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Full text of "History of old Zion Evangelical Lutheran church in Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. Near Harrold's"

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HISTORY OF OLD ZION 
EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN 
CHURCH 

in Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. 
Near Harrold's 

By William Arter Zundel, M.A., B.D. 

Pastor of St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church 
Maywood, Illinois 

Field Missionary for Montana 




Published by the Church Council 
Rev. Isaac K. Wismer, Pastor. 
Jacob E. Wineman Robert M. Zundel, Secretary 
James E. Cope, Treasurer 
Frank Harrold 
Thomas E. Taylor 
C. D. Eisaman, Cemetery Treasurer 



John G. Ruff 
Charles H. Eisaman 
Cyrus A. Snyder 
Robert C. Eisaman 



Committee of Council on Publication of History 

Rev. Isaac K. Wismer 

Jacob E. Wineman 

Robert M. Zundel 

Henry M, Zundel, Associate Member of Committee 



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COPYRIGHT— 1922 
BY WILLIAM ARTER ZUNDEL 



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PREFACE 

For many years, the authentic records of Old Zion Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church have been locked in the German lan- 
guage in the old Church Register. 

This old register had been carelessly handled for many 
years and was thought by many to have been lost or destroyed. 
But it found friends that knew its value and preserved it. 

The volume came into our hands some years ago and we 
at once set about to translate its contents. 

We have made diligent search for authentic information 
concerning this church. The early history has been enlarged 
and made as full as possible. To a casual observer it will 
seem that incidents of other places should have no place in 
this narrative, but they contribute valuable information con- 
cerning the times, and show the problems and difficulties pecu- 
liar to all pioneer life. 

Much of this history was written before the World War 
^nd is not in any way affected by the animosities of recent 
years. The record of Old Zion for patriotism stands clear 
from the bloody Revolution to the World War and the muster 
rolls of her country bear the names of her sons who served 
their country well. 

In recording the synodical affiliation of Old Zion, there 
has been an effort to make clear, for the first time, the real 
synodical connections of the church throughout the years. 
Fidelity to truth and historical fact necessitated references to 
unpleasant events of the past and our readers will realize 
that few participants had a full knowledge of the situation 



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VI 

and the facts during the period of strife. We have taken pains 
to present both sides of the controversy and also to state the 
plain and full facts of history. The division of the church 
is a cold historical fact and requires an account of its cause 
and effects. 

We have made no effort to include the history of the 
St. John's Reformed Church. We hope one of her sons will 
some day write the history of her long life and glowing 
achievements. For about one hundred years Old Zion and 
St. John's Churches have lived together in peace and harmony 
in the same house of worship and burying their dead in the 
same God's Acre. 

Since the strife in the eighties and the division, a new 
generation has grown up; they have been educated in the 
same schools and associated together on all occasions. They 
have inter-married and, except for the two organizations, 
have forgotten the strife of the past. Both congregations now 
belong to the same Synod and the United Lutheran Church 
in America. 

It may be the pleasure of some future historian to relate 
how the two congregations united their forces for a greater 
"Zion oder Herold's Kirche" of the future. 

Suitable recognition has- been given to the sources of 
information that we have used. However, especial mention 
should be made of the painstaking efforts of the late Charles 
Strohbach of Freedom, Pa., who assisted materially in the 
translation of the old Church Register. Special care has been 
taken to preserve the old forms of names and to give literal 
translations. The names given in the several Appendices 
will be valuable in tracing family genealogies; they are also 
valuable as legal evidence. 

Valuable aid has been rendered by the historian of the 
Pittsburgh Synod, Rev. Duncan M. Kemerer, and the coun- 
cil and committee of Old Zion's Lutheran Church and others. 



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VII 

Acknowledgements are made of the services of H. M. 
Zundel, who furnished many cuts and contributed many re- 
cent facts of Chapter XVI and aided in the general work of 
publication. 

The work connected herewith has been a labor of love, a 
token of gratitude to the Mother Church that baptized us 
into the Kingdom of God and nourished us in the faith, whose 
portals have been the doorway to Heaven for hundreds of 
saints during her history of one hundred and fifty years. 



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LIST OF AUTHORITIES CONSULTED 



Original Parish Register. 

Southern Conference History, Rev. W. F. Ulery, Church Register Co., 
Greensburg, Pa., — 1903. 

History Pittsburgh Synod of the General Synod of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, Rev. Ellis B. Burgess, Philadelphia, — 1904. 

The German Element in the United States, by Albert Bernhardt 
Faust, Two Volumes, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and 
New York,— 1909. 

Col. Henry Bouquet and 'His Campaigns by Rev. Cyrus Cort, Stein- 
man and Hensel, Printers, — 1883, Lancaster, Pa. 

History of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, by John N. Boucher, 
The Lewis Publishing Company, New York and Chicago, — 1906, 
Three Volumes. 

The Frontier Forts of Western Pennsylvania by George Dallas 
Albert, Report of the Commission to locate the site of the 
Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania. 

A History of the Reformed Church within the Bounds of Westmore- 
land Classis, edited by a Committee of Classis, Reformed 
Church Publication Board, Philadelphia, — 1877. 

A History of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States 
by Rev. Henry Eyster Jacobs, D.D., L.L.D., Charles Scribner*s 
Sons, New York,— 1902. 

The Lutheran Cyclopedia, edited by Rev. Henry Eyster Jacobs, D.D., 
L.L.D., and Rev. John A. W. Haas, B.D., Charles Scribner*s 
Sons, New York,— 1911. 

The Broken Platform by Rev. John N. Hoffman, Lindsey and Blake- 
ston, Philadelphia,— 1856. 

The Formulation of the General Synod's Confessional Basis by 
Rev. J. S. Neve, D.D., German Literary Board, Burlington, 
Iowa,— 1911. 

Documentary History, Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia,— 1898. 



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X 

Documentary History of the General Council of the Evangelical 

Lutheran Church in North America, S. E. Ochsenford, D.D., 

Philadelphia,--1912. 
Geschichte der Allgemeinen, Evang. Lutherischen Synode von Ohio 

und Anderen Staaten, Peter und Schmidt, Columbus, Ohio, — 

1900. 
Border Warfare in Pennsylvania during the Revolution, L. S. Shim- 

mell, Ph.D., Harrisburg, Pa.,— 1^1. 
Who Are the Pennsylvania-Germans? By Theodore E. Schmank, 

Lancaster, Pa., — 1910, New Era Printing Co. 
The Domestic Life and Characteristics of the Pennsylvania — German 

Pioneer, by Rev. F. J. F. Schantz, D.D., Lancaster, Pa.,— 1900 by 

Pennsylvania — German Society. 
Albertus Magnus, bewahrte und Approbirte Sympatetische und Na- 

tuerliche Egyptische Geheimnisse fucr Menschen und Vieh. 
Fuer Staedter und Landleute Fuenfte vermehrte und verbesserte Auf- 

* lage, Brabrand. 

History of the Pittsburg Synod of the Reformed Church in the 

United States. Rev. David B. Lady, D.D. Chas. M. Henry 

Printing Co., Greensburg, Pa., — 1920. 
Lutheran Symbols or American Lutheranism Vindicated, by S. S. 

Schmucker, D.D., T. Newton Kurtz, Baltimore,— 1856. 
Life and Times of Henry Melchior Muehlenberg, by William J. 

Mann, D.D. G. W. Frederick, Philadelphia,— 1888. 
The Life of Rev. H. Harbaugh, D.D., by Linn Harbaugh, Esq. Re- 
formed Church Publishing Board, Philadelphia, Pa., — 1900. 
History of the Joint Synod of Ohio, by C. V. Sheatsley. Lutheran 

Book Concern, Columbus, Ohio, — 1919. 
Hallesche Nachrichten. 

Regina, the German Captive, Rev. B. Weiser. General Council Pub- 
lishing Board, Philadelphia, Pa.,— 1919. 



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CONTENTS 

Page 

Chapter I. The Location 1 

Chapter II. Early German Colonists 5 

Chapter III. Explorations and Early Settlements in Westmore- 
land County 13 

Chapter IV. Zion Church Settlement 30 

Chapter V. Frontier Conditions 44 

Chapter VI. The Red Revolutionary War 58 

Chapter VII. Forts and Blockhouses . , 80 

Chapter VIIL Social Life of the Pioneers 90 

Chapter IX. The Patriarchs 95 

Chapter X. Property Affairs and Relations with the Reformed 

Church 110 

Chapter XL Synodical Relations 114 

Chapter XII. Contending for the Faith 125 

Chapter XIII. Rebuilding 137 

Chapter XIV. Our Sister Church 147 

Chapter XV. The Fruitage 150 

Chapter XVI. The Sunday School, Cemeteries and Reformed 

Pastors, etc 155 

Chapter XVII. Education among the German Elements in West- 
ern Pennsylvania 164 

Appendix A. Early Baptisms 187 

Appendix B. Communicants 231 

Appendix C. Confirmants . . . , 247 

Appendix D. Taufschein 256 

Appendix E. Annual Settlements 258 



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[ CHAPTER I 

\ The Location 

Great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised, in the city 
of our God, in the mountain of his holiness. Beautiful for 
situation, the joy of the whole earth, is Mount Zion. Walk 
about Zion, and go round about her; tell the towers thereof. 
Mark ye well her bulwarks ; consider her palaces ; that ye may 
tell it to the generation following. For this God is our God 
for ever and ever; he will be our guide even unto death. 
\ Psalm 48. 

j Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city of God. Selah. 

i' And of Zion it shall be said, this and that man was born in 
her: and the highest himself shall establish her. The Lord 
shall count, when he writeth up the people, that this man was 
born there. Selah. Psalm 87. 

Moved by religious motives and fascinated by the magni- 
ficent scenic beauty of the location, the founders, like David 
of old, called their new home "Zion Church Settlement ;'* 
in the midst of which they set apart land, styling it "Good 
Purpose," for the establishment of their Church and school. 
Zion Church meant to them all that Mount Zion meant to 
David. 

This new Mount Zion was to them beautiful for situation. 
Nestled on a sheltered southeastern slope of a long range of 
hills that separate the headquarters of the Sewickley and the 
Brush Creek streams, Zion Church has a magnificent land- 
scape before her. At the foot of the hill lies a fertile valley, 
which at that time, was covered with a magnificent forest of 

Grbg. 1 

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History of Old Zion Evangelical 




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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 3 

oaks, hickory, poplar, beech, walnut, maple and other hard- 
wood trees. A brook of clear cool water flowed in a wind- 
ing course away into the distance until it joined other tribu- 
taries of the Sewickley Creek. Beyond the valley rose the 
foothills of the AUeghenies and beyond on the horizon the 
Blue Mountains rose in grandeur. In springtime the opening 
buds and unfolding leaves gave an ever changing variety, 
-while in the fall when the frost touched vegetation there 
appeared a gorgeous display of the most beautiful colors na- 
ture has ever devised for the delight of the eye of man. 

The Rocky Mountains may speak of power and magni- 
tude; the plains may excell in distances and unlimited range 
of vision ; the sea may in its various moods awe or please the 
heart of man but the Pennsylvania hills in autumn, backed by 
the Blue Mountains, and clothed in natures holiday attire, 
speak peace, love, beauty and contentment. 

Here the seasons are at their best. Four seasons of 
distinct climate. Rain in plentiful quantities; yet no rainy 
season. Spring and summers warm enough for an abundant 
growth of vegetation; yet not long enough to be enervating. 
Boosters may write of the wonderful climate of other coun- 
tries and state, but here nature boosts for herself. What coun- 
try can boast of a finer stand of forests of various hard 
woods? Or a larger variety of desirable wild animals and 
birds? Here was the hunters paradise; a fit explanation of 
the efforts of the Whites to conquer and the Reds to main- 
tain this happy hunting ground through fifty years of the 
most deadly conflict between the Red men and the White men 
for the control of a continent. 

The soil that grows oaks and the various hard woods, is 
fertile; a land of oak and limestone has been the delight of 
the German settler from that day to this. Deer, bear, wolves, 
beaver, wild turkey were plentiful. Small game and fur l>^ar- 
ing animals still abound. 



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4 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Few countries are blessed so richly and abundantly by 
nature. Amid the trees of wonderful hard wood there roamed 
abundant game. The soil was fertile and abounded in lime- 
stone with which to renew the fertility. Beneath the soil na- 
ture stored up wondrous veins of coal and iron, which has 
made the Ohio Valley the heart of the iron and steel industry. 
Yet deeper in the earth, abundance of oil and gas has been 
found. 

With a climate unexcelled, and such wondrous natural re- 
sources we may well commend the shrewdness and sagacity 
of our forefathers who originally settled here. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 



CHAPTER II 
Early German Colonists 

Columbus, an Italian, re-discovered America; Martin 
Waldseemueller, a German, named the new found land, 
"America." Spaniards, English, French, Dutch and Swedes 
made settlements. The Germans made no settlement' as a 
nation. They came a5 a people to make their homes under 
other flags than their own. Though the most numerous of 
all peoples that came to America they never colonized under 
a German flag.^ 

There were German settlers at Port Royal, in South 
Carolina, in 1562. There were a number of Germans at 
Jamestown in 1607. Germans were also among the Dutch of 
New Netherland; one was the first governor, Peter Minuit, 
and another Jacob Leisler became governor. 

Minuit was born at Wesel on the Rhine, and was a 
protestant. He bought the Island of Manhattan from the 
Indians for about $24.00. Later he was a friend of Gustavus 
Adolphus, the Swedish King who was planning a colony for 
America.^ The associations of Minuit at this time would 
lead us to infer that he was of the same faith as the 
Swedes, i. e. A Lutheran. In 1638 he planted the Swedish 
Colony on the Delaware. Since many German cities of the 
Baltic co-operated in the Swedish settlement we may infer 
that some Germans were among them. John Printz the first 



^From 30 to 40 per cent of American blood is Teutonic. See 
Lutheran Influence in American Affairs by the author. 

2The German Element in the United States. (1) Note:— Faust. (1). 



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6 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

governor, according to trustworthy authority, was a German 
nobleman. — ^Johahn Printz von Buchau. 

John Lederer was sent out by Governor Sir William 
Berkley of Virginia, to explore the land south and west of the 
James river in 1669-70. Peter Fabian, a Swiss-German was 
a member of an exploring expedition sent out by the English 
Carolina Company in 1663. The report is probably written by 
Fabian because the distances are r);corded by the standard of 
the German mile. A German by the name of Hiens was with 
LaSalle in Texas in 1687. 

Germans settled in large numbers in Pennsylvania, New 
York, Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia and New Jersey. By the aM of Hofrat Heinrich 
Ehrenfried Luther, of Frankfort-on-the-Main, German settlers 
were secured to settle on the Kennebec River in Massachusetts, 
(now Maine) some also settled around Boston.^ The wan- 
derlust of the early Angles and Saxons who conquered Bri- 
tain, Gaul and Rome was not lacking in the Teutons that came 
to America. We find them on the frontier from Maine to 
Georgia. 

As there was no census in those early days it is difficult to 
estimate the number of Germans in the Colonies before the 
Revolution. The Continental Congress in 1776 estimated the 
population at 2,243,000 whites and 500,000 slaves. This esti- 
mate is considered too high. Bancroft estimates the popula- 
tion in 1775 to be 2,100,000. Charles A. Hanna, in his book 
"The Scotch-Irish," estimates the Scotch-Irish population of 
the colonies at 385,000, which is evidently too high. Faust 
(German Element in the United States) estimates the German 
element in 1775 as follows : 



^Israel Bissel, probably a descendant of these settlers, is the man 
sent by Eldridge Gerry, who warned Hancock of the coming of the 
British. Bissel delivered his message at 9 o'clock at night, just one 
hour before Paul Revere started. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 7 

New England 1,500 

New York 25,000 

Pennsylvania 110,000 

New Jersey 15,000 

Maryland and Delaware 20,000 

Virginia and West Virginia 25,000 

North Carolina 8,000 

South Carolina 15,000 

Georgia 5,000 

Total 225,000 

"Future researches in the colonial history of the Ger- 
mans will undoubtedly reveal larger numbers than have been 
given above, but the attempt has been made here to confine the 
estimate within limits that are clearly incontestable/' Fausts 
figures are too low. There were many settlements on the 
frontiers not included in his estimates. 

Some historians have invented the fiction that the Ger- 
mans were not on the frontier in pre-revolutionary times, 
but a careful survey shows that they were on the extreme 
frontier, from Maine to Georgia. Though the English and 
Scotch-Irish held most of the appointive positions and there- 
fore wrote the official reports, from which historians hereto- 
fore have mainly drawn their data, a closer study reveals a 
differing history. 

In New York the Germans on the Mohawk, Schoharie and 
German Flats stood the brunt of the Indian wars. In Pennsyl- 
vania the Germans were as far west as any settlers. The 
WetzeFs, Zanes and Henry's at Wheeling and settlers in 
Westmoreland were pioneers (which see later). In Virginia, 
the Carolinas and Georgia the original explorers and settlers 
were Germans. The Royal American Regiment not only 
fought in all the frontier contests but garrisoned the frontier 
forts for many years. 



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8 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

"As we study on the map the location of the Germans 
before the Revolution, two facts impress themselves. In the 
first place, the Germans were in the possession of most of the 
best land for farming purposes. They had cultivated the 
great limestone areas reaching from northeast to southwest, 
the most fertile lands in the colonies. The middle sections of 
Pennsylvania were in their possession, those which became 
the granary of the colonies in the coming Revolutionary War, 
and subsequently the foundation of the financial prosperity 
of the new nation. The Shenandoah and Mohawk valleys 
were the rivals of the farm-lands of Pennsylvania, while the 
German countries of North and South Carolina pushed them 
hard for agricultural honors. The Germans in these sections 
supplanted all other nationalities through their superior in- 
dustry, skill, and material resources acquired through habits 
of economy." 

"Even before the Revolution the value of the midland 
Pennsylvania counties as provision-houses for armies was 
recognized by the following incident. In 1758 an army was 
raised for the taking of Fort Duquesne, near which Brad- 
dock had met disaster three years before. The question arose 
whether the army starting from Pennsylvania should go 
straight through the woods, hewing a new road, or should 
march thirty-four miles southwestwardly to Fort Cumberland 
in Maryland, and thence follow the road made by Braddock. 
It was in accordance with the interests of Pennsylvania that 
the new road be made; while Virginia was unwilling to see 
a highway cut for her rival that would lead into the rich lands 
of the Ohio, claimed by Virginia. Washington, who was 
then at Fort Cumberland with a part of his regiment, earnest- 
ly advocated taking the old road, while the Quartermaster- 
General, Sir William SinClair, advised in favor of the Penn- 
sylvania route. The generals in command, Forbes and Bou- 
quet, decided for a particular reason to take the straight 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 9 

course. It was shorter and when once made would furnish 
readier and more abundant supplies of food and forage: but 

to make it would consume a vast amount of time and labor. 
As later events proved, it was not British success in battle, 
but mainly the advantage of position, the possibility of getting 
supplies and holding out longer, advantages beyond the reach 
of the French, that forced the latter to evacuate Fort 
Duquesne."* 

Dr. Benjamin Rush, the noted Philadelphia physician, one 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence ; surgeon in 
the Revolutionary Arxny, etc., says the Pennsylvania farms 
produced millions of dollars, which after 1780 made possible 
the foundation of the Bank of North America. The first bank 
in America, chartered 1781. Washington's "honest friend," 
Christoph Ludwig, baker-general of the army, who provided 
all the bread for the patriot army, drew his supplies of grain 
directly from the Pennsylvania German farms.^ "The second 
striking fact which impresses itself in a study of the map is 
the occupancy by the German settlers of almost the entire 
frontier area from Maine to Georgia." "The credit for defend- 
ing the American frontier has very commonly been accorded 
to the Scotch and Irish settlers. From the map, based upon 
a careful study of the location of the German settlers, it ap- 
pears that the Scotch and Irish could not have had a larger 
share in the defense of the frontier than the Germans, when 
the whole extent of the frontier line is considered. There 
were certain reasons why so large a percentage of the German 
immigration settled on the frontier. Similar causes operating 
for the bulk of the Scotch, Irish and Huguenot immigrants. 
They were poor, and were obliged to go where land was cheap 
or where squatters could maintain their independence." 

Dr. Benjamin Rush, like the historian Tacitus wrote a 
modern "Germania" of the Pennsylvania Germans. It was 



•*Faust, Vol. 1, Page 266. spaust— Page 267, Vol. 1. 

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10 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

entitled "An account of the manners of the German inhabi- 
tants of Pennsylvania, written in 1789." The author treats 
his subject under sixteen heads. He discusses "a few particu- 
lars in which the German farmers differ from most of the 
other farmers of Pennsylvania." 

1. (Housing horses and cattle). In settling a tract of 
land the Germans always provide large and suitable accom- 
modations for their horses and cattle, before they lay out much 
money in building a house for themselves. The next genera- 
tion builds a large and convenient stone house. 

2. (Good land). "They always prefer good land, or 
that land on which there is a large quantity of meadow 
ground. By attention to the cultivation of grass, they often 
grow rich on farms, on which their predecessors have nearly 
starved. They prefer purchasing farms with some improve- 
ments, to settling on a new tract of land." (This latter state- 
ment did not hold true for the frontier regions, only the 
older regions in Eastern Pennsylvania). 

3. (Methods of clearing land). "In clearing new land 
they do not girdle or belt the trees simply, and leave them to 
perish in the ground, as is the custom of their English or 
Irish neighbors; but they generally cut them down and burn 
them." Underwood and brush they would pull out by the 
roots. 

4. (Good feeding). They feed their horses and cows 
well. "A German horse is known in every part of the state." 
Indeed, he seems to feel with his lord the pleasure and pride 
of his extraordinary size and fat. 

5. Fences). "The fences of a German farm are generally 
high and well built so that his fields seldom suffer from the 
inroads of his own or his neighbors horses and cattle." 

6. (Use of wood). "The German farmers are great 
economists of wood." They do not waste it in large fireplaces 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. ll 

but burn it in stoves, using about one fourth to one fifth as 
much. 

7. (Comfort of cattle). "They keep their horses and 
cattle as warm as possible in winter, by which they save feed." 

8. (Economy). "The Germans live frugally in their 
homes with respect to diet, furniture and dress." 

9. (Gardens). Kitchen gardening the Germans intro- 
duced altogether. Their gardens contained useful vegetables 
•at every season of the year. "Pennsylvania is indebted to the 
Germans for the principal part of her knowledge in horticul- 
ture." 

10. (Few hired men). The Germans seldom hire men to 
work upon their farms. The wives and daughters of the 
German farmers frequently forsake for a while their dairy and 
spinning wheel and join their husbands and brothers in the 
labor of the fields.® 

11. (Wagons). "A large and strong wagon covered with 
cloth is an essential part of the furniture of a German farm. 
These Conestoga wagons became the "prairie schooner" of. a 
later date. 

12. (Children). "The favorable influence of agriculture, 
as conducted by the Germans, in extending the most happi- 
ness, is manifested by the joy expressed at the birth of a child. 
No dread of poverty or distrust of Providence from an in- 
creasing family, depress the spirits of this industrious and 
frugal people." 

13. (Love of labor). "Germans produced in their chil- 
dren not only the habits of labor but a love for it. When a 
young man asks the consent of his father to marry the girl 
of his choice, he does not inquire so much whether she be rich 
or poor, or whether she possess any personal or mental ac- 
complishments, but whether she be industrious and acquainted 
with the duties of a good housewife." 



^Cf. Whittier's poem "Maud Muller." 

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12 ^ History of Old Zion Evangelical 

14. (Patrimony). "The Germans set a great value upon 
patrimonial property." The idea prevails that a house and 
home should be possessed by a succession of generations. 

15. (Superstition). "The German farmers are very much 
influenced in planting and pruning trees, also in sowing and 
reaping, by the age and appearance of the moon." They used 
the divining rod to find water. Thus: Taking a last years 
growth of a forked peach branch the two branches are grasped 
firmly with thumbs outward then the whole forked branch is 
twisted backward toward the body and upward, bringing the 
thumbs toward each other, then revolving them downward, 
backward and upward. This gives the peachfork a decided 
twist with the heavy base branch standing upward and slightly 
forward. Now the practitioner walks over the ground and 
when the vein of water is reached the peach base branch will 
twist downward toward the water. Magic arts of healing were 
also practiced. One book of magic is entitled "Albertus Mag- 
nus tried and approved sympathetic and natural Egyptian 
secrets, for man and beast." But it must not be understood 
that the German settler was more superstitious than other 
frontier men of the day. The entire country was oppressed 
with witchcraft and magic. The American Indian had his 
medicine man, who was nothing else than a witch and magi- 
cian. The colonists elsewhere were burning witches about 
this time. Even today, people consult the horoscope and 
avoid Friday and the thirteenth as unlucky. 

16. (Barns). "A German farm may be distinguished 
from the farms of the other citizens of the state by the 
superiof size of their barns, the plain but compact form of their 
houses, the height of their enclosures, the extent of their or- 
chard, the fertility of their fields, the luxuriance of their 
meadows, all of which have a genera.1 appearance of plenty 
and neatness in everything that belongs to them."^ 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 13 



CHAPTER III 

Explorations and Early Settlements in Westmoreland County, 

Pennsylvania 

While the English, Dutch and Swedes were settling the 
Atlantic Seaboard, the French were busy exploring the great 
interior of America. Moving from Canada as a base, their 
expeditions under Joliet, Marquette, LaSalle and Hennepin, 
explored and fortified the great Mississippi Valley from the 
Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, and the Ohio Valley from 
its tributaries to its entrance into the Mississippi. Hence, 
while England claimed the Atlantic seaboard and the hinter- 
land, France also claimed the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys 
by virtue of explorations. 

In 1689 war broke out in Europe between France and 
England. One of the objects was the possession of India and 
America. This war (1689-1763), called The Hundred Years 
War, was taken up by their respective Colonies in America. 
The fourth section of this conflict (1754-1763) was known 
as the French and Indian War, and had for its purpose the 
control of the interior of the North American continent. 

The French had built a line of Forts from Quebec to the 
Lakes and from thence to the Gulf of Mexico. To protect 
the Ohio Valley they erected Forts at Presque Isle on Lake 
Erie, Fort Le Boeuf, Fort Venango, a Fort on French Creek, 
and contemplated building a fort at the junction of the Alle- 
gheny and Monongahela Rivers. 

Conrad Weiser, a German from the Palatine, and trusted 
Indian Agent, after pacifying the six nations in 1745 and 

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14 History of Old 2ion Evangelical 

regaining their friendship, was sent by the Governor of 
Pennsylvania in 1748, to treat with the Indians of the Ohio 
Valley. Weiser traveled through the mountains to the Ohio, 
and from thence to Logg's Town near Legionville on the 
Ohio river. His mission was to keep the Indians from an 
alliance with the French. He gathered full data of the French 
forts and settlements, and secured information concerning the 
intentions of the enemy. This information was invaluable 
when representatives of seven English colonies met in council 
with the chiefs of the Six Nations in order to secure an 
Alliance with the Six Nations against the French and Indians 
of the Ohio Valley. Weiser was able to repeat in the language 
of the Mohawks his experience with the French and Indians of 
the Ohio Valley, and he roused the animosity of the Six Na- 
tions against them, taking advantage of the Indians greed for 
land.^ 

Johanan Conrad Weiser, Jr., was born November 2, 1696 
at Afstaedt, Germany. He migrated to America with his 
father in 1710. In November 1713 his father was visited by 
Quagnant, a chief of the Maquas, or Six Nations, who, tak- 
ing a great fancy to Conrad, requested that he might accom- 
pany him back. He did so, remaining with the tribe some 
eight months, during which time he suffered much but learned 
their language and customs thoroughly, and was adopted by 
them. This experience was invaluable to his country later. 
From 1732 until his death he was the recognized head of the 
Indian bureau of the English Government in the province. 
Respected alike by red man and white, because of his unques- 
tioned ability and uprightness, he maintained peace until war 
was unavoidable, and was even then instrumental in bringing 
its horrors to a close at the earliest possible date. He held 
many offices of trust and honor. At the outbreak of the French 
and Indian war, he was commissioned Lieut.-Colonel October 



ipaust-German Element in the U. S., Vol. 1, page 273. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 15 

31, 1755, and given command of the First Batalion, Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment and assigned to protect the frontier along 
the Blue Mountains. He was a sincere and earnest Christian, 
and a Lutheran. His daughter, Anna Maria, married Henry 
Melchior Muhlenberg, the great organizer of the Lutheran 
Church in those times. He died suddenly in 1760.^ 

Another German who nobly served the colonies during 
the Indian trouble was Christian Frederick Post, a member 
of the Moravian Brotherhood. He made a journey to Kush- 
kushkee on Beaver Creek northwest of Fort Duquesne, to visit 
the Indians and to persuade them to remain neutral in the 
coming war between the French and Indians. In spite of the 
intrigues of the French, he accomplished his purpose, the 
Delawares remained peaceful. This made possible the great 
Council at Easton. This council sent a message of peace to 
the tribes of the Ohio. Frederick Post with several white 
and Indian companions was chosen to bear it. The French 
had stirred up the Indians and were present with peace offers 
from the French Commander when Post arrived. "There was 
a grand council at which the French officer was present, and 
Post delivered the peace message from the council at Easton 
with another,* with which Forbes had charged him. The 
message pleased all the hearers except the French captain. 
The overtures of peace were accepted, and the Delawares, 
Shawanoes and Mingoes were no longer enemies of the 
English."^ 

This peace was especially important because it occurred 
immediately after the defeat and capture of Major Grant 
at Fort Duquesne. The desertion of the Indian allies led to 
the evacuation of Fort Duquesne and its capture by Gen. 
Forbes. 



^Lutheran Cyclopedia. 

3Parkman*s Montcalm and Wolf quoted by Faust, etc. 



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16 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

In 1761 Post and Heckewelder attempted to found a mis- 
sion in Stark County, Ohio, but failed on account of Pontiac's 
war. In the autumn of 1767 Post returned to his Western In- 
dian congregation and remained there, the first pioneer. In 
the following year David Zeisberger founded an Indian con- 
gregation at Goshocking on the Allegheny River. About 
1771 Gnadenhuetten and Salem, Ohio, were founded. The 
Indians were taught the arts of peace, to read and write, also 
to speak English and German. In 1775 the congregations 
numbered 414 persons. 

In 1782 the Wyandots under the Scotch-Irish renegade, 
Simon Girty, ravaged the settlements of the upper Ohio. Evil 
tongues spread the report that the Christian Indians, who 
had come back to the Muskingum, had taken part in these 
savage raids. A conspiracy was former to destroy the Mora- 
vian villages. Early in March 1782 a company of volunteers 
gathered together under the command of Colonel David Wil- 
liamson of Washington Co. This company decended upon the 
Christian Indian village of Gnadenhuetten by stealth. Find- 
ing a few peaceful Indians on the outskirts of the town they 
slew them and took the town by surprise. The Indians 
were told that they would be taken to Fort Pitt, and that- 
they should summon the settlers from the other towns of 
Salem and Schoenbrunn. Those of Salem came, the others 
fled. All were now seized and herded like sheep in two large 
barns, the men in one and the women and children in another. 
A mock trial was held by Williamson, in which the question 
was put, whether the captives should be taken to Fort 
Pitt or murdered. Williamson asked those who wished to 
spare the Indians to step put of the ranks, but only eighteen 
men showed any inclination toward mercy and humanity. The 
cowards next decided upon the plan of massacre. Some fa- 
vored burning them in the barns, but the majority, greedy for 
scalpSy preferred to act as executioners. After giving the 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 17 

prisoners a brief time to prepare for deafh the assasins entered 
the prison barns and with club and knife butchered every man, 
woman and child. The only survivors were two boys, one had 
concealed himself under the floor and the other revived after 
being partially scalped. There was but one German in this 
company of over 80 men, a man named Bilderbach.^* 

"Colonel Williamson was afterwards elected to office in 
Washington County and it is said died in jail as a debtor. 
County Lieutenant John Cannon was among them. It is said 
that the fiend who killed the fourteen with a mallet, was at 
the time a County Commissioner and justice of Washington 
County, and that he was subsequently elected Sheriff of the 
County. John Cannon founded Cannonsburg and from him 
the Academy so noted in the past took its name. Now this 
outrage, the blackest in Pennsylvania annals, was committed 
by a people who prided themselves on their advancement, 
wealth and culture, and who looked with scorn on the Dutch, 
i. e. Germans who in their dealings with the Indians, followed 
as far as possible the policy of William Penn."* 

The Ohio Company organized in 1748, received a grant of 
500,000 acres south of the Ohio and west of the Monongahela 
rivers. This scheme was a speculation in futures as clearly as 
the gambling in futures of grain. The land had never been 
purchased from the Indians, was not explored nor sur- 
veyed. The historic importance of this company is over- 
stated. Likewise the journey of Washington assumes large 
importance only by retrospection. True he performed his 
duty well, but he furnished little information that others 
had not already attained. The conquest of the Ohio did not 
proceed from Virginia, but from Pennsylvania. The military 
success of Washington in the Ohio country is not as brilliant 
as that of Col. Bouquet. It is the subsequent successes of 



3aFaust German Element in U. S. Vol. 1, page 402. 
♦Boucher, History of Westmoreland County. 



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18 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Washington that lends additional interest to his Ohio country 
work. 

The Ohio company wished to colonize their grant with a 
hundred families of Pennsylvania Germans but the offer was 
rejected because they objected to supporting an English 
(Episcopal) clergymen. They proposed to furnish the fami- 
lies if they were allowed their own pastors. 

In 1755 occurred Braddock's defeat. Among the pro- 
vincials troops were a number of Germans. The Kimmels are 
said to have been with Braddock's Army and to have settled in 
Westmoreland shortly afterward. 

In 1758 General Forbes marched against Fort Duquesne. 
The new route was chosen because it was shorter and con- 
nected with a large source of supplies (see Chapter II). 
Major Grant, sent out by order of Bouquet to learn the 
strength of the enemy was captured and a large part of his 
force destroyed. Flushed with success the French, now under 
Command of De Vitri, attacked the Camp at Loyalhanna, now 
Ligonier. It is noteworthy that while De Vitri had 1200 
soldiers, only 200 Indians accompanied him, and through the 
efforts of Christian Frederick Post the Indian allies left Fort 
Pitt, making the evacuation of the Fort necessary. The at- 
tack at Camp Loyalhanna was unsuccessful. 

Forbes arrived at Loyalhanna on November 6th. The 
outlook was gloomy and Washington says an abandonment of 
the expedition was contemplated. But through captives it 
was learned of the weakness of the French Fort and the de- 
sertion of the Indian allies, therefore, Forbes pressed on and 
when the scouts reached the Fort they found it abandoned and 
set on fire. 

Capt. Beaujeu with about 200 French and Canadians and 
600 Indians 'defeated Braddock's Army of 1200 picked sol- 
diers. General Forbes could not have had more than about 
4000 effective soldiers and the French had at least 1200 men. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 19 

If the thousands of Indians had remained loyal to the French, 
they could have withstood a siege until re-enforcements could 
have arrived; for the French and Indians commanded the 
waterways. Posts work in winning the Indians to a peace 
with the English had a decisive influence on the campaign. 

"Bouquet writes to Chief Justice Allen, November 25, 
1758, quoted from Parkham; Montcalm and Wolfe, Vol. II, 
page 161 : "After God, the success of this expedition is en- 
tirely due to the general (Gen. Forbes) who by bringing 
about the treaty with ttie Indians at Easton struck the French 
a stunning blow, wisely delayed ^our advance to wait the ef- 
fects of that treaty, secured all our posts, and left nothing to 
chance, and resisted the urgent solicitation to take Braddock's 
road, which would have been our destruction. In all his 
measures he has shown the greatest prudence, firmness and 
ability.'"* 

Immediately following Forbes army came the first real 
settlers of the territory now called Westmoreland County. 
The Pennsylvania and Virginia soldiers of this army were 
largely disbanded in the early part of 1759. Many of them 
with their families immediately started west in pursuit of new 
homes. Many pushed on west to the Ohio valley. Those who 
stopped here settled mainly along the Forbes road and south 
of it. Some never returned with Forbes at all. Some of 
them settled without any right, on choice land, which they 
expected to own by right of occupancy. To others was granted 
land by what was called military permits. The following is 
a military permit. "By Arthur St. Clair, Late Lieutenant in 
his Majesty's Sixtieth Regiment of foot, having care of His 
Majesty's Fort at Ligonier. I have given permission to 
Frederick Rohrer to cultivate a certain piece of land in the 
neighborhood of Fort Ligonier, over a certain creek, which 
empties into the Loyalhanna known by the name of Coal Pit 



fipaust, Vol. 1, page 278. 

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20 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Creek; beginning at a White Oak standing on a spring and 
marked with three letters F. X. R., and running from thence 
to another tree marked with the same letters and standing on 
another spring called Falling Spring, and from these two 
marked trees to the said Coal Pit Creek supposed to contain 
two hundred acres: He the said Frederick Rohrer being 
willing to submit to all orders of the Commander in Chief, the 
Commanding officer of the District and of the Garrison. Given 
under my hand at Ligonier this 11th day of April 1767. Ar. 
St. Clair.« 

The entire country was overrun by the Indians and it is 
natural that the first settlers should build cabins around the 
forts, such as Ligonier and Fort Pitt. But soon the hardy 
soldiers and others dared to seek out the rich lands south of 
the Forbes road. Andrew Byerly, whose land warrant was 
No. 36 for 236 acres, settled in the Brush Creek valley along 
the Forbes road in 1759. Christopher Rudebaugh and several 
others followed closely and took up lands. John Herold sold 
lands near Greensburg to Detars in 1760. Andrew Harmon 
settled in the Ligonier Valley in 1769. Michael Rodenbaugh 
came about 1760. Christopher and Daniel Herold settled near 
Youngwood about the same time. Christopher Walthour 
came in 1764 and purchased a mill site from John Roden- 
baugh, at the junction of Bushy Run and Brush Creek. John 
Peter Miller came in 1764. John Wagle came in 1765. The 
Kimmels came with Braddock's army in 1755, withdrew and 
became hunters and farmers and many other German settlers 
whose names appear on the early church register came at this 
early date. 

The Indian war called "Pontiac's Conspiracy'* drove these 
early settlers back to the forts. Pontiac was Chief of the 
Ottawa tribe. He fought with the French at Braddock's de- 
feat. In military matters he was a Napoleon and in diplomacy 



^Boucher History of Westmoreland County. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 21 

a Bismarck. Parkman rates him as the ablest leader the In- 
dians ever produced. His home centered about Detroit. Eigh- 
teen nations or tribes entered in the Conspiracy. From part 
of the Six Nations of New York down to the Gulf of Mexico 
the Conspiracy ran strong. It was planned that a blow should 
be struck suddenly at all the Forts in the Ohio and Lake 
region. This storm burst upon the settlers in the Spring of 
1763. Nine forts and posts were captured by stratagem or 
assaults. Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt were attacked about 
the same time. 

Pittsburgh was then but a village. In July 21, 1760 the 
population of Pittsburgh consisted of : 

Houses 146 

Unfinished Houses 19 

Huts 36 

Total 201 

Number of men 88 

Number of women 29 

Number of male children 14 

Number of female children 18 

Total 141 

Exclusive of those in the Fort. 

Fort Pitt was commanded by Captain Simeon Ecuyer, a 
Swiss officer and a small garrison of 330 soldiers, traders and 
backwoodsmen. 

On the date May 29, 1763 Captain Ecuyer writes to 
Colonel Bouquet about the uprising of the Indians and adds 
"Just as I had finished my letter three men came in from 
Clapham's with the Melancholy News, that yesterday, at three 
o'clock in the afternoon, the Indians murdered Clapham, and 
every body in his house : These three men were out at work. 



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22 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

and escaped through the woods. I immediately armed them, 
and sent them to assist our people at Bushy Run. The Indians 
have told Byerly to leave his place in four days, or he and his 
family would all be murdered : I am uneasy for the little posts 
— as for this I will answer for it." S. Ecuyer.' 

"As Ecuyer states, Byerly had received warning but his 
family was in no condition to be moved. Mrs. Byerly had 
just been confined and the departure was delayed as long as 
possible, indeed until certain death was imminent if the flight 
should be any longer postponed. Byerly had gone with a 
small party (perhaps Clapham's men referred to above) to 
bury some persons who had been killed at some distance from 
his station. A friendly Indian who had often received a 
bowl of milk and bread from Mrs. Byerly came to the house 
after dark and informed the family that they would all be 
killed if they did not make fheir escape before daylight. Mrs. 
Byerly got up from her sick couch and wrote the tidings on 
the door of the house for the information of her husband when 
he should return. A horse was saddled on which the mother 
with her tender babe three days old in her arms, was placed, 
and a child not two years old was fastened behind her. 

"Michael Byerly was a good sized lad, but Jacob was 
only three years old and had a painful stone bruise on one of 
his feet. With the aid of his older brother who held him by 
the hand and sometimes carried him on his back, the little 
fellow, however, managed to make good time through the 
wilderness to Fort Ligonier, about thirty miles distant. But 
although he reached his ninety-ninth year he never forgot that 
race for life#in his childhood, nor did he feel like giving quar- 
ter to hostile Indians, one of whom he killed on an island in 
the Allegheny in a fight under Lieutenant Hardin in 1779, 
although the savage begged for quarters. 



"'Frontier Forts. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 23 

"Milk cows were highly prized by frontier families in 
those days, and the By^rly family made a desperate effort to 
coax and drive their small herd along to Fort Ligonier. But 
the howling savages got so close that they were obliged to 
leave the cattle in the woods to be destroyed by the Indians. 
Byerly in some way eluded the Indians and joined his family 
in the retreat. They barely escaped with their lives. The first 
night they spent in the stockade, and in the morning the bul- 
lets of the pursuers struck the gates as the family pressed in- 
to the.fort."^ 

Lieutenant Archibald Blane with a detachment of Royal 
Americans commanded the Fort. Colonel Bouquet of the first 
battalion of Royal Americans had his headquarters at Phila- 
delphia at this time. The Royal Americans, broken into de- 
tachment, had held the line of forts and posts on the western 
frontier for over six years. As soon as the outbreak became 
known Bouquet started westward. Part of the 42nd Regiment 
of Royal Highlanders and the 77th Montgomerys Highlanders 
were added to his command. 

About Carlisle all was consternation. Reports came in 
of the Indian ravages. The country between the mountains 
and the Susquehanna was abandoned. Two thousand families 
left their homes and fled. At Shippensburg on July 25, 1763 
there were 1384 fugitives. At Bedford conditions were simi- 
lar. 

Wendel (Uhrig) Ourry of Bedford sent a detachment to 
relieve Fort Ligonier. Bouquet also threw forward thirty 
men for the same purpose. On August 2 Bouquet reached 
Ligonier with his army. Leaving there his heavier baggage 
he started, August 4th, to relieve Fort Pitt. A band of fron- 
tiersmen and scouts led the way. These were supported by a 
band of pioneers. The wagons and cattle were in the center 



^Col. Henry Bouquet and his campaign, Cort. 

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24 ^ History of Old Zion Evangelical 

guarded by the Highlanders, a rear guard of backwoodsmen 
brought up the rear. 

The Highlanders were brave men but knew little of 
Indian fighting. Bouquet wrote "I cannot send a Highlander 
out of my sight without running the risk of losing the man, 
which exposes me to surprises from the skulking villains I 
have to deal with/* 

Andrew Byerly accompanied the army. By one o'clock 
the army was approaching Bushy RUn. Byerly with eighteen 
men of the Royal Americans was in the advance, when sud- 
denly this advance guard was fired upon from ambush. 
Twelve out of the eighteen men fell before the other columns . 
could come up. Bouquet formed his men for the defense. 
The Highlanders were brave but they furnished an open tar- 
get for the Indians. They charged repeatedly with bayonets 
but the savage gave way only to return again when the Scotch- 
men returned to their line. About sixty men fell that after- 
noon, and many of the officers were killed and wounded. 
Lieutenant Dow of the Royal Americans was seriously wound- 
ed after killing three Indians. 

That night the army suffered much from thirst. Byerly, 
at great risk, brought several hatsfull of water from a neigh- 
boring spring which allayed the thirst of the wounded. The 
next day the battle was renewed at dawn. By stratagem Bou- 
quet drew the savages from their protection and attacked them 
on front and flank. The Indians fought bravely but could not 
withstand the bayonet charge in front and the flank fire. 
Seeing that they had been entrapped, the Indians broke and 
fled, leaving sixty dead on the field. Bouquet's army lost 
fifty killed, sixty wounded and five missing. The casualties 
among the Highlanders were greater than among the Royal 
Americans and Rangers: the latter fought in Indian fashion 
while the former used open tactics. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 25 

In a few days the army pressed on and relieved Fort Pitt. 
"The battle of Bushy Run, says Parkman, was one of the 
best contested actions ever fought between white men and 
Indians." Colonel Bouquet and Gen. Herkimer rank among 
the very foremost Indian fighters. Of Herkimer, Washington 
says, "It was Herkimer who first reversed the gloomy scene." 
(Burgoynes campaign). 

