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Full text of "The history of Pennsylvania from the earliest discovery to the present time. Including an account of the first settlements by the Dutch, Swedes, and English, and of the colony of William Penn, his treaty and pacific measures with the Indians; and the gradual advancement of the state to its present aspect of opulence, culture and refinement"

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ifrom tfje Earliest Diacoberg to t?)e present QLimt. 









Author op " Lire op Robert Raikbs," " Lipb op Horace Grbblby," 
"Memoir op Charles Sumner" Etc 


725 Sansom Street. 

Copyright, 1876, 

press or 

Rand, Avbry, and Comfant, 

117 franklin street, 



It is a Herculean task to write a good history ; and the value 
of such a one cannot be overestimated. By history we learn 
what mankind have been and done in all past ages. By 
history the best men in every age and century of the world 
are set before us for our imitation, and the worst for our 
detestation. By history we learn how nations, empires, king- 
doms, have arisen, flourished, decayed, and passed away. By 
liistory we become acquainted with the genius, laws, and cus- 
toms of men who shone as stars in their generation ; and 
behold, as in a mirror, the disposition, character, and talents 
which produced their virtue or their vice, and entitled them to 
the respect, veneration, and grateful remembrance of their suc- 
cessors, or made them a reproach to the end of the world. By 
history, too, we get a knowledge of how the arts and sciences 
arose, and how inventions were first arrived at, cultivated, and 
improved; and finally, as "history" but "repeats itself" in 
every age of the world, we see the finger of an Almighty 
Ruler presiding over the destiny of men, and ordering all 
things and events, so that, it must be visible to all, that He 
ruleth among the children of men, and showing that "the 
race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, 
nor yet riches to men of understanding." 

From these characteristics of general history, the transition 
is natural and easy to the particular one before us. Having 
resided many years in Philadelphia, and become familiar with 


the biography of the early settlers of Pennsylvania, and the 
events that have taken place since, through their historians ; 
and believing that no State in the Union offers richer material 
for a valuable history ; and, moreover, being drawn to the task 
from a love of research into past times, — the author, with much 
pleasure, has compiled the following pages. It will be univer- 
sally acknowledged that our resources of wealth in coal, iron, 
oil, &c, are unsurpassed by any State of this great republic. 

Pennsylvania has abundant cause of gratitude to God, that 
she was settled by a Christian people, and, especially, that she 
received her name from one of the wisest, noblest, and best of 
men ; and, as exhibited in this history, for many generations, 
even down to this period of our grand centennial, she has hon- 
ored her early settlers, in her appreciation of that education, 
virtue, religious principle, and civil freedom, which were 
vouchsafed unto her by such men as William Penn and his 
coadjutors. It will be shown that she has well developed her 
material resources ; but in nothing has she been more conspicuous 
than in the character of her men and women. 

With the hope and belief that the reader will be amused, 
entertained, and instructed, his mind enlarged, affection ele- 
vated, by the perusal of what is gathered from the authors 
named in the work, from whose resources I have richly drawn, 
and from the more recent statistics of the Commonwealth, I 
commit the work to the intelligent sons and daughters of 

W. M. C. 

Philadelphia, 1878. 






Supposition that Ancient Ophir was America — Swedes' and Goths' Dis- 
covery of America — Discovery by Madoc, an Englishman — Discovery 
by Christopher Columbus — By Americus Vespucius — By Sebastian 
Cabot— Virginia visited by Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh 
— Whence its Name — Discovery of Delaware Bay — Whence its Name 

— London and Bristol Companies — Advent of the Hollanders — Their 
First Fort — Settlement by the Swedes — Their Religion — Houses — 
Furniture — Food — Drinks — First Indian Speech to Europeans . . 15 




George Fox — His Followers take the Name of Friends : his Enemies call 
them Quakers — Statement of their Principles published by Themselves 

— Admiral Sir William Penn — His Offices and Exploits — Birth of 
William Penn — His Early Education — Meeting with Thomas Loe — 
Embraces Loe's Views — Incurs his Father's Displeasure — Is sent to 
France — Then to Ireland — Again meets Loe — Returns Home — 
Driven from his Father's House — Colloquy between the Admiral and 
his Wife — Perm's Books — His Father's Reconciliation — Admiral's 
Death 28 



Reasons for founding a Colony: to get his Dues from the Crown — To 
escape Persecution — Accounts from New Jersey Colonies — Penn' s 
Persecution — Imprisonment — Trial — Defence — Appeal to the Jury 

— Prejudices of his Judges — Penn's Acquittal — Petition for a Charter 

— Opposition — Granting of Charter 44 






Boundaries — Privileges — William Penn made Proprietary — Power to 
govern, and make Laws — May appoint Officers — Grant Pardons — A 
Proviso — Laws of England in Force till Others are made in the Prov- 
ince — Approval of Laws — Encouragement of Emigration, also to Trade 

— May lay out Towns, Cities, &c. — Commercial Advantages — Seaports, 
Creeks, and Harbors — Customs may be imposed by the Province — 
Agent to reside in London — Government may be resumed by England 

— Not to correspond with Kings, &c, at War with England — May pur- 
sue and punish Enemies — May dispose of Lands — May erect Manors — 
Frank Pledge — King not to lay Taxes without Consent of Proprietary 

or Parliament — Control of the Bishop of London — Interpretation • 61 



Penn's Joy — His Visit to the K3ng — Surprise at the Name — Offers 
Twenty Guineas — Solicits the King — Refusal of the King— Letter to 
Robert Turner — Penn's Publication — Farewell to the King — Interest- 
ing Colloquy with the King — Letter to his Family 75 



Sends Commissioners — Letter to the Indians — Death of his Mother — 
Frame of Government — Agreement with the Duke of York — Penn's 
Embarkation — An Epistle — Letter to Stephen Crisp — Welcome from 
the Dutch, Swedes, and Quakers — Toleration and Civil Freedom — 
First General Assembly — Chester named — Lands bought — Great 
Treaty — Measurement by Walks — John Penn — Bounties offered — 
Site for a City — Penn's House — Pennsbury Manor — City named — 
Division of Province and Territories — Letter to One of his Detractors 
— Leaves for England ©2 



William Penn's Letter — Persons of the Indians — Their Language — Cus- 
toms and Manners — Religion — Government — Origin — Dr. Rush's 
Account — Of their Children— Food — Customs of Women — Employ- 
ment of Men — Common Customs — Diseases — Small-Pox and Vene- 
real Imported — Remedies — Indian Speeches Ill 



The Provincial Council — Officers commissioned by William Penn — Letter 
to Friends — Population of the Province — Appoints Secretary — Troubles 



In the Province — Letter to the Magistrates and Others — Nicholas 
Moore — New Commission — Thomas Lloyd retires — Appointed Deputy 

— Great Scare — Gov. Blackwell — First Public School — George Keith 

— Schism among the Quakers — Penn's Power revoked — Fletcher made 
Governor — Divisions — Fletcher retires — Appoints Markham — Gov- 
ernment restored to Penn — Appoints Markham — Penn's Return — 
Gives Laws — Improves Philadelphia — House of Lords — Fears for his 
Government — Return to England 12S 



Penn's Interest in the Colony— Of his Family— Reception of New Charter 
— Charter to the City— Andrew Hamilton — James Logan — Bill in 
Parliament — King William's Death — Princess Anne — Dissensions — 
Gov. Evans — William Penn, jun. — More Dissensions — Evils from 
Penn's Absence— Mortgages the Province — Attacked by Apoplexy— 

Hi8 Death— His Will— GOV. Gordon — Tfonfrrain JjfrnlrHn — ThnmQQ 

and John Penn — Indian Troubles — Gov. Thomas — George Whitefleld 
— The French War — Plain Truth — Gov. Hamilton — Taxation of Pro- 
prietors — Public Institutions — Braddock's Defeat — George Washing- 
ton — Indian Treaties — Re-appointment of James Hamilton — Boundary - 
settled — Indian Massacre — White Savages — John Penn — Indians sue 
for Peace — Quotation from Day — Penn's Character by Gordon . . 144 



Great Britain lays a Tax upon the Colonies — Stamp Act — Stamp Officer 
appointed — Manufacturing prohibited — Repeal of the Stamp Act — 
Duties on British Goods — Tax on Tea — Colonists oppose all Taxes — 
Mass Meeting — Provincial Congress — Continental Congress — Petition 
to King George — Congress adjourns — Re-assembles — George Wash- 
ington appointed — Washington's Speech 100 



Washington commissioned — Bloodshed — The Colonies declared Independ- 
ent of Great Britain — Incidents in Independence nail — Doings of the 
Assembly of Pennsylvania — Gov. Penn's Advice — The Assembly's 
Reply — Second Provincial Convention — Their Acts — Committee of 
Public Safety — The Quakers — Pennsylvania raises Troops— Whigs 
and Tories disagree on changing the Government — The Whigs prevail 
— They call a Convention — A Constitution formed for Pennsylvania • 177 







The Government modelled after England — The People Democratic — Ex- 
portation prohibited — Of the Courts — Sale of Lands — Division of 
Classes among the People — William Penn — Provincial Laws repealed 

— Early Churches — Free Toleration to All — Influx of Sects — Contrast 
of Public Expenditures — Literature — Printing-Press — Newspapers — 
Magazines — Benjamin Franklin — His Printing-Press . . • .104 



What Government should be — Declaration of Rights — Right of Worship 

— Internal Government — Benefit to All — Free Elections — Of Prosecu- 
tions — Of Warrants — Freedom of Speech — Plan of Government — 
— Electors — House of Representatives — Form of Oath or Affirmation 

— Delegates to Congress — Title of the Laws — County Districts — Of 
Commissions — Of Judges — Supreme Court — Of Debtors — Justices of 
the Peace — Sheriffs and Coroners — Of Fees — Register's Office — 
Prin ting-Presses — Of Professions — Penal Laws — Taxes — Of Schools 

— Council of Censors 211 



Emblems of Royalty burned — Lord Howe — Letters to Washington and 
Franklin — Franklin's Reply — Washington's Letter — Gen. Sullivan's 
Message — Committee appointed to confer with Howe — Battle at Tren- 
ton — Battle of Princeton — Arrival of Lafayette — Defeat at Brandy- 
wine — Removal of Congress — British in Philadelphia — They spare the 
Old Elm — Washington's Enemies — Commissioners from Great Britain 
— France acknowledges American Independence — Sir Henry Clinton 
succeeds Sir William Howe — British evacuate Philadelphia — Victory 
of Monmouth — Benedict Arnold — Indian Warfare — Continental 
Money — Treaty of Peace 229 



Warfare with the Western Indians — Whiskey Rebellion — War of 1812 — 
Defenceless State of the Northern Borders — Commodore Perry's Vic- 
tory—British War-Ships in the Delaware — The Governor's Call — 
Patriotic Response — Burning of the Capitol — War with the Florida 
Indians — Efforts to quiet the South — Southern Trade — Patriotism of 
her People — Gov. Curtin — Anecdotes of Quakers — James Buchanan 
— Secession Ordinance — Lincoln's Election — Attack on Fort Sumter 
— Call for Troops — Ready Response — Simon Cameron — Thaddeus 
Stevens — Reserve Corps— Rebel Invasion — Gen. Meade— Battle of 
Gettysburg 245 





Face of the Country — Geology — Lakes and Rivers — Climate — Soil and 
Productions — Anthracite Coal — Where found — Mining-Operations — 
Mouth of a Coal Mine — Coal Shute, Dumper, and Breaker — Face of a 
Coal-Breaker — Picking Slate at a Screen — Total Product of Anthra- 

• cite — Bituminous Coal — Where found — Mines — Product of Bitumi- 
nous Coal 201 



Pennsylvania compared with Other States — Cornwall Hills — Counties, 
where found — Chester County — Prohibitory Law — Forges in Bucks 
County — Lebanon — Manufacturing Baptists — Maria Forge — Henry 
William Steigel — Valley Forge — William Denning — Various Forges 

— Anthracite Coal for Smelting — Jacobs' Creek — Dunbar Creek — 
Fairchance Furnace — Red Stone — Charcoal Furnaces — Bituminous 
Coal — Pig Iron — Total Product — Geology of Petroleum — Naphtha 

— Venango County — Devonian Rocks — Daddow — Indians burn Oil 

— Excitement on Discovery of Oil — Oil Companies — Prospecting — Oil 
Creek — A Derrick 279 



Mr. Sipes's Book — Richard Trevithick — George Stephenson — Road in 
Massachusetts — Honesdale — Columbia Railroad — Portage Road — Act 
for Pennsylvania Railroad — Road opened — Branches of New Jersey 
Division — Of Pennsylvania Railroad — Of Philadelphia and Erie Road 

— Mileage — Merion — Wynnewood — Eagle — Paoli — Malvern — 
Downington — Coatesville — Christiana — Gap — Kinzers — Lancaster 

— Mount Joy — Middletown — Columbia — Marietta — Harrisburg . 295 



Rockville — Marysville — Duncannon — Aqueduct — Newport — Millers- 
town — Mifflin — Lewistown — Newton Hamilton — Mount Union — 
Huntingdon — Tyrone — Altoona — Kittanning Point — Resting-Place 

— View from the Mountain 314 




Tunnel — Gallitzin — Cresson — Sonman — Portage — Johnstown — Cone- 
maugh Furnace — Nineveh — Blairsville Intersection — HilLside — La- 
trobe — Greensburg — Penn — Manor — Irwin — Braddock's — Wilkins- 
burg — Liberty — Pittsburg 329 






East Brandy wine and Waynesburg Branch — Glen Moore — Barneston — 
Waynesburg — Wrightsville — York — Mifflin and Centre County Branch 

— Logan — Mann's — Reedsville — Milroy — Bedford and Bridgeport 
Railroad — Mount Dallas — Bedford — Wolfsburg — Mann's Choice — 
Bald Eagle Valley Branch — Vail — Bald Eagle — Martha — Unionville 
Milesburg — Unionville — Bellefonte — Curtin — Howard — Eagleville 

— Beach Creek — Mill Hall — Tyrone and Clearfield Branch — Sandy 
Ridge — Osceola — Phillipsburg — Wallacetown — Clearfield — Holli- 
daysburg and Morrison's Cove Branch — Y Switches — Hollidaysburg — 
McEee's — Rodman — Roaring Spring — Martinsburg — Henrietta — 
Williamsburg Branch — Frankstown — Flowing Spring — Williamsburg 

— Ebensburg Branch — Munster — Ebensburg — Indiana Branch — 
Black Lick — Homer — Indiana 840 



Western Pennsylvania Railroad — Blairsville — Tunnel — Saltsburg — 
Apollo — Leechburg — Alleghany Junction — Freeport — Natrona — 
Tarentum — Hites' — Claremont — Sharpsburg — Etna — Alleghany City 

— Butler Branch — Saxonburg — Butler — South-west Pennsylvania 
Branch — Scottdale — Everson — Connellsville — Philadelphia and Erie 
Railroad — Sunbury — Northumberland — Milton — Watsontown — 
Dewart — Montgomery — Muncy — Williamsport — Jersey Shore — 
Wayne — Lock Haven — Farrandsville — Hyner — Renovo — Keating — 
Round Island — Sinnemahoning — Drift-wood — Stirling — Cameron — 
Emporium — St Mary's — Daguscahonda — Ridgeway — Wilcox — Ser- 
geant — Kane — Warren — Irvinetown — Cony — Union — Waterf ord — 
Jackson's — Erie — Lewisburg Centre and Spruce Creek Branch — 
Lewisburg — Mifflinburg — Danville and Hazleton Branch — Philadel- 
phia and Erie Junction — Danville — Catawissa — Tomhicken — Bristol 862 



Network of Railroads — Afford Facilities for Historical Description — 
Reading Road — Conshohocken — Norristown — Valley Forge — Reading 

— Phoenixville — Port Clinton — Pottstown — Auburn — Schuylkill 
Haven — Pottsville — Mount Carbon — Ravino Gap — Lebanon — Ma- 
hanoy Plane — Northern Pennsylvania — Gwynedd — Lansdale — Sel- 
lersville — Landis Rfdge — Hellertown — Lehigh Valley Railroad — 
Bethlehem — Allen town — Catasauqua — Hokendauqua — Slatington — 
Lehighton — Weinport — Packertown — Mauch Chunk — Mount Pisgah 

— Summit Hill — Burning-Mine — Glen Onoko — Chameleon Falls — 




Onoko Falls— Terrace Palls — Nesquehoning Bridge — Penn Haven— 
Stony Creek— Rockport — Tannoy — White Haven — Freemansbnrg 

— Redington — Glendon — Easton — Delaware, Lackawanna, and West- 
ern Railroad— Delaware Water Gap — Philadelphia, Wilmington, and 
Baltimore Railroad — Chester— West Chester Railroad— West Chester 881 



Pennsylvania Hospital— Insane Department— Stephen Girard —Sick Sea- 
men — Lying-in Department — Dispensary — Hospital Property taxed — 
Penn's Bust — Klrkbride Hospital — Hospital of the University of Penn- 
sylvania — Lunatic Hospital, Harrisbnrg — Insane Hospital, Danville — 
Insane Hospital, Warren — Insane Hospital, Dixmont — German Hos- 
pital — Lackawanna Hospital — Wilkesbarre Hospital — Anthracite Hos- 
pital — Reform School — Pennsylvania Training School — Deaf-Mutes — 
Sheltering Arms — Western Penitentiary 409 



University of Pennsylvania — Western University of Pennsylvania — La- 
fayette College — Other Colleges in the State — Normal Schools — High 
Schools — Private Schools — Business Colleges — Provisions of the New 
Constitution — City School Systems — Of Philadelphia— Of Pittsburg 

— Of Alleghany 427 



Why so long delayed— Variety of Nations — Mr. Burke's Statement- 
Municipalities — Organization of the Society— Original Members — 
First Officers— Place of Meeting — Various Committees— Progress — 
Library — Bradford's Prayer-Book — Freedom of the Press — Other 
Societies— United States Hospitals in the City — Union League — Poli- 
tics of the Commonwealth — Names of Governors of the Province and 
State of Pennsylvania 456 



Benjamin West — Charles Wilson Peale — Rembrandt Peale — Thomas 
Sully — James Hamilton — Thomas Buchanan Read — Adolph Ulric 
Wertmuller — Paul Weber— John Neagle — Peter F. Rothermel — Mar- 
garet M. George— Thomas A. Scott— School of Design for Women— 
The Academy of Fine Arts 471 





William Shippen — Adam Kuhn — Benjamin Rush — Thomas Bond — 
American Metropolis of Education — Medical School united with the 
University — New Edifice — Jefferson Medical College — The Pennsylva- 
nia Medical College — Philadelphia College of Medicine — Homoeopathic 
College, <fec. — Female Medical College — Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy — College of Physicians and Surgeons — Medical Writers — Jour- 
nals and Journalists 484 



Birthplace of Girard — Cabin-Boy — Capt. Randall — Begins to speculate — 
Comes to Philadelphia — Marriage — Removes to Mount Holly — Returns 
to Philadelphia — Partnership with his Brother— Dissolution — Wife's 
Insanity — Massacre in St. Domingo — Death of his Brother — His 
Nieces — Names of his Ships — Smoking — Service in the Yellow-Fever 

— Softens with Age — Capt. Guligar — One Cent — His Dress — Dr. 
Staughton — Gives to the Methodists — Cancels Donation — Widow's 
Visit — Girard Bank — Hardware Merchant — Rope-Maker — Iron 
Work — Plan of his College — His Will — Note from Dr. Allen . . 503 



Advantages of Philadelphia — Building and Loan Associations — Consoli- 
dation of the City — Topography of the City — Its Buildings — Manu- 
factures — London Coffee-House — Carpenter's Hall — State House — 
Independence Square — United States Mint — Eastern State Penitentiary 

— County Prison — Houses of Refuge — Wills Hospital — Deaf-and- 
Dumb Institution — Institution for the Blind — Blockley Almshouse — 
Wagner Institute — Polytechnic College— Franklin Institute — Guar- 
anty Trust and Safe Deposit Company — Hotels — Masonic Temple — 
Academy of Natural Sciences — City Hall — Callow-hill Street Bridge — 
Water-Works — Laurel Hill Cemetery— The Park 520 



Our Republic— Small in the Beginning— How it increased— Planted by 
Noble Men — Slavery a Rotten Plank in the Constitution — Its Fate 
—The Old " Thirteen " —Increase of Territory — Productions — Men 
and Women — Literature — Century — Pennsylvania and Philadelphia 

— Sister States and Cities — Foreign Nations — One Regret — The 
Change as to Knowledge and Discoveries — The Future of the Nation 
— History proclaims a Moral Governor — The Centennial Grounds and 
Buildings 661 


Portrait of the Author fbohtispiece. 


BirdVEye View of Philadelphia 16 

Penn's Treaty with the Indians 98 

Penn's House 108 

Soldiers' Monument, Gettysburg 261 

Mouth of Coal Mine 271 

Coal Shute, Dumper, and Breaker . . 273 

Face of Coal Breaker 274 

Picking out Slate 275 

Towing Fiat-Boats up Oil Creek 1 291 

Oil en Route for Pittsburg 1 293 

Paoli 300 

Coatesrille Bridge 302 

Residence of James Buchanan 806 

Susquehanna near Harrisburg 312 

Horseshoe Curve . 327 

Alleghany Mountain Tunnel 830 

Mountain House, Cresson 331 

Portage Road 333 

City of Pittsburg , 341 

State Normal School, Indiana . . . * 361 

Valley Forge 384 

Schuylkill below Beading 886 

Schuylkill above Port Clinton 386 

Mount Carbon and Sharp Mountain 387 

Ravino Gap, near Pottsville 388 

Mahanoy Plane, looking up 389 

Bethelehem 891 

Lehigh Gap 892 

Mauch Chunk . 394 

Mount Pisgah Plane 395 

The "Flagstaff," Mauch Chunk 396 

View North from the Trestling, Mount Pisgah 398 

Chameleon Falls 399 

* These cuts represent the oil regions at they were in 1861. 




Onoko Falls 400 

Terrace Falls, Glen Onoko 401 

Nesquehoning Bridge 402 

View on Stony Creek 403 

Prospect Rock and the Nescopec V alley 404 

Cloud Point 405 

The Gem of the Valley 406 

Delaware Water Gap 407 

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania 417 

University of Pennsylvania, Department of Arts and Sciences . . 429 

Pardee Hall 431 

Beaver College, Beaver 433 

Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg 437 

Plates of Lewisburg 439, 440, 441 

Washington and Jefferson 443 

State Normal School, West Chester 446 

Cumberland Valley State Normal School, Shippensburg . . 448 

Union League 465 

New Academy of Fine Arts 482 

University of Pennsylvania, Medical Department 485 

Public Ledger 496 

Girard College . ' 519 

London Coffee House 524 

Carpenter's Hall 525 

Independence Hall 526 

Liberty Bell 527 

Franklin's Grave 528 

Insane Asylum 533 

Guaranty Safe Trust and Deposit Company 536 

Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York 537 

Exchange 538 

Masonic Temple 539 

Continental Hotel 540 

New Academy of Natural Sciences 541 

New City Hall 543 

Chestnut Street Bridge 544 

Callow Hill Street Bridge 545 

Fairmount 547 

Fairmount Park from Pennsylvania Bridge 548 

Girard Avenue Bridge, Fairmount Park 549 

Centennial Buildings 

Main Exhibition Building 560 

Art Gallery '. 560 

Machinery Hall 560 

Horticultural Building 563 

Agricultural Building 564 

Fac-Similes of Centennial Medals 566 


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Supposition that Ancient Ophir was America — Swedes' and Goths' Discovery 
of America— Discovery by Madoc, an Englishman — Discovery by Christo- 
pher Columbus — By Americus Vespucius — By Sebastian Cabot — Virginia 
visited by Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh —Whence its Name — 
Discovery of Delaware Bay — Whence its Name — London and Bristol Com- 
panies — Advent of the Hollanders — Their First Fort — Settlement by the 
Swedes — Their Religion — Houses — Furniture — Food — Drinks — First 
Indian Speech to Europeans. 

YARIOUS opinions have long prevailed respecting when, 
and by whom, America was first discovered. Some be- 
lieve that America, though not known by that name, was a 
place of trade in the days of King Solomon, and that the Ophir 
to which he sent his ships on three-years' voyages, "which 
returned with silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks, and four hun- 
dred and fifty talents of gold," l was on some part of what is 
now called the American Continent. This opinion is supported 
by some plausible arguments like the following : the place to 
which they sailed must have been at a great distance, as it 
required so much time to complete the voyage, which would 
not have been the case, had they gone to the East Indies, they 
being not far from Solomon's dominions. They traded at some 
rich country, evidently ; and no part of the world abounded in 

1 2 Chron. viii., ix. 



gold, silver, apes, peacocks, and other precious treasure, more 
than some portions of the American Continent. If this suppo- 
sition were true, it might suggest the method by which " the 
ten tribes " became the first inhabitants of America, according 
to the opinion of Gov. Boudinot, of New Jersey, and others. 

The Swedes and Goths visited America, A.D. 996, and 
called it Virdand the Q-ood^ and, also, Skrcellingaland. It is 
therefore evident that the Northmen visited some part of North 
America before the Spaniards and Portuguese went to* South 
America. 1 

Holm, another Swedish historian, says " That the same dis- 
coverers of 996 called it Wineland the Good, and Skralin§ga- 
land, which was found written in six different chapters of the 
ancient history of Gothland under the great King Olof Tyr- 
gwasson, or Snorre Sturleson, published by the celebrated anti- 
quary John Peringskiold, in the year 1697 ; from which, for 
the sake of brevity, we shall only extract the names of those 
who visited Wineland the Good ; and afterwards we shall 
briefly relate what they have said respecting that country ; so 
that one may know what was the state of America in those 

The first who travelled into that country was called Liqf 
JSrikson. He was sent to Greenland by King Olof Tyrgwasson 
of Norway, to instruct the people of that island in the Chris- 
tian religion. Afterwards he sailed for America with thirty- 
five men, built a house there, and staid over the winter. 

The second was Thorwald Erikson, Lief s brother. He went 
to the same place with thirty men, and remained there during 
the winter. 

The third was Torsten Erikson, who, after his brother Thor- 
wald's death, went thither with his wife Gudrid and a company 
of fifty strong and active men chosen for that purpose. 

The fourth was Karel Sernne, who sailed for that country 
with his wife Gudrid and with sixty men and five women. 
They took with them all sorts of cattle, and settled themselves 
upon the land. 

The fifth was Freidis, Erik's daughter, with her two brothers, 

1 Acreliua: translated by Reynolds, p. 17. 


Helge and Fivioga. They took with them thirty active men, 
besides women. They first sailed to Greenland, and after- 
wards went to the New World, to which they gave the name 
of Wineland the Good. 

The circumstances which are related respecting that country 
Are the following : — 

1st, That the country was fair, covered with wood, and 
there was but little space between the woods and the sea. 

2d, That there were many islands and inland seas, or lakes, 
on the shores of which there was white sand. 

3d, That in the lakes and rivers there were salmon, and all 
other kinds of fish. 

4th, That at that time there were found whales, which were 
cast ashore by the flood. 

5th, That the country produced excellent fruit, and that 
corn grew spontaneously in the fields. 

6th, That the dew which fell in the morning on the grass 
was very sweet. 

7th, That the country was very fruitful, and produced grape- 
vines, and also abundance of fish and other riches. 

8th, That there was no hard frost in the country; so that 
the grass suffered very little in the winter, and the cattle did 
not want food. 

9th, That the days were longer than in Greenland and Ice- 
land, and the sun rose at breakfast-time when the days were 

10th, That the inhabitants made use of bows and arrows for 
their weapons, with which they made war, and fought against 
the Norwegians. 

11th, That they crossed the water with canoes made of the 
bark of trees. 

12th, That they took with them burdens and packages, con- 
sisting of squirrel and sable skins, and all other kinds of peltry, 
which they offered to the Norwegians in the way of trade. 

13th, That at first they desired to have arms in exchange for 
their goods ; but, after they had tasted milk, they would not 
have any thing else. 

14th, That they were much frightened by the bellowing of 


the bulls which the Norwegians brought with them, and, when 
they heard them, they would run away. 

15th, That they wondered much at the arms of the Norwe- 
gians, and were afraid of them, &c. 

That the said Wineland the Good can be no other than 
America, is also maintained by the learned professor, O. Were- 
lius, as may be seen in his notes to Hervor's History, p. 27. 
It is probable that the part of Greenland whence those men 
sailed over to America is very near to that continent, as may 
be seen, as well in the place above quoted from the said Sturle- 
son, as in Jons Larssons Wolffs "Norrigia Illustrata," pub- 
lished in Danish, at Copenhagen, in the year 1651, which was 
communicated to me, amongst other things, by the celebrated 
professor of antiquities, E. Brenner. It is there mentioned that 
some travellers were permitted by King Frederick the Second, 
and Christian the Fourth of Denmark, to go to Greenland ; 
but they went to America, believing it to be Greenland, as may 
be seen in the same work, p. 273. That part of Greenland 
is at present unknown, so that no man at present can find it ; 
because, according to some, a great quantity of ice was driven, 
by some storm, out of the Sea of Tartary, which has intercepted 
the passage. It is supposed that the people who lived there 
abandoned their habitations, and, as the learned Grotius believes, 
travelled farther into the country, until, at last, they reached 
America, a part of whose inhabitants is, without doubt, 
descended from them." 

Some Englishmen believe that America was discovered, 
1190, by Madoc, son of Owen Gwynneth, Prince of Wales, and 
that he made two voyages to this country, and that he built a 
fortress in Florida or Virginia, others say in Mexico ; and 
they adduce, as proof of this, a number of British words found 
in use among the Mexicans. 1 

Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa, disco veied Ameri- 
ca in 1492, the first land which he made being Guanahani, 
one of the Lucayos, to which he gave the name of San Salva- 
dor. On this same voyage, he discovered Cuba and Hispaniola : 
on the latter he built a fort, and left it in the possession of 

l Holm: translated by Da Ponceaa, p. 28. 


thirty-eight armed Spaniards. He sailed again in 1498, with 
seventeen ships and fifteen hundred men. When he arrived, 
he found that the Spaniards, whom he had left to protect the 
fort, had all been murdered by the natives. He built two 
cities, and called them Isabella and St. Domingo. He also 
took possession of Cuba and Jamaica, and discovered the 
American Continent. 

The next discoverer of America was Americus Vespucius, a 
native of Florence. His first voyage was made in 1502, by 
order of Emanuel, King of Portugal. Unjustly, the country 
was named for him. 

Virginia was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, a Portu- 
guese by birth, but then captain of an English ship. It was 
next visited by Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh. 
The latter called the land Virginia, in honor of Queen Eliza- 
beth of England, who was never married. Under this title 
was included all the country from Florida to the St. Lawrence 

Capt. De la Ware was the first who discovered the bay into 
which ran the river, called by the Indians Poutaxat ; to which 
river he gave his own name, calling it Delaware. This was in 
the year 1600. 

These countries were again visited, in 1603, by Sir Walter 
Raleigh, and Capt. George Popham and James Davis, who 
erected some small forts, which the savages soon destroyed. In 
1606, two colonies of emigrants were sent to the northern 
regions by two companies, called the London and the Bristol 
Companies : the former of these settled around Chesapeake 

About this time, 1606, the Hollanders began to visit America. 
They liked the shores of the bay, called by the Indians, Men<*- 
hados, and the River Mehaan, which had been discovered by 
Henry Hudson, an Englishman, while he was in the service of 
the Dutch East India Company. In 1608, this company sold 
its right to this country, which was based upon first discovery, 
to the Hollanders. Having obtained from the States-General 
of Holland an exclusive right to the country, they (the pur- 
chasers of this right) took the name of the West India Com- 


pany of Amsterdam* They commenced trade with the Indians 
in 1610, and in 1613 built a trading-fort at what is now called 
Albany. Samuel Argall, the first governor of Virginia, drove 
them out in 1618 ; but King James I. gave them permission to 
remain. The West India Company obtained their charter 
Junfe 3, 1621, which, in 1623, was amended and extended. 
Their trade, at that time, was conducted mainly on shipboard ; 
and they made no attempt to build a fortress until 1629. About 
this time, wishing to extend their powers to the Delaware, they 
erected some small forts on its banks, the most prominent one 
of which was Fort Nassau. There is much diversity of 
opinion as to the precise place where this fort was located ; the 
more general opinion of historians seeming to indicate that it 
was on the east side of the Delaware, near the present town of 
Gloucester : others, however, contend that it occupied a portion 
of the site where Philadelphia now stands ; and others still, 
maintain that it was farther down the river than Gloucester. 

An unsuccessful attack was made upon this fort by the Eng- 
lish, in 1635. It appears, however, to have been occupied by 
the Dutch until about 1651, when they destroyed it, and 
removed to Fort Casimir, which had been built in the mean 
time farther down the river, upon land which was then in pos- 
session of the Swedes, who, despite the protest of William 
Kieft, the Dirfector-General of New Netherlands, residing on 
the island of Manhattan, in Fort Amsterdam, had taken pos- 
session of it. 

The Dutch claimed (as we have said) this territory by right 
of discovery ; but, upon the arrival of the Swedes, they con- 
tested their claim, and took possession of the land, as will soon 
appear ; for it was about this period that a Dutchman, William 
Usselinx, or Usseling, who, as early as 1604, had endeavored 
to start a company in Holland, and failed, presented himself to 
Gustavus Adolphus, the reigning King of Sweden, and laid 
before him a proposition for a trading-company to America and 
other places ; and he was so far successful, that, in the Diet of 
1627, the work was completed, and the estates of the realm 
gave their assent, and confirmed the measure. 

'.' But when these arrangements were now in full progress, 


and duly provided for, the German War and the king's death 
occurred, which caused this most important work to be laid 
aside. The trading-company was dissolved, its subscriptions 
nullified ; and the whole project seemed about to die with the 
king. But, just as it appeared to be at its end, it received new 
life. Another Hollander, by the name of Peter Menewe, some- 
times called Menuet (an autograph letter found in the royal 
archives of Stockholm gives the name as commonly written in 
English Minuit), made his appearance in Sweden. He had 
been in the service of Holland in America, where he became 
involved in difficulties with the officers of the West India Com- 
pany, in consequence of which he was recalled home, and 
dismissed from their service. But he was not discouraged by 
this, and went over to Sweden, where he renewed the repre- 
sentations which Usselinx had formerly made in regard to the 
excellence of the country, and the advantages that Sweden 
might derive from it." l 

Of the first settlements of the Swedes, very contradictory 
accounts are given ; as a specimen of which we present those 
of Peter Minuit as given by the documents of the Hollanders, 
and from a modern history of the settlement of the Delaware. 
Of this Minuit, the Hollanders' document thus speaks : — 

" This river (Delaware) was in the quiet and peaceful posses- 
sion of the company (West India) for a number of years, until 
at last a certain person, Peter Minuit, forgetting the benefits 
bestowed on him by the company, he having been its director 
in the New Netherlands, kept his eye on it, but, not knowing 
under what pretence he could go there, proceeded to Sweden, 
where (it is said) he obtained a commission from the govern- 
ment, which had him transported from there immediately, with 
one or two vessels and some Swedes, mostly bandits, to the 
before-mentioned Delaware, where he arrived in the year 1638, 
and thus twelve years after the company had arrived there, 
where he had a fort built, called Christina, about five or six 
miles below the company's Fort Nassau, notwithstanding they, 
as the first discoverers and possessors of the before-mentioned 

* See Acrelius: Reynolds's Translation, p. 2L 


river, protested against this several times by their ministers, as 
appears from different letters from its director, William Kief t." l 
The account as contained in the last-mentioned history runs 
thus: — 

44 Peter Minuit, who conducted to our shore the first Swedish 
colony, had been commercial agent and director-general of the 
Dutch West India Company, and Governor of New Nether- 
lands. Although the materials relating to his official character 
and term of service at New Amsterdam are not such as to 
satisfy the exact historian, or to gratify a reasonable curiosity 
respecting so conspicuous an agent in planting the first perma- 
nent colony on the banks of the Delaware, yet sufficient is 
known of him to show that he was the first governor under the 
company's charter granted in 1621 ; that he, probably, filled that 
station as early as 1623 or 1624 ; and that lie was succeeded by 
Wouter Van Twiller in 1633. About this time, as is evident 
from De Vries and other writers, there was great want of 
unity and harmony between the company and its officers, as 
well as among the directors individually. The scheme for this 
colonizing their territory had induced men of wealth to emi- 
grate to the New Netherlands ; and large tracts of land were 
granted them, under the charter to encourage colonization. 
The emigrants had become feudal lords of the soil ; and, having 
seated themselves on the best locations for trade, their interests 
became opposed to the interests of the grantors. The monopoly 
of the company was adverse to the desire of the patroons to 
carry on a trade for their own private interests ; and dissen- 
sions between them and the company's agents were the natural 
result. The position of Minuit as the guardian of the com- 
pany's interests was one in which it was impossible to please 
both parties. His integrity as an officer was calculated to raise 
up against him a host of powerful enemies. Means were insid- 
iously used to undermine his credit with the company. Their 
information, derived through interested channels, was deceptive. 
His enemies prevailed ; and Minuit was dismissed from his 
office as Governor of the New Netherlands." 2 

1 Hollanders' Documents, as given by Samuel Hazard's Annals, p. 43. 
* Ferris's Original Settlements on the Delaware, p. 32. 


Thus, while the former represents him as ignoring all the 
benefits he received from the Dutch West India Company, and 
going over to the Swedes, the latter claims, that, by his good 
management of the company's interests, he displeased the 
44 patroons," or grantees. From these conflicting accounts, it 
would seem impossible that he should discharge the duties of 
governor to the satisfaction of both parties, and that, while 
really acting for the best interests of the company, they dis- 
charged him, being led to that act through the influence of 
44 interested " parties. Upon the whole, it seems that he was a 
very good governor. 

The subject being thus revived, and the young Queen Chris- 
tina, daughter of Gustavus, having come to the throne, favor- 
ing the project, the first colony from Sweden was sent off in 
1637, under Peter Menewe, or Minuit, who, from his past 
experience under the Dutch West India Company, was deemed 
the most suitable person to conduct such an enterprise. They 
arrived in 1638, making 44 their first landing on the bay or 
entrance to the River Poutaxat, which they called the River of 
New Sweden ; and the place where they landed they called 
Paradise Point " l (in the neighborhood of what is now Lewes, 
in the State of Delaware). 

44 The first abode of the newly arrived emigrants was at a 
place called by the Indians Hopokohacking. There, in the 
year 1638, Peter Minuit built a fortress, naming it Fort Chris- 
tina, after the reigning Queen of Sweden." Here appears 
another discrepancy ; for the same author says of it, " This is 
the first fort which the Swedes built when they came to this 
country in 1631;" 2 thus making it appear, that in a former 
visit, which was not long enough to effect a settlement perma- 
nently, they built a fort, probably as a means of protection. 

The second colony from Sweden sailed under Lieut-Col. 
John Printz, who was appointed Governor of New Sweden. 

44 The ship on which they sailed was called 4 The Fama.' It 
went from Stockholm to Gotheborg, and there took in its 
freight. Along with this went two other ships-of-the-line, 

* Acreliiis: translated by Reynolds, p. 23. 

* Thomas Campanius Holm: Da Ponceau's Translation, p. 79. 


4 The Swan ' and * The Charitas/ laden with people and other 
necessaries. Under Gov. Printz, ships came to the colony 
in three distinct voyages. The first ship was 4 The Black Cat,' 
with ammunition and merchandise for the Indians ; next the 
ship * Swan,' on a second voyage, with emigrants, in the yeai 
1647 ; afterwards two other ships, called * The Key ' and * The 
Lamp.' During these times the clergymen, Mr. Lawrence 
Charles Lockenius and Mr. Israel Holgh, were sent out to the 
colony." l 

The Swedes were a very religious people. Their first church 
was dedicated Sept. 4, 1646, by Magister John Campanius 
Holm, the government chaplain ; and the oldest church in 
Philadelphia was erected on the same site where the Gloria 
Dei, or Swede's Church, now stands. 

We learn further from Acrelius the following facts respect- 
ing their religious progress in later years. The Hollanders had 
t built no church during their whole time ; but by intermarrying, 
and living together, the Swedes and Hollanders coalesced into 
one church association. t 

** The church at Christina usually held its services in Chris- 
tina Fort ; but, for greater convenience, a small wooden church 
was, in 1667, erected at Tranhook, at the distance of one-fourth 
of a Swedish mile (one and three-quarters of a mile English) 
from the fort on the creek : this was more suitable for the Hol- 
landers who dwelt at Sandhook. On the strand at Wicacoa 
stood a blockhouse which, some years after, was changed into 
a church ; 60 that service was held here and at Tenakong 
alternately. A block-house, answered the purpose very well ; 
for the churches generally were of the same material. The 
Indians were not always to be depended upon, that they would 
not make an incursion, fall upon the Christians, and capture 
their whole flock. It was, therefore, necessary for them to 
have their religious houses as a place of defence for the body 
as well as for the soul. The churches were so built, that after 
a suitable elevation, like any other house, a projection was 
made some courses higher, out of which they could shoot ; so 
that, if the heathen fell upon them, which could not be done 

1 Beynolda's Translation of Acrelius, p. 29. 


without their coming up to the house, then the Swedes could 
shoot down upon them continually ; and the heathen, who used 
only bows and arrows, could do them little or no injury." 

Thus the Swedes in Pennsylvania verified the lines of the 
facetious poet Trumbull, in the days of the Pilgrim Fathers of 
New England : — 

" As once, for fear of Indian beating, 
Our grandsires bore their guns to meeting, 
Each man equipped on Sunday morn 
With psalm-book, shot, and powder-horn." 

Of the manners and customs of this people, we subjoin the 
following from the same author : — 

" The houses are built of brick, after the English fashion, 
without coating, every brick glazed ; or they are of sandstone, 
granite, &c., as is mostly the case in the country. Sometimes, 
also, they build of oak planks five inches thick. To build of 
wood is not regarded as economy after every thing is paid for. 
The roof is of cedar shingles. Within, the walls and ceilings 
are plastered, and whitewashed once a year. Straw carpets 
have lately been introduced in the town. But the inconveni- 
ence of this is, that they must soon be cleansed from fly-spots 
and a multitude of vermin, (which harbor in such things), and 
from the kitchen smoke,. which is universal. The windows are 
large, divided into two pieces, — the upper and the lower : the 
latter is opened by raising, and shut by lowering. The wood- 
work is painted, or it does not last long. 

" The furniture of the house is usually made of the woods 
of the country, and consists of a dining-table, tea-table, supper- 
table, bureaus, cabinets, and chairs, which are made of walnut, 
mahogany, maple, wild cherry, or sweet gum. All these, trees 
are the growth of the country, except mahogany, which is 
brought from South America. 

44 The articles of dress are very little different among city 
and country people, except that the former procure them from 
the merchants' shops, and the latter make them for themselves, 
and usually of coarser stuff. Wool, weaving, and fulling mills 


are not used for manufacturing broadcloth, camelot, and other 
woollen cloths, which might be finer, if more carefully attended 
to. The coloring of certain stuffs is very inferior. Silks are 
rare, even in the town. Plush is general ; and satin is used all 
over the country. Calicoes and cottons are used for women's 
dresses. Handsome linen is the finest stuff sought by men, as 
the heat is great, and of long continuance. By their dress, 
most people are known, — whether of Irish or German birth." 

Although they were plain men and frugal, yet, according to 
this historian, they were what we should call good livers. He 

44 Ham, beef, tongue, roast beef, fowls, with cabbage set 
round about, make one meal. Roast mutton or veal, with pota- 
toes or turnips, form another. Another still is formed by a 
pasty of chickens, or partridges, or lamb. Beef-steak, veal- 
cutlets, mutton-chops, or turkey, goose or fowls with potatoes 
set around, with stewed green peas, or Turkish beans, or some 
other beans, are another meal. Pies of apples, peaches, cher- 
ries, or cranberries, &c, form another course. When cheese 
and butter are added, one has an ordinary meal. 

44 The breakfast is tea or coffee. Along with these are eaten 
long and thin slices of bread, with thin slices of smoked beef 
in summer. In winter bread roasted, soaked in milk and 
butter, and called toast ; or pancakes of buckwheat, so light 
that one can scarcely hold them between his fingers, are also 
used. The afternoon meal ( 4 four-o'clock piece '), taken at 
four o'clock, is usually the same. Suppers are not much in use." 

They were undoubtedly wise in pursuing the course of not 
ordinarily taking any meal after four o'clock. It would seem, 
also, fhey were free from the practice of putting lard, called 
44 shortening," into pie-crust ; for he adds in a note, "A pie is a 
tart made of the fruits named in the text. Apple-pie is used 
through the whole year, and, when fresh apples are no longer to 
be had, dried ones are used. It is the evening meal of chil- 
dren. House-pie in country places is made of apples neither 
peeled, nor freed from their cores ; and its crust is not broken if 


a wagon-wheel goes over it." Nor had they adopted the present' 
course of temperance societies, by wholly abstaining from 
spirituous and fermented liquors ; for, speaking of their drinks, 
he enumerates the following : — 

" French wine, Prontignac, Pontac, Port-a-Port, Lisbon wine, 
Phial wine, Sherry, Madeira wine, Sangaree, cherry wine, cur- 
rant wine, or black raspberry, apple wine (cider), cider royal, 
rum or sugar brandy, raw dram or raw rum, egg-dram or egg- 
nog, cherry-bounce, bilberry-dram, punch (made of fresh 
spring water, sugar, lemon-juice, and Jamaica spirits), niamm 
(made of water, sugar, and rum), manathan (made of small- 
beer with rum and sugar), tiflf, or flipp (made of small-beer, 
rum, and sugar, with a slice of bread toasted and buttered), hot 
rum warmed (with sugar and grains of allspice), mulled rum, 
warmed (with egg-yolks and allspice), hotch-pot (warmed beer 
with rum in it), Sampson (warmed cider with rum in it), grog 
(water and rum), sling, or long-sup (half water and half rum, 
with sugar in it), mint- water, distilled from mint (mixed in the 
rum), egg-punch (of yolks of eggs, rum, sugar, and warm 
water), milk-punch (of milk, rum, sugar, and grated nutmeg), 
sillabub (of milkwarm milk, wine, and sugar). Brandy was 
then distilled from peache? or apples ; and whiskey was brandy 
made of grain." 

The Dutch, the Swedes, and some Englishmen from New 
England, mingling together, sometimes the one taking prece- 
dence, and then the others, making larger or smaller purchases 
of the Indians, as the case might be, held possession of the 
Delaware until 1682, when William Penn with his great charter, 
which he received from Charles II., came over and settled on 
the Delaware, — about seventy years from the first settlement 
by the Dutch. 



George Fox — His Followers take the Name of Friends: His Enemies call 
them Quakers — Statement of their Principles published by Themselves — 
Admiral Sir William Penn — His Offices and Exploits — Birth of William 
Penn — His Early Education — Meeting with Thomas Loe — Embraces 
Loe's Views — Incurs his Father's Displeasure — Is sent to France — Then 
to Ireland — Again meets Loe — Returns Home — Driven from his Father's 
House — Colloquy between the Admiral and his Wife — Penn's Books — 
His Father's Reconciliation — Admiral's Death. 

GEORGE FOX, the founder of this sect, was born at Dray- 
ton-in-the-Clay, Leicestershire, 1624. The occupation of 
shoemaker and grazier not meeting the needs of a highly reli- 
gious nature, he forsook them, and began a wandering life in 
1643, sometimes living in solitude, at others frequenting the 
company of religious and devout persons, finally settling into 
a public preacher of the Quakers in 1647 or 1648. So boldly 
did he advance the peculiar doctrines of this people, that he 
became the object of persecution, which was carried so far, that 
he was imprisoned at Nottingham in 1649; and, during his 
whole life, he suffered the like treatment eight times, being 
often subjected to great severity. To perpetuate his views, he 
visited not only England, Ireland, and Scotland, but extended 
his travels to Holland and Germany, to the American colonies, 
and the West India Islands. He died in London, 1690. 

He and his followers called themselves by the name of 
Friends: others gave them the name of Quakers, some say, 
"for directing their enemies to tremble at the word of the 
Lord;" others, "in consequence of the odd contortions of 
their bodies, 9 ' 



We quote the following record of their principles, as pub- 
lished by their leading men in London, one hundred and fifty 
years after George Fox first preached them in England ; it 
being always fair and just to allow every denomination to 
state their own principles and belief: — 

" We agree, with other professors of the Christian name, in 
the belief of one eternal God, the Creator and Preserver of 
the universe, and in Jesus Christ, his Son, the Messiah, and 
Mediator of the new covenant. 

" When we speak of the gracious display of the love of God 
to mankind, in the miraculous conception, birth, life, miracles, 
death, resurrection, and ascension of our Saviour, we prefer 
the use of such terms as we find in Scripture ; and, contented 
with that knowledge which Divine Wisdom hath seen meet to 
reveal, we attempt not to explain those mysteries which remain 
under the veil : nevertheless, we acknowledge and assert the 
divinity of Christ, who is the wisdom and power of God unto 

" To Christ alone, we give the title of the Word of God, 
and not to the Scriptures, although we highly esteem these 
sacred writings in subordination to the Spirit, from which they 
were given forth ; and we hold, with the apostle Paul, that 
they are able to make wise unto salvation, through faith which 
is in Christ Jesus. 

"We reverence those most excellent precepts which are 
recorded in Scripture to have been delivered by our great 
Lord ; and we firmly believe that they are practicable, and 
binding on every Christian, and that, in the life to come, 
every man will be rewarded according to his works. And, 
further, it is our belief, that, in order to enable mankind to put 
in practice these sacred precepts, many of which are contradic- 
tory to the unregenerate will of man, every man coming into 
the world is endued with a measure of the light, grace, or good 
spirit of Christ, by which, as it is attended to, he is enabled to 
distinguish good from evil, and to correct the disorderly pas- 
sions and corrupt propensities of his nature, which mere reason 
is altogether insufficient to overcome. For all that belongs to 
man is fallible, and within the reach of temptation ; but this 


divine grace, which comes by Him who hath overcome the 
world, is, to those who humbly and sincerely seek it, an all- 
sufficient and present help in time of need. By this the snares 
of the enemy are detected, his allurements avoided, and deliver- 
ance is experienced, through faith in its effectual operation, 
whereby the soul is translated out of the kingdom of dark- 
ness, and from under the power of Satan, into the marvellous 
light and kingdom of the Son of God. 

44 Being thus persuaded that man, without the spirit of 
Christ inwardly revealed, can do nothing to the glory of God, 
or to effect his own salvation, we think this influence especially 
necessary to the performance of the highest art of which the 
human mind is capable, even the worship of the Father of 
lights and of spirits in spirit and in truth : therefore we con- 
sider as obstruction to pure worship all forms which divert 
the attention of the mind from the secret influence of this 
unction from the Holy One. Yet, although true worship is 
not confined to time and place, we think it incumbent on Chris- 
tians to meet often together, in testimony of their dependence 
on the heavenly Father, and for a renewal of their spiritual 
strength: nevertheless, in the performance of worship, we 
dare not depend for our acceptance with him on a formal 
repetition of the words and experiences of others; but we 
believe it to be our duty to lay aside the activity of the imagi- 
nation, and to wait in silence to have a true sight of our con- 
dition bestowed upon us, believing even, a single sight, arising 
from such a sense of our infirmities, and of the need we have 
of divine help, to be more acceptable to God than any per- 
formances, however specious, which originate in the will of 

44 From what has been said respecting worship, it follows 
that the ministry we approve must have its origin from the 
same source ; for that which is needful for man's own direction, 
and for his acceptance with God, must be eminently so to 
enable him to be helpful to others. Accordingly, we believe 
that the renewed assistance of the light and power of Christ is 
indispensably necessary for all true ministry, and that this holy 
influence is not at our command, or to be procured by study, 


but is the free gift of God to chosen and devoted servants. 
Hence arises our testimony against preaching for hire, in con- 
tradiction to Christ's positive command, * Freely ye have 
received, freely give ; ' and hence our conscientious refusal to 
support such ministry by tithes or other means. 

44 As we dare not encourage any ministry but that which we 
believe to spring from the influence of the Holy Spirit, so 
neither dare we attempt to restrain this influence to persons of 
any condition in life, or to the male sex alone ; but, as male and 
female are one in Christ, we allow such of the female sex as 
we believe to be endued with a right qualification for the min- 
istry to exercise their gifts for the general edification of the 
church ; and this liberty we esteem a peculiar mark of the gos- 
pel dispensation, as foretold by the prophet Joel, and noticed 
by the apostle Peter. 

44 There are two ceremonies in use among most professors of 
the Christian name, — water baptism, and what is termed the 
Lord's Supper. The first of these is generally esteemed the 
essential means of initiation into the church, and the latter 
of maintaining communication with him. But as we have 
been convinced that nothing short of his redeeming power, 
inwardly revealed, can set the soul free from the thraldom of 
sin, by this power alone we believe salvation to be effected. 
We hold, that, as there is one Lord and one faith, so his bap- 
tism is one in nature and operation ; that nothing short of it 
can make us members of his mystical body; and that the 
baptism with water, administered by his forerunner, John, 
belonged, as the latter confessed, to an inferior and decreasing 

44 With respect to the other rite, we believe that communion 
between Christ and his church is not maintained by that, nor 
any other external performance, but only by a real participa- 
tion of his divine nature, through faith ; that this is the supper 
alluded to in Revelation, 4 Behold, I stand at the door and 
knock : if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will 
come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me ; ' and 
that, where the substance is attained, it is unnecessary to 
attend to the shadow, which doth not confer grace, and con- 


cerning which, opinions so different, and animosities so violent, 
have arisen. 

"Now, as we thus believe that the grace of God, which 
comes by Jesus Christ, is alone sufficient for salvation, we can 
neither admit that it is conferred on a few only, whilst others 
are left without it ; nor, thus asserting its universality, can we 
limit its operation to a partial cleansing of the soul from sin, 
even in this life. We entertain worthier notions, both of the 
power and goodness of our heavenly Father, and believe that 
he doth vouchsafe to assist the obedient to experience a total 
surrender of the natural will to the guidance of his pure, un- 
erring spirit, through whose renewed assistance they are enabled 
to bring forth fruits unto holiness, and to stand perfect in their 
present rank. 

" There are not many of our tenets more generally known 
than our testimony against oaths, and against war. With 
respect to the former of these, we abide literally by Christ's 
positive injunction, delivered in his Sermon on the Mount, 
4 Swear not at all.' From the same sacred collection of the most 
excellent precepts of moral and religious duty, from the exam- 
ple of our Lord himself, and from the correspondent convictions 
of his spirit in our hearts, we are confirmed in the belief that 
wars and fightings are, in their origin and effects, utterly repug- 
nant to the gospel, which still breathes peace and good-will to 
men. We, also, are clearly of the judgment, that, if the benevo- 
lence of the gospel were generally prevalent in the minds of 
men, it would effectually prevent them from oppressing, much 
more enslaving, their brethren (of whatever color or complex- 
ion), for whom, as for themselves, Christ died ; and would even 
influence their conduct in their treatment of the brute creation, 
which would no longer groan, the victims of their avarice, or of 
their false ideas of pleasure. 

" Some of our tenets have, in former times, as hath been 
shown, subjected our friends to much suffering from gov- 
ernment, though to the salutary purposes of government our 
principles are a security. They inculcate submission to the 
laws in all cases where conscience is not violated. But we 
hold, that, as Christ's kingdom is not of this world, it is not the 


business of the civil magistrate to interfere in matters of reli- 
gion, but to maintain the external peace and good order of the 
community. We, therefore, think persecution, even in the 
smallest degree, unwarrantable. We are careful in requiring 
our members not to be concerned in illicit trade, nor in any 
manner to defraud the revenue. 

" It is well known that the society, from its first appearance, 
has disused those names of the months and days, which, having 
been given in honor of the heroes or false gods of the heathen, 
originated in their flattery or superstition, and the custom of 
speafldng to a single person in the plural number, as having 
arisen also from motives of adulation. Compliments, superfluity 
of apparel and furniture, outward shows of rejoicing and 
mourning, and the observation of days and times, we esteem to 
be incompatible with the simplicity and sincerity of a Christian 
life; and public diversions, gaming, and other amusements of 
the world, we cannot but condemn. They are a waste of that 
time which is given us for nobler purposes, and divert the 
attention of the mind from the sober duties of life and from the 
reproofs of instruction by which we are guided to an everlasting 

" To conclude : although we have exhibited the several tenets 
which distinguish our religious society as objects of our 
belief, yet we are sensible that a true and living faith is not 
produced in the mind of man by his own effort, but is the free 
gift of God in Christ Jesus, nourished and increased by the 
progressive operation of his spirit in our hearts, and our pro- 
portionate obedience. Therefore, although for the preservation 
of the testimonies given us to bear, and for the peace and good 
order of the society, we deem it necessary that those who are 
admitted into membership with us should be previously con- 
vinced of those doctrines which we esteem essential, yet we 
require no formal subscription to any articles, either as a condi- 
tion of membership, or a qualification for the service of the 
church. We prefer the judging of men by their fruits, and 
depending on the aid of Him, who, by his prophet, hath prom- 
ised to be 4 a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judg- 
ment.' Without this there is a danger of receiving members 


into outward communion, without any addition to that spiritual 
sheepfold, whereof our blessed Lord declared himself to be 
both the door and the shepherd; that is, such as know his 
voice, and follow him in the paths of obedience. (See Heb. 
xii. 24 ; 1 Cor. i. 24 ; John i. 1 ; 2 Pet. i. 21 ; 2 Tim. iii. 15 ; 
Matt. xvi. 27 ; John i. 9-16, 33 ; 1 John ii. 20, 27 ; Heb. x. 25 ; 
Rom. viii. 26; Jer. xxiii. 30-32; Matt. x. 8; Joel ii. 28,29; 
Acts ii. 16, 17; Eph. iv. 5; John iii. 30; 2 Pet. i. 4; Rev. 
iii. 20; Matt. v. 48; Eph. iv. 13; Col. iv. 12; Matt. v. 34, 39, 
44, &c, xxvi. 52, 53 ; Luke xxii. 51 ; John xviii. 11 ; Eph. ii. 8 j 
John vii. 27 ; Isa. xxviii. 6 ; John x. 7, 11.) " 

Such were the principles of this peculiar people denominated 
Quakers, to which William Penn, the founder of the colony of 
Pennsylvania, attached himself, and for which he suffered many 
things, as will hereafter be seen from the sketch of his life. 
Before, however, speaking of him, it may be appropriate to give 
some account of his father, Admiral Sir William Penn, who 
was descended from an ancient and honorable family, born in 
Bristol, in the year 1621. 

He was appointed to the highest maritime offices, in quick 
succession, •. — " made captain at twenty-one years of age, rear- 
admiral of Ireland at twenty-three, vice-admiral of Ireland at 
twenty-five, admiral to the Straits at twenty-nine, vice-admi- 
ral of England at thirty-one; and general in the first Dutch 
war at thirty-two; whence returning, anno 1655, he was a 
parliament man for the town of Weymouth ; in 1660, he was 
made commissioner of the admiralty and navy, governor of the 
town and fort of Kingsail y vice-admiral of Mumter, and a 
member of that provincial council ; and, anno 1664, he was 
chosen great captain commander under the Duke of York, in 
that signal and most evidently successful fight with the Dutch 
fleet." He died in 1670 at Wanstead in the coilnty of Essex. 
Such were the services of Admiral Sir William Penn, for which 
the crown was greatly indebted to him, as also for the vast sums 
of money advanced by him for the relief of the exchequer. 

William Penn, son of the admiral, was born in London, on 

. the fourteenth day of October, 1644. " If ever a son of Adam 

and Eve had cause to glory in the flesh, that son was honest, 


broad-brimmed, William Penn. * A generation there is/ sayB 
Solomon, * oh, how they can lift up their eyebrows, and how 
they can roll their eyes,' swelling and strutting like the star- 
tailed birds of the dunghill, because their fathers before them 
were knights or baronets, though all beyond were shoeblacks or 
rat-catchers. But not so the noble founder of Pennsylvania. 
He was of the 4 well-born * in the worthiest sense of the word. 
For fifteen generations, the best and bravest blood in England 
had flowed in the veins of his family, unstained by a single act 
that history should blush to record. No scoundrel sycophants 
were made drunk at their tables, while the poor tenant's chil- 
dren cried for bread ; nor the needy hireling pined for his pay, 
while their proud drawing-rooms were filled with costly carpets 
and sideboards. No unsuspecting stranger, after sharing their 
splendid hospitalities, was fleeced of his purse by their gambling 
arts, and then turned out of doors to curse the polished rob- 
bers. No I such stains of pride and villany were never known 
to sully the Penn coat-of-arms." l 

Napoleon Bonaparte said, " Great men have great mothers, 
and what France needs is mothers." William Penn seems to 
have been particularly blessed in his mother ; and to her he is 
largely indebted for his early religious impressions. This collo- 
quy, occurring between him and his mother when he was five 
years old, will show the means shs took to lead his infant mind 
to a knowledge of God. 

" Well, William, I want to see if you can answer mother 
one great question." 

44 Well, mother," replied William, his eyes sparkling, 44 come, 
tell me what it is." 

44 Well, William," said she, 44 can you tell mother who made 

" Yes, to be sure ; that I can, easy enough. God did make 
me, didn't he ? " 

44 How do you know that, my son ? " 

44 Heigh, mother, didn't you tell me so a matter of a hundred 
times, and more ? " 

44 But suppose, William, I had not told you that God made 
you, do you think you could have found it out ? " 
* Weems's life of William Penn, p. & 


Here William paused, at length replied, " Indeed,*mother, 
I don't know." 

" Why not, my son ? It seems very easy." 

" Well, then, mother ; come, tell me." 

" Well, now, my son, you see that stone that lies there at 
your feet, don't you ? " 

" Yes, mother, to be sure I do. And what of that stone, 

" That stone is something; isn't it, my son ? " 

" Yes, to be sure : it is something." 

" But how do you know it is something, William? " 

" Heigh, mother, don't I see it ? and don't I feel it, that it is 
something? — and a mighty hard and big and heavy something, 

Here, good reader, let us pause, and note how soon the 
divine light of reason darts on the minds of children. What 
master of the mathematics could give a better definition of 
matter, or, as the text has it, of something, than little William 
here does ? " Don't I see it, mother ? " says he : " don't I feel 
it, that it is something? — and a mighty hard and big and heavy 
something too." 

44 Well — but, William," continued his mother, "how came 
it to be this something?" 

44 Indeed, mother, I don't know." 

44 Well ; but does it not strike you, my son, that, since it is 
something, it must have been made so, or made itself so ? " 
William paused as if quite at a loss, but at length said, " I 
don't see, mother, how it could have made itself" 

"Why not, my son?" 

44 What, this stone made itself I " replied he, like one sud- 
denly struck, as at the idea of something quite absurd and 
ridiculous ; " this stone made itself ! Why, dear me, mother, 
'tis such a dead thing ! It can't see ; it can't hear; it can't stir. 
I don't see any sense it had to make itself a stone, or any thing 

44 No, indeed, William ! Nor can the greatest philosopher of 
them all see it, either ; for, in that case, it must have had a 
great deal of sense, which I am sure it has not. Well, now, 


William, since it is plain that this stone did not make itself, 
who do you think could have made it ? " 

" Indeed, mother, I don't know, unless it was father. As 
he sails the great ships, perhaps he did make it. When he 
comes home, we will ask him; won't we, mother ? " 

u Oh, no ! " said Mrs. Penn, shaking her hSad, and smiling ; 
" oh, no, William ! your father did not make it, my son ; nor 
could all the men in the world, put together, make it, nor 
even a single grain of sand." 

William appeared much at a loss at this. But, after some 
silence, he went on again with his questions. " Well, then, 
mother, who did make that stone ? " 

44 Why, my son," answered Mrs. Penn, " since it is plain 
that it had no sense to make itself, and since all the men in 
the world put together could not have made it, it follows that 
it must have been made by some mighty one, who had wisdom 
arid power to make all things." 

44 Ay, that's God ; isn't it, mother ? " 

44 Why, yes, to be sure, my son, it is God. It is he made 
this stone, and all the stones, and all the trees, and all the 
cattle, and the birds, and the fishes, and all the people, and 
the mountains, and the skies, and every thing." 

44 And did not God make me too, mother?" asked Wil- 

44 Yes, to be sure, he did, my son." 

44 But yet, mother, I'm your little boy, ain't I ? " 

44 Yes, that you are, William, and a dear little boy too. 
But still God did make you, for all that. Since all the men 
in the world, as I said just now, could not make one grain 
of sand, then, oh ! how could I make such a beautiful little boy 
like you?" 

He first attended the grammar school at Chigwell, in Essex. 
This school was but a short distance from his father's country 
residence at that time. He was then only eleven ; and while 
here, alone in his chamber, he was suddenly surprised with a 
great inward comfort, and apparent external glory in the room, 
which caused religious emotions, and a strong conviction of 
the existence of a God, and that man was capable of receiving 


communications from him. As the result of this, his mind 
became seriously impressed with the subject of religion. 

He left Chigwell at twelve years of age, and then attended 
a private school at Tower Hill, near his father's London resi- 
dence. His father also procured for him a private tutor in his 
own house. Stfch was his progress in his studies, that at 
fifteen he entered, a gentleman-commoner, at Christ Church, 
Oxford. Although he was a hard student, yet he allowed 
himself time for all necessary recreation. His intimate friends 
at the university were Robert Spencer, afterwards Earl of 
Sunderland, also the eminent John Locke. 

Although possessed of a very lively genius, and indulging 
in manly sports and exercises, yet he appears never to have 
forgotten the religious impressions received at Chigwell. These 
impressions were greatly strengthened by one Thomas Loe, a 
Quaker. Loe had belonged to the university of Oxford, but 
had left, and commenced preaching, although a layman. 

Soon after hearing Loe, he, with some other students who 
entertained religious sentiments similar to his own, began to 
withdraw from the established worship, and to hold meetings 
among themselves. This gave offence to the professors of the 
college ; and they fined all of them for non-attendance upon 
the regular service. This first persecution for conscience* 
sake took place in 1660. Like all persecution for religion, 
this fine, instead of deterring from the practice, caused them 
to go still further. 

About this time, an order came from Charles II., that the 
surplice should be worn, as it had been in ancient times. The 
sight of this old relic of Popery, which had long been laid 
aside, was so disagreeable to William Penn (who conceived 
that the introduction of any outward form or ceremony 
* detracted from the spirituality of the Christian religion), that 
he could not endure it. Therefore, having engaged his friend 
Robert Spencer, and several other young men, to join him, they 
fell upon the students appearing in surplices, and tore them 
to pieces over their heads. This outrage was of such a nature, 
that the university immediately took it up, and expelled 
William and several of his associates. Thus expelled, William 
returned home. 


His father received him with great coldness, on account of 
the public disgrace which he had thus incurred. He was still 
more vexed with the change in his habits, such as abandoning 
the fashionable world, and mingling only with serious and 
religious people. The admiral feared that all the prospects in 
life which he had formed for his son would now fail. He first 
resorted to argument ; this failing, he proceeded to blows ; 
and, this also proving ineffectual, he turned him out of doors. 

But the admiral soon felt he had proceeded too far. He 
was of an excellent disposition, although of a hasty temper. 
His wife, also, a very amiable woman, interceded for their son : 
and this affectionate disposition, united with the entreaties of 
his wife, prevailed, and h * forgave William. He wished, how 
ever, to provide against t e future ; and, seeing no other way 
to do it, he sent William to France in 1662, hoping that 
removing him from his old companions, and the gayety of the 
French court, might dissipate the increasing gravity of his 

44 The place where William first resided was Paris. While 
here, but one incident concerning him is recorded. It hap- 
pened that he was attacked one evening in the street by a 
person who drew his sword upon him in consequence of a 
supposed affront. A conflict immediately ensued. William 
disarmed his antagonist, but proceeded no further, sparing his 
life, when, by the confession of all those who relate the fact, he 
could have taken it ; thus exhibiting, says Gerard Croese, a 
testimony, not only of his courage, but of Jris forbearance." l 

William's trip to France did not wholly disappoint the 
admiral ; for the mildness of the climate, the variety and beauty 
of its scenery, its silvery waters, verdant meadows, and white 
castles, did much to dissipate gloom from his mind ; and no 
people on earth could more have fascinated his youtlif ul imagi- 
nation than the French, who please themselves by pleasing 
others. With a nature formed for benevolence, William soon 
fell in love with them. He learned their language, caught 
their manners, forgot his proud English stiffness, adopted many 
of their habits, and became, in a good degree, an elegant and 
accomplished Frenchman. 

1 Clarkson's life of Penn, vol. I p. 2. 


After twelve months' absence, he returned to Pennwood, and 
presented himself to his father, who received him with pride 
and pleasure, as he saw the marvellous change which had taken 
place in his appearance and manners. He introduced him at 
court, took him to visit his illustrious friends, and, lest he 
should fall again into what he considered his gloomy habits, 
sent him immediately to Dublin. With his pockets well filled 
with money, and letters from his friends at court, he presented 
himself to the Lord-Lieutenant, and other eminent persons in 
Dublin. He applied himself with great diligence to settling 
his father's estate, visiting friends, and was everywhere received 
with great courtesy, as an amiable young man, son and heir of 
Sir William Penn, admiral of the British navy. 

He might have become precisely what his father desired, a 
young man of the world, had he not accidentally (as it seemed), 
in casting his eye over a Dublin newspaper, caught this notice, 
that u one of the people called Quakers would preach in the 
market-house the next day." Although he had conformed 
very much to the world, he had never lost his interest in the 
Quakers. He attended the meeting. 

On the preacher's rising to speak, the placid countenance 
of his friend Thomas Loe appeared before him. Both were 
greatly surprised. 

Loe had previously become deeply interested in young 
William, on account of the sufferings he had endured at the 
university and in his father's house, and believed him to be 
a consistent Christian ; and now, upon beholding him in a 
fashionable dress, he feared he had gone back to that world 
which he had foresworn ; and, with a melancholy look and a 
deep sigh, he said, " There is a faith which overcometh the 
world, and there is a faith overcome by the world." 

William was much alarmed upon first hearing this ; and as 
Loe proceeded, with the looks and voice of a tender father 
towards a truant child, exposing the cowardice and hypocrisy 
of those who hear the great truths of the gospel, become 
interested, and shed many tears, but who, after all, suffer them- 
selves to be overcome by the world, he was completely subdued, 
and consecrated himself anew. 


Loe, addressing him personally, said, "I hope, my young 
friend, thee will keep in mind the saying of the Lord Jesus : 
* The servant is not greater than his master." 

The result, in consequence of Loe's preaching, was, that all 
the admiral's efforts to make William what he would have him 
were frustrated. His Dublin friends soon learned that William 
had joined the Quakers ; and this news was not long in com- 
ing to the knowledge of the admiral, by letters to his friends 
in London, in which, while speaking of William as a young man 
of such a high promise, they expressed their regret that he 
should thus throw himself away. 

This information threw the admiral into a great rage, witness- 
ing which, Mrs. Penn eagerly inquired what was the matter. 

"Matter!" replied he abruptly, — "matter enough to run a 
parent mad. That silly boy of ours will be the death of me, that 9 8 
a clear case." 

"Why, what has he done now?" said Mrs. Penn, much 

" Done ! " returned the admiral : " why, he has fallen in with 
Tom Loe, who has made a fool of him again." 

His father immediately summoned him home ; and upon his 
return, angry words arose between them, which his father 
summed up in the following language : " If you are determined 
to go and play the fool, you must go and do it somewhere 
else: you shall not do it in my family. And as I have 
had no hand in your folly, so I will not be eternally suffering 
the mortification of it, that I am determined on." Thus 
William was again turned out of doors. 

As he was taking his hat to leave, he turned to his father, 
and said, "Father, had I been turned out of your doors 
because of any crime I had done, I should be wretched indeed. 
But, thanks to God ! I go away with a conscience unstained by 
any act that should cause you or my dear mother to blush for 

After William's departure, a long colloquy took place 
between the admiral and his wife, which the admiral closed by 
saying, he had hoped to have made something of him. " Make 
something of him," cried Mrs. Penn. " O my God ! that you 


should possess one of the richest blessings in all this world, 
and yet not know it. I mean a pious child. For oh ! what 
on all this earth can be matter of such joy and triumph to a 
fond parent as a pious child ? To me it was every thing. I 
thought of nothing else. I prayed for nothing else. * Vain, 
delusive riches and honors? I said, i come not near my son. You 
are not one ten thousandth part good enough for him. Only let 
my son love God. Only let him have this, the sweetest spur to 
every virtue, the strongest curb from every vice, the best cordial 
under every affliction, and I ask no more. Well, God in his in- 
finite mercy heard my prayer. He gave me that which I esteem 
above all worlds, — a pious son. And, lo ! you torn him out of 
doors ! He has not ambition enough, he won't be rich enough, 
nor great enough, to please you." 

Although exiled from his father's house, he was, in a 
measure, supported by his mother and other friends. In 1668, 
being then twenty-four years old, he commenced speaking in 
the meeting. In the same year (1668), he also began writing 
letters to his friends upon the subject of religion. It was also 
in this year that he sent forth his first work or tract, entitled 
" Truth Exalted." His second book was called " The Guide 
Mistaken, and Temporizing Rebuked." His most prominent 
Christian work was written while in prison, bearing the title, 
"No Cross, No Crown: a Discourse Showing the Nature and 
Discipline of the Holy Cross of Christ." Among his works was 
a small book, entitled " The Sandy Foundation Shaken." 

The works of William Penn were published in London, 1726, 
in two volumes folio ; then, again, liis select works were pub- 
lished in five volumes in London, 1782. 

He was at different times confined, both at Newgate and the 

William Penn, having now become firmly connected with the 
Quakers, as one of their preachers and authors, was wholly 
devoted to the propagation of their principles. 

His father became fully reconciled to William, and upon his 
decease left him heir to his vast estates. He also sent a 
friend to the Duke of York, afterwards King James II., mak- 
ing it as a death-bed request, that he would protect his son 


in case of persecution, and also to ask King Charles II. to do 
the same. 

They both returned answer that they would be William's 
friends. His last advice to his son was given in the following 
language: "Son William, if you and your friends keep to 
your plain way of preaching, and keep to your plain way of 
living, you will make an end of the proud priest to the end of 
the world. Bury me by mother; live all in love; shun all 
manner of evil. I pray God to bless you all, and he will bless 
you all." He then bowed his head, and died. 



Beasons for founding a Colony: to get his Dues from the Crown — To escape 
Persecution — Accounts from New Jersey Colonies — Penn's Persecution — 
Imprisonment — Trial — Defence — Appeal to the Jury — Prejudices of his 
Judges — Perm's Acquittal — Petition for a Charter — Opposition — Granting 
of Charter. 

THE admiral, Sir William Perm, having died, and left his 
son heir to his vast estates, as stated in the last chapter, 
three things combined to induce him to colonize a portion of 
the American continent. First, he would thereby secure the 
land for a colony, in payment for the debt due his father from 
the Crown ; secondly, he would escape persecution, and find a 
quiet resting-place for his Quakers; third, the glowing accounts 
which he had received of the country had created in him a 
strong desire to go there. As to the first-named fact, there was 
due him from the Crown the vast sum of sixteen thousand 
pounds sterling, more than two hundred thousand dollars of our 
money. The admiral had made long and strong efforts to 
collect this debt during his life ; but the king's exchequer was 
empty, and Parliament voted no money to pay the debt. 

After his father's death, William's efforts were equally 
unsuccessful. He importuned the government for many years ; 
but his prospect for obtaining his money grew more and more 
gloomy, until at last, despairing of ever being able to accom- 
plish it, he proposed to King Charles II. to relinquish all claims 
upon the government for a grant of lands in America. Of this 
proposition and petition more will be said hereafter. 

In the second place, he saw no hope of an end to the perse- 
cution against himself and his friends, the Quakers. " Even 



at this time (1680), so lamentably ignorant of the spirit of the 
gospel were the bishops of the Established Church, that they not 
only tolerated, but even encouraged, the mad multitude in the 
most cruel abuses of the Quakers. Headed by the sheriffs and 
magistrates, the populace would snatch off their hats and bon- 
nets in the open streets, even of Liverpool, Bristol, and London, 
and dash them in their faces, or tread them under foot. They 
would burst into their meeting-houses, even while assembled in 
the worship of Almighty God, and, utterly regardless of the 
divine presence, drive them out like dogs, break the windows, 
split up the benches, tear down the galleries, and then nail up 
the buildings as forfeited to 4 His Sacred Majesty, Charles the 
Second, by the Grace of God, Defender of the Faith.' And 
yet, instead of being ashamed of themselves for such brutal 
acts, or being disarmed of their fury by the meekness and 
patience of such gentle sufferers, they became more brutal 
against them still, keeping a closer watch over their proceedings, 
dogging them from place to place, attacking them at their 
meetings, even in private houses ; and after shutting them up, 
too, as 4 Conventicles forfeited to the king? they would then 
drive them, like convicts, to the jails, and without any re- 
gard to the weather, or to age or sex, turn them into dark 
and dirty rooms, often in such crowds as to endanger their lives 
for want of fresh air; the women, even the most delicate, 
forced to sleep on the hard planks, and the men in hammocks 
stretched above them ; while such as were supposed to have 
property were fined at the most inhuman rates, even, in some 
instances, at twenty pounds sterling a month, for not attending- 
the Established Church; and when the money could not be 
raised by these poor people, as was often the case, the sheriffs 
would distrain their property, such as cows, calves, horses, 
)>eds, household furniture and utensils, and sell them off, fre- 
quently at half-price ; thus actually reducing many an innocent 
and hard-working family, with their unoffending children, to 
beggary. And all these public robberies committed under the 
eye of King Charles and his clergy : the former, great part of 
his time, revelling with his harlots and jesters ; and the latter, 
in all the solemn pageantry of sanctified looks and lawn sleeves 


devoutly lifted to heaven, returning c thanks to Almighty God, 
that they were ever born in a Christian country,' and making 
long prayers 4 for the poor Jews and heathens.' " 

That the reader may have a full and clear view of the 
persecution which befell William Penn and his Quakers in 
England, and of the narrow-mindedness and prejudice of his 
judges, we quote the following trial. While he was preaching 
in Grace-church Street, he and William Mead were seized by 
constables, who produced warrants signed by Sir Samuel 

44 On the 1st of September, the trial came on. There were 
present on the bench as justices Sir Samuel Starling, lord- 
mayor; John Howel, recorder; Thomas Buld worth, William 
Peak, Richard Ford, John Robinson, Joseph Shelden, alder- 
men ; and Richard Brown, John Smith, and James Edwards, 

44 The jury who were impanelled, and whose names ought 
to be handed down to the love and gratitude of posterity, were 
Thomas Veer, Edward Bushel, John Hammond, Charles Mil- 
son, Gregory Walklet, John Brightman, William Plumstead, 
Henry Henley, James Damask, Henry Michel, William Lever, 
and John Baily. 

44 The indictment stated, among other falsehoods, that the 
prisoners had preached to an unlawful, seditious, and riotous 
assembly ; that they had assembled, by agreement made before- 
hand ; and that they had met together with force and arms, and 
this to the great terror and disturbance of many of his Majesty's 
liege subjects. 

44 Very little was done on this day. The prisoners were 
brought to the bar; and, having made their observations on 
several things as they passed, they pleaded not guilty to the 
indictment. The Court was then adjourned. In the afternoon 
they were brought to the bar again ; but they were afterwards 
set aside, being made to wait till after the trial of other pris- 

44 On the 3d of September, the trial of those last men- 
tioned being over, William Penn and William Mead were 
brought again into court. One of the officers, as they entered, 


pnlled off their hats. Upon this the Lord-Mayor became furious, 
and in a stern voice ordered him to put them on again. This 
being done, the Recorder fined each forty marks, observing that 
the circumstance of being covered there amounted to a con- 
tempt of Court. 

"The witnesses were then called in, and examined. It 
appeared from their testimony, that, on the 15th of August, 
between three and four hundred persons were assembled in 
Grace-church Street, and that they saw William Penn speaking 
to the people, but could not distinguish what he said. One, 
and only one, swore that he heard him preach ; but, on further 
examination, he said that he could not, on account of the noise, 
understand any one of the words spoken. With respect to 
William Mead, it was proved that he was there also, and that 
he was heard to say something; but nobody could tell what. 
This was in substance the whole of the evidence against them. 

" The witnesses having finished their testimony, William Penn 
acknowledged that both he and his friend were present at the 
place and time mentioned. Their object in being there was to 
worship God. 

4 "We are so far,' says he, 'from recanting, or declining 
to vindicate the assembling of ourselves to preach, pray, or 
worship the eternal, holy, just God, that we declare to all 
the world, that we do believe it to be our indispensable duty 
to meet incessantly upon so good an account ; nor shall all the 
powers upon earth be able to divert us from reverencing and 
adoring our God who made us.' These words were scarcely 
pronounced, when one of the sheriffs exclaimed that he was 
not there for worshipping God, but for breaking the law. 
William Penn replied, that he had broken no law, and desired 
to know by what law it was that they prosecuted him, and 
upon what law it was that they founded the indictment. The 
Recorder replied, the common law. William asked where that 
law was. The Recorder did not think it worth while, he said, 
to run over all those adjudged cases for so many years, which 
they called common law, to satisfy his curiosity. William 
Penn thought, if the law were common, it should not be so hard 
to produce. He was then desired to plead to the indictment ; 


but, on delivering his sentiments on this point, he was pro- 
nounced a saucy fellow. # The following is a specimen of some 
of the questions and answers at full length, which succeeded 
those now mentioned : — 

44 Recorder. — The question is, whether you are guilty of this 

44 W. Penn. — The question is not, whether I am guilty of this 
indictment, but whether this indictment be legal. It is too 
general and imperfect an answer to say it is the common law, 
unless we know where and what it is ; for, where there is no 
law, there is no transgression ; and that law which is not in 
being is so far from being common, that it is no law at all. 

44 Recorder. — You are an impertinent fellow. "Will you teach 
the Court what law is ? It is lex non scripta, that which many 
have studied thirty or forty years to know, and would you have 
me tell you in a moment ? 

44 W. Penn. — Certainly, if the common law be so hard to be 
understood, it is far from being very common. But if the Lord 
Coke, in his Institutes, be of any consideration, he tells us that 
common law is common right, and that common right is the 
Great Charter privileges confirmed. 

44 Recorder. — Sir, you are a troublesome fellow ; and it is not 
to the honor of the Court to suffer you to go on. 

44 W. Penn. — I have asked but one question; and you have 
not answered me, though the rights and privileges of every 
Englishman are concerned in it. 

44 Recorder. — If I should suffer you to ask questions till 
to-morrow morning, you would never be the wiser. 

44 W. Penn. — That is according as the answers are. 

"Recorder. — Sir, we must not stand to hear you talk all 

44 W. Penn. — I design no affront to the Court, but to be heard 
in my just plea ; and I must plainly tell you, that if you deny 
me the oyer of that law which you say I have broken, you do 
at once deny me an acknowledged right, and evidence to the 
whole world your resolution to sacrifice the privileges of Eng- 
lishmen to your arbitrary designs. 

44 Recorder. — Take him away. My lord, if you take not some 


course with this pestilent fellow to stop his mouth, we shall not 
be able to do any thing to-night. 

44 Mayor. — Take him away. Take him away. Turn him into 
the bail-dock. 

44 W. Penn. — These are but so many vain exclamations. Is 
this justice, or true judgment? Must I, therefore, be taken 
away, because I plead for the fundamental laws of England? 
However, this I leave upon the consciences of you who are of 
the jury and my sole judges, that if these ancient fundamental 
laws, which relate to liberty and property, and which are not 
limited to particular persuasions in matters of religion, must 
not be indispensably maintained and observed, who can say he 
hath a right to the coat upon his back ? Certainly our liberties 
are to be openly invaded, our wives to be ravished, our chil- 
dren slaved, our families ruined^ and our estates led away in 
triumph by every sturdy beggar and malicious informer, as 
their trophies, but our (pretended) forfeits for conscience* sake. 
The Lord of heaven and earth will be judge between us in this 

44 Recorder. — Be silent there. 

44 W. Penn. — I am not to be silent in a case where I am so 
much concerned, and not only myself, but many ten thousand 
families besides. 

44 Soon after this, they hurried him away, as well as "William 
Mead, who spoke also, towards the bail-dock, a filthy, loathsome 
dungeon. The recorder then proceeded to charge the Jury. 
But William Penn, hearing a part of the charge as he was re- 
tiring, stopped suddenly, and, raising his voice, exclaimed aloud, 
4 1 appeal to the Jury, who are my judges, and this great assem- 
bly, whether the proceedings of the Court are not most arbitra- 
ry, and void of all law, in endeavoring to give the jury their 
charge in the absence of the prisoners. I say it is directly 
opposite to and destructive of the undoubted right of every 
English prisoner, as Coke on the chapter of Magna Charta 
speaks.' 9 

44 Upon this, some conversation passed between the parties, 
who were still distant from each other ; after which the two 
prisoners Were forced to their loathsome dungeon. 


" Being now out of all hearing, the Jury were ordered to agree 
upon their verdict. Four, who appeared visibly to favor the 
prisoners, were abused and actually threatened by the Recorder. 
They were then, all of them, sent out of court. On being 
brought in again, they delivered their verdict unanimously, 
which was, ' Guilty of speaking in Grace-church Street.' 

u The Magistrates upon the bench now loaded the Jury with 
reproaches. They refused to take their verdict, and imme- 
diately adjourned the Court, sending them away for half an 
hour to reconsider it. 

" The time having expired, the Court sat again. The prison- 
ers were then brought to the bar, and the Jury again called in. 
The latter, having taken their place, delivered the same verdict 
as before, but with this difference, that they then delivered it 
in writing with the signature of all their names. 

" The Magistrates were now more than ever enraged at the 
conduct of the Jury ; and they did not hesitate to express their 
indignation at it in terms the most opprobrious in open Court. 
The recorder then addressed them as follows, 4 Gentlemen, you 
shall not be dismissed till we have a verdict such as the Court 
will accept ; and you shall be locked up without meat, drink, 
fire, and tobacco. You shall not think thus to abuse the Court. 
We will have a verdict, by the help of God, or you shall starve 
for it.' 

" William Penn, upon hearing this address, immediately spoke 
as follows, 4 My Jury, who are my judges, ought not thus to be 
menaced : their verdict should be free, and not compelled : the 
Bench ought to wait upon them, and not to forestall them. I 
do desire that justice may be done me, and that the arbitrary 
resolves of the Bench may not be made the measure of my 
Jury's verdict.' 

44 Other words passed between them ; after which the Court 
was about to adjourn, and the jury to be sent to their chamber, 
and the prisoners to their loathsome hole, when William Penn 
observed, that the agreement of twelve men was a verdict in 
law ; and, such a verdict having been given by the Jury, he re- 
quired the Clerk of the Peace to record it, as he would answer 
it at his peril ; and, if the Jury brought in another verdict con- 


trary to this, he affirmed that they would be perjured in law. 
Then, turning to the Jury, he said additionally, * You are Eng- 
lishmen. Mind your privilege. Give not away your right.' 

44 One of the Jury now pleaded indisposition, and desired to be 
dismissed. This request, however, was not granted. The Court, 
on the other hand, swore several persons to keep the Jury all 
night without meat, drink, fire, tobacco, or any other accommo- 
dation whatsoever, and then adjourned till seven the next morn- 

44 The next morning, which was September the 4th, happened 
to be Sunday. The Jury were again called in ; but they re- 
turned the same verdict as before. The Bench now became out- 
rageous, and indulged in the most vulgar and brutal language, 
such, indeed, as would be almost incredible, if it were not 
upon record. The Jury were again charged, and again sent out 
of Court : again they returned ; again they delivered the same 
verdict ; again they were threatened. William Penn having 
spoken against the injustice of the Court in having menaced the 
Jury, who were his judges by the Great Charter of England, 
and in having rejected their verdict, the Lord-Mayor exclaimed, 
4 Stop his mouth ; gaoler, bring fetters, and stake him to the 
ground.' William Penn replied, 4 Do your pleasure : I matter 
not your fetters.' The Recorder observed, 4 Till now I never 
understood the reason of the policy and prudence of the Span- 
iards in suffering the Inquisition among them ; and certainly it 
will never be well \vith us till something like the Spanish In- 
quisition be in England.' Upon this, the Jury were ordered to 
withdraw to find another verdict; but they refused, saying 
they had already given it, and that they could find no other. 
The Sheriff then forced them away. Several persons were im- 
mediately sworn to keep them without any accommodation as 
before ; and the Court # adjourned till seven next morning. 

44 On the 5th of September, the Jury, who had received no 
refreshment for two days and two nights, were again called in, 
and the business resumed. The Court demanded a positive 
answer to these words, 4 Guilty, or not guilty ? ' The Foreman 
of the Jury replied, 4 Not guilty.' Every juryman was then 
required to repeat this answer separately. This he did to the 


satisfaction of almost all in the court. The following address 
and conversation then passed. 

u Recorder. — Gentlemen of the Jury, I am sorry you have 
followed your own judgments rather than the good advice 
which was given you. God keep my life out of your hands I 
But for this the Court fines you forty marks a man, and im- 
prisonment till paid. 

" W. Perm. — I demand my liberty, being freed by the 

44 Mayor. — No : you are in for your fines. 

" W. Penn. — Fines for what ? 

" Mayor. — For contempt of Court. 

44 W. Penn. I ask if it be according to the fundamental 
laws of England, that any Englishman should be fined, or 
amerced, but by the judgment of his peers, or jury, since it 
expressly contradicts the fourteenth and twenty-ninth chapters 
of the Great Charter of England, which says, 4 No freeman 
shall be amerced, but by the oath of good and lawful men of 
the vicinage.' 

44 Recorder. — Take him away. 

44 W. Penn. — I can never urge the fundamental laws of 
England, but you cry, 4 Take him away.' But it is no wonder, 
since the Spanish Inquisition has so great a place in the Re- 
corder's heart. God, who is just, will judge you for all these 

44 These words were no sooner uttered than William Penn and 
his friend, "William Mead, were forced into the bail-dock, from 
whence they were sent to Newgate. Every one of the Jury, also, 
were sent to Newgate. The plea for this barbarous usage was, 
that both the prisoners and the Jury refused to pay the fine of 
forty marks which had been put upon each of them, — upon the 
former, because one of the mayor's officers had put their hats 
upon their heads by his own command ; and upon the latter, 
because they would not bring in a verdict contrary to their 
own consciences, in compliance with the wishes of the Bench." 

Lastly, the glowing accounts of the beauty and fertility of 
the country, which Penn received from the colonists of West 
Jersey, had inspired him with a strong desire to obtain the 


territory west of the Delaware ; and as if in answer to that 
desire, apparently by a special interposition .of Divine Provi- 
dence, Penn became connected with the Jersey colonists. Lord 
Berkeley and Sir John Carteret having become joint patentees, 
from the Duke of York, of the Province of New Jersey, in 
1674 Lord Berkeley conveyed his portion of the patent to 
John Fenwick, in trust for himself and Edward Byllynge, 
both Quakers. Fenwick and Byllynge disagreed ; and being 
Quakers, instead of going to law, they referred their difficulty 
to William Penn, who decided in favor of Byllynge. For a 
time, Fenwick refused to acquiesce in Penn's decision, but 
finally was so far prevailed upon by his arguments, that he 
agreed to the settlement ; and in 1675 he and his family left 
England for West Jersey. Byllynge now became so embar- 
rassed in his pecuniary matters, that he made over all his 
property to Penn and two of his creditors, as trustees. Penn 
was reluctant to assume the office ; but, having taken that trust 
upon him, he immediately made efforts to settle the country 
by sending out a colony to locate there. 

The form of the government established under Berkeley and 
Carteret embraced religious freedom, and stated there should 
be no taxation independent of the allowance of the settlers. 
Many were now anxious to emigrate ; and two companies of 
Quakers — one from London, the other from Yorkshire — pur- 
chased a large territory ; and the trustees appointed commis- 
sioners from among the emigrants to treat with the Indians for 
their right to the lands. Penn thus had the satisfaction of 
bringing his labors for the Quakers, by colonizing with them 
West New Jersey, to a happy result ; for in 1677, three vessels 
— two from London, and one from Hull — sailed for West Jersey 
with more than four hundred Quakers. They gave to their 
new settlement the name of Burlington. It was thus West 
New Jersey became settled by a colony of Quakers. 

44 From those people he learned often that the Indian country 
on the western side of the great River Delaware was most 
beautiful to look upon. 4 The plains^ said they, 4 along the 
winding flood are, in most places, covered with com and natural 
meadows and marshes ; while all on the back of this, a mighty 


forest rose, tall and stately, darkening the western sky with its 
Hue shade, and stretching itself north and south with the river far 
as the astonished eye can travel. 9 They stated, too, that sundries 
of the people had, at different times, gone over the great river 
to trade ; and that all of them, on their return, had made the 
same very favorable reports both of the inhabitants and their 
country. And first of the inhabitants. ' With respect to 
these? said they, i we were never so agreeably disappointed. 9 
We had expected to find a people fierce and rude as the bears 
and panthers of their forests ; but we met a people the most 
friendly that we had ever seen. As we approached their 
towns, they would hasten forth to bid us welcome, shaking 
hands with us very cordially, and signifying, by the kindest 
smiles and nods, how glad they were to see us, and, with great 
vehemence and affection, addressing us in words which the 
interpreters said were to tell us how welcome we were to our 
Indian brothers. After this they would take us to their towns, 
and spread down skins for us to sit on ; and, while the men 
entertained us with smoking, the women would bring us bar- 
becued turkies and venison and roasting-ears to feast on. 

" And as to the country, we can truly say of it that it is a 
land most rich, and desirable to dwell in, — a land of fountains 
and brooks, — a land of mighty oaks and elms, and all manner 
of precious trees for timber, — a land whose soil, especially on 
the water-courses, was a black mould, very deep and rich, in- 
somuch that the Indian corn, without the aid of the plough, 
grew there to an enormous size, with two and sometimes three 
large shocks on a stalk ; and we have counted seven and eight 
hundred grains on a shock. And then for the game in these 
ancient forests: it was wonderful to look at, far surpassing in 
abundance any thing that we had ever thought of. For, in 
walking through the woods, we were ever and anon starting 
up the deer in droves, and also frequently within sight of 
large herds of the buffalo, all perfectly wild, and wallowing in 
fat, and seeming, in their course, to shake the earth with their 
weight. And, indeed, no wonder ; for the grass, particularly 
in the low grounds, grew so rank and tall, that the buffalo and , 
deer on flying into it, which they were wont to do when 
frightened, would disappear in a moment. 


44 The rabbits and partridges, too, were exceedingly numerous ; 
and, as to the wild turkeys, we have often seen them perched 
in such numbers that the branches seemed quite black with 
them. Nor had the Creator been less mindful of the waters in 
that great country ; for they were made to bring forth abund- 
antly of fine fish of various kinds, especially the sturgeon, of 
which the great river was so full, that at no time could we 
look on it without seeing numbers of these great fishes leaping 
from it into the air, not without much fright to the natives, 
whose canoes they have many a time fallen into, and overset. 
And for water-fowl, such as geese and ducks, they were in 
such quantities, that he who should tell only one-half the 
truth would be counted a romancer. For, indeed, the whole 
surface of the mighty river seemed covered over and black 
with them ; and when, at any time, they were disturbed, and 
rose up, their rising all at once was like the sound of distant 
thunder; and the day itself was darkened with their numbers. 
We saw, also, the wild vine in that country, the spontaneous 
birth of the woods, growing to an enormous size, and spread- 
ing over the trees to an astonishing extent, bending the 
branches with their dark-blue clusters ; most lovely to sight 
and taste, and capable, no doubt, of yielding a very pleasant 
wine. Nor were the bees forgotten in that favored land ; for 
we often saw them at work among the sweet-scented bells and 
blossoms of the wild wood-flowers. And besides, at the simple 
feasts spread for us by these simple heathens, we were fre- 
quently regaled with calabashes of snow-white honeycomb. 

44 Now, counting all these advantages of this Indian country, — 
the nobleness of its waters, and the richness of its lands, with 
that plenteousness of fowl and fish and flesh of all sorts, — how 
can we but say that it is a land which the Lord has blessed ; 
and that it only wanteth a wise people to render it, like the 
ancient Canaan, 4 the glory of earth ' ? " l 

With a view to accomplishing a settlement in this western 
world, promising these before-mentioned threefold things, it is 
not strange that Penn set himself to the work with great zest. 

In the summer of 1680, Penn sent his petition to King 

i Weems, p. 111. 


Charles II., that letters-patent might be granted him for a 
tract of land in America, lying north of Maryland, bounded 
by Delaware River on the east, by Maryland on the west, and 
extending north as far as plantable. 

The king was pleased to pay his debts so easily as by grant- 
ing a patent to this territory. Only a fragment of the original 
petition is now extant ; but it contained the following sentence : 
" Praying that, in lieu of the monies due him from the Crown, 
he, the king, would be pleased to grant him a sufficient portion 
of lands on the western side of the Delaware River in North 
America, for a settlement for himself and his persecuted follow- 
ers, the Friends." 

But, though the king himself was pleased with the petition, 
when it was laid before the Lords 1 Committee of Colonies and 
Commerce, it was sharply opposed and ridiculed. As soon as 
the Board understood that the petitioner and his followers 
were Quakers, they appeared greatly surprised ; and one of 
them exclaimed, " A colony of Quakers among North- American 
Indians ! " Sir John Worden (agent of the Duke of York) 
and Lord Baltimore, who already had grants of the plan- 
tations of New York and Maryland, opposed the petition. 
"Worden said, " It was ridiculous to suppose that the interests 
of the British nation were to be promoted by sending out a 
colony of people that would not fight. What! a pack of nod- 
dies, that will have nothing to do with gin or gunpowder, but 
will gravely tell you that gin was never invented to make sav- 
ages drunk, and cheat them of their lands, but only for physic 
to cure the colic withal ; and that guns were invented, not to 
kill men, but hawks and wolves! God's mercy on us, my 
lords I What are we to expect from such colonists as these ? 
Are they likely to extend our conquests, to spread our com- 
merce, to exalt the glory of the British name, and, above all, 
to propagate our most holy religion ? No, my lords I I hope it 
will never be so supposed by this most* noble Board. And as 
to this crack-brained fellow, this William Penn, and his tame, 
4 Yea, forsooth,' followers, what can they promise themselves 
from settling among the fierce and blood-thirsty savages of 
North America, but to be tomahawked and scalped, every man, 
woman and child of them?" 


This speech was pronounced with great power and strong 
emphasis, and produced such an impression upon the Lords' 
Committee, that they were upon the point of rejecting the peti- 
tion without further consideration. Had they done this, the 
great and rich State of Pennsylvania, and the beautiful " City of 
Brotherly Love," might never have existed, and the author 
would have been spared the pains of writing this history. But 
the Supreme Being, who presides over the destiny of nations, 
who has u given the earth to the children of men, and fixed the 
bounds of their habitation," and who " setteth up and remov- 
eth kings " at his pleasure, had otherwise determined. 

As William Penn was not before the Committee to plead his 
own cause, exercising the privilege which our courts now give 
to a criminal having no counsel, the Board appointed one of 
their own number to advocate his petition, probably not ex- 
pecting the advocacy would amount to much. He, however, 
exhibited great ingenuity ; and the result was entire success in 
favor of the petition. Rising, with a pale countenance and 
tremulous voice, as though he were about to utter some unwel- 
come truths, he first assured the Board that he was no Quaker, 
nor was any friend of that silly people. "No, my lords," con- 
tinued he, raising his voice, " I am no Quaker ; and I pray 
you let no gentleman in this noble house hold me in such mis- 
prision. But still, my lords, I am in favor of the petition for 
the Quakers to go off to North America. The reason, my 
lords, to my mind, is very plain. The swinish multitude, my 
lords (profanum vulgux), — my lords, the swinish multitude, as 
we properly call them, must have a government ; yes, my lords, 
and an iron government too. They have not sense and virtus 
enough to govern themselves. All the boasted republics, or gov- 
ernments of the people, have, on trial, turned out no better than 
Babels of confusion and destruction to their foolish undertakers. 
No, my lords, there is no government on earth for the profanum 
vulgus, comparable to that of kings, priests, and nobles. 
Now, if this be true (and I challenge the Board to deny it), then 
William Penn and his Quakers ought gladly to be permitted to 
leave the country. Nay, I even assert, my lords, that William 
Penn cannot stay in this country consistently with the safety 


of the government; for, if ever he should get the ear of the 
populace, he would bring such contempt on those glorious 
privileged orders of kings, priests, and nobles, that no man of 
spirit would have any thing to do with them. For, my 
lords" said he, " what nobleman is there, with a drop of Eng- 
lish blood in his veins, but would blush for his Stars and Gar- 
ters, when, as he rolls along the streets in only a fashionable 
coach and four, he hears on all sides the groans of these Quak- 
ers upbraiding him for being * a lover of pleasure more than 
a lover of Ood, J and for squandering on vanities that precious 
gold, which, if laid out in feeding and clothing the fatherless 
and widow, would yield him a feast of never-failing pleasures ? 
And as to our lords spiritual, our bishops and our archbishops, 
would it not make these, our holy fathers in God, ashamed of 
their sacred lawn sleeves and mitres, to be told every day by 
William Penn and his Quakers, that these are 4 the marks of 
the beast, the vain trappings of carnal pride, seeking glory of 
men, and that those who use these things are none of Christ's; 
that his poverty can have no fellowship with their palaces, 
nor his staff and sandals with their gilt coaches, and horses 
covered with silver harness, and grooms bedecked with gold 
lace ? But this is not the worst yet : no, my lords, let William 
Penn alone, and his sacred Majesty himself will soon have an 
uneasy seat of it on his throne. How can he otherwise, my 
lords, having it rung daily in his ears that * kings are sent of 
God merely in his wrath as a punishment of wicked nations' f 
and that if they will but repent, and become good Quakers, 
following the light within, they shall no longer have a king to 
reign over them ; for that God himself will be their king, and 
will break all other yokes from off their necks. God's mercy, 
my lords ! who would be a king to be rated after this sort ? Sure- 
ly, then, my lords, you will agree with me, that it is high time 
for William Penn and his Quakers to be off. Yes, my lords, I 
repeat it : they must be off, or this excellent government of 
kings, priests, and nobles, is gone forever ; and chaos and wild 
uproar is come again." * 

This speech had such a wonderful effect upon the Lords' Com- 

i Weems, p. 115. 


mittee, that a unanimous vote was given in favor of granting the 
petition, accompanied with a note, " humbly praying that his 
Majesty would be graciously pleased to make unto William 
Penn a grant of the lands in North America which he had 
petitioned for." 

William Penn, from the standing of his family, the service 
rendered to the realm by his father, the amount of money he 
had advanced the government, and from the weight of his own 
character, had vast influence with the king and parliament, or 
he never could have obtained it, being opposed by such men as 
the Duke of York and Lord Baltimore. Undoubtedly, the 
speech above quoted, respecting the trouble which the Quakers 
gave them, carried much weight with it, and had considerable 
influence in procuring him the charter. Still we must believe 
their fear of the Quakers alone would never have induced them 
to grant it. 

It was after a long and vexatious attendance upon the Com- 
mittee of Lords and Trade's Plantations, that the unanimous 
vote named above was passed. 

