n, 179. 

Salt Springs Tract, The, 11, 577, 578. 

Sampson, Crocker, member of Ohio 
Company of Associates, n, 445. 

Sanderson, Winslow F., officer in Mexi- 
can War, IV, 59. 

Sandoske, Sandosket, Sandoski, names 
for Sandusky, i, 200. 

Sands, Alexander C, U. S. Marshal, iv, 

185. 
Sandusky, Jesuit mission, i, 196-198; 
conspiracy of Nicolas, 200-204; 
"Old Fort Sandoski," 204-206; 363, 
368, 396-398; the English fort and 
its capture and destruction by In- 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



diant, 398-399; Bradttreet's vitit, 
426-427, 4^9, 430; n, 7, 9, 283, 284; 
places called Sandusky in Indian 
times — not the present city, 343- 
348; 531, 53i, 554; ni, 288, 449; 
IV, 82, 130; the Confederate plot, 
272-275; 282; V, II, 43; census 
statistics (1910), 262. 

Sandusky, Crawford's expedition and 
battle, n, 34*-36i, 379, 380. 

Sandusky, Lower, see Lower Sandusky 
and Fremont. 

Sandusky, Upper, see Upper Sandusky. 

Sandusky Bay, i, 304, 397, 420; 11, 227, 
342; in, 301, 306; IV, 264, 271, 274. 

Sandusky County, 11, 342; share of 
surplus revenue, iv, 12. 

Sandusky Indians, i, 445; n, 274. 

Sandusky Plains, The, n, 34^-343. 354- 
355, 361, 379- 

Sandusky River, The, prehistoric re- 
mains, 1, 45; 156, 166, 175, 176, 198, 
200, 201, 212, 227, 320, 331, 332, 393, 
396, 427-428; n, 36, 164, 227, 228, 
262, 29s, 301, 305, 321, 34^345» 
354, 366, 37a, 385, 397, 398, 399, 
405, 467, 505, 554. 594; ni, 293, 295, 
297; IV, 83. 

Sandwich, Ont., i, 197, 198; in, 264; iv, 
274,276. 

Sandy and Beaver Canal, The, iii, 361. 

Sandy Creek, W. Va., expedition of 
Cobnel Andrew Lewis, i, 328; n, 86. 

Sandy Creek, tributary of the Tuscara- 
was, II, 225. 

Sanitary Commissbn, The, rv, 182-183, 
278, 280. 

Santa Qara, Cuba, Ohio troops in, rv, 
420. 

Santiago, Cuba, Ohio troops in, iv, 
420, 427. 

Sappington, John, in Baker's Cabin 
massacre, 11, 59, 61, 65. 

SarahsviUe, O., v, 154. 



Saratoga, State proposed by Jefferson, 
n, 426, 427. 

Sargeant, Elizabeth, v, 12a 

Sargent, James, member of first Con- 
stitutional Convention, in, 107. 

Sargent, John, member of Walpole 
Company, i, 468. 

Sargent, John, U. S. Bank case, in, 324. 

Sargent, Winthrop, member of Ohio 
Company of Associates, n, 445, 446, 
452; secretary of Northwest Terri- 
tory, 463, 466; 473; connection with 
Scioto Company, 484, 487; 523, 59^; 
ni, 59; IV, 508. 

Sargent, Winthrop, historical writer, 
I, 292, 298. 

Satanas, name for Shawnee Indians, 
I, 167. 

Satteiihu, name for Andrew Montour, 
I, 215. 

Saugrain, Dr., GalUpolis settler, v, 267. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Nicollet's discovery, 
I, 105; possession proclaimed by 
France, 115-116; 122, 133, 195, 362, 
401; the canal, v, 232, 237, 246, 263, 
265, 276, 281. 

Sauteaux Indians, i, 387. 

Sauwaseekau, brother of Tecumseh, n, 

564. 
Savings Banks, nr, 501, 503. 
Sawyer, Harvey, manufacturer, v, 320. 
Sawyer, John Pascal, medical instructor, 

V, 208. 
Sawyer, newspaper publisher, in, 179. 
Sawyer, William, member of second 

Constitutional Convention, on negro 

question, IV, 115. 
Sayges Indians, 11, 199. 
Saylor, Nelson, medical instructor, v, 

190. 
Sayughtowa, James Logan, son of 

Shikeilamy, 11, 62. 
Scaento, name for Scioto River, i, 225. 
Scammon, E. P., Brigadier General in 

Civil War, iv, 284. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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Scarouady (or Monakatootha), Oneida 
chief, I, 270, 281; half king, 286; on 
Braddock, 292; 304, 306, 308. 

Scaraneate, Indian chief, i, 256. 

Schenck, Jamet F., U. S. Navy, in 
Mexican War, rv, 61, 62. 

Schenck, Robert C, minister to Eng- 
land, II, 135; member of Congress, 

IV, 282; Major General in Civil War, 
282; 285. 

Schenck, William C, director of Miami 
Exporting Company, iv, 490. 

Schie£felin, Jacob, and Chillicothe mob, 
ni, 92. 

Schleich, Newton, Brigadier General 
in Ciidl War, iv, 167. 

Schlosser, Ensign, British commander 
at Fort St. Joseph, i, 399-400. 

Schoenbrunn, Moravian settlement in 
Ohio, II, 24.27, 68, 259, 300, 301, 
303, 324; escape of converts, 336; 
352, 420, 575. 

Schoolcraft, Henry R., literary work, 
I, 171, 177, 178. 

Schools and School Lands, see Educa- 
tion. 

Schouler, James, quoted, n, 520. 

Schroeder, A. T., literary work, iii, 402. 

Schumacher, Ferdinand, manufacturer, 

V, 322. 

Schurz, Carl (of Mo.), iv, 334. 
Schuyler, Peter, and the Mohawk 

chiefs, I, 188. 
Schuyler, Philip (General), lu, 198-199, 

202. 
Schwaize, W. N., literary work, 11, 9. 
Schweinitz, de, Edmund, see De 

Schweinitz. 
Sdodoe, name for Scioto River, i, 243. 
Sdonto, name for Scioto River, i, 225. 
Sck>to Company, The, 11, 450, 452, 453, 

454, 484-495, 498, 587. 
Scioto County, prehistoric remains, i, 

45; traversed by Gist, 244; French 

Grant, 11, 500; erection, in, 150; 



share of surplus revenue, nr, 12; 

26, 80; flood of 1884, 355; V, 142. 
Scioto GautU, The (Chillicothe), ni, 

119, 176, 177, 178. 
Scioto Plains, The, see Pickaway Plains. 
Scioto River, The, prehistoric remains, 

I, 35, 43-44, 45, 59^; i«>, 156, 
163; Indian tribes, 166-170, 175; 
various names for river, 225; 227; 
Gut's visit, 243-244, 247; captivity 
of Mrs. Ingles, 318-320; 327, 330, 

393, 396, 417, 419, 4*1, 4*9, 430, 
449, 471; visit of Rev. David Jones, 

II, 26-27, 36; Ohio Indian confeder- 
acy (see Pickaway Plains), 37-45, 471 
69, 70, 72, 97, no, 123; destruction 
of Mingo towns, 127-128; 134, 164, 
165, 182, 227, 232, 245, 253, 282, 
284, 301, 302, 342, 344, 355, 360, 
376; boundary of Va. Military Dis- 
trict, 411; 450; boundary of Scioto 
Company's lands, 453; 467, 482- 
495 («ee Scioto Company); 505, 511, 
557, 5^2; surveys and settlements 
by Nathaniel Massie and Lucas 
SuUivant, 593-59^; 59^; ni, 8, 62; 
proposed as western boundary of 
Ohio, 70, 90, 93; 261, 270; the canal, 
346; 4«7-4*8, 435, 453; iv, 355. 

Scioto Salt Works, The, in, 37, 82. 

Sdppo Creek, i, 243; n, 38, 39, 105. 

Scofield, W. E., member of third Con- 
stitutional Convention, iv, 320. 

"Scorpion," The, American ship in the 
battle of Lake Erie, in, 301. 

Scott, Charles (General), Indian expe- 
ditions, II, 511, 520-521; in Wayne's 
expedition, 544, 549, 550; Governor 
of Ky., Ill, 269. 

Scott, David H., medical instructor, 
V, 208. 

Scott, J. F., on Betty Zane, n, 391-392. 

Scott, John, Andrews raider, iv, 194, 

2Q2. 

Scott, Josiah, member of second Con- 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



stitutional Convention, rv, no; 

Judge of Ohio Supreme 0>urt, 175; 

V, III, 113, 131, 135, 140-141, 149. 
Scott, Martha, subscriber to sword for 

Major Croghan, ni, 299. 
Scott, Molly, in siege of Fort Henry, 

n, 386, 391-39*. 
Scott, Robert K., Brigadier General in 

Civil War, rv, 257. 
Scott, Thomas, secretary of first Con- 
stitutional Convention, m, iii; 

Judge of Ohio Supreme Court, v, 

104. 
Scott, William J., medical instructor, 

v, 206, 208. 
Scott, Winfield (General), iv, 22, 60. 
Scott Law, The, iv, 373, 383, 53^-533. 
Scrappathus, Mingo chief, 11, 91. 
Scribner, Charles H., member of third 

Constitutional Convention, iv, 320; 

legal writer, v, 31. 
Scruniyatha, half king, i, 303. 
Scudder, John M., legal writer, v, 32. 
Search and Seizure Act, The, rv, 541. 
Searcher, The (Todkahdohs), murderer 

of the Chief Logan, 11, 283. 
Searle, Carrington W. (Judge), decision, 

v, 125-126. 
Seddon, James A., Confederate Secre- 

Ury of War, iv, 265. 
Seely, Uri, "Harris Line" Commis- 

sicmer, ui, 441. 
Seip Group, The, prehistoric, i, 69. 
Semicolon Qub, The, Cmcinnati, v, 50. 
Seminole Indians, x, 161, 169. 
Semple, Samuel, Quartermaster, 11, 254. 
Senators, U. S., election of, rv, 465. 
Seneca County, 11, 342; share of surplus 

revenue, iv, 12; 407. 
Seneca Indians, i, 100, in, 119, 120, 

142, 159; "Senecas of the Sandusky" 

— ^the Mingoes, 166; 185, 191, 213, 

215, 220, 223, 287; in French and 

Indian War, 302, 315, 334; Pontiac's 

conspiracy, 384, 403-405; 4i6, 439. 



