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Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity 

From its Foundation in 1852 to its 
Fiftieth Anniversary 




«•••«•» , / ••» 

philadelphia, pa. 
Franklin Printing Company 


Copyrighted, 1902 


Executive Council of Phi Kappa Psi 

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The sfffted founder of Phi Kappa Psi^ 
who in his insfentious yotith was 
the counsellor and confidant of his 
friends, who in his Tcgorous man- 
hood was an ornament to his pro- 
fession, and who in the declining 
years of age is the inspiration of 
thousands who revere his name, 
this record of the Fratemity^s life is 
affectionately dedicated, by the 



Finis opus coronati 

The History of Phi Kappa Psi is a thing done I 

No matter whether the verdict of the author's constit- 
uency is favorable or derogatory, the work remains. It must 
plead its own case, and with the verdict I am content. To 
the work a large and increasing enthusiasm has been brought, 
and in the prosecution of it time has seemed no loss, although 
much has been done when brain and heart were overwrought 
with other toil. 

Of the detailed sources of that which follows, it is proper 
to speak in this place. The Historian has been especially 
fortunate in having in his possession during the past two 
years the original minute books of Pennsylvania Alpha and 
Virginia Alpha, and these have been of incalculable value. 
In addition to these he has had also the archives of a number 
of the inactive chapters, the minute books of successive 
Grand Chapters and records of practically all of the Grand 
Arch Councils. 

A number of brothers, whose interest in this work has been 
perennial, have sent to me many bits of interesting material 
in the form of letters, programs, catalogues, periodicals, and 
personal reminiscences. Much of this material was only 
corroborative, but it was none the less acceptable. It is a 
matter of very great pleasure to express the obligation of the 
Historian, and therefore of the fraternity, for the precious 
memorials secured on the occasion of his visit to Riverview, 
the magnificent country home of Judge Moore. A special 
Phi Psi Providence must have been guarding that bundle of 
letters which has been accumulating dust for nearly half a 
century in the attic chamber of Judge Moore, and which has 
been of supreme use in this history. Several mooted ques- 
tions have been settled by these letters, notably the G. A. C. 
which was held in Canonsburg, in 1856, the original minutes 




of which, in Tom Campbell's handwriting, were in the 
packet gathered at Riverview. 

It is scarcely necessary that I should make a catalogue of 
all the sources from which information has been derived; the 
list would prove wearisome and not particularly profitable 
for reading. It may be enough to say that evidence when 
conflicting has been weighed with care, and no statement of 
fact made without what seemed ample justification. Opin- 
ions, where not credited, are the author's own, and will carry 
whatever weight attaches to his personality and to the confi- 
dence the fraternity has in his knowledge and integrity. 

Nothing has been said for effect, and no word has been 
written in which malice or prejudice was the impelling mo- 
tive for utterance. That there will be differences of belief 
from those expressed by the author is to be expected; a 
ready acquiescence in every word of his would be proof that 
his work was jejune and forceless. But it is his ardent hope 
that every reader of these and succeeding pages will accord 
to him what he now ascribes to every man who is fit to wear 
the shield and display the lavender and pink, sincere motives 
and an honest desire to further the cause of Phi Kappa Psi. 

While not inclined, in this joyous hour of completed labors, 
to be captious, it may not be unbecoming to say that the 
work of compilation was rendered far too laborious by the 
wretched procrastination and shameful neglect of many who 
would not answer inquiries made again and again, nor give 
even a sign that some small service was required at their 
hands by their fraternity. The cost of compilation has been 
increased in a considerable measure by the wholly indefen- 
sible practice of some "to never do to-day what can be put 
off until to-morrow." 

Every device known to the author, and those which his 
friends could supply, have been freely used to render the 
work authentic and useful, and the Historian has also been 


at pains to make it readable. The work of writing the chap- 
ter-histories has been altogether a very difficult matter. 
The problem was of two kinds: first to unearth from a long- 
buried past anything authentic regarding the chapters which 
are dead ; and to condense without mutilation the admirable 
accounts of several of the most conscientious chapter-his- 
torians. There will be disappointment with some who la- 
bored diligently to assist the Historian by making their ac- 
counts so succinct and so accurate both in statement of fact 
and in rhetorical form that they would need no revision, be- 
cause to the committee charged with the details of publica- 
tion it seemed necessary to establish a rule of limitation to an 
average of five hundred words for each history of chapters. 
In a few instances there have been given to particular chapter 
accounts a considerably greater amount of space than the 
average, but in every such case the character of the history 
and the importance of the chapter seemed to warrant this vio- 
lation of the rule. The wisdom of the committee of 
publication is not here under review, but it will 
help to a fuller understanding of their problem to know 
that one chapter history contained nearly six thousand 
words, another four thousand, half a dozen more than 
two thousand, while not to exceed six or eight came 
within the limits prescribed a number of years ago 
when detailed instructions were sent chapter-historians con- 
cerning their duties and work. Had no discretion been ex- 
ercised in limiting these histories, there is no telling ''where- 
unto this thing would grow." With the exception of two 
accounts which for special reasons were published practically 
as originally penned, the Historian has rewritten the entire 
list of chapter-histories. He thinks that he has preserved 
all of the salient features of each, and where possible has re- 
tained even the phraseology of the writer ; but that he has 
failed to include carefully prepared statistics in a number 


of accounts must be charged to the judgment which he must 
necessarily exercise in determining what sort of history he 
ought to give Phi Kappa Psi. Statistics of a chapter ex- 
cept of a very general sort become obsolete almost as soon 
as compiled, and the ideal which he kept constantly before his 
mind was to make a book which would be read, and to that 
end it must not partake of the character of a chronicle merely 
on the one hand, nor of a catalogue upon the other. 

It is not possible to entunerate here the names of all those 
who have contributed to the making up of these accounts of 
chapter or general fraternity life, much as the Historian 
would like to acknowledge his obligation to those who have 
sympathized with him in what seemed at first almost like 
making bricks without straw, but a few there be who have 
been especially useful to him, and to them he must ascribe 
their just meed of desert, in some regards, long unrecog- 
nized. First of all, he desires to thank, in the name of the 
fraternity, and for himself, that devoted pair, D. C. List and 
J, F. Kinkade, Ohio Gamma, who conceived the idea of a 
history of the fraternity, and labored zealously to carry it 
out ; then to C. F. M. Niles, of the same chapter, who took 
the place of Bro. Kinkade and later assumed all the work of 
prosecuting the publication; to my immediate predecessor, 
George B. Lockwood, who revived the project long left 
in quiescence after Bro. Niles had expended all the cash 
that he felt justified in doing; to Bros. Dodd, Moderwell, 
and Rush for portraits and other material used in illus- 
trating the volume; to Bros. McCorkle, Holden, and Baker, 
who, as the first officers of the Executive Council having this 
work in charge after the present Historian took office, were 
ever ready with advice and encouragement to speed on the 
work ; to W. G. Keady, the "Old Boy," who has, in addition 
to his "Recollections," contributed substantially to the verifi- 
cation of essential facts ; to the present Executive Council, 


whose labors tx>th of financial support and effective stimulus, 
have been frequently in evidence in the past three years ; to 
Vice-President E. Lawrence Fell, President of the Franklin 
Printing Company, for the especial care he has exercised in 
securing for the fraternity a piece of good typography; to 
Miss Mae Moore, who, as her father's secretary, has been in- 
valuable to the writer; and to Messrs. Vernon and Sharpless, 
who loaned valuable cuts and pictures for illustration. And 
in conclusion, I desire to thus publicly express my gratifica- 
tion at the generous and sympathetic assistance of the other 
members of the publishing committee. Secretary Orra E, 
Monnette, and Treasurer C. F. M. Niles, of the Executive 
Council. Their stimulating encouragement has helped to 
tide over many a dark hour and their faith has often brought 
from skepticism a genuine belief in ultimate triumph. 

And now, the task committed to me at Qeveland has been 
accomplished. With Cicero, the great Roman advocate, 
when he urged justice for his friend Archias, I may well say : 
"If there is an)^hing of talent in me, judges, or any skill 
in speech, or any culture derived from a study of the best 
arts and perfected by practice, A. Licinius Archias, almost by 
right, should demand the exercise of them in his defence." 
So, likewise. Phi Kappa Psi has a claim to the very best there 
is in me. To the limits of ability I have done the work of 
writing and compiling and now abandon the prosaic type- 
writer with both regret and joy, — r^^et that the long work 
shall no longer be the ever-present spur to fraternity activi- 
ties, and joy that the deferred labors of my predecessors 
have at last come to fruition. 

Go forth, then, modest venture, into the great field of 
human record and may pleasure to the reader and profit to 
the fraternity accompany you I 

C. L. Van Cleve, Historian. 
Troy, Ohio, February, 1902. 




The Genesis of an Idea 13 

An Old Boy^s Story 37 

Grand Chapters 61 

Grand Arch Councils and Reunions 86 

Phi Psi Publications 140 

Chapter Histories 167 

Modern History 277 


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v^^N the 19th of February, 1852, in the upper room 
Vw^ of the house occupied by the Widow Letherman, 
Canonsburg, Pa., Phi Kappa Psi was bom. 
The incident seems but a trifle, but the thought prompting 
the action has evolved into a great truth, shared by eight 
thousand noble men in the brief period of half a century. 
William Letherman,'*' with his intimate friend,. Charles 
Moore, had talked over the wisdom of establishing at 
Jefferson Collie a new college secret order of higher 
character and with loftier aims than those then existing 
in the college. They had each been solicited to unite 
themselves with the chapters of other fraternities then 
in existence at Jefferson, but the character of the men 
who composed these chapters was not of the kind that 
they desired to emulate, and so, inspired with the thought 
that they might be the founders of a new order of the 
very highest sort, they- asked several friends to come to 
Letherman's room to join them in this noble work. Of 
those invited none came but Moore, and so in dignity 
these two lofty spirits launched Phi Kappa Psi upon 
the uncertain sea of college life. 

* This is the original spelling of the name. 




The language used by them in describing their motive, 
as recorded in a history of Pennsylvania Alpha, signed 
by both and put upon record one year afterward, is: 
"Believing that by an association governed by certain 
fixed laws and regulations they could advance and 
promote each other's interests and improve each other 
• : .*.^ i^pi|41x .M<1: intellectually, Messrs. Moore and Letherman 
':'%•* hW'^l'r'V^t^en out a constitution which should govern 
them, to a ^^t extent, met in Mr. Letherman's room 
©rf thfc iiotfi/of February, 1852, and founded the Phi Kappa 
Psi Association. 

On February 23d, they added to their number by initiat- 
ing Isaac Van Meter and James T. Metzger. On February 
25th, John W. Parramore was initiated, and on the 27th of 
the same month, Perry McDaniel. By the close of the 
college session, the chapter numbered seven members, and 
well-defined rumors were in circulation that a new organiza- 
tion had been added to the already large number then in 
existence in the rather small institution, though g^eat pains 
were taken to preserve the secret of the birth of Phi Kappa 
Psi from the other Greeks then in college. 

In November, 1852, the Pennsylvania Alpha began keep- 
ing minutes of its meetings, and numbering from the first 
gathering in Letherman's room, the first entry is No. 10, 
on November 25th, 1852. From that date until the present, 
Pennsylvania Alpha has an unbroken record of its life 
history, except for the brief period when it was inactive. 
In 1865, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church, 
feeling that two colleges of that denomination so closely 
situated as Washington and Jefferson then were, made un- 
necessary demands upon the denomination, ordered their 
consolidation. In this way Jefferson College ceased to be, 
and Washington and Jefferson was established. Pennsyl- 
vania Delta, at Washington College, became heir and sue- 


cessor to the life and glorious traditions of Pennsylvania 
Alpha by this college consolidation, but the almost insane 
fanaticism of the first president of the united colleges, in his 
hostility to Greek-letter societies, caused all the organiza- 
tions then in existence at the college to suspend opera- 
tions. In November, 1868, the chapter seems to have 
practically ceased to be, although there are pencilled mem- 
oranda to show that some semblance of a chapter survived. 
In January, 1873, the chapter was reestablished and has 
preserved uninterruptedly its grand history since. 

To the college man of the present day, the records of the 
early years of our order read like a strange romance. The 
fierce rivalries in various college organizations made the 
secrecy of the fraternities a fearsome thing, and deep, dark 
mystery enshrouded nearly every act of the devoted Phi Psis 
of the early fifties. The same spirit in college authorities 
which gave fraternities an apparent death-blow at Wash- 
ington and Jefferson, actuated rival fraternities to en- 
deavor to drive each other out of power and deprive of place 
and influence any who dared to assert the right to live and 
aspire for college honors. 

In one of the early voltmies of a literary journal published 
for many years by Pennsylvania Alpha with considerable 
regularity, and containing much of genuine worth, there 
appears this description of a rival society from the pen of 
the gifted Tom Campbell : "From the whole mass of living 
beings on the face of the earth there cannot be collected 
another set of men professing Christianity, who are in a 
higher degree devoid of all principles of honor, truth, and 
justice than this Satanic B-society and their feminine 
colleagues." Again, this allusion to another rival smacks 
of prejudices and passions far too strong for a modem 

Greek "The aren't much; we scarcely notice 

them. There is a little animal, which, although nauseous, 



it is better to tolerate than exterminate — ^that's the *s. 

We would soon rid ourselves of them, but we don't want 
to be engaged in dirty work." 

Nor were standards of morals over-strict ; the nice tenets 
of personal honor largely depended on whether the fellow 
you were tr3dng to circumvent was of your clique or some 
other. In a personal letter to a distant member of the 
chapter, one of the bravest, strongest, and noblest Phi Psis 
had the hardihood to say : ''There were some fellows about 

to establish a new order here, the . They got me in, 

and I have been trying ever since to break it up, by getting 
all the worthless fellows in college in it. Little do they 
suspect that I am tr3dng to blow their fabric to atoms. I 
am going to withdraw from it soon, as it is ruining the 
reputation of the Phi Psis to be in so many intrigues." Let 
one other passage from a letter to our revered founder from 
his cousin in the flesh and brother in Phi Kappa Psi, suffice 
to show the lengths to which the intense rivalry and party 
feeling in fraternity life went in the days when the white 
heat of hostility of faculties and rivals was fusing into 
strong homogeneity the unformed and resolute souls of 
Phi Kappa Psi. He writes : "There was a pretty big time 
here during the week after election of orator in the F. L. 
Society. There was an awful fuss that night. It started 
about a Delta (a mighty little thing to start a fuss about). 

This Delta, a fellow by the name of ^ had paired off 

with a Freshman, and afterwards went and voted. The row 
began with that. That night about seventy-five fellows met 
on the pike. One of our fellows, a Marylander, struck a 
Skull, a Kentuckian ; the Skull drew a knife, but was unable 
to use it, for the crowd rushed in on him." 

While these incidents have been given for the purpose 
of making the atmosphere of the time real, it must not be 
supposed that the life of the early Phi Psis was passed in 


the Cinunerian darkness of intrigue or in the red-light of 
street brawls, for it is not so. 

The harmless fire of enthusiasm for one's friends is ever 
characteristic of Phi Kappa Psi, and if it were truer of the 
brothers of an elder day than it is of those who now main- 
tain her standards, it is only so by contrast. The misunder- 
standings concerning the meaning and use of Greek*letter 
societies made a close and strongly protective association 
necessary. The electric flash of intellectual combat is not so 
much of less voltage to-day than it was then, but we have 
learned better how to direct it and to give its sharp dis- 
charges a less terrible sound, though none the less effective 
direction for work. 

On January 27th, 1853, was initiated Thomas Cochran 
Campbell, facile princeps, the fraternity man of his time. 
Tom Campbell lived for Phi Kappa Psi. His love for her 
was that ''surpassing love of woman." His active waking 
hours were devoted mainly to planning for her welfare; 
much of the time he should have given to sleep he devoted 
to labor on the Amicus Mysticus, a paper written for the 
chapter and read at its meetings, and to letter writing to 
distant chapters and fraternity friends. What wonder that 
a man who was so zealous in her interests should have for- 
gotten discretion in his labors. For a flagrant violation of 
fraternity law, he was once expelled from the fraternity, 
but when the passions engendered by the recent memory of 
his acts had died away, the generous recollection of his 
many labors plead for him, and he was unanimously rein- 

In a later portion of this work will be found a pen-picture 
of the Old Boys, written by one of the most honored of 
that number, and it is not worth while for the present writer 
to essay a task which is so nobly done there, but it was the 
happy privilege of the Historian to visit our revered founder 


at his home in Mason County, W. Va., in November, 1900, 
and from a long and delightful chat with him of the olden 
times and the boys of the early fifties, it is possible to add 
a little touch here and there which will give ''detail'' to 
Bro. Keady's inimitable work. Although Charles P. T. 
Moore did not remain long in JelBEerson College, his was 
practically the determining voice in the selection of mem- 
bers, so highly regarded was his judgment and so critical 
his taste. Letherman was a tall, handsome fellow, with an 
air of distinction which gave the impression of haughtiness, 
which, however, disappeared upon closer acquaintance. 
His prevailing trait of character was pride, not of the selfish 
sort, but one which gave him the reputation among those 
who did not know him of being high and mighty, but which 
to his friends was that badge of superiority which we ever 
associate -with the noble and good. He was a feimous 
speaker, magnetic and poetical. He distinguished himself 
in medical college at Philadelphia afterward. Tom Camp- 
bell was the enthusiast, the impractical dreamer, with the 
sunlight of his Indian birthplace in his veins, moody, im- 
petuous, irascible, jealous, generous, faithful, tender, and 
true — a strange creature. He had literary aspirations 
which gave promise of early fulfillment, for he was a fre- 
quent and acceptable contributor to the literary journals of 
(lis day. Noah Halleck Gillett was a model young man. 
His was the character to curb the impetuous Campbell. 
He was straightforward, quiet, correct, truthful. Many of 
the wilder spirits were held in check by him and tamed to 
orderly conduct. "The boys of that day," said our founder, 
"were no better, nor were they any worse than those who 
now do the world's work faithfully and well. The times 
have changed and customs with them. What was once 
decorous and proper in the conduct of young men is now 
looked on askance, but I am not so sure that the higher 


demands of conduct have brought any higher perfection of 
character. Things done now in secret were then done 
openly, and many of the things which society now tolerates 
would then have caused a social upheaval. Whiskey and 
brandy were the beverages of gentlemen, but in our circle, 
at least, no one thought of getting drunk. If he had, 
he would have been disgraced forever. I remember very 
well a remark once made to us by the president of the col- 
lege when we were about to have a symposium: "Well, 
young men, I presume you will have something to drink. 
Be careful, and don't permit yourselves to get down on the 

No circumstance of the early years of Phi Kappa Psi is 
so significant as the influence of Charles Moore. His fol- 
lowing in the new society was not dependent upon the mere 
fact of being the founder of a new order whose high ideals 
bade fair to inspire such wholesome life in the organization 
as to g^ve it lively hopes of a large future, but was securely 
based upon a warm, genuine, deep affection. This feeling 
for the revered founder of our loved fraternity found ex- 
pression in many ways. When important anniversary 
meetings of any sort were to be arranged for, his was the 
name first proposed for orator or historian, and hundreds 
of letters bear testimony to the fact that not only in his 
own chapter, but for several years throughout the whole 
fraternity, no matter of any moment was undertaken or 
even discussed without respectful reference to him. A care- 
ful perusal of a large number of his private letters, written 
to him by early Phi Psis and Delta Phis, show without the 
possibility of misunderstanding the secret of his power over 
men. His was a warm, generous, impulsive, sympathetic 
nature, which took its friends as the birds take the empy- 
rean, because made for them and thus adapted to their life 
conditions. He had friends because he was friendly; his 


love for his companions begat a love in them for him ; he 
did no calculating to see whether a man were worthy, he 
simply trusted ; if betrayed, he just as richly hated as he had 
formerly loved; charged with the sacredest confidences of 
his friends, he was not even suspected of being untrue. 

The education of Judge Moore was the generous gift of 
his Uncle George, a fine type of the Virginia gentleman, 
finely educated, cultivated of thought, chaste and elegant 
of speech, living in rural magnificence upon the broad acres 
of a large plantation in the rich, alluvial valley of the Ohio. 
From the beg^ning, Charles Moore had money, which, no 
doubt, added to his popularity, since it afforded him many 
opportunities for doing kindly, generous deeds, and these, 
too, without ostentation or hope of return in kind. 

The following passage from a personal letter written to 
Moore by a friend who was studying law at Harvard, in 
iS55> will give point and force to what has been said of the 
strong attachments which he inspired for himself in his 
friends : "The most convincing demonstration I can give you 
of my high appreciation of your character and of the confi- 
dence I have in your friendship is the assertion that your 
compliments were taken as your real feelings, coming from 
the heart. I am safe in saying that never before did I have so 
high a compliment paid me as was written on every page of 
your letter. I can assure you that you are the only indi- 
vidual upon earth from whom it would have been taken 
in any other way than as an insult." 

The subsequent career of the enthusiastic, impulsive, 
high-spirited boys of the old Jefferson College is certain 
evidence that Phi Kappa Psi was well bom, and its career 
has abundantly justified the loftiest hopes of its founders. 
In the strength it has developed, it has exceeded their 
wildest dreams of coming empire. 

Fraternity to these young men was no academic theme. 


no wild dreaming of the doctrinaire, infused with the hoUow 
phrases of the French Revolution, whose malevolent soph- 
istries still did service in the early fifties to phrase the am- 
bitious vaporings of flamboyant oratory, but a real, pul- 
sating, living reality, with heart enough in it to comprehend 
a world of need. One of the most interesting and pathetic 
illustrations of this intense, vital fatith in brotherhood is an 
account of the pain and distress the parent chapter of Phi 
Kappa Psi had in the prospect that one of its loved circle 
would be compelled to discontinue his studies because of 
failing funds. As spontaneously as if the affair were one 
concerning brothers in the flesh, a handsome sum was 
promptly raised to keep the circle unbroken, and the hon- 
ored brother remained. 

And then, again, the deep distress, the burning indigna- 
tion, the keen humiliation which the first unworthy brother 
brought upon the chapter^ show the same intense belief that 
Phi Kappa Psi was no idle name, no temporaray bond. 
The circumstances are now no longer of interest, but the 
grief of the heart-broken chapter is of infinite moment, for 
it shows that whatever may have been their school-boy ideas 
of honor in dealing with rivals, or in carrying through the 
various college schemes for which Phi Kappa Psi soon be- 
came famous, the hearts of these noble youths were sound 
on great questions of public morals. With pitiless justice 
they cited the culprit to appear before the chapter, and after 
a full hearing, expelled him from the fraternity. 

So far as the records show, the idea of expansion had not 
caused any serious thought during the first year of the 
fraternity's history, but within a few weeks after the first 
anniversary of the founding of the fraternity, Charles 
Moore left Jefferson for Union, with the avowed purpose of 
establishing Phi Kappa Psi in the conservative East. How 
long a journey have we come before the dream of our 
founder has had its realization ! 


Finding that the field was well filled and that the prospect 
for establishing a chapter of choice men was impracticable, 
Moore asked for permission to join Delta Phi, and this 
privilege was granted him in these terms: ''Mr. Charles 
P. T. Moore was permitted to join the Delta Phi Association 
on the condition that he should use all his means for the 
connection of the Delta Phi with our association." It does 
not appear that Delta Phi had any very restrictive rules 
about membership in those days, permitting a man to asso- 
ciate with them although connected with other fraternities, 
simply demanding that he should not be connected with any 
other order in the same college where affiliation with Delta 
Phi was desired. This anomalous condition prevailed gen- 
erally in Greek-letter societies in the days of their incipiency, 
for the connectional idea was little understood, if at all, and 
the joining of a fraternity meant little to a man except the 
pleasant companionship with congenial fellows through the 
short years of his college course. In fact, the larger, and, 
as we believe, the true idea of fraternity life is the product 
of the last twenty, or, at most, twenty-five years. 

The early records of Pennsylvania Alpha show that pre- 
vious to the permission of the chapter to Moore to con- 
nect himself with Delta Phi at Union, letters had been 
received from the late distinguished Christopher Magee in 
which propositions were tentatively made for a union of Phi 
Kappa Psi with the older and more powerful fraternity. 
Thus began the flirtation which came very near to ending 
the life of Phi Kappa Psi before it was fairly well begun. 
It will be well to remember, in this connection, that Phi 
Kappa Psi was as yet in embryo, that it had no more than a 
handful of members, fifteen in all, and that its only chapter 
was the one at Jefferson College. 

The discussion was spirited, not to say bitter, upon the 
Delta Phi proposition, but was finally ended with the de- 


cisive vote of the entire chapter, with the exception of one 
man, to reject all overtures and maintain a separate exist- 
ence. The member who was so eager for union with Delta 
Phi withdrew in anger from the chapter and afterward 
joined a chapter of another fraternity at Jefferson. Thus 
ended the Delta Phi incident for the time. 

The life of the first chapter of Phi Kappa Psi was so 
different from that of its modem successors, that a descrip- 
tion of a typical meeting will be eminently proper, so that 
a clear idea may be formed of the early ideals of the 
fraternity and its practices. 

The association of enthusiastic collegians was taken by 
them in the most serious earnest. Tlie association was 
designed for mutual benefit, and every talent of every mem- 
ber was utilized to the general good. The following tran- 
script will give a fair picture of the general conduct of the 
parent chapter in the days of its youth when ideals were 
being formulated and practices established which should 
give color and tone to the organization: "Mr. Wm. H. 
Letherman delivered the valedictory of the Senior class be- 
fore the association. It was excellent and noted for its 
beauty of thought and language. Mr. T. R. Kennedy de- 
livered a response on behalf of the association, which was a 
superior piece of composition, noted for its conciseness of 
ideas and excellent advice given to those about to bid adieu 
to the members bound together in the mystic Phi Kappa Psi 
cestus. Altogether it deserved great praise. The valedic- 
torian and respondent were complimented on their per- 
formances, and upon motion, their productions were ordered 
to be filed in the archives of the association." 

Throughout the early history of the Pennsylvania Alpha 
chapter, the same stately formality was preserved and the 
utmost of decorum and dignity seemed to prevail at 
all meetings. The literary flavor of the chapter was fur- 


ther emphasized by the establishment in May, 1853, of the 
Mystic Amicus, a journal of no mean literary quality, the 
reason for whose being lay in the bet that Tom Campbell, 
the enthusiast, was a budding author, and nothii^ seemed 
to him of so much moment in chapter activities as the culti- 
vation of the powers of literary expression. So thoroughly 
did he impress his ideas upon the chapter that the Mystic 
Amicus was for a long time a regular feature of chapter 
meetings; in fact, it is within comparatively recent years 
that the journal has ceased its activities, and the impression 
prevails in fraternity circles that even now the old journal 
makes an occasional appearance. 

The first years of the fraternity seem to have been given 
largely over to the putting into proper form the constitution, 
ritual, pin, seals, and general symbolic features. So 
earnestly was this work done that many features remain 
until this day. The first accomplishment, of course, in the 
way of ritual and constitution was the jcMnt product of the 
brains of Moore and Letherman, but at the first meeting 
of the chapters in G. A. C, a committee on revision of these 
forms was appointed — Messrs. Niccolls and MTherran — and 
it is to these noble Phi Psis that much of the present beau- 
tiful esoteric work is due. The first mention of a pin for 

the fraternity is found in the minutes of 
Pennsylvania Alpha under date of August 2d, 
1853, ^^ ^^ course of which the provision 
is made that the Alpha chapter be designated 
by one star upon the upright standard of the 
Phi in the monogram pin, which was the 
first form of emblem used in Phi Kappa Psi. 
The later chapters were to be designated as follows : Two 
stars were to stand for the Beta chapter, three for the Gamma 
chapter, etc. The cut herewith shown is the fac-simile of the 
first Phi Psi pin ever made, and was g^ven to the present 


writer by our honored founder upon the occasion of his visit 
to him at his West Virginia home. 

It was further provided that the name of the state in 
which a chapter was located, together with the initials of 
the college, should be engraved upon the pin. This pro- 
vision, however, seems to have been entirely disregarded. 

The methods of extension in the early years were radically 
different from those which have prevailed recently. Men- 
tion has been made of the (act that Moore went to Union 
for the express purpose of establishing a chapter of Phi 
Kappa Psi at that institution, and what he endeavored to 
do, several others, equally enthusiastic, set themselves about 
accomplishing. Russ. Kennedy changed his college rela- 
tions, also, in the interest of Phi Kappa Psi, and record is 
made in August of 1853, of his having been authorized to 
establish Pennsylvania Beta at Allegheny. In this move- 
ment for extension, men were initiated in a very irr^^Iar 
way. £. M. Sanford was initiated at Union by Moore, by 
authority of Pennsylvania Alpha, and Letherman was em- 
powered to perform a like office for a young collegian at 
Baltimore. The attempt at Allegheny did not materialize, 
and so Pennsylvania Beta lost its opportunity of being the 
second chapter in Phi Kappa Psi, its charter not having 
been finally granted until May 3d, 1855. A blanket au- 
thority was given in 1854 to J. E. Trimble to initiate men and 
establish a chapter at Williams, but, so far as known, the 
effort came to naught. 

Eastern extension seeming premature, if not impossible, 
the attention of the founder was directed to the great Uni- 
versity of Virginia. After his graduation at Union, in 1853, 
our founder, Moore, went to the University of Virgina to 
study law. In November, 1853, ^ charter was granted to a 
set of petitioners headed by him, who set forth their desires 
in rich, diploma Latin. The charter was issued, and the 


second chapter of our fraternity founded at the University 
of Virginia, December 8th, 1853. 

The prospect of the rise and growth of the new order 
occasioned some anxiety to the founder, who, in March, 
1854, wrote from the University of Virginia, suggesting the 
propriety of a general convention for the purpose of revising 
and amending the constitution, which business, by the 
way, seems to have engaged the chief attention of every 
G. A. C. since that time. The suggestion was made that 
the gathering be held at Cumberland, Md., but as Penn- 
sylvania Alpha discouraged the convention on account of 
expense, it was deferred until the next year, when, in 
August, 1855, ^^ fi^^ ^' ^' ^' o^ ^i Kappa Psi was held at 
Washington, D. C. 

An interesting fact is here to be noted. The various tink- 
erings to which the constitution of the young order had 
been subjected had developed the need of an authoritative 
body whose decisions upon questions of fraternity policy 
should be final. Although no copy of this revised consti- 
tution remains to this day, references here and there in 
minutes and letters from one brother Phi Psi to another 
reveal the main character of this instrument. It was 
elaborate, dignified in tone, lofty in sentiment, and 
authoritative. But despite the fact that there were 
only two chapters to be governed, the authority of one 
over the other was more nominal than real. The 
Alpha chapter of Pennsylvania assumed as of right 
to be the first Grand Chapter, but so far as can be ascer- 
tained, this governing body was about as helpless to com- 
pel obedience as its successors of a far later day were. The 
first mention made of the Grand Chapter is to be found in 
the minutes of Pennsylvania Alpha under date of May i8th, 
1854, and in these words: ''On motion, the committee on 
constitution was instructed to insert in the article relative to 


the pin, that 'All pins be furnished by the Grand Chapter or 
Alpha chapter of Pennsylvania alone/ " 

Thus early the vexed question of a Fraternity jeweler, 
and loyalty to him became a matter of dispute among the 
chapters, and the same remains with us until this day, de- 
spite the change from one exclusive maker to several. The 
first jeweler was W. W. Wilson, of Pittsburg, who remained 
in that capacity until 1858, when Bailey & Co., of Phila- 
delphia, were selected in his place. This action occasioned 
some friction in the chapters, for although Pennsylvania 
Alpha was no longer the Grand Chapter, it still attempted 
to exercise authority in the matter of the purchase of 
badges. However, it gave tacit obedience to the Grand 
Chapter, then established at Virginia Alpha, but continued 
its business with Mr. Wilson some time longer, when an 
amicable adjustment was made with the latter and his 
surplus stock redeemed. It is a striking illustration of the 
conservatism of our Fraternity, that Bailey & Co. and their 
successors, Bailey, Banks & Biddle, were jewelers of Phi 
Kappa Psi until 1885, when Messrs. Newman and Auld 
were substituted, and, later, were supplemented by Messrs. 
Simons and Roehm. 

When once the fire for extension began to flame in the 
breasts of Phi Psis, it became a veritable holocaust, and 
from the establishment of the third chapter, Virginia Beta, 
in February, 1855, the rate at which charters were granted 
is bewildering, the impression seeming to be that if some 
were good, more were bound to be better. In this same 
year, 1855, charters were granted to petitioners from the 
following colleges: Allegheny, University of Lewisburg 
(Bucknell), Washington, Hampden-Sidney, South Carolina, 
Oxford (Miss.), Gettysburg, Nashville, Knox; but several 
of these efforts at expansion came to naught It is worthy 
of remark that so many of the charters then granted have 


been sustained continuously, and of the two which were 
established and have but recently died, it is the decadence 
of the college which brought ruin in both cases, and not 
weakness in Phi Kappa Psi. Reference is here made to 
South Carolina College and Hampden-Sidney. 

In the midst of the discussion which bore fruit in this 
rapid extension, the old Delta Phi proposition came up 
again, this time the matter being urged by the chapter of the 
Delta Phi at Princeton. In fact, the vigorous movement 
for expansion in Phi Kappa Psi grew out of the independent 
spirit developed in this discussion. The formal negotiation 
began in November, 1854, and dragged along until the late 
winter. Under date of February, 1855, we find the ulti- 
matum of Pennsylvania Alpha to the effect that if Delta Phi 
did not take the graduate members of Phi Kappa Psi, nego- 
tiations should be broken off. From all evidence to be 
obtained, this position was adhered to, and Phi Kappz Psi 
entered upon her independent career, and the impetus g^ven 
to the fraternity by the narrow escape from absorption, 
through the intense enthusiasm of those who did not favor 
the project, carried Phi Kappa Psi far beyond the stage 
where it would be possible for it to submit to the swallow- 
ing process, at least in the rdle of victim. 

A number of questions early arose to vex the members 
of the new organization, not the least of which was the 
problem of coping with rival orders. The favorite method 
of ''spiking'' was to obtain in some nefarious way the 
esoteric work of a competing chapter, and spread the 
''secrets" thus obtained before the candidate sought. It is 
easy to see to what such tactics would lead. The chief 
business of Phi Kappa Psi and other Greek-letter societies 
for the twenty-five years from 1855 to 1880 was to revise 
rituals and constitutions, so as to keep ahead of the ambi- 
tious burglars and liars who in various ways secured in- 


formation more or less accurate of rivals, which were 
peddled about from chapter to chapter in the same fra- 
ternity, and sometimes intrusted to a rival fraternity when 
the object of the expose was hateful to both organizations. 
The minutes and memorials of the early chapters of Phi 
Kappa Psi contain frequent references to the grips and 
pass-words of various rivals, and to such a pitch of un- 
righteous frenzy did the practice rise that at one time a book 
existed in the fraternity in which a super-zeakms brother 
in Phi K^pa Psi had copied the constitutions, mottoes, 
pass-words, etc., of every fraternity represented in the 
college where his chapter was located, together with those 
of a miscellaneous lot not so represented. This book was 
passed around in Phi Kappa Psi for years and used in the 
manner above adverted to, on the Jesuitical plea that *'you 
must fight the devil with fire." The writer of these lines 
takes a tardy joy in the fact that he was instrumental in losing 
the book for good and all. Having mentioned the exist- 
ence of such a piratical volume at a G. A. C. which he was 
attending, he was besought to procure the book for several 
delegates. Knowing the transcriber intimately, the His^ 
torian secured the loan of the book, and he rejoices that 
from that date to this the contraband article has not been 
mentioned to him, nor to the transcriber, who is now 
heartily ashamed of his youthful folly. 

Reference has been made on a previous page to the first 
form of the pin. This simple and inexpensive jewel did 
not long please the fancy of the ambitious young collegians, 
and on the 28th of November, 1854, an alternative form was 
adopted for the members who desired a change of style, but, 
to judge from the correspondence, the use of the pin was 
confined to the members of Pennsylvania Alpha. This is 
a bir representation of the design which was preferred to 
the skeleton pin. 


This pin was of short life. In March, 1855, we fiiid a 
committee, the chairman of which was W. G. Keady, pro- 
posing still a third form of pin. A new chapter, Virpnia 
Beta, was now to be consulted, and the committee, through 
its chairman, wrote diplomatically to Vir- 
ginia Alpha, which had been recalcitrant 
upon design number two, to secure its favor 
for the still newer design, premising the 
request with a statement that if Vii^nia 
Alpha favored the design, Virginia Beta 
would fall in at once, and that if the former 
did not favor, the matter m^ht as well be 
dropped. Keady and the irrepressible Tom 
Campbell are said to have designed the form, Jim McMas- 
ters having shaped the pin with his pen-knife from a piece of 
cannel coal. Keady drew the design in better style. Here 
is the design as Keady drew it for the Virginia Alpha 
chapter : 

This is the pin, with its symbolism explained in the letter 
of Keady, just as we have it to-day, although the fathers 
little dreamed in the simplicity of their hearts how the com- 
ing generations would elaborate the design without doiag 
violence to its shape or meaning, until, with diamonds and 
other precious ornaments, a single pin now may cost more 
than a dozen did in the days when the design 
first came into use. 

This question of the pin with the suggestion 
of changed ideas of cost in fraternity life, 
readily brings to mind some interesting and 
pathetic stories of the poverty of the fra- 
ternity in the days of its weakness. Chapter-houses with 
billiard-tables, pianos, and expensive furniture were as far 
removed irom the ken of the fathers as the existence of 
an extra-Uranian planet was h-om the knowledge of the 


scientific world a hundred years ago. In one of the 
minutes of an early meeting of one of the first chapters of 
our fraternity^ we may find a serious discussion over the 
burden of debt which the chapter was carrying, namely, 

Another pathetic evidence of the poverty of the fathers is 
found in a letter written in an enthusiastic vein by Tom 
Campbell to his chum, Moore, after the latter had gone to 
Union. This is the word of that Phi Psi enthusiast, after 
speaking in glowing terms of the strength of the chapter 
(Pennsylvania Alpha) and of its triumphs: "We are con- 
templating taking your room up at Ballentine's and con- 
verting it into a Phi Psi hall. We can get the room all the 
year round for from $15 to $20. It will be handsomely 
papered and have a new carpet before we take it; then 
about $15 will furnish it with desks, chairs, and other para- 
phernalia. It will give us a great name, and people will 
think that we are 'some' to have a hall expressly to meet in. 
It will be beneficial to us, increase our power, and bring us 
into a closer union. Now, Charley, estimating the cost and 
what each one will give, we would ask you for $2 or more, 
for, you kuQw, 'the more the merrier.' " It is a far cry from 
this modest greatness to the gorgeousness of the latter days. 
No doubt, a recent body of petitioners for a chapter of 
Phi Kappa Psi has expended in bringing their case into 
favorable notice more money than sufficed to conduct the 
affairs of the entire fraternity, ''symposiums" and all, 
during the first five years of its existence. 

It may be well at this place to explain what seemed to 
many Phi Psis inexplicable, namely, the confusion in the 
spelling of the name of one of the founders of the fra- 
ternity, William Letherman. The family name was written 
in the manner here g^ven, and our founder so used it until 
i854» when it was legally given the later spelling, "Letter- 


man/' In the absence of direct evidence it is, perhaps, idle 
to conjecture why the change was made, but contempo- 
raneous letters assert that ill-natured college mates had 
made slighting remarks ctmceming the business of some of 
his ancestors, which, as it happened, was connected with the 
tanning and finishing of leather, and the proud young man 
could not brook the insults implied in the college talk. He 
had his name changed by law. Whatever may have been 
the character of the business of his ancestors, honorable and 
able they must have been, for besides the distinguished 
founder of our fraternity, there was an elder brother of 
William Letterman who became Surgeon-General of the 
United States Army. 

From the testimony of his fellows and from his own 
words, Letterman must have been an ideal Fraternity man. 
Here is the word of a discriminating critic and friend: 
"Letherman, while not a brilliant scholar, was very much of 
a gentleman in his manners, and was very popular among 
his fellow students. His father was a very distinguished 
I^ysician and stood hig^ socially in an exclusive com- 
munity. Letherman showed his social culture in all his 
manners. He was tall, six feet or a little more in height, 
an4 an Adonis of physical beauty. Letherman sympathized 
with the South in the Civil War. The last time I saw him 
was in Boston, where he was arranging for the establish- 
ment of some reduction works for copper ores, to be used 
for the benefit of the Confederate Army. He told me how 
he had got across the border, and how he expected to get 
back again to the heart of the Confederacy." 

Another letter from a college chum to Judge Moore, who 
was just entering upon his distinguished career, was indic- 
ative of Letterman's powers of oratory. In this letter the 
common friend and brother attempts to describe the scene 
in the Academy of Music in Philadelphia when Letterman 


took his degree after having offered an oration of marvelous 
power: "Charlie, I simply cannot describe the ovation 
Billy received as he took his seat. The audience rose to its 
feet and cheered until strong men were hoarse. The scene 
was a wild one, indeed, and I tell you we were proud of our 
Phi Psi brother." 

A letter from his own pen contains some interesting com- 
ments upon men, women, and public affairs, which stamp 
the young doctor as a wise and discriminating observer. 
The date is Sunday, March 9th, 1861. The letter begins 
thus: "This is a very dull day, indeed — cold and chilly — 
all looks gloomy. This week will be the great week in 
the history of our country. Upon it depends peace or war. 
The news in this morning's papers looks very much like 
war, and as Chase is the master-spirit in the cabinet, you 
can judge how harsh the policy which is to be followed. 
* * * Let me strongly advise you to pay more attention 
to your personal appearance, and to keep yourself always 
looking nice and neat. What wins a woman's heart are 
the little things of life. She is not won by some master- 
stroke of genius, she stands in awe before supreme exhibi- 
tions of power. Women conclude justly, I think, that the 
man who pays attention to the little things about his person 
will also be attentive to his wife, and I am sure nothing 
so brings a woman's ardent and enduring affection as per- 
sonal attention and service. Do not forget that little thingps 
make up life. We do not stand in the glare of the foot- 
lights or in a halo of red light during more than a fugitive 
moment now and then, but we do live the daily routine of 
ordinary existence for many long years. Do not misunder- 
stand me. The tailor does not make the man, but he makes 
him over." This is not bad for a philosopher of twenty- 

Thus far we have traced the life of our beloved order to the 



verge of the awful abyss of civil war. The genesis of the 
idea has had its fulfillment, the exodus well-nigh obliterated 
it» the deuteronomy brought not back the early freshness 
and joy ; the newer life was not, and could not be, as that 
of the founders ; the new conditions, impressing new ideals 
as well as new duties, were to be fulfilled by a generation 
of collegians made prematurely old upon the battlefield, and 
the fresh vigor and larger faith of the latter years was not 
yet in the dreams of the Phi Psis who gathered the scattered 
fragments of our fraternity together in the years immedi- 
ately following the Civil War. 

The coming on of the Civil War made a very positive break 
in the continuity of the fraternity life, but it also developed 
the principles of fraternity in a remarkable manner. To a 
Phi Psi arrayed in the defense of his State, as well to 
one rushing to arms to prevent the dismemberment of the 
Union, the word "brother" had a deep significance, little 
understood and seldom practiced in these piping times of 
peace. The injunction, "Never forget that you are a mem- 
ber of the Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity," falls often in these 
days upon deaf or unresponsive souls, but it was not so 
then. It is not to be inferred that the former times were 
better than these, but there is no reason to doubt that in that 
elder day an honor and dignity attached themselves to 
Greek-letter society life which we do not realize to-day, and 
which we are surely the worse for not possessing. It is, 
however, not to be denied that we have the largjer life, the 
wider vision, the more clearly defined and more definitely- 
expressed purpose, than the fathers had. What we have 
lost and what the world itself has lost is that warm, free, 
generous spirit which was the moving impulse in the life 
of the Southern gentleman before the war. Phi Kappa Psi 
was organized and g^ven its initial impulse by generous, 
large-hearted, open-minded Southern youth, who came of 


that fast disappearing race, the Southern Gentleman. It 
was the fashion then to wear your heart upon your sleeve, 
that your friend might see it, and, if it pleased him, might 
wound it, but it beat none the less truly for him whom he 
never seemed ashamed to say he loved. The early Greeks 
of our modem college life were, in spirit, true descendants 
of Achilles and Patrodus, and if we have too much emulated 
the crafty Odysseus in these latter days, we ought the more 
to reverence the t3rpe which questioned not his friend or in- 
quired too curiously into his motive or conduct. Friend- 
ships in that day were questions of the heart solely ; rank or 
wealth had no charms for the fathers of Phi Kappa Psi; 
family standing was, indeed, regarded, but only as an index 
to the kind of life to be expected from the representative of 
it, not for the power or influence it might exert. The 
fraternity was cradled in poverty, after being begotten of 
the instinct for sympathetic companionship, and its sub- 
sequent history has shown how enduringly the founders laid 
their substructure. 

As has been said, the fraternal principle was no empty 
phrase or empirical ideal, it was a vitalizing force. The 
ritual was written by men who believed what they wrote, 
and was exemplified with candidates who practiced its pre- 
cepts in strict literalness. To the writer, nothing more im- 
pressive in fraternity literature has come to his eyes than 
this, the last minutes of Virginia Alpha chapter before the 
chapter disbanded to meet no mor6 for five years — ^alas ! for 
some, to meet no more this side of the river of death. These 
are the words of this Phi Psi classic, which ought to be 
written in letters of gold or engraven deep upon our secular- 
ized, blase hearts : 

"Fraternity called to order by Bro. Shearer. After prayer 
by the Chaplain, the roll was called, and the following bro- 


thers were found present: Davidson, Estill, Hale, Massie, 
Payne, and Shearer. Minutes of preceding meeting were 
read and approved. No communications. War I war II 
war ! ! I 

"Farewell addresses were made by Bros. Estill, Hale, 
Payne, and Shearer, which were offered and received with 
great feeling. It was stated that there were four or five 
Phi Psis in the Richmond Howitzers, seven or eight in the 
Rockbridge Dragoons, besides a great many others in dif- 
ferent companies. The question arose whether, if we should 
meet a Phi Psi in an opposing army, we should raise our 
hand against him. It was decided that we should not, but if 
he were captured, to take the best care possible of him. 

"Whereupon the present minutes were read and approved, 
and the fraternity adjourned in Phi Kappa Psi, sine die. 

(Signed) "R. B. Shearer, 
"E. B. Massie." 

The brave, generous lad who presided that memorable 
night and whose name appears first in signature to these 
minutes, so beautifully expressive of the sound faith he 
held of true brotherhood, fell at the head of his company at 
Monocacy, leading a charge. 




By W. G. KiADY, D. D. 

[The following account of the early days of the fraternity, while 
not in a sense history, is yet so instinct with the life of the times of 
which they speak, a life which no amount of historical imagination 
can hope to imitate or to more than faintly emulate, that it has 
seemed best to the Historian to reproduce it here in a more perma- 
nent form than it has formerly had. It has been published in The 
Shield and once republished in the same journal, but it richly de- 
serves the larger publicity and greater dignity which issuance in ' 
book form will give to it Further, it is reasonably safe to say 
that not one Phi Psi in a hundred in these latter days seeks and 
reads old files of The Shield, whereas it is hoped that all of them 
will read the present history. These reasons seem sufficiently potent 
to justify making this account the second chapter of our book of 
record. — Historian.] 

H FELLOW-SOPHOMORE, having begun an oration, 
quoting from the forgotten Milford Bard thus: 
"Roll back the billowy wave of time," society ap- 
pointed a committee to help him roll it back. What that 
committee failed to do has been done for me by a copy 
of the Catalogue of the Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity; and 
a year ago, at the request of Bro. Leiser, of Lewisburg, Pa., 
I undertook to write down what I could recall of the early 
days of our fraternity, as material for a future history; 
and now again I have been requested to put what I then 
wrote into a shape that might interest the readers of The 
Shield. I have found it a delightful task, but by no means 
as easy as I thought. I cannot assume the dignity of an 
historian; such dignity gets its backbone from records, 
documents, monuments, etc., and to such I have no access ; 
not even to my catalogue, which has found a secure hiding- 



place somewhere. The best I can do is to let a loving 
memory have her will and recall what she pleases, people 
the air about me with the shadows of the friends of my 
youth, and as one after another appears through the smoke- 
wreaths from my sociable pipe, bid them re-enact with me 
scenes which I know I shall never regret on earth, and 
which I should feel sad to think I might not remember in 
heaven. This paper, therefore, refuses at once to be con- 
sidered a history ; it has a livelier aim : it is simply a gos- 
sipping memorial. A gossip is always an egotist; and I 
will make no apology for the transparent egotism which 
enters into the narrative. This one can hardly avoid in 
writing of events in which he was an active agent, "magna 
pars" My love for and unceasing interest in all that con- 
cerns the fraternity, the debt of love I owe it, is my only 
excuse, if the capital "I" seems too prominent. 

I shall not write in the "Hercles vein,*' nor in the forced 
sentimental, but attempt only to be as near the truth as 
possible, in catching such repetitions from the past as shall 
give a faithful picture, yet with no better hope of success 
than his who would attempt to paint an Italian sunset from 
memory. Hoping that my "apology is sufficient," here I 
go, in mediant rem. 

I entered Jefferson College, Cannonsburg, Pa., May ist, 
1853. On the 14th of February,* 1854, 1 became a member 
of the fraternity. It was the occasion of its second anni- 
versary. I remember it as if it had been yesterday. An 
old divine once said that there were three things that 
would surprise him when he should go to heaven ; first, that 
many he expected to find there were not to be seen any- 
where ; second, that many he did not expect to find there 

^Records give February 20th; anniversary (19th) haf^pentng on 
Sunday, same was deferred to Monday. — C L. V. C. 

AN OLD boy's recollections. 39 

were present ; and third, that he himself was there. Such 
a threefold surprise met me as, one pitch-dark, rainy night, 
at a late hour, Tom Campbell led me into his heavily- 
curtained room. I went there against what I thought was 
my better judgment, and my conscience was having a lively 
time of it. It was the common belief at college that the 
"Phi Psis"' were a miscellaneous crowd of the most worth- 
less and dissipated fellows in town ; and to say a young man 
was a Phi Psi was to characterize him as the sum of all 
villainies. Now at that time I was reckoned among the 
moral fellows (which was as it should be» for I was a mem- 
ber of the U. P. church, with the ministry in view» which I 
did not reach till nineteen years after). I thought I had 
sown all my wild oats before I left Philadelphia — ^alas, poor 
human nature ! I soon found that what I had known in that 
line was like what Horace Greeley knew about farming. 
This by the way: it was with mixed feelings that I had 
accepted the invitation to become a Phi Psi. I believed I 
was doing wrong, but, like Tom of Coventry, determined 
to go one eye on it As I entered the room, I looked for 
a crowd, and no crowd was there ; I looked for those I had 
made up my mind to meet, and they were not there, and 
my surprise then was at finding myself there. Around the 
fire sat four young men ; these, with Tom Campbell, formed 
what I supposed was the entire Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity 
in the United States in February, 1854. 

Let me try to recall these brothers as the eyes of twenty- 
seven years ago saw them. 

T. Russ. Kennedy was, I think, the oldest, graduated in 
'54. He is still living* the only living one, with myself, of 

*Bro. Kennedy died soon after these words were penned and 
before they were fully printed. Bro. Keady is still living (1902), 
at Greensboro, Ala.— HisrouiOf. 


that little party. His outward appearance was something 
like this: short, thick-set, about five feet six in height, a 
round, smiling face, jet black hair, bow-legged, active in 
movement, always well dressed. He had good standing as 
a student, though a lazy one, was gentlemanly in his man- 
ners, rather well-liked in his cktss, but by no means popular, 
indifferent to public opinion, except in the case of the 
ladies. From my remembrance of his manner of dealing 
with the truth, I am inclined to think he would make a 
good lawyer. He was an artist in his way of stating facts 
to suit his purposes. He rose always above commonplaces. 
He did good work for the fraternity, and was the first to 
wear the pin on the commencement stage. He was the 
presiding officer on that memorable night. 

N. Hallock Gillett — ^"alas, poor Yorick!" Hal was one 
of the class known as unpopular students, loved all 
the better on that account by his few friends. He had 
rather a fine face, spoiled by a large mouth and prominent 
teeth, rather dark in complexion, a restless eye, and was 
always uneasy in his movements. He was the son of a 
Presbyterian minister, who did not look with favor on 
Hal's ways and skeptical opinions. The air of his home 
seemed to have a souring effect on a temper naturally 
gloomy, and at that time Hal was in full Byronic mood. 
A good writer, his themes were such as gave occasion for 
the airing of his crude views of life. He cared little for 
study, and seemed destitute of ambition. Already at 
twenty, life had had for him, he thought, only "Dead Sea 
apples." How many of us have had just such a malady — 
taken it as we would the measles I There is no cure but to let 
it run its course. But, alas ! Hal never recovered. He had 
already become a slave to the appetite for liquor, and had 
succumbed completely. He graduated in '54, and none of 
us knew his whereabouts for years, though he was teaching 

AN OLD boy's recollections. 4I 

somewhere all the time. After the war he married and 
settled in St Louis. He then had given over his habit in 
a great measure; but though he was a member of the 
Presbyterian church, his hold on the religion of his father 
was weak, and he believed himself fated. His life was a 
constant fall and rising. His nervous system was so shat- 
tered when I last saw him in '74 that he could sleep only by 
using chloral in large doses. One night in a nervous spasm 
he poured out the drug for himself, not waiting to call his 
wife, and he never woke again. He left one child, little 
Hal, who lives with his mother in St. Louis. 

James McMasters is a difficult subject, for he had in his 
character much both to please and displease. He was 
young, handsome, rather foppish, self-contained, and self- 
conceited ; he seemed to confer a compliment on the world 
by deigning to live in it. He was a specimen of the young 
"blood" from Pittsburg, nay, not from but of Pittsburg, 
for in mind he had never left it. What he did not know 
of "life" was not worth knowing. One was depressed with 
a sense of discovered inferiority in his presence. But off 
from the ground of his own personality, he was a charming 
companion and a perfect gentleman. As a brother Phi 
Psi, I can only speak of him in the warmest terms, as kind, 
considerate, helpful, and honorable in all his intercourse 
with the rest of us, and it was not hard to make much of 
him. During the time of his connection with the Chapter 
he was one of its most active members. He became a sur- 
geon, U. S. N. I heard of him but seldom, once when he 
was appointed to the "Niagara"; once again on the an- 
nouncement of his marriage to Miss Kidd, of New York ; 
and last, when I lately heard of his death, from a captain, 
U. S. N., who spoke of him highly as a friend, a surgeon, 
and an officer. 

On reading over the above portraitures, I am dissatisfied, 


for I find that my pictures present flaws that spoil the 
likeness, and I fear that the reader will misinterpret my 
meaning. I tried to give them the outward appearance 
they presented as students, when no mask was used, and the 
heart was worn on the sleeve. I must confess that in the 
case of the three brothers mentioned my feelings had 
changed from disliking to liking. A man's student char- 
acter is seldom the permanent one he bears or cares to bear 
through life into the world. His very affections are the out- 
gprowth of sentiments engendered in the peculiar atmos- 
phere of the college. His vices are generally surface evils, 
and his very faults are attractive forces. All the men and 
events of my story are to be judged from the college stand- 
point and trom the student's standard. No words can ex- 
press the love and admiration I feel for these friends of my 
brightest days, whose very faults made me love them the 
more. That world of the past is not a lost world, for it 
never was of the world: it had an existence by itself; 
memory embalms it; if it was faulty, yea, all wrong, still 
it is a fly in amber, all the more precious on that account 

The fourth brother present was Isaac Vanmeter, of Ken- 
tucky, a student of the preceding year, and on a visit at 
the time. I knew little of him and have heard nothing 

Last, but not least, Thomas Cochran Campbell. To this 
one boy (for he was always a boy) our fraternity owes more 
than to any other, excepting its founders. And one reason 
why I so willingly enter upon the task of fixing the tradi- 
tions of Phi Kappa P^i is that I may lead the fraternity into 
knowing one they ought to know, and secure for him a high 
place in our history. When it is disposed to bestow honors 
of love and gratitude, I beseech a big show for Tom Camp- 
bell, just such a show as Morse gets in connection with the 
telegraph which he did not invent. Tom did not found 

AN OLD boy's recollections. 43 

the fraternity, but he made it a working power. All his 
desire for fame and remembrance was in connection with 
Phi Kappa Psi, to which he gave the best part of the work- 
ing years of a short life. At the time I speak of he was 
nineteen years old. My first knowledge of him goes back 
some five or six years before I entered college. In '47, I 
think, Rev. J. R. Campbell, a missionary to India from the 
Reformed Presbyterian church, came to Philadelphia on a 
visit, bringing his children, of whom Tom was the oldest, 
and whom he left to be educated, when he went back. Tom 
was then about twelve. He had been bom at sea. My 
first view of him was of a wild-looking boy, with piercing 
eyes and restless limbs, with a look as if he was on the 
watch. He could not speak much, if any, English, had no 
knowledge, apparently, of civilized life, and for a good 
reason. His parents were necessarily forced to leave him 
almost altogether to Hindoo servants, from whom his early 
impressions all came. From that intercourse his mind took 
a cast that gave character ever after to all his mental opera- 
tions. He had learned to speak and read Hindoostanee, 
but his reading had indirectly left no impression, if it had 
been in the Bible. He had no idea of God, or one warped 
out of all recogfnition by what he had absorbed in the atmos- 
phere of the half-heathen mission servants and the wholly- 
heathen of the neighborhood. His guardians soon found 
that they had a young elephant on their hands. They could 
not understand him, and he looked on them as his natural 
enemies. They found him not amenable to any ordinary 
moral motive, and not to be influenced by ordinary incent- 
ives. His seemingly incurable moral obliquities demanded 
severe treatment, so he was placed in the House of Refuge, 
as a peculiar case. This proved the wisest course in the end, 
for it brought to bear a power that the Oriental mind can 
only understand — unbending force. Tom regarded his two 


years' stay there as a blessing. He was there tamed and 
civilized, partially, at least ; there he realized what morality is, 
and there he learned of God, and made his first acquaintance 
with the Bible. After attending school for a year or two, 
he was sent to college. I was then an apprentice in the 
printing office of W. S. Young, and when I was ready to go 
to JeflFerson, one of Tom's guardians, his pastor, asked me 
to look after him. It was in the spirit of this charge, which 
had brought us together at first, that I listened to his per- 
suasion to enter the fraternity, coupled as it was with the 
assurance that he wanted me to help him put it on a better 
basis. But as I will have more to say of him, it is time 
to go back and shut the door after my first glimpse of the 
components of the Phi Psi fraternity, of which I had heard 
much, and now found I had known so little. 

Well, at the sight of these five not very formidable fel- 
lows, my first feeling was one of relief, and I heartily entered 
into the proceedings. The ceremony of initiation was a 
very unpretentious one. The constitution was read, a 
promise on honor was given, a short address from the pre- 
siding ofiicer, and it was all over — ^the secrets of Phi Kappa 
Psi were laid bare. The aims of the fratemitv were thus 
expressed in the preamble of the original constitution : "The 
founders, believing that by an association governed by 
fixed laws and regulations, they can advance, promote each 
other's interests and improve each other morally and in- 
tellectually, do," etc. That document was a simple one, and 
might have answered for any unambitious literary society, 
and had been hastily written ; yet it served its purpose till 
a new one was formed by the first G. A. C, held in 1855, ^^ 
Washington city. 

. That night was really the beginning of the new era of 
the fraternity. An onward movement had been decided on 
at a previous evening. Taking me in was the first result of 

• • • « • 

• • • K • 

•- "• 

■• •' 

• tf • • • 

• • • • • 

'• • • •, 

• • •• 


that movement^ and I soon learned why it began with me. 
Some of the men whom it was desirable to secure to the 
service of the chapter could only be approached by me. 
I confess I did not feel elated at the prospect, for I did not 
believe that the prejudices of those others could be as readily 
overcome as mine had been. It is hard for me now to 
realize, much more to expect my reader to realize, the "odor'' 
in which our now proud brotherhood lived : it was the very 
reverse of the "odor of sanctity." It was as much hated, 
slandered, abused, as were the early Christians : nothing too 
bad could be said or believed about it. There were only two 
other fraternities in the college. Phi Gamma Delta and 
Beta Theta Pi; the former held sway in the Franklin So- 
ciety, the later in the Philo. The organization of a third 
threatened the interests of both; and consequently each 
waved the "bloody shirt" at the newcomer, as effectually as 
it has been waved in these days of advanced (?) politics. 
Every wild student, every drinking "cuss," every black- 
guard, everyone under suspicion, was ranked among the 
Phi Psi's. If a party of fellows were drunk, it was "the 
Phi Psi's on a spree." Their meetings were said to be 
orgies, at which both tables of the law were regularly 
smashed, etc. All this is not exaggerated; it is hardly 
up to the truth. Even the brothers I met that night had 
to come in for an exaggerated immoral character ; and the 
very men I was expected to influence held no good opinion 
of them. The set I ran with consisted of the reading and 
studying men of the Sophomore class, those who were 
taking a look ahead at honors in class and society — a 
set regarded with complacent looks by all the fraternities 
as the source of recruits. 

It reflects credit on the good taste and spirit of those few 
Phi Psi's, and speaks of their r^;ard for their fraternity's 
future, to find them using all means in their power to bet- 
ter its reputation. 


The meeting room lost its formality, and we resolved our- 
selves into a committee of the whole on the state of the 
fraternity. The one thought in the minds of all was, that 
the time had come to make a rapid advance. Two years 
had passed away since the birth of the fraternity, and as 
yet nothing had been done to give it standing or influence 
in the college. I found that Tom Campbell had been the 
originator of the new departure, and had worked up the 
others to the sticking point. While chafing under the un- 
deserved bad character attributed to the very name Phi Psi, 
they did not deem it possible to get in the men who would 
achieve a better. Tom had the necessary faith, and his 
intimacy with me made me available for the first attempt. 
That having succeeded, they began to feel that all things 
are possible to him that believeth. Name after name was 
sugested — all unlikely a little while before ; some were voted 
as desirable, others as otherwise; and all who were sup- 
posed worthy and available, that night, afterwards became 
brothers. I was appointed to approach several, but I stipu- 
lated only to attack one, with whom I had some hope of 
succeeding; arguing that it was best to take in one man 
at a time, and let him have a voice in choosing the next 
Fortunately, the festinans lente policy was adopted. I left 
the room that night with the ardor of Phi Kappa Psi en- 
kindled in my heart ; yet I did not feel very bold, invested 
as I was with the power to "invite" my room-mate, A. C 
Armstrong, now of Augusta, Ky. A. C. was older than 
any of us ; a solid, sober, steady-going fellow ; a plodding 
student, but full of life; energetic, whole-souled in all he 
undertook; a leader in all our Sophomoric "sprees." It 
was late when I got to my room, and found A. awake, 
sitting by the fire, sunk in a reverie, undisturbed by my 
entrance. I knew something was up, and I'd soon hear 
of it. Though by some years my senior, he was "bully" at 

AN OLD boy's recollections. 47 

asking advice. I expected in a little while to hear, "K., I'd 
like to ask your advice." My recent experience, and my 
fear of being suspected made me suspicious, when I re- 
membered seeing him that afternoon in close conversation 
with a prominent Delta ; and I began to wonder if A. had 
been "invited" in that quarter. We went to bed soon. "I'd 
like to ask your advice" came sure enough, and it was just 
what I surmised. "What did you tell him?" I asked. 
"That Fd speak to you about it," he replied. Here goes, 
I thought. "Armstrong, I joined the Phi Psis to-night." 
An exploding bomb could not have had a more astonishing 
effect. As he tumbled out of bed, I heard an expression — 
it wasn't "Well" ; — ^but as he is now a Presbyterian elder, I 
may have been mistaken. After a hurried walk in the room 
with bare legs he cooled down, and got back again to bed, 
evidently resigned. "Well, what next?" was his next re- 
mark. "I want you to join with me next week," was mine. 
"I once said, K., that I'd follow where you'd go; and 
as you are determined to go to the devil, I'll go with you ;" 
and he was soon snoring. So here is an instance of a man's 
asking advice and following it. Armstrong left college at 
the end of that year, and began teaching; had charge for 
years of Augfusta College, Ky, ; married there; became a 
substantial citizen ; was mayor of the city ; representative in 
Kentucky legislature, and has been foremost in the educa- 
tional reforms and interests of his State and county ; and, 
when I saw him lately, was deeply interested in tobacco. 
His heart still grows young as we talk of those olden times. 
Though not a brilliant acquisition in one sense, Armstrong's 
coming gave a "boost" to the onward movement, and it 
was kept up unflaggingly. Every meeting, for some time, 
marked down an addition. John B. Young, I think, was 
the next after Armstrong — ^now John J. Young, of Chicago, 
his name having undergone a change for some good reason. 


Then came John S. Chapman (now a lawyer in Alexandria^ 
Va.), and Sam Watson (now a merchant m Pittsbm-g). 
Btlort commencement, we had entered Geo. W. Chalfant 
(now Rev. G. W. C), and Geo. H. Kennedy, of Chicago, 
who died in '69 ; and, I think, A. B. Robinson. 

We had been slow in our movements, cautious and 
secret, and it was not till a short time before commencement 
that it suddenly became known that the Phi Psi's were still 
alive, and were looming up into a power that threatened 
the serene security of the other fraternities. Attention 
had been drawn away from us by the advent of a new pin, 
the Phi Kappa Sigma (skull and bones). From the fact 
that many who had been reputed Phi Psi's "swung out" the 
new badge it was surmised that our "concern'' had died 
out, and the old odium was turned against the newcomers. 
This erronous idea was prematurely corrected by my having 
carelessly lost an "invitation,'' signed by me and addressed 
to George H. Kennedy; and its being found, copies of 
which were circulated all over college. Kennedy thus 
received the first intimation of the honor intended for him ; 
and to say he was mad is drawing it mild. I had, indeed, 
sounded him at a long distance, and had no reason to hope 
for success ; but his room-mate, Chalfant, having become a 
brother, he reconsidered the matter, and accepted the invita- 
tion like a brave fellow, as his refusal, he saw, placed me 
in an awkward position. Thus my connection with the 
fraternity was made public ; and many were the sad shakes 
of "pious" heads I received at having thus wilfully blasted 
my prospects, etc. Kennedy never regretted his course, 
and the chapter gained a brother whose worth and work 
went far, vary far, to raise its character and to sustain it. 
By commencement of '54, the fraternity had shed its chry- 
salis envelope, and sailed forth on the college air with the 
confidence of a butterfly, not ashamed of herself, so modest. 

AN OLD boy's HEC0LL&CTI0N8. 49 

SO tmassumiiig was the role in which we made our appear- 
ance. We had to combat the old prejudices for a long time, 
but the old slanders dared not be repeated. We had every 
reason to be proud of our new gro¥^ and our capacity for 
work; but we did not show our hands in college politics 
till the fall term. 