A word should be said of the Royal American Regiment. 
"This regiment was authorized by act of Parliament. It was 
to consist of four battalions of one thousand each, and in- 
tended to be raised chiefly of the Germans and Swiss, who, 
for many years past, had come to America, where waste land 
had been assigned them on the frontiers. They were generally 
strong, hardy men, accustomed to the climate. It was neces- 
sary to appoint some officers, especially subalterns who un- 
derstood military disciphne and could speak the German lan- 
guage : and as a sufficient number could not be found among 
the English officers, it was further necessary to bring over 
and grant commissions to several German and Swiss officers 
and engineers."" 

Later the Royal American regiment became the Sixtieth 
Rifles. "The rifle, in 1775, was used only along the frontiers 
of Pennsylvania and the Southern Colonies. It had been in- 
troduced into Pennsylvania about 1700 by Swiss and Pala- 
tine immigrants. The frontiersmen improved it and made 
out of it a superior type of firearms. Over every cabin door 
hung a well made and correctly-sighted rifle. As soon as a 
boy was big enough to level it, he was given powder and 
ball to shoot squirrels. These were the "expert riflemen" or- 
ganized by Act of Congress June 14, 1775, into a corps of 
nine companies. In one short month, the first company, 
Nagel's Berks County "Dutchmen" was at Cambridge, and in 



^Smollett's History of England, page 111-475. (Frontier Forts, 
page 253). 



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26 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

less than sixty days nine companies of backwoodsmen from 
Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia were at Boston. At 
a review, a company of these riflemen, while on a quick ad- 
vance, fired their balls into object of seven inch diameter at 
a distance of 250 yards. They were the nucleus of the Ameri- 
can army, absolutely loyal to the American cause and knowing 
no fatherland but the wilderness."^** 

"The Royal American Regiment was a new corps raised 
in the colonies, largely among the Germans of Pennsylvania. 
Its officers were from Europe; and of the most conspicuous 
among them was Lieut. Col. Bouquet, a brave and accom- 
plished Swiss, who commanded one of the four battallions of 
which the regiment was composed.'' A list of the campaigns 
of this regiment is given: 

"1757 First Battalion in Indian wars. 

Five companies under Stanwix in Pennsylvania. 

Third Battallion at Fort Hunter and Fort William 

Henry. 

Second and Fourth at Louisbourg. 

First Battalion under Bouquet in South Carolina. 

First and Fourth at Crown Point and Ticonderoga. 

1758 Second and Third Battallions at Louisbourg. 

First and Fourth under Bouquet and Forbes at Fort 
Duquesne. 

1759 Fourth Battallion under Prideaux at Fort Niagara. . 
Second and Third under Wolfe at Quebec. 
Fourth under Haldiman at Oswego. 

First under Amherst at Lake Champlain. 

Fourth under Sir William Johnson, Bouquet, Stanwix 

and Wolfe at Quebec. 

1760 First, Second and Third at Quebec. 

1761 First in Virginia. 



i<^Border Warfare in Pennsylvania Shimmel. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 21 

1762 Third at Martinique and Havana. 

1763 First under Bouquet at Bushy Run and Pittsburgh."^^ 
Many from this regiment took up lands in Westmoreland 

County. "At one time Michael Schlatter, pioneer of the Re- 
formed Church, resigned his congregation because of difficul- 
ties with the Holland Synod, and became Chaplain under 
Colonel Louden, in the Royal American Regiment, fourth bat- 
talion in the campaign against Nova Scotia and Louisburg. 
He held a similar position during the Revolutionary War."^^ 

"From this time (1764) until the regular opening of the 
land office (1769) trouble was apprehended by reason of set- 
tlers occupying territory in various parts of the country, par- 
ticularly territory on the Monongahela and Youghougheny, in 
violation of the treaty rights of the Indians. Complaint being 
made, the Governor of Virginia, as well as Gen. Gage, the 
commander in chief of the British forces in- America, used 
every reasonable exertion to have the settlers peaceably re- 
moved. Various conferences and treaties were held during 
this period between the agents of these officials and the 
Indians, at and about Fort Pitt. It was provided that the 
penalties that were attached to the violation of these laws, 
or treaty obligations, did not extend to those who had settled 
on the main communication leading to Fort Pitt, under the 
permission of the Commander-in-Chief, nor to settlements 
made by George Croghan, Esq., Deputy superintendent under 
Sir William Johnson, upon the Ohio above said fort."^^ 

"On February 13, 1768 an act was passed which provided 
that any one having settled here without permission, and who 
should neglect to remove after a legal notice was served on 
him to do so, should, after being convicted of such neglect, be 
punished with death without the benefit of the clergy."^* 



iiprontier Forts. 

ispaust. 

isprontier Forts. 

i*Boucher History of Westmoreland County. 



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28 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Because of the impending troubles a council was called 
at Fort Stanwix in New York in the fall of 1768. Sir William 
Johnson met the Indian Chiefs and made a treaty with them 
November 5, 1768 which restored peace and harmony once 
more. By this treaty all territory from a point where the 
Susquehanna crosses the New York line, down to the south- 
west corner of Pennsylvania, including the Allegheny, Cone- 
maugh, Monongahela and Youghougheny River valleys, was 
conveyed to the Proprietaries. This is called "The New 
Purchase." To us it is the most important of all purchases and 
was the last made By the Penns from the Indians. The sum 
paid to the Indians is said to have been $10,000 in presents 
and money and unlimited rum."^^ 

This "New Purchase" was opened for settlement April 3, 
1769 and several thousand warrants were applied for the first 
day. 

"Fully two hundred families of Pennsylvania Germans, 
chiefly from the counties of Northampton, Berks, Lehigh, 
Franklin, Lancaster, Adams and York, crossed the mountains 
from 1769 to 1772, and took up lands, some of these Germans 
being from Maryland and Virginia and a few came direct from 
the Fatherland. The great majority of these earliest settlers 
located in Westmoreland, Fayette and Allegheny counties. 
The first settlements were Fort Pitt in Allegheny County. 
Harold's Brush Creek and Ligonier Valley in Westmoreland 
County; and German township in Fayette County. Other 
settlements effected soon after were Ridge, Schwab's, Kuen- 
digs, Hoffman's Seanor's, Greensburg (then Newtown) Manor, 
and Beamer's in Westmoreland County; Bethlehem and Ste- 
cher's in Allegheny County ; West Salem in Allegheny Coun- 
ty; Buechle's in Butler County; Rupp's and Crooked Creek 
in Armstrong County, and Brush Valley, Germany and In- 



i^Boucher History of Westmoreland County. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 29 

diana in Indiana County. The German settlements of Clarion, 
Mercer, Crawford and Erie Counties were made at a still 
later period."^® 



i^History of the Pittsburgh Synod of the General Synod of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church — Burgess. 



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30 History of Old Zion Evangelical 



CHAPTER IV 
Zion Church Settlement 

The settlement around the present Herold's Church was 
made as early as 1750-60 and although these early settlers were 
driven eastward by the Indian attacks, they returned with 
Bouquet and reoccupied their farms. Much land was preempted 
by "tomahawk'' right and military permit before this section 
was opened for settlement on April 3, 1769. After this formal 
opening, many more settlers arrived. 

The interest of these early German settlers in religion is 
shown in that in the year 1765 or before, they preempted 158 
acres of the choicest land for Church purposes ; this they styled 
"Good Purpose." A warrant for this tract was granted 
August 22, 1785, and patented May 23, 1789. This land was 
preempted and patented for the Lutheran Church alone. In 
fact, it seems as if there were but few German Reformed in the 
settlement at this time, as there are no authentic records of the 
German Reformed Church until the coming of Rev. John 
William Weber, who arrived early in June, 1783. 

It has been supposed that the records kept by Balthasar 
Meyer, the Lutheran Schoolmaster, included the German Re- 
formed, as well as the Lutheran baptisms; but this is not the 
case; for we read in the History of the Reformed Church, 
Page 40, Edition of 1877: "These teachers were even con- 
strained, as we have seen in the case above given, if there 
were no minister, to administer infant baptism when it was 
thought necessary. This was probably more the case with 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 



31 



Lutherans than with the Reformed, who seldom or never per* 
mitted lay baptism." 








mm 







Fac-8imile of Taufschein of Johann George Eisenman, of Zion Church 

Settlement 

Indeed, the records of Balthaser Meyer show that it was 
the established rule and custom to have children baptised at 
an early age. (See appendices A and D). There are also docu- 



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32 History of Old Zi6n Evangelical 

ments extant which show that the Lutheran doctrine of Baptis- 
mal Regeneration was well known and practiced in these early 
times as we read from the Taufschein of "J^^^^ George Eisen- 
mann, bom 28 of May in the year of our Lord 1788 and on 
the 13th of July was through the washing of Holy Baptism 
baptized into the congregation of Christ as a living member 
and as a young branch received." The Bapljism witnesses were, 
in this sacred ordinance, the honorable John Peter Eisenmann 
and Anna Barbara, his wife; uncle and aunt of the child. This 
uncle presents the Taufschein to the child and upon it we read 
further this advice which he gives, "Take care of your soul and 
think that you, through the sacrament of Baptism, by Jesus, are 
received. It is only water which is externally used, but the 
blood of Jesus Christ internally, so that your soul, virtuous and 
clean, may enter the Kingdom of Heaven. Through grace you 
are born anew. You are chosen to be an heir of heaven through 
Jesus Christ, the son of God, etc." Further we read, "The 
Baptism gives you new life, to live in that new life forever. 
Here in time and there in eternity." 

Another fact of great weight in determining that these 
early records are Lutheran is that Balthasar Meyer was a 
Lutheran, which is shown when he ordains Anton Ulrich 
Luetge to the Lutheran ministry. Then again when Rev. 
Weber came to the settlement in 1783, he started a separate 
record of Baptisms which is paralel to, but not recorded in this 
book. 

We must remember that although the Lutheran and Ger- 
man Reformed congregations later worshipped in the same 
building and owned the property jointly, they were not a 
Union Church. They were two congregations, distinct in doc- 
trine and organization, with each its own Pastor; and the 
record begun by Balthasar Meyer and continued by the 
Lutheran Pastors does not contain any records of the Re- 
formed Church, except the records of the yearly settlement; 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 33 

and these relate to the financial conditions of the two congrega- 
tions and the joint property. These are signed by the officers 
of both congregations. (See appendix E.) 

Doubtless both parties to the settlement retained copies, 
and the Lutheran copy was inserted in this book. 

We have no reason to doubt that some of the earlier 
German Reformed also brought their children to the Lutheran 
schoolmaster for baptism, just as later, the Lutheran and 
Reformed pastors baptized all children brought to them for 
that purpose. 

The first entry in this old Lutheran record is as follows: 

"Register of all children in Zion Church settlement, bap- 
tized by Balthasar Meyer, schoolmaster, from the second of 

August, 17^2, until . (See appendix A). 

The last entry in the handwriting of Balthasar Meyer is in the 
year 1792, the fourth of June. The record indicates in the 
year 1784 the advent of a regular Lutheran Minister, Rev. 
Anton Ulrich Luetge, but it seems that schoolmaster Meyer 
still continued to baptize children and entered the baptisms that 
he performed up until the fourth of June, 1792. 

In 1784 a new baptismal list is begun, the heading is as 
follows : 

"Record of such children, who were baptized in Zion's 
Church in Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County in the 
state of Pennsylvania, by the Reverend preachers." Inasmuch 
as Rev. John William Weber was keeping a separate record of 
baptisms of the Reformed Church, we are led to believe that 
this is Rev. Luetge's list of Baptisms. It is kept in the same 
handwriting until the 10th of September, 1791. We have 
identified the handwriting of this list as that of Karl Schei- 
beler, schoolmaster. It was customary in those days to have 
the schoolmaster keep the Church Records. 

Grbg. 2 

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34 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 




£^..tv,- 






iSi:- 








Fac-simile of Record of First Baptisms at Zion Church Settleme>nt 

"It was resolved that each congregation have its own 
Church Record, and that it be kept by the teacher of the con- 
gregation/'^ 



^Minutes of the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsyl- 
vania and adjacent states, 1793. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 35 

Rev. Luetge's name appears in this list as God father, as 
follows : 

God- Parents 
Hanna Friderica Parents Anton Ulrich Luetge 

Born Feb. 18, 1785, John Samuel Mau Sophia Luisa, his wife. 

Bapt. Mar. 6, 1785. Eva Catharina, his wife John Spielman 

Catharina, his wife. 

The record of the Baptisms is continuous from 1772 until 
the present. 

The first communion record is headed as follows: 

"Record of communicants in Herold^s or Zion's Church in 
Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, in the year of our 
Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, 1791, 11th October." (See 
appendix B). 

This record continues to the present. 

The record of confirmants is begun as follows : 

'^Record of the Confirmants, who on the 26th of May, 
1792, in Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, in the 
Herold's or Zion's Church, by Pastor Steck, Evangelical 
Lutheran preacher, were confirmed and blessed, and on the 
following day, the 27th of May, for the first time partook of 
the Lord's Supper." (See appendix C). 

The record of confirmants is continuous until the present. 

The Church in the House 

During the period of 1750 to 1772, we may speak of the 
congregation as the "Church in the house," when services were 
held in the house, for people who would preempt 158 acres of 
the choicest land for "Good Purpose'' would not neglect the 
worship of God. 

The Church in the School 

From 1772 to 1782, we have the period of the "Church in 
the school." The interests of the settlement centered in the 
school. A schoolhouse was erected in 1772 and a schoolmaster 



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36 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

secured. Balthasar Meyer became the first schoolmaster and 
the religious leader of the settlement. The first formal records 
of the Church were made by him when he recorded the Bap- 
tisms which he performed. 

The old schoolhouse was located about three hundred feet 
south of and slightly eastward of the present public school 
building. 

The following description of the schoolhouse the author 
received from Mrs. Salome Miller, nee Leasure, of Armbrust, 
Pa., in the year 1912. Mrs. Miller was then in her ninety-third 
year of age, but was well preserved in, health and had a re- 
markably clear memory. She was a pupil of "Grandpap" 
Zundel. 

Mrs. Miller remembered the old schoolhouse at Herold's. 
It was first built as a one room log building. There was one 
door facing the east and one window opposite the door. The 
floor was of puncheon, the seats of hewn logs made into 
benches. At first the window lights were of greased paper, 
later we read in the Annual settlement of the Church, of an 
item of expenditure "for glass in schoolhouse, 8 shillings. '' 
This was in 1792. As glass was then a novelty, this item shows 
how highly these settlers rated their school and how progres- 
sive they were to improve its equipment. It is probable that 
this was the only schoolhouse west of the Alleghenies that had 
a glass window. 

About the time John Michael Zundel became schoolmaster, 
probably in order to furnish him a home, a second story was 
added to the schoolhouse. This second story extended beyond 
the main building in order to afford protection to the doorway 
to the school room and also to give room for an entrance to the 
second story. This entrance to the second story was not very 
elaborate. It consisted of a trap door in the floor of the ex- 
tended second story and a ladder which would be drawn up at 
night. There was no provision for a stove or fireplace in the 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 37 

second story; the only heat obtainable was from the fireplace 
in the schoolroom below. The cooking for the family was done 
outside the house in an open fireplace. Thus, in winter and 
summer it was necessary for the schoolmaster and his good 
helpmeet, upon arising in the morning, to open the trap door, 
let down the ladder, then descend to the -ground outside the 
schoolhouse, clear away the snow, if it be winter, then build a 
fire from the glowing embers secured in the schoolhouse fire- 
place or start the fire anew with flint and steel and punk, and 
finally prepare the morning meal. 

In this second story of the schoolhouse, schoolmaster Zun- 
del lived many years. Here his children were born and reared 
until the eldest was probably fourteen years of age. Notwith- 
standing such hardships, John Michael Zundel lived to see his 
eighty-seventh year, and became the' progenitor of a long line 
of school teachers, some of whom have succeeded him in the 
Herold's School. 

After moving from the schoolhouse in 1827, he lived for a 
time on the "Yar" Adam Schneider farm and later lived with 
his daughter near Mt. Pleasant, Pa., and was buried in the 
private cemetery on the Schneider farm. 

Balthasar Meyer was never ordained nor even licensed to 
preach the gospel. That he instructed the young, baptized in- 
fants, and read sermons are well established facts; but there 
is no evidence that he administered the Lord's Supper. 

The longing for the Lord's Supper must have been the 
ruling motive of the settlers when they had schoolmaster Meyer 
set apart the exhorter Anton Ulrich Luetge to the Ministry. 

Anton Ulrich Luetge was bom in Germany and educated 
at the Halle University for the Foreign Mission field, but later 
decided to come to America. He settled in Franklin County 
and in 1782 settled in the Zion Settlement in Westmoreland 
County. It is said that Mr. Luetge also practiced medicine in 
connection with his pastoral work. In 1789, he removed to 



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38 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Schippensburg, Pa., then in 1794 to Chamberstown, Pa., where 
he died in 1795. His widow appealed to the Ministerium for 
aid and was granted sums at stated intervals. 

There is no record of the ordination or of the action of 
the congregation regarding the election of Mr. Luetge. That 
the procedure was luot regular is shown by the records of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium, 1785. "Mr. Luetge, who 
has been ordained by a preacher named Meyer, asked in writ- 
ing for admission into the Ministerium. But it was resolved 
that the United Ministerium did not want to have anything 
further to do with him.'* 

In 1788 the minutes make the following reference : "Mr. 
Luetge, who for some years was stationed in Westmoreland 
County as preacher, reported himself to the Synod, and asked 
to be received. He had been ordained by a certain Meyer, who 
himself was not ordained. The Ministerium c!eclared his 
ordination invalid, and requested from him a written outline 
on Mark 1:15: 'Repent ye, and believe the Gospel.' " On the 
following day, after the outlinie was read and considered, "The 
case of Mr. Luetge was again taken up and on motion, resolved 
to give him a license to preach and to baptize, on the following 
conditions : 

1. That he shall improve his knowledge of Greek. 

2. Keep a diary of his official acts. 

3. Present to the Ministerium testimonials from the elders 
and deacons of the congregations in which he preaches.*' 

Mr. Luetge complied with these conditions and was con- 
tinued on the rolls of the Ministerium as a Licentiate. 

The action of the Ministerium seems severe, yet it was 
necessary in those days because of the many bad men and false 
prophets that aspired to the ministry. In spite of such severe 
methods and all diligent watchfulness, wicked men did occa- 
sionally secure entrance to congregations as pastors, to the 
great scandal and harm of the Church. Then again our fathers 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 39 

were zealous to maintain an educated ministry. The difference 
between a licentiate and an ordained minister was chiefly that 
of education and experience. 

"No. 30 — That licensed candidate who is convinced that, 
by private application, he has advanced sufiiciently to be able 
to undergo the examination referred to above in No. 27, may, 
in a spirit of meekness, make known his desire to be ordained 
in open session, but never without the afore-mentioned convic- 
tion as to a knowledge of the ancient languages and theology. 
No one will in future be ordained without both these require- 
ments, unless in a very extraordinary instance, or the most 
urgent necessity." — Constitution of the Ministerium, 1781. 

At the same meeting of the Ministerium that Mr. Luetge 
was licenced, it was "Resolved that the ordinandi and licen- 
tiates must sign a revers, which shall be entered on the Proto- 
col." (Page 223.) 

"The contents of the revers are: 

1. To preach the Word of God in its purity, according to 
Law and Gospel, as it is explained in its chief points in the 
Augsburg Confession and the other Symbolical Books. 

(Thus, we see that the first preacher west of the Alle- 
ghenies was solemnly pledged to the unaltered Augsburg Con- 
fession and the Symbolical books.) 

2. Diligently to instruct children, visit the sick, care for 
souls and administer Holy Baptism according to the command 
of Christ. 

3. Diligently to exercise himself in Knowledge. 

4. To adorn the office with a Christian life. 

5. Not to leave or go beyond the congregations which 
were entrusted to him in the license. 

6. To record the most noteworthy occurrences of his 
ministry in a journal and annually present this to the Synodical 
Meeting, also to appear personally as often as asked. 

7. To renew the license annually." (Page 188.) 



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40 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

The Synod also resolved (1788) "That the licentiates are 
obliged to attend each Synodical Meeting, and that they have 
a right to present matters and make comments, but not to vote." 

In 1789 "Pastor Schulz moved that the licentiates should 
hand in to the Ministerium their journals and four complete 
sermons each year, as otherwise the Ministerium had no op- 
portunity to judge correctly of their presentation of divine 
truth. This motion was generally approved and accepted.'* 
(Page 227.) 

This whole matter of licensing candidates had a useful 
purpose in the early unsettled days of our fathers when min- 
isters were sparce and the people demanded the services of 
their schoolmasters and others, but it has no place in a settled, 
well ordered state of the Church. 

Mr. Luetge was called to Schippensburg, Cumberland 
County, in 1789. In the year 1791, we read "A letter from the 
congregation in Schippensburg was read in which the Ministe- 
rium was requested again to renew the license of Mr. Luetge, 
who also asked for it in person, whereupon it was unanimously 
— Resolved, That Mr. Luetge's license be renewed for one 
year/' 

In 1794, Anton Luetge is accredited to Chamberstown. 

In 1796 we read, "Various Congregations now vacant: 

eg. Gruensburg, Herold's Broshkrick, and Ridge, 

which the late Mr. Luetge served." 

Thus, we see that the Ministerium never recognized the 
lay-ordination of Mr. Anton U. Luetge, and Mr. Luetge died 
as a licentiate. 

The Church in the Sanctuary 

We can readily see how the Indian attacks and the un- 
settled conditions of affairs would affect the work of the 
Church. 

School houses were built at Zion settlement, Newton, now 
Greensburg, and at Brusch Creek, and schools were held at 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 41 

other points in Forts, Blockhouses, and private houses, or 
cabins for a few months during the year. The children were 
baptized by the schoolmasters and the older children were 
taught and catechized in the schools. Doubtless, these schools 
were also centers of worship and lay-preaching, — but the people 
longed for a church home. 

A log church was begun at an early date but its completion 
was hindered by Indian troubles and other embarrassments, 
until the arrival of Rev. Luetge. It is said that when work was 
resumed after the Indian troubles, a goodsized oak sapling was 
found growing within the walls, indicating that the work had 
been retarded many years. During his pastorate, the building 
was completed. 

"One of the old pastors of Harrold's congregation has 
made the following record concerning this church. 'The church 
building erected was rather spacious, but had only one 
door. The floor was made of puncheon, the seats were hewn 
logs. There was a gallery on the right side, open in front ; it 
had rough seats to which a rude stairway led. At first there 
was only a plain table as an altar, but the present pastor re- 
members an altar there during the time of his ministerial ser- 
vice. The original pulpit was of the wine glass pattern, sur- 
mounted with a sounding board, painted a blue, with a canopy, 
showing the sun, moon, and stars in white.^ The windows 
of the church were often broken and left unrepaired, so that 
squirrels and birds had free access to the inside of the 
church. They were often seen sporting about in the church, 
diverting themselves and the young people during the ser- 
vices."^ This log church was used until the new stone church 
was built in 1830. 

During Rev. Luetge's pastorate, there were probably four 
or five schoolmasters in the parish. Balthasar Meyer continued 



2This old Pulpit has been traced and found by the aid of H. M. 
Zundel and Nicholaus Long. It is now restored and kept in the 
church. ^Ulery Hist. Southern Conference. 



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42 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 



to teach and baptize children. Karl Scheibeler taught in 
Greensburg and at Harrold's ; because the list of baptisms be- 
ginning 1784 are entered by his hand in the Church register. 
John Michael Zundel and George Bushyager taught at Brush 
Creek and John Michael Zundel taught at Herold's from about 
1810 to 1828. 

Rev. Luetge was called to Schippensburg, Cumberland 
County, in 1789 and was reported from that field in 1791. 




Quaint Old Pulpit from Old Log Church 

Note on Old Pulpit. 
This is the original pulpit of the old log church, built about 1782: 
It was elevated on a log three feet in diameter and three feet long, set 
upright, crude steps, four in number, led up to it. There was a small 
seat on the side opposite the entrance. The pulpit proper, shown in 
the cut, is the original, but the base and steps have been supplied in 
its rebuilding. This pulpit was used in the old log church until 1830. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 43 

When the new stone church was built the old pulpit was given to the 
Muelheisen Church. The elder Tobias Long and Philip Muelheisen 
were largely influential in the founding of the "Mill iron" Church. 
Tobias Long the son of the elder Tobias Long named above who 
is now (May 1922) still living at the age of 88 years, says. "As a boy. 
but a few years after the old pulpit was brought to the "Milliron" 
Church, I often heard father and others speak of its early history, 
how it had for years been used in the old log church and then, after 
building the old stone church was brought here." 

Comrade Nicholas Long, a veteran of the Civil War, also recalls 
the tradition of the old Pulpit. He says that many times he has heard 
the venerable Rev. H. E. F. Voight preach from the pulpit. 

Mrs. Reuben Miller, jiee Sarah Gangaware, daughter of Joseph 
Gangaware, who attended the Herold Church, deserves great credit for 
preserving the old pulpit for the present generation. When repairs 
were made to the "Milliron" Church, many years ago, the old pulpit 
was discarded. She could not bear to see it desecrated, so she had it 
hauled to her home on a sled. First it was placed at the end of an 
old fashioned cider press. Then it was next stored in her cellar. 
When the home was remodeled it was then stored under the porch, 
where it was found by Nicholaus Long, H. M. Zundel and Jacob E. 
Wincman, as the author had suggested. The pulpit is now preserved 
as a precious treasure of its early history in Old Zion's Church. It 
is probably the oldest pulpit west of the Allegheny mountains. 



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44 History of Old Zion Evangelical 



CHAPTER V 

Frontier Conditions 

The march of civilization westward is shown by the erec- 
tion of counties. In 1682 Penn found Philadelphia, Bucks, and 
Chester Counties. Then followed, westward, Lancaster County 
in 1729, York County in 1749, Cumberland County in 1750, 
Bedford in 1772, and Westmoreland, beyond the mountains 
in 1773. This county embraced nearly all of Pennsylvania 
west of the mountains. 

The first officers were appointed by Governor Richard 
Penn. 

The scramble of politicians for office and salaried posi- 
tions was as keen then as now. The Scotch-Irish take to 
politics as keenly as the German takes to a farm. Indeed, 
it was fortunate that there were Scotch-Irish and English to 
take the offices, else, so far as the Germans were concerned, 
Westmoreland would have been as unfortunate as German- 
town was in 1703. Pastorius wrote to William Penn com- 
plaining of the difficulty in getting his people to serve as 
public officers, and expressing the hope that the arrival of new 
immigrants might relieve the situation. 

"Fines and importations becoming necessary to secure 
officeholders, seems an embarrassment almost inconceivable 
to later generations of men, yet this historical fact emphasizes 
a trait often exhibited by the Germans in the United States." 
"December 1, 1694, Paul Wulff was elected clerk, but declining 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 45 

without good cause, he was fined three pounds by the General 
Court."^ 

Under the distracted conditions of a "border" settlement, 
it would be ridiculous to assert that the appointive and elec- 
tive officers were always representative of the best men on the 
border. Politics was then more potent than now, since the 
Proprietaries lived at a distance and were necessarily out of 
immediate touch with actual conditions. Some of the bar- 
barous penalties surely did not reflect credit upon the early 
courts. The election of the notorious murderer Williamson 
and some of his pals to office in Washington County outraged 
the decency even of "border" life. The conduct of some of 
the commanding officers in the west during these times was 
of such a nature as to bring the rebuke of state officials and 
frequent removals by the commander-in-chief. While the 
savage was scalping the helpless settlers, some of these com- 
manders were playing politics for position. 

The trustees to locate and erect the public buildings, 
appointed by the State, were Robert Hanna, Joseph Erwin, 
John Cavett, George Wilson, and Samuel Sloan. Now Hanna^ 
Erwin, and Sloan stood together and decided that Hanna's 
house should be the county seat and Erwin should keep the 
tavern at Hannastown. What Sloan got out of the deal we are 
not told. 

For many years, the settlement at Germantown did not 
have a jail, nor did they need one. From this place also 
went out the first protest, on American soil, against negro 
slavery; but the rigor and majesty of English law, "the ac- 
cumlated wisdom of the ages," as administered by such judges 
as Hanna, Lochry, Sloan, and Cavett, required all the in- 
strumentalities of torture used at the time. 

"John Smith, charged with stealing and pleaded guilty, 
was sentenced to receive thirty-nine lashes on the bare back. 



^Faust, Vol. 1059. 

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46 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

well laid on, and his ears were then to be cut off and nailed 
to the pillory, and he was to stand one hour in the pillory." 
"In January, 1774, William Howard suffered one hour in the 
pillory, after having received thirty lashes on the bare back, 
well laid on." 

"In October, 1775, EHzabeth Smith was ordered to re- 
ceive fifteen lashes on the bare back, well laid on."^ 

Three kinds of bond servants were brought to Westmore- 
land County — negro slaves, indentured servants, and redemp- 
tioners. The indentured servant could be bound for life or a 
period of years. It ranged in severity all the way from a 
voluntary act to involuntary slavery. The redemptioners 
were those who "indentured" themselves for a period of 
years, in return for the expense of ship passage to America. 
They redeemed themselves by a term of service to their 
creditor. 

This "bondage" servant system sometimes brought unde- 
sirable people to the frontier, but in the main, it brought 
good workers whose only failing was the misfortune to be 
poor. 

The "undesirables" of the frontier were largely the 
rowdies and criminals of the more settled sections of the 
east, who sought refuge on the frontier; thus it has been 
even to this day on the frontier in America. 

In 1774 began what is known as Dunmore's War. Lord 
Dunmore was governor of Virginia. As the southern border 
of Pennsylvania was not then extended west of the mountains, 
Virginia and Pennsylvania both laid claim to the territory 
of the Ohio, Monongahela, and Youghiogheny valleys. At 
this time, Dunmore sent John Connolly to Pittsburgh. In 
January, 1774, he took the city, raised an army and called the 
place Fort Dunmore. He called the militia together ostensi- 
bly to fight the Indians, but really to fight for Virginia. St. 



^Boucher History of Westmoreland County. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 47 

Clair, who had charge of Pennsylvania's interest, had Connol- 
ly arrested. He gave bail and went to Virginia, where Dun- 
more appointed him a justice. Returning to the west, he ar- 
rived at Hanna's town and refused to permit the Pennsylvania 
court to meet. He arrested the judges and sent them to 
Virginia. This naturally aroused the people, not only because 
they would thus lose title to their lands, but because of a 
threatened Indian attack. It appears, however, that the Indian 
attack threatened only the Virginians, but our people did not 
know this, and it would be easy for a scalping party to mis- 
take a Pennsylvanian for a Virginian. 

Connolly had called out the militia but had mobilized 
it at Kitanning, hence the settlers were left defenseless. In- 
dignation meetings were held at many places and petitions 
sent to the Governor. An indignation meeting was held at 
Fort Allen and a petition was sent to Governor Penn, signed 
by the following persons. Doubtless other well known men 
were in the militia at Kitanning. 

"Wendel Oury, Christopher Trubee, Frantz Raupp, Nich- 
olas Scheuer, John Lafferty, John Bendeary, Conrad Houck, 
James Waterms, John Redeck, Adam George, Nicholas Al- 
limang, Adam Uhrig, Stofel Urich, John Golden, Peter Urich, 
Martin Hunts, Michael Konel, Heinrich Kleyn, Conrad Hister, 
Hans Gunckee, Peter Kassner, Peter Uber, John Krausher, 
Heinrich Schmit Jacob Schmit, Jacob Kuemel, John Moffey, 
Adam Bricker, Peter Wannemacher, Philip Klingelschmit, 
Peter Klingelschmit, Peter Altman, Anthony Altman, Joseph 
Paukkek, Brent Reis, Baltzer Mayer, Jacob Hauser, Peter 
Altmann, Christian Baum, George Crier, Peter Rosch, Joseph 
Kutz, Adam Meire, Daniel Wilers, Thomas Williams, Michael 
Hatz, George Mondarf, William Hanson, William Altman, 
Marx Breinig, Johannes Breinig, Samuel Lewisch, Anthony 
Walter, Jacob Welcker, George Bender, Nicholas Junt, Michael 
Hann, David Marshall, Heinrich Sil, Richard Archbold, Con- 



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48 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

rad Linck, Friedrich Marschal, Hannes Breinig, Kasper 
Mickendorf, Jacob Schraber, Daniel Matiss, Heinrich Schram, 
Peter Schelhammer, Jacob Meylin, Dewalt Macklin, Hannes 
Kostwitz, Jacob Schram, Ludwig Aterman, Hans Sil, Jacob 
Stroh, Christopher Herolt, Gerhart Tames."« 

On June 12, 1774, St. Clair writes to Governor Penn: 
"An idle report of Indians having been seen within the 
Partys, has drove them every one into some little fort or 
other — and many hundreds out of the country altogether. 
This has obliged me to call in the Partys from where they 
were posted, and have stationed them, twenty men at Turtle 
Creek, twenty at Proctor's, and twenty at Ligonier, as these 
places are now the Frontier toward the Allegheny, all that 
great Country, between that road and the river, being totally 
abandoned, except by a few who are associated with the people 
who murdered the Indian. (Wipey a friendly Indian). And 
are shut up in a small Fort on Conymack, equally afraid of 
the Indians and the officers of justice."* 

Dunmore's war lasted until 1775, when it was ended by 
the Continental Congress, and the boundary line was fixed in 
1780 as it is today .° 

It was during or prior to Dunmore's War that Fort Allen 
was built. 

The Revolution 

Notwithstanding the distractions of Indian wars and 
Dunmore's war, the people west of the Alleghenies were alive 
to the issues of the Colonies and the Mother country. The 
news of the battle of Lexington trayeled fast, but we doubt 
if the news had reached Westmoreland, before the call went 
out for a general meeting at Hannastown for May 16, 1775. 
Here, a year before the Declaration of Independence, the fol- 
lowing resolutions were adopted : 



^Burgess History of the Pittsburgh Synod, General Synod. 
^Frontier Forts. 
'^Frontier Forts, page 189. 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 49 

"Meeting of the inhabitants of Westmoreland County, 
Pennsylvania. At a general meeting of the inhabitants of the 
County of Westmoreland, held at Hanna's town the 16th day 
of May, 1775, for taking into consideration the very alarming 
situation of the country, occasioned by the dispute with 
Great Britain :"« 

"Resolved unanimously. That the Parliament of Great 
Britain, by several late acts, have declared the inhabitants of 
Massachusetts Bay to be in rebellion; and the Ministry, by 
endeavoring to enforce these acts, have attempted to reduce 
the said inhabitants to a more wretched state of slavery 
than ever before existed in any state or country. Not content 
with violating their Constitutional and Chartered privileges, 
they would strip them of the rights of humanity, exposing 
lives to the wanton and unpunishable sport of licentious 
soldiery, and depriving them of the very means of sustenance. 

"Resolved unanimously that there is no reason to doubt 
but the same system of tyranny and oppression will, should 
it meet with success in Massachusetts Bay, be extended to 
every other part of America: it is, therefore, become the 
indispensable duty of every American, of every man who has 
any public virtue or love of his country, or for posterity, 
by every means which God has put in his power, to resist and 
oppose the execution of it; that for us, we will be ready to 
oppose it with our lives, and fortunes, and the better to 
enable us to accomplish it, we will immediately form ourselves 
into a military body, to consist of companies to be made up 
out of the several townships under the following association, 
which is declared to be the Association of Westmoreland 
County. 

"We declare to the world, that we do not mean by this 
Association to deviate from that loyalty which we hold it our 
bounded duty to observe; but, animated with the love of 



^Frontier Forts. 

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50 ' History of Old Zion Evangelical 

liberty, it is no less our duty to maintain and defend our 
just rights, which with sorrow we have seen of late wantonly 
violated in many instances by a wicked Ministry and a corrupt 
Parliament, and transmit them entire to our posterity, for 
which purpose we do agree and associate together. 

"Possessed with the most unshaken loyalty and fidelity 
to His Majesty, King George the Third, whom we acknowledge 
to be our lawful and rightful King, and who we wish may 
long be the beloved sovereign of a free and happy people 
throughout the whole British Empire ; we declare to the world 
that we do not mean by this association to deviate from that 
loyalty which we hold it to be our bounden duty to observe ; 
but, animated with the love of liberty, it is no less our duty 
to maintain and defend our just rights (which with sorrow, 
we have seen of late wantonly violated in many instances by 
a wicked Ministry and a corrupt Parliament) and transmit 
them entire to our posterity, for which purposes we do agree 
and associate together. 

"1. To arm and form ourselves into a regiment or regi- 
ments, and choose officers to command us. 

2. We will with alacrity, endeavor to make ourselves 
masters of the manuel exercise, and such evolutions as shall 
be necessary to enable us to act in a body with concert; and 
to that end we will meet at such times and places as shall be 
appointed, either for the companies or regiment, by the offi- 
cers commanding each when chosen. 

3. That should our country be invaded by a foreign 
enemy, or should troops be sent from Great Britain to en- 
force the late arbitrary acts of Parliament, we will cheerfully 
submit to a military discipline, and to the utmost of our power, 
resist and oppose them, or either of them, and will coincide 
with any plan that may be formed for the defense of America 
in general or Pennsylvania in particular. 



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Lutheran Chu|Ch, Greensburg, Pa. 51 

4. That we do not desire any innovation, but only that 
things may be restored to, and go on in the same way as be- 
fore the era of the Stamp Act, when Boston grew great and 
America was happy. As a proof of this disposition, we will 
quietly submit to the laws by which we have been accustomed 
to be governed before that period, and will^ in our several 
or associate capacities, be ready when called on to assist the 
civil magistrates in carrying the same into execution. 

5. That when the British Parliament shall ' have re- 
pealed their late obnoxious statutes, and shall recede from 
their claim to tax us, and make laws for us in every instance, 
or when some general plan of union or reconciliation has been 
formed and accepted by America, this, our association, shall 
be dissolved; but till then, it shall remain in full force; and 
to the observation of it we bind ourselves by everything dear 
and sacred amongst men. No licensed murder; no famine 
introduced by law. 

Resolved, That on Wednesday, the 24th instant, the town- 
ship meet to accede to the said association and choose their 
officers."^ 

Some investigators have denied the authenticity of these 
resolutions, but there is nothing in them that need disturb 
the equanimity of the historian. It is clear, from the docu- 
ment itself, that the "meeting" had no news of the battle of 
Lexington. The phrases "No licensed murder" refers to the 
Boston massacre, and "No famine introduced by law" refers 
to the closing of the Port of Boston. This meeting and reso- 
lutions are the result of the work of the "Committees of 
Correspondence" with headquarters, doubtless, at Boston. It 
seems that the "Committee of Correspondence" had sent about 
the same request and information to many other places 
throughout the land. A similar meeting was called at Pitts- 
burg on the same day. May 16, 1775.® "At Hanover, Pa., the 

'Boucher, page 124. ^Border Warfare in Pennsylvania, page 43. 

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52 History of Old ZiON Evangelical 

Scotch-Irish and German borderers resolved among other 
things *that in the event of Great Britain attempting to force 
unjust laws upon us by the strength of arms, our cause we 
leave to Heaven and our Rifles'." 

On June 16, 1774, a meeting took place at Woodstock, 
Va., Rev. Peter Muehlenberg, Lutheran pastor, presided and 
afterwards was Chairman of the Committee on Resolutions. 
"Rev. Muehlenberg was an intimate friend of Patrick Henry 
and Colonel George Washington. With the former he laid 
deep plans of sedition ; with the latter he shot bucks in the 
Blue Ridge Mountains." 

The following extracts show the spirit pervading the 
resolutions. 

"That we will pay due submission to such acts of govern- 
ment as His Majesty has a right by law to exercise over his 
subjects, and to such only. 

That it is the inherent right of British subjects to be 
governed and taxed by representatives chosen by them- 
selves only, and that every act of the British Parliament 
respecting, the internal policy of American is a dangerous and 
unconstitutional invasion of our rights and privileges. 

That the enforcing the execution of said acts of Parlia- 
ment by a military power will have a necessary tendency to 
cause a civil war, thereby dissolving that union, which has 
so long happily subsisted between the mother country and 
her colonies ; and that we will most heartily and unanimously 
concur with our suffering brethren in Boston and every other 
part of North America, who are the immediate victims of 
tyranny, in promoting all proper measures to avert such 
dreadful calamities, to procure redress of our grievances, and 
to secure our common liberties."® 

The Committee of safety and correspondence appointed 
for the county consisted of Peter Muehlenberg, Chairman, 



oPaust, page 292. 

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Lutheran ^hjjkch, Greensburg, Pa. 53 

Francis Slaughter, Abraham Bird, T. Beale, J. Tipton, and 
Abraham Bowman. 

Similar resolutions were adopted in Virginia as follows : 
Fredericksburg, June 1. Prince William County, June 8, 
1775. 

"The Mecklenburg, North Carolina, Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, so called, was written May 20 and adopted May 31, 
1775. This declaration is said not to imply, complete inde- 
pendence of Great Britain."^^ 

The militia raised by means of these Associations was 
called "Associators." Doubtless the Minute Men of Lexing- 
ton and Concord belonged to the same general organization as 
the Associators. Hence, we see that the Hanna'stown meet- 
ing, was but a part of the work of the Committee of Corres- 
pondence and part of a widespread movement. Nor does the 
Hanna'stown document go as far and express the funda- 
mental issues as clearly, as the Woodstock document. 

Who wrote the Hanna'stown Resolutions is not known. 
Some have claimed that St. Clair wrote them, but his corres- 
pondence denies that fact and shows him rather cynical and 
unsympathetic. 

In a letter to Joseph Shippen, Jr., from Ligonier, May 18, 
1775, he says, "Yesterday, we had a county meeting and have 
come to resolutions to arm and discipline, and have formed 
an Association, which I suppose you will soon see in the pa- 
pers. God grant an end may be speedily put to any necessity 
to such proceedings. I doubt their utility, and am almost 
as much afraid of success in this contest as of being van- 
quished."^^ 

To Governor Penn, May 25th, 1775, he writes, "We have 
nothing but musters and committees all over the country, and 
everything seems to be running into the wildest confusion. If 



i*^Standard Encyclopedia. 
11 Frontier Forts. 



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54 History of Old Zioji Evangelical 

some conciliating plan is not adopted by the Congress, Ameri- 
ca has seen her golden days ; they may return, but will be pre- 
ceded by scenes of horror. An Association is formed in this 
country for defense of American Liberty. I got a clause ad- 
ded, by which they bind themselves to assist the civil magis- 
trates in the execution of the laws they have been accustomed 
to be governed by."" 

St. Clair was the representative of the Proprietors in 
this county and he evidently feared a reaction against the 
Penns as well as against the mother country. At least, he 
safeguarded his employer's interests. 

When the war was actually begun, Westmoreland men 
enlisted in the first and second Battalions of Pennsylvania 
troops, in the Third Pennsylvania Regiment, in the Pennsyl- 
vania Rifle Regiment, in the Second Pennsylvania Regiment, 
and the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment.^^ This last Regiment 
was mustered at Pittsburg, 1776, for the defense of the border 
against the Indians, but was later marched to New Jersey to 
aid Washington. There were ten companies which numbered 
681 soldiers in all. Captain David Kilgore's company had 58 
men ; Captain Samuel Miller's had 85 ; Captain Van Swearin- 
gen's had 74; Captain Joseph Piggott's had 59; Captain Wen- 
del Ourry's had 59; Captain Andrew Mann's 62; Captain 
James Montgomery's 59; Captain Michael Huffnagle's 74; 
Captain John Finley's 79; and Captain Basil Prather's 73.** 

After more than a year's service in the east, the Eighth 
Regiment was sent back to Pittsburgh to defend the border.*^ 
Westmoreland men served in nearly all the campaigns from 
Quebec to Georgia. Wherever, during the Revolution, we 
read of "Riflemen," there we may expect to find the Ger- 
man and Swiss, for the rifle was a weapon introduced into 



^2Frontier Forts. 
^^Boucher, Vol. I, page 139. 
^*Boucher, Vol. I, page 138. 
i^Boucher, Vol. I, page 138. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 55 

America -by them and none ever surpassed these hardy pio- 
neers in the accuracy of its use. 