The Lords' Committee referred the settlement of the bounda- 
ries of the territory, given to William Penn, to Chief Justice 
North, who reported as follows: "Bounded on the east by 
Delaware River, from the twelve miles distance northward of 
New Castle town, from the beginning of the fortieth degree of 
north latitude unto the forty-third degree of north latitude, 
if the said river do extend so far northward, but, if said river 
shall not extend so far northward, then by the said river so far 
as it doth extend ; and from the head of said river, the eastern 
bounds are to be determined by a meridian line, to be drawn 
from the head of the said river unto the said forty-third degree 
of latitude, the said lands to extend westward five degrees in 
longitude, to be computed from the said eastern bounds ; and 
the said lands are bounded on the north by the beginning of 
the forty-third degree of north latitude, and on a circle drawn 
at twelve miles distance from New Castle, north and westward, 
unto the south, by the beginning of the forty-third degree of 
north latitude, another by a straight line westward, to the limit 


of longitude above mentioned, excepting all lands within twelve 
miles of the town of New Castle, that shall happen to lie within 
the said bounds now in possession of his royal Highness, or his 
tenants and assigns." 




Boundaries— Privileges— William Penn made Proprietary— Power to govern, 
and make Laws — May appoint Officers — Grant Pardons — A Proviso — 
Laws of England in Force till Others are made in the Province — Approval of 
Laws — Encouragement of Emigration, also to Trade — May lay out Towns, 
Cities, Ac — Commercial Advantages — Seaports, Creeks, and Harbors — Cus- 
toms may be imposed by the Province — Agent to reside in London — Govern- 
ment may be resumed by England — Not to correspond with Kings, &a, at 
War with England — May pursue and punish Enemies — May dispose of 
Lands — May erect Manors — Frank Pledge — King not to lay Taxes with- 
out Consent of Proprietary or Parliament — Control of the Bishop of London 
— Interpretation. 

"\ I THEN Chief Justice North had drawn up the charter, 

VV and set the lines of its boundaries, as stated in the last 
chapter, the Committee of Lords reported favorably upon it to 
his Majesty Charles II.: "In obedience to your Majesty's order, 
signified by the Earl of Sunderland, on the 1st of June last, 
we had prepared the draft of a charter, constituting William 
Penn, Esq., absolute proprietary of a tract of land in America, 
therein mentioned, which we humbly present to your Majesty 
for your royal approbation, leaving, also, the naming of the said 
province to your Majesty ; which is most humbly submitted." l 

The charter is dated March 4, 1681, and is in the following 
words: — 

u Charles, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, 
France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c, to all to whom 
these presents shall come, greeting. 

44 Whereas our trusty and well-beloved subject, William Penn, 

1 Votes of Assembly . 



Esquire, son and heir of Sir William Penn, deceased (out of a 
commendable desire to enlarge our British empire, and promote 
such useful commodities as may be of benefit to us and our 
dominions, as also to reduce the savage natives, by just and 
gentle manners, to the love of civil society and Christian reli- 
gion), hath humbly sought leave of us to transport an ample 
colony unto a certain country hereinafter described, in the parts 
of America not yet cultivated and planted, and hath likewise 
so humbly besought our royal Majesty to give, grant, and con- 
firm all the said country, with certain privileges and jurisdic- 
tions, requisite for the good government and safety of the said 
country and colony, to him and his heirs forever: 

".I. Know ye, therefore, that we (favoring the petition and 
good purpose of the said William Penn, and having regard to 
the memory and merits of his late father in divers services, 
and particularly to his conduct, courage, and discretion under 
our dearest brother James, Duke of York, in that signal battle 
and victory fought and obtained against the Dutch fleet com- 
manded by the Heer Van Opdam, in the year 1665 ; in consid- 
eration thereof, of our special grace, certain knowledge, and 
mere motion) have given and granted, and by this our present 
charter, for us, our heirs and successors, do give and grant, unto 
the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, all that tract or 
part of land in America, with the islands therein contained. 
[For the remainder of this section see boundaries reported by 
Lord North, as given at the close of the last chapter.] 

44 II. We do also give and grant unto the said William Penn, 
his heirs and assigns, the free and undisturbed use, and contin- 
uance in, and passage unto and out of all and singular ports, 
harbors, bays, waters, rivers, isles, and inlets belonging unto, or 
leading to and from, the country or islands aforesaid; and all the 
soils, lands, fields, woods, underwoods, mountains, hills, fens, 
isles, lakes, rivers, waters, rivulets, bays, and inlets situated, or 
being within, or belonging to, the limits or bounds aforesaid ; 
together with the fishing of all sorts of fish, whales, sturgeon, 
and all royal and other fishes, in the seas, bays, inlets, waters, 
or rivers within the premises, and all the fish taken therein ; 
and also all veins, mines, minerals,. and quarries, as well disco v- 


ered as not discovered, of gold, silver, gems, and precious 
stones ; and all other whatsoever, be it stones, metals, or any 
other thing or matter whatsoever, found, or to be found, within 
the country, isles, or limits aforesaid. 

44 III. And him, the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, 
we do by this our royal charter, for us, our heirs and successors, 
make, create, and constitute the true and absolute proprietary 
of the country aforesaid, and all other the premises ; saving 
always to us, our heirs and successors, the faith and allegiance 
of the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, and of all other 
proprietaries, tenants, and inhabitants that are, or shall be, 
within the territories and precincts aforesaid; and saving, also, 
unto us, our heirs and successors, the sovereignty of the afore- 
said country, to have, hold, possess, and enjoy the said tract of 
land, country, isles, inlets, and other the premises, unto the said 
William Penn, his heirs and assigns, forever, to be holden of us, 
our heirs and successors, kings of England, as of our castle of 
Windsor, in the county of Berks, in free and common socage, 
by fealty only, for all services, and not in capite, or by knight- 
service ; yielding and paying therefor to us, our heirs and 
successors, two beaver-skins, to be delivered at our castle of 
Windsor, on the first day of January in every year ; and also 
the fifth part of all gold and silver ore which shall, from time 
to time, happen to be found within the limits aforesaid, clear of 
all charges. And of our further grace, certain knowledge, mere 
motion, we hav.e thought fit to erect, and we do hereby erect, 
the aforesaid country and islands into a province and seigniory, 
and do call it Pensilvania, and so from henceforth will have it 

44 IV. And forasmuch as we have hereby made and ordained 
the aforesaid William Penn, his heirs and assigns, the true and 
absolute proprietaries of all the lands and dominions aforesaid, 
know ye, therefore, that we (reposing special trust and confi- 
dence in the fidelity, wisdom, justice, and provident circum- 
spection of the 6aid William Penn), for us, our heirs and 
successors, do grant full, free, and absolute power, by virtue 
of these presents, to him and his heirs, to his and their deputies 
and lieutenants, for the good and happy government of said 


country, to ordain, make, and enact, and, under his and theii 
seals, to publish any laws whatsoever for the raising of money 
for public uses of the said province, or for any other end, apper- 
taining either unto the public state, peace, or safety of the said 
country, or unto the private utility of particular persons, 
according unto their best discretion, by and with the advice, 
assent, and approbation of the freemen of the said country, or 
the greater part of them, or of their delegates or deputies, 
whom, for the enacting of the said laws, when and as often as 
need may require, we will that the said William Penn, and his 
heirs, shall assemble, in such sort and form as to him and them 
shall seem best, and the same laws duly to execute unto and 
upon all people within the said country and limits thereof. 

44 V. And we do likewise give and grant unto the said William 
Penn, and to his heirs, and their deputies and lieutenants, full 
power and authority to appoint and establish any judges and 
justices, magistrates, and other officers whatsoever (for the pro- 
bates of wills, and for the granting of administration, within the 
precincts aforesaid), and with what power soever, and in such 
form, as to the said William Penn, or his heirs, shall seem most 
convenient ; also to remit, release, pardon, and abolish (whether 
before judgment or after) all crime and offences whatsoever, 
committed within the said country, against the laws (treason, 
and wilful and malicious murder, only excepted, and in those 
cases to grant reprieves until our pleasure may be known 
therein), and to do all and every other thing and things which 
unto the complete establishment of justice, unto courts and 
tribunals, forms of judicature, and manner of proceeding, do 
belong, although in these presents express mention be not 
made thereof; and by judges, by them delegated, to award 
process, hold pleas, and determine, in all the said courts and 
tribunals, all actions, suits, and causes whatsoever, as well 
criminal as civil, personal, real, and mixed ; which laws, so as 
aforesaid to be published, our pleasure is, and so we enjoin, 
require, and command, shall be most absolute and available in 
law, and that all the liege people, and subjects of us, our heirs 
and successors, do observe and keep the same inviolably in those 
parts, so far as they concern them, under the pain therein 


expressed, or to be expressed. Provided, nevertheless, that the 
same laws be consonant to reason, and not repugnant or contrary, 
but (as near as conveniently may be) agreeable to the laws and 
statutes and rights of this our kingdom of England ; and saving 
and reserving to us, our heirs and successors, the receiving, hear- 
ing, and determining of the appeal and appeals of all or any 
person or persons, of, in, or belonging to the territories aforesaid, 
or touching any judgment to be there made or given. 

" VI. And forasmuch as, in the government of so great a 
country, sudden accidents do often happen, whereunto it will 
be necessary to apply remedy, before the freeholders of the said 
Province, or their delegates or deputies, can be assembled to the 
making of laws ; neither will it be convenient that instantly, 
upon every such occasion, so great a multitude should be called 
together, therefore (for the better government of the said 
country) we will ordain, and by these presents, for us, our 
heirs and successors, do grant unto the said William Penn and 
his heirs, by themselves, or by their magistrates and officers, in 
that behalf duly to be ordained as aforesaid, to make and con- 
stitute fit and wholesome ordinances, from time to time, within 
the said country to be kept and observed, as well for the preser- 
vation of peace as for the better government of the people there 
inhabiting, and publicly to notify the same to all persons whom 
the same doth or may anywise concern. Which ordinances 
our will and pleasure is shall be observed inviolably within the 
said Province, under the pains therein to be expressed, so as the 
said ordinances be consonant to reason, and be not repugnant 
nor contrary, but (so far as conveniently may be) agreeable 
with the laws of our kingdom of England, and so as the said 
ordinances be not extended, in any sort, to bind, change, or 
take away the right or interest of any person or persons, for or 
in their life, members, freehold, goods, or chattels. And our 
further will and pleasure is, that the laws for regulating and 
governing of property within the said Province, as well for the 
descent and enjoyment of lands, as likewise for the enjoyment 
and succession of goods and chattels, and likewise as to felonies, 
shall be and continue the same as they shall be, for the time 
being, by the general course of the law in our kingdom of 


England, until the said laws shall be altered by the said Wil- 
liam Penn, his heirs or assigns, and by the freemen of the said 
province, their delegates or deputies, or the greater part of 

44 VII. And to the end that the said William Penn, or his 
heirs, or other the planters, owners, or inhabitants of the 
said Province may not, at any time hereafter (by misconstruc- 
tion of the power aforesaid), through inadvertency or design, 
depart from that faith and due allegiance, which, by the laws of 
this our realm of England, they, and all our subjects in our 
dominions and territories, always owe to us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, by color of any extent or largeness of powers hereby 
given, or pretended to be given, or by force or color, or any 
laws hereafter to be made in the said Province, by virtue of any 
such powers. Our further will and pleasure is, that a transcript 
or duplicate of all laws which shall be so as aforesaid made 
and published within the said Province, shall, within five years 
after the making thereof, be transmitted and delivered to the 
privy council, for the time being, of us our heirs and successors ; 
and if any of the said laws, within the space of six months 
after that they shall be so transmitted and delivered, be declared 
by us, our heirs and successors, in our or their privy council, 
inconsistent with the sovereignty or lawful prerogative of us, 
our heirs and successors, or contrary to the faith and allegiance 
due to the legal government of this realm from the said 
William Penn, or his heirs, or of the planters and inhabitants 
of the. said Province, and that thereupon any of the said laws 
shall be adjudged and declared to be void, by us, our heirs and 
successors, under our or their privy seal, that then and from 
thenceforth, such laws, concerning which such judgment and 
declaration shall be made, shall become void : otherwise the 
said laws, so transmitted, shall remain and stand in full force, 
according to the true intent and meaning thereof. 

44 VIII. Furthermore, that this new colony may the more 
happily increase by the multitude of people resorting thither, 
therefore we, for us, our heirs and successors, do give and grant 
by these presents, power, license, and liberty unto all the liege 
people and subjects, both present and future, of us, our heirs 


and successors (excepting those who shall be especially 
forbidden), to transport themselves and families unto the said 
country, with such convenient shipping as by the laws of this 
our kingdom of England they ought to use, and with fitting 
provision, paying only the customs therefor due, and there to 
settle themselves, dwell and iuhabit, and plant, for the public 
and their own private advantage. 

" IX. And furthermore, that our subjects may be the rather 
encouraged to undertake this expedition with ready and cheer- 
ful minds, know ye, that we, of our special grace, certain 
knowledge, and mere motion, do give and grant, by virtue of 
these presents, as well unto the said William Penn and his 
heirs, as to all others who shall from time to time repair unto 
the said country, full license to lade and freight in any ports 
whatsoever of us, our heirs and successors, according to the 
laws made, or to be made, within our kingdom of England, and 
unto the said country, by them, their servants or assigns, to trans- 
port all and singular their goods, wares, and merchandises, as 
likewise all sorts of grain whatsoever, and all other things 
whatsoever, necessary for food or clothing, not prohibited, by 
the laws and statutes of our kingdom and dominions, to be 
carried out of the said kingdom, without any let or molestation 
of us, our heirs and successors, or of any of the officers of us, our 
heirs or successors, saving always to us, our heirs and successors, 
the legal impositions, customs, or other duties and payments for 
the said wares and merchandises, by any law or statute, due, or 
to be due, to us, our heirs and successors. 

" X. And we do further, for us, our heirs and successors, give 
and grant unto the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, 
free and absolute power to divide the said country and islands 
into towns, hundreds, and counties, and to erect and incorpo- 
rate towns into boroughs, and boroughs into cities, and to make 
and constitute fairs and markets therein, with all other conve- 
nient privileges and immunities, according to the merits of 
the inhabitants, and the fitness of the places, and to do all 
and every other thing and things touching the premises, which 
to him or them shall seem meet and requisite, albeit, they be 
such as of their own nature might otherwise require a more 



special commandment and warrant than in these presents is 

" XI. We will also, and by these presents, for us, our heirs 
and successors, we do, give and grant license, by this our char- 
ter, unto the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, and to 
all the inhabitants and dwellers in the province aforesaid, both 
present and to come, to import or unlade, by themselves, or 
their servants, factors, or assigns, all merchandises and goods 
whatsoever, that shall arise of the fruits and commodities of 
the said Province, either by land or sea, into any of the ports 
of us, our heirs and successors, in our kingdom of England, 
and not into any other country whatsoever, and we give him 
full power to dispose of the said goods \n the said ports, and, 
if need be, within one year next after the unlading of the 
same to lade the said merchandise and goods again into the 
same or other ships, and to transport the same into any other 
countries, either of our own dominions or foreign, according to 
law ; provided always, that they pay such customs and imposi- 
tions, subsidies and duties, for the same, to us, our heirs and 
successors, as the rest of our subjects of our kingdom of Eng- 
land, for the time being, shall be bound to pay, and to observe 
the acts of navigation, and other laws in that behalf made. 

44 XII. And furthermore, of our ample and special grace, cer- 
tain knowledge, and mere motion, we do, for us, our heirs and 
successors, grant unto the said William Penn, his heirs and 
assigns, full and absolute power and authority to make, erect, 
and constitute within the said Province, and the isles and 
inlets aforesaid, such and so many seaports, harbors, creeks, 
havens, quays, and other places for discharging and unlading of 
goods and merchandise out of the ships, boats, and other ves- 
sels, and landing them into such and so many places, and with 
such rights, jurisdictions, liberties, and privileges unto the 
said ports belonging, as to him and them shall seem most expe- 
dient ; and that all and singular the ships, boats, and other 
vessels which shall come for merchandise and trade into the 
said Province, or out of the same, shall be laden or unladen 
only at such ports as shall be created and constituted by the 
said William Penn, his heirs or assigns (any use, custom, or 


thing to the contrary notwithstanding) : provided, that the 
said William Penn, and his heirs, and the lieutenants and gov- 
ernors for the time being, shall admit and receive in and about 
all such havens, ports, creeks, and quays, all officers and their 
deputies, who shall from time to time be appointed for that 
purpose by the farmers, or commissioners of our customs for 
the time being. 

44 XIII. And we do further appoint and ordain, and by these 
presents, for us, our heirs and successors, we do grant unto the 
said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, that he, the said 
William Penn, his heirs and assigns, may, from time to time, 
forever, have and enjoy the customs and subsidies in the ports, 
harbors, and other creeks and places aforesaid, within the Prov- 
ince aforesaid, payable, or due for merchandise and wares there 
to be laded and unladed, the said customs and subsidies to be 
reasonably assessed, upon any occasion, by themselves and the 
people there, as aforesaid, to be assembled, to whom we give 
power by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, upon 
just cause and due proportion, to assess and impose the same ; 
saving unto us, our heirs and successors, such impositions and 
customs, as, by act of parliament, are and shall be appointed. 

44 XIV. And it is our further will and pleasure, that the said 
William Penn, his heirs and assigns, shall, from time to time, 
constitute and appoint an attorney, or agent, to reside in or 
near our city of London, who shall make known the place 
where he shall dwell, or may be found, unto the clerks of our 
privy council, for the time being, or one of them, and shall be 
ready to appear in any of our courts at Westminster to answer 
for any misdemeanor that shall be committed, or, by any wilful 
default or neglect, permitted by the said William Penn, his 
heirs or assigns, against the laws of trade and navigation ; and 
after it shall be ascertained in any of our courts what damages 
we, or our heirs and successors, shall have sustained by such 
default or neglect, the said William Penn, his heirs or assigns, 
shall pay the same within one year after such taxation, and 
demand thereof from such attorney, or in case there shall be no 
such attorney by the space of one year, or such attorney shall 
not make payment of such damages within the space of a year, 


and answer such' other forfeitures and penalties within the 
said time as by acts of parliament in England are and shall 
be provided, according to the true intent and meaning of these 
presents, then it shall be lawful for us, our heirs and success- 
ors, to seize and resume the government of the said Province 
or country, and the same to retain, until payment shall be 
made thereof; but notwithstanding any such seizure, or resump- 
tion of the government, nothing concerning the propriety or 
ownership of any lands, tenements, or other hereditaments, 
goods, or chattels of any of the adventurers, planters, or own- 
ers, other than the respective offenders there, shall anyways be 
affected or molested thereby. 

44 XV. Provided always, and our will and pleasure is, that 
neither the said William Penn, nor his heirs, nor any other the 
inhabitants of the said Province, shall at any time hereafter 
have or maintain any correspondence with any other king, 
prince, or state, or with any of their subjects, who shall then 
be in war against us, our heirs and successors ; nor shall the 
said William Penn, or his heirs, or any other inhabitants of 
the said Province, make war, or any act of hostility, against 
any other king, prince, or state, or any of their subjects, who 
shall then be in league or amity with us, our heirs and suc- 

44 XVI. And because, in so remote a country, and situate near 
many barbarous nations, the incursions, as well of the savages 
themselves, as of other enemies, pirates, and robbers, may 
probably be feared, therefore we have given, and for us, our 
heirs and successors, do give power, by these presents, to the 
said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, by themselves, or 
their captains, or other their officers, to levy, muster, and train 
all sorts of men, of what condition soever, or wheresoever born, 
in the said Province of Pensilvania, for the time being, and to 
make war, and to pursue the enemies and robbers aforesaid, as 
well by sea as by land, even without the limits of the said 
Province, and, by God's assistance, to vanquish and take them, 
and, being taken, to put them to death, by the laws of war, or 
to save them, at their pleasure, and to do all and every other 
thing which unto the charge and office of a captain-general of 


an army belongeth, or hath accustomed to belong, as fully and 
freely as any captain-general of an army hath ever had the 

" XVII. And furthermore, of our special grace, and of our 
certain knowledge, and mere motion, we have given and 
granted, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, 
do give and grant, unto the said William Penn, his heirs and 
assigns, full and absolute power, license, and authority, that he, 
the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, from time to time 
hereafter, forever, at his or their own will and pleasure, may 
assign, alien, grant,, demise, or enfeoff of the premises, so 
many and such parts and parcels, to him or them that shall be 
willing to purchase the same, as they shall think fit, to have 
and to hold to them, the said person or persons willing to take 
and purchase, their heirs and assigns, in fee-simple or fee-tail, 
or for the term of life, lives, or years, to be held of the said 
William Penn, his heirs or assigns, as of the said seigniory of 
Windsor, by such services, customs, or rents as shall s^em 
meet to the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, and not 
immediately of us, our heirs and successors. 

" XVIII. And to the same person or persons, and to all and 
every of them, we do give and grant by these presents, for us, 
our heirs and successors, license, authority, and power that such 
person or persons may take the premises, or any parcel thereof, 
of the aforesaid William Penn, his heirs or assigns, and the 
same to hold to themselves, their heirs and assigns, in what 
estate of inheritance soever, in fee-simple or in fee-tail, or 
otherwise, as to him the said William Penn, his heirs or 
assigns, shall deem expedient ; the statute made in the parlia- 
ment of Edward, the son of King Henry, late King of England, 
our predecessor (commonly called the statute * Quia Umptores 
Terrarum,' lately published in our kingdom of England) in 
anywise notwithstanding. 

XIX. And by these presents, we give and grant license unto 
the said William Penn, and his heirs, and likewise to all and 
every such person or persons to whom the said William Penn, 
or his heirs, shall at any time hereafter grant any estate or 
inheritance, as aforesaid, to erect any parcels of land within the 


Province aforesaid, into manors, by and with the license to be 
first had and obtained for that purpose, under the hand and 
seal of the said William Penn, or his heirs, and in every of the 
said manors to have and to hold a court-baron, with all things 
whatsoever which to a court-baron do belong, and to have and 
to hold view of frank-pledge for the conservation of the peace, 
and the better government of those parts, by themselves or 
their stewards, or by the lords, for the time being, of the 
manors to be deputed, when they shall be erected, and in the 
same to use all things belonging to the view of frank-pledge. 
And we do further grant license and authority, that every 
such person or persons who shall erect any such manor or 
manors, as aforesaid, shall or may grant all or any part of his 
said land to any person or persons in fee-simple, or any other 
estate of inheritance, to be held of the said manors respectively, 
so as no further tenure shall be created, but that, upon all 
further or other alienations thereafter to be made, the said lands 
so aliened shall be held of the same lord and his heirs of 
whom the aliener did then before hold, and by the like rents 
and services which were before due and accustomed. 

" XX. And furthermore our pleasure is, and by these presents 
for us, our heirs and successors, we do covenant and grant to 
and with the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, that we, 
our heirs and successors, shall at no time hereafter set or 
make, or cause to be set or made, any imposition, custom, or 
other taxation, rate, or contribution whatsoever in and upon 
the dwellers and inhabitants of the aforesaid Province, for their 
lands, tenements, goods, or chattels, within the said Province, 
or in and upon any goods and merchandises within the Province, 
to be laden or unladen within the ports or harbors of the said 
Province, unless the same be with the consent of the proprie- 
tary or chief governor, or assembly, or by act of parliament in 

" XXI. And our pleasure is, and for us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, we charge and command, that this, our declaration, 
shall from henceforth, from time to time, be received and 
allowed in all our courts, and before all the judges of us, our 
heirs and successors, for a sufficient lawful discharge, payment, 


and acquittance, commanding all the officers and ministers of 
us, our heirs and successors, and enjoining them, upon pain of 
our highest displeasure, that they do not presume at any time 
to attempt any thing to the contrary of the premises, or that 
do in any sort withstand the same, but that they be, at all 
times, aiding and assisting, as is fitting, to the said William 
Penn, and his heirs, and unto the inhabitants and merchants 
of the province aforesaid, their servants, ministers, factors, and 
assigns, in the full use and fruition of the benefit of this our 

44 XXII. And our further pleasure is, and we do hereby, for 
us, our heirs and successors, charge and require, that if any of 
the inhabitants of the said Province, to the number of twenty, 
shall, at any time hereafter, be desirous, and shall, by any 
writing, or by any person deputed by them, signify such their 
desire to the Bishop of London, for the time being, that any 
preacher or preachers, to be approved of by the said bishop, 
may be sent unto them for their instruction, that then such 
preacher or preachers shall and may reside within the said 
Province, without any denial or molestation whatever. 

44 XXIII. And if, perchance, hereafter any doubt or question 
should arise concerning the true sense and meaning of any 
word, clause, or sentence contained in this our present charter, 
we will, ordain, and command,* that at all times, and in all 
things, such interpretation be made thereof, and allowed, in 
any of our courts whatsoever, as shall be adjudged most advan- 
tageous and favorable unto the said William Penn, his heirs 
and assigns; provided always, no interpretation be admitted 
thereof, by which the allegiance due unto us, our heirs and 
successors, may suffer any prejudice or diminution ; although 
express mention be not made in these presents, of the true 
yearly value, or certainty of the premises, or any part thereof, 
or of other gifts and grants made by us, and our progenitors or 
predecessors, unto the said William Penn, any statute, act, 
ordinance, provision, proclamation, or restraint heretofore had, 
made, published, ordained, or provided, or any thing, cause, or 
matter whatsoever, to the contrary thereof in anywise notwith- 
standing. In witness whereof, we have caused these our 


letters to be made patent. Witness ourself, at Westminster, the 
fourth day of March, in the three and thirtieth year of our 
reign, Annoque Domini one thousand six hundred and eighty- 

" By wit of privy seal, Pigott." 



Penn's Joy — His Visit to the King— Surprise at the Name— Offers Twenty 
Guineas— Solicits the King— Refusal of the King— Letter to Robert Tur- 
ner— Penn's Publication— Farewell to the King— Interesting Colloquy 
with the King— Letter to his Family. 

WTLLIAM PENN had expended much money, and offered 
many prayers, that he might settle a colony in North 
America ; and, when first informed that his petition was granted, 
he, with much excitement, exclaimed, that " God had heard the 
voice of his prayer ! God had appointed unto him the honors 
of Joshua, — to lead a remnant into the land of rest. The nobles 
have been made to consent; and even the king himself is stirred 
up to convey the grateful tidings." 

He soon hastened to court, to thank his Majesty for his royal 
generosity. The king was in readiness to receive him, having 
got the deed fairly drawn up and indorsed, — A deed of A new 
Pbovtnce in Noeth America, fob my beloved subject 
and friend, William Penn. 

As soon as he was introduced into the drawing-room of the 
palace, the king presented him this deed, with his own hand, 
and, in a jocular way, said, " Well, friend William, you'll see in 
this paper that I have done something handsome for you. Yes, 
man, I have given you there a territory in North America as 
large as my own island of Great Britain ; and, knowing what a 
fighting family you are sprung from, I have made you governor 
and captain-general of all the coasts and seas and bays and 
rivers, and mountains and forests, and population ; and now, in 
return for all this, I have but a few conditions to make with 



William Penn courteously asked his Majesty to please let him 
know what they were. "Why, in the first place," replied 
Charles, " you are to give me a fifth of all the gold and silver 
you may find there. But, as you Quakers care but little about 
the precious metals, I don't count on much from that quarter. 

" In the second place, friend William, you are to be sure not 
to make war on the nations, without my consent ; but, in case 
of a war, you are always to remember that you are an English- 
man, and therefore must never use the scalping-knife. 

"In the third place, if any persons of my religion — the 
honest Episcopalians — would wish to come and settle in your 
Quaker province, you shall receive them kindly ; and if, at any 
time, they should invite a preacher of their own, he shall be per- 
mitted to come among you. And, moreover, if they should like 
to build what we call a church (but you, a steeple-house), you 
will not forbid it." 

Smiling, Penn addressed the king with the same epithet 
which the king had applied to him. u Friend Charles, thee 
shall certainly be gratified in all these things ; for I, who have 
drank so deeply of the bitter waters of persecution myself, will 
never, I hope, consent to persecute others on the score of religion." 

As soon as Penn retired from the presence of the king, he 
inspected his charter and deed, when, to his great astonishment, 
he found it named "Pennsylvania," that is, in English, 
" Penn's woods." He considered that this would savor so much 
of vanity in him, that he hastened to the recorder, to have the 
name changed. The recorder was a Welshman. He said to 
Penn, " Well, then, what name would hur like to give to hur 
province ? " Penn replied, " New Wales." The Welshman 
said that ought to be pleasing to him, as a compliment to his 
native country, " but, though hur should be well pleased to have 
hur province called 4 New Wales,' yet hur had no business to 
alter the present name." 

Upon this refusal, Penn offered him twenty guineas to alter 
the name. The Welshman still declining to do it, Penn went 
to his Majesty to get it done. The king, in his jocular way, 
replied, that, as he had stood "godfather to the new province, he 
thought he had a fair right to give it a name." 


Penn was so perplexed, and the shock was so great, as he 
supposed, to his vanity, that, failing to get the name changed 
either by the recorder or the king, the next day, he wrote the 
following letter to his friend Robert Turner : — 

To Robert Tubneb. 6th of lst mo '' 168L 

Dear Friend, — My true love in the Lord salutes thee, and 
dear Mends that love the Lord's precious truths in those parts. 
Thine I have ; and for my business here, know that after many 
waitings, watchings, solicitings, and disputes in council, this 
day my country was confirmed to me under the great seal of 
England, with large powers and privileges, by the name of 
Pennsylvania, — a name the king would give it in honor of my 
father. I chose New Wales, being, as this, a pretty hilly 
country; but Penn being Welsh for a head (as Penman- 
moire in Wales, and Penrith in Cumberland, and Penn in 
Buckinghamshire, the highest land in England), called this 
Pennsylvania, which is, the high or high woodlands ; for I pro- 
posed, when the secretary, a Welshman, refused to have it 
called New Wales, Sylvania, and they added Penn to it. And 
though I much opposed it, and went to the king to have it 
struck out and altered, he said it was past, and would take it 
upon him. Nor could twenty guineas move the under secretary 
to vary the name ; for I feared lest it should be looked on as a 
vanity in me, and not as a respect in the king, as it truly was, 
to my father, whom he often mentions with praise. Thou 
mayest communicate my grant to friends, and expect shortly 
my proposals. It is a clear and just thing, and my God, that 
has given it me through many difficulties, will, I believe, bless, 
and make it the seed of a nation. I shall have a tender care to 
the government, that it will be well laid at first. No more now, 
but dear love in the truth. 

Thy true friend, 

William Penn. 

The charter being thus given, and the name not to be altered, 
William Penn immediately made the following publication to 
his Quakers, and to all other Englishmen as well : — 


44 In the first place, That while lands in England sold from 
twenty to sixty pounds sterling per acre, William Penn offered 
his lands, fresh and heavy timbered, for forty shillings the hun- 
dred acres, being but little more than fourpence an acre, with 
but one shilling per hundred acres as quit-rent to the proprietor 

" Secondly, That, while lands in England rented from one to 
three pounds sterling per acre, William Penn offered his for 
one shilling. 

" Thirdly, That while it was in England a transportation 
offence to kill a rabbit or partridge, and few except the nobility 
ever tasted venison, in Pennsylvania, any boy big enough to 
draw a trigger might knock down a fat buck in the woods 
whenever he pleased. And as to rabbits and partridges, they 
were so abundant, that the very children, if they but knew how 
to set traps, and pack thread-snares, might always keep the 
house full of such savory game." 

If these are esteemed by all as great natural recommendations 
of Pennslyvania, the moral recommendations were still greater ; 
for it was observed, — 

" Fourthly, That while, in England, the servants were a people 
but poorly rewarded for their services, in Pennsylvania, all ser- 
vants, men or women, were to be allowed fifty acres in fee-simple, 
to be paid them, with a good suit of clothes, at the expiration 
of their servitude ; and the more cheerfully, if they had acted 
with fidelity as servants, doing all things cheerfully, as with an 
eye to the glory of God. • 

44 Fifth, That while, in England, there was but one creed, one 
catechism, one form of prayer, one baptism, from which no man 
or woman might dissent without peril of the whipping-post or 
pillory, in Pennsylvania, all who acknowledged 4 one almighty 
and eternal God to be the moral governor of the world,' and 
honored him as such by an honest and peaceable life, should be 
equally protected in their rights, and made capable of promotion 
to office, whether they were Jews, Gentiles, or Christians. 

44 Sixth, That while in Virginia, Maryland, and New England, 
the settlers were charged with cheating the Indians, by putting 
bad merchandise upon them in exchange for their furs, in 


Pennsylvania, all merchandise offered in . trade was to be 
brought into market, and exposed to public inspection ; so that 
the Indians might no longer be imposed on and provoked. 

44 Seventh, That while in the other colonies, the Indians were 
treated very little better than dogs, whom every blackguard 
might kick and cuff, to the exceeding diversion of the white 
Christian*, in Pennsylvania, it was exacted that the Persons 
and Rights of the Indians should be held Sacred ; and that no 
man, whatever his rank or fortune, should affront or wrong an 
Indian, without incurring the same penalty as if he had com- 
mitted the trespass against the proprietor himself. 

44 Eighth, That while, in most new countries settled by Chris- 
tians, if a Christian was injured by a native, he might instantly 
avenge himself, even to the knocking out the brains of the 
offender, here it was enacted by William Penn, that, if 4 any 
Indian should abuse a planter ', the said planter should not be his 
own judge upon the Indian, but apply to the next magistrate, who 
should make complaint thereof to the king of the Indian, for 
reasonable satisfaction for the injury. 9 

44 Ninth, That while other Christian adventurers thought they 
had a right to treat the inhabitants of the countries they dis- 
covered, as mere animals of the brute creation, whom they 
might abuse at pleasure, William Penn framed his laws with 
an eye of equal tenderness for the Indians and the Quakers, 
ordering that 4 all differences between them should be settled by a 
jury of twelve men, six chosen from each party, that so they might 
live friendly together as brethren ; ' thus extending with im- 
partial hand the rights of justice and humanity to these poor 
people, who, in proportion to their weakness and ignorance, 
were the more entitled to his fatherly protection and care. 

44 Tenth, That while, in England, the children of the rich were, 
too generally, brought up in pride and sloth, good for nothing to 
themselves or others, in Pennsylvania, all the children of the age 
of twelve were to be brought up to some useful trade, that 
there might be none of the worthless sort in the Province ; so 
that the poor might get plenty of honest bread by their work, 
and the rich, if brought low, might not be tempted to despair 
and steal. 


" Eleventh, That while in England, from the millions given to 
the kings, lords, and clergy, the number and wretchedness of 
the poor were so increased, that every year hundreds of them 
were hung for stealing a little food for themselves and children, 
in Pennsylvania, there were but two crimes deemed worthy of 
death, i.e., deliberate murder, and treason against the State. 
As for offences requiring confinement, it was ordered by 
William Perm, that, in the punishment of these, an eye was 
to be constantly kept on the reformation of the offender. And 
hence all prisons were to be considered as workshops, where 
the criminals might be industriously, soberly, and morally 

The publication of this document produced great joy to the 
inhabitants generally, and especially to the Quakers. The 
persecutions they had long been subjected to had almost pre- 
vented them from going abroad, and they were seldom seen in 
the streets. Their hearts were filled with joy, and they wel- 
comed William Penn as well-nigh a heavenly messenger. It 
was a greater boon than they had ever expected to enjoy; and 
multitudes of them prepared to embark for America. Nor was 
this joy confined to the Quakers. Many other poor and pious 
men, who had seen and heard Penn preach, and had been 
delighted with his character, were ready to join him and his 
Quakers. He immediately sent off three ships laden with 
these poor people, and had a fourth one prepared, in which he 
intended to embark himself. 

When he was prepared to leave, as the king had shown him 
much good will and friendship, Penn took a journey to London 
to bid him farewell. Although Penn was more unlike Charles 
II. than almost any other man, yet the king was glad to see him ; 
and the interview between them was very pleasant, during 
which the following colloquy took place : — 

The king said, " Well, friend William, I have sold you a 
noble province in North America ; but still I suppose you have 
no thoughts of going thither yourself." 

u Yes, I have," replied William Penn, " and I am just come 
to bid thee farewell." 

" What ! venture yourself among the savages of North Amer- 


ica I Why, man I what security have you that you'll not be in 
their war-kettle in two hours after setting foot on their shores ? " 

44 The best security in the world," replied William Penn 

44 1 doubt that, friend William, I have no idea of any secu- 
rity against those cannibals, but in a regiment of good soldiers, 
with their muskets and bayonets. And mind, I tell you before- 
hand, that, with all my good-will for you and your family (to 
whom I am under obligations), 1*11 not send a single soldier with 

44 1 want none of thy soldiers," answered William Penn 
pleasantly. "I depend upon something better than thy 

The king wanted to know what that was. 

44 Why, I depend on themselves," replied William Penn, — 
44 on their Own moral sense ; even on that 4 grace of God which 
bringeth salvation, and which appeared unto all men. ' " 

44 1 fear, friend William, that that grace has never appeared 
to the Indians of North America." 

44 Why not to them as well as to all others ? " 

44 If it had appeared to them, they would hardly have treated 
my subjects so barbarously as they have done." 

44 That's no proof to the contrary, friend Charles. Thy sub- 
jects were the aggressors. When thy subjects first went to 
North America, they found these poor people the fondest and 
kindest creatures in the world. Every day they would watch 
for them to come ashore, and hasten to meet them, and feast 
them on their best fish and venison and corn, which was all that 
they had. In return for this hospitality of the 4 savages,' as we 
call them, thy subjects, termed 4 Christians,' seized on their 
country and rich hunting-grounds for farms for themselves. 
Now, is it to be wondered at, that these much injured people 
should have been driven to desperation by such injustice, and 
that, burning with revenge, they should have committed some 
excesses ? " 

44 Well, then, I hope, friend William, you'll not complain 
when they come to treat you in the same manner." 

44 1 am not afraid of it." 


"Ay! How will you avoid it? You mean to get their 
hunting-grounds too, I suppose." 

" Yes, but not by driving these poor people away from them." 

" No, indeed ! How, then, will you get their lands ? " 

" I mean to buy their lands of them." 

" Buy their lands of them ! Why, man, you have already 
bought them of me." 

" Yes, I know I have, and at a dear rate too ; but I did it 
only to get thy good-will, not that I thought thou hadst any 
right to their lands." 

44 Zounds, man ! No right to their lands ? " 

44 No, friend Charles, no right at all. What right hast thou 
to their lands?" 

44 Why, the right of discovery, — the right which the pope 
and all Christian kings have agreed to give one another." 

44 The right of discovery" replied William Penn, half smiling, 
— 44 a strange kind of right indeed I Now, suppose, friend 
Charles, some canoe-loads of these Indians, crossing the sea, and 
discovering thy Island of Great Britain, were to claim it as their 
own, and set it up for sale over thy head, what wouldst thou 
think it?" 

44 Why — why — why," replied Charles, blushing, 44 1 must 
confess I should think it a piece of great impudence in them." 

44 Well, then, how canst thou, a Christian, and a Christian 
prince too, do that which thou so utterly condemnest in these 
people whom thou callest savages ? " 

The king being rather too much staggered to make a reply, 
William Penn thus went on, 44 Yes, friend Charles, and sup- 
pose, again, that these Indians, on thy refusal to give up thy 
Island of Great Britain, were to make war on thee, and, having 
weapons more destructive than thine, were to destroy many of 
thy subjects, and to drive the rest away, wouldst thou not think 
it horribly cruel ? " 

The king, with strong marks of conviction, agreeing to this, 
William Penn thus added, 44 Well, then, friend Charles, how 
can I, who call myself a Christian, do what I should abhor 
even in heathens ? No, I will not do it. I will not use the 
right to their lands, though I have bought it of thee at a dear 


rate. But I will buy the right of the proper owners, even the 
Indians themselves. By doing this, I shall imitate God himself 
in his justice and mercy, and thereby insure his blessing on my 
colony, if I should ever live to plant one in America." 

Having performed this duty of respect to the king, Penn 
now repaired to his country-seat at Worminghurst, and spent a 
day with his family. It was both a pleasant and mournful day, 
— pleasant to be with his wife and children, and mournful that 
he was so soon to leave them. During the day, which was 
partly spent in devotion, partly in conversation, he wrote a 
letter to his wife and children, which has been thought one of 
the kindest, richest, and best letters of advice to a family from 
an endeared father to be found on record ; and as most of it is 
applicable to families of our modern times, and may be very 
useful, not only to ihe mothers and children in Pennsylvania, 
but throughout the Union, we publish the whole of this most 
tender and loving epistle. 

Worminghurst, 4th of the 6th month. 

My dear Wipe and Childbbn, — My love, which neither 
sea nor land nor death itself can extinguish or lessen toward 
you, most endearedly visits you with eternal embraces, and will 
abide with you forever ; and may the God of my life watch 
over you, and do you good in this world and forever ! Some 
things are upon my spirit to leave with you in your respective 
capacities, as I am to one a husband, and the rest a father, if I 
should never see you more in this world. 

My dear wife ! remember thou wast the love of my youth, 
and much the joy of my life, the most beloved, as well as 
most worthy, of all my earthly comforts ; and the reason of 
that love was more thy inward than thy outward excellences, 
which yet were many. God knows, and thou knowest it. I 
can say it was a match of Providence's making ; and God's 
image in us both was the first thing, and the most amiable and 
engaging ornament in our eyes. Now I am to leave thee, and 
that without knowing whether I shall ever see thee more in 
this world, take my counsel into thy bosom, and let it dwell 
with thee in my stead while thou livest. 


First, Let the fear of the Lord, and a zeal and love to his 
glory, dwell richly in thy heart ; and thou wilt watch for good 
over thyself, and thy dear children and family, that no rude, 
light, or bad thing be committed ; else God will be offended, 
and he will repent himself of the good he intends thee and 

Secondly, Be diligent in meetings for worship and busi- 
ness ; stir up thyself and others herein : it is thy duty and 
place. And let meetings be kept once a day in the family, to 
wait upon the Lord, who has given us much time for ourselves ; 
and, my dearest, to make thy family matters easy to thee, 
divide thy time, and be regular : it is easy and sweet. Thy 
retirement will afford thee to do it ; as, in the morning, to view 
the business of the house, and fix it as thou desirest, seeing all 
be in order, that by thy counsel all may move, and to thee 
render an account every evening. The time for work, for 
walking, for meals, may be certain, at least as near as may be. 
And grieve not thyself with careless servants ; they will dis- 
order thee : rather pay them, and let them go, if they will not 
be better by admonition. This is best to avoid many words, 
which I know wound the soul, and offend the Lord. 

Thirdly, Cast up thy income, and see what it daily amounts 
to ; by which thou mayest be sure to have it in thy sight and 
power to keep within compass : and I beseech thee to live low 
and sparingly till my debts are paid, and then enlarge as thou 
seest it convenient. Remember thy mother's example, when 
thy father's public-spiritedness had worsted his estate (which 
is my case). 

I know thou lovest plain things, and art averse to the pomps 
of the world, — a nobility natural to thee. I write not as 
doubtful, but to quicken thee, for my sake, to be more vigilant 
herein, knowing that God will bless thy care, and thy poor 
children and thee, for it. My mind is wrapped up in a saying of 
thy father's, " I desire not riches, but to owe nothing ; " and 
truly that is wealth : and more than enough to live is a snare 
attended with many sorrows. I need not bid thee be humble, 
for thou art so, nor meek and patient, for it is much of thy 
natural disposition ; but I pray thee be oft in retirement with 


the Lord, and guard against encroaching friendships. Keep 
them at arm's-length, for it is giving away our power, ay, and 
self too, into the possession of another ; and that which might 
seem engaging in the beginning may prove a yoke and burden 
too hard and heavy in the end. Wherefore keep dominion 
over thyself, and let thy children, good meetings, and friends, 
be the pleasure of thy life. 

Fourthly, And now, my dearest, let me recommend to thy 
care my dear children, abundantly beloved of me as the Lord's 
blessings, and the sweet pledges of our mutual and endeared 
affections. Above all things, endeavor to breed them up in 
the love of virtue, and that holy, plain way of it which we have 
lived in, that the world in no part of it get into my family. I 
had rather they were homely than finely bred as to outward 
behavior ; yet I love sweetness mixed with gravity, and cheer- . 
fulness tempered with sobriety. Religion in the heart leads 
into this true civility, teaching men and women to be mild and 
courteous in their behavior, — an accomplishment worthy 
indeed of praise. 

Fifthly, Next breed them up in a love one of another : tell 
them it is the charge I left behind me ; and that it is the way 
to have the love and blessing of God upon them, also what 
his portion is who hates, or calls his brother fool. Sometimes 
separate them, but not long ; and allow them to send or give 
each other small things to endear one another with. Once 
more, I say, tell them it was my counsel they should be tender 
and affectionate one to another. For their learning, be liberal, 
spare no cost ; for by such parsimony all is lost that is saved. 
But let it be useful knowledge, such as is consistent with truth 
and godliness, not cherishing a vain conversation or idle mind ; 
for ingenuity mixed with industry is good for the body and 
mind too. I recommend the useful parts of mathematics, as 
building houses or ships, measuring, surveying, dialling, navi- 
gation ; but agriculture is especially in my eye. Let my chil- 
dren be husbandmen and housewives. It is industrious, healthy, 
honest, and of good example, like Abraham and the holy 
ancients, who pleased God, and obtained a good report. This 
leads to consider the works of God and Nature, of things that 


are good, and diverts the mind from being taken np with the 
vain arts and inventions of a luxurious world. It is commend- 
able in the princes of Germany, and the nobles of that empire, 
that they have all their children instructed in some useful occu- 
pation. Rather keep an ingenious person in the house to teach 
them, than send them to schools; too many evil impressions 
being commonly received there. 

Be sure to observe their genius, and do not cross it as to 
learning ; let them not dwell too long on one thing, but let 
their change be agreeable, and all their diversions have some 
bodily labor in them. When grown big, have most care for 
them ; for then there are more snares both within and without. 
When marriageable, see that they have worthy persons in their 
eye, of good life, and good fame for piety and understanding. 
I need no wealth, but sufficiency ; and be sure their love be 
dear, fervent, and mutual, that it may be happy for them. 

I choose not they should be married to earthly, covetous 
kindred. And of cities and towns of concourse beware : the 
world is apt to stick close to those who have lived and got 
wealth there : a country life and estate Hike beet for my children. 
I prefer a decent mansion, of a hundred pounds per annum, 
i.e., a neat house, and fifty or sixty acres in the country, before 
ten thousand pounds in London, or such like place, in a way of 
trade. In fine, my dear, endeavor to breed them dutiful to 
the Lord, and his blessed light, truth, and grace in their hearts, 
who is their Creator, and his fear will grow up with them. 
" Teach a child," says the wise man, " the way thou wilt have 
him to walk, and, when he is old, he will not forget it." Next, 
obedience to thee, their dear mother, and that not for wrath, 
but for conscience' sake ; liberal to the poor, pitiful to the mis- 
erable, humble and kind to all ; and may my God make thee a 
blessing, and give thee comfort, in our dear children, and in age 
gather thee to the joy and blessedness of the just (where no 
death shall separate us) forever. 

And now, my dear children, that are the gifts and mercies 
of the God of your tender father, hear my counsel, and lay it 
up in your hearts : love it more than treasure, and follow it, 
and you shall be blessed here, and happy hereafter. 


In the first place, remember your Creator in the days of 
your youth. Oh, how did God bless Josiah because he feared 
him in his youth ! and so he did Jacob and Joseph and Moses. 

Oh, my dear children, remember and fear and serve Him 
who made you, and gave you to me and your dear mother, 
that you may live to him, and glorify him in your generations ! 
To do this, in your youthful days seek after the Lord, that 
you may find him, remembering his great love in creating you, 
that you are not beasts, plants, or stones, but that he has kept 
you, and given you his grace within, and substance without, 
and provided plentifully for you. This remember in your 
youth, that you may be kept from the evil of the world ; for 
in age it will be harder to overcome the temptations of it. 

Wherefore, my dear children, eschew the appearance of 
evil, and love and cleave to that in your hearts which shows 
you . good from evil, and tells you when you do amiss, and 
reproves you for it. It is the light of Christ, that he has 
given you for your salvation. If you do this, and follow my 
counsel, God will bless you in this world, and give you an 
inheritance in that which will never have an end. For the 
light of Jesus is of a purifying nature : it seasons those who 
love it, and take heed to it, and never leaves such, till it has 
brought them to "the city of God, that has foundations." 
Oh that you may be seasoned with the gracious nature of it I 
Hide it in your hearts ; and flee, my dear children, from all 
youthful lusts, the vain sports, pastimes, and pleasures of the 
world, " redeeming the time, because the days are evil." You 
are now beginning to live. What would some give for your 
time ? Oh ! I could have lived better, were I, as you, in the 
flower of youth. Therefore, love and fear the Lord. Keep 
close to meetings ; and delight to wait on the Lord God of 
your father and mother, among his despised people, as we have 
done ; and count it your honor to be members of that society, 
and heirs of that living fellowship which is enjoyed among 
them ; for the experience of which your father's soul blesseth 
the Lord forever. 

Next, be obedient to your dear mother, a woman whose 
virtues and good name is an honor to you ; for she hath been 


exceeded by none in her time for her plainness, integrity, 
industry, humanity, virtue, and good understanding, — quali- 
ties not usual among women of her worldly condition and 
quality. Therefore, honor and obey her, my dear children, 
as your mother, and your father's love and delight ; nay, love 
her too, for she loved your father with a deep and upright 
love, choosing him before all her many suitors. And, though 
she be of a delicate constitution and noble spirit, yet she 
descended to the utmost tenderness and care for you, perform- 
ing the painful acts of service to you in your infancy, as a 
mother and nurse too.* I charge you, before the Lord, honor 
and obey, love and cherish, your dear mother. 

Next, betake yourself to some honest, industrious course 
of life, and that not of sordid covetousness, but for example, 
and to avoid idleness. And if you change your condition, and 
marry, choose with the knowledge and consent of your mother, 
if living, or of guardians, or those that have the charge of 
you. Mind neither beauty nor riches, but the fear of the 
Lord, and a sweet and amiable disposition, such as you can 
love above all the world, and that may make your habitations 
pleasant and desirable to you. 

And, being married, be tender, affectionate, patient, and 
meek. Live in the fear of the Lord, and he will bless you 
and your offspring. Be sure to live within compass. Borrow 
not, neither be beholden to any. Ruin not yourself by kind- 
ness to others ; for that exceeds the due bounds of friendship : 
neither will a true friend expect it. Small matters, I heed not. 

Let your industry and parsimony go no further than for a 
sufficiency for life, and to make provision for your children, 
and that in moderation, if the Lord gives you any. I charge 
you to help the poor and needy. Let the Lord have a voluntary 
share of your income for the good of the poor both in your 
society and others ; for we are all his creatures, remembering 
that he that giveth to the poor lendeth to the Lord. 

Know well your incomings, and your outgoings may be 
better regulated. 

Love not money, nor the world. Use them only, and they 
will serve you; but, if you love them, you serve them which 
debase your spirits, as well as offend the Lord. 


Pity the distressed, and hold out a hand of help to them : 
it may be your case ; and, as you mete to others, God will mete 
to you again. 

Be humble and gentle in your conversation, of few words, 
I charge you, but always pertinent, hearing out before you 
attempt to answer, and then speaking as if you would persuade, 
not impose. 

Affront none, neither revenge the affronts that are done to 
you, but forgive, and you shall be forgiven of your heavenly 

In making friends, consider well first, and, when you are 
fixed, be true ; not wavering by reports, nor deserting in afflic- 
tion, for that becomes not the good and virtuous. 

Watch against anger, and neither speak nor act in it ; for, 
like drunkenness, it makes a man a beast, and throws people 
into desperate inconveniences. 

Avoid flatterers, for they are thieves in disguise: their 
praise is costly, designing to get by those they bespeak. They 
are the worst of creatures : they lie to flatter, and flatter to 
cheat; and, which is worse, if you believe them, you cheat 
yourselves most dangerously. But the virtuous, though poor, 
love, cherish, and prefer. Remember David, who asking the 
Lord, " Who shall abide in thy tabernacle ? who shall dwell 
upon thy holy hill ? " answers, u He that walketh uprightly, and 
speaketh the truth in his heart ; in whose eyes the vile person 
is contemned, but honoreth them who fear the Lord." 

Next, my children, be temperate in all things, — in your 
diet, for that is, physic by prevention : it keeps, nay, it makes, 
people healthy, and their generation sound. This is exclusive 
of the spiritual advantage it brings. Be also plain in your 
apparel. Keep out that lust which reigns too much over some. 
Let your virtues be your ornaments, remembering " life is more 
than food, and the body than raiment." Let your furniture be 
simple and cheap. Avoid pride, avarice, and luxury. Read 
my " No Cross, No Crown." There is instruction. Make your 
conversation with the most eminent for wisdom and piety ; and 
shun all wicked men, as you hope for the blessing of God, 
and the comfort of your father's living and dying prayers. 


Be sure you speak no evil of any ; no, no, not of the meanest, 
much less of your superiors, as magistrates, guardians, tutors, 
teachers, and elders in Christ. 

Be no busy-bodies: meddle not with other folk's matters, 
but when in conscience and duty pressed; for it procures 
trouble, and is ill manners, and very unseemly to wise men. 

In your family, remember Abraham, Moses, and Joshua, 
their integrity to the Lord, and do as you have them for your 

Let the fear and service of the living God be encouraged 
in your houses, and that plainness, sobriety, and moderation 
in all things, as becometh God's chosen people. And as I 
advise you, my beloved children, do you counsel yours, if God 
should give you any. Yea, I counsel and command them, as 
my posterity, that they love and serve the Lord God with an 
upright heart, that he may bless you and yours from generation 
to generation. 

And as for you, who are likely to be concerned in the 
government of Pennsylvania, and my parts of Jersey, 
especially the first, I do charge you, before the Lord God and 
his holy angels, that you be lowly, diligent, and tender, fearing 
God, loving the people, and hating covetousness. Let justice 
have its impartial course, and the law free passage. Though 
to your loss, protect no man against it ; for you are not above 
the law, but the law above you. Live, therefore, the lives 
yourselves you would have the people to live, and then you 
have right and boldness to punish the transgressor. Keep 
upon the square, for God sees you : therefore, do your duty, 
and be sure you see with your own eyes, and hear with your 
own ears. Entertain no luxuries, cherish no informers for 
gain or revenge. Use no tricks, fly to no devices, to cover or 
support injustice, but let your hearts be upright before the 
Lord, trusting in him above the contrivances of men, and none 
shall be able to hurt or supplant you. 

Oh ! the Lord is a strong God, and he can do whatsoever 
he pleases ; and, though men consider it not, it is the Lord that 
rules and overrules in the kingdom of men, and he builds up 
and pulls down. I, your father, am a man that can say, " He 


that trusts in the Lord shall not be confounded. But God, in 
due time, will make his enemies be at peace with him." 

If you thus behave yourselves, and so become a terror to 
evil-doers, and a praise tQ them that do well, God, my God, 
will be with you in wisdom and a sound mind, and make you 
blessed instruments, in his hands, for the settlement of some of 
those desolate parts of the world ; which my soul desires, above 
all worldly honors and riches, both for you that go and you 
that stay, you that govern and you that are governed ; that, 
in the end, you may be gathered with me to the rest of God. 

Finally, my children, love one another with a true, en- 
deared love, and your dear relations on both sides, and take 
care to preserve tender affection in your children to each other, 
often marrying within themselves, so as it be without the 
bounds forbidden in God's law, that so they may not, like the 
forgetting, unnatural world, grow out of kindred, and as cold as 
strangers, but, as becomes a truly natural and Christian stock, 
you, and yours after you, may live in the pure and fervent love 
of God towards one another, as becometh brethren in the 
spiritual and natural relation. 

So my God, that has blessed me with his abundant mercies 
both of this and the other and better life, be with you all, 
guide you by his counsel, bless you, and bring you to his 
eternal glory, that you may shine, my dear children, in the 
firmament of God's power, with the blessed spirits of the just, 
that celestial family, praising and admiring him, the God and 
father of it, forever. For there is no God like unto him, the 
God of Isaac and of Jacob, the God of the prophets, the 
apostles, and martyrs of Jesus, in whom I live forever. 

So farewell to my thrice dearly beloved wife and children ! 

Yours, as God pleaseth, in that which no waters can 
quench, no time forget, nor distance wear away, but remain 

William Penn. 



Sends Commissioners — Letter to the Indians — Death of his Mother— Frame 
of Government — Agreement with the Duke of York — Penn's Embarkation 
— An Epistle — Letter to Stephen Crisp — Welcome from the Dutch, Swedes, 
and Quakers — Toleration and Civil Freedom — First General Assembly — 
Chester Named — Lands bought — Great Treaty — Measurement by Walks — 
John Penn — Bounties offered — Site for a City — Penn's House — Penns- 
bury Manor — City named — Division of Province and Territories — Letter 
to One of his Detractors — Leaves for England. 

IN one of the three ships already alluded to sailed Col. 
William Markham, a relative of Penn's, who was to be his 
future secretary, and several commissioners, with power to 
treat with the Indians for the purchase of their lands. " Penn 
charged them in a solemn manner to be just and humane towards 
the Indians," to whom he sent by them a most kind and friendly 
letter, of which the following is a copy : — 

"There is a great God and Power, which hath made the 
world, and all things therein, to whom you, and I, and all 
people, owe their being and well-being, and to whom you and I 
must one day give an account for all that we have done in this 

" This great God has written his law in our hearts, by which 
we are taught and commanded to love, and to help, and to do 
good to one another. Now, this great God hath been pleased 
to make me concerned in your part of the world ; and the 
king of the country where I live hath given me a great 
province therein : but I desire to enjoy it with your love and 
consent, that we may always live together as neighbors and 
friends; else what would the great God do to us, who hath 
made us, not to devour and destroy one another, but to live 



soberly and kindly together in the world ? Now, I would have 
you well observe, that I am very sensible of the unkindness 
and injustice which have been too much exercised toward you 
by the people of these parts of the world, who have sought 
themselves to make great advantages by you, rather than to be 
examples of goodness and patience unto you. This, I hear, 
hath been a matter of trouble to you, and caused great grudg- 
ing and animosities, sometimes to the shedding of blood, 
which hath made the great God angry. But I am not such a 
man, as is well known in my own country. I have great love 
and regard toward you, and desire to win and gain your love 
and friendship by a kind, just, and peaceable life; and the 
people I send are of the same mind, and shall in all things be- 
have themselves accordingly. And if, in any thing, any shall 
offend you or your people, you shall have a full and speedy 
satisfaction for the same by an equal number of just men on 
both sides, that by no means you may have just occasion of 
being offended against them. 

" I shall shortly come to see you myself, at which time we 
may more largely and freely discourse of these matters. In 
the mean time I have sent my commissioners to treat with you 
about land and a firm league of peace. Let me desire you to 
be kind to them and to the people, and receive the presents 
and tokens which I have sent you, as a testimony of my good- 
will to you, and of my resolution to live justly, peaceably, and 
friendly with you. 

"lam your loving friend, 

"William Penn." 

Soon after this, William Penn's mother died, for whom he 
greatly mourned ; and, having paid the last offices of respect to 
her, he turned his mind to his American affairs. In the first 
place, he published the Frame of Government for Pennsylva- 
nia. Clarkson, speaking of the preface to this constitution says, 
"To this he added a noble preface, containing his own thoughts 
upon the origin, nature, object, and modes of government, — a 
preface, indeed beautiful, and full of wise and just senti- 
ments." l 

1 life of Penn, voL L p. 284. 


It does contain many excellent remarks upon human govern- 
ment, and exhibits a superior mind, showing that William 
Penn was far in advance of most of the statesmen, politi- 
cians, bishops, and clergy of his day. It has, also, many things 
worthy of the attention and adoption of the now numerous 
States in the Union ; and, had we not already quoted so largely 
from the writings of Penn, we should feel it our duty to give it 
entire- to our readers. 

Penn now — having, by an arrangement with the Duke of 
York, barred all claims upon his Province of Pennsylvania, and 
thus added the territories to it, published his Frame of 
Government and Laws, written the long letter to his family, 
already given in the last chapter — embarked on board the ship 
44 Welcome," for America. Robert Greenaway commanded the 
ship; and the passengers, including himself, were (about one 
hundred) mostly Quakers. While the vessel was detained in 
the Downs, he wrote a farewell letter, entitled 44 An Epistle 
containing a Salutation to all Faithful Friends, a Reproof to the 
Unfaithful, and a Visitation to the Inquiring in the Land of 
my Nativity." He wrote, also, a letter to his friend Stephen 
Crisp, a minister of the gospel in his own society, who had 
suffered much in the cause of religion, and to whom his soul 
clung with extraordinary love, from which we make the follow- 
ing extract: — 

44 The Lord will bless that ground [Pennsylvania]. And, 
truly, Stephen, there is work enough ; and here is room to 
work in. Surely God will come in for a share in this planting- 
work ; and that leaven shall leaven the lump in time. I do not 
believe the Lord's providence had run this way towards me, 
but that he has an heavenly end and service in it : so with him 
I leave all, and myself, and thee, and his dear people, and 
blessed name on earth." 

The first of September, 1682, they proceeded to sea; and, in 
six weeks after sailing, they came in sight of the American 
coast, and entered the River Delaware. The Dutch, Swedes, 
and Col. Markham, who had been sent out the year before, 
received him with demonstrations of great joy. He landed at 
New Castle, and, the next day after his arrival, called the peo- 


pie together at the Dutch court-house at that place. There, in 
due form, he took legal possession of the country as its govern- 
or, his claim and charter taking precedence of all others. He 
made an address to the old magistrates, and explained to them 
the design of his coming, and the nature of his government. 
He assured them that they should have all their rights as to 
liberty of conscience and civil freedom, renewed the commis- 
sions of the magistrates, and exhorted them to live soberly, and 
in peace with each other. 

Penn then proceeded to Upland, for the purpose of calling 
the first general assembly. This was a great event; and he 
determined to distinguish it by changing the name of the 
place. Turning to his friend Pearson, one of his brother 
Quakers, he said, " Providence has brought us here safe. Thou 
hast been the companion of my perils. What wilt thou that I 
should call this place?" - Pearson replied, "Chester," in 
remembrance of the city from whence he came. William 
Penn replied, " It shall be called Chester ; and, when I divide 
the land into counties, I will call one of them by the same 

When the assembly met, it consisted of an equal number 
from the Province and from the territories, and such freemen 
as chose to attend, in accordance with the sixteenth article of 
his Frame of Government. Nicholas Moore, president of the 
Free Society of Traders of Pennsylvania, was chosen speaker. 
The whole business was transacted in three days, a commenda- 
ble example, worthy to have been imitated by many more 
modern assemblies. 

The assembly passed an act of union, annexing the territories 
to the Province. They also passed an act of settlement, which 
referred to the Frame of Government, and which adopted that 
Frame of Government with a very few alterations. 

The Swedes, Dutch, and foreigners within the bounds of the 
territories, then became naturalized. In addition to the laws 
which formed the Frame of Government, nineteen others were 
added, making a general constitution, from which we extract 
the following from Clarkson's " Life of Penn : " l — 

1 Vol i. p. 200. 


" Among these laws I shall notice the following : All persons 
who confessed the one almighty and eternal God to be the 
Creator, Upholder, and Ruler of the world, and who held them- 
selves obliged in conscience to live peaceably and justly in 
society, were in no ways to be molested for their religious per- 
suasion and practice, nor to be compelled at any time to 
frequent any religious place or ministry whatever. All Treas- 
urers, however, Judges, Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, and all 
whatsoever in the service of the government, and all members 
elected to serve in provincial council and general assembly, 
and all electors, were to be such as professed faith in Jesus 
Christ, and as had not been convicted of ill fame, or unsober 
and dishonest conversation, and who were one and twenty years 
of age. All children of the age of twelve were to be taught 
some useful trade or skill, to the end that none might be idle in 
the Province, but that the poor might work to live, and the 
rich, if they became poor, might not want. Servants were not 
to be kept longer than the time of servitude agreed upon, and 
were to be put in fit equipage at the expiration of it. All 
pleadings, processes, and records in courts of law, were to be 
moderate, and to be hung up on tables in the courts. All per- 
sons wrongfully imprisoned or prosecuted were to have double 
damages against the informer or prosecutor. All fines were to 
be moderate. With respect to the criminal part of these laws, 
one new principle was introduced into it. William Penn was 
of opinion, that though the deterring of others from offences 
must continue to be the great, and, indeed, only end of punish- 
ment, yet, in a community professing itself Christian, the 
reformation of the offender was to be inseparably connected 
with it. Hence he made but two capital offences; namely, 
murder, and treason against the State; and hence, also, all 
prisons were to be considered as workshops, where the offenders 
might be industriously, soberly, and morally employed." 

As William Penn had told King Charles he had no right to 
sell the Indians' lands, so, though he had taken legal possession 
of them according to the laws of England, he now carried out 
that principle, and proceeded to buy them of the natives. The 
commissioners! according to his instructions, who had come 


oyer before him, had already made several purchases, and a 
treaty of eternal friendship. Although these minor treaties 
are several times referred to, no definite description of them 
has come down to us, although traditions of them remain in 
Quaker families. Penn now procedeed to ratify their treaty of 
peace, and their purchase of lands. For this purpose, he came 
to Coaquannoc, the Indian name of the place where Philadel- 
phia now stands. Many of his friends — men, women, and young 
persons of both sexes — accompanied him. The Quakers, accord- 
ing to their pacific principles, came without any arms. Upon 
his arrival he found the sachems and their tribes assembling in 
large numbers. Some of the historians of that day say that 
they were armed ; others, that they were not. Although this 
meeting was called at Coaquannoc, the treaty was made at 
Shackamaxon, where Kensington now stands, which was not in 
the bounds of the old city of Philadelphia as laid out by Penn, 
although it is now included in the city. Here was a very large 
elm-tree, under which the leaders of both parties assembled 
when the sun was at the " halfway house ; " that is, at noon. 

William Penn wore his usual clothes, without a crown, 
sceptre, mace, sword, halberd, or any insignia of distinction, 
except a sky-blue sash around his waist. On his right hand 
stood Col. Markham ; on his left, his friend Pearson. Various 
articles of merchandise were carried before him, and spread out 
upon the ground before the sachems. He held a roll of parch- 
ment, on which was written the treaty of purchase and of 
friendship, in his hand. The chief sachem put upon his own 
head a kind of chaplet, or crown, with a small horn in it. This 
was an indication of power, and that the place was sacred, and 
all persons present, secure. The fact of the sachems wearing 
a crown when they transacted business was Gov. Boudinot's 
strongest argument to prove that these Indians were the de- 
scendants of the " lost ten tribes." 

When, upon any occasion, the chief sachem put on this 
horn, the Indians always threw down their bows and arrows, 
and seated themselves upon the ground, in the form of a half- 
moon. The chief sachem then said to William Penn, through 
an interpreter, " The nations were ready to hear him." William 


Penn, being thus called upon, addressed them through their 
interpreter : — 

" Brothers, listen ! Brothers, wo are come to bring good 
words to your car. We call you brothers, and so you are ; and 
we arc your brothers too. Yes, the red men on this side the 
big water, and the white men on the other side, are all children 
of the Great Spirit, and so must love one another, and never 
fall cut. The Great Spirit says so. He says we have no 
need to fall out; for he has made this world big, — big enough 
for all, red and white brothers too. And he has made fish and 
deer and turkeys and corn, and every thing, plenty for all. 
And, if at any time, the red or white brothers want any thing 
that tho others have, they must not fight to take it away. 
Now your own eyes see our canoes yonder (here he pointed to 
his ships), that they arc bigger than your canoes; and our 
bows and arrows, too, that they arc stronger than your bows and 
arrows. They send out thunder and lightning : nothing can 
stand before them. We could easily kill you with our bows 
and arrows of fire, and take your land; but the Great Spirit 
shakes his head, and says, 'No, you must not hurt your red 
brothers. You must not touch their land. Didn't I give this 
land to them and their children to hunt on ? And also the 
buffaloes, and deer and turkeys, and com and bcaii3 and 
squashe3? And haven't I given you good things, too, great 
many good things? Well, then, give some to your red brothers, 
and they will give you land ; and so live together like brothers.' 
Now, brothers, lift up your eyes, and sec here the good things 
which the Great Spirit has given us to bring you." 

When tho speech was finished, and Penn had eat down, the 
chief sachem, with the crown and horn on his head, as above 
related, arose, and made the following reply : — 

"Brother, your words arc fine. We feel them burning in 
our hearts. Brother, we believe that the Great Spirit is good. 
Our mothers always told us so ; and we sec it with our own 
eyes. This big water, which runs along by this Shackamaxon 
and Coaquannoc, with all the fish, speaks that the Great Spirit is 
good. This ground, which grows co much corn and beans and 
tobacco for us, speaks that the Great Spirit is good. These 


woods, that shelter so many deer and turkeys for us, speak that 
the Great Spirit is good. The Great Spirit would not have 
done all this for us, if he had not been good, and loved us very 
much. Brother, we ought to be like the Great Spirit. We 
ought to love one another as he loves us. But, brother, the red 
men here have not done so. The red men do very bad. They 
sometimes fight, and kill one another. The Great Spirit has 
been very angry with us for it, and has taken away our corn and 
deer ; and then we have become poor and weak, and have fallen 
sick, and died, so that our wigwams (cabins) are empty. But 
now we are very sorry and ashamed, and will do so no more. 
And now, brothers, we are ready to sell you land, that you may 
live with us like good brothers, never to fight us, as we red men 
have done, but always to love and do good to one another. 
And then the Great Spirit will make his face to shine upon us 
as his good children, and will always give us plenty of deer, and 
corn and beans, so that we may eat, and grow strong again. 
Brothers, the Great Spirit sees our hearts, that they are not 
like foxes and snakes, but like brothers, — good brothers." l 

Clarkson says, " It is much to be regretted, when we have 
accounts of minor treaties between William Penn and the 
Indians, that in no historian I can find an account of this, 
though so many mention it ; and all concur in considering it as 
the most glorious of any in the annals of the world." * Sher- 
man Day, who published a History of Pennsylvania in 1843, 
also says, "No authentic record has been preserved of this 
treaty." 8 

Although several historians say no land was purchased at 
this time, but that it was simply a treaty of perpetual friend- 
ship and good-will, nevertheless, we have the following state- 
ment of Weems, who says he does not know the exact time 
spent in making this famous bargain, but gives the result 
thus: — 

44 The Indians agreed to give the great sachem of the white 
men (William Penn) all the land binding on the great river, 
from the mouth of Duck Creek to what is now called Bristol, 

* Weems's life of Penn, p. 153. * Clarkson' 8 Life of Penn, voL L p. 264. 
* Day's Historical Collections of Penn, voL i. p. 14. 


and from the river towards the setting sun, as far as a man 
could ride in two days on a horse." l 

This mode of purchasing lands by travelling 'around it was 
repeated, subsequently, in several instances ; and although 
William Penn first purchased the site of old Philadelphia of the 
Swedes (they having previously obtained it of the Indians), yet 
Thomas Holme, a surveyor, purchased of the natives, while 
Penn was in England, as much of the same site "as a man 
could travel in two days." 

Still later, upon his second visit to his province, Penn, hear- 
ing of a " Large slip of choice lands lying on the Neshaminy, 
and not included in his first purchase, caused it to be inquired 
of the sachems whether they would sell it to him. They 
replied that they did not wish to part with that piece of 
ground, the bones of their fathers and mothers lying there ; 
but still, to please their father Onas, who was so good as to come 
to live with his red children again, they would sell him some of it. 
In short, they agreed to sell him as much land as could be 
walked around in one day by one of his own young men, 
beginning at the great river above Coaquannoc (Kensington), 
and ending at the great river just below Kallapingo (Bristol). 
The Indians were to be paid, as usual, in British goods. The 
bargain being made, a young Englishman was pitched on, who, 
having been much exercised in his own country as a pedestrian, 
made. a walk that equally astonished and mortified the Indians. 
Observing that their looks, when they came to receive their 
pay, were not bright towards him, as formerly, William Penn 
asked them the cause. 

44 They replied, that Father Onas's young man had cheated 

44 4 Ay, how could that be? ' replied he calmly. 4 Was it not 
of your own choosing that the ground should be measured in 
this way ? ' 

44 4 True,' returned the Indians ; * but the white brother made 
too big a walk.* 

44 Here some of the commissioners, getting warm, said that 
the bargain was a very fair one, and that the Indians ought to 
stand to it, and that, if they did not, they ought to be com- 

i Weems's life of Penn, p. 1M. 


pelled. At this William Penn, looking exceedingly shocked, 
replied, * Compelled! How are they to be compelled? Don't 
you sec that this points to murder?' Then turning to the 
Indians, with the kindliest smile on his countenance, he said, 
4 Well, if you think you have given too much land for the 
goods first agreed on, tell us now how much more will do.* 
At this they appeared greatly pleased, and said, if Father Onas 
would give them so many more yards of cloth, and fishing- 
hooks, they would be well satisfied." l 

In later times we find that lands were bought of the 
Indians by William Penn's sons, John and Thomas, by this 
very indefinite way of bounding them ; to wit, u to run two 
days' journey with a horse, as the said river doth go; north- 
westerly back into the woods, to make up two full days' 
journey as far as a man can go in two days from the said 
station." One tract after another was thus purchased by Penn 
and his descendants. 

As a curiosity of this mode of measuring lands, the follow- 
ing sketch may interest our readers. 

" Aug. 25, 1737. We, Teshakomen, alias Tishekunk, and 
Nootamis, alias Nutimus, two of the sachems, or chiefs, of the 
Delaware Indians, having, almost three years ago, at Durham, 
begun a treaty with our honorable brethren, John and Thomas 
Penn, and from thence another meeting was appointed to be at 
Pennsbury the next spring following, to which we repaired 
with Lappawinzoe, and several others of the Delaware Indians, 
at which treaty several deeds were produced, and showed to 
us by our said brethren, concerning several tracts of land 
which our forefathers had, more than fifty years ago, bargained 
and sold unto our good friend and brother, William Penn, the 
father of the said John and Thomas Penn, and in particular one 
deed from Maykeerickkisho, Sayhoppy, and Taughhaughsey, 
the chiefs or kings of the northern Indians on Delaware, who 
for, &c, did grant, &c, all those lands lying and being in the 
Province of Pennsylvania, beginning upon a line formerly laid 
out from a corner spruce-tree by the River Delaware (Makeerik- 
kitton), and from thence running along the ledge or foot of 

1 Weems's life of Penn, p. 189. 


the mountains west, north-Vest, to a corner white-oak, marked 
with the letter P, standing by the Indian path that leadeth to 
an Indian town called Play wickey, and from thence extending 
westward to Neshamony cr. ; from which said line, the said 
tract or tracts thereby granted doth extend itself back into the 
woods as far as a man can go in one day and a half, and 
bounded on the westerly side with the creek called Neshamony, 
or the most westerly branch thereof, and from thence by a line 

to the utmost extent of the said one day and a half's 

journey, and from thence to the aforesaid River Dela- 
ware, and from thence down the several courses of the said 
river, to the first-mentioned spruce-tree, &c. But, some of our 
old men being absent, we requested more time to consult with 
our people ; which request being granted, we have, after more 
than two years from the treaty at Pennsbury, now come to 
Philadelphia, together with our chief sachem, Monockykichan, 
and several of our old men. They then acknowledge that they 
were satisfied that the above-described tract was granted by 
the persons above mentioned, and agree to release to the pro- 
prietors all right to that tract, and desire it may be walked, 
travelled, or gone over by persons appointed for that purpose." 

[Signed :] Monockykichan, Lappawinzoc, Teshakomcn, Noo- 
tamis ; and witnessed by twelve other Indians, in token of full 
and free consent, besides other witnesses. 

Recorded May 8, 1741, in book G., vol. i. p. 282. 

The walk was performed near the end of September, 1737, 
in presence of Mr. Eastburn, surveyor-general, and Timothy 
Smith, sheriff of Bucks County. The following account of 
the walk, given by Thomas Furniss, an eye-witness, is contained 
in the " Enquiry into the Causes," &c. : — 

" At the time of the walk, I was a dweller at Newton, and a 
near neighbor to James Yeates. My situation gave him an easy 
opportunity of acquainting me with the time of setting out, as 
it did me of hearing the different sentiments of the neighbor- 
hood concerning the walk ; some alleging it was made by the 
river, others that it was tb be gone upon a straight line from 
somewhere in Wrightstown, opposite to a spruce-tree on the 
river's bank, said to be a boundary to a former purchase. When 


the walkers started, I was a little behind, but was informed they 
proceeded from a chestnut-tree near the turning out of the road 
from Durham road to John Chapman's, and, being on horse- 
back, overtook them before they reached Buckingham, and kept 
company for some distance beyond the Blue Mountains, though 
not quite to the end of the journey. Two Indians attended, 
whom I considered as deputies appointed by the Delaware 
nation to see the walk honestly performed. One of them re- 
peatedly expressed his dissatisfaction therewith. The first day 
of the walk, before we reached Durham cr., where we dined in 
the meadows of one Wilson, an Indian trader, the Indian said 
the walk was to have been made up the river; and, complaining 
of the unfitness of his shoe-packs for travelling, said he ex- 
pected Thomas Penn would have made him a present of some 
shoes. After this, some of us that had horses walked, and let 
the Indians ride by turns ; yet in the afternoon of the same 
day, and some hours before sunset, the Indians left us, having 
often called to Marshall that afternoon, and forbid him to run. 
At parting, they appeared dissatisfied, and said they would go 
no further with us ; for, as they saw the walkers would pass all 
the good land, they did not care how far or where we went to. 
It was said we travelled twelve hours the first day; and it being 
in the latter end of September, or beginning of October, to 
complete the time were obliged to walk in the twilight. Tim- 
othy Smith, then sheriff of Bucks, held his watch for some 
minutes before we stopped ; and, the walkers having a piece of 
rising ground to ascend, he called out to them, telling the min- 
utes behind, and bid them pull up ; wliich they did so briskly, 
that, immediately upon his saying the time was out, Marshall 
clasped his arms about a sapling to support himself. There- 
upon, the sheriff asking him what was the matter, he said he 
was almost gone, and that, if he had proceeded a few poles fur- 
ther, he must have fallen. We lodged in the woods that night, 
and heard the shouting of the Indians at a cantico, which they 
were said to hold that evening, in a town hard by. Next morn- 
ing the Indians were sent to, to know if they would accompany 
us any further; but they declined it, although I believe some 
of them came to us before we started, and drank a dram in the 


company, and then straggled off about their hunting, or some 
other amusement. In our return we came through this Indian 
town or plantation, Timothy Smith and myself riding forty 
yards, more or less, before the company. And as we approached 
within about one hundred and fifty paces of the town, the 
woods being open, we saw an Indian take his gun in his hand, 
and, advancing towards us some distance, placed himself behind 
a log that laid by our way. Timothy observing his motions, 
and being somewhat surprised, as I apprehended, looked at me, 
and asked what I thought that Indian meant. I said I hoped 
no hartn, and that I thought it best to keep on ; which the In- 
dian seeing, he arose, and walked before us to the settlement. 
I think Smith was surprised, as I well remember I was, through 
a consciousness that the Indians were dissatified with the walk, 
— a thing the whole company seemed to be sensible of, and 
upon the way, in our return home, frequently expressed them- 
selves to that purpose. And, indeed, the unfairness practised 
in the walk, both in regard to the way where, and the manner 
how, it was performed, and the dissatisfaction of the Indians 
concerning it, were the common subjects of conversation in our 
neighborhood for some considerable time after it was done. 
When the walk was performed, I was a young man, in the prime 
of life. The novelty of the thing inclined me to be a spec- 
tator; and, as I had been brought up most of my time in Bur- 
lington, the whole transaction to me was a series of occurrences 
almost entirely new ; and which, therefore, I apprehend, made 
the more strong and lasting impression on my memory." 

The person who performed this walk was Edward Marshall ; 
and his son gave the following account of it as he had received 
it from his father, to Mr. John Watson, author of the " Annals 
of Philadelphia:" — 

44 That in the year 1733 notice was given in the public papers, 
that the remaining day and a half s walk was to be made, and 
offering five hundred acres of land anywhere in the purchase, and 
five pounds in money, to the person who should attend, and 
walk the farthest in the given time. By previous agreement, 
the governor was to select three white persons, and the Indians, 
a like number of their own nation. The persons employed by 


the governor were Edward Marshall, James Yeates, and Solomon 
Jennings. One of the Indians was called Combush; but he has 
forgotten the names of the other two. 

" That about the 20th of September (or when the days and 
nights are equal), in the year aforesaid, they met before sunrise, 
at the old chestnut-tree below Wrightstown meeting-house, to- 
gether with a great number of persons as spectators. The walk- 
ers all stood with one hand against the tree, until the sun rose, 
and then started. In two hours and a half, they arrived at Red 
Hill, in Bedminster, where Jennings and two of the Indians 
gave out. The other Indian (Combush) continued with them 
to near where the road forks, at Easton, where ho laid down a 
short time to rest, but, on getting up, was unable to proceed 
farther. Marshall and Yeates proceeded on, and arrived, at 
sundown, on the north side of the Blue Mountain. They 
started again next morning, at sunrise. While crossing a stream 
of water, at the foot of the mountain, Yeates became faint, and 
fell. Marshall turned back, and supported him until others 
came to his relief, and then continued the walk alone, and 
arrived at noon on a spur of the Second or Broad Mountain, 
estimated to bo eighty-six miles from the place of starting, at 
the chestnut-tree below Wrightston meeting-house. 

He says, " They walked from sunrise to sunset without stop- 
ping, provisions and refreshments having been previously provid- 
ed, at different places along the road and line that had been run 
and marked for them to walk by, to the top of the Blue Moun- 
tain ; and persons also attended on horseback, by relays, with 
liquors of several kinds. When they arrived at the Blue Moun- 
tain, they found a great number of Indians collected, expecting 
the walk would there end ; but, when they found it was to go 
half a day farther, they were very angry, and said they were 
cheated. Penn had got all their good land, but that in the 
spring every Indian was to bring him a buckskin, and they would 
have their land again, and Penn might go to the devil with his 
poor land. An old Indian said, * No sit down to smoke, no 
shoot a squirrel, but lun, lun, lun, all day long.' " 

He says his " father never received any reward for the walk, 
although the governor frequently promised to have the five 


hundred acres of land run out for him, and to which he was 
justly entitled." l 

Every thing connected with this walk, so far as John and 
Thomas, the sons of William Penn, and the other whites con- 
cerned in it, exhibits a greedy and overreaching disposition ; 
yet in Hazard's Register, an attempt is made to prove that the 
Indian walk was a fair and honorable transaction. 2 It may be 
creditable to the Quakers to state that all William Perm's 
family had left that denomination at this time. 

It is stated, that " on the 13th of October, 1763, John Penn, 
grandson of William Penn, and son of Richard, arrived from 
England as lieutenant-governor." As governor, he made 
vigorous efforts to carry on a war with the Indians ; and in 
July, 1764, this grandson of William Penn, in the city of 
Philadelphia, offered by proclamation the following bounties 
for the capture, or scalp and death, of Indians : " For every 
male above the age of ten years, captured, a hundred and fifty 
dollars ; scalped, being killed, a hundred and thirty-four dollars ; 
for every female Indian enemy, and every male under the age 
of ten years, captured, a hundred and thirty dollars ; for every 
female above the age of ten years, scalped, being killed, fifty 
dollars." 3 

To return to William Penn, from our digression to illustrate 
measuring land by walks, he fixed upon the site of his city, at 
Coaquannoc, and directed Thomas Holme, surveyor-general 
for the Province, to lay it out in the following order : — 

44 There were to be two large streets, the one fronting the 
Delaware on the east, and the other the Schuylkill on the 
west, of a mile in length. A third, to be called High Street, 
of one hundred feet broad, was to run directly through the 
middle of the city, so as to communicate with the streets now 
mentioned, at right angles ; that is, it was to run through the 
middle, from river to river, or from east to west. A fourth, of 
the same breadth, to be called Broad Street, was to run through 
the middle also, but to intersect High Street at right angles, 
or to run from north to south. Eight streets, fifty feet wide, 

1 Day's History of Pennsylvania, vol. ii. p. 500. * See Begister v yoL vi p. 837. 

• Gordon, p. 438. 



were to be built parallel to High Street, that is, from river to 
river ; and twenty, of the like width, parallel to Broad Street, 
that is, to cross the former from side to side. The streets 
running from east to west were to be named according to their 
numerical order, such as First, Second and Third Street ; and 
those from north to south, according to the woods of the 
country, such as Vine, Spruce, Pine, Sassafras, Cedar, and 
others. There was to be a square of ten acres, in the middle 
of the city, each comer of which was to be reserved for public 
offices." He also ordered a house to be built for himself in the 


town. The house is still standing in Letitia Court, the entrance 
of which is in Market Street, between Front and Second 
Streets ; and it is probably the oldest house in Philadelphia. 

It was about this time that he had a country-house built for 
him, at a place called Pennsbury, in Bucks County, on the 
margin of the Delaware River. It was built at great expense 
for that day, costing seven thousand pounds, and having con- 
siderable of the most finished or ornamental materials brought 
out from England. It was sixty feet in front by forty feet in 
depth. The garden, an ornamental and sloping one, lay along 


the river-side in front of it ; and numerous offices were in a 
front line with the dwelling. 

The city thus laid out William Penn named Philadelphia, 
composed of two Greek words, meaning Brotherly Love, 
He then proceeded to divide his Province and territories into 
counties; the Province containing Philadelphia, Bucks, and 
Chester ; the territories, New Castle, Kent, and Sussex ; after 
which he marked out townships, and laid out lots, of the latter, 
reserving a thousand acres for his friend George Fox, as a 
testimonial of respect. 

At this time William Penn wrote a letter to one of his 
detractors, in which he defends himself with considerable 
spirit, from which the following is extracted : — 

44 Keep," says he, " thy place. I am in mine. I am not 
sitting down in a greatness which I have denied. Had I 
indeed sought greatness, I had staid at home, where the differ- 
ence between what I am here, and what was offered, and I 
could have been there in power and wealth, is as wide as the 
places are. No : I came for the Lord's sake ; and therefore 
have I stood to this day, well and diligent and successful: 
blessed be his power ! Nor shall I trouble myself to tell thee 
what I am to the people of this place in travails, watchings, 
spendings, and to my servahts every way freely, not like a 
selfish man." 

Thus it is seen that William Penn, with all his meekness, 
charity, and pacific principles, was neither afraid nor ashamed 
to assert his own rights, and to tell his antagonist, as plainly as 
a Quaker could well do, to " mind his own business." 

Having transacted much business, taken legal possession of 
his Province, united the territories to it, made a formal treaty 
in person with the Indians, held two general assemblies, given 
laws to the people, established courts and trial by jury, and 
laid out the city of Philadelphia, he embarked for his native 
land on the 12th of August, 1684, and arrived safely in England 
the 3d or 4th of October. 

No man could have accomplished more for the good of his 
Quakers, and the prosperity of his Province, in the short space 
of two years. The immediate cause for his departure was 

VA xsrxmr «r tss33tztj&-m. 

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William Penn's Letter — Persons of the Indians — Their Language — Customs 
and Manners — Religion — Government — Origin — Dr. Rush's Account — 
Of their Children — Food — Customs of Women — Employment of Men — 
Common Customs — Diseases — Small-Pox and Venereal Imported — Reme- 
dies — Indian Speeches. 

AFTER consulting various historians of that day, no better 
description of this peculiar people has been found than 
that given by William Penn, in a letter to the Free Society of 
Traders of Pennsylvania, dated Aug. 16, 1683. His language 
is as follows : — 


44 They are generally tall, straight, well built, and of singu- 
lar proportion. They tread strong and clever, and mostly 
walk with a lofty chin. Of complexion black, but by design, 
as the gypsies in England. They grease themselves with bear's 
fat, clarified ; and, using no defence against sun and weather, 
their skin must needs be swarthy. Their eye is little and 
black, not unlike a straight-looked Jew. The thick lip and 
flat nose so frequent with the East Indians and blacks are not 
common to them ; for I have seen as comely, European-like 
faces among them, of both sexes, as on your side of the sea : 
and truly an Italian complexion hath not much more of the 
white ; and the noses of several of them have as much of the 


44 Their language is lofty, yet narrow, but, like the Hebrew 
in signification, full. Like short-hand in writing, one word 



serveth in the place of three, and the rest are supplied by the 
understanding of the hearer ; imperfect in their tenses, wanting 
in their moods, participles, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections. 
I have made it my business to understand it, that I might not 
want an interpreter on any occasion ; and I must say that I 
know not a language spoken in Europe, that hath words of more 
sweetness and greatness, in accent and emphasis, than theirs ; 
for instance, Octocockon, Rancocas, Oricton, Shak, Marian, 
Poquesien, all of which arenames of places, and have grandeur 
in them. Of words of sweetness, anna is ' mother ; ' issimus, a 
4 brother ; ' neteap, * friend ; ' tuiqueoret, 4 very good ; ' pane, 
4 bread ; ' metsa, 4 eat ; ' matta^ 4 no ; ' hatta, 4 to have ; ' payo % 
4 to come ; * Sepassen, Passijou, the names of places ; Tamane, 
Secane, Mcnause, Secatarcus, are the names of persons. If one 
ask them for any thing they have not, 4 Malta ne hattaj which 
to translate is, ' Not I have/ instead of ' I have not.' 


44 Of their customs and manners there is much to be said. I 
will begin with children. So soon as they are born, they wash 
them in water ; and while very young, and in cold weather to 
choose, they plunge them in the rivers to harden and embolden 
them. Having lapt them in a clout, they lay them on a 
strait thin board a little more than the length and breadth 
of the child, and swaddle it fast upon the board to make it 
straight : wherefore all Indians have flat heads ; and thus they 
carry them at their backs. The children will go very young, — 
at nine months commonly. They wear only a small clout 
round their waist till they are big. If boys, they go a-fishing, 
till ripe for the woods, which is about fifteen ; then they hunt ; 
and, having given some proofs of their manhood by a good 
return of skins, they may marry ; else it is a shame to think of 
a wife. The girls stay with their mothers, and help to hoe the 
ground, plant corn, and carry burdens ; and they do well to 
use them to that while young which they must do when they 
are old ; for the wives are the true servants of the husbands : 
otherwise the men are very affectionate to them. 

44 When the young women are fit for marriage, they wear. 


something upon their heads for an advertisement, but so as 
their faces are hardly to be seen but when they please. The 
age they marry at, if women, is about thirteen and fourteen ; 
if men, seventeen and eighteen. They are rarely older. 

44 Their houses are mats, or barks of trees, set on poles, in the 
fashion of an English barn, but out of the power o£the winds ; 
for they are hardly higher than a man. They lie on reeds and 
grasses. In travel, they lodge in the woods, about a great fire, 
with the mantle of duffils they wear by day wrapped about 
them, and a few boughs stuck round them. 

44 Their diet is maize or Indian corn, divers ways prepared, — 
sometimes roasted in the ashes, sometimes beaten and boiled 
with water, which they call homine. They also make cakes 
not unpleasant to eat. They have, likewise, several sorts of 
beans and peas that are good nourishment ; and the woods and 
river are their larder. 

44 If a European comes to see them, or calls for lodging at 
their house or wigwam, they give him the best place and the 
first cut. If they come to visit us, they salute us with an 
4 Itah,' which is as much as to say, ' Good be to you ! ' and set 
them down, which is mostly on the ground, close to their heels, 
their legs upright: it may be they speak not a word, but 
observe all passages. If you give them any thing to eat or 
drink, well, for they will not ask for it ; and be it little or 
much, if it be with kindness, they are well pleased : else they 
go away sullen, but say nothing. 

44 They are great concealers of their own resentments, 
brought to it, I believe, by the revenge that hath been prac- 
tised among them. In either of these they are not exceeded 
by the Italians. A tragical instance fell out since I came into 
the country. A king's daughter, thinking herself slighted by 
her husband in suffering another woman to lie down between 
them, rose up, went out, plucked a root out of the ground 
and ate it, upon which she immediately died, and for which 
he, last week, made an offering to her kindred for atonement 
and liberty of marriage, as two others did to the kindred of 
their wives, who died a natural death ; for, till widowers have 
done so, they must not marry again. 


" Bat in liberality they excel. Nothing is too good for their 
friend. Give them a fine gun, coat, or other thing, it may pass 
twenty hands before it sticks ; light of heart, strong affections, 
bnt soon spent; the most merry creatures that lire. They feast 
and dance perpetually. They never have much, nor want much. 
Wealth cifculateth like the blood. All parts partake; and, 
though none shall want what another hath, yet exact observers 
of property. Some kings have sold, others presented me with, 
several parcels of land. The pay or presents I made them 
were not hoarded by the particular owners ; but, the neighbor- 
ing kings and their clans being present when the goods were 
brought out, the parties chiefly concerned consulted what, and 
to whom they should give them. To every king, then, by the 
hands of a person for that work appointed, is a proportion sent, 
so sorted and folded, and with that gravity which is admirable. 
Then that king subdivideth it in like manner among his de- 
pendents, they hardly leaving themselves an equal share with 
one of their subjects ; and be it on such occasions as festivals, 
or at their common meals, the kings distribute, and to them- 
selves last. They care for little, because they want but little ; 
and the reason is, a little contents them. In this they are suffi- 
ciently revenged on us. If they are ignorant of our pleasures, 
they are also free from our pains. They are not disquieted 
with bills of lading and exchange, nor perplexed with chancery- 
suits and exchequer-reckonings. We sweat and toil to live. 
Their pleasure feeds them : I mean their hunting, fishing, and 
fowling, and this table is spread everywhere. They eat twice 
a day, — morning and evening. Their seats and table are the 
ground. Since the Europeans came into these parts, they are 
grown great lovers of strong liquors, rum especially, and for it 
exchange the richest of their skins and furs. If they are treated 
with liquor, they are restless till they have enough to sleep. 
That is their cry, 4 Some more, and I will go to sleep ; ' but, 
when drunk, one of the most wretched spectacles in the world. 

u In sickness, impatient to be cured, and for it give any thing 
especially for their children, to whom they are extremely natu- 
ral. They drink at those times a teran, or decoction of some 
roots in spring water ; and, if they eat any flesh, it must be of 


the female of any creature. If they die, they bury them with 
their apparel, be they man or woman ; and the nearest of kin 
fling in something precious with them as a token of their love. 
Their mourning is blacking of their faces, which they continue 
for a year. They are choice of the graves of their dead ; for, 
lest they should be lost by time, and fall to common use, they 
pick off the grass that grows upon them, and heap up the 
fallen earth with great care and exactness. 


44 These poor people are under a dark night in things relating 
to religion (to be sure the tradition of it) ; yet they believe a 
God and immortality, without the help of metaphysics: for 
they say there is a great King, who made them, who dwells in 
a glorious country to the southward of them ; and that the 
souls of the good shall go thither, where they shall live again. 
Their worship consists of two parts, — sacrifice and cantico. 
Their sacrifice is their first-fruits. ,, [This custom of bringing 
their first-fruits seems to confirm the opinion of Governor Bou- 
dinot, Penn, and others, that those Indians were really 
descended from the "lost ten tribes " of Israel, — the first of 
their corn, and of their wine, the first cake of their dough, the 
first of their flocks, and those without blemish, all those they 
were to offer in sacrifice to the Lord, — how well does this 
comport with these poor deluded savages offering the finest and 
fattest bullocks as well as the first of all their produce ? Who, 
then, can doubt that these were the old Israelites, thus degraded 
for their apostacy from God?] "The first and fattest buck 
they kill goeth to the fire, where he is all burned, with a 
mournful ditty of him who performeth the ceremony, but with 
such marvellous fervency and labor of body, that he will even 
sweat to a foam. The other part is their cantico, performed 
by round dances, sometimes words, sometimes songs, then 
shouts ; two being in the middle, who begin, and by singing, 
and drumming on a board, direct the chorus. Their postures 
in the dance are very antic and differing ; but all keep measure. 
This is done with equal . earnestness and labor, but great 
appearance of joy. In the fall, when the corn cometh in, they 


begin to feast one another. There have been two great festi- 
vals already, to which all como that will. I was at one myself. 
Their entertainment was a great seat by a spring nnder some 
shady trees, and twenty bucks, with hot cakes of new corn, 
both wheat and beans, which they make up in a square form, 
in the leaves of the stem, and bake them in the ashes, and, 
after that, they fall to dance. But they who go must carry a 
small present in their money ; it may be sixpence, which is 
made of the bone of a fish. The black is with them as gold ; 
the white, silver : they call it wampum. 


44 Their government is by kings, which they call Sachama, 
and those by succession, but 'always of the mother's side. For 
instance, the children of him who is now king will not succeed, 
but his brother by the mother, or the children of his sister, 
whose sons (and after them the children of her daughters) will 
reign, for no woman inherits. The reason they render for this 
way of descent is, that their issue may not be spurious. 

44 Every king hath his council ; and that consists of all the 
old and wise men of his nation, which, perhaps, is two hundred 
people. Nothing of moment is undertaken — be it war, peace, 
selling of land, or traffic — without advising with them, and, 
which is more, with the young men too. It is admirable to 
consider how powerful the kings are, and yet how they move 
by the breath of the people. I have had occasion to be 
in council with them upon treaties for land, and to adjust 
the terms of trade. Their order is thus : the king sits in the 
middle of a half-moon, and has his council, the old and the 
wise, on each hand. Behind them, or at a little distance, sit 
the younger fry, in the same figure. Having consulted, and 
resolved their business, the king ordered one of them to speak 
to me. He stood up, came to me, and, in the name of his 
king, saluted me ; then took me by the hand, and told me that 
he was ordered by his king to speak to me, and that now it 
was not he, but the king, who spoke, because what he should 
say was the king's mind. He first prayed me to excuse them, 
that they had not complied with me the last time. He feared 


there might be some fault in the interpreter, being neither 
Indian nor English. Besides, it was the Indian custom to 
deliberate, and take up much time in council, before they 
resolved ; and that, if the young people and owners of the land 
had been as ready as he, I had not met with so much delay. 
Haying thus introduced his matter, he fell to the bounds of 
the land they had agreed to dispose of, and the price, which 
now is little and dear ; that which would have bought twenty 
miles now buying two. During the time' that this person 
spoke, not a man of them was observed to whisper or smile, — 
the old grave, the young reverent in their deportment. They 
speak little, but fervently, and with elegance. I have never 
seen more natural sagacity, considering them without the help 
(I was going to say the spoil) of tradition; and he will deserve 
the name of wise, who outwits them in any treaty about a 
thing they understand. When the purchase was agreed, great 
promises passed between us of kindness and good neighborhood, 
and that the English and Indians must live in love as long as 
the sun gave light ; which done, another made a speech to the 
Indians, in the name of all the Sachamakers, or kings, first to 
tell them what was done, next to charge and command them 
to love the Christians, and particularly to live in peace with 
me, and the people under my government ; that many governors 
had been in the river, but that no governor had come himself 
to live tod stay there before ; and having now such an one, 
who had treated them well, they should never do him or his 
any wrong ; at every sentence of which they shouted, and said 
Amen, in their way. 

44 The justice they have is pecuniary. In case of any wrong 
or evil fact, be it murder itself, they atone by feasts, and 
presents of their wampum, which is proportioned to the quality 
of their offence, or person injured, or of the sex they are of. 
For, in case they kill a woman, they pay double; and the 
reason they render is, 4 that she breedeth children, which men 
cannot do/ It is rare that they fall out, if sober ; and, if 
drunk, they forgive, saying 4 It was the drink, and not the 
man, that abused them.' 

44 We have agreed, that, in all differences between us, six of 


each side shall end the matter. Do not abuse them, but let 
them have justice, and you win them. The worst is, that they 
are the worse for the Christians, who have propagated their 
vices, and yielded them tradition for ill, and not for good 
things. But as low an ebb as these people are at, and as 
inglorious as their own condition looks, the Christians have not 
outlived their sight with all their pretensions to a higher mani- 
festation. What good, then, might not a good people graft, 
where there is so distinct a knowledge left of good and evil f I 
beseech God to incline the hearts of all that come into these 
parts to outlive the knowledge of the natives by a fixed obedi- 
ence to their greater knowledge of the will of God ; for it were 
miserable indeed for us to fall under the just censure of the 
poor Indian conscience, while we make profession of things so 
far transcending. 


" For their original I am ready to believe them of the Jewish 
race, I mean of the stock of the ten tribes, and that for the 
following reasons : first, they were to go to a land not planted 
nor known, which, to be sure, Asia and Africa were, if not 
Europe ; and he who intended that extraordinary judgment 
upon them might make the passage not uneasy to them, as it 
is not impossible in itself from the easternmost parts of Asia to 
the westernmost of America. In the next place, I find them of 
the like countenance, and their children of so lively resem- 
blance, that a man would think himself in Duke's Place or 
Berry Street, in London, when he seeth them. But this is not 
all : they agree in rites ; they reckon by moons ; they offer their 
first-fruits ; they have a kind of feast of tabernacles ; they are 
said to lay their altar upon twelve stones; their mourning a 
year ; customs of women ; with many other things that do not 
now occur." 

A century and a quarter after William Penn wrote the 
above, Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia, the most distin- 
guished physician of his day, and perhaps the most eminent 
one America has ever produced, wrote his u Natural History 
of Medicine among the Indians," which is, as its title implies, 


a treatise upon the prevalent diseases of this barbarous people, 
and the remedies used by them. It would seem, from his 
statement, that a great change must have taken place, in some 
respects, in the habits and customs of this people, especially in 
reference to the time of their marriages, which, as is seen 
above, Penn puts at thirteen or fourteen for the female, arid 
seventeen for the male, but which Rush says does not occur 
until the female is eighteen or twenty, and the male thirty. 
Dr. Rush thus continues in his treatise : — 


"A child born of healthy parents always brings into the 
world a system formed by nature to resist the causes of diseases. 
The treatment of children among the Indians tends to secure 
this hereditary firmness of constitution. Their first food is 
their mother's milk. To harden them against the action of 
heat and cold (the natural enemies of health and life among 
the Indians), they are plunged every day into cold water. In 
order to facilitate their being moved from place to place, and, 
at the same time, to preserve their shape, they arc tied to a 
board, where they lie on their backs for six, ten, or eighteen 
months. A child generally sucks its mother till it is two years 
old, and sometimes longer. It is easy to conceive how much 
vigor their bodies must acquire from this simple but whole- 
some nourishment. 


44 The diet of the Indians is of a mixed nature, partly animal, 
and partly vegetable. Their animals are wild, and therefore 
easy of digestion. In summer, they live more upon fish than 
land animals. Their vegetables consist of roots and fruits, 
mild in themselves, or capable of being made so by the action 
of fire. I cannot find that they used salt in their diet until 
instructed to do so by the Europeans. The small quantity of 
fixed alkali contained in the ashes on which they roasted their 
meat could not add much to its stimulating quality. They 
preserve their meat from putrefaction, by cutting it in small 
pieces, and exposing it, in summer to the sun, and in winter to 


the frost. In dressing their meat, they are careful to preserve 
its juices. They generally prefer it in the form of soups. 
Hence we find, that among them the use of the spoon pre- 
ceded that of the knife and fork. They take the same pains 
to preserve the juice of their meat when they roast it, by 
turning it often. 

