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*1 v;.Y^^. 




BODLEIAN LIBRARY 

The gift of 

Miss Emma E L Dunston 




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THE 

HISTORY OF PAINTING 

IN 

ITALY. 



VOL. in. 



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THE 

HISTORY OF PAINTING 



IN 



ITALY, 



FROM THE PERIOD OF THE REVIVAL OF 

THE FINE ARTS, 

TO THE END. OF THE EIGHTEENTH CBNTVRT: 
TBAKSLATED 

Sttm ti^t ^0(nal StaUan 

OF THE 

ABATE LUIGI LANZI. 



By THOMAS ROSCOE. 



IN SIX VOLUMES. 

VOL. m. 

CONTAININO THE SCHOOL OF VENICE. 



LONDON: 

PBINIES FOK 

W. SIMPKIN AND R. MARSHALL, 

STATIONEBS'-HALL COURT, LUDGATE STREET. 



1828. 



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J. M'Crtorj, Xooki Cowt, 
ChaMty-laoe, London. 



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CONTENTS 

OF 

THE THIRD VOLUME. 



fflSTORY OF PAINTING IN UPPER ITALY. 
BOOK THE FIRST. 

VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Page 

Epoch I. The old masters 1 

Epoch II. Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, Jacopo da 

Bassano, Paolo Veronese 91 

Epoch III. Innovations of the mannerists of the se* 
venteenth century. Corruption of Venetian 

painting 254* 

Epoch IV. Of exotic and new styles in Venice . . 347 



VOL. III. a 



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HISTORY OF PAINTING 

IN 

UPPER ITALY. 
BOOK I. 



VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

This School would have required no farther illus- 
tration from any other pen^ had Signor Antonio 
Zanetti, in his highly esteemed work upon Venetian 
Painting, included a more ample consideration of 
the artists of. the state^ instead of confining Md 
attention wholly to those, whose productions, or- 
namenting the churches and other public places^ 
had ajl been completed in the city of Venice alone. 
He has, nevertheless, rendered distinguished ser- 
vice to any one ambitious of succeeding him, and of 
extending the same subject beyond these narrower 
limits ; since he has observed the most lucid order 
in the arrangement of epochs, in the description o^ 
styles, in estimating the merits of various painters, 
and thus ascertaining the particular rank as well as 
the age belonging to each. Those ^rtists then, 
whom he has omitted to commemorate, may be 
easily reduced under one or other of the divisiods 

VOL. III. B 



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2 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

pointed out by him, and the whole history enlarged 
upon the plan which he first laid down. 

In cultivating an acquaintance with these addi- 
tional names, the memorials collected by Vasari ; 
afterwards, on a more extensive scale, by the 
Cavaliere Ridolfi, in his Lives of the Venetian 
Painters ; and by Boschini, in the Miniere delta 
Pillura, in the Carta del Navegar Piltoresco, and 
in other works : materials drawn from all parts 
of the Venetian state— will be of signal advan- 
tage to us. No one, it is hoped, will feel displeased 
at the introduction of the niame of Vasari, against 
whom the historians of the Venetian School were 
louder in their compl^ota than even those of 
the Rpman^. the. Siennese, and the Neapolitan 
Schools; all whose causes of difierence I have else^ 
where recounted^ adding to them, whenever I 
fpund them admissible,, my own refutations. These 
it woijld be needless now to repeat, in reply to the 
Yenetian lyritprs. I shall merely observe t][iatVasari 
bestowed very ample commendations uponihe Ve-^ 
neti^n professors, in. different parts of his history, 
ajid more particularly in the lives of Carpaccio, of 
Lil^erale, and of Pordenone.. Let me add th^ if 
he WA^ oqoasioiiaUy betrayed into errors, either 
from want of more cocrect information, or from a 
degree of jealousy or spirit of patriotic rivalry, 
which probably may have secretly influenced him 
in his opinions, it will be no dijBScult task in the 
present enlightened period,* to substitute the 

* It b obserred by Signor Bottari, that Giorgio, in his life of 



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VENETIAN SCHOOL. S 

realnames^ more exact accounts^ and more impar^ 
tial examinations of the earlier profestors of the 
school.* 

Iif respect to the more modern^ up to whose 
period he did not reach> I possess historical matter^ 
which, if not very copious, is certainly less scanty 
than such as relates to many of the other Schools of 
Italy. Besides Ridolfi, Boschini, and Zanetti, it 
includes the historians of the particular cities/ the 
same from whom Orlandi selected his varioils 
notices of artists ; and among whom none is to be 
preferred to Signer Zamboni for the fulness and 
authenticity of his materials,^ in his wotk, entitled 
Fabbriche di Brescia. I am, moreover, in posses- 
sion of several authors who have distinctly treated 
of the lives, or published other accounts of those 
who flourished in their own cities; — such' as the 
Commendatore del Pozzo, in his notice of the Vfero- 
nese,t Count Tassi of those of Bergamo, and 

Franco, was too sparing of his praises of Tintoret and Paul Ve- 
ronese'; ffnd the same noiight be 'said also of GkLmbera, and many 
others, who flourished at the same period, or were* already de- 
ceased when he wrote. To ht» opinions have succeeded those 
of the Caracci, and of many other distinguished -professors of the 
art, which may be safely relied upon. 

* There very opportunely appeared, in the year 1800, at Bassa- 
uo, a *^ Notiaiai d'Opere di Disegno" — " Upon works of Design/' 
the anonymous production, apparently, of some inhabitant of 
Padua, about 1550. It was published and illustrated by the 
learned Abbate Morelli, and contains several anecdotes, relat- 
ing more particularly to the Venetian School. 

t The celebrated painter, Cignaroli, besides drawing up a 
complete Catalogue raisonn^, of the painters of Verona, already 

B 2 



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4 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Signor Yerci of the Bassanese artists. And no 
slight assistance may also be drawn from the dif? 
ferent " Guides,'' or descriptions of paintings^ ex- 
hibited in many cities of the state^ although they 
are far from being all of equal merit. There is the 
" GuidaTrevigiana/'of Rigamonti,that of Vicenza 
printed by Vendramini Mosca, that of Brescia by 
Carbonic and that of Verona, expressly drawn 
from the " Verona lUustrata'' of the Marquis 
Maffei, with the still more valuable one of. Venice, 
dated 1733, from the able pen of Antonio M. 
Zaaetti. To these we may likewise add that first 
published by Rossetti, now revised and improved 
by Brandolese, abounding with historical memoirs 
of the painters of Padua ; and the Guide of Rovigo 
by Bartoli, communicating much new and interest- 
ing information, which serves' to point out more 
accurately certain eras among the professors of 
the art, while the same may, in part, be observed 
of that of Bergamo, by the Dottore Pasta. Nor 
are these all; for I am not a little indebted to se- 
veral notices published in the " Elogj" of Signor 
Longhi, and in some of the catalogues of private 
collections ; besides other anecdotes, in part col- 
lected by myself, in part* communicated by my 

published io the Chronicle of Zagata, vol. iii., left behind him 
MS. notes upon the entire work of Pozzo, in the margin. 

* I have been enabled in this edition, by means of Count 
Cav. de Lazzara, to avail myself of a MS. from the pen of Natal 
Melchiori, entitled , ** Lives of the Venetian Painters*^ drawn up 
in 1728. The author is deserving of credit, no less on account 
of having been himself a painter, than from his personal ac- 



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VENETIAN SCHOOL. 5 

friends^ and in particular by the very accomplished 
Sig. Gio. Maria Sasso,* who has already promised 
to gratify us with his '' Venezia Pittrice/' accom- 
panied with designs of the most esteemed paintings 
of this school> accurately engravedi 

quaintance with the chief part of those whose lives he com- 
memorated. 

* This excellent man is now no more, and his work has not 
hitherto appeared. That, however, by the Sig. Co. Canonico de 
Rinaldis, on the painters of Friuli, we have received. It em- 
braces a much more correct and enlarged view of that noble 
school, than we before possessed in the scantier notices from 
the pen of Altan.' Still he is not' always exact, and he would 
undoubtedly have written better, had he seen more. At length, 
however, we are in possession of the work of Padre M. Fede- 
rici, in two volumes, relating to the artists of the '^ Marca Tre- 
vigiana," accompanied by documents; a work better calculated 
than the former to satisfy the expectations of a reader of taste. 
But, as is generally the case, when an author hazards new opi- 
nions, we are sometimes compelled to suspend our assent to his 
conclusions. 



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6 



VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

EPOCH I. • 

The Ancients. 

If in the outset of each school of painting I were 
to pursue the example held up in the Etruria 
Pittrice, of introducing the account of its pic- 
tures by that of some work in mosaic^ I ought here 
to mention those of Grado^ wrought in the sixth 
century, distinguished by the name, of the .Patri- 
arch Elia, those of Torcello, and a few other speci* 
mens that appeared at Venice^ in the islands, and 
in Terra Firma, produced at periods subsequent to 
the increase of the edifices, together with the gran- 
deur of the Venetian state. But admitting that 
these mosaics, like many at Rome, may really be 
the production of the Greeks; the title of my work, 
confined as it is to painting, and to the period of 
its revival in Italy, leads me to be little solicitous 
respecting those more ancient monuments of the 
fine arts, remnants of which are to be found scat- 
tered here and there, without any series of a 
school. I shall still, however, occasionally allude 
to them, according as I find needful, were it only 
for the sake of illustration and comparison, as I 
proceed. But such information ought to be 



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EPOCH I. 7 

sought for in other works; mine professes only to 
give the history of painting from the period of its 
revival. 

The most ancient pictorial remains in the Ve- 
netian territories I believe to be at Verona, in 
a subterraneous ^art of the nttnnery of Santi Na- 
zsno'Bfid Celso^ whiteh, however inaccessible to 
the generality of virtuosi, have, nevertheless, been 
engraved on a variety* of plates by order of the in- 
dd&tigable Signor Dionisi. In this, which 'was 
formerlythe Chapel of the Faithftil,'are represented 
several Mysttf ies of our redemptioii ; some apos- 
tles, sdine holy martyrs, and^ in particular the 
transit of one of the righteous from' this Mfe, on 
whom thenar cha/ngel, St. Michael, is seen bestow- 
ing bis assiiitance. Efere the ' symbok, the work- 
manship, the design, the attitudes, the drapery bf 
the-figures, ahd the characters uniterf, permit us 
not to doubt that the painting 'must be much an- 
terior to the revival of the arts iir Italy. But niost 
writers seem to trace the rudiments of Vehetian 
painting from the eleventh century, about the year 
1070, at the period when thfe Ddge Selvo iiivitfifd 
the^mosaic workers from Greece to adorn the 
mifcgnificent iemple, consecrated to St. Mark the 
EvangeKst. Such artificers, however rude, must 
havebe«a- acquainted, in some degree, with the 
art of painting; none being enabled to work in 
mo^c who had not previously designed and 
coloured, upon pasteboard or cartoon, the compo- 
sition they intended to execute. 



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8 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

And these, observe the same writers, were the 
first essays of the art of painting in Venice. How- 
ever this may be, it speedily took root, and began 
to flourish after the year 1204, when Constantino- 
ple being taken, Venice was in a short time filled, 
not indeed with Grecian artist^, but with their pic- 
tures, statues, and bassirilievi.* Had I i\ot here 
restricted my observations to existing specimens of 
the art, bestowing only a rapid glance upon the 
rest, along with their authors, I might prove, that 
from the above period, the city was no longer des- 
titute of artists ; and was enabled, in the thirteenth 
century, to form a company of them with their 
appropriate laws and institutions. 

But of these elder masters of the art, there re- 
mains either only the name, as of a Giovaiihi da 
Venezia and a M artineUo da Bassano, or some 
solitary relic of their labours without a name, as in 
the sarcophagus, in wood^^ of the Beata Giuliana, 
painted about the year 1262, the same in which 
she died. This monument remains in her own 
monastery of San Biagio alia Guidecca, long 
held in veneration, even after the body of the 
blessed saint had been removed, in the year 1297, 
into ian urn of stone. There are there represented 
San Biagio, the titular saint of the church, San 
Cataldo, the bishop, and the blessed Giuliana, the 
two former in an upright, the latter in a kneeling 
posture ; their names are written in Latin, and the 
style, although coarse, is nevertheless not Greek. 

* Rannusio Guerra di Costantinopoli, book iii. p. 94. 



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EPOCH I. 9 

Probably that of the painter is also in the same 
comer, a picture of whom, aPiet^, has recently been 
discovered by the Ab. Boni, who considers him a 
new Cimabue of the Venetian art. As it has already 
been described by him in his Florentine collection 
of '' Opuscoli Scientifici,"* I shall not extend my 
account of it ; for the reader will there find other 
names, as will afterwards be shewn, recently dis- 
covered by the indefatigable author of some early 
Venetian writers, until this period unknown to 
history. Among these are Stefano Pievano, of S. 
Agnese, a picture by whom, dated 1381, is de- 
scribed; Alberegno, belonging to the fifteenth 
century, and one Esegrenio, who flourished some- 
what later, to which time we may refer two fine 
and highly valued figures of holy virgins, not 
long since discovered, of Tommaso da Modena, 
and which, from the disputes they have elicited, 
have been subjected to experiments at Florence, 
to ascertain whether they are painted in oil or dis- 
temper — experiments that tend only to prove that 
> this Tommaso was unacquainted with the art of 
colouring in oil. 

It was only subsequent to the year 1300, that 
the names, united to the productions of the Vene- 
tians, began to make themselves manifest ; when, 
partly by the examples held out by Giotto, partly 
by their own assiduity and talent, the painters of 
the city and of the state visibly improved, and 
softened the harshness of their manner. Giotto, 

* Vol. yl p. 88, anno 1808, 



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10 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

according to a MS. cited by Rossetti/ was at Padua 
in 1306; according to Yasari^ he returned from 
Avignon in 1316 ; and a little while afterwards he 
was painting at Verona, in the palace of Can della 
Scala, and at Padua^ employed on a chapel in the 
church of the titular saint. He adds, ihkttoWards 
th6 dose of his days he was again invited thdr^", 
and emb^llidh^d other places with his pieces. 'No- 
thing, however, remains ^of him in Verona; but In 
Padua there still exists the chapd df the Nuiiziata 
all' Areha, divided all round into compartments, in 
each of which is represented some scriptural event. 
It is truly surprising to behold, not Ifess on account 
of its high State of preservatioti, beyoVid any other 
of his frescroSi thah fbr its full expression of nativ6 
grace, together with that 'Ait of grandeur which 
Giotto so vrell knew how to unite. With respect 
to the chapel, it is believed that Vasari was fess 
accurately informed, inasmuch as Savonarola, who 
has been cited by Sig. Morelli,f relates thstt Giotto 
ornamented the little church of the Arena, napUiir 
lumque Ahtonii M^fy-i, and the <ihapter o/*iottr St. 
Antony. And in fact, in the apartnkent of the 
chaptei^hous^, thfere yet reihain several tr^c^s of 
ancient paintings though turi^d white wfth 'sigfe. 
In a very ancifent MS;, of the yeiar 1312,1 thereis 

* See his Descriziane delk Pitture, &c. p. .19. The learned 
Morelli also, in his Annotations to the Notizia, confirms, hj 
fresh arguments, the same epoch, p. 146. 

t Page 101. 

t This was given to tbe|iiiMic hj MuratoH, with the follow- 



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EPOCH I. 11 

made mention of his also having been employed in 
Palatio Comitis^ which others suppose ought to 
be read Communis, intended to apply to the Sa- 
loon, of which I shall shortly have to give some 
account. 

To Giotto AucoeededGiusto Padovano/so called 
from the places of his naturalization and usual resi*- 
dence; being, in truth/ a Flotentiney Sprung from 
the family of the Menabuoi. As a disciple of 
Giotto, Vasari attributes to him the very extensive 
work which adorns the church of St. John the 
Baptist. In the picture over the altar; if it be his, 
Giusto has exhibited various histories of St. John 
the- Baptist; on the walls are represented both 
scriptural events and mysteries of the Apocalypse ; 
and on the cupola he hax^ drawn a Choir of Angels, 
where we behold, as if in a graild consistory, the 
blessed arrayed in various garments, seated upfon 
the ground; simple, indeed, in its conception, 
but executed with an incredible degree of diligence 
and felicity. It is mentioned in the Notizia Mo- 
relli, that formerly thei^e was to be read there aii 
inscription over one of the gates — Opus Johannis 
et Antomi de Padua, — probably companions of 
Giusto, and, probably, as is conjectured by the 
author of the MS. above alluded to, the painters of 
the whole temple. This would seem to augment the 
number of the Paduan artists, no less than the imi- 

ing tide — Riccobaldi Ferrariensis, Hve antmimi scriptoris compi- 
latio chronologica usque ad annum 1312. (Rerum Italicarum 
Scriptores, vol. ix. p. 1255.) 



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12 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

tators of Giotto; since the works, already described, 
are equally as much in his manner as those by 
Taddeo Gaddi, or any other of his fellow pupils in 
Florence. The same commendation is bestowed 
upon Jacopo Davanzo, of whom I treat more at 
length in the school pf Bologna. A less faithful 
follower of Giotto was Guariento, a Paduan, held 
in high esteem about the year 1360, as appears 
from the honourable commissions he obtained 
from the Venetian senate. One of his frescos and a 
crucifixion yet remain at Bassano ;^ and in the choir 
of the Eremitani, at Padua, there are many of his 
figures now retouched, from which Zanetti took 
occasion to commend him for his. rich invention, 
the spirit of his attitudes, and the felicity with 
which, at so early a period, he disposed his drape- 
ries. At Padua there is an ancient church, dedi- 
cated to St. George, erected about 1377, which 
boasts some history pieces of St. James, executed 
by the hand of Alticherio, or Aldigieri, da Zevio in 
the Veronese; and others of St. John, the work 
of one Sebeto,f says the historian, a native of Ve- 

* Sig. Sasso observed one extremely like it in Venice^ with 
the subscription Guglielmus pinxit, 1368 ; from which he inferred 
that he had belonged to the school of Guariento. 

t This Sebeto of Vasari appeared so, new to Maffei, that he 
would willingly have substituted Stefano ; (see Ver, IllmU p. iii.' 
coh 152,) but Stefano da Verona, or da Zevio, is a name poste- 
rior to these times. The Notizia of the anonymous writer, re- 
cently published, says, that the church of the beforementioned S. 
George was ornamented by " Jacopo. Davanzo, a Paduan, or & 
Veronese, if not, as some will have it, aBologuese; byAltichiero 



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EPOCH I. 13 

roha. These, likewise, approach pretty nearly the- 
style of Giotto, and more especially the first, who 
painted also a good deal in his native place. 

To these two I may" add Jacopo da Verona, 
known only by his numerous paintings in fresco 
at San Michele of Padua, which remain in part 
entire; and Taddeo Bartoli, of Siena, who has 
shewn himself ambitious at the Arena, of emulating 
the contiguous labours of Giotto^ without attaining 
the object in view. Another production of the 
same period is seen in the great hall at Padua, re- 
ported to be one of the largest in the world, consist- 
ing, as it does, of a mixture of sacred historic pieces, 
of celestial signs borrowed from Igino, and of the 
various operations carried on during the respective 
months of the year, besides several other ideas 
certainly furnished by some learned man of that 
age. It is partly the work, says Morelli in his 
Notizia, upon the authority of Campagnuola, of 
an artist of Ferrara, and partly that of GiOrMiretto, 
a Paduan. This recent discovery justifies my own 
previous opinions, having been unable to prevail 
upon myself to ascribe such a production to Giotto, 
although it partakes strongly of his style, which 

Veronese, according to Campagnuola^ p. 6/' It must be observed 
that Yasari also consulted the latter, or probably one of his Latin 
letters to Niccolo Leonico Tomeo, quotmg it several times. 
(See Morelli, p. 101.) Now in this it was probably written, ab 
Alticherio de Jebeto ; that is, da Zevio, which was at one time 
called Jebetum, and Yasari believed it to be the name of an un- 
known painter. Such is the conjecture communicated to me by 
^ig. Brandolese, and it appears extremely probable. 



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14* VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

appears to have spread .pretty rapidly tiuroughout 
the territories oft Paduay of Yerona, of JBergamo, 
and great part^ of the Teira /Fetma. i- 

Besides this ;ihaniier9 which may i bey m scmie 
measure, pronounced foreign, t there are^ others 
equally observable in Venice, no Jess, than in Tre- 
vlso, in the Chapter of the Padri Predicatori, and in 
other of the subject cities, and these might: more 
accurately be termed national, so remote are they 
from the style of Giotto, -and that of his disciples 
before mentioaed. . I have elsewhere pointed out 
howiar the miniature painters :contributed to this 
degi:ee of originality, a class: of artists, with whqim 
Italy, at no (time destitute, more fully abounded 
about that period, while they still continued rto 
improve by euqxloying their talents in drawing 
objects from the life» and^not from any Greek :or 
Italian modeL. Indeed:they:had ateeady naade no 
slight advances in every bisanch sxf paintings when 
Giotto first arrived in those parts. I have myself 
seen,Jn the: grand collection of .MSS.,« made in 
Venice, by the Abbate Canonici, a* book of the 
Evangelists, obtained in Udine, illustrated with 
miniatures in pretty good taste for the thirteenth 
century, in which they were produced; and similar 
relics are by ao mea»is rare throughout, the libra- 
ries of the state. I suspect, therefore, that many 
of those new painters, either having been pupils of 
the miniaturists, or induced to imitate them from 
the near connexion between the arts, attempted to 
vie with them in design, in the distribution of their 



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epo6h u 15 

colours^ and in their compositions. Hence, it is 
clearly accounted for, why they did not. become 
the disciples, though acquainted with the works of 
Giotto, but produced several respectable pieces of 

their own s 

To this class belongs M. Paolo, whom Zanetti 
found recorded in an ancient parchment, bearing 
the date of 1 346. He is the earliest in the national 
manner, of whom there exists a work with the in- 
disputable name of its author. It is to be 43een in 
the great church of St; Mark, consisting of a tablet, 
or, as it is otherwise called, Atieana, divided into 
several compartments, representing the figure of a 
dead Christ, with some of the Apostles, and historic 
incidents from the holy Evangelist. There is in- 
scribed underneath— -Jfog-wi^ Paulus cumJacobo, 
et Johannejiliisfecit hoc opus; and Signer Zanetti, 
page 589, observes in regard to it as follows : — 
Among the specimens <}f simple painting, in St. 
Mark's^ the ball centre of the great altar is remark- 
able for several small tablets of gold and silver^ on 
tahichare painted several figures in fhe,,ancient 
Greek manner. San Pietro Urseolo had it con- 
structed about the year 980, at Constantinopley and 
it was removed to this place in the time of the Doge 
Ordelqfo Faliero, in 1 lp2, though it was afterwards 
renovated by command of the Doge Pietro Ziani^ in 
1209; This historian did not discover the inscrip- 
tion which I found upon it in the year 1782. The 
artist is sufficiently distinguished for the period in 
which he flourished, although the stiffhess in the 



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16 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

design/ &lse action/ and expression^ beyond those 
of the best followers of Giotto, are perceptible, 
so much as to remind us of the Greek splecimens 
of art.* 

There can, likewise, be no doubt, that a painter 
of the name of Lorenzo, was one of these Vene- 
tians, whose altar-piece in St. Antony of Castello, 
to which is attached his name, with the date of 
1S58, paid him three hundred gold ducats^ has 
been commended by Zanetti. Besides, we read 
inscribed on a picture belonging to the noble 
house of Ercolani, at Bologna, the words manu 
LAURENTii DE VENETiis, 1368 ; and there is every 
appearance of his being the author of the fresco 
in the church of Mezzaratta, not far from Bo- 
logna, representing Daniel in the lions' den ; and 
bearing the signature of Laurentius, P. It is a 
work that bears no resemblance to the style of 
Giotto, and appears to have been completed about 
the year 1370. It is equally certain that Niccolo 
Semitecolo was a Venetian, he having also in- 

* Signor Abbate Morelli, since P. delia Valje, has disco- 
vered another painting existing in the Sacristy of the Padri 
Conventuali, at Vicenza, with this inscription, 1383, paulus 
DE VENETIIS PINXIT HOC OPUS, {No'tiz, p. 222). He adds 
alsoy two other Venetian painters, with whom T have en- 
riched this new edition; the name of one found in a small 
picture of the Conventuali, at S. Arcangelo, under an image 
of the Virgin, among various saints, dated 1385. Jachohelm de 
Banomo Venetus pinxit hoc opus. The other, in the territory of 
Verruchio, on a crucifixion, with the symbols of the four Evange- 
lists, is in the possession of the Agostiii'iani, and inscribed 1404 : 
Nicholaui Paradixi miles de Venetiis pinxit. 



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EPOCH t. 17 

scribed his name as we find it written upon a 
TrinittT, which represents the Virgin, along with 
some histories of St. Sebastian, still preserved in 
the chapter library of Padua : — '^ Nicoleto Semite- 
colo da Veniexia impense, 1367.'* The work is an 
excellent specimen of this school ; the naked parts 
are tolerably well drawn, and the proportions of 
the figures, though sometimes extravagantly so, 
are bold and free ; and what is more important to 
our present purpose, it discovers no resemblance 
to the style of Giotto, being inferior in point of de- 
sign, though equal to him in regard to the colour- 
ing. Two other painters, whose style betrays 
nothing of Giotto, were discovered by Signor 
Sasso, in Venice, upon the strength of two altar- 
pieces, to which they had affixed their names. Upon 
one, found in the convent of Corpus Domini, he 
read Angelus pinxit ; and upon the other, also in 
the same place, Katarinus pinxit. While on this 
subject, I ought not to pass over the opinion of 
Baldinucci himself, who always appears to have 
respected the freedom and independence of the 
Venetian as opposed to the Florentine school, by 
refusing to insert the name of a single Venetian 
in his tree of Cimabue. He merely maintained, 
that the Venetian painters had improved their 
style by the labours of Angiol Gaddi, and of one 
Antonio, a Venetian, whonn^ spite of the authority 
of Vasari, he has declared to be a Florentine; on 
which point we must refer to what has already 
been stated in the first volume (p. 61) oi this work. 

VOL. III. c 



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18 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Moreover^ he asderts of the same Antonio^ that 
he took up his residence at Venice, and thence 
acquired the appellation of Yeneziano ; biit that 
he took his departure again, owing to the in- 
trigues of the national professors, as much as to 
say, of a school formed anterior to his arrival. 
And so long anterior was it, indeed, that the 
whole state, as well as the adjacent places, abound- 
ed not less with pictures than with pupils, al- 
though few of their names with their productions 
have survived.* 

Among these few is a Simon da Cusighe, who 

* Among these is counted Stefano Pievano, of St. Agnese, 
an able artist, who left his name along with the date, 1881, on 
an ahar-piece of the Aisumptum : — a piece in which the Vene- 
tian colouring is (displayed to advantage, while the expression, 
lively and full of meaning, compensates for its inaccuracy of de- 
sign. Another artist deserving of being known is Jacopo di 
AlheregnOf yvYxoie family stUl remains in Venice, and who has 
been ascertained to be the author of a painting without date, 
representing the Crucifixion of our Saviour, among various 
saints. Tommaso da Modena has also been referred to the 
Venetian School, who, about the period of 1351, produced two 
Holy Virgins at Venice; a St. Catherine, at present in the gal- 
lery of N. H. Ascanio Molin, together with the two preceding, 
and other rare Venetian pictures of the same epoch; and a S.Bar- 
bara, belonging to the Abbate Mauro Boni, so fraught with expres- 
sion, grace, and power of colouring, as to lead me to conjecture 
he had fiourished at a much later period, were it not for the in- 
scribed date. His beginning to be known at Venice is some 
reason why he should be referred to this school, if the name of 
hiif native place, de MtOina, did not riestrain us from so doing with- 
out some further doubt The Ab. Boni, who has given us aui 
account of these pictures in an article put forth by the Italian 
academy, was the first to discover them. 



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EPOCH I. 19 

painted an altar-pieoe and a fresco> still remaining 
in hid native parish, situated near the city of Belr 
hino, where there exist memorials of one Pietro, 
and other artists of the thirteenth century, along 
with some very tolerably executed figures, bearing 
the epigraph of Simon pinxit. To these I add a 
native of Friuli, of whom there are no authentic 
remains beyond Gemona, where he painted the 
fa9ade of the dome, and under a picture of the 
martyrdom of I know not what saint, appears 
his name written, mcccxxxii* magister nicolavs 
piNTOR ME FECIT. To this artist is ascribed, by 
some writers, that vast and meritorious produc- 
tion, still in such a fine state of preservation, orna- 
menting the dome of Yenzone, and which repre- 
sents the solemn scene of the Consecration ; but 
its author is a matter of mere conjecture, founded 
in this instance upon the vicinity of the place and 
time, and resemblance of manner. There are 
also Pecino and Pietro de Nova, who employed 
their talents, during a period of many years sub- 
sequent to 1363, in the church of Santa Maria 
Maggiore, at Bergamo. But these, like the artist 
of Padua before mentioned, approach very nearly 
the composition of Giotto, and possibly might 
have imbibed such a taste at Milan.* 

* Before their time, however, Bergamo could boast a school 
of painting, as witness what Count Tassi adduces in a parcK- 
m^Dt of the year 1290, naming a certain Guglielmo, pittcre. 
It does not appear in what style he drew. One of his succes- 
sors, who painted the tree of St Bonaventura, abounding in sa- 

c 2 



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20 VENEtlAi^ SCHOOL. 

f h^ splendor of Venetian painting becomes^ 
more strikingly manifest in the fifteenth century ; 
a period that was gradually preparing the way for 
the grand manner of the Titians and, the Gior- 
gioni. The new style took its rise in one of the 
islands called Murano ; but it was destined to at- 
tain its perfection in Venice. I first rebognized 
the work of one of the oldest of these artists, sub- 
scribing himself^ Quiricius de Muriano, in the 
studio of Signor Sasso. It represents our Saviour 
in a sitting posture, at whose feet stands a veiled 
devotee ; but there is no mark by which to ascer- 
tain its age. There is, likewise, of uncertain date, 
yet still very ancient, a Bernardino da Murano, 
of whose productions Zanetti saw nothing more 
than a rude altar-piece. An Andrea da Murano 
flourished about the period 1400, whose style, 
whatever it may retain of harsh and dry, neither 
superior in composition, nor in choice of features 
to that of his predecessors, discovers him to have 
been tolerably skilful in design, even in regard to 
the extremities, and in placing his figures well in 
the canvass. 

There remains in his native place, at San Pier 
Martire, an altar-piece painted by his hand, in 
which a St. Sebastian forms so conspicuous a figure 
for the beauty of its torso, that Zanetti suspects it 

ered figures, shews himself an artist more rud^, indeed, bat 
more original than either of the brothers de Nora. Of his name 
we are, however^ ignorant, as he only attached the date of 
1347. 



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EPOCH I. 21 

must have been copied from some ancient statue. 
It is he who introduced the art into the house of 
the Vivarini, his compatriots^ who in a continued 
line of succession preserved the school of Murano 
for nearly a century ; and who produced as rich 
a harvest of their labours in Venice, as did the 
Campi afterwards in the city of Cremona, or the 
Procaccini in Milan. I shall treat of them with 
brevity, but with such new sources of informa- 
tion, as will at once serve to correct and amplify 
what has already been written. 

The first among the Vivarini mentioned by his- 
torians is Luigi, of whom a painting at Santi Gio- 
vanni e Paolo, has been cited by them, which re- 
presents our Redeemer bearing the cross upon his 
shoulders. The work has been a good deal re- 
touched, and there has been added to it another 
portion, which gives the name of the author, dated 
1414. Not being an autograph, we are led to 
suspect some kind of mistake attaching either to 
the name or the date ; there having been another 
Luigi Vivarini, as we shall shew, towards the close 
of the century. The one in question, then, might 
probably be an ancestor of the latter, though it be 
difficult to persuade ourselves of it, as there re- 
mains no other superscription, or notice of any of 
that name so ancient. 

Next to this artist, according to Ridolfo and 
Zanetti, are to be enumerated Giovanni and Anto- 
nio Vivarini, who flourished about the year 1440. 
The authority they adduce for this, is an altar-piece 



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22 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

in San Pantaleone, which bears the inscription of 
Zuane e Antonio da Muran pense 1444. But this 
Giovanni,* if I mistake not, is the same who signs 
his name on another picture mYemee, Joannes de 
Alemania ei Antonius deMurianopinxit; or as it is 
thus written in Padua, Antonio de Muran e Zohan 
Alamanus pinxit. Giovanni, therefore, was a com- 
panion of Antonio, a German by birth ; and traces 

* In the work intitled Narrazione delV Isola di Murano, hy G. 
A. Moschini, the supposition I have above stated has been 
combated by its excellent author. A picture in the gallery of 
the N. H. Molin, at Venice, subscribed Johannes Vivarinus, 
seems to have persuaded him of my mistake. In a work em- 
bracing an account of some thousand painters, I cannot pretend 
to boast of its being free from some human errors, and was 
about to express my gratitude to the abovementioned author for 
having pointed one of them out. But I am now convinced that 
the picture is from the hand of another arti«t, and that the sig- 
nature in question is a forgery, the autlior of which has confound^ 
ed the character of what is called Gothic and Roman, in place of 
imitating the true character of those times, which he might very 
easily have done, inasinuch as he had before his eyes a small 
chart, with a most devout oration, Deus metis charitas, &c. in the 
most complete Gothic, or rather German character that can be 
conceived. The impostor therefore must have been extremely 
ignorant of his art. The examination was made by the cavalier 
Gio. da Lazara, Abate Mauro Boni, Bartolommeo Gamba, names 
sufficiently known to the public to justify our adoption of their 
opinion. The very able Brandolese has likewise pronounced 
the inscription false, and published thereon a little woiic, en- 
tided " Doubts respecting the existence of such a pointer as Gio- 
vanni Vivarino da Murano, newly confirmed; and a refutation 
of some recently asserted authority, to confirm them" And in 
this he displays much sound criticism, and many arguments, all 
tending to strengthen my own conjecture. 



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£^CH I. 23 

i>f a foreign sjtyle are clearly perceptible in his 
paintings. The reason of his omitting to insert his 
birth-place in the picture at San Pantaleone^ arose^ 
I suspect^ from thje fact of his name and acqu^^int- 
ance with Antonio being too well known to admit 
of doubt. After the year 1447 there is no more 
mention made of Giovanni, but only of Antonio ; 
sometimes alone, sometimes together with some 
other of the Viyarini. Thus, hfe name is subscribed 
alone in San Antonio Abate di Pesaro^ upon an 
altar-piece of the titular saint, surrounded by the 
figures of three young martyrs, with some smaller 
paintings attached; tl^e production of averyaniinat- 
ed.colourist, and displaying forms inferior to none 
in the school of Murano. I have ^een two other 
spe.cimejpis,in which he is mentioned together with 
a second Vivarino. The least excellent of these 
is to be found in San Francesco Grande, at Padua, 
consisting of a Madonna, with some saints, in va- 
rious compartments ; and, at the foot of it, is the 
following memorandum, Amo 1451, Antonius et 
Bartholomeus fratre$ de Murano pinxerunt hoc 
opMis. Similar to this, the two brothers had pro- 
duced another the year preceding, in the Certosa 
of Bologoa, where it is still in a high state of pre- 
servation> beyond any other specimen I have seen 
belonging to this family. There is much worthy 
of commendation in each figure of the whole piece; 
features dignified and devout; appropriate dresses; 
care in the disposition of the hair and beards, 
united to a colouring warm and brilliant. 



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24 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

According to what appears, Bartolommeo must 
have been held of less account than Antonio, un- 
til the discovery of painting in oil being Intro* 
duced into Venice, he became one among the first 
to profit by it, and, towards the period in which 
the two Bellini appeared, was held in pretty high 
repute. 

The first specimen of his painting in oil exists 
at S. Giovanni e Paolo, not far from the gate, 
and exhibits, among other saints, P.San Agostino, 
with an indication of the year 1173. From that 
period hecontinued to distinguish himself, pro- 
ducing a great number of pieces both in oil and in 
water-colour, sometimes with more, and some- 
times with less care, but always in the ancient 
taste for subdividing the altar-piece into several 
parts, in each of which he represented separate 
heads or entire. figures. In these he often marked 
the name of Vivarino, with the year of their pro- 
duction; and occasionally he has added a finch or 
linnet by way of allusion to his family name. His 
last work, bearing the date of the year, is a Christ 
risen from the dead, at San Giovanni, in Bragora, 
where Boschini read the date of 1498, which is 
now no longer apparent ; but it is a piece which, 
in every part, may be said to vie with that of the 
best Venetian artists who flourished during the 
same period. 

Contemporary with him was a Luigi of the same 
name, one of whose productions was seen by Za- 
netti, in a collection of paintings, with the date of 



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EPOCH I. 25 

1490, and as appeared to him, strongly approaching, 
in point of taste, to the best style of Bartolommeo. 
To Luigi, also, must undoubtedly be ascribed the 
altar-piece, which, in San Francesco di Trevigi, 
bears his name. There is another at the Battuti, 
in Belluno, representing the saints Piero, Girolamo, 
and some others, a work which cost that school 100 
gold ducats, besides the expenses of the artist, who 
has attached to it his name. But superior to every 
other of his existing specimens, is that fine picture 
in the school of San Girolamo, at Venice, in which 
he represented a history of the titular saint, in 
emulation of Giovanni Bellino, whom he here 
equalled, and of Carpaccio, whom he surpassed. 
He has drawn the saint in the act of caressing a 
lion, while several monks are seen flying in terror 
at the sight. The composition is very fine ; the 
passions are tolerably well pourtrayed, the colours 
as soft and delicate as in any other of the Vivarini; 
the architecture solid, and in the ancient taste, 
while the epoch is more modern than that which 
could be ascribed to the supposed Luigi, the elder. 
Such is our exposition of the whole series of the 
School of Murano, up to the period of its greatest 
improvement, so as to bring it under one point of 
view. I shall now, therefore, resume the thread of 
my narrative, relating to the elder artists of the 
fourteenth century, who competed with the oldest 
of the school of Murano, until the era of painting 
in oil ; and I shall afterwards proceed to treat apart 
of the more modern. 



...oL,,, 



26 y£;N£TIAN SCHOOL. 

In the early part of the century^ an artist of the 
name of Gentile da Fabriano, had been employed 
in the public palaqe at Venice, highly distinguished 
in his time, but of whom I must not here repeat 
what has becA said in the first volume of this work. 
He there depicted a naval battle-scene, a produc- 
tion greatly extolled in former times, which has 
long since perished. He produced, also, some 
disciples, as we find mention of a Jacopo Nerito, 
from Padua, who^ in a painting at San Michele di 
Padova, according to Rossetti, subscribes himself 
one of his pupils. Nasocchio di Bassano, the elder, 
is to be ranked also, either as one of his scholars or 
his imitators, if, indeed, a small picture pointed out 
to me by the late Signor Verci was by his hand.. 

Among other Venetians, Jacopo Bellini, at once 
the father and the master of Gentile and Giovanni 
of the same name, of whom more hereafter, was 
certainly a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano. Jacopo, 
however, is better known by the celebrity of his 
sons, than by his own works, at this time either 
destroyed or unknown. He had painted in the 
school of S. Giovanni Evangelista at Venice, and 
in the chapel pf the Gatta Melata, at the Santo di 
Padova, about 1456; but these labours survive only 
in history, nor have I met with any other speci- 
men beside^ a ^Madonna, discovered by Sig. Sasso, 
bearing the signature of its author. The style^ 
appears taken from that of Squarcione, to which 
he is supposed to have applied himsdf in his more, 
advanced years. 



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EPOCH I. 27 

There was also another Jacopo in. very high 
repute,* called Jacobello del Fiore, who has been 
falsely accused by Yasari, of having drawn his 
figures all resting on the tip of their toes, in the 
manner of the Gredss. His father, Francesco, was 
considered in the light of a Coryphaeus of the art, 
and his tomb is still to be seen at Santi Giovanni 
e Paolo, with a figure of him in his toga, and a 
commendatory epitaph in Latin verse. No works 
of his, however, are to be seen in Venice,! a dittico, 
or small altar, with his name having been convey- 
ed to London, bearing the date of 1412. It was 
obtained by the Chevalier Strange, together with 
some other productions of the old Venetian artists. 
The son of Francesco rose to a still higher degree 
of celebrity. He began to make himself known 
as early as 1401, by producing an altar-piece at 
San Cassiano di Pesaro, in which city I discovered 
another, with the date of 1 409, and both bear the 
signature of Jacometto de Flor. A much nobler 

^ This artist ought not to be confounded with Jacometto da 
Venezia^ a miniature painter, an.d artist of the same age, but who 
flourished somewhat later. H6 also was celebrated in his day, 
and is frequently recorded in the Notizia MoreUi, for his small 
pictures, adapted for private rooms, his portraits, and his minia- 
tures. It was sometimes doubted whether a certain work was 
from the hand of John of Bruges, of Antonello da Messina, or of 
Jacometto da Venezia. (See Notizia Morelli, p. 74.) 

t The picture referred to by the P. Moschini, in his Narra- 
ziane delV Isola di Murano, is not to be admitted as genuine, the 
inscription upon it being forged by the same author, who coun- 
terfeited that of Giovanni Yivarini, before alluded to in the note 
to page 22* 



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28 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

work is a coronation of the Virgin, in the cathe- 
dral of Ceneda, extremely rich in figures/ insomuch 
as to have deserved the name of the '' Painting of 
Paradise," in a MS. of the lives of the bishops of 
that place, which is preserved in the episcopal resi- 
dence, and declares the work to have been executed, 
ab eximio illius temporis pictore Jacohello de Flore, 
1432, at the expense of the bishop. Ant. Correr. 
There is a Madonna, indisputably by his hand, 
in possession of Sig. Girolamo Manfrini, painted 
in 1436, besides the Giustizia, drawn between 
two archangels, in the Magistrato del Propria, 
bearing the date of 1421. I may venture to say 
that few artists of that time equalled him ; both 
on account of his having few rivals who had so 
early ventured to attempt drawing figures as large 
as the life, and because of his power of conferring 
upon them a certain grace and dignity, and, where 
called for, a vigour and ease rarely to be met 
with in other paintings. The two lions which he 
represented as symbols of his Giustizia (Justice), 
are truly grand, though the rest of the figures 
would have appeared to more advantage had they 
been less loaded with ornaments, and in particular 
the draperies glowing with gold lace, according to 
the custom of his age. He had a rival in Giacomo 
Morazone, known by an altar-piece seen in the 
island of St. Elena, of which I shall have to speak 
elsewhere. 

Two pupils of Jacobello are recorded by Ridolfi, 
one of whom, Donato, is superior to his master in 



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EtK)CH I. 29 

point of style, and the other. Carlo CrivelU, of 
whom the capital can boast only one or two pieces, 
and of whom little mention is made in Venetian his- 
tory. It would appear that he long resided out 
of his native place, and in the Marca Trevigiana, 
from which circumstance we find him repeatedly 
named in the Storia Picena, in the Guida di As- 
coliy and in the catalogue of Fabrianese paintings. 
At San Francesco di Matelica, I saw an altar-piece 
and grado by his hand, with his name in the follow- 
ing inscription — Carolus Crivellus Venetus mites 
pinxit, as well as another with his name at the 
Osservanti, in Macerata, and a third which bears 
the year 1476, in possession of the Cardinal Zelada. 
He is an artist more remarkable for his force of 
colouring than for his correctness of design : and 
his principal merit consists in those little history 
pieces, in which he has represented beautiful 
landscapes, and given to his figures grace, motion, 
and expression, with some traces of the colouring of 
the School of Perugia. Hence his productions have 
occasionally been taken for those of Pietro, as in 
the iiistance of that in Macerata ; and if I mistake 
not, such an opinion was entertained, even by the 
learned Father Civalli, (p. 60). In Piceno, like- 
wise, in Monsanmartino, or in Penna S. Giovanni, 
there ^remain altar-pieces by Vittorio Crivelli, a 
Venetian, most probably of the same family, and 
produced in the years 1489 and 90, from which 
period I lose sight of him, whether owing to his 



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30 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

early decease^ or his having set out in pursuit of 
hetter fortune into foreign jiarts. 

Hitherto we haVe examined only the productions 
of the capital and of the annexed island. But in 
each of the other cities^ now comprehended in the 
state, there flourished painters during the same 
period, guided by maxims differing both from those 
of Venice and of Murano. The School of Ber- 
gaitio had even then made distinguished progress 
under the direction of the two Nova, who died at 
the commencement of the century ; and mention 
is made of a Commenduno, one of their pupils, 
besides some other contemporaries, whose works, 
however, cannot, with any degree of certainty, be 
pointed out. The same may be said of those in 
the adjacent city of Brescia, which could then, 
also, bbast of possessing some excellent artists. Of 
these, thete is nothing more than the name ndw 
reihaining> yet Brandolin Testorino and Ottaviano 
Branding are names placed lii competition with 
that of Gentile di Fabriano, and, perhafls> they ate 
preferred to him. The former was supposed to 
have been engaged along with- Altlchiero^ in orna- 
menting the great hall in Padua, entitled Sola 
de' Giganti.^ 

Subsequent to bdth of these appeared^Yincenzio 
Foppa, of Brescia, founder of an ancient school at 
Milan, of which I shall treat itoore at length in the 
following book. Vasari makes mention of a Vin- 

♦ See Morelli Notizia, p. 157. 



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EPOCH I. 31 

cenzio da Brescia, or Vincenzio Verchio, who is 
the same Vincenzo Civerchio di Crema, commend- 
ed by Ridolfo, and so much admired by the French 
in the capture of Crema, that they fixed upon one 
of his pictures, then ornamenting the public pa- 
lace, to be presented to their king, and to this 
artist we shall also again allude. 

About the commencement of the fifteenth cen- 
tury there flourished, in Verona, an artist of the 
name of Stefano,* declared, as it appears to me, by 
Vasari, sometimes a native of Verona, sometimes 
of Zevio, a territory adjacent to the former. The 
same author makes honourable niention of him in 
several places, exalting him above the best disciples 
of Angiolo Gaddi, to whose style, judging from 
what I have myself observed at San Fermo and 
elsewhere, he added a certain dignity and beauty 
of form, while such was his excellence in frescos, 
as to be extoUed by Donatello beyond any of the 
artists who were then known for similat composi- 
tions in those parts-f 

* I had supposed, in my first edition of this work, misled by 
the opposite names, that Sebeto was a different personage from 
this Stefano da Zevio. I was afterwards undeceived by the ap- 
pearance of the work of the learned Brandolese, pronouncing 
them one and the same artist ; and I willingly here retract what 
I had before advanced, expressing, at the same time, my ac- 
knowledgements for the emendation. 

t Brawn in the most perfect manner y are the words of Vasari, 
while he adds, that the whole of his works were imitated and 
copied by Pietro di Perugia, an experienced artist in fresco, and 
more especially in miniature, with which *' he oniamented the 
whole of the books in the library of Pope Pius, in the dome, at 



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3i VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

The Commendatore del Pozzo brings his labours 
down as far as the year 1463, an incredible asser- 
tion^ as applied to a scholar of Gaddi. To this 
period might better be referred Vincenzio di Ste- 
fano, apparently one of his sons, of whom nothing 
survives but his name, and the tradition of having 
conferred the first lessons of the art upon Liberale. 

Highly distinguished, on the other hand, both 
by the consent of the Veronese and of foreigners, 
is the name of Vittor Pisanello; although there 
exists great confusion of dates in his history. Va- 
sari makes him a disciple of Castagno, who died 
about the year 1480 ; yet del Pozzo informs us 
that he has in his house a holy figure, with the 
annexed signature of Vittore, and dated 1406, most 
probably before the birth of Castagno. Again we 
are told by Oretti that he was in possession of one 
of his medals, representing the Sultan Mahomet, 
struck in the year 1481, a supposition which, ad- 
mitting the picture of Pozzo, we^ are unable to 

Siena. He is not known, however, in Perugia, nor mentioned 
at Siena among those employed at the cathedral, as is noticed by 
Father della Valle; yet the present work abounds with examples 
of artists, unknown in their own cities, on account of having re- 
sided elsewhere; and the beforementioned annotator of Vasari 
was unable to discover the name of Liberal da Verona, an un- 
doubted illustrator of the books, in such registers. I think we 
ought not to refuse to give credit, therefore, to Vasari, as Father 
Guglielmo insists; but to admit a new Pietro di Perugia, anterior 
to Vanucci, who might design the frescos of Stefano in Verona and 
Mantua, so extolled in the early part of 1400, and who copied 
them in those very beautiful and graceful miniatures at Siena; an 
art which he probably acquired at Verona, where it was then in 
such high repute. 



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EFOCH I. 83 

reconcile to facts, so that the me^dal. w^s^ perhaps^ 
taken from some painting of Pisanello^ coloured, at 
a former time. To whatever master Vittore may 
have been indebted^ certain it is that several of hi3 
too partial admirers have placed him . above Ma- 
sa^ccio^ in regard to the services rendered by him^ 
towards the progress of the art^ though impartial 
judges will not refuse to give him a station neaj* 
him. The whole of his labours^ both in Venice 
and in Rome, have now perished. . At y^rpna, 
also, little remains ; even that noble piece of San 
Eustachio, so highly extolled by Y^^sari himself, 
having been destroyed; and his NumiatUy at. San 
Fermo, being greatly defaced by time, in which, 
however, is . still visible a country-house, thrown 
into such admirable perspective, as to delight th^e 
beholder. There remain several little altar-pieces, 
containing histories of San Bernardino, fiqished in 
the style of the miniaturists, in the sacristy of San, 
Francesco ; but^hey are crude, in their colouring, 
and the figures more than usually long and dry. 
The Gv^deoiihe city announces them as the pro- 
ductions of Pisanello; but there is no authority 
for this, and upon the strength of a date of 1473, 
which is seen upon one of them, I do^ not scruple 
to pronounce them by another hand. He is com- 
mended by Facio, (p. 47) for his almost poetical 
style of expression ; and there is a specimen of an 
effort at caricature, with which Vittoiie embellish- 
ed his historic painting of Frederick Barbarossa, 
in the ducal palace at Venice. He is, moreover, 

VOL. III. D 



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&4 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

praised 1>y'the same author for his skill in drawing 
horses and other ahiinals, in whi<ih he sui^pas^ed 
every other artistV ' His name isi not unknown to 
the antiquaries; mail/ medals struck by him^ of 
differenjt princes, bdng found in museums, which 
acquired for him. In ah equal degree with his pic- 
tured, the esteem and sipplauses of Guarino, of Vfes- 
pasiano Strozza, of Bioddo, and of several other 
distinguished scholars. ^ * 

In the adjacent city of Vicenza, residisd a Jacopo 
Tintotello, strongly resembling Vittore in his style 
of colouring, however iiiferidr to him in the peif- 
fection of his design, as far as we ate enabled tci 
judge froin a picture of the Saviour, with a crown 
of thorns, exhibited ^t Sianta Corona; a piece 
Which reflects credit upon that school. It is yet 
more highly honoured by an Epiphany, painted in 
San Bartolommeo, by Milrcello Figolino, an artist 
commemorated by Ridolfi, under the name of Gio- 
vanni Batista, and who flourished, accdtding to 
his account, at the period of the two Montagna. 
He must, however, at that time, haVe beeti far ad«- 
vanced in years, if it be true that the era of his 
birth precieded that of Gian Bellini.* His manner 
is undoubtedly original ; so much do, thiat I find 
nothing resembling it, either in Venice or else- 
where; it embraces great diversity of countenance, 
and of costume, skilful gradation of light and 
shade, with landscape and perspective; and is re- 

* See on this head, the Descriziane deUe BeUezze iU Vicenza, 
P. 1. p. 7. 



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EPOCH I. 35 

thstk^hle for dmament, and the finish and smooth- 
ness 0f every part. It was fully entitled to render 
itl» i£mthbr the father of a new epoch in the history of 
jttt ; if, indeed, we are to believe hinii which does 
Hbt sufficiently appear, to be as ancient as has beefi 
affirmed. 

' Up to this; period I have described the merits 
of^the artists of the city and of the state, who ap- 
peared in th6 early part of the century ; but I have 
not yet recorded its greatest master; I mean 
S^arcione, of Padua, who from his ability ih 
bringing up pupils, was pi'onounced byhis follow- 
lets' the first maister of painters, and continued to 
educate them until they amounted to 137. Ambi 
tiou^ of seeing more of the world, he not only 
ttaversed the whole of Italy, but passing into 
Greece^ he took designs of the best specimens, 
both in painting and sculpture, of every thing he 
«iet with, besides purchasing several On return- 
ing'to his nrfiive place, he began to form ft' studio^ 
^hith proved the richest of any known at that 
{>'(grlod; not merely in designs, but in stattiw, 
tbrs^s, bassirilievi, and fuhereal urns. Thtis de- 
Votihg himself to the instniction of students, with 
ktdx copies, aided by his precepts, rather than by 
his oWtt example, he continued to live^ in cc»npa« 
Iffctive affltierifce, arid divided many of the commis* 
sions which he received among his different pupils^ 
In the church of the Misericordia is preserved a 
book of anthems, illustrated with very beautiful 
miniatures, commonly ascribed to Mantegna, the 

D 2 



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36 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

ornament of that school : but so great is the variety 
of the different styles, that the most competent 
judges conclude it to be one of the works com- 
mitted to; Squarcione, and by him distributed 
among his disciples. Of these we are not yet pre- 
pared to treat, the chief part of whom are known 
to have flourished subsequent to the introduction 
of painting in oils, while little can be said of the 
productions of Squwcione himself, thoi^fa much 
in respect to his labours as a master. And, indeed, 
he may be coni^idered the stock, as it were, whose 
branches we trace, through Mantegna, in the grand 
school of Lomb^rdy; through Marco Zoppo in 
the Bolognese; while it extended some degree of 
influence over that of Venice itself. For Jacopo 
Bellini, having come to exercise his talents in 
Padua, it would appear that he took Squarcione 
for his model, as before stated. 

There is nothing remaining from the hand of 
Squarcione, in Padua, that can be relied upon with 
certainty, except an altar-piece^ formerly to be 
seen at the Carmelitani, but now in possession 
of the accomplished Conte Cav. de' Lazaxa. It is 
drawn in different compartments ; the chief place 
is occupied by the figure of San Girolamo. Around 
him appear other saints ; but the work is in parts 
re^touched, though there is sufficient of what is 
original to establish the character of the painter. 
Rich in colouring, in expression^ and above all in 
perspective, it may be declared one of the best 
specimens pf the art produced in those parts. The 



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EPOCH I. 37 

painting of the altar-piece/ here alluded' to^ was 
assigned him by the noble family of the Lazara, of 
which the contract is still preserved by them, dated 
1449, the salary being paid in 1452, the period at 
which it was completed. The artist subscribes 
himself Francesco Squarcione, whence we are 
enabled to correct the mistake of Vasari, who, in- 
variably unfortunate in his nomenclature of the 
Venetians, announces his name as Jacopo,an error 
repeated also in the dictionaries of artists. Besides 
this specimen, there still exist, in a cloister of San 
Francesco Grande^ some histories of that saint in 
terra verde, which are to be referred to the early 
part of his life, there being good authority for be- 
lieving them to be by the same hand, though with 
the assistance of his school, as the more and less 
perfect parts render sufficiently apparent. Near 
them were placed some other pieces of Squarcione 
also in terra verde, which were defaced in the time 
of Algarotti, who regrets their loss in one of his 
elegant and pleasing letters. Their style is alto, 
gether analogous to that of his school ; animated 
figures, neat in the folds, foreshortenings. not usual 
in works of that age, and attempts, though yet im- 
mature, at approaching towards the style of the 
ancient Greeks. 

Proceeding from Padua, in the direction of Ger- 
many, we meet with some anonymous paintings, 
in the districts of Trevigi and Friuli, which ought, 
apparently, to be referred to this epoch ; so far re- 
moved are they in style from the nobler method. 



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38 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

we shall shortly have to describe. The name ol 
Antonio is well known in Treviso, an artist who. 
produced a S. Cristoforo^ of gigantic stature^ tole^ 
rably well executed, in San Niccolo, and that of 
Liberate 4a.C9.mpo, author of a Presepio, which. is 
placed in th^ cathedraL Superior to both of t)ie9e 
must have, been Giorgio da Tr^yigi, if wq are to 
believe Bossetti, where he^ mo^tion^ Ms. introdu^r 
tion into Padua, in il437, in. order to paint th^ 
celebrated tower of the Horologe.,, There .e;d»t 
other pictures of the fourtecQth century,i more or 
less perfect, intersperseid throughout the Marca 
Ti:evigiana, and more, particularly in S^rravalle^ 
Other places in Italy, indeed, bear the same name^ 
derived from the inclp^d form pf the mountains ; 
this, however, is the largest of the whole^ being a 
rich and. ornate city, where Titian wasin^.the habit 
of spending some months iq the yesx at the hqi)^ 
of his sonrin-law, by way pf amusemeint, aqd ,has 
left there several memorials of his art- But the 
whole of the church of the Battuti appears orna^ 
mented in a more antique taste^ executed in such 
a manner, that I w'as asi^ured, by a person; who 
witnessed it, that it most of all resembled a sacred 
mi^um of art. The whole niust have been , :the 
work of the same artists that we haye just been re- 
cording in other cities^ inasmuch , as the names of 
np natives are known beyond the single one of 
Yalentina. He, indeed^ verged upon the improved 
age; but in Ceneda, that boasts various, altar- 
pieces of his hand, as well as in Serjravalle itself. 



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* EPOCH I. 39 

where he painted another, with some saints of the 
Holy Family, he still appears a disciple of the 
ancients, and a copyist of Squarcione, of Padna. 
We shall soon disconr^ more celebrated artists 
rising up in thia proyince, after the introduction 
into the Trevigiana^ of the method of the Bel- 
lini. 

The artists of Friuli availed themselyes of it less 
early, not having su^ciently imbihed the principles 
of modem taste^ even as late as the year 1500, 
either, in the opinion of Rinaldis, from the secluded 
situation of the place, or from the disturbed and 
revolutionary character of the timei^. Hence it is 
that. the provincial painters of that period are to 
be referred wholly to this, not to the subsequent 
era of the art. . To such belongs Andrea Bellunello, 
of San Vito, whose master-piece is a Crucifixion, 
among various saints, with the date of 1475, exhi- 
bited in the great council-chamber at Udine. It 
has some merit in regard to the size, and the dis- 
tribution of its figures ; but displays, neither beauty 
of forms, nor colour, and we might almost pro- 
nounce it an ancient piece of tapestry, when^ placed 
by the side of a beautiful picture. Nevertheless, 
in his own district, he was considered ^he Zeuxis 
and Apelles of his age."* Contemporary with him, 
Mfas Domenico di Tolmezzo, who painted an altar^ 

* Id the cathedral of Pordenone, under one of his alter- 
pieces, we read — 

. '^ Andreas Zeusis nostraeque aetatis Apelles 
Hoc Bellunellus nobile pinxit opus. ( Alton, ) 



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40 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

piece in various conipartments for the catiiedrail of 
Udini3 ; a Madonna, in the taste of those times, 
with some saints, figures which all partake of l^e 
ancient Venetian style, even to the colouring, in- 
somuch that one might believe him to have been 
a disciple of that school. He has attached his 
name and the year, 1479, and it would appear that 
there belonged to the same piece, exhibiting a 
figure of the blessed Bertrando, Patriarch of Aqui- 
leja, two oblong tablets, one of which repre- 
sents his ofiering of alms, the other the circum- 
stances of the death he sufiered The whole of 
these paintings, which I have noticed, are toler- 
ably executed, in particular the two histories, and 
are preserved in two chambers of the Cariomea. 
Not far from the same place is seen a figure of the 
saint, in fresco, painted by Francesco de Alessiis, 
in 1494, and placed over the door of a house, for- 
merly the college of S, Girolamo. 

While the schools of the state thus continued to 
advance, a knowledge of design became more ge- 
neral in Venice; and in the latter part of the 
century, its artists, for the most part, had acquired 
a taste similar to what I have already described as 
influencing those of other places— a taste rather 
removed from the antique coarseness, than adorn- 
ed with the elegance of the modems. Although 
the use of canvass had been already adopted in 
Venice, like that of boards elsewhere, a circum- 
stance for which Vasari accounts, in treating of 
the Bellini, there was no composition besides 



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EPOG^ I. 41 

water colours, or distemper ; excellent, indeed, fdr 
the preservation of tints> as we perceive from mi- 
faded specimens in the present day, but unfrienAy 
to the production of union, smoothness, and soft- 
ness. At length appeared the secret of colouring 
in oils from Flanders, a discovery conferring a 
happier .era upon the Italian Schools, and in par- 
ticular upon that of Venice, which availed itself of 
it above every other, and apparently the very first 
of all. In the Florentine School I have described 
the origin of this invention, ascribing it, along 
with Vasari, to Giovanni Van Eych, and both 
there and in the Neapolitan, I have also shewn 
that the first who communicated it to Italy was 
Antonello da Messina, having been instructed in 
it by Giovanni himself in Flanders. The histo- 
rical account of this Messinese, as I have repeat- 
edly before observed, has never been suffici^itly 
elucidated. Vasari and Ridolfi state such &cts 
respecting him as are not easily reconcilable to 
the period of life in general assigned to him, 
reaching only to forty-nine years; and I have 
proved, in collecting memorials, to which they had 
no access, alluded to in the Neapolitan School, 
that there were two distinct visits made by Anto- 
nello to Venice. The first, it appears to me, must 
have taken place soon after his return into Italy ; 
at which time he concealed the discovery from 
every one, except.it were DomenicoVeneziano, 
who is known to have availed himself of it for many 
years,, both in Venke and elsewhere. During that 



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42 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

period Antonello visited other places^ and more 
especially Milan^ whence he returned to Venice 
for the second time^ and as it is said^ received a 
public salary, and then be divulged the method of 
painting in oils to the Venetian professors ; a cir- 
cumstance which^ according to the superscriptions 
attached to his pictures, appears to have ta^en 
place about the year 1474. Other signatures are 
to be met with as late as 1490^ insomuch that he 
must have run a longer career than that which has 
above heen assigned hiuL And we are here-^urived 
at an era^ at once the happiest and most controvert- 
ed of any. But of the Venetians we shall treat 
presently, after alluding to the works of this foreign 
artist apart. Two altar-pieces by his hand are 
recorded, which were painted for the two churches 
of the Dominante, besides several Madonnas, ,and 
other holy pieces intended for private houses, to- 
gether with some few productions in fresco. There 
is no doubt but. he also produced many others, 
both at the instance of natives and of foreigners^ 
relieving himself from the multiplicity of liis com- 
missions by the aid of Pino di Messina,^ the same 
who is commended in the memoirs of Hackert, m 
the pupil and companion of AntoneUo's labours 
at Venice. It is not mentioned whether he pro- 
duced any specimens of his art in.Sie\ly,.noir am. I 
certain whether he returned thither. In many 
Venetian collections, however, they are. still pre? 
served, and display a very, correct taste,, united 
to a : most delicate command of the pendl; and 



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EPOCH I. 43 

among others is a portrait in the possession of 
the &mily Martinengo^ bearing the inscription An- 
Umellus Messaneus me fecit, 1474. 

In the council hall* of the^Ten is also to be seen 
one of hi& pictures . of a Piet^, half-length, sub*' 
scribed,* Antanivfi .Messineusis. . . The features ^ of 
the countenances, though. animated^ are not at all 
select, nor have much of the Italian expi;ession; 
and his. colours in this and other of his.prodi^c- 
tions that I have seen^ are less vivid than iu some 
Yenetian artists of that. age, who carried the per- 
fection of colouring to its highest pitch* 

There. is good' authority for believing that,.. to- 
gether, with Antonello, or very near the. same pe- 
i^iod, there flourished in Venice one of the best 
Flemish disciples of Giovanni Van-Eych; called 
by ^y asari, Ruggiei;i dfi Bruggia. There appears, 
ia the Palazzo Nani, adorned by its pre;$ei;it owner 
in the hereditary taste of his noble family, with 
the most splendid monuments of antiquity, a San 
Girolamo between two holy virgins, a picture, as 
is shewn frppi the following inscription, by his 
liand, — Sumus Rugerii manw. It is drawn with 
more merit in point of colouring than of de- 
sign, upon Venetian pine-wood, not upon Flemish 
oak ; and for this reason it is considered by Za- 
^letti, as the production of a native artist, Bijt if 
the Venetians .hq4 really possessed a painter of so 
much merit, towards the year 1500, how is it pos- 
sible that he should be distinguished only by this 
solitary specimen of his powers. Even the very 



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44 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

imposing lormula he made use of in subscribing 
his name, contrary to the usual practice of those 
times^ without mention either of family or of place^ 
is it not altogether like that of an artist who feels 
and displays his own celebrity ?* To me it does not 
appear at all improbable that Ruggieri, on arriving 
in Italy,f sought to employ his talents upon some 
subject^ in the same way as Ausse^ his disciple, 
Ugod'Anversa, and other Flemish painters of that 
period, whose names are commemorated along with 
his by y asari, in the twenty-first chapter of his in- 
troduction. 

Reverting to Antonello, we are told by Borghini 
and Ridolfi, that Gian Bellini, having assumed 
the dress and character of a Venetian gentleman, 
for the pretended purpose of having his portrait 

* Ruggieri indeed had acquired a great reputation in Italy as 
early as 1449, when Ciriaco Anconitano, being in Ferrara, saw 
a picture of Christ taken from the cross, belonging to the Duke, 
fie thus writes respecting the artist: Rugerm BrugiensU pic- 
toTum deem ATA&UI TYXHI. — Rugierius in Bmssella past pnE- 
datum iUum Brugiensem picture decus Joannem, insignis N, 
T. Pictor habetur, &c. See Colucci A, P. vol. xxiii. p. 148. 
He is also commended in high terms by Bartolommeo Facio in 
his little work De viris illustrUms,' See Morelli, Notizia, p. 239. 

t He arrived there^ and was at Rome in the anno Santo. See 
Facius, lib. cit p. 45. 

X This is one of the usual mistakes found in Yasari. Bal- 
dinucci (toni. iv. p. 17) calls him Ans or Hans. This is his 
Flemish appellation, which in our tongue, signifies Giovanni ; 
and in the Notizia Morelli he is termed Gianes da Brugia; 
somewhat nearer our own tongue. With Sansovino he is Gio, 
diBruggia, John of Bruges. See MorelU^ p. 117; and by him 
he is distinguished from Gio. Van j^cA. 



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EPOCH I. 45 

taken, penetrated by this disguise into the studio 
of the Messinese ; and watching him while he 
painted, discovered the whole secret of the new 
method, which he speedily applied. But Zanetti 
conjectures that Antonello was not very jealous of 
his secret, by which means it was quickly diffused 
among the different professors of the art. And 
this is clearly shewn by a picture of Vivarini, coh 
loured in oil, as early as 1473, no less than by 
others from different hands in the years following. 
Argenville even goes fai:ther ; for he asserts that 
such, was the generosity with which Antonello 
taught in Venice, that he drew a crowd of pupils, 
who assisted in spreading a knowledge of the dis- 
covery through all part^. And among these we 
find, several foreigners, such as Theodore Harlem, 
Quintinus Messis, along with several others men- 
tioned in the preface to the third volume, p. iii. 
This we are likewise inclined to admit during the 
period of his public instructions in the city. 

All that now remains before we reach the times 
of Titian and Giorgione, is comprised in that last 
stage of the art which, in every school, has opened 
a path to the golden period which ensued. The 
masters who were, to distinguish the stage alluded 
to, in Venice, as in almost all other parts, are found 
to retain traces of the ancient stiffness of manner, 
and sometimes exhibit, like the naturalists, imper- 
fect forms copied from the life ; as, for instance, in 
those extravagantly long and spare figures which 
we noticed in Pisanelk). In Venice such forms 



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46 VEKEVIAN SCHOOL. 

Wer^ m high rep^tite with 'ManfitietivSebaBtiani; and 
other of their contempdYaries^ nor were thefjr dis- 
liked by the Bellini themselves. And, indeed, 
where they selected good proportions, they are aipt 
to arrest th6f attention by l^at sinrplicity, purity; 
tatei and, as it were timidity of desigri, which at^ 
tefnpts to avoid every approach to exaggeration. 
Stt^h artists we might suppose to have been eidu- 
ciEitefd by thfe tnore ancient' Greek sculptors, ih 
whose works the exhibition of truth attracts the 
spfectator, lik^ that of gi^andeur in other*. Thefr 
heads, more particularly, arfe* correct and fine; 
consisting of portraits taken &om the life,'^^ 
among the populace, abd among persons of supe* 
rior birth, Whether distinguished for learning, or 
for their military exploits. And to this practice, 
feitaitiar sil^O to artists df the thirteenth* century, 
we ire'liidebted for many likenesses ^hich' were 
dopi^d at'theitil^tance of Giovid, for^his'museum. 
Thence they were isigaih mtiltiplifed both by paints 
ing and engraving, in differtnt pArts of the woWd. 
Often' dl^o the artist 6f those times inserted his 6wn 
portrait ifa hiii composition; a circumstance ^6 fa- 
vourable to Vasari^ history; but this species 'of 
ostentatibu was gradually abando&ed as reail culti- 
i^atibii inltaly advabced: Brtt then, &s intheiiefroic 
and still ihore iltidvflized' timi^s, such n^clfeS of 
boasting was not esteemed oflFensive : and surely, 
if the literati of the fourteenth century were in the 
habit of extolling themselves in their own works ; 
if the typographers were so fond of exalting them- 



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Sdves and their editions by superb titles^ and more 
vaunting epigirams, even to a tidictdoas decree ; the 
m6te modest ambition of sometimes Jianding dowii 
their own featuriss to posterity, may be excused iti 
oUr painters. 