There are several interesting features of the Revolution- 
ary War that we should know. The first is that Washington's 
bodyguard was made up of Germans. There had been sus- 
pects in the first bodyguard and plots to seize the person of 
the Commander-in-chief. On the advice of Washington's pri- 
vate secretary and adjutant, Reed, who was of German descent, 
a troop was formed consisting entirely of Germans, called the 
Independent Troop of Horse, and placed under the command 
of Major Barth. Van Heer, a Prussian, who had served as 
cavalry Lieutenant under Frederick the Great in the Seven 
Year's War. Van Heer recruited most of his men in the 
Pennsylvania German counties, Berks and Lancaster. They 
began to serve in the spring of 1778, and were honorably dis- 
charged at the end of the war, twelve of them serving longer 
than any other American soldiers, having the honor of escort- 
ing the Commander-in-Chief to his home at Mount Vernon. 
These twelve men each received presents of arms, accoutre- 
ments, and a horse, as we learn from a written record in the 
possession of the family of one of the twelve, Ludwig Boyer 
(or Beyer). In the pension lists of 1828, a number of names 
of soldiers belonging to Van Heer's troop (fourteen officers 
and fifty-three men) are given. Boyer was granted a pension, 
one hundred pounds annually; Jacob Fox (Fuchs), who had 
lost his discharge, brought as witness two former comrades, 
Burckhardt and Trischer, who swore that they had belonged 
to Van Heer's corps and that that troop was the bodyguard 
of Washington. 

Colonel John Johnson, by birth an Irishman, president 
of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio and per- 
sonal friend of Washington, said that not a single officer or 
soldier of this troop understood a word of English and that it 



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56 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

was commanded by Major Van Heer, a Prussian.^® The 
descendents of Ludwig Boyer lived in Piqua, Ohio, and he 
doubtless came west after the war. The Boyers and Fuchs 
were familiar names in our settlement. 

Another incident not generally known is the presence of 
German troops at Yorktown, both with the Americans and 
with the French. Under Rochambeau served the Royal Ger- 
man Regiment of Zweibruecken, a battalion of grenadiers of 
Kur-Trier of the Regiment Saar. Several divisions of Alsa- 
tians and Lotharingians, and the "Independent Horse" legion. 

Nelson's company of Westmoreland riflemen fought at 
Germantown, Brandywine, Monmouth, Stony Point, and 
Yorktown, with General Wayne. This Second Pennsylvania 
Regiment fought with St. Clair in Canada. The Third Penn- 
sylvania Regiment was with Wayne at Yorktown. At the 
siege of Yorktown, Baron Steuben was the only American 
officer who had ever been present at a siege. He had served 
under Frederick the Great and gave up a lucrative position in 
order to volunteer his services to Congress. He became the 
organizer, drill-master, and Inspector-General of Washing- 
ton's army, and his tactics and discipline saved Washington's 
army at Monmouth, where the familiar voice of Steuben ral- 
lied General Lee's retreating division. His discipline saved 
Lafayette's army in Virgina. He literally created an army for 
General Greene in the South. Steuben was in command in 
the trenches when the British raised the white flag at York- 
town. Steuben'§ brigade consisted of Wayne's Pennsylvania 
Regiment, Muehlenberg's Virginians, and Gist's Marylanders, 
the brigade being at least one-half German.^^ 

The last principal British redoubt was stormed by Prince 
Wilhelm von Zweibruecken and his grenadiers and yagers. 
This redoubt was defended by the Hessians, and it is reliably 
reported that "commands were given in the German language 



^«Faust, Vol. I, page 299. ^^Faust, Vol. I, page 348. 

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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 57 

on either side when the redoubt was captured."^® "After 
Steuben had received the first overture of peace from Corn- 
wallis, Lafayette requested that he be permitted to supersede 
Steuben, but the latter, knowing that by the etiquette of 
military custom he was entitled to the place until the surren 
der, referred the matter to Washington. Washington decided 
in favor of Steuben. The latter was not impelled by personal 
vanity, nor did the Prussian feel antagonistic to the French- 
man, but he possessed a large measure of pride in his Ameri- 
cans. He wanted the American Soldiery, his pupils in military 
tactics and discipline, to be honored as the recipients of the 
enemy's suit of surrender." In our cemeteries lie the mortal 
remains of brave men who saw the British raise the white 
flag at Yorktown and who rejoiced in the honor that fell to 
Steuben's American brigade. 



isPaust, Vol. I, page 347, 348. 



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58 History of Old Zion Evangelical 



CHAPTER VI 
The Red Revolutionary War 

While the Americans and British were fighting in a more 
or less civilized fashion along the seaboard, the red allies of 
the British, and the British themselves, were fighting a savage 
war on the frontiers. 

"During the summer of 1777 occurred the violent and 
atrocious outbreak of the savages, instigated by the British in 
order to harass the frontiers and to divert the attention of these 
people from the contest of the east -to the defense of their own 
hearths, and from now on to the close of the war this frontier 
knew no peace."^ , 

"Gov. Hamilton, at Detroit, to whom the entire manage- 
ment of frontier affairs had been entrusted, was ordered by 
Guy Carleton, October 6th, 1776, to enlist the Indians and 
have them ready for spring. The purpose of this attack on 
the frontier was to weaken the main army of the 'Rebels* and 
facilitate the operations of Howe and Burgoyne. Hamilton 
was fully aware of the importance of his part and played it 
well. He soon asquired the hatred of the 'buckskins,' who 
held him in abhorence, and nicknamed him the 'hair-buyer' 
general. That he deserved this name is disputed; but scalps 
were bought and paid for at Detroit. There is an account of 
an Indian, who, by dividing a large scalp into two, got $50.00 
for each half at Detroit.''- "Franklin in his list of twenty- 
six British atrocities, gives the 10th and 14th as — 



^Frontier Forts. 

^Border Warfare, page 68. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 59 

*The King of England, giving audience to his Secretary 
of War, who presents him a schedule entitled Accouiit of 
Scalps; which he receives very graciously/ 

*The commanding officer at Niagara, sitting in state, a 
table before him, his soldiers and savages bring him scalps of 
the Wyoming families and presenting them. Money on the 
table with which he pays for them.*^ 

The following is an inventory of scalps taken by the 
Seneca Indians, which accidentally fell into American hands. 
Lot 1 — forty-three scalps of soldiers of Congress killed in 
battle, also sixty-two scalps of farmers who had been killed in 
their houses. 

Lot 2 — Ninety-eight scalps of farmers killed in their 
houses, surprised by day, not by night as the first lot. The red 
color applied to the hoops of wood, which were used to stretch 
the scalp, indicated the difference. 

Lot 3 — Contained ninety-seven scalps of farmers killed in 
their fields, diflferent colors denoting whether killed by toma- 
hawk or rifle ball. 

Lot A — Contained one hundred and two scalps of farmers, 
most of them young men. 

Lot 5 — Contained eighty-eight scalps of women, those with 
blue hoops cut from the heads of mothers. 

Lot 6 — Contained one hundred and ninety-three scalps of 
boys of diflferent ages killed with clubs or hatchets, some with 
knives or bullets. 

Lot 7 — Contained two hundred and eleven scalps of girls, 
lar^e and small, and 

Lot 8 — One hundred and twenty-two scalps of various 
kinds, among them twenty-nine babes's scalps, carefully 
stretched on small white hoops. 



^Border Warfare, page 69. 



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60 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

The entire bundle including the total, of 1,062 scalps, fell 
into the hands of a New England expedition against the In- 
dians, and a prayer was found, addressed to the British gover- 
nor (Haldimond) — "Father, we wish that you send these 
scalps to the Great King that he may look at them and be 
refreshed at their sight, recognize our fidelity, and be con- 
vinced that his presents have not been bestowed upon a thank- 
less people."* 

The Senecas were one of the tribes of the Six Nations. 
It is thought that Kiashuta, a head chief of the Senecas, led 
the Indian attack at Hanna'stown. He was also in Pontiac's 
conspiracy. 

The Senecas occupied Western New York and the upper 
Allegheny region. 

The British Government took the initiative in oflFering pre- 
miums for scalps, for it was not until 1780 that Pennsylvania 
offered $1,000.00 for every Indian scalp. This was to en-- 
courage scouts, rangers, and militia to invade the Indian terri- 
tory and thus relieve the frontier. This was a dangerous plan, 
as is seen in the case of Williamson and his gang when they 
murdered the Christian Indians in Ohio ^o obtain the bounty 
for their scalps in 1782. 

The bounty frequently led to the slaughter of friendly 
Indians, thus the "roughnecks" of the border frequently 
brought shame and counter-attacks upon the honest settlers of 
the frontier. "On this question, Colonel Broadhead, in a let- 
ter to President Reed, (of Pennsylvania) says that about 
forty friendly Delaware Indians had come to assist the white 
settlers in the frontier war, and that a party of about forty 
white men from the region of Hanna's town attempted to 
destroy them, and were only prevented from doing so by his 
soldiers. He says in the same letter that he could have 
gotten one hundred Indians to join him, had it not been for 



^Faust, Vol. I, page 316. 

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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 61 

such open enmity as was evinced by these men from Hannahs 
town. Among the Hanna's town party were Captains Irwin 
and Jack, Lieutenant Brownlee, and Ensign Guthrie." This 
enmity was the cause of Brownlee^s death, when captured 
at Fort Miller. When inadvertently, his name was men- 
tioned by a fellow captive, the Indians immediately toma- 
hawked him. *']udge Wilkinson, in the American Pioneer, 
says the scalp bounty law was brought into disrepute by killing 
friendly Indians to sell their scalps."^ Another factor that 
increased the sufferings of the settlers in Westmoreland Coun- 
ty in those revolutionary days was the constant bickering, 
contention, and playing politics among the military com- 
manders at Fort Pitt and the counties surrounding. 'Tresi- 
dent Reed in a letter to Lochry, says, *It is with much 
concern that we hear that when troops are raised for your 
protection, they are permitted to loiter away their time in 
taverns or straggling about the country.'® There were 
charges of misappropriation of supplies, and rather frequent 
changes in commanders. President Reed disapproved of re- 
taining the troops at Hannastown and asked that they be sent 
where they could be of more service. Lieutenant Lochry built 
a magazine and blockhouse on his own farm in Unity Town- 
ship to keep the army stores and ammunition. He either did 
not fully trust the garrisons with its right use, or was provid- 
ing for his own safety. President Reed disapproved of his 
plan and directed that the stores and munitions should be kept 
in the garrisons. 

In November, 1777, Archibald Lochry, county Lieutenant 
of Westmoreland, writes to President Wharton as follows: 
"The distressed situation of our country is such, that we have 
no prospect but desolation and destruction. The whole country 
on the north side of the road (Forbes road) from the Alle- 



^Boucher, Vol. I, page 147. 

^Boucher, Vol. I, page 149. History of Westmoreland County. 



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62 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

gheny Mts. to the river is all kept close in forts; and can get 
no subsistance from their plantations ; they have made applica- 
tion to us requesting to be put under pay and receive rations, 
and as we could see no other way to keep the people from flying 
and letting the country be evacuated, we were obliged to adopt 
these measures (requesting your Excellency to give the neces- 
sary orders to enable us to put them in execution) — if these 
very measures are not adopted, I see no other method that can 
secure the people from giving up the country. These people, 
while they support these frontiers, are certainly serving the 
public, and certainly cannot continue long so to do unless sup- 
ported by the public."^ 

In 1778 an attack was made upon Hannastown at which 
time Eve Ourry (Uhrig) saved the fort. "Eve Oury was 
granted a special pension of forty dollars per year by Act of 
April 1, 1846. The act itself recites that it was granted for 
heroic bravery and risking her life in defense of the gaTrison 
of Hannastown Fort in 1778, when it was attacked by a large 
number of Indians, and that by her fortitude, she performed 
efficient service in driving away the Indians, and thus saved the 
inmates from a horrid butchery by the merciless and savage 
foe."* She was a daughter of Francis Oury (Uhrig) and died 
at Shieldsburg, in 1848, and is buried at Congruity. 

"Colonel Lochry writes to President Reed, May 1, 1779, 
that not less than forty people had been killed, wounded, and 
captured that spring, and that the enemy had killed people 
within three hundred yards of Hannahs town." 

"It was on March 28, 1778, that Alexander McKee, 
Matthew Elliott, and Simon Girty fled from the vicinity of 
Fort Pitt to the enemy and incited the Indians against the 
settlers. These three renegades afterwards proved themselves 



^Frontier Forts. 

^Boucher, Vol. I, page 170. 

^Border Warfare, page 104. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 63 

active servants of the British Government, bringing untold 
misery to the frontiers, not only while the Revolution con- 
tinued, but throughout the Indian War which followed that 
struggle."^** 

Under date of June 25th, 1779, Col. Broadhead reports 
that "Captain Brady with twenty white men and one young 
Delaware Chief (all well painted) set out toward the Seneca 
country and some of the Indian warriors came in to the in- 
habitants. They killed a soldier between Forts Crawford and 
Hand, and proceeded towards the Sewickley settlement where 
they killed a woman and four children and took two children 
prisoners. "^^ 

This is doubtless the official account of the Henry 
Massacre. 

The Henry Massacre 

The attack on the Henry (Heinrich) home has often been 
rehearsed in our hearing. The scene of the tragedy was within 
sight of the author's boyhood home. The little cemetery on 
the hillside on the John G. Miller farm contains the earthly 
remains of the Henry family. We can still trace the sight of 
the burned cabin upon the freshly ploughed land. The story 
is as follows: 

Frederick Henry (Heinrich), of Northampton, Burlington 
County, New Jersey, settled, shortly after 1770, in the Herold 
settlement, about two miles north of the schoolhouse (now the 
John G. Miller farm; the A. M. Zundel farm and Solomon 
Bender farm were parts of the original tract). In time, the 
new settlers cleared some land and erected a house and stables. 
Four children cheered this lonely settlement. During the 
Spring of 1779, when the husband, Frederick Henry, was com- 
pelled to leave home to take some grist to a distant mill, a 



»»Frontier Forts. 

i^Frontier Forts, page 338 and Border Warfare, page 108. 



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64 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

band of Indians, perhaps Senecas, descended upon the helpless 
home. 

As was their custom, the Indians sneaked up to the house 
to ascertain if the men were home and on guard. Now, the 
Henry*s had a large cock that frequently came to the door of 
the home to be fed. Mrs. Henry, seeing some feathers moving 
near the door, sent one of the children to shoo away the big 
rooster, whereupon the Indians, decked out in the feathers of 
their war head-gear, burst in upon the helpless family. Mrs. 
Henry bravely attempted to defend her little ones, whereupon 
she was "tomahawked" and scalped in the presence of her 
small children. 

One childy seeing the Indians coming at the door, fled into 
the com field and hid among the corn, and thus escaped, the 
Indians being in a hurry, fearing the wrath of the settlers. 

The Indians now took the three children captive, and after 
firing the buildings, started on their journey toward the Indian 
country. It soon developed that the youngest child, a mere 
infant, would be too much bother to the Indians, so when it 
began to cry, a big Indian took it by its feet and dashed its 
brains out against a maple tree on the Solomon Bender farm, 
now owned by William Henry. 

This tree was held sacred by the pioneers and it stood until 
recent times (about 1900). 

The other two children were carried away. 

Immediately upon the return of Henry, a posse of settlers 
started out in pursuit of the Indians. One account relates that 
the Indians were in their camp above Pittsburgh on the Alle- 
gheny, and after a lively skirmish, the children were re- 
captured, and the murderer of the wife and child identified; 
tied to a tree, and despatched by the daughter, Anna Margaret, 
then about nine years old.^^ 



'2The eldest child recorded in Baptismal record of Frederick 
Hinrich and Catherine his wife was Sarah, born October 24, 1777. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 65 

Anna Margaret Henry married Adam Steiner in 1793 and 
her daughter, Sarah, became the wife of George Eisenmann. 

Another account agrees with the report of Col. Broadhead, 
that Captain Brady, with twenty white men and a Delaware 
Chief, effected the capture. We may surmise that when the 
neighbors of the Henry and Haines families assembled, (for 
the Haines homestead had been attacked the same time and 
two children slain. The neighborhood pathway leading from 
the Haines home to the Henry home, guiding the savages to 
unprotected Henry home) they followed the savages trail to 
the Allegheny river and there was joined by Brady and the 
Delaware Chief. Since the invasion of the Indian country was 
hazardous, the whole party disguised as Indians, followed the 
trail, and slew the Indians and captured the children. 

The Indians were sometimes more merciful than their 
savage white allies. The commander of Detroit offered bounty 
for scalps, but none for "fresh meat," i. e. live captives; hence, 
the Indians would march their captives, carrying the plunder, 
to the vicinity of Detroit and then kill the captives and take 
their scalps to the commander for bounty. The English paid 
$50.00 per scalp. 

Ofttimes the prisoners were taken to the Indian villages 
where they became the slaves of the village, unless adopted by 
some Indian. When adopted, the captives were treated well. 

When Bouquet made his campaign to the Muskingum in 
1764 he secured the release of many captives. 

"McCullough, one of the captives, in his narrative, says 
thatTlhoda Boyd and Elizabeth Studibaker escaped from the 
whites and went back to the Indians. Mary Jemison, who had 
married among them, fled with her half-breed children and hid 
until the troops left the country. One of the Virginia volun- 



Margaretta Elizabeth was born August 13, 1778. Catherine, daughter 
of Frederick Hinrich and Margaretta his wife was born February 6, 
1789. 
Grbg. 3 

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66 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

teers had lost his wife and a child two years old, in an Indian 
foray in to the settlement six months before. What transports 
filled their hearts when he met her with a babe three months 
old at her breast ! Quickly, he took her to his tent, and fur- 
nished suitable clothing for her and her babe. But, what had 
become of the two-year-old darling captured with its mother? 
She could not tell, except that it had been separated from her 
and taken elsewhere after their captivity. A few days later, a 
child was brought in which was supposed to be the one in 
question. The mother was sent for, and at first was not certain 
that it was her child, but after carefully scrutinizing it, she 
recognized its features, and was so overcome with joy that she 
dropped her young babe and, catching up the newly found child, 
she clasped it to her heart, and with a flood of tears, carried it 
off. The father, picking up the child that she had let fall, f ol- ' 
lowed his overjoyed wife and thus again the family circle was 
unbroken. The rough soldiers, and even the stolid savages 
were moved to feelings of sympathetic tenderness by such 
touches of human nature, which make the whole world of man- 
kind akin."i3 

The captives that were unidentified and claimed at Pitts- 
burgh, were taken by the volunteer soldiery to Carlisle. 

To Carlisle came Frau Hartmann, who had lost a child, a 
little daughter nine years before ; after scrutinizing the captives 
carefully, she recognized a girl as her long lost child. But the 
child had long since, in her servile captivity, forgotten even the 
face of her mother. Although the mother begged and entreated 
with all the eloquence of a mother's heart, she could not arouse 
any recognition within the maiden. The sorrowful plight of 
the mother soon camq to the ears of Bouquet whose sympathy 
was aroused, and seeking her, he spoke to her kindly and 
oflFered his help. The mother opened her heart and lamented 

^^Cort. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 67 

that the child she had so often sung to sleep would not recog- 
nize her and had forgoten her. 

Bouquet asked the mother if she could recall some melody 
that she had sung to the girl in her childhood. Frau Hartmann 
sang the old church hymn "Allein und doch nicht ganz alleine 
Bin ich in meiner Einsamkeit." The child listening intently, 
and when the words were uttered, — "G*nug, dasz bei mir, 
wann ich allein, Gott und viel tausend Engel sein," the girl 
remembered them and with a cry of recognition, she rushed 
into the arms of her devoted mother. 

The hymn, with a translation by Rev. Samuel R. Fisher, 
D.D., is as follows :^* 

Allein und doch nicht ganz alleine 
Bin ich in meiner Einsamkeit, 
Denn wann ich ganz verlassen scheine, 
Vertreibt rtiir Jesu selbst die Zeit. 
Ich bin bei Ihm, und Er bei mir, 
So kommt mir gar nicht einsam fuer. 

Alone and yet not all alone 
Am I, in solitude though drear. 
For when no one seems me to own 
My Jesus will himself be near. 
I am with Him and He with me, 
I, therefore, cannot lonely be. 

Komm ich zur Welt ; man redt von Sachen, 
So nur Eitelkeit gericht; 
Da muss sich lassen das verlachen, 
Der etwas von den Himmel spricht. 
Drum wuensch ich lieber ganz allein, 
Als bei der Welt ohn Gott zu sein. 



^Cort, page 71. 

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68 History of Oi.d Zion Evangelical 



Seek I the world? Of things they speak. 
Which are on vanity intent ; 
Here he is scorned and spurned as weak, 
Whose mind on heavenly things is bent, 
I rather would my lone way plod, 
Than share the world without my God. 

Verkehrte koennen leicht verkehren, 
Wer greifet Pech ohn kleben an ? 
Wie solt ich dann dahin begehren, 
Wo man Gott bald vergessen kann? 
Gesellschaft, die verdaechtig scheint, 
Wird oefters nach dein fall beweint. 

With ease do perverts perverts make; 
Who handles pitch his hands will soil ; 
Why then, should I with those partake. 
Who of His honor God despoil? 
Society which we suspect, 
We often afterwards reject. 

Wer wollte denn nun recht erkennen, 
Dass ich stets in Gesellschaft bin ? 
Und will die Welt mich einsam nennen, 
So thu' sie es nur immerhin. 
G'nug, dass bei mir, wann ich allein, 
Gott und viel tausend Engel sein. 

Who will not then with candor own, 
I have companions all I crave? 
And will the world still deem me lone? 
Then let it thus forever rave. 
Enough ! Tve God and angel's host. 
Whose number can its thousands boast. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 69 

The women of the border were no less heroic than the 
men. 

Maria Ludwig was the daughter of John George Ludwig 
and, as a maiden, served as a maid in Dr; William Irvine's 
family in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and was generally called 
"Molly." About the outbreak of the Revolution, she married 
William Hays. Her husband became a gunner in an artillery _ 
company and Molly returned, after a time, to serve in G^n. 
Irvine's family. She received news that her husband had been 
severely wounded, wherefore she started out to find him. She 
nursed him and after that, for seven years, she accompanied 
him from battlefield to battlefield. She was utterly fearless 
brought water and food to the soldiers, and helped to carry 
away the wounded and care for them. "Here comes Molly with 
her pitcher" was a refreshing sound in the heat of battle, that 
made her known throughout the army as Moll Pitcher. At the 
battle of Monmouth, when her husband was wounded and 
there was no assistance available for serving the cannon, she 
herself set about putting the piece in position and loading it, 
while those about her were in doubt whether to stand or to 
retreat. Rallied by her example, they continued the battle un- 
til reinforcements arrived."^^ 

Another incident shows the heroic character of the fron- 
tier woman. 

.Ebenezer Zane (Zahn) had established the first permanent 
foothold on the Ohio River in 1769, building a blockhouse on 
the present site of Wheeling. The fort was attacked in 1782 
by a band of forty British soldiers and one hundred and eighty- 
six Indians. The particular hero of the siege was Elizabeth 
Zane, sister of Ebenezer. The latter at the time lived about 
forty yards distant, in a house which was used as a magazine 
for the fort, which was left in command of Silas Zane. The 



^^Fausf, Vol. I, page 341. 

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70 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

ammunition of the fort being exhausted, it was proposed that 
one of the swiftest runners get a new supply from the maga- 
zine. Elizabeth Zane insisted on being allowed to go instead. 
"You have not one man to spare," she said, "a woman will not 
be missed in the defense of the fort.'' 

She rushed out when an opportunity presented itself, and 
reached the house. There Colonel Ebenezer Zane fastened a 
tablecloth about her waist, into which he emptied a keg of 
powder; then, with her precious burden, she succeeded in 
safely returning to the fort amid a shower of bullets, several 
of which passed through her clothes."^* 

"Among the numerous stories of heroism on the frontier 
there is none more memorable than that told of Johann Chris- 
tian Schell. He lived with his wife and six sons about three 
miles to the northeast of Fort Dayton (C^erman Flats, N.Y.) in 
what was called Schell's Bush. It was in August, 1781, when 
most settlers had retreated for safety to the forts, or to more 
easterly settlements. He decided to breast the storm relying 
upon his sure eye and strong arm. SchelFs blockhouse was 
strong, well built, at>d well adapted for defense against ordin- 
ary attacks. His house was stored with weapons and ammuni- 
tion. He was at work in the field with his sons one day when 
the enemy appeared. The two youngest sons, twins eight years 
of age, could not follow their father and elder brothers fast 
enough, and were taken captive and dragged off to Canada. 
It was two o'clock in the afternoon when about forty-eight 
Indians and sixteen Tories attacked the house. Their leader 
was Donald MacDonald. While Schell and his four sons shot 
off their rifles, his wife reloaded them. Almost every shot hit 
its mark, but the enemy were so numerous as not to feel their 
losses. Finally MacDonald himself succeeded in reaching the 
door, which he tried to pry open with a lever. During the at- 



'"Faust, Vol. I, page 419. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 71 

tempt, he was shot in the leg. Quick as a flash, Schell unbolted 
the door and pulled the wounded Captain into his house. This 
success rescued the besieged from the danger of fire, for 
MacDonald would in such an event, have been burned also. 
MacDonald's ammunition also fell into the hands of Schell, 
which was fortunate, for he had only a few shots left. The 
last effort of the enemy having failed, the brave family were 
giyen a respite from their bloody labors. While father and 
sons were getting their rifles ready for another attack, the 
mother began to sing the battle hymn of the Reformation 
"Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott." "A mighty fortress is our 
God." The men fell in and Luther's martial hymn echoed 
through the woods with tremendous power. 

Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, 

Ein gute Wehr und Waffen; 

Er hilft uns frei aus aller Not, 

Die uns jetzt hat betroffen. 

Der alt boese Feind 

Mit Ernst er's jetzt meint ; 

Grosz Macht und viel List 

Sein grausam Ruestung ist ; 

Auf Erd ist nicht sein's gleichen. 

A mighty fortress is our God, 
A trusty shield and weapon; 
He helps us free from every need 
That hath us now overtaken. 
The old bitter foe 
Means us deadly woe; 
Deep guile and great might 
Are his dread arms in fight 
On earth is not his equal. 

Mit unsVer Macht ist nichts getan ; 
Wir sind gar bald verloren. 



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72 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Es streit't fuer uns der rechte Mann, 

Den Gott hat selbst erkoren. 

Fragst du, wer der ist? 

Er heiszt Jesus Christ. 

Der Herr Zebaoth 

Und ist kein ander Gott; 

Das Feld musz er behalten ! 

With might of ours can naught be done, 

Soon were our loss effected ; 

But for us fights the Valiant One 

Whom God Himself elected. 

Ask ye, Who is this ? 

Jesus Christ it is, 

Of Sabaoth Lord, 

And there's none other God; 

He holds the field forever. 

Und wenn die Welt voU Teufel waer, 

Und wollt' uns gar verschlingen, 

So fuerchten wir uns nicht so sehr, 

Es soil uns doch gelingen. 

Der Fuerst dieser Welt, 

Wie sau'r er sich stellt, 

Thut er uns doch nicht; 

Das macht, er ist gericht*; 

Ein Woertlein kann ihn faellen! 

Though devils all the world should fill 
All watching to devour us. 
We tremble not, we fear no ill. 
They cannot overpower us. 
This world's prince may still 
Scowl fierce as he will. 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 73 

He can harm us none, 

He's judged, the deed is done 

One little word overthrows him. 

Das Wort sie sollen lassen stahn 

Und kein'n Dank dazu haben; 

Er ist bei uns wohl auf dem Plan 

Mit seinem Geist und Gaben. 

Nehmen sie den Leib, 

Gut, Ehr', Kind und Weib, 

Lasz fahren dahin! 

Sie haben's kein'n Gewinn ; 

Das Reich musz uns doch bleiben ! 

(Dr. Martin Luther.) 

The Word they still shall let remain 

And not a thank have for it, 

He's by our side upon the plain, 

With His good gifts and Spirit. 

Take they then our life, 

Goods, fame, child and wife; 

When their worst is done, 

They yet have nothing won, 

The Kingdom ours remaineth. 

(Authorized English translation. Church Book.) 
This hymn inspired them to renewed effort. "The Tories 
and Indians now pushed some of their guns through the shot- 
holes of the house, at a moment when the men had withdrawn 
to load. The courageous mother, seeing the danger, seized an 
axe and struck it upon the guns, bending the barrels, and giv- 
ing her men time to reload. Darkness soon set in, and the 
besieged family sang with lusty voices as if they were con- 
fident relief were coming from Fort Dayton. The attacking 
party, not being able to see through the woods, and discouraged 
by the loss of their leader, withdrew into the forest, taking 



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74 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

with them the two youngest sons of Schell. During the night, 
the latter with his family wisely withdrew to Fort Dayton. 
The next morning, MacDonald was brought into the fort and 
remained a hostage for the two sons. This courageous defense, 
with its inspiring singing, stands out as one of the bright spots 
in the long tale of suffering which the Mohawk settlers were 
called to endure. Not always was bravery so well rewarded. 
Even Scheir himself, a year later, died from the effects of a 
wound received from another marauding party of Indians."^^ 

Such were the dangers our forefathers had to meet. 

In the summer of 1781 occurred the illfated Clark expedi- 
tion into the Ohio country against the Indians. In this expedi- 
tion. Col. Lochry and many of his company of Westmoreland 
men lost their lives. 

The disasterous Crawford Expedition against Sandusky 
, occurred in 1782. 

On the 13th of July, 1782, a party of about one hundred 
and fifty Indians and white renegades among whom was the 
Renegade Connolly (Shimmel places the total enemy strength 
at 300 Indians and 60 Tories^^ attacked Hanna's town and 
Millers station. At Hanna's town, the alarm was given in time 
so that the people fled to the Fort. The few huts in the vil- 
lage were burned, but the Fort under the leadership of 
Michael Huffnagle held out. A part of the enemy force went 
to Millers station and surprised a wedding party and took 
the station and many prisoners. 

From a historian's viewpoint, we cannot refrain from an 
explanation regarding all the historical accounts of the burning 
of Hanna'stown that we have ever seen. 

Why are certain men written into the story in capital letters 
and others in six-point type, as it were ? Why hesitate to give 
Michael Huffnagle the credit for his leadership at that time? 



i^Faust, Vol. I, page 318. 
^^Border Warfare, page 139, 



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Lutheran Church, Greensbukg, Pa. 75 

In reading the histories of the times, one is amazed to find 
certain nationalities written up and others downward. Doubt- 
less, the Scotch-Irish deserve great credit for their work on 
the frontier and elsewhere to our nation ; we would not pluck 
a laurel from their wreath of achievement, but at the same 
time, why are there so many slurring remarks thrown against 
the German element and their achievements in the early history 
of our country? From the time of John Smith at Jamestown, 
Virginia, to the present, there has been an ungallant and un- 
worthy attitude among many writers toward the achievements 
of the German, Swiss, and Scandinavian settlers in this 
country. 

This discrimination also holds as regards religions. Our 
school histories tell us of the religion of the Cavaliers and 
Puritans. They make special mention that Roger Williams 
was a Baptist, that Maryland was settled by the Catholics, New 
York by Dutch Calvinists, but what the religion of the Saltz- 
burger and of the Swedes of the Delaware was, nothing is 
said. 

Here is a sample of the treatment of the situation in the 
Province of Pennsylvania in 1776. Shimmel's Border Warfare 
in Pennsylvania, page 42 — "There were three political parties 
more or less defined, in the Province in 1775: (1) the friends 
of the existing Government, composed chiefly of the adherents 
of the Proprietaries, Royalists from conscientious opinion and 
from religious scruples, and the greater portion of the Society 
of Friends; (2) the Revolutionary or active movement party; 
(3) a class of men, earnestly devoted to the cause of the Colo- 
nies, but more or less anxious for reconciliation. The first and 
third were greatly in the majority. The first comprised the 
Quakers, who, with the Proprietary party, at that time con- 
trolled the Assembly. The Getmans, from a sense of gratitude 
to Penn for their homes and liberties, acted with the Quakers. 
The third party comprised nearly all of those who were recog- 



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76 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

nized as the political leaders of the day — Franklin, Dickinson, 
Reed, Morris, Mifflin, McKean, Clymer, and others. The 
second class were the Scotch-Irish, but they were far removed 
from the seat of the Government, and before the declaration of 
independence, had very little political influence." 

"The Quakers and the German sects were opposed to war 
on account of religious scruples. This fact had caused a bitter 
feeling against them on the part of the Scotch-Irish." 

Taking the three divisions as in the main correct, we dis- 
sent to the place assigned the German element. It is true that 
the Germans were grateful for their lands and liberties. They, 
then as now, were loyal to the "powers that be," but they never 
belonged to class one as did the Quakers and English. The 
older German settlements were whole souled with Franklin 
and his party. They were never "Tories." In the opinion of 
John Adams, in which Thomas McKean, Chief Justice of 
Pennsylvania, etc., coincided, the people of New York and 
Pennsylvania were very equally divided between the Tory and 
Democratic parties, and nearly one-third of the whole popula- 
tion of the colonies, at the time of the Revolution were Tories. 
There were very few Tories among the Germans in Pennsyl- 
vania. There were pacific sectarians, such as Mennonites, 
Quakers, Dunkards, Seventh-Day Baptists, and others, who 
were opposed to war from religious principles, but few indeed 
were Tories. 

Now Schimmel says that "before the declaration of in- 
dependence, the Scotch-Irish party (second class) had very 
little political influence." Who, then, influenced Pennsylvania 
to become the keystone state in Independence? Was it the 
Tory party ? No. The Quakers and pacific sects ? No. Then 
the Germans, after all, must have been on the patriots' side. 
Muehlenberg and Schlatter were leaders for the Revolutionary 
cause. The Lutheran and Reformed churches followed their 
leadership. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 71 

In 1776 the population of Pennsylvania was 341,000. 
(Congressional census.) It is estimated (above) that one-half 
were Tories, leaving 170,500 for the patriotic cause. Hanna, 
"Scotch-Irish in North Ireland and North America," estimates^ 
the Scotch-Irish population at 100,000. Faust, German Ele- 
ment in the United States,^® accounts for at least 110,000 
Germans in population of Pennsylvania. The testimony of 
Benjamin Franklin, Dr. Rush, the historian Proud as well 
as Muehlenberg's report to Halle, all agree that the Ger- 
man population of Pennsylvania in 1775 was at least one- 
third of the whole. Now, if we accept the statements of 
the historians that one-half the population of Pennsylvania was 
Tory, that the Scotch-Irish had little influence before 1775, then 
it remains that it was the German element that swung the old 
Keystone State into the arch of Liberty. 

We think John Adams's estimate that one-half the popula- 
tion were Tories is entirely too high. In the heat of conflict, 
doubtless the Quakers and German pacific sects were rated as 
tories, on the principle that "he that is not with me is against 
me" in arms. As stated above, there were some Germans who, 
for religious reasons, were opposed to war, but who performed 
pacific duties such as raising grain, etc., but there were very 
few German Tories. Here on the frontier we read of no 
German renegade Tories among the Indians, while the roll of 
renegades and Tories, — Girty, Elliot, McKee, Butler, Mac 
Donald, Connoley, Croghan, Guy Johnson, John Gibson, and 
others, attest to the fact that not all English and Scotch-Irish 
settlers were Patriots. 

Dr. Shimmers classification would lead us to infer that the 
Scotch-Irish were the Revolutionary party and that the Ger- 
mans belonged to the party desiring reconciliation. Upon this 
basis, the Scotch-Irish had little influence in the famous Han- 



leVol. II, page 285. 

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.•"8 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

nastown Resolutions and the other Resolutions at Hanover and 
Woodstock, for these resolutions explicitly state the principle 
of reconciliation; and queer enough, at each meeting the Ger- 
mans were an important factor. The statements, frequently 
made, that the Scotch-Irish were the frontiersmen of America, 
exclusive of the Germans, is but the fiction of over-zealous 
partisan writers. The same influences that brought the one 
group brought the other also, namely, cheap lands and inde- 
pendence. 

On June 22, 1782, about a month before the burning of 
Hannastown,- a meeting was held at Fort Walthour and a 
petition sent to General Irvine, then commander at Fort Pitt. 
The petition states "That since the commencement of the pres- 
ent war, the unabated fury of the savages hath been so par- 
ticularly directed against us, that we are at last, reduced to such 
a degree of despondency and distress, that we are now ready 
to sink linder the insupportable pressure of this very great 

calamity That the season of our harvest is now fast 

approaching, in which we must endeavor to gather in our 
scanty crops, or otherwise subject ourselves to another calami- 
ty equally terrible to that of the spalping-knife . . . and from 
fatal experience, our fears suggest to us every misery that has 
usually accompanied that season. . . . 

Wherefore, we humbly pray for such an augmentation of 
our guard through the course of the harvest-season as will 
enable them to render us some essential service. . . . 

And, as we have hitherto been accustomed to the protec- 
tion of the continental troops during the harvest-season we 
further pray, that we may be favored with a guard of your 

soldiers, if it is not inconsistent with other duties enjoined on 
you."2o 



20Frontier Forts. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, F,a. 79 

A small force of continentals was stationed at Turtle 
Creek. These were intended to protect all that settlement 
round about. The petition was signed by the following : 

"George, Chrisopher, Joseph, and Michael Waldhauer, 
Abraham and Joseph Studebedker, Michael and Jacob Byerly, 

John and Jacob Ruthdorf , Frederick Williard, 

Wiesskoph, Abram Schneider, Peter and Jacob Loutzenheiser, 
Hanover Davis, Conrad Zulten, Garret Pendegrast, and John 
Kammerer."^^ 



2iWashington Irving Correspondence — Butterfield, pages 300-301, 
quoted from Cort. Col. Henry Bouquet and His Campaigns. 



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History of Old 2ion Evancelical 



CHAPTER VII 

Forts and Blockhouses 

This chapter is taken largely from Frontier Forts by 
Albert. 

Walthour's Fort 

Walthour's Fort was located eight miles west of Greens- 
burg on the turnpike to Pittsburgh, twenty-three miles east 
of Pittsburgh and four miles south of Harrison City. It was 
built on the farm of Christopher Waldhour. Christopher and 
his brother George Waldhour, the Studebakers, Kunkles, 
Byerlys, Williards, Irwins, Hibergers, Wentlings, Bauchmans, 
Gongawares, Fritchmans, Buzzards, Kifers, etc., belonged to 
that settlement. 

"It would appear that the region about this fort suffered 
most during the seasons 1781-1782, and especially just before 
the destruction of Hannastown. Many petitions, sent to Gen. 
Irvine from citizens of Washington and Westmoreland coun- 
ties, show in a clear light, the dangers and exposures of the 
border throughout this period. Of these petitions there was 
one from Brush Creek, dated June 22, 1782 (see Chapter 6) of 
which Mr. Butterfield, the erudite historian of the Western 
Department says: This petition, so unexceptionally elegant 
in diction, as well as powerfully strong and clear in the 
points stated, is signed by nineteen borderers, mostly Ger- 
mans. The document itself is in a bold and beautiful hand. 
It would be hard to find in all the Revolutionary records of 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 81 

the west a more forcible statement of border troubles, in a 
few words, than this.^ 

To this Fort belongs the story of the Lame Indian^ as 
given by H. H. Brackenridge. 

"In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, about the year 1782, one 
evening just at twilight, there was found sitting in a porch, 
an Indian with a light pole in his hand. He spoke in broken 
English to the person of the house who first came out, and 
asked for milk. The person (a girl) ran in and returning 
with others of the family, they came to see what it was that 
had something like the appearance of a human skeleton. He 
was to the last degree emaciated, with scarcely the semblence 
of flesh upon his bones. One of his limbs had been wounded ; 
and it had been on one foot and by the help of the pole that he 
had made his way to this place. Being questioned, he ap- 
peared too weak to give an account of himself, but asked for 
milk, which was given him, and word sent to the commanding 
officer of the garrison at that place (Gen. William Irvine), 
who sent a guard and had him taken to the garrison; after 
having had food and now being able to give some account of 
himself, he was questioned by the interpreter (Joseph Nichol- 
son). He related that he had been on Beaver river trapping, 
and had a difference with a Mingoe Indian who had shot him 
in the leg, because he had said he wished to come to the 
white people. Being told that he must tell the truth, and that 
in doing so he would fare the better, he gave the following 
account, to-wit : 

That he was one of a party who had struck the settlement 
in the last moon, and attacked a fort and killed some and 
took some prisoners. 

* This appeared to be a fort known by the name of Wal- 
thour's fort by the account which he gave, which is at the 



^Washington Irving Cor., page 301. 
*2Frontier Forts, page 363. 



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82 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

distance of twenty-three miles from the town on the Pennsyl- 
vania road towards Philadelphia, and within eight miles of 
what is now called Greensburg. He stated that it was there 
that he received his wound. 

The fact was that the old man Walthour, his daughter, 
and two sons were at work in the field, having their guns 
at some distance and which they seized, on the appearance 
of the Indians, and made towards the fort. This was one of 
these stockades or blockhouses to which a few families of 
the neighborhood collected in times of danger, and going to 
their fields in the day, returned at night to this place of 
security. 

These persons in the field were pursued by the Indians 
and the young woman taken. The old man with his sons kept 
up a fire as they retreated and had got to the distance of about 
a hundred yards from the fort when the old man fell. An 
Indian had got upon him and was about to take his scalp, 
when one in the fort directing his rifle, fired upon the Indian 
who made a horried yell and made off, limping on one foot. 
This was in fact the very Indian, as it now appeared that had 
come to the town. He confessed the fact, and said, that on 
the party with which he was, being pursued, he had hid him- 
self in the bushes a few yards from the path, along which the 
people from the fort in pursuit of them came. After the mis- 
chief was done, a party of our people had pursued the Indians 
to the Allegheny river, tracing their course, and had found 
the body of the young woman whom they had taken prisoner, 
but had tomahawked and left. The Indian, as we have said, 
continuing his story to the interpreter, gave us to understand 
that he lay three days without moving from the place where 
he first threw himself into the bushes, until the pursuit might 
be over, lest he should be tracked ; that after this he had got 
along on his hands and feet, until he found this pole in the 
marsh, which he had used to assist him, and in the meantime 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 83 

had lived on berries and roots; that he had come to a post 
some distance from here, where a detachment of soldiers were 
stationed and thought of giving himself up, and lay all day 
on a hill above the place thinking whether he would or not, 
but seeing that they were all militia men and no regulars, 
he did not venture. The Indians knew well the distinction 
between regulars and militia, and from these last, they ex- 
pected no quarter. 

The post of which he spoke was about twelve miles from 
Pittsburgh on the Pennsylvania road at the crossing of what 
is called Turtle Creek. It was now thirty-eight days since 
the affair of Walthour's fort and during that time this miser- 
able creature had subsisted on plants and roots and had made 
his way on one foot by the help of a pole. According to his 
account, he had first attempted a course to his own country 
by crossing the Allegheny river, a considerable distance above 
the town, but strength failing to accomplish this, he had 
wished to gain the garrison where the regular troops were; 
having been to this place before the war ; and, in fact, he was 
now known to some of the garrison by the name of Davy. 
I saw the Indian in the garrison after his confession, some 
days, and was struck with the endeavors of the creature to 
conciliate good will by smiling and affecting placability and a 
friendly disposition. 

The question was now what to do with him. From the 
mode of war carried on by the savages, they are not entitled 
to the law of nations. But are we not bound by the laws of 
nature, to spare those that are in our power; and does not 
our right to put to death cease, when an enemy ceases to 
have it in his power to injure us? This diable boiteux, or 
devil on two sticks, as they may be called — his leg and his 
pole — would not seem likely to come to war again. 

"In the meantime the widow (Mrs. Mary Willard) of the 
man who had been killed at Walthour's fort and mother of the 



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84 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

young woman who had been taken prisoner and found toma- 
hawked, accompanied by a deputation of the people of the 
settlement, came to the garrison, and, addressing themselves to 
the commanding officer, demanded that the Indian should be 
delivered up that it might be done with him as the widow and 
mother and relations of the deceased should think proper. 
After much deliberation, and the country being greatly dis- 
satisfied that he was spared, and a great clamour prevailing 
through the settlement, it was thought advisable to let them 
take him, and he was accordingly delivered up to the militia 
of the party, which came to demand him. He was pu{ oh a 
horse and carried off with a view to take him to the spot 
where the first mischief had been done (Walthour^s fort). 
But, as they were carrying him along, his leg, the fracture of 
which by this time was almost healed, the surgeon of the 
garrison having attended it, was broken again by a fall from 
the horse which had happened some way in the carrying him. 