Our aims and purposes took shape slowly. The quali- 
fications we looked for in choosing members formed no con- 
stant quantity, followed no definite law. In considering 
whether we would approach a man, it was asked: ''Will he 
prove a congenial companion? — Is he a gentleman?" Re- 
gard was had to talents, scholarship, moral character ; but 
even these did not recommend him if he was a prig. For- 
tunately, our brothers assimilated wonderfully. From the 
diversity of character displayed by those first brought to- 
gether, I feared antagonisms would spring up ; but the oppo- 
site was the result. We put absolutely no restraint on indi- 
viduality ; we had no standard to which all must conform ; 
and so there was nothing in our association, as is so often the 
case — ^no little characteristic that, seen in a student, would 
mark him as a Phi Psi. The consequence was that we were 
able to have the companionship and help of men whose in- 
terest it was not to be known as members of a secret society. 
This was before the days when every college can count a 
multitude of fraternities ; and at that time there was strong 
opposition to such societies — opposition, in most cases, based 
on principle and conscience. During my connection, we 
nsade few mistakes-^mistakes that have not been repeated ; 
yet I know only of two members taken in who proved un- 
worthy or were expelled, and only two who withdrew on 
account of conscientious scruples. 

Our meetings were more social than formal ; even in the 
transaction of business all attempts to keep pariiamentary 
order failed. Everything likely to promote liveliness (ex- 


cept whiskey) was admissible. The literary part centered 
in The Mystic Friend^ a manuscript paper, edited by Camp- 
bell, at first, and then by myself and others. Tom was an 
artistic penman, and the paper in his hands was a work oi 
art. As to the articles — ^well, on reading some of them 
years after, I laughed more than I would at a "screaming 
farce." They are still preserved in the archives of Penn- 
sylvania Alpha (somewhere). Tom's peculiar cast of mind 
especially, is to be seen in his lucubrations. What ele- 
phantine wit 1 what fierce and scathing denunciations of our 
enemies I what glowing prophecies of the future, when ''the 
eternal principles of Phi Kappa Psi" should pervade the 
universe I Oh, dear 1 a man can be a Sophomore but once 
in a lifetime. 

A few words more about Tom Campbell. He was 
of a slight but well-formed figure, about five feet six 
inches in height; olive complexion, very clear; fine black 
hair and eyes ; with a nose inclined to spread at the nostrils 
and point downward ; a mouth with a thin upper and full 
under lip. He paid little attention to his studies. His one 
college ambition was to excel in declamation and to be 
contest orator in '56. All his care, thought, and energy 
were for the fraternity. As he was disposed to do the 
work, we let the bulk of it fall into his willing hands. Tom 
had literary talents, yet "in the raw," and never fully de- 
veloped at college, for he had much to unlearn — 2l part of 
one's education to be accomplished only by contact with 
the world. I think his entire devotion to fraternity in- 
terests really kept him back. As I try to read the workings 
of Providence in the past, I have no hesitation in sa3ring 
that the one work God had for T. C. Campbell to do was to 
build up and set in order the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. It 
is his monument. If our fraternity has faith in its symbol 
of the "All-seeing Eye," it should honor the instrument He 

AN OLD boy's recollections. $1 

has used. All honor to the founders — I would not detract 
a whit therefrom ; but to Tom is due an honor sui generis. 
Almost everything that is distinctive or peculiar in the 
character and working of the fraternity had its origin in 
Tom's brain. Even the phrases in addresses delivered after- 
wards by others, which I have heard or read, were those 
to which he gave currency. All the ceremonies, amid all 
changes, keep to his models. The cryptograms of the offi- 
cers were his invention. The seals were of his design. The 
rude Greek of the pass- words, etc., is his. In fact all the 
machinery came from his workshop— the very work most 
needed and least thought of. He was voluminous in letter- 
writing, and all the correspondence, copying, etc., were 
exclusively in his hands. The first attempt to plant our 
standard in other colleges was made by him. It was his 
agency that stirred up Charlie Moore to inaugurate a chap- 
ter at the University of Virginia, where Moore was a law 
student, and Russ Kennedy at Meadville. I think the 
Lewisburg chapter grew out of a conversation Tom had 
with a student on the cars. He was unflagging in energy, 
and supplied all deficiency on the part of the rest. He kept 
on his way in spite of rebuffs, ridicule, hindrances, and op- 
position, unthanked and not caring for thanks. He would 
never recognize defeat or impossibility in anything that con- 
cerned the fraternity he loved as the apple of his eye. It 
was not an abstraction to him ; it was as much a personality 
as Brahma to the Hindoo. It is true that little of the actual 
work he did remains, but his spirit pervades the whole 
superstructure. He kept at the work till he graduated. 
His life after that was a beginning again. His work as a 
Presbyterian minister was short ; his peculiarities, which we 
had learned to accept as matter of course, for a time stood 
in the way of his usefulness ; and just as he was overcoming 
them, gaining the confidence of his people, and reaching a 


position where he could do good work in his new sphere, 
the Master called him away. He cares not now for this late 
appreciation, but his name should not (will not) be forgotten 
by the fraternity which iis his legacy to the world. 

In the fall of '54 occurred an incident that made the his- 
tory of Phi Kappa Sigma cross ours. Among the young 
members of that fraternity was one who, carried away by 
the beauties of its ritual, read all or parts of it to his young 
lady friends and to some of us — a knowledge of which we 
made no use. The result was a disturbance in "skull and 
bones" circles throughout the land, a convention, a new 
ritual, and the break-up of the Jefferson chapter. Out of 
the wreck came two mo^ excellent brothers, S. T. Murray 
and S. C. T. Dodd* (now of Franklin, Pa.) — the latter of 
whom was a most efficient worker for several years. 

During the winter of '54-'55 it was decided to adopt a 
new badge. The old one had but the two letters "Phi Psi," 
forming a very pretty combination cut out in gold. It was 
not discarded officially, but it soon disappeared. A com- 
mittee was appointed, McMasters and myself, to draft the 
new one. I think we tried all sorts of devices, becoming 
more undecided at every attempt, and at one time deciding 
to give it up. One night I was sitting with "Mac" in his 
room reading, while he was devoting his gigantic intellect 
to the task of whittling out a ring hrom a piece of cannel 
coal. When he had finished the shield on it he handed it 
to me for approval (to criticise anything he did was out of 
the question). I liked the shape and copied it on paper. 
I thought Fd fill it in with some of the symbols Tom C. had 
made familiar. It looked well, and I concluded tliat the new 
badge was found. I made a better drawing and offered it 

*Now General Solicitor of Standard Oil Company, New York. 

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J. M. D(K 

E. C, MoiiEi 


for Jim's inspection. He decided it was just the thing. It 
was offered to the chapter, which met in that room later in 
the same night, and was adopted. McFadden, of Pittsburg, 
made the first batch. No change has since been made 
in it, except to give it a better finish. 

It would require a volume to give even an outline of the 
college politics into which we cast ourselves that year, and 
I cannot now recall the spirit of the strife. Hitherto the 
parties had not been very definitely defined. There was a 
sort of division between the "Lops" and the "Short Ears." 
The "Lops" were the pious par excellence, with their ad- 
herents not so pious; the "Shorts" were made of the re- 
mainder, though it was no imputation on a man's piety to 
be called a "Short." The "Lops" were generally opposed to 
the secret societies. In the Philo Society, Beta Theta Pi 
rather held the balance of power, and were generally ranked 
among the "Lops." In the Franklin, Phi Delta Gamma held 
about the same position, and was ranked among the 
"Shorts." There was another set called "Neutrals," whose 
votes were the object of our tactics. What are politics with- 
out spoils ? The end of these college politics was the posses- 
sion of office and gaining ior^'our fff^f»"the honors of contest. 
Each literary society elected a debater, an orator, an essa3rist, 
and a declaimer, to contest on the last night of the winter 
session. The elections were spread over the year, keeping us 
in constant hot water. First, a class of probationers were 
chosen, from whom the contest must be chosen. The de- 
bater was chosen in May, the orator in July, the essayist in 
September, the declaimer in December. The first trial of 
our strength was in December, '54, when we elected Charles 
W. M'Henry declaimer in the Philo Society for the contest 
of '55. Charlie was a fat boy, round in every limb, a Saxon 
face, blue eyes and yellow hair. He was a younger blood 
from Pittsburg, very fast for his seventeen years, and even 


then considered himself a good judge of whiskey. His 
talents were of a brilliant order ; his writings were poetical 
in expression ; his declamation was passionate. He was a 
dabbler in poetry, but his model was the now-forgotten 
Alexander Smith, whose ''Life Drama" was then the rage (I 
have large slices of it in my quotation-book). When he was 
my roommate, he would fire daily at me a favorite quotation 
from Smith: 

"A thousand years hence, when we both are damned. 
We'll sit like ghosts upon the wailing shores, 
And read our lives by the red light of hell." 

I am glad to think the sentiment was a false prophecy. 
After a not very successful career as a politician and lawyer, 
in Pittsburg, he married, reformed, lectured on temperance, 
and, following Greeley's advice, went West, and settled in 
Janesville, Wis. There he died, some four or five years 
ago. His latter years were those of an humble Christian, 
and he departed rejoicing in the love of his Redeemer. Ah ! 
how often across this panorama that memory is unrolling 
before me, sweeps the dark wing of the death angel ! But 
in the picture I see nothing but life, and the forms I see 
there never die to me. 

Our struggles had only begun. The far-ahead object was 
to replace the older fraternities and to lead both literary 
societies. The immediate object to which the energies of 
the winter were bent was to elect in May and July, '55, a 
debater from the Philo Society, and an orator from the 
Franklin, for the contest of '56. I never saw as much 
political skill, intrigue, and wire-working out in the busy 
world as was displayed that year. And we reached our 
ends : J. C. Matthews was elected debater, and Tom Camp- 
bell, orator. We took the lead at once in the Philo, and 
kept it till the college died ; but did not get the same hold 

AN OLD boy's recollections. 53 

in the Franklin till after I graduated. This year, one of the 
early brothers, who had been away, returned — S. J. Niccolls 
— ^and his return brought us added force, for though a mere 
boy, he had the same presence and power that have since 
won him a high position in the Presbyterian church. He, 
Matthews, Dodd, and McPherran were our prime managers. 
Some things we felt ourselves compelled to do had no ,more 
excuse than much that good men now do to further the suc- 
cess of their party. We had no candidate for orator in the 
Pfailo Society; and though our personal feelings led us to 
acknowledge the fitness of the man proposed by the opposi- 
tion, yet expediency forbade our letting him be elected. He 
was the late W. W. Hays, of Harrisburg, a most lovable 
fellow, one of my most intimate friends, and one entirely 
worthy of the honor. We had to find an available candidate 
outside of the fraternity. One was found who was a fine 
declaimer, but who could not write an oration. At the re- 
quest of the chapter, I wrote his probation piece — ^a 
precious piece of clap-trap it was! — ^and when he was 
elected, I helped doctor up another piece for contest. As 
it turned out, he and Campbell divided the honors. The 
same policy had to be pursued in fall in electing an essa3rist. 
We came near losing our ground by such a course in the 
former case, and it would not have been repeated had not 
we met with a defeat in the Franklin Society, where up to 
this time, it was thought I had only to walk over the ground 
in the election of essayist; but I was fairly beaten, I be- 
lieve — ^but, oh, how it hurt then 1 It was the last defeat of 
Phi Kappa Psi at Je£Ferson College. My class of '56 gave 
the first commencement honor to the fraternity, George 
H. Kennedy being first honor man and valedictorian. 
Ever after, till '69, we had more than our share of honors 
in literature and scholarship every year. 

In the summer of '55, the first G. A. C. was held in 


Washington city, D. C. John S. Chapman was our dele- 
gate. I do not think there ever was any record made o£ 
that session, and it seems the absence of records is all that 
can now be predicated of most of its successors. All I 
know of it is, that the G. A. C. had "a high old time/' and 
formed a constitution that was but a slight improvement 
on the old one. So arduous were their labors that they 
could not find time ''between drinks" to prepare the address 
to the candidate in the initiatory ceremonies, and ordered 
the Pennsylvania Alpha to have one written and sent to the 
diapters. I was appointed to write it, but at that time I 
was not as ready to fulfill engagements as I am now, and it 
was hard for me to find time to attempt it ; months passed 
by, and the other chapters became clamorous for the ad- 
dress. The chapter passed a peremptory order that I ftdfill 
the duty imposed on me, which, of course, I did not obey. 
One Sunday, after dinner, two brothers came to my room, 
asked if the address was written ; and receiving a negative 
reply, they went out, with the remark, *'No address, no 
supper I" and locked me in. Whether the prospect of no 
supper had an3rthing to do with it, I cannot say, but I know 
I determined not to do it, and then I concluded to do it, and 
went to the table and finished it at a sitting, erasing but 
one word. On reading it over, I was of the opinion that 
it was all that could be desired, and I am pleased to know 
that the fraternity was of the same opinion. I do not 
know if it is still in use ; but in '71 I found that, amid all 
changes, wise and unwise, made by G. A. C, that ad- 
dress remained unchanged, and I felt a little surprised that 
I could find no fault with it. 

In August, '56, the second G. A. C. was called to meet 
at Jefferson College. Tom Campbell had chafed all the 
year at the incomplete and unsatisfactory work of the pre- 
ceding one. He had recently become a Mason, and the 


Masonic ritual had taken such a hold on his imagination 
that he saw a new way of making Phi Kappa Psi a power ; 
and that was by so linking it with maxims of morality, it 
would, like Masonry, become a sort of religion to every 
brother, and this was to be aided by a gorgeous ritual. 
Here he and I came into opposition, and I believe he re- 
garded me as a degenerate, if not unregenerate, brother, op- 
posed to the interests of the fraternity. But I have seen 
enough of the world to know that the teachings of Masonry 
never made a moral man out of an immoral. I saw only 
danger in a teaching ritual I was a firm believer in ''the 
eternal principles of Phi Kappa Psi," but I felt that their 
power lay in the simplicity, the breadth, and the indefinite- 
ness which characterizes the preamble of the old constitu- 
tion. But Tom was on the committee to revise the ritual, 
with Matthews and Niccolls, I think. Near the end of the 
session their work was ready for inspection. They would 
not bring it before the chapter, but required each brother to 
''go through" the ceremony alcMie. I can recall little of this 
great work. It made two degrees in the ceremony; the 
names of the degrees were not chosen till afterwards, and 
these I do not remember, except that "David" and "Jona- 
than" were prc^osed. I remember its length — over an 
hour. The fact of the candidate's being blindfolded and 
tied with a rope all around his body; and the oath — iron- 
clad, and many-jointed as a tape-worm, enumerating every 
possible delinquency that one man could be guilty of toward 
another, and every possible duty. One thing I swore, "that 
I would not seduce a brother's wife or sister or daughter" 
— Cleaving out his cousins and his aunts. Notwithstanding 
the opposition of some of us, the chapter accepted it and 
sent it to the G. A. C. ior approval When that body met, 
after commencement, I was in too great a hurry to get 
away, and did not attend its session ; I believe, however, the 


ritual was adopted with some modifications ; but the whole 
thing, having been tried and found too cumbrous, was dis- 
carded by the next council. In '67, the last time I saw the 
ceremony, it still had traces in it of that formidable one. 

My memory has played me one trick, at least. I have 
always been under the impression that there was but one 
chapter in February, '54, and that the Virginia Alpha was 
started shortly after. But the Catalogue gives the date of 
Virginia Alpha as 1853 — I presume in the fall preceding 
my entrance. It must be so, I suppose, for figures never 
(that is, hardly ever) lie. My delusion in this matter is so 
great, I can't see how it originated, except on the theory 
that I am growing old. 

However, when I graduated, the fraternity was on a 
proud basis. From the small force, as I first knew it, it 
had expanded into several flourishing chapters. From a 
despised thing it had become a thing of beauty, whose smile 
was worth suing for. Seldom was there collected together 
in our college a set of youths such as formed the Pennsyl- 
vania Alpha, who in their intercourse with each other ex- 
emplified so many of the graces and vir^es of mankind. 
The friendship and love then developed were more than the 
result of mere association. I can speak, from my own ex- 
perience, of a friendship stronger than that of a Damon for 
a Pythias — ^self-sacrificing, soul-absorbing. There was a 
glow and exhilaration about our fraternity at that time 
which it was impossible for any after-experience, no matter 
how rich, to bring back. Our high-sounding sentiments 
and phrases, that adorned our correspondence and speeches, 
were but tame efforts to express what was inexpressible. 

I fear I have been tedious, and yet I feel that, after all, 
I have not fulfilled satisfactorily the task on which I entered. 
But it has been pleasant and sad. ''Did not Ossian hear a 
voice? • Or is it the sound of days that are no more? 

AN OLD boy's recollections. 59 

Often, like the evening sun, come the memory of former 
times on my soul." But I cannot stop yet ; for when I left 
college to go out into "the wide, wide world," Phi Kappa 
Psi was not left behind. It has followed me to this hour. 
In the most trying hour of my life, I have always found a 
brother not far off — ^so that my love for and interest in the 
fraternity was not allowed to die out, or become a mere 
memory. The eternal principles have stood the test of real 
life. When I taught school in Kentucky, after graduating, 
George Kennedy was near me ; and when we separated, we 
kept up a correspondence till his death. When teaching 
near Oakland College, Miss., Sam D. McPherson was in 
the institution, and we met frequently afterward. Sam was 
a perennial boy ; the glow of Phi Kappa Psi never left him. 
He died of consumption, a few years since, in California. 
Ralph Mackey was also near me a year before the war. He 
returned to Pennsylvania, entered the army as captain, but 
his service was cut short by contracting a severe cold in the 
Chickahominy swamp, which developed the hereditary foe of 
his family— consumption. He died in '66. A noble fellow 
was Ralph, a man of unusual promise. When I was a Con- 
federate prisoner in Camp Douglass, George Kennedy was a 
captain in the regiment on guard. I am proud to say Phi 
Kappa Psi stood grandly a test before which Masonry fell 
back. Jack Young, McPherran, Moderwell, and others 
visited me "in prison," and brought sunshine with them. I 
remember McP. had done himself up as a Methodist preacher 
in order to secure admittance. When I lost my right arm at 
the siege of Vicksburg, two brothers were with me, and 
"ministered unto me" — C. E. Grey and A. G. Ewing, the 
former now at Enon Valley, Pa., and the latter in Qinton, 
Iowa. When on my way to get married, in '69, I went to 
Chicago to take George Kennedy as my "best man" ; he was 
that day seized with the illness that proved to be his last, for 


he died in a little over a week. How little I dreamed that I 
should see him no morel He was a man of unusual 
ability and attainments, but the victim of a morbid sensitive- 
ness and diffidence. His first speech at the bar, though 
a success, nearly killed him. Dear, precious George! I 
have a monument of him at home in the person of my oldest 
boy, who exhibits traits which I imagine characterized his 

On my study wall hangs the emblematic picture of Phi 
Kappa Psi (published in the Catalogue of '67). It is more 
than emblematic to me, for it tells my inward history. My 
send in silence lit her torch on the altar of Phi K^pa PsL 
Experience, pointing upward, tells me that the ''All*seeing 
Eye'' has been upon me, not only watching, but guiding. 
My lamp of life rests unchanging on the book of time. The 
fire lit twenty-seven years ago has not gone out, and will 
not, till it melts into the glory of the brighter day when I 
shall once again feel the grip from the welcoming fingers of 
those who have gone before. 

The old boy's story is ended. God bless you, brothers! 

Lagrange, Tenn., Sept 10, 1880. 

k3 J 

U O ^ tt 

1 «• <» 

•••• ••• 


• • 


• • 


• • 







• • 


• • 






E. Lawrence Fell, I'kc-Pres. 

C. F. M. NiLES, Trcas. E. M. Stires, Prcs. O. E. Monnette, Secy. 

Henrv Pecram, Ally.-Cat'l. 



^^HE persistence with* which an indefensible, irrespons- 
^^ ible, and entirely ineffective form of government 
held a place in Phi Psi economy is a fine tribute to 
its lability and conservatism. That any one should ever 
have thought that a government which put into power 
during successive trienniums an entirely new and inex- 
perienced body to rule similar and co-equal bodies, seems 
to the present generation of Phi Psis impossible, but Phi 
Kappa Psi lived through such a government for thirty-four 
years of its fifty, and prospered in spite of its inconsistencies 
and absurdities. 

Naturally the first Grand Chapter, as it was called, was 
with Pennsylvania Alpha. The first complete form of gov- 
ernment provided for an administrative body with some de- 
gree of legislative function, and this was called the Grand 
Chapter. The Grand Chapter was nothing other than a 
body of college boys, comprising a so-called subordinate 
chapter, lifted for the brief term of its authority into a 
position of general supervision and law-making power over 
other bodies of youth equally inexperienced, who naturally 
had tittle respect for Grand Chapters so constituted, obe34ng 
edicts or not, just as sweet fancy dictated. 

The more one studies our history, particularly that part 
of it which is concerned with matters of government, the 
deeper grows the feeling that the same Providence which is 
said to watch over children and fools must have had tender 
regard for Phi Kappa Psi through all the vicissitudes of its 
career with governmental experiments. Attention has been 



called in another place to the recklessness with which 
charters were granted, practically always to every body of 
petitioners, with no scrutiny into the probability of success- 
ful life of contemplated chapters. In other ways the futility 
of Grand Chapter control was shown. The most enter- 
taining reading that the present writer has had in connec- 
tion with the work now in hand was of a batch of letters 
which passed between himself and his successor in ofHce 
as Grand Corresponding Secretary. The Grand Chapter 
had just gone from the chapter in which the Historian 
had his membership to an eastern chapter. The newly- 
elected Grand Secretary was soon at loggerheads with his 
predecessor. In a very few weeks an exchange of a few 
letters had brought the temperature of the blood of each 
to a degree little below the boiling point, and some very 
unbrotherly language was used in a controversy, the very 
nature of which cannot now be recalled even by aid 
of the silly lucubrations of the two hot-heads. The 
minutes of the Grand Chapter, so far as preserved, do 
not make edifying reading, being in large measure 
made up of strenuous accounts of the struggles of the 
inexperienced to be less so, and of blunderers to retrieve 
their mistakes. 

To a more philosophical mind, or to a more experienced 
Historian, an interesting question is here raised : To what 
degree was the form of government in Phi Kappa Psi and 
other fraternities, bom under similar conditions, influenced 
by the prevailing political opinions of the time ? The mem- 
bership of Phi Kappa Psi, at least for the first five years of 
its life, was distinctly Southern, and it is not surprising that 
a loose, non-centralized form of government was first form- 
ulated. It is surprising that it was not until 1886 that the 
manifest weakness was sufficiently felt to secure the adop- 
tion of a new constitution which might authorize a strong 


government, although this was less radical and restrictive 
than the present form. 

In the formative years of the fraternity, while there was 
great regard for form and ceremony, there was little actual 
authority exercised by the Grand Chapter. In fact there 
seemed to be so much tinkering to be given each successive 
constitution when adopted, that much of the energy of the 
fraternity was expended in learning how to do things in 
the new way. However there were some things in which 
the first Grand Chapter was more strenuous than any of its 
successors, among which was the very strict control it ex- 
ercised in the purchase of pins by members of the various 
chapters. From the minutes of the Pennsylvania Alpha 
chapter it may be learned that although there was consider- 
able friction over the style of pin and the choice of jeweler, 
the wishes of the membership of the parent chapter were 
supreme, and things were ordered very strictly after the 
pattern set there. 

Pennsylvania Alpha was certainly the first Grand Chap- 
ter. This may be gathered from the minutes of the two 
oldest chapters and from numerous personal letters which 
have come into the hands of the Historian. There is no 
way to determine at this date, in the absence of the official 
records, when the title originated or what the exact con- 
stitutional authority was by which any chapter acted in 
the capacity of supervisor of the rest, but there are abun- 
dant proofs, in minute-books and elsewhere, that the term 
and function were both operative several years before the 
constitution of the Grand Chapter specifically appoints and 
constitutes by name such a body as Grand Chapter. 

From the sources of authority suggested, it is known that 
the Pennsylvania Alpha chapter assumed or was commis- 
sioned to act as Grand Chapter until in 1856, when Virginia 
Alpha was named as its successor by the G. A. C. As is 


elsewhere told, the parent chapter exercised a considerable 
degree of control or, at least, admonitory authority, for the 
fir^ ten years of our Fraternity's life, and it mattered little 
what the title was, or who was designated to serve as director 
of the fraternity affairs, the Pennsylvania Alpha chapter 
was always to be reckoned with. It seems strange that 
from the beginning of ow history the term, ''Grand Arch 
Council," has been used, and its functions have never been 
abridged or abrogated, but its correlative under the old 
regime, "Grand Chapter," is not to be found either in books, 
papers, or letters prior to the date on which Virginia Alpha 
assumes control of the fraternity under that title, Novem- 
ber 15th, 1856, with a single exception, noted in a later 
chapter. Some confusion attaches to this date, because of 
the fact that minutes are inserted upon a page previous to 
those containing the record of the meeting of November 
15th, and bearing a later date, November 25th, which im- 
plies in the language used, if not specifically, that the Grand 
Chapter was duly constituted upon this date. Virginia 
Alpha served as Grand Chapter until January, 1861, when 
the reins of government were surrendered to Pennsylvania 
Delta by order of the G. A. C. The Grand Chapters and 
their years of service are as follows : 

Pennsylvania Alpha, i8si2-i856; 

Virginia Alpha, 1856-1861 ; 

Pennsylvania Delta, 1861-1866; 

Virginia Delta, 1866-1869; 

Pennsylvania Zeta, 1869-1875; 

Ohio Alpha, 1875-1878; 

Pennsylvania Theta, 1878-1881 ; 

District of Columbia Alpha, 1881-1884; 

Pennsylvania Epsilon, 1884-1886. 

The work of several Grand Chapters is much obscured, 
the only knowledge of their labors in this form of fra ter ni ty 


control being derived from private letters, incidental refer- 
ences in the minutes of chapters careful to keep their 
records true, and from stray edicts picked up in one quar- 
ter and another. It is a source of great pleasure to the His- 
torian to pay a well-deserved tribute to Pennsylvania Alpha 
and to Virginia Alpha for the fullness and completeness of 
their records. Widiout them, this volume would have been 
very incomplete, almost impossible. 

The work of the first Grand Chapter was primarily one 
of extension. The work of our parent chapter in organ- 
izing and propagating chapters of Phi Kappa Psi has been 
told in another place and needs only to be mentioned here. 
The methods pursued in this laudable undertaking were 
bizarre in the extreme. It is not surprising that criticism 
of the methods of fraternity enthusiasts soon arose, and 
the arch-expansionist of all, Thos. Campbell, of blessed Phi 
Psi memory, was once expelled for following the example 
set by the Grand Chapter itself in initiating a man without 
the small formality of having the consent of his chapter to 
the act. The fovorite method of extension in the elder day 
seemed to be, in general, for an earnest, enthusiastic bro- 
ther of the parent chapter to look around among his friends 
or acquaintances in attendance at some other college, who 
happened to be not connected with any fraternity, and urge 
him to get a crowd together for Phi Kappa Psi. Often the 
brother was given plenary power to initiate a good man 
wherever found. It is true that in this very irregular way 
some strong chapters were added to our order, but if one 
were to make a list of all the institutions into which at- 
tempts were made to go, the list would not only be very 
long, but would include some institutions which well- 
informed men of this generation never heard of. The scope 
and character of this account would not permit their detailed 
mention, for this is not a chronicle; but it is interesting 



to note that the fame of Miami University in Ohio, where 
several Greek-letter societies were bom, notably Beta Theta 
Pi, aroused a strong desire to establish a chapter of Phi 
Kappa Psi at this seat of learning and make it the second of 
our number. Ambitious efforts were made for an extension 
eastward during the incumbency of Pennsylvania Alpha, 
but chance, or, rather, the character of the early member- 
ship, determined the movement for the first few years of 
our society's life toward the South. It is largely because 
of the weakness of colleges in this section and their wide 
separation from each other that Phi Kappa Psi did not 
flourish there. When our fraternity had become strong 
enough to challenge the attention of rivals, the centre 
of power and influence was already determined for us for all 
time in the phenomenal growth of our org^ization in 
Pennsylvania. The Civil War put an effective end to 
Southern extension, and the really good schools that we 
might have entered, had the deplorable conflict been post- 
poned for five years, are now beyond otir reach. The older 
Southern colleges have had a most pathetic history, none 
more so than that one in which the fraternity system first 
arose — ^William and Mary. Phi Kappa Psi, after so many 
years, seems to be returning in thought to the field which 
seemed inviting to the falters, and Southern extension 
is apparently the watch-word of present schemes for 

Almost from the beginning, the discussions in the Grand 
Chapter were upon the style of pin to be worn by the mem- 
bers, and at one time there were two very dissimilar de- 
signs in common use — the skeleton Phi Psi pin mentioned 
in Chapter One, and the second form of pin, a rude fore- 
runner of the present design. When discussions were not 
rife on extension or jewelry, the thought of our first govern- 
ing body was strongly set upon law. To us of the present 


day, with our fine body of organic law and an ideal method 
of administration, the efforts of the first chapters to make 
and remake constitution and ritual, when not laughable, are 
pathetic. How those earnest young collegians worried 
over "exposes'' and over laws which somehow would not 
enforce themselves I Every Grand Arch Council for at 
least the first four made a new constitution and repealed an 
old one. Come to think of it, we have done quite a bit of 
tinkering ourselves since 1886! 

The first Grand Chapter authorized a Grand Catalogue, 
and made one in manuscript which served the fraternity quite 
well in its days of feebleness ; it looked after the welfare of 
the fraternity with far more zeal than several of its succes- 
sors did, and in a fine measure demonstrated that Phi Kappa 
Psi had a right to live. 

When Virginia Alpha undertook the task of governing, 
the fraternity had grown to have eight chapters: Penn- 
sylvania Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Virginia 
Alpha, Beta, and Gamma. It seems quite worthy of remark 
that although the efforts at extension had been strenuous 
in the first two years of the fraternity life, three years went 
by with the fraternity consisting of only two chapters, 
Pennsylvania Alpha and Virginia Alpha. It is to be sup- 
posed that the Delta Phi agitation had much to do with 
making extension slow, but so soon as coquetting ceased, 
the work of introducing the mysteries of Phi Kappa Psi in 
new fields went on apace. The year 1855 is still the banner 
year for extension in Phi Psi history, six chapters having 
been organized and successfully inaugurated in that year. 
The vitality of these early chapters was remarkable. Al- 
though founded in ways far from selective, the character of 
the men chosen was of such strong fibre that the chapters 
have remained in existence until this day, with one excep- 
tion, Virginia Gamma, whose pathetic death after so long 


and honorable a career was and is a great grief to all of the 
older generation of Phi Psis. In this observation it must 
be remembered that Pennsylvania Alpha and Pennsylvasia 
Delta are one, their lives having become united by the union 
of the two colleges at which they were respectively located, 
Washington and Jefferson. 

At the first meeting of the new Grand Chapter, the per- 
ennial theme of new badges was the first subject of dis- 
cussion, growing out of a communication to the Grand 
Chapter from the irrepressible Tom Campbell. At this 
same meeting provision was made for furnishing the chap- 
ters with charters, which, for some unknown reason, were 
rendered in diploma Latin. One wonders why they were 
never gotten up in Greek, if a classic language was the 
necessary vehicle of thought for a legal authorization to do 
work as a college secret society. 

That the mantle of fraternity authority had fallen upon 
worthy shoulders is very evident in all the work done while 
this famous chapter was in power. In the second meeting, 
we find reference to the fact that the fraternity had changed 
jewelers, and the Grand Chapter moved promptly to secure 
from the old jeweler the die from which the first pins were 
made. A like care in such matters in after years would 
have saved the fraternity much embarrassment 

Among the questions with which the Grand Chapter had 
to deal was one of undue assumption of authority by the 
parent chapter, and in one place we find a motion being 
entertained by the Grand Chapter to authorize a certain 
brother to institute a chapter without consulting Pennsyl- 
vania Alpha at all. Fortunately, wiser counsels soon pre- 
vailed, and the motion was finally tabled. Again, complaint 
having come from one of the Pennsylvania chapters to the 
effect that some of the fraternity secrets had been divulged, 
with a gentle but very effective irony, the corresponding 


secretary was instructed to ''suggest to our Northern 
brethren the propriety of being more cautious in their 

Virginia Alpha seemed to exercise care in investigating 
petitions for new chapters. This is evidenced by its in- 
quiries into the standing of a certain college for which there 
was afterward granted a charter. The investigation was 
unfavorable, and the project received a quietus. The per- 
sistence of a chapter already established near by finally 
secured the coveted charter for the petitioners. It is a 
matter of regret that this policy so early inaugurated by 
Virginia Alpha did not persist throughout the Grand Chap- 
ter, for we should then have had a more consistent growth 
and healthier life. 

The officers of the Grand Council at this time were a very 
cautious set, as may be seen from this quotation from the 
minutes of a session early in 1859 : "The petition in regular 

form from the society to be incorporated into the Phi 

Kappa Psi was read. After some deliberation, it was finally 
rejected.^' In another place an exactly similar passage 
occurs, perhaps in regard to the same petitioning body, but 
it is particularly trying to a fraternity historian to run up 
against blanks. It robs the present generation of some 
very interesting reading. A later set of officers were more 
kind to posterity, and have on record the proposal of a cer- 
tain Iota Delta Tau society to merge itself in Phi Kappa 
Psi, but no information is given as to its location or 
strength, and it seems not to have made a perceptible ripple 
upon the surface of the sea of college life when it went 
down forever. 

Another evidence of the progressive character of the Vir- 
ginia Alpha while Grand Chapter is found in its earnest 
effort to secure the printing of the constitution. This 
proposition met with no favor outside of the Virginia Alpha 


chapter, for the fraternity was not ready for so radical a 
step. In fact, the very recent accomplishment of this early 
proposition was not secured without strong opposition, so 
conservative, not to say timid, have we become in our de- 
sire to preserve inviolate our secret life and cherished 
traditions. It is worthy of passing mention to state that the 
Grand Chapter in 1859 proposed the issuance of a history of 
the fraternity. Would that the wishes of this body had been 
complied with ! How much that now is not even treasured 
in the tr^cherous store-house of human memories would 
then have been preserved. 

In spite of persistent efforts upon the part of the His- 
torian, not a line of the records of Pennsylvania Delta, either 
as a subordinate chapter or as Grand Chapter, have been 
found. Correspondence with old members of the chapter, 
too, fail to elicit any information of permanent value. All 
of the information available concerning this Grand Chapter 
is culled from the records of other chapters which have re- 
corded the communications received from the Grand Chap- 
ter so far as they relate to themselves. The new Grand 
Chapter showed signs of its zeal in recommending, before 
her officers had become fairly installed, a change in the 
badge. A few weeks later it proposed a call for a new G. 
A. C. to revise the constitution, although the latter instru- 
ment was not more than five months old at the time of the 
inauguration of Pennsylvania Delta as Grand Chapter. 
Having been vetoed in these two propositions, the Grand 
Chapter turned its attention to the far more agreeable task 
of arranging for a joint celebration of the founding of the 
fraternity, with the parent chapter. The affair was held 
in Washington, Pa., and was a notable event. There were 
forty-seven of the brothers present, representing member- 
ship in six states. It is a trifle peculiar, however, that a 
celebration of the founding of the fraternity only nine years 


away from that notable date shotdd have been held on 
Friday evening, the 15th of February. If the banquet were 
held upon Friday night, the 15th, for convenience sake, the 
calling it the ninth anniversary of the founding of Phi 
Kappa Psi was a solecism ; if the date was chosen through 
inadvertence, the blunder is more ridiculous still. The 
absurdity of an anniversary on a date other than the correct 
one was perpetrated by the same chapters again in 1863, 
when the joint banquet was held on February 13th. Very 
brief references are found to the Grand Chapter up to and 
including 1863, but ''the rest is silence." 

The troubles incident to the union of Washington and 
Jefferson Colleges, and the consequent junction of Penn- 
sylvania Alpha and Pennsylvania Delta, in 1865, may have 
made some disturbance in the work of the Grand Chapter, 
but incidental references in letters and minute books assure 
us that the authority of this body was duly transferred in 
January, 1866, to the Virginia Ddta chapter, with which it 
remained until 1869. We have read letters in the archives 
of the Grand Chapter from former members of this chap- 
ter, assuring the inquirers for information that the Grand 
Chapter was held with Virginia Delta only during 1866- 
1867. And yet this is the minute made in the record of the 
transactions of the Grand Chapter when transferred to Penn- 
sylvania Zeta, the successor of Virginia Delta: "Carlisle, 
Pa., February 5th, 1869. — Pennsylvania Zeta subordinate 
chapter organized as Grand Chapter at 8yi p. m., and the 
officers-elect were installed by Bro. Frank W. Allen, Presi- 
dent of the Grand Chapter at Virginia Delta. ♦ * * The 
ex-President, in the name of the ex-Grand Chapter, advised 
the destruction of a great deal of unnecessary matter in the 
archives of the Grand Chapter. ♦ ♦ * Bro. Herman moved 
that Virginia Delta be commended for the integrity with 
which it executed the affairs of the Grand Chapter while in 


their hands. Carried unanimously/' It would be interest- 
ing to know, although idle to speculate upon the matter, 
how much of the real records oi the Grand Chapter were 
destroyed in conformity with the rather vague suggestion 
of the installing officer. 

From 1869, the records of the Grand Chapter are fadrly 
complete, the record made by Pennsylvania Zeta and Penn- 
sylvania Epsilon being entirely so. The work of Pennsyl- 
vania Theta is satisfactory in the main, as are also those of 
Ohio Alpha, while each chapter served the fraternity in 
the capacity of Grand Chapter, but the minutes of District 
of Columbia Alpha are fragmentary and incomplete. 

The proposition to print the constitution is early brought 
up, but after the usual spirited correspondence the project 
fsuled again. The peculiar character of the workings of the 
old form of government is shown in the resolution early 
enforced that inasmuch as Pennsylvania Zeta, acting as 
Grand Council, used the same hall, light, and fuel as Penn- 
sylvania Zeta in its capacity as subordinate chapter, the 
Grand Chapter should bear one-half of the expense of the 
same. There is also a naive resolution upon the minutes, 
excusing the members of Pennsylvania Zeta from a tax of 
$1.50 per capita levied upon the other members of the 
fraternity. Later, Ohio Alpha, in its capacity as Grand 
Chapter, loaned a considerable amount of the money in 
the Grand Chs^ter treasury to one of its needy members, 
without interest, and without taking the precaution to re- 
quire security for its repayment into the fraternity 
treasury. In this case there was no record of the loan, and 
it was only when a discrepancy in the fraternity accounts 
made an explanation necessary that investigation revealed 
these facts. Both the borrower and the lender of the money 
had left college, and the present writer remembers very 
vividly the distress of mind he and others of his fellow- 

• _ • 

• • • 

• •' 

• • • 

• • •• 

••••• •••«• 

••••• ••••• 

'•• • 

^ • • • • • 

• • 




R. S. R. Zimmerman. H. K. Crafts. 

J. F. S. LVLE. 


members of the Grand Chapter experienced as they con- 
templated a tax of $8 or $io apiece to make up the dis- 
crepancy. The accidental discovery of the forgotten loan 
was a real treasure-trove to that little company of poor 

This Grand Chapter began promptly the work of getting 
out the ''Decennial" catalogue, and did really accomplish 
its task. So far as the Historian is able to verify his 
facts, there have been published, since the foundation of 
the fraternity, five catalogues, so that the original de- 
cennial idea has been carried out, but the intervals of pub- 
lication have been somewhat irregular. 

Another question which seemed of almost perennial in- 
terest came up in the discussions of this Grand Chapter, 
and that was the establishment of chapters of the fraternity 
at the University of Georgia and at Emory College, also 
in Georgia. Several times during fifteen years was this 
extension into Georgia discussed and several times were 
charters granted, but for a considerable time nothing came 
of the efforts of the fraternity through its petitioners to 
establish the chapters contemplated. Finally, in the fall of 
1882, more than twenty years after the first attempts at 
establishment had been made, the ambassador commis- 
sioned to establish the chapter started upon his mission. A 
series of catastrophies, not necessary to mention here, frus- 
trated his plans, and Georgia Alpha never began to be. 

The period of incumbency of Pennsylvania Zeta was a 
time of great activity in the fraternity looking toward the 
establishment of chapters, and numerous permissions were 
granted for charters, some of which, fortunately, came to 
naught. It was during this period that Illinois Gamma 
began its unfortunate sub-rosa existence, from which con- 
dition it never emerged. The members of the fraternity 
now in college can have no adequate conception of the trials 


and dangers the early chapters underwent. The fra- 
ternity idea was not a popular one in the average American 
coll^;e, even at as late a date as the late seventies, and 
many a chapter maintained a life of several years "'under 
the rose." Few came out of their enforced seclusion, and 
for the most part gave up the unequal struggle with hostile 

The Grand Chapter during this time had several inter- 
esting questions to settle, among which was this : Could a 
man be given a dispensation to join another fraternity in 
a college to which he might remove, where Phi Kappa Psi 
was not located, and still retain his membership in the 
latter? It must not be forgotten that this custom had been 
in vogue in our fraternity for many years, in fact, since the 
founder himself secured the right to become a Delta Phi, 
and it required no Uttle courage on the part of a Grand 
Chapter to say "No" to such requests. Pennsylvania Zeta 
was equal to the emergency, and gave its positive veto to 
such propositions while acting as the Grand Chapter. 

In the conduct of routine matters, such as the submission 
of petitions, the hearing of complaints, and adjudicating 
di£Ferences, the granting of special dispensations or the re- 
fusing of them, the judgment displayed in lev3ring taxes and 
in the collecting of them, Pennsylvania Zeta proved to be 
a model Grand Chapter. 

The Grand Chapter was transferred to Ohio Alpha at a 
peculiar time in this chapter's history, and the sequel 
proved the unwisdom of undergraduate control of business 
matters to a marked degree. At no time in its history has 
this famous chapter of Phi Kappa Psi been stronger than 
it was in January, 1875, but it was a strength which is po- 
tential weakness. The ideals in Ohio Alpha had for a 
number of years been moving strongly toward scholarship 
and away from fellowship. Great stress had been laid upon 


the graces of Christian character also, and, as a result, too 
little thought had been put upon securing men who should 
be, as the phrase goes, "good all-around men/' This 
condition was a common one in fraternity life at the 
Ohio Wesleyan University at this time. The fraternity 
life at Delaware had been passing through a terribly 
trying experience of an anti-fraternity war, in which 
students and faculty alike participated. It was the last 
and most furious e£Fort upon the part of those who had 
long antagonized the fraternity system to kill it, and the 
pressure put upon fraternities to make proof of their fit- 
ness to live was terrific. The stock criticisms upon fra- 
ternities had been and are, that the system is subversive of 
scholarship, develops a clannish spirit, fosters habits of 
idleness, and undermines character. To meet these criti- 
cisms, men had been selected who were of marked ability 
in the class-room in the double sense in which that word 
will be tmderstood among Methodists. It is not meant to 
throw any detraction upon this excellent chapter to cite the 
fact that in a chapter always below twelve in number by 
resolution, eight ministers were enrolled during the years 
that the Grand Chapter remained with Ohio Alpha. The 
proportion was certainly too large to give the right balance 
to the chapter. 

The work of the Grand Chapter was practically turned 
over to two strong fellows who were members of the class of 
1876, and upon their graduation the same mistake was made 
in turning control into the hands of two others of the next 
dass. The members of the chapter were either ignored in 
the conduct of business, or were too indifferent to the in- 
terests of the whole fraternity to care what was done, or 
how. The consequent confusion in the management can 
be readily understood. When the writer of these lines be- 
came a member of the Grand Chapter, upon his initiation 




into Ohio Alpha, little or nothing was known of the work- 
ings of the fraternity by even the older members, and the 
custom of letting the two leading officers of the Grand 
Chapter ''run things" still continued. An amusing illus- 
tration of how business was done was affcM*ded the His- 
torian by his own experience. He was appointed, with two 
others, upon a committee to publish a catalogue of the 
fraternity. The chairman of the committee was a very 
talented fellow who had been a member of the fraternity 
for two years, and, perhaps, thought that the time had 
come for him to be the man of importance. In spite of our 
best efforts to have some share in the work of compilation 
or correspondence, looking toward the issuance of the 
volume, the chairman put us off upon one pretext or another 
and did what was done all by himself. As an illustration 
of the skill with which the proof-reading was done, the 
title page spelled the name of the fraternity, ''Phi Kappi 
Psi." The next Grand Chapter very promptly suppressed 
the issue and set about preparing another edition. This 
catalogue is the one bit of fraternity work in which the 
Historian has had no pride. 

The strictures passed upon this Grand Chapter might 
with propriety be made upon nearly all the chapters acting 
in this capacity, and for the same reasons, but tlie criticism 
upon the system is made specific at this point, because the 
writer was quorum pars fui in 1877-78 of the worst form of 
government which a live institution could have devised or 
fostered. He counts it the greatest honor of his long ex- 
perience to have been one of the committee which con- 
structed the revolutionary government adopted practically 
without debate and without an amendment, emendation, or 
correction at the 1886 G. A. C. 

The matters which came before the Grand Chapter during 
this term were of more than ordinary interest, and that 


they were not attended to more promptly and managed with 
more skill was due to causes which the chapter could not 
control, and for which they were not in full measure re- 
sponsible. A system which made it impossible for one to 
remain in office after he was only fairly acquainted with his 
duties, could do nothing other than breed confusion and 

The Grand Chapter established several precedents which 
have had a salutary effect upon fraternity policy. It took 
high grounds against the granting of charters to institu- 
tions in which for any reason the chapters must live sub 
rosa, and it had the courage to deny a charter to a body 
of petitioners to whom permission had already been granted 
to establish a chapter, and put the formation of the new 
organization into the hands of alumni of Phi Kappa Psi 
who were in the professional departments of the institution, 
because inquiry developed the fact that the original peti- 
tioners were known to be pronouncedly convivial in tastes 
and conduct. It began the campaign for a song-book, it 
made the first official effort to secure a fraternity paper, and 
gave official sanction to the policy of intrusting the affairs 
of a struggling chapter, temporarily in straits, to loyal 
alumni of the chapter, pending the resuscitation of the 

This Grand Chapter first chose colors for the fraternity, 
and lavender and rose-pink was their choice. There seems 
to have been a previous use of these same colors by Penn- 
sylvania Epsilon, but the committee who made the selection 
knew nothing of this, which seems to be a striking co- 

It made strenuous efforts to meet the demand of the 
fraternity for an organ by establishing and managing for a 
little while the Phi Kappa Psi Quarterly y the feeble successor 
of the frail Phi Kappa Psi Monthly. It also changed the date 


for the G, A. C. from the rej^ular year, 1877, to 1876, be- 
cause the meeting-place was to be Philaddphia, and the 
Centennial Exposition bade tair to make the attendance 
unusually large. A fine example of the general lack of in- 
formation about American colleges which prevailed at this 
time, and, for that matter, had prevailed through all our 
history previously, was afforded in a minute of the Grand 
Chapter in 1877 to the effect that a charter had been granted 
to students at the Troy University, Troy, N. Y. Else- 
where, in the minutes of previous years, the correct name of 
the institution, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, had been 

From the very transfer of the Grand Chapter to Penn- 
sylvania Theta, friction arose between the ex-Grand Chapter 
and the Grand Chapter. And this is not to be wondered 
at. The fact that a bad example in the keeping of 
accounts had been set by the Pennsylvania Zeta in the 
closing months of its incumbency as Grand Chapter did 
not prevent the just complaint of Pennsylvania Theta on 
the slip-shod methods already adverted to. 

It seems almost incredible that any body of men, young 
or old, having the responsibility of handling money not 
their own, could have been so derelict as the minutes of 
Pennsylvania Theta, when Grand Chapter, prove their 
predecessors to have been. It has been asserted, and there 
is no record of a denial of the charge, that there had been 
no record made in the book of the Treasurer of the Grand 
Chapter since 1874, which covers the entire time of the in- 
cumbency of Ohio Alpha. This matter was adjudi- 
cated after a deal of spirited correspondence, and no ves- 
tige of bad feeling remained at the time of the next 
G. A. C, to which the Grand Chapter threatened to refer 
the whole question of the financial doings of the ex-Grand 


The question of raising the necessary money to defray the 
expense of the Grand Catalogue early engrossed the serious 
thought of the Grand Chapter, and the whole vexing prob- 
lem of buying things without money became the burden of 
the life of this chapter, so unfortunately confronted with 
some of the most difficult propositions that young coll^^ians 
could be harassed with. There was an empty treasury, no 
record of financial accounts, a big bill for printing a book 
which the fraternity had practically repudiated, and an un- 
finished contract with the printer of the Quarterly to assume 
— an array of distressing duties which might appal expe- 
rienced business men. 

Difficult as this problem appears, it yet was carried to a 
successful issue by the devoted Phi Psis of Pennsylvania 
Theta. There were other issues of importance to settle be- 
sides the financial one. It was at this time that the cam- 
paign for the securing of a charter for Ohio Delta took 
place. During the preceding Grand Chapter, a petition 
had been presented and adversely acted upon. The Ohio 
Alpha felt the defeat of the proposition very keenly, not 
only because it had stood sponsor for the petition, but 
because the great possibilities of the new institution were 
known by the membership of the chapter at Delaware so 
well that defeat in the pet project seemed nothing short of 
a calamity. The original name of the Ohio State Univer- 
sity was the Ohio Mechanical and Agricultural College. 
Visions of stalwart bkcksmiths and hayseed farmers arose 
before the minds of the members of Phi Kappa Psi when- 
ever the project was even suggested. The Historian was 
at the time the Corresponding Secretary of Ohio Alpha, and 
as such was in the thick of the struggle for the charter. It 
seems to him now that he used quarts of ink and reams of 
paper in his attempts to secure favorable action upon this 
petition. Failure was not to be endured. The very choice 


body of petitioners was by no means to be lost to Phi 
Kappa Psi. The Ohio Alpha asked the Grand Chapter for 
permission to initiate the men chosen for the new chapter 
which was to be. The request was very properly refused. 
But the Ohio Alpha, following the precedents set by so 
many predecessors, went ahead with the initiation. Such 
flagrant violation of authority would be impossible under 
our present system, but the very nature of the system then 
in vogue not only made such rebellion possible, but really 
stimulated it. Ohio Alpha had just been Grand Chapter, 
and understood far better than the sub-chapters what 
a farce the attempts of undergraduates to exercise authority 
over other collegians of like rank was. It knew that it 
dared to disobey, and it disobeyed. The coveted charter 
came in a regular way afterward, but no extenuating cir- 
cumstances are sufficient justification for such conduct upon 
the part of any chapter. Such and similar violations of 
authority were too common to make much more than a ripple 
upon the surface of fraternity life, and the details of this 
affair are instanced only because the facts are so well known 
by the Historian, and they illustrate capitally what the old 
form was capable of producing by way of defiance of 

The Grand Chapter continued the practice of permitting 
men in Princeton to be initiated into other chapters, and 
in one place granted to Pennsylvania Iota dispensation 
to take nine men at one time from Princeton into its fold. 
This practice had been going on for some time, and letters 
were occasionally written from the so-called Princeton 
chapter to the other chapters. Finally, the practice was 
discontinued, the better sense of the members of the 
fraternity becoming strongly set upon the larger idea 
that was permeating the college world, that there were 
enough institutions where Greek-letter societies were 


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welcome, to afford a sufficient field for exploitation of 
the system. 

During this term of the Grand Chapter we find the first 
official reference to a fraternity history, under date of 
November 13th, 1879. ^ ^^w effort was being made, too, 
for a fraternity journal, and the publication of The Shield 
was commended, but with its experience of the Quarterly 
fresh in mind, the Grand Chapter was not willing to assume 
any new responsibilities, and that devoted pair. Smith and 
Kendall, bore the burden alone for several years, until their 
zeal and courage aroused the latent powers of the fraternity 
to a sense of its duty to its membership. 

The growing dissatisfaction with the flat-faced and 
awkwardly-shs^ed pins finds expression at this time, and 
this Grand Chapter made the entering wedge of criticism 
which brought a change to more tasteful and more progres- 
sive jewelers. 

The most important matter, perhaps, which came before 
this Grand Chapter was the proposition of Theta Nu 
Epsilon to unite its fortunes with those of Phi Kappa Psi. 
The matter received such attention as it deserved and was 
strongly negatived. 

The District of Columbia Alpha signalized its advent into 
the position of Grand Chapter by unusul activity in ex- 
tension. During the first three months of its incumbency 
there were no fewer than eight propositions for establishing 
new chapters. Fortunately for the fraternity, few of these 
met with favor, and in the end only one of them succeeded 
in running the gauntlet of the chapters, New York Delta. 
This activity soon gave place to a lethargy so profound 
that complaints of the failure of the Grand Chapter to 
answer even ordinary routine correspondence became loud 
throughout the fraternity. It is impossible to gather 
from any records what was done by the Grand Chapter after 


the first year of its career j^ for there are no minutes of meet* 
ings held after January 7th, 1882. The Corresponding 
Secretary had had appropriations of $25 twice for his serv- 
ices the first year, yet there is little evidence of activity upon 
his part, and had it not be^ for "Bob'' Murray, of blessed 
memory, the work of the fraternity would have come to a 

This great soul, although suffering intensely from the 
disease from which he ultimately died, did the work of two 
men, in fact, was for some months all of the Grand Chapter 
which was active. Nothing can be recorded of the work of 
the Grand Chapter for the two years from January, 1882, 
until the authority was transferred to Pennsylvania Epsilon 
in January, 1884, because there are no minutes of trans* 
actions covering that time, but from the very careful record 
which Bro. Murray kept of his correspondence, the routine 
business which regularly came before the Grand Chapter 
he attended to as best he could betweai the press of his 
profession and the spells of invalidism to which he was in- 
creasingly subject. 

To a weary traveler, trudging through dusty byways of 
an August afternoon, the sight of purling brooks and cool 
stretches of shaded river road are not more welcome than 
the full, accurate, and complete records of the Pennsylvania 
Epsilon are to a tired chronicler, after gazing at the desert 
pages of an empty minute-book, or after a well-nigh in- 
terminable search through letters and fugitive papers for 
bits of history. The new Grand Chapter took up the duties 
of its office with vigor. It received the delegate who was 
to transfer the authority to it upon the 15th of January, 
1884. Officers were elected and installed upon the same 
evening, and on January i8th, the Grand Chapter met for 
the transaction of business and dispatched it like veterans. 
A number of petitions for the establishment of new chapters 


were receiTed and disposed of promptly, for the most part, 
by simple motion, the Grand Chapter refused to submit 
them to the chapters. At this first meeting provision was 
made for the pa3rment of the perennial catalogue debt, the 
matter of a new jeweler was acted upon, and the annual 
report was authorized. At a meeting held very soon there- 
after, the President of the Grand Chapter was authorized to 
proceed to Washington to secure the archives of the Grand 
Chapter, which, it seems, the ex^Gvrand Chapter had not yet 
turned over. At a meeting held two weeks later, the in- 
formation was noted that as "all of the archives but the 
mimUe-book and ike Treasurer's book had been received," the 
trip of search was not needed. 

At this time a strong agitation was passing through the 
fraternity world, looking toward a larger view of inter- 
fraternity relationship, and in favor of comity rather than 
enmity. As might have been expected, Phi Kappa Psi 
joined heartily in the movement, and three delegates were 
appointed. They afterward took an active part in the first 
(and last) Pan-Hellenic Council. During the first year of the 
Grand Chapter at Gettysburg, petitions were presented for 
charters from five sets of petitioners. Of these, two were 
granted, one being to a number of alumni in the city of 
Wooster, Ohio, for a graduate chapter, to be known as 
Ohio Epsilon, and the other to a body of students at Syra- 
cuse University, to whom a charter had been granted in 
1871, but without resulting in the establishment of the 
chapter. In 1883, another graduate chapter was provided 
for in Columbus, Ohio, which was also called Ohio Epsilon. 
Edicts of the G. A. C. for 1878 and 1883 authorized Indiana 
Delta, at Attica, Ind., and Missouri Beta, at Kansas City. 

This Grand Chapter established the precedent, since made 
a part of our organic law, that a body of petitioners, in addi- 
tion to pajring the expense incident to the establishment 


of a chapter, must pay a fee. One item in a minute of the 
meeting of the Grand Chapter held a few weeks later in the 
year, seems, in the light of the facts detailed above of the 
dereliction of District of Columbia Alpha when Grand 
Chapter, a trifle ironical. It reports the chapter at Colum- 
bian to be in a flourishing condition. 

As an earnest of their zeal for Phi Kappa Psi, it may be 
cited that about the middle of the first year of this Grand 
Chapter, the two remaining brothers in New York Delta, 
discouraged and out of conceit with fraternity life, offered 
to surrender their charter. Instead of granting the request, 
the Grand Chapter set to work to investigate the conditions 
reported, on its own account, with the result that the chap- 
ter was saved to Phi Kappa Psi, and had a vigorous life 
for some time thereafter. 

Perhaps the best evidence of vigor was shown in the 
liquidation of the Grand Catalogue debt. This debt had 
been contracted during the incumbency of Pennsylvania 
Theta, and no effort had been made apparently by the 
previous Grand Chapter looking toward the payment of 
it. Only about one-fifth of the cost of the publication had 
been met by Pennsylvania Theta wheh Grand Chapter, and 
the old obligation hung like a pall over the heads of the de- 
voted brothers who made up the Pennsylvania Epsilon 
Chapter. What a devoted pair Gotwald and Brenner were ! 
To them, more than to any other two men of their day, the 
financial honor of Phi Kappa Psi is due. Through the per- 
sistence and loyalty of these and other brothers of the chap- 
ter, the horror of debt was at last removed. 

The Grand Chapter set still further the stamp of official 
disapproval upon irregular initiations by refusing permis- 
sion to Pennsylvania Gamma to take in students at Penn- 
sylvania State College, from which institution petitions had 
been presented several times for the granting of a charter. 


The perennial panic over exposes came before the Grand 
Chapter, and after ftdl discussion of the ways and means 
of quieting the needless fears of the troubled brothers, the 
whole matter was ignored, and none of the radical plans for 
relief from liars and perjurers were indorsed. The South 
Carolina Alpha, which had for some years been inactive, 
was revived during this term, as was also New York Alpha, 
Iowa Alpha, and Iowa Gatnma. Another anomalous chap- 
ter was created similar to the lately organized Ohio Epsilon, 
to be called the District of Columbia Beta. These chap- 
ters were in reality alumni associations, and had less vitality 
than many of these ephemeral institutions. 

Thus, we are brought up to the famous G. A. C. of May, 
1886, a special gathering called to take action upon the 
anticipated new constitution authorized by the Columbus 
G. A. C. of 1885. Reference has been made to this gather- 
ing elsewhere, and a full account of its work will be given 
in the next chapter. It remains to say, only, that the new 
instrument made such short work of the old forms and 
customs that the minute-book of the Grand Chapter has 
not so much as a single line in it to explain its sudden and 
complete loss of identity. 

Le roi est mort; vive le roil 




-•jJARLY in our history, the value of mutual interchange 
JK^ of ideas was recognised. The founders of our 
fraternity, while men of large sympathies and keen 
intellects, did not arrogate to themselves the wisdom of the 
ages, and consequently were ever ready for criticism and 
suggestion from those whom they diose to assist them 
in forming a new college secret society. The minute books 
of the earliest chapters show that the original constitution 
framed by the founders was merely a rough draft of a 
government which was added to, amended, and altered in the 
freest fashion during the first few years of the existence 
of Phi Kappa Psi, and served a beneficent purpose chiefly in 
becoming the basis for intelligent discussion of what should 
be the aims, purposes, and ambitions of the members. 

One thing must be ever borne in mind, and that is the fact 
adverted to in the first chapter of this history, that Phi Kappa 
Psi made a narrow escape from going down in history as 
one of the many local societies which have broken the 
ground in desirable institutions for the entrance of older 
and more famous associations. The first effort in the di- 
rection of extension. Union College, was a failure, although 
the founder of our fraternity matriculated there with the 
avowed purpose of advancing the interests of Phi Kappa Psi. 
Failing in his avowed purpose, he turned his thought to a 
new institution for his professional training, and there at the 
University of Virginia he established the very first branch 
of the new society, which a year and a half before he had 
so auspiciously founded in old Jefferson College. 


While a good deal of discussion for extension had gone on 
little was accomplished in that direction for several years. 
There was really no need for any gathering of delegates from 
the two chapters in existence during the first three years 
of the fraternity history, and yet thus early we find the senti- 
ment strong for cooperation in general convention. In 1854 
€3iarles Moore wrote from his Virginia chapter urging a 
gathering which he called a Grand Arch G)undl. The 
Pennsylvania Alpha discussed the matter fully and came to 
the conclusion that the expense was too great for such a 
conference, when the business to be done was taken into ac- 
count, and made the counter-proposal that the revision of 
the constitution, which was the chief object under discus*- 
sion, might be carried on by correspondence. This was 
done, and so the first G. A. C. in Phi Kappa Psi was not held 
until August, 1855. 

The interest of the fraternity in the meeting of the Grand 
Arch G>uncil was and is based upon sound governmental 
ideas, and is therefore perennial. It is and always has been 
the most popular gathering in the fraternity, and for the 
very reason that it is a meeting of representatives of equals 
assuming no authority other than tfiat which inheres in 
legislative bodies made up on democratic principles. Noth^ 
ing in it smacks of oligarchy, nothing is said or done in 
which all may not have the fullest share. It has seldom 
been disgraced by schemes or riven by cliques. Such riv^ 
airy as exists in it, is rather a generous emulation to further 
the interests of Phi Kappa Psi ; and while in the heat of de- 
bate sharp things are sometimes said, these are no more 
harmful than the heat lightning which plays along the 
summer horizon, making the atmosphere better for human 
lungs and the temperature more tolerable. 

Once the seductive blandishments of Delta Phi were gone, 
Phi Kappa Psi made a vigorous life of its own, so that 


when the time came for a gathering of chapters in Grand 
Arch Council, there were five chapters in the fraternity — 
Pennsylvania Alpha, Beta, and Gamma, and Virginia Alpha 
and Beta. The G. A. C. was called during the year 1854, but 
del^;ates were not chosen until in the spring of 1855. Upon 
the testimony of '"An Old Boy's Recollections,*' the Historian 
had originally set the place and date of the first G. A. C. as 
being in the summer of 1855 at Washington, D. C., but later 
testimony from four of the ''old boys," together with an im- 
plication of the minutes of Virginia Alpha, caused a change 
in the text to Canonsburg. The very positive testimony of 
"An Old Boy's Recollections" quite staggered the writer, 
and he made another and more strenuous effort to get into 
correspondence with Bro. Keady, which was finally suc- 
cessful. After several letters had passed and the question 
had been discussed from all its points, Bro. Keady reasserted 
with convincing logic that the first-named place was indeed 
historically accurate, and thus the statement was made as 
found in Chapter I. 

Of this first Grand Arch Council little is known, and ac- 
cording to the testimony of Bro. Keady there was nothing 
to know except that the few delegates were of a decidedly 
convivial character and played the game of Carolina Gov- 
ernor to perfection. There was no business done and there- 
fore no record made. Of the work intended and the work 
del^;ated, a full account is given elsewhere. 

The following are the Grand Arch Councils held with the 
time and place and presiding officer : 

August, 1855, Washington, D. C, Jas. W. Moi^fan ; 

August, 1856, Canonsburg, Pa., James W. Moi^fan ; 

August, 1858, Washington, D. C, W. C. Falconer ; 

August, i860, Washington, D. C, John L. Massie ; . 

August, 1865, Pittsburg, Pa., M. C. Herman ; 

August, 1868, Qndnnati, Ohio, C. E. Merritt ; 


August, 1871, Wheeling, W. Va., A. C Reiiioefal; 

August, 1874, Columbus, Ohio, Jerome Lee ; 

July, 1876, Philadelphia, Pa., A. A. Leiser ; 

August, 1878, Indianapolis, Ind., J. K. Bogert ; 

February, 1880, Washington, D. C, M. C. Herman ; 

February, 1883, Pittsburg, Pa., Martin Bell ; 

February, 1885, Columbus, Ohio, Geo. D. Gotwald ; 

May, 1886, Indianapolis, Ind., Gerry C. Mars ; 

April, 1888, Washington, D. C, F. H. Hodder ; 

April, 1890, Chicago, 111., L. V. Buskirk ; 

April, 1892, Cincinnati, Ohio, Robins S. Mott ; 

April, 1894, New York, N. Y., W. M. Thatcher ; 

April, 1896, Qeveland, Ohio, W. C. Wilson ; 

April, 1898, Philadelphia, Pa., W. C. Sproul; 

April, 1900, Columbus, Ohio, George Smart. 

Fortunately for Phi Kappa Psi, among the invaluable 
material coming into the hands of the Historian from his 
visit to Judge Moore in November of 1900, are the original 
minutes of the second G. A. C. in the handwriting of Thomas 
C. Campbell, the Recording Secretary of the meeting. 
Under date of August 8tfa, 1856, he writes : — 

"The G. A. C. convened last Monday morning and closed 
at five o'clock this morning, having sat up all night. There 
were del^;ates present from every chapter in the fraternity. 
The following is the roll : 

"George H. Kennedy, Thomas C. Campbell, delegates 
from Pennsylvania Alpha; James P. Hassler, Oddl J. Long, 
delegates from Pennsylvania Beta; Lewis K. Evans, 
delegate from Pennsylvania Gamma; F. P. Fltzwilliams, 
J. F. Magill, delegates from Pennsylvania Delta; Adam 
Hoy, dd^^te from Pennsylvania Epsilon; James W. Mor- 
gan, S. M'D. Reed, ddegates from Virginia Alpha; Charles 
A. Ballou, ddegate from Virginia Beta; J. B. MThail, dde- 
gate from Virginia Gamma. 


"The G. A. C sat lor five days and produced a splendid 
constitution for subordinate chapters, the Grand Chapter and 
the Grand Arch Coundl, and a oxnplete set of forms and 
ceremonies. These all comprise about forty pages and are 
called the Grand Book of Constitutions. 

"We have established two degrees in the fraternity called 
the degrees of Socrates and Plato. * * * We made a new 
and beautiful ceremony with new grips and pass-words. 
We initiated a brother into both these d^^ees before the 
G. A. C, and the Council seemed well pleased. Upon mo- 
tion of Bro. Kennedy, the Grand Chapter was established 
until 1861 at the University of Virginia. We have in the 
new constitution centered a great deal of power in G. C. 
(Our chapter has been heartily sick and tired of having the 
G. C. here, as it is an immense bore and the Virginia Alpha 
will soon tire of it, I think.) 

"We established a Grand Treastuy. Every brothw in the 
fraternity is required to pay to the G. C. $1.00 per annum 
to defray the expenses of the G. C. and the fraternity. 
An excellent idea. We gave the making of badges to 

another jeweler, who will not impose upon us as has 

done. No change was made in the pin. 

"We worked five days at the rate of fifteen hours a day 
and have put business through. I do not think there will be 
any need for change in the laws and ceremonies for twenty 
years, at least. (Prophetic soull In exactly thirty years 
the second epoch-making G. A. C. was held, to which we owe 
our present form of government. — ^Historian.) The con- 
stitution we have adopted is far superior to that miserable 
trash we have had heretofore. 

"The f<41owing were the officers of the G. A. C. : — 

"J. W. Morgan, President; 

'T. C. Campbell, Recording Secretary; 


"G. H. Kennedy, ^ 

"S. M*D. Reed, > Assistant Secretaries." 