The colours of these artists are likewise sinliple 
and natural, though not always in union; more 
especially with the ground, nor sufficiently broken 
by the ichiaro scuro. But abbve all, they arfe most 
remarkable for the extreme' simplicity of the corn-* 
position of their pieces. It was very seldom tKey in- 
serted hiktories, it being (Efficient for theifaibition 
df those tim^ to give a representation'of bur Lady 
ilpon a throne, surrounded witha mitnber of s&ibt^, 
such as the devotion of each was ^supposed tb rt- 
quire. Nor were those drawn in the tnkbnerith^y 
had befolre beeb, all erefct at equal distaiiceS; and 
in the least studied motions ; but their authors at- 
tempted to give them some degtee of contrast,* sb 
that while one wasdrawn gazing upon ^e Vitgih; 
another appeared reading a book; if tMs were in 
a kneeling attitude, that is seen standiti^ efr^cti. 
The national genius, always liViely ahd joyous, 
even then sought to develope itself in more bril- 
liant colours than those of any other school. And, 
perhaps, in order that the figures, of Such glowing 
tints,* mi^ht stdiid in bolder relief, thfey kept the 
colour of the airs most generally pale and languid. 
They aimed, indeed, as much as lay in their 
power, at enlivening their compositions with the 
most pleasing images ; freely introducing into their 



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48 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

sacred pieces, sportive cli^erubs, drawn as if vieing 
with each other in airy grace and agility ; some in 
the act of singing, some of playing : and not un- 
frequently bearing little baskets of fruit and flowers 
so exquisitely drawn as to appear moist with re- 
cent dew. In the drapery of their figures they 
were simple and natural; the most exempt per- 
haps from that trite and exact folding, as well as 
from that manner of bandaging the bodies so com- 
mon, in Mantegna, and which infected some other 
schools. 

Nor did they lay small stress upon certain acces- 
saries of i their art, such as the thrones, which they 
composed, in the richest and most ostentatious 
manner. ; and the landscapes, which they drew with, 
an astonishing degree of truth from nature, besides 
the architecture frequently constructed in the 
forms of porticos or tribunes. It may sometimes 
be observed, also, that adapting themselves to the. 
workmanship and to the design of the altar, they, 
feigned a continuation of it within the painting, so : 
that by the resemblance of colour and of taste, the 
eye is deceived, the illusion produced rendering it 
doubtful where the .exterior ornament* terminates, 

* In a similar taste was the perspective introduced by Gio- 
yaoni Bellino in his celebrated altar-piece at SanZaccaria, in 
Venice. Another was placed in the great altar of the dome at, 
Capo d'Tstria, by Carpaccio the elder, still more striking. In 
the back-ground of the picture, the virgin appears seated on a . 
magnificent throne, with the divine infant, in an upright posture, 
upon her knees, surrounded by six of the most venerable patrons 
of the place, disposedaround her, in three ranks, displaying a. 



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EPOCH I. 49 

and wbere the picture begins. We ought not, 
therefore, easily to give credit to certain writers 
who have undervalued the merits of such masters, 
pronouncing their labours mechanical, as those of 
mere practical artificers, inasmuch as Serlio is 
known to have supplied several of them with ar- 
chitectural designs.* We ought rather to subscribe 
to the opinion of Daniel Barbaro, whose extensive 
learning did not prevent him, in his work entitled 
Pratica di Prospettiva, from expressing his ad* 
miration ^f them, even from the commencement, 
as follows : " In this art they left many fine rein- 
iiants- of excellent works, in which we behold not 
only landscapes, mountains, woods, and edifices, all 
admirably designed ; but even the human form, 
and other animals, with lines drawn to the eye, as 
if to a centre placed in the most exact perspective. 
But in what manner, and by what rules they pro- 
fine diversity of draper^ as well as of action. To these are added 
some cherubs, engaged in playing upon musical instruments, 
and apparently beholding the spectator with an air of puerile 
simpUcity,^ as if inviting him to caress them. A long and lofty 
colonnade, in excellent perspective, leads the way to the throme^ 
at one time united to a fine stone colonnade, which extended 
from the altar-piece through the chapel, producing a fine illusion, 
iamounting to a sort of enchantment of perspective. It was re- 
moved along with the stone columns, in order to enlarge the 
tribune. The oldest citizensi who witnessed this beautiful spec- 
tacle, speak of it to strangers with delight, and I am glad- to 
put it on record, before the recollection of it be entirely ob- 
literated. 

• Notizia, p. 63. 
VOL- in. E 



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50 y£NETIAN SCHOOL. 

ceeded, xxo author oi whom I am aware, has left 
any account to iostruet us," 

As this progress of style was more greatly pro- 
moted by Gian Bellini than by any other master, 
with him I shall commence my account^ afterwards 
proceeding to treat of his contemporaries^ and such 
Qf Us scholars a^ Eiore or less resembled him. 
Nor, I flatter myself, will it be unpleasing to the 
reader, to find mention of the imitation of Gior- 
gione and of Titian, as it were anticipated, inas- 
much as it happens with the professors of the art 
of painting, as occasionalfy with those writers who 
haye flourished on the confines of two ages ; that 
their style to a certain degree seems to partake of 
the colour of both. Thu& Giovanni Bellini him- 
self will affSpord us^ in his numerous productions, 
which conmience hdtae 14G1*, and continue down 
to the year 1516, a sort of regular gradation of his 
progress, that maybe considered, at the same time, 
the progress of his school. Even in his eej*Uest 
pictures, we trace the ambition of the artist to rai- 
noble and to enlarge the national manner. The 
noble house of their Excellencies Comer, which at 
the time of the Queen of Cyprus, gave frecjuent 
commissions to his hajid, possesses several speci- 
mens of his first style, proceeding gradually to 
others appearing always to grow more beautUiil. 
Among these last is a San Francesco drawn amidst 
a thick wood ; a piece that might well excite the 
envy of the best landscape masters themselves. 



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EPOCH I. 51 

Having reached the period of 1488, in which he 
produced an altar-piece still preserved in the sa* 
cristy of the Conventuali, we find he extorts the 
praises of Y asari, no less as a good mannerist than 
a fine designer. With still greater success be 
executed other works from the examples affi>rded 
hy Giorgione. It was then he conceived his sub- 
jects more boldly, gave rotundity to his forms, and 
warmth to his colours ; he passed more naturally 
from contrasted tints, his naked figures became 
more select, his drapery more imposing ; and if he 
had succeeded in acquiring a more perfect degree of 
softness and delicacy in his contours, he might have 
been held up as one of the most finished examples 
of the modern style. Neither Pietro Perugino, 
Ghirlandajo, nor Mantegna attained to it in an 
equal degree. The lover of art will find various 
specimens of him, both in Venice and elsewhere. 
His altar-piece, painted for San Zaccaria, in 1505, 
is well worthy his attention, as well as that of S. 
Giobbe, of the date of 1510. To theSe we may 
add a Bacchanal, in the villa Aldobrandini, at 
Rome, dated 1514, which, on account of the artist's 
advanced age, was left imperfect I have seen 
other pictures by his hand, without date, but of 
striking merit ; more especially a Virgin in the ca- 
thedral of Bergamo; a Baptism of our Lord at 
Santa Corona, of Vicenza, a Holy Child slumber- 
ing on the lap of the Virgin, between two angels, 
a production that lies treasured up in a chest at the 
Capuchins, in Venice, and which truly fascinates 

E 2 



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52 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

the eye of the heholder: It displays a striking 
union of that heauty, grace, and expression, of 
which, in this school, he may he said to have set 
the example. It would appear that he continued 
to employ his talents to an extreme old age, there 
remaining, in the select gallery of Santa Giustina, 
at Padua, one of his Madonnas, painted in 1516.* 
Such figures, together with those of the Dead 
Christ, are the most frequent paintings of his hand 
that we meet with. Should any one, not content 
with the commendations I have hestowed, feel in- 
clined to prefer a Bellini to a Raffaello, because he 
was his superior in architectural design, let him 
consult the opinion of Boschini, p. 28, of his Carta 
da Navigare, biit let him recollect that the same 
writer possesses nothing of the poet beyond the 
measure of the verse, and the exaggeration of his 
praises. 

The name of Giovanni ought not to go down 
unaccompanied by that of his brother Gentile, who 
preceded him, alike in the period of his birth and 
of his death. Though living apart, in regard to 
family, they were of congenial mind and disposi- 
tion, esteeming one another as friends and brethren, 
mutually encouraging and respecting each other, 

* Albert Durer, arriving thie same year at Venice, bestowed 
on Giovanni one of the most favourable testimonies to bis talents 
that now remains. After rebuking the envy of the other pain- 
ters, who spoke of him with contempt, he says of him : — ** Every 
one assures me that he is Gr€m Galantuomo, for which reason 
I wish him well. He is already very old, but, notwithstanding, 
the best painter we have." V. Morel Not, p. 224. 



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EPOCH I. 53 

as. superior in merit. But in Giovanni this was mo- 
desty^ in Gentile only truth. For the latter had a 
more confined genius ; but by diligence^ that some- 
times compensates the neglect of nature^ he was 
enabled to attain an honourable station among his 
contemporaries. He was employed by the repub- 
lic upon an equal footing with his brother^ to adorn 
the hall of the great council; and when the Grand 
Turk sent to Venice in search of an eminent por- 
trait painter, he was commissioned by the senate to 
go to Constantinople, where in the exercise of his 
profession he added glory to the Venetian name. 
Besides his works in painting, he there struck a 
fine medallion for Mahomet II., bearing the head 
of the emperor, with three crowns on the reverse; 
a rare work, of which, however, I learn there is a 
specimen in possession of his Excellency, Theodore 
Corer. However inferior we are to consider him 
to his brother, and tenacious of that ancient harsh- 
ness in many of his works, there are still several 
of a more beautiful description, such as his histo- 
ries of the Holy Cross at San Giovanni, and the 
Preaching of S.Mark, at the college of that saint; 
a piece, which, placed near that of a Paris Bordone, 
does no discredit to its author. He shews himself 
a faithful copyist, inasmuch as every thing he re- 
marked in a concourse of people, is faithfully 
pourtrayed. The features of the audience, and 
the peculiar conformations of the body are as di- 
versified as we see them in nature, including even 
instances of deformity, into which through her 



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54 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

own general laws, nature is known to fall ; and we 
are thus presented with caricatures, with bald, and 
lean, and pursy, and, what is more remarkable, the 
auditors of ,S. Mark are drawn without regard to 
times, in the costume of Venetians or of Turks. 
Yet from its exact imitation of the truth, its ar* 
rangement, and its animated style, the work does 
not &il to please and strike the beholder. I 
shall even go further ; for there are pictures on a 
smaller scale, by the same hand, executed with so 
much taste, that they may be esteemed not un- 
worthy of the name of his brother. Such is a 
Presentation of the infant Jesus at the Temple, in 
half length, which adorns the Palazzo Barbarigo, 
at San Polo, a duplicate of which was painted for 
that of the Grimani, with still more delicacy and 
care. Opposite to this of Gentile is a fine picture 
of Gian Bellini, which, however, superior in the 
softness of its tints, is considered scarcely equal in 
point of beauty and other qualities of the art. 

The two Bellini and the last of the Vivarini had 
a competitor in Vittore Carpaccio, either a Ve- 
netian or a native of Capo d'Istria,* and along 

* The country is impressed with this persuasion in spite of 
his own signatures, attached even to the pictures in Istria. In 
that, cited at page 48, it is written Victor Cluu'patius Venetus 
pinant, 1516 ; in another, at San Francesco di Pirano, Victorii 
Charpatii Veneti opw, 1619. Benedetto Carpaccio, probably a 
son or nephew of the preceding, was also a Venetian, of whom 
there remains a picture of the Coronation of the Virgin, at Capo 
d'Istria, in the Rotunda, subscribed, Benetto Carpathio Fe- 
neto pingem, 1537. At thfi Ossenranti, is the picture of the 



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BPOCH I. 55 

with these he was selected to ornament the ducal 
palace* It was destroyed by fire in 1676^ when 
that noble collection of ancient historic pieces 
perished, though subsequently restored by the 
most celebrated artists of later times. Yet there 
still remains a specimen of Yittore's style in the 
Oratory of Santa Ursula, sufficient to entitle him 
to rank among the best artists of the age. It con- 
suts of eight histories drawn from the acts of that 
saint, and of her eleven thousand companions, 
which were all about that time very generally ad^ 
mitted to be true. The production is not wanting 
in power of conception, developing numerous and 
novel combinations, nor in the order of their dis- 
tribution ; in richness of ideas, both in varying 
the features and costume, nor in architectural skill 
and landscape, serving to adorn them. Still more 
remarkable is its expression of nature imd sim- 
plicity ; an expression which so frequently invited 
Zanetti himself to a renewed contemplation of it. 
He there remarked the various passions of the 
people, who appeared to understand every thing 
passing ; and, in their earnest attention, expressed 

Nome di GesH, with the same words, but dated 1541. He is 
not mentioned in Venetian history, though highly deserving a 
place in it ; for whatever traces he retains of the ancient stiff-' 
ness of manner, in the extremity of his figures, yet he yields not 
to many in softness of tints ; in the taste of his colours ; expres- 
sion of features, and the effect of his chiaroscuro. 1 am led to 
think, that from residing out of the capital, this artist was sup- 
posed to be a native of Istria, but he was indisputably of a Ve- 
netian family, most probably tracing its origin from Murano. 



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56 VENETIAN. aCHOOL. 

sentiments in unison> with the- representation;^ 
whence he concludes his description hy saying 
that Carpaccio felt the truth inhis very heart. 

He produced still nobler specimens of his genius 
in the college of San Giroliamo^ which rivalled those 
of Giovanni Bellini, without, in. this instance> 
yielding to them.. His character^ which might, fre- 
quently be confounded with that of Gentile, shinea 
most conspicuous^ perhaps, in his altar-pieces^ 
where he is. original in almost every composition.. 
The most celebrated in Venice is one; of the Pu- 
rification at San Giobbe,in which,, however, the S. 
Vecchio Simeone is represented in a pontifical 
dress, between two servants arrayed like cardinals. 
If we except this error, in point of costume, and 
add a little more warmth of colours, to the flesh, 
more delicacy of contour, the piece would not dis-. 
credit the first artist of any times. Owing to the* 
fault of his, early education> however, these quali- 
ties he never attained. This, also, happened to. 
Lazzaro Sebastiani, his disciple and follower ; tO: 
Giovanni Mansueti, to Marco, and to Pietro Veg^ 
lia,^9s weU as to Francesco Rizzo, of San Croce^ a 
territory in the district of Bergamo ;* artists who, 

* We find traces of his. paintings from the year 1607. See 
Tassi, in his Lives of the Painters, &c. p. 66, where he cor- 
rects a mistake of Zanetti, who, instead of one painter, had 
divided him into two. One of his pictures, in the parish church 
of Cndine, will remove every doubt. There he signed himself, 
Franciscus Rizus Bergamensis hahitator Venetiis, 1629. In an- 
other piece, in the parochial church of Serina, he wrote Francesco 
Rizo da Santa Croxe depense, 1618. His last work; of which I 



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EPOCH I. 67 

however nearly they touched upon the golden pe* 
riod, did not succeed in freeing themselves from the 
influence of the old and uniform teste, and for this 
reason are often confounded with each other. I do 
not here treat of the paintings left hy them at Ve- 
nice, as they have so frequently heen described else- 
where. It will be enough to inform the reader that 
in these, also, we discover several noble traces of 
the style of Gentile and Carpaccio, more especially 
in the architecture, and that their colouring, which, 
in this school, is considered cold and languid, would 
be termed, in several of the others, both soft and 
animated enough for that period. The one who, 
if I mistake not, approaches nearer to the modem, 
and in some degree towards the style of Giorgione, 
is Benedetto Diana, as well in his alt^r-piece of 
Santa Lucia, at the SS. Apostoli, as in the Limp- 
sina de' Confiratelli di San Giovanni, painted at 
their college in competition with the Bellini. 

We next come to Marco Basaiti, sprung fromi 
a Greek family in the Friuli, and a rival also, of 
Giovanni; but more successful than Carpaccio. 

find any account, is also in the parochial church of Chirignano, 
in 1lie< Mestrina, dated 1541. Father Federici, who describes 
it, makes Francesco the son of Girolaino da S. Croce, or S. Croce, 
whose name, we find subscribed in both ways,^ but not ever 
Rizo. I cannot agree with him, first, because Ridolfi says only, 
(p. 62,) that they were of the same family ; second, because the 
pictures of Girolamo, according to Tassi, commence later, and 
are traced al^o later than those of Francesco, that is in 1549 ; si^d 
thirdly, because the. style of Girolamo is incon^parably more mo-, 
dernized, as we shall presently sfiew. 



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58 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

The church of San Giobbe^ here mentioned for the 
third time, possesses his picture of Christ praying 
in the Garden, painted in ISIO. It is now a little 
defaced, but has been highly extolled by Kidolfi 
and others, who beheld it in a more perfect condi- 
tion. Above all his productions, however, the Voca- 
tion of San Pietro to the Apostleship, in the church 
of the Certosa, is the most celebrated ; a piece, of 
which there is seen a duplicate in the imperial gal- 
lery at Vienna. It is certainly one of the most beau- 
tiful pictures of that age; and most generally there 
is no kind of merit in Gian Bellini, in which Basaiti 
does not either equal, or very closely approach him* 
Indeed he appears to exhibit even a freer genius, 
a more happy composition, and a more skilful art 
in uniting the grounds of his pictures with the 
figures. These sure beautiful, and for the most 
part incline to the free style ; their look is full of 
fire ; the tints of the fleshy parts of a rosy glow ; 
the middle tints inclining sometimes to paleness, 
but not without grace. Though not a native, he 
resided a long period at Venice, which contains a 
good number of his works, a few of which are in 
the ancient taste, but the most part bordering up- 
on the modem. His native place of Friuli pos- 
sesses no other specimen besides a Christ taken 
from the Cross, in the monastery of Sesto, consist- 
ing of large figures, with a fine group in the back- 
ground of the picture, and with a landscape full 
of nature. In several parts it is defiu^ed by age ; 
but a true connoisseur will still, perhaps, prefer it 



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EPOCH I. 59 

to the others^ for being free from the retouches of 
modem art. 

Among the pupils of Gian Bellini^ who were 
very numerous, are some who ought to be referred 
to another epoch, like Giorgione, and to different 
schools, like Rondinello of Ravenna ; several, how- 
ever, take their place here, who, in the opinion of 
their national contemporaries, did not fully attain 
to the possession of the new style. The family of 
the heads of the school, produced also a Bellin 
Bellini, who being educated in that academy, very 
happily imitated its manner. He painted Ma- 
donnas for private individuals, which, their ailthor 
being little known, are for the most part attribut- 
ed to Gentile, or to Giovanni. The artist who is 
mentioned by Yasari as the pupil of Giovanni, 
named Girolamo Mocetto, was one of the earliest 
and least polished among his disciples. He did 
not reach the sixteenth century ; and left behind 
him some engravings upon copper, now become 
extremely rare; besides small pictures, one of 
which, subscribed with the author^s name, in 1484, 
is in the possession of the beforementioned house 
of Corer. The Veronese, who are in possession of 
his portrait, amongst those of the painters of their 
town, in the Scuola del Nudo, can also boast one of 
his altar-pieces, bearing the name and date of 1493, 
in their church of S. Nazario e Celso. Such infor- 
mation I obtained from Signor Saverio dalla Rosa, 
a Veronese painter of merit. Another less distin- 
guished, and somewhat stiff scholar or imitator of 



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60 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Bellini, has affixed his name in several places, at the 
foot of sacred figures, as follows : '^ Marcus Mar^ 
tialis Venetus;'' and^in a Purificaziane, existing in 
the Conservatory of the Penitents, we meet with 
the year 1488. And from a Supper of Emmaus, 
belonging to the family of the Contarini, with the 
painter *s name, we ^earn that in the year 1506 he 
was still alive. 

An artist of a better taste appeared in Yincen- 
zio Catena, a wealthy citizen, who obtained a good 
deal of celebrity by his portraits and pictures for^ 
private rooms. His master-piece consists of a Holy 
family> in the style of Giorgione, ornamenting the 
noble Pesaro gallery; and if he had produced no- 
thing more than this, he would no longer be in- 
cluded in the present epoch; but his other pieces, 
exhibiting more traces of the old style, which re- 
main at San Maurizio, at San Simeone Grande, at 
the Carit^, and elsewhere, authorise our enumer- 
ation of them here. They are beautiful ; but not 
sufficiently in the modem taste. His reputation, 
however, while living, was so great, that in a letter 
written, by Marc Antonio Michiel from Rome, to 
Antonio di Marsilio in Venice, dated 11th of April> 
1520, when Raffaello was just deceased and Buo- 
narotti infirm, it is recommended to Catena to be, 
upon his guard, '^ since danger seems to be impend- 
ing over all very excellent painters."* One Gian- 
netto Cordegliaghi enjoyed also a high reputation, 
if he be rightly named by Vasari, who commends^ 

* Morelli Notizia, p. 212. 



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EPOCH I. 61 

him for his soft and delicate manner^ superior to 
many of his contemporaries ; adding, that he had 
produced an infinite numher of pictures for private 
persons; In Venice he is termed^ I suppose for the 
sake of brevity^ Cordelia; and to him is attributed 
the beautiful portrait of the Cardinal Bessarione in 
the college of La CaritA, with a few other speci- 
mens, the rest having dropt into oblivion. Pro- 
bably his real name was double, Cordelia Aghi. 
It is certain that Zanetti read, upon a beautiful 
Madonna, belonging to the learned Zeno, Andreas 
Corddle Agi, F. This last is of the same family 
as Giannetto ; or perhaps also in place of Grian- 
netto^ Yasari ought to have written Andrea; as in- 
stead of Jacopo he ought to have said Francesco 
Squarcione. Nor can it be denied, that if we' ex- 
cept the artists of Verona and Friuli, this histo- 
rian was deficient in information, as he himself de- 
clares^ relating to the Venetian School. It is suf- 
ficient to turn to his proemium of the life of Car- 
paccio, in order to observe how many times, in 
a very few lines, he is guilty of making mis- 
takes. Of Lazzaro Sebastiani, he made two pain- 
ters ; two others out of Marco Basaiti, dividing him 
into Marco Basarini and Marco Bassiti, and as- 
signing to each his several works. Moreover, he 
wrote Vittore Scarpaccia, Vittor Bellini, Giam- 
batista da Comigliano, and confounded the labours 
of all the three together. Elsewhere we meet witii 
MansuchiforMansueti; Guerriero and Guarriero, 
instead of Guariento ; Foppa is made into Zoppa, 



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62 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Giolfino into Ursino^ Morazoae into Mazzone> Boz- 
zato into Bazzacco, Zuccati into Zuccheri and 
Zuccherini; and thus he continued to blunder 
through other Lombard and Venetian names^ in- 
somuch as almost to vie with Harms^ with Cochin^ 
and with similar inaccurate foreigners. 

The following names were slightly esteemed or 
slightly known by Yasari, and therefore omitted 
in his history : Piermaria Pennacchi of Trevisi^ 
and Pier Francesco Bissolo, a Venetian. Of the 
former there remain two entablatures, painted font 
churches, more excellent in point of colouring than 
design. One is in Venice^ the other at Murano. Of 
these artists. Pier Francesco painted on the least 
extensive scale, but was more finished and beau- 
tiful. His altar-pieces in Murano, and in the cathe- 
dral of Trevigi, may be put in competition with 
those of the elder Palma ; and one in possession of 
the fiaimily of Renier^ representing The Meetizig 
of Simeon, still nearer approaches to the fulness 
and softness of the moderns. 

Girolamo di San Croce was still more deserving 
of commemoratioil than these. Yet Vasari omitted 
him ; Boscbini is silent on the subject i and Ridolfi 
has found in him more to blame than to praise^ as- 
serting that he had never freed hin^elf from the 
ancient style, though flourishing at a period when 
the less celebrated geniuses attempted to moder- 
nise their taste. Happily, however, for this dis- 
tinguished man, not a few of his best labours have 
been preserved, of which Zanetti has pronounced 



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EPOCH I. 63 

his opinion that^ '* he approaches nearer to the 
manner of Giorgione and THian^ than any of the 
others." And such commendation ia justified hy 
his altar-piece of S. Parisio, so highly mentioned 
in the Guide of Treviso, and which is to be seen 
at the church of that saint. In Venice itself th»e 
are some of his pictures which display uncommon 
merits such as the Supper of our Saviour ^ with the 
name of Santa Croce, which is in S. Martino ; and 
a Sahatore, at S. Francesco della Vigna, which 
though in a precise taste^ shows extreme richness 
of colouring. There also appears^ at the same place^ 
his picture of the Martyrdom of S. Lorenzo ; a re- 
petition of which is found in the noble houseof CoT- 
lalto, nearly resembling the original, and in other 
places. It abounds in figures of about a palm's 
l»gth, imitated, in some part, from the celebrated 
composition oi BandineUi, engraved by Marc An- 
tonio» whose impressions to Girolamo prored a 
rich mine of art, affording originals for those small 
but vahiaUe paintings, meant to adorn private 
rooms. In none of them, however, was he a mere 
copyist ; he varied the figures, and more especially 
the landscapes, in which he was a very skilful 
hand. In this manner he produced many of those 
Bacchanals, which are to be met with in different 
collections. In that of the Casa Albaai, at Ber^ 
gamo, is a S. Gio. Elemosanario (almsgiver) in 
gramd architecture> seen among a crowd dF pan^ 
pers ; and in the collection of Count Carrara, aW 
at Bergamo, th$re is a Savumr taken Irom the 



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64 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Cross^ highly valued for the portrait of the artist, 
which points to a holy cross, the symhol of his 
name. Not any of these productions are em^ 
bued with traces of the ancieiit style. They dis- 
play a grace of composition, study of foreshorten- 
ing, and of the naked parts, a harmony of colours, 
forming a mixture of diflFerent schools, in which the 
Roman predominates/and least of all the Venetian. 
Further we would refer the reader to what has al- 
ready been stated at page 57. 

To these Venetian professors, or at least, esta- 
blished in Venice, it will be proper to add several 
educated by Giovanni, in the provinces, and in this 
way resume the thread of .our pictoric history of 
the state. There was no place in the whole domi- 
nion which did not boast either of his disciples or 
imitators. We shall proceed to treat severally of 
these, beginning with the name of Conegliano, 
which he derived from a city in the Marca Trevi- 
giana, his native place, whose mountainous views 
he has introduced into his paintings, as if to serve 
for his device. 

The artist's name, however, is Giambatista Gima, 
iftnd his style most resembles the better part of 
that of Gian Bellini. The professors indeed may 
often be confounded together, to such a degree 
do we find Conegliano diligent, graceful, lively 
m his motions and his colouring, although less 
smooth than Bellini. Perhaps one of his best 
pieces that I have seen, is ih the cathedral at Par-^ 
ma, though it is omitted in the catalogue of his 



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EPOCH I. 65 

works. That at the church of Santa Maria dell' 
Orto, one of the most rich in paintings, in all Ve- 
nice, possesses less softness ; but in point of archi- 
tecture, in the air of its heads, and in the distribu- 
tion of its colpurs, there is something so extremely 
attractive, that we. are never weary of contemplat- 
ing it. The diflFerent collections in Italy, no less 
than those in other parts, are many of them in 
possession, or said to be in possession, of speci- 
mens from this artist's hand ; and if we add to 
these his. altar-pieces, sufficiently numerous, they 
will be found to amount to a very considerable 
class. We are informed, however, by Padre Fede- 
rici, that one of Cima's sons, of the name of Carlo, 
imitated so closely the style of his father, that 
there are pictures which ought often to be attribut- 
ed to the former instead of to the latter. 

This artist resided but a short time in his own 
province; and the altar-piece placed by him in 
the cathedral of his native place, in 1493, is consi- 
dered a youthful performance. He continued to 
exercise his art until the year 1517, according to 
Ridolfi, and died in the maturity of his powers. 
The date of 1542, which we find at San Francesco 
di Rovigo placed upon an altar-piece of Conegliano, 
(if it be not a copy,) marks only the era of the erect- 
ing of the altar, which was painted afterwards. He 
is said by Boschini to have been the tutor of Vittor 
Belliniano, by Vasari called Bellini ; the same who 
represented in the college of St. Mark's, the martyr- 

VOL. in. F 



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66 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

dom of the saint. The best portion of this his- 
tory is the architecture it displays. 

The artists, educated in the school of Giovanni, 
who flourished at Friuli, were two natives of Udine : 
Giovanni di M. Martino, as he is entitled in some 
family documents, and Gio. Martini, by Vasari; and 
Martino d'Udine, who in the Storia Pittorica, is 
called Pellegrino di S. Daniello. The style of the 
former was harsh and crude, though not destitute 
of grace in the countenances and in the colouring. 
The name of Pellegrino was bestowed upon the 
latter by Bellini, in honour of his' rare genius, 
while the name of the country was attached to him 
from his long residence in S. Daniello, a territory 
not' far from Udine. This city is^ nevertheless, the 
place where be appears to most advantage, in com- 
petition with Giovanni; as the same emulation 
they had felt while fellow pupils, continued, as 
sometimes happens, when they became masters. 
In that city appear the labours of each, and more 
particularly in the two chapels contiguous to the 
dome, where the first of them was employed in the 
year 1501, the second in 1502. Giovanni, in his 
dtar-piece of St. Marie, there produced'the richest 
specimen which appeared from his hand ; and Pel- 
legrino left that of his St. Joseph, preferred by Vasa- 
ri, in some degree, to the work of Martini. I have 
seen the last-mentioned picture in oil, faded in- 
deed in colour, and in other respects defaced ; yet 
still worthy of admiration for its architecture, 
which gives a graceful fulness to the whole can- 



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EPOCH L . . 67 

YUSB, and a striking relief to the three figures^ con- 
sisting of 8. Joseph with the holy child in his arms^ 
and S» John the Baptist; each of which displays 
the finest contours and the bei^t forms. Other 
specimens of the same pendl are to be seen in 
Udine, among which are the SS. Agostino and 
Girolraio, in the public council haU, a picture re- 
markable also for its power of colouring. 

As this artist advanced in age, he improved in 
the softness of his tints^ as well as in every other 
quality. The altar-piece at Santa Maria de' Bat- 
tuti, which itf in Cividale> and represents the Vir- 
gin seated between the four vir^ns of Aquileja^ 
besides the Saints Batista and Donato, and at;he^ 
rub, partakes of Gibrgione ; it is enumerated 
among the rarest paintings of Friuli, ttnd was ex^- 
ecuted in the year i629. Yet above any of his 
productions, are esteemed those various histories 
of the life of our Saviour, painted in fresco at 
S. Daniele, in the church of S. Antonio, together 
with the titular saint, and several other portraits 
of the brethren of that chapel, so richly adorned 
by his hand, all breathing and glowing- proofs of 
his art. By his means, also, one of the pictoric 
schools of Friuli rose into high repute, and will be 
elsewhere described. 

At Rovigo, in possession of the noble family of 
Casalini, is a picture of the Circumcision of our 
Saviour, bearing this memorandum : Opus Marci 
Belli discipuU Johannis JBellini. He is a good 
disciple of the school, and would appear to be a 

F 2 



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68 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

different artist from that Marco, son of Gio. Te- 
desco, who was employed in 1463 at Rovigo. 

In the adjacent city of Padua, the style of the 
Bellini was less followed, a very natural circum- 
stance in a place where Squarcione, the avowed 
rival of Giovanni, held supreme sway. Still there 
are several pictures belonging to this age remain- 
ing there, which partake of the Venetian style ; 
and Vasari, in his life of Carpaccio, records, that 
in fact Niccolo Moreto executed many works in 
Padua,* besides many other artists connected 
with the Bellini. A picture of Christ risen from 
the dead, merits particular mention ; it adorns the 
episcopal palace at Padua, along with the por- 
traits of all the Paduan bishops, and the busts 
of the apostles, including several of their acts, ex- 
ecuted with much elegance in chiaro-scuro. The 
work is dated 1495, in which the painter sub- 
scribes his name Jacobus Montagnana ; not Mon- 
tagna, as it is written in Yasari and Ridolfi. 

There remains of his a very extensive altar-piece, 
at the Santo, the style inclining as much as in any 
others, to the modem ; and to whatever degree it 
may partake of the Venetian in taste of colours, in 

* In the StahUi c2e' PUtorit it is written Mireti ; and the 
same work contains memoirs of him in 1423 and 1441; years, 
however, which do not accord with his dependence on the Bel- 
lini. This Girolamo might possibly have been the brother, or 
other relation, of that Gio. Miretto, for whom see p. 13. These 
two names will do away with the Minreto of Yasari, and we 
must substitute Mireto or Miretto. 



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£POCH I. 69 

its design it partakes of a more precise and spare 
expression upon the principle of the Paduan 
School. To this^ also/ he very manifestly con- 
formed himself, in that celebrated picture left in 
Belluno, at the hall of council, in which he repre- 
sented^ Roman histories. It is an immense pro- 
duction, and at the first view would incline us to 
attribute it to the pencil of Mantegna, such is the 
design, the drapery, and the composition of the 
figures ; while even several of them are known to 
have been accurately copied, with the same forms 
and motions, from those Mantegnahad already in- 
troduced into his grand chapel at the Eremitani. 
Here we have a clear proof that both received 
thesanie education, or at least, that Montagnana 
had profited much by the Paduan School. I say 
only much, for in point of costume he does not 
shew any traces of the erudite instructions of 
Squarcione ; but commits faults resembling those 
of the Bellini, to whom by popular opinion, re- 
corded by the very diligent author of the new 
Guide of Padua, he has been given as a pupil. 
I have before treated of Squarcione, and of his 

* I repeat the epigram, which is subscribed in ancient charac- 
ters, on the strength of which we may believe that the work 
was esteemed one of the most valuable the art had produced up 
to that period, transcribed by the very frequently commended 
Sig. Co. Cay. Lazara ; it is thus : 

Non hie Parrhasio, non hie tribuendus Apelli, 

Hos licet Auctores dignus habere labor. 
Euganeus, vixdum impleto ter mense, Jacobus 
£x Montagnana nobile pinxit opus. 



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70 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

method, reserving for a fitter place the considera- 
tion of his disciples, more especially Andrea Man- 
tegna. He will, however, be included in the present 
list as a scholar ; although, as a master of the school 
of Lombardy, we are bound to speak of him with 
more commendation, in another chapter. But even 
the first essays of great characters are valuable ; 
and Yasari does not scruple to commend Andrea's 
first altaxTpiece as a work worthy of his^ old agp. It 
was placed in Santa Sofia, where-the artist has signr 
ed himself Andreas Mantinea Patavinus annas VIL 
et X. natussua manu pinxit, 1448. Squarcione was 
so much delighted with his early genius, that he 
adopted him for his son. But he afterwards regret- 
ted his own generosity, when the young artist took 
to wife the daugliter of his xival, Jacopo Bellini ; iso 
that he then began to blame him, yet at the same 
time to instruct him better. Andrea having been 
educated in an academy which adopted the study 
of marbles, indulged great admiration o^ several 
Greek bassi rilievi/ in the ancient style, such as^is 
that of ihe Primarii Dei, in an altar of the capi^ 
tol. He was therefore extremely bent upon ac- 
quiring the chasteness of the contours, the beauty 
of the ideas and of the bodies ; but not content 
with adopting that straitness of the garment, those 
parallel folds, and that study of parts which so ea^ 
sily degenerates into stiffness, he neglected that 
portion of his art which animates the otherwise 
uninformed images — expression. In this respect 
he greatly failed in his picture of the Martyrdom 



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EPOCH I. 71 

of 8. Jacopo^ placed in the church of the Ere- 
mitani^ and from which Squarcione took occasion 
to reprehend him severely. These complaints led 
him to adopt a better method, and in his represen- 
tation of the history of S. Cristoforo, placed oppo- 
site his S. Jacopo, he threw more expression into 
his figures ; and in particular, his production about 
the same period of San Marco, in the act of writ- 
ing the gospel, painted for Santa Giustina, dis- 
plays in the features the absorbed mind of the phi- 
losopher and the enthusiasm of a saint. If Squar- 
cione thus contributed by his reproaches to render 
this artist great, the Bellini, perhaps, co-operated 
with him by friendship and relationship, in pro- 
ducing the same result. He resided little in Ve- 
nice, but during that time he did not fail to avail 
himself of the best portion of that school ; and 
we thus perceive in some of his pictures, land- 
scapes and gardens quite in the Venetian charac- 
ter, besides a knowledge of colours not inferior to 
the best Venetian artists of the age. I am uncer- 
tain whether he or some other communicated to the 
Bellini that species of perspective so much com- 
mended by Barbaro ; but I know that Lomazzo, 
in his '' Tempio della Pittura," page 63, has put 
on record that Mantegna was the first who gave us ^ 
true notions relating to this art : and I know that 
the most distinguished characters of those times 
were equally eager, either to become scholars in 
such points as they were themselves deficient in, 
or masters in such as were wanting in others. 



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72 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

The style of Mantegna being known^ it will not 
be difficult to divine that of his fellow pupils^ edu- 
cated in the same maxims^ and instructed by his 
examples. The chapel before mentioned exhibits 
specimens of three, the first of whom, Niccolo Piz- 
zolo is pointed out by Vasari. A picture of the 
Assumption of the Virgin in an altar-piece, with 
other figures on the wall, are by his hand. There 
is also a fresco in one of the facades with the motto 
Opus Nicoletti: and in both places he not only 
strongly resembles, but approaches near the com- 
position of Mantegna. Two other artists also 
painted there certain histories of S. Cristoforo^ 
under one of which is inserted Opus Boni; under 
the other. Opus Ansuini, an artist of Forli. Both 
of these might elsewhere have been admired; but 
there they appear only as scholars by the side of 
their master. An artist more nearly approaching 
Mantegna, and whp, in the chief part of his figures 
might be mistaken for him, is Bernardo Paren- 
tino, who painted for a cloister of Santa Giustina, 
ten acts in the life of San Benedetto, and little 
histories in chiaro-scuro, representing upon each 
the portrait of a Pontiff of the name of Benedict. 
I have seen no painting adapted to a religious 
cloister so well conceived in every part; and 
it is known that it was superintended by a dis- 
tinguished scholar of that learned order, the 
Abate Gaspero da Pavia. Attached to it is the 
name of Parentino and the dates of 1489 and 
14f94. The work was continued by a Girolamo 



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EPOCH I. 73 

da Padua^ or Girolamo dal Santo^ celebrated for 
his miniatures^ as it is recorded by Vasari and 
Ridolfi. Here^ ho wever, he exhibits himself a poor 
artist^ in point of design^ and still more so in ex- 
pression^ though praiseworthy in many accessaries 
of his art^ more particularly in his study of ancient 
costume^ an acquisition as general in this^ as rare 
in the Venetian School. Those histories, indeed, 
are frequently found ornamented with ancient bas- 
sirilievi, with sarcophagi, and with inscriptions 
copied, for the most part, from Paduan marbles ; a 
practice followed, also, by Mantegna, but with 
more moderation, in the chapel of the Eremitani. 

The rest of his contemporaries, in Padua, were 
Lorenzo da Lendinara, esteemed an excellent ar- 
tist, but of whom no traces remain; Marco Zoppo, 
of Bologna, who more nearly resembled, perhaps, 
his master than his fellow pupil, but of honourable 
account, as the head of the Bolognese School ; and 
Dario da Trevigi, whose productions are to be 
seen in S. Bernardino, at Bassano, opposite to those 
of Mantegna, as if to exhibit tbeir inferiority. 
Girolamo, or rather Gregorio* Schiavone, whose 
style is between that of Mantegna and the Bellini, 
is a pleasing artist, whose pictures are frequently 
to be met with, ornamented with architectural 
views, with fruits, and above all with joyous 
little cherubs. One of the most delightful I have 
seen, was in Fossombrone, in possession of a 

* He is thus named in the " Statuti de* Pittori," of Padua, 
and in the MS. Zen. whence we may correct Ridolfi, who calls 
him Girolamo. 



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74 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

private individual, and it bears inscribed. Opus 
Sclavonii Dalmatici Squarzani S. (Scholaris). 
Hieronymus Tarvisio is another, but doubtful 
pupil of Squarcione^ whose name, J found sub- 
scribed in some pictures at Trevigi, an artist poor 
in colours, but .not unacquainted witbdesign* We 
find mention in Sansovino^ an author not always 
to be relied upoAin bis account of Venetian paint- 
ings, of Lauro Padoyano, who produced several 
histories of S. Giovanni for the Carit^ in Yenice ; 
but I so far agree with the jibove author, in pro- 
nouncing these altogether i9 the style of Manteg* 
na. Nearly approaching^ alsQ to the composition 
of this school, is the style of Maestro AugelOj^ who 
painted in the ancient refectory of Santa. Gius- 
tina, a Crucifixion, of the Saviour, with figures, 
both in propprtipns and ip, spirit truly great I 
have nothing to add to the name of Mattip dal 
Pozzo, enumerated in this, class by Scardeone, 
(p. 371) inasmuch as there are none of his works 
now surviving. 

At the period^ when the School of Padua was 
opposed to the Venetian, the other cities of the 
staj;e, as far as we can learn, had adopted a taste 
rather for the ornamental style of the latter, than 
the more erudite maxims of the former ; it might, 
perhaps, b^^ added, on account of its greater facility; 
because the beauty of nature is. every where more 
obvious than the monuments of antiquity. Bassano 
then boasted a Francesco da Ponte, Yicenza the 
two Montagna and Bonconsigli, all of whom^ 



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EPOCH I. 75 

though horn in the immediate vicinity of Padua^ 
became disciples of the Bellini. Da Ponte^ a na- 
tive of Vicenza, was pretty well embued with a 
taste for polite literature and philosophy, ex- 
tremely desirable in the head of a school, such as he 
became in the instruction of Jacopo, and through 
him of the Bassanese; a school highly distinguish- 
ed during, and even beyond the sixteenth century. 
The style of his altar-pieces, when compared with 
e.ach other, acquaints us with the earliest and latest 
specimens of his pencil. He is diligent, but dry 
in that of his S. Bartolommeo, in the cathedral at 
Bassano ; more soft in another at the church of S. 
Giovanni, but far better in one of the Pentecost, 
which he painted for the village of Oliero, almost 
in the style of the modems, displaying studied 
(composition, and a colouring various, beautiful, 
and harmonious ; and what is still more, a fine ex- 
pression of the passions,, best adopted to the mys-^ 
tery. We are led to believe* from the account of 
Lomazzo, that he likewise painted, at another pe* 
riod, in Lombardy; observing that a.certain Fran- 
cesco, of Vicenza, produced a wpi:k at the Grazie 
of Milan, weU executed in paint of design, but not 
so pleasing in the. effect of its lights, and shades. 

The two Montagna flourished. about the period 
1500, in Vicenza, and were employed together, 
however unequal in genius, being equally follawers 
•of the Bellini, at least if we are to give credit 
to Ridolfi, who must have seen many of their pro- 
ductions, now no longer in existence. Injjiose 



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76 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

which I have seen, there appeared strong traces of 
the style of Mantegna. Benedetto is not mention- 
ed by Vasari, who is apt to omit the names of all 
artists whom he accounted of inferior worth. He 
mentions Bartolommeo, as a pupil of Mantegna,* 
and he would certainly have done him more jus- 
tice had he seen the works he produced in his 
native place, which, so far from having done, he 
asserts that the artist constantly resided in Venice. 
Vicenza boasts many of his pieces, which display 
the gradual progress of his style. If we wish to 
estimate the extent of his powers, we ought to 
consult his altar-piece at S. Michele, and another 
at S. Rocco, to which may be added a third, in 
that of the Seminary at Padua. In none of these 
are we able to discover any composition beyond 
what was in most general use at that period^ 
already so frequently mentioned by us ; and they 
retain more of the practice of gilding, which, in 
other places, was then becoming obsolete. In fine, 
this artist will be found to rank equal with the 
chief part of his contemporaries ; exact in design, 
skilful in the naked parts, while his colours are 
fresh and warm. His cherubs are peculiarly grace- 
ful and pleasing, and in his altar-piece, at S. 
Michele, he has introduced an architecture which 
recedes from, and deceives the ^ye with a power of 
illusion, sufficient of itself to have rendered him 

* In vol. iii. ed. Rom. p. 427, it is written by mistake Man- 
tegna, where it says that he, Speranza, and Veruzio, studied 
design, under Mantegna. - 



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EPOCH I. 77 

conspicuous. Of Giovanni Speranza, there re- 
main a few pieces which are much esteemed^ 
though not remarkahle for strength of colouring. 
But we can meet with no puhlic specimens of Ve*- 
ruzio> and most probably his name is a mere equi- 
voque of Vasari.* Giovanni Bonconsigli, trailed 
Marescalco^ or the steward, was esteemed beyond 
any other of the artists of Vicenza, who flourished 
at this period, and he certainly approaches nearest 
to the modem style, and that of the Bellini. The 
practice, however, of OTnamenting firiezes with tri- 

* Padre Faccioli, in his third volume of the Inscriziani della 
Cittd e territario di Vicenza^ records the following epigraph, Jo. 
SperantuB de VangerUms me pinxit, in which Vangeribus may, 
perhaps, apply to some small Tillage in the territory of Yicen^. 
He is wholly silent respecting Yeruzio, thus confirming the 
suspicion that his name is a mere mistake of Yasari, whom it is 
hoped our posterity will still continue to correct, and yet leave 
sufficient employment for their children. The following is my 
conjecture. P. Faccioli gives an account of a picture that re- 
mains in S. Francesco di Schio ; it is composed in the manner 
usually adopted in the composition of the marriage of S. Cathe* 
rine ; and there are also other saints well executed in the Man- 
tegna style, as is observed by the Cav. Gio. de Lazara, whose au- 
thority I esteem excellent. It bears the inscription, *' Franciscur 
Vcrlus de Yicentia pinxit xx. Junii. M.D.XII.;" and to this is 
added by Faccioli another old painting by the same hand, re- 
maining at Sercedo. Now I contend that the name of this 
painter, being reported to Yasari, with its diminutive termina- 
tion, like many others, borrowed either from the stature or the 
age, (in the Yenetian dialect it was Yerlucio or Yerluzb) it was 
afterwards given by him in his history as Yeruzio. The critics 
of the Greek writers will know how to do me justice in this, for 
this mode of discovering and correcting names I have derived 
fVom them. 



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78 VENETIAN QCaiOOL. 

tons and similar figures, taken !from the antique, 
lie most likdy derived from the adjacent cities of 
Padua or Verona, one of i/^rhich then professed- the 
study of antiquity, the other that of monuments. 
Neither Vasari nor Ridolfi gives any account of his 
productions, except such as he painted in Venice, 
at thi^ time either wholly perished or defacc^d. 
Those which he executed in Vicenza are still in 
good condition, nor ought a stranger of good taste 
to leave the place withbut visiting the chapel de' 
Turchini, to admire his Madonna in the style of 
Raffaello, seated upon a throne, between four saints, 
amoiig which the figure of S. Sebastian is a master- 
piece of ideal beauty. Indeed an able professor of 
the city considered it one of the finest specimens 
of the art the place could boast, though in posses- 
sion of many of the first merit. In common with 
Montagna, Figolino, and Speranza, Bdnconsigli 
abounds in perspective views, and discovers a na- 
tural genius for architecture ; like them he appears 
to give promise of the approach of a divine Palla- 
dio, the glory of his country and of hii3 art ; along 
with the IScainozzi, and mariy other citizens, who 
have rendered Vicenza at once the bo&.st and won- 
der, as well as the school of architects. There are 
two altar-pieces of his hand remaining in Montag- 
nana. This artist must not be confounded with 
Pietro Marescalco, sumamed lo Spada, (the sword,) 
whom the MS. history of Feltre mentions as a 
native of this city, and complains of Vasari's silence 
upon it. One of his altar-pieces is to be seen at 



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EPOCH I. 79 

the Nunnery of the Angeli, at Feltre, where Signdr 
Cav. de Lazara informs me that he read the name 
of Petrus Mafiscalcus P. Among other figures 
is a Madonna^ hetween two angels^ upon a large 
scale^ and in good design, sufficient to entitle Pietro 
to an honourable rank in the history of art. If 
we compare him with Giovanni, he will be found 
less vivid in point of colouring, and, apparently^ of 
a somewhat later age. 

In the order of our narrative, we ought now to 
pass on to Verona, where Liberale, a disciple of 
Vincenzio di Stefano, at that time held sway. He 
had also been a scholar or rather imitator of Jacopo 
Bellini, to whose style, says Vasari, he invariably 
adhered. Moreover, in his picture of the Epi- 
phany, to be seen in the cathedral, there is a choir 
of angels with a graceful folding of drapery, and a 
taste so peculiarly that of Mantegna, that I was 
easily led to believe him an artist belonging to that 
class. Certain it is that the vicinity of Mantua 
might also have facilitated his imitation Of Man- 
tegna, traces of which are visible in some other of 
his works, as well as. in those of the more and lei^s 
known Veronese artists of the time. He did not 
attain the excellence of Giovanni Bellini, nor did he 
give the same grandeur to his proportions, and the 
same enlargement of the ancient style, although he 
continued to flourish until the year 1535. The 
colour of his tints is strong ; his expression studied 
and graceful ; a very general merit in the painters 
of Verona ; and his care is exquisite, especially in 



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80 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

his diminutive figures, an art in which he became 
extremely expert, owing to his habit of illustrating 
books in miniature, which are still to be seen in 
Verona and in Siena. 

He had a competitor, at his native place, in 
Domenico Morone, or rather the latter, educated 
also by a disciple of Stefano, is to be held second to 
him. This artist was succeeded in the course of time, 
by his son, Francesco Morone, superior to his fa- 
ther, and by Girolamo da' Libri. These two, bound 
by the strictest habits of friendship from their 
youth, were frequently employed in the same la- 
bours together, and may be said to have adopted 
the same maxims. The first has been commended 
by Vasari, for the grace, the design, the harmony, 
and the warm and beautiful colouring he conttived 
to bestow upon his pictures, in a degree inferior to 
none. From the same source we learn that the 
year of his decease is supposed to have been 1529. 
But Girolamo da' Libri was his superior, both in 
point of taste and general celebrity. The son of a 
miniature-painter of choral books and of anthems, 
who had hence acquired the name of Francesco da' 
Libri, from his father he received both a know- 
ledge of the art and his surname, both of which he 
also transmitted to his son, Francesco, as we again 
learn from Vasari. 

It is not, however, within my province to enter 
into a consideration of their books ; but in regard 
to the altar-pieces of Girolamo, I cannot remain 
silent. That of S. Lionardo, near Verona, I have 



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BPOCH I. 81 

never seen ; a picture in which the artist having 
drawn a laurel^ the birds are said to have fre- 
quently entered at the church windows, fluttering 
around as if wishing to repose in its branches. 
Another which I beheld at S. Giorgio, with the 
date 1529, scarcely retains a trace of the ancient 
character. It represents the Virgin between two 
holy bishops, portraits select and full of meaning ; 
together with three exquisitely graceful figures of 
cherubs, both in face and gesture. In this little 
picture may be traced, to a certain degree, the cha- 
racter of a miniaturist who paints, or a painter 
drawing miniature ; while the charms of the se- 
veral professions are seen there exhibited in one 
point of view. The church, indeed, is a rich gal- 
lery, containing numerous master-pieces of the art; 
among which the S. Giorgio of Paolo (Veronese) 
too far transcends the rest; but the painting of 
Girolamo shines almost like a precious jewel, sur- 
prising the spectator by an indescribable union of 
what is graceful, bright, and lucid, which it pre- 
sents to the eye. He survived many years after 
the production of this piece, highly esteemed^ and 
in particular for his miniatures, in which he was 
accounted the first artist in Italy ; and as if to 
crown his reputation, he became the instructor, in 
such art, of Don Giulio Clovio, a sort of Roscius, 
if we may so say, of miniature painting. 

However flourishing in valuable masters we 
may consider the city of Venice during this era, 
the fame of Mantegna, with the vicinity of Mantua, 

VOL. III. G , 



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82 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

where he taught^ attracted thither two artists from 
Verona, whom 1 reserve for that school, of which 
they were faithful followers. These were Mon-* 
signori, and Gio. Francesco Carotto, formerly a 
pupil of Liberale. His brother Giovanni, a noble 
architect, and designer of ancient edifices, was but 
a feeble ihiitator bf his style. He richly deserves 
a place in history as the instructor of Paolo, an 
artist excellent in many bmnches of painting, and 
in architecture almost divine. It is supposed that 
Paolo must have acquired this degree of excellence 
by studying at first under Carotto, and afterwards 
perfecting himself, as we shall Shew, by means of 
Badile. To such as are most known we might 
here add names less celebrated, which the Marchese 
Maflfei, however, has already inserted in his his- 
tory ; as, for instance, a Matteo Pasti, commended 
by us in the first volume; but I have, ^erhaps^ 
already treated sufficiently of the nierits of the old 
Veronese artists. 

About this period there flourished two distin- 
guished artists in Brescia, who were present at 
the terrific saccage of that opulent city, in the year 
1512, by Gaston de Foix. One of these is Fiora- 
vante Ferramola, who Was honoured and remu- 
iiierated upon thkt occasion by the French victor 
foi- his striking merit, and became sufficiently con- 
spicuous in various cfautches of the country. His 
piaLinting of S. Girolamo is seen at Le Grazie, ex- 
tremely well conceived, with fine landscape, and in 
a taste so like that of Mtiziano, that we might al- 



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BPOCH I. 83 

most suppose it prognosticated his appearance. 
And it might be said that he afforded the latter a 
prototype^ if he does not aspire to the name of his 
master. The other is Paolo Zoppo, who depicted 
the above desolation of the city in miniature^ upon 
a large crystal bason ; a work of immense labour^ in- 
tended to be presented to the doge Gritti : but in 
transporting it to Venice, the crystal was unfortu- 
nately broken, and the unhappy artist died of dis- 
appointment and despair. The specimens of his 
style remaining at Brescia, among which is one of 
Christ going up to Mount Calvary, at S. Pietro in 
Oliveto — a piece falsely attributed by others to 
iPoppa— serve to shew that he approached near to 
the modern manner, and was not unftcquainted 
with the Bellini. 

Finally, JBergamo boasted in Andrea Previtali 
one of the most excellent disciples of Gian Bellini. 
He appears, indeed, less animated than his master, 
and less correct in the extremities of his figures; 
neither have I discovered any of his compositions 
which are free from th6 ancient taste, whether in 
the grouping of his forms, or in the minute orna- 
menting of the accessaries of his art. Neverthe- 
less, in a few pictures produced, perhaps, later in 
life, such as his S. Giovanni Batista, at S. Spirito ; 
his S. Benedetto, in the dome of Bergamo, and se- 
veral more in the Carrara Gallery, he very nearly 
attained to the modem manner ; and was indispu- 
tably one of the most distinguished artists, in point 
of colours and perspective, belonging to the school 

G 2 



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84 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

of the Bellini. His Madonnas are held in the 
highest esteem ; in whose features he appears less 
a disciple of Gian Bellini, than of Raffaello, and of 
Vinci. Two of them at Milan I have seen, both 
bearing his name : one is in possession of the Ca- 
valier Melzi; the other in that of Monsig. Arcipre- 
te Rosales, painted in 1522; and both are surround- 
ed with figures of other saints, portraits executed 
with discrimination and truth. There is also a pic- 
ture of Our Lord announced by the Angel, at Ce- 
neda, a work so uncommonly beautiful in regard to 
the two heads, that Titian, in passing occasionally 
through the place, is said, according to Ridolfi, to 
have repeatedly contemplated it with rapture; 
charmed by the spirit of devotion it expressed. 
Upon the same boundaries, between the ancient and 
modern taste, we find various other painters, natives 
of the valleys of Bergamo, a fruitful source both 
of wealth and intellect to the city. Such is Anto- 
nio Boselli,* from the Valle Brembana, of whom 
there has recently been discovered a fine altar-piece 
at the Santo of Padua ; besides two other artists of 
the same vale, who approach even nearer to the 
softness, if not to the elegance of Previtali. These 
are Gian Giacomo, and Agostino Gavasii di Pas- 
cante. We may add to these Jacopo degli Sci- 

* To judge from some pictures at Bergamo, we might suppose 
him educated in the style of the fourteenth century ; but he after- 
wards approached nearer to the modern, as we perceive at Pa- 
dua, where he resembles Palma Vecchio; and this is sufficiently 
conspicuous also in Friuli, where we make mention of him at a 
more cultivated era. 



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EPOCH I. 85 

pioni, of Averara, and Caversegno, of Bergamo, be- 
sides others handed down to us by Tassi. These, 
having flourished at a period so distinguished 
for the art of colouring, may be compared to cer- 
tain writers of the fourteenth century, who throw 
little light upon learning ; but who, observes Sal- 
vini, in respect to language, appear to me as if 
every separate page were embued with gold. 

I have already pointed out to the reader, the 
best masters of the Venetian School, contempo- 
rary with, and followers of Gian Bellini ; a number 
which, though we subtract from it several names 
of inferior note, will leave a larger proportion 
than is generally supposed. The state, indeed, is 
full of specimens founded upon his models, the au- 
thors of which remain doubtful ; yet it is certain 
they composed in Bellini's style, while their de- 
signs partake more or less both of the modern and 
ancient taste.* Undoubtedly, no other school af- 

* Iq this character is the larger picture at S. Niccolo, a church 
of the Dominicans in Treviso, in which the cupola, the columns, 
and the perspective, with the throng of the virgin seated with 
the infant Jesus, and surrounded by saints standing, the steps 
ornamented by a harping seraph, all discover Bellini s compo- 
sition ; but I had not seen the work, until after the former edition 
of my history at Bassano. It was painted in 1520, by P. Marco 
Pensaben, assisted by P. Marco Maraveia, both Dominican 
priests, engaged for the purpose from Venice. They remained 
there until July, 1521, when the first of them secretly fled from 
the convent, and the altar-piece of Treviso was completed in a 
month by one Oian-Girolamo, a painter invited from Venice ; 
supposed to be GirolamoTrevisano, the younger. This artist is 
not, however, mentioned, as I am aware, either by the citizens. 



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86 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

fords a proof of so great a number of disciples from 
one master, and following so closely in his foot- 
steps. Granting this, I cannot easily give credit 
to the numerous specimens of Madonnas attribut- 
ed to his single hand, besides other J)ictures in dif- 
ferent collections* A cautious judge will not be 
apt to pronounce any work his, which displays 
much of ideal beauty; Bellini having, for the 
most part, repeated in his feminine figures an ex- 
pression of countenance, partaking in some degree 
of an apish character. Nor will he be easily led 
to ascribe to him pictures which display a minute 
care and finish, approaching to the miniature style, 
inasmuch as he embodied and coloured his con- 
ceptions with a free and fearless hand. In short, 
a certain vigour of colour, warm and lively; a 
certain reddish tinge of the drapery, approaching 

or by foreigners, by aoy other name than Girolamo, and calcu- 
lating from the chronology of Ridolfi, he must then have been 
thirteen years of age. Until this subject, be more clearly inves- 
tigated> I must confess my ignorance of su<;b a Gian-Oirolamo. 
But I aln better acquainted with the name of Pensabed, who 
was afterwards found, arid in 1524 was, as before, a Dominican 
friar at Venice ; but a few years after, in 1530, is mentioned in 
authentic books belonging to the order, being registered among 
those i^ho had either Iteft the ordfer or werfe dead. P. Fe- 
derici believes him to have beeti the same as F. Bastiano del 
Piombo, an untenable supposition, as I have elsewhere shown. 
I believe Pe&saben td have beeti an excellent artist in the 
Bdlini manner, though not commemorated in history, nor by 
his order. In an order so prolific with genius, and in an age 
abounding with great nam^s, he iis by no means a solitary in- 
stance of this : the present work being found to contain many 
other examples. 



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mfopu I. 87 

a rosy hue ; a ceirtain brightness of varnish, are 
not the usual characteristics of his hand, however 
much his style of design may be mixed up with 
them ; and such pieces may reasonably be presumed 
the production of those artists of the state border- 
ing nearest upon Lombardy, whence, likewise, a 
few of the Venetian state derived the mechanical 
part of their colouring. 

Within the limits proposed to myself, I may 
here annex to my consideration of the painters in 
water colours and in oil, other less distinguished 
branches of the art. Among these is that species 
of inlaid work with wood of different colours^ 
which was intended more particularly for the orna- 
ment of choirs where the divine service wa^ 
efaaunted. I can trace nothing of its inveptprs^ 
whether of German or other origin ;* though it i^ 
said to have taken its rise in an imitation of mo* 
saic work, and of works in stone. No other co- 
loured woods besides black and white were at first 
in use; nor any other objects beyond large edifices^ 
temples, colonnades, and in short ornaments with 
architectural views, attempted to be represented. 

* As early as the eleventh century, or thereabouts, it would 
appear that some similar kind of art was in repute in Germany. 
The monkTheophilus, in the works before-mentioned^ '' De omni 
pcienti^ artis pingendi/* alluding, at the commencement, to the 
most esteemed (voductions of every country, observes : " quid* 
qi^d in fenestrarum varietate precios4 diligit Francia ; quidquid 
in auri, argenti, cupri, ferri, lignorum, lapidumque subtilitate 
sdBers laudat Germania.'* Codice Viennese. 



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88 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Brunelleschi at Florence gave instructions in per- 
spective to architects, that edifices might be drawn 
according to good rules ; and Massaccio in paint- 
ing, greatly availed himself of his precepts^ as well 
as Benedetto da Majano in his inlaid works. There 
remain at Florence, as well as other places in 
Italy, several ancient choirs very highly prized in 
that age, but afterwards despised, when the art 
of staining wood with boiled water-colours and 
penetrative oils, came into use. Thus, after the 
imitation of buildings, easily drawn from the num- 
ber of their right lines, that of figures began to 
be practised in an able manner, though it had 
formerly been tried with less success. The chief 
merit of such improvement, or rather perfection of 
the art, was due to the Venetian School. Loren- 
zo Canozio, from Lendinara, a fellow student of 
Mantegna, who died about 1477, inlaid the entire 
choir of the church of S. Antonio, even, as it 
would appear, with figures. The whole, however, 
having been consumed by fire, there is nothing 
remaining but the epitaph of the artificer, in which 
he is highly applauded for his labours. There 
likewise exist other works of the same kind, in the 
armadj, chests, or presses, of the sacristy, and, as 
it is supposed, also in some of the confessionals. 
Besides Lorenzo, his brother Cristofano, and his 
son-in-law Pierantonio, who assisted him in these 
labours, are equally applauded by Matteo Siculo, 
as worthy of vieing with Phidias and Apelles them- 



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EPOCH I. 89 

selves. Tiraboschi likewise enumerates the two 
brothers among the artists of Modena, whose fel- 
low citizens they were. 

But the fame of these soon expired. For Gio- 
vanni da Verona, a layman of Oliveto, not long 
^fter^ surpassed them in the same art. He prac- 
tised it in various cities of Italy, and at Rome it* 
self, in the service of Pope Julius II ; but still 
more successfully in the sacristy of his own order, 
where his works are still to be seen in the best 
condition. F. Vincenzo delle Vacche, also a na- 
tive of Verona, and a layman of Oliveto, mention- 
ed by the learned Morelli in his Notizia of works 
of design, during the first half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, deserves mention here for the merit of his in- 
laid works ; and in particular for those wrought 
in Padua, at the church of S. Benedetto Novello. 
Unacquainted, however, with the period in which 
he flourished, I shall not venture to announce him 
either as a pupil or assistant to Fra Giovanni. Si- 
milar productions, from the hand of Fra Rafiaello 
da Brescia, also of Oliveto, adorning the choir of 
S. Michele in Bosco at Bologna, might here be 
mentioned in competition with those in the sa- 
cristy of Verona, by natives of Oliveto. 

Moreover, there remains Fra Damiano da Ber- 
gamo, a Dominican monk, who ornamented his 
own church at Bergamo, and that of Bologna in 
a still better style ; in which the choir is inlaid 
with the greatest art. In S. Pietro, at Perugia, 
he also wrought the most beautiful histories. The 



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90 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

same artist, as we find recorded in Yasari^ succeed- 
ed also in refining the art of colours and of shades, 
to such a degree as to be held the very first in this 
line. He possessed either a rival, or a pupil, in 
Gianfrancesco Capodiferro, whose mansions at S. 
Maria Maggiore^ in Bergamo, are the finest sper 
cimens of the kind, though occasionally betraying 
some traces of stiffness in their manner. There too 
he worked after the designs of Lotto^ and instruct- 
ed in the art his brother Pietro and his son Zi- 
nino^ so that the city continued to be supplied 
with excellent artificers during a number of years. 
The largest and most artificially wrought figures 
I have seen in this line are in a choir of the 
Certosa at Pavia, distributed one by one upon 
each side. The artificer is sp.id to have been one 
Bartolommeo da Pola, whose name I have not met 
with elsewhere. In each of the squares is re- 
presented a bust of one of the Apostles, or some 
other saint, designed in the taste of the Da Vinci 
School. A few of the pictures of these artists are 
to be found in galleries of art ; among which, those 
from the hand of F. Damiano are the most es- 
teemed. Finally, this species of workmanship^ 
embracing materials too much exposed to the 
moth and to the fire, by degrees began to grow 
out of date : and if more lately it appears to have 
again revived, it has failed hitherto in producing 
any works deserving of commemoration. 



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91 



VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

SECOND EPOCH. 

Giorgione^ Titian, Tintoret, Jacopo da Bassano, Paolo 
Veronese. 

Behold us at length arrived at the golden period 
of the Venetian School^ which like the others of 
Italy^ produced its most distinguished ornaments 
about the year 1500 ; artists who at once eclipsed 
the fame of their predecessors^ and the hopes of 
attaining to equal excellence on the part of their 
successors. In reaching this degree of eminence^ 
it is true they pursued different patbs^ though 
they all aimed at acquiring the same perfec- 
tion of colouring; the most natural^ the most 
lively^ and the most applauded of any single 
school of the age ; a distinction they likewise 
conferred upon their posterity, forming the dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of the Venetian pain<- 
ters. The merit of this has heen attributed to 
the climate by some^ who assert^ that in Venice, 
and the adjacent places, nature herself has be- 
stowed a warmer and deeper colour upon objects 
than elsewhere ; a frivolous supposition, and un- 
deserving of much of our attention, inasmuch as 



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92 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

the artists of Hollanid and Flanders, in climates so 
extremely opposite^ have obtained the same meed 
of praise. Neither is it to be attributed to the 
quality of the colours ; both* Giorgione and Titian 
having been known to make use of few, and these, 
so far from being selected or procured elsewhere, 
exposed to sale in all the public shops in Venice. 
If it should again be objected, that in those days 
the colours were sold purer and less adulterated, 
I admit there maybe some degree of truth in this, 
inasmuch as Passeri, in his life of Orbetto, com- 
plained at that time of the early decay of many pic- 
tures, *' owing to the quality of the colours fraudu- 
lently sold by the retailers." But I would merely in- 
quire, if it were possible, that materials thus pure 
and uncontaminated should so often fall into the 
hands of the Venetians and their Flemish imitators, 
yet be so seldom met with in the rest of the schools. 
The cause of their superiority is to be sought, 
therefore, in their mechanism and art of colour- 
ing ; in regard to which the best Venetian pain- 
ters conformed, in some points, to the most cele- 
brated artists of Italy. In other points, how- 
ever, they diflFered from them. It was a common 
practice at that period, to prepare with a chalk- 
surface the altar-pieces and pictures which were 
intended to be executed ; and that white ground, 
favourable to every variety of tint the painter 
could lay upon it, equally favoured the production 
of a certain polish, floridity, and surprising trans- 
parency ; a custom which, being laid aside out of 



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EPOCH IX. 93 

iudolence and avarice, I am happy to perceive 
seems about to be renewed. But in addition to 
this the Venetians were in possession of an art that 
may be considered peculiar to themselves. For it 
may be observed^ that the chief part of them, du- 
ring these three centuries^ produced the effect of 
their paintings, not so much by a strong layer 
of colours, as by separate strokes of the pencil; 
and each colour being thus adapted to its place, 
without much repeating or refining it, they still 
continued augmenting the work, by which the 
tints were preserved clear and virgin; a result 
which requires no less promptness of hand than 
of intellect, besides education, and a taste culti- 
vated from the earliest period. Hence the artist 
Vecchia was accustomed to say, that by dint of 
copying pictures executed with diligence, a pain- 
ter will acquire the same quality ; but to succeed 
in copies from a Titian or a Paolo, and to imitate 
their stroke, is a task surmounted 6nly by the 
Venetians, whether natives or educated in their 
school. {Boschini, p. 274.) 

Should it here be inquired what good result may 
attend such a method, I reply that Boschini points 
out two very considerable ones. The first of them 
is, that by this mode of colouring, which he terms 
di macchia and di pratica, a certain hardness of 
style may more easily be avoided ; and the other, 
that, better than any other, it gives a bolder relief 
to paintings in the distance : and pictures being 
intended to be thus viewed, rather than closer to 



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94 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

the eye^ such an object is by this process most 
easily attainable. I am aware of the modems hav- 
ing misapplied and abused these maxims ; but they 
were meant to have been judiciously employed, 
and I only wish to propose as examples the most 
celebrated of the school who so ably comprehend- 
ed the method^ and the limits of such a practice. 
Nor was the harmony of colours better understood 
by any other artists, insomuch, that the mode of 
assimilating and of contrasting them, maybe con* 
sidered as the second source of the delightful and 
lively, so predominant in their works, and more 
especiaUy in those of Titian and his contempora- 
ries. 

Such skill was not merely confined to the fleshy 
parts, in whose colour the disciples of Titian have 
so far excelled every other school ; it extended also 
to the drapery. For indeed, there are no pieces of 
velvets, of stuffs, or of crapes, which they did not 
imitate to perfection, nsore partieulaiiy in their 
portraits, in which the Yenetiaas of that peripd 
abounded, displaying specimens the most onaa- 
mental and beautiful The cavalier Mengs is of 
opinion, that also to this branch of ihe art, requir- 
ing the strictest attention to truth, and conferring 
a peculiar kind of interest iqion a picture, may be 
in some measure attributed the degree of power 
and truth acquired by those eminent oplourists. 
Their merit was moreover conspicuous in imitat- 
ing every kind of work in gold,^an silver, and every 
species of imetal; so much so, .that i there .a» no 



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EPOCH II. 95 

toyal palaces or lordly feasts^ read of in any poet, 
which do not appear more nobly represented in 
some Venetian paintings. It was equally remark- 
able in point of landscape, which sometimes sur- 
passed the efforts of the Flemish painters, and in 
architectural views, which, with a magnificence 
unknown elsewhere, they succeeded in introduc- 
ing into their compositions, as we had before oc- 
casion to observe of the artists of the fourteenth 
century ; a species of industry extremely favoura- 
ble, likewise, to the distributioki, the variety, and 
to the complete effect of groups of figures. 