The intention of the people was to summon a jury of the 
country and try him, at least for the sake of form, but as 
they alleged, in order to ascertain whether he was the iden- 
tical Indian that had been of the party of Walthour's fort; 
though it was not very probable that he would have an impar- 
tial trial, there, having been a considerable prepossession 
against him. The circumstance of being an Indian would have 
been sufficient evidence to condemn him. 

The idea was, in case of a verdict against him, which 
seemed morally certain, to execute him, according to the 
Indian manner, by torture and burning. For the fate of 
Colonel William Crawford and others was at this time in the 
minds of the people, and they thought retaliation a prin- 
ciple of natural justice. But, while the jury were collecting, 
some time must elapse, that night at least; for he was brought 
to the fort, or blockhouse, in the evening. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensbukg, Pa. 85 

According, a strong guard was appointed to take care of 
him, while in the meantime, one who had been deputed sheriff 
went to summon a jury, and others to collect wood and ma- 
terials for the burning, and to fix the place, which was to be 
the identical spot where he had received his wound, while 
about to scalp the man he had shot in the field, just as he was 
raising his scalp halloo, twisting his hand in the hair of the 
head, and brandishing the scalping-knife. 

It is to be presumed that the guard may be said to be 
off their guard somewhat on account of the lameness of the 
prisoner and the seeming impossibihty that he could escape; 
but so it was, that while engaged in conversation on the 
burning, that was to take place, or by some other means in- 
attentive, he had climbed up at the remote corner of the 
blockhouse, where he was, and got to the joists, and thence 
upon the wall-plate of the blockhouse, and thence, as was 
supposed, got down on the outside between the roof and the 
wall-plate, for the blockhouse is so constructed that the 
roof overjuts the wall of the blockhouse, resting on the ends 
of the joists that protrude a foot or two beyond the wall, 
for the purpose of those within firing down upon the Indians, 
who may approach the house to set fire to it, or attempt the 
door. But, so it was that, towards morning, the Indian was 
missed, and when the jury met, there was no Indian to be 
brought before them. Search had been made by the guard 
everywhere, and the jury joined in the search, and the militia 
went out in all directions, in order to track his course and 
regain the prisoner. But no discovery could be made and 
the guard were blamed for the want of vigilence ; though some 
supposed that he had been let go on the principle of humanity 
that they might not be under the necessity of burning him. 

The search had been abandoned; but three days after- 
ward, when a lad, looking for his horses, saw an Indian with 
a pole or long stick, just getting on one of them by the help of 

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86 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

a log or trunk of a fallen tree ; he had made a bridle of bark 
as it appeared, which was on the horse's head and with which 
and his stick guiding the horse, he set off at a smart trot, 
in a direction towards the frontier of the settlement. The 
boy was afraid to discover himself, or reclaim the horse, but 
ran home and gave the alarm, on which a party in the course 
of the day was collected and set out in pursuit of the Indian. 

They tracked the horse until it was dark, and were then 
obliged to lie by; and in the morning, taking it again, they 
tracked the horse as before but found the course varied, 
taking into branches of streams to prevent pursuit and which 
greatly delayed them, requiring considerable time tracing the 
stream to find where the horse had taken the bank and come 
out; sometimes taking along hard ridges, though not di- 
rectly in his course, where the tracks of the horse could 
not be seen ; in this manner he had got on to the Allegheny 
river where they found the horse with the bark bridle, where 
he appeared to have been left but a short time before. The 
sweat was scarcely dry upon his sides; for the weather was 
warm and he appeared to have been ridden hard ; the distance 
he had come was about ninety miles. It was pf.esumed the 
Indian had swam the river, into the uninhabited (and what 
was then called the Indian) country, where it was unsafe for 
the small party that were in pursuit to follow. 

"After the war, I took some pains to inform myself 
whether he had made his way good to the Indian towns, the 
nearest of which was Sandusky, at a distance of about two 
hundred miles; but it appeared that after all his efforts, he 
had been unsuccessful and had not reached home. He had 
been drowned in the river or famished in the woods, or his 
broken limb had occassioned his death." 

The following was the order issued by Gen. Irvine : 

"You are hereby enjoined and required to take the Indian 
delivered into your charge, by my order, and carry him safe 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 87 

into the settlement of Brush Creek. You will afterwards warn 
two justices of the peace and request their attendance at such 
place as they shall think proper to appoint, with several other 
reputable inhabitants. Until this is done and their advice and 
direction had in the matter, you are, at your peril, not to hurt 
him nor suffer any person to do it. Given under my hand at 
Fort Pitt, July 21, 1782. 

To Joseph Studibaker, Frances Birely, Henry Willard and 
Frederick Willard." 

Rugh's Blockhouse 

Michael Rugh came to Westmoreland in 1772 from North- 
ampton County, Pennsylvania. He early built a large two- 
story log house a little south of the present barn and a 
little above the spring on the farm of John Rugh, about two 
miles south of Greensburg and near the County Home. 

Michael Rugh was a man of some prominence, especially 
in the latter part of the Revolution. He was elected coro- 
ner in 1781, and was also later in the same year, one of the 
commissioners of Purchases and a Common Pleas judge. 
There is an unbroken tradition of the people's fleeing to 
Rugh's Blockhouse from all the surrounding country after 
the attack on Hannastown. 

Fort Allen, Hempfield Township 

Fort Allen was the name given to a structure erected in 
"Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, between Wen- 
del Oury's and Christopher Truby's" at the same time that 
Fort Shippen, at Capt. John Proctor's, Shield's Fort, and 
others of like character were erected, that is, in the summer of 
1774. This structure was probably a stronghouse, or a block- 
house erected for the emergency and never required, so far as 
is known, for public use. It was named probably in honor of 
Andrew Allen, Esq., of the Supreme Executive Council. From 
the names of the signers (see Chapter 5), the locality was 
manifestly in the German settlement of Hempfield Township, 



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88 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

to the west of New Town (Greensburg). No other mention 
of this place by that name is found (see Rupp, West Pa. 
Appx.). All knowledge of its exact location has passed 
away.^ 

The site of Fort Allen was probably about four hundred 
yards south of the school house, slightly westward at a 
spring, on the northern slope, on the Church farm. A build- 
ing stood here at an early time. We ourselves have seen 
foundation stones and rotting logs at this location. Some 
school sessions were held here also. 

The proximity to a spring and doubtless the cleared 
ground made this location superior to the school house site, 
which was surrounded by f orrest and had no spring nearby. 

Kepple's Blockhouse 

Kepple's Blockhouse was located on the farm of Michael 
Kepple in Hempfield Township about a mile and a half from 
Greensburg on the road to Salem (Delmont P. O.). 

Stokeley's Blockhouse 

was located near Waltz's Mill. 

McDowell's Blockhouse 

was at Madison. 

Marchand's Blockhouse 

was situated on the Doctor David Marchand farm, on the 
north fork of the Little Sewickley in Millersdale, Hempfield 
Township, about four miles west of Greensburg. It was used 
during the Revolution and as a refuge against the Indians. 
Rev. Cyrus Cort writes: "It is one of the traditions of our 
family that my great grandfather, John Yost Cort, had 
charge, in perilous times, of the women and children in that 
fort." 



^Frontier Forts. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 89 

Philip Klingensmith's House 

Col. James Perry writes to President Reed from West- 
moreland County. 

"Savikley (Sewickley) July 2, 1781. This morning a 
small garrison at Philip Clingensmith's about eight miles from 
this, and four or five from Hannastown, consisting of be- 
tween twenty and thirty men, women, and children was 
destroyed; only three made their escape. The particulars I 
cannot well inform you, as the party that we sent to bury 
the dead are not yet returned and I wait every moment to hear 
or perhaps see them strike at some other place. The party 
was supposed to be about seventeen, and I am apt to think 
there are still more of them in the settlements. 

The location of the fort was probably on the farm of 
Daniel Mull, Penn Township. Some think the location was on 
the North Eastern part of Jeannette. 

List of Forts and Blockhouses 

connected with the German settlement. 
Fort Ligonier. 

Wallace's Fort, erected 1774, Derry Township. 
Barr's Fort, 1769, about one mile from New Derry. 
Palmer's Fort, 1774, Fairfield Township. 
Shield's Fort, 1774, New Alexandria. 
Walthour's Fort, eight miles west of Greensburg. 
Rugh's Blockhouse, south of Greensburg. 
Fort Allen, 1774, at Harrolds. 

Kepple Blockhouse, 1^ miles north of Greensburg. 
Stockeley's Blockhouse, near Waltz's Mills. 
McDowell's Blockhouse, Madison. 
Marchand's Blockhouse, Millersdale. 
Fort Shippen, 1774, Unity Township. 
Lochry's Blockhouse, 1781, Unity Township. 
Klingensmith's House, 1770 (?) Jeannette. 
Fort Reed, Hannastown. 



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90 ?TiSTORY OF Old Zion Evangelical 



CHAPTER VIII 

Social Life of a Pioneer 

Strenuous and dangerous as were the lives of the Pio- 
neers, they had their social side with appropriate relaxation 
and amusement. 

While it was customary for each family to live on 
its own farm, there were numerous occasions when neighbor- 
ing families would unite. Partly by necessity to handle large 
logs, partly for social reasons the settlers would gather 
together for "log-rolling." The German settlers cut down 
the trees and burned them instead of girdling them and per- 
mitting the dead tree to stand, as the English and Scotch- 
Irish did. These log-rollings were contests of strength among 
the young men and the blazing logs furnished the light for the 
evening entertainment of the young folks. 

The marriage of a young couple brought the country 
side together, the first day was the bride's day celebrated at 
the home of the bride, the second day was groom's day and 
the "Infair" was celebrated at the home of the groom. All 
the delicacies of the times were served. There was abundance 
of wild game and other meat, corn-bread, pone, white bread, 
vegetables and fruits of the season. Cider and whisky in 
abundance. We may be assured that these hard-working 
Pioneers ate and drank heartily. A wedding party was broken 
up at Millers station and many of the guests taken prisoner, 
when Hannastown was attacked in 1782. 

Another get-to-gether time was for a house or barn rais- 
ing, when the crowd would be divided into contending groups. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 91 

each vying with the other to get their log hewn and fitted into 
place first and we may be sure the young men did their 
best for the maidens were interested and cast many an ap- 
proving glance and smile as they prepared the meals in the 
woods nearby. 

Young people always have some way of meeting each 
other. Besides the long journeys to church and the "Kinder- 
lehre'' which we ma^ be sure were improved to their own 
satisfaction for those early pioneers did not complain of a 
walk of five or six miles through the woods, and the rec6rds 
show that many were confirmed at from eighteen to thirty 
years of age; and we know that many a youth and maiden 
learned other things than Luther's Five Parts at the "Kinder- 
lehre" and shortly after confirmation the pastor would have 
the pleasure of uniting two lives in holy wedlock. 

Then there were singing schools, Spelling Bees, Apple 
Butter parties. Corn roasting parties. Frolics to cut grain or 
do some unusual labor for some settler. Altogether the lives 
of the pioneers were not dull except when the Indians were on 
the warpath. 

For the women, they had their pride in culinary skill, 
spinning and housekeeping, which included the kitchen gar- 
den; the German settlers introduced the kitchen garden into 
America. It was the duty and privilege of every bride to spin 
her own trousseau. While the interests of the pioneer woman 
largely belonged to "Kirche. Kind and Kueche," this does 
not imply that their lives were narrow and sad. We pity the 
woman who would rather work with a dead typewriter, sell 
dead drygoods, than minister to a living family in the home 
and teach the living soul of a child to love its Savior and its 
mother. 

The men had many diversions that ^exhibited their en- 
durance and skill. The boy learned how to shoot by "bark- 
ing" squirrels, i. e. when a squirrel clung to the side of a 

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92 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 






















5^7^ 






./ 






7 



'^"ff^ 



Aii^nin-^^ 






'■sJiSft^ 










Fac-simile of Record of First Con&rmants 'Zion or Herold's Church" 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 93 

tree the hunter would shoot so that the rifle ball would strike 
the bdrk under the squirrel, thus stunning the squirrel. So 
skillful were these settlers with the rifle that no matter how 
tall the tree, they would either "bark" the squirrel or shoot 
off its head. Then deer and bear hunting and trapping fur 
bearing animals kept the men busy in winter and added to 
the income, for the furs had a ready sale and could be bar- 
tered for salt, sugar and other home necessities that they them- 
selves could not produce. 

During the Indian wars and the Revolution the men were 
busy defending their country. Many fought in the armies 
of the east and the others defended the frontier against the 
savage British, Tories and Indians. Goaded on by the scalp- 
ing of helpless women and children they often fought superior 
nimibers at great odds and as a consequence often times failed 
and lost their lives. Many names that appear on the early 
church rolls were removed in this way and no kin were left to 
perpetuate their names and achievements. If a brief mention 
of the fact were made in the official reports, historians have 
"edited" it out of the narrative. 

Inured to hardship and danger many of the early settlers, 
like the Wetzel's and Brady's thoroughly enjoyed hunting the 
Indian. It was dangerous sport but the thrills of narrow es- 
capes afforded great enjoyment. Competition in shooting was 
always a stirring sport which led to practical ends. Shoot- 
ing matches for prizes were quite frequent. 

The early German settlers were home lovers and found 
their chief joy in providing for its comfort and enjoying the 
company of wife and children around the open fireplace dur- 
ing the long winter evenings. Notwithstanding the German's 
inclination to build a good barn for the cattle, his house was 
superior to many of his contemporaries. It is interesting to 
note the efforts made to beautify the home. The German's 
library was superior to that of his contemporary and he kept 



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94 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

abreast of the times through his German newspaper. Men 
and women of fine culture and great literary and scientific 
ability were found in the humble log cabins. 

In general there was a deep fervent piety among the 
early settlers. They brought their Bibles, prayer books and 
religion with them into the wilderness. They built the first 
church and schoolhouse in Greensburg and the first church 
in Pittsburgh. Their schoolhouse at Harold's was one of the 
very first, probably the first, west of the mountains. 



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Lutheran Church, Gkeensburg, Pa. 95 



CHAPTER IX 

The Patriarchs 

Rev. John Michael Steck, 1791-1830. 

Rev. John Michael Steck became pastor September 24, 
1791, and served until July 14, 1830. 

Rev. Steck was born on the 5th of October, 1756 in 
Germantown, Pennsylvania, where he was also brought up 
and received his proparatory education. He studied theology 
under Dr. Helmuth.of Philadelphia. 

"In 1784, Rev. Steck was licensed, and accepted a call 
from Chambersburg, Franklin County, where he labored suc- 
cessfully for four years. In 1788, he was sent as a mis- 
sionary to Bedford County, which then included the territory 
now Somerset and Fulton counties, where he labored for four 
years with great diligence, and remarkable success. He 
preached wherever he found settlements of German people."^ 

In the summer of 1791, he received a call from the field 
in Westmoreland County and entered upon his work Septem- 
ber 24, 1791. 

He held his first communion Oct. 11, 1791, at which time 
there were 80 communicants (see appendix B). 

He confirmed his first Catechetical Class on the 26th of 
May, 1792, there being 43 in the class (see appendix C). 

In the Minutes of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania in 
1796, we read, "Resolved, 9th, that Mr. Johann Michael Steck, 



^Ullery, Southern Conference History. 

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96 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 



















7/ 









''-■^C^'r' 






fL 



r'f 



Fac-simile of Record of First CommunicaBts ''Zion or Herold's 

Church" 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 97 

as licensed candidate, serve Greensburg, Herold's Brusch- 
kirk, Ridge, at Jacobskrik and at Allegany, in Westmore- 
land County." 

In 1798, "Licensed candidate Joh. Michael Steck, from 
Gruensburg" attended the Ministerium with Jacob Stroh as 
delegate. At this time, Mr. Steck reports: 
335 baptized members 
333 communicant members. 
67 confirmations 
37 funerals 
In the minutes of 1801 we read "A letter from four con- 
gregations in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, was read ; 
they testify to their satisfaction with Mr. Steck, and beg that 
his absence be excused, because of sickliness." 

In his report for 1801 Mr. Steg (Steck) from Greensburg 
reports: 

Baptisms 174 

Confirmations 77 

Communicants 928 

Funerals 17 

Mr. Steg's license was renewed. 

In 1806 Mr. Jacob Ruch accompanied Mr. Steck to the 
59th Convention at Hagerstown, Md. 

"Mr. Jacob Ruch handed in a letter from the congrega- 
tions in and about Greensburg in Westmoreland County, 
Pennsylvania, a good testimonial for their preacher, Mr. Joh. 
Michael Steck. They asked to be permitted to keep him, and 
that he may remain a member of the Reverend Ministerium." 
At this meeting Mr. Steck reported : 

Baptisms 246 

Confirmations _- 63 

Communicants 500 

Funerals — 27 

Schools 3 

Grbg. 4 

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98 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

As with Rev. Luetge so with Rev. Steck, he became a 
member of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania and was pledged 
to the unaltered Augsburg Confession and the other Symboli- 
cal Books of the Lutheran Church. This petition of the con- 
gregations is a tacit acknowledgement that they were in har- 
mony with the faith and practices of the Confessional Luther- 
an Church. Their appeal and the sending of delegates shows 
that they acknowledged and appreciated their membership in 
the Ministerium of Pennsylvania. 

Zion Lutheran Church was founded upon and always sus- 
tained the full Confessional position of the unaltered Augs- 
burg Confession and the Symbolical Books of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church. 

"On June 3rd, 1806, the Ministerium "Resolved that Mr. 
Joh. Michael Steck shall be ordained this evening." 

"Joh. Mich. Steck handed in the license and one sermon." 
"In the evening Mr. Joh. Mich. Steck was solemnly conse- 
crated to the ministry in the Church." This is witnessed by 
J. Heinr, Helmuth, President, and Jacob Goering, P. T. Secre- 
tary. 

In 1812 Rev. Steck reports :- 

Baptisms _ 296 

Confirmations 100 

Communicants 472 

Funerals 30 

In December 1812 the ministers of the "frontier" met in 
Special Conference in Washington County. Rev. Steck was 
Secretary of the Conference. These conferences continued 
until 1818 when they culminated in the formation of th. 
Ohio Synod.^ 

-Minutes Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania. 

^The Fourth Special Conference met in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, 
October 22-25, 1814. The powers of the Conference were enlarged by 
the Ministerium of Pennsylvania. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 99 

In 1818 when the Ohio Synod was formed, Rev. Steck and 
his congregations withdrew from the Ministerium of Pennsyl- 
vania and joined in forming the new Synod. The Ohio Synod 
met in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1822. J. P. Schmucker 
and. Steck, Jr., were sent as delegates to the General Synod. 

The congregation remained in connection with the Ohio 
Synod until the formation of the Pittsburgh Synod in 1845. 

Rev. John Michael Steck was truly a "bishop.*' He la- 
bored in a field that now includes Westmoreland, Fayette, 
Allegheny, Beaver, Butler, Armstrong, Indiana, Clarion, and 
Mercer Counties. He was truly a man of God. He labored 
faithfully until the Lord called him home, a period of nearly 
thirty-nine years. 

It was during his closing ministry that the new stone 
church was built. The building committeemen were Jacob 
Haines and Bernard Thomas. The corner-stone was laid May 
28th, 1829, and the church was dedicated in 1830. Rev. J. G. 
C. Schweitzerbarth preached the Lutheran sermon and Rev. 
H. E. F. Voight, the Reformed sermon at the dedication. The 
church was a tall, almost square stone building with a gallery 
on three sides. It was heated by two stoves, the stove pipes 
extending up to the ceiling, where they entered chimneys and 
extended through the combs of the roof. 

There were two entrances ; on the east side and the west 
side. The main floor was divided into four sections by the 
aisles which led to the chancel. One of these sections on 
the northeast side was termed the "Old Men's Corner." The 
other opposite, on the northwest side was the "Old Women's 
Corner." The younger women, girls, and children sat under 
the gallery on the south side, while the middle-aged men and 
boys "hiked" to the gallery. 

In the chancel place, to the north central part, was a 
large rectangular altar, painted white; behind this besides 
the chairs for the preachers, was the pulpit. The pulpit was 



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100 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 









3 
o 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 



101 



a high wine glass pattern with steps leading up to it. It rested 
against the wall in the north central side. It was the custom 
for the minister to conduct the opening service at the altar and 




Wine Glass Pulpit from Old Stone Church 



during the singing of the hymn before the sermon to mount 
the steps and enter the pulpit. 

In the early days the services of the two denominations 
was so similar that the only difference some people could see 



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^oogle 



102 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 



was in the use of the Lord's Prayer. One denomination said 
"Unser Vater" and the other "Vater Unser." 

In the early days before hymn books were common, the 
minister used to "line the hymns/' i. e., read a line of the 
hymn, then the congregation led by some sweet-voiced ma- 
tron, would sing that Hne; then another Hne would be read, 
and sung in like manner; — thus through the hymn. Humor- 
ous incidents are recorded of the mistakes that sometimes oc- 




George Eisaman 

(Fourth Teacher at Harrold's) 

curred. It is related of one old minister that upon taking up 
his hymn book, he apologized, saying, "My eyes are weak, 
the Hght is dim, I can scarcely see to read this hymn." Where- 
upon, the congregation, thinking this was the first line of the 
hymn, began to sing the line. 

Happy and accomplished was the man or woman who 
could "keep the *air' " of the tune and lead the singing. We 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 103 

can still see father Isaac Wentzel leading the singing and 
beating time to the "buckwheat" notes. Before him, George 
Eisaman taught school and led the singing. He, doubtless, 
led the singing at the dedication. The new church cost about 
$3,000.00. 

This church was repaired, painted, and papered in 1855. 

Before the completion of the church. Rev. Steck's health 
began to fail and in the summer following the dedication, 
on July 14, 1830, he fell asleep. Before his death, at the 
request of the congregation, his son. Rev. Michael John Steck, 
was called as his assistant. Upon the death of the father, the 
son became the regular pastor and was sdon as beloved as his 
father.* 

A fitting obituary of Rev. John Michael Steck appears in 
the Minutes of the Ministerium of Ohio, 1830, as follows in 
part : "This Senior of the Ev. Luth. Ministerium of Ohio 
and pastor of the Lutheran congregation in Greensburg and 
vicinity departed this life July 14, 1830, aged 73 years, 9 
months and 8 days. He had been truly a faithful and useful 
laborer in the vineyard of the divine Savior: and in conse- 
quence of his departure the Church has sustained a very 
serious loss. Without the fear of man he unreservedly reproved 
vice ; he devoted much time to the instruction of the youth ; he 
was a loving companion, an affectionate father and a friend to 
the poor and needy. 

Rev. N. P. Hacke delivered the funeral discourse from 
Heb. 13 : 7 : "Remember them which have the rule over you, 
who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith 
follow considering the end of their conversation," followed by 
remarks from the Rev. Jonas Mechling from the same pas- 
sage. A sorrowing widow, thirteen children, one of whom 



"♦List of Congregations served by Pastors, in 1826. Senior Steck 
(7 cong.) Greensburg, Brush Creek, Zehners, Herolds, Manor, Ritsch 
and Youngstown in Westmoreland County, Pa. History of the Ev. 
Luth. Joint Synod of Ohio. 



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104 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

followed his father into the ministry and sixty-six grand- 
children, together with the members of his congregations were 
left to mourn his departure. 

"The Gospel was his joy and song 

E'en to his latest breath; 

The truth he had proclaimed so long 

Was his support in death." 

Rev. Michael John Steck, 1831-1848 

Rev. Michael John Steck was born in Greensburg, Pa., 
May 1, 1793. From early youth, he aspired to the ministry. 
He received his theological training under his father and 
the Rev. Jacob Schnee, of Pittsburgh. At the 69th Conven- 
tion of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, 
June, 1816, it was "Resolved that a candidate, license be filled 
out for Mr. Steck."^ 

In December, 1816, he was called to Lancaster, Ohio, 
where he labored successfully for 13 years, from whence he 
was called in the Fall of 1829, to assist his father and in 
1830 became pastor upon the death of his father. 

It is difficult to form adequate estimate of his services 
to the Church. For many years, he served from eight to ten 
congregations, traveling to preaching points from ten to 
thirty miles distant. 

"It is estimated that during his ministry of 32 years 
he preached 8,000 sermons, baptized 5,000 children, and con- 
firmed over 2,000 adults, performed over 1,000 marriages, and 
pronounced the burial services over hundreds of his members." 

He was eminently practical and gripped the affections 
of his people. They thought he did everything just right. 
For years afterward, "So hat es der Pfahrer Steck gemacht" 
was a by-word among the people. 



^Minutes, etc. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensmurg, Pa. 



105 



"In his preaching he was always evangelical and scrip- 
tural. He united the qualities of a good preacher and a suc- 
cessful pastor in a high degree. He had a commanding pre- 
sence, a strong and musical voice and distinct articulation. 
His manner in the pulpit was natural, his style simple, and his 
delivery earnest and impressive." In his early years, he was 
very timid, but he was always earnest and preached as if he 
believed in the efficacy of the Gospel. 




Rev. Michael John Steck 



Rev. Jonas Mechling 



A Conference of Ohio Synod men was held at Greensburg, 
Pa., in 1831, just after Easter, and they prepared a memorial 
signed by ten ministers which they presented at Canton, Ohio 
and "in which they pray the Synod of Ohio to approve of their 
plan of forming a new synod between the Allegheny Moun- 
tains and the line of the state of Ohio."® 



^History of the Ev. Luth. Joint Synod of Ohio, page 89. 



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106 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

The following is the Constitution of our first Domestic 
and Foreign Mission Society adopted October 18, 1837. 

1. The name of this Union shall be: The Domestic and 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Eastern District of the 
Ev. Luth. Synod of Ohio. 

2. The object of this Society shall be to preach the Gos- 
pel to the heathen and especially to assist those brethren of 
our household of faith, the German missionaries Rhenius, 
Schaffter, Mueller and Lechler in Palamcottah, East India. 

3. Its officers shall be one President, one Secretary and 
one Treasurer. The officers of the District shall be its officers. 

4. The Society shall choose at its yearly meeting (at the 
time when Synod sits) seven directors who in connection with 
the officers shall form the Executive Committee, six of which 
shall be a quorum. 

5. Every person who contributes something can become 
a member. The amount of the yearly contribution shall be 
optional. 

6. Whoever pays ten dollars shall be a member for life. 
Upon the formation of the Pittsburg Synod of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church, Rev. Steck became its first president. 

Of the 26 congregations and 2255 members, constituting 
the Pittsburg Synod, Rev. Steck and his parish constituted 7 
congregations and 1,005 members. Just about one-half of 
the membership of the Pittsburg Synod at its foundation was 
from Rev. Steck's parish. Jacob S. Steck was the layman 
representing the parish at the formation of the Synod. 

The Synodical "Plan of Union'' involved little more than 
a federation of independent churches for the purpose of 
supplying vacant places. It furnished no Confession of faith 
beyond the name "Lutheran" and no basis of co-operation. 

It is as follows : 

"We, the undersigned ministers and delegates of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Churches in the western counties of 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 107 

Pennsylvania, being painfully sensible of the great destitu- 
tion of the preached word and the ordinances of the gospel 
in our midst, and fully persuaded of the necessity of uniting 
our efforts for their supply, hereby form ourselves into a 
Synodical body, with the express understanding that each 
minister and church or churches shall be at perfect liberty to 
support such literary, theological or benevolent institutions, 
without the limits of our Synod, as may best accord with their 
own views of duty; and»also that, as a Synodical body, we 
recognize no such distinctions among us as those commonly 
known by the terms of old and new measures, the Synod to be 
known by the name of The Pittsburgh Synod of the Evange- 
lical Lutheran Church." 

This "Plan of Uriion" was regarded only as a starting 
point. Beyond the words Lutheran and Evangelical there is 
no statement of faith or doctrinal position; in fact, faith in 
Christ or dependence upon the Bible is not stated, but the 
whole conception of the Christian faith and doctrine as held 
and taught by the Lutheran Church is implied and indeed is 
the incentive and spirit of action. 

The founders may have had varying conception of what 
the Lutheran Church really did stand for, and this may be 
implied in the determination to not recognize old and new 
measures, but there was no doubt of the doctrinal position of 
the first president. He was soundly Lutheran according to 
the Lutheran Confessions. 

The "old measures" named in the Plan of Union referred, 
principally, to catechetical instruction and the doctrine of re- 
generation in Infant Baptism. The "new measures" referred 
to "revivals" and the use of the "mourners' bench" in some 
Lutheran Churches, to the consequent neglect and omission 
of infant baptism, catechization, and confirmation. 

Many English Lutheran Churches of that day were for- 
saking the ways of the old historic Lutheran faith and prac- 

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108 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

tice and were introducing revivals and the mourners* bench 
with their fanatical extremes. 

The new Synod was not prepared to take up this ques- 
tion at this time. We shall see how it solved the problem 
later. 

In the midst of his usefulness Rev. Steck, departed this 
life September 1, 1848, at the age of 57 years. 

Rev. W. A. Passavant, D.D., preached the funeral ser- 
mon in the German church, Greensbufg, from Acts 8 : 2. The 
burial was made in the Church Cemetery, Greensburg. Dr. 
Passavant had this to say of Rev. Steck in the "Missionary:" 

Pastor Michael J. Steck 
"The first President of the Pittsburg Synod, born in 
Greensburg, Pa., May 1, 1791, and died at the same place 
September 1, 1848. He was an extraordinary gifted man. 
During his time of service he won for himself the title of 
the most distinguished pastor in Western Pennsylvania. 
Without him, the Pittsburg Synod could hardly have been 
founded." 

Rev. Jonas Mechling, 1849-1868 

In the spring of 1849, Rev. Jonas Mechling was called 
to be pastor. He labored here until his death in 1868. 

Rev. Jonas Mechljing, son of Philip Mechling, was born 
in Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, on the 14th 
of August 1798. He was baptized in infancy by Rev. Wm. 
Weber, and confirmed by pastor John M. Steck. He received 
his early education in the church schools of Westmoreland 
County and studied theology under Rev. J. Schnee of Pitts- 
burg and Rev. John M. Steck. He was licensed to preach by 
the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Ohio on September 19th, 
1820. 

He then took charge of a number of congregations of 
Father Steck's parish ; St. James and Hankeys, Hope, Zion's 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 109 

and St. John's and the Churches of Ligonier Valley. Later 
he served St. PauFs Ridge St. James, Yourigstown, and Christ 
Church West Newton. Upon the death of Father Steck he 
was called to the Herold-Greensburg parish, which consisted 
then of the following congregations : Herold's, Brush-Creek, 
Greensburg, Manor, Hill's and several other preaching sta- 
tions. He also preached in the Churches on this side of the 
Ridge until 1855. He died on the 2nd day of April, 1868 in the 
70th year of his age and the 48th of his ministry.'' 

"Rev. Mechling was a man of persevering energy and re- 
markable endurance. As a testimony to his earnestness and 
fidelity as a minister of Christ, we need only to give a few 
items of the record of his ministerial acts. During his 
ministry of 48 years, he preached 6,327 sermons, baptized 
6,286 children, confirmed 2,039 adults, married 890 couples, 
and buried thousands."® 



^List of congregations served by pastors in 1826— Pastor Mechling 
(8 cong.) Kintigo, Menkes, Jacobs, Schwobs, Hoffmans, Salems, 
Brandts and Donegals in Westmoreland County, Pa. History of the 
Ev. Luth. Joint Synod of Ohio. 

®Ullery, History of Southern Conference. 



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110 History of Old Zion Evangelical 



CHAPTER X 
Property Affairs and Relations with the Reformed Church 

During the pastorate of Rev. Luetge, Michael Rugh and 
Anthony Altman, trustees of the congregation procured a 
warrant for the tract known as "Good Purpose" on the twen- 
ty-second of August, 1785, and on the twenty-third of May, 
1789, a patent was granted. In 1793 the trustees, by the ad- 
vice, and with the approbation of the leading members of 
the congregation, sold 100 acres and allowances of said land, 
granted them by patent, to Rev. A. Ulrich Luetge for the bene- 
fit of the congregation. No deed was made for this land un- 
til several years after the death of Rev. Luetge, as the trustees 
had no authority to sell or give title for this land, for they 
held it in trust for the congregation. Hence, they applied 
to the legislature for power to sell and convey said land to the 
heirs of Rev. Luetge. In February, 1801, an act was passed 
authorizing them to sell and make a deed to the executors of 
Rev. Luetge, for the benefit of his heirs ; the deed was made 
in 1805. The price agreed on was 60 pounds.^ 

"The remaining fifty-eight acres, with Church and School- 
house, by agreement mutually signed September. 24th, 1791, 
between the two denominations, was to remain from that day, 
forever, the joint property of both the Lutheran and Reformed 
organizations, to be used for church and school purposes till 
the "end of the world."" 



^Ullery, History of Southern Conference. 
2History of the Reformed Church, 1877. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. Ill 

As we have seen, the title to the land was vested in the 
trustees for the Lutheran congregation alone. In an agree- 
ment on Nov. 29, 1793, it appears that the Lutheran trustees 
Valentine Steiner, William Altman, Anthony Altman, and 
Jacob Seanor gave a bond for three hundred pounds sterling, 
to Jacob Painter and Nicholas Alleman, in trust for the 
German Reformed Church. Under these bonds and agree- 
ments the property was held from November 29th, 1793, 
until November 28th, 1819, when the deed was executed for the 
half of the property, by Jacob Haines and Jacob Miller, to 
Barnet Thomas and Peter Baum, trustees for the Reformed 
Congregation. 

The agreement on September 24th, 1791 also included 
certain relations between the two congregations. The officers 
of both congregations were to examine, every year, the state 
of the common funds in the hands of the ''manager," and pass 
upon the receipts and bills for expenses. (See Appendix E). 

Each congregation was free to choose its own pastor and 
officers, and change them when necessary, without interference 
from the other side. No one shall have the right to introduce 
a strange minister without the consent of the officers of the 
Church to which he belongs. The minister of either side has 
power to baptize all such children as may be presented, with- 
out distinction of religion, — except only when the officers ob- 
ject. 

The officers of both congregations unite in the choosing 
of a school-master; who shall instruct the children in such 
Catechism as the parents desire, whether Lutheran or Re- 
formed. 

This agreement involved no internal change in either 
congregation but formed a written working basis between the 
two. It was kept for nearly a century, until the property 
interests were divided, and now, as then, each congregation 
attends to its own internal affairs. 



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112 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

We might inquire what was the chief distinguishing 
factor that preserved these congregations as distinctive de- 
nominational Churches? It is conceded that in the earlier 
times, especially during the days of the German language, the 
two congregations used the same church building, alternately ; 
they attended the services of both congregations; used the 
same hymns; often, where the family was divided, they com- 
muned at both communions, the husband communing with the 
wife and the wife with the husband; often some of the chil- 
dren of a family would attend the Reformed "Kinderlehre," 
and others, the Lutheran; children were baptized by either 
pastor; the whole settlement attended funerals; and all alike 
were buried in the same "God's acre," with almost identical 
burial service. 

Having so many things in common, one would think there 
would be a confusion and mixture, but such was not the re- 
sult, although the denominational consciousness was dulled 
and almost deadened ; the missionary fires burned low ; and in 
some cases "custom" had as much force as "thus saith the 
Lord." Those were good old days, — but-not-all-good. Dur- 
ing the period of about 1820 to 1860 the spiritual life burned 
low. The children were no longer gathered in "Kinderlehre" 
on the Lord's Day regularly nor were there Sunday schools 
of much consequence. 

Education was not supported as diligently as by the 
earlier pioneers. We do not know of a single normal adult 
among the early pioneers that could not read and write, but 
we have known many of their descendants who were illiterate ; 
and only recently have some awakened to the importance of 
education. 

The main factor in preserving the two denominations in- 
tact was and is the Catechetical System. A child might be 
baptized by either the Lutheran or Reformed minister; and 
not change its denomination; but when catechized and con- 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 113 

firmed, then the child became a member of the denomination 
whose minister catechized and confirmed the child. The min- 
isters of both the Reformed and Lutheran Churches have been 
great Catechists. The great sweep of frontier Revivalism 
never abated the regular Catechetical instruction in this 
settlement. Ho>yever, in the anglisizing movement, before 
the English denominational hymn books were introduced, the 
congregations used to sing many of the "Gospel Hymns," but 
the more intelligent members always realized the emptiness 
of these jingles and when the worshipful service and hymns 
of the denominational hymn books came to them in the Eng- 
lish language, they forsook the empty straw and chaff of the 
"Gospel Hymn" and fed upon the rich wheat of worship ac- 
cording to God's Word, as given in the authorized hymn 
books. 



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114 History of Old Zion Evangelical 



CHAPTER XI 
Synodical Relations 

This period was the time of storm and stress within the 
nation and within the church. The passions of the Civil War 
were reflected in the church for years afterward. 

We have spoken of the formation of the Pittsburg Synod 
and the "Plan of Union" which, being a union of Evangelical 
Lutherans, did not state a definite confession of faith; as 
we have said before, it was Tittle more than a loose federation 
to supply vacant preaching places. There was no basis of co- 
operation; besides, it was definitely stated that each Pastor 
and Congregation was at liberty to support institutions and 
missions anywhere they saw fit to do so. But it is evident 
that such a loose federation could not do the work of a 
Synod. 

New congregations were being formed and in 1847 the 
Synod adopted the following in the Preamble fof the "Form 
of Constitution for the Government and Discipline of 
Churches," "we receive the Augsburg Confession, the great 
Symbol of the Reformation, as the bond of union." 

In 1852 when the Pittsburg Synod united with the Gen- 
eral Synod, there was a hesitancy on the part of many (the 
vote standing 17 to 12) because they did not regard the 
General Synod's position as a clear confession of the Lutheran 
faith. Many leaders in the General Synod had repudiated 
parts of the Augsburg Confession. Whereupon the Pittsburg 
Synod resolved "that — the above action be in no wise re- 
garded as an approval of the construction which has been put 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 115 

upon any of its writings (i. e., of the General Synod) recom- 
mendations or acts, as though it had rejected any part of the 
faith of the Church as contained in the Augsburg Confession." 

In 1855 a proposition called the "Definite Platform" com- 
monly ascribed to Rev. S. S. Schmucker, D. D., made its ap- 
pearance.^ This "Definite Platform" was intended as a sub- 
stitute for the Augsburg Confession. In place of the Augs- 
burg Confession, the "Definite Platform" should be the stand- 
ard of the Lutheran Church, and all ministers entering Con- 
ference and Synod, must receive it before becoming members. 

Now, what was this "Definite Platform?" "The 'Definite 
Platform' was offered as a more specific expression of the 
General Synod's doctrinal basis, being surrounded by Ger- 
man Churches, which profess the entire mass of former sym- 
bols." The thought underlying it was that confessions of 
faith should declare with such explicitness the faith of those 
who subscribe them, that all ambiguity and rooq;! for variety 
of interpretations should be excluded; and that the General 
Synod, no longer holding to certain articles in the Augsburg 
Confession in the sense in which they were understood by its 
authors, should, without hesitation or reservation, say so. It 
charges the Augsburg Confession with five errors, viz. : "Ap- 
proval of the Ceremonies of the Mass ; Private Confession and 
Absolution ; Denial of the Divine Obligation of the Christian 



^"The errors are not on the side of the Augsburg Confession, but 
on the side of those who agitate our Lutheran Church with the intro- 
duction of a fatherless and motherless child, the Definite Platform, Rev. 
W. J. Mann." 

"To this we reply, the Platform was publically adopted by three 
or four Synods in the West within a few weeks after its publication. 
As to its authorship, we never denied having prepared it, at the 
urgent request of some of those brethren on the plan agreed on by 
them, and some Eastern brethren of the very first respectability. It 
was carefully revised by ourselves and Dr. B. Kurtz, and we have not 
yet found a single one of its positions refuted." Dr. S. S. Schmucker 
in Lutheran Symbols or American Lutheranism Vindicated, page 26. 



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116 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Sabbath ; Baptismal Regeneration ; and the Real Presence (in 
the Lord's Supper). "^ 

Dr. Schmucker had personally advised that the "Plat- 
form" be adopted by the Conferences, preliminary to its adop- 
tion by the Synod.^ Accordingly, it was presented for adop- 
tion, by Rev. George F. Ehrenfeld at the meeting of the 
Middle Conference Synod at the Worthington Church. After 
a hot debate, the "Platform" was adopted by this Conference. 

In the fall of 1855, in the same Conference the "Platform" 
failed of adoption because the vote was made a tie vote by the 
vote of the president. 

Accordingly, the action of the Conference came before 
the Pittsburg Synod at its next meeting, whereupon Dr. 
Charles Porterfield Krauth presented his famous "Testimony 
of the Pittsburg Synod" at Zelienople, 1856. 

"Whereas, Our Church has been agitated by proposed 
change^ in the Augsburg Confession — changes whose neces- 
sity has been predicted upon alleged errors of that Confes- 
sion; and 

Whereas, These changes and the charges connected with 
them, though set forth by individual authority, have been en- 
dorsed by some Synods of the Lutheran Church, are urged 
upon others for approval, and have been noticed by most of 
the Synods which have met since they have been brought be- 
fore the Church ; and 

Whereas, Amid conflicting statements, many, who are sin- 
cerely desirous of knowing the truth, are distracted, knowing 
not what to believe, and the danger of internal conflict and of 
schism is incurred, etc. 

1 — Resolved, That by the Augsburg Confession, we mean 
that document which was framed by Melancthon, with the 



^Lutheran Cyclopaedia. Lutheran Symbols or American Luther- 
anism Vindicated. Schmucker, page 5. 
^Burgess, etc. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 117 

advice, aid and concurrence of Luther and the other great 
evangelical theologiansy and presented by the Prdtestan|t 
Princes and Free Cities of Germany at the Diet of Augsburg 
in 1530. 

5 — Resolved, That now, as we have ever done, we regard 
the Augsburg Confession lovingly and reverently as the good 
confession of our Fathers witnessed before heaven, earth, and 
hell." 

As this action was taken just eleven years after the forma- 
tion of the Synod, it throws light upon the attitude of the 
fathers in regard to the confessions. Nearly all of the 
founders of the Synod were alive and they voted for this 
resolution "That now, as we have ever donie^ we regard the 
Augsburg Confession lovingly and reverently as the good con- 
fession of our Fathers, etc. This shows, then, that the Pitts- 
burg Synod always received and acknowledged the unaltered 
Augsburg Confession. 

In 1853 when the Pittsburg Syno.d entered the General 
Synod, other Synods were received also, namely, the Minis- 
terium of Pennsylvania, Texas and Northern Illinois. These 
Synods were conservative and it is to these that Dr. Schmuck- 
er refers above when he states concerning the "Definite 
Platform" in 1855. It was offered "as a more specific ex- 
pression of the General Synod's doctrinal basis, being sur- 
rounded by German churches, which profess the entire mass 
of former symbols." 

This accession of conservative Synods to the General 
Synod alarmed the adherents of a loose Lutheranism, hence, 
the "Definite Platform" was put forth, but it failed to stem 
the tide of growing adherence to the Augsburg Confession. 

"It could no longer be doubted that there were two parties 
in the General Synod, the one siding with and acting in the 
spirit of the Platform, the other strongly and persistently de- 
fending the pure faith of the Confession. 



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118 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

"When, therefore, the Platform party endeavored to 
strengthen their side by receiving, in 1859, the Melanchthon 
Synod — an extremely radical body — ^the conservative party 
solemnly protested and tried to prevent the action by voting 
against the reception of the Synod. 

"The same spirit was again manifested, as that of 1859, 
in the action of the General Synod in regard to the admis- 
sion of the Frankean Synod, at the convention at York in 
1864. This was an un-Lutheran Synod, which not only did 
not endeavor to hide its variance with the Confession of the 
Lutheran Church, but openly boasted of it. 

Article 5 of the Charter of the Western Conference of 
the Frankean Synod, contains the following " — - — therefore, 
no minister or candidate for the ministry who advocates a 
subscription to the Augsburg Confession as a test of minis- 
terial office, or church membership, shall be received into 

our connection'* . Notwithstanding all this, known 

to many, if not to all the members of the General Synod, the 
Frankean Synod was received, in 1864, as an integral part of 
the General Synod."* 

When the Frankean Synod was admitted, the delegates 
of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania protested and withdrew 
to report to their Synod. 