44 They have no set time for eating, but obey the gentle appe- 
tites of nature as often as they are called by them. After 
whole days spent in the chase or in war, they often commit 
those excesses in eating, to which long abstinence cannot fail 
of prompting them. It is common to see them spend three or 
four hours in satisfying their hunger ; which is occasioned, not 
more by the quantity they eat than by the pains they take in 
masticating it. They carefully avoid drinking water in their 
marches, from an opinion that it lessens their ability to bear 


44 The women are doomed by their husbands to such domestic 
labor as gives a firmness to their bodies, bordering upon the 
masculine. They do not become women until they are eigh- 
teen or twenty, at which age, as we said above, they are mar- 
riageable; and the constitution has thus acquired a vigor, 
which enables it better to support child-bearing. This 
custom of late marriages likewise' guards against a premature 
old age. Where marriages are unfruitful (which is seldom the 
case), a separation is obtained by means of an easy divorce ; so 
that they are unacquainted with the disquietudes which some- 
times arise from barrenness. During pregnancy, the women 
are exempted frpm the moro laborious parts of their duty: 
hence miscarriages rarely happen among them. Nature is their 
only midwife. Their labors are short, and accompanied with 
little pain. Each woman is delivered in a private cabin, with- 
out so much as one of her own sex to attend her. After 
washing herself in cold water, she returns in a few days to her 
usual employments; so that she knows nothing of those 
accidents which proceed from the carelessness or ill manage- 
ment of midwives, or those weaknesses which arise from a 
month's confinement in a warm room. 



" The customs peculiar to the Indian men consist chiefly in 
those employments which are necessary to preserve animal life, 
and to defend their nation. These employments are hunting 
and war, each of which is conducted in a manner that tends to 
call forth every fibre into exercise, and to insure them the 
possession of the utmost health. In times of plenty and peace, 
we see them sometimes rising from their beloved indolence, 
and shaking off its influence by the salutary exercises of dan- 
cing and swimming. As the Indian men seldom marry before 
they are thirty years of age, they, no doubt, derive considerable 
vigor from this custom ; for, while they are secured by it from 
the enervating effects of the premature dalliance of love, they 
may insure more certain fruitfulness to their wives, and entail 
more certain health upon their children. 

44 Among the Indian men, it is deemed a mark of heroism to 
bear the most exquisite pain without complaining ; upon this 
account they early inure themselves to burning part of their 
bodies with fire, or cutting them with sharp instruments. No 
young man can be admitted to the honors of" manhood or war, 
who has not acquitted himself well in these trials of patience 
and fortitude. 


" These are painting, and the use of the cold bath. The 
practice of anointing the body with oil is common to the 
savages of all countries. In warm climates, it is said to 
promote longevity, by checking excessive perspiration. The 
Indians generally tise bear's grease, mixed with a clay 
which bears the greatest resemblance to the color of their 
skins. This pigment serves to lessen the sensibility of the 
extremity of the nerves : it, moreover, fortifies them against the 
action of exhalations, which are a considerable source of their 
diseases. The cold bath likewise fortifies the body, and renders 
it less subject to those diseases which arise from the extremes 
tod vicissitudes of heat and cold. It is a practice among the 
Indiana never to drink before dinner, when they work or travel. 



" The state of society among the Indians excludes the influ- 
ence of most of those passions which disorder the body. The 
turbulent effects of anger are concealed in deep and lasting 
resentments. Envy and ambition are excluded by their 
equality of power and property. 

44 Nor is it necessary that the perfections of the whole sex 
should be ascribed to one, to induce them to marry. 4 The 
weakness of love ' (says Dr. Adam Smith), 4 which is so much 
indulged in ages of humanity and politeness, is regarded among 
savages as the most unpardonable effeminacy. A young man 
would think himself disgraced forever, if he showed the least 
preference of one woman above another, or did not express 
the most complete indifference, both about the time when, and 
the person to whom, he was to be married.' 

44 It is remarkable that there are no deformed Indians. Some 
have suspected, from this circumstance, that they put their 
deformed children to death ; but Nature here acts the part of 
an unnatural mother. The severity of the Indian manners 
destroys them. 

44 The marks of old age appear more early among Indian 
than among civilized nations. 

44 The circulation of the blood is more languid in the Indians 
than in persons who are in the constant exercise of the habits 
of civilized life. Out of eight Indian men whose pulses I 
once examined at the wrists, I did not meet with one in whom 
the artery beat more than sixty strokes in a minute. 


44 We need only recollect the custom, among the Indians, of 
sleeping in the open air in a variable climate, the alternate 
action of heat and cold upon their bodies (to which the warmth 
of their cabins exposes them), their long marches, their exces- 
sive exercise, their intemperance in eating (to which their long 
fasting, and their public feasts, naturally prompt them), and, 
lastly, the vicinity of their habitations to the banks of rivers, 
in order to discover the empire of diseases among them, in 
every stage of their lives. They have in vain attempted to 



elude the general laws of mortality, while their mode of life 
subjects them to these remote but certain causes of diseases. 

"Fevers constitute the only diseases among the Indians, 
which are occasioned by the insensible qualities of the air. 
The dysenteby comes under the head of fevers. They are 
subject to animal and vegetable poisons, which produce, 
when they do not bring on sudden death, either a common 
inflamatory or a malignant fever, according to their force. 

44 The small-pox and the venereal disease were commu- 
nicated to the Indians of North America by the Europeans. | 
Nor can I find that they were ever subject to the scurvy*. 
Whether this was obviated by their method of preserving their 
flesh, or by their mixing it at all times with vegetables, I shall 
not undertake to determine. Their peculiar customs and man- 
ners seem to have exempted them from this, as well as from 
the common diseases of the skin. I have heard of two or 
three cases of the gout among the Indians ; but it was only 
among those who had learned the use of rum from the white 
people. After much inquiry, I have not been able to find a 
single instance of fatuity among the Indians, and but few 
instances of melancholy and madness ; nor can I find any 
accounts of diseases from worms among them. Nor is denti- 
tion accompanied by disease among the Indians. They appear, 
also, to be strangers to diseases and pains in the teeth. The 
employments of the Indians subject them to many accidents : 
hence we sometimes read of wounds, fractures, and luxa- 
tions among them. 


" These, like their diseases, are simple, and few in number. 
Among the first of them we shall mention the powers of 
Nature. Fevers, we said formerly, constituted the chief of 
the diseases among the Indians: they are, likewise, in the 
hands of Nature, the principal instruments to remove the evils 
which threaten her dissolution. But the event of these efforts 
of Nature, no doubt, soon convinced the Indians of the danger 
of trusting her in all cases ; and hence, in the earliest accounts 
we have of their manners, we read of persons who were in- 
trusted with the office of physicians. 


" It will be difficult to find put the exact order in which the 
Indian remedies were suggested by Nature, or discovered by 
Art; nor will it be easy to arrange them in proper order. I 
shall, however, attempt it, by reducing them to natural and 


44 To the class of natural remedies belongs the Indian 
practice of abstracting from their patients all kinds of stimu- 
lating aliment. The compliance of the Indians with the dic- 
tates of Nature, in the early stage of a disease, no doubt pre- 
vents, in many cases, their being obliged to use any other 
remedy. They follow Nature still closer, in allowing their 
patients to drink plentifully of cold water; this being the only 
liquor a patient calls for in a fever. ' 

"Sweating is likewise a natural remedy. It was probably 
suggested by observing fevers to be terminated by it. Their 
mode of preparing this evacuation is as follows : the patient is 
confined in a close tent, or wigwam, over a hole in the earth, 
in which a red-hot stone is placed; a quantity of water is 
thrown upon this stone, which instantly involves the -patient in 
a cloud of vapor and sweat ; in this situation he rushes out, 
and plunges himself into a river, from whence he retires to his 
bed. If the remedy has been used with success, he rises from 
his bed, in four and twenty hours, perfectly recovered from his 
indisposition. This remedy is used, not only to cure fevers, but 
remove that uneasiness which arises from fatigue of body. A 
third natural remedy among the Indians is purging. Vomits 
constitute their fourth natural remedy. They were probably, 
like the former, suggested by nature and accident. The ipecacu- 
anha is one of the many roots they employ for that purpose. 

44 The artificial remedies made use of by the Indians are 
bleeding, caustics, and astringent medicines. They con- 
fine bleeding to the part affected. Sharp stones and thorns are 
the instruments they use to procure a discharge of blood. 

44 We have an account of the Indians using something like a 
potential caustic in obstinate pains. It consists of a piece 
of rotten-wood, called punk, which they place upon the part 
affected, and afterwards set it on fire. The fire gradually con- 
sumes the wood, and its ashes burn a hole in the flesh. 


•« The undue efforts of Nature, in those fevers which are con- 
nected with a diarrhoea or dysentery, together with those 
hemorrhages to which their mode of life exposed them, neces- 
sarily led them to an early discovery of some Astringent 
vegetables. I am tdfcertain whether the Indians rely upon 
astringent or any other vegetables, for the cure of the inter- 
mitting fever. This diaease among them probably requires no 
other remedies than the cold bath, or cold air. 

44 We said, formerly, that the Indians were subject to acci- 
dents, such as wounds, fractures, and the like. In these cases, 
Nature performs the office of a surgeon. Those ulcers which 
require the assistance of mercjiry, bark, and a particular regi- 
men, are unknown to the Indians. The hemorrhages which 
sometimes follow their wounds are restrained by plunging 
themselves into cold water, thereby producing a constriction 
upon the bleeding vessels. 

M Their practice of attempting to recover deowned people 
is irrational and unsuccessful. It consists in suspending the 
patient by the heels, in order that the water may flow from his 
mouth. This practice is founded on a belief that the patient 
dies from swallowing an excessive quantity of water." 

Dr. Rush speaks very favorably of the Indian moccasons ; and 
eases are referred to, in which the feet of those wearing shoes 
were frozen, while those who wore moccasons escaped unin- 
jured. If attacked with small-pox, they plunge themselves in 
cold water, which often proves fatal. He has heard of their 
performing several remarkable cures upon stiff joints by an 
infusion of herbs in water. He thinks there cannot be a 
stronger evidence of their ignorance than by their having 
recourse to enchantment to cure diseases. 

In the preceding quotation from William Penn's letter, 
reference was had to their language ; and, as a specimen, we 
give the following eloquent speech, the first on record, made to 
the Europeans when they were about to take possession of their 
lands; which for beauty, simplicity, and comprehensiveness, 
surpasses many of the addresses of ancient or modern orators* 


"The Court-House cr Lancaster, 
June 20, 1744, p.m. 

"Present: Hon. George Thomas, Kt. Lieutenant-Governor 
of Pennsylvania, &c; the Hon. Commissioners of Virginia; 
the Hon. Commissioners of Maryland ; ^he Deputies of the Six 
Nations of Indians, Conrad Weiser, Interpreter. 

44 Canasatego, the Indians' spokesman, spoke as follows : — 

44 Brother, the Governor op Maryland, — When you 
spoke of the affair of the land yesterday, you went back to old 
times, and told us you had been in possession of the Province 
of Maryland above one hundred years. But what is one hun- 
dred years in comparison to the length of time since our claim 
began, — sinfce we came up out of this ground? For we must 
tell j r ou, that, long before one hundred years, our ancestors came 
out of this very ground, and their children have remained here 
ever since. You came out of the ground in a country that lies 
beyond seas : there you may have a just claim ; but here you 
must allow us to be your elder brethren, and the lands to belong 
to us long before you knew any thing of them. It is true, that, 
about one hundred years ago, a German ship came hither, and 
brought with them various articles, such as awls, knives hatchets, 
guns, and many other things, which they gave us. And when 
they had taught us to use these things, and we saw what kind 
of a people they were, we were so well pleased with them, that 
we tied their ships to the bushes on the shore. And afterwards, 
liking them still better, and the more the longer they stayed 
with us, thinking that the bushes were too weak, we changed 
the place of the rope, and fastened it to the trees. And as 
the trees might, be overthrown by a storm, or fall down of 
themselves (so strong was our friendship for them), we again 
changed the place of the rope, and bound it to a very strong 
rock. [Here the interpreter said, they mean the land of Onon- 
dago.] There we fastened it very securely, and rolled wam- 
pum arpund it. For still greater security, we stood upon the 
wampum, and sat upon it to fasten it and to prevent all injury ; 
and we took the greatest care to keep it uninjured for all time. 
As long as that stood, the newly arrived Germans recognized 
our right to the country, and from time to time urged us to 



give them portions of our land, and that they might enter into 
a union and treaty with us, and become one people with us." 2 

The following is selected from a sachem's address to his 

You chiefs and warriors, 
what advice do you give? 
What shall we do with the 
Swedes ? They have no cloth, 
red, blue, or brown. They 
have no kettles, no brass, no 
lead, no guns, no powder. 
They have nothing to sell to 
us; but the English and 
Dutch have got all sorts of 
good merchandise. 

Chijr Sacch&nan ock pijri 
Renappe chdkw rdie chijr? 
Tandarijton Achoores: matta 
hatte oquivan, matta Sinhus, 
matta Hopickan, matta punck, 
matta aritns, matta chekcS hatte 
marameu ; senaares hatte suh- 
vijvan hilritt. 

From the above account of these Indians, or savages as we 
call them, the thoughtful reader will be led to inquire, whether, 
on the whole, our boasted civilization contributes to either the 
health, happiness, or honesty of a people. 

1 Bee Beynolds'B Translation of AcreUus, p. 49. 



The Provincial Council— Officers commissioned by William Penn— Letter to 
Friends — Population of the Province — Appoints Secretary — Troubles in 
the Province — Letter to the Magistrates and Others — Nicholas Moore — 
New Commission — Thomas Lloyd retires — Appointed Deputy — Great 
Scare — Gov. Blackwell— First Public School — George Keith — Schism 
among the Quakers— Penn's Power revoked — Fletcher made Governor — 
Divisions — Fletcher retires — Appoints Markham — Government restored 
to Pcrin — Appoints Markham — Penn's Return — Gives Laws — Improves 
Philadelphia — House of Lords — Fears for his Government — Return to 

"TTTILLIAM PENN having returned to England in 1684 (as 
VV stated in chap, vi.), before leaving commissioned the 
Provincial Council to act in the government in his absence. 
This council had for its president Thomas Lloyd, who also had 
a commission to keep the great seal. Nicholas Moore, William 
Welch, William Wood, Robert Turner, and John Eckley were 
appointed Provincial judges for two years. These are the words 
of the commission : — 

44 William Penn, Proprietary and Governor of the Province of 
Pennsylvania, and territories thereunto belonging. 

44 To my trusty and loving friends, Nicholas Moore, William 
Welch, William Wood, Robert Turner, and John Eckley, greet- 

44 Reposing special confidence in your justice, wisdom, and 
integrity, I ^o, by virtue of the king's authority derived unto 
me, constitute you Provincial Judge* for the Province and ter- 
ritories, and any legal number of you a Provincial court of 
judicature, both fixt and circular, as is by law directed ; giving 
you, and every of you, full power to act therein according to 
us . 


the same, strictly charging you, and every of you, to do justice 
to all, and of all degrees, without delay, fear, or reward ; and I 
do hereby require all persons within the Province and territories 
aforesaid, to give you due obedience and respect belonging to 
your station, in the discharge of your duties. This commission 
to be in force during two years ensuing the date hereof ; you, 
and every of you, behaving yourselves well therein, and acting 
according to the same. 

44 Given at Philadelphia, the 4th of the sixth month, 1684, being 
the thirty-sixth year of the king's reign, and the fourth of my 
government, William Penn." 

Penn now empowered Thomas Lloyd, James Claypoole (form- 
erly a merchant in London), and Robert Turner, to sign war- 
rants, and grant patents for lands. He constituted William Clark 
justice of the peace throughout the Province and territories : 
he also appointed other justices, and left all things in the Prov- 
ince settled in a promising and prosperous condition. After 
going on board the ship, he wrote a most affectionate letter to 
Thomas Lloyd, J. Claypoole, F. Simcock, Charles Tayler, and 
F. Harrison, to be communicated in meeting in Pennsylvania. 
In this letter he says, " I bless you in the name and power of 
the Lord, and may God bless you with his righteousness, peace, 
and plenty, all the land over. Oh, now you are come to a quiet 
land, provoke not the Lord to trouble it ; and now liberty and 
authority are with you, in your hands. Truly, the name and 
honor of the Lord are deeply concerned in you as to the dis- 
charge of yourselves in your present stations. Many eyes are 
upon you ; and remember, that, as we have been belied about 
disowning the true religion, so, of all government, to behold us 
exemplary and Christian in the use of that will not only stop 
our enemies, but administer conviction to many on that acoount 

In this letter he adds, " And thou, Philadelphia, the virgin 
settlement of this Province, named before thou wert born, what 
care, what service, and what travail, has there been to bring thee 
forth, and preserve thee from such as would abuse and defile 


" Oh that thou mayst be kept from the evil that would over- 
whelm thee I that, faithful to the God of thy mercies, in the 
life of righteousness thou mayst be preserved to the end ! My 
soul prays to God for .thee, that thou mayst stand in the day of 
trial, that thy children may be blessed of the Lord, and thy 
people saved by his power. My love to thee has been great, and 
the remembrance of thee affects mine heart and mine eye. The 
God of eternal strength keep and preserve thee, to his glory 
and thy peace. 

" So, dear friends, my love again salutes you all, wishing that 
grace, mercy, and peace, with all temporal blessings, may abound 
richly among you. So says, so prays, your friend and lover in 
the truth." 

There were at this time ten Indian nations within the limits 
of his Province, and the number of souls of these barbarians 
was computed to be about six thousand : the number of inhab- 
itants of Swedish or Dutch extraction was about three thou- 
sand. He had made a league of amity with nineteen Indian 
nations, between them and all the English in America. At the 
time he addressed Philadelphia as above, it contained about 
three hundred houses, and twenty-five hundred souls. 1 

In a letter dated London, 18th first month, 1684-85, he author- 
ized the before-named council to commission his cousin, Wil- 
liam Markham, to be secretary of the Province and territories, 
and his secretary as proprietary. 

Although William Penn found things relative to himself and 
his Quakers very unpropitious upon his arrival in London, and 
had his hands full in his attempts to adjust them, yet soon 
trouble arose in his Province, to his great sorrow ; for " Nicholas 
Moore, from London, one of the Provincial judges, being first 
in commission, took place as prior judge, or, in the style of later 
times, as chief justice of the Province, and was also a member of 
assembly ; and, although he appears to have been a person of 
good and useful abilities, and esteemed by the proprietary, yet, 
being accused of mal-practices, he fell under the displeasure of 
the House ; and they impeached him, in form, by a declaration, 
exhibited to the Council, consisting of ten articles, besides sav- 

i Oldmizon in Frond's Hist, of Penn., voL i. p. 288. 


ing to themselves the liberty of adding more ; and concluded, 
with a request that he be removed from his great offices and 
trust, and made to answer to the crimes and misdemeanors 
brought against him." l 

While these proceedings were occurring in the assembly, fur- 
ther trouble arose as follows: " And on the 18th, Patrick Robin- 
son, clerk of the Provincial circular courts, being admitted into 
the House of Assembly, and requested to produce the records 
of said courts, but he denying the same, and joining with 
Moore, was, for his contempt of the authority of the House, 
disobedience to their orders, and abusing the Assembly, com- 
mitted to the sheriff's custody during the pleasure of the House, 
and voted a public enemy to the Province of Pennsylvania, and 
territories thereof, and a violator of the privileges of the free- 
men in Assembly met." 

The news of these disturbances, and other excesses, having 
reached London, William Penn sent this letter to the magis- 
trates: — 

"Friends, — There is a cry come over into these parts 
against the number of drinking-houses, and looseness that is 
committed in the eaves. I am pressed in my spirit, being very 
apt to believe too many disorders in that respect, strictly to 
require that speedy and effectual care be taken : first, to re- 
duce the number of ordinaries, or drinking-houses, and that 
without respect to persons. Such are continued that are most 
tender of God's glory and the reputation of the government, 
and that all others presuming to sell be punished according to 
law. I desire you to purge these caves in Philadelphia : they 
are mine by license and time. The three years are expired. I 
would have the suspected forthwith ordered to get up housing 
elsewhere, and the empty eaves to accommodate the poor fami- 
lies that may come over, though they shall not stand long before 
men's doors. Whatever you do, let virtue be cherished, and those 
that show to fear God, by a life according to it, be counte- 
nanced, and the evil person rebuked ; that God, who blesseth 
those that fear him, and call upon his name in all lands, may 

1 Proud'B Hist of Penn., vol. L p. 29& 


bless and preserve you. And, though this be particularly ad- 
dressed to you, let the magistrates of other towns have it to 
read among them. I add no more, but my desires to the God 
of all our tender mercies to be with you all, in your duties and 
places, to his glory, and your praise and peace. Amen. 

44 Tour very loving friend, Wm. PenkJ 


From this and other letters addressed to the president of the 
Council, and one to James Harrison, his agent for the estate of 
Pennsbury, it will be seen that he complained of the Council, 
that they had slighted his letters, that they had conducted 
in such a manner as to forfeit their charter, that they had 
wholly neglected the supply which they had promised him, that 
Nicholas Moore had been unjustly treated by the Assembly, and 
that they had acted harshly towards Patrick Robinson. To 
repair the injury done to Moore, he appointed him one of the 
new commissioners. This was a bold step in William Penn, 
when we consider the imputation of wrong conduct which it 
threw upon the Assembly. It reflects great credit upon his 
judgment and goodness in thus re-appointing Moore; for he 
held the office to the end of his life, and never disgraced it. 

Penn was so much grieved by the proceedings of the Council, 
that he resolved to reduce their number, and diminish their 
authority, by taking from them the executive power. He, 
therefore, sent over a new commission, from which we extract 
the following : — 

44 To my trusty and well-beloved friends, Thomas Llo/d, 
Nicholas Moore, James Claypoole, Robert Turner, and John 
Eckley, or any three of them, in Philadelphia. 

44 Trusty and well-beloved ! I heartily salute you. Lest any 
should scruple the termination of President Loyd's Commission 
with his place in the Provincial Council, and to the end that there 
may be a more constant residence of the honorary and govern- 
ing part of the Government, for the keeping all things in good 
order, I have sent a fresh Commission of Deputation to you, 
making any three of you a Quorum, to act in the execution of 
the Laws, enacting, disannulling, or varying of Laws, as if I 
myself were there present; reserving to myself the confirma- 


tion of what is done, and my peculiar royalty and advan- 

"First, you are to oblige the Provincial Council to their 
Charter-attendance, or to take such a Council as you think con- 
venient to advise and assist you in the business of the public ; 
for I will no more endure their slothful and dishonorable attend- 
ance, but dissolve the Frame without any more ado. Let them 
look to it, if any further occasion be given. 

"Secondly, that you keep to the dignity of your station, both 
in Council and out, but especially that you suffer no disorder 
in the Council, nor the Council and Assembly, nor either of 
them, to intrench upon the powers and privileges remaining 
yet in me. 

44 Thirdly, that you admit not any parleys or open conferences 
between the Provincial Council and Assembly, but let one, 
with your approbation, propose, and let the other consent or 
dissent, according to the Charter. 

44 Fourthly, that you curiously inspect the past proceedings 
of both, and let me know in what they have broken the bounds 
or obligations of the Charter. 

44 Fifthly, that you, this very next Assembly General, declare 
my abrogation of all that has been done since my absence ; and 
so of all the Laws but the Fundamentals; and that you imme- 
diately dismiss the Assembly, and call it again ; and pass such 
of them afresh, with such alterations as you and they shall see 
meet; and this to avoid a greater inconveniency, which I fore- 
see, and formerly communicated to Thomas Lloyd." l * 

In 1687 Thomas Lloyd, who ever since the proprietary's 
departure had chiefly presided in public affairs, wished to be 
discharged from the burden, and before this time had solicited 
to be released, by the appointment of another person in his 
room. But a suitable person could not readily be found ; and in 
a letter dated from the Holland House, the 27th of the tenth 
month, 1687, William Penn, with much sorrow, names for the 
position two persons, in these words : — 

44 1 am sorry that Thomas Lloyd, my esteemed friend, covets 
a quietus, that is young, active, and ingenious ; for from such it 

1 Bee Clarkson'i life of Penn, toL L p. 87S. 


is that I expect help, and such will not sow, I hope, in vain. 
But, since 'tis his desire, I do hereby signify his dismiss from 
the trouble he has borne (for some time of rest and ease, at 
least), and do nominate, to be commissionated in my name, 
under the great seal, till further order, Samuel Carpenter, who, 
I hope, will accept, and industriously serve that station ; else 
Thomas Ellis, who has an office that requires his attendance, 
having one in my eye, that you may see shortly, as a man richly 
qualified for that station. Robert Turner, of course, has the 
Chair for the first month after the receipt of this, and the rest, 
alternately, monthly, if you find that convenient, as, I believe, 
it will be most easy ; else let the senior commissioner have it 

After having written this letter, which was to the commis- 
sioners, he thus addressed Thomas Lloyd : — 

44 Now, though I have, to please thee, given thee a quietus 
from all public business, my intention is to constitute thee 
deputy governor, and two in the character of assistants ; either 
of whom and thyself to be able to do all as fully as I myself 
can do ; only I wait thy consent to the employment, of which 
advise me." 

Lloyd accepted the office of deputy governor of the Province ; 
and, some disagreement having arisen between the Province and 
the territories, Markham was appointed deputy governor of 
the latter. To appease William Penn, and allay his anxiety, 
they jointly sent him the following : — 

44 These few lines, we hope, may much ease thy mind in 
reference to thy exercises concerning the affairs of thy gov- 
ernment here, by informing thee, that, with unanimous record, 
we rest satisfied with thy two deputations, sent for executive 
government of the Province and counties annexed; and thy 
deputies concurring amicably, at this time, to act as one general 
government in legislation, we have proceeded in the preparing 
jointly some few bills, that thereby our present united actings 
may be as well published as the respected services of the gov- 
ernment answered." 

In 1688 Philadelphia had a great scare, similar to the one 
which we had during the late war, when the rebels burnt Cham- 


bersburg. It was rather from the savages than the whites, and 
is thus related by Proud : — 

u There came a report of an intended insurrection of the 
Indians, to cut off all the English, on a certain appointed day. 
This was communicated by two Indian women of West Jersey, 
to an old Dutch inhabitant near Chester, to be on the next fourth 
day of the week. Several Friends, or Quakers, upon hearing 
this report, being conscious of their just conduct towards the 
Indians, and sensible of nothing that could reasonably disgust 
them, endeavored to appease the people's fears. The said fourth 
day being come, about ten o'clock in the night a messenger 
arrived at Chester, out of the woods, and told the people that 
three families, about nine miles distant, which he named, were 
all cut off by the Indians. This report coming to a Friend then 
at Chester, about midnight he took with him two young men, 
on horseback, to the place, in order to examine into the truth 
of the affair. They found the three houses, but nobody in them, 
and yet no signs of murder. Their inhabitants, alarmed in a 
similar manner, had fled to the houses of their parents at Ridley 
Creek, about a mile from thence. The master of one of these 
families, being from home, had been informed five hundred 
Indians were actually collected at Naaman's Creek, in pursuit 
of their design, to kill the English ; and, as he was hastening to 
his house, he thought he heard his boy crying out, and saying, 
4 What shall I do ? my dame is killed ! ' Upon which, instead 
of going home, to know the certainty of the affair, he ran off 
to acquaint the government at Philadelphia ; but being met by 
a person of more prudence than himself, before he got to the 
city, he was persuaded by him to return. 

u The report, notwithstanding, soon arrived at the city, and 
was told with such alarming circumstances, that a messenger 
was immediately despatched to Marcus Hook, near the said 
Naaman's Creek, to inquire the truth of it. He quickly returned, 
and confirmed the report, but with this variation, that it was at 
Brandywine Creek, at an Indian town, where the five hundred 
Indians were assembled, and that they, having a lame king, had 
carried him awajr, with all their women and children. These 
circumstances rendered the affair still more alarming, and, with 
many, amounted to a certainty. 


" The Council were, at that time, sitting at Philadelphia on 
other affairs, when one of them, a Friend, who lived in Chester 
County, voluntarily offered himself to go to the place, provided 
they would name five others to accompany him, without 
weapons ; which being soon agreed on, they rode to the place. 
But, instead of meeting with five hundred warriors, they found 
the old king quietly lying, with his lame foot along on the 
ground, and his head at ease on a kind of pillow, the women 
at work in the fields, and the children playing together. 

" When they had entered the wigwam, the king presently 
asked them very mildly, * What they all came for?* They 
told him the report which the Indian women had raised, and 
asked him whether the Indians had any thing against 'the Eng- 
lish. He appeared much displeased at the report, and said, 
4 The women ought to be burnt to death, and that they had 
nothing against the English ; ' adding, ' 'Tis true there are 
about fifteen pounds yet behind of our pay for the land which 
William Penn bought ; but as you are still on it, and improving 
it to your own use, we are not in haste for our pay ; but, when 
the English come to settle it, we expect to be paid. 9 This, 
the messengers thinking very reasonable, told him they would 
undoubtedly be paid for their land. 

44 One of the company further expressed himself to the Indian 
king in the following manner, 4 That the great God, who 
made the world, and all things therein, consequently made all 
mankind, both Indians and English. And as he made all, so 
his love was extended to all; which was plainly shown by 
his causing the rain and dews to fall on the ground of both 
Indians and English alike, that it might equally produce what 
the Indians, as well as what the English, sowed or planted in 
it, for the sustenance of life ; and also by his making the sun 
to shine equally on all, both Indians and English, to nourish 
them ; and that seeing the great Being, which made them all, 
extended his love thus to all, so they were mutually bound to 
love one another.' 

" The king answered, ' What they had said was true ; and, as 
God has given you corn, I would advise you to get it in ' (it 
being then harvest-time) ' for we intend you no harm.' They 


parted amicably ; and the messengers, returning, put an end to 
the people's fears." 1 

Lloyd still insisting upon retiring from the public affairs of 
the government, in the latter part of the year 1688 he was 
succeeded by Capt. John Black well, under the title of lieuten- 
ant-governor, in lieu of that of deputy governor, which had 
been given to Lloyd and Markham ; Penn himself being the 
real governor. 

Blackwell was not a Quaker, and almost a stranger to Penn, 
although he seems to have known something of his ability, and 
to have had a high esteem for him. The occasion of his ap- 
pointment was this : Penn was much exercised as to who should 
be Lloyd's successor ; and, just at this juncture, the wife of 
Blackwell called upon Penn upon other business, and he asked 
her whether she thought her husband would accept of the 
government of Pennsylvania. She answered, " He would." 
Of this appointment, Penn himself thus speaks, " Since no 
Friend would undertake the governor's place, I took one that 
was not, and a stranger, that he might be impartial, and more 
reverenced. I thought I did well : it was for good, the Lord 
knows it, and no end of my own." ♦ 

Soon after Blackwell assumed the duties of his office, mis- 
understandings arose between him and the Council, so that but 
little was done during his administration ; and at the end of 
nine months he retired. The government of the Province, 
according to the charter, again devolved upon the Council, 
Thomas Lloyd, president. 

About this time (1689), general attention seems to have been 
directed to the education of their children ; and the Friends' 
public school was organized, the first of its kind in the colony, 
of which we have any record. This school, although established 
by the Friends, seems to have been open to all ; and not only 
were the common branches taught, but it offered facilities for 
training in many of the higher studies included in a liberal 

Penn was preparing to return to the colony about this time ; 
but the persecutions to which he was subjected prevented his 

* Bee vol. 1 p. 386. 


leaving England : indeed, his purpose seems to have been soon 
to return to the colony with his family, and make his permanent 
residence there ; but adverse circumstances detained him in the 
mother-country until fifteen years had elapsed, although the 
differences among those left in charge of the government con- 
tinued to increase, and showed how necessary his presence 
was. That Penn was greatly annoyed by these disagreements 
appears by a letter which he wrote to a friend in 1692, from 
which we make the following extract: "I have thine of the 
13th instant. Thy love and good intention towards me I 
receive and accept. But pray consider how little I am in fault, 
and how ill I am rewarded by some in that Province. I left it 
quiet, and the government in the Council. Thomas Lloyd grew 
weary of this form ; writ, and got others to write, to change it 
to a deputyship. I sent to know if he would have it ; in the 
meanwhile writ to me he would not meddle, and desired a 
quietus, or dismiss. Upon this, Capt. Blackwell's wife coming 
to me about presenting something of her husband's to the 
king, and remembering him to be a man of sobriety and parts, 
asked for him, then in New England, and if he would accept 
of the government of Pennsylvania, &c. This displeased. I 
altered and left it to them to choose either the government 
of the council, or five commissioners, or a deputy. What 
could be tenderer ? Now I perceive Thomas Lloyd is chosen 
by the three upper, but not the three lower counties, and sits 
down with this broken choice. This has grieved and wounded 
me and mine, I fear, to the hazard of all. Whatever the morals 
of the lower counties are, it was embraced as a mercy that we 
got and united them to the Province, and a great charter ties 
them. And this particular ambition has broken it; for the 
striving can arise from nothing else. And what is that spirit, 
that would sooner divide the child than let things run in their 
own channel, but that which sacrifices all bowels to wilfulness ? 
Had they learned what this means, & I will have merer/, and not 
sacrifice,' there had been no breaches nor animosities there till 
I had come, at least. I desire thee to write them, which they 
will mind more now than upon the spot, and lay their union 
upon them ; or else the governor of New York is like to have 


all, if he has it not already. The Lord forgive them their 
unspeakable injury to me and mine." Thus it would seem 

b ^ that William Penn found no rest in either hemisphere. 

' 7 Another difficulty now arose: one' George Keith was its 
author. He was a man of considerable literary attainments, 
fond of disputation, and confident and overbearing. He had 
been an acknowledged minister among the Quakers, but now 
found fault with their discipline, ridiculed their customs and 
some of their tenets, and created such a schism among the 
Quakers, that they separated into two branches ; those follow- 
ing him being called Christian Quakers, the others, apostates. 
By this division, new difficulties were added to the Province, 
or the ones which previously existed greatly augmented. 
Intelligence of Keith's conduct was no sooner communicated 
to William Penn than he immediately anticipated great trou- 
ble from this division, which speedily followed. 

James II. and William Penn had been good friends; but 
James was now gone ; and William in. had ascended the 
throne. Those who were at the head of affairs in England 
were well acquainted with the disorders which had taken 
place in the government of Pennsylvania ; and with a view to 
injure Penn, who had become obnoxious to them, they repre- 
sented to the king, that the quarrels between the province and 
the territories showed that Penn was incapable of governing the 
country which had been granted him. They seized upon 
the schism among the Quakers created by Keith as confirma- 
tion of these arguments. As he (Keith) had been excommu- 
nicated by one portion of the Quakers, and also punished by 
fine, they represented that he had been unjustly treated. By 
these means, they created a sensation, in both houses of parlia- 
ment, against Penn. They affirmed that Pennsylvania was in 
a state of chaos and ruin, and that nothing would save it but 
taking away the government from him. They also asserted 
that not a moment should be lost before repealing his charter. 
Being thus urged, the king and queen, by a Commission granted 
by William and Mary, appointed Gov. Fletcher of New York 
to take upon him the government of Pennsylvania and the 
territories thereunto annexed. 1 By this act, William Penn was 

1 Clarkfion's life of Penn, voL it p. 73. 


deprived of all authority over Pennsylvania; and so speedily 
was this done, that he was unable to make any explanation, 
or assign any reason why this appointment should not be made. 
Although King William had often expressed regard for William 
Penn, yet he was unable to resist the efforts of his ministers, 
and others who frequented his court, calling so loudly that 
Penn might be deprived of his governorship. 

Fletcher, having received his appointment, wrote immediately 
to Thomas Lloyd this letter, " Having received their Majesties' 
commission, under the great seal, for the government of Penn- 
sylvania, and being required to make a speedy repair to that 
Province, I think fit to acquaint you that I propose to begin my 
journey from home on Monday, the twenty-fourth instant, and 
desire the Council and principal freeholders may have notice, 
that their Majesties' commands may be communicated to them 
so soon as I arrive, which I hope may be the twenty-ninth. 

44 New York, April 19, 

Fletcher speedily repaired to Philadelphia with great pomp, 
and a more splendid retinue than had been usually seen in that 
Quaker Province ; and although they had received no instruc- 
tion from the king, or from William Penn, they surrendered the 
government to him without resistance, for which Penn after- 
wards blamed them. He also wrote to Fletcher, cautioning 
him to be aware of meddling with the government, and also 
reminding him of his particular obligation to him personally. 

Fletcher immediately called the Assembly together ; but a 
disagreement at once arose between him and the Council, 
because he had not summoned the Assembly according to the 
old legal form. After a long discussion and controversy, the 
Assembly finally yielded, and were duly organized. The first 
question put by the Assembly was, how far the laws of the 
Province, and constitution of the government, founded on the 
powers of the king's letters-patent to the proprietary, William 
Penn, were in force. For an answer to this question they sent 
a message to the governor, in which they say, " We humbly 
conceive that the laws founded upon the late king's letters- 
patent are yet in force, and therefore we desire that the same 


maybe confirmed unto us as our rights and liberties." To 
which Fletcher replied, " Gentlemen, I, with the Council, have 
considered your address. The least cause mentioned in their 
Majesties 9 letters-patent is the absence of the proprietary. 
There are reasons of greater moment; such as the neglects 
and miscarriages in the late administration, the want of neces- 
sary defence against the enemy, and the danger of being lost 
from the crown. The constitution of their Majesties' govern- 
ment, and that of Mr. Penn, are in direct opposition one to 
the other. If you will be tenacious in stickling for this, it is a 
plain demonstration, use what words you please, that, indeed, 
you decline the other." 

Upon receiving this letter, the Assembly sent a remonstrance 
to Gov; Fletcher containing the following : " As to the reasons 
rendered for superseding our proprietary's governancy, we ap- 
prehend they are founded on misapprehensions ; for the courts 
of justice were open for all counties in this government, and 
justice duly executed, from the highest crimes of treason and 
murder, to the determining the lowest differences about prop- 
erty, before the date or arrival of the governor's commission ; 
neither do we apprehend that the Province was in danger of 
being lost from the crown . . . nevertheless, we readily own 
thee for our lawful governor, saving to ourselves and those 
whom we represent our and their just rights and privileges. 

44 Signed : Joseph Geowden, Speaker" 

What reply, if any, the governor made to this address, does 
not appear ; but he soon informed them that he saw nothing 
would do but an annexation to New York. This was far 
from meeting the approval of the Assembly ; and, after much 
controversy, the final result was, that Fletcher soon departed 
for his New York domains, leaving William Markham as acting 

In the latter part of 1693, William Penn was permitted to 
make his defence, from which his innocency was made so 
apparent, that he was not only acquitted of all charges against 
him, but also had his government restored. Lords Rochester, 
Ranelagh, Sidney, and Somers, and the Duke of Buckingham, 


and Sir John Trenchaid, represented to the king, that "they 
had long known William Penn, that there was nothing against 
him, but w]>at impostors, or those that were fled, or that had 
since their pardon refused to verify what they had alleged 
against him ; that they had never known him do an ill thing/ 9 
They therefore requested that his government might be restored 
to him. King William answered, "that William Penn was 
his old acquaintance, as well as theirs; that he might follow 
his business as freely as ever ; and that he had nothing to say 
to him." 

In 1694 Thomas Lloyd died. He was sick but six days. On 
his death-bed, in a calm and quiet manner, he said, " I die in 
unity and love with all faithful Friends. I have fought a good 
fight. I have kept the faith which stands not in the wisdom of 
words, but in the power of God. I have sought not for strife 
and contention, but for the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and the simplicity of the gospel. I lay down my head in 
peace, and desire you may all do so. Farewell." 

William Penn, upon his restoration to his Province, appointed 
William Markham lieutenant-governor ; and things appear to 
have prospered well the next year. Markham issued a procla- 
mation, however, against illegal trade, harboring pirates, and the 
increase of vice. This was not done because these practices 
abounded more than formerly, but because it had been reported 
to their disadvantage in England. 
; J\o>yo The last-day of November, 1699, William Penn returned to 
Pennsylvania, after a long, tedious voyage of three months. 
His first business was to call the Assembly together, when he 
renewed the laws which had been made by Markham in his 
four-years' reign as deputy. The next two objects which 
engaged his attention were the instruction and civilization of 
the Indians, and the condition of the African or negro slaves, 
who had been introduced soon after the first settlement of 
the Province, and whose condition hitherto had been very 

At this time Penn set about improving Philadelphia, by 
removing all the slaughter-houses to the bank of the river, and 
also every other obstruction interfering with the health and 



cleanliness of the city, or the convenience of the inhabit- 

It having been reported in England that many of the proprie- 
tary governors oppressed their people, the House of Commons 
addressed the king upon the propriety of making all the 
proprietary governors merely regal ones ; and a bill was actually 
introduced into the House of Lords for that purpose. The 
real cause of this movement seemed to be to check the growth 
and progress of the colonies under the proprietary form of 
government, lest they should grow too strong for the interests 
of the tirown. The friends of William Penn in England 
informed him of this measure ; and, fearing that he might lose 
his government a second time, he embarked Nov. 1, 170^, fori/ 
England, never again to visit America. His life was one of 
peculiar trials and severe afflictions. He was, what cannot be 
said of many men, 

11 An honest man, the noblest work of God." 

He founded his colony upon true Christian principles : Chris- 
tianity shone brightly in all his acts, both towards God and 
man. For the glory of the former, and the liberty, peace, and 
happiness of the latter, he spent his life. He well deserved, 
and will ever receive, the gratitude of the sons and daughters 
of Pennsylvania. * • 



Penn's Interest in the Colony — Of his Family — Reception of New Charter — 
Charter to the City — Andrew Hamilton — James Logan — Bill in Parlia- 
ment — King 'William's Death — Princess Anne — Dissensions — Gov. Evans 

— William Penn, jun. — More Dissensions— Evils from Penn's Absence — 
Mortgages the Province — Attacked by Apoplexy — His Death — His Will 

— Gov. Gordon — Benjamin Franklin — Thomas and John Penn — Indian 
Troubles — Gov. Thomas — George Whitefield— The French War— Plain 
Truth — Gov. Hamilton — Taxation of Proprietors — Public Institutions — 
Braddock's Defeat — George Washington— Indian Treaties — Re-appoint- 
ment of James Hamilton — Boundary settled — Indian Massacre — John 
Penn — Indians sue for Peace — Penn's Character by Gordon. 

ALTHOUGH William Penn had now returned to England 
for the last time, yet the reader must not suppose that 
he took no further interest in the colony, for he manifested 
the same concern for it during the remaining twelve years of 
his active life ; and, after his decease, the history of those times 
shows that the Penn family, in the persons of his widow, sons, 
and grandson, acted as proprietaries of Pennsylvania. 

Before his departure, William Penn had given the Province 
and territories a new charter, with £n enlargement of their 
privileges. " This charter of privilieges being distinctly read 
in Assembly, and the whole and every part thereof being 
approved of and agreed to by us, we do thankfully receive 
the same from our Proprietary and Governor at Philadelphia, 
this twenty-eighth day of October, one thousand seven hun- 
dred and one (1701). 

" Signed in behalf, and by order of the Assembly, per 

"Joseph Gbowden, Speaker. 

"Edwabd Shippbn, 
Phineas Pembebtox, 
Samuel Cabpenter, 
Griffith Owen, 
Caleb Pusey, 
Thomas Stoby, 

^ Governor^ 


The members of the Assembly, and the inhabitants of Phila- 
delphia present say, " This charter, which we have distinctly 
heard read, and thankfully received, shall be by us inviolably 
kept." To this declaration the members of the Provincial 
Council, the members of the Assembly, and all of the inhabit- 
ants of Philadelphia who were then present, signed their 

William Penn also gave a chatter to the city of Philadelphia. 
Having granted these two charters, he appointed Andrew 
Hamilton, Esq., who had been governor of both East and West 
New Jersey, deputy governor of Pennsylvania. He also 
appointed James Logan secretary of the Province, and clerk of 
the Council of the same. After these things had all been 
accomplished; he set sail for England, as we stated in our last 

It has already been said that the immediate cause for which 
William Perm's friends requested his return to England was the 
introduction of a bill into parliament to make all the proprietary 
governments regal ones. At the solicitation of his friends, this 
bill had been postponed until he should arrive ; but, at the next 
session of parliament, the bill was entirely dropped, and no 
further action was taken upon the affair. 

In 1701 King William died, and the Princess Anne of Den- 
mark succeeded to the throne. The commencement of her 
reign was characterized by great moderation and clemency. 
William Penn, being in favor with the queen, spent much 
time at the court. 

Gov. Hamilton's administration in Pennsylvania continued 
only till the twelfth month of the next year (1702), when he 
died. He had a stormy and uncomfortable time, on account of 
the feuds between the Province and the territories. Upon his 
death, the government devolved upon the council, of which 
Edward Shippen was president. This constant disagreement 
between the two sections was sharp and bitter. 

John Evans was now appointed deputy governor by the 
proprietary, with the queen's consent. He arrived in the 
Province in the twelfth month of the year 1703. "Among 
the names of the members of Council, in the twelfth month, 


1703, about the time, or soon after, (joy. Evans's arrival, 
appear to be, 

44 William Penn, junior, Griffith Owen, 

Roger Mompesson, Caleb Pusey, 

Edward Shippen, William Trent, 

John Guest, Richard Hill, 

Samuel Carpenter, Samuel Finney, 

Thomas Story, James Logan. 

44 Also for the three lower counties were, — 
44 William Clark, William Rodney, Jasper Yeats. 

44 William Penn, junior, appears to have been called to the 
board, and made a member of Council, in the twelfth month 8th, 
1703, and probably came from England with Gov. Evans," &c. 

Gov. Evans was a rash young man, had but little knowledge 
of the people he was called to govern, and was entirely unfit 
for the office. Considering the Province and the territories 
still united, he immediately convened the Assembly, consisting 
of delegates from both, and addressed them in a long speech 
upon the importance of their union. The members from the 
territories agreed to follow his advice; but those from the 
Province refused. Evans then attached himself to the interests 
of the territories, and induced their Assembly to pass laws 
very obnoxious to the other portion of the colony. 

The queen had ordered him to raise militia in the colony ; 
but, in carrying out this command, he met with very little suc- 
cess. He treated the pacific principles of the Quakers with 
contempt ? but, as he could not induce them to renounce those 
principles, he resorted to a trick to gain his point. He caused 
it to be reported that an enemy's fleet was coming up the Dela- 
ware. The governor, with his friends, immediately flew to arms, 
filled the streets with soldiers, and summoned to his assistance 
all persons capable of bearing arms. The people, in great con- 
fusion, instead of preparing for defence, sought safety in flight. 
The greater part of the Quakers did not forsake their usual 
composure ; and only four of them could be found who would 
take up arms. The trick was a mere ruse, and recoiled upon 


those who invented it, by bringing the governor into great 
contempt. Even James Logan, though a Quaker, did not 
wholly escape the odium caused by this false alarm. 

Evans resorted to various expedients which greatly annoyed 
the merchants. He caused a useless fort to be erected at New 
Castle, requiring great delays, and heavy charges, from vessels 
passing up the Delaware. During his whole government, 
feuds were constantly kept up, which greatly imbittered the 
life of the proprietary, and caused much evil to the province. 
The whole of his administration was so unpopular, and the 
people were so much exasperated by his conduct, that, when the 
proprietor removed him from office, they voted a formal address 
of thanks to him for ridding the colony of such a pest. 

Charles Gookin was the next governor. He arrived in 1709. 
He was a native of Ireland, an honest old soldier, and more at 
home in the army than in the cabinet. He served eight years ; 
and, during the whole of that period, the same want of har- 
mony prevailed between the executive and legislative depart- 
ments. The only good thing which he appears to have done 
during his administration was to hold a council with the 
Indians in Philadelphia, by which certain grievances were 
peaceably settled, and the chain of friendship between them 
and the whites brightened. 

The great error of William Penn was, that he did not perma- 
nently remain in the Province. We find this point well stated 
by Dr. Du Ponceau in these words : " It will ever be a source 
of regret that William Penn did not, as he had contemplated, 
fix his permanent residence in his Province, and that, after the 
lapse of a short year, he again embarked for England, whence 
it had been decreed by Providence that he never should 
return. There is too much reason to believe, that, in this, he 
yielded to the influence of his wife and of his daughter Letitia, 
who do not appear to have been pleased with a residence in the 
country. Yet Hannah Penn was a woman of great merit, and 
her name will shine conspicuously and with honor in our 
history. But when we consider her rank, education, and for- 
tune, and the situation of Pennsylvania at that time, we need 
not wonder that she preferred the society of her friends in her 


native land, to a life of hardship and self-denial in a newly 
settled colony. And it is easy to conceive how William Perm's 
return may have been postponed, amidst efforts to conquer her 
reluctance, until other circumstances intervened which pre- 
vented it altogether. 

" A single trait will be sufficient to show what evils would 
have been averted from Pennsylvania, if William Penn had 
remained here to the end of his days. Nine years after his 
departure, when his country was again rent by intestine divis- 
ions, and a factious legislature — taking an unmanly advantage 
of the misfortunes which had of late fallen heavy upon him — 
were striving by every means to wrest power from his hands, a 
letter from him to that Assembly, in which he tenderly expostu- 
lated with them for their ungrateful conduct, produced an entire 
and a sudden change in the minds of the deluded people ; and, 
at the next election, his enemies were hurled from the seats 
which they had disgraced. ' A truly national answer,' says his 
biographer Clarkson, and, we may add*, the strongest proof that 
can be given of the powerful ascendency of this great man 
over minds of an inferior stamp." 

The expense of the Province, and other concerns of a private 
character, had so far impaired the property of William Penn, 
Chat in 1708, " to clear a debt contracted for settling and im- 
proving said colonies," he borrowed sixty-six hundred pounds, 
about thirty thousand dollars. This loan he secured by a 
mortgage on the Province. 

In 1712 William Penn negotiated with Queen Anne to trans- 
fer the Province and territories to the crown. For this he was to 
receive twelve thousand pounds ; and a bill was introduced into 
parliament to this effect, and a part of the money paid ; but, 
being attacked this year by an apoplectic fit, his faculties be- 
came so impaired, that he was unable to complete the transfer. 
In a state amounting almost to imbecility, he continued for six 
years, when he died at Rushcomb, in Buckinghamshire, Eng- 
land, on the 13th of July, 1718. By his will, his oldest son by 
his first wife became heir to his estates in Great Britain. His 
Pennsylvania province and territories were given to the Earls 
of Oxford, Mortimer, and Powlet, in trust, to be sold to the 


queen, or any other person, to the best advantage. He also 
appointed other trustees in England and America to pay his 
debts out of the proceeds of his American lands, the surplus to 
be distributed among his children. He left a wish that his 
children should settle in Pennsylvania. The oldest son, William, 
contested the right to the government of Pennsylvania; and 
the case, being carried to the court of chancery, was, after 
many years, decided in favor of the widow and her children : 
accordingly the government was afterwards administered by 
the children of the younger branch of the family. 

Continued disagreements in the Province, dissatisfaction with 
Gov. Gookin, and a long remonstrance from the Assembly 
against his course, caused him to resign in 1717. He was imme- 
diately succeeded by Sir William Keith, a man of pleasing 
address, courteous, but crafty,— qualities which were so directly 
opposed to those of the two preceding governors as to make 
his administration acceptable to the people ; but, whenever the 
interests of the proprietaries and those of the people clashed, 
he boldly espoused the popular side against all advice of the 
Council. A far greater degree of quietness and peace prevailed 
during his administration than had been experienced in the 
colony under many of their late governors; but, for taking sides 
with the people, Hannah Penn had him removed in 1726, having 
been governor eight years. 

Patrick Gordon succeeded Keith in 1726 ; and, during his 
administration, there was generally quiet in the Province, and 
he and the Council worked harmoniously. Great improvements 
were made in the Province, and its trade largely increased. 

Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston, emigrated to Philadel- 
phia in 1723, at the age of seventeen, during Gov. Keith's 
administration. There were only two printers there at the 
time, — Andrew Bradford and Mr. Keimer, the latter of whom 
employed him in his office. Gov. Keith, always more ready 
to promise than perform, advised Franklin to enter into busi- 
ness for himself, and promised him letters of introduction to 
his friends in London : under this promise, Franklin prepared 
to visit London to procure printing-materials. On applying to 
Keith for the letters promised, the governor informed him he 



would send them to him on board the ship, which he never did. 
The consequence was, that when Franklin arrived in London, 
finding himself without recommendation and without funds, he 
hired himself out as a journeyman printer. In 1726 he re- 
turned to Philadelphia. 

The colonists had been so much engaged in contentions 
among themselves, and in agriculture, that they had given but 
little attention to literature ; but, in 1781, Franklin showed his 
public spirit by moving to found a library, and was successful 
in organizing the company, which was incorporated in 1742, 
under the name of Library Company of Philadelphia. 

Thomas Perm, son of William, arrived in the Province in 
1782, and, two years after, was joined by his elder brother John. 
They were treated with such marks of respect, both by the 
colonists and the assembly, as were due to the sons of the 
illustrious founder of Pennsylvania. 

They soon began to agitate the question upon the boundary 
line between Pennsylvania and Delaware ; and, as this caused 
new disputes, John Perm returned to England in 1735, to 
oppose the claims of Lord Baltimore; but Thomas remained 
some years in the colony. This question was not finally settled 
until 1761. 

Gov. Gordon's death occurred in 1736 ; and the government 
of the colony devolved upon James Logan, president of the 
Council, who kept his place two years. The Indians, during his 
administration, became very troublesome on account of what 
they considered the enroachments of the whites. It was in 
this year that Benjamin Franklin was first elected clerk of the 

George Thomas, a West Indian planter, was the next gov- 
ernor, continuing his administration from 1738 to 1747. Like 
several of the former governors, he at first mistook the charac- 
ter of the people over whom he was called to preside. He 
offended the Quakers by demanding too much of them for the 
support of the military, and gave still further offence by com- 
pelling indented servants, those who had sold themselves to 
pay their passage across the ocean, to enter the army. 

In 1789 the celebrated George Whitefield arrived in the 


Province, and by his eloquence attracted vast assemblies. In 
1740 a lazaretto was erected for the accommodation of sick 
emigrants. In 1741 Thomas Penn returned to England ; and 
although the intercourse between him and the Assembly had 
not been altogether agreeable, yet they passed respectful resolu- 
tions upon his departure. His brother John died in 1746 ; and, 
upon his decease, Thomas became the principal proprietor. In 
1775 he died. 

In 1744 war was openly declared between France and Great 
Britain. In consequence of this war, the peaceful relations 
which Pennsylvania had generally maintained towards the 
Indians for sixty-two years were now at an end, and on the 
western frontier a savage warfare commenced. The lands pur- 
chased by the famous walk, and those taken from the Shawa- 
nees against their consent, were now to be paid for by the 
blood of the whites. 

Dr. Franklin now began his career as a public man. He 
published a work called "Plain Truth," in which he endeav- 
ored to promote harmony between the executive and the Assem- 
bly, and induce them to prepare for military defence. He was 
appointed a colonel ; but, being more skilled in wielding the 
pen than the sword, he declined the office. 

James Logan, although a Quaker, believed in defensive war, 
and contributed of his substance to carry it on. Gov. Thomas 
resigned in 1747 ; and the administration devolved on Antony 
Palmer, president of the Council. In 1749 James Hamilton, a 
son of the former speaker, Andrew Hamilton, arrived with a 
commission as lieutenant-governor. Affairs between the Eng- 
lish and the Indians now became very alarming. The French 
used all possible means to seduce the Indians from their alle- 
giance to the English. They had already drawn away the 
Shawanees. The Delawares were glad of an opportunity to 
avenge their wrongs ; and the Onondagas, Cayugas, and Sene- 
cas were wavering. Much cunning diplomacy and expensive 
presents were demanded to keep the Indians in favor with the 
Province. This drew heavily upon the people ; and the Assem- 
bly insisted that the proprietary estates should be taxed 
equally with those of individuals. This the proprietors, through 


their deputies, opposed, which caused the opening anew of the 
old feud, which had vexed the people from the first settlement 
of the Province. The proprietors maintained that prerogative, 
charter, and law were on their side ; and the Assembly con- 
tended that justice, common danger, and benefit required equal 
taxation. The feud went on : the proprietors offered, as boun- 
ties, lands yet to be taken from the Indians, and the privilege 
of issuing more paper money. (The first issue of this money 
was had in Gov. Keith's time.) But this did not satisfy the 
Assembly, which proceeded to pass laws laying taxes, granting 
supplies, and adding conditions. The governor opposed these 
measures, and the taxing of the estates of the proprietors, but 
was willing the people should be taxed. 

While they were engaged in these frivolous disputes, the 
frontiers were still exposed to Indian depredations. This dis- 
agreement in the public councils continued through the whole 
administration of Gov. Hamilton, and those of his two success- 
ors, which was finally settled by Benjamin Franklin securing 
the royal assent to a law taxing the proprietaries. 

The present was truly an alarming crisis. Upon the one 
hand, the Quakers, with other denominations who joined them, 
as the Dunkards, Mennonists, and the Schwenckfelders, all 
refused to fight; while, on the other, the Scotch-Irish, alwayB 
strenuous in maintaining their rights, and tired of waiting for 
the forms of land-offices, treaties, and surveys, settled upon 
unpurchased lands, and caused new exasperation among the 
Indians, in consequence of which massacres ensued, and the 
whole country was alive with the alarms and excitements of 
an Indian war, which continued through the administration of 
James Hamilton (already named), that of Robert Morris (who 
succeeded Hamilton in 1754), and William Denney (who suc- 
ceeded Morris in 1756). These three governors whom we have 
just referred to were all able men, and would have been suc- 
cessful as governors, had they not been shackled by the instruc- 
tions of the proprietors. 

In the midst of this commotion of war and bloodshed, it is 
gratifying to the historian to be able to record the origin of 
the following eleemosynary and literary institutions. The 


Pennsylvania Hospital was founded in 1751. In the same year 
James Logan died, and left a bequest to establish the Loganian 
Library. About this time the University of Pennsylvania 
originated, first in the form of an academy, then was opened 
as a Latin school, afterwards endowed and incorporated by the 
proprietors. In 1755 the additional honor was granted it, of 
conferring degrees under the title of " The College, Academy, 
and Charitable School of Philadelphia." Previous to these 
institutions, the American Philosophical Society had been 
organized in 1748, of which Benjamin Franklin may be said to 
have been the first mover. Here commenced his brilliant 
electrical experiments. 

In 1753 the French were engaged in extending their posts/ 
of defence, from the Lakes to the Ohio River. It was at this 
time that George Washington was sent on a mission to Fort Le 
Bceuf to demand by what authority they made these encroach- 
ments. The answer he received was evasive and unsatis- 
factory ; and, on his return, he reported, it was plain that their 
intention was to connect their possessions on the Lakes with 
those on the Mississippi, by a line of fortifications on the Ohio. 
In 1754 the French sent forward a thousand men, and built 
Fort Duquesne at Pittsburg. 

Col. Washington was then, with a small force, at Great 
Meadows, and was compelled to capitulate. In the unfor- 
tunate expedition of Gen. Braddock, Col. Washington was his 
aide-de-camp. When within ten miles of the fort, they were 
surprised, and completely routed, by a party of French and 
Indians lying in ambush. Gen. Braddock was mortally 
wounded. All historians record that this defeat was in conse- 
quence of Braddock's obstinacy in refusing to allow the Pro- 
vincial soldiers to fight the Indians in Indian fashion, as Col. 
Washington and the soldiers desired. Braddock's defeat 
spread terror through the whole Province. The frontier was 
exposed to the enemy, and the people found their only safety 
in flight. The Assembly and the governor disagreed ; and sup- 
plies could be raised only by patriotic subscriptions. 

Pennsylvania, which had enjoyed such quiet and peaceful 
times with the Indians, under the personal government of 


William Penn, now became the theatre of Indian massacres. 
The whole frontier was ablaze with burning cottages. Frank- 
lin now consented to lay aside his pen, and take the sword ; and 
with his son William, and a regiment of five hundred men, he 
proceeded to erect a line of forts at the Lehigh. 

The proprietors, too, alarmed at the defeat of Braddock, now 
offered a donation of five thousand pounds for defence. The 
excise law upon wine and spirits (which had existed for ten 
years) expiring about this time, the Assembly renewed the bill, 
and sent it to the governor for his approval. This he refused 
to sign, unless so amended as to give the governor, or the pres- 
ident of the Council, joint power with the House. The House 
declined to receive the amendment, and resolutely held to their 
bill. Moreover, in this act, the Assembly thought they had 
discovered the true cause of the governor's constant opposition 
to their several money bills. 

After all this bloodshed, and great expense to the colony, 
through the influence of Franklin, who had been sent to Lon- 
don to lay their grievances before the king, and a treaty made 
with certain Indian chiefs at Easton, matters became more 
quiet, and the prospects of the colonies more auspicious. 
Another conference was held at Lancaster in 1757, and still 
another at Easton in 1758, by which all the difficulties with 
the Indians were amicably adjusted. The French war ended 
in 1757. 

In consequence of Gov. Denney's assent to the bill, taxing 
thb proprietary property, to which Franklin obtained the royal 
assent in 1759, he was removed from office, and James Hamil- 
ton, a former governor, re-appointed. 

Pennsylvania was again in the enjoyment of peace, which 
lasted until 1768, her pioneers engaging in agricultural pur- 
suits, and building churches. Parliament agreed to reimburse 
the colonies for the expense of the war ; and Dr. Franklin in- 
vested the first instalment of twenty-six thousand pounds, in 
London ; having done which he returned home to receive the 
plaudits and thanks of the lately distressed colonists* He re- 
sinned his seat in the Assembly ; and they presented him with 
an annuity of five thousand pounds. 


The long delays and altercations between the governors and 
Lord Baltimore, respecting the boundary line, were finally 
settled according to the agreement made with the proprietaries 
in 1782. In 1767 Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon were 
employed to run the line, and erect stone pillars at conspicuous 
points, showing the boundaries. 

This was the famous Mason and Dixon's line, dividing the 
free and the slave States. 

After this short calm, a terrific storm succeeded. The In- 
dians about the Great Lakes and on the Ohio connived at the 
establishment of the French forts. They saw the English in 
possession of Canada, and the chain of forts occupied as out- 
posts, from which further encroachments might be made upon 
their western territory; and although they had willingly 
assented to the erection of the forts by the French, now, 
when they saw them in the hands of the English, they con- 
sidered them an intrusion upon their rights, because the land 
on which they were erected had never been purchased of 
them. Other settlements, also, had been made upon the Sus- 
quehanna, on lands belonging to the Indians. 

The great Indian sachem Pontiac undertook to unite all 
the north-western tribes in attacks upon the whole frontier. 
The object was to exterminate all the whites ; and the plan was 
to attack the forts on the same day, to invade the settlements 
during harvest-time, and destroy all the men, with their cabins, 
crops, and cattle. The English traders among the Indians 
became the first victims ; and, out of one hundred and twenty, 
only three escaped. Scalping-parties overran the frontiers, 
leaving their track marked with blood and fire. Great fear 
and consternation spread throughout all the settlements on the 
Rivers Juniata and Susquehanna ; and the terrified inhabitants 
fled with their children and flocks to Shippensburg, Carlisle, 
Lancaster, and Reading. 

The details of savage barbarity at this time were horrible, 
but they were equalled, if not exceeded, by those of the whites. 
The Scotch-Irish settled in Paxton and Donnegal, townships 
in Lancaster County, had suffered exceedingly by marauding 
parties of Indians ; and they imagined that there was a secret 


collusion between the hostile tribes of the West, and the Chris- 
tian Indians in Lancaster County. They therefore determined 
to exterminate every Indian within their bounds. To carry 
out this fiendish purpose, they fell upon the Christian Indian 
settlements among the Moravians, and butchered the women 
and children and old men, while the other Indians were absent. 
When they returned, and learned the fate of their relatives, 
they sought protection in the old jail in Lancaster. Thither 
they were pursued by their relentless persecutors, who, in defi- 
ance of law and of the magistrates, put them all to death. 
The Moravian Indians escaped to Philadelphia, where they 
were protected by the citizens, although the Paxton boys, as 
they were called, threatened to destroy them there. Other 
equally barbarous murders were committed by the whites on 
the banks of the Juniata and Susquehanna. The state of feel- 
ing at this time was such against the Indians, along the whole 
frontier, that the perpetrators of these horrid murders were 
never brought to justice. 

On the 30th October, 1763, John Penn, grandson of William 
Penn, and son of Richard, arrived from England as lieutenant- 
governor of the Province. Upon the day of his arrival, Phila- 
delphia was visited by an earthquake, which, by many, was 
taken as an ill omen. The invasion of the Indians was to be 
repelled by carrying the war into their own country ; and Penn 
was immediately very active in assisting Col. Bouquet, who 
then had charge of a small army, in proceeding against the 
Delawares and Shawanees beyond the Ohio, and urged the 
Assembly for supplies. Bouquet's expedition so over-awed 
the Indians, that they sued for peace, and gave up many of the 
prisoners which they had taken in the recent wars. 

Upon the application to the Assembly for supplies, the old 
controversy was revived, for an account of which we cannot do 
better than to select the following from Day's History of Penn- 
sylvania: — 

44 Indeed, harmony was scarcely to be expected between one 
of the proprietary family as governor on one side, and Dr. 
Franklin, the champion of equal rights and equal burdens, in 
the Assembly, on the other. That the proprietary estates were 


to be taxed, was a question settled ; but how, and upon what 
basis, they were to be assessed, was a subject of controversy ; 
and the proprietaries, as usual, leaned strongly to their own 
interests. The Assembly were compelled to yield to the neces- 
sities of the Province, and the supplies were granted ; but the 
conduct of the governor so incensed the Assembly, that they 
determined, by a large majority, to petition the king to pur- 
chase the jurisdiction of the Province from the proprietors, 
and vest the government directly in the crown. This petition, 
drawn up by Franklin, set forth in a strong light the increasing 
property, and its consequence, the increasing power of the pro- 
prietaries, and the danger to be apprehended from the exist- 
ence of such a third power intervening between the crown and 
the people, and frustrating the designs of both, by refusing to 
contribute their just proportion of the public burdens. Here 
was a most important step towards the Revolution. To break 
down the feudal power,' and bring the people and the crown in 
direct communication, is, in all countries, the first great step 
towards popular freedom, and prepares the way for the next 
step, the direct conflict between the crown and the people. It 
so happened, however, that in this case the avarice of the 
British ministry outran the ante-feudal propensities of the peo- 
ple, and brought the colonies at once to the last great struggle 
between the people and the crown. There was much opposi- 
tion from leading men in the Province against throwing off the 
proprietary dominion. Isaac Norris, the venerable speaker, 
John Dickinson, afterwards distinguished in the Revolution, 
and Rev. Gilbert Tennant, and Rev. Francis Allison, represent- 
ing the Presbyterian interest, with William Allen, chief justice, 
and afterwards father-in-law of Gov. Penn, were strong in 
opposition to the measure. The Quakers, on the other hand, 
supported it ; and it was sustained by several successive Assem- 
blies. Dr. Franklin was appointed Provincial agent to urge 
the measure before the ministry in London. He sailed for 
England Nov. 1, 1764, and found, on his arrival, that he had to 
contend with a power far stronger and more obstinate than 
the proprietors themselves, even with the very power whose 
protection he had come to seek." l 

1 VoL t p. 80. 


With the close of this chapter terminates the proprietary 
government of William Penn and his family, of whom we 
hear but little more. The historian Gordon sums up the 
character of Penn in the following language : — 

" Penn was ambitious, and animated by the love of fame. He 
sacrificed his time and his fortune in its pursuit : at least so 
much of them as were unnecessarily employed at the courts of 
James and Anne. The obscurity of his Province was unattrac- 
tive ; and, in the height of his favor with James, he was, for a 
moment, unregardful of the free principles on which it was 
founded. Had he applied himself, unreservedly and exclusively, 
to cultivate the scion he had planted, its growth would have 
been more rapid ; and under its shade, distant from the vexa- 
tions and vicissitudes of English politics, he would have enjoyed 
the reward of his labor, — competence, and the respect of the 
world. Pecuniary distress, at times, compelled him to give 
utterance to undignified and unjust complaints. The political 
benefits he had conferred upon his Province, in l*is opinion, 
imposed on its inhabitants an obligation to be requited with 
money : his proprietary character claimed to be recognized by 
the establishment of some revenue. His people, on the con- 
trary, felt these pretensions as a double charge, and were 
unwilling to maintain a resident and non-resident governor, the 
latter of whom had an estate in the soil of the Province, which 
increased in a great and indefinable ratio. 

" In his demeanor, William Penn was grave, but not austere, 
affable, but not familiar ; and, whilst his intercourse with his 
friends was marked by the formality and phraseology in use 
with his sect, his correspondence with men of the world showed 
him to have been perfectly acquainted with polite manners. 
As a writer, he was much esteemed by his church ; as a minis- 
ter, he was bold, industrious, and successful. He was beloved 
by his family and a wide circle of friends." 

The reader has now been made acquainted with the first dis- 
coverers of this country, the early settlements upon the Dela- 
ware, the advent of William Penn with his great charter, the 
cause of the name Pennsylvania, the friendly relations between 
Penn and the Indians, the numerous dissensions which arose 


between the proprietors and the people, the old French war, 
the massacres of the whites b y the Indians, and the Indians by 
the whites. In the next chapter, we will introduce him to 
events of greater importance than any of the preceding. 



Great Britain lays a Tax upon the Colonies — Stamp Act — Stamp Officer 
appointed — Manufacturing prohibited — Repeal of the Stamp Act — Duties 
on British Goods — Tax on Tea — Colonists oppose all Taxes — Mass Meeting 
— Provincial Congress — Continental Congress — Petition to. King George — 
Congress adjourns — Re-assembles — George Washington appointed —Wash- 
ington's Speech. 

GREAT BRITAIN was now in debt to the enormous sum 
of one hundred forty-eight millions sterling, or about 
six hundred and fifty-seven millions five hundred thousand 
dollars. Her favor to the colonies extended just so far as she 
could filch money from them ; or, as Patrick Henry said, " She 
offered us such protection as vultures give to lambs." Hence, 
in order to draw money from us, she proceeded to lay a tax. 
A resolution was introduced in Parliament by George Gren- 
ville, prime-minister, " That it was proper to charge certain 
stamp duties in the colonies and plantations." It passed the 
House of Commons March 10, 1764; but no further action 
was taken until the year following, when the subject was 
resumed, and the obnoxious Stamp Act was passed in the month 
of March, 1765. It is a singular fact, that two historians l of 
Pennsylvania state that this act was repealed before it was 
passed. Immediately upon the passage of this act, Dr. Frank- 
lin wrote thus to Charles Thompson : " The sun of liberty is 
set : you must light up the candles of industry and economy." 
This taxing of the colonies involved the great question which 
led to the American Revolution ; to wit, the right to tax those 
who had no representation in Parliament, or, in other words, 
66 Taxation without representation." Franklin used his utmost 

* Day, vol i. p. 81; Gordon, p. 443. 


efforts to avert these odious measures for oppressing the colonies, 
as his far-seeing mind discovered what would be the future 
consequences : still, with a view to place the execution of the 
act in proper hands, now that it had passed, he procured the 
appointment of his friend John Hughes as stamp officer at 

" On the arrival at Philadelphia, in October, 1765, of the 
stamps from England, the vessels hoisted their colors at half- 
mast ; bells were muffled ; and thousands of citizens assembled 
in a state of great excitement. Mr. Hughes was called on to 
resign his commission ; but he only agreed, for the present, not 
to perform the duties of the office." l 

The people of the colony now determined to manufacture 
for themselves. This created a storm in Great Britain, and set 
the manufacturers there in opposition to the oppressive acts of 
their own government. 

The Stamp Act was repealed Feb. 22, 1766, the anniversary 
of the birth of George Washington. Although Great Britain 
thus repealed this odious act, Parliament still persisted in, and 
re-affirraed, their right of taxation by imposing duties on 
British goods. As the colonics opposed their right to tax them 
at all, they would submit to no measures which involved that 
principle. John Dickinson, an eminent lawyer, a member of 
the Pennsylvania Assembly, published a series of able letters, 
the pith and marrow of which were, that the people should 
beware of acquiescing in any measures leading to establish the 
light of parliamentary taxation. 

In consequence of the general opposition in the colonies to 
the principle of taxation in any form, in 1769 the taxes were 
greatly reduced, and in 1770 were abolished, except three- 
pence per pound on tea ; but so determined were our fathers 
in resisting this system altogether, that this small tax of three- 
pence a pound on tea was as offensive as a larger ono would 
have been ; and so spunky and resolute in this resistance were 
they, that upon a single chest of tea only was the duty paid. 
The Assembly still urged their agents in London to protest 
against any and every act that involved the right of Porlia- 

1 Day's History of Pennsylvania, voL L p. 8L 


ment to tax the colony, and also to oppose any plan for our 
representation in Parliament, insisting that they would pay no 
tax that was not imposed in the Province. 

In 1773 Parliament made a forced exportation of tea into all 
the principal ports of the colonies. This measure aroused 
indignation from one end of the country to another. The 
Philadelphians passed resolutions, u Denouncing the duty on 
tea as a tax laid without their consent, — laid for the express 
purpose of establishing the right to tax, — and asserting that 
this method of providing a revenue for the support of govern- 
ment, the administration of justice, and defence of the colo- 
nies, had a direct tendency to render assemblies useless, and to 
introduce arbitrary government and slavery ; and that steady 
opposition to this plan was necessary, to preserve even the 
shadow of liberty." No one being willing to receive the tea 
in Philadelphia, the captains of the ships returned with it to 
England. The same was the case with that sent to New York ; 
while in Boston it was thrown into the harbor, and in Charles- 
ton rotted in the warehouses. 

Special indignation was felt by Great Britain against Boston 
on account of the destruction of the tea ; and that port was 
closed. The colonies were now all aroused, and made common 
cause with Boston in denouncing this new act of oppression. 
The citizens of Philadelphia advised the Bostonians to use all 
lenient measures for relief, assuring them, at the same time, 
that Pennsylvania would adhere to the liberty of the colonies. 
Although the governor, when requested to convene the As- 
sembly, declined, yet a mass-meeting of the people, numbering 
eight thousand, assembled Juno 18, 1774, and recommended 
a Continental Congress, and also appointed a committee to 
correspond with the other counties of Pennsylvania, for the 
purpose of appointing deputies to a general Congress, and, 
furthermore, agreed to raise funds to relieve the suffering citi- 
zens of Boston. 

The committee immediately wrote to all the counties of 
Pennsylvania, requesting them to appoint deputies to a general 
conference, to be held at Philadelphia the 15th of July, and 
in their circular said, " We will not offer such an affront to 


the well-known public spirit of Pennsylvanians as to question 
your zeal on the present occasion. Our very existence in the 
rank of freemen, and the security of all that ought to be dear 
to us, evidently depend on our conducting this great cause to 
its proper issue, by firmness, wisdom, and magnanimity. It is 
with pleasure that we assure you that all the colonies, from 
South Carolina to New Hampshire, are animated with one spirit 
in the common cause, and consider this as the proper crisis for 
haying our differences with the mother-country brought to 
some certain issue, and our liberties fixed upon a permanent 
foundation. This desirable end can only be accomplished by a 
free communication of sentiments, and a sincere and fervent 
regard for the interests of our common country." l 

This was the second step towards the Revolution ; and it was 
creditable to Pennsylvania, that she was the first to recommend 
the calling of a congress of all the colonies, to consider how 
best to oppose the oppressive measures of Great Britain. In 
accordance with the request of this committee, deputies from 
the several counties of Pennsylvania met at Philadelphia, at 
the time appointed, and adopted the following resolutions, 
Thomas Willing being elected Chairman, and Charles Thomp- 
son, Secretary. 

" That they owed allegiance to George the Third — that 
unconstitutional independence on the parent state was abhor- 
rent to their principles — that they ardently desired the restora- 
tion of their ancient harmony with the mother-country, on the 
principles of the constitution, and an interchange of good 
offices without infraction of their mutual rights — that the 
inhabitants of the colonies were entitled to the same rights and 
liberties within the colonies, that subjects born in England 
were entitled to within that realm — that the power assumed 
by Parliament, to bind the colonists * by statutes in all cases 
whatever,' was unconstitutional, and therefore the source of 
the prevailing unhappy differences — that the late acts of 
Parliament affecting the Province of Massachusetts were 
unconstitutional, oppressive, and dangerous — that there was 
an absolute necessity that a colonial congress should be imme- 

1 Bamsay. 


diately assembled, to form a general plan of conduct for the 
colonies, in procuring relief for their suffering brethren, ob- 
taining redress for their grievances, preventing future dissen- 
sions, firmly establishing their rights, and restoring harmony 
between Great Britain and her colonies on a constitutional 
foundation — that, although a suspension of the commerce of 
the Province with Great Britain would greatly distress multi- 
tudes of the inhabitants, yet they were ready to make that 
and a much greater sacrifice for the preservation of their liber- 
ties ; but in tenderness to the people of Great Britain, as well 
as of America, and in hopes that their just remonstrances 
would at length reach the ears of their sovereign, and be no 
longer treated with contempt by any of their fellow-subjects 
in England, it was their earnest desire that Congress should 
first try the gentler mode of stating their grievances, and mak- 
ing a firm and decent claim of redress — that yet, notwithstand- 
ing, 03 unanimity of counsels and measures was indispensably 
necessary for the common welfare, if Congress should judge 
agreements of non-importation and non-exportation expedient, 
the people of Pennsylvania would join with the other principal 
and neighboring colonies in such an association for that purpose 
as should be agreed upon by Congress — that if any proceedings 
of Parliament, of which notice should be received before or at 
the general Congress, should render it necessary, in the opinion 
of that Congress, for the colonies to take further steps than are 
mentioned in the preceding resolution, the peoplo of Penn- 
sylvania would adopt such further steps, and do all in their 
power to carry them into execution — that the venders of mer- 
chandise within the Province ought not to take advantage of 
the resolution relative to non-importation, but should sell at the 
rates accustomed for three months then past — that the people 
of the Province would break off all trade with any colony, 
town, city, or individual, on the American continent, which 
should refuse, decline, or neglect to adopt and carry into execu- 
tion such general plan as should be agreed upon in Congress — 
and that it was the duty of every member of the committee to 
promote to the utmost of his power the subscription set on 
foot in the several counties of the Province for the relief of the 
distressed inhabitants of Boston/' 


These patriotic deputies were men renowned for morals, intel- 
ligence, and wealth; and, after adopting the resolutions as 
quoted above, felt called upon, as the representatives of their 
constituents, to instruct the Assembly (which was soon to 
meet) upon their duty in this crisis, and adopted the following 
resolution ; viz., — 

44 That this committee give instructions on the present situa- 
tion of public affairs to their representatives, who arc to meet 
next week in assembly, and request them to appoint a proper 
number of persons to attend a congress of deputies from the 
several colonies, at such time and place as may be agreed on, 
to effect one general plan of conduct for obtaining the great 
and important ends mentioned in the preceding." 

From the pithy and strong instructions drawn up by Mr. 
John Dickinson, which contain a full statement of the political 
relations which ought to exist between the mother-country and 
the colonies, and the terms on which they were willing to 
become reconciled, we extract the following : — 

44 Honor, justice, and humanity call upon us to hold, and to 
transmit to our posterity, that liberty which wo received from 
our ancestors. It is not our duty to leave wealth to our chil- 
dren ; but it is our duty to leave liberty to them. No infamy, 
iniquity, or cruelty can exceed our own, if we, born and 
educated in a country of freedom, entitled to its blessings, 
and knowing their value, pusillanimously deserting the post 
assigned us by divine Providence, surrender succeeding gene- 
rations to a condition of wretchedness, from which no human 
efforts, in all probability, will bo sufficient to extricate them ; 
the experience of all states mournfully demonstrating to us, 
that, when arbitrary power has been established over them, 
even the wisest and bravest nations that ever flourished have, 
in a few years, degenerated into abject and wretched vassals. 

44 To us, therefore, it appears, at this alarming period, our 
duty to God, to our country, to ourselves, and to our posterity, 
to exert our utmost ability in promoting and establishing har- 
mony between Great Britain and these colonics, ON A consti- 
tutional foundation." They then specify, particularly, 
what they wish the Assembly to do, in these words, — 


"First, That the deputies you may appoint be instructed 
by you, strenuously to exert themselves at the ensuing con- 
gress to obtain a renunciation, on the part of Great Britain, 
of all powers under the statute of the 35th Henry VIIL, c. 2 
(statute for transporting persons guilty of certain offences to 
England for trial) ; of all powers of internal legislation ; of 
imposing taxes or duties, internal or external, and of regulating 
trade, except with respect to any new articles of commerce 
which tho colonies may hereafter raise, as silk, wine, &c, 
reserving a right to carry these from ono colony to another ; 
a repeal of all statutes for quartering troops in tho colonies, or 
subjecting them to any expense on account of such troops ; 
of all statutes imposing duties to be paid in the colonies, that 
were passed at the accession of his present Majesty, or before 
this time, whichever period may be judged most advisable; 
of the statutes giving the courts of admiralty in the colonies 
greater power than the courts of admiralty have in England ; 
of the statutes of the 5th of Geo. II. c. 22, and of tho 20d of 
Geo. II. c. 29 ; of the statute for shutting up the port 
of Boston, and of every other statute, particularly affecting 
the Province of Massachusetts Bay, passed in the last session 
of Parliament. 

44 In case of obtaining these terms, it is our opinion that it 
will be reasonable for tho colonies to engage their obedience to 
the acts of Parliament, commonly called tho acts of navigation, 
and to every other act of Parliament declared to have force 
at this time in these colonies, other than thoso above men- 
tioned, and to confirm such statutes by acts of the several 
Assemblies. It is also our opinion, that, taking example from 
our mother-country, in abolishing the 4 courts of wards and 
liveries, tenures in capite, and by knight's service, and purvey- 
ance, 9 it will be reasonable for tho colonies, in case of obtaining 
the terms before mentioned, to settle a certain annual revenue 
on his Majesty, his heirs, and successors, subject to the control 
of Parliament, and to satisfy all damages dono to the East 
India Company. 

44 Secondly, If all the terms above mentioned cannot be 
obtained, it is our opinion that the measures adopted by the 


Congress for our relief should never be relinquished or inter- 
mitted, until those relating to the troops, internal legislation, 
imposition of taxes or duties hereafter, the 85 Henry VIII. 
c. 2, the extension of admiralty courts, the port of Boston, 
and the Province of Massachusetts Bay, are obtained. Every 
modification or qualification of these points, in our judgment, 
should be inadmissible. To obtain them, we think it may be 
prudent to settle some revenue as above mentioned, and to 
satisfy the East India Company. 

u Thirdly, If neither of these plans should be agreed to in 
Congress, but some others of a similar nature should be framed, 
though on the terms of a revenue and satisfaction to the East 
India Company, and though it shall be agreed by the Congress 
to admit no modification or qualification in the terms they 
shall insist on, we desire your deputies may be instructed to 
concur with the other deputies in it ; and we will accede to, 
and carry it into execution, as far as we can. 

"Fourthly, As to the regulation of trade, we are of the 
opinion, that, by making some few amendments, the commerce 
of the colonies might be settled on a firm establishment, advan- 
tageous to Great Britain and them, requiring, and subject to, 
no future alterations without mutual consent. Wo desire 
to have this point considered by the Congress, and such meas- 
ures taken as they may judge proper." 

The convention appointed Messrs. Dickinson, Reed, and 
Thompson to communicate these resolutions to the other colo- 
nies ; and all the members in a body presented the instructions 
to the Legislature of Pennsylvania. When that body received 
them, the interesting fact was developed, that they had already 
received, and were considering, reports from Assemblies of 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Virginia, calling for the 
appointment of delegates to a Provincial Congress. The 
Assembly immediately and unanimously concurred in the 
measure recommended, and appointed the following gentlemen 
as delegates to the contemplated Congress ; viz., Joseph Gallo- 
way, Samuel Rhoades, Thomas Mifflin, Charles Humphries, 
George Ross, and Edward Biddle ; and, at a succeeding meet- 
ing, John Dickinson was added to their number. They 


instructed the delegatea " to meet in Congress the committees 
of the several British colonies, at such time and place as should 
be generally agreed upon, to consult together upon the critical 
and alarming state of tho colonies, and with them to exert 
their utmost endeavors to form and adopt a plan which should 
afford the best prospect of obtaining redress of American 
grievances, ascertaining American rights, and establishing that 
union and harmony which is most essential to the welfare and 
happiness of both countries." 

Delegates from eleven Provinces met Sept. 4, 1774; those 
from North Carolina not appearing until the 14th. Their 
Congress held its sessions in Carpenter's Hall (still standing 
in Philadelphia), and unanimously elected Peyton Randolph 
of Virginia, President, and Charles Thompson, Secretary. No 
men were ever more loyal, or more ready to give .their assent 
to all necessary and just laws, and to render prompt obedience 
to them, than the members of this Colonial Congress, and none 
were ever more firm and resolute in resisting oppression and 
tyranny. They were mostly men of liberal education, high 
moral principle, and unswerving integrity ; and, although many 
of them were satisfied in their own minds that the idea of 
reconciliation with the mother-country must be abandoned, 
yet they were willing and anxious to make the attempt. 
They took sides with Massachusetts, and condemned as unjust 
and oppressive the acts of the British Parliament, and fully 
approved tho following resolution, which had been adopted in 
Boston, " That no obedience was due from that province to 
such acts, but that they should be rejected as the attempts of a 
wicked administration." They confirmed tho resolution of the 
mass-meeting at Philadelphia, to alleviate the distresses of 
their friends in Boston, and recommended that it should be 
continued so long as the occasion required. They requested 
the merchants of all the colonics to purchase no goods from 
Great Britain until Congress should have adopted and made 
public proper regulations for the preservation of liberty in 
America. Nor did they stop here ; for, a little later, they passed 
resolutions prohibiting the importation, purchase, or uso even, 
of all goods from Great Britain, after the first of December 


next; and, furthermore, directed that no exports should be 
made to Great Britain or the West Indies after the 10th of 
September, 1775, unless the king should sooner redress their 

Many of the Acts and Resolutions of this first Congress 
have been omitted here, as not specially relating to Pennsylva- 
nia, but to the other colonies as well. Their petition to the King 
of Great Britain exhibits such reverence for his Majesty, and is 
filled with such true patriotism towards the mother-country, 
if their grievances should be redressed, that we give it entire. 

Wednesday, Oct. 26. — The Petition of Congress to the 
King. To the King's most Excellent Majesty. 

" Most Gracious Sovereign, — Wo your Majesty's most 
faithful subjects of the Colonies of New Hampshire, Massa- 
chusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Con- 
necticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, the Counties 
of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex on Delaware, Maryland, 
Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, in behalf of 
ourselves and the inhabitants of these Colonies, who have de- 
puted us to represent them in General Congress, by tlm our 
humble petition, beg leave to lay our grievances before the 

44 A standing army has been kept in these Colonies, ever 
since tho conclusion of the late war, without the consent of 
our Assemblies ; and this army, with a considerable naval arma- 
ment, has been employed to enforce the collection of taxes. 

44 The authority of the commander-in-chief, and, under him, 
tho brigadier-general, has, in time of peace, been rendered 
supreme in all the civil governments in America. 

44 The commander-in-chief of all your Majesty's forces in 
North America has, in time of peace, been appointed Governor 
of a Colony. 

44 The charges of usual offices have been greatly increased, 
and new, expensive, and oppressive offices have been multiplied. 

44 The judges of Admiralty and Vice-Admiralty Courts are 
empowered to receive their salaries and fees from the effects 
condemned by themselves. 


44 The officers of the customs are empowered to break open 
and enter houses, without the authority of any civil magistrate* 
founded on legal information. 

"The judges of courts of common law have been made 
entirely dependent on one part of the legislature for their 
salaries, as well as for the duration of their commissions. 

44 Counsellors holding their commissions during pleasure 
exercise legislative authority. 

44 Humble and reasonable petitions from the representatives 
of the people have been fruitless. 

44 The agents of the people havo been discountenanced, and 
Governors have been instructed to prevent the payment of the 

44 Assemblies have been repeatedly and injuriously dissolved. 

44 Commerce has been burthened with many useless and 
oppressive restrictions. 

44 By several Acts of Parliament, made in the fourth, fifth, 
sixth, seventh, and eighth year of your Majesty's reign, duties 
are imposed on us, for the purpose of raising a revenue ; and 
the powers of Admiralty and Vice- Admiralty Courts are ex- 
tended beyond their ancient limits, whereby our property is 
taken from us without our consent, the trial by jury in many 
civil cases is abolished, enormous forfeitures arc incurred for 
slight offences, vexatious informers are exempted from paying 
damages to which they are justly liable, and oppressive security 
is required from owners before they are allowed to defend their 

44 Both Houses of Parliament have resolved that Colonists 
may be tried in England for offences alleged to have been 
committed in America, by virtue of a Statute passed in the 
thirty-fifth year of Henry the Eighth; and, in consequence 
thereof, attempts have been made to enforce that Statute. 

44 A Statute was passed in the twelfth year of your Majesty's 
reign, directing that persons charged with committing any 
offence therein described, in any place out of the realm, may be 
indicted and tried for the same in any shire or county within 
the realm, whereby inhabitants of these Colonies, in sundry 
cases, by that Statute made capital, may be deprived of a trial 
by their peers of the vicinage. 


" In the last session of Parliament, an Act was passed for 
blocking up the harbor of Boston, and empowering the Govern- 
or of Massachusetts Bay to send persons indicted for murder 
in that Province, to another Colony, or even to Great Britain, 
for trial, whereby such offenders may escape legal punishment ; 
a third, for altering the chartered Constitution of government 
in that Province ; and, fourth, for extending the limits of 
Quebec, abolishing the English, and restoring the French laws, 
whereby great numbers of British Frenchmen are subjected to 
the latter, and establishing an absolute government and the 
Roman Catholic religion throughout those vast regions that 
border on the westerly and northerly boundaries of the free, 
Protestant, English settlements ; and a fifth, for the better 
providing suitable quarters for officers and soldiers in his 
Majesty's service in North America. 

44 To a Sovereign who glories in tho name of Britain, the 
bare recital of these Acts must, we presume, justify the loyal 
subjects who fly to the foot of his throne, and implore his 
clemency for protection against them. 

"From this destructive system of Colony administration, 
adopted since the conclusion of the last war, have flowed those 
distresses, dangers, fears, and jealousies, that overwhelm your 
Majesty s dutiful Colonists with affliction ; and we defy our most 
subtile and inveterate enemies to trace the unhappy differences 
between Great Britain and these Colonies, from an earlier period, 
or from other causes than we have assigned. Had they proceeded, 
on our part, from a restless levity of temper, unjust impulses of 
ambition, or artful suggestions of seditious persons, wo should 
merit tho opprobrious terms frequently bestowed on us by those 
we revere. But, so far from prompting innovations, we have 
only opposed them, and can be charged with no offence, unless 
it be one to receive injuries, and be sensible of them. 

44 Had our Creator been pleased to give us existence in a 
land of slavery, tho sense of our condition might have been 
mitigated by ignorance and habit. But thanks be to His adorable 
goodness ! wo were born the heirs cf freedom, and ever enjoyed 
our right under the auspices of your royal ancestors, whose 
family was seated on the British throne, to rescue and secure a 


pious and gallant nation from the Popery and despotism of a 
superstitious and inexorable tyrant. Your Majesty, we are confi- 
dent, justly rejoices that your title to the crown is thus founded 
on the title of your people to liberty ; and, therefore, wo doubt 
not but your royal wisdom must approve the sensibility that 
teaches your subjects anxiously to guard the blessing they 
received from Divine Providence, and thereby to prove the 
performance of that compact which elevated the illustrious 
House of Brunswick to the imperial dignity it now possesses. 

" The apprehension of being degraded into a state of servi- 
tude, from the pre-eminent rank of English freemen, while our 
minds retain the strongest love of liberty, and clearly foresee 
the miseries preparing for us and our posterity, excites emo- 
tions in our breasts, which, though we cannot describe, we 
should not wish to conceal. Feeling as men, and thinking as 
subjects, in the manner we do, silence would be disloyalty. By 
giving this faithful information, we do all in our power to 
promote the great objects of your royal cares, the tranquillity 
of your government, and the welfare of your people. 

44 Duty to your Majesty, and regard for the preservation of 
ourselves and our posterity, the primary obligations of nature 
and society, command us to entreat your royal attention ; and as 
your Majesty enjoys the signal distinction of reigning over 
freemen, we apprehend the language of freemen cannot be dis- 
pleasing. Your royal indignation, we hope, will rather fall on 
those designing and dangerous men, who — daringly interposing 
themselves between your royal person and your faithful sub- 
jects, and for several years past incessantly employed to dissolve 
the bonds of society, by abusing your Majesty's authority, 
misrepresenting your American subjects, and prosecuting the 
most desperate and irritating projects of oppression — have at 
length compelled us, by the force of accumulated injuries, too 
much to bo any longer tolerable, to disturb your Majesty's 
repose by our complaints. 

44 These sentiments are extorted from hearts that much more 
willingly would bleed in your Majesty's service. Yet so greatly 
have we been misrepresented, that a necessity has been alleged 
of taking our property from us without our consent, 4 to defray 


the charge of the administration of justice, the support of civil 
government, and the defence, protection, and security of the 
Colonies.' But we beg leave to assure your Majesty, that such 
provision has been and will be made for defraying the two first 
articles, as has been and shall be judged, by the Legislatures 
of the several Colonies just and equitable to their respective 
circumstances; and for the defence, protection, and security 
of their Colonies, their militias, if properly regulated, as they 
earnestly desire may immediately be done, would be fully suffi- 
cient, at least in times of peace ; and in case of war, your faith- 
ful Colonists will be ready and willing, as they ever have been, 
when constitutionally required, to demonstrate their loyalty to 
your Majesty by exerting their most strenuous efforts in grant- 
ing supplies, and raising forces. Yielding to no British subject 
in affectionate attachment to your Majesty's person, family, 
and government, we too dearly prize the privilege of expressing 
that attachment by those proofs that are honorable to the 
Prince who receives them, and to the people who give them, 
ever to resign it to any body of men upon earth. 

44 Had we been permitted to enjoy in quiet the inheritance 
left us by our forefathers, we should at this time have been 
peaceably, cheerfully, and usefully employed in recommending 
ourselves, by every testimony of devotion, to your Majesty, 
and of veneration to the state from which we derive our origin. 
But though now exposed to unexpected and unnatuial scenes 
of distress by a contention with that nation, in whose parental 
guidance on all important affairs we have hitherto with filial 
reverence constantly trusted, and therefore can derive no 
instruction in our present unhappy and perplexing circum- 
stances from any former experience ; yet we doubt not the 
purity of our intention, and the integrity of our conduct, will 
justify us at that great Tribunal, before which all mankind 
must submit to judgment. 

44 We ask but for peace, liberty, and safety. We wish not a 
diminution of the prerogative, nor do we solicit the grant of any 
new rigid in our favor. Your royal authority over us, and our 
connection with Great Britain, we shall always carefully and 
tcalously endeavor to support and maintain. 


" Filled with sentiments of duty to your Majesty, and of 
affection to our parent State, deeply impressed by our educa- 
tion, and strongly confirmed by our reason, and anxious to 
evince the sincerity of these dispositions, we present this peti- 
tion only to obtain redress of grievances, and relief from fear 
and jealousies, occasioned by the system of Statutes and regu- 
lations adopted since the close of the late war, for raising a 
revenue in America, extending the powers of Courts of Admi- 
ralty and Vice-Admiralty, trying persons in Great Britain 
for offences alleged to be committed in America, affecting the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, and altering the government 
and extending the limits of Quebec ; by the abolition of which 
system, the harmony between Great Britain and these Colonies, 
so necessary to the happiness of both, and so ardently desired 
by the latter, and the usual intercourses, will be immediately 
restored. In the magnanimity and justice of your Majesty and 
Parliament, we confide for a redress of our other grievances, 
trusting, that, when the causes of our apprehensions are 
removed, our future conduct will prove us not unworthy of the 
regard we have been accustomed, in our happier days, to enjoy. 
For, appealing to that Being who searches thoroughly the 
hearts of his creatures, we solemnly profess that our councils 
have been influenced by no other motive than a dread of 
impending destruction. 

44 Permit us, then, most gracious Sovereign, in the name of all 
your faithful people in America, with the utmost humility, to 
implore you, for the honor of Almighty God, whose pure 
religion our enemies are undermining ; for your glory, which 
can be advanced only by rendering your subjects happy, and 
keeping them united ; for the interests of your family, depend- 
ing on an adherence to the principles that enthroned it ; for the 
safety and welfare of your kingdoms and dominions, threatened 
with almost unavoidable dangers and distresses, — that your 
Majesty, as the loving father of your whole people, connected 
by the same bonds of law, loyalty, faith, and blood, though 
dwelling in various countries, will not suffer the transcendant 
relation formed by these ties to be farther violated in uncertain 
expectation of effects, that, if attained, never can compensate 
for the calamities through which they must be gained. 


" We, therefore, most earnestly beseech your Majesty, that 
your royal authority and interposition may be used for our 
relief, and that a gracious answer may be given to this petition. 

44 That your Majesty may enjoy every felicity through a long 
and glorious reign over loyal and happy subjects, and that your 
descendants may inherit your prosperity and dominions till 
time shall be no more, is, and always will be, our sincere and 
fervent prayer." 

The Congress directed that this petition be sent to the 
agents of the several Colonies, to be by them transmitted to 
the king, and appointed Mr. Lee and Mr. Jay to perform this 
duty. The Congress adjourned Oct. 26, to meet again on the 
10th of May. Congress assembled again May 10, according to 
adjournment, and continued their sessions regularly, from day 
to day. 

June 15 they appointed George Washington, Esq., General 
and Commander-in-chief of the American forces. The next 
day, upon the President informing Col. Washington that Con- 
gress had unanimously chosen him, he made the following 
modest, patriotic, and disinterested reply, worthy of being 
written in letters of gold, and worn upon the foreheads of 
every President, General, and Member of Congress from that 
period to the present. 

44 Mil. President, — Though I am truly sensible of the high 
honor done me in this appointment, yet I feel great distress, 
from a consciousness that my abilities and military experience 
may not be equal to the extensive and important trust. How- 
ever, as the Congress desire it, I will enter upon the momentous 
duty, and exert every power I possess in their service, and for 
support of the glorious cause. I beg they will accept my most 
cordial thanks for this distinguished testimony of their appro- 

44 But lest some unlucky event should happen, unfavorable to 
my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman 
in the room, that I this day declare with the utmost sincerity I 
do not think myself equal to the command lam honored with. 

176 history or Pennsylvania. 

44 As to pay, sir, I beg leave to assure the Congress, that as no 
pecuniary consideration could have tempted me to accept this 
arduous employment, at the expense of my domestic ease and 
happiness, I do not wish to make any profit from it. I will 
keep an exact account of my expenses. These, I doubt not, 
they will discharge ; and that is all I desire. 91 



Washington commissioned — Bloodshed — The Colonies declared Independent 
of Great Britain — Incidents in Independence Hall — Doings of the Assem- 
bly of Pennsylvania — Gov. Penn's Advice — The Assembly's Reply — Second 
Provincial Convention — Their Acts — Committee of Public Safety — The 
Quakers — Pennsylvania raises Troops — Whigs and Tories disagree on chan- 
ging the Government — The Whigs prevail — They call a Convention — A 
Constitution formed for Pennsylvania. 

PURSUING the Acts of Congress as we left them in the 
last chapter, they appointed a committee to draught a 
commission and instructions for Gen. Washington. The day 
on which the general received his commission was the same on 
which was fought the famous battle of Bunker Hill. July 6 
Congress declared the causes and necessity of their taking up 
arms ; and the document being lengthy, and referring to all the 
Colonies, we omit it in our " History of Pennsylvania." 

The first blood having been shed in Massachusetts, April 19, 
1775, and the battle of Bunker Hill having been fought 
June 17th of the same year, and every thing indicating that 
the rights of the Colonies would never be granted by Great 
Britain but by the arbitrament of the sword, Congress framed 
and passed the immortal Declaration of Independence, 
July 4, 1776. The incidents accompanying the signing of this 
declaration in Independence Hall are calculated to inspire an 
irrepressible spirit in the bosom of every American ; and the re- 
sults have thrilled with intense joy millions of people now 
inhabiting the vast territory extending from Canada to the 
Gulf, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Of the former, 
from the many that might be given, our limits will admit of 
but two. First, the speech of the venerable John Witherspoon, 
la 177 


a lineal descendant of John Knox, and inheriting a double por- 
tion of the spirit of the old reformer. Rising slowly, his face 
pale, hands tremulous, and voice faltering as he commenced, he 
said, — 

" There is a tide in the affairs of men, a nick of time : we 
perceive it now before us. That noble instrument upon your 
table, which insures immortality to its author, should be sub- 
scribed this very morning by every member in the room. He 
who will not respond to its call is unworthy the name of free- 
man. Although these hairs must descend into the tomb, I 
would rather, infinitely rather, they should descend thither by 
the hand of the public executioner than desert, at this crisis, 
the sacred cause of my country." 

This patriotic speech, worthy of a Leonidas or a Cincinna- 
tus, had barely ceased, when John Hancock, President of the 
Congress, seized his pen, wrote his name in bold character, and, 
rising from his chair, said, " There ! John Bull can read my 
name without spectacles, and may now double his reward for 
my head. That is my defiance ! " 

Having followed the transactions of the Continental Con- 
gress down to the Declaration of Independence, it is now 
proper to show how their doings were received by the people 
and Assembly of Pennsylvania. Perhaps we cannot do this 
better than by transcribing, at least in part, what one of her 
former historians has said. 

44 The Assembly of Pennsylvania was the first Provincial legis- 
lature to which report of the congressional proceedings was 
made. By this body, composed of a large proportion of Friends, 
they were unanimously approved, and recommended to the 
inviolable observance of the people ; and Messrs. Biddle, Dick- 
inson, Mifflin, Galloway, Humphries, Morton, and Ross, were 
appointed delegates to the next Congress, Mr. Rhoades being 
omitted, his office of mayor of the city engrossing all his atten- 
tion. Upon the return of Dr. Franklin from London (14th of 
May, 1775), he was immediately added to the congressional 
delegation, together with Messrs. James Wilson and Thomas 
Willing. Mr. Galloway, having repeatedly requested to be 
excused from serving as a deputy, was then permitted to with- 


draw. This gentleman became affrighted at the length to which 
the opposition to the parent state was carried. He drew the 
instructions given to the Pennsylvania delegates for the past 
and next Congress, and refused to serve, unless they were framed 
to his wishes. He opposed the resolution approving the' pro- 
ceedings of the County of Suffolk, and perplexed the delib- 
erations of Congress on the Declaration of Rights, delaying its 
adoption for near two weeks ; and when Congress refused to 
him, and Mr. Duane of New York, permission to enter their 
protest against this measure on their minutes, they gave to each 
other certificates of their opposition to it, under the conviction 
that it was pregnant with treason." 1 

The governor of the Province at this time was John Penn, 
grandson of William Penn, and son of Richard ; and of his 
course with the Assembly Gordon thus speaks : — 

44 Hitherto Gov. Penn had looked upon the proceedings of the 
assembly without attempting to direct or control them. He 
was supposed to favor the efforts made in support of American 
principles ; but now a semblance of regard to the instructions 
of the crown induced him to remonstrate in mild terms against 
the continental system of petition and remonstrance. 4 On the 
present occasion,' he said, 4 it is conceived that any grievances 
which his Majesty's subjects apprehend they have reason to 
complain of should be humbly represented to his Majesty by 
the several Assemblies, as the only proper and constitutional 
mode of obtaining redress ; and I have the best reason to be- 
lieve that a proper attention will be paid to such representa- 
tions, and to any propositions that may be made through that 
channel on the present state of American affairs.' The Assem- 
bly, however, was not disposed to pursue any other course of 
reconciliation than that adopted by the united colonies. They 
replied to the governor's message, 4 that since the year 1763, a 
system of colonial administration had been pursued, destructive 
of the rights and liberties of his Majesty's most faithful sub- 
jects in America ; and that they had heretofore adopted such 
measures as they thought most likely to restore affection and 
harmony between the parent state and the colonies. That a 

* Gordon's History of Pennsylvania 


most humble, dutiful, and affecting petition from the delegates 
of all the colonies, from Nova Scotia to Georgia, was now at the 
foot of the throne, and they trusted in the paternal affection 
and justice of their sovereign, that he would interpose for the 
relief of his greatly distressed and ever faithful subjects in 
America.' " 

When the petition to the King, and the other duties of the 
Congress, had been transmitted to the Crown and Parliament, 
and while they were being considered by the latter, Lord North 
introduced what he considered a reconciling measure, the pur- 
port of which was, that so long as any colony should contribute 
its share to the common defence, and the* support of the civil 
government, they would levy no tax or duty, except those neces- 
sary to regulate the commerce. This proposition was declared 
by his own friends, as admitting the correctness of American 
views upon the subject of taxation by Parliament, and also as 
a concession to rebels in arms, when Lord North explained his 
Jesuitical resolution as follows, that it was designed to retain 
the essentiarprinciple of taxation. 