In these extensive compoilitions, which about 
the period of the Bellini abounded in half-length 
or diminutive figures, ihere has since been disr 
played a grandeur of proportions whi<5h has led 
the way to the most enlarged productions, on the 
scale we have more recently seen. The most ter- 
rific among these is the Supper of Paolo Veronese 
at S. Giorgio, in which the gifts of nature are so 
nobly seconded by the exhibition of talent, which 
appears to have beai transmitted by succession 
through this school, nearly until the present day. 
Such ability consists in finely designing all the 
details of any work, however great, including 
the transmission aiid gradations of light, so that 
the eye of itself seems to fdilow its track, and em- 
Inraces the entire effect from one end of the can- 
vass to the other. And it has been observed by 
several who have witnessed ancient paintings (a vi- 
olation of good taste, of late but too common,) cut 



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96 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

up and curtailed to adapt them to the size of 
walls and doors, that such an operation often suc- 
ceeds tolerably well with the pictures of other 
schools, but is extremely diflScult with those of the 
Venetians ; so intimately is one part connected 
with another, and harmonized with the whole. 

These, along with other similar qualities that 
flatter the eye of the spectator, that attract the 
learned and the unlearned, and seem to transport 
the mind by the novelty and the reality of the re- 
presentation, constitute a style which is termed by 
Reynolds the ornamental, who, likewise, among 
all the schools, yields the palm in this to the Ve- 
netians ; a style afterwards introduced by Vovet 
into France, by Rubens into Flanders, and by 
Giordano into Naples and into Spain. The same 
English critic places it in the second rank, next 
to the grand style, and remarks that the professors 
of the sublime were fearful of falling into lux- 
urious and pompous exhibitions of the accessaries ; 
no less because prejudicial to the artist's industry 
in point of design and in point of expression, than 
because the transitory impression which it pro- 
duces upon the spectator, seldom reaches the 
heart. And truly, as the sublime of TuUy is more 
simple than the ornament of Pliny, and seems to 
dread any excitement of admiration for the beauti- 
ful, lest its energy should be unnerved by too stu- 
died a degree of elegance; so is it with the grandeur 
of Michelangiolo and of Raffaello, that without 
seeking to occupy us with the iUusions of art, goes 



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EPOCH II. 97 

at once to the heart ; terrifies or inspires us ; awak- 
ens emotions of pity, of veneration, and the love 
of truth, exalting us, as it were, above ourselves, 
and leading us to indulge, even in spite of our- 
selves, the most delicious of all feelings, in that of 
wonder. It is upon this account that Reynolds 
considered it dangerous for students to become 
enamoured of the Venetian style ; an opinion, 
which, judiciously understood, may prove of much 
service to such artists as are calculated to succeed in 
the more sublime. But since amidst such diversity 
of talent, there must appear artists better adapted 
to adorn than to express ; it would not be advisa- 
ble that their genius should be urged into a career 
in which it will leave them always among the last, 
withdrawing them, at the same time, from another 
in which they might have taken the lead. Let 
him, therefore, who in this art of silent eloquence 
possesses not the energy and spirit of Demosthenes, 
apply himself wholly, heart and soiil, to the ele- 
gance^ the pomp, and the copiousness of Deme- 
trius Phalereus. 

Let it not from this be supposed, that the sole 
merit of the Venetians consists in surprising the 
spectator by the effects of ornament and colour, 
and that the customary style and true method of 
painting, were not understood in those parts. Yet 
I am aware of the opinion of many foreigners, who 
having never removed beyond their native spot, 
are inclined to pronounce a general censure upon 
these artists, as being ignorant of design, too la- 

VOL. III. H 



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98 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

boured in their composition^ unacquainted with 
ideal beauty^ and even unable to understand ex- 
pression, costume^ and grace ; finally, that the ra- 
pidity so much in vogue with the whole of the 
school/ led them to despise the rules of art, not 
permitting them to complete the work before 
them, out of an anxiety to engage in other la- 
bours, for the sake* of the profits afforded by them. 
To some of their painters, doubtless, these obser- 
vations may apply, but assuredly not to the whole ; 
for if one city be obnoxious to them, another is not 
so much so ; or if they can be affirmed of a cer- 
tain epoch or class of artists, it would be an idle 
attempt to fix them upon all. This school is in 
truth most abundant, no less in artists than in fine 
examples in every characteristic of the art; but 
neither one nor the other are sufficiently known 
and appreciated. Yet it is hoped the reader wifl 
be enabled to form a more correct idea of both ; 
and after having cultivated an acquaintance with 
the Bellini, the Giorgioni, and the Titians, besides 

* It is related by Vasari, that Titian was in the habit of 
painting natural objects f|rom the life, without making any pre- 
yious design, " a practice adopted for many years by the Vene- 
tian painters, by Giorgione, by Palma, by Pordenone, and others 
who never visited Rome, nor studied other specimens of greater 
perfection than their own." I know not how far the above 
writer was acquainted with their method. But their designs are 
still extant in various collections ; and the Cartoon of the cele- 
brated S. Agostino, painted by Pordenone in that city, is now in 
possession of the Count Chiappini in Piacenza, in good condi- 
tion. 



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EPOCH II. 99 

other masters^ will trace^ as it were from one 
parent stocky the various offshoots transplanted 
throughout the state, imbihing, according to the 
nature of the soU, and the vicinity of other climes, 
new taste^ and qualities, without losing at the same 
time their original and native flavour. And if in 
the progress of our history we shall here and there, 
among plants of nobler growth, meet with some 
^ hzzi sorbip to use the words of our poet, some 
bitter apples, growing at their side; let these 
only be attacked ; but let not the disgrace attach- 
ing to a few careless artists be calumniously ex^ 
tended to the whole of their school. 

The hf^py era we are now entering upon, com- 
mences with Giorgione and with Titian, two names 
which, connected together, yet in competition with 
each other, divided between them, as it were, the 
whole body of disciples throughout the capital and 
the state ; insomuch that we find no city that had 
not more or less adopted for its model one or other 
of .these masters. I shall proceed to describe them 
sqMxately, each with his own class, as I believe 
such a method most favourable, to shew how the 
whole of the school I am describing was almost 
entirely derived and propagated from two masters 
of a similar style. Giorgio BarbareUi of Castel- 
franco^ more generally known by the name of Gior- 
gione, from a certain grandeur conferred upon him 
by nature, no less of mind than form, and which 
appears also impressed upon his productions, as the 
character is said to be in the hand-writing, was 
H 2 



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100 VENETIAN SCHOOL, 

educated in the school of the Bellini. But impiel- 
led by a spirit conscious of its own powers, he 
despised that minuteness in the art which yet re- 
mained to be exploded, at once substituting for it a 
certain freedom and audacity of manneri in which 
the perfection of painting consists. In this view 
he may be said to be an inventor ; no artist before 
his time having acquired that mastery of his pen- 
cil, so hardy and determined in its strokes, and 
producing such an effect in the distance. From 
that period he continued to ennoble his manner, 
rendering the contours more round and ample, 
the fore-shortenings more new, the expression of 
the countenance more warm and lively, as well as 
the motions of his figures. His drapery, with all 
the other accessaries of the art became more se- 
lect, the gradations of the different colours more 
saft and natural, and his chiaro-scuro. more power- 
ful and effective. It was in this last indeed, that 
Venetian painting was the most deficient, while it 
had been introduced into the rest of the schools by 
Vinci previous to the sixteenth century. Vasari 
is of opinion that from the same artist, or rather 
from some of his designs^ it was first acquired by 
Giorgione, a supposition that Boschini will not 
admit, maintaining that he was only indebted for 
it to himself, being bi& own master and scholar. 
And, in truth, the taste of Lionardo and of the 
Milanese artists who acquired it from hjm, not 
only differs in point of design, inclining in the 
contours and in the features more towards the 




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EPOCH 11. 101 

graceful and the beautiful^ while Giorgione af- 
fects rather a round and full expression ; but it is 
contrasted with it, likewise, in the chiaro-scuro. 
The composition of Lionardo abounds much more 
in shades, which are gradually softened with great- 
er care ; while in regard to his lights he is far more 
sparing, and studies to unite them in a small space 
with a degree of vividness that produces surprise. 
Giorgione's composition, on the other hand, is 
more clear and open, and with less shade; his 
middle tints, also, partake in nothing of the iron- 
cast and grey, but are natural and beautiful ; and 
in short, he approaches nearer to the style of Co^ 
reggio, if Mengs at least judges rightly, than to 
any other master. Still I am far from concluding 
that Vinci in no way contributed to the formation 
of Giorgione's new manner ; every improvement 
in the art having taken its rise from some former 
one, which being admired for its novelty, became 
familiar to surrounding artists by example, and to 
more distant ones by its reputation, thus adding 
what was before wanting to the perfection of the 
art. And in this way have geniuses in different 
parts arisen, destined to increase and improve such 
advantages. This, if I mistake not, has been the 
case with the science of perspective, subsequent to 
the time of Pier della Francesca ; with regard to 
fore-shortening after Melozzo ; and also with chiaro- 
scuro after Lionardo. 

The works of Giorgione were, for the chief 
piort, executed in fresco, upon the facades of the 



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102 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

houses^ more particularly in Venice, where there 
now remains scarcely a relic of them, as if to remind 
usonlyof what have perished. Many of his pictures, 
on the other hand, both there and in other places, 
painted in oil and preserved in private houses, are 
found in excellent condition ; the cause of which 
is attributed to the strong mixture of the colours, 
and to the full and liberal use of his pencil. In 
particular we meet with portraits, remarkable for 
the soul of their expression, for the air of their 
heads, the novelty of the garments, of the hair, of 
the plumes, and of the arms, no less than for the 
lively imitation of the living flesh, in which, how- 
ever warm and sanguine are the tints which he 
applied, he adds to them so much grace, that in 
spite of thousands of imitators, he still stands alone. 
In analyzing some of these tints, Ridolfi discover- 
ed that they bore little resemblance to those used 
by the ancient Greeks, and quite distinct from 
those tawny, brown, and azure colours, since in- 
troduced at the expense of the more natural. Such 
of his pictures as are composed in the style of his 
Dead Christ, in the Monte di Piet^ at Trevigi, the 
S. Omobono at the Scuola de' Sarti, in Venice, or 
the Tempest stilled by the Saint, at that of S. 
Marco, in which among other figures are those of 
three rowers drawn naked, exceUent both in their 
design and their attitudes ; such are the rarest tri- 
umphs of his art. The city of Milan possesses two 
of an oblong shape, in which several of the figures 
extend beyond the proportions of Poussin, and may 



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EPOCH II. ]03 

be pronounced rather full than beautiful. One of 
these IS to be viewed at the Ambrosiana/the other 
in the arch-episcopal palace ; esteemed by some 
the happiest effort of Giorgione that now sur- 
vives. It represents the child Moses just rescued 
from the Nile^ and presented to the daughter of 
Pharaoh. Very few colours, but well harmonized 
and distributed, and finely broken with the shades, 
produce a sort of austere union, if I may be allow- 
ed the expression, and may be assimilated to a 
piece of music composed of few notes, but skil- 
fully adapted, and delightful beyond any more 
noisy combination of sounds. 

Giorgione died at the early age of thirty-four, 
in 1511. Thus his productions, rather than the 
pupils he educated, remained to instruct the Ve* 
netians. Vasari, however, mentions several who 
have been contested by other writers. A Pietro 
Luzzo is recorded by Ridolfi ; — a native of Feltre, 
called Zarato, or Zarotto, — who after being a pupil 
became a rival of Giorgione, and seduced from his 
house a woman, to whom he was passionately at- 
tached, at whose loss it has been asserted by some 
that the disappointed artist died in despair. By 
others, on the contrary, he is said to have died of 
a disease contracted during his intercourse with 
the same lady. This Zarato, as we read in a MS. 
history of Feltre, and in a MS. upon the pictures 
of Udine, is the same whom Vasari entitles, Morto 
da Feltro ; and adds, that he went when young to 
Rome, and subsequently flourished in Florence and 



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104 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

elsewhere, distinguished for his skill in grotesques ; 
of which more hereafter. Going afterwards to 
Venice, he is known to have assisted Giorgione 
in the paintings he made for the Fondaco de' Te- 
deschi, about the year 1606 ; and, lastly, having 
remained some time at his native place, he em- 
braced a military life, obtaining the rank of cap 
tain. Proceeding to Zara, he fell in battle near 
that place in his forty-fifth year ; at least such is 
the account of Vasari. From the mention of his 
native place of Feltre, his assisting Giorgione in 
his works, and his surnames of Zarato and Morto, 
I think there is some degree of probability in the 
assertion contained in these MSS. though the dates' 
attaching to the life of Morto in Vasari, will not 
countenance the supposition of Ridolfi, of his be- 
ing the pupil of Giorgione, a man considerably 
younger than himself; so that I should conjecture 
that Ridolfi may have denominated him a scholar 
of Giorgione, because, when already of a mature 
age, he painted under him as his assistant. Not- 
withstanding the assertion of Vasari, he had a 
tolerable genius for figures, and in the history 
already cited, written by Cambrucci, and in pos- 
session of the bishop of Feltre, a picture of 
our Lady between saints Francesco and Antonio, 
placed at S. Spirito, and another at Villabruna, 
besides a figure of Curtius on horseback, upon 
a house at Teggie, are attributed to his hand. We 
gather from the same history that another Luzzi, 
by name Lorenzo, a contemporary and perhaps 



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EPOCH II. 106 

friend of Pietro, painted very skilfully in fresco, 
at the church of S. Stefano; and that he was 
equally successful in oils, he himself assures us in 
his altar-piece of the proto-martyr S. Stefano, con- 
spicuous for correctness of design, heauty of forms, 
force of tints, and bearing his name and the date 
of 1511. 

The most distinguished disciple of the school of 
Giorgione is Sebastiano, a Venetian, commonly 
called, from the habit and office he afterwards as- 
sumed at Rome, Fra Sebastiano del Piombo. Hav- 
ing left Gian Bellini, he attached himself to Gior- 
gione, and in the tone of his colours, and th$ ful- 
ness of his forms, imitated him better than any 
other artist. An altar-piece in S. Gio. Crisostomo, 
from his hand, was by some mistaken for the work 
of his master ; so strikingly does it abound with 
his manner. It may be presumed, indeed, that he 
was assisted in the design ; Sebastiano being known 
to possess no surprising richness of invention, — 
slow in the composition of mo3t of his figures ; ir- 
resolute ; eager to undertake, but difficult to com- 
mence, and most difficult in the completion. Hence 
we rarely meet with any of his histories or his 
altar-pieces comparable to the Nativity of the 
Virgin, at S, Agostino, in Perugia, or the Flagel- 
lazione at the Osservanti of Viterbo, which is 
esteemed the best picture in the city. Pictures 
for private rooms, and portraits, he painted in great 
number, and with comparative ease ; and we no 
where meet with more beautiful hands, more rosy 



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106 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

flesh tints> or more novel acce^aries than in these. 
Thus, in taking the portrait of Pietro Aretino, he 
distinguished five different tints of black in his 
dress ; imitating with exactness those of the vel- 
vet, of the satin, and so of the rest. Being invited 
to Rome by Agostino Chigi, and there esteemed 
as one of the first colourists of his time, he paint- 
ed in competition with Peruzzi, and with Raffaello 
himself; and the rival labours of all three are still 
preserved in a hall of the Farnesina, at that period 
the house of the Chigi. 

Sebastiano became aware, that in such a compe- 
tition, his own design would not appear to much 
advantage in Rome, and he improved it. But oc- 
casionally he fell into some harshness of manner, 
owing to the difficulties he there encountered. Yet, 
in several of his works, he was assisted by Michel- 
angiolo, from whose design he painted that Pieti, 
placed at the Conventuali of Viterbo, and the 
Transfiguration, with the other pieces which he 
produced, during six years, for S. Pietro in Mon- 
torio, at Rome. It is stated by Vasari, that Mi- 
chelangiolo united with him, in order to oppose 
the too favourable opinion entertained by the Ro- 
mans, of Raffaello. He adds, that on the death of 
the latter, Sebastiano was universally esteemed the 
first artistof his time, upheldby the favour of Michel- 
angiolo ; Giulio Romano, and the rest of the rival 
school, being all inferior to him. I am almost at a 
loss how to judge of a fact, which, if discredited, 
seems to cast an imputation upon the historian, and. 



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EPOCH II. 107 

if received, reflects very little credit upon Buona- 
rotti; and the reader will do best, perhaps, to decide 
for himself. The name of ISebastiano must also be 
^ded to the list of inventors, for his new method 
of oil-painting upon stone, upon which plan he 
executed the FlageUazione, for S. Pietro in Mon- 
torio, a work as much defaced by time as the others 
which he made in fresco remain at the same place 
entire. He coloured also upon stone several pic- 
tures for private houses, a practice highly esteemed 
at its earlier period, but which was soon abandoned 
owing to the difficulty of carriage. Upon this 
plan, or. some other resembling it, we find several 
pictures of the sixteenth century executed, and 
which, at this period, are esteemed in museums 
real antiques.* 

* I made mention elsewhere of P. Federici's supposition, as 
being at least probable, that F. Sebastiano was the same person 
as F. Marco Pensaben, a Dominican. The year of their birth 
is certainly the same. But other dates are too discordant; if, 
indeed, we are not to suppose that Ae whole of what Vasari 
has written of Sebastiano, in his life of him, as well as in those 
of Sanzio and Peruzzi, is merely fanciful. It is by no means 
worth our while to draw minute comparisons between the epochs 
of these two painters. In 1520, we found Pensaben in Ve- 
nice ; next at Trevigi, where he remained till July, 1521. Now 
Sebastiano, the Venetian, was, at this yery period, at Rome. The 
Car. Giulio de' Medici had committed toRaffaello the picture of 
the Transfiguration^ which having hardly completed, that artist 
died on Good Friday, 1520; and during the same time, as if in 
competition with RaiTaello, Sebastiano was employed in painting 
the Resurrection of Lazarus, for the same Cardinal, which, soon 
after, was exhibited along with the Transfiguration, and then 



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108 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Among the disciples of the School of Gior- 
gione, were, likewise, Gio. da Udine and Fran- 
cesco Torhido, a Veronese, who has been sur- 
named il Mora, a.nd both were distinguished prac- 
tisers of his tints. In regard to Giovanni, after- 
wards a pupil of Raffaello, we have written, and 
we shall again write elsewhere. Moro remained 
but little with Giorgione, a much longer while 
with Liberale. Of this last he imitated very truly 
both the diligence and the design, in the former 
^ven surpassing him ; always a severe^ critic upon 
himself, and slow in completing his undertakings. 
We rarely meet with him in altar-pieces, still more 
rarely in collections of paintings, for which he was 
often employed in sacred subjects and in portraits ; 
deficient in nothing, except, perhaps, we could 
wish to see somewhat greater freedom of hand. In 
the dome of Verona, he painted several histories 
in fresco, among which is the Assumption of the 
Virgin, truly admirable ; but the designs are not 
his, Giulio Romano having prepared the car- 
toons. His style of execution, however, is clearly 

sent into France. More still — he likewise drew the Martyrdom 
of Santa Agata, for the Cardinal of Aragona ; a piece which, 
in the time of Vasari, was in possession of the Duke of Urbino; 
then in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence, whence it passed into 
France. There is the name of SebastianvsVenetus, and the year 
1520 affixed to it. This artist therefore can, by no means, be 
confounded with F. Marco, nor the painting of this last at 
Trevigi be ascribed to the former. Such a mistaken opinion 
has been attributed to me by the learned P. Fedierici ; (vol. i. p^ 
1L20} but on what ground I know ppt. 



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EPOCH II. 109 

enough perceived^ which, in respect to colouring 
and to chiaro-scuro, discovers him to be an artist, 
as Yasari has recorded, '^ as careful in regard to his 
use of colours, as any. other who flourished at the 
saiiie period." 

The other names that here follow, are includ- 
ed, according to history, in the train of Gior- 
gione, not as his pupils, but his imitators. Yet 
all exhibit traces of Bellini, because the Venetian 
manner, up to the time of Tintoretto, did not so 
much aim at inventing new things, as at perfecting 
such as had already been discovered ; not so de- 
sirous of relinquishing the taste of the Bellini, as 
of modernizing it upon the model of Titian and 
Giorgione. Hence it arose, that a people of pain- 
ters were formed in a taste extremely uniform; 
and the exaggerated observation, " that whoever 
had cultivated an acquaintance with one Venetian 
artist of that age, knew them all," seemed to 
have some ground in truth. But still, as I 
have said, it is exaggeration, as there is cer- 
tainly much diversity of style and merit when 
compared with one another. Among the lead* 
ing disciples of Giorgione are to be ranked three, 
who belong to the city or territory of Bergamo, 
and these are Lotto, as is most generally supposed^ 
Palma, and Cariani. They resemble their master 
most frequently in fulness, but in the mixture and 
selection of colours they often appear of the school 
of Lombardy. More particularly in Cariani there 
is apparent a certain superficies, like that of wax. 



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110 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

equally diffused over the canvass^ vrhich shines so 
as to enliven the eye; and when seen at a distance, 
with but little lights appears in full relief, a result 
which others have also noticed in the works of 
Coreggio, 

The name of Lorenzo Lotto is recorded by 
Vasari and elsewhere, in which accounts his coun- 
try is considered as consisting of the entire state, as 
he himself, indeed, affixed to his picture of S. CristO'^ 
foro di Loreto> Laurentius Lotlus Pictor Venetus.* 
The late annotator of Vasari, observing the grace 
of countenance and the turn of the eyes remark- 
able in his pictures^ supposed him to be a disciple 
of Vinci, an opinion that might be supported by 
the authority of Lomaz2^, who mentions the names 
of Cesare da Sesto and Lorenzo Lotto together, 
both being imitators, in the distribution of their 
lights, of da Vinci. Lotto most likely profited 
by his vicinity to Milan, in order to cultivate an 
acquaintance with, and to imitate Vinci in many 

• We confess our obligations to Sig. Giuseppe Beltramelli, 
who informs us, in a work published in 1800, that this painter, 
generally supposed from Bergamo, was really a Venetian, being 
thus mentioned in a public contract : M. Lauteniim LoUus de 
Veneiiis nunc babitatpr BergomL Father Federici, who, on the 
strength of sdme historian, pronounces him of Trevigi, brings for- 
ward another document in which Lotto is called: D. Laurentii 
LoittpUaoriM, etdepresenHTarvuiicammarantis. If, therefore, 
hMiaUfr JSergmni does not prove him a native of Bergamo, wHl 
the words Tarvini camnwrantis mak^ him a native of Trevigi? 
But Father Aff6, in one of his earliest pictures, found him 
entitle Tirvisinw. Who, however, can assure us that it is 
in fact the band-writing of Lotto, which he there found written ? 



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EPOCH II. Ill 

points ; though I am not^ therefore, inclined to 
discredit the account which gives him for a pupil 
to Bellini, and a rival to Castelfranco. But the 
style of the disciples of lionardo, so uniform in 
Luini and in the other Milanese, is very slightly 
perceptible in the productions of Lotto. His 
manner is, in truth, wholly Venetian, bold in its 
colours, luxurious in its draperies, and like Gior* 
gione, of a deep red in the fleshy parts. His hand, 
however, is less bold and free than that of the 
latter, whose loftier character he is £6nd of temper- 
ing with the play, as it were, of his middle tints ; 
selecting, at the same time, lighter forms, to whose 
heads he gives a character more placid and a beauty 
more ideal. In the back-ground of his pictures 
he often retains a peculiar clear or azure colour, 
which if it do not harmonize so much with the 
figures, confers distinctness on eadi individual, 
and presents them in a very lively manner to the 
eye. His pictures of S. Antoniho, at the Domini- 
cand in Venice, and of S. Niccolo, at the Camone, 
which design he repeated in tteS.Vincenzio of 
the Dominicans at Recanati^ are compositions ex- 
tremely novel and original* In his others he varies 
little from the usual style; that of a Madonna seated 
on a throne, surrounded with saints, with cherubs 
in the air, or upon the steps. Yet these he relieves 
by the novelty of perspective, or by attitudes, or 
contrasted views. Thus in his specimen of the S. 
Bartdommeo, at Bergamo, entitled by Ridolfi won- 
derful, he bestows upon, the Virgin and the infant 



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112 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Jesus such fmely diversified and contrasted mo- 
tions, that, they seem as if conversing with the 
holy bystanders, the one on the right and the other 
on the left hand. And in that of S. Spirito, spark- 
ling as it were with graces, we meet with a figure 
of S. John the Baptist, drawn as a child, stand- 
ing at the foot of the throne, in the act of em- 
bracing a lamb, and expressing so natural and 
lively a joy, at once so simple and innocent, with a 
smile so beautiful, that we can hardly believe while 
we gaze upon it, that Raffaello or Correggio could 
have gone beyond it. 

Such master-pieces as these, with others that are 
to be seen at Bergamo, in churches and private 
collections, place him almost on a level with the 
first luminaries of the art. If Vasari did not fairly 
appreciate his merits, it arose only from his having 
viewed several of his less studied and less noble 
pieces. And it is. true that he has not always ex- 
hibited the same degree of excellence, or force of 
design. The period in which he chiefly flourished 
may be computed from the year 1513, when he 
was selected, among many professors of reputation, 
to adorn the altar for the church of the Domini- 
cans at Bergamo ; and, perhaps, the decline of his 
powers ought to be dated from 1546, an epoch in- 
scribed upon his picture of San Jacopo dell' Orio, 
in^ Venice. He was employed also at Ancona, and 
in particular at the xhurch of S. Dominico, at 
Recanati, where, interspersed among pieces of su- 
perior power, more especially in his smaller pic- 



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EPOCH II. 113 

tiires, we detect some incorrectness in his extremi- 
ties^ and stiffiiess of composition^ resembling that of 
Gian Bellini ; whether, as it is conjectured by Va^ 
sari, they were among the earliest, or more probably 
among some of his latest efforts. For it is well 
known, that when far advanced in years, he was 
accustomed to retire to Loreto, a little way from 
Recanati, and that engaged in continual supplica^ 
tion to the Virgin, in order that she might guide 
him into a better method, he there closed the pe- 
riod of his days in tranquillity. 

Jacopo Palma, commonly called Palma Vecchio, 
to distinguish him from his great-nephew Jacopo, 
was invariably considered the companion and rival 
of Lotto, until such time as Combe first confused 
the historical dates relating to him.. By Ridolfi 
we. are told that Palma employed himself in com- 
peting a picture left imperfect by Titian, at the 
period of his death in 1576. Upon this, and simi- 
lar authorities, Combe takes occasion to postpone 
the birth of Palma, until 1540 ; adding, to which the 
forty-eight years assigned him by Vasari, the time 
of his> decease is placed in 1588. In such arrange- 
ment the critic seems neither to have paid attention 
to the style of Jacopo, still retaining some traces of 
the antique, nor to the authority of Ridolfi, who 
makes him the master of Bonifazio, anymore than 
to Vasari's testimony, in the work published in 
1568, declaring him to have died several years be- 
fore that period in Venice. He does not even 
consider, what he might more easily have ascer- 

voL. m. I 



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114 VENETIAN SCHOOL* 

tained^ that there was another Jacopo Pahna^ great- 
nephew of the elder, who, according to the autho- 
rity of Boschini (p. 110), was a pupil of Titian's as 
long as the latter survived ; and that Ridolfi, on 
this occasion, entitled him Palma, without the 
addition of younger, on account of its being so ex- 
tremely unlikely that any would confound him with 
the elder Palma. Such, notwithstanding, was the 
case, and is, in fact, only a slight sample of the in- 
accuracies of the whole work. The same error 
has been repeated by too many authors, even 
among the Italians ; and the most amusing of all is, 
that Palma the elder is said to have been bom 
abbut the year 1540, while almost, in th^ same 
breath, the younger Palma is declared to have been 
bom in 1544. So much must here sujBSce as to his 
age, proceeding in the next instance to his style. 
Much attached to the method of Giorgione, he 
aimed at attaining his clearness of expression, and 
vivacity of colouring. In his celebrated picture 
of Saint Barbara, at S. Maria Formosa, one of his 
most powerful and characteristic productions, Ja* 
copo more especially adopted him as his model. 
In some of his other pieces, he more nearly ap* 
proaches Titian, a resemblance we are told by 
Ridolfi, consisting in the peculiar grace which he 
acquired from studying the earliest productions of 
that great master. Of this kind is the Supper of 
Christ, painted for Santa Maria Mater Domini^ 
with the Virgin at San Stefano di Vicenza, execut- 
ed with so much sweetness of expression as to be 



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£POCH II. 116 

esteemed one of his happiest productions. Thefe 
are many examples of both styles to be met with in 
the grand Carrara collection, as given in the list of 
Count Tassi, (p. 93). Finally, Zanetti is of opinion 
that in some others he displays a more original 
genius, as exemplified in the Epiphany of the 
island of Saint Helena, where he equally shines in 
the character of a naturalist who selects well, who 
carefully disposes his draperies, and who composes 
according to good rules. The distinguishing cha^ 
racter then of his pieces is diligence, refinement, 
and a harmony of tints, so great as to leave no tra- 
ces of the pencil ; and it has been observed by one 
of his historians, that he long occupied himself in 
the production of each piece, and frequently re- 
touched it In the mixture of his colours, as well as 
other respects, he often resembles Lotto, and if he 
be less animated and sublime, he is, perhaps, gene* 
rally speaking, more beautiful in the form of hid 
heads, especially in those of boys and women. It 
is the opinion of some, that in several of his coun- 
tenances he expressed the likeness of his. daughter 
Violante, very nearly related to Titian, and a por- 
trait of whom, by the hand of her father, was to 
be seen in the gallery of Sera, a Florentine gentle- 
man, who purchased at Venice many rarities for 
the House of the Medici, as well as for himself, 
(Boschini, p. 368). A variety of pictures intended 
for private rooms, met with in different places in 
Italy, have also been attributed to the hand of 
Palma ; besides portraits, one of which has been 

I 2 



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116 VENETIAN SCHOOL* 

commended by Vasari as truly astonishing, from 
its beauty; and Madonnas, chiefly drawn along 
with other saints, on oblong canvass ; a practice in 
common use by many artists of that age, some of 
whom we have already recounted, and others are 
yet to come. But the least informed among 
people of taste, being ignorant of their names, the 
moment they behold a picture between the dryness 
of Giovanni Bellini and the softness of Titian, 
pronounce it to be a Palma, and this, more parti- 
cularly, where they find countenances well rounded 
and coloured, landscape exhibited with care, and 
roseate hues in the drapery, occurring more fre- 
quently than any of a more sanguine dye. In this 
way Palma is in the mouths of all, while other artists, 
also very numerous, are mentioned only in propor- 
tion as they have attached their own names to their 
productions. One of these, resembling Palma and 
Lotto, but slightly known beyond the precincts of 
Bergamo and some adjacent cities, is Giovanni 
Cariani, as to whom Vasari is altogether silent. 
One of his pieces, representing our Saviour, along 
with several saints, and dated 1514, I have my- 
self seen at Milan, which appears to have been 
altogether formed upon the model of Giorgione. 
If I mistake not, it is a juvenile production, and 
when compared with some others, which I saw at 
Bergamo, very indifferent in its forms. The most 
excellent of any from his hand, is a Virgin, pre- 
served at the Servi, with a group of beatified 
spirits, a choir of angels, and other angels at her 



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EPOCH II. 117 

feet, engaged in playing upon their harps in con- 
cert. It is an exceisdingly graceful production, 
delightfully ornamented with landscape and figures 
in the distance ; very tasteful in its tints, which 
are blended in a manner equal to the most studied 
specimens of the two artists of Bergamo, already 
mentioned; thus forming with them a triumvirate, 
calculated to reflect honour upon any country. It 
has been stated by Tassi, that the celebrated 
Zuccherelli never visited Bergamo, without re- 
turning to admire the beauties of this picture, 
pronouncing it one of the finest specimens of the 
art he had ever beheld, and the best which that 
city had to boast. Cariani was also no less distin- 
guished as a portrait-painter, as we gather from a 
piece belonging to the Counts Albani, containing 
various portraits of that noble family ; and which, 
surrounded with specimens of the best colourists, 
would almost appear to be the only one deserving 
of peculiar admiration. 

The city of Trevigi may boast of two artists be- 
longing to the same class, though widely difiering 
from each other. One of these is Rocco Marconi, 
distinguished by Zanetti among some of the best 
disciples of Bellini, and erroneously referred by 
Ridolfi to the school of Palma. He excelled in 
accuracy of design, taste of colouring, and dili- 
gence of hand, though not always sufficiently easy 
in his contours, and for the most part exhibiting a 
severity almost approaching to plebeian coarseness 
inhis countenances. Even in the earliest produc- 



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118 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

tiou attributed to him, executed in the year 1505, 
and preserved in the church of San Niccolo, at 
Trevigi, Bidolfi detects that peculiar clearness of 
style, which may be traced also so strongly in his 
Three Apostles, at SS, Giovanni and Paolo, as well 
as in his few other pictures dispersed among the 
public places. Indeed half-length figures of this ar- 
tist are by no means of rare occurrence in private 
collections, though he can boast no single specimen 
so beautiful, or so completely Giorgionesque as his 
Judgment of the Adulteress, to be seen in the chap- 
ter of San Giorgio Maggiore, and of which there is 
either a duplicate or a copy at San Pantaleo, and 
in other places. The other of these two artists is 
Paris Bordone, the elevation of whose mind and 
genius seemed to correspond with that of his 
birth. After having been a pupil of Titian for a 
short period, he became an enthusiastic imitator of 
Giorgione, finally adopting an originality of man- 
ner, whose peculiar grace bears 1910 resemblance to 
that of any other painter. His forms may truly 
he said to breathe, to glow, and even to laugh, with 
aforce of colouring, which, incapable of displaying 
a greater degree of truth than that of Titian, aimed, 
nevertheless, at more variety and attraction; while, 
at the same tim^, they were not wanting in deli- 
cacy of dei^ign, novelty of drapery, propriety of 
composition, and a peculiarly lively air of the 
heads. In the church of S. Giobbe he produced a 
picture of S. Andrew embracing his Cross, with 
an angel seen hovering above, in the act of bestow- 



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EPOCH II* 119 

ing upon him the crown of martjrrdom ; while in 
one of the two saints^ represented at the side^ he 
drew the figure of S. Peter, in the act of gazing 
upon him with a kind of envy; an idea equally 
novel and picturesque. A similar method he 
adopted in other of his works, produced in great 
part for the ornament of his native place and its 
vicinity. Not a subject but is taken from the 
antique ; yet each of them is treated with origina- 
lity. Of such kind, is that picture of a true Para* 
dise, seen in the Ognissanti at Trevigi, and those 
evangelical mysteries in the cathedral of the same 
city, represented in an altar-piece, divided into six 
different groups, at the request, it is presumed, of 
the person who engaged him to execute it. Here 
we behold, assembled in a small space, every thing 
of the most pleasing and beautiful kind, which H^ 
has elsewhere scattered throughout the whole of his 
works. In Venice, his representation of the resto* 
ration of the ring to the Doge by a fisherman, 
possesses a high reputation ; and this, accompanied 
with that of the Tempest, shortly before described, 
by Giorgione, forms an admirable contrast in its 
beauty to the terrors abounding in the latter. 
Decorated with the finest specimens of architec- 
ture, and a profusion of animated and well adapted 
%ures, as varied in their actions as in their dbra* 
periesy it has been commended by Yasari as the 
master-piece of his labours. The same artist is, 
likewise, highly prized in collections. Madonnas 
of his are to be met with, cbaracteirized by the 



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120 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

uniformity of their countenance, as well as some 
of his portraits, often attired in the manner of 
Giorgione, and composed with fine and novel em- 
bellishments. Being invited to the court of Francis 
II., he acquired the favour of that monarch and of 
his successor, thus enriching himself by the exer- 
cise of his talents. He had a son who pursued the 
same branches of the art ; but from his picture of 
Daniel, remaining at Santa Maria Formosa in Ve- 
nice, it is evident how very inferior he must have 
been. 

At the same time flourished one Girolamo da 
Trevigi, a different artist to his namesake already 
mentioned by us, who, induced probably by the 
example of his noble fellow-citizen, and turning his 
attention to a more select style than the generality 
^ the Venetian School, applied himself to the mo- 
dels of Raffaello, and the Romans. He is entitled 
by Padre Federici, upon the authority of Mauro, 
Pennacchi, and is considered by him the son of that 
Piermaria,of whom we made brief mention before, 
(page 62). There is little from his hand remaining 
at Venice, but more in Bologna, particularly at San 
Petronio, where he painted in oil the histories of 
S. Antony of Padua, with judgment and grace^ 
combined with an exquisite degree of polish, which 
obtained for him the commendation of Vasari. It 
was here he happily succeeded in uniting the ex- 
cellences of the two schools, though he did not 
flourish long enough to mature them, having de- 
voted himself to the military occupation of an 



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EPOCH IV 121 

engineer, to which service he fell a victim in 1544, 
while in England ; he was killed, according to Ya- 
sari, in his thirty-sixth year. On this last point 
we can scarcely admit the emendation offered us 
by the author of the Description of Vicenza, who 
would substitute for this earlier date the age of 
seventy-six years, a period of life when men seldom 
encounter their iBnal doom in the field. In this 
instance, perhaps, the emendator was not aware 
that there exist signatures of a Girolamo da Tre- 
viso, met with upon pictures from the year 1472 
to that of 1487, uniformly of ancient design ; an 
artist, who couldnot, in the common course of life, 
have survived to become an excellent disciple of 
Raffaello, and the assistant of Pupini at Bolog- 
na, about the year. 1530. He failed, therefore, to 
make a distinction between two painters of th& 
^same name, as it will be perceived we have done, 
followed by the authority of Padre Federici. 

Finally, in this list must be enumerated Gio. 
Antonio Licinio, eidier Sacchiense, or Cuticello,* 
untilsuch period, as happening to be wounded in 
the hand by his brother, he renounced all title to his 
family name, assuming the appellation of Regillo. 
He is commonly, however, called Pordenone, 
from his native place, formerly a province, and 

* Thus called by the oldest writers, though, from his father's 
testament, recently brought to light, it appears to be erroneous. 
Here bis father is entitled, Angelas de Lodesanis de Corticellis, 
(or in a MS. of the Signori IMottensi of Pordenone d€ Corticehig) 
Brvdensis, 



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122 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

now a city of the Friuli. " In this province," it 
is observed by Vasari, " there flourished, during 
his time, a great number of excellent artists, who 
had never visited either Florence or Rome ; but 
he stood pre-eminent above all, surpassing his pre- 
decessors in the conception of his pieces, in design^ 
in boldness, in the use of his colours; in his frescos, 
in rapidity, in grandeur of relief ; and, indeed, in 
every other attribute of the arts*" It is uncertain 
whether he attended the School of Castelfranco, 
as it has been supposed by some, and much more 
80, whether he was a fellow student along with him 
and Titian, under Giovanni Bellini, a supposition 
started by Rinaldis, (p. 62). To me, the opinion 
reported by Ridolfi appears nearer the truth, that 
having first studied, in his youth, the productions 
of Pelligrino, at Udine, he subsequently adopted 
the manner of Giorgione, following the bias of his 
own genius, invariably the artist's safest guide in 
the formation of a style. Other disciples of Gior- 
gione, more or less resembled him in manner, but 
Pordenone seemed to vie with him in spirit^ a 
spirit equally daring, resolute, and great ; surpass^ 
ed by no other, perhaps, in the Venetian SchooL 
Yet in lower Italy he is little known beyond his 
name. The picture with the portraits of his fa- 
mily, preserved in the Palazzo Borghese, is the 
best production of his that I have met with in 
these parts. And elsewhere, indeed, we rarely 
behold such histories as his exquisite picture of 
the Raising of Lazarus, in possession of the Conti 



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EPOCH II. 123 

Lecchi^ at Brescia. Nor does he abound in altar- 
pieces^ beyond the province of Friuli, which boasts 
of several in different places, though not all equally 
genuine. The few executed in Pordenone, are 
unquestionably his^ inasmuch as he has himself 
described them in a memorial still extant* The 
eoUegiate church possesses two of these; one con- 
sisting of a Holy Family, with S.Christopher, exe- 
cuted in 1515, very finely coloured, but not exempt 
from some inaccuracies. The other bears the date 
of 1535, representing S. Mark in the act of conse- 
crating a bishop, along with other saints, and with 
perspective ; a piece, says its author, posta in ope- 
ra^ non^finita, begun, indeed, but not finished. A 
more complete specimen was to be seen at San 
Pier Martire di Udine, in his Annunciation, since 
re-touched and destroyed. Some there are who 
have preferred, before every other, that preserv- 
ed in S. Maria dell' Orto, at Venice. It consists 
of San Lorenzo Giustiniani, surrounded by va- 
rious saints ; among whom S. John the Baptist 
appears naked according to the rules of the most 
learned schools ; while the arm of S. Augustine is 
seen, as it were, stretched forth out of the picture, 
m effect of perspective this artist has repeated 
in various other places. The most beautiful of 
his pieces in Piacenza, where he had estaUishied 

^ It is inserted in a Transunt^ of MSS. belonging to the noble 
Ernesto Mottensi of Pordenone, communicated to me by the 
P. D. Michele Turriani Barnabtta, extremely skilled in the 
parekments and ancient memorials of Friuli. 



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124 VEN£TIAN SCHOOL. 

himself^ is his picture of the Marriage of S. Cathe- 
rine, upon a dark ground, which gives a roundness 
to the whole of the figures ; it is full of grace in 
those of a more tender character, and displays gran- 
deur in the forms of S. Peter and S. Paul, repre- 
sented on the two sides; in the last of whom, as 
well as in the S. Rocco of Pordenone, he gave a 
portrait of himself. 

But his works in fresco display the highest de- 
gree of merit ; great part of which he produced in 
the Friuli, besides numerous others scattered 
throughout castles and villas, no longer distin- 
guished by strangers, except from the circumstance 
of possessing some painting of Pordenone. Such 
places are Castions, Valeriano, Villanova, Varmo, 
Pallazuolo, where he is with certainty known to 
have employed his talents. A few remnants are 
likewise preserved in Mantua, in the Casa de' Ce- 
sarei, and in the palazzo Doria, at Genoa ; some 
at S. Rocco, and the cloisters of S. Stefano, in Ve- 
nice, and many specimens in high preservation in 
the dome of Cremona, and at Santa Maria di Cam- 
pagna, in Piacenza, where, in collections, and in the 
facades of houses, otherpieces of his are pointed out. 
His labours in fresco, however, are not all equally 
studied and correct ; more particularly those in his 
native Friuli, which he produced at an early age 
in great abundance, and for a small price. He is 
more select in his male forms than in those of his 
women, whose model he appears to have frequently 
taken from very robust rather than very beautiful 



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EPOCH II. 125 

subjects^ most probably met with in the adjacent 
province of Camia, where he is said to have in- 
dulged his early passions. But in every thing he 
undertook we may invariably trace the workings 
of a vigorous fancy, rich in conceiving, in varying, 
and developing his ideas ; powerful in his exhibi- 
tion of the passions, displaying the master-hand 
that encounters the difficulties of the art with the 
most, novel combinations in the science of fore- 
shortening, with the most laboured perspective, 
and with a power of relief which appears perfectly 
starting from the canvass. 

In Venice, he seemed to surpass all he had be- 
fore done. The competition, or rather enmity sub- 
sisting between him and Titian, served as a spur 
both by day and night, to actuate him to fresh ex- 
ertions. He was at times even accustomed to 
paint with arms at his side ; and it is the opinion of 
many, that such emulation was of no less advantage 
to Titian, than was the rivalship of Michelangiolo 
to Raffaello. In this instance, also, the one excel- 
led in strength, the other in grace of hand ; or, as 
it has been observed by Zanetti, nature prevailed 
in Titian in a superior degree to manner, while in 
Pordenone both shone with an equal degree of ex- 
cellence. To have competed with Titian is a cir- 
cumstance not a little honourable to his name, and 
has acquired for him in the Venetian School the se- 
cond rank at least, in a period so prolific in excel- 
lent artists. A portion of the people, indeed, then 
preferred him to Titian ; for, as I have elsewhere 



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126 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

observed, there is nothing so well calculated to 
surprise the multitude as the production of fine 
effect and of the chiaroscuro^ in which art he is 
known to have first preceded Guercino. Porde- 
none was highly favoured^ and presented with the 
title of cavalier by Charles V. ; and being subse- 
quently invited to the court of Ercole II. duke 
of Ferrara, he died there shortly after^ not with* 
out suspicion of having been poisoned. We have 
in the next place to give an account of his school. 
Bernardino Licinio, from his surname probably a 
relation of the foregoing, was an artist who is here 
deserving of mention. We gather from history, as 
well as from his manner, that he was also a pupil 
of Pordenone ; and there remains at the Conven- 
tuali, in Venice, an altar-piece of the usual antique 
composition, quite in the style of the other Lici- 
nio, from his hand. It is reported, likewise, that 
some of his portraits are preserved in different coU 
lections which have been erroneously ascribed to 
the elder Pordenone. Sandrart makes mention of 
Giulio Licinio da Pordenone, a nephew and scholar 
to Gio. Antonio, adding that he employed himself 
in Venice ; thence transferred his residence to Au- 
gusta, where he left behind him some truly sur- 
prising specimens in fresco, which obtained for 
him with some a higher reputation than his uncle. 
He would appear to be the same Giulio Lizino^ 
who, in competition with Schiavone, Paul Vero- 
nese, and other artists, produced the three tandi, 
in the library of St. Mark^ in the year 1556. By 



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EPOCH II. 127' 

Zanetti he is considered of Roman origin^^ but 
this is a mistake, arising from Giulio's having as- 
sumed the title of Romano during his residence in 
the capital ; while he retained it in Yenice, the bet*- 
ter to distinguish him from the other Lidnj, in 
the same manner as we have already observed of 
one of the Trevisani^ about the same period. 

Giannantonio Licinio the younger, was a bro- 
ther to Giulio, and more commonly named Sac- 
chiense, an artist who has been highly commended, 
but whose works are no longer to be seen, not even 
in Como, as far as we can learn, where he died. 

After the Licinj we ought next to record the 
name of Calderari, a distinguished pupil of Gio. An- 
tonio, who has succeeded in sometimes imposing 
upon the most acute judges. Thus it has occurred 
in the parish church of Montereale, where he pro- 
duced many scripture histories in fresco, which 
had been uniformly ascribed to the hand of Porde- 
none, until the discovery of a document establish- 
ing the contrary. He is even little known in his 
native place of Pordenone, and his frescos in the 
cathedral were attributed to the penci^vpf Amalteo. 
Pordenone may also boas;t of another disciple in 
Francesco Beccaruzzi da C!onigliano. For this 
we have the authority of Ridolfi, confirmed by the 
artist's Own work, ornamenting his native place, of 
St. Francis in the act of receiving the stigmata, 
or marks of Christ, a figure more striking in point 

* See his work on VeQetian Painting, p. 250. 



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128 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

of relief than of colouring. To the same school 
has been added by Orlandi^ the name of Gio. Ba- 
tista Grassi, a good painter^ but more excellent as 
an architect^ and the same from whom Yasari drew 
his notices of the painters of Friuli. I should be 
inclined^ however, to refer him to some other 
school, both on account of Vasari's silence on a 
point so creditable to him, and his resemblance 
to the manner of Titian in such of the few pieces 
as have been well preserved, and are exempt from 
modern retouches of art. Of this kind are his 
pictures of the Annunciation ; the Translation of 
Elias; and the Vision of Ezekiel, in the cathedral 
of Gemona, on the doors of the organ there. 

The last name to be enumerated in this class» is 
that of Pomponio Amalteo, a native of San Vito, 
and of a noble family which yet boasts its descen- 
dants at Uderzo. He was one of the most excel- 
lent of Giannantonio's pupils, and introduced his 
master's style into the Friuli, for which reason we 
shall here give him a place, together with the 
whole of his followers. He was son-in-law to Por- 
denone, and the artist who succeeded him in his 
school at Friuli. Both there and in other places he 
employed himself in works of distinguished merit. 
He preserved the manner of his father-in-law, as 
has been observed by Ridolfi, who erroneously as- 
cribes to Licinio the Three Judgments, indispu- 
tably the production of Amalteo, which he repre- 
sented in a gallery at Ceneda, in which causes 
are decided. They consist of the Judgment of 



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EPOCH II. 129 

Solomon, of that of Daniel, and. a third of Tra- 
jan ; the whole completed in the year 1536. It 
is everywhere evident that he aspired to origi- 
nality of manner ; his shading is less strong, his 
colours are brighter, and the proportions of his 
figures, and all his ideas are upon a less elevated 
scale than those of his father-in-law. Some faint 
idea of his works may be gathered from Vasari 
and Ridolfi, who omitted, however, many of them, 
among others the five pictures of Roman histories 
adorning the Hall of the Notaries at Belluno ; but 
it id only some faint idea, inasmuch as neither 
these two writers, nor Altan, who collected me- 
morials of him in a little work, were at all enabled 
to do full justice to the labours of an artist who 
continued to occupy himself, assisted by various 
other hands, until the latest period of his life. 
Hence it is that the bulk of his works can by no 
means boast the same degree of excellence as the 
Three Judgments we have mentioned, or the pic- 
ture of S. Francis, at the church of that name, in 
Udine, esteemed one among the valuable pieces 
belonging to the city. Still, wherever or upon 
whatever subject he employed l^mself, he display- 
ed the powers of a great master, educated by Por- 
denone ; and one who not only shewed himself, 
with the generality of Venetians, a splendid co- 
lourist, but designed far more accurately. The 
same merit continued, for some period, to charac- 
terize his successors, who, however, if I mistake 
not, weregireatly inferior to him in genius; except- 

VOL. III. K 



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130 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

ing only his brother, with whom we shall commeBce 
the history of Pomponid's School. 

His name was Girolamo, and, receiving the in-^ 
structions of his brother, he is supposed to have 
assisted him in his labours, giving proofs of a 
noble genius, which he more peculiarly mani- 
fested in w^orks of design; in small pictures, which 
appeared like miniature, in several fables executed 
in fresco, and in analtair-piece which he pamtedin 
the church of San Vito. Ridolfi commends him 
highly for his spirited manner, and another of the 
old writers, as we learn from Rinaldis, gives his 
opinion, that if he had flourished for a longer pe- 
riod, he would, perhaps, have proved no way 
inferior to the great Pordenone. Hence I find 
reason to conclude that Girolamo continued, 
during life, the exercise of his art ; and that the 
report transmitted to us through Ridolfi, about a 
century after his death, of his brother Pomponio 
having devoted him out of jealousy of his genius 
to mercantile pursuits, as was certainly the case 
with a brother of Titian's, must have been wholly 
without foundation. 

Pomponio likewise availed himself of the aid of 
Antonio BoseUo in the paintings he produced at 
Ceneda, as well as for the Patriarch within the 
gallery just before recorded, and for the canons in 
the Organ of the cathedral. This artist must 
assuredly have arrived at some degree of perfection, 
inasmuch as we are in possession of the particulars 
of various salaries paid to him, distinct from such 



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EPOCH II. 131 

as were pajid to the principal. As I find mention 
in Bergamo of an Antonio Boselli, memorials of 
whom subsist there between the period of 1509 
and that of 1527^ it is extremely probable that 
he was the same painter, who, being unable to con- 
tend with the fame of Lotto, and so many other 
of his contemporaries in that celebrated school, 
sought for better fortune beyond his native place. 
It is certain hfi exercised his talents in Padua, and 
thence rhe might easily penetrate into Friuli, and 
give his assistance to Ppmponio, whilst employed 
at Ceneda during the years 1534, 1535, and 1536. 
In the course of time, Amalteo, having bestowed 
two of his daughters in marriage, appears tq have 
obtained the assistance of his sons-in-law, both 
painters^ and promoted by him in the progress of 
their art. Quintilia, who had the reputation of 
a fine genius, familiar with the principles both 
of painting a^d engraving, and more particularly 
excellent in portraits, became united to Giosefib 
Moretto, of Friuli, although there remains only a 
single altar-piece of his in the Friuli, in the pro- 
vince of San Vito, bearing the following inscription : 
Inchoavit Pompanius Amalteus,. perfecit Joseph 
Maretius, anno 1588; a short time previous to 
which date, his father-in-law had resigned his pro- 
fession with his life. The other daughter espoused 
Sebastiano Seccante, mentioned by Ridolfi, and 
esteemed in Udine for his two grand pictures em- 
bellished with fine portraits, with which he orna- 
mented the castle of the city; and still more so for 

K 2 



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132 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

several of his altar-pieces. Of these there is one 
at San Giorgio, representing the Redeemer, suffer- 
ing under the cross, hetween various figures of 
cherubs, holding other instruments of his passion ; 
a piece that displays all the excellent maxims de- 
rived from his education. This artist may be 
pronounced the last of the great school, whose 
productions do credit to a good collection. His 
brother, Giacomo, who did not apply himself to 
painting until he had attained his fiftieth year ; 
Sebastiano, the son of Giacomo, who became early 
initiated in the art, without even equalling his 
father, with their relative Seccante, who lived at 
the same period, were none of them esteemed, even 
in Udine, beyond mediocrity in their respective 
lines. Two natives, however, of San Vito, named 
Pier Antonio Alessio, and Cristoforo Diana, were 
much commended by Cesarini, one of Amalteo's 
contemporaries. They were employed in their 
studies at the very period that the former wrote 
his dialogue ; though there remain no memorials 
of Pier Antonio, similar to those of Cristoforo, of 
whom Altan discovered several specimens at San 
Vito, in a very good style, besides one preserved 
in the monastery of Sesto, bearing traces of his 
name, which he had inscribed upon it. We shall 
close this catalogue with the name of another dis- 
ciple of Amalteo, belonging to San Daniele, where, 
among some other remains, there is a tolerably 
good fresco, preserved in the facade of one of the 
inns in the suburbs of the place. It represents the 



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£POCH II. 13) 

Virgin^ seated with the divine child, her throne 
surrounded by S. Thomas the Apostle, and S. 
Valentine, along with other saints; and it bears 
the inscription. Opus Julii Urbanis, 1574 ; it par- 
takes of the taste of Amalteo, and of Pordenone, 
the succession pf whose school we have just com- 
pleted, history affording us no farther materials 
for description. 

Whilst the school of Amalteo continued to em- 
bellish various cities, provinces, and villas of the 
Friuli, another from the same place started into 
competition with it, first introduced by Pellegrino, 
of which mention has been made at page 66, though 
I reserved its description for this place. The 
whole of Pellegrino's disciples followed him at a 
very unequal pace, and few of their works can be 
pointed out which appear to catch the spirit of his 
fresco of S. Daniel, or his altar-piece at Cividale, 
already mentioned with praise. Luca Monverde 
was an artist who flourished but for a short period, 
nor ever advanced beyond the Bellini manner, im- 
bibed from his master at a very early age. In this, 
however, he arrived at so high a degree of perfec- 
tion, that his picture, adorning the great altar of 
the Grazie at Udine, a church dedicated to S. 
Gervasio and S. Protasio, which is there placed 
around the throne of the Virgin, was highly com- 
mended previous to its being retouched. And we 
are elsewhere informed, that Luca, while he flou- 
rished, was regarded as a sort of prodigy of genius. 
Girolamo d'Udine, supposed also to come under 



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134 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

this standard^ has been omitted by Grassi^ in his 
sketch of the painters transmitted to Yasari, ami 
is no otherwise known than for his little picture of 
the Coronation of our Lady^ remaining in San 
Francesco at Udine, with his name attached. The 
vigour of its colours is striking, the invention 
novel, but rather strained ; and, if I mistake not, the 
whole betrays an artist educated with other maxims. 
I pass over Martini, though I am aware Altan 
maintains him to have been a scholar, rather than 
a fellow-pupil of PeDegrino ; but the authority of 
Vasari, combined with his own beautiful picture 
at S- Mark's, so nearly simultaneous with that of 
Pellegrino, induce me to retain my own opinion. 
I should hardly venture to decide to which of the 
two preceding masters Bernardino Blaceo ought to 
be referred ; an artist who appears, from the great 
altar-piece of S. Lucia, with his name attached, to 
have retained the ancient style of composition, 
while in other points his manner is sufficiently 
graceful and modern. Another artist who has 
been with more certainty given as a pupil to Pelle- 
grino, was by birth a Greek, of singular merit in 
his art, but who has retained only his national ap^ 
pellative of N. Greco. Thus the number of disci- 
ples from San Daniele, at all worthy of such a 
master, is reduced to two, Plorigerio and Floriani. 
The labours of the former in Udine, executed in 
fresco, have however perished, though his picture 
of S. George, in the church of the same name, still 
survives, of itself sufficient to constitute an artist's 



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EPOCH II. 135 

fame. It is esteemed by many the best specimen 
in the city, displaying both in the figures and the 
landscape a strength of hand which appears to 
rival Giorgione, more than any other model we 
could mention. He painted^ likewise, with equal 
spirit, though scarcely perhaps with equal softness^ 
m the city of Padua ; and there he subscribed his 
name to one of his frescos, Florigerio, as it has 
been read by the Guida of Padua, in which I 
agree ; and not Flerigorio, as he has been called by 
some historians. Francesco Floriani, together 
with his brother Antonio, though devoting his 
talei^ts to the service of Maximilian II., at Vienna, 
boasts, nevertheless, a high reputation in Udine. 
Jle was more particularly excellent in portrait, a 
specimen of which is in possession of Signer Gio. 
Batista de Rubeis ; being a portrait of Ascanio Bel- 
gt^q, which might almost be placed in competition 
with Moroni or Tinelli. He produced several altar- 
pieces for churches, the most highly admired of 
which was, perhaps, that placed at Reana, a vil- 
lage near Udine. It has recently been purchased 
^d divided into as many smaU pictures as the 
nupiber of saints which it contained, and which 
now belong to a private collection. 

But it is at length time to proceed to Tiziano 
Vecellio, a name the reader has probably long 
wished to greet. Yet I fear I shall hardly gratify 
his expectations ; for where we have formed en- 
lajrged ideag of an artist's worth, every attempt to 
do justice to the splendid merits we admire, ap- 



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136 . VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

peart not only inferior^ but in some measure dero- 
gatory to the character we would exalt. But if in 
treating 09 the qualities of artists, we may consi- 
der a particular estimation of their characteristic ta- 
lents preferable to warm commendations, I shall 
avail myself of the judgment of an excellent critic, 
who was accustomed to say that Titian observed 
and drew nature in all her truth, better than any 
other artist. To this I might add the testimony 
of another, that of all painters he was most familiar 
with nature, in all her forms; the universal master, 
who, in every subject he undertook, whether 
figures, elements, landscape, or other pieces, im- 
printed upon all that lively nature, constituting 
the great charm of his genius. He was -gifted, 
likewise, with a peculiarly sound judgment, tran- 
quil, penetrative, and decidedly studious of what 
was true, rather than what was novel and specious ; 
a character no less essential to the production of 
true painters than of true writers. 

The education he first received from Sebastiano 
Zuccati, a native of theValteline, though supposed 
to have been of Trevigi,* and next from Gian Bellini, 

• By means of Sig. Ab. 6ei, of Cadore, a young man of the 
Ynost promising abilities, I have obtained notice of an artist be- 
longing to that place, who, from various authorities, is supposed 
to have been the instructor of the great Titian. It is certain he 
flourished towards the close of the fifteenth century ; nor does 
there exist accounts of any other artist of Cadore, capable of 
initiating his countrymen in a knowledge of the art. Three of 
his pictures in water colours^ in the usual style of composition 
jit that time, so frequently described, are yet extant ; the first, a 
fine altar-piece, adorning the parish churcl^ at Seiva, in which 



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EPOCH II. 137 

had the effect of rendering him a minute observer 
of every object falling under the senses. To such 
a degree of excellence did he carry it, that when, 
later in life, he wished to compete with Albert 
Durer, and produced, atFerrara, the Christto whom 
the Pharisee is seen offering the piece of money,* 
he executed it with so much exactness as to surpass 
even the minuteness which characterises that ar- 
tist. Indeed, in several of those figures, the hairs 

the titular S. Lorenzo, with others, in an upright posture, are 
seen surrounding the throne of the Virgin ; a second, of smaller 
size, is in the Oratory of Sig. Antonio Zamberlani, in the parish 
charch of Cadore, where the throne appears encompassed with 
cherubs playing upon instruments ; the third, placed at San Bar- 
tolommeo of Nabii^> is divided into six compartments; the best, 
or at least the most free from harshness of manner of the whole. 
It is inferior, however, in design to Jacopo Bellini, though 
equal, perhaps, in point of diligence and colouring:, and similar 
in its style. Upon the first he has inscribed, Antonitis Rubeus 
de Cadubrio pinxit ; upon the second. Opus Antonii Rubei : bat 
the letter £ being defaced, the word looks like RuBLi ; upon the 
third is found Antonius Zaudanus (da Zoldo) pinxit. Thus if 
we combine these inscriptions it will appear that this ancient 
painter, whom we now place at the head of the artists belonging 
to that prolific clime, was Antonio Rossi Cadorino. 

* See Ridolfi. This picture is now in Dresden, and Italy 
abounds with copies. One of these I saw at S. Saverio di 
Rimini, inscribed with the name of Titian on the band of the 
Pharisee, a very beautiful production, and believed by many to 
be a duplicate rather than a copy. Albert was in Italy in 1406 
and in 1506. In Venice, one of his pictures, in the council of the 
Ten, is cited by Zanetti ; it is Jesus Christ shewn to the people ; 
and an altar-piece is also mentioned by Sansovino, placed at S. 
Bartolommeo, commended both by him and by other writers. 
(See the Sig. Morelli's Annotations on the Notizia, p. 223.) 



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138 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

might be numbered^ the skin of the hands, the very 
pores of the flesh, and the reflection qfoh^ect^ in 
the pupils ; yet with all this, the work failed not 
of success, for where the pictures of Durer appear 
to diminish and lose their effect at a distance, this 
improves in size; and grows, as it were, upoii the 
spectator. But he never repeated my specimen 
in this style, adopting, as is well kqown, while 
yet very young, that free and unshackled manner, 
first originating with his fellow student, afterwards 
his rival, Giorgione. A few of the portraits, in- 
deed, painted by Titian, during that short period, 
are not to be distinguished from those of Gior- 
gione himself. I say during that period, because 
shortly afterwards he formed a new style, less bold, 
clear, and fiery, but one peculiarly his, the sweet- 
ness of which attracts the spectator more by its art- 
less representation of truth, than by the novelty of 
its effect. The first specimen he is known to have 
produced altogether in the Titian manner, is pre- 
served in the Sacristy of San Marziale, represent- 
ing the archangel Raphael, with Tobias at his side^ 
painted in the thirtieth year of his age. Following 
at a short interval, if we are to give credit to 
Ridolfi, he next produced that fine representation 
of our Lord, for the college of the Carit^, one of 
the grandest pictures, and the richest, perhaps, in 
point of figures, whidi we have now to boast; many 
of them having since perished in different confla^ 
grations. 
From these, and a few others, painted in the 



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EPOCH II. 139 

zenith of bis fame, his critics have gathered the 
general idea of his style; the greatest contest 
which they have amongst themselves, relating to the 
design. By Mengs he is denied the title to rank 
among good designers/ considering him an artist 
of ordinary taste, by no means familiar with, hoW'* 
ever well he might, if he pleased, have succeeded in 
the study of the antique, possessing so very exact 
an eye in copying objects from nature. Vasari ap- 
pears to be of the same opinion, where he intro- 
duces Michelangiolo observing, after viewing the 
Leda of Titian,! that it was a great pity the Ve- 
netian artists were not earlier taught how to de- 
sign. The judgment formed of him by Tintoret, 
though placed in competition with him, was less se- 
vere, namely, that Titian had produced some things 
which it was impossible to surpass, but that others 
might have been more correctly designed. And 
among these more excellent pieces, he might indis- 
putably have included his San Pietro Martire, in 
the church of SS. Giovanni and Paolo, a piece, says 
Algarotti, which the best masters have agreed in 
pronouncing free from every shade of defect; be- 
sides that fine Bacchanal, and a few others, orna- 
menting a cabinet of the Duke of Ferrara, and de- 
clared by Agostino Caracci prodigies of art, and 
the finest paintings in the world.]; Fresnoy was of 
opinion that in the figures of his men he was not 
altogether perfect, and that in his draperies he was 

* Opere, tome i. p. 177. t See his life of Titian. 

X See Bottaxi, Notes to Vasari, in the life of Titian. 



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140 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

somewhat insignificant ;* but that many of his wo- 
men and boys are exquisite, both in point of de- 
sign and colouring. This commendation is con- 
firmed by Algarotti, in respect to his female forms, 
and by Mengs in those of his boys. Indeed it 
is almost universally admitted that in such kind 
of figures, no artist was ever comparable to him ; 
and that Poussin and Fiammingo,f who so greatly 
excelled in this particular, acquired it only from 
Titian's pictures. Reynolds^ also afiirms that, 
*' although his style may not be altogether as chaste 
as that of some other schools of Italy, it neverthe- 
less possesses a certain air of senatorial dignity ; 
and that he shone in his portraits as an artist of 
first-rate character f and he concludes by observ- 
ing that he may be studied with advantage 6ven 
by lovers of the sublime. 

Zanetti assigns him the first rank in design, 
among all the most distinguished colourists ; as- 
serting that he was much devoted to the study of 
anatomy, and copying from the best antique ;§ but 

* See Idea detta Pittura, Edizume Rom. p. 287. 
. t SeePasseri. j; Oo the Arts of Design, Discourse, &c. 

§ He drew his head of San Niccolo a'Frari from a cast of 
the Laocoon ; and from other models of the antique, that of S. 
John the Baptist, and of the Magdalen of Spain. From a Greek 
basso relievo he likewise copied the angels of- his S. Peter 
Martyr. The same artist drew the Cesars, at Mantua, a work 
▼ery highly commended, and impossible to have been so well 
executed without a knowledge of ancient sculpture, of which 
there yet exists a fine collection at Mantua. But what he drew 
from the antique, he also inspired with nature, the sole method 



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EPOCH II. 141 

supposes that he was not ambitious of affecting an 
extensive knowledge of the muscles^ nor aimed at 
displaying an ideal beauty in his contours ; whe- 
ther he had not early enough acquired facility in 
these^ or^for some other reasons. For the rest^ he 
adds^ the Titian manner was uniformly elegant^ 
correct, and dignified in its female forms, and in 
its boys ; elevated, great, and learned for the most 
part, in those of its men ; while in testimony of his 
naked figures, he adduces the history-pieces, paint- 
ed for the Sacristy of La Salute, whose beauty of 
design appears to triumph, even in the extremities, 
while it boasts the rare merit of a striking ac- 
quaintance with the science of foreshortening, 
both appearing blended together. Had the histo- 
rian been desirous of extending his notice to such 
works as are to be met with in foreign parts, he 
might have added much valuable matter upon the 
subject of his Bacchanals, and his pictures of the 
Venus ; one of which, adorning the royal gallery 
at Florence, was justly thought to vie with that of 
the Medici herself, the most exquisite triumph of 
Grecian art. For skill in his draperies, Zanetti 
further brings the example of his S. Peter, painted 
on an altar of the Casa Pesaro, with a very arti- 
ficially wrought mantle ; adding that he occasion- 
ally sacrificed the appearance of the drapery, 
purposely to give relief to some neighbouring 
object. In this contest of opinion, between true 

of profiting by it, when a painter aspires to a higher characler 
than that of a mere statuary. See Ridolfi, p. 171. 



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142 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

judges of the art^ I shall dedine inteifering with 
my own, obserying only, in justice to so extraor- 
dinary a genius, that if happier combinations had 
led him to become familiar with more profound 
maxims of design, he would probably have ranked 
as the very first painter in the world. For he 
would have been allowed to be the first and most 
perfect in design, as he is by all allowed to >have 
no equal in point of colouring. 

Many critics have pushed their inquiries fipom 
the artist, into the peculiar character of his chi- 
aroscuro ; and the most copious among these is 
Signer Zanetti, who devoted years to its examina- 
tion. I select some of :his observations, premising, 
however, that he left a large portion of them to 
the more studious, desirous themselves of develop- 
ing them, in the works of Titian. And, in truth, 
his pictures are the best masters to direct us 
in the right method of colouring ; but, like the 
ancient classics,. that are equally. open, and ;equ(Jly 
the subjects of commentary to all, they are only 
of advantage to those who are accustomed to 
reflect. I have already mentioned the lucid clear- 
ness predominating in Venetian paintings, and 
loaore espeeially in those of Titian, whom the rest 
adopted for their model. I then too pronounc- 
ed it to lue the result of very clear primary 
grounding,, upon which a repetition of colours 
being laid, it produces the effect of a transparent 
veil, a^d renders the tints of a cast no less soft and 
luscious than lucid. Nor did he adopt any other 



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EPOCH II. 143 

plan in his strongest shades^ veiling them With 
fresh colour, when dry; renewing, invigorating 
them, and wanning the confines that pass into the 
middle tints. He availed himself, very judiciously, 
of the power of shade ; forming a method not al- 
together that of a mere naturalist, hut partaking of 
the ideal. In his naked forms he cautiously 
avoided masses of strong shades and hold sha- 
dows, although they are sometimes to he seen in 
nature. They certainly add to the relief, hut they 
much diminish the delicacy of the fleshy parts. 
Titian, for the most part, affected a deep and glow- 
ing Kght; whence, in various gradations of middle- 
tints, he formed the work of the lower parts; and 
having very resolutely drawn the other parts, with 
the extremities, stronger, perhaps, than in nature, 
he gave to objects that peculiar aspect which pre- 
sents them, as it were, more lively and pleasing 
than the truth. Thus in his portraits he centers 
the chief power in the eyes, the nose, and the 
mouth, leaving the remaining parts in a kind df 
pleasing uncertainty, extremely favourable to the 
spirit of the heads, and to the whole effect. 