''Charles A. BaUou, j 

Some very interesting side-light upon this G. A. C. is 
afforded in the comments of the chief author of the new 
oonstituticm and ceremonies — Samuel Jack Niccolls. The 
following is in answer to questions propotmded to him re* 
garding this famous G. A. C. : — 

"There were representatives present from the University 
of Virginia and from all of the Pennsylvania chapters. A 
member from the chapter of the University of Viiginia 
presided. I cannot now definitely recall his name. (It was 
a Mr. Morgan.) He was a remarkably fine looking fellow 
and his appearance made quite a sensation in Canonsburg. 
The meeting was held in the room above John Brawn's con- 
fectionery and ice cream saloon. It was there that the 
change in the constitution was made by which the degrees 
of Socrates and Plato were established. The constitution 
at that time, with the proposed degrees, was prepared by 
myself. The original initiation ceremony, which had been 
simple, was also changed into a more ceremonial one. We 
had an amusing time in testing the newly-established ritual. 
The machinery for making the room alternately light and 
dark was of a very primitive character. In order to 
conceal the light at a certain period in the ceremonies, one 
of our members took an old blacking box, in whidi there 
was still a remnant of Mason's blacking. The heat from 
the lamp soon produced a smoke from the burning black- 
ing which was certainly not a sweet odor of grateful in- 
cense. Charley McHenry, in his desire to relieve the situa- 
tion, went to remove the blacking box which by this time 
was nearly in a white heat. In sc»ne way it stuck fast to 
his fingers, and we heard a number of words which were 
not designed to accompany the ceremony, and which were 


more emphatic than impressive. The two d^^ees were 
designed to give greater security to the secrets of the order. 
They were abolished at a G. A. C. about three years later. ' I 
cannot say how far they were used in the different chapters.'' 

While the rest of the replies of Dr. NiccoUs are in no way 
related to this meeting of the G. A. C, it will interest the 
readers of this history to learn at this place his impressions 
of the founders : — 

"Letherman, while not a brilliant scholar, was very much 
of a gentleman in his manners, and was very popular among 
his fdlow-students. His father was a very distinguished 
physician, and stood high socially in the community. 
Letterman, or as the name was originally, Letherman, 
showed his social culture in all of his manners. His elder 
brother was Surgeon-General of the United States Army. 
Letherman sympathized with the South during the Civil 
War. The last time I met him was in Boston, where he 
was arranging for the establishment of some reduction 
works for copper ores to be used for the benefit of the 
Confederate army. He told me how he had come across 
the border, and how he expected to get back again to the 
heart of the Confederates. Moore was a Virginian by 
birth, a man of great versatility, and more than ordinarily 
gifted. He did not finish his course at Jefferson College. 
During the senior year he went to Union College, New 
York, and was graduated there. Letherman was tall, at 
least six feet in height, while Moore was rather under 
size. I think it would be well if a history could be secured 
which would give impressions and reminiscences of those 
early times." 

In answer to similar inquiries made of another of the 
"old boys," the Hon. J. E. M'Pherran, of Sterling, 111., writes 
as follows : — 

"I attended the G. A. C. held in Canonsburg, Pa., in 1856. 


The purpose of the Council was submitting for approval a 
new ritual and work for the order and to do any other 
business that appertained to the good of the order. Sam- 
uel J. Niccolls^ now a D. D. of St Louis, Mo., and your 
humble servant, prepared this ritual and work and submitted 
them to the Council for approval. It was highly elaborate 
and very learned! as young 'kids' would be likely to make 
it. And yet it had sufficient merit to last down to the 
present time, at least in essential matters, for the working 
purposes of the order. * * * When I became a member 
of Phi Kappa Psi there were not a dozen men in all, and 
those resident in college could easily gather around a student 
lamp and read by its light. * * * I have no photographs of 
the boys; for when we separated in '57, like Bums' twa 
dogs we 'resolved to meet some ither day,' but the Civil 
War so disturbed the country that such resolutions were 
quite forgotten. Since '57, I have met but few of the 
brothers and have long felt quite out of the current. A new 
race has come who do not know or care much for those 
who in the early days strove so earnestly for the advance- 
ment of the fraternity. It would seem maudlin to tell 
how tenderly I fed toward the early brothers with whom 
I dwelt for three years. We had a chapter room fitted 
up expressly for us. We did not live in it, but we stayed 
around and about it as an object of veneration. To some 
it seemed a silly piece of business; but I did not think so 
then, or now. The boys will ever be to me as they were 
in the day-spring of our fancies, when 'we were first ac- 
quaint.' Reverting to the G. A. C. held in Canonsburg, I 
recall Bro. Morgan from the University of Virginia, Bro. 
M'Phail, from Hampden-Sidney, and Bro. Hoy, from 
Pennsylvania College. I do not think of the names of the 
others, but know that there were others. * * * I have not 
the time nor the talent to so sketch the personal history of 


the early members as to make it interesting to those of tht 
present day. The early members are so few and those who 
do remain so b^imnbed with the infirmities of years dmt little 
interest in them could be awakened by such an attempt" 

Hon. A. B. Robinson, ol Marysville, Ohio, writes : — ^*The 
only G. A. C. of which! have any personal knowledge was 
held in Canonsbtu-g, in 1856, at pur usual assembly room. 
A common student's room, 15 by 15, was ample for all pur-* 
poses, and was on the second floor of a building opposite 
the Old Seminary on College Hill Street" 

It is significant that the purpose for which the new d^frees, 
Socrates and Plato, were established failed of its design, fcM* 
at the next G. A. C. in 1858, the constitution was agaifi 
overhauled and the new d^frees had short shrift. How- 
ever, the decree for the abolishment of the degrees did not 
carry with it the power of enforcement, for as late as Jan« 
uary, 1861, Virginia Delta was still conferring both degrees. 

This third G. A. C, although iconoclastic in its spirit, did 
some very acceptable constructive work. It made a consti- 
tution and ritual which commended themselves warmly to 
the chapters if one may judge by comments in letters of 
members to each other and the fugitive references to the 
gathering in the minute books of the old chapters. Although 
the ''pious example" of Pennsylvania Alpha in the establish- 
ment of a paper as an outlet for the literary ambitions of the 
members had been imitated in several chapters, the faithful 
record made by the parent chapter of its doings on the occa- 
sion of each recurring anniversary, had not been so closely 
followed. In this G. A. C. the most significant action was 
the authorization of a history of the fraternity. No fur- 
ther reference has been found to this very interesting matter, 
although diligent search has been made to learn if any move- 
ment toward canying the project to a successful issue had 
resulted from the action of the G. A. C. In the elder day 


no doubt the enthusiastic delegates thought that the thing 
would do itself, much as some later Phi Psis have appa- 
rently thought. In the earlier time there was neidier 
money nor man to do this work. Perhaps the only man in 
the fraternity fitted by taste and temperament for it, Tom 
Campbell, was still smarting under the rigorous treatment 
he had received for a technical violation of the constitution, 
and, akhouf^ he had been restored to membership in the fra- 
ternity and his old chapter, the memory of his suspension 
was too recent for him to undertake this task. The G. A. C. 
of 1858 also ratified the choice of the G. C. of Bailey, Banks 
& Biddle as fraternity jewelers. This change of jewelers 
waa a source of real friction among the chapters. As else- 
where intimated, die Pennsylvania Alpha still arrogated to 
itself certain privileges in the procurement of pins, a right 
tacitly yielded to it for a while, but openly resented at this 
time. Pennsylvania Alpha strenuously held to a contract 
made with Mr. Wilson, of Pittsburg, and did not gracefully 
acquiesce in the action of the G. C, even when reinforced 
by the G. A. C. After several months of spirited corre- 
spondence, the matter was amicably adjusted, and the Phila- 
delphia firm entered upon its long career of manufacturing 
and selling Phi Kappa Psi jewelry. 

Of the fourth G. A. C, we have a very interesting account 
from the pen of Thos. H. Johnson, delegate from Pennsyl- 
vania Alpha. In speaking of this meeting, Bro. Johnscm 
makes the common mistake which for so long a time caused 
the records of the fraternity to be misleading, of calling this 
gathering the third G. A. C. It has been clearly shown that 
at least three meetings of delegates from the chapters had 
met before this time. Perhaps the early members of the fra- 
ternity agreed to call the first meeting "no heat" because of 
the futile attempts of the gathering to do anything good or 
bad which would leave a mark upon the fraternity life; but 


the testimony both of living participants and of contempora^ 
neous records is too accurate and specific to admit of any 
other conclusion than the one here arrived at. 

From the very readable account of Bro. Johnson, we learn 
that the meeting began upon the 15th of August, i860, and 
closed on the i6th at midnight. The delegation from Vir- 
ginia Delta seemed to have taken the fancy of Bro. J., for 
he says of them: "Of those present we would especially 
notice the delc^tion from Virginia Delta. Although this 
chapter is still young, it has entered upon the work of fra- 
ternity life with a spirit and zeal which might shame even 
the Alpha chapter of Pennsylvania, although she boasts her- 
self the mother chapter. Eager to do its work in this meet- 
ing as in ever3rthing else, its representatives were there 
among the first and with the full constitutional quota.'' 

The necessary quorum was not present until the afternoon 
of the 15th, but when business was b^;un, it went with a 
rush. The following were the officers: John L. Massie, 
Virginia Alpha; J. E. Edmtmds, Pennsylvania Delta; 
Thomas J. M 'Cants, Pennsylvania Zeta ; R. S. Shreve, Penn- 
sylvania Zeta ; Henry M. Paine, Tennessee Alpha. Eleven 
chapters were ^represented, only two being without del^;ates 
present — Pennsylvania Epsilon and Tennessee Beta. 

The badge question was still the source of friction, and the 
first work of the Council was to legislate the skeleton pin 
out of legal standing and to prescribe definitely the form 
and style of the official jewel. It gave the symbolism of the 
pin its final form and instilled into the minds of those present 
a very profound respect for it in the uses to which it was to 
be put. It is greatly to the discredit of Phi Kappa Psi that 
the prohibitions then established, have been of necessity 
repeated so often since. The main purpose of the gathering 
was constitution tinkering, but a number of minor ques- 
tions were first settled before the "order of the day" held the 

t/ Orrf^k, 0-ji/v^. foMr ^Lu/hM. old V iKM.«t. «mL 
ObuJL tuxj Qcuid, (^ heut a/ 7u ^U^c Cut ut V*vwA/ ^ ti^ fis y-^w ^«vv^u«/^yur 


ck cc Ae<^ o^c^£.^jt o^si^ i^^W^^^ ^S^,^£t»{_ 



floor. Of these, the one at this time of most moment was 
that raised by Pennsylvania Delta. Inquiry was made as to 
whether a brother not in actual attendance at collq;e but 
remaining in the vicinity of his chapter, could still have a 
voice and vote in the deliberations of the chapter. It was 
determined that a brother who discharged the duties of a 
regular member was fully entitled to an equal share in the 
deliberations of the chapter. 

No lack of confidence was expressed in the stability of 
the work undertaken, for this account assures us that ''we 
were able at length to present to the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity 
a constitution which will prove satisfactory to all concerned.*' 
In striking contrast with the first G. A. C, which also met in 
the Capital City and which has been so graphically described 
by Bro. Keady in Chapter Two, this delegate assures us that 
''the predominant spirit appeared to be a desire to do the 
work for which they were sent The work was at last 
accomplished and at twelve o'clock on the night of the i6tfa 
of August, the third (fourth) G. A. C. of the Phi Kappa Psi 
fraternity was declared adjourned." 

The custom of having photographs of the del^;ates taken 
was inaugurated at this G. A. C, but the delays incident to 
taking pictures in the primitive days of the art, compelled 
the project to be abandoned. 

The G. A. C, as almost every other fraternity activity, was 
suspended during the frightful days of the Civil War and 
the next gathering was not held until 1865. Of this meet- 
ing there is extant no record and a very small body of truth 
as to its work can be gathered, in the absence of anything 
official. The presiding officer was that grand Phi Psi, Judge 
Herman, who was four times a delegate and twice the pre- 
siding officer at the G. A. C. of Phi Kappa Psi. The work 
of reconstructing the fraternity engaged the entire time of 
the delegates, as well it might. Up to the b^finning of the 




war, Phi Kappa Psi antbered s c fc nl ee n dnpters ; of this 
ntuaber, mne were located ia ifistinctly scyutfaeni mstitutioiis. 
The life of all of these diapten ceased daring the sbnggle 
of ^e North and South and with two of them, Tennessee 
Alpha and Missisrippi Beta, the time for renewed actirity 
never came. Of the nine suspended chapters, only three 
had vitality sufficient to reorganize immediately upon the 
reopening of their instituticms after the cessation <rf hoa- 
tilities. Of the remaining four diapters, reorganization was 
delayed even until as late as 1881. 

This G. A. C was indeed an amdous one. Not only was 
the budding organization deprived of more tfian half its 
strength, but Ae surviving diapt«^ were badly demoralized. 
Of the ten living diapters at the time of the meeting, only 
three wo'e of the sort that had knowledge of the traditions of 
the fraternity, that very life blood of a brodierhood. These 
were Pemsyhrania Alpha, Pennsylvania Beta, and Pennsyl- 
Yania Gamma. To make matters worse, if that were pos- 
sible, Pennsylvania Alpha was about dead throt^ the 
changes in college relations which had abolished Pennsyl- 
vania Ddta, and the change in the head of the reorganized 
intftitations, known hereafter as Washington and Jefferson, 
the new president being a bitter foe of college fraternities. 
The life of the parent chapter of Phi Kappa Psi was haz- 
ardous in the extreme for the next three years, and feially, 
in 1868, the tmequal struggle was given over and Pennsyl- 
vania Alpha waited for more auspicious times. 

There were but six chapters represented in this gathering, 
and it is not surprising that the dd^fates had little faith in 
the survival of the tottering organization, but the goieral 
demoralization of all college fraternities, and a new spirit of 
liberal treatment of them by collie (acuities, served to in- 
spire a sturdy courage into the well-nigh discondted Greeks. 
It was a trifle absurd for a college professor to call before 


a bearded man with a hard-won title of colonel or major and 
lecture him upon his collq;e associations. All of die col* 
leges, both in the North and the South were filled with 
str4»ig men, immediately after the Civil War, who in the 
crucible of battle had had the dross of boyishness all refined 
away. What the heroes of battle wished for in coll^;e life, 
they got or tock, and so it ham>ened that what seemed almost 
Uke irreparable injury was in the end a most beneficent aid to 
life. The growth of all coll^;e fraternities in the late '60*8 
was phenomenal, and Phi Kappa Psi shared in the general 

The G. A. C. of 1865 made no effort at tinkering the 
constitution or ritual and in this respect it is unique. It 
looked the field over, counted with care the elements of real 
strength diat were at call and then addressed itself to the 
question of extension. In this work it was successful and 
before the meeting of the next G. A. C there were added 
to the fraternity, five new chapters. 

The G. A. C. of 1868, held in Cincinnati, in August, was 
a memorable occasion. The rancor of dvil war had in a 
considerable measure died away, die southern chapters whidi 
had been destroyed by the war had in five instances been re- 
vived and the attendance from these rather remote chapters 
was good. The central position of the Queen City had 
brought a fine representation from the chapters of the North 
and a genuine "era of good feeling" followed. 

The officers of this G. A. C in their order were : — 

C. E. Merritt, Ohio Alpha ; 

H. C. Allen, Indiana Alpha ; 

W. W. Estil, Virginia Beta; 

H. L. Bowman, Pennsylvania Zeta; 

F. W. Anen, Virginia Delta; 

W. G. Pendleton, Virginia Delta; 

F. B. Bostwick, Pennsylvania Beta; 

O. J. MXean, Tennessee Beta. 


It will be noted that of the eight officers named, half were 
from the South. The fraternity at this time numbered 
twenty-one chapters only six of which were in the South. 
It is plain to see that in the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity there 
was a very noticeable effort to restore that community of in- 
terest in which no sectional prejudice shall find expression. 

This was a convention of constitutional revision, and at 
its close the most solemn promises were made to observe all 
the new rules, regulations, and edicts without mental reserva- 
tion. It kq)t a loyal Phi Psi guessing in that elder day to 
ascertain what he was to obey. The G. A. C. took a good 
strong position upon the dereliction of the G. C. and the 
failure of the chapters to support it properly, which must 
have made the delegates feel "it is to laugh," when the G. C, 
just finishing its term of office had been for years a source 
oi well-grounded complaint and indeed was so lacking 
itself in attention to duty, that it left no record of its acts 
in any form although it had had a good example set 
to it in that particular by at least two, if not all, of its 

The G. A. C. also took advanced standing upon the ques- 
tion of "horse-play" in initiations. It positively and un- 
equivocally forbade any ceremonies whidb lacked either in 
dignity or solemnity. For a number of years the effect of 
this action was clearly seen in the work of the chapters, until 
a Pharaoh of fun arose "who knew not Joseph," and many 
a young collegian was taught to believe by his experience 
of initiation into a Greek-letter society that what was in- 
tended for a solemn ceremony was the source and occasion 
of merriment, not always innocent and sometimes dangerous. 
There came at last, within very recent years indeed, a strong 
reaction in the direction of "decency and order," but not until 
some very severe lessons had been administered to the 
thoughtlessly cruel youth who vied with each other to take 


• . c 

out upon the other fellow who should dome .'nfter 4II itie* 
finely planned and neatly executed schemes 'for ftui of wlui^' 
he had recently been the victim. It is a source of grief 
to all true friends of Greek-letter societies that the custom 
is not yet entirely extinct of making sport out of one of the 
most momentous events of a youth's life. The G. A. C of 
1868 took still higher grounds, for it prescribed a religious 
form of ceremony to be used at all meetings, a step which 
was hardly justified, but which fit in very closely with the 
life and habits of that generation of Phi Psis. 

The next G. A. C was held in the city of Wheeling, 
W. Va., in August of 1871. It came at the end of the 
great era of expansion. Since the adjournment of the 
G. A. C. of 1868, no fewer than nine new chapters had been 
established, a record without a parallel in Phi Kappa Psi. In 
the early years there had been great activity in granting 
charters, most of which resulted in nothing, and in 1855 
there had been six chapters added to the faithful two 
Alphas of Pennsylvania and Virginia, but to establish nine 
chapters in three years was a feat of rapid growth indeed. 
It is a melancholy comment upon this new movement that 
only three of the chapters formed during these years of 
apparently vigorous life, are now active. A few of the 
nine, after a useful life, were compelled to succumb 
to hostile conditions entirely beyond their control, such as 
happened to Ohio Gamma when the very rapid decadence of 
the college in which it was located, brought the voluntary 
surrender of its charter. There were others, however, that 
were never vigorous and ought not to have been established. 
Phi Kappa Psi has traveled a long road to learn a few 
lessons of ordinary prudence, but has apparently now learned 
them, some think, indeed, too well. 

These were the officers of the Wheeling G. A. C. : — 

A. C. Reinodil, Pennsylvania Eta ; 

•i» irf ■» 

« • • • • 

• • • • • • • 



• • • 

: Maxtili BeH^Vfxv Pemisylvaiiia Ganuna ; 

* W. K M'Cord,' Indiana Beta ; 

A. R. Townsend, New York Alpha ; 

A. L. Brooks, Ohio Beta ; 

H« W. list, Virginia Delta; 

W. C Alexander, PennsThrania Theta ; 

C Wysong, Indiana Alpha. 

The G. A. C. of 1871 labored with the problem of mock 
initiations quite as vigorously as its predecessor and with 
more reason. The dignity and decorum incident to the 
life of the members of disasters, made up at least in part 
of veterans of the Civil War, had by this time worn away, 
and in the reaction from the restraints effected by the once 
miUtaiy heroes, acticms were countenanced in chapter initia- 
tions which well drew another note of alarm frcmi the su- 
preme body of Phi Kappa Psi. The sudden growth of the 
fraternity had entailed upon the chapters a much increased 
correspondence which was so burdensome that among the 
cardess it was little practiced. The strongest appeals were 
made at this meeting for a revival of the old vigor of inter- 
chapter communication which had so strongly characterized 
the days of Campbdl, of Pennsylvania Alpha, and Morgan, 
of Virginia Alpha. The vital need of a better method of 
inter-communication was keenly f eh, but the ways and means 
of accomplishing this did not clearly appear until a few 
years later. Another need of the fraternity came in for a 
good share of attention, and that was the desirability of 
looking after the out-of-scho61 Phi Psis who were living 
here and there in large centers of population. This G. A. C. 
made the first strong effort toward enlisting the support and 
sympathy of the alumni and paved the way for the subse- 
quent establishment of alumni chapters, later called assoda- 
tions and dubs. 

The future of Phi Kappa Psi was assured when the 


G. A. C. of S874 met in G>kiiDbus» Ohio, and the newer life 
of which the present generatioa of Phi Kappa Psi has been 
the opulent inheritor was reddenii^ in the east. Several 
of the great questions of fraternity policy which have been 
happily settled, were outlined at this meeting and the agita- 
tion b^^ which brought the desired results within the next 
decade. Among these questions were the annual letter from 
the chapter to its alumni, the puttii^ of the fraternity finances 
upon a sound basis, and the gadiering of accurate statistics of 
the under-graduate membership. 

The officers of the Columbus G. A. C. of 1874 were : — 

Jeixmie Lee, Pennsylvania Alpha ; 

W. C. Gross, Pennsylvania Zeta ; 

J. C. Jackson, Ohio Alpha ; 

E. T. Williams, Virginia Delta ; 

J. R. Letcher, Missouri Alpha ; 

J. H. Rabbitts, Ohio Gamma ; 

C. E. Hills, Indiana Gamma ; 

A. G. M'Coy, Illinois Gamma. 

The struggle for a sound financial system in Phi Kappa 
Psi was a long and painful one. There were many elements 
in conflict in working out the solution. In the days of its 
weakness. Phi Kappa Psi had sought chapters wherever they 
could be firmly established, and sometimes foiled to secure 
even a solid standing at the very banning of the chapter 
life. In the rapid growth of the fraternity, mnnbers were 
of more consequence than wealth or social standing in the 
choice of men for membership. It soon came to be re* 
garded in Phi Kappa Psi a virtue to be poor and the spirit 
of excessive economy, before long, entered into all the fra- 
ternity life. If the G. C bought a minute book and failed to 
notify the chapters of that important fact, there was criti- 
cism. In a very brief time the criticisms upon the G. C. for 
their efforts to raise the meager amounts needed to run the 


fraternity, became so loud that that body was often in 
despair. To a man working his way through college, there 
seemed no good reason why he should pay even so small an 
annual tax as $i for the support of the general fraternity, and 
he very often refused to do so. It is a glory to our loved 
order and to many others of like character, that her most 
distinguished sons are the children of poverty, but it is 
very doubtful whether these same noble Phi Psis fed that 
their success as fraternity men was because of poverty; 
rather do they rejoice that the social instinct whidi took 
them into Phi Kappa Psi was strong enough to call them 
to greater sacrifices that they might enjoy in the Greek-letter 
society the pleasures of refined and congenial companionship. 
A strong feeling for a parsimonious economy grew out of 
this false conception of the uses of poverty and the relation 
of a man poor in purse to the social life of his college, and it 
was not long before the G. C. found itself almost unable 
to "raise the wind." The matters involved in fraternity 
finances commanded the serious thought of the del^;ates, 
and much of the time of the Council was devoted to a review 
of the conditions which prevailed and to plans for relieving 
the situation. A decision was finally reached and a strin- 
gent penalty provided for in the constitution, for future dere- 
liction upon the part of the chapters in pa3ring general 
fraternity expenses. A provision was made for the collec- 
tion of the tax in monthly installments, but this provision 
fell down of its own weight and was never seriously en- 

The pirating of badges came in for a good share of atten- 
tion. The practice had hegaa or rather had grown formid- 
able enough to deserve notice, of chapters in the vicinity of 
manufacturing jewelers, to procure pins wherever it suited 
their fancy and to modify the design and character of the 
jewel to suit individual taste. The practice was strongly 


condemned by the Council, but the revolt against the estab* 
lished jewelers was too formidable to be ^'edicted^' away and 
the custom continued for some years. The variety and 
contrariety of Phi Psi badges was ludicrous during the next 
decade, and to a refined taste was absurd. 

A fine-spirited appeal was made to the chapters to get into 
touch with their alumni and in this appeal the annual alumni 
letter was inaugurated. It is true that the progress was 
slow in adding this feature to our fraternity system, but it 
was sure, and that which the most loyal and vigorous chap- 
ters were glad to have suggested to them, the more careless 
after a while found themselves compelled to do by the 
pressure of public opinion. 

Under the three-year rule for holding G. A. C's inau- 
gurated in 1865, the next meeting should have been held in 

1877, but the strong tide of travel which was expected to 
turn toward Philadelphia during the holding of the Centen- 
nial Exposition in 1876, led the G. C. to exhort the chapters 
for a change of time. Thus it happened that the Centen- 
nial year became the rallying time and the date of a con- 
stitutional change in frequency of G. A. C.'s. There was a 
strong sentiment for annual meetings and an equally con- 
servative prejudice for the old way, which after all was not 
the way of the fathers, and we note the anomalous dates of 

1878, 1880, 1883, 1885, 1886, before the new way became 

In point of numbers the G. A. C. of 1876 was a record- 
breaker, and for the reason suggested above — urates upon the 
railways were low and interest in the first great display of 
American genius was very great. The writer is an old 
convention-goer, and has retained a large part of his boyish 
enthusiasms, but he never expects to see a gathering as wild 
for Phi Psi interests as this Centennial year G. A. C^ was 
reported to be. His early college experiences were with the 


men who had been present as delq^ates aad visitors to tlii» 
ga(themg, and these never wearied of relating their txpt- 
riences, which sometimes were rehearsed ad fumsetmi to the 
fellows who had not been privil^ed to go. The date of this 
meeting was July 12^14, 1876* 

The G. A. C of 1876 was officered as follows:— 

A. A. Leiser, Pennsylvania Gamma; 

G. W. Farisy Indiana Alpha ; 

C. L. Dudlqr, Wisconsin Alpha ; 

£. B. Hay» District of Cdumbia Alpha ; 

R. J. Murray^ District of Gdtimbia Alpha ; 

O. H. Brainard, Iowa Alpha ; 

W. C. Gross, Pennsylvania Zeta ; 

H. S. Lobingier, Virginia Delta. 

The work of this G. A. C, so far as it relates to shaping 
the policy of the fraternity, was not noteworthy, but some of 
the old questions received fresh attention and gathered a mo- 
mentum for progress that was highly encouraging. The 
only question which seemed to be a burning one was the 
desuetude into which the plain provisions of the constitution 
had fallen wherein was enjoined the learning of the law of 
Phi Kappa Psi by hearing it read in the chapter meetings. 
Upon this question the G. A. C. was severe and the chapters 
were called to a strict account for neglect in this particular. 
The advisability of holdii^ annual chapter reunions was 
strongly indorsed, the holding fast of traditions for solem- 
nity in ritualistic forms was commanded, and the formation 
of alumni associations was emphatically approved. 

The most notable act of the G. A. C of 1876 was the 
authorization of a fraternity journal. This was not indeed 
the first organ of Phi Kappa Psi, nor the first official oat^ 
hut it was the first for which the G. A. C stood sponsor 
and such an act is to be rq;arded as epochal. The name 
of the new publication was the Phi Kappa Psi Quarterly, and 


its first editor was Josq>h E. Stubbs, now the Plresident of the 
Unirersity of Neinula. The fortunes of this unhappy jour- 
nal win be told elsewhere and mention is made of its advent 
at diis place, only to give form to the work of the G. A. C 
which authorized it. 

The G. A. C of 1878, convening in Indianapolis, Ind., 
showed the tendency of the fraternity to make its gatherings 
central as r^;ards location of chapters and emphasized the 
western movement which the fraternity had unconsciously 
taken. This meeting was memorable for the business-like 
character of all of its sessions, the adjournments being taken 
only for the briefest intervals. Its officers were : — 

J. K. B<^rt, Pennsylvania Gamma ; 

F. W. Lord, Indian Ali^a; 

C. F. Cozier, Ohio Alpha; 

L. B. Eyster, Pennsylvania Theta ; 

L. C. Embree, Virginia Alpha; 

R. M. Parks, Indiana Beta ; 

A. D. Hosterman, Ohio Beta ; 

V. F. Brown, Illinois Alpha. 

The attendance at the Council was very poor, only eleven 
chapters out of thirty-five being represented. This fact is an 
ekquent commentary upon the meagemess of the purses 
of the youth who were the loyal sons of our society in the 
htte seventies. Another and more striking proof of this fact 
may be adduced in a statement of the committee sent by the 
Council to ascertain the price at which the proprietor of the 
hotel would banquet the delegates, no great company they. 
The report recited that a banquet cold could be procured for 
fifty cents a plate less than one warm. A pathetic stir 
goes through one to read the brief statement: "It was 
decided to accept the terms for the cold collation." 

A consideraMe part of the time of the Council was devoted 
to the question which was then uppermost in the minds of 


all Phi Psis, could we maintain a fraternity organ? The 
private enterprise of Bro. Porter, which had secured a grudg- 
ing support from the G. C, the Phi Kappa Psi Monthly, and 
the authorized Quarterly, which had survived three num- 
bers and was now clamoring for support, seemed to indicate 
that Phi Kappa Psi was not yet hungry enough for a means 
of regular inter-communication to provide adequately for its 
support. The editor of the Quarterly was demanding the 
fulfillment of the G. C. part of the contract whereby he had 
engaged to get out a fraternity journal, and the G. A. C. spent 
much thought in determining the equities of the case. The 
fraternity owed Bro. Stubbs, but how much ? As elsewhere 
stated the G. C. finances were in a deplorable condition. No 
one knew anything for certain of what had been received 
by thai body or how the money had been expended. After 
a long struggle over the matter the G. A. C. settled with 
Bro. Stubbs on his own terms, but the day of payment was 
long deferred. 

In spite of the two failures noted, the G. A. C. showed 
its courage by authorizing the G. C. to get out a monthly 
journal. Fortunately for the success of the movement for a 
Phi Psi periodical, the incoming G. C prudently resolved to 
defer the luxury of a fraternity journal until debts were paid 
upon the Quarterly and Catalogue. The usual discussion 
upon the irregular purchase of pins and the failure to observe 
decorum in initiations were a part of the Council's message 
to the fraternity. 

Another evidence of advancing thought in the fraternity 
was afforded in the action of the G. A. C. in authorizing the 
publication of a fraternity song-book. This work was to be 
undertaken by the Wisconsin Alpha chapter, but the un- 
timely death of the enthusiastic and wealthy Phi Psi, Bro. 
Dudley, who purposed to issue the book as a monument to his 
chapter, deferred this important work for a long time. 


The G. A. C. very properly set the salary of the officers of 
the G. C.9 putting an end by this action to the reprehensible 
practice of that body of setting its own standards of value, 
open, of course, to the easiest sort of abuse. A Catalogue was 
authorized for 1880 to take the place of the late unlamented 
effort of the committee, of which the Historian was an unin- 
fluential part, and discounting the publication of one in 1884. 
It was this G. A. C. which granted a chapter to resident 
alumni in Attica, Ind., for a chapter to be called Indiana 
Delta, but which had little vitality, in fact, made no record 
to indicate that it was ever organized. 

The meeting of the G. A. C. in the late summer having 
proved ineffective in securing a sufficient attendance of dele- 
gates, the time was changed to the month of February and 
the dty of Washington, D. C, was selected as the place for 
the first gathering under the new rule. 

The next G. A. C. was a restless one. Every del^;ate 
apparently had some pet measure of reform which he desired 
to have enacted into law. The conservatism of Phi Kappa 
Psi was never put to better use than in the decisive veto of the 
most of these schemes, and yet was too strong to have any 
effect in breaking down some of the absurdities which had 
crept into the life of Phi Kappa Psi. 

The officers of the G A. C. of 1880 were : — 

M. C Herman, Pennsylvania Zeta ; 

R. J. Murray, District of Columbia Alpha ; 

Chase Stewart, Ohio Alpha ; 

W. A. Posey, Indiana Alpha ; 

W. J. Mullins, Ohio Gamma; 

A. L. Bates, Pennsylvania Beta ; 

F. A. Kurtz, Pennsylvania Epsilon ; 

C. J. Musser, Pennsylvania Eta. 

The most important discussion of this meeting was the 
debate upon the desirability of a change in the unit rule for 


the actton of ohapten m grantiiic^ dortcn. This fight had 
been brewing for years^ and as might readily be sumused, it 
grew out of the disappointment felt bjr some chapters over 
their faulure to get through petitions in which th^ were 
greatly interested. The debate at times became so heated 
as to be almost acrimcmioas, and charges and counter barges 
flew fast and thick. To the radical innovators, there seemed 
to be a spirit of arrogance in the manner and actions of the 
del^[ates frcxn certain chapters entirely out of harmony 
with the genius of Phi Kappa Psi. This spirit todc the 
shape of invidious comparisons between chs^iters and well- 
nigh brought an open rupture in the Council. Better counsel 
soon prevailed and harmony was readily restored. Upon the 
other hand, the chapters leading in the fight for the retention 
of the unit rule showed to the satisfaction of every unpre- 
judiced delegate that while the holding fast to the old stand- 
ards would perhaps sometimes result in the loss of chapters in 
desirable institutions, as in the memorable case of Lehigh, 
whose petitioners, rejected by Phi Kappa Psi, had been 
eagerly accepted by Psi Upsilon, it was nevertheless true that 
the ruinous policy of granting charters to practically every 
band of petitioners had been possible under the unit rule and 
the making of the securing of charters easier, would be retro- 
gressive rather than progressive. But the advocates of con- 
servatism then and since, have been able to put an estoppel 
to overzealous expansionists by showing that the foremost 
advocates of throwing down the barriers were never as well 
informed upon the merits of an institution and of a body of 
petitioners as were their antagonists, and it took little argu- 
ment to show the absurdity of those who, from the d^ths 
of their ignorance, were anxious to steer the craft of Phi 
Kappa Psi upon the shoal water of college life in an era of 
enormous activity of state interest in education and of appar- 
ent decadence in institutions of the old types. 


The desire to get into closer touch with the altuzmi still held 
a strong gxip opoo the thought of the fraternity, for two 
new^'gradttate'' chapters were authorized by this Council, one 
at IndianapoCs, Ind., to be called Indiana Epsilon, and 
the other at Philadelphia, Pa., to be called Pennsylvaitia 
Kappa. A discrepancy in the naming of the iormtr appears 
from the naming of it Indiana Delta in the original minntes 
of the G. A. C. and the designation Indiana Epsikxi in the 
edict sent out by the G. C after the adjournment of the 
G. A. C. 

Another eSort was made upon the song-book question, 
and a committee was appointed with instructions to compile 
a book before the next G. A. C, but like so many things in- 
augurated in the fire of enthusiasm of a convention, the one 
thing needful was not provided. Practiadly nothing came 
of this effort. The same demand for the making of '^bricks 
without straw'' was seen in the unanimous indorsement of 
The Shield as the official organ of the fraternity, leaving 
Messrs. Smith and Kendall to 'Vork for nothing and board 
themselves'^ as before. 

The time for holdix^ the G. A. C. was officially changed 
by this Council to February, and a ccHiservative position was 
taken upon the revision of die constitution, in that a com- 
mittee was appointed to take the various proposed changes 
under advisement and to report at the next G. A. C, thus 
forestalling hasty l^slation. 

An attempt was made to change the definitive and beautiful 
fraternity colors from lavoider and rose pink to blue, but 
the attempt failed as has every subsequent effort. The 
fearful and wonderful hieroglyphic designation of the years, 
months, etc., which had been invented by Tom Campbell, 
together with the naming of every member of the fraternity 
by a Greek numeral and which had long outlived whatever 
of usefulness it had ever had, some enterprising delegate 


Strove to have abolished, but without success. A like fate 
was meted out to the effort to do away with the foolish 
custom of initiating honorary members. This custom was 
the outgrowth of a desire upon the part of our own and 
other fraternities to "cut a figure'* in the college world by 
pointing with pride to distinguished sons who were in fact no 
more than step^sons. Happily the good sense of the frater- 
nity finally did away with this anomalous custom. 

The trouble with irregular jewelers still continuing, the 
Council agreed to permit the chief offender against Phi 
Kappa Psi law to dispose of his stock on hand and ordered 
him to destroy his dies. 

The most amusing event of the meeting was an attempt 
upon the part of some of the chapters to add to the frater- 
nity a sort of side-degree for coll^^e girls. It must be re- 
membered that sororities were then in their infancy. Al- 
though some delegates were warm in their support of this 
measure, it was laughed out of court. 

Between the time of the adjournment of the G. A. C. of 
1880 and the assembling of that of 1883 the rising tide of 
discontent with existing methods and practice was fast reach- 
ing the flood, and when the delegates came together in Pitts- 
burg, there was determination to succeed in radical meas- 

The Council intended to be business-like, for it adopted 
the following hours for sessions: 9 a. m. to 12.30 p. M.; 2 to 
5.30 P. M.; 7.30 to 10.30 p. M. 

These were the officers in charge : 

Martin Bell, Jr., Pennsylvania Gamma ; 

Adam Hoy, Pennsylvania Epsilon ; 

J. C. Payne, Ohio Gamma ; 

P. K. Buskirk, Indiana Beta ; 

F. A. Stocks, Kansas Alpha ; 

G. F. Gephart, Maryland Alpha ; 

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W. S. Lacy, Illinois Alpha ; 
George D. Gotwald, Pennsylvania Epsilon. 
A number of old questions came up for discussion and con- 
sequent action, among which may be mentioned the unit 
rule, the song-book, the fraternity organ, the fraternity 
colors, abolishing of honorary members, the initiation of 
preparatory students, the fraternity history, the grand cata- 
logue debt, and the times of holding G. A. C.'s. The only 
new question discussed was that of districting the fraternity. 
Before reporting upon the old questions, it may be well 
to look for a moment upon the new one. The proposition 
was made to district the fraternity and to place in charge of 
each district an alumnus chosen by the chapters comprising 
the district. It was proposed to make this alumnus a general 
supervisor of the chapters in his district, and he was charged 
with the duty of visiting the chapters once a month or to 
communicate with the members in some other way, to the 
end that a close watch should be maintained upon the work- 
ings of each chapter. The measure was radical enough 
to suit the most enthusiastic reformer, but was so obnoxious 
to the delegates that it was given short shrift and soon went 
down to ignominious death. It is interesting to note that, 
within three years after, all the essential features of this 
plan were adopted by the Indianapolis G. A. C. without a 
dissenting vote. 

The chief interest in the old question centers in the 
renewed contest over the abolition of the unit rule. The 
forces favorable to the project had evidently made prepara- 
tion, for when the discussion was renewed it was seen that 
the discomfited of the last G. A. C. had become the aggres- 
sive leaders in a fight which threatened to bring disaster to 
our beloved fraternity. Each side had its forces well in 
hand, and through the battle, which lasted all of one session, 
there was neither quarter asked nor given, and when the vote 


was taken the decision rested upon so dose a margin that 
one-half of one vote would have reversed the position finally 
taken, namely, to abide by the unit rule. No other contest 
in the fraternity G>uncils has ever been so hotly, not to say 
bitterly, contested, and it is to be hoped that never again will 
such a contingency arise as this, to mar the serenity of our 
fraternity life. 

Alumni chapters were authorized at Kansas City to be 
called Kansas Beta, at Washington, D. C, to be called 
District of G)lumbia Beta, and at G>lumbus, Ohio, to be 
called Ohio Epsilon. The confusion arising from the nam- 
ing of graduate chapters in Ohio and Indiana, indicates 
clearly that these presumed chapters were such only in name. 
It will be remembered that an alumnus chapter at Wooster, 
Ohio, had the name of Ohio Epsilon given to it, and in 
Indiana a body of Phi Psis at Attica and at Indianapolis 
had also a like confusion of designation. 

The G. A. C. discussed fully the honorable membership 
question, and abolished the title and the practice of admit- 
ting honorary members, once and for all. A like reform 
relating to the admission of preparatory students was not 
carried, but the margin in favor of taking such members 
was close, and soon the feeling was strong enough to secure 
righteous action in this also. 

Saving grace in common business sense came to this 
Council, and we find the delegates rehising to enter upon the 
expense of publishing a song book while an ugly debt on 
Grand Catalogues hung over the fraternity. Vigorous ac- 
tion was taken in the latter case and very shortly thereafter 
this troublesome matter was properly settled. 

The vexed debate upon fraternity colors came up because 
of the reference of the report of a committee appointed to 
confer upon the matter at a reunion held at Lake Chau- 
tauqua the summer preceding. The action of the G. A. C. 


was in confinnation of the report of that committee in recom- 
mending lavender and pink. This Council also settled in 
legal form by amending the constitution, the interval for 
holding G. A. C.'s to two years, where it has since re- 

No act of this G. A. C. was fraught with so momentous 
consequences to Phi Kappa Psi as the adoption of the report 
of the committee appointed to devise a plan for the successful 
publishing of the fraternity organ. The committee very 
properly took the position that an organ that was not a 
charge upon the fraternity was a misnomer, and so the very 
first provision in their report required the cost of publication 
to be made a tax upon the membership of the fraternity, and 
instead of a chapter being credited with supporting The 
Shield while taking one or two copies for its entire mem- 
bership, the support of the fraternity organ was made a tax 
for which the chapter was liable, and that, too, for a list of 
subscribers representing the entire membership. To fur- 
ther insure its permanency, the management of the business 
of publishing the journal was intrusted to a single chapter, 
which should be responsible to the G. C, but which should 
have large freedom in the devising of ways and means for 
getting out a creditable paper. 

There was a friendly rivalry to be made publishing chap- 
ter, but especially favoring circumstances made Ohio Beta 
an easy winner, and to this chapter the credit belongs of 
making The Shield a permanency in Phi Kappa Psi. 

The only inconsiderate and unbusinesslike act of this in- 
dustrious G. A. C. was its instruction to the G. C. to pro- 
ceed with the publication of a history of Phi Kappa Psi, well 
knowing that without a liberal provision for the cost of 
getting such an enterprise through, it could end in only one 
way, and that failure. The present writer had for several 
years been interested in The Shield, and as is well known, be- 


came its first editor under the financially sound administra- 
tion, but he failed to make the fraternity see the folly of lay- 
ing out great plans with no sure provision for their fulfill- 
ment, until long years after, when having served a long 
apprenticeship to fraternity journalism, he was called to this 
larger work. In the great labor of collecting material, 
sifting and arranging data, and in the actual labor of com- 
position he has been sustained by the comforting thought 
that his work would not be rendered nugatory by the dis- 
tressing cry so often heard in Greek-letter circles : "Not done 
for lack of funds." 

With the next G. A. C, the experience of the Historian in 
attending Councils began, and he is no longer beholden to 
parole testimony for his impressions nor to meager abstracts 
of minutes for his facts, for he has been in attendance and 
borne some share in the work of every Council since 1885, 
when in the city of Columbus, Ohio, he first learned to know 
in the flesh that noble band of Phi Psis who have since done 
so much to enlarge and enrich his life. 

This meeting was much after the modem type of Coun- 
cils where the exception is an unrepresented chapter; in 
this particular instance twenty-three chapters were present 
in the person of fifty delegates. The Council was harmo- 
nious, enthusiastic, and progressive. It was this Council 
which commanded a new and radical change in our form of 
government, and in order to secure that degree of prompti- 
tude needed in the work of the committee, it adjourned for 
only fifteen months, calling the next meeting for May, 1886^ 
in Indianapolis. 

The officers of the 1885 G. A. C. were : — 

George D. Gotwald, Pennsylvania Epsilon; 

C. R. Cameron, Indiana Alpha ; 

H. W. Smith, District of Columbia Alpha ; 

H. N. Clemens, Ohio Gamma ; 


S. E. Howelly Pennsylvania Zeta ; 

George Smart, Ohio Delta ; 

Qinton Gage, District of G>ltimbia Alpha. 

The first matter of considerable importance considered by 
the Council was the hearing of the report of Ohio Beta as 
publishing chapter. It was such a novelty in Phi Kappa 
Psi to have a report made in which there was an account of 
a balance due to the fraternity instead of a deficit, that the 
enthusiasm was unbounded when the report was read. The 
publishing chapter had not only issued the journal and paid 
all its bills for two years, but it had a balance of $12948 cash 
to turn over and uncollected accounts of $440.41 to secure 
from delinquent subscribers and advertisers. The chapter 
that had demonstrated that Phi Kappa Psi could support a 
journal had had all the experience it wanted, and as several 
other chapters were anxious to try their hands at the ex- 
periment, Kansas Alpha was made the publishing chapter for 
the ensuing period of two years, after whidi time The 
Shield had become so indispensable to Phi Kappa Psi that 
another forward step was taken in employing an editor 
and giving him the sole charge of its affairs. 

Pan-Hellenism was in the air at this time, and Phi Kappa 
Psi agreed to participate in its deliberation should a meet- 
ing be held. To the present generation, the term Pan-Hel- 
lenism has no significance, but fifteen years ago it was a very 
live question. It meant for the Greek world about the same 
that church unity means for the Protestant religious world 
to-day. There can be unity if you go my way and do as I 
do, but any deviation from my standards is heresy. So in 
Pan-Hellenism, the strong and old fraternities were entirely 
willing to be regarded as the leaders of thought in college 
affairs and ill-concealed contempt was shown for the rash 
youth from any but "the leading fraternities, "who dared to 
have an opinion or to express it. One meeting of the snobs 


who managed and gave "tone" to this anomalous gath- 
ering was enough to satisfy the most enthusiastic, and 
Pan-Hellenism, as a system of thought or action, was 
relegated to the limbo that holds the fads and isms of for- 
gotten ages. 

A rigorous inquiry was made by this Council into financial 
matters and methods. The most severe measures were en- 
acted to force the delinquents to an understanding that a 
chapter that could afford $ioo for a "symposium" had no 
reason but disloyalty to present for not paying $20 or $25 to 
the fraternity of which it formed a part. It was shown that 
$234.50 was still due the fraternity from delinquents, and the 
G. C. was instructed to enforce without discrimination a new 
law uttered by the G. A. C. against those derelict in their 
financial duty. 

Another trial was made at the history, and after hearing 
an enthusiastic account of his experiences from D. C. List, 
who had conceived the thought, and with Fred. Kinkade 
had done an enormous amount of work upon the project, the 
Council made D. C. List and C. F. M. Niles the ofiicial his- 
toriographers of Phi Kappa Psi. These devoted brothers 
spent not only time but a considerable amount of money in 
gathering data for the work, and it is the irony of fate that 
they live to see the project which they held so dear brought 
to its completion by hands other than their own. 

The financial sanity of Phi Kappa Psi was clearly shown at 
this Council by the fact that every committee appointed for 
any special work had its expenses guaranteed. This en- 
larged view of the proprieties did not extend to the history, 
however, for in some occult manner the impression had got 
abroad that the history of Phi Kapa Psi would be a veri- 
table treasure-trove to the promulgators. The impression 
of the present Historian is that to struggling young business 
men, such as the newly-elected historiographers were, the 


canying of the work to completion at that time would have 
bankrupted either or both of them. 

Aside from some 1^^ constructions put upon trial pro- 
cedure, the consideration of the usual grist of petitions, the 
choosing of two jewelers, Messrs. Auld and Newman, instead 
of one, as before, the only important act of the G. A. C. was 
the appointment of a Committee on Grand Book of Consti- 
tutions and Edicts. This committee was chosen with the 
well-understood purpose of constructing from the beginning 
the law and gospel for Phi Kappa Psi ; in fact, the expecta- 
tion of the more sanguine delegates had been that this great 
work could be done at the G. A. C. When the futility of the 
attempt was clearly seen by the delegates, the committee was 
enlarged by the addition of D. C. List and C. L. Van Qeve, 
and instruction was given to the committee to report at 
Indianapolis in May, 1886. The whole committee was: 
W. C. Wilson, Pennsylvania Beta, chairman ; F. S. Monnette, 
Ohio Alpha; Geo. W. Dun, Ohio Delta; D. C. List, Ohio 
Gamma ; C. L. Van Qeve, Ohio Alpha. 

The epochal Grand Arch Council of Phi Kappa Psi after 
that of 1856 was that of 1886. The former made the frater- 
nity a heterogeneous confederation of chapters with common 
interests and common ideals ; the latter remade the fraternity 
into a homogeneous brotherhood, wherein the same ideals 
indeed held sway, but in which, under proper checks and bal- 
ances, responsibility could be enforced and maintained. 
What Campbell, NiccoUs, and M'Pherran were to the earlier 
generation, W. C. Wilson is to the present. It is in no way 
derogatory to the other members of the committee to say 
that in practically all its essential features the present ad- 
mirable form of government in Phi Kappa Psi is the work of 
the brain of W. C. Wilson. 

The G. A. C. of 1886 was officered as follows : — 

Gerry C. Mars^ Illinois Alpha; 


Jo6. Halstead, Michigan Alpha; 

F. C Thompson, Kansas Alpha; 

W. W. Keifer, Ohio Delta; 

J. C. Needham, California Alpha; 

W. S. Blakeney, South Carolina Alpha; 

E. G. Merritt, New York Alpha; 

John Baltzley, Ohio Beta. 

There is practically nothing to record of this meeting 
except to say that the new form of government which we now 
enjoy was there discussed and without amendment, ratified 
Perhaps there is ho reason why other mention should be 
made, for the Council was called for no other purpose than 
that of hearing the report of the Committee on Grand Book 
of Constitutions and Edicts and acting upon it. The work 
which the committee was doing and the general character of 
its report was quite generally understood, and leading Phi 
Psis had been asked for criticisms of its work before the 
meeting. So far as the Historian can now recall, we had no 
criticisms from any source upon our work, and the G. A. C. 
was no more than a ratification meeting. The constitution as 
submitted to the G. A. C. of 1886 had these general features : 

1. It provided for the G. A. C, as the supreme authority 
in Phi Kappa Psi, to meet every other year, beginning on the 
first Wednesday in April, 1888. Delegates were to be chosen 
to this body in a manner practically the same as before, and 
were charged with the same duties. The G. A. C. was to be 
supreme in law-making and law-interpreting power. 

2. The executive functions of government were vested in 
an Executive Council, which should meet at its own conve- 
nience. This executive council was to act in the intervals of 
the G. A. C, as the supreme law-interpreting and law-exe- 
cuting power in the fraternity, subject to review of the G. A. 
C. It was to be composed of nine members, five of whom 
should be alumni, the rest undergraduates, chosen by the 


District Councils. The large proportion of alumni in this 
body was to secure permanency. The President, Secretary, 
and Treasurer of the Executive Council were ex-officio the 
Executive Committee of the Executive Council in the inter- 
vals between its meetings, and were to act in its stead, sub- 
ject to review by that body. 

3. All publications of the fraternity were to be under the 
auspices of the Executive Council and subject to its control. 
Editors and publishers were to be subject to the Executive 

4. The fraternity was divided into four districts, and an 
Archon chosen by the Executive Council was to preside over 
the destinies of each province, with admonitory functions 

5. In the intervals between the meetings of the G. A. C, 
there was to be held in each district a biennial District Coun- 
cil without legislative powers, but charged with the duty of 
electing the undergraduate members of the Executive Coun- 
cil. The graduate members of the Executive Council were 
to be chosen by the G. A. C. 

The following were the first Executive Council under the 
new constitution : President, J. B. Foraker, Sr. ; secretary, 
W. C. Wilson; treasurer, G. W. Dun; Edgar F. Smith, 
Geo. D. Gotwald, F. H. Shaw, J. A. Ingle, W. J. McCormick, 
F. B. HoUenbeck. 

The first Archons were : District I — W. C. Posey, Penn- 
sylvania Iota ; District II — H. W. Smith, District of Colum- 
bia Alpha; District III — L. Van Buskirk, Indiana Beta; 
District IV — ^L. S. Pease, Wisconsin Alpha. 

The general good will with which the new instrument was 
received gave large promise for the future of Phi Kappa Psi, 
and now that fifteen years of trial have tested it in practice, 
who is there who will not say : **Long life to Billy Wilson, 
the new founder of Phi Kappa Psi" ? 


It seems supererogatory to write of G. A. C/s subsequent 
to that of 1886, for it seems trite and commonplace to ^>eak 
of that of which so many of the present active workers in 
Phi Kappa Psi have been a part, and were it not that there 
is here and there an "old boy" who, knowing well the ancient 
history, will wish to hear of the later doings, the Historian 
would fain keep silence concerning those glorious gatherings 
of recent years. 

The dd^^ates to the 1888 G. A. C. came together with re- 
joicing, for the new government had "worked" far beyond 
the most sanguine dreams of its promoters and authors. 
Twenty-seven out of thirty-eight chapters were represented, 
and some with a full quota of delegates. Few chapters had 
less than two delegates present, and some had so large a dele- 
gation that the legal voting power was divided into quite 
small fractions. 

The following were the officers : — 

F. H. Hodder, New York Alpha; 

F. W. Biesecker, Pennsylvania Eta; 

G. E. Manning, California Alpha; 
W. A. Barber, South Carolina Alpha; 
Wilson Sterling, Kansas Alpha; 

M. D. Snedicor, Minnesota Alpha; 

Robert Lowry, Pennsylvania Gamma. 

The experience of two years under the new constitution 
had developed some particulars that justified slight amend- 
ment. The only one of these of sufficient importance to be 
noted here was the change in representation of alumni upon 
the Executive CoundL It was felt that so long as the frater- 
nity could have the advice and labor of Wilson and Dun at its 
command there was no need for any other alumni in that 
body. The constitution was accordingly changed so that, 
instead of five alumni upon the executive council, there were 
to be only three. Robert Lowry was chosen president, and 


Wilson and Dun were re-elected. At the District Councils 
of 1887, the following undergraduates were chosen as mem- 
bers of the Executive Council: A. W. Cummins, Pennsyl- 
vania Theta, for District I ; Morgan Billiu, Virginia Beta, 
for District II; A. Hartwell, Ohio Delta, for District III; 
J. M. Sheean, Wisconsin Gamma, for District IV. 

The item of business which provoked the most applause 
was the report of the treasurer, Geo. W. Dun, who reported 
that all bills had been met and that there was a snug balance 
in the fraternity treasury, an unprecedented thing in Phi 
Kappa Psi. The Council revoked the charter of the only 
remaining sub rosa chapter at Monmouth College, and 
granted one charter to a body of petitioners, namely, at 
Swarthmore. Of the several petitions refused, interest 
attaches to the fact that in 1888 Purdue began to knock at 
the doors of Phi Kappa Psi, and has continued with plucky 
insistence until now, within the fold, it maintains a high re- 
gard not alone for the fraternity of its choice, but a genuine 
self-respect that it has continued through all these years to 
be worthy of the coveted prize. The jewelry question came 
up as usual, but at this time not because of unauthorized 
makers persisting in making our pins, but because the offi- 
cial jewelers were taking unwarrantable liberties with the 
form, shape, design, and symbolism. The old unit-rule 
fight came up for its biennial squelching and the tinkerers 
made themselves felt upon the ritual, which was subjected to 
slight alteration. 

The newest and most engrossing subject before the Coun- 
cil was the proposition to pro-rate the expenses of the dele- 
gates to G. A. C, so that every chapter in the fraternity 
might always have representation at the gatherings of Phi 
Kappa Psi's supreme body. Like all the other great ques- 
tions which have been discussed and settled in Phi Kappa 
Psi, this proposition met with furious opposition, the equity 


of it not appealing to the average delegate. An undercur- 
rent of suspicion of the Executive G>uncil as being too 
powerful and as striving to make the G. A. C. practically use- 
less had not a little to do with the moral strabismus which 
affected the ddegates to this Council, but although the pro- 
ject did come from the Executive Council it was because 
that body could see very clearly that there could be no such 
thing as symmetrical development in Phi Kappa Psi without 
the commingling of delegates from remote districts. How- 
ever, the leaven had been put within the mass, and how well 
it has worked the present generation of Phi Kappa Psi 
clearly understands. The wonder is that we were so slow 
in making up our minds to do the thing which more than all 
others helps us to realize our ideals as set forth in our ritual 
and constitution. 

The Archons during this period were : District I — ^H. L. 
Calder, Pennsylvania Gamma; District II — ^M. Billiu, Vir- 
ginia Beta; District III — ^J. A. Beeson, Indiana Alpha; 
District IV — G. A. Bass, Illinois Alpha. 

Before the G. A. C. of 1890, the Archons were changed in 
Districts II and III ; E. M. Stires, Virginia Alpha, succeed- 
ing Billiu, and F. G. Gotwald, Ohio Beta, succeeding 

The modem type of G. A. C. was fairly inaugurated at 
Chicago in 1890. The style in which Phi Kappa Psi now 
celebrates the coming together of its delegates is so elegant, 
not to say elaborate, that it costs the loyal brothers of the 
great city-centers a pretty sum to take care of a Council, and 
it is, perhaps, well that the gatherings come to any locality 
infrequently. The flowers, the favors, the theatre parties, 
the elaborate menus, all run the bill for entertainment far be- 
yond what the delegates themselves invest. The "extra" bill 
at Chicago, the Historian learned while there, was $1,000, 
and it is very doubtful if the New York brothers got off in 
1894 for even that generous figure. 


The Council made the salary of the editor of The Shield 
a charge upon the fraternity, it appearing that our organ 
always had assets of doubtful value, due to the disinclina- 
tion of the powers that were to enforce to the full the con- 
stitutional penalties for non-payment of dues. Much diffi- 
culty having been experienced in keeping in touch with the 
chapters during vacations, it was ordered that each chapter 
should have a permanent address. The banquet having by 
chance come upon the evening of Good Friday, the Council 
avoided forever again offending the religious sensibilities 
of any of the fraternity, by setting the gathering for the first 
Wednesday after Easter Sunday. The usual routine busi- 
ness engaged the thought of this Council, and perhaps the 
only unique thing heard there was a report of Bro. Barber, 
of the Executive Council, who had made, by direction, an offi- 
cial visit to a number of institutions in the South and reported 
upon their availability for entrance by Phi Kappa Psi. The 
crowning feature of the session was the banquet which was 
admirably served, deliciously toothsome, and most el^;ant in 
its appointments. It was served with commendable prompt- 
ness, and after an excellent set of speeches the whole affair 
was adjourned by midnight. 

The officers of this council were : — 

L. V. Buskirk, Indiana Beta; 

G. K. Statham, New York Beta ; 

G. W. Springer, Illinois Alpha; 

C. M. Voorhees, Ohio Gamma ; 

W. A. Jackson, Wisconsin Alpha ; 

E. M. Stires, Virginia Alpha. 

The now famous yell of Phi Kappa Psi was invented at 
this Council and promulgated with enthusiasm. The com- 
pilers were E. M. Stires, C. W. Ashley, and J. B. Foraker, 
Jr. The G. A. C. made changes in the office of President, 
choosing John P. Rea for that position, and George Smart 


for Secretary, to succeed W. C. Wilson. The District Coun- 
cils had chosen the undergraduate members of the Executive 
Council as follows: District I — E. B. Bentley, New York 
Alpha; District II — W. A. Barber, South Carolina Alpha; 
District III— Philip Philips, Jr., Ohio Alpha; District IV— 
Fred. I. Collins, Wisconsin Alpha. The Archons had been 
chang^ also and were as follows: District I — ^H. A* Dubbs, 
Pennsylvania Eta; District II — E, M. Stires, Vii^ginia 
Alpha; District III — ^James R. Hanna, Indiana Gamma; 
District IV— W. S. Holden, Michigan Alpha. Ill health 
caused the resignation of Bro. Philips before the expiration 
of his term, and he was succeeded by H. M. Semans, of the 
same chapter. 

The G. A. C. held in Cincinnati in April, 1892, was peculiar 
in at least one particular, it being held under no auspices 
other than those of the Executive Council, which meant in 
this instance. Secretary Smart At the time of the adjourn- 
ment of the Chicago meeting, the Cincinnati Alumni Asso- 
ciation of Phi Kappa Psi was in a most flourishing condi- 
tion and bade fair to surpass in good works for the fraternity 
any organization of like character anywhere. The moving 
spirit in this organization had gathered a fund for the enter- 
tainment of the delegates which was reported by one who 
knew, to be in excess of $2,000, but a few weeks before the 
time for the meeting, the Secretary, in enforcing some con- 
stitutional provisions, came into sharp conflict with this 
brother. The controversy ended by leaving the Secretary 
with no organized support for the conduct of the meeting, 
so that with the aid of a few volunteers he was obliged to 
conclude all contracts and to make all arrangements for the 
Council, and that, too, from more than two hundred miles 
distance. Happily the arrangements were well made and 
the Council was a fine success. The differences of the two 
disputants were adjusted early in the session and Phi Psi 
harmony prevailed. 


The Council was a very busy one. Among the things 
which it discussed and disposed of were the recalling of the 
charter of California Alpha, the resuscitation of Illinois 
Beta and New York Gamma, the authorization of the song- 
book which had been dragging along slowly for several years, 
the establishment of another fraternity jeweler, Messrs. 
Rodmi & Sons, Detroit, and the final settlement of the cele- 
brated North case. This latter matter had been before the 
Executive Council for years upon appeal and demurrers and 
cross petition and mandamuses, and all the legal tricks 
known to the courts had been resorted to for restoring the 
appealing brother to the rights which he contended he had 
been deprived of. 

The subject of most interest before the fraternity at this 
Council was the chapter-house question. The Shield had 
been exhorting upon the subject for a long time and the 
del^fates were ripe for discussion. Much enthusiasm and 
some strong resolves were the outgrowth of this agitation. 

The banquet of this G. A. C. had certainly the finest after- 
dinner speeches ever uttered to a Phi Psi audience. 

The officers of this meeting were : — 

R. S. Mott, Illinois Beta ; 

F. G. Gotwald, Ohio Beta ; 

S. B. Smith,Pennsylvania Beta ; 

F. H. Cocks, Pennsylvania Kappa; 

Wm. Larrabee, Iowa Alpha ; 

E. M. Stires, Virginia Alpha. 

The officers elected at this G. A. C. for the Executive 
Council were: President, W. C. Wilson; Treasurer, G. W. 
Dun ; SeCtetary, George Smart. 

The undergraduate members of the Executive Council 
during this period were : District I — ^W. W. Youngson, Penn- 
sylvania Beta; District II — ^J. Hardin Marion, South Caro- 
lina Alpha; District III — ^W. G. NefF, Indiana Alpha; 


District IV — ^T. G. Scares, Minnesota Beta. The Archons 
were : District I — ^W. C Sproul, Pennsylvania Kappa ; Dis- 
trict II — ^E, M. Stires, Virginia Alpha ; District III — ^Percy 
Martin, Ohio Delta; District IV — ^T. G. Soares, Minnesota 

When the G. A. C adventured to the great American 
metropolis, it was with fear and trembling upon the part of 
many who feared a faux pas, but the affair was so nobly 
managed by the famous New York Alumni Association that 
it was an unqualified success. The del^;ates were enter- 
tained in one of the famous hotels of the dty (it is whis- 
pered that one of the del^^ates asked for the quarters occu- 
pied a short time before by the Infanta of Spain) and for 
comfort and elegant entertainment, this Council stands 
easily first in our annals. 

The avowed purpose of those who were most instru- 
mental in locating the G. A. C was to prepare the way for 
an advance into the old and very conservative colleges of 
the East, and while the lofty designs of the most enthusiastic 
were not realized, the adventure was well worth what it cost 
in the substantial pushing forward of our lines which fol- 
lowed almost at once upon the adjournment of the CoundL 
The dates of establishment of the eastern chapters do not 
seem to carry out this assertion, but Massachusetts Alpha 
and New Hampshire Alpha were certainly an outgrowth of 
this New York G. A. C. 

The G. A. C. made strong resolutions upon the subject 
of hazing, an epidemic of this odious collie disease having 
recently broken out and all undergraduates were cautioned 
to frown upon the mere suggestion of such practices as were 
becoming common. The settlement of catalogue bills and 
those of the newly issued song-book were attended to and 
the first adjudication of railroad expenses whereby all dele- 
gates were secured from all chapters, was satisfactorily ac- 

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complished. It was provided by fraternity law that where 
local societies were to become chapters of the fraternity, the 
former members of these organizations could upon applica- 
tion be initiated into Phi Kappa Fsi. Honorable dismissals 
from the fraternity were prohibited except through the me- 
dium of the Executive Council. This action was an echo of 
the famous North case. The method of expansion whereby 
an accredited list of desirable colleges is made up and the 
establishment of the chapter subsequently decided by the 
Executive Council, received its strong indorsement and 
practical application at this meeting. At three of 
the six institutions put upon this list there were chap- 
ters established as soon as the Executive Council was 
satisfied that conditions warranted the action. The three 
are Amherst, Dartmouth, and the University of California. 
The banquet of this G. A. C. was superb. The editor of 
The Shield, thus spoke of it in his account of the G. A. C. : 
"It would take an artist to portray the magnificence, the ex- 
quisite finish, the perfection of taste displayed in the banquet 
hall of the Savoy — ^the grand dining-room having been 
turned over to us for banqueting. Mere words cannot prop- 
erly convey to the reader the entrancing scene. The tables 
were beautifully decorated with cut flowers, smilax, candela- 
bra with burning tapers surrounded by vari-colored shades, 
snowy linen and translucent china. The tables were so 
arranged as to give each diner a full view of the speakers 
and a fine general view of the entire assemblage. To the 
credit of the management of the hotel be it said that the 
banquet was served so quietly, so deftly, so quickly, that 
without haste we had come to coffee and cigars before ii 
o'clock — 2l most unusual circumstance.'' 

The underg^duate members of the Executive Council 
elected at this meeting were: President, W. L. M'Corkle; 
Treasurer, W. C. Sproul ; Secretary, W. S. Holden. 



The undergraduate members of the Executive Council 
during the period were: District I — ^H. M. Nichols, New 
York Gamma; District II — ^F. A. Nelson, Virginia Beta; 
District III — ^H. S. Lawrence, Ohio Beta ; District IV — C. P. 
Richardson, Michigan Alpha. The Archons were: District 
I — F. B. Lee, Pennsylvania Iota ; District II — ^F. A. Nelson, 
Virginia Beta; District III — C. H. Beeson, Indiana Alpha; 
District IV — G. Fred. Rush, Michigan Alpha. 

The officers of the G. A. C. were : 

W. M. Thacher, Kansas Alpha; 

F. W. Shumaker, Wisconsin Gamma ; 

W. R. Vance, Virginia Beta ; 

A. E. H. Middleton, District of G>lumbia Alpha; 

J. H. Appel, Pennsylvania Eta ; 

E. P. Bond, Pennsylvania Kappa ; 

H. H. W. Hibschman, Pennsylvania Eta. 

The Cleveland G. A. C. of 1896 was marked for the very 
large attendance both of delegates and visitors. Inasmuch as 
no one has ever succeeded in securing a complete roster of all 
who attend a meeting of this kind, it is not possible to assert 
with confidence that the attendance here was the very best 
known up to the year 1896, but such is believed to have been 
the case. The business of this Council was chiefly of a 
routine character, only two matters being worthy of extended 
mention. For some years, there had been a growing discon- 
tent with the style in which fraternity accounts had been 
kept, and a committee which had been charged with the duty 
of preparing a suitable form made their report at this Coun- 
cil. The report was vigorously discussed, and after a 
few amendments were made, it was adopted. The methods 
then indorsed are those in use at the present time. 
The other matter was the absorption of Rho Kappa Upsilon 
at the University of Wisconsin by Psi Upsilon. This was 
the last act in the dastardly drama of lifting Wisconsin Alpha 


of Phi Kappa Psi. In 1893, the Wisconsin Alpha of Phi 
Kappa Psi, during an aggravated case of swelling of the 
heady had ''resigned" from Phi Kappa Psi by the hari-kari 
route and abetted by prominent members of Psi Upsilon, had 
formed a local organization called Rho Kappa Upsilon. For 
three years this organization had been knocking at the doors 
of Psi Upsilon in vain and Phi Kappa Psi was resting 
secure in the belief that its protests had been heeded, when 
the sudden news came to the fraternity world that one of 
the oldest and presumably one of the most honorable of the 
Greek-letter societies, had brought itself to the low level of 
guerilla warfare and had accepted the snobs from the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. The better part of one session of the 
Qeveland meeting was devoted to relieving our minds and 
at the conclusion of the discussion, a set of stinging resolu- 
tions were adopted and sent abroad to the fraternity world. 