Upon this measure being made known to the Colonies, they 
unanimously rejected it. Here, again, Gov. Penn took sides 
with the Crown, and presented it to the House, as a strong wish, 
on the part of Parliament, to accede to the demands of the col- 
onists, and urged them, as theirs was the first Assembly to which 
this resolution had been communicated, to comply with it, and 
assured them that such compliance would tend to produce tran- 
quillity, and posterity would ever hold them in grateful remem- 

The Assembly, upon receiving Gov. Penn's message, thus 
immediately replied. " They regretted," they said, " that they 
could not think the offered terms afforded just and reasonable 
grounds for a final accommodation between Great Britain and 
the colonies. They admitted the justice of contribution in 
case of the burthens of the mother-country ; but they claimed 
it as their indisputable rights, that all aids from them should 
be free and voluntary, not taken by force, nor extorted by fear ; 
and they chose rather to leave the character of the proposed 
plan to be determined by the governor's good sense than to 


expose it by reference to notorious facts, or the repetition of 
obvious reasons. But, if the plan proposed were unexceptiona- 
ble, they would esteem it dishonorable to adopt it without the 
advice and consent of their sister colonies, who, united by just 
motives and mutual faith, were guided by general counsels. 
They assured him that they could form no projects of perma- 
nent advantage for Pennsylvania which were not in common 
with the other colonies ; and, should a prospect of exclusive 
advantage be opened to them, they had too great regard for 
their engagements to accept benefits for themselves only, which 
were due to all, afid which, by a generous rejection for the 
present, might be finally secured to all." 

44 A second Provincial convention was held at Philadelphia 
(Joseph Reed was chosen President ; Jonathan B. Smith, John 
Benezet, and Francis Johnston, Secretaries), enforce 
the measures recommended by Congress, and to devise means 
for supplying the wants which adherence to those measures left 
without the ordinary modes of gratification. The convention 
declared its approbation of the proceedings of Congress, and 
its resolution to maintain the association recommended by 
them ; and pledged the counties generally, that, should the 
trade of the city and liberties be suspended in consequence of 
the present struggle, exertions should be made to relieve its 
inhabitants. It resolved that the committees of superintend- 
ence of the several counties should aid each other in case of 
resistance to their efforts to enforce the principle of the associ- 
ation ; that the convention earnestly desired to see harmony 
restored between Great Britain and the colonies, and would 
exert their utmost endeavors to attain this object; that the 
commercial opposition resolved on by the Continental Congress, 
if faithfully sustained, would be the means of rescuing the 
country from the evils meditated against it; but should the 
humble and loyal petition of Congress to his Majesty be dis- 
regarded, and the British ministry, instead of redressing their 
grievances, determine by force to effect submission to the late 
arbitrary acts of parliament, they deemed it their indispensable 
duty to resist such force, and at every hazard to defend the 
rights and liberties of America. 


" To provide against the inconveniences arising front non- 
importation^ the convention recommended that no sheep under 
four years old should be killed for the shambles ; that various 
branches of manufactures in wool, iron, copper, tin, paper, 
glass, &c., should be established ; that attention should be paid 
to the growing of dye-stuffs, flax, and hemp, and to the 
making of salt, saltpetre, and gunpowder, and the latter 
article especially, in large quantities, inasmuch as there existed a 
great nece$sity for ft, particularly in the Indian trade; that the 
manufactures of the colonies should be exclusively used, and 
that associations should be formed for promoting these objects. 
Public exposure, as an enemy of the country, was denounced, 
as the penalty on the wretch, who, taking advantage of the 
times, should be sordid enough to charge an extravagant profit 
upon his wares. The Committee of Correspondence of the city 
and county of Philadelphia was empowered by the convention 
to act as a standing committee of correspondence for the Prov- 
ince, and to convene a Provincial convention when they should 
deem it expedient. 

"This committee assumed to themselves powers widely 
different from those indicated by their title. The crisis to 
which the convention looked forward, when framing their late 
Tesolves, had arrived. The battle of Lexington was fought ; 
and submission to the arbitrary acts of parliament was 
attempted to be enforced by the bayonet. An unquenchable 
blaze of indignation pervaded the continent. At Philadelphia, 
under the direction of the committee, a meeting of the people, 
consisting of many thousands, resolved to form a military 
association for the protection of their property, their liberties, 
and their lives. The association extended through every 
county of the Province; its members cheerfully furnishing 
themselves with the necessary arms, and devoting themselves 
to acquire skill in their use. At the instance of the Committee 
of Correspondence, the Assembly approved the association, and 
engaged to provide for the pay and sustenance of such of the 
members as should be called into actual service, and appro- 
priated the sum of seven thousand pounds for the defence of 
the city. 


" Congress at their session in May having resolved to raise a 
continental army, of which the Pennsylvania portion amounted 
to four thousand three hundred men, the Assembly recom- 
mended to the commissioners of the several counties, as they 
regarded the freedom, welfare, and safety of their county, to 
provide arms and accoutrements for this force. They also 
directed the officers of the military association to select a 
number of minute-men, equal to the number of arms which 
could be procured, who should hold themselves in readiness to 
march at the shortest notice to any quarter, in case of emer- 
gency. They made further appropriations for the defence of 
the city against attacks by vessels-of-war, and directed the 
purchase of all the saltpetre that should be manufactured 
within the next six months at a premium price. The House 
adopted, also, a most important and effective measure, in the 
appointment of a committee of public safety, with power to 
call the associated troops into service, to pay and support 
them, and generally to provide for the defence of the Province 
against invasion and insurrection ; issuing for these purposes 
bills of credit for thirty-five thousand pounds, redeemable by 
a tax on real and personal estate. Of this sum, and others, 
afterwards voted by the House, Michael Hillegas was appointed 
treasurer. The committee at once assumed the chief executive 
powers in the Province. 

44 Amid these warlike preparations, the Assembly was not 
unmindful of those inhabitants who were conscientiously 
scrupulous of bearing arms. They earnestly recommended to 
the associators to bear a tender and fraternal regard towards 
this class of their fellow-subjects ; and to the latter, that they 
should cheerfully, in proportion to their ability, aid such 
associators who might be able to expend their time and sub- 
stance in the public service without injury to themselves and 
families. This latter recommendation was scarce needed ; for, 
if the society of Friends refused to take arms, they bestowed 
their wealth to relieve the sufferers by the calamities of war. 
The meeting of sufferings held in Philadelphia on the 6th of 
July declared that the affections and distresses of the inhab- 
itants of Massachusetts, and other parts of New England, had 


often engaged their pity and commiseration, with a desire to 
be instrumental for their relief; and, by a circular addressed to 
their members, they recommended to their serious and benevo- 
lent consideration the sorrowful calamities prevailing among 
these people, and a contribution for the relief of the neces- 
sitous of every religious denomination. To this end, they 
distributed printed subscription-papers, and requested that 
suitable active members might be appointed in each monthly 
and preparatory meeting, to apply for the donations of Friends. 
The task of applying their gifts was imposed upon a com- 
mittee of twenty-six persons, appointed by the yearly meeting 
at Rhode Island, with whom they proposed to correspond. 

44 Among the first labors of the Committee of Public Safety 
was that of preparing articles for the government of the mili- 
tary association. These citizen soldiers refused to sign and 
submit to the proposed regulations, alleging that many persons, 
rich, and able to perform military duty, claimed exemption 
under pretence of conscientious scruples ; and asserting, that, 
where the liberty of all was at stake, all should aid in its defence, 
and that, where the cause was common to all, it was inconsistent 
with justice and equity that the burden should be partial. 
Moved by these representations, the Committee of Safety recom- 
mended to the Assembly to provide that all persons should be 
subject to military duty, but that persons conscientiously 
scrupulous might compound for actual service by a pecuniary 
equivalent. The House, however, was not prepared for a 
measure of so strong a character ; and they suffered their term 
of office to expire, without passing upon the proposition. 

44 But this subject was pressed on the early attention of the 
succeeding Assembly. Congress, having recommended to the in- 
habitants of the several Provinces, between the ages of sixteen 
and fifty, to organize themselves into regular companies of 
militia, gave new occasion to the associators to urge the Assem- 
bly to put all the inhabitants, in this respect, on an equal 

44 The Quakers, who were the most affected by coercion to 
military service, addressed the legislature, setting forth their 
religious faith and practice with respect to bearing arms, the 


persecutions sustained by their ancestors for conscience' sake, 
and the consequent abandonment of their native country, and 
emigration to the wilderness, in search of civil and religious 
liberty, and claiming exemption from military service by virtue 
of the thirty-fifth section of the laws agreed upon in England, 
and the first clause of the existing charter granted by Penn. 
By the first, 4 no person living peaceably and justly in civil 
society could be molested or prejudiced by his religious persua- 
sion or practice in matters of faith or worship.' 4 Nor,' by the 
second, 4 be compelled to do or suffer any thing contrary to his 
religious persuasion.' They contended, therefore, that they 
could not legally be required to do aught which their consciences 
forbade, and that the sincerity of their scruples should be judged 
by the Lord of their consciences only. They asserted that they 
entertained a just sense of the value of their religious and civil 
liberties, and had ever been desirous of preserving them by all 
measures not inconsistent with their Christian profession and 
principles ; and though they believed it to be their duty to sub- 
mit to the powers, which, in the course of Divine Providence, 
were set over them, yet where there was oppression, or cause of 
suffering, it became them with Christian meekness and firmness 
to petition and remonstrate against it, and to endeavor, by just 
reasoning and arguments, to assert their rights and principles in 
order to obtain relief. 

44 The Mennonists and German Baptists also addressed the 
Assembly with prayers for exemption from military service. 
But their views differed essentially from those of the Quakers. 
The latter not only refused personal military service, but they 
denied the lawfulness of commuting it for pecuniary consider- 
ation ; whilst the former declared, that, though not at liberty in 
conscience to bear arms, it was a principle with them to feed 
the hungry, and give the thirsty drink ; and that they were 
always ready, pursuant to Christ's command to Peter, to pay 
tribute, that they might offend no man ; and that they were 
ready to pay taxes, and to render unto Caesar the things which 
were Caesar's. 

44 The right of exemption from military service and contribu- 
tion, claimed by the Quakers, was earnestly contested by the 


Committee of Correspondence of the city and county of Phila- 
delphia, and by committees from the officers and privates of the 
military association, from whom addresses were severally pre- 
sented to the Assembly. The first denounced the principles of 
non-resistance professed by Friends, 4 as unfriendly to the liber- 
ties of America, destructive of all society and government, and 
highly reflecting on the glorious revolutions which placed the 
present royal family on the throne/ 4 Though firmly persuaded,' 
they said, 4 that a majority of that society have too much good 
sense, sincerity, and wisdom to be influenced by such principles, 
yet duty to ourselves, to our country, and our posterity, at this 
alarming crisis, constrains us to use our utmost endeavors to pre- 
vent the fatal consequences that might attend your compliance 
with the application of the people called Quakers. These gen- 
tlemen would withdraw their persons and fortunes from the 
service of their country at a time when most needed ; and, if 
the patrons and friends of liberty succeed in the present glorious, 
struggle, they and their posterity will enjoy all the advantages, 
without jeoparding person or property. Should the friends of 
liberty fail, they will risk no forfeitures, but, having merited 
the protection and favor of the British ministry, will probably 
be rewarded by promotion to office. This they seem to desire 
and expect. Though such conduct manifestly tends to defeat 
the virtuous and wise measures planned by the Congress, and is 
obviously selfish, ungenerous, and unjust, yet we would ani- 
madvert upon the arguments they have used to induce the 
House to favor and support it/ 

44 The committee denied that the Old and New Testament 
furnished a single argument in support of this plea of conscience ; 
that it was sustainable by a proper construction of the charter 
by Penn, or a just consideration of his principles. 4 He had,' 
they said, 4 accepted the title of captain-general, with power 
by himself, his captains, and other officers, to levy, muster, and 
train all sorts of men, of what condition soever, and to make 
war out of the Province. If none but Quakers came at first to 
the Province with the proprietor, and the colony was intended 
exclusively for them, as the addressers seemed to intimate, the 
petitioners could not conceive that any other than Quakers 
could be made captains and officers. 


44 * Be this as it may, self-preservation/ they continued, 4 is 
the first duty of nature, which every man indispensably owes 
not only to himself, but to the Supreme Director and Governor 
of the universe, who gave him being. In political society, all 
men, by the original compact, are required to unite in defence 
of the community against such as would unlawfully deprive 
them of their rights ; and those who withdraw themselves from 
this compact are not entitled to the protection of the society. 
The safety of the people is the supreme law. He who receives 
an equal benefit should bear an equal burden. The doctrine 
of passive obedience and non-resistance is incompatible with 
freedom and happiness; and the petitioners were of opinion 
that even the addressers, who, distant from danger, and seduced 
by casuistical reasoning, might affect to exclude all resistance, 
would listen to the voice of nature, when evident ruin to them- 
selves and the public must follow a strict adherence to such 
principles, if there were no other persons in the community to 
defend them.' They therefore prayed that the Assembly would 
not, at a time when the aid of every individual was required to 
preserve their common rights, exempt many of the wealthiest 
citizens from co-operating with their countrymen in some way 
or other for their common safety. 

44 Thus urged, the Assembly resolved, that 4 all persons between 
the ages of sixteen and fifty capable of bearing arms, who did 
not associate for the defence of the Province, ought to con- 
tribute an equivalent for the time spent by the associators in 
acquiring military discipline, ministers of the gospel, of all denomi- 
nations, and servants purchased bona fide for valuable consider- 
ation, only excepted.' By this resolution, the principle which 
still regulates for neglect or refusal of military service was 

"The military association, originally a mere voluntary 
engagement, became, by the resolutions of the Assembly, now 
having the effect of laws, a compulsory militia. Returns were 
required from the assessors of the several townships and wards, 
of all persons within military age capable of bearing arms ; 
and the captains of the companies of associators were directed 
to furnish to their colonels, and the colonels to the county 


commissioners, lists of such persons as had joined the associa- 
tion ; and the commissioners were empowered to assess on 
those not associated the sum of two pounds ten shillings 
annually, in addition to the ordinary tax. The Assembly, also, 
adopted rules and regulations for the better government of the 
military association, the thirty-fifth article of which provided, 
4 that, if any associator called into actual service should leave 
a family not of ability to maintain themselves in his absence, 
the justices of the peace of the proper city or county, with 
the overseers of the poor, should make provision for their 

44 Pursuant to the recommendation of Congress, the Assembly 
of Pennsylvania authorized the enlistment of a battalion of 
eight companies for the continental service, and nominated 
John Bull, colonel ; James Irwin, lieutenant-colonel ; and 
Anthony J. Morris, major. The House also resolved, by the 
casting-vote of the speaker, to levy fifteen hundred men for 
the defence of the Province, to be engaged until the first of 
January, 1778, subject, however, to be discharged at any time, 
on the advance of a month's pay. These troops were divided 
into three battalions, — two of riflemen, and one of infantry. 
The riflemen were formed into a regiment, and placed under 
the command of Mr. Samuel Miles, a distinguished member of 
the Assembly, with the rank of first Provincial colonel. James 
Piper was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and Ennion Williams 
major, of the first battalion ; and Daniel Brodhead lieutenant- 
colonel, and John Patton major, of the second battalion. Mr. 
John Cadwallader was nominated colonel, and Mr. James 
Potts major, of the infantry battalion. But Mr. Cadwallader, 
having applied for the command of the first battalion, refused 
to accept the commission tendered to him, and it was subse- 
quently given to Mr. Samuel Atlee. 

44 Among other acts of Congress, already related, at their 
meeting in May they passed the following resolution : 4 That 
it be recommended to the respective Assemblies and conven- 
tions of the United Colonies, where no government sufficient 
to the exigencies of their affairs has been hitherto established, 
to adopt such government as shall, in the opinions of the 


representatives of the people, best conduce to the safety and 
happiness of their constituents in particular, and America in 

" This resolution contained the essence of the Declaration 
of Independence, insomuch as it renounced allegiance to the 
British Crown, and recommended governments to be established 
by the authority of the people. This bold step raised the 
question in Pennsylvania, and in her Assembly, whether Con- 
gress intended that a change should be made in her govern- 
ment, and, if so, whether the Assembly, or some other body, 
should make it. 

44 Hitherto, in seeking redress from the British Parliament, 
the inhabitants had all acted with great unanimity. Even the 
old proprietary and popular parties had laid aside their ani- 
mosities, and joined in opposing the common oppression ; but 
when this resolution had passed, authorizing the establishment 
of other governments, divisions soon manifested themselves 
among the inhabitants. 

44 First, the Quakers, being opposed to all war, and strongly 
attached to their church, and to the mother-country, were 
filled with horror at the idea of a permanent separation from 
Great Britain, and setting up independent governments ; and, 
secondly, the proprietors and proprietary officers, with their 
connections, including the large proportion of wealthy and 
eminent men in the Province, foresaw in a change of govern- 
ment, the loss of their official pay and influence. The mass 
of the people, however, were in favor of the resolution. These 
were called Whigs ; while those who opposed it were denomi- 
nated Tories. 

44 Soon after Congress had recommended the organization of 
new governments, the Whigs, assembled in town-meeting at 
Philadelphia, resolved, 4 That the present Assembly, not having 
been elected for the purpose of forming a new government, 
could not proceed therein without assuming arbitrary power ; 
that a protest be immediately entered by the people of the 
city and county of Philadelphia against the power of the House 
to carry into execution the resolve of Congress ; that a Pro- 
vincial Assembly, elected by the people, be chosen for that 


purpose ; that the present government of the Province was 
not competent to the exigencies of its affairs ; and that the 
meeting would abide by these resolutions, be the consequences 
what they might. 1 

" In the protest adopted by the meeting, and presented to 
the Assembly, the qualification of the latter to form a new con- 
stitution was denied, inasmuch as its chartered power was 
derived from their mortal enemy, the king, and its members 
elected by persons in the real or supposed allegiance of the 
crown, to the exclusion of many whom the late resolve of 
Congress had rendered electors ; and the assembly was in the 
immediate intercourse with a governor bearing the king's com- 
mission, his sworn representative, holding, and by oath obliged 
to hold, official correspondence with his ministers, from which 
oath the people could not absolve him. * As we mean not,' 
continued the protesters, 4 to enter into any altercation with 
the House, we shall forbear enumerating the particular incon- 
sistencies of its former conduct, and content ourselves with 
declaring, that as a body of men, bound by oaths of allegiance 
to our enemy, and influenced, as many of its members are, by 
connection with a pecuniary employment under the proprie- 
tary, we have very alarming apprehensions that a government 
modelled by them would be the means of subjecting us and 
our posterity to greater grievances than any we have hitherto 

" The protesters did not protest against the House exercising 
its accustomed powers for the safety and convenience of the 
Province, until a constitution founded on the authority of 
the people should be finally settled by a convention elected for 
that purpose, and until the proper officers and representatives 
should be chosen. For this purpose, they declared their inten- 
tion to apply to the committee of inspection and observation of 
the city and liberties, whose services, they said on all occasions, 
had been applied to the support of the rights of the people, to 
call a conference of committees of the several counties, that they 
might direct the election of a Provincial convention, consisting 
at least of a hundred members. 4 We are fully convinced,' 
they concluded, 4 that our safety and happiness, next to the 


immediate providence of God, depends on our compliance 
with, and firmly supporting, the resolve of Congress, that 
thereby the union of the colonies may be preserved inviolate.' 

" On the other hand, the Tories chose a committee of inspect 
tion and observation for the county of Philadelphia, many of 
them being prominent citizens, who presented an address to 
the Assembly, * declaring their satisfaction in expressing their 
sentiments to the constitutional representatives of the Province, 
their concern that the ground of opposition to ministerial 
measures was totally changed ; that instead of forwarding a 
reconciliation with the parent state, on constitutional princi- 
ples, a system had been adopted by some persons in the city 
and liberties, tending to a subversion of the constitution ; and 
advising that the assembly should religiously adhere to the 
instructions given to their delegates in Congress. And they 
earnestly entreated that the Assembly would, to the uttermost 
of their power, oppose the changing, or altering in the least, 
their invaluable constitution, under which they had experienced 
every happiness, and in support of which there was nothing 
just or reasonable they would not undertake.' 

44 Many of the inhabitants of the city and county of Phila- 
delphia, and other counties of the Province, remonstrated 
against the protest, because the resolution of Congress, on 
which it was based, applied to such colonial governments only 
as were insufficient to the exigencies of their affairs ; and, by 
that resolution, Congress, who had never interfered with the 
domestic policy of the colonies, had left the representatives of 
the people sole judges of the efficiency of their governments ; 
because the protest proposed a measure tending to disunion, 
and to damp the zeal of multitudes, who, having a high venera- 
tion for their civil and religious rights, as secured by charter, 
never conceived, when they engaged, among other things, for 
the support of the charter-rights of another colony, that they 
would be required to sacrifice their own ; and because what- 
ever temporary alteration in forms circumstances might render 
expedient could be effected by authority of the Assembly, six 
parts in seven of that body having power to change the con- 
stitution. In conclusion y the remonstrators recommended to 


the Assembly the example of South Carolina, which, when 
impelled by necessity, had adopted temporary regulations, to 
endure until 'an accommodation of the unhappy differences 
between Great Britain and America could be obtained, 9 — an 
event, though traduced and treated as rebels, they still pro- 
fessed earnestly to desire. 

44 The spirit of patriotism was so aroused, that no efforts of 
this kind could stay it. The committee of the Whigs, already 
referred to, ( communicated to the committees of the several 
counties the proceedings of that meeting, and invited them to 
meet in a Provincial convention ; and, the more speedily to 
break every tie between them and the king, they endeavored 
to prevent the administration of justice in his Majesty's name, 
by requesting the judges of the several county courts to sus- 
pend business until a new government should be formed.' 

" Consequently a Provincial Congress, consisting of one hun- 
dred and eight members, met at Philadelphia on the 18th of 
June, 1776, and resolved unanimously, * that they fully approved 
of the resolution of Congress, recommending a modification 
of the colonial governments ; that the present government of 
the Province was incompetent to the exigencies of its affairs ; 
and that a Provincial convention should be called for the 
express purpose of forming a new one ; . . . that every elec- 
tor, if required, should take an oath or affirmation, that he 
did not hold himself in allegiance to George the Third, and 
would not by any means oppose the establishment of a free 
government within the Province, by the convention about to 
be chosen, nor the measures adopted by Congress against the 
tyranny of Great Britain.' 

" The electors having taking the preceding oath, the depu- 
ties elected were required to take the following: * I do 
declare that I do not hold myself bound to bear allegiance to 
George the Third, King of Grea^t Britain, &c, and that I will 
steadily and firmly, at all times, promote the most effectual 
means, according to the best of my skill and knowledge, to 
oppose the tyrannical proceedings of the king and parliament 
of Great Britain against the American colonies, and to estab- 
lish and support a government in this Province on the author- 
ity of the people only,' " &c. 


Thus Pennsylvania was one of the earliest Provinces to 
throw Jier weight, influence, and fortune in favor of a govern- 
ment free and independent of Great Britain, and to sustain 
the preceding Acts of Congress. 

The next thing to be done was to form a constitution for 
Pennsylvania, which had now become a State. For this pur- 
pose, a convention assembled at Philadelphia on Monday, 15th 
of July, 1776, and chose Dr. Benjamin Franklin, President, 
Col. George Ross, Vice-President, John Morris, Secretary, and 
Jacob Garrigues, Assistant Secretary. They first passed a 
resolution, directing that divine service should be performed 
in the Convention, by Rev. William White, afterwards Episco- 
pal bishop of Pennsylvania, and offered praise and thanksgiving 
to God for special interposition of Providence in behalf of the 
oppressed United States. 

As soon as this Convention was organized, it assumed the 
whole political power of the State. One of their first acts was 
to appoint delegates to Congress, and instruct them to strengthen 
the union of the States, to u?e their influence and power for 
the establishment of a navy, and to be constant and punctual 
in attending to their duties in Congress. They prohibited 
them from entering into any treaty with Great Britain, or any 
other power, except upon the condition of being acknowledged 
as free and independent States. The Constitution was com- 
pleted on Saturday the twenty-eighth day of September, when 
it was read in Convention, and signed by the President, and 
every member. 



The Government modelled after England — The People Democratic — Exporta- 
tion prohibited — Of the Courts — Sale of Lands — Division of Classes 
among the People — William Penn — Provincial Laws repealed — Early 
Churches — Free Toleration to All — Influx of Sects — Contrast of Public 
Expenditures — Literature — Prin ting-Press — Newspapers — Magazines — 
Benjamin Franklin — His Prin ting-Press. 

HAVING brought down the history of Pennsylvania to her 
enactment of a Constitution as a free State, it seems 
proper now to treat of her government, laws, religion, finance, 
and literature at this time. It was natural that the Colonies 
should at first look for a model of government in the Constitu- 
tion of England ; but, in all their transactions, they regarded 
the democratic portion with great favor. The consequence was, 
that the powers of their governors were somewhat curtailed ; 
and the king's lieutenants, in many instances, succumbed to 
this popular feeling. 

Pennsylvania, by the royal charter given to William Penn, 
was, in some respects, more particularly under the royal govern- 
ment than some of the other colonies. The charter required 
the laws to be presented within five years for the royal assent ; 
but this requirement was conveniently neglected. An instance 
of this was seen in the laws forbidding the exportation of goods 
to foreign countries ; and they were not enforced in the Prov- 
ince for more than fifty years. The proprietors claimed the 
right to restrain their deputies by general instructions ; but this 
claim was often opposed by the popular voice, and finally 
resulted in an earnest effort to abolish the proprietary govern- 



"It was in the power of the Assembly at all times to establish 
the judicature by law ; and many contentions arose from their 
attempts at this object. The great law created the first courts 
of the Province, which were remodelled, after the adoption of 
the charter of 1701, by an act prepared by David Lloyd. This 
act was- repealed by the king in council, probably at the instance 
of William Penn, on the suggestion of Secretary Logan, that 
he might erect courts by his proprietary power, or obtain the 
passage of a law more consonant with his wishes and interests. 
And, the governor and Assembly differing widely in their opin- 
ions on this subject, the courts were opened under an ordinance 
of the former, by which they were continued until fhe year 
1710, when they were established by a law sanctioned by Gov. 

It is to be regretted that some general and accurate system 
for the location of lands had not been adopted at the settle- 
ment of the Province, and undeviatingly continued, thereby 
avoiding that intricacy in Pennsylvania titles, which has been 
detrimental to the increase of her population. Unfortunately, 
no system whatever can be traced in the records of the land 

44 By force of the royal charter, William Penn and his success- 
ors became undoubted lords of the soil, subject to the duty of 
extinguishing the Indian title, which justice, humanity, and 
their contract with the vendees, imposed upon them. They 
had the right to dispose of lands in such manner, and at such 
price, as they deemed proper ; and the officers of the land office 
were their agents, controllable by their will. The contract 
with the first purchasers in some degree qualified this power. 
Wherever they desired to * sit together,' and their quantity of 
land amounted to five thousand acres, they might cast their lot 
or township together ; and the appropriation of lands by William 
Penn, for his proper use, was confined to the reservation, by lot, 
of ten thousand acres in every hundred thousand, the residue 
being open to the choice of purchasers. But these qualifica- 
tions were in favor of the first purchasers only. Subsequently 
the proprietary might withdraw from the general mass any 
lands not previously appropriated to individuals ; and his sur- 


veyore were instructed to locate for him five hundred acres in 
every township of five thousand, in addition to the proprietary 
tenth of all lands laid out." 1 

William Penn appointed commissioners, who were authorized 
at various times to purchase lands of the Indians ; but there is 
no regular account of lands granted prior to 1700. During 
the next sixty-seven years, the number of lands granted 
amounted to seven thousand. This is the statement of John 
Penn, as recorded in the Minutes of Council. All lands were 
usually granted subject to quit-rents ; which rents were to com- 
pensate the proprietor for the administration of the government, 
or for his maintenance, if he failed to receive public support. 
Lands were sold very cheap in those days, the purchasers pay- 
ing one shilling sterling for a hundred acres. Sometimes a 
bushel of wheat was paid for a hundred acres. The price of 
lands varied at different times. 

The people were divided into natural o* artificial bodies. Nat- 
ural persons became subjects by solemnly promising, in a court 
of record, faith and allegiance to the king, and full obedience 
to the proprietor. Foreigners or aliens might be admitted as 
subjects, upon making request of the proprietor and governor, 
for such freedom, making the above promises, and paying 
twenty shillings sterling. Parliament introduced a uniform 
rule of naturalization in 1740, declaring all persons born out of 
the legiance of the king, who had resided seven years in a 
colony, who had taken the oath of fidelity and abjuration, and 
who had made a profession of Christian faith before a judge of 
the colony, should be considered as natural born subjects. This 
act provided for the scruples of the Quakers, and they were 
allowed to affirm. 

Another division of natural persons was made between free- 
men and slaves. The German Quakers protested against the 
slave-trade ; and a similar protest was made early by the society 
of Friends. The Assembly imposed a duty on the importation 
of slaves in 1705 ; but it was not so much to prohibit the slave- 
trade as to increase the revenue. In 1712 another act was 
passed, declaring, in the preamble, the danger of insurrection 

1 Gordon's Hist, of Pfenn,, p. 548. 


and murder from a negro population. This act also declared 
the u umbrage and dissatisfaction" given to the neighboring 
Indians, because some Indian slaves had been imported from 
North Carolina. It imposed a duty of twenty pounds on every 
negro slave imported. This humane act was repealed by the 
king and council as soon as it reached England. None of the 
Indians of Pennsylvania were ever enslaved ; and though the 
Assembly always took a stand against slavery, and passed many 
acts to prohibit and to remove this curse from the Province, yet 
the avarice which presided over the English councils caused 
them to be rejected and repealed. Still some mitigation of the 
evil was accomplished from the fact that they were enforced 
until repealed ; and they were renewed, in every instance, as 
soon as they had been repealed. 

There were always some in the colony who opposed these 
humane and benevolent acts, though the mass of the people 
was averse to slavery ; and though the Legislature constantly 
passed these acts against it, yet slavery was not abolished in the 
Province until after the close of the Revolution. None of the 
acts of the Assembly gave slaves any political rights, yet they 
secured them from cruel and brutal treatment. 

There was another class of people, who could scarcely be 
called slaves, and yet they were not freemen. Many persons 
were imported into the Province as servants, who agreed to pay 
their passage by serving for a definite period. This class was 
also favored by law. Even in England, provision was made, 
by ordering that the names, times, and wages of servants, 
should be recorded. Their masters, also, were permitted to take 
up lands for them, and, when the time of their service had 
expired, they were allowed to become land-holders ; and, when 
they entered upon the cultivation of these lands, their masters 
were required to provide for them sufficient clothing, and imple- 
ments for farming. This class of servants could not be sold out 
of the Province without their consent ; and, in case of marriage, 
husband and wife could not be separated. The rights of the 
master were also provided for by law. Many of this class of 
servants, especially of the German and Irish population, after- 
wards became honorable and wealthy citizens. 


" The acquisition of Pennsylvania gave to the Quakers the 
means of religious liberty, which they hastened to use. By the 
4 laws agreed on in England,' it was provided that witnesses 
should testify 4 by solemnly promising to speak the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth ; ' and persons convicted 
of falsehood were liable to * suffer such damage or penalty as 
the person against whom they bore false witness did or should 
undergo, and to make satisfaction to the party wronged, and 
be publicly exposed as a false witness, never to be credited in 
any court, or before any magistrate, in the Province.' Oaths 
were thus abolished in all cases. This law was re-enacted in 
1693, but was modified by an act passed in 1712, allowing an 
affirmation to the scrupulous, and permitting others to make 
oath. This and other acts of like tenor were repealed by the 
privy council; but at length, by the 1 Geo. I., upon the 
model adopted in Pennsylvania, the Provincial act of 1718 
enacted ' That all manner of crimes and offences, matters and 
causes, may be inquired of, heard, tried, and determined by 
judges, justices, inquests, and witnesses, qualifying themselves 
according to their conscientious persuasions respectively, either 
by taking a corporal oath, or by the solemn affirmation allowed 
by act of parliament;' thus extending that act to criminal 
cases, which were expressly excluded from its scope. This 
subject was wholly and finally settled in 1772 by an act of 
Assembly, legalizing the oath with uplifted hands, after the 
ritual of the covenanters. These laws have extended to all, 
without distinction of religious sects, the right to substitute an 
affirmation for an oath, where scruples of conscience prevail. 
The temporal punishment for falsehood uttered under either 
sanction is the same ; and it is not to be presumed that there 
will be a difference in the future." l 

As the feudal system prohibited the alienation of lands, it 
was a long time before common justice could subject lands for 
the payment of debts. By the " laws agreed upon in England," 
u all lands and goods were liable to pay debts, except where 
there was legal issue, and then all the goods and one-third of 
the lands only." 

1 See Gordon, p. 068. 


William Penn, for his justice, profound thought, and political 
knowledge, deserves to be ranked with the greatest philoso- 
phers, and public benefactors. The political changes which he 
introduced into the Province, with his alterations in the opera- 
tion of criminal law, merit the praise and admiration of posterity. 
The government had always been administered, from the first 
settlement of the Province, under the solemnity of an affirma- 
tion, instead of an oath, although the English Parliament was 
constantly repealing the laws of the Province relating to this 
act Through the Quaker influence, the Province persisted in 
opposing the Acts of Parliament upon this point. 

The toleration of religious denominations allowed in the 
Province of Pennsylvania, not only brought many Quakers 
hither, but also a great number of various creeds. As the day of 
persecution for religious opinions had not then passed away in 
Europe, many of those sects whose worship was restrained in 
their native country found an asylum in this Province, among 
which were Episcopalians, Lutherans, Roman Catholics, Inde- 
pendents, Schwenkfelders, and Jews. 

It has already been stated, that, at the time William Penn 
received his great Charter, several churches were established in 
the Province and territories. The Dutch had one at New 
Castle, and the Swedish Lutherans had three, — one at Christina, 
one at Timciene, and one at Wicocoa, and, still later, they added 
one at Kingsessing, and another at Merion. The emigration 
from Germany was soon so numerous, that they had two 
churches at Philadelphia, and others at Burks, Lancaster, and 
Northampton Counties. 

In the year 1770 the Quakers had between sixty and seventy 
houses for religious worship. The Episcopalians early became 
numerous ; and, under Keith, many of the Quakers seceded, and 
joined them. Christ Church, where Bishop White preached, 
and in which Washington's pew is shown at the present day, 
was built in 1710, enlarged in 1727, and finished by the erection 
of a steeple in 1753. 

The Protestants, of all denominations, held the Roman 
Catholic communion in abhorrence. At that time the laws of 
England forbade the observance of that religion; and even 


William Penn, notwithstanding all the persecutions he had 
received in England, and the liberal spirit which he cherished, 
was very unwilling to receive Papists into his Province. " Min- 
utes of the Provincial Council show that so much danger was 
apprehended from their missionaries, that their imprisonment 
was deemed necessary to the public safety. Previously to the 
year 1733, few Catholics resided in Philadelphia and these 
held their meetings for religious worship in a private dwelling, 
and were occasionally visited by missionaries from Maryland. 
At that time a small chapel was erected in the city, and 
dedicated to St. Joseph ; and a pastor was duly appointed to 
officiate therein. The public celebration of mass caused much 
agitation in the Provincial Council ; and Gov. Gordon proposed 
to suppress it as contrary to Stat. 11 and 12, William III. 
The Catholics claimed protection under the Provincial charter ; 
and, the Council referring the subject to their superiors at home, 
the governors wisely resolved to suffer them to worship in 

At the Revolution, the Quakers were in a minority. The 
Presbyterians, with the Dutch and German Calvinists, were 
the most numerous sect. Large numbers emigrated from the 
north of Ireland, where they had been trained to fight for 
their religion. They were zealous and active, and maintained 
their religious creed with much courage and perseverance. 
They were always ready to fight the Indians. 

The Baptists, in 1G95, commenced worship at the corner of 
Chestnut and Second Streets. John Watts, an Independent 
minister, preached for them for some time. In 1698 they called 
Rev. Jedediah Andrews, a Baptist minister from New England. 
In 1704 they erected a house for public worship on Market 
Street, and in 1729 they adopted the Presbyterian form of 
government. In 1742 this church was divided ; a part of them 
following the Rev. George Whitefield. In 1750 they founded 
the Second Presbyterian Church, which exists until the present 
time (1875), and over which the Rev. Elias R. Beadle, D.D., 
LL.D., is the pastor. 

In 1684 a Baptist church was gathered at Cold Spring, near 
Bristol, in Bucks County, by Mr. Dongan, who came from Rhode 


Island. In 1686 some more Baptists came from Radnorshire 
in Wales, and Killarney in Ireland, and established a church at 
Pennypack Creek, ten miles north-east of Philadelphia ; and Mr. 
Dongan baptized and ordained Elias Reach, a very young man 
from England, whom they chose for their pastor. 

Of the numerous religious denominations that early settled 
in Pennsylvania, the creed of the Episcopalians, consisting of 
the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, is too well 
known to need further notice. So, also, of the Presbyterians ; 
they being Calvinists, their system of doctrine is well under- 
stood. The Lutherans, the first denomination of Protestants 
that separated from the Church of Rome, take their name from 
Martin Luther. At their separation, they retained some things 
in their creed and practice, which later Protestants rejected ; 
and the Lutherans themselves (at least a portion of them) 
have introduced some changes in these particulars. Luther 
and his early followers believed in consubstantiation; that is, 
that, in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, the bread and wine 
became, in some incomprehensible manner, the body and blood 
of Christ. 

As in a former chapter we allowed the Quakers to speak for 
themselves, and to state their own creed, so the Lutherans 
should have the same privilege. The chief articles of belief 
which Luther maintained are as follows : — 

"1. That the Holy Scriptures are the only source whence we 
are to draw our religious sentiments, whether they relate to 
faith or practice. 

44 2. That justification is the effect of faith, exclusive of 
good works, and that faith ought to produce good works, purely 
in obedience to God, and not in order to our justification. 

44 3. That no man is able to make satisfaction for his sins." 

In consequence of these leading 'articles, Luther rejected 
tradition, purgatory, penance, auricular confession, masses, invo- 
cation of saints, monastic vows, and other doctrines of the 
Church of Rome. 

The external affairs of the Lutheran Church are directed 
by three judicatories ; viz., a vestry of the congregation, a dis- 
trict or special conference, and a general synod. The synod is 


composed of ministers and an equal number of laymen, chosen 
as deputies by the vestries of their respective congregations. 
From this synod there is no appeal. 

The ministerium is composed of ministers only, and regu- 
lates the internal or spiritual concerns of the church, such as 
examining, licensing, and ordaining ministers, judging in con- 
troversies about doctrine, &c. The synod and ministerium 
meet annually. 

The Lutherans claim to be the largest Protestant denomina- 
tion in the world. Their churches are numerous in Pennsyl- 
vania, their ministers well educated ; and they are a pious and 
orderly people. 

The Dunkards, Tunkers or Dumplers, were another sect that 
early settled in Pennsylvania. Gordon, in his History, gives 
the following curious sketch of this sect, as respects their early 
settlement in the Province : — 

" Their religion was more mystical, and their practice more 
ascetic and fanatic, than of any other sect in the Province. 
The word 4 tunker,' from which their other names are derived, 
means a baptizer by immersion. With the Quakers and Men- 
nonists, they refuse to swear or bear arms. They trace their 
origin to the baptism of John, and admit no other confession of 
faith than the New Testament. They adopt the eucharist, 
which they administer at night, in imitation of our Saviour, 
washing, at the same time, one another's feet, agreeably to his 
example and command. They convene on the first day of the 
week for public worship; but those at Ephratah kept the Jewish 
sabbath. They wore their beards long, and dressed in plain 
and coarse garments of an ancient fashion. 

"This sect commenced in Germany in 1705, and consisted 
principally of German Calvinists, whose aberrations obtained 
for them the name of ' Pietists,' and a considerable share of per- 
secution. They collected at Swarzenan, in the county of 
Witgenstein, where they were allowed, for a season, to meet 
without interruption. Here, under the guidance of Alexander 
Mack, a miller of Schriesheim, a society, originally of eight 
persons, was formed, who adopted the rite of baptism by immer- 
sion. Their number increasing, and their enthusiasm meeting 


with reproof, they removed to Creyfield, in the Duchy of Cleves, 
whence a company of eight or ten, still under the direction of 
Mack, who devoted his property to the common use of the 
society, proceeded to Pennsylvania in 1719, and seated them- 
selves at Germantown. Their church grew rapidly, receiving 
members from the inhabitants along the Wissahickon, and from 
Lancaster County. In 1723 the members in Germantown and 
its vicinity formed themselves into a community, under Peter 
Beeker, who was chosen official baptizer ; and who also, in the 
succeeding year, collected the scattered brethren in Lancaster 
County into a distinct society, near Pequa Creek. At the head 
of this last association, one Conrad Beissel, who assumed the 
name of Friedsham Gottrecht, anglice Peaceable Godright, had 
sufficient art to place himself. The property of the society 
consisted of about two hundred and fifty acres of land. Its 
labors and profits were in common. Marriage and sexual inter- 
course were forbidden to the members of the community ; but 
such as were disposed to enter into matrimony were permitted 
to withdraw, taking with them their proportion of the common 
stock. The sexes dwelt apart. They lived on vegetables 
solely, and slept on wooden benches, with blocks of wood for 
pillows, and attended worship four times in the twenty-four 
hours. This life macerated their bodies, and rendered their 
complexions pale and bloodless. Their dress consisted of a 
shirt, trowsers, and waistcoat, with a long white gown, and cowl 
of wool in winter, and linen in summer. The dress of the 
women differed from that of the men in petticoats only : with 
the cowls of their gowns they covered their faces, when going 
into public. When walking, they all used a solemn, steady 
pace, keeping straight forward, with their eyes fixed to the 
ground, not turning to give an answer when asked a question. 
On their occasional visits to their friends at Germantown, forty 
or fifty, thus strangely accoutred, with sandals on their feet, 
were seen following each other in Indian file. On the death of 
Beissel, his authority devolved on one Millar, who, wanting the 
vigorous mind and influence of his predecessor, was unable to 
preserve the society from rapid decay." 
The Mennonites, or Mennonists, or the Harmless Christians, 


took their name from Menno Simon, a native of the Nether- 
lands, who lived in the sixteenth century. They professed to 
trace their faith back to the Christian Church in Thessalonica, 
in the time of the apostles. They were German Baptists. As 
they were bitterly persecuted in Germany, and as they had, 
from the writings and discourses of William Penn, obtained a 
knowledge of Pennsylvania, and that all sects were tolerated in 
his Province, some of them removed thither as early as 1698 ; 
others came in 1706 ; others still, in 1709 and 1711. Their 
good report of the country, and its free toleration, induced many 
to follow them in 1717. They first settled at Germantown, 
where, in 1708, they built a meeting and school house. In 1770, 
their number in the Province was 4,050 persons. They were 
said to be a sober, moral, and industrious people. Van Beuning, 
the Dutch ambassador, speaking of these Harmless Christians, 
as they chose to call themselves, says, — 

" The Mennonites are good people, and the most commodious 
to a state of any in the world; partly because they do not 
aspire to places of dignity ; partly because they edify the com- 
munity by the simplicity of their manners, and application to 
arts and industry; and partly because we fear no rebellion 
from a sect who make it an article of their faith never to bear 

Another sect which early came into the Province was the 
Schwenkfelders. They took their name from Caspar Schwenk- 
feld, a distinguished teacher of the sixteenth century. They 
were tolerated by the German emperors at a very early date, 
especially in Silesia. In 1590, 1650, and 1725, they were sub- 
jected to great persecution; and, after having been driven from 
place to place, they determined to establish themselves in 
Pennsylvania. Many of them came into the Province in the 
years 1733 and 1734. They refused to take oaths, and repro- 
bated war. Their chief settlement was in Berks County. They 
were an industrious, frugal, and moral people. 

In 1694 forty-two Germans emigrated to Pennsylvania, and 
called themselves u Thb Society op the Woman in the 
Wildebness." They settled at a place called the Ridge, 
near Germantown, now included in the city of Philadelphia. 


They were driven from the universities of Germany, and were 
mostly educated men. They came into the Province for liberty 
of conscience, and believed the Millennium was near at hand, 
and that the Church of Christ, prefigured in Revelation, was 
soon to come up from the wilderness, leaning on her Beloved. 
Like the Millerites of our time, they laid aside all business, 
became hermits, and waited for the Harbinger. They were led 
by John Kelpius, John Seelig, and Conrad Matthias. The 
latter was a Swiss, and joined them in 1704. Kelpius belonged 
to a noble family in Germany, was an eminent scholar, and 
could read the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, German, and English 
languages with great fluency. He died in 1708. After his 
death, Seelig became their leader ; and he very firmly resisted 
the temptations of the world, wore coarse raiment, and became 
a hermit. He was succeeded by Matthias, who died in 1745. 
He was the last of the hermits. 

They were all astrologers and magicians, and were feared as 
conjurers. Dr. Christopher Witt belonged to this society, and 
was a distinguished physician. He was a magus, a diviner, or 
conjurer. He frequently lifted the veil from the future, pointed 
out the place where stolen goods could be found, and the thieves 
who stole them. Such were the ignorance and superstition of 
the people, that his practice became very lucrative. By the 
aid of necromancy, he relieved the disorders and spells pro- 
duced by witchcraft.. He died in Germantown in 1765, at the 
age of one hundred years. (Gordon gives his age at the time 
of his death at ninety years, while Watson has it as in our 
text.) His doctor's cloak and magician's wand descended to 
his apprentice Frailey; but he never equalled his master in 

The sect of the Moravians, or United Brethren as they 
called themselves, was formed by Count Zinzendorf in 1721. 
He was soon joined by some Moravian families, who had left 
their homes with a design of coming to Pennsylvania, but 
stopping at Bartholdorf on Zinzendorf s estate, and learning 
that they could enjoy religious freedom, had remained there. 
As a large proportion of the brethren were from Moravia, the 
count claimed that his society was of Moravian parentage, and 


that they descended from the Bohemians and Moravians, who op- 
posed Roman Catholicism long before Luther was- born, and that 
they were connected with the Waldenses. This society, by its 
early efforts to Christianize the Indians, have brought them- 
selves into intimate relation with the history of Pennsylvania. 

44 The Moravians avoid discussions respecting the speculative 
truths of religion, and insist upon individual experience of the 
practical efficiency of the gospel in producing a real change of 
sentiment and conduct as the only essentials in religion. They 
consider the manifestation of God in Christ as intended to be 
the most beneficial revelation of the Deity to the human race ; 
and, in consequence, they make the life, merits, acts, words, suf- 
ferings, and death of the Saviour the principal theme of their 
doctrine, while they carefully avoid entering into any theoret- 
ical disquisitions on the mysterious essence of the Godhead, 
simply adhering to the words of Scripture. Admitting the 
Sacred Scriptures as the only source of divine revelation, they, 
nevertheless, believe that the Spirit of God continues to lead 
those who believe in Christ, into all further truth; not by 
revealing new doctrines, but by teaching those who sincerely 
desire to learn, daily better to understand and apply the truths 
which the Scriptures contain. They believe, that, to live agree- 
ably to the gospel, it is essential to aim in all things to fulfil 
the will of God. Even in their temporal concerns, they 
endeavor to ascertain the will of God. They do not, indeed, 
expect some miraculous manifestation of his will, but only 
endeavor to test the purity of their purposes by the light of 
the divine word. Nothing of consequence is done by them as 
a society, Until such an examination has taken place; and, 
in cases of difficulty, the question is decided by lot, to avoid 
the undue preponderance of influential men, and in the hum- 
ble hope that God will guide them right by its decision, where 
their limited understanding fails them. In former times, the 
marriages of the members of the society were, in some respects, 
regarded as a concern of the society, as it was part of their 
social agreement that none should take place without the 
approval of the elders ; and the elders' consent or refusal was 
usually determined by lot. But this custom was at length 


abandoned ; and nothing is now requisite to obtain the consent 
of the elders, but propriety of conduct in the parties. They con- 
sider none of their peculiar regulations essential, but all liable to 
be altered or abandoned whenever it is found necessary in order 
better to attain their great object, — the promotion of piety. 

44 What characterizes the Moravians most, and holds them up 
to the attention of others, is their missionary zeal. In this 
they are superior to any other body of people in the world. 
4 Their missionaries,' as one observes, 4 are all of them volun- 
teers ; for it is an inviolable maxim with them to persuade no 
man to engage in missions. They are all of one mind as to 
the doctrines they teach, and seldom make an attempt where 
there are not half a dozen of them in the mission. Their zeal 
is calm, steady, persevering. They would reform the world, 
but are careful how they quarrel with it. They carry their 
point by address, and the insinuations of modesty and mildness, 
which commend them to all men, and give offence to none. 
The habits of silence, quietness, and decent reserve, mark 
their character." 

The first of these people who came to Pennsylvania, by invi- 
tation of Rev. George Whitefield, settled on a tract of land 
which he had purchased for the establishment of a negro 
school, and to which he gave the name of Nazareth. In 1740 
they were compelled to leave Nazareth, on account of the 
Indians. March 9, 1741, they founded the present town of 
Bethlehem. In 1743 they purchased of Whitefield the tract 
of land at Nazareth ; and some of them removed thither. In 
December, 1741, Count Zinzendorf visited Pennsylvania in 
person, and commenced missionary labors at Germantown. 

The financial system of Pennsylvania was simple in its con- 
struction, and small in its amount. The population in 1776, at 
the close of the Provincial government, was about 300,000 : 
the annual expense of the government was £ 3,290 currency, 
amounting to $8,774.66, which, for all ordinary charges, was 
less than thirty cents on each inhabitant. 

For the benefit of Pennsylvania, the expense of which is 
now so enormous for supporting government, and the admoni- 



tion of politicians, we give the following statement of the Pro- 
vincial charges, made by Gov. John Penn in 1767, as found in 
the Minutes of Council. 

Ordinary charges : — 

Lieutenant-governor's salary £1,000 

Chief justice do 

Puisne judges of the supreme court • 


Clerk of council 






Assembly £800 

Do. for extra services to sundry members, 

principally for preparing bills .... 150 

Provincial agent 350 

Clerk of assembly 200 

Printing 100 

Postage 70 

Keeper of great seal for affixing seal to laws 15 
Clerk of governor's council on account of 

warrants 15 

Master of rolls for recording laws ... 80 

Barrack master at Philadelphia . . . . 50 

Do. at Lancaster 40 

Clock-maker, for care of clock . . . . 50 

Doorkeeper to council 5 

Do. to assembly 25 

— 1,900 


We find, by the Second Annual Report of the Bureau of 
Statistics for 1873-74 (first report not being at hand), that the 
population of the State in 1870 was 8,521,951, and the expendi- 
ture for 1878, $6,784,027.57, which amounts to $1.91 for each 
person, or over three times as much as in the days of Gov. 
Penn. Query: Whether it is not advisable to return to a pro- 
prietary government? 

In speaking of the literature of a people whose whole time 


was almost indispensable for obtaining the first necessaries and 
comforts of life, it might be sufficient praise to say that the 
love of letters was never extinguished. But much and early 
attention was given to this important subject ; and, if education 
was not as general among the inhabitants of Pennsylvania as 
among those of New England, it should be ascribed rather to 
the heterogeneous character of her population, which even yet 
is not perfectly amalgamated, than to a want of due considera- 
tion of its value. In 1683, before our ancestors had covered 
themselves from the weather, a school was opened in the city 
of Philadelphia. 1 

44 Within four years from the time our ancestors landed in the 
wilderness, a printing-press was at work in Philadelphia, sow- 
ing broadcast the seed of knowledge and morality." 2 This 
press was owned by William Bradford ; and in 1687 he printed 
an almanac. Previous to the year 1697, a paper-mill was 
erected in the Province, near Germantown, by a Mr. Ritten- 

The first newspaper was published in 1719 by Andrew Brad- 
ford, and called " The American Weekly Mercury." In 1728 
Keimer published a second newspaper, called u The Universal 
Instructor in all Arts and Sciences, and Pennsylvania Gazette." 
This paper, though feeble under Keimer, became a strong and 
vigorous journal when owned and directed (as it afterwards 
was) by Benjamin Franklin. The Germans published a paper 
in their language, in 1739, at Germantown ; and, the next year, 
a German paper was published in Philadelphia, edited by Dr. 
William Smith. In 1760 there were five weekly newspapers 
published in the Province, — three of them in Philadelphia, 
one at Germantown, and one at Lancaster. Several magazines 
were started between the years 1741 and 1776, all of which 
died within one year, except "The Pennsylvania Magazine," 
which lived eighteen months. 

Many of the institutions, arts, and improvements in Penn- 
sylvania, while it remained a Province, were indebted for their 
existence and progress to the enterprise and energy of Benja- 
min Franklin ; and, although Franklin was a native of Massa- 

1 Journals of Council* * Notes on the Literature of Perm., by T. I. Wharton. 


chusetts, there need be no strife about him between the two 
States, for there was enough of him to achieve literary honors 
for both these old commonwealths. 

When Franklin was about to establish his printing-press in 
Philadelphia, he gives the following account of a visit he 
received from one of her croakers. " He first inquired if I was 
the young man who was about establishing a printing-press in 
Philadelphia; and, upon my answering in the affirmative, he 
said he was sorry for me, as it was an expensive undertaking, 
and I should undoubtedly be a great loser by it. In short, he 
gave me such a gloomy account of the failures which had 
already, or were about to take place, that he almost threw me 
into the hysterics ; but I soon learned that our new printing- 
press was the subject of discussion at a debating-club, and that 
Dr. Bond predicted very differently from the croaker. He said, 
4 1 tell you that press will succeed, and that young Franklin 
will prosper. He is the most industrious man I ever knew. I 
see him at work at night, when I return home from my visits ; 
and he is at it again in the morning before his neighbors are 
out of bed.' " 

This original Benjamin Franklin printing-press, which has 
been for many years at the patent-office at Washington, has 
recently been decided to be the property of John B. Murray of 
New York, and will undoubtedly be presented by him at the 
approaching Centennial. 




What Government should be — Declaration of Bights— Bight of Worship— 
Internal Government — Benefit to All — Free Elections — Of Prosecutions — 
Of Warrants — Freedom of Speech — Plan of Government — Electors — 
House of Representatives — Form of Oath or Affirmation — Delegates to 
Congress — Title of the Laws — County Districts — Of Commissions — Of 
Judges — Supreme Court — Of Debtors — Justices of the Peace — Sheriffs 
and Coroners — Of Fees — Register's Office — Printing-Presses — Of Profes- 
sions — Penal Laws — Taxes — Of Schools — Council of Censors. 

THE following is the Constitution formed by the convention 
chosen for the purpose, as referred to at the close of the 
last chapter : — 

44 Whereas all government ought to be instituted and sup- 
ported for the security and protection of the community as such, 
and to enable the individuals who compose it to enjoy their 
natural rights, and the other blessings which the Author of 
existence has bestowed upon man ; and whenever these great 
ends of government are obtained, the people have a right by 
common consent to change it, and take such measures as to 
them may appear necessary to promote their safety and happi- 
ness ; and whereas the inhabitants of this commonwealth have, 
in consideration of protection only, heretofore acknowledged 
allegiance to the King of Great Britain, and the said Bang has 
not only withdrawn that protection, but commenced, and still 
continues to carry on, with unabated vengeance, a most cruel 
and unjust war against them, employing therein, not only the 
troops of Great Britain, but foreign mercenaries, savages, and 
slaves, for the avowed purpose of reducing them to a total and 
abject submission to the despotic domination of the British 
parliament, with many other acts of tyranny (more fully set 



forth in the declaration of Congress), whereby all allegiance 
and fealty to the said King and his successors are dissolved and 
at an end, and all power and authority derived from him ceased 
in these colonies ; and whereas it is absolutely necessary, for 
the welfare and safety of the inhabitants of said colonies, that 
they be henceforth free and independent States, and that just, 
permanent, and proper forms of government exist in every part 
of them, derived from and founded on the authority of the 
people only, agreeable to the directions of the honorable Ameri- 
can Congress : we, the representatives of the freemen of Penn- 
sylvania, in general convention met for the express purpose of 
framing such a government, confessing the goodness of the great 
Governor of the universe (who alone knows to what degree of 
earthly happiness mankind may attain by perfecting the arts of 
government) in permitting the people of this State, by common 
consent, and without violence, deliberately to form for them- 
selves such just rules as they shall think best, for governing their 
future society, and being fully convinced that it is our indis- 
pensable duty to establish such original principles of govern- 
ment as will best promote the general happiness of the people 
of this State and their posterity, and provide for future improve- 
ments, without partiality for, or prejudice against, any particular 
class, sect, or denomination of men whatever, do, by virtue of 
the authority vested in us by our constituents, ordain, declare, 
and establish the following Declaration of Bights and Frame qf 
Government to be the Constitution of this commonwealth, 
and to remain in force therein forever, unaltered, except in such 
articles as shall hereafter, on experience, be found to require im- 
provement, and which shall, by the same authority of the people, 
fairly delegated as this frame of government directs, be 
amended or improved for the more effectual obtaining and 
securing the great end and design of all government, herein- 
before mentioned. 



A Declaration of the Right* of the Inhabitants of the State of 


" 1. That all men are born equally free and independent, and 
have certain natural, inherent, and unalienable rights, amongst 
which are the enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, 
possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining 
happiness and safety. 

u 2. That all men have a natural and unalienable right to wor- 
ship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own con- 
sciences and understanding ; and that no man ought to, or of 
right can be compelled to attend any religious worship, or erect 
any place of worship, or maintain any minister, contrary to or 
against his own free will and consent. Nor can any man who 
acknowledges the being of God be justly deprived or abridged 
of any civil right as a citizen, on account of his religious senti- 
ments. And that no authority can or ought to be invested in 
or assumed by any power whatever, that shall in any case inter- 
fere with, or in any manner control, the right of conscience in 
the free exercise of religious worship. 

"3. The people of this State have the sole, exclusive, and 
inherent right of governing and regulating the internal police 
of the same. 

" 4. That all power being originally inherent in, and conse- 
quently derived from, the people, therefore all officers of gov- 
ernment, whether legislative or executive, are their trustees and 
servants, and at all times accountable to them. 

" 5. That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the 
common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation, 
or community, and not for the advantage of any single man, 
family, or set of men, who form a part only of that community : 
And that the community have an indubitable, unalienable, and 
indefeasible right to reform, alter, or abolish government in such 
manner as shall be by the community judged most conducive 
to the public weal. 

"6. That those who are employed in the legislative and 


executive business of the State may be restrained from oppres- 
sion, the people have a right, at such periods as they may think 
proper, to reduce their public officers to a private station, and 
supply the vacancies by certain and regular elections. 

" 7. That all elections ought to be free ; and that all freemen, 
having a sufficient common interest with, and attachment to, the 
community, have a right to elect officers, or be elected into 

44 8. That every member of society has a right to be pro- 
tected in the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property, and there- 
fore is bound to contribute his proportion towards the expense 
of that protection, and yield his personal service, or an equiva- 
lent thereto; but no part of a man's property can be justly 
taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his own con- 
sent, or that of his legal representatives : Nor can any man who 
is conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms be justly com- 
pelled thereto, if he will pay such equivalent : Nor are the peo- 
ple bound by any laws but such as they have in like manner 
assented to for their common good. 

44 9. That, in all prosecutions for criminal offences, a man hath 
a right to be heard by himself and his council, to demand the 
cause and nature of his accusation, to be confronted with the 
witnesses, to call for evidence in his favor, ajid a speedy public 
trial by an impartial jury of the country, without the unani- 
mous consent of which jury lie cannot be found guilty : Nor 
can he be compelled to give evidence against himself: Nor can 
any man be justly deprived of his liberty, except by the laws 
of the l&nd, or the judgment of his peers. 

44 10. That the people have a right to hold themselves, their 
houses, papers, and possessions, free from search or seizure ; and 
therefore, warrants, without oaths or affirmations first made 
affording a sufficient foundation for them, and whereby any 
officer or messenger may be commanded or required to search 
suspected places, or to seize any person or persons, his or their 
property, not particularly granted, are contrary to that right, 
and ought not be granted. 

44 11. That in controversies respecting property, and in suits 
between man and man, the parties have a right to trial by jury, 
which ought to be held sacred. 


" 12. That the people have a right to freedom of speech, and 
of writing and publishing their sentiments : therefore the free- 
dom of the press ought not to be restrained. 

" 13. That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence 
of themselves and the State ; and, as standing armies in the 
time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be 
kept up : And that the military should be kept under strict sub- 
ordination to, and governed by, the civil power. 

44 14. That a frequent recurrence to fundamental principles, 
and a firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, indus- 
try, and frugality, are absolutely necessary to preserve the 
blessings of liberty, and keep a government free : The people 
ought, therefore, to pay particular attention to these points in 
the choice of officers and representatives, and have a right to 
exact a due and constant regard to them from their legislators 
and magistrates, in making and executing such laws as are 
necessary for the good government of the state. 

44 15. That all men have a natural inherent right to emigrate 
from one state to another that will receive them, or to form a 
new state in vacant countries, or in such countries as they can 
purchase, whenever they think that thereby they may promote 
their own happiness. 

44 16. That the people have a right to assemble together to 
consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, 
and to apply to the legislature for redress of grievances by 
address, petition, or remonstrance. 

chapter n. 
Plan or Frame of Government. 

44 Section 1. The Commonwealth or State of Pennsylvania 
shall be governed hereafter by an assembly, the representatives 
of the freemen of the same, and a president and council, in 
manner and form following, — 

44 Sect. 2. The supreme legislative power shall be vested in 
a house of representatives of the freemen of the Common- 
wealth or State of Pennsylvania. 



44 Sect, 3. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a 
president and council. 

44 Sect. 4. Courts of justice shall be established in the city 
of Philadelphia, and in every county of this State. 

44 Sect. 5. The freemen of this Commonwealth, and their 
sons, shall be trained and armed for its defence, under such reg- 
ulations, restrictions, and exceptions as the General Assembly 
shall by law direct, preserving always to the people the right 
of choosing their colonel, and all commissioned officers under 
that rank, in such manner, and as often, as by the said laws shall 
be directed. 

44 Sect. 6. Every freeman of the full age of twenty-one years, 
having resided in this State for the space of one whole year 
next before the day of election for representatives, and paid 
public taxes during that time, shall enjoy the right of an elec- 
tor : Provided, always, that sons of freeholders of the age of 
twenty-one years shall be entitled to vote, although they have 
not paid taxes. 

44 Sect. 7. The House of Representatives of the freemen 
of this Commonwealth shall consist of persons most noted for 
wisdom and virtue, to be chosen by the freemen of every city 
and county of this Commonwealth respectively. And no per- 
son shall be elected, unless he has resided in the city or county 
for which he shall be chosen two years immediately before the 
said election ; nor shall any member, while he continues such, 
hold any other office, except in the militia. 

44 Sect. 8. No person shall be capable of being elected a 
member to serve in the House of Representatives of the free- 
men of this Commonwealth more than four years in seven. 

44 Sect. 9. The members of the House of Representatives 
shall be chosen annually by ballot, by the freemen of the Com- 
monwealth, on the second Tuesday in October, forever (except 
this present year) ; and shall meet on the fourth Monday of the 
same month, and shall be styled The General Assembly of Rep- 
resentatives of the Freemen of Pennsylvania ; and shall have 
power to choose their speaker, the treasurer of the State, and 
their other officers ; sit on their adjournments ; prepare bills, and 
enact them into laws; judge of the elections and qualifications 



of their own members ; they may expel a member, but not a 
second time for the same cause ; they may administer oaths or 
affirmations on examiuation of witnesses, redress grievances, 
impeach state criminals, grant charters of incorporation, consti- 
tute towns, boroughs, cities, and counties : And shall have all 
other powers necessary for the legislature of a free state or 
commonwealth : But they shall have no power to add to, abol- 
ish, or infringe any part of this constitution. 

44 Sect. 10. A quorum of the House of Representatives shall 
consist of two-thirds of the whole number of members elected; 
and, having met and chosen their speaker, shall each of them, 
before they proceed to business, take and subscribe, as well the 
oath or affirmation of fidelity and allegiance hereinafter directed, 
as the following oath or affirmation ; viz., — 

44 4 1 do swear (or affirm) that, as a member of this 

Assembly, I will not propose or assent to any bill, vote, or reso- 
lution, which shall appear to me injurious to the people ; nor 
do or consent to any act or thing whatever that shall have a 
tendency to lessen or abridge their rights and privileges, as de- 
clared in the constitution of this State ; but will in all things 
conduct myself as a faithful, honest representative and guardian 
of the people, according to the best of my judgment and abili- 

44 And each member, before he takes his seat, shall make and 
subscribe the following declaration ; viz., — 

44 4 1 do believe in one God, the Creator and Governor of the 
universe, the Rewarder of the good, and the Punisher of the 
wicked. And I do acknowledge the scriptures of the Old and 
New Testament to be given by divine inspiration.' 

44 And no further or other religious test shall ever hereafter 
be required of any civil officer or magistrate in this state. 

44 Sect. 11. Delegates to represent this State in Congress 
shall be chosen by ballot, by the future General Assembly, at 
their first meeting, and annually forever afterwards, as long as 
such representation shall be necessary. Any delegate may be 
superseded at any time by the General Assembly appointing 
another in his stead. No man shall sit in Congress longer than 
two years successively, nor be capable of re-election for three 


years afterwards : And no person who holds any office in the 
gift of Congress shall hereafter be elected to represent this 
commonwealth in Congress. 

14 Sect. 12. If any city or cities, county or counties, shall 
neglect or refuse to elect and send representatives to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, two-thirds of the members from the cities or 
counties that do elect and send representatives, provided they a majority of the cities and counties of the whole State, 
when met shall have all the powers of the General Assembly 
as fully and amply as if the whole were present. 

44 Sect. 13. The doors of the house in which the representa- 
tives of the freemen of this State shall sit in general assembly 
shall be and remain open for the admission of all persons who 
behave decently, except only when the welfare of this State 
may require the doors to be shut. 

44 Sect. 14. The votes and proceedings of the General Assem- 
bly shall be printed weekly during their sitting, with the yeas 
and nays on any question, vote, or resolution, where any two 
members require it, except when the vote is taken by ballot ; 
and, when the yeas and nays are so taken, every member shall 
have a right to insert the reasons of his vote upon the minutes, 
if he desire it. 

44 Sect. 15. To the end that the laws, before they are enacted, 
may be more maturely considered, and the inconvenience of 
hasty determinations as much as possible prevented, all bills of 
public nature shall be printed, for the consideration of the peo- 
ple, before they arefread in General Assembly the last time for 
debate and amendment, and, except on occasions of sudden 
necessity, shall not be passed into laws until the next session 
of Assembly ; and, for the more perfect satisfaction of the pub- 
lic, the reasons and motives for making such laws shall be fully 
and clearly expressed in the preambles. 

44 Sect. 16. The style of the laws of this Commonwealth 
shall be, 4 Be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted by the rep- 
resentatives of the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania, in general assembly met, and by the authority of the 
same.' And the General Assembly shall affix their seal to every 
bill as soon as it is enacted into a law; which seal shall be kept 


by the Assembly, and shall be called The seal of the laws of 
Pennsylvania, and shall not be used for any other purpose. 

44 Sect. 17. The city of Philadelphia* and each county in 
this Commonwealth respectively, shall on the first Tuesday of 
November in the present year, and on the second Tuesday in 
October, annually, for the two next succeeding years, to wit, 
the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven, 
and the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, 
choose six persons to represent them in General Assembly. But 
as representation in proportion to the number of taxable inhab- 
itants is the only principle which can at all secure liberty, and 
make the voice of a majority of the people the law of the land, 
therefore the General Assembly shall cause complete lists of the 
taxable inhabitants in the city and each county in the common- 
wealth respectively, to be taken and returned to them, on or 
before the last meeting of the Assembly, elected in the year one 
thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, who shall appoint a 
representation to each in proportion to the number of taxables 
in such returns; which representation shall continue for the 
next seven years afterwards, at the end of which a new return 
of the taxable inhabitants shall be made, and a representation 
agreeable thereto appointed by the said Assembly, and so on 
septennially forever. The wages of the representatives in 
General Assembly, and all other State charges, shall be paid out 
of State treasury. 

44 Sect. 18. In order that the freemen of this commonwealth 
may enjoy the benefit of election as equally as may be, until 
the representation shall commence, as directed in the foregoing 
section, each county, at its own choice, may be divided into dis- 
tricts, hold elections therein, and elect their representatives in 
the county, and their other elective officers, as shall be here- 
after regulated by the General Assembly of the State. And no 
inhabitant of this State shall have more than one annual vote 
at the general election for representatives in Assembly. 

44 Sect. 19. For the present, the Supreme Executive Council 
of this State shall consist of twelve persons, chosen in the fol- 
lowing manner : The freemen of the city of Philadelphia, and 
of the counties of Philadelphia, Chester, and Bucks respec- 



tively, shall choose by ballot one person for the city, and one 
for each county aforesaid, to serve for three years, and no lon- 
ger, at the time and place for electing representatives in General 
Assembly. The freemen of the counties of Lancaster, York, 
Cumberland, and Berks, shall, in like manner, elect one person 
in each county respectively, to serve as counsellors for two 
years, and no longer. And the counties of Northampton, 
Bedford, Northumberland, and Westmoreland respectively, 
shall, in like manner, elect one person for each county, to serve 
as counsellors for one year, and no longer. And, at the expira- 
tion of the time for which each counsellor was chosen to serve, 
the freemen of the city of Philadelphia, and of the several 
counties in this State respectively, shall elect one person to 
serve as counsellor for three years, and no longer ; and so on 
every third year forever. By this mode of election and contin- 
ual rotation, more men will be trained to public business, there 
will in every subsequent year be found in the Council a number 
of persons acquainted with the proceeding of the foregoing 
years, whereby the business will be more confidently conducted; 
and, moreover, the danger of establishing an inconvenient aris- 
tocracy will be effectually prevented. All vacancies that may 
happen in the Council, by death, resignation, or otherwise, shall 
be filled at the next general election for representatives in Gen- 
eral Assembly, unless a particular election for that purpose shall 
be sooner appointed by the president and Council. No member 
of the General Assembly, or delegate in Congress, shall be 
chosen a member of the Council. The president and vice- 
president shall be chosen annually, by the joint ballot of the 
General Assembly and Council, of the members of the Council. 
Any person having served as a counsellor for three successive 
years sjiall be incapable of holding that office for four years 
afterwards. Every member of the Council shall be a justice 
of the peace for the whole commonwealth, by virtue of his 

u In case new additional counties shall hereafter be erected 
in this state, such county or counties shall elect a counsellor, 
and such county or counties shall be annexed to the next neigh- 
boring counties, and shall take rotation with such counties. 


u The Council shall meet annually, at the same time and place 
with the General Assembly. 

"The treasurer of the State, trustees of the loan-office, 
naval office, collectors of the customs or excise, judge of the 
admiralty, attorneys-general, sheriffs, and prothonotaries, shall 
not be capable of a seat in the General Assembly, Executive 
Council, or Continental Congress. 

" Sect. 20. The president, and in his absence the vice-presi- 
dent, with the Council, five of whom shall be a quorum, shall 
have power to appoint and commissionate judges, naval officers, 
judge of the admiralty, attorney-general, and all othei; officers, 
civil and military, except such as are chosen by the General 
Assembly or the people, agreeable to this frame of government, 
and the laws that may be made hereafter; and shall supply 
every vacancy in any office, occasioned by death, resignation, 
removal, or disqualification, until the office can be filled in the 
time and manner directed by law or this constitution. They 
are to correspond with other States, and transact business with 
the officers of government, civil and military ; and prepare such 
business as appears to them necessary to lay before the General 
Assembly. They shall sit as judges to hear and determine on 
impeachments, taking to their assistance, for advice only, the 
justices of the Supreme Court. And shall have power to grant 
pardons, and remit fines, in all cases whatsoever, except in 
cases of impeachment ; and, in cases of treason and murder, 
shall have power to grant reprieves, but not to pardon until 
the end of the next sessions of Assembly ; but there shall be no 
remission or mitigation of punishments on impeachments, 
except by act of the legislature. They are also to take care that 
the laws be faithfully executed. They are to expedite the exe- 
cution of such measures as may be resolved upon by the Gen- 
eral Assembly ; and they may draw upon the treasury for such 
Bums as shall be appropriated by the House. They may also lay 
embargoes, or prohibit the exportation of any commodity for 
any time, not exceeding thirty days, in the recess of the House 
only. They may grant such licenses as shall be directed by law ; 
and shall have power to call together the General Assembly, 
when necessary, before the day to which they shall stand ad- 


journed. The president shall be commander-in-chief of the 
forces of the State, but shall not command in person, except 
advised thereto by the Council, and then only so long as they 
shall approve thereof. The president and Council shall have a 
secretary, and keep fair books of their proceedings, wherein 
any counsellor may enter his dissent, with his reasons in sup- 
port of it. 

44 Sect. 21. All commissions shall be in the name and by the 
authority of the freemen of the Commonwealth of Pennsylva- 
nia, sealed with the State seal, signed by the president or vice- 
president, and attested by the secretary ; which seal shall be 
kept by the Council. 

44 Sect. 22. Every officer of State, whether judicial or execu- 
tive, shall be liable to be impeached by the General Assembly, 
either when in office, or after his resignation, or removal for 
mal-administration. All impeachments shall be before the pres- 
ident and vice-president and Council, who shall hear and deter- 
mine the same. 

44 Sect. 23. The judges of the Supreme Court of Judicature 
shall have fixed salaries, be commissioned for seven years only, 
though capable of re-appointment at the end of that term, but 
removable for misbehavior at any time by the General Asembly ; 
they shall not be allowed to sit as members in the Continental 
Congress, Executive Council, or General Assembly, nor to hold 
any other office, civil or military, nor to take or receive fees or 
perquisites of any kind. 

44 Sect. 24. The Supreme Court, and the several courts of 
common pleas of this Commonwealth, shall, besides the powers 
usually exercised by such courts, have the powers of a court of 
chancery, so far as relates to the perpetuating testimony, ob- 
taining evidence from places not within this State, and the 
care of the persons and estates of those who are non compoti* 
mentis, and such other powers as may be found necessary by 
future General Assemblies, not inconsistent with this constitu- 

44 Sect. 25. Trials shall be by jury, as heretofore. And it is 
recommended to the legislature of this State to provide by law 
fc, against every corruption of partiality in the choice, return, or 
^Mnpointment of juries. 


" Sect. 26. Courts of sessions, common pleas, and orphans' 
courts, shall be held quarterly in each city and county ; and 
the legislature shall have power to establish all other courts as 
they may judge for the good of the inhabitants of the State. 
All courts shall be open, and justice shall be impartially admin- 
istered, without corruption or unnecessary delay. All their 
officers shall be paid an adequate but moderate compensation 
for their services : And if any officer shall take greater or 
other fees than the laws allow him, either directly or indirectly, 
it shall ever after disqualify him from holding any office in this 

44 Sect. 27. All prosecutions shall commence in the name, 
and by the authority, of the freemen of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania ; and all indictments shall conclude with these 
words, 4 Against the peace and dignity of the same.' The style 
of all process in this State shall be, The Commonwealth of Penn- 

44 Sect. 28. The person of a debtor, where there is not a 
strong presumption of fraud, shall not be continued in prison, 
after delivering up, bona fide, all his estate, real and personal, 
for the use of his creditors, in such manner as shall be here- 
after regulated by law. All prisoners shall be bailable by suffi- 
cient securities, unless for capital offences, when the proof is 
evident, or the presumption great. 

44 Sect. 29. Excessive bail shall not be exacted for bailable 
offences ; and all fines shall be moderate. 

44 Sect. 30. Justices of the peace shall be elected by the 
freeholders of each city and county respectively ; that is to 
say, two or more persons may be chosen for each ward, town- 
ship, or district, as the law shall hereafter direct : And their 
names shall be returned to the president in Council, who shall 
commissionate one or more of them for each ward, township, 
or district so returning, for seven years, removable for miscon- 
duct by the Gegeral Assembly. But if any city or county, ward, 
township, or district in this Commonwealth, shall hereafter 
incline to change the manner of appointing their justices of 
the peace, as settled in this article, the General Assembly may 
make laws to regulate the same, agreeable to the desire of a 


majority of the freeholders of a city or county, ward, town- 
ship, or district so applying. No justice of the peace shall sit 
in the General Assembly, unless he first resign his commission ; 
nor shall he be allowed to take any fees, nor any salary, or 
allowance, except such as the future legislature may grant. 

"Sect. 31. Sheriffs and coroners shall be elected annually 
in each city and county by the freemen ; that is to say, two 
persons for each office, one of whom for each is to be commis- 
sioned by the president in Council. No person shall continue 
in the office of sheriff more than three successive years, or be 
capable of being again elected during four years afterwards. 
The election shall be held at the same time and place appointed 
for the election of representatives : And the commissioners and 
assessors, and other officers chosen by the people, shall also be 
then and there elected, as has been usually heretofore, until 
altered or otherwise regulated by the future legislature of this 

u Sect. 32. All elections, whether by the people, or in Gen- 
eral Assembly, shall be by ballot, free and voluntary : And any 
elector who shall receive any gift or reward for his vote, in 
meat, drink, monies, or otherwise, shall forfeit his right to elect 
for that time, and suffer such other penalty as future laws shall 
direct. And any person who shall directly or indirectly give, 
promise, or bestow any such rewards to be elected, shall be 
thereby rendered incapable to serve for the ensuing year. 

44 Sect. 33. All fees, licence money, fines, and forfeitures 
heretofore granted, or paid to the governor or his deputies, 
for the support of government, shall hereafter be paid into the 
public treasury, unless altered or abolished by the future legis- 

44 Sect. 34. A register's office for the probate of wills, and 
granting letters of administration, and an office for the record- 
ing of deeds, shall be kept in each city and county : The 
officers to be appointed by the General Assembly, removable at 
their pleasure, and to be commissioned by the president in 

44 Sect. 85. The printing-presses shall be free to every 
person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the legis- 
lature, or any part of government. 


" Sect. 36. As every freeman to preserve his independence 
(if without a sufficient estate) ought to have some profession, 
calling, trade, or farm, whereby he may honestly subsist, there 
can be no necessity for, nor use in, establishing offices of 
profit, the usual effects of which are dependence and servility 
(unbecoming freemen) in the possessors and expectants, faction, 
contention, corruption, and disorder among the people. But, 
if any man is called into public service to the prejudice of his 
private affairs, he has a right to a reasonable compensation : 
And whenever an office, through increase of fees, or otherwise, 
becomes so profitable as to occasion many to apply for it, the 
profits ought to be lessened by the legislature. 

u Sect. 37. The future legislature of this State shall regulate 
entails in such a manner as to prevent perpetuities. 

" Sect. 38. The penal laws, as heretofore used, shall be 
reformed by the legislature of this State as soon as may be, 
and punishments made, in some cases less sanguinary, and, in 
general, more proportionate to the crimes. 

44 Sect. 39. To deter more effectually from the commission 
of crimes, by continued visible punishment of long duration, 
and to make sanguinary punishment less necessary, houses 
ought to be provided for punishing by hard labor those who 
shall be convicted of crimes not capital, wherein the criminals 
shall be employed for the benefit of the public, or for repara- 
tion of injuries done to private persons : And all persons, at 
proper times, shall be admitted to see the prisoners at their 

44 Sect. 40. Every officer, whether judicial, executive, or mil- 
itary, in authority under this commonwealth, shall take the 
following oath or affirmation of allegiance, and general oath of 
office, before he enter on the execution of his office : The 

oath or affirmation of allegiance. * I do swear {or affirm) 

that I will be true and faithful to the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania : And that I will not directly or indirectly do any act or thing 
prejudicial or injurious to the constitution or government thereof, 
as established by the convention. 9 The oath or affirmation of 

office. # 4 1 do swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute 

the office of for the of , and will do equal right and 



justice to all men to the best of my judgment and abilities, accord- 
ing to law. 9 

" Sect. 41. No public tax, custom, or contribution shall be 
imposed on or paid by the people of this State, except by a 
law for that purpose : Before any law be made for raising it, 
the purpose for which any tax is to be raised ought to appear 
clearly to the legislature to be of more service to the commu- 
nity than the money would be, if not collected ; which being 
well observed, taxes can never be burdens. 

44 Sect. 42. Every foreigner of good character, who comes 
to settle in this State, having first taken an oath or affirmation 
of allegiance to the same, may purchase or by other just means 
acquire, hold, and transfer land or other real estate, and, after 
one year's residence, shall be deemed a free citizen thereof, and 
entitled to all the rights of a natural born subject of this state, 
except that he shall not be capable of being elected a repre- 
sentative, until after two years' residence. 

44 Sect. 43. The inhabitants of this State shall have liberty to 
fowl and hunt in seasonable times on the lands they hold, and 
on all other lands therein, not enclosed ; and in like manner to 
fish in all boatable waters, and others not private property. 

44 Sect. 44. A school or schools shall be established in each 
county by the legislature, for the convenient instruction of 
youth, with such salaries paid to the masters by the public as 
may enable them to instruct youth at low prices : And all 
useful learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one 
or more universities. 

44 Sect. 45. Laws for the encouragement of virtue, and pre- 
vention of vice and immorality, shall be made and always kept 
in force, and provision shall be made for their due execution : 
And all religious societies or bodies of men, heretofore united 
or incorporated for the advancement of religion and learning, 
or for other pious and charitable purposes, shall be encouraged 
and protected in the enjoyment of the privileges, immunities, 
and estates which they were accustomed to enjoy, or could of 
right have enjoyed, under the laws and former constitution of 
this State. 

11 Sect. 46. The declaration of rights is hereby declared to 


be a part of the constitution of this Commonwealth, and ought 
never to be violated on any pretence whatever. 

" Sect. 47. That the freedom of this Commonwealth may be 
preserved inviolate forever, there shall be chosen by ballot by 
the freemen in each city and county respectively, on the second 
Tuesday in October, in the year one thousand seven hundred 
and eighty-three, and on the second Tuesday in October in 
every seventh year thereafter, two persons in each city and 
county of this State, to be called, The Council of Censors, who 
shall meet together on the second Monday of November, next 
ensuing their election; the majority of whom shall be a 
quorum in every case, except as to calling a convention, in 
which two-thirds of the whole number elected shall agree ; and 
whose duty it shall be to inquire whether the constitution has 
been preserved inviolate? And whether the legislative and 
executive branches of government have performed their duty 
as guardians of the people, or assumed to themselves, or 
exercised other or greater powers than they are entitled to by 
the constitution : They are also to inquire whether the public 
taxes have been justly laid and collected in all parts of this 
Commonwealth, in what manner the public monies have been 
disposed of, and whether the laws have been duly executed. 
For these purposes they shall have power to send for persons, 
papers, and records ; they shall have authority to pass public 
censures, to order impeachments, and to recommend to the 
legislature the repealing such laws as appear to them to have 
been enacted contrary to the principles of the constitution : 
These powers they shall continue to have for and during the 
space of one year from the day of their election, and no longer: 
The said council of censors shall also have power to call a 
convention, to meet within two years after their sitting, if 
there appear to them an absolute necessity of amending any 
article of the constitution which may be defective, explaining 
such as may be thought not clearly expressed, and of adding 
such as are necessary for the preservation of the rights and 
happiness of the people : But the articles to be amended, and 
the amendments proposed, and such articles as are proposed to 
be added or abolished, shjdl be promulgated at least for months 


before the day appointed for the election of such convention, 
for the previous consideration of the people, that they may 
have an opportunity of instructing their delegates on the 

This constitution was amended in 1790, again in 1838; and 
subsequent amendments were made in 1850, 1857, and 1864. 




Emblems of Royalty burned— Lord Howe— Letters to Washington and 
Franklin— Franklin's Reply— Washington's Letter— Gen. Sullivan's Mes- 
sage — Committee appointed to confer with Howe — Battle at Trenton— 
Battle of Princeton — Arrival of Lafayette — Defeat at Brandywine— 
Removal of Congress— British in Philadelphia— They spare the Old Elm 
—Washington's Enemies— Commissioners from Great Britain— France 
acknowledges American Independence— Sir Henry Clinton succeeds Sir 
William Howe— British evacuate Philadelphia— Victory of Monmouth— 
Benedict Arnold — Indian Warfare — Continental Money — Treaty of Peace. 

THE Declaration of Independence having been made, and 
a State constitution adopted by the people, to take the 
place of the Provincial charter from the king of Great Britain, 
and hostilities commenced, this is the proper place to record 
the part which Pennsylvania took in the American Revolution. 

Four days after the Declaration of Independence, "The 
committee of safety and that of inspection in Philadephia 
marched in procession to the State House, where the declara- 
tion was read to the battalions of volunteers and a vast con- 
course of the inhabitants of the city and county ; after which 
the emblems of royalty were taken down from the halls where 
justice had hitherto been administered in the king's name, and 
were burnt amidst the acclamations of the crowd, while merry 
chimes from the churches, and peals from the State House bell, 
proclaimed liberty throughout the land." * 

At this crisis, Lord Howe came forward with his commission 
for restoring peace. He appears to have been a brave man, 
possessed of much nautical skill, a good disciplinarian, of an 
ingenuous disposition, and sincerely desired to bring about 

1 Bancroft, voL is. p. 83. 



peace and harmony between the Americans and Great Britain. 
So sanguine was he that he should accomplish this great event, 
that, on his arrival at Halifax, he told Admiral Arbuthnot, 
" that peace would be made before ten days." He seems to 
have misunderstood his commission, and thought he had power 
to conclude peace on almost any terms, whereas his commission 
authorized him only to pardon individuals on their return to 
the king's protection ; nor could he grant amnesty to any 
rebellious communities, until they laid down their arms, and 
dissolved their governments. He soon discovered that the 
Americans were -not disposed to make peace upon any such 
terms. He was very anxious to have intercourse with Wash- 
ington, and, on the second day after his arrival, sent a flag of 
truce, with a letter addressed to Washington as a private man. 
Washington " acted with a dignity becoming his station," by 
declining to receive the letter. Lord Howe was grieved and 
disappointed at this rebuff. He sent a second letter to Wash- 
ington, which was also rejected, because its address was 
ambiguous ; but the British adjutant-general was allowed to 
enter the American camp for the purpose of coming to some 
terms about the American prisoners. It was agreed that the 
prisoners should have the rights of humanity; and he then 
asked that his visits might be accepted as the first overture of 
the commissioners towards making peace, and stated that they 
had great powers. To this Washington made the following 
reply, " From what appears, they have power only to grant 
pardons ; having committed no fault, we need no pardon. We 
are only defending what we deem to be our indisputable 

To Franklin, whom Lord Howe had known in England, he 
stated, " the great objects of his ambition ; ' were to promote 
lasting peace and union. Franklin consulted Congress, and 
then made this pertinent reply : " By a peace to be entered 
into between Britain and America as distinct states, your 
nation might recover the greatest part of our growing com- 
merce, with that additional strength to be derived from a 
friendship with us ; but I know too well her abounding pride 
and deficient wisdom. Her fondness for conquest, her lust of 



dominion, and her thirst for a gainful monopoly, will join to 
hide her true interests from her eyes, and continually goad her 
on in ruinous distant expeditions, destructive both of lives 
and treasure. 

44 1 have not the vanity, my lord, to think of intimidating by 
thus predicting the effects of this war ; for I know it will, in 
England, have the fate of all my former predictions, — not to 
be believed till the event shall verify it. 

44 Long did I endeavor, with unfeigned and unwearied zeal, 
to preserve the British empire from breaking. Your lordship 
may remember the tears of joy that wet my cheek, when, in 
London, you once gave me expectations that a reconciliation 
might soon take place. I had the misfortune to find those 
expectations disappointed, and to be treated as the cause of the 
mischief I was laboring to prevent. My consolation under 
that groundless and malevolent treatment was, that I retained 
the friendship of many of the wise and good men in that 
country, and, among the rest, some share in the regard of 
Lord Howe. 

44 The well-founded esteem and affection which I shall 
always have for your lordship makes it painful to me to see 
you engaged in conducting a war, the great ground of which, 
as expressed in your letter is, 4 the necessity of preventing the 
American trade from passing into foreign channels.' Retain- 
ing a trade is not an object for which men may justly spill each 
other's blood. The true means of securing commerce is the 
goodness and cheapness of commodities ; and the profit of no 
trade can ever be equal to the expense of compelling it by 
fleets and armies. 

44 This war against us is both unjust and unwise : posterity 
will condemn to infamy those who advised it ; and even success 
will not save from some degree of dishonor those who volunta- 
rily engaged to conduct it. I know your great hope in coming 
hither was the hope of being instrumental in a conciliation ; 
and I believe, that, when you find that impossible on any terms 
given you to propose, you will relinquish so odious a com- 
mand." Lord Howe, upon the reception of this letter, was dis- 
appointed, vexed, and chagrined. 


After the loss of the battle on Long Island, Washington, 
being somewhat disheartened from the defeat, the smallness of 
his troops, and the tardiness of Congress in raising more, wrote 
them a discouraging letter. Gen. Sullivan had been taken 
prisoner in this battle ; and Lord Howe received him on board 
"The Eagle," treated him with great hospitality, approved 
his being immediately exchanged for Gen. Prescott (a British 
general who was -then a prisoner at Philadelphia), stated how 
exceedingly difficult it still was for him to recognize Congress 
as a legal body, spoke of his strong desire to bring about peace- 
ful relations : in fine, such was his address, that Sullivan volun- 
teered to act as a messenger between him and the American 
Congress. Soon after the troops passed over from Long Island, 
Sullivan followed on parole. He informed Washington what 
he was intending to do, who, though disapproving of his mia- 
sion, did not prohibit it. Upon Sullivan's introduction to Con- 
gress, John Adams exclaimed " Oh the decoy duck I would that 
the first bullet of the enemy in the defeat on Long Island had 
passed through his brain I " The effect of Lord Howe's courtesy 
upon Sullivan was so great, that he affirmed to Congress, Howe 
asserted " He was ever against taxing us ; that he was very sure 
America could not be conquered; that he would set* aside the 
acts of parliament for taxing the colonies and changing the 
charter of Massachusetts." 

As he had no written message from Lord Howe, but relied 
wholly on his memory, Congress directed that he should com- 
mit to writing what he had to say, which he accordingly did, 
and presented the following: u That, though Lord Howe could 
not at present treat with Congress as such, he was very desirous 
as a private gentleman to meet some of its members as private 
gentlemen ; that he, in conjunction with Gen. Howe, had full 
powers to compromise the dispute between Great Britain and 
America ; that he wished a compact might be settled at this 
time ; that in case, upon conference, they should find any prob- 
able ground of an accommodation, the authority of Congress 
must be afterwards acknowledged." 

Although some of the members of Congress considered this 
message as an insult, yet a majority adopted the following 


"Resolve, that the Congress, being the representatives of the 
free and independent States of America, could not send their 
members to confer with him in their private characters ; but, 
ever desirous of peace on reasonable terms, they would send a 
committee of their body to learn whether he had any authority 
to treat with persons authorized by them, what that authority 
was, and to hear his propositions." 

Sullivan was deputed to take this resolution to Lord Howe ; 
and Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge 
were appointed a committee to confer with him. Accordingly, 
Lord Howe sent his barge for them, received them with great 
courtesy, spread before them an excellent collation, and in- 
formed them that he could converse with them only as private 
citizens ; to which John Adams replied, " Consider us in any 
light you please, except that of British subjects." Howe then 
said he trusted this interview would prepare the way for the 
return of the Colonies to the king; whereupon Rutledge stated 
what Sullivan had reported to Congress, " That he would set 
the acts of parliament aside, because parliament had no right 
to tax America, or meddle with her internal polity." To this 
he replied, "That Sullivan had extended his words much 
beyond their import ; that while the king and ministry were 
willing that instructions and acts of parliament complained 
of should be revised, his commission in respect to them was 
confined to powers of consultation with private persons." 
Franklin, the Sage of Pennsylvania, closed the interview by 
representing, " That it was the duty of good men on both sides 
of the water to promote peace by an acknowledgment of 
American independence, and a treaty of friendship and alliance 
between the two countries." 

The committee returned to Philadelphia, and reported to 
Congress, that Lord Howe had made no proposition of peace, 
except upon the return of the Colonies to their allegiance to 
Great Britain, and that his authority extended no farther than 
to grant pardons upon submission. Congress took no action 
upon this report ; and thus Lord Howe's second attempt to 
promote reconciliation proved as abortive as his first. 

44 The close of the year 1776 was a gloomy period of the 



war. Gen. Washington, with the remains of an army con- 
stantly diminishing by desertion, and the expiration of the 
terms of enlistment, had retreated through New Jersey, before 
the British army under Howe and Cornwallis, and crossed into 
Pennsylvania. The enemy posted themselves along the Jersey 
side of the Delaware, waiting for the ice to form a bridge by 
which they might cross to Philadelphia. The Americans 
guarded the ferries from New Hope to Bristol. The militia 
from the eastern part of Pennsylvania flocked to Washington's 
standard with spirit and in considerable numbers. On the 
night of the 25th of December, Gen. Washington, with a force 
of only twenty-four hundred men, boldly pushed across the 
Delaware, and attacked the Hessian regiments at Trenton, cap- 
turing nearly a thousand men, and six cannon. Washington 
recrossed with his prisoners into Pennsylvania, refreshed his 
troops, and then returned to Trenton, where he was joined by 
Gen. Cadwallader and Gen. Mifflin, who crossed the Delaware 
each with about eighteen hundred Pennsylvania militia. 

44 The battle of Princeton took place within a week subse- 
quently, after which the army went into winter-quarters at 
Morristown, N.J. 

44 In July, 1777, the British army embarked at New York for 
tlie Delaware or Chesapeake Bay, evidently intending an attack 
on Philadelphia. Gen. Washington immediately marched the 
army into Pennsylvania, and encamped near Germantown, wait- 
ing to know more definitely the intentions of the enemy. It 
was at this time that Washington first met Lafayette, who had 
recently arrived in Philadelphia." Lafayette, invited by Wash- 
ington, at once took up his quarters with the commander-in- 
chief, and shared all the privations of the camp. The British 
army, commanded by Sir William Howe, landed at the head 
of Elk, on the 25th of August, 1777, and moved in two divis- 
ions, under Lord Cornwallis and Gen. Knyphausen, towards 
Chad's Ford, on the Brandywine. Washington marched his 
army, in fine spirits, through the streets of Philadelphia, 
and took up a position along the left bank of the Brandy- 
wine, at Chad's Ford, and at the Birmingham meeting-house, 
four miles above. Here a general action took place on the 

bistort of Pennsylvania. 235 

11th of September, in which great gallantry and military skill 
were displayed on both sides ; but the Americans were finally 
routed, and retreated that night to Chester. The day after the 
battle Washington retreated to Philadelphia, and encamped 
near Germantown. After a day's rest, he crossed the Schuyl- 
kill, and proceeded on the Lancaster road, intending again to 
meet the enemy. On the 16th of September both armies pre- 
pared with great alacrity for battle ; but a heavy rain coming 
on, which wet the arms and ammunition of the Americans, 
they were compelled to abandon the design of an engagement, 
and retreated to French Creek. Gen. Washington recrossed 
the Schuylkill, and encamped on Perkiomen Creek, and Gen. 
Wayne was sent to annoy the flanks of the enemy. It was 
while he was on this service that the memorable affair at the 
Paoli occurred. Having thus driven Wayne from his rear, and 
destroyed a quantity of stores at Valley Forge, Gen. Howe 
came across the Schuylkill without opposition, and entered 
Philadelphia on the 26th of September, at the head of a 
detachment of British and Hessian grenadiers. The remainder 
of his army encamped at Germantown. The royalists in Phila- 
delphia welcomed Gen. Howe with transports of joy; and, 
during the winter, the British officers were regaled with luxury 
and festivity." ! 

Congress, immediately after the battle of Brandywine, re- 
moved to Lancaster. 

Of the condition of our soldiers who were held as prisoners 
daring the occupancy of Philadelphia by the British, we give 
the following account from one of their number as given to 
Watson, and found in his " Annals of Philadelphia : " 2 — 

Jacob Bitterns Facts of the Prisoners at the Walnut-Street Prison. 

44 4 The British Provost ,' so called, in Philadelphia, was the 
same building Bince called the Walnut-street Prison. It was 
then newly constructed and unfinished. At that place there 
were about nine hundred Americans held as prisoners, under 
the charge of the infamously cruel commissioner, Capt. Cun- 
ningham, then a wicked and passionate Irishman of about sixty 

* Day's Historical Collections of Penn., toI. i. p. 38. * See rol. it p. 300. 


years of age, — a florid, full-bodied man. These prisoners were 
those captured at Brandywine and Germantown. Numbers of 
them died there of hunger and cold, and were daily carried out 
and interred in the Potter's Field, now the Washington Square, 
close by. It seems strange to me that a case of such suffering 
to our countrymen, effected chiefly by the malignity of such a 
wretch as Cunningham, should not have been more spoken of 
by Philadelphians. We had often heard of the sufferings of 
the prisoners at the New York provost under his control ; but 
scarcely a Philadelphian of middle age has ever heard a word 
concerning our countrymen's sufferings at Philadelphia. This 
seems strange when compared with what I am now to relate 
from facts told me in May, 1833, by Mr. Jacob Hitter, aged 
seventy-six years, a German by descent, born near Quakertown, 
Bucks County, who was himself one of the inmates of that 
Golgotha and charnel-house in the time above mentioned, then 
a good man and true, and since a public friend. 

44 He had been in the battle of Brandywine, and was found, 
while sick, in a farmhouse, by the Hessians, who beat and 
kicked him as a * rebeller,' and bore him off to the city. At 
this place, he and the others were three days and nights without 
any food. He saw one soldier who had eaten nothing HU his fifth 
day, when he saw him get a piece of rye bread ; and he actually 
saw him gently topple off his seat on the prison-steps, dead, 
while he was in the act of eating. 

44 Mr. Hitter says he was often wantonly beaten and bruised 
severely by the butt end of Cunningham's whip ; and at other 
times he was affectedly flattered and caressed, and offered many 
jingling guineas to join his Majesty's service. He did not 
strike or abuse men's persons in the presence of other British 
officers, but on such occasions would content himself with 
grossly abusive language. 

44 On one occasion Mr. Hitter saw a poor, starving Virginian, 
who had been several days without food, looking wistfully at 
some biscuits which had been sent to some newly arrived citir 
zem, prisoners brought in on suspicion. Moved by compassion 
for the distress of the starving man, and almost forgetting his 
own similar need, he made out to slip unperceived to where 


they lay in a keg ; and, getting one, he gave it to the man, at 
the same time cautioning him not to eat it all, but to break it 
up finely, mix it with water, and then to make it a prolonged 
meal by tasting it for a whole day. 

44 As the winter advanced, the prisoners became excessively 
cold. They had no extra coverings for sleeping ; and, the win- 
dow-panes being much broken (shivered to pieces by the blow- 
ing-up of 4 The Augusta,' man-of-war, at Red Bank), the snow 
and cold entered therein freely. They huddled together for 
warmth ; but with that they also became common companions 
of their lice and vermin. He did not perceive any of our officers 
on furlough as coming among them as visitors ; and he did not 
know of any arrangement of any of our citizens as benefactors. 
He had seen soup brought for them, and set down at the prison- 
door in vessels, which, when seen by Cunningham on his visit, 
have been kicked over, with a curse on the rebel dogs. On 
such an occasion, he has seen the poor, starved prisoners, when 
near enough to profit by it, fall upon their knees and hands, and 
eagerly lap up the wasted liquid. 

44 Ritter had seen several pick and eat grass-roots, scraps of 
leather, chips, pieces of the rotten pump, &c, to assuage and 
abate their hunger. Those who had any friends in the city got 
to fare better, after they could contrive to let them know their 
wants. So he was helped by his aunt Kline, and eventually got 
released through the influence of friends. It was a common 
measure with Cunningham, when visiting them, to carry his large 
key, and to knock any one on the head who chanced to offend 
him. On one such occasion, the struck person fell and bled, 
many often dying. Those who died, eight to twelve in twenty- 
four hours, were to be seen dragged along the floor by the legs 
to the dead-cart. It was common to see several watching for 
the chance of rats from the rat-holes, which, when captured, 
were eaten, both for staying hunger, and also to make reprisals 
upon an enemy that often disturbed their sleep, and .otherwise 
annoyed them. 

44 Bitter also says their supply of provisions never became 
regular; for instance, they never had any issue of salt meat. 
Occasionally he has seen what seemed to have been a diseased 



beef or cow, brought dead in a cart, and shot down on the 
ground in all its dung ; which was eagerly cut up, by some was 
eaten raw, and by some was cut in strips to dry and cure, as they 
had no regular vessels for cooking. In his own case, after some 
days, he got an earthen porringer, in which he made some food 
by boiling or simmering some musty flour in water ; his fire was 
made of old shoes and bones ; # (he once saw a load of chestnut 
come ;) — he thought he never ate any thing so good as it seemed. 
This example was followed by others. Many borrowed his por- 
ringer. In one case of their eating the rotten wood and paint 
from the pump, they mixed it with pump water. 

44 Some of them let down little bags or baskets from the prison- 
windows to the street to get a little contribution in that way; 
but it was but little. They received potato-skins in that way, 
and gladly used them. Once a small-headed man got his head 
out through the bars to beg ; and while in the act, and unable 
to draw his head in again, he was seen by Cunningham, who 
fell to whipping him. 