But ^ince the variations of depth and delicacy 
of shades are insufficient, without the aid of co- 
lours, in this branch 'he likewise found for himself 
an ideal method, consisting of the use in their re- 
spective places, of simple tints, copied exactly from 
the life, or of artificial ones, intended to produce 
the illusion required. He was in the habit of em- 
ploying only few and simple colours ; but they were 



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144 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

such as afforded the greatest variety and contrast; 
he knew all their gradations^ and the most favour- 
able moments for their application and opposition 
to each other. There appears no effort, no degree 
of violence in them, and that striking diversity of 
colours which seems to strive, one above another, 
for the mastery, as it were, in his pictures, has all 
the appearance of nature, though an effect of the 
most bold and arduous art. A white dress, placed 
near a naked figure, gives it all the appearance of 
being mingled with the warmest crimson, while 
he employed nothing beyond simple terra rossa, 
with a little lake in the contours, and towards the 
extremities. Certain objects, in themselves dark 
and even black, produce a similar effect upon his 
canvass; and which, besides enlivening the adjacent 
colour, give force to the figures, wrought, as was 
before stated, with gradual middle tints. It is said 
to have been his favourite opinion, transmitted to 
us by Boschini, p. 341, that whoever aspires to 
become a painter, must make himself familiar with 
three colours, and have them ready upon his palette; 
these are white, red, and black ; and that an artist, 
while attempting the fleshy parts, must not expect 
to succeed at once, but by repeated application 
of opposite tints, and kneading of his colours. 

Here I shall subjoin some observations by the 
Cavalier Mengs, who entered so very deeply into 
the Titian manner. He pronounces him the first, 
who, subsequent to the revival of painting, knew 
how to avail himself of the ideal, as it were, of 



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EPOCH II. 145 

ditferent colours in his draperies. Before his time 
all colours had been applied indifferently^ and ar- 
tists used them in the same measure for clear and 
for obscure. Titian was aware^ if indeed he did not 
acquire his knowledge from Giorgione, that red 
brings objects nearer to the eye, that yellow re- 
tains the rays of light, that azure is a shade, and 
adapted for deep obscure. Nor was he less inti- 
mate with the effects of juicy colours, and was thus 
enabled to bestow the same degree of grace, clear- 
ness of tone, and dignity of colour, upon his shades 
and middle tints, as upon his lights, as well as to 
mark with great diversity of middle tints, the various 
complexions, and the various superficies of bodies. 
No other artist, likewise, was more accurately ac- 
quainted with the mutual power or equipoise of the 
above three colours, upon which the harmony of 
pictures so much depends; an equipoise, too, so 
difficult in practice, to which not even Rubens, 
however excellent a colourist, perfectly attained. 
Both Titian's inventions and compositions par- 
take of his usual character ; he produced nothing 
in which nature was not consulted. In the num- 
ber of his figures he is inclined to be moderate ; 
and in grouping them he displays the finest un- 
shackled art; an art he was fond of exemplifying 
by comparison with a bunch of grapes, where a 
number of single ones compose the figure of a 
whole, agreeably rounded, light through the open- 
ings, distinct in shades, in middle tints, and in * 
lights, according as it receives more or less of 

VOL. III. L 



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146 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

the solar rays. No contntists are to be met with- 
in these compositions that betray a istudied effect ; 
no violent action that is not called for by the inci- 
dents of the story ; the actors in general preserve 
their dignity^ and a certain composure^ as if each 
seemed to respect the assembly of which he formed 
a part. Whoever is attached to the taste of the 
Greek bassirilievi^ in which all is nature and pro- 
priety, will invariably prefer the sober composition 
of Titian to the more fiery one of Paul Vercmese 
and Tintoret, whose merits we shall canvass in an- 
other place. Neither was Titian ignorant of those 
strong contrasts of limbs and action, then in such 
high vogue with his countrymen ; but these he re- 
served for his bacchanals, his battle-pieces^ and 
other subjects, in fine, which called for them. 

It is on all hands admitted, that as a portrait-pam- 
ter, he was quite incomparable; and to this species 
of excellence he was in great part indebted for his 
fortune, smootiiing, as it did, his reception into 
some of the most spl^adid courts, such as were 
that of Rome in the time of Paul III. and those 
of Vienna and of Madrid, during the reign of 
Charles V. and his successors. It is the opinion 
of Yasari that in this brandb of his art he wafi 
inimitable; being engaged in drawing the portraits 
of numbers of the most distinguished characters^ 
both for rank and letters, who flourished during 
the same period. We wish we could add to these 
the name of Oosmo I., graftid duke of Tuscany, 
who, littfe to his credit, evinced an olgection to 



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EPOCH II. 147 

have hiB likeness t»ken by so celebrated a hand. 
He was no less successful in depicting the passions 
of the mind. The death of S. Peter the Martyr, 
at Venice, with that of a devotee of S. Antony, at 
the cdlege of the same name in Padua, display 
scenes than which I know not whether painting 
can afford us any thing more terrific in the ferocity 
of those who strike, or more full of compassion in 
the whole attitude of the falling saint. . And thus 
the grand picture of the Coronation of Thorns, in 
the Grazie at Milan, abounds with powers of ex* 
pression that enchant us. He has left us also not 
a few examples of costume, and of erudition in the 
antique, every way worthy of imitation, as we may 
ol^serve in the Coronation above alluded to, where, 
desirous of marking the precise period of the event, 
he inserted in the Pretorium a bust of Tiberius ; 
an idea th^t conld not have been better conceived, 
either by fiaffaello or Poussin. In his architecture 
he sometimes availed himself of other works, in 
particulsu: those of the Rosa, of Brescia ; but his 
pi^rspectives, like that of his picture of the Pre- 
sentation, are extremely beautiful. He was 
equalled by none in his landscape ; and he was 
careful not to employ it, like some artists, as a mere 
embellishment; several artj/M;s esteeming them- 
selves so highly in this particular, that they hardly 
scruple to present u^ with cypress trees growing 
out of the sea. But Titian makes his landscape 
subservient to history, as in that horrific wood, 
whose dreary aspect adds so much to the solemnity 

h 2 



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148 VENETIAN SCHOOL.. 

of S. Peter's death; or to give force to his figures^ 
as we perceive them in those pieces where the 
landscape is thrown into the distance. His natu- 
ral manner of representing the various effects of 
light may he best gathered from his Martyrdom of 
San Lorenzo, belonging to the Jesuits at Venice, 
in which he displayed such an astonishing diver- 
sity in the splendour of fire, in that of torch-lights, 
and in that of a supernatural light, which appears 
to fall upon the martyr ; a picture unfortunately 
much defaced by age, but of which there is a near 
imitation or duplicate in the Escurial. He like- 
wise expressed, with the utmost felicity, the time 
of the day in which the event is supposed to have 
taken place, and he frequently selected night-fall, 
drawing forth all its most beautiful attributes for 
the canvass. 

From the whole of this it may be inferred that 
Titian is not to be included in that class of Vene- 
tian artists, whose rapidity of hand overpowered 
their judgment, rendering them somewhat careless 
and inaccurate ; thoug}i, at the same time, we must 
speak of his celerity with some degree of reser- 
vation. A freedom of pencil must doubtless be 
granted to him, and he thus applied it without 
failing in point of design, to his paintings in fres- 
co, as they are to be seen in Padua, and which, in 
some measure, compensate us for the loss of those 
in the Venetian capital. In that city we have no- 
thing of the same kind in preservation, if we except, 
perhaps, his S. Christopher, adorning the ducal 



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EPOCH II. 149 

palace ; a majestic figure^ both in its character and 
its expression. We are not, however, to look for 
the same degree of freedom in his pictures in oil- 
Indeed he was by no means ambitious of displaying 
it ; but rather encountered much painful labour to 
arrive at a perfect knowledge of his subjects. 
With this view, after throwing off a rough draught 
of his intended works, with a certain freedom and 
resolution, he was in the habit of laying them for 
some time aside, and again returned to them with 
an eye prepared to detect every the least defect. 
The noble Casa Barbarigo, among a fine selection 
of his most highly finished pictures, preserves, also, 
a few of these first sketches. It is well known that 
he underwent extreme labour in the completion of 
his works, and, at the same time, was very solici- 
tous to conceal the pains he bestowed upon them. 
Yet in some of his pieces such spirited and resolute 
strokes are to be met with as seem to imprint 
upon every object the true character of nature, 
attain at once the points that have been long labo- 
riously aimed at, and perfectly delight professors. 
To this practice he adhered in the zenith of his 
fame ; nor was it until near the close of his exis- 
tence, falling a victim to the plague when within 
a year of completing a century, that both his hand 
and eye failing him, his style became less elegant, 
being compelled to paint with repeated efforts 
of the brush, and with difficulty mingling his tints. 
Vasari, who saw him once more in 1566> even 
then was no longer able to recognize Titian in 



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130 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Titian, and it must have been much more difficult 
in the few following years. Yet, as is customary 
with old age, he was not at all aware of his failings, 
and continued to receive commissions until the 
final year of his life. 

There remains at S. Salvatore, one of these pic- 
tures of the Annunciation, which attracts the spec- 
tator only from the name of its master. Yet when 
he was told by some that it was not, or at least ap- 
peared not to have been executed by his hand, he 
was so much irritated, that in a fit of senile indig- 
nation, he affixed to it the following words, '' Tizid- 
ntis fecit fecit'' Still the most experienced judges 
are agreed that much may be learned even from 
his latest works; in the same manner, as the poets 
pronounce judgment on the Odyssey, the product 
of old age, but still by Homer. Several of these 
last specimens, distributed throughout private col- 
lections, are nevertheless doubtful, As well as a few 
copies made by his pupils, but retouched by his 
hand ; and in particular some Madonnas and Mag- 
dalens, which I have seen in various places, dis- 
playing little or no variety. Upon this point we 
ought not to omit the account given by Ridolfi, of 
his having purposely left his studio open for the 
free access of his disciples, in order that they might 
secretly take copies of such pictures as he had 
placed there. That afterwards when he found 
such copies became vendible, he gladly took pos- 
session of them, and retduchittg them with little 
ttx)uble, they were passed as his^ originals. The 



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EPOCH II. 151 

reporter of this incident added a marginal note 
to his account, as follows : Vedi che accortezza ! 
behold what a degree of forecast ! And to this I 
might rejoin with another of my own : '' Note, that 
the worth of Titian ought not to be estimated, as 
is too often the case, by this multiplication of ori- 
ginals." 

Following the usual order, I shall now proceed 
to describe the imitators of Titian; by no means so 
excellent a master as an artist. Whether disliking 
the interruption and tediousness attaching to such 
a character, or apprehensive of meeting with a 
rival, he was always averse to affording his in- 
structions. He was extremely harsh with Paris 
Bordone, and even entered into decided hostility 
against him, an artist who burned with an ambi- 
tion to resemble him. He banished Tintoret from 
his studio, and artfully directed his own brother 
to mercantile pursuits, though he displayed un- 
common talents for painting. '^ Hence," observes 
Vasari,'^ there are few who can really be called his 
disciples, inasmuch as he taught little ; but each 
learned more or less according as he knew how to 
avail himself of the productions of Titian." 

His family of itself enumerated several artists, 
the series of whom may be seen at Cadore, and in 
part at the adjacent city of Belluno. There, too, 
contemporary with the Vecellj, flourished one Nic- 
colo di Stefano, a painter deserving of commenda- 
tion, no less for having competed with the family 
of Titian, than for the reputation he acquired in 



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152 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

such competition. His rivals among the Vecellj, 
were Francesco, the brother, and Orazio, a son of 
Titian, who approached him pretty nearly in point 
of style. They devoted, however, little attention 
to the arts, one of them having duties of a mili- 
tary and mercantile nature to discharge, and the 
other having thrown away much of his time and 
fortune upon the idle pursuit of alchemy. Several 
pictures by Francesco are to be seen at San Salva- 
tore, in Venice, consisting of a tolerably well exe- 
cuted Magdalen, appearing at the feet of Christ 
risen, at Oriago, on the banks of the river Brenta, 
and a grand Nativity of our Lord, at San Giu- 
seppe, in Belluno, which, until lately, was esteemed 
a fine specimen of Titian, when Monsignor Dog- 
lioni traced it by authentic documents to its real 
author. The production, however, which gave 
rise to Titian's jealousy, was the altar-piece at San 
Vito, in Cadore, in which, among the other saints, 
he represented the figure of the denominator of 
the town, in a military dress. Orazio was con- 
sidered a good portrait painter, even so far as 
to rival his father; and he likewise painted, for 
the public palace a history-piece, very beautiful, 
though retouched by Titian's hand, which has 
since perished by fire. I find no account of Pom- 
ponio, another son of Titian's, having applied 
himself to the art, though he survived both his 
father and brother, who both died in the same 
year, and dissipated his inheritance. 
Marco Vecellio conferred more honour upon his 



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EPOCH II. 153 

fanuly, and being the nephew, the pupil, and inti- 
mate companion of the great Vecellio in his travels, 
received the title of Marco di Tiziano. In sim- 
ple composition and mechanism of the art, he was 
a good disciple of his master ; but he had not the 
genius to inspire his figures and interest the eye 
of the spectator, like his great contemporary. He 
was, nevertheless, esteemed worthy of the honour 
of ornamenting several chambers of the Venetian 
senate, with history-pieces and portraits of saints 
that are yet preserved. Some of his altar-pieces, 
likewise, still exist at Venice, in Trevigi, and in the 
Friuli; while one of his large pictures, adorning 
a parish church at Cadore, the native place of the 
Vecellj, has more particularly elicited the highest 
commendations. In this appears the Crucifixion, 
represented in the midst, with two histories of S. 
Catherine, V. M., her controversy, and her mar- 
tyrdom, supporting either side. Tiziano Vecellio, 
called, to distinguish him from the former, Tizia- 
nello, was the son of Marco, whose name I include 
with those of the other Vecellj, in order to avoid 
recurring to a family of artists which ought to be 
made known and described in full. This last ar- 
tist flourished about the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, when mannerism began its innova- 
tions upon Venetian painting. And those speci- 
mens of him possessed by Venice, at the Patriarchal 
church, at the Servi, and elsewhere, exhibit him in 
a very opposite taste to that of his predecessors, 
with larger forms, but less imposing; a .full and 



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154 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

free pencil, but destitute of softness of hand ; so 
powerful is the influence of reigning example over 
family descent and education. In portraits, never- 
theless, and in heads, very capriciously varied and 
ornamented, I find him to be in much esteem 
among artists. 

Fabrizio di Ettore traced his origin to another 
branch of the Vecellj. His name had hitherto been 
confined within his native spot of Cadore, until 
brought to light by Rinaldis, who gives some ac- 
count of a fine painting he executed for the coun- 
cil-hall of the parish, and for which he was paid 
sixteen gold ducats, no despicable sum at the pe- 
riod when he flourished. He died in the year 
1580. His brother, of the name of Cesare, was 
likewise long unknown to pictorial history, al- 
though his productions are pointed out at Lintiai, 
at Vigo, at Candide, and at Padola. His name is 
more familiar to engravers, inasmuch as he gave 
to the world two works of Etchings, during the 
period of his residence in Venice. One of these, at 
present very scarce, contains, *' Ogni sorte di mos- 
tre di punti tagliati, punti in aria," &c. The other 
is upon '' ancient and modem costume," and has 
been several times republished, and once in 1664, 
with a false title ; where Cesare is mentioned as 
a brother of the great Titian. A third Vecellio, 
an artist of the name of Tommaso, has, in a similar 
way, sprung into notice, one of whose productions, 
consisting of a Nunziata, is preserved in the parish 
church of Lozzo, as well as a Supper of our Lord, 



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EPOCH II. 155 

bpth which the historian pronounces estimable. 
This artist died in 1620. 

Another scion from the stocky though not from 
the studio of Titian^ is Girolamo Dante^ otherwise 
Girolamo di Tiziano^ and first among his followers 
to be here mentioned. He was educated and em- 
ployed^ both as a scholar and assistant^ by Titian^ 
in his less important works. And in fact, by dint 
of assisting and copying the originals of his master, 
he attained such a degree of excellence, that such 
of his pieces as were retouched by Titian, bid de* 
fiance often to the most exact connoisseurs. He 
also produced works of design, and the altar-piece 
attributed to him at San Giovanni in Olio, reflects 
credit upon so great a school. Domenico deUe 
Greche, named in the dictionary of artists, Dome- 
nico Greco, and in another article, Domenico 
Teoscopoli, was an artist employed by Titian in 
engraving his designs. The very copious print of 
the Submersion of Pharaoh, to say nothing of the 
others, is sufficient proof of his worth in this kind 
of engraving. No specimen of his painting is 
pointed out with certainty in Italy ; many, how- 
ever, in Spain, where, having accompanied his mas- 
ter thither, he resided during the remainder of 
his days. There, too, he produced portraits and 
altar-pieces, which, according to Palomino, ap- 
peared to be from the hand of Titian himself. 
But he entered upon a new style, in which he alto- 
gether failed, and for a more particular account of 



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156 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

this artist we must here refer the reader to the 
Lettere Pittoriche, (vol. vi. p. 314). 

The shortness of their career interrupted the 
fame of two other Venetians, both dying young, 
after having given the most astonishing and lively 
promise of future distinction. The name of one 
was Lorenzino, who produced, at SS. Giovanni 
and Paolo, several finely designed ornaments over 
a tomb, with two noble figures of Virtues, still 
highly esteemed for their symmetry, their attitude, 
and their colouring. The other was Natalino da 
Murano, as excellent in portrait as any other of 
the fellow-pupils of his time, as well as a good 
composer in pictures for private ornament, from 
which Venetian dealers reaped greater profit than 
the artist. One of his Magdalens, which, in spite of 
frequent retouches, preserved much of the Titian 
manner, was put up to sale in Udine, where I saw 
it ; and after some difficulty deciphered his name 
and the date of 1558, in very faint characters. 
There was likewise one Polidoro, a Venetian, who 
supplied the shops to abundance with specimens 
of his sacred figures. He appears, for the most 
part, a feeble disciple of Titian ; one who made a 
trade of his profession. To judge from an altar- 
piece preserved at the Servi, and some other pic- 
tures in Venice, we may pronounce him a tolerably 
good composer, though he never distinguished 
himself much in the rank of his contemporaries. 
Yet when the great school declined, his labours^ 



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EPOCH II. 167 

such as they were, acquired more esteiem, and were 
exhibited in the studios of those artists^ much in 
the same manner as sculptors are accustomed to 
collect specimens of ancient marbles, however in- 
ferior, as advantageous in the pursuit of their art. 
Such is the influence of a great master's reputation, 
and the maxims of a flourishing epoch, in the es- 
timation of an artist's merit. Doubts have been 
started as to his real name, although in the Ne- 
crologio of S. Pantaleone he is expressly called 
Polidoro Pittore. This supposition appears to 
have arisen from a little oblong painting, in the 
style of Polidoro's Madonnas, preserved by the 
noble Casa Pisani, where is formed so valuable a 
collection of monuments and books. The painter's 
name affixed to it, is '' Gregorius Porideus;" but 
whatever resemblance we trace in the two names, 
it is not sufl&cient to mark Polidoro for the author 
of that piece, most probably the production of one 
of Titian's imitators, whose name is fallen with 
many others of an inferior class, into oblivion. 
We must not, however, include that of Gio. Silvio, 
a Venetian, which, omitted in the history of his 
native place, still vindicates its title to notice, by 
numerous works dispersed throughout the state of 
Trevigi, and a very elegant altar-piece, ej^ecuted 
for the collegiate church of Piove di Sacco, a mu- 
nicipality of the Padovano. It represents San Mar- 
tino in his episcopal chair, between the two Apostles 
Peter and Paul ; three angels form the accessaries, 
two in the act of raising his pastoral staff, and the 



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158 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

third playing upon a harp, at the foot of the throne^ 
extremely graceful, like the rest, and displaying a 
d^ree of taste and nature, such as we find in 
Titiiui. If we cannot then adduce authority sufl&- 
cient to prove that Silvio was his schdUr, it may, 
at least, from sudi a specimen, be strongly sus- 
pected. 

I am ittd^ted to Sig. Ab, Mordii, who in the 
NQtizia already cited, has pointed out the true 
birth-place of Bonifazio Veneziano, who appearfi, 
Botwithstaiiding the authority of Vasari, Ridolfi, 
and Zanetti, to have been a native of Verona, not of 
Venice. He is pronounced by Eidolfi a pupil of 
Palma, and by Boschini, on the other hand, the 
disciple of Titian, whom he followed as closely as 
lus shadow. It was an usual observation, during 
the time of Boschini, and yet repeated indeed^ in 
regard to certain doubtful pieces s is it a Titian or 
a Bonifazio ? He approached nearest, perhaps, to 
Vecellio, in his Supper of our ho^ pre^serred in 
the moxiastery of the Cerjtosa. Foar the most part 
he boasts a freedom^ a spirit, Aod grandeur of 
band, peculiarly Ms ; although it is Jmown that he 
greatly admired the vigour of Criorgione, the d#- 
cate taste of Palma^ and the attitude and c<mipo- 
sition of Titian. The mmt of this professor of 
the art was early appreciated, and historians have 
often observed that the three most distinguished 
artists of that period were Titian, Palma, and 
Bonifazio. Public edifices abound with his pro- 
ductions, and the ducal palace, among other of his 



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EPOCH 11. ' 159 

historical pieces^ boasts that grand Expulsion of the 
money-dealers from the Temple, which, for the 
number of the figures, for its spirit, and power of 
colouring, as well as for its fine perspective, is 
enough to render his name immortal. A more 
than mortal air of divinity shines in the counte- 
nance of the Redeemer, who, alone and unsupport- 
ed, throws consternation into a crowd of people 
intent upon their worldly interests, and with a 
mere scourge of ropes, from which they fly in the 
utmost terror. And how anxiously is some wretch 
seen collecting his money upon those tables glitter- 
ing with silver and gold ; and with what dread he 
looks back, in order that he may escape from the 
blows! What an expression of alarm is seen in 
the countenance of each spectator ; women, boys, 
people t)f every rank, terrified at the strang^iess 
of the spectacle ! This noble picture was present- 
ed to the public collection, not long ago, by the 
family of the Contarini; and for this reason we fijid 
no notice taken of it in the work of Zanetti. Other 
paintings might be mentioned upon a grand scale> 
and rich in figures, adapted for private coHections; 
the most celebrated, perhaps, of which are his se- 
ries of Triumphs, taken from Petrardh; pieces that 
have since passed iato England. He likewise em- 
][doyed himself upon pictures of a t^naller size, 
rarely, however, to be met with. One of these, a 
Holy Family at Rome, is in possession of Prince 
Rezzonieo. The scene represents the workshop 
of S. Joseph, where he is seen reposing, while the 



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160 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Virgin is intent upon her domestic duties, and a 
group of angels surrounds the infant Jesus, who is 
playing with the instruments of the saint's occupa- 
tion. One of these is employed in placing two pieces 
of wood in the form of a cross, an idea frequently 
imitated by Albano. It is worth observation that 
Orlandi and other writers have confounded this 
. artist with Bonifazio Bembo, many years anterior 
to him, and bom at Cremona. The resemblance 
of names has likewise misled a more recent author 
in regard to another Venetian painter, mistaken 
for a native of Lucca. He painted a virgin with 
four saints for San Francesco, at Padua ; a piece 
between the style of the moderns and the Bellini, 
to which is affixed the name Paulus Pinus Ven. 
1566. And in the castle of Noale, in the state of 
Trevigi, he adorned with historical figures, adapted 
to the place, the public gallery, both interior and 
exterior, near which the judge is accustomed to 
hear cases and decide difierences. Whoever is 
acquainted with the " Dialogue upon Painting,*' 
published by this professor .at Venice as early as 
1548, where, in the dedication, he professes him- 
self a Venetian, and whoever has seen his works 
will be in no danger of confounding him with Paul 
Pini, of Lucca, of the Caracci School, whom we 
shall meet with beyond the precincts of his native 
place, like numerous others of his fellow citizens. 

An imitator of Titian, in his colouring, though 
with a share of original vivacity, is Andrea Schia- 
vone, of Sebenico, surnamed Medula. Few artists 



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EPOCHS 161 

have SO early evinced a decided taste for their pro- 
fession, of which it is said his father hecame aware 
when accompanying him through the city, yet 
a child, in order to fix upon his future destination. 
Ohserving him highly entertained with produc- 
tions of the art, he instantly applied to the artists, 
and devoted him to the profession^ But fortune 
was not favourable to him, and he became com- 
pelled, by penury, to obtain a subsistence rather 
as a daily hireling, than as an artist. Hence it 
was, that,, destitute of a knowledge of design, he 
was obliged to paint, meeting with no other pa- 
trons than some master muratore, or wall-painter, 
who had it in his power to recommend him for the 
fa9ades, or some painter of household articled to em- 
ploy him as an assistant. Titian conferred upon 
him some degree of credit, by proposing him, along 
with others, for ornamenting the library of S: Mark, 
where he worked more correctly, perhaps, than in 
anyother place. Tintoret, al^o, did him justice, 
often aiding him in his labours, to observe the ar- 
tifice of his colotiring; and even^ gave one of his 
pictures a placie in his own studio, observing that 
it would be well if every other artist would follow 
his example, though he would do ill not to design 
better than his model Mdreovei* he wished to 
imitate him, and placed an altar-piece at the 
chtirch of the Carfiaini, so much resemblii% his 
style, that Yasari pronounced it to be the work of 
Schiavone. Yet the same historian held him in 
such sUght esteem, as to say thart it was only by 

VOL. III. M 



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162 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

mistake that he occanonally produced a good piece; 
a sentence severely criticised by Agostin Caracci, 
as we gather from Bottari^ in his " Life of Franco." 
And, in truth, except for design, the whole compo- 
sition of Schiavone is highly commendable; spirit- 
ed in his attitudes, drawn from the engravings of 
Parmigianino ; his colours, approaching to the 
sweetness of Andrea dd Sarto, beautiful ; and his 
hand altogether that of a great master. His fame 
increased after his death, and his paintings, for the 
most part, of a mythological character, were re^ 
moved from the chests and benches to adorn the 
cabinets of connoisseurs. Guarienti eite» three 
of these in the collection at Dresden, and Rosa 
four, in the Cesarean one of Vienna. I have seen 
several very graceful specimens in the Casa Fisani, 
at San Stefano, and almost in every other gallery 
in Venice. In Rimini, also, I saw two of his pic^ 
tures, painted as companions^ at the Padri Teatini ^ 
the Nativity of our Lord, and the Assumption of 
the Virgin, small figures upon the Poussin scale^ 
and among the most beautiful he ever drew. Santo 
Zago, and Orazio da Castelfranco, called dal Parar 
diso, are known for a very few works in fresco, 
but too well executed to be here omitted. Cesate 
da Conegliano, also, is the author of a single altfir- 
piece, at the Santi Apostoli, of the same place^ 
which represents our Lord's Supper, and sufficient 
of itself to place him near Bonifazio, and the best 
of that class. 

Vasari who has omitted some of the preceding,. 



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EPOCH n. 163 

ttrioe makes honourable mention of Gio. Calker^ 
0r Calcar, as it is written by others^ an excellent 
poftf ait painter, of Flemish extraction. He was 
also a good painter, both of small and large figures, 
several of which, according to Sandrart, have been 
sittribnted to Titian; and others, when he changed 
his mannefr, to Rafiaello^ He died yoimg, in 1546, 
at Naples. Treating of Dietrico Barent, in Ve- 
nice known by the name of Sordo Barent, Baldi- 
nvLdci supposes him to have beenf Titian's pupil, 
by whom he Was regarded as his son. To these 
Ridolfi afdds three excellent foreigners, one Lam- 
berto, a^GferBtttof,* who is supposed thte Lombardo, 
or Sisstertti«is», who gave assiiStance in their land- 
scapes alternately to Titian and to Tintor^, afnd 
left a very beautiftil picture of San Girolam^; at 

* Lamberto Lombardo, of Liege, is the artist whose life was 
wiitten in Latid, by his dtsciple Golzib, a work edited in Bruges* 
i^ 1565. lA his youth he adopted the surname of Suterman; or 
Susterttian, in the Latin tongue Suavis, and having likewise 
been an excellent engraver, his signature was sometimes L. L., 
at others, L. S. The whole of this account is to be met with in 
OHandi, and otlier books. 1^et Orlandi and the new Guide of 
Paduft, acknowledge another Lamberti, also sumamed Suster, 
upon the authority of Sandrart, who mentions htm, p. !224. Ac- 
cording to Orlandi, this artist was the assistant to Titian and Tin- 
toret, by whom he is first recordied as Lamberto Suster, and again 
as Lamberto Tedesco. The same author mentions a f'ederigo 
di Lamberto, whose name occurs, in bur first volume, (p. 26^)^ ' 
likewise called del Padovano and Sustris, certainly from Suster, 
for which see Vasari and his annotatolis. These Lamb^rti, 
foudded upon the diversity between the Liege and Grerman 
names of Susterman and Suster, ifeceived upon the' authority of 
Sandrart, not always very critical, are, I have reason to think, 

M 2 



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164 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

the Teresiani^ in Padua ; the others were Cristo- 
foro Scuarz^ and one Eitianuel^ a German. These, 
like many others, resorting to Titian for instruc- 
tion, on their return to their native place intro- 
duced a taste for the Venetian School ; and there 
continued to flourish. He must have presented 
more disciples to Spain, when being invited by 
Charles V. he removed to his court, and founded 
in his dominions a school, which acquired and 
continued to boast of excellent artists, particularly 
in point of colouring. One Don Paolo de las 
Roelas is mentioned by Preziado, who, in mature 
age, became a priest and canon. There is a grand 
picture from his hand in the parochial church of 
San Isidoro, at Seville, representing the death of 
the bishop. The style is altogether that of Titian, 
though he could not have been his disciple, if he 
was, indeed, born in 1560, when that artist was no 
longer in Spain. But in regard to foreigners, it is 
enough to have alluded to them in a history of Ita- 
lians; and we must return to those natives of Italy, 
in particular of the state of Venice, who are esteem- 
ed among Titian's imitators. We may begin with 
the Friuli ; although, the school of the great Porde- 
none there holding the sway, the genuine followers 
of Titian, excepting the Cadorini already men- 
tioned, are very few and almost forgotten in history. 

oae and the same artist. For in Venice one Lamberto only is 
alluded to by Ridolfi, Boschini, and Zanetti, without a surname, 
butby the last held to be the same as Lombardo; and what 
signifies it, whether he was called Suster or Susterman,* of 6er« 
many, or of liege, in Italy. 



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EPOCH II. 165 

Among others of Friuli, Ridolfi mentions a Gas- 
pero Nerveda, who painted at Spilimbergo^ an4 
calls him Titian's scholar. No genuine picture of 
his, however, is pointed out, though Father Fede- 
rici discovered one at Trevigi. The same author 
likewise extols Irene de' Signori di Spilimbergo, a 
lady of singular accomplishments, highly celebrat- 
ed by the poets of the fifteenth century. She left 
behind her three little pictures of sacred histories, 
preserved by the noble family of Maniago, and 
which are stiU to be seen at the house of Conte 
Fabio, equally distinguished for his acquaintance 
with science and with art. They display but little 
skill in the design, though they are coloured with 
a degree of masterly power, not unworthy the first 
artist of the happiest period. A Bacchanal, by the 
same hand, is at Monte Albodo, in possession of 
the Claudj family. Titian look the portrait of this 
lady, being known to be extremely intimate with 
her family ; and for this reason it is believed that 
he must have had some share in the pictorial edu- 
cation of the fair artist. 

Lodovico Fumicelli was an artist of Trevigi, 
reported to have been a pupil of Titian. At all 
events he was one of his most distinguished imita- 
tors. One of his pieces, adorning the great altar 
of the church of the Eremitani, at Padua, displays 
both the design and colouring of a great master. 
His native place can boast works that have been 
equally extolled. It is mortifying then to recall to 
mind that he abandoned his profession for the art 



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166 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

^f fortification. Chie of his assistants/ in Ti^evigi, 
was Francesco Dominici^ wbo maybe said to riv^l 
him in the cathedral of the city^ in those two pro- 
cessions which they painted^ opposite to each 
other. This young artist^ of great promise, espe- 
cially in portraits, produced little, being cut off in 
the flower of his days. With pleasure I annex to 
these a friend of Paolo, and excellent pupil of 
Titian's, whom, in some things, he imitated ; but 
who has been erroneously denominated by histo- 
nai^s :* my information respecting him, as well as 
other artists of Castelfranco, has been obtained 
from a MS. communicated to me by the learned 
Dottore Trevisani.f He took the name of Gio. 
Batista Ponchino, and the surname of Bozzato, a 
city of his native place, whe^re several of his paint- 
ings in fresco still exist, together with his cele- 
brated piece of the Limbo, J in San Liberale, the 
finest, if we except the works of Giorgione, which 

* He is called by Vasari, Zanetti, and Guarienti, Bazzacco 
and Brazzacco da Castelfranco, and Guarienti makes him a 
scholar of Badile. 

t They cqnsist only of a few pages relatipg to the painters of 
Castelfranco. I cannot explain why Padre Fedeqci (Pref. p. VJ) 
supposes that I should have announced this as the MS, Mel- 
chiori, although Sig. Trevisani may have drawn various noti- 
ces from that quarter. 

X Padre Coronelli, in his Travels in England, (part i. p. 66), 
ascribes this picture to Paul Veronese, a mistake ^at is chared 
up by the tenor of the contract, preserved in the archives of San 
liberale. He adds that the picture contained a number of naked 
figures, to which draperies were afterwards adapted by another 
hand — an assertion wholly groundless. 



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EPOCH II. 167 

that city has to Ibotat^ and it is greatly admired by 
strangers. He painted also at Venice and V icenza^ 
during the lifetime of his consort, a daughter of 
Dario Varotari ; but on her death he assumed the 
ecclesiastical habit, nor interested himself much in 
his art. 

Padua boasted two noble scholars from the hand 
of Titian ; Damiano Mazza, and Domenico Cam-^ 
pagnola. The former, however, was rather pro- 
mised than conferred upon us ; dying yery young, 
after producing a single piece deserving of com- 
memoration, in his native place. This was a 
Ganymede borne away by the Eagle, depicted 
on an entablature, which, for its exquisite beau- 
ty, was attributed to the hand of Titian, and re- 
moved from the place. Venice must have been 
his sphere of action ; a few of his pictures remain- 
ing in different churches, executed with striking 
power and relief, if not with much delicacy of hand. 
The other artist is better known, said to have been 
of the family of Campagnola^ though with no 
authority for the assertion. He was nephew to 
the Girolamo mentioned by Vasari among the 
disciples of Squarcione, and son to that Oitilio,* 
whose genius is commended in the Literary His- 
tory of Tiraboschi, (vol. vi. p. 782) and in the Sloria 
Pitt&rica of Vasari. He Mjas a fine linguist, minia- 
ture-painter, and engraver, and 4i^ author of several 

* la a MS. by a contemporary author cited in the new Guide 
of Padua, he is called Domenico Veneziano, educated by Julio 
Gampaguola. 



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168 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

altar-pieces; which betray some traces: of the an- 
cient style. Domenico's appears more modern, so 
much so, as to have awakened, it is said, the jea- 
lousy of Titian ; an honour he enjoyed in common 
with Bordone, with Tintoret, and other rare ar- 
tists. And his works give authority to the tra- 
dition, not so much in Venice as, in Padua, a city 
for whose embellishment he would appear to have 
risen up. He painted in fresco, at the college of 
the Santo, In the style of an able scholar, emulating 
an incomparable master of his art. His pictures jn 
oil resemble him the nearest of any, as we see in the 
college of S. M. del Parto, a complete cabinet of his 
works. He represented on the entablature, theHoly 
Evangelists, with other saints, in various compart- 
ments.; and he. seems to have aspired to a vastness 
of design, beyond that Qf Titian; and to mark the 
naked parts with a.more evident degree of artifice. 
Contemporary with Campagnola, though scarce- 
ly heard of beyond Padua, were Gualtieri, one of 
his relatives, and a Stefano del Arzere, who, in his 
picture of Christ upon the Cross, at San Giovanni 
di Verzara, appears ambitious, however rudely> of 
imitating Titian. Both were, nevertheless, esteem- 
ed by Ridolfi for their paintings in fresco, and both, 
together with Domenico, were employed in orna- 
menting a large hall, representing the figures, of 
emperors and illustrious characters, upon nearly ^a 
colossal scale. For this reason it was denominat- 
ed the Sala de' Giganti, afterwards converted into 
a public library. These figures are, for the most 



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EPOCH 11. 169 

party of an ideal cast, various in point of design^ in 
some dignified, in others heavy. The antique caj^^ 
tume is. not always strictly observed, but the co- 
louring is rich and of a fine chiaroscuro, and it 
would be difficult to find in all Italy a piece which 
appears to have suffered less from time. Niccolo 
Frangipane is supposed to have been a Paduan, 
though his birth-place is disputed,* and he is not 
mentioned by Ridolfi. Still he may be esteemed 
worthy of being recorded for his exquisite style as 
a naturalist, in which he painted his picture of the 
Assumption, at the Conventuali, in Rimini, dated 
1565, and a half-length figure of San Francesco, 
with that of 1588, at S. Bartolommeo, in Padua. 
A picture also of San Stefano is attributed to him 
by the Guide of Pesaro, though his genius was 
more adapted to burlesques, several specimens of 
which are yet in the possession of private individuals. 

♦ Thus stated in the Lettere Pittoriche, vol. i. p. 248. Recent 
writers of Friuli make him a native of XJdihe, a modern suppo- 
sition, inasmuch as Grasisi, a very diligent correspondent of 
Vasari, would hardly have been silent upon such a name. It 
took its. rise, most likely, from the existence of a noble family of 
the same surname, in Udine, and from three of the artist's pic- 
tures having been discovered in the same place, one with the 
date 1595. Yet none are to be seen at Casa Frangipane, a cir- 
cumstance very unusual in regard to excellent artists. We must 
look, therefore, for other proofs before we; can pronounce him a 
native of Udine, and before we can assent to the conjecture of Rl- 
naldis, who would admit two artists of the name of Niccolo 
Frangipane, the one a painter by profession, and the other a di- 
lettante ; and yet contemporaries, as appears from the authority 
of the dates of the pictures, already referred to. 



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170 VBNBTIAN SCHOOL. 

y icenza boasts the name of Giambatista Magan- 
za^the head of a family of artists^ who long devoted 
themselves^ both in public and private^ to the or- 
nament of their native province. His descendants, 
however, adopted various styles, as we «hall see, 
while Giambatista was only ambitious of treading 
in the steps of Titian, his master, which he did 
with success. He was an excellent portrait painter, 
and also left several works of pure invention at Yi- 
cenza, in which he displayed the same easy genius 
as in his poetry. He wrote in the rustic idiom of 
Padua, under the name of Magagnd, while such 
contemporaries as Sperone, Trissino, Tasso, and 
other celebrated wits, not ignorant of the dialect, 
applauded the excellence of his rude and sylvan 
strains. Giuseppe Scolari was an artist, supposed 
by most to have been a native of Vicenza, though 
referred by the Cavalier Pozzo to Verona. A pu- 
pil of Maganza, he excelled in works in fresco, and 
in chiaroscuro, enlivened by certain yellow tints, 
at that period in great vogue. He was a good 
designer, which appears from his works, both in 
Vicenza and Verona ; and he likewise produced 
several large pictures in oil at Venice, much com- 
mended by Zanetti. Possibly another disciple of 
Maganza, from the period at which he flourished, 
was Gio. de Mio of Vicenza, an artist who com- 
peted with Schiavone, Porta, Zelotti, Franco, and 
with Paul Veronese himself, in the library of S. 
Mark, though history makes no mention of his 
master any more than of Mio; if, indeed, he should 



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BFOCH II. 171 

pot ibp thesam^ as Fratina, recorded by Ridolfi, a» 
Qxm of the assistants in ornamenting the library. 
The name of Gio. de Mio wa* met with in one of 
j^e archives, and Fratina was possibly his surname. 
; Ampng the Veronese disciples of Titian, we 
have tp mention Brusasorei, and, according to 
^ome writers, also Farinato. Both at least visited 
Venice, either for the purpose of studying his 
works, or in his school. Zelotti has been pro* 
nounced in more open terms the scholar of Titian. 
But of these and other distinguii^ed artists of 
Verona, it will be preferable to give the reader some 
account when treating on the merits of Paul Galiari, 
a plan that will bring under immediate view the 
state of that noble school during its most flourish- 
ing period. 

About the same time several Brescian artists 
greatly distinguished themselves, although too little 
known for want of enjoying a metropolitan city 
for their sphere of action. Luoa 8ebastiano, an 
Aragonese, who died towards the close of the six- 
teenth century, was celebrated, we are told, rather 
as a fine designer than a painter. An altar-piece 
with the initial letters L. S. A. has been attribut- 
ed to his hand. It is the Saviour represented be- 
tween two saints, the composition of which is 
common ; the foldings of the drapery want soft- 
ness; but the figures, the colours, and the attitudes 
are excellent. I apprehend that, however learned in 
his art, he would have been anxious to avoid com- 
petition with the two celebrated citizens, of whom 



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172 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

we shall now give some description. The first is 
Alessandro Bonvicino^ commonly called Moretto 
of Brescia, who was among the earliest of Titi- 
an's school, to introduce his master's whole style 
of composition into his liative district. This is 
clearly seen in his picture of S. Niccolo, painted 
in 1532 for the Madonna de' Miracoli, in which 
he depicted several figures of children, and of a 
man presenting them to the saint ; portraits in 
Titian's best manner. Subsequently attracted by 
the composition of RaffaeUo, as exhibited in some 
pictures and engravings, he changed his style, 
adopting one altogether new, and so rich in its 
attractions, that many dilettanti have gone out of 
their way, and visited Brescia, for the sole purpose 
of feasting their eyes with them. The manner of 
Rafiaello may be as strongly traced as we can ima- 
gine possible for a painter who had never seen 
Rome; we meet with graceful features, elegant 
proportions, if they do not sometimes appear too 
slender ; accuracy in the attitudes and expression, 
which, in his sacred subjects, display, as it were, 
the peculiar feeling of remorse, of pity, and even 
of charity itself. The drapery is diversified, but 
not sufficiently select, while all the accessaries of 
the perspective and other embellishments are as 
splendid as in any Venetian artist, although not la- 
vished with so much profusion ; and he displays an 
exact, diligent, and delicate hand, which appears, 
to use a modern expression often applied, to write 
what it paints. In regard to . colouring, Moretto 



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EPOCH II. 173 

pursued a method^ which surprises by its com- 
bined novelty and effect. Its chief characteristic 
consists of a very beautiful play of light and sha- 
dow^ not disposed in great masses^ but finely tem- 
pered and contrasted with each other.. The same 
degree of art he applies both to his figures and 
his skies^ where he sometimes depicts, clouds 
whose colours are contrasted in a similar way. For 
the most part his grounds are clear and bright, 
from which the figures seem to rise with admirable 
relief His fleshy parts often remind, us of the 
freshness of Titian's ; in his tints, moreover, he is 
more varied than the. latter, or. any other of the 
Venetians. Little azure app<ears in his draperies, 
the. union of reds and yellows in a picture having 
been apparently more to his taste. . It is the same 
with, other colours, a circumstance I have noticed 
in some of his contemporaries,, both of Brescia and 
Bergamo. .Vasari, who has recorded his name, 
along with that of many other Brescian artists, in 
his life of Carpi, commends him for his skill in 
imitatmg every kind of. velvet, satin, or other cloth, 
either of gold or silver ; but as he did not see, or 
failed to commemorate, some of his choicest works, 
he has by no means done justice to his character. 
Moretto produced some works in freijco, though, 
if I mistake not, he coloured better in oils; as is 
the case where diligence and depth of parts are not 
equally matched with pictorial rapidity and fire. He 
employed himself a good deal in his native province 
and the adjacent parts, in general distinguishing 



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174 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

himself more by his delicacy than by his gtandeur 
of band. A fine specimen of thi» last, bcwevei-y 
may be^ seen in his terrific picture of Elias, placed 
in tbe old cathedrals He was intimate with all the 
best methods at his art ; but he did not always 
caure to practise them.' His picture of S. Lucia, iit 
the church of S. Clemente^ is not so much studied a» 
that of S. Catherine^ and even this yields tobi^paint-^ 
ing of the great altar, represemting our Lady in tbe 
atr, with the titular and other saints seen below. 
The composition is conducted in every part tviffa 
exquisite taste^and liie piece is considered one of 
the best the city has to boast. An altar-piece, con-' 
^sting of various saints at 8u Andrieia^ in Bergamo, 
another at S. Giorgia, m Verona, with the Fall of 
S^. Paul, at Milan, with which last he ap^p^ars to 
ha^ been so» moch pleased, as to subscribe,*whldi^ 
wa«i very unusual with him, has nafme--«are all like(* 
wise tf the mfost finished composition. He was^ 
esteemed excellent m pertrsift, and educated for 
this branch of art Gio. Batista Moroni. 

This last was a native of Aibinoyiuthe territory 
of Bergamo, where he ptt)dnced, both foir the- city 
and tbe state, a variety of altar ani hii^ory pieces, 
which he continued tO' saipf)ily from early youth, 
until within a few months of his deceats^. So much 
has been made out, from? attfrhentic documents, 
by theConte Tassi, who brought forward along 
series of his- noMie compositions. This artist i^ 
not, however, at all comparable to his master in 
point of invention, of compositfcm, or design ; 



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EPOCH 11. 176 

which last sometimes betrays a dryness approach- 
ing that of the quattrocetUisti. Pasta notices the 
same defect^ in his Incoronazione of our Lord 
at the Trinity, although very finely coloured^ and a 
work equalling any of his others in point of merit. 
For the rest, it is certain that no artist of the Ve- 
netian School, besides Titian, has excelled him in 
the truth and nature of his portraits, and in the 
life and spirit of his heads, insomuch that Titian 
was in the habit of recommending him to the go- 
vernors of Bergamo, as the best faee-painter he 
could offer them. There exist specimens in the 
Carrara collection, in possession of the Ckmti 
Spini, and in other noble houses, which stiU ap- 
pear to breathe and live; the drapery is in the 
Titian manner, and if any thing can be said to be 
wanting, it is a greater degree of mastery in the 
design and attitude of the hands. 
* Francesco Ricchino, of Brescia, i/s another name 
deserving of record among the better disciples of 
Moretto, even in point of colouring. He was de- 
sirous, however, from what we learn from his piecess 
at San Pietro in Oliveto, of extracting improve- 
ment from the pictures, or at least from the en- 
gravings of Titian. Luca Mombelli followed him 
in some of his earliest works, until giving into toor 
great delicacy of manner, his productions became 
somewhat feeble and tame. Girolamo Rossi, an- 
other pupil or imitator, has, if I mistake not, bet- 
ter displayed his master's manner than any other, 
particularly in an altar-piece, placed at San Ales- 



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176 VENETIAI^ SCHOOL. 

sandro, representing the Virgin between various; 
saints. Bagnatore was also a good copyist of the 
same style, an artist who, in his Slaughter of the 
Innocents, subscribes his name Balneator, and 
who, if not displaying great power, is nevertheless 
judicious, correct, and sober in his works in oil; 
and he was one to whom was committed by public 
order the task of copying a picture by Moretto. 

Contemporary with Moretto flourished Roma- 
nino, of Brescia, about the year 1540 ; the same 
who in S. Giustina at Padua subscribes his name 
Hieronymus Kumanus. He was the rival of Bon- 
vicino, inferior to him in the opinion of Vasltri, but 
his equal according to Ridolfi. And truly it would 
appear that he surpassed him in genius and bold- 
ness of hand ; but could boast neither the same 
taste nor diligence, several of his works appearing 
to be executed with a hasty pencil. Still he in 
general displays the qualities of a great master, 
both in his altar-pieces and his histories, to say 
nothing of his burlesque compositions. The same 
character he maintained at Verona, where he paint- 
ed the martyrdom of the titular saint, at S. Giorgio, 
in four large pictures abounding with great variety 
of figures, some of the most spirited, and the most 
terrible, in the executioners, that I ever saw. The 
same richness of invention, accompanied even 
with more select forms, is displayed in his altar- 
piece of the Holy Virgin in Calcara, at Brescia, in 
which he represented the bishop, S. Apollonio, ad- 
ministering the Eucharist to the crowd. It is a 



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EPOCH ir. 177 

work altogether charming, the splendour of the 
place, and of the sacred vessels ; the religious as- 
pect of the prelate, of the Levites, and of the 
people ; the great variety of features and of rank ; 
so many singular pictorial beauties are all placed 
within the limits of propriety and truth. Less 
full, but no less perfect, is his Descent of Christ 
from the Cross, at SS. Faustino and Giovita, a 
piece commended by Palma for its extreme re- 
semblance to the Venetian style, most probably 
alluding to that of Titian, although in some other 
works he very strongly resembles Bassano. Titian, 
however, would appear to have been his model, 
to which he wholly devoted himself; whether he 
acquired so high a regard for him from his own 
master, Stefano Rizzi, an artist of mediocrity, or 
despairing of forming a new style, like his rival, 
he was in hopes of surpassing him by such means. 
And, in fact, he still retains admirers in those 
parts, who prefer him to Moretto, as well for gran- 
deur of composition and energy of expression, as 
for a capacity of genius ihat embraced every va- 
riety of subject. 

Girolamo Muziano acquired the art of design 
from Romanino^ and taking his style of colouring 
from the works of Titian, he subsequently flou- 
rished at Rome, in which school he has been 
already mentioned. In this place we must include 
Lattanzio Gambara, the pupil and companion of 
Romanino, as well as his son-in-law, at least if we 
are to credit Ridolfi and other writers, in this last 

VOL. III. N 



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178 YSNETIAK 8GH00L. 

point eanctioned by the popular traditionof Bresdar. 
y asari aloue^ who resided in hia house only a short 
time before he gave some account of him, observes 
that he was son-iu-Iaw to Bonvicino, a point in 
which his memory, doubtless, betrayed him. Lat- 
tanzio was not inferior to his master in spirit, and, 
at the same time^ better instructed in the rules of 
the art, and more learned. Having attended the 
academy of Campi, in Cremona, until his eigh* 
teenth year, and cultivate an acquaintance with 
the best foreign masters that he always retained, 
he added to this knowledge all the richest Mid 
most tasteful colours of the Venetian School Like 
Pordenone, he employed his talents, for the mosi 
part, in frescos, which are still to be seen at Ve- 
nice, as well as within and without the confineaof 
the state. His manner, however, waa less strcmg^ 
and shaded, but in other points much iesemblu% 
him in the beauty and variety of his forms, variously 
coloured according to his subjects ; in his know- 
ledge of anatomy, without affectation, spirifted 
attitudes, difficult foreshorteniqgs; in a relief that 
deceives the eye, and in novelty and play of inven- 
tion. To these we may add ev^Ei a greater pro- 
priety of ideas, and sweetness of tints, acquired 
from other schods; Lattanzio having studied 
Giulio Romano at Mantua, and Coreggio in Par- 
ma. In the Gorso de' Ramai, at Brescia, there 
yet remain three facades, adorned with various 
histories and fables, truly beautiful, executed by 
his han^. They are not, however, so imposing 



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SPOGB n. 179 

as some of hk scripturftl pieces, to be seen in stffl 
better preservation in the cloister of Su Euphenna, 
engravings of which have been promised to the 
public. The spectator often recurs to them, and 
always with fresh pleasure. When for want of 
space the figures could not be put in an upright 
posture, he foreshortened them with admirable na- 
ture and facility, so that no other attitudes could 
be imagined so becoming to each figure* Profes- 
sors have detected some degree of imperfection m 
the naked parts, very cimnnon, indeed, to the most 
celebrated painters of frescos ; but it is such as 
cannot be perceived at a distance, or if seen, 
resembles only some false quantity in a good 
poet, easily to be pardoned in the number of 
poetical beauties with which his verses abound. 
He painted still more copious histories for the 
cathedral at Parma, containing, perhaps, his 
greatest and most studied production, and which 
fails not to please, even in the presence of those of 
Cbreggio. There are several altar-pieces l&ewise 
in oil at San Benedetto, in Mantua, all of which 
are not equaly happy. A Nativity of our Lord, 
at SS. Faustino and Giovita, is his only picture 
in oil remaining at his native place in public; it 
is very graceful, displaying certain traits of the 
Rafl^ello manner. His picture of a Pifet^, at 
San Pietro, in Cremona, is also highly esteened 
by professors, one among whom, who had design- 
ed a good deal from the works of Lattanzio, de- 

N 2 



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180 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Glared to me that he had never witnessed any other 
so exquisite in point of design^ nor coloured with 
so much delicacy, clearness, and taste and softness 
of tints. Yet this great artist only reached his 
thirty-second year, leaving in Giovita, a Brescian 
artist, (likewise called Brescianino) an excellent 
disciple, particularly of works in fresco. 

Geronimo Savoldo, sprung of a noble family in 
Brescia, flourished also about 1540, and is ranked 
by Paolo Pino among the best artists of his ajge. 
I know not where he acquired the rudiments of 
his art;.but from a specimen which I saw at Bres- 
cia, he must have possessed great accuracy and 
delicacy of hand. Upon transferring his residence 
to Venice, he is known to have become one of the 
most formidable of Titian's rivals; not, indeed, in 
works of a large scale, but in smaller pieces con- 
ducted with an exquisite degree of care, which 
may, in a manner, be said to have been his chief 
characteristic. With such as these he beguiled his 
time, presenting them gratuitously as ornaments 
for churches. He produced others for private 
persons, now extremely rare and valuable, in dif- 
ferent coUectiQns. 

Zanetti, in hi^ description of his little Presepio, 
(Christ in the manger), recently retouched, which 
is to be seen at San Giobbe, observes that the tint 
of his pictures is truly beautiful, and the whole 
composition conducted with a singular degree of 
care. In Venice, says Ridolfi, he is known by the 
name of Girolamo Bresciano, neither Romanino 



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EPOCH 11. 181 

nor Muziano having employed themselves there^ 
with whom he might possibly have been confound- 
ed. There he resided for many years, and termi- 
nated his days at the same place. His happiest 
production^ though unknown to the historian, was 
placed in the Altar-Maggiore, of the Padri Predi- 
catori^ at Pesaro, a noble piece, which produces a 
striking impression upon the eye. Our Lord is 
seen placed on high, seated upon a cloud, which ap- 
pears truly illuminated by the sun, and on the fore- 
ground are represented four saints, drawn with a, 
force of colouring that seems to bring them as near 
to the eye, as the soft colour of the perspective and 
of the upper part of the picture throws its objects 
into the distance. A small, but beautiful piece, 
in excellent preservation, is also seen in the Royal 
Gallery of Florence, exhibiting the Transfigura- 
tion of our Lord, placed there along with specimens 
of other Venetian artists, by the Cavalier Puccini, 
one who has conferred so many obligations upon 
that princely collection of art. 

Finally, after Savoldo, may be placed, among the 
Brescian disciples of Titian, Pietro Rosa, son of 
Cristoforo, and nephew to Stefano Rosa, both ex- 
cellent artists in oil. He was one of those pupils 
whom Titian, induced by the friendship he bore 
his father, instructed with most care, arid the best 
success. Hence it is, we trace that clear and true 
force of colouring, which shines in every one of 
his pieces. Brescia boasts several, at the church; 



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182 VENEtriAN S€HOOL. 

of San Francesoo^ in the Dome, and at the Grazie^ 
where such as have the fewest figures produce the 
happiest effect. In his composition he is not so 
perfect as in other parts, whether it were that he 
had not naturally the best talent for it, or, as is 
more probable, that it is a branch of the art most 
difficult to young practitioners* For he died in 
the outset of his career, at the same period as his 
&ther, in 1576, whether from the plague or from 
poison is not known. 

Although Bergamo, at that period, boasted many 
distinguished imitators of Giorgione^ it yet pro- 
duced an artist, Girolamo CoUeoni, who ought to 
be included in the present list. Some frescos from 
his hand are found at Bergamo, and an oil painting 
in the Carrara Gallery. It exhibits the marriage 
of S. Catherine, which the best judges, on a first 
view, pronounced to be the work of Titian, till 
the superscription, with the name of Hieronymus 
CoUeo, 1555, vindicated it for his own. This dis- 
tinguished artist, conscious of his merit, and not 
finding himself appreciated in his own country, 
foreign and inferior painters being preferred be- 
fore him, sought better fortune at ihe court of 
Madrid. But before setting out, he painted upon 
a facade the figure of a horse, of which great en- 
comiums, in different works, ar«e all that remain; 
and to this he affixed as a motto. Nemo propheta 
in patrid. He is known to have employed, as an 
assistant, Filippo Zandii, who, together with a 



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£POCH U. 18d 

brothet of the name of Francesco, has more re- 
cently been brought into view by Count Tassi^ 
besides some others who might here add to the 
number>but not to the eminence^of so rich a school 
An artist celebrated also by Ridolfi, ought not, in 
this place, to be omitted; the beauty of his tints, 
the design of his infant figures, and the nature (^ 
his landscape, all shewing that he aspired to the 
Titian nmnner. He painted in fresco, but pos^ 
sessed an universal genius, as has been pronoun* 
oed by Muzio, in his '' Teatro di Bergamo ;" the 
laruth of which more clearly appears frpm his own 
works. His name was Giovan^Batista Averara, 
and he died young about the middle of the most 
flourishing period of the art. Another artist 
deserving commemoration is Francesco Terzi> 
who long resided at the Austrian court, and is dis- 
tinguished in most of the capitals of Italy for 
works he has there left. He has been mentioned 
by Lomaz2o, in whose native place are still seen, 
at San Sempliciano, two noble histories, repre- 
senting our Lord with his Apostles, somewhat dry 
in point of design, but bold in colouring. 

In Gio. da Monte, Crema boasted a disciple of 
Titian, as he is described by Torre, who numbers 
him among the more distinguished artists who 
ornamented Milan. A grade, executed by him in 
chiaroscuro for an altar of 3anta Maria, at San Cel- 
so, where he ought also to have painted the altar- 
piece, obtained for him a high reputation; but he 



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184 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

was deprived of the altar-piece^ owing to the in- 
trigues of Antonio Campi.* The work of Campi 
still remains there, and the opinion is that though 
it was paid for at a higher rate than the grado 
itself, it is yet a work of inferior merit to that of 
Giovanni, which much resembles Polidoro da Ca- 
ravaggio, giving rise to a suspicion that AureKo 
Buso, of Cremona, a scholar and assistant of Poli- 
doro's, in Rome, may have been the only, or at least 
the earliest master of Giovanni. We know froni 
Ridolfi that Buso produced various histories, in 
his native place, in the manner of his master, and 
historians of Genoese art record other works from 
his hand in their city. They assert that he de- 
parted thence unexpectedly, while Ridolfi con- 
cludes his life, by saying, that notwithstanding his 
worth, he died in poverty. From the period in 
which he flourished, he might possibly have been 
the master of Gio. da Monte, no less than Titian. 
Callisto Piazza is likewise announced, by Orlan- 
di, as another imitator of the latter, which is very 
evident from his picture of the Assumption, in the 
collegiate church of Codogno. It contains figures 
of apostles, and two portraits of the Marchesi 
Trivulzi,not unworthy of any of Titian's disci- 
ples. And for such, indeed, was Callisto esteemed, 
both elsewhere and in Lodi, possessing, in the 

* This fact cannot easily be refuted, in the manner attempted 
by Zaist, in his '' Historical Notices of the Cremonese Paintevs/' 
with true party zeal, p. 162. (See the New Guide of Milan, 
p. 139.) 



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EPOCH II. 185 

church of the Incoronata^ three chapels^ each or- 
namented with four of his very beautiful histories. 
One of these contains^ the mysteries of the Pas- 
sion, another the acts of S. John the Baptist, and 
the third displays histories in the life of the Virgin. 
A report is current there, that Titian, in passing 
through Lodi, produced several heads, probably 
only a story originating in the exceeding beauty 
that may be observed in some. It appears, how- 
ever, certain, that he also imitated Giorgione, in 
whose style he conducted his altar-piece, represent- 
ing the Virgin between various saints, at San 
Francesco, in Brescia, esteemed one of the most 
beautiful in the whole, city. He produced others 
for Brescia, for Crema, for the dome of Alessandria, 
and for Lodi, though in this last he succeeded 
better in fresco than in oil. From the circum- 
stance of his residing in so many different places, 
I shall not refer him to the school of Milan, pre- 
ferring to place him here, no less because of the 
vicinity of Crema to Lodi, than from his belonging 
to the list of the imitators of Titian.* Little justice 
has been done to the memory of such a man by 
Ridolfi, who commends him for nothing besides his 
colouring in fresco, and water-colours ; when, in 
fact, he boasts very noble design, and forms tole- 

* To these the name of Francesco da Milano has recently been 
added, on the strength of an altar-piece, quite TitianesqfUs ex- 
hibited with his name in the parish church of Soligo, to which is 
added the date of 1540:^time may probably clear up the mys- 
tery of this. 



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ISC VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

rablj iselect, more particularly in the Assumption 
already inentione<L Moreover^ he calls him Cal^ 
listo da Lodi Bresciano^ as if da Lodi were a 
family name ; although in s^ing his own name, 
he gave it CaJUxtus de Platea, at the Incoronata, 
and elsewhere desirous of marking his country, 
Qdlixtus Laudensis. Ridolfi, too, says little or 
nothing of the period in which he flourished. 
Padre Orlandi found, a£Qtxed to one of his pic* 
tares, at Bresda, the date of 1524. I may add^ 
that in Lodi he gave the years 1527 and 1530; 
wd that, in the Nuptials of Cana, in the refec* 
tory of the Padri Cisterciensi, at Milan, he marked 
J54S. It is truly a surprising production, no less 
lor its boldness of hand than for the number of its 
figures, although the whole of them are not equally 
w^ studied, and a few, among others that seem to 
breadie and live, are really careless and incorrect.* 
He painted in the same city, within a court^yard, 
the choir of the muses, including the portraits 
of the [Mresident Sacco^ the master of the house, 
and of his wife; respecting which, writes Lomasszo, 

* He flourished several years subsequent, as appears from the 
New Milan Guide, with MS. corrections^ by Signor Bianconi, 
of which the Cavalier Lazara has a copy. He there remarks 
thatiie iiad seen in the greater monastefry, now suppressed, be* 
longing to the nuns of San Maurizio, other paintings by Piazza ; 
m Wasiiiag the Disciples' feet, io the Befectory, and the Multi- 
pUeatioa of Loayes, upon canvass. Also within the interior 
ekmrcb, among other scriptural stories in fresco, is found, the 
Adoration of the Magi, the Marriage of Cans, and the Baptism 
of Christ, bearing the date of 1656. 



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xpocH 11. 18T 

I vuLy, withoat fear of tem^ty, observe^ that it is 
impossible to produce «iy tiling more perfectijr 
graceful and pleasing, more beautiful in point of 
ccriouring, among works in fresco. {Trat. p. 598.) 
We next arrive at the name of Jacopo Robusti, 
the son of a Venetian dyer, and fbr this reason sur-^ 
named Tintoret. He was pupil to Titian, wiko^ 
jealous of his talents, soon banished him from his 
studio. He did not aspire, like the preceding 
artists, to the name of Titian's follower ; for lie 
burned with ambition to become the head of a 
new school which should carry his manner to per- 
fection, addii^ to it all that was yet wanting^ a 
vast idea, the offspring of a. grand and fervid ge- 
nius, and as bold as it was great, not even banish- 
ment from his master's school being able to dasnp 
his ardour. Constrained by circumstances to con- 
fine himself to an incommodious apartment, he 
ennobled it with specimens of his eairly studies. 
Over the door of it he wrote, *' Mich^ngiolo's de- 
sign, and the colouring of Titian ;'' and as he was 
an indefatigable imitator of the latter, so he wis 
equally studious, both niglit and day, in copying 
the models, taken firom the statues in Florence, 
bdonging to the former. To these he added 
many more of bassirilievi^ and of ancient statues. 
In a catalogue of ancient pieces of sculpture, cited 
by Morelli, and belonging to the year 1695, is re- 
corded a head of VitelUus, upon which '' ZiVi- 
toretto was alwojfs employed in designing 4md 
kaming;' (note, p, 162). He was freqtiratly in 



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188 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

the habit of designing his models by lamp-light^ 
the better to obtain strong shades^ and thus ac- 
quire skill in the use of a bold chiaroscuro. With 
the same view he wrought models in wax and 
chalky and having clothed them carefully, he adapt- 
ed them to little houses, composed of pasteboard, 
and slips of wood, supplying them through the 
windows with small lights, by which he might thus 
regulate his own lights and shades. The models 
themselves he suspended from the ceiling by cords, 
placing them in a variety of positions, and design- 
ing them from different points of view, the better 
to acquire a mastery of the sotto in sit, or fore- 
shortening on the ceiling, a science not so familiar 
to his school as to that of Lombardy. Nor did 
he neglect the study of anatomy, to obtain a tho- 
rough knowledge of the muscles, and the structure 
of the human frame. He designed also the naked 
parts, as much as possible, in various shortenings 
and attitudes, in order to render his compositions 
as diversified as nature herself. By such studies 
he prepared himself to introduce the true method 
to be pursued by his followers, beginning with de- 
signing from the best models, and having obtained 
the idea of a correct style, jproceeding to copy the 
naked parts, and to correct their defects.* To 

♦ Zanetti, p. 147. See also Ridolfi, parte ii. p. 10, where he in- 
forms us that TiDtoret, in the maturity of his powers, being em- 
ployed in painting for the church of La Trinity, Adam and Eve 
seduced by the Serpent, and the Death of Abel, " designed the 
fibres from nature, placing over them a thin veil. To which 



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EPOCH II. 189 

such aids he united a genius which extorted the ad- 
miration of Vasari, one of his severest critics, who 
pronounced it the most terriWe of which the art 
could boast — an imagination fertile in new ideas, 
and a pictorial fire which inspired him with vigour 
to conceive well the boldest character of the pas- 
sions, and continued to support him until he had 
given full expression to them on his canvass. 

Yet to what did it amount ? — what is the noblest 
genius, and all the rarest qualities meeting in a 
single artist, without diligence, a virtue which of 
itself, says Cicero, seems to include all the rest. 
Tintoretto possessed it for a period, and produced 
works in which the most captious of critics could 
not find a shade of defect. Of such kind is that 
Miracle of the Slave, adorning the college of St. 
Mark/a piece he executed in his thirty-sixth year, 
and which is held up as one of the wonders of 
Venetian art. The colours are Titian's; the chia- 
roscuro extremely strong; the composition cor- 
rect and sober ; select forms ; studied draperies ; 
while equally varied, appropriate, and animated 
beyond conception, are the attitudes of the men 
assisting at the spectacle, in particular of the 
saint who flies to succour, giving an idea of the 
swiftness of an aerial being. There, too, he 
painted other beautiful pieces, whose merit ex- 
torted from the lips of Pietro da Cortona these 
words : '^ Did I reside in Venice, not a festival 

figures he added a peculiar grace of contours, which he acquired 
from studying rilievi." 



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.190 VBN£TIAN SCHOOL. 

should pass without still resorting to this spot^ 
in order to feast my eyes with such objects, and 
above all^ with the design !" His picture of the 
Crucifixion at the college of San Rocco, is also 
esteemed a work of singular merit ; displaying as 
it does^ so much novelty upon so hackneyed a sub* 
ject. Nor are other examples of his sovereign 
power wanting in the same place^ filled with 
pictures as various as new ; but, for brevity's sake, 
I shall merely record, in the third pkce, his Sup- 
per of our Lord, now at the Salute, having been 
removed from the refectory of the Crociferi, for 
which it was drawn, Those who have beh<^ it 
in its place, write of it as a miracle in the art, in- 
asmuch as the construction of the place was so 
well repeated in the picture, and imitated with so 
much knowledge of perspective, as to make the 
apartment appear double its real size. Nor are 
these three works to which he affixed his name, 
as his fiivourite productions, the only ones worthy 
of his genius, Zanetti having enumerated many 
more, conducted with the most finished care ; the 
whole exhibited to the Venetian public, without 
including those dispersed throughout the different 
cities of Europe. 

But diligence is rarely found long united to a 
rage for achieving much ; the true source in this 
instance, as in numerous others, of false, or at leaist 
of inferior composition. Hence, Annibale Caracci 
observed, that in many pieces Tintoretto was in- 
ferior to Tintoretto ; while Paul Veronese, so ar- 



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STOCK U. 191 

dent an adndrer of bis talents^ was in the habit of 
reproaching him with doing injustice to the pro- 
fessors of the art, by paisting in every manner^ a 
plan that went far to destroy the reputation of 
the profession (Ridx^lfi). Simlar exceptions wiQ 
be found to apply to such of \m works as^ con- 
ceived at a heat^ executed by habits and in great 
part left imperfect^ betray certain errors both 
in point of judgment and design. Sometimes 
there appears a crowd of superfluous^ or badly 
grouped %ures, and most generaUy all in the most 
energetic actions^ without any spectators regard- 
ing them m quiets as was practised by Titian and 
all the best composers. Neither in these iSgures 
are we to look for that senatorial dignity^ which 
Reynolds ^scovers in Titian. 

Tintoretto aimed rather at Uveiiness than at 
grace^ and firom the studied observation of the 
people of his native state> perhaps the most spirit- 
ed in Italy^ he drew models for his heads^ a » well 
as his attitudes^ sometunes applying them to the 
most is^ortant subjects* In a few specimens of 
his Suppers^ the Apostles might occasiomdly be 
taken for gondoliers^ just when their arm is i.^aised^ 
ready to strike tihe oar^ and with an air of native 
fierceness they raise the head either to loo^k out^ 
to ridicule^ or to dispute. He likewise varied 
Titian's method of colouring, making use of pri- 
mary grounds no longer white, and composed of 
chalk, but shaded; owing to which hisVonetian 
pictures have felt the effects of time mor e than 



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192 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

the rest. Neither were the choice, nor the gene- 
ral, tone of his colouring the same as Titian's; 
the blue, or the ash-coloured, being that which 
predominates ; one which assists the effect of the 
chiaroscuro, as much as it diminishes the amenity 
of the whole. In his fleshes there appears a cer- 
tain vinous colour, and more particularly in his 
portraits. The proportions of his bodies are also 
different; he does not affect the fulness of Titian; 
he aims more at lively action than the latter, and 
sometimes attenuates his figures too much. The 
least correct portion of his pictures is the drapery; 
few of them being free from those long and straight 
folds, or flying abroad^ or in some other way too 
common and obvious. It would be useless to in- 
sist upon his want of judgment, or rather his pic- 
torial extravagances, Vasari having already said 
too much of them, upon the subject of his Uni- 
versal Judgment, at Santa Maria dell' Orto. 