44a, 44S» 448; n, 21, 36, 43, 44, 68, 

69, 137, 141, 162, 170, 283, 397, 

400, 413; at Franklinton Council, 

ni, 287-289; v, 231. 
Seneca-Abeal Indians, n, 413. 
Seneca Oil, name for petroleum, rv, 

366; V, 266. 
Senior ns, Ratterman, rv, 533. 
Senseman, Gottlob, Moravian minister, 

n, 301, 322. 
Serpent Mound, The, 1, 73-76. 
Seven Ranges, The, 11, 421, 443, 586- 

587, 598. 599; in, 8. 
Seven Years' War, The, see French and 

Indian War. 
Sevier, Valentine, soldier, n, 93. 
Seward, William H., iv, 185. 
Shackamazon, Pa., Penn's treaty, i, 

184. 
Shade, The, Shawnee chief, 11, 165. 
Shadrack, Perry G., Andrews raider, 

IV, 194, 202. 
Shakers, The, ni, 181. 
Shaler, manufacturer, v, 329. 
Shamokin, Pa., Indian town, n, 13, 61, 

62. 
Shamokin Indians, 11, 64. 
Shanagaba (or Shenagaba), son of 

Pontiac, i, 458; u, 139, 165. 
Shandotto, Wyandot chief, n, 507. 
Shannoah Town, name for Lower 

Shawnee Town, i, 244. 
Shannon, Samuel (Captain), in Lochry 

expedition, 11, 308-310. 
Shannon, Wilson, Governor, in, 450, 

455; IV, 42, 48, 88, 376. 
Shannopin*s Town, Pa., Indian village, 

I, 213, 224, 236, 272. 
Sharp, Benjamin, quoted, n, 284. 
Sharp, H. J., member of Sute Board 

of Health, v, 213. 
Sharpe, Joseph, manager of impeach- 
ment of Judges, V, 118. 
Sharts, Joseph W., literary work, v, 67. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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Shauck, J. A., Judge of Ohio Supreme 
Court, IV, 443. 

Shaw, Albert, editor, v, 15. 

Shaw, Gabriel, xu, 207. 

Shawnee, O., iv, 408. 

Shawnee Indians, and La Salle, i, 120, 
121, 143, 146; 159; habiut, charac- 
teristics, etc., 167-170; controversy 
regarding their conquest by Iro- 
quois, 171-177, 192; 201, 213, 215, 
219, 224, 226; Gist's visit, 243-244, 
247; 248, 249, 256, 284, 290; take 
part in Braddock's defeat, 294; 
in French and Indian War, 301-304, 
306-309, 3 1 1-3 17, 318, 3*7-3*8, 330, 
337, 340, 347; 356, 362, 365, 367; in 
Pontiac's conspiracy, 384, 393; 411, 
416^19, 421, 425, 427; Bouquet's 
expedition, 43^44*, 445; 44^* 448, 
449, 451; at Stanwix conference 
(1768), 463-465; 474; Washington on 
their attitude, 495; visit of Rev. 
David Jones, n, 26-27, 30; Ohio 
Indian confederacy, 38-51; 56, 63, 
68; expedition of Major Angus Mc- 
Donald, 69-73; 74, 84; with Corn- 
stalk at battle of Point Pleasant, 
91; Dunmore's campaign and treaty, 
105, 117, 124-127, 129, 139; 151; 
Cornstalk's death, I56->I59; 162, 164, 
169, 170; capture of Boone, 179-181; 
182, 185; 216,221,227-228; Kenton's 
foray and capture, 232-233; 254, 255; 
Bowman's expedition, 269-274; 275, 
279; George Rogers Qark's expedi- 
tion, 285-289; 302, 322; Crawford's 
expedition and battle, 342, 353, 355, 
356, 358, 359; 367, 374, 379, 380, 
396, 399, 400; Fort Finney treaty, 
417; Colonel Benjamin Logan's 
expedition, 418; 472, 475, 506, 508, 
509-510, 515, 5*1, 5*8, 53*, 548; 
at battle of Fallen Timbers, 551; at 
GreenviUe treaty, 555; 558, 564, 565, 
567; last fight on Scioto, 593; 595; 



m, 271; at Franklinton council, 287- 
290. 

Shawnee Town, i, 225, 244. See Lower 
Shawnee Town. 

Shea, John D. Gilmary, literary work, 
1, 115, 197-198; II, 4. 

Sheadle, J. H., identified with develop- 
ment of Lake transporution, v, 247. 

Sheboech, John Joseph, Moravian, 11, 
184-185, 320, 330. 

Shebosch, Joseph, killed at Moravian 
massacre, 11, 330. 

Shedd, manufacturer, v, 321. 

Shelby, Captain, at battle of Point 
Pleasant, 11, 97. 

Shelby, John, member of legislative 
committee on canals, iii, 342. 

Shelby County, 11, 360; share of sur- 
plus revenue, rv, 12. 

Shellabarger, Samuel, on Thomas Cor- 
win, IV, 71. 

Shenegaba (or Shanagaba), son of Pon- 
tiac, 1, 458; II, 139, 165. 

Shenango, Pa. (Logstown), i, 213. 

Shepherd, David (Colonel), commander 
at Fort Henry, n, 172; in Brod- 
head's expedition, 297; 388. 

Shepherd, Henry A., literary work, i, 
12, 14. 

Sheridan, Michael V., Brigadier Gen- 
eral, rv, 428. 

Sheridan, Philip H. (CSeneral), iv, 256, 
281, 428, 478; V, 14; literary work, 

17- 

Sherman, Charles R., Judge of Ohio 
Supreme Court, v, 104, 142-143. 

Sherman, E. D., manufacturer, v, 286. 

Sherman, John, presides at first State 
Convention of Republican party, 
IV, 140; defeat in Speakership con- 
test, 149; first elected U. S. Senator, 
155-156; defends Ohio troops, 183; 
*37, *85, 33*, 336; Secretary of the 
Treasury, 337, 343-344; Senator, 
382, 388, 389, 393, 405; SecreUry 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



of Sute, 428, 434; 435, 436; death, 
444; 480, 481; V, 142. 

Shennan, Taylor, v, 142. 

Sherman, William T., Lieutenant and 
Captain in Mexican War, iv, 61; 
General in Civil War, 183, 256, 257, 
281, 478; literary work, v, 17; 142. 

Sherman, manufacturer, v, 280. 

Sherwin, Henry A., manufacturer, v, 
287. 

Sherwood, Ratherine M. B., literary 
work, V, 80. 

Shields, John, v, 305. 

Shikellamy, father of the chief Logan, 
II, 13.14, 61, 62, 64. 

Shiloh, Battle of, iv, 182, 194. 

Shingas (or Shingiss), Delaware chief, 
I, 270, 311, 338; town of, 236. 

Shipbuilding, Burr's flotilla in the Mus- 
kingum, III, 217, 229-240; industry 
on the Lake, v, 234-235; statistics of 
industry, 260; 266, 288, 293, 301. 

Shipp, Ensign, in defense of Fort Ste- 
phenson, III, 293. 

Shoemaker, Michael M., literary work, 
V, 23. 

Sholes, Captain, description of first 
Cleveland hospital, v, 219-220. 

Short Creek, 11, 174. 

Shortt, Colonel, British officer, in attack 
on Fort Stephenson, lu, 297. 

Shoshone Indians, i, 161. 

Shotwell, John T., medical instructor, 
V, 190. 

Shoup, Samuel, manufacturer, v, 314. 

Shreve, Thomas H., literary work, v, 5 1 . 

Shurtees Creek, i, 250. 

Sibley, Solomon, member of Legisla- 
ture, Northwest Territory, iii, 37. 

Sibley, William G., literary work, n, 
496,498. 

Siebert, Wilbur H. (Prof.), iv, 132; v, 26, 

Sikader, name for Scioto River, i, 225. 

Sill, Joshua, Brigadier (general in Civil 
War, IV, 193, 203, 283. 



SiUiman, WyU3r8, newspaper publisher^ 
III, 177-178; Judge, V, 102. 

Silver Heels, Shawnee chief, murder ol, 
II, 68; 139. 

Simcoe, John G. (Colonel), Canadian 
Governor, 11, 531, 532. 542, 553. 

Sinclair, William, General, rv, 428. 

Sinhioto, name for Scioto River, i, 
225. 

Sioux Indians, i, 140, 161, 164, 172, 
173, 201. 

Six Nations, The, see Iroquois. 

Sizer, manufacturer, v, 278, 279. 

Skanodo, name for Scioto River, i, 225. 

Skinner, William, iv, 491. 

Slack, Elijah, medical instructor, v, 
181, 183, 190, 191. 

Slaughter, Thomas (Captain), in Dun- 
more's expedition, 11, 87. 

Slavens, Samuel, Andrews raider, nr, 
194, 202. 

Slavery, prohibited in Northwest Terri- 
tory by Ordinance of 1787, 11, 432; 
provisions of previous Ordinance 
(of 1784) — Rufus King and others, 
434-436; ui, 30; attempt to nullify 
or modify Ordinance, 49-58; first 
Constitution and the negro question, 
118-119; Jefferson's view, 128; 155; 
Blennerh«ssett*s slaves, 210; annexa- 
tion of Texas, iv, 50; Corwin's 
compromise attitude, 70; the Black 
Laws and their repeal, 93-96; anti- 
slavery agitation. Fugitive Slave 
Law, and organization of Republican 
party, 1 19-145; Vallandigham*s opin- 
ions, 210; ratification of Thirteenth 
Amendment, 289; Fugitive Slave 
Law case in Ohio Supreme Court, 
V, 133-136. 

Sloane, Rush R., on origin of name of 
Underground Railroad, nr, 130; 
Chillicothe Centennial Commission- 
er, 451, 452. 

Sloane, William M^ literary work, v, 25. 



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Slocum, Charles £., literary work, i, 
ia6, I27;ii, S43;v, 22. 

Slough, John P., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 283. 

Sbver, John, guide, in Crawford's ex- 
pedition, 11, 351, 354, 365; remark- 
able escape, 374-376. 

Small, John, member of first Constitu- 
tional Convention, iii, 37. 

Smalley, E. V., journalist, v, 16. 

Smallpox, u, 222. 

Smith, Emma, wife of Joseph Smith, 
Jr., in, 418. 

Smith, Henry Preserved (Rev.), literary 
work, V, 33. 

Smith, Hyrum, Mormon, m, 403, 414, 
418, 419, 421. 

Smith, Jacob H., Brigadier General, iv, 
428. 

Smith, James, narrative of captivity, i, 
3*8-333. 340- 

Smith, Jesse, medical instructor, v, 
181, 183, 190, 191. 

Smith, John (Captain), founder of 
Jamestown, i, 95, 167. 

Smith, John, member of Legislature, 
Northwest Territory, in, 37, 42; 
member of first Constitutional Con- 
vention, 107; U. S. Senator, 147; 
connection with Burr affair, 214, 
218-224, 236, 237, 240-241, 24s- 
246, 249-254. 

Smith, John, Mormon, in, 416. 

Smith, John A., member of third Con- 
stitutional Convention, iv, 320. 

Smith, Joseph, Jr., founder of Mormon 
Church, III, 399-424. 

Smith, Joseph, Sr., Mormon, in, 403, 
416, 418. 

Smith, Joseph £., Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 57. 

Smith, Josiah, v, 201. 

Smith, Kirby, Confederate General, 
IV, 187, 189. 



Smith, M. W., Major in Civil War, iv, 
259. 

Smith, Richard, editor, iv, 439; v, 16. 

Smith, Samuel, Mormon, in, 403. 

Smith, Samuel H., Mormon, in, 416. 

Smith, Samuel M., medical instructor, 
V, 192, 193, 201, 202. 

Smith, Sylvester M., Mormon, in, 416. 

Smith, Thomas Kilby, Brigadier General 
in Civil War, rv, 284. 

Smith, Truman, publisher, v, 6, 

Smith, William (Dr.), account of Bou- 
quet's expedition, i, 436. 

Smith, William, Mormon, in, 416. 