44 He never saw or knew of any of the citizens of Philadel- 
phia ever visiting the prisoners to relieve them. Of all the 
Friends in the city, he never knew or heard of but one that 
ever came there upon benevolence to help them. He knew of 
no relief extended to them by the ladies or women. His old 
aunt was a resolute woman, who either came to assist him, or 
sent relief by her little son. The only act of seeming gentle- 
ness he ever witnessed from Cunningham was upon the winning 
address of a starving drummer-boy. He begged him to con- 
sider his case of starvation, his youth, and his inability to do 
the British any injury. After some inquiries by Cunning- 
ham, he said he might go if he would kneel down and kiss the 
prison stone steps. He did it instantly and earnestly; and, 
claiming his reward, the persecutor let him go with a laugh. 
None of the American officers ever visited them. He did not 
know of any of the prisoners as driven to enlistment. There 
were times when Cunningham acted with peculiar bursts of 
passion, in such cases wantonly whipping, with his horsewhip, 
whoever came across his way. 

44 The foregoing was confirmed in Poulson's paper of the 25th 


August, 1834, ft told on the occasion of the death of Capt. Sam- 
uel Waples, of Accomac County, Virginia, who, it states, had 
been taken prisoner, as a lieutenant in the Ninth Virginia Regi- 
ment, at the battle of Germantown, and was confined in the 
common jail of the city of Philadelphia, where he suffered 
many privations, being kept for three days and nights without 
any hind of sustenance; ' but he soon made his escape therefrom, 
and succeeded in passing the lines, and reaching Washington's 
camp at Valley Forge." 

The following is an extract from a letter by a lady to the same 
author, referring to the conduct of the British officers during 
1777 and '78: — 

44 The officers, very generally, I believe, behaved with polite- 
ness to the inhabitants ; and many of them, upon going away, 
expressed their satisfaction that no injury to the city was con- 
templated by their commander. They said that living among 
the inhabitants, and speaking the same language, made them 
uneasy at the thought of acting as enemies. 

44 At first provisions were scarce and dear, and we had to live 
with much less abundance than we had been accustomed to. 
Hard money was, indeed, as difficult to come at as if it had 
never been taken from the mines, except with those who had 
things to sell for the use of the army. They had given certifi- 
cates to the farmers, as they came up through Chester County, 
of the amount of stores they had taken ; and, upon these being 
presented for payment at headquarters, they were duly honored. 
My mother received a seasonable supply in this way, from per- 
sons who were in her debt, and had been paid for what the army 
had taken. 

44 The day of the battle of Germantown, we heard the firing 
all day, but knew not the result. Towards evening they 
brought in the wounded. The prisoners were carried to the 
State-house lobbies; and the street was presently filled with 
women taking lint and bandages, and every refreshment which 
they thought their suffering countrymen would want. 

u Gen. Howe, during the time he staid in Philadelphia, seized 
and kept for his own use Mary Pemberton's coach and horses, 
in which he used to ride about the town. The old officers 


appeared to be uneasy at his conduct ; and some of them freely 
expressed their opinions. They said, that, before his promotion 
to the chief command, he sought for the counsels and company 
of officers of experience and merit, but now his companions 
were usually a set of boys, the most dissipated fellows in the 

44 Lord Howe was much more sedate and dignified than his 
brother, really dignified; for he did not seem to affect any 
pomp or parade. 

44 They were exceedingly chagrined and surprised at the capture 
of Burgoyne, and at first would not suffer it to be mentioned. 
We had received undoubted intelligence of the fact in a letter 
from Charles Thomson; which fact the superior officers 
acknowledged as a truth. 

44 The streets seemed always well filled with both officers and 
soldiers, and I believe they frequently attended different places 
of worship ; but Friends 9 meetings were not much to their tastes. 
They had their own chaplains to the different regiments, which 
appeared to us a mere mockery of religion. Parson Badger 
was chaplain to the artillery; and he was billeted at John 
Field's, who, with his wife, were very plain Friends in our 
neighborhood. The house was very small, and he had the front- 
room up stairs ; and as he was a jolly, good-tempered person, he 
was much liked by the young fellows, who used to call to see 
him after parades. 

44 When they left the city, the officers came to take leave of 
their acquaintance, and express their good wishes. It seemed 
to us that a considerable change had taken place in their pros- 
pects of success between the time of their entry and departure. 
They often spoke freely in conversation on these subjects." 

Although the British committed many depredations at the 
time they were quartered in Philadelphia, yet they spared the 
old elm under which William Penn was said to have made his 
famous treaty with the Indians. " This tree was long revered 
by the colonists and Indians. During the Revolutionary war, 
the British general Simcoe, who was quartered at Kensington, 
so regarded it, that, whilst his soldiers were felling the trees of 
the vicinity for fuel, he placed a sentinel under it, that not a 


branch of it might be touched. In 1810 it was blown down ; 
and cups, workstands, and other articles of furniture, were made 
from it, to be preserved as memorials. It was then ascertained 
to be two hundred and eighty-three years old, having been one 
hundred and fifty-five years old at the time of the conference." 1 

Washington, great and disinterested as he had shown himself, 
was not without enemies. In 1777 they attempted to preju- 
dice Congress and the minds of the people against him. Their 
object was to place the chief command in the hands of some 
one, perhaps more adventurous, but less prudent ; and they so 
far succeeded, that for a time his reputation suffered : but this 
was but temporary; and he soon shone forth more brilliantly 
than ever. 

In the year 1778 commissioners were sent over from Great 
Britain to attempt a reconciliation ; but their efforts were unsuc- 
cessful. They tried many arts and intrigues to induce the piti- 
zens to become reconciled to the British Government. Among 
other things, they offered ten thousand pounds sterling, and the 
best office in the Colonies, to Joseph Read, then Member of 
Congress, and afterwards President of the Executive Council of 
Pennsylvania, if he would forsake the Americans, and join the 
British. He readily replied, " I am not worth purchasing; but, 
such as I am, the King of Great Britain is not rich enough to 
do it." 

The 6th February, 1778, France openly acknowledged the 
independence of America by a treaty with the commissioners, 
Franklin, Deane, and Lee, who were then in Paris. Con- 
gress was then in session at York, whither they had removed 
from Lancaster. This joyful news reached them on the 2d of 
May of the same year. Sir William Howe returned to England 
in the spring of this year ; and Sir Henry Clinton became his 
successor in command at Philadelphia. Fearing that a French 
fleet would blockade the Delaware, Clinton evacuated Philadel- 
phia on the 18th of June, and marched across New Jersey to 
New York. Washington immediately moved his troops from 
his winter-quarters at Valley Forge, and pursued the enemy, and, 
on the 28th of June, gained a brilliant victory at Monmouth. 

* Notice by Sir B. West, reported by B. Vaux, Esq., member of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania, 1825. 


Gen. Benedict Arnold was left in command, with a small 
detachment, at Philadelphia. While here, he married into a 
distinguished Tory family, and doubtless, through the influence 
of his wife and her relatives, commenced that intimacy with 
the British officers, which resulted in the betrayal of his coun- 
try, and stamped his name with infamy. 

At this time the Six Nations of the Indians, together with 
some other western tribes, had been induced by the British to 
take up arms against the Americans. The garrison at Pittsburg 
was increased, and Fort Mcintosh was built at the mouth of 
Beaver River. At the urgent call of Congress to protect the 
north and west branches of the Susquehanna, the inhabitants 
of Northumberland County and Wyoming Valley had sent all' 
their fighting men from their homes. While they were in this 
defenceless condition, a cruel slaughter by the savages fell upon 
them in July. Col. John Butler with a party -of Tories, a 
detachment of Sir John Johnson's Royal Greens, with a large 
body of Indians, came down the Susquehanna, and destroyed 
the settlements of the Wyoming Valley. A few old men who 
had remained at home, and some soldiers on a visit from the 
army, opposed the enemy ; but their courage was greater than 
their prudence. The large number of the enemy overpowered 
them. They were completely routed. Many of them were slain 
in the battle, others captured, and put to death with the toma- 
hawk. Col. Dennison, with a few others, fled to the fort ; and, 
by a capitulation with them, the women and children were spared, 
and allowed to depart. Their cottages were burnt, and their 
widows and orphans, with little clothing and scanty provision, 
journeyed sixty miles through the mountains to Stroudsburg. 

Soon after this battle, Col. Hartley, with a small detachment 
of soldiers, went up the Susquehanna, destroying all the Indian 
villages. Just at this time a band of Indians and Tories fell 
upon Fort Freeland, on the west branch of the Susquehanna, 
fourteen miles above Northumberland, forced the garrison to 
capitulate, and took the armed men captives. 

In June, 1779, Gen. Sullivan, with an army, ascended the Sus- 
quehanna, and destroyed the Indian towns on the Tioga and 
Genesee Rivers ; but this only enraged the savages, and caused 


them to make still further attacks upon the Americans. Dur- 
ing all the remainder of the war, they were constantly roving 
through the frontier settlements, leaving their track marked 
with blood and desolation. 

In January, 1781, the Pennsylvania troops stationed at Mor- 
ristown revolted. Thirteen hundred of the men paraded with- 
out their officers, threatened to march to Philadelphia, and apply 
to Congress to redress their grievances. The ground of their 
complaint was detention beyond the time of their enlistment, 
deprivation of clothing and provisions, and payment in depreci- 
ated currency. The British generals, taking advantage of this 
revolt, endeavored to induce them to enlist in the service of 
their king. This they refused to do, and arrested the messen- 
gers as spies. Gens. Wayne and Reed, the latter being presi- 
dent of the Assembly of Pennsylvania, pacified them by 
assurance that their case should be presented to Congress, and 
their grievances redressed. 

The Continental currency had so far depreciated as to have 
become almost worthless, as one hundred dollars would buy but 
a yard of silk, and a cow cost five hundred dollars. In this state 
of affairs, Congress decided that it would be unwise and futile 
to make further issues of this kind of money. Robert Morris, a 
Pennsylvanian, who had been chief financier during the war, 
suggested to Congress, in May 1781, a plan for a Bank of North 
America, which institution was accordingly incorporated by 
them on the 31st of December of the same year. The State of 
Pennsylvania also granted it a charter. This bank proved of 
great service in relieving the finances, and promoting the com- 
mercial interests, of the country. The charter granted it by 
Pennsylvania was revoked in 1785 ; but the bank still continued 
its operations under its Congressional charter ; and in 1787 the 
legislature of Pennsylvania again renewed it. 

Benjamin Franklin, on the 10th July, 1782, stated to Rich- 
ard Oswald, agent of the British ministry, the following terms 
on which peace could be made between America and Great 
Britain : " Independence full and complete in every sense to 
the thirteen States, and all British troops, to be withdrawn from 
them ; for boundaries, the Mississippi, and on the side of Can- 


ada as they were before the Quebec act of 1774 ; and, lastly, a 
freedom of fishing off Newfoundland and elsewhere as in times 

Accordingly a treaty of peace to this effect was signed at 
Paris, Not. SO, 1782, by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John 
Jay, and Henry Laurens, on the part of the United States, and 
Mr. Fitzherbert and Mr. Oswald on the part of Great Britain. 
The definite treaty was signed Sept. SO, 1788. 

In this long and bloody contest, Pennsylvania, with Benjamin 
Franklin at the head of her patriots, did her full duty with her 
sister States, and may claim equal honors in the establishment 
of the American Republic. 



Warfare with the Western Indians — Whiskey Rebellion — War of 1812— -De- 
fenceless State of the Northern Borders — Commodore Perry's Victory— 
British War-Ships in the Delaware — The Governor's Call— Patriotic Re- 
sponse— Burning of the Capitol — War with the Florida Indians — Efforts 
to quiet the South — Southern Trade — Patriotism of her People — Gov. 
Curtin — Anecdotes of Quakers — James Buchanan — Secession Ordinance 
—Lincoln's Election— Attack on Fort Sumter — Call for Troops — Ready 
Response — Simon Cameron — Thaddeus Stevens — Beserve Corps — Rebel 
Invasion — Gen. Meade — Battle of Gettysburg. 

PEACE having now been concluded between Great Britain 
and America, and Pennsylvania having become a sovereign 
State, her warfare for many years was only with the Indian 
tribes of the West, — the Delawares, Twigtrees, Wyandots, &c, 
— who had been sent into the Ohio wilds. " A bloody and 
barbarous warfare was carried on against these tribes, by suc- 
cessive expeditions of M'Intosh in 1778, of Broadhead in 1780, 
.of Crawford in 1782, of Harmar in 1789, of St. Clair in 1791, 
and of Wayne in 1792 to 1795. In addition to these larger 
expeditions, there was an under-current of partisan hostilities 
constantly maintained between the white savages of the frontier 
and the red, in which it is difficult to say on wliich side was 
exhibited the greatest atrocity." From this state of affairs there 
was no safety in settling west of the Ohio and Alleghany Rivers, 
until after the treaty with Gen. Wayne, Aug. 3, 1795. 

Pennsylvania, having no further fighting to do with Great 
Britain or the Indians, managed to get up a little war within 
her own bounds. This was called the " Whiskey Rebellion," 
and arose from opposition to a tax of fourpenco on each gallon 
of whiskey, which had been imposed by Congress. In the 



western counties, where many of the inhabitants were engaged 
in the manufacture and sale of whiskey, the opposition was par- 
ticularly violent; and from 1790 to 1794 extreme measures 
were adopted to evade the law, and prevent the government 
offcers from doing their duty. The United States Marshal was 
obliged to flee for his life; and Gen. Neville's house, where 
he had been harbored, was burned. Matters grew rapidly worse ; 
and there was but little security for life, especially to those who 
favored the law. 

Meanwhile, Government did all it could to conciliate the in- 
citers of the rebellion. The laws were modified, proclamations 
were issued, and an amnesty offered, but all uselessly ; and at 
length, in 1794, Pres. Washington asked the co-operation of the 
governments of the neighboring States to quell the disturbance; 
and in the autumn of that year, twelve thousand men from Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia, advanced upon 
the insurgents, by way of Bedford and Cumberland. Gov. Lee 
of Virginia took the command ; under him were the governors 
of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. This force soon caused them 
to succumb. Some of the leaders who were found were token 
to Philadelphia for trial. No blood was shed ; and thus happily 
ended the Whiskey Rebellion. 

Next came the war with Great Britain in 1812, in which 
Pennsylvania performed her full share, sustaining the national 
government, in conjunction with the majority of the States, in 
its action, which many portions of the country opposed, deem- 
ing it wholly unnecessary. When Pres. Madison issued his call 
for troops, Pennsylvania gave a ready response, and immediately 
set about recruiting soldiers for the army, and freely offered 
money also. 

The Western campaign, in the opening year of the war, result- 
ing so disastrously as it did for the American forces, left this 
State in its north-western part, particularly the settlements on 
Lake Erie, in a defenceless condition ; so that the enemy could 
at any time, make an invasion upon our territory bordering on 
the Lakes. Government, therefore, decided to construct a fleet 
to co-operate with the army in Ohio, under Gen. Harrison, and 
in the summer of 1812 commenced building at Erie, vessels for 



service upon the lake. By Dec. 12 two boats were on the 
stocks, and by spring the whole fleet was to be completed. 
The squadron on Lake Erie was given in command to Commodore 
Oliver H. Perry, who accordingly arrived at Erie on the 27th 
of March, and pushed forward the work of building the fleet 
with all possible speed ; but the inconveniences to which he was 
subjected in procuring supplies and mechanics were so great, 
that it was not until August, 1813, that his vessels were ready 
to leave the harbor. Capt. Elliott, with a party of seamen, 
joined him ; and on the 12th of August the fleet sailed from 
Erie for the headquarters of the army at Seneca, on the banks 
of the Sandusky. On the 10th of September the British squad- 
ron was discovered outside the harbor ; and the American vessels 
got under way, and went to challenge it. Then ensued that 
battle which was crowned with so signal a success for the 
American arms. Perry's force consisted of nine vessels, with 
fifty-four guns, four hundred and ninety men, including officers: 
of these, a hundred and sixteen were on the sick-list. The 
British numbered six vessels, with sixty-three guns (thirty-five 
of which were of long range), with thirty-two officers, and four 
hundred and seventy seamen. Notwithstanding all these advan- 
tages in their favor, by four o'clock in the afternoon of that day 
every British vessel had surrendered to Perry ; and before sunset 
he had sent his famous despatch to Gen. Harrison, " We have 


In the summer of 1814 British war-ships appeared in the 
Delaware and Chesapeake, which much alarmed the inhabitants 
of Philadelphia and the south-eastern counties adjacent. The 
governor issued a proclamation, calling for volunteers, and 
ordered a draft to be made in the counties threatened. These 
calls were both promptly responded to. Encampments were 
formed about Philadelphia ; and a series of earthworks were 
thrown up on the roads along the Delaware, and from Chesa- 
peake Bay, and mounted with all available ordnance. The gov- 
ernor also wrote letters to all the prominent citizens of the State, 
asking their co-operation ; and, among many other hearty re- 
sponses, we cite Jacob Grosh of Lancaster County, who in a 
few days was ready to march at the head of a company of a 


hundred and seven men. Nor were the women of the State 
behind in doing their share, making knapsacks and garments, 
and encouraging. by their brave words. Miss Rosanna Bidle- 
man presented a flag made by them for a company of sixty men, 
under Abraham Hone as captain, with these words, " Under this 
flag march on to victory and to glory." When the report of the 
burning of the Capitol at Washington reached Easton, the people 
assembled upon the public square to the ringing of bells and the 
beating of drums, and took active measures to support the 
government, by immediately organizing companies, and sending 
them to the camps on the Delaware and shores of Lake Erie. 
After this despicable act, the enemy committed many depredar 
tions in the States of Delaware and Maryland, plundering the 
people, burning their houses and villages ; but they did not cross 
over into Pennsylvania. The State militia, numbering several 
thousand, were encamped along the Delaware until the end of 
the year, when Pennsylvania, being no longer invaded, contri- 
buted no further, except her quota of money and men. 

Passing over the six-years' war with the Florida Indians, 
which was a bloody one, and the Mexican war, in which Penn- 
sylvania did her share with her sister States, we approach the 
great Civil War, sometimes called the " War of Rebellion," 
or the " War for Slavery," in which she acted a prominent and 
conspicuous part. 

Immediately after the election of Abraham Lincoln to the 
Presidency, every possible effort .was made by the Northern and 
Middle States to pacify the South. To accomplish tliis purpose, 
Pennsylvania, and especially the city of Philadelphia, made 
equal efforts with other Northern States and cities. Even Mayor 
Henry, one of the best mayors Philadelphia ever had, was so 
anxious for peace, and to avert war, that he told Henry Ward 
Beecher, when he visited the city to lecture upon the abolishing 
of slavery, " Mr. Beecher, I advise you not to lecture : I cannot 
assure you that the house will not be pulled down over your 

This was unjust and pusillanimous, nevertheless it was no 
more than might have been expected from the position of the 
State (it being the keystone between the North and the South), 


and from Philadelphia, the great manufacturing city of the 
nation, whose trade was largely at the South. In addition to 
this proximity and commercial interest, Philadelphia was inti- 
mately connected with the South by family relations and inter- 
marriages. Nowhere was the prejudice against the negro 
stronger than in this city, and nowhere did the desire to con- 
ciliate the South show itself more visibly, than here. Many 
of our politicians, and prominent merchants and ministers of 
the gospel, not only were silent themselves against slavery, but 
strove anxiously to prevent others from opening their mouths 
upon this subject. Even after the firing upon Fort Sumter, 
the first gun of which was the knell of slavery, little was 
allowed to be said against that patriarchal institution ; and when 
Pres. Lincoln called for seventy-five thousand men to quell 
the Rebellion, even then the cry was, " It is a war forunion ; 
and slavery has nothing to do with it." And although our 
• State readily responded to this message of the President, and 
many were ready to volunteer to save the Union, yet very few 
admitted that slavery was the cause of the Rebellion. Nor was 
it until the dead bodies of their sons and fathers and brothers 
were brought home for them to look upon, that the people 
generally began to open their eyes to the enormity of the 
Southern institution. Taking into account the relative posi- 
tion of our State, and the Southern trade above alluded to, it 
is remarkable that the people should have been so deeply 
interested and patriotic as they showed themselves in the war, 
after it was fully commenced. 

At this period Andrew J. Curtin was governor of Penn- 
sylvania, a man fully equal to the duties circumstances called 
him to perform. He was active, energetic, and decided ; and 
the vast labor he performed during the war will redound to his 
credit, and that of our Commonwealth, to the latest posterity. 

It is a universally acknowledged principle that Quakers will 
not fight; yet there are many anecdotes related of them at the 
commencement of the war, and, indeed, during its whole con- 
tinuance, in which they aided essentially, though indirectly, in 
carrying it on. It was said, very soon after the first troops 
were raised, and almost before Government had made provision 


for them, one of the Quakers went to the governor, and said, 
44 Andrew, thee knows that we do not believe in fighting, and 
thee knows, also, that we do believe in feeding the hungry and 
clothing the naked ; and now, if thee knows of anybody that 
needs clothing and food, here are five hundred dollars, which 
thee will appropriate to these objects." It was also stated that 
a son of a Quaker, when he had determined to go to the war, 
and had donned his soldier's dress, visited his old Quaker aunt 
to bid her farewell. The old lady said to him, " James, it 
seems to me thee has got on a strange dress." James replied, 
44 Yes, aunt, I am going to the war." After a pause, and with 
apparent deliberation, the good old lady replied, " Well, James, 
if thee really feels it to be thy duty to go to the war, I hope 
theell not be shot in the back" Truth demands us to say, that, 
in relieving the wants and sufferings of -the soldiers during the 
entire war, no class of our citizens were more ready or inde- 
fatigable than the denomination called Quakers. 

James Buchanan, the only native of Pennsylvania who has 
ever filled the presidential chair, was of Scotch-Irish parentage, 
born in Franklin County, April 22, 1791. He was elected a 
member of the Legislature in 1814, and re-elected the following 
year. In 1820 he was chosen member of Congress from Lan- 
caster, and represented that district eleven years, when he 
accepted the appointment of minister to Russia, under Jack- 
son's administration. On his return, in 1833, he was elected 
to the United States Senate, serving until 1845, when he was 
made secretary of state by Pres. Polk. Under Pres. Pierce 
he was minister to England, returning to this country in 1856, 
and in the autumn of that year was elected president of the 
United States. He died June 1, 1868. 

South Carolina, which had always been a restless Sta£e, had 
undertaken a rebellion during Pres. Jackson's administration, 
under the name of nullification, and had appointed the day in 
which she was going out of I he Union to establish a government 
of her own. Gen. Jackson sent down a proclamation, the purport 
of which was, u If you do not become quiet down there in 
Charleston, I will let loose the dogs of war upon you ; " and so 
well aware were they that he would shoot or hang every rebel 


of them, that they never knew when the day came that they 
were to go out of the United States government. Although 
no man was ever more vilified than that old hero, when a can- 
didate for the presidency, yet his fame has been constantly 
growing brighter from the day of his death to the present time ; 
and when this second rebellion commenced in the same State, 
under Jefferson Davis, every good citizen said, " Oh ! I wish 
we had Gen. Jackson for president." This might well be said ; 
for, had he been president at that time, that rebel State would 
have been as quiet under this rebellion as she was under that 
of nullification. Unfortunately for the nation, Pres. Buchanan 
was a very different man from Pres. Jackson. He (Buchanan) 
did not believe a sovereign State could be coerced : the con- 
sequence was, he did nothing to quell the disturbance. 

On the 20th of December, a convention of delegates from 
South Carolina adopted an " Ordinance of Secession " from the 
'Union, and within ten days from this act seven States had 
seceded. These States called a convention to meet at Mont- 
gomery, Ala., for the purpose of establishing a new government. 
Their delegates assembled, adopted a constitution, appointed 
Jefferson Davis president, Alexander H. Stephens vice-presi- 
dent: other officers were also appointed; and thus was organ-, 
ized the government of the " Confederate States of America." 

The 4th of March, 18G1, Pres. Lincoln was inaugurated ; and 
an attack was made upon Fort Sumter the 12th of April follow- 
ing : on the loth was the president's proclamation, calling for 
seventy-five thousand troops. The quota of Pennsylvania was 
fourteen thousand ; but, within ten clays from the issue of the 
proclamation, she sent twenty-five regiments, well equipped, 
numbering 25,975 men. 

The public men of this Commonwealth were quite as ready 
to maintain the rights of the nation as those of any other 
State. They urged the president to call for an army of the 
loyal citizens, sufficient to crush the rebellion at once. Simon 
Cameron, then secretary of war, advised calling out five hun- 
dred thousand soldiers. Thaddeus Stevens of Lancaster, our 
great patriot, recommended the government to place an army 
of a million men in the field, to declare the slaves free, and 


put them into the Union army. Had this sage advice been 
followed, the war would have been a short one, and many lives 
and much treasure saved to the nation. 

A special meeting of the State legislature was called on the 
15th of May, and they passed a bill providing for the organiza- 
tion of troops, to be called the " Reserve Corps of the Com- 
monwealth." George A. McCall was appointed major-general 
of the corps ; and John F. Reynolds, George G. Meade, and 
O. E. C. Ord, brigadier-generals. This corps comprised fifteen 
regiments, numbering nearly sixteen thousand men, — thirteen 
regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and one of artillery. 
After the battle of Bull Run, on the 21st of July, they were 
enlisted into the national service ; and, for the three years they 
were in the field, their gallant conduct in the fiercest battles 
gave them a world-wide reputation. 

After Gen. Lee, with his whole army, crossed the Potomac, 
on the 15th of June, 1863, he placed small forces at Carlisle, 
Gettysburg, Wrightsville, and York : the main army was sta- 
tioned near Chambersburg. The detachment at York took 
possession on the 27th of June, and the next day reached the 
Susquehanna at Wrightsville ; and, to prevent their crossing, the 
• bridge was set on fire by the Pennsylvanians on the opposite 
side at Columbia. On hearing that the rebels were in Pennsyl- 
vania, and that the bridge at Columbia had been burned, the 
people of Philadelphia were in great terror. The banks sent 
their money, N and many of the merchants their most valuable 
goods, to New York ; and all of the inhabitants who could con- 
veniently do so left the city ; and the air was full of rumors 
that the whole rebel army would be there soon. Another part 
of the ene/ny entered Carlisle the same day. These forces 
created great havoc, breaking up all the railroads about the 
Susquehanna on the west, and Harrisburg on the south, besides 
burning the bridges in the vicinity. 

On the 30th of June, Lee moved with his force from Cham- 
bersburg, called in all his detachments, and concentrated the 
entire army at Gettysburg. 

Gen. Hooker, who had been in command of our forces, was 
superseded by Gen. Meade on the 28th of June. Carleton, in 


his a Four Years of Fighting," gives the following description 
of him : " Gen. Meade was unknown, except to his own corps. 
He entered the war as brigadier in the Pennsylvania Reserves. 
He commanded a division at Antietam and at Fredericksburg, 
and the Fifth Corps at Chancellorsville. 

" Gen. Meade cared but little for the pomp and parade of 
war. His own soldiers respected him, because he was always 
prepared to endure hardships. They saw a tall, slim, gray- 
bearded man, wearing a slouch hat, a plain blue blouse, with 
his pantaloons tucked into his boots. He was plain of speech, 
and familiar in conversation. He enjoyed in a high degree, 
especially after the battle of Fredericksburg, the confidence of 
the president. 

" I saw him soon after he was informed that the army was 
under his command. There was no elation, but, on the contrary, 
he seemed weighed down with a sense of the responsibility rest- 
ing on him. He stood silent and thoughtful by himself; and 
few of all the noisy crowd around knew of the change that had. 
taken place. No chauge was made in the machinery of the 
army, and there was but a few hours' delay in its movement." 

At the time Gen. Meade took command of the Army of the 
Potomac, it consisted of seven army corps of infantry and 
one of cavalry, numbering in all about ninety-five thousand 

When Gen. Meade learned where the rebel army was, he 
immediately broke up his camp at Frederick, Md., and marched 
for Pennsylvania, determined to fight the enemy wherever he 
found him ; and on the 1st of July, having heard of the position 
that Lee had taken, he ordered Gen. Reynolds, commander of 
the First Corps, to march forward with the First and Eleventh 
Corps, and occupy Gettysburg. 

At the time Gen. Reynolds was ordered to move on Gettys- 
burg, the advance divisions of Hill were near that town. That 
night Gen. Buford, with six thousand cavalry, was between 
Hill's division and Gettysburg ; and, at nine o'clock the next 
morning, he met the Confederates on the Chambersburg road, 
near Willoughby's Run. Here they had a skirmish. Reynolds 
had stopped at Marsh Creek, and immediately advanced with 


his own corps, followed by Howard's, with those of Gens. Sickles 
and Slocum within hailing distance. Little past ten o'clock 
he heard the sound of fire-arms, which proved to be an attack 
upon his advance division, under command of Gen. Wadsworth. 
He passed rapidly through the village, across the fields, from the 
Emmett8burg road, under Seminary Ridge, there to relieve Gen. 
Buford, who had hitherto kept the enemy in check. Reynolds 
directed Gen. Cutler to place his brigade in position on each 
side of the Chambersburg road, and across a railway grading 
near a deep cut; but, before this could be done, the enemy 
were upon them, when a volley of musketry from the regiment 
of J. W. Hoffman, Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, opened the great 
battle of Gettysburg. 

The " Iron Brigade " of Meredith was ordered to charge into 
a wood on the left of the road, in rear of the Seminary, and 
attack Hill's right, under Gen. Archer. At this time a Missis- 
sippi brigade attacked the three regiments of Cutler's brigade, 
on the Chambersburg road, behind the woods on Seminary 
Ridge. Hall's battery was thus left uncovered ; and the gun- 
ners were compelled to retire, leaving one cannon behind. The 
skirmishers of Cutler's two other regiments, near the woods 
just named, were disputing the passage of Willoughby's Run. 
Fortunately, the " Iron Brigade " came down in that direction, 
under the personal command of Reynolds, flanked Archer's, 
captured that officer and eight hundred men, 1 and re-formed on 
the west side of the stream. Gen. Reynolds had dismounted 
at the corner of the woods, and was carefully observing the 
movement of the troops, when a bullet from a sharpshooter 
passed through his neck. He fell forward upon his face, and 
died in a few minutes. 

Of the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Regiment, Lossing thus 
speaks : " The regimental flag of the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, 
bearing the disk badge of the First Army Corps, of red color, 
with seven holes in it, as evidences of the strife in which it was 
engaged, was presented to the Loyal League by Col. Hoffman, 
on the 15th of December, 1863. In their house it % is preserved 
as a precious memento of one of the most noted regiments of 

» Looting's Civil War, vol. iii p. 60. 


Pennsylvania. Under the leadership of Col. (afterward general) 
Hoffman, it became perfect in discipline, and ever ready for 
daring service. In Pope's Army of Virginia, at Antietam, 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Grant's cam- 
paigns, in 1864, it was always conspicuous. So much was the 
commander loved and honored by the officers and men of his 
regiment, that they presented him an elegant sword, in 1863, 
on which were inscribed the names of the battles in which the 
regiment had been engaged ; namely, Sulphur Springs, Gaines- 
ville, Manassas, South Mountain, Antietam, Union, Fredericks- 
burg, Rappahannock, Chancellorsville, Beverly Ford, and 
Gettysburg." l 

Gen. Doubleday arrived upon the field just as Reynolds fell, 
and took command of his troops. He sent the " Iron Brigade " 
back to the woods, and also a force to attack Davis, and save 
Hall's battery. They saved the battery, captured Davis with 
his Mississippians, and also their battle-flag ; and, with his full 
brigade, he took a position farther to the right, the better to 
withstand the Confederate lines. It was now noon. The whole 
of the First Corps was, posted on Seminary Ridge, under the 
command of Doubleday. The remainder of Hill's corps was 
rapidly coming up. At this time, Gen. Rodes, with the advance 
division of Ewell's corps, hastened forward, swung round, and 
took a commanding position on the ridge, just north of the 
town, and connecting with Hill on his right. By this position 
they seriously threatened the Federal right, held by Cutler. 
Doubleday sent Robinson's division to aid Cutler, with Baxter's 
and Paul's brigades, to take position at the Mummasburg Road. 
There a severe fight was sustained for some time, which finally 
resulted in the capture of three North Carolina regiments. 

Up to this time, the First Corps of the Federal Army, and 
the advance divisions of Hill's and Ewell's corps, had been 
engaged. The battle, however, soon assumed a broader field 
and grander proportions. Howard's corps heard its sounds in 
front, pressed forward rapidly, and came upon the field a little 
past meridian. On the rebel side, Pender's division had already 
come up to strengthen Hill; and Early's division had now 

* See Lowing, voL iii. p. 60. 


arrived to strengthen Rodes. Gen. Howard, arriving at this 
time, and ranking Doubleday, took command of all the troops 
on the field. He had left Gen. Steinwehr's division on Ceme- 
tery Hill, and placed Gen. Schurz in temporary command of his 
own corps. He put Barlow's and Schurz's divisions on the right 
of the First Corps, in front of Early ; and thus, to meet a simul- 
taneous attack from the north and west, he extended the Fed- 
eral line about three miles. This was an unfortunate necessity, 
as it attenuated the line, but one which could not well have 
been avoided. Rodes now occupied the key-point of the whole 
field from his position near the northern extremity of Seminary 
Ridge; so that, when the Confederates advanced in a body, 
Rodes, assisted by a battery, threw into disorder the right por- 
tion of the First Corps, and the left of the Eleventh, by dash- 
ing down between them/ .As the Nationals were thus driven 
into the village, it was an easy matter for Early, who had pushed 
Barlow back, to capture the three thousand men, mostly of the 
Eleventh Corps', which he did. The remainder of them retreated, 
halting on Steinwehr's right and front. The First Corps, whose 
left Doubleday still held, now fell back, and removed all the 
artillery and ambulances, and placed themselves on Steinwehr's 
left and rear. Thus while Ewell was occupying Gettysburg, 
and Hill was upon Seminary Ridge, our National troops were on 
Cemetery Hill in strong position, awaiting with great anxiety 
the arrival of the corps df the Army of the Potomac. 

Gen. Meade, who was then at Taneytown, hearing of the 
position of affairs, ordered Gen. Hancock to leave his corps with 
Gen. Gibbons, proceed to Gettysburg, and take command of the 
troops, with full powers to offer battle where the advance of 
the army was, or to change position towards Pipe Creek. Gen. 
Hancock, having inspected the ground occupied by the troops, 
reported to Gen. Meade that he was satisfied with their posi- 
tion. Thus ended the first day's fighting in favor of the rebels; 
and they claimed a victory. 

The further fighting at Gettysburg has been so well described 
by Prof. Jacobs in a little book published by Lippincott & Co., 
that we make the following quotation : — 

44 They were boastful of themselves, of their cause, and of 


the skill of their officers, and were anxious to tell us of the 
unskilful manner in which some of pur officers had conducted 
the fight which had just closed. When informed that Gen. 
Archer and fifteen hundred * of his men had been captured, 
they said, ( To-morrow we will take all these back again ; and, 
having already taken five thousand (!) prisoners of you to-day, 
we will take the balance of your men to-morrow.' Having been 
well fed, provisioned^ and rested, and successful on this day, 
their confidence knew no bounds. They felt assured that they 
should be able, with perfect ease, to cut up our army in detail, 
fatigued as it was by long marches, and yet scattered ; for only 
two corps had as yet arrived. Resting under this impression, 
they lay down joyfully on the night of the first day. 

44 What the feeling of our little army, as yet consisting of 
only two corps, was on Wednesday evening, we are unable to 
state. To us it seemed as if the rebels would really be able to 
accomplish their boast. We were disheartened, and almost in 
despair. But our men, who, whilst retreating through the 
town, seemed to be confused and frightened, coolly and quietly 
fell into position on the hill, when they found themselves sup- 
ported by two lines of battle formed by Steinwehr, and by a 
sufficiency of artillery already in place. They saw the pursu- 
ing rebels suddenly brought to a stand by the raking fire 
poured into them by our men on the hill. 

44 Soon after the battle had begun, the residents of the west 
end of the town were advised by Gen. Reynolds to leave their 
residences, that the shot and shell of the enemy might not reach 
and injure them, and to retire to a position to the north and 
east of the borough. Some, who, in accordance with this 
advice, left their houses, found to their sorrow, when afterwards 
they returned, that they had been pillaged, during their absence, 
by the rebels ; whilst most of those who remained at home during 
the battles of the three days were enabled to save their prop- 
erty from destruction. Whilst actual fighting was going on, 
many of the women and children went into the cellars as places 
of greatest security ; and nothing can be more remote from the 
truth than the gratuitous slander put forth by some reckless 

* Difference between Lossing*8 and Jacobs' » statement, 700. 


newspaper scribblers, and extensively published abroad, that the 
male inhabitants ran off, like a set of cowards, and permitted the 
women and children to do as best they could. The truth 
requires us to state, that only a few of the male inhabitants 
were absent from home, and they were either government 
officers, or such as had gone away with their goods or horses to 
places of security. No one, as far as we know, had forsaken his 
home and family through fear or cowardice. 

44 Wednesday night and Thursday morning were devoted, by 
both armies, to making active preparations and arrangements 
for a renewal of the terrible and bloody conflict. Breastworks 
were constructed, rifle-pits dug, and artillery and the different 
corps placed in position. 

44 Gen. Slocum arrived with the Twelfth Corps before mid- 
night. Upon him now devolved the chief command, until the 
arrival of Gen. Meade, early in the morning (one o'clock, A.M.). 
Gen. Meade entirely approved the act of Gen. Howard in the 
selection of his position. . • . 

44 Early on Thursday morning the rebels began to give evidence 
of an impression, on their part, that they might possibly have 
some hard work to do on that day, although, on the previous 
evening, they had spoken so lightly of it. They had ascertained 
that our little band had been strongly re-enforced during the 
night and early morning. They commenced barricading Middle 
Street on its south side, from the Seminary Ridge on the west 
to Stratton Street : they also broke down the fences on the 
north side, in order to enable them to bring up re-enforcements 
and to send back their men, without subjecting them to a 
raking street-fire from ours, the houses and stables serving as a 
protection to them. On the previous evening they had ex- 
pected to attack and cut up our army in detail. But, as the 
great body of the Army of the Potomac had already arrived, 
this hope had vanished ; and they saw that the contest would be 
a hard and bloody one between the two armies in their united 
strength. • .. . 

44 The enemy had driven our men before them ; and, endeavor- 
ing to come in between Round Top and Little Round Top, they 
advanced to the summit of the latter. At six, P.M., Gen. Craw- 


ford's division of the Fifth Corps, consisting of two brigades of 
Pennsylvania Reserves, having until this time been held in 
reserve, went into a charge with a terrific shout, and drove the 
rebels down the rocky front of that hill, across the valley below, 
and over the next hill, into the woods beyond, taking three hun- 
dred prisoners. This was the favorable moment, and the whole 
rebel column was forced to retire. In this charge, the rebel 
General Barksdale fell on the hill opposite Little Round Top." 

Thursday's fighting ended much more favorably to the Union 
army, still final victory seemed doubtful. Friday, July 8, the 
Union artillery opened upon the rebels at the place where they 
had penetrated our lines the preceding evening. A general 
attack of infantry followed at sunrise. Both armies fought . 
desperately. At eight o'clock there was a short cessation, 
when fighting was renewed with the utmost vigor. The Union 
soldiers made terrible havoc, crowded the enemy back until 
they finally drove them over our breastworks in utter confusion. 
From eleven, A.M., to one, p.m., there was but little fighting. 
Each army seemed waiting to see what the other was about to 
do. Just after one, p.m., the silence was broken ; and not less 
than one hundred and fifty guns on each side belched forth the 
messengers of death. The most terrible thunderstorm was 
nothing to be compared to the succession of crashing sounds 
which rent the air. 

Although the college was a hospital, which, according to the 
military law of all civilized nations, should not have been used 
for any hostile purpose, yet Gen. Lee reconnoitred the position 
of our army from its cupola. From this inspection he evi- 
dently discovered that the point held by Hancock was the 

At 2.30, p.m., Pickett's division of Longstreet's corps emerged 
from the woods of the Seminary Ridge, and moved towards our 
left centre, where Hancock commanded. This division of the 
rebel army was supported on the left by Pettigrew's brigade, 
and on the right by Wright's and Wilcox's brigades. As this 
' mass of men moved on, when they had passed about one-third 
of the space between the two armies, the Union batteries, which 
had been covered by a grove, opened a tremendous fire of shell 


and grape upon them. They seemed staggered for a few 
moments, then they advanced with terrific yellings. In a 
moment, as it were, an awful roar proceeded from a discharge 
of thousands of muskets and rifles. Then the line staggered in 
front, and a few rebels were seen moving backwards. Two 
men were seen carrying a single battle-flag. Men and officers 
fled, flying before our victorious army. A rebel corps appeared 
rapidly advancing towards the Seminary Ridge. The Union 
soldiers waited quietly until the rebels came to the Emmetts- 
burg Road, and then opened so tremendously upon them, that 
they fell like the grass before the scythe. The rebel soldiers 
had been made to believe that they were fighting only with 
the Pennsylvania militia ; but they were now undeceived, and, 
in utter astonishment, exclaimed, " The Army of the Potomac ! " 
Nevertheless, they still pressed on, and came up to the mouth 
of the Union army's cannon, and were swept down by hundreds. 
As they wavered under this terrible fire, Gen. Webb shouted 
out, " Boys, the enemy is ours I " and, as if in a moment, thirty- 
five hundred rebel soldiers were made prisoners, and fifteen 
stands of colors were taken. One of Pickett's generals, who 
had been wounded, upon half rising to look around him, ex- 
claimed, " The whole division has disappeared as in a moment." 
Two of the Union generals, Hancock and Gibbon, were 
wounded in this engagement. The rebel General Garnett was 
killed, and Gens. Kemper and Armistead were wounded, the 
latter mortally. 

44 To complete our victory on our whole line, the Pennsylva- 
nia Reserves were called upon to make a charge upon a battery 
which the enemy had been using to annoy them, placed on the 
hill just in front, and from which they had been driven the 
evening before.* Our men took the battery, three hundred pris- 
oners, and five thousand stands of arms, and drove the enemy 
half a mile beyond the line they had occupied during the day. 
This took place about five, p.m., and with it terminated the 
battle of Gettysburg." 

Thus ended the three-days' fighting at Gettysburg, resulting 
in the entire defeat of the rebel army. Lee gathered up the 
remnants of his soldiers, and hastened to recross the Potomac. 



From this defeat, the rebel army never recovered. All they 
accomplished afterwards was like Micawber " waiting for some- 
thing to turn up." 

In this decisive victory, fought upon our soil, our glorious 
Commonwealth is well entitled to a full share of praise. Two 
of her generals, Meade and Hancock, were honored sharers in 
commanding those patriotic soldiers, who, by their vigorous 
fighting, not only drove the rebels from the soil of Pennsyl- 
vania, but also saved the nation. 




Face of the Country — Geology — Lakes and Rivers — Climate — Soil and Pro- 
ductions — Anthracite Coal — Where found — Mining-Operations — Mouth 
of a Coal Mine — Coal Shute, Dumper, and Breaker — Face of a Coal-Breaker 
— Picking Slate at a Screen — Total Product of Anthracite — Bituminous 
Coal — Where found — Mines — Product of Bituminous Coal. 

FACE of the Country. — Pennsylvania exhibits a greater 
diversity of surface than any other State in the Union. 
Its mountains occupy the southern, central, and eastern coun- 
ties ; and, although they are all portions of the great Appala- 
chian chain, they are named for the different locations near 
which they are found. They cover about one-fourth of the 
State, running in parallel ridges from north-east to southwest. 
They never rise to any great altitude, being seldom over two 
thousand feet. Just below Easton, on the Delaware, is the 
South Mountain ; north-west of that are the Blue, or Kitta- 
tinny Mountains, and the Broad Mountain, lying south of the 
north branch of the Susquehanna. Across the river, this moun- 
tain is known by the name of Tuscarora ; just beyond is Side- 
ling Hill, nearly south of Juniata River ; and now we come to 
the Alleghany Mountains proper, which separate the Atlantic 
slope and the Mississippi Valley. Laurel and Chestnut Ridges 
are two very small ones, crossing the Ohio slope. Of the height 
of these mountains, South Mountain is less than one thousand, 
and the Blue Mountain within fifteen hundred feet. Broad 
Mountain is said to be higher at its immediate base than the 
Alleghany range, but is less in elevation above the sea. The 
valleys between these various ridges are in some cases very 
narrow, at others broadening out to a distance of fifteen or 



thirty miles. The entire range covers a space of two hundred 
miles; and this is the point of the greatest width the Alleghany 
range attains in its course from Maine to Alabama. The north 
of the State presents high and rugged hills : the west is also 
hilly, and the south-east and south-west moderately so, but at 
times level. The rivers in the western part of the State some- 
times have shores many hundred feet in height ; and the valleys 
show that they were formed by running water. 

Geology. — The south-eastern portion of Pennsylvania, 
taking in the southern parts of Bucks and Montgomery, all 
of Philadelphia and Delaware, and the southern portions of 
Chester, Lancaster, and York Counties, is filled with rocks 
belonging to the stratified primary class, which are inter- 
spersed by regular veins of unstratified rocks, as granite, 
sienite, &c. In Chester and Montgomery Counties, north of 
this belt, are marble and limestone ; and farther north, consider- 
able gneiss, talc, and mica slate are found. Yet farther north, 
stretching across the State, from the Delaware River, above 
Trenton, to the Maryland line, is red sandstone. This is trav- 
ersed by dikes of trap-rock or greenstone. The rock is usually 
composed of felspar and hornblende, and is an igneous pro- 
duction. Another belt of primary rock, generally called South 
Mountain, commences just below Easton, stretches south-west- 
erly to the Maryland line. Above the primary rock is a layer 
of white sandstone, and above this a broad belt of limestone. 
The next rock is slate, overlying the limestone ; and next above 
the slate is a stratum of white or gray, sometimes reddish or 
greenish, silicious sandstones. In this formation is found the 
fossiliferous iron ore so extensively worked in the State. Next 
comes an argillaceous slaty-blue limestone, of moderate thick- 
ness. In some bands of this, abundance of fossil remains are 
discovered, with occasional iron ore. The next formation 
above is a coarse-grained, yellowish-white sandstone, in which 
are many fossils : some iron is also found in it. We now come 
to strata of slate of dark gray, greenish, and olive color, inter- 
sected with argillaceous sandstone of a green color. Above 
this last formation are brown-red shales and sandstone mingled 
with buff and gray layers, which are good building-material. 


Over these is seen hard coarse gray sandstone, in which are 
pebbles, with frequent bands of dark slate of a green cast. 
We now approach the rocks bearing coal ; but although occa- 
sionally carbonaceous slate, and even scales of coal, are found, 
still we are hundreds of feet below the true coal-bearing 
regions. The coal formation includes all the anthracite and 
bituminous region ; but above and between it and the coal are 
red shales and sandstone. Directly below the coal is a series 
of massive strata, consisting of light-colored sandstone and 
coarse silicious collections. No coal is ever found below this 
last formation. The seams of coal are separated by soft argil- 
laceous clay of a bluish tint, or light gray sandstone, or by 
dark-colored slate and shales. 

Dr. George Smith, in his " Geology of Delaware County," says, 
44 Of the magnificent series of deposits entombing the remains 
of a succession of organized beings, found in other sections of 
our country, this county does not present a single stratum. 
Our rocks were either formed before such beings were called 
into existence, or every trace of their remains has been effaced 
by the great subterranean heat to which they have been sub- 
jected." Dr. Smith's work deserves the careful perusal of all 
our citizens. 

Lakes and Rivebs. — Lake Erie is the only lake worthy 
to be noticed, and bounds the State on the north-west for about 
fifty miles. Delaware River separates the State from New 
Jersey and Delaware, flowing south, and empties into Delaware 
Bay. Large ships can enter its waters as far as Philadelphia, 
ninety-six miles from the sea, and sloops and steamboats to 
Trenton, thirty miles farther up. The Susquehanna is the 
largest river in the State ; but it is navigable only at high water 
in the spring and autumn. It enters Pennsylvania from New 
York, crosses the entire State, dividing it into two unequal por- 
tions, the larger one being on the west. It is very slightly 
affected by the tides, from its rapid descent to Chesapeake Bay, 
into which it flow3. West Branch and Juniata from the west, 
and the Swatara and Conestoga from the east, are tributaries 
of the Susquehanna. The Lehigh and Schuylkill, between 
the Susquehanna and Delaware, flow from the latter, and are 


each about one hundred miles in length. The Ohio is in the 
western part of the State, extending about fifty miles. It is 
formed by the conjunction of the Alleghany and the Monon- 
gahela. It is navigable for large steamers to Pittsburg, which 
is its head. The length of the Alleghany is about three hun- 
dred miles ; but it is navigable only at high water for small 
steamers, for two hundred miles. The Monongahela is two 
hundred miles long, but is navigable for only sixty miles at 
high water. The Youghiogheny and the Beaver are small 
unimportant rivers ; the former being a branch of the Monon- 
gahela, and the latter of the Ohio. Canals are found more or 
less on these rivers, with the exception of the Monongahela 
and Youghiogheny. 

Climate. — It is a well-known fact, ascertained by travellers, 
that, in ascending a mountain, the change in the climate is very 
similar to that of migrating north. As we travel north, the 
climate gradually lowers ; and £ visible effect is perceived as 
respects vegetation. The trees are smaller and more shrubby ; 
the fruits are less numerous, and not so large and fair ; until, 
pursuing our journey towards the north pole, we arrive at a 
point where there are no trees, no fruit, no vegetation whatever. 
So, also, as we ascend a mountain, though the trees are large at 
its base, and the soil fertile, yet, as we advance upward, trees 
diminish in size, fruit becomes more scanty and less perfect, 
until, upon arriving at a certain height, vegetation- entirely dis- 

Pennsylvania, from the fact of its level surface in many parts, 
and mountains in others, may be said to possess almost every 
variety of climate. In a hot day Philadelphia is the hottest 
place to be found north of the torrid zone. With a nearly 
level surface lying between the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers 
(especially the old part of it), it presents very much what seems 
like the focus of a burning-glass, and the heat becomes almost 
unendurable. It is not strange, therefore, that all the inhabit- 
ants of this city who can, leave it for Cape May, Atlantic City, 
Newport, and the mountains. The latter, at their bases and at 
a moderate ascent, afford some of the most cooling and health- 
ful retreats that can be found in any State of the Union. Hence 


Cresson and Altoona, and many other places bordering the 
mountains, are among the most beautiful and comfortable resorts, 
far superior in general to any bordering upon the ocean, and 
more conducive to health. A gentleman in Philadelphia once 
said to the writer, "I have spent my summers in Newport for 
twenty-five years ; but the last summer I spent at Cresson, and 
I derived more benefit from it than I ever received in Newport: 
hereafter I shall always go to the mountains in summer." 

The climate of Pennsylvania is subject to more sudden changes 
in the eastern than in the western part of the State. There 
seems to have been but little change in the climate since the 
shores of the Delaware were first settled by Europeans ; for 
they inform us, that then, one winter was so mild, that vegetation 
was green; and the next, that our great river, the Delaware, was 
. frozen over. The present inhabitants can testify to somewhat 
the same experience, as, even in January and February, the 
weather has been so mild, that vegetation has begun to revive, 
and, as early as the month of May, we have had several days in 
succession so hot as to be very uncomfortable ; and, in a succeed- 
ing winter, the river was frozen over, and cold weather extended 
late into the spring. 

Soil and Pboductions. — Among the old thirteen States, 
no richer or more productive soil existed than was to be found in 
Pennsylvania. And even up to 1860 she ranked first in her 
production of wheat, rye, and grass-seeds, and exceeded any 
Northern or Middle State in Indian corn ; and in buckwheat, 
orchard fruits, butter, hay, oats, and slaughtered animals, was . 
second only to New York, although she is doubtless now super- 
seded by many of her Western sisters. Still it is a question 
whether any State in the Union can show a more productive 
soil than in Lancaster County, or those farther west, and in the 
valleys between the mountains. Other productions are barley, 
live stock, cheese, wool, pease, beans, Irish potatoes, market prod- 
uce, tobacco, flax, beeswax, honey, maple-sugar, with some 
molasses, silk, hops, hemp, wine, and sweet-potatoes. Of the 
mineral productions much may be said. 

Anthb acite Coal. — This alone is a vast source of wealth 
to the State. It is unquestionably, as has well been ascertained, 


of vegetable origin. It is a singular fact that it should have 
remained so long undiscovered ; and its discovery was quite as 
singular. There had been legends that coal was to be found in 
the Lehigh district, probably emanating from the Indians ; and 
some of the German farmers of the early times contended always 
that coal was to be found in " certain places," although by the 
masses generally they were laughed at for their credulity. The 
following account of its discovery near Mauch Chunk is from 
Dr. James of Philadelphia, who in 1804 visited some land which 
he owned near Sharp Mountain. He was accompanied by a 
guide, Philip Ginter, who, upon arriving at the summit of 
Mauch Chunk, descended into small pits, having the appearance 
of the commencement of wells, from which he threw up pieces 
of coal for examination ; and then, while he lingered in astonish- 
ment, the earnest man gave him this description of the original 
discovery: — 

" He said, that, when he first took up his residence in that dis- 
trict, he built himself a rough cabin in the forest, and supported 
his family by the proceeds of his rifle, being literally a hunter 
of the backwoods. The game he shot, including bear and deer, 
he carried to the nearest store, and exchanged for other neces- 
saries of life. But, at this particular time to which he then 
alluded, he was without a supply of food for his family ; and, 
after being out all day with his gun in quest of it, he 
was returning, toward evening, over the Mauch Chunk Moun- 
tain, entirely unsuccessful and disappointed. A drizzling rain 
beginning to fall, and night rapidly approaching, he bent his 
course homeward, considering himself one of the most forsaken 
of human beings. As he strode slowly over the ground, his foot 
stumbled over something, which, by the stroke, was driven 
before him. Observing it to be black, to distinguish which 
there was just light enough remaining, he took it up; and, as he 
had often listened to the traditions of the country of the exist- 
ence of coal 'in the vicinity, it occurred to him that this might 
be a portion of that stone-coal of which he had often heard. 
He accordingly took it carefully with him to the cabin, and the 
next day carried it to Col. Jacob Weiss, residing at what was 
then known by the name of Fort Allen (erected under the 


auspices of Dr. Franklin). The colonel, who was alive to the 
subject, brought the specimen with him to Philadelphia, and 
submitted it to the inspection of John Nicholson and Michael 
Hillegas, Esqs., and also to Charles Cist, a printer, who ascer- 
tained its nature and qualities, and authorized the colonel to 
pay Ginter for his discovery, upon his pointing out the precise 
spot where he found the coal. This was' readily done by ac- 
ceding to Ginter's proposal of getting through the patent-office 
the title for a small tract of land which he supposed had never 
been taken up, comprising the mill-seat on which he afterwards 
built the mill, which had afforded a lodging the preceding night, 
and which he afterwards was deprived of by the claim of a 
prior survey." 

Even as early as 1787, coal had been known to exist in the 
neighborhood of Pottsville, and searches were constantly made 
for it ; but it was so different from any that had previously been 
found, that it was deemed of no particular value, and, as no 
way could be devised to burn it, after a time the search was 
abandoned, until at last a blacksmith named Whetstone dis- 
covered some, and immediately made experiments upon it, to 
use in his shop ; and so much did he interest the community, 
that inquiry into the character and extent of the deposit, and 
the possible uses it might be put to, began to be instituted. 
Among those who had faith in its existence was Judge Cooper ; 
and it was through such persons as he that searches were con- 
tinued, in the face of prejudice and discouraging circumstances. 
Among the first, if not the first, to make explorations, were the 
Messrs. Potts ; but in no attempt were they successful. Upon 
their ceasing operations, William Morris became owner of the 
lands lying at the head of the Schuylkill ; and, about the year 
1800, he found coal, a considerable quantity of which he took 
to Philadelphia, where he was not successful in finding many to 
coincide with him in his belief of its utility. 

For six or seven years from this time, no further notice was 
taken of this coal, when Peter Bastons made some discoveries 
of its deposit, while erecting the Forge in the Valley ; and a 
blacksmith named David Berlin acted upon the suggestions of 
Whetstone, and tried to induce others to join him. In 1810 a 


practical chemist made an analysis of this coal, and became con- 
vinced that it contained all the properties suitable for combus- 
tion; and, to illustrate his principle, he built a furnace on Front 
Street, between Philadelphia and Kensington, applying to it 
three strong bellows, and obtained such an immense white-heat 
from the coal as served to fully show its qualities, and ultimate- 
ly gained its introduction into the city. 

Two years later than this, Col. George Shoemaker and Nicho- 
las Allen discovered coal on a piece of land, which in times 
past was called " Centreville," about one mile from Pottsville. 
They raised several wagon-loads of it, but could find no pur- 
chaser ; and Mr. Allen, getting discouraged, sold out to Mr. 
Shoemaker, who carried ten wagon-loads to Philadelphia. But 
so great was the prejudice still felt against it, that, notwith- 
standing the successful experiment of the chemist, a few only 
could be found willing to purchase it; and, upon the trials 
which they made proving unsuccessful, he was denounced as a 
vile impostor; and, to escape arrest, he drove thirty miles out 
of his way, in " a circuitous route, to avoid the officers of the 
law ! " But, fortunately, among the purchasers was a firm of 
iron factors in Delaware county, who announced a successful 
experiment through the newspapers ; and from that time it grew 
in favor, and the intelligent portion of the community foresaw 
its future value. 

The first successful experiment to generate steam with anthra- 
cite coal was made in 1825, at the iron works in Phcenixville. 

Large quantities of anthracite coal are found in the counties 
of Schuylkill, Dauphin, Lebanon, Carbon, Northumberland, 
Columbia, and Luzerne, being in the middle part of the Eastern 
portion of the State. This region is watered by the rivers Sus- 
quehanna, Lehigh, and Schuylkill, and their numerous branches. 

The whole' area of the anthracite coal region extends over 
four hundred and seventy square miles, and is comprised in 
three great ranges, separated by mountains. Beginning at the 
southern, this range is seventy-three miles in length, and 
averages two miles in breadth. At the Lehigh River, where it 
begins, it is very narrow, but increases in width as wo go west- 
ward. Near Minersville, about the centre of the range, it is 


five miles wide, decreasing in width at the west of this place. 
At Tremont it is only three miles wide, from which it separates 
into two ranges, one coming to a point on the Susquehanna, and 
the other reaching into Lykens Valley. The area of this range 
is one hundred and forty-six miles. In it are comprised the 
Lehigh, Tamaqua, Pottsville, Swatara, the Lykens Valley, and 
the Dauphin regions. From this range, in 1867, 4,834,820 tons 
of coal were mined. 

The next field, going north, is divided into two regions by 
the Locust Mountain : the one lying south of the mountain is 
Mehanoy ; and the other, on the north, Shamokin. The former 
contains forty-one, and the latter, fifty square miles. From 
this field, in 1867, 8,807,827 tons were mined. 

The northern range is the largest in all the anthracite region 
of Pennsylvania, being fifty miles in length, and averaging 
about four in breadth. Its form resembles a great trough, 
quite shallow at the eastern end, and deep at the western. 
This range comprises the districts of Carbondale, Scranton, 
Pittston, Wilkesbarre, Plymouth, Nanticoke, and Shickshinney. 
The product of this field in 1867 was 5,828,000 tons. 

There are several smaller tracts lying between these, in what 
are called the Lehigh coal-basins, including Beaver Meadow, 
the Hazleton, the^Big Black Creek, and the Little Black Creek. 
The area of these intersecting ranges is thirty square miles ; 
and in 1867 the product was 2,954,989 tons. 

In the process of mining coal, much and steady improvement 
has been made. The earliest plan was sinking shafts twenty to 
thirty feet, and hoisting the coal into large vessels, by a wind- 
lass ; and when the water became troublesome, as it usually 
did below thirty feet, the shaft was abandoned, and another 
one sunk, and the same process repeated. This method was 
soon supplanted by drifts (openings above water level, which 
entered the mine with a surface inclined sufficiently to drain 
off the water). The openings of these drifts were made at the 
heads of veins on the sides of hills, and the coal brought out 
in wheelbarrows. In 1827 railways were introduced into 
mines ; and in the accompanying cut is shown the mouth of a 
coal mine with its railways. From that time until 1834 coal 
was mined solely by drifts. 




In the mean time, horse-power and the gin were substituted 
for the windlass ; and by this improvement the water could be 
cleared from the shaft with greater facility, and the veins pene- 
trated somewhat deeper. But, 
even with this advantage, it was 
to a comparatively shallow depth 
they were able to reach, and the 
corf was proportionately poor; 
for it has been clearly demon- 
strated that the coal found near 
the surface is never of as good a 
quality as that mined from very 
low depths. 

After the introduction of rail- 
ways, the cars of which were 
drawn by mules, a new impulse 
was given to mining, and its 
shipment largely increased, as these figures will show. In 1826 
the amount was nearly 17,000 tons ; in 1827, over 81,000 ; in 
1828, 47,000 ; in 1829, 79,000 ; in 1880, 89,000 ; in 1881, 81,000. 
It was about this time that coal was used generally in stoves 
and grates, and now it was that the trade began to assume the 
gigantic proportions to which it has since grown. This sudden 
growth induced a vast amount of speculation, which, in many 
instances, was followed by such utter ruin, that, after a time, 
few ventured into mining-operations alone. Many coal com- 
panies were formed, and chartered by the Legislature ; but the 
practical experience of those concerned in the trade soon 
aroused a strong opposition against them, and this feeling, from 
1881 to 1889, was especially active, during which time the 
trade fell off at three separate periods in the amount of the 
annual product, from the years respectively preceding. This 
feeling against the monopolists was strengthened by the public 
journals; and these two causes combined saved the country 
from the evils which speculation always produces. 

In the years 1838, 1839, and 1840, a patent for the smelting 
of iron ore by anthracite coal was obtained by Dr. Weisen- 
heimer of New York, who afterwards disposed of it to Mr. 


Crane ; but upon discovering that a furnace which had been 
blown in at Mauch Chunk had used anthracite as fuel, and 
fearing litigation, he abandoned his enterprise. The furnace at 
Mauch Chunk continued its operations until 1840, having, in 
the mean time, been many times blown in; when, finally, it was 
discontinued. A furnace at Pottsville was started just prior to 
this time ; and, as it was decidedly more thorough in its results, 
the citizens of that place claim the credit of having introduced 
it successfully. The erection of this furnace is due to Burd 
Patterson, Esq. This was soon followed by one in the vicinity, 
called the Valley Furnace ; and after the passage of the tariff 
act, in 1842, they were multiplied all over the State, wherever 
coal and iron ore were to be mined. 

To resume the process of mining : we will now describe it 
below water-level, which means that coal is mined at some 
point below the bed of the adjacent river, creek, or rivulet. 
The first step is to raise the water accumulated in the mine ; 
and, for this purpose, a steam-engine and pumps are necessary, 
which must be stationed at the most favorable location, twenty 
or thirty feet north of the crop of the vein, and as near to a 
main railroad as possible, or so that a branch or lateral road can 
be laid from it to the place where the engine is to be erected, 
in order that a sufficient supply of water for the steam-boilers 
can be readily obtained. The descent into a mine is called a 
slope; and thus mines below water-level are called slopes in con- 
tradistinction to those above, called drifts. The engines are 
usually of from forty, fifty, and sixty horse-power, of horizontal 
liigh-pressure, and working with a slide-valve. 

The location of the engine having been decided upon, a slope, 
or inclined plane, is driven down into the vein at the same angle 
of inclination ; the thickness of the vein being usually excavated. 
The slope is wide enough to allow two railway-tracks, from 
thirty-six to forty inches wide each, to be laid, leaving room 
one side (sometimes on both) for the pumps, and travelling- 
road on the other (or sometimes between the two tracks) for 
the miners. The width of the slope is usually from eighteen 
to twenty-two feet. It is driven down about two hundred feet 
for the first level, then begin the gangways, running at right 



angles from the slope, east and west. ' The slope and gangways 
form a capital T. The latter often extend three or four miles, 
having turnouts at intervals for trains to pass each other. 
They are about seven feet high, and wide enough for a railroad- 
track, on which a car containing from one to two tons of coal 
may pass freely. 

These preliminaries having been arranged, then commences 
the digging out, or mining, the coal. On each side of the slope, 
for a distance of thirty or forty feet, the coal is 
left undisturbed ; and, in mining dialect, the 
coal thus left is called pillar ** which often 
remain for a number of years to strength- 
en and support the slope, as, in an 
extensive mine and a good vein, it 
is needed. There is also a pillar^ 
twenty feet or so in width, on 
the upper side of the gang- 
way ; and it is between 
^ this pillar and the sur- 
face that all the 
^ coal is worked out. 
The plan of 
work adopt- 
ed by 

ers is 

this: two min* 
era and an attend- 
ant generally work 
abreast ; and the 
spots on which they 
locate themselves 
are called breast*, 
and are usually 
from thirty to forty 
feet in width from 
the pillar above the 
gangway up to the 
surface. An open- 
ing is then made in the pillar about the centre of the breast, 
four or five feet wide, and a shute is built through the whole 
extent of the breast, down which the coal slides into a car in 
the gangway, which, as soon as it is filled, is drawn by mules up 
to the mouth of the slope. At a given signal, it is drawn 
up to the mouth of a breaker, from whence it is dumped 




into a smaller shute, and falls into the breaker, which con- 
sists of revolving rollers with projecting teeth; and by this 
breaker it is broken into pieces of all sizes. Of a coal shute, 
dumper, and breaker used at the present time, a view will be 
had in the illustration. This gives the three combined ; but in 
the succeeding cut a full view of the face of the coal-breaker 
is had, showing an empty car on its way back to the foot of the 
gangway, to be refilled. 

From the rollers, the broken coal falls into screens, which 
also revolve. These screens are divided into four or five sec- 
tions of net-work; and the different 
sizes of coal pass through these 
sections, and are caught in cars 
phieed beneath them. This coal 
screen was a very valuable invention, 
as, previous to this, all 
coal had been screened 
by hand, at great ex- 
pense and trouble* 


The screen was then from five to eight feet long, and from one 
and three-quarters to two and a half feet in diameter, and 
was placed in a frame slightly inclined. The coal entered at 
the elevated end ; and the screen was turned round by hand, 
like a grindstone. 

When breakers were introduced, the screens, as before, were 
made of bar-iron, riveted on frame-work. Much trouble was 
occasioned from their liability to break ; and all work had to be 



suspended while they were being repaired: but, after many 
mechanical experiments, a citizen of Pottsville invented a 
machine by which # the very largest and thickest wire is 
wrought into shape by heavy machinery suitable for weaving. 
"Wire as thick as an ordinary ramrod is crimped by this 
process, which merely consists of a heavy hammer, suspended 
in frame-work, which is made to fall upon the wire placed 
under it, upon a surface allowing it to receive the particular 
bend desired, after which it is woven into frames of about three 
feet square. These frames are then placed over a large wooden 
cylinder, and rounded, when two or more sections are pointed 
and riveted together, which completes their circular form. The 
screen thus complete is removed from the bench, and joined 
with another of the same dimensions, but of larger or smaller 
net-work. These screens are remarkably durable, and are not 
the least feature which has tended to bring coal-breakers into 
universal use." l 

We give a plate of a screen, ih which are seen the different 
sections of net-work, and a group of boys engaged in picking 
out slate from the 
coal as it is dropped 
from these sections, 
after which the 
pure coal falls into 
its appropriate 
shutes, and is de- 
posited in cars 
ready to receive it; 
and, when these are 
sufficiently full, the 
shutes are closed. 

The greatest danger to which miners are 
exposed is from improper ventilation, and 
gaseous explosions. Gas is constantly given 
out from coal, not only when exposed to 
heat, or unusual compression, but also under ordinary atmospheric 
conditions. A person entering a mine for the first time would 

* £U Bowen's Pictorial Sketch-Book of Pennsylvania, p. 190. 



notice a peculiar singing noise, caused, without doubt, by the 
issue of gas from the coal. In mines of certain kinds of coal, the 
noise is unceasing. The quantity of gas ^produced varies very 
much according to the nature of the coal and the amount of 
atmospheric pressure. One coal-seam in England, said to be a 
particularly fiery one, threw out gas so rapidly, that by boring a 
little hole in the mineral, and applying a light, a jet flame would 
be produced. In this case the purity of the gas would prevent 
explosion ; for it is only by admixture of atmospheric air that this 
can be brought about. It has been ascertained that the quantity 
of gas given out from four acres of coal " by singing " was ten 
thousand hogsheads per minute. Seams of coal vary much in 
this respect ; some containing scarcely any gas at all. Besides 
this constant issue by singing, there is another way in which 
gas is met with ; namely, in " blowers," or puffs of gas occurring 
at long cracks in the seams, or at faults in the bed, sometimes 
at mere holes. These " blowers " have sometimes been known 
to light the chief passages of mines for years, and are consid- 
ered a safe way of using up the gas. But, when the works of a 
mine have been placed too near a fault, the pressure of gas has 
been so great as to force the coal forward, separating it from the 
main bed, and thus involving all in the mine in a general 

In addition to these modes occurring in the natural state of 
the coal, constant accumulations in portions of mines already 
partially worked are found ; and, where the roof is partly fallen, 
there is always much danger to be apprehended, as the gas must 
of necessity be mixed with atmospheric air, thus rendering it 
highly explosive. They are also found in faulted districts, 
where the seam is broken, the result of pressure at some remote 
time. The danger arises, in all these cases, from the fact that 
mining operations cannot be conducted without lights ; and thus 
experiments have been directed to producing a lamp which 
would guard against any possible accident. About the year 
1820, Sir Humphry Davy invented a lamp upon the principle 
that the explosion of gas would not pass through small tubes ; 
and he found that the length of the tubes made no difference, 
but that wire gauze of the proper dimensions answered the same 


purpose. Thus was obviated the necessity for an outside glass ; 
and it could be taken among the most explosive substances with- 
out danger. The gauze was usually made of iron wire ; and 
there were in it seven hundred and eighty-four holes to the 
square inch. Its superiority over other lamps was, that it gave 
more light, was more portable, with at least equal safety. Mr. 
George Stephenson, the engineer, invented a lamp called a 
"Geordie," which differed from the Davy lamp, in having a 
glass tube, which increased the light, and kept the flame steady, 
from its being protected from the air. This added to its safety 
while perfect ; but the glass was liable to be broken, and then it 
became very dangerous. In some of the Belgian mines, a lamp 
called "the Muesseler lamp," was used ; but it was complicated, 
and thus inferior to Sir H. Davy's. About this time the Clanny 
lamp was introduced; and several others have subsequently 
been invented ; but they are all made upon the principle of the 
Davy lamp : among these are the Boty, the Eloin, the Glover, 
the Upton and Roberts, and the Hall and Fife. 

Much improvement has been made in ventilating mines ; and 
the means taken to check fire-damp, or grisou, dispose of much 
of the accumulation of gas.- This is performed by a single 
workman, who, clothed in garments of moistened leather, his 
face protected by a mask, with spectacles of glass, crawls into 
the mine, holding forward a long pole with a lighted torch at 
the end, with which he sounds the irregularities of the roof, the 
front of the excavations, and sets fire to the grisou. But this is 
attended with much inconvenience and danger, as it has to be 
repeated many times a day in some mines. Then was devised 
the method of eternal lamps, which, being kept constantly burn- 
ing, consumed the griwu as fast as it was produced ; but this 
was soon abandoned on account of the production of carbonic 
acid and azote. At length the property possessed by platina in 
sponge, which facilitates the combustion of the hydrogen with 
which it comes in contact, was made use of; and pellets, com- 
posed of one part of platina, and two parts clay, were manu- 
factured, and placed at the points where the grisou collected. 
But all these efforts offered only a temporary palliative, substi- 
tuting for a great peril many lesser ones, which, although per- 
haps not as dangerous, were equally troublesome. 


The mode of ventilation adopted in this region is this: 
Atmospheric air is admitted at the mouth of the slope ; and this 
air, after penetrating the mine in every avenue, is drawn in a 
current through an escape-hole, having a burning furnace over 
it, by which a regular and intense heat is kept up. The draught 
thus given is very strong, as there is no other escape for it ; and 
the noxious gases of the mine are carried along with it If 
these gases are accumulated in places where the atmospheric air 
cannot penetrate, they are scattered by the miners, by canvasses, 
or banners ; and, when there is not sufficient air, revolving fans 
worked by machinery are used ; and thus the air is kept compar- 
atively pure. The fan was introduced in 1857-58, in Pennsyl- 
vania, by John Louden Beadle, a practical and able mining 
engineer. He has since that time improved his fan, and system 
of ventilation ; and it is now the best method known. Since 
the opening of the anthracite coal trade, all the regions of the 
State have produced 219,981,040 tons. 

Bituminous Coal. — The region in which this coal is found 
covers an area of nearly thirteen thousand square miles, and 
reaches through twenty-four counties. It is all found west of 
the Alleghany Mountains. Large mines have been opened in 
Bradford, Lycoming, Westmoreland, Washington, and Green 
Counties, and in several others. Pittsburg is the great centre 
of trade in the bituminous coal. This coal was discovered and 
used much earlier than the anthracite. It was first burned by 
the blacksmiths, and then in forges and furnaces, and lastly in 
public and private buildings. Large manufacturing establish- 
ments are to be found scattered over nearly the whole of its 
vast area. Great quantities of it are carried to the Ohio and 
Mississippi ; and it is used in towns and cities from Pittsburg to 
New Orleans. In 1864 it is estimated that there were 5,839,000 
tons of bituminous coal mined in Pennsylvania. 

The production of bituminous coal for 1873 was 22,585,222 



Pennsylvania compared with other States — Cornwall Hills — Counties, 
where found — Chester County — Prohibitory Law — Forges in Bucks County 

— Lebanon — Manufacturing Baptists — Maria Forge — Henry William 
Steigel — Valley Forge «— William Denning — Various Forges — Anthracite 
Coal for Smelting — Jacobs' s Creek — Dunbar Creek — Fairchance Furnace 

— Red Stone — Charcoal Furnaces — Bituminous Coal — Pig-Iron — Total 
Product — Geology of Petroleum — Naphtha — Venango County — Devonian 
Rocks— Daddow — Indians burn Oil — Excitement on Discovery of Oil — 
Oil Companies — Prospecting — Oil Creek — A Derrick. 

THIS State has long had a high reputation for the produc- 
tion of iron. Indeed, so much has been said on this sub- 
ject, tRat one is almost ready to suppose there was more iron 
ore in this Commonwealth than in any or all the other States in 
the Union. But such an idea is wide of the truth ; for New 
York, New Jersey, Virginia, and several other States, are much 
more abundant in this ore than Pennsylvania. But, though 
less in quantity, the skilful manner in which she has developed 
her resources in this respect entitles her to the highest praise ; 
and it must be evident that this commendation is justly be- 
stowed from the fact that she produces more manufactured iron 
than all the other States combined. 'The most extended de- 
posit of iron ore is found at Cornwall Hills, in Lebanon 
county ; and some two hundred thousand tons are taken annu- 
ally from its mines. In following out the net-work of railways, 
and describing the cities and towns along their various routes, 
reference will be made to the deposits of this ore. For the 
present, it is sufficient to say that considerable quantities are 
found in Chester, Lehigh, Lebanon, Berks, Cambria, Montgom- 
ery, Franklin, Clarion, Montour, Armstong, Juniata, Blair, 



Northampton, Indiana, Lancaster, Clearfield, Lycoming, Hunt- 
ingdon, Cumberland. 

The first effort made to make this ore available for manufac- 
turing purposes was in Chester county, as early as 1120, where 
a forge, called Coventry, was erected ; and in this forge was 
produced the first iron made from the native ore. These works 
are still in operation. About the same time, a furnace and 
forge were established at Manatawny, in Montgomery County. 
In the year JJ23 the Assembly, upon petition of proprietors 
of iron-works, passed an act prohibiting the sale of "liquor 
and beer " in the vicinity of their premises. 

The number of furnaces in blast in the Province, as early as 
1728, was four, all producing iron for home purposes. A fur- 
nace known as the Warwick was erected on French Creek, in 
Chester County, in 1736. The Cornwall Cold Blast Furnace, 
which Peter Grubb erected in 1742, was much used during the 
Revolutionary War. Previous to 1743 a company purchased 
a tract of land at Durham, in Bucks County, and a furnace 
and forges were put in operation. In 1745 Colebrookdale fur- 
nace, in Lebanon County, commenced manufacturing iron. 

Among the earliest manufacturers in the Province was a 
community of Baptists at Ephratah; and in 1750 there was 
carried on, under one roof, paper manufacturing, printing, book- 
binding ; there were also a pearl-barley-mill, a grist-mill, and an 
oil-mill. This incident will illustrate the patriotic spirit which 
animated them in the great struggle for national independence : 
before the battle of Brandy wine, Washington sent to Ephratah 
for paper with which to make cartridges. No paper was to be 
had ; but these loyal Christians, without a murmur, loaded sev- 
eral wagons with sheets of an edition of "Bracht's Martyrs' 
Mirror,' ' which was already printed for binding, and forwarded 
them to the army. 

In 1753 Maria Forge was built at Weissport, in Carbon 
county, the pioneer of the Lehigh Valley in working iron ore ; 
and this forge, having been rebuilt, is still in use. 

A furnace called Elizabeth was erected about 1756, near 
Litiz, fourteen miles north of Lancaster* Henry William 
Steigel, a wealthy German baron, one of the proprietors, was 


sole manager of it at one time ; but, though expert and enter- 
prising in mechanical arts, he. was too risky and presuming for 
the inhabitants of that region, and he retained possession but a 
short time. He founded the village of Manheim in Lancaster 
County, in 1762, and built there large iron and glass furnaces. 
Near these works, and also in the neighborhood of Elizabeth 
Furnace, he erected castles which he mounted with cannon. 
One of these castles near Shaefferstown is still recognized as 
" Steigel's Folly." He was the first manufacturer in this country 
of stoves, which may still be seen in some of the old families 
of Lancaster. 

Valley Forge, at the entrance of Valley Creek, where it 
empties into the Schuylkill, was in the glen where Washington 
encamped in the winter of 1777 ; and it was from this forge 
that the glen took its name. A cotton factory has long since 
superseded the forge. 

In Cumberland and York Counties, many forges and furnaces 
were in operation prior to the Revolution. A blacksmith of 
Cumberland County, one William Denning, to manifest his 
zeal towards his country in her trying hour, manufactured a 
curious kind of wrought-iron cannon, consisting " of wrought- 
iron staves, hooped like a barrel, with bands of the same 
material: there were four layers of staves, breaking joint, 
which were firmly bound together, and then boxed and 
breeched like other cannon." 

Those who are interested in viewing relics of this character, 
we refer to the Philadelphia Arsenal, where an unfinished speci- 
men of this kind of ordnance is yet preserved. 

About forty miles from Lancaster, there were, in 1Z§6, forges, 
rolling and slitting mills, and seyentgix. iuniaces. Gun-barrels 
were manufactured here ; and a large amount of pig and bar 
iron was made in 1798. 

Chester County, in 1798, had six forges ; and Berks County, 
in the same year, had also six forges and the same number of 
furnaces. Even as early as 1733, a forge, called the Green 
Lane Forge, was erected on Perkiomen Creek, in this county; 
and in 1750 the Glasgow forges were built. These were fol- 
lowed by two bloomery forges, — one in 1788, and the other 
in 1790, which are both still in use. 


After it was discovered that anthracite coal could be used 
in smelting iron, furnaces rapidly increased all through the 
State, as has been stated in the last chapter. The works in 
which this coal is thus used are divided into four groups. The 
Lehigh, in which is found the greatest amount of metal, com- 
prehends all the establishments upon the Lehigh River and its 
tributaries. In 1864 there were in this group thirty furnaces ; 
and, according to the State report for 1874, this number is 
increased to fifty. 

The Schuylkill group is on the Schuylkill River and its 
tributaries. In 1864 it contained twenty-four furnaces; and 
statistics for 1874 show forty-seven. 

The Upper Susquehanna group is above Harrisburg, on the 
Susquehanna River and its tributaries, and contained, in 1864, 
twenty-five furnaces. The State statistics show a gain of only 
one for 1874. 

The Lower Susquehanna group is below Harrisburg, in the 
valley of the Susquehanna, and contained, in 1864, twenty-six 
furnaces : the number reported for 1874 is thirty-eight. The 
average consumption of iron ore and coal, for every ton of iron 
produced throughout the anthracite region, is, of the former, 
two and one-quarter tons, and, of the latter, two tons. 

Of the furnaces west of the Alleghanies, the first one was 
built on Jacobs's Creek, about the year 1790. Cannon-balls 
were cast in this furnace in 1792. In 1794 Union Furnace was 
erected on Dunbar Creek, fourteen miles east from Browns- 
ville ; and, two years later, Fairchance Furnace was established 
at Uniontown, Fayette County. Another one was also located 
here in 1800, known as the " Red Stone." This and the pre- 
ceding one were in operation in 1864, and in that year pro- 
duced twelve hundred tons of iron. 

Before the year 1839 iron had been made only in charcoal 
furnaces. These were first established in 1720, which gradu- 
ally increased, until, in 1847, they reached their maximum; 
there being at that time one hundred and seventy in working 
order. Since that period, they have annually lessened. In 
1854 the entire quantity of iron produced by charcoal was 
116,000 tons. In 1865 the number of furnaces had de- 


clined to seventy-two, fifty-nine of these being east, and thi> 
teen west, of the Alleghany Mountains. The production of 
iron for that year was 58,670 tons ; for the year 1867 it was 
increased to 60,155 tons, including 20,000 tons made in forges 
and bloomeries. In 1840 fifteen furnaces west of the Alle- 
ghanies used charcoal. In 1850 there were forty-six ; but, of 
these, fourteen only were in operation in 1860. During these 
ten years previous, although several new ones were erected, the 
number closed counterbalanced them; for it was within this 
time that the bituminous coal engaged the attention of manu- 
facturers, and furnaces worked by coke, or raw coal, began to 
be preferred. 

As early as the year 1840 a furnace was built at Brady's 
Bend, in Armstrong County, in which iron was manufactured 
by coke, or raw bituminous coal, for the first time in Western 
Pennsylvania. This proved a successful experiment ; and, at 
the end of five years, eight furnaces were worked with this 
coal. In 1865 there were forty coke and raw coal furnaces in 
the State, located in nine counties. Statistics for 1874 give 
thirty, with some counties added ; while from others the fur- 
naces have been removed. 

The total production of pig-iron, and all made from anthra- 
cite, bituminous coal, and charcoal in 1867, was 839,496 tons ; 
and, as shown by the United States census of 1870, the total 
product of iron ore was 1,095,486 tons. 


Oil, rock-oil, or petroleum, has been known and used, to some 
extent, in Canada, Burmah, Persia, and China, for ages. The 
lightest variety of what are scientifically called hydro-carbons 
has the name of naphtha. What is known as carburetted 
hydrogen embodies all the constituents of petroleum. When 
in this form, it is said to be possessed of its most volatile char- 
acter. Petroleum is a compound of carbon and hydrogen; and 
the lighter kinds, in its native state, consist of about equal 
parts of carbon and hydrogen. Naphtha, cannot be confined in 
ordinary barrels, because the light hydrogen will find a way 
oat, even through the pores of the wood ; and, on coming to 


the air, it soon becomes thick, forming bitumen, or a very 
heavy oil. Petroleum is only a heavier oil, containing more 
carbon, and less hydrogen, than naphtha. Thus it is found, that, 
in oil-wells, the upper oil is always heavier, thicker, and more 
valuable than that beneath, because it has lost a great part of 
its hydrogen. What are called the second oils — those found 
beneath the third sand-rock in Venango County of this State — 
are very light when found at the depth of six or seven hundred 
feet ; but, when found at the depth of two or three hundred 
feet, they are heavier ; and, when found at a depth of fifteen 
hundred feet, they exist as gas, or light naphtha. In whatever 
form they may exist in nature, when exposed to the atmos- 
phere they become thick and heavy, and, whether in summer 
or winter, when long exposed to the air, they become solid, and 
form asphaltum, bitumen, cannel coal, bituminous coal, &c. 

Oil has been found more abundantly in Venango County 
than in any other region of which we have any knowledge ; and 
the rocks which bear it are comprehended under the Devonian 
period, and, consequently, are called the Devonian rocks. These 
rocks include the Catskill, Chemung, Portage, Genesee, Hamil- 
ton, Marcellus, Upper Helderberg, Schoharie, and Oriskany 
Counties of New York. They become much thinner in this 
locality than in other portions of the formation, being probably 
not more than from ten hundred to fifteen hundred feet in 
thickness. Daddow, in his " Practical American Miner," thus 
speaks of this region : — 

" First, The several oil-bearing strata are here brought into 
a comparatively small thickness by the thinning of the sand- 
stones from the east to the west, and the absence of the 
heavy limestones, which, farther to the south-west, overlie 
the Devonian oil-formation, and greatly increase the depth at 
which they exist. As before stated, the upper oils are always 
the thickest, heaviest, and most valuable, because the more 
volatile parts escape when near the surface. The middle oils, or 
those which exist at a reasonable depth from the surface, — say 
from three to six hundred feet deep, — are the most abundant, 
because at this depth it exists as naphtha, and contains the 
greater portion of its hydrogen ; but, at a greater depth, — say 


from one thousand to fifteen hundred feet, — the hydro-carbons 
exist principally in a state of gas, which to the present time 
has not been utilized. There may be exceptions to this depth 
in the West, since there we may expect heavy oils at a greater 
depth, on account of the lower temperature which always 
existed there. 

u Second, The oil-formations of North-western Pennsylvania 
lie along the north-eastern outcrops of the Great Basin. Here 
the Devonian rocks approach the surface, bringing their oils 
within a practical depth below the influence of the atmosphere, 
which thickens, and above the chemical action which holds the 
hydro-carbons in a state of gas. 

" Third, The even, undisturbed, and horizontal position of 
the strata in this region is extremely favorable to the existence 
or preservation of the oil in its fountains, which are thus sealed 
for use. The fine-grained texture of the sandstones-, and their 
solid, unbroken spread, the close and tenacious strata of shales 
and slates, and the intercalating clays, prevent the escape of 
the gas or oil in exhausting quantities. 

"Fourth, The middle position of this region, between the 
extreme heat of the East and the low temperature of the West, 
was favorable to the original formation of oil; and this we 
think one of the great secrets of the abundance of oils along 
the central portions of the Great Alleghany coal-field." l 

In the early settlement of Western Pennsylvania by the 
whites, there were traces of oil upon the rivers and in low 
places, which the Indians sometimes gathered up, and set on 
fire, when they worshipped the Great Spirit. They also used 
it as medicine, to which the whites gave the name of Seneca oil. 
If search had been made then, no doubt the oil would have 
been discovered. Who knows but that the "mountain of 
silver " described by the Indians to the first settlers may not 
yet be found within the bounds of our State ? 

When it was first announced that oil had been found in 
Venango County, I was in Philadelphia. In earlier life I had 
witnessed several seasons of speculation ; as that of " Ohio," 
and in "eastern lands," in Maine, the " Multicaulus," or 

1 See Practical American Miner, p. 668. 


raising of silk-worms, &c. In these I had* known many who 
had lost all their property. But these speculations were mere 
babes, and bore little or no comparison to the " oil-fever," after 
a few producing wells had been opened. The whole community 
was astir. Merchants, politicians, mechanics, physicians, 
clergymen, everybody seemed crazy. Fortunes had been made 
in a day. Millions more were to be speedily realized. The 
slow and common way of accumulating money had forever 
passed. Thanks were given, and " Te Deums" sung, for this 
wonderful discovery, just when it was most needed. The oil 
' was to pay, and ten times more than pay, the cost of the civil 
war, then in progress. It was to draw all the hard money from 
the Old World, and concentrate the wealth of the Indies — 
East and West — in Pennsylvania. The days of toil and labor 
for her sons had passed, never more to return; and the days of 
silks, satins, jewels, diamonds, and all other embellishments for 
her daughters, were at hand. Companies for purchasing lands 
in Venango County, and developing wells, were formed. 

" Thick as locusts on the 
Land of Nile," 

Men were drawn into this vortex, who never speculated 
before, — old men who had hoarded their earnings, men of 
character, ministers of the gospel, elders and deacons of 
churches, ladies, widows, members of churches, hasting to be 
rich. Land in Western Pennsylvania went up from a few 
cents an acre to thousands of dollars ; and he who bought at 
the highest figure was sure to augment his fortune a thousand- 
fold. I met a clergyman one day all agog. " Why don't you 
go into this oil business," said he. "I made a thousand dollars 
this morning before breakfast. I am astonished that you do 

not go into it ! Have you heard what brother N has made 

out of it? Why, he made a hundred thousand dollars in a 

Any man could start a company ; and, if he could get some 
good citizens of character to be president and directors, his for- 
tune was made. Many such men are to be found in Philadel- 
phia, and other parts of this State, to-day, who with sorrow, 


shame, regret, and poverty, look back to that period of ill omen 
when they lent their names to aid what turned out to be one 
of the most foolish, wicked, victimizing systems of fraud and 
deception the world ever saw. 

In the midst of this general excitement, prospecting for oil 
became sufficiently amusing, and one would have supposed the 
days of the old astrologers and necromancers had returned ; for 
the u diviner's rod " and the " witch-hazel " were brought into 
requisition to point out just where the wonderful commodity 
was to be found; and so potent was this last-named article, 
that it would thus point, despite the strength of the man who 
held it to prevent it from so doing ; and, in some cases, the 
attraction of the oil was so great, that the bark would be 
twisted from off it in his hand. What demonstration could be 
more convincing than this ? Surely none, except the guidance 
of the 44 spirits," who also came in for their share. 

Oil Creek, near Titusville, was for some time the centre of 
attraction for these fortune-seekers. It was a sterile and barren 
territory. Over rocks, and up the sides of mountains, and all 
along the creek, and these ascents, to their very tops, almost an 
innumerable number of derricks was erected. Instead of the 
desolation and wildness of the region, as it had ever been until 
this period, the number of the derricks, the smoke and steam 
of the engines, the clatter of the bull-wheels, the shouts of 
teamsters and miners, the running to and fro of men bespattered 
with mud, seemed to give activity and life to every thing. 

As soon as a place for boring a well had been selected, the 
first thing to be done was to build a derrick, which was con- 
structed in this way : Strips of plank were nailed together at 
the two edges, forming a half-square. Four of these were set 
up on end, twenty feet apart, leaning a little towards each 
other : strong cross-pieces and braces were spiked from one to 
the other. Another section was built on this, still leaning 
toward the centre ; and section upon section was thus built, 
until the derrick was fifty-six feet high: when finished, it 
came nearly to a peak in the centre. Two iron pulleys were 
fixed upon a frame on the top. A strong floor was laid in the 
derrick ; and pieces were nailed at one corner for a ladder to 
the top. 


The samson-post, fifteen inches square, and thirteen feet 
long, was then made, with a tenon on one end of it. Then 
two large timbers, fourteen feet long, were fitted together like a 
cross, with a mortise cut in the centre where the sticks cross. 
These are called bed-timbers for the samson-post ; and the mor- 
tise receives the tenon of it. After the cross-timbers were firmly 
embedded in the ground by digging, and the samson-post was set 
up in the mortise, strong braces were spiked from each end of 
the bed-timbers to the top of the post, which serve to render 
the post very firm. The next thing is a walking-beam (prop- 
erly called a working-beam), twenty-four feet long, ten by 
sixteen inches at the middle, tapering out to eight inches square 
at the end. This working-beam was then placed on the top of 
the samson-post, by fitting the iron which had been bolted to 
the middle of the walking-beam into the iron which had been 
bolted to the top of the samson-post. These were so placed, 
that one end of the beam was in the derrick, over the centre of 
the spot where the well is supposed to be. 

A sprightly and amusing writer (W. T. Adams), in an article 
on " Petrolia," further describes the apparatus used in boring 
for oil as follows : " It [the bull-wheel] is a turned shaft of 
wood, eight inches in diameter, and eight feet long, with a six- 
feet wheel set on near each end. The spokes of the wheels were 
left uncovered at the end, so that the men could take hold to 
turn the shaft, as a pilot does the wheel by which he steers a 
boat. The sides of the wheels facing each other were boarded 
up smoothly, so that the arms would not catch the rope while 
winding it on the shaft between the wheels. On the outside 
of one of the wheels was fastened a large grooved pulley : this 
was to receive a rope-belt from the engine to drive the bull- 
wheel. The men hung the bull-wheel by iron journals, or 
gudgeons, in each end of its shaft, so it would turn freely. It 
was placed in a frame between the legs of the derrick, at the 
side opposite the working-beam. 

" The next thing was the band- wheel. This is set in a 
strong frame called the jack-frame, and placed so that one end 
of the band-wheel shaft comes directly under one end of the 
working-beam, — that end which is out of the' derrick. The 

bistort of Pennsylvania. 289 

band-wheel is six feet in diameter, and has a six-inch face, on 
which is to be placed the driving-belt of the engine. On one 
side of the wheel is a grooved pulley, like that on the bull- 
wheel, on which the rope-belt is to be run. On one end of the 
band-wheel shaft is a crank, which is to be connected with the 
end of the working-beam above by a pitman : when the crank 
turns, and the pitman is on, it will work the beam up and 

44 On the side of the band- wheel farthest from the derrick, 
they set up the sand-pump reel. As this reel is to wind a 
smaller rope on, it is made smaller than the bull-wheel shaft* 
The sand-pump reel is turned by a friction pulley on one end of 
it. The pulley can be moved in its frame, and made to bear 
against the face of the band- wheel, at a point where the driving- 
belt does not touch the face of the wheel. The frame of the 
reel is moved by a lever in the derrick, so as to force the fric- 
tion-pulley against the band-wheel, or take it off, arid stop the 
reel, at the pleasure of the man in the derrick. As the friction- 
pulley is much smaller than the band-wheel, the sand-pump 
reel turns very fast when the friction-pulley is 4 in gear.' " 

Having thrown the reel out of gear by the lever in the 
derrick, the sand-pump rope is reeled on. 44 The engine and 
boiler were now put in place, a few feet from the band-wheel : a 
belt was put on from the driving-wheel of the engine to the band- 
wheel, and they were ready to 4 run.' When the friction-pulley 
was forced against the band-wheel, the sand-pump reel would 
turn. When the pitman was put on the crank of the band- 
wheel, the working-beam would rock on the samson-post. 
When the rope-belt was put on the band-wheel, the bull-wheel 
would turn, and wind up the drill-rope. Thus the band-wheel 
could be used in three ways. 

44 The first thing in sinking a well is to drive the pipe. As 
far down as there is only earth or small stones, and until solid 
rock is met, iron pipe can be driven without drilling. To drive 
this pipe, the workmen set up in the centre of the derrick two 
strong plank slide-ways, twenty feet high, fifteen inches apart, 
taking care to make them perfectly perpendicular, and fasten 
them securely. Between these they hung a heavy pile-driver. 



The loose end of the drill-rope was now carried up to the top 
of the derrick, passed through the big pulley, and down to the 
battering-ram between the slide-ways. 

" The drive-pipe is cast iron, six inches inside diameter, and 
of various lengths, the walls or shell of the cylinder being 
about an inch thick. 

44 The end of the pipe first started into the ground is shod 
with steel, that it may better force its way ; and the upper end 
is protected by a driving-cap, so that the pipe may not be 
battered or broken in driving. 

44 The first length of pipe was now set up between the slide- 
ways and the belt-rope run on the bull-wheel. The heavy 
ram was thus drawn up to the slide- ways, where a 'stop' 
knocked the rope loose from the ram ; and it fell, with a power- 
ful blow, on the top of the drive-pipe. By repeating this 
process, the pipe was forced downward." 

We are elsewhere told, that, in boring for oil, ** sometimes 
the drill opens a cavern filled with gas and oil, and they rush 
up suddenly : if the gas take fire, and the oil catches, there is 
no stopping it. A few years ago a well commenced to spout, 
and the gas spread, so that it took fire from the fire-box of an 
engine one hundred and fifty feet distant, before the men could 
run there to put the fire out. The gas and oil filled the air so 
suddenly with flames, that thirty men were burned to death. 
It was several days before the fire could be put out. On the 
Alleghany, there is a well which has been burning six or seven 
years : it lights up all the country round." 

Sometimes, when oil is reached, a loud report, like that of a 
cannon, is heard, and the ground shakes ; and men have even 
been prostrated by the discharge of oil and water flying high 
in the air. 

The work is not done when the oil has been reached ; for it is 
sometimes found so unexpectedly, and in such vast quantities, 
that it is very difficult to secure it. The fountain broken 
into sends forth its contents, roaring, foaming, and spouting 
oil and gas, fifty feet high. 

The author above referred to states the following case of 
this kind: " The men at first tried to stop the stream entirely. 


They took down the ponderous working-beam ; and as many 
men as could take hold of it at the ends threw it over the 
mouth of the well, and tried to hold it there. The oil and 
water spirted and sprayed a hundred feet out each side, scat- 
tering the crowd of spectators. The working-beam, heavy as 
it was, was sent flying like a chip, in spite of the efforts of 
twenty men to hold it down on the well; and the men them- 
selves were hurled in every direction, as if they were mere 
insects. They crept out of the deluge of oil and water, looking 
like so many mice who had fallen into a kettle of grease. 

"After two or three days, however, the well seemed to 
abate its fury somewhat; then it began to put on another 
curious appearance. It gradually changed, from a steady flow, 
to an interrupted, spasmodic action. For a few moments it 
would spout with as great fury as ever ; then it would gradu- 
ally sink away, then, after a few moments of subsidence, 
increase in violence again. These periods of subsidence 
became more marked each time, until, in its quieter moments, 
the well spouted no higher than a man's head. In one of these 
sleepy moments of the spouting monster, they succeeded in 
screwing on the goose-neck, and attaching to it the tanks and 
the pipe. Now they had the monster under control." 

When a quantity of oil had been obtained, the next thing 
was to get it to market ; and this was a great work. The first 
effort to be made towards accomplishing this was to tow flat- 
bottomed boats up Oil Creek. These boats were made flat, 
because this creek, though broad, is a shallow stream ; and the 
current, though considerably strong, can ordinarily be stemmed, 
and these boats towed up against it. To do this, the horses 
are made to walk in the middle of the stream. This labor is 
severe, and these poor animals last but a short time. 

After these boats have been towed up to the wells, they are 
loaded with the oil, and, taking advantage of pond-freshets, 
they are floated down to the Alleghany River, and thence to 
Pittsburg. The quantity of oil thus brought down upon one 
of these pond-freshets averaged from fifteen thousand to 
twenty thousand barrels. 

Upon entering the Alleghany, the oil is transferred to a 



larger and better class of boats. There were about four thou- 
sand men employed in this way in the oil-business ; and over 
a thousand boats were in use on the creek, with the addition 
of some thirty steamers, passenger and tow boats. After rail- 
roads were built in that section, the mode of transportation 
was by car-tanks, each car having two wooden ones, holding 
forty barrels each. The present method is iron, cylinder-shaped 
tanks with about the same capacity as the two wooden ones ; 
and on all the railroads engaged in this traffic there are 2,500 
iron tank-cars, holding in all 212,500 barrels. The production 
of petroleum for Venango County in 1866 was 100,000,000 
gallons ; in 1867 it reached 117,000,000 gallons ; and the entire 


product in Pennsylvania from 1868 to 1872 inclusive was 
25,923,000 barrels. 

As already intimated, the oil-business was a somewhat un- 
certain one, having its ups and downs. The farmers in this 
remote part of the State were plain, every-day men, without 
much polish or refinement, though honest and industrious. 
When they found enormous prices offered for their lands, they 
were greatly surprised, and scarcely knew what to say. Some 
days large amounts were bid for their lands, and soon the 
prices fell. This was hard for them to understand. A story is 


told of one of them who was offered a million dollars for his 
farm ; but he refused to take it, with the hope of getting two 
million. He afterwards sold it for forty thousand dollars. 

The same was the case with the price of oil. One day it 
would be up to eighty or ninety cents ; and soon it went down 
to ten cents per gallon. This was a perplexing affair, as no 
man could tell whether he was rich or poor, no matter whether 
he had much oil or little. As land-owners and land-buyers 
were each astonished and wild with excitement, so was it with 
oil-sellers and oil-buyers. Although many men lost all they 
had in these operations, yet it was a fact that much oil was 
found, as above stated ; and many were made rich by it. Men 
who had comparatively nothing, or next to nothing, soon found 
themselves possessed of millions. Petroleum became a great 
article of commerce ; and the burning of kerosene, a purified 
form of this oil, superseded the use of whale oil, tallow candles, 
and spermaceti, and at the present time is more abundantly 
used for purposes of lighting than all the others combined. 
Once, within the recollection of the writer, whale-fishing for 
their oil was a vast business ; and New Bedford, Nantucket, 
and many other places, became rich and flourishing by this 
means. Now little, comparatively, is done in this line; and 
these once great marts of commerce have gone into decay, 
so completely has coal-oil, or petroleum, taken the place of all 
others, both for lubricating and lighting purposes. 



Mr. Sipes's Book — Richard Trevithick — George Stephenson — Road in Masaa- 
chustts — Honesdale — Columbia Railroad — Portage Road — Act for Penn- 
sylvania Railroad — Road opened — Branches of New Jersey Division — Of 
Pennsylvania Railroad — Of Philadelphia and Erie Road — Mileage — Merion 
— Wynnewood — Eagle — Paoli — Malvern — Downington — Coatesville — 
Christiana — Gap — Kinzers — Lancaster — Mount Joy — Middletown — Co- 
lumbia — Marietta — Harrisburg. 

MR. WILLIAM B. SIPES has recently written, and D. M. 
Boyd, jun., General Passenger Agent of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, published, a very valuable book, from which much 
information may be derived of this road and its connections. 

Mr. Sipes, in his Introduction, has the following : " The 
problem of transportation is one that has taxed the ingenuity 
and resources of mankind from the earliest recorded history. 
As man progressed in civilization, the interchange of commodi- 
ties and products between different countries, and consequent 
intercommunication, became necessities which had to be met. 
. . . During these early periods, roads were almost unknown, 
the tracks for trade being those of Nature alone ; and it was 
left for chieftains of a later time — the Greeks, the Romans, 
the Carthaginians — to prepare ways for the movement of their 
legions and supplies, which were the first steps in improvements 
that the nineteenth century has perfected. 

" The first introduction of any thing like the present railroad, 
and from which the latter was ultimately developed, was at the 
coal-mines in England, some time between the years 1602 arid 
1649. These consisted of wooden tracks, on which the coal- 
wagons were drawn by horses. The first road of this kind was 



built at Newcastle-on-the-Tyne, and seems to have been the 
invention of a man named Beaumont. From there they grad- 
ually spread through the mining-districts of England, Scotland, 
and Wales ; and improvements in their construction were from 
time to time made. Originally the roads were constructed 
entirely of wood. These were improved by having a plating or 
moulding of cast-iron placed upon them in the first half of the 
nineteenth century ; and according to Mr. George Stephenson, 
the celebrated engineer, the first rails wholly made of iron were 
cast in 1766." 

At Quincy, Mass., a road from the Ledges to Neponset River 
was constructed in 1827, similar to those used in the mining- 
districts of Great Britain. It was four miles in length, and 
was used solely for the purpose of transporting granite. 

The first effort to construct a locomotive to run upon a rail- 
road was made by Richard Trevithick, in 1804 ; and, although 
but partially successful, it demonstrated that locomotives could 
be put to practical use on railroads. George Stephenson, in 
1814, built a locomotive, but, not being wholly satisfactory, he 
continued experimenting, until one was completed which took 
a premium of five hundred pounds sterling offered by the Man- 
chester and Liverpool Railroad Company, and which was tested 
on their road, October, 1829. The first road in this country 
upon which a locomotive was used was that of the Delaware 
and Hudson Canal Company, at Honesdale, Penn. 