He ought to have tempered the severity of his 
criticism, however, by admitting, that if the au- 
thor of that great picture had bestowed as much 
pains upon the several parts as upon the whole, 
it would have been a magnificent production; 
Even in those pictures, in which he wished to dis- 
play the talent as it were of an improvvisatore, he 
still vindicated his title to the name of a great 
master, jin the command and rapidity of his pencil, 
in his nianifestations of original powers, where he 
seems tdf triumph in hijs play of light, in the most 
difficult shortenings, in fanciful inventions, in his 



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EPOCH II. 103 

relief^ in harmony^ and^ in the best supported of 
his piecies^ even in the beauty of his tints. But 
his sovereign merit consisted in the animation of 
his figures^ it being an universal opinion^ that has 
almost acquired the force of a proverb^ that the 
power of action ought to be studied in Tintoretto. 
Upon this point Pietro da Cortona used to ob- 
serve^ that if we carefully examine the whole of 
those pictures which have been engraved, no ar- 
tist will be found equal to him in the pictorial fire 
he infused into his forms {Boschini, p. 285), He 
flourished for a long period, exerting his talents 
until we could with difficulty make a catalogue of 
his works,. still giving the rein to his divine ardour 
in many pieces of great size, or at least abounding 
with a great variety of actors. Among these last, 
his picture of the Paradiso, in the hall of the 
great council, was greatly esteemed, even by the 
Caracci ; and though the production of advanced 
age, the figures are almost innumerable. Had 
they. only been better grouped and distributed, 
the artist would not have given occasion for Al- 
garotti to criticize such a painting as he did, ad- 
ducing it as an example of badly conceived com- 
position. Tintoretto's genuine productions are not 
often met with in the different collections of Italy. 
In Venice, however, they are not rare, and there 
we may learn, what appears so very improbable in 
Ridolfi, that Tintoretto wrought with a degree of 
finish equal to that of a miniature-painter. The no- 
ble Casa Barbarigo, at S. Polo, possesses a Susanna 

VOL. III. o 



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194 VENETIAK SCHOOL. 

of this character, whete, in small space, is ittcluded 
a park, with birds and rabbits disporting, togethfet 
with every thing desirable in a pleasure-garden ; 
the whole as studiously finished as his figures. 

'Therfe is little to add relating to his school, on 
which none conferred greater credit than his son, 
Domenico Tintoretto. He trod in the steps of 
his father ; but, like Ascanius following Mnem, 
'^non passibus sequis." Still he may boast much 
resemblance in liis countenances, in his colouring, 
and in harmony, but there is a wide distincfion 
in point of genius, though some of his most 
Spirited pieces have been ascribed to his father, or 
at least suspected of having been' chiefly indebted 
to his hatid. Many works^ however, upon a large 
scale, are attributed to the son ; those which he 
has filled with portraits being far the most com- 
mended; his merit in this branch having been 
thought e^ual by Zanetti to that of his father. 
One of these is seen at the college of St. Mark, 
where, as in the rest of his compositions, the 
figures are disposed with more sobriety than those 
of Jacopo, as well' as finished with more care, and 
with more enduring colours. As he grew older 
his style fell somewhat into that of a mannerist, 
which at that period, as we shall see, much pre- 
vailed. By these distinctions his productions may 
be* frequently known from his father's, and we 
fiiay be enabled to refute the assertions of dealers, 
who, to obtain a higher price, attribute them indis^ 
criminately to Jacopo. Yet Domenico produced 



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EPOCff 11. " ^ 196 

many pieces, more especially portraits for different 
collections^ besides several mythological and scrip- 
tural histories^ to which he sometimes added his 
name^ as in his picture boasting such exquisite 
tints which adorns the Campidoglio ; the subject 
of which is a penitent Magdalen. Contemporary 
with Domenico^ we ought not to omit the name 
of his sister Marietta^ so exquisite a painter of 
portraits, as to receive invitations from the Em- 
peror Maximilian^ and from Philip II. of Spain^ 
to visit their respective courts. But her father 
would never consent to such a measure^ in order 
to enjoy her society at home^ though he was de- 
prived of her not long afterwards^ cut off in the 
flower of her genius and her age. 

Jacopo possessed few disciples beyond his two 
children, though he profited in some measure from 
these few. Paolo Franceschi, or de' Freschi, a 
Fleming, and Martino de Vos d'Anversa, were 
artists he employed to draw his landscapes. The 
former was esteemed one of the best landscape 
painters of his time^ while he succeeded also in 
figures. He was engaged to paint for the Palazzo 
Publico, and several churches in Venice, where 
he terminated his days. The second resided 
also at Rome ; and, in the church of San Fran- 
cesco a Ripa, painted his Concezione, a picture, 
indeed, abounding with too many figures, but 
beautiful and exquisite in its tints. With still 
greater felicity he depicted the four seasons for 
the Colonna family, very pleasing little pictures, 

-0 2 



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196 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

presenting a happy union of various schools^ fine 
perspective, fine relief, with correct and grace- 
ful design. Passing into Germany, and increasing 
in reputation no less hy his works than hy the en- 
gravings made of them by Sadeler, there, full of 
years and fame, he died. Lamberto Lombardo has 
been just before recorded as the assistant of Tin- 
toretto, but not his disciple. 

Odofardo Fialetti, a native of Bologna, was 
educated in the school of Tintoretto, where he ac- 
quired a reputation for good design, and a thprough 
acquaintaqce with all the precepts of the art, yet 
he was still far from emulating his master, not pos- 
sessing vivacity of genius equal to the task. To 
avoid a competition with the Caracci he long con- 
tinued, and died at Venice, where many of his 
works are highly esteemed, and in particular his 
picture of the Crucifixion, painted for the Croce. 

Among the imitators of Tintoretto appears the 
name of Cesare dalle Ninfe, an artist who aimed at 
reaching the sharp expression of ridicule, the no- 
velty of ideas, and the rapidity of hand, so re- 
markable in his prototype ; though unequal in his 
design. Flaminio Floriano seems to have be«i 
ambitious of imitating only the more correct parts 
of his model ; so uniformly exact, temperate, and 
precise does he appear in his picture of San Lo- 
renzo, to which he affixed his name. 

The name of Melchior Colonna also occurs, 
though hardly known in Venice, and some per- 
haps would add that of Sertoli, a Venetian, to be 



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BPOCH It. 197 

met with affixed to a picture at the chapel of San 
Niccola, in Tolentino. It represents the Plague 
that visited that city^ if I mistake not^ and which 
disappeared at the solicitation of the patron saint. 
There is also an account of another artist^ who 
from his age might have received the instruc- 
tions of Tintoretto^ or at all events obtained them 
from his works ; his name was Gio. Rothenamer 
di Monaco. Arriving in Italy with but a small 
fund of knowledge^ acquired in the studio of a 
poor national artist^ he distinguished himself at 
Rome^ and perfected his style in Venice^ adopting 
in a great measure the maxims of Tintoretto. 
There^ at the Incurabili^ he left a Santa Cristina 
a Nunziata at San Bartolommeo^ and^ as we have 
reason to believe, other works in private posses- 
sion, by which he obtained some degree of credit. 
Subsequently arriving at a handsome practice in 
England, he nevertheless contrived to die there 
in poverty, his funeral expenses being defrayed by 
the ahns of some Venetians. But few others, ob- 
serves Zanetti, pursued the same path, probably 
because at that period more pleasing and popular 
styles were in vogue. Ridolfi, on the other hand, 
asserts, that all young artists towards the end of 
the century were anxious to study him for their 
model ; and we shall find, in treating of the man- 
Tierists, that he was acknowledged by them as their 
sovereign master. We must, in the next place, 
enter upon a consideration of the school of Bas- 
sano. 



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198 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Jacopo da Ponte^ son to that Francesco^ who^ in 
the preceding epochs was commended as one of the 
better artists who flourished during the fourteenth, 
century, was nearly contemporary with Tinto- 
retto, and was instructed by his father in the art. 
His earliest eflForts, that are seen in the church of 
San Bernardino, in his native place, bear the im- 
press of such an education. On resorting to* Ve- 
nice he was recommended to Bonifazio, a master 
no less jealous of his art than Titian or Tintoretto ; 
insomuch that Jacopo never obtained the ad- 
vantage of- seeing him colour, except by secretly 
watching him through a crevice in the door of his 
studio. He resided but a little tim.e in Venice, 
employed in designing the cartoons of Parmigia- 
ni»o, and in taking copies of the pictures of Bo- 
nifkzio and Titian, whose scholar, upon the autho- 
rity of some manuscript, he had also been. And, 
if conformity of nuinner wete sufficient evidence, 
by no means always a certain guide, we might ad- 
mit the truth of such supposition ; his second style 
being altogether that of Titian. A few of his 
pictures are met with in his native place, such as 
his Flight into Egypt, at San Girolamo, and a Nati- . 
vity of the Redeemer, in possession of Sig. Dottor 
Larber, both youthful productions, but Which 
seemed to promise another Titian ; so richly were 
they imbued with his sweetness of taste. 

Upon his father's death Jacopo was compelled 
to return, and settle in Ms own province, whose 
city is at this day both rich and populous, and in 



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EPOCH II. 199 

those times it was esteemed by no means despica^ 
ble. ; its situation delightful^ abounding with flocks 
and herds^ and well adapted for the sale of mer- 
chandize^ and for fairs. From these elements arose 
by degrees his formation of a third style, full of 
simplicity and grace, and which gave the first in- 
dications in Italy of a taste altogether foreign ; 
that of the Flemish. In the use of his pencil, 
Jacopo may be said to have pursued two different 
methods. The first of these is much softened with a 
fine union of tints, and at last determined with free 
strokes. The second^ resulting in a great measure 
from the other, was formed by simple strokes of 
the pencil, with clear and pleasing tints, and with 
a certain command, or rather audacity of art, that, 
nearly viewed, appears a confused mixture, but 
forms in the distance an enchanting effect of co- 
louring. In both of these he displays the origina- 
lity of his own style, chiefiy consisting in a certain 
soft and luscious composition. It partakes at once 
of the triangular and the circular form, and aims 
at certain contrast of postures ; so that if one of the 
figures is in full face, the other turns its shoulders ; 
and at the same time at a kind of analogy, so that 
a number of heads shall meet in the same line, or 
in a want of these, some other form elevated in the 
same direction. In regard to his lights, he ap- 
pears partial to such as are confined to one part, 
and displayed masterly power in rendering it sub- 
servient to the harmony of the whole ; for with 
these rare lights, with the frequent use of middle^ 



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200 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

tints, and the absence of deep obscure^ he suc- 
ceeded admirably in harmonizing the most oppo- 
site colours. In the gradation of lights he often 
contrives that the shadow of the interior figmre 
shall serve as a ground for one more forward ; 
and that the figures should partake of few lights^ . 
but extremely bold and vivid at their angles ; as 
for instance, on the top of the shoulder^ on the 
knee^ and on the elbow; for which purpose he 
makes use of a flow or sweep of folds, natural to 
all appearance^ but in fact highly artificial^ to fa^ 
vour his peculiar system. In proportion to the va- 
riety of his draperies, he varies the folds with a 
delicacy of judgment that falls to the share of 
few. His colours every where shine like gems; 
in particular his greens, which display an emerald 
tinge peculiar to himself. Whoever would be- 
come more familiar with the mechanism^ and at the 
same time peruse a very full analysis, of Bassano's 
style, may refer to Sig. Verci, the able historian of 
the Marca Trevigiana, who drew it up from the 
MS. Volpati, cited by us in another epoch, and in 
the index to the writers. 

At the outset Jacopo aspired to a grandeur of 
style, which is apparent from some of his pictures 
remaining in the facade of the Casa Michieli. 
Among these^ a Samson slaying the Philistines 
meets with much praise^ and indeed they all par- 
take of the boldness of Michel Angiolo. But^ 
whether the result of disposition or of judgment^ 
he afterwards confined himself to smaller propor- 




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EPOCH II. 2D1 

tions^ and to subjects of less power. Even the 
figures in his altar-pieces are generally less than 
life, and so little animated, that it was observed 
by some one, that in Tintoretto even his old men 
were spirited, but that the youths of Bassano were 
mere dotards. We do not meet with any of that 
noble architecture in his paintings, that adds so 
much dignity to those of the Venetian School. 
He appears rather anxious to find subjects in 
which to introduce candle-light, cottages, land- 
scape, animals, copper vessels, and aU such ob- 
jects as passed under his eye, and which he copied 
with surprising accuracy. His ideas were limited, 
and he often repeated them, a fault to be attri- 
buted to his situation, it being an indisputable fact^ 
that the conceptions both of artists and of writers 
become enlarged and increased in great capitals, 
and diminish in small places. All this may be 
gathered from his pictures produced for private or* 
nament, the most familiar occupation of his life, in- 
asmuch as he executed very few large altar-pieces. 
He conducted them at leisure in his studio, and, as- 
sisted by his school, he prepared a great number 
of various dimensions. He then despatched them 
to Venice, and sometimes to the best frequented 
fairs, thus rendering the number so very great, as 
to make it rather a disgrace for a collection not to 
possess copies by his hand, than an honour to have 
them. In these may be viewed, almost invariably, 
the same subjects; consisting of acts of the Old 
and New Testament ; the Feasts of Martha, of the 



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202 . VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Pharisee^ of the Gluttony with a splendid display 
of brazen vessels ; the Ark of Noah, the Return 
of Jacob, the Annunciation of the Angel to the 
Shepherds, with great variety of animals. To 
these we may add, the Queen of Sheha ; the three 
Magi, with regal pomp of dress, and the richest 
array ; the Deposition of our Lord from the Cross, 
by torch-light. His pieces upon profane subjects 
exhibit the sale of beasts and of brazen vessels ; 
sometimes rural occupations, corresponding to the 
seasons of the year ; and sometimes without hu- 
man figures, merely a kitchen, furniture, a fowl- 
yard, of similar objects. Nor is it only the histo- 
ries or the compositions themselves that recur 
in every collection to the eye ; but even counte- 
nances taken from individuals of his own family ; 
for instance, arraying his own daughter either as 
a Queen of Sheba, or a Magdalen ; or as a vil- 
lager, presenting fowls to the infant Jesus. I have 
likewise seen entire pieces, with the title of the 
Family of BassanOy sometimes in small size, and 
sometimes in larger. Of the former, I remarked 
a specimen in Genoa, in possession of Signer Ani- 
brogio Durazzo, where the daughters of the piEiint^r 
are seen intent upon their feminine occupations, a 
little boy playing, and a domestic in the act of 
lighting a candle. One of the second kind may 
be seen in the Medicean Museum, a picture which 
represents an academy of music. 

By this method he seemed to confess the poverty 
of his imagination, though he derived from it a 



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EPOCH II. 203 

very remarkable advantage. By dint of continu* 
ally repeating the same things^ he brought them 
to the utmost point of perfection of which they 
were susceptible ; as we may gather from his pic- 
ture of the Nativity of our Lord, placed at San 
Giuseppe, in Bassano ; the master-piece not only 
of Jacopo, but in point of force of colours and the 
chiaroscuro, of every thing that modern painting 
has to boast. The same is seen in his Burial of 
Christ, at the Seminario of Padua, a picture of 
which an engraving was taken by order of Madame 
Patin, among the portraits of celebrated painters ; 
having met with no other that seemed to breathe 
such a spirit of pity and holy terror. Finally, in 
his Sacrifice of Noah, at Santa Maria Maggiore in 
Venice, in whicTi he collected specimens of all the 
birds and animals he had drawn elsewhere, he pre- 
served the same character ; and by this produc- 
tion so far won the regard of Titian, that he 
wished to purchase a copy for the ornament of his 
own studio. 

Hence it happens, that the works of Bassano, 
conducted at a certain age and with singular care, 
are estimated very highly, and purchased at large 
sums, though not altogether exempt from some 
errors of perspective, from some awkwardness of 
posture, and some fault in composition, particular- 
ly in point of symmetry. Indeed it was the gene- 
ral belief, that he possessed little practical skill in 
designing the extremities, thus avoiding, as much 
as lay in his power, the introduction of feet and 



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204 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

hands into his pictures. These accusations, with 
others before alluded to^ miglit be greatly extenu- 
ated by producing such examples of Bassano as 
would fully prove, that he could, when he pleased, 
draw much better than he was accustomed to do. 
He knew how to vary his compositions, as we 
perceive in his Nativity, at the Ambrosiana in 
Milan ; and he might as easily have varied his 
other pieces. He was capable also of conceiving 
with equal novelty and propriety, as we gather 
from his San Rocco, at Yicenza; and he might 
thus have shone on other occasions. Moreover, 
he knew how to draw the extremities, as appears 
from his picture of S. Peter, at Venice, adorning 
the church of the Umilt^; and he could give dig- 
nity to his countenances, as in his Queen of Sheba, 
which I have seen in Brescia ; and he might have 
displayed the same dignity in other pieces. But 
whether he found such a task too irksome, or 
from whatever other cause, he displayed his pow- 
ers rarely ; content with having arrived at his pe- 
culiar method of colouring, of illuminating, and of 
shading, with a sovereign skill. So universally 
was he admired, that he received innumerable com- 
missions from various courts, and an invitation to 
that of Vienna. What is more honourable, not- 
withstanding his defects, he extorted the highest 
praises, if not from Vasari, from many of the most 
renowned artists ; from Titian, from Annibal Ca- 
racci, who was so much deceived by a book paint- 
ed upon a table, that he stretched out his hand to 



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EPOCH II. 205 

take it. up ; and from Tintoretto^ who commended 
his colouring, and in some measure wished to imi- 
tate him. Above all, he was highly honoured by 
Paul Veronese, who entrusted him with his son 
Carletto, for a pupil, to receive his general in- 
structions, ''and more particularly in regard to 
that just disposition of lights reflected from one 
object to another, and in those happy counter- 
positions, owing to which the depicted objects 
seem clothed with a profusion of light." Such is 
the flattering testimony given by Algarotti to the 
style of Jacopo da Ponte. *• 

Bassano educated four of his sons to the same 
profession,' which thus became transmitted to 
others, so that the Bassanese school continued for 
the length of a century, though still declining and 
departing fast from its primitive splendour. Fran- 
cesco and Leandro were the two members of Ja- 
copo's family best disposed to pursue his footsteps^ 
and he was accustomed to pride himself upon the 
inventive talents displayed by the former, and the 
singular ability of the latter for portrait- painting. 
Of his two other sons, Giambatista and Girolamo, 
he used to observe, that they were the most accu- 
rate copyists of his own works. All of these, more 
especially the two latter, were instructed by their 
father in those refinements of the art he himself 
practised, and they so far succeeded, that many of 
their copies, made both during and after the life- 
time of their father, very frequently imposed upon 
professors, being received for the originals of Ja- 



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206 VENETIAN ^ SCHOOL. 

copo. The whole of them^ however, produced 
original works, and Francesco the eldest, having 
established himself in Venice, gave ample proof 
of it in those histories drawn from Venetian re- 
cords, which he painted for the Palazzo Grande. 
They are placed near those of Paul Veronese, and 
appear to advantage even in such competition. 
His father here assisted him with his advice ; him- 
self attending upon the spot, and instructing him 
where he found occasion, how to add force to his 
tints, to improve his perspective, and to bring the 
whole work to the most perfect degree of art- 
His pencil may be very dearly traced in that of his 
son, as well as his style, which in the opinion of 
critics is somewhat too much loaded, especially in 
his shadesl Francesco, likewise, produced several 
beautiful altar-pieces, in which, on the other hand, 
he appears less vigorous than his father; as may 
be seen in his Paradiso, at the Gesii, in Rome, 
or in his San Apollonio, at Brescia, one of the 
most beautiful pieces in the church of S. Afra, 
and much admired by foreigners. And he would 
have achieved still greater things, had he not been 
afflicted with severe fits of melancholy, sucli as to 
deprive him of the use of his faculties and his time, 
until he was driven by sudden desperation to throw 
himself from a window, and, by this accident, still 
in the prime of his days, he lost his life. 

The works which he left imperfect in the Ducal 
Palace, and in other places, were completed by 
Leandro, the third sdtk of Jacopo, and a profes- 



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EPOCH m 207 

sor in high repute. He followed the same maxims 
in the art, except that by his practice in portrait 
taking, he acquired more originality qf counte- 
nance; and in the use of his pencil approaches 
nearer to the first than to the second style of Ja- 
copo. He is, moreover, more variable in it, and in- 
clines somewhat to the mannerism of his age. One 
of his best performances perhaps, is to be seen at 
San Francesco, in Bassano; Santa Caterina crown- 
ed by our Lord; amidst various saints, distributed 
upon the steps of the throne, with figures larger 
than customary in the Q|ssanese school. His 
pictures likewise of the Resurrection of Lazarus, 
placed at the Carit^ ; and of the Nativity of the 
Virgin, at Santa Sofia ; besides others he produc- 
ed at Venice, as well as for the state, are distin- 
guished by their large proportions. If familiar with 
the father's productions, we may often detect do- 
mestic plagiarisms in Leandro ; who often repeats 
the family of da Ponte, copied in innumerable 
pieces by Jacopo, by his sons, and by their descen- 
dants. Even in his pictures for private ornament, 
conducted according to his own style and fancy, he 
was fond of adopting paternal subjects and exam- 
ples; being skilful in drawing animals of every 
kind from nature. But nothing proved so favour- 
able to his reputation, both in Italy and through- 
out Europe, as the immense number of his por- 
traits, admirably executed, and not unfrequently 
with a certain original fancy, both for private per- 
sons and for princes. Those that he executed for 



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208 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

the Imperial Palace were particularly relished; 
insomuch that he received an invitation from Ro- 
dolph II., to accept the place pf his court painter ; 
an honour which Leandro thought fit to refuse. 
He was more ambitious of enjoying fame at Venice 
than at Vienna; for the Doge Grimani^ the better 
to obtain a noble portrait of himself, had already 
created him his cavalier. And Leandro support- 
ed his dignity with an imposing demeanour : he 
lodged, dressed^ and maintained his table in a noble 
manner. He appeared in public ornamented with 
a collar of gold, and w^h the insignia of St Mark, 
accompanied by a train of disciples, who dwelt at 
his house. One of these bore his gold cane, ano- 
ther the repertory, in which he noted down all that 
was to be done during the day. The same were 
bound to attend upon him at table ; and as he was 
suspicious of poison, he was accustomed, like th^ 
great, to have his tasters, who took something of 
every dish he eat ; but they were ordered not to 
taste much, as in such case the great man became 
little, and gave rise to much mirth. Like his 
brother, he was subject to fits of melancholy, bu]t 
he contrived to manage them so well, as only to 
give birth to comic, never to tragic scenes. 

Giambatista da t^onte, is a name almost unmen- 
tioned in history ; nor is there any production at- 
tributed to him, besides an altar-piece in GaUio, 
with his name, and which by some writer has been 
given, from its style,. to Leandro. Girolamo, the 
last of the family, is better known by an altar- 



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EPOCH II. 209 

piece which he conducted in Venice, after the 
composition of Leandro, as well as for others exe- 
cuted in Bassano and its vicimty. He cannot he 
denied a certain graceful air in his countenances ; 
and in some of his works, displaying the simplest 
composition, very graceful colouring* Such is his 
picture of S. Barhara, adorning the church of S. 
Giovanni, at Bassano, where the saint is seen be- 
tween two upright virgin figures, with their eyes 
fixed upon heaven, where the holy virgin is repre- 
sented in the usual manner of the times. 

Not only wad Jacppo attached to the soil and 
very walls of his native country, from which no 
prospects of honour or of profit could tempt him 
away ; but he liberally granted his instructions to 
his fellow citizens, which both his sons and their 
family continued after his decease. The best dis- 
ciple whom they produced, was Jacopo ApoUonip, 
the offspring of Jacopo's daughter. Though only 
acquainted with the two least celebrated of his 
uncles, he made rapid progress in his art, a casein 
which he may be compared to certain writers, who 
have wholly made use of their native dialect, with- 
out mingling it with any of a foreign growth. In 
like manner he is Bassanese in his ideas, in his dra- 
peries, in his architecture, and more than a]l^ in 
his landscape, which he touched with a master's 
hand. He might easily at times be mistaken for 
the real Bassani, were he not inferior to thenr m 
the vigour of his tints, in the delicacy of his con- 

VOL. III. p 



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210 VBNETIAN SCHOOL. 

tours^ and in the strokes of his pencil. Some of 
his best works consist of a Magdalen^ seen in the 
Dome of Bassano^ a San Francesco at the Rifor- 
mati^ which present fair examples by which to 
judge of his style. Yet above all, his picture of 
the Titular with various other saints at San Sebas- 
tiano, is one of the most exquisite finish, and pos- 
sesses every estimable quality in the art, excerpt 
that of softness. Some have considered him the 
only artist among the disciples of this school 
worthy of commemoration. Yet the natives of 
Bassano set some stor^by two brothers named 
Giulio and Luca Martinelli, very estimable scho- 
lars of Jacopo.' They also hold in some esteefn 
Antonio Scaiario, son-in-law to Giambatista da 
Ponte, as well as his heir, owing to which he 
sometimes signs himself Antonio da Ponte, Anto- 
nio Bassano. Nor dp they omit the name of Ja- 
copo Guadagnini, the ofispring of a daughter of 
Francesco da Ponte, who acquired some merit in 
face-painting, and in copying, however feebly, the 
works of his ancestors. Upon his decease in 1633, 
every vestige of the manner and of the school of 
Jacopo became extinct in Bassano. There never- 
theless arose about the same period in Cittadella, a 
place adjacent to Bassano, a young genius of the 
name of Gio. Batista Zampezzo, who, directed by 
ApoUonio, and having concluded his studies at 
Venice, devoted himself to copying the works of 
Jacopo. So well did he imitate his Santa Lucilla 
baptized by San Valentino, a piece at the Grazie 



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EPOCH 11. 211 

in Bassano, that Bartolommeo Scaligero pronounc- 
ed it comparable with the original. He flourished 
about 1660;* and subsequent to him appeared 
the noble Gio. Antonio Lazzari, a Venetian, who 
succeeded in deceiving the most skilful artists, 
says Melchiori, by dint of copying Jacopo, and 
passing for him. It will not haye been irksome, I 
trust, to my readers, thus to have connected toge- 
ther a series of the school of Bassano, by aid of 
which the copies taken by so many artists, at dif- 
ferent periods, and with various degrees of merit, 
may be better distinguished.! 

* This date is pointed out by Boschini, an4 corresponds with 
the fortieth year of the artist, who, on the authority of Mel- 
cfaiori, made a noble copy of Giorgione's San Liberale, at Castel- 
franco, besides producing several original works in his native 
place and the vicinity. Specimens of his labours exist in water- 
colours, taken from pictures in fresco executed by Paolo and by 
Zelotti, in different palaces belonging to Venetian noblemen. 
The cavalier Liberi, his Venetian master, aware of his sibgular 
talent for such .species of painting, often employed him, to the 
no small advantage both of his art and his fortune. 

t It would be too difficult to attempt to enumerate the names 
of his foreign imitators, particularly the Flemish, who were 
much devoted to his style, some of whose copies I have seen in 
collections believed to be originals. But the handle of their 
pencil, the clearness of colouring, and sometimes, the diminu- 
tion of the figures, not common to the Bassani, afford means 
to distinguish them ; not however with such a degree of certain- 
ty, but that connoisseurs themselves are of different opinions. 
This occurred in my own time at Rome, respecting a fine pic- 
ture of the Nativity of Jesus Christ, in theRezzonico collection. 
One of the best imitators of that style was David Teniers, who, 
by his exquisite skill acquired the surname of Bassano. To him 

P 2 



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212 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Whilst the Bassanese school employed itself in 
drawing the simplest ohjects of rural nature upon 
a small scale, a diflTerent one sprung up in Verona, 
which surpassed all others by copying, upon the 
most ample grounds, every thing most beautiful in 
art; such as architecture, costume, ornaments, the 
splendour of trains of servants, and luxury worthy 
of kings. This then remained still to be completed, 
and it was reserved for the genius of Paul CaUari 
to accomplish. The son of Gabriele, a sculptor at 
Verona, he was destined by his father for the same 
art. Instructed in a knowledge of design, and 
modelling in clay, he nevertheless evinced so strong 
a genius for painting, as to induce his father to 
give him as a pupil to Badile, under whom, in a 
short time, he made an astonishing progress. He 
had, however, appeared in an age that made it 
incumbent on him to exert himself greatly, such 
were the splendid talents that distinguished the 
Veronese School. It is deserving, indeed, of se- 
parate mention, inasmuch as it might of itself form 
a school apart, were it not that its principal mas- 
ters had acquired a knowledge of their art, either 
from Mantegna of Padua, or from the Venetian 
Bellini ; fromGiorgione, or as we shall have occa- 

I am happy to add another foreigner, Pietro Orrente di Murcia, 
whom Spanish writers give as a pupil to Jacopo; and were 
there no other authority, we might upon that of Sig. Conca» re- 
ceive him as his very exact imitator. In his two pictures refer- 
red to (vol. i. p. 266) he is pronounced superior to the Bassani, 
meaning, perhaps, superior to the sons of Jacopo ; it would be 
too absurd a proposition to prefer him to the head of the school. 



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EPOCH II. 213 

sion to see, from Titian. It was thus derived rather 
from the artists of the state, than from its own or 
from foreign sources ; though it flourished by its 
own industry, and produced as many various styles 
as any other place in the terra firma. I have already 
alluded to the remark of Vasari, that '' Verona 
having constantly devoted itself, after the death 
of F. Giocondo, to the study of design, produced 
at all times excellent artists, &c." such praise as 
he bestowed on no other city of the Venetian 
state. I noticed also its superiority in force of 
expression, and its very general taste, in animat- 
ing and giving an air of liveliness to its heads, 
so general indeed as to be almost characteristic 
of the nation. To these it added a beauty peculiar 
to itself; more light and elegant, and less full than 
in the Venetian paintings, though not so fresh 
and rubicund in the fleshy parts. It is also equal- 
ly happy with any other in its inventions, avail- 
ing itself of mythology and history to form fanci- 
ful compositions, and for the ornament of palaces 
and villas. The national genius so well adapted 
for poetry, aided the artists in the conception of 
9uch compositions ; while the advice of able men, 
always abounding in the city, helped to perfect 
them. The climate too was favourable for the 
production, as well as for the preservation of 
paintings; for while at Venice the saltness of the 
air destroyed many beautiful pieces in fresco, in 
Verona and its adjacent towns a great number re- 
mained entire. 



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214 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

We have already alluded to its leading masters 
of the preceding epochs observing that many were 
entitled from their works to rank in this brighter 
period. To these I add Paolo Cava^zola, pupil to 
Moroni^ and in the opinion of Vasari^ much supe- 
rior to him. He died at the age of thirly-one, leav- 
ing many fine specimens of a inature judgment in 
different churches. The two Falconetti were also 
worthy of some notice. Gio. Antonio, an excel- 
lent draughtsman of fruits and animals ; and Gio. 
Maria, a scholar of Melozzo {Nolizia, p. 10,) arid a 
celebrated architect and painter, though not one 
of the most copious, more especiaDy in fresco^ 
These two brothers were descendants of old Ste- 
fano da Verona, or da Sevio, whichever he is to 
be called. Nor less worthy in the opinion of Y asari 
was one TuUio, or India il Vecchio, an able artist 
in fresco, a portrait-painter, and a celebrated co- 
pyist. His son Bernardino appears to advantage, 
no less in a bold than a delicate style ; in which 
last, if I mistake not, he is superior, as we per- 
ceive from specimens in the churches, and other 
collections in Veronia. Many of his pictures be- 
tray a style approaching that of Giulio Romano. 
He is recorded by Vasari, togethcir with Eliodoro 
Forbicini, famous for his grotesques, and assis- 
tant in many of his labours to India, as well as to 
various other artists of no mean fame. 

Dionisio Battaglia distinguished himself by an 
altar-piece of Santa Barbara, mentioned by Poz- 
zo as being at Santa Eufemia ; no less than did 



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EPOCH II. 215 

Scalabrino by his two scriptural histories placed 
at San Zeno. Two other artists of the same pe- 
riod are very deserving of mention, both on ac- 
count of their productions and their pupils ; Nic- 
colo Giolfino (in Yasari called Ursino) the master 
of Farinato ; and Ant6nio Badile, the tutor and 
the uncle of Caliari.' Giolfino, olr Golfino, accord- 
ing to Ridblfi, partakes something of the dryness 
of the Quattrocentisti, less select and animated 
than the best of his contemporaries, his colours 
not very vivid, but pleasing and harmonious. Most 
probably educated by some one of these miniatu- 
rists, he succeeded better in pictures upon a small 
than upon a large scale, such as in his Resurrec- 
tion of Lazarus, to be seen in the church of Naza- 
reth; Bom in 1480, Badile flourished during 
another eighty years, and Was the first, perhaps, of 
any in Verona, to exhibit painting altogether free 
from traces of antiquity, while he excelled no less 
in e]ri;emal forms than in depicting the inward af- 
fections and passions of the mind. He was 'moi'e- 
over the author, at the same time, of a peculiar 
softness, yet freedom of hand ; though it is not 
known from whom he acquired it. He affixed to 
his works only the first syllable of his name, forined 
in a cypher. His picture of the raising of Lazarus, 
painted for San Bernardino, and another with 
some holy bishops at San Nazaro, both so much 
cc>mmended by Ridolfi, serve to «hew from whtt 
source his two pupils, Paolo and Zelotti, derived 
that elegant manner, which they mutually improv*- 



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216 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

ed by assisting one another. A similar style was 
for some years displayed by Orlando Fiacco^ or 
Flacco^ from which he is supposed to have been a 
scholar of Badile^ though Yasari^ who extols him 
particularly in portrait^ gives him to another school. 
However this may be, it is certain he inclined to 
a boldness of style, approaching that of Caravag- 
gio. He flourished but a short period, during 
which he acquired more merit than fortune. 

This resulted from the too great abundance of 
good artists in Verona, a circumstance that in- 
duced many to seek better fortune in foreign 
parts. Orlandi^ on the authority of Yasari, has in- 
serted in the Abecedario a professor of the name 
of Zeno, or Donato, a native of Yerona, who in the 
church of San Marino at Rimino, painted the ti- 
tular saint with singular care. I saw it, and it 
displayed great simplicity of composition, good 
design, and still better colouring, more particu- 
larly in the dress of the bishop, which he labo- 
riously ornamented with little figures of saints. 
He seems to have belonged to the golden period 
of art ; and it is known that he left other works 
at the same place, and most probably never chang- 
ed his residence, or at least did not return, so far 
as we know, to Yerona. Two other artists, named 
Batista Fontana, much engaged at the imperial 
court of Yienna ; and Jacopo Ligozzi, who long 
flourished at the court of Tuscany, as I have ob- 
served in its place, also adopted the resolution of 
quitting their native city. Of the former scarcely 



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EPOCH II. 217 

any thing remains there ; though there are a few 
pieces by the hand of the second^ among which at 
.8. Luca a Saint Helena, who, surrounded by her 
court ladies, assists in the discovery of the Holy 
Cross, a picture displaying the best Venetian taste 
in its tints, and in the richness of its draperies ; but 
certainly all the worst, in regard to transferring 
our own customs to more ancient times. Giovanni 
Ermanno had either a brother or other relation 
who approached him very nearly in point of me- 
rit, as may clearly be seen at the Santi Apostoli in 
Verona. 

But those who had there obtained the ascend- 
ancy, when Paul Veronese first began to make 
himself known, were three fellow-citizens, who 
still maintain a high character in their native 
place, inferior only to that of Paul himself. Their 
names are Batista d'Angelo, sumamed del Moro, 
as the son-in-law and pupil of Torbido ; Domeni- 
co Ricci, called il Brusasorci, from his father's 
custom of burning rats ; and Paul Farinato, like- 
wise called degli Uberti. All three were invited by 
the Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga to Mantua, in order 
that each might exhibit in the cathedral an altar- 
piece ; while together with these appeared Paul, 
the youngest of the whole ; but who according to 
Vasari and Ridolfi, surpassed them in the compe- 
tition. But it is not yet time to enter upon his 
merits, having first to treat of his rivals, before 
vfe venture upon him and his followers, so as not 



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218 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

to have occasion for interrupting the remainder of 
this history^ until we arrive at a new epoch. 

Giambatista was the least celebrated of the three^ 
though each of his works obtained so much cre- 
dit, that wheii Santa Eufemia had one of its walls 
demolished to make way for a new edifice^ his pic- 
ture of St. Paul before j^anias^ that adorned it^ 
was carefully preserved at considerable expense, 
and replaced over the door of the church ; yet this 
was one of his earliest productions. He produced 
a great many others, both in oil and in fresco, 
not unfrequently in competition with Paul. He 
follows Torbido in point of diligence, and in his 
strong and unctuous colouring. He has more softr 
ness, however, of design ; and, if I mistake not, 
more grace ; of which he gave a distinguished 
specimen in an Angiolo at San Stefano, in the act 
of distributing the palms to the SS. Innocenti. He 
was employed, also, in Venice, where the most 
studied and animated production, going by his 
name, is not positively prpnounced his by Ridolfi, 
but only esteemed to be his, while it is ascribed by 
Boschiiii to Francesco Alberti, a Venetian, known 
merely by this single production. It is an altar- 
piece in Santa Maria Maggiore, representing the 
Virgin between St. John and St. Mark, and se- 
veral lords in ducal robes, with their sons, in the 
act of adoring her; very lively portraits of the 
Marcello family, for whom the altar was painted. 
Vasari gives a brief account both of him and Ya» 



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EPOCH IL 219 

son Marco^ his pupil and assistant^ though he did 
not mention Giulio^ brother to Batista^ who dis- 
tinguished himself alike in all the arts, and is call- 
ed by Zanetti dotto piltore. Both^ like Batista^ 
exercised their talents in Venice^ and whoever 
compares the four Coronati of Giulio^ placed at 
San Apollinare^ with the Parddiso of Marco at San 
Bartolommeo^ will discover an elegance^ a preci- 
sion^ and an arrangement of style^ suflScient to 
mark them for disciples of the same school. 

Brusasorci may be termed the Titian of this 
school. It is not known that he received the in^ 
structions of any other master besides Giolfino^ 
but it ig certain that he studied the works of Gior- 
gione and of Titian^ in Venice. He has exhibited 
the style of the latter in a few of his pictures with 
great iaiccuracy^ as we see in his San Rocco, in the 
church of the Padri Agostiniani at Verona, and 
in several other pictures for private persons, among 
which he has drawn nymphis and Venuses. An 
eye accustomed to the originals of the best Vene- 
tians, detects a diversity of tints which in the 
artist of Verona are less glowing. His genius 
could not confine itself to the imitation of a single 
model, like some of the Venetians ; he became 
fond of Giorgione, and to judge from one of his 
pieces remaining at Mantua, also of Parmigia- 
nino. There in the ducal palace we meet with the 
Fable of Phaeton exhibited in different pieces, 
which, however much defaced by time, are still ad- 



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220 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

mired for the fancy and vivacity they display, no 
less than for their abundance of figures, and the 
difficult foreshortenings he has inserted. But his 
chief merit was shewn in his frescos, with which 
he decorated villas and palaces with the erudition 
of a fine poet and the execution of a fine painter. 
He produced, likewise, his histories ; and the mas- 
ter-piece of all I have seen is the procession of Cle- 
ment VIII. and of Charles V. through Bologna, a 
picture exhibited in a hall of the noble casa Ridolfi, 
anid which has been engraved. A nobler spectacle 
cannot well be imagined ; and although other spe- 
cimens, both of this and similar subjects are met 
with very generally at Rome, in Venice, and in 
Florence, none produce equal effect ; combining in 
one piece, a large concourse, fine distribution of 
iigures^ vivacity of countenances, noble attitudes 
in the men and horses ; variety of costume, pomp, 
and splendour and dignity, all bearing an expres- 
sion of pleasure adapted to such a day. This piece 
may compete with another in the palaz^o Murari 
at Ponte Nuovo, also in fresco, though this last is 
preferred in the estimation of many before that of 
the casa Ridolfi, as I have been informed by the 
learned Signor dalla Rosa.- 

Felice Riccio, otherwise Brusasorci the younger, 
and the son of Dotnenico, became an orphan be- 
fore he had completed his studies with his father, 
which he continued under the care of Ligozzi, at 
Florence. On returning thence to Verona, he in- 



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EPOCH II. 221: 

troduced a style very different to the manner of 
his father. It is extremely elegant and refined^ as 
displayed in his Madonnas^ with hoys and beauti- 
ful cherubs^ adorning various collections ; and with 
features something resembling those of Paul Ve- 
ronese^ if not a little more spare. Nor is he defi- 
cient in strength where his. subject requires it^ as 
I remarked in a picture belonging to the Conti 
Gazzola, representing the forge of Vulcan, with 
Cyclops, designed in good Florentine taste, and 
powerfully coloured. Many of Felice's works, 
are interspersed through the churches of Verona, 
among which his Santa Elena, belonging to the 
church of that name, is extremely beautiful. He 
did not exercise his talents, like his father, in 
fresco, nor had he equal genius ; though he pro- 
duced pieces on a large scale, the extreme of 
which was the Fall of Manna, painted for the 
church of S. Giorgio, a picture both vast and well 
conceived, and which received its last touches from 
Ottini and Orbetto, two of his best disciples, whose 
names I reserve to another epoch. Several little 
pictures, likewise, both on sacred and other sub- 
jects, executed on stone or marble, which he 
coloured with great skill, availing himself for his 
shad^ of the marble itself, are attributed to his 
hand. Even his portraits are in high esteem; 
though nearly equalled by those of his sister Ceci- 
lia, who acquired skill in the art from her father. 
Gio. Batista Brusasorci> brother of the preceding 
artists, and a scholar of Paul Veronese, presented 



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222 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Verona with several highly esteemed pictures; 
but passing into Germany he became painter to 
the emperor, in whose service he died. 

Surviving the whole of these^ and almost all the 
Caliari family^ we meet with the name of Paolo 
Farinato^ as grand an artist perhaps as his name- 
sake was beautiful. After leaving the school of 
Giolfino^ he is supposed to have studied the works 
of Titian and Giorgione, at Venice ; and if we 
may judge also from his style^ he must have re- 
ceived the instructions of Giulio Romano in de- 
sign ; though he made use of the Venetian tint$^ 
out of which he formed a system of his own. He 
survived till his eighty-first year, still preserving 
his natural good humour; and as is customary 
with men of so advanced an age, he prided himself 
upon it, affixing his name to a picture he produced 
at San Giorgio,, placed opposite to one by Felice, 
stating he had painted it in his seventy-ninth year. 
It is a representation of the multiplication of 
loaves in the desert, abounding with very nume- 
rous figures, in part portraits of his own family, 
and in part ideal heads. He is one of the few 
pdnters whose merit did not deteriorate in ad- 
vanced age, for though in some early pieces he 
betrays a certain dryness of manner, in this last he 
left nothing imperfect, neither in fulness of con- 
tours, in the fancy of his draperies and embellish- 
ments, nor in the study of his figures and land- 
scape. His design has been much conmiended, 
which was the case with few others of his school ; 



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EPOCH II. 223 

and even in ihe time of Ridolfi his sketehes^ the 
cartoons of his first studies, and his models of 
figures in wax, were all eagerly sought after for 
ornamental cabinets. A San Onofrio is pointed 
out at the church of San Tommaso, in a sitting 
posture, taken from the celebrated torso di Belve- 
dere ; which, as well as many other of his attitudes, 
and subjects where he introduced naked figures, 
discovers an acquaintance with the ancient style 
not comnion among the Venetians. To his fleshes 
he gives a bronze colour, which produces a pleas- 
ing efiect, and harmonizes well with his tints, for 
the most part sober and even flat in his grounids ; 
giving a repose to the eye which attracts without 
dazzling it. He is generally esteemed, however, a 
weak colourist, and better in his frescos than in oil. 
I know not whether it may be owing to partiality, 
or to the merit of this great man, but certain it is, 
that on my quitting Bologna he was the only ar- 
tist, the whole of whose works I regretted not 
having seen ; so much of all that is rare and beau- 
tiful did 1 meet with in those I saw. More like- 
wise I beheld in Mantua, in San Sisto at Piacenza, 
in the Ducal Gallery at Modena, in Padua, and 
other places. I have sometimes observed a kind of 
snail that Paolo is said to have chosen for his de- 
vice, remarking that he likewise bore his house 
upon his head. 

His son Orazio practised the art only for a few 
years. His best praise is, that during that short 
period he made approaches towards the style and 



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224 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

merit of his father. There is one of his pieces at 
San St0fano^ representing the Faithful receiving the 
Holy Spirit from the Apostles ; * and, if we except 
only Paul Veronese, it makes a distinguished figure, 
placed near some of the best artists of Verona. 

Resuming here the thread of our former dis- 
course, we must observe that Paul Caliari found 
the public prepossessed in favour of the three fore- 
going artists,^nd obtained little consideration in his 
own district while young. The world, ever disin- 
clined to admit the claims of rising reputation, 
either knew not, or believed not, that in his com- 
petition with theMantuan artists he had surpassed 
them all; insomuch that this youthful genius was 
compelled by penury to quit Verona, leaving be- 
hind him, upon an altar at San Fermo, a Madonna 
between two Saints, with a few other proofs of his 
early powers. He first went to Vicenza, and 
thence passed on to Venice. His genius was na- 
turally noble, and even magnificent and vast, as 
well as pleasing ; and no provincial city was ca- 
pable of supplying him with ideas proportionate 
to his genius, like Venice. There he aimed at 
improving his style of colouring, upon the models 
of Titian and Tintoretto, as well as to surpass 
them, as it would appear, in elegance and variety: 
of ornament. Hence his pupils were accustomed 
to say, that at that time he devoted himself to 
the study of casts taken from ancient statues, to 

* It is, as 1 am informed by Signer dalla Rosa, a picture of 
of the Pentecost. 



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. EPOCH II. 225 

the engravings of Parmigiano^ and to those of Al- 
bert Durer. The first works that he produced 
for the sacristy of S. Sebastiano in Venice, pre- 
sent us only with the elements of that style he 
subsequently acquired^ in the air of the heads^ and 
in the variety of drapery and of attitudes. For 
the rest his pencil was still timid^ inclined rather 
to unite his tints witb care, than to a bold and 
free manner of handling. But it was not long 
before he displayed more freedom, and more at- 
traction, in painting the ceilings of the same 
church, where he represented the history of Est- 
her, a work whose novelty conciliated public ad- 
miration and became a stepping-stone to very 
honourable commissions from the senate. 

In the meanwhile he enjoyed an opportunity 
of visiting Rome, in company with the ambas- 
sador Grimani, where, surrounded by its grand 
ancient and modem productions, " al volo mo sen- 
ti crescer le penne,'* he felt his wings enlarging as 
he rose, of which he soon gave proofs in the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico, at Venice. Here his imagination 
seems to revel in every piece coloured by his hand; 
but particularly in that which may be called the 
apotheosis of Venice, in regal costume, seated on 
high, crowjied by Glory, celebrated by Fame, at- 
tended by Honour, Liberty, and Peace. Juno 
and Ceres are seen assisting at the spectacle, as 
symbols of grandeur and felicity. The summit is 
decorated with specimens of magnificent architec- 
ture, and with colunms ;. while lower down ap- 

VOL. III. Q 



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226 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

pears a great concourse of ladies with their lords 
and sons^ in various splendid habits^ all represent- 
ed in a gallery; and on the ground are represented 
warriors upon their chargers^ amiis^ ensigns, prison- 
ers, and trophies of war. This oval picture pre- 
sents us with an union of those powers, with which 
Paul so much fascinates the eye, producing a ge- 
neral effect altogether enchanting, and iticludeer 
numerous parts all equally beautiful; bright aerial 
spaces, sumptuous edifices, which seem to invite 
the foot of the spectator; lively features, dignified^ 
selected for the most part from nature, and em- 
bellished by art. Add to these, very graceful mo- 
tions, fine contrasts and expressions ; noble vest^ 
ments, both for their shape and materials; with 
crowns and sceptres, magnificence worthy of so 
august a scene; perspective that gives distance 
to objects, without displeasing us when near;^ 
the most lively colours,f whether similar or con- 
trasted, and harmonized with a peculiar degree 
of art, such as is not to be taught Not in£^or 
to these was the handling of his pencfl, which 

* He attained this effect by drawing these figures with rather 
bold contours, and the other parts after tiis works were complet- 
ed. Owing to his knowledge, as well as-faii^ felidty aikd grace of 
• hand, they are not in the least di6agreea(bie to those who ob^ 
serve them near. {ZanetH, p. 181.) 

t This was easily produced by his rapidity of execution, by 
which his tints always remained clear and simple. The artist 
who repeats his touches frequently, and uses much research, 
can with difficulty preserve freshness, to obtain Which another 
method must undoubtedly be pursued. {ZanHH, p. 163.) 



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SFOCH n. 227 

to the utmost rapidity unites the greatest judg- 
ment^ that effects^ decides^ and aehieves ^me- 
thing in every stroke ; gifts which he had at that 
age rendered familiar to him^ and which form the 
character of his genius. Whoever has resolution 
enough to read Boschini (for it is not every one 
in Italy that can hoast as much) will find at p. 643 
and further^ in addition to the description of this 
picture, the commendations he bestowed on it, 
along with Strozza, Migriard, and other ^ble artists, 
as one of the rarest specimens in the world. Yet 
this did not obtain for him so high a reputation as 
his '' Suppers." Whoever undertakes to describe 
his style, ought by no means to pass over a repre- 
sentation, perhaps the most familiar to him of all, 
having repeated it so many times, until by force of 
exercising his powers and varying it in difflsrent 
ways, the first sovereigns m the world became de- 
sirous of obtaining copies. Several I have seen 
upon a small scale, but always beautiful ; one, the 
Supper of the Eucharist, at Santa Sofia, in Venice; 
another, upon the same subject, and of exquisite 
workmanship, at the Casa Borghese, in Rome ; 
and the feast given by San Gregorio tO' the poor, 
belonging to the Serviti, iii Vicenza; besides others; 
m different collections. In Venice he painted 
four Suppers for the same number of refectories 
in religious houses, both large and rich in point of 
invention. The first repres<(iting the Maniage of 
Cm% is still preserved at S|»n Giorgio Maggiore, 

q2 



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228 VENETIAN/ SCHOOL. 

thirty palms in lengthy copies of which every where 
abound^ and which is highly estimable on account 
of the great number of the figures^ amounting to 
one hundred and thirty^ as well as for its portraits 
of princes and illustrious men^ who flourished at 
the period. It was nevertheless executed for the 
price of only ninety ducats. The second is in bet- 
ter preservation^ placed at San Giovanni and San 
Paolo^ representing the supper prepared by Mat- 
thew for our Lord ; and is very highly extolled for 
its heads> all of which Ricci, at a mature age^ co- 
pied for his studio. The third is at San Sebastiano> 
consisting of the Feast of Simon. The fourth^ 
along with the same Feasts formerly placed at the 
Refectory of the Servi, was presented to Louis 
XIV. of France, and deposited at Versailles; and 
this was preferred by Venetian professors to all 
the rest. For this reason numerous copies were 
presented by them to the world; although the 
artist himself took one for the refectory of the 
monks of SS. Nazario and Celso, along with the 
same Supper, now. in the fine Doria collection at 
Genoa ; and which, however inferior in size to 
the rest, is considered equal, to any of the pre- 
ceding, and has been engraved by the hand of 
the celebrated Volpato. Another, likewise of Si- 
mon, was sent from Venice to Genoa^ which I 
saw in possession of the Durazzo family; with a 
Magdalen that may be esteemed a miracle of art ; 
and I also met with an old copy in the Casa Pao- 



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EPOCH II. 229 

hicci, at Pesaro. What novel methods he adopted 
in all these to decorate the place with architecture, 
and how well he availed himself of them to add to 
the spectators at the festival! What passions de- 
picted in each of the principal actors, and how ap- 
propriate to the period! What splendour in the 
preparation, luxury of dishes, and pomp of guests! 
"Whoever considers these, will easily excuse such 
an artist for some occasional imperfection of de- 
sign, and for inattention to ancient costume, in 
which he is always faulty.* Even Guido, an artist 
so highly celebrated, so far excused them, that he 
was accustomed to say, "were it given me to 
choose what painter I would be, I should prefer 
being Paul Veronese; for in others every thing ap- 
pears the effect of art, but he alone seems all nature." 
He continued to produce specimens until he was 
sixty years of age, though he cannot, like many 
others, be accused of having painted too much ; 
each piece is worthy of Paul Veronese, and each 
has been multiplied by some copyist ; an honour 
that artists have not bestowed upon the works of 
Tintoretto, or those of many others. His method 

* It has been stated in his defence, that had he clothed the 
whole of his figures with those tunics and ancient mantles, he 
would have become monotonous, and consequently uninteresting 
in his great history pieces. But I am of opinion, that whoever is 
familiar with ancient statues and bassi relievi, will find means of 
varying his compositions. The Cavalier Canova has recently 
produced two bassi relievi, on the condemnation of Socrates. The 
Greek vests are two, the tunic and pallium ; yet these are finely 
varied, though, there are a. number of spectators. 



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230 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

of making wse of c\eM grounds, and as much as 
possiUe of virgin colours, has greatly contribut- 
ed to the preservation and freshness of his colour- 
ing. In Venice we meet with several of his pic- 
tures yet glowing with the peculiar grace he 
shed over tib^em. A remarkable specimen is ^eem 
in that belonging to the noble house of Pisanl, ex- 
hibiting the family of Darius presented to Alex- 
ander, which surprises as much by its splendour 
as it affects us by its expression. Equal admira- 
tion was at one time evinced for his Rape of Eu- 
ropa, which he drew upon a large scale, in various 
groups, much in the same manner as Coreggio, 
in his Leda. In the first she appears among her 
virgins in the act of caressing the animal, and de- 
sirous of being borne upon him : in the second, 
she is seen carried along, applauded by her com- 
panions, as she enjoys the scene riding along the 
shore. In the third, (the only one in grand dimen- 
sions) she cleaves the sea in terror, in vain desired 
and lamented by her virgin train. This work, or- 
namenting the Ducal Palace, suffered much from 
the effects of time, and has subsequently been 
restored. 

In Verona; boasting a clime more favourable to 
paintings, we more frequently meet with his pic- 
tures in complete preservation. Many noble houses, 
in particular that of Bevilacqua, at one period his 
patrons, are in possession of several. As an ex- 
pression of his gratitude, he represented in a por- 
trait of one of the Bevilacqua family, his own 



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EPOCH II. 231 

figure standing upright^ with tlie air of his atten- 
dant. But his San Giorgio^ surrounded hy the two 
grand histories of Farinato and of Brusasorci al- 
ready described^ by some esteemed to be the best 
painting in Verona^ is^ perhaps^ in the most per* 
feet state of any that remain. The San Giuliano 
of Rimini is likewise a valuable piece^ which may^ 
perhaps^ compete with the San Giorgio. The San 
Afira^ at Brescia, and the S. Giustina, at Padua^ 
placed in their respective churches, have also suf- 
fered little ; but the last, indeed, is in too lofty a 
situation. His labours for different collections were 
very great, consisting of portraits, Venus, Adonis, 
Cupids, Nymphs, and similar figures, in which 
he displayed the most rich and varied beauty of 
forms, fancy in their embellishment, and jmovelty 
in his inventions ; all subjects indeed familiar to 
his pencil, and which are to be seen in different 
galleries, not omitting even the imperial one. 
Among^his sacred subjects he was more particu* 
lariy attached to the marriage of St. Catherine, 
one of the most laboured of which fell to the share 
of the royal collection of Pitti. He produced, 
also, several Holy Families, in which the better to 
depart from the common practice, he gave birth 
iX> new inventions. They are to be met with in 
Ridolfi (p. 307), copied from one of his own MSS. 
But his devotional pieces were also, for the most 
part, copious histories ; such as the Slaughter of 
the Innocents, laboured in the miniature style, at 
the Palazzo Borghese ; the Esther, at Turin, in 



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232 V£N£TIAN SCHOOL. 

possession of the King of Sardinia. The Queen 
of Sheha^ among a troop of handmaids at the throne 
of Solomon^ a picture lately acquired l)y the reign- 
ing sovereign at Florence. Halls, chiambers, and 
fa9ades likewise, decorated by him in fresco with 
allegorical poems and representations of histories, 
are. frequently met with in Venice, and in the pa- 
laces and seats belonging to the state. Highly 
meriting notice is the palace of His Serene High- 
ness Manin, Doge of Venice, to be seen in the ter- 
ritory of A solo ; the architecture is that of Palla* 
dio; the stuccoes, of Vittoria; while the pictures of 
the Muses, and of many other Pagan deities, are 
from the hand of Paul; forming an union of artists 
sufficient to render the place as celebrated among 
moderq villas, as was that of Lucullus among the 
ancients. 

The school of Paul Veronese commences like 
those already described, with his own family ; in 
the first place, with Benedetto, his younger brother, 
and with his two sons. Carlo and Gabriele. Bene- 
detto was remarkable for the fraternal affection he 
displayed towards Paul, assisting him in the orna- 
mental part of his labours, particularly in his per- 
spectives, in which he possessed considerable skill. 
And, after his death, he shewed the same affec- 
tion to the two sons, directing them by his advice, 
supporting them in their undertakings,' and leaving 
his inheritance to their family. His genius for 
the art was not very great, and in the pieces con- 
ducted by his own hand, he appears only as an 



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EPOCH II. 233 

imitator of Paul, occasionally happy however in a 
few heads, or in his drapery, but hy no means 
eq[ual with himself. There is hardly a work in 
which the connoisseur may not easily detect some- 
thing weak or faulty, as in the Last Supper, in 
the Flagellation, in the Appearance of the Saviour 
before the Tribunal of Pilate, which he painted 
for the church of San Niccolo, and which are some 
of his best productions. If he ever appears to 
have surpassed himself, as in the instance of his 
picture of St. Agatha, placed at the Angeli, in 
Murano, the work has been ascribed to Paul, and 
has even been engraved under his name. Accord- 
ing to Ridolfi he succeeded better in fresco than 
in oils; and both he and Boschini, who examined 
his Roman histories, and his mythological fables, 
painted in stone colour, in the Cortile of the Mo- 
cenighi, give us a very favourable idea of them; 
and the same where they speak of his ornamental 
work, in halls and other places, which admitted of 
his introducing a display of architecture and em- 
bellishments, rather than of figures. 

Carlo Caliari, generally entitled Carletto, the 
diminutive of his name, from the circumstance of 
his dying at the early age of twenty-four,* as we 
find in the register of his parish, owing to his exces- 
sive application to study, was gifted with a genius 
like that of his father. His disposition was parti- 
culmrly docile and attentive, and he was the boast 

* According to Ridolfi, however, he is said to have attained 
kis twenty-sixth year; but certainly not more. 



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384 VEMBTIAN SCHOOL. 

of his parent^ whose style he emulated better than 
BXkf other artist. But Paul> ambitious that he 
should even excel him, was unwilling^ that by 
forming himself upon a single model, he should 
succeed only in becoming a feeble sectarist He 
s^it him, therefore, to study the school of Bas- 
sano, the robustness of which blended with his 
own elegance, would, he expected, produce an ori- 
ginal manner superior to either of the other two. 
At the period when Carletto closed the eyes of his 
beloved father, he was only in his sixteenth, or at 
fiirthest his eighteenth year, though he had at- 
tained such progress and reputation in the art as 
to be enabled to complete several pictures left un- 
finished by his parent, nor was he ever in want of 
commissions. His productions often appear by 
the hand of Paul; whether at that time he did not 
wholly depend upon his own resources, or that 
his father, at least, might have retouched his pieces, 
is not certain. Skilful judges, indeed, have pre- 
tended to discern, or rather to count the number, of 
the strokes traced by the paternal pencil, from their 
inimitable ease, l]ghtness,and rapidity. Thus it has 
occurred in an altar-piec^ of San Frediano Vescovo^ 
to which is added St. Catherine, and some other 
saint, placed in the Medicean Museum, and bearing 
the son's name, though boasting at the same time 
all the grace of his father. But, wherever Carlo 
executed his pieces alone, he is easily distinguish-^ 
able ; his pencil is somewhat more full and hea¥y> 
while his tints are stronger and deeper than those 



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EPOCH II. 8S5 

of his father. We have an instance in his San 
AgQstmo, at the churdi of La Cmtii, whose go- 
Ipuriog betrays that union of the two schools so 
mmii iotesir^d by Paul. 

Gabriele executed Uttle in which he was not as- 
sisted by his brother. In several altar-pieces we 
read as follows : '' Meredes Pauli Caliari Viero- 
nen$is fec^nmt ;' which alludes to such pieces a^ 
Paul hioiself left imperfect, the (x^mpletion 4>f 
which became a joint laboui: ; a systesoi they cw- 
tinned^ likewise, in others, which they produced 
for churches, a^d for the public pal^ide,. Eidoljl 
HWftrds the chief 9@ierit to Carlo, pjacjng Ga^bijole 
seco^ud, and adding, that j^nedetto had,.likowise> 
his share, more e^ecially in the architectjv^l 
parts. Probably too some other p,upil of P^yl 
assisted them, For, in these, we find represented 
the naxims of the master, even his studies, and the 
same figures as his. Still there is occasionajly sQQ^e 
diversity of hand perceptive, as in theiViartyrdom 
of an Apostle at S. Giustina of Padua, whe^e p^e 
of the figures appears so wuQh loaded ysfith, ,sh(ide, 
as not merely to betoay a difference of J|pm4ji but of 
schools. Gabriele survived th^ other fitrtisits of his 
&mily ; residing subseiquently iij Venice, fl»ore ip 
the character of a merchant than a pajbater. StUl he 
continued occasionally to produce a fi^w.portsfdte 
in crayons, extremely rare, or some picture of a ca- 
valcade ; nor did he desist from visiting the studio 
of the artists, where Ijie assisted them, when agree* 
able, with his advice. Arriving at the period of 



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236 VENETIAN SC£[OOL. 

1531, memorable for the great pestilence in Italy, 
and impelled by those noble precepts of humanity 
inculcated in the gospel, he generously exposed his 
life in the service of his afSicted fellow-citizens, 
and fell a sacrifice to the task. 

Proceeding to the other disciples of Paul, and 
to his imitators, it will not be found easy to enu- 
merate them. For having been interested beyond 
any other painter in the cultivation of an art, 
whose object is to give pleasure, so he excelled 
all others in the number of his followers. We are 
told by Zanetti, that many of them were also very 
successful, owing to which, less accurate judges 
are apt to confound the master with those of his 
school, if they do not cautiously attend to the two 
following points, in which none will be found to 
equal him. These are, 1st, the fineness and pecu- 
liar lightness of his pencil combined with sound 
judgment; 2d, a very ready and spirited expres- 
sion of grace, and a dignity in his forms, particu- 
larly in the air of his heads. It must, however, 
be observed, that his scholars, in the progress of 
time, for the most part varied the grounds and 
the colouring, as they approached the style of the 
succeeding epoch. Among the Yenetians, there 
is only enumerated by Zanetti the name of Par- 
rasio Michele,* an artist who enriched with the de- 

* Father Federici has, io the course of this year, 1803, 
brought to light another scholar of Paul, and afterwards of 
Carletto,'borD, like Parrasio, in Venice. He calls him Giacomo 
Lauro, and Giaoomo da Tre^igi, because, having established 



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. y. EPOCH* II. 237 

signs of Paul> and experienced in the firt of colour- 
ing them,, produced several works worthy of him, 
more especially that of a Piet^, adorning a chapel 
within the church of San Giuseppe, a piece in 
which he added a portrait of himself. The people 
of Coneglia have preserved the recollection of one 
of their citizens named Giro, to whom they attri- 
bute ai\ altar-piece of the Nativity of Christ, as 
nearly resembling the style of Paul as possible, 
for which reason it was transferred from the 
church of the Riformati in that city to Rome; and 
they add, that its author was a youth, who never 
attained to mature age. Castelfranco boosts one 
Cesare Castagnoli as a pupil of Paul; though in 
his numerous paintings in fresco he cannot be said 
to display much power, at least beyond a certain 
degree of spirit, promptness, a^nd copiousness of 
ideas. A few less shewy and fanciful .produc- 
tions from the hand of Bartolo, his brother, exe- 

himself in that city, with his family, while still a youth, no one 
could distinguish him by any other patronymic than that of 
■Trerigiano. Thus speak several anonymous contemporaries, 
from whose MS8. the reverend father ^has extracted no slight in- 
formation relative to the pictures executed by Lauro in his new 
country. There he enjoyed the friendship of the fathers of San 
Domenicp, for whose church he painted his celebrated picture 
of St Rocco, in which he exhibited, with great tragic power, the 
terrific scourge of the plague; It is honourable to this artist, 
who died young, that ,this altar-piece, as well as his other 
pictures, both in oil ^nd in fresco, have, until lately, been attri- 
buted either to Paul or to. Carlo, or to some less celebrated 
hands, but always to good and experienced artists. 



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238 VENETIAN 80H00L. 

cttted in oll^ acquired for him higher repntotipa 
than that of Cesare. Angelo Natidi, an lialian, 
is much commended by Palamino for his hibours 
in the royal palaces, and in various cfautche^ in 
Spain^ when painter to the court of king Philip. 
There is reason to doubt whether he really receive 
ed the instructions of Paul, instead of imbibing his 
manner by dint of study and copying, Uke Bom- 
belli and many others; it being recorded of this 
writer, otherwise very estimable, that in regard to 
masters he was apt to embrace opinions by no 
means always true. Omitting the names of a great 
number of foreigners, we make mention here only 
of the Veronese, in order that their master i^hould 
not appear unaccompanied by the noble train of 
disciples bestowed by him upon h«3 ootintirfr. 

Lfuigi Benfatto, known by the name of' dai 
Friso, a si^ter^d^ son, and for many years the guest 
of Paul, copied him in the outset even to servility ; 
though he afterwards gave himself up to an easy 
and rapid style of composition^ little short of the 
licence of the mannerists. It has been supposed 
that he only availed liimself of this facility in such 
commissions as were of small value. He ap- 
proaches nearest to Paul in the church of l^an 
Raffiiello ; in other places he resembles Palma. A 
more free and spirited imitator of Paul was found 
in MafiPeo Verona, a pupil and son*in-law to 
Luigi ; but the quantity of vermilion wiHi which 
he heightened the colour of his fleshes, detracts 
from his worth. Francesco Montemezzano, a Ve- 



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EPOCH II. 239 

ronese, approached i^ill mave frequently than either 
of the preceding to the cfaaraeter of the head of 
his school. He acquired great' reputation by a 
picture of the Annunciation, painted' for the 
church of the Osservanti alia Vigna ; and he was 
employed, also, in the Ducal Palace. He par- 
takes of Caliari in his countenances, in his cos- 
tume, and in the beauty of his figures-: as to the 
rest, he was^ slow of hanc^ and feeble in his colour* 
ing. His picture at San Giorgio, in Verona, con- 
sisting of the Apparition of Christ to thb Magda- 
len, appears extremely languid in competition with 
that of Paul, which is one of thei most brilliant 
productions remaining of that period. To these 
we might add the names of other Veronese, as 
AUprando, and Anselmo Canneri, characterised by 
Vasari as an able assistant to Paul his master. 

Among all the Veronese artists most resembling 
Paul, when ambitious of doing so, was his fnend 
and companion, though his rival, Batista Zelotti. 
Instrticted in the same academy, he was occa- 
sionally the companion of his labours, and ocoa- 
sicmally taught and executed works himself-^alr* 
ways however observing the same rules. Var 
sari mentions him with commendation in his Life 
of San Micheli, where he entitles him Batiftta da 
Verona^ and includes him among the disciples of 
Titian. I have seen a Holy Family by this artist 
in Titian's style in the Carrara collection, frequently 
extolled by us before ; and from such a studio it 
would appear we are to look for that warmth of 



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II ,. U.P.HL;!i|,'t« 



240 VSNlETIAN SCHOOL. 

tints^ in wbich^ for the most party he excels Caliari; 
as well as that power of design in which Zanetti is 
of opinion that he also surpassed him^ although 
others think irery differently. He often surpasses 
him; likewise, in- grandeur, and in what apper- 
tiEons to painting in fresco ; a circumstance Paul 
was ai!<tore of, and for that reason sought to obtain 
his assistance in works of that kind. He possess- 
ed great fertility of ideas, and a rapid hand, while 
he was profound and judicious in his oompositio^ns. 
Indeed, he might have been esteemed another 
Paul, had he been able to compete with him. in 
the beauty of his heads, in variety, and in grace. 
In truth, his productions were frequently given to 
Paul, even those he painted for the Council of 
Ten having been engraved under the latter name 
by Valentino le Febre. He was doubtless one of 
the first artists of his time, though not estimated 
according to his deserts, from having worked 
chiefly in fresco, and at a distance from capital 
cities; in villages, in country seats, and palaces. 
One of his grandest works is seen at Cataio, a 
villa belonging, to the Marchese Tommaso Obizzi, 
where, about 157D, he represented in different 
rooms, the history of that very ancient family, dis^ 
tinguished no less in council than in arms. The 
place is continually sought by foreigners, attracted 
thither by its splendour, by the fame of these 
pictures, and by the valuable museum of anti-r 
quities, collected by the hand of the Marchese ; a 
task of few years, but in point of taste, abundance. 



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EltOCH II. 241 

and rarity of specimens, calculated to confer ho- 
nour upon the state. In his oil-paintings Zelotti 
could not compete with Caliari^ though he ap* 
proached him near enough^ in his Fall of St. Paul^; 
and his Fishing of the Apostles, which he exe- 
cuted for the dome of Yicenza, to merit the ho- 
nour of having them attributed to the pencil of 
Caliari. 