Smith, William Henry, St. Qair Papers, 
n, 466, 529; ni, 52, 93-94; V, 25. 

Smith, W. L. G., quoted, in, 250. 

Smith, William M., medical instructor, 

V,203. 

Smith, William Sooy, Brigadier General 

in Civil War, iv, 283. 
Smith (of N. Y.), member of Congress, 

and Ordinance of 1787, n, 429. 
Smoky Island, n, 337. 
Snake, John and Thomas, Shawnee 

chiefs, n, 71, 302, 379- 
Snake Hollow, iv, 364. 
Snake's Town, n, 71. 
Sneadeker, Catherine (Parks), literary 

work, V, 67. 
Snelling, Jonah (Captain), in War of 

181 2, ni, 265. 
Snider, Denton J., literary work, v, 

44-45, 66. 
Snow, Eliza R., Mormon, in, 418. 
Soap Industry, The, v, 260, 294, 295, 

298, 302. 
Social Life of the pioneers, in, 3-32. 
Socialist Party, The, iv, 440, 442. 
Society for the Promotion of Useful 

Knowledge, v, 7. 
Society for Savings, The, Cleveland, 

IV, 501. 
Society of the Cincinnati, The, n, 480. 
Soisson, de, Jean Antoine Charles, 



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member of Compagnie du Scioto, iv, 
486, 487, 491. 

Soldiers' Aid Society of Northern Ohio, 
The, nr, 280. 

SoUman, Torald, medical instructor, v, 
208. 

"Solomon Thrifty," in, 373. 

Solomonstown, n, 562. 

"Somers," The, American ship in battle 
of Lake Erie, in, 301. 

Somerset, O., iv, 57. 

Sonnioto, and Sonontio, names for 
Scioto River, i, 225. 

Sons of Liberty, The, conspiracies, iv, 
263-278. 

South Olive, O., iv, 366. 

Southrm Bwouacy The, rv, 265. 

Southern Department of Indians, The, 
n, 137. 

Southward, Mary A., subscriber to 
sword for Major Croghan, ni, 299. 

Souyote, name for Scioto River, i, 225. 

Spain, part in early discoveries, i, 84-89; 
first European owner of Ohio, 
ousted by France, 151; North Ameri- 
can possessions under treaty of 
1783, n, 404-405; eariy policy 
toward the republic, 533-534; Burr's 
supposed designs, in, 205-207, 215; 
Spanish-American War, iv, 415-430. 

Sparks, Jared, quoted or referred to, 
I, 146, 280, 284, 298, 336, 343, 469, 
490 

Spaulding, Rufus P. (Judge), on Judge 
Swan, IV, 137; organizer of Repub- 
lican party, 140; v, 104. 

Spaulding, Solomon, the "Manuscript 
Found," in, 400-401. 

Spear, William T., Judge of Ohio Su- 
preme Court, v, 155. 

Spears, John R., quoted, u, 203; literary 
work, V, 65. 

Spencer, Oliver M., iv, 91, 92. 

Sperry, William J., v, 71. 

Split Island Creek, i, 491. 



Split the Log, Indian, iv, 88. 

Spooncr, Thomas, Internal Revenue 
Collector, nr, 246. 

Spooncr, Walter W., v, 331. 

Spotswood, Alexander (Sir), Governor 
of Va., I, 189, 199. 

Sprague, John W., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 257 (misprinted 
John R.), 284. 

Sprague, Mary A., literary work, v, 64. 

Sprigg, William, Judge of Ohio Supreme 
Court, ni, 147; V, 102, 104. 

Spring, Samuel (Rev.), <m Burr, m, 
196-197. 

Springer, Jacob P. (Judge), v, 126. 

Springfield, 11, 286; incorporation, m, 
168; first railroad, rv, 82; 88, 166, 
357, 408, 412, 422, 443, 451; local 
option election, 461; v, 198; census 
sutistics (1910), 262; 274; develop- 
ment of population and manufac- 
tures, 3*7-3a9- 

Springfield Township, Richland County, 
watershed line, i, 156; 11, 342. 

Sproat, Ebenezer (Colonel), member of 
Ohio Company of Associates, 11, 
454; Marietta colonist, 456; v, 92. 

Spruce Hill, prehistoric fort, i, 10-12, 
15-16, 61. 

"Squaw Campaign," The, 11, 217. 

Squier (E. G.) and Davis (E. H.), 
literary work, x, 12, 14, 21, 36, 38, 
44, 45, 61, 64, 65, 69. 

"Squirrel Hunters," The, defense of 
Cincinnati, iv, 1 89-191. 

Staats, Minerva E., v, 155. 

Stacey, William, member of first grand 
jury, V, 93. 

Stadden, Richard, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 54, 57. 

Stallo, John B., literary work, v, 29. 

Stanbery, Henry, member of second 
Constitutional Convention, iv, 109, 
no; lawyer, v, 107, 148. 

Stand in the Water, Indian, nr, 88. 



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Standard Oil Company, The, case 
against, iv, 398; organization, v, 
282; 316. 

Stanley, David S., Major General in 
Civil War, iv, 256, 282. 

Stanton, Edwin M., Secretary of War, 
IV, 189, 254, 284, 478. 

Sunton, Warren, arrest, iv, 187. 

Stanwix, Fort (Rome, N. Y.), confer- 
ences and treaties, see Fort Stanwix. 

Surbuck, Alexander, journalist, v, 16. 

Stark, John (General), i, 354. 

Stark County, share of surplus revenue, 
IV, 12; 27, 186, 339. 

Starlmg, Lyne, connection with loca- 
tion of capital at Columbus, iii, 
427; benefaction, v, 192, 204. 

Starling (and Starling-Ohio) Medical 
College, The, v, 178, 191-202. 

Starved Rock, 111., i, 146, 195. 

State Bank of Ohio, The, esublished by 
law of 1845, HI, 355-35^; iv, 489, 
499-500. 

State Banks, present, iv, 502-503. 

Sute Flag, The, iv, 450. 

State House, The, see Capitol. 

State Library, The, established by 
Governor Worthington, in, 431; v. 

State vs. Frame, iv, 532. 

Steamboats, introduction on Ohio River, 

III, 184-190; early project of Heigh- 

way and Pool, iv, 490; v, 269-270, 

293. 
Steams, manufacturer, v, 285. 
Stebbins, Samuel, member of first 

grand jury, v, 93. 
Stedman, Edmund C, v, 56, 71, 81. 
Steedman, James B., Major General in 

Civil War, iv, 282. 
Steele, Robert and Mary, literary work, 

11, 481. 
Stembel, Roger M., U. S. Navy, in 

Mexican War, iv, 61, 62. 
Stephan, manufacturer, v, 330. 



Stephen, Adam, in Braddock's defeat, 
I, 297 (misprinted Stephens); Col- 
onel, in Dunmore's expedition, 11, 
83, 84; 138. 

Stephens, trader, 11, 56. 

Stephenson, Nathaniel, literary work, 
V, 60. 

Sterret, Mary, subscriber to sword for 
Major Croghan, in, 298. 

Steuben, von, Baron, 11, 405. 

Steubenville, i, 491; 11, 35, 58; land 
office, in, 61; in 1810, 168; early 
newspaper, 179; 238, 437; iv, 55; in 
1840-50, 78; 166, 283; flood of 1884, 
354; 473; early bade, 491; v, 115, 
121; census statistics (1910), 262; 
306. 

Steubenville Academy, The, in, 175. 

Stevens, Thaddeus, iv, 293. 

Stevens, Vincent S., acknowledgment, 
V, 322. 

Stevenson, Burton E., literary work, 
V, 61. 

Stewart, George N., medical instructor, 
V, 208. 

Stewart, Gilbert H., v, 202. 

Stewart, Henry, with Washington in 
mission of 1753-54, i, 270. 

Stewart's Crossing, 11, 126. 

Stillwater River, The, n, 539. 

Stillwell, Richard (Judge), v, 125, 126. 

Stimson, R. M., newspaper publisher, 
in, 178. 

Stites, Benjamin (Major), connection 
with Symmes tract and early settle- 
ments, n, 47^475» 481. 

Stockbridge, F. B., name used in Ballot- 
box Forgery, iv, 393. 

Stockbridge Indians, 11, 28. 

Stockley, Thomas (Captain), in Lochry 
expedition, 11, 308. 

Stone, Amasa, Jr., and A. B., manu- 
facturers, V, 280. 

Stone, Jonathan, member of first grand 
jury, V, 93. 



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Stone, William L., quoted or referred to, 
I, 286, 289, 365, 366, 418, 453, 465; 
n, 255, 3". 331, 5i5» 5^^* 5*7. 53i- 

Stony Creek, 11, 17. 

Storer, Bellamy (Judge), v, 141. 

Storrs, Henry M. (Rev. Dr. ), addrett, 
IV, 385- 

Story, Daniel (Rev.), pastor at Mariet- 
ta, II, 168. 

Story, Joseph, Justice of U. S. Supreme 
Court, in, 326. 

Stout, Atlas L., officer in Mexican War, 

IV, 59. 

Stout, Rachel, v, 154. 

Stow, Joshua, with Moses Qeaveland, 
n, 583. 

Stow's Castle, 11, 583. 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, v, 49-50. 

Straitsville, O., nr, 364. 

Strangleton, James M., medical instruct- 
or, V, 191. 

Strickland, Silas A., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 257. 

Stuart, Charlotte, wife of Lord Dun- 
more, II, 81. 

Stuart, John, Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs, i, 462. 

Stuart, John, brother-in4aw of Boone, 

i»474. 

Stuart, John (Captain), in Dunmore's 
expedition, n, 87, 97; quoted, loi- 
102, 125, 157. 

Struthers, John, manufacturer, v, 318- 
319. 

Struthers, Thomas, quoted, v, 319. 

Su£ferers' Lands, The, 11, 578. 

Suffrage, The, qualifications under 
Ordinance of 1787, ni, 36; 105; pro- 
posal concerning negroes in first 
Constitutional Convention, 1 18; pro- 
visions of first Constitution, 135; 
petitions in behalf of negroes to 
second Constitutional Convention, 
IV, 114-115; Fourteenth and Fif- 
teenth Amendments to U. S. Con- 



stitution, 293-298, 299-301, 304- 
306, 307-308; extension of rights to 
women in school affairs, 408. 

Sugar Grov^, O., nr, 368. 

Sukachgook, Indian name for Wayne, 
n, 541. 

Sullivan, Daniel (Captain), spying ex- 
pedition to Detroit, 11, 217-218. 

Sullivan, Captain, in siege of Fort 
Henry, 11, 388. 

Sullivant, Joseph, v, 201. 

Sullivant, Lucas, founder of Franklin- 
ton (now Columbus), 11, 595-596; 
V. 305. 

Sullivant, William S., scientist, v, 27, 
193, aoi. 

Sulpitians, The, religious order, i, 118- 
122, 198. 

Sunmiit County, m, 127; coal first 
mined, 168; 360; share of surplus 
revenue, iv, 12. 

SumriU's Ferry (now West Newton, 
Pa.), n, 456, 457. 

Sun, The, Indian chief, u, 555. 

Sunbury, Pa., n, 397. 

Sunday Laws, iv, 457, 507, 521, 539- 
S40. 

Sunyendeand, Indian town, i, 331. 