During this biennium the following sets of Archons had 
served the fraternity : District I — ^H. A. Mackey, Pennsyl- 
vania Theta; District II — W. S. Baer, Maryland Alpha; 
District III — Orra E. Monnette, Ohio Alpha ; District IV — 
E. S. Buchan, Kansas Alpha. Before the meeting of the 
Executive Council, in 1897, all of the Archons except Baer 
had been changed and the new roster had the following 
names : District I — Guy H. Hubbard, New York Zeta ; Dis- 
trict III — George B. Lockwood, Indiana Alpha; District IV 
— ^F. W. Shumaker, Wisconsin Gamma. Later, Bro. Shu- 
maker was succeeded by M. O. Mouat, of the same chapter. 

The undergraduate members of the Executive Council 
were: District I — G. C. Hamilton, New York Alpha; Dis- 
trict II— W. R. Vance, Virginia Beta ; District III— Orra E. 
Monnette, Ohio Alpha ; District IV — ^H. C. Howard, Illinois 

The Council was remarkable in having all of the chapters 
represented, a fine comment upon the wisdom of pro-rating 


the railway expenses of delegates which had been, after much 
misgiving, adopted as the fixed policy of the fraternity. And 
this Council was the first in which every chapter was repre- 
sented since 1856. The officers of the Executive G>uncil 
elected at this meeting were as follows: President, W. L. 
M'Corkle, Virginia Beta; Treasurer, George B. Baker, In- 
diana Alpha ; Secretary, W. S. Holden, Michigan Alpha. 

The officers who had the G. A. C. in charge were : 

W. C. Wilson, Pennsylvania Beta; 

L. V. Buskirk, Indiana Beta; 

M. L. Alden, District of Columbia Alpha; 

L. R. Stewart, Ohio Delta ; 

J. H. Clothier, Pennsylvania Kappa; 

H. E. Congdon, Illinois Alpha. 

No meeting of Phi Kappa Psi since the memorable meet- 
ing in 1886, is comparable with that which met in Philadel- 
phia in April, 1898. The constitution adopted in 1886 had 
shown in use some weaknesses which it was desired to 
correct. The committee charged with the work of revision 
had done a most workmanlike job, and when the chairman, 
Henry Pegram, New York Delta, had finished making his 
report the members of the Council broke into spontaneous 
applause, so convinced were they that the work had been 
done with remarkable skill and fidelity. The chief merit in 
the work of this committee, one is tempted to say of Bro. 
Pegram, lies not in its revolutionary character, but in its 
filling out in fuller form the rather tentative judicial outline 
of the new constitution and in so codifying the general in- 
strument that it 'might make a full, complete, and perfect 
body of law. 

The revised constitution divided the fraternity into five 
districts, arranged for the choice of editor of The Shield^ 
by the Executive Council, provided for a new officer, Vice- 
President, and provided for guaranteed salaries for Secretary^ 


Treasurer, and Editor. The Council, besides adopting this 
revision of the constitution, accepted the report of the stand- 
ing committee on ritual which provides a burial service for 
use when desired in the funeral services over a Phi Psi. It is 
a sticking coincidence that the first occasion for its use was 
over the remains of him who had much to do with shaping 
its language and who had written a hymn for insertion in 
the service — ^Dr. Robert Lowry. A new scheme for chapter- 
house building was warmly discussed at this meeting, but 
was not adopted, namely, the establishment of a loan fund 
in the fraternity by whose judicious use chapters might be 
assisted toward procuring homes. A strong resolution was 
adopted prohibiting the loan of the badge of the fraternity 
to any person not a member of the fraternity. While the 
sentiment of Phi Kappa Psi had long been in this direction, 
there had been no law upon the subject. The dignity and 
sanctity of membership it was thought needed protection; 
hence th^ stringent law. Another matter of considerable in- 
terest came before this Council, and that was the providing 
of a membership certificate for each initiate. 

. The of^^cers elected to put the revised constitution into 
eflfect were : President, G. W. Dun, Ohio Delta ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, W. S. Holden, Michigan Alpha; Treasurer, G. B. 
Baker, Indiana Alpha; Secretary, Orra E. Monnette, Ohio 

The undergraduate members of the Executive Council 
during the period were: District I — ^A. C. Snell, Pennsyl- 
vania Iota; District II — W. R. Vance, Virginia Beta; Dis- 
trict III — ^E. H. Knight, Indiana Gamma; District IV — ^W. 
H. Lawrence, Minnesota Beta. The Archons were : District 
I— Guy H. Hubbard, New York Zeta; District II— W. 
Ashby Frankland, District of Columbia Alpha ; District III 
—Lee R. Stewart, Ohio Delta; District IV— Charies B. 
Henderson, California Beta. 


The officers in charge at Philadelphia were : 

W. C. Sproul, Pennsylvania Kappa; 

Orra E. Monnette, Ohio Alpha ; 

J. A. Howard, Illinois Beta ; 

Robert Lowry, Pennsylvania Gamma ; 

Edw. O'Neil, Virginia Beta ; 

G. A. Weidenmeyer, Pennsylvania Theta; 

David Halsted, Jr., Pennsylvania Iota ; 

S. B. Smithy Pennsylvania Beta. 

The G. A. C. of 1900, which met in Columbus, Ohio, is 
of such recent date that were it not for making the record 
complete, no reference need be made to it. Like its imme- 
diate predecessors it was a very busy convention, dealing 
with the routine business of the fraternity's life in a practical, 
forceful way and making little of new history. The attend- 
ance was not large, but was in some ways notable. For ex- 
ample, Michigan Alpha had 18 men present. New York 
Alpha 15, Pennsylvania Kappa 14, while of the latter number 
6 were from the undergraduate ranks. The attendance of 
the chapters of Ohio was of course larger still, but no men- 
tion is made of them in this connection for obvious reasons. 
The features of the Council which in any way render it mem- 
orable, were the changes made in fraternity practice in pro- 
viding for a neat button for pledged men and one for the 
use of alumni, the introduction of a catechism for new mem- 
bers, upon the constitution and the creation of a new officer, 
the Attorney-General. It was very befitting that the first 
brother to fill this new office is the man whose abundant la- 
bors for the new constitution made this office of so much 
importance, Henry Pegram. 

A deep gloom was spread over the Council because of the 
death in the winter of the preceding year of that great- 
hearted Phi Psi and convention-goer, Robert Lowry. His 
^miliar figure, his cheery smile, his eloquent voice were 


greatly missed, and all who had attended previous Councils 
found it hard to realize their own and the fraternity's loss. 

Two other facts render the Columbus Council memorable 
— ^the successful canying out a fraternity-ball attended by 
the swell society ladies of Ohio's capital, and the report of 
the treasurer showing that Phi Kappa Psi had in its ex- 
chequer $3,000. Of the former event it is well to say a word 
more. It seems almost incredible that so elaborate a func- 
tion as a social ball could be successfully engineered when 
the male guests were, of necessity, practically strangers to 
nearly all the ladies present. So far as is known, this affair 
is the first of its kind for Phi Kappa Psi, and is to be ac- 
counted for only upon this fact — ^the membership of Ohio 
Delta has from the beginning of its history been chiefly 
made up from the members of the leading families of Colum- 
bus, who, as students, attended the Ohio State University. 
Thus it came to pass that the most exclusive people of Co- 
lumbus were patrons of a social affair which is certainly un- 
usual in college-fraternity circles. Concerning the flatter- 
ing financial report of the treasurer, it is well to remind the 
fraternity of the time in 1857 when the parent chapter was 
embarrassed over a debt of $3.8734. 

The revised constitution made no change more beneficial 
than the one which provided that the undergraduate members 
of the Executive Council should also be Archons of the re- 
spective districts which they represented in the Council. 
The confusion incident to the other arrangement, whereby a 
member of the Executive Council went out of ofiice before he 
&irly became inducted into his work, was in large measure 
obviated by the new arrangement. The fact that their du- 
ties were enlarged by the supervision entailed in the Archon- 
ship, brought the members of the Executive Council to their 
meetings well-informed rather than ill-informed as hereto- 
fore. However, the Spanish-American war made sad in- 


roads upon the working forces of Phi Kappa Psi and many 
changes in membership in the Execative Council are to be 
noted in the period included in this G. A. C 

The undergraduate members of the Executive G>uncil at 
the banning of operations under the revised constitution 
were: District I — ^A. C. Snell, Pennsylvania Iota; District 11 
— G. H. Hubbard, New York Zeta; District IH— W. R. 
Vance, Virginia Beta; District IV — ^E. H. Knight, Indiana 
Gamma; District V — Chas. B. Henderson, California Beta. 
In September, 1898, Bro. Henderson was succeeded by G. C. 
Shedd, of Nebraska Alpha; Bro. Vance, in November, by 
Don Preston Peters, of Virginia Alpha; In January, 1899, 
Bro. Snell, by G. Livingston Bayard, Pennsylvania Gamma. 
At the District Councils of April, 1899, ^^^ following were 
chosen to serve as Archons and undergraduate members of 
the Executive Council: District I — G. L. Bayard, Pennsyl- 
vania Gamma; District II — ^Frank Eurich, Jr., New York 
Alpha; District III — ^Don Preston Peters, Virginia Alpha; 
District IV — ^J. L. Raymond, Illinois Alpha; District V — 
G. C. Shedd, Nebraska Alpha. 

In April, 1901, at the last District Councils, the following 
choices were made for these offices : District I — S. R. Zim- 
merman, Pennsylvania Eta; District II — ^A. W. Towne, 
Massachusetts Alpha ; District III — G. B. Miller, West Vir- 
ginia Alpha; District IV — ^H. K. Crafts, Michigan Alpha; 
District V — ^J. T. S. Lyle, Wisconsin Alpha. 

The following were the officers of the 1900 G. A. C. : 

George Smart, Ohio Delta ; 

E. Lawrence Fell, Pennsylvania Kappa; 

H. K. Crafts, Michigan Alpha ; 

C. G. Cunningham, Ohio Delta ; 

P. C. Denniston, Pennsylvania Iota ; 

E. G. Carpenter, Ohio Alpha; 

H. T. Scudder, New York Gamma ; 


W. T. Cline, Pennsylvania JZeta ; 

W. C. Morrdl, New York Gamma. 

The Columbus G. A. C elected the following officers of 
the fraternity : President, E. M. Stires, Virginia Alpha ; Vice- 
President, E. Lawrence Fell, Pennsylvania Kappa; Secre- 
tary, Orra E. Monnette, Ohio Alpha; Treasurer, C. F. M. 
Niles, Ohio Ganmia. 

And so ends the long record of the G. A. C.'s of Phi Kappa 
Psi, redolent with the incense of loyal devotion to friend- 
ship's sacred cause, all too brief to properly portray the 
work and character of those generations of our beloved 
fraternity whose sacrifices and whose devotion we can 
scarcely hope to equal, but into whose labors we have entered, 
as to a rich inheritance. May the record of the future show 
as high devotion to principle and as unselfish regard for all 
things pure and high I 


When the pulsings of the new life were coursing 
through the veins of Phi Kappa Psi, giving promise 
of the great things to come, a few Phi Psis happened 
to meet at Lake Chautauqua one summer, the summer 
of 1879. Their pleasure in learning to know each other 
brought out the suggestion that the popular resort upor* the 
shore of the beautiful New York lake would make a typical 
meeting-place for a fraternity reunion. It so happened that 
several members of Pennsylvania Beta had official connec- 
tion with the Chautauqua Assembly, and were more likely 
to make efiicient committeemen, and in consequence, two 
members of that chapter, "Billy" Wilson included, with one 
from Pennsylvania Theta, issued a call for a Phi Psi reunion 
in August, 1880. 

The purpose of the projectors of the reunion scheme was 
to so time the reunion that it would occur during the As- 


sembly, and by that means to get public recognition through 
the placing upon the program of some distinguished Phi Psi. 
The success of this part of the plan was very much like that 
attending the selection of some distinguished brother as 
orator or poet for the G. A. C. The "distingfuished" are 
somehow chiefly so because of their fervent promises and 
their frequent failures to redeem them. The occasions when 
selected orators or poets have come to time for their duties 
at G. A. C's have been sufficiently rare to constitute genuine 
"modem instances/' and it is greatly to the credit of Phi 
Kappa Psi that it no longer depends upon such adventitious 
aids to secure celebrity. The most notable figure at this 
first real reunion^ was the famous solicitor of the Standard 
Oil Qjmpany, S. C. T. Dodd, of Pennsylvania Alpha, one of 
the earliest members of the fraternity, who, with his wife, 
renewed his youth and made one of the "boys" in genuine 
Phi Psi style. The literary features of this meeting were 
confined to a charming sketch of the early life of the frater- 
nity from the pen of the first Historian of the fraternity, 
D. C. List, of Wheeling, W. Va. The social features of 
this meeting, the only thing which afforded the least ex- 
cuse for the gathering, were of the highest. These included 
the general commingling of the brothers about the tent which 
had been assigned as Phi Psi headquarters, their private 
excursions together upon the beautiful waters of the lake^ 
and a banquet and hop at Lakewood at the lower end of 
the lake. Aside from die "unattached" who were present, a 
goodly company of twenty-seven couples enjoyed the de- 
lightful lake ride, the banquet, the dancing until the decorous 
rules of the famous Assembly made it necessary to return 
to Chautauqua, proper. Ten chapters were represented, and 
it is doubtful whether any company of Phi Psis of equal 
number ever had so good a time as did those who attended 
this first Phi Psi reunion. 


A very strong effort was made to repeat the success of the 
reunion of 1880 in 1881, but it is not altogether certain 
that the result was comparable to the altogether perfect 
success of the first venture. However, the meeting was 
eminently enjoyable and in point of attendance was a distinct 
advance upon that of the preceding year. The present writer 
presided over the gathering and has very vivid recollec- 
tions of its chief features. Perhaps the thing that impressed 
him and the other brothers present was the intense, almost 
suicidal intellectualism of Chautauqua. It was no place for 
college men to recreate, if by that term diversion from 
mental activity is meant and desired, for the very air breathed 
intellectual labor. So far did this go, that it was difficult 
for those who were present to find a place where a meeting 
might be held for two consecutive hours free from interrup- 
tion. Just as the reminiscential fever was getting the tem- 
perature up to the fusing point, here would come some at- 
tach6 to inform us that the society for this-and-that was 
scheduled for the time and place that we were in. Forthwith 
we went back to the tent and the enthusiasm engendered by 
proximity in a room under cover, free from distraction or 
intrusion, evaporated and we wandered away to individual 

The literary side of the reunion was provided for by the 
appearance before a large general audience on the second day 
of the meeting of Dr. A. A. Willitts as a representative Phi 
Psi, who gave his famous lecture. Sunshine. The brothers 
present were thoroughly aroused to enthusiasm by the pres- 
ence of Judge Moore, one of the founders of the fraternity 
and by the very positive advance in chapter representation 
and in numbers. Sixty were present from sixteen chapters 
and the whole gathering was a decided success from the so- 
cial side. The lake ride and banquet at Lakewood were of 
the very best. Fifty-three couples sat down to the banquet, 


and 80 much had our decorous behavior of the year before 
impressed the management at the Assembly grounds, that 
no restrictions were placed upon our return. In conse- 
quence, the sun was reddening the east before we ''turned 
in'' at our hotels. An account written at the time veradously 
says that Fred. Niles was so overcome by the ''moonlight, 
etc.," that he could not get off the wharf at the Assembly 
grounds, but was carried on to Ma]rville, arriving there at 
5 A. M. As the steamer came up to the dock, he is said 
to have rapturously called to Dan List as the sun came up : 
"Oh, Dan, do come here and see how beautiful the moon- 
light is on the water I'' 

When the "boys'' left Chautauqua in August, i88i, it was 
with firm resolves to return the next summer and to bring a 
big additional crowd with them, but although an efficient 
committee had been selected, the reunion failed to materialize, 
and the few brothers who drifted into Chautauqua during 
August, 1882, felt so lonesome that nothing has been seen 
or heard of the reunion scheme since. It is a pity that this is 
so, for no gatherings of our fraternity have been of more 
value than those two upon the shore of the famous lake. 
The lack of interest in such a meeting is easily accounted for 
in these days of biennial G. A. C.'s and D. C.'s, but no doubt 
a reunion of Phi Psis at some convenient place in the sum- 
mer, for purely social enjo)rment and for the fostering of a 
wider acquaintance, would be not only pleasurable but 


C. F. M. Nlles. 

J. F. KiNKADE. C. L. Van Cleve. D. C. List. 

G. B. LocKWooD. 



^P^ HERE are not so many publications bearing the image 
^^ and superscription of Phi Kappa Psi that the writing 
of a history of them would be a serious task from 
the body of matter to be passed in review ; in fact, the very 
lack of material is the chief source of the Historian's em- 
barrassment. No pleasure can arise to a chronicler who de- 
sires to be circumstantial and authentic in guessing at his 
presumed fact^, or in drawing, from fugitive references 
here and there to publications of which he can get no trace, 
inferences as to what these same books and pamphlets have 
been like. Hence, this chapter is to be confined in good 
measure to an account of the rise, fall, and resuscitation of 
Phi Kappa Psi's periodical literature. 

First in point of importance may be mentioned the cata- 
logue. In the days of Tom Campbell, that worthy enthusiast 
had a scheme whereby each member was to receive upon 
initiation a symbolic Greek letter or numeral by which he 
was to be known, and by which he was to be recognized in all 
correspondence. Furious debates over the merits and de- 
merits of this scheme occupied much time in the early days of 
the fraternity, and defoice of his symbolism occupied much 
of the pages of his voluminous correspondence. But even 
Tom Campbell's oithusiasm was not proof against rapidly 
increasing numbers, and so, after about eight years of trial, 
the cruel hand of ''innocuous desuetude'' made a final disposi- 
tion of this occult scheme. The last entry under this system 
of nomenclature bears date of January 26th, 1861. 

The first catalogue of the fraternity was made by Penn- 



sylvania Alpha, and is in manuscript, being contained in a 
large record book. It is a crude affair, but was wisely and 
largely planned. Had the Civil War not interrupted all 
fraternity activities, much valuable history and invaluable 
records might have been made for our instruction of the 
present day by the famous enthusiasts of the days of the 

The next catalogue was a printed one and was issued 
under the supervision of Virginia Alpha when Grand Chap- 
ter. It was not a formidable affair since its cost was but 
fifty cents, but it served its purpose well in recording the 
names and homes of the various brothers. With refreshing 
confidence in the financial possibilities of the small organiza- 
tion, the G. C. made no provision for the payment of the 
printer, and assessed a tax of fifty cents per member after 

The third catalogue was provided for by Pennsylvania 
Zeta when it was G. C. So far as can be ascertained from 
voluminous reading of minute books, no catalogue was is- 
sued by the fraternity from i860 until the regular time for 
the issuance of what was meant to be a decennial publication 
by its projectors. The 1870 volume, for its day, was a fine 
affair. It is a large duodecimo, printed in precisely the same 
style as the 1880 catalogue (that issued by Pennsylvania 
Theta), with a handsome frontispiece and full gilt edges. It 
contains 226 pages, and besides the usual array of names 
and post-ofiice addresses, it contains a good index. It 
registered the names and addresses of 1,848 members. The 
committee of publication was : T. A. Snively, T. J. Hunter, 
J. F. Williams, J. M. Belford, J. P. Gross, J. L. Shelley. 

The Historian has very vivid recollections of the prepara- 
tion of the next, or fourth catalogue, for as is elsewhere 
stated, within a very brief time after his initiation into Phi 
Kappa Psi he was put by the G. C. upon a committee to pre- 
pare and publish a new catalogue. This catalogue was a 


poor affair both as to its appearance and accuracy. The 
G. C. which succeeded Ohio Alpha, Pennsylvania Theta, 
very righteously ordered these volumes destroyed and set 
to work to compile a new one. The Historian has not the 
poor satisfaction of possessing a volume of the nondescript. 
The G. C. published the new volume under date of 1880, 
although it did not appear until some considerable time later 
than this, presuming that the fraternity would be glad to 
forget that a catalogue bearing the same imprint had ap- 
peared before. 

The "really" 1880 catalogue was a very creditable affair. 
It was well printed, well bound, tastefully illustrated, and 
compact. It contained 346 pages, but was nothing more 
than a catalogue of names of members with their post-office 
addresses. Here and there a brief statement was made as 
to members' rank or title, but aside from their present occu- 
pation, no effort was made to present in epitome the history 
of the member's career since leaving college or while in it. 
It contained 3,536 names. The committee of Pennsylvania 
Theta who had this work in charge was composed of E. L. 
Scott, M. M. Gibson, and W. G. Wells. 

The truly colossal work for Phi Kappa Psi in the cata- 
logue line is the great volume which the indefatigable Smart 
presented in 1894. The committee who were to get this 
book out, George Smart, W. E. M'Lennan, W. A. Eckles, 
and Qinton Gage, had the good sense to see that a work of 
this sort cannot be done in committee, that the very ex- 
pertness required to chase down a list of thousands of 
names, is not to be acquired by all, but by one. And be- 
cause of their wise discretion, George Smart did practically 
the whole work of collecting the data, of arranging and 
classifying them, and then of verifying them. The book 
contains but 416 pages, but in the matter compiled it is the 
oiily effective catalogue the fraternity has ever had. The 
information in many cases is inaccurate, but when it is under- 


Stood that 5,682 names were included, that varioos tables 
were added giving city addresses, relationships, and occupa- 
tions, the wonder is that there are not more. The fraternity 
is badly in need of another and more modem volume, which 
perhaps may be presented to the G. A. C. as a semi-centennial 
offering of fidelity and fraternity enthusiasm."^ This cata- 
logue is really the sixth, the fifth printed one, and should 
the fraternity desire to forget that ^'Kappi" edition, it is 
only the fourth of the printed issues. The G. C. "edicted" 
in 1876 that a catalogue should be issued in 1877, in 1890, 
and every five years thereafter, but the catalogues here 
named are all that have ever appeared. 

Phi Kappa Psi has had some in its ranks who have culti- 
vated the muses, and so there is a brief record of music and 
song. The first mention the Historian has found of musical 
publications by the members of the fraternity is from Mis- 
souri Alpha, in its day one of the very strongest chapters 
that Phi Kappa Psi has had. In 1874 this enterprising chap- 
ter issued a waltz and a mazurka which the other chapters 
were asked to assist in circulating. The author or authors 
are to the writer unknown. 

In 1874, Wilbur F. Gordy, who has since become dis- 
tinguished as an author of school text-books, wrote a Brown- 
ing Schottische, which the members of his chapter, Pennsyl- 
vania Zeta, thought so well of that they urged its purchase 
upon the fraternity in terms of extreme laudation. In 188O9 
Bro. Ed. Raff, of Ohio Gamma, published some bright 
waltzes, which he named Phi Kappa Psi in honor of the 
fraternity. He later published a number of pretty things 
which had quite a nm in their day. 

In 1894, Bro. Rob. Hiller, of Ohio Beta, published the 
Phi Kappa Psi Gavotte, a very catchy piece of music which 

*A8 these pages go to press the seventh catalogue is in type 
and will soon be published. 


has not had the wide circulation which its merit deserves. 
In the late eighties, an earnest enthusiast of Indiana Alpha, 
E. A. Daumont, published a very lively march which he gave 
his own name to, Evmond March, but which he dedicated to 
his old chapter. At about this time Bro. Daumont, who was 
connected with a large music publishing house, persuaded 
one of his musical friends, not a college man, to write some 
music for the fraternity, and the result was the well-known 
and popular Phi Kappa Psi Waltzes and the Phi Kappa 
Psi March. In 1899, Bro. F. H. Robertson, of Kansas 
Alpha, issued the very popular Phi Kappa Psi Two-Step 
which has had a wide sale. 

It is not designed in this chapter to make any account of 
the work either musical or literary of the many Phi Psis 
who have issued songs, music, or literary matter upon other 
than Phi Psi themes, for the list would look like a catalogue 
of names^ and lose, therefore^ any distinction which otherwise 
it might have. The same restriction applies of necessity to 
songs and fugitive verse of Phi Psis upon fraternity topics, 
although some very clever literary work has been done of 
this sort, particularly by Orville E. Watson, Ohio Alpha. 
The best of the song material will find its way into another 
Phi Psi publication, the Song Book, or has already found 
its way there. Some day, if the way opens and the scheme 
commends itself to the fraternity, there may be compiled and 
edited a volume which shall bear the title Phi Psi Verse. 
Such a volume ought to have a wide sale and there is enough 
good material of bom-and-bred Phi Psis to make a very 
creditable showing. 

The next Phi Psi publication which deserves extoided 
mention is the Song Book. This publication, like so many 
other Phi Psi enterprises, had a long, long history, and for 
the same reason that all fraternity enterprises languish, a 
fatal disposition to think that all that is necessary to get 


a piece of fraternity work done is to appoint a committee. 
This is the least of all the things needful. Men have eaten 
their hearts out in loyal effort for Phi Kappa Psi and for 
organizations like it, because they could not accomplish 
the work to which they had set their hands from lack of 
funds. It is a never-ceasing cause of gratulation for our 
fraternity that the new order of government is based upon 
sound business principles and there is in it now a rigid 
practice of "no pay, no cure." 

Many fugitive attempts at a song book were made, and 
several chapters of the fraternity issued pamphlets of their 
own, but the first adequate attempt to do a work of the en- 
during sort for Phi Kappa Psi was made by two members 
of old Illinois Beta, Lucius Weinschenk and Robins S. Mott. 
These brothers went to work vigorously and enthusiastically, 
but after much earnest toil they went down upon the same 
rock which wrecked The Shield when two enthusiastic 
brothers sacrificed their own time and money upon that pub- 
lication, namely, "unofficial." These loyal Phi Psis bore 
their defeat and rebuff like gentlemen, and so the Song Book 
enterprise was delayed. This effort of the brothers men- 
tioned, lasted through 1883-1885. The next serious work in 
the cause of Phi Psi melody was done as the result of official 
action taken by the G. A. C. of 1888. The Executive Coun- 
cil appointed a Song Book committee consisting of Robert 
Lowry, Pennsylvania Gamma; E. M. Van Cleve, Ohio 
Alpha; Lincoln M. Coy, Illinois Beta; E. A. Daumont, 
Indiana Alpha ; and F. C. Bray, Pennsylvania Beta. Before 
the work was completed, Bro. Daumont retired from the 
committee and the work was done by the remaining members, 
—or should it be said by the remaining member? — for it was 
the dogged pertinacity and business standing of Bro. Lowry 
which enabled the Song Book to see the light of day in 
December, 1893. It is popular to criticise the book, but it 


is the judgment of the Historian, who has had a pretty 
wide and long acquaintance with college affairs, that it is 
the neatest and most characteristic work of its kind up to the 
date of its appearance. The songs are said to be too hard to 
sing, but when these have been properly prepared they 
are catchy and stirring. The book ought to be used more, 
and the songs used regularly at all Phi Psi gatherings, es- 
pecially at G. A. C's. 

The "swellest" publication, if such it may be called, of Phi 
Kappa Psi is the newly-issued Book of Constitutions. Little 
need be said of this work other than to say that the fraternity 
began to talk about printing the constitution in i860 and 
the discussion continued through the years until at last 
through the authorization of the 1898 G. A. C, the Ex- 
ecutive Council appointed the Secretary of the Council 
and the Historian a special committee to get this work 
done, and it was finished and put into the hands of the fra- 
ternity in 1900. 

No publication of the fraternity can rival The Shield in in- 
terest or in real worth to the daily life of the membership, 
that child of many prayers and tears and words emphatic, 
but none too polite. The Historian is one of the very few 
who own a complete file of this valuable journal, but like 
the Dutch jumper in "Knickerbocker," before we can get a 
good start for a proper discussion of The Shield, it will be 
necessary to speak a word or two of its predecessors. The 
Phi Kappa Psi Monthly and The Phi Kappa Psi Quarterly. 
In this account of fraternity publications no mention is made 
of the fugitive chapter papers or annual letters which are of 
too personal a character to be commented upon. It is not, 
perhaps, best either to more than mention the fact that sev- 
eral chapters, notably Pennsylvania Alpha, issued for years a 
fine compilation of literary miscellany and chapter gossip in 
manuscript, which, while invaluable to the Historian, had 


little in them of general interest beyond the side-lights 
thrown upon the early history of the fraternity, and are 
therefore not to be much exploited in a work of this char- 

The first real fraternity journal was The Phi Kappa Psi 
Monthly, the first issue of which appeared in October, 
1875, and continued through nine numbers. It was a four 
page quarto, in newspaper form, and occasionally issued 
a one-page supplement additional. It was edited and pub- 
lished by Geo. U. Porter, of Pennsylvania Epsilon, in Balti- 
more, Md. Bro. Porter was a printer by trade and adven- 
tured upon the troublous sea of fraternity journalism with 
the sustained enthusiasm of a man who knew the business 
of printing and who knew that if the worst came to the worst 
in financial support, he could set the t3rpe, make up the 
forms, and run them through the press with no aid from 
mortal soul. In the b^;inning, Bro. Porter naturally sought 
the support of the official head of the fraternity in the person 
of the Grand Chapter, and in the first issue we find an au- 
thoritative statement, signed by all the officers of that body, 
sanctioning the enterprise. It was not long until cause for 
friction arose. Those who have read thus far in this ac- 
count of our fraternity life may recall what was said in a 
previous chapter of the inefficiency of the Grand Chapter 
system, and of the peculiar reasons which hedged up the 
way of success in this capacity of the Ohio Alpha chapter. 
Bro. Porter seems to have been an impulsive, active, enthusi- 
astic fellow whom the dilatory tactics and unbusinesslike 
methods common to collie boys, exasperated in a high de- 
gree. In a short time gentle criticisms of the Grand Chapter 
began to appear in the Monthly, and then caustic ones, until 
there was an open breach between publisher and Grand 
Chapter. That there was cause for this feeling there is no 
doubt. With the Grand Chapter the case might be stated 


thus: An enthusiastic brother/ knowing the need of the 
fraternity for a means of regular communication, generously 
undertakes, at his own charges, to get out a monthly journal 
devoted to the interests of the fraternity. He asks for and 
obtains the indorsement of the Grand Chapter for his enter- 
prise which from its inception has the sanction of the highest 
executive authority in the fraternity. The chapters fail to 
respond to the urgent appeals for aid in securing subscrip- 
tions. The enterprise languishes. The disappointed editor 
and publisher in his "official" organ criticises the body 
through which its official status is secured because in reply 
to his repeated requests they do not secure from the chapters 
that which he thinks he ought to have and which they have 
no authority to demand. 

The case from the other side stands somewhat thus : For 
years Phi Kappa Psi has suffered for lack of frequent inter- 
communication between the chapters. The G. C. methods 
of disseminating information are cumbersome, fragmentary, 
infrequent, and largely demands for dues or requests to 
vote upon petitions for new charters. One of the young en- 
thusiasts of the fraternity who has practical knowledge of 
the printing business, undertakes, with no hope or expecta- 
tion of reward to issue a paper which will supply this long- 
felt need. He issues his paper, redeems every promise he 
made to his subscribers, asks the body through whom alone 
sanction for such an enterprise can be secured for support, 
and a vigorous supplementing of his personal efforts to 
secure subscribers, and instead of support he receives silence. 
Hearing from several chapters complaints of the dilatoriness 
of the C C, he inserts a mild inquiry in the Monthly as to 
whether that august body is not asleep or dead. For his 
pains he gets a communication from the G. C. censuring him 
for the publishing of the criticisms, and insisting that he say 
to the fraternity world through their resolutions, that the 


G. C had no other relation to the enterprise than any single 
chapter, unofficial, might have. Publication of this resolu- 
tion was made and only failed of ruining the enterprise be- 
cause it was already lost. 

The rights of the controversy were with neither party 
wholly, nor were the wrongs confined to one side. As hap- 
pens so often in affairs of sentiment, the enthusiasm of the 
promoter obscured the judgment of the publisher. And with 
the official body, the natural prudence which prevents one 
from doing in a fiduciary capacity what one would gladly 
assume to do in an individual one, made a refusal to stand 
behind a problematical enterprise not only wise, but neces- 

That a reader of this generation may understand how far 
we have come in a quarter-century, let it be here recorded 
that after an urgent appeal from editor and G. C, there 
were reported from eight chapters, representing a member- 
ship of about one hundred, only three subscribers to the 
Monthly, and that, too, after four issues had demonstrated 
the ability of the publisher to keep his word. 

Nine issues of the Monthly were sent forth, beginning in 
October, 1875, and ending in June, 1876, with a double final 
number. The aims of the editor seem to have been literarv, 
and such seemed to be the feeling of the fraternity as evi- 
denced in the action of the G. A. C. in July, 1876, in ordering 
the trial under "real" official auspices of a new journal to be 
called Phi Kappa Psi Quarterly. The attempt to be' literary 
may have had somewhat to do with the failure of the enter- 
prise of publishing both the Monthly and the Quarterly, but 
the fundamental cause was that Phi Kappa Psi did not 
really want a journal badly enough to do the one thing need- 
ful, which was to pay the bills for its publication. There has 
never been any lack of enthusiastic brothers to do the fra- 
ternity's work when the fraternity was ready and willing to 


secure the worker against loss of money as well as of time 
and heart. 

The articles in the Monthly, aside from sporadic chapter 
letters and a chapter history or two, were jejune and trivial. 
Not infrequently a whole column or even more space would 
be devoted to a clipping from some art or literary journal, 
and the warrantable inference is that the printer was clamor- 
ous for "copy," and as that of a suitable sort was not to be 
had, "filling" must be substituted. The most notable article 
in the entire volume was a very readable and reasonably au- 
thentic history of the Pennsylvania Alpha chapter, from the 
pen of J. I. Brownson. 

The G. A. C. of 1876 was a howling farce so far as work 
goes. If business was impossible at the first G. A. C., ac- 
cording to the testimony of Bro. Keady, because there was 
no time for business between drinks, so also there was no 
leisure to the tired delegates between visits to the Centen- 
nial to do much more than shake hands and go to bed. In 
one of the short intervals of sanity which came to the men 
sent to Philadelphia ostensibly to do the fraternity's work, a 
most characteristic piece of fraternity legislation was enacted. 
The G. A.C. was instructed to get out a "truly" official organ, 
and these are its instructions : "Its character shall be literary 
and it shall be devoted to the immediate interests of the fra*: 
temity." The G. A. C. "instructed" and adjourned. The 
G. C. took up the task loyally as instructed. If there had 
been any real ground for criticism before, there was none 
now upon the G. C. for activity or zeal in furthering the 
work committed to it. Such earnest and searching ap- 
peals to the fraternity to rally to the support of their organ 
it would be hard to duplicate in behalf of any fraternal 
enterprise. The wonder is that the two brothers who did 
practically all the work, found time for their college duties. 
Bro. Porter, of Monthly fame, was chosen publisher, but he, 


like the burnt child, would have none of the financial re- 
sponsibility unless he had the money in hand before the jour- 
nal came from the press. The Quarterly was to be issued 
from the office of a paper which his father edited, and his 
father, like a wise man of business, told the son that if the 
paper did not pay, the deficit would be taken from his wages. 
After a summer spent in a vain endeavor to float the enter- 
prise, Porter resigned. The G. C. had chosen as Editor-in- 
chief John F. Williams, of Pennsylvania Zeta. His assistants 
were to be E. B. Hay, of District of Columbia Alpha, and 
H. F. Norcross, of Illinois Gamma. There is little evidence 
in the three numbers of the Quarterly which were issued, 
that any of the above-named brothers really worked at the 
task g^ven them. After a fall spent in fruitless effort to get 
the enterprise under way, the G. C. found a former member 
of their own chapter, Ohio Alpha, Jos. E. Stubbs, who was 
at that time the editor and publisher of the Ashland (Ohio) 
Times, to undertake the publication. Bro. Stubbs is now 
President of the University of Nevada, but we venture the 
assertion that neither recalcitrant legislatures nor rebellious 
students give him half the distress of mind which the Phi 
Kappa Psi Quarterly did, in the halcyon days of 1877. The 
Quarterly was an octavo of magazine form, of si:^ty-four 
pages, and true to its prescribed character, it was pain- 
fully, not to say desperately, literary. The old problem of 
paying printer and binder without money was tried again 
and with the same result. In February, 1877, ^^^ ^^^t issue 
appeared, the second in June, 1877, and the third in the fall. 
It is not possible for the present writer to give the exact date 
of this last issue, for the only copy he remembers to have seen 
was a torn one with title page and cover gone. 

The Quarterly faithfully tried to be what the G. A. C. in- 
structed it to be, and its complete success in this direction 
makes it the hardest sort of material to analyze or to describe. 


If the "literature" the three issues contained had been suffi- 
ciently imbued with the "fine frenzy" of the poet or with 
the accurate fidelity of the faithful delver after occult knowl- 
edge, it might be worth while to try to preserve it in the im- 
perishable amber of this history. 

With the founding of The Shield, the modem life of the 
fraternity may be said to have begun, although the proper 
date for the "Renaissance" will, perhaps, be granted to be 
1885, 2tt the Columbus G. A. C, which ordered the rewriting 
of the constitution upon modem lines. 

The Shield, like its prbtotjrpe, the Monthly, was bom of 
individual initiative. Edgar F. Smith, of Pennsylvania Ep- 
silon, and Otis H. Kendall, of Pennsylvania Iota, feeling 
keenly the isolation of the chapters and their consequent in- 
eflFectiveness, began the publication in Philadelphia of a paper 
similar in size and general form to the Monthly, in 1879. 
The story of the stmggles of these brave souls to found upon 
a firm basis a joumal of the fraternity, reads like a romance, 
although there was little of romantic adventure in their 
struggle, unless the hopeless task of "two into one, you 
can't," may be regarded as having in it the seeds of thrilling 

The loyalty of these two brothers to the cause of Phi 
Kappa Psi has never been surpassed. When it is known 
that much of the type of the first volume was_set by the 
founders of The Shield, the fraternity of this generation 
will know "of how much labor it is to found" a fraternity 

The actual circumstances of the founding are best told by 
Bro. Edgar F. Smith, himself, now the distinguished head of 
the department of chemistry in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. In writing to the Historian in reply to inquiries as to 
the actual antecedent circumstances which called The Shield 
into being, he said : "Years ago when the idea of a fraternity 


paper suggested itself to me, I was an instructor here. Re- 
volving the matter in my mind, I started down into the as- 
sembly room of old College Hall, where I knew Bro. Ote 
Kendall was holding a mathematical examination. Ap- 
proaching him, I said : 'Ote, how would it be for us to start a 
paper devoted to Phi Psi interests ?' Gazing thoughtfully at 
me for a moment, he replied : 'What name shall we give it?' 
Nothing suitable suggested itself, and as I walked away, say- 
ing : 'I must catch a train ; I'm off to visit the home folks,' he 
called after : 'Think it over and send me the name on a postal 
card.' All sorts of names came up but I wasn't pleased with 
any one until at last while going to the post office in York 
The Shield suddenly came before me. I wrote this upon 
the blank side of a postal and sent it to Kendall. That name 
suited him and apparently has been agreeable to others." 

The first issue of The Shield came forth in September, 
1879, and from the first it was met with spontaneous en- 
thusiasm and some cash. The fraternity was not yet hungry 
enough for a fraternity organ, but it thought it was. The 
loyal brothers who issued this journal would never tell what 
their deficit was, and as Bro. Kendall is dead, it will be im- 
possible at this time to reimburse both of the first editors for 
what they were actually out of pocket on their venture. 
However, theirs was the pluck to stay by their self-imposed 
task for three years until they had demonstrated to their 
satisfaction that Phi Kappa Psi was only making believe 
when professing to be anxious for a fraternity paper. 

The first and second volumes were printed in the news- 
paper style and contained from four to eight pages each 
month, of well-edited chapter letters, personals, and general 
fraternity news. Little attention was paid to the editorial 
department. From the second number until he became the 
editor himself, the Historian was a frequent contributor to 
The Shield, and it is, perhaps his zeal in this form that made 


him the choice of the first publishing chapter for editor. 
During Volumes II and III, having labored in vain 
to get Bros. Smith and Kendall to write editorial opinions 
upon fraternity themes, and having been invited by them 
to supply the presumed deficiency, the Historian began writ- 
ing editorials and may be fairly called an "editorial writei*" 
on The Shield from the fall of 1880. 

Dr. Smith gave to The Shield its distinctive Phi Psi flavor. 
It was he who sounded the shibboleth : **The Shield for Phi 
Kappa Psi." And through good and ill report this character 
has since been maintained. The reason the first editors de- 
clined to be editorially conspicuous was that it suited their 
modest mood to be incognito, and although for three years 
they bore the burden of a journal "official" only in a perfunc- 
tory sort of way, they never revealed their identity except as 
in the signing and sending of receipts for money received, 
they were inferentially considered to be the "rf«* ex machina" 
It is doubtful whether the revelation of their identity would 
have brought more and stronger support to their cause, but 
many of the staunchest supporters of The Shield thought the 
modesty of the editors unjustified and some frankly told them 
so. But the fact that the two brothers were paying their 
own money out freely to maintain the journal, assuredly gave 
them the right to follow out their notions of what was 
fitting, and to the last they refused to call themselves 
editors or to publish their connection with The Shield. 
However, it was pretty generally understood after the first 
volume had been published who the valiant pair were in the 
circles where their altruism was most felt and appreciated. 

From the first issue, which was set up and printed from a 
lot of worn-out and discarded type, the appearance of The 
Shield improved and the tone of its contents became more 
spirited and interesting. A most notable contribution to 
the history of the fraternity was solicited from one of the 


"Old Boys" and appeared in Volume II. It is repro- 
duced here for reasons explained in the fore- word to Chapter 
Two. In this same volume there appeared some very inter- 
esting bits of history from inactive chapters, and for two of 
them no other account has been capable of introduction in 
this volume, for the most strenuous eflforts of the Historian 
have not suflficed to find a living Phi Psi who could or 
would give him the data needed for the history of these chap- 
ters. The first two volumes of The Shield were published 
monthly throughout the college year, ten numbers appearing 
each year. It was the ability of these brothers to issue a 
monthly number under the embarrassments of their condi- 
tions, that made so many in after years demand the con- 
tinuance of the practice when the fraternity was far better 
able to support the frequent issue. In Volume III an ex- 
periment was tried of issuing The Shield in magazine form in 
small quarto of about thirty pages. This proved to be a 
costly change, for the support of the enterprise was neither 
steady nor abundant, and the cost was largely increased by 
the change of printed form. This volume contained but 
seven numbers, so that by April, 1882, Phi Kappa Psi was 
again without a journal. 

The agitation for a fraternity organ continued and at the 
Pittsburg G. A. C, in February, 1883, a scheme was inaugu- 
rated of making some one chapter responsible for the pub- 
lishing and editing of The Shield, as it was intended the re- 
vived publication should be called. The movement for such 
a plan was upon the initiative of the delegates from the 
Ohio chapters, and as the fraternity had had no experience 
to warrant it in believing that the enterprise would succeed, 
the volunteer movement was officially indorsed. Ohio Beta 
had shown, in the conduct of a lecture course from which 
it had made nearly $1,000, that its members possessed busi- 
ness sagacity and skill and its proposition to stand behind the 


enterprise was gladly accepted. The fact that C. L. Van 
Qeve had been identified with The Shield almost from its 
first number and was known to have done quite considerable 
work in editorial writing both upon it and the journal of his 
college in his undergraduate days, led to his appointment 
as Editor-in-chief. His associates upon the editorial staff 
were A. N. Summers and W. E. Hull, during Volume IV, 
and Bruce Chorpening for Voltune V. The business man- 
agement was confided during the first half of this term to 
J. W. Kiser, E. E. Baker, J. C. Lower, and J. H. Miller. 
The experience of the first year having demonstrated the 
value of concentrated power and responsibility, J. C. Lower 
was the sole business manager during Volume V. 

The success of The Shield was immediate. The paper 
was printed in a tasteful manner and from new type. Its 
form was a small quarto, and Volume IV had eight monthly 
numbers and a double number called 9-10. The policy in- 
augurated by Smith and Kendall was adhered to with a 
strict disregard for the opinions of any but members of Phi 
Kappa Psi. The contents were for the standards of those 
days as high as those of any contemporary and the special 
feature, if any there were, was in the development of the 
editorial department. The Editor of those days and of his 
later incumbency believed that there were certain well-de- 
fined ideas and ideals of Phi Kappa Psi which needed ex- 
pression, and he devoted himself consistently to the exploita- 
tion of these. The other departments of the paper were 
not neglected, but the tone and temper of the two voltunes 
edited under the control and management of Ohio Beta, 
might be fairly characterized as the developed editorial phase 
of Phi Kappa Psi journalism. Because of the time at which 
the G. A. C. met, the volumes of The Shield had beeif 
changed to begin with April, an arrangement which was 
never quite satisfactory, but which persisted for a number 


of years. Volume V was issued from April, 1884, to Jan- 
uary, 1885, inclusive, and thus in this volume there were 
eight numbers. The intention of the management was to 
publish a full volume, but the Kansas Alpha being ambitious 
to try the experiment of being the publishing chapter, the 
Ohio Beta left the issuance of the later numbers go by ; first, 
because its successor was chosen before the February number 
was due and enthusiasm wanes when authority ceases, and 
there was a desire to turn over to the new publishing chapter 
a surplus of money with which to begin business. The latter 
ambition was gratified, and a sum considerably in excess of 
$100 was turned over to Kansas Alpha by Ohio Beta. The 
financial success of The Shield arose quite as much from the 
action of the 1883 G. A. C. in making subscription obligatory 
upon the undergraduate membership and the subscription 
price of $1 per member a chapter tax, as from the business 
skill of the Ohio Beta when publishing chapter. To the 
present generation of Phi Psis it may be a source of interest 
to know that in these elder days, laws would not enforce 
themselves and the fact that $440 was due from chapters 
upon unpaid subscriptions when the transfer was made, 
will read strangely to a generation which has learned that 
to pay fraternity obligations is a sacred duty. 

The Shield, under the management of Kansas Alpha, took 
on a different tone. Breeziness, perhaps characterizes the 
work of E. C. Little, the Editor-in-chief and an aggressive 
assertion of the rights of Phi Kappa Psi was to be found 
in its forceful editorial department. Bro. Little's assistants 
for Volume VI were: J. V. Humphrey, Associate Editor, 
and W. C. Spangler, Business Manager. During Volume 
VII the assistants in editorial work were' F. D. Hutchings 
and C. S. Crane, the business management remaining the 
same. The instructions of the G. A. C. having been to jssue 
The Shield every month during the college year, Bro. Little 


made the enviable record of nine issues in each volume 
which he edited, and this is all the more to his credit because 
he did not believe in the frequent issue, preferring a bi- 
monthly. The record made since leaving college by Bro. 
Little and his distinguished business manager will give the 
reader sufficient ground for faith that during the years of 
their incumbency the interests of Phi Kappa Psi were safe. 
Bro. Little was so aggressive as to often give the impression 
of pugnacity, but no act of his during his editorship can be 
adduced to show that he ever compromised The Shield or 
Phi Kappa Psi by his bold and progressive course. He in- 
troduced two new departments, an exchange department, 
under the caption "Sword and Shield," and one for the free 
expression of opinion by individual members of the frater- 
nity to which he gave the name "The Areopagus." 

Aside from giving attention to chapter letters, editorials, 
news items, and the departments mentioned in the preceding 
paragraph, Bro. Little did invaluable service in working out 
the problems of chapter histories and the history of class 
and other societies of forms somewhat peculiar and unfa- 
miliar to the average collegian. Volumes VI and VII of 
The Shield also contained some very creditable verse from 
Phi Psi pens, and in them was begun the practice of making 
a review and comparative estimate of the college annuals 
of the colleges where Phi Kappa Psi was located. 

The work done upon The Shield up to and including 
Volume VII, had been done as a labor of love by all those 
who had had any connection with the enterprise of fraternity 
journalism, but the high hopes raised by the adoption of a 
new and centralized form of government, led the delegates 
at the G. A. C. of 1886, under the leadership of Bro. Little, 
to try the plan of putting the entire management and editor- 
ship into the hands of one person, who should receive for the 
labor thus entailed, adequate compensation. 


The chivalrous spirit of the forceful Kansan led to the 
nomination and election of C. L. Van Qeve to be the first 
salaried editor, and for the long years from 1886 to 1893 he 
continued to serve Phi Kappa Psi in that capacity. There 
is little that need be said of this second experience of him 
who had become, by dint of his long experience, the veteran 
editor of fraternity journalism. The same policy of stick- 
ing strictly to Phi Kappa Psi business, brought forth sar- 
castic and not altogether good humored conmient from his 
coadjutors of the fraternity press, but throughout his long 
incumbency of the office of editor, he saw no good reason 
for changing this policy inaugurated by the distinguished 
men who preceded him, and although tempted sometimes to 
give the "retort courteous," he steadfastly kept his face set 
toward the prize of Phi Psi interest and approval, and did not 
wholly fail of his reward. The folly of following in the 
wake of extra-fraternity journalism, which makes much of 
comments of contemporaries, and in justification of the policy 
of Editor Van Qeve and most of his successors, witness the 
following from an editorial in the April, 1891, issue : ''There 
are depths of folly and wide stretches of inanity in these 
comments upon each other which we wish our readers 
might once explore to learn the most potent reason why we 
have never indulged in the practice of flourishing bloodless 
swords in an empty arena. * * * The freshest piece of 
criticism is this: 'In chapter-letters and personals The 
Shield is easily the best journal published, but when these 
are passed by there is little in this journal to commend. 
This issue has the usual supply of concise editorials from 
which we quote, etc' " After a long career of reading the 
journals of other fraternities, the Historian is justified in 
calling the above excerpt a fair sample of the discrimination 
( ?) practiced by those who conducted exchange departments 
in fraternity journals. 





-: < 




/^^>^t^^>c^^^s>^ ^^-^^ 




The policy of Little in conducting "The Areopagus" was 
continued and the annual review of the Annuals was a special 
feature for a number of years of this administration. The 
fraternity seemed to act during these seven years as if the 
man who was to be paid for his work upon The Shield 
should perform practically all of the labor, and the editor 
of that series of volumes from VIII-XIV found it difficult 
to call contributors to his aid other than the regular chapter 
correspondents. However, a few notable articles appeared 
in the seven volumes from other pens, as for example, the 
famous reply of E. C. Little to the ill-balanced article in the 
Century by Porter upon college fraternities, and the fine 
review of Harvard societies by B. M. Allison. 

The policy of paying the editor for his services soon de- 
veloped into a practice of paying a salary if one could be 
paid out of the earnings, and the editor found it difficult to 
keep pace with the demand for an enhanced typography with 
a variable exchequer. In 1890, the policy of printing the 
annual report of the Secretary of the Executive Council in 
The Shield was inaugurated, primarily to divert the sum 
which the printing of the report in pamphlet form would 
cost into The Shield treasury, but experience proved that 
this practice was an innovation readily welcomed by the fra- 
ternity, for the readers of annual reports were multiplied 
many fold by thfe new practice. In October, 1890, the first 
illustration appeared in The Shield. It is indeed a far cry 
from that crude plate of the days when photo-engraving 
was in its infancy to the artistic products of to-day, but it 
is questionable whether the finest eflforts at illustration by 
Rush or Lockwood give them the pure joy which this first 
poor effort afforded their less fortunate predecessor. It 
was very difficult for The Shield to make ends meet with the 
added expense for illustration put upon a journal already 
overloaded with monthly issue, it now possessing the field 


all to itself in this particular. The demand for a monthly 
appearance was acceded to during the whole of the seven 
years of this administration, except during Volume XIV, 
when, by instruction of the Executive Council, the first essay 
of a bi-monthly was tried. During Volume VIII, eleven 
nimibers appeared ; Volumes IX to XII, inclusive, contained 
ten numbers each ; Volume XIII was reduced to nine issues, 
and Volimie XIV to five. 

At the New York G. A. C. in 1892, the temper of the 
fraternity was strong for a return to the monthly appear- 
ance, and the retirement of the veteran Van Cleve afforded 
the privilege of publishing The Shield in a large city, which 
many thought would greatly increase the income of the 
journal through advertising. To this end George Frederick- 
Rush was chosen editor and The Shield was moved to Chi- 
cago. So far as enhancing the value of The Shield as an 
advertising medium, this move was a failure, and the most 
strenuous efforts in that direction by the indefatigable Rush 
brought nothing but disappointment. In other ways the 
change was a beneficent one for the fraternity. In the great 
metropolis of the West, Bro. Rush found an admirable 
printer and a first-class engraver. He made excellent use 
of both. Although the illustrations during Rush's term 
were sometimes a trifle bizarre, the contrast these aiforded, 
together with the chic infused into the literary contents, 
was a welcome relief to the fraternity from the rather 
sombre style of his immediate predecessor. 

The especial attractions in The Shield during these two 
years were, as above indicated, profuse use of illustrations, 
biographies of Phi Psis, and special articles, some of the 
latter being historical, and upon that account very apropos. 
During his second volume. Volume XVI, Rush indulged in 
the luxury of signed editorials after the fashion which pre- 
vailed a few years ago in some quarters among daily news- 


papers. There was no resisting his seductive invitations to 
exploit views in The Shield's editorial department, and 
many a fellow who was in a fair way to be forgotten, was 
rescued through the tactful devices of Editor Rush. In 
Volume XV, there were eight issues, but despite the earnest 
desire of the fraternity to continue the more frequent ap- 
pearance, Rush's ideals were so high that he could not issue 
more than a bi-monthly during the next volume, of which 
there were five numbers. 

At the next G. A. C, Bro. Rush, wearied with the problem 
of finance, stepped aside and W. C. Gretzinger of Pennsyl- 
vania Gamma, took his place. There seemed to be in 
Gretz's administration a partial return, at least, to the ideals 
which had been set by Van Cleve, so far as attention to the 
editorial department was concerned. In addition to this, 
much time and space were devoted to college specials, 
descriptions of college life here and there, the gathering of 
odd fancies of college men, the setting forth of ill-understood 
facts of our own fraternity. The bent toward illustration 
so strongly given by Rush did not straighten out under 
Gretzinger, and The Shield continued to be well supplied 
with good pictures. Volume XVII contained seven num- 
bers, and Volume XVIII, five single and one double number. 
It is to be regretted that the multiplication of his duties in 
the college with which he is connected, prevented Bro. 
Gretzinger from serving more than one term, and his suc- 
cessor, chosen now by the Executive Council, was Frank C. 
Bray, now the versatile editor of the famous magazine, The 
Chautauquan, Bro. Bray brought the fine literary instincts 
of a long training with the Literary Digest with him to The 
Shield, and the flavor of the journal of Phi Kappa Psi bade 
fair to become decidedly fine, but a change of business rela- 
tion compelled his retirement at the end of one volume, 
Volume XIX, of six issues. The Spanish-American war 


pervaded all thinking, and The Shield's pages reflected in a 
striking manner the part which young collegians took in 
that memorable contest. Many articles appeared during 
this year giving in graphic story the part which Phi Kappa 
Psi was playing in the cause of altruism against the bar- 
barous selfishness of an effete civilization and the noble 
martyrs to freedom's cause were given here their apotheosis. 

Upon the retirement of Bray, The Shield, which had been 
published for three years from a Phi Psi establishment, the 
Franklin Printing Company, whose President is our jolly 
Vice-President, returned to the west and appeared from 
the press of a job-printer in Marion, Ind., the editor being 
the present incumbent, George B. Lockwood, "Genial 

It seems supererogatory to speak of the work of the present 
editor, but if this publication is to have merit as history, 
none must be omitted, although his work may not be com- 
pleted. Volume XX contained five single issues and one 
double issue; Volume XXI contained the regulation seven 
numbers, and Vol XXII has now sent forth four of its seven 
numbers. To the work of making The Shield of supreme 
value to Phi Kappa Psi, Bro. Lxxkwood brought the acute 
training of many years' apprenticeship in his father's print- 
ing office, a well-rounded collegiate training, and the superb 
discipline as a government employe, to whom every door in 
official life had its "open sesame." From the beginning it 
was easy to see that Bro. Lockwood intended to make The 
Shield more than a financial success. He intended to make 
it a revenue producer, and, to the amazement of all but him- 
self, he succeeded. There has been a freshness and vigor 
in the work of our present editor which seems to prove that 
in the reincarnation of our journal, the faith of Smith, the 
pertinacity of Van Cleve, the vigor of Little, the sprightli- 
ness of Rush, the business sense of Gretzinger, the literary 


taste of Bray, had all been fused into one superb soul who 
followed no precedents, but who somehow knew how to 
make things "go." 

The device of prizes for the best chapter letters, for the 
Phi Psi scholar, for the largest list of new alumnus sub- 
scribers, was a taking plan to arouse general interest; the 
plan of publishing the names of those who paid their sub- 
scriptions was an admirable way to hint strongly to the dere- 
lict. In addition to these evidences of "hustling" instincts, 
Bro. L. has illustrated finely how his newspaper experience 
has given him a "nose for news." He not only knows what 
news is, but he somehow seems always to get it. While The 
Shield, under the present management, may lack in some 
ways the things which the older generation prized, it is 
undoubtedly true that The Shield is more read than ever 
before, and read to a better purpose. The present tendency 
toward artistic effects is watched with apprehension as well 
as interest by those to whom the journal of Phi Kappa 
Psi has become a classic, it not yet appearing what it 
shall be. 

In the list of fraternity publications there might properly 
be included the many pamphlets giving lists of Minnesota, 
Chicago, Cincinnati, New York, and Philadelphia Phi Psis, 
but the dates of the issuance of these several directories is 
not in all cases given, and on that account no detailed 
mention of these incipient catalogues is made. 

A recent interesting pamphlet has been issued by the 
committee on chapter-houses, and it deserves more than 
passing mention. This committee, under the leadership of 
Brother George Fred. Rush, has made it entirely clear to 
those who are willing to understand and to believe that it 
is possible for every chapter in the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity 
to own and occupy a house. Elsewhere in this volume the 
gist of the committee's arg^iment is set forth, and no further 


mention of this latest clarion-call in Phi Kappa Psi for 
forward movement need here be given. 

So much for Phi Kappa Psi's publications. The list is 
not long, nor is the shelf large which holds them all. And 
yet who is there in the fraternity who has not an honest pride 
in the achievements such as they are ? The present volume 
is to be added to the small list, and no reasonable Phi Psi 
will expect a review here of what this history is and may be 
to the fraternity. It is certain that no fraternity in the 
country has yet issued a volume of such size or appearance 
as is this. The Historian has a modest ambition that it may 
be regarded, too, as the most dignified and complete addition 
to the small number of purely fraternity publications. 


Chapter Histories. 

^^HE long list of inactive chapters whose life history is 
(^^ necessarily here included has made the limits of this 
chapter excessive. No way of securing the adequate 
representation of our fraternity life, so long desired, ap- 
peared, except through curtailment. If this epitomizing 
seems to some of the older and more prosperous chapters 
to be unnecessarily severe, it must be remembered that those 
in authority, charged with the duty of preparing this work, 
have carefully weighed all of the questions involved in the 
insertion of detailed accounts of chapter life, and concluded 
to limit these histories to an average of five hundred words 


Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pa. 

The college is non-sectarian, although the institution 
has, from the time of the old JeflFerson College days, been 
strongly under the influence of the Presbyterian Church. 
Jefferson began its existence in 1802, and the combined 
institutions merged themselves into the present college in 
1869. The college is located at Washington, Pa., has three 
buildings, an annual income of $30,000, confers the degrees 
of A. B., B. S., and A. M., and has an attendance of about 
four hundred students. 

As is elsewhere fully set forth, the Pennsylvania Alpha chapter 
of Phi Kappa Psi was founded by the meeting of C. P. T. Moore 
and Wni. H. Letterman in the room of the latter, it being the upstairs 
second-floor room to the east in the house occupied by Bro. Letter- 
man's mother, in Canonsburg, Pa. The date of this conference was 
February 19th, 1852. Upon the 23d of the same month, Isaac Van 



Meter and James Metzger were added, and later in the year, six 

From the very beginning of its life, Phi Kappa Psi had a rank 
unexcelled by the other fraternities at Jefferson. Many men who 
distinguished themselves in college were among the early members, 
Letterman having been valedictorian of his class and Moore having 
achieved high rank at Union, where he graduated. Moore went to 
Union in the hope of establishing there a chapter of Phi Kappa Psi, 
and having failed in the attempt, was given permission to join 
Delta Phi. The result of this action upon the part of the founder 
was a proposition from Delta Phi for the absorption of the infant 
Phi Kappa Psi. After a stormy debate, the matter was defeated. 
Being dissatisfied with this treatment of the matter, Joseph C. 
Nevin asked for and obtained an honorable dismissal from the 
fraternity. He did not succeed in arousing any outside interest in 
the Delta Phi project and later joined Phi Gamma Delta. The 
agitation for the proposed union with the older and more powerful 
order broke out again with virulence in 1855, but Delta Phi having 
refused to take all alumni of Phi Kappa Psi, while absorbing the 
active membership, led to a refusal of Phi Kappa Psi for further 

The rivalry of the young chapter with Beta Theta Pi and Phi 
Gamma Delta was of the fiercest variety, and the bitterness en- 
gendered often brought on fistic and other encounters. For sev- 
eral years no active efforts were made to establish a chapter at 
Washington College so near by, but the way having opened, on 
Nov. 20th, 1855, a charter was granted to petitioners from there, 
and a little later Pennsylvania Delta was established. The history 
of this chapter is very brief, for the churches which were supporting 
the two institutions having decided that they were better off 
united, overtures began which resulted in the union of the colleges 
in 1865. As is elsewhere explained the combined chapter, now 
called Pennsylvania Alpha, had a hard struggle with untoward 
fate until in 1868 it ceased active life. 

In 1873 the chapter was revived in this wise: John Herron, who 
had been a student at Washington and Jefferson, and who had 
later gone to Lafayette, returned to Washington and Jefferson. At 
Lafayette he had become a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, and 
made strenuous efforts to secure a charter of his fraternity for the 
college of his later choice. He gathered a band of petitioners to- 
gether and tried to secure the coveted charter, believing that Delta 


Kappa Epsilon would willingly revive her chapter at Washington 
and Jefferson. The delay was too much for the petitioners and 
overtures were made to Phi Kappa Psi with the result that Pennsyl- 
vania Alpha was reestablished in 1873, since which time it has held 
fast the traditions of the fathers and in so doing has maintained 
almost unchecked a high rank among the fraternities at Washington 
and Jefferson. 

The combined chapter has had many distinguished men on its 
list of members, among whom may be named: Judge C. P. T. 
Moore, Dr. Wm. H. Letterman, Rev. T. C. Campbell, Rev. W. G. 
Keady, Rev. S. J. NiccoUs, Hon. S. C. T. Dodd, Hon. T. F. Wilson, 
Hon. G. A. Jenks, Gen. H. H. Bingham, Rev. S. D. McConnell, 
Rev. F. H. Wines, Rev. D. H. Greer, and Rev. R. B. Moore. 


University of Virginia, Charlottesville; Va. 

This famous school was established by Thomas Jefferson, 
end was, for its day, so unique that it seemed to be revolu- 
tionary. It was the first institution in America to establish 
the elective system. It has always been without a class 
system, and graduation depended and now depends upon 
proficiency in a certain number of schools, presided over 
by entirely independent faculties, and has no relation to 
the length of time taken for a course. It opened its doors 
to students in 1825, and aside from the interruption of the 
Civil War, it has had a famous history for the maintenance 
of high scholarship and lofty ideals in conduct. The insti- 
tution is under the control of a board of ten visitors, experts 
in the various lines of work pursued by the university. It 
is supported by appropriations from the state and by tuition 
fees. It has about $150,000 annual income, uses fourteen 
buildings, has seven hundred students, and confers the 
following degrees: B. A., B. S., M. A., B. Ph., M. D., B. L., 
C. E., E. E., M. & M. E., Ph. D. No honorary degrees are 

Although the Grand Catalogue gives the date for the establish- 
ment of Virginia Alpha as October, 1853, the records of Penn- 
sylvania Alpha, the only chapter previously existing, under date 
of November 24th, has this minute: "The following petition was 


received from the University of Virginia at Giarlottesville : Ad 
Pennsylvaniam Alpha, Phi Kappa Psi fratemitatis ad coUegiam 
Jeffersoniensem, Salutem in Domino — Nos, universitatis Virginice, 
subscripti discipuli ad hanc academiam, capitem vestri honoriRcen' 
Hssima Fratemitatis; oMciosissime fundare supplicamus. 

''(Signed) C P. T. Moore, student of Law; H. H. dark, student of 
Medicine; C. C J. Asht6n, student of Medicine; £. S. Fugate, 
student of Medicine ; W. A. McCorlde, student of Medicine ; J. S. M. 
Hanger, student of Law; J. Bumgardner, Academic student. 

''On motion, a charter was granted to the students of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, petitioning therefor/' 

This certainly shows that Virginia Alpha could not have been 
established before December, 1853. As there arc no minutes ex- 
tant of the chapter previous to October, 1855, it may be regarded 
as settled that the time of establishment is as here stated. 

The circumstances of the starting of the new chapter are simply 
' these: Having been disappointed in his ambition for Phi Kappa 

Psi and Delta Phi to unite their fortunes, Charles Moore returned 
in fealty to his first love, and having gone to the University of 
Virginia for his professional studies, he early set about gathering 
together a band of petitioners, with the above named result. 

For some reason all of the petitioners are not named as charter 
members and two names not there given are included as such, P. S. 
Bradford and J. A. Jeter. The charter members then may be given 
upon the authority of the historian of the chapter, as Moore, 
Hanger, Bumgardner, Bradford, and Jeter. 

The first initiate was C. C. Wertenbaker and he secured the 
allegiance of James W. Morgan, the most influential student in the 
University. From its inception, Virginia Alpha took the highest 
rank at the University and there has been little time since the 
memorable days of 1853 that it has not held this position. Men 
were chosen largely in the earlier days for their oratorical abilities, 
and the struggle for mastery in literary society circles between Phi 
Kappa Psi and Delta Kappa Epsilon was very fierce. The college 
was practically closed during the Civil War, and of course there was 
no chapter life during this period. In November, 1865, three of 
the old members. Brothers Martin, Carrington, and Wertenbaker, 
met with some students whom they had selected, in the room 
over Roby and Bickel's caf^ and reorganized the chapter, the first 
of the fraternities to do so after the memorable struggle between 
the Southern States and the United States. 


A new policy was inaugurated at this meeting and has for the 
most part since prevailed, of choosing men who would strive most 
vigorously for diplomas. The character of the institution must 
ever be kept in mind. There were and are no classes, and a' man 
who gave promise of winning his degree in the least time was con- 
sidered the choicest material for fraternity life. This policy at times 
worked havoc in the chapter, on occasions almost destroying that 
fine community of interest and sentiment which is the life blood of 
an organization like ours. In recent years there has been a 
good deal of thought directed toward athletic supremacy, and 
in this direction Phi Kappa Psi has had abundant reason to be proud 
of her record. The Greenways, Smith, and others of base-ball and 
foot-ball fame will serve to indicate the prowess of Virginia Alpha 
in athletics. 