At the Fort Wayne Convention in May, 1866, the dele- 
gates of the Ministerium were present and presented their 
credentials but the president. Rev. Dr. S. Sprecher ruled as 
follows : "The Chair regards the acts of the delegates of the 
Pennsylvania Synod, by which they severed their practical re- 
lations with the General Synod, and withdrew from the part- 
nership of the Synods in the governing functions of the 
General Synod, as an act of the Synod of Pennsylvania." 
Therefore, it would be necessary for this Synod to be received 
anew. 



^Documentary History of the General Council. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 119 

After much debate, the delegation withdrew and Dr. W. 
A. Passavant read a protest against the action of the General 
Synod, signed by 28 delegates belonging to eight Synods. 

Dr. Walther of the Missouri Synod said, "Scarcely any 
event within the bounds of the Lutheran Church of North 
America has ever afforded us greater joy than the withdrawal 
of the Synod of Pennsylvania from the unionistic so-called 

General Synod. They (the General Synodists) know 

right well what a blow it would give them if it were known 
that the oldest and largest Synod of their connection with- 
drew because the General Sjniod liad departed from the true 
doctrine of the Lutheran Church.'' 

In 1866, the Ministerium of Pennsylvania instructed a 
committee "to prepare and issue a fraternal address to all 
Evangelical Lutheran Synods, ministers and congregations in 
the United States and Canadas, which confess the Unaltered 
Augsburg Confession, inviting them to unite in a convention 
for the purpose of forming a union of Lutheran Synods." 

On Dec. 11, 1866, delegates from thirteen Synods met in 
Reading, Pa., and organized the General Council. The Pitts- 
burg Synod was represented by Revs. G. Bassler, W. A. 
Passavant, G. A. Wenzel, and H. W. Roth; Laymen A. L. 
Thiel, John F. Duflf. Rev. Bassler became the first president 
and Rev. H. W. Roth the first English Secretary of the 
General Council. 

The call for a convention of all Synods which confess 
the Unaltered Augsburg Confession was laid before the Pitts- 
burg Synod at Rochester, Pa., in 1866 and it was 

Resolved 3 — That we cordially accept the invitation ex- 
tended through the "Fraternal Address'' of the Synod of 
Pennsylvania, and during the present convention, elect dele- 
gates to represent this body in the proposed Convention. 

Resolved 5 — ^And inasmuch as a trial of thirteen years 
fully satisfied us that the object sought in our connection with 



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120 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

the General Synod have not been and cannot be accomplished 
through that organization; and, inasmuch as your committee 
is firmly persuaded that the General Sjniod, by its recent and 
previous actions, has shown itself unfaithful both to its own 
Constitution and also to the Confession of the Church of our 
Fathers; 

Resolved 6 — That the action which, in 1852, resulted in 
our connection with the General Synod, be, and hereby is 
revoked. 

At the following convention at Greenville, Pa., in October, 
1867, "The Fundamental Principles of Faith and Church 
Polity" of the General Council were adopted by an overwhelm- 
ing majority of 63 to 21. 

Whereupon 10 ministers and 7 laymen withdrew and 
later formed the Pittsburg Synod of the General Synod. We 
find among their number those who had advocated the 
"Definite Platform.'' At a meeting at Worthington, Pa., Dec. 
1867, they organized their Synod, styling it the Pittsburg 
Synod. "Legally, the minority party was not entitled to the 
name of The Pittsburg Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church.' The fact that they had withdrawn from the con- 
vention of the majority party and elected new officers, de- 
prived them of all legal rights to the name of the incorporated 
body."* 

Judge Trunkey, of Crawford County ruled that "The 
Pittsburg Synod had a right to connect itself with whatever 
general body of the Lutheran Church it chose, provided it 
did not make a radical change in points of doctrine. 

"The General Council is strictly a Lutheran organization 
and the connection of the Synod with a general body could 
in no way affect the question of the rights of property in the 
Church. 



^Burgess History of the Pittsburg Synod, General Synod. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 121 

"In 1867 the Pittsburg Synod divided, ten of its mem- 
bers withdrawing from its session at Greenville, Pa., because 
the majority of the Synod had decided to withdraw from the 
General Synod and connect themselves with the General Coun- 
cil. The officers, official seal, and records remaining with the 
majority. 

"From what appears in the testimony concerning this 
division of the Synod, it is the opinion of the Master that 
the majority constitute the Pittsburg Synod proper. That 
the action of the majority in withdrawing from the General 
Synod and joining the new body was not inconsistent with 
Lutheran methods and regulations. All the testimony there is 
on the subject proves that the Synod had the right to with- 
draw in an orderly manner and join whatever Lutheran body 
it wished 'to, and the will of the majority must prevail, and 
that majority is the Pittsburg Synod/*^ 

Notwithstanding such clear testimony, the secessionists 
of Greenville issued a "pastoral address" in which they say, 
"In view of these facts we, though in the minority, claim to 
be the Pittsburg Synod." And thus the strife was carried into 
Congregations. We may safely say that the ministers were 
the aggressive leaders and that where congregations were 
divided, it was generally because of pastoral interference. 
It is only too sad that ministers were busy trying to stir 
up trouble in neighboring congregations and to undermine 
the local pastor's influence. 

We shall see how this conflict at length broke in upon 
the peaceful Zion. 

When Rev. Jonas Mechling became Pastor in 1849 the 
Herold's Church, with the entire parish, united with the Joint 
Synod of Ohio and adjacent states. We see that the Synodical 
relationship of the Parish depended largely upon the Synodi- 
cal relationship of the Pastor. We find no formal action of 



"Ullery, History of Southern Conference. 

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122 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

the congregation in regard to this matter since 1796 and 1845. 
It was determined largely by the Pastor, the congregations 
concurring by electing delegates as is shown by the action of 
the Pittsburg Synod. 

"First Church, Rev. Kunzmann, pastor, John Rugh Dele- 
gate. 40 V^ Annual Convention 1882 Wheeling, W. Va. Min- 
utes page 20. — The Committee on business of congregations 
reported an application for membership with the Synod from 
First German Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa., and offered 
this action, which was passed. 

"Resolved: that the 1st Lutheran Church, Greensburg, 
Pa., having been one of the original congregations, which took 
part in the organization of the Pittsburg Synod, and having 
never been dismissed to unite with any body, be cordially wel- 
comed back to its former relation to this Synod." 

Against this action, the Ev. Lutheran District Synod of 
Ohio protested in 1886, and a committee reported the follow- 
ing, which was adopted : 

"Inasmuch as it appears that the reception of the 1st 
Church, Greensburg, under the care of Rev. J. C. Kunzmann, 
by the Pittsburg Synod, was not exactly in accord with the 
compact entered into by the Ev. Lutheran District Synod of 
Ohio, and the Pittsburg Synod, therefore, be it resolved that 
we hereby rescind our action receiving said congregation, 
and recommend that it apply to the Evangelical Lutheran 
District Synod of Ohio for dismission to the Pittsburg Synod. 
Resolved, that as soon as such dismissal shall be placed in the 
hands of the officers of the Synod, it shall become an integral 
part of this body." 

This action was complied with on March 11, 1887, and 
the congregation re-entered the Pittsburg Synod. 

What was true of the Synodical relationship of the 1st 
Church was true of Herold's Church also. That the Herold — 
Brushcreek — Greensburg parish was actually a part of the 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 123 

Joint Synod of Ohio and Adjacent -States is shown by the 
entertainment of "The ninth convention of the Joint Synod, 
the first Delegate— Synod, from the 9th to the 14th of 
November, 1854 at Greensburg, Pa. At this convention Synod 
discussed the "unaltered Augsburg Confession and Luther^s 
Small Catechism." 

The English District of the Joint Synod of Ohio and 
"Adjacent States met at the Brush Church in 1859.^ 

There was no question as to the Sy nodical, connection 
of the parish at this time; it belonged to the Joint Synod of 
Ohio. 

We might inquire, How did Old Zion's or Herold*s 
Church come to be a member of the Ev. Lutheran District 
Synod of Ohio? 

At first as we have seen, the Congregations west of the 
Alleghenies belonged to the Pennsylvania Ministerium, but as 
the congregations grew in number, they felt the need of closer 
union, hence we read, "A report of a Special Conference held 
in Washington County in Pennsylvania, in the month of De- 
cember, 1812. It was a matter of real gratification to the 
Synod to see that our brethren on the frontier show themselves 
so active in the spread of the Kingdom of God."* 

The work prospered and the bonds of union grew 
stronger, hence, in 1817, this "Special Conference" petitioned 
the Ministerium of Pennsylvania "that they might be granted 
permission to form their own Ministerium in the State of 
Ohio." This permission was refused, but later tacitly granted. 
In 1818, at Somerset, Ohio, the first general conference was 
held and the "Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Ohio and Adja- 
cent States" was founded. It consisted of fifteen ministers 
and about 3500 communicants. One of the most prominent 



^History of the Joint Ev. Lutheran Synod of Ohio and Adjacent 
States, Peter & Schmidt, pages 134 and 181. 
^Minutes Ministerium of Pennsylvania, 1813. 



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124 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

founders was John Michael Steck. His parish henceforth be- 
longed to this Synod. 

In 1833 the Synod was divided into districts and the name 
"Joint Synod of Ohio and Other States" was assumed. Old 
Zion or Herold's Church belonged to this Synod until the 
organization of the Pittsburg Synod in 1845. In 1849 under 
the pastorate of Rev. Jonas Mechling the parish again united 
with the Joint Synod. 

In 1857 "The English District of the Ev. Lutheran Joint 
Synod of Ohio and Adjacent States'* was organized. This 
District Synod participated in the founding of the General 
Council and was in entire harmony with the confessional posi- 
tion of the same. In 1872, its relation to the Joint Synod was 
severed and it assumed the name "The Ev. Lutheran District 
Synod of Ohio, formerly known as the English Ev. Lutheran 
District Synod, in connection with the Ev. Lutherarr Joint 
Synod of Ohio and Adjacent States." 

To this Synod, Old Zion or Herold's Church belonged 
until March 11, 1887, when it was again received into mem- 
bership with the Pittsburg Synod. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensbukg, Pa. 125 



CHAPTER XII 

Contending for the Faith 

Rev. George A. Bruegel— 1868-1872 

Rev. George A. Bruegel succeeded Rev. Mechling as pas- 
tor. 

Rev. Bruegel was born on the 13th of June, 1837, in 
Goettenberg, Wuertemberg, Germany. He was baptized in 
infancy and confirmed by his father, Rev. Christopher J. 
Bruegel. He received his early training in the home and paro- 
chial school. He studied four years in the Gymnasium of 
Tuebingen and graduated from the Theological Seminary at 
Colimibus, Ohio. He served parishes at Zanesville and Can- 
ton, Ohio before assuming the local pastorate. In 1872 he 
resigned and served parishes at Warren, Mauch Chunk and 
Cherryville in Pennsylvania and at Utica, N. Y. He also 
served as German Professor in Thiel College, then as pastor 
in Erie, Pa. and Philipsburg, N. J. 

Rev. Bruegel was a man of talent and liberal education 
and an able pulpit orator. 

He was the first pastor after the large parish had been 
divided and became pastor of the Herold's and Greensburg 
Congregations. He resigned in 1872 and was succeeded by 
Rev. Enoch Smith. 

During Rev. BruegeFs pastorate, the congregation was a 
member of the Ev. Lutheran District Synod of Ohio, now 
connected with the General Council. Accordingly, the new 
Hymn Book of the General Council was introduced. Only a 
very few members opposed its introduction. This Hymn Book 



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126 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 




09 



o 










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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 127 

was the forerunner of the new Hymnal, which is the joint 
production of the General Council, General Synod, and the 
United Synod of the South — now adopted by the United 
Lutheran Church in America. 

Rev. Enoch Smith— 1873-1877 

Rev. Enoch Smith became pastor early in 1873. 

Rev. Smith was born, March 31st, 1839, in Delaware 
County, Ohio. He received his training in the College and 
Seminary of Capital University, Columbus, Ohio. He was 
ordained December 21, 1860. He served pastorates at Belle- 
fontaine, Paris, and Carroll county, Ohio, and at Mt. Pleasant, 
Pa., before assuming the local pastorate, which he resigned in 
1877. He later served parishes in Bethlehem and in Butler, 
Pa., where he died May 22, 1894. 

"Rev. Smith was a good man, full of faith, and the spirit 
of the gospel. He was an earnest and effective preacher, a 
conscientious and faithful pastor, whom many will call 
blessed.." 

During his pastorate, the congregation was chartered and 
a constitution was adopted. This was the first formal consti- 
tution the congregation ever had. It is clear that in these 
modern times, a church could not be well governed without a 
constitution. But, this was new and some members opposed 
it on that account. Again, it was Lutheran and recognized 
the Unaltered Augsburg Confession. There was also a lack of 
tact in its introduction that strengthened the opposition. It 
is claimed that few of the members really knew what it con- 
tained. In substance, this constitution is the Constitution of 
Old Zion today and it agrees doctrinally and substantially with 
the Model Constitution of the United Lutheran Church for 
Congregations. 

This opposition, fanned to a flame by the opposing 
factions, largely by outsiders, finally led to the division of the 
congregation. 



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128 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 



Rev. William F. Ulery— 1880-1881 

Rev. William F. Ulery was born in Westphalia, Germany. 
He received his education at the Connoquenessing Academy, 
Zelienople; Muehlenberg Institute, Greensburg; and Gettys- 
burg College and Seminary. He was ordained in June, 1855, 
by the Pittsburg Synod. He has served parishes at the fol- 




Rev. W. F. Ulery 

lowing places: Greensburg and Adamsburg; Greenville; 
Zion's Church, Greensburg; Fargo, N. D. ; Allegheny and 
Hoffman's. Rev. Ulery did faithful service, adding about 
fifty persons to the membership of the congregation. He 
resigned in order that Zion's Church and Seanor's might be 
formed into a new parish. 

Before his resignation took effect, the disaffected persons 
invited Rev. A. C. Ehrenfeldt of the General Synod, to preach 
for them, and were by him organized as an independent con- 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 129 

gregation. Both congregations now held services in the old 
stone church. 

"Rev. W. F. Ulery was called in 1880 and served about 
one year, when difficulty arose. Correspondence was carried 
on with ministers of a rival Synod, and a General Synod 
minister called, against the protest of many. A meeting was 
called by the General Synod party Aug. 22, 1880, to deter- 
mine the Synodical relation of the congregation; tellers were 
appointed, and papers read excluding several members from 
voting. After some argument the General Synod party -moved 
to adjourn, the majority voted in the negative; a division was 
called for but not granted. Rev. Ehrenfeld declared the meet- 
ing adjourned sine die. Litigation followed and the church was 
divided."^ 

On October 2, 1880 the General Synod division voted 
unanimously to unite with the Pittsburg Synod, General 
Synod. 

It is noteworthy that the regular congregation, now 
connected with the General Council, continued its uninter- 
rupted services and, under the injunction granted by Judge 
Hunter, had control of the records and property. It was 
during this time that Rev. A. C. Ehrenfeld organized The 
General Synod adherents into another congregation. The 
General Synod congregation, therefore, withdrew from the 
Old Zion's Church and from the "Evangelical Lutheran Dis- 
trict Synod of Ohio, and from the General Council to which 
Synod and Council Old Zion Church had belonged for more 
than a decade, since 1866. Old Zion never belonged to the 
General Synod. Nor did the new congregation, until it joined 
the Pittsburg Synod of the General Synod, October 2, 1880. 
Old Zion's did send delegates to the Ministeriimi of 
Pennsylvania and asked to be continued in membership with 



^From Preface to Old Zion Constitution written July 31, 1889. 
Grbg. 5 



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130 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

that body. Old Zion's parish did send a delegate to the 
organization of the Pittsburg Synod in 1845. 

The parish entertained the Ninth Convention of the Joint 
Synod of Ohio and Adjacent States at Greensburg, in 1855 and 
the English District at Brush Creek in 1859. 

There is no evidence denying that the parish sent dele- 
gates from time to time to the Ev. Lutheran District Synod of 
Ohio. Since this was customary, there surely was no opposi- 
tion before 1875. 

Since custom had much authority at Herold's, and the 
custom was, from the earliest times, to send delegates to 
Synod with the Pastor, we must infer that Herold's-Church- 
parish sent such delegates from time to time, thus acknowl- 
edging the Synodical relation, and that Synodical relation was, 
for more than a decade, to the Ev. Lutheran District Synod 
of Ohio, and the General Council. 

The General Synod Congregation never applied to the 
Ev. Lutheran District Synod of Ohio for a dismissal to the 
Pittsburg Synod of the General Synod. 

The decision of Judge Sharswood of the Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania did not occur until after the General Synod 
congregation had been organized and the change of property 
rights did not change the preceding facts. 

"Zion congregation secured an injunction against Rev. 
Ehrenfelt and his new congregation; Judge Hunter tried the 
case and granted the injunction; "but an appeal was taken to 
the Supreme Court and Justice Sharswood reversed the de- 
cision of the court below. This unjust decision robbed our 
church of all the property which rightly belonged to it. The 
decision was secured by misrepresentation on the part of the 
General Synod people, and by our neglect, as we made no 
statement of facts in the case before the Supreme Court, name- 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 131 

ly, that Old Zion never was in the General Synod, as was 
claimed."^ 

Three months after Rev. Ehrenfelt took charge of the 
General Synod congregation, "at a regular meeting of the 
(General Synod) congregation, it was unanimously resolved 
to unite with the Pittsburg Synod of the General Synod."^ 

We may inquire if the General Synod congregation was 
so afraid of change when a hymn book and constitution were 
introduced into the old church, why did they almost imme- 
diately join a new and strange Synod, and adopt a constitution 
and charter, which were new. 

After all, we are inclined to believe that the hymn book 
and constitution were occasions for dissatisfaction and not the 
real cause. 

Since that time, great changes have come about within 
the General Synod; (in 1866 there was a nucleus of conserva- 
tive men left in the General Synod, who never ceased to labor 
and pray for a better confession of the old faith), there has 
been a growing appreciation of true Lutheranism, so that the 
General Synod itself felt constrained to give expression to 
this change, when at the Convention at Washington, D. C, 
1911, the General Synod submitted the following for the rati- 
fication of the District Synods : 

"Article 2. Doctrinal Basis'* 

"With the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the fathers, 
the General Synod receives and holds the Canonical Scrip- 
tures of the Old and New Testaments as the Word of God and 
the only infallible rule of faith and of practice ; and it receives 



2Ullery History. • 

^(Burgess). When the Ohio Synod was formed 1818, application 
was made for the dismissal of the congregations west of the moun- 
tains. Again application was made to the Ohio Synod in 1831 for dis- 
missal to form a synod in Western Pennsylvania. The General Synod 
Congregation at Herold's was not regularly transferred from the 
Ohio Syrod to the Pittsburg Synod. 



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132 HisjoRY OF Old Zion Evangelical 

and holds the Unaltered Augsburg Confession as a correct ex- 
hibition of the faith and doctrine of our Church as founded 
upon that Word." 

"Article 3. The Secondary Symbols" 

'While the General Synod regards the Augsburg Con- 
fession as a suffcient and altogether adequate doctrinal basis 
for the co-operation of Lutheran Synods, it also recognizes the 
Apology of the Augsburg Confession, the Smalkald Articles, 
the Small Catechism of Luther, the Large Catechism of Lu- 
ther, and the Formula of Concord, as expositions of Lutheran 
doctrine of great historical and interpretative value, and espe- 
cially commends the Small Catechism as a book of instruc- 
tion." 

"Article 4. Section 3." 

"Any properly organized Lutheran Synod may be re- 
ceived into the General Synod at any meeting, provided it 
shall have adopted this Constitution with its Doctrinal Basis 
as set forth in Article 2." 

Now, compare the foregoing with the following which 
is condemned by the pastoral letter, published by a committee 
of the General Synod party. The pastoral letter analyzes 
the "Fundamental Principles of Faith" of the General Coun- 
cil as follows: "Certain 'Fundamental Principles of Faith* 
were proposed to district Synods by which all who adopt them 
agree : 

1. To embrace from the heart and use the articles of 
faith and sacraments as they were held and administered 
when the (Lutheran) Church came into distinctive being and 
received a distinctive name. 

2. To accept the Confessions in every statement of doc- 
trine "in their own true, native, original, and only sense," 
agreeing not only to use the same words, but to use them in 
one and the same sense. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 133 

3. To receive not only the Unaltered Augsburg Confes- 
sion, but jalso all the other Symbolical Books, as in perfect har- 
mony with the Confession "of one and the same Scriptural 
faith." (Condemned by pastoral letter of Pittsburg Synod 
of General Synod, 1867). 

"In explaining how the Committee came to the proposed 
new amended basis. Dr. Singmaster says : 

1. The present form very awkwardly accepts the Con- 
fessional attitude of "Synods not now in connection with the 
General Synod." The amendment makes the Doctrinal Basis 
that of the General Synod itself, expressed in one plain sen- 
tence."* 

Had the Gieneral Synod always maintained this Doctrinal 
Basis, there would have been no rupture at Ft. Wayne, no 
General Council, no two Pittsburg Synods, no rupture in Old 
Zidn Congregation, with its resultant two congregations. 

From the "Definite Platform" of 1855, which charged 
the Augsburg Confession with five errors, and rejected the 
Symbolical Books, from the admission of the Melanchthon 
Synod in 1859 and the Frankean Synod in 1864, which latter 
Synod repudiated the Augsburg Confession and boasted of it, 
from the "pastoral address" of the Pittsburg Synod of the 
General Synod in 1867, to the amendments of 1911 and 1913, 
was a far-reaching change in the attitude of the General 
Synod. Consequently there was a re-approachment of the 
General Council and the General Synod. They have co-oper- 
ated in Sunday school work and in bringing out a common 
Service and Hymnal. 

As the great conflict of 1866-1880 recedes and the per- 
sonalities and bitterness die away, we can see more plainly 
the great central principles of the contest, and we all rejoice 
in the growing Lutheran consciousness among our people. 



^Lutheran Church Review, July, 1912. 

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134 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

The four hundredth anniversary of the beginning of the 
Protestant Reformation by Luther, witnessed the reunion of 
the General Synod, General Council, and United Synod of the 
South in one organization, Nov. 10 — 18, 1918, entitled "The 
United Lutheran Church in America." The stress of war 
and the great work of helping soldiers and sailors and aiding 
suffering Europe, has brought about the organization (1918) 
of the "National Lutheran Council." The National Lutheran 
Council is composed of the following general Lutheran bodies : 
The United Lutheran Church in America, Joint Synod of 
Ohio, Synod of Iowa and Other States, Augustana Synod, 
Norwegian Lutheran Church, Danish Lutheran Church, and 
practically all Lutheran bodies except the Synodical Confer- 
ence (Missouri Synod, etc). 

May the four hundredth anniversary of the unaltered 
Augsburg Confession (1530-1930) witness a world-wide 
Federation of Lutherans. 

The breach between the General Council and the General 
Synod has been closed. The two Pittsburg Synods have 
merged. Why should the two Herold congregations stand 
apart ? 

Upon the basis of the doctrinal position of the United 
Lutheran Church, which both congregations sanction. Article 
2, Section 1 : "The United Lutheran Church in America re- 
ceives and holds the Canonical Scriptures of the Old and 
New Testaments as the inspired Word of God, and as the 
only infallible rule and standard of faith and practice, ac- 
cording to which all doctrines and teachers are to be judged. 

Section 2 : "The United Lutheran Church in America ac- 
cepts the ecumenical creeds : namely, the Apostles', the Nicene, 
and the Athanasian, as important testimonies drawn from the 
Holy Scriptures, and rejects all errors which they condemn. 

Section 3: "The United Lutheran Church in America 
receives and holds the Unaltered Augsburg Confession as a 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 135 

correct exhibition of the faith and doctrine of the EvangeUcal 
Lutheran Church, founded upon the Word of God; and 
acknowledges all churches that sincerely hold and faithfully 
confess the doctrines of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession 
to be entitled to the name of Evangelical Lutheran. 

Section 4 : ''The United Lutheran Church in America 
recognizes the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, the 
Smalkald Articles, the Large and Small Catechisms of Luther, 
and the Formula of Concord, as in the harmony of one and 
the same pure Scriptural faith." 

How closely this doctrinal position coincides with the 
"revers" signed by Mr. Anton Ulrich Luetge, the first preacher 
at Herolds. 

"Section 1 : To preach the Word of God in its purity, 
according to Law and Gospel, as it is explained in its chief 
points in the Augsburg Confession and the other Symbolical 
Books." (See Chapter 4). 

Not only have both congregations the same identical 
faith and doctrines, but also the same Hymn Book. "Where- 
as, the General Synod, the General Council and the United 
Synod in the South have by resolution assigned their respec- 
tive rights in the Common Service Book, prepared by the 
Joint Committee representing these three bodies, and adopted 
by these three bodies, to the United Lutheran Church, and 
have authorized the latter to publish the Common Service 
Book under its own imprint, be it 

Resolved 1 — That the United Lutheran Church hereby 
formally adopts the Common Service Book and approves 
and directs the use of the words "Authorized by The United 
Lutheran Church in America on the title page of all edi- 
tions."^ 

"The United Lutheran Church in America shall provide 
books of devotion and instruction, such as Liturgies, Hymn 



••^Minutes of U. L. C, 1918. 

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136 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Books and Catechisms, and no Synod without its sanction 
shall publish or recommend books of this kind other than 
those provided by the general body.''® 

Also the Sunday School Literature is issued by the 
U. L. C Board; there is one church paper: The Lutheran; 
one Women's Missionary Society, one Brotherhood. With 
the same United Lutheran Church in America ; the same 
Pittsburg Synod ; the same faith ; the same Common Service 
Book ; the same Sunday School Literature ; the same auxiliary 
organizations, it should be the duty of the two Congrega- 
tions to unite into the one old historic "Herold's oder Zion's 
Kirche." The cause of separation was outside the congrega- 
tion itself, brought in by the agitation of Synodical strife; 
now that the Synods have united, may Zion unite in peace 
and concord. 



^Constitution U. L. C, Article 8, Section 7. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 137 



CHAPTER XIII 
Rebuilding 

Rev. J. C. Kunzman— 1882-1887 

Rev. Jacob C. Kunzman, D. D. was born in the Grand 
Duchy, Baden, Germany, on the 31st of December, 1852. In 
1860, his parents emigrated to America and settled in Pitts- 
burg. He received his education in the public schools of 
Pittsburg, Thiel College, and the Theological Seminary at 
Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. He was ordained by the Pittsburg 
Synod and served the following parishes : At Kitanning, Pa. ; 
Greensburg and Harrold's ; and Pittsburg. In 1899 he resigned 
Grace Church, Pittsburg, Pa., to accept the appointment of 
Superintendent of English Home Missions in the General 
Council. He later, under the United Board of Home Mis- 
sions, became Western District Superintendent, which posi- 
tion he soon resigned to assume the presidency of the Pacific 
Lutheran Theological Seminary at Seattle, Washington. 

Although Old Zion had lost her property by the decision 
of Justice Sharswood, she went right ahead and purchased a 
property for a location of a Church and Cemetery. 

Law Courts can speak with authority in civil matters, 
but they have no jurisdiction or binding force in spiritual 
and ecclesiastical affairs. 

While the property went to the General Synod party, 
the succession of spiritual and ecclesiastical affairs remained 
with Old Zion. 



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138 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 






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i 



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s 



v^ 




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a 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 139 

Old Zion has always been true to the fathers from the 
beginning and she has always cherished the inheritance of 
historic Lutheranism, the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, and 
the Symbolical Books, and, hence, is true heir to the inheri- 
,tance of "Herold's, oder Zion's Kirche." 

The new church was built in 1884-1885, being dedicated 
June 14, 1885. Rev. Edmund Belfour, D. D. assisted the 
pastor. The church is built of brick, 32x64 feet in size and 
is well finished and furnished. The cost was $8,000.00, which 
was all provided for. 

During the Pastorate of Rev. Kunzman, a good work was 
done. , The congregation recovered from the shock of the 
division and was more firmly established. In the spring of 
1887, Rev. Kunzman resigned Old Zion Congregation in order 
that it might unite with St. Paul's (Seanor's) to form a 
parish. 

Riev. W. H. Zuber— 1887-1894 

Rev. William H. Zuber was born July 8, 1859, at CoUege- 
ville, Montgomery Co., Pa. He received his education at 
Muehlenberg College and the Seminary at Mt. Airy, Philadel- 
phia. He was ordained in June, 1887. He has served pastor- 
ates at the following places: Harold's and Seanor's; St. 
Paul, Minn. He taught for a number of years in the Greens- 
burg Seminary and Thiel College, and later served a parish in 
Chehalis, Washington. During Rev. Zuber's pastorate, a new 
cemetery was laid out and fenced. During his pastorate, here 
he also filled a professorship in the Greensburg Seminary. 
The entire parish increased 20 per cent in membership. Rev. 
Zuber was faithful and persevering and made a host of friends. 
He is also noted as a scholar in natural science. 

Rev. Jonathan Sarver, D.D.— 1895-1903 

Rev. Jonathan Sarver, D.D., was born Nov. 2, 1837, in 
Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, Pa. He received 
his education at Pennsylvania College and the theological 



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140 



History of Old Zion Evanc;elkal 




Rev. W. H. Zuber 



Rev. Jonathan Sarver 




Rev. £. H. Kohn 



Rev. Isaac K. Wismer 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 141 

Seminary at Gettysburg, Pa., and was licensed to preach by 
the Pittsburg Synod in 1864. He served pastorates at the 
following places : Zelienople ; Leechburg ; Mt. Pleasant, Pa. ; 
Hazelton, Kansas; Jewett, Ohio; Beaver Falls; Allegheny; 
Harold's and Seanor's ; and at Derry, Pa. Dr. Sarver was an 
eloquent preacher and has been successful in his several pas- 
torates. He was in the ministry more than fifty years. In 
later years, though serving no regular pastorate, he still 
preached as supply in the various congregations. He died in 
Washington, Pa., 1922. During his pastorate the parsonage 
at New Stanton was built. 

Rev. J. A. Yount— 1904-1904 

Rev. J. Alonzo Yount was born Dec. 17, 1864, in Cataw- 
ba, Co., North Carolina. He received his education at Con- 
cordia College, Conover, North Carolina, and at Lenoir Col- 
lege, Hickory, North Carolina. He began his pastorate April 
17, 1904 and, owing to ill health, resigned Oct. 16, 1904. Rev. 
Yount endeared himself to the people during his short pas- 
torate. He resigned to resume his pastorate at Conover, N. 
Carolina. 

Rev. J .0. Glenn— 1904-1910 

Rev. J. O. Glenn was born Oct. 18, 1862, at Singleton, 
Winston County, Miss. He received his education at Roanoke 
College and the Theological Seminary at Philadelphia. He 
was ordained June 3, 1901 by the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, 
and has served pastorates at the following places : Donegal, 
Harrold's and Seanor's, Irwin, and Scottdale. 

During the pastorate of six years. Rev. Glenn rendered 
faithful service and was beloved by all. A congregation was 
organized at New Stanton and a new Church edifice built 
there. 

Rev. E. H. Kohn, Ph.D.— 1911-1913 

Rev. E. H. Kohn was born at Little Mountain, New- 
berry County, South Carolina, Nov. 7, 1863. He graduated 



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142 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

from Newberry College in 1886. After teaching in Texas and 
Virginia, he entered the Theological Seminary at Philadelphia. 
He was ordained by the Ministerium of Pennsylvania May 
23, 1893. 

He has served since ordination at Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Cherry ville, North Carolina 1903-1909; Sumpter 1909-1911; 
at Harold's-Seanor's 1911-1913, and now is pastor at Mt. Hol- 
ly, North Carolina. 

Rev. Kohn was energetic and did good work during his 
brief pastorate. A new steam heating plant was installed 
and other improvements made. 



Rev. I. K. Wismer— 1913- 



Rev. Isaac K. Wismer was born Sept. 24, 1853, in Bucks 
County, Pa. He received his education in the Select High 
School, Philadelphia, the University, and Mt. Airy Seminary. 
He was ordained in June, 1885, by the Ministerium of Penn- 
sylvania. He has served pastorates at Dubois, Pa.; Latrobe 
and Youngstown, Uniontown, and on Oct. 1, 1913, became 
pastor of the Harrold — Seanor parish. In 1914 the Duplex 
Envelope System was introduced and in 1915, extensive im- 
provements were made to the interior of the church and a 
piano secured. 

These improvements make the church more churchly and 
better adapted to the Lutheran service, an enlarged Sunday 
school room and an inside stairway make for efficiency and 
comfort. 

The following are the statistics for the church, 1922: 
Members enrolled — 179. 
Sunday School enrollment — 150. 
Ladies' Mission and Aid Society — 32. 
The congregation pays its full apportionment to Synod 
and is liberal toward the general causes of beneficience. 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 



143 



The Sunday school is noted for the faithful attendance 
of its members. In fact, in the past, the Sunday school has 
been a great power of the church. 

The church membership, 1922 is as follows : 

Members of Old Zion 



Allshouse, Etta 
Allshouse, George M. 
Allshouse, Emma 
Allshouse, Mrs. Alice E. 
Altman, Mrs. Susanna 
Atcheson, Albert 
Atcheson, Hannah 
Bailey, Mrs. Mary 
Baughman, Francis J. 
Baughman, Annie M. 
Baughman, Ward F. 
Baughman, Cyrus F. 
Baughman, Lydia A. 
Baughman William J. 
Baughman, Leah C. 
Baughman, Mary Irene 
Baughman, John 
Baughman, Daniel H. 
Baughman, Annie 
Baughman, Lawrence J. 
Baughman, Clarence J. 
Baughman, Mary L. 
Baughman, James Luther 
Benson, Harry G. 
Benson, Bessie C. 
Benson, Arthur 
Benson, William C. 
Benson, Emma Martina 
Beyer, Charles H. 
Beyer, Sadie 
Beyer, Dewey 
Blank, Mrs. Edna 
Cope, James E. 
Cope, Susan 



Cope, Lucy 
Cope, Ella 
Cope, John H. 
Cope, Mrs. Edith 
Eisaman, Solomon 
Eisaman, Lucinda 
Eisaman, Cyrus D. 
Eisaman, Agnes 
Eisaman, Charles H. 
Eisaman, Cyrus Clark 
Eisaman, Margaret J. 
Eisaman, Martha Agnes 
Eisaman, Ethel Leah 
Eisaman, William P. 
Eisaman, Phebe 
Eisaman, Robert C. 
Eisaman, Lyda 
Eisaman, Mrs. Elizabeth C. 
Erickson, Mrs. Sarah A. 
Errett, Mrs. Mary E. 
Errett, Mary 
Errett, Lulu 
Earhart, Mrs. Laura 
Fischer, Carl 
Fischer, Mary 
Frye, David W. 
Frye, Druella 
Goodlin, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Haines, Mrs. Myrtle 
Harrold, Albert 
Harrold, Hetty J. 
Harrold, Walter A. 
Harrold, William Humphrey 
Harrold Frank M. 



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144 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 




Rev. J. O. Glenn 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 



145 



Harrold, Mrs. Sarah 
Harrold, Harry E. 
Harrold, Emma J. 
Harrold, Henry O. 
Harrold, Thomas C. 
Harrold, Lewis P. 
Harrold, Florence M. 
Henry, Daniel 
Henry, Rachel 
Henry, Jacob 
Henry, Joseph 
Henry, Elma 
Henry, Thomas A. 
Henry, James W. 
Henry, Alberta E. 
Henry, Russel E. 
Henry, Olive M. 
Henry, Mrs. Hannah 
Henry John H. 
Henry, May 
Henry, Paul F. 
Henry, Amos F. 
Henry, Bertha 
Henry, John W. 
Henry, Maria J. 
Herrod, James T. 
Herrod, Mary 
Herrod, Lawrence E. 
Herrod, Edna O. 
Herrod, Roy T. 
Herrod, Idella M. 
Herrod Edna L. 
Herrod, Irene May 
Holtzer, Mrs. Alice 
Holtzer, Mrs. Lucy 
Holtzer, Kathleen M. 
Holtzer, Garnet Romayne 
Jordan, Edgar W. 
Kaylor, Mrs. Nellie M. 
Landis, Mrs. Elizabeth V. 
McGraw, Mrs. Leah 



Miller, Mrs. Sarah 
Miller, Mrs. Gertrude 
Miller, Albert C. 
Miller, J. Herman 
Miller, Celia 
Miller, William J. 
Miller, Mary 
Miller, Mrs. Alice T. 
Moore, Peter A. 
Orczeck, Mrs. Catherine 
Orczeck, Cyrus Carl 
Plischke, Charles 
Plischke, Mabel 
Plischke, Mary Dorothy 
Plischke, Minnie 
RuflF, John G. 
RuflF, Urilla 
RuflF, Samuel, M. 
RuflF, Amanda M. 
RuflF, John P. 
RuflF, Sabilla E. 
Rosensteel, Mrs. Ethel M. 
Sindorf, Mrs. Margaret 
Snyder, Cyrus A. 
Snyder, Bessie 
Steinerj Mrs. Alice 
Smeltzer, Mrs. Margaret 
Silvis, Jacob H. 
Silvis, Anna M. 
Silvis, Mabel 
Silvis, John M. 
Silvis, Anna Margaret 
Silvis Charles O. 
Silvis, L. V. 
Silvis, Mary Ruth 
Silvis, Myrtle E. 
Silvis, Earl F. 
Smeltzer, William 
Smeltzer, Lucien 
Smeltzer, Anna 
Smeltzer, Logan 



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146 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 



Stroble, Henry O. 
Stroble, Francis M. 
Stroble, William H. 
Taylor, Thomas Earl 
Taylor, Edna L, 
Truxel, Mrs. Charlotte 
Walthour, William W. 
Walthour, Archibald 
Walthour, Mary 
Walthour, Calvin 
Weightman, Mrs. Agnes 
Wertz, Carl S. 
Wertz, Mary 
Wertz, C. Luther 
Wertz, Naomi C. 
Wertz,' David, G. 



Wertz, Mirram F. 
Wertz, Martha E. 
Wineman, Jacob E. 
Wineman, Rebecca 
Wineman, Mary J. 
Wineman, George 
Woodward, Mrs. Daniel 
Zundel, Mary Martha 
Zundel, Hermie Idella 
Zundel, Albert Martin 
Zundel, Emma May 
Zundel, Martin L. 
Zundel, Paul W. 
Zundel Robert M. 
Zundel, Ray A. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 147 



CHAPTER XIV 
Our Sister Church 

Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church emerged from the con- 
test of the eighties victorious in property rights according 
to Justice Sharswood's decision. Rev. W. F. Ulery was the 
last pastor of the united church. Rev. Ulery states the 
issue as follows: "He resigned in order that Zion's Church 
and Seanor's might be formed into a new parish, but for the 
time being, this arrangement was not effected. Not all were 
ready. 

During this vacancy, the disaffected persons invited Rev. 
A. C. Ehrenfeldt, of the Geneml Synods to preach for 
them, and were by him organized as an independent congre- 
gation. Both congregations now held services in the old 
stone church. The congregation of our synod had secured an 
injunction in our courts, under Judge Hunter, against Rev. 
Ehrenfelt, but an appeal was taken to the Supreme Court and 
Justice Sharswood reversed the decision of the court below." 

We now give the General Synod view as recorded in Dr. 
Burgess' History of the Pittsburg Synod, General Synod. 

"On April 30, 1878, nine days before Rev. Ulery's resigna- 
tion took effect, the church council addressed a letter to the 
president of the Pittsburg Synod of the General Synod, ask- 
ing for a pastor. Rev. A. C. Ehrenfeld, a retired minister of 
the Allegheny Synod, was secured for them, who served them 
as a stated supply from July 11, 1880 to Nov. 15, 1882. Rev. 
P. G. Bell also served them in the same capacity from 1882 to 
1883. Three months after Rev. Ehrenfeld took charge, "at a 



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148 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

regular meeting of the congregation, it was unanimously re- 
solved to unite with the Pittsburg Synod of the General 
Synod." This meeting was held October 2, 1880. It was the 
first time in the history of the old Harold's Church that it had 
ever regularly united with any synodical body. They pre- 
ferred to remain independent, fearing, as many of the older 
members said, "the tyranny of Synod." A few weeks after 
this action, on the 18th day of October, the party that favored 
the constitution of Rev. Smith began legal proceedings to 
dispossess the General Synod party of the church property. 
The case was tried in the Court of Westmoreland County be- 
fore Judge Hunter, who decided in favor of the plaintiffs. 
An appeal was taken to the Supreme Court, and Justice Shars- 
wood, before whom the case was heard, reversed the decision 
of the lower court and decided that the General Synod party 
constituted the original historic Harold's Church. The con- 
gregation continued to worship in the old stone church with 
the Reformed until July 8, 1884, when a new and beautiful 
brick church was dedicated some distance west of the old 
location, on land donated by Daniel Altman." (Compare 
Chapter 12). 

The new church cost about $6,000.00, $3,500.00 of which 
was paid in cash, and the remainder in labor and material. 

The sermons at the dedication were preached by Revs. 
A. C. Ehrenfeld and Rev. G. W. Leisher. The pastor. Rev. 
Isaiah Irvine performing the act of consecration^ 

During Rev. Irvine's pastorate, a lot was purchased from 
Daniel Altmann for fifty dollars and a commodious and beau- 
tiful parsonage built at a cost of one thousand dollars. 

Rev. J. H. Wright served as pastor from April 1, 1888 
to April 1, 1897. He received a salary of $500.00 and par- 
sonage. It was during his pastorate that the half-interest 
of the congregation in the old property was sold to the Re- 
formed, July 30, 1888, for $2,000.00, the money being invested 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 149 

for the use of the congregation. The congregation was also 
chartered January, 1884. 

• Rev. Charles L. Streamer began his pastorate September 
1, 1897, and resigned January 15, 1903, because of ill health. 
Rev. J. E. F. Hassinger accepted a call and assumed the 
pastorate June 16, 1903 and served until 1912. 

Rev. T. M. Daubenspeck became pastor Oct. 1912 and 
served until his death. May 28, 1913. Rev. Elmer Kahl 
served the congregation from 1913 to 1919. Rev. G. L. 
Courtney became pastor 1919 and served until 1921. Rev. J. L. 
Marvin of Bittinger, Md., assumed the pastorate in 1921 and 
continues to serve the congregation. 



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150 History of Old Zion Evangelical 



CHAPTER XV 
The Fruitage 

Old Zion has now closed one hundred fifty years of or- 
ganized Hfe, and one hundred fifty-seven years since her 
members, gathered together in the first rude log cabins, be- 
gan to pray and plan for her welfare. 

During these years, Old Zion has been a constant blessing 
to thousands of her members. We can count the pastorates 
and note somewhat of the pastoral labors, but who can count 
the hundreds of souls, in glory now, who were fed upon the 
bread of life within this fold. 

To the great multitude, from the tiny babe to the aged 
saint, now sleeping beneath the sod in "God*s Acre," Old Zion, 
with her ministrations of Word and Sacrament, was the only 
agency that offered to them values that they may still prize, 

From her sacred precincts, the aged parson would go 
forth into the wilds of nature, through heat of summer and 
cold of winter, and minister to some departing soul. From 
Old Zion as a center, there went forth the ministrations of 
the Word and Sacraments throughout the territory west of the 
Alleghenies. The pastors of Old Zion traveled far and near 
to settlements in the woods and ministered to them until more 
ministers were secured and the field divided. 

The influence of Old Zion is not, therefore, confined to 
those who attended services in her sanctuary at Herold's 
Church. It is interesting to note the large territory covered 
by this congregation. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 

Rev. John Allen Zundel 



151 



John Allen Zundel, son of Albert M. and Susannah Baughman 
Zundel, was born on the Aultman farm. Hemp'field Township, West- 
moreland County, Pennsylvania, February sixth 1854. He was bap- 
tized by the Rev. G. W. Mechling, on April twenty ninth following. 
Peter Baughman and his wife Anne Catherina, nee Wentzel, maternal 
grandparents, were the sponsors. He attended the Harrold's school 
and the Greensburg Seminary, fitting himself for teaching. After 
teaching many years in the grade schools of Hempfield Township he 
returned to the Greensburg Seminary and took the classical course. 
'He entered Thiel College at Greenville, Pa., and graduated in 1895. 

He then entered the Chicago 
Lutheran Seminary, and 
graduated in 1898. 

He received a call to the 
mission at Beaver Falls, Pa. 
and was ordained in the 
First Lutheran Church, 
Greensburg, Pa., May 19, 
1898. 

After serving at Beaver 
Falls for about five years 
he accepted a call to Fargo, 
North Dakota. Later he 
served as Field Missionary 
for Minnesota under the 
Home Mission Board of the 
General Council. 