Super, Charles W., literary work, v» 
40-41. 

Supporter and Scioto Gatttte, The (Chil- 
iicothe), III, 177. 

Supreme Court of Ohb, The, see Judi- 
ciary. 

Supreme Court of the United States, 
see Constitution of U. S. 

Surplus Revenue, The, rv, 3-16. 

Susquehanna River, The, i, 114, 464; 
II, 16, 20, 21, 161. 

Sutliff, Milton, Judge of Ohio Supreme 
Court, v, 135. 

Sutton, H. T., member of State Board 
of Health, v, 216. 

Swain, Charles S., Pan-American Ex- 
position Commissioner, rv, 483. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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Swallowhead, Indian, ii, 30. 

Swan, Gustavus, Judge of Ohb Supreme 
Court, V, 104, 137. 

Swan, Joseph R., member of second 
Constitutional Convention, iv, 109- 
iio; Chief Justice of Ohio Supreme 
Court, decision on Fugitive Slave 
Law, 135-139; organizer of Repub- 
lican party, 140; 175; v, 31, 104, 131, 
135-140, 148, 201. 

Swartout, John, iii, 202, 203. 

Swatara Creek, 11, 457. 

Swayne, Noah H., Justice of U. S. Su- 
preme Court, on Charles Hammond, 
III, 330-331; letter to Alfred Kelley, 
352; Commissioner on boundary 
question, 444; opinion in Vallandig- 
ham case, iv, 226. 

Swayne, Wager, Major General in 
Chril War, iv, 282. 

Swearingen, Andrew (Cobnel), in siege 
of Fort Henry, 11, 174. 

"Sweeping Resolutions," The, in, 160; 
V, 122. 



Sweet Breeze, daughter of Little Turtle, 
n, 517. 

Swege Lake, name for Lake Erie, i, 185. 

Swing, David (Rev.), literary work, 
v,40. 

Sycamore Shoals, The, council, 11, 146- 
147. 

Sylvania, State proposed by Jeflferson, 
11, 426. 

Symmes, Anna, wife of William H. 
Harrison, 11, 475. 

Symmes, Daniel, director of Miami 
Exporting Company, iv, 490; Judge 
of Ohio Supreme Court, v, 104. 

Symmes, John Qeves, i, 17; 11, 463; 
Symmes Purchase — settlement of 
Cincinnati, Dayton, and Miami 
Valley, 473-482, 587, 59*, 598; iii, 
8> 43> S9» 174; Judge of Northwest 
Territory, iv, 508, 509; v, 89, 95. 

Symmes, S. C, lawyer, iv, 312. 

Symmes Theory, The, v, 31. 



TlCHANOONTIA, Iroquois chief 
I, 192. 

Tachnechdorus, name for Chief 
Logan, II, 62. 

Taensas Indians, i, 144. 

Taft, Alphonso, iv, 340; Secretary of 
of War and Attorney General of 
U. S., 460. 

Taft, William H., Governor of Philip- 
pine Islands, rv, 428; Secretary of 
War, Akron speech, 456-457; Presi- 
dent of U. S., 459-460, 466. 

Tagancourte, Seneca chief, i, 142. 

Tahgahjute, name for Chief Logan, 11, 
35, 62, 109. 

Take, Huron chief, i, 387. 

Tallmadge, O., v, 44, 322. 

Talon, Intendant of New France, i, 
115, 119, 133. 



Tamaque (or Big Beaver), Delaware 
chief, II, 17. 

Tamaroa Indians, i, 139, 144. 

Tammany, Delaware chief, i, 165, 184. 

Tanacharison, Seneca half king, i, 214, 
258; advises construction of fort 
at Ohio forks, 259; 270, 278; services 
to Washington, 280-282, 284; death, 
286. 

Taney, Roger B., Chief Justice of U. S., 
V, 130. 

Tappan, Benjamin, Canal Commis- 
sioner, ni, 345; Judge, V, 117. 

Tardiveau, Bartholomew, slavery peti- 
tion, III, 51. 

Tarhe (or The Crane), Wyandot chief, 
II, 344; at Fort Finney treaty, 417; 
Fort Harmar treaty, 508; Greenville 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



treaty, 555, 556; life, 560-563; 5^7; 
Franklinton council, in, 288-290. 

Tarhestown, 11, 563. 

Tate, J. H., medical instructor, v, 190. 

Tawa Indians, i, 311, 338; 11, 199, 551. 

Tawixwti Town, Pickawillany, i, 226. 

Taxation, Northwest Territory regula- 
tions, III, 48-49; first Constitution, 
137; the U. S. Bank, 313-3*8; 
General Property Tax Law of 1846, 
35^357; support of schoob, 396; 
question of taxmg liquor traffic, iv, 
346, 347, 373-375, 382-384; Governor 
Foraker's recommendations concern- 
ing general taxes, 391; 399-400, 410; 
Governor Nash's administration, 
446-448, 449-450; 458; Governor 
Harmon's administration, 464; liq- 
uor tax — ^various measures, 507, 53 1- 

534- 
Taylor, Edward L., Sr., on discovery of 

Ohio River, i, 129. 
Taylor, Hovey, manufacturer, v, 280. 
Taylor, Jacob E., Brigadier General in 

Civil War, iv, 257. 
Taylor, James W., "History of Ohio," 

u, 256-257; V, 2a 
Taylor, John, president of Mormon 

Church, ui, 422, 423. 
Taylor, Jonathan, Harris Line Comis- 

sioner, in, 441. 
Taylor, Robert W., manufacturer, v, 

320. 
Taylor, William Alexander, literary 

work, V, 22. 
Taybr, Zachary (General and Presi- 
dent), IV, 49, 53, 54, 56, 63, 68-69. 
Tearing Asunder, Indian chief, 11, 507. 
Teata, Huron chief, i, 387. 
Tecaughretanego, Indian chief, i, 332. 
Tecumapease, sister of Tecumseh, n, 

564. 
Tecumseh, Shawnee chief, n, 91, 98, 
287; Colonel Benjamin Logan's 
expedition, 418; St. Clair's defeat, 



528; battle of Fallen Timbers, 548; 

558; career, 563-570; Hull's campaign 

and surrender, m, 264-266; 268, 273; 

siege of Fort Meigs, 276-281, 282; 

287, 290-293. 
Tedyuskung, Delaware chief, i, 3 12, 337. 
Temperance Crusade, The Women's, 

IV, 330-331- 
Tenekawautawa, see Prophet. 
Tennessee River, The, i, 464; n, 38, 145. 
Terry, Charles A., medical instructor, v, 

208. 
Tetepachski, Delaware chief, n, 223. 
Tew, Harvey W., manufacturer, ni, 

322. 
Thackeray, William M., on Laurel Hill 

battle, I, 283. 
Thames, Battle of the, 11, 563, 568-569; 

in, 291, 306; Moravian settlement 

on river, 11, 575. 
Thayendanegea, see Brant (Joseph). 
Thayer, Proctor, medical instructor, v, 

208. 
Thirteenth Amendment to U. S. Consti- 
tution, IV, 289, 293. 
Thomas, Indian boy, escape, 11, 336. 
Thomas, Abraham, soldier, experiences, 

II, 72. 
Thomas, Cyrus, archaeological work, 

1,52. 
Thomas, Edith M., literary work, v, 81. 
Thomas, Frederick W., literary work, 

V, 51, 71. 

Thomas, John H., manufacturer, v, 328. 

Thomas, Martha, literary work, v, 53. 

Thomas, Mordecai, slave case, v, 105- 
106. 

Thomas, Rolla L., medical instructor, 
V, 178. 

Thomas, W. S., on Springfield indus- 
tries, V, 328. 

Thompson, Andrew (Captain), n, 311. 

Thompson, Jacob, Confederate, iv, 
265-267, 273, 277. 

Thompson, James H., Commissiooer to 



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bring body of General Hamer, iv, 
64; on Women's Crusade, 330-331, 

Thompson, Samuel, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 56. 

Thompson, Samuel, Thompsonian s)rs- 
tcm, V, 180. 

Thompson, Smith, Justice U. S. Su- 
preme Court, III, 326. 

Thompson, William O., president Ohio 
Sutc University, iv, 452. 

Thompson, William T., literary work, 
V, 67. 

Thomson, Peter G., literary work, v, 20. 

Thrall, Homer, medical instructor, v, 

2Q2. 

Thresher, E., manufacturer, v, 315. 
Thrown in the Water, Indian chief, 11, 

507. 
Thurman, Allen G., Democratic leader, 

IV, 229, 236; candidate for Governor, 
301-302, 304; U. S. Senator, 306-307, 

3i8, 330, 332-333, 334. 336, 344-345. 
382; Judge of Ohio Supreme Court, 

V, 130; 137-138, 148, 15*. 
Thurman, Pleasant, iv, 328. 
Thurston, O., iv, 368. 

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, quoted or 
referred to, i, 104, 337, 360, 423, 
448; u, 57, 83, 189-190, 192-193. 
195. 

Thwing, Charles F., literary work, v, 39. 

Tiber River, The, proposed name for 
Mad River, 11, 481. 

Ticonderoga, N. Y., i, 236, 412, 413. 

Tldball, John W., Brigadier General in 
Civil War, iv, 264. 

Tiffin, II, 342; IV, 55; census sutistics 
(1910), V, 263. 

Tiffin, Edward, Governor, n, 565, 597; 
member of Legislature, Northwest 
Territory, iii, 37; Speaker of House, 
39; 43. 50; U. S. Senator, attitude 
on slavery, 57, 58; Washington's 
letter recommending him to St. 
Qair— sketch of career, 74-78; Anti- 



Federalist and Statehood leader, 80, 
86-95; member of first Constitu- 
tional Convention, 107; president of 
Convention, iii, 114, 118, 119; 
elected Governor, 146; elected U. S. 
Senator, 166; 167; Burr affair, and 
his action as Governor, 215-217, 
224-225, 229-240, 244, 248, 250; 
251, 253, 368, 429, 446, 450; IV, 119, 
452; V, 98, 100. 

"Tigress, " The, American ship in battle 
of Lake Erie, in, 301. 

Tikamthe, name for Tecumseh, 11, 564. 

Tillihas, Indian town, i, 329. 

Tinus and Seasons, in, 412. 

Tin Plate, episode in McKinley cam- 
paign of 1891, IV, 402-404; sutistics, 
V, 260. 

Tionontati (Tobacco) Indians, i, 163. 

Tippecanoe, Battle of, u, 567; lu, 268- 
269, 281. 

"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too, " iv, 3 1-33 . 

Tippecanoe River, The, 11, 566. 

Tippecanoe Well, The, natural gas, iv, 
368. 

Tlascala, Mex., resemblance of ancient 
works to those in Ohio, i, 23. 

Tobacco, prehbtoric use, i, 55-56, 60. 

Tobacco Indians, conquest by Iroquois, 
I, 109-110, 163. 

Tod, David, iv, 96, 171; elected Gov- 
ernor, 176-177; administration, 181- 
190, 205, 213-214, 216, 227, 232, 
237, 245, 248, 251, 252-253; 289; 
v, 124; manufacturer, 320. 

Tod, George, in, 85; Judge of Ohio 
Supreme Court, 156-158; v, 104, 
118-122, 123-124, 126. 