The present practice in the chapter of choosing men may be 
roughly summed up as follows: First, inquiry is entered into as to 
the family of the proposed member; second, the standing of the 
school at which he prepared is scrutinized ; third, the appearance and 
behavior of the man himself are studied; fourth, the probable con- 
geniality of the candidate is weighed. 

The list of distinguished men sent forth by Virginia Alpha is a 
long one, — so long in fact that to choose from the number is ex- 
ceedingly difficult. Hon. £. P. C. Lewis, ex-minister to Portugal; 
Boyd Winchester, ex-Congressman and diplomat; Major Robert T. 
Scott, ex-Attomey-General of Virginia; ex-Lieutenant-Govemor of 
Louisiana, D. B. Penn, may fairly represent the members who have 
won place in public life ; Professors W. M. Thornton, R. H. Dabney, 
and C. W. Kent, of University of Virginia; Professors Joseph A. 
Quarles and Venable, of Washington and Lee, and Professor Wood- 
row Wilson, of Princeton, may show what the chapter has done in 
the field of arts and letters. The Ingles, father and son. Dr. James M. 
Rawlings, and Rev. E. M. Stires, for the ministry. Drs. Peter Win- 
ston, H. T. Nelson, and A. W. Greenway, for the medical profession. 
Messrs. J. H. Lewis, R. B. Tunstall, J. S. Jones, L. D. Aylett, and 
Joseph Bryan for the law, and Col. C. C. Wertenbaker, Robert 
Somerville, C. H. Cocke, Howard Winston, Marshall McDonald, J. A. 
Prudhomme, John Massie Martin for varied branches of business 
life, round out a list of men far above the ordinary which might be 
easily triplicated from the roll of this famous old chapter. 


Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va 

This institution is the outgrowth of Washington Academy 
(1782), and was endowed in 1798 by George Washington. 
After the death of General Robert E. Lee, who was Presi- 
dent of the institution from the close of the Civil War until 
his death in 1870, the name was changed to the present 
form. It is non-sectarian, has an annual income of $i5o,ooo, 
has eighteen buildings, a faculty of twenty, and an attend- 
ance of about three hundred. It confers the following de- 
grees : A. B., B. S., C. E., E. E., M. E., B. LL., and Ph. D, 

Phi Kappa Psi was the first fraternity to enter Washington and 
Lee, and was established March 2d, 1855, by C. C Wertenbaker, 
of Virginia Alpha. Before the dose of the first session it had in its 
ranks sixteen of the leading men in the college and sprang at once 
into prominence. The newness of the fraternity idea, the dense 
veil of secrecy drawn about their every action, and the prominence 
of the members excited the greatest curiosity among the faculty and 
students, as to what were the aims and rites of the new organization. 
The faculty looked upon it with suspicion as a possible conspiracy 
against its jealously guarded authority, while the other students were 
watchful to see that the Greeks put into execution no sinister 
designs toward their peace of mind. Nothing, however, occurred to 
justify these suspicions, and they gradually fell away. 

From the beginning of the chapter life, meetings were held weekly 
and were enlivened by the reading of the Mystic Friend, a satirical, 
illustrated paper much enjoyed in each of the three chapters of which 
Phi Kappa Psi then boasted. J. McDowell Graham, the first editor, 
was generally recognized as the most talented man in college. He 
made of the paper a great success, in which he was superbly assisted 
by. A. H. Jackson, caricaturist. The latter was a near relative of 
"Stonewall" Jackson, upon whose staff he afterward served. Young 
Jackson was famous as a mathematician and gave promise of a bril- 
liant career, but he met an untimely death at Cedar Run in 1863. 

Beta Theta Pi appeared at Washington and Lee at the next ses- 
sion, and a strong rivalry immediately arose between it and Phi 
Kappa Psi. The older organization maintained a sure supremacy 
until the time of the opening of the Civil War. The chapter was 


inactive during the years from 1861 to 1865, but at the opening 
of the session in the fall of the latter year, Brothers Harry Estill, 
D. £. Laird, and T. L. Cocke reorganized the chapter. Several other 
societies soon entered the college and the struggle for men of the 
right sort became very spirited. However, the advantage of the 
prestige of the early years of success was with Phi Kappa Psi and it 
maintained the lead for several years after reestablishment. For 
reasons now unknown, the chapter fell into a sad state of decay 
during 1871-2, but it rallied sharply at the next session and kept 
well at the front until 1877. The fortunes of the chapter waned again 
and by 1879 they were at low ebb. For three years no men were 
initiated and during the years from 1881 to 1883 only one man 
represented Phi Kappa Psi at Washington and Lee. In the fall of 
1883, Brother J. W. W. Bias, of blessed memory, came to the 
college from Virginia Gamma and infused life into the moribund 
body. Since the latter date the career of the chapter has been 
fairly prosperous, but the multiplicity of societies in the institu- 
tion makes it very difficult to maintain a vigorous life with the sort 
of men who will be an honor to Phi Kappa Psi. Where more than 
half of all the men in college are fraternity men, the choice of 
material is not based upon very rigorous rules of exclusion. 

Among the men to whom the chapter is proud to point the ini- 
tiate, are the following: C. A. Ballou, Quartermaster-General, 
Confederate States of America; W. T. Poague, legislator and edu- 
cator; Rev. M. H. Houston, Secretary Board of Foreign Missions, 
Presbyterian Church, South; W. A. Frazier and W. B. Winn, 
famous physicians; Thomas Williamson, clerk of 48th Congress; 
Donald Allen, the distinguished railway engineer; J. W. Reley, and 
W. L. McCorkle, eminent lawyers. 

Allegheny College, MEAbviiXE^ Pa. 

Allegheny College was founded in 1815 by Timothy 
Alden and other citizens of Meadville. In 1833 it passed 
into the hands of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and has 
had since then a prosperous career. It is coeducational in 
policy, has a faculty of twelve, occupies four buildings, has 
an annual income of about $25,000, and has somewhat more 
than three hundred students. It confers the degrees of 
A. B., B. L., M. A., and C. E. 


As has been noted in the history of other chapters, the desire to 
extend Phi Kappa Psi was warm in the hearts of the early members 
and it was no unusual thing for a member of the parent chapter 
to change his college in order to establish a new chapter of his 
loved fraternity. This was notably true of the formation of Penn- 
sylvania Beta by "Russ" Kennedy. The institution, after a more or 
less precarious existence, had, in the early fifties, been brought into 
notice as a thriving denominational school and the attention of 
Kennedy was directed to it. His original plans, however, miscarried 
and it was not until he had graduated from Jefferson in 1853, 
that the way opened for the establishment of Pennsylvania Beta. 
Following the example of Moore, who had gone to Union and then 
to University of Virginia to further the cause of Phi Kappa Psi, 
Kennedy, in the spring of 1855, gathered the following men to- 
gether as petitioners for a charter: B. R. Bratt, J. J. McDowell, 
Nelson Green, W. B. Holt, O. S. Long, F. M. Gregg, and W. D. 
Stevens. A charter was granted in July, and upon August 24th, 
Kennedy inducted the petitioners into the mysteries of Phi Kappa 

Ours was the first fraternity to enter Allegheny and from the 
beginning encountered the prejudice which was everywhere felt 
toward the fraternity system. However the choice of men made 
by Kennedy and the chapter later, gave the lie to many of the 
slanders which were current concerning the fraternity idea, and 
the chapter soon was in favor. It is the proud boast of this 
chapter that this sentiment has never died away in Allegheny. 
Phi Gamma Delta entered in i860, Delta Tau Delta in 1861, Phi 
Delta Theta in 1879, stnd Sigma Alpha Epsilon in 1887. 

The first year of the chapter's life was exceedingly prosperous, 
but the graduation of eight of their sixteen members with the class 
of 1856 threw the new organization into the chill of impending 
dissolution. It must not be forgotten that there was as yet in the 
fraternity no strong bond of connectional union, and each chapter 
was pretty nearly to itself so &r as its real life was concerned. 

Faculty hostility, while not open, was always to be reckoned with, 
a significant indication of which is found in this laconic citation 
from the minute book of the chapter in its second year : "Resolved, 
that we adjourn to meet wherever we can, whenever we can — ^pro- 
vided we can." A pathetic minute of the departure of six of the 
chapter for the Union Army is made upon the record for June 6th, 
1861. The names of the gallant company volunteering for the 


«ervice of their country are : Sion B. Smith, George Norris, M. M. 
Pheli», A. C. Pickard, J. L. Chadwick, and Alexander Ashley. 

Pennsylvania Beta has the enviable record of being the oldest 
chapter pi the fraternity in years of continuous existence, there 
never having been a break in its life thread since its organization. 
It has the farther proud record of never having been rent by in- 
ternal dissension. Peace and harmony have ever been the watch- 
words of the chapter and true to the teachings of Phi Kappa Psi, it 
has enjoyed the prosperity consequent upon a consistent life. 

Of the distinguished alumni of Pennsylvania Beta, mention may 
here be made of: Lloyd Lowndes, Governor of Maryland; Judge J. 
W. Philips, of Missouri ; S. G. Brock, Chief of Bureau of Statistics, 
Washington, D. C; R. N. Seaver, President of Equitable Aid 
Union of America ; Professor C. H. Haskins, of University of Wis- 
consin ; Professor F. O. Marvin, of University of Kansas ; Professor 
J. R. Weaver, of DePauw University; H. H. Munn, the historian; 
O. S. Long, Qerk of Supreme Court of Appeals, W. Va.; Henry 
Mansell, the distinguished missionary to India ; W. C. Wilson Gaim 
Agent of the Lackawanna Railway; F. C. Bray, editor of The 
Chautauquan; E. W. Tolerton, attorney Pennsylvania Railroad, 
Toledo, Ohio. 


BucKNELL University, Lewisbubg, Pa. 

The institution was established in 1846, and is ^^ovemed 
by a board of twenty-five trustees. While the institution is 
non-sectarian by act of incorporation, it has been under the 
especial patronage of the Baptist denomination, and has 
returned to the service of the church some of its most 
famous alumni. It has eleven buildings, twenty-eight 
members in the faculty, has assets of more than $800,000, 
an income of more than $50,000, including tuition fees, and 
an attendance of nearly six hundred. It confers the degrees 
of A. B., Ph. B., Sc. B., and A. M. 

Pennsylvania Gamma was established at the University-at-Lewis- 
burgh (now Bucknell University) on the 26th day of June, 1855, the 
third in the line of Pennsylvania chapters and the fifth in the fra- 
ternity. Its institution is due to the fact that George W. 
Chalfant, the secretary of Pennsylvania Alpha, and Lewis Kossuth 
Evans, tiie founder of Pennsylvania Gamma, had been classmates 
at Dunlap's Creek Academy in Fayette County, Pa. Chalfant, 


imbued with the spirit of Phi Kappa Psi, sought converts abroad and 
Evans was an early disciple. From a letter of his among the 
chapter archives, we learn that he was "initiated exclusively by letter, 
perhaps a point in the history of the society without a parallel." 
Afterwards nine others were initiated into the Alpha, and to them 
a charter was granted as the "Gamma Chapter of Pennsylvania." 

The charter members were: Lewis Kossuth Evans, Henry 
Gibbs Gay, William Harrison Richter, Joseph Judson Lane, Joseph 
Gans Burchinal, William Shadrack Wood, William Henry Yerkes, 
Alfred Hayes, Thomas Chamberlin, and James Potter Gregg. 

Chalfant wrote to Evans to "pick out talented fellows, likely to 
take literary honors, moral, social, and popular fellows — ^such fel- 
lows as you would like to have with you, and such as would be an 
honor to any association." With such a standard, success was as- 
sured from the start. 

In 1866, the faculty of the college began a campaign of opposition 
to the Greek-letter societies. As a result many members resigned, 
some voluntarily, others very reluctantly. It was rumored that no 
member of a fraternity would be allowed to graduate at the com- 
mencement of that year. It should go down into history that John 
Armstrong Siner did not resign, and he did graduate. 

Then came the "pledge," at first in a mild form and then iron- 
clad. The alumni protested, and petitions to and conferences with 
the trustees were had, but all to no avail. After some years it was 
concluded that the best interests of the chapter would be served by 
transferring its functions to the graduate members. This was done 
by an edict of the Grand Chapter in 1873 — such action being ratified 
by the Grand Arch Council of 1876 — and in this way the chapter 
was kept alive until 1880. During all of this time meetings of the 
graduates were held annually — z chapter-hall was maintained until 
1877 — ^and an occasional initiation made after graduation. 

So things went on until the administration of the university 
changed, and a more enlightened and liberal policy was adopted. On 
October 8th, 1880, the opportune time having come, there was a re- 
establishment of Pennsylvania Gamma as an active undergraduate 
chapter by the initiation of Ernest L. Tustin, Alexander R. Querns, 
Owen B. Jenkins, Aaron W. Hand, and Henry Madtes. These 
were soon followed with others and Pennsylvania Gamma was 
herself again. 

In 1894, a movement for a chapter-house was started, and Joseph 
Roberts Wood was appointed agent of the project. A lot costing 


nine hundred dollars is now owned by the chapter and a chapter- 
house fund of ^ve hundred dollars is on deposit in a savings fund, 
as a result of the above movement. 

In 1898, an act for the regulation and improvement of fraternities 
was passed by the college faculty whereby no student in Bucknell 
College shall become a member of any college fraternity during the 
first year of his connection with the college as a student and until he 
has completed one full year's work, and provided his conduct has 
been satisfactory. This law, it was first thought, would work disaster 
to the fraternities at Bucknell, but after a trial of three years, it has 
proved very beneficial. 

In 1901, the chapter secured suitable apartments in Lewisburg 
for chapter and residence purposes, until a chapter-house is secured. 

Pennsylvania Gamma has had a large share in the development 
of the fraternity. Charles Spyker Wolfe presided at the Grand 
Arch Council held in Pittsburg in 1865 ; Martin Bell, Jr., presided at 
the Grand Arch Council held at Wheeling, W. Va., in 1871, and 
again at Pittsburg, Pa., in 1883 ; Andrew Albright Leiser presided at 
Philadelphia Grand Arch Council in 1876; Joseph K. Bogert pre- 
sided at Indianapolis Grand Arch Council in 1878; Howard Lin- 
coln Calder was Archon of First District from 1887 to 1889; Rev. 
Robert Lowry, D. D., of honored memory, was poet at the Grand 
Arch Council, Columbus, Ohio, 1885; president of the fraternity 
from 1888 to 1890, and edited the Song Book; William C. Gretz- 
inger was elected editor of The Shield in 1896, and was re-elected 
in 1898 but declined; George L. Bayard was chosen Archon of the 
First District and served two terms. 

In college honors Pennsylvania Gamma has held her own. She 
has had the following valedictorians: Robert Lowry, 1854; Joseph 
Gans Burchinal, 1855; Francis Wayland Tustin, 1856; David Ruth, 
1857; Thomas Chamberlin, 1858; Thomas Philip Coulston, 1859; 
James H. Marr, i860; Adoniram Judson Rowland, 1862; Owen P. 
Eaches, 1863 ; Charles Spyker Wolfe, 1866 ; Andrew Albright Leiser, 
1869; William Thompson Grier, 1871; Ernest Leigh Tustin, 1884; 
Joseph Evans Sagebeer, 1885; William Wilson Kelchner, 1886; and 
as salutatorians, the following: William Henry Backus, 1853; 
Adoniram Judson Furman, 1859; Simon Peter Wolverton, i860; 
William Henry Harrison, 1861; William Hamilton Conard, 1862; 
Charles Albert Stone, 1864; Martin Bell, Jr., 1869; Henry Harmon 
Bliss, 1870; George Morris Philips, 1871; Abraham Lincoln Tustin, 



Among those who have attained distinction in the ministry may be 
named Dr. Joseph Spencer Kennard, Dr, Robert Lowry, Dr. Owen 
P. Baches, Dr. Adoniram J. Rowland, Dr. John Humpstone, Dr. 
Spencer B. Meeser, Dr. Milton G. Evans, Rev. James H. Haslam. 

And in the law: James Merrill Linn; Simon Peter Wolverton; 
George Potter Wilson, Attorney-General of Minnesota, 1874-79; 
William Alexander Marr, Assistant Law Judge Schuylkill County, 
Pa.; Charles Spyker Wolfe; Andrew A. Leiser; Martin Bell, Jr., 
President Judge Blair County, Pa. ; Henry Harmon Bliss ; Howard 
Hammond Baldridge; John I. Mitchell, Judge Superior Court of 

And in politics: Alfred Hayes, Member House Representatives, 
Pa., 1877-78; Simon Peter Wolverton, State Senator, Pa., 1878-80; 
Member of Congress, 1889-91; John I. Mitchell, ex-U. S. Senator 
from Pa.; Charles Spyker Wolfe, Member House Representatives, 
Pa.; William L. Nesbit, Member of House of Representatives of 
Pa.; Howard L. Calder, Member House Representatives, Pa.; 
William Shadrack Shallenberger, Member of 45th, 45th, and 47th 
Congresses, Second Assistant Postmaster-General, U. S. 

Washington College, Washington, Pa 

The history of this chapter is so intimately interwoven 
with that of Pennsylvania Alpha, with which it was united 
upon the revival of the latter chapter in 1873, ^^^^i^ ^^ sep- 
arate account of its work is deemed necessary. 


Hampden-Sidney CoLLiGE, Prince Edward Co.^ Va. 

This institution is the successor of the academy of the" 
same name, incorporated in 1783. It is non-sectarian, has 
three buildings, a faculty of eight, an income of $13,000 
annually, and about one hundred and fifty students. The 
college is governed by a board of twenty-one trustees and 
confers only the B. A. degree. 

On the night of March 20th, 1856, J. W. Morgan, of Virginia 
Alpha, initiated into the fraternity the following charter members of 
Virginia Gamma : T. R. Carrington, J. B. Davis, W. G. Field, R. H. 
Kelso, J. B. McPhail, and T. H. Newman. The latter, however. 

New York Zeta, Suite of Pei 



withdrew from the chapter after the short membership of three 
months, to join a local society. 

In the early days the member; of Virginia Gamma made much 
ado about keeping strictly secret not only the character of their or- 
ganization, but even the time and place of meeting. The seclusion 
of the college afforded the new fraternity ample leisure and relief 
from the distraction of outside sports to cultivate the social graces 
implied in the close association of chapter life. From the very 
beginning, therefore, the boys of this chapter were close friends. 

In 1859, the chapter established The Mystic Tie, after the manner 
of the Mysticus Amicus of Pennsylvania Alpha and other chapters. 
It was made up of poems (?), descriptions of local events, remi- 
niscences by alumni, etc. It forms an invaluable part of the archives 
of the chapter, preserving as it does the genuine flavor of unre- 
stricted revelations of the true life of the fellows who made up 
the chapter. The first editors had large views of its future, for 
in the first issue these words form a part of the salutatory: "We 
hope that our paper shall go on increasing in prosperity until it shall 
not only win the admiration of our little chapter, but shall become 
the organ of the whole fraternity." 

Virginia Gamma was seriously affected by the Civil War. At 
the beginning of* the session of 1862, there were only two members 
present. At the end of the college year, all left and deposited the 
archives with a loyal Phi Psi girl. Miss Mary Wood, with instruc- 
tions that "if the Yankees came along, she must burn them." The 
archives being intact at the time of the surrender of the chapter's 
charter in 1900, it is to be presumed that the armies of the United 
States were not after Phi Psi records. 

The decade from 1866 to 1876 was undoubtedly the golden age of 
the chapter's history, so far as the acquisition of honors goes, for 
during that period hardly a year passed that some Phi Psi did not 
win an honor or carry off an orator's medal. The decadence of the 
institution, however, and the multiplicity of fraternities there com- 
pelled the Executive Council to withdraw the charter of the chapter 
in 1900. 

In the list of the chapter's distinguished men these are noted: 
Major J. B. McPhail, one of the commanders in Pickett *s famous 
brigade; Hon. C. M. Busbee, ex-member of Congress; R. M. Ven- 
able, educator and lawyer ; Professor Addison Hogue, the well-known 
Greek scholar; Professor J. R. Thornton; Rev. P. H. Hoge; Dr. 
Bernard Wolff; Professor Robert Lee Preston. 


Pennsylvania College, Gettysbueg^ Pa. 

The college was founded in 1832 by citizens of Gettys- 
burg, chief of whom was the Rev. S. S. Schmucker. It is 
under the auspices of the English Lutheran Church, and is 
governed by thirty-six trustees, six of whom are alumni. 
The college occupies seven buildings, has a faculty of six- 
teen, an annual income of about $20,000, and has nearly 
three hundred students. It confers the degrees of B. A., 
B. S., and Ph. D. 

On the evening of December 26th, 1855, in a room at the Eagle 
Hotel, J. W, Jenkins, of Pennsylvania Alpha, inducted the follow- 
ing charter members of Pennsylvania Epsilon into the mysteries of 
Phi Kappa Psi : Adam Hoy, G. A. Long, H. W. Kuhns, J. S. Cutter, 
and T. W. Losh. 

This was the pioneer society of this character at the college 
whose authorities had the same prejudice against Greek-letter or- 
ganizations that prevailed in general in college circles in the fifties. 
The places for holding meetings were kept a profound secret and 
the members of the chapter used to sneak stealthily around by back 
streets, down alleys and about, to the place of appointment. No two 
consecutive meetings were held at the same place. An initiate was 
required to take three degrees, one more than during the famous 
r6gime of the Plato and Socrates ceremonies. The advancement of 
a candidate, it is said, was indicated in a manner altogether unique — 
if one degree had been passed by him in safety, he was required 
to wear the right leg of his pantaloons with a single roll in it from 
the bottom, for two degrees a second roll was necessary, and for all 
degrees the turns reached by elevating the garment were three. 

Despite the profound secrecy and eccentricity of the initiations, 
the chapter had a vigorous growth. The ideals at first were literary, 
and almost continuously from its inception the Epsilon chapter 
carried everything before it in the class-room and upon the college 
platform. Experience taught the budding organization the wider, 
truer significance of the fraternity idea, and before many years, 
under the wise guidance of Adam Hoy, who never lost his interest 
in the fraternity, the chapter worked to develop the "all-around" 

In 1858, Phi Gamma Delta entered the college. Later, a number 


of Others of no special significance in this record, for at no time 
during the first twenty years of its life did rivals seriously impair 
the standing of Pennsylvania Epsilon, and while this is not perhaps 
true continuously, it has ever been true in the main. 

As in the southern chapters, the Civil War played sad havoc with 
Pennsylvania Epsilon, twelve privates and three officers in one com- 
pany alone, coming from the ranks of the chapter. The chapter, 
however, maintained its existence and at the conclusion of the 
great struggle, shared with the college the renewed prosperity 
which colleges everywhere experienced in the later sixties. Pennsyl- 
vania Epsilon soon after the advent to college of the bearded "pards" 
of the Civil War, began to feel that its dignity demanded more 
commodious quarters than chance meetings in students' rooms, 
hotels, and college recitation rooms, and, after considerable debate 
upon so radical a measure, finally rented commodious quarters in a 
down-town block, thus setting the example to its rivals. But in- 
creasing prosperity brought newer and larger ideas still. The 
chapter felt that is must own a home of its own. The credit for this 
venturesome project must be accorded to Edgar F. Smith, '74, 
and to H. M. Qabaugh, 'JT. After a long campaign for funds, the 
project finally bore fruit in the beautiful Miller Hall, Epsilon's 
famous lodge. The comer-stone was laid with appropriate cere- 
monies June 28th, 1882, and was soon completed. Inasmuch as 
permission could not be secured for the building of a house in which 
students should room, this structure is simply a lodge for meetings 
and social purposes. It is a monument to the loyal alumni and 
particularly to D. R. Miller, who gave more than half of the entire 
cost of the structure. 

Pennsylvania Epsilon during its campaign for funds for the chap- 
ter-house began the publication of a little paper called The Echo, 
with George D. Gotwald and A. J. Smith as editors. This paper 
appeared with commendable regularity until 1888, when it was 
merged into tht. Annual, which continues to appear. . 

Pennsylvania Epsilon was Grand Chapter from 1884 until the 
putting into effect of the new constitution in September, 1886. 
This chapter was mainly instrumental in founding Pennsylvania 
Iota, New York Delta, and Maryland Alpha. It has the honor of 
furnishing the college with its President. Dr. H. W. McKnight; it 
has six representatives in the Board of Trustees; one of its loyal 
sons, C. H. Graff, founded a chair of Physical Culture and Hygiene, 
another brother, G. D. Stahley, fills it. 


In its later years the chapter has kept pace with the changing 

ideals of American cdlege life and whether it be in the class-room, 

upon the athletic field, upon the rostrum, or in the social world, 

the record made is an enviable one. 
Among its famous members, let the following suffice to show of 

what quality Pennsylvania Epsilon's product consists: D. M. 

Gilbert, church historian; the Gotwalds, father and sons; D. R. 

Miller, the munificent merchant; S. B. Bamitz, Secretary Lutheran 

Home Mission Board; F. £. Beltzhoover, Congressman; W. £. 

Parson, the mathematician ; Drs. S. P. Sadtler, £. F. Smith, and J. K. 

Marshall, the famous chemists of the University of Pennsylvania; 

G. U. Porter, founder of Phi Kappa Psi's first journal; F. A. 

Kurtz, formerly assistant postmaster of Baltimore. 

South Carolina College, Columbia, S. C. 

It is hard to say whether it is best to call this institution 
the University of South Carolina or South Carolina College, 
so many vicissitudes has it experienced and so chameleon- 
like has been its character. It began its career as a college 
in 1805, was used as a hospital by the Confederate armies 
during the Civil War, was re-chartered as the University 
of South Carolina in 1866, again changed, at least so 
far as the part of it at Columbia was concerned, to South 
Carolina College in 1878, back to University of South Caro- 
lina in 1887, and finally rehabilitated as South Carolina 
College in 1890. Its income is dependent upon the appro- 
priations of the legislature, and these are often uncertain. 
The college is governed by nine elective and eight ex-officio 
trustees. It has seven buildings, eleven members in its 
faculty, and has about two hundred students. It confers the 
degrees of A. B., B. L., B. S., B. LL. 

In the spring of 1857, the South Carolina Alpha chapter of Phi 
Kappa Psi was established by Robert Wilson, of Virginia Alpha. 
From the very earliest years of the fraternity, the feasibility of 
establishing a chapter at what was at that time one of the most 
famous institutions in the land, South Carolina College, had been 
discussed. Finally Brother Robert Wilson, of Virginia Alpha, who 
had gone in 1856 to South Carolina College, was in some manner 
commissioned to start the new chapter. Reference is made in the 


minutes of the Grand Chapter, then at Virginia Alpha, to the propo- 
sition to establish a chapter at South Carolina College as early as 
the spring of 1856, but a diligent search of the records fails to dis- 
cover any authority for the establishment of the chapter. In the 
minutes of the Grand Chapter for October gth, 1859, a letter from 
Brother J. W. Morgan is referred to in the course of which he says 
that the South Carolina Alpha is in a very prosperous condition. 
So far as can be learned, the chapter was established shortly before 
the close of the session of 1856-57. 

The chapter had in its ranks the very choicest men in the institu- 
tion as their subsequent career abundantly shows, and had political 
machinations not served to disrupt the institution, the chapter might 
have had a fine career continuously; but the interruption of the 
Civil War and the jostlings of the politicians has made the history 
of this chapter a thing of "shreds and patches." It was dis- 
continued in 1861, reorganized in 1868, broken up at the dissolu- 
tion of the college in 1873, again reorganized by G. D. Gotwald, 
of the Grand Chapter in 1884, and finally, in 1892, it died, from 
the hopeless entanglement of the institution in the meshes of politi- 
cal intrigue. 

Because of the checkered career of this chapter a long roll of 
distinguished members ought not to be expected, but it is ques- 
tionable whether any other chapter of the fraternity can show forth 
from its total membership, so large a proportion of really great 
men as can this unfortunate chapter. Witness these: Chancellor 
W. E. Boggs, of University of Georgia ; Col. W. H. Perry, for many 
years member of Congress from South Carolina; James Simons, 
speaker of House, South Carolina Legislature, continuously since 
1882; W. W. Smith, judge of Supreme Court of Arkansas; Dr. 
. Robert Wilson, of Charleston, South Carolina ; Dr. J. McL. McBryde, 
President of South Carolina University; E. J. Simkins, ex-District 
Attorney of Texas; Dr. W. R. Atkinson, President South Carolina 
College for Women; Professor R. M. Davis, of the University of 
South Carolina; J. Q. Marshall, Secretary of State of South Caro- 
lina ; W. A. Barber, ex -Attorney-General of South Carolina. 

University of Mississippi^ Oxford, Miss. 

The University of Mississippi, at Oxford, Miss., was 
established in 1848, and is directly subject to the control of 


the State under the management of a board of nine trustees. 
It occupies some half-dozen buildings, has sixteen members 
in its faculty, an income of $40,000 per annum, and has 
about four hundred students. It confers the following de- 
grees : B. A., B. S., B. L., Ph. B., M. A., and Ph. D, 

This has been a peculiarly enthusiastic chapter of Phi Kappa 
Psi, isolated even as it is. It has, during its career, published several 
histories of the chapter and has kept track of its alumni in a manner 
commendable in the highest degree. It was established in Novem- 
ber, 1857, by John Baxter Paine, a former member of Virginia Beta. 
In those days, James W. Morgan, of Virginia Alpha, was a particu- 
larly useful Phi Psi, making it his business to assist in the estab- 
lishment of chapters of the fraternity, and occasionally making 
widely separated chapters visits upon his own account. He came 
from Lynchburg, Va., to Oxford, Miss., to assist Brother J. B. 
Paine in starting the new chapter. The chapter was composed of 
choice young men and had a flourishing career for three years, 
during which time thirty-four men had donned the shield of Phi 
Kappa Psi. The charter members were: S. S. Carter, H. M. Jaco- 
way, F. W. Johns, William Price, A. W. Lake, and J. T. Lester. 
It is a very remarkable circumstance that all of the thirty-four 
members of the chapter from its inception to its suspension at the 
beginning of the Civil War, enlisted in the Confederate Army and a 
considerable number of them fell in that fratricidal conflict. 

So it happened that Mississippi Alpha did not fare so well as other 
southern chapters in the general reorganization of college life after 
the war came to an end. there being no connecting link of fugitive 
member here or there to keep the fraternity feeling alive. It was not 
until 1881 that attention was directed toward Mississippi Alpha, 
looking to reorganization. In that year W. D. Howze, a charter 
member of Tennessee Alpha, busied himself in getting together a 
band of petitioners ; and by a strange coincidence William Price, of 
Mississippi Alpha, also secured a company for the same purpose. 
The petition started by Brother Howze having gone in first, was 
acted upon favorably, and upon the night of March 26th, 1881, in 
a room on the second floor of the Mackey House, Brother Howze 
initiated the following men as charter members of the reorganized 
chapter: L. J. Farley, W. T. Rush, W. J. East, R. W. Gray, and 
J. F. Parke. 

The years immediately succeeding the reorganization were very 


trying ones for the young chapter. The causes were not far to 
seek. The institution was not pursuing a progressive policy, being 
committed to the pernicious preparatory system and having fossils 
in its faculty; the field was occupied by a multiplicity of rival fra- 
ternities, and the isolation from other chapters, all these and other 
causes, made the outlook a dark one. But the charter members 
of the reorganized chapter were made of stem stuff. They held on 
to the work of aiding the young chapter until the younger brothers 
and relatives of the first initiates began to come to the college, which 
by this time, too, had abolished the preparatory department, had 
secured an endowment of $400,000, and had provided an up-to-date 
equipment for modern college work. The later history of the 
chapter has been bright and present prospects are flattering 

The following beautiful tribute to his college home is from the 
pen of Brother B. £. Halsell, a recent historian of the chapter, and 
deserves a place in this record: "The University of Mississippi is 
situated upon the top of an old red clay hill, about six hundred and 
fifty feet above the Gulf of Mexico. This is one of the most beauti- 
ful spots that pen can picture. Nature has finished it and man 
cannot improve it. There is a campus of fifty acres covered with a 
rich carpet of Bermuda grass and clover, and shaded by a grand 
grove of massive red oaks. Here and there summer's sunshine sifts 
her smiles through interlacing oak boughs, the little gray squirrel 
leaps from limb to limb in blissful security, while music-throated 
birds entrance the listening ear." 

Among the honored men of this chapter may be noted: H. M. 
Jacoway, attorney, Denver; S. S. Carter, banker, of Jackson, Miss^ 
Alexander Trotter, educator; J. F. Park, W. J. East, W. T. Rush, 
W. P. Tackett, M. J. Manning, legislators; J. W. Moseley, mer- 

Bethany College, Bethany, W. Va. 

This institution was established in 1840 at the instance 
of Alexander Campbell, the distinguished founder of the 
Disciple Church, to carry out his ideas of education, which 
were to teach "literature, morality, and unsectarian Chris- 
tianity." It is under the patronage of the denomination 
named, and has but small resources. It occupies three 
buildings, has a faculty of ten, and enrolls nearly two hun- 


dred students. It confers the degrees of B. A., B. LL., and 
B. S, 

Again must correction be made in the Grand Catalogue record. 
The date there given for the establishment of Virginia Delta is 
not correct upon the testimony of the minutes of the chapter itself, 
which relate how upon March loth, 1859, the Grand Chapter, then 
resident in Pennsylvania Delta, at Washington College, granted a 
charter to students of Bethany College then in the undivided state 
of Virginia, to organize the Delta chapter of Virginia. This au- 
thority was conferred upon D. F. Patterson, J. W. Hopper, and 
W. S. Hawkins, who soon added to their number and had a stirring 
chapter before the end of the collegiate year. 

The usual suspicion of faculty and students was directed to the 
new organization, and it was difficult for a year to maintain openly 
the position of a regular society. It soon became generally believed 
that there was a college secret society at Bethany, and the faculty, 
who seemed inclined to ignore the question, were obliged to take 
cognizance of the chapter. After a number of interviews and much 
diplomacy, an agreement was entered into between faculty and 
chapter that the latter should disband at the close of the session of 
i860, provided there were no other such org^anizations in existence 
in the college. Fortunately for the new chapter, Beta Theta Pi had 
just entered Bethany and upon this slender, thread the Phi Psis 
maintained their life. Although there seemed to be no faculty 
favor, the chapter had a fairly free course from this time forward 
for a year longer, at which time disturbances due to the Civil War 
interfered with the chapter. However, the chapter seemed to come 
into a stronger life during 1862, '63, and '64, but in 1865 it had such 
rousing success as to number sixteen upon its roll. 

Faculty interference still continued, yet seemed, if one may judge 
from the minutes, only to add the necessary spice of excitement to 
the routine of college life. In 1880, a memorable event practically 
caused the abandonment of the chapter and the surrender of its 
charter. It came about in this wise: A member of the chapter 
had been assaulted and cruelly beaten at night by a hidden assailant 
on the streets of Bethany. Investigation showed plainly who the 
culprit was and when the faculty looked into the affair, the punish- 
ment of two weeks' suspension from college seemed to Virginia 
Delta so cruelly inadequate for the cowardly crime, that an indig- 
nant protest went up for justice, with the implied threat that if 


adequate punishment were not administered, the chapter would 
leave the college in a body. 

This was practically the result, for although all did not leave at 
once, the last record in the minute book recites the decision of the 
chapter and there was no real chapter life after the commence- 
ment of 1880. Such is the brief chronicle of the stormy career of 
Virginia Delta, which had in it some rare spirits and deserved a 
better fate. 

Its most distinguished members are: Walter Overton, banker, of 
Newport, Ky.; D. F. Patterson, leading lawyer of the Pittsburg 
bar; Judge Matthew Turney, of Bourbon Co., Ky., Profs. B. C. 
Hagerman, T. B. Crenshaw, G. W. McCoard, B. T. Blanpied, L. W. 
Welsh, W. P. and B. O. Aylesworth, and H. A. McDonald; Hon. 
D. O. Smart, ex-Congn'essman from Mo. ; Vincent Shinkle, steamboat 
capitalist of Covington, Ky.; Rev. R. C. Cave. 

La Grange Synodical College^ La Grange^ Tenn. 

This institution was under the control of the Southern 
branch of the Presbyterian Church, and had but fairly 
opened its doors when Phi Kappa Psi entered it. The insti- 
tution was engulfed in the vortex of the Civil War, and 
when Memphis was captured, in 1863, the college near-by 
was burned by the Union army. The young college never 
recovered from this blow, and its doors were never re- 

The Tennessee Alpha was a fulfillment of the desire of the Mis- 
sissippi Alpha for extension in the South. It was founded in Jan- 
uary, 1859, by H. A. Banks, F. D. Barnes, J. L. Griggs, W. D. 
Howze, P. P. Jenkins, and H. F. Scott. Upon the authority of the 
statements of two of the surviving charter members and upon the 
record of membership in the Grand Catalogue, it may be safely 
set down as an outgrowth of Mississippi Alpha. 

The chapter had from the beginning a fair outlook and for two 
years the life of the chapter was prosperous and happy, but in 1861 
the membership enlisted almost to a man in the C. S. A. and the 
chapter died with the breaking out of the war. 

Of the members who gave tone to the organization and en- 
hanced the honor of the fraternity, may be named the following: 


George Gillespie, planter, Starkville, Miss.; J. L. Griggs, legislator 
and merchant, Macon, Miss.; W. Z. Mitchell, ex-Superintendent 
Public Schools, Memphis, Tenn.; H. C. Tipton, legislator, Harrison, 
Ark.; Colonel J. W. Smith, Grand Junction, Tenn. 

Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 

The venerable institution at which Pennsylvania Zeta is 
established was founded in 1783, and is under the patronage 
and control of the Methodist Episcopal Church. It occu- 
pies nine buildings, has a faculty of thirty, an annual in- 
come of $35,000, and enrolls about five hundred students. 
Its government is in the hands of a large board of trustees, 
forty-eight in number, four only being chosen by the alumni. 
It confers the following degrees: B. A., Ph. B., M. A., 
D. D., B. L., and LL. D. 

Pennsylvania Zeta was founded March 19th, 1859, by J. H. Beck- 
with and W. F. Townsend, under the patronage of Thomas Cham- 
berlain, of Pennsylvania Gamma, who installed the new chapter, as- 
sisted by Tom. Campbell, the famous. The other charter mem- 
bers were: M. C. Herman, J. C. Sullivan, H. C Williams, C. W. 
Neff, R. S. Shreve. 

At the time of the organization of Pennsylvania Zeta, but one 
other fraternity was represented at Dickinson, Phi Kappa Sigma, 
which had been in the college for five years, sub rosa. By the 
time of commencement in 1859, the new chapter had secured 
twenty-five of the choicest men in the college, and although it was 
believed to mean almost certain suspension or expulsion to be 
known as members of a college secret society, in the beginning of 
the new school year the members of both Phi Kappa Psi and Phi 
Kappa Sigma donned their badges and bade defiance to the faculty 
in this act. To the surprise of the Greeks the faculty, seeing that 
the strongest men in college were fraternity men, winked at the 
violation of faculty embargo and the ifratemity system at Dickinson 
was assured a healthful life. 

The life of the chapter has always been vigorous, and the fra- 
ternity recognized this fact by making Pennsylvania Zeta Grand 
Chapter in 1868 and upon the expiration of its term, reelected it 
to serve for a second period of three years. The policy of the 


chapter to hold annual symposiums during commencement week 
has been a tower of strength to it, binding to the chapter the alumni 
both recent and remote. While not unmindful of the social qual- 
ities of candidates for its ranks, the chapter has had an eye upon 
college honors. During its career nearly one-half of all the honors 
taken by students of the college have been secured by members of 
Pennsylvania Zeta. 

Of the chapter's famous men, the following are to be noted : J. V. 
Gotwalts, M. C. Herman, C. H. Gere, lawyers and l^islators; 
W. L. McDowell, S. E. and T. A. Snively, J. Y. Dobbins, dis- 
tinguished ministers; £. O. Shakespeare and J. F. Dillon, famous 
physicians; Edwin Post, £. W. Manning, J. M. Green, C. S. 
Conwell, W. N. Mumper, noted educators and authors. 

Frankun and Marshall College^ Lancaster^ Pa. 

' Franklin and Marshall College was founded in 1853, and 
was a continuation of Franklin College, founded by Ben- 
jamin Franklin in 1787, and of Marshsdl College, named for 
Chief Justice Marshall, which was founded in 1836. It is 
under the patronage of the Reformed Church, and is con- 
trolled by a board of thirty trustees. It has seven buildings, 
a faculty of twenty-five, an annual income of nearly $20,000, 
and more than three hundred students. The college confers 
the B. A. degree, and the seminary connected with the 
college confers the usual theological degrees. 

Pennsylvania Eta was the successor of a local society called 
Phi Beta Tau, organized by H. H. W. Hibshman and A. C. Reinoehl 
in protest against the arrogant conduct of two other local fraternities. 
The organization of Phi Beta Tau took place in 1858. Robert A. 
Garke, of Pennsylvania Alpha, met Hibshman while he was visit- 
ing in Gettysburg and suggested to him the propriety of petitioning 
Phi Kappa Psi for a charter. This was done and as a result, on the 
night of April 2d, i860, Robert A. Qarke, ambassador, initiated into 
Phi Kappa Psi J. O. Knipe, A. C. Reinoehl, H. H. W. Hibshman, 
D. L. Swartz, and Ireneus Shalter as the charter members of Penn- 
sylvania Eta. 

The merging of the local society into Pennsylvania Eta of Phi 
Kappa Psi aroused furious opposition upon the part of the two other 


societies and for several years the rivalry was intense, but finally 
the superior quality of the men selected by Pennsylvania Eta began 
to tell and since the first few years of struggle the chapter has had 
an enviable record of scholastic and social success. 

The chapter at the first anniversary of its organization inaugu- 
rated the custom which has lasted continuously, of having a grand 
symposium. It was held in the room of Cooper's Hotel made 
celebrated by being the scene of the founding of the chapter. No. 9. 
Besides other visitors present, Dr. Letterman was the guest of 
honor and aroused to a high pitch of enthusiasm the budding 
chapter by his recital of the experiences of the founders of the 

A most dramatic incident occurred at the first commencement 
after the inception of the chapter. The valedictorian of the class, 
A. C. Reinoehl, having begun to utter some remarks displeasing 
to the faculty and trustees, was ordered by the president of the 
college to stop, and when he refused to do so, music was called 
for. This aroused the ire of the students, and Hibshman as their 
spokesman arose and protested that the speech should be finished. 
The commencement broke up in confusion. That night from the 
balcony of a house adjoining that in which the college had held 
its exercises, Reinoehl gave his speech to an enormous crowd of 
cheering friends. The faculty fears were so great that during the 
evening and on through the night the college buildings were under 
guard of armed men^ 

During the Civil War at one time only one member of the 
chapter remained in college, S. S. Apple, who bravely kept the 
chapter from extinguishment. In common with other colleges and 
college institutions, both Franklin and Marshall and Pennsylvania 
Eta began anew a life of increasing usefulness, which has been 
marred by only one period of disturbance, when the faculty en- 
forced drastic measures against Greek-letter societies because of the 
excesses committed by a band of ruffians who masqueraded under the 
name of a fraternity. 

The policy of the chapter has never been to foster any peculiar 
style of character in its members. While not disregardful of scholar- 
ship, no effort has been made to secure intellectual prodigies; and 
while good-fellowship is looked upon as a desideratum, convivial 
spirits have no "open sesame" to the arcanum of Pennsylvania Eta; 
the chapter has ever been mindful of the ideals of our founders and 
have sought and secured the "all-around" man. 


• * * 


• •• • • 

• a A . * * 

• • • 

••••• ••••, 

• •••• ••••. 

• • • • 

" 4 J u 


Of the members who have won distinction may be named the fol- 
lowing: Drs. H. H. W. Hibshman, S. R. Bridenbaugh, G. F. Rosen- 
miller, ministers; Major Reinoehl, D. P. Rosenmiller, I. H. Wolfe, 
F*. W. Biesecker, and H. A. Dubbs, attorneys and legislators; Cap- 
tain W. M. Black, U. S. A.; Drs. S. S. Apple and H. C. Eschbach, 

Mississippi Collke, Clinton, Miss. 

This institution was founded in 1830 by public spirited 
citizens of the village in which it is located, and gave 
promise of becoming an institution of power. It was at 
first controlled by a board of five elected trustees, but later 
came into the hands of the Presbyterian Church, and then, 
in 1850, it was ceded to the Baptist denomination. The 
Civil War entailed a loss of $10,000 spent in preserving the 
1)uildings, and a cash endowment of $100,000 was then 
swallowed up. In 1865 the debt was canceled, and the 
Baptists took hold of the institution and infused into it a 
vigorous life. It has four buildings, a faculty of eight, 
$12,000 annual income, and two hundred and fifty students. 
It confers the degrees of B. A., B. S., and B. LL. 

The Mississippi Beta chapter was established at an inauspicious 
time, having been organized in the spring of 1861 with the following 
charter members: K W. Brown, J. D. Hall, Joseph Buckels, S. C. 
Granberry, John Kennedy, O. C. Crum. It was installed by F. W. 
Johns and J. T. Lester, of Mississippi Alpha. The institution was 
•opposed to college secret societies, and the infant organization^ad 
no faculty encouragement for the brief weeks of its existence, 
for none of the members remained in college but Hall, the rest en<i 
listing in the Confederate Army. One of the initiates after the 


organization, Charles Marble, and one of the charter members, 
John Kennedy, were killed in the war. Hall took charge of the 
chapter effects, but a diligent search made by him in 1881 failed to 
discover any of the missing papers. 

One of the chapter, £. W. Brown, has for a number of years been 
Clerk of the Supreme Court of Mississippi. Of the others prac- 
tically nothing is known except the post-office addresses of the sur- 
viving members, and these addresses are mostly twenty-one years 



Cumberland University^ Lebanon^ Tenn. 

This institution was established in 1827 at Princeton, 
Ky., but in 1842 was transferred to its present location. 
Its buildings were destroyed and its endowments were 
scattered during the Civil War, but as it is the leading 
college of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, it was early 
reorganized after the war and has had a very successful 
life since. It has five buildings, a faculty of twenty, an in- 
come, yearly, of about $20,000, and a student patronage of 
nearly three hundred. It confers these degrees: B. A., 
B. S., M. A., Ph. B., C. E., B. LL., and B. D. 

Tennessee Beta chapter was founded by Joseph Griggs, who had 
been a member of Mississippi Alpha and had founded Tennessee 
Alpha chapter also. Its installation took place upon August 21st, 
i860. After the initiation of a few of the leading spirits of the col- 
lege, the war excitement came on and there was no chapter life after 
the first session of the college suceeding the installation of the 
chapter, until the close of the war. Practically all the small mem- 
bership went into the Confederate Army. 

In 1867, Tennessee Beta was revived through the agency of John 
Overton Lea and John Meredith Bass, both of whom had been 
members of Virginia Alpha and Virginia Delta and who were 
practicing lawyers resident in Nashville. I. T. Franklin and J. B. 
Peyton were the first initiates of the revived chapter. The chapter 
was chosen from the choice men in the college and soon took rank 
as the most influential student organization at Cumberland. The 
chapter was small, seldom running above a dozen members, who 
were most congenial friends. The chapter life is beautifully de- 
scribed in these words by one of the old members: "We were a 
chosen dozen and together indulged in those sweet, innocent, and 
pure affections that between men never occur but once. It is 
singular how completely those choice friends of my youth have 
dropped out of my life. I cannot now recall who were our officers, 
nor who all of the members were, but I remember well our secret 
place and that we were always happy together." 

The chapter gradually began to gather its membership from the 
law department of the university, and while the choice of men wa» 
of the very best, the policy proved disastrous as it has proved every- 


where when the literary department has not furnished the bulk of 
any chapter's membership. The community of interest and con- 
tinuity of life which are found among undergraduates are often en- 
tirely lacking in the men of professional schools. The chapter from 
the reorganization to the year before its decadence was an intense 
rival of Beta Theta Pi, with which organization it divided ccdlege 
honors, the lion's share coming to Tennessee Beta of Phi Kappa 
Psi with rather monotonous regularity. 

During the years from 1869 to 1873, every year the members of 
Tennessee Beta had either the first or second honor in the graduating 
classes of the law school or had both. Prizes in debates, class 
presidencies, and practically every sort of honor that could come to a 
college man were the possessions of the members of the chapter and 
it is surprising, with such a record, the chapter should have hastened 
to a death which surely must be regarded, under the conditions, 

Diligent inquiry among the living members of this chapter, 
everyone of whom has been written to, some as often as five times, 
has failed to reveal any real cause of death. It is certain that a 
chapter which had made such a record could not die under our 
present system of careful supervision, and it is surely a source of 
keen regret that apparently the decadence of this famous chapter 
is to be charged to general fraternity neglect and indifference. 

Of the many distinguished men whom this chapter has sent forth 
the following are representative : £. G. McLean, Presbyterian clergy- 
man; £. C. Reeves, Qerk of Supreme Court of Tennessee; C. S. 
Collins, lawyer. Little Rock; George Thomburgh, legislator and 
journalist; L E. Reeves, lawyer, Jonesboro, Tenn.; A. W. Houston, 
legislator, San Antonio; H. W. Lightfoot, late judge Supreme 
Court, Texas; H. O. Head, lawyer, Sherman, Texas; Jordan Stokes, 
the leading attorney of Nashville; W. R. Leigh, ex-Superintendent 
Public Instruction of Tennessee; F. M. Estes, lawyer, of St. Louis; 
C. A. Miller, ex-Secretary State of Tennessee; Judge Frank Wil- 
liams, of New Mexico. 

Ohio Wbsleyan University, Delaware, Ohio. 

This institution was founded in 1844, and is under the 
patronage and control of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
It has twelve buildings, a faculty of sixty-five, an annual 
income of $110,000, an endowment of more than $1,000,000, 



property valued at $1,500,000, and enrolls nearly fourteen 
hundred students. It confers the degrees of B. A., B. S., 
B. L., M. A., M. S., S. T. D., M. D., and Ph. D. 

The Ohio Alpha chapter was established at the Ohio Weslejran 
University on January 12th, 186 1. Its inception was due to a feeling 
upon the part of C. W. Breyfogle, J. W. Peters, and L. M. Buch- 
walter that there was room for a new and a better fraternity than 
the four others then existing at the Ohio Weslejran. George P. Wil- 
son, one of the first men to whom these three broached the subject, 
was from Washington, Pa., the home of the parent chapter of Phi 
Kappa Psi, and it is probable that this fact determined the trio to 
make application to this fraternity rather than another. 

The authority to establish the new chapter did not come in the 
form of a charter, and so the three original petitioners were never 
initiated themselves, but conferred the ceremony upon the others 
by the right delegated through the Grand Chapter. The new mem- 
bers were chosen with great care because of the general suspicion 
which rested upon fraternities and because the rivalry of the other 
fraternities was intense. The meetings were held in out-of-the-way 
places and in the dead of night, such was the dread of exposure under 
which the new order rested. In one of the early years of the 
chapter's life, drastic measures were taken to prevent prying eyes 
from peering into Phi Psi mysteries. One young man, more than 
usually pertinacious in his efforts to secure information, was 
treated to a monstrous mock ceremony of initiation. He has since 
become one of the most famous men in the country in diplomatic 
circles, and it is a wise conjecture that the young collegrians of forty 
years ago would have been less critical in their treatment had they 
been able to read the horoscope of the offender's future. 

The faculty of the Ohio Wesleyan University was not friendly to 
fraternities, so from the beginning Ohio Alpha had to give strong 
proof of its fitness to survive. In furthering this laudable desire, the 
chapter took occasion to induct into its mysteries several members 
of the faculty. This piece of shrewd practice was like a veritable 
anchor cast to windward, for, in about ten years after its foundation, 
a furious anti-fraternity war broke out in the institution, which 
was not only carried into the faculty, but into the board of trustees. 
It so happened that the father of the Historian, Rev. Dr. L. F. Van 
Cleve, was a member of that body and, being himself a Mason of 
prominence, he had been under fire a good many times and knew 


how much smoke there was to be blown away in the furore raised 
over the pernicious effects of secrecy. He and others took up the 
cudgels for the fraternity system and the day was won. 

Ohio Alpha has had for the most part a very successful career. 
It was for one term Grand Chapter as is elsewhere recorded, and 
it has been instrumental in founding the following chapters of 
Phi Kappa Psi in various parts of the country: Indiana Alpha, 
Ohio Beta, Ohio Delta, Michigan Alpha, New York Alpha, Iowa 
Alpha, and California Alpha. It showed enterprise in publishing 
the first history of the fraternity life sent out by any chapter. This 
volume was a neat octavo of 216 pp., and was compiled by W. H. 
Gamble, '88» and R M. Van Cleve, '86. 

Ohio Alpha's roll of distinguished sons is much like Virginia 
Alpha's — so long as to be embarrassing. The following may be 
named as representative: Lucien Qark, Pastor of Metropolitan 
Methodist Church, Washington, D. C; Bishops C. C. McCabe and 
J. M. Walden, of Methodist Episcopal Church; J. B. Robinson, 
George Lansing Taylor, and Orville Watson, ministers and authors; 
W. N. Brewster, the distinguished Chinese missionary; John G. 
Woolley, the famous temperance advocate and orator; Professors 
Clinton 6. Sears, formerly of West Point, G. B. Merriman, of 
Rutgers, A. E. Dolbear, of Tufts, John W. White of Harvard, 
Charles G. Dunlap, University of Kansas, W. O. Semans, £. T. 
Nelson, W. W. Davies, and W. G. Williams, of Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity; President J. E. Stubbs, of Nevada University; President 
A. 6. Riker, of Mt Union; J. M. Decamp, the famous insurance 
expert ; General John P. Rea, ex-Commander of Grand Army of the 
Republic, and ex- President of Phi Kappa Psi; Judge M. L. Buch- 
walter, of Cincinnati ; Senator J. B. Foraker ; L. J. Critchfield, author 
of Revised Statutes of Ohio; General John Beatty, banker and states- 
man; F. S. Monnett, ex- Attorney-General of Ohio; Orra E. Mon- 
nette. Secretary of Phi Kappa Psi; Judge F. R. Walters; Judge 
C. W. Dustin ; Harlan P. Hall, the well-known newspaper man ; J. S. 
Jones, ex-Congressman. 

Northwestern University, Evanston, III. 

This institution was established in 185 1, and is under the 
patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church. It occupies 
fifteen buildings, has two hundred and forty members in 


its several facuhies, has about three thousand students, an 
annual income of $260,000, and an endowment of $4,000,000. 
It confers the degrees of B. A., B. Ph., B. S., B. L., M. D., 

D. D. S., S. T. D., and Ph. D. 

The Illinois Alpha chapter was founded in 1864 with the follow- 
ing charter members: W. H. Morrison, C. C. Bragdon, J. B. Mc- 
Guffin, James Frake, M. C. Springer, C. K. Offield, B. F. Elbert, 
John Ellis, W. C. Comstock, E. B. Wheeler, M. A. Pingree, S. B. 
Raymond, and R. D. Sheppard. The chapter was installed by 
Brother Morrison, who had been a member of Pennsylvania Beta 
before coming to Northwestern, and soon had a flottrishing mem- 
bership, in spite of faculty opposition. 

Although the chapter had a good beginning, after six years of 
prosperous existence it surrendered its charter, owing to a scarcity 
of desirable material in the college. In 1878, Valorous F. Brown, 
who had been a member of Kansas Alpha, entered Northwestern 
and soon moved toward the reorganization of the Illinois Alpha. 
This he soon accomplished, associating with him the following other 
students: Louis Karcher, W. H. Jordan, C. L. Root, C. K Piper, 
J. A. Fisher. From the date of its reorganization to the present, 
Illinois Alpha has been preeminent in literary affairs and has had a 
fair share of honors in other directions also. The Kirk Oratorical 
Prize has been taken by Phi Psis more often than by all of the 
other fraternities together, and its membership in the Phi Beta 
Kai^ is in a like proportion. 

The chapter was the first to secure and use adequate chapter 
quarters, first in a fine down-town suite, and then in a well-equipped 
chapter-house. It has a fine chapter library, has almost complete 
chapter records, has photographs of all its members from the founda- 
tion of the chapter, owns house furnishings to the value of $2,000, 
and has a snug building fund at interest It has been influentia] in 
the establishment or resuscitation of the following chapters of the 
fraternity: Illinois Beta (three times), Illinois Gamma, Iowa 
Gamma, Iowa Delta, Wisconsin Alpha. 

The fine record made by the chapter may be readily understood 
from this representative body of men who have won honor and 
fame for themselves in post-collegiate days: College Presidents — 

E. J. James, of Northwestern; M. C. Springer, of Hedding; E. L. 
Parks, of Simpson Centenary; W. H. Crawford, of Allegheny; W. 
H. H. Adams, of Illinois Wesleyan; C. C. Bragdon, Laselle Sem- 


inary. Ministers of the Gospel — ^\V. X. Ninde, Bishop of M. E. 
Church ; J. P. Brushingham, and W. G. Clark. College Professors — 
C. B. Thwing, R. D. Shepard, Robert Baird, C. W. Pearson, 
C. M. Stuart, and G. H. Horswell, of Northwestern; W. S. Hall, 
of Haverford, Hon. S. B. Raymond, County Treasurer, Cook 
County, Illinois; Judge £. W. Burke, of Chicago; W. £. Hum- 
phrey, C. E. Piper, W. J. Andrews, James Frake, Louis Karcher, 
J. P. Grier, and C. S. Graves, Attorneys of Chicago ; C. K. Bannister, 
of Ogden, Utah ; F. M. Husted, of San Francisco ; L. O. Perley, of 
Omaha; C G. Root, of Minneapolis. 

DePauw University, Grebncastle, Ind. 

This college was founded in 1837 as Indiana Asbury 
University, but the munificent gifts of Hon. W. C. DePauw 
caused the name to be changed to its present form. The 
institution is under the patronage and control of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and occupies ten buildings, has 
forty-eight in its faculty, has an annual income of $60,000, 
and enrolls eight hundred students. It confers the follow- 
ing degrees : B. A., B. S., B. Ph., B. L., S. T. D., and M. A, 

The formation of Indiana Alpha reads like a romance, and, if space 
permitted, it would be interesting to give the details of how out of 
the struggle of two powerful rivals the plans of both were defeated 
and the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity profited t^ th« scrimmage. The 
merest oudines of the story can be given : Beta Theta Pi had run a 
course of great power and influence in the college without opposi- 
tion. Then came Phi Gamma I>elta and Sigma Chi to dispute the 
ground. The latter, however, soon succumbed and the two remain- 
ing fraternities had many serious and sometimes bitter struggles for 
supremacy. Soon each was the leader of a faction in college politics, 
and marshaled all the men it could to further its designs. Ere long 
the ones being led lost interest in following, and talk was strong of 
founding another fraternity. Both the Betas and the Phi Gams, tried 
to help their respective factions to this end, but the desirable material 
could not be secured without including the leading non-fraternity 
men in each faction. The latter soon reconciled their differences in 
a movement against both of their former masters, and, having con- 
ferred with the faculty. Phi Kappa Psi was made- the recipient of a 


petition from a strong band of petitioners. The delays incident to 
the granting of charters in those days made the enterprise a hazard- 
ous one, for each of the established fraternities was endeavoring to 
seduce away from allegiance to the new movement, all the known 
leaders in it The desperate need suggested a desperate remedy. 
The names of the following men were sent to Ohio Alpha, the 
nearest chapter of Phi Kappa Psi, and ''sight unseen" were voted 
upon to become members of the fraternity : J. Pittman, H. W. Shir- 
ley, O. H. Wilknow, W. F. Walker, John Poucher, R. N. Allen, 
G. W. Pitman, R. S. Tennant, D. J. Eastbum, N. Richey, C A. 
Obenshain, W. J. Yates, F. M. Dice. 

In January of 1865 a delegate from the petitioners was sent to 
Delaware to secure the proper authority and assistance in carrying 
the plans into perfection. This delegate was W. F. Gilmore. Upon 
his return, the number of adherents to the new organization was 
increased by Salem Town and A. B. Yohn. The members chosen 
in the above manner were initiated upon the afternoon of January 
24th, and the evening of the same day, by an ambassador from Ohio 
Alpha, A. S. B. Newton. 

By ingenious devices of passing the pins around, four pins were 
made to do the work of many and did serve to deceive the rival 
fraternities with a fictitious show of strength, much after the 
fashion of theatrical "armies." From the very first, there was no 
struggle for existence upon the part of Indiana Alpha. The revolt 
against the high-handed conduct of the older orders made it easy 
to gather a strong body of charter members together, and the 
honors soon achieved by the new chapter were sure evidence that 
the whole affair had been wisely and skillfully managed. 

Indiana Alpha has made much of literary skill, and the honors 
secured by its members attest that the ambition to shine in this 
sphere of college life was well developed. The chapter has been 
noted also for its independence. In college enterprises it has 
stood staunchly for what its members regarded as right, without re- 
gard to how it might affect the future of the members and the 
sequel has proved the wisdom of the course. 

The chapter was instrumental in the founding of the following 
chapters of Phi Kappa Psi : Indiana Beta, Indiana Gamma, and Mis- 
souri Alpha. The life of the chapter has been a succession of 
pleasant and profitable years with only enough of cloud to make the 
sunshine seem of real blessing. Of its old members these may be ac- 
counted worth commemorating: Hon. C. L. Henry, Hon. G. W. 


Paris, Hon. W. H. Calkins, ex-Members of Congress; Hon. J. E. 
Watson, Member Congress; Hon, J. P. Goodrich, Chairman Indiana 
Republican State Committee ; Judge H. C. Allen, Hon. C. N. Thomp- 
son, Merle Walker, F. L. Littleton, and Henry Warrum, lawyers 
and politicians; Nat. C. Wright, journalist; R. S. Tennant, Charles 
Whitcomb, R. N. Allen, and George B. Baker, capitalists; £. 
£. Hendee, F. M. Dice, political orators and attom^s; Dr. Salem 
Town, the distinguished divine; Drs. L. H. Murlin, John Poucher, 
and C. W. Hodell, educators; Guy M. Walker, electrical road pro- 
moter and counsel; James Whitcomb Riley. 

Kentucky University^ Lexington, Ky. 

This college was originally situated at Harrodsburg, but 
later was transferred to Lexington, where it now flourishes 
as the leading school of the Disciple Church. It has two 
buildings, a faculty of twenty-one, an annual income of 
$20,000, and seven hundred students. It confers these de- 
grees : B. A., B. S., B. L., and M. A. 

The life of this chapter is like the "short and simple annals of 
the poor." The epitaph upon the infant's tpmbstone may well 
apply to it: "I am so soon done for, I wonder what I was began 
for." The chapter was established at one session and died at the 
beginning of the next It was established by £. L. Campbell and 
John T. Viley upon the same day that Indiana Alpha was founded, 
but what a difference in their life I The date is January 24th, 1865^ 

One set of initiates only were added to the roll of Phi Kappa Psi 
at this institution, and it is to be doubted whether there ever was 
any true chapter life. 

Every living member has been addressed again and again as to 
the chapter's career, and the only response, except the return of 
one letter with the laconic indorsement "dead," is the following, 
from which the futility of writing a history of the chapter may be 
readily apprehended: — 

"Sherman, Tsxas. 
"Mir. C. L. Van Cleve, Troy, Ohio. 

"Dior Sir: — Your letter requesting my help in your work of 
writing the 'History of the Phi Kappa Psi' is before me. You ask 
me to 'tell of the circumstances of the founding, the kind of life 


the chapter had, the personnel of its members, the character of the 
school, and such other matters as you think would make a readable 
account of your old college experience.' 

"I am sorry to tell you that I have no recollection of any dream- 
stances of the founding of the Phi Kappa Psi at Keotacky Uni- 
versity. I would not have thought that I had been a member of 
it, had not your letter, and one received some time ago, reminded 
me that there was something of the kind in my school life. I have 
no recollection of ever attending a meeting, or of having anything 
to do with the Phi Kappa Psi daring my college days, or since. I 
suppose I did give my name for membership; but I paid no atten- 
tion to the duties, did not even learn them. My recollection is 
that it was not held in great favor by the faculty, and I just let it 
go. I suggest that you appeal to the one who gave you my name; 
and if he cannot aid you, I fear the case is hopeless. 

"I might say to you that my college experience was independent 
of any connection with the Phi Kappa Psi so far as my memory 

"Regretting that I cannot be of use to you, I am 

"Yours truly, 

"O. A. Carr." 

Univirsity op Chicago, Chicago, III. 

This famous institution was first founded in 1857 by the 
Baptist Society of Chicago, but after a life of much dis- 
couragement it closed its doors in 1886. Under the in- 
spiring leadership of President W. R. Harper and the 
munificence of John D. Rockefeller, the institution of to- 
day has had a new birth into a marvelous life. The new in- 
stitution opened its doors in the fall of 1892. It is impossible 
to keep any sort of account of its increasing wealth and 
power, so fast does it grow. The latest information assigns 
to it thirty buildings, two hundred and fifty members of 
various faculties, twenty-five hundred students, and an 
annual income of $1,000,000. It confers the deg^rees of 
B. A., B. S., B. Ph., A. M., and Ph. D. 

The chapter of the first Illinois Beta was established in 1865 by 
D. C. Elbert, B. F. Elbert. D. B. Butler, A. D. Foster, C. K. 
OfHeld. It had a fairly successful life until 1869, when it stis- 


pended, to be revived in 1880 by C. £. Piper and Carl Moellman. 
So long as the university had vitality, Illinois Beta flourished, and 
the college records show that it was no idle boast that the members 
of the chapter for the six years from the re-estaUishment to the 
close of the institution were the leading men and the most sub- 

The history of the revived chapter is full of interest, for it shows 
how fully the new connectional idea of fraternity life has taken hold 
of the thought of Phi Kappa Psi. it is significant that the gather- 
ing together of the nucleus of the new chapter was the work of 
members of entirely distinct chapters from Illinois Beta, although 
there were and are quite a number of the old Beta men in the 
Windy City. 

The honor of this arduous task lies with G. Fred. Rush, H. G. 
Effinger, and William Kerr, of Michigan Alpha, and George Tunell, 
of Minnesota Beta. The charter members were H. C. Howard, 
J. W. Campbell, and W. T. ChoUar, The difficulty of establishing 
a chapter at the University of Chicago can hardly be understood 
by any except those who accomplished the feat In the first place, 
the influence of the all-powerful President Harper was strong 
against it, and he was won over to a tacit consent only after a 
large amount of diplomacy upon the part of all the Greeks in the 
great city and surrounding territory. In the next place, it is a 
very expensive matter to establish a chapter of any sort in a large 
city, where rents and entertainment upon any dignified scale are 
of such price as to be prohibitive to any but a very vigorous and 
determined membership. 

Fortunately, the chapter which acted under the revived charter 
of old Illinois Beta had a most auspicious inauguration at the Audi- 
torium Hotel, January 6th, 1894. This banquet was acknowledged 
by all college men to be the finest thing of its sort ever given in the 
great metropolis of the west. At its tables sat two hundred Phi 
Psis from every chapter in the fraternity, and it was presided over 
by one of the earliest members of the fraternity, Rev. F. M. Gregg, 
of Pennsylvania Alpha. The brothers Woolley, of Ohio Alpha, 
joined forces soon with the new chapter, and the struggle for a 
foothold began. The pluck of the new chapter is shown in the 
fact that at the beginning of the new college year following, 
ajthough there were but three of them, a fine house was rented and 
occupied. This step was necessary to secure any sort of recog- 
nition in the eyes of the students. Its success was rendered pos- 


sible t^ the loyal support of Brothers Fred Rush, I. S. Lewis, and 
George Tunell, who tO€k rooms in the house and helped to share the 
expense of its support 

However, much-needed financial assistance came also from the 
following brothers, who asked not whether it was their chapter 
they were serving, or not, but gave freely and liberally to make the 
new enterprise a pronounced success: R. S. Mott, W. H. Alsip, 
W. S. Holden, £. A. Buzzell, L. M. Coy, George Dixon, A. E. 
Mabie, J. G. Elsden, James Frake, J. G. Marsh, and A. £. Anderson. 