One of the earliest efforts to build a road in America was 
made in Pennsylvania ; but it went no farther than the incorpo- 
rating a company, in 1823, to construct u a railroad from Phila- 
delphia to Columbia, on the Susquehanna River, in Lancaster 
County, a distance of about eighty miles." She was not dis- 
couraged, however, at the failure of this enterprise; and, 
believing that it would succeed if it were made a public matter, 
she petitioned the Legislature to authorize the canal commis- 
sioners, who were about beginning " The Pennsylvania Canal," 
to examine the country for the road. In the following year 
(1828) the commissioners were directed to construct the road, 
via Lancaster ; and two millions were appropriated for that pur- 
pose, and also to continue the work upon the canal. By this 


act the commissioners were also appointed to survey a route 
over the Alleghany Mountain from Huntingdon to Johnstown. 
44 In 1833 the canal commissioners were directed by law to 
complete the Columbia Railroad with a double, and the Portage 
with a single track, and to finish the main line of canal. This 
was promptly done ; and in 1834 the entire line between Pitts- 
burg and Philadelphia was opened to trade and travel. The 
line, as finished, consisted of the Columbia Railroad, eighty-two 
miles in length, running from Philadelphia to Columbia, on the 
Susquehanna River ; the eastern division of the canal, one hun- 
dred and seventy-two miles in length, extending from Columbia 
to Hollidaysburg ; the Portage Railroad, from Hollidaysburg 
to Johnstown, a distance of thirty-six miles ; and the western 
division of the canal, from Johnstown to Pittsburg, one hun- 
dred and four miles in length, making an aggregate length of 
three hundred and ninety-four miles. The main line was now 
in successful operation ; but it was too slow, too expensive to 
operate, and too complicated ; and public attention was soon 
directed to the necessity of building a through line of railroad ; 
but it was not until 1846 that any project assumed a tangible 
shape. On the 13th of April of that year, the act to incorpo- 
rate the Pennsylvania Railroad Company was passed. The 
capital of the company was fixed at $7,500,000, with the privi- 
lege of increasing the same to $10,000,000. The company was 
authorized to build a road to connect with the Harrisburg, Ports- 
mouth, Mount Joy, and Lancaster Railroad, and to run to Pitts- 
burg, or other place in the county of Alleghany, or to Erie, as 
might be deemed most expedient. The act also provided, that 
in case the company should have $3,000,000 subscribed, and 
$1,000,000 actually paid into its treasury, and have fifteen 
miles of its road under contract for construction at each ter- 
minus prior to the 30th of July, 1847, the law granting the 
right of way to the Baltimore and Ohio Road, from Cumber- 
land, Md., to Pittsburg, should be null and void. All these 
conditions were complied with; and on the 25th of Febru- 
ary, 1847, Gov. Shunk granted a charter to the company; and 
on the 2d of August he issued his proclamation declaring the 
privileges granted the Baltimore and Ohio abrogated. This 



action created considerable dissatisfaction in Alleghany and 
other south-western counties of Pennsylvania, and it required 
the lapse of time to satisfy those sections that it was for their 
advantage, as well as for the best interests of the State. 1 

The road was finally finished, and formally opened Feb. 15, 
1854, thus completing a direct line over the Alleghany Moun- 
tains of three hundred and fifty-six miles. 


East Brapdywine and Waynesburg Branch, Pennsylvania 
and Delaware Branch, York Branch, Mifflin and Centre County 
Branch, Bedford and Bridgeport Railroad, Bald Eagle Valley 
Branch, Hollidaysburg and Morrison's Cove Branch, Williams- 
burg Branch, Ebensburg Branch, Indiana Branch, Western 
Penn. Railroad, Butler Branch, South-west Pennsylvania. 


Lewisburg, Centre and Spruce Creek Branoh, Danville and 
Hazleton Branch. 


Pennsylvania Railroad and Branches . . 1,651.3 

West Jersey Railroad 129.2 

Cumberland Valley Railroad . . . 125.0 
Pittsburg, Virginia, and Charleston Railroad, 31.0 
Alleghany Valley Railroad .... 258.9 
Oil Creek and Alleghany River Railroad . 121.0 
Buffalo, Corry, and Pittsburg Railroad . 42.2 
Northern Central Railway .... 319.8 
Baltimore and Potomac Railroad . . 91.3 
Alexandria and Fredericksburg Railroad . 34.4 
Richmond and Danville Railroad . . 441.7 
Atlanta and Richmond Air-Line Railroad . 266.0 
Pennsylvania Company .... 1,715.4 
Pittsburg, Cincinnati, and St. Louis Railway, 1,150.7 
St. Louis, Vandalia, Terre Haute, and Indian- 
apolis Railroad 238.0 

Total miles of railroad owned, operated, or 

controlled by the Penn. Railroad Co. . 6,615.9 ' 

* Sipes's Pennsylvania Railroad, p. 7. 

* Including all the roads and branches In and out of Pennsylvania. 


Having thus described the Pennsylvania Railroad, and given 
an account of its origin and history, with its connections, we 
would now call the attention of the reader to some of the 
beautiful scenery and locations along the route of the main 

Mebion, 5 miles from the city of Philadelphia, is the 
country home of many of the merchants and retired gentle- 
men of that city, and from its accessibility by many lines 
of railroads, its fine scenery, its pure water, and the salu- 
brity of its climate, offers great and varied attractions to 
pleasure-seekers. 1 

Wynnewood, 6£ miles, is interesting from being named for 
Thomas Wynne, president of the first colonial assembly of 
Pennsylvania, who accotapanied the colonists from Wales, and 
occupied land in the vicinity, which is still in possession of his 

Eagle, 15 miles, is the first station in Chester County ; and 
from this point begins a panorama of beautiful views, with 
which the county abounds. The " Great Valley," of primitive 
limestone, is the most marked feature, being from two to four 
miles wide, crossing the county in a south-east and north- 
west direction. It is enclosed by moderately high hills, with 
extensive growths of wood ; and from their tops can be 
had fine views of the highly cultivated farms in the valley 

Paoli, 19 miles, is delightfully situated on the border of 
Chester valley, and is a favorite resort for Philadelphians ; and 
for their accommodation six trains are run daily to and from 
the city. It is an old settlement, and appears to have received 
its name from the tavern, which has always been its most impor- 
tant feature, and which was called in honor of Pasquale Di 
Paoli, the great Corsican general, born in 1726, who, at the 
age of twenty-nine, was chosen general-in-chief of the Corsicans, 
then in revolt against the Genoese. He was successful ; and as 
his bravery could not but inspire the American colonies, who 

1 The distances on this road are taken from Mr. Sipes's book, and also those 
on its branch roads. 



were striving to achieve their independence, they localized his 
memory by giving to this tavern and place his name. Gen. 
Anthony Wayne was born about a mile and a quarter south of 
Paoli, on the 1st of January, 1745. 

Malvern, 21 miles, is the county-seat of Chester County. 
It is at this place that the highest point of land between Phil- 
adelphia and Chester valley is reached, the road here being five 
hundred and forty-five feet above tide-water, from which the 
descent into the valley is very sudden, — nearly two hundred 
feet in a distance of ten miles. Delightful glimpses of the 
farms below this abrupt declivity are obtained from the rail- 
road. It was about half a mile south-west of this place, that 
that famous surprise of a detachment of the American Army, 
under Gen. Wayne, by the British Gen. Grey, occurred on 
the night of the 20th of September, 1777, known as the 
"Paoli Massacre." 


Downington, 32 miles, is beautifully situated in a large 
vale on the Big Brandywine. A deed for a part of the 
ground is dated 1682, though it does not appear to have been 
settled until 1700. It was first called Milltown, because a mill 
was erected here on the Brandywine. It received its name 
from Thomas Downing. It was inhabited by several rich 
Quakers at the time of the Revolutionary war, and was con- 
sidered a peculiarly staid, and highly respectable place, noted 
for its " spacious substantial houses, shaded by tall elms and 
pines, and situated in the midst of verdant yards and gardens." 
A modern historian describes it as "one of the very green 
spots that have been left unscathed by the mania of modern 
speculation. Not even the passage of the railroad along its 
southern border could seduce the old-fashioned citizens from 
their quiet, staid, and thrifty ways, into the delusive dream of 
making haste to be rich." " Even the temptation of being the 
county-seat was resisted ; and although, at an early date, the 
commissioners had obtained the refusal of a single lot, not 
another lot in the vicinity would any one sell. They were 
opposed both to parting with their homesteads, and to the 
noise and brawling of a county-town." 

It was used as a garrison for American troops during the 
Revolutionary war ; and Richard Downing was the commissary. 
It was the scene of many incidents and hardships. The " Rob 
Roy of Pennsylvania," Jim Fitzpatrick, a blacksmith, filled 
this valley with rumors of his strange adventures. H^ was of 
Irish parentage, and in his youth very active and strong. He 
enlisted in the American army, but soon deserted, and roamed 
about as a Tory, committing many depredations, under the guise 
of loyalty to the king. While thus employed, he was seized 
by two soldiers, who were about taking him to Wilmington, 
where was a detachment of the army. He entreated them to 
let him return to his mother's house to get some clothing, 
whither they accompanied him. As soon as he had opened the 
door, he seized his rifle, and, presenting it to their breasts 
threatened to shoot them down unless they left immediately 
A local historian has preserved the following, one of his pecu 
liar deeds : " Meeting an old woman on her wav to the city 



with all her little stock of money, to purchase supplies, she, 
little dreaming who he was, made known to him her fear of 
meeting Capt. Fitz, and being robbed of her fortune. Fitz 
heard her patiently, and then informed her that he was the 
man she dreaded ; but her fear was groundless, as he would 

scorn to wrong 

defenceless woman. 

Drawing from his 

pocket a purse well 

filled, he handed it 

to her, and turned 

off into the woods, 

leaving the poor 

woman overcome with her adventure and her good fortune." 

Coatesville, 38 miles, is situated on the Brandywine, over 
which the railroad is carried upon a bridge, magnificently built 
of iron. It is eight hundred and thirty-six feet long, and 
seventy-three feet above the water. It is a growing place, and 



in manufactures promises to rank among the first in the State. 
It has six iron-manufacturing establishments, which employ 
five hundred and fifty men, a number of paper-mills, several 
woollen and cotton mills, and other industries. This necessi- 
tates many stores and shops, and it also supports two national 
banks. The scenery on the Brandywine is very charming, 
which causes Coatesville to be much resorted to in summer, as 
also for its mineral spring situated about half a mile from the 
town. It contains six churches, two public halls, a seminary, 
and other public institutions. The first settlements were made 
very early by the Coates family, from Montgomeryshire, Eng., 
members of the Society of Friends, who came over soon after 
Penn, and for whom the town is named ; and by the Bizallions, 
a French family ; and the Flemings. All of these families have 
descendants still in the vicinity. It was incorporated as a 
borough Aug. 15, 1867. Population 2,025. 

Chbistiaka, 48 miles, is known in history as the scene of 
44 The Riots " in 1851, caused by Maryland officers attempting 
to capture fugitive slaves. One Marylander was killed, and 
several, both white and black, were wounded. Many arrests 
were made by the civil authorities, and the prisoners were 
removed to Philadelphia for safe keeping and trial. The pro- 
cess of the court was very slow, and the prisoners were finally 
discharged. It is a place of great activity and considerable 

Gap, 50J miles, is the highest point on the road between 
Schuylkill and Susquehanna Rivers, the elevation being five 
hundred and sixty feet above tide-water. In olden time this 
region was a favorite resort for counterfeiters and other adven- 
turers. Romance has connected their names with many extrav- 
agant stories. Many of these depredators served several years 
in the State prison ; and, though their persons have long since 
passed away, yet the popular belief is, that their spirits 4t will 
not down," but that they still visit their old haunts, and are 
at their old tricks. Railroad-trains are said to have been seen 
here, which vanished like a flash ; and even " Old Nick" him- 
self is said to pay nightly visits to their engineers. Whatever 
may be the truth regarding these stories, the people about here 
are very honest, industrious, and frugal. 


Kinzebs, 53J miles, is noted for having near it the only, 
nickel mines worked in the United States. The company 
owning the mines employ one hundred and fifty men, and 
send off twelve hundred tons of matte every year. Matte is 
the nickel ore reduced to a mass by smelting. This mine, 
according to the census of 1870, returned a product of sixty- 
six thousand dollars. 

Lancaster, 69 miles. The county of this name was the 
first one named, after the three original counties into which 
Penn divided the Province. It was created by the Colonial 
Legislature the 10th of May, 1729. Lancaster, the shire-town, 
is beautifully situated in the midst of the richest and most 
fertile portion of the county. According to the accounts of 
early historians, the lower valley of the Susquehanna, at the 
time of the first white settlements, was a vast, uninhabited 
highway, through which hordes of hostile savages were con- 
stantly roaming, and where the different tribes had many 
bloody battles. A Cayuga chief told the Moravians of Wya- 
lusing, in 1765, that the place they had chosen was an improper 
one, because all that country had been " stained with blood/* 

At Lancaster city, the first settlement in the county was 
made. It was then only a town, having no county limits ; but, 
when it was formed into a county, the only building standing 
within the city limits was a tavern, with a sign of a hickoiy- 
tree, kept by one George Gibson. 

Gov. Pownall visited Lancaster in 1754, and says the place 
then contained " five hundred houses and two thousand inhab- 
itants ; that it was a growing town, and making money, having 
then a manufactory of saddles and packsaddles." In 1734 
Lancaster was made the seat of justice, and from that time 
grew rapidly in population and importance. It was a famous 
place for holding councils with the Indians, and making treaties 
with them. The early colonial records give many accounts of 
these assemblies. A large portion of the men whose names 
appear in the history of the Province of Pennsylvania visited 
Lancaster ; and, in the annals of the State, it ranks second only 
to Philadelphia. 

An annual fair was held at Lancaster on the first Thursday 


and Friday in June. An old historian thus describes these 
fairs : " You could hardly see the street for the tables and 
booths, covered with merchandise and trinkets of every kind. 
There were silks, laces, and jewelry, calicoes, gingerbread, and 
sweetmeats, such as the ladies love ; and that was the time they 
got plenty of them, too, for the young fellows used to hoard 
up their money for months together to spend at the fair. Then 
the corners of the streets were taken up with mountebanks, 
rope-dancers, and all the latest amusements. To see these, 
each young man took the girl that pleased him most ; or, if he 
had a capacious heart, he sometimes took half a dozen." 

Mr. Sipes, in his railroad volume, adds, " In every tavern there 
was heard the sound of a violin; knd the dances were the 
crowning pleasure of all. Of taverns there appears to have 
been an abundance. One writer says that the portraits of 
half the kings of Europe, of many warriors and statesmen, and 
of numerous things, animate and inanimate, made the streets 
an outdoor picture-gallery." 

Lancaster was incorporated as a borough June 19, 1777, and 
it was made the capital of Pennsylvania in 1799. It continued 
to be the capital until 1812, when the seat of the State govern- 
ment was removed to Harrisburg. It was incorporated as a 
city the 20th of March, 1818. 

James Buchanan, fifteenth President of the United States, 
owned and lived upon an excellent farm, which, for its fertility 
and productiveness, he called Wheatland. It was in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the city ; and here he died and was buried. 
Thaddeus Stevens, who filled a prominent place in the history 
of the United States, both before and during the Rebellion, 
was a citizen of Lancaster ; and there his remains were interred. 

Lancaster is a large manufacturing city. Six cotton-mills 
are in operation at present, in which thirteen hundred and fifty 
hands are employed. There are also extensive boiler-works, 
locomotive-works, comb-factory, several woollen and flour mills, 
large breweries, and a printing and publishing company em- 
ploying one hundred and seventy-five hands. In the immedi- 
ate vicinity of the city, several large iron-mines are worked. 
It has also three public halls, ten public and private banks, 



several excellent hotels, a splendid court-house, a large prison, 
a children's home, a county poor-house, to which a hospital and 
lunatic asylum are attached. Its population is 20,233. 

Mount Joy, 80 miles, is situated in a beautiful • and fertile 
country, and is a flourishing place. It has manufactories of 
reapers, ploughs, carriages, edge-tools, a machine-shop, malleable 
iron-works, and a soldiers' orphans' school, containing two 
hundred pupils. It contains six churches, two national banks, 


three hotels, and many good schools. The fine buildings of 
the Female Seminary, erected in 1837, are located near the 
railroad, by Little Chiques Creek. 

Middletown, 95i miles, is the first station in Dauphin 
County, and is at the junction of the Harrisburg, Lancaster, 
and Columbia Railroads. It is an active, enterprising place ; 
contains two furnaces, car-works, iron-works, boat-yards, paint- 


works, and saw-mills. Iron ore and mineral paint abound in 
its immediate vicinity. A very large business is done in 
lumber. It has eight churches, a large public hall, and several 
good hotels. Emmaus Institute, " devoted to the education of 
poor orphan-children, who are to be carefully trained in the 
doctrines of the Evangelical Lutheran Church," is located at 
this place. Mr. Sipes says, " This institution owes its exist- 
ence to the liberality of George Frey, a citizen of Middle town, 
whose life was marked with considerable romance. His true 
name was Everhart, and, a poor German lad, he commenced his 
career here as a farm-laborer. When he had accumulated a 
little money, he purchased a stock of trinkets, and started up 
the Susquehanna River to trade with the Indians. Passing the 
Blue Mountain, then the frontier of the white settlements, 
he was arrested by some soldiers as a runaway * redemp- 
tioner * (a servant who had been sold for a time to pay his 
passage from Europe). In his broken language he declared to 
the soldiers, * Ich bin frey!' and finally convinced them that 
he was " free." Locating himself at Fort Hunter, where he 
became a favorite, the name of 4 Frey ' was given him, and 
by it he was afterwards known. He prospered as a trader, 
opened a store at Middletown, speculated extensively and 
judiciously, accumulated a large fortune, and with a part of 
it endowed this benevolent school. He died in 1808, leaving 
no children." 

Middletown was laid out in 1755, upon the site of an Indian 
village, and received its name from being midway between 
Lancaster and Carlisle. In 1851 the adjacent town of Ports- 
mouth was merged in it. Its population is 2,980. 

Columbia, 81 miles, is a borough of Lancaster County, on 
the Susquehanna. The town is on level ground, on the bank 
of the river, with high hills back of it. The river at this 
point is a mile wide, and from these hills presents a magnifi- 
cent panoramic view. 

Robert Barber, a Quaker, in 1727 purchased the first land 
from the proprietaries, and settled upon it the following year. 
The Indians were favorable to the whites coming, and gave 
them no trouble. Some of these Quaker pioneers were noted 


for their intelligence and education, among whom was Susanna 
Wright, daughter of John Wright. She was a superior woman, 
educated in England, It is said of her, " She was consulted 
in all difficult matters, did all the writings necessary in the 
place, was charitable to the poor, and gave medicine gratis to 
all the neighborhood. She defended the cause of the Indians 
who were murdered by the Paxton Boys." Another noted 
woman of this place was Mary Ditcher, a German, who ac- 
quired a large amount of land, and sold it from time to time to 
the German emigrants. It is also said that this Mary Ditcher 
44 used to go through the country, making what was then called 
improvement8. ,, " These improvements consisted in piling a 
few sticks together, setting them on fire, and hanging a pot 
over them. If she could then pay for the land, she was allowed 
to keep it." " She wandered through the wilderness in a sheep- 
skin dress, leading an old horse, — her only movable property, 
— with her knitting constantly in her hand." 

It was contemplated, at one time, to make Columbia the 
county-seat. Robert Barber was then sheriff of the county, 
and built a prison near his house. It was built of logs, and 
remained standing many years. There is an anecdote con- 
nected with this prison, which forms the ground-work of 
Charles Reade's novel, " The Wandering Heir." The true Lord 
Altham, whose name was James Annesley, heir, to the estates 
and title of Lord Altham in Ireland, was spirited away from 
that country when thirteen years of age, sent to America, and 
sold as a " redemptioner," or u slave." This sale took place in 
Philadelphia, where he landed, in 1728. "All the accounts 
agree in stating that he ran away from his master, was captured 
and imprisoned; that he had his troubles because of his 
master's daughter and a young Indian girl voluntarily bestow- 
ing their affections upon him; and that finally, after twelve 
years of servitude, he was discovered to be the rightful Lord 
Altham, was taken back to England by Admiral Vernon, and 
after the adventures and trial, as detailed by Reade, was 
declared to be the true heir. The circumstances of his dis- 
covery are thus related: Two Irishmen, named John and 
William Brodus, travelling the Lancaster road, stopped at the 


house where James was in service. Entering into conversation 
with him, they discovered they were all from Dumaine, in the 
county of Wexford ; and the Irishmen were convinced that the 
servant was James Annesley, the son and heir of Lord Altham. 
They volunteered to go back to Ireland, and testify to what 
they had discovered ; and this they did, appearing as witnesses 
at the trial which followed the heir's return. It is also said 
that James was a great singer ; and, when he was confined in the 
log jail at Columbia, the neighbors frequently visited the prison 
to listen to him. The events of his life furnished the ground- 
work for 4 Guy Mannering,' * Roderick Random,' and 4 Florence 
Macarthy,' popular novels in their day. James, it would appear, 
was a man of no particular talent, and easily discouraged. 
After his heirship had been substantiated, he permitted his 
uncle, who had so greatly wronged and persecuted him, to 
remain in possession of his title. He married twice, had sons 
and daughters by both wives, — none of his sons, however, sur- 
viving him, — and died at the age of forty-five, the last of his 
line. The descendants of the wicked uncle inherited the title 
and estates." l 

Iron and its products are extensively manufactured here ; and, 
in its various branches, about a thousand men are employed. 
There is also a manufactory of agricultural implements, an oil 
refinery, two planing-mills, and many other branches of indus- 
try. Population 6,461. 

Marietta, 84 miles, extends along the bank of the Susque- 
hanna two miles, and the scenery is very beautiful. It was 
incorporated as a borough in 1812. 

The old Donegal Presbyterian Church, built in 1740, lies 
near the bounds of this borough. This was the parent of all 
the Scotch-Irish churches along the Susquehanna. An early 
historian says, " All this region was famous in early times, 
especially during the Revolution, for the convivial and sprightly 
spirit characteristic of the Irish. Fiddling, dancing and 
carousing, or what were then known as hup-sesaws, were as 
common as eating and drinking." 

Marietta has six iron furnaces, a rolling-mill, a manufactory 
1 Sipes's Pennsylvania Railroad, p. 103. 


of enamelled and hollow ware, a foundery, two saw and planing 
mills, and does a large business in lumber. There are four iron- 
mines worked in the vicinity. Near Marietta, on the opposite 
side of the river, is " Wild-cat Glen," a romantic spot, now made 
use of by the Masonic fraternity as a summer resort. 

Harrisburg, 105 miles, is the capital of Pennsylvania. 
44 It was originally settled by emigrants from the north of 
Ireland, an enterprising and daring race, who for many years 
defended the frontier against the Indians, and were conspicu- 
ous in many of the scenes of border warfare." Most of these 
emigrants were Presbyterians : their ministers were generally 
men of great learning and ability. They early founded schools, 
prominent among which was the " Log College," first estab- 
lished by William Tennant, near Philadelphia, in 1726. It 
consisted of a log-cabin, about fifty feet square, near Mr. 
Tennant's house ; and he was the only instructor. 

That eminent preacher, George Whitefield, when in Amer- 
ica, visited this college, and in his journal says, u The place 
wherein the young men study, now is called, in contempt, 
4 The College.' To me it seemed to resemble the school of 
the old prophets ; for their habitations were mean. From this 
despised place, seven or eight worthy ministers of Jesus have 
lately been sent forth : more are almost ready to be sent ; and 
the foundation is now laying for the instruction of many 

An early historian says of these same Scotch-Irish pioneers, 
44 Having neither silver nor gold to give in founding institu- 
tions for the intellectual, moral, and religious improvement of 
the people, they gave what they had, — their time, labor, talents, 
and learning. They planted and watered, and under God their 
work prospered, the fruits of which were gathered and enjoyed 
not only in their own day, but by generations then unborn." 

Harrisburg is beautifully situated in a rich territory, highly 
cultivated, abounding in iron ore, and covered with manufac- 
tories. The scenery in every direction is exceedingly fine. 
The first settlement was made about 1725, by John Harris, an 
Englishman, who fixed his habitation on the bank of the river ; 
and here a son was born to him in 1726. He is said to have 


been the first white child born in Pennsylvania west of the 
Conewago Hills. He was named for his father, John Harris, 
inherited his estate, and became the founder of Harrisburg. 

According to the Rev. Col. Elder, John Harris, sen., was 
the first person who introduced the plough on the Susque- 
hanna. By industry and frugality, he acquired a large prop- 
erty. He was well known throughout the Province ; and his 
house was often visited by all classes of people, passing through 
the valley of the river. One day a band of Indians came to 
his house. They were all intoxicated, and wanted more rum, 
which he refused ; and thereupon they seized, and bound him 
to a tree, intending to burn him. While they were kindling 
the fire, another band of Indians came up ; and, after a fight 
between them, Harris was released uninjured. As a remem- 
brancer of this event, he directed in his will that he should be 
buried at the foot of this tree. He died in 1748. His direction 
was carried out; and his remains and those of his children 
repose there. 

John Harris, jun., accumulated much wealth, and in 1775 
loaned the government three thousand pounds. When the town 
of Harrisburg was laid out, in 1785, he conveyed to commission- 
ers, whom he named, four acres of ground on Capital Hill, " in 
trust, for public use, and such public purposes as the legislature 
shall hereafter direct." He did this because he believed 
Harrisburg would be the Capital of Pennsylvania at some 
future time. He died in 1791. 

In 1808 Harrisburg was incorporated as a borough ; and the 
21st of February, 1810, its founder's dream was realized by 
its being made the capital of the State. 

In the late rebellion, when the advance portion of Lee's 
army reached the Susquehanna, opposite Harrisburg, the most 
intense excitement prevailed in the city, as it was supposed 
that the object of the invasion was to attack the capital of 
the State. The Pennsylvania archives were hastily packed, 
and transported to a place of safety ; but, a retrograde move- 
ment having been made by the rebels, the capital remained 
safe without the shedding of blood. 

The Capitol buildings are of plain red brick, without any 



external ornament ; and they occupy a fine position, surrounded 
by ornamental grounds, overlooking the Susquehanna and its 
delightful scenery. The interior of the buildings is well 
arranged : the halls for the Senate and House are very conven- 
ient. The most splendid room is occupied as the State Library, 


which contains many valua- 
ble books- Portraits of all 
the governors of Pennsyl- 
vania, well preserved, hang 
in the executive department. 
The walls are decorated with old curiosities and quaint docu- 
ments, among which are ancient English charters, treaties 
between William Penn and others with the Indians, with the 
marks or hieroglyphics of these aborigines. In the old arsenal, 
a number of obsolete arms are to be seen, and near it a marble 
shaft, surmounted by a winged angel, erected in honor of Penn- 
sylvania volunteers who fell in the Mexican war. 


The city contains fifteen church edifices, representing all the 
religious denominations. It has an academy, a female semi- 
nary, and an excellent system of common schools, in which are 
five thousand pupils. The new Masonic Hall is one of the 
finest buildings in the State outside of Philadelphia and Pitts- 

Manufacturing of all kinds is largely carried on here ; the 
city being admirably located for this purpose, from the fact 
that the splendid railroad system radiated from it to every 
point of the compass, reaching the great anthracite and bitu- 
minous coal-mines, the rich veins of iron ore in the adjacent 
counties, and the fine agricultural country. Population 23,104. 



Rockville — Marysville — Duncannon — Aqueduct — Newport — Millerstown— 
Mifflin — Lewistown — Newton Hamilton — Mount Union — Huntingdon — 
Tyrone — Altoona — Kittanning Point — Resting-Place — View from the 

STARTING from Harrisburg the capital, which we described 
in the last chapter, and following the Pennsylvania Railroad 
to its termination at Pittsburg, we next name, — 

Rockville, 110J miles. Here the railroad comes to the 
Blue Ridge, or the Kittatinny Mountain, the first of the Alle- 
ghany range on the route. At this point the road crosses the 
Susquehanna on a bridge 3,670 feet in length. Looking up 
and down the river from this bridge, the prospect is exceed- 
ingly fine and magnificent. Just to the north are seen the 
high mountains, through which the river pours itaavaters down 
a huge break, forming the foaming, fretting rapids. Here the 
large bridge of the Northern Railway connects the villages of 
Dauphin and Marysville. Looking to the south, the river, 
nearly a mile wide, is seen, filled with islands, and bordered by 
fertile farms. The population of Rockville is 259. 

Marysville, 113 miles. This town abounds in iron ore ; 
and vast quantities of iron are manufactured within its limits. 
It was originally settled by Scotch-Irish emigrants, who, not 
possessing the pacific spirit of William Penn, had much trouble 
with the Indi&ns. Whole families were massacred ; and at one 
time nearly all the settlers were driven from their homes, but 
they soon returned, and exterminated the Indians. Population 
is 25,477. Number of manufacturing establishments 282, 
which employ 1,037 men. The capital invested $1,438,174. 



Duncannon, 119 miles, is the seat of the Duncannon Iron 
Company. It manufactures a large amount of pig and bar iron 
and nails. Near this place is a branch of the mountain, called 
" Profile Rock," which strongly resembles the human face. 
Passing on a mile above Duncannon, we come to the mouth of 
the Juniata River, and Dunkin's Island, a famous place in the 
early history of the State. 

David Brainerd, a missionary among the Indians, informs us 
that a large Indian town was settled upon this island, and that 
the Indians used to make it a favorite place of resort. He tells 
us of an eccentric Indian, who made his appearance " in his 
pontifical garb, which was a coat of bear-skins, dressed with 
the hair on, and hanging down to his toes ; a pair of bear-skin 
stockings ; and a great wooden face, painted, — the one side half 
black, the other half tawny, about the color of an Indian's 
skin, with an extravagant mouth, cut very much awry ; the 
face fasteued to a bear-skin cap, which was drawn over his 
head. He advanced towards me with an instrument in his 
hand, which he used for music in his idolatrous worship, which 
was a dry tortoise-shell, with some corn in it, and the neck of 
it drawn on to a piece of wood, which made a very convenient 
handle." Some years later this island was the scene of many 
battles between the Indians and the whites. In 1756 all the 
whites abandoned it ; and in 1760 a terrible fight occurred be- 
tween them and the Indians. At one of these outbreaks, the 
wife of the owner of the island, to escape from the savages, 
swam the Susquehanna, taking her infant with her. This was 
a great feat, when it is considered that the river is here a mile 
wide. This island has since been a delightful and favorite 
summer resort : its attractions are many, and its air is pure. 

Aqueduct, 123 miles, is the point at which the Pennsylvania 
Railroad leaves the Susquehanna River, and follows the " blue 
Juniata," through mountains and valleys, till it reaches the 
middle of the great Alleghany Mountains. This little river 
seems almost to have possessed strategic powers ; for it pursues 
its winding course of a hundred miles, sometimes dashing 
boldly against the mountain wall, which it has torn asunder, 
sometimes winding around obstructions, and creeping slyly 


through secret valleys and the dens of wild beasts. " At some 
points the mountains appear to have retired from the attacking 
current, leaving numerous isolated hills standing as sentinels 
to watch its progress. But the severed mountains, the tower- 
ing embankments, and the sentinel-like hills, are all toned into 
form and moulded into shape by the action of the elements 
and the foliage of Nature, leaving no abrupt precipices, and but 
few naked rocks, to mar the uniform beauty. The valleys, and 
many of the hills, are brought under cultivation ; and some of 
the latter rise in the distance, presenting alternate squares of 
yellow, green, and brown, showing the progress of agricultural 
industry, while their summits are crowned with clumps of 
forest-trees, indicating the luxuriance of the growth before the 
march of civilization invaded it. Every hour of the day, 
every change of the season, gives new tints to these mountains 
and valleys. The morning mist often shrouds them beneath 
its veil ; and as this is penetrated and dispersed by the sun, 
cloud-like forms sail away towards the sky, pausing at times 
amid the higher summits, as if to rest before taking their final 
flight to join their sisters in the illimitable firmament. The 
tints of evening spread over them golden and purple halos ; 
while deep and dark shadows sink into the water, and creep up 
the wooded embankments. Spring clothes the entire landscape 
in a tender green. Summer deepens this into a darker tint, 
and intersperses it with the yellow of the ripening harvest. 
Autumn scatters its gems over all, lighting up the forests with 
the many bright hues of the changing foliage ; and winter 
brings its pure mantle of white, oyer which tower the ever- 
verdant pines, or repose dark beds of rhododendrons. In the 
river valley, almost every tree has its parasite in a Virginia 
creeper, festooning it from the ground to the topmost branch ; 
and here and there a larger vine binds a number together, as if 
it had grown weary of its first love, and taken others to its 
embrace. At some places the road passes through broad, culti- 
vated valleys, and at others it is built along ravines so narrow 
that its bed is carved out of the overhanging rocks. Now a 
mountain spur bars its way, and a tunnel is pierced through 
the obstacle ; and, again, the river is so tortuous, that engineer- 


ing skill disdained to follow it, and numerous bridges carry the 
roadway from bank to bank. Almost every mile of its course 
opens up new scenes, which present themselves to the traveller 
like the ever-changing pictures of a kaleidoscope." l 

Newport, 132 miles, was known, from its first settlement in 
1814, to 1820, as Reiderville, since which year it has borne its 
present title. It has a furnace, two steam tanneries, a planing- 
mill, foundery, grist-mill, saw-mill, a stone and earthen ware 
factory. It also has a large commission and mercantile business. 
About two miles from the station, iron ore is mined for local 
use. There are in the borough six churches, a bank, good 
schools, and several hotels. Population 945. 

Millerstown, 138 miles, is a very old town, having been 
laid out as early as 1800. It is a great resort in summer ; and 
its location, upon the bank of the Juniata, is very fine. It con- 
tains a furnace and foundery ; and near it are worked iron-ore 
mines, employing about one hundred and seventy men. It con- 
tains two churches, three public halls, a bank, several good 
hotels ; and the Juniata Valley Normal School, which has an 
attendance of about one hundred pupils. Population 533. 

Mifflin, 154 miles, is the county-seat of Juniata County, 
which was separated from Mifflin by act of March 2, 1831. It 
is mountainous, interspersed with many beautiful and fertile 
valleys, chief of which is the Tuscarora, consisting of rolling 
hills of limestone and slate. Numerous streams water this 
county, and it is particularly famed for the purity of its air. 
Iron ore is abundant in all parts of it. The first settlements 
were made by Scotch-Irish, about 1749, who first built a fort, 
and cleared land, in Tuscarora Valley. 

The settlers were much annoyed by the Indians, until the 
commencement of the Revolutionary war. It was in this 
county that the " Grasshopper War," between the Tuscarora 
and Delaware Indians, occurred. These tribes lived on each 
side of the Juniata ; and the children got into a dispute about 
some grasshoppers. The women took sides with the children, 
and from this the men were drawn into it ; and, before it was 
settled, a bloody and relentless war was had, in which many 

1 Sipes's Pennsylvania Railroad, p. 118. 


lives were sacrificed on both sides. It was not until after the 
Revolution, and the railroad was built, which followed the 
Pennsylvania canal, that any considerable improvement was 
visible, when agriculture and manufactures were stimulated, 
and its mineral wealth was developed to the present prosperous 
condition. The population of the county is 17,390. Its agri- 
cultural products are valued at $1,097,659. It has 204 manu- 
facturing establishments, employing 395 hands. Mifflin is on 
the left bank of the Juniata, upon a lofty elevation, and is con- 
nected with the railroad on the right by a bridge over the 
river. It was laid out by John Harris in 1791. The country 
immediately surrounding it i& delightfully picturesque, and the 
views are charming. It contains the usual county buildings, 
three churches, two banks, two public halls, and three good 
hotels. It does a flourishing business with the adjacent regions, 
and ships considerable iron ore. Population 857. 

Lewistown, 1GG miles, is the seat of justice of Mifflin County. 
Mifflin County was formed from Cumberland and Northumber- 
land, by act of Sept. 19, 1789. It is about thirty-nine miles 
long from south-east to north-west, and about fifteen miles 
broad. It has many mountain ranges running through its 
entire length, which form beautiful and fertile valleys of slate 
and limestone land. These valleys are in a high state of culti- 
vation, and present a rich appearance to the eye of the traveller 
as he speeds by on the iron road above them. The most noted 
of these valleys is Kishicoquillas, unsurpassed in variety of 
scenery, and productiveness of soil, making it the cynosure of a 
refined and cultivated class of people, who have resided here 
for a century. This valley was so named for an Indian chie£ 
who had his cabin near where Lewistown now stands. He 
was a Shawnee, friendly to the whites ; was influential in pre- 
serving the peace, which, before the defeat of Braddock, existed 
between the whites of the interior of Pennsylvania and the 
Indians ; and he was held in high esteem by the Provincial offi- 
cers. At the time in our early colonial history when the 
French missionaries were inducing the Indians to join them in 
their alliance against the English, upon making overtures V 
Kishicoquillas, he sternly refused, protesting that " no earth 


consideration could induce him to lift the tomahawk against 
the sons of Onas." 

As early as 1755 Scotch-Irish settlers from the Cumberland 
Valley had made their homes in this county, but they suffered 
fearfully from the depredations of the Indians ; and it was not 
until after the treaty of Fort Stanwix, in 1768, that this region 
was a safe abode for the whites. From that time the country 
was rapidly filled, and prosperity settled down upon the inhab- 

It was in this valley, not many miles above Lewistown, that 
the celebrated Logan, the Mingo chief, lived. He is described 
as the best known Indian in Pennsylvania. He was the son of 
Shikellimy, a Cayuga chief, who lived at Fort Augusta, where 
Sunbury nbw stands, about 1742, and was converted to Chris- 
tianity by the Moravian missionaries. His son was baptized by 
them, and named by his father for James Logan, then secretary 
of the Province. The Cayugas were one of the Six Nations ; 
and Mingo being the name given by the Delawares to these 
tribes, it was bestowed upon Logan. Some anecdotes of him 
will best illustrate his sweetness of temper, sense of justice, 
and innate dignity of character. On one occasion a party 
visited him in his cabin, and engaged with him in shooting at a 
mark, at a dollar a shot. Logan lost four or five rounds, will- 
ingly declared himself beaten, and, going into his hut, brought 
out as many deerskins as he had lost dollars. But the party 
refused to take them, saying they had been his guests ; that the 
shooting was but a trial of skill, and the bet merely nominal. 
Whereupon Logan drew himself up, and said, " Me bet to make 
you 6hoot your best ; me gentleman ; and me take your dollar, 
if me beat." They were forced to take the skins, or affront 
him ; and so nice was his sense of honor, that he would not 
even receive a horn of powder in return. He supported his 
family by killing deer, and selling their skins, after they were 
dressed, to the whites. He had sold a number of skins to a 
tailor, receiving his pay in wheat, which, upon being taken to a 
miller, was found so useless that he refused to grind it. Failing 
in obtaining redress from the tailor, he placed the matter in the 
hands of a friend, who was a magistrate, who, after hearing the 


case, decided in favor of the chief, and gave him a writ to 
hand the constable, assuring him that would bring the money. 
It seemed like magic to him, that this little paper would force 
the tailor into compliance ; but when the magistrate showed 
him his commission from the king, and explained to him the 
process of civil law, Logan exclaimed, " Law good I Make 
rogues pay." 

Logan left Kishicoquillas Valley in 1771, as the number of 
whites had so increased that game was no longer to be pro- 
cured, by which his family could be supported. He located on 
the Ohio River, at the mouth of Yellow Creek, about thirty 
miles above Wheeling, where there were fewer white settlers, 
and game more plentiful. He was there joined by relatives, 
and Indians from Fort Augusta, became their chief,: and seems 
to have exerted a wonderful influence. His whole family was 
massacred, at the commencement of the Shawnee war, in 1773, 
by a party of scouts, led by Daniel Greathouse, who attacked 
the village, murdered twelve of the inhabitants, and wounded 
six or eight more. Logan was absent at the time, and, when he 
returned, saw only smoking ruins of cabins and mangled 
bodies. His heart was broken, and ; if his revenge was terrible, 
who can wonder? He buried his dead, cared for the wounded, 
and then joined the Shawnees in their work of destruction 
upon the whites, and wrought fearful mischief wherever he 
went. But his nobler instincts sometimes asserted themselves, 
as the following incident will show. During this war he one 
day came upon a field where three men were at work. One 
of them he killed outright ; but the other two took to flight. 
One of these was soon overtaken ; while the other, being more 
fleet, would probably have escaped, had he not turned to see 
where his pursuer was, and caught his foot in a root, falling to 
the ground with such force that he became insensible. When 
he recovered, he found himself bound, and Logan seated beside 
him. Then, taking him with him, Logan set out for the neare r 
Indian village. The prisoner said Logan spoke but little duri: 
the march, appearing downcast; but, upon arriving at the villaj 
he gave the " scalp halloo ; " and the Indians of both sexes, c 
and young, came running out to meet them. The prison* 


were made to " run the gantlet : " but Logan directed his 
prisoner how to act ; and, by following his advice, he arrived in 
safety to the council-house, while the other one, not under- 
standing the course to pursue, suffered terribly, and would have 
been killed if he had not been pulled into the council-house by 
the one already safe within. The next day a council was held, 
and it was decided to take the one first captured, who was an 
old man, into their tribe ; but Logan's prisoner they determined 
to sacrifice. Logan spoke for an hour against this decision, 
and is reported as having been wonderfully eloquent ; in voice, 
gesture, and fluency, surpassing even Patrick Henry. But in 
vain did he plead. They still continued their preparations, 
Logan all the while standing apart, with folded arms and stern 
face. Just as the fire was being kindled, he suddenly strode 
into the circle, cut the bands of the prisoner, and led him, with- 
out a word, into his wigwam. The Indians made no attempt to 
interfere ; but signs of tumult arose, to which Logan paid no 
attention, and in a few hours it subsided. 

The rigor with which this war was prosecuted by the whites 
brought the Indians to terms, and they sued for peace, to 
secure which Lord Dunmore appointed a council of all the 
hostile chiefs, Logan among the rest, to be held on the Sciota 
in 1774. Logan refused to attend the council, but sent this 
speech, preserved in Jefferson's " Notes on Virginia ; " and 
although its authenticity has been doubted, yet as a specimen 
of Logan's eloquence, and as a whole, despite possible interpo- 
lations, it is undoubtedly genuine. 

" I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's 
cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat; if ever he came 
cold and naked, and he clothed him not. During the course of 
the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, 
an advocate of peace. Such was my love for the whites, that 
my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said, * Logan is the 
friend of the white man I ' I had even thought to have lived 
with you, but for the injuries of one man, Col. Cresap, the last 
spring, who in cold blood, and unprovoked, murdered all th 
relations of Logan, not even sparing my women and childre 
There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any livi 


creature. This called on me for revenge. I have sought it : I 
have killed many. I have fully glutted my vengeance. For 
my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor 
a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear, 
lie will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to 
mourn for Logan ? Not one." 

After this war closed, Logan married a Shawnee woman, and 
moved to Detroit. He had become addicted to drinking ; and, 
in one of his frenzies, he struck his wife down in presence of 
her tribe ; and fearing he had killed her, and knowing the 
Indian law of retribution, he fled. As tradition has it, he met 
his wife's nephew with other Indians, and, s -^posing that this 
relative was about to avenge the murder, he prepared to defend 
himself, declaring he would kill all who opposed him. The 
nephew, in. self-defence, shot him dead as he was dismounting 
from his horse. 

In the vicinity of Lewistown there are several caves of great 
interest. Alexander's, in Kishicoquillas Valley, abounds in 
stalactites and stalagmites, and is a natural ice-house, preserv- 
ing through the summer all the ice formed in the winter. 
IlaiiewaU's, near McVeytown, is very vast in extent, and con- 
tains calcareous concretions : crude saltpetre has been found in 
it. Bevin's is on the summit of a limestone ridge. An Indian 
mound which was near the town, containing bones and arrow- 
heads, was destroyed by the construction of the canal. A 
mineral spring is in the vicinity, which is said to be very effica- 
cious in bilious complaints. 

Lewutown is beautifully situated on the left bank of tb 
Juniata. It is well built : its private residences are very han 
some, many of them tastefully decorated. It was laid out 

1790, and incorporated in 1795. It was the scene of a riot 

1791, growing out of a difference of opinion upon the action 
a brigade-inspector, who refused to issue commissions to 
militia colonels. There was also much excitement in a dis' 
between MifiQin and Huntingdon Counties, as to the we? 
line of division between them. These disturbances were 
settled without bloodshed. 

It contains two furnaces, two tanneries, boiler-work r 


flour-mills, two carriage-factories. It has also six churches, an 
academy, several fine hotels, three banks, and extensive county 
buildings. Iron ore is much mined, and sand is quarried for 
the manufacture of glass. Population 2,737. 

Between this place and Mifflin, the railroad passes through 
the Lewistown Narrows, formed by the Black Log Mountains 
on the south, and the Shade Mountain on the north. These are 
most awe-inspiring to the most indifferent traveller. The 
mountains rise abruptly, in many places to the distance of a 
thousand feet, having their sides covered with a thick growth 
of forest-trees, which give a deep gloom to the gorge. Occa- 
sionally the chain is broken, or ravines are hollowed into its 
sides, and the rocks stand boldly out ; but generally Nature has 
kept her walls intact, with foliage over all. These are reflected 
in the waters below, like giant sentinels ever keeping watch. 

Newton Hamilton, 188 miles, is the site of the Juniata 
Valley Camp-Meeting Association grounds, belonging to the 
Methodists. They are beautifully situated, and vast numbers 
of people gather at the annual meetings. 

Mount Union, 191 miles, is the first station in Huntingdon 
County, and is at the entrance of Jack's Narrows, which are 
made by the river forcing its way through Jack's Mountain. 
This defile is wild and rugged, its sides being almost destitute 
of vegetation, leaving exposed gray and sombre rocks. These 
narrows were named "Jack Anderson's Narrows," from the 
fact that an Indian trader named John Anderson, and his two 
servants, were murdered, here by the savages. Mount Union is 
much resorted to during the summer months. Population 535. 

Huntingdon, 202J miles, is the seat of justice of Hunting- 
don County. This county was formed from a portion of Bed- 
ford County, Sept. 20, 1787. It lies within the great central 
mountain chains of Pennsylvania. Broad Top Mountain is 
among the ranges, and is noted for its semi-bituminous coal. In 
mineral wealth the county ranks very high. It is rich and 
abundant in iron ore, and the supply of coal seems inexhaustf 
ble: it has also a large territory covered with sand, suitab* 
for the manufacture of glass. 

This county has been the scene of many depredations by 


Indians; and some of their first cabins, which the Indians 
claimed were built upon land belonging to them, were burnt 
by the proprietary government to satisfy the aborigines. The 
place is still called Burnt Cabins. 

The exact time the white settlers came to the spot where the 
town stands is uncertain; but it was surveyed in 1756, and 
called "George Croghan's Improvement." It was known by 
the Indians at a very early period, and for years afterwards, as 
u Standing Stone," from a stone column which stood upon the 
flat below the present town where Stone Creek enters the 
Juniata River. It was covered with hieroglyphics, which, if 
they could have been deciphered, would have given more of 
aboriginal history than has yet been discovered. It is thought 
the Indians took this stone with them when they went West. 
Another stone was erected upon the spot, probably by white 
settlers, as many names of white men were cut upon it, and 
dates from 1768 to 1770. This stone was afterwards set up in 
the town, where it stood until it was broken by a drunken 
vandal, when a part of it was put in the foundation-wall of a 
house, and the remnant is now in the possession of the Histori- 
cal Society of Pennsylvania. 

The town is built upon the left bank of the Juniata, and 
occupies a lofty position. The scenery about it is of the most 
beautiful character ; and as far as the eye can reach are hills 
and valleys, affording a perspective rarely seen. It was laid 
out in 1777 by Rev. Dr. William Smith, provost of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He named it in honor of Selina, 
Countess of Huntingdon, who had given much to the Univer- 
sity. In 1796 it was incorporated as a borough. Merchan- 
dising is extensively carried on. It has two grist-mills, two 
carriage-manufactories, car-manufactories, boot and shoe and 
broom factories. There arc nine churches, an academy, three 
select schools, a large public hall, two banks, several fine hotels, 
and county buildings. Population 3,034. 

Tyrone, 223 miles, is the first station in Blair County. It * 
an outgrowth of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and was create 
town in 1849. It has advanced rapidly, being advantage* 
located at the mouth of Little Bald Eagle Creek, thus beco 


the point from which a large portion of the trade of Clearfield 
and Centre Counties is shipped ; and, since the construction of 
the Bald Eagle Valley and the Tyrone and Clearfield Railroads, 
it has become one of the most important stations between Pitts- 
burg and Philadelphia. It was named for the Tyrone Iron 
Works, about one mile east of it. 

The scenery about Tyrone is fine ; and Sinking Valley, about 
three miles east of it, is noted for its beauty of scenery, historic 
interest, and natural curiosities. It has lead-mines, which were 
discovered as early as the Indians and whites together occupied 
the land; but the mining of them has never amounted to 

The town has eight churches, two banks, two public halls. 
Its business is extensive ; and it contains two forges, a steam- 
tannery, and three planing-mills. Population 1,840. 

Altoona, 237 miles, is in Blair County ; and to the concen- 
tration of the business and workshops of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company here, is to be ascribed its remarkable growth, 
in fact, its existence. It is eleven hundred and sixty-eight feet 
above tide-water, and is at the base of the main Alleghanies. 
It was in 1849 that the railroad company selected it as the most 
favorable location for their shops, and it was then little more 
than a wilderness ; but, as soon as it was publicly announced 
that it was to be used for this purpose, owners of the adjacent 
farms began to lay out and sell house-lots ; and the differences 
which arose between the proprietors of the to-be city are the 
cause of the irregularity of its streets at present. At its foun- 
dation, the middle portion was named Altoona; the eastern, 
Greensburg ; and the western, Loudensville. These names were 
all continued until 1867, when a city charter was granted. 

It was incorporated as a borough on the 6th of February, 
1854 ; and about this time the Logan House, which is as fine 
a hotel as any in the United States, was opened by the company 
to accommodate the great travel over this line. Churches had 
been erected, and a bank established, a year before this. In 
1855 a newspaper was published ; and on the 15th of Decem- 
ber, 1859, gas and water were introduced. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company has well cared for this 


city of its creation. It has left nothing undone by which the 
workmen can be made happy and contented. There is a school 
for children, open at all times, maintained by it. It was the 
means of the introduction of water, and purchased the first 
steam fire-engine. 

The scenery around Altoona is rugged, and at some points 
approaches grandeur. The views from Prospect Hill on the 
south, and Gospel Hill on the north, are varied pictures of 
mountain and valley, city and country; and from Wapso- 
nonoc, six miles distant, is obtained a view of the whole 
Juniata Valley. 

During the late Avar, this place was selected, in the heat of 
summer, for a meeting of all the governors of the Union States, 
on account of its coolness, salubrity, and picturesque views. No 
location could have been more eligible for such a conference. 

Kittanning Point, 242 miles, is the commencement of the 
Horse Shoe Curve ; and as no language could better describe 
this triumph of engineering skill, by which the road is carried 
over the seemingly impassable chasms into which the valley 
separates here, we quote from Mr. Sipes, to whom we are 
already so largely indebted for descriptions of points along 
the road. " By a grand horseshoe-shaped curve, the sides of 
which are parallel with each other (giving trains travelling 
the same way the appearance of moving in entirely different 
directions), the road crosses both ravines on a high embank- 
ment, cuts away the point of the mountain dividing them, 
sweeps around the stupendous western wall, and leads away to 
a more tractable pass. The little dancing rivulet seen in the 
valley as the train rolls across it is the stream from which 
Altoona derives its supply of water. Reaching the new pass, 
the road continues its steady course through the very heart of 
the great dividing range of a continent." Population of Kittan 
ning Point is about 150. 

Having journeyed, in this chapter, along this king of ra 
roads, from Harrisburg, the capital of Pennsylvania, throuj 
fertile fields and valleys, waving with yellow harvests ai 
luscious fruits, and studded with fine villages, to the top of 
Alleghanies, we will stop here to breathe its oxygenate 



and view its picturesque scenery. Had Noah's ark " rested upo 
this Ararat," how long it would have remained undiscovere 
none can divine ; and when his posterity would have found the: 
way down to "the Plain of Shinar," or the Valley of tl« 



Juniata, or the Susquehanna, who can tell ? Certain it 
standing here feels lofty ; and why should he not, wh~ 
inspiration of this air seems to " add " not " one cu 
but several, " to his stature " ? Well may men grow 


of giants here, as the Vermont boys were called when they 
came down from her mountains to fight the British in the days 
of our Revolutionary war. What air do these mountaineers 
breathe ! What sons of Anak we expect to find upon these 
Alleghany Mountains. 




Tunnel — Gallitzin — Cresson — Sonman — Portage — Johnstown — Cone- 
maugh Furnace — Nineveh — Blairsville Intersection — Hillside — Latrobe — 
Green8burg — Penn — Manor — Irwin — Braddock's — Wilkinsburg — 
Liberty — Pittsburg. 

HAYING taken a rest, and breathed the pure air, and 
viewed the magnificent scenery (as stated at the close of 
the last chapter), at this vast elevation, we are now prepared to 
follow the iron horse as he plunges into the dark recesses of 
the mountain, through the masterpiece of human ingenuity ; for 
unlike the Massachusetts tunnel of the Hoosac, which has 
proved a great " bore " in more senses than one, this has been a 
source of vast utility and emolument, not to Pennsylvania alone, 
but to the Western States. With every sense alert, we now 
enter the 

Tunnel, 248 miles. It is 3,612 feet long, and 210 feet high, 
and is securely arched. At its western end we reach the high- 
est point on the road, 2,261 feet above tide-water mark. 

Gallitzin, 248i miles, is the first station in Cambria County, 
which was formed from portions of Somerset and Huntingdon 
Counties by act of March 26, 1804. It has a rugged, uneven 
surface ; and its soil, being of a cold character, is well adapted 
to grazing, and the raising of oats, rye, and potatoes. The Sus- 
quehanna rises in this county, and with Clearfield and Chest 
Creeks, which are tributary to it, affords advantages for lumber- 
rafting. Coal and iron ore are found in great abundance here, 
and are largely mined. Near the northern outskirt of this 
county there is an ancient fortification, supposed to be the work 
of the mound-builders of the Mississippi Valley. 




The first settlements made in this county were about 1789, 
where the town of Loretto now stands, principally by Irish. 
Afterwards a colony of Welsh settled near Ebensburg, first 
laying out a town which they called Beulah, intending to make 


it the county-seat ; but finally it was transferred to Ebensburg, 
and Beulah was abandoned. 

Gallitzin takes its name from Prince Gallitzin, who came to 
this country from Germany, settling at Loretto, in 1789. He 



held a commission in the Russian army from his birth, and was 
designed by his father for the soldier's profession. He had been 
sent to America to travel, as a finish to his studies, because the 
French Revolution rendered it unsafe to travel anywhere upon 

the continent; and, soon after his arrival in this r 
became deeply interested in religion, entered upon 
studies under Bishop Carroll, and joined the Catholi 
He was indefatigable in his labors for his colon; 


schools and churches; and, after a pastoral career of forty-two 
years, he died May 6, 1840, leaving a band of devoted Catholics. 

Coal is mined extensively near this station, its production 
being about two million tons annually. It has two churches 
and a hotel. Population 1,000. 

Cresson, 252 miles, is noted as a summer-resort, and, from 
its accommodations and attractions, deserves to rank among the 
first in the United States. Situated upon the side of the moun- 
tain, at a distance of two thousand feet above the ocean level, 
there is a continual breeze, even in the midsummer days. Its 
edifices are large, well built, and comfortably arranged, with 
extensive and ornamental grounds. The principal one among 
these is the Mountain House, a very correct view of which is 
given in the plate. There are medicinal Bprings in its vicinity ; 
and the drives about it are through unbroken forests of maple, 
hemlock, and beech. The country is indebted to Dr. R. S. 
M. Jackson, a well-known scholar and scientific man, for its 
knowledge of this health-giving spot. He spent years of labor 
and energy in planting here " a grand sanitarium, where the 
mentally and physically diseased dwellers in those moral excres- 
cences on the body politic — great cities — could come and be 
cured by the action of God's pure air and water." Before his 
death, which occurred near the end of the rebellion, he was 
rewarded for all his toil by seeing the flourishing condition of 
the place. 

Sonman, 255 miles, is famed for extensive deposits of coal 
which exist here, of which seventy-five thousand tons are shipped 

Postage, 250 miles, does a large business in lumbering ; and 
great quantities of coal are mined. It was in the vicinity of 
this place the old Portage road was in operation, by which mer- 
chandise was transported in the boats of the Pennsylvania 
Canal over the mountains, by a system of levels and incline*' 
planes ; and the plate gives one of the many views of this 
road, as seen from the cars in the descent from the summit 
the mountain. 

Johnstown, 276 miles, is beautifully situated, being wh 
surrounded by mountains and hills, through which flow vr 


streams. This place was settled as early as 1791, by J 
Johns, from whom it received its name. It occupies the £ 
the old Indian town Kickenapawling, and was the head ol 
gation on the Conemaugh. It has had a rapid growth, frc 


■Aa. '*. 

»**Ti* . ■ :■--■.■ 


fact that the country around abounds in coal, iron, fr 
cement. The largest iron works in America, ere' 
Cambria Iron Company, are located here. Vast 
steel and iron rails are manufactured by this c 


four thousand men are employed in these iron-works, and in 
mining coal and iron near this place. 

The town is lighted with gas, has a public library, good 
schools, an opera-house, four banks, several handsome churches, 
a large public hall, and good hotels. Population 6,028. 

Conemaugh Fubnace, 288 miles, is the first station in 
Westmoreland County. 

Nineveh, 285 miles, is noted for having thirty acres of bog- 
iron deposit near it, which extends to a depth of thirty feet. 

Blaibsville Intersection, 800 miles, is the point where 
the railroad emerges from the mountain ranges of Pennsylvania, 
and where it is carried across the Susquehanna River upon a 
long bridge. It has followed the valley of this river for one 
hundred and ninety miles. Here is the junction of the Western 
Pennsylvania Railroad, which runs to Alleghany City, being 
merely an addition of the Pennsylvania road. A branch road 
runs from Blairsville to Indiana, the county-seat of Indiana. 

Hillside, 804 miles, is in a rich agricultural country, which 
also abounds in coal. In Chestnut Ridge, near by, is the 
Great Bear Cave, which is thus described, in Mr. Sipes's rail- 
road book, 1 by one who explored this great natural curiosity, 
and wandered through its winding chambers: "Leaving the 
cars at Hillside, we set out on foot for the cave. After a 
brisk walk of about a quarter of an hour, along a country road, 
which penetrated the foot-hills of the ridge, we struck out 
into a cow-path. This led us rather tortuously up the side of 
the mountain, over primitive bowlders heaped together in the 
strangest confusion, across little mountain trout-streams rip- 
pling over moss-covered rocks, and trickling in diminutive cat* 
racts into gorges where the sun never penetrates. We fin**' 
reached the summit of one of the lower hills. In front c 
towered a high peak of the ridge. Winding around the 
of this, for the distance of fifty rods, our guide sudd 
stopped in the midst of a huge pile of rocks, and informed 
party that we were at the mouth of the cave. Rocks + 
right of us, rocks to the left of us ; in front of us a sc" 
of rook one hundred feet high ; and below us, over the 

1 Pennsylvania Railroad, p. 153. 


the highest trees, we could see the valley of the Conemaugh 
away to the north and west. Just where we stood, it seemed 
as if, centuries ago, some mighty convulsion had torn away a 
portion of the mountain, and hurled the rocks in unutterable 
confusion at its base, where time had covered them with moss, 
and beautified them with shrubs and wild flowers." Entering 
the cave through a fissure in the loose rocks, the exploring- 
party proceeded on their way. Narrow passages in the rocks 
were threaded; low openings crept through; immense cham- 
bers, studded with stalactites, and inhabited by bats, explored ; 
and fathomless chasmp crossed, where the sound of running 
water was heard far down in the darkness. Some of the large 
rooms visited were named " The Snake Chamber," " The Altar 
Room," and " The Senate Chamber," because of peculiarities 
they presented ; and a clear, running stream, of only a few 
inches in depth, and a dozen feet wide, was forded, the water 
of which was found to be cold and palatable, " with a strong 
odor of cinnamon." These explorations were continued for 
five hours, the party having travelled in that time, according 
to the twine they had used to guide them in the labyrinth (and, 
from the many windings and passage-ways, it is not considered 
safe to penetrate any considerable distance without the use of 
this means' of finding the outlet again), nineteen hundred 
yards, — something over a mile. " Perhaps the most remark- 
able feature about the cave is the varied and diversified aspect 
of the different chambers and passage-ways, and the fact that 
the explorer is not confined to any particular route, but, after 
entering for a distance of one hundred yards, is permitted to 
strike off at almost any point of the compass. You will find 
the routes invariably different in the nature of the openings, 
and that all the passages communicate with each other. There 
is a story told of a young girl becoming lost in it many years 
ago. She had been stolen from her home by a band of gyp- 
sies who had encamped in the neighborhood of the cave, 
and had visited it several times in company with them. She 
effected her escape from the gypsies by taking refuge in the 
cave. Penetrating to a great distance, and being unable to 
return, she perished of starvation. Her bones were found 
years afterwards." 


Latbobe, 318 miles, lies in the midst of a fertile and well- 
cultivated valley. Oliver W. Barnes, a civil engineer, laid out 
this town in 1851, since which time it has grown rapidly. 
Large deposits of coal have been recently discovered in the 
surrounding country. Several large companies have been 
organized for mining, and making coke. Near this place is 
St. Vincent's College for males, and St. Xavier's Academy for 

The town has three banks, two public halls, seven churches, 
several good hotels, a grist-mill, and a planing-mill. 

Gbeensbtjbg, 828 miles, is the seat of justice of Westmore- 
land county. This county was separated from Bedford by act 
of Feb. 26, 1773, and at that time it comprised the whole of 
Western Pennsylvania. There is no better land in the State 
than is found in many of the valleys of this county. Bitumi- 
nous coal of the very best quality underlies all the land in the 
county ; and the most extensive and valuable operations in the 
United States are carried on within its limits. These exten- 
sive works have rendered Westmoreland County one of the 
richest in Pennsylvania. Up to 1758, this whole region was a 
wilderness ; and the first opening through it was cut by Gen. 
Forbes's army in this year, when he made a successful expedi- 
tion against Fort Duquesne. Upon the opening of this road, 
under the protection of the military, many pioneers entered 
this wilderness, and enjoyed quiet and security for five years. 

It was in this region that the savage warfare to exterminate 
the whites, instigated by the celebrated Pontiac (a partial 
account of which has already been given in a preceding chap- 
ter) occurred in 1763 ; and to this we add the following : Forts 
Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, Venango, St. Joseph's, Michilimackinac, 
were taken, and all their inhabitants butchered. Forts Bedford, 
Ligonier, Detroit, and Pitt were saved. Fort Ligonier was 
attacked by the savages ; but, finding it too strong, they deter- 
mined to capture it by cutting off the supplies and re-enforce- 
ments from the east. Lieut. Blaine, the commander of this 
fort, bravely repulsed the savages, and held it until relief 
arrived. Col. Bouquet, with two regiments of regulars, had 
been sent to the rescue of Fort Pitt, and reached Ligonier about 


the end of July. The Indians, hearing of his arrival, and 
understanding that he was going to Fort Pitt, moved into the 
wilderness to waylay him. At a place called Bushy Run, they 
lay in ambush for his advancing army ; and here was fought 
one of the most bloody battles that ever took place in Western 
Pennsylvania. The savages in great numbers, well armed, and 
hid in the thick woods, for two days assaulted the weary soldiers 
of Bouquet. They appeared to be innumerable, and, when 
driven from one position, immediately appeared at another, and 
it seemed as though the English would be exterminated by 
them; but Bouquet knew the character of the savages well, and 
perfectly understood their mode of warfare. By simulating a 
retreat, he drew the savages into close quarters, and defeated, 
and drove them from the field. Sixty Indians, with several of 
their chiefs, were killed. Fifty of the English were killed, and 
sixty wounded. 

Most of the settlers in this county were Scotch-Irish. They 
early gave attention to the subjects of education and religion. 
Some of their ministers were learned and eloquent ; and they 
manfully endured all the hardships and privations of the new 
settlements, and, like Paul, they labored with their hands, as 
well as their heads, to sustain themselves. One of them gives 
the following description : " When I came to this country (in 
1788), the cabin in which I was to live was raised ; but there 
was no roof to it, nor any chimney or floor. We had neither 
bedstead nor table, nor stool, nor chair, nor bucket. We 
placed two boxes, one on' the other, which served us for a 
table, and two kegs served us for seats ; and, having committed 
ourselves to God in family worship, we spread a bed on the 
floor, and slept soundly till morning. Sometimes, indeed, we 
had no bread for weeks together ; but we had plenty of pump- 
kins and potatoes, and all the necessaries of life : as for luxu- 
ries, we were not much concerned about them." 

Greensburg was named for Gen. Greene of the Revolutionary 
army. It is built upon elevated ground, the Court House 
and other prominent buildings occupying the summit of the 
hill. It was incorporated in 1779. Its growth was slow for 
many years ; but, since the completion of the railroad, it has 


rapidly improved. Its inhabitants, for intelligence and refine- 
ment, will compare favorably with those of any part of the 
Commonwealth. It contains two banks, seven churches, an 
opera-house, two public halls, several good hotels, excellent 
schools, and a number of manufactories. Coal and coke works 
exist in the immediate neighborhood. Population 1,642. 

Penn, 328 miles, does a large business in mining and shipping 
coal. ,This is the first place where coal-works for manufacturing 
illuminating gas went into operation ; and the importance to 
which they have arrived in less than twenty years is marvel- 
lous. All the land about this station is underlaid with the 
finest quality of bituminous coal. It is mined very extensively ; 
and the shipment by two companies alone amounts to more 
than three thousand tons annually, employing six hundred 
men. Penn contains two churches, a hall for the use of secret 
societies, hotels, and several stores and shops. Population 820. 

Manor, 333 miles, is so called from its location upon one of 
the tracts of land retained by the Penn family as private 
property as long as the royal charter given to William Penn 
and his heirs held good. Previous to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, there had been forty-four of these manors surveyed, 
which were held by them exclusively ; and, as such, they were 
exempted from the regulations governing the rest of the colony. 

The country about Manor is fertile and highly cultivated; and 
large loads of grain and cattle are sent eastward. It is not an 
incorporated village, and its population is about 300. 

Irwin, 332 miles, is important from its immense operations 
in coal. The shipment of three companies — the Penn Gas, 
the Westmoreland, and the Shafton, whose works are within 
ten miles of each other — amounts to more than a million tons 
annually ; and they employ not less than a thousand men. A 
great number of villages have sprung up around it to accom- 
modate the mining population. The land over these coal-beds 
is rich, and well improved. Irwin has four churches, a large 
public schoolhouse, a private banking-house, two public halls, 
and several hotels. Its population is 833. 

Braddock's, 344 miles, takes its name from the fact that it 
was on this spot that Gen. Braddock was defeated by the ( 
Friends and Indians on the 9th of July, 1775. 


Wilkensburg, 347 miles, is just outside the corporate limits 
of Pittsburg. It lies in a fine agricultural region, and market- 
gardening is extensively pursued. There are coal-mines in its 
vicinity, which employ nearly three hundred men ; and the 
annual shipment is about four thousand tons. The adjacent 
country is growing rapidly, many of the citizens of Pittsburg 
erecting handsome houses as summer residences. It is not yet 
incorporated, and has a population of about 1,100. 

Libebty, 349 miles, is the location of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company's stock-yards and car-shops. It is being rapidly 
built up with handsome residences, and is, in fact, but a suburb 
of Pittsburg, which has, with such remarkable voracity swal- 
lowed up not only this station, but many surrounding places. 

Pittsbubg, 354 miles, is the seat of justice of Alleghany 
County, and the western terminus of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. Alleghany County was organized, part out of Westmore- 
land in 1788, and the remainder from Washington in 1789. 
The country is hilly, some of its hills rising to a considerable 
height. The soil is fertile, and much good land lies between 
the hills. It is a very healthy county. Many portions of it are 
exceedingly beautiful. An old historian says, "The richest 
gifts of Nature seem to have been bestowed by Providence 
upon this region ; and the art of man has been most diligent in 
advancing the works of Nature, and developing her latent 
sources of wealth." Although the commercial and agricultural 
advantages of this county are very great, yet its mineral 
wealth is much greater. 

The first effort to plant an English settlement in this neigh- 
borhood was made in 1748, when, at that time, Thomas Lee, 
one of his Majesty's Council in Virginia, organized an associa- 
tion with the design of locating upon the wild lands west of the 
Alleghany Mountains. Thomas Lee, Lawrence and Augustine 
Washington (brothers of George), a Mr. Hanburg of London, 
formed this association, which was chartered by the name of 
"The Ohio Company." The king granted to this company 
five hundred thousand acres of land, provided that two hundred 
thousand acres should be immediately selected, and held ten 
years free from quit-rent or tax to the king ; and with a fur- 


aer provision, that one hundred families should be settled upon 
hem within seven years; the company bearing the expense, 
ouilding a fort, and maintaining a garrison sufficient to defend 
the settlement. Under this charter the company commenced 
operations. In 1750 they sent out Christopher Gist to explore 
and report upon the country. He spent two years in visiting 
the western part of Pennsylvania, and other regions still farther 
west, now the States of Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky, North 
Carolina, which were then all a wilderness. In July, 1752, 
Mr. Gist, with three commissioners from the Province of Vir- 
ginia, made a treaty with the Indians at Logstown, near where 
Pittsburg now stands, by which treaty the Indians agreed not 
to disturb the settlements of the company south-east of the 
Ohio. But they declined to acknowledge that the English had 
any title to the lands. At this council, two of the old sachems 
asked Mr. Gist, " Where the Indians' land lay ? for the French 
claimed all the land on one side of the Ohio River, and the 
English on the other." The question was a puzzling one. 

The names of the three rivers at Pittsburg are, no doubt, 
Indian ; but their interpretation is variously given. The Ohio 
which the Senecas pronounced O-hee-o, means " fair water/ 
The French translated this La Belle Riviere, or "the beai 
tiful river." The Delawares gave the same meaning to tl 
Alleghany, and all the early explorers considered these o 
and the same river. The Indians regarded the Monongab 
to mean, according to some, " falling in banks," according 
others, " a river without islands." 

The region around Pittsburg was first explored by the Fre 
who built Fort Duquesne where Pittsburg now stands. 
many years, it was the source of much misery to the El 
settlers in Pennsylvania, because the French furnish 
Indians with arm3 and ammunition, and encouraged 
destroy the homes of the English, and drive them off. 

During the Revolutionary War, the post at Pittr 
commanded by Capt. Neville. He was succeedp 
Hand, Col. Broadhead, and Gen. Irvine. The 6 
then leagued with the British ; and the duty of the* 
ers was to guard the frontier against them. Thes' 




watchful, and discharged the duties intrusted to them satisfac- 

At this time the Penn family adhered to the crown, and took 
part against the colonists ; but immediately after the treaty at 
Paris, by which the independence of the colonies was declared, 
they turned their attention to getting what they could from the 
lands which they held in Pennsylvania. Among these were 
5,760 acres, including the site of Pittsburg, the point between 
the rivers, and extending south of the Monongahela. In 1784 
the agent of the Penn family laid out the manor of Pittsburg 
in town-lots. 

Arthur Lee visited Pittsburg in 1784, and wrote the follow- 
ing notice in his journal : " Pittsburg is inhabited almost entirely 
by Scots and Irish, who live in paltry log-houses, and are as 
dirty as in the north of Ireland, or even in Scotland. There is a 
great deal of small trade carried on ; the goods being brought, at 
the vast expense of forty-five shillings per hundred weight, from 
Philadelphia and Baltimore. The place will never, I believe, 
be very considerable." Mr. Sipcs adds, " But the small trade 
grew, the settlers developed with it, and Mr. Lee's prediction 
was soon proved unsound. In 1786 John Scull and Joseph Hall 
commenced the publication of the Pittsburg 4 Gazette,' a news- 
paper which still lives, and the same year a post was established 
between this place and Bedford, extending from there to New 
York, and Richmond, Va. The amount received for postage, 
at Pittsburg, for the year ending Oct. 1, 1790, was $110.99. 
The number of houses in the city in 1786 was estimated by 
Judge Brackenridge at one hundred. A public academy was 
established here by act of the legislature, in 1787 ; and, the 
same year, the First Presbyterian Church was incorporated. 

" Among the industries developed by the necessities of trade 
was the distilling of whiskey. This article had become a 
staple of commerce with the Indians, as well as with the trap- 
pers and hunters on the frontier. To show how indispensable 
it was in a business-way, it is only necessary to quote from a 
letter of an agent to his principals in Pittsburg, in which he 
says, ' I am greatly in want of three barrels of whiskey and a 
barrel of rum. For want of them, my neighbor gets all the 


skin and furs.' The difficulty of transportation was very 
great ; and the products of the soil — then almost all the people 
had to dispose of — could not be carried any distance. At the 
rate of sixpence per pound, the price charged, it would have 
cost about twenty dollars to transport a barrel of flour to the 
Eastern markets. Naturally the surplus grain raised was util- 
ized in the most available manner ; and this proved to be dis- 
tillation. The production of whiskey, therefore, became an 
extensive business in all this portion of Pennsylvania." 1 

Upon the close of the Revolutionary War, to meet the ex- 
penses of the Government, and to pay its debts, Congress 
resorted to taxation, and at its session in 1791 imposed a 
tax upon spirits distilled from grain, which resulted in a 
whiskey rebellion, an account of which has been given in 
chapter fifteen. Although this uprising was a source of 
trouble to the General Government, it was advantageous to 
Pittsburg, as many of the young men sent with the troops to 
subdue it became so favorably impressed with the fertility of 
its soil and mineral wealth, that they remained as permanent 

The Penn family sold the privilege of mining coal in a hill 
on the south bank of the Monongahela, in 1784, which would 
show that bituminous coal had been discovered there at that 
early period. 

Pittsburg, from its start, seems to have very extensively 
engaged in manufactures. In 1795 an establishment for the 
manufacture of window-glass was organized ; and even in 1794 
a steam-engine was operated, but for what purpose is not 
known. In 1796 an important trade in salt was carried on 
between the Onondaga works in New York and this place; 
but, when the Kanawha salt came into favor in 1810, this 
region was made the source of supply for the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi valleys. There was also a manufactory of green glass- 
ware in operation in 1797; but this seems to have been at- 
tended with great expense, for a memorandum left by one of 
its owners states, " To-day we made the first bottle at the cost 
of thirty thousand dollars." In 1804 a foundery for casting 

1 Sipea's Pennsylvania Railroad, p. 170. 


hollow-ware went into operation ; and the next year a steam- 
flouring mill was established. A rolling-mill, the earliest here, 
was built in 1812; and in 1814 a cannon foundery, of which 
the celebrated Fort Pitts Works are an outgrowth. 

The first steamboat plying the Western waters was built here 
in 1811 ; and. during the succeeding six years, seven more 
boats were built. The number owned, or partly owned, here 
in 1840, was eighty-nine. 

In spite of her smoke, the natural attractions of her scenery, 
which are much enhanced by improvements, both of a public 
and private character, render Pittsburg a delightful place of 
residence ; and, in many of the comforts of every-day life, she 
lias no rival in the United States. Gas is cheaper, more abun- 
dant, and of a better quality ; and her supply of water from 
the Alleghany River is unlimited. 

The institutions supported or aided by the State located here 
will be elsewhere described. Among others of a like character 
are the following: Home for the Friendless, Widows' Home 
Association, Home for Destitute Men, Home for Destitute 
Women, Ladies* Relief Society, the Pittsburg Free Dispensary, 
Pittsburg Infirmary, Houses of Industry for Poor and Friend- 
less Girls, Homoeopathic Hospital, Mercy Hospital, Marine Hos- 
pital, and City Hospital. Among reformatory, are the Alle- 
ghany County Workhouse, and Inebriate Asylum. 

The public edifices of Pittsburg are many and imposing, 
most conspicuous of which are the Court House, City E 
Custom House, and United States Arsenal. The view of 
city from the Court House is very extensive. It has ' 
large public halls, an opera-house, and two good theati 
annual shipment of coal by river is about 2,100,000 U 
rail, 1,500,000 tons ; consumed at home, 1,500,000 tons 
in all 5,100,000 tons from mines worked in Alle 
adjoining counties. 

There are several cemeteries in the immediate 
Pittsburg. The one two miles from the centre of t 
the banks of the Alleghany, is exceedingly beau' 
natural situation ; and this has been greatly iir 
cially. This cemetery contains one hundred and 



In addition to the Western University, already named with 
other literary institutions, there are here the Methodist Female 
College, Pennsylvania Female College, Western Theological 
Seminary, and the United Presbyterian College, all of which 
are in a flourishing condition. The public schools are excellent. 

There are sixteen banks, with a total capital of 912,200,000. 
There are forty safe-deposit companies, the aggregate capital 
of which is $5,000,000. The population of Pittsburg is 

crnsa and towns on the branches of the Pennsylvania 


East Brandywine and Waynesburg Branch — Glen Moore — Barneston — 
Waynesburg — Wrightsville — York — Mifflin and Centre County Branch — 
Logan — Mann's — Reedsville — Milroy — Bedford and Bridgeport Railroad 
— Mount Dallas — Bedford — Wolf sburg — Mann's Choice — Bald Eagle 
Valley Branch — Vail — Bald Eagle — Martha — Unionville — Milesburg — 
Belief onte—Curtin — Howard— Eagleville — Beach Creek— Mill Hall — 
Tyrone and Clearfield Branch — Sandy Ridge — Osceola — Phillipsburg — 
Wallacetown — Clearfield — Hollidaysburg and Morrison's Cove Branch — 
Y Switches — Hollidaysburg — McKee's — Rodman — Roaring Spring — 
Martinsburg — Henrietta — Williamsburg Branch — Frankstown — Flowing 
Spring — Williamsburg — Ebensburg Branch — Munster — Ebensburg — In- 
diana Branch — Black Lick — Homer — Indiana. 


THIS road intersects the main line at Downington ; and the 
distances of the places named are from the point of inter- 

Glen Moore, 10 miles, is a charming little village in the 
midst of a fertile and well-cultivated region. Iron ore abounds, 
and a forge is in operation here. It has two churches, a public 
hall, and hotel. Population 150. 

Barneston, 12 miles, contains a furnace, foundery, and 
several grist and saw mills. The country is fertile, and garden 
products for market are abundant. Iron ore was mined here 
as early as 1730. 

Waynesburg, 18 miles, is the junction of this road with the 
Wilmington and Reading Railroad. It is in Chester County. 
All this region consists of fertile and agricultural lands. It has 
two churches, a national bank, and two hotels. Iron ore is 



abundant here, employing seventy-five men in mining it. Popu- 
lation 550. 


This road intersects the main line at Columbia. 

Wbigh^sville, 1 mile, is in York County, beautifully situ- 
ated on the Susquehanna. Its scenery is truly magnificent. It 
was originally called " Wright's Ferry." It was at one time 
proposed to locate the capital at this place. Mr. Parton, in his 
" Life of Jefferson," gives an account of the doings of Con- 
gress in 1789 and 1790 on this subject in the following lan- 
guage : — 

" A ring loomed up dimly upon the imaginations of members, 
supposed to have been formed 4 out of doors,' in order to fix the 
capital at Wright's Ferry, on the Susquehanna. The members 
from New England and New York agreed in preferring it, as 
the point nearest the centre of population, wealth, and con- 
venience ; and for many days it seemed to have a better chance 
than any of the other places proposed, — Harrisburg, Baltimore, 
New York, Germantown, Philadelphia. But Wright's Ferry 
lost its chance through the opposition of the Southern members, 
and the ring-rumor was the ass' jaw-bone which they used to 
kill the project. The members from New England and New 
York denied the offensive charge, and contended that Wright 
had fixed his ferry at the point which would be 4 the centre of 
population for ages to come.' With regard to the country west 
of the Ohio, — * an unmeasurable wilderness,' — Fisher Ames 
was of the opinion (and it was everybody's opinion) that it was 
perfectly romantic to allow it any weight in the decision at all. 
* When it will be settled, or how it will be possible to govern it,' 
said he, 'is past calculation.' Southern gentlemen, on the 
other hand, denied the centrality of Wright, and maintained 
that the shores of the noble Potomac presented the genuine 
centre to the nation's choice. And so the debate went on, day 
after day. The Susquehanna men triumphed in the House; but 
the Senate sent back the bill with * Susquehanna ' stricken out, 
and * Germantown ' inserted. The House would not accept the 
amendment ; and the session ended before the place had been 


agreed upon. The subject being resumed in the spring of 1790, 
it was again productive of heat and recrimination : again the 
South was outvoted, and the Potomac rejected by a small 
majority. Baffled in the House, Southern men renewed their 
efforts over Mr. Jefferson's wine and hickory-nuts in Maiden 
Lane. It was agreed, at length, that, for the next ten years, the 
seat of government should be Philadelphia, and finally near 

It is said that it was through the indolence and indifference 
of her representatives, that Pennsylvania failed in securing this 
end, as, at the time, it was believed to be the best location, 
geographically considered. Pres. Washington was in favor of 
the measure ; but his influence was not sufficient to carry it. 
Wright's Ferry did not reap much benefit from this notoriety, 
still continuing an unimportant little village until 1834, when it 
was incorporated as a borough, with its present name. 

The ferry was established by a family of Wrights, for whom 
the town is named, who came to the region in 1728, and were 
very prominent in the early days of the settlement. 

Wrightsville contains three cigar-manufactories, a planing- 
mill, an iron-furnace, and three saw-mills, employing about a 
hundred and fifty men in all. Lime-burning is carried on here, 
the production of which is some seven thousand tons annually. 
A very large trade is done in this town, as, from its situation, 
it affords exit to a productive and extended country. It has a 
national bank, two hotels, eight common schools, a public hall, 
and three churches. Population 1,544. 

Yobk, 14 miles, is the seat of justice of York County. This 
county was the first one formed west of the Susquehanna River, 
by act of the Provincial legislature of Aug. 9, 1749. The sur- 
face of the county is irregular, some portions hilly , but the 
only claim it has to mountains are a few broken chains, forming 
its boundaries, and penetrating its territory. Its lands in the 
valleys are fertile and well cultivated, and present beautiful 
pastoral scenes. This county is drained in every part by Cone- 
wago and Codorus creeks, with their numerous branches ; and, 
along the north-eastern border, the Susquehanna River flows 
for more than fifty miles. Iron ore is particularly abundant 


here, of which there are many varieties ; and it ships great 
quantities to distant furnaces. There is an excellent quality of 
slate quarried at the Peach Bottom region, near the Susque- 
hanna; and the building-material used in all the neighboring 
counties is also quarried here. Gold and copper have been dis- 
covered, but in such small quantities, that it is not deemed 
advisable to work them. 

This county was settled by the English, the Germans follow- 
ing them in great numbers, then the Scotch-Irish ; and their 
united enterprise and thrift made it among the first in the State 
in material wealth and mental growth. It is claimed that the 
u first company that marched from Pennsylvania to the field of 
war was a company of riflemen from the town of York." How- 
ever this may be, this county was well and numerously repre- 
sented in the army of the Revolution. 

York County is now regarded among the first in the State in 
wealth and population, her growth within the last thirty years 
having been very rapid. The Northern Central Railroad 
extends its entire length ; the tide-water canal runs fifty miles 
along its border ; and there are several local railroads, which 
reach to its prolific valleys, valuable mines of coal and iron, and 
the growing towns with which it is so thickly studded. All 
these facts join to give it this importance ; and the great degree 
of business energy everywhere visible presents a happy augury 
for its future prosperity and increase. 

The borough of York is situated on Codorus Creek, upon one 
of the Penn manors known as Springettsburg, in nearly the 
centre of the county. It was laid out upon a plan like Phila- 
delphia, in 1741, as ordered by the Penns, and was upon both 
sides of the creek. Those wishing to take up lots became the 
recipients of " tickets " from the proprietors ; and, as these 
tickets were transferable, the owner might sell, assign, or do 
any thing he pleased with them. The conditions upon which 
the lots were granted were strenuously enforced. One of the 
usual ones was, u that the applicant build upon the lot, at his 
own proper cost, one substantial dwelling-house, of the dimen- 
sions of sixteen feet square at least, with a good chimney of 
brick or stone, within the space of one year from the time of 


his entry for the same." The holders were to pay a perpetual 
rent of seven shillings sterling per lot to the proprietors. 

These restrictions were the source of much trouble, as, from 
the poverty of many of the early settlers, it was impossible to 
build upon the lots ; and during ten years but fifty lots were 
improved; while, in some cases, want of means prevented 
improvements commenced from being completed, and the lots 
were forfeited. An early historian thus speaks of this matter : 
44 The early settling of Yorktown was one continual scene of 
disturbance and contention: there were warring rights and 
clashing interests. It often happened that different men 
wanted the same lot ; and, when the lot was granted to one, 
the others were watchful to bring about a forfeiture. The loss 
of lots by not fulfilling conditions was for a long time a serious 
evil, concerning which clamors were loud." But these dis- 
putes were gradually settled by law, and after a time the town 
improved with great rapidity. It was incorporated as a 
borough in 1787. 

In 1803 a conspiracy to burn the town was plotted by the 
negro slaves held there at that time. It was discovered by a 
negro woman being seen to throw a pan of live coals in her 
master's barn at noonday. Upon being questioned, she con- 
fessed that it was their intention to fire the whole town " at 
twelve o'clock ; " but from her mistake at thinking it at noon- 
day, instead of midnight, the town was saved. 

A company for supplying the town with water was estab- 
lished in 1806. York has a number of manufacturing indus- 
tries, conspicuous among which are the Empire Car Works, 
the York Car Works, the Pennsylvania Agricultural Works, 
and the Variety Iron Works, which together employ five 
hundred and fifty men. A number of paper and flour mills 
are in the vicinity of the town. It is the centre of a large and 
increasing trade, and carries on all kinds of merchandising 
with the various portions of the county. It contains fourteen 
churches, thirty-one public and four private schools, five 
banks, a public hall, several good hotels, and the usual number 
of public edifices, which are built in a very substantial manner. 
Population 11,003. 



The point of junction with the main line is at Lewistown. 

Logan, 4 miles, is where the Logan Iron and Steel Works 
and the Standard Steel Works are located, which employ about 
four hundred men. Population about 1,000. 

Mann's, 6 miles, is at the celebrated axe factory of the same 
name, which employs a hundred and fifty men. 

Reedsvtlle, 7 miles, has a small woollen-mill, and carries 
on some trade with the surrounding country, which is well 
cultivated. It has two churches, two hotels, and a seminary. 
Population of the township is 1,250. 

Mtlroy, 13 miles, in Mifflin County, is an enterprising village, 
and the terminus of the road. It has a number of industries, 
among which are saw-mills and a woollen-factory. Near it 
fossil iron ore is mined, large quantities being shipped to differ- 
ent points. Lime-burning is carried on, and about forty tons 
daily are sent to Lewistown. It has three churches, two 
hotels, a graded school, and two public halls. Population 
about 600. 


This road intersects the Huntingdon and Broad Top Rail- 
road (which is the connecting link between it and the main 
line) at Huntingdon. 

Mount Dallas is the commencement of this road, and the 
station for Everett, a flourishing borough of Bedford County, 
containing a coach-factory, a steam-tannery, and an iron foun- 
dery. It has an extensive and productive country immediately 
surrounding it, and thus it is enabled to carry on a large mer- 
cantile business. There are fossil and hematite iron-ore mines 
in its vicinity, which employ about a hundred men ; and the 
annual shipment from these mines is thirty thousand tons. It 
contains four churches, three hotels, a bank, and a very good 
system of public schools. Population 557, 

Bedford, 8 milfis, is the seat of justice of Bedford County. 
This county was formed from a portion of Cumberland by the 
colonial legislature, March 9, 1771. The main Alleghany 
forms the western boundary ; and Ray's Hill, Will's Mountain, 


Sideling Hill, Tussey's and Dunning's Mountains, and Clear 
Ridge pass entirely through it, thus rendering its surface hilly 
and mountainous, interspersed with fertile valleys, which 
nature and art have done much to make peculiarly attractive. 
Its chief rivers are the Raystown branch of the Juniata, Will's 
Creek, and Dunning's Creek. The finest quality of iron ore is 
abundant all through the county ; and near the town of Bed- 
ford large quantities of hematite and fossil ores are mined, and 
shipped from thence. At Broad Top region, or the south-eastern 
corner of this county, semi-bituminous coal exists ; and since 
the introduction of railroads for transportation, within the last 
twenty years, it has been extensively worked. 

The first settlement was made early — probably before 1750 
— by an adventurous pioneer named Ray, and was at that time 
known by the name of Raystown. In 1755, a road was cut 
through this region ; and several military posts were established 
upon it, which served as a protection to the frontier. One of 
these was built upon or near the point where Fort Bedford was 
afterwards erected in 1757-58. It was at this fort that a 
detachment, under Gen. Forbes, concentrated before setting 
out on that memorable expedition, resulting in the entire 
subjugation of the French. Col. Washington joined Forbe? 
here ; and a garrison of two hundred men was left at the fr* 
which was then called Bedford, in honor of the Duke of Bedi 
but the region around it still retained, for several years s 
the name of Raystown. Upon the settlement of the tr 
naturally took the name of the fort ; while the name ' 
town is now held only by the river which flows by i1 
1758 to 1770 this fort was considered an important 
post, being the only one between the Ohio and th' 
regularly garrisoned by British troops. A log-h 
seen in the town, — to which two additions, one c 
other of stone, have been made ; the whole now b 
a hotel, — which was erected as quarters for Bri 
and, during the whole time they were in the fort, ' 
by them. It was for a long time called " The 7 
It is upon the highest point in the old portion 
and in front of it is a small square, called t> 


probably making part of the old fort, said to have been very- 
regular in form. 

Bedford was laid out in 1766, and incorporated as a borough 
March 13, 1795 ; and for thirty years -of the present century 
has been a place of importance from the fact that it is nearly 
in the centre of the principal route of communication between 
the Susquehanna and Ohio Rivers. 

It lies in a fertile valley, surrounded on all sides by moun- 
tains : the deep romantic gorges which the streams cut through 
these elevations present beautiful and varied scenes. The 
b.uildings are principally of brick, and many of them are very- 
tasteful in their architecture and surroundings. The town has 
five churches, a good public school-building, a bank, a public 
hall, the common county buildings, and good hotels. The local 
business is active, and a good share of trade is carried on with 
the neighboring country. Its present population is about two 
thousand. About one mile south of this place are the celebrated 
Bedford Springs, so noted for their efficacy in curing paralysis, 
rheumatism, and gout ; and large numbers are attracted hither 
to try their healing power, and enjoy the beauties which Nature 
has so bountifully bestowed upon this spot. The hotels at the 
Springs accommodate six hundred guests, while those of the 
town have capacity for two thousand. 

Wolfsbueg, 11 miles, is noted for its iron ore, of which 
twenty thousand tons are annually shipped. 

Mann's 'Choice, 16 miles, has sulphur springs, and is much 
resorted to. 


This road intersects the main line at Tyrone. 

Vail, 3 miles, is the point of intersection with Tyrone and 
Clearfield Railroad. 

Bald Eagle, 5 miles, mines and ships much iron ore. 

Martha, 17 miles, has iron ore and coal in its vicinity. It 
has also a saw and grist mill. 

Unionvtlle, 26 miles, has a fine seminary in flourishing 
condition, and carries on an extensive local trade. 

Milesburg, 31 miles, is a borough in Centre County, of some 



importance, having in operation a forge, wire-mill, iron-fur- 
naces, and rolling-mill, employing together nearly five hundred 
men. A railroad, called the Snow-Shoe Railroad, intersects near 
here, and runs to coal-mines of the same name, conveying 
annually about eighty thousand tens of coal. This road passes 
over a high elevation in the mountains ; and the scenery is 
remarkably grand. At the village of Snow-Shoe there is a fine 
hotel, much resorted to in summer. Milesburg has good hotels 
and four churches. Population 600. A branch road of two 
miles runs from this place to Bellefonte. 

Bellefonte, 33 miles, is the county-seat of Centre County. 
This, county was formed Feb. 13, 1800, and is so called from 
the fact that it is geographically the centre of the State. It is 
a rugged, mountainous region, with luxuriant limestone valleys. 
It is through the valleys the railroad passes. It has a number 
of fine springs gushing from the limestone strata at the foot of 
the Alleghanies ; and from one of these Bellefonte takes its 
name. Iron is extensively manufactured here, and iron ore is 
abundant. Bituminous coal is also found, and is largely mined. 
A large proportion of the population consists of German 
farmers ; and they have brought the valleys to a high degree of 

The to^vn contains a rolling-mill, a machine-shop, an axe- 
factory, and an iron-furnace, which together employ about 
three hundred and fifty men. It has a large mercantile busi- 
ness. The State Agricultural College is located near this place ; 
and it has also a fine academy, good graded schools, one 
national and three private banks, eight churches, two public 
halls, fine hotels, and the usual county buildings. Population 

Cuetin, 34 miles, is in the midst of a fertile and well-culti- 
vated country. It has two iron establishments, which employ 
four hundred men. It has also saw and grist mills. Five 
thousand tons of iron ore are annually mined. Population 
about 400. 

Howard, 40 miles, has an iron-furnace and rolling-mill, em- 
ploying about one hundred and twenty-five hands. Iron ore is 
abundant in its vicinity; and the surrounding country is rich in 
agricultural products. Population 298. 


Eaglevtlle, 44 miles, is the seat of a lumbering business at 
which some three hundred men are employed. % Farming is 
largely carried on in the surrounding country. It has two 
hotels, two churches, and good schools. Population 550. 

Beach Creek, 46 miles, is the first station in Clinton 
county. There are two -steam saw-mills here, employing 
seventy-five men. Population about 400. 

Mill Hall, 51 miles, has an axe-factory and a cement-mill, 
employing about one hundred men. Other industries are in 
operation here. Population about 450. 


The point of intersection of this road with the main line is 
at Tyrone. 

Sandy Ridge, 15 miles ; fire-brick manufacturing is largely 
carried on, employing some sixty men. Population about 300, 

Osceola, 20 miles, in Clearfield County, is an enterprising 
town, and the centre of an extensive lumber and coal business. 
It has a spoke-shop, a planing-mill, a shingle-mill, a very large 
and complete saw-mill, all employing about one hundred and 
twenty-five men. There are also other smaller industries. It 
has a large merchandising trade. This town is comparatively 
new, having been built up within the last twenty years. In its 
vicinity are nine collieries, which employ over a thousand men, 
and from which five million tons of bituminous coal are annu- 
ally shipped. These collieries are added to each year. Also, 
adjoining the town, are nine saw-mills, using two hundred and 
thirty thousand feet of lumber per day, and employing over 
four hundred men. Osceola contains a public hall, good schools, 
three churches, a bank, and two hotels. Population 813. 

Phillipsburg, 24 miles, is in Centre County, and was 
founded in 1796, by Henry Phillips of England, from whom it 
takes its name. It was colonized by emigrants from abroad. 
The first screw-factory in the United States was established 
here, and also a forge and nail-factory. These industries were 
not long continued, as they were too far from business-marts to 
be profitable. The principal business is lumbering, the thick 
pine-forests furnishing ample material. Coal-mining, since the 


completion of the railroad, has become an important branch of 
business, there being in operation three coal-mines, at which 
one hundred and fifty men are employed, and from which are 
shipped annually two hundred thousand tons. The town has a 
large steam tannery, a foundery and machine-shop, two planing- 
mills, a steam flour-mill, and other industries. It contains two 
banks, two public halls, good schools, five churches, a public 
library, and -several hotels. There are extensive deposits of 
fire-clay near it. Population 1,086. 

Wallaceton, 29 miles, has a steam saw-mill; and consid- 
erable lumbering is done in the vicinity. It contains a public 
hall, and about 160 inhabitants. 

Clearfield, 41 miles, is the seat of justice of Clearfield 
County. This county was created by act of 26th of March, 1804 ; 
but it was not fully organized until Jan. 29, 1822. It is on the 
north-western slope of the Alleghanies ; and, although no distinct 
ranges are in its limits, it has a mountainous surface. The soil 
is sterile, although some of the alluvial deposits are very pro- 
ductive. It is rich in minerals, nearly the whole surface beiu r 
underlaid with bituminous coal. Fire-clay and iron-ore 8 
found in many sections. Its principal manufacture is lumb 
ing, this county being the finest pine-tree region in Pen" 
vania. Coal is largely mined in the south-eastern j 
Fire-brick manufactories are also carried on, and a superi 
of sand for manufacturing glass is found in various r 
Clearfield is on the west branch of the Susquehp 
deserves to be classed among the pleasantest towns i 
vania. It was laid out in 1806, upon lands owned b; 
Witmer, who gave one lot for a jail, one for a ' 
three for an academy, besides contributing tb 
dollars towards the erection of the public bui 
upon the site of one of the last Indian towns in 
called Chinkalacamoose. It has a flourishing 
general appearance of the place is attract! 
Many of its buildings are really elegant. It 1 
five churches, a public hall, several good ho 7 
good public schools, and county buildings. 
tries are a planing-mill, two saw-mills, a fire 


cabinet-ware manufactory, a steam tannery, and foundery. 
Population 1,361. 


This road intersects the main line at Altoona ; and. the first 
place of any note from this point is — 

Y Switches, 7 miles, from which diverges a branch road to 
Duncansville and Newry, distant three miles. Duncansville 
has a nail-factory, rolling-mill, and tannery, which together 
employ about one hundred men; and lime-burning takes in 
some twenty more. It contains four churches, and two hotels, 
Population about 800. Newry is agriculturally important, 
and has a public hall, three churches, and a hotel. Population 
about 450. 

Hollidaysburg, 8 miles, is the seat of justice of Blair 
County. This is a mountainous county, the Alleghany forming 
its western, and Tussey's Mountain its eastern bolder ; while 
other ranges run through its entire length, the principal one 
being Dunning's. It has many productive and fertile valleys, 
among which Morrison's Cove is one of the finest in the State. 
It is thoroughly watered by many streams rising in the Alle- 
ghanies, and has springs of such extent as to be curiosities. 
Iron ore is abundant, and of fine quality ; and manufacturing 
of iron is largely carried on. Bituminous coal is mined in 
the western part of the county ; and near Hollidaysburg is a 
mountain said to be of solid limestone formation. 

Hollidaysburg is delightfully located on the Juniata River, 
near the base of the Alleghany Mountain. It has become the 
centre of an extensive iron manufacture, from the fact that it 
is surrounded by deposits of iron ore and bituminous coal. 
The views from this town are magnificent; and its elevated 
portions present mountains and valleys as far as the eye can 
reach, mellowed and tinted by the distance into peculiar beauty. 
It is of recent growth, and until 1834 was insignificant ; but 
at that time, upon the completion of the main line of public 
conveyance, it started upon a career of prosperity which it 
has ever since maintained. 

The Blair Iron and Coal Company, the Hollidaysburg Iron 


and Nail Company, the Juniata Iron Works and Nail Factory, 
are located here, with two founderies and machine-shops, em- 
ploying together about five hundred men. There are also man- 
ufactories of carriages, soap, agricultural implements, and other 
smaller industries, among which are tanneries. Much mer- 
chandising is carried on here. Iron ore is worked in the neigh- 
borhood for home purposes, employing one hundred and fifty 
men. The town has two public halls, two extensive hotels, 
seven churches, a female seminary, excellent common schools, 
and the usual county buildings. Population 2,952. 

McKee's, 15 miles, contains an iron-furnace, and works iron 
ore, shipping ten thousand tons annually. These works employ 
seventy-five men. Population about 250. 

Rodman, 17 miles, contains a forge and iron-furnaces, which 
employ about one hundred and fifty men. Iron-ore mines are 
largely worked here, employing two hundred men. 

Roaring Spring, 18 miles, is so called from a wonderful 
spring which sends out an immense volume of water. Among 
the industries here are a grist-mill and a paper-mill. The 
country about this station is fertile, and in a high state of 
cultivation. There are several churches and a good hotel. 
Population about 250. 

Mabtinsbubg, 22 miles, is an ancient and charmingly situ- 
ated borough in Morrison's Cove. It has many mechanical 
industries, among which are a planing-mill and iron foundery. 
It has also a large mercantile trade. Iron ore is mined here, 
employing about one hundred men ; and its annual shipment is 
some six thousand tons. It has a collegiate institute, a bank, a 
number of churches, three public halls, graded common schools, 
and an excellent hotel. Population 536. 

Henrietta, 28 miles, lies in a well-cultivated country. Iron 
ore is mined in the vicinity, employing about five hundred men. 
Population 350. 


The point of intersection with the main line, and also with 
Hollidaysburg and Morrison's Cove Railroad, is at Williams- 
burg Junction. The first place is — 


Fbankstown, 3 miles, thus named from an Indian .chief, 
called Old Frank, residing here when the first white settle- 
ments were made. It declined in importance after Holli- 
daysburg took the rank it now holds. There are some few 
manufacturing industries here. Population of township 1,588. 

Flowing Spring, 8 miles, takes its name from a curious 
spring, which ebbs and flows every twelve hours. 

Williamsburg, 14 miles, was laid out in 1794. There is 
a spring here of sufficient force to drive a number of mills, a 
forge and furnace, besides furnishing the town with water. It 
carries on a large business with the surrounding region, which 
is fertile and productive. Population 821. 


This road intersects the main line at Cresson. 

Munster, 4 miles, is a noted summer resort, and has two 

Ebensburg, 11 miles, is the seat of justice of Cambria 
County. It was settled in 1796, by a Welsh colony, and re- 
ceived its name from the son of the Rev. Reese Lloyd, one of 
the early ministers. It lies on the western slope of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, nearly two thousand feet above the tide-line 
of the ocean ; and, from this elevated position, it possesses a 
remarkably fine and health-giving atmosphere. It is much 
resorted to in summer, and can accommodate about four hun- 
dred persons. The Ebensburg Mining and Manufacturing 
Company is located here : there are also several tanneries and 
a foundery. It has six churches, five good hotels, two banks, a 
normal and public school, and county buildings. Population 


This meets the main line at Blairsville Intersection. 

Black Lick, 7 miles, has two steam saw-mills, two grist- 
mills, three fire-brick works, which together employ one hun- 
dred and seventy-five men. Iron ore, fire-clay, and bituminous 
coal are mined in the vicinity. Population about 500. 

Homer, 13 miles, is noted for its lumber-business. A saw- 


mill and grist-mill are located here. Its trade with the neigh- 
boring region is extensive. Iron ore, coal, and fire-clay are 
found in the vicinity. It has four churches, and about 700 

Indiana, 19 miles, is the seat of justice of Indiana County. 
It was laid out in 1805, on a tract of land granted by George 
Clymcr, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
Its situation is fine ; and its buildings are neat and tasteful, 
mostly of stone or brick. It has a foundery, planing-mill, and 
a manufactory of straw-boards. It contains two banks, ten 
churches, a public hall, a State normal school, good public 
schools, and the common county buildings. Coal-mining is 
earned on in the vicinity for home consumption. Population 





Vf* ,******* t IB*" 50 

^•^A W * 6 f°^^ deTe develop 
energy jjj 


and upon the construction of railroads, and the working of 
coal-mines, and burning of coke, she became the centre of a 
large trade, which has been maintained through many changes 
in the transporting business of Pennsylvania. 