Todd, John (Colonel), commandant of 
"County of Illinois," n, 211; killed 
at battle of Blue Licks, 382, 383, 384. 

Todd, Levi (Captain), in Bowman's 
Ohio expedition, n, 269; at battle 
of Blue Licks, 382. 



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436 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Todd, Robert, General in Wayne's 
expedition, ii, 548, 550. 

Todd, Thomas, Justice of U. S. Supreme 
Court, III, 326. 

Todkahdohs (The Searcher), murderer 
of Chief Logan, u, 283. 

Toledo, ni, 396; so-called **Toledo 
War," 440-446; 449; IV, 25, 60, 303, 
319, 320, 374, 384. 408, 4", 423, 
440, 443, 472, 480; V, 22, 68, 80, 177, 
179-180, 216, 221, 236; census sta- 
tistics (1910), 262; 264; develop- 
ment of population and manufac- 
tures, 310-313- 

Toledo Medical College, The, v, 179- 
180; Sute Hospital, 179-180. 

Tomlinson, Benjamin, on Logan's 
speech, 11, 114-116, 118. 

Tomlinson, Nathaniel, in Baker's Cabin 
massacre, 11, 59. 

Tom's Town, Indian village, i, 441. 

Tompkins, Daniel D., member of Ohb 
Steamboat Navigation Company, 
ni, 185. 

Toner, J. M., literary work, i, 482. 

Tonty, de, Henri, with La Salle, i, 137- 
146. 

Tornado, The, name for Wayne, 11, 552. 

Torrcnce, Frederick R., literary work, 
v, 84. 

Tourgee, Albion W., literary work, v, 

54, 57-58. 
Towle, N. C, on date of admissbn, in, 

151. 
Townshend, Norton S., and Chase's 

election to Senate, iv, 94-96. 
Transylvania Company, The, and 

Transylvania (original name for 

Ky.), II, 14^151, 155-156, *3a- 
Transylvania University, Lexington, 

Ky., u, 478; ni, 455. 
Travis Creek, 11, 325. 
Treason Bill, The, m Civil War, iv, i6o- 

161. 
Trent, at Stanwix conference, i, 463. 



Trent, William (Capuin), journey to 
Pickawillany, i, 254-257; 258-259; 
begins constructbn of fort at Ohio 
forks, 277-278; 279, 302. 

Trigg, Stephen, Ky. pioneer, killed at 
battle of Blue Licks, i, 382 (mis- 
printed TriflF), 383, 384. 

Trimble, Allen, (Sovemor, m, 375, 450, 
452, 453; IV, 141-142. 

Trimble, Isaac R. (General), Con- 
federate, IV, 273. 

"Trip," The, American ship in battle 
of Lake Erie, ni, 302. 

TroUopc, Frances M., v, 47. 

Trotter, Robert (Colonel), in Cobnel 
Benjamin Logan's expedition, n, 
418; in Harmar's expedition, 512, 

513, 515. 
Trowbridge, Amasa, medical instructor, 

V, 203. 
Truby, Lieutenant Colonel, in Harmar's 

expedition, 11, 513. 
True, Jabez, member of first grand 

jury, V, 93. 
Trueman, Alexander (Major), spy, 

killed by Indiana, n, 531-532. 
Truman, publisher, v, 6. 
Trumbull, Jonathan, Governor of Conn. 

II, 591. 
Trumbull County, watershed line, i, 

155; orginal bounds, 591; ni, 85; 

population in 1800, 106; 107, ill, 

114, 164, 175, 183, 342, 450; share 

of surplus revenue, rv, 13; 109, 283, 

296, 534; V, 114, 115, I", "3, 124, 

148. 
Tucker, B. (General), justice, v, 93. 
Tucker, J. Randolph, address, iv, 385. 
Tucker, Simon B., Captain in Mexican 

War, IV, 54. 
Tunison, Joseph S., literary work, v, 43. 
Tupper, Ansebn, surveyor, u, 454; 

teacher, ni, 369; grand juror, v, 93. 
Tupper, Benjamin (General), surveyor, 

II, 420; member of Ohio Company 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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of Associates, 444-445. 448, 454; 
connection with Scioto Company, 

484. 

IHipper, Edward W. (General), in, 243, 

370. 
Turkey Bottom, Cincinnati, 11, 475. 
Turkey Qan of Delaware Indians, i, 

439. 

Turkey Creek, Pa., i, 346. . 

Turner, George, Supreme Judge, North- 
west Territory, iv, 508, 509; v, 90, 

95. 
Turner, James, engraver, i, 239. 
Turner, John, 11, 161. 
Turtle, The, Indian chief, i, 156-257. 
Turtle Qan of Delaware Indians, I, 

442; II, 13, 22, 336. 
Turtle Creek, i, 278, 292. 
Turtle Island, Maumee Bay, 11, 543. 
Tuscarawas, Indian town, i, 227; 11, 17, 

18, 222, 223. 
IHiscarawas County, i, 4; u, 352; share 

of surplus revenue, iv, 13. 
Tuscarawas Indians, an Iroquois tribe, 

I, 166, 175, 223; in French and 

Indian War, 334; 11, 21, 36, 137, 413. 
Tuscarawas River, The, i, 156, 166, 



227, 230, 236; Bouquet's encamp- 
ments, 438, 441; Moravians, n, 16, 
22, 23; 36, 68, 224; Fort Laurens, 
225-226, 253, 260; 299, 304, 319, 
321, 322, 327; boundary. Fort Mc- 
intosh treaty, 415, 467; 546; Green- 
ville treaty, 557; 574, 575, 577. 

Tuscarora Indians, see Tuscarawas. 

Tutela Indians, 11, 21. 

Tutelu, Indian, 11, 369, 374. 

IHittle, Daniel, arrest, iv, 187. 

Tuttle, H. B., manufacturer, v, 279, 280. 

Tuttle, Mary McArthur, literary work, 
v, 25. 

Twightwee Indians, i, 162, 172, 192, 
215, 219, 220, 226; Gist's visit, 244- 
H7, 2S6, 302, 304, 312, 393. See 
Miami and Piankeshaw Indians. 

Tygart River, The, Ky., i, 44. 

Tyler, Comfort, in Burr affair, iii, 234, 
a3S, 238, 139, Ha, ^44. 

Tyler, Erastus B., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 284. 

Tyler, John, campaign of 1840, iv, 22, 
31-32; President, 37. 

lymochtee River (or Creek), i, 485; 
II, 295, 342, 345, 353, 368. 



«T TNCLETOM'S CABIN," v, 50. 
I J Underground Railroad, The, 
IV, 129-139. 
Unhappy Jake, Indian, 11, 62. 
Union County, share of surplus revenue, 

IV, 13; 31, 112, 137. 
Union Furnace, The, iv, 80. 
Union Humane Society, The, iv, 125. 
Union Party, The, Republican party 

merged in, rv, 172-177, 206, 231-238, 

289-291, 297-298; abandonment of 

name, 303-304. 
Union Reform Party, The, iv, 440, 442. 
Union Village, O., in, 181. 
United Brethren, The (Moravians), 

II, 10. 



United States, The, see Congress and 
Constitution. 

United States Bank, The, Ohio's antag^ 
onism of, iii, 311-328; rv, 493-494. 

United States Military Tract, The, ni, 
171, 172. 

Unloading Machines, v, 243-245, 284-285. 

Updegraff, Nathan, member of first 
Constitutional Conventbn, in, 107. 

Upper Piqua, n, 395-396. 

Upper Sandusky, Kenton's captivity, 
n, 246-247; 255, 258, 259, 296, 302, 
304, 312, 344; Crawford's expedition 
(Upper Sandusky and Upper San- 
dusky Old Town), 353, 355-357, 3^0; 
384, 385, 563; in, 270; IV, 37, 83, 86. 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Upton, Harriet T., Chicago World's 

Fair, nr, 478; quoted, v, 324. 
Urban, Charies, manufacturer, v, 296. 



Urbana, 11, 565; m, 263, 454, 455; iv, 

88, 89, 41 1 ; early bank, 492; v, 82. 
Utrecht, Treaty of, i, 173, 190, 222- 



VALLANDIGHAM, Qement L., 
member of Legislature, on judi- 
cial system, xv, 105; member of 
Congress and Democratic leader, 
161-162, 172; defeat for Congress, 
205; opposition to the War — ante- 
cedents and character, 209-213; Mt. 
Vernon speech, trial, banishment, 
and candidacy for Governor, 216- 
238; connection with Sons of 
Liberty, 263, 265-271; 292; compact 
with Thurman and Pendleton, 301- 
302, 306-307; **New Departure," 
310, 311; death, 312, 313. 

Valley Forge, Pa., 11, 189, 215. 

Valodin, Francois, u, 495. 

Van Braam, Jacob, with Washington 
m mission of 1753-54, h 269, 272; 
Lieutenant, in Washington's Pa. 
campaign, 279, 285. 

Van Buren, Martin (President), in, 447; 
IV, 6, 20, 21, 27-29, 36, 41. 

Van Derveer, Ferdinand, Captain in 
Mexican War, iv, 60; Brigadier 
General in Civil War, 257, 283. 

Van Mater's Stockade, W. Va., 11, 174. 

Vance, David, member of Legislative 
Council, Northwest Territory, n, 
596; m, 38, 44. 

Vance, John L., on Gallipolis settlers, 
M» 495-496; address, iv, 399; on 
flood of 1884, 450. 

Vance, Joseph, Governor, lu, 450, 454- 
455; IV, 20; member of second Con- 
stitutional Convention, 112; v, 156. 

Vance, Samuel C, rv, 490. 

Vance ville, O., in, 38. 

Vanderberg, Henry, member of Legisla- 
tive Council, Northwest Territory, 
II, 596; ni, 38, 39; V, 98. 



Vamum, James M. (General), member 
of Ohio Company of Associates, 
Marietta settler, and Judge of North- 
west Territory, u, 446, 462, 463, 
46s; V, 88, 89, 90. 

Vattier, Charies, m, 180. 

Vaudrcuil, de. Marquis, Governor of 
Canada, i, 128, 291, 308, 333, 353, 

355. 
Vaughan, Daniel, literary work, v, 28. 
Venable, Emerson, literary work, v, 

45»69. 
Venable, William Henry, personal 

sketch, V, i; contribution, "Ohio 

Literary Men and Women," 3-84. 
Venable, William Mayo (Capuin), 

literary work, v, 26. 
Venango and Fort Venango, Pa., i, 224, 

258, 270, 272, 278, 304, 311, 356, 

396, 403, 483. 
Venice, name proposed for Dayton, n, 

481. 
Vera Cruz, Mez., Ohio troops at, iv, 

56, 57. 60, 61, 62. 
Vermillbn River, The (111.), i, 141. 
Vermillion River, The (O.), i, 156, 42a 
Vernon, Frederick Ward (Major), com- 
mander at Fort Laurens, 11, 258, 

260. 
Vernon River, The, u, 355. 
Verrazzano, discoveries for France, i, 91. 
"Veteran Observer," E. D. Mansfield, 

v, II. 
Veto Power, The, iv, 322, 450; v, 126- 

127. 
Via Sacra, The, at Marietta, i, 43. 
\^ctor, Orville James, literary work, 

V, II. 