After several changes, always in the direction of better quarters, 
the chapter has established itself in the present elegant home at 
5735 Monroe Avenue. Having been settled for a longer time and 
in better quarters than its rivals, Illinois Beta has maintained a 
prominent and strong position in the college life of the UniTersity 
of Chicago, which it expects to keep. 

Of the later members, few have been out in the world of active 
life long enough to have made a name, but Louis Saas, Sporting 
Editor of the Chicago Record; J. S. Lewis, City Editor of the 
TorotUo (Can.) GasHte, and M. B. Lee, founder of Harvard Phi Psi 
Qub, may be mentioned. Of the older chapter, these are honored 
names : Judge Dorrance Dibdl, of Joliet, 111. ; J. P. Lindsay, Beaver 
Qty, Neb.; Rev. F. L. Anderson, Rochester, N. Y.; Rev. F. R. 
Swartwout, Chicago; £. A. Buzzell, L. M. Coy, R. S. Mott, attor- 
neys, Chicago; T. R. Weddell, journalist, Chicago. 

Wittenberg College, Sfungfield^ Ohio. 

The college was founded in 1845, ^^^ ^s under the patron- 
age of the Lutheran Church. It occupies seven buildings, 
has a faculty of twenty-five, has an annual income of 
$27,000, and enrolls about five hundred and fifty students. 
It confers the degrees of B. A., B. S., M. A., and S. T. D. 

The Ohio Beta Chapter was established. May 14th, 1866, by 
C. W. Bennett and I. N. Mast, ambassadors from Ohio Alpha. 
The charter members were J. O. Davy, I. W. Cassell, M. L. 
Garver, J. B. Pollock, W. H. Settlemeyer, J. S. Weaver, F. N. W. 
Stephenson, and J. C. Garver. 

The circumstances leading up to this event were as follows: 
J. O. Davy, after spending his vacation at his home, east of Dela- 

1 > I O J 

o 9 • o m 

J J J J 
• J 1 1 > 

J I .1 J 


ware, Ohio, during the holiday recess of 1865-66, undertook to 
return to Springfield, but was hindered by impassable roads. At 
last he made his way on foot to Delaware, the nearest railway 
station. Upon arriving there he found his train had jtist left lo 
his dilemma he decided to hunt up a friend. Commodore Rogers, 
who was a student of the Ohio Weslcyan University. Rogers en- 
tertained him pleasantly, and, being himself a Phi Psi, soon had 
Davy safely within the fold. Davy was urged to get a Phi Psi crowd 
together at Wittenberg, which was readily done in a few weeks^ 
and a petition indorsed by Ohio Alpha was presented to the 
Grand Arch Council, by whom a charter was soon granted. 

The chapter had fine success from the start Its meetings were 
held at first in the rooms occupied by the various members, but, 
in a few years, a suitable hall was secured and later a commodious 
chapter-house, finely located, with every modern convenience and 
of ample size. 

Of its distinguished men, the following are worthy to be men- 
tioned; Dr. J. O. Davy, of Springfield, Ohio; Judge W. P. Gar- 
diner, of Los Angeles; O. S. Martin, attorney, Springfield, Ohio; 
Dr. S. A. Ort, ex-President of Wittenberg; Professors B. F. 
Prince, W. S. Hoskinson, A. F. Linn, of Wittenberg, and C.-H. 
Ehrenfeld, of York Collegiate Institute; Hon. M. L. Smyser, Mem- 
ber of Congress; Judge £dw. Hutchinson, of Kansas; Hon. J. W. 
Keifer, ex-Speaker of House of Representatives; A. N. Summers^ 
Circuit Judge, Ohio; Revs. T. F. Domblaser-, W. H. Singley, and 
F. D. Gotwald; A. D. Hosterman and J. N. Garver, publishers; 
S. £. Baker, manufacturer; A. F. Broomhall; S. S. Burtsfield, at- 
torneys; H. £. Lutz, capitalist. 

State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. 

The State University of Iowa was a "consolation prize" 
offered to Iowa City because of the removal of the State 
capital from the former place to Des Moines. The institu- 
tion was established in 1854, but little progress was made 
in the work of education until the capital was removed in 
1857. The old capitol buildings were the first used after 
the university became established firmly, and to this nucleus 
there have been added structures as needed until there are 
now sixteen. The institution really began to thrive after 


the graduation of its first class in 1863. Its endowment was 
not wisely managed, since it consisted of lands much sought 
after by settlers and sold at small prices. The institution 
depends upon legislative appropriations, which are some- 
times adequate and often not liberal, the average being 
$140,000 annually. The university is now strongly in- 
trenched in the popular regard and has made a fine record. 
It has about one hundred members in its faculties, has an 
attendance in the neighborhood of fourteen hundred, and 
confers the following degrees : B. A., B. S., B. Ph., M. A., 
M. S., C. E., M. D., D. D. S., B. Phar. 

Iowa Alpha was established in 1867 by Commodore P. Rogers, 
who had been a Phi Psi at the Ohio Wesleyan University, and 
ttpon coming to the new Iowa University was anxious to see the 
fraternity represented at his college home. He readily secured a 
charter, and soon had a flourishing chapter of the typt known in 
the early days, a band of enthusiastic students who had little thought 
of ceremony, future greatness, or fraternity connecttonal obligation. 
There was not the least opposition upon the part of the faculty, 
and little, if any, from students. The natural resuh was apathy, 
and, in 1876, the charter was sent in because interest was lacking 
to keep the chapter alive. In 1885, however, E. £. Dorr, who had 
been a member of the fraternity at Simpson Centenary, entered 
the university and at once began an agitation for the revival of the 
charter. The charter members of the new org^anixation were: 
E. E. Dorr, Lovell Swisher, A. E. Swisher, H. M. North, H. H. 
Monlux, S. N. Fellows, C. L. Joy, R. F. SWflF, C. F. Qarkson. 
J. H. Newland, of Iowa Delta, was the ambassador to induct the 
initiates into the mysteries of Phi Kappa Psi. 

The re-established chapter had, for a year or two, hard work 
to maintain itself, but since that time it has had a fine career. It 
has always made much of social features, and its rooms, before the 
chapter moved into a chapter-house, were the scene of the most 
brilliant "functions" known to the college. The chapter has had 
a very harmonious life, marred only once in a great while by some 
of the internal disturbances which give spice to the college career, 
an3 really serve to show the fraternity man how strong the ties 
are which bind him to the brothers. The famous North case, 
which the Executive Council labored over for a number of jrears, 
originated in this chapter. Although this case was contested in 


R most spirited manner, it never seriously disturbed the chapter 
life, and is now merely a memory. 

The following may be selected without disparagement to show 
the kind of men sent out by the chapter: Lovell Swisher, banker; 
Judges B. F. Harrington, J. C Helm, and J. J. Campbell, of Colo- 
rado; J. A. Pickler, Congressman from South Dakota; H. C. Bttrk- 
hart, ex-Speaker of Idaho House of Representatives; C. A. White, 
Paleontologist of the United States; S. N. Fellows, educator and 
divine; J. L. Griffiths, Congressman from Indiana; President H. H. 
Seerley, of Iowa State Normal College; R. £. Fitch, educator and 
ranchman, Wyoming. 

Iowa State College, Ames^ Iowa. 

The only reason for placing this caption is to preserve 
the continuity of the records of Phi Kappa Psi, for, to the 
best knowledge obtainable, the Iowa Beta chapter was like 
the Georgia Alpha, which other fraternities credited us 
with having for so many years, despite persistent denials, a 
"barren ideality." The only reference that the Historian 
has found regarding a possible Iowa Beta is a statement in 
the records of the Grand Chapter to the fact that a charter 
had been granted to the Iowa State College. There is not 
to be found anywhere a scrap of evidence that a chapter was 
ever really established. 

Cornell College^ Mt. Vernon^ Iowa. 

This institution was founded in 1857, and is under the 
control and patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
It occupies five buildings, has a faculty of thirty, a yearly 
income of $25,000, and has about six hundred students. 
It confers the degrees of B. A., B. S., B. Ph., and C. E. 

This chapter was established very soon after the Iowa Alpha, 
and the exact date is not recorded. The year of establishment was 
1S68. The charter members were: J. J. Andrews, J. E. Harlan, 
J. S. Hayes, I. F. Giger, J. H. Gilnrth, T F. Mentzer, J. W. Moore, 
and J. T. Wilcox. There seems to have been no very clear idea 
in the minds of the charter members what a Greek-letter society 
was for, and no especial effort was made to develop a fraternity 


Spirit. One of the charter members writes: "I joined it for the sole 
purpose for which I understood it was organized, viz., to heal the 
wide and threatening breach between the two literary societies. 
After that was accomplished, I had but little interest in the order/' 
The following courteous reply was received from another charter 
member, and tells the whole story of this short-lived chapter:— 

"April i6th, igoi. 
"Mr. C L. Van Cleve, Troy, Ohio. 

"My dear 5'fr;— Yours of the 8th, enclosing a former letter to 
Captain Soper and endorsed by him to me, at hand. I am not 
able to give you very much information. The things of '6B-9 have 
faded out from my memory in large part, and I do not know that 
there was very much to begin with. I remember that some time, 
probably in '68, — ^I speak from memory, — Mr. George B. Wame, 
I think a student in the Iowa State University at the time, wrote 
me raising the question or advisability of establishing a chapter 
of Phi Kappa Psi in Cornell College. We had some correspond- 
ence relative to the matter, and the result was the establishing of 
a chapter here. The chapter was not established by consulting 
the faculty, and, of course, without the consent of the faculty, al- 
though there was no purpose in establishing the chapter to do 
other than the faculty might wish. There were no regulations in 
the school at that time regarding Greek fraternities, and the chapter 
was innocently established, so far as the boys who went into it 
were concerned. At that time there were two strong literary so- 
cieties, and what was regarded as the best material in both these 
societies was selected, and thus the membership was secured. 
Nothing of particular moment occurred with the chapter at Cor- 
nell. It was known very soon that there was such a chapter, and 
after I left school, probably the year 1870, the question was agitated 
in a very marked way by the student body, those who were favor- 
able to the society on one side and those who were not on the 
other. Contention reached almost a white heat, and, after some 
constdtation and conference, the President took the matter up with 
the boys, and they agreed to disband providing the anti-fraternity 
men would cease their attacks. Very soon the President was able 
to quiet both sides, and the fraternity at Cornell disbanded, giving 
up the chapter, as the boys thought, for the good of the institution. 

"Fraternally yours, 

"James E. Harlan." 


Of the small chapter roll, the following members have made a 
mark in the world: J. £. Harlan, Vice-President of Cornell Col- 
lege; J. S. Hayes, physician, Denver, Col.; L. £. Curts, ex-book 
agent of the M. £. Church; H. H. Freer, educator; F. B. Gault, 
Superintendent Schools, Tacoma, Wash. 

Columbian University, Washington, D. C 

The Columbian University was inaugurated under its 
present title and form of government in 1873. It uses three 
buildings, has one htmdred and forty-two members in its 
various faculties, has eleven hundred students, an endow- 
ment of $1,000,000, and an annual income of $70,000. It 
confers the following degrees: B. A., B. S., M. A., B. L., 
M. D., D. D. S., Ph. B., and LL. D. The institution has 
a very small undergraduate academic department, but very 
large and flourishing graduate schools. These schools are 
much patronized by clerks in the government departments, 
and the hours for lectures are arranged with special refer- 
ence to this sort of patronage. 

The District of Columbia Alpha was founded in 1868 by James L. 
Norris, Herman S. Johnson, and Summerfield £. Snively. These 
were the charter members, but they soon added to their number 
from among the strongest men of their class and other classes. 
There was no rival fraternity at Columbian at the time of the found- 
ing of the chapter, but this did not seem to deter the new organi- 
zation from making very rapid strides. At the beginning of its 
career the college was situated at the edge of the city, and there 
was some distinctive college life among the students. However, the 
professional departments developed so rapidly that the institution 
found it to its advantage to concentrate its departments at a con- 
venient point in the city. At about this time, Johns Hopkins was 
established at Baltimore, and the rush of students to the new insti- 
tution pretty nearly depopulated Columbian in its undergraduate 
department, which was never large. 

The chapter then was compelled to turn to the law and other 
departments for its initiates. When it is remembered that Colum- 
bian is what they call in Washington a "sun-down'' college, the 
cause of the decline in college life and spirit is easy to learn. The 


classes in the professional schools meet in the evening after the 
departments are closed, enabling the clerks in the departments to 
attend lectures and so secure their professional education. Small 
wonder that men who worked for their living during daylight hours 
had little inclination for social diversion. 

The very noted success of Phi Kappa Psi in the days of Colmn- 
bian's power as a college had caused several rival fraternities to 
establish chapters in a field which had shown itself no longer 
capable of supporting one society. This action upon the part of 
rival fraternities compelled District of Q>lumbia Alpha still further 
to withdraw from the collegiate department The sequel is soon 
told. Driven from the only field in which Greek-letter societies 
can thrive, the chapter tried bravely for a few years to fuse into 
a homogeneous chapter lawyers and doctors, men pursuing lines 
of work so diverse and engaged at hours so conflicting that com- 
munity of interest, however much striven for, was not capable of 

Finally, the futility of further struggle against conditions which 
the fraternity could not prevent nor change being apparent, the 
Executive Council sent the present writer to Columbian to inves- 
tigate the condition of things, and, upon hearing his report, the 
charter was reluctantly withdrawn from a chapter that had enrolled 
among its membership some of the bravest Phi Psis that ever wore 
the shield, and which at one time was the leading chapter in the 
fraternity, being for three years the Grand Chapter. This with- 
drawal of the chapter took place in April, 1899. 

Among the several names that have been famous in Phi Psi 
annals from this chapter may be named the following: £. C. Car- 
rington, Frank Hume, Robert J. Murray, James L. Norris, S. E. 
Snively, E. B. Hay, J. B. G. Custis, H. E. Davis, C. F. Whit- 
tlesey, F. D. McKenney, F. O. McCleary, Professor H. L. Hodg- 
kins, J. E. Christy, C. W. D. Ashley, S. R. Church, F. H. Stephens, 
Professor J. G. Falck, Qinton Gage, A. J. Houghton. 

Co&NELL University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

This famous institution is the result of the combined gifts 
of Ezra Cornell, the State of New York, and the United 
States. It opened its doors to students, October, 1868. It 
owes much, also, to the munificence of H. W. Sage. It 


occupies twenty buildings, has nearly two hundred mem- 
bers in its faculties, has twenty-five hundred students, and 
an annual income of $600,000. It confers the following 
degrees : B. A., B. S., C. E., M. E., M. A., and Ph. D., and 
degrees in special schools, such as architecture. The insti- 
tution was founded with the avowed purpose of affording 
instruction in every known study, for such was the broad 
design of Mr. Cornell. 

The New York Alpha Chapter of Phi Kappa Psi was estab- 
lished in January, 1869, by J. B. Foraker, John A. Rea, and M. L. 
Buchwalter, members of Ohio Alpha who came to Cornell when 
it was opened, to finish their course. These three soon had a 
strong chapter of fifteen, and from its very birth the chapter was 
preeminent. In 1877 Psi Upsilon, which seems to have a fondness 
for renegades, cast lustful eyes upon the young and vigorous 
chapter, and the result was the "lifting" of the New York Alpha 
bodily into the former. The traitors to Phi Kappa Psi stole all the 
archives of the chapter when they committed hari-kari, and all that 
can be learned of the early history of the chapter was gained by 
verbal statements of the older members, whose recollections some- 
times fade fast. The name of one of the seceders deserves record, 
for he afterward "came to himself" and asked to be reinstated — 
Goodwin Brown. On February 13th, 1885, the chapter was rees- 
tablished with the following charter members: C. H. Bickford, 
R. J. Bliss, F. N. Chappell, H. Falkenau, W. H. Smith, W. E. Gray, 
G. £. Higgins, C. £. Linthicum, A. C. Burnett, W. H. Hampton, 
H. E. Heath, F. H. Shepard, W. C. Squire, G. R. Weeks. 

The history of the chapter in its later years has been one of pros- 
perity, checkered now and then with days of despondency, when 
the task of coping with the tremendous roll of strong fraternities 
seemed too much for almost the stoutest heart, but cheered again 
when in some hard battle with rivals, Phi Kappa Psi has shown 
ability to vie with the strongest for desirable men. 

The chapter has taken an active part in the social, athletic, and 
scholastic life of the university, and is respected by all of its most 
formidable rivals. It has, in common with the best fraternities at 
Cornell, built a fine chapter-house in an admirable location, and its 
future looks bright. 

Of its prominent men may be named the distinguished Senator 
from Ohio, J. B. Foraker; Judge M. L. Buchwalter, of the Superior 


Court of Cincinnati; Hon. Carl Schurz; John A. Rea, journalist; 
F. W. Qarke, the famous chemist and author; Professors James 
McMahon, H. J. Ryan, and E. G. Merritt. of Cornell; Professor 
F. H. Hodder, of Kansas State University; W, R. Hattersley, 
Toledo, Ohio. 

Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. 

The college was organized in 1824, but did not enroll 
students until 1826. It is under the patronage and control 
of the Presbyterian Church. It has twenty-one buildings, 
a faculty of forty, four hundred students, and an annual in- 
come of $45,000. It confers the following degrees : B. A., 
B. Ph., C. E., El. Eng., M. E., M. A., and Ph. D. 

Pennsylvania Theta was established March 15th, i86p, as the 
result of the earnest labors of C. G. Voris and E. L. Evans. The 
former, through the solicitation of some friends who were in at- 
tendance upon Bucknell, became a member of Pennsylvania Gamma 
that he might be instrumental in founding a chapter of Phi Kappa 
Psi at Lafayette. In this enterprise he had an efficient co-worker 
in Dr. E. L. Evans, who was at that time a resident of Easton. The 
first meetings were held in Brother Evans' home. By the com- 
mencement of the class of 1869 the following members had been 
initiated: Alexander Bryden, H. P. Glover, L. H. Barber, S. G. 
Wilson, and P. C. Evans. 

The chapter had an unusual degree of success for a new organi- 
zation, for by the commencement of 1871 it had chosen its members 
so well that both the salutatorian and valedictorian were of Penn- 
sylvania Theta's number. It also secured the salutatorian in 1873 
and the valedictorians in 1874 and 1875. 

The first chapter rooms were "discovered" by Bro. P. C. Evans 
on Cherry Alley, south of Ferry Street, and were very dingy apart- 
ments'—which the chapter occupied less than a year, and took no 
pains to furnish beyond the bare necessities of the case. A table, 
a few chairs, a stove, and a lamp about completed the equipment. 
To a carpet they were strangers. The brothers knew it was a tem- 
porary abiding place, yet could neither adorn it nor afford a better. 
The next year (1870), rooms were rented on the upper floor of a 
building on the west side of Third Street, near the Lehigh Bridge, 
which were carpeted and furnished comfortably. Brother Bryden 


having generously papered the walls at his own expense. This 
hall is remembered by all the early members of the chapter, and 
its later homes — ^though more magnificent — ^have not surpassed the 
first either as fountains of cherished associations or in the record 
of faithful work done in the common interest. Thus has been re- 
lated the beginning of Pennsylvania Theta. The years which have 
intervened until the present time are marked by much good work 
done by Theta and its members. More than thirty years have gone 
by since the entrance of Phi Kappa Psi to Lafayette. Once during 
this period, due to a combination of circumstances which were 
unavoidable, the active membership was reduced to three; for a 
time the outlook was very discouraging; but through the persistent 
efforts of these three brothers the chapter gradually increased in 
membership, and soon regained its former strength and activity. 

The men of note who have been members of the chapter are: 
Alexander Bryden, the noted mining engineer; Hon. H. P. Glover; 
Montgomery Evans, Esq. ; Dr. E. M. Green ; G. W. Philips, educator ; 
Professor Collins Denney; Rev^ M. J. Eckels; W. N. J. C Berg- 
stresser, insurance expert; Hon. D. W. Bruckart; Nathaniel Tay- 
lor, Esq; W. N. Wilbur, manufacturer; M. M. Gibson, Esq.; W. S. 
Gilmore, A. W. Cummins, and H. M. Watts, journalists. 

Indiana State University, Bloomington, Ind. 

This institution, which competent authority has pro- 
nounced to be possessed of the best curriculum in the 
country, was established in 1820. It uses eight buildings, 
has a faculty of sixty, an attendance of seven hundred, and 
an annual income of $80,000. It confers the following 
degrees: B. A., B. S., B. L., M. A., and Ph. D. 

The Indiana Beta chapter of Phi Kappa Psi had rather a ro- 
mantic beginning. A local fraternity called Delta Psi Theta haying 
become dissatisfied with its status, determined to connect itself with a 
general fraternity. With that end in view, a delegate from the 
organization was sent to Greencastle to inquire into the quality 
of the fraternities represented there. He was accorded every 
courtesy by two other fraternities as well as by Phi Kappa Psi and 
returned ready to make report. He made a report favorable to one 
of the fraternities other than Phi Kappa Psi, and matters were pro- 
gressing favorably for a charter of that organization, when, in a 


public hall, in the presence of a large audience, one of the members 
of the chosen order was discovered in a state of beastly intoxication. 
This circumstance brought the negotiations to a sudden stop. While 
the matter was being debated as to what to do next, the man 
who had gone as an ambassador to Greencastle, J. L. Pitner, fell in 
with Brother R. N. Allen, of Indiana Alpha. The result of this 
conference was a petition to Phi Kappa Psi which culminated in 
the organization of the chapter on May 15th, 1869. A large dele- 
gation from Indiana Alpha installed the new chapter with the 
following charter members: M. T. Campbell, R. £. Eveleigh, 
N. W. Fitzgerald, W. R. Houghton, G. W. Johns, T. H. Mallow, 
B. F. McCord, E. M. McCord, G. W. McDonald, L. L. Norton, J. L. 
Pitner, L. S. Rowan, G. W. Sanders, H. A. Yeager. 

From the very beginning this chapter has had a remarkable 
career, both in the field of college work and in social and oratorical 
matters. The most notable illustration of this is to be found in the 
class of 1876, when all four class honors were won l^ Phi Psis. For 
a number of years the oratorical and literary honors of the univer- 
sity and the state were carried off by members of Indiana Beta. 
Nor was the chapter deficient in support of fraternity enterprises. 
The first suggestion for a fraternity organ came from this chapter, 
and the strongest support accorded the old Monthly and Quarterly 
came from Indiana Beta. Not the least of the chapter exploits was 
the founding of Wisconsin Alpha. The representative of Wiscon- 
sin University at an oratorical contest held in Bloomington was 
approached by members of the Indiana Beta to gather a company 
together and form a chapter at Madison of Phi Kappa Psi. After 
careful study, the delegate, Mr. J. M. Mills, did as suggested, and 
soon had a- strong band of twelve petitioners. Then came the exas- 
perating delays in chapters' voting with which we are all too 
familiar. In desperation, Indiana Beta proposed to go to Madi- 
son, Wis., and make honorary members of Indiana Beta out of the 
petitioners. In reply a telegram came: "All right; come on at 
once." Within a few hours the following was also received: — 

Sam. £. Harwood, Bloomington, Ind. 
I have 'codded' you long enough. The Dekcs are much better. 

"J. M. Mills." 

Used to desperate tactics, the members of Indiana Beta, nothing 
daunted, went to Madison and found, as they had surmised, the 
dispatch was "bogus." The petitioners were initiated as agreed 


' 4 O l> « 

^ J ^ i ^» 

J J ^ I 

> ■ J 


upon, and the belated charter came later. Much criticism was 
vented against Indiana Beta for its illegal act, but the success oi 
the venture went far to condone the fault, and the dereliction of 
the chapters neglecting to vote was given a good airing. 

Of the more distinguished members, the following deserve special 
mention: Judge J. H. Jordan, Albert Bettinger, J. H. Burford, 
W. H. Woodward, N. B. Smith, D. F. White, W. L. Taylor, Philip 
and Lawrence Van Buskirk, attorneys; Hon. J. R. Williams and 

A. C. Durborrow, Members of Congress; Professor T. G. Alford* 
of Purdue; J. W. Benton, Clerk of Appellate Court, Illinois; W. W. 
Spangler, the distinguished traveler; W. £. Golden, author; Colonel 
G. W. Johns. 


Missouri State University, Columbia, Mo. 

The university was chartered in 1839 and is under state 
control. It has sixteen buildings, sixty-five members in its 
faculties, an annual income of $150,000, and seven hundred 
students. It confers the following degrees: B. A., B. S., 

B. L., B. Fed., B. Agr., B. LL., and Ph. D. 

[Through the devotion of Hon. T. C. Wilson, one of the most 
distinguished citizens of Hannibal, Mo., the following account was 
secured. It is from the pen of Hon. James Cooney, and is given 
in his form, the excellence of the matter and manner justifying the 
somewhat longer account. — ^Historian.] 

In June, 1869, Samuel D. Ayers, of the Indiana Alpha, came to 
Columbia and organized, in the State University, the Missouri 
Alpha. Five young men of the university were initiated as charter 
members, as follows: Bentley H. Runyan, of Columbia, who died 
in 1872 ; Prosscr K. Ray, of Carrollton, now deceased ; Eli Penter, a 
lawyer at Ashland, and one of the most respected citizens of Boone 
County ; James Cooney, and John Prather. Shortly after the chapter 
was organized. Brothers Ray and Runyan graduated with the first 
and second honors of their class. 

On December 28th, 1872, the first great stroke of affliction was 
laid upon the chapter, in the death of Bro. Runjran, who had been 
Bro. Ayers' ''right-hand man" in founding the chapter. The fra- 
ternity, on June 23d, 1874, erected to his memory, in the Columbia 
Cemetery, where he was buried, a beautiful monument with the 
emblems of the fraternity inscribed upon it. On that occasion, all 
the members of the chapter were present, with many friends, and 


memorial services befitting the occasion were held, and Bros. Ray 
and Cooney delivered appropriate addresses. 

Through his talents and ability as a lawyer, Ray was advanced 
to a position in the legal department of the Wabash Railroad, and 
moved to St. Louis to attend to his duties. He was an excep- 
tionally bright young man, and had he lived would have achieved 
distinction in his profession. He died in St Louis several years 
ago. In his address at the memorial services of Bro. Runyan, he 
said things which, not long after, were applicable to himself, this 
for instance: ''Who can name the limitless capacities for heroic 
sacrifices, the unsunned examples for good, the chivalric exploits, 
that are wrapped unseen in the young volunteer, who falls unre- 
marked in the preliminary skirmish, with the greater battle un- 
fought, and the larger victory unwon?" 

Ray and Runyan were classmates for five yeara at the university. 
From the beginning they were marked as chief contestants for 
class honors, and their association was one of constant rivalry. 
Ray took the chief honor of the class in being valedictorian, an 
honor in that day given by the university faculty to the one who 
sustained, throughout his course, the highest efficiency. Runyan 
was awarded the "Stephens Medal" for oratory. 

Ray, in his memorial address, again referred to his classmate in 
the following language: "During five years it was the speaker's lot 
to sit beside him through all the vicissitudes of college days, to 
witness his repeated triumphs and consent to them; to share his 
boyish errors, and, with him, regret them; to behold his life upon 
the shady as well as on the sunny side; to know the dreams, even 
the sacred and sealed romance of that lif6; and now, in this fearful 
mystery of human memory, the shadowy forms and weird voices 
of those vanished years are once more seen and heard. Dim sug- 
gestions, broken jewels of fragmentary memories, link themselves 
once again in luminous order, clear and bright as Indian beads 
upon a perfect roll, we recall with pain our untimely jealousy, and 
with thankfulness our ultimate justice. 

"Ah, classmate-brother, whose life is linked to ours by 'silver 
links and silken ties' death has never yet unloosed, 

" 'We keep for thee the living love of old. 
And seek thy place in nature, as a child. 
Whose hand is parted from its playmate's hold, 
Wanders and cries along some dreary wild.* " 


Their hands were parted but for a few brief years, and then eter- 
nally clasped "upon the other shore/' where, in the grand federation 
of fraternities. Phi Psi has no nobler representatives. 

The Missouri Alpha was, both by necessity and choice, limited 
in the number of its members. There were many able men attend- 
ing the university, whose membership would reflect honor and 
credit on any fraternity, who were barred from the chapter on 
account of their number. The necessity for rival fraternities was 
fdt, and that necessity was soon met. In the latter part of the year 
1870, two other fraternities of the Greek-letter order were intro- 
duced. The Zeta Phi had its origin as a fraternity at the univer- 
sity. It was founded under the direction and encouragement of 
Oram Root, who was then Professor of English in the university, 
and is now connected with Hamilton College, New York. The 
Phi Delta Theta established a chapter under the chaperonage of 
Eugene. Field. He came to the university a Phi Delta, which 
barred his entrance into the other fraternities, and he founded there 
a chapter of his own fraternity. Both of these fraternities were suc- 
cessful and embraced many of the very best men in the university. 
But the Missouri Alpha of Phi Psi led all others in its strength 
and popularity. It had a well-appointed and furnished chapter hall 
of its own, and a fellowship en rapport with the principles and motive 
of Phi Psi, and while its life was dominated and in touch with its 
charter members, and those who were initiated under their in- 
fluence, and it was one of the greatest honors of a university career 
to be called to its circle. It is now a difiicult matter to discover and 
state the causes of the decadence and final disruption of the chapter. 
There was a period in which Greek-letter fraternities were under 
the ban of the university, and had grown in contempt. It is said 
that the Missouri Alpha had become frivolous, and that the spirit 
of pleasure corrupted it. Its charter was resigned or taken from it. 
The Zeta Phi and the Phi Delta Theta also disbanded, and of the 
fraternities that first sprang from the fresh soil of the Missouri Uni- 
versity in '69 and '70, there is scarcely left a memory on its campus. 

In 1891 there was an effort made to revive the chapter. Half 
a dozen of the old members met in Columbia for that purpose, but 
conditions were not favorable to the desire, and the attempt was 

[The men of this chapter were surely of a choice variety when the 
number of them out of the little company who have since become 
distinguished is considered. Besides those named there are: Hon. 


James Cooney, Member of G>ngress; Dr. T. £. Holland, of Hot 
Springs; Dr. J. P. Robinson, insanity expert; S. C. Douglass, O. L. 
Houts, Warren Switzler, J. L. Letcher, and S. P. Sparks, attomejrs 
of note; Roswell M. Field, Editor of Youth's Companion; Richard 
Gentry, railway magnate. — Historian.] 

Nashville University, Nashville, Tenn. 

This institution was the outgrowth of Davidson Academy, 
which was established in 1795. In 1806 the academy was 
reorgani2ed under the name of Cumberland University. In 
1826 its name was again changed to the University of Nash- 
ville, which name it still retains. From 1825 to 1850 the 
university was the leading institution of learning in the 
Southwest. During the Civil War the institution was 
closed. In May, 1870, the literary department was re- 
organized into a military college under the famous General 
Kirby Smith. In 1875 a further change was made, whereby 
the collegiate department was changed to the Peabody 
Normal College for the training of teachers. The medical 
department was (^>ened in 1850 and has had an illustrious 
career. The institution is supported by appropriations 
from the legislature and from the Peabody fund. It con- 
fers these degrees : B. A., B. S., B. LL., M. D. 

[The following account of this chapter was prepared by Horace 
G. Lipscomb, of the old Gamma Chapter. It is so instinct with 
the aroma of loving, tender memory that it seems to the Historian 
nothing short of sacrilege to mar the work of this faithful brother 
of the long ago, so the account is here inserted just as he penned 
it.— C. L. V. C] 

As well as I can remember after a lapse of about thirty years. 
Gamma Chapter of our Phi Kappa Psi College Club was organized 
at the University of Nashville in the fall of 1871, with William L. 
Murfree, Harry Stokes, C. S. Pearce, Edmund Cooper, Jr., and 
James S. Frazer as charter members. The first meetings were held 
in the apartments of Harry Stokes, who had rooms uptown, away 
from the college campus. The writer was the sixth member 
added, and was followed afterwards by Samuel B. Poyntz. William 
Schultz, Robert and John Trigg, John C. Underwood and W. U. 


Grider, Richard Cheatham, and Ward Blake. Our rival college 
society was the Sigma Alpha Epsilon. They outnumbered us, but 
we had a bright lot of boys and thought in our youthful enthusiasm 
that we had the finest material in the college. We were at high 
tide during the session of 1872 and 1873. We then had rooms fitted 
upon the third floor of what is now Lindsley Hall, in the Peabody 
Normal grounds. Representatives belonging to our society were 
the chosen speakers from each — the Agatheridan and Erosophian 
literary societies — ^to deliver the public addresses at the closing 
exercises of the university in June, 1873. Unfortunately, the 
Asiatic cholera broke out in Nashville just prior to date announced 
for the closing exercises, and the college closed and the boys scat- 
tered to their distant homes to avoid this plague. Most of them 
failed to return for the following fall session, and the chapter dis- 

William L. Murfree was from Murfreesboro, Tcnn., which was 
settled by his ancestors. He was of a literary turn of character — 
as were others of his family. His sister, under the nom de plume 
of Charles Egbert Craddock, has won fame and wealth in the lit- 
erary world. Mr. Murfree practiced law in St. Louis, Mo., for 
a long time, and died recently in Colorado, being Dean of the 
Colorado State Law School at the time of his death. 

Harry Stokes was a very handsome and brilliant young man. 
He was raised at Lebanon, Tenn., and was educated for a lawyer. 
He was never robust physically, but had the brightest of minds and 
as lofty soul as mortal ever possessed, and oratorical ability of the 
highest order. He died soon after leaving school. 

C. S. Pearce was raised at Maysville, Ky., being the son of a 
prominent banker of that city. He married a Nashville girl, and 
engaged in the mercantile business for a few years in Nashville. 
He could not get over his banker's education, however, and is 
giving his well-trained services to Uncle Sam as Cashier in the 
Treasury Department at Washington, D. C, where he and his 
family reside. 

Edmund Cooper, Jr., was raised at Shelbyville, Tenn., where he 
still resides. He has been prominent in the manufacturing business 
at that place for several years. 

James S. Frazer studied law, and became a prominent lawyer and 
politician in Nashville. He was an influential member of the state 
legislature for one or two terms, and was rapidly achieving fame 
and fortune as a rising attorney when he died in the prime of life, 


a few years ago. The above is a short history of the charter mem- 

Of the remaining members, Ward Blake, who was a trusted office 
man, and Samuel B. Poyntz, who was a leading stock raiser, at 
Maysville, Ky., both died a few years after leaving school. The 
Trigg boys retired to their cotton plantation in Arkansas, and after- 
wards became prominent in lumber and railroad interests at Tex- 
arkana, in that State. Dr. Richard Cheatham settled near Nash- 
ville, and has done well in his profession, viz., medicine. John C. 
Underwood, whose home was at Bowling Green, Ky., has spent 
most of his time gold mining in Mexico, where he now is. 

Warner U. Grider still lives at Bowling Green, Ky., where, as 
a brilliant attorney and prominent politician, he wields an honored 
influence in public affairs. 

William Schultz was educated for a druggist, but studied medi- 
cine and practiced at Deadwood, Col., when that town was in the 
white heat of her mining prosperity. He has since removed to 
Denver, Col., where he now resides, and is doing well in his chosen 

The writer, for five years after leaving school, engaged in the 
printing business, then in 1878 entered the hardware business, which 
he has since followed with fair success up to the present time. He 
has obeyed the Scriptural injunction about replenishing the earth — 
married young and has seven children and three grandchildren. 

The University of Nashville, in 1871 to 1873, was under the charge 
of Generals £. Kirby Smith and Bushrod Johnson, both of whom 
were prominent commanders on the Confederate side during the 
Civil War. Both of them had experience as educators prior to the 
war. The school was run as a military school. Soon after 1873 
the Literary Department was merged into a State Normal College, 
which, in connection with the Peabody Normal Fund, still runs a 
large establishment for the education of young ladies as well as 
young men. Ex-Governor James D. Porter is the present honored 
Chancellor. The Agatheridan and Erosophian Literary Societies 
still flourish as of yore, but the two rival college clubs — ^the Phi 
Kappa Psi and the Sigma Alpha Epsilon — ^no longer are known to 
the students who fill up the school life of this historical old insti- 


Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 

This college opened its doors to students in 1834. It is 
under the patronage and control of the Presbyterian Church, 
has five buildings, a faculty of forty, an annual income of 
$35>ooo, and an attendance of about three hundred students. 
It confers the following degrees : B. A., B. S., and Ph. B. 

"Indiana Gamma: Founded Friday, December 2d, 1870, at 
Wabash G>llege; Died Friday, March 15th, 1901," is the inscrip- 
tion to be found on one of the many monuments in our fraternity's 
burial ground. Behind it are left the records and history of thirty 
honored years replete with the narration of trials and struggles, of 
triumphs and successes; and around its deserted shrine cluster 
recollections of former splendor which no story of subsequent de- 
cline and death can ever efface. 

After the customary preliminaries, the Grand Chapter issued a 
charter to the Indiana Gamma Chapter of Phi Kappa Psi, and the 
new chapter was duly installed on the evening of Friday, December 
2d, 1870, by Brothers D. J. Eastbum, J. E. Evans, C. M. Wysong, 
M. C. McCormick, and A. Shaw, who came up from Indiana 
Alpha at Greencastle. 

The best record of the genesis of Indiana Gamma is found in this 
excerpt from the minutes of the installation meeting: — 

"Dr. Morgan, with whom Mr. Edwin A. Andrew boarded, very 
kindly for the evening placed at the disposal of Mr. Andrew his 
elegant parlor and an adjoining room. After the adjournment of 
the Lyceum and Calliopian Societies, the candidates for admission, 
viz., Edwin A. Andrew, Edward Payson Johnson, Isaac Oliver 
Jones, Philander C. Cronkhite, Francis Wayland Iddings, John 
Oliver Jennings, and Harry Joseph Milligan, assembled in the room 
of Messrs. Iddings and Jennings, and after some deliberation, saw 
fit to invite Mr. James A. Lynn to become one of their number, and 
then separated again to meet in Dr. Morgan's parlor. 

"All having at length assembled, and having been introduced to 
the gentlemen from Greencastle, the object for which they had 
labored and for which they had come together began to be accom- 
plished. The following is the order in which they were initiated: 
Edwin A. Andrew, Edward Payson Johnson, Isaac Oliver Jones, 


James A. Lynn; Philander C. Cronkhitc Francis Wayland Iddings, 
John Oliver Jennings, Harry Joseph Milligan/' 

From the very beginning the chapter prospered and made its 
influence felt in all collegiate affairs. The first meetings were held 
in Room 32 of Wabash College, the chapter continuing to meet 
there for two years, or until June, 1872. During the college years 
of 1872-73 the meetings were held in Room 43, and then in a hall 
down town, but in the following year, after a few meetings in Room 
42, the chapter secured a hall over Curtis' store, where it continued 
to meet until the fall of 1875. On October 23d, 1875, the first 
meeting was held in the hall owned by C. M. Crawford, over The 
Citizens' National Bank of to-day, and the chapter continued to 
met there until its death, nearly twenty-six years later. 

During the early days of Indiana Gamma, the chapter was pri- 
marily a literary organization, selecting its members on the basis 
of scholarship and congeniality, and making little attempt at social 
diversions. Its needs, therefore, were limited and the expense to 
members was only a trifle. For many years the initiation fee was 
but two dollars; it was then raised to three, five, eight, ten, and 
finally to fifteen dollars in 1895. '^his of itself tells of the internal 
changes within the chapter, for, as the social features of fraternity 
life became emphasized, the expenses grew apace. This trans- 
formation in the chapter's objects was not peculiar to Indiana 
Gamma alone, but was a change working through the whole col- 
lege fraternity system. 

However, the chapter never abandoned entirely its early cus- 
toms, though in the closing years the literary features were sadly 
neglected. With rare exceptions, Indiana Gamma held weekly 
meetings throughout its career, and usually two of the brothers 
were assigned papers or select readings, which were followed by 
general discussion. Brothers who had entered some speaking con- 
test, either of college or one of the literary societies, would rehearse 
at chapter meetings, receiving friendly criticism and suggestions. 

As athletics were developed in the college, the Phi Psis were to 
be found prominently identified with all its branches, and this, as 
well as social expansion, was a strong factor in counteracting the 
prevailing^ literary idea which had so long been emphasized as the 
chapter's chief purpose. There was scarcely a season when our 
fraternity had not one or more representatives on the various ath- 
letic teams, as well as in the college athletic association. 

In all college and class affairs the chapter was an active factor. 


and many a scheme in college politics was hatched in the old hall 
and later carried to a successful consummation. It is worthy of 
note that in the early years of Indiana Gamma it was not unusual 
to receive applications for membership from students, but these 
were seldom acted upon favorably to the applicant, and later the 
custom was frowned upon without exception. 

Another old custom was that no initiate was permitted to wear 
a badge until the chapter so decreed by formal resolution, and often 
several weeks elapsed before this action was taken. This rule was, 
however, abandoned after the first decade. 

The policy of the chapter in selecting its members was always 
conservative, the aim being to secure all-round men, whose ante- 
cedents were beyond question. The result of this policy is apparent 
to-day to one familiar with the roster of the chapter, as thereon 
are found the names of many of Wabash College's most distin- 
guished alumni. 

The chapter had only two honorary members, viz., Robert J. 
Burdette and Bayless W. Hanna. Of the 187 initiates of Indiana 
Gamma, 140 are living and in good standing, and all but two of 
these have recently been transferred to membership in Indiana 
Delta, at Purdue University. 

Like every chapter, Indiana Gamma underwent reverses as well 
as successes, tasting of the bitter as well as the sweet. But the 
immediate cause of her collapse was not an inherent or newly-ac« 
quired weakness in the chapter itself, but the steady decline of 
Wabash College since 1893, which rendered it impossible to hold 
the charter longer without lowering the standard upheld through 
so many years. With sorrow her alumni accepted the inevitable 
necessity, but they did so for the welfare of the fraternity they all 
deeply cherished. Wabash College had for many years held high 
rank among the smaller institutions, its attendance never exceed- 
ing 280, and it was especially fortunate in the standard of students 
it drew. It was this that made our chapter strong in former years, 
and the decline of the old college was a source of deep regret to 
those who had rejoiced in her old-time prestige. 

The alumni of Indiana Gamma foresaw the end early in 1901, as 
the chapter was reduced to only two men, T. G. Hardy, of the 
senior class, and J. G. Weimer, of the freshman class, while the 
available material in college was exhausted. The condition of the 
other five fraternities was scarcely any better, and the student body 
of the college was reduced to about 130. 


So at a called meeting, on March 15th, 1901, several of the alnmni 
assembled with the chapter in final session and formally surren- 
dered the charter they had held for more than thirty years, and 
Indiana Gamma passed into history. 

To Gamma, noblest mother of the Greeks, 
Let's tribute bear of honor, love, respect. 
And lay upon her silent grave a wreath 
Of laurel and green ivy close entwined, 
That these symbols o' fraternal love may bear 
Mute witness to the grief her death has caused 

Let now her hallowed mem'ry rest in peace. 
Disturbed by naught of worldly strife or care; 
Let's one by one pass by her sombre bier. 
And drop a flower on her lifeless form. 

The following are some of the choice spirits who have made the 
name of Indiana Gamma famous in Phi Psi circles: A. B. Anderson, 
attorney, Crawfordsville, Ind; Professor J. H. Osbom, Crawfords- 
ville, Ind.; Professor A. B. Milford, Crawfordsville; Rev. R. F. 
Coyle, Denver; W. B. Austin, attorney and capitalist, Rensselaer, 
Ind.; R. J. Burdette; C. S. Hartman, ex-Congressman, Montana; 
J. R. Hanna, United States Pension Examiner; J. S. McFaddln, 
attorney, Rockvillc, Ind.; F. C. Weimer, journalist; Rev. A. T. 
Aller, Bolivar, Mo.; A. J. Dipboye, journalist; Professor W. D. 
Ward, Emporia, Kan.; W. P. McKee, educator, Mt Carroll, III.; 
C. S. King, legislator; Dr. C. B. Kern, Lafayette, Ind.; E. H. 
Knight, ex-member of Executive Council and attorney of Indian- 
apois, Ind. 


Monmouth College, Monmouth, III. 

This college was founded in 1856, and is under the control 
of the United Presbjrterian Church. It occupies two build- 
ings, has a faculty of thirteen, enjoys an annual income of 
$17,000, and has about three hundred and fifty students. It 
confers the degrees of B. A., B. S., B. LL., and M. A. 

The Illinois Gamma was founded in April of 1871, not in 1870, 
as the records have said. It was the outgrowth of a revolt of certain 


members of Delta Tau Delta and Phi Gamma Delta, who with« 
drew from these fraternities with the expectation of securing a 
charter from one of the leading eastern fraternities. Being disap- 
pointed in this hope, the band of petitioners investigated the merits 
of other fraternities represented in the West, and after this scrutiny 
petitioned Phi Kappa Psi for a charter. The petition was granted, 
and W. P. Kane was sent by the petitioners to Cornell College, 
Iowa, to be initiated into the chapter of Phi Kappa Psi there. 
Upon his return he performed a like service for the following char- 
ter members of the new chapter: J. A. Grier, R. J. Grier, G. W. 
Hamilton, J. H. Gibson, William Baird, J. P. Steele, J. L. Thome, 
J. M. McArthur, L. N. Lafferty, J. D. Sterrett, H. F. Norcross, 
J. B. Gordon, R. H. Hume, and T. A. Blair. 

The new chapter began its career under most favorable auspices. 
The faculty was not hostile and the members were congenial, so 
that the true value of fraternity experiences was felt from the first 
The members took practically all the college honors in sight, and 
nothing seemed to stand in the way of a most vigorous life. 

A new regime, however, was inaugurated with the dose of the 
year 1873-74, when the faculty came to the conclusion that, as the 
church under whose auspices the institution lived was opposed to 
all secret societies, it was unwise and inconsistent to permit fra- 
ternities at Monmouth. The chapters of the fraternities repre- 
sented were asked to disband. This they declined to do, and, as 
a result, the board of trustees passed a radical anti-fraternity law. 

The students who had been initiated before the passage of the 
law were permitted to wear their pins, but to the faculty eye the 
fraternities had ceased to be. This was not true, however, and the 
life "under the rose'' gave that spice to the membership in a for- 
bidden society which made them to flourish as never before. The 
anti-fraternity feeling arose again in 1878, through the boldness 
of the women students, members of the two sororities, who began 
again to wear their pins. They were all summoned before the 
faculty to answer for their rebellious conduct. Hearing of their 
danger, the fraternity men marched in a body to the place of meet- 
ing and shared with the ladies the brunt of faculty displeasure, but 
the showing of strength was of no avail. The authorities would 
not yield, and, although several of the chapters at Monmouth still 
kept up their organizations, it was with but a semblance of their 
former strength. 

In 1880 some tale-bearer apprised the facultv of the meeting place 


of Illinois Gamma, and, as a result of the conflict with the Realty 
over their disobedience, five Phi Psis, members of the senior dass, 
left the institution to finish their course at the University of Chi- 
cago. The other members signed an agreement to disband, and, 
although there was some activity in the chapter after that, the 
chapter's existence was practically at an end in 1884. 

These are the men of the chapter who have achieved distinction: 
D. M. Hammack, H. F. Norcross, attorneys, San Diego, Cal.; 
William Baird, William Yost, H. M. Hogg, S. D. Hayes, and R. J. 
Grier, attorneys; W. L. Steele, educator; J. P. Lindsay, legislator; 
W. M. Glenn, journalist. 

Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Va. 

This college has two locations, one at Ashland and a 
woman's department at Lynchburg. It opened its doors 
to students in 1832, the woman's department in 1893. ^^ 
is under the control and patronage of the Methodist Church, 
South. It has fifteen buildings, sixty members of its 
faculties, an annual income of $&),ooo, and somewhat more 
than five hundred students. 

Tfie founding of Virginia Epsilon was due to the loyalty and 
enthusiasm of Professor Harry Estill, who had come from Wash- 
ington College to Randolph-Macon and had been a member of 
both Virginia Beta and Virginia Alpha. He associated with him- 
self in this work Dr. G. W. Carrington, Virginia Alpha, and D. C. 
Lyle, of Virginia Beta. The charter members were: Charles Car- 
roll, E. B. Harrison, G. M. Nolley, and R. H. Tebbs. The chapter 
was made up of men well chosen for fraternity life, and for a few 
years the Virginia Epsilon prospered greatly. Upon the authority 
of the minute book of the chapter, the date of the organization was 
April 1st, 1871. 

Its life in the college was not marred by unseemly strifes with 
its rivals, and although the members of Virginia Epsilon for a 
number of years took nearly all of the college honors, there seemed 
to be engendered no ill feeling on that account The even tenor of 
chapter life' was not broken untij the spring of 1880, when the 
founder and benefactor of the chapter, Professor Estill, died. Hit 
loss was irreparable, and the chapter never rallied from it. Al- 
though some few Phi Psis remained in college for several years 


alter this, there was no active chapter present in the college after 
the commencement of 1882. 

Of the distingnished men of the chapter, these are to be noted: 
R. H. Tebbs, Robert Burton, Gray Carroll, attorneys; D. W. Tay- 
lor, United States Navy; Frank Noland, journalist; R. B. Smithey, 
J. L. Hall, and D. C. Lyle, educators; L. D. Carroll, mechanical 
and electrical engineer. 

University of Woostbr, Wooster, Ohio. 

This institution was founded in 1866, but the work of 
instruction was not begun until 1870. It is under the con- 
trol and patronage of the Presbyterian Church. It has had 
until recently five buildings, but a destructive fire in the 
fall of 1901 has temporarily deprived the institution of its 
best building and compelled a partial cessation of college 
work. After a vigorous campaign for funds the institution 
has secured more than $400,000 with which to rebuild. 
It has a faculty of thirty, an income, yearly, of nearly 
$40,000, and eight htmdred students. It confers the de- 
grees of B. A., B. S., B. L., M. A., and Ph. D. 

The Ohio Gamma chapter was founded through the indefatigable 
efforts of P. M. Cartmell, a former member of Ohio Beta, who 
had entered the new school at Wooster when it opened its doors. 
By his own enthusiasm and zeal he gathered together a band of 
petitioners, secured a charter, and brought to his assistance a num- 
ber of members of neighboring chapters, who with him initiated 
the charter members upon the evening of June 15th, 1871, in the 
ante-rooms adjoining the stage of the old Arcadome Hall. These, 
with Cartmell, were the charter members: A. D. Metz, W. H. 
McFarland, and J. H. Rabbitts. 

The faculty was credited with evil designs against college fra- 
ternities, and so the formation of the chapter was kept a profound 
secret Phi Kappa Psi was the first of the fraternities to enter 
Wooster, but others followed thick and fast, until finally there were 
seven in all. This proved a very unwise course, for the institution 
was not at the time large enough to support so many Greek-letter 
societies with good material. 

It is no idle boast to say that for ten years after its foundation 
Ohio Gamma was easily first in all social, literary, scholastic, and 



athletic affairs of the college, taking practically every college and 
oratorical honor, and, although the institution suffered a very 
noticeable collapse in the early 'go's, Ohio Gamma might possibly 
have weathered the storm, had it not been for a very questionable 
policy which prevailed in 1881-2. During those years the chapter, 
strong in the knowledge and pride of its superiority, began to "lift" 
men from other fraternities, in order to demonstrate its power. 
Members of Phi Delta Theta, Beta Theta Pi, and Sigma Chi were 
so added, and ere long the knell of the chapter was sounded. The 
unnatural strength soon came to naught, and by the close of 1884 
the chapter was in a decline. In 1886 and 1887 the devotion of 
Edward Siegenthaler, C. A. McDonald, G. C. Nimmons, Monroe 
Manges, C. M. Voorhees, and F. D. Glover availed to put the 
chapter once more on the highway of prosperous life, but the col- 
lege itself ran against a great snag in 1893, when, owing to a con- 
test between the faculty and the students over athletics, a large pro- 
portion of the students left the institution, never to return, and aided 
in spreading abroad the impression, which was already too preva- 
lent, that Wooster was "narrow-gauge." This unfortunate de- 
cadence in the college, which happily is now disappearing, was fatal 
to three fraternities. Phi Kappa Psi among the rest. It was impos- 
sible to maintain a good chapter from the material left in the insti- 
tution, and so the charter was surrendered in 1893. It is hoped that 
the newer regime which is now bringing increased influence and 
power to Wooster may also result in the reestablishment of the chap- 
ter, once so famous in Phi Kappa Psi. It must never be forgotten 
that it was the enthusiasm and loyalty of Brothers D. C. List, J. F. 
Kinkade, and C. F. M. Niles that made this history possible, and that 
no more vigorous men and brothers capable of greater things for 
the fraternity exist than are to be found upon the roll of Ohio 

These are her distinguished names: Hon. Pearl M. Cartmell, ex- 
Mayor, W. S. Thomas and Harry Frey, manufacturers, Springfield, 
Ohio; J. H. Rabbitts, Postmaster, Springfield, Ohio; Willis M. 
Kemper, W. A. West, Edward Kibler, A. S. Rodgers, J. E. West, 
A. H. Wycoff, John McS weeny, and A. S. Metz, attorneys; H. A. 
McFadden, H. N. Qemens, journalists; B. W. Carlisle and N. C. 
Raff, bankers; W. H. McFarland and Sidney Strong, ministers of 
the gospel; W. M. Greene, railway magnate. 

• • 

• • • • • 


• • 

• • • •• • • I 

• - 


New Ydhk Beta. Pennsylv. 

New York Gamma. 


Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 

This institution was originally chartered as King's Col- 
lege in 1754. It has recently built magnificent buildings 
in the northern part of the city, ten in number. It has 
nearly three hundred members of its faculties, has three 
thousand five hundred students, and an annual income of 
$1,000,000. It confers the following degrees : B. A., Ph. B., 
B. S., B. LL., M. D., C. E., M. E., Mi. E., Elec. E., M. A., 
B. Ped., Ph. D. 

The New York Gamma chapter was established in 1872 at the 
St Cloud Hotel, under the auspices of a delegation from New York 
Alpha. From its inception it met with immediate success. The 
terrors surrounding the enterprise of maintaining chapters at Co- 
lumbia had deterred many fraternities from attempting to do so, 
and for that reason there has always been ample material to choose 
from in securing members. The college honors secured by the 
chapter in its first two years seem almost incredible; in class offices, 
in class-room honors, and in college enterprises the members of 
New York Gamma bade fair to monopolize afiFairs at Columbia. 
In an evil day, certain men were initiated who cared more for dis- 
play and expenditure than for scholarship, and the chapter, al* 
though owning a considerable amount of property, abandoned it, 
and the charter was surrendered in 1876 to avoid the disagreements 
and dissension aroused by the plutocratic tendency. 

For a long time the chapter was quiescent, until there appeared 
at Columbia an enthusiastic Phi Psi from New York Epsilon, 
Augustus N. Allen, who, with the efficient aid of Henry T. Scad- 
der, at the time President of the New York Alumni Asso- 
ciation of Phi Kappa Psi, reestablished the chapter in 1892. On 
the evening of May 12th, 1892, at the Arena, under the auspices of 
W. C. Sproul, the Archon of the District, and the New York Alumni 
Association, the new start of the chapter was made. 

The record made since the re-organization is well in keeping with 
the traditions of the older chapter, for the members have taken a 
high rank in the institution, having had a full share in athletic 
sports, in literary, musical, and social clubs, and have won honors 
in Greek, Rhetoric, French, and Latin. Besides all this, the 
members of the chapter have had prominence in class organi- 


zations. The chapter has had excellent opportunities for getting 
together, and, with the efficient aid of the famous New York Alumni 
Association, its members have learned effectively the value of fra- 
ternity fellowship. 

New York Gamma took the initiative in founding New York 
Zeta, and may be always counted upon to further every good Phi 
Psi work. Of the members who formed the chapter from 1872 to 
1876 may be named the following as distinguished members: Dr. 
Richard T. Bang, of New York; Dr. A. Meyer, of New York; 
David Caiman, W. E. Page, £. P. George, Townsend Jones, R. A. 
Livingston, attorneys,^ New York; Judge Philip Dugro, of the New 
York Superior Court and ex-Congressman; Rev. Henry T. Scud- 
der; Henry C. DeMille, author and dramatist. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Although authorized in 1833, while Wisconsin was still a 
territory, the first buildings were not erected until 1851, 
but the institution's real growth begins with 1866, when 
the institution was reorganized. It has twelve buildings, 
one hundred and twenty in its faculties, an annual income 
of $300,000, and an attendance of two thousand students. 
The university confers the degrees of B. A., B. S., B. L., 
Phar. B., M. D., B. LL., M. A., and Ph. D. 

As is elsewhere narrated, the inspiration for forming the Wis- 
consin Alpha chapter came from the attendance of Mr. J. M. Mills 
at the Inter-State Oratorical Contest at Bloomington, Ind., as 
the representative of* the University of Wisconsin. When it was 
ascertained that he was a non-fraternity man, he was approached 
by several chapters at Bloomington to join them, but, to quote 
the language of one of his personal friends, "Being captivated 
by the gentlemanly conduct and independent bearing of the Phi 
Psi boys,'' he was persuaded to attempt the establishment of a 
chapter of Phi Kappa Psi at Madison. Mr. N. U. Hill, of Indiana 
Beta, came to Madison and initiated the men chosen by Mills 
upon June 15th, 1875, >nto Indiana Beta as honorary members, 
since he had no authority to constitute a new chapter. After some 
spirited criticism of the arbitrary conduct of Indiana Beta, a 
charter was obtained, and the chapter actually established, No- 
vember 22d. 


These are the charter members: J. M. Mills, S. H. Gill, W. A. 
Hoover, Richard Meyer, J. J. Fisher, H. L. Daniels, A. S. 
Ritchie, F. H. Winsor, P. V. Lawson, W. G. Clough, A. H. An- 
derson, E. R. Hicks, C. H. Albertson, R. R. Warden, C. E. 
Hooker, and F. G. Maud. All of these, with the exception of 
the last four named, were of the party chosen by Mills. 

The foundation of the chapter came at an opportune time. 
Beta Theta Pi, the only other Greek-letter society in the university, 
had been running things with a high hand, and there was a strong 
revulsion of feeling away from its schemes and influence, in 1876. 
This was Wisconsin Alpha's harvest-time, and many of the strongest 
men in the fraternity were glad to accept invitations to join with the 
new chapter 

From the beginning Wisconsin Alpha devoted much attention 
to oratory, which had the right of way in college affairs during 
the later seventies everywhere in college circles. The chapter 
secured a number of choice places in local contests, and twice its 
members won the State contest. For the years 1877 and 1878 the 
first honors of the graduating class were taken by Phi Psis. The 
chapter was also very influential in athletics, so much so that at 
one time nearly the- whole of the base-ball club representing the 
university were Phi Psis. The social life of the chapter was very 
active, too, and the select society of Madison. saw Phi Psis more 
often by far than the members of other fraternities. The chapter 
soon secured a hall and furnished it elegantly, and when, in later 
years, agitation began for chapter-houses, it was prompt to get 
into harmony with the fraternity policy. 

The chapter had a most flourishing history until the memorable 
days of 1893. As unexpectedly and suddenly as the proverbial 
thunder from a clear sky, the intelligence was disseminated that 
Wisconsin Alpha had suicided. The method is immaterial, but the 
purpose was union with Psi Upsilon. The poor manikins had 
grown ashamed of Phi Kappa Psi and desired union with a 
"tonier" fraternity! An indication of how dastardly the attempt 
was may be learned from the fact that a letter written by the 
chapter correspondent to The Shield in March, 1893, and full of 
interesting details of the chapter life, was actually dated upon the 
same day as that upon which the members "resigned" to each 
other and organized a local fraternity, which, a few years later, 
was taken up by Psi Upsilon, the affectionate step-mother of 


Several opportunities presented themselves for reestablishing 
the chapter, in fact it might have been reestablished at once, but 
the wise counsel of the conservative Executive Council pre- 
vailed, and it was not until January 16th, 1897, that the band of 
loyal fellows who could brave the terrors of starting anew a 
chapter of such a record as Wisconsin Alpha had made in its 
earliest days, was inducted into the mysteries of Phi Kappa Psi. 

The occasion was made a memorable one, for the officers of 
the fraternity thought that the circumstances under which the 
chapter died warranted pomp and ceremony in its resurrection. 
W. L. McCorkle, President of the fraternity, came all the way 
from New York to grace the occasion; W. S. Holden, Secretary 
of the Executive Council, was also present; ex- President W. 
C. Wilson was there; G. Fred. Rush, ex-Editor of The Shield, 
was there; Archon Malcolm O. Mouatt was there; and members 
of fourteen chapters were there. The work was done by members 
of Wisconsin Gamma, assisted by President McCorkle, and at the 
close of the ceremonies the company sat down to a toothsome 
banquet at the Park Hotel. This was the chapter roll of the re- 
vived chapter at the close of the visit of the installing officers; 
Professor Haskins, of the faculty; W. N. Mclver, W. A. Atkinson, 
N. A. Wigdale, J. H. Tillisch, E. L. Axtell, F. L. McNamara, 
J. T. S. Lyle, B. M. Palmer, S. B. Echlin, E. G. Collins, C. H. 
Sutherland, E. L. Williamson, A. J. Smith, E. H. Peterson. 

The revived chapter was at once installed in a chapter-house, 
and the subsequent history of the chapter has proved that the men 
chosen to pilot the chapter to its once proud preeminence were 
selected wisely. The standard maintained by the Wisconsin Alpha 
since that glorious January night is such that any chapter might 
be proud to claim for itself. 

The men who have honored Wisconsin Alpha and Phi Kappa 
Psi are many, but there is place for the mention of only these: 
C. R. Evans, Dean of Law Faculty, Grant University; E. R. Hicks, 
Attorney-General of Wisconsin; J. F. Case, distinguished railway 
engineer; R. A. Cole, the well-known attomor and Democratic 
politician, of Milwaukee; C. M. Wales, Manager Geveland City 
Forge and Iron Co., New York; Paul Browne, county judge; 
H. H. Price, ex-member of Congress; L. E. Walker, banker and 


University or Kansas, Lawuencb, Kan. 

The university was established in 1864. The institution 
was very small at first, but it has had a very remarkable 
growth. It now occupies eight buildings, has eighty mem- 
bers in its faculties, an annual appropriation of about 
$350,000, and a student body of eleven hundred and fifty- 
four. It confers these degrees: B. A., B. S., B. LL., B. 
Mus., B. Phar., M. A., and Ph. D. 

The Kansas Alpha chapter was established by F. O. Marvin and 
G. W. Hapgood, as the result of a petition to the Grand Chapter 
when it was situated at the Ohio Wesleyan University with the 
Ohio Alpha chapter. The first meeting was held on the anni- 
versary night, February 19th, 1876, and these were the charter 
members: F. O. Marvin, G. W. Hapgood, C. S. Gleed, H. H. 
Jenkins, V. F. Brown, H. W. Berks, J. W. Gleed, H. Crandall, 
and G. T. Nicholson. 

The new chapter plunged at once into college politics, and soon 
had, with Beta Theta Pi, almost entire control of every enter- 

The policy of the chapter from the beginning has been to take 
an active part in all college enterprises, and as a result our men 
have been influential in almost every student undertaking. The 
ideal fraternity man has not been regarded as an all-around sport, 
nor has the thought that a man's standing depends entirely upon 
the class honors he takes, had precedence, but in these and in 
oocial afiFairs Kansas Alpha has had a very considerable influence. 
This position can be readily understood when the standing of the 
alumni of the chapter is considered. Six of the most able members 
of the faculty are proud to be regarded Phi Psis, and in the affairs 
of the state. Phi Kappa Psi has held notable rank through the 
brilliant men sent forth from its halls. 

The chapter early responded to the call for chapter-house life, 
and the subsequent experience of the members has proved how 
wise it is to have a fraternity home for old members as well as 
for the active membership. During two years, from 1885 to 
1887, Kansas Alpha was publishing chapter for The ShUld. 

Although so young a chapter, Kansas Alpha has sent forth 
many men of mark, among whom may be mentioned W. C. 


Spangler, Chancellor of the University; Hon. £. C. little, ex- 
G>nsul-General to Egypt, and Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. Vol. with 
General Funston as his Colonel; W. J. Gleed and C. S. Gleed, dis- 
tinguished attorneys; F. O. Marvin, M. W. Sterling, Professors in 
University of Kansas; Professor W. G. Raymond, University o£ 
California; G. T. Nicholson and C. £. Fearl, railway magnates; 
R. W. E. Twitchell, S. T. Gilmore, and F. D. Hutchings, attorneys. 

Univkrsity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

This institution was established in 1837, and has had a 
most remarkable history. Although the prey of internal 
dissensions and legislative interference during the first 
twenty years of its life, the University of Michigan has 
become one of the few great institutions in the land. It has 
twenty buildings, faculties aggregating two hundred pro- 
fessors, students to the number of three thousand, and an 
annual income of $500,000. It confers these degrees: 
B. A., B. S., B. Ph., B. Lit, M. D., B. LL., Phar. B., 
Phar. M., D. D. S., M. E., C. E., Mech. E., Elec. E., M. A., 
Ph. D. 

The circumstances of the founding of Michigan Alpha are some- 
what peculiar A number of undergraduates petitioned the Grand 
Chapter, at the Ohio Alpha chapter, for a charter, and at the 
some time an entirely different set of petitioners from the pro- 
fessional schools, former members of the fraternity, also pre- 
sented a petition. The latter body of petitioners, after a vexatious 
delay, secured the coveted charter, but the delay had been such 
that they had practically all left the institution before the authority 
to establish the chapter was secured. 

In the spring of 1876, William Yost, who had been enrolled 
as a Phi Psi at Monmouth College, where fraternities were under 
the ban of the faculty, at the request of one of his friends, also a 
member of Illinois Gamma, went to the Ohio Weslejran University, 
at Delaware, and received regular initiation at the hands of Ohio 
Alpha with the avowed intention of establishing a chapter at 
the University of Michigan, whither he was bound for his law 
course. Having stopped at the Ohio Wesleyan University on his 
journey to Ann Arbor in the fall, Bro. Yost was surprised- to 


ieam that the nucleus for a chapter, which he had been led to 
believe was all ready for him at the University of Michigan, had 
become dissipated. He was urged by the Grand Chapter to under- 
take, single-handed, the establishment of the chapter. This he 
courageously determined to do, and after energetic canvassing of 
available material he initiated the f<^lowing charter members of 
Michigan Alpha, November 2d, 1876, in Rooms 32 and 33 of Cook's 
Hotel: W. A. Johnston, W. F. Coad, A. F. Hanson, C. M. Ham- 
mond, G. W. Spencer, and J. W. Johnston.. 

The earlier years of the chapter life were not especially 
pleasant, the peculiar character of the membership rendering a 
community of interest almost impossible. All of the charter 
members were in the professional schools, and as the years went 
by much of the enrollment was from similar material, many coming 
by transfer from other chapters. A lack of harmony could not be 
wondered at. Men used to commanding positions in their former 
chapters naturally desired to rule, and too many rulers placed 
the chapter in much the state of the army of Artemas Ward, no 
rank being lower than Brigadier-General. 