The Isabella Coke Works, which have two hundred ovens, 
and employ as many men, are two miles east of the town, on 
the railroad. They extend along the Conemaugh, and at 
night are strikingly grand, with their brilliant fires flashing 
through the darkness. The other industries of the place are 
two tanneries, two grist-mills, a foundery, and planing-mill. 
Coal is mined in the vicinity for shipment. The town con- 
tains six churches, a public hall, a female seminary and acad- 
emy, two banks, and a number of good hotels. Population 

Tunnel, 10 miles, is built through a high hill which curves 
around the Conemaugh, for the canal, as it was impossible to 
carry it around this bend. It is not used now; and from tjie 
railroad, which passes through another tunnel in the same hill, 
can be seen this monument of former greatness, substantially' 
arched, and emerging at its western end on a fine aqueduct 
over the river. 

Saltzbubg, 17 miles, is on the Conemaugh, where the rail- 
road crosses it over a splendid bridge. It is named from the 
salt wells, so abundant in its vicinity. It was settled as early as 
1800 ; and the first boring for salt, now become so important 
an industry, was made in 1813, by William Johnson. There 
is no spot in Pennsylvania which has finer scenery than this 
place. The town has a coach-factory and other lesser indus- 
tries. Coal is mined here, of which the shipment is about fifty 
thousand tons annually. It contains a public hall, two good 
hotels, a literary institute, and bank. Population 659. 

Apollo, 27 miles, is an enterprising borough in Armstrong 
County. It has a rolling-mill for the manufacture of sheet-iron 
(at which one hundred and fifty men are employed), a planing- 
mill, fire-brick works, &c. It contains a public hall, two hotels, 
five churches, graded common schools, and a savings bank. 
Population 764. 

Leechbubg, 32 miles, was laid out by a gentleman by the 


name of Leech, when the Pennsylvania canal was constructed ; 
and for many years the principal business was building canal- 
boats. A rolling-mill is in operation here, which employs two 
hundred men. A peculiar feature of this rolling-mill is work- 
ing it by natural gas for fuel. This gas is obtained on the 
opposite side of the river, from a well, and is conveyed by 
pipes to the fires it supplies. It is exclusively used in the 
works, and has shown no signs of giving out. The town has a 
bank, an academy, two hotels, and five churches. Population 

Alleghany Junction, 37 miles, is the point of intersection 
with the Alleghany Valley Railroad. Here the Western 
Pennsylvania Railroad crosses the Alleghany River on a magni- 
ficent iron bridge. There is an oil-refinery at this station. 
Population about 100. 

Fbeeport, 38 miles, is situated on the right bank of the 
Alleghany River, near the mouth of Buffalo Creek. The 
scenery about it is remarkably fine, presenting the best points 
of the Alleghany. It was laid out about 1800, but, until the 
construction of the Pennsylvania canal, made but little progress. 
From that time it has become an important town, and has well 
developed the resources of the neighboring region. It contains 
a planing-mill, steam saw-mills, and a distillery, and carries on 
a large lumber-trade. There are in the town two banks, nine 
churches, four hotels, and a public hall. Population 1,640. 

Natrona, 43 miles, is in Alleghany County. The Pennsyl- 
vania Salt Manufacturing Company's works are in operation 
here, employing about seven hundred men, in fact, all the labor 
of the place. There are three churches in the village, and a 
population of about 1,000. 

Tarentum, 45 miles, has a glass-factory, which employs 
fifty men, and there are also several smaller works. The bor- 
ough has a bank, five churches, two hotels, and an academy. 
Population 944. 

Hites', 47 miles, does a large business in mining iron ore 
and coal. It has an oil-refinery and an iron-furnace. Popula- 
tion about 300. 

Claremont, 58 miles, is the seat of the Alleghany County 
work-house and almhouse. 


Sharpsburg, 61 miles, in Alleghany County, is a very 
important borough, and carries on a large business with the 
surrounding country. Among its manufactories are saw-mills, 
iron-works, planing-mills, boiler-works, glass-works, and brick- 
making, which together employ about four hundred men. It 
has two banks, seven churches, a public hall, an academy, and 
several hotels. Population 2,176. 

Etna, 62 miles, has a rolling-mill and blast-furnace, employ- 
ing six hundred men. Population 1,447. 

Alleghany City, 67 miles, is the terminus of the road. It 
is on the west bank of the Alleghany River, directly opposite 
Pittsburg, with which it is connected by several elegant 
bridges. It is the third city in population in Pennsylvania. 
It was laid out in 1789, upon a square of a hundred lots, each 
lot being sixty by two hundred and forty feet. But its rapid 
growth soon enlarged these bounds ; and it now includes most 
of the thickly-settled portion of the county west of the river. 
It contains eleven wards and thirty-seven churches. In Alle- 
ghany City and Pittsburg united, including national, savings, 
and other banking institutions (according to the Pittsburg 
Directory for 1876), the whole number is eighty-seven. There 
are forty-five attorneys, two hundred and forty-eight physicians. 


The point of junction (as is, also, the Western Pennsylvania 
Railroad) with the main line is at Freeport. 

Saxonburg, 11 miles, has a planing-mill, a manufactory of 
agricultural implements, a brewery, besides a number of 
mechanical trades. Iron ore and coal are found near it. It 
has three public halls, four churches, and several hotels. Pop- 
ulation about 300. 

Butler, 21 miles, the seat of justice of Butler County, is 
built upon an elevation above Conoquenessing Creek. It com- 
mands a fine view of well-cultivated lands. It was incorpo- 
ated in 1817. It has a machine-shop, a woollen-mill, two foun- 
deries, and carries on extensive merchandising. It contains 
nine churches, a public hall, four banks, an opera-house, a 
literary institute for both sexes, graded common, schools of an 


excellent character, good hotels, and its county buildings are 
imposing. Population 1,935. 


The point of intersection with the main line is at Greens- 

Scottdale, 17 miles, was laid out May 1, 1878 ; and in one 
month the population rose to 800. It has extensive coke-works 
and also an iron-furnace, a planing-mill, a rolling-mill, and sev- 
eral furnaces. 

Evebson, 18 miles, is the first station in Fayette County, of 
which Uniontown is the seat of justice. This is a delightful 
and enterprising borough, laid out in 1767, by Henry Beeson, a 
Quaker from Virginia. It lies in a charming valley, and has 
fine buildings both public and private. The contiguous country 
is underlaid with the finest quality of bituminous coal, iron ore, 
and limestone. It has educational facilities of a superior char- 
acter, and contains four banks, ten churches, public halls, 
hydraulic cement, flouring, planing, and woollen mills. Popu- 
lation 2,503. 

Connellsville, 25 miles, is on the Youghiogheny River, 
the place where Braddock crossed on his memorable expedite 
Here are located the repair-shops of the Pittsburg, Washi r 
and Baltimore Railroad Company, and coke-works 
together employ about five hundred men. It has thre 
mills, grist-mills, tanneries, and fire-brick works. ' 
in the town two banks, eight churches, three pu 1 
good public schools, and hotels. Population 1,29? 
Connellsville, on the south side of the river, is ? 
where the South-west Pennsylvania Railroad c T 
being extended to Uniontown. 


Sunbury is the point of junction with the 
Railway, and the eastern terminus of this rr 
controlled by the Pennsylvania Railroad G 
unbroken route between Lake Erie and Bj 
ated on the left bank of the Susquehanna 


tion of the West and North Branches, and above the mouth of 
Shamokin Creek. The scenery in its vicinity id magnificent ; 
high, perpendicular cliffs rising from the border of the river, 
and overlooking it. At this place the river is a mile wide. It 
was laid out by John Lukens, and incorporated as a borough 
on the 24th of March, 1797. Its general appearance is attrac- 
tive : the streets are wide and straight, and an air of tidiness 
and enterprise is everywhere visible. From its delightful loca- 
tion (rendering its atmosphere peculiarly salubrious), the purity 
of its water, and fertility of its soil, Sunbury is one of the most 
beautiful towns in Pennsylvania ; and its future prosperity is 
certain from the concentration of the extensive railroad traffic 

Among the most noted industries are the repair-shops of the 
Northern Central Railway, the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad 
shops, two planing-mills, three steam saw-mills, a grist-mill, two 
founderies, a car-wheel foundery, and an oil-mill, employing 
together about seven hundred men. An extensive mercantile 
trade is carried on ; and the amount of anthracite coal shipped 
is about six million tons annually. The mines are located at 
the " Shamokin coal-region," about twenty miles distant. 
Grape-culture has been extensively pursued within the last few 
years ; and there are now five vineyards in its vicinity, from one 
of which the yield, in 1872, was ten tons of Concord grapes, 
and a thousand gallons of wine. The town has seven churches, 
two banks, an academy, a high school, a seminary for young 
ladies, several private schools, eight primary schools, a number 
of good hotels, and the ordinary county buildings. Population 

Northumberland, 2 miles, is opposite Sunbury, at the 
junction of the North and West Branches of the Susquehanna. 
It occupies one of the most picturesque situations in the State. 
From a precipitous bluff near it, which juts out over the river, 
a view of surpassing magnificence and extent is had, of moun- 
tains broken into ridges, with valleys between, teeming with 
luxuriant fruits and dense foliage, and multitudes of improve- 
ments scattered here and there in its vicinity. The river is 
spanned by several bridges at this point, which increase the 


attractiveness of the scene. This town was laid out in 1775, 
by Reuben Haines, a brewer from Philadelphia; but it has never 
fulfilled its early promise of becoming a commercial centre, 
which its situation seemed to warrant, being at the confluence 
of the two branches of the Susquehanna. 

This place is noted for being the residence o£ Dr. Joseph 
Priestley, the alleged discoverer of oxygen gas, and the chief 
founder of the modern school of chemistry. On the 1st of 
August, 1874, the " Centennial of Chemistry " was celebrated 
in Northumberland by many of the most distinguished scientists 
of America. 

The business of Northumberland is flourishing, and steadily 
increasing. It contains a car-manufactory, a nail-mill, and 
steam saw and planing mills. It contains a bank, several 
churches, four hotels, and good public and private schools. 
Population 1,788. 

Milton, 13 miles, is noted for its enterprise. It lies in the 
Susquehanna valley, and was founded, about the close of 
the last century, by Andrew Straub, a German; and most of t> 
early settlers were of that nation. The country surroum 
the town is fertile, and highly cultivated. Among its indusl 
are a rolling-mill, two planing-mills, car-factory, and saw 
which employ about six hundred men. A large bup* 
carried on in merchandising. It contains a public ha) 
good hotels, six churches, two banks, and excellent 
schools. Population 1,909. 

Watsontown, 17 miles, is among the earliest 
of the Susquehanna. Business is very active here ; 
several saw-mills, a shoe-factory, a planing-mill, o 
match-stick factory, which together employ about 
hands. It has a public hall, a bank, seven churche 
and good schools. Population 1,181. 

Dewabt, 19 miles, has a broom-manufactorr 
and is surrounded by a prolific country, 
academy, several churches, and two hotels. 

Montgomeby, 24 miles, is the first sfc 
county. Its most noted industries are a m 
fafctory, and a planing-mill, which employ t 


men. It contains a public hall, a church, a seminary, and good 
hotels. Population about 500. 

Muncy, 28 miles, is across the river from the station, and was 
settled by Quakers from near Philadelphia. It was named by 
them Pennsborough, and was incorporated by that name in 
1826, which the next year was changed to Muncy. It has a 
planing-mill, saw-mills, a foundery, and fork-factory, employing 
in all some three hundred men. It contains a national bank, 
five churches, two hotels, a seminary, and good graded public 
schools. Population 1,040. 

William8POBT, 40 miles, is the seat of justice of Lycoming 
County, which was formed from part of Northumberland, by 
act of April 13, 1795. The county is generally mountainous ; 
but, in the valleys of the Susquehanna and its tributaries, the 
soil is very rich and productive. It abounds in bituminous coal 
and iron ore, which are largely mined. One of the great indus- 
tries of this region, for a third of a century, has been felling 
the forests of pine with which the mountainous portions are 
covered. The early settlers were generally Scotch-Irish ; and, 
after the treaty at Fort Stanwix, they poured into the country 
in such great numbers, that the proprietary government had 
much difficulty to prevent them from encroaching upon the 
Indian lands. One method to prevent this was to forbid any 
surveys being made north of Lycoming Creek, as it was un- 
certain whether the stream mentioned in the treaty with the 
Indians as Tindaghton was Lycoming or Pine Creek. But, in 
spite of this prohibition, these determined pioneers settled 
between the two streams, and soon became powerful in num- 
bers. They made provision for their own government by 
electing annually three of their number, called fair-play men, 
who were to decide all doubtful questions, especially the one of 
boundary lines ; and from their decision there was no appeal. 
The whole community acquiesced in their judgment; and 
the execution of sentences was summary and irresistible. One 
of these old settlers, being asked, some years later, by a chief 
justice of Pennsylvania, what the " fair-play " laws were, made 
this pertinent reply: " All I can say about it is, that, since your 
Honor's courts have come among us, fair play has entirely 
ceased, and law has taken its place." 24 


Williamsport is the second place in business importance 
upon the Susquehanna River, and among the first inland cities in 
Pennsylvania. It was laid out by Michael Ross, a German, in 
1795. He made large donations of lands for public purposes ; 
the plan of the town was well arranged, and carried out ; and 
now are seen, wide straight streets, and every evidence of pros- 
perity, making it unusually attractive. It has an abundant 
supply of water from mountain-springs; and gas is used in 
public and private buildings. Many of its streets are paved 
with wood, which afford charming drives. 

The chief business of the city is lumbering; and since its 
establishment, about twenty-five years ago, it has grown to 
astonishing proportions. There are now in operation fifty steam 
saw-mills, preparing lumber for market ; and the annual shipment 
is not less than two hundred millions of feet. The other indus- 
tries are an axe-factory, paint-works, a match-stick-manufactory, 
a boiler-factory, several founderies, and a furniture-factory. 
There are also extensive iron-works on the south side of the 
river, opposite Williamsport. It has a large mercantile trade. 
It contains a commercial college, an opera-house, a seminary, an 
academy of music, twenty-nine churches, six public halls, six 
excellent hotels, twelve national, savings, and private banks, 
and a superior system of public schools. Population 16,030. 

Jersey Shore, 52 miles, was founded about the year 1800, 
by Jeremiah and Reuben Manning, two brothers from New 
Jersey. The town at first took the name of Waynesburg ; but 
gradually the name of the settlement, " The Jersey Shore," 
began to be applied to it, and when it was incorporated in 1826 
it took its present title. It is beautifully located; and the 
country around it is in a good state of cultivation. It has good 
schools, a town-hall, seven churches, a bank, and two hotels. 
Population 1,394. 

Wawe, 60 miles, is noted for having near it the Mcllhattan 
Camp-Ground, belonging to the West-Branch Camp-Meeting 
Association. It is a beautiful spot, completely surrounded by 
mountains, whose tops and sides are thick with forest-trees, 
while cool and sparkling streams trickle down the rocks, making 
music as they go. The village has a public hall, a steam saw- 
mill, a church, and a hotel. 


Lock Haven, 64 miles, is the seat of justice of Clinton 
County. This county was established June 21, 1839, from 
parts of Lycoming and Centre. The surface is mountainous, 
has many streams running through it ; and the valleys are rich 
and charming, and in a high degree of cultivation. . Bituminous 
coal, iron ore, and fire-clay abound in many portions of the 
county. Lumbering has been largely engaged in for twenty- 
five years ; and immense fortunes have been made. 

The town is situated upon the right bank of the Susque- 
hanna, about two miles above the junction of Bald Eagle 
Creek. It was laid out in 1834, by Jeremiah Church, and is 
called Lock Haven, from the fact that it lies between two locks 
on the Pennsylvania canal. The scenery around it is diversi- 
fied with river valleys and bold mountain-peaks ; and the canal- 
dam in front of it gives dissolving- views of rare beauty. The 
city presents an appearance of great neatness, thrift, and at- 
tractiveness ; and many of its public and private buildings are 

Lumbering is the most important business of the place ; and 
there are also two tanneries, a boot-and-shoe-manufactory, three 
founderies and machine-shops, and a boiler-manufactory, which 
together employ about two hundred hands. It has also a large 
mercantile trade. It contains two national banks, a public 
hall, eight churches, three first-class hotels, an opera-house, and 
good public schools. Population 6,986. 

Fabrandsvllle, 70 miles, was settled in the winter of 
1831-32 by William P. Farrand, a Philadelphia gentleman, who 
was agent for a company of Boston capitalists. A company 
was organized, called the " Lycoming Coal Company," which, 
with a great deal of energy, commenced mining the bituminous 
coal of the vicinity, intending to make large shipments : they 
also were to carry on extensive manufactures in iron, lumber, 
&c. But after expending much money, building houses, saw- 
mills, car-shops, a nail-mill, and steamboat, they were obliged to 
abandon the enterprise, as there was no prospect of the success 
desired ; and the embryo village soon relapsed into comparative 
insignificance. Its chief business is lumbering and fire-brick 
manufacture, employing some fifty hands. Of the latter com- 


modity, about ten thousand tons are shipped annually, and coal- 
mining is carried on to a limited extent. It has one hotel, 
several churches and schools. 

Hyner, 86 miles, is in the midst of magnificent scenery; and 
the forests and streams of the mountains are much resorted to 
by sportsmen. There ate three saw-mills here. It has a public 
hall, one church, and one school. 

Renovo, 92 miles, is an outgrowth of the Philadelphia and 
Erie Railroad; and the works connected with the road are 
located here, which have gathered a large population of enter- 
prising and intelligent mechanics. It lies in an oval-shaped 
valley, a mile and a half in length, between the mountains. 
The valley was settled in 1825, by a single pioneer from Jersey 
Shore, who, with his family, established himself upon a farm, 
where he remained alone until 1865, when it was purchased by 
the railroad company, and they laid out the town. It was 
incorporated as a borough in 1866, and has steadily increased 
in importance since that period. It is much visited in sum r 
by health and pleasure seekers, and has an extensive, 
built, and finely managed hotel. The shops of the i 
company employ about seven hundred. The water, with 
the town is amply supplied from a clear mountain-strep 
an excellent quality. It has a public hall, three c 
bank, eleven public schools, and three hotels. Popula 

Keating, 105 miles, is at the junction of the W' 
and the Sinnemahoning ; and at this point the ra : 
the Susquehanna, along which it has run for one 
sixty iniles from Harrisburg, and continues a 1 
mahoning. There is a large private school 1 

Round Island, 110 miles, lies in a countr 
coal, and fire-clay, and carries on lumber 
scenery about this place is very fine ; and n 
twenty-four feet in height. 

Sinnemahoning, 117 miles, is the first 
County. It contains a select school, a 
shop, a saw-mill, and two good hotels. 

Deiftwood, 120 miles, is the juncti 


Extension of Alleghany Valley Railroad, commonly called the 
"Low-grade Railroad." It was built by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company's aid, to facilitate traffic in freight between 
the east and the west. Along its line are remarkably fine 
deposits of bituminous coal, and large quantities of iron ore. 
In the village are four hotels, one public and two select schools, 
and two churches. 

Stirling, 129 miles, has a grist-mill, a shingle-mill, a plan- 
ing-mill, and several steam saw-mills, also a steam tannery, 
employing seventy-five men. Coal-mining is carried on exten- 
sively, and iron ore is found in the surrounding region. It has 
two churches and two public halls. 

Cameron, 183 miles, has a large lumber and coal business : 
one hundred and twenty-five men are employed in the latter, 
and sixty thousand tons of coal are annually shipped; one 
hundred more are engaged in lumbering. There are in the vil- 
lage a public hall, a church, and two hotels. 

Emporium, 139 miles, is the seat of justice of Cameron 
County, which was formed from parts of Elk, Potter, McKean, 
and Clinton, by act of March 29, 1860, and named for Gen. 
Simon Cameron. It is on the plain between the Susquehanna 
and Alleghany Rivers, and consists of thick forests of valuable 
timber. Its principal business is mining and lumbering. De- 
posits of iron ore and bituminous coal are extensive in this 

Until the completion of the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad to 
this place, in 1864, Emporium was of no importance ; but, since 
that time, its growth has been rapid. It was incorporated as a 
borough in this year, the 13th of October, and now has many 
fine buildings. It does a large business in lumber, and has an 
extensive mercantile trade. It contains grist and saw mills, 
a steam-tannery, a sash-and-door-manufactory, good schools, a 
public hall, and fine hotels. Population 898. 

St. Mary's, 159 miles, is an enterprising borough in Elk 
County. It was settled about 1840, by a German Catholic 
colony, under the charge of the St. Benedictine Society, and, 
before the building of the railroad, was composed exclusively 
of Catholics : since that time, the population has become more 


mixed, although they still predominate. There is a very fine 
monastery located here, with which St. Gregory's College, a 
nunnery, and an academy, are connected. The country in the 
vicinity of this place is well cultivated, and has deposits of 
bituminous coal, of which about one million tons are mined and 
shipped annually, and in mining which two hundred men are 
employed. Lumbering is an important trade, and a thriving 
mercantile trade is induced by these industries. It has a plan- 
ing-mill, six breweries, two wagon-manufactories, two founderies 
and machine-shops, two furniture-factories, and three grist- 
mills. The town contains five public halls, three churches, a 
bank, good public schools, and a number of hotels. Popula- 
tion 1,084. 

Dagusca^onda, 165 miles. The chief business is coal- 
mining and lumbering ; and in the latter sixty men are em- 
ployed, while the former ships about one hundred and fifty tons 
per day, and employs seventy men. 

Ridgeway, 169 miles, is the seat of justice of Elk county, 
formed from portions of McKean and Clearfield by act of 
April 18, 1843. It is situated upon the ridge between the 
Atlantic coast and the Mississippi valley. Its soil is not par- 
ticularly rich, but yields to cultivation. It is covered with a 
thick growth of hemlock. The county received its name from 
a mountain in its southern part, so called from the great number 
of elks roaming over it. The first settlements were made 
about 1820. 

The town of Ridgeway lies on the head-waters of the Clarion 
Itiver. It was settled in 1840 by lumbermen, mostly from New 
England and New York, and was named for Jacob Ridgeway, a 
merchant of Philadelphia, who owned large tracts of land 
there. It has two tanneries, employing many men ; and it also 
carries on lumbering. There is a good mercantile trade ; and 
the town contains a bank, four churches, three hotels, two 
public halls, one high and other public schools, and county 
buildings. Population 800. 

Wilcox, 184 miles, is noted for having the largest tannery 
in the United States, which employs one hundred and fifty 
men. The same number is employed in the lumber-business. 


There axe two churches, it graded public school, a public hall, 
and a good hotel. Population about 1,000. 

Sergeant, 189 miles, is the first station in McKean County, 
which was organized March 27, 1824. It was named for 
Thomas McKean, a former chief justice and governor of Penn- 
sylvania. It is covered with thick growths of birch, pine, 
maple, and hemlock, and other hard woods ; and it has a moist 
soil, which under cultivation gives good crops. Coal and iron 
ore are abundant. Population 8,825. 

Kane, 193 miles, was settled about the time the Philadelphia 
and Erie Railroad was completed, upon land owned by the 
family of Judge Kane of Philadelphia. It is surrounded by 
forests, through which flow purling streams, and is much 
resorted to by sportsmen who hunt the deer and other game. 
To accommodate these visitors, the Thomsoil House has 
been erected upon a park of one thousand acres, two thousand 
feet above the level of the ocean ; and at this height the air is 
unrivalled for purity and spicy odors from the forests around. 
The business of Kane is lumbering principally ; and it has six 
steam saw-mills, employing about two hundred men. The 
machine-shops of the railroad employ about one hundred more. 
Population 2,000. 

Warren, 222 miles, is the seat of justice of Warren County, 
formed from part of Lycoming by act of March 12, 1800, and 
named for Gen. Warren ; but, not having sufficient population 
to sustain a separate organization, it was in 1805 joined to 
Venango county, not being re-organized until * the 16th of 
March, 1819. Its growth at first was very slow ; but since 1830 
it has progressed rapidly, and at present it ranks among the 
first counties of the State. Its surface is undulating, and, as 
it nears the streams, becomes rugged. Portions of it are very 
fertile and well cultivated. The southern part is comprised 
within the great oil-field of Pennsylvania; and borings made in 
it soon after the discoveries in Venango were the means of 
adding much to its population and wealth. 

The town of Warren is beautifully situated on the Alleghany 
River, at its junction with the Conewango. Its principal busi- 
ness is lumbering ; and it also has a sash-factory, iron-works, 


and planing-mills. It is a charming place of residence, and 
offers great attractions to the tourist. Many of its public and 
private buildings are tasteful in design and surroundings. It 
has three banks, eight churches, good schools, several hotels, 
county buildings, and three public halls. Population 2,014. 

Ievineton, 228 miles, is built upon land taken up by Gen. 
William Irvine of Revolutionary fame ; and his son, in 1795, 
erected a cabin upon the site of the village. The present town 
was laid out about 1840, by Dr. William Irvine, son of the 
general. It has a saw-mill, a stave-mill, grist-mill, woollen-mill, 
two churches, and four hotels. Population about 350. 

Cobby, 251 miles, is the first station in Erie County, situated 
on Oil Creek, and was developed from the oil speculation, and in 
the early days of the " oil-fever." Corry was subjected to all the 
ups and downs attendant upon this fever, but proved an excep- 
tion to the rule when cities and towns collapsed with the burst- 
ing of the petroleum bubble, as it maintained a steady and 
upward course. Her position favors this result, being upon an 
elevation nearly fifteen hundred feet above the ocean-level, and 
more than eight hundred above Lake Erie, thus making it a 
remarkably healthful location. The surrounding country is 
fairly productive. Iron and coal are easily obtained ; timber is 
plentiful ; and it is brought into communication with all impor- 
tant business-places by railroads radiating from it to all points 
of the compass. It has a great number of industries, among 
which are manufactories of furniture, wooden-ware, boring- 
machines, fork and spade handles, sashes and blinds, brushes, 
agricultural implements, steam-engines, and many other 
articles : it has also large oil-works, iron-works, steam, flour, 
and saw mills, breweries, cooper-shops, tanneries, shingle-mills, 
railroad-shops. It contains three banks, six public halls, nine 
churches, seven hotels, an academy of music, a very fine city 
hall, and has superior educational facilities, both of a public 
and private character. Population 6,809. 

Union, 261 miles, is situated on French Creek. It is an 
enterprising borough, and contains wooden-pump, furniture, 
and oil-barrel manufactories, employing about three hundred 
men. The country around it is well adapted to grazing. It 


has two public halls, an opera-house, three hotels, three banking 
institutions, six churches, and graded public schools. Popula- 
tion 1,500. 

Watebfobd, 269 miles, is an active borough upon Le Boeuf 
Lake and Creek. The settlement about this town is very old, 
being made by the French before the English came hither. 
The town was laid out in 1794, by Andrew Ellicott ; and its 
name was changed from Le Boeuf to Watertown in 1795. It 
was largely engaged in the salt-trade at one time, supplying the 
settlers in the Ohio valley ; but, after the discovery of the salt- 
wells on the Kiskiminetas, this trade fell off, and the town 
suffered from the effects ; and it was not until the construction 
of the railroad that it began to assume any importance, since 
which time its growth has been rapid. Among its manufac- 
turing establishments are one of boots and shoes, and one of 
firkins and tubs. There is some lumbering here, and dairy 
business is extensive. It contains four public halls, an academy, 
four churches, one bank, and three hotels. Population 790. 

Jackson's, 275 miles, is near the elevation separating the 
Ohio River from the rivers flowing into Lake Erie. 

Erie, 288 miles, is the seat of justice of Erie County, formed 
from a portion of Alleghany County by act of March 12, 1800, 
but which was not fully organized until the 2d of April, 1803. 
Its surface is rendered uneven from the low ridge which runs 
parallel with the lake shore, about eight or ten miles from it, 
lying between the tributaries of the lake and the Alleghany 

This whole region was nearly an unexplored country down 
to 1750. The entfre southern shore of the lake was occupied 
by a tribe of Indians called the Eries ; and from them the lake 
and the county were named. A bitter hostility existed be- 
tween this tribe and the Five Nations for many years, which 
finally terminated in the extermination of the Eries. Many of 
the first settlers in this county were from New York and the 
New England States ; and, though some came from the south- 
ern parts of Pennsylvania, still the population more resembled, 
in general characteristics, that of the Eastern States than of 
our State, in which it is located. Many years elapsed before 


the resources of the land were much developed, or Erie became 
of its present commercial importance. "Erie County now 
takes a prominent rank among her sisters of the great Key- 
stone Commonwealth. The town of Erie was laid out in 1795, 
by Gen. William Irvine and Andrew Ellicott, under authority of 
the State. . . . The city contains a large number of elegant 
private residences ; and among its public edifices are seventeen 
churches (representing all Christian denominations), an excel- 
lent academy, an opera-house, an academy of music, five 
public halls, several private, and a superior system of public 
schools. It has ten banking-institutions, two hospitals, an 
orphan-asylum, six cemeteries, two public libraries, a number 
of superior hotels, and, in short, possesses all the requisites of 
metropolitan life and enjoyment. Population 19,646." l 


This is a branch of the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad, and 
the point of intersection is at Montandon. 

Lewisbxjrg, 1£ miles, is the seat of justice of Union Co 
This county was formed by act of March 22, 1813, and co 
of limestone valleys in a high degree of cultivation, anr 1 
senting beautiful scenes. The first settlers were Gerir 
the larger proportion of the present inhabitants arc 
scendants. The town is on the west bank of the S 
River, and was laid out by a German, named Loi 
at first was known by the name of Derr's town, 
to Montandon by a fine substantial bridge. It co 
ing-mill, a boat-building yard and saw-mill unite 
factory of agricultural implements, which to 
about two hundred men. Population 3,121. 

Mifflinburg, 11 miles, is a pleasantly loco 
borough in Buffalo valley. It has carriar 
foundery, a steam grist-mill, a planing-mill, 
There are two banks, four churches, a pul 
and good public schools. Population 911. 

1 Sipes's Pennsylvania Railroad, j 



Philadelphia and Erie Junction is the point of inter- 
section with the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad. 

Danville, 12 miles, is noted for its production and manu- 
facture of iron, the works in operation employing more than 
two thousand men. Limestone and iron are found very abun- 
dantly in the adjacent region. It is the seat of justice of 
Montour County, separated from Columbia by act of May 3, 
1850. It contains seventeen churches, two national banks, a 
fine opera-house, and three good hotels. Population 8,436. 

Catawissa, 21 miles, is a delightfully situated borough in 
Columbia County, on the left bank of the Susquehanna. It 
was laid out in 1787 by William Hughes, a Quaker from Berks 
County, and was for many years under the control of that sect. 
These were superseded by Germans ; and in 1816 an iron fur- 
nace was erected by one of these latter settlers near the town. 
It is not important as a business-place, but is justly noted for 
beauty and sublimity of scenery, causing it to be much resorted 
to. The chief business now is merchandising and railroading. 
It has a public hall, two hotels, six churches, and a deposit 
bank. Population 1,614. 

Tomhicken, 45 miles, is the terminus of this road, and point 
of connection with Wilkesbarre Railroad, lunning to Hazleton, 
at which place a junction is formed with the Lehigh Valley 

Having now noticed most of the important places on the 
Pennsylvania road and its western branches, we return to 
the branches from New Jersey owned by the Pennsylvania. 
The places on these roads do not come within the limits of this 
history, except where they enter and pass through towns and 
villages in this State. The Camden and* Amboy road enters 
Philadelphia at the Walnut Street Ferry ; and the Camden and 
Atlantic, at the Vine Street Ferry. On starting from the West 
Philadelphia Depot, the traveller goes thirty miles to the Dela- 
ware River, where the road crosses a long bridge, and enters 
Trenton, N.J. On this route of thirty miles are several villages, 
most of which are included within the city limits. Bristol, a 


pleasant town in Bucks County, on the Delaware River, nine- 
teen miles above Philadelphia, lies on this road. This was the 
first seat of justice of the county, and is still the largest town. 
It contains several churches, a town-hall, a bank, and a mineral 
spring. It was settled as early as 1697. Population about 




Net-work of Railroads — Afford Facilities for Historical Description — Beading 
Road — Conshohocken — Norristown — Valley Forge — Phoenixville — Potts- 
town— Reading — Port Clinton— Auburn— Schuylkill Haven — Pottsville 
— Mount Carbon — Ravino Gap — Lebanon — Mahanoy Plane — Northern 
Pennsylvania — Gwynedd — Lansdale — Sellers ville — Landis Ridge — Heller- 
town — Lehigh Valley Railroad — Bethlehem — Allentown — Catasauqua — 
Hokendauqua — Slatington — Lehighton— Weinport — Packertown — Mauch 
Chunk — Mount Pisgah — Summit Hill — Burning-Mine — Glen Onoko— 
Chameleon Falls — Onoko Falls — Terrace Falls — Nesquehoning Bridge — 
Penn Haven — Stony Creek — Rockport — Tannery — White Haven — Free- 
man9burg — Redington — Glendon — Easton — Delaware, Lackawanna, and 
Western Railroad —Delaware Water Gap — Philadelphia, Wilmington, and 
Baltimore Railroad — Chester — West Chester Railroad — West Chester. 

THE railroads of Pennsylvania form almost complete inter- 
lacings, penetrating every portion of the State; and 
hence, by following out these roads, the traveller passes 
through the three great regions into which the Commonwealth 
is divided; and by this means he is enabled to survey and 
explore all her cities, towns, and hamlets. As these three great 
divisions of the State are drained by the tributaries of three 
great rivers, running through their several valleys, so the whole 
surface of the State comes under the eye of him who follows 
these immense tracks through the river-beds. Thus the valley 
of the Susquehanna affords the natural avenue for these great 
thoroughfares from north to south. Next the Upper Dela- 
ware, Lehigh, and Schuylkill with its tributaries, afford a 
passage for the roads through all the north-eastern portion of 
the State, to the vast coal deposits in these regions. The 
north-western parts — the oil-regions — arealike accessible by 


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the Schuylkill River. The Reading Railroad is upon the 
Bridgeport side ; and the Chester Valley Branch is its terminus ; 
while the Norristown Branch is ended at Norristown. The 
town is regular, and contains many fine buildings, mostly of 
brick and stone. Chief among these is the Court House, of a 
light-gray native marble. It has also a fine county prison, 
banks, a public library, ten churches. There are flourishing 
boarding-schools here, two of which have elegant buildings, 
located upon rising ground. The trade of the town is increasing, 
being facilitated by the improved navigation of the river. The 
great water-power of the river is employed in large cotton- 
factories (employing several hundred hands), and several 
rolling-mills and nail-factories. 

Now we arrive at Valley Forge, twenty-three miles from 
Philadelphia, on the right bank of the Schuylkill. It is at the 
mouth of Valley Creek ; and it will be remembered this was 
where Washington encamped during the winter of 1777-78. 
Perkiomen Creek, just above this point, empties into the river. 
There is a road, called the Perkiomen Creek Branch following 
the creek, terminating at Allentown, fifty-one miles from 
Philadelphia. Phoenixville, the next stopping-place, is twenty- 
seven miles from Philadelphia, and the terminus of Pickering 
Valley Branch. It is in Chester County, on the right bank of 
the Schuylkill, at the mouth of French Creek, which flows 
through a very fertile valley. It is one of the most populous 
towns in the county, and has large manufactures of cotton and 
iron. One of the largest rolling-mills in this country, that of 
the Phoenix Iron Company, is located here; and a large 
quantity of railroad iron and nails is made annually, the 
material being obtained in the vicinity, and of a superior 
quality. After leaving this place, the road passes into a tunnel 
two thousand feet in length, upon emerging from which we 
cross the river to the bank opposite the one the road has fol- 
lowed since leaving Belmont, and soon arrive at Pottstown, 
which is in Montgomery County, at the mouth of Manatawny 
Creek, forty miles from Philadelphia. This is a neatly-built 
town, its houses being principally upon one street, very broad 
and attractive, from the great number of shade-trees and 



pleasant grounds. The scenery about the town is beautiful, as 
the river winds in and out in a charmingly picturesque manner. 
Just stopping at Douglasville, we follow the beautiful river in 
its many turnings, cross the Manatawny and Monocacy Creeks ; 


and now the views become bewilderingly bewitching. The 
river sparkles out into golden sunlight, anon hides herself 
behind hills, and in this capricious mood does she manifest, 



until, as if repenting, she straightens out, and presents Reading. 
It is pleasantly located upon a plain emerging from the river, 
and is surrounded by three hills so large as to be almost 
mountains, called Mount Penn, Mount Washington, and Mount 
Neversink. It was founded in 1748, by William and Richard 
Penn, and is regularly laid out. The town has a thrifty appear- 
ance; and its well-paved streets and handsome houses and 
stores indicate wealth and prosperity. In manufactures it 
takes the third rank in the State, and in population the fourth. 
It has furnaces, mills, railroad-shops, employing about twelve 


hundred men. There are in the town twenty-three churches, 
two opera-houses, and several banks. It is from Reading that 
the numerous branches which make the great line of road 
comprehended under the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad 
diverge ; and the depot at this place receives and sends out all 
trains going over these' branches. This depot is said to be the 
handsomest in the State, and has in its tower a large electrical 
clock, which communicates the time to every clock inside the 
depot, the standard being Philadelphia. The works for the 




the bank of the river. Now we arrive at Pottsville, ninety- 
three miles from Philadelphia, the present terminus of the 
road. It is situated upon the border of the coal-basin, formed 
by the Schuylkill breaking through Sharp Mountain. It 
received its name from John Pott, who in 1827 built Green- 
wood Furnace ; and it was in digging the foundation for this 
furnace that the coal was discovered which has rendered this 


valley so famous. This town is still peopled with his descend- 
ants, who have become wealthy from the fact of owning land, 
and retaining it until it rose in value. Its streets are very pic- 
turesque ; and the drives about the city are fine, having beau- 
tiful views. Small lines of railroads emerge from Pottsville, 
spreading in all directions, as new coal-mines are opened ; and 
all along their lines are villages and towns, which are made up 



o/ intelligent and enterprising people. The Philadelphia and 
Reading Railroad Company have commenced a very important 
work in the vicinity of Pottsville. In order to reach and work 
the extensive white-ash coal-veins of the southern basin, two 
perpendicular shafts have been sunk ; and the longest one has 
already reached a depth of 1,128 feet, and from this a bore-hole 

was sunk into the Mammoth 
vein, reaching to a distance 
of 1,954 feet from the surface 
of the ground. Mount Car- 
bon, one mile short of Potts- 
ville, at the foot of Sharp 
Mountain, is noted for its 
hotel, owned by the rail- 
road company, which is well 
kept, and much resorted to in summer. It is the junction of 
numerous branches leading into the middle and lower coal- 
fields. We append a very good view of this place and Sharp 

The Ravino Gap, near Pottsville, is remarkable for the beauty 
and wildness of its scenery ; and, as the traveller passes through 




it, his eyes are feasted with a succession of pictures, each more 
beautiful than the preceding one. 

From Pottsville, we will proceed to some of the places on 
the branches of this road. The Lebanon Valley Branch goes 
from the main line at Reading, through the Lebanon Valley, 
ending at Harrisburg, and thus runs through Lebanon County, 


the chief town 
which is Lebanon. 
It lies in a fertile 
limestone valley, and 
is twenty-five miles 
east of Harrisburg. 

Passing on towards the coal-regions, we go through Mahanoy 
City, Mahanoy Plane, Ashland, Gordon, and Shamokin, to 
Herndon. At Mahanoy Plane is the inclined plane, from which 
it takes its name, used in raising coal-cars from the valley to the 
top of the mountain, whence they i^un on a down grade to 
Mount Carbon. This plane is 2,410 feet long, 854 feet high ; 


and the top is 1,478 feet above tide-water. The object of this 
plane may be readily seen, when it is stated that the head of it 
is only twelve miles from Pottsville by rail. A fine view of the 
plane is given in the accompanying cut. 

Our limits do not permit us to dwell longer upon the numer- 
ous branches and places, along their routes, of the Philadelphia 
and Reading Railroad ; and we will therefore return to Philadel- 
phia, and start by the Northern Pennsylvania Railroad for the 
coal-regions of the Lehigh Valley. The depot of this road is 
on the corner of Berks and American Streets. Its course for 
fifteen miles is in the limits of the city ; and the first station of 
importance beyond it is Gwynedd, a Welsh settlement, with 
over two thousand inhabitants. Near this place the road passes 
through a large tunnel, a single mile costing over three hundred 
thousand dollars. Lansdale, the next stopping-place, is the junc- 
tion of the branch railroad to Doylestown ; and at Sellersyille, ten ■ 
miles beyond, Landis Ridge is reached, which separates the Dela- 
ware and Schuylkill. From this Ridge a magnificent view is had 
of Limestone Valley and the surrounding country. Hellertown, 
fifty miles from Philadelphia, is the last station before arriving at 
Bethlehem, where the Lehigh Valley Railroad forms a junction, 
and on which we continue our journey through this beautiful 
and valuable stretch of country. Bethlehem is a quaint old 
spot ; and the tourist, in rambling through its quiet streets, will 
feel as if he were put back in the march of time. It received 
its name from Count Zinzendorf, to commemorate the first 
Christmas-eve service held by the Moravians in 1741. The old 
buildings of this sect are still standing ; and the Sisters' and 
Widows' houses, in their interior, present the same appearance 
as of old, — flagged pavements, small windows, broad oaken 
staircases, and low ceilings. It has an additional historic inter- 
est, from the fact that Washington located his hospital here, and 
sent supplies, after the passage of the Del^jvare ; and the sick 
and wounded were tenderly cared for by these charitable 
Moravians. It has a number of extensive manufacturing 
establishments, the largest of which is the Bethlehem Iron 
Foundery, turning out thirty thousand tons of iron per annum. 
There is also a large establishment belonging to the Lehigh Zinc 



Company, which employs some seven hundred men, and pro- 
duces annually thirty-five hundred tons of white oxide. The 
town has water and gas, and is rapidly increasing in population. 
The Lehigh University, founded by Hon. Asa Packer of Mauch 


Chunk, is located here ; and at this institution the tuition is 
entirely free. 

Allentown, the next place beyond Bethlehem, is at the junc- 
tion of the Lehigh and Little Lehigh and Jordan Creek. It 
is a beautiful city, built upon high ground. It has extensive 
manufactures, and lies in the midst of a fine agricultural 



region. The Allentown Rolling-Mill is celebrated for its man- 
ufacture of rails. It has a female college, finely located in the 
north-eastern part of the town, and among other public build- 
ings are the County Jail, an Opera-House, Odd-Fellows' and 
Masonic Halls. The present population is fifteen thousand. Its 


accessibility to deposits of limestone, iron ore, cement, zinc, &c., 
is a good assurance of its increasing importance. Leaving 
Allentown, and passing Catasauqua and Hokendauqua, both 
important manufacturing places (the latter being the location 


of the Thomas Iron Works, said to be the largest and most 
complete in the United States, which consume over a hundred 
thousand tons of coal per annum), we reach Slatington, the next 
place of any note. It is called thus from being in the largest slate 
region ever discovered, the various quarries of which employ 
over six hundred men. Now we are at Lehigh Gap, formed 
from the Lehigh River forcing itself through the Blue Moun- 
tains ; and the scenery in this vicinity is magnificent and sublime. 
The cut shows the course of the road through this gap. The 
boroughs of Lehighton and Weinport are now passed, cele- 
brated for being the resort of the fugitives from Wyoming 
when their village was destroyed by the Indian marauders ; and 
many are the legends still related of their sufferings and pri- 
vations. It was here that the Moravian mission among the 
Indians, called Gwadenhutten, was established in 1746. 

Now we are at Mauch Chunk, just glancing at Packertown, 
where are located the shops of the Lehigh Valley Railroad 
Company, which employ over five hundred men. Mauch 
Chunk, meaning, in Indian language " Bear Mountain," is one 
of the most romantically situated towns in this country ; and 
the scenery around it is unsurpassed in grandeur and sublimity. 
It is on the Lehigh River ; was settled in 1815 ; and for many 
years has been the centre of coal operations for the Lehigh 
region. It is encompassed with mountains, which rise from 
seven hundred to one thousand feet, and has spread itself out 
to such an extent, that it could only be enlarged by excavating 
from the precipitous rocks. About two hundred feet above 
the main town, there is a plain of several hundred acres, thickly 
settled, and known by the name of Upper Mauch Chunk. In 
the cut is presented a view of the town, and Mount Pisgah in 
the background. 

This town is quaint in the extreme. It has but one street ; 
and the valley is so narrow, that the houses are crowded closely 
against the hillsides, their gardens above the roofs. It is called 
the " Switzerland of America ; " and, during the summer and 
autumn, is much resorted to by pleasure-seekers, and lovers of 
Nature. It has a very extensive and complete hotel, — the 
Mansion House, having rooms for four hundred and fifty 




guests, and a dining-hall capable of seating nearly five hundred 

There are many fine residences at Mauch Chunk, among 
which may be noticed those of Hon. Asa Packer and John 
Leisenring, conspicuous for elegance of design, and beauty of 
surroundings. The town is supplied with gas and water of the 
purest quality. It is full of the enterprise and industry which 


several collieries, and the offices of the two railroad companies, 
create, and supports two national and one savings bank. Its 
population is about 7,000. We shall be forced, not very unwill- 
ingly, to linger some time, in order to visit the many beautiful 
spots in the vicinity of Mauch Chunk ; and, as Mount Pisgah 
seems to beckon us up to explore its summit, we will take 



that first. But how can we climb that steep height ? We need 
not do this, but simply avail ourselves of the Switchback, or 
gravity road, which, though planned especially for the coal-cars, 
has been arranged for the comfort of travellers ; and, in future, 
this mode of ascending to the summit of the mountain is to be 
given up to the excursionists who visit Mauch Chunk, while the 

coal is 

to be 
by tun- 
nel through the Nesquehoning 
Mountain. The way in which 
the cars are propelled up and 
down this plane is this: The 
cars ascend by means of an 
mauch chunk, inclined plane, with a station- 
ary engine at the top, the 
ascent being 700 feet in 2,340 : they then, over a downward 
grade, descend by their own weight. The distance from the 
foot to the summit is 2,322 feet ; and a double track has been 
laid over the plane with great care. 



Now let us pause, after the # exhilarating and exciting ride 
upon the Switchback, and rest upon this clump of rocks, far 
above the town, — so far, that the train below looks like a child's 
mimic toy, and as we lazily gaze upon our stars and stripes, . 
floating out in the breeze from the flagstaff, go over again, 
in imagination; the wild race we have had. Our starting-point 
was at Upper Mauch Chunk ; and, after the summit of the moun- 
tain was gained, we crossed a piece of trestle-work over a deep, 
wild ravine, which made us shudder as we gazed down into its 
depths ; thei*, alighting, we followed a winding footpath to a 
yet higher point, called the Pavilion, where is an observatory, 
the view from which is sublime beyond description. To the 
south, through Lehigh Gap, we catch glimpses of the blue, 
hazy outline of Schooley's Mountain, sixty-five miles off. At 
the north of Lehigh Gap is Wind Gap, whose horizon is 
bounded by blue hills and verdant fields. Then we entered the 
cars, which, By their own power of gravitation, ran a distance 
of six miles (the descent being three hundred and two feet), 
arriving at the base of another inclined plane (Mount Jeffer- 
son), 2,070 feet long, and 462 high, from whence we were 
drawn up to the top in the same manner as before, holding our 
breath as the earth seemed to be receding from us ; and, the 
summit gained, we were hurried along to the mining- village of 
Summit Hill, 9,075 feet above the Lehigh, with a population 
of 2,000, It is a curious place, with rambling streets and old 
buildings, and has a stone arsenal, with turrets and loop-holes, 
in which are stored arms enough for a company's use, should 
trouble arise among the miners. Near this place is another 
road, the original Switchback, leading, by a long descent, to 
the Panther Creek Valley ; and here, also, is the " burning- 
mine," in whose depths a fire has been raging for the last thirty- 
two years. And now we started on the continuous down grade 
to Mount Pisgah's base, our starting-point. One turn of the 
brakes, and on we sped, faster and faster, until we could com- 
pare it to nothing but the flight of a bird ; and we did not feel 
it possible to ever be able to stop at Mauch Chunk, which we 
began to descry in the distance, when suddenly we found our- 
selves stationary at the platform. One of the many views from 
the trestling is given. 



Two miles farther on, we arrive at Glen Onoko ; and this is 
indeed fairyland, — cascades and rocks, deep shadows and 
broken rifts, through which the light comes dancing and quiver- 
ing. Chameleon Falls, one of the greatest charms of the glen, 
is fifty feet high ; and the stream rushes over down into a half- 


square basin, densely overshadowed with foliage. A little far- 
ther on we come to Onoko Falls, ninety feet in height ; and if 
the spray is not feared, and we venture in behind this misty 
veil, the beauties we shall find will well repay us. Still on, up 
this wondrous glen, squeezing through a passage between two 



birch-trees, properly called the u Fat Man's Misery," Terrace 
Falls and Cave Falls are reached, the latter taking its name 
from a rocky recess close at hand, where the Indians are said to 
have hidden ; and it is believed that through this glen was an 
old war-trail from the Susquehanna to the Delaware, through 
which Gen. Sullivan and his soldiers passed in 1778, after the 
Wyoming massacre. Of the former, the following is a cut, 


showing the dainty tripping from rock to rock of the sparkling 
white stream. Before we continue our trip from Mauch Chunk 
on this road, we will take the Nesquehoning Valley Branch 
Railroad, from thence to Tamanend. On this trip we pass over 
a bridge, said to be the highest in the country. It is 1,100 
feet long, and 168 feet above the Little Schuylkill, over which 
it is built, from one mountain to another. The view from this 



bridge is magnificent ; and though, from its great height, it 
would seem as if there were danger in running trains across it, 
yet it is built with so much care and regard for security, that 
one may give himself up to the enjoyment of the scene with- 
out fear for his safety. The illustration gives a very good idea 
of the strength and compactness of this bridge. 

Now we resume our journey from Mauch Chunk through 


scenery so wild and grand and lonely, that it seems almost 
desecration to penetrate it, arriving at Penn Haven Junction, 
from which three branches — the Beaver Meadow, Hazleton, 
and Mahanoy — run to important coal centres, distant sixty- 
six, seventy, and eighty-one miles. Penn Haven was founded 
in 1838, and now has an immense coal-business. Near this 
place is Stony Creek, which is named from a trout-stream in 



its vicinity. Rockport, the next point, is a village situated in 
a romantic gorge in Buck Mountain., Passing Tannery, a lum- 
ber-station, we come next to White Haven, noted for its lum- 
ber-business, of which it is the chief depot on the Lehigh. It 
was settled in 1835, and named for Josiah White, the superin- 
tendent of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. Its 
present population is about 1,500. Here the Nescopec Railroad 


emerges for the Upper Lehigh ; and, after a ride of nine miles, 
a coal-breaker is reached (one of the best in the anthracite 
region, shipping five thousand tons of coal a week) ; a good 
hotel, and a number of miners 9 houses, comprising the entire 
population. From this point, we ramble through the woods for 
half a mile, strike into a small footpath leading up to the top 
of Prospect Rock ; and well does the scene repay for the toil* 



some ascent. Miles and miles of valleys stretch out before us ; 
some partly cleared, some still filled with the growth of the 
primeval forest. Opposite this rock is another, called Cloud 
Point, justly named thus, as its top is often veiled in filmy 
vapor, indescribably beautiful, as the sun tinges it with roseate 
hues. A thunder-storm seen from this point is one of the 


grandest spectacles in Nature ; and, as the forked lightning 
cuts across the lurid sky, the glen between Prospect Rock and 
Cloud Point seems one blaze of fire. 

With a long, lingering glance at all these beauties, which we 
are so loath to leave, we return to Bethlehem, and proceed to 
Easton, where the road terminates. 



Freemansburg is the first station, situated on an eminence, 
which commands a view of one of the most picturesque spots 
on the railroad line, called the Gem of the Valley, resorted to 
by picnic parties; and we present a view of this charming little 


spot, with a small company gathered upon its plateau on the 
top of the hill. 

The next point is Redington, also noted for its charming 
scenery. At this point, the Coleraine Iron Company have 




erected two furnaces, capable of working five hundred tons per 
week, and employing nearly two hundred men. 

Glendon, the next place of interest, is the location of the 

works of the Glendon Iron 
Company, whose annual pro- 
duction of pig-iron is about 
fifty-seven thousand tons. 

East on is the capital of 
Northampton County, situ- 
ated on the Delaware River, 
immediately above the Le- 
high* It is built on a point 

cloud point. °f l an< * a * *^ e junction of 

the Lehigh River and Bush- 
kill Creek with the Delaware; and from its location commands 
a delightful view of the surrounding country, which is rich and 
highly cultivated, abounding in limestone and iron ore. It is a 
flourishing city, well laid out, and amply supplied with water 



and gas. It has extensive manufactories, among which are 
flouring-mills, oil-mills, saw-mills, iron-founderies, cotton-facto- 
ries, and rifle-works. Population is 10,000. At Easton we 
take the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, for 
the Delaware Water Gap, one of the most beautiful spots 












in Pennsylvania, formed by the waters of the Delaware plun- 
ging through rocks at the base of the Kittatinny Mountain. 
It is about two miles long ; and the rocks between which it 
passes are some sixteen hundred feet in height. At the south- 
eastern end, the defile is so narrow, that there is scarcely 
room for the railroad to pass. 



Returning again to Philadelphia, we take the Philadelphia, 
Wilmington, and Baltimore road. Starting from the depot at 
Broad Street and Washington Avenue, passing through Darby 
in the city, Sharon Hill (a new town), Glenolden, a quiet 

retreat of great beauty and comfort, Ridley Park, and Crumm 
Lynne, we arrive at Chester, the oldest town in the State, it 
having been settled some thirty years before Philadelphia. An 
account has already been given why this town received the 


name of Chester. It is now an enterprising, thrifty place, with 
many industrial works, among which is an extensive shipyard 
of twenty-three acres, where the largest ships are built. It has 
good common schools, and a Military Institute, and is the seat 
of the Crozier Theological Seminary. 

Now back once more to Philadelphia, we take the West 
Chester Railroad from its depot in West Philadelphia, and are 
carried on through lovely valleys and towering hills in Chester 
and Delaware Counties, until we come to West Chester, twenty- 
two and a half miles from Philadelphia, beautifully situated on 
elevated ground. It has very fine buildings, public and private, 
and many excellent schools. It is the seat of a Normal School, 
of which we shall speak hereafter. 

We have now followed out the principal railroads of Penn- 
sylvania, starting from Philadelphia, and given such a descrip- 
tion of the towns, boroughs, and cities through which they 
pass, as the limits of this work will allow ; and the only place 
to be described hereafter is this city, the great commercial mart 
of the Commonwealth. 



Pennsylvania Hospital — Insane Department — Stephen Girard — Sick Seamen 
— Lying-in Department — Dispensary — Hospital Property taxed — Penn's 
Bust — Kirkbride Hospital — Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania — 
Lunatic Hospital, Harrisbnrg — Insane Hospital, Danville — Insane Hospi- 
tal, Warren — Insane Hospital, Dixmont — German Hospital — Lackawanna 
Hospital — Wilkesbarre Hospital — Anthracite Hospital — Reform School — 
Pennsylvania Training School — Deaf -Mutes — Sheltering Arms — Western 

IT was near the close of the year 1750 that measures were 
set on foot for the establishment of a hospital in Philadel- 
phia. Dr. Thomas Bond, the originator of the movement, was 
at that time one of the most distinguished physicians of the 
city. He began by soliciting subscriptions ; and, in furthering 
this plan, he was much assisted by Franklin, who, through the 
newspapers, prepared the public mind, and thus they were suc- 
cessful in obtaining the number desired. But it was soon found 
that it must be placed upon a legislative basis to insure com- 
plete success ; and a memorial was therefore presented to the 
Provincial Assembly, showing the need of such an establish- 
ment, and requesting that a charter should be granted to the 
contributors, and also for pecuniary assistance. This was pre- 
sented Jan. 23, 1751 ; but it was not until the 7th of February, 
that the bill was passed, incorporating " the Contributors to the 
Pennsylvania Hospital," and appropriating two thousand pounds 
currency to establish a suitable building, which sum would be 
paid when an equal amount should be subscribed by individ- 
uals. The opposition to this memorial, at first felt, was prin- 
cipally from country members of the Assembly, who feared 
that the city would be exclusively benefited ; but one of the 



provisions of the charter was, that patients should be received 
from any part of the Province without partiality ; and so well 
satisfied were the people with the charter, that, in a short time 
from its publication, considerably more than was required was 
raised, and their first Board of Managers chosen, which, ac- 
cording to one of the provisions of the charter, consisted of 
twelve men from among the contributors, — Joshua Crosby, Ben- 
jamin Franklin, Thomas Bond, Samuel Hazard, Richard Peters, 
Israel Pemberton, jun., Samuel Rhodes, Hugh Roberts, Joseph 
Morris, John Smith, Evan Morgan, and Charles Norris. John 
Rynell was elected Treasurer. 

Immediately upon their election, the managers sent to Thomas 
and Richard Penn, then proprietaries of the Province, a full 
account of what had been done, asking them for a grant of land 
on which to erect a hospital. They also wrote to Thomas 
Hyam and Sylvanus Bevan to bespeak their intercession with 
the proprietaries, and mentioned as a suitable spot for their 
purpose the unappropriated portion of the square on the south 
side of Mulberry, between Ninth and Tenth Streets. The pro- 
prietaries were favorable to their petition, and sent out a 
complete charter, and an order to their lieutenant-governor, 
James Hamilton, conveying to the corporation a lot of ground 
on the north side of Sassafras Street, between Sixth and 
Seventh, being a portion of the grounds now known as the 
Franklin Square, with this condition, that, if there should not 
be constant succession of contributors to meet and choose 
managers, the land thus conveyed should revert to them, or 
their heirs. In view of this provision, and, moreover, deeming 
the site offered too damp and low to be healthful, they declined 
the grant of the proprietaries, but addressed another letter to 
them, urging their plea. 

In order to carry into effect the object of the subscribers, 
the private mansion of Judge John Einsey, situated on the 
south side of Market, west of Fifth Street, which, with the 
grounds, occupied about one-third of the square, was hired by 
the managers for forty pounds a year, and immediately occupied 
as a temporary hospital, and continued to be thus used for four 


In February, 1752, the first two patients were received. The 
physicians and surgeons appointed at this time were Lloyd 
Zachary, Thomas and Phineas Bond, Thomas Cadwallader, 
Samuel Preston Moore, and John Redmand. 

Not receiving any donation from the Penns, the managers 
resolved upon purchasing a lot suitable for the permanent loca- 
tion of the hospital ; and in December, 1764, they bought the 
whole square, except a depth of sixty feet on Spruce Street, for 
five hundred pounds, on* which the old hospital now stands. 
Ten years later, the Penns gave the sixty feet, and also an 
annuity of forty pounds. This lot was then far out of town ; 
and, to get to it, people had to travel through the fields for a 
considerable distance. The next thing was to erect a suitable 
building ; and the east wing, facing Eighth Street, was first 
built. May 28, 1755, the corner-stone was laid, with an inscrip- 
tion prepared by Dr. Franklin. In 1872, in making repairs, 
and when digging in front of this wing, this corner-stone was 
uncovered, and the inscription found in a state of perfect 
preservation, which is as follows : — 













Patients were first admitted to this building December, 1756. 
At that time Philadelphia contained less than thirty thousand 
inhabitants. The measure was exceedingly popular, and sub- 
scriptions came in readily. William Allen, Chief Justice of 
the Province, gave two hundred and fifty pounds. 

Franklin, " our great statesman, philosopher, and economist," 


suggested that twelve tin boxes should be made, and marked 
44 Charity for Hospital" and that one of these be kept in each 
manager's house. Legacies were soon bequeathed to the hos- 
pital. Matthew Koplin, a German, gave a lot of ground, 
lying north of the city, to the institution. Donations were also 
sent from the West Indies, and from many of the Society of 
Friends in England. 

44 Among the important results of the interest felt in Eng- 
land was the receipt of a large sum of money, consequent upon 
the settlement of the concerns of a joint-stock partnership, 
denominated the "Pennsylvania Land Company in London." 
In the year 1760 an act of Parliament was passed, vesting in 
trustees the estates of that company in Pennsylvania, New Jer- 
sey, and Maryland, in order that they might be sold, and the 
proceeds distributed. But as it appeared probable, that, for a 
considerable portion of these proceeds, no just claimant would 
be found, the insertion of a clause in the act was procured by 
the friends of the hospital, granting to that institution all the 
money which might remain unclaimed in the hands of the 
trustees upon the 24th of June, 1770. Thomas Hyam appears 
to have been chiefly instrumental in bringing about this impor- 
tant event for the hospital ; and the counsel and aid of Dr. 
Fothergill and David Barclay, in connection with Dr. Franklin, 
then in England, were very usefully resorted to in the ultimate 
settlement of the business. Nearly thirteen thousand pounds, 
or about thirty-four thousand dollars, accrued ultimately to the 
institution from this source, though the last portions of the 
sum were not received until after the close of the Revolutionary 
War." 1 

The insane, as well as the sick, were admitted into the hos- 
pital. The second year after it was opened, there were fifty- 
three patients ; and, in the year preceding the devolution, the 
number had increased to four hundred and thirty-five. Con- 
siderable sums were received from the friends of the insane 
patients ; and it was in a prosperous condition at the time Inde- 
pendence was declared. 

44 Such were the regulations, and such the condition of the 

* Wood's Historical and Biographical Memoirs, &a, p. 127. 


hospital, at the breaking-out of the Revolutionary War. It had 
been established on a firm foundation ; had matured its arrange- 
ments by an experience of many years; and was in a condition 
to expand with the growing means of the Province, and the 
accumulation of material for its beneficent operation. It had 
passed its period of development, had escaped the dangers of 
infancy, and was in a vigorous youth, with every promise of a 
noble maturity. 

44 But it was now to stand a severe trial of its stability. A 
storm had long been gathering in the political atmosphere of 
the Provinces, which broke out at length into the fury of civil 
and revolutionary war. It swept over the whole land. Social 
habits and relations, with their beautiful verdure and bloom, 
were crushed to earth beneath the blast, or torn and scattered 
by its violence ; the arts and business of life, the noble erec- 
tions of skill and industry, tottered upon their foundation, and 
stood roofless in the storm ; the deepest rooted institutions of 
science and benevolence were uptorn or broken, and the frag- 
ments of their tempest-tossed limbs strewn over the country. 
When the rage of contest had ceased, and peace again shone 
out upon the land, the people, recovering from their stupefac- 
tion, began to look around them, to examine what had escaped 
destruction*to gather up the scattered fragments of their insti- 
tutions, and to restore the beauty and beneficence of order to 
society once more. 

44 What at this time was the state of our institution ? It had 
not come unscathed out of the tempest. 4 In the excess of 
party bitterness, four of its most efficient managers were ban- 
ished to the wilds of Western Virginia.' " l 

In January, 1792, another application was made to the Legis- 
lature for aid. A joint memorial, signed by the managers, 
treasurer, and physicians, giving an historical sketch of the 
institution, and stating how much it had been favored by the 
Assembly in former times, was sent to that body, praying for 
aid to complete the building. The Assembly granted the 
hospital the sum of ten thousand pounds, and, in addition, the 
unclaimed dividends of bankrupts' estates, amounting in all to 
nineteen thousand dollars. 

a See Wood, p. 134. 


In April, 1796, twenty-five thousand dollars more were appro- 
priated by the Assembly. By these appropriations, the west 
wing was so far completed as to be occupied in the same year. 
The wife of Stephen Girard was for twenty-five years and one 
month the inmate of the insane department of the hospital. 
A few months after entering the hospital, she gave birth to 
her only child, which soon died, in consequence of which the 
orphans of Philadelphia became his heirs. Mr. Girard was 
always a friend to the hospital, and made many donations to 
it. The following anecdote of him may be related in this 
connection. The hospital was in want of funds; and the 
venerable and good Quaker, Samuel Coates, one of the directors, 
said he would see if he could get a donation from Mr. Girard. 
Meeting him in the street, Mr. Coates said, " Stephen, we want 
some money for the hospital." Mr. Girard replied, "Well, 
come to my house to-morrow morning at eight o'clock." Mr. 
Coates went at the appointed time, and found Mr. Girard at 
breakfast. He asked him to take a cup of coffee, which invita- 
tion Mr. Coates accepted. After breakfast Mr. Coates said, 
u Now, Stephen, we will proceed to business." — " Well, what 
do you want ? " said Mr. Girard. " Just what thee pleases, 
Stephen," said Mr. Coates. Girard then drew a check for two 
thousand dollars, which Mr. Coates took, and put into his pocket 
without looking at it. Mr. Girard said, " What, you not look at 
my check ? " — " Oh, no, Stephen I " said Mr. Coates : " beggars 
must not be choosers." — " Giva it back to me, then," said Mr. 
Girard. " Oh, no, Stephen ! " said the shrewd old Quaker : 
" one bird in the hand is worth two in the bush." At which 
Mr. Girard said, " By George ! you have taken me on the right 
tack." He then drew a check for five thousand dollars, and, 
handing it to Mr. Coates, said, " Will you look at that ? " — 
" Well," said Mr. Coates, " if it pleases thee, Stephen, I will." 
— " Now give me back the other," said Mr. Girard, which Mr. 
Coates did. The old Quaker perfectly understood the man 
with whom he was dealing. 

In 1799 George Latimer, the Collector of the Port of Phila- 
delphia, requested that sick and disabled seamen, both of the 
public and private service, might be received into the hospital, 


for a compensation to be paid by the United States Govern- 
ment. His petition was granted, and led to an arrangement by 
which the seamen of the merchant service were admitted for a 
certain weekly sum deducted from their wages, and where they 
were retained until cured, or dismissed by the collector. 

In January, 1803, a lying-in department was established for 
poor and deserving married women. The First Troop of Phila- 
delphia Cavalry donated a sum derived from their pay for 
services in the Revolutionary War, the annual income of which 
was between five and six hundred dollars. 

In 1807 a dispensary was established for out-door patients ; 
and physicians were appointed, at a small salary, to attend 

Up to 1808 the hospital property had remained untaxed ; but 
in this year it was assessed. The Board of Managers made an 
unsuccessful attempt to have the property exempted in January, 
1809. Similar attempts were made, and met with the same ill 
success, for many years, till at length, by bringing in the popular 
aid of the voters, the act was finally repealed, and the whole 
property of the hospital was declared free from taxation. 

In June, 1802, a marble bust of William Penn, believed to 
be the first executed in this country, was presented by James 
Traquair ; and the leaden statue in front of the hospital, of 
the same noble man, was presented by his grandson, John 
Penn, in September, 1804. Among many other donations was 
that of Stephen Girard, which in July, 1832, amounted to 

The accommodations for the insane becoming too narrow, 
and the room which they occupied being wanted for other 
patients, the contributors instructed the managers to propose a 
suitable site for a separate asylum at a future meeting. In 
1832, and subsequently in 1835, the vacant grounds east, west, 
and south-west of the hospital were authorized to be sold to 
defray the expense of the new building. The site selected was 
two miles west of the city ; its corner-stone laid June 22, 1836 ; 
and the house received patients Jan. 1, 1841. 

From this period until Oct. 27, 1859, the male and female 
insane occupied the same building. At this time, a new edifice 


having been erected on the same grounds, the males were 
removed to it; and now the Pennsylvania Hospital for the 
Insane consists of two separate departments, —one for males, 
the other for females. Dr. Thomas S. Eirkbride was appointed 
Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, at 
the opening of the institution, and has so remained until the 
present time ; and under his supervision it is one of the best 
conducted of its kind in our country. 

From the opening of the Pennsylvania Hospital, to the year 
1841, there were 4,336 insane patients admitted; and from 
that year, when the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane was 
established, the number was 3,360 down to the close of 1859, 
making, from the first opening of the Pennsylvania Hospital to 
the end of 1859, a total of 7,696 insane patients. 

The Hospital op the University op Pennsylvania 
is situated in West Philadelphia, on the Darby Road, due 
south of the main building of the university, the site on which 
it stands having been given by the city, upon the condition 
that it maintain fifty free beds. An illustration of this hospital 
comes properly in this place from the grant of two hundred 
thousand dollars by the State Legislature to carry on this noble 
charity. The design of the hospital comprises a central build- 
ing with six pavilions, each to cost one hundred thousand 

The State Lunatic Hospital, Harrisburg, in 1874 showed 
an average of 395.1 patients; the highest number during the 
year being 419, the least 376. The average cost per head 
was $286.03, or a weekly cost of $5.50, It has 181 acres of 
land ; and its estimated value, including buildings, is $298,300. 
Its personal property is $30,000. It gives accommodation to 
two hundred of each sex. New floors were laid in the north 
wing of the hospital ; old doors and window-frames were 
replaced by new ones ; coats of lime and cement were put upon 
the walls, from which the old plastering was removed, which pro- 
duced a decided change in the atmosphere. It was also relieved 
from the pernicious effects of overcrowding, as the Danville 
hospital was in sufficient order to allow the admittance of all 
the patients of the Northern district. The main building was 

i jJs^csia' 






found by the inspectors in good order, and also the laundry, 
and other outdoor buildings. The gas-works are nearly com- 
pleted. Its officers are efficient and competent, and, with its 
superintendent, are constantly making efforts to extend its 
usefulness, with every possible economy, and with a prospect 
of success. 

State Hospital fob the Insane, Danville, is an institu- . 
tion of very recent growth, being first occupied some time in 
1873. It had, Sept. 30, 1874, accommodations for 240 patients, 
or 120 of each sex. The average number for the year ending at 
this time was 198 males ; females, 79 : the largest number had 
been 141 males, 97 females ; the least, 100 males and 62 females. 
The average cost per head was $262.60, or a weekly cost of 

It has 250 acres of land ; and its value, including buildings, 
is $670,000 ; the personal property, $40,000. It has no funds 
or investments. Its receipts for the year were $52,151.21 ; viz,, 
from State, $14,504.17 ; from county authorities for indigent 
patients, $29,746.48; from private patients, $7,900.56. The 
expenditures were $52,238.19. 

This edifice, when it shall be completed, will not be surpassed 
by any in the country for general arrangement and space. The 
north wing is now nearly done ; and, when the corresponding 
south wing is ready for occupancy, from six hundred to seven 
hundred patients can be cared for. 

The State Hospital fob tele Insane, Warren, is not 
yet completed ; but work was commenced for the foundation 
April 8, 1874. The outer walls of the building, and part of 
the walls of the air-shafts, and the arches to close them in, 
were laid by Sept. 16 of that year. Its corner-stone was laid 
by his Excellency, Gov. J. F. Hartranft, Sept. 10, 1874. It is 
to consist of a large central building, and six continuous 
wings, to be subdivided into three lateral, and three transverse 
wings upon each side of the main central building. The build- 
ing is to be of large size, and will contain all modern improve- 
ments. The property contains 330 acres, and cost $33,000. It 
is an admirable location, fronting Conewango River, and in the 
rear has high ground, covered with wood, on which is also 


sufficient stone for the hospital building, of a good quality, 
easily worked, and of a light, cheerful color. 

Of other institutions, which, though not State institutions, 
are aided by it, is the Western Hospital fob Insane, at 
Dixmont. It owes its origin to the benevolent citizens of 
Alleghany County, who made contributions to found a public 
hospital for the insane and afflicted, as well as the sick, helpless, 
and infirm. 

Their means not being found sufficient, they appealed to the 
Legislature, who added a supplement to the charter in May 8, 
1855, appropriated funds to extend accommodations for the 
insane, and also empowered the authorities of the respective 
counties of the Western district to send their indigent insane to 
it in the ratio of their population. A further supplement was 
approved March 19, 1856, extending aid to construct additional 
buildings to the one already in existence, for the special 
accommodation of the insane of Western Pennsylvania. 
Accordingly, a tract of land on the right bank of the Ohio, 
seven miles below Pittsburg, was chosen for the purpose, and 
buildings erected, which have culminated in the present edifice 
at Dixmont, through the liberal appropriations of the Legis- 
lature, from time to time. 

There has been but one instance in which the State has been 
represented in the board of managers ; the Assembly being fully 
satisfied with the management of the institution, and content 
to manifest its approval by regular annual appropriations for 
its support. 

Its officers are a president, two vice-presidents, a secretary 
and treasurer, twenty-one managers chosen by the contributors 
under the provisions in the charter, three managers appointed 
by the governor and nineteen managers for life, being so from 
donations of a thousand dollars each. 

This establishment is always found in the best condition; 
and under the excellent care of Dr. Reed, and the intelligent 
board of managers, conduces much to the benefit and improve- 
ment of the class for which it provides. 

The appropriation in 1874 amounted to thirty-two thousand 
dollars, for the following purposes ; viz., salaries, wages, and 


support of the house, twenty-five thousand dollars ; insurance, 
two thousand dollars ; grading, improvement of grounds, and 
protecting building from threatened land slide, ten thousand 
dollars ; total, thirty-seven thousand dollars. Of the latter 
item, the amount appropriated for 1875 was fifteen thousand 

The Gebman Hospital, Philadelphia, is another institu- 
tion aided by the State. It was organized to afford relief to 
the indigent sick and disabled ; and is supported by contribu- 
tions from members of the corporation, donations, and receipts 
from pay patients. The Legislature of 1873 appropriated twenty 
thousand dollars to enlarge and improve its building, on con- 
dition that the same amount should be raised by private contri- 
bution, and that the Commonwealth should have a lien, secured 
by mortgage, which shall be collected if the said property shall 
be used for other purposes. 

Its building, at the corner of Girard and Corinthian Avenues, 
was formerly a private residence ; and there is now an exten- 
sion being added, which will increase its accommodations from 
forty beds to one hundred and twenty-five. Its officers are 
very efficient ; and every attention, both ordinary and medical, 
is given to the sick. 

Lackawanna Hospital, at Scranton, also receives aid 
from the State ; and, at the regular session of the Legislature 
for 1873, an appropriation of ten thousand dollars was made, 
to be used for the purchase of real estate for the said hospital ; 
the Commonwealth to be secured in a first lien upon premises 
so purchased. 

An additional appropriation of ten thousand dollars was 
made in the session of 1874, to be expended in the payment 
of a mortgage of four thousand dollars, and in the repairing, 
improving, maintenance, and support of the institution for 
that year. 

Wilkesbarbb Hospital and State Beneficiary was organ- 
ized in 1872. It has about twenty beds. It had always been 
supported by voluntary contributions from the citizens, when, 
impressed by the importance of the services it rendered, the 
Legislature of 1874 passed an act appropriating five thousand 


dollars for its maintenance for the current year, and for its 
further extension. A corps of physicians give their services 
without compensation. 

The Anthracite Hospital Association was formed, and 
fifteen thousand dollars were appropriated, upon condition that 
the court grant the charter applied for, and that a like sum 
of the funds of the association has actually been invested in 
the purchase of ground, or the erection of buildings, or build- 
ing, for the gratuitous care and cure of persons injured in the 
mines, or in the transporting of coal over the railroads of this 

House op Refuge op Western Pennsylvania, now 
known as the Pennsylvania Reform School, is located at Alle- 
ghany. Its charter bears date April 22, 1850. The cost of 
the buildings, as near as can be ascertained, was a hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, of which the State provided ninety- 
three thousand five hundred dollars. There are thirteen acres 
included in the ground, originally costing ten thousand dol- 
lars. The present estimated value of the real estate is two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars ; and the personal property, 
fifty thousand dollars. 

The constantly increasing numbers render extended accom- 
modations necessary ; and, it not being practicable to extend the 
buildings at Alleghany, a new location on the Chartiers Road, 
about eighteen miles from Pittsburg, has been chosen, consist- 
ing of five hundred acres, at a cost of $88,621. The corner- 
stone of a new building was laid July, 1873, by Gov. Hart- 
ranft and Senator Scott. The family system has been adopted ; 
and six of the buildings for boys are now under roof ; and sev- 
eral of those designed for girls are far advanced towards com- 

There is to be a change of discipline in the new institution, 
the prison idea to be entirely abolished. The system of labor 
pursued ig the congregated one. Superintendent Avery, in the 
performance of his difficult duties, is pre-eminent. The last 
State appropriation was $119,500. 

Pennsylvania Training-School pob Feeble-minded 
Children was organized Feb. 10, 1853, by a few benevolent 


gentlemen, at the office of J. J. Barclay, Esq., in Philadelphia, 
and in April 7th of that year was incorporated and endowed. 
At first rooms were rented on Schoolhouse Lane, near Ger- 
man town ; and in July it opened with eight children. Owing 
to lack of funds, for a long time its success seemed doubtful ; 
but two successful appeals to the Legislature, backed by the 
public, so far encouraged them, that in February, 1855, a house 
and lot in Germantown, on Woodbine Avenue, were purchased 
for sixteen thousand dollars; and the Legislature, to aid in 
payment of this purchase, donated ten thousand dollars, upon 
condition that the same amount be raised by subscription. 

This location did not prove a desirable one ; and in 1857 the 
site upon which the present building is located, one mile from 
Media, in Pelaware County, was purchased ; and the institution 
was formally opened Nov. 2, 1859. 

There are in all about eighty-nine acres, one-eighth of 
which is occupied by the main buildings, children's play- 
grounds, and a grove on the north and west. There is a truck- 
garden of six acres, and forty acres of good arable and grai- 
ing land. The remainder is yet uncultivated. It is estimated 
at $14,414, donated by friends of the institution. The main 
building is two hundred and fifty-six feet front, with wings at 
each end one hundred feet deep, and a central extension in the 
rear one hundred and twenty-two feet. One hundred feet south 
of this is a building fifty-six feet by sixty feet, two stories high, 
in which are the laundry, heating-apparatus, and shops. The 
total cost of these buildings was $169,618, of which the State 
appropriated $97,500, and $83,918 were donated by friends of 
the institution in Philadelphia, Delaware, Chester, and Alle- 
ghany Counties. 

The management of this institution, under Dr. Eerlin and 
his assistants, is admirable ; and the objects aimed at have been 
very successfully realized. The average number of inmates for 
1874 was two hundred and twenty-two. 

In addition to the usual appropriation from the State, appli- 
cation will be made for ten thousand dollars to erect a building, 
which is estimated to cost thirty thousand dollars, for asylum 


Home fob the Deaf-Mutes, at Pittsburg, had granted to 
it by the Legislature of 1873 the sum of two thousand dollars, 
towards the maintenance and education of its inmates. 

Sheltering Abms, Pittsburg, is not yet completed; but 
an application for five thousand dollars was granted by the 
Legislature at its session of 1873. Ground has been donated 
worth twenty thousand dollars ; and a building costing twenty 
thousand dollars has been erected. 

The State Penitentiary for the Western District 
of Pennsylvania, at Alleghany, was first organized by an 
act of Assembly, passed March 3, 1818. A Board of Commis- 
sioners was appointed May 20, 1818, who selected a site, and 
proceeded to the construction of buildings, which, as originally 
planned, were finished November, 1827, although the first pris- 
oner was received July 21, 1826. 

The land was donated by the town of Alleghany, on condi- 
tion that five hundred thousand dollars should be expended by 
the State, in constructing such an institution at this place. The 
prison lot contains 6-^ acres, as by survey of city engineer. It 
is all enclosed, the cell buildings being surrounded on three 
sides by a wall of cut stone, plastered inside, all originally thirty 
feet high ; but, by grading of streets, it is somewhat less on one 

The front building is three stories, with a basement. It is 
about one hundred and fifty feet long by thirty feet deep, and 
is now occupied for offices, store-rooms, and warden's resi- 
dence. Three blocks of cells diverge from the middle of the 
rear of the centre building. They are two stories high, and 
contain three hundred and twenty-four cells, and, up to 1863, 
had cost $445,066.54, which has since been increased for 
repairs and boilers, $13,300. Another block (D) has recently 
been added, separate from the others, parallel with the east wall, 
also two stories high. It contains twenty-four cells, and is now 
occupied as a female ward, hospital, dispensary, bath-rooms, 
laundry, library, store-rooms, dungeons, receiving-cells, and a 
chapel, and will accommodate six hundred and fifty persons. 
Its cost was $85,471.92, of which the Legislature appropriated 
$82,013.24. All the buildings are of out stone, with the excep- 


tion of this block, which is of hard brick. The front building 
is enclosed by a wooden paling fence on the sides, and an iron 
one on the front. 

The land, being granted from the public common ground for 
a special purpose, cannot be properly appraised as real estate ; 
but, if it were divided into small lots, it would bring over 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The estimated value, 
Jan. 1, 1870, of personal property, was : utensils, $4,163.95 ; 
furniture, $1,919.68 ; subsistence, $4,113.54; manufactured 
goods and materials, $18,992.04; total, $29,189.21. 

The average size of the cells on the first floor is 11 feet 10 
inches high, 15 feet 2 inches long, 7 feet 10 inches wide : on 
the second floor, they are 11 feet 7 inches high, 11 feet 6 inches 
long, 7 feet 7 inches wide. They each have a window, the 
average size of which is 2 feet 5 inches by 4 inches ; ventilator 
in outside wall, 2 feet by 4 inches ; ceiling ventilator, 6 inches 
diameter. Each cell has two doors : the outside doors of one 
block are of iron, all the others being heavy wooden ones, 
which in hot weather are open for ventilation, at other times 
kept locked. The inside cell-doors are fastened with heavy 
bolts : the outside doors have each a heavy lock. 

The cells were built for the separate system, but are larger 
than any yet built for a congregate system, and with some 
alterations of doors and steam-pipes, which would place the 
occupants under more rigid surveillance than is now practicable, 
would make model cells for a congregate prison. 

Nearly all the cells have but one occupant ; and, as far as 
possible, they are kept separate, except when associated for 
" work, learning, or religious exercises." Each prisoner is 
furnished with wooden trestles and bed-boards, or a hammock, 
table, stool, shelf, bucket, broom, tin-cup, plate, molasses can, 
two pans for coffee and soup, spoon, knife, salt-box, vinegar 
bottle, comb and dirt-box; hydrant and waste-pipe in each 
cell ; gas in all the cells, from six to eight and a half, P.M. 
The gas is sometimes required to be lighted in the daytime by 
the weavers and shoemakers. 

In the female ward, the cells are rather larger than the 
others, and have wooden floors ; all the others being of stone. 


These cells, twelve in number, have inside iron slat doors : all 
others are solid, with a slide, five by eight inches, in each door, 
through which food is delivered. The slide is left down in day- 
time for ventilation. 

The bedding consists of a tick, made in the penitentiary, 
filled with rye or oat straw, three blankets in winter, two in 
summer, one sheet, one straw pillow ; the sheet washed every 
two weeks, blankets twice a year, bedding changed three times 
a year. ,A11 the clothing is made in the prison, of Kentucky 
jean, half cotton, half wool, pattern gray and black bars. 
Each prisoner is supplied with one pair of pants (many with 
two pairs), one vest, one jacket, two cotton checked shirts, 
two pairs of woollen socks, one pair of coarse, low-cut shoes, 
averaging two pairs yearly. Men whose work requires it are 
furnished with extra clothes. 

Dr. D. N. Rankin, the physician, resides near the peniten- 
tiary. He makes an official visit of the cells once a week, and 
at any other time, when asked by any officer, visits prisoners, 
whether previously sick or not. It is his duty to examine and 
report on food, clothing, condition of cells and prisoners. He 
has charge of the hospital, and in person makes up many of his 
prescriptions in a dispensary attached thereto. He performs 
all the surgical and most of the dental operations. He also 
is required to keep a full record of prescriptions, directions, 
diseases and their treatment. 

Great pains are taken that every prisoner shall be made 
acquainted with the rules and regulations of the prison, as far 
as they relate to himself. A copy is placed in every cell ; 
and, if any prisoner is unable to read readily, they are read to 
him by an officer, soon after his entrance. 

All the prisoners attend religious exercises in the chapel 
on Sunday morning ; and about one hundred and forty attend 
Sunday school in the afternoon. They are divided into fifteen 
classes, in charge of teachers from the outside. Every cell has 
a Bible ; and every prisoner has opportunity to obtain religious 

A copy-book, spelling-book, and arithmetic are supplied to 
any who will make use of them ; and other books of an educa- 


tional character may be bought by the prisoners or their friends. 
They may also subscribe to religious weekly papers, without 
regard to their denominational character. The chaplain gives 
secular instruction during the week, in various parts of the 
prison. Ministers of any denomination can visit prisoners 
whenever desired ; and Catholic priests make weekly visits to 
members of that church. 

Every prisoner whose conduct is satisfactory is allowed to 
write a letter once a month, and also to receive one in the same 
time. These privileges are taken from them for some trivial 
offence ; if more serious, a few hours or days in a partially 
darkened cell, on bread and water. In very, rare cases, 
shackles upon hands and feet are used ; but months sometimes 
elapse without severe measures being resorted to. 

The library contains nearly two thousand volumes, embra- 
cing history, biography, religion, travels, novels, and miscellane- 
ous works. A book is given to each prisoner every two weekB ; 
but if a book is injured, or for any breach of rules, the favor 
is suspended. 

The principal occupations are weaving cotton and check shirt- 
ings and rag-carpet, manufacture of boots and shoes, cigars, and 
cigar-boxes. The most remunerative work is weaving, which 
has long been a specialty in this institution. An "over-work" 
system has been in operation several times; and, although 
it does not as yet amount to much, it is to be presumed that 
it will be an effectual aid to discipline, should it ever become 
general, as many seem anxious to engage in it, to assist them 
when discharged, or to enable them to send money to their 




University of Pennsylvania— Western University of Pennsylvania — Lafay- 
ette College — Other Colleges in the State — Normal Schools — High Schools 
—Private Schools — Business Colleges — Provisions of the New Constitu- 
tion— City School Systems — Of Philadelphia— of Pittsburg — Of Alle- 

THE University op Pennsylvania was formerly located 
in Philadelphia, on Ninth Street, between Market and 
Chestnut Streets. It was established in 1750, as a charity 
school and academy, on Fourth Street, owing its formation 
largely to. the enterprise of Franklin ; extended to a College in 
1755, and to a University in 1779, which was then removed to 
Ninth Street. As an Academy, there was one school for Latin, 
one for English, and one for mathematics, all under the care of 
three masters, with assistant ushers, the principal master taking 
the title of rector. The charity department gave instruction 
to the children of poor citizens gratis. The schools prospered 
so abundantly, that in July 13, 1753, a charter was granted to 
the trustees by the proprietors ; and they were incorporated as 
the " Trustees of the Academy and Charitable School in the 
Province of Pennsylvania." Soon after this, to the branches 
already taught were added logic, rhetoric, natural and moral 
philosophy. The Rev. William Smith, who afterwards became 
so famous, was the teacher of these sciences. The study of 
Greek was joined to that of Latin ; and, as their course of 
instruction now did not differ materially from that pursued in 
colleges, it only remained for them to assume the title, and the 
privilege of conferring degrees upon the students. In pursu- 



ance of this plan, the teachers recommended to the board of 
trustees, that application should be made for additions to their 
charter, investing them with the rights of a collegiate body. 
The application was successful, and the proprietors granted an 
additional charter June 16, 1755, giving to the board the name 
of " The Trustees of the College, Academy, and Charitable 
School of Philadelphia." This condition, however, was imposed, 
that the trustees and professors should subscribe the customary 
oaths or affirmations of allegiance to the king of Great Britain. 
The first commencement of the college was on the 17th of 
May, 1757, when its honors were conferred on seven young 

From this period the institution grew rapidly, and so admi- 
rably was it conducted, that it secured the patronage of the 
distant colonies, and even the West Indies, as well as the imme- 
diate neighborhood. The exercises of the college were sus- 
pended during a portion of the Revolutionary War, and com- 
menced again September, 1778, immediately after Philadelphia 
was evacuated by the British. 

Towards the close of the Revolution, the Assembly abrogated 
the old charter ; and, under the new one which they granted, 
the name of the University of Pennsylvania was adopted. The 
new trustees met for the first time in December, 1779, organ- 
ized themselves into a board, and appointed Joseph Reed 

The university has been removed to West Philadelphia, on 
the Darby Road, and consists of three elegant buildings on 
Academical Hill; viz., "Hospital," "Medical Department," 
and " Department of Arts and Science." A plate and descrip- 
tion of the first have already been given in the chapter upon 
hospitals. Of the second we shall speak hereafter. The last 
and main building of the university has a front of two hundred 
and sixty feet, is three stories in height, exclusive of the base- 
ment. The wings are each one hundred and two feet deep. 
The exterior walls are of serpentine stone, with coping, but- 
tresses, and gables of Ohio stone, surmounted by highly orna- 
mental towers. The main entrance is through an ornate Gothio 
porch in the middle of the front, supported by columns of 


highly polished Aberdeen granite. Its former location, at the 
corner of Ninth and Chestnut Streets, is now the site of the 
new Post-Office of Philadelphia. 

The Westebn University of Pennsylvania was char- 
tered in 1822, and immediately commenced its operations as a 
literary college. It was located at Pittsburg, and buildings 
erected in 1830. Previous to 1845, it had graduated over one 
hundred students, at which time it was destroyed by fire. It 
was revived about 1860, has since received large donations, and 
is now in a flourishing condition. Dr. Woods, its present 
chancellor, is an efficient and able man. A prominent feature 
in this institution is the training young men for industrial 

Lafayette College, at Easton, received its charter in 
1826. Its presidents have been Junkin, Youmans, McClane, 
and McPhail. Rev. William C. Cattell, D.D., and twenty-six 
professors and tutors, are at present its efficient faculty. It was 
at first intended that military tactics should occupy a large 
place in the instruction of the college ; but this purpose was 
soon abandoned. The college received its name in honor of 
Lafayette, who visited this country, the second time, the year 
it was chartered. The classes of the college were first organ- 
ized in a humble building on the southern bank of the Le- 
high. The Rev. George Junkin, D.D., was inaugurated presi- 
dent. In 1833 a more eligible site was procured; and the 
corner-stone of the main college building was laid July 4 of 
that year. In 1841 Dr. Junkin resigned. Dr. Cattell was 
chosen in August, 1863. Under his administration, it has been 
wonderfully prospered. 

Mr. A. Pardee gave twenty thousand dollars to endow the 
chair of mathematics in the college. Pardee Hall was dedicated 
Oct. 21, 1873, and, with its scientific equipment, cost more than 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, all of which was the 
munificent gift of him whose name it bears. 

The dedication of this hall was an epoch in the history of 
this college. The address was delivered by Rossiter W. Ray- 
mond, Ph. D., professor of mining engineering in the college. 
This address is thoroughly scientific. It was followed by 





speeches from Ex-Gov. James Pollock, president of the board 
of trustees, by Gov. Hartranft, and several others. 

One of the most pleasing features of the day was the pres- 
entation of the keys by Mr. Pardee to the president, and his 
reply. The former said, with that modesty characteristic of 
Mr. Pardee, "The completion of this building makes it my 
very pleasant duty, on behalf of the Building Committee, and 
myself as the donor, to formally present it to you as the repre- 
sentative of the Trustees and Faculty of Lafayette. The build- 
ing itself speaks of the skill and taste of the architect, the 
faithfulness of the builder, and the care with which it has been 
supervised during its erection. Our responsibilities have not 
been small ; but on you, sir, and on the students who shall go 
out year by year from these halls, rests a far larger responsi- 
bility, — the reputation of the institution. But, looking to the 
future by the light of the past, we rest the responsibility on 
you with no misgiving. I have the honor, sir, of now pre- 
senting you with the keys of the hall." 

Pres. Cattell responded as follows: — 

44 In receiving from you the keys of the building for the 
scientific department of the college, which you have so munifi- 
cently endowed, I can find no words adequate to express my 
own thanks, or the thanks of my colleagues in the faculty, for 
this grand addition to their means of attractive and thorough 
teaching, and of their own scientific researches, or the thanks 
of the trustees and patrons and friends of the college, alike 
interested in her welfare, or the thanks of all friends of educar 
tion who see in such a large and unselfish use of wealth for the 
benefit of mankind the noblest use to which it can be applied. 
And I know you, sir, so well, that I am sure the less I say to 
you on an occasion so public, the better you will be pleased. I 
shall, therefore, only assure you, that our hearts are full of 
gratitude for your munificent gift, and for your wise and judi- 
cious counsels, under which the college has grown and pros- 
pered ; and that we and our children will not cease to cherish 
and honor your memory ; and that our heartfelt prayer to the 
Giver of every good and perfect gift is for his richest blessings 
to rest ever upon you and yours." 



This college has a board of trustees, of which Ex-Gov. 
James Pollock is chairman, amply sufficient to recommend it 
to all who have sons to educate ; and a faculty of unsurpassed 
ability to do the work. So that all who send their children 
here may be well assured, if they fail of a good and thorough 
education, the fault will be neither in the facilities for instruc- 
tion, nor in tlie want of fidelity on the part of the instructors. 

Beaver College is located at Beaver, the capital of Beaver 
County, Penn. It is a college and a Musical Institute. The 
course of study is both classical and English. The English 
course, omitting the Latin and French languages, occupies three 
years. The Greek, Latin, German, and Italian languages will 
be pursued systematically, when classes desire it. This college 


receives as pupils both males and females ; and the Greek may 
be substituted for the French by gentlemen, and German for 
the Latin by ladies. Instruction in music is a prominent 
branch, as its name implies, in this college. The building is 
pleasantly situated on the bank of the Ohio River, twenty-five 
miles below Pittsburg, and is easy of access by rail from 
several directions. 

The following account of the other colleges, except the last, 
in Pennsylvania, is taken from the annual report of the United 
States Commissioner of Education for 1874. "Alleghany 
College, Meadville (Methodist Episcopal), has classical, scien- 
tific, and biblical departments, each with a four-years' course, 


the completion of either of which course secures the degree of 
A.B. Ladies may be admitted to the college classes, subject to 
the same examination as gentlemen. Corps of instruction, six ; 
number of students, a hundred and fifty-four. 

Dickinson College, Carlisle (also Methodist Episcopal), 
has established a scheme of ten departments of study, and 
proposes to carry it out on the university principle of elective 
courses ; those students who wish to obtain degrees devoting 
the earlier portion of their course, as heretofore, to classical and 
mathematical studies, and having large opportunity for selec- 
tion in the later portion of it. There is a scientific course, 
students in which are allowed to substitute chemistry for the 
Latin and Greek of the junior and senior years ; and a biblical 
course, in which Hebrew and New Testament Greek come in 
place of equivalent studies in those years. Corps of instruc- 
tion, six ; number of students, seventy-nine. 

Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster (Reformed), 
claims, on the contrary, to be a college in the old American 
acceptation of the term ; has no optional courses, no irregular 
students, and no provisional or mixed classes. Corp§ of instruc- 
tion, eleven ; number of students, one hundred and forty-eight. 

Haverford College, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, nine 
miles from Philadelphia (Friends), has classical, mathematical, 
and English departments, with special classes in Hebrew, Italian, 
Spanish, and analytical chemistry. Corps of instruction, four; 
number of students, forty-eight. 

Lebanon Valley College, Annville (United Brethren), 
presents a classical course, issuing in the degree of A.B.; a 
ladies' course, which issues in that of artium magistra; and a 
scientific course, which brings no degree. Corps of instruction,- 
nine ; number of students, one hundred and seventy-one. 

Lincoln University, Lower Oxford (Presbyterian), is espe- 
cially, though not exclusively, designed for the instruction of 
the colored race. Its students have the choice between a col- 
legiate, a normal, and a commercial course ; while faculties of 
theology, law, and medicine, afford facilities for professional 
training, additional to the collegiate course. Corps of instruc- 
tion, nine ; number of students, one hundred and seventy-five, 
with ten unclassified ones, as reported in 1873. 



La Salle College, Philadelphia (Roman Catholic), is 
under the direction of the Christian Brothers, and unites reli- 
gious with secular instruction in its primary, academic, or 
preparatory commercial and collegiate departments. Corps of 
instruction, nine ; number of students, one hundred and seventy- 
six, as by report of 1873. 

Lehigh University, South Bethlehem (Protestant Episco- 
pal), mainly devoted to scientific training, has yet classical and 
English courses, and is enabled by the liberality of its founder, 
Hon. Asa Packer, to make its tuition entirely free. Corps of 
instruction, seven ; number of students, one hundred and three. 

Muhlenburg College, Allentown (Lutheran), offers to 
students a three-years' training in an academic course preparatory 
to the regular collegiate course of four years. Arrangements 
are also made for those who desire to pursue partial studies in 
the college course. Corps of instruction, eight; number of 
students, one hundred and two. 

Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg (Lutheran), also with 
a regular course of four years, includes German in the course, 
and devotes especial attention to English language and litera- 
ture. Chaucer, Spenser, Shakspeare, Milton, and Bunyan are 
used as text-books in the class-room, with analysis of the text, 
examination of idioms, and investigation of the laws and history 
of word-growth. Corps of instruction, twelve; number of 
students, one hundred and forty-five. 

Lutherans have ever believed in education and a learned min- 
istry. The faculty and trustees say of this College, " It has 
been founded as the institution through which we may do our 
part of the gieat work of Christian education for the country, 
and especially that we may provide for the educational needs of 
the church, and develop its power." 

The college has existed forty-one years. It has ever been in 
want of funds. By constant effort, without much pecuniary 
means, it has risen to an honorable position among the colleges 
of the country. It will be seen, by the following statistics, that 
it has been of great value to the church. The whole number 
of students that have pursued a full course, and been regularly 
graduated, is 555, of whom 305 have been for the ministry. 


Three of these have entered the foreign missionary field. Be- 
sides the graduates, about 1,419 others, taking a partial or select 
course. Of this class, 110 have entered the ministry. The 
whole number educated in the Pennsylvania College is over 
2,000. At the least calculation, 415 have entered the ministry. 

The whole faculty of the college, with a single exception, 
are now from its graduates. All the professors of the Theologi- 
cal Seminary are graduates of the Pennsylvania College. Other 
colleges have sprung from this. Wittenberg College, Roanoke 
College, North Carolina College, Newbury College, and Carthage 
College, are all outgrowths or children of Pennsylvania College. 
The graduates of this college have filled many of the most hon- 
orable positions in the ministry, in law, in medicine, in journal- 
ism, and in all the positions of • secular life. 

Palatinate College, Myerstown (Reformed), offers a choice 
of seven special courses, besides the regular college course. Ele- 
mentary drawing is taught gratuitously, and the more advanced 
study of it, with vocal and instrumental music, may be carried 
through all the courses. Corps of instruction, nine ; number of 
students, two hundred and eight. 

The Pennsylvania Militaby Academy, Chester (unde- 
nominational), adds to its English and scientific courses one 
answering to a moderate collegiate course. Corps of instruction 
twelve ; number of students, one hundred and twenty-one. 

St. Vincent's College, Latrobe (Roman Catholic), is an 
appendage to St. Vincent's Abbey ; is under the direction of the 
Benedictine Fathers, and adds an ecclesiastical course, for such 
as wish to enter the order, to the classical and commercial ones. 
Attendance on instruction in Christian doctrines is obligatory 
on students, and on instruction in German, French, Italian, 
Spanish, as also in music, painting, and drawing, is optional. 
Corps of instruction, twenty-four ; number of students, four 
hundred and sixty-nine, reported in 1873. 

Swathmobe College, Delaware County (Friends), is on the 
railroad from Philadelphia to West Chester; has excellent build- 
ings, admits both sexes, and furnishes to both, besides a regu- 
lar classical and scientific course, the opportunity of selection 
among various elective studies. Corps of instruction, twenty- 
one ; number of students, two hundred and sixty-four. 


ThtkTj College, Greenville (Evangelican Lutheran), is a 
new enterprise ; held its first commencement June 25, 1874, and 
dedicated on the same day a second college building, containing 
recitation-rooms and chapel. Corps of instruction, eight ; num- • 
ber of students, sixty-three. 

The University at Lewisbttrg (Baptist) unites with its 
scientific and classical curricula a course for ladies in the Uni- 
versity Female Institute, under the same presidency with the 
college, but with a lady principal besides, and a corps of eight 
lady teachers. Corps of instruction, nine ; number of students, 
one hundred and thirty-eight. 

Villanova College, Delaware County (Roman Catholic), 
conducted by the Augustinian Fathers, with the now almost 
universal classical and scientific courses, has the commercial 
course, which is also becoming common. Corps of instruction, 
eighteen ; number of students, one hundred and sixty. 

Westminster College, New Wilmington (United Pres- 
byterian), has the same courses, save the last. Corps of 
instruction, eight ; number of students, one hundred and seven- 
ty-four, with fourteen students unclassified. 

Washington and Jefferson College, at Washington 
(Presbyterian), has a corps of instruction, eight ; number of 
students, one hundred and sixty-one. 

As these two colleges are now united under the name here 
given, the following gives an account of their origin : — 

Jefferson College was located at Canonsburg, in Washington 
County, eighteen miles south-west from Pittsburg. This col- 
lege, like several others in this State, grew up from an academy. 
The first ministers that were settled in Western Pennsylvania 
were learned men, and gave much time to educating their chil- 
dren ; and several of them opened schools, in which were taught 
not simply the English branches, but, also, Greek and Latin, and 
the higher mathematics. It was from these schools that Jeffer- 
son College came into being. Among, the early .pastors who 
planted these schools were Rev. John M'Millan, Joseph Smith, 
and Thaddeus Dod. 

Canonsburg Academy was commenced in 1771, by Col. Canon, 
Judge Allison, M'Dowell, and others. David Johnson, a gradu- 

















ate of the University of Pennsylvania, was the first principal, aided 
by Prof. Samuel Miller. For eleven years it prospered under 
these and other competent instructors. While only an academy, 
it sent out several eminent men, among whom were James Car- 
nahan, afterwards president of Princeton College, and John 
Watson, afterwards the first president of Jefferson College. In 
1802 it was chartered by the Legislature as a college, and was 
the first in the State west of the AUeghanies. It existed and 
prospered as a college until 1865, when it was united with 
Washington College, graduating their first class in conjunction, 

Washington College, like Jefferson, also came up from an 
academy, which was chartered by the Legislature in 1787, only 
five years after the town of Washington was laid out, and six 
years after the establishment of Washington County, which was 
the first county formed in the State after the Declaration of 
Independence, and second only to Westmoreland, the oldest 
county of Western Pennsylvania. It went into operation in 
1789, under the guidance of Rev. Thaddeus Dod, who had 
opened in 1782 what is claimed "the first classical and scientific 
school in the West." In 1806 the Legislature chartered it under 
the name of Washington College, under which title it prospered, 
and issued diplomas, until 1865, when it became united, as stated 
above, with Jefferson College. 

As these were rival colleges, near together, their union was 
talked of by the trustees long before it was consummated. In 
1865 Rev. Charles C. Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, (X, 
offered fifty thousand dollars to these colleges, upon condition 
that they should become united. Under this stimulus they 
finally became one college, but not without litigation was the 
matter finally settled. Under the name of Washington and 
Jefferson College, the institution is now prosperously con- 

Two full four-years' courses are now established in the college, 
— a classical and a scientific course. Those who complete the 
classical course receive the degree of bachelor of arts; and 
those who complete the scientific course receive the degree of 
bachelor of science. Both these courses are full and thorough, 


and the advantages of this college will compare favorably with 
those of any other in the Commonwealth. 