Viele, Arnold, visit to the Ohio^ i> 129. 
Villages, places of under 5,000^ rv, 450. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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Villiers, de, Coulon, with Celoron, i, 220. 

Villiers, de, French officer, i, 279; Wash- 
ington's surrender of Fort Necessity, 
285-286, 308. 

\^ncenne8, Ind., i, 370; originally Post 
Vincent, 450; u, 189; George Rogers 
Qark's capture, 197, 201; retaken 
by British, 206; again captured by 
Oark, 207-211; 253, 254, 289, 411, 
509, 511, 567; capital of Indiana 
Territory, 597; in, 37, 38, 51, 56, 
70-72; IV, 522. 

Vmton, Samuel F., member of Congress, 
III, 446; candidate for Governor, iv, 
142; lawyer, v, 105-106. 

Vinton County, iv, 80; Morgan raiders, 
246; V, 142. 

Virginia, beginnings, i, 94; early exten- 
sion and claims of territory, 183, 
189, 192-193, 199; co6peration with 
Pa. in sending Weiser, 212; Ohio 
Land Company (1748), 216-218; 
219-220, 249-251, 258-259; Governor 
Dinwiddle sends Washington on 
mission to the French, 263-274; 
Captain Trent sent to build fort at 
Ohio forks, 277-278; Washington's 
Pa. expedition, 279-287; Va. troops 
in Braddock's campaign, 291-292; 



Sandy Creek expedition of Colonel 
Andrew Lewis, 327-328; expedition 
of Forbes and fall of Fort Duquesne, 
343-349; 371; Va. troops with Bou- 
quet, 437; 443, 445, 462, 463, 465; 
II, preface; rivalry with Pa. for Ohio 
forks, 47-50; Cresap and Major 
Angus McDonald, 55-73; Dunmore's 
War and its results, 79-106, 123-142; 
settlement of Ky., 145-150, 155-156; 
157-1 59> 163-164; the sending of 
George Rogers Qark to the West, 
191-193; 219, 306-307; western terri- 
torial claims and their adjustment, 
408-411; 426, 427, 592, 598; partici- 
pation and influence in settlement 
and early hbtory of Ohio, in, 8, 49- 
50, 65, 81, III, 119; IV, ^^^ slavery, 
119, 121, 129, 144; Ohio and the 
creation of West Va., 167-169. 

Virginia GaxeUe, The, n, 113, 131. 

Virginia Military District, The, 11, 411, 
460, 592-593, 594, 598; ni, 50, 74, 
171, 172. 

Virginia Resolutions of 1798, The, in, 
321. 

Visgar, Jacob, member of Legislature, 
Northwest Territory, iii, 37. 

Vomit Town, 11, 70. 



WABASH and>rie Canal, The, 
ni, 359; V, 236. 
Wabash River, The, ques- 
tbn of La Salle's route, i, 126- 
129; 162, 163, 199, 353,364,401, 
447, 449; n, 46, 199, 201, 205; 
Clark's Vincennes expeditbn, 207- 
210; 253, 417, 418, 505, 509-5", 
521, 523, 531, 556, 557; ni, 359. 
Waddle, Nancy, subscriber to sword for 

Major Croghan, ni, 299. 
Wade, Benjamin F., iv, 109, 141 ; U. S. 
Senator, 174, 204, 237, 285, 306; 
428; V, 147. 



Wade, James Franklin, Major General, 

IV, 428. 
Wade, M. S., Brigadier General in Civil 

War, IV, 283. 
Waite, F. C, v, 208. 
Waitc, Morrison R., Chief Justice of 

U. S., IV, 319. 
Wake, Susan, subscriber to sword for 

Major Croghan, ui, 299. 
Wakotomica and Wapatomika, Indian 

towns, I, 440-441; ", 707i> 73, 88, 

91, 239-240, 245, 249, 289, 374, 379, 

380, 384i 385. 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Walcott, C. P., delegate to Peace Con- 
ference, IV, 155. 

Walcutt, Charles C^ Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 257, 283. 

Walden, R. B., literary work, v, a6. 

Waldsmith, Christian, director of Mi- 
ami Exporting Company, iv, 49a 

Walhonding River, The, i, 156, 238; 
n, 37, 140, 239, 278, 295, 355. 

Walker, Benjamin (Colonel), connec- 
tion with Scioto Company, n, 494. 

Walker, Charles M., on date of admis- 
sion, m, 151. 

Walker, Hairy, U. S. Navy, in Mexican 
War, nr, 62. 

Walker, John, Va. Commissioner to 
treat with Indians, n, 138. 

Walker, Thomas (of Va.), member of 
various commissions, i, 463; u, 138, 
139. 

Walker, Timothy (J«<ig«)» ©^ Mass. 
emigration to Ohio, iii, 3; legal 
writer, V, 31. 

Walker, William, Indian, iv, 88. 

Wall, William, Major in Mexican War, 
IV, 54- 

Wallace, Alexander, arrest, iv, 187. 

Wallace, Lewis (General), defense of 
Cincinnati, xv, 188-190. 

Wallace, Robert, fate of family, 11, 325. 

Wallace, William (Colonel), Holmes 
County disturbances, xv, 227. 

Walpole, Indian, nr, 88. 

Walpde, Thomas, and Walpole Grant, 
II, 468-469, 484. 

Wampanoag Indians, u, 15, 21. 

Wangomen, Delaware Indian, n, 21. 

Wapakoneta, 11, 396; iv, 83. 

Wapatomika, see Wakotomica. 

War Governors* Convention, The, iv, 

254. 
War of 1812, II, 567-570; in, 257-308. 
Ward, Artemus, humorist, v, 68. 
Ward, Durbin, lawyer, v, 152. 



Ward, James (Capuin), killed m battle 

of Point Pleasant, n, 98. 
Ward, John, 11, 240. 
Ward, May Alden, literary work, v, 43. 
Ward, Nahum, literary work, v, 2a 
Ward, Thomas W., officer in Mexican 

War, nr, 59. 
Ward, William G., literary work, v, 43. 
Ward, Ensign, surrenders original fort 

at Ohio forks, i, 278. 
Warder, Benjamin H., manufacturer, 

V, 328. 
Warder, John A., medical instructor, 

V, 190. 
Warder, J. T., manufacturer, v, 327. 
Warner, A. J. (General), nr, 354. 
Warner, Frank, president Sute Board 

of Health, v, 216. 
Warner, Jonathan, manufacturer, v, 32a 
Warner, Willard, Brigadier General in 

Civil War, iv, 283. 
Warren, 11, 591; m, 337; nr, 291, 296; 

early bank, 491, 498; v, 114, 115, 

148; census sutistics (1910), 263. 
Warren, Pa., i, 222. 
Warren County, prehistoric remains, 

I, 23-31; 1:1, 150, 450, 452; share of 

surplus revenue, iv, 13; 27, 67, 205; 

Morgan raiders, 245, 246; 282, 283, 

3ii;v, 1, 116, 144. 
Warren County Canal, The, lu, 361. 
Warsong, Chippewa chief, i, 424. 
Washashe, Potuwattomie chief, i, 40a 
Washington, Augustine (father of 

George), i, 264. 
Washington, Augustine (brother of 

George), member of Ohio Land 

Company (1748), i, 216, 264-265, 

465-466, 480. 
Washington, Betty (sister of George), 

1,264. 
Washington, Bushrod, Justice of U. S. 

Supreme Court, ni, 326. 
Washington, Charles (brother of 

George), i, 264. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



441 



Washington, George, i, 218, 258; ante- 
cedents, early life, and mission of 
1753-54* ^63-274, 277; expedition 
against French — successful battle at 
Laurel Hill and surrender of Fort 
Necessity, 279-287; 292; in Brad- 
dock's defeat, 295-296; 301, 305, 
333; in ezpeditbn of Forbes against 
Fort Duquesne, 343-345» 347*348; 
364; Mississippi, Ohio, and Walpole 
companies, 466, 469-470; Ohio jour- 
ney of 1770, 479-496; n, 49, 50, 55. 
57, 60, 81, 84, 86, 88, 126, 133; com- 
mander of Continenul army, 138- 
139, 153. iio, 215, 220, 258, 293, 
295, 297, 306, 307, 308, 311; on 
failure of Qark's Detroit expedi- 
tbn, 313; 346, 350, 361, 379, 397, 
398; resigns commission, 403; 413, 
425, 426, 427, 440-443, 454; on Man- 
etta settlement, 458; his Ohio lands, 
460-461; President, 500, 509, 512, 
520-522, 526; news of St. Qair^s 
defeat, 5*8-5*9; 530, 537, 543, 544, 
556, 558, 559; letter to St, Clair 
recommending Edward Tiffin, iii, 
74-75; distrust of Burr, 197; 198, 336. 

Washington, John (brother of George), 
1, 264, 296. 

Washington, Lawrence (brother of 
George), member of Ohio Land 
Company (1748), i, 216, 218, 264, 
266, 268, 465, 480, 481. 

Washington, Samuel (brother of 
George), i, 264. 

Washington C. H., O., iv, 320, 406. 

Washington County, first county estab- 
lished by St. Clair, 11, 466-467; 588, 
596; III, 37, 38, 41, 105, 106, 107, 
III, 113, 164, 210, 383, 450; share of 
surplus revenue, iv, 13; 243, 245, 
28i;v,93, 115, 155. 

Washington County, Pa., organizatbn 
of expedition against Moravian 



settlements, 11, 326-327, 330; Craw- 
ford's expedition, 349. 

WashingUm County Republican^ The 
(Marietta), iv, 233. 

Washington's Road, i, 279. 

Washington's Springs, Pa., i, 281. 

Washiu River, The (La.), Burr's pur- 
chase, III, 215, 216, 220. 

Washnash, Delaware chief, 11, 277. 

Wasson, Ojibway chief, i, 421. 

Watauga River, The, 11, 147. 

Waterford, O., lu, 370. 

Waters, Esther, law case, v, 120. 

Waters, George M., physician, v, 201. 

Watershed of Ohb, The, i, 155-157. 

Watson, Cooper K., member of third 
Constitutional Convention, iv, 320. 

Watson, David R., Attorney General, 

IV, 398; address, 399; legal writer, 

V, 25, 31; personal notice, 85; con- 
tribution, "The Judiciary of Ohio," 
87.109. 

Watts, Mary S., literary work, v, 60-61. 

Wauketaumeka, etc., see Wakotomica. 

Waumaugapith (Sweet Breeze), daugh- 
ter of Little Turtle, 11, 517. 

Waverly, O., iv, 483. 

Way, William B. (Major), pursuit of 
Morgan raiders, rv, 248. 

Wayne, Anthony (General), i, 177; n, 
441, 530-531; campaign, battle of 
Fallen Timbers, and Greenville 
treaty, 537-5^0, 565, 592, 593, 
594, 595; ni, 8, 43, 263, 292, 437; 
IV, 26, 83, 88, 89, 90. 

Wayne, James M., Justice U. S. Su- 
preme Court, V, 130. 

Wayne County, original bounds, 11, 
588-589; III, 37, 92, 105, 106, 107; 
share of surplus revenue, iv, 13; 26, 
282, 339. 

Wayne County, Ind., in, 361. 

Wajmesville, O., v, i. 

Wea Indians, i, 162, 247, 301; 11, 205, 
400,509,510,511,521,555. 