This city was his chief theatre of action ; he 
remained there during some time, and initiated 
one Antonio, a youth called Tognone, in the art, 
from whose hand a few works in fresco are point- 
ed out in the city, while he is honoured by Ridolfi 
both with a Life and Eulogy. Zelotti was in Vi- 
cenza, both alone and together with Paul ; where 
with the help of one of his best pupils he esta- 
blished a school, which partook of the taste of 
both these masters. I reserve a list of his follow-' 
ers for the succeeding epoch. 

It is here the place to inform our readers, that 
the various styles, hitherto described as attaching 
to the Venetian School, do not comprehend all 
that flourished in the state. Ridolfi remarks this 
in his preface, and laments, that owing to the con- 
flagrations occurring in the city, or by the neglect 
of writers, not a few materials had perished^ that 
might have added interest to his history. In 
truth, he was not merely ignorant of several of 
the more ancient artists, but in the period we are 
describing omitted the names of Jacopo Fallaro 
and Jacopo Pisbolica, whom Yasari, in his Life 

VOL. III. R 



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342 VENETIAN aCfiOOL. 

of Saasovino^ records with praise^ citing from the 
hand of the former a picture of San Gio. Colom- 
bino^ at the Domenicani delle Zattere; and of 
the latter, his Ascension of Christ at Santa Maria 
Maggiore. He likewise passed over Vitrulio, se- 
veral of whose productions are the ornament of 
Monte Novissimo^ bearing his name. These ar- 
tists, judging from their manner and other points, 
are to be referred to the age of Titian. Ridolfi 
made mention, and more at length, of another, 
who, exactly contemporary with Paul, continued 
to flourish many years after him, but always as* 
sailed by fortune; and though a good colourist, 
being greatly deficient in point of invention and 
design. His name was Antonio Foler ; and, as a 
convincing proof of his mediocrity, it will be suf- 
ficient to allude to his Martyrdom of St. Stephen, 
at the church of that name ; it is nevertheless, one 
of his best altar-pieces. In small figures, how- 
ever, he appears to have had merit. 

Before concluding the present epoch, it will be 
proper to mention two painters ; one a foreigner, 
the other a Venetian, both of whom followed a 
style altogether different from such as we have al- 
ready described. The artist of Venice is Batista 
Franco, called Semolei. He has been treated of 
in the first volume in several parts, and especially 
in what relates to Baroccio, to whom he was mas- 
ter. He pursued his studies in Rome, and so 
great was his progress in the art of design, that 
he was accounted one of the best imitators of 



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EPOCH n. 243 

Michel Angiolo. In ornamenting San Gio. Decol- 
lator a church belonging to the Florentines in 
Rome, he appears to have been ambitious of 
making a parade of his powers, and his style be- 
came somewhat loaded in the attempt. In his 
other pictures which I have seen in the dome at 
Urbino, and in that of Osimo, where he painted 
in 1547, in Bologna, and in Venice, I have not 
met with any thing similar. He invariably ap* 
pears to have been an able follower of Michel 
Angiolo, and a more powerful colourist than the 
chief part of the Florentine artists. It is easier to 
become acquainted with him in the States of the 
Church than in his native city of Venice, whither 
he seems to have retired towards the close of his 
days^ since, in 1556, he was among the artists se- 
lected to adorn the library of St. Mark. There 
he represented his fable of Actaeon, along with se- 
veral symbolical inventions; and a few other of 
his pictures are exhibited there in public. . He 
died not long subsequently in the year 1561. 

The foreign artist is Giuseppe Porta della Grar- 
fagnana, already mentioned, likewise, under the 
Roman School, in which he was instructed by 
Francesco Salviati, whose surname he assumed. 
For this reason he is sometimes entitled in history 
Salviati the younger. He accompanied his mas- 
ter to Venice, on the latter being invited by the 
Patriarch Grimani to embellish his palace, where 
he produced his celebrated Psyche, still to be seen 
there, near two pictures by the hand of Porta. 

R 2 



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244 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Francesco^ however, soon left Venice; Vasari ad- 
ducing as a very sufficient reason, that it was no 
place for the residence of artists distinguished for 
excellence in design. But the success of Porta, 
who became established and died at Venice, clearly 
proves the contrary. Initiated in a knowledge of 
design by Francesco, he wholly retained the cha- 
racter of the Florentine School, only enlivening it 
with tints in the Venetian taste. Nevertheless, 
he was approved by Titian, and selected along with 
Paul and other leading names to paint in the li- 
brary of St. Mark ; he was continually engaged to 
work in fresco and in oil, both in public and in 
private; and was always distinguished there as 
one of the most able masters of his age.* Seve- 
ral of his altar-pieces remain, and among others 
one of the Assumption; a beautiful piece, at the 
Servi, in Venice, besides a Christ taken from the 
Cross, at Murano, displaying powers of invention 
wholly original, fuU of expression, and an air of 
majesty not very usual in this school. He repeat- 
ed the same subject frequently ; and there was a 
duplicate in the Ducal collection at Modena, sub- 
sequently transferred to Dresden. 

Following«these artists, the reader must not be 
surprised to meet with the name of Jacopo Sanso- 
vino, who, as will appear from the index, derived 
Us surname also from his master. He was much 
courted in Venice, owing to his excellence in the 
art of statuary, as well as in that of an architect, 

* See BoschiDi, Carta, p. 100. Zanetti, p. 494. 



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EPOCH II. 245 

with which he ornamented public places. Still he 
failed not to exercise some influence over that of 
painting, at least of design; in which he had been 
well instructed by Andrea del Sarto, in Florence. 
Indeed^ as the director of the edifice of St. Mark, 
numerous artists were dependent upon him ; and 
it is known^ that he received some commissions 
for designs in mosaic work, which I do not, how- 
ever, find particularized ; as well as others, most 
probably, in tapestry, for the altar of the sa- 
crament, as it has been conjectured from their 
style, by Signor Zanetti. In regard to foreign 
styles, we must proceed, without dwelling upon 
the Cavalier Zuccaro, Passignano, and others al- 
ready treated in their respective schools, to make 
brief mention of Giuseppe Calimberg, or Calim- 
perg, by birth a German, who flourished a consider- 
able time at Venice, where he died about 1570. 
There is the Battle of Constantine> by his hand, 
still preserved at the Servi; and had he always 
displayed the same taste, I should not scruple to 
pronounce him excellent, though somewhat heavy, 
in the practice of his art. Subsequent to him ap- 
pears to have flourished Gio. de Chere Loranese, 
who ought to be mentioned, before we proceed to 
treat of the sect of mannerists, and of the Tene- 
brosi.* Ranking among the scholars of the best Ve- 
netian masters, he produced a history-piece for the 
grand council hall. Other names of foreign artists 

* A class of artists so called, from their excessive use of 
deep slmdes and dark colours. 'TV*. 



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246 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

are to be looked for in the Guida : it is my object 
in this school, as in the rest, to record only such 
as are most deserving of commemoration. 

In the progress of the present history, the reader 
may probably have observed, that no distinction 
had yet been made between certain species of 
painting, previous to the sixteenth century. The 
figurist copied every thing, and availed himself of 
every thing to adorn his compositions; landscapes, 
animals, fruits, flowers, and perspective, were all 
employed as accessaries in favour of the leading 
art ; the execution of which was about as diffi- 
cult to the great masters as the throne of Jupiter 
to Phidias, after having completed the figure of 
the god. By degrees, however, they began to se- 
parate, and to treat these parts of painting seve- 
rally. The Flemish were among the first, who, pur- 
suing the bent of their genius, selected the respec- 
tive branches, and composed pictures, in which, 
landscape for example, became the principal ob- 
ject, while the figure in its turn became an acces- 
sary. And we may here remark, with Bellori, that 
'' the best of these artists dipped their pencil in 
those fine Venetian colours;*' by no means one 
of the least boasts of the Venetian School. The 
Italians, likewise, attended severally to these 
branches of the art, and in particular to landscapes. 
It was Titian who opened the true path to our 
landscape painters ; although nearly the whole of 
his champaign scenery was introduced in aid of 
his figures ; never the contrary. One of these. 



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EPOCH II. 247 

consisting of a Holy Family^ was in possession of 
the Duchess of Massa and Carrara^ lately deceas- 
ed, who left it as a legacy to the Prince Carlo Alba- 
nia of Milan. It is one of the most beautiful of the 
kind I ever saw. Titian was imitated by many 
Flemish artists ; and among the Venetians by 6io« 
Maria Verdizzotti, one of his literary friends, who 
painted under his direction several landscapes, 
much esteemed in different collections, where they 
are rarely to be seen. 

The Bassani produced examples of small pic- 
tures of quadrupeds and birds, which consisting of 
copies taken from those seen in their histories, are 
easily recognized. They are not so npmerous, how- 
ever, as their history-pieces ; nor do I recollect 
having seen specimens of them except in the Ve- 
netian state. In drawing fish, an artist of the name 
of Genzio or Gennesio Liberale, a native of Friuli, 
has been mentioned with praise by Vasari, and 
afterwards by Ridolfi. 

A taste for grotesque, was introduced into Ve- 
nice from Rome, by a citizen of the republic, re- 
corded by me elsewhere as the master of this kind 
of art. His name was Morto da Feltro, who, in the 
company of Giorgione, employed himself in Ve- 
nice, though without leaving any traces of his 
hand. There are specimens of grotesque, in the 
Ducal Palace, painted by Batista Franco, who had 
likewise beheld ancient examples of them at Rome. 
There were others painted for the Patriarch of 
Aquileja, his patron, by Giovanni di Udine, men- 



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248 VEMBTIAM SCHOOL. 

tioned by Yasari under the names of Manni and 
Ricamatore ; an artist very celebrated in his line, 
and almost unique in drawing every kind of birds, 
quadrupeds, fruits, and flowers. I have included 
him in the school of Giorgione ; and he is stated 
more at length in that of Raffaello ; for he remain- 
ed but little while with his first master, and in Up- 
per Italy ; but longer in Rome, and during some 
time in Florence. His pictures of birds, or fruits, 
executed in oil, are pointed out in different col- 
lections, though, if T mistake not, they are not all 
genuine. It is not, indeed, that he produced no 
specimens in oil, although it is extremely difficult 
to discover any that are certain ; nor that he was 
incapable of drawing larger figures than such as 
we see in his satyrs, in his boys, and nymphs, 
with which he diversified the little landscapes and 
the tracery of his grotesques. Yasari mentions 
some of his standards, one of which, executed in 
Udine, for the Fraternity of Castello, presents in 
rather large proportions, a blessed virgin with the 
divine child, and an angel making her an offering 
of the same castle. The original, though much de- 
faced, still exists, and there is also a copy in the 
chapel, executed by Pini in 1653. There likewise 
remains in the archiepiscopal palace, a cham- 
ber containing^ among some grotesques, two scrip- 
tural histories, drawn in half-length figures, not so 
perfect as the ornamental part, but valuable from 
their rarity. His other productions, both in Udine 
and th^ state, have been enumerated in a learned 



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EPOCH 11. 249 

letter written by the Ab. Boni, upon the standard 
or gonfalone^ just described. If we might hazard 
a conjecture relative to the school of Giovanni and 
of Feltro, we should be inclined to give for a pu- 
pil to one of these^ Giorgio Bellunese^ an artist^ as 
we are informed by Cesarini^ '* very excellent in 
friezes and in minute ornaments^'* and moreover an 
able portrait-painter. He flourished at San Vito, a 
place in the Friuli, about the middle of the sixteenth 
century ; so that the time> the place, and his em- 
ployment in ornamental work, seem equally to 
favour our opinion. 

The art of architectural design received great 
assistance in Venice during this period, from the 
wdrks of Sansovino, Palladio, and other consum- 
mate architects, who gave finished examples of 
magnificent edifices ; while Daniel Barbaro com- 
posed very useful treatises upon perspective ; and 
it became an attribute of the art to feign colon- 
nades, galleries, and rich cornices, for those halls 
in which real architecture would not admit of them. 
In this, Cristoforo and Stefano Rosa more par- 
ticularly distinguished themselves. They were 
from Brescia, very intimate with Titian, and merit- 
ed the honour of being employed by him, in his 
architectural ornaments for several of his pieces. 
In Brescia, in Venice, and particularly in the anti- 
chamber to the library of S. Mark, we may meet 
with some of their perspectives, so admirably ex- 
ecuted as to surprise us by their air of majesty, 
cheating the eye by their relief; and when behel^ 



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250 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

in different points of view^ always producing a 
good effect Their school continued to flourish 
during many years^ in their native state ; and was 
subsequently supported by Bona^ excellent also in 
figures^ as well as by other artists. Boschini be- 
stows many commendations upon it in different 
parts of his work in verse; and in particular at 
p. 22$^ where he declares^ that Brescia was the 
source of this art ; which applies of course to the 
Venetian state. 

Finally, the art of mosaic work^ in stone and co- 
loured glass^ at that time, attained such a degree 
of perfection in Venice, that Vasari observed with 
surprise, " that it would not be possible to ef- 
fect more with colours.'** The church and portico 
of S. Mark remains an invaluable museum of 
the kind ; where, commencing with the eleventh 
century, we may trace the gradual progress of de- 
sign belonging to each age up to the present, as ex- 
hibited in many works in mosaic, beginning from 
the Greeks, and continued by the Italians. They 
chiefly consist of histories from the Old and New 
Testament, and at the same time furnish very in- 
teresting notices relating to civic and ecclesiasti- 

♦ There was an attempt to revive it, made in Florence. Ros- 
coe, in his '< Life of Lorenzo de' Medici/' (vol. ii. p. 220, 6th ed.) 
relates, that, with Gherardo, Lorenzo associated Domenico 
Ohirlandajo to work in mosaic at the chapel of San Zenobio : 
but that this undertaking, so admirably begun, was interrupted 
by Lorenzo's death ; insomuch that ** his attempts,"' observes the 
historian, ** were thus in a great degree frustrated." This ho- 
nour appeared to be reserved for Venice^ 



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BPOCH II. 261 

cal antiquity. A portion of the most ancient spe- 
cimens had long either perished^ or fallen into de- 
cay, and it had been resolved to substitute fresh 
ones in their place. It is not improbable, that af- 
ter the year 1400, upon the revival of painting, a 
desire prevailed to banish the taste of the Greeks ; 
and certain it is, that in the mosaics of that age 
we meet with the modem antique style, the same 
as in regard to pictures. It will be enough to 
cite the chapel of the Mascoli, decorated by Mi- 
chele Zambono with histories of the life of the 
virgin, executed with extraordinary care, and de- 
signed in the best taste of the Yivarini. 

The same taste prevailed in the time of Titian ; 
and to this he gave a renewed spirit, and even fur- 
nished several of these artists with designs. Marco 
Luciano Rizzo and Yincenzo Bianchini are* the 
first, who, about 1517, succeeded in a complete re- 
form of the art. To the last is referred that ce- 
lebrated Judgment of Solomon, which adorns the 
portico, or vestibule. Both these, however, were 
surpassed by Francesco and Valerio Zuccati of Tre- 
viso, or rather of the Valtelline, sons of the same 
Sebastian who initiated Titian in the first rudi- 
ments of the art. Of these, likewise, there appears 
in the portico a San Marco, among various pro- 
phets and doctors, and with two histories that may 
be pronounced the best mosaic works, produced 
during the age of painting. I have seen altar- 
pieces for churches, and pictures for private orna- 
ment, in the same taste. The Royal Gallery at 



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252 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Florence possesses a portrait from life of Cardi- 
nal Bembo^ worked by Yalerio ; and a San Girola* 
mo^ by Francesco^ is known to have been present- 
ed by the republic to the court of Savoy. Subse- 
quent to these, whom Yasari erroneously calls 
sometimes Zuccheri^ sometimes Zuccherini^ Armi- 
nio, a son of Yalerio^ was in much repute. Nor 
did this family only possess the art of colouring 
stone and glass with admirable skill; but they 
understood the principles of design^ more par- 
ticularly Francesco^ who had been a painter be- 
fore entering upon mosaic works. The family of 
Bianchini^ and the other artists then employed at 
S. Mark, were not equally well instructed ; and, 
stimulated by feelings of envy, they declared open 
enmity against the Zuccati, for having assisted with 
the brush to supply some parts of the design to be 
executed in mosaic ; nor did they fail to cry down 
the ability of Yalerio, to whom it would appear 
that Titian and his son afforded succour. It would 
be tedious here to relate the various persecutions, 
litigations, and losses, owing to this quarrel ; the 
particulars of which were extracted by Zanetti 
from authentic documents, and minutely describ- 
ed. Enough, that he concludes with extolling the 
Zuccati, together with Yincenzio Bianchini ; to 
whom, as being acquainted with design, it was 
sufficient to furnish a rough draught for the in- 
tended work. Others were, for the most part, in 
want of cartoons, and complete paintings, in order 
to model their mosaic works, and even then they 



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EPOCH II. 253 

conducted them with skill much inferior to their 
predecessors. In this list he computes Domenico^ 
the brother^ and Gio. Antonio, the son of Y incenzio 
Bianchini, as well as Bartolommeo Bozza, at one 
time a pupil, and then an accuser along with the 
rest, of the Zuccati. In the time of these were 
first adopted, and practically applied, the works 
and designs of Salviati and of Tintoretto. The 
names succeeding these, were Gio. Antonio Marini, 
a pupil of Bozza, and Lorenzo Ceccato, both ad- 
mirable artificers; Luigi Gaetano and Jacopo Pas- 
terini, with Francesco Turestio, notices of whom 
are brought up to the year 1618. They worked 
after the cartoons of the two Tintoretti, of Palma 
the younger, of Maifeo Verona, of Leandro Bas- 
sano, of Aliense, of Padovanino, of Tizianello, be- 
sides several others. About the year 1600 com- 
menced a series of artists less generally known ; a 
list of whose works may be consulted at the close 
of that very valuable publication, *' Delia Pittura 
Veneziana'' These last, however, have confined 
their labours to the decoration of new walls, from 
modem designs; as since 1610, a decree has been 
in force against the destruction of ancient mosaic 
works, in however rude or Greekish a taste; but 
in case of impendjing destruction, they were to be 
removed and restored with care, and afterwards 
refixed in the same place. By this measure a se- 
ries of monuments is preserved to posterity, which, 
in its kind, is quite unique in Italy, and the 
world. 



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VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

THIRD EPOCH. 

Innovations of the Mannerists of tJie Seventeenth Century. 
Corruption of Venetian Painting, 

A SORT of fatality seems to prevail in all human 
things, rendering their duration in the same state 
of short continuance ; so that after attaining their 
highest elevation, we may assuredly at no distant 
period look for their decline. The glory of pre- 
cedency, of whatever kind, will not long remain 
the boast of one place, or in possession of a single 
nation. It migrates from country to country ; and 
the people that yesterday received laws from ano- 
ther, will to-morrow impose them. Those who to- 
day are the instructors of a nation, will to-morrow 
become ambitious of being admitted in the num- 
ber of its disciples. Numerous examples might 
be adduced in support of this proposition, but 
it would be quite superfluous. For whoever is 
even slightly acquainted with civil or literary his- 
tory, whoever has observed the passing events 
of the age in which we live, will easily furnish 
himself with proofs, without the aid of writers to 
direct him. We have already traced the same re- 
volution of affairs in the art of painting, in the two 
schools of Rome and Florence, which, arriving at 



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EPOCH ui. 255 

the senith of their fame^ fell into decay precisely 
at the period when that of Venice began to exalt 
itself. And we shall now perceive the decline of 
the latter^ during the same age in which the Flo- 
rentine began to revive, in which the school of Bo- 
logna acquired its highest degree of reputation ; 
and what is still more surprising, seemed to rise by 
studying the models of the Venetian. So indeed 
it was : the Caracci were much devoted to Titian, 
to Giorgione, to Paul Veronese, and Tintoretto, 
and thence formed styles, and produced pupils that 
conferred honour upon the whole of the seven- 
teenth century. The Venetians, too, studied the 
same examples, and derived from them a certain 
mannerism reprehensible enough in them, but much 
more so in their disciples. These, devoting them- 
selves in their first studies to more classical artists, 
and attaining a certain practice' both in design and 
colouring, next aimed at displaying upon a grand 
scale, figures, not so much taken from life, as from 
engravings and pictures, or from their own ima- 
ginations ; and the more rapidly these were exe- 
cuted, the better did they suppose they had suc- 
ceeded. I am inclined to believe, that the exam- 
ples of Tintoretto proved, in this respect, more pre- 
judicial than useful. Few were ambitious of emu- 
lating his profound knowledge, which in some 
measure serves to veil his defects ; but his haste, 
his carelessness, and his grounds, they more wil- 
lingly adopted; while his great name was ad^ 
vanced as a shield to cover their own faults. And 



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256 VBNBTIAN SCHOOL. 

the earliest of these^ not yet unmindful of the max- 
ims of a better age, did not rush blindly into all 
these errors and excesses; but by their superio- 
rity of spirit, and by their tints, maintained their 
ground better than the mannerists of the Roman 
and Florentine styles. But to these succeeded 
others, whose schools degenerated still more from 
the ancient rules of art. We advance this without 
meaning the least imputation upon really good 
artists, who flourished even during this period ; for 
an age rarely occurs in which good sense becomes 
altogether extinct. Even during the barbarity of 
the dark ages, we meet with specimens of some mar- 
ble busts of the Caesars, and some of their medals, 
which approach a better taste; and thus also in 
the age we are describing appeared geniuses, who 
either wholly, or in great measure, kept them- 
selves free from the general infection ; '' et tenuere 
animum contra sua saecula rectum." Properl. 

Jacopo Palma the younger, so called to distin- 
guish him from the other Palma, his great uncle, 
was an artist who might equally be entitled the 
last of the good age, and the first of the bad. Born 
in 1544, after receiving the instructions of his fa- 
ther Antonio, a painter of a confined genius, he 
exercised himself in copying from Titian, and 
the best of the national artists. At the age of fif- 
teen years he was taken under the patronage of 
the Duke of Urbino, and accompanied him to his 
capital He afterwards spent eight years in Rome, 
where he laid a good foundation for his profession. 



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EPOCH III. 257 

by designing flrom the antique, copying Michekn-' 
giolo and Raffaello; and, in particular, by studying 
the chiaroscuros of Polidoro. This last was his 
great model, and next to him came Tintoretto; he 
being naturally inclined, like them, to animate his 
figures with a certain freedom of action, and a 
spirit peculiarly their own. On his return to Ve- 
nice, he distinguished himself by several works, 
conducted with singular care and diligence ; nor 
are there wanting professors who have bestowed 
on him a very high degree of praise, for displaying 
the excellent maxims of the Roman, united to what 
wa5 best in the Venetian School. It is observed 
by Zanetti, that some of his productions were at- 
tributed by professors to the hand of Giuseppe 
del Salviati, whose merit, in point of design and , 
solidity of style, has been already noticed. The 
whole of these are executed with peculiar facility, 
a dangerous gift both in painting and in poetry, 
which this artist possessed in a remarkable degree. 
Though he made the greatest exertions to bring 
himself into notice, he was little employed ; the 
post was already occupied by men of consummate 
ability, by Tintoretto and Paul Veronese; and these 
monopolized all the most lucrative commissions. 
Palma, however, obtained the rank of third; chiefly 
by means of Vittoria, a distinguished sculptor and 
architect ; whose opinion was adopted in the dis- 
tribution of the labours even of artists themselves. 
Displeased at the little deference shewn him by 
Robusti and Paul, he began to encourage Pialma, 

VOL. III. s 



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258 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

and to assist him also with his advice^ so that he 
shortly acquired a name. We have related a simi- 
lar instance in regard to Bernini^ who brought 
forward Cortona against Sacchi^ at Rome^ besides 
several more^ productive of the greatest detriment 
to the art. So true it is that the same passions 
prevail in every age, every where puniue the same 
track, and produce the same results. 

Nor was it long before Pahna, overwhelmed with 
conmiissions, remitted much of his former dili- 
gence.* In progress of time, he became even yet 
more careless, until upon the death of his eldest 
rivals, including Corona, who in his latest works 
had begun to surpass him, free from competition 
he asserted unquestioned sway, and despatched his 
pieces rapidly. His pictures, indeed, might often 
be pronounced rough draughts, a title bestowed 
upon them in ridicule by the Cavalier d'Arpino. 
In order to prevail upon him to produce a piece 
worthy of his name, it became requisite, not only 
to allow him the full time he pleased, but the full 
pri^e h,e chose to ask, without further reference, 
except to his own discretion, in w:hich truly he did 
not greatly abound. Upon such terms he exe- 
cuted that fine picture of San Benedetto, at thq 
church of SS. Cosmo and Damiano, for the noble 
family of Moro. It rese^ibled many of those he 
had produced in his best days at Venice, and in 
particular that celebrated naval battle-piece of 
Francesco Bembo, placed in the Palazzo Pubblico> 
Other valuable specimeijis are found scattered else- 



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EPOCH III. 2S9 

ivhere^ in part mentioned by Ridolfi, and in part 
unknown to him. Such are his Santa ApoUonia^ at 
Cremona^ his San Ubaldo and his Nunziata^ at 
Pesaro, and his Invenzione della Croce^ at Urbino, 
a piece abounding in figures, and full of beauty, 
variety, and expression. His tints are fresh, sweet, 
and clear, less splendid than those of Paul, but 
more pleasing than in Tintoretto ; and though scan- 
tily applied, they are more durable than those of 
certain foreign pictures more heavily laid on. In 
the animation of his figures he approaches the two 
preceding artists, particularly in his more stu- 
died works, as he has shewn in his Chastisement 
of the Serpents, a picture that seems embued with 
horror. In every other instance he has always suffi- 
cient art to please; and it is surprising how a man 
who led the way to the most corrupt period in 
Venice, as it bas been observed of Vasari at Flo- 
rence, and of Zuccaro at Rome, could thus exhi- 
bit so many attractions, both of nature and of art, 
calculated to feast the eye, and to fix the soul of 
the spectator. Both Guercino and Guido were 
sensible of the power of his pencil ; and when exa- 
mining one of his altar-pieces, at the Cappucini, 
in Bologna, '' What a pity," they exclaimed, *' that 
the master of such a pencil should be no more," 
(Boschini, p. 383.) 

In observance of my plan of accompanying each 
master witli his train of followers, I set out with 
Marco Bosehini, a Venetian, who flourished during 
this same deterioration^ of a nobler age. He was 

s 2 



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260 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

a pupil to Palma^ and has left some memorials of 
the different professors of the third epoch, not to 
be met with in any other work. Professing the 
art of engraving, rather than that of painting, he 
had, nevertheless, so much merit in the latter, as 
to £^proach the manner of Palma, in his picture 
of the Supper of our Lord, in the Sacristy of 
San Girolamo ; as well as that of Tintoretto, as we 
gather from a few of his altar-pieces in the terri- 
tory of Padua, and his pictures for private orna- 
ment, remaining at Venice, at least as far as I can 
learn. He was the author of several works re- 
corded in the preface to this work, the most re- 
markable of which is composed in Quartine, with 
the following title ; and, by this production, he is 
perhaps best known : '' The Chart of pictorial Na- 
vigation, a Dialogue between a Venetian senator 
(adilettante) and a professor of painting, under the 
names of Ecelenza and Compare, divided into 
eight venti, or winds, with which the Venetian 
vessel is borne into the deep Sea of Painting, as 
its Absolute Mistress, to the confusion of such as 
do not understand the loadstone and the compass.'' 
. Thus, much in the same manner as we judge 
from the facade of the style of a whole edifice in 
the gothic taste, the reader may gather, from this 
very loaded title, the exact nature of Boschinf s 
work. It is, indeed, written in the most verbose 
style of the Seicentisti; a mixture of unsound 
reasoning, strange allegory, tame allusions, frivo- 
lous conceits invented on every name, and phra- 



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EPOCH UI. 261 

seology that surpasses even that of Ciairipoli and 
Melosio; for these at least wrote in the Italian 
dialect^ whereas Boschini protests that he does 
not pretend to a foreign idiom, but to speak like 
the Venetian people. From this undistinguishing 
kind of nationality arises his malevolence against 
Vasari, and the methods of the foreign schools^ as 
well as his exaggerated praise of the Venetian ar- 
tists, whom he prefers, as we learn from his title- 
page, to all the painters in the world, not merely 
as respects their manner of colouring, but in point 
of invention and design. What is worse, he makes 
no distinction between the fine old painters and the 
mannerists of his own times, and speaks as if the 
masters of the former age were still flourishing, 
and teaching in their schools, or as if the modem 
possessed the same powers and the same reputa- 
tion; a gross equivocation into which the tiresome 
Compare, or gossip, is continually falling, and which 
his credulous Excellency as frequently commends. 
If, however, in treating of Vasari, I in some 
measure excused his partialities, in consideration 
of the prejudices acquired by his education, which 
are afterwards with diflficulty eradicated; I ought 
to make use of the same liberality in regard to 
Boschini, more especially as he possessed fewer op- 
portunities of ridding himself of them,never having 
visited Rome or Florence, and giving his opinions 
upon foreign schools, from the hearsay relations 
of others. It is true that he cites in favour of the 
Venetians the opinion of many distinguished men; 



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262 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

as that of Yelasco, who protested to Salvator Rosa, 
that Raffaello was no longer a favourite with him 
after having seen Venice; or that of Rubens, who, 
after spending upwards of six years at Rome to 
little purpose, formed his style on the models 
of Titian. Albano likewise regretted that he had 
not commenced his studies in Venice, preferably 
to Rome; and Pier da Cortona having seen the 
works of the Venetian School, cancelled some of 
his labours, and ornamented afresh two cham- 
bers of the Palazzo Pitti, and one in the Casa Bar- 
berini. But these authorities, which he adduces 
along with others, taken chiefly from artists who 
preferred beauty of colouring to accuracy of de- 
sign, do not prove much, and might be opposed 
by other authorities, even of great painters, more 
particularly English and French, who embraced 
a contrary opinion. Besides, the panegyrists 
thus cited by him, did not commend the modem 
so much as the ancient Venetian painters, so as 
by no means to possess the weight he would at- 
tribute to them. Moreover, in the present day, 
when so much has been written upon Italian 
painting, we shall not, on investigating what is to 
be admired and imitated, and what to be shunned 
or approved in the examples of the Venetians, 
appeal to the vain boastings of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, but to the critics of our own times. Still we 
do not mean to deny^ but that the work in ques- 
tion, however strangely written, contains many 
valuable historical notices, and many pictorial pre- 



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EPOCH III. 268 

cepts^ particularly useful to such as cannot aspire 
to any thing beyond the character of mere naturar 
lii^ts, incapable of drawing a stroke that does not 
appear in their models and content with portraying 
the dimensions of any kind of head or body, pro- 
vided they be of the human shape, inventing with 
infinite difficulty, slow in resolving, and quite in* 
capable of forming a grand history, more espe- 
cially of battles, of flights, in short of any objects 
they never saw. This sect, which at that period 
boasted many followers, and which is not even yet 
extinct, is there ridiculed in a vein it is impossible 
to surpass, and would that the party proceeding to 
the opposite extreme of mannerism, at that time 
triumphant in Venice, had not met with equal ap- 
plause ! But how difficult is it to observe the gol- 
den mean! though the artists of Bologna will point 
out the way in due time. At present we must re- 
turn to those of Venice. 

Numerous other artists very nearly approached 
the style of Palma. Boschini enumerates six, 
whose manner so extremely resembles him, as to 
impose upon those who have not tact enough to 
detect the peculiar characteristics of each; (and in 
Palma there is a mixture of the Roman and Vene- 
tian,) consistingof the names of Corona, Vicentino, 
Peranda, Aliense, Malombra, and Pilotto. The 
same author extols them as illustrious painters; 
and truly, besides the splendour of their colouring, 
they composed upon a magnificent scale, emulating. 



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^4 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

for the most part^ the fire and the striking conr 
trasts that produced such an impression after the 
time of Titian^ executing pictures every way dter 
serving of a place in good collections* 

Leonardo Corona, of Murano^ who, from a co- 
pyist, succeeded in becoming a painter, was the 
rival of Palma, and nevertheless enjoyed the pa- 
tronage of Vittoria; whether to keep alive the 
emulation of the former, or for some other rea* 
son, is uncertain. He sometimes prepared models 
in clay, to discover the best distributions of his 
chiaroscuro. By aid of these he painted his An- 
nunciation, at SS. Giovanni and Paolo, a work very 
highly commended, as well as his picture at San 
Stefano, displaying^ a grandeur that arrests the 
eye, and reminds us more of Titian than any other 
model. In general, however. Corona exhibited 
more of Tintoretto, if not in his colouring, which 
in the present day appears to more advantage, 
at least in many other points. He produced a 
crucifixion so much in this artist's style, that Ri- 
dolfi has defended him with the utmost difficulty 
from the charge of theft. He avaUed himself 
likewise of the engravings of Flemish artists, par- 
ticularly in the composition of his landscape. He 
did not long flourish ; but left an excellent imita- 
tor of his style in Baldassare d' Anna, an artist of 
Flemish origin, who completed a few of his mas- 
ter's pieces. He also produced some original pieces 
for the Servi and other churches, which, though 



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EPOCH III. . 266 

inferior to those of Corona in the selection of 
forms^ yet surpass them in the softness^ and somer 
times in the force of their chiaroscuro. 

Andrea Yicentino was, according to some 
writers^ a Venetian^ and pupil to Palma ; not ex- 
celling in point of taste, he was nevertheless very 
skilful in the handling of his colours, and shewed 
great power of invention. Being employed in 
many labours, both within and without the boun- 
daries of Venice, and even in depicting histories 
of the Republic, which still continue to adorn 
several halls in the Palazzo Grande, he was 
one of the most popular artists of his tune. He 
rarely fails to exhibit in his works some perspec- 
tive, or some figure borrowed, according to the 
custom of the plagiarists, from the best masters : 
including even Bassano, an artist of few ideas con- 
stantly repeated, and so far less easily pillaged 
with impunity. At the same time he bestows 
upon his plagiarise a beauty of composition, and 
a general effect tb|it does honour to his talents, 
applicable to every vari^jty of subject. He could 
also employ a very delicate, tasteful, and effective 
pencil, when he chose to exert himself. In his 
grounds, however, he must have been less success- 
ful, many of his paintings being already much de- 
faced. In collections, always more favourable to 
their duration than public places, we may find se- 
veral in good preservation, and deserving of much 
comfKienda^on, as we gather from his Solomon 
Anointed on becoming king of Israel, preserved 



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266 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

in the Royal Gallery at Florence. Marco Vicen- 
tino, son of Andrea, also acquired some celebrity 
by his imitations, and more by the name of his 
&ther. 

Santo Peranda, a scholar of Corona and of 
Palma, and tolerably well versed in Roman de- 
sign, having passed some time at Rome, aimed 
at a diversity of styles. His usual manner a 
good deal resembles that of Palma, while, in his 
large histories, which he produced at Venice and 
at Mirandola, he appears in a more poetical cha- 
racter of his own. Yet he was naturally of a 
more slow and reflective turn, and more studi- 
ous of art, qualities that in the decline of age 
led him to adopt a very delicate and laboured 
manner. He was not ambitious of equalling his 
contemporaries in the abundance of his works ; 
his aim was to surpass them in correctness ; nor 
did he any where succeed better in his object 
than in his Christ taken from the Cross, painted 
for the church of San Procolo. Among his dis- 
ciples, Matteo Ponzone, from Dalmatia, more par- 
ticularly distinguished himself, assisting Peranda 
in his great works executed at Mirandola. In 
progress of time he formed an original style, 
which surpasses in softness that of his master, 
though not equal to it in point of elegance. He 
was fond of copying from the life, without at- 
tempting much to add to its dignity. His scholar, 
Gio. Carboncino, pursued his studies at Rome 
also, where we do not, however, find mention of 



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EPOCH IIL 267 

him/ owing probably to his speedy return to 
Venice. Among the few pieces produced by him 
for churches, there is a Bto. Angelo, at the Car* 
mini, which has been much commended by Mel- 
chiori, and a San Antonio, at La Piet^, mentioned 
by Guarienti. Two others, named Maffei, of Vi- 
cenza, and Zanimberti, of Brescia, will come under 
consideration in their respective states. 

Antonio Vassilacchi, called Aliense, a native of 
the island of Milo, inherited from the fine climate 
<^ Greece a genius adapted to confer honour 
upon the arts, and particularly on works of a vast 
and imaginative character. Paul Veronese, struck 
with his first efforts, banished him, with a feeling 
of jealousy, from his studio, advising him at the 
same time to confine himself to small pictures. 
Aliense observing Paul engaged in reviving the 
examples of Titian, renewed as far as lay in his 
pawer those of Tintoretto. He studied casts taken 
from the antique, designing from them both day 
and night; he exercised himself in acquiring a 
knowledge of the human frame, modelled in wax, 
copied Tintoretto with the utmost assiduity, and, 
as if wholly to forget what he had learnt from 

* In the Memorie Trevigiane, I find that this artist was known 
also at Rome, in the Guide to which place, however, his name 
is not to be met with. I have some doubt it may have been 
confounded with that of Gio. Carbone. But this last was from 
S. Severino, and a fdlower of Caravaggio ; the other a Vene- 
tian, attached to Titian ; and, in some pictures he produced at 
San Niccol6 of Trevigi, he subscribes not Carbonis, but Carbon^ 
emi opvs. 



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268 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Paul> he sold the designs made at his school. 
Yet he could not so far divest himself of them, 
but that in his earliest productions, remaining at 
the church of Le Y ergini, he displayed the manner 
of Paul. He has been accused by historians of 
having abandoned this style for one less adapted 
to his genius ; and moreover of having been mis- 
led by the innovations of the mannerists. Some- 
times, however, he painted with extreme care, as 
in his Epiphany, for the Council of Ten, though 
in general he abused the facility of his genius, 
without fear of risking his credit, inasmuch as his 
rivals Palma and Corona pursued the same plan. 
In order better to oppose his great eneiuy Yit- 
toria, he attached himself to another architect, 
who possessed much influence, named Girolamo 
Campagna, the disciple of Sansovino; and he 
moreover enjoyed the favour of Tintoretto. In 
this manner Alienee obtained many commissions, 
both for the public palace and the Yenetian 
churches, besides being engaged in many works 
for other cities, more especially for Perugia, at 
S. Pietro, all ypon a magnificent scale ; yet with- 
out acquiring that degree of estimation which 
the felicity of his genius deserved. He was as- 
sisted by Tommaso Dolobella, of Belluno, a good 
practitioner, and well received in Poland, where 
he long continued in the service of Sigismond 
III. In his Life of Aliense, Ridolfi makes men- 
tion also of Pietro Mera, a Fleming, whose por- 
trait Aliense painted, as being his friend; but nei- 



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EPOCH III. 269 

ther from history, nor from his own style, can 
we gather that he was Aliense's disciple. He re- 
dided, and employed himself much in Venice, at 
SS. Giovanni and Paolo, at La Madonna dell' 
Orto, and elsewhere: while the judgment pro- 
nounced upon him by Zanetti is, that he appeared 
to have greatly attached himself to the Venetian 
artists, and to have derived sufficient profit. 

Pietro Malombra, a Venetian by birth, deserves 
almost to be excluded from the list of Palma's 
disciples, and even from that of the mannerists. 
If he sometimes deviated from the right path, 
it must rather be attributed to human error, 
than to erroneous maxims. Born in a degree of 
comparative ease, he acquired from education a 
sense of the value of that excellent axiom, '' that 
honour is better than gain." After employing 
himself in the studio of Salviati, where he obtain- 
ed a good knowledge of design, he continued to 
paint for his own pleasure. But equally intelli- 
gent and docile, he never scrupled to bestow the 
utmost pains to bring his works to a higher degree 
of perfection, than was the usual practice of his 
times. Afterwards experiencing a reverse of for- 
tune, he entered upon the art as his profession, 
and ornamented parts of the Ducal Palace. In 
his portraits and pictures upon.a small scale, he 
was also very successful. He represented at San 
Francesco di Paola, various miracles of the saint, 
in four pictures; and his figures display a preci- 
sion in their contours, a grace, and an originality 



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270 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

which lead us to douht whether they can belong, 
not merely to the epochs but to the school of 
which we are here treating. Similar specimens he 
produced for galleries, sometimes enlivening witb 
them his perspective views, in which he possessed 
equal skill and assiduity. Those in which he ex- 
hibited the grand piazza, or the great hall of coun- 
cil, representing in them their respective sacred or 
civU ceremonies, processions, ingresses, public au- 
diences, great spectacles, to which the place adds 
an air of grandeur, extorted the plaudits of all 
ranks. 

Girolamo Pilotto occupies the sixth place among 
those, who, in the opinioift of Boschini, are apt to 
be confounded with Pabna. Zanetti is content 
with observing, that he was a true follower of 
that style, and that in his works may be recogr 
niaed the ideas of his master, conducted in a veiy 
happy maaner. Yemce boasts few of his pieces, 
although we are elsewhere informed that he died 
at an advanced age; His picture of the Nuptials 
of the Sea, painted for the public palace, is exr 
tolled in higb term& by Orlandi, while others have 
greatly admired his San lUagio, which he pro- 
duced for the great altar of the Fraglia, in Ro- 
vigo ; a picture displaying great sweetness of man- 
ner, and signed with his name. 

To attempt a full list of the rest of the mamije- 
rists> who followed more or less the eompositiou of 
Pahna, would onijy weary the reader with a repe- 
tition of names. From these I select, therefore. 



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EPOCH III. 271 

merely a few of the most remarkable in Venice 
and its vicinity, haying to make mention of others 
in the respective schools of terra-firma. Giro- 
lamo Gamberati^ a scholar of Porta, acquired the 
art of colouring from Palma, upon whose model he 
painted at Le V ergini, and other places. It is still 
suspectecf, however, that the character displayed in 
his pieces, must have come from the hand of Pal- 
ma, whose friendship occasionally assisted him. In 
the Guide by Zanetti, we find mention of a Ja- 
como Alberelli, a disciple of Palma, who painted 
the Baptism of Christ at the church of the Ogni- 
santi* There is a slight allusion to him in Ridolfi, 
by whom he is entitled Albarelli ; and he adds^ 
that he produced the bust for the tomb of his mas- 
ter, in whose service he lived during thirty-four 
years. Camillo Ballini is also recorded among 
the Palmese mannerists, whether a native of Ve- 
nice or of the state is not certain. In his manner 
he is pleasing, though neither spirited nor vigo- 
rous ; and he was likewise emplayed in the Ducal 
Palace. Bdschini moreover extols Bianchi^ Di- 
mo, and Donati, all Venetians, and his own friends; 
but I would omit them, finding no commendations 
in any other work. I omit also Antonio Cecchim 
da Pesaro, whose age, as reported in the index, 
cannot be brought to agree with the period of Pal- 
ma's professorship. 

In Trevigi, Ascanio Spineda, a noble of that city, 
is held in some estimation, and included among 
the disciples of Palma ; from whom he is some- 



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272 VENETIAN SCHOOL* 

times with difficulty distinguished. One of the 
most exact in point of design, he also colours 
with much sweetness and grace of tints ; an artist 
deserving to be known in his native district, 
which abounds with the best of his works. He 
employed himself there, for many churches, suc- 
ceeding perhaps better at San Teonisto than at 
any other place* No one surpassed him in the 
number of his pieces for public exhibition, if we 
except indeed on^ Bartolommeo Orioli, who, 
about the same period, displayed the talent of a 
good practiser, though with less repute. This 
last belonged to that numerous tribe who, in 
Italy, were ambitious of uniting in themselves the 
powers of poetry and painting ; but who, not 
having received sufiinent polish either in precept 
or in art, gave ve^i to their inspiration in their 
native place, covering the columns with sonnets, 
and the churches with pictures, without exciting 
the envy of the adjacent districts. Father Fede- 
rici praises him for his portraits; a valued orna- 
ment, at that period, of large pictures, and well 
introduced by Orioli, in the church of St. Croce, 
where a numerous procession of the people of 
Trevigi appears, taken from the life. BUrchiel- 
lati, a contemporary historian of the place, adds, 
as a companion to the foregoing, the name of 
Giacomo Bravo, a painter of figures and orna- 
mental works, which are still held in some degree 
of estimation. 

Paolo Piazza, of Castelfranco, who afterwards 



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EPOCH in. 273 

became a Capuchin by the name of Father Cosimo^ 
is enumerated by Baglione among the good prac- 
tisers^ and the pupils of Pahna. Yet he bears 
little resemblance to him, having formed a style of 
his own, not powerful indeed, but free and pleas- 
ing, which attracted the eye of Paul V., the Em- 
peror Rodolph II., and the Doge Priuli ; all of 
whom availed themselves of his ability. Both the 
capital and the state boast many of his pieces in 
fresco, and some altar-pieces : nor is Rome with- 
out them, where, in the Palazzo Borghese, he 
painted those very fanciful ornaments in friezes, 
for various chambers, as well as histories of Cleo- 
patra for the Great Hall, and in the Campidoglio 
at the Conservatori, a Celebrated picture of Christ 
taken from the Cross. While residing in Rome 
he attended to the instruction of Andrea Piazza, 
his nephew, who in course of time entered the 
service of the Duke of Lorraine, by whom he had 
the honour of being made a cavalier. Upon re- 
turning to his own state, he produced his great 
picture of the Marriage of Cana, for the church of 
Santa Maria; one of the best pieces that adorn 
the place. 

Matteo Ingoli, a native of Ravenna, resided 
from early youth, until the period of his imma- 
ture decease, in the city of Venice. He sprung 
firom the school of Luigi del Friso, and proposed 
for himself, says Boschini, Paul Veronese and 
Palma as his models. If I mistake not, how- 
ever, he aspired to a more solid, but less beautiful 

VOL. III. T 



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274 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

style^ as far as we can gather from one of his pic- 
tures at the Corpus Domini, from his Supper of 
our Lord at San Apollinare, and from others of his 
works ; in all which we trace the hand of precision 
and assiduity. He was also a good architect, and 
terminated his days during one of those awful pe- 
riods in which the Venetian state was visited by 
the plague, adding another instance of loss to the 
fine arts, similar to those which we have noticed 
in other schools. 

Another victim to the same contagion was Pietro 
Damini, of Castelfranco, who, it is averred, had he 
survived a little longer, would have displayed the 
powers of a Titian; an expression we are to receive 
as somewhat hyperbolical. He acquired the art 
of colouring from Gio. Batista Novelli, a good 
scholar of Palma, who, more for amusement than 
for gain, ornamented Castelfranco and the adjacent 
places with several well executed pieces. Dsunini 
next devoted much time to the theory of the art, 
and to the study of the best engravings, upon which 
he modelled his design. By this method, it is 
said, that he fr^ed himself from the shackles of the 
mannerists, though it gave to his colours a degree 
of crudity ; and in truth this is a defect that strikes 
the eye in many of his productions. Numerous 
specimens remain at Padua, where he established 
himself at the age of twenty ; several at Yicenzs^ at 
Venice, and still more in Castelfranco, where his 
altar-piece of the Blessed Simone Stoch at Santa 
Maria, is highly estimated, as well as the Taber- 



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BPOCH III. 275 

Bade surrounded with twelve histories, from hoth 
the Old and New Testaments ; a novel idea^ and 
executed with real taste. His style is elegant and 
pleasing, hut not uniformly excellent. He is ob- 
served to have frequently changed his manner, in 
aspiring to reach a higher degree of perfection in 
his art. We might, in some instances, pronounce 
him an excellent naturalist ; in others more of an 
adept in ideal beauty, as we gather from his picture 
of the Crucifixion at Santo di Padova, which dis* 
plays rare beauty and harmony combined, though he 
did not live long enough to produce others of equal 
merit. He died early, and at a short interval his 
brother Giorgio, seized by the same disorder, fol- 
lowed him to the tomb, an artist excellent in por- 
trait, and pictures with small figures. 

Subsequent to this period, (1630, 1631,) in which 
the deaths of a number of artists occur, the traces 
of the old Venetian style, in its best school, began 
still more to disappear; and the Venetian paintings 
produced after the middle of the century, display 
for the most part a different character. It is re- 
marked by Signor Zanetti, that several foreign ar- 
tists established themselves about this period in 
th^ city, and held sway over the art at their own 
discretion. Attached to various schools, and chief- 
ly admirers of Caravaggio, in his plebeian manner, 
they agreed amongst themselves in nothing, per- 
haps, except two points. One of these was, to con- 
sult truth in a greater degree than had before been 
doi^e; m extremely useful idea to render art, now 

T 2 



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276 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

degenerated into a paltry trade^ once more real art. 
But the plan was not well executed by many, who 
were either incapable of selecting what was natural^ 
or of ennobling it when found ; while, at all events, 
they were too apt to mannerize it with an exces- 
sive use of strong shades. The other plan was 
to avail themselves of very dark and oily grounds, 
which were as favourable to despatch as injurious 
to the duration of paintings, as we have more than 
once had occasion to observe. Indeed this had so 
far come into vogue, in most places, as even to in- 
fect, in some degree, the great school of the Ca- 
racci. Hence it has arisen that in many of those 
pictures the lights only have remained durable, 
and the masses of shade, the middle tints having 
disappeared ; insomuch that posterity has distin- 
guished this class of artists by the new appellation 
of the sect of Tenebrosi, or the dark colourists; 
Boschini, who first put forth his Carta delNavegar 
Pitoresco in 1660, is very severe, as we have be- 
fore stated, upon the sect of mere naturalists, stig- 
matizing them generally, and upbraiding them 
for coming to seek their bread at Venice ; while> 
at the time that they employed themselves in 
crying down the taste, the spirit, and the rapid 
hand of the Venetians, their own productions 
bore ample witness to the pitip^ble efforts by which 
they were produced. He gives no names ; but it is 
not difficult to gather from the whole his aversion 
to the Roman and Florentine artists, of whom 
we shall shortly give an acicount. Upon these 



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EPOCH III. 277 

he certainly does not bestow encomiums^ as he does 
upon all others at that period engaged in Venice, 
his commendations being sometimes extremely 
vague, and at others extravagant 

If we wish to avoid forming erroneous judg- 
ments, then, we must abandon his Painter's Chart 
of Navigation, and attach ourselves to the Pit- 
tura Veneziana^ a very different guide to that of 
Boschini. In this the author takes care to distin- 
guish, with the precision of a good historian, such 
as were followers of Caravaggio, like Saraceni; ex- 
cellent pupils of Guercino, like Triva ; fine coloiir- 
ists, however much accustomed to copy rather than 
invent, like Strozza, and though less select, his 
scholar Langetti ; to whom we may add a third 
Genoese artist, who flourished daring those times 
at Venice, though he left no public specimen of 
his labours ; this was Niccolo Cassana. Of these, as 
well as of a few others, I shall treat in the schools 
to which they respectively belong. Several other 
names are omitted by the author, either on account 
of such artists having produced little in the city, or 
from his being unacquainted with their education 
and the place of their birth. Among these is An- 
tonio Beverense, an artist who painted for the 
college of the Nunziata, the Marriage of the Vir- 
gin Mary, a picture that displays accuracy of de- 
sign, superiority of forms, and a very fine chiaro- 
scuro. He was, for the most part, a disciple of 
the Bolognese, and from his united taste and dili- 
gence fully deserving of being more generally 



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278 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

known. I suspect^ however, that he ought to be 
named a native of Bavaria, and to the circum- 
stance of his speedy return into his own country, 
we are, perhaps, to ascribe the little notice he 
seems to have attracted. Returning to the au- 
thority of Zanetti, we find, that besides giving a 
favourable opinion of the authors just mentioned, 
he bestows equal commendation upon those who 
are soon to follow ; explaining their respective ex- 
cellences and defects, and detecting such as be- 
longed to the class of Tenebrosi through their own 
fault, and such as became so owing to the bad pri- 
ming of those times; in treating of whom I follow 
the path he has pointed out. 

Pietro Ricchi was an artist who resided for a 
long period at Venice, where he left a great num- 
ber of works, and is generally known by the name 
of il Lucchese. It remains doubtful whether he 
deserves to be accused of having introduced the oily 
and obscure method of painting already mentioned. 
It is at least certain, that besides having made use of 
bad priming, he was in the habit of covering his can- 
vass with oil whenever he applied his pencil, which 
has occasioned the loss of so many of his works 
that once produced an excellent effect, but which 
are now either defaced or perished. This is the 
case with those that remained in Venice, in Vicen- 
za, Brescia, Padua, and Udine ; some of which, 
indeed, are not greatly to be regretted ; the pro- 
duction of mere mechanic skill, apd that not always 
executed correctly. A few, however, are conduct; 



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BPOCH III. 279 

ed with much care, as we find in his S* Raimond, 
at the Dominicans of Bergamo, and his Epiphany 
at the patriarchal church in Venice, both highly 
deserring of commemoration, no less for the union 
of their colours, than for the taste displayed in the 
whole composition. We may easily perceive that 
they are the productions of a scholar, or at least 
of an imitator of Guido ; of one accustomed to 
consult the pictures of Tintoretto, and of the 
most celebrated Venetians. Another artist equal 
to Ricchi in the handling of his pencil, and more 
accurate in the union of his colours, will be found 
in Federigo Cervelli of Milan, who, on opening his 
school at a somewhat later period in Venice, ob- 
tained the celebrated Ricci for one of his pupils. 
At the school of San Teodoro, we meet with a his- 
tory-piece of that saint, from the hand of Cervelli ; 
and in this we may trace all the features of the 
same style, that was afterwards continued by Ricci, 
who added dignity, however, to its forms, and exe- 
cuted them upon canvass and upon grounds bet- 
ter calculated to bear the effects of age. 

The other artists to be enumerated in the same 
class, are Francesco Rosa, a pupil rather than fol- 
lower of Cortona, for an account of whom we must 
refer the reader to the fifth book of the fifth vo- 
lume; and Giovanni Batista Lorenzetti, whose com- 
positbn, bold, rapid, and magnificent, displays a 
powerfol and correct hand. The merit of the se- 
cond is conspicuous in his frescos, exhibited at Santa 
Anastasia, in his native city of Verona, for which 



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280 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

he received twelve hundred ducats, including only 
the decoration of the chapel. Add to these the 
name of Ruschi, or Rusca, a Roman, and a disciple 
of Caravaggio in his forms, and of his age in the 
mixture of his colours. He was wholly unknown 
at Rome, though he acquired some degree of re- 
putation in the cities of Venice, of Vicenza, and of 
Trevigi. His paintings are admitted into collec- 
tions, where several of his oblong pieces are to 
be met with in pretty good preservation. Con- 
temporary with him was Girolamo Pellegrini, a 
native of the same place, not mentioned in the 
Guide of Rome, but commemorated in that of 
Venice for some works, chiefly executed in fresco 
upon a large scale, in .which he appears neither a 
very select, various, nor spirited painter, though 
of a sufficiently elevated character. Bastiano Maz- 
zoni, a Florentine, is another artist unknown in his 
native city, belonging to the class of the naturalists, 
though possessed of a certain delicacy, roundness 
of style, and ease of handling. He was also an 
excellent architect, of whose talents the Cavalier 
Liberi availed himself in the erection of his fine 
palace at Venice, which appears to exceed the for- 
tune of a painter. Count Ottaviano Angarano, a 
Venetian noble, if he did not altogether avoid the 
style then current, avoided at least its extrava- 
gance ; and the Nativity which he placed at San 
Daniele, confers upon him double honour, having 
been both painted and engraved by his hand. 
Stefano Pauluzzi, a citizen of Venice, has been 



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EPOCH III. 281 

enumerated among the best belonging to this sect, 
if indeed he is to be included iuit, as the deteriora- 
tion of his pictures may be rather attributed to the 
badness of his grounds than to the artist. Niccolo 
Renieri Mabuseo also flourished at the same pe- 
riod, an artist, who at Rome, under Manfredi> a fol* 
lower of Caravaggio, formed a taste partaking of 
his early Flemish and of his Italian education ; very 
pleasing in the opinion of Zanetti, and in general 
displaying much strength of hand. He had four 
daughters who inherited their father's talents, all 
of whose productions were highly admired in Ve- 
nice. Two of these, of the name of Angelica and 
Anna, remained with their parent; Clorinda enter- 
ed into an union with Tecchia, and Lucrezia with 
Daniel Y andych, a Frenchman, who afterwards en- 
tered into the service of the Duke of Mantua, as 
the keeper of his gallery of pictures; himself a fine 
portrait-painter, and by no means despicable in his 
histories. To his I add the name of D. Ermanno 
Stroifi, a Paduan, first a pupil, and an excellent 
imitator of Prete the Genoese, and afterwards of 
Titian though occasionally, owing to an excessive 
attention to the chiaroscuro, he deviated too much 
from the right path. We are informed by Bos- 
chini that he travelled for the purpose of observing 
other schools, and that on returning to Venice, he 
still continued to rise in the estimation of the Ve- 
netians. A Madonna from his hand is to be seen 
at the great altar of the Carmini in that city; and 
in Padua, his Piet^, placed at San Tommaso 



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282 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Cantuariense. I condade this list with one Mat- 
teo, a Florentine artist, not commemorated in his 
own state, from the circumstance of having resided 
abroad; better known by the name of Matteo da' 
Pitocchi. He displayed most talent in his repre- 
sentation of Mendicants, heads of which class are 
to be met with in Venice, in Y erQna, in Vicenza, 
and elsewhere, as well as several burlesques and 
other £mcifnl piieces, in the galleries of many Itar 
Uan nobles. He painted likewise for churches, 
more particularly in Padua, where he most proba- 
bly died; and the Serviti are in possession of some 
on a larger scale, designed in the character of a 
mere naturalist. These names we trust will be 
found sufficient, however various and unequal both 
in point of style and merit, as affording examples 
of the taste of that age. 

But inasmuch as it is difficult, as I have before 
observed, for an entire age to become wholly 
corrupt, so among the mannerists, who mark 
the character of this epoch, there flourished some 
good imitators of Titian, of Paul Veronese, and 
of Raffaello himself, both in the capital and 
its adjacent provinces. In the last, indeed, they 
were more numerous, because the artists of the 
terra firma did not so greatly abound in those 
masters-pieces of the art, of which the Venetians 
themselves were enabled so easily to become the 
plagiarists, to the serious deterioration of the art. 
In the first rank then of supporters of the solid 
style, I must mention Giovan Contarino, who flou- 



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EPOCH III- 4J83 

lisbed in the time of Palma^ a companioii of Ma- 
lombra, «ai an exact imitator of Titian^s method. 
He did not always sudceed in improving and em- 
beUishing the nature which he copied^ though^ at 
the same time^ he displayed a soundness of taste 
that was truly that of Titian. He shewed exqui* 
site skill in his foreshortening from abore (di sotto 
in si^)^ and in the church of San Francesco di Pao- 
la^ he exhibited a Resurrection in the entablature^ 
or ceiling, along with other mysteries and figure, 
so beautifully coloured^ so distinct, and so fineltjF 
expressed^ as to be considered some of the most 
perfect of which the city can boast. He employed 
himself much for collections, even emending to 
Germany, by which he obtained from the Emperor 
Rodolpb II., the collar of the order of cavaliers. 
His favourite subjects were such as he drew from 
mythology, being possessed of sufficient learning to 
treat them with classic propriety, and of these, in 
the Barbarigo collection, I saw a considerable num-^ 
her. He was so extremely accurate in his por- 
traits^ that on sending home one which he had 
taken of Marco Dolce, his dogs, the moment it 
appeared, began to fawn upon it> mistaking it for 
their master. His &me was nevertheless eclipsed 
in portrait by Tiberio Tinelli, at first his scho- 
lar, afterwards an imitator of Leandro Bassano, 
and raised to the rank of cavalier by the King of 
France. Fietro da Cortona, on bdiolding one of 
hM portraits, exclaimed that Tiberio had not mere- 
ly infused iirto it the whole soul of the origini^> 



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284 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

but added his own also. I have met with several 
at Rome^ bearing a very high price^ and still more 
are to be seen in the Venetian state. Sometimes 
they are left unfinished^ at the desire of the parties 
for whom they were taken^ in order to diminish 
their price ; sometimes they are thrown into an 
historical character; and a Venetian ItOxA, for 
instance^ will appear as Marc Antony — his wife, 
fis Cleopatra. Many of this artist's pieces for pri- 
vate ornament, of the portrait size, are very high- 
ly estimated : they are alternately borrowed from 
scripture and from fable. Such is that of his Iris, 
belonging to the Conti Vicentini, atVicenza, sim- 
ple in point of composition, very natural and 
pleasing ; and what is still more surprising, quite 
fmginal. He did not display equal facility in more 
copious compositions, requiring a larger portion of 
time and leisure than he ever enjoyed, in order to 
leave behind him a work which could give him full 
satisfaction. 

Succeeding him, appears Girolamo Forabosco, 
a distinguished portrait-painter, of Venetian origin 
according to Orlandi, though believed by the Pa- 
duans, to have been one of their fellow-citizens. 
Two of the most celebrated schools contended for 
the honour of adding him to their respective ranks. 
He flourished in the time of Boschini, who be- 
stowed upon him and Liberi the precedency over 
all other Venetians of the age. In order better to 
commend him in the spirit of his age, he puns upon 
his name, declaring Forabosco one of those who 



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EPOCH III. 285 

emerged Juar del hosco, or out of the wood, into 
full day ; in other words that he rose out of ohscu- 
rity into considerable note. We are to forgire 
similar conceits upon the part of Boschini, in con* 
sideration of the notices he handed down to us ; 
and we may add likewise with Zanetti, that Fora^ 
bosco possessed a noble and penetrating genius ; a 
genius delighting the professed artist by its display 
of judgment; arresting the observer by its beauty ; 
and which unites sweetness with refinement, 
beauty with force, studious in every part, but par- 
ticularly in the airs of its heads, that appear en- 
dued with life. To form an adequate idea of these, 
we ought not so much to direct our inquiries to 
churches, which rarely boast any of his altar-pieces, 
as to those collections which preserve his portraits ; 
his half-length figures of saints, and his little his- 
tory-pieces, of which three are recorded in the 
catalogue of the Dresden gallery. Resembling 
Forabosco in diligence and delicacy of finish, 
though inferior to him in genius, we may mention 
his pupil Pietro Bellotti. By some he is reproach- 
ed for his minuteness and dryness of style, which 
leads him to distinguish almost every hair, though 
alwayB an exact and faithful traniscriber of nature. 
Boschini considers him in the light of a prodigy, 
for having succeeded in uniting to so much dili- 
gence, a most exquisite delicacy in his tints, to a 
degree never before known. His compositions, 
more particularly his portraits and his caricatures, 
which are to be met with in galleries, are held in 



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286 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

much esteem. Several I have seen in different 
places^ even out of the limits of the state; two of 
them very excellent — portraits of an old man and 
an old woman^ in possession of the Cavalier Melzi^ 
at Milan^ and such as are not to be exceeded by 
the most polished and exquisite specimens of Fle- 
mish art. 

At the same period flourished the Cavalier 
Carlo Ridolfi, a native of Vicehza, but who receiv- 
ed his education and distinguished himself at Ve- 
nice. His natural good sense led him to shun the 
peculiar style of his tiines^ no less in writing than 
in painting ; and we may observe the same charac- 
ter that is displayed in his ^* Lives of the Venetian 
Painters/' written with equal fidelity and judg- 
ment, preserved also in his pictures. Thus his 
Vizitazione, painted for the church of the Ognis- 
santi at Venice, has been much extolled ; a piece 
that exhibits some novelty in the adaptation of the 
colours ; a fine relief, and exactness in every part. 
Other spedmens of him are to be met with in pub- 
lic places, both in Venice and throughout the 
state; but a great part of his productions were for 
private persons, consisting of portraits, half-length 
figures, and historical pieces. Kidolfiimbibed ex- 
cellent principles of the art from Aliense^ which 
he afterwards improved in Vicenzaand Verona, by 
copying the best models he could find, and attend- 
ing to perspective, to the belles lettres, and to 
other pursuits best calculated to form a learned 
artist. Such he likewise appears in the two vo- 



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EPOCH III. 287 

himes of his '' Lives/' which are at present ex- 
tremely rare^ and deserving of republication^ either 
with the plates which I heard were still in exis- 
tence at Bassano^ or without them^ since it is no 
very serious loss after all to remain ignorant of the 
features of celebrated men, provided we become 
acquainted with their virtues. Upon a comparison 
of RidoUi's style of writing with that of Boschini, 
we might suppose that these authors flourished at 
two different epochs, though they were very near- 
ly contemporary. Bayle's observation, indeed, may 
be considered correct, as applied to them; that 
there exists a certain mental, as well as physical 
epidemic ; and as, in the last, every individual is not 
seized with the disorder, so, in tjie former, good 
sense, as evinced in thinking and in writing, does 
not become altogether extinct. Thus the Cav. Car- 
lo, as I before noticed, was not only a good writer, 
but one of the best biographers of artists we have. 
Not that he was wholly exempt from every kind 
of grammatical error, any more than Baldinucci 
himself, though one of the della Crusca academi- 
cians; but he knew how to avoid errors of judg- 
ment, into which others fell ; such as relating ol4 
stories, fit only to amuse childl^n when they first 
begin to draw eyes and ears ; making inquisition 
into the life and manners of every artist, and 
wasting time in long preambles, episodes, and moral 
reflections, quite out of place. On the contrary 
he is precise, rapid, and eager to afford fresh infor- 
mation for his readers in a small space, with the 



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288 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

exception of quoting largely sometimes from the 
poets. His pictorial maxims are just ; his com- 
plaints against Vasari always in a moderate tone^ 
and his descriptions of paintings and of grand 
compositions very exacts and displaying great 
knowledge^ both of mythology and history. He 
concludes the work with an account of his life^ in 
which he complains of the envy of rivals^ and the 
ignorance of the greats too often combining toge- 
ther to trample upon real merit. His epitaph^ as 
given by Sansovino^ a contemporary writer, and 
afterwards by Zanetti, refers the year of his de- 
cease to 1658. Boschini, on the contrary, in his 
Carta, page 509, speaks of him as one of the living 
authors in 1660, in which year his book was given 
to the world. I am inclined to think that those 
verses in which RidoUi is commended, were the 
production of Boschini while the former was still 
living, and that after his death he neglected to re- 
touch them. 

Two others, among the best of these imitators 
of a more solid taste, are Vecchia arid Loth, fully 
entitled as much as the rest to the rank they hold- 
Pietro Vecchia sprung from the school of Pado- 
vanino, but he did acquire altogether his style, 
most probably because Padovanino, like the Ca- 
racci, gave an individual direction to the talents 
of his pupils, in the path he judged best adapted 
to their success. The genius of Vecchia was not 
at all calculated for lighter subjects. He had im- 
bibed from his master an admiration of the ancients. 



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EPOCH ni. 289 

as well as the art of imitating them ; and with these 
principles he arrived at such a degree of excellence^ 
that several of his pictures pass for those of Gior- 
gione^ of Licii^i^ and even of Titian. It is true^ 
that by dint of copying and exactly imitatingold 
paintings^ much darkened by time, he contracted 
the habit of colouring with considerable dulness of 
lights^ a£Pording an example for every young artist, 
that he should learn to tinge with lively colours, 
previous to taking copies of similar pictures. For 
though he, indeed, acquired the colouring of the 
ancients, he added neither much variety nor much 
choice of countenances ; and he stiU remained a 
naturalist, limited in his ideas, and more inclined 
towards the burlesque than the serious. Some of 
his best productions consist of pictures for private 
ornament ; of youths armed, or equipped and or- 
namented with plumes, in the manner of Giorgi- 
one, though not without some degree of caricature. 
One of these, an astrologer telling their fortune to 
some soldiers, is in possession of the senator Rez- 
zonico at Rome, altogether of so beautiful a char 
racter that Giordano painted a companion to it; 
a little picture quite in the same taste. But al- 
though his humourous pieces please us in some, 
they disgyst us in many of his other subjects, and 
more particularly in the Passion of our Saviour ; a 
sacred mystery, in which the spectator ought never 
to be presented with cause for mirth. But Vecchia 
seemed to forget this, and introduces, like Callot, 
certain caricatures among his sacred pieces, of 

VOL. III. V 



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290 VENBT>IAN flCHOOL. 

whioh specimens axe to be seen in the church oi 
Ognissanti at Venice ; in possessiQn of the Coati 
Bevilacqua at Verona^ and in other places. In 
other points^ with a style rather strong and loaded 
with shade than pleasing, he shewed himself an 
excellent artist^ both in his naked parts and his 
draperies; which he designed and coloured at 
the same time in the academies. His .fleshes are 
dark red, his handling easy, his colour thic^ and 
heavy, the effects of his light new and studied, 
and his whole taste so far from any degree o£ 
mannerism^ and of such a composition, that to any 
one unversed in pictorial history, he .would afxpear 
to have flourished at least two ages before his real 
time. Melchiori bestows particular commendation 
upon him for his talents in restoring old pictures ; 
and conjectures that he^ in this way, acquired the 
appcdlation of Yecchia, his family name being, as 
we have noted in the index, that of Muttoni. 
He instructed severid pupils in the art» none ci 
whom pursued their master's career. Agostino 
litterini, and Bartolommeo his son, were among 
these, both artists well known in Venice and the 
islands, and both distinguished for clearness and 
boldness of style, though the latter suirpassed his 
father in this way. A specimen of his altar-pieces 
at San Patemiano, displays an imitator of Titian, 
and of the better age. Melchiori likewise gives the 
r^utation of an excellent artist to his daughter 
Caterina, though commendations of this jsort ought 
always to be understood in reference to the time 



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£POCH III. 291 

in wUcb the artists flourished. The same reason- 
ing ini^ht apply also to politics. The title of your 
£xcellency used once to he applied to minor sever 
rdgns/ but it has since become applicable also to 
the great officers and ministers of state. 