Washington is reached by the Chartiers Valley Railroad 
from Pittsburg, and by the Wheeling, Pittsburg, and Baltimore 
Railroad from Wheeling. It is a very healthy location; and the 
scenery is beautiful and picturesque. 


There are eight of this class of schools in the State, the 
special object of which is to educate teachers. The one which 
went into operation the earliest is at Millersville, and waa 
recognized in 1859. A new building, used for chapel and reci- 
tation-rooms, has been erected between the two buildings used 
respectively by the males and females ; but it does not interfere 
with them as to light or ventilation. The drawing depart- 
ment has been extended so that all graduating may become 
teachers of that art. Attendance for the year 1874 was eight 
hundred and twenty-six. Of thirty-five graduates, all but one 
became teachers. 

Edinboro', the next in order, was recognized in 1861 ; and 
the attendance in 1874 was seven hundred and thirty-three. 
All the graduates, sixteen in number, went out as teachers; 
and four hundred of the remainder pledged themselves to be 

Mansfield, the third in order, was recognized in 1862; 
and in 1874 a new building was dedicated. A mineral ogical 
cabinet has been purchased, as also a conchological collection, 
which, with gifts from the Smithsonian Institution, Washing- 
ton, bring its specimens to over six thousand. There is like- 
wise a set of the Smithsonian publications in the library. 

Kutztown, the fourth in order, was recognized in 1866 ; and 
the attendance in 1874 was over five hundred ; the graduates 
numbering eighteen in the elementary and one in the scientific 
course. Five of the faculty are college graduates, and three 
of the normal school scientific course. 

Bloomsburg, the fifth in order, was recognized in 1869, and 
had two hundred and seventy-two pupils for the year 1878-74, 
double the number for the preceding year ; had an ample supply 


of water introduced, and purchased two cabinet organs for the 
use of pupils, which were paid for from funds resulting from 
literary entertainments. 

West Chesteb, the sixth in order, was recognized in 1871 ; 
and for the year 1874 had an attendance of three hundred and 
thirty pupils, all of whose graduates are teaching. The wash- 
ing, wringing, and mangling is done by machinery, since the 
introduction of a steam-engine. Improvements have been made 
in the walks, lawns, and decorations in front of the building ; 
and the attractiveness of the place has been added to by 
the planting of trees. The heating-apparatus has also been 
much improved; a very good transit, surveying, and other 
instruments added Co the apparatus for instruction ; large 
additions of geological and mineralogical collections, with three 
hundred volumes to the library. 

Shippensburg, the seventh in order, was recognized in 
1873, and seven hundred and eighty-six students were enrolled 
during the year ; the first graduating class numbering twenty- 
four, of whom twenty-two took schools, two returning to the 
school to continue their studies in a higher course. 

Sagamore, formerly known as California, the eighth in 
order, was recognized June 1; 1874.' It was founded and 
chartered in 1865, but for want of means its completion was 
delayed. It, however, did much good in this unfinished state, 
and was known as the South-western Normal College. It 
consists of two buildings, — a central one and dormitory. The 
central one, in the form of a cross, is three stories ; one hun- 
dred and forty-six feet for the whole front, and in the central 
"extension is one hundred and ten feet deep. At the angles of 
the front projection are two massive towers, eighty-five feet 
high. The dormitory is one hundred and three by forty-four 
feet, and three stories above the basement, in which are the 
dining-room and kitchen. 


According to the report of the United States Commissioner 
of Education, it is not definitely known how many of these 
schools there are in the State, or how many pupils are taught 







in them, or whether there is any uniform course in the method 
of teaching ; but from Dr. Wickersham's report, as quoted by 
him, he gives 1,534 schools in which the higher branches are 
taught, 1,860 as the number where drawing comes in, and 
3,064 thatTin which vocal music forms a part of the course. 
Taking twenty as the average number of pupils in the higher 
branches, it makes 30,680 of the State schools thus engaged. 

The high school at Pittsburg has the finest common school 
building in the State, with a large, well-selected library and 
apparatus, much of it imported specially for the school, and is 
worth about ten thousand dollars. Of the school in its aca- 
demic, normal, commercial, and drawing departments, Dr. 
Wickersham thus speaks, " It is the best development of the 
common-school system in the Commonwealth." The number 
of pupils for the school-year of 1873-74 was four hundred and 
ten, of whom two hundred and thirty-one were in the academ- 
ical department, seventy-five in the normal, and one hundred 
and four in the commercial, with seventeen teachers all told. 
The graduates for that year numbered sixty-four. 

The Central High School at Philadelphia has six hundred 
and eleven pupils. It has a full course in Latin, the higher 
mathematics, natural sciences, mental and moral philosophy, 
drawing, from its elementary stages up to mechanical -and 
engineering work ; thus fitting its pupils for the various pursuits 
of industry, as well as for college. 

At the Allentown High School, German has been introduced, 
while drawing and penmanship have been discontinued. At 
Carbondale, the high school and grammar are very deficient in 
illustrative apparatus. At Chester there are not many pupils, 
but their progress has been very satisfactory. At Harrisburg 
there is to be a consolidation of the high schools, now separated, 
and they are " gradually and surely working their way up, both 
in efficiency and in public favor." At Lock Haven the number 
of pupils of both sexes now in the same school is one hundred; 
when five years ago, in two separate institutions, it was only 
forty. At Norristown the union of the two sexes was consum- 
mated September, 1873, and has proved very successful. At 
Pottsville, in the mining-region of the Schuylkill, the high 












school has sent several of its pupils to college ; and, in the case 
of a young man entering Harvard, he was found upon a par 
with students from Exeter, after a very thorough examination. 
This school compares favorably with' any training-school in the 
land. At Reading pupils are fitted for college, and a number 
of the graduates enter yearly. The course is mathematics, 
astronomy, chemistry, physiology, and classics. At Scranton 
"the curriculum is algebra, geometry, trigonometry, rhetoric, 
general history, chemistry, natural philosophy, physiology, 
botany, political economy, astronomy, geology, intellectual 
philosophy, physical geography, and Latin. The one at Titus- 
ville has, in addition to Latin, French, German, and Greek. It 
has about one hundred pupils ; and twelve of them, in 1874, 
completed the full course of three years. At Williamsport 
zoology, English language and literature, Grecian and Roman 
history, were added in 1874 to the high-school studies, which 
were so arranged, that the pupils could have a choice from four 
courses, of about four years each. Its philosophical and chemi- 
cal apparatus was also increased. The number of pupils for 
that year was sixty-one : its graduates numbered five. Of the 
one at York the superintendent thus speaks, " Our liigh school 
has never been more satisfactory than in the results of the past 
year. The verdict of popular approval has been given to it 
almost from the first ; and never has our press been so emphatic 
as now in sustaining this institution of the people." 

Having thus given a sketch of all the high schools of which 
an account can be found, a statistical report of schools below 
this grade will be all that our space will allow ; and first in 
order, as being nearly, if not altogether, up to tfce standard of 
studies pursued in the high schools, come the 


which in 1874, by reports to the Bureau of Education, num- 
bered 485 instructors and 6,317 pupils: of the latter, 3,369 
were engaged in English studies ; 1,195, in classical ; and 1,055, 
in modern languages ;' 411 preparing for a classical collegiate 
course; for a scientific course, 454. In fifty-five of these 
schools, drawing was taught; in fifty-three, vocal music; in 



forty-seven, instrumental music; thirty-three had chemical 
laboratories ; and thirty-eight, philosophical apparatus. In most 
of them were libraries containing from a hundred to five thou- 
sand volumes. 


In 1874 there were ten of these very useful schools, having 
2,015 scholars (eighty-three of whom were women), and forty- 
one teachers in all. Twenty-eight pupils were studying 
French, thirty German, and one Spanish. There were three 
libraries, with from a hundred to a thousand books. In addi- 
tion to these colleges are technical schools, as adjuncts to the 
high schools, which are in successful operation in Philadelphia, 
Pittsburg, and Erie. There is also at Philadelphia a public 
school for artisans, holding its sessions in the evening, which 
has six hundred students, many of them over twenty years of 
age, and representing nearly all the mills and workshops in the 

The number of public graded schools is 5,586, more than 
three times as many as in 1866 ; and there are also seventy-three 
separate schools for colored children, having about twenty-five 
hundred pupils ; and at Cornplanter Village there is a school- 
house for the handful of red men located there. The salary 
of the teacher is three hundred dollars. 

44 4 The Pennsylvania School Journal,' in its issue for April, 
1874, states, that under the clause of the new constitution, 
making women eligible to school offices, two were elected 
school directors in Philadelphia, six or eight in Delaware 
County, and about as many in Chester County. Among the 
latter was a sister of the State superintendent of instruction. 
Here and there a lady was chosen in other parts of the State ; 
enough, perhaps, to test the expediency of the new provision." 
Thus it appears, from the preceding statistics, that Pennsylvania 
is making commendable effort, and expending vast sums of 
money, to educate her children and youth, so that they may be 
thoroughly qualified to fill with ability the places now occupied 
by their parents. It further appears, from the adoption of her 
new constitution, that she purposes in future to do still more 


than she has done in the past, or is doing at present, as will be 
seen from the educational provisions of the constitution, as 
stated and commented upon by the United States Commissioner 
of Education, which well deserve a place in a history of the 
State, and to be read by all her citizens. 

(1.) The new constitution establishes a broad and substantial 
foundation for a system of public schools, in the following 
words : " The General Assembly shall provide for the mainte- 
nance and support of a thorough and efficient system of public 
schools, wherein all the children of this Commonwealth, above 
the age of six years, may be educated." The expression " thor- 
ough and efficient," if liberally interpreted, comprehends all 
that is needed in a system of public schools. It will enable 
such a system to reach both high and low, and give to all parts 
of its work the greatest degree of perfection. No constitu- 
tional objection will hereafter stand in the way of the establish- 
ment of schools of the highest grade, and none to the enactment 
of measures drawing to places of safety and instruction the 
friendless and neglected children of the Commonwealth. 

(2.) It provides for the appropriation of a liberal sum of 
money for school purposes. This sum must be at least one 
million of dollars annually, — an amount much larger than it 
has been customary for the State to appropriate. 

(3.) It requires all school laws to be of a general character. 
In future, when any legislation shall take place in reference to 
school affairs, it must be made to apply equally to the whole 
State ; which provision will accomplish much good. The school 
laws are now a mass of fragments ; and, in most respects, the 
school system of Philadelphia has no connection with that of 
the rest of the State. Nearly all the cities, and some of the 
smaller towns, have special enactments relating to their school 

(4.) It recognizes normal schools as a part of the public- 
school system, and grants them special favors. " Normal schools 
established by law for the professional training of teachers for 
the public schools of the State " can receive appropriations upon 
the same conditions as the most favored recipients of the bounty 
of the Commonwealth, a recognition they have long sought for* 


(5.) It makes the school department co-equal with the other 
departments of the State government, making the State super- 
intendent one of the eight officers constituting the executive 

(6.) It invests the office of superintendent of public instruc- 
tion with special privileges. The office is an appointed one, as 
heretofore ; but an appointment cannot be made, except " by 
and with the advice and consent of two-thirds of all the mem- 
bers of the senate." Of the three heads of departments ap- 
pointed in this way, the superintendent of public instruction is 
the only one appointed for a fixed period, and the only one who 
cannot be removed " at the pleasure of the power " by which 
they are appointed ; and there is no limitation to the length of 
time he can serve. These provisions were embodied in the new 
constitution, with the hope that they would at least measurably 
guard the office of superintendent of public instruction from 
the contamination of mercenary party politics. It is under- 
stood, also, that, in changing the title of the office from su- 
perintendent of common schools to superintendent of public 
instruction, the convention meant to open the way for the en- 
largement of its duties. The head of the department will here- 
after do the work now done by the superintendent of common 
schools, and, in addition thereto, perform such other services as 
may be required by law. This action will, in all probability, in 
due time, unify and harmonize all the educational agencies of 
the State, — a result long hoped for by the most thoughtful 
friends of education among us. 

(7.) It forbids the appropriation of public-school moneys to 
sectarian schools or purposes. 

(8.) It makes women eligible to any office under the school 
laws of the State. State Report, pp. 15-18. 


Philadelphia is the first school district, and is under the con- 
trol of a board of education of twenty-nine members, — one from 
each ward, with local boards in the wards, known as school 
directors. These members are appointed by the judges of the 
court of common pleas and the district court, and hold office for 


three years. They determine the number of schoolhouses to 
be erected, and limit the expenses thereof, and provide books 
which they deem suitable for the use of pupils. They also 
decide upon the number of teachers to be employed, and fix 
their salaries. 

There is no city superintendent, which is a defect in the city 
system, as the responsibility which accrues to such an officer is 
lacking ; the secretary of the board of education being limited 
in his supervisory powers. The central high school and girls* 
normal school are under special committees of the board. 

There were in 1874, according to the report of the board, a 
central high school, a girls' normal school, 60 grammar schools, 
29 consolidated schools, 121 secondary schools, 212 primary 
and 41 night schools, with a total of 108,631 pupils and 1,991 
teachers. The amount appropriated by city councils for use of 
the board for 1874 was $1,631,811.89 ; the amount expended, 
$1,607,736.91. The schoolhouses are in the main good, but 
deficient in ventilation ; and the number is insufficient for the 
school population, notwithstanding eleven new buildings were 
added this year. The present value of the school buildings, 
lots, and furniture, is estimated by the board at $4,837,336. 

Of the night schools there are twenty-one for young men, nine 
for young women, seven for white men and women, and four for 
colored men and women, making forty-one in all. They are 
doing great good by allowing from thirteen thousand to eighteen 
thousand persons, whose occupations during the day prevent 
their attending the day schools, opportunity for study. 

At Pittsburg there is a central board of education, consist- 
ing of thirty-six members, with sub-district boards and a city 

The schools are primary, intermediate, grammar, and high, 
with evening schools for boys and girls, an evening mechanical 
school (which, though originally designed for young men, 
admits young women, among whom are many school-teachers, 
devoting themselves especially to freehand drawing), and a 
school for mutes. The high school is divided into academic, 
normal, and commercial departments. The buildings are one 
high school, and fifty-two district schools, of which thirty-nine 


are brick, thirteen frame, and one stone. The number of teachers 
is 382, of whom 55 are males, 327 females, with salaries ranging 
from three hundred dollars (the lowest for assistants in prima- 
ries) to sixteen hundred dollars for principal of grammar school, 
and twenty-seven hundred dollars for principal of high school ; 
men and women receiving equal salaries for equal work. In 
1874 the whole number of pupils admitted was 21,009; the 
average monthly enrolment, 15,614; the daily, 12,873. Re- 
ceipts for the year, $704,791.98; expenditures, $601,710.08; 
leaving a balance on hand of $103,081.90. 

The progress in the schools is illustrated by a table, which shows 
that from June 1, 1856, to the same date in 1874, the number of 
teachers went from 109 to the 382 above noted ; the enrolment 
of pupils, from 6,724 to 21,009 ; the average attendance, from 
4,354 to 12,783 ; the amount paid for teaching, from $39,394.75 
to $238,375.27. This progress is most marked and decided from 
the year in which the present energetic superintendent entered 
on his duties, the enrolment and attendance almost doubling 
that year, while the expenditure for teaching went up in nearly 
corresponding ratio; and since that time there has been a steady 

Drawing and music are taught in the city schools ; the even- 
ing mechanical school is said to have proved of great advan- 
tage ; and the high-school course is both well arranged and 
well carried out. 

From Alleghany, the report shows for 1874 a total enrolment 
of 11,650, an average monthly enrolment of 8,392, and an 
average daily attendance of 7,216. The school buildings are 
large and commodious. The course of study has been revised ; 
so that a more complete grading is the result. The method of 
instruction in music has also been improved. This branch is 
taught by the regular teachers, under the supervision of two 
special music-teachers. In the report of the committee on 
particular instruction, we find the following : u Drawing is the 
only special branch not properly provided for ; yet, in view of 
its importance, we would recommend its continuance, and sug- 
gest that such measures be introduced as will enable all the 
pupils who may desire it to make themselves thorough draughts- 
men, and to do so without leaving our public schools." 


The evening schools were in session sixty-five nights, and since 
the previous year there was a decided improvement ; and such a 
measure of success attended them as to warrant their continu- 
ance. The total enrolment was 1,015; average attendance, 
503 ; cost of maintaining them, $2,657.27. 



Why so long delayed — Variety of Nations — Mr. Burke's Statement — Muni- 
cipalities — Organization of the Society — Original Members — First Officers 
— Place of Meeting — Various Committees — Progress — Library — Brad- 
ford's Prayer-Book — Freedom of the Press — Other Societies — United 
States Hospitals in the City — Union League — Politics of the Common- 
wealth — Names of Governors of the Province and State of Pennsylvania. 

IT was not till 1824 that measures were taken to form a his- 
torical society of Pennsylvania. This was late, compared 
with the organization of similar societies in several of her 
sister States; and it might seem as though this State had 
but little interest in her own history, especially as she was 
early settled. There were, however, ample reasons for this 
apparent delay, a prominent one of which was to be found in 
the diverse character of her early population. Plymouth in 
Massachusetts was settled by the Puritans; Boston, by the 
Pilgrims ; and, though these two classes have often been conr 
sidered one and the same, yet there were many characteristic 
differences between them : but this is not the place to consider 
them, as they do not come into a history of this State. Vir- 
ginia was settled by loyalists ; Maryland, by Lord Baltimore 
and his Catholics. All these were essentially English, and of 
one religion. 

Pennsylvania was settled first by Finns or Swedes. Then 
came the Hollanders, who conquered the Swedes; then the 
British fought and conquered the Hollanders; then came 
William Penn, with his Great Charter and his Quakers. Thus 
the early settlers of our State being from different nations, as 



the Swedes, Hollanders, English, and soon after the Scotch- 
Irish, all had some fighting propensities. Among such hostile 
emigrants, little time and less unanimity were found for a gen- 
eral or State historical society. Though it may seem strange 
to many who have always understood that our State was first 
settled by the Friends, — a non-fighting people, — to offer as 
reasons why a State historical society was not founded early, — 
the fighting propensities and the diverse religious views of the 
settlers, — nevertheless, such are the facts; and a historian is 
bound to state facts, u though the heavens fall." 

There is no doubt but that William Penn and his colony 
were pacific men. But when it is considered, as just stated, 
that, in the very first settlements of this State, three different 
nations were upon our soil, and that soon after the Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterians, and many members of the Church of Eng- 
land, came hither ; and, furthermore, taking into the account 
the state of feeling then existing between Catholics and Prot- 
estants ; and, further still, the persecutions then existing among 
the English Church for non-conformity, — there seems ample 
cause for the neglect of a Pennsylvania historical society. 

These views are confirmed by the following statements of 
Mr. Burke, in his " Account of the European Settlements in 
America," published as early as 1761. 1 Mr. Wallace says of 
Mr. Burke, " This variety of nations and religions was the 
feature which struck him [Burke] most when he described 
our Province. He [Burke] says, 'Pennsylvania is inhabited 
by upwards of 250,000 people, half of whom are Germans, 
Swedes, or Dutch.' " Wallace continues, " That same wonder- 
ful observer, who notes, that in 1750 there emigrated to our 
Province 4,317 Germans, while of British and Irish but 1,000 
arrived here, and admits that it was a right policy to encour- 
age the importation of foreigners into the colony, yet complains 
that foreigners were still left foreigners, and were likely to 
continue so for many generations ; for that they had schools 
taught in their own language, with books and even newspapers 
so printed. And he inferred * that there was no appearance of 
their blending, and becoming one people, with the subjects of 
Great Britain.' 

* President Wallace's Address to Historical Society, 1872. 


" Nor did our diversities in religion strike him less. * Here 
you see,' he says 4 Quakers, Churchmen, Calvinists, Method- 
ists, Meuists, Moravians, Independents, Anabaptists, and 
Dumplers, a sort of German sect that live in something like a 
religious society, wear long beards, and a habit resembling that 
of friars. In short,' he says, 'the diversity of people, reli- 
gions, nations, and languages here, is prodigious.' To crown 
the whole, we had a municipal organization alike widespread 
and disintegrated. From 1701, when Philadelphia was incor- 
porated, we had one 4 city,' its limits small and fixed, around 
which, till 1854 (when all were consolidated), * districts,' 
4 boroughs,' and 4 townships,' were growing; twenty-eight 
municipal corporations, I think, in all; all, in good degree, 
separated from each other, and all from it, — some near, some 
far off, some populous, some occupied still by farms. 

44 Thus it was ; and less than 4 mountains interposed * made, 
so far as consociation for our objects was concerned, enemies of 
people who had else, perhaps, 4 like kindred drops been min- 
gled into one.' 

44 Indeed, to those of us born here, and familiar with the 
national, religious, and municipal complexion of Philadelphia, 
these striatures in our society were quite visible, I think, till 
within a few years. The large influx of new elements, the 
consolidation of our various local governments, and the mixture 
and changes brought about by marriages and new generation, 
have in this day largely obliterated them, though some of their 
effects still remain." 

Whether these were the true causes, or hot, it is a fact that 
no State historical society was formed till 1824. Doubtless 
many had thought of some such society; and it is recorded, 
that, as far back as 1815, the American Philosophical Society 
appointed a Historical and Literary Committee, in addition to 
their other work; but not much historical information was 
derived from it." 

Such societies existed and were in operation in New York, 
Massachusetts, and in several other States, at this time. The 
second day of December, 1824, at the house of Thomas I. 
Wharton, a few gentlemen, natives of Pennsylvania, were 


present, and talked over the matter of organizing a society for 
gathering up and preserving the historical events of the State. 
Roberts Vaux was appointed chairman, and George Washington 
Smith secretary, of this meeting. The following named seven 
gentlemen were present: Roberts Vaux, Thomas I. Wharton, 
Dr. Benjamin H. Coates, Stephen Duncan, William Rawle, jun., 
Dr. Caspar Wistar, and George Washington Smith. 

The object of the meeting, and the importance of the subject, 
having been stated and discussed, on motion of Mr. Wharton 
the following resolutions were adopted : — 

Resolved, That it is expedient to form a society for the pur- 
pose of elucidating the history of Pennsylvania. 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to prepare a consti- 
tution and by-laws for the government of the said society. 

Whereupon, Thomas I. Wharton, Dr. Benjamin H. Coates, 
and George W. Smith were appointed the committee. The 
meeting was then adjourned to assemble again on the 27th of 

The next meeting was held at the time adjourned to. The 
committee submitted a draft of a constitution and by-laws, 
which were adopted ; and the next meeting was appointed to be 
the 29th of January, 1825. This meeting was held according 
to appointment. The record says, " A list of the names of gen- 
tlemen desirous of joining this society was read ; and, on motion, 
the persons applying for membership were elected, and placed on 
the Secretary's roll." The following " nineteen members, all of 
them citizens of Philadelphia," and all honorable and well- 
known persons, were then the members of the society. 

William Rawle. George Washington Smith. 

Roberts Vaux. Gerard Ralson. 

Joseph Hopkinson. William Mason Walmsley. 

Joseph Reed. William M. Meredith. 

Thomas C. James. Daniel B. Smith. 

John Sergeant. William Rawle, jun. 

Thomas I. Wharton. Charles I. Ingersol. 

Thomas White. Edward Bettle. 

Caspar Wistar, 2d. Thomas McKeen Pettit. 
Benjamin H. Coates. 


William Rawle was elected the first president, Feb. 28, 1825. 
Roberts Vaux and Duncan were elected vice-presidents. Daniel 
B. Smith was chosen corresponding secretary, and O. G. Smith 
recording secretary. 

The first place in which the society held its regular meetings 
was in the rooms of the American Philosophical Society, on the 
west side of Fifth Street, below Chestnut. The society pro- 
ceeded in its work in a gradual and quiet way for about twenty 
years. Its work was important and well done. Books were 
collected ; old manuscripts were looked up and preserved ; and 
committees were appointed to do particular work, — one on the 
national origin, early difficulties, and domestic habits of the first 
settlers ; another on the biography of the founder of Pennsyl- 
vania, his family, and the early settlers ; another on biographi- 
cal notices of persons distinguished among us in ancient and 
modern times ; another on the aborigines of Pennsylvania, their 
number, names of their tribes, intercourse with Europeans, their 
language, habits, characters, and wars ; another on the princi- 
ples to which the rapid population of Pennsylvania may be 
ascribed ; another on the revenues, expenses, and general polity 
of the Provincial Government; another, on the juridical history 
of Pennsylvania; another on the literary history of Pennsyl- 
vania; another on the medical history of Pennsylvania; an- 
other on the progress and present state of agriculture, manufac- 
tures, and commerce of Pennsylvania. 

Thus early in the history of this society, and when its num- 
bers were comparatively small, did it take cognizance of, and 
direct attention to, every thing that had a tendency to instruct 
the rising generation, and hand down to posterity a record of 
the fathers, and of all that pertained to the welfare and honor 
of this great commonwealth. Too much praise will not be 
likely to be given to these benefactors of our State for their 
noble deeds. 

Mr. Wallace, already referred to in the note, in his discourse 
delivered at the inauguration of the society's new hall, March 
11, 1872, further describes its progress : "The first volume of 
our published ' Memoirs,' deemed of late by us worthy of repub- 
lication, filled as it chiefly is with addresses and papers made or 


presented within the first two years of our existence, shows 
with what effect our early members labored. 

44 During the twenty years that our members remained under 
the protecting shadow of the American Philosophical Society, 
we enjoyed all the advantages which the spacious and well-filled 
apartments of that institution could afford us. But we were 
near the Hall of Independence. The spirit of 1776 began to 
rise. Inferior relation of any sort was not agreeable to some of 
our members ; and in 1844 we departed from the ancient pre- 
cincts in which our infancy and youth were passed. Our new 
quarters were in a room, now 211 South Sixth Street, much 
humbler than our former ones ; and our arrangements were upon 
the modest scale suited to our quarters. The committee who 
obtained the room were 4 directed to procure a bookcase of 
size sufficient to hold the collection of books, &c, and to put 
the room in a proper state for being occupied, provided that the 
cost did not exceed one hundred dollars.' 

44 As I look around," continues this excellent address, 4< at 
these beautiful and well-filled rooms, and remember that we 
have laid out fifteen thousand dollars, I exclaim, 4 Excellent 
Committee, if you accomplished on these terms the duties with 
which you were intrusted ! ' 

44 We have six hundred members, a library of twelve thou- 
sand volumes, a collection of near eighty thousand pamphlets 
(of which seventy thousand, the bequest of Mr. Fahnestock, lie 
carefully stored in boxes till such time as we can bind, arrange, 
and display them), a gallery of sixty-five portraits, and of twelve 
historical pictures, numerous engravings, and manuscripts, I 
may say innumerable, including the collections of William Penn 
and of several of his descendants, at Stoke, in England, recently 
presented to us by some of our liberal members, who had secured 
them at a price of four thousand dollars. Our building-fund 
amounts to $12,775 ; our publication-fund, to $17,000 ; our 
binding-fund, to $3,500 ; our life-membership fund, to $7,000." 

Such was the condition of this society the 11th of March, 1872, 
according to the statement of John William Wallace, president. 

I am sure the same commendable progress has been made 
during the last four years ; and I am informed by Mr. John 


Jordan, jun., who has devoted his time, talents, and money to 
the interests and progress of this society, that at least two thou- 
sand volumes have been added to the library since 1872, 

The writer of this history has enjoyed the privilege of a mem- 
bership of this society. Greatly was he pleased, upon recently 
visiting the library, to find every thing so neat and trim, and all 
affording such marks of progress and usefulness. 

This society has received no aid from State appropriations ; 
and, though some large bequests have been made to it, yet most 
of its wealth has come from the steady assistance of its individual 
friends. Thus it appears, though it did not start in the early 
settlement of the State, for reasons already assigned ; yet, since 
its birth, it has grown lustily, until it has become stalwart and 
strong, and will bear a favorable comparison with any of its 
cousins that have sprung up in sister commonwealths. The 
time will come when the labors of the first members and their 
successive coadjutors of this society will be more renowned and 
greatly honored than they have yet been ; for posterity cannot 
but see and appreciate the greatness of the work here com- 
menced, and so successfully carried forward for more than fifty- 
two years. 

As this society is located in Philadelphia, and as all its meet- 
ings are held here, and as, in one sense, Philadelphia is Penn- 
sylvania, that is, as having vast influence throughout the 
Commonwealth, therefore soiAe things may be brought into our 
history here which will be omitted when we come to describe 
this city. 

Mr. Wallace further says, " And certainly I need not recall 
to this assemblage, that from this region [Philadelphia] the 
light of letters first shone forth to all the middle colonies, in 
the establishment of the Printing Press" l 

This seems to refer to an order given to William Brad- 
ford, from Trinity Church, New York, to defray the expense of 
his printing a Prayer Book, commonly called and known as 
"Bradford's Prayer Book." This order was as early as 1714; 
and the work must have been issued about the same time. As 
some doubt had been expressed whether such a book had ever 

1 Address, page 17, of President Wallace. 


been printed, and as a consequence, if it had not, this claim 
of priority in diffusing " light " must fail, efforts were made to 
find this book ; and in 1870 Mr. John W. Jordan found a copy 
of it in the Moravian Church in this city. It was shown to 
the doubters, and produced conviction that the book had a real 
existence, and, consequently, that " light " flashed to New 
York and elsewhere from William Bradford's Printing Press. 
This same book was presented to the' Historical Society, 13th 
of June, 1870, by Mr. John Jordan, jun. 

It seems to be, also, justly claimed that the freedom of the 
press, which England did not arrive at till a late date, was first, 
achieved in this country in Philadelphia. So it seems — with- 
out encroaching upon the rights of others, or plucking laurels 
from others — Pennsylvania, and, indeed, this good city of 
Philadelphia, sent forth to the Middle Colonies the "light" 
of the printing-press, and to all the colonies and "the round 
world " the right to a free press. 

The Gallery of Portraits and Engra^vings will be noticed in 
the chapter on Artists and Fine Arts. 

There are other historical societies in Pennsylvania that 
might claim a place in this history, did its limits allow. There 
are several such societies, of different religious denominations, 
which deserve much credit for the zeal and labor they have 
manifested in gathering up such large collections of books and 
other ancient materials. The Presbyterian Historical Society 
is one of this class, and Samuel Agnew has done much for it in 
collecting books, manuscripts, &c. 

The Baptists also have a historical society of no small 
importance; and their collections are large. Rev. Howard 
Malcolm, D.D., LL.D., has given some twenty years of his 
valuable life to this work, — a monument of praise to him in 
coming time. Other denominations have similar societies ; but 
it was determined not to go into a description of religious 
denominations in this work, any further than some general 
description of their tenets. So, also, it will be seen, that, among 
the numerous illustrations, there are none of churches. This 
omission is to be ascribed to the want of room ; for to have 
inserted plates of the churches of one denomination, and not of 


another, would have appeared invidious : hence, necessity com- 
pelled that the work should be greatly enlarged, or the churches 
wholly omitted ; and, as the former could not be done, the 
latter has been. 



As the hospitals of Pennsylvania have been already described, 
and as the record of them is read, some of the present genera- 
tion will be likely to ask, " Where is the history of the United 
States hospitals located here during the late war?" Though a 
history of these hospitals belongs rather to the United States 
than to us, yet it is proper to give some account of them in 
this place, especially, as they have been omitted under the 
hospitals of Pennsylvania. 

Early after the commencement of the rebellion, the u War 
Department," of the government showed its wisdom and fore- 
thought in selecting Philadelphia, as one of the chief resorts for 
the sick and wounded soldiers. Its healthy and comfortable 
climate, being that of a medium between the extreme heat of 
the South and the cold of the North ; and its vast extent of 
territory, being much larger than any other city in the Union, 
interspersed with large tracts of elevated and unoccupied land; 
together with the comparative cheapness of fuel, and articles 
of living, — rendered it highly conducive to the comfort and 
returning health of the sick and wounded. 

There were at one time nineteen or twenty of these hospitals 
located in or very near this city. One of them was at West 
Philadelphia, which everybody here knows is west of the 
Schuylkill. It was near Forty-fourth and Pine Streets, on 
elevated land, overlooking all the surrounding country. Its 
sanitary condition could scarcely be other than good. It num- 
bered twenty-eight wards, each one hundred and sixty-seven 
feet long, and twenty-four wide, and designed to accommodate 
seventy patients. There were fourteen wards in each, of t;wo 
rooms, twenty feet apart, which communicated with each other, 
and also with the medical hall in the centre, by means of two 
corridors, which were used for dining-rooms; and each was 




seven hundred and seventy-five feet long. There were large 
buildings for kitchens, store-houses, and laundry purposes, com- 
municating with the eastern end of each corridor. The ap- 
paratus of the soldiers, consisting of baggage, knapsacks, and 
such like, were in separate buildings. There were also nume- 
rous other outbuildings ; and, in addition to these buildings, 
there were a hundred and fifty large tents, the united capacity 
of which accommodated nine hundred soldiers. Thus this hos- 
pital, including the tents, had room for nearly four thousand 
sick and wounded soldiers. 

A still larger hospital was erected at Chestnut Hill, also 
within the city limits. The citizens of Philadelphia, and 
especially the women, did every thing in their power to pro- 
mote the comfort and health of the soldiers while they remained 
in these hospitals. So assiduous and indefatigable were some 
of the women in this work, that many of them injured their 
health, and some lost their lives, in consequence of over-action 
and fatigue. In all kinds of weather, and at all hours of the day, 
these messengers of mercy, like the good Samaritan, were con- 
veying flowers, sweetmeats, jellies, and every thing that was 
calculated to soothe, comfort, and refresh these disabled soldiers, 
who were wont to exclaim, " What should we do but for these 
angelic women ! " Even little girls, with baskets of new ripe 
fruit in its season, and various kinds of refreshments, visited 
those dear men, now disabled, who had stood between the 
bayonets of the rebels and our own bosoms. The writer once 
asked two of these little girls, as they came out of a hospital, 
how often they made these angel visits. The reply was, 

Philadelphia, during the war and ever since, has been highly 
and justly praised by the soldiers who passed through the city, 
either to or from the battlefield. Never, by day or by night, 
did a single company march through her streets without finding 
warm and comfortable quarters, and enough to eat and drink 
at the various " Refreshment Rooms," " Cooper's Shop," &c. 

The Union League was an outgrowth of the war, and 
though a Philadelphia institution as to location, yet belonged 
to the United States as to its action and utility. It was organ- 


ized to do duty for the defence of the Union ; was composed 
of some two thousand, or more, of the most wealthy and patri- 
otic citizens of this city and State. It organized, equipped, 
and sent at its own expense, ten full regiments to the war, and 
contributed liberally in many other ways to aid the good cause 
of freedom.. It published several pamphlets and papers of great 
value, and distributed them liberally and gratuitously through 
the country. The late Stephen Colwell, a name dear to many, 
was the Chairman of the Publishing Committee, and revised 
and corrected the publications. The writer was made a mem- 
ber by the courtesy of the League, when their meetings were 
held in Chestnut Street, at what had been the residence of that 
good man, Matthias Baldwin, and addressed them several times. 
Afterwards they erected the fine edifice on Broad Street, which 
may be seen in the plate. This building is still retained as a 
club-house, or place of resort for the members. 

The politics of Pennsylvania have been various. In the early 
history of the State, Federalists and Republicans were the 
names of the two most prominent parties These gave place 
to those of Whigs and Democrats. The Whigs were followed by 
Republicans again, while the Democrats have still held the same 
name. On the whole, this Commonwealth has favored democ- 
racy, or the rights of the people generally, to the exclusion of a 
few privileged persons. Although William Penn, the founder 
of the State, and the first governor of the Province, belonged 
to a patrician, or privileged family in England, yet the govern- 
ment which he established in America was so far democratic 
that it drew emigrants from almost every European nation. 
Free toleration for all religious denominations, freedom of 
speech and of the press, in a word, all the privileges that a 
free people could demand, have generally been granted to the 
citizens of Pennsylvania .from its early history. This is seen 
in the simple fact, that the property-owners pay the taxes ; the 
poll-tax being lighter in this State than in most others of the 

The governors of this Commonwealth have represented the 
varying views of their constituents, especially since having 
been elected by the people. Here follows a list: — 



SYLVANIA, FROM 1681 TO 1873. 


Capt. William Markham, 
Deputy Governor from Oct. 
10, 1681, to Oct 27, 1682. 

William Penn, Proprietary 
and Governor, Oct. 27, 1682, 
to Aug. 12, 1684. 

Thomas Lloyd, President 
of Provincial Council, and ex 
officio Deputy Governor, Aug. 
12, 1684, to Dec. 18, 1688. 

Capt John Black well, Dep- 
uty, Dec. 18, 1688, to Feb. 1, 

Thomas Lloyd, President 
of Provincial Council, and ex 
officio Deputy Governor, Feb. 
1689-90, to April 26, 1693. 


Col. Benjamin Fletcher, Gov- 
ernor, Col. William Markham 
Lieutenant - Governor, April 
26, 1693, to March 26, 1695. 


Col. William Markham, 
Deputy, March 26, 1695, to 
Dec. 3, 1699. 

William Penn, Proprietor 
and Governor, Dec. 3, 1699, 
to Nov. 1, 1701. 

Andrew Hamilton, Deputy, 
Nov. 1, 1701, to April 20, 

Edward Shippen, President 
of Council, and ex officio Dep- 
uty, April 20, 1703, to Feb- 
ruary, 1703-4. 

John Evans, Deputy, Feb- 
ruary, 1703-4, to February, 

Charles Gookin, Deputy, 
March, 1709, to May 31, 1717. 

Sir William Keith, Lieu- 
tenant - Governor, May 31, 
1717, to June 22, 1726. 

Patrick Gordon, Lieutenant- 
Governor, June 22, 1726, to 
Aug. 5, 1736. 

James Logan, President of 
Provincial Council, and ex 
officio Deputy Governor, from 
Aug. 5, 1736, to Aug. 7, 1738. 

George Thomas, Lieutenant- 
Governor, Aug. 7, 1738, to 
June 6, 1747. 

Anthony Palmer, President 
of Provincial Council, and ex 
officio Deputy Governor, from 
June 6, 1747, to Nov. 23,1748. 

James Hamilton, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, Nov/ 23, 1748, 
to Oct. 3, 1754. 

Robert Hunter Morris, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, Oct. 3, 1754, 
to Aug. 20, 1756. 



Capt. William Denny, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, Aug. 20, 
1756, to Nov. 17, 1759. . 

James Hamilton, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, Nov. 17, 1759, 
to Oct. 31, 1763. 

John Penn, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, Oct. 31, 1763, to May 6, 

James Hamilton, President 
Provincial Council, and ex 
officio Deputy Governor, May 
6, 1771, to Oct. 16, 1771. 

Richard Penn, Lieutenant- 
Governor, Oct. 16, 1771, to 
Aug. 30, 1773. 

John Penn, Proprietary and 
Governor from Aug. 30, 1773, 
to July 3, 1775. 


Thomas Wharton, jun., Pres- 
ident from July 3, 1775, to 
Dec. 6, 1777. 

OF 1771 (o 

Thomas Wharton, jun., Pres- 
ident of the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council and of the State, 
March 5, 1777, until his death, 
May 23, 1778. 

George Bryan, late Vice- 
President, acting President, 
May 23, 1778, to Dec. 1, 1778. 

Joseph Reed, President, Dec. 
1, 1778, to Nov. 14, 1781. 

William Moore, President, 
Nov. 14, 1781, to Nov. 7, 

John Dickinson, President, 
November, 1782, to Oct. 18, 

Benjamin Franklin, Presi- 
dent, Oct. 18, 1785, to Nov. 5, 

Thomas Mifflin, President, 
Nov. 5, 1788, to Dec. 20, 1790. 


Thomas Mifflin (Democrat), 
Dec. 20, 1790, to December, 

Thomas McKean (Demo- 
crat), December, 1799, to De- 
cember, 1808. 

Simon Snyder (Democrat), 
December, 1808, to December, 

William Findlay (Demo- 
crat), December, 1817, to De- 
cember, 1820. 

Joseph Heister (Democrat), 
December, 1820, to December, 

John Andrew Shulze (Dem- 
ocrat), December, 1823, to De- 
cember, 1829. 

George Wolf (Democrat), 
December, 1829, to December; 

Joseph Ritner (Anti-Ma- 
sonic), December, 1835, to De- 
cember, 1888. 



David R. Porter (Demo- 
crat), December, 1838, to De- 
cember, 1844. 

Francis R. Shunk (Demo- 
crat), December, 1844, until 
his resignation, July 10, 1848. 

Wm. F. Johnston (Whig), 
Speaker of the Senate, and 
acting Governor, July 10, 1848, 
to December, 1848. 

Wm. F. Johnston (Whig), 
December, 1848, to December, 

Wm. Bigler (Democrat), 
December, 1851, to December, 

James Pollock (Whig), De- 
cember, 1854, to December, 

William F. Packer (Demo- 
crat), December, 1857, to Jan- 
uary, 1861. 

Andrew J. Curtin (Repub- 
lican), January, 1861, to Jan- 
uary, 1867. 

John W. Geary (Republi- 
can), January, 1867, to Janu- 
ary, 1873. 

John W. Hartranft (Repub- 
lican), elected 1872 to serve 
from January, 1873, to Janu- 
ary, 1876. 



Benjamin West — Charles Wilson Peale — Rembrandt Peale— Thomas Sully 
— James Hamilton — Thomas Buchanan Read — Adolph Ulric Wertmuller — 
Paul Weber — John Neagle — Peter F. Rothermel — Margaret M. George — 
Thomas A. Scott — School of Design for Women — The Academy of Fine 

IN her artists, Pennsylvania has been peculiarly fortunate. It 
is believed that not one of all her numerous sister States 
can vie with her in this respect. At the head of this class 
stands Benjamin West. Moses was exposed to death in the 
" ark of rushes ; " Philip Doddridge was laid away for dead at 
his birth ; John Wesley came near perishing when an infant 
in the conflagration of his father's house ; and Benjamin West, 
by a premature birth. But Providence had a work for each of 
these to do. 

Benjamin West was the youngest son of John West and 
Sarah Pearson. He was born the 10th of October, 1738, in 
Chester County, Pennsylvania. His parents were Quakers. 
Everybody knows that it is as unnatural for a Quaker to 
encourage the fine arts, or painting at least, as it is for one of 
this denomination to sing ; and, in the early days of Quakerism, 
it would have been as unnatural to hear a Quaker sing as to 
see a mole above ground. 

The first effort of West, showing the natural bent of his 
talent, is related by one of his biographers in the following 
language: " In the month of June, 1745, one of his sisters, who 
had been married some time before, and who had a daughter, 
came with her infant to spend a few days at her father's. 
When the child was asleep in the cradle, Mrs. West invited her 



daughter to gather flowers in the garden, and committed the 
infant to the care of Benjamin during their absence, giving 
him a fan to flap away the flies from molesting his little charge. 
After some time, the child happened to smile in its sleep ; and 
its beauty attracted his attention. He looked at it with a 
pleasure which he had never before experienced ; and observing 
some paper on a table, together with pens, and red and black 
ink, he seized them with agitation, and endeavored to delineate 
a portrait, although at this period he had never seen an engrav- 
ing or a picture, and was only in the seventh year of his age." 

Hearing the return of his mother and sister, he attempted to 
conceal what he had done ; but, as he appeared confused, the 
old lady inquired what he was about, and requested him to 
show her the paper. He did so, and asked her not to be 
angry. She looked at the picture for some time, and then said to 
her daughter, with evident pleasure, " I declare, he has made a 
likeness of little Sally! " and kissed him. Thus encouraged, he 
told her, if it would please her, he would make pictures of the 
flowers she held in her hand. 

As above said, the Quakers had seen so much tinsel and false 
glare among the Catholics and Episcopalians in England, that 
they wished to cut loose from every thing that had the least 
appearance of patronizing what they considered the works of 
the world, if not the works*of the Devil. They had about the 
same objection to paintings, that the Puritanic Society of Wey- 
mouth had to lawyers, whom they considered at least "a 
useless and unnecessary class," if not worse, and hence objected 
to the daughter of their minister, Parson Smith, marrying John 
Adams, because he was a lawyer. From the antipathy of the 
Quakers to every thing of the nature of art, no place on earth 
seemed more unlikely to produce an artist than Pennsylvania. 

At the first school young West attended, he was allowed to 
draw with pen and ink. A party of Indians came to pay their 
annual visit to the place of his school, and, being pleased with 
the sketches of the birds and flowers that the boy showed them, 
they taught him to prepare the red and yellow colors by which 
they painted their ornaments. His mother gave him a piece of 
indigo for blue ; and thus he possessed the three primary colors. 


His drawings attracted the attention of his neighbors ; ana 
some of them expressed regret that he had no pencils, where- 
upon he inquired what kind of things those were. He was 
told they were small brushes, made of camel's hair fastened in a 
quill. Here the little artist was in a dilemma. There were no 
camels in America, and what could he do ? As u necessity is the 
mother of invention," he noticed that the tail of his father's black 
cat would furnish him with what he wanted : so he cut off the fur, 
carefully preserving her tail. With this he made a brush ; but 
it was soon worn out, and another must be had. So the black 
cat came into requisition again. But this time the fur was cut 
from her back. This was soon noticed by the father, who, sup- 
posing that the cat was diseased, was about to prescribe a 
remedy, when little Ben, who, like little George Washington and 
his hatchet, would not lie, or allow his father to be deceived, 
frankly confessed what he had done. Seeing his contrition, 
and pleased with the tact of the little son, the Quaker father 
readily forgave him. Those who remember the many anecdotes 
told us by Xenophon, of the little Cyrus when a boy, and see 
how they paved the way for Cyrus the great general and 
king, may treasure up this story of the black 1 cat, and call it 
to mind when they find Benjamin West as he appears here- 

Soon after this event, a Mr. Pennington, a merchant from 
Philadelphia, and a relative of the West family, visited Mr. 
West. Being also a Quaker, he was not a little surprised to 
see little pictures all about the house, — a new thing under the 
sun to be found in the house of a Quaker. But, when told 
that these were the work of little Benjamin, his surprise gave 
place to admiration of the boy who could make such beautiful 
drawings. He thought them wonderful productions ; and, on 
being informed of the scanty and imperfect materials by 
which they were produced, his admiration grew to wonder and 
astonishment. He promised to send the little artist a box of 
paints and pencils, and, on his return home, fulfilled his 

The arrival of this box and its contents was an epoch in the 
life of the young artist. Upon opening the box, he discovered 


all that he wanted, — pencils not made from the cat's fur, but 
from real camel's hair, colors, oils, canvas ; but, above all, his 
admiration knew no bounds when he found six engravings 
which the good friend had carefully placed in the box. 
Never had he seen an engraving ; and he did not know that such 
a thing existed. The boy was in an ecstasy of joy. He looked 
over the articles with intense delight. 

The next day, on the first dawn of light, he took the box 
into the garret, — a place renowned among old English poets, — 
spread his canvas, and commenced imitating the engravings. 
So intense was his application, that the hour for school was 
forgotten ; and at dinner he made his appearance, without 
telling the family what he had been doing. For several days, 
he retired to his garret, and devoted his time to painting. 
The schoolmaster sent to know why he was absent. The 
young artist seemed to take no notice of the message. His 
mother had seen him go up to the garret, and, supposing that 
the box had engrossed his attention, went to his room, and 
found him engaged in painting. She observed his picture 
with great admiration, which was an exquisite one; and so 
captivated was she with it, that she woujd not allow him to 
finish it, lest he should spoil what he had already done. Sixty- 
seven years after, this unfinished picture was shown in the 
same room with the artist's sublime painting, Christ rejected. 
West always said there were touches of art in this first juve- 
nile effort which he was never able to surpass. 

Napoleon Bonaparte said he always had a "presiding star;'* 
and Stephen Girard declared he had a " lucky star : " but neither 
of these equalled West in this respect. From the trimming of 
the black cat ; standing before Provost Smith ; in the assembly 
of Quakers, debating whether he should continue painting or 
not; visiting the Eternal City, and presented to the best Italian 
artists by Cardinal Albani, who first inquired, when introduced 
to an American, whether he were black or white ; and when 
upon being shown the statue of Apollo, and asked what he 
thought of it, he exclaimed, " My God, how like it is to a young 
Mohawk warrior I " or painting the royal family of George the 
Third in the palace, — West always came out, as the common 


expression is, " first best." At whatever disadvantage he might 
have appeared at the start, or in the first introduction, upon 
further proceedings and explanations he always gained the 
admiration and applause of his companions. The single case 
of his comparing the statue of Apollo to a Mohawk Indian may 
explain the whole. When West uttered his exclamation, the 
Italian artists were astonished, and extremely mortified, to find 
the god of their idolatry compared to an American savage. 
When Mr. Robinson, the companion of West, and his interpre- 
ter, described to them the Mohawk Indians, their peculiar edu- 
cation, their wonderful dexterity with the bow and arrow, how 
their active life in the chase broadened and expanded their 
chests, and gave them their robust and healthy appearance, and 
consciousness of vigor, — all of which were so grandly depicted 
in the Apollo, — these same Italians were delighted, and de- 
clared that they had never heard a better criticism pronounced 
upon it. 

One of his biographers says, " Domestic sorrow mingled with 
professional disappointment. Elizabeth Shewell — for more 
than fifty years his kind and tender companion — died on the 
6th of December, 1817 ; and West, seventy-nine years old, felt 
that he was soon to follow. His wife and he had loved each 
other some sixty years, had seen their children's children ; and 
the world had no compensation to offer. He began to sink; 
and, though still to be found at his easel, his hand had lost its 
early alacrity. It was evident that all this was to cease soon ; 
that he was suffering a slow and a general and easy decay. 
The venerable old man sat in his study, among his favorite pic- 
tures, a breathing image of quiet and contentment, awaiting 
calmly the hour of his dissolution, without any fixed complaint. 
His mental faculties unimpaired, his cheerfulness uneclipsed, 
and with looks serene and benevolent, he expired the 11th of 
March, 1820, in the eighty-second year of his age. He was 
buried beside Reynolds, Opie, and Barry, in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. The pall was borne by noblemen, ambassadors, and acade- 
micians. His two sons and grandson were chief mourners, and 
sixty coaches brought up the splendid procession." 1 West's 

l Allan Cunningham's British Painters, p. 5& 


portrait of Rev. William Smith, D.D., may be seen at the His- 
torical Society rooms. It was the glory of Pennsylvania, that 
she ever produced such a son. He painted and sketched in oil 
more than four hundred pictures, chiefly of a religious and his- 
torical character, and left more than two hundred original 
drawings in his portfolio. 

Charles Wilson Peale, was born in Charlestown, Md., in 
1741. He was a pupil of West in England, and, after his return, 
settled in Philadelphia, and gained a high reputation as a por- 
trait-painter. He formed a museum of natural curiosities in that 
city, which was named for him. He was also one of the found- 
ers of the Academy of Fine Arts, for which he painted numerous 
pictures. He died in 1827. 

Rembrandt Peale, son of the preceding, was bom in Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1778 ; studied painting under West, 
locating at Paris, where he engaged in portrait-painting. Upon 
his return to Philadelphia, he painted, among other works, the 
Court of Death, and the Roman Daughter. He died in 1860. 
At the Historical Society gallery may be seen a portrait of 
Edmund Pendleton Gaines, major-general U. S. A., by him. 

Thomas Sully, an eminent painter,' was born in Lincolnshire, 
Eng., in 1783. He emigrated to America in 1792, studied at 
Charleston, S.C., then with Stuart, and afterwards applied 
himself to portrait-painting at Richmond, New York, and Phila- 
delphia. Some of liis best productions are portraits of Jefferson, 
Lafayette, Commodore Decatur, George Frederick Cooke as 
Richard III., and Queen Victoria, also several historical pic- 
tures, among which was Washington crossing the Delaware. 
He spent the greater part of his long life in Philadelphia, where 
he was much esteemed as a citizen, and admired as an artist. 

A person who visited his studio in 1870 gave a description 
of the visit, from which the following is selected : " This vener- 
able and distinguished artist is one of the most genial, kind- 
hearted gentlemen that I have ever met. He is now in the 
44 sear and yellow leaf." There is in his countenance a mixture 
of elevation and sweetness, of simplicity and energy ; is very 
communicative ; still active, hopeful, and happy." 

The same visitor gives a full description of his art-gallery, 
which was richly adorned with his own paintings. 


The author was favored with the following biographical 
sketch of Mr. Sully, soon after his decease, by a young artist of 
Philadelphia, who was personally acquainted with him : — 

44 In 1801 he began painting in oil, his effort being a copy of 
a painting by Angelica Kauffman. He achieved a success that 
encouraged him to further efforts. 

44 His soul was ever awake to the beautiful. He always 
feared he would not receive proper instruction. Being in Rich- 
mond, Va., he applied to a Frenchman, who was considered the 
best teacher, but was, in reality, a man of ignorance and 
self-conceit. He became his pupil, but happily his pupilage 
did not long continue. One evening, after admiring a very 
gorgeous sunset, he turned to his instructor, and said, 4 How 
would you paint such a picture ? ' 

44 4 How would / paint such a picture ! Young man, the 
Academy would tell you to use such and such colors.' 

44 4 Ah,' said the artist, as he related this to me, giving his 
head a shake, 'never shall I forget the chill to my enthusiasm! ' 

44 Mr. Sully remained in Richmond until 1806, when, at the 
solicitation of Peter Cooper, he came to New York ; at which 
time John Trumbull was the leading artist. It has been stated 
John Trumbull was inaccessible, and far from being communi- 
cative. Such was not the case: I have it from Mr. Sully's own 
lips, and will give the account as related. 

44 4 1 went to see Mr. Trumbull, whom I commissioned to paint 
a portrait of my wife. The artist began the portrait : I sta- 
tioned myself behind his chair, watching how he proceeded. 
After he had painted a part of it, he remarked that he never 
saw any one so much interested in a picture, and inquired 
whether, at any time, I had studied painting. 

44 4 Ah I ' thought 1, 4 shall I disclose myself? * which I finally 

44 4 Oh ! ' said Mr. Trumbull, laughing, 4 had I known what 
your intentions were, I would have worked very differently. I 
shall have to begin the picture anew.' 

44 In 1807 Thomas Sully formed the acquaintance of Gilbert 
Stuart, then the leading portrait-painter of Boston, from whom 
he received valuable instruction. He highly appreciated the 


beauty of Gilbert Stuart's portraiture. A deep sympathy existed 
between these two artists. 

" In 1809 Mr. Sully came to our 4 City of Brotherly Love/ 
After a brief stay, he determined to go abroad, for the further 
prosecution of his studies. He received several commissions 
from Philadelphia, for copies of eminent works, and sailed from 
our city for Liverpool, at which port he arrived July 13, 1809. 
He remained in London until March, 1810, a close student, 
receiving instruction from Benjamin West and Sir Thomas 

44 On his return to Philadelphia, he became the leading artist 
in portraiture. It is probable he painted portraits of a greater 
number of famous people than any of his contemporaries. His 
conceptions of children are exquisite in grace and loveliness. 
He painted many ideal portraits of the female characters of 

44 His portrait of George Frederick Cooke as Richard in., 
and a life-size portrait of Samuel Coates, were painted shortly 
after his return from England. The former was presented to 
the Academy of Fine Arts, and t the latter to Pennsylvania 

44 The artist's next production was an historical subject, — 
Washington crossing the Delaware. He also painted an 
equestrian portrait of George Washington, and full-length 
portraits of the following, — Dr. Benjamin Rush, Commodore 
Decatur, Thomas Jefferson, and Charles Carroll. 

44 When Lafayette visited the United States, in 1824, Mr. 
Sully secured a sitting, and gave us his life-size portrait, which 
is now to be seen at Independence Hall. 

44 In 1837 St. George's Society of Philadelphia commissioned 
Mr. Sully to paint a portrait of Queen Victoria shortly after 
her coronation. In the artist's charming salon the writer saw 
his first study for this portrait, and would say, 4 May time spare 
this portrait of Queen Victoria ! ' for it was one of the artist's 
treasures, and also one of his loveliest representations of woman- 

44 During the artist's sojourn in London, when painting this 
picture, it was a period of the most refined enjoyment. His 


former pupil, Charles Leslie, and the choicest intellects of the 
British metropolis, — men famous in literature, art, science, poli- 
tics, — and his own cultivated nature, mingled in a congenial 
atmosphere. Of late years Mr. Sully enjoyed an intense 
delight in recalling that happy period of London life. 

44 Although born in England, he was an American at heart, 
who loved our great men. Our institutions, and the early history 
of our country, together with the actors of that period, were to 
him a prolific theme. He revered the character of George 
Washington and the greatness of Benjamin Franklin. Once, 
when speaking of the last named, he said, 4 There have been 
individuals who wished to look back after their departure from 
this world ; and Benjamin Franklin wished to look back a 
hundred years after his departure, to see the advance in im- 
provements and knowledge. Well,' added the artist, * I, too, 
should like to look.' 

44 Mr. Sully formed a connecting link between the earliest 
artists of America and the artists of the present day, and wit- 
nessed with great happiness the gradual but steady develop- 
ment of taste for art in America. 

44 In Philadelphia this development is due to the members 
of the legal profession. The initiation of our Academy of Fine 
Arts was promoted principally by members of the bar. Of the 
seventy who signed the parchment of December, 1805, forty- 
one were lawyers. The only surviving one was a friend and 
patron of the late Thomas Sully, who painted his portrait many 
years since. This gentleman is the venerable Horace Binney, 
sen., now in his ninety-third year. 

44 Shortly before the death of Rembrandt Peale, our citizen, 
Joseph Harrison Peale, jun., a patron of art, commissioned 
Thomas Sully and Rembrandt, each to paint the other's portrait. 
These two venerable artists were the honored guests when these 
portraits were shown to a choice company assembled at Mr. 
Harrison's mansion. This occasion will ever be remembered by 
those honored by an invitation to the reception. 

44 Thomas Sully was a gentleman of the old school, and led a 
happy life, surrounded by his family, friends, and pictures. 
Until recently he spent several hours daily in his charming 


studio, at his easel. But a fall last winter, by which the bone 
of his arm was fractured, produced a serious effect upon his 
aged and debilitated system. Mr. Sully passed peacefully away 
Nov. 5, 1872, amid the constant and loving attention of his 

The following paintings by Sully may be seen in the Fine 
Art Room of the Historical Society : copy of George Washing- 
ton, Andrew Jackson, and Stephen Decatur. 

James Hamilton was born in Ireland about 1820, and came 
to America in infancy. He is distinguished for his success in 
marine views, and acquired much distinction by his illustra- 
tions of Dr. Kane's " Arctic Explorations." Among his other 
noted works are Capture of the Serapis, and Old Ironsides. 

Thomas Buchanan Read, born in Chester County, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1822, is better known as a poet than an artist, 
though his pictures have much merit. His group of Long- 
fellow's Children is thought one of his best. There is in the 
Historical Society a portrait of Thomas Sergeant, third presi- 
dent of the society. 

Adolph Ulric Wertmttller was a native of Stockholm, 
Sweden, and came to Philadelphia in May, 1794. He died in 
1812, and was buried, it is thought, in the ground of the Old 
Swedes' Church in Swanson Street. He painted a portrait of 
George Washington in 1795, which may be seen in the rooms 
of the Historical Society. 

Paul Weber, born in Germany about 1820, came to Amer- 
ica early in life, and practised his art many years in Phila- 
delphia. His paintings of Fort Necessity, Braddock's Grave, 
Braddock's Field, or the Monongahela, are to be seen at the 
Historical Society rooms. The charm of his works is in the 
indescribable softness and harmony of tints. He returned to 
Germany several years since, and established himself at Darm- 

John Neagle, born in Boston in 1799, was known princi- 
pally as a portrait-painter. He practised in Philadelphia, 
where he married a daughter of Sully. He died in 1865. 
Among his works are portraits of Washington and Henry Clay. 
There are also, at the Historical Society rooms, several portraits 


of Indians painted by him; one of which, The Knife, chief 
of the Pawnee Loups, called the Bravest of the Braves, was 
taken from life, and presented to the society in 18&1, by the 
artist. The two heads, Big Kansas, and Sharitarishe, chief of 
the Grand Pawnees, were also painted from life, and presented 
by him to the society. 

Pbteb F. Rothermel was born in Luzerne County, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1817. Among his chief works are De Soto dis- 
covering the Mississippi, Columbus before Isabella the Cath- 
olic, Christabel, and the Christian Martyrs, finished in 1864, 
and exhibited at the great Sanitary Fair held in Philadelphia 
in June and July of that year. His Battle of Gettysburg has 
gained for him a lasting fame. At the- Historical Society 
rooms there is a life-size head of Anthony Wayne by him. 

Margaret M. George has given some fine specimens of 
the art of painting in water-colors. 

Aside from the galleries of the Pennsylvania Historical 
Society, the Presbyterian and Baptist Historical Societies, and 
others, with the Academy of Fine Arts, hereafter to be 
described, there are many private gentlemen in Philadelphia, 
v whose dwellings are adorned with costly and elegant paintings ; 
and, from personal inspection, the writer can testify that no 
finer or more elegant specimens are to be found in any public 
gallery than are contained in the residences of Thomas A. 
Scott, President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and James L. 

Among the institutions devoted to art or instruction in its 
various branches may be mentioned (of paramount importance 
in extending the sphere of woman's usefulness), the School 
of Design for Women, the first institution of the kind in 
America. It was founded in 1850, under the patronage of the 
Franklin Institute, greatly aided by Mrs. Peter ; incorporated 
in 1853. The new edifice is on the corner of North Merrick 
and Filbert Streets. Miss E. Croasdale is the Principal of the 
School ; and in it designs for all varieties of mechanical draw- 
ing are taught gratuitously. 

The Academy of Fine Arts was founded in 1805, and 
incorporated in 1807. Its new magnificent gallery is on Broad 




Street, just above Arch. • It has a front of one hundred feet on 
Broad Street, and two hundred and fifty-eight feet on Cherry 
Street. The chief front, on Broad, is two stories in height, 
ornamented with colored tiles, terracotta ware, and light stone 
dressings. Oyer the chief entrance there is a large Gothic 
window, traced with stone. The front on Cherry Street 
is of similar materials, relieved by a colonnade, supporting 
a number of arched windows, in the rear of which will be 
a transept, with a pointed gable. The edifice cost three hun- 
dred thousand dollars. It has lecture-rooms, life-class rooms, 
retiring-rooms, on the first floor, with galleries for casts from 


sculpture : the grand gallery, seventy-five by forty feet, is on 
the second floor. The Gilpin Gallery contains the rich bequest 
of Henry D. Gilpin, comprising a hundred thousand dollars' 
worth of art treasures ; and this, together with a number of 
smaller exhibition-rooms, measures ninety-five by forty-two 
feet. This is a noble institution ; its object being to improve 
and refine public taste for works of art, and to cultivate and 
encourage our native genius by " providing elegant and approved 
specimens of the Arts, for imitation." This society gave its 
first exhibition in 1811, when more than five hundred speci- 
mens of the skill of both painter and sculptor were exhibited. 


The art collections of this academy are said to be the most 
valuable in this country. Among them are contained the 
masterpieces of Stuart, West, Allston, Sully, Neagle, and 
Wittcamp. The gallery of casts from antiquarian relics is very 

This academy is under the patronage and management of 
such men of wealth, taste, and refinement, that no pains will be 
spared to render it an institution worthy of the Quaker City. 



William Shippcn — Adam Kuhn — Benjamin Rush Thomas Bond — Ameri- 
can Metropolis of Education — Medical School united with the University 

— New Edifice — Jefferson Medical College — The Pennsylvania Medical 
College —Philadelphia College of Medicine — Homoeopathic College, <fec — 
Female Medical College — Philadelphia College of Pharmacy — College of 
Physicians and Surgeons — Benjamin Rush — James Rush — Nathaniel 
Chapman — Philip Syng Physick — Samuel Jackson — Robley Dunglison — 
Richard J. Dunglison — Benjamin Smith Barton — William P. C. Barton— 
John Bartram — William Bartram — John Syng Dorsey — William Potts 
Dewees — John Godman — William E. Horner— J. M. Allen— Thomas C. 
James — John Eberle — George McLellan — Charles Delucena Meigs — 
John Forsyth Meigs — Samuel George Morton — Henry Stuart Patterson— 
Henry H. Smith — Alfred Stille*— W. W. Gerhard — Thomas D. Mitchell 

— John Bell — Thomas Mutter — Robert E. Rogers — Samuel D. Gross— 
George B. Wood — Journals and Journalists. 

PENNSYLVANIA has the honor of having established the 
first medical school in America. It originated in a course 
of lectures delivered by Dr. William Shippen, who was 
appointed Professor of Anatomy and Obstetrics. Dr. John 
Morgan was appointed Professor of the Institutes and Practice 
of Medicine ; Dr. Adam Kuhn was made Professor of Botany; 
Dr. Benjamin Rush, Professor of Chemistry ; and Dr. Thomas 
Bond, Professor of Clinical Medicine. This school, thus found- 
ed, early obtained the first rank in eminence ; and its succes- 
sors have well maintained the honor which it acquired under 
its original faculty. Under such medical men as Rush, 
Physick, Barton, Jackson, Chapman, James, Wistar, Dewees, 
Dorsey, McLellan, Gibson, Dunglison, Horner, Eberle, Revere, 
Patterson, Smith, Meigs, Godman, Morton, and others, Phila- 
delphia became entitled to the well-known and well-merited 



appellation of " The American Metropolis of Medical Educa- 
tion." This school became incorporated as an integral part of 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1791 ; and, under the charter 
of the institution, its medical diplomas have always been given. 
Its new edifice is similar to the main building of the university, 
already described in chapter twenty-fifth, although it has 
dinstinctive architectural features. In the basement is the 
laboratory ; on the first floor, two large lecture-rooms ; on the 
second, a general museum, and an amphitheatre for six hundred 
students ; and, on the third, room for the study of operative 
surgery, and for dissection. 

The Jefferson Medical College was established and 
chartered in 1825, after a long and sharp contest with the 
special friends of the Medical Department of the University 
of Pennsylvania, the bitterness and agony of which need not 
here be repeated. Dr. George McLellan, the eminent surgeon, 
was the principal agent in founding this school. It soon be- 
came very prosperous ; and its pupils outnumbered those of the 
university. The college building, on Tenth Street, between 
Chestnut and Walnut, has been several times enlarged to 
accommodate its great number of students. A museum con- 
nected with this school stands in the rear of the college, amply 
provided with material for illustrating the various branches. 

The Pennsylvania Medical College was erected in 
1849. The design was by the architect of Girard College. It 
is a beautiful and spacious edifice, situated near the Pennsyl- 
vania Hospital, on Ninth, near Locust Street. It was given 
up, for want of patronage, about 1860. 

Philadelphia College op Medicine was chartered in 
1847, with all the rights, privileges, and immunities granted to 
other medical colleges in the State. It prospered for a time, 
but finally became the property of a single professor, who em- 
ployed the other lecturers. It died in 1855. 

These four old-school, regularly chartered medical colleges 
were in operation in Philadelphia at the same time. There 
existed also, at that period, an indefinite number of medical 
colleges, under a variety of names, among which were, the 
" Hom<eopathic College," the "Eclectic College," the 


"Thomsonian College," the "Penn Medical College," 
the "Penn Medical Univebsity," &c. Some of these 
schools have been recently charged with selling diplomas to 
persons not qualified to practise medicine ; and it is said their 
charters have been abrogated. 

The Female Medical College op Pennsylvania was 
founded in 1849. It is a regularly chartered college, embracing 
all the various branches of medical science, and authorized to 
confer the degree of Doctor in Medicine upon all women who 
have taken a full course of lectures, and sustained a regi^ar ex- 
amination. The faculty of this college, comprised of both men 
and women, are regularly graduated from medical schools, and 
competent to fill the chairs in any medical college in our land. 
The course of instruction, from the commencement, comprised 
six branches; viz., Anatomy and Physiology, Principles and 
Practice of Medicine, Obstetrics, and Diseases of Women and 
Children, Surgery, and the Institutes of Medicine, Materia 
Medica, Pharmacy, and Chemistry. 

The Philadelphia College op Pharmacy was estab- 
lished in 1811, and incorporated in 1822, " to obviate a departure 
from the correct customs and established principles of the drug 
and apothecary business, to direct attention to the qualities of 
articles brought into the drug market, to secure the discussion 
of subjects relating to the business, and communicate informa- 
tion beneficial and interesting to the trade, and to create a 
school of pharmacy, in which lectures should be delivered 
expressly for the instruction of druggists and apothecaries." 

The College op Physicians and Surgeons is located 
at the north-east corner of Thirteenth and Locust Streets. 
Thomas Mutter, M.D., LL.D., late Professor of Surgery in 
Jefferson Medical College, donated to this College a sum suffi- 
cient to erect this building, together with his library. The 
college was chartered 1789, for the purpose, as stated in the 
document, " to advance the science of medicine, and therefore 
lessen human misery, by investigating the diseases and remedies 
peculiar to this country." It is composed of fellows, or mem- 
bers, who are practitioners in the city, and such associates as 
they may elect without the limits of the city, or from abroad. 


They publish a quarterly, which is esteemed a very valuable 
work by the profession. Their meetings are entertaining, and 
discussions useful. 


Benjamin Rush, M.D., was one of the earliest, if not the 
earliest, of these. His principal works were collected into seven 
volumes, by his direction, and have been of much service to 
the medical world. 

James Rush, son of the preceding, was noted for his work 
on " The Human Voice." 

Nathaniel Chapman, M.D., published two octavo volumes, 
entitled " Elements of Therapeutics and Materia Medica ; " 
also five volumes, octavo, of select *?peeches, &c. 

Philip Syng Physick, M.D., was a student of the celebrated 
John Hunter, and a graduate of the University of Edinburgh. 
He published many articles in the various physical and medical 
journals of the day. His son-in-law, J. Randolph, M.D., pub- 
lished a biographical sketch of Dr. Physick, in 1839. 

Samuel Jackson published " Principles of Medicine," an 
octavo volume, in 1832, " Discourse commemorative of Nathan- 
iel Chapman," and occasionally medical essays. 

Robley Dunglison, M.D«, LL.D., was Professor of the 
Institutes of Medicine and Medical Jurisprudence in Jeffersou 
Medical College, from 1836 to 1858. His contributions to medi- 
cal literature were many and valuable ; and his " Physiology " 
and " Lexicon " take rank as medical classics in our language. 

Richard J. Dunglison, M.D., his son, has arranged and 
edited, and Lindsay and Blakiston have published, " A History 
of Medicine from the Earliest Ages to the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury," originally written by Robley Dunglison. 

Benjamin Smith Bakton, an eminent physician, botanist, 
and philologist, was born at Lancaster, Penn. He obtained his 
medical degree at Gottingen ; became connected with the Uni- 
versity in 1789, and continued to occupy the chair of Natural 
History and Botany until his death, in 1815. At the death of 
Dr. Rush, in 1813, he was appointed his successor to the chair 
of the Practice of Physic. He was taught to draw by Major 


Andrl, while that officer remained a prisoner in Lancaster. At 
the age of sixteen, he composed an essay on the " Vices of 
the Times." He published " Observations on Some Parts of 
Natural History," to which is added an account of several 
remarkable vestiges of antiquity which have been discovered 
in different parts of North America, " Papers relative to 
American Antiquities " in quarto, " Collections for an Essay 
towards a Materia Medica for the United States," u Frag- 
ments of the Natural History of Pennsylvania," " Memoir con- 
cerning the Fascinating Quality ascribed to the Rattlesnake," 
44 Supplement to the Same," " Some Account of the Siren La- 
certina and Other Species of the Same Genus of Amphibious 
Animals," u Elements of Botany." He furnished many " Con- 
tributions to the Transactions of the American Philosophical 

William P. C. Barton, M.D., nephew of the above named, 
and his successor as Professor of Botany in the University of 
Pennsylvania, published "Florae Philadelphia* Prodromus," 
quarto ; " Vegetable Materia Medica of the United States, con- 
taining a Botanical, General, and Medical History of the Medi- 
cinal Plants Indigenous to the United States, illustrated by 
colored engravings ; " " A Compendium Florae Philadelphia ; " 
44 Flora of North America, illustrated by colored figures drawn 
from Nature," three volumes quarto ; " Materia Medica and 
Botany," two volumes ; 44 Medical Botany," two volumes ; 
44 Hints to Naval Officers cruising in the West Indies ; " 44 Plan 
for Marine Hospitals in the United States." 

John Bartram, M.D., born at Marple, Delaware county, 
Penn., became so famous in Botany, that Linnaeus pronounced 
him the greatest natural botanist in the world. He was 
appointed botanist to George the Third, and held the office 
until his death, September, 1777. He published 44 Observa- 
tions on the Inhabitants, Climate, Soil, Divers Productions, 
Animals, &c, made in his Travels from Pennsylvania to Onon- 
dago, Oswego, and Lake Ontario ; " 44 Account of East Florida 
on a Journey to St. Augustine." 

William Bartram, M.D., inherited the botanical zeal of his 
father. He travelled through several of the Southern States 


to examine the medicinal plants of the country* His collec- 
tions were forwarded to Dr. Fothergill. These were published, 
embellished with copper plates, in 1792 ; translated into French 
in 1801, in two volumes. 

John Syng Doesey, M.D., an eminent physician of Phila- 
delphia, published "Elements of Surgery," two volumes; 
44 Cooper's Surgery, with Notes," and contributed largely to 

William Potts Dewees, M.D., Professor of Midwifery in 
the University of Pennsylvania, published two editions of 
44 Inaugural Essays," 44 Medical Essays," 44 System of Mid- 
wifery" (twelve editions), a 44 Treatise on the Physical and 
Medical Treatment of Children," a 44 Treatise on the Diseases 
of Females, and a 44 Treatise on the Practice of Medicine." 

John D. Godman, M.D., a distinguished practitioner for a 
time in Philadelphia, published an 44 American Natural His- 
tory," 44 Anatomical Investigations," 44 Rambles of a Natural- 
ist," 44 Bell's Anatomy with Notes," also many addresses, which 
were delivered on public occasions. 

William E. Horner, M.D., Professor of Anatomy in the 
University of Pennsylvania, published 44 Special Anatomy and 
Histology," two volumes, with over three hundred illustra- 
tions, which passed through eight editions ; 44 United States 
Dissector, or Lessons in Practical Anatomy," five editions. 

J. M. Allen, Professor of Anatomy in the Pennsylvania 
Medical College, Philadelphia, published the 44 Student's Guide 
in the Dissecting-Room." 

Thomas C. James, M.D., a native of Philadelphia, was 
appointed Professor of Midwifery in the University of Penn- 
sylvania. He was an accomplished scholar, and contributed 
much to the Philadelphia " Portfolio." 

John Eberle, M.D., published 44 Lectures on the Theory 
and Practice of Medicine," 44 Treatise on the Diseases and 
Physical Education of Children," 4i Treatise on Materia 
Medica and Therapeutics," two volumes. 

George McLellan, M.D., graduated at the University of 
Pennsylvania; was one of the founders of the Jefferson Medi- 
cal College, and of the Pennsylvania Medical College. He 


was Professor of Surgery in Jefferson Medical College ; and he 
very frequently contributed to the medical journals ; was the 
author of a work, published after his death, entitled " Princi- 
ples and Practice of Surgery." 

Charles Delucena Meigs, M.D., was Professor of Mid- 
wifery in Jefferson Medical College. He was an eminent 
medical writer, and published a " Series of Letters to his 
Class," " Philadelphia Practice of Midwifery,** " Science and 
Art of Obstetrics," " Spasmodic Cholera," &c. 

John Forsyth Meigs, M.D., published a " Treatise on the 
Diseases of Children," and has contributed papers to "The 
American Journal of Medical Sciences " and to " The Medical 

Samuel George Morton, M.D., was Professor of Anatomy 
in the Pennsylvania Medical Collage. He published many 
valuable works on geology and palaeontology, among which 
were " Analysis of Tabular Spar from Bucks County," " Crania 
Egyptiaca," " Crania Americana ; " and to the latter he owes 
his rank among the most eminent physiological ethnologists. 

Henry Stuart Patterson, M.D., was Professor of Mate- 
ria Medica in Pennsylvania College. He published a " Me- 
moir of Dr. Morton," also "Lectures Introductory to the 
course of Materia Medica." He promised to attain great emi- 
nence, but died young. 

Henry H. Smith, Professor of Surgery in the University of 
Pennsylvania, published a " Treatise on Minor Surgery," an 
"Anatomical Atlas," "Principles and Practice of Surgery," 
" A System of Operative Surgery," " Treatment of Ununited 
Fractures by Means of Artificial Limbs," "A Professional 
Visit to London and Paris," " Syllabus of Lectures on the 
Principles and Practice of Surgery," " The Medical, Literary, 
and Social Influence of the Alumni of the University of Penn- 
sylvania," &c. 

Alfred StillIs, M.D., is Professor of Theory and Practice 
of Medicine in the University of Pennsylvania. He published 
"Medical Instruction in the United States," "Elements of 
General Pathology," "Tfce Unity of Medicine," "Therapeu- 
tics and Materia Medica," " Systematic Treatise on the Actions 


and Uses of Medicinal Agents, including their Description and 
History," "Epideqxic Meningitis, or Cerebro-Spinal Menin- 
gitis,'' &c. 

W. W. Gerhard, M.D., is Lecturer on Clinical Medicine in 
the University of Pennsylvania. He has published " The Clini- 
cal Guide," " Lectures on the Diagnosis, Pathology, and Treat- 
ment of the Diseases of the Chest," and contributed much to 
44 The American Journal of Medical Science," " Medical Exam- 
iner," &c. 

Thomas D. Mitchell, M.D., is Professor of the Theory and 
Practice of Medicine in the Jefferson Medical College. He 
published a very valuable work on " Materia Medica and The- 
rapeutics," " Elements of Chemical Philosophy," an edition 
of Dr. John Eberle's u Treatise on the Diseases and Physical 
Education of Children," with Notes. 

John Bell, M.D., a graduate of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, was a lecturer for many years on the Institutes of 
Medicine in the Philadelphia Medical Institute, and also Pro- 
fessor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the Medical 
College of Ohio. He published " Baths and Mineral Waters," 
44 Regimen and Longevity," 44 Baths and the Water Regimen," 
44 Mineral and Thermal Springs of the United States and 
Canada.' 1 

Thomas Mutter, M.D., late Professor of Surgery in Jeffer- 
son Medical College, was one of the best lecturers on 
Medical Science. He published an edition of Liston's Lectures 
with additions, and contributed to many of the leading medical 
journals of the United States. 

Robert E. Rogers is Professor of Chemistry in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He is the editor of George E. Day's 
translation of the second edition of C. G. Lehman's 44 Physio- 
logical Chemistry," two volumes octavo, with nearly two hun- 
dred illustrations. 

Samuel D. Gross is Professor of Surgery in the Jefferson 
Medical College. He has published many works, among which 
are 44 General Anatomy," 44 Anatomy and Diseases of the Bones 
and Joints," 44 Operative Surgery," 44 Obstetrics," 44 Wounds of 
the Intestines," 44 Pathological Anatomy," 44 Foreign Bodies in 


the Air-Passages," " Diseases of the Urinary Bladder," " Re- 
sults of Surgical Operations in Malignant Diseases," " A System 
of Surgery," &c. 

Paul B. Goddaed, an eminent physician of Philadelphia, 
published " Plates on the Arteries," also on the " Nerves," " The 
Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology of Human Teeth." Edited 
Wilson's " Anatomy, Modified, and Arranged," by P. B. G. ; 
also "Practical Treatise on Midwifery," and several other 
medical works. 

Francis D. Conde, a graduate of the Medical University 
of Pennsylvania, published an abridged edition, with notes, of 
Thomas's u Practice of Medicine," " Course of Examinations for 
the Use of Medical Students," " The Catechism of Health," 
" A Treatise on Epidemic Cholera," " Practical Treatise on the 
Diseases of Children," &c. 

Franklin Bache, M.D., great-grandson of Benjamin Frank- 
lin, was Surgeon of the United States army, Professor of 
Chemistry in the Franklin Institute of Pennsylvania, also in 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ; in conjunction with Dr. 
George B. Wood, author of " The Dispensatory of the United 
States ; " editor of " Ure's Dictionary of Chemistry," with 
many other works. 

Robert Hare, M.D., an eminent chemist, Emeritus Pro- 
fessor of, in University of Pennsylvania, made some wonderful 
discoveries in chemistry when very young, contributed more 
than one hundred and fifty Papers to various publications. 

Joseph Leidy, M.D., studied with Prof. James McClintock 
and Paul B. Goddard. He is Professor of Anatomy in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and has contributed many essays to 
medical literature, among which are " Several Important Points 
on the Anatomy of the Human Larynx," " Researches into the 
Comparative Structure of the Liver," " On the Intimate Struc- 
ture and History of the Articular Cartilages," " On Some Pecu- 
liar Bodies observed in the Human Subject." He has devoted 
much attention to science, and contributed much to the various 
scientific journals upon the literature of medicine, zoology, and 

George B. Wood. We have only room to add the name of 


this illustrious physician, last, but by no means the least, among 
the medical writers of Pennsylvania. For many years Pro- 
fessor of Materia Medica and Theory and Practice of Medicine 
in the University of Pennsylvania, — a man to whom the 
profession in America is probably more indebted for valuable 
medical literature than to any other writer. Among his works 
are "The Dispensatory of the United States," "Treatise on 
the Practice of Mfedicine," " Treatise on Therapeutics, and 
Pharmacology or Materia Medica," " Lectures and Addresses 
on Medical Subjects before the Classes of the University 
of Pennsylvania," " Biographical Memoirs, Addresses," &c. 


From 1719 and 1728, when the " American Weekly Mer- 
cury, the Instructor in all Arts and Sciences," and 
"Pennsylvania Gazette," the first two papers ever pub- 
lished in this Commonwealth, the last named edited by Benja- 
min Franklin — from that day to this, Pennsylvania has been 
fortunate in her journals and journalists. While it might be 
pleasing and instructive to give the names of all the news- 
papers and their editors, that have ever been published in this 
State, the limits of our history confine us to some of those of 
the present time ; nor, indeed, can we give more than the names 
of many of these. 

" The North American and United States Gazette " is per- 
haps the oldest as well as the largest newspaper in Philadelphia. 
Its archives are stored with much of the newspaper talent that 
has existed in our city. To turn over its numerous volumes, 
and read its enormous pages, is to become acquainted, not only 
with the local news of the City and State, but also with the 
vast transactions of our Nation. It is always dignified and 
decorous, never light and trifling. Its integrity and substan- 
tiality always remind us of the Golden Age of the Republic; 
and we rarely scan its vigorous columns without recalling the 
names of Washington, Jefferson, and other patriotic fathers of 
the nation. Hon. Morton McMichael, one of the best mayors 
of Philadelphia, and who has honorably filled many offices of 
trust in the State and the Nation, is the editor and publisher, 


combining in one person both offices, as did Franklin, his illus- 
trious predecessor. Our readers can have the daily for ten 
dollars a year. 

" The Public Ledgeb " (and " Daily Transcript"). In des- 
cribing this paper, we are naturally led back to the period when 
the first penny paper of our city was started, about 1830. Dr. 
Christopher C. Conwell published a small sheet, entitled " Lb 
Cent." He was an educated, enthusiastic young man, and a 
better poet than editor. His paper soon shared the fate which 
hundreds of others have since ; viz., it failed. In 1835 William 
L. Duane, as he said, " for the purpose of feeling the pulse of 
the public on the subject of a daily penny paper," published a 
few numbers of " The Daily Transcript." March 25, 1836, Messrs. 
Swain, Abell, and Simmons published the first number of " The 
Public Ledger." This paper, though small in size, was bold in 
purpose, and from its first issue seemed to say, " I have come 
to stay." The gentlemen just named employed Mr. Russell 
Jarvis, a native of Massachusetts. He possessed every quali- 
fication necessary for a successful editor. He probed every sore 
in the city, uncovered every corrupt fountain, and opened its 
contents to the public gaze. In a single week after its birth, 
the " Ledger " had shown its teeth to such an extent, that a " vil- 
lanous and cowardly attack was made upon its office, demolish- 
ing several panes of glass, and inflicting somewhat more serious 
injury to the interior." In a word, its independence has made 
44 The Public Ledger" what it is, — the most popular paper, if 
we take into account its vast circulation, perhaps in America. If 
a man were arrested for the murder of his paramour, and 
through family influence and bribery went " unwhipped of jus- 
tice ; " if medical students became uproarious in the street, and 
committed deeds of atrocity at which desperadoes ought to 
tremble ; if peaceable men could not assemble, and quietly 
discuss the subject of slavery, without having the building 
torn down over their heads by mobocratic violence ; if Native 
Americans must be set upon by the minions of Popery ; and if 
Catholic churches were to be burned by a mob, that vengeance 
might be reaped upon the transgressors, — in each and all of 
these misdemeanors, "The Ledger" publicly denounced the 


mockery of justice, the heinousness of crime under college patron- 
age, the insecurity of law-abiding citizens, and the total failure 
of our civilization. , 

Thus, from the start, u The Public Ledger " was a success ; but 
under the ownership and supervision of George W. Childs, 
whose life has been so graphically described, by Col. J. W. 
Forney, it was enlarged, expurgated of its objectionable adver- 
tisements, and every way improved, until it has become one of 
the most veritable and successful organs of the present age, as 
demonstrated by its daily circulation of a hundred and twenty- 
five thousand copies, the employment of three hundred and 
nine persons in its establishment (exclusive of the newsboys), 
and the erection of the splendid edifice, as seen in the accom- 
panying illustration. Everybody bears testimony to the kind- 
ness, good character, enterprise, and success of George William 
Childs. No better proof can be given of the truth of this 
statement than is to be gathered from the fact that Col. Forney, 
the publisher of a newspaper in the same city (where too often, 
in such cases, rivalship shows itself in bitter words), paid the 
following tribute to him : " In his fifteenth year he came to 
Philadelphia, like Benjamin Franklin, without a friend or a 
dollar. His only capital was industry, perseverance, and a stout 
heart; and with these resistless weapons he fought his way 
through inconceivable obstacles, until he has become the living 
' illustration of that noble characteristic, so rare among men of 
affluence, the accumulation of riches, not for himself alone, but 
to make others happy during and after his life. No charity ap- 
peals to Childs in vain, — no object of patriotism, no great enter- 
prise, no sufferer from misfortune, whether the ex-Confederate 
or the stricken foreigner. He made his money himself, not by 
speculation or office, and got none by inheritance. He coins 
money like a magician, and spends it like a man of heart. He 
likes society, and lives like a gentleman. He is as temperate as 
ever Horace Greely was, and yet he never denies his friends a 
generous glass of wine. His habits are as simple as Abraham 
Lincoln's ; and yet his residence is a gem bright with exquisite 
decorations, and rich in every variety of art. He gives a 
Christmas dinner to newsboys and bootblacks, and dines trav- 



elling dukes and earls with equal ease and familiarity. He 
never seems to be at work, goes everywhere, sees everybody, 
helps everybody ; and yet his great machine moves like a clock 
under his constant supervision." 

Forney's Press. Col. John W. Forney, a native of Lancas- 
ter, was born in 1817. He seems to have been born an editor 
and a politician, and has been equally successful in both of these 
professions. He first edited a newspaper in his native city, 
in 1838. In 1845 he removed to Philadelphia, where he edited 
the Pennsylvania**, a daily Democratic journal. In 1857 he 
established * the Press in this city. As Minerva came forth 
full grown from the brain of Jupiter, so this paper burst forth 
upon the community in full-orbed strength and vigor. During 
the late war, no newspaper in the city was more eagerly sought 
after, or more eagerly and carefully perused, than the Press. 
Col. Forney also established the Chronicle, an enterprising 
and successful paper, in Washington, D.C. As a writer, his 
style is lucid and strong: his biographical sketches exhibit 
great keenness and insight, and vivid description of character. 
His " Anecdotes of Public Men " are so amusing and instructive, 
that they have been, and will continue to be, read with zest and 
pleasure by coming generations. His personal appearance is 
fine, his eye bright and piercing, and his conversational powers 
admirable. As a political man, he has held many offices of 
trust and emolument, and always discharged the duties of them 
creditably to himself, and satisfactorily to the public. 

The Philadelphia Inquirer is one of the old estab- 
lished, highly respectable papers of the city. William W. 
Harding is the editor and publisher ; and its price is six dollars 
per annum. Under Mr. Harding's management, it has become 
so much improved, that the readers of the original specimens 
would scarcely be able to recognize their old friend and com- 

The Age, the old and tried friend of the Democrats, fills the 
place in their families which the " Press " and the " North 
American " occupy among the Republicans, over whom it keeps 
a sharp watch. 

The Bulletin, the oldest of the evening papers, has enjoyed 


a long career of merited prosperity, and been wisely and ably 

The Evening Telegeaph. This paper, though of more 
recent date than the preceding, has, nevertheless, had a success- 
ful career. A Philadelphia publication says of it, " It is the 
most successful of modern attempts to render a double-sheet 
newspaper financially successful. By keeping its readers fully 
posted in the news, through facilities peculiar to itself in after- 
noon journalism, by the independence of its editorials, by the 
special feature of reproducing regularly the leading articles of 
important newspapers in other sections of the country, and by 
vigorous business management, it has gained a solid footing 
among its contemporaries, and a strong hold upon the public." 
— Well-deserved compliment. 

The Item, a younger brother among the evening papers, 
than the preceding ; a most indefatigable and industrious jour- 
nal, is ably and brilliantly edited by Fitzgerald & Sons, and 
has achieved considerable success. 

The Evening Stab, a bright star indeed, is a penny paper, 
and has been very successful. 

The Evening Chronicle, Bee, and Herald are also penny 
papers, and earnestly compete for their share of patronage. 

The Day, and Letter-Sheet and Price-Current, are also 
in the field, suing for daily patronage. 

The Public Record, published by William J. Swain, a son 
of the Swain who was one of the founders of the " Public 
Ledger," has reproduced almost a facsimile of the original 
44 Ledger," published by his father and his coadjutors. It con- 
tains a less number of advertisements, and more news, than 
were to be found in the old " Ledger." 

The German Democrat is under the control of Dr. 
Morwitz, and has achieved greater success than any other 
paper hitherto published by any of our citizens from the 
44 Faderland." Its building is an ornament to the city. There 
are three other German papers in the city, — the Philadelphia 
Abend Post, the Philadelphia Fredb Presse, the Phila- 
delphia Volksblatt. 

The Tri-Weeklies are the North American, and United 


States Gazette, and the Press ; the former $5.00 per annum, 
the latter, $4.38 per annum. 

The only semi-weekly paper is the Letter-Sheet and Price- 
Current, which is $2.00 per annum. 

The Weeklies are the Christian Recorder, edited by Rev. 
B. T. Tanner, and published by Rev. W. H. Hunter; the 
Commercial List and Price-Current, published by Stephen 
N. Winslow & Son ; the Episcopal Register, published by 
McCalla & Stavely ; the Episcopalian, edited and published 
by Rev. Charles W. Quick ; the Friend, published by John 
S. Stokes ; the Friends' Intelligencer, published by Emmor 
Comly ; the Friends' Review, edited by W. J. Allison, and 
published by Alice Lewis; the Germantown Telegraph, 
edited and published by Philip R. Freas ; the Harness and 
Carriage Journal, published by Dexter & Co. ; the Key- 
stone, published by the Masonic Publishing Co. ; the Local 
Intelligencer, published by J. M. Power Wallace ; the 
L'Italia, published by L. G. Contri ; the Literary Society, 
published by a society of the same name ; the Lutheran and 
Missionary, published by the Lutheran Bookstore ; the Lu- 
theran Observer, published by Rev. F. W. Conrad; the Medi- 
cal and Surgical Reporter, edited by Dr. D. G. Brinton ; 
the Methodist Home Journal, edited and published by Adam 
Wallace ; the National Baptist, edited by Rev. H. L. Way- 
land ; the Neue Welt, published by H. S. Grossheim ; the 
Petroleum Circular; the Philadelphia Sonntags Blatt, 
published by F. W. Thomas & Sons; the Philadelphia 
Southern and Western Trade Journal, published by 
Southern and Western Publishing and Printing Company; 
the Presbyterian, published by Mutchmore & Co., which has 
been the standard paper of the denomination for many years, 
and has grown better and stronger, exerting a wider influence 
with its increasing age ; the Press ; the Railway World, 
published by the U. S. Railroad and Mining Register Co. ; the 
Reformed Church Messenger, published by the Reformed 
Church Publication Board; the Republikansche Flagge 
(German), published by F. W. Thomas & Sons ; the Satur- 
day Evening Post, published by R. J. C. Walker, a veiy 


able and successful journal ; the Saturday Night, published 
by Davis & Elverson; the Shoe and Leather Reporter, 
published by Dexter & Co. ; the Sunday City Item, published 
by Fitzgerald & Sons ; the Sunday Dispatch, published by 
- Everett & Hincken, an ably edited and widely circulated 
paper; the Sunday Mercury, published by Messer & Co.; 
the Sunday Press, published by the Herald Publishing 
Company ; the Sunday Republic, published by Dunkel, Hales, 
& Co. ; the Sunday School Times, published by John Wana- 
maker; the Sunday Times, published by J. H. Taggart & 
Son; the Sunday Transcript, published by E. W. C. 
Greene ; the Sunday Tribune, published by William Moran ; 
the United Presbyterian and Christian Instructor; 
the United States Journal, published by Z. Fuller; the 
Vereinigte Staaten Zeitung (German), edited by Gottlieb 
Kellner, published by Morwitz & Co. ; the Weekly Notes of 
Cases ; the Young Folks' News, published by Alfred Mar* 

The Semi-Monthlies are the Child's World, published by 
the American Sunday-School Union ; the Knights op Pythias 
Journal, published by William Blanebois; the Peterson's 
Counterfeit Detector and National Bank-Note List, 
published by T. B. Peterson & Brothers ; the Philadelphia 
Intelligencer, published by George C. Helmbold ; the Refor- 
mirte Kirchen Zeitung, edited by Rev. N. Gehr, and man- 
aged by C. J. Heppe ; the Young Reaper, published by the 
Bible and Publication Society; The Youth's Evangelist, 
published by James M. Ferguson & Co. 

The monthlies are the American Exchange and Review, 
published by Fowler & Moon; the American Journal op 
Homoeopathic Materia Medica, published by the Homoeo- 
pathic Medical College ; the American Law Register, pub- 
lished by D. B. Canfield & Co. ; the Arthur's Home Maga- 
zine, published by T. S. Arthur & Sons; the Baptist 
Teacher, published by the Bible and Publication Society ; the 
Busy Bee, published by the Lutheran Association ; the Chil- 
dren's Hour, published by T. S. Arthur & Sons ; the Child's 
Treasury, published by the Reformed Church Publication 


Board ; the Child's World, published by the American Sun- 
day School Union ; the Eclectic Medical Journal, published 
by the Eclectic Medical College ; the Gardener's Monthly, 
published by Charles H. Marot ; the Good Words, published 
by J. B. Lippincott & Co. ; the Guardian, published by the Re- 
formed Church Publication Board; the Guardian Angel, 
published by Gillin & McGuigan ; the Home Circle, published 
by Jos. M. Horton; the Journal of Applied Chemistry, 
published by Dexter & Co. ; Lady's Book, L. A, Godey pub- 
lisher, Sarah J. Hale editor, "from the time that the memory 
of man runneth not to the contrary" almost, and as young 
still and vigorous as ever ; Lady's Friend, Deacon & Peter- 
son, publishers ; Lippencott's Magazine, published by J. B. 
Lippincott & Co., an excellent periodical; Our Monthly, 
Alfred Martien, publisher; Peterson's Lady's Magazine, 
Charles J. Peterson, publisher; Presbyterian Monthly 
Record, published by Board of Presbyterians ; Sunday Maga- 
zine, published by J. B. Lippincott & Co. ; Sunday School 
World, Rev. Richard Newton, D.D., editor, one of the best 
writers for children the world ever saw. Quarterlies, — Bap- 
tist, H. G. Weston, D.D., editor ; Dental Times, Pennsyl- 
vania College of Dental Surgery. No space for the other Pub- 
lications in the State. 



Birthplace of Girard — Cabin-Boy — Capt. Randall— Begins to speculate — 
Comes to Philadelphia — Marriage — Removes to Mount Holly — Returns to 
Philadelphia— Partnership with his Brother— Dissolution — Wife's Insani- 
ty — Massacre in St. Domingo — Death of his Brother — His Nieces — Names 
of his Ships — Smoking — Service in the Yellow-Fever — Softens with Age — 
Capt. Guligar— One Cent — His Dress — Dr. Staughton — Gives to the 
Methodists — Cancels Donation — Widow's Visit — Girard Bank — Hard- 
ware Merchant — Rope-Maker — Iron Work — Noble Plan of his College — 
His Will — Explanation of Prohibitory Clause — Opening of the Will — Gi- 
rard College —Note from Dr. Allen. 

IT is well that Philadelphia should be fragrant with the name 
of Stephen Girard. We have Girard Street, Girard Ave- 
nue, Girard Bank, Girard Hotel, Girard Insurance Company, 
and last, but not least, Girard College. 

The life of simply a rich man is not of much consequence. 
Many such die every year, and are soon forgotten, and it 
would apparently have been just as well for the world if they 
had never lived. Simple wealth may raise the unpleasant 
passion of envy, but there is nothing in it to cause veneration 
or esteem. Miser is his name, and miserable is the definition. 

Stephen Girard was born in France, in the environs of Bor- 
deaux, May 24, 1750. Of his parents we know nothing. It 
is reasonable to presume that his early education was very 
limited. Reading, writing, and some knowledge of arithmetic, 
comprised all his education. 

He is supposed to have left France at about the age of ten 
years, in the capacity of a cabin-boy, in a vessel bound to the 
West Indies. What caused him thus early to leave his home, 
and come to a new country, is not known. Soon he came to 



New York, and continued to sail from that port as cabin-boy, 
in the employ of Capt. James Randall. His conduct was so 
becoming, and he was so faithful, that Capt. Randall was ac- 
customed to call him my Stephen. He never forfeited the 
esteem of the captain ; and, when he ceased going to sea, he 
promoted Stephen to the office of mate, in which capacity he 
made several voyages to New Orleans and other ports, to the 
entire satisfaction of his employer. 

We find a curious fact illustrated in the life of Girard ; to 
wit, that those who are early made to rely upon themselves 
succeed the best in life's voyage. This fact was prominent in. 
the case of Franklin, and in hundreds of others. 

He was always grave, self-reliant, steady, and contemplative. 
Though a Frenchman by birth, yet he was republican in prin- 
ciple. The disposition ever to perform his duty was the secret 
of his fortune. 

He was a self-taught man. I have already said his education 
was of a limited character. Soon after Capt. Randall's death, 
he began to speculate. He was always distinguished for his 
good fortune, or good judgment, or both. He always said he 
had a lucky star. After he grew rich, he was accustomed to 
say, " I began life with sixpence, and a man's industry, always 
his best capital." 

He first came to Philadelphia in 1769. No one knew why 
he came, or what his business was. Indeed, no one knew him. 
Speculation or trade probably brought him here ; for he soon 
established himself in Water Street, and was esteemed a thriv- 
ing man. He was remarkably serious, and was no doubt then 
meditating on the banker he was afterwards to become. 

As the sun of his prosperity rose higher, Girard showed that 
he was neither a monk nor a celibate. He was now twenty- 
four years of age; and, releasing himself from the cares of 
business, he became enamoured with a beautiful girl of sweet' 
sixteen. This was the only passion, except a passion for wealth 
and fame, that ever entered his heart ; and, from its unfortu- 
nate results, it is doubtful whether he ever really loved. She 
was the daughter of a calker, who had been an old ship- 
builder, of the name of Lum, living, at the time, in Water 


Street, above Vine. Mary, or Polly, Lum, as she was called, 
was a most beautiful girl ; and, when Girard first saw her, she 
was engaged as a servant in the family of Col. Walter Shee. 
He was first attracted by her charms in seeing her go to the 
pump barefooted, with her rich black and glossy hair hanging 
in dishevelled curls about her neck. She was a modest, rosy 
brunette. The visits of such a man, so much her superior in 
years and fortune, were suspected of not being honorable, and 
were forbidden. Whereupon, he immediately proposed to 
marry her ; and the next year (1770) she became his wife. Her 
.meek, modest, and exemplary deportment, added to her supe- 
rior charms, soon introduced her into some of the most re- 
spectable families. This proved a most unhappy marriage, — 
whether from the fact that she was ignorant and vulgar, or 
from the domineering, intolerant, and arbitrary will of the 
husband, or both, it is not easy to decide. It is believed Girard 
was not guided in this choice by that wisdom and prudence 
which usually characterized his business transactions. He was, 
moreover, ill qualified by nature and by practice to brook 
opposition. On the other hand, the wife had but little of the 
grace, amenity, and polish of refined life ; and though, in all 
probability, she was not inferior to him in most respects which 
render men and women comfortable in society, yet the two 
were so unequally yoked, that they could not be happy. 

Had Girard had children, it might have changed the whole 
current and tenor of his life. But as he had no child, except 
a daughter which died in infancy, — no sons to establish in 
business, no daughters to educate and endow, and really no 
wife to love, she having spent the last twenty-five years of her 
life in the Department for the Insane in the Pennsylvania 
Hospital, — he had nothing to divert all his energies from the 
accumulation of wealth. It is more than probable that a family 
of children would have improved the virtues of the man, as, 
where the ordinary and natural course is broken up, human 
sympathy is apt to be more or less perverted. 

The Revolutionary War drove him from commerce to store- 
keeping, and with his store he opened an establishment for 
bottling claret and cider. At this he made money, but soon 


sold out in Philadelphia, and removed to a small farm which he 
had purchased at Mount Holly. Here he still carried on jbhe 
bottling business. A gentleman who knew him at this time 
describes his personal appearance as any thing but prepossess- 
ing. He had but one eye ; was ignorant, rough, and vulgar. 
Young merchants shunned him as a disgrace to the trade ; but 
those who inspected him more closely were inspired with es- 
teem for his worth. He seemed to understand that he was not 
prepossessing, and often bore taunts with the meekness and 
patience of a philosopher. 

In 1779, as soon as the British left Philadelphia, he removed 
from Mount Holly to the city. He was never a fighting man ; 
and the nearest he was ever known to come in aiding the Rev- 
olution was to assist on one occasion in raising a liberty-pole. 
He afterwards adopted the republican principles of Jefferson, 
and also his scepticism. 

The real beginning of his fortune was leasing several build- 
ings for ten years of a Mr. Stiles, with a proviso that he should 
have them ten years more if he wished to. He rented them 
low, had the lease renewed, and, near the close of his life, ac- 
knowledged that this was really his first start in business on 
the road to wealth. 

About 1780 his brother, Capt. John Girard, came to this 
country ; and the two brothers went into business in company. 
But two men were never less alike ; and, although they made 
money, they were both uncomfortable, and soon separated. 
John was then found to be worth sixty thousand dollars, and 
Stephen thirty thousand dollars. But forty-one years after, 
Stephen died possessed of ten millions. 

In 1790 his family trials came to a climax ; and his wife was 
admitted, in May of that year, as a lunatic in the Pennsylvania 
Hospital. Here she gave birth to her only child, seven months 
after she was admitted ; and here she died, and in the yard of 
the hospital she was buried. As soon as she was dead, he vis- 
ited the hospital, gave directions about her funeral ; and at the 
close of the day, when the sun had retired, the remains of the 
once beautiful Mary Lum were carr