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THE RISE AND PROGRESS 



Wea-tha-kagh-qua-eepe, Hockhocking 
River, ii» 84. 

Weaver, George, Captain in Mexican 
War, IV, 56. 

Webb, Henry J., identified with develop- 
ment of Lake transportation, v, 247. 

Weber, Gustav C. £., medical instruct- 
or, v» 206, 208, 209. 

Webster, Daniel, on authorship of 
Ordinance of 1787, u, 433; 434, 435- 
436; U. S. Bank case, iii, 324; 331; 
IV, 4, 21, 24, 65-66, 68; on Charles 
Hammond, v, 10; 105. 

Weiser, Conrad, i, 192-193, 194; mis- 
sbn to western Indians, 211-216; 
230, 286; advice to Braddock, 292; 
313. 

Weitzel, Godfrey, Major General in 
Civil War, rv, 282. 

WeUand Canal, The, v, 236. 

Weller, John B., Lieutenant Cobnel in 
Mexican War, iv, 52. 

Wellington, O., rescue case, iv, 134. 

Wells, Bazaleel, member of first Con- 
stitutional Convention, iii, 107. 

Wells, Frank, medical instructor, v, 208. 

Wells, William, son-in-law of Little 
TurUe, 11, 517, 539-540, 555. 

Wells, manufacturer, v, 278. 

Wellston, O., v, 62. 

Welsh, Alfred H., literary work, v, 43. 

Wendats, name for WyandoU, i, 163. 

Werden, Reed, U. S. Navy, in Mexican 
War, IV, 61, 62. 

Werner, Melchior, Lieutenant Colonel 
in Mexican War, iv, 56. 

Wesley, Charles and John, n, 11. 

West, Benjamin, i, 407. 

West, William H., member of Com- 
mittee on Miliury Arrests, iv, 186; 
member of second Constitutional 
Conventbn, 320; candidate for 
Governor, 340-34I; 435; v, 15Z. 

West Liberty, O., i, 244; iv, 283. 

West Newton, Pa., 11, 456. 



West Union, O., iv, 492. 

West Virginia, location of Ohio Land 
Company's tract, i, 217; Baker's 
Cabin affair, 11, 58-60; battle of 
Point IMeasant, 89-104; Fort Ran- 
dolph, and murder of Cornstalk, 
156-159; Fort Henry, 169, etc; part 
of Ohio in creation of State, iv, 167- 
169; natural gas, 370. 

Western College of Homoeopathic Medi- 
erne, TTie, v, 179. 

Western CoUege of Teachers, The, ni, 
385; V, 7. 

Western Christian AdvocaU, The (Cm- 
cianati), v, 35 . 

Western Herald, The (Steubcn\dlle), m, 

179. 

Western Literary Journal and Monthly 
Magazine f The (Qndnnati), v, 9, 5 1. 

Western Magazine and Review, The (Cin- 
cinnati), v, 68. 

Western Messenger, The, v, 9. 

Western Reserve, The, 1, 17, 191; 
origin, 11, 412; history of ownersh^ 
by Conn. — beginning of settlement, 
573-592; 596, 598; in, 8, II, 90, III, 

171, 175, 183, 337, 373, 374. 403; IV, 

25» 97, *93-a94, ^; v, 54» 68, 81, 

124,318. 
Western Reserve and Northern Ohio 

Historical Society, The, i, 72, 239, 

255; "» 263, 586; m, 401. 
Western Reserve University (and Col- 
lege), IV, 109, 259; V, 38, 39, 43, 146, 

147, 207, 208. 
Western Review, The (Cincinnati), v, 9. 
Western Souvenir, The (Cincinnati), v, 

48. 
Western Spectator, The (Marietu), lu, 

178. 
Western Spy (etc.). The (Qndnnati), 

III, 39, 176, 177, 244, 248, 273. 
Western Star, The (Lebanon), ui, I79- 
Westervill^, O., v, 251. 
Westfall, O., II, 36, 124, 17a 



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Westmoreland County, Pa., ii, 308, 328, 

349. 

Wetmorc, Qaude H., literary work, v, 
65. 

Weylcr, General, iv, 416. 

Wharton, Samuel, i, 463; member of 
Walpole Company, 468. 

Wheaton, John M., v, 201. 

Wheaton, Susan D., subscriber to sword 
for Major Croghan, iii, 299. 

Wheeling, W. Va., n, 56, 60; Fort Fin- 
castle, 70, etc.; 73, 84; Fort Henry, 
169, etc.; 296, 300, 308, 346, 347, 376, 
385, 563; m, 337, 433; flood of 1884, 

IV, 354- 
Wheeling Creek and Wheeling River, 

I, 224, 491; n, 55, 157, 169, 172, 175. 
Whetstone River, The, i, 227; now the 

Olenungy, 11, 37; 128, 360, 595. 

Whig, The (Qncinnati), iii, 176, 178. 

Whig Party, The, iii, 450; iv, 20; cam- 
paign of 1840, 21-43; 48; attitude in 
Mexican War, 49-50, 65-68; 69, 91- 
96, 98, 103; disruption on slavery 
issue and succession by Republican 
party, 133, 139. 

Whingy Pooshees, name for Big Cat, 

II, 546. 
Whipping Posts, iii, 30. 
Whirlwind, The, name for Wayne, ii, 

552. 
Whiskey Island, v, 279. 
Whitcomb, Merrill, literary work, v, 

26. 
White, Charles R., Judge, v, 154. 
White, Chilton A., member of third 

Constitutbnal Convention, iv, 320. 
White, F. R., Henry W., RoUin C, and 

Thomas H., manufacturers, v, 285, 

288. 
White, Haffield (Major), member of 

Ohio Company of Associates, 11, 

454, 457. 
White, William, Judge of Ohio Supreme 
Court, V, 151-154- 



White, newspaper publisher, iii, 179. 

White Caps, The, iv, 387. 

White Crane (or Myeerah), wife of 

Isaac Zane, 11, 561-562. 
White Eagle, name for Isaac Zane, 11, 

562. 
White Eyes, Captain, Delaware chief, 

I, 338; 11, 17, 68, 69, 84, 85, 139; 

speech, 140-141; 164, 184, 185, 217, 

218, 221; death and character, 222- 

223; 417. 
White Eyes Town, 11, 27, 68. 
White Fish, Indian chief, 11, 123, 124. 
White Mingo, Indian chief, i, 490; 11, 

139- 

White Thunder, Indian chief, i, 270. 

White Water Canal, The, in, 361. 

White Water River, The (Ind.), i, 19, 
203; II, 565. 

White Wing, Indian, iv, 88. 

White Woman's Creek, i, 238, 241, 440; 
Walhonding River, 11, 37; 239. 

White Woman's Town, i, 238; n, 27. 

Whitefield, George, 11, 12. 

Whitelcy, William, v, 327. 

Whiteley, William N., inventor and 
manufacturer, v, 327. 

Whiting, Confederate General, iv, 221. 

Whiting, Justin R., name used in Ballot- 
box Forgery, iv, 393. 

Whitley, William, guide, 11, 269. 

Whitman, Henry C, meinber of Su- 
preme Court Commission, v, 11 1. 

Whitman, Josiah, medical instructor, 
V, 191. 

Whittaker, James T., medical writer 
and instructor, v, 32, 190, 191. 

Whittaker, W. H., legal writer, v, 31. 

Whittaker, manufacturer, v, 278. 

Whittlesey, Asaph, manufacturer, v, 
322. 

Whittlesey, Charles (Colonel), archaeol- 
ogist and writer, i, 36, 72; n, 372, 
, 580, 581, 584, 588; IV, 474; V, 27. 



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Whittlesey, Elisha, interview with St. 
Qair, iii, I34-I35- 

Whitmer, Peter, Jr., Mormon, iii, 403. 

Whitney, Newell K., iii, 419. 

Wiaton Indians, i, 425. 

Wick, Caleb B., Henry, Jr., Hugh B., 
and Paul, manufacturers, v, 32a 

Wilberforce University, iv, 480. 

Wilcox, James A., v, 201. 

Wildes, T. F., lieutenant Colonel in 
Qvil War, iv, 259. 

Wiles, G. F., Brigadier General in Civil 
War, IV, 257. 

Wilkenson and Wilkes, manufacturers, 
V, 32a 

Wilkins, Major, conmiander at Fort 
Niagara, 1, 392, 395. 

Wilkins, m Burr affair, ui, 236. 

Wilkinson, James (General), 11, 481; 
Indian expeditions, 520-521; inter- 
ment of St. Clair's dead, 527; 538, 
541; succeeds Wayne in western 
command, 560; 592; character, iii, 
216; 224. 

Will's Creek, Md., i, 218, 251, 269, 278, 
279, 286, 291, 292; II, 55. 

Willett, Marinus (Colonel), lu, 216. 

William, Moravian Indian, 11, 139. 

Williams, Abraham, member of Ohio 
Company of Associates, n, 445. 

Williams, Alfred, quoted, i, 169-170; 
II, 135. 

Williams, Edwin P., manufacturer, v, 
287. 

Williams, Elkinah, medical writer, v, 32. 

Williams, Frederick G., Mormon, iii, 
416. 

Williams, H. Z., publisher, v, 318. 

Williams, John (Capuin), with George 
Rogers Qark, 11, 207. 

Williams, Micajah T., member of com- 
mittee on canals, ni, 342; bill, 345. 

Williams County, iii, 441; share of 
surplus revenue, iv, 13. 

Williamsburg, Va., i, 269, 273; n, 49, 



50, 73, 81, 113, 114, 132, I33» 15s. 
159, i95» *io, ^54- 

Williamsfield, O., v, 57. 

Williamson, trader, and death of Pon- 
tiac, I, 456, 457. 

Williamson, David (Cobnel), first ex- 
pedition to Moravian settlements, 
n> 319-320; second expedition — 
massacre, 327-338, 341; in Craw- 
ford's expedition, 350, 360-361; 371- 

373- 

Williamson, Samuel E., lawyer, v, 148. 

Willich, August, Brigadier General in 
Gvil War, iv, 284. 

"Willing," The, Clark's gunboat, n, 
207, 209, 289. 

Willis, Nathaniel, editor, ni, 176, 177. 

Willis, N. P., Ill, 177. 

Willoughby, Charles C (Prof.), on pre- 
historic objects, 1, 67. 

Willoughby, O., and WiUoughby Uni- 
versity, V, 191, 195, 202, 203. 

Willson, Byron F., literary work, v, 71. 

Wilmington, nr, 47; v, 42. 

^^^Ison, Benjamin (Captain), on Corn- 
stalk, n, 106. 

Wilson, E. J., medical instructor, v, 202. 

Wilson, Frazer E., quoted, n, 555-556. 

Wilson, George D., Andrews raider, nr, 
194,202. 

Wilson, Henry, iv, 67. 

Wilson, Jacob, Burr affair, m, 238. 

Wilson, James, Commissioner of Middle 
Department, 11, 138, 139. 

Wilson, John, member of first Constitu- 
tional Convention, iii, 107. 

Wilson, John A., Andrews raider, rv, 
193, 197, 198, 202. 

Wilson, J. S., lawyer, iv, 312. 

Wilson, Moses F., legal writer, v, 31. 