As the years went by, the initiates became fewer from the 
professional schools, and the literary department soon claimed 
practically all those who were invited into the chapter, although 
an occasional transfer from another chapter would bring a re- 
cruit from the professional ranks. 

The most marked advance made by Michigan Alpha was its 
determination to risk the expense and the many problems of a 
chapter-house. In 1881, the chapter rented a modest frame prop- 
erty and undertook the real community life in a common resi- 
dence. This venture was entirely successful, but the growing 
power and influence of the chapter demanded more commodious 
and pretentious quarters. It was at this juncture that the present 
elegant house owned by the chapter was leased. It was a very 
large and risky venture to take a house such as the beautiful 
home of Michigan Alpha is, and the brothers who had the courage 
to try the experiment deserve to be canonized. These are they: 
L. A. Rhoades, F. B. Leland, J. V. Denney, F. B. HoUenbeck, 
S. C. Parks, E. T. Schuler, F. T. Wright. 

The house project was an immediate success. It afforded the 
chapter opportunities in the "spiking'' line which it had never en- 
joyed before, and it soon became the center of the fraternity. life. 
In i8go, so indispensable had the chapter-house become to the 



chapter, the bold move was made to purchase the property. This 
was done through the agency of the Alumni Association of Michigan 
Alpha of Phi Kappa Psi. A stock company was organized with 
W. S. Holden as President, G. Fred Rush as Secretary, and Joseph 
i Halsted as Treasurer. This committee and particularly the inde- 

fatigable secretary, went bravely to work and the chapter-house 
with many valuable improvements, easily the best at Ann Arbor, 
is now the property of the chapter through this association, with 
no incumbrance of any kind. It is worth $25,000 and is a monu- 
ment to the loyalty of Michigan Alpha's alumni. 

The chapter has had an active share in all the life of the uni- 
versity. It has had among its members famous athletes, shrewd 
college politicians, learned scholars, society leaders, and plenty 
of good all-around manly men. The chapter policy in rushing men 
is at once thorough and consistent. The rushing season at Ann 
Arbor is short and energetic. The chapter appoints in the spring a 
committee of upper-classmen who study to ascertain what material 
will be available at the opening of the college in the fall, and the 
alumni are communicated with to enable the committee to work 
intelligently upon the new men who are reported to them. "Spik- 
ing'' is done in an open, dignified way, and the initiations also are 
made as impressive as possible. 

The chapter has always regarded it as a sacred duty to keep 
its alumni in close touch with it. To that end it has for twenty 
years gone to the labor and expense of sending to each alumnus 
a letter once a month telling of chapter and college doings. The 
labor has been amply compensated for in the devoted loyalty of 
the alumni. The policy of the chapter has been to take men for 
many reasons and not for one or another. The result has been 
a harmonious, homogeneous chapter. The chapter has always been 
conservative upon extension. It believes thoroughly in the unit 
rule and is staunch in its defense. 

The chapter-house life with its delightful associations, its cher- 
ished traditions of the noble men of old, its blessed memories of 
mutual joys and common griefs, has made for Michigan Alpha a 
fund of tender, loving recollection that no man can afford to miss 
out of his college experience and which will grow dearer as the 
years grow longer from the days when we were all boys there to- 

Michigan Alpha's long list of honorable men may safely num- 
ber these as distinguished in the world's eye: Wm. Yost, W. S. 


Holden, G. F. Rnsh, attorneys; Professors F. H. Hodder, J. V. 
Denney and J. R. Effinger; J. W. Dorst, the well-known engineer; 
F. B. Leland and S. C. Parks, financiers; Dr. R. B. Preble. 


RAaNE College, RxaNE, Wis. 

The institution is under the control of the Episcopal 
Church, and was founded in 1853. It occupies but one 
building, has a faculty of six, a student attendance of about 
sixty, and an annual income of $14,000. It confers the 
degree of B. A. 

This chapter had a very brief existence. It was established by the 
Grand Chapter when situated at the Ohio Alpha chapter. The 
installing officer was A. S. Ritchie, of Wisconsin Alpha. The 
chapter was only organized during parts of two college years. 

The date of establishment was October, 1876. The chapter 
entered upon its Phi Psi experience with fair prospect of continued 
and useful life, but the faculty was not friendly to fraternities and 
soon stringent prohibitory legislation compelled the return of the 
chapter's charter. 

The total membership of the chapter was only eleven and of 
this small number three have since died. The best known member 
of the chapter is William A. Paulsen, the well-known attorney 
and playwright of Chicago. 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

This great institution is the outgrowth of the famous 
Penn's Charity School, and was largely the result of the 
enthusiastic support and financial aid of Benjamin Franklin. 
The university was really established upon college lines in 
1810, and has had a substantial growth since. It uses 
twenty-two buildings, has faculties aggregating nearly three 
hundred, has twenty-eight hundred students, and an annual 
income of $300,000. It confers these degrees: B. A., B. S., 
B. Mus., B. Arch., B. Eng., C. E., M. E., Min. E., Mus. D., 
LL. D., M. A., Ph. D., B. LL., D. D. S., M. D. 


Several years before the actual founding of this chapter, a charter 
had been granted for this purpose to a number of graduate mem- 
bers of the fraternity, who were residents of Philadelphia, and 
who had conceived the idea of establishing a chapter in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. All efforts that they made toward the 
accomplishment of this end failed, and it was only after a lapse 
of years, through the agency of Edgar F. Smith and John Marshall, 
that the chapter was finally founded At that time Dr. Smith was 
instructor in chemistry in the university and Dr. Marshall was as- 
sociated in the laboratory with him. Both of these gentlemen had 
joined the fraternity at Gettysburg some years before. Finding a 
number of Phi Psis, graduates of other colleges in attendance at 
the university, they saw in them the nucleus of a chapter, and 
asking a number of desirable men, who had not yet united them- 
selves with any other secret organization, F. A. Kurtz and H. C. 
Clabaugh were invited down from Gettysburg, and on the evening 
of October 13th, 1877, the ritual was read to the charter members 
of the Iota chapter. 

The chapter grew rapidly and enjoyed ten years of unbroken 
prosperity. The first meetings were held in the law office of J. J. 
Meyers, Jr., a loyal member of Pennsylvania Zeta, but suitable 
meeting rooms were soon secured elsewhere. In later years several 
removals were necessitated by the increase in the size of the 
chapter. From the very first the chapter was most fortunate in 
its selection of members; the democratic spirit which pervades the 
fraternity prevailed and its members exhibited towards one another 
that warm fraternal regard, without which no chapter can suc- 
cessfully exist. The chapter was strongest in 1884 when nearly 
every important position in the undergraduate world in the uni- 
versity were occupied by members of the chapter. But this very 
strength proved to be most detrimental to its welfare. The active 
members, perfectly happy and secure in their fraternal relations, 
hesitated to admit new members to their number, fearing lest the 
harmony might be interrupted, whilst they forgot that they would 
soon graduate and that they would leave none to carry on the 
work. As a consequence of this lack of foresight, the life of the 
chapter from 1887 to 1889 was apathetic, but at no time was it 
without active members or a place of meeting, and meetings were 
held, although at infrequent intervals. 

In the spring of 1889, the alumni of Iota, together with the 
brothers who were still in the university, selected four men whom 


thtj believed capable of restoring the chapter to a more vigorous 
life in the college department, and on the evening of June 12th, 1889, 
J. N. Penniman, J. G. Stoddart, H. W. Ogden, and C. R. Lee were 
initiated into the fraternity. All four were honor men and two 
were subsequently elected to Phi Beta Kappa. The ceremony was 
unique in the history of college secret societies. It was conducted 
by Edgar F. Smith, professor of chemistry, O. H. Kendall, professor 
of mathematics in the university, and W. C. Po6ey> Archon of 
the District. The vice-provost's room was used for the purpose, 
the candidates taking the oath on the college-chapel Bible. Suit- 
able rooms were secured and the membership rapidly increased, 
fifty names having been added to the roll in four and a half years. 
The rooms were moved several times with a view to increased 
comfort, and now the chapter occupies a house at the comer of 
Thirty-third and Walnut Streets, in the near vicinity of the 
university, where, as a result of the better location and the more 
vigorous fraternity spirit fostered by chapter-house life, the chap- 
ter has increased in numbers and power until it bids fair to become 
as strong as in the palmy days of the early eighties. 

The men of distinction from the Pennsylvania Iota are the 
following: Tosui Imadate, professor in the Imperial University 
of Japan; Dr. John Marshall, Dr. G. G. Davis, Dr. G. A. Koenig, 
Dr. W. D. Marks, Dr. Felix Schelling, Dr. Randolph Faries, and Dr. 
J. H. Penniman, all of the various faculties of the University of 
Pennsylvania; Drs. W. C. Posey, King Gotwald, and Joseph 
Sailer, the brilliant medical practitioners; Carl Hering and Edgar 
P. Earle, the celebrated engineers; T. D. Finletter, prominent 
politician and attorney, Philadelphia; F. B. Lee, historian and 



Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

The institution was founded in 1879 as the result of the 
beneficence of the man whose name it bears. It is primarily 
a post-graduate institution, although it has a smsdl under- 
graduate department. It has eleven buildings, a faculty of 
one hundred, six hundred students, and an annual income 
of $200,000. It confers these degrees : B. A., B. S., M. A., 
Ph. D., M. D., B. LL., LL. D., Lit. D. 

The Maryland Alpha chapter was established in the fall of 1879 
by Collins Denney, Pennsylvania Thcta; F. Albert Kurtz, Pennsyl- 


vania Epsilon; and Alexander Brown, Virginia Alpha. The first 
initiates, or charter members were: Hiram Woods, Jr., Ndsoa 
Palmer, H. J. Bowdoin, D. M. Murray, G. F. Gephart, and Bow- 
man Dosh. 

As Johns Hopkins had been formed to excel in the quality of its 
work and not to strive for numbers, so Maryland Alpha was 
destined, for a time at least to be classed among the small chap- 
ters of Phi Kappa Psi. Although this necessity has sometimes 
brought discouragement in keeping up the external side of the 
chapter's work, it cannot be called an unmixed evil, for the 
smallness of numbers has had a tendency to increase the devotion 
of the individual members to one another and to the fraternity. 
The present membership believes that the founders acted wisely in 
laying as the cornerstone of the structure of the chapter, fellowship. 

The active life of the chapter was undertaken in earnest from 
the beginning, and the presence of the chapter has been of great 
service in rallying the large and influential body of Phi Psi alumni 
in the city, and in turn their presence and assistance have materially 
benefited the chapter. In the beginning and in the stress of its 
poverty, the chapter was a vagrant so far as having a regular and 
suitable meeting place was concerned, but in 1890 the chapter made 
the bold move of entering a commodious and well-located chapter- 
house, and has never had any cause to regret the action. The 
chapter-roll has been materially increased, and the Phi Psi home 
of Baltimore is a veritable center of congenial brothers. 

Although so young, Maryland Alpha has already sent out some 
distinguished men: Dr. Hiram Woods, Jr., one of Baltimore's most 
famous oculists; Basil Gordon, who has just died, one of the most 
influential of the younger politicians of Virginia; E. R. L. Gould, 
one of the authorities of the country on charity-organization; Paul 
J. Dashiell, professor of Chemistry at U. S. Naval Academy, and 
the great authority upon foot-ball; R. M. McLane, State's Attorney 
for Baltimore; Dr. J. W. Lazear, whose death, recently, was a 
noble expression of how a man may give his life for science. He 
was an authority upon yellow fever, and died while experimenting 
to enlarge the range of human knowledge in regard to the dread 
scourge; W. W. Willoughby, Professor of Political Science in the 
university; James E. Routh, Jr., winner of the Century prize for 
the best essay from a graduate of the class of 1900 in any Americaa 
college; J. W. Bright, Professor of English Philology in the uni- 
versity. Although not originally a member of the chapter, he has 



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become really one of us, and, having won his spnrs here, we claim 
him; W. J. Alexander, Professor in University of Toronto. 

Ohio State Univbksity, Columbus, Ohio. 

The Ohio State University was originally incorporated as 
the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, and the 
name nearly killed it. It was founded in 1870, and has had 
most generous provision made for it by both the state and 
the United States. It has twelve buildings, costing nearly 
$2,00O|00O, a faculty of one hundred, eleven hundred 
students, and an annual income of $aoo,ooo. It is con- 
trolled by a board of trustees of seven appointed by the 
Governor. It confers the following degrees: B. A., B. S., 
B. Ph., B. Agr., B. Hort., B. E., M. E., Mi. E., Elec. E., 
M. A., Ph. D., SS. D., B. Phar., B. LL., V. S. 

The interesting story is told elsewhere of the method of founding 
Ohio Delta, and it need only be mentioned here. Ohio Alpha, 
knowing what an excellent field for fraternity extension existed at 
Columbus, endeavored, while Grand Chapter, to secure a charter 
for a fine body of petitioners, but the nature of the institution was 
supposed to be such that only horse doctors and machinists were 
the product of the college of the hyphenated name, and the peti- 
tion was refused. The Historian of the fraternity was in official 
position to bear the brunt of the fight for this charter, and recalls 
vividly all the circumstances. The rumor having gone out in fra- 
ternity circles everywhere that a chapter had been established at 
the Ohio Mechanical and Agricultural College, Ohio Alpha thought 
that the best thing to do under the circumstances was to follow 
the precedent established by Indiana Beta and initiate the crowd 
selected. This unwarranted act proved to be a wise move. It held 
the crowd together, and it deceived the enemy and gave the new 
brothers a good fighting chance for men in the rushing season. 

The coveted charter was at last issued, and the legal existence 
of the chapter dates from May 15th, 1880. The charter members 
were: N. W. Anderson, C. B. Comstock, C. E. Freeman, S. H. 
Short, W. K. Cherryholmes, J. S. Humphrey, G. C. Mosher, M. E. 
Nutting, P. C. Robinson, C. M. Wing, H. B. Dahl, G. W. Dun. 

It is seldom that any chapter starts with such a band of charter 
members as this, and the results showed how wisely the provision 


for the fottire had been made in selecting such men as the inaugu- 
rators of the Ohio Delta. Not only have several of these men be- 
come distinguished, but they set the standard of fraternity material 
so high that the chapter has never ceased to feel the influence of 
their example. 

The fact that most of the charter members of Ohio Delta were 
residents of Columbus or its vicinity early turned the attention of 
the chapter to the most available material coming to the university 
from the city of Columbus. As the institution is very popular at 
home, the supply of good men among Columbus boys has nearly 
always been adequate for chapter use. There has been no settled 
policy looking to a choice of this sort of men, but the accident of 
the chapter's birth has made such a choice almost inevitable. 
This fact has made the chapter well-nigh invincible in a social 
way, but it may be a real source of weakness, for attention 
is too apt to be turned away from good men from distant points, 
many of whom will become the leaders of the university in the 

Ohio Delta has stood for high ideals in conduct, scholarship, in 
"mixing qualities," and in fellowship. It has had its full share in 
all of the most desirable work of the university. Its members have 
been editors of all of the college publications at various times, have 
been athletic prize winners, have had distinguished standing in 
class-room, and have been the veritable "beaux of the ball." 

Among its distinguished men may be selected for mention: 
N. M. Anderson, one of the foremost educators of the country in 
secondary school work; Sidney H. Short, the noted electrical ex- 
pert and inventor; Dr. Qark Mosher, the famous obstetrician of 
Kansas City; C. J. Howard, lawyer and legislator; H. E. Payne, 
the typewriter inventor; J. H. Galbraith, the well-known Associated 
Press correspondent; C. F. Marvin, United States Signal Service 
expert; George Smart and George Dun, journalists and Phi Psi 
honor men; L. G. Haas and £. L. Schaub, railway mechanicians; 
H. H. Hatcher, Coroner of Montgomery County, Ohio; Rev. J. P. 
MilHgan; W. W. Keifer, attorney. 



The college was established in 1821, and is under the 
patronage and control of the Episcopal Church. It occupies 


eight buildings, has a faculty of seventeen, a student body 
of nearly one hundred, and an annual income of •$25,000. 
It confers these degrees : B. A., B. S., B. L., M. A. 

In 1S81, J. B. Blanchet and J. D. Kennedy organized a social club 
for the promotion of good-fellowship, and with the tdtimate in- 
tention of establishing a Greek-letter fraternity when investigation 
should satisfy them that the way was clear to do so, and the right 
sort of a fraternity would grant a charter. In their club from the 
beginning were, besides themselves, F. £. Easterbrooks, J. C. 
Flood, and G. M. Irish. These made the charter members of New 
York Delta when the chapter was established. 

Through the very friendly assistance of H. L. Jacobs, of the 
Grand Chapter, which was at this time with Pennsylvania Epsilon, 
the local society secured a charter from Phi Kappa Psi, and upon 
April 29th, 1881, Brother Jacobs as ambassador installed the above- 
named charter members of New York Delta. The early life of the 
chapter was uneventful, except for the vicissitudes which come 
from an uncertain membership, but the members, although few, 
took many of the college honors offered. 

In the fall of 1884, only three members of the chapter returned to 
college, and the discouragements were so great that the chapter 
felt obliged, in the fall of 1885, to return its charter to the Grand 
Giapter. That body, instead of permitting the chapter to die with- 
out a struggle, sent Brother Blanchet to Geneva to investigate. 
Upon his arrival, the ambassador from the Grand Chapter, with the 
hearty cooperation of Brother C. B. Mowry, succeeded in pledging 
a number of men, and in May of 1886 the charter was returned. 
The revived chapter thereupon entered upon a career of marvelous 
prosperity. Until the fall of 1892, the record of this chapter seems 
almost like a fairy tale, so remarkable was the success attendant 
upon the work of the several members in the college. Everything, 
both in the class-room and in the student activities outside the aca- 
demic walks, came Phi Psi way. 

In an evil hour, the demon of dissatisfaction with Phi Klappa Psi 
came to disturb the peace of this very prosperous chapter. Much 
as happened with Wisconsin Alpha during this same period, the 
enlarged craniums of a few members of the chapter buzzed with the 
thought that what seemed to them better fraternities could be in- 
duced to accept them and the chapter if they only could work their 
plans to that end. Being circumvented by the devotion of Brother 


Henry Pegram, who had been the greatest prize winner in the his- 
tory of the chapter, the malcontents simply refused to vote for 
anybody, and the rule-or-ruin policy resulted in the latter contin- 
gency. The charter was finally surrendered March 8th, i8p3, just 
a week before the defalcation of Wisconsin Alpha. During the 
years of its greatest power, the chapter was instrumental in estab- 
lishing New York Beta and New York Epsilon. 

Of the men who have won fame for the chapter, the following 
are to be noted: J. B. Blanchet, G. M. Irish, C. C. Profit, C H. 
Beers, and H. S. Gatley, Episcopal clergymen; J. C. Flood and 
M. W. Way, teachers ; C D. Bean, Henry Pegram, attorneys. 

Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. 

The college was founded in 1843, ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ instruction 
was not given until 1847. '^^ institution is unsectarian, 
although founded by Congregationalists and Presbyterians. 
It has a faculty of thirty, occupies eleven building^, and has 
a student body of some five hundred. It confers these de- 
grees: B. A., B. S., B. Ph., and M. A. 

The Beta Theta Pi had existed at Beloit sub rosa from i860 until 
1879 without being disturbed, although there were stringent and- 
fraternity laws in force in the college. In the latter year, through 
the carelessness of some of the Betas, the fact of the existence of 
their chapter became generally known. This fact emboldened 
some students to organize a company of men to become the nucleus 
of a new fraternity. After looking the field over, it was determined 
to petition Phi Kappa Psi, but before doing so several of the would- 
be petitioners went to Madison and were made members of Wis- 
consin Alpha. These were T. G. Lewis, W. A. Knapp, and E. E. 
Heg. This was in January of 1880. In May of the same year, 
under the auspices of Wisconsin Alpha, the following were added 
to the Beloit contingent of Wisconsin Alpha: J. G. Miller, W. F. 
Cooling, A H. Curtiss, W. P. Cleveland, E. J. Smith, F. E, 
Holmes, B. S. Davis, and E. D. Home. 

There was much difficulty and delay in getting the coveted char- 
ter from Phi Kappa Psi, but finally it came, in December, 1881, 
and the foregoing members of Wisconsin Alpha were reinitiated 
into Phi Kappa Psi as members of a bona fide chapter, Wisconsin 


Gamma. In addition to these men, there were charter members 
in the persons of £. M. Bergen, J. K Ware, J. H. Knapp, R. G. Col- 
lins, F. S. Dunshee, C E. Smedes, L. Bronson, C. H. Harvey, 
J. P. Lansing, J. B. Sheean, and A. J. Brown. 

The new chapter had an unfortunate experience at the very out- 
set Several of those who had been chosen to become members of 
the new order had, during the long delay in getting the charter, 
grown tired of waiting, and had organized a society within the 
society, which they called Alpha Delta Gamma. After the charter 
was received, these malcontents were still dissatisfied. They con- 
tinued to plot against the organization until the loyal Phi Psis 
demanded the abandonment of the Alpha Delta Gamma. When 
this was too tardily considered, the whole lot were ignominiously 
expelled, in September, 1882. These men secured a charter the 
same year from Sigma Chi and organized the Alpha Zeta chapter of 
that fraternity. 

Relieved of the incubus of disloyalty, the Wisconsin Gamma 
flourished. Although it was necessary to run sub rosa for a while, 
the experience was a wholesome one in that it bound the boys to- 
gether in the ties of a common danger. In the fall of 1882, the fra- 
ternity petitioned the faculty for open recognition, but it was more 
than a year before it was granted. Since this boon was secured, 
the chapter has had a prosperous and healthy life. Early in the 
history of the chapter the zeal for a chapter-house was strong. It 
found expression in the renting of a house and in its occupancy by 
the bulk of the chapter in 1889. In 1891, the expiration of the lease 
under which the chapter held its home having expired, and no suit- 
able house being within the chapter's view, the bold project of 
buying a lot and building was resorted to and with success. The 
chapter had but a limited fund upon hand, but a scheme for bor- 
rowing the money, to be repaid in small amounts, was devised, and 
the house was built and occupied. The chapter has had no reason 
to regret its temerity, and believes that any chapter that is in eai^ 
nest can succeed in getting a home by the same methods. 

The policy of the chapter has been conservative in the matter of 
selecting its members, although it has not been so upon questions 
of general fraternity policy. It keeps in touch with its alumni, 
sends to every alumnus a key to the house, so that he may, when 
in Beloit, know that he is at home, and then he is, by judicious 
chapter correspondence, kept informed of what is being done. 

The chapter is too young to have sent out men who have achieved 


fame, but it is well to point to these as sample fraternity men of 
the true sort: T. G. Lewis, the New York lawyer; J. E. Ware, 
banker; C. H. Harvey, railroader; J. P. Lansing, real estate, Min- 
neapolis; J. B. Sheean, F. D. Hubachek, J. M. Sheean, lawyers; 
C. W. Emerson, newspaper man; G. L. Hendrickson, teacher; A. B. 
Carpenter, Ingle Carpenter, and F. W. Shumaker, all fine fellows 
who will make their mark, and that right soon. 

University of the Pacific, San Jos6, Cal. 

This institution was the outgrowth of two institutions, the 
one having the present name of the college, and the other, 
Napa Collegiate Institute. Both were consolidated in 1890, 
although retaining their separate academic departments. 
The older school dates from 1855. The combined colleges 
are under the control and patronage of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. The university occupies ten buildings, has 
a faculty membership of thirty, has four hundred students, 
and an annual income of $15,000. These are the degrees 
conferred: B. A., B. S., B. L., B. Ph., and M. A. 

The California Alpha is the proUgi of Michigan Alpha, having 
been founded by former members of this chapter and in response 
to the urgent solicitation of the chapter named. W. A. Johnston 
and J. £. Richards, former members of Michigan Alpha, conceived 
in 1878 the idea of founding a chapter of Phi Kappa Psi upon the 
Pacific slope, and naturally turned in thought to the college where 
they had received their earliest collegiate training — ^the University 
of the Pacific. They early associated with them the veteran Phi 
Psi, Dr. C. W. Breyfogle, one of the founders of Ohio Alpha. In 
the spring a strong petition was drawn up* and presented to the 
fraternity by Michigan Alpha, praying for the granting of a charter. 
It was soon indorsed by Ohio Alpha, but the older chapters had 
misgivings about becoming pioneers in the far-away Pacific coast, 
and the granting of the petition was long delayed. Finally the 
matter went before the Grand Arch Council of 1880, and, after car- 
nest debate, the petition was allowed. 

By the long delay, the body of petitioners had become apathetic, 
and, despite the efforts of the faithful few, it was necessary to return 
the charter, without establishing the chapter, in the spring of 1880. 



The indefatigable Richards and Breyfogle were not discomfited, 
and they set to work in the fall of 1880 to revive the project A 
new petition was sent in with the strong backing of the faculty, and 
after a vexatious delay the charter was sent again in April of 
1S81. Upon May 14th, 1881, the chapter was finally instituted in 
due form by Dr. Breyfogle, and at once became a prominent factor 
in the life of the college. These were the charter members: S. D. 
Ayres, M. H. Alexander, J. M. Arthur, F. W. Blackmar, C. W. 
Breyfogle, H. E. Cox, E. P. Dennett, W. O. Dickson, R. P. Gober, 
W. A. Johnston, J. N. Martin, F. B. Mills, J. W. Rea, and J. K 

The chapter had a most vigorous life from the beginning, and it 
was only the decadence of the institution that made life impossible 
with the kind of men with whom the chapter started. However,, 
the record made in the years of its active life was one for any chap- 
ter to be proud of, and in its fraternity activities it was a leader. 
It was the first chapter of Phi Kappa Psi to own and occupy a 
chapter-house in which members lived. Early in its career the 
agitation for a chapter-home began, and after purchasing a lot in 
1885, the fever to go further soon possessed the chapter, to the end 
that in the winter of 1886-87 the affair was accomplished. 

If one were to give the true reason for the death of California 
Alpha, he would be compelled to say — Leland Stanford. The open- 
ing of this great institution with an equipment unparalleled in the 
west, and that, too, in the vicinity of the small denominational 
school, which, though vigorous, was poor, almost killed the Uni- 
versity of the Pacific. It did kill California Alpha. Although 
there was an active and reasonably large chapter present during the 
session of 1891-92, and although the chapter was represented at the 
Cincinnati Grand Arch Council of 1892, the chapter had no life 
after the commencement of 1892. 

Of the men sent out from California Alpha in its eleven years of 
life, the following may be named: J. C. Needham, Member of Con- 
gress from California; Dr. R. P. Gober, of California; Judge L. L. 
Dennett; Rev. E. P. Dennett, E. A. Wilcox, J. E. lUchards, and 
E. C. Bronaugh, rising young attorneys of California and Oregon; 
D. H. Blake, importer of oriental products. 


Simpson Centenary College^ Indianola, Iowa 

The college was founded in 1868, and is under the control 
and patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church. It 
occupies five buildings, has a faculty of twenty, five hun- 
dred students, and an annual income of $15,000. It con- 
fers these degrees: B. A., B. S., B. Ph., and M. A. 

The Iowa Delta Chapter of Phi Kappa Psi was founded on 
June 14th, 1882. The chapter was installed by James Lindsay, of 
Illinois Gamma, and W. H. Jordan, of Illinois Alpha. These were 
the charter members: W. B. Cox, J. W. Drabelle,- H. J. Everly, 
C. J. Evans, F. O. Hinkson, S. E. Howard, G. W. Johnson, A. O. 
Miller, G. W. Murphy, J. D. Sparks, W. M. Todd, A. A. Thomp- 
son, S. £. Wilson. 

This chapter was established after earnest struggles upon the 
part of the petitioners, whose most active member was J. W. 
Drabelle, a prominent attorney, of St. Louis. There was much op- 
position upon the part of some few chapters, and it was only after 
personal visits were made to the vetoing chapters that the coveted 
parchment at last came. The struggle was two years long, but the 
joy at success more than compensated for the long effort. The 
eloquent ambassador who really won the day for the petitioners 
was the Rev. W. H. Jordan, who was one of the installing officers. 

The first men taken were of the very best and ranked highest in 
class and college affairs. The Delta Tau Delta was the only 
fraternity in college when Iowa Delta was proposed, and the long 
delay in getting the charter was ascribed to the malevolent in- 
fluence of this rival, which was short-sighted enough to think 
it would always have the field tp itself. While at first the chapter 
was careful in its selection of men, the influence soon became 
too strong for a particular sort of men, and the inevitable conse- 
quence followed — ^loss of balance in the chapter, loss of interest 
in college affairs, in which fraternity men had taken the leading 
parts, indifference to the cause of the fraternity at large, and 
ultimately surrender of the charter. 

One of the charter members has put the case quite succinctly in 
the following extract from a personal letter received by the 
Historian a few days before the publication of the history: 

"We had some twelve or fifteen charter members, as I now re- 


member it, the cream of the college. Indeed, we were dubbed the 
'preacher fraternity' on account of so many of our boys pre- 
paring for the ministry. We flourished from the start, and were 
the most popular fraternity with the Greek-letter societies among 
the ladies, of any in the college. This aroused the jealousy of our 
opponents, and I well remember one night of our going up over 
fhe room where we met, which was in the third story of the 
college building, and finding two 'Delts.' perched up there on 
the beams, waiting to listen to our proceedings. We became sus- 
picious, and made the investigation before opening the meeting, 
and caught them. I graduated in June, 1882, and at that time our 
fraternity was the leading one in the college by all odds. With my 
class there went out about five or six of the older members, and, 
so far as I know, those left did not take hold and keep the 
organization built up, and it began to run down, and through the 
efforts of those opposing us the boys finally surrendered their 
charter. I do not think any of us older members knew anything 
of it at the time, or that anything of the kind was contemplated. 
If it had been generally known among the old members, I 
do not believe they would ever have suffered it to go down. The 
history of our fraternity, while not extending over many years, 
was one fraught with a good many ups and downs, ran a very 
successful course while it was in existence, but I am unable to 
give you just the reasons why the charter was surrendered." 

Of the small chapter-roll of this short-lived chapter there are not 
many who are well known in Phi Psi circles. The charter was 
surrendered in October, 1889. These brothers have done such work in 
the world as to render them honorable subjects for Phi Psi praise: 
Rev. W. H. Jordan, minister and educator; J. W. Drabelle, F. O. 
Hinkson, C J. Evans, S. K Wilson, attorneys; C. C. Webb, M. J. 
Elrod, W. L. Miller, educators; S. £. Howard, R. O. Evans, and 
J. M. Sylvester, in the world of businesss life. 

Casleton College, Northfield, Minn. 

This college was founded in 1866, and is under the control 
and patronage of the Congregational Church. It occupies 
five buildings, has a faculty of twenty-five, has three hun- 
dred students, and an annual income of $38,000. It con- 
fers these degrees : B. A., B. S., B. L., and M. A. 


The Minnesota Alpha of Phi Kappa Psi was established in 
April of 1883 with the following charter members: W. D. Abbott, 
F. G. Barrows, \y. T. Bills, Lafayette Bliss, E. K. Cheadle, F. N. 
Dickson, A. C. Finney, G. J. Fifield, J. F. Jackson, E. W. Kd- 
logg, J. W. Morris, A. R. Nichols, D. Robertson, G. M. William- 
son, and J. E. Ware. 

The chapter was chosen from among the choicest men in the 
college, but, like several other Phi Kappa Psi ventures, this was a 
case of looking after you leap. The college faculty was one of 
the old regime — ^that is, it held a passionate hatred of fraternities 
as enginery of the Devil, and thus stimulated the students to live 
up to their reputation. The chapter was at no time free from 
harassing doubts of discovery, and lived the entire time sub rose. 
One of the charter members writes thus entertainingly of the 
trials of svh rosa existence: ''We met secretly in various halls, at 
one time in an elevator — a grain elevator. I remember the police 
one night discovered a light through a hole in a window curtain 
and raided us under the supposition that we were robbers, but they 
were very considerate when the facts were explained. No arrests 
were made, and we were not disturbed by them again. None but 
students of high rank were invited to join, and many of the best 
men in college were members of Minnesota Alpha. The college 
authorities were strongly opposed to secret societies of all kinds, 
and were very watchful to prevent the formation of any fraternities. 
Finally, through the indiscretion. of a female friend of one of the 
brothers, we were exposed. The chapter was broken up and the 
members threatened with expulsion." 

Whatever the agency of the maiden friend may have been in 
arousing the suspicions of the faculty, the immediate cause of 
the dissolution of the chapter was far other than that which the 
correspondent of the Historian imagines. The facts, as related in 
a chapter letter to The Shield in May, 1888, by the chapter cor- 
respondent, are these: The delegate of the Minnesota Alpha to 
the Grand Arch Council of 1888, held in Washington, D. C, came 
home so full of enthusiasm for the fraternity and so imbued with 
its pure principles that he persuaded the fraternity that they could 
safely undertake the task of converting the faculty to acquiescence 
in their open life in the college. After a long discussion, a com- 
mittee was appointed to request the faculty for permission to live in 
the open. This committee was appointed upon April 25th, 1888, 
and proceeded to its disagreeable duty at once. The faculty de- 


bated the matter for several weeks, but finally the petition was 
denied, and so Minnesota Alpha died. 

In the few years of its life Minnesota Alpha sent out some 
strong men, among whom the fraternity is proud to acknowledge 
these leaders of thought and action: F. G. Barrows, banker, 
Fergus Falls, Minn.; F. N. Dickson, attorney, St. Paul; Dr. E. W. 
Kellogg, Milwaukee; David Robertson, legislator. South Dakota; 
M. D. Snedicor, journalist; C. H. Taylor, attorney; W. T. Bill, 
merchant, Fergus Falls, Minn. 

Syracuse Univsrsity, Syracuse, N. Y. 

This institution is the successor of Genesee College, 
which had had an honorable career for twenty-five years at 
Lima, N. Y., but in the competition of colleges it stood in 
danger of being engulfed, because of the inaccessibility of its 
location. After several years of agitation, the college was 
removed to Syracuse in 1871 and re-christened Syracuse 
University. It is under the control and patronage of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. It occupies six builSngs, has 
nearly one hundred members of its faculties, has about one 
thousand students, and an annual income of $120,000. It 
confers these degrees: B. A., B. S., B. L., B. Ph., B. LL., 
B. Arch., B. Art, B. Mus., M. D., M. A., and Ph. D. 

There is, no doubt, much perplexity among the membership 
of the fraternity over the fact that the date of founding the New 
York Beta is twelve years later than that of New York Gamma. 
This is only another evidence of the loose way in which affairs 
were managed in the halcyon days of Grand Chapters and happy- 
go-lucky-vote-or-notas-you-please sub-chapters. The records of 
the Grand Chapter show that upon September gth, 1871, a charter 
was granted to petitioners from the then brand-new Syracuse 
University, but for reasons not known to the Historian or to the 
chapter, the chapter was not established. Instead of calling the 
chapter which really was established at Columbia by its proper 
designation, the paper certification of New York Beta held pre- 
cedence, and the chapter, although established much later, holds 
the earlier name. 

In April, 1884, the following members of a local society, known 


as the Kappa Delta, were, by authority of another charter, made 
the charter members of New York Beta: A. £. Brigden, Augustus 
Broadway, G. B. Deuel, H. D. Wadsworth, Eugene Wiseman, J. 
G. Qeveland, W. L. Harris, C. A. Lonergon, A. C. Howe, and 

E. G. Eldridge. The early life of the chapter was unerentful ex- 
cept for the necessary struggle to make headway against well- 
established rivals, some of which were of the strongest and most 
powerful fraternities in the land. 

The chapter early turned its attention to college journalism, 
and may fairly lay claim to being the leading fraternity at Syra- 
cuse in this partictdar. In this the members are but canning out 
their chapter^^meeting practice, for the chapter has revived the old 
custom of having literary exercises in its meetings. The policy of the 
chapter has not been to confine its selections to the members of 
any single course in the university, and so it has come to pass that 
the chapter has had a very cosmopolitan character. 

The geographical position of Syracuse has made the chapter at 
the university a sort of Phi Psi rallying center for the chapters in 
central New York, and until New York Delta ceased to be, the 
meetings of the several chapters conveniently located were frequent 
and fruitful of good fellowship. The community of interest in the 
remaining chapters is still strong, and the gatherings now held 
are always extremely enjoyable. 

While the chapter has, in the persons of Brothei*s F. J. Holzworth, 

F. J. Schnauber, F. N. Burritt, P. T. Piper, Menzo Burlingame, G. K. 
Statham, F. S. Husted, and others, excellent material for dis- 
tinguished men of affairs, New York Beta is so young, and these 
brothers have been in active life so short a time, that we modestly 
lay daim to no distinguished men, except in the devotion for 
Phi Kappa Psi which all our members show long after they have 
left the walls of their Alma Mater. 

G)LGATE University, Hamilton, N. Y. 

The institution was founded in 1820, and is under the 
patronage and control of the Baptist Churdi. It was for a 
long time known as Madison University, but in 1890 it 
took its present name. It uses eleven buildings, has a 
faculty of forty, has about three hundred students, and an 


annual income of $90,000. It confers the degrees of B. A., 
B. L., B. Ph., B. S., B. D., and M. A. 

The history of New York Epsilon is really a history of the 
local society called ^onia, which was established in 1840 and en- 
joyed a continuous life until 1873. It was from this society that 
Phi Kappa Psi took its rise. For seven years the old local society 
was dormant, but in 1880 it was revived and for another seven 
years had a most prosperous career. 

In the midst of its triumphs, however, the more sagacious mem- 
bers saw that the day for local societies had gone by forever, and 
began to cast about for a new connection, one that would insure 
stability and congenial associations in the college world at large. 
The chapter discussed the question in all the ways in which the 
question could be viewed by college youth bent upon maintain- 
ing a high standard and a fine reputation hardly won. For nearly 
a year the matter was debated and finally the choice of the chapter 
fell upon Phi Kappa Psi, and upon April 29th, 1887, the old ^onia 
Society ceased to be and New York Epsilon was bom. These 
were the charter members: I. B. Lewis, E. A. Shepard, H. W. 
Shepard, W. S. Coons, O. K. Davis, £. B. Shallow, H. J. Smith, and 
F. H. Bennett. 

The old ^onia Society had a library of considerable value 
when merged into Phi Kappa Psi, and its members naturally thought 
that they who had taken the step out into the larger fraternity life 
could take the property of the old society with them, but the 
faculty construed the matter otherwise and turned the books 
into the college library. 

Since its union with the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. New York 
Epsilon had been an active member of the organization and an en- 
thusiastic supporter of every fraternity enterprise. It soon caught 
the fire of progress, and discarding the renting of a hall for 
meetings, the chapter set about the erecting of a house for its 
members. In the spring of 1892, the chapter began the agitation 
for a chapter-house, and so in earnest were the members, both 
graduate and undergraduate, that in the fall of the same year the 
house was completed and occupied. It has been the center of 
chapter life and influence ever since, and the lojralty of this chapter 
to the fraternity home is unwavering. 

The chapter's policy has for the most part been for a small 
membership, although good men are not neglected because the 


practical limit of chapter size has been reached. There are as a 
rale twenty members or about that number, as many of whom 
can be accommodated being taken into the house. As to the kind 
of men sought for members, it may be said that as Phi Kappa Psi 
stands for the development of well-rounded manhood, so New York 
Epsilon seeks for such as will tend to promote the aims and am- 
bitions of the organization of which it is proud to form a part. 

Although the chapter is young, it has some distinguished men 
among its alumni. Of these it will not be invidious to name: — 

Frank P. Stoddard^ Edward B. Shallow, Arthur B. Potter, Arthur 
C. Watkins, Herbert K Nims, William L. Wheeler, Beauman I^ 
Newkirk, Harry B. Rathbone, Thomas E. Boswell. 

University of Minnesota^ Minneafous, Minn. 

The institution, although authorized early in the history 
of the state, was not opened for college work until 1868. 
It is generously supported by the state, has twenty-five 
buildings, faculties numbering one hundred and fifty, about 
three thousand students, and an annual income of $260,000. 
It confers these degrees: B. A., B. S., B. L., C. K, M. E., 
E. E., B. AgT., B. LL., M. D., D. D. M., Ph. G., M. A., and 
Ph. D. 

The history of the founding of Minnesota Beta is inseparably 
bound up with the names of C. D. Van Wie, of Wisconsin Alpha, 
and J. E. Erf, one of the charter members. Brother Van Wie, 
while practicing his profession in Minneapolis, found time to watch 
the growth of the young giant of education at the Falls of St. 
Anthony, and when he had found in J. E. Erf a man of the stem 
stuff that good Phi Psis are made, he set about the problem of 
establishing a chapter of Phi Kappa Psi in a field which was be- 
ginning to fill with strong fraternities, and in which the choicest 
men were on the alert to enter none but fraternities of high 
standing in the college world. 

Having pledged Erf not to join any of the fraternities then in 
existence at the University, Van Wie set about finding fit men to 
join him in making a band of petitioners for a charter of Phi 
Kappa Psi. The task was not easy, but the two heroic souls 
who were bent upon accomplishing their task, were not to be daunted 
by any ordinary obstacles. At length, eight of the choicest men in 


the university were pledged and a charter was requested late in the 
college year of 1886-87. A long period of heart-breaking sus- 
pense followed, and just as the faithful band was giving up hope^ 
the coveted parchment came. On March 2d and 3d, the following 
charter members were initiated by Archon G. A. Bass and Brothers 
J. G. Park and H. D. Irwin: J. E. Erf, B. H. Timberlake, T. G. 
Soares, H. D. Dickinson, H. M. Woodward, F. J. Eitel, B. F. Lum, 
and H. P. Bailey. 

The young chapter started not only with strong men but with 
lofty ideals. These are the noble words of one of the charter 
members in speaking, in after years, of the policy of the chapter: 
"We have striven to stamp Minnesota Beta with one indelible char- 
acteristic, which should ever mark its policy — to make manhood 
the foundation principle of her present and future operations, be- 
lieving that wealth, position, family connection, and even intellect 
cannot atone for lack of character." From the inception of the 
chapter, its members took front rank in the university as scholars, 
orators, and debaters. 

The chapter did not wait long to take advanced steps in organi- 
zation, for at the opening of the college in the fall of 1888 a 
chapter-house was rented and most of the members made this their 
college home. However, the members were not satisfied with merely 
renting, they aspired to ownership. In the summer of 1892, a chap- 
ter-house was built and the members have since occupied it with 
ever-increasing satisfaction. 

The history of the chapter has not been one unbroken chronicle of 
honors won in oratory, class-room, ball-field, gymnasium, and the 
social crush, but its record has been one of which any chapter 
might be proud. 

Aside from a brief period in the early nineties, when, through 
a grievous mistake in judgment a dissipated fellow was initiated and 
brought a new and dangerous element into the chapter life, the 
career of Minnesota Beta has been one of harmonious and friendly 
companionship of some of the best fellows who ever wore a 
shield, and from whom the world of thought and action has already 

Minnesota Beta is proud to record these men as some of those 
who have honored themselves and it: M. D. Purdy, United States 
District Attorney, Minnesota; H. D. Dickinson, Municipal Judge, 
Minneapolis; Professor Oscar L. Triggs, University of Chicago; 
B. H. Timberlake, insurance expert, H. M. Woodward, teacher. 




Swarthmore College is one of the few institutions sup- 
ported and controlled by the Society of Friends, although 
the institution and instruction are entirely non-sectarian. 

The college was founded in 1864, and is situated on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad system, about ten miles from Phila- 
delphia. There are twelve buildings on the campus used 
by the institution. The college grounds consist of over 
two hundred acres, including the magnificent Crum Creek 
gorge and woodlands. It has a faculty of twenty-eight 
professors, and a student body of two hundred and ten. 
The college has a fixed endowment of $550,000, and an 
annual income of $90,000. It confers the degrees of A. B., 
B. L., B. S., A. M., M. L., M. S., C. E., M. E., and E. E. 

The inception of Pennsylvania Kappa is due to the initiation of a 
few of the more prominent Swarthmore men by Pennsylvania Iota 
in 1886. These may then be regarded as the fathers of Pennsyl- 
vania Kappa, the men whom Pennsylvania Iota selected to become 
the rallying corps of Phi Kappa Psi in the wished-for Pennsylvania 
Kappa: W. G. Underwood, A. G. Cummins, Jr., F. B. Pyle> M. L. 
Qothier, and Robert P. Ervien. A strong fight was put up for the 
projected chapter at the 1888 Grand Arch Council in Washington, 
where the day was practically won for the little known and wholly 
unappreciated "Quaker" college by A. W., "Beef Cummins, of 

In the fall of 1888, the task of getting together a nucleus for a 
chapter organization was begun, and after many preliminary meet- 
ings, held with the greatest secrecy in the dormitories of Parrish 
Hall, the chapter was organized and installed on January 26th, 1889, 
by Archon Howard L. Calder, of the First District. The installation 
took place at Dooner's Hotel, Philadelphia, and was followed by a 
banquet at the same place The charter members were Alexander 
G. Cummins, Jr., Ellis Marshall Harvey, and Frederic B. Pyle, 
'89; Morris L. Qothier, '90; Grant Dibert, Alexander Mitchell 
Palmer, and William C. Sproul, '91 ; Charles B. Ketcham, and Ralph 
Lewis, 92. 

The nine charter members of Pennsylvania Kappa will long re- 
member the day following the installation of the chapter, a bright 


winter Sunday, and the excitement occasioned in the college when 
it became noised about that the bold deed had actually been 
perpetrated and a secret fraternity really established in Swarth- 
more. But the exceptional standing of the men who wore the 
mysterious shields reassured the doubters, and the acquiescence of 
the faculty, among whom were a number of fraternity men, 
doubtless averted the threatened action of the Board of Managers 
of the college against the innovation. A few days after the an- 
nouncement of the establishment of Pennsylvania Kappa, a chapter 
of Kappa Sigma, which, it was alleged, had existed sub rosa in 
the college for several months, came out in the open and claimed 
that it was the first Greek organization in the college. 

The work of recruiting additional members from among the 
eligible men in college was taken up very soon after the organization 
of the chapter, and in a remarkably short time the prejudice against 
fraternities disappeared and membership in Phi Kappa Psi became 
one of the most-sought honors in Swarthmore College. The lack 
of suitable accommodations for chapter quarters in the village 
of Swarthmore at that time necessitated the taking of rooms for 
meeting purposes in Media, two miles distant, and for more than 
three years the Swarthmore Phi Psis journeyed to Media on meet- 
ing nights. This was a decidedly inconvenient arrangement, but 
it could not be bettered at the time, although, to cultivate the social 
feature in the chapter, meetings of an informal character were held 
frequently in the rooms of the members in the college. But there 
were many pleasant features in connection with those early jaunts to 
Media. The exodus of the Phi Psis at regular periods added to 
the mystery of the movements of the Greeks in the eyes of the 
barbarians, and the evenings in Media invariably wound up in a 
feast at a hospitable hole-in-the-wall kept by one Owen Good- 
enough, who was a character of cherished memory in the early days 
of the chapter. The rooms at Media were directly opposite the 
Delaware G>unty G>ttrt House and a very pleasant custom grew 
out of a habit the members had of suspending whatever business 
might be going on, while the old bell in the clock tower at the 
G>urt House tolled out the hours. One of the features of the 
meetings of Kappa has been a manuscript journal, read by the edi- 
tors in open meeting, and which was happily named The Court 
House Bell, possibly in the hope that its reading would command 
the silence given its namesake. 

In i8g2, a commodious and cheerful suite of rooms was secured 


in a new building in Swarthmore, and the change to more oon- 
yenient quarters was greatly appreciated by the brothers. The 
rooms have been nicely furnished and various comforts, including 
a piano, added from time to time until the chapter rooms are 
very cosy and inviting. The agitation for a chapter-house has 
been brought up at various times during the life of the chapter, and 
now that the list of alumni has become sufficiently strong to warrant 
the attempt at raising the necessary funds for this undertaking, it is 
expected that a definite move in the direction of a permanent home 
for the chapter will soon be inaugurated. By a system of alumnus 
dues for this purpose, a considerable sum is already in hand for 
the chapter-house fund, and at the twelfth annual banquet of the 
chapter, held January 13th, 1900, a general discussion took place and 
fresh encouragement was given to those who are working for a 
Pennsylvania Kappa House at Swarthmore. 

During all its career Pennsylvania Kappa has aimed to be in the 
lead in every department of commendable college activity, and its 
members have held the highest positions in the scholastic and social 
life at Swarthmore, while a very large proportion of the college 
honors and athletic triumphs have fallen to its sons. It is the 
proud record of the chapter that among all the men who have 
been its members, not one has brought discredit upon his chapter 
or his college. Its active membership has always included the 
leading men in college, and among its alumni are to be found 
many of the brightest and most successful young men who are 
numbered in the ranks of the constantly growing army of college- 
bred Americans. 

Of the small chapter-roll of Pennsylvania Kappa these have al- 
ready distinguished themselves : Morris L. Qothier, of Strawbridge 
and Clothier, Philadelphia; Rev. A. G. Cummings, Jr., Rector of 
Christ Church, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. ; Honorable William C Sprout^ 
ex-treasurer of Phi Kappa Psi fraternity, aqd ex-Archon of the 
First District, State Senator, President of the Seaboard Steel Com- 
pany, President of the Chester Shipping Company, editor and pro- 
prietor of The Chester Times, Chester, Pa.; A. Mitchell Palmer, 
attorney, Stroudsburg, Pa.; E. Lawrence Fell, Vice-President of 
Phi Kappa Psi fraternity, President; of the Franklin Printing Com- 
pany, President of the Philadelphia and Northern Railroad, Phila- 
delphia; C. B. Ketcham, Member of the New York Stock Ex- 
change, New York; E. Pusey Passmore, Cashier of the Traders* 
National Bank, Scranton, Pa.; Professor Benjamin F. Battin» 


Ph. D., Swarthmore, Pa. ; Frederick C. Hicks, Member of the New 
York Stock Exchange, New York; Charles S. Hallowell, of ColUer's 
Wakly staff, New York; Edward B. Temple, assistant engineer of 
the Pennsylvania R. R.; William E. Walter, assistant manager of 
the Ladii^ Horns Journal, Philadelphia; Walter Qothier, secretary 
of the Ketterlinus Lithographic Manfg. Co., secretary of the Frank- 
lin Printing Co., Philadelphia; Qement M. Biddle, Jr., of the Car- 
negie Steel Company, Pittsburg, Pa.; Grant Dibert, brick manu- 
facturer, Pittsburg, Pa.; Thomas Cahall, attorney, Philadelphia; 
W. G. Underwood, lumber merchant, Philadelphia; W. H. Lippin- 
cott, of the firm of Bioren & Co., bankers, Philadelphia; A. H. and 
J. S. Verlenden, woolen manufacturers. Darby, Pa. 

West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 

The institution was originally chartered as the West 
Virginia Agricultural College in 1867, but later its functions 
were enlarged and its name changed to its present form. 
It uses six buildings, has a faculty of forty, a student body 
of more than four hundred, and an annual income of 
$70,000. It confers the following degrees: B. A., B. S., 
B. LL., B. Agr., C. E., M. E., M. A., and M. D. 

The West Virginia Alpha chapter of Phi Kappa Psi was inspired 
by the Rev. A. M. Buchanan, a member of Pennsylvania Alpha, 
and during the struggle for a charter, pastor of the Presb3rterian 
church at Morgantown. He directed the e£Forts of the petitioners 
and roused their drooping spirits when success seemed unattain- 
able. But in a much truer sense the chapter resulted from the 
efforts of that peerless Phi Psi orator, the present President of 
the fraternity, Rev. E. M. Stires. West Virginia Alpha is the 
gift of the Grand Arch G>uncil to the seductive eloquence of 
Ernest M. Stires, who pleaded for it in Chicago in 1890. 

On the evening of May 23d, i8go. Brother Stires and Brother 
Buchanan inducted into the mysteries of Phi Kappa Psi the fol- 
lowing charter members of West Virginia Alpha at the old Com- 
mercial Hotel: A. B. Smith, F. W. Clark, C. R. Duvall, Braxton 
Davenport, E. H. Vickers, E. T. Hartman, W. C. Meyer, F. C 
Reynolds, H. G. Stifcl, J. W. Paul, J. R. Trotter, R. L. Fleming, 
and S. W. Graham. 



The chapter being the first established at the university, had no 
difficulty in gaining the allegiance of the best men in the school, 
but it early showed its wisdom by gaining the confidence of the 
faculty and of the social leaders of the town. The chapter began 
the practice of giving an annual banquet, and this has become known 
as the most prominent social event of the year. It is not alone in 
the social world that the chapter has taken an enviable position, but 
in the class-room and in all student organizations, whether athletic 
or literary, the lion's share of honors comes to the members of 
West Virginia Alpha. 

The chapter has made much of literary work and some of the 
most enjoyable evenings of its life have been in the programs 
o£Fered at fraternity meetings. The policy of the chapter in select- 
ing men has been festina lente. In fact, a man is seldom invited to 
join West Virginia Alpha until he has been in college a year or more. 
The chapter firmly believes that no clear understanding of a man's 
character can be arrived at during the feverish activity of a ntshing 
season and avoids the grievous mistakes made in some quarters 
by "going slow." 

While not feeling quite strong enough to build and occupy a 
chapter-house, the chapter has a fine suite or rather set of suites 
in a block in the heart of the town, taking up the entire third and 
fourth floors of the building. 

Even the short career of the chapter has enabled a few of the 
members to achieve quite notable success. Among these we name: 
E. T. Hartman, E. H. Vickers, W. C. Meyer, C. R. Duvall. 

Lbland Stanford, Jr., Univiksity^ Palo Alto, Cal. 

This famous seat of learning, the most heavily endowed 
institution of the kind in die world, having received 
recently an additional sum of $30,000,000, is the memorial 
of the famous railway magnate to his lamented son, who 
died while budding into manhood. The university was 
opened in 1891, and immediately was thronged with 
students. It has twenty buildings, a faculty of one hun- 
dred, about eleven hundred students, and an annual income 
of more than $1,000,000. It confers the degrees of B. A., 
B. S., C. E., M. A., M. E., and Ph. D. 


The peculiar experiment in education inaugurated by the Presi- 
dent of Leland Stanford attracted college men from every direc- 
tion. It was certainly novel to be permitted to attain the degree 
of B. A. without either the classics, mathematics, or English, and 
so many of the brightest youth of the country flocked to the 
educational Mecca to learn what this queer movement might mean, 
that the number present was a source of positive embarrassment 
Among this company was practically the entire chapter of California 
Alpha, whose members soon obtained a charter to initiate men from 
the new institution, and California Beta was bom, pretty nearly by 
transfer. The peculiarly unfortunate position of the institution, 
away from any village where students might live, and the fact 
that the college authorities were not prepared for the sudden in- 
rush of students, made the first year of college life very uncom- 
fortable and peculiarly trying for fraternity men. However, Cali- 
fornia Beta, being the first upon the ground, and being made 
up so largely of experienced fraternity men, soon became the fore- 
most factor in the college life. The chapter soon found itself 
compelled to secure a home of its own, and in the fall of 1893 it 
moved into a house which was built for it especially. 

While this arrangement was conducive to close association upon 
the part of the members of the chapter, it proved to be too close 
for active participation in college a£Fairs other than those of the 
chapter's own, because of the seclusion of the house. In 1897 
the chapter moved into another house in the village of Palo Alto, 
where the most influential student affairs are engineered, and since 
that time the work of the chapter has been harmonious and 

In the important student enterprises, such as the periodicals, 
annuals, athletic teams, debating clubs, musical organizations, 
etc., the chapter has more than held its own; it has had a fair 
share of what some might think belonged to some one else, but 
the policy of the chapter has ever been not to ask for what its 
members were not justly entitled to, and in consequence much 
comes the chapter's way without effort. 

Congeniality is the watchword of the chapter, and the most 
delicate compliment ever offered on the chapter was in the words 
of a member of a rival organization: "You never see a Phi Psi 
alone." Although our members have not been in active life long, 
we are proud to point to these who have already made name and 
fame for themselves : W. F. Blake, F. G. Burrows, P. S. Castleman, 
W. B. Newell, O. W. Marsh, W. W. Guth. 


Polytechnic Institute of Bbooklyn, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

This institution was founded in 1855 and has the repu- 
tation of being one of the most careful institutions of its 
kind in the country to give accurate and extensive education 
in its particular field. It occupies four buildings, has a 
faculty of fifty, has one hundred and fifty students in its 
collegiate department, and an annual income of $100,000. 
It confers the degrees of B. S., C. E., and E. E. 

During the winter of 1892-93, the New York Ganuna chapter 
of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity approached the men in the active 
Kappa chapter of the scholastic fraternity Alpha Phi, in regard 
to the granting of a charter for a chapter of Phi Kappa Psi at 
the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. The New York Alumni 
Association added a hearty endorsement to the petition of the men 
from the Polytechnic, and the charter was granted, the date of 
the birth of New York Zeta chapter being June 19th, 1893. The 
charter members were Theodore Jesup Arms, Nathan Thomas 
Beers, Jr., George Henry Bennett, Frank Wadleigh Chandler, 
Guy Homer Hubbard, Howard Wallace Leitch, Henry Trumaa 
MacConnell, John Joseph Rooney, Emil August Tauchert, Ralph 
Harrison Thompson, Charies Walter Nichols, and John Garrett 

Regular meetings commenced early in the fall, being held at the 
members' houses in the dty of Brooklyn. The first officers of 
the new chapter were Howard W. Leitch, C. Walter Nichols, and 
Guy H. Hubbard. The first new-comers were Paul Bonynge and 
Horace William Dresser, both of '95, initiated October 25th. 

During the winter the brothers had been keeping a watch for 
suitable rooms, and on March 15th, 1894, the chapter moved into 
its first home, the long hall over the swimming tank in the 
college gymnasium, at Livingston and Court Streets. 

Zeta's first birthday was celebrated in the chapter-hall on June 
i8th, Poly. Class Day coming on the 19th. The brothers from 
Gamma were present during the afternoon, eating in the rooms, 
and in the evening the entire crowd visited the Madison Square 
roof garden. 

On Monday, October 8th, 1894, occurred a notable initiation, mark- 
ing the inauguration of a commendable custom, that of New York 


Gamma and New York Zeta holding joint initiation ceremonies. 
Irving Judd Bristol, Pdy., '97, and Archibald N. Beebe, G>lumbtt8y 
'98, were taken into their respective chapters after some exciting 
and ludicrous initiation nonsense on Fulton Street, Brooklyn. 

In February, 1896, came the news that the rooms had been 
rented by the Poly, corporation to a firm occupying the adjoining 
store, and reluctantly and regretfully the chapter vacated, moving, 
on February 25th^ into an apartment at 194 Livingston Street, three 
blocks from the college. 

Ever since the beginning of the strong feeling of intimacy be- 
tween the men of the chapter and the men of the New York 
Alumni Association, the brothers of New York Zeta had admired 
and respected and honored the Phi Psi whose good works had 
justified the high position he was placed in at the 1894 Grand 
Arch Council — Brother President McCorkle. 

Every man in the chapter had felt the clasp o§ his hand and 
the influence of his kind heart and noble nature. The chapter was 
united in its expressions of well-wishing, and in order to show 
appreciation of his services and how firm was the chapter's friend- 
ship for him. New York Zeta paid homage to the fraternity's 
worthy President on Friday evening, February 28th, 1896, by a 
banquet in his honor at the Qarendon. 

In October, 1896, the chapter moved into a home, at once 
comfortable and commodious, the top apartment in the Montrose, 
at 62 and 64 Hoyt street, comer of State, and here, for the first 
time, Zeta began to enjoy on a small scale, chapter-house life. 
Finally, the chapter moved into its present quarters, 95 Court 
Street, in 1898. 

The meetings, held on alternate weeks, were invariably well 
attended, the alumni never failing to turn out six or eight strong, 
and the active men taking a keen interest in the doings and 
welfare of the chapter. 

The Phi Kappa Psi Spirit, a chapter publication, started a year 
before, was continued under the supervision of three editors, and 
was replete each month with original matter by the men of the 
chapter, serious articles for the good of the fraternity, short works 
of fiction, rhymes and jingles. 

The reading of this little magazine made a decidedly interesting 
addition to the usual routine of business at the chapter meeting, 
and the Spirit was a complete success, being neatly type-written, 
and kept on file in a durable cover in the rooms. 


During 1895 and 1896 the chapter made quite a reputation by the 
manner in which their officers assisted in conferring initiation upon 
the charter members of Massachusetts Alpha and New Hampshire 

In November, 1896, the New York Alumni and the New York 
Gamma Chapter joined forces, forming the Phi Kappa Psi Qub 
of the City of New York, incorporated under the laws of the State, 
and having large and well-furnished apartments in the Black 
Building, at Fifth avenue and Twenty-eighth street, New York. 

On March 13th, 1897, came the second and last night of the 
Poly, play, "Hamlet and Company,'' a Shakespearean musical bur- 
lesque in three acts, presented at the Brookljrn Academy. Li- 
bretto, lyrics, and music were the work of Phi Psis ; five out of the 
six officers constituting the governing board of the association 
were Phi Psis, and there were three in the cast of characters and 
, several more in the chorus. 

In 1898, another fraternity, so called, made its appearance in the 
Polytechnic, and seemed to exist for the sole purpose of antagon- 
izing Phi Kappa Psi on every possible occasion. Anybody and 
everybody was taken into this new organization, that the member- 
ship might be large, and, in consequence, the voting strength 
great. In this way. Phi Kappa Psi men were kept from holding 
offices in classes and societies. 

College honors were never sought by Zeta men to any great 
extent, but hitherto had fallen in great abundance to Phi Psi men, 
because New York Zeta selected only the best class of men in 
college, the leaders in sport, scholarship, thought, enterprise. 
This antagonizing of Phi Kappa Psi lasted two or three years, but 
never at any time materially harmed Zeta, and at last the rival 
fraternity, if it could be called a rival, went out of existence, since 
which time the Phi Psis have gathered in the majority of college 
offices without appreciable effort 

The chapter was honored in the choice of Guy Hubbard as 
Archon of the old District I, and then, at the inauguration of the 
new constitution, he served one term more as a member of the 
Executive Council, being Archon of the new District II. 

So young a chapter has scarcely had time to develop a very dis- 
tinguished body of alumni, but these have already made themslves 
felt in their several capacities : Paul Bon3mge, '95, has rapidly come 
to notice as one of the most successful of New York City's younger 
lawyers; Frank W. Chandler, '94, is a member of the Polytechnic 


faculty^ and connected also with the corps of instructors of Colum- 
bia University, among whose ranks are also John G. Underhill and 
Clayton M. Hamilton; Leonard S. Webb, for the past two years, 
has been located in Shanghai, China, representing his father's 
business interests; Emil A. Tauchert is a member of the New York 
stock exchange; Horace W. Dresser is paying teller of the Com 
Exchange Bank; Theodore J. Arms is a paymaster in the United 
States navy, located at San Juan, Porto Rico; G. H. Bennett is 
with the Terminal Warehouse Company; Herbert S. Downs with 
the Nashawannuck Manufacturing Company; Harry T. Mac- 
Connell and Walter H. Dougherty have felt the influence of the 
Polytechnic Dramatic Association, both having gone into theatrical 


University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

The university was founded by act of legislature in 1869, 
but was not opened to students until 1871. It occupies ten 
buildings, has a student body of nearly two thousand, a 
faculty of one hundred and twenty, and an annual income of 
$175,000. It confers the degrees of B. A., B. S., B. LL., 
C. E., M. E., E. E., M. A., M. D., and Ph. D. 

Strange as it may sound, it is nevertheless true that Nebraska 
Alpha was organized at the instance of a member of Sigma Ntu 
It happened in this wise: A young man belonging to the latter or- 
ganization came to Lincoln to play Joshua and Caleb for his fra- 
ternity. This was in the fall of 1892. In February of 1893, he gath- 
ered together fourteen men to discuss the question of organizing 
a chapter of Sigma Nu. Nine of these men withdrew from the 
conference and set about getting a charter from a fraternity of 
stronger character and more reputation. Pending the search, these 
nine organized a local fraternity called Zeta Theta. When their 
action became noised abroad, propositions began to come from 
various fraternities, until not fewer that six offered the company 
a charter. By this time the chapter had become wary and under- 
took a little investigation on its own account. Soon the choice fell 
upon Phi Kappa Psi, and active efforts were made to secure a char- 
ter. In this they were aided by W. P. Aylesworth, of Cotner Uni- 
versity, Brothers Burnet, W. Woodward, C. H. Gere, and George 
Smart, and by the Chancellor of the university, James Canfield. 


The first petition was rejected by the fraternity, and the peti- 
tioners were somewhat disconcerted At the Grand Arch Council 
of 1894, Brother Smart secured the passage of a resolution asking 
the dissenting chapters to reconsider. This they did, but there were 
still votes against the proposition. In the fall of idg^. Brother 
Harl Myers, of Iowa Alpha, came over to inspect the crowd of 
petitioners, and at his departure fresh courage was instilled in the 
hearts of the boys, for he had become an enthusiastic advocate of 
the granting of the charter. The same was true of Brother C P. 
Richardson, of Michigan Alpha. 

In December, 1894, a second petition was sent in, but it, too, 
was negatived. The petitioners then sent out an ambassador to see 
the recalcitrant chapters, and before he had made the rounds the 
welcome news arrived that the coveted charter had been secured. 
The chapter was organized and the members initiated at the Hotel 
Lincoln on March 3d, 1895, by Brothers Carl Myers and Wm. Lar- 
rabee, of Iowa Alpha. These were the charter members: R. C 
Bentley, I. M. Bentiey, Walter Morrow, Ward Hildreth, P. A» 
Powers^ H. L. Kimball, L. C. Oberlies, Frank Brown, B. W, 
Wilson, W. A. Deary, J. P. Sedgwick, R. K. Strassman, W. H. 
Sudduth, V. C. Barber, W. D. Read, C. S. Norton, Carson Hildreth, 
and J. P. Rowe. 

The chapter signalized its entrance into the fraternity by moving 
into a chapter-house one month after its inauguration, and it has 
occupied a home ever since, believing that the true flavor of fra- 
ternity experience is not acquired in any other t<ray. The chapter 
has had plenty of good material to choose from in securing mem- 
bers, but it has always been conservative. It has never sought any 
particular sort of man, but it will not have a dullard because he has 
money or family connection to recommend him. The man chosen 
must be a student, though not a "grind"; a good dresser, but not 
a dude; a good fellow, but not a boozer; a fellow of good char- 
acter, but not a prude. The position of the chapter in its choice 
of men might be still further characterized in these words: First 
of all, he must be a man; then he must be a good fellow; these for 
a foundation; he can learn to be a good student, he can learn to be 
a hustler, but he cannot learn to be a manly, friendly, congenial 
fellow; these qualities are inborn and cannot be acquired. 

In the few years since the formation of the chapter, these men 
have made the chapter proud of their record: 

Herman F. Stark, Charles Hudson Imhoff, Charles Franklin Ladd, 

« • » ■» J 

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* >* k* o J 

X <» !.> >* 


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Co. --r.-' 


Jesse Perry Rowe, Archibald Louis Haecker, William Dicky Reed, 
Arthur Sperry Pearse, Ward Hildreth, Frank Wilton Lehmer, 
Orlo Brown, Louis W. Kormeye. 

Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 

Amherst was opened in September, 1821, and was the 
offspring of private effort. It is non-sectarian, but is largely 
under the influence of the Congregational Church. It has 
fifteen buildings, employs a faculty of thirty-three, has four 
hundred students, and an annual income of $110,000. It 
confers these degrees : B. A., B. S., M. A., and Ph. D. 