He died, at the old Zun- 
del homestead at 6-10 P. M., 
September 20, 1910, and was 
buried in the Old Zion 
Cemetery, September 23. 
Twenty ministers and a 
large concourse of friends 
attended the funeral. 

He was married in 1900, 
to Miss Sophia Catherine 
Richter of Beaver Falls, Pa., 
who with three children; Ruth, Paul, and John, survive him. 

His zeal for the Master's cause consumed him. Although he 
spent but twelve years in the ministry, those twelve years were at 
the battle-front of Home Missions. 

The Master called him while preaching to his congregation in 
Minneapolis, Minn. He was truly a child of Old Zion's Church, iden- 
tified with her life and development, giving freely of his time and 
talent for her welfare and advancement. He loved his church and 
gave his life for her. 




Rev. John Allen Zundel 



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152 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

The center of Protestant influence among the Germans 
was undoubtedly at Herold's or Zion Church. The early rec- 
ords contain the names of settlers on the Brush Creek, beyond 
Harrison City, Greensburg, Mt. Pleasant, and Pleasant Unity, 
showing that all the German Lutheran settlers were at first 
embraced within her fold. 

Gradually other places of worship were formed ; this was 
determined more likely because of school facilities than for 
church attendance ; Brush Creek Church was the first, then fol- 
lowed Pleasant Unity ; Greensburg, First ; Indian Head, Good 
Hope; Kintig's, St. John's; Schwabs, Ruffsdale; Four Mile 
Run, Donegal; Hoffman's, Hope; Youngstown, St. James; 
Yockey's, St. James; Bell Township; Klingensmith's ; Den- 
mark Manor ; Zehner's, St. Paul's ; West Newton, Christ's ; in 
later times Zion's, Greensburg; Holy Trinity, Jeannette; 
Penn, Penn Station ; Unity, Manor ; Zion's, Harrison City ; St. 
John's Bouquet ; Holy Trinity, Irwin ; Salem and Emmanuel's 
Delmont ; Mt. Zion's and St. Paul's, Donegal ; St. Mark's, New 
Stanton; Trinity, St. John's and Zion's, Mt. Pleasant; St. 
Paul's, Scottdale; Bethel, Youngstown, St. Luke's, Young- 
wood, and St. Matthew's, Hunker; St. Paul's; Holy Trinity, 
Connellsville ; Christ's, Chalk Hill; St. John's New Florence, 
and Memorial ; Smithton, Jacobs, Smithfield, Trinity, Latrobe ; 
Zion, Cribbs ; St. Mark's, Arona, and St. Mark's Jeannette. 

There are now forty-six Lutheran congregations upon 
the territory once embraced in the parish of Old Zion Church. 
Practically the South East Conference of the Pittsburg Synod. 
In these congregations are now 15,000 baptized, and 11,000 
communicants, served by thirty pastors. 

In the larger field, served by the Stecks' and Mechling, 
at various times as opportunity presented; on this field, 
embracing almost the entire western part of the state, except- 
ing Erie, there are now approximately sevenfy-five thousand 
communicant members and about 150,000 baptized members. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 153 

Other influences helped to accomplish this great work, but 
before Passavant*s pastorate in Pittsburg, the elder and 
younger Stecks were the Bishops of Western Pennsylvania. 

While the pastors since Luetge, up to recent times, lived 
in Greensburg, Old Zion continued to be the principle congre- 
gation of the parish until about 1880. It is only within the 
last forty years that she has been surpassed by her daugh- 
ter, the First Church, and her granddaughter, Zion Church, 
Greensburg. 

The whole history of the church has been missionary. 
This missionary activity did not consist so much in giving 
money as in giving self. As congregation after congregation 
was formed in some portion of the parish territory, the mother 
church gave. her parental blessing until at the present time,, 
her territory is limited and her membership reduced. 

Although, in addition to giving territory, she has con- 
tinually enriched her daughter churches in the cities and towns 
by the migration of her people, young and old, still she 
maintains her vigor and activity. In some respects, as in 
interest in the general work of the church, such as Missions 
and works of Mercy, she is more interested and active now 
than ever before. All the good works of the church are 
remembered at proper times. 

Among the young men of the parish who entered the 
ministry, we note the following: 

Revs. Michael J. Steck, Jonas Mechling, Isaac O. P. 
Baker, G. W. Mechling, Edward L. Baker, Jonathan Sarver, 
W. F. Ulery, Isaac O. Baker, John A. L. Mench, John A. 
Zundel, William A. Zundel. So far as we know, only the 
last two were members of Old Zion Church at Herold's. 



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154 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 




Rev. William Arter Zundel, M.A., B.D. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 155 



CHAPTER XVI 

The Sunday School 

When the Church Schools were superseded by State con- 
trolled schools '(1820-1830), the fathers were not slow to 
make some provision for religious instruction under the new 
order. 

In 1828, the Ohio Synod, to which Old Zion then be- 
longed, adopted the following Sunday school plan and recom- 
mended that it be announced from the pulpit by every pastor. 
It shows how the fathefs stressed the fundamentals. The 
plan : "The pastor with the advice of the church council shall 
appoint a capable person to act as superintendent, and as many 
male and female teachers as conditions require. (Boys and 
girls may come to the same school, although lady teachers 
should instruct the girls). 

"When these arrangements have been made, the time and 
place for beginning the school should be determined, and 
where at all possible, the pastor, and at least some members 
of the church council, as well as the parents of the children 
should be present to lend the work as much gravity and im- 
portance as possible. 

"The pupils should be separated into classes of 8 to 10 
members. And here age should not be a determining factor, 
but the ability and progress of the pupil. Each class should 
retain its own teacher and it shall not be permitted the teach- 
er to leave his own class and take up another without the con- 
sent of the superintendent and the other teachers. 



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156 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

"The school should be held in the church, school house or 
some suitable building and, where possible, every Sunday ; it^ 
should begin at a definite time and continue at least two 
hours, 

"The superintendent and teachers should see to it that 
Christian order, so necessary to the instruction and edifica- 
tion of the pupils, be maintained. 

"The duties of the superintendent are, among others, 
the following : To open and close the school with singing and 
prayer, or at least to see that this is done. 

"He shall keep a record of the names of 'all pupils, giv- 
ing time of entry and withdrawal and all other data of impor- 
tance. 

"The teachers, male and female, should not remain away 
from school except from good reasons, and should they be 
prevented from coming, they shall make it their duty to have 
a capable person take their place, or*at least notify the super- 
intendent, the teachers shall make it their special duty to see 
that their pupils learn to spell, commit to memory and get 
hold of the fundamentals of our precious religion."^ 

Thus we see there is a gradual development of the Sun- 
day school idea out of the original parish school. Doubtless 
this plan was used at Herold's from its adoption by Synod. 

The earlier records of the Sunday school have not been 
preserved. 

The first records of a Sunday school preserved to date 
are from the year 1859, when David A. Altman was elected 
Superintendent of the Union Sunday School, with George 
Eisaman and Abraham Altman as assistants. These officers 
all happened to be Lutherans, and, no doubt were selected 
because of their scholastic training, as all had been teachers. 

After the erection of the new church, 1884-85), on the 
29th of March, 1885, the Old Zion Lutheran Sunday school 



'History of the Ev. Luth. Joint Synod of Ohio. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 



157 



was organized by Henry M. Zundel, who became its first 
superintendent. The school began with 50 scholars which 
was soon increased to 79. At the earnest solicitation of the 
elder members, of both the Lutheran and Reformed Congre- 




Henry M. Zundel 
Sunday School Superintendent, 1885. 

gations, this school was reorganized into a Union Sunday 
school, in the fall, November 15, of the same year. H. M. 
Zundel continued as Superintendent, with E. E. Wible of the 
Reformed Church as assistant. It continued as a Union Sun- 
day school until January 1, 1888, when it was dissolved by a 
unanimous vote, and on the following Lord's Day the present 



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158 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Lutheran Sunday school was organized, with 48 scholars and 
17 officers and teachers, with Jno. A. Zundel as superinten- 
dent. 

From the beginning, this scnool has observed the princi- 
pal Festivals of the Church Year. Shortly after its begin- 
ning, during the Union period, an exceptionally good pro- 
gram was carried out at the Christmas-tide, in connection 
with which, there was a monster revolving Christmas tree, 
about 25 feet high, in the Old Stone Church, laden with gifts 
for the school. 

Another Christmas a year later, when the school ren- 
dered "Ogden's Birth of Christ," a religious cantata con- 
taining bright carols, the congregation was delighted with 
the development of talent of the community. The expense 
of the cantata for those days, over $125, was considered quite 
an undertaking. So well were the Pastors, Rev. Dr. J. C. 
Kunzman and Rev. Dr. Cyrus Dieffenbacher, pleased, that 
from their seats in the audience, they arose and requested , 
that it be repeated within a week, which was dotie, a crowded 
house again being present. These exercises were held in the 
Old Zion Lutheran Church. 

Congregational reunions, then termed "Sunday School 
Celebrations," were begun in 1886, and have continued annu- 
ally ever since, and increased in number and popularity. More 
recently the Old Zion's and Zion's Lutheran Sunday school 
and St. John's Reformed Sunday school, have joined their 
efforts, and the annual Church and Sunday school reunions 
have proven very successful, and productive of a splendid 
spirit in the community. 

. Memorial Day from 1886 and 87, and some years there- 
after was also observed and occasionally since, when opportun- 
ity affords. At times the Sunday schools united in big patriotic 
parades, either from Old Zion's or from the Cross-road to the 
Old cemetery. Prominent speakers were secured and special 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 159 

patriotic music rendered by the large chorus choirs. Some 
years there were more flowers than could be used. Such par- 
ticipations in special Patriotic and Religious observances have 
been the means of fostering a spirit of earnest and success- 
ful co-operation. 

The Old Zion's Sunday school has now 142 scholars and 
12 officers and teachers, and is progressing nicely in its 
work. 

The different superintendents of this school since its 
organization in 1885, have been, in turn; Henry M. Zundel, 
John A. Zundel, Cyrus D. Eisaman, A. M. Zundel, Jr., Robert 
M. Zundel, A. M. Zundel, Jr., James E. Cope and R. M. 
Zundel, (1922). 

The Cemeteries 

When the location for the new church was secured, pro- 
vision was also made for a cemetery. Even before the erec- 
tion of the church, and before the woods across the road 
from the school house was all cleared, a burial ground was 
needed. 

Daniel Baughman, Sr., who died before the first cemetery 
plot was laid out, was buried in the extreme southwest corner, 
so as not to interfere in plotting the lots. 

When it came to selling lots considerable discussion en- 
sued. The fathers, who were really the bone and sinue of 
the congregation, with a very few exceptions, favored "free 
lots," the same as had been the custom in the Old Un^on 
Grave Yard. At one of the first meetings, a motion to sell the 
cemetery lots was discussed for a long time without a deci- 
sion being reached. Those who favored "selling the lots," 
discovered that the motion would be overwhelmingly lost, so 
a postponement of two weeks was finally agreed upon. In 
the meantime, a person of the community^ not a member, died, 
and was granted a lot. This was used as an argument at the 
next meeting, and the motion carried to sell the lots. This 



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160 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

shows how difficult it was to establish a fund for the future 
care of the cemetery. 

The first cemetery proved a success, financially, although 
the prices of lots were very low. Realizing the need of more 
burial ground for the future generations, more ground oppo- 
site the church was purchased, and laid out in lots. This 
second effort proving even more popular than the first, and 
the third tract was purchased. Now Old Zion's, with its com- 
bined plots has indeed a beautiful burial place, a veritable 
"God's Acre," and also has a fund which will provide proper 
care of the cemetery. 

The first church and cemetery ground, of two acres, was 
donated by Mother Eisaman in 1883-84. 

The second cemetery plot of three and one half acres, and 
one half acre for hitching place, was purchased from the 
Eisaman Estate, during Rev. W. H. Zuber's pastorate. 

The third and last cemetery plot of five acres, was pur- 
chased from Cyrus D. Eisaman in 1907. The three parts 
thus, contain over ten acres for burial purposes. The ground 
is well located and well adapted for the purpose. This is now 
one of the most attractive cemeteries of the county. 

Church Music 

Years ago when books were very scarce, the pioneer pas- 
tor was accustomed, to announce the hymns, line by line, and 
especially so, at the grave, during the burial of the dead. 
Those who sang then joined in or closely followed the pastor 
or "fore singer." 

The gallery in the Old Stone Church, forming the three 
sides of a square, with the "wine-glass shaped pulpit" against 
the wall, in the middle of the open space, was the place for 
the singers. Grandfather Eisaman, in his day, and later I. W. 
Wentzel, David B. Wentzel, Reuben Eisaman and others 
served as "fore-singers," or leaders in the music. The singers 
when out in number, were lined all around the three sides in 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 161 

the first gallery tier of seats. The sopranos on the South and 
West, and the bass on the east of the pulpit. The tuning 
fork was struck for the pitch, the tone secured, then the leader 
began and as readily as possible all joined in the singing. 
What the music then lacked, at any time in its artistic render- 
ing, it gained in religious fervor and worshipful spirit. 

Among the things that stimulated the rendering of the 
Church music, was the Old-time Singing School, at the old 
school house. Many thus learned to read not only the buck- 
wheat-notes, but also the modern round notes as well. Millers- 
dahl school house to the west of Harrold's also, for years, 
maintained a singing school. 

About 1875, Mr. Thomas Marshall, a noted instructor, 
conducted a musical convention in the Old Stone Church, 
which was largely attended and gave a great impetus to music 
in the Harrold settlement. John R. Francis, about 1887-88, 
also conducted a class in Old Zion's. Others also from time 
to time, were instrumental in adding knowledge, and creating 
a deeper love for music. Taken as a whole, for a rural district, 
the music of this section, has compared favorably with that 
of other localities. With the introduction of organs and 
pianos, better church music has been promoted. Perhaps, in 
our day we cannot fully appreciate the services of these early 
pioneers in music, nor realize the valuable work performed by 
them. 

List of Pastors of St John's Congregation at Harold's 

Rev. John William Weber 1783-1816 

Rev. Henry HabUston 1816-1819 

Rev. Nicholas P. Hacke, D.D 1819-1877 

Rev. C. R. Diffenbacher 1878-1889 

Rev. M. H. Mill 1890-1891 

Rev. I. N. Berger 1891-1895 

Rev. H. S. Garner 1897-1904 

Grbg. 6 



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162 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Rev. L. D. Steckel 1904-1909 

Rev. E. D. Bright 1910 

Zion Settlement and Patriotism 

The people of Zion Church Settlement have always been 
patriotic. They took their full share in defending their coun- 
try's flag. They were among the most skillful and daring 
Indian fighters. They did their full share in the several wars 
of our country, as the following report will show. We need 
to note, however, that not all who fought with the colors are 
buried here. In the Indian wars, he who fell was fortunate if 
he was buried at all, and in the earlier wars those who fell in 
battle or succumbed to disease,, were not sent home, but buried 
where they died. Many names on the early rolls of this 
Church were extinguished in this way. 

The Annual Memorial Roster of Adjutant S. P. Feight- 
ner of Capt. George A. Cribbs, Post, No. 276 G. A. R. for 
May 30, 1922, shows the following summary of the soldier 
dead in the Herold Cemeteries. 

Indian War, 1 ; Revolutionary War, 6 ; War of 1812, 1 ; 
Mexican War, 3; Civil War, 45; Spanish American War, 4; 
World War, 4 ; a total of 64. 

In all the cemeteries closely connected with the Herold 
Settlement the totals are Indian War, 1 ; Revolutionary War, 
15; War of 1812, 11; Mexican War, 23; Civil War, 323; 
Spanish American War, 19; World War, 38; Regular Army, 
2; Mexican Border, 1; total 433. The Post No. 276 has 59 
survivers of the Civil War and there are hundreds of sur- 
vivers of the later wars. The Herold cemeteries contain the 
dead of every American War. 

Fort Allen was built in 1774 during Connolly's War. 
The Herold Settlement stood solidly for Pennsylvania's rights 
west of the mountains. 

The fact that the great west was peopled through Penn- 
sylvania has meant more to our country than many suppose. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 163 

Pennsylvania developed the first true type of American- 
ism. The- great west followed the Pennsylvania type of 
civilization and government. 

The celebrated Historian, Woodrow Wilson, twice presi- 
dent of the United States, a Virginian by birth, governor of 
New Jersey and president of Princeton University, says; 
"However mortifying it may be to them or to us, America 
did not come out of the South and it did not come out of 
New England. The characteristic part of America originated 
in the middle states of Pennsylvania, New York, and New 
Jersey, because there, from the first, was that mixture of 
populations, that mixture of racial stocks, that mixture of 
antecedents, which is the singular and distinguishing mark 
of the United States." 

In helping to maintain Pennsylvania's rights west of the 
Alleghenies the Herold Settlement contributed to the influ- 
ence that Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey exerted 
even the western states. 

Bancroft says: "The Germans who composed a large 
part of the inhabitants of Pennsylvania were all on the side 
of liberty." 



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164 History of Old Zion Evangelical 



CHAPTER XVII 

Education among the German Elements in Western 

Pennsylvania 

For the history of the settlements and the problems of the 
early settlers see the preceeding first eight chapters. 

It required several years for these hardy pioneers to build 
necessary cabins for shelter against the cold of winter, and 
to clear sufficient ground for the necessary crops ; hence school 
work had to wait until the work necessary to existance was 
accomplished. However, the historical interest of the German 
for education was shown when, in 1772, three years after the 
settlement at Zion Church or Herold's a school-house was 
erected and a teacher secured. This school-house also served 
for church purposes until a suitable church was built. 

Balthasar Meyer, who settled in Zion Church Settlement 
in 1779, was the first schoolmaster in the settlement and, per- 
haps, the first in Western Pennsylvania. There being no 
minister in the settlement as yet, the schoolmaster was called 
upon to read sermons, baptize infants, and children, and to 
bury the dead. 

The early records of the school are mingled with the 
church records of the time, hence we read in the old Lutheran 
Parish Register at Herold's : "Register of all children in Zion 
Church Settlement baptized by Balthasar Meyer, schoolmaster, 

from the second of August, 1772, until ." The last entry 

in the handwriting of Balthasar Meyer is in the year 1792, the 
fourth of June. The record indicates, in the year 1782, the 
advent of a regular Lutheran Minister, Rev. Anton Ulrich 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 16S 

Luetge, but owing to the vastness of the field schooJmaster 
Meyer still continued to baptize children, though in limited 
number, and to enter the baptisms on the record, up until the 
fourth of June, 1792; hence we may believe that Balthasar 
Meyer served as schoolmaster from August 2, 1772, until 
June 4, 1792. 

It is difficult to give an estimate of the life and work of 
this pioneer educator. The only knowledge we have of him 
is the records that he left. Judging from the neatness, style 
and content of these writings, he was a man of no mean ability. 
His standing in the community is attested by the fact that they 
made him their pastor de facto, and when the congregation 
called Anton Ulrich Luetge to become their pastor, it was 
schoolmaster Balthasar Meyer who ordained him to the 
ministry and installed him as Pastor. 

The intelligence of these early pioneers may be gauged 
from their acts and writings. In 1774 the settlers met at Fort 
Allen at Zion Church Settlement and signed a petition to the 
governor. Of the seventy-seven signers every one could read, 
and write his own name legibly; which was not a general 
attainment among pioneers of other nationalities of that day. 
It is a mark of intelligence and progressiveness that they so 
early made provision for schools and churches. Because they 
spoke German and many did not speak English fluently, they 
were generally rated as ''dumb t)utch" by many of their il- 
literate contemporaries. 

The personnel of the early county officialdom is no indica- 
tion of the relative qualities and worth of the early settlers. ' 
In the first place the German settlers took up farms and did 
not seek political preferment as did their Irish, Scotch-Irish 
and English neighbors. 

Secondly, during the reign of the Penn heirs, many of the 
first officials of the county were appointed ; consequently the 
better known English speaking men received the lion's share 

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166 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

of the best political jobs. That the officials were not always 
the best men is shown by the following instances : "J<^hn Smith 
was charged with stealing and pleaded guilty. He was sen- 
tenced to receive thirty-nine lashes on the bare back, well laid 
on, and his ears were then to be cut off and nailed to the 
pillory: and he was to stand one hour in the pillory." 

"In October, 1775, Elizabeth Smith was ordered to receive 
fifteen lashes on the bare back, well laid on. She was further- 
more an indentured servant of James Kinkaid, who had a right 
to her uninterrupted services. Four days after she was 
whipped, James Kinkaid presented a petition to' our courts set- 
ting forth that he had been unjustly deprived of her services 
while she was in prison, and while she was recovering from the 
effects of the sentence. He therefore asked a redress for this 
loss. Judges Hanna, Lochry, Sloan and Cavett were on the 
bench and they deliberately considered his request and decreed 
that she should serve Kinkaid for a period of two years after 
the expiration of her indenture." 

"James McGill was found guilty of a felony in 1782, and 
was sentenced to a public whipping, then to the pillory, after 
which his right ear was cut off, and he was to be branded on 
the forehead with a hot iron."^ 

Such revolting incidents as the above speak volumes in the 
fact that not a German is mentioned in these crimes. While 
the English, Irish, and Scotch-Irish were thus extending the 
"blessings" of English laws and customs to Western Pennsyl- 
vania, the German settlers were building schools, supporting 
schoolmasters and Ministers of the Gospel. 

Boucher in his history of Westmoreland County says: 
"A people are not generally better than their laws. Many who 
came from England and Ireland and settled in Western Penn- 
sylvania purchased large tracts of land and at once regarded 



' History of Westmoreland County, by John W. Boucher. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 167 

themselves as nabobs, owners of large landed estates, like the 
nobles of England. They tried to emulate and imitate the 
weaker rather than the stronger characteristics of the landed 
gentry of Great Britain. Hugh Henry Brackenridge, after- 
wards justice of the supreme court, says in "Modern Chivalry,'* • 
that we had men in Westmoreland County who held and abused 
slaves and Redemptioneers, who would not for a fine cow have 
shaved their beards on Sunday." 

As a rule the Germans settled on moderately sized farms, 
and owned no slaves or Redemptioneers, although quite a 
number of Germans were brought here as Redemptioneers; 
choosing to sell their services for a period of years in order to 
gain transportation to America. 

In 1780 there were two hundred and three slave holders, 
including George Washington, in Westmoreland County, and 
six hundred ninety-five slaves. In 1798 there were only twelve 
slaves in Hempfield township, which then embraced Greens- 
burg, the county seat. Hempfield Township was settled mainly 
by Germans, and this small number of slaves in this large 
township, is proof of the general attitude of the German toward 
slavery. 

Mr. Boucher pays the following tribute to their peaceable- 
ness and self-governing ability : *'They had arw unwritten law 
among themselves which in effect worked out the spirit of all 
law as defined by Justinian, the great Roman law-giver, viz. : 
* To. live honestly, hurt nobody, and render to everyone his due.* 
One in that community who habitually violated this precept, 
was very soon ostracised from the society of his neighbors; 
the ordinary field hand would not work for or associate with 
him. He was not invited to the bam raisings or log rollings 
so common in the sparsely settled country ; and this unwritten 
law of social ostracism was carried out so thoroughly against 
the offending dishonest or unworthy neighbor, that families 

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168 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

thus ostracised have abhorrently left the fields they had cleared 
with great labor, never to return to them. 

"These principles of right living were brought with them 
and thoroughly implanted in the new country, for most of them 
had been brought up under the English law and knew thor- 
oughly their inherent rights as citizens of a community. The 
very absence of courts or convenient tribunals before which 
to redress their grievances, helped them in a great measure, 
to give a high moral tone to their rural communities in their 
personal relations with each other." 

This brief survey of the community life will give some 
insight into the aims and objects toward which they desired 
their schools to function in those pioneer days. 

A record of the financial settlement of the church council, 
dated the fifteenth day of February, 1793, is signed by (Rev.) 
John Michael Steck, President, and Karl Sheibeler, school- 
master, which indicates that Karl Sheibeler succeeded Baltha- 
sar Meyer as schoolmaster in the Zion or Herold's Settlement. 

The writer is in possession of a Getaufschein (Baptismal 
Certificate)^ of John George Eisenmann, a great great grand- 
father of the writer. This Getaufschein names as parents the 
honorable Peter Eisenmann and Justina, nee Altmann, his 
beloved wife. The sponsors were John Peter Eisenmann and 
Anna Barbara his wife. This certificate was "made by Karl 
Sheibeler, schoolmaster, Hempfield Township, Westmoreland 
County, 1788." It is a work of art. The penmanship is beauti- 
ful. The body of the certificate consists of a poem concerning 
Baptism and its meaning, then follows the names of child, 
parents and sponsors, then another poem or hymn. About this 
body there is a border of fine workmanship done in mosaics 
and flowers in three colors. After one hundred twenty-four 
years the colors are bright and the writing legible. 



^See cut page — also Appendix D. 

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Lutheran Church, Greensdurg, Pa. 169 

Schoolmaster Sheibeler was a pen artist of no mean ability, 
in his day. He was also a veteran of the Revolutionary War 
and the first schoolmaster in Greensburg. In 1788 the German 
settlement in Hempfield Township had at least two school- 
masters, Balthasar Meyer and Karl Sheibeler. 

To show that even the life of a schoolmaster has its perils 
and also to show the devotion of the early schoolmasters we 
append the following story. 

To this early period belongs the Massacre of Schoolmaster 
Brown and his ten scholars. We quote from Col. Henry 
Bouquet and his Campaigns, by Cort: 

"In 1764, July 26, three miles northwest of Greencastle, 
Franklin County, Pa., was perpetrated what Parkman, the 
great historian of Colonial times, pronounces 'an outrage un- 
matched in fiend-like atrocity through all the annals of the 
war.' This was the massacre of Enoch Brown, a kindhearted 
exemplary Christian schoolmaster, and ten scholars, eight boys 
and two girls. Ruth Hart and Ruth Hale were the names of 
the girls. Among the boys were Eben Taylor, George Dustan 
and Archie McCullough. All were knocked down like so many 
beeves and scalped by the merciless savages. Mourning and 
c'esolation came to many homes in the valley, for each of the 
slaughtered innocents belonged to a different family. The last 
named boy, indeed, survived the effects of the scalping knife, 
but in somewhat demented condition. 

The teacher offered his life and scalp in a spirit of self- 
sacrificing devotion if the savages would only spare the lives 
of the little ones under his charge and care. But no! the 
tender mercies of the heathen are cruel, and so a perfect holo- 
caust was made to the Moloch of war by the relentless fiends 
in human form. The schoolhouse was located on the farm 
now occupied by Mr. Henry Diehl, and formerly owned by 
Mr. Christian Koser. It stood in a cleared' field, at the head 
of a deep ravine, surrounded by a dense forrest. Down this 

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170 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

ravine the savages fled a mile or two until they struck 
Conococheague Creek, along the bed of which, to conceal their 
tracks, they traveled to the mouth of Path Valley, up which 
and across the mountains, they made good their escape to their 
village, near the Ohio. 

It is some relief to know that this diabolical deed, whose 
recital makes us shudder even at this late date, was disapproved 
by the old warriors when the marauding party of young Indians 
came back with their horrid trophies. Neephaughwhe«e, or 
Night Walker, an old chief or half-king, denounced them as a 
pack of cowards for killing and scalping so many children. 

But who can describe the agony of those parents in the 
Conococheague settlement weeping like Rachel for her children 
and refused to be comforted ? Or who can describe the horror 
of the scene in that lonely log school house, when one of the 
settlers chanced to look in at the door to ascertain the cause 
of the unusual quietness? 

In the center lay the faithful Brown, scalped and lifeless, 
with a Bible clasped in his hand. Around the room were 
strewn the dead and mangled bodies of seven boys and two 
girls, while little Archie, stunned, scalped and bleeding, was 
creeping around among his dead companions, rubbing his hands 
over their faces and trying to gain some token of recognition. 

A few days later the innocent victims of savage atrocity 
received a common sepulchre. All were buried in one large 
rough box at the border of the ravine, a few rods from the 
school house where they had been so ruthlessly slaughtered. 
Side by side, with head and feet alternately, the little ones 
were laid with their master, just as they were clad at the time 
of the massacre.*' 

This story shows the perils as well as the devotion of the 
frontier schoolmaster. 

How long Karl Sheibeler served as schoolmaster in the 
Zion's or Herold's school, the records do not reveal, but the 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 171 

records of the annual settlements of the Lutheran and Re- 
formed Congregations indicate that the school was continued 
without interruption. 

In September, 1810, we have the first record of the school- 
mastership of John Michael Zundel. He served continuously 
in this settlement and neighboring settlements until May, 1827. 
After considerable search we located his grave in a little neg- 
lected cemetery near Mt. Pleasant, Pa. The inscription on the 
tomb stone is as follows : "Hier ruhet Johan Michael Zundel. 
Er ward geboren den 25ten Julius 1757 und starb den 14ten 
August 1844. Sein ganzes Alter war 87 Yahren und 19 tagen." 
"Selig sind die reines herzens sind, denn sie werden Gott 
schauen." 

We were told the following* incidents relating to Michael 
Zundel and his work by Mrs. Salome Miller, nee Leasure, of 
Armburst, Pa., iil the year 1912. Mrs. Miller was then in her 
ninety-third year but was well preserved in health and had a 
remarkably clear memory. She was born March 31, 1819, and 
as a little girl was a pupil of "Grandpa" Zundel, as his pupils 
affectionately called him. She remembered him as a little old 
man with side whiskers who was a "Vorsteher" (Deacon) in 
Herold's Church. He lived at that time (probably 1829) on 
the "Yar" Adam Schneider's place, later the Goodlin farm. 

When not busy teaching at Herold's he would organize 
schools at various places wherever scholars could be assembled 
and a room secured for their comfort. While teaching such 
a school at Keppels near Feightner's school house, he boarded 
with Mrs. Leasure, a widow, mother of Mrs. Miller, who lived 
on the Heckler farm. The term of school was three months. 
Tuition was fifty cents a month per pupil, and there were 
generally about twelve pupils; making a monthly salary of 
six dollars: and eighteen dollars per term. 



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172 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Mrs. Miller also related how her own tuition was remitted 
because her mother was very poor. The Bible and Luther's 
Catechism were the text books. All instruction was in German. 
The curriculum comprised the four R's: Reading, 'Kiting, 
'Rithmetic, and Religion. The schoolmaster found means out 
of his "liberal" salary to offer prizes and ofttimes to remit part 
of the tuition for work well done. 

Granted that the schoolmaster could arrange two such 
terms in a year, we find his total money income to be about 
$36.00 per year. Schoolmaster Zundel supported his wife and 
four children upon his salary and by working for the farmers 
in harvest time. This work was paid for largely in produce. 

We must remember that during these times there were no 
state public schools. The schools were under church influence 
or were conducted by individuals and societies. 

Mrs. Miller remembered the old school house at Herold's. 
It was first built as a one-room log house: There was one door 
facing the east and one window opposite the door. The floor 
was of puncheon, the seats of hewn logs made into benches. 
At first the window lights ^ere of greased paper; later we read 
in the Annual settlement of the Church, of an item of expendi- 
ture "for glass in schoolhouse, 8 shillings." This was in 1792. 
As glass was then $n imported novelty this item shows how 
highly these settlers rated their school and how progressive 
they were to improve the equipment of their school. It is 
probable that this was the only school house west of the 
AUeghenies that had a glass window. 

About the time Michael Zundel became schoolmaster, 
probably in order to furnish him a house, a second story was 
added to the school house. This second story extended beyond 
the main building in order to afford protection to the doorway 
to the schoolroom and also to give room for an entrance to the 
second story. This entrance to the second story was not very 
elaborate. It consisted of a trap door in the floor of the 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 173 

extended story and a ladder which could be drawn up at night. 
There was no provision for a stove or fireplace in the second 
story; the only heat obtainable was from the fireplace in the 
schoolroom below. The cooking for the family was done out- 
side the house in an open fireplace. Thus in winter and sum- 
mer it was necessary for the schoolmaster and his good help- 
meet, upon arising in the morning, to open the trap door, let 
down the ladder, then descend to the ground outside the school 
house, clear away the snow, if it be winter, then build a fire, 
from the glowing embers secured in the school house fireplace, 
or start the fire anew with flint and steel and punk, and finally 
prepare the morning meal. 

In this second story of the school house, schoolmaster 
Zundel lived many years. Here his children were born and 
reared until the eldest was probably fourteen years of age. 
Notwithstanding such hardships, Michael Zundel lived to see 
his eighty-seventh year and he became the progenitor of a long 
line of schoolteacher, some of whom have succeeded him in 
the Herold's school. 

After moving from the school house in 1827, he lived for a 
time on the "Yar'* Adam Schneider farm and later lived with 
his daughter near IVIt. Pleasant, Pa., and was buried in the 
private cemetery on the Schneider farm. 

In the year 1828 George Eisenmann moved into the school 
house and in 1829 he built a tenant house on the Church farm 
and removed thither. This log house stood until the present 
generation. George Eisenmann taught the school and led the 
congregational singing for many years. 

Herold's school has had a continuous history since 1772, 
a period of one hundred and fifty years. When the state 
schools were authorized Hefold's school became a district 
school and continues as such to the present in Hempfield 
Township, Westmoreland County. 



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174 / History of Old Zion Evangelical 

List of Teachers 

Balthasar Meyer 1772-1792 Art A. Keener 1891-1892 

Karl Scheibeler 1793 Art A. Keener 1892-1893 

John Michael Zundel. .1810?- 1827 (Dr.) A. N. Pershing ..1893-1894 

George Eisenmann .... 1828 Art A. Keener 1894-1895 

Mr. Lemke Art A. Keener 1895-1896 

Mr. Thompson Albert M. Zundel, Jr.. .1896-1897 

Mr. Kemp Albert M. Zundel, Jr... 1897- 1898 

Michael Keener W.W.Henry 1898-1899 

William Sullenberger Albert M. Zundel,. Jr.. . 1899-1900 

Abram Altman J. E. Ferguson 1900-1901 

David Altman Robert M. Zundel 1901-1902 

H. C. Harrold Robert M. Zundel 1902-1903 

Andrew Guffey Jennie E. Bailey 1903-1904 

Irving Tarr Mack Reed 1904-1905 

W. F. Scheibler H. J. Holtzer 1905-1906 

Malinda Algire H. J. Holtzer 1906-1907 

John Sweeney 1875-1876 Robert M. Zundel 1907-1908 

James Sweeney 1876-1877 Carrie Kennedy 1908-1909 

Mattie Shields 1877-1878 Carrie Kennedy 1909-1910 

Abe Musick 1878-1879 Robert M. Zundel 1910-1911 

(Dr.) George Miller . . 1879-1880 Robert M. Zundel 1911-1912 

David Bush 1880-1881 F. Wayland Bailey .... 1912-1913 

H. A. King (Esq.) .... 1881-1882 Edna Tyler 1913-1914 

H. A. King (Esq.) ....1882-1883 Lyda Ruhe 1914-1915 

G. M. Allshouse 1883-1884 Lulu Felters 1915-1916 

(Rev.) John A. Zundel . . 1884-1885 Ethel Fink 1916-1917 

(Rev.) John A. Zundel. . 1885-1886 Ethel Fink 1917-1918 

(Dr.) Elmer E. Wible. .1886-1887 Miss Whitehill 1918-1919 

(Dr.) Elmer E. Wible. .1887-1888 Rev. G. L. Courtney . . . .1919-1920 

John F. Wright 1888-1889 Prof. R. M. Zundel .... 1920-1921 

(Rev.) John A. Zundel . .1889-1890 Prof. H. J. Holtzer . . . .1921-1922 

John F. Goodlin 1890-1891 Miss Devit 1921-1922 

In 1S24 when the state first tried to assert its authority 
over the education of the children of the state, the (jerman 
settlers protested. Many have criticised the German settlers 
unjustly because they protested against the state taking away 
from them the right to oversee the education of their own 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 175 

children. Such an eminent authority as Wickersham does not 
do them justice. 

We must understand that the province and state for nearly 
one hundred fifty years was indifferent to education; and the 
German settlers, realizing the need, established schools in con- 
nection with their churches and maintained them effectually 
during all these years. The state laws of 1824 and 1834 almost 
amounted to confiscation of property and rights. 

Another basis of protest was on account of the banish- 
ment of religion from the schools. These intelligent settlers 
clearly saw that religion could not be continued in schools 
suported by the state. The religions of the German settlers 
required education as the basis of communicant membership 
in their churches. They always insisted that the candidate 
have an intelligent grasp of the fundamental doctrines of the 
Christian religion and the Confessions of their church before 
he was admitted to communicant membership. 

The two leading denominations among the German ele- 
ment were the Lutheran and German Reformed. These two 
churches have always maintained an educated ministry, re- 
quiring the regular college course and three years of special 
training in a theological seminary before the candidate was 
ordained to the ministry: for example. Rev. Henry Melchior 
Muehlenberg sent his three sons to Halle University for their 
education. Exceptions were made to this rule during the early 
colonial period, but the standard was always maintained. 

The laity of these churches have always ranked high in 
intelligent grasp of the principles of their religion. The reason 
their early contemporaries spoke of them as the "dumb Dutch" 
was because the education of the German settlers was in 
German and not in English, and many of their contemporaries 
were too ignorant to appreciate and too bigoted to admit that 
the German settlers were educated. Illiteracy, then common 
among the pioneers, was almost unknown among the early 



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^176 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

German settlers. We have read their documents and have 
seen their signatures and know whereof we speak. So far as 
we know it has never been necessary for. the early Gerrrian 
settler to make his mark in signing a document. 

Thus we see that the new school laws deprived them of the 
control of their schools and of their German culture and 
language, and also of the religious educational basis for their 
church development. 

The opposition of the German to the laws of 1824 and 
1834 was not against education, as some have wrongly inter- 
preted it, but it was against the assumption of a new power by 
the state. This question is not yet settled satisfactorily and is 
the greatest problem before our state and national school 
systems. The church needs education as well as the state. The 
church founded the schools, the state has assumed supreme 
authority. That the church and the home have rights in the 
education of the children but few will deny, but the problem 
remains to be solved as to how these rights are to be recognized 
and granted by the state. This problem could have been solved, 
probably more easily a century ago thari now. It is a mark of 
the intelligent foresight of the German settlers that they real- 
ized the problems before them and protested against this un- 
warranted action of the state. 

In order to have a religious educational basis for their 
church work and to preserve the (jerman culture and language, 
a number of the German congregations maintain parochial 
schools today. These schools fulfill the requirements of the 
school laws and teach religion and the German language in 
addition. They are supported entirely by the local congrega- 
tion. Almost every German congregation, when financially 
able, maintains a parochial school. There are probably twenty- 
five such schools among the Protestants and a greater number 
among the Roman Catholics in Western Pennsylvania. 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 177 

Our histories of the present give scant attention to things 
other than politics and legislation. In the future when histories 
properly evaluate the social, religious, educational and economi- 
cal as well as the political elements that function in society and 
the state, then will the quiet, peace-loving, genial, honest, in- 
dustrious German receive proper recognition for what he has 
done to build up our Commonwealth west of the Alleghenies. 

Brush Creek School 

The settlement at Brush Creek, Hempfield Township, 
Westmoreland County, was made about 1770. This commu- 
nity was closely connected with Zion settlement at Herold*s, 
and probably teachers were interchanged and when a vacancy 
existed in one settlement it was temporarily filled by the school- 
master from the other settlement. Here in Brush Creek the 
schoolmaster was both teacher and pastor until the arrival of 
Rev. Luetge in 1782 and Rev. Weber in 1783. 

There were several persons who filled this office in the 
Brush Creek church at different times, among whom were 
Michael Zundel and George Bushyager. Provision was made 
for the education of the children and youth, as well as for the 
worship of Almighty God, as soon as circumstances permitted. 
A house was erected to be used as a schoolhouse and also a 
place of divine worship. This house was built of rough logs, 
split logs for floor and hewn logs for seats, and was very 
primitive in all its appointments. It stood a few rods north of 
the present church. It served a good purpose for the time 
being till a more commodious building could be erected; but 
during one of those dreadful Indian raids which were then a 
frequent occurrence, it was burned, leaving the poor colony 
without a school or a church. "- 

After the schoolhouse was destroyed by the Indians, the 
school was conducted in private houses and at Fort Walthour, 



2Ullery, Southern Conference History. 

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178 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

until a new church and schoolhouse could be built. The in- 
struction was in German, the Bible and Catechism were the 
main textbooks. The curriculum consisted of the four R's: 
Reading, 'Riting, 'Rithmetic, and Religion. During the transi- 
tion from the German to the English language, English was 
introduced and upon the formation of the State school system, 
the school became a township school and continues to this day. 

Fayette County School 

In German Township, Fayette County, Mr. Johannes 
Stauch was schoolmaster from 1791 to 1793, when he was 
ordained a minister of the Lutheran Church. This settlement 
was made about 1775 and a school was established at an early 
date. 

Greensburg Schools 

After the burning of Hannastown (1782) a state road 
was laid out from Fort Ligonier to Pittsburgh by way of New- 
town, now called Greensburg. In December, 1785, Newtown 
was made the county seat of Westmoreland County, and in 
the spring of 1786 a court house was built by Anthony Altman, 
a German. In fact there was a sharp competition at first as 
to whether the courts of the county should be held at Pitts- 
burgh, at Hannastown, or at Newtown. Pittsburgh was 
eliminated by legislative enactment; then the contest was be- 
tween Hannastown and Newtown. Now the Germans had 
settled mainly south of or near to the new state road, hence 
they favored Newtown. Among those most influential in 
bringing the courts to Greensburg, were Michael Ruch, com- 
missioner, Christopher Truby, Ludwig Otterman, citizens of 
Newtown and land owners, and John Miller, Justice of the 
Peace. All these were Germans. The name of the town was 
changed from Newtown to Greensburg in 1786. 

In 1784 a schoolhouse was built by general subscription in 
St. Clair cemetery near a spring. Here Schoolmaster Karl 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 179 

Sheibeler, a Revolutionary War veteran, taught school. This 
German school, later changed to English, is continued in the 
splendid school system of Greensburg today. 

We see the influence of the German element in Greensburg 
when we note that a large part of the site of Greensburg was 
owned by Germans. The first court house was built by a 
German. The first school was conducted by Germans, and the 
first church was built by the Germans. The first bank was 
conducted by Sheibeler, a German. 

As we have seen from the foregoing illustrations, it was 
a settled policy of the German settlers to erect school houses 
and support schools. These schools were for the children of 
the entire settlement and were free schools to all the children, 
although supported by the subscriptions of those able to pay. 
We note also, in many cases, the use of the gentle art of per- 
suasion instead of the rod, as the incentive to study. We 
nowhere note the brutality in the early German schools that 
existed in the English schools of later date. The German 
"Schulmeister" was a father to his pupils, their protector in 
danger, their counsellor and friend. 

Academies, Colleges 

In higher education we know of no schools established and 
supported upon this territory by the strictly German settlers. 
The earlier settlers, as soon as organized into churches, sup- 
ported colleges in Eastern Pennsylvania, such as Franklin 
College, founded 1787, which was largely governed by the 
German element in Eastern Pennsylvania. They also sup- 
ported Gettysburg Seminary, 1826, and College, 1832, when 
founded. Also Capital University, Columbus, Ohio. 

The first attempt to establish an institution of higher learn- 
ing in Western Pennsylvania by the German element, now 
rapidly becoming anglicised, was by the Pittsburgh Synod of 
the Evangelical Lutheran Church at Zelienople, Pa. Rev. Gott- 

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180 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

lieb Bassler was at the head of the school. In 1848 the school 
was moved to Greensburg and called "The Muehlenberg Col- 
legiate Institute." Prof. W. P. Ruthrauflf was principal and 
Mr. Asa H. Waters and Miss Mary A. Haft, assistant teachers. 
This school continued but two years and was then closed.^ 

The Westmoreland classes of the Reformed Church estab- 
lished a college at Mt. Pleasant, Pa., in 1861, under the presi- 
dency of Rev. F. K. Levan. This school was closed in 1868.* 

Other schools were conducted for brief periods by Prof. 
J. R. Titzel at Zelienople, and by Prof. D. McKee at Leechburg. 

In 1866 Thiel Hall was opened at Phillipsburg, now 
Monaca. In 1869 through the benefaction of Mr. Louis Thiel^ 
the property of Thiel Hall was conveyed to the Pittsburgh 
Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church with the condition 
that the Academy be erected into a college. The gift was ac- 
cepted; a Charter was secured from the State Legislature 
April 14, 1870, and Thiel Hall became Thiel College. -^ > 

In 1870 the college was moved to Greenville, Pa., where 
it has since prospered. The college is co-educational and is 
equipped for high class work in the courses that are offered. 
The library contains 9,540 bound volumes and is being con- 
stantly enlarged. A new Administration building was opened 
for use in September, 1913, and a gymnasium in 1922. The 
campus consists of 34 acres of land, beautifully situated at the 
forks of the Big and Little Shenango rivers. 