Wilson, Samuel (Captain), killed in 
battle of Point Pleasant, 11, 98. 

Winchester, James, General in War of 
1812, III, 269-275. 

Windaughalah, Delaware chief, i, 243. 



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OF AN AMERICAN STATE 



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Winders, Frank, secretary of State 
Board of Registration, v, 317. 

Winemac, Indian, iii, 273. 

Wingenund, Delaware chief, n, 396, 303, 
305, 346, 353, 357; death of Craw- 
ford, 366-369; at Fort Finney treaty, 
417; Fort Harmar treaty, 508. 

Winnebago Indians, i, 105, 115, 139, 
164, 415. 

Winsor, Justin, quoted or refierred to, 
I, 127, 134, 186, 187, 257, 465; II, 
«>3, 397, 519-520, 544. 

Wirt, William, in, 213; U. S. Bank case, 
324. 

Winston, Alexander, v, 285. 

Wisconsm Historical Society, The, i, 
104; II, preface, 39, 57. 

Wisconsm River, The, i, 123; 11, 38. 

Wise, Henry A., Governor of Va^ iv, 

144. 
Wise, Isaac M., literary work, v, 36-37, 

66. 
Wise, S. P., member State Board of 

Health, v, 213. 
Wisenberg, Catherine, wife of Sir WH- 

Ham Johnson, i, 288. 
Withers, Alexander S., literary work, n, 

269, 280. 
Witherspoon, John (Dr.), connection 

with Symmes, 11, 473. 
Wolcott, Oliver (Governor of Conn.)> 

Commissioner on Western Reserve, 

n, 577. 
Wolf, Shawnee chief, in, 288. 
Wolf, The, son of Cornstalk, 11, 159. 
Wolf Qan of Delaware Indians, i, 166, 

242, 439; II, 13, 21, 140, 335. 
Wolfe, James (General), i, 349, 414. 
Wollam, John, Andrews raider, iv, 194, 

202. 
Woman Suffrage, School affairs, iv, 408. 
Women's Temperance Crusade, The, iv, 

330-331. 
Wood, Eleazer D. (Captain), Fort 

Meigs, III, 275. 



Wood, James, Va. Commissioner, u, 

138; journal, 163-164. 
Wood, James, manufacturer, v, 320. 
Wood, Jethro, v, 306. 
Wood, John L., v, 205. 
Wood, Mark, Andrews raider, iv, 193, 

202. 
Wood, Reuben, Governor, iv, 142-143; 

Judge of Ohio Supreme Court, v, 

104, 146-147. 
Wood, R. G., Ballot-box Forgery, rv, 

39*, 393. 
Wood, Thomas, medical instructor, v, 

190. 
Wood, Thomas J., General in Civil 

War, IV, 256. 
Wood Bug, Indian chief, 11, 507. 
Wood County, in, 342, 441; share of 

surplus revenue, iv, 13; 368. 
Wood County, W. Va., in, 210; v, 106. 
Woodbridge, Dudley, on Blennerhassetty 

III, 213; 217. 

Woodbridge, Jahlaliel, member of Ohio 
Company of Associates, 11, 445. 

Woodcock Range, Pa., i, 280. 

Woodford, Stewart L. (General, of 
N. Y.), IV, 334; minister to Spain, 

IV, 216. 

Woods, Charles R., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 256, 283. 

Woods, Elijah, member of first Consti- 
tutional Convention, in, 107. 

Woods, J. T., medical instructor, v, 208. 

Woods, William B., Brigadier General 
in Civil War, iv, 257, 283. 

Woodsfield, O., rv, 501. 

Woodward vs, Dartmouth College, v, 
130. 

Wool, John E. ((5eneral), iv, 51, 52. 

Wooley, Paul G., medical mstructor, 

V, 178. 

Woolsey, Sarah C, literary work, v, 46. 
Woolson, Charles J., iv, 501. 
Wooster, n, 354; iv, 55, 60, 424, 492; 
V, 207. 



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Wooster, University of, v, 38. 

Worcester, Noah, medical instructor, 
V, 205. 

Worcester, Mass., The, Antiquarian 
Society of, i, 224. 

World's Fairs, iv, 471-486. 

Wormley, Theodore, medical writer 
and instructor, v, 32, 194, 197, 202. 

Worthington, O., v, 178, 181, 306. 

Worthington, Eleanor, subscriber to 
sword for Major Croghan, iii, 299. 

Worthington, Thomas, residence, 
"Adena," i, 53; member of Legisla- 
ture, Northwest Territory, ni, 37, 
43-44; 50; Anti-Federalist and state- 
hood leader, 75, 80, 84-85, 88, 90-96, 
104; member of first Constitutional 
Convention, 107; 126, 127; U. S. 
Senator, 147, 167; 183, 217; advo- 
cacy of canals, 336; member of com- 
mittee on canals, 342; Canal Com- 
missioner, 345; Governor, 429-432, 
450, 451; »v, 119, 486; V, 122. 

Worthington Academy, ni, 175. 

Worthington Manufacturing Company, 
The, V, 306. 

Worthmgton Medical College, The, v, 
178. 

Wrede vs. Richardson, iv, 457. 

Wright, Charles W., medical instructor, 
V, 190. 

Wright, D. Thew, v, 66; member of 
Supreme Court Commission, iii. 

Wright, George B., General in Qvil 
War, rv, 189, 251 (misprinted 
George D.). 

Wright, George Frederick, literary 
work, I, 3, 19; V, 34. 

Wright, Horatio G., General in Civil 
War, IV, 188. 

Wright, John C, U. S. Bank case, in, 
324; campaign o£ 1840, iv, 27; dele- 
gate to Peace Conference, 155; v. 



103; Judge of Ohio Supreme Court, 

104, 130, 145. 
Wright, J. W., V, 201. 
Wright, M. B., medical writer, etc, v, 

32, 191, 212. 
Wright, N. C, journalist, v, 16. 
Wright, Orville and Wilbur, v, 27. 
Wright, P. C, IV, 263. 
Wright, William B., literary work, v, 

41- 

Wryneck, Shawnee chief, 11, 139. 

Wyandot County, 11, 305, 342, 352. 

Wyandot Indians, i, 160, 163-164, 168, 
175-176, 197, 202, 203, 204, 215, 
225, 230, 236, 248, 302, 330, 331, 331, 
340, 362, 367; Pontiac*s conspiracy, 
384, 386, 389, 391-394, 399; 415, 
420, 421; the Neutral Nation at 
Lower Sandusky, 427-428; 436, 442; 
II, 16, 31, 36; in Cornstalk's con- 
federacy, 45, 91; 139, 164, 170, 176, 
183, 186, 227, 254-255, 263, 275, 
284, 296, 302, 303, 304, 313, 320-3*3; 
their location in the Sandusky coun- 
try, 341-345; Crawford's expedition, 
353-356, 360; Crawford's death, 366- 
367; 37a, 379, 38s, 396, 398. 399, 
400; Fort Mcintosh and Fort Finney 
treaties, 415-417; welcome the Mari- 
etta settlers, 459; Fort Harmar 
treaty, 507-508; 519; St. Clair's 
defeat, 525; 538, 554; Greenville 
treaty, 555; 560-562, 567, 595; m, 
280, 281; Franklinton council, 287- 
289; removal from Ohio, iv, 83-90. 

Wyandot Town, now Coshocton, i, 230- 
231. 

Wyatt, Francis (Sir), Governor <rf Va., 
I, 189. 

Wylljrs, John P. (Major), in Harmar's 
expedition, 11, 513, S'S-S^^- 

Wyoming, Pa., i, 337; «, ^' 

Wythe, George, 11, 191. 



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X 



ENIA, Indian town of Old 
Chillicothe located near pres- 



YAPLE, ALFRED, on Alfred Kel- 
ley, in, 348-349; legal writer, 
V, 31. 
Yaple, W. D., Mayor of Chillicothe— 

Centennial celebration, iv, 452. 
Yates, Abraham, member of Congress, 

and Ordinance of 1787, 11, 429. 
Yates, Richard P., Governor of 111., 

IV, i37. 
Yellow Creek, i, 217, 438, 448, 480; n, 

35, 57, 58, 63, 65-67, 114-118, 225, 

325; Hopewell Furnace, v, 318-419. 
Yorktown, Va., n, 317. 
Youghiogheny River, The, i, 280, 282, 

292, 486, 489; n, 70, 348, 350, 458. 
Youmans, Edward L., v, 28. 
Young, Bennett H., quoted, 11, 381, 384. 



ent city, 11, 170, 180, 269, 286; v, 
38, 83, 216. 

Young, Brigham, Mormon, in, 405, 414, 

416, 421, 422, 425. 
Young, Edmond S., lawyer, v, 109. 
Young, Thomas L., Governor, iv, 337, 

338. 
Young, W. H., Lieutenant Colonel in 

Civil War, iv, 259. 
Young, William P., Major in Mexican 

War, IV, 56. 
Youngman, Moravian preacher, 11, 28. 
Youngs, Benjamin Seth, work on Shak- 

erism, in, 181. 
Youngstown, iv, 80, 176, 443, 461; 

census statistics (1910), v, 262; 

progress of population and indus- 
try, 317-321- 



ZANE, ANDREW, 11, 561. 
Zane, Ebenezer (Colonel), 11, 
55; advice to Cresap party, 56; 
first siege of Fort Henry, 172, 173; 
second siege, 386-392; 561; lays out 
Zane's Trace, 563, 594. 

Zane, Elizabeth (wife of Colonel Eben- 
ezer), in first siege of Fort Henry, 
II, 173-174- 

Zane, Elizabeth ("Betty," sister of the 
Zane brothers), in second siege of 
Fort Henry, 11, 387, 389-392; S^"- 

Zane, Isaac, 11, 555, 561-562. 

Zane, Jonathan (Captain), 11, 55, 70; 
in Brodhead's expedition, 297, 298; 
in Crawford's expedition, 351; in 
siege of Fort Henry, 386, 390; 561. 

Zane, Robert, ancestor, 11, 561. 

Zane, Silas, 11, 55; in siege of Fort Henry, 
387; 561. 

Zane, William, 11, 561. 

Zane's Trace, 11, 563, 594. 



Zanesfield, O., 11, 239, 379, 562. 
Zanestown, O., 11, 562. 
Zanesville, early newspapers, in, 179; 
temporary State capital, 182, 427; 

IV, 33, 35, 55; in 1840-50, 78; 166; 
Camp Goddard, 170; 282, 283, 408, 
426, 438; in 1900, 443; 491, 498; 

V, 67, 85, 114, 115, 142, 216; census 
statistics (1910), 262; 264, 274. 

Zausshotoh, Wyandot chief, 11, 356. 

Zeisberger, David, Moravian mission- 
ary, I, 159; early life, and beginning 
of labors in Ohio, 9-29; 69, 222, 223$ 
Simon Girty attempts assassination, 
258-259; 278, 297, 301, 318-319, 321, 
322, 324, 371; last labors and death, 

573-575- 
Zeisberger, Mrs. David, n, 320. 
Zeisberger, David, Sr., 11, 11. 
Zeisberger, Rosina, 11, 11. 
Zinke, E. G., medical intsructor, v, 191. 
Zirckel, Otto, Captain in Mexican War, 

IV, 56. 



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