The organization of the Massachusetts Alpha chapter was due to 
the expansion policy of the fraternity developed in the Grand Arch 
Council of i8(H- On that occasion the cry, "On to New England !" 
was taken up, and Brother £. A, Merriam, of New York Epsilon, 
was chosen to conduct the campaign. 

He began his labors at Amherst in March of the next year. 
During a visit of a few days he interviewed prominent non-frater- 
nity men, with the result that upon his departure a nucleus of eight 
men was formed to carry on the work thus begun. The utmost 
secrecy was observed that no members of the other fraternities 
might learn of the action contemplated, and with such success that, 
until the time the permission of the faculty was granted, scarcely 
a man outside of those interested had the slightest suspicion of 
what was going on. 

At length preparations were completed, and on the evening of 
the 7th of June, 1895, seventeen men were initiated into Phi Psi by 
Brother W. L. McCorkle and other members of the New York 
Alumni Association in attendance. 

These were the charter members: F. T. Hennessey, T. C. Elvins, 
J. H. Gaylord, G. H. Hyde, L. D. Loveland, G. H. Nash, J. A. 
Rockwood, D. G. Burrage, S. A. Fiske, W. S. Frisbee, R, McFar- 
land, A P. Manwell, W. W. Obear, A M. Qapp, J. P. Garfield, 
C. S. Hager, and F. C. Wellman. 

The chapter was now established, but many were the obstacles 
in the way of its progress. It was the eleventh fraternity to enter 
a college whose students numbered only about four hundred. Con- 
sequently, it would be difficult to secure suitable men for the chap* 


ter and to attain a position of influence. But the energy and zeal 
of the charter members did much to remove all hindrances. Wi^ 
the aid of the New York Alumni during the summer vacation, it 
bought a ten-thousand-dollar house, almost new, whose location 
and arrangement could hardly have been better had it been planned 
for a fraternity house. When college opened in the autumn, a good 
delegation from the entering class was secured, together with sev- 
eral new members from the upper classes. Thus the chapter en- 
tered upon its career. 

Since then progress has been rapid. To such an extent has this 
been true that it has created surprise and aroused flattering remarks 
from members of other fraternities. Now Phi Psi takes a promi- 
nent place in Amherst life ; we hold class offices, we are represented 
on the athletic teams, on the musical clubs, on the editorial boards 
of the college publications; we take our stand in the social func- 
tions, and are recipients of honors for scholarship, seven of the 
charter members becoming Phi Beta Kappas. Wherever merit is 
recognized, Phi Psi makes its influence felt. It has been true again 
and again that the chapter has obtained desirable men, and won 
college elections, in direct competition with fraternities which have 
been long established in Amherst. 

The ideals of the chapter are high. Toward existing evils of 
college life Massachusetts Alpha has ever maintained an uncom- 
promising attitude, believing it to be unworthy of a- Phi Psi to do 
otherwise. Purity in college politics, honesty in examinations, 
manliness of conduct in all college relations — ^these are the ideals 
which are cherished as the distinct traits of a Phi Psi man. 

That "each one is the architect of his own fortune" is true of the 
chapter as well as of the individual. Massachusetts Alpha has 
already made a position for itself, and what Phi Psi has attained 
in the past may be taken as an augury for even greater success in 
the future. 

Brief as its career has been, the chapter has had some men go 
forth from its companionships who are being heard from: T. C 
Elvins, State Senator from New Jersey; E.C Thompson, Examiner 
in Civil Service Board, Manila, P. I.; W. A. Dyer, Editor WaB 
Paper News; A. W. Towne, Archon of Second District, Phi Kappa 
Psi fraternity. 


Dartmouth Collbge^ Hanover, N. H. 

Dartmouth College is the outgrowth of a charity school 
established in 1754 for the Indians. The present site was 
occupied and a charter granted by King George the Third 
in 176^, The coUeg^e is under the influence of the Congre- 
gational Church, although non-sectarian. It had a struggle 
to keep from falling entirely under the control of the state, 
and the celebrated Dartmouth case, which was one of Web- 
ster's most famous leg^ battles, determined the status of 
the college. It occupies fifteen buildings, has a faculty of 
fifty, has about seven hundred students, and an annual in- 
come of $75,000. It confers these degrees: B. A., B. S., 
M. A., and Ph. D. 

In the fall of 1894, ^ few men of Dartmouth '97, banded themselves 
together with the purpose of fostering a friendly spirit among 
themselves, and also of affording an opportunity for literary work 
and development. They met each Wednesday and Saturday even- 
ing in Brother George A. Adams' room in the old Haskell house, 
since removed by the college authorities. 

There were seven of these '97 men, a sacred number, and shortly 
after their first gatherings five men from '98 were added. On Janu- 
ary i6th, 1895, an organization was effected, and the first regular 
meeting was held with Brother C A. Tracy as President, since one 
of the most loyal of Phi Psis. Within a month a small room in 
the Carter Block, the nucleus of the present quarters of New Hamp- 
shire Alpha, was rented, and a new spirit of enthusiasm was kin- 
dled among the fellows. Dr. John Roe, Instructor in French in 
the college, was a frequent guest at their little room, and while the 
organization existed as a local society he was "one of us." 

In September, 1895, the name Beta Psi was taken, a pin was 
adopted, and the present rooms of Phi Kappa Psi were rented. At 
once the fellows were admitted into the "society world" of Dart- 
mouth and entered zealously into the "chinning season" that fall 
as a local society. Five excellent men from the class of '99 were 
pledged, and on December nth of that year they were initiated, 
and the first banquet was held the same evening at Newton Inn, 
Norwich, Vt., and thus the society took on renewed life and vigor. 

Early the idea of joining a regular fraternity was con- 


cehred. Chi Psi was considered, but the most serious thought 
was given to 2^eta PsL Zeta Psi had once had a chapter at Dart- 
month, and some of the alumni of the college who had been mem- 
bers of Zeta Psi would have been pleased to hare had tiie charter 

G>rrespondence was had with some of tiie most prominent of 
these men, for example. Dr. S. L. Gerould, of Hollis, N. H., and 
Congressman Dingley, of Maine, who had left Waterville, Maine, 
and came to Dartmouth partly to help bring Zeta Psi here. These 
men were very favorably inclined toward this move, but in the 
meantime Brother £. A. Merriam, of New York Epsilon, sug^gested 
to the boys that they try Phi KstppsL Psi. This was done, with the 
result that the boys were convinced that Phi Psi was their choice. 
Brother R. D. Blanpied, of Ohio Alpha, who had in September, 
1895, entered the senior class of Dartmouth, was now taken into the 
society. The petition to Zeta Psi was withdrawn, and the effort to 
secure a charter from Phi Kappa Psi was pushed, with the result 
that on January 24th, i8g6, New Hampshire Alpha of Phi Kappa 
Psi was a reality. 

At the institution of the chapter and the initiation of the charter 
members, the following Phi Psi brothers were present: Walter L. 
McCorkle, of New York; William C Sproul and £. Lawrence 
Fell, of Swarthmore; H. A. Mackey, of Lafayette; F. C 
Bray, of Allegheny, Rasrmond McFarland and W. W. Obear, 
of Amherst; C. C. Bragdon, Lasell Seminary, Aubumdale, Mass., 
and 1. 1. Bristol, of Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. At the banquet, 
which followed the initiation of the members, at the "Whedock,** 
Brother Walter L. McCorkle acted as toastmaster. The following 
were the charter members: Ralph D. Blanpied, George A. Adams, 
Theodore H. Bacon, Edgar D. Cass, George £. Foss, William A. 
Ham, George P. Parker, Charles A. Tracy, Frederick A. Gibbs, 
Wesley W. Jordan, George H. Nolan, Qarence L. Joy, Rasrmond 
Pearl, Edward R. Skinner, Edward B. Wardle, and Philip H. Win- 

From the first we have had among our number some of the best 
men of Dartmouth. Our aim is to cherish a friendly spirit among 
the brothers of Phi Psi, to give each man an opportunity for literary 
work and debate, which he does not find in any other permanent 
organization in Dartmouth, and withal by a closer personal contact 
than is ordinarily possible outside of the fraternity, so to touch the 
individual life that, during the formative years of college ex- 


perience, characteristics may be strengthened and developed which 
shall reflect credit upon the brother and the fraternity at large in 
the broader fields of future activity. 

Among our number there are prominent athletes as well as those 
who have taken high standing in the routine work of the dass 
room, having had in our brief history several brothers who have 
worn the Dartmouth "D," two who have won prize scholarships, 
and a considerable number who have gained prizes in particular 

The present life of the chapter is harmonious and pleasant The 
members of the chapter are planning for a chapter-house. The 
alumni list is necessarily small in sp young a chapter, but the 
brothers who have gone forth are all giving an excellent account of 

University ov Cautornia, Berkelzy, Cal. 

This institution was established by authority of the legis- 
lature in 1868, and began its work in 1869 at Oakland. It 
was transferred to its present location in 1873. The uni- 
versity is made up of fifteen strong colleges and maintains 
the highest standards. It has faculties numbering two 
hundr^ and fifty, a student body of twenty-six hundred, 
and an annual income from the state and other sources of 
$600,000. It confers these degrees: B. A., B. L., B. S., 
A. M., C. E., D. D. S., D. V. S., LL. B., M. A., M. L., 
M. S., M. E., M. D., Met. E., Min. K, Ph. G., Ph. B., and 

This chapter is the outgrowth of a conversation between Brother 
W. A. Snow, of Kansas Alpha, and Brothers Carl Schilling and 
T. H. Emerson, of California Gamma, during the summer of 1898. 
Finding in the young men the material for genuine Phi Psis, 
Brother Snow urged them to get together a crowd and petition 
for a charter. In a short time the coterie of would-be Phi Psis had 
interested Brother H. C. Allen, of California Beta, and through him 
the California alumni were aroused. A meeting was had of the 
petitioners and the San Francisco Alumni Association of Phi Kappa 
Psi, and the entire Stanford chapter, with the result that a strong 
indorsement accompanied the petition to the fraternity authorities. 
In working the petition through to a speedy issue, the chapter 


was especially indebted to Walter S. Holden and Secretary Orra £. 

On Saturday evening, April 15th, 1899, the charter members 
were initiated and the chapter formally organized at Albion Hall, 
San Frandnsco, under the auspices of the California Beta chapter. 
Brother Carl Brown filling the position of presiding officer and 
Brother W. G. Mayhew, representing the Executive Council. These 
were the charter members: R. L. Logan, Carl Schilling, M. B. 
Scott, L. N. Scott, E. A. Stone, J. V. de Laveaga, H. M. Leete, 
Herbert Masters, Fillmore White, J. J. Kline, T. H. Emerson, 
E. J. Fore, H. M. Love, H. T. Moore, and G. C. Noble. 

Practically every man was an honor man in some department 
of the college life and not one of them was under the standard of the 
most exclusive fraternities at Berkeley. The installation banquet 
at Delmonico's immediately following the installation, was one of 
the most brilliant affairs ever set out by even this most famous 

The life of the chapter was begun in true twentieth centuiy 
fashion by the members leasing a house and entering upon chapter- 
house life upon their return to college in the fall, after the installa- 
tion of the chapter. This house was occupied only long enough 
for the chapter to mature plans for the erection of a home of their 
own, which was accomplished in the fall of 1901, a most suitable, 
convenient, and well-located edifice being designed for the chapter 
by Brother H. C. Allen and erected in the most substantial manner. 
The present prospects of this chapter are of the highest 



This institution is one of the foremost technological 
colleges in America, and is the scientific department of 
state education in Indiana. It was founded in 1873, and is 
well equipped for its special work. It has twenty buildings, 
a faculty of seventy, about eleven hundred students, and an 
annual income of $150,000. It confers the degrees of 
M. E., C. E., A. C, and M. S. 

It is doubtful if in the entire annals of Greek-letter society life an 
instance can be found to parallel the efforts of the young men who 
now form the members and alumni of Indiana Delta, to secure a 


charter from Phi Kappa Psi. Tentative efforts had been made 
several times and at least two petitions had been sent to Grand 
Arch Councils before the complete and vigorous submission of 
their case was made in 1898. Although the field seemed favorable, 
the quality of the men unquestioned, the strong prejudice against 
technological institutions was enough to bring a number of n^^- 
tive votes. The institution had in 1884 been the scene of the famous 
Purdue case, in which the very existence of Greek>letter societies 
was involved, and in which the college had been brought into an 
unenviable notoriety by a legislative investigation, growing out of 
the questions raised by the controversy of- a member of Sigma Chi 
with the President of the institution. The Greek-letter worl4 had 
heard too much of Purdue, and Phi Kappa Psi apparently would 
have none of it 

Nothing daunted at their failure, the petitioners picked their 
flints and tried again. They organized a local society called Beta 
Kappa Kappa, entered a chapter-house, gathered into their fold 
the choicest men in the college and marshalled the support of the 
Indiana alumni. Just before the Columbus Grand Arch Council, 
they presented a petition which has not, we believe, been dupli- 
cated in fraternity affairs for completeness or elegance, illustrated 
with engravings of the college and its surroundings, and all com- 
piled with a most tremendous backing of influential alumni. It had 
the indorsement of the faculty, of many of the trustees, of officers of 
the fraternity, both present and past, and was sustained by the 
enthusiastic, request of nearly three hundred alumni of Phi Kappa 
Psi from many chapters, who were resident in Indiana. Delegates 
were sent by the petitioners to the Grand Arch Council, and these 
advocated the cause shrewdly and eloquently, but to no avail were 
elaborate petition or gifted advocates. The Grand Arch Council 
could not secure the acquiescence of the chapters which doubted 
the expediency of entering the now famous institution, famous in 
Phi Psidom for the pluck of its students, who knowing what they 
wanted, persisted in asking for it. 

A systematic and determined campaign was then inaugurated to 
win over the dissenters. Representatives from these chapters were 
cordially invited to Purdue for the purpose of investigating. They 
came, .and some went away unconvinced. Finally, matters took 
such a shape that Secretary Orra £. Monnette and Treasurer C. 
F. M. Niles felt that their reputation as judges of human nature 
and Phi Psi interests demanded more than a cordial endorsement 


at their hands, and from simply acquiescing in the establishment 
of the chapter, they went actively to work to win over the doubters. 
The story of their devotion and urgent labors will never be told, 
but in the end these tireless Phi Psi enthusiasts convinced the 
most unwilling of the doubters, and the charter was granted. 

On Wednesday, June 5th, 1901, the chapter was installed under 
circumstances seldom equaled anywhere, and never witnessed be- 
fore in Phi Kappa PsL The Executive Council had been called to 
meet in Lafayette with the purpose of participating in the installa- 
tion, and, in the presence of all the executive officers of the 
fraternity, and under the most solemn and dignified aus{HceSy 
Indiana Delta was launched. Members of other chapters were 
present from all over the State, and from some distant States, 
and it is to be doubted if ever a chapter of Phi Kappa Psi had 
so magnificent an introduction into the ranks <^ Greek-letterdom. 

These were the charter members, many of them of the highest 
rank in college, class-room, and student affairs: C. R. Dooley, 
E. H. DashicU. E. W. Winans, J. W. Dietz, F. L. Cole, J. H. 
Berryhill, F. H. Curtis, L. W. Harrington, F. B. Ernest, M. H. 
Smith, Ernest Matlock, R. H. Kellog, G. W. Ross, S. C RowUnd, 
G. F. Endicott, L. E. Endsley, E. B. Henley, H. W. ^limer, 
K K Young, John Hombrook, C E. Henley, J. H. Bonghton, 
Frank Harshaw, Jr., R. E. Adams, C A. Nottingham, I. C 
De Haven, J. N. Reynolds, J. C Kirby, F. U. Dencer, W. A. 
Drake, B. C. Waldenmaier, Simeon Hodgin. 

Vandebbilt Unxvirsity, Nashvuli; Tunr. 

This institution is under the control and patrcmage of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and was munificently 
endowed by Cornelius Vanderbilt, the senior, who rave 
$1,000,000 to the institution, to which his son, W. H. Van- 
derbilt afterward added another $500,000. It occupies a 
magnificent campus of seventy-six acres in the suburbs of 
Nashville, with sixteen buildings. It was opened in 1875. 
It has in its faculties one hundred and three professors and 
instructors, has a student body of nearly nine himdred, and 
an annual income of $125,000. It confers these degrees: 
B. A., B. S., B. LLf., B. D., B. B., C. E., M. £., Min. EL, 
Ph. Ch., M. Ph., Ph. G., M. D., D. D. S. 


The establishment of this chapter is another tribute to the skill 
and perseverance of Secretary Orra £. Mennotte and to the elo- 
quence of President £. M. Stires. The discussion regarding the 
entering of Vanderbilt was started at the Cincinnati Grand Arch 
G>uncil, in 1892. The next two Grand Arch G>uncils continued to 
discuss the matter, but without action of any sort. At Cleveland, 
in 1896, Brother £. M. Stires electrified the Council with a ringing 
speech for southern extension, with particular reference to Van- 
derbilt However, even he could not overcome the inertia of Phi 
Psi conservatism, and it was not until the meeting of the Executive 
Council in 1897 that any movement was made. In the meeting of 
the latter body, a unanimous resolution passed, suggesting that 
Vanderbilt be put upon the accredited list At the 1898 Grand 
Arch Council the matter was fully ^discussed, but without effect 
In 1899, the Executive Council submitted to the chapters a prop- 
osition to put Vanderbilt upon the accredited list, but the vote 
was adverse. After a most vigorous struggle in the Columbus 
Grand Arch Council in 1900, the coveted permission was obtained, 
and the Executive Council began the campaign for the proper 
material with which to start a chapter. 

In November, 1900, Brothers E. Lawrence Fell and Orra K Mon- 
nette went, under instruction from the Executive Council, to look 
the field over. They met with an enthusiastic reception from old 
Phi Psis in the city, among whom Jordan Stokes was the leader. 
Through him, Jordan Stokes, Jr., then in preparatory school, was 
pledged. Brother W. E. Floyd, of Mississippi Alpha, was per- 
suaded to enter Vanderbilt for his medical course, and, with this 
nucleus, the very difficult task of securing a good band of peti- 
tioners was undertaken. In a northern institution this problem 
would not have been formidable, but family connection and social 
prestige count for so much in the South that even such devoted 
and skillful fellows as Stokes and Floyd were much discouraged. 
After securing a few of the kind of men whom they desired, they felt 
that the time had come for more expert help, and the Executiye 
Council was petitioned to come. Brother Monnette, taking E. H. 
Knight, Indiana Gamma, with him, went to Nashville prepared to 
install the chapter if he were satisfied with the outlook. In addi- 
tion to those who had been secured by Brothers Stokes and Floyd, 
four more were added by the efforts of Brothers Monnette and 
Knight, and with a very choice band of nine men the chapter was 



installed on the afternoon of October 7th, 1901, at the Tulane Hotel, 
by Brothers Monnette, Knight, and Floyd. 

The work of entering Vanderbilt was largely facilitated by the 
high social, professional, and commercial standing of the resident 
alumni of Phi Kappa Psi from a number of chapters, chiefly, how- 
ever, from the three defunct Tennessee chapters. These alumni 
have formed an earnest and enthusiastic alumni association in Nash- 
ville, and are giving the new chapter invaluable support Professor 
Collins Denney, of the faculty, and one of the founders of Maryland 
Alpha, was very helpful in the formation of the chapter. It is en- 
tirely safe to say that in the entire South there could not be gath- 
ered together nine young men of better family, higher character, 
and more manly attributes than these the charter members of Ten- 
nessee Delta: Jordan Stokes,, Jr., Duncan Eve, Jr., M. Ransom, 
Gideon Pillow Wade, Frank A. Berry, W. E. Floyd, J. E. Wfl- 
liams, S. E. Mcllvain, W. C. Chisum. 

The chapter has taken at a bound a commanding position in the 
Greek-letter life of Vanderbilt, and is located in a suitable chapter- 


Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

Brown University, the third largest educational institu- 
tion in New England, was founded in 1764, while Rhode 
Island was still an English colony, by the Baptist denomina- 
tion. It has eighty-four professors and instructors, and 
eight hundred and seventy-two students. The university 
occupies elevated ground in the city of Providence, and 
utilizes eighteen buildings. It has an endowment of 
$1,874,000. It confers the degrees of A. B., Ph. B., B. S., 

C. E., M. E., A. M., Ph. D., and the honorary d^^ees of 

D. D. and LL. D. 

Rhode Island Alpha chapter was installed on February 28th, 1902, 
with twelve members, marking the third entrance Into New England 
of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. The chapter was installed under 
unusually happy conditions. 

The installation was conducted by Vice-President E. Lawrence 
Fell, Arthur W. Towne, Archon of the Second District, ex-Presi- 
dent Walter L. McG>rkle, ex-President William C. Wilson, ex- 
Treasurer William C. Sproul, ex-Treasurer George B. Baker, and 


over sixty Phi Psis, including representatives from New Hamp- 
shire Alpha, Massachusetts Alpha» New York Ganuna, New York 
Zeta, and the Alumni Associations of Boston, New York, and 
Philadelphia. The following is a list of the charter members: 
Edward Kimball Aldrich, Jr., 1902; Frederick Henry Gabbi, 1902; 
Charles Herbert Holt, 1902; Joseph Waite Ince, 1902; Duncan 
Martin Luther McPhail, 1902; Edgar Louis Ashley, 1903; Stephen 
Howard Easton, 1903; Edward Winslow Holmes, 1903; Nathanial 
Orson Howard, 1903; Warren Almon Clough, 1904; Guy Blaudin 
G>lbum, 1904; Leon Arnold Winslow, 1904. 


Alumni Associations and Phi Psi Clubs. 

Under the new constitution, the anomalous alumni chap- 
ters were made forever impossible. A very definite and 
responsible place is reserved in the new dispensation for the 
alumni, for in nothing has the fraternity world made such 
advance as in its changed attitude toward former members. 
The new conception is decidedly Calvinistic in tone, and the 
phrase, "Once a Phi Psi, always a Phi Psi," has now a 
very positive meaning in the ranks of the Old Boys, whose 
interest and abundant labors have made the fraternity what 
it is. At least, if they have not made the fraternity, they 
have made it over. 

Here and there the old members have banded themselves 
together for service to Phi Kappa Psi. To some of these 
associations there is a very positive and vigorous life, as is 
notably the case with the New York City Alumni Associa- 
tion ; to others, there is only an annual meeting and dinner 
upon Founder's Day, but in it all there is a genuine love 
for Phi Kappa Psi and an earnest desire to do good. 

At the present time these are the active alumni associa- 
tions: Boston, Mass.; New York City, N. Y. ; Buffalo, 
N. Y. ; Washington, D. C. ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; Pittsburg, 
Pa. ; Meadville, Pa. ; Bucyrus, O. ; Newark, O. ; Cleveland, 
O. ; Springfield, O. ; Cincinnati, O. ; Columbus, O. ; Toledo, 
O. ; Indianapolis, Ind. ; Anderson, Ind. ; Chicago, HI.; 
Kansas City, Mo.; Minneapolis, Minn.; OmaJia, Neb.; 


Denver, Col. ; Salt Lake City, Utah ; Seattle, Wash. ; Port- 
land, Ore. ; San Francisco, Cal. ; Los Angeles, Cal. ; Nash- 
ville, Tenn.; Louisville, Ky. ; Duluth, Minn.; Johnstown, 
Pa. ; and Petersburg, Va. 
There is only one Phi Psi Club, the one at Harvard. 

Modern History. 

^g%IFTY years ago two ingenuous youths conceived a 
jM great idea. The fact is insignificant^ the thought 
was full of the richest meaning, prophetic and 
profound. The difference between the great Columbus 
and the pirate vikings was no more than an idea, yet both 
discovered a continent. The greatest movement in civiliza- 
tion came from the work of the man with an idea. So in 
the sphere of activity filled by the youth of our American 
colleges, the mysterious call of pioneer souls to a larger 
life and a nobler conception of brotherhood has resulted 
in the greatest movement of modem life among young men, 
so far-reaching and suggestive than no one man can rightly 
estimate its depth and power. 

Figures sometimes tell a significant story. In the case 
of Phi Kappa Psi they speak with eloquence of noble prin- 
ciples, nobly expressed, fructifying in m3rriads of hearts. 
From two men to nine thousand is a far cry, but so great is 
the span compassed in membership in Phi Kappa Psi in the 
fifty years of its life. And yet mere numbers are of the 
least importance. Has the life been rich? has it been full? 
has it been helpful and inspiring to one's fellows? These 
and questions of similar import are the measure of value in 
fraternity experience. Phi Kappa Psi is neither the largest 
nor the richest fraternity in American college life. And 
it need never be either to fulfill its largest conception of its 
mission. If its growth is healthy and vigorous, then wel- 
come an increasing chapter roll and a large membership ; 
if increase of wealth comes and comes in full measure, it 
will be helpful, provided its acquisition implies sacrifice, 



and carries with it a deep sense of obligation for its con- 
secrated use. 

We have come a pleasant journey thus far. It has been 
to the Historian a delightful journey to wander amid mem- 
ories of the old boys, to recast for himself the scenes and 
to reenact the experiences of the many companies with 
whom he has lived again each chapter's life, but it remains 
to set before ourselves the recent life of the fraternity, a 
task even more difficult than to call from the recesses of an 
inexorable past the forgotten heroes and tell for them their 
story, for it implies an ability to separate one's self from the 
experiences in which he has been an active participant and 
to tell of scenes which have had no mellowing haze of time 
to obscure their crudities of outline, in such a way as to 
seem at once judicial and judicious. But no matter how 
much it irks one to do so hard a thing, the work demands 
such an expression of the life of the now that to future 
historians there may be no lack of clear knowledge of what 
Phi Kappa Psi is and does. 

For the Historian's purpose the life of the fraternity 
shows a rather distinct line of cleavage into true past and 
vital present at the Columbus Grand Arch Council of 1885. 
It was this Council which, yielding its thought to the ferment 
of discontent which was working mightily in the fraternity, 
committed the fraternity to a new policy and a new life. 
The work of revolution began with the appointment of a 
committee on constitution and edicts, which was instructed 
to prepare and submit a full report for the consideration 
of the fraternity at another Grand Arch Council, which 
was to meet in a little more than one year from the time of 
its appointment. The Columbus Grand Arch Council pur- 
posed distinctly that all of the fraternity machinery should 
be not overhauled but replaced by newer and better; the 
appointment of the committee and adjournment were 


measures rendered necessary because there was no well- 
defined system of government ready-made to be adopted; 
for while the Council was very sure it knew what was 
wrong, it did not so clearly know what was enough better 
to justify a change to it. 

The committee appointed for this work was: W. C. 
Wilson, Pennsylvania Beta; George Dun, Ohio Delta; 
D. C List, Ohio Gamma; F. S. Monnett, Ohio Alpha; and 
C. L. Van Qeve, Ohio Alpha. This committee was organ- 
ized by the selection of W. C. Wilson as chairman, and he 
called the first meeting of the committee at Lake Chautau- 
qua, presumptively in the hope that the stimulating in- 
fluence of the atmosphere there would quicken the intellects 
of the committee, and ideas would fructify as readily as 
berries ripen under summer suns. The committee met in 
July; at least, the chairman met the tail end of the com- 
mittee at the appointed place, and there laid out his broad 
scheme of reorganization for Phi Kappa Psi. There was no 
question in the mind of the other member of the committee 
present that the ideas were sound, and he gave them his 
unqualified indorsement. No romantic youth, whispering 
sweet vows of love to his lady dear, could have spoken with 
larger enthusiasm or with more glow of real feeling than 
did "Billy" Wilson set forth his hopes and ambitions for 
Phi Kappa Psi in the dim light of the shimmering moon 
on the veranda of the Hotel Athenaeum, that balmy night in 
the lush summer of 1885. 

The two members, after a day and a night of conference 
and earnest discussion, separated to meet again with other 
members of the committee later in the year at Columbus 
and Delaware. Each matter of moment was gravely and 
fully considered, and the committee finally agreed to indorse 
practically what Wilson had already planned. The con- 
servative and cautious Dun brought to the enthusiasm of 


Wilson, the needed restraint to secure strong and vigorous 
statements of the radical instrument which was to give Phi 
Kappa Psi a new birth into a freer life. The Historian was 
badly handicapped in that committee. His natural freedom 
of opinion was held severely in check, for of the mem- 
bers of the committee who met at the several comings 
together, all, Wilson, Dun, Monnett, were briefless bar- 
risters determined to make the most of this their first case. 
In only one thing was it granted to the schoolmaster to be 
peer among his brethren, and that was in the participation in 
the midnight refection which always followed the evening^s 
labors. Here he ranked easily first. The committee, in 
sheer pity at his futility when matched with three lawyers, 
gave him free rein with the purely formal part of the work 
in instructing him to take their legal forms and labored 
statements of principle and polish the roughness off by 
turning the phrases or by adding g^ces of rhetoric where 
too great plainness prevailed. 

The work of the committee done, the fraternity waited in 
eager interest its report. The special Grand Arch Council, 
which had been called at the time of the adjournment of 
that held at Columbus in 1885, convened at Indianapolis 
in May, 1886. To this gathering, large and representative, 
including delegates from the remotest chapters in the fra- 
ternity, the work of revision, which was practically a new 
government in its entirety, was offered. It was discussed 
fully for two days of almost continuous sessions, and then 
was adopted as reported from the committee without an 
I emendation, amendment, correction, or criticism I The 

i work of this committee in this particular stands unrivaled 

in our history. 

The peculiar character of the form of government sub- 
mitted has been sufficiently elaborated in another place, 
and needs no repetition here. The fraternity, under this 


govemmenti began its life anew in September, i886| and in 
all essential particulars is still enjo3riing the beneficent effects 
of the work of this revolution-working committee. 

The first great movement which was felt throughout the 
fraternity in response to the establishment of a centralized 
government was the call to stability by moneyed investment. 
Phi Kappa Psi moves slowly, and in nothing is its con- 
servatism shown more than in its attitude toward chapter- 
house building. The cry had already begun for this on- 
ward movement, but aside from the tasteful lodge of Penn- 
sylvania Epsilon, no chapter in the fraternity had done any 
material work toward ownership. In the winter of 1886, 
one of the youngest and least wealthy of the chapters had 
made a bold move in this direction, and before the opening 
of the fall term of the college, California Alpha was in its 
own home. The cry has been raised again and again since 
that day, to fall upon unheeding ears for the most part, 
although some notable exceptions among the younger 
chapters is to be noted. At this place it may not be amiss 
to remind the present membership of the chapters that if 
chapter-houses are built by Phi Kappa Psi, the work will 
be done by the sacrifices and contributions, both in money 
and time, of the undergraduates and the younger alumni. 
There are two potent reasons for this belief, strengthened as 
it is by close observation of results already attained in 
Phi Kappa Psi. In the first place, the older alumni do 
not tmderstand the changed conditions of fraternity life, and 
do not understand that the fraternity that does not keep 
pace with this chapter-house movement is compelled to 
accept a place in the rear of progressive fraternities. It is 
scarcely to be expected that these older men can get into 
the currents of latter-day college thought. The wheels of 
time run never backward. In the second place, most 
alumni who have won their place in the world, unless pos- 


sessed of ample means, have sons and daughters to educate 
who are themselves somewhere the active members of chap- 
ters of Phi Kappa Psi or some other fraternity with like aims 
and ambitions. The latter class cannot give largely, for 
various reasons ; the former seldom give to any enterprise 
which does not in some way contribute to the furtherance of 
selfish ambition or social preferment. And yet, the His- 
torian believes that the way has been shown whereby any 
chapter that really wants a chapter-house can buy or build 
one and own it in a short period of time. 

The chapter-house movement in American fraternities is 
of comparatively recent origin, and while we are apt to 
flatter ourselves that we are doing well, candor compels 
the admission that we are by no means keeping abreast 
of the other fraternities which have gone to work in earnest 
to settle this question of chapter-houses. 

Excepting the log cabin built by Chi Psi at Michigan 
in 1846, and the log cabin built by Delta Kappa Epsilon at 
Kenyon in 1853, the first chapter-house acquired by a 
Greek-letter fraternity was the building purchased by 
Sigma Phi at Williams in 1857. Other buildings acquired 
at early dates were the lodge of Delta Kappa Epsilon at 
Yale, built in 1861, the house of Kappa Kappa Kappa 
(local) at Dartmouth, bought in 1862, and the lodge of 
Psi Upsilon at Yale, built in 1870. 

So far as the present writer knows, there is no picture 
extant of the Chi Psi lodge, but on the opposite page is 
what is said to be a good representation of the Delta Kappa 
Epsilon lodge at Kenyon. 

Recent statistics compiled by Mr. W. R. Baird show 
beyond question that the most important development of 
modem fraternity life is in the direction of chapter-house 
occupancy and ownership. There is scarcely a fraternity 
which is not feeling the impulse of this movement. In 


189S there were 134 ch^er-houses owned and 214 rented 
by the collie fraternities in American colleges, and, ac- 
cording to statistics gathered more recently by Mr. Vernon, 
of Phi Gamma Delta, the number of houses owned has risen 
to 218 owned and 262 rented. It is believed that even these 
figures are not complete, for a number of fraternities in the 
tables compiled show no houses occupied, and all of the 
societies are not represented. 

In point of membership Phi Kappa Psi ranks sixth, and 


in chapter-houses occupied it stands third; in chapter- 
houses owned, however, it ranks fourteenth. In order to 
get the fairest estimate, however, it will be necessary to 
compare fraternities in point of chapters organized and 
chapter-houses occupied. In accordance with this much 
fairer method of comparison Phi Kappa Psi has but two 
per cent, of her chapters housed in their own property and 
seventy-seven per cent, of her chapters occupying houses. 
Its rank in houses owned, according to the percentage basis. 


is sixth, while in houses occupied it is only lowered to fifth 
place, being in almost a tied position upon the percentage of 
chapters housed with Theta Delta Chi and Zeta Psi. It is 
excelled in the percentage of chapters housed by only Alpha 
Delta Phi, Psi Upsilon, Chi Phi, and Chi Psi. 

Our chapter-house committee has done the fraternity a 
great, almost incalculable, good by their efforts to arouse 
the courage of Phi Kappa Psi to the "doing" degree of 
enthusiasm. The Historian cannot refrain from quoting 
from the pamphlet prepared by Brother G. Fred. Rush 
these significant paragraphs: 

"Every chapter-house scheme should possess the follow- 
ing main features : 

"i. Title should be in a corporation or association com- 
posed of alumni and active members, and never in the active 

"2. The active chapter, by formal lease, should lease the 
chapter-house from the company owning the same. 

"3. The purchase price should be paid entirely out of the 
collections of moneys derived from other sources than rent. 

"4. Successive members, even when the house is fully 
paid for, should pay rent for the fraternity house, and 
initiates should continue to take stock in the house 
company. The money will be needed for keeping up the 
premises, for improvements or new buildings, and the rent 
can be applied to pay dividends on stock or to support a 
scholarship or a fellowship in the college.'' 

The foregCMng excerpts are made to show the quality 
of the work of the committee, and those who have not read 
its pages of excellent instruction are urged to secure a copy 
of it from any member of the committee, which consists 
of G. Fred. Rush, Dean Swift, and Halbert E. Payne. 

The spirit of the authorities in Phi Kappa Psi is strong 
for chapter-house exploitation, and the policy of accepting 


no new chapters without satisfactory evidence of present or 
immediate occupancy of such fraternity homes will, in the 
near future, place our order in the very front rank of 
Greek-letter- society circles in this particular. Beta Theta 
Pi has matured a policy which its members assert will bring 
a house for every chapter within the next five years. It 
could be readily shown, if this history were to be an organ 
for the advocacy of this one feature of Greek-letter society 
life, that the whole fraternity system is irrevocably com- 
mitted to the policy of house occupancy and ownership. 

The progress made by Phi Kappa Psi may be summed 
up in these figures: The houses and lots owned by the 
fraternity represent a value of $103,900; these are mort- 
gaged to the extent of $22,975, leaving a net valuation of 
property held by the chapters in fee of $80,925. Aside from 
these gratifying figures, there is cheer in the knowledge 
that the chapters own personal property to the extent of 
$32,150, and have expended the past year for improvements 
$5i465- As an offset to this showing the chapters owe 
other debts besides mortgages to the amount of $1,986. 

The salient features of the modem life of Phi Kappa Psi 
are these : The building and occupying of chapter-houses ; 
the enlarged conceptions and practice in government; the 
development of alumni interests through Councils; sub- 
scription to fraternity enterprises, and the formation of 
Alumni Associations ; the more general commingling of the 
men from different chapters through social functions, and 
the development of the typical Phi Psi and his field of useful 

Nearly all of these themes have had some exposition 
elsewhere in these pages, but before this survey of the 
fratemitjr's life is closed, it may be worth while to speak of 
them a little more in detail. Enough has been said of the 
chapter-house phase of our modem life, and it remains to 


speak of the others. In the endeavor to characterize the 
modem history of Phi Kappa Psi no effort is made to be 
chronological; in fact, a chronicle of events would be out 
of place in such a chapter as this. Much that now is 
and more of what promises to be send their roots so far 
back into the past and have come so recently to their pres- 
ent condition that the recital of their development would 
almost seem as if one were essa)ring to repeat what has 
already been said, and that, too, with some detail. 

Reference has been made to the Grand Arch Council 
of 1885 and of the meetings of the committee charged 
with revising the constitution, and of the ratification 
of the committee's work at the Grand Arch Council in 
1886. The experience of the years immediately following 
the 1886 Grand Arch Council demonstrated that while the 
new body of fraternity law was grandly revolutionary and 
constructive, it had not taken a view of the future large 
enough for the expanding ideas of the fraternity. There 
was needed a more complete system of fraternity juris- 
prudence, a more detailed expression of the forms and 
ceremonies of the fraternity, and a revision of a few features 
of the new body of law which had proved upon trial not 
adapted to the best growth of the organization. 

A committee appointed by the Grand Arch Council took 
up the question of codifying the laws of the fraternity and 
of amplif3ring the legal forms in the body of the constitu- 
tion. To these labors they added a general overhauling of 
the entire instrument. The committee charged with this 
work was made up of Henry Peg^m, F. C. Hicks, H. E. 
Payne, F. C. Bray, W. M. Thacher, W. L. McCorkle, and 
R T. Bang. This committee did its work with a pains- 
taking care for thoroughness which will ever serve as a 
standard for future committees of every sort. It reported 
through its chairman at the Philadelphia Grand Arch 


Council in 1898, and the Council went into the discussion 
of the various questions involved, so that work upon this 
report took up a good share of the time of the meeting. 
This instrument has had some amendment since the ad- 
journment of the Council which adopted it; in fact, the de- 
sire to put the constitution in permanent form was strong 
at this Council, but the desire to prove the merits of the 
revision in practice prevented any precipitate action, and it 
was several years before the present form of government 
took the definite shape which it now has. 

In no one particular has Phi Kappa Psi so advanced 
since 1885 as in its relation to its alumni. This has come 
about in several ways. It is, perhaps, supererogatory to 
attempt to determine the measure of value of each of the 
factors contributing to this beneficent end, but certainly no 
one factor has contributed more to our present promising 
condition than The Shield. The continued issue of a fra- 
ternity organ, no matter whether made especially attractive 
to alumni or not, has much to do with making an alumnus 
feel that his fraternity is alive, and encourages him to add 
somewhat of his own influence to its perpetuation. The 
efforts made by the successive managements to look up 
the former members has also had considerable to do with 
bringing a renewed allegiance from those who carelessly 
have let themselves get out of touch with their old 

The next influence to this, perhaps, is the fact that 
alumni have been called to the management of fraternity 
affairs. This not only gives dignity and stability to the 
government, but it brings experience and training to bear 
upon the problem of how to keep a man in touch with his 
fraternity. Then again, there is an increasing number of 
alumni who come regularly to Grand Arch Councils and 
District Councils. The rapid development of Alumni Asso- 


ciations, also, has served to arouse the younger element 
of the fraternity to the enormous significance of the motto: 
"Once a Phi Psi, always a Phi Psi." Elsewhere, a list of 
the active associations is given, and in some of the more 
zealous the practice of keeping the chapters informed of 
prospective students in colleges where Phi Kappa Psi is 
represented is being carried on with good results. These 
same associations, by frequent meetings, not only enable 
the participants in their gatherings to have a good time, but 
they serve a good purpose in keeping the fraternity name 
before the public in a way advantageous to the organization. 
These various causes and others which might be men- 
tioned have all contributed to make out of the former active 
members a body of more active members, who, although 
they pass by the name of alumni, are yet more to the fra- 
ternity by far than they were in the days of their under- 
graduate expOTences. Of such sort Walter L. McCorkle 
is, perhaps, the most illustrious example of the fraternity, 
spending as he does with lavish hand of money, time, and 
influence to the furtherance of the interests of Phi Kappa 
Psi. This spirit of the modem life has, the Historian be- 
lieves, rendered extinct the Dodo species of Phi Psis. In 
poring over the files of The Shield, recently, the writer came 
upon this excerpt from a personal letter written to him by 
an old Phi Psi college friend, who, when he was an under- 
graduate, was one of the two men who "ran" the chapter 
of which both were members. It furnished interesting 
reading in this connection: "I do not like to tell you to 
stop sending me The Shield, and yet it is still more un- 
pleasant to have to pay for something I do not want ; and 
so I ask you to strike my name off your list. Perhaps it 
ought not to be so, but the fact is that I do not feel interest 
enough in the fraternity to read its journal. As I feel about 
it, to have to take a journal because one once belonged 



actively to an organization, is like taxing one for the re- 
mainder of his life for a pleasure of his youth. The interest 
you have in the fraternity is as great a puzzle to me as my 
lack of it, doubtless, will appear inexplicable to you. But 
I very seldom run across an alumnus member that feels as 
you do. Nearly all I know feel as I do." 

At the time this quotation was made the Historian, in his 
capacity of editor, went somewhat deeply into the question 
raised by his reverend friend, for his correspondent was a 
Christian minister, but he has no intention of repeating the 
argument here. Mention of this matter is made to enforce 
the lesson taught by the new life of the fraternity, that which 
dates from the Columbus Grand Arch Council of 1885. 
The lesson is this: Men may preserve their youth and be 
better men for the conservation. He who keeps himself in 
the closest sympathy with the educated, refined youth of 
this land is sure to be a more useful man and a better one. 
That there is no better way for a man to keep in touch with 
the best young American life than through a£Siliation with 
one's college fraternity no one who has eyes to see or ears 
to hear or a heart to feel can successfully deny. And so, 
Phi Kappa Psi welcomes the McCorkles and the Buskirks 
and the Holdens and the Duns, who simply cannot stay 
away from a Grand Arch Council or a District Council, and 
who will travel hundreds of miles to be present at the in- 
stallation of a new chapter of the fraternity. 

Not alone is our new government, both in its present 
form and in the first great revision, the work of alumni, 
but nearly, if not quite, all of the newer things in the fra- 
ternity life are their work as well. The idea of a pledge 
button and an alumnus button were the thought of an 
alumnus — E. A. Daumont, of Indiana Alpha; the com- 
mittee that formulated the yell was made up chiefly of 
alumni; the catechism for new members was the thought 



and composition of alumni, and the whole development of 
fraternity support of new chapter-house projects emanated 
from the same source. These simply for illustration, not 
for enumeration. Everywhere the strengthening, stimu- 
lating influence of the alumnus is felt, and it is only in very 
rare instances that there is aroused in the minds of the 
undergraduate any suspicion of the motives of the alumnus 
brother, or any feeling but one of profound gratitude for his 
inspiring example and generous support. 

The origin of our present burial service will, in this con- 
nection, be interesting. In September, 1888, the Historian 
was summoned by telegram to Findlay, Ohio, to officiate 
at the funeral of his dear friend and Phi Psi brother, James 
Haven Kimber, one of the most brilliant and fascinating 
men ever initiated into Phi Kappa Psi. He was racked to 
his death by the awful physical tortures of sciatica. Before 
he died, in fact, several years before, he had exacted a 
promise that none but the writer should have charge of his 
funeral, and that no one but Phi Psis should officiate. 
Being a layman, and wholly without experience in such 
matters, the Historian was sadly puzzled for a form or 
ceremony which he might follow, since his friend was an 
agnostic. His own Christian church affiliations afforded no 
fitting precedent, and so, out of nothing, a service was 
prepared by him for the occasion. It is not, perhaps, out 
of taste to call attention to the service there used, for it 
was the cause, distant though in point of time, for the 
preparation of our present beautiful ritual for the dead, 
prepared by Brother Henry Scudder and the committee 
over which he presided. The account is found in Volume 
IX of The Shield, pp. 65 et seq. 

Upon reading what is above referred to, together with 
what was said editorially in The Shield, the Executive 
Council appointed the present writer as a committee to 


prepare a suitable ritual for use at Phi Psi funerals. After 
the enthusiasm engendered by the need of saying some- 
thing adequate over the remains of his dead friend had 
passed away, the task seemed to the then editor insuperable. 
Charged with deep and exacting labors as editor, the His- 
torian found no time to accomplish the task given him, 
and was finally excused from the service, and the present 
committee on ritual was charged to prepare a service. 
They reported at the Philadelphia Grand Arch Council, and 
their report, finally revised by being offered for criticism to 
our dear old friend. Dr. Lowry, was first used at his 

Phi Kappa Psi has felt the pulsings of the new life in 
Greek-letter affairs to a marked degree, and the enlarged 
conception of what real fraternity is has found its exponents 
in our circles. In some ways there is not the passionate 
devotion to a set of abstract postulates setting forth ex 
cathedra what Phi Kappa Psi means to a youth in college 
that there once was, but there is a more practical method 
of expressing the fealty of the individual to high ideals in 
conduct. To be a gentleman, to feel the force of noblesse 
oblige, to act as if the teachings of the fraternity and the 
lessons of its membership were not a garment to put on, 
but a life to live — ^these and kindred principles have now 
a meaning, a force, a vigor, that make unmistakably for a 
large and larger conception of fraternity. 

In nothing is the newer and more vigorous experience 
better expressed than in the social life of the fraternity. 
There is no longer here and there an isolated chapter hold- 
ing a gathering of its own membership, active and alumni, 
once a year, but now, with the connectional idea meeting 
with free expression, members of various chapters meet 
and greet one another in "smokers," banquets, and initia- 
tions in a way that twenty years ago would have been 


regarded as an iridescent dream. In the frequent meetings 
that latterly have occurred there is no discrimination of 
chapter or even of state. The presumption is that every 
man who proves his membership in Phi Kappa Psi is a fit 
social companion of every other man so credentialed, and 
a broad spirit of catholicity has sprung up and spread 
through all our borders. 

It is not possible within the limits of this chapter to 
speak in detail of them all, but there are two typical 
functions that may be taken as fairly representative of the 
newer life, and these are chosen from widely-separated 
points, and separated somewhat widely, too, in point of 
time. The first to deserve attention is the great meeting 
at Cincinnati in December, 1889, inspired and engineered 
by the indefatigable Daumont. The latter, not being satis- 
fied with the amount of stir which Phi Kappa Psi had made 
in the middle West, was bent upon setting forth its greatness 
in a gathering which should at once be unique and notable. 
He planned for Phi Psis to gather in the Queen City for a 
three-day social reunion, upon a scale of entertainment and 
public exploitation which rendered failure so imminent that 
many feared the whole would be a terrible faux pus. Not 
so our Phi Psi enthusiast. He had planned wisely, although 
elaborately, and those who came with trepidation to see an 
awful blunder react upon Phi Kappa Psi to its confusion, 
remained to praise its plucky originator for his far-seeing 
sagacity and indomitable courage. 

The Cincinnati Phi Psi affair had been widely advertised 
by the enthusiastic Daumont, and upon Saturday, Decem- 
ber 28th, 1889, the reunion so long heralded began its 
sessions with a reception at the home of Brother Daumont. 
On the next evening, at the Walnut Hills Congregational 
Church, an immense audience of people assembled, many 
wondering what the whole thing meant. The church had 


been profusely decorated, and the fraternity colors and 
insignia played in them no insignificant part The choir 
had prepared an elaborate musical program, and a number 
of speakers expressed to those present their thought upon 
the value of culture as represented by Greek-letter societies. 
The pastor of the church, Rev. Dr. Simpson, Ohio Gamma, 
presided at the meeting, and Rev. C. E. Hills, Indiana 
Gamma, made the opening prayer and read a scripture 
lesson. J. M. DeCamp, Ohio Alpha, made a scholarly 
address upon the theme, "The Influence of Christian Cul- 
ture upon Individual Character," to which Bishop D. H. 
Moore, Beta Theta Pi, replied in an address on "What 
Christianity has Done for Culture." Dr. Simpson was the 
remaining speaker, and his topic was "What Culture has 
Done for Christianity." The whole service was one of 
thrilling interest. 

Only twice in the Historian's recollection has our aged 
founder been brought from his seclusion to mingle in the 
stirring affairs of the fraternity life. Once, at the second 
Chautauqua reunion, he was present, and at the Cincinnati 
reunion he came, bringing his wife with him. No one but 
Brother Daumont knows how many telegrams were neces- 
sary to secure his presence, but he was there, and was a 
great inspiration to all who had longed to know in the 
flesh our revered founder. 

On Monday at noon a reception was held for Judge 
Moore and his wife, to which many distinguished Greeks, 
both of our own and other fraternities, came. In the 
evening a fine banquet was served at the Hotel Emery, 
at which a notable company of Phi Psi men and women 
were present. The banquet was a great success in the 
matter of its appointments, and the attendance, while not 
large, was representative. Dr. Lowry, the President of the 
fraternity at that time, was present and inspired the whole 


company with his eloquence. Brother Patterson, rep- 
resenting the Pittsburg Alumni Association, was there, and 
Rev. E. £. Baker, representing the Springfield Alumni 
Association, also participated in the exercises. Bishop 
Walden was among the guests, as well as Judge Buchwalter. 
Members of the fraternity were present from Ohio, Indiana, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. The 
whole affair was a pronounced success. 

The modest elegance of the Cincinnati reunion is like 
the fair, soft light of the candle compared to the glow of 
the incandescent bulb of the electric Ught when mention 
is made of the gorgeous banquet of Brother Pegram at the 
Waldorf-Astoria, New York City, upon the night of De- 
cember 7th, 1901. The latter, with an enthusiasm little if 
any less than Brother Daumont, had determined to make 
the name of Phi Kappa Psi glorious in the great metropolis 
of our country, and, hard as was the task, he succeeded. 

The affair was managed with consummate skill, and as a 
social function was a most eminent success. The attend- 
ance was remarkable. One hundred and twenty-five mem- 
bers of the fraternity were there, representing thirty-five 
chapters — ^ showing so unique as to be almost incredible. 
At Grand Arch Councils the members present sometimes 
represent every chapter of the fraternity, but when it is 
reflected that the attendants at this function were gathered 
only from territory contiguous to New York, the wonder 
grows that one man, by ever so much persistence, could 
have succeeded in getting the company together. Those 
present were of chapter membership as fully marked in 
point of time as of geographical distribution. They ranged 
all the way down from Solicitor Dodd, of Pennsylvania 
Alpha, '54, to the undergraduate members of the chapters 
of the fraternity in and near New York. 

The brilliant dining-room of the famous hotel was 


• • a a << 



rivalled by the extraordinary feats of gastronomy per- 
formed by some of the remarkable gourmets of the New 
York Alumni Association, and the cheer and good-fellow- 
ship engendered by the superb music, the jolly songs, 
and the finely-expressed sentiments of genuine fraternity, 
made the occasion one of those whose recollection always 
brings a smile often followed by a tear — smiles for the 
pleasure of the retrospect, and tears for the memory of the 
vanished joys of youth, which can so seldom be recalled, 
but which, when experienced, seem, to use the phrase of 
Brother Keady, to "roll back the billowy waves of time." 

These are but types of that new and vigorous social life 
which has been sp inspiring a feature of the last twenty 
years of Phi Kappa Psi. This life is the legitimate out- 
growth of the new sentiment which permeates the fraternity, 
and which began to be when its membership saw the infinite 
possibilities it had neglected in its alumni. Everywhere, 
not alone in the metropolis and in the Queen City, but 
throughout the whole country, this new conception of the 
fraternity spirit which does not permit a man to discharge 
his Phi Psi obligation upon graduation from college, has 
brought together in frequent meetings the strong men of 
our fraternity and has made it not only homogenous, but 
has given it superb solidarity. 

Earlier in the volume reference has been made to an 
effort of some over-zealous members of Greek-letter so- 
cieties for Pan-Hellenism. The effort failed, as might have 
been expected, but the World's Fair gave opportunity again 
for the setting forth of the presumed principles of inter- 
fraternity comity. Among the many congresses called by 
the managers of that great exposition of the arts were 
several of college people. The congresses were held, but 
for the most part they were failures, the only exception 
being the famous conference of religionists from all parts 


of the world. Phi Kappa Psi is in no way concerned with 
the fact that the college congresses were failures, or, 
primarily, that the fraternity congress was likewise of so 
little moment. The mention of the circumstance that such 
meetings were held at Chicago in 1893 is made in order 
that emphasis may be put upon the fact that there is a far 
greater degree of comity among fraternities now than in the 
days even a quarter of a century away, and this better feeling 
is not due to congresses or resolutions, or even to the formu- 
lation of principles. It is part and parcel of the whole fabric 
of college life. While some of the practices that disgraced 
American college life in the decades gone by still remain 
in some milder form, it is nevertheless true that the spirit 
of the college is higher in all that goes to make up a purer, 
cleaner life. The standards and the ideals of the college 
have changed. It perhaps is idle to speculate upon the 
causes for the change, and perhaps we will be wise to 
accept the fact just as we do sunshine and make no account 
of it, yet it is a pleasure to note it and to feel rejoiced at 
its presence in our lives. We are a better lot in many ways 
than our fathers, in some ways, maybe, worse, but there is 
a larger, freer conception of life and its obligations now than 
in the days gone by. It is no longer necessary to think that 
a man is a rascal because he belongs to some other fra- 
ternity than yours, nor is it required to treat a man with 
disdain if he declines your invitation to become a 
member of your chapter. Surely we have come upon a 
time when a new and beautiful vision of what brotherhood 
means has shone upon the college world, and this fine and 
generous feeling renders one at home in any society of 
Greeks, and makes us to feel that the wearing of a badge of 
a fraternity of recognized standing is evidence more than 
prima facie that the wearer is a gentleman. 

This mission in the world of young American life to 


which the Greek-letter society is called, that of showing how 
fine and grand a thing the American man is capable of 
becoming, is large enough for reformer or sage to exercise 
to the full his activities in its furtherance. The Greek of 
the modem American college shows in his life that mark 
of true gentility, the feeling often set forth, too, in words, 
that of the noble much is expected. How stirringly we 
recall the eloquent Lowry as he thundered forth his faith 
in the eternal principles of manhood exemplified in con- 
temporaneous Greek life. We have a right to expect from 
each other greater forbearance, greater kindliness of heart, 
greater love, than we receive from the other members of 
society around us, and they in turn have just reason to re- 
quire in us an excess of the qualities that go to make up 
broader manhood than they possess. Personal quarrels, 
innuendoes, sharp irony, sarcastic Rings ill become a mem- 
ber of such an organization as Phi Kappa Psi. Greeks 
should in large measure strive to drive out of their hearts 
the spirit that prompts the manifestation of malevolent 

Sociologists have striven hard to show in the body politic 
that the loss of one member of society is the loss of all, 
and that there must not be any ''other half" in the ideal 
state toward which the whole world "groaneth in travail." 
Whatever may be the terms of its expression, the modem 
fraternity is teaching by example as well as by precept the 
beauty of the life that makes no difference between civiliza- 
tion and religion in its thought.* George Cable puts into 
the mouth of one of his Creole heroes the sentiment which 
here is struggling for expression, the great thought for 
which fraternity stands, if it stands for anything. Bona- 
venture Deschamps says to St. Pierre : "You say ed'cation 
— ^priest say religion — ^me, I don't see neider one make no 
difference. I see every man look out for himself and his 


li'l crowd. Not you — but — " he bitterly waved his hand 
toward the world at large. 

"Ah, sir," cried Bonaventure, " 'tis not something what 
you see all the time like the horns of a cow I And yet, sir, 
— and yet!" — he lifted himself upon tiptoe and ran his 
fingers through his thin hair — "the education that makes no 
difference is but a dead body, and the religion that make no 
diffrence is a ghost 1 Behole two things in the worl' 
where all is giving and getting, two thing contrary, yet 
resembling 1 'Tis the left han' — alas, alas — giving only to 
get; and the right, blessed of God, getting only to give. 
How much resemblin' yet how contrary! The one the han' 
of all strife ; the other — of all peace. And oh, dear frien', 
there are those who call the one civilizeation and the other 
religion. Civilizeation? Religion? They are one! They 
are body and soul i I care not what religion the priest teach 
you ; in Grod's religion is comprised the total nUcanique of 
civilizeation. We are all in it — ^you, me, Claude, Sidonie — 
all in it ! Each and every at his task, however high, how- 
ever low, working not to get, but to give, and not to give 
to his own li'l crowd, but to all, to all." 

It is just this philosophy for which the fraternity idea 
stands. Get to give I What unnumbered sacrifices for the 
good of the younger and weaker in chapter life does not the 
true Greek make? not of money, for that is cheap and 
vulgar, but of self, of that purest and best essence of our 
souls, whereby we contrive to make life easier and success 
more certain for some other one whom we call by the 
endearing name of brother! It is without permission or 
consultation of his innate modesty that the Historian makes 
mention of the exposition of this same spirit as set forth 
in the life of Frank W. Shumaker, of Wisconsin Gamma. 
His was the soul to conquer success. He conceived some 
original ideas in business which brought him immediate 


money returns. While in the midst of his college course 
he left school for a while, saying that he must make some 
money for the fraternity. Out of nothing but tact, per- 
sistence, and courage, in less than one year, he built for 
Wisconsin Gamma its comfortable chapter-house. It must 
not be inferred that his money was all that went into the 
enterprise, but it was practically his heart that made the 
success of the undertaking not only possible but never even 
questionable when once he had undertaken it. His was a 
soul that comprehended the mScanique of civilizeation"! 

There are notable examples elsewhere in Phi Kappa Psi 
and other fraternities of this same spirit. Two great uni- 
versities afforded openings for Phi Psi entrance during 
Walter McCorkle's presidency of the fraternity, and the 
necessity of putting Phi Kappa Psi upon a substantial 
footing seemed imperative and immediate. Chapter-houses 
were needed, and only an owned house could serve the 
need. With no question of the afHliations of his youth with 
chapters far remote, this noble Greek set himself right 
royally to helping make the chapters concerned sure of 
their enterprises. Large sums of money have been ex- 
pended both by him and other Phi Psis in furthering the 
cause of our fraternity, and no one could rightly estimate 
what an expenditure of time and gracious energy he and 
Bang and Pegram devote to Phi Kappa Psi. Is such de- 
votion simply freakish ? Is it merely following a phantom ? 
Nay, indeed, it is rather turning the whole of self into the 
widest channel of useful endeavor — ^the cultivating of the 
soul life. A few years since, misfortunes laid heavy hands 
upon the widow of our dead founder. There was prompt 
and generous response to a statement that any assistance 
from Phi Kappa Psi would be regarded as an honor and 
as no reproach. And so the widow's need was served. 
Such instances might be indefinitely continued; these are 


named as illustrative. The larger life is here ; it expresses 
itself in many ways; it moves upon the minds and hearts 
of Phi Kappa Psis to the making of better and purer 
character ; it cannot die ; it must increase until in our own 
fraternity we shall realize all that we teach and believe. 

This modem fraternity life, with its development of the 
alumnus, with its broadening of the conception of fraternity, 
with its closer chapter association as brought out in chapter- 
house afHliation, its cosmopolite comminglings in banquet 
hall and chapter reunion, all the emphasis which has come 
to our organic existence by the introduction of more 
advanced governmental methods, these have in turn brought 
to the fraternity a new type of manhood — "contrary, yet 
resembling." No mere cataloguing of names will make the 
meaning of this thought clear, but a few groupings of the 
splendid types of American gentleman thus disclosed may 
serve to demonstrate that there has been a reflex influence 
upon the membership of Phi Kappa Psi, ennobling and 
uplifting the individual into a nearer approach to the ideals 
of which the fraternity is the representative. "Contrary, yet 
resembling" — Stires and Holden, McCorkle and Buskirk, 
Bang and Pegram, Monnette and Dun, Lowry and Rab- 
bitts. Smart and Rush, Niles and Scudder, Wilson and 
Lockwood, Sproul and Fell, DeCamp and Merritt — -iiow 
the list lengthens ! * 

The modem fraternity man I highest type of the culti- 
vated Christian gentleman ! How the scope of his influence 
has broadened, and how his life as a representative of the 
American college has deepened within the space of time 
covered by the period since Phi Kappa Psi had its renais- 
sance 1 And to these and such as these is committed the 
great task of realizing to the world of action the con- 
ceptions of fraternity. Fraternity! the poet's dream, the 
philosopher's abstraction, the Christ's ideal — ^who can realize 
its significance in his life and thought ? 


The advent of the human race upon the planet, its agon- 
izing evolution by slow growths to so-called civilization, the . 
heavenward aspiration toward ideals in thought and action 
— ^these are all faint figures of the never-ceasing struggle 
upward to adequate soul-expression — the oneness of man- 
kind, the inexorable brotherhood of all to all. 

Language is inadequate to express, and human history, 
as ordinarily read, is powerless to portray the real growth 
of thought toward brotherhood. The trivial act of the 
individual, the movements of nations in territorial aggran- 
dizement with the consequent enormous uplift of belated 
peoples, the making and the overthrow of empires, even, 
are but incidents in the slow-swelling tide of progfress for- 
ward to world-brotherhood. 

One day, sitting idly upon the deck of a coasting 
steamer, a traveler noticed with but at first a trivial con- 
cern the approach from an opposite direction of another 
steamer of the same line. As the graceful vessel glided 
noiselessly through the glassy sea a phenomenon, common 
enough but all too seldom seen, was fastened upon the mind 
of the observer. His own vessel, except for the tremble 
imparted by the propeller, might have seemed to be standing 
still, though the progress was rapid. As the traveler gazed 
he noted that the approaching vessel was lifted upon 
the surface of the calm waters as if a feather and was moved 
onward and upward by the silent, subtle, irresistible ocean- 
swell. The steamer pushed boldly through the water, 
superbly unconscious of aught but her own mission and 
motion, but the resistless ocean swell lifted her and 
carried her and gently rocked her as though she were a 
chip a child might toss upon his puddle — his mimic sea. 

How, in thought, mused the traveler, is this symbolic of 
the great purposes of God ; how apt the parallel between the 
resistless ocean swell and the upward lift of human kind 


toward and to brotherhood! There is an upward, un- 
yielding lift of man's life toward this greatest achievement 
in human experience — ^the oneness of the race, the fraternity 
of all. To the many incidental developments of this great 
thought of the supreme worth of the one in human society, 
Phi Kappa Psi should proudly claim to belong, and in its 
relation to the individual member there are certain char- 
acteristics which should mark the worthy of our guild. 
Phi Kappa Psi in the individual should stand for sincerity, 
truth, generosity, gentility, purity. 

The evolutionary trend of human history is unmistakably 
toward universal brotherhood. Japan met China a few 
years since, and what seemed an episode became a beacon 
of advancing thought. The powers have made of the ex- 
clusivism of the ancient empire a memory, and the whole 
orient is in the throes of revolution. Our own country has 
helped mightily in the recasting of the empires of the East, 
and the world has gone by leaps toward the higher civiliza- 
tion. One cannot say that he sees clearly any of the move- 
ments of modem thought. When we are in the whirling 
vortex of change we cannot find our view-point, and when 
we strive to get clear vision of any phase of the complex 
experience we call life, our sight is compelled to take far 
reaches of time to secure the necessary perspective. 

So, perhaps, it is with us in our noble fraternity. We 
have completed fifty years of history checkered by the light 
and shade of success and failure, triumph and humiliation, 
exaltation upon the mount and despondency within the 
shadows of the valley. Thus far the record gives us joy, 
the balance is strongly upon the side of accomplished 
good, but what may be the promise of the dawning to- 
morrow ? Can we of this generation build more wisely than 
the fathers did, and can we show a purer devotion and 
sincerer loyalty than they? 


Some years ago a loyal Phi Psi wrote a striking article 
in The Shield, during World's Fair times, upon this very 
question, and at its close these very significant words 
appear: "If every Phi Psi would remember that he is 
active as a link of the past to the unborn future, he would 
be nobler, his fraternity would be truer." Walter Allen 
Reinoehl spoke prophetically. Shall Phi Kappa Psi make 
as glorious history in the next fifty years as it has in 
the past fifty? It may; indeed, it may surpass itself, and 
in so doing may serve as a standard for others, for it cannot 
be successfully controverted, this writer thinks, that no 
fraternity in America has made such strides in power, in- 
fluence, and reputation during the past twenty years or less 
as has Phi Kappa Psi. 

In 1879, ^wo young enthusiasts in Wooster University, 
members of Ohio Gamma, conceived a g^eat thought. 
They meant to write a history of their fraternity. With 
what a glow of enthusiasm their labors were undertaken! 
How simple the task seemed to boys in college ! But the 
years came and went, and the enthusiastic words of cheer 
with which the volume was promised as nearly done became 
less glowing, and then, as the magnitude of the task loomed 
larger and larger upon the horizon of their growing ex- 
perience, they concluded that the work could not be so 
readily done. First, Brother Fred Kinkade left college for 
his life work, and his fellow, D. C. List, struggled on alone. 
Then he renewed his courage by enlisting the sympathy and 
cooperation of Fred. Niles. This grand Phi Psi worker 
struggled valiantly for years to attain what had come to 
seem to Phi Psi authorities the unattainable, but he, too, 
deemed that he had done for the fraternity all that he could. 
Then the fraternity, assuming the task, elected our gifted 
young brother, George Lockwood, to do the work which 
started in 1879 ^^^ seemed to be ancient before it became 


a thing of the present at all. Circumstances compelled even 
so enthusiastic and talented a Phi Psi as he to surrender 
to the present hands the labors of the long years and loyal 
hearts of List, Kinkade, Niles, and Lockwood. A pair of 
Phi Psi striplings essayed a beautiful labor for their frater- 
nity; a white-haired, middle-aged man has plodded over the 
way to the end. 

Have you, dear Phi Psi brother, read the tale with joy? 
have you lived upon the streets of the quaint mountain 
town with Campbell and Keady, and Dodd and NiccoUs? 
have you gone down into the maelstrom of civil conflict 
with that noble Virginia Alpha band of Phi Psi patriots 
who wore the gray? have you wearily climbed the slow 
ascent of reorganization after the war, with the devoted 
heroes who rebuilt the shattered structure of our fraternity 
life? have you tingled with shame for the poor fellows 
who, in Cornell and Wisconsin, proved how false a man 
could be and yet wear the garb of a gentleman? have you 
walked through the tangled ways of resuscitated fraternity 
life with Wilson, Dun, McCorkle, Holden, and Monnette? 
have you wept in spirit over the pathetic stories of 
Mississippi Beta and Missouri Alpha? have you rejoiced 
at all the signs of promise which make the sky of Phi 
Kappa Psi bright with present glory? If this has been 
your experience, then reverently thank God for fraternity 
life, and give with vigor the stirring rallying-call of our 
dear old Phi Kappa Psi: 

High! high! high! 

Phi Kappa Psi! 

Live ever! Die never! 1 

Phi Kappa Psi! 

YC (0571 


YC (0571 

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