In 1874 Prof. Lucian Cort organized a school on Bunker 
Hill, Greensburg, Pa,, known as a "Female Seminary.*' Later 
both sexes were admitted and the school was known as 
"Greensburg Seminary." Prof. Cort conducted this school 
under the control of the Pittsburgh Synod of the Reformed 
Church, for fourteen years, when the control passed into the 



^Ullery, History Southern Conference. 

-^'History of the Reformed Church within the bounds of the West- 
moreland Classis. 



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Lutheran Church, Gkeensburg, Pa. 181 

hands of the Lutheran Pastors of Greensburg and vicinity. 
In 1889, "The Educational Society of Westmoreland County" 
was chartered and the property and control of the school passed 
to the society. This school had College Preparatory, Normal 
Training and Musical (instrumental and vocal) courses, and 
in its Business College filled a great need in its locality. In 
the days before the full development of the High School the 
Seminary flourished. Many professional men and school 
teachers received their early training here. Gradually the High 
Schools of the county becarne more efficient and the townships 
paid the tuition of the common school graduate in the nearest 
High School; thus free tuition in the High School began to 
attract students to these institutions. The Seminary had little 
endowment, hence could not meet the competition: so in the 
year 1908 the school closed, the property having been previ- 
ously sold. 

The Pennsylvania German Language 

The language spoken by the German element in Western 
Pennsylvania erroneously called '^Pennsylvania Dutch" is not 
Dutch, neither is it a mixture of High German and English, 
as many believe, but a German dialect derived from Southern 
Germany and Switzerland, where the people still speak a dia- 
lect closely resembling the Pennsylvania German. The word 
"Dutch" as applied to this German dialect probobly has its 
origin in the similarity between "Dutch" and "Deutsch," the 
former meaning Holandish and the latter German. The 
English colonists often made this mistake; sometimes because 
they knew no better and sometimes they used the word "Dutch" 
as a term of reproach and a mark of inferiority. The Dutch 
are a good people, but there is no more reason why the German 
should be called Dutch than the Englishman should be called 
French. 

Dr. Henry W. Gehman, in an article in the Pennsylvania 
School Journal for September, 1915, shows that this German 

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182 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

dialect consists of 5,50(> words, exclusive of English words, 
and that it is very expressive in matters pertaining to everyday 
life. The Germans do not all speak the same dialect, neither 
do the English. The Englishman from Yorkshire has difficulty 
in being understood by other Englishmen. Many Englishmen 
coming to this country cannot be understood by Americans 
because of their peculiar dialect. The New Englander and the 
Southerner have each their peculiar dialect. 

Dialects are no corruption of the literary language. The 
literary language is simply a certain dialect that happened to 
be chosen as a standard. Notwithstanding the literary form, 
dialects continue to exist in all languages, and Pennsylvania 
German is a good South German dialect. 

The German language has two main divisions, the High 
German and the Low German. To the High German group 
belong such dialects as the Bavarian, Saxori, Swabian, Ale- 
manic, and Pennslyvania German. The Low German group 
embraces the English and Dutch dialects. There never has 
been a universal German dialect or language. The modern 
High German, perhaps approaches nearest to it, yet, as we have 
seen, many dialects still flourish. 

Therefore, to say, as some have said, that the Pennsylvania 
German is not 2l language, is aside from the facts. The func- 
tion of a language is to express thought and the Pennsylvania 
German performs that function very well. We may say that 
in domestic affairs the Pennsylvania German performs this 
function better than the English, High German, or the^classical 
languages, Greek and Latin. The only language familiar to 
us, that equals its expressiveness is the Hebrew language. A 
few illustrations will make this plain. Compare the following 
words; in Pennsylvania German, High German and English: 
Gaul, Pferd, Horse; Hutch, Fuellen, Coh; Hammei, Kalb, 
Calf; Biebi, Henne, Hen; Wutz, Schwein, Pig. The Penn- 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 183 

sylvania German approaches more nearly to a nature language 
than the other languages. 

With the early settlers, because of their German education 
and the reading of German books and newspapers, the dialect 
was preserved in relative purity. However, in later years 
when the schools became Anglicised, and English newspapers 
became the newscarriers, there was a decline in the purity of 
the language : many English words being introduced and some- 
times the German grammatical construction was used with 
English words, which often produced an amusing result. This 
practice contributed largely to the ridicule that other national- 
ities heaped upon them. 

The literature of the early German settler was of the High 
German dialect. Nearly every settler possessed Luther's Ger- 
man Bible, a catechism, a praper book, and a hymn book. 
Many had books of sermons and historical works. In fact 
th^ library of the early German settler, in quality and quantity, 
was vastly superior to that of his English contemporaries, and 
superior to the libraries in the homes of the farming and mer- 
chant class today, with a possible exception of cheap fiction, 
among the merchant class. 

Their appreciation of art is shown in the prints of great 
paintings in the homes, by the pictorial editions of the Bible, 
and by the attempt to make their churches beautiful. Even in 
their first rude attempts to build churches, we find a laudable 
attempt to beautify them, and the churches of the Lutheran 
and German Reformed demominations were the most beautiful 
in the country, and in striking contrast, in their day, with the 
severely plain and homely church buildings of their contempo- 
raries. We have already referred to the artistic penwork on 
the Baptismal Certificates. 

How little is known concerning education among the Ger- 
mans in Western Pennsylvania, is shown by the following 
extract from 'The History of Westmoreland County, Penn- 

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184 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

sylvania," published in three volumes, 1906, by John W. 
Boucher. We read in Chapter 26, subject Common Schools, 
** Scarcely any record was kept of our early schools in West- 
moreland County until about 1820, and even for thirty years 
after that they were very meager. Our early settlers, as we 
have said, were almost invariably either English, Scotch-Irish, 
or German. Of these the Germans, or Dutch, as they were 
called, were behind either of the others in their general educa- 
tion and in the establishment of schools. Many of the pioneer 
preachers tried to introduce schools in connection with their 
churches, but their efforts in this direction were crowned with 
a very meager measure of success. The Scotch Presbyterian 
clergy, always more bold and zealous in any cause than the 
Germans, had the better success in the founding of schools." 

The Harold school in Hempfield Township, Westmoreland 
County, Pennsylvania, was founded in 1772, and has been 
instructing children ever since. It was founded by Germans. 

The Greensburg schools were founded by Karl Scheibeler, 
a German, in 1784, and today Greensburg is among the fore- 
most towns in education ; supporting a High School, second to 
none in Western Pennsylvania. 

We know of no English or Scotch-Irish schools in Western 
Pennsylvania before 1772. The country was only opened to 
settlers in 1769. Hence if they had brought portable school- 
houses with them, they could have preceeded the Germans by 
only three years at the most. 

The work of the early Germans in education is notable. 
The reason they have not founded German higher schools and 
colleges is that by the time they became prosperous enough for 
such an enterprise their children were beginning to speak 
English — the official language of the country. The establish- 
ment of public schools by the state met their needs in elemen- 
tary education and the eastern and western colleges received 
their -bright boys and taught them in the two languages. As 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 185 

we have seen, secondary schools were founded to meet their 
needs until the High Schools, State Normal Schools and the 
various colleges developed and offered advantages with free 
tuition. 



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LvTumAi^ Chi/rch, Greensburg, Pa. 229 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



230 History of Old Zion EvAmiEiicAL 

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Lutheran Church, GREENSBuiiG, Pa. 



231 



APPENDIX B 
Communicants 

Selected Lists, 1791-1862) 

Record of Communicants in Herold's or Zion's Church 
in Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County in the year of 
our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, October 11, 1791. 



1 


Jacob Stroh and wife 


35 


Margaretta 


2 


Maria Catherina 


36 


Catherina Kuntz 


3 


Susannah Stroh 


Z7 


Nicholaus Mueller and wife 


4 


Ma^ria Barbara Stroh 


38 


Catherina 


5 


Michael Stroh 


39 


Simon Huber 


6 


Christoph Amelang and wife 


40 


Jacob Mueller and wife 


7 


Anna Catherina 


41 


Anna Maria 


8 


Anna Elizabeth Amelang 


42 


Anna Maria Herold 


9 


Ludwig Staudengauer and 


43 


Peter Eisenman and wife 


10 


wife Elizabeth Margaretta 


44 


Anna Barbara 


11 


Ludwig Ottermann 


45 


Elizabeth Ehrbach 


12 


Maria Esther 


46 


John Kuntz 


13 


George Keit and wife 


47 


Jacob Ruch 


14 


Anna Catherina 


48 


Jacob Steinmetz 


15 


Peter Keit 


49 


Susannah Steinmetz 


16 


Joseph Keit 


50 


Michael Ruch and wife 


17 


Jacob Stroh and wife 


51 


Lucia 


18 


Sarah 


52 


Catherina Zehner 


19 


Andreas Altmann and wife 


53 


Catherina Schneider 


20 


Anna Elizabeth 


54 


Valentine Steiner and wife 


21 


Anna Maria Mechling 


55 


Catherina 


22 


Anna Maria Rab 


56 


Adam Steiner 


23 


Anna Maria Traeg 


57 


Jacob Steiner and wife 


24 


Peter Huber and wife 


58 


Catherina 


25 


Anna Maria 


59 


Catherina Zehner 


26 


William Altmann and wife 


60 


Peter Ruch and wife 


27 


Barbara 


61 


Anna Margaretta 


28 


Susannah Altmann 


62 


Peter Fuchs and wife 


29 


Barbara Altmann 


63 


Anna Margaretta 


30 


Peter Huber 


64 


Catherina Schneider 


31 


George Jacob Altmann 


65 


Anna Maria Sheur 


32 


Magdalena Dorn 


66 


Maria Barbara Sheur 


33 


Jacob Weller 


67 


Sibylla Drubin 


34 


Philip Kuntz and wife 


68 


Philip Keck 



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232 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 



69 Samuel Richara and wife 

70 Juliana Richard 

71 Margaretta Seitgerten 

72 Matthias Bratschwert and 
7Z wife Maria Barbara 

74 Christina Duner 

75 Sarah Haakin 

76 Maria Brucker 

77 Margaretta Bayer 

78 Catherina Kestin 

79 Veronica SuTimisen 

80 Christian Benus 

Communicants^ May 21, 1792, by 
Pastor Steck 

1 Henry Schatz and wife 

2 Eva 

3 Jacob Stroh and wife 

4 Maria Catherina 

5 i Regina Kempf 

6 George Peter Altmann 

7 Andrew Altman and wife 

8 Elizabeth 

9 John Kunkel 

10 Christian Eisenmann and 

11 wife Susannah 

12 William Altman 

13 Peter Eisenmann 

14 Anna Margaretta Scheibel 

15 Catherina Thomas 

16 Frederich Koch 

17 Adam Steiner 

18 Valentine Steiner 

19 Samuel Ritscher and wife 

20 Juliana 

21 David Mechling 

22 John Peter Miller and wife 

23 Catherina 

24 Adam Meyer and wife 
. 25 Catherina 

26 Christian Ruch 

27 Peter Ruch and wife 



28 Margaretta 

29 George Franz 

30 Christian Hartman and wife 

31 Barbara 

32 Abraham Hermann and wife 

33 Sibilla 

34 Philip Beyer and wife 

35 Margaretta 

36 Christian Beyer 

yj Daniel William and wife 

38 Christina 

39 William William 

40 Nicholaus Keppel and wife 

41 Anna Maria 

42 George Dormeyer and wife 

43 Catherina 

44 George Suens and wife 

45 Anna Maria 

46 William Best and wife 

47 Catherina 

48 John Stingier and wife 

49 Anna Maria 

50 Magdalena Stingier ^ 

51 John Stingier 

52 George Stingier 

53 Adam Uhrig and wife 

54 Catherina 

55 Jacob Schmeltzer 

56 Henry Eisenmann and wife 

57 Christina 

58 David Altmann 

59 John Hartmann 

60 Susannah Steinmetz 

61 Daniel Keppel 

62 Frederich Mechling 

63 George Keppel 

64 John Mechling 

65 John Keppel 

66 John Upper 

67 Philip Keppel 

68 John Altmann 



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233 



69 Anna Barbara Eisenmann 

70 Maria Barbara Spingler 

71 Barbara Dorn 

72 Anna Margaretta Stahr 

73 Margaretta Golt 

74 Anna Maria Link 

75 Catherina Link 
^6 Margaretta Dorn 

77 Christina Margaretta Diemer 

.78 Magdalena Dorn 

79 Christina Schneider 

80 Sara Joehl 

81 Catherina Mechling 

82 Maria Jerian 

83 Dorothea 'Henbach 

84 Catherina Bernhart 

85 Catherina Maria Miller 

86 Margaretta Meyer 

87 Hannah Gangwer 

88 Susannah Altman 

89 Maria Altman 

90 Magdalena Kaszner 

91 Thomas Leip and wife 

92 Anna Maria 

93 Anthony RuflF 

94 Catherina Kesten 

95 Barbara Brinken 

96 Henry Kedin 

97 Theobald Keppel 

98 Frederich Reisz 

99 Henry Heilmann 

100 Barbara Scholl 

101 Feronica Summisen 

102 Catherina Tippis 

103 Anna Maria Stupp 

104 Christian Beisch 

105 Christoph Amelang and wife 

106 Catherina 

107 Elizabeth Amelang 

108 Barbara Hermann 

109 Catherina Heinsen 



110 Anna Maria Heinsen 

111 John Mechling 

112 Jacob Mechling 

113 Jacob Fuchs and wife 

114 Catherina 

115 Jacob Steinmetz 

116 Susannah Weber 

117 Margaretta Bayer 

118 Anna Maria Waken 

119 Margaretta Kuehn 

120 Peter Uber and wife 

121 Maria 

122 George J. Altmann and wife 

123 Anna Catherina 

124 ^Martin Lautenschlaeger 

125 Rebecca Schoener 

Communicants at the Herold's or 

Zion's Church in the year of our 

Lord, 1794, April 20. 

1 John Bachman 

2 Valentine Steiner 

3 Michael Gangwer 

4 Jacob Ruch 

5 Dewalt Mechling 

6 Conrad Hag and wife 

7 Anna Elizabeth Hag 

8 Anna Margaretta Hag 

9 Ludwig Oddermann 

10 Jacob Stroh and wife 

11 Maria Catherina 

12 Christian Ehret 

13 Peter Miller and wife 

14 Anna Catherina 

15 John Ehret and wife 

16 Anna Barbara 

17 Nicholaus Miller and wife 

18 Anna Catherina 

19 Martin Froehlich and wife 

20 Anna Margaretta 

21 John Peter Miller and wife 

22 Anna Margaretta 



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234 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 



23 Adam Schneider 

24 John Kunkel and wife 

25 Anna Margaretta 

26 John Peter Ruch and wife 

27 Anna Margaretta 

28 Christoph Uhrig and wife 

29 Anna Catherina 

30 John Peter Ruppert 

31 Christian Eisenman and wife 

32 Susannah 

33 Bardel Kunsz and wife 

34 Anna Christina 

35 Jacob Baumgartner and wife 

36 Anna Catherina 

37 Christoph Fuchs and wife 

38 Susannah 

39 John Froehlich 

40 John Peter Kunkel 

41 Conrad Meyer 

42 John Kunkel and wife 

43 Anna Maria 

44 George Zehner 

45 John Mueckendoerfer 

46 Frederich Maechling 

47 Jacob Zehner 

48 Bastian Kunkel 

49 George Maechling 

50 Frederich Keppel 

51 Ludwig Keppel 

52 Peter Keppel and wife 

53 Anna Catherina 

54 Henry Keppel 

55 George Peter Altman 

56 Anna Mag. Baumgaertner 

57 Andrew Alms and wife 

58 Anna .Catherina 

59 Anna Maria Maechling 

60 Anna Magdalena Bauman 

61 Anna Catherina Waeldisen 

62 Maria Barbara Altman 
dT" Anna Catherina 'Hinsel 



64 Maria Magdalena Zehner 

65 Anna Maria Schneider 

66 Anna Margaretta Schmidt 

67 Susannah Altman 

68 Susannah Mueckendoerfer 

69 Henry Schatz and wife 

70 Eva 

71 Ludwig Stautenhauer 

72 Anna Maria Runscin 

73 Anna Catherina Altman 

74 Jacob Waelcker 

75 Anna Margaretta Belinger 

76 Henry Best and wife 
. n Anna Margaretta 

78 Anna Catherina Waelcker 

79 Wilhelmina Haarbach 

80 Christian Sacksman 

81 Stephan Reinbold 

82 Anna Catherina Best 

83 Samuel Ritscher and wife 

84 Juliana 

85 Andrew Rosenstiehl 

86 Nicholas Keppel 

87 Michael Maechling and wife 

88 Anna Maria 

89 Daniel William and wife 

90 Anna Christina 

91 John Peter Eisenmann and 

92 wife Anna Barbara 

93 William Altman and wife 

94 Anna Barbara 

95 John Peter Uber and wife 

96 Anna Maria 

97 John Peter Altman 

98 Christoph Beyer 

99 Nicholas Scheurer and wife 

100 Anna Maria 

101 John Maechling 

102 Philip Miller and wife 

103 Anna Maria 

104 Henry Eisenman and wif^ 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 



235 



105 Anna Christina 

106 Jacob Friedle and wife 

107 Anna Elizabeth 
108 Martin Ritscher 

109 John Altman and wife 

110 Anna Elizabeth 

111 George Kunsz 

112 George Hag and wife 

113 Anna Elizabeth 

114 Conrad Link 

115 Jacob Maechling and wife 

116 Anna Maria 

117 Jacob Hag and wife 

118 Anna Catherina 

119 John Maechling 

120 Joseph Gangwer 

121 John Schneider 

122 John Ueber 

123 John Miller 

124 Philip Gangwer and wife 

125 Anna Margaretta 

126 John Gangwer 

127 Maria Elizabeth 

128 Nicholas Eisenmann and 

129 wife Anna Catherina 

130 Andrew Altman 
13\ Adam Steiner 

132 Sibylla Trubes 

133 Anna Margaretta Buerger 

134 Anna Margaretta Scheurer 

135 Anna Magdalena Dornis 

136 Anna Catherina Bernhart 

137 Elinor Keppel 

138 Susannah Mahnsch 

139 Susannah Fuchs 

140 Anna Catherina Miller 

141 Hannah Gangwer 

142 Anna Maria Thiemer 

143 Susannah Guebler 

144 Anna Elizabeth Thiemer 

145 Anna Catherina Mueller 



146 Anna Catherina Kunsz 

147 Anna Catherina Zehner 

148 Anna Barbara Steiner 

149 Anna Elizabeth Bricker 

150 Anna Elizabeth Keppel 

151 Susannah Schaerr 

152 Anna Margaretta Dormit 

Commuiiicants in Zion Church 
April 10, 1796 

1 John Peter Miller and wife 

2 Margaretta 

3 William Altman and wife 

4 Barbara 

5 Sewalt Maechling 

6 Jacob Miller and wife 

7 Anna Maria 

8 Jacob Seddhar 

9 Martin Froelich and wife 

10 Margaretta 

11 Joseph Jaeger 

12 Elizabeth Poersching 

13 Susannah Margar. Altman 

14 George <Rosenstiehl 

15 Jacob Rosenstiehl 

16 Frederich Beyer and wife 

17 Margaretta 

18 Barbara Miehleisen 

19 Susannah Mohneschmitt 

20 Catherina Maria Miller 

21 Elizabeth Miller 

22 Michael Gangwer 

23 Peter Stroh and wife 

24 Margaretta 

25 Ludwig Ottermann 

26 Peter Fuchs 

27 Nicholaus Miller and wife 

28 Catherina 

29 Peter Ruch and wife 

30 Anna Margaretta 

31 Conrad Hack 

32 Adam Miller 



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236 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 



33 Jacob Zehner and wife 74 

34 Catherina 75 

35 Samuel Wilnis and wife 76 

36 Christina 77, 

37 William Best and wife 78 

38 Catherina \y 79 

39 John Andrew Holtz SO 

40 George Zehner and wife 81 

41 Anna Maria 82 

42 Catherina Zehner 83 

43 Elizabeth Zehner 84 

44 Christian Eisenman and wife 85 

45 Susannah 86 

46 Jacob Zehner and wife 87 

47 Susannah 88 

48 George Zehner 89 

49 John Miller 90 

50 William Best 91 

51 Jacob Kunsz 92 

52 Christian Miller 93 

53 Jacob Ruch 94 

54 Henry Eisenmann and wife 95 

55 Christina 96 

56 Samuel Poersching 97 

57 Lenora Keppel 98 
5 Christina Marg. Thomas 99 

59 Elizabeth Thiemer 100 

60 Catherina Schmidt 101 

61 Margaretta Sorny 102 

62 Catherina Bastian 103 

63 Maria. Magdalena Zehner 104 

64 Catherina Craepsz 105 

65 Margaretta Schaeurer 106 

66 Anna Maria Craepsz 107 

67 Anna Maria Kunsz 108 

68 Christina Kunsz 109 

69 Magdalena Ruch 110 

70 Sarah Schaerr 111 

71 Hannah Gangwer 112 

72 Valentine Steiner and wife 113 

73 Catherina 114 



Jacob Stroh and wife 

Sarah 

Henry Schatz and wife 

Eva 

John Bachman 

Catherina Bachman 

Philip Kunsz 

Catherina Kunsz 

John Kunsz 

Henry Best and wife 

Margaretta 

Nicholaus Best and wife 

Maria Catherina 

Philip Oberny 

Adam Steiner 

Jacob Klingelschmidt and 

wife Elizabeth 

Michael Kreiger 

William Altman and wife 

Catherina 

Christian Sachsman 

Jacob Waelker 

Jacob Friedle and wife 

Elizabeth 

Michael Zehner 

Jacob Maechling 

Philip Stoll and wife 

Margaretta 

Maria Magdalena Lutz 

Frederich Maechling 

Anthony Walter and wife 

Sarah 

George Hack and wife 

Elizabeth 

Jacob Mahneschmidt 

Peter Ueber 

Abraham Ueber 

Jacob Schmidt 

George Foszstell 

John Maechling 

Jacob Maechling 



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237 



115 Anna Maria Bontz 

116 Christina Kunsz 

117 Margaretta Koehler 

118 Catherina Bernhart 

119 Anna Maria Acker 

120 Margaretta Baerger 

121 Margaretta Linenger 

122 Margaretta Sornys 

123 Ironica Sunner 

124 Catherina Sunner 

125 Catherina Mackendoerfer 

126 Margaretta Bayer 

127 Catherina Schauer 

128 Catherina Klingelschmidt 

129 Elizabeth "Hack 

130 Anna Maria Demon 

131 Eva Kunsz 

132 Catherina Fuchs 

133 Susannah Steinmetz 

134 Wilhelmina Haarbach 

135 Susannah Holtz 

136 Elizabeth Holtz 

137 Christina Heyl 

138 Maria Catherina Soergin 

139 Peter Ueber and wife 

140 Maria 

141 Michael Maechling and wife 

142 Anna Maria 

143 Simon Ueber 

144 Ludwig Keppel 

145 Samuel Haak and wife 

146 Maria 

14^ Catherina Hartman 

148 Anna Margaretta Schaeubel 

149 Anna Maria Keppel 

Commimion list, Zion Church 
October 23, 1796 

1 Valentine Steiner 

2 John Altman 

3 Elizabeth, his wife 

4 Margaretta Miller 



5 William Altman 

6 Maria Barbara, his wife 

7 Frederick Steiner 

8 Susannah, his wife 

9 Joh;i Ehret 

10 Barbara, his wife 

11 David Altman 

12 Susannah, his wife 

13 Abraham Erdman 

14 Sibilla, his wife 

15 John Gongaware 

16 Maria Elizabeth, his wife 

17 Joseph Gongaware 

18 Barbara, his wife 

19 Conrad Poersching 

20 Maria, his wife 

21 Daniel Poersching 

22 Christina, h's wife 

23 Ironica Summen 

24 Elizabeth Poersching 

25 Catherina Uns^ 

26 Anna Maria Miller 
ZJ Salome Scheibel 

28 Anna Maria Matheis 

29 Susannah Maria Schmidt 

30 Elizabeth Franz 

31 Susannah Schaerris 

32 Catherina Best 

33 Margaretta Uhrig 

34 Christina Uhrig 

35 Magdalena Matheis 

36 Anna Maria Ruch 

37 Justina Stroh 

38 John Peter Ruch 

39 Jacob Baumgartner 

40 Magdalena, his wife 

41 John Andrew Holtz 

42 Christian Ruch 

43 Elizabeth, his wife 

44 Michael Ruch 

45 Lusia, his wife 



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History of Old Zion Evangelical 



46 Lenora Keppel 

47 Hannah Gongaware 

48 Magdalena Keppel 

49 Susannah Weber 

50 Adam Schmidt 

51 John Jacob Steinmetz 

52 Daniel Wilmer 

53 Catherina Klingelschmidt 

54 Catherina Baehr 

55 Magdalena Gongaware 

Communion List April 14, 1805 

1 Henry Schatz 

2 Elizabeth Schatz 

3 John Gannewehr 

4 Elizabeth, his wife 

5 Peter Herold 

6 Daniel Herold 

7 Michael Gannewehr 

8 John Bachman ^ 

9 Barbara Breinig 

10 Michael Saddler 

11 Elizabeth Saddler 

12 John Peter Mueller 

13 Margaretta Mueller 

14 Christina Wengert 

15 Adam Meyer 
16 Catherina Meyer 

17 Elizabeth Meyer 

18 Jacob Mueller 

19 Anna Maria Mueller 

20 Christian Eisenmann 

21 Susannah Eisenmann 

22 Jacob Detthar 

23 Peter Kaeppel 

24 Catherina Kaeppel 

25 Philip Fuchs 

26 Christina Fuchs 

27 Philip Mechling 

28 Catherina Mechling 

29 Peter Hansz 

30 Anna Hansz 



31 John Mueller 

32 Nicholas Mueller 

33 Peter Fuchs 

34 'Henry Kaeppel 

35 Ludwig Kaeppel 

36 Lenora Kaeppel 
3? Margaretta Fuchs 
38 Christina Loh 

30 Magdalena Kaeppel 

40 Catherina Schneider 

41 Elizabeth Engen 

42 Michael Eisenmann 

43 Barbara Eisenmann 

44 Michael Welker 

45 Jacob Hausz 

46 Anna Maria Hausz 

47 Adam Bachman 

48 Margaretta Bachmann 

49 John Bachman 

50 Barbara Bachman 

51 Jacob Bachman 

52 Catherina Bachman 

53 Philip Steinmetz 

54 Elizabeth Schmidt 

55 Barbara Scholl 

56 Catherina Miller 

Communion List, May 10, 1812 

1 Jacob Dethor 

2 Peter Herold 

3 John Mueller 

4 Adam Wintling 

5 Adam Bachman 

6 Margaretta, his wife 

7 Jacob Mueller 

8 Anna Maria, his wife 

9 John Stauch 

10 Maria, his wife 

11 John Bachman 

12 Adam Meyer 

13 Michael Gangwehr 

14 Philip Fuchs 



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239 



15 Christina, his wife 

16 Anna Margaretta Fuchs 

17 Andrew Eisenmann 

18 Catherina, his wife 

19 Elizabeth Eisenmann 

20 David Dethor 

21 Peter Fuchs 

22 John Mueller 

23 Susannah, his wife 

24 Jacob Mueller 

25 Adam Steiner 

26 Daniel Herold 

27 Samuel Ritscher 

28 Christian Eisenmann 

29 Susannah, his wife 

30 Samuel Hummel 

31 Jacob Bachman 

32 Catherina, his wife 

33 Catherina Herold 

34 Elizabeth Herold 

35 Susannah Herold 

36 Barbara Mueller 

37 Elizabeth Gangwehr 

38 Anna Maria Altmann 

39 Magdalena Steinmetz 

40 Elenor Kaeppel 

41 Salome Scheibel 

42 Hanna Magdalena Brown 

43 Barbara Altman 

44 Rosina Bender 

45 Michael Zundel 

46 Jacob Hensz 

47 Maria, his wife 

Conununion List April 15, 1821 

1 John Stauch 

2 Maria, his wife 

3 John Adam Bachman 

4 Margaretta, his wife 

5 Christoph Krebs 

6 Christian Eisenmann 

7 Susannah, his wife 



8 John Mueller 

9 Adam Ehret 

10 George Ehret 

11 Christian Ehret 

12 David Mueller 

13 John Mueller 

14 Michael Mueller 

15 Catherina, his wife 

16 George Eisenmann 

17 Barbara, his wife 

18 Elizabeth Ehret 

19 Elizabeth Mueller 

20 Maria Holzer 

21 Daniel Stauch 

22 Catherina Hochenhill 

23 Elizabeth Zehner 

24 Susannah Steiner 

25 Peter Fuchs 
26. Sarah, his wife 

27 Margaretta Fuchs 

28 Philip Fuchs 

29 Christina, his wife 

30 John Herold 

31 Maria Klingelschmidt 

32 Catherina Nelzin 

33 Barbara Bachman 

34 John Bachman 

35 Jacob Bachman 

36 Catherina, his wife 

37 Michael Mueller 

38 Susannah, his wife 

39 John Stauch 

40 Hannah, his wife 

41 John Peter Mueller 

42 Catherina, 'Heil 

43 Henry Mueller 

44 Catherina, his wife 

45 John Schatz 

46 Sarah, his wife 

47 John Mueller 

48 Sarah, his wife 



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240 



History of Old Zion Evangelical 



49 


Henry Kaeppel 


8 


Elizabeth, his wife 


50 


Anna, his wife 


9 


John Miller 


51 


John Mueller 


10 


Elizabeth, his wife 


52 


Susannah, his wife 


V 11 


Adam Bachman 


53 


Susannah Eisenmann 


. 12 


Margaretta, his wife 


54 


Christina Schneider 


13 


Christian Altman 


55 


Hannah Eisenmann 


14 


Barbara, his wife 


56 


Elizabeth Rosenstiehl 


15 


Susannah Eisenmann 


57 


Elizabeth Schumacher 


16 


Catherina Eisenmann 


58 


Peter Eisenmann 


> 17 


Jacob Bachman 


59 


Rosina Bender 


• 18 


Catherina, his wife 


60 


Samuel Hommel 


19 


Eva Schatz 


61 


William Wintes 


20 


Susannah Schatz 


62 


Catherina, his wife 


21 


Catherina Stebson 


63 


Adam Wintes 


22 


Daniel Herold 


64 


Maria, his wife 


23 


Catherina, his wife 


65 


Salome Scheibel 


24 


Peter Braecht 


66 


Andreas Rosenstiehl 


25 


Hannah Eh ret 


67 


Maria Aker 


26 


Sarah Ros 


68 


Catherina Krum 


' 27 


John Bachman 


69 


Susannah Aker 


28 


Jacob Bachman 


70 


Catherina Aker 


29 


Jacob Bachman 


71 


Catherina Musik 


30 


Jacob Miller 


n 


Peter Herold 


31 


Elizabeth Zuncel 


73 


Susannah Wenzel 


32 


Jacob Schatz 


74 


Andrew Eisenmann 


33 


Esther, his wife 


75 


Catherina, his wife 


34 


Barbara Miller 


76 


Adam Steiner 


35 


Catherina Heinrich 


77 


Jacob Haensz 


36 


Jacob 'Haensz 


78 


Israel Haensz 


37 


Jacob Miller 


79 


Lydia Haensz 


38 


Lydia Miller 


80 


Henry Steiner 


39 


William Wender 


81 


Michael Haple 


40 


Catherina, his wife 


Connnunicants. May. 1831 


41 


John Herold 


1 


Peter Fuchs 


42 


Catherina, his wife 


2 


Sarah, his wife 


V 43 


Jacob Bachman 


3 


Daniel Steiner 


44 


Jacob Haensz 


4 


Maria, his wife 


45 


Philip Fuchs 


5 


John Bachman 


46 


Christina, his wife 


6 


Susannah, his wife 


47 


Peter Fuchs 


7 


Daniel Henrich 


48 


Henry Miller 



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241 



49 Catherina, his wife 

50 George Eisenmann 

51 Barbara, his wife 

52 Henry Fuchs 

53 Maria, his wife 

54 John Fuch 

55 Salome, his wife 

56 Jacob Bender 

57 Esther, his wife 

58 Michael Miller 

59 Susannah, his wife 

60 Elizabeth Miller 

61 John Stauch 

62 Hannah, his wife 

63 George Mayer 

64 Peter Miller 

65 Sarah, his wife 

66 Rosina Bender 

67 Christoph Krebs 

68 John Schatz 

69 Sarah, his wife 

70 Ludwig Keppel 

71 Catherina Schneider 
12 Maria Keppel 

ITi Susannah Keppel 

74 Catherina Keppel 

75 Christian Eisenmann 
Id Margaretta, his wife 
n Catherina Kner 

78 Maria Miller 

79 Adam Ehret 

80 David Ehret 

81 Lydia Baer 

-82 Barbara Bachman 

83 Maria Baum 

84 Maria Rorrer 

85 Peter Miller 

86 Frederich Haensz 

87 Catherina, his wife 

88 Susannah Baum 

89 Susannah Wenzel 



90 Philip Miller 

91 Catherina, his wife 

92 Daniel Runs 

Commumcants, May 17, 1840 

1 Peter Bachman 

1 2 Jacob Bachman 

3 Susannah Kuns 

4 Barbara Bachman 

5 Susannah Krach 

6 John P. Miller 

7 Sarah Heisli 

8 Margaretta Bachman 

9 Margaretta Bachman 

10 Henry Kunkel 

11 Esther, his wife 

12 George Eisenmann 

13 Elizabeth Gangwer 
V 14 Daniel Bachman 

15 Susannah Lang 

16 Hannah Eisenmann 

17 David Kuns 

18 Daniel Henrich 

19 Elizabeth, his wife 

20 Barbara Henrich 

21 John L. Miller 

22 Elizabeth, his wife 

23 Henry MiUcr 

24 Catherina, his wife 

25 Jacob Haensz 

26 Catherina, his wife 
2J Peter Eisenmann 

28 William Wendeck 

29 Catherina, his wife 

30 Jacob Wendeck 

31 Catherina, Wendeck 

32 Catherina Krach 

33 John Eisenmann 

34 Catherina Miller 

35 Susannah Henrich 

36 Benjamin Detar 
yj Samuel Keppel 



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38 


Catherina Keppel 


79 


Sarah, his wife 


39 


Elizabeth Keppel 


80 


Jacob Weiman 


40 


Elizabeth Detar 


81 


Christopher Krebbs 


41 


Susannah Detar 


82 


Levi Krebbs 


42 


Lydia Detar 


83 


Susannah Krebbs 


43 


Pat. Tomas 


84 


Israel Haensz 


44 


Samuel Schmelser 


85 


Susannah, his wife 


45 


Sarah, his wife 


86 


Joseph Miller 


46 


Margaret Schmidt 


87 


John Schatz 


47 


Daniel Altman 


88 


Sarah, his wife 


48 


Maria, his wife 


89 


Maria Bender 


49 


Joseph Eisenman 


90 


George Mayer 


50 


Philip Eisenman 


91 


Catherina Schneider 


51 


Michael Miller 


92 


Henry Steiner 


52 


Susannah, his wife 


93 


Maria, his wife 


53 


Susannah Baum 


94 


Christian Mayer 


54 


John Miller 


95 


Agnes Schneider 


55 


Susannah, his wife 


96 


Fronica Scheily 


56 


Michael Eisenman 


97 


Andrew Eisenman 


57 


Elizabeth, his wife 


98 


Esther, his wife 


58 


Margaret Eisenmann 


99 


Christian Altman 


59 


Jacob Miller 


100 


Barbara, his wife 


60 


Daniel Miller 


101 


Philip Fuchs 


61 


Jacob Schatz 


102 


Christina, his wife 


62 


Esther, his wife 


103 


Maria Fuchs 


63 


Jacob Bachman 


104 


John Knerr 


64 


Sarah, his wife 


105 


Adam Steiner 


65 


George Miller 


106 


Susan Wentzel 


66 


Esther, his wife 


107 


Leise Rosenstiehl 


67 


Jacob Miller 


108 


Susannah Menzch 


68- 


Maria, his wife 


109 


John Herold 


69 


Andrew Eisenmann 


110 


Catherina, his wife 


70 


Catherina, his wife 


111 


Elizabeth Herold 


71 


Susan Eisenman 


112 


Catherina Eisenman 


n 


Maria Eisenman 


Communicants, May 30, 1852 


73 


Henry Schmidt 


1 


John Stauch 


74 


Susan Mayer 


2 


Elizabeth, his wife 


75 


Christina Weiman 


3 


John Miller 


76 


Elizabeth Miller 


4 


Maria Miller 


n 


George Krebs 


5 


Susannah Miller 


n 


Samuel Krebs 


6 


Catherina Miller 



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7 


John Bachman 


48 


David Steiner 


8 


Susannah Bachman 


49 


Sarah, his wife 


9 


Margaretta Bachman 


50 


George Miller 


10 


Peter Bachman 


51 


David Mileisa 


11 


Susannah Wentzel 


\^52 


Lewit Bachman 


12 


John Anderson 


53 


Lydia 'Henrich 


13 


Maria, his wife 


54 


Jacob Herold 


14 


Daniel Bachman 


55 


Ruben Kuns 


15 


Catherina, his wife 


56 


Jonas Eisenmann 


16 


John Knerr 


57 


Andrew Eisenmann 


17 


Elizabeth Bieker 


58 


Esther, his wife 


18 


George Eisenman 


59 


Michael Steiner 


19 


Sarah, his wife 


60 


Lawina Henrich 


20 


Henry Miller 


61 


Joseph Schmidt 


21 


Catherina, his wife 


62 


Lydia, his wife 


22 


Maria Mayer 


63 


Margaret Wentzel 


23 


Samuel Krebbs 


64 


Emmanuel Schmelcer 


24 


Sarah, his wife 


65 


David Miller 


25 


Levi Stauch 


66 


John Herold 


26 


Esther Stauch 


67 


Elizabeth, his wife 


27 


Joseph Steiner 


68 


Catherina Herold 


28 


Susannah Steiner 


68 


Elizabeth Lang 


29 


Jacob Steiner 


70 


Isaac Keppel 


30 


Jun, his wife 


71 


Henry Gudlin 


31 


Elizabeth Steiner 


72 


Hannah, his wife 


32 


Elizabeth Nybbel 


73 


John Miller 


33 


John Steiner 


74 


Jacob Steiner 


34 


Sophia, his wife 


75 


Maria, his wife 


35 


Emanuel Kuns 


76 


Jacob Altman 


36 


Jacob Fuchs 


77 


Leah, his wife 


37 


Elizabeth, his wife 


78 


Samuel Schmeltzer 


38 


Tobias Henrich 


79 


Sarah, his wife 


39 


George Becker 


80 


Joseph Detar 


40 


John Miller 


81 


Joseph Miller 


41 


John Krebbs 


82 


Abraham Altman 


42 


Susannah Baum 


83 


Susannah Wentzel 


43 


Catherina Wentzel 


84 


Maria Bender 


44 


William Heinrich 


85 


Samuel Herold 


45 


Henry Bachman 


86 


Michael Miller 


46 


Leah, his wife 


87 


Susannah, his wife 


47 


Maria Wentzel 


88 


George Mayer 



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89 Cyrus Eisenman 

90 Catherina Schneider 

91 Maria Steiner 

92 Ferniz Nole 

93 Debora Jung 

94 Daniel Henrich 

95 Elizabeth, his wife 

96 Sarah Henrich 

97 John Herold 

98 Leah Bear 

99 Daniel Schneider 

100 Catherina, his wife 

101 Michael Miller 

102 Leah, his wife 

103 Leonard Miller 

104 Lucinda, his wife 

105 David Kuns 

106 Georgia Wendek 

107 Lydia Weis 

108 Maria Mileisa 

109 Susannah Mileisa 

110 John Eisenmann 

111 Susannah Eisenmann 

112 Joseph Gangwer 

113 Lydia, his wife 

114 Elizabeth 

115 Jacob Becker 

116 Elizabeth, his wife 

117 Henry Fuchs 

118 Maria, his wife 

119 Lydia Fuchs 

120 Jacob Bayer 

121 Benjamin Detar 

122 Daniel Williams 

123 Nicholas Miller 

124 Elizabeth, his wife 

125 Reuben Herold 

126 Henry Blank 

127 Louisa, his wife 

128 Christian Altman 

129 Barbara, his wife 



130 Henry Steiner 

131 Lovina Steiner 

132 Magdalena Steiner 

133 Maria Steiner 

134 Maria Steiner 

135 Lydia Bear 

136 Michael Eisenman 

137 Elizabeth, his wife 

138 George Eisenman 

139 Catherina Eisenman 

140 Joseph Eisenman 

141 Elizabeth, his wife 

142 Catherina Eisenman 

143 Susannah Eisenman 

144 Lydia Altman 

145 Hannah Altman 

146 Sarah Eisenman 

147 Maria Detar 

148 Lovina Detar 

150 Margaretta Rifer 

151 Susannah Detar 

152 Elizabeth Kuns 

153 Maria Bear 

154 Esther Eisenman 

155 Leah Altman 

156 Susannah Kuns 

157 Susannah Kuns 

158 Betty Masenstein 

159 Adlina Madier 

160 Benjamin Eisenman 

161 Catherina, his wife 

162 Maria Tomas 

163 Anna Bratrich 

164 John Seatz 

165 Anna, his wife 

166 Michael Haehns 

167 Susannah, his wife 

168 Catherina Haehns 

169 Leah Haehns 

170 Jacob Altman 

171 John Schatz 



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172 Sarah, his wife 

173 Maria Miller 

174 Mrs. Welsh 

175 Anna Miller 

176 Maria Muehleisen 

177 Mrs. Steiner 

178 Margaret Sadler 

179 Sarah Bambach 

180 Lovina Heasly 

181 Elizabeth Aeret 

May 11, 1862 

1 John J. Weinman 

2 Catherina, his wife 

3 John Weinman 

4 George Weinman 

5 Regina Weinman 

6 Catherina Strobel 

7 John Loughner 

8 Harriet Loughner 

9 Susannah Steiner 

10 Mary Steiner 

11 Andrew Wineman 

12 Carolina, his wife 

13 Lucy Ehret 

14 Lydia Bear 

15 Eli McCartney 

16 Elizabeth McCartney 

17 Jacob Altman 

18 Leah Altman 

19 Jacob Eisaman 

20 John Stough 

21 Elizabeth Stough 

22 David Smith 

23 Elizabeth Smith 

24 Mary Wentzle 

25 , Mary Low 

26 Susannah Baum 

27 Ester Shotts 

28 Lovina Haines 

29 Elizabeth Bricker 

30 Elizabeth Nipple 



31 Anna Fox 

32 Susanna Long 

33 Elizabeth Eisaman 

34 Julian Farver 

35 Elizabeth Kuhnz 

36 Lyda Wise 

37 Mary Mclntire 

38 Hannah Goodlin 

39 Sarah Long 

40 Andrew Eisaman 

41 Lewis Eisaman 

42 Esther Eisaman 

43 Catherina Eisaman 

44 Susannah Eisaman 

45 Samuel Smeltzer 

46 Sarah Smeltzer 

47 Sarah Smeltzer 

48 Susannah Smeltzer 

49 Joseph Miller 

50 Daniel Henry 

51 Elizabeth Henry 

52 Margaret Wentzel 

53 Susannah Wentzel 

54 Amos Bierer 

55 Maria Bierer 

56 Henry Miller 

57 John H. Miller 

58 John Henry 

59 Henry Miller 

60 John Miller 

61 Daniel Miller 

62 Christian Altman 

63 Barbara Altman 

64 Oliver Miller 

65 John Miller 

66 Mary Altman 

dl Catherina, Miller 

68 Peter Altman 

69 Leah Altman 

70 Michael Eisaman 

71 Elizabeth Eisaman 



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72 Joseph Gongawere 

7Z Lydia Gongawere - 

74 Elizabeth Gongawere 

75 Mary Painter 

76 Jacob Errett 

77 Susana Errett 

78 Solomon Fry 

79 Susan Fry 

80 William Altman 

81 Catherina Altman 

82 Joseph Smith 

83 Lucinda Smith 

84 David Kuhns 

85 John Fox 

86 Mary Fox 

87 Daniel Steiner 

88 Adam Miller 

89 John Fox 

90 Hannah Allshouse 

91 Susanna Wentzle 

92 Lyda Anna Hoops 

93 Maria Eisaman 

94 Reuben Kuhns 

95 Sarah Kuhns 

96 Mary Anna Long 

97 Simon Eisaman 

98 Franklin J. Baker 

99 Maria Baker 

100 Lucinda Miller 

101 Adam Shotz 

102 Catherina Walthour 

103 Sarah Errett 

104 Jacob Harrold 

105 Harriet Eisaman 

106 Leah Henry 

107 Benjamin Eisaman 

108 Catherina Eisaman 

109 Albert Allshous 

110 Luceta Allshous 

111 Adam Baughman 

112 John Myers 



113 Mary Thomas 

114 Harriet Rohrer 

115 John Shotz 

116 Anne Shotz 

117 Sarah Shotz 

118 Elizabeth Harrold 

119 Joseph Eisaman 

120 Catherina Eisaman 

121 Lewis Gangaware 

122 Simon Miller 

123 Sophia Miller 

124 Nicholas Miller 

125 George Myers 

126 Catherina Keener 

127 Conrad Miller 

128 Sarah E. Harrold 

129 Hannah Harrold 

130 Israel Haines 

131 Sarah Haines 

132 Ellen Kuhns 

133 Hester A. M. Shotts 

134 John -Harrold 

135 Sarah Jane Harrold 

136 Margaretta Baughman 

137 Simon Detar 

138 Albert M. Zundel 

139 Susanna Zundel 

140 Daniel Altman 

141 Caroline Zundel 

142 Michael J. Miller 

143 Leah Miller 

144 Joseph Smith 

145 Jacob Altman 

146 Elizabeth Harrold 

147 Lydia Henry 

148 Susannah Miller 

149 Jacob Miller 

150 Mary Miller 

151 George Stall 

152 Christina Stall 

153 George Eisenmann 



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154 


Catherine Eisenmann 159 Barbara Staul 


155 


Peter Brought 160 Lovina Henry 


156 


George A. Eisaman 161 Michael Fox 


157 


Sarah Eisaman 162 Joseph Fox 


158 


Kate Keener 




APPENDIX C. 