Gian Carlo Loth^ an artist from Monaco^ resided 
during a bng period, and subsequently died, at 
V^aiee, in the year 1698, aged sixty-six years, 
as we find written in his epitaph. Both Orlandi 
and Zanetti are mistaken in giving him as a scho- 
lar to Caravaggio, who died before Carlo was bom. 
It is pr6foable, however, that he acquired his strong 
and loaded manner of composition, and his exact 
repres^tation of nature without ennobling it, from 
the study of Caravaggio's pictures. And if he 
were really the pupil, as is supposed, of Liberi, 
he failed to make himself master of the lively and 
ideal character of that school ; nor did he perhaps 
derive any thing from it, but a certain rapidity of 
hand, and an elevation of manner that distinguish- 
ed him from the naturalists of his time. He took 
a rank among the first four painters of his age, all 
of whom bore ihe name of Carlo, as I have else- 
where observed. He was much employed in Ger- 
many for the emperor Leopold I., as well as in 
Italy for the churches, and still more for differ- 
ent collection^. Many cabinet pictures from his 
hand are to be met with in every state, in the 
style of Camvaggio and Guercino, with histories ; 
of which kind is the dead Abel, so nmch praised 
in the royal gallery at Florence. One in the best 

u 2 



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292 VfiNBTIAN SCHOOL. 

preservation I have seen, is to be found at Milan; 
a picture of Lot inebriated, in the Trivulzi pa- 
lace, celebrated among men of taste as a museum 
of antiquities; newly arranged by the present young 
and accomplished marquis, and forming a collection 
not unworthy of a royal house. Daniele Seiter, a 
fine colourist, to whom we shall agam allude, was 
instructed in the art by Loth, during a period of 
twelve years. He was distinguished both in Rome 
and at Turin ; and was succeeded by Ambrogio 
Bono, one of the best disciples formed by the same 
master in Venice, where he left a variety of works, 
all executed in the taste he had so early imbibed. 

Other artists, about the same period, flourished 
in Venice, who by dint of imitating the most ap- 
proved models, and also through their own talents, 
obtained easy access into the most choice collec- 
tions. Jean Lys, from Oldenburg, came early 
among these, bearing along with him the style of 
Golzio. But, on beholding the Venetian and Ro- 
man schools, he adopted an exceedingly graceful 
style, partaking of the Italian in its design, and of 
the Flemish in its tints. He chiefly produced 
figures upon a middle scale, such as his Prodigal 
Son, in the royal museum at Florence; or of 
smaller dimensions, as in his various little pic- 
tures of village sports and combats, with similar 
subjects, in the Flemish mode of composition. Tet 
he produced a few pictures for churches, like his 
St. Peter, in the act of resuscitating Tabitha, at 
the FUippini, in Fano ; and his more celebrated 



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EPOCH III. 293 

San Girblamo, at the Theatini^ in Venice, where 
he died. Valentino le Febre, from Brussels, is a 
name omitted by Orlandi ; while his very nume- 
rous engravings of Paul Veronese, and of the best 
Venetian artists, are ascribed by him to another 
artist of the same name. He painted little ; and 
always pursued the track of Paul Veronese, of 
whom he was one of the most successful imitators 
and copyists known. His countenances bear no 
stamp of a foreign origin, and his colours none of 
the bad character of his age ; while his touches are 
always strong, without offending our taste. His 
smaller pieces are full of research and finish; 
though he has less merit upon a larger scale, and 
is occasionally wanting in point of composition. 
We meet with another distinguished imitator of 
Paul, in Sebastiano Bombelli, from Udine ; Guer- 
cino's scholar in the outset, and subsequently a 
fine copyist of the best works of Paul Veronese, 
which are scarcely to be distinguished from the 
copies he took ; until he gave up the more inven- 
tive branches of the art, and devoted his attention 
to portraits. Here he restored the lost wonders 
of a former age ; his portruts being remarkable 
for strong likeness, vivacity, and truth of colour- 
ing, both in the drapery and the fleshes. In his 
painting there is a happy union of the Venetian 
and the Bolognese manner; and in some specimens 
of his portraits that I have seen, he seems to have 
preferred the delicacy of Guido to the vigour of 
his own master. He was esteemed also beyond 



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294 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Italy ; he was employed by the archduke Joseph 
at Inspruck ; took the portraits of several German 
electors; of the Kmg of Denmark^ and of the em* 
peror Leopold I., by whom he was largely hononr- 
ed and rewarded. It is a matter of regret, that^ 
owing to a peculiar varnish of pitch and gum,* 
which at the time produced a good effect, a great 
portion of his pictures should have become ob- 
scured ; and that many by the more ancient mas- 
ters, which he wished to restore, should have been 
altogether blemished or destroyed like his own. 
Among the imitators of Titian, of Tintoretto, and 
of Paul, one Giacomo Barri is likewise mentioned 
byMelchiori; though he is the sole authority we 
have upon the point. It is now easy to meet with 
his engravings in aqua fortis, but not with his 
pictures. He was also the author of a little work 
entitled by him Viaggio Pittaresco d Italia^ which 
has become somewhat rare, owing, I imagine, to 
its small dimensions, and to the researches made 
after it by those who preserve a series of pictorial 
works ; for the rest, his authority is of a middling 
character. 

In the changes which produced such an altera- 
tion in the state of painting at Venice, several 

* Let no one, from this instance, altogether condemn the use 
of varnishes in the restoration of paintings ; for by the applica- 
tion of mastic, and of gam-water, according to all the most recent 
experiments, the colour does not suffer. But oil is injurious to 
ancient paintings, for the new never becomes ihcorporated with 
the old, and, in a short time, every fresh touch is converted into 
a stain. 



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EPOCH ni. 296 

cities of the provinces also in some measure par- 
took, but in others many eminent geniuses arose, 
capable of resisting the moral contagion that in- 
Taded the capital, and of barring its entrance into 
their native provinces. The school of the Friuli, 
after the death of Pomponio Amalteo and Sebas- 
tiano Seccante, owing to the mediocrity of Sebas- 
tian's followers, or of the younger branches of his 
ftimily, had declined, as we before stated, from its 
original splendour. It numbered, indeed, other 
pupils by different masters ; limited in point of in- 
vention, dry in design, and somewhat hturd in their 
colouring. None appeared capable of restoring 
the art, and succeeded only in furnishing the city 
with works reasonably well executed, more or less, 
and borrowed from ftimiliar models. To this class 
belong Yincenzo Lugaro, mentioned by Ridolfi 
for his altar-piece of San Antonio, at the Grazie 
in Udine; Giulio Brunelleschi, whose Numiata 
in one of the Fraternities presents agood imitation 
of the style of PeUegrino ; and Fulvio Griffoni, 
who received a commission from the city to pro- 
duce a picture of the Miracle of the Manna, to be 
placed in the public palace near the Supper of 
Amalteo. Add to these Andrea Petreolo, who or- 
namented the panels of the organ, in the dome of 
his native town of Venzone, as well on the inte- 
rior, where, in a very beautiful manner, he exhi- 
bited tiie histories of San Geronimo and San £u- 
stachio, as on the outside, where, surrounded with 
fine architecture, he represented the Parable of the 



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296 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

wise and foolish Yirgins. Without dwelling upon 
the names of Lorio and Brugno^ of whom there re- 
main but few works, which obtained little celebrity, 
we shall newly record the name of Eugenio Pini, 
the last it may be said of those artists who but 
slightly addicted themselves to foreign methods. 
He flourished about the middle of the seventeenth 
century, was frequently employed at Udine, and in 
his own state ; extremely diligent and skilled in 
every office of a painter, if we except, perhaps, his 
want of a more perfect harmony of tints. The Re- 
pose of Egypt, in the dome of Palma, and his San 
Antonio in that of Gemona, are pronounced by the 
Abbate Boni among his noblest productions. 

During the period the latter flourished at Udine, 
Antonio Camio, a native of a town of Portogruaro, 
came to establish himself in the city. Instructed in 
the art by his own father, a very able artist, he sub- 
sequently appears, as far as we may judge from his 
style, to have studied the works of Paul Veronese 
and Tintoretto. Next to Pordenone, the Friuli 
perhaps never produced a finer genius ; equally 
original in all the branches of historic painting, 
bold in his design, happy in his colouring, more 
particularly of his fleshes ; expressive in every va- 
riety of passion; and all these comprehended within 
the limits of a grand naturalist, though he frequent- 
ly became a mannerist, in order to expedite his 
works. Several of his best productions are, at this 
period, lost to Udine, owing to the fault of the ar- 
tist who retouched them; and among the most 



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EPOCH III. 297 

studied and the best preserved^ there stiO remams 
his San Tommaso di Villanuova^ adorning an 
altar of Santa Lucia. He produced likewise se- 
veral histories for private ornament, half-length 
figures, portraits and heads in caricature, for which 
he displayed a peculiar talent, and which still exist 
at Udine. Both the city and province are well 
supplied with his pieces, few of which, however, 
are to be found coloured with strength of hand- 
ling or very highly finished. He was never with? 
out numerous commissions, even though confining 
his talents to the Friuli ; but either from want of 
prudence, or some other reason, he nevertheless 
died in penury near Portogruaro. A few of his 
pictures in that place are still pointed out ; but 
those seen at San Francesco, among which are 
the Washing the Disciples' Feet, and our Lord's 
Last Supper, said to have been executed by him 
in 1604, either bear a false date, or are rather to be 
attributed to his &ther. For, at that period, An- 
tonio could not have produced them, since he was 
still alive in the year 1680 ; and on this point we 
ought to admit the authority of Pavona, at one 
time his pupil, firom whom Guarienti received his 
notices of Camio, which he inserted in the Abece- 
daxio. This artist must not be confounded with 
another Camio, named Giacomo, who flourished 
posterior to him, and was much inferior to Anto- 
nio in point of merit 

Sebastiano Bombelli was bom at Udine, as I 
just observed, though he studied and resided at 



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298 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

other places. He left no specimens of his art in 
the Friuli, if we except a few portraits and pieces 
for private ornament^ along with some heads or 
busts of saints ; while his altar-piece of the Re- 
deemer upon the Cross, Between some saints^ in 
the parochial church of Tricesimo^ is considered a 
very rare piece. He had a brother of the name of 
Raphael^ whose labours were more abundant, but 
the whole of them, together with his name, were 
confined within the limits of the Friuli. 

While the art thus declined in these parts of the 
Venetian dominions, it appeared equally to revive 
in others ; from whence it arose, that though great- 
ly diminished in the capital, the glory of the state 
did not become wholly extinct. The city of Ve- 
rona was its greatest support ; for in addition to 
having given birth to Ridolfi, to Turchi, and 
Ottoni, all of whom did honour to their country, 
it produced likewise Dario Varotari, who having 
established himself at Padua, laid the foundation 
of a very flourishing school. He exercised his 
talents under Paul Veronese, at Verona, to whom 
he has occasionally some resemblance, though his 
taste appears to have been chiefly formed upon 
other models. His design is very chaste, by no 
means an uncommon acquisition among the Vero- 
nese ; though he shews some traces of timidity in 
the method of some of those pupils of the quattro- 
centisti,^ who, whilst they draw their contours 
fuller than those of their masters, appear as if 

* QueOtrO'CewtuH, Artists of the fourteenth century. 



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EPOCH III. 299 

they were afraid in every line of departing too far 
from the models before them; and this he has ex- 
emplified in the pictures of San Egidio at Padua. 
In others^ conducted at a more mature age, he 
seems to have aspired at imitating more modem 
artists^ sometimes Paul Veronese^ and sometimes 
Titiaii himself in point of design^ particularly in 
the airs of the heads ; although his colours^ how- 
ever true and harmonious, can boast neither the 
Venetian strength nor beauty. Dario painted in 
Venice, at Padua, and in the Polesine ; yet he 
produced little in reference to the age in which he 
flourished. He educated several pupils, among 
whom was Gio. Batista Bissoni, whose life has 
been given us by Ridolfi. This last was also a 
scholar of ApoUodoro, named di Porcia, a portrait- 
painter of much celebrity, and the style which he 
formed for himself is exactly that of a good painter 
of portraits, with which he is fond of filling his 
pictures, clothing them in the maimer of his time. 
We may observe this in his Miracles of San Dome- 
nico, placed in the church belonging to his order, 
drawn upon a large scale^ as well as in other 
pieces, scattered throughout the city in almost 
every street. 

We must not omit the name of his daughter, 
Chiara Dario, a lady extolled by Ridolfi for the 
beftuty of her portraits, and fully deserving of the 
honour conferred upon her by the grand dukes of 
Tuscany, who placed one of hersdf in their noble 
series of painters, where it is stiU to be seen. Bos- 



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300 VENETUN SCHOOli. 

chini seems to be of opinion that she gave pub- 
lie instructions in the same manner as the fair 
Sirani of Bologna ; and that she initiated in the 
art Caterinia Taraboti and Lucia Scaligeri^ a niece 
of Bartolommeo. Yet the passage referring to 
this^ (p. 526) in the Venetian poet^ is somewhat 
ambiguous^ and he perhaps only meant to assert 
that these two young women pursued the same 
career. But the chief honour and crown of Da- 
rio's reputation^ was his own son and pupil^ named 
Alessandro^ who^ though left an orphan at an early 
age, shortly after set out for Venice, where he soon 
began to distinguish himself. He there received 
the name of Padovanino, which he retained at an 
advanced age, and by which he is now generally 
knoWn. 

He first studied Titian's works in fresco, such 
as he found in Padua, and his copies still continue 
to attract the admiration of the greatest professors. 
In Venice he persevered in his assiduous attention 
to the same incomparable master, penetrating so 
far by degrees into his peculiar character, as to be 
preferred by many to any of Titian's other disciples. 
But comparison is invariably disagreeable, and I 
am inclined to think that those who personally 
received from the Hps of great artists a few brief 
and sound rules, as to what ought to be avoided 
or achieved in order best to resemble them, are 
entitled to a high degree of respect : all the spe- 
culations of the finest genius upon their works 
are not half so valuable ; for the second century 



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EFOCH HL 301 

is fiist passing away^ since the oral tradition of 
the best colourists wholly cea^ed> and ive have 
been attempting to attain their method^ in which 
we cannot succeed. Padovanino was always equal 
to the task of handling any subject that had be- 
fore been treated by Titian ; his softer ones with 
grace> his more powerful with strength^ his heroic 
pieces with dignity ; in which last^ if I mistake not, 
he surpassed every other disciple of this master. 
'^ Le donne, i cavalier, Farmi, e gli Amori/' these, 
and let us add to them his boys, were the favour- 
ite subjects of his pencil, which he exhibited to 
most advantage, and which he most frequently in- 
troduced into his compositions. And he knew 
how to treat landscape as well; which, in some 
of his small pictures, he has succeeded in admi- 
rably. He was familiar with the science of the 
sotto in sii,* of which he gave the most favourable 
specimen in the church of San Andrea di Ber- 
gamo, in three admirable histories of that saint. 
It is a work embellished with beautiful archi- 
tecture, and replete with graces in every part. 
He has approached equally near his model in 
the sobriety of his composition, in the v^ dif- 
ficult use of his middle tints, in his contrasts, 
in the colour of his fleshes, in smoothness and 
facility of hand. But Titian was still to remain 
unequalled in his art ; and Yarotari is not a little 
inferior to him in animation, and in the expression 
of truth. Nor can I believe that his method of 

* Literally from below to above. Foreshortening on a ceiling. 



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^X. ^^ Er» 



302 VBNETIAN SCHOOL. 

preparing his cuvass, and of colouring it, was 
the same as that pursued by Titian's disciples, 
Buuiy of his pieces being much darkened^ with 
the shades either deepened or altered. This is 
very perceptible even in Varotari's Dead Christ, 
^t Horence, a painting which the prince not very 
long since purchased for hk gallery there. 

In other points he appears to me to have ob- 
served the same method, in regard to his model, 
as Boussin, who aimed at Rafiadlo's manner, with- 
out reaching it, either from wast of ability, or from 
a dread of falling into servility. His master-piece 
is said to be the Supper o£ Cana, a piece that has 
been ici^aved by Patina, among the Select Pamt- 
ings. It wais formerly in Padua, and is now at 
Venice in the Chapter of La Carit^; with few 
figures in proportion to the place ; a rich display of 
costume and ornament ; dogs that^pear like those 
of Paul, frill of life; grand attendance, women of 
the most exquisite forms warmed with more ideal 
beauty than those of Titian, and drawn in the most 
graceful attitudes. Still it is not every one who 
will approve of his introduction of them for the 
service of such a table, in preference to men, as is 
the more general custom. The above picture 
cannot, however, boast sudi fresh and lucid tints 
as his four histories of the Life of San Domenlco, 
which are to be seen in a Refectory of Santi 
Giovanni and Paolo, containing as it were the 
flower of Padovaaino's best style. This very ele- 
gant artist spent his time between the capital 



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EPOCH III. 303 

and his native province^ where alone his pictures 
abound in public ; in other cities they are more 
rarely met with^ and are scarce even in private 
collections. 

In forming a judgment of his productimis^ it is 
necessary to be upon our guard against a variety 
of copies^ many of his disciples having so happily 
imitated him, that Venetian professors themselves 
with difficulty distinguish their hand from that of 
their master. 

Bartolommeo ScaMgero ranks among the most 
celebrated pupils and imitators of Padovanino^ an 
artist enumerated by the people of Padua among 
their fellow citizens, although they can boast little 
from his pencil ; while the Venetians are in posses- 
sion of his pictures in vsurious churches^ the most 
beautiful^ perhaps, at the Corpw Domini. Gio. 
Batista Rossi^ from Rovigo^ produced one of his 
pictures for San Clemente at Padua ; subsequently 
he flourished at Venice, executing few things for 
public exhibition, but which are much extolled 
by Boschini. Giulio Carpioni was accomrted also 
among the pupils of Varotari, and acquired a re- 
putation rather for his small than his larger com- 
positions ; but we shall have occasion to allude to 
him again. Maestri and Leoni are names record- 
ed in tixe Quida of Venice^ distinguished for their 
works in fresco, exhibited at the Conventuali. 
The former was most probably a foreigner, as well 
as the latter, whom we shall find at Rimino. Were 
Boschini somewhat of a less profuse panegyrist, 



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■ f it ■ 



304 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

we might here add to this list the name of Dario, 
a son of Padovanino^ uniting the character of the 
physician^ the poet, the painter, and engraver. In 
the index to the Carta del Navegar, we find him 
placed in the rank of Dilettanti^ from the circum- 
stance of his producing little in the art, and this 
more with the object of presenting his pictures as 
gifts than of gain. Nevertheless we meet with an 
encomium upon them,* sufficient to satisfy the 
claims even of a good professor; besides which, 
several of his virtues and portraits, with an ex- 
cellent body of colouring, are equally extolled for 
the spirit of their attitudes, and exquisite taste in 
the Giorgione manner. 

We have next to treat of Pietro Liberi, an artist 
who succeeded Padovanino in sustaining the ho- 
nour of his native place. He ranks among the 
great men of his art, and is esteemed by many the 
most learned in point of design, of all who adorn- 
ed the Venetian School. From his early studies 
of the antique at Rome, of Michelangiolo, and of 
Raffaello, of Coreggio at Parma, and of all the 
most excellent masters in the city of Venice, he 
was led to form a style partaking of every school ; 
a style that pleased in Italy, but far more in Ger- 
many, and which obtained for him the titles of 
Count and Cavalier, with wealth to support them 
handsomely in Venice. And, in fact, to estimate 
his merits rightly, we ought not to consider him as 
a painter in one style, but in many. For according 

* Vide pp. 512 and 613. 



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EPOCH III. '305 

to his own confession, he employed for the eye of 
true judges a free and rapid pencil, not very stu- 
dious of finish ; for the less intelligent he worked 
with a very careful one, which bestowed the last 
touch upon every part, distipguishing the very 
hairs in such a tnanner that one might number 
them; and these paintings he executed on pa- 
nels of cypress wood. Most probably the fire of 
this man's genius became quenched whenever he 
attempted to paint slowly, and his pieces were 
certainly less perfect, which is known to have oc- 
curred to several painters in fresco. But with the 
exception of these enthusiasts, who are extremely 
rare, and always adduced by the indolent in de- 
fence of their haste, an observing diligence is the 
perfection of every artist; and even those two 
thunderbolts, let us call them, of art, Tinto- 
retto and Giordano, where they most practised it> 
succeeded tnost in charming the eye of taste. The 
style of this artist may also be distinguished into 
the sublime and beautiful. He produced fewer 
specimens, however, in the former, of which Venice 
boasts a Slaughter of the Innocents, Yicenza a 
Noah just landed from the Ark, Bergamo the 
Great Deluge, in which the shore is said to have 
been the work of M. Montague ; the whole of them 
painted for churches, robust in their design, dis- 
playing fine variety of foreshortenings and of at- 
titudes, with naked patt& in grand character, aiid 
more in emulation of the Caracci than of Michel- 
angiolo. He even abused the singular skill that 

VOL. Ill/ X 



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306 VBNBTIAN SCHOOL. 

he thns displayed; drawing &e Supreme Deity 
by an unprecedented exam^de^ without the least 
drapery, in the church of Santa Caterina at Vi- 
cenza, an error of judgment which detracts from 
the worth of one of his most beautiful productions. 
In a lighter character he produced several pictures 
for private ornament^ sometimes consisting of 
fables familiar to us, and sometimes of capricci 
and allegorical subjects^ too obscure even for 
GBdipus himself to unravel. Most frequentiiy he 
drew naked figures of Venus, in the taste of 
Titian ; and these are esteemed, his master-^^ieces, 
which have acquired for him^ indeed, the name of 
Libertino. It is asserted, that being unequal to 
the formation of the folds of his draperies, for tiie 
most part ill disposed and vague, he the more wil- 
lingly exercised himself in .these schools. We 
meet with a great number in different collections, 
and after beholding one, we are at no loss to recog- 
nize the remainder, both from the heads which are 
often repetitions of each other, and from the rosy 
tinge of his fleshes, and of thie general tone of his 
pictures. He was extravagantly fohd indeed of this 
last colour ; which he often misapplied in r^ard 
to the hands and the extremities of tl^e fingets* For 
the rest the composition of his colours was i^weet; 
his shades delicate, in the Correggio maimer, and 
his profiles often borrowed from the antique, while 
his whole handlmg was free and elevated. 

Marco Liberi, his son, wfts not in any way oom- 
parable to his father, either in point of dignity or 



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EPOCH III. 307 

beauty.when left to his own invention. His fonns 
are either caricatures^ in a manner^ of those of 
hiis father^ or are very inferior where they are 
original. This striking difference may be observ- 
ed in numerous collections^ where their paintings 
of Venus are placed together^ as we see in that of 
Prince Ercolani at Bologna. Still he was an ex- 
cellent copyist of his father's works, a talent pos- 
sessed by many others of the same school, whose 
imitations are easily mistaken for originals, even 
by professors themselves. 

An excellent foreign artist ought not to be 
omitted in this place, one who flourished during a 
long period, and taught and died in Padua. His 
name is Luca Ferrari, from Reggio, fully deserving 
of being enrolled in the Ahheccedario Pittorico. 
Althqugh Guido's pupil, his style became rather 
lofty than delicate ; so that judging by the pictures 
that he produced for Santa Maria della Ghiaja in 
Reggio, Scannelli pronounced him a disciple of Tia- 
rini. In some of the airs of his heads, however, and 
in certain graceful motions, he shews himself not 
unworthy of the character of the former master* 
In Padua there is a Pieth of his at San Antonio, of 
a very masterly kind, a picture that displays the 
rarest beauty of colouring. In his pieces abound- 
ing with figures, like that of the I^lague of 1630, 
painted for the Domenicani, he does not appear to 
so miich advantage ; nor had Guido, indeed, offered 
him any great examples in this line, being accus- 
tomed ratiier to weigh than to number his figures. 

X 2 



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308 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

f 

Minorello and Cirello^ two of his pupils and foK 
lowers^ continued to support in Padua some relish 
of the Bolognese School. Their names might be 
added to the dictionary above mentioned, as Rosetti 
seemed to wish/ and the former, who might some- 
times be confounded with Luca, ought to hold a 
higher place in it than the latter. Francesco Zanella 
deserves likewise to be recorded there/ as an artist 
of spirit, though neither very diligent nor very 
learned in his art. He is esteemed almost the Gior- 
dano of this city, from the great number of his 
works conducted in a short time, and may be com- 
puted almost as the Isist of the school ; for Pelle- 
grini, who flourished during the same age, was not 
a native, though tracing his origin to Padua ; nor 
did he reside there many yeiirs. 

The city of Vicenza produced nothing original 
during this epoch; though it possessed a school, 
sprung from that of Paul Veronese and from Ze- 
lotti, of which I promised the reader a series in a 
more appropriate part of the work. In regard to 
its style, this school, in part, belongs to a better 
age ; but its productions are chiefly so very indif- 
ferent, and so much the result of mechanic art, 
that it may rather be ascribed to the present. 
Vicenza indeed might have had reason to boast, 
had it possessed artists at all equal in point of 
genius to its architects. I shall first commence 
with the name of Lucio Bruni, whether a native of 
the state or a foreigner is uncertain, an artist who 
produced, for San Jacopo, a little altar-piece, re-: 



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EPOCH in. 309 

presenting the marriage of S. Catherine, executed 
in 1585, and partaking of the genius of a better 
fige. I have met with no other notice of him ; for 
as he was probably little known in times when 
Italy abounded with the choicest artists, he found 
no historian who might have rescued his repu- 
tation from oblivion. Yet this I would willingly 
do, if not by giving him a rank in this school, at 
least including him in the list of artists of the city, 
where I find mention of his name. Giannantonio 
Fasolo received the instructions of Paul, and for a 
longer period those of Zelotti ; still adhering, how- 
ever, to Paul as his first example. At San Rocco 
there is one of his pictures, a Probatica, so beau- 
tifully decorated with perspective, and so finely 
filled with sick figures, in various groups and 
distances, that Paul Veronese would not hiave dis- 
claimed it for his own. There are likewise three 
Roman histories in the ceiling of the prefectory 
palace; Mutius Scs&vola before Porsenna, Horatius 
at the Bridge, and Curtius before the Gulf; the 
whole of them nobly executed. By some strange 
mistake Orlandi mentions Verona as the place of 
his birth, and where he exercised his talents. 

Among his pupils was Alessandro Maganza, son 
of the same Giambatista whose name I recorded 
among Titian's followers. Fasolo inspired him 
with his own taste; and we may likewise consi- 
der him a fine imitator of Zelotti and of Paul Ve- 
ronese ; as he has shown in his Epiphany, at San 
Domenico ; and in his Martyrdom of S. Giustina^ 



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310 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

at San Pietro. In his architecture he was excellent, 
judicious in his composition, very pleasing in his 
countenances; in his fleshes inclining towards 
white; in his folds somewhat hard and mo- 
notonous; and for the most part wanting in ex^ 
pression. Vicenza has an abundance of his paint- 
ings, both private and in public ; besides the pro- 
vinces and the adjacent cities, to such an amount, 
that we have no difficulty in believing that he 
flourished till his seventy-fourth year; that he 
painted for good prices, and with little trouble. A 
few of his pictures, such as we meet with at Vi- 
cenza, are amply sufficient to give us an idea of 
the rest ; not unfrequently presenting us with the 
same features and the same attitudes and motions. 
We are to look fof the cause of this, not so much 
in his genius, which he shows in many of his worlts 
to have been excellent, as in his domestic anxie- 
ties, occasioned by a numerous family for whom 
he had to provide. This artist was extremely un- 
fortunate as a father. Giambatista, the eldest of his 
sons, emulated him in knowledge ; and if we may 
venture to judge from one of his histories, of San 
Benedetto, at the church of S. Giustina, in PaduA, 
he was superior to him in point of elegance. But 
the support he derived from this young man's 
talents was soon cut off by his early death, leav- 
ing a young family of his own to the care of 
their grandfather. His second son, Girolamo, 
who had also to make provision for his owil 
children, and Marcantonio, quite a youth, after- 



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BPOcir in. 311 

wards assisted their &ther in his productions, 
and dready began td acquire some degree of repu- 
tation from their own. When, in the year 1630> 
their native place was ravaged by the plague, 
Alessandro had the grief to witness the death of 
his two sons, and, one by one, of the whole of his 
grandchildren ; until left '' the last of his race/' 
to lament over the destruction of his kindred, he 
shortly fbllowed tbem to the tomb, closing with 
his^ death that noble school which the two illus- 
trious Veronese had founded in Vicenza. 

Yet it did not altogether perish ; but was con- 
tinued by Maffei, by Carpibni, and by Cittadella, 
three artists Who,cotnpared with the Maganza, some- 
times appear to have sprung from the same aca- 
demy, either from having studied in Vicenza the 
models they inaitated, or because the style, which 
partakes both ofthat ofPauland Palma, was then 
in high repute, as that of Cortona at another period 
among us. They were all three, like Alessandro 
himself, rapid in their composition; and were 
their pictures, even belonging to the city, to be 
enumerated, they would most likely be found to 
equal thbse of all the other foreign or native artists 
employed there. Francesco Maffei^ from Vicenza^ 
had been the pupil of Perahda, sotoe of whose im^ 
finished pieces he completed. He next undertook 
to inlitate Piaul Veronese, with a tolerable degree 
of spirit and learning. His style is on a lofty 
sciaile ; in so inuch that Boi^chini entitles him the 
great mantierist, extolling him as the paiinter of 



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.312 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

giants. Nor is he wanting in a certain grace 
peculiarly his; which distinguishes him from the 
mannerists. His picture of St. Anna^ at San Ml- 
chele di Yicenza, besides many works produced 
at the same place for the public palace^ and else- 
where, extremely poetical^ full of fine portraits, 
and coloured in the best Venetian taste, show that 
he was able to compete with more skilful artists 
than Carpioni and Cittadella, his contemporaries. 
And as he, perhaps, did not consider them very 
formidable rivals, he did not finish his pieces: with 
much care, leaving many of his heads, besides 
other portions of his figures, incomplete ; scanty 
in his colouring, employing dark grounds, and al- 
together painting rather for years than for ages. 
At San Francesco, in Padua, there is a grand pic- 
ture of his " Paradise," which, owing to this me- 
thod, has lost almost isvery trace of colour. This 
result extinguishes the praise which Boschini be- 
stows upon him, that with four touches of his pen- 
cil he could make the observer raise his eyebrpws 
with admiration, and is a very excellent warning, we 
thipk, for over expeditious artists. Their pictures 
may be said, indeed, to resemble certain children, 
the offspring of unhealthy parents, who sometimes 
exhibit a florid countenance in youth, accom- 
panied with every other symptom of health, but, 
declining as they advance, their constitution be- 
comes exhausted in a few years. 

Giulio Carpioni, a pupil to Padovanino, and 
fer the same reason familiar with the composition 



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EPOCH III. 313 

of Paul Veronese, has assuredly more vivacity, 
power of expression, and poetry than Maffei. He 
was not, however, equally inclined to grand pro- 
portions, and works upon an extensive scale. His 
figures do not usually exceed the size of those of 
Bassano ; and they are more frequently met with 
in collections than in churches, throughout the 
whole Venetian state. In many noble houses we 
also find pictures consisting of bacchanals, drean^, 
fables, and capricci, or fancy pieces, as well as 
histories, all touched with a spirit and a taste in 
his tints, which his master himself mi^t have 
thought worthy of his pencil. He appears to have 
produced others for the people, if indeed they are 
not the work of his pupils, or of his son Carlo, who 
is supposed to have followed, in all points, the ex- 
ample of his father ; though I never met with any 
piece that was positively genuine. He was, like- 
wise, a good portrait-painter; and in the public 
Council Hall at Vicenza, as well as in the church 
of the Servi at Monte Berico, appear the portraits 
of several of the magistrates in that government, 
accompanied by their trains ; in which, to singular 
correctness of feature, we meet with much ideal 
beauty in his representation of the Virtues, that he 
introduced with appropriate and noble inventions. 
Such an artist ought to be well known in Venice and 
Vicenza, where he flourished during many years. 
He passed his latter days in Verona, where his 
contemporary, Bartolommeo Cittadella, had like- 
,wise taken up his residence; last of the: three 



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814 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

whom I have just before mentioned. It is uncer-^ 
tain whether he was a pupil, or only a companion 
of Carpioni ; but he is indisputably his inferior in 
point of genius and ability. To the same school 
we may add the name of Niccolo Miozzi, of Yi- 
c^iza, recorded in the GioieUi Pittaresehi of Bos- 
chini; and, though more doubtful, that of Marc-^ 
antonio Miozzi, known by his superscription at^ 
taehed to a sacred subject, in posseission of the 
house of Muttoni, at Rovigo. ^ 

Towards the close of the century, one of the 
artists in most request was Menarola, whose istyle 
approaches nearer to the modem. He was pupil 
to Yolpato, though chiefly (following die maumer 
of Carpioni. Next to him was Costantin Pasqua- 
lotto, more distinguished for colouring than for 
design; and Antonio de' Fieri, called Zoppo, of 
Vicenza, who possessed a rapid, but less deciited 
hand; along with some others who maybe reeojg^ 
nized in this description. JStill higher in repute 
than thqse was tPasquale Rossi, little of whom rfe- 
mains in Yicenza, having chiefly attached himself 
totfap Roman School, where he will be found men- 
tioned. Gio. Bittonte, leaving Vicenza, established 
himself, and painted a good deal at Castelfranco ; 
.where, from the circumstance of founding a sch6ol 
both of painting and of dancing, he acquired the 
surname of Ballenno. Melchiori reptesents him 
as pupil to Maffei, and master of Melchiore, his fa- 
ther, who lived also in Castelfranco, where he was 
much employ^ altiiough engaged also at Venice, 



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EPOCH^ ni* 315 

in the Casa Morosirii; where he competed with the 
Cavalier Liberi. 

When the ancient school had become wholly 
extincl at Bassafio^ there appeared a Gio. Batista 
Volpati^ who produced many pictures for his na« 
tive state; somewhat resembling Carpioni in his 
capricci and in his style^ but more common, pert 
haps, in his feattires and whole design. His pupils 
are said to have been one Trivellini, and one Bee* 
nardoni, both still inferior to their master. He left 
behind him several treatises upon the pictoric art^ 
which are yet existing in MS^ in. the ridi and. se- 
lect library of Count Giuseppe Kemondini. In 
the preface to these he asserts that he had xto 
master, thdi%h he is 6aid;>in a MS. at Castelfraneo, 
to have been a piipil of Novelli. The work is In* 
terspersed with good remarks, such as to lead* us 
to suppose him a tolerable theorist; and Aiga« 
rotti took a copy of it, as we leam from the. index 
of his works upov the fine arts, already before^the 
public. 

We have aborife afiuded to a branch of the Vero- 
nese School, transplanted to Padua, where it flou-^ 
rished with extraordinary success. Referring to 
its origin, and to those Veronese artists who lived 
contemporary with Pahna, and until the close of 
the 17th century, it must be observed, that they 
maintained the national reputation no less than 
those of Padua, and were even more constant in 
the good old method of managing their grouuds 
and their style of colouring. I have noticed thie 



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316 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

name of Claudio Ridolfi* in a former school, from 
the circumstance of his having flourished in the pon- 
tifical state. He did not, however, desist from his 
lahours in the Venetian state, some of which appear 
in the capital and the adjacent cities, particularly in 
his niative place, and Padua. In the celebrated 
church of S. Giustina, there is a very fine piece, re- 
presenting the honours of the Benedictine order, 
professed by princes, adorned by martyrs, and the 
nurse of the most distinguished pastors of the holy 
church. The invention is very appropriate, the ex- 
ecution altogether elegant and well finished, and the 
ornaments equally rich as in any of his other works. 
He presented his country with a good disciple of his 
style, in Gio. Batista Amigazzi, though his chief ta- 
lent seemed to consist in the excellence of his copies. 
In San Carlo, at Verona, there is one taken from a 
Supper by Paul Veronese, not only finely drawn, 
but exhibiting colours fresh and vivid even at the 
present day. Still superior to him, and almost equal 
to his master, we meet with Benedetto Mariiii, of 
Urbino, an artist unheard of in his own country^ 
though greatly distinguished at Piacenza.f 

Posterior to Ridolfi appeared three scholars of 
Felice Brusasorci, in addition to Creara, an artist 

* y. torn. ii. p. 196 ; and, in the same place, I gate him as a 
pupil to Daiio Pozzo, on the authority of the Commendatore del 
Pozzo. But writers disagree in regard to the chronology of this 
man ; which, until it be further cleared up, may rest, for me, 
without this honour. 

f An account of him may be found, tom. ii. p. 198, and iu 
the series of painters of the Barocci school. 



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EPOCH III. 317 

less celebrated ; all of whom, on the death of their 
master, pursued their studies at Rome. There 
they imbibed, more or less, the prevailing style ; and 
all* of them occupy a distinguished rank in the 
history of the art. Alessandro Turchi, sumamed 
OrbettOy is, in particular, distinguished among 
the first of his age ; he was called Orbetto, observes 
Pozzo, because, when quite a boy, he was in the 
habit of guiding an old blind mendicant, either his 
father, or some other person. Passeri declares 
that he derived it from his having a defect in one 
of his eyes ; which was observable in his left eye, 
as I am informed by Signor Brandolese, after hav* 
ing seen his portrait, engraved after the original, 
in possession of the Signori Yianelli. Brusasorci, 
from certain undoubted symptoms, discovered in 
him a fine genius for the art; and, giving him the 
best instructions, in a few years encountered a 
rival, rather than a disciple. Residing afterwards 
in Venice, under Carlo Caliari, and thence pro- 
ceeding to Rome, he formed a style wholly his 
own, possessing some strength but more elegance. 
He established himself in Rome> where he entered 
into competition with the followers of the Caracci, 
with Sacchi, and with Berrettini ; with whom he 
appears to advantage in the church of the Conce- 
zione, as well as in a few others. But no city has 
so many of his pieces in public as Verona, to say 
nothing of those he painted for private persons. 
The family of the Marchesi Giirardini alone, who 
patronised him and supported him at Rome, for 



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318 VENBTIAN SCHOOL. 

which we have original letters aild d<lOiiiiieats, 
possesses sufficient td^emrich several /coU^o^ons, 
among which it is amusing to trace his.pjCQgr^ss 
from the inferior ta the more correct ,$p^ime2is, 
and from a lower d^ree of proameDt to the 
highest. Some> indeed^ have; ventured to put him 
in competition with Annibal Caracci; a compa- 
rison that, in other times, would have created as 
great a sensation in Bologna as the, celebrated 
Rape of the Bucket, and one which ought not to 
be listened to, indeed, any where.. Annibal was 
a painter worthy of our veneration, and Tmrchi 
succeeded in imitating his design in the '' Sisara" 
of the Casa Colomia and elsewhere. But he was 
not so happy in every instance, and, generally,, his 
naked figures, (which approach, in. Annibal, to 
those of the ancient Greeks,) are not. equal to 
such as he has thrown into costume* . On the con- 
trary, Passeri, in describing his picture at the 
Gamaldolesi, in Rome, admits that he did Jiot dis- 
i^y perfect taste in his art, .while Pasooli, in his 
Ufe of Oimignani> says he enjoyed ^ome. degree of 
reputation at Rome; an incautious expressie^i, if 
I mistake not, but which .at least shews, that 
Turchi is not entitled to a Comparison with An- 
nibal^ Caraccil Still he exhibits so.many;attrac- 
tions, that he never fads tOo.please us in? every 
subject He seems to have^ aimed at fiirming an 
imion of various schools, and added to it ja >9ertain 
arigittalit)r.in giving dignity ;to theportraiis intro- 
duced into his histories^ with the most animated. 



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' EPOCH III. 319 

yet the most delicate cpmpl^xions. He excelled in 
the choice and distribution of his colpurs^ among 
which he introduces a reddish tint, which much 
enlivens his pictures, and is one of the indications 
by which we may recognise the author. He is 
said to jhave employed exquisite care in the appli- 
cation of his tints, and to have possessed some 
jsecretiart, by means of which they continue to 
attract the enyj of posterity. The truth is, he 
^selected, purified, and kneaded well his colours, be- 
sides consulting chemists upon the subject. From 
some pictures we feel inclined to turn away jn 
disgust^ so extremely dp the colours resemble the 
tints made use of by coach-painters ; and we have 
reason to complain of want of refinement in many 
instances. But how v^ry few apply themselves 
seriously to select and refine their materials, to 
nuijs:e experiments, and to analyse those colours 
/that have been once applied. 

At the church, of San Stefano, in Verona, there 
is exhibited his '* Passipn of the Forty Martyre," 
a work that, in regard to depth of colours and 
forertahortening,. partakes much of the Lombard ; 
in point, of expression and design, of the Roman ; 
and in its colouring, of the Venetian School. It 
is one of the^most studied, finished, and animated 
pieces that he produced : there is a choiceness in 
tbe heads that approachejs Guide's ; and a.i^fll of 
qoinpo^ition, thad.tifirows intp the back-ground of 
the: piatui^ a gveajh portion of the multifarious his- 
toxys as apjpeaiiQg in a field of vast extent, where 



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380 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

his figures are admirably varied, according to the 
distances in which they are supposed to appear. 
Yet he does not belong to that class of artists who 
go about in search of personages for their histories, 
in order to fill them with figures. On the other 
hand, he appears to take more pleasure in introdu- 
cing an inferior number. Thus his picture of a 
Piet^ painted for the church of La Misericordia^ 
at Verona, exhibits only a dead Christ, the Virgin, 
and Nicodemus ; but the whole so well designed, 
arranged, and animated, as well as coloured, that 
it has been esteemed by many his master-piece, 
and is certainly one of the best paintings in Ve- 
rona. In that of his Epiphany also, in possession 
of the Signori Girardini, of which the rough draft 
is preserved in the Casa Fattorini, at Bologna, he 
is by no means lavish of his figures ; but he suc- 
ceeded in arraying those of the Magi in so noble 
a manner, as to remind us of Titian and Bassano. 
Turchi died at Rome, leaving behind him two ex- 
cellent disciples in Gio. Ceschini, and Gio. Batista 
Rossi, called il Gobbino. The first of these pro- 
duced copies of his master's works, that had all the 
appearance of originals. Both continued to em- 
ploy themselves at Verona, though declining in 
importance and in credit in proportion as they 
advanced in years. 

Pasquale Ottini, the same who, with Orbetto, 
cowtpleteA some pictures by Felice, was a good 
artist in regard to his forms, and of nocominoh 
expression, particularly in the works he conducted 



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EPOCH III. 321 

after having seen Raffaello's. Of this we have a 
striking specimen in the '^ Slaughter of the Inno- 
cents/' placed at San Stefano^ although it is sub- 
jected to an un&vourable comparison, being placed 
opposite to one of the finest productions of Or- 
betto. He appears to more advantage, perhaps, 
at San Giorgio, where we meet with his picture of 
San Niccolo, with other saints, in the best Vene- 
tian style of colouring ; whereas, in other instances, 
(lis colours are somewhat languid ; a defect most 
probably arising from time, and unfiivourable si- 
tuations. Finally, he is in high repute in his own 
tJOuntry; and in the learned Alessandro Carli's 
History of Verona, he is mentioned as approach- 
ing, the nearest of all, in point of excellence, to 
Paul Veronese. Subsequent to him, and not in- 
ferior in talent, we meet with Marc Antonio Bas- 
setti, who, leaving his fellow-pupils, set out, very 
young, to complete his studies at Venice. After 
again joining them, he next transferred his resi- 
dence to Rome ; and having copied from the best 
models of both schools, he ultimately returned to 
his native place. He is particularly commended 
by Ridolfi in the brancTi of design, in which he 
was truly great; add to which, he was an excel- 
lent colourist. And he w^s accustomed, to advise 
those who aimed at good colouring to return, in tha 
first place, to Venice, and again to consult Uie 
most beautiful productions of the art. There is 
one of his altar-pieces at San Stefano, in Verona, 
representing various holy bishops of the city, all 

VOL. III. Y 



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322 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

arrayed in their sacred ihabits, all admirably con- 
trasted, and in a taste nearly fa]>praacliiHg tha^t 
of Titian, were it not for tie vicinity of Turohi, 
who seems h»e again to thirow him somewhat into 
the shade. He left no succession of the sdiool,* 
nor, indeed^ many works of his own, though they 
were highly valued. For he was accustomed .to 
say that painting ought not to be pursued by jour- 
neymen, like a mechanic art, but with the leisure 
that is bestowed upon literature, for the sake of 
the pleasure it affords* * It would appear that 
Dante adopted almost the same maxim iu^ his 
poetry, when he watched for, observedf and enceur 
raged the impressions that nature, the fir^t guide 
of all true geniuses, implanted in his spiritf The«9 
two friends met their fate together, dying.of the 

* Melchiori informs me of a pupil of his, unknown to Pozzo^ 
probably because a non-resident in Verona^ This was Father 
Massimo Cappucino, a Veronese by birth, and» in the histo- 
rian's opinion, an excellent artist. In proof of this, he mentions 
four large pictures, placed in the dome of Montagnana, besides 
iSeveral altar-pieces, distributed by him among the churches of 
his order. Along with this ecclesiastic I find mention of two 
contemporary lay-brothers, who assisted him in th^ art, neither of 
them unworthy of being placed upon record. These are Fra 
Semplice, a native of Verona, and pupil to Brusasorci, and Fra 
Santo, of Venice ; both of whom were particularly employed in 
painting for churches and convents, within the Venetian territory. 
Fta Semplice produced also some for Rome. A fine picture of 
Sao Felice, from his hand, placed at Castelfranco, was engraved 
in 1712. 

t lo mi son un che quando 
Amore spira noto ; ed a quel modo 
Che detta dentro vo significando. — Purg, C. 24. 



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EPOCH IH. 323 

plague in the year 1630, as well as many other scho- 
lars of Brusasorei, mentioned by the Commenda- 
tore del Pozzo. But I omit their names, either be- 
cause of their early death, or want of talent to dis- 
tinguish themselves. Thus, about the same year, 
ivhen Orbetto had already established himself in 
Rome, the succession of Brusasorci's school ceased 
in Verona. The disciples of Paul Veronese, men- 
tioned subsequent to him, Montemezzano, Benfat- 
to, Verona, and others, died likewise about this 
period; insomuch that every trace of the munici- 
pal school may be said to have disappeared, and 
it was sucdeed^ by a variety of foreign styles. 
^ Indeed, for some time before, the young Vero- 
nese artists had become attached to foreign aca- 
demies, and several strangers had established them- 
selves in Verona. Dionisio Guerri had formed, 
under the direction of Feti, a very striking and 
dear styte ; in himself equal to repairing the loss 
of many artists. But he died young, in 1640, leav- 
* ing few works behind him, in a great measure dis- 
persed through foreign collections ; and he Was 
limch lamented. Francesco Bemardi, called Bigd- 
laroy supposed to have been a native of Brescia, 
until the Commendatore del Pozzo proved him to 
have been of Verona, was an artist educated by 
the isame master. He exhibited, in his picture of 
the Titulai? Saiht, at the church of S. Carlo,, seen 
in the act of attending his infected brethren, as 
well as in another piece, a companion to it, all the 

y2 



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324 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

taste of his master. But he produced much more 
for private collections, than for the public. The 
Cavalier Barca was an artist who sprung from 
Mantua, though he subsequently became a citizen 
of Verona. It is uncertain whether he was in- 
structed by Feti. His style is various ; and in a 
Piet^ of his, remaining at San Fermo, he appears 
a painter capable of producing a good effect ; in 
other pieces, at the Scala, he abounds with picto- 
rial grace and beauty, and he is fully worthy of 
commemoration. 

The city of Bologna, likewise, contributed to 
repair the loss sustained by Verona of so many 
' artists. Guido and Albani conferred great obliga- 
tions, by instructing the Cavalier Coppa (his real 
name, however, was Antonio Giarola, orGerola) 
who is to be enumerated in the list of their best 
disciples, though he is somewhat too loaded in his 
composition, and, with a view of catching the 
sweetness of Guido, became wanting in strength 
of colouring. There is one of his Magdalens in' 
the Desert, however, placed at the Servi, which is 
full of fine expression. And in the refectory, also, 
of the Veronese college, is his Supper of Emmaus, 
a picture conducted in the style of the best Vene- 
tians. Although addicted to the style of Guido, 
he was also considered by Albani as one of his 
favourite pupils, who sent him as court-painter to 
the Duke of Mantua, as we are informed by Mal- 
vasia.* From the same academy sprung Giacomo 

* Tom. ii. p. 266. 



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EPOCH III. 325 

Locatelli^ distinguished for several works, chielSy 
produced for San Procolo, as well as on account 
of the merit of some of his pupils. They rose into 
notice in the decline of the art, about the close of 
the seventeenth century. Andrea Voltolino, a care- 
ful but cold painter, was more fitted to succeed 
in portraits than in compositions; Biagio Fal- 
cieri, instructed also by the Cavalier Liberi at Ve- 
nice, possessed much of the fire and imagination 
abounding in the Venetian School. Of this he 
gave an example in his great picture representing 
the Council of Trent, where the figure of St. Tho- 
mas, in thie act of overthrowing heretics, appears 
conspicuous on high, a piece that adorns the 
church of the Domenicans. Santo Prunato was 
instructed by these two professors, an artist who 
brought the Veronese School into fresh notice, as 
we shall have occasion to observe in the following 
period. 

The school of Moretto continued during this 
epoch to flourish in Brescia; a master exquisitely de^ 
licate in his colours y and extremely diligent, as is evi- 
dent fromhis works. Such is the opinion express- 
ed byVasari; but he did not always preserve the 
same ejccellence. There is not the same degree 
of finish in his disciples, and it was, indeed, too 
difficult, while so large a portion of the state put 
a high value upon celerity of hand, to pursue 
more tedious processes. The Brescian artists 
who succeeded him, having in part received a 
Venetian education, the city abounded in manherr 



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326 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

ists and the class of tenehrosi. Still there appear* 
ed among these some excellent painters. Antonio 
Gandini and Pietro Moroni^ or Maroni^ are enu- 
merated among the pupils of Paul. The former 
sometimes imitated Yanni^ without neglecting 
Palma; vast^ varied^ and ornate in his composi^ 
tions^ an artist every way, deserving of considera^ 
tion in the grand history of the Cross^ which he 
painted in the old cathedral, where his son Ber- 
nardino , a poor imitator of his father, also em- 
ployed himself. Moroni studied a good deal the 
works of Titian, and was one of the most accu- 
rate apd fine designers the school could, at that 
time, boast ; nor does he yield to any of his con- 
temporaries in the. strong body, and in the clear- 
ness of. his colouring. Such at least he appear- 
ed to me at San Bamaba, in Ms picture of Christ 
going to Mount Calvary, when compared with 
other productions of the same period exhibited 
there. . 

Filippo Zanimberti, pupil to Peranda, and as 
artist of fine character, and a fine hand, as well as 
a very natural colourist, has never been sufficiently 
appreciated in Brescia. But in Venice, where he 
resided many years, and where he painted with real 
genius and skill for different churches, he is very 
highly esteemed. In Santa Maria Nuova appears 
his grand picture of the Manna^ so much com- 
mended by Ridolfi, by Bosehini, and by Zanetti; 
though he chiefly ^eems to have employed himself 
in the ornament of palaces. He possessed singu- 



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EPOCH ni. 327 

lar talent for drawing small figures^ and composing 
fables and histories^ which were eagerly sought 
after, insomuch that the poet of the Venetian 
paintings aflSrms that whoever possessed Zanim- 
berti's pictures^ was sureof liis money. 

Francesco Zugni^ of Brescia^ is mentioned by 
Ridolfi ank)ng the best of Palma's disciples. He 
coQld not compete with him in the beauty of his 
Ibfmsmnd attitudes, though he surpassed him in 
the fnlness of his colouring, and in the spirit in 
which he conducted his works. These were for 
the mdst part in fresco, and frequently exhibited 
the perspectives of Sandrini, an architect of great 
merit. With him ^ he was employed in the hall of 
tbePodest^, in that of the Capitano, and in several 
villas. He displayed equal excellence in his oil 
paintings, as we gather from that of the Circum^ 
dj^ion at the Grazie, and from some smaH figures' 
aiming one of the choirs, designed and touched 
with great spirit. * .^ 

Grazio Cossaie, or Co2zale, produced a variety^ 
of pieces upon a large scale, still remaining in his 
native province. He was gifted with a rich ima- 
gination, and of a character, compared by Coz- 
zando, the historian of Brescia, to that of Palma ; 
and he indeed appears to have emulated his faci'- 
lity without abusing it* His picturfe of the Pre- 
sentation, which he left at the ihnrch of the Mi- 
racoli; his Epiphany at the Grazie, and other' 
pieces dispersed throughout' Brescia, are all icai- 
cidated to arrest the eye of the spe^tatot, who 



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329 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

must likewise possess little feeliog, should he fail 
to lament the unhappy fate of so great a man, who 
fell by the hand of one of his own sons. Neither 
in Camillo Rama, Ottavio Amigoni, nor in Jacopo 
Barueco, all disciples of Palma, have I met with 
any works of equal beauty throughout that city, 
the last of whom, indeed, has loaded his pieceswith 
a more than ordinary degree of shade. Amigoni, 
who had been pupil to Gandino, likewise held his 
school, in which he counted, among other scholars, 
Pompeo Ghiti, an artist who, under Zoppo of 
Lugano, succeeded in improving his manner, or 
rendered it at least more powerful. He possessed, 
a rich imagination, excellent in the art of design, 
and in his touch similar to, though perhaps not 
so strong as the Luganese. Francesco Paglia was 
a pupil and imitator of Guercino, and the father 
of Antonio and Angelo, both devoted to the:art. 
He was most successftil in his portraits, though he 
painted also scriptural pieces ; one of the most es- 
teemed of which is to be seen at La Carit^. He 
was excellent in the laying on of his colours, and. 
in chiaroscuro, but displayed little spirit, while 
his proportions were frequently too long and slen- 
der. But to describe minutely the manner of the 
successors of Ghiti and Paglia, would occupy too 
much of our spac6 ; such are the names of Tortelli, 
very spirited in Venetian composition, of Cappelli, 
instructed likewise by Pasinelli at Bologna, and by 
Baciccio at Rome, along with some others of a 
more modern character, who succeeded tolerably 



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EPOCH III. 329 

in the path marked out by the artists of Bologna,, 
and a few of whom may be referred to the ensuing 
epoch. 

During the time of Palma and the Venetian 
mannerists, the art had been maintained in Ber- 
gamo by the successors of Lotto, and of his con- 
temporaries. We meet with ample commenda- 
tions of Gio. Paolo Lolmo,. a good artist in di- 
minutive pictures. In the altar-piece of Santi 
Rocco and Sebastiano at S. Maria Maggiore, and 
executed about 1587, not one of his earliest pieces, 
he displayed a great partiality for the design of the 
fourteenth century; diligent, a minute observer 
of refinements in figures, though not sufficiently 
modem. But there were two excellent artists, alto- 
gether in the modem style, who flourished at the 
same period ; Salmeggia andCavagna, who compet- 
ed with one another in perfect amity, for many 
years, in ornamenting their, native province. Que of 
them died in 1626, the other in the following year. 

EneaSalmeggia, called Talpino, received instruc- 
tions in the art from the Campi at Cremona, and 
from the Procacdiii in Milan; whence prooeeding 
to Rome, he studied for a period of fourteen years 
the models of Raffaello, imitating him during the 
rc^mainder of his life. Orlandi and other writers 
join in extolling his San Yittore, at the Olivetani 
in Milan, as well as a few other of his works, ob- 
serving that they had been even ascribed to Raf- 
faello. And whoever attentively examines that 
fine specimen, will not feel inclined to refuse Sal- 



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330 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

meggia one of the most distinguished places in 
the rank of Raflbello's followers. The clearness 
of his contours (sometimes, however, carried to 
the borders of littleness) the expre^ion of his 
youthful countenances, the smoothness of his pen- 
cil and the flow of his drapery, together with a 
certain graceful air in the motions and expressions^ 
sufficiently mark him ibr an admirer of that sove* 
reign master, however much inferior to him in 
point of dignity, in imitation of the antique^ and 
in felicity of composition. His method of colour^ 
ing was also different. He aflfects greater variety of 
colours in his draperies ; the tints in a large portion 
of his works are at present faded ; and the shades^ 
as in other pictures of the same period, are much 
altered. Yet it is probable that this great artist^ 
as it has been observed of Poussin and of Raffiiello 
himself, did not always bestow the tome degree of 
care upon his colouring, satisfied with displaying 
from time to time his surpassing excellence in this 
department. In the <;hureh of La Passione at 
Milan, he produced his Christ praying in the Gar- 
den, as well as his picture of the Flagellazione, 
works conducted in his best style. The former 
of these is finely coloured in the manner of the 
Bassani ; and the latter, of a more Ibfty and animat- 
ed character, is superior to thjd other even in foi*ce 
of colouring. Bergamo boasts other specimens of 
him, and in particular in th^ two great altars of 
Santa Marta and of Santa Grata. There we meet 
with two noble pictures^ each of which may boast^ 



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EPOCH III. 331 

its separate admirers who prefer it to the other ; 
and each displays an union of colours^ at once 
so fresh, clear^ and beautiful, that we are never 
weary of contemplating them. In both he has ob- 
served the same general composition ; the Virgin 
being represented on high, crowned with a glory, 
while below her are seen the figures of several 
saints ; but in the second, perhaps, he has employ- 
ed a greater degree of care. Here he has intro-^ 
duced a splendid variety of shortenings, of atti-^ 
tttdes, and of lineaments ; and. even inserted the 
city of Bergamo, with some fine architecture in the 
style of Paul Veronese. . The figures are arrayed 
with extreme care, among which appears a bishop 
in his sacred paraphernalia, that serves to remind 
us of Titian himself. His pictures for private or- 
nament are rare and valuable, but not sufficiently 
known beyond his native province and its vicinity, 
a circumstance common to many very excellent 
artists belonging to all our schools. Italy, indeed, 
is too abundantly supplied with distinguished 
names to admit of the whole of them being ;g&ie- 
rally known and estimated as they deserve* ^ i 
The style of l^nea was not such as to be easily 
maintained, without^consulting the great examples 
of RaffisteUo as he had done. His two sons, Fran- 
cesco and Chiara, although educated by their &- 
thar, succeeded rather in imitating his studies 
andvhis figures, than in thoroughly penetrating 
into the principles of his art. The fruits, however, 
of a good education wwe sufficiently apparent in 



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332 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

them ; and when placed in competition with some 
of their contemporaries, they appear, if not very; 
animated, at least very sedulous artists, and greatly 
exempt from the faults of the mannerists. The 
city is in possession of many of their public works ^ 
in some of the best of which their father is sup-^ 
posed to have afforded them his assistance. 

Gianpaolo Cavagna seems in some way to have 
escaped the notice of Boschini, and even of Or- 
landi, who had bestowed so much commendation 
upon his rival. He ranks, in his native province, 
as high as Salmeggia, and he certainly appears to 
have possessed a still more enlarged genius, more 
decision, and more talent for extensive works. A 
pupil of Morone, the great portrait-painter, as we 
have already mentioned, he evinced a taste for the 
Venetian School, attaching himself in particular 
to Paul Veronese, in whose style he conducted 
some of his best productions. He was ambitious 
of surpassing him likewise in point of design, 
which he assuredly did in his naked figures, exhi- 
biting even the adult form with a degree of mas- 
terly power. He had acquired the best method of 
paiinting in fresco, in his native place, and he suc- 
ceeded in it admirably, as appears from the choir 
of Santa Maria Maggiore, where he represented 
the Virgin received into Heaven, a very spirited 
and varied composition, abounding with figures of 
a9gels and of prophets, truly great; the distin- 
guishing characteristic, perhaps, of this artist's 
genius. Nor did he appear to less advantage in 



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EPOCH III. . 333 

oils^ more particularly when the immediate vicinity 
of other celebrated painters put his talents to the 
test. Of this kind the most successful^ perhaps^ 
are his Daniel in the Lions' Den^ and his picture 
of San Francesco receiving the stigmata, forming 
«ide pictures to one of the best altar-pieces by 
Lorenzo Lotto at San Spirito ; yet they are never- 
theless worthy of that distinguished post. His 
Crucifixion, between various saints, placed at 
Santa Lucia, has been still more highly extolled 
as one of the finest productions the city has to 
boast, and preferred by many Judges to any of the 
altar-^pieces of Talpino. I shall abstain from ex- 
pressing an opinion upon a subject in which artists 
themselves would disagree, merely observing that 
it is more difficult to meet with inferior or careless 
pieces from the hand of Salmeggia than from Ca- 
vagna's. He had also a son a painter of the name 
of Francesco, called Cavagnuola, who, surviving 
his father, acquired some degree of celebrity. He 
attached himself wholly to the style of Gianpaolo, 
as well ai^ certain foreigners sprung from the same 
school, such as Girolamo Grifoni, in whose pro- 
ductions we seem to trace the copy of a copy of 
the style^Paul. If the artists named Satita Croce 
belong to Bergamo, and to one family, as we are 
informed in the Guida of Padua, we ought here to 
insert the name of Pietro Paolo, the least distin- 
guished among the Santa Croce, but not untv:or- 
thy of commemoration for one of his Madonnas 
at the Arena, aiid for other pictures at different 



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334 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

churches in Padna; in all of which he appears at» 
tadied to the school of CaviEigna, or at least to the 
less mannered dasd , of the Venetians. 

Snhseqneht to the ahovfc two artists/ we meet 
with the name df : Francesco Zncco, a good piipil 
of the Campi at Verona, and of Moroni at Ber« 
gamo. From this -last he u^qnired the art of 
giving a singular degree of spirit to his portrait^ 
and froift Paid Veroneseilie mode of ornamenting 
them with most taste imd fancy. Even in his 
larger compositions he sometimes adhered so close- 
ly to the same artist/ that several of them were as- 
cribed eVen by his fellow citizens to Paul, a cirt 
ct»tostatice that occurred to his pictures of the 
Nativity and of an Epiphany, on the organ of 
San Gottardo. He adopted, moreover, a variety 
of manners^, apparently ambitious of displaying 
to the public Ms power of imitating Cavagna 
or Talpfno> as he pleased. Contemporary with 
these artists, he so far rivalled them, (as in his San 
Diego ^t Le Grazie, or in the large altar at die 
Cappuccine,) as to approve himself worthy of such 
emulation. In other works he gives us occasioii 
to wish for a better union of his colours, in which 
he cannot be pronounced equal to the first masteriS; 
of the school, so admirable in this department. 

Subsequent to the year 1627, there was no want 
of artists of ability at Bergamo, among whom we 
may mention a Fabio di Pietro Ronzelli, whose 
style, if not sufficiently select and ideal, was at least 
solid and robust. To his we may add the name 



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EPOCH III, 33t5 

of Carlo Ceresa^ an artist of much study and re- 
search^ pleasing in his colouxing^ and having appa- 
rently formed his taste upon the models of the best 
age, successful in giving ideal beauty to his coun-* 
tenancesw The former of the^, most probably the 
son of one Piero, known as a good portrait-painter, 
and respectable in point of composition, painted 
the Martyrdom of San Alessandro, for the church 
af Santa Grata, while the latter added the two side 
pictures without the least traces of mannerism. 
C3pnteii(iporary with' both these, I^omenico "Ghis- 
landi distinguished himself as a painter of frescod^ 
more particularly in architecture. He was the 
father of Fra^ Vittore, called likewise Frate Pao- 
lotto, whom we shall have occasion to mentiofi 
hereafter. At present it will hardly be desirable 
that I should extend my remarks to other names 
scarcely heard of beyond the limits of their native 
province ; though in justice to the city I must ob- 
serve that in its dearth of native tsdent, it spared 
BO expense in decorating public places with the 
works of the best foreign artists, of every country. 
Ample proofs of this liberality may be seen in.fthe 
cathedral and the adjacent church of Santa Mf iria 
Maggiore. Such are among the advantages enj oy- 
ed by cities, which are equally in possession of t'iste 
and of-riches. But when deficient in either of 
these^ they will be compelled to adopt the plan 
pursued in rural occupations, where each agriicuL 
turist employs the oxen that belonj^ to his ipwn 
fields. 



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336 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Crema, at this period, might pride itself on 
having produced such an artist as Carlo Urbini* 
who, though of limited genius, was very pleasing' 
skilful in perspective, and equal to grand histo- 
rical pieces. He had afforded a specimen of his 
powers in one of the public halls, in which he ex- 
hibited national battles and victories, besides hav- 
ing employed his talents in different churches. In 
ornamenting that of San Domenico, however, an 
artist of the name of Uriele, most probably of the 
Gatti family at Gremona, was preferred before him, 
though extremely inferior. This injustice seemed 
to alienate his mind from his native place, and he 
proceeded to Milan, by whose writers he has been 
recorded with honour. Yet his history-piece at 
San Lorenzo, conducted in fresco, seems to contain 
riather the seeds than the fruits of noble painting, 
and he appears to greater advantage in oil colours, 
as we gather from his picture of our Saviour 
taking leave of his virgin mother previous to his 
sufferings, a production ornamenting Santa Maria 
neiar San Celso, where it may compete with the 
bekt Lombard masters of that time. Lomazzo 
makes mention of him in reference to such as pro- 
duced pieces most suitable to the places for which 
they were intended ; an useful practice, familiar 
to ihe old masters, who took care to adapt tlieir 
pictures, not only to places, but to household fur- 
niture, insom Qch that in many of their vases arid 
drinking cup? j, which we meet with in the kingdom 
of Naples, arc* represented, for the most part, scenes 



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EPOCH III, 337 

of festivity, mysteries, and fables of the Bacchana- 
lian God. Subsequent to him flourished Jacopo 
Barbello, whose paintings in various churches at 
Bergamo are extolled by Pasta, more particularly 
in that of San Lazzaro, an altar-piece representing 
the titular saint, remarkable no less for its dignity 
of design, than for decision of hand. In the series 
of this school I find mention of no other artist 
after him, a school distinguished in its origin by 
the name of Polidoro, and afterwards adorned by 
few but very select artists. 

We shall next proceed, according to our plan, 
to treat of certain painters of landscape, of battle- 
pieces, of perspective, flowers, and similar subjects. 
Henry de Bles, a Bohemian, better known under 
the name of Civetta, an owl, from the frequent in- 
troduction of that bird into his landscapes, was an 
artist who resided for a long period in the Vene- 
tian state. Besides his specimens of landscape to 
be met with in Venice, and which uniformly pre- 
sent some traces of ancient crudeness, he painted a 
Nativity of our Lord, for San Nazaro in Brescia, 
resembUng in its style of composition the manner 
of Bassano. Its prevailing tone is sky-coloured, 
and in the features of its countenances it partakes 
of a foreign expression. I have also seen small 
pictures from his hand intended for cabinets, often 
thronged with minute figures, known by the name 
of Chimere and Stregozzi, or witch-pieces, a kind 
in which he was extremely fanciful. But on this 
head we shall have occasion to return to him in a 

VOL. III. z 



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338 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

short time^ and proceed to a Flemish artist, who 
flourished, ahout the heginning of 1600, in the 
state. His name was Lodovico Pozzo, or Poz- 
zoserrato, called also da Trevigi, from his long 
residence in that city, where he died, leaving it, 
as Federici relates, heautifully decorated with 
specimens of his hand. He excelled in the re- 
presentation of distant ohjects, like his rival Paol 
Brilli of Venice, in such as were viewed near ; and 
he is more pleasing and select than the latter in 
his variation of clouds and distinctions of light; 
while at the same time he was celebrated for 
his altar-pieces. Subsequent to these appeared 
several foreign artists, eminent for their skill in 
landscape, in the time of Boschini at Venice, where 
several specimens of their art must be still in exis- 
tence. They were afterwards extolled likewise by 
Orlandi. There was a Mr. Filgher, a German, who 
very happily represented the different seasons of 
the year, and even the different lights throughout 
the day ; a Mons. Giron, a French artist, extremely 
natural in all kind of views, both of a terrestrial 
and aerial character, and a M. Cusin who imitated 
the noble manner of Titian in his landscapes, with 
much success. Nor ought we to omit Biagio 
Lombardo, a citizen of Venice, an artist highly 
commended by Ridolfi, who declares that he ri- 
valled both the best Italian and Flemish painters 
in his landscape. Girolamo Vemigo, sumamed 
also da' Paesi, and particularly celebrated in his 
native city of Verona, where he fell a victim to the 



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BPOCH III. 339 

plague in 1630^ is entitled to rank in the same list 
Jacopo Maffei succeeded admirably in his display 
of incidents at sea^ a picture of which kind was 
engraved by Boschini. Another artist of the name 
of Bartolommeo Calomato has been pointed out to 
me by his excellency Persico^ in his cabinet of 
medals ; and he ought apparently to be referred to 
this epochs judging from his less vigorous and less 
refined style^ although graceful and lively in his 
expression. He was remarkable for his small pic- 
tures representing both rural and civic views^ along 
with small figures very animated and well composed. 
A taste for battle-pieces had begun to gain 
ground in this part of Italy from the time of Bor- 
gognone. The first who procured for himself a 
name in this branch was Francesco Montis of Bres- 
cia^ and a pupil of Ricchi^ as well as of Borgo- 
gnone himself. He was commonly called II Bres- 
cianino delle Battaglie^ the Brescian battle-painter^ 
in which line he exercised his talents in different 
Italian cities^ ultimately establishing himself at Par- 
ma^ where he opened a school^ and instructed one 
of his sons in the same style of painting. He pur- 
sued, as far as lay in his power^ his master's exam- 
ple^ though he remained much inferior to him in 
point of colouring. His productions are not 
scarce^ but in many collections they do not appear 
under his name, being frequently attributed to the 
school at large of Borgognone. One of his fellow 
citizens and scholars^ called Fiamminghino^ but 
whose real name was Angiolo Everardi^ acquired 

z 2 . 



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340 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

great reputation also by his battle scenes, but they 
are seldom to be met with, owing to his having 
died young. Another of his disciples, a native of 
Verona, named Lorenzo Comendich, flourished 
also about the year 1700, in high repute at Milan. 
Antonio CalzE, a Veronese, is to he referred to the 
same period. Being ambitious of representing 
military actions, he left the school of Cignani, and 
transferred his residence to Rome, where, assisted 
by Cortesi himself, he met with success. He 
spent his tinie in Tuscany, at Milan, and in parti- 
cular at Bologna. There we meet with his pic- 
tures pretty abundantly, innumerable copies of 
them having been taken by his pupils, who by fre- 
quently varying the disposition of the groups, suc- 
ceeded in giving a seeming novelty to his pic- 
tures. Upon the authority of the Melchiori MS., 
I am inclined to add to the list of good battle- 
painters, Agostino Lamma, a Venetian, who em- 
ployed himself for collections; and in that of Sig. 
Gio. Batista Curti, there is a piece of his repre- 
senting the Siege of Vienna, very excellent in point 
of taste, modelled according to his custom upon 
that of Matteo Stom. 

Towards the year 1660, when the three artists, 
Civetta; Bosch, and Carpioni, had already filled 
the galleries with that very tasteful class of pictures 
called capricci ; when Salvator Rosa had produced 
such curious examples of his transformations and 
necromancies; and Brughel,sumamedcfa/2'/n/eni(^, 
had drawn from the scenes of that abyss, and from . 



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EPOCH III. . 341 

its monateils, a large supply for every capital in 
Italy ; at that period another artist^ Gioseffo Ens, 
or Enzo^ the son of him I have mentioned in the 
preface^ and father of Daniele, a tolerably good 
figurist^ was acquiring rapid celebrity in Venice 
with some highly imaginative little pictures, par- 
taking in some measure of thie style of the above 
artists. For the chief part they represent allego- 
rical fictions, in which are introduced sphinxes, 
chimeras, and monsters in grotesque shape; or to 
speak more correctly, perhaps, extravagances of 
imagination quite unauthorized by ancient exam- 
ple, and formed out of the grotesque union of va- 
rious parts of different animals, much in the same 
manner as they are seen by persons in their deli- 
rious dreams. Boschini adduces an example of 
this strange poetical folly at page 604, where Pal- 
las is seen putting to flight a troop of these wild 
fancies, haunting an old decayed mansion, buried 
in fire and smoke, as the symbol of Virtue dispers- 
ing the shades of ignorance and error. In such a 
career did Enzo arrive at the honour of being made 
a Chevalier of the Cross, by his Holiness Pope 
Urban VIII. Subsequently, however, he applied 
himself with more judgment to the study of truth, 
and left behind him, in Venice, several altar-pieces> 
one of which adorning the church of the Ognissanti 
is extremely beautiful. I have also noticed in dif- 
ferent collections some burlesques of dwarfs, &c. 
from the hand of Faustino Bocchi, a Brescian, and 
pupil to Fiamminghino. He was admirable in his 



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342 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

portraits of these embryos, as it were> of the human 
race; representations by no means displeasing 
to some of the ancients^ and of which we have ex- 
amples afforded us in what are termed Etruscan 
vases. In the production of fables> in which the 
dwarfs were to appear as actors^ he displayed the 
most fanciful combinations^ and in the Carrara 
collection at Bergamo, there is represented a sa- 
crifice of these pigmies, and a popular feast in 
honour of an idol, full of humour, in which one of 
them is seen caught in the claws of a crab, while 
some of his own party attempt to save him, and 
his mother hastens, half distracted, to his relief. 
In order to convey a better idea of their size 
he inserted a small water melon, which appears 
almost like a mountain by their side. The design 
does not seem to differ much from that of Timan- 
thes, who introduced little satyrs, in the act of mea- 
suring one of the Cyclops' thumbs with their 
thyrsus, as he lies asleep, to give a just notion of his 
bulk. It is to be regretted that Bocchi became 
addicted to the sect of the tenebrosi, owing to which 
many of his labours seem to be fast losing their 
value. 

The same period likewise abounded in painters 
of flowers and fruits, in every part of Italy; but I 
observe that their names are, for the most part, 
forgotten, or where they exist in books, are ac- 
companied by no mention of their works. Fortu- 
nately, among the pictures at Rovigo, I meet with 
the name of Francesco Mantovano, whether his 



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EPOCH III. 343 

surname or patronymic is uncertain, an artist who 
excelled in similar works about the time of Borg- 
hini ; besides those of Antonio Bacci and Anto- 
nio Lecchi, or Lech, both florists, and all men- 
tioned by Martinioni in his Additions to Sanso* 
vino. To the number of these add the name of 
Marchioni, a native of Rovigo, an artist considered 
as the Bemasconi of the Venetian School, from 
her singular skill in flower painting, though not 
equalling the Roman lady in point of celebrity. 
Their works are to be seen in some of the collec- 
tions at.Rovigo, which abound also with many ce- 
lebrated figure painters, no less of the Venetian 
than of other Italian Schools. 

Pictures of animals do not seem to have been much 
in vogue with Venetian artists about this period, if, 
indeed, we are not to include Giacomo da Castello 
in the Venetian state. From verbal communica- 
tions I learn that in collections at Venice he is 
not at all rare. I have seen only a few specimens 
at the Caza Rezzonico, and these consisting of va- 
rious species of birds, drawn with great truth and 
force of colouring, as well as beautifully disposed. 
Domenico Maroli, a painter of flocks and herds, as 
well as of other rural subjects, was bom at Messina, 
and exercised his talents in Venice. He was in- 
timate with Boschini, who extolled him as a new 
Bassano, and as a specimen of his talents, inserted 
in his Carta del Navegar an engraving after one 
of his designs. It represents a shepherd with his 
flocks, figures of cows with a dog, very forcibly 



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344 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

and beautifully drawn ; and it is altogether one of 
the best designs that has been engraved for that 
work. There resided also at Venice, where he 
was employed in the Casa Sagredo, and in that of 
Contarini, an artist named Gio. Fayt di Anversa, 
who, in addition to his paintings of fruits, and va- 
rious rural implements, was esteemed one of the 
best copyists of animals, both alive and dead, in 
which he displayed a very poHshed, natural, and 
novel manner. 

Among the perspective pieces of this epoch, or- 
namenting different collections, those by Malom- 
bra, as I have before stated, have been particularly 
commended by Ridolfi. And in architectural 
views we may mention Aviani, a native of Vicenza, 
very superior in this branch, as well as in sea views 
and landscapes. He was bom during the life- 
time of Palladio, or at least while his school still 
flourished, and resided in a city where every street 
presented specimens of a taste for architecture. 
He thus produced pictures of so fine a character, 
filled with little figures by Carpioni, under his di- 
rection, so extremely pleasing, that it is surprising 
he did not acquire equal celebyity with Viviano 
and other first rate artists. Probably he did not 
loiig flourish, and then, for the most part, in his 
native place. In the Foresteria, or Strangers 
Itodge^ of the Padri Serviti, are four of his views, 
exhibiting temples and other magnificent edifices, 
while several more are to be met with in posses*, 
sion of the Marchesi Capra, in the celebrated Ro- 



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EPOCH III. 345 

tunda of Palladio^ as well as of other nobles in va- 
rious places. He likewise decorated the ceilings^ 
or cupolas of several churches. Indeed there 
was then a pretty considerable school established 
for this branch of the art in Brescia. Tommaso 
Sandrino was an artist who distinguished himself 
in it> as well as Ottavio Yiviani his pupils though 
he displayed a less sound and more loaded style 
than his master. Faustino Moretto^ belonging to 
the same state, employed himself more at Venice 
than at Brescia. Domenico Bruni was an artist 
highly extolled by Orlandi ; he exercised his talents 
at the Carmini, in his native place, as well as at 
Venice, along with Giacomo Pedrali, also a Bres- 
cian, who flourished in the tinie of Boschini. ' To- 
gether with these appeared Bortolo Cerii, whose 
scenes have been engraved in aqua fortis by Bos- 
chini himself Zanetti also records the name of 
Giuseppe Alabardi, called Schioppi, and of Giulio 
Cesare Lombardo, an artist still superior to him. 
I might here introduce other artists and architects 
of the ornamental class, distinguished in propor- 
tion to their antiquity ; for towards the close of 
the century architectural exhibitions became too 
much loaded with vases, figures, and a variety of 
ornament, which detracted much from that sim- 
plicity of taste so essential in some way towards 
the effect of every thing really great or beautiful, 
A kind of minor painting is believed to have 
been introduced at this epoch, by a priest called 
Evaristo Baschenis, from Bergamo. He flourish- 



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346 VENfiTIAN SCHOOL. 

ed contemporary with the three great artists^ Ca- 
vagna^ Sahneggia^ and Zucchi ; and he appears to 
have been instructed by one of these in represent- 
ing every kind of musical instrument with much 
nature and effect. He arranged them upon tables 
covered with the most beautiful kinds of cloth^ 
and mingled with them music books, leaves, boxes, 
fruits, inkstands, &c., drawn just as they might hap- 
pen to lie ; and from these objects he composed 
pictures executed with so much art as quite to de- 
ceive the spectator. Such was their effect, that 
they are still very much valued in different collec- 
tions. There were formerly eight of them to be 
seen in the library of San Giorgio, the ingenuity 
of which has been highly commended by Zanetti. i 



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347 



VENETIAN SCHOOL, 

EPOCH IV. 

Of Exotic and New Styles in Venice. 

If, according to the plan laid down by Pliny, 
and which I have hitherto observed, each several 
epoch ought to be deduced from one or more mas- 
ters of a school, who may have given a new aspect 
to the art, it will be proper, in this instance, to 
vary my system. The epoch here nearest to us 
will be found to take its rise at a period when the 
Venetian artists, having almost wholly abandoned 
their national models, attached themselves some 
to one, and some to another foreign method^ or 
formed out of them one of their own. Such were 
the times of which Signor Zanetti, in his work, 
observes, *' there appeared in Venice as many 
different manners, as there were artists to practise 
them." This would appear to have been the state 
of the art towards the end of the 17th century. 
Those artists who followed, approaching still 
nearer to modem times, although various in point 
of style, resembled each other in a study of ideal 
beauty, and all agreed in copying from the modem 
Roman, or Bolognese Schools, with the addition, 
however, of their own defects. Still the old mas* 



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348 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

ters were notion this account^ under-rated; but were 
rather spoken of as the ancients who flourished at 
a golden period^ whose customs are to be admired, 
indeed, but not imitated. Fashion, as it sometimes 
happens also in sciences, had usurped the seat of 
reason ; while the artists who followed in her train 
alleged in excuse, that the age was fond of such 
novelties, and that it was incumbent upon them 
to second its inclination, in justice to their own 
fortunes. Amidst these changes, the Venetian 
School, which had always preserved its ascendency 
in point of colouring, then began to alter, losing 
the truth of nature, as it became more brilliant. 
Thus few artists flourished at that period who 
might not, more or less, be termed mannerists in 
colouring. But in other respects the school appears 
to have improved, and particularly in treating its 
history-pieces more appropriately, without the in- 
troduction of portraits, dresses, and other accessa- 
ries, ill adapted to them ; a defect to which it had 
been more attached, and had more obstiipiately ad- 
hered, than any other of the schools. Yet it cannot 
be denied, that during this period of the decline of 
art throughout Italy, the Venetian School shone 
peculiarly conspicuous in the number of superior 
inventors it produced. For whilst Lower Italy 
aimed at nothing beyond the striking contrasts of 
the followers of Cortona; whilst in so many schools 
of Upper Italy, the imitators of the imitators of 
the Caracci were esteemed the great models ; in 
Venice, and the adjacent state, various styles were 



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I 
EPOCH IV. 349 

seen to spring up, which, though not perfect, were 
at least original, and valuable in their way; if, 
indeed, the whole of Europe has not been deceived 
in its estimation of them, purchasing the pictures 
of the Ricci, of Tiepolo, of Canaletto, of Rotari, 
and of numerous other artists of the same timie, at 
immense sums. But we must take a more parti- 
cular survey of them. 

The Cavalier Andrea Celesti, who died in the 
early part of the century, was disciple to Pon^oni, 
but without becoming his imitator. As an artist, 
he is very pleasing, fertile in noble images, flowing 
in his outlines, with delightful scenery, with airs, 
with features, and with draperies all graceful, and 
often resembling Paul Veronese. His style of co- 
louring, also, was not remote from nature, equally 
lucid, pleasing, and soft. Owing to his fondness 
for the chiaroscuro, one of the chief attractions of 
his style, or rather, perhaps, to the imperfection of 
his grounds, there are few of his productions that 
continue to preserve their original beauty. Occa^ 
sionally he seems to belong to the sect of Tene- 
brosi, and his middle tints have in some instances 
disappeared, destroying the harmony that in some 
of his best-conducted pictures was admirable. His 
distinguishing character was a happy audacity of 
hand, in which he is excelled by very few. He 
painted both history, and altar-pieces for churches, 
a specimen of which is seen in his Probatica at the 
Ascension. In the public palace there is one of 
his histories from the Old Testament, abounding 



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350 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

with all that masterly talent for which he was so 
remarkable^ creating at once admiration and sur- 
prise. He produced pieces for private ornament^ 
from profane history^ with conversations^ games, 
and rencounters, like Caravaggio's. Alberto Cal- 
vetti, an inferior artist, educated in his school, re- 
sembles him as little in talent^ as, £6r the most 
part, in his style. 

Antonio Zanchi da Este was an artist, also, 
better known in Venice for the number, than for 
the excellence of his works. His style is altoge- 
ther distinct from that of the foregoing, and it is 
uncertain whether he derived it from his master 
Ruschi, or from some other of the sect of natural- 
ists whom we have before described. Such, at 
least, appears the cast of his genius, common in its 
forms, sombre in its colours ; but nevertheless ex- 
citing surprise, by a certain fulness and felicity 
of hand, by its picturesque spirit^ by its effect of 
chiaroscuro, and by a grand general result, which 
imposes upon us by its power. If we examine 
more particularly into his manner, we shall not 
unfrequently discover an incorrectness of design^ 
along with that kind of indecision, and indistinct- 
ness of outline, which is mostly the resource of 
weak, or, at least, of very hasty artists. He chiefly 
attached himself to Tintoretto, some traces of whom 
may be found in his style. In the college of S. 
Rocco, where that great master rendered his name 
immortal, we behold one of the best specimens of 
Zanchi. The subject, admirably fitted to his man- 



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EPOCH lY. SjSl 

ner^ contributed greatly to his success. He has 
there given a bold exhibition of the great plague 
that afflicted Venice in 1630, a picture filled with 
a concourse of the sick, the dying, and the dead, 
borne to one universal grave. Opposite to this 
grand painting there is another from the hand of 
Pietro Negri, his pupil, as is supposed, but more 
probably his rival, which represents the liberation 
of the city from that fatal scourge ; and in it, too, 
we perceive the peculiar ease, and the manner of 
Zanchi, somewhat improved, however, and enno* 
bled in its forms. Francesco Trevisani, another 
of his pupils, took up his residence at Rome, in 
the list of whose professors he has already been 
commended (tom. ii. p. 296). Gio. Bonagrazia, how- 
ever, remained in the Venetian state ; and acquir- 
ed some reputation in his native town and pro- 
vince of Trevigi, more particularly for his paint- 
ings at San Vito. 

Antonio Molinari belonged, likewise, to the 
same school, but almost wholly renounced the 
maxims he had acquired in it.* His style is by no 
means equally sustained ; a case that frequently 
occurs to such as abandon the methods in which 
they have been educated, and attempt to strike into 
new paths. I have seen some of his pictures at 
Venice, and elsewhere, in fine relief, and others 
quite the contrary ; at times, too, he appears beau- 

* Melchiori mentions also with commendation, Gio. Batista, 
iiather of Antonio, and pupil to Vecchia, who had been unable 
to assist his son Antonio, left an orphan at a very tender age. > 



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352 YENEflAl!^ SCHOOL. 

tifiil> but cold. In the vigour of hi» powers, how- 
ever, when he produced the works most decisive 
of his merits/ such as his History of Oza, at the 
Corpus Domini, he displays a style no less solid 
than pleasing, and which equally satisfies the judg- 
ment and the eye. There is a study both of design 
and of expression, ample beauty of forms, richness 
of drapery, with a taste and harmony of tints not 
surpassed by any artist of the times. 

We may mention^ likewise, as distinguished by 
their manner, Antonio Bellucci, and Giovanni Se- 
gala, two painters who, like their masters, became 
addicted to the use of strong shades. Yet they 
possessed sufficient intelligence to derive some 
advantage even from a wrong direction of their 
powers. For the former disposed them in grand 
masses, yet delicate, and moreover united to pleas- 
ing colouring ; while the latter made use of dark 
grounds, which he contrasted with very spirited 
lights, and with a skill that enlivens while it en- 
chants us. Indeed, the style of both seemed 
adapted for great works, and both possessed genius 
enough to conduct them well. Segala, however, 
is preferred by Zanetti to his contemporary, and 
his picture of the Conception, executed for the 
college of La Carit^, is particularly extolled by him, 
and, in truth, he there competes with, if he does 
not surpass, some of the first painters of the age. 
We ought to estimate the merit of Bellucci from 
those specimens he conducted with mpst care, and 
upon the best grounds, such as his scripture-piece 



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BPoeH IV. 353 

in the church of the Spirito Santo. He appears to 
most advantage, perhaps, in small figures, many.of 
which he inserted in the landscapes of the cele- 
brated Tempesta. When at Vienna, he became 
court-painter to Joseph L and to Charles VI. ; 
and subsequently to other German princes, which 
he chiefly owed to this kind of talent.* 

To this epoch, also, belongs the name of Gio. An- 
tonio Fiimiani, who acquired from the Bolognese 
School, in which he was educated, an excellent 
taste, both in composition and design. And from 
the works of Paul, which he studied with assiduity, 
he obtained a. knowledge of architectural and other 
ornaments. Some have considered him deficient 
in warmth of tints, and in a just counterpoise of 
lights and shades, to which I should add, also in 
expression; appearing, as he does to me, cold in 
all his attitudes, even beyond the custom of this 
school. Perhaps his Dispute of Jesus with the 
Doctors, at the church of La Carit^, is his finest 
woik. Bencoyich, having resided at Bologna, will 
be enumerated among the foUowers of Cignani. 

Nearly contemporary with Fumiani, though he 
flourished longer and pkinted more, was the Cav. 
NiccOlo Bambini, a pupil of Mazzoni, in Venice, 
and afterwards of Maratta, at Rome. There he be- 
came accomplished in design, exact and elegant, 

* Father Federici mentions also his son Oio. Batista, citing 
a fin^ altar-piece of his at Sorigo, and adds, that he would haTe 
beooofte celebrated, had he not preferred the 'ease permitted him 
by it handsome fortune, to the glory of a great paiater. 

VOL. III. 2 A * 



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856 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

ways equally successful. In small figures he was 
extremely graceful, a specimen of which may be 
seen in a choir of Santa Caterina, at Vicenza, 
where he executed some very beautiful histories, 
in the most glowing colours imaginable. The last 
altar-piece, bearing his own name, was complet- 
ed by his excellent pupil, Giuseppe Camerata, 
who in this, as well as other pieces produced for 
churches, pursued the same career as his master. 
Another of Lazzarini's pupils, however^ Silvestro 
Manaigo, persevere^ in an opposite course, for 
though of a fine character, he was too rapid, and 
too much of a mannerist. 

There flourished, likewise, at that period, two 
artists of Trevisi, Francesco, included in the list of 
the Roman School, and Angiolo Trevisani, who, 
both by birth and domicile, must be claimed for 
that of Venice. Fine in his inventive pieces, as we 
gather from those at La Carit^, and various other 
churches in the capital, he was still more celebrat- 
ed for his portraits. In exercising this branch, he 
formed a style founded upon nature, not, indeed, 
sublime, but very select, and in part conformable 
to the schools then in vogue. His pencil disjplayed 
diligence and research, especially in his manage- 
ment of the chiaroscuro. 

Jacopo Amigoni can scarcely be justly estimated 
in Venice, where, if we except his picture of the 
Visitation at the monastery of San Filippo, there 
is nothing of his remaining in public in his best 
manner; that which he acquired by studying the- 



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EPOCH IV. 867 

master-pieces of the Flemish School in Flanderis. 
It was there that his genius, naturally fertile and 
animated, uniting with facility qualities of gran- 
deur and of beauty^ and seizing upon the finest 
subject for copious histories, also discovered the 
kind of colouring he had in vain sought for at Ve- 
nice. There, too, he " achieved the art of attain- 
^^9 by force of shades, even to pure black, which 
colour he employed to produce perfect clearness, 
without injuring the beauty of his piece:'' thus we 
are informed by Signor Zanetti. Had he suc- 
ceeded in giving a little more relief to his pictures, 
and employed less care in giving brilliance to 
every part of his composition, he would have ap 
peared to more advantage ; but only in the eyes 
of good judges, as the multitude could not well 
be presented with any thing more calculated to 
enchant them than one of his pictures. Nor was 
it without reisison that his style was so much 
applauded throughout England, Germany, and 
Spain, in which last country he died, when pain- 
ter to the court, in 1752. Various productions of 
Yds hand are to be met with, though but rarely, in 
possession of private families in Italjr, chiefly con- 
sisting of little histories, conversations, and similar 
pieces, in the manner of the Flemish artists. Of 
the Flemish, I say, in respect to the size, not the 
perfection of the drawing, this aitist being accus- 
tomed to alter his tints in some degree, particularly 
in the shifting hues, to labour by touching, often 
leaving his outline undefined, and to raise the colour 



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358 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

SO as to produce effect in the distance. His pieces 
npon a larger scale are more rare, though I have 
seen several exhibiting great truth in the expres- 
sion of countenance, and a rich flow of drapery, in 
possession of the celebrated musician, Farinello, at 
Bologna. And in these portraits the musician 
himself always appeared, as received at different 
courts, and in the act of being applauded and re- 
warded by the European Sovereigns. 

Giambatista Pittoni, though less generally 
known than the preceding, is still entitled to a 
rank among the first artists of his age. The dis- 
ciple and nephew of Francesco Pittoni, here men- 
tioned, rather from his pupiFs merit than his own^ 
he subsequently became attached to foreign schools^ 
and formed a style which displays some novelly 
in the warmth of its colouring, and m a certain 
pictorial amenity and attraction which prevail 
throughout the whole. He cannot, indeed, be said 
to be very select, but he is in general correct, po- 
lished, and intelligent in his entire composition. 
He particularly shone in figures, smaller than the 
life ; and the galleries in the Venetian state are 
thus by no means scantily furnished with his his- 
tories ; while we may observe of his altar-pieces 
that they seem to increase in beauty in proportion 
to the diminution of their size. This we percdve 
at the Santo in Padua, where he painted in com- 
petition with the best of his contemporaries, the 
Martyrdom of San Bartolommeo, which he colour- 
ed upon a small cemvass. A very rapid tourist sir 



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EPOCH IV. 859 

tributes it to the pencil of Tiepolo^ whose manner 
is altogether different. 

Gio. Batista Piazzetta^ on the other hand^ was 
an artist of as sombre a cast as the two preceding 
were animated and lively. He had acquired a 
good knowledge of design, either under his father, 
a tolerably skilful statuary in wood, or under some 
very exact naturalist; and in his early attempts he 
painted in a free and open style. Afterwards he 
embraced an opposite manner, and employing 
himself with Spagnolo at Bologna, and there like- 
wise studying Guercino, he aimed at producing 
an effect by strong contrasts of lights and shades, 
and in this he succeeded. He had long, as it is 
supposed, observed the effects of light applied to 
statues of wood and models in wax ; and by this 
he was enabled to draw, with considerable judg- 
ment and exact precision, the several parts that are 
comprehended in the shadowing, owing to which 
art his designs were eagerly sought after, and his 
works repeatedly engraved with assiduity. One 
of these, placed at the Domenicani delle Zattere 
was engraved by the celebrated Bartolozzi ; an- 
other by his school ; that is to say, his San Filippo, 
painted for the church of that name in Venice. 
Many were engraved also by Pitteri, by Pelli, and 
by Monaco, besides other prints that were executed 
in Germany. His method of colouring, however, 
diminished in a great measure the chief merit of 
his pictures. Thus his shades having increased 
and altered, his lights sunk, his tints become yellow. 



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360 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

there remains only an inharmonious and unformed 
mass^ which the venerators of names, indeed, may 
admire, but can hardly give a reason why. Where 
we happen to meet with a few of his pictures in 
good preservation, the effect is altogether so novel 
and original as to make a strong impression at 
first sight, more especially where the subject re- 
quires a terrific expression, as that of his behead- 
ing of St. John the Baptist in prison, produced at 
Padua, a work placed in competition with those of 
the first artists in the state, and at that period es^ 
teemed the best of all. Yet if we examine him 
more narrowly he will not fail to displease us by 
that monotonous and mannered colour of lakes 
and yellows, and by that rapidity of hand, by some 
called spirit, though to others it often appears 
neglect, desirous of abandoning its labour before it 
is complete. 

Piazzetta could hardly boast strength enough 
to deal with pictures abounding with figures,, and 
having, received a commission from a Venetian 
noble, to represent the Rape of the Sabines, he 
spent many years in conducting it. In his altar- 
pieces and other sacred subjects he produced a 
pleasing effect from the spirit of devotion, but 
never for the dignity he displayed in them. Duly 
estimating his own ability, he was more desirous of 
painting busts and heads for pictures /adapted for 
private rooms than any other subjects. In his 
caricatures he succeeded admirably, several of 
which in possession of the Conti.Leopardi d^Osi-^ 



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EPOCH IV. 361 

mo would excite the risible muscles of a professed 
enemy to mirth. At one period this artist had a 
great number of followers, a fashion neverthe- 
less that soon ceased. Francesco Polazzo, a good 
painter, but a better restorer of ancient pictures, 
somewhat softened down the style of Piazzetta 
with that of Ricci. Domenico Maggiotto also 
tempered it in his Miracle of San Spindione, and 
in his other works engraved at Venice and in Ger- 
many. Various artists of this school in the same 
way gave softness to his manner by studjring other 
models. Perhaps the one most addicted to his 
method was Marinetti, from the name of his na- 
tive place more commonly called Chiozzotto. 

The last of the Venetian artists who procured 
for himself a great reputation in Europe, wasGio. 
Batista Tiepolo, so frequently commended by Al- 
garotti. He was honoured likewise with a poeti- 
cal eulogy by the Ab. Bettinelli, became celebrat- 
ed in Italy, in Germany, and in Spain, where he 
died painter to the court of Madrid. Pupil to 
Lazzarini, whose deliberate and cautious style 
served to curb his too great warmth and rapidity, 
he subsequently studied Piazzetta, animating and 
enlivening as it were his manner, as he appears to 
have done in his picture of the Shipwreck of San 
Satiro at San Ambrogio in Milan. He next be- 
came an assiduous imitator of Paul Veronese, 
whom, though inferior to him in the airs of his 
heads, he very nearly approached in his folds and 
his colouring. From the engravings also of Albert 



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368 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Durer^ that storehouse of copious composers^ he 
derived Ho little advantage. Nor did he at any time 
abandon the study of nature in observing all the 
accidents of light and shade^ and the contrasts of 
colour best adapted to produce effect In this 
branch he succeeded admirably, particularly in his 
works in fresco, for which he appears to have been 
endued by nature with promptness, rapidity, and 
&cility in great compositions. Mliile others were 
accustomed to display the most vivid colours, he 
only availed himself in his frescos of what are term- 
ed low and dusky colours; and by harmonizing 
them with others of a common kind, but more clear 
and beautiful, he produced a species of effect in his 
frescos, a beauty, a sunUke radiance, unequalled, 
perhaps, by any other artist. Of this the grand 
vault belonging to the Teresiani in Venice pre- 
sents a fine specimen. He has there represented 
the Santa Casa, accompanied by numerous groups 
of angels finely foreshortened and varied, surround- 
ed by a field of light that appears to rise into the fir- 
mament Such an artist would have been truly 
great, had he, in works upon this scale, succeeded 
in observing equal correctness in every part ; in the 
whole he always produces an agreeable effect He 
appears more correct and careftil in his oil pieces^ 
which we find dispersed throughout the metropoli- 
tan city as well as the state. At San Antonio in Pa* 
dua we meet with his Martyrdom of Santa Aga* 
tha, a picture alluded to by Algarotti as a very 
rare example of fine expression^ at once uniting 



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EPOCH IV. S68 

that of terror at approaching fate, and of joy for 
the glory of beatitude in view. Many other beau- 
ties are remarked by Rossetti in this picture, which 
he admits, however deeply interested in defending 
it from every imputation cast upon it by Cochin, 
is not altogether perfect in point of design. 

In the list of his disciples we find the name of 
Fabio Canale, mentioned with honour in the work 
so often cited, from the pen of Zanetti; and to 
finch of his pictures as he mentions we may add 
those he produced in Palazzo Zen at the Frari, and 
in that of the Priuli at the bridge of the Miglio. 
To this artist we might join a few others of this 
last age> recorded in the Guide to Venice, the same 
that was published by Zanetti in 1733, and some 
of whom are likewise mentioned in the Pittura 
Veneziana, where, beginning at p. 470, he gave a 
catalogue of the names of such of the members of 
that estimable academy, as were then alive, some 
of whom are still in existence. But whoever is 
desirous of cultivating an acquaintance with th^n 
and with their works which are in possession of 
the public, may consult the above books as well as 
some of the more recent Guides of the city, which 
have continued from time to time to appear. I 
ought to add, that the Signor Alessaqdro Longhi 
has presented us with the portraits and the Elogj 
of the most celebrated of these modems, in the 
year 1762, and this work also may supply what my 
brevity or my silence has omitted or compressed. 

Proceeding in the next place from Venice to the 



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364 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

cities of the state, we shall find that these also 
have produced many memorable artists. The 
Friuli will occupy but little of our attention, 
boasting few masters, and none of them distin- 
guished for their figures. Pio Fabio Paolini, a 
native of Udine, studied at Kome, where he pro- 
duced in fresco his San Carlo, which adorns the 
Corso, and was united to the academy there in 
1678. Returning thence into his own country he 
painted several altar-pieces and other minor pic- 
tures, such as to entitle him to a high place among 
the followers of Cortona. Giuseppe Cosattini, 
born at the same place, and canon of Aquileja, de- 
voted himself to the same pursuit, and rose into 
so much estimation as to be declared painter to the 
Imperial Court. He particularly distinguished 
himself by his picture of San Filippo, preparing 
to celebrate mass, painted for the Congregation of 
Udine ; the work of a real artist not of a dilettante, 
as he appears in some other of his paintings. Pie- 
tro Venier, a disciple of the Venetian artists^ dis- 
played somemeritin his oil pieces, not uncommon 
at Udine ; and more in his frescos in the ceiling of 
the church of San Jacopo, where he appears to 
great advantage. But the best painter of frescos 
in these later times, amongst his countrymen, was 
Giulio QuagUa, a native of Como. From his age 
and style I should suspect that he belonged to the 
school of the Recchi, although his design is less 
finished than that of Gio. Batista Recchi, the head 
of that fistmily of painters. It would appear that he 



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EFOCH IV. 365 

visited Friuli youngs towards the close of the last 
century^ and there he conducted works^ for the most 
part^ in fresco^ to an amount that almost defies 
enumeration. His histories of our Saviour's Pas- 
sion, ornamenting the chapel of the Monte di 
Piet^ at Udine, are held in high estimation, al- 
though he conducted works upon a much larger 
scale, for various halls of many noble families, in 
all which we trace a fecundity of ideas, a decision 
of pencil, a power for vast compositions, sufficient 
to have distinguished him in his age not only in the 
limits of Como but at Milan. I omit the names 
of those professors of the art who merely designed 
without colouring, or who never attained to ma-» 
ture age ; and those of a few others I have to re- 
serve for foreign schools, and for different branches 
of painting. 

Proceeding towards the Marca Trevigiana, I 
meet with an artist's name that has been claimed 
by different schools of Italy, according to the 
place in which he painted, or studied, or gave in- 
structions in the art. For this reason I have 
judged it best to speak of him as connected with 
his native place, which boasts a sufficient number 
of his works. This artist is Sebastiano Ricci, 
which the Venetians write Rizzi, one who can be 
reckoned second to none among the professors of 
our own epoch, m point of genius for the art, and 
the taste and novelty of his style. He was bom in 
Cividaldi Belluno, educated, as we have observ- 
ed; by Cervelli jat Venice, and afterwards conduct- 
ed by his master into Milan ; h^ there acquired. 



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306 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

both from him and from Lisandrino^ every thing 
that was of importance in the pursuit of his pro- 
fession. Thence he went to study at Bologna and 
at Venice, subsequently transferring his residence 
to Kome and Florence. Lastly he made the tour 
of all Italy, employing his pencil wherever he re- 
ceived commissions, at any price. Having acquir- 
ed reputation, and being invited by different po- 
tentates, he passed into Germany, England, and 
Flanders, in which last country he perfected his 
style of colouring, which had been always very 
pleasing and spirited, even in his first attempts. 
From his acquaintance with such a variety of 
schools, he stored his mind with fine images, 
and by dint of copying many models, his hand 
became practised in different styles. In com- 
mon with Giordano he possessed the art of imi- 
tating every manner ; some of his pictures in the 
style of Bassano and of Paul, continuing yet 
to impose upon less skilful judges, as in the in- 
stance of one of his Madonnas at Dresden, for 
some time attributed to Coreggio. The chief ad- 
vantage he derived from his travels was, that on 
having occasion to represent any subject, he was 
enabled to recollect the manner in which different 
masters might have treated it, availing himself of 
it without plagiarism accordingly. Thus the Ad- 
oration of the Apostles at the Last Supper, a piece- 
adorning the church of Santa Giustina at Padua, 
betrays many points of resemblance to the painting 
on the cupola of San Giovanni at Parma, while 
his San Gregorio at San Alessandro in Bergamo 



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BPOCH IT. 367 

recalls to mind one by Guercino^ executed at 
Bologna. The same method he observed in his 
scriptural historias^ produced for SS. Cosmo and 
Damiano, v^hich are preferred to any others he 
conducted in Y^ce^ or perhaps in any other 
parts, and which frequently present us with fine 
imitations, but never with plagiarisms. He did 
not early acquire a good knowledge of design, 
but he afterwards succeeded in this object, which 
he cultivated with extreme assiduity in the aca- 
demies, even in mature age. The forms of his 
figures are composed with beauty, dignity, and 
grace, like those of Paul Veronese ; the attitudes 
Bxe more than usually natural, prompt, and varied, 
and the composition appears to have been ma- 
naged with truth and with good sense. Although 
rapid in the handling, he did not abuse his celerity 
of hand, as so many artists have been known to do; 
His figures are accurately designed, and appear 
starting from the canvass, most frequently colour- 
ed with a very beautiful azure, in which they shine 
conspicuous over all. Such pieces as he ccmduct** 
ed in fresco, still preserve the native freshness of 
their tints ; while some of his others seem to have 
suffered, owing to the badness of the grounds, or 
of the body of colour, which was weaker in tlM 
later than in the earliest Venetian artists. The 
amenity of Ricd's style soon procured for him 
disciples, in the list of whom Marco, his nephew, 
gready distinguished himself and subsequently 
dflsvoting himself to the composition of landscape,^ 



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368 VENBTIAN SCHOOL. 

he accompanied his master upon his travel^ em- 
ploying himself a good deal^ both at Paris and in 
London^ Gasparo Diziani^ his fellow country- 
man, was an artist who excelled in his facility of 
painting large theatrical works, and in that line 
was employed in Germany. He was, moreover/ a 
Very pleasing composer of pictures for private or- 
nament, several of which are now to be met with 
in the collections of the Sig. Silvestri and Sig. Ca- 
salini at Rovigo. Francesco Fontebasso, a pupil 
also of Bastiano, succeeded^ notwithstanding some 
degree of crudeness, in acquiring celebrity in his 
day, both in Venice and the adjacent cities. 

In the Guide of Padua Rosetti includes, in the 
list of its painters, Antonio Pellegrini, as being 
the son of one of its citizens, who had established 
himself, however, at Venice, where Antonio was 
bom. And the Venetians, indeed, may concede 
him to that city without much sacrifice of fame. 
For the surprising success he met with in some of 
the most civilized kingdoms of Europe, is to be 
attributed to the decline of the art, and to the 
lively and mannered style he assumed, which found 
a welcome reception in all parts. He may be 
pronounced an artist of some ingenuity, facility^ 
and sprightly conception ; but he was by no means 
well grounded in the art; and he expressed his 
ideas with so little decision, that the objects which, 
he represents sometimes appear to float in a kind 
of half-^existence between visible and invisible. 
He was so very superficial a colourist, that even in 



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EPOCH IV. 369 

his own times it was said bis productions would 
not continue to last during a half century. And, 
in truth, those I have seen at Venice and at Pa- 
dua are already become extremely pallid ; while 
such as he executed at Paris will, doubtless, be in 
the same state. Yet in that city he obtained a large 
sum in the year 1720, for merely painting a frieze 
in the celebrated hall of the Mississippi, which he 
executed in about six weeks. His best work is, 
perhaps, to be found at San Mois^, consisting of 
the Serpent of Bronze, erected by Moses in the 
Desert ; no other equal to it having issued from his 
studio. 

As the preceding one is considered the last of 
the Paduan artists of any note, we may mention, 
as the last among those of Bergamo, at least of 
any merit in composition, Antonio Zifrondi, or 
Cifrondi, pupil to Franceschini. Indeed he great- 
ly resembled the former in his natural bias for the 
art, in an imagination adapted for great composi- 
tions, in facility and rapidity of hand, to such a 
degree as to dash off a picture in two hours. He 
likewise passed into France, though without meet- 
ing with success, and then resided in his native 
place, employing himself for those churches that 
are adorned with so many of his pictures, few of 
which are free from errors of over haste and care- 
lessness. Thus he did not scruple at the church 
of S. Spirito, to place near his picture of a Nun- 
ziata, conducted in his best style, three other his- 

VOL. ni, 2 B 



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370 VBNBTIAH SCHOOL. 

torical pieces of quite an opposite character. We 
meet with his name mentioned more than once, in 
the Lettere Pittoriche, with much commendation. 
Several other artists, whose names are to he met 
with in Tassi, and his continuator, are known to 
have flourished at the same period. Nor ought 
we, hy any means, here to omit that of Yittore 
Ghislandi, who, though little skilled in works, of 
invention, yet in his portraits, and some of his 
heads, in the way of capricci, has almost equalled 
in our own times the excellence of the ancients. 
He was instructed in the art hy Bomhelli, aind hy 
dint of very assiduous study, particularly in the 
heads of Titian, in order to develope his wUole 
artifice, he attained & degree of petfection that is 
truly surprising. MHbatever can he esteemed ikost 
desirable in a portrait painter, such as lively fea^ 
tures, natural fleshes, imitations of the most varied 
drapery, to make a distinction in dresses; thes0 
constitute a portion of his merits. The Carrara col- 
lection, above any other, may boast of several^ dis- 
tinct both in point bf age and costume; and^though 
surrounded by very select pictures from evei!y 
school, and though mere portraits, they fail hot to 
attract and surprise us. Less celebrated than 
many others, he is nevertheless an artist whosfepror 
ductions Would do no discredit to any pfllace. Ohe 
more generally known, however^ is Bartolommetf 
Nazzari, pupil to Trevisani in Venice^ iand afiet- 
wards under Luti, dnd the bther Trdvisani> lie 
perfected himself at Rome. Finally he establish- 



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EPOCH IV. 371 

ed himself at Venice, though he continued to visit 
various capitals, both of Italy and of Germany, in- 
variably extolled, as well for his portraits of prin- 
ces and of their courtiers, as for his heads of old 
men and youths, drawn from life, very fancifully 
dressed and ornamented. 

Pietro Avogadro was a Brescian, and the scho- 
lar of Ghiti, who adopted the models of Bologna, 
imitating them without affectation, adding somef 
nuxture of Venetian colour, more particularly in 
his ruddier fleshes. The contours of his figures 
are correct, his shortenings pleasing and appro- 
Jiriate, and his •compositions very judicious ; the 
whole expressing great harmony and beauty. Next 
to the three leading artists of this city, he is en- 
titled to the fourth place, at least in the esteem of 
many. Perhaps his master-piece is to be seen in 
the church of San Giuseppe, representing the 
Martyrdom of the saints Crispino and Crispiniano. 
Andrea Toresani was also a Brescian, who flou- 
rished at the same period; excellent in design, 
with which he ornamented the cities of Venice 
and Milan more than his native place. His chief 
merit, however, lay in an inferior branch, that of 
painting animals, sea views, and landscapes in the 
Titian manner, often accompanied with figures in 
tolerably good taste. 

Having taken a hasty view of the other cities of 
the state, we must dwell some little while on that 
of Verona, which, from the beginning of the cen- 
tury, until the present time, has enjoyed a high 

2 B 2 



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872 VBNETIA9 SCHOOL. 

degree of reputation. Though ravaged by the 
plague^ we have already seen how it again flou- 
rished, with the aid of other Italian schools, to 
which we might add that of the French, inasmuch 
as Louis Dorigny, aParisian, and pupil of Le Brun, 
arriving in Italy at an early age, devoted himself 
to the study of Roman and Venetian models. He 
established himself at Yerona, where, having for 
some time employed his talents, and obtained se- 
veral pupils, he died in the year 1742. He also 
left works behind him in Venice, the most esteem- 
ed of which adorns the church of San Silvestro, as 
well as in other cities, both of the state and of all 
Italy. He resided likewise with Prince Eugene 
in Germany. 

There was another foreigner, who, about the 
same period, became a resident at Verona. His 
name was Simone Brentana, a Venetian, well versed 
in literature, as well as in the information neces- 
sary to form an artist. He devoted himself with 
extreme assiduity to the works of Tintoretto, whom 
he emulated in his pictorial enthusiasm, which 
scarcely permitted him to bestow sufficient time 
upon the completion of his labours. In his forms 
and colouring he partakes of the Roman manner 
of his time, and displays something extremely no- 
vel and original in his compositions. His pictures 
were sought after to adorn the galleries of sove- 
reigns, no less than for private persons. Several 
are to be met with in the churches of the states and 
in that of S. Sebastiano at Verona is one represent- 



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EPOCH IV. 373 

ing the Titular Saints well drawn, without drapery^ 
in the act of consummating his Martyrdom, while 
an angel is supporting him in his arms, a figure 
both in aspect and in attitude extremely graceful. 
Girolamo Ruggieri, an artist bom at Vicenza, was 
pupil to Cornelio Dusm^n of Amsterdam, and 
having established himself at Verona, he there pro- 
duced several history-pieces, landscapes, and bat- 
tle scenes, in the Flemish style. 

Approaching the Veronese artists and their 
neighbours, some of them will be found to have 
flourished in the beginning of the century, whose 
merits deserve to be here recorded. One of these is 
Alessandro Marchesini, pupil to Cignani, of whom 
there remains little exhibited in public at Venice, 
and not much at Verona. He chiefly employed 
himself for private persons, with fables and histo- 
ries, consisting of small figures, in which he suc- 
ceeded, though having addicted himself to these 
compositions as a trade, he despatched them with 
niore facility than care. In similar little pieces 
Francesco Barbieri also displayed the most merit, 
an artist called il Legnago, from his native place. 
An imitator of Ricchi, and in some measure of 
Carpioni, he displayed great pictorial enthusiasm 
in every kind of history, in capricci, and in rural 
views; but he was inferior in point of design, 
having applied himself to it too late in life. 

Antonio Balestra of Verona was at first devoted 
to a mercantile life, until at the age of twenty- 
one, after studying in Venice under Bellucci, and 



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374 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

thence passing to Bologna, and afterwards to Rome^ 
under Maratta^ he selected the best from enrery 
school, uniting a variety of beauties in a style of 
his own, which partakes least of all of the Vene- 
tian. He is an artist 6f judgment and high finish^ 
well versed in design, of a rapid hand, lively and 
animated, but always with a solidity of talent that 
makes us respect him. He taught in Venice and 
in the college of La Carit^, where he painted the 
Nativity of our Lord, and the Taking down from 
the Cross, while he competes equally well with the 
first artists of his time in other places. Commis- 
sions from foreign courts and the cities of the state, 
never allowed him to be' idte. He was particu- 
larly employed at Padua in an altar-piece for the 
church del Santo, representing Santa Chiara. He 
painted also a good deal for his native place ; his 
picture of San Vincenzo at the Domenicans,* being 
one of the finest altar-pieces he ever producM, 
and one of the best preserved, for his method 
of colouring with boiled oils has beeii found inju- 
rious to many of his pieces. Such as he paint- 
ed, however, in oil less boiled, have better re- 
sisted the effects of time. Many of these figures 
are in possession of the Conti Gazzola, ornament- 

^ » 

* In the Ouide of Verona, of which I availed myself, ]lt only 
found one picture by Rptari in the refectory at Santa Anastasia. 
I inquired by whom that of S. Vincenzo, which appeared ex- 
tremely beautiful, was painted. I received for answer, that it 
was by Balestra, biit it is in fact from the hand of Rotari, aird 
engraved by Valesi. 



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EPOCH IV. 376 

ing one of their halls^ and in particular a very 
beautiful one of Mercury. He promoted the re-f 
putation of the Venetian School/ both by his lec- 
tures and example, besides affording an excellent 
imitator in Gio. Batista Mariotti, and in his pupil 
Giuseppe Nogari, a painter of portraits, as well as of 
half-length figures, held in much esteem, insomuch 
as to recommend him, for a great length of ti|ne, 
to the service of the court of Turin. In pieces of 
composition, such as his San Piero, placed in the 
cathedral of Bassano, he appears a respectable arr 
tist, and somewhat ambitious of reconciling his 
master's style with that of Piazzetta. Another 
Venetian of the name of Pietro Longhi, first in- 
structed by Balestra, and afterwards by Cregpi, 
aimed at pleasing the eye in collections, by those 
humourous representations of masks, of conversa- 
zioni, landscapes, &c. which we find in various 
noble houses. Angelo Venturini, also a Venetian, 
is mentioned in the Guida of Zanetti, for his paint- 
ings in the church of Gesii e Maria, of which he 
adorned the ceiling, and various portions of the 
walls. Another pupil of Balestra's, in Verona, 
was Carlo Salis, who approached very near his 
style, more particularly in the handling of his co- 
lours. He prosecuted his first studies in Bologna, 
under Giuseppe dal Sole. Some of his pictures 
are also to be met with in the state, such as his 
San Vincenzio, in the act of administering to the 
sick at Bergamo, a piece finely mellowed, and more 
than commonly spirited. An artist named Caval- 



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376 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

cab6, a native of a district in Roveredo, was in-^ 
structed by Balestra, and afterwards by Maratta. 
In the choir of the Carmine at his native place, he 
left behind him a very beautiful altar-piece, repre- 
senting the Holy Simone Stoch, with four late- 
ral pieces of great merit. For a more particular ac- 
count of these and other works by this artist, we 
may refer the reader to his life, written by the 
Cavalier Vannetti. 

The whole of the names, however, we have here 
mentioned, scarcely excepting that of Balestra 
himself, have been thrown into the shade by the 
talent of the Conte Pietro Rotari. He was ho- 
noured with the title of painter to her court, by 
the empress of all the Russias, and in her domi- 
nions he closed the period of his days. This very 
elegant artist, who devoted many years to the art 
of design, succeeding in attaining a grace of fea- 
ture, a delicacy of outline, united to a vivacity of 
motion and expression, and to a natural and easy 
mode of drapery, that would have left him second 
to none of his age, had he possessed, in an equal 
degree of perfection, the art of colouring. But his 
productions often partake so much of the chiar- 
oscuro, or at least of a strong ash colour, as to 
render them remarkable among all. Some, indeed, 
have attributed this defect to want of clearness of 
sight> while others conjecture it must have been, 
owing to his long practice in design, previous to 
his attempting colours, in the same manner as Po- 
lidoro da Caravaggio and the Cavalier Calabrese 



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EPOCH IV. 377 

are known to have failed as colourists^ falling like 
him into a weak and languid tone. The education 
he received from Balestra may also have tended 
to produce it, as both he and the disciples of Ma- 
ratta were somewhat addicted to a certain duski- 
ness of style, which we may particularly observe 
in several examples seen at Naples, where he re- 
sided for some time. Whatever it be owing to, 
there still prevails a repose and harmony in that 
melancholy expression of his colouring, that is far 
from unpleasing, in particular where he affords 
somewhat warmer touches to his tints. This he 
appears to have done in his picture of a Nunziata 
at Guastalla, in that of San Lodovico in the church 
del Santo at Padua, and in a Nativity of the 
Virgin at San Giovanni, in the same city. This 
last specimen, indeed, is almost unequalled in its 
attractions, and seem& to authorize the praises bes- 
towed upon Rotari by a poet, " that he resembled 
his fellow citizen Catullus in being nursed by the 
Graces," a species of eulogy applicable also to Ba- 
lestra and to other Veronese artists. 

Santo Prunati was contemporary with Marche- 
sini and Balestra, and after receiving the instruc- 
tions of Voltolino and Falcieri in Verona, he at- 
tended those of Loth in Venice. Better to acquire 
superior correctness and dignity of manner, he 
next proceeded to Bologna. In that school he 
found the taste in colouring that he wanted, at 
once soft and natural. In the design, and in the 
expression of his heads, he displays more of the 



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378 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

naturalist^ if I mistake not^ th^m any of those who 
preceded him. He was engaged also for larger 
compositions^ in which he distinguished himself, 
hoth in his own district and elsewhere^ and left 
hehind him a son named Michelangiolo, who pur- 
sued, as far as lay in his power, the footsteps of 
his father. In the cathedral of Verona, however, 
is one of his pictures, placed neat the San Fran- 
cesco di Sales of hi^ father, which serves to mark 
the wide difference that exists between them. 

In the same school, along with Michelangiolo, 
studied Gio. Bettino Cignaroli, an arMst instruct* 
ed also by Balestra. Until about the year 1770 
he ranked among the first of his time, receiving 
very flattering invitations from foreign courts, to 
which he invariably preferred the convenience of 
his own house and country. The prices he was in 
the habit of stttaching to his works, were, never- 
theless, those of a court-painter ; and many were 
executed for the prinoipal royalgalleries, as well as 
for the cities of the state, and those of other parts 
of Italy; but which, we must admit, are by no 
means of equal merit. I omit his paintings in 
fresco, on account of his having abandoned that 
branch of the art, owing to his state of healthy 
whije yet young, though not until he had afforded 
specimens of his powers in the noble house of La- 
bia at Venice, during a four years' residence tiiere. 
It is his pictures in oil^ of which we here speak, and 
to which he owed his great reputation. The one at 
Pontremoli, however, representing, as it is said, a 



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EPOCH IV. 879 

Sm Francesco in the act 6f receiving the marks of 
Christ, and extremely well executed, I have not 
seen. His San Zorzi at Pisa stands conspicuous 
among a number of excellent pencils, all employed 
in the ornament of that single cathedral. Perhaps 
his finest is his Journey into Egypt, seen at San 
Antonio Abate in Parma. In this, he has repre- 
sented the Virgin with the Holy Child, in the act 
of passing a narrow bridge, while S. Joseph ap- 
pears engaged in assisting them to cross it in safe- 
ty. In the countenance and whole action of the 
saint, his anxiety for them is strongly depicted, 
which is beautifully expressed by his disregarding 
a part of his mantle, fallen from his shoulders into 
the water below, an image equally skilful and na- 
tural in j^very point of view. The rest of the pic- 
ture is also in his best style. The angels in attend- 
ance, the Divine InfaAt, the Holy Virgin, all drawn, 
as he so well knew how, with a sedate and dignified 
beauty, in the usual manner of Maratta. In some 
points, indeed, CignaroU much resembled him ; in 
certain attitudes, in a peculiar sobriety of com- 
position, in a certain choice and vicinity of co- 
lours, though not in their just and equal tone. His 
fleshes, too much mannered with green, in a few 
places touched with red, render his colouring less 
agreeable to admirers of what is true, while his 
chiaroscuro, Sometimes sought for beyond the li- 
mits of nature, is apt to produce an effect in his 
paintings, not so pleasing to the judgment as to 
the eye. He often displays novelty in the indivi- 



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380 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

dual parts^ availing himself of architecture^ of sea 
views, and of landscape, in a manner above com- 
mon; besides introducing into his compositions^ 
for the most part of a scriptural character, the 
playful figures of cherubims, with other enlivening 
incidents. This artist was indisputably possessed 
of a fine genius, and born in times favourable to 
the eminence he enjoyed. Memoirs of him were 
collected and published by the celebrated Padre Be- 
vilacqua delF Oratorio in the year 1771, and eulo- 
gies were pronounced upon him both in prose and 
verse, by a number of literary characters connect- 
ed with that city, so highly polished and so grate- 
ful to such of its citizens as reflect honour upon 
their native place. A collection of these was sub- 
sequently made, and put forth in the year 1772, 
and from such publications it would appear that 
few artists had received equal honours, during 
their lifetime, from the great, particularly from 
the Emperor Joseph II., who was used to declare, 
" that he had beheld two very rare sights in Ve- 
rona — one the Amphitheatre, and the other the 
most celebrated painter in Europe." He appears, 
likewisCi to have been an artist of great learning, 
as well as fond of conversing with learned men ; 
he was acquainted with philosophical systems, 
wrote Tuscan poetry, relished the Roman classics, 
besides producing treatises upon his own art, writ- 
ten with so much taste and sound judgment, that 
we have only to regret, for the sake of the art he 
loved, the too sparing use he made of such talents. 



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EPOCH IV. 381 

The academy, on which he hestowed the whole of 
his works upon Painting, after his decease, still 
preserves his hust along with his eulogy, a farther 
honour conferred upon him hy the liberality of his 
country. He left several pupils, among whom Gian- 
domenico, his brother, produced some paintings 
in Bergamo that have been commended by Pasta. 
The Padre Felice Cignaroli, Minore Osservante, 
is an artist likewise worthy of mention. He paint- 
ed little, and his master-piece appears in the re- 
fectory of San Bernardino, his convent at Verona, 
consisting of a Supper of Emmaus, in which, though 
less studied, he displays no less invention than his 
brothers. 

Next to these, who escaped oblivion as belong- 
ing to the family of Cignaroli, an artist named 
Giorgio Anselmi deserves best to be put upon 
record, and in particular for his painting of the Cu- 
pola of San Andrea at Mantua, ably executed in 
fresco : at one time he was the pupil of Balestra. 
Marco Marcola was an almost universal artist, ra- 
pid in his labours, abundant in his inventions, 
though I am unable to learn who had been his 
master. Tiepolo gave instructions to Francesco 
Lorenzi, distinguished both for his frescos and his 
oils, and always by his adherence to his master's 
example. There are various ceilings painted by 
his hand in Yerona, and Brescia presents a Holy 
Family, all of which display an able artist, accord- 
ing to the manner of the age. 

In inferior branches of the art, there flourished. 



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382 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

during this period, professors of much repute. 
The art of drawing in crayons rose to a high 
degree of excellence^ through the genius of a 
distinguished lady of the name of Rosalha Car- 
riera,* whose paintings in miniature have been 
highly commended by Orlandi. She next proceed- 
ed to the use of oils, but finally devoted her talents 
to that of crayons. So great was her progress in 
this branch that her specimens in point of force 
were oft^n equal to oU pieces. They were in much 
request from the period in which she flourished, 
both in Italy and other parts; nor did they merely 
please by their clearness and beau|;y of colouring, 
but were remarkable for the grace and dignity of 
design^ with which she animated every thing she 
drew 4 Her Madonnas and other scriptural sulgects 
at o9CjB unite elegance and majesty of manner, 
while her portraits continued to increase in value 
without losing any thing qf their truth. We meet 
with another excellent portrait paintress in Niccola 
Grassi, pupil to Cassana> of Genoa, and a rival, 
of Rosalba. Nor was she unequal to worisis of in- 
vention, one of the niost ei^tensive of which adorns 
the church of San Valentino in IJdine, where she 
painted the Assumption in the ceilings a fine piece 

^ Melchiori gives us an ticeoiint df this lady's master, dot uh- 
d^seitilig of being add^ to the last edition, ititi waji the' noMo 
Oio. Antonio Lazzari, a Venetlaily who had taleints that riyalkd 
those of Rosalba in crayons^ had not his natural tinudity proved 
a bar to his fame. In painting also he attempted litde of an in- 
ventive character, copying much, and more particularly from 
Bassano with greai success, as ^e have observed at pKge 211. 



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BPOCH lY. 388 

on the large alt^r, and drew figures for other pic- 
tures of various saints belonging to the Order of 
the Serviti. Pietro Uberti, son of Domenico^ an 
artist of mediocrity^ is celebrated in the Guida of 
Zanetti for his portraits, of which he produced 
eight, representing lihe Avogadori of his times, for 
the Avogaria or court-house, which was considered 
a very hoiiourable commission, bestowed formerly 
upon Paolo de' Freschi, Domenico Tintoretto, Ti- 
fiielli, Bombelli, artists all celebrated in the same 
career. Orlandi bestows great commendation 
upon Gio^ Batista Canziani of Verona, distinguish- 
ed likewise in this branch, and who, on being ba- 
nished from his native place for an act of homicide, 
eontiofued to exercise it with success in Bologna. 
,. I do not recollect to have seen the landscapes 
Qf Petchio in Verona, though the fine encomium 
bestowed upon him by Balestra, in one of his Let- 
t0re Pittoriche, leads me to hold him in high es- 
teem* In the adjacent parts at Sal6 appeared Gio. 
Batista Cimaroli, a pupil of Calza, who was much 
admired^ both by foreigners and natives at Venice. 
Among landscape painters I find in. several galle- 
ries the name of Formentini, the figures of whose 
pieces were from the pencil of IV^archesini; D. 
Giuseppe Roncelli of Bergamo is another artist 
who acquired reputation, and whose virtues pro- 
cured for him^ from the pen of Mazzoleni, the 
honour of a life, while his singular skill in de- 
picting nocturnal conflagrations, as well as land- 
scapes, induced Celesti to add figures to them. In 



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384 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

Padua the landscapes of Marini were in high re- 
pute, to which Brusaferro likewise added variety 
with his figures. Still more than these Luca Car- 
levaris, an excellent painter of landscape at Udine^ 
rose into notice, no less distinguished also by his 
perspectives and sea views. Public specimens of 
his labours still remain at Venice, though not so 
numerous as in private houses, particularly in pos- 
session of the Zenobri family, who so far patro- 
nized his talents as to procure for him the name of 
Luca di C^ Zenobrio. To him succeeded the ne- 
phew of Sebastiano Ricci, named Marco, who, pur- 
suing the safe career chalked out by Titian, and 
availing himself of the delightful site of his native 
place at Belluno, became one of the ablest landscape 
painters belonging to the Venetian School. It 
would be no exaggeration to say that few before 
his time distinguished themselves with equal force 
of truth, and that those who succeeded him have 
never equalled him in this respect. In order to 
estimate his worth, we are not to consult such 
landscapes as he painted for sale and disposed of 
to dealers ; nor those executed in water colours 
upon goat-skin, which, though very pleasing, are 
wanting in solidity. We ought to consult only his 
oil productions, conducted with far more care, and 
more commonly to be met with in England than 
in Italy. Indeed he had a much more extended 
taste than he displayed in his works. The two bro- 
ther artists named Valeriano, declared that he had 
afibrded them the most enlightened views of the 



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EPOCH IV, 385 

art. These were Domenico^ a painter of persfpec- 
tiv^, and Giuseppe, a figure painter, both em- 
ployed in ornamenting difiierent churches, and 
more particularly theatres, inVenice, and indeed 
throughout Italy and other parts of Europe. 
Francesco ZuccareUi passed a great portion of 
his life in the city of Venice, an artist already re- 
corded by us among the Florentines, and by whose 
example Giuseppe Zai& was formed as a land- 
scape painter, being particularly employed in that 
branch by the British Consul Smith, a distinguish- 
ed patron of youthful genius devoted to the art. 
In point of invention he was more varied and co- 
pious than his master, but inferior to him in the 
mellowness of his tints. He had acquired from 
Simonini, who also resided during a long period at 
Venice, the art of painting battle-pieces, in which 
he shewed equal skill. But he failed to sustain 
either his own dignity or that of his art, and giving 
himself up to carelessness and dissipation, he died 
a common mendicant in the hospital of Trevigi. 

Carlevaris and Ricci are names likewise highly 
esteemed in architectural painting. Several speci- 
mens of this are to be seen in possession of his Excel- 
lency Girolamo Molin, placed as it were in competi- 
tion with each other in one of the halls. If we 
compare them, the former will appear sotaewhat 
languid and monotonous, although he must be al- 
lowed to be an accurate observer of perspective, 
and succeeds in harmonizing his figures well with 
the picture. The latter, however, displays more 

VOL. III. 2 c 



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386 VENETIAN SCHOOL. . 

strength, partaking of the erudite taste of ViViano, 
while the figures introduced into it by his uncle 
are full of pictorial fire and attraction, and greatly 
add to its worth. But both of these, to use the 
language of Dante, were afterwards cacciati di 
nido, driven from their nest, by Antonio Canal, 
more generally called Canaletto. Sprung from a 
painter of theatres of the name of Bernardo, he em- 
braced the profession of his father, attaining to a 
novelty of design, and a promptness of hand in 
this branch, that were afterwards of great use to 
him in painting innumerable smaller pictures for 
private ornament. Disgusted with his first pro- 
fession, he removed while still young to Rome, 
where he wholly devoted himself to drawing views 
from nature, and in particular from ancient ruins. 
On returning into Venice he continued in like 
manner to take views of that city, views that na- 
ture and art seem to have vied with each other in. 
rendering the most novel and magnificent in the 
world. A great part he drew exactly as he saw 
them, a pleasing illusion for the satisfaction of 
those who were never so fortunate as to behold the 
Adriatic Queen with their own eyes. He more- 
over composed a great number of inventive pieces, 
forming a graceful union of the modern and the 
antique/ of truth and of fancy together. Several 
of these he produced for Algarotti; but the 
most novel and instructive of any, as it seems to 
me, is the production in which the grand bridge of 
Rialto^ designed by Palladio, instead of that which 



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: EPOCH IV. 387 

at present is seen^. overlooks the great canal, crown- 
ed beyond with the cathedral of Vicenza, and the 
Palazzo Chericato, Palladio's own works, along 
with other choice edifices, disposed according to the 
taste of that learned writer, who has so much con- 
tributed to improve that of all Italy, and even be- 
yond Italy itself For the greater correctness of his 
perspectives, Canaletto made use of the optic ca- 
mera, though he obviated its defects, especially in 
the tints of the airs. The first indeed to point out 
the real use of it, he limited it only to what was 
calculated to afford pleasure. He aimed at pro- 
ducing great effect, and in this partakes somewhat 
of Tiepolo, who occasionally introduced figures 
into his pieces for him. In whatever he employs 
his pencil, whether buildings, waters, clouds, or 
figures, he never fails to impress them with a vi- 
gorous character, always viewing objects in their 
most favourable aspect. When he avails himself 
of a certain pictorial license, he does it with caution, 
and in such a way that the generality of spectators 
consider it quite natural, while true judges only 
are sensible of its art, an art that he possessed in 
a very eminent degree. 

His nephew and pupil, Bernardo Bellotto, ap- 
proached so nearly to his style, that it is with 
diflficulty their respective pieces are distinguished. 
He also visited Rome, though when Orlandi be- 
stowed his encomiums upon him in his work, he 
was at Dresden, and it is uncertain whether he 
again returned into Italy. Francesco Guardi was 



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888 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

recently esteemed a second Canaletto, his views of 
Venice having attracted the admiration not only 
of Italy but of foreign parts, yet with such persons 
alone who are satisfied with the spirit, the taste, 
and the fine effect which he invariably studied ; 
as in other points, in accuracy of proportions, and 
in judgment as regards the art, he cannot pretend 
to vie with his master. Several others likewise 
excelled in this species of painting, whose pic- 
tures I saw in the Algarotti collection and in other 
places ; such as Jacopo Marieschi, who was also a 
good figurist, and Antonio Yisentini, whose views 
were ornamented with the figures of Tiepolo and 
Zuccherelli. Gio. Colombini of Trevigi, pupil to 
Bastian Ricci, whose Pecile was the Domenican 
convent in that place, succeeded in his perspectives, 
in giving illusion to the eye, and in the masterly 
gradation of the different objects of view. The 
'figures he has introduced are his own, though he 
was less skilful in this branch. He filled that place 
with his portraits, introducing another family as 
it were of painted Domenicans, and not without 
some appearance of caricature. 

In other minor branches of the art, the flowers 
of Domenico Levo were extremely admired. He 
was pupil to Felice Bigi of Parma, who opened 
school in Verona. To his we may add those of 
one Caffi and a few other natives, though the most 
choice collectors pride themselves upon the spe- 
cimens of Gaspero Lopez, a Neapolitan. Thus 
at least he subscribes himself in one of his most 



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EPOCH IV. 389 

beautiful works^ in possession of the Conti Lecchi 
at Brescia, where^ as well as in the capital^ he re- 
sided during a long period. About the middle of 
the century there appeared one of his imitators, 
named in various collections Duramano, an artist 
sotidewhat too much given to mannerism. 

Both the flowers and birds of Count Giorgio 
Durante of Brescia were eagerly sought after, no 
less on account of their exact imitation of the life, 
than for their taste of composition, and the truly 
beautiful and picturesque attitudes in which they 
were drawn. They are rarely to be met with be- 
yond Brescia, though several noble Venetian fami- 
lies, and among these that of Nani, possess a few 
specimens ; but the best, perhaps, of all is to be 
seen in the royal court at Turin. The name of 
Ridolfo Manzoni is distinguished in the same line 
of composition ; he was a native of Castelfraneo, 
and several of his little pictures in oil, in the best 
taste, are there found in possession of different in- 
dividuals. But he derived his chief reputation, as 
well as profit, from his miniature productions. In 
the History of Painting in the Frioul, we meet 
with the name of another artist, Paolo Paoletti, a 
native of Padua. He passed his early youth in 
Udine, and was employed for many years in the 
house of the Conti Caiselli. Although more par- 
ticularly celebrated in his flowers, he drew with 
great truth all kind of fruits, herbs, fishes, and game. 
The family in which he was domesticated posses- 
ses quite a museum of these rarities, and numerous 



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390 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

specimens are met widi in other hands^ both within 
and beyond the limits of the Frionl. In his flower 
paintings he is compared by Altan even with the 
celebrated Segers^ an extent of liberality in which 
I by no means agree. 

In the last place we have here to treat of an art 
that received great improvement during this cen- 
tury in Venice^ an art which^ though not directed 
to the increase of copies, is nevertheless of some 
importance to painting, inasmuch as it favours the 
duration of ancient productions, by adopting the 
most judicious means of preserving and restoring 
them. Such methods were more valuable also to 
Venice than to any other city, its climate being 
particularly unfavourable to paintings in oil, owing 
to the salts with which the air is impregnated, gra- 
dually eating away or injuring the colours. For this 
reason the government very judiciously appointed 
a number of artists to inspect the public exhibi* 
tions, and watch over the preservation of the paint- 
ings which were found inclined to decay, restoring 
them without incurring the risk, as it sometimes 
happens, of a new one being Substituted for an 
ancient specimen. A studio for this purpose was 
opened in 1778, consisting of a large saloon at the 
Santi Giovanni e Paolo, the superintendence of 
which was entrusted to the care of the learned 
Peter Edwards, who received the title of Presi- 
dent. The various processes adopted in the resto- 
ration of each specimen are extremely long and 
tedious, and executed with surprising accuracy ; 



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EPOCH IV. 391 

and in instances where the picture has not suffered 
too greatly from the effects of injury or time, it 
returns with renewed youth from the studio, cal- 
culated to survive the lapse of many more years. 

Other equally useful methods have been adopt- 
ed by the Republic for the preservation of the fine 
models that adorn its churches, in order that they 
shguld not run the. risk of being sold and car- 
ried away. Hence it is that the state, even through- 
out, its most diminutive districts and towns, has 
been enabled to preserve so many valuable paint- 
ings; while, at the same time, it has furnished pro- 
vision for its youthful artists, best calculated to 
facilitate their improvement. During several cen- 
turies the ancient company of painters, ennobled 
by the names of distinguished pupils, continued to 
flourish ; , but there was still wanting the sort of 
reputation arising from dignity of situation and 
establishment, from the number and assiduity of 
its masters, and from the distribution of rewards. 
Since the year 1724 it was decreed, and confirmed 
in 1766, that a magnificent academy should be 
erected, devoted to the fine arts, ''upon the plan," as 
was. further stated, /'of the principal institutions 
in Italy and throughout Europe." And it forms 
indeed an object gratifying to the mind of the 
most accomplished foreigners, to behold this seat 
of art, and to cultivate an acquaintance with its 
objects and pursuits. These views of the govem- 
mept have been promoted, by the private indi- 
viduals of that most splendid body of nobility. 



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392 VENETIAN SCHOOL. 

an assembly in which the Abate Filippo Far- 
setti very liberally distinguished himself^ by pre- 
senting the institution with a large collection of 
paintings^ and casts taken from the finest antique 
statues. Their successors have displayed the 
same kind of spirit^ nor do they merely a£fbrd 
students access to the study of these monuments; 
but their finest productions^ in every year, are 
selected according to the judgment of public pro- 
fessors, and rewarded with all the ceremony and 
munificence worthy of such an institution. 

Nor have other nobles and gentlemen through- 
out the city and the state of Venice been want- 
ing in liberality towards young artists of genius, 
enabling them to pursue their studies both at 
home and abroad, until they have completed their 
education. Few contributions indeed confer so 
much honour upon families as these ; for in addition 
to the merit of succouring a fellow creature, and a 
fellow citizen, there are thus expectations to be 
indulged that some genius may rise up capable of 
conferring honour upon the arts, and perhaps res- 
toring them to their ancient merit. We have it 
in our power to record various instances of this 
liberal spirit ; we could mention a number of ex- 
cellent artists who express their gratitude for the 
kindness of their patrons, did not the rule we have 
laid down for ourselves not to introduce the eulo- 
gies of living artists, in order to avoid occasion of 
complaint to such as may be omitted, forbid the 
enumeration of them. Still I may allude to an in- 



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EPOCH lY. 393 

stance of it in another branch of the art^ which is 
very generally known, and this is the generous en- 
couragement afforded by their Excellencies Falier 
and Zulian, to Antonio Canova^ the celebrated 
sculptor, encouragement to which Rome and Italy 
are in a great degree indebted for such an artist. 
He sufl&ces to convince us, that though Fortune 
may indeed deprive our country of her great 
master-pieces of art, she cannot destroy the 
genius capable of reproducing them. 



END OP VOL. III. 



J. M'Creery, Tooks Coartp 
Cbanfiery*lane4 London. 



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