Confirmants 

(Full Lists of all Confirmants, 1792-1862) 
Record of the Confirmants who, in May 26, 1792, in 
Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, in the Herold's 
or Zion's Church, by Pastor Steck, Evangelical Lutheran 
preacher, were confirmed and blessed, and on the following 
day, the 27 of May, for the first time, partook of the Lord's 
Supper. 



No. Name Age 

1 Andrew Dormeyer 18 

2 John George Stemmetz 16 

3 John George Ottermann . . 16 

4 Christoph Amelang 17 

5 John Muecknendoerfer ... 18 

6 John Peter Kunkel 19 

7 John Fridchmann 17 

8 John George Zehner 17 

9 John Jacob Zehner 17 

10 John Jacob Dormyer 15 

11 John Miller 17 

12 Sebastian Kunkel 18 

13 Martin Ritcher 16 

14 John WolflF 18 

15 Abraham Uber 14 

16 Anna Maria Diemer 16 

17 Anna Maria Adolph 18 

18 Anna Margaretta Ruch ... 16 

19 Anna Elizabeth Best 17 

20 Anna Elizabeth Diemer . . 15 

21 Anna Catherina Hartmann 18 

22 Anna Margaretta 
Eisenmann 13 



No. Name Age 

23 Anna Catherina Eisenmann 18 

24 Anna Margaretta Hagen . . 15 

25 Anna Barbara Steiner 18 

26 Anna Catherina Miller ... 16 

27 Anna Catherina Ritshert . 15 

28 Susannah Kueblern 14 

29 Anna Elizabeth Ruch 15 

30 Anna Catherina Bachman. 16 

31 Anna Magdalena Bissen . 16 

32 Anna Maria Keppel 14 

33 Anna Maria Kunsz 15 

34 Maria Catherina Zehner.. 16 

35 Maria Magdalena Zehner. 15 

36 Anna Margaretta 
Williamsen 15 

37 Susannah Scherrer 16 

38 Susannah Mueckendoerf er . 17 

39 Susannah Urich 17 

40 Anna Maria Amelang 18 

41 Susannah Beyer 17 

42 Maria Barbara Altman ... 16 

43 Rosina Hartman 16 



V 



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Confirmed April 20, 1794 
No. Name Age 

1 Christophel Schaeurer 19 

2 John Jacob Laester 18 

3 John Jacob Mahnaschmidt. 17 
4 Mahnaschmidt. 16 

5 John William Best 15 

6 John Philip Klingenschmidt 17 

7 John Philip Beyer 16 

8 John Daniel Saeuberling. . 17 

9 John Jacob Kunsz 15 

10 Henry Kunsz 17 

11 John Ehret 16 

12 John George Rosenstiehl . . 18 

13 John Rosenstiehl 15 

14 Christian Mueller 16 

15 John Jacob Baeumgartner . 20 

16 Franz Baeuerly 36 

17 Anna Catherina Schaeurer. 15 

18 Anna Catherina Ruppert . . 17 

19 Anna Catherina Uhrig 14 

20 Sarah Schaerris 15 

21 Anna Elizabeth Linten 14 

22 Anna Catherina 
Klingenschmidt 15 

23 Anna Magdalena Ruch 15 

24 Anna Maria WolflF 17 

25 Anna Elizabeth Beyer 14 

26 Susannah Margaretta 
Sauberling 15 

27 Eva Catherina Kunsz 15 

28 Anna Catherina Huber ... 15 

29 Anna Barbara Kunkel 14 

30 Anna Maria Bachmann ... 14 

31 Maria Elizabeth Zehner ... 15 

32 Anna Catherina Mattheis . . 17 

33 Anna Magdalena Mattheis . 16 

34 Anna Catherina Juck 17 

35 Anna Elizabeth Juck 15 

36 Anna Elizabeth Spengler . . 14 

37 Rosina Baumgaertner ..... 22 

38 Anna Maria Brinis 16 



Confirmants of the Herold's or 
Zion'8 Church, in the year of our 
Lord 1796, April 9, and on the 10th 
of April, they took communion. 
No. Name Age 

1 Sowald Maechling 17 

2 Peter Ruch 17 

3 John Steiner 16 

4 Samuel Williams 17 

5 Thomas Altmann 25 

6 Conrad Frischmann 18 

7 Michael Zehner 16 

8 Peter Schmidt 20 

9 Christian Zehner 15 

10 John Geiger .-. 18 

11 Philip Mechling 16 

12 Philip Stemmetz 19 

13 Peter Fuchs 16 

14 William Hack 14 

15 Samuel Miller 17 

16 Christian Sacksmann 17 

17 Christian 'Herold 18 

18 Matthew Sacksmann 21 

19 Peter Sacksmann 23 

20 Michael Wallintin 29 

21 Justin Margaretta Stoh 15 

22 Anna Maria Ruch 15 

23 Christina Jaeger 16 

24 Elizabeth Guldisen 19 

25 Magdalena Laeppel 17 

26 Elizabeth Geiger 13 

27 Franzina Mermann 16 

28 Catherina Best 15 

29 Magdalena Ganewehr . . . 15 

30 Susannah Dhaemer 16 

31 Amelia Hacking 16 

32 Catherina Mechling 14 

33 Magdalena Hartmann 15 

34 Anna Maria Gutakunst ... 18 

35 Elizabeth Rohrer 17 

36 Anna Margaretta Uhrig . . 19 

37 Christina Wilhelm 16 



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No. Name Age 

38 Christina Uhrig 13 

39 Catherina Naeuberling 15 

40 Nahemy Williams 14 

41 Barbara Sacksmann 19 

42 Anna Maria Sacksmann . . 15 

43 Catherina Mayer 17 

44 Margaretta Staebel 16 

45 Christina Boersching 19 

46 Elizabeth Hatg 19 

47 Elizabeth Bermes 19 

Confirmants, April 8, 1798 

1 Christian Mahnenschmidt. . 15 

2 Philip Fuchs 16 

3 Michael Ruch 17 

4 Henry Mitbor 18 

5 Henry Zaehner 16 

6 Ludwig Keppel 18 

7 Bernhart Miller 17 

8 Michael Aper 17 

9 Michael Hock 14 

10 Jacob Meckendoerfer 18 

11 Michael Matheus 18 

12 Frederich Walter 12 

13 Susannah Ruch 13 

14 Elizabeth Loeppel 16 

15 Anna Maria Aber 15 

16 Anna Maria Altmann 17 

17 Christina Stroh 16 

18 Elizabeth Struthan 18 

19 Anna Maria Meckendoerfer 15 

20 Eva Bachmann 16 

21 Margaretta Bossert 14 

22 Margaretta Miller 15 

23 Julianna Stoll 18 

Confirmants on April 19, 1801 

1 Jacob Erdmann 17 

2 Michael Wolker 17 

3 Andrew Wahener 21 

4 Jacob Roder 19 

5 John Bachmann 22 



No. Name Age 

6 Jacob Bachmann 25 

7 Martin Koter 16 

8 John Wagner 17 

1 Elizabeth Erdmann 15 

2 Christina Mueller 15 

3 Elizabeth Klingenschmidt. 16 

4 Elizabeth Schatz 15 

5 Catherina Errit 18 

6 Elizabeth Kraebs 14 

7 Anna Hartmann 16 

8 Susannah Wagner 15 

9 Magdalena Koter 17 

10 Christina Wagner 15 

11 Anna Maria Fuchs 16 

12 Maria Hartmann 15 

13 Elizabeth Hartmann 13 

14 Elizabeth Imber 20 

Confirmants, April 13, 1805 

1 Henry Mueller 16 

2 Theobald Brauthoefer .... 20 

3 John Mueller 17 

4 David Sadtler 16 

5 Jacob Mueller 15 

6 Abraham Meyer 22 

7 Daniel Schmidt 19 

8 Samuel Loh 23 

9 Hannah Schatz 14 

10 Magdalena Steinmetz 15 

11 Anna Steinmetz 17 

12 Susan Eisenmann 19 

13 Catherina Fuchs 16 

14 Susannah Indher 19 

15 Susannah Meyer 19 

16 Susannah Schmidt 17 

17 Maria Salome Breyen 19 

18 Maria Widdern 21 

Confirmants, April 20, 1817 

1 John George Herold 20 

2 Peter Eisenmann 17 

3 'Henry Steiner 20 



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No. Name Age 

4 Michael Mueller 17 

5 John Herold 18 

6 George Eisenmann 17 

7 David Mueller 17 

8 William Altman 17 

9 Philip Dethar 18 

10 Martin Branthoefer 24 

11 William Wintel 28 

12 Jacob Bajsr 28 

13 Catherina Eisenmann 16 

14 Catherina Steiner 18 

15 Catherina Bachman 17 

16 Elizabeth Herold 17 

17 Hannah Mueller 15 

18 Susannah Wintel 18 

19 Eva Bachman 17 

20 Elizabeth Schneider 19 

21 Susannah Mueller 17 

22 Anna Maria Schneider 17 

23 Elizabeth Rosenstiehl 15 

24 Elizabeth Dethar 16 

25 Anna Maria Haensz 18 

26 Anna Maria Welschen 31 

27 Magdalena Dethar 24 

28 Eva Koenig 21 

Confirmants, May 16, 1819 

1 Adam Wendel 18 

2 Daniel Stauch 18 

3 Israel Haensz 19 

4 John Mueller 18 

5 Michael Lagly 19 

6 John Bachman 17 

7 Peter Schmidt 20 

8 Daniel Hesz 26 

9 Lydia Haensz 17 

10 Maria Steiner 18 

11 Hannah Eisenmann 16 

12 Barbara Laegly 18 

13 Maria Gangaware 16 

14 Catherina Hockenhill 18 



No. Name Age 

l^AS Barbara Bachmann 16 

16 Susannah Schatz 15 

\7. Elizabeth Mueller 17 

18 Elizabeth Branthoefer 16 

19 Elizabeth Schmidt 19 

Confirmants, April 15, 1821 

1 George Acker 20 

2 Samuel Stauch 19 

3 Michael Eisenmann 18 

4 George Walter 18 

5 Conrad Hockenhill 17 

6 Henry Bachman 17 

7 John Peter Mueller 16 

8 David Schmidt 20 

9 Peter Pracht 26 

10 David Ehret 22 

. 1 1 Hannah Haensz 17 

12 Elizabeth Steiner 18 

13 Anna Maria 'Haerner 17 

14 Sarah Steiner 16 

15 Anna Maria Pahr 16 

16 Anna Nelzin 17 

Confirmants, May 11, 1823 

1 Jacob Steiner 22 

2 George Stauch 18 

3 Daniel Steiner 20 

4 Henry Fuchs '. 19 

5 Christian Altmann 22 

6 Peter Krebs 20 

7 Philip Mueller 19 

8 Jacob Mueller 21 

9 Sarah Haensz 17 

10 Hannah Steiner 19 

11 Esther Bachman 18 

12 Anna Bachman 15 

13 Esther Schaz 16 

14 Catherina Krebs 18 

Confirmants, May 8, 1825 

1 Joseph Stauch 18 

2 Jacob Altman 20 



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No. Nam€ Age 

3 John Fuchs 18 

4 Joseph Gangware 19 

5 Philip Mueller 18 

6 John Mueller 19 

7 George Mayer 21 

8 Frederick Haensz 18 

9 Jacob Schaz 28 

10 David Kistler 27 

11 John Mayer 26 ^ 

12 Maria Magdalena Hohenhill 17 

13 Catherina Mayer 18 

14 Maria Eisenmann 16 

15 Maria Mueller 17 

16 Catherina Eisenmann 18 

17 Salome Kreps 17 

18 Anna Catherina Zundel ... 16 

19 Maria Steiner 17 

20 Maria Keppel 19 

21 Anna Kreps 17 

22 Catherina Keppel 20 

23 Leah Steiner 17 

24 Maria Rosenstiehl 18 

25 Elizabeth Steiner 19 

26 Lydia Mueller 17 

27 Lydia Musik 18 

28 Anna Listler 19 ■ 

29 Barbara Altmann 19 

30 Elizabeth Schmidt 18 

Confirmants, May 14, 1827 

1 Peter Miller 19 

2 Adam Bachman 18 

3 John Bachman 18 

4 Simon Miller 17 

5 Henry Schmidt 19 

6 Daniel Henry 26 

7 John Werner 28 

8 Jacob Ferwer 41 

9 Sarah Fuchs 17 

10 Salmi Miller 17 



No. Natoe Age 

11 Elizabeth Miller 16 

12 Maria Margaretta Fuchs . 19 
ConfirmantSy March 3, 1829 

1 Joseph Steiner 20 

2 Joseph Kreps 19 

3 Peter Fuchs 16 

4 John Eisenmann 18 

5 Jacob Miller 17 

6 Jacob Bachman 17 

7 Jacob Haensz 17 

8 George Haensz 20 

9 Jacob Bachmann 17 

10 Jacob Bachmann 18 

11 Joseph Miller ^. 18 

12 Levi Kreps 18 

13 Daniel Altmann 17 

14 Abraham Hoster 22 

15 George Kolp 31 

16 Jacob Bendner 25 

17 Maria Steiner 18 

18 Elizabeth Zingel 15 

19 Anna Maria Miller 16 

20 Elizabeth Miller — 

21 Anna Barbara Hans 16 

22 Elizabeth Kuns 18 

23 Susannah Bachman 19 

24 Susannah Eisenmann 17 

25 Margaretta Kaufmann ... 23 

Confirmants, Oct 23, 1831 

1 Benjamin Eisenmann 17 

2 George Miller 18 

3 Michael Bachmann 17 

4 Daniel Bachmann 28 

5 Peter Bachmann 16 

6 Samuel Keppel 20 

7 Philip Keppel 22 

8 David Landes 26 

9 Bernhard Kraus 30 

10 Michael Schultz 27 

11 William Rihm 25 



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No. Name Age 

12 Alexander Nelson, with 
baptism 36 

13 Robert Myers 17 

14 Susannah Eisenmann 16 

15 Sarah Miller 18 

16 Lydia Detar 16 

17 Maria Hanselman 36 

18 Susannah Miller 16 

19 Esther Kuhns 19 

20 Sarah Schmelzer 21 

21 Sarah Bachmann 17 

22 Maria Krebs 16 

23 Elizabeth Wendick 16 

24 Susannah Bachman 20 

25 Elizabeth Krack, with 
baptism 18 

26 Susannah Eisenman 19 

27 Catherina 'Hansz 17 

28 Hannah Miller 17 

29 Esther Bernhart 16 

30 Maria Bachman 15 

31 Catherina Herman 22 

32 Priscilla Mayer 22 

Confirmants, May 26, 1833 

1 Jacob Zunzel .* 21 

2 Samuel Eisaman 20 

3 Andrew Eisaman 18 

4 Michael Miller 17 

5 Esther Haensz 17 

6 Susannah Bachman 15 

7 Lucinda Bachman 15 

8 Margaret Fuchs 18 

9 Anna Maria Miller 17 

10 Magdalena Kreps 16 

11 Esther Miller 15 

12 Anna Maria Ei&aman 15 

13 Susannah Miller 16 

14 Henrietta Bohver 16 

15 Lucinda Mayer 20 



Confimiaiits, May 21, 1836 
No. Nam« Age 

1 Joseph Eisaman 20 

2 Leonard Miller 16 

3 John Miller 18 

4 Jacob von Dyk 20 

5 David Keppel 20 

6 Benjamin Better 19 

7 Samuel Krebs 18 

8 Jacob Waiman 17 

9 John Heil 25 

10 Catherina Von Dyk 17 

11 Elizabeth Fuchs 18 

12 Anna Schmidt 19 

13 Elizabeth Keppel 19 

14 Margaretta Schmidt 16 

15 Juliana Schmidt 17 

16 Veronica Keppel 19 

17 Elizabeth Schaester 19 

18 Nora Kuhns 19 

19 Hannah Eisaman 16 

20 Margaret Miller 16 

21 Maria Dettor 18 

22 Rebecca Keppel 28 

ConfirmantSy May, 1839 

1 John Anderson 18 

2 George Ehret 19 

3 Philip Eisaman 21 

4 George Kreps 19 

5 Benjamin Miller 20 

6 Daniel Bachman 19 

7 Philip Steiner 25 

8 Daniel Schneider 36 

9 Michael Keener 24 

10 Frederick Shoff 29 

11 Henry Schatz 21 

12 Elias Schmelzer 18 

13 David Kuhns 19 

14 George Mayer 20 

15 Leah Kreps 17 

16 Susannah Kreps 16 



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No. Nam« Age 

17 Catherina Miller 16 

18 Lucinda Schmidt 19 

19 Caroline Eisaman 16 

20 Elizabeth Miller 17 

21 Elizabeth Long 17 

22 Maria Fuchs 18 

23 Elizabeth Herold 19 

24 Maria Ellis 20 

25 Susannah Detar 17 

^ 26 Margaretta Bachman 16 

27 Rebecca Heinrich 16 

28 Esther Eisaman 19 

29 Christina Regina Weiman. 16 

30 Maria Eisaman 19 

31 Agnes Schneider 16 

32 Elizabeth Detar 18 

33 Susannah Mayer 16 

34 Jeremiah Lantzenheiser . . 18 

35 Elizabeth Rosenstiehl 21 

36 Elizabeth Schmeltzer 21 

ConfirmantSy May 14, 1842 

1 Conrad Miller — 

2 John Wendel — 

3 Michael Miller — 

4 Jacob Herold — 

5 John Nicholas Miller — 

6 Levi Eisenman — 

7 Joseph Stough — 

8 John Steiner — 

9 Daniel Eisenman — 

10 Henry Miller — 

11 Catherina Schneider — 

)2 Catherina Eisaman — 

13 Sarah Wendel — 

14 Susannah Fuchs — 

15 Leah Herold — 

16 Nora Anna Schatz — 

17 Nora Hehns — 

18 Esther Eisaman — 

19 Maria Miller .,,,., •— 



No. Name Age 

20 Lovina Fuchs ,....:. — 

21 Susannah Baughman — 

22 Susannah Fuchs — 

23 Catherina Miller — 

24 Rebecca Kepple — 

25 Margaretta Heisle — 

Confirmants, May 10, 1845 

1 Jacob Steiner — 

2 Henry Hehnes — 

3 Jacob Eisaman — 

V 4 Jacob Steiner — 

5 Jacob Stauch — 

6 Abraham Miller — 

7 Solomon Eisaman — 

8 Abraham Eisaman — 

9 John Fuchs — 

10 Jacob Baer — 

11 John Heinrich — 

12 George Ehret — 

13 Henry Schneider — 

14 Henry Baughman — 

15 Elias Moyer — 

16 John Lang — 

17 Thomas Herold — 

18 Jacob Walter — 

19 Joseph Farington (baptized) — 

20 Samuel Low — 

21 Abraham Munsch — 

22 Anna Eisaman — 

23 Leah Herold — 

24 Catherina Hehns — 

25 Lovina Steiner ^ . , — 

26 Susannah Fuchs — 

27 Magdalena Hehns — 

28 Lucia Fuchs — 

29 Lydia Fuchs — 

30 Elizabeth Schmidt ....... — 

31 Maria Altman — 

32 Anna Maria Anderson ... — 

33 Maria Stauch — 



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History of Old Zion Evangelical 



No. Name Age 

U' 34 Susannah Baughman — 

35 Catherina Black — 

36 Elizabeth Steiner — 

Zl Sophia Steiner — 

2^ Sarah Farington (baptized) -^ 

39 Elizabeth Heinrich — 

40 Elizabeth Schatz — 

41 Jean Merchant — 

42 Margaret Antre . r — 

43 Mary Steiner — 

Confirmants, May 5, 1848 ^ 

1 John Herold — 

2 David Steiner — 

3 Michael Steiner — 

4 John Miller — 

5 Peter Miehleisen — 

6 Levi Stanch — 

7 Isaac Baer — 

8 Emanuel Detar — 

9 Tobias Heinrich — 

10 Levi Baughman — 

11 James McEnter (baptized) — 

12 Daniel Kuhns — 

13 Josiah Wendel — 

14 Isaac Altshaus (baptized). — 

15 Reuben Herold — 

16 John Schatz — 

17 Lovina 'Hehns — 

18 Magdalena Steiner — 

19 Leah Steiner — 

20 Elizabeth Rosenstiehl — 

21 Leah Altman — 

22 Ellanor Altman — 

23 Anna Stauch — 

24 Nora Heinrich — 

25 Maria Erret — 

26 Susannah Miller — 

27 Louisa Kreps — 

28 Lovina Detar — 

29 Lovina Hielsle (baptized) . — 



No. Name Age 

30 Jean Kreps — 

31 Catherina Detar — 

Z2 Francisca Noel — 

ConfirmantSy May 4, 1850 
By J. Mechling. 

1 Simon Herold — 

2 Cyrus Eisenman — 

3 George Miller — 

4 David Miehleisen — 

5 John Stauch — 

6 Joseph Miller — 

7 Jonas Eisaman — 

8 Peter Miller — 

9 Michael Rosenstiehl — 

10 Jacob Mayer — 

11 William Heinrich — 

12 Reuben Kuhns — 

13 Jacob Fux — 

14 Joshua Datauer — 

15 Peter Fux — 

16 Reuben Altman — 

17 Emanuel Schmeltzer — 

18 Louis Rathebach — 

19 Daniel Schmeltzer — 

20 John Kreps — 

21 Catherina Herrold — 

22 Maria Ann. Steiner — 

23 Lucy Hehns — 

24 Elizabeth Steiner — 

25 Catherina Miller — 

26 Susannah Altman — 

27 Sarah Maria Eisaman — 

28 Hannah Catherina Altman. — 

29 Susannah Catherina Steiner — 

30 Maria Catherina Mensch . — 

31 Maria Christina Steiner . . ^- 

32 Susannah Miehleisen — 

33 Sarah Maertin — 

34 Maria Catherina Keppel . . — 

35 Sarah Jean Alshaus — 



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Confirmants, May 29, 1852 
No. Name Age 

1 Obadiah Eisaman 21 t 

2 Henry Edwin Jung 19 

3 Elias Schatz 20 

4 Abraham M. Altman 17 

5 John Altman 18 

6 John Peter Fuchs 19 

7 Simon Miehleisen 18 

8 Joseph Altman 19 

9 Joseph Heinrich 18 

10 Jacob Erit 20 

11 Lebens Alshaus 21 

12 John Steiner 17 

13 David Altman 27 

14 Hettie Eisaman \6 y 

15 Solomon Altman 16 

16 Sarah Catherina Fuchs ... 20 

17 Leah Eisaman 18 

18 Lucinda Altman 16 

19 Elizabeth Bigelo 17 

20 Sarah Baughman 16 

21 Florinda Miehleisen 19 

22 Lovina Kuhns 21 

23 Henrietta Evans 17 

24 Fronic S. Schmidt 30 

25 Margaretta Keppel .... 27 

Confirmants May 24, 1856 
By J. Mechling. 

1 Joseph Eisaman 18 

2 Ludwig Herold 20 

3 Michael Schneider 19 

4 John Boch 18 

5 David Boch 21 

6 John Jacob Strobel 15 

7 John Jacob Haehns 20 

8 Joseph Schmidt 20 

9 Jacobus Jung 22 

10 George W. Jung 18 

11 Robert Mayer 20 

12 Reuben Haehns 19 



No. Name Age 

13 Jacob Altman 17 

14 Peter Baughman 18 

15 Joseph Fuchs 19 

16 John Miller 19 

17 David Schmidt 19 

18 Ludwig Eret 26 

19 Peter Schmeltzer 20 

20 Gebhart Mechling 22 

21 Maria Ann Fuchs 17 

22 Maria Eisaman 17 

23 Sarah Kreps 17 

24 Maria Schmidt 17 

25 Elizabeth Miehleisen 18 

26 Susannah Stauch 16 

27 Susannah Baughman 17 

28 Sarah Schmidt 16 

29 Susannah Schmeltzer 19 

30 Carolina Elter 23 

Confirmants, May 22, 1858 
By J. Mechling 

1 Louis Gangwer 18 

2 Joseph Herold 18 

3 Jacob Harrer 18 

4 Carl Rohrbach 18 

5 Andrew Bosh 18 

6 Simon Peter Steiner 20 

7 Zacharias Buhl 20 

8 Michael Fuchs 20 

9 Henry Fuchs 25 

10 Daniel Altman 17 

11 Albert Zundel 19 

12 George Krimer 18 

13 Henry Schneider 19 

14 John Schmeltzer 19 

15 Benjamin Altman 20 

16 Cyrus Altman 20 

17 Lewis Schmidt 19 

18 Catherina Eisaman 18 

19 Catherina Bosh 16 

20 Elizabeth Sarah Fuchs ... 18 



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History of Old Zion Evangelical 



No. Name Age 

21 Caroline Zundel 14 

22 Harriet Turner 18 

23 Catherina Heil 22 

24 Susannah Mayer 16 

25 Susannah Baughman 18 

26 Elizabeth Charlotte Kinner 18 

27 Catherina Schmeltzer 18 

28 Ellen Weis 16 

Confirmants, May 12, 1860 

1 Adam Miller 19 

2 Oliver Miller 18 

3 Simon Eisaman 19 

4 Henry Strowel 17 

5 Henry Kiener 18 

6 Adam Baughman 18 

7 Daniel Steiner 17 

8 Henry Eret 20 

9 William Walthauer 17 

10 John Fuchs 19 

11 Lucetta Eisaman 18 

12 Henrietta Eisaman . . . 18 

13 Elizabeth Herold 18 

14 Caroline Barbara Schmidt. 16 

15 Sarah Eret 18 

16 Sarah Jean Kiener 16 

17 Catherina M. Walthauer . . 16 

18 Ellanor Schmidt 17 



No. Name Age 

,19 Margaretta Baughman .... 16 

20 Sarah Elizabeth Herrold . . 16 

21 Anna Catherina Strowel . . 16 

22 Sarah Schmeltzer 17 

ConfirmantSy May 10, 1862 

1 Samuel Miller 18 

2 Albert Eisaman ' 19 

3 Nathanael Miller 16 

4 Frederick 'Heinrich 17 

5 Alphaeus Altman 18 

6 John Altman 23 

7 Henry Mayer 20 

8 John Buhrer 17 

- 9 Ludwig Frey 20 

10 Harrison Miller 18 

11 Susannah Miller 18 

12 Susannah Eisaman 17 

13 Lucinda Zundel 16 

14 Maria Altman 19 

15 Caroline Eisenmann 18 

16 Maria Strobel 15 

17 Eleanor Altman 18 

18 Elizabeth Hiesle 16 

^ 49 Margaretta Baughman ... 18 

20 Maria N. Schatz 15 

21 Margaretta N. Buehrer 19 

22 Elizabeth Eisaman 19 



APPENDIX D 



Taufschein 
Immanuel — (Taufschein translated). See Cut, page 31. 
(Written in rhyme) 
What I, your beloved Uncle, from a true heart, now (repent?) 
That is only a small gift. Take care of your soul, and think that you 
through the Sacrament of Baptism by Jesus are received. It is only 
water which is externally used, but the blood of Jesus Christ inter- 
nally, so that your soul, virtuous and clean, may enter the Kingdom 
of heaven. Through grace you are born anew. You are chosen to be 
an heir of heaven through Jesus Christ the Son of God, who from 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 257 

the throne of high heaven, came down and humbled Himself that we 
might with Him enter the Kingdom and live in happiness with Him 
forever. Through Baptism we may taste of blessedness in time 
through faith, that when 'He sits on His throne ; that we may be rulers 
forever; to eternity proclaim Him as the true Son of God, thrice holy. 
Jesus "Make us ready," to your rejoicing and blessedness. So speak 
we in thy name one happiness full of faith. Amen. Amen. 

Parents were the honorable Peter Eisenmann and Justina his 
beloved wife, nee Altman. 

John George Eisenmann, born 28th of May in, the year of our 
Lord 1788 and on the 13th of July was through the washing of Holy 
Baptism, baptized into the congregation of Christ as a living mem- 
ber, and as a young branch received. 

Baptism Witnesses were, in this sacred ordinance, the honorable 
John Peter Eisenmann and Anna Barbara, his wife. 

My child since you are born in this world 

God has proclaimed you to His pleasure tent 

Therefore thank Him with heart and soul 

And praise God and His love 

Then as thy possession 

Only His favor and gift. 

The Baptism gives you new life 

To live in that new life forever. 

'Here in time and there in eternity 

Remain true to your covenant 

Then you "will enter heaven 

By Jesus Christ, the Son of God 

Fall heir to the happy throne. Amen. 
Made by Karl Sheibeler, Schoolmaster, Hempfield, Township, 
Westmoreland County, 1788. 

MOTTOES: 
on border of Taufschein. 

1 "Do not fall into sin." 

2 Love humility, seek peace. 

3 Never seek to be great. 

4 Speak little but hear much. 

5 Don't pry into secrets. 

6 Let the little ones be without sorrow. 

7 Keep out of the way of grown-up folks. 

8 Weep with those that weep. 

9 Be satisfied with your own. 
Grbg. 9 



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258 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

10 Don't be too slow to go to work, 

11 If you owe work to anyone. 

12 With all your power be mild to the poor. 

13 Learn to save and keep it. 

14 Prepare thyself to do for all good things. 

15 Think earnestly of your death. 

16 Then you will be heir of heaven. 

17 Trust in God and continue in prayer. 

APPENDIX E. 
Annual Settlements 

Today, the 15th of February, 1793 we have, the undersigned Church 
Council, met in peace and agreeableness in Zions Church, Hempfield 
Township, State of Pennsylvania. 

Today the fifteenth day of February, 1793, I hereby acknowledge 
that I, from the congregation of Zions Church and with thanks re- 
ceived, 6 lb. 6 s. 6 p. which I spent for the following things. 
He paid to Samuel Mau for Greement and Banden to 

write 9 s. 

He paid to Jacob Bender for deed of church 4 lbs. 10 s. 9 p. 

He paid to Jacob Bender for the same 7 s. 6 p. ^ 

He paid for nails for church yard lis. 3 p. 

He paid for glass in schoolhouse 8 s. 

Total 6 Iba, 6 s. 6 d. 

Which I hereby sign with my own hand, I witness and undersign 
by the above date by witnesses. 
Michael Gangwer ) 
Karl Scheibeler } witnesses. 

Anthony Altman. 
So done in peace and harmony. 

Anthony Altman holds in treasury balance of 53 lbs. 12 s. 6 d. 

Anthony Altman. 
John Michael Steck, President 
Jacob Zehner 
V •' John Bachmann 

J. Meyer 

Karl Scheibeler, Schoolmaster 
Valentine Steiner 
John Jacob Altman 
William Altman 



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Lutheran Church, Green sburg, Pa. 259 

Jacob Stroh 
Michael Gangwer 
Peter Eisenmann 
John Gundel 
Martin Fraelig 
Michael Ruch 
Today, the sixth of December, 1793 we, the undersigned, the 

Elders and Deacons, assembled made report and we delivered 4 lbs. 

5 s. 5^ d. to William Altman after all costs and expenses were paid. 

The above date these things were done before witnesses. 

John Michael Steck, Preacher 
Michael Gangwer 
. , John Bachman 
Nicholas Altmann 
John Weyandt 
Nicholaus Lang 
Jacob Barnes 
Christopher Schneider 
Today, January 2, 1795, we, the undersigned, have settled the ac- 
counts of the church and also the land which the Pastor Luetge 

bought for the sum of 60 lbs. which money Andrew A. Amans held 

as trustee, but at the present in the hands of the elected trustees, but 

that money is not yet used for building purposes. 

Nicholaus Allerman Vi lbs. 16 s. 2 d. 

John Nicholaus Miller 

Anthony Altman 6 lbs. 10 d. 

John Peter Altman 4 lbs. 2 s. 6 d. 

John Michael Ruch 4 lbs. 

These men owed the Zion's Church. 

Anton Uhlrich Luetge 

Philip Knauss 

Jacob Stroh 

Jacob Hehner I of Adam Moyer of 

Michael Ruch 5 lbs. 2 s. 6 d. 

All undersigned in the presence of witnesses of the above date. 

John Michael Steck, Preacher 
Valentine Steiner 
Henry Schatz 

Michael Gangwer 
John Bachman 
Christoph Schneider 



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260 History of Old Zion Evangelical 

Today, January 2, 1794, have we, the undersigned. Deacons and 
Elders held a settlement of church accounts, and there was 3 lbs. 1 s. 
handed in by Nicholaus Miller for alms, after all bills were paid. 

John Michael Steck, Pastor 
Valentine Steiner 
Henry Schatz 
Anthony Allemann 
Michael Gangwer 
John Bachman 
Christoph Schneider 
Nicholaus Alleman 

Today, January 2, 1796, was held the Church and Alms settlement 
at the schoolhouse by the Zion's Church by the Elders and deacons 
of both congregations. Nicholas Molle had in hand Alms to the 
amount of 4 lbs. 13 s. 9 d. 

Witness : 

John William Weber 
John Michael Steck, Preacher 
Valentine Steiner 
Michael Gangwer 
Frederick 'Heinrich 
Frederich Mahmenschmidt 
Peter Miller 

Today, January 2, 1796, the Deacons, Elders and Manager held a 
meeting concerning the church funds. 

Philip Wentzel was elected manager and received 6 lbs. 11 s. 
45j/^ d. in the presence of John William Weber. 

John Michael Steele 
Valentine Steiner 
Michael Gangwer 
Frederick Henrich 
Christian Michael Schmidt 
Peter Miller 

On the 22nd of January, 1796, Nicholaus Alleman paid the sum 
of 33 lbs. 16 s. Yz d. in presence of witnesses : 

Christian Malynan Schmidt 
John Thomas 
Peter Miller - 
John Altman 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 261 

On the 22nd of January, 1796, Philip Wentzel as manager re- 
ceived on church money in gold (27 lbs. 1 s. J/^ d. Witnesses : 

Christian Mahnenschmidt 
John Thomas 
Peter Miller 
John Altman 
The 30th of December, in the year of our Lord 1796, was held 
the Church and Alms settlement, at the schoolhouse near Zion's 
Church, in Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, by Elders 
and Deacons of both congregations. Alms money was 1 lb. 11 s. 11 d. 
This was done in peace and unity at above date which we sign with 
our own hands. 

John Michael Steck, Preacher 
Peter Miller 
John Thomas 
Michael Gangwer 
Frederick Henrich 

February 18, 1797, Nicholaus Miller as manager received Alms 
money, 3 lbs. 10 s. 4^ d. Witnesses : 

Christian Mahnenschmidt 
John Thomas 
Frederick Henrich 
William Altman 

Nicholauk Miller was elected Alms-trustee of both congregations. 

The Alms in 1800 amounted to 20 lbs. 4 s. 5 d. 

The Alms in 1802, 5 lbs. 4 s. 9 d. 

(The joint meetings ended) 

Date August 2, 1805, the elders and deacons had a meeting in 
Zion's Church in the presence of the Pastor Michael Steck. An 
account was given of the Alms money and after all was settled they 
found in notes and cash in hand 30 lbs. 12 s. 8 d., and gave John 
Baughman, manager, the money. (Signed by officers). 



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INDEX 



A Page 

Academies 179 flf. 

Allen, Fort 87, 165 

Augsburg Confession. 115, 132, 133 

B 

Bank of North America .... 9 

Baptisms List 33 

Appendix A 

Beayen, Capt 18 

Bissel, Israel 6 

Blane, Lieut 23 

Bounty 60 

Bouquet 17, 23 ff. 

Brady, Capt 65 

Braddock's Defeat 18 

Brown, Enoch 169 if. 

Bruegel, G. A 125 

Brush Creek 177 

Bushyager, George 42, 177 

Byerly, Andrew 20, 24 ff. 

Byerly, Flight of Family . . . .22 ff. 



Cannon, Lieut. John 17 

Carlisle 23 

Catechetical System 112 ff. 

Cemeteries 159 

Census, Early 2 

Census, German 3 

Church, Log 41 

Church, Stone 99 ff. 

Clapham Massacre 21 

Clark Expedition 74 



Page 

Colleges 179ff. 

Colonists, German Iff. 

Communion List 35 

Appendix B 
Confirmation List 35 

Appendix C 

Connolly 46 ff. 

Crawford Expedition 74 

D 

Definite Platform 115 

Detars 20 

DeVitri 18 

Domestic and Foreign Mis- 
sion Society 106 

Dow, Lieut 24 

Dunmore's War 46, 48 

Duquesne, Fort, Capture of . . 15 

E 

Ecuyer, Capt 21 

Education 164 

Ehrenfeldt, A. C 128 ff. 

Eisenmann, John George 31 

Appendix D 103 

English District of the Joint 

Synod of Ohio 123 

Ev. Lutheran District Synod 

of Ohio 130 

F 

Fabian, Peter 2 

Forbes, Gen 15, 18 ff. 

Forbes Road 



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264 



History of Old Zion Evangeucal 



Page 

Fort Allen 47 

Fort Pitt 20 

Fort Stanwix, Council of ... 28 

Fort Wayne 118 

Frankean Synod 118 

French and Indian War 13 

Frontier, Germans on 7 

6 

Gage, Gen 27 

General G)uncil 119 ff. 

General Synod 114, 131 

Germania, Rush's 9 flF. 

Germans, Characteristics of .9ff. 
Germans, Early Prosperity of 18 
Germans and Pennsylvania 

Independence 75 ff. 

Germantown 44 

Girty, Simon 16 

Glenn, J. 141 

Gnadenhuetten 16 

Good Purpose 30, 110 

Goshocking 16 

Grant, Major 18 

Greensburg 178 ff. 

Greensburg Seminary 180 

H 

Hamilton, Gov 58 

Hanna, Robert 45 

Hanna's Town Burned 74 

Hanna's Town Resolutions. 49 ff. 

Hanover Resolutions 51 

Harmon, Andrew 20 

Hartman, Regina 66 ff. 

'Heckewelder 16 

Henry Massacre 63 ff. 

Herkimer, Gen .* 25 

Herold, Christopher 20 

Herold, Daniel 20 

Herold, John 20 

Heins 2 



Page 

Highlanders 23 flF. 

HuflFnagle, Michael 74 

I 

Indian Captives 65, 66 flF. 

Indian Ravages 48, 61, 62 

J 

Johnson, Col. John 55 ff. 

Johnson, Sir William 28 

Joint Synod of Ohio 122 ff. 

K 

Kepple's Blockhouse 88 

Kimmel 18, 20 

Klingensmith's House 89 

Kohn, E. H 141 

Krauth, Charles Porterfield . 116 

Kunzmann, J. C 137 

L 

Lame Indian, Story of 81 ff. 

Language, Pennsylvania Ger- 
man 181 ff. 

Lederer, John 2 

Lochry, Archibald 61, 74 

Ludwig, Christoph .... 9 

Ludwig, Maria 69 

Luetge, Anton Ulrich 32, 35, 37 ff. 

Luther, Heinrich 2 

M 

MacDonald, Donald 70 

Marchand's Blockhouse 88 

Massacre of Christian In- 
dians 16 ff. 

McDowell's Blockhouse 88 

Mechling, Jonas 108 ff. 

Mecklenburg resolutions 53 

Melanchthon Synod 118 

Membership, Old Zion 143 ff. 

Meyer, Balthasar 

30ff., 36, 37, 164 ff. 

Military Permit 19 

Miller, Mrs. Salome 36 



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Lutheran Church, Greensburg, Pa. 



265 



Pag- 

Miller, Peter 20 

Minuit, Peter 1 

Music 60 

N 
Nagel's Berks County 

"Dutchmen," 25 

National Lutheran Council . . 134 

New Purchase 28 

O 

Ohio Company 17 

Ourry Wendel 23 

P 

Palatinates 25 

Patriotism 162 

Passavant 108 

Pastorius 44 

Pittsburg, Early Inhabitants. 21 

Pittsburg Synod 106, 114 flf. 

Pittsburg Synod, General 

Synod 120 

Plan of Union 114 

Pontiac's Conspiracy 20 

Population, 1776 2 

Population, German, 1775 2 

Post, Frederick 15, 18 

Printz, John 1 

Property Affairs 110 

Pulpit, Old 42 

R 

Rangers 24 ff. 

Redemptioners 46, 167 

Reformed Pastors 161 

Regiments in Revolution 54 

Relations with Reformed 110 

Renegades 77 

Revers 39 

Rifle 25 

Rodenbaugh, Michael 20 

Royal American Regiment... 

23, 25 ff. 



Page 

Rudebaugh, Christopher 20 

Rugh*s Blocl^house 87 

Rush, Dr. Benjamin 9 ff. 

S 

Sarver, Jonathan 139 

Scalps 58, 59, 60 

Schell, Johann Christian 70 ff. 

Schlatter, Michael 27 

Schmucker, Dr 115 ff. 

Schoolhouse 35 ff., 40 

Senecas 60 

Settlers, Early 19 

Sharswood, Justice 130 

Scheibeler, Karl ..33ff., 42, 168 ff. 

Slavery .-. . 178 

Smith, Enoch 127 

Social life 90 ff. 

Sprecher, Dr 118 

Stauch, Johannes 178 

St. Clair, Arthur 19 

Steck, Johann Michael 95 ff. 

Steck, Michael Johann 104 ff. 

Steuben, Baron 56 ff. 

Stokeley's Blockhouse 88 

Sunday School 155 ff. 

Superstition 12 

Swiss 25 

Synod 105 

T 

Taufschein 31, 168 

Appendix D 
Teachers at Herold's School. 174 
Testimony of the Pittsburg 

Synod 116 

Tories 76 

Trunkey, Judge 120 

U 

Ulery, William F 128 

United Lutheran Church . . 134 ff. 



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266 



History of Old Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church 



Page 
W 

Wagle, John 20 

Waldseemueller 1 

Walther. Dr 119 

Walthour, Christopher 20 

Walthour, Fort 80 

Walthour. Fort, Petition .... 78 

Washington, George 167 

Washington's Body guard... 55 
Weber, Rev. John William . . 30 

Weiser, Conrad 13 ff. 

Wheeling Convention 122 

Williamson, Col. David 16 flf. 

Wilson, Woodrow 163 

Wismer, Isaack 142 



Page 

Woodstock Resolutions 52 

Wyandots 16 

Y 

Yorktown 56 

Yount, J. A 141 

Z 

Zane, Elizabeth 69 flf. 

Zeisberger, David 16 

Zuber, William H 139 

Zundel, "H. M 157 

Zundel, John A 151 

Zundel, Johann Michael 

36flF., 42, 171 ff., 177 

Zundel, W. A 